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HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



LIBRARY OF THE 

Classical Department 

HARVARD HALL 
Ti«5^ ll,.M..t.\)i-ri.,J,A.. 



r 



I B- H. BLAtKn 
BookMllcr, 



• I 



€hxtn)ion |pnss ^txm 



XENOPHON 



HELLENICA, BOOKS I, II 



lV7Tff INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 



BY 



G. E. UNDERHILL, M.A. 

FELLOW AND TUTOR OF MAGUALEN COLLEGE 



PABT I.— IKTTBODUCTION AND TEXT 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1888 

[ All rights reserved'\ 



(^fi ^,Y<i' 



Oct -iA l^i:^ 
HARVAhD U«iVF_RSlTV. 
Classieal Deporiniait 

HENRY FROWDE 



Oxford UNrvERSiTY Press Warehouse 
Ahen Corner, E.C. 



PREFACE. 

The text adopted in the present edition of the first two 
books of Xenophon's Hellenica follows in the main the last 
revision of Dindorf, published in 1885, any departures from 
which are duly noticed as they occur. 

The introduction is divided into several sections. The 
first tries rather perhaps to raise than to solve the nlain points 
in the complicated question- as to the method of composition 
and the intention of the author in these two books, — a 
question, which, since the criticism of Niebuhr, has been 
vigorously discussed by Peter, Sievers, Breitenbach, and many 
other German scholars, but with results on the whole more 
negative than positive. The views taken in this and in the 
following section on the equally vexed question of Xenophon's 
chronology are chiefly based on those advanced by Breiten- 
bach in his second edition in the Weidmann series of Greek 
and Latin Classics (Berlin, 1884). The third section en- 
deavours to supply, from other authorities, what Xenophon 
himself almost entirely omits, an account of the internal 
affairs of Athens during the last seven and a half years of the 
Peloponnesian War ; and for this portion of the introduction 
Gilbert's Beiirdge zur Innern Geschichte Athens (Leipzig, 
1877) h^s been found most useful. The fourth section 
states once again and discusses as briefly as possible the 
many difiiculties of fact and of law occurring in Xenophon's 
version of the trial of the Generals after the battle of Arginusae ; 
and any completeness to which it may pretend is mostly due 



4 PREFACE. 

to the many valuable suggestions kindly made by Mr. T. 
Case, Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College. 

The notes are intended not only to explain the critical 
and grammatical difficulties in the text, which, though serious 
when they do arise, fortimately occur but seldom, but also to 
supply a commentary upon the history of the times, and to 
point out even at the risk of repetition the numerous gaps 
and points of obsciuity in Xenophon's narrative. 

To give greater completeness to the Edition, a chrono- 
logical summary, a running analysis, and a copious index 
of proper names have been added. 

Finally, the Editor is much indebted to Mr. Evelyn Abbott, 
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, for the great assistance 
which he has so generously given him, in carrying the book 
through the press, and for the many corrections and improve- ' 
ments which he has made for him throughout the whole 
work. 

G. E. U. 

Magdalen College, Oxford, 
ApHl, 1888. 



INTRODUCTION. 



§ I. The Composition of the Hellenic a. 

Although the writings of Xenophon, known as the Hellenica, 
have a certain unity of subject in so far as they all treat of Greek 
history, yet even a cursory examination soon reveals that they 
fall into two, if not three, parts, distinguished by intervals of 
time, by differences of style, and apparently by variety of purpose. 
The first part again subdivides into two, of which the one 
extends from bk. i. to bk. ii. 3. 10, and continues the history of 
the Pelpponnesian War from the point where it was 
left in the unfinished work of Thucydides down to aqa b n 
the destruction of the Long Walls of Athens— an ' 

event which Thucydides ^ himself takes as marking the end of the 
war : while the other takes up the course of events again after an 
interval of six months at ii. 3. 1 1, and relates what was virtually 
but another outbreak of th& same war, down to the 
final pacification of Athens by Pausanias king of *^ ^•^- ^^ 
Sparta. The second part (bks. iii. — ^vii.) resumes . * * 

the narrative gf Greek history one and a-half years later, and 
continues it, without any serious break, down to 362 B.C., the 
year of the battle of Mantinea and the death of 
Epaminondas. Two questions, therefore, arise at 3^2 b C 
once, (i) what is the relation of the first part to the 
History of Thucydides ? and (2) what is the relation of the parts 
to one another ? 

As to the first question, evidence both internal, and external 
alike points to books i. ii. being designedly a continuation of 
Thucydides. Diodorus Siculus (xiii. 42) says Sepocp&p koI ecdiro/i- 
nos a(f>* Itv mreXme QovKvBiBrjs t^v apxriv TTiiroirjvrai, Dionysius of 
Halicamassus ' and Marcellinus ' give similar testimony. And 

' V. 26. • « Ad Pomp. 4. » Vit. Thuc. § 45. 



6 INTRODUCTION. 

internal evidence shows thiat it is itot a continuation merely in 
the sense in which Thuqydides i:^ntinued Herodotus, or Theo- 
pompus continued Thucydides, by beginning an independent 
narrative at the point where that of the predecessoir stopped ; 
but that it was written with the express purpose of completing 
what Thucydides for some unknown reason had left unfinished. 
On no other hypothesis, except indeed that the beginning of the 
Hellenica itself is lost (which seems exceedingly unlikely), can it 
be explained why the author should begin, not only without an 
introduction — a preliminary which Xenophon dispenses with in 
other works — but without any explanation, however brief, of the 
events immediately preceding, and of the persons engaged in 
them, sufficient to put the reader in a position to understand the 
further development of their history. On the contrary, Xeno- 
phon plunges him * in medias res ' with the connecting phrase 
/xera hk Toura, which seems to refer, to the battle of Cynossema, 
previously described by Thucydides *. He is supposed to be 
already acquainted with Thymochares, the Athenian general, 
and Agesandridas ^, the Spartan general, who had a few months 
previously met in battle off Eretria ; and also to know the place, 
i. e. the Hellespont, where the Athenian and Lacedaemonian 
fleets were stationed when this second (av^is) naval engagement 
took place; while not a word is said of the disaster which 
Diodorus (xiii.41) relates to have ot^ertaken Agesandridas off 
Mount Athos in the interval. Similarly, Dorieus is suddenly 
represented as sailing from Rhodes to the Hellespont, but in 
Thucydides ^ he last appears at Miletus, whence Diodorus * tells 
us that he had been sent by Mindarus to Rhodes. The Athenian 
generals are introduced with the article (roiy orpaT^yois) as if 
they had been already mentioned ; but we are left to gather 
from Thucydides ^ that they were Thrasyllus and Thrasybulus. 
Xenophon omits altogether to mention the movement of the 
Athenian fleet from Cyzicus to the mouth of the Hellespont ^ 
and the corresponding movement of the Peloponnesian fleet from 
Elaeus to Abydos. So, too, (§ 6) Alcibiades sails up from no 

* Cf. Thuc. viii. 107, 108 ir/ws rh n^r6'n(apov . . . hvb tovs avrolhs -xpovovs, 

* Thua viii. 95. 

' viii. 84. * xiii. 38. • viii. 104. 

• • Cf. Thuc. viii. 107 with i. 1. 2. 



§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA. 7 

one knows where, and (§ 12) Theramenes comes from Macedonia; 
whereas Thucydides ^ had left the one in Samos and the other 
in Athens. The motive of Tissaphemes' journey to the Helles- 
pont is never stated, and can only be supplied by a reference to 
Thucydides' narrative ^. All these passages, therefore, seem to 
take for granted an acquaintance with Thucydides, and if it be 
further supposed that the last fifteen chapters of Thucydides' 
eighth book have been lost — for to all appearances an interval of 
some five or six weeks must have elapsed since the last event 
mentioned in Thucydides and the first alluded to by Xenophon — 
even the points of obscurity in them are capable of explanation. 
Again in books i.-ii. 3. 10 Xenophon adopts an annalistic 
mode of treatment, which it would appear from the later books 
was entirely foreign to his natural inclination for grouping 
events together. But so soon as he has brought his narrative 
down to the surrender of Athens, which Thucydides' had 
announced as the goal of his undertaking, he drops this method, 
and relates the usurpation of the Thirty without any definite 
marks of timfe. And the fact that even in the first period 
he does not adhere consistently * to Thucydides* chronological 
system of summers and winters, shows still more plainly that he 
was modelling his own work on that of somebody else. For 
once * he forgets to give the beginning of the year, twice the 
beginning of the winter ®, and, more often than not, he does not 
notice the end of the summers and winters — data which Thucy- 
dides never omits. And sometimes before he has finished with 
the narrative of one year, he anticipates the events of the next ''. 
Further, Xenophon, like Thucydides, at the end of each year 
finds a place wherein to put a brief account of contemporary 
events, e.g. in Persia, Sicily, or elsewhere, which he could not 
well weave into his main narrative ; but, unlike Thucydides, he 
does not make it plain at what season of the year in question 
they occurred ^. Finally, Xenophon ® skips over the interval of 
six months which elapsed between the surrender of Athens and 
the appointment of the Thirty without any definite mark of time 

* viii. 92, 108. * viii. 109. 

^ V. 36. * Cp. Introd. § 2 on Xenophon's Chronology. 

* Probably at i. 5. 11. « i. 4. 20 ; 5. 15. "^ Cf. i. i. 31 ; i. 5. 16. 

* Cf. 1. I. 37 ; 2. 19 ; 3. I ; 5. 21 ; 6. i. • ii. i. 8, 9. 



8 INTRODUCTION. 

at all, save the mention of an eclipse \ so that, had we his 
narrative only, we should have no idea that any such interval 
had occurred. 

All the evidence, therefore, external and internal alike, seems 
to show that Xenophon purposely intended the first part of the 
Hellenica to be a completion of Thucydides' unfinished history 
of the Peloponnesian War. 

In discussing the second question, the relation of the two 
parts of the Hellenica to each other, we get little to help us from 
external testimony. A distinction into two parts does indeed 
seem to be implied in the words of Marcellinus^ — ra hk tS>p 
SKkenv 1^ tT&v (of the Peloponnesian War) frpayfiara dpairXrjpoi 
o T€ QcoTTOfiiros Kcu 6 Sl£vo(j>ciiVy oTs avvaTTTei T^v '"EWrjviKrjP laTopiav, 
Similarly, too, Dionysius of Halicamassus ^ speaks of Xeno- 
phon's third great work as r^v 'EWijvucrfv koI ffv (sc. iaroplav) 
KarcXiirev aTekfj QovKvblbrjs, iv Jf Ktirakvovrai t€ ol rpiaKovra Kai ra 
T«(X^ rS>p *ABriPaia>Vf 6. AaKebaifiSpiot KaBeikoPj aSBis dpiaraPTCu, 
But both authors seem to make the distinction one of time only, 
and to regard the two parts as together forming a connected 
whole. Such a view, however, on a comparison of them, would 
appear id be quite untenable. 

In books iii. — ^vii. all the trammels of Thucydides' system of 
arrangement and chronology disappear. Though they contain 
the history of forty years, the beginnings of years are only twice 
noticed *. Summers and winters are no longer taken as formal 
marks of time, but are casually mentioned only in conjunction 
with events'. And the events themselves are no more related 
year by year in the order that they occiured, but Xenophon 
groups them together wherever he sees a causal nexus between 
them, often narrating a connected series of events quite con-, 
tinuously, and then returning to his starting-point in order to 
bring up the general course of iGreek history to the same 
date*. 

Again, although even in the first two books Xenophon ' once 
breaks through the impersonal style of writing, which he had 
inherited from Thucydides, and in two or three other passages 

Mi. 3. 4. * Vit. Thuc. § 45. * Ep. ad Pomp. 4. 

* Cf. vii. I. I ; a. 10. » Cf. iii. 2. 6 ; iv. 8. 7. 

• Cf. iii. I. i-iii. 2. 20 with iii. 2. 21-31. ' it. 3. 56/ 



§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENIC A. 9 

adds moral comments, such as are hardly to be found in the 
earlier historian, still in the later books he allows his own moral 
and theological proclivities to appear much more on the surface. 
The general theme of the five boolcs seems to be the rise and 
downfall of Spartan greatness ^. As formerly in Athens, so now 
at Sparta, power gives birth to v/Sptr, v^pir to impiety, and 
impiety soon brings pimishment in its train*. Unwarned by 
examples, the Thebans use their supremacy with an insolence 
equally great, and are overtaken with a ruin still more rapid. 
As with states, st) with individuals. Dercyllidas and Agesilaus 
show reverence towards the gods^ and reap an immediate 
reward for their piety : impiety as quickly meets with punish- 
ment. Xenophon is no longer the simple annalist of facts ; now 
he appears in his better known character of the moralist, 
reading his lessons from the pages of human history. 

The differences of style between the earlier and later books 
are no less marked. Books L, ii. are disfigured by omissions, 
by obscurities left unexplained, by unequal and disproportionate 
treatment of events, in themselves equally important, by un- 
accountable breaks and interruptions, and by a general want of 
finish — of which more hereafter. But books iii.-vii., whatever 
may be thought of their positive value as historical documents, 
contain a narrative which is indeed plainly and simply told, but 
at the same time with an admirable' literary finish. In them 
Xenophon follows tlie requirements of literary, if not of historical, 
proportion. No inddents are related at undue length ; no 
events, which he chooses to bring into his narrative at all, are 
scamped. The speeches and dialogues so frequently introduced 
are all appropriate and suitable to the occasion. In passing 
from the earlier to the later books, we seem to pass from chaos 
to order. 

Finally, internal evidence seems to point to the earlier and 
later books of the Hellenics having been written at very different 
dates ^ For in i. ii., with one exception, there are no allusions 

* Cf. v. 3. 27 ; 4. 1. * Cf. y. 4. 12 ; vi. 3. i. 

' iii. I. 17-19 ; 4. n ; 3. 20. 

^ Rosenstiel (De Xenophontis Historiae Graecae parte bis edita) in- 
geniously tries to show by an examination of the use of certain words» 
and more especially of hua^ox and ^MoKmAtiv, and of K^fk and d/x^/, that 



lO INTRODUCTION. 

to any event happening later than 403 B. c, though in several 
passages such allusions might have been aptly introduced^. 
The exception is the last words of ii., where Xenophon speaks 
of the fidelity of the Athenian democrats to their oath of 
amnesty as continuing tn Koi vvp. Here Niebuhr long ago 
pointed out that such praise can only mean that certain definite 
persons, who had been guilty of certain definite acts during the 
usurpation of the Thirty, had never down to that time been 
prosecuted or in any way attacked. Therefore the interval 
between the Amnesty and the time when tltese words were 
written cannot have been very long, not more than ten or fifteen 
years at most. Now Xenophon returned to Greece after his 
Asiatic expedition with Cyrus in 394 B.C. He must, therefore, 
have finished bk. ii. shortly after that date. But the last five 
books he must have written much later ; for in vi. 4. 37, when 
recounting the events of 371, 370 B.C., he alludes to the death of 
Alexander of Pherae in 357 B.C., and in bk. vii. he ends his 
history with the battle of Mantinea in 362 B.C. 

So far, therefore, it may be concluded that bks. i. and ii. 
were composed at a time, on a system, and with an object, quite 
different from bks. iii. — vii. 

But, as already mentioned, the difficulties in bks. i., ii. do 
not end here : there still remain to be considered the strange 
omissions, the unequal and disproportionate treatment of events 
of very varying importance, and the numerous points of obscurity 
which disfigure these two books. 

To begin with the omissions, which occur not only in the 
interval between the point where Thucydides ends and 

the Hellenics fall into three parts, the first extending from the beginning 
to ii. 3. 10, the second from ii. 3. 11 to v. i. 36, and the third from 
V. 2 to the end. The first and third parts exhibit, he thinks, a more 
consistent use of the purely Attic dialect, while the second part is fall of 
lonisms. He therefore conjectures that the first part was written just 
after Xenophon's return from the expedition of the Ten Thousand, 
c. 400 B.C., that the second part was first composed immediately after 
the peace of Antalcidas, 387 B.C., but was re-edited (a hypothesis which 
he is obliged to make to account for the somewhat indiscriminate use 
of Attic and Ionic forms) at the same time that the third part was 
written, i.e. subsequent to 362 B.C. 
' Cf. ii. 2. 19 with iii 5. 8 and vi. 5. 55 ; ii. 4. 30 with iii. 5. 5, etc. 



§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENIC A. II 

Xenophon begins, but frequently throughout the first two 
books. Xenophon does not mention ^ the Spartan offers of 
peace to the Athenians after the battle of Cyzicus, which, 
Diodorus says, were rejected through the influence of the 
demagogue Cleophon. The recovery of Pylos ^ by the Lace- 
daemonians, which the Athenians had held ever since,425 B.C., 
Xenophon represents as the mere expulsion of some runaway 
Helots ; and he does not say a word about tl\e unsuccessful ex- 
pedition which the Athenians sent under Anytus to relieve their 
garrison in the place; nor about the recovery by the Megarians 
of their port of Nisaea at this same time, which had been in 
the possession of the Athenians since 424 ; nor yet about the 
battle, which shortly ensued, when the Athenians defeated the 
Megarians with great slaughter. Again, nothing is said about 
Alcibiades' plundering expedition against Cyme, though accord- 
ing to Diodorus* it was one of the chief causes of the complaints 
against him, which brought about his downfall. Similarly*, Xeno- 
phon does not tell how in the year of his admiralty Lysander 
organized the oligarchical clubs in Asiatic Greece and the 
Aegean, which, after the battle of Aegospotami, did such good 
service to the Lacedaemonian cause. In bk. ii.*^ Xenophon omits 
the selection of an oligarchical committee of Five at Athens, after 
the surrender of the city, who were called Ephors out of com- 
pliment to Sparta, and the struggle of some months between the 
oligarchs and democrats before the appointment of the Thirty, 
wherein, as a preliminary step, many of the generals, taxiarchs, 
and other important persons belonging to the democratic party 
were arrested. He omits, too, the third visit ' of Lysander to 
Athens in the autumn of 404 B.C., during which the Thirty were 
appointed, and also Lysander's further exploits in the Aegean in 
the next six months ; and, stranger still, he omits to notice 

* Cf. i. I. 23 with Diod. xiii. 52, Nepos Ale. 5. The Scholiast on 
Arist. Frogs 1580, speaks of a second similar application after Arginusae, 
which, if authentic, is also omitted by Xenophon. 

* Cf. i. 2. 18 with Diod. xiii. 64, 65. 
' Cf. i. 5. 15 with Diod. xiii. 73. 

* Cf. i. 6. 4, ii. 2. 5 with Diod. xiii. 70, 104, 14. 10, andPlut. Lys. 5. 

* Cf. ii. 3. 2 with Lysias xii. 43. 

* Cf. ii. 3. 2 with Lysias xiij. 15. 



12 INTRODUCTION. 

Alcibiades' murder^ and the share that Lysander had in bringing 
it about. So, too,* the cruel decree ^ of the Spartans, forbidding 
any Greek state to give shelter to the Athenian exiles, is passed 
over ; and the ultimate fate ^ of the Thirty themselves is dis- 
missed in a single unintelligible phrase. 

Obscurities due to the omission of some important link in the 
chain of events, or to excessive brevity, are even more numerous. 
It has been already shown how Xenophon presupposes a know- 
ledge of Thucydides, and that even then more has to be supplied 
to fill up the interval of six weeks between the two narratives ; 
but the same defects are noticeable throughout. For example, the 
newly-appointed generals coming from Syracuse are made to 
take over thie fleet at Miletus, which Xenophon had represented 
as built and still in dock at Antandros *. Thrasyllus was sent 
to Athens to procure reinforcements for the Athenian armament 
in the Hellespont ' ; but when at last he is given them, he takes 
them, without a word of explanation, to Ionia. No reason is 
assigned for the Lacedaemonian ambassadors and Hermocrates 
attaching themselves to the Athenian ambassadors ®, to whom 
Phamabazus promised a safe conduct to the Persian king after 
the capture of Byzantium. These ambassadors at Gordium 
meet other Lacedaemonian ambassadors returning from the 
king ■', who are introduced with the definite article, as if already 
mentioned. What finally became of Hermocrates, when he 
attempted to return to Syracuse, is never stated *. Callicratidas 
at an important crisis sent ships to Sparta to procure supplies •, 
but nothing more is heard of them. Though in 409 B.C. 
Chalcedon was not captured by the Athenians ^°, yet in 405 B.C. 
it appears in their possession. Theramenes^^ in his defence 
against Critias refers, as to a well-known fact, to the banishment 
of Thrasybulus, Anytus, and Alcibiades, although not a word 
has previously been said about them. After the death of 
Theramenes the Thirty forbid all cf « toO KaraKoyov to enter the 
city^* ; but. it nowhere appears that they had b^en previously 

• 

* Cf. ii. 3. 42 with Pint. Ale. 39 and Nep. Ale. 10. 
' Cf. ii. 4. I with Lysias. xii. 99 and Diod. xiv. 6. 

* ii. 4. 43. * i. I. 26 and 31. * i, i. 8 and i. 2. 2. 

* i. 3- 13- "^ i. 4. 2. « i. I. 27-29; 4. 7. » i. 6. 8, 9. 
" i. 3. 8 and ii. 2. i. " Cf. ii. 3. 44.with 13, 14, 21. " ii. 4. i. 



§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENIC A. 1 3 

driven out. Finally the Ten in the Piraeus are introduced with 
the definite article, although never before mentioned ^. 

Still more unaccountable is the curious inequality and dispro- 
portionate length with which many episodes are treated. Per- 
sonal details, as any one acquainted with the other writings of 
Xenophon might expect, are often given with considerable 
fulness, like the negotiations between Lysander and Cyrus', 
the stratagem whereby Conon contrived to send to Athens news 
of his blockade in Mytilene', the measures adopted by Eteonicus 
to quell the mutiny of his troops at Chios*, the execution of 
Theramenes^, and the device of the oligarchical engineer to 
hinder the advance of Thrasybulus' siege engines *. On the other 
hand, many important events are dismissed in a few words, e.g. 
the expulsion of the Philo-Laconian party from Thasos and the 
consequent exile of Pasippidas '^ ; the capture of Selybria ^ ; the 
joint attack of Thrasybulus and Alcibiades upon Phocaea'.; the 
capture of Delphinium by the Spartans ^** ; tTie accusation of 
Erasinides Trepi r^y arpariTyias after Arginusae ^^ ; the ardais in 
which the demagogue Cleophon was slain ; the revolt of the 
Athenian allies and. the institution of Harmosts ^d Decarchies 
after the battle of Aegospotami ^^ ; the'amnesty of Patroclides '', 
by which he attempted Jo unite all parties at Athens to sustain 
the coming siege ; the opposition offered to Theramenes* pro- 
posals for peace with Sparta and the ultimate surrender of the 
city**; the appointment of the Thirty at Athens *' ; the return of 
Thrasybulus and the democratic exiles, and their reorganization 
of the constitution *® ; and lastly, the annihilation of the Thirty 
at Eleusis, and the final amnesty of Thrasybulus". There is the 
same want of proportion in the speeches reported in these two 
books. While the speech of Alcibiades to his fleet before the 
battle of Cyzicus is dismissed in three lines *^, the speeches of 
Callicratidas to the discontented Lacedaemonians and to the 
Milesian assembly are given at some length ^^ Similarly, only 
the bare subject of Alcibiades' speeches before the Athenian 



* ii. 4. 19. 


' i. 5. 2-7. .' i. 6. 19-21. * ii. I. 1-4. 


• ii. 3- 56. 


• ii. 4. 27. ^ i. I. 32. ® i. 3. 10. » 1. 5. II. 


**^ i. 5. 15. 


" i. 7- 2 ; 7. 35- " ii- 2. 6 ; 2. 5 ; 3. 6. 


w ii. 2. 11. 


" ii. 2. 22-23. . " ii. 3- 3. • " ii. 4. 39,43- 


" ii.4-43. 


»« i. I. 14. " 1.6. 5,8-11. 



14 INTRODUCTION. 

senate and assembly on his return from exile is indicated ' ; 
whereas the speeches of Euryptolemus in defence of the 
generals *, and of Critias and Theramenes ', delivered on occas- 
sions of certainly no greater importance, are reported at an 
extraordinary length — greater, indeed, than any in the five later 
books. 

To account for these defects various theories, more or less 
plausible, but none very satisfactory, have been started. Some 
of them may be at once dismissed. Thus there is no evidence, 
either internal or external, to show that for these two books 
Xenophon used the materials already collected by Thucydides 
for the completion of his work. Such a hypothesis furnishes no 
explanation whatever why some events should have been put in 
and others left out, why some parts should have been elaborated 
and others not, especially as in the more elaborated portions, e.g. 
the long speeches of Euryptolemus, Critias, and Theramenes, 
there are no traces of Thucydides* peculiarities of style. Still 
less defensible is the theory that in their present shape bks. 
i., ii. are an epitome of a larger work of Xenophon's own. For 
the characteristics of an epitome are to leave out unimportant 
details altogether, and to give a summary of the whole, laying 
most emphasis on the events of most importance. But in these 
books the case is frequently reversed. 

More worthy of examination is Siever's* theory, that these 
defects of omission and commission are due to Xenophon's par- 
tiality for Sparta and her constitution. In support of his view, he 
adduces the omission of the humiliating offers of peace through 
the mouthpiece of the ephor Endius after the defeat of Cyzicus ; 
of the crushing defeat of the Megarians just after they had suc- 
ceeded in recovering their port at Nisaea ; of Agis' unsuccessful 
sally from Decelea right up to the walls of Athens ; of Lysander's 
organization of the oligarchical clubs among the Asiatic Greeks; 
of Ly Sander's cruel conduct towards the Milesians ' ; of the 
violent measures whereby Lysander set up the Thirty at Athens; 
of the part which Lysander played in procuring the assassination 
of Alcibiades — to which might be added the defective account 
Xenophon gives of the recovery of Pylos by the Lacedaemonians, 

* i. 4. 20. * i. 7. 16-33. ^ ii- 3' 34-49. 

* Comment. Inst, de Xen. Hell. ^ Diod. xiii. 104. 



§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENICA, 15 

• 

and the mean motive that he attributes to king Pausanias for 
checkmating Lysander's design of extermination against the 
Athenian exiles under Thrasybulus\ But an almost equal 
number of omissions may be collected of incidents favourable to 
Sparta, and of insertions of things damaging to her reputation. 
Thus Xenophon never has a word of praise for Lysander, 
although he was the victor at Aegospotami, and the main cause 
of the downfall of Athens ; and he evidently has a much greater 
admiration not only for the unsuccessful Callicratidas, between 
whose unselfish and pat;;riotic behaviour and Lysander's mean- 
ness and ambition a tacit contrast is manifestly implied ; but 
even for the hesitating Pausanias, who throughout showed him- 
self at heart the consistent friend of Athens. Again, Xenophon 
omits the recapture of Nisaeaby the Megarians, and the capture 
of Chios, Iasos,and Sdstos by the Peloponnesians ^ — all Lacedae- 
monian successes most damaging to Athens, dn the other hand, 
he relates in full the disastrous defeats of the Peloponnesians at 
Abydos, Cyzicus, and Arginusae, and even gives verbatim Hippo- 
crates' pitiable letter to the Spartan government. Neither does 
he gloze over the appointment of the ruffian Callibius to be har- 
most at Athens, or the enormities committed by the Thirty under ' 
his sanction and under the protection of the Spartan garrison. 
Moreover, to take the converse of the theory, it seems to be just 
as much a matter of accident what incidents Xenophon happens 
to insert or omit favourable or damaging to the reputation of 
Athens. Thus, on the one slide he does not relate the nefarious 
intrigues of the oligarchical party after the battle of Aegos- 
potami, their appointment of the Five Ephors, their arrest under 
various pretences of the leading democrats, and their base 
invitation of Lysander to. help them in suppressing the demo- 
cracy. But on the other side, though he does indeed relate how 
conscience-stricken the Athenians felt after the battle of Aegos- 
potami, fearing that now they themselves would suffer the fate 
that they had inflicted on defenceless people like the Melians, 
yet he omits Cleophon's opposition to Endius' offer pf peace 
after the battles of Cyzicus and Arginusae, and his still more 
foolish opposition to the comparatively mild conditions first 
offered by Sparta during the siege of Athens. Neither does he 

^ ii. 4. 29 <l>$ovTiaai Av<rdvdp<^. ' Diod. xiii. 65, 104, 106. 



/ 



l6 INTRODUCTION. 

record the failure of Anytus* expedition to relieve Pylos, and the 
subsequent trial of that demagogue, when he only escaped 
condemnation by bribing his judges, this being, as Diodorus^ 
tells us, the first known instance of corruption in an Athenian 
law court. 

It would seem, therefore, that Siever's theory is equally un- 
tenable with the others, and that Niebuhr's criticism is quite 
justified, that, however Philo-Laconian Xenophon may show 
himself in the ^v^ later books, his narrative in bks. i., ii. is quite 
impartial. 

Later critics' have tried to discover traces of personal 
prejudice. Enough has already been said about Lysander,. 
Callicratidas, and Pausanias, to dispose of the charge in their 
case ; but Xenophon's picture of Alcibiades deserves more 
notice. It is true that he passes over some of Alcibiades' most 
splendid exploits in a word or two, like his capture of Selybria ^, 
his escort of the Eleusinian procession by land, and his success- 
ful speeches in defence before the Athenian Senate and the 
Assembly. But, on the other hand, he passes still more briefly 
over his failure at Andros, his marauding expeditions from 
Samos in the winter of 408-407, for which the first complaints 
.were brought against him at Athens, and his final disgrace and 
loss of his generalship ; and he omits altogether the scandalous 
tales which Plutarch and other authorities delight to retail 
against him. Moreover, he even enlarges on the favourable 
feelings with which far the larger section of the Athenian people 
welcomed him on his return, while he dismisses the murmurs of 
his enemies against him in a few scarcely intelligible lines ; and 
he dwells at some length on the patriotic advice which Alcibiades 
gave the careless Athenian generals just before the battle of 
Aegospotami, suppressing the fact, which Diodorus* relates, 
that the would-be' patriot, was at the same time actuated by 
motives of private interest. The defects, therefore, in his picture 
of Alcibiades are neither more nor less than those to be found 
in his sketches of other persons, like Hermocrates, Callicratidas, 
and Conon, with whom he was certainly more in sympathy. 

So far then the above examination has brought us only to 

* xiii. 64. * Cf. Hertzberg, Alcibiades. 

' Cf. Pint. Ale. 30. * xiii. 105. 



§ I. COMPOSITION OF THE HELLENIC A. IJ 

the negative result, that there is no single key whereby to solve 
all the difficulties with which bks. i., ii. abound ; and, indeed, 
that many of them admit of no explanation whatever. In some 
cases we can perhaps see that Xenophon's fondness for personal 
anecdote or interest iii the art of war has led him to narrate 
little incidents, in themselves of no importance, at dispropori- 
tionate length, but personal feelings either one way or the other 
do not help us to account for his omissions. Perhaps the most 
obvious theory to explain them is to regard them as due to want 
of personal knowledge ; but even on this theory we can see no 
particular reason why Xenophon's treatment of events should 
be so uneven. For events occurring almost simultaneously at 
Athens, on the Hellespont, in Ionia, and elsewhere are related 
in one place with unaccountable fulness, in another with 
unaccountable brevity ; and no known incidents of his life at all 
explain the difference. 

Everything, therefore, would seem to point to Breitenbach's 
conclusion, hesitating though it is, being the true one, that bks. 
i., ii. are an attempt to complete the work of Thucydides, on the 
model of which they are manifestly planned, but are themselves 
for some reasons, which there is not evidence enough fully to 
explain, left unfinished ; and that this want of finish is apparent 
both in the defective compilation of the materials, in which so 
much has been shown to be wanting ; in the unequal treatment 
of the several parts, some of which seem to be only provisionally 
introduced; and in the obvious imperfection of the chronological 
arrangement, which falls so far short of Thucydides' system. 

None the less it remains true, that Xenophon is far the best 
and most reliable authority for the last six and a-half years of 
the Peloponnesian War, and for the following usurpation of the 
Thirty. The orators Andocides, Isocrates, and Lysias, and the 
historians Diodorus and Plutarch, when they deal with the 
same events, can be used only to supplement, not to correct, 
Xenophon's narrative. Andocides and Isocrates indeed agree 
with Xenophon in all essentials, except that the latter always 
tends to exalt the character of Alcibiades, while Lysias was too 
violent a pd.rtisan of the democracy, and too much implicated in 
the events of the time for his authority to be preferred above 
that of Xenophon — e.g. in the picture he draws of Theramenes. 

B 



1 8 INTRODUCTION. 

« 

Diodorus seems to have followed Theopompus for his history 
of the years 41 1-404, and Ephorus for that of the years 404-403. 
Hence so long as he follows the former, who, having been exiled 
from Chios for his support of Sparta, was a violent oligarch and 
philo-Laconian, his narrative is intensely hostile to the Athenian 
democracy. Only in the bare facts is there any agreement 
between him and Xenophon, and even in these there are most 
extraordinary discrepancies, many of them owing to Diodorus' 
own carelessness in matters of chronology, which is so great that 
he often mixes up the events of different years ^. At Athens Alci- 
biades and Theramenes are his heroes, and are painted in the 
brightest colours. Every incident tending to glorify Sparta and 
the Spartan constitution is exaggerated. Every incident to the 
contrary is carefully softened down or altogether suppressed. 
Ephorus, on the other hand, was an impartial and truth-loving 
historian, and appears himself to have made considerable use of 
Xenophon's writings ; and so with the change of the authority 
there is an evident change in the tone of Diodorus' narratives. 

Plutarch, in his Lives of Alcibiades and Lysander, seems to 
have used both Ephorus and Theopompus, the former by 
preference. But his purpose being biographical, he aims rather 
to bring out the personal characteristics of his heroes by intro- 
ducing striking stories and anecdotes than to give a consecutive 
account of a series of events. Still his two biographies are often 
useful for filling up some of the worst gaps in Xenophon's 
narrative : though wherever they differ in their accounts of the 
same events, Xenophon is always to be preferred. 

If, therefore, it is in contrast with Thucydides' unequalled 
history of the first twenty and a-half years of the Peloponnesian 
War, that Xenophon's account of its conclusion in Hellenics i., ii. 
appears so meagre and unsatisfactory, it is in contrast with 
Diodorus and Plutarch that we are led to appreciate his merits. 
The later historian cares for history not for its own sake, but as 
an * opus oratorium * in which he can display his own surprising 
talents. The biographer, however charming and artistic the 
result, evidently uses the facts of history only * to point a moral 
and adorn a tale.' Xenophon alone by his simple and unvar- 

^ For an exhaustive comparison of Xenophon and Diodoras' chroh> 
ology cf. Sievers, Xen. Hellenica. 



§ 2. CHRONOLOGY. 



19 



nished style, by his evident impartiality and love of truth, even 
too by the very defects, which, however they may mar and 
disfigure his narrative, yet by their wholly fortuitous and 
unaccountable occiu-rence, tend rather to confirm its truth — 
leaves upon the mind of his reader the impression that his 
history, so far as it goes, is a history of facts. 

§ 2. Xenophon's Chronology. 
Correct Chronology. 



B.C. . 


Olym. 


Year of 
War. 


Arckon. 


Ephor. 


411 


92*2 


2 1st 


Theoponipus 


Misgolaidas 


410 


923 


22nd 


Glaucippus 


Isias 


409 


92.4 


23rd 


Diodes 


Aracus 


408 


93-1 


24th 


Euctemon 


Evarchippus 


407 


93-3 


25th 


Antigenes 


Pantacles 


406 


93-3 


26th 


Callias 


Pityas 


405 


93-4 


27th 


Alexias 


Archytas 


404 


94.1 


28th 


Pythodorus 


Endius 



Chronology of the Hellenica. 



B.C. 


Olym, 


Year of 
War. 


Archon. 


Ephor. 


411 










410 


93 




Euctemon 


Evarchippus 


400 


.• 


23rd 


Antigenes 


Pantacles 


408 








• 


407 










406 




25th 


Callias 


Pityas 


405 




26th 


Alexias 


Archytas 


404 






Pythodorus 


Endius 



B 2 



0,0 INTRODUCTION. 

In the first two books of the Hellenica we find that not 
only is the beginning of each year of the war marked by 
such phrases as t© de aXXa> crei, tov iiriovTOS erovs, apxoficvov 
capos^, (where Xenophon is evidently following the system 
of Thucydides *), but in several passages additional accuracy 
is apparently given by the mention of Olympiads, the year 
of the war, or the names of the eponymous archons and ephors, 
and also by the notice of contemporary events in Persia and 
Sicily ^ But by all recent commentators such passages have 
been suspected, and in most cases with justice, to be inter- 
polations. 

^ It is true that both Herodotus and Thucydides occasionally 
give the names of Olympic victors : but Herodotus sometimes 
simply styles a man 'OXvfimovUijs * as a general mark of distinc- 
tion without specifying any particular victory, and sometimes 
relates the victories, whether in the chariot race ^, pentathlum ®, 
or pancratium '^, as incidents in the lives of eminent men like 
Miltiades the Athenian or Demaratus the Spartan ; but in no 
case does he use an Olympiad to fix a date. Thucydides once ^ 
like Herodotus uses the epithet *0\vfxmovLKrj5 as the mark of a 
distinguished man : twice ^ however he gives the name of the 
victor to help fix the date, in the first instance- not specifying 
the contest, in the second taking the name of the victor in the 
pancratium ; but in both instances the celebration of the 
Olympic festival has an intimate connection with his general 
history of the war, and is not introduced merely as a chrono- 
logical datum. Moreover, Polybius^® expressly states that 
Timaeus, the Sicilian historian, (flor. 264 B.C.) was the first 
to use the Olympiad as a chronological era, for which, however, 
the list of the victors in the less famous stadium or foot-race 
was chosen. Nevertheless, in i. 2. i the 23rd year of the war 
is called the 93rd Olympiad (really it was the third year of the 
92nd) : and in ii. 3. i the Olympiad is denoted by the name of 
the victor in the stadium. 

* i. 2. I ; 3. I ; 4. 2 ; 6. I ; ii. i. 10 ; 3. i. 

* V. 20. 8 i. I. 37 ; 2. 19 ; 5. 21 ; ii. 2. 24. 

* V. 47, 71. * vi. 36, 70; ix. 103, 125. « vi. 92 ; ix. 75. 
^ ix. 105. ® i. 126. ^ iii. 8; v. 49; cf. 50. 

^° xii. 12, 



• § %. CHRONOLOGY. 21 

Again, Herodotus ^ once mentions the name of the eponymous 
archon at Athens to fix the date of one particular event, the 
invasion of Attica by the Persians ; and Thucydides * sometimes 
gives the archon, ephor, and even the priestess of the Arg^ve 
Hera, to mark some unusual occurrence ; but neither of them 
ever use these official lists to distinguish successive years. 
Further, in two passages the names given in the text of the 
Hellenica are incorrect : for in ii. 3. 9, 10, a continuous list of 
twenty-nine ephors appears (probably inserted by a later hand), 
in which Pantacles immediately precedes Pityas, whereas Xeno- 
phon makes two whole years, if not three, elapse between i. 3. i 
and i. 6. i, where Pantacles and Pityas are respectively men- 
tioned, to mark the beginning of the years ' ; and exactly the 
same mistake is made with the archons. Evidently therefore 
the interpolator must have had before him complete lists of the . 
ephors and archons, must have known the right names for the 
year 404, and then reckoned backwards from that year, but 
unfortunately overlooked the beginning of a new year in i. 4. 2, 
where no magistrates are mentioned, and also of the year the 
beginning of which Xenophon has omitted to mark at all. Of 
this however more below. 

In three passages * the numbers of the years of the Pelopon- 
nesian War occur. In the first the number 22 is right, and 
evidently depends on a comparison with Thuc. viii. 60, 109. 
The interpolator here, however, noticed the apxofjJvov tov tapos 
of i. 4. 2, though in that passage he did not insert the year of the 
war ; so that, when Xenophon again resumes in i. 6. i with a 
T^ 3' €m6vTi ?Tet, he says that twenty-four years of warfare were 
now over. Really, however, the Peloponnesian War had con- 
tinued for twenty-five years ; and the interpolator was betrayed 
into this mistake, because Xenophon narrates the events of one 
year (407-406) ° without marking its beginning at alL So again 
in the third passage, instead of twenty-five years, it should be 
twenty-six. Thus the interpolator makes the war down to the 
surrender of Athens in the spring of 404 last only twenty-six 



• • 



* viii. 51. * u. I ; v. 19. 

* Cf. i 4. 12. * i. J. I ; 6. I ; ii. i. 7. 
' Cf. note on i. 5. 11. 



aa INTRODUCTION. 

• 
years, whereas Thucydides^ distinctly states that it lasted almost 

exactly twenty-seven years, April 431 to April 404 '. 

As for the notices of Persian and Sicilian history, though it is 
certain that the chronology of the Hellenica does not at all agree 
with that in Diodorus Siculus, yet, as that author in well-known 
cases is so exceedingly inexact in his dates, this disagreement does 
not amount to much of an argument against them. The pas- 
sages on Sicilian history, however, seem to be inconsistent with 
each other. For in i. i. 37 Hannibal is said in 411 B.c. to 
have captured the cities of Selinus. and Himera ; whereas ia 
i. 2. 8, 10, 12 some Selinuntine ships are still found in 410 in the 
Aegean, acting as Peloponnesian allies, although Diodorus 
specially states' that they were recalled to Sipily before the 
capture of the city. Again, the capture of Acragas is related 
twice over, once as happening in the year 407, and the second 
time as happening in 405. Diodorus puts it in the year 406. 
There is a similar inconsistency in one of the two references to 
Persian history. For in ii. i. 8, 9 an event is assigned to the 
year 406, which it appears from Diodorus could only have hap- 
pened in the year 405. The other reference, i. 2. 19, states a 
mere fact, which there is no means of confirming or denying. 
Inaccuracies of this kind, however, in a work left in so unfinished 
a state as bks. i. ii. of the Hellenica, hardly constitute a suffi- 
cient reason for bracketing them as spurious, especially when it 
is remembered that it was the custom of Thucydides, on whose 
system these books are evidently modelled, to insert at the end 
of each six months of his narrative such events as owing e.g. to 
their occurring in a different scene of the war, he could not 
weave into the main thread of his history. 

We are left, therefore, for our genuine chronological data, 
only with the phrases toO 8' imovros ctovs k,t.\, which serve to 
mark the beginnings of the successive years of the war, supple- 
mented occasionally by additional marks of time like dpxpfiepov 
Xfifi&vos, ;^fi/ia)y fViffi k.t.X. ; and here we are met by a fresh 
difficulty. For Xenophon continues Thucydides from the point 
where he breaks off in his narrative of the 21st year of the war 

' V. 30, 26. « For the list of ephors in ii. 3. 9, 10, cf. note ad loc. 
• xiii. 61. 



§ 2. CHRONOLOGY. 23 

in 41 1 B. c. Since the war ended in May 404, there ought to be 
seven such notices of the beginning of a new year : as a matter 
of fact, Xenophon gives only six ; somewhere or other therefore 
he has left one out, and the question arises, at what point ? 

Dodwell, Schneider, and Weiske would begin a new year at 
i. I. II. But the events that Xenophon narrates between §§ 11 
and yj ar^ all closely connected with each other, as well as by 
definite inarks of time (cf. § 27 ct 5"e rep xpoi/a> Tovra>, § 32 Kara tov 
Kcupov TouToi/), and cannot well be spaced over a whole year. 
Herbst and others put the beginning of 407 B.C. at i. 4. 8, but in 
that case it is hard to discover what were the movements of Alci- 
biades between the capture of Byzantium in 409 B. c. (cf. i. 3. 
21) and his arrival at Samos (i. 4. 8) in 407, and how he could 
have ventured to return to Athens, if he had known of the 
intrigues between Cyrus and Lysander, which began in 408 B. c, 
and which they took such careful measures to conceal (i. 4. 1-8). 

It is better, therefore, with Breitenbach ^, to suppose the 
omission to occur at i. 5. 11. For in i. 4. 21-23 Xenophon has 
brought down his narrative of Alcibiades' doings in the winter 
of 408-407 to his operations round Samos as his headquarters, 
which may very well have lasted till March or April 467. And 
in i. 5. i-io he tells us how Lysander, with the assistance of 
Cyrus, was occupied in collecting and fitting out a new Pelopon- 
nesian fleet, for which the winter months would be specially 
appropriate. Then having brought down his narrative of the 
movements on either side to the same point of time, he resumes 
at § 1 1 his account of their mutual operations against each 
other, which would naturally show fresh activity at the beginning 
of spring. 

No sooner has Xenophon concluded the history of the Pelo- 
ponnesian War with the story of the surrender of Athens, than 
he abandons Thucydides' system of chronology altogether. He 
does indeed mark the beginning of the year 404-403 with a t^ 
d' iiriovTi €T€i^, but we are left to gather the respective times of 
the next year and a-half s events from the accidental mention of 
an eclipse (ii. 3. 4), of the end of summer (ii. 3. 9), of snow (ii. 4. 3), 
of the eight months' duration of the rule of the Thirty (ii. 3. 21), 

1 Jahrbuch f. Phil, und Pad. 187a. « ii. 3. i. 



24 INTRODUCTION. 

and of ripe fruit (ii. 4. 25). In fact, in this section of the 
book, Xenophon begins the practice, which he consistently 
follows throughout the rest of the Hellenica, of grouping events 
together, not according to the times at which they happened, 
but according to their causal connection. 



§ 3. Internal History of Athens, 411-403 b,c. 

After the expulsion of the Four Hundred in the spring of 

1 j^y 411^ 411 B.C. the Athenian constitution became a modi- 
B.O. to June fied democracy, which Thucydides ' declares to 

410 B.C. have been the best government that the Athenians 
eyer enjoyed within his memory. The two leading features were 
the abolition of all paid offices of whatever kind, and the limitation 
of the full citizenship to such Athenians as could furnish them- 
selves with arms at their own expense. It was thus the nearest 
approach that we read of in Greek history to Aristotle's ideal 
TToXiTtm', or model democracy, being based chiefly on the 
middle class, and combining in itself the best elements of 
oligarchy and democracy. 

But though this constitution had already received* the ap- 
proval of Alcibiades, and the Assembly had actually passed 
a decree for his recall, the breach still remained open between 
the Athenians in the city and the Athenians on board the fleet. 
The latter could not have been less than 10,000 in nimiber, 
and had just unmistakeably shown their democratical zeal in 
suppressing the simultaneous conspiracy of the oligarchical 
party in their midst ^ : in fact, it was not until the return of 
Alcibiades three years later, in 408, that this breach was finally 
healed. Till then the city and the fleet were almost as much 
separated as two independent states ; the city annually elected 
the usual number of ten generals ; the fleet still retained at it« 
head Alcibiades, Thrasybulus, Thrasyllus, and apparently the 

* The Athenian year began with the ist of Hecatombaeon (c. the 
middle of July), when the magistrates entered npon their offices. 

* viii. 97. ^ Ar. Pol. iv. 8. 3. 

* Thuc. viii. 86, 97. * Thuc. viii. 75, 76. 



§ 3- INTERNAL HISTORY. 2,5 

other generals whom they had chosen at the time of the revo- 
lution^. Theramenes and Thrasyllus alone acted as a sort of 
go-betweens : for the former, being sent out by the city in 41 1 to 
try to prevent the Boeotians and Euboeans from building a 
dam across the Euripus, and failing in that object, finally joined 
Alcibiades at the Hellespont, and did not return to Athens till 
three years afterwards : while the latter, after the victory at 
Abydos in the .autumn of 411, was despatched to Athens for 
reinforcements. 

When at last these two divisions of the Athenian peqple 
again united, the union was due on the one side to a return 
,at Athens, more or less complete, to the old extreme form of 
democracy, and on the other to the extraordinary successes 
of the pavTiKos Bx^os under the command of Alcibiades. It is 
these changes and their connection with each other that must 
now be traced. 

At the same time that the Four Hundred had been deposed, 
Thucydides tells us ^, a board of Nomothetae had been appointed 
with the object, if we may argue from the analogous appointment 
after the suppression of the Thirty in 403 ', of adapting 'the old 
Solonian laws to the new constitution. Four months were 
assigned them for their work. But it would appear that nothing 
was really done : for six years afterwards Nicomachus, one of 
their number and called avaypa(f>cvs rS>v vo/jlcop*, had not yet 
sent in an account of his office, and c. 399 B;C. he was accused 
of having taken bribes to illegally alter and otherwise tamper 
with the special laws assigned to him for revision ''. Thus the 
new constitution was never really put upon a permanent legal 
footing, and party feeling, which had shown itself in the con- 
demnation of the most extreme of the oligarchical leaders, like 
Antiphon and Archeptolemus, was still too much excited to 
allow things to remain long as they were. In the early autumn 
of 41 1 B.C. * the Athenians at home had been greatly encouraged 
by the news of their partial success at Cyno'ssema. In the 
winter the general Thrasyllus, who had been one of the demo- 
cratical leaders at Samos, had arrived at Athens with the 

^ Thuc. viii. 76. * viii. 97. 

' Cp. Andocides, Myst. § 83. * Lysias, xxx. §§ 2, 11, 28. 

• Cp. Lysias 1. c. ^ Thuc. viii. 106. 



26 INTRODUCTION. 

tidings of a fresh victory at Abydos, and with a request for 
July 410 reinforcements for the fleet. And in the spring 
B.C. to June of 410 B.C. Alcibiades totally annihilated the 
409 B.C. Peloponnesian fleet under Mindarus at Cyzicus. 
The completeness vof his victory was vivirfly confirmed by the 
despatch written by Hippocrates, Mindarus' secretary, to the 
Spartan government for immediate help, which was accidentally 
captured and brought to Athens. 

Once more the democratical party became active and powerful. 
For when the Spartans *, in dismay at their defeat, sent Endius 
at the head of an embassy to offer as terms of peace, that both 
parties should accept the status quo, that the Peloponnesians 
would withdraw their garrison from Decelea, if the Athenians 
would withdraw theirs from Pylos, and that an exchange of 
prisoners should be arranged, the Assembly, notwithstanding 
the efforts of the imeiKearaToif voted their rejection on the 
motion of the demagogue Cleophon. *The Athenians,' says 
Diodorus, 'excited by their recent good fortune, thought that 
with their forces under the leadership of Alcibiades they would 
soon recover their old supremacy.' 

Nor were their hopes entirely unfounded; for tl^e victory 
at Cyzicus meant much more than the annihilation of the 
Peloponnesian fleet. It meant relief from the financial distress, 
which had prevailed at Athens ever since the Sicilian disaster, 
and more especially since the loss of Euboea. For immediately 
after the battle Alcibiades set up a custom house on the Bos- 
porus to exact toll from all passing ships; once again some 
of the Hellespontine and Thracian cities began to pay tribute ; 
and once again the com ships sailed as of old into Piraeus ^ 
Money had been the basis of the Periclean democracy, and 
now money opened the way for a return to it. The fleet at the 
Hellespont maintained itself by marauding expeditions, and cost 
the home government nothing. Thus the President of the Trea- 
sury for the year was able to devote as much as twenty-three 
talents towards the expenses of certain sacrifices and festivals 
and of the dia^eXia^f or Theoric fund, which was distributed 
among the poorer citizens to enable them to attend the theatre 
and shows, and which seems to have been the first of the 

* Died. xiii. 52, 53. * i. i. 35- ^ C. I. A. i. 188. 



§ 3- INTERNAL HISTORY. 27 

distributions of public money to be restored. As the revenue 
continued to improve, the old system of payment for all offices 
little by little came once more into force, though the several 
dates of its reinstitution cannot be ascertained. Aristophanes 
in the Frogs ^, which was exhibited in 405 B.C., complains of 
the huge sums swallowed up by the hiKavTiKo^ fiiados, showing 
that by that time the change was complete. 

There is equal difficulty in tracing the steps, whereby the 
restrictions on citizenship imposed after the dissolution of the 
Four Hundred, were gradually removed. Payment for public 
services evidently meant the readmission of the poorer citizens 
to the full discharge of all civic duties. But the means whereby 
this was brought about are unknown. All we can say is that 
Xenophon describes the Athenians as meeting for the trial of 
the generals after Arginusae in 406 B.C., Trdvras Kara ^vXar, 
as if by that time none were excluded from the Assembly. 

One constitutional change can however be referred with cer- 
tainty to this year on the authority of the historian Philochorus^ 
The Senators, like the dicasts, henceforward were to sit in ten 
divisions denoted by the first ten letters of the alphabet. The 
reason of this measure is not stated, but in all probability it was 
directed against the members of the oligarchical clubs ', who 
were wont to sit together, and thus by their united action to 
acquire an influence totally disproportionate to their numbers *. 
Gilbert' has ingeniously conjectured, that these democratical 
changes were carried through by a board of (7vyypa<^f ir, on the 
ground that Demophantus, the proposer of a decree of which 
more will be said hereafter, cweypayfrcVf and not, as usual, fin^v ; 
and that an inscription* of this year mentions o-uyypac^flr, though 
it does not explain the nature of their office ; and further that on 
the analogy of Thucydides (viii. 67), when Pisander proposed to 
appoint ten ^vyypa^fls avroKparopes and of Xenophon (Hell, 
ii. 3. 2), when the Thirty were chosen, 01 tovs naTplovs vo/iovs 

'141 sq., 1466 sq. ' Muller, Fragm. i. 403. 

' Cp. Thuc. viii. 66, esp. vi. 13. 

* A practice set on foot by Thucydides, son of Melesias; see Plut. 
Pericles c. 11. 

* Beitr. z. Inn. Gesch. Athens, p. 341 sqq. 

* C. I. A. i. 58. . 



a8 INTRODUCTION, 

<ruyypa\^ov<n, it may very well be argued that they were extra- 
ordinary magistrates chosen to draw up a new constitution, 
and this time in a democratical direction. 

Two documents of this year illustrate still farther the growing 
power of the democrats. The first is the above-mentioned 
Psephism of Demophantus, preserved in Andocides' speech 
on the Mysteries^, which decreed that all Athenians, both in 
the city and in the fleet, should swear to hold as a public 
enemy, who might lawfully be put to death, any one who should 
attempt to overthrow the democracy, or who should hold any 
office after the democracy had been overthrown. This oath 
was to be taken just before the Great Dionysia in the spring 
of 409 B. c. and finds its parallel in the oath sworn to by the Athe- 
nian democrats at Samos in 41 1 B.C.' The second is a psephism 
proposed by Erasinides ^, who was afterwards one of the generals 
at the battle of Arginusae, that Thrasybulus *, one of the assas- 
sins of the oligarch Phrynichus, should be rewarded with a 
golden crown and the gift of citizenship, and that a proclamation 
to that effect should be made at the same Dionysia. Moreover 
at the same time the prosecutions against those implicated in 
the conspiracy of the Four Hundred, which had been suffered 
to lapse after the punishment of the worst offenders, seem to 
have been revived, and to have gone on with more or less 
vigour until the Amnesty of Patroclides in 405 B.C. Not only 
were individuals attacked, but whole classes, like the soldiers 
who had supported the Four Hundred, were punished with 
partial disfranchisement**, so that e.g. it was made unlawful 
for them to speak in the Assembly, or to become members of 
the Senate. Lysias • says, that it was these prosecutions that 
ruined the democracy ; for that numerous sycbphants accused 
innocent persons for the sake of their wealth, while they left 
the guilty untouched, if only they were sufficiently bribed. 
Meanwhile Alcibiades had pursued a career of unbroken 

* Andoc. Myst. § 96 sqq. Gilbert, Gesch. Ath.,p. 344, proves against 
Droysen and Herbert that this decree belongs to the period after the 
Dissolution of the Four Hundred, and not to that after the expulsion of 
the Thirty. Cp. Grote, vii. 321. 

« Thuc. viii. 75. » C. I. A. i. 59. * Cf. Thuc. viu. 92. 

* Andoc. Myst. § 75 sq. • Or. xxv. 14, 15, 



§ 3- INTERNAL HISTORY. 29 

success on the Hellespont and Bosporus. In the summer 
of 410 he had been joined by Thrasyllus at the Hellespont 
with a considerable reinforcement from Athens, and the two 
generals combined to defeat the satrap Phamabazus> first at 
Abydos, and then at Chalcedon, after which he was reduced 
to come to terms and to submit to see Chalcedon once more 
pay tribute to Athens. These successes were jTiiy409 
quickly followed by the capture of Selybria and B.C. to June 
Byzantium. On the other side the Athenians *0S B.C. 
had indeed to set the loss of Pylos in Messenia, and of Nisaea, 
the port of Megara — losses serious in themselves, but with 
little effect upon the revenue. Anytus, the demagogue, who 
had been despatched to relieve the former place was, on his 
return, accused of treachery, and only escaped, it was said, 
by bribing his judges ^ In the autumn of 409 B.C., therefore, 
Athens had regained the whole of the Thracian and Hellespon- 
tine provinces of her old empire, besides many of the islands 
in the northern Aegean. The Peloponnesian fleet had been 
annihilated. Pharnabazus, who had so long and so ably sup- 
ported the Spartan cause, had been forced to consent to an 
armistice, and to promise a safe escort for an Athenian embassy 
to the Persian King. And all this had been mainly due to 
the courage and capacity of a single man, and him an exile ; 
for Alcibiades had never availed himself of the permission to 
return home granted him in 411 B.c.^ So far indeed he had 
acted almost as a sovereign prince. Much still however re- 
mained to be done : Euboea and most of Ionia were still in 
open revolt. Before attempting their reconquest, Alcibiades 
seems now to have felt that a return to Athens was necessary 
for him, if ever there was to be a complete reunion between 
the city and the army. In the spring of 408, therefore, he 
sailed with all his ships to Samos : thence he despatched his 
friends and colleagues Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Piraeus 
with all the spoils of war and captured vessels to prepare the 
way for his reception, while he himself sailed with the remainder 
of the fleet to Caria, to collect still more money. The Athenians 
at home were by this time just as ready on their side to welcome 
him, and even before the arrival of Thrasyllus and Theramenes 

* Diod. xiii. 64, 65. * Thuc. viii. 97. 



30 INTRODUCTION. 

had chosen among the generals for the following year, Alci- 
hiades, Thrasybulus, and Conon. The news of his election 
reached Alcibiades at Gythium in" Laconia, whither he had 
sailed from Caria, and he at once set out for Piraeus, which 
he entered on the day of the Plynteria (June), when the shrine 
of the goddess Athena was covered with a veil. Arrived in 
the harbour, even now he hesitated to land, so suspicious was 
he of the real feelings of the people towards him; and it 
was not until he had seen Euryptolemus and other relatives 
among the crowd that had assembled to meet him, that he 
ventured to set foot on shore. Then his partizans closed round 
him so as to form a sort of body-guard, and escorted him in 
their midst in triumphal procession from Piraeus to Athens. 

In the city opinion was still much divided ^ : some said, that 
he had been the victim of the intrigues of his enemies, who 
had plotted against him and procured his exile in order to make 
room for their own ambitious schemes ; others maintained that 
he had been the real cause of all the Athenian misfortunes in 
the past, and would be jusf as dangerous in the future. 

But for the moment Alcibiades, with his marvellous person- 
ality, carried all before him. The effect of his speeches in his 
own defence before the senate and assembly^, was such that 
hone dared raise a voice against him. It was at once decreed, 
that the column set up to record his condemnation in 415 B.C. 
should be cast into the sea, that his goods should be restored to 
him, and that the curse which the Eumolpidae had pronounced 

July 408 against him should be recalled. He himself was 
B.C. to June proclaimed a-TpaTrjyos avTOKparoip by sea and land, 

407 B.C. as the only man able to restore Athens to her 
former power. The rich hoped to find in him a strong opponent 
to the ever-increasing encroachments of the extreme democrats. 
The poor saw in him a champion, who would relieve them of 
their poverty, and whom they would be glad to support, even 
though he should assume to himself the rights of sovereign 
power and make himself tyrant of Athens '. For the moment 
his enemies were silenced, although they continued, as events 
soon showed, as active as ever in their intrigues against him. 

^ i. 4. 13-17. * Diod. xiii. 69. 

' Plut. Ale. 35 ; Diod. xiii. 69. 



§ 3- INTERNAL HISTORY. 3 1 

The demagogues seem to have been especially bitter, so com- 
pletely were they overshadowed in the eyes of the people by 
their new rival for popular favour. 

It was ominous too that Theodorus the high priest, in re- 
moving the. old curse had said, that for his part he had never 
denounced any curse against him, if he had done no injury 
to the commonwealth : while many of the pious and superstitious 
noted with foreboding, that Alcibiades had landed on the Plyn- 
teria, the unluckiest day in the whole year. 

Meanwhile Alcibiades was occupied in fitting out a new fleet 
of 100 vessels, with the money that he had himself brought into 
the treasury. He chose Adimantus and Aristocrates, apparently 
out of the already elected generals for the year, to be his 
colleagues in the command ^. But before he sailed, hoping once 
for all to quiet the religious fears of the Athenians, as well as 
to assure them of his military prowess, he escorted with all 
his forces the annual procession along the Sacred Way to 
Eleusis, which ever since the fortification of Decelea by the 
Peloponnesians, had been obliged to go by sea. King Agis now 
venturing to offer no opposition. 

At last in October all was ready for his departure, for which 
none were more eager than his enemies ; some, according t;o 
Plutarch, because they feared that he would soon make himself 
tyrant ; others, we may certainly suppose, because they wanted a 
clear field left them in which to prosecute 'their own schemes. 

But during the four months that Alcibiades had stayed in 
Athens, an entire change had come over the aspect of affairs 
in Asia. The able and energetic Lysander had succeeded 
'the incapable Cratesippidas as admiral of the Spartan fleet ; 
and Cyrus, the younger son of King Darius, had taken the 
place of the vacillating Tissaphemes as Satrap of Sardis, and 
had announced his intention of supporting the Peloponnesians 
with money and by all means in his power, even persuading 
Phamabazus, notwithstanding his solemn promises, to hinder 
the Athenian envoys from proceeding to the Persain coast ^ 

Events soon proved the wisdom of Alcibiades* enemies in 
hastening his departure. His attack on the little island of 
Andros was only partially successful. Arrived at Samos, he 
^ XcD. Hell. i. 4. 23 ; JDiod. xiii. 69. ^ i. 4, 7. 



32 INTRODUCTION. 

tried in vain to draw Lysander out of the harbour at Ephesus 
to a general engagement. His overtures to Cyrus through the 
mouthpiece of Tissaphemes were rejected with scorn. Money 
and supplies soon ran short, and he was obliged to scour the 
neighbouring coasts on marauding expeditions, making in his 
requisitions, it would seem, but little distinction between friend 
and foe. To crown all, his lieutenant Antiochus, in defiance 
of his strict orders, ventured on a general engagement during his 
absence at Phocaea, and suffered a. defeat at Notium ; and do 
what he could, Alcibiades could not induce Lysander to give him 
an opportunity for revenge. Disappointed in their unreasonable 
expectations of a speedy conquest of Chios and even of all 
Ionia, the Athenians both at home and on board the fleet 
were now as vehement in their denunciations of Alcibiades 
as but shortly before they had been in his praises. All com- 
plaints against his conduct were eagerly listened to ; and when 
Thrasybulus, the son of Thrason, (not to be confused with the 
more famous Thrasybulus, the general), returned from the camp 
to Athens \ and accused him of maladministration, of treason- 
able intrigues with Persia and the Peloponnesians, and of 
building forts of his own, like a sovereign prince, in Thrace ^ 
tjie people at once suspended Alcibiades from his command, 
ordered his colleague Condn to take his place, and in the 
annual elections, which happened to occur just at the same 
time, chose ten new generals, among whom Alcibiades was no 
longer one '. Alcibiades himself, finding that he was equally 
unpopular with his own troops, did not wait to hear the result 
of the accusations against him at home, but retired to his forts 
in the Thracian Chersonese. 
At this juncture democrats of all shades seem to have com- 
July 407 bined to support the constitution, if we may judge 
B.C. to June from the list of the new generals : for among 
406 B.C. them Thrasyllus, Leon, and Diomedon had all 
taken a prominent part in the counter movement against 

* Gilbert refers a statement of Himerins (ap. Phot. Bibl. 377) to this 
affair : KAco<^oDv *A\KifiidSrp/ iypcufxro, and sees in it a formal 7pa^ 
irpodoffias. Cobet refers it to the year 415 B.C. 

« Diod. xiii. 73 ; Pint. Ale. 36. 

^ Pint Lys. V ; Nep. Ale. 7 ; Just. v. 5. 4 ; Lysias xiv. 38. 



§ 3- INTERNAL HISTORY. 33 

the oligafcbs at Samos, in 411 6.c.^ ; Erasinides^ had pro- 
posed the decree to crown the assassin of Phrynichus 
the oligarch ; Pericles was the son of the great Pericles and 
Aspasia ; while Conon seems rather to have succeded Nidas in* 
the leadership of the more moderate party. The year was one 
of great financial distress, due to the difficulty of maintaining 
Conon's large fleet of 100 vessels, and to the Peloponnesians 
under the admiral Callicratidas once more taking the offensive 
by sea, and so cutting off the sources of Athenian revenue. To 
meet the deficiency all the gold in the Acropolis was coined 
into money'. Still, when the news reached Athens that Conon 
with all his fleet was blockaded at Mitylene, within thirty days 
the Athenians fitted out a fleet, of 1 10 vessels, making all the 
inhabitants of Attica, rich and poor, slave and free, serve alike 
on board. About July, 406, the two fleets met off the islands of 
Arginusae, and the Athenians under the command of eight of 
their ten generals gained a complete victory over the Pelopon- 
nesians, Callicratidas himself perishing in the fight. In the 
ordinary course of things such a victory would have sufficed to 
insure for some time the political power of the successful 
generals. But unfortunately in the moment of victory the generals 
had neglected both to rescue the survivors clinging to the wrecks 
of the vessels, which had been disabled in the battle, and to 
bury the corpses of the dead. The news of this neglect excited 
great indignation among the Athenians at home, j^y 40^ 
A summons was immediately issued for their B.C. to June 
recall. Thereupon two of their number retired ^^^ ^•^- * 
into voluntary exile : the remaining six returned to Athens, 
were hastily condemned almost without any form of trial, and 
all alike executed. 

Although there seems to be no evidence for supposing the 
condemnation of the generals to have been due to an oligar- 
chical conspiracy, its effect, no doubt, was to produce chaos once 
more among the political parties at Athens. Little indeed can 
be inferred from the list of the new generals, as they must have 
been elected just before the battle of Arginusae, which was 
apparently fought in June, while the trial cannot have taken 

* Thuc. viii. 73. ' C. I. A. i. 59. 

' Arist. Frogs 720; Philoch. Frag. lao. 



34 INTRODUCTION. 

place till November. The democrats at any rate still clung to 
their old war policy ; and Cleophon was again successful in 
procuring the rejection of a peace, which the Lacedaemonians 
offered about this time on the same terms as before ' — 2l fact 
which shows that the power oif the demagogues was still as 
great as ever. Many, on the other hand, began to repent of 
their recent dismissal of Alcibiades, and even to advocate his 
immediate recall*. The financial distress was greater than 
ever, and to meet it an extraordinary board of magistrates, 
called Poristae', seems to have been appointed to consider ways 
and means. The fieet at Samos, paralyzed by the proceedings 
taken against its late generals at Athens, never followed up the 
results of its victory, though now commanded by the skilful 
Conon ; and was soon unable to support itself by marauding 
expeditions, being entirely occupied in watching the move- 
ments of the enem/s fleet. For the Peloponnesians, after their 
disaster, had procured from the Spartan government the re- 
storation of Lysander to the command ; and he in the spring 
of 405 had completely restored its efficiency, being backed up, 
as before, by Persian gold. 

It was probably about this time that the Athenians began to 
repent of their harsh treatment of the generals, who had won 
for them the victory of Arginusae : for in the spring elections 
Theramenes, who had taken the leading part in the prosecu- 
tion, was rejected on the boKifiaa-ia after he had been actually 
chosen general, because he did not seem to be ct/vovr rS 
ir\r}6€i * ; and at the same time complaints seem to have been 
brought before the assembly against those individuals, especially 
Callixenus, who had deceived the people in the triaL The 
assembly listened favourably to the complaints, and decreed 
that the persons accused should be bound over to stand 
their trial, but amid the internal confusions of the following 
year they all escaped. It is remarkable that Theramenes was 
not included in the accusation. 

^ Aristotle apud Schol. on Afist. Frogs 1533. Grote, viii. i, throws 
doubt on this embassy. 

* Arist. Frogs 1500 seqq. 

' Arist. Frogs. 1505, cf. Gilbert. Gesch. Athens, p. 387. 

* Lysias xiii. 13. 



§ 3. INTERNAL HISTORY. , 35 

Probably just about the time that the newly elected generals 
entered upon their office, of whom only Strom- j^y 405 
bichides, Dionysodorus, and Calliades are known B.O. to June 
by name, all three being stout democrats, the *^* B-^- 
tidings' of the annihilation of the fleet at Aegospotami must have 
reached Athens \ The citizens were at first stunned by the 
news, reflecting that at last the misery that they had inflicted . 
on less powerful states, was about to. return on their own 
heads \ But next day the assembly met and resolved to block 
up two of the three harbours at Piraeus, and to prepare 
the city for a siege. Really little could be done : for the 
Athenians had no fleet, and the com supply was entirely cut off" 
now that the Hellespont, as well as Euboea, was lost, and the 
Peloponnesians still harried the country from Decelea. Five 
months, however, passed before the appearance of the dreaded 
Peloponnesian fleet. Lysander was employed in the interval in 
receiving the submission of the Athenian allies, and in sending 
all the Athenian citizens and cleruchs, whom he captured, back 
to Athens in order to increase the number of mouths to be fed on 
the ever diminishing supply of com. At last in November he ap- 
peared and blockaded Piraeus at the same time, that the two 
Spartan kings Agis and Pausanias advanced with the entire Pelo- 
ponnesian forces close up to the city walls. Within the city, as a 
last despairing measure, the democrats carried a proposal made 
by Patroclides to grant an amnesty to all disfranchised citizens, 
more especially those who had suflered partial disfranchise- 
ment for the part they had taken in the Revolution of the Four 
Hundred ^ The oligarchs, who saw that their day of power 
would soon and certainly come with the surrender of the city, 
seem at the time to have remained quiet. But the forces that 
the Athenians could muster, even with the citizens all thus 
united, were so obviously incapable of oflering a successful 
resistance, that so early as December, when the corn supply 
had completely failed, envoys were sent to Agis with offers of 
peace on condition that the Athenians became allies of the 

' Mommsen (Chronologie) dates it in the month Scirophorion (June 
to July). 

* ii. a. 3. 

' Andoc. Myst § 73 seqq. 

C2 



36 INTRODUCTION. 

Lacedaemonians, and retained Piraeiis and the Long Walls. 
Agis referred the envoys to the Ephors at Sparta, who alone, 
he said, had powers to conclude a treaty. But when they 
peached Sellasia on the Lacedaemonian frontier, the Ephors, 
on hearing the terms they had to offer, sent them back with an 
injunction not to return until the Athenians had come to a 
better decision. It appears however from the sequel of Xeno- 
phon's narrative^, that they were at the same time informed, 
that a peace might be concluded if the Athenians would con- 
sent to the demolition of ten stadia of their Long Walls. For, 
when on their return the envoys announced before the Senate 
the result of their mission, Archestratus was arrested for 
proposing submission to this condition, and at the same time 
Cleophon carried a decree in the Assembly forbidding any 
such proposal for the future on pain of death ^ 

At this crisis Theramenes came forward and promised, that 
if the people would send him to Lysander, he would at least 
procure certain information as to whether in requiring the 
demolition of the Long Walls the Lacedaemonians meant the 
utter enslavement of Athens, or only a guarantee of Athenian 
good faith. Theramenes was accordingly despatched, but in- 
stead of returning at once with the necessary information, he 
stayed with Lysander for more than three months, waiting for 
the moment when the Athenians would be compelled by famine 
to accept any terms whatsoever. In the fourth month he 
returned, saying that he had been detained by Lysander, who 
had at last advised him to apply to the Ephors, as they alone 
had power to conclude a peace. Meantime Cleophon had been 
put to death on a false charge of failure in his military duties ', 
brought against him by the oligarchical conspirators, who were 
once again secretly active : and now hunger silenced all further 
opposition. Theramenes therefore and nine others were chosen 
to go to Sparta as ambassadors with full powers. At Sellasia 
the ten new ambassadors were again stopped by the Ephors; 
but when they said that they were invested with full powers, 
they were invited to attend a conference of the Peloponnesian 
confederates at Sparta, which had been summoned to consider 

^ it. 2. 14, 15. ' Lysias xiil. 8 ; Aeschin. F. L. 76. 

' Lysias xiii. 15 ; cf. Xen. ii. 7. 35. 



§ 4- TRIAL OF THE GENERALS.- 37 

the fate of Athens. Here the Thebans and Corinthians ad- 
vocated the total extirpation of the Athenian name ; but the 
Lacedaemonians, guided, it would appear ', rather by motives 
of self-interest than the patriotic, sentiments, which they openly 
professed, refused to allow a city, which had wrought so much 
for Greek freedom in the past, to be wiped out of the map of 
Greece, and decided to offer terms, far harder indeed than 
those offered four months earlier, but reasonable under the 
circiunstances. The terms were to be that the Athenians 
should demolish their Long Walls and their arsenal at Piraeus, 
that they should resign all their foreign possessions, and confine 
themselves to their Attic territory, that they should readmit 
all their exiles, and become the allies of Sparta, recognizing the 
same friends and enemies and following her leadership by land 
and sea. The number of ships, which they were to be allowed 
to keep, was left to the discretion of Lysander ^. 

The day after their return to Athens, Theramenes, as spokes- 
man of the ambassadors, recited the Lacedaemonian conditions, 
and proposed their acceptance. Even now a few, headed by 
Cleomenes, one of the younger demagogues, raised some op- 
position, but the prevailing distress was too great for any 
farther delay ^ The peace was accepted, and on the i6th of 
Munychion (c April) Lysander, coming from Samos, sailed 
into Piraeus along with many of the Athenian exiles. All the 
ships left in the dockyards were handed over to him, save 
twelve, which he permitted the Athenians to retain. Then his 
troops occupied the fortifications, and began the destruction of 
Piraeus and the Long Walls. 

Thus ended the Peloponnesian War almost exactly twenty- 
seven years after its first outbreak in April 431 B.C. 

§ 4. The Trial of the Generals after Arqinusae. 

For this incident in Athenian history Xenophon, as being 
himself contemporary with the event, is undoubtedly the chief 
and the best authority. His account seems to be a simple and 

* Cf. ii. 2. ao with ii. 3. 41. 
• * ii. 2. 20, Diod. xiii. 107. Pint. Lys. 14. 

' Cf. Lysias xiii. 13. 



58 INTRODUCTION. 

impartial statement of the facts of the trial, and the points of 
obscurity afe apparently due, not to any wilful perversions, but ta 
omissions as to questions of fact and of law, which it is difficult 
to supplement from any other sources. Diodorus (flor. 15 B.C.) 
gives only a meagre narrative of the trial, based on Theopompus 
(flor. 333 B. c), and evidently here, as in other passages, holds a 
brief in favour of Theramenes, though he condemns the treatment 
of the generals. Aristophanes' Frogs, exhibited in the year 405 
B. C, shows us somewhat of the prevailing feeling at the time in 
Athens, and more especially as to the part played by Thera- 
menes, which would seem to have incurred the general dis- 
pleasure of the people. Plato (Apology, c. 32) and Xenophon 
(Memorabilia, i. i. 18, iv. 4. 2) more fully describe the bold 
resistance offered by Socrates to the unconstitutional demands 
of the Assembly. It may therefore be gathered that the whole 
literary opinion of the day strongly disapproved the condemna- 
tion of the generals. 

In his own narrative (i. 6) Xenophon gives a very brief 
summary of events. In the battle at Arginusae the Athenians, 
he tells us, lost twenty-five ships, crews and all, except a few 
survivors, who made their way to shore. The generals in 
command had ordered the trierarchs Theramenes and Thrasy- 
bulus and some of the taxiarchs, with forty-seven ships, 
to rescue those still clinging to the wrecks, while they 
themselves sailed to Mytilene against Eteonicus. But a great 
storm ^ arose and prevented the rescue, and also, it wquld seem, 
their own passage across to Mytilene. Euryptolemus, however,, 
in the course of his speech '^ adds several details. Immediately 

^ Grote (vii. 430) points out that immediately after the battle the 
Pelopomiesian despatch boat brought the news of Callicratidas* defeat to 
Eteonicus at Mytilene, apparently without any difficulty, although its 
course was N.W. ; and that afterwards the storm was not sufficient to 
stop the same boat from sailing out of the harbour and in again once 
more, nor yet to prevent Eteonicus' fleet from sailing S.W. to Chios : in 
fact the wind was ovpios, which means not * fair,* but 'favourable*: 
though it is true that Conon at the same time thought it more prudent to 
wait till the wind was cvStatrepos before he started in pursuit. Probably 
therefore it blew a strong gale from the N. or N.E. Cf. Theramenes' 
speech (ii. 3. 35) and Diodorus (xiii. 100). 

« i. 7. 17, 29. 



§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS. 39 

after the battle, he says, the Athenian fleet returned to the 
Arginusae islands, and there the generals held a council of war. 
Diomedon wished to rescue the survivors on the wrecks, Erasi- 
nides to sail at once against the enemy : but Thrasyllus pointed 
out that both objects might be effected by leaving forty-seven 
ships under the command of the trierarchs Theramenes and 
Thrasybulus, and of other subordinate officers, to look after the 
twelve disabled vessels [thirteen of them must therefore have 
sunk in the interval, cf. 6. 34], while they themselves sailed 
with the rest of the fleet against Eteonicus at Mytilene. They 
accordingly tried, he adds, to sail (§ 31, cttXcov), but the storm 
prevented the rescue. Diodorus (xiii. 100) here makes an im- 
portant addition : the sailors of the forty-seven ships refused to 
work hid T« T^v €K Trjs fid\r)s KaKoirddeuiv Kal dta t6 fi4y€6os tS>v 
KVfAoravy the general result being that the men clinging to the 
sinking ships were left to perish. 

Afterwards the generals met together to draw up a despatch 
to the Athenian senate and people^. Six of them wished to 
mention in it the orders given to Theramenes and Thrasybulus ; 
but Pericles and Diomedon out of .kindness to the trierarchs 
persuaded their colleagues to omit it. Accordingly in the 
despatch they merely wrote that the storm had prevented all 
rescue \ 

Xenophon ' goes on to relate that the Athenians at home, as 
soon as they heard the news, deprived all the generals of their 
command except Conon, and that they chose to be his colleagues 
Adimantus and Philocles. Diodorus states in addition jthat 
they summoned the generals home with all speed to stand their 

1 i. 7. 17. 

' Diodorus (xiii. 10 1) gives quite a contradictory account of the 
despatch : he makes out that Theramenes and l^hiasybulus had already 
returned to Athens before that the generals, suspicious that they might 
intrigue against them in the city, addressed a letter vpos t6v S^fjioy to 
explain that they had given orders to the trierarchs. Grote*s attempt 
(vii. 429) to reconcile the two by supposing that Diodorus has con- 
fused a private letter addressed by the generals to their friends at 
Athens with the- public despatch mentioned by Xenophon, is a mere 
subterfuge. 

* i. 7. I ;.Diod. xiii. loi. 



40 INTRODUCTION, 

trial. Thereupon of the eight that had fought at Arginusae two, 
Protomachus and Aristogenes, retired into voluntary exile : the 
other six returned to Athens. Among the latter Erasinides was 
accused immediately on his arrival before a BiKaarrrjpiov pro- 
bably on a ypa(l>fi kKotttjs Brjfioa-mv xp^p-^Tcav by Archedemus, who 
was at that time npoararris tov drifiov, other charges bein^ made 
at the same time against his generalship. The result of the 
trial was apparently that a fine was imposed upon him and 
imprisonment until he should pay it. 

Afterwards the generals jointly made a statement before the 
Senate as to the battle and the severity of the storm, of which 
Xenophon unfortunately does not give the details. Possibly it 
may have been the same as the defence that they afterwards 
made before the Assembly, that they had indeed given orders 
to Theramenes and Thrasybulus to rescue the shipwrecked 
crews, but that the violence of the storm had rendered all rescue 
impossible. This hypothesis would account for Theramenes 
saying at the first meeting of the Assembly, that in their de- 
spatch they blamed no one but the stonn, and some two years 
afterwards maintaining in his defence against the accusations 
of Critias \ that the generals had begun to accuse him first, so 
that he had acted, as indeed Critias had asserted, only in self- 
defence. Such too seems to have been the prevailing opinion 
as to his conduct at the time, if we may believe Aristophanes * ; 
and Diodorus' account leaves much the same impression. On 
the other hand it is almost as easy to suppose that Theramenes, 
being in extremis^ devised this defence, which, such as it is, 
seems excessively lame, on the spur of the moment, and that 
Diodorus invented his account of the trial to justify this subse- 
quent defence. But, however this may be, on Timocrates' 
proposal, the Senate resolved to arrest the generals, and bring 
them before the Assembly. 

The question here arises, what particular form of judicial 
machinery was thus set in motion against the accused generals. 
It has been very generally assumed ', that the accusation was 
an ctVayyeXia of the form which Harpocration (s. v.) defines to 
be applicable cVl di^/xoo-iotr ddiKfjfUKri fieyiarois Koi dvafioK^v fxfj 

* ii. 3- 35- ' Cf Frogs 533, 964. 

^ Cf. Schomann, De Comit. Athen., p. 206. 



§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS. 41 

tniBtxpfJLtPoiSy KM €<!>* oTs fi^T€ dpx^ KaOeoTTjKe fifjTie vofioi Keivrai Toig 
apxovari Kaff ots €l(rd^ova'iVj dWa irpos ttjv fiovX^v fj t6v Brjixov ff 
npcynj Kardaraa-is yiyv^rai. In this case the ordinary procedure 
was (i) for the Senate, if after the preliminary hearing the 
charge appeared to be beyond its own competence, to refer it 
either to a heliastic court or, if the charge were very extra- 
ordinary, to the Assembly. Then (2) the Assembly when it met 
might either itself consider, whether there was sufficient evi- 
dence against the accused for the charge to lie, or, if there 
could be no manner of doubt upon that point, simply to deter- 
mine what should be the method of the trial. Now Xenophon's 
narrative does to a certain extent support this theory : for 
Euryptolemus in his speech (§ 33) entreats the people not to 
convict the generals of irpoBoa-iop dvri rrjs ddvpapias, and it is well 
known that in cases of Trpoboa-ia the (laayyeXia was the ordinary 
form of procedure. Again in § 4 Theramenes maintains at the 
first meeting of the Assembly, that the generals diKaiovg €ivai 
\6yov vTrotrx^lv : and in § 28 ^ Euryptolemus urges the people 
not to deprive thie accused of all opportunity of legal defence : 
so that both passages might be taken to imply, that at its first 
meeting the Assembly merely gave the case the usual pre- 
liminary hearing. On the other hand it must be remembered, 
that neither Xenophon nor Diodorus speak of the charge as an 
(laayyeXia, nor of the first meeting of the Assembly as sum- 
moned merely to consider the justifiability of the accusation ; 
that all the precise information we possess about this particular 
kind of procedure is subsequent to the vopos €la-ayy€\TiK6s, the 
date of which is certainly not earlier than the archonship of 
Eudides 403 B. c. ; and that in this particular case the proceed- 
ings were irregular throughout. 

There is indeed an obvious reason why Timocrates should 
have proposed in the Senate that the generals should be brought 
before the Assembly rather than before an ordinary Heliastic 
court : for Theramenes and his party would evidently expect to 
be able to work with much more effect upon the feelings of the* 
Assembly, made up, as it was at this time, of the old, the 
young, and the infirm (the. large majority of the able-bodied 

' Cf. §§ 5, 23. 



42 INTRODUCTION, 

citizens being still on board the fleet), than upon the feelings of 
a comparatively select body of sworn dicasts. 

Accordingly at the first meeting of the Assembly Theramenes 
and his followers appeared as the most prominent accusers of 
the generals, maintaining, that if any one was to blame for the 
death of the shipwrecked crews, it was the generals themselves, 
who in their despatch had simply mentioned the storm as the 
cause. In reply the generalsi made only a short defence, as the 
leg^l time for speaking was not allowed them, relating how they 
had given orders to Theramenes, Thrasybulus, and other capable 
men to rescue the crews, while they themselves were sailing 
against the enemy ; and repeating that really it was the storm 
which had prevented the rescue*. Their defence was supported 
by the evidence of the pilots and sailors of the fleet ; and short 
as it was, produced such a favourable impression, that many 
came forward to* go bail for the generals, and, it was quite 
evident that, had a vote been taken, it would have been in their 
favour. It was, however, too late in the evening for a show* of 
hands to be seen ; so that it was resolved that the case should 
be adjourned to a second meeting of the Assembly, and that 
meantime the Senate should prepare a npofiovXevfia, as to the 
method by which the generals should be tried. 

In the interval occurred the festival of the Apaturia, which 
the members of each family met to celebrate in common, and at 
which the youths, just come of age, were registered on the roll 
of their demes. This time many a place was seen to be vacant, 
and many a family appeared in mourning garb. Theramenes 
and his party, availing themselves of these natural feelings of 
grief to kindle great indignation against the generals, seem to 
have induced not only the kinsmen of the dead to attend the 
second meeting of the Assembly, but, at least according to 
Xenophon's narrative*, to have gone so far as to suborn men 
to appear among the crowd of real mourners, clad in black 
garments and with shaved heads, just as' if they had been 
kinsmen. 

At the same time too, they persuaded Callixenus to accuse the 

^ This is a direct contradiction to Theramenes' statement in ii. 3. 35, 
that the generals had asserted otSv r' ttvai auaai Tobs Sv^pas 
' Cf. note on § 8. 



§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS. 43 

generals in the Senate, which met according to the decision of 
the Assembly, and at his instigation drew up a most monstrous 
Trpo/3ovX6v/ia, that since the accusation and defence had been 
already heard at the previous Assembly (which of course was 
not true), at the next meeting the people should vote at once by 
tribes, without any further hearing of the case, upon aill the 
generals collectively ; that the votes should be given openly 
(i.e. not, as usual, by secret ballot) ; and that if the generals 
were found guilty, they themselves should be put to death and 
their goods should be confiscated. Thus in defiance of all 
Athenian legal procedure and traditions no real trial was to be 
granted to the generals at all, the voters were to be intimidated, 
and sentence was to be passed upon all the accused collectively 
instead of separately. 

Accordingly at the next Assembly, Callixenus brought forward 
this 7rpo0ov\€viJLa : and the general excitement thus produced 
was still further heightened by the declaration of a sailor, who 
had 'saved his own life by clinging to, a meal-tub, that his drown- 
ing companions had bidden him, if he should escape, tell the 
people that the generals had left the most patriotic of the citizens 
to perish. 

Hereupon Euryptolemus, who was cousin to Pericles, one of 
the accused generals, together with some others, threatened 
Callixenus with a ypa<l)ri napavSfKop for making so unconstitutional 
a proposal ; but they were howled down by the people and 
forced to withdraw their threat, one Lyciscus even proposing 
that they should be included in the same vote as the generals, 
unless they gave way. Now, however, some of the Prytanes, 
who were presiding over the meeting, refused to put the 
question to the vote : but when Callixenus menaced them 
with the same treatment, they all withdrew their opposition 
except Socrates. 

Foiled in this attempt to procure justice for the accused, 
Euryptolemus now came forward with an amendment to the 
irpo/SouXev/xa, or rather perhaps with an alternative proposal, 
in advocating which he was able to make a speech of consider- 
able length in defence of the generals. In the course of it 
he stated and restated the facts of the case, and pointed 
out that two legal methods of procedure were open to the 



44 INTRODUCTION, 

people. Either the generals might be tried before the people ^ 
in accordance with the decree- of Cannonus^, which laid down 
certain most severe penalties against such persons as had 
injured the conmionwealth : or they might be tried before a 
Heliastic court under the law against sacrilege and treason. 
But whichever of these two methods the people preferred, they 
ought to be tried separately^ fair time being allowed for the 
accusation, defence, and taking of the votes. In conclusion 
therefore', Euryptolemus formally moved that the former of 
these two methods should be adopted, namely, that the accused 
should be separately tried according to the decree of Cannonus. 
When the two proposals were put to the vote, the people 
preferred that of Euryptolemus : but virofioa-aficpov M€V€k\€ovs a 
second vote was taken, at which the Senate's proposal was 
adopted. Afterwards the eight generals were condemned to 
death, the votes being taken presumably on the method laid 
down in the npo^ovXtvfia, and the six of them, who had returned 
to Athens, were inmiediately executed. 

^ iv Tf) ^fjuf. Grote seems to be mistaken in laying so much em- 
phasis on the fact that the people in the iKKkrjaia were not put on oath : 
for this passage alone, where Euryptolemns is emphasizing the proper 
legal procedure, wonld be sufficient to show that the Assembly had full 
competence to try such cases itself without referring them to a Heliastic 
court, and other analogous instances are- produced by Sch6mann (De 
Comit. Athen., p. 206). 

* t6 Kawaivov }frfi<pi(r/ia : cf. Aristophanes, Eccl. 1089. Although 
there is no particular reason why the words dlxa %Kaarov should not have 
occurred in the decree, the balance of evidence seems on the whole to be 
against it. For in § 23 Euryptolemus insists just as much on the im- 
portance of separate trial for each of the accused, if the other constitu- 
tional alternative Kard. rbv v6fAov . . . o; iariv inl rois Upoavkois teed rrpod6- 
rats should be adopted instead. Moreover, in § 34 he seems to put the 
.words Blxa ticaarov into his amendment rather in opposition to the /u$ 
^fffypffi of Callixenus' itpofiovkfviia than in close connexion with the mar^ 
rh Kaw<avo{i if/^<tHafiau Finally, the Scholiast on Aristophanes (ad loc) 
gives quite a different interpretation of the word biaktXrjfi/jUvov, which 
commentators have assumed to refer to the supposed 8/xa ttcaxfrov of the 
decree, viz. tcaT^x^/^fvov kKaripojOw dvoXorftToOai rbv kot* flaoYftXiav 
dwoKpiv6fitvov — an interpretation which fits in very well with Xenophon^s 
lelkfiivov Awolkxetv, 



§ 4. TRIAL OF THE GENERALS. 45 

What however was the nature of this vTrfOfioaia ? Viewed 
simply in relation to the context, the passage seems to 
mean that Menecles challenged the vote on some formal 
ground, which rendered it necessary for the cmaTdTrjs to 
^put~'the question to the vote again. Ordinarily, however, a 
vnafioaia meant much more : it meant a determination in 
the mover of it to bring the question challenged under the 
cognizance of a court of law, and had the effect of suspending 
the validity of the resolution until the court had given its de- 
cision^ But Xenophon never says a word about any such ad- 
journment, and evidently implies that the second vote was 
taken immediately after the first and on the same day. We have 
therefore to suppose either that Menecles interposed a wra)/zo<rta 
of a kind not otherwise known, or that the neglect to carry 
into effect the adjournment that it entailed was merely one 
more among the many unconstitutional incidents of the day, 
unless • indeed we may believe the otherwise untrustworthy 
author of the Axiochus^ (c. vii.) who speaks of Theramenes 
and Callixenus having at a subsequent meeting^ rfj vtrrcpaia 

' It is impossible to attach much weight to this statement in the 
Axiochus, because, short as it is, it contains two obvions mistakes : 
(i) it speaks of irpStdpoi, although none were instituted before the 
archonship of Euclides, 403 B. c. ; (2) it speaks of rpifffxypiuv kxKXri- 
cia(6vT03Vf which is evidently a fallacioas computation of the whole body 
of Athenian freemen. Moreover, the whole dialogue, as Grote (Plato, 
cap. iv.) shows, is a late production, and possesses no authority. 

' Gilbert here raises the question as to what became of Socrates* 
opposition, which both Plato and Xenophon represent to have been 
unswerving ; and finds its solution in the hypothesis of an adjournment, 
because at a second meeting Socrates would no longer have been 
imffTdrrjs, Probably, however, Socrates' scruple, which was a strictly 
legal one,'was satisfied by his putting Euryptolemus' alternative motion 
to the vote, which contained a strictly legal proposal, although its rejection 
.carried with it the passing of the Senate's Trpofiov\ev/ia ; for this 
seems to be the force of the preposition in composition in the words 
diaxfiporovovfxivcuv, diaxtipoTovias. Nor need the interposition of 
Menecles' vircDfwaia have made any difference, if the question was 
immediately put again on the same day : in this case all that Socrates 
had to do was to put Euryptolemus' motion over again : and then, 
when it was rejected, the irpojSovAcv/xa was ipso facto carried. Cf. Good- 
win in the Transactions of the American Philo^. Assoc. 1885, p. 172. 



46 



INTRODUCTION^, 



suborned the proedri and so procured the condemnation of 
the generals. 

However that may be, shortly afterwards the people repented 
of their injustice, and voted that a public prosecution should be 
instituted against those who had deceived the people. Callixenus 
and four others were accordingly arrested, Theramenes not 
being among the number, which seems to show that some dis- 
tinction was drawn between his conduct and that of the rest, 
possibly because it was felt, as Diodorus insists at some length, 
that he was driven to it by the exigencies of self-defence. But 
before the accused could be tried, they all escaped amid the 
political confusion of the following year. Callixenus indeed ven- 
tured to return with Thrasybulus and the exiled democrats in 
403 B.C., but hated by all, says Xenophon, he died of starvation. 



§ 5. Chronological. Summary. 



B.C. 



4U. 



410. 



Book I. 
i. I. 

8,9. 



10-13. 

14-19. 
20-22. 

33-31- 
32. 

33-34- 
35-37- 

ii. 1-13. 



EVENTS. 



Agesandridas defeats the Atheaian 
fleet. 

Battles at Rhoetinm and Abydos. 

Thrasyllus goes to Athens : Tissa- 
phernes at the Hellespont arrests 
Alcibiades. 

Alcibiades escapes and sails to Pro- 
connesos. 

Battle of Gyzicus. 

Alcibiades restores the Athenian do- 
minion over the Bosporus, &c. 

Sundry contemporary events : 

Revolt of Thasos to Athens. 

Sally of Agis from Decelea. 

Despatch of Clearehus to the Bos- 
poruS; &c. 

Thrasyllus ravages the coast of Ionia, 
suffers a severe repulse at Ephesus, 
retires to Notium, and sails thence 
to the Hellespont. 



Year of Cam- 
paign. 

April to March. 



2 1 St, 41 1-4 10. 
c. Sept. 

Winter. 



22nd, 410-409. 
Summer. 



§ 5- CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMAR Y. 



47 



B.C. 



1 8. 



409. 



14-17. 



111. 1-13. 



408. 



14-22. 
iv. I. 



3-7- 



8-12. 






13-30. 
[v. I. 

21-23. 



407. 



V. I -10. 



EVENTS. 



Lacedaemonians recapture Cor3rpha- 
slum. 

Spartan colonists massacred at Hera- 
clea. 

Thrasyllus joins Alcibiades at Lamp- 
sacns, where the two generals winter 
together and defeat Phamabazns. 

Athenians sail from Lampsacus to 
Proconnesus, then invest Chalce- 
don, and compel Pharnabazus to 
conclude an armistice with them 
and to promise a safe escort for 
some Athenian envoys to the Persian 
king. 

Siege and capture of Byzantium. 

The Athenian and other envoys meet 
Pharnabazus at Gordium. 

The envoys hear of the appointment of 
Cyrus to be satrap. Cyras, arrives 
and persuades Pharnabazus to de- 
tain the Athenian envoys. 

Alcibiades sails to Samos, while Thra- 
syllus sails with the main fieet to 
Athens; and then hearing of his 
election to be general, enters Piraeus 
in June. 

Reception of Alcibiades in Piraeus 
and Athens. 

His escort of the Eleusinian festival. 

Lysander appointed to be Spartan 
admiral.] 

Alcibiades sets sail with his newly 
equipped fleet first to Andros, and 
then to Samos, which he makes his 
head-quarters for winter operations 
against the Peloponnesians. 

Lysander collects a fleet of ninety 
vessels at Samos, negotiates with 
Cyrus, and makes preparations for 
renewing the war by sea. 



Year of Cam- 
paign, 

April to March. 



? 
? 



Winter. 



23rd, 409-408. 
Summer. 



Winter. 



24th, 408-407. 
Summer. 



Winter. 



48 



INTRODUCTION. 



B.C. 



406. 



11-19 



30. 

vi. 1-12. 

13-23. 
24-28. 

29-36. 
37-38. 



Vll. 



405. 



Book II. 
i. 1-5- 

6.7. 



8,9. 



10-14. 



EVENTS. 



Alcibiades joins Thrasybulus at Pho- 
caea : in his absence Antiochns his 
lieutenant is defeated at Notium. 
Alcibiades returns to Samos, and 
soon afterwards withdraws in dis- 
grace to the Chersonese. Conon 
succeeds him in the command of 
the fleet. 

Conon ravages the neighbouring ter- 
ritory of the enemy. 

Callicratidas succeeds Lysander, and 
failing to get money from Cyrus, 
obtains supplies from the Milesians. 

Callicratidas storms Methynma, and 
blockades Conon in the harbour of 
Mytilene. 

The Athenians send out a fleet of no 
vessels to the rescue, which Calli- 
cratidas attempts to intercept. 

Battle of Aiginusae. 

Eteonicus despatches his ships to 
Chios and retires himself to Chios. 
The Athenian fleet sail- first to 
Mytilene, and then to Samos. 

Trial of the generals, who had fought 
at Arginusae. 

Eteonicus suppresses a mutiny among 
his troops at Chios, and obtains 
money from the Chians. 

The Spartans appoint Lysander to 
command their fleet for a second 
time. 

Cyrus is summoned to the presence of 
his father Darius. 

Lysander arrives at Ephesus, where 
he fits out his fleet with money sup- 
plied him by Cyrus, who soon after- 
wards sets out to meet Darius, having 
first entrusted him with the revenues' 



Year of Carh- 
paign, 

April to March. 

25th, 407-406. 
Summer. 



Winter. 



26th, 406-405. 
Summer. 



Winter. 



27th, 405-404. 
Summer. 



§ 5- CHRONOLOGICAL SUMMARY. 



49 



B.C. 






\ 




15-ai. 




22-29. 




30-33. 




ii. 1-4. 




5-9- 




10, II. 




12-15. 


404. 


16-20. 


t 





EVENTS. 



of his province. The Athenians make 
counter-preparations at Samos. 

Lysander sails to Caria and Rhodes, 
and thence past Ionia to the Hel- 
lespont. The Athenians set ont from 
Samos, ravage the Persian territory, 
touch at Chios and Ephesus, and 
then at Elaens on the Hellespont : 
whence, hearing that Lysander had 
taken Lampsacns, they take up a 
position opposite to him near 
Sestos. 

Battle of Aegospotami. 

Lysander captures the whole Athenian 
fleet and executes all the prisoners. 

Lysander enters Byzantium and Chal- 
cedon. 

Dismay at Athens. 

Lysander sails to Lesbos, where he 
reorganizes the government of the 
several states and despatches Ete- 
onicus to do the same in Thrace. 
General revolt of all the Athenian 
allies except Samos. Lysander re- 
stores the Aeginetan, Melian, and 
other exiles to their native cities, 
and afterwards blockades Piraeus. 

Siege of Athens : proclamation of an 
amnesty. 

Fruitless negotiations for peace first 
with Agis and then with the 
Ephors. 

Mission of Theramenes to Lysander. 

Three months afterwards Theramenes 
returns and heads an embassy to 
Sparta. 

Council of the Peloponnesian allies 
upon the fate of Athens. 

The Athenians accept the offered 
terms. 

Lysander enters Piraeus, and begins 
the demolition of the Long Walls. 



Year of Cam- 
paign, 

April to March. 



Winter. 



\ 



50 



INTROD UCTION. 



B.C. 



• •• L 

111. 1-5. 



403. 



6-10. 
11-21. 

aa-56. 
iv. 1-22. 



23-27. 



28-38. 



39-42. 



43. 



EVENTS. 



Appointment of the Thirty. 

Lysander sails to Samos, and Agis 
evacnates Decelea. Lycophron of 
Pherae defeats the Larisiaeans. 

Lysander reduces Samos and returns 
in triumph to Sparta. 

The Thirty begin a reign of terror, 
supported by the Spartan harmost 
and garrison. 

Accusation and execution of Thera- 
menes. 

The democratic exiles, headed by 
Thrasybulus, seize Phyle and march 
upon Piraeus, where they defeat 
the Thirty in battle, Critias being 
among the slain. 

The Thirty are deposed and the Ten 
appointed in their place, with whom 
constant war is waged by Thrasy- 
bulus and the democratic exiles. 

At the invitation of the oligarchs the 
Spartans send Lysander and Libys 
to their aid. But Pausanias inter- 
venes, and after some slight military 
operations effects a reconciliation 
between the contending factions. 

Pausanias disbands the Peloponnesian 
army. ' Thrasybulus marches up to 
Athens, and restores the democrat- 
ical constitution. 

Final suppression of the Thirty at 
Eleusis, and proclamation of an 
universal anmesty. 



Year of Cam- 
paign, 

April to March. 



404-403. 
Summer. 



Winter. 



403. Sunmier. 



§ 6. LIFE CF XENOPHON. 



51 



§ 6. Dates in the Life of Xenophon. 



B.C. 
circa 444. 

424. 

401. 



399. 



396. 
394. 



c. 373. 



c. 366. 



Birth. 

Saved by Socrates at the battle of Delium (Strabo, p. 403). 

Accompanies Cyrus on his expedition against his brother 
Artaxerxes, and after the battle of Cunaxa conducts the 
retreat of the Ten Thousand to Trapezus, and then to 
Chrysopolis. 

Enters with many of the Ten Thousand the service first of 
Seuthes, King of Thrace, and then of Thimbron, the 
Lacedaemonian. 

Exiled from Athens. 

Accompanies King Agesilaus on his Asiatic expedition. 

Returns with the King to Sparta, and is present on the 
Lacedaemonian side at the battle of Coronea. 

Settles shortly afterwards at Scillus in Ells. 

Expelled from Scillus by the Eleans, whereupon he retirts 
to Corinth. 

The sentence of exile revoked bv the Athenians. 

Death. 



D2 



XENOPHON: HELLENICA, I, II. 



-M- 



BOOE I. 

CHAPTER I. 

In a second sea-fight Agesandridas the Lacedaemonian 

defeats the Athenians, 

Mcra h\ Toma ov iroWals ruiipaxs varepov fjkOcv i^ 411-410 
^ASrjv&v Gvfioxipris l\(i)V vavs dklyas' Koi €v6vs ivav- ' ' 
ixixqcav aidt.^ AaKedatfxoVtot Koi 'A^r^i/aiot, ivUrja'av 
be AaK^baipLOvioi fiyovfiivov * Ayqaavhplbov. 

Dorieus trying in vain to enter the Hellespont^ Mindarus 
puts out from Abydos to escort him, but is met by the 
Athenians, The two fleets engage, and on the arrival of 
Alcibiades, the Athenians drive the Peloponnesians bcu:k 
to Abydos with a loss of 30 ships. The Athenians leave 
only 40 ships cU Sestos : the rest disperse to collect money y 
while Thrasyllus sails to Athens to ask for reinforcements, 

Mer 6\iyov h\ Toiroav Aoaptcis 6 Atayopov iK 'Vobov 2 
€ts ^EW'qa-itovTov eta-iirXci iLpxoyiivov \€i}x5iVOs rcrrapo-i 
KcX biKa vavaXv &iia fjixipq, Kariboiv bi 6 tQv ^AOri- 411. Oct. 
valoiv fififpoo'KOTTOs iarjixrjve toIs orparryyoty. ol b^ 
avrjydyovTo iit avrdv ^Ikoo-l vavaCv, hs 6 A(apL€vs 
<f)vy<ji>v TTpos rriv yrjv iv^^ifiaCc ras avrov Tpirip€is, i>s 
ijvoiyc, irepl to *FoCt€iov, iyyvs be yevofxivoDv tQv 3 



■-J 



54 HELLENIC A /, C. i. 

*ll-410 *A6rjvaC(ov iiiaxpvro &tt6 it tQv i)ta)i; koL rf/s y^y f^^XP^ 
ol 'A^ryratoi ATr^TrAevo-ar eJy- MfiSvroi; irpps rb aXAo 

4 oTpaTOTTchov ovb^v TTpi^dvrct,' "Mlvbapos hi kotiSwi/ 
TTiv fiixriv iv 'IXt^ ^vwi; tt} 'A^r;r§, iporjOck iirl rriP 

f ^^ ^aAarraz;, ical KaOckKyaas ray lavrov Tpirjpcis i.'ni'nXuy 

5 Stto)? a2/aA(ij3oi ray fxera Acopi^coy. ol 6^ ^AOrivaloi 
avravayayoixevoi ivavyL&)^<Tav it^pX ''Pifivhov Kara Tr\v 
rjova p.ixpi SctAi/s l^ ioaOivov. koX tol ii\v VLK(ivT(ov, ra 
hi viKOiiiivimv^ ^ AXKi^iahr)s iis^ia-nX^l hvoiv h^ova-ais 

6 elKOo-t vava-iv, ivrevOcv he <f>vyrj t&v UekoTTOVprja-Coiv 
kyivero irpos rffv "AfivhoV koI 6 ^apvaQaCos Trape- 
PorjOei, Koi iir€i<rPaCva}v ro) tinTt^ els rfiv OiXaTrav 
y^^Xpi hwarov Jiv ifxixeTo, koI rots SAXoty rots avrov 

7 tTT'TTCvo-i Koi TTefots TTapeKcActJcTo. (n)fi(l>pd^avT€s hi Tas 
vavs ol UeXoTrovvrja-ioi koL Trapara^dfievoi irpos rfj yfj 
eiiixpvTO. *A$r]valoi hi airiirXcvarav, rpi&KOVTa vavs 
tQv TToKcfiCoov kafiovres kcvols koL hs avroi aTr(iX€(rav 

8 KOflLO-dpLeVOLf €ts ^rjOTOV. ^VT€V0€V TrkrjV T€TTap6.K0VTa 

V€&v 2AAai SAAry fiypvro iif aypvpokoyCav Ifo) tov *EA- 
Xrja-TTOi^Tov' Koi 6 0p(£<ruAAos, €ls itiv t&v arparrjyQv, 
€ls ^AOrjvas IwAcvo-e ravra i^ayyck&v kol orpaTiav kol 
vavs alTrja-caV" 

Alcibiades visits Tissaphemes, who had now reached, the 
Hellespont^ but is arrested by him and sent to Sardis, A 
month afterwards he escapes to Clazomenae, and thence 
to Cardiay whither the Athenians had retreated from 
Sestos, Meantime the Peloponnesian ships ^ 6o strongs had 
sailed to Cyzicus, Alcibiades returns to Sestos^ and leads 
the combined Athenian fleets 86 strongs to Proconnesus, 

McTci hi raSra Ti<r(ra<t>ipvrjs fjkOcv els ^E\krja"jrovTov' 
a<f)i,K6p,€Vov hi TtOLp avrdi; fxia rpiT^pet 'AAKi^iddTji; ^ivia 



[kf^O 



HELLENICA /, C. i. 55 

r€ Kat dQ>pa iyovra avWafiiiv elp^ev iv ^dphecL, <^(io-- 41l-4}.o 
Kcav KeXeveiv fiairiXia TroAc/xeiz; ^AOrjvaCoLS. fffxipous hi 
TpidKOvra iarrcpov ^AKKipL&brjs €k ^iphfcav fxera Mav- 
Tidiov Tov aX6vTos iv Kaplc^ XinTaiv evTToprjfravres vvktos 
airibpaa'av €ls Kka^opLCvis' ol 5' iv Dtjot^ ^Adrivaloi, ii 
alaOofxcvot Mivbapov ttX^lv iii airovs ixiWovra vavcrlv 
i^rJKOVTOy WKTos iiribpairav els Kapblav. ivravOa hi 
Koi 'AA.Kij3t(i5779 fJKev iK t&v K\aCoiJL€vQv <tvv T:ivT€ 
Tpi7Jp€(rL Koi iTraKTplbi, 7tvd6pL€vos hi Stl al tQv ITc- S fi^i4^ 
KoTTOvvTja-lcov vrJ€S i$ 'A)3v6ov avriypJvai etcr cIs Kd^iKOVy 
avTos li€v ireCfi i^^Oev cJs ^riarov, ras hi roCs ir^pnrktlv 
iKeice iK^K^va-ev, iircl 6' fjkOov, avayea-Oai rjbrj avrov 12 
fjiiXXovTos &s iin vavfiaxlav iircLinrkel QrjpajJiivris clicoo-i 
vavclv iird MaKebovCas, &fia be Kal Gpaavpovko^ elKoaiv 
iripais iK ©dcrov, AfxtfyoTepoi rjpyvpokoyrjKOTcs, 'AXki- 13 
Piabrfs bi elnoDV Koi to'6toi,s bidKciv avrov i^ekofjiivois 
TO. fieyaXa larCa avrbs iirXevacv els Tlipiov i0p6ai be 
y€v6fjL€vcu al vrjes ^Trao-at iv Ilapl<^ 1^ Kat dyboi/iKOVTa 
TTJs iinoiuaris WKrbs ivryyiyovro, Kal rij iXXri fjixipa 
irepi aploTov &pav fjKov eh npoKovvriaov. 

He takes measures to conceal his arrivaly and exhorts his 
troops to fight bravely; for they had no money^ wMle 
their enemies had plenty from the Persian king, 

'Ek€1 8' iiruOovTO on MCvbapos iv Kv(iK<^ etri koi 14 
^apvi^aCos iiera rod Trefoi). ravrrjv fikv oiv ttjz/ fjfjJpav 
avTOv epLfLvav, rfj bi varepalc^ ^ AkKiPiibris iKKkriciav 
TTOtTjo-as irapeKekeiSeTo avrols on aviyKrj etrf Kal vav- 
tJLa\eiv Kal TteCofxaxelv Kal reLXopLaxeiv* Ov yhp lorir, 
€(f>rj, xprJiiaTa ffpLiVy rols be TtoKefjilois i<f>6ova itapa 
^a(ri\e<as> rff bi irporepali}, iireibri &piJL((ravro, ra 15 



B.C. 



56 HELLENICA /, C. i. 

411-410 wXota Tiiivra. k(jX ra ixiKpa avvrj0poi<r€ Trap' kavrov, 
0770)9 jJLtjbcls i^ayyelkak rots iroKcfjilpis to irKrjOos rw 
V€&v iiT€Krjpv^i T€, &s hv aXCa-Krjrai els t6 nipav hia- 
irkioDV, Oivarov r^v Qr\p.lav, 

Battle of Cyzicus. 

Alcibiades surprises the Peloponnesian fleet manoeuvring 
outside the harbour^ and after a hard fight by sea and land 
' captures the whole of it, Mindarus is slain, Cyzicus sur- 
renders to Alcibiades. He exacts money from its citizens^ 
and from other neighbouring states ^ and establishes a toll- 
house on the Bosporus. 

16 Mcra h\ Tqv iKKXricrCav Trapao-zcevo-a/jtei^os ws iirl 
vavfia\lav avrjydycTO iirl ttiv KvC^kov Hovtos ttoXX<^, 
€Tr€Lb7j 6' iyyifs ttjs KvCCkov fjv, alOpCas yevojjiivrjs ical 
Tov fjklov iKkifiyj/avTos KaOopa tols tov Mivbipov vavs 
yvfivaCofjiivas iroppco airb tov Kifxivos koL a-JTeiXrjfiiJLivas 

17 VTT* avTOv, k^KOVTa ovcras. 61 h\ YliKonovvria-ioL IhovT^s 
Ta^ tQv ^A67jvaC<av Tpirjpef.^ ov<ras irkcCovs T€ 7roAX<p rj 
irpoTcpov KoX TTpbs T^ Kip.iviy l(f)vyov irphs rqv yrjv' koX 
(jvvopixC(ravT€S tcls ravs ifxixovTo iTrnrkiovarL rots ivav- 

18 rtoty. 'AXKtj3t(£6r)s hi tols €lKO<ri tQv ve&v Tr€pi,Tr\e6aas 
a/ni^ri ch ttiv yrjv, tbi)v bi 6 Mivbapos koL avTds airofias 
iv TTJ yfj fjLaxofjL€Vos airiOav^v' ol be fxcr avTov ovres 
i<f)vyov, TCLS bi vavs ol ^AOrjvaloi, (a)(pvTO 6.yovT€S airia-as 
els UpoKovvrfo-ov irkriv tQv ^vpaK0<rla)V iKeCvas be 

10 aifToi KaTeKavaav ol ^vpaKoaioi,. eKeWev b^ ttj vare- 
paCq iitkeov ol 'AOrfvaioi I-ttI KvCikov. ol bi Kv^iktjvoi 
tQv Ile\oTrovv7](rla>v koX ^apvafiiC^v iKKiitovTOiv avTrjv 

20 ibe^ovTo Toifs ^AOrjvalovs. ^AXKiPidbrjs bi [leCvas avTov 
eiKoa-iv fifxipas Kal xprjfxaTa iroXXa AajScbi; irapa T(av 
KvCi'KTfiv&v ovbiv iWo KaKbv ipyaa-Ajjievos iv Tjj TroAet 



HELLENICA /, C. i. 57 

ct7r€irX€V<r€i; eis ITpoicoyinyo-or. liccZ^ei; 6' IttAcuctcv 411-410 
eis TlipivOov koX ^rikv^pCav. Koi JJcplvOioi fikv eicrc- 
bi^avTO eh rd iarv rb arpaTOirebov, ^rjkvPpiavol hi 
ibi^avTO ii€v ov, XP^M^^^ bi iboaav. evrcvOev 6' a<l)LK6- 22 
fieroi TTJs KaXxribovias els X/wctottoXii; ircCx^o'av avTrjVj ^ 

KQX b€KaT€VTrjpiov jc arccrK cvggay iv qvTjj, jcalr^y SeKctpyy /^'/^y 
i ^ikeyov tQv jk tov Uovtov TrXoC oav, koX <^vXaK^i/ iyKara- 
kiTTovres vavs rpiiKOvra kcX aTparqyi^ bvo, ^>r\pap.ivr) koX 
Eijxaxov, TOV T€ x^P^ov iinpieXeurSai, koI t&v ^K-TrXeJvrcov 
'TrX.otcoz; Koi ei ri SXko bvvaiirro fikiirTeiv tovs irokeiiCovs. 
ol 8' ikkoL a-TpaTrjyol els rdv *Ekkria"JT0VT0v i^x'^^^^' 

The despatch of Mindarus* secretary is captured and carried 
to Athens, The satrap Phamabazus arms the Pelopon- 
nesian fugitives to guard his coasts, and urges their com- 
manders to build new ships at Antandras, 

riapa 8^ 'iTnroKpdrovs rov Mtz^dcipov fTTioToX^ws cis 23 
AaKcdai/mora ypipifiaTa Tt€p,<l>OivTa kSXoa eh ^AOrjvas 
kiyovra ribe* "Eppei Tci KoXa , MCvbapos iTreaaija, 
TT€iv&vTL T&vbp€S> iiTopCopLes tC xpV bpoLv, ^apvdpa^os 24 
8^ iravrl r^ tQv UekoTTovirqa-Coiv arpareupxiTi koX rots 
(n)p.p.6.yois TrapaKekeva-ipievos pLrj iOvpLeiv evcKa ^k(ov, 
&s SvTOiv TTokk&v iv rfi jSao-iXecos, ^6)9 &v tol o-ii/xara (ra 

fj, IpiiTlOV r' lb<OK€V kK6.(TT<^ KoX i(l>6blOV bvolv pLTJVOiVf 

Koi oirkla-as tovs vavras (l>vkaKas KaTiarrja-e rjjs kavrov 
TTapaOaXarrlas y^s. koX avyKak4(ras tovs re aird tQv 25 
TTokeiov (TTpaTTiyovs KoL Tpvqpipxpvs iKekeve vavirriy€i(rOai 
TpLTJpeLS iv ^AvT&vbpi^ 8a-as iKaaroi iirdkea-aVi xprjp,aTa 
T€ bibovs Koi ijkr}v iK Trjs '^Ibris KopilC^a-OaL <l>p6.Co>v. vav- 26 
Trrjyovp.iv(ov be ol DvpaKJo-ioi &pLa toXs ^AvTavbplois tov 
TeC\ovs Ti iireTikeaav, Koi iv t^ (f>povpa ij^siUUi tsSlvtohv 
p.6Xi(rTa, bia ravra bi evepyeaCa T€ koI irokiTela Svpa- 



58 HELLENIC A /, C. i. 

411-410 KocrioLS iv ^Avrdvbpfji iarL <Papv6,paCos fi^v oZv ravra 
biard^as €v6vs eJs KaXxr]b6va iporjOci. 

Story of the exile of the Syracusan commanders atAntandros^ 
and of Hermocrates' accusation against Tissaphemes and 
expedition against Syrcu:use, 

27 'Ei; h\ T^ XP^^^ TOVT<a TJyyi\$ri toIs t&v ^vpaKOO'Coiv 
arparriyols oIkoOcv oti <f)€vyoi^v virb rod brjiiov, crvy- 
KaX4<ravT€s ovv Tohs kavT&v aTpaTidras ^EpfxoKparovs 
TrporjyopovvTos airtaikof^vpovTO T7\v kaxyr&v avp,<f>opiv, iy 
ddiKa>9 (f>€iyouv SmavTes irapa tov vopLOV Traprjv€(r6.v re 
irpoOvpLOVs etvai kol to. koiiri, &a"iT€p to, Trporepa, koI 
ivbpas ayaOoxfs Tipds to, del irapayy00i6fX€va, fiepurqfiivovs 
oaas T€ vavixa^las avTol KaS* airoifs veviKrJKarc koL vavs 
€lkrj<l)aT€y 8(ra re /utera t&v &kk(ov irJTnjroi yeyovarc 
Tjix&v fiyoviJL€V(av, ri^iv €X_ovt€S ttiv kparlaTrjv dtd re 
TTiv 7iiJL€T€pav ip^TTiv KoX 8td Trfv vp,erip(W irpodvixCav Koi 
KaTci yrjv koI Kara Oikarrav VTripxpv(rav. kkia-Oai 6e 
iKekcvov ip\ovTaSi [i^Xpi iiv d<^^ica>j;rat oX 'pprniivoi ivT 

28 kK^ivoav. ol 5' ava^ori(TavT€s iKikeuov iK^lvovs ipyj^w^ 
Ka\ iiiXiara ol Tpirjpapxpi koX ol iiripiTcu koX ol Kvficp" 
vrjrai, ol 6' ovk i^ftaaav heiv (TTaaii^uv irpos ttiv eavTOiv 

iTTokiv' ei bi TLs iTTiKoXoirj TL avTots, koyov iifxwav 
XP^i'at bibovai. ovb^vbs b^ ovb^v iiraLTKafiivov^ bcofxivoov 
ifieivav lois &<I)Ikovto. ol avr cKeCvoiV aTparqyolf Aif/xap- 
\6s re 'EttiSo/cov koI Mva-Kiov MevcKpirovs koI Horapus 
rvcotrLOs* T&v bi Tpiiipap^oav oyLOcavr^s ol irXeicrrot 
K ard^ ety a^vrovSi iirav els ^vpaKoiiras d<^iica>2^rai, d^e- 
30 Trifi\lravTo ottol k^oikovro irivras iiTcuvovvTcs' Iblq bi ol 
TTpos 'EpfioKpirri irpoa-ofxikovvTes fidXtora iirodria-av rrjv 
re iiTLpAketav kol irpoOvfiCca/ koX KOivoTtira. &v yap 
iyCyv(»>(rK€ tovs ^7rteiice<rrdrovs koX TpLrjpapx(av Koi KV^cp' 



HELLENICA /, C i. 59 

vrjrQv jcai iinPaT&v, kKdtarrjs fjixipas irpta icai irpbs 411-410 
kaitipav avvaXCC<*>v irpos rfiv a-Krjvriv ttiv kavrov ave^- 
vovTO OTL ifieWev fj kiyeiv ^ TTpArTciv, K&KeCvovs ibibaa-KC 
K€\€vaiv Xiy€iv TCL fi^v aitd rod TrapaxpW^i ''^ ^^ P^^ 
\€V<rafi4vovs* e/c TovT<i)v ^EpfxoKpaTrjs to. ttoXXcl Iv roJ 31 
avv^bpCi^ €vb6^€iy kiycLv re boK&v Koi fiovkeveiv to. 
Kpdncrra. Karriyoprjo-as bi Ti<r(ra(f)ipvovs kv AaKebalpiOvi 
^EpixoKpirrjs, fxaprvpovvTOS Koi ^Actvoxov, kol bo^as ra 
ovra kiyeiv, aif>iK6p.€V0S irapcL ^apvAfiaCov, irplv alrrjaaL 
XP'fliJ'O'Ta ka^^v, irapca-KevdCcTO irpos rriv els 2vpaK0v<ras 

KidoboV ^ivOVS T€ Koi TpLTjpeLS, iv TOVT<D be rJKOV ol 

biiboxpi tQv ^vpaKoaioiv els Mtkrirov koX Trapikafiov 
TOLS vavs KoX TO oTpdrevpLa, 

The Spartan harmost Eteonicus is expelled from Tkasos, 
The admiral Cratesippidas takes command of the ships 
that Pasippidas had collected. 

^Ev 0(i(r<j) 8^ Kara tov Kaipbv tovtov ari<rea>s yevo- 32 
fjLivqs iKirCTTTova-LV ol kaKcavLcrTol Koi 6 A6.k(i>v apjjLoarrjs 
^EreovLKOs' KaraLTLaOelsb^ TavraTtpa^ai (rvvTt,(ra'a(l>epvei 
Haa-LTTirlbas 6 AiKcav i<l>xryev iK ^Trdprrjs' iin be to vav- 
TLKoVf b iKeivos ffdpoCKeL aiTO tQv <rvixfia\a)v, e^eirefjutfOr} 
KpaTtia-nriTibaSf Koi irapika^ev iv Xto). 

A£is mahes a sally from Decelea, but retreats hastily before 
Thrasyllus, In reward the Athenians vote Thrasyllus 50 
triremes and considerable reinforcements, 

Wepi b\ TovTovs Tovs \p6vovs- (s>pa<Hikkov iv ^AOrjvais 33 
ovTos *Ayts €K TTJs AeKekelas irpovoixfjv iroiovfievos irpos 
avTa TCL Teixv ^kde t&v ^ AdrjvaCcav' Spaavkkos b^ i^a- 
yayiiv ^AOrjvaCovs kol tovs ikkovs Tois ev ttj irokei 
ovTas iiravTas irapha^e Trapa ri AvKeiov yvixvda-LOV, 
0)9 lJLa\ovpLeioSi iv TTpocrlaxrtv. Ibiiv b^ TavTa 'Ayes 34 



(,U\'>^ 



60 HELLENIC A /; C. 1. . ^ 

411-410 airrjyayc rax^ws, icai rtrey avrwi; oAiyoi twi' ^-ttI -Trao-ii; 
v-TTO T&v yjnk&v iiridavov. ol oiv ^AO-qvaloi, T<j) 0/)a(Tt;AA<p 
6ta raura In irpoOviioTcpoL fja-av i(f>^ & fJKe, koX i\lrq(f}L' 
(ravTo OTrkCras re avrbv KaToki^aaOaL xikCovs, tTTTTcas bi 
Ikutov, Tpirjp€is hi TrfVTrJKOvra, 

Agis sends Clearchus with a small squadron to the Bosporus 
to cut off the Athenian com supply » Clearchus loses three 
ships in the Hellespont^ but with the rest safely reaches 
Byzantium. 

36 'Ayty h\ iK rrjs AcKcXc^as Ibiav irkoia irokka (tItov cts 
rieipaia KaraOiovray ovb^v S(t>€\os i(l>rj clvcu Toiis pLCT 
avTov TTokvv rjbr] yjpovov ^AOrjvaCovs etpyeiv ttjs yrjsy el 
fiTj TLs axw^f- i^ol SOev 6 Kara Odkarrav crtros <^otra* 
Kp6.Tiar6v T€ elvaL Koi KXiapxov top 'Pa/uw^iov irpo^cvov 
ovra BvCoLVTl<»iv W/x^i €ls KaXxribova T€ Kai BvCd-vnOv, 

36 bo^avTos b€ TovTov, Tt\r]p<jiiB€ia'SiV ve&v Ik re Meyipoav 
KoX irapa t&v &KK<av avjiiiAxiav Tr€VT€Kalb€Ka oTpaTKarC' 
b(av jxaXkov fj Ta)(€i&v <px^o. jcal avrov t&v v€&v rpcty 
aitokkwrai iv r^ *EXAr;o-wi;ry \mh t&v ^Attlk&v ivvia 
v€&v, at del ivravOa tol nrXoia 5te<^i;A.arror, al 5' ^Xai 
i(f>vyov eh ^rforov, iKeWev bi els BvCiimov iadOrja-av. 

Contemporary events in Sicily, 

37 Kal 6 iviavTos iXrjyev, iv <S Kapxribovtoi '^AvvCpa 
fiyovpL^vov <TTpaT€'6<ravT€S iirl ^iKeklav biKa ixvpiiaL 
arpaTLOLS alpovaLv iv Tpiai /mryo-t bvo 'TroXeis ^EWrivCbas 
^ekivovvra kcu, 'I/mepcw. 



<] 



HELLENIC A /, C. 2. 6 1 



CHAPTER II. 

Thrasyllus sails with his fleet to Samos : he makes numerous 410-409 
descents upon the Ionian coast^ till he is stopped by Stages 5•^• 
the Persian, 

T<j) 8^ SXX<{) It6A [^ ^v 'OAvfi'Trtas Tpin\ koX ivevrjKoarrj, 
jj irpotmOelara ^impls ivUa Evayopov 'HAe^ov, ro 8c ^Z*^** 
aribLOV EvjScSras Kvprivalos, iirl i<l)6pov pikv ovtos iv 
^Trdprri Evapxlinrov, ip\oirros 8' iv ^AOrjvaLs EvKTrJixovos,^ 
^Adrivaioi ixiv SopiKdv iT^lyitrav^ Q>piLavKK6s h\ ri re 
y\n)(i>i(rOivTa TtKdia Xafitav koX TtevTaKKryjXiovs t&v 
vavT&v TTfkTaaTas 'jroLrj(r6,ix€Vos, \&s ifxa koI ircXraoraty 
lo-o/m^ots,] i^4TT\ev(r€V hpyopAvov tov Oipovs ds ^ijJLOv, 410 April. 
€K€i bi fxtivas rpcis fffxipas iirXev&ev els XTvyeXa* kol 2 
ivravOa rriv re xdpav ibrjov kol Trpocr^jSaXAe r<j) re^x^** 
€K bi TTJs MtXryrov fiorjOrja-avTis rti/ey rots nvyeXevcrt 
bL€(nrapp.€vovs ovras tQv ^Adrivaloiv Toits ylrikovs ibloDKOv, 
ol bi weXraorat koI tQv ^itXiTiav bvo \6\oi fiorjOria-avTes 3 
-TTpoy Tovs avT&v \jfi\oifs &TriKT€ivav iiravras Tohs in 
MikriTOV iKTds oXlyoav, Kai ia-irlbas Ikafiov &s btaKoa-las, 
Koi Tpoiraiov lonjo-av. rfj bi va-rcpaCa iTrXevcrav ek 4 
Norioi;, koX ivrevOev TTapa(rK€va<riii€VOL iiropcvovro eJs 
Koko^&va. Koko<l)(ivioi 8e irpoae^dprja-av. kol rrjs 

iTFLOVOTJS VVKTOS ivifioXoV eJs T^V AvbCaV i.KIJ.i^OVTOS 

TOV (tCtov, koL KdfJLas re ttoXA^s iviTtprjcrav Kai xprjfxara c. June. 
Ikafiov Koi irbpiiroba koL ikkrjv kcCc^v irokkrjv, ^riyrfs 5 
8^ 6 UepoTjs irepl ravra ra yoapla &v, lirel ol ^AOrjvaiot. 
eK TOV CTTpaToiribov bLca-Kcbaa-fiivoi fjaav Kara Tcis IbCas 
kclas, Por}07icrivT(iiV T&v lTnri<DV (va /xev fcodi; ika^ev, 
kiTTcL bi &iriKT€iv€. (c>pd<rvkkos bi iX€Ta TavTa &TTrjyay€V q 



62 HELLENIC A /, C. 2. 

410-409 lisX BiKarrav vi\v oTpariav, &s els "Ecfyea-ov irkeva-o- 
B.C. 

Thrasyllus attacks Ephesus, but is defeated with great loss by 
the citizens^ SyracusanSy and the troops of Tissaphemes. 

Ti<ra'a(l>4pvr]s be alaOofxevos rovro to iirtxe Cprjfia, arpa- 

Tiiv T€ avvikeye iroWriv koX liririas dWorcAAe itapay- 

i^n y^AXa>y TTa<TLV e ls *'E(f}€(rov p prjOeiv Tn\A.pTiixibL. Qpa- 

7 (TvAAoy be efibojirj koL beKdrji fnxepa fiera r^i/ ela-fioKriv 
els "Ecjyea-ov I'TrXevcre, koL tovs fiev SirkCTas irpds tov 
Koprio-(rdv aTToPipd<ras, Toifs bi linreas koI TreXTaaras 
Kol iTTLfidras kol tovs iXXovs iravTas irpos to l\os iirl 
TOL eTepa Trjs TroAeo)?, fi/uta Tjj rjp.ipa Tr poa-rjye bvo arpa- 

8 Toireba. ol 6' €k ttjs TTokeoas ifiorjOrja-av <T(f}la'LV, ot re 
(TuyniXLyoi ots 'Viaa'a<f>ipvris fjyaye^ koX 'S,vpaK6(rioi ol t 
iith T&v irpoTepcov cIkocti ve&v Kot airb kTepoav ireVre, at 
eruypv TOTe irapayevofievai, veaxTTi rJKOv<rai fxeTh Ev- 
Kkeovs Te roC "iTTTTcoros Kai'HpaKkeibov tov^ ApiaToyivovs 

9 OTparriy&Vf Koi ^ekivovcLai bvo. ovtol bi iravTes irp&TOv 
fiev TTpos TOVS oirklTas tovs iv KopTja-a-^ efiorjOrja-av' 
ToijTovs bi Tpeyj/dpLevoL koi airoKTeCvavTes i^ airrmf i)S el 
knaTov Kai els ttiv OikaTTav KaTabid^avTes irpds tovs 
Ttapa Tb ekos iTpAirovTO, i(f}vyov be KOLKel ol ^Adrjvaioij 

10 Koi &ir(ikovTO avToiv &s TpiaKSa-iOL. ol be '£<^€o-ioi Tpo- 
iraiov ivTavOa ecmja-av Koi ^Tepov irpos rw Koprj<r<rw. 
Tols be ^vpaKoa-CoLS koL ^ekivovaCois KpaTlaroLs yevo- 
li.ivois ipLoreia ebcoKav koi Koivfi koI IbCq irokkolsj kol 
olKelv iTekeLav eboaav T<a Povkofi^via ieC' ^ekLVOvaCois 
bi, iirel fj irSkis iiTTookdkeL, koX irokiTelav Iboaav. 



HELLENIC A /, C. 3. 63 

The Athenians retreat to Nottum, and sail thence to Lesbos^ 410-409 
where they fall in with the Syracusans, and chase them ^•^* 
bcu:k to Ephesus with the loss of four ships, Thrasyllus 
joins the Athenian squadron at Sestos, and the combined 
force then crosses to Lampsacus, 

01 6' ^A6r]vaioi tovs vcKpovs viroa-irovbovs airokapovres il 
CLTr^Trkeva-av €ls NoVioi;, kclkcI Oi^avres ovtovs iirkeov 
iirl Aiorfiov /cat 'EWrja'TTorrov. opfjiovvTes h^ ev MrjOvjJLvrj 
TTJs AifT^ov eXhov TrapairXeova-as ef 'E^eVov tcls Svpa- 
KO(rlas vavs irivre kol cIkoo-i' koI i'K avras ava)(BivT€s 12 
rirrapas ftez; IXa^ov avrois avbpaari, ras d' SAXas xare- 
hC(a^av els "'E<^€<roi;. koI tovs piev aWovs alxfJ-CLXdrovs 13 
GpdavWos CIS ^AOrjvas airiirepiyl/e Trivras, ^AkKL^Librjv 
b€ ^AOrjvalov, ^ AkKLPiibov ovra av^yj/ibv Koi (jvp.<f)vydba, 
imi\v(T€V, ivT€v6€v be iirkeva-ev els ttjv ^rjarbv irpbs 
TO &k\o (TTpiiTevp.a' CKeWev be iiraara fj oTpana bUfirj 
els Adpi^aKOV, 

The unconquered troops of Alcibiades refuse to associate with 
the defeated troops of Thrasyllus^ until in combination they 
win a brilliant victory over Phamabazus at Abydos, 

Kal \eipAiiiV iTnjei, kv <S ol alxpiikoiTOL ^vpaKoa-ioi, 14 
elpypiivoi Tov Ueipai&s iv Ac^orofxiats, biopiS^avTes Tr}v 410 Oct. 
ireTpav, iiTobpdvTes jwktos i^\ovto els AeKiXeiav, ol 5' 
els Meyapa. iv b\ Ttj AapL\l/AK<D avvTUTTOVTOS 'AAki- ^^ 
Pidbov TO (TTpcLTevixa Ttav 01 irpoTepoi orpariwrat ovk 
i^ovkovTO Tols /xera QpaaiiWov ovvTiTTea-Qai, ws avrot 
pikv SvTes A^Jrrr/rot, eKelvoi b\ fjTT7jpi,ivoL iJKoiev. ivravOa 
br\ ixeCfiaCov &TTavTes AipL\j/aKov Tei\lCovTes» Koi iarpi- ^^ 
Tevaav irpos ''Afivbov' ^apvifiaCos 6' eporjOrja-ev linrois 
TToXAoty, Kal p-axfl fjTTrjdels l(f)vyev. 'AXKt/3t(i6r;s bi 
ibCooKev €x<i)v TOVS Te iTTireas koI t&v ottXltw ciKOcrt »cat 



64 HELLENICA /, CC. 2, 3. 

410-409 kKOXoVy &v flpx€ Mivavbpos, ft^xP* o-^oros i(l>€C\€To. iK 

' ' 17 bi Trjs ftdx^y ravrrys <n)vi^r\a'av ol orpanwrai airol 

avrots Kal fia"niLCovTo tovs fxcTa QpaaiiXkov. i^kOov 

hi Tiva^ Kol aWas i^obovs tov \€ifJLQvos els rfiv rjiteipov 

Koi iiropOovv ttiv paa-iKiois \<ipav. 

The Lacedaemonians recapture Coryphasium, i,e, Sphac- 
teria. Massacre of the. Spartan colonists at Heraclea, 
Revolt of the Medes, 

18 T^ 6' avTia xp6v(3^ koX AaKcbaifiovioi. rovs ds to Ko- 
pv(f}6.o-i,ov T&v WiKdroiV a<t>€aT&Tas iK MaXias vtto- 
(TTTovbovs &<f>rJKav, Kara b^ tov avTov i^aipov koI iv 
^HpaKXela Tfj TpaxivCa ^A\aiol Tohs iiroUovSj ivTiTe^ 
Tayiiivaav irivTOiv irpbs Ohalovs' irokepilovs oi/ras, irpov- 
boaaVy wore iiroXia-Oai avT&v irpos kirTaKoa-lovs (ntv t£ 

19 iK AaKebaCfxovos appLoarfi Aa^dTa, Koi 6 ivLovTbs ikrjycv 
oJfTos, iv <2 Kal M^dot iiTtb AapeCov tov Ucpa&v fiactkiois 
iiroarivTes Tr6\i,v irpoo'exdprja'av avT^. 



CHAPTER III. 

The Athenianfleet sails from Lampscu:us to Proconnesus and 
the Bosporus, Alcibiades invests Chalcedony and success- 
fully resists a joint attack made on his lines by Hippocrates 
from within and Phamabazus from without, Hippocrates 
was slain, 

400-408 Toi) y iiTLovTos Irovs 6 iv ^oiKalq veins Trjs ^AOrivas 

iv€irprj(r6rj irpTjaTTJpos ipLirearovToSy iirel 8' 6 \€iiJL<i)V ^Xryyc, 

\llavTaKkiovs fikv iffiopeiovTos, &p)(pvTos 8' ^ AvTLyivovs,^ 

April, lapos apyppAvov, \bvo'iv koX elKoaiv ctcSv t^ irokipua 

Trap€krjkv66T(»>Vy^ ol ^AOrjvaXoi CTrkeva-av €ls UpoKOvvrjaov 



HELLENIC A /, C. 3. * 65 

TiavrX r^ arrpaTOTribio. iK^lOev d' lin '^aXxrfiova koX 400-408 
^vC^VTiov dpfj.TJ(ravT€S iaTpaTOTr€bei<ravTO irpos KaA.)(?j- ^ ^•^' 
bovi. ol b€ KaXxribovioi irpoaLOvras alaSoixevoL ToifS 
^AOrjvaCovs, trfv k^lav &TTa<r(W KariOevro els roifs BtOvvovs 
SpqKas iarvyclrovas Svras. *AXKt/3t(i8r;s bi kafioiv t&v 3 
re oTrXLT&v oXCyovs Ka\ tovs linrias, Koi ras z^aiJy Trapa- 
TTkelv KcKeva-as, i\6(i)v els rovs BL0vvoxfs d-Trrfrei ra tQv 
KaX)(rjbovC(i>v yjpripLaTa* el b\ pLrj, irokeiirja-eLV l(l>rj avTols. 
ol b^ iireboa-av. ^AkKL^iibrjs 6' iirel fjkev els rd arpa- 4 
TOTrebov Ttjv re keCav iyju^v koX irCa-TeLs TreiroLTjfjLivoSy 
aireTeCxiCe ttiv Ka\x^^^^^ iravrl rcj) orparoTr^So) airb 
OaXdTTrjs els OaXarrav koL tov iroTajjLqv Sa-ov olov r Jpj 
^k[v<a reCxet, ivravOa ^linTOKpiTTjs piev 6 AaKebaipLOpLos 5 
appLoarris Ik ttjs TrJAecoy i^yaye Tcivs arpaTidTaSi &S 
p.a\avp,evos' . ol b\ ^AOrjvaloL iLvrntaperii^avro avr^^ 
^apvi^a^os bi e^<a t&v TreptTeLXLa-pLaTcav irpoa-ePorjOei 
cTpaTia re koL tiTTTOLS TTok^ois» ^linroKpdLTrjs p.ev oiv e 
KoX Qpdavkkos epiixovTo kKirepos toTs oirklTais \p6vov 
Tiokvv, pLexpt ^AkKcpLdbris ix^^ OTrkCras ri Tivas koL tovs 
litirias il3orj6rj<r€, koL ^iTnroKpdrrjs piev &7ri0av€v, ol bi 
per avTov ovres i<l>vyov els Ti]v iiokiv, &pa bi kolj 
^apvipaCoSi ov bvvipevos avppC^ai irpos tov ^lirTTOKpirq 
biCL rrjv arevoiroplav, tov iroTapov koI t&v A7ror6t)(to-fX(i- 
TODV eyyvs ovTcoVi iirex^piio'^v els rd ^HpdKkewv to t&v 
KakxxjbovioiVf ot fjv avT.^ to aTpaToirebov. 

While A Icibiades is absent collecting money on the Hellespont^ 
the Athenians come to terms with PhamabazuSy who agrees 
to send Athenian envoys to the Persian kingy and to allow 
Chalcedon again to become tributary to Athens. The 
Athenians agree to suspend all hostilities till their return. 

'Ek ToiiTov Hk 'AXKij3t(i5779 pkv ^x^''® ^'^ '^^^ 'EWtJct- 8 



I 



66 HELLENIC A /, C. 3. 

^ ) 409-408 TTOvTov Kol €ls K€pp6v7j<rov x p^MQ^A irpi^unf ' ol b^ AoiTTOt 

^•^' oTparqyol avv€X<ip'q(rav irpbs ^apvafia^ov VTt\p KaX\r\- 

hovos elKOci T&Kcurra Sovi^at ^AOrjvaCois ^apvifiaCov Koi 

9 &s fiaaiXia irpicPeis ^AOrjvaCuiv ivayayeiv, Koi opKovs 

(boaav Koi iXafiov irapa ^apvafiii^ov VTTorcXetj; rbv 

j'uT^J <i>6pov l^a\)(y\hovLov^ ^AdrjvaCoLS oa-ovirep eldOea-av kol 

ToL 6<l>€ik6iJL€va yjyqiiara intohovvoji^ ^AOrjvaCovs be /m^ 

TTokcpielv KaXxribovlois, Icos %v ol itapa j3a(riX^a)9 irpia-^ 

After some delay Alcibiades swears to the treaty at Chryso- 
polis and Phamabazus at Chalcedon, Phamabazus goes 
to CyzicuSy where he is met by the Athenian envoys^ and 
also by some Spartan envoys, 

10 *AXKt)3t(i8r;9 8^ rois SpKois ovk irvyxavc irapdv, aXka 
TTcpl ^riXvPpCav JjV iK€lvr\v 8' k\iiV irpbs to BvCivriov 
rJK€Vy ix<»)v Xcppovrja-lras T€ iravbrjpLcl kol iirb 0paK7js 

11 orpaTLfiras koi linrias irkeCovs rpLaKoa-Coov, ^apvifia^os 
bi i^L&v beiif KaK€ivov djxiwvaf,, Tr€pUfi€V€V iv l^aX\r\- 
bovL, jJiixpt lA^ot iK Tov BvCavTLoV iircibrj 8' fj\6€Vi ovk 
i<f>r\ djjLcla-OaL, el firj K&Kelvos avT<^ d/xeirat. /mero ravra 
&fio<r€V 6 pikv iv Xpva-OTToKei oh ^apvdfiaCos ^Trep^jfe 

12 Mirpoj3(ir€i Koi ^Appdirei, 6 6' iv KaXxrjb6vL tols Trap' 

^AkKL^liboV EvpVTTTokifKj^ KoX AlOTCpLtj^ TOV T€ KOIVOV 

13 SpKOv Koi tbCq &Wrjkoi9 irCareis iiroLria-avTo. ^appi- 
PaCos fxiv oiv evOvs iirrjeL, kol tovs irapci fiaarikia 
TTopevopL^vovs irpiarpeis iiravTav iKikeva-ev els Ki^iKOV, 
iTr4pi<l>dri(rav bi 'ABrivalaiv liiv AuipSOeos, ^ikobUris, 
€>eoyivrjSy EipvirTokefios, MavTiOeos, avv b^ tovtois 
^ApyeloL KkeoarpaTos, Hvppokoxos' iiropeiiovTo be kol 
AaKebaifiovlaiv irpia-peis HaannrCbas koI eTepot, fieTo, be 



HELLENICA /, C. 3. 67 

TovToav Koi *EpfjL0Kp6.TrjSy rjbrj (f>Gjyoi>v iK ^vpaKova&v, 400-408 . 
Kai 6 &b€k<l)a£ avTov Upo^evos. 

The Athenians besiege Byzantium, While Clearchus the 
Spartan harmost is away, collecting forces to raise the 
siege, some Byzantines betray the city to Alcibiades, The. 
garrison, unable to resist, surrender, £t<ny of Anaxilaus 
at Sparta, 

Kal ^apvifia^os [xkv tovtovs fjyeir ol bi ^ASrjvalqL to 14 
BvCivTiov iTro\i6pKOVv Tr€ pLT€Lxl<rairr€Si Kai irpos rb T€l\os 
&Kpofio\i(rjjtoifs Kol TTpoo-poXas iiroiovvTO, iv bi t<^ Bv- 15 
farricj) Jjv KKiapxos AaKcbaifiovios ap/utoor^y Kal aiv 

aVT<^ T&V 1T€plolK(aV TIV€S Koi T&V V€obail(ob&V OV TToWol 

Koi M€yap€is Kal &p\a>v wt&v "'EXtfoy Meyapevs Kal 

fiotcorol Kal ToijT(av &p\(»)V Koipardbas. ol 5' *A6r]valoi 16 

i>s ovb^v ibvvavTo biairpi^aa-OoL Kar l(r)(iv, lireLa-iv 

Tivas T&v BvCavTL<DV irpobovvai t^iv tt6\iv. K\4apxps 17 

bi 6 appLoarrfs oloficvos ovbiva hv roiko TroiTJa-ai, Kara- 

a-TTja-as b^ &iravTa &s ib'dvaro KiXkiara Kal iiriTp^ylras 

TO, €v Ttj TToXei Koiparabq Kal *EXffa), bU^ri itapa rov 

^apvdfiaCov els to iripavj pna-Oov re rots orpartcirais 

Trap' avTOv kri\lr6pi€vos Kal vavs avXXi^oiv, at fja-av iv 

rw ^FtXK'qa"n6vT<^ iXKai KaTaXiK€ip.p,ivai <l>povpCb€s vtto 

UaarnnrCbov Kal iv ^AvTivbp(o Kal hs ^ Ayrjo'avbpCbas 

€lx€V iirl Qpi^Krjs, iirLpdrrjs uiv y\.Lvb6.p0Vy kolL ^ttcos oAXai 

vav'nr]yy]Our\(rav, aOpoai b\ yevopLCvai itaa-ai KaK&s Toxfs 

avfxixaxpvs t&v *AdrivaC<ov itoiova-at, a7roa"it(!L(r€Lav rd* 

oTpaToirebov iirb tov Bv^avTCov. ^Trci 5' ^^^ttXcvo-ci; 6 18 

K\4ap\os, ol TTpobibovTes ttiv ttoXlv tS^v Bv^airrlijiv 

Ki5b(t)v Kal ^AplaT(ov Kal ^ Ava^iKpinjs koI AvKOvpyos koI 

^Ava^Ckaos, &s virayopievos OaviTov varepov iv AaKibaC- 19 

fJLOvi bia TTIV irpobo<rCav &Tr4(f}vy€v, oTt ov irpoboCrj T-qv o^^^ ' 1 '- 

E 2 ""S'-'-^ *"' ' 



68 HELLENIC A /, CC. 3, 4. 

400-408 Tiokw^ aXX^ o-ctio-ai, irac5a9 bp^v koX yvvalKas kifi^ 
airoXXvfiivas, BvCd-vTios ibv koI ov AaKehaLfiovios' rdv 
yap ivSvra citov Kkiap^ov rois AaKcbaifiovlcav orparLd' 
rais bLbSvai' 6ta ravr ovv tovs irokefiCovs i<i>r\ dcria-Q ai, 
ovK apyvplov iv€Ka ovbe 6ia to fiio-^lv AaKebaifioviovs' 

20 iirel b€ avTois Ttap^a-Keiaaro, wktos avol^avres Tas irikas 
Tas iirl TO QpdKLOv KoXovjJLivas clarrjyqyov ri orpcirev/xa 

21 Kol Tov ^AXKL^Librjv. 6 bi ''Eki^os koL 6 KoipaTabas 
ovbev TOVTcov elboTcs iporjOovv /uterct 'n&vToav ciy r^v 
ayopiv cTTci bk 'k&vtq 01 iroXifiioi KdTelxoVy ovb^v 

'22 lxpVT€S, o,Ti iroirjo'eLay, irapiboa-av (r(l>as avTovs.. Koi 
oSrot fiiv aTTeTriix<f>Orja-av els 'AOrjvas, kol 6 KoipaTabas 
iv Tw oxk<a iLTToPaLvovToav kv Ileipatei ikaO^v airobpas 
Koi airea-dOrj els AcKikeidv. 



CHAPTER IV. 

Phamabazus and the envoys are met at Gordium by some 
Spartan envoys with the news that Cyrus has been ap- 
pointed satrap at Sardis, and ordered to aid the Lacedae- 
pionians in the war. 

408-407 ^apvifiaCos bi kol ot irpia-peis ttjs 4>pvy^a9 iv Fop- 

2 bieCt^ ovT€S TOV xeifi&va tol Trepl to Bv^dvTLOV ircirpay' 

A-prH, jiiva rjKOvarav. apyopAvov be tov lapos iropevopiivoii 

avTols irapa fiaa-ikia &TTrivrq(rav KaTafiaCvovTcs ot T€ 

AaKcbaipLovCoiv irpia-peis Boidnos Svop.a koX 01 ficr 

avTov Koi ol iXkoi iyyeXot, fcal ikeyov on AaKebaifMoviOL 

8 7tivTa>v &v biovTai ircirpayoTes clcv irapa fiaariXiois, koX 

KvpoSf &p^(t)V TrivTcav t&v Itti Oakirrri KciX avfiirokepLrj' 



HELLENICA /, C. 4. 69 

(ra>v AaiC€5at]XOi^^o£9, ii^KTrok^v re i(f)€p€ rols K(ira> Tracri 408-407 
TO fiacrCXeLOV crtfypiyicrfJLa l\ovcrav^ iv fj ivrjv Kot rddeV 
KaTairifJLira) Kvpov Kipavov t&v €l9 KaorcoXoi/ iOpoLCo^ 
fiivoijr, \Th 5^ Kipavov iari KVpiov.^ 

Cyrus on his arrival persuades Phamabazus to detain the 
Athenian envoys on various pretexts^ so that they did not 
return till three years afterwards, 

TaiJr' dvv &kovovt€S ol t&v ^AOTivaCcov irp^orjSeis, Koi 4 
iireibfi Kvpov ctbov, ifioiXovro /xeiAioTa p!kv irapa jSao-t- 
\ia &vaP7Jvat,, el hi fxrj, olKabe iTrckOeiv, Kvpos bi 5 
4>apraj3dfa) elirev rj irapabovvai tovs irpia-pcLS eavrw fj 
firj olnabe iron aTroTr^/un/^at, fiovkofxevos tovs *A6r)vaCovs 
pLTi elbivaL TOL TTpaTTOfieva, ^apvifiaCos be Wcos jxkv 6 
Karelx^ '''ovs irpia-fieiSy <l)d(rK(av tot^ fxev &vd$€LV avToifS 
irapa jSacriXea, tot^ be olKabe iTroirepLyj/eiVy i)S p^qhhf 
pAyjnfTaL' eireibri b^ ivtavTol rpels fja-av, eberfOri tov 7 
Kvpov i(l>eLvaL avroiis, (t>i(rK(i>v opLODpLOKivai airi^eiv iTrl 
06XaTTav, iireibfi ov irapa ficuriXia. TTepAJfavres bi 'Apto- 
fiap^avei itapaKop.la-ax avTovs iniXevoV 6 bk hitriyayev 
eh Kiov rijs Mvcrfas, odev irpos to aXXo arparo^ 
TTebov aTTiTrXeva-av. 

Alcibiades designs to return to Athens. Thrasybulus reduces 
Thasos and the rebels in Thrace, Thrasyllus lecuis the 
mainfieet back to . Athens. Meantime the Athenians elect 
A Icibiades general. 

^AXKi^Ldbris be ^ovkopLevos ficra tQv arpaTKHT&v 8 
iiitoTiXelv olKabe^ avrJxOri evOvs ^ttI ^ipLOV heWev b\ 
Xa^i^v tQv ve&v etKoa-iv lirXevare ttjs KapCas els tov 
KepafiiKov kJAttoi;. iKeWev b\ avXXi^as licordi; rci- 9 
XavTa rJKev els ttiv ^afxov. GpaaiipovXos bk (rvv rptd- 



70 HELLENIC A /, C. 4. 

408-407 ^ovTO. vo.v(Av cttI GpqKrjs <Sx€TO, ^/cet b^ ri re SXKa 

'^' x<apla Ta irpos AaKebaLfxovlovs ticOccmiKOTa Karearpi- 

yjfaro Koi &d(rov, Ixova-av KaK&s viro re row; iroKifKaP 

10 /cat aricrecov Kal XtjuLOv. ®piavXXos b^ avv trj iXKri 
arparia eJs ^AOrjvas Kar^TrXcvo-e* irplv 6e rJK€iv avrov 
ol ^AOrivaloL orpaTrjyovs etXovTO ^AXKifiiAbrjv pikv <^et;- 

I yovra Kai Gpafrvfiovkov airovTa, Kovoova bk rplrov €k 
' T&v olKoOev, 

Alcibiades sails from Santos and on hearing the news with 
. some hesitation enters Piraeus on the day of the Plynteria, 

11 ^ AXKifiiSibris 6' eic r^s ^6.\iov i\viv ra xprjpLara Kari- 
irXaxrev els Tldpov vavcrlv clfcocrtr, Ik^W^v 6* avriyOr] 

J €v6v TvOclov iirl KaTaa-Koirriv r&v TpirjpoaVi &s iirvvOi' 
v€TO AaKebaiixovCovs avroOi irapaa-KevaCeiv rpidKOvra, 
Koi Tov otKa5e KaratrKov ottods fj iroKis Trp6s avrov Ix^^* 

12 iircl 6' kdpa eavro) evvovv oia-av koL arparriybv av'^ov 
'^prifiivovs Kal IbCa ii€Tair€ixTrop.ivovs roifs iTnrqbelovs, 

June 408. KariirKeva-ev els tov ITetpaia fjfjJpq fj YlXvvTTjpia fjyev ff 
iroXts, TOV ibovs KaTaKeKaXvjjLiiivov ttjs ^AOrjvas, o TLves 
olcavlCoi^o &v€TTLTrjb€iov elvai Kal avrw Kal Trj iroXet' 
^AOrivalcav yap ovbels iv TaijTrj ttj ffpiipq ovbevbs cnrov- 
baCov ipyov ToKp.ri(rai &v iylraa-Oai. 

Various feelings of the Athenians towards him: some said 
that he was the victim of the intrigues of his enemies^ who 
had contrived his exile to make room for their own am- 
bitious schemes; others^ that he was the cause of all the 
Athenian misfortunes, 

m 

13 KaTairkiovTos 6' avTov o re iK tov JJeipai&s koI 6 iK 
TOV &&T€a)s o^Xos fjdpoCa-Or] irpbs Tas vavs, davfii^ovTes 
Kal Ibeiv povkofievoi tov ^A\Ki.fiLabr}v, kiyovTes olpikv 



HELLENIC A /, C. 4. 7 1 

is KpdTKTTOs €lri T&v TTokiTQiV KoX fiovos \^lLTr€\oyrjOrj S>s] 409-407 
ov diKatcos (l>'6yoiy iinPovkevOeh b€ vtto t&v ikarrov 
iKcCvov bwajiivaiv fxoxOrjpoTcpi re \€y6vT(ov kol irpos to 
ovtQv tbiov K^pbos 'jrokiT€v6vT(ov, iKclvov a€l t6 KOivbv 
av^ovTOs Koi airb t&v ovtov koL airb rod rrjs irJXea)9 
bvvaToVf iOiXovTos bi t6t€ KpCvecrOai irapaxprjp.a rijs 14 
alrias ipri ycycvrjfJLiirqs &s rjaePrj kotos els to. iwarripia, 
vTr€ppaX6pLevoi ol ix^P^^ ^^ boKOvirra bUaia clvai iirovTa 
avTov ia-Tiprja-av Trjs iraTplbos* iv <f xp6vi^ into d{iri\avlas 15 
bovXeijaiV fivayKia-Or] fiei; OcpaTreSeiv tovs IxJ^Carovs^ 
KLvbvvevoiv del 'Trap' kKiorriv flfiipav i/nokia-Oai' tovs b\ 
oIk€10t6,tovs TtoXiTas T€ Koi avyyevels koX ttiv irokiv 
iTraaav 6p&v i^afiapTiivova'av, ovk €l\€v ottcds d><l)€\olrj 
(f>vyfj aireLpyofMevos' ovk l(f}aa'av b^ tQv oltaimep avTos^Q 
ovToav iXvai kouvQv beia-dai irpayiiiTOiv oifbc jxeraorclo-eais'l 
vTr6.px€LV yap iK tov brjfMov avT<i fxkv tw re tiKikkjut^vI 
Tr\4ov lx€Lv T<av tc irpea-fivTipcov jut^ eXarroCcr^ai, rots 6' i 
avTov iyOpols tolovtols boK€iv (tvat, oloicnr^p irpoTipovA ^ 
varepov b^ bvpa<rd€i<riv &'iroXX'6vaL tovs jSeArforovs, av-l 
TOVS bi ii6vovs k€i(l>64vTas bC avTo tovto i.ydira<rdai vtto \ 
T&v iroXiTSiV ort kTipois P^XtCoo-iv oIk clxov xprjaOai' olln 
biy ort T&v irapOLXOiMivcav avTois KaK&v fJLOvos oItios elrjA 
T&v T€, <l>op€p(av ovTcov TjJ iToXei yeviaOai p.6vos Kivbv- 
vevtrai fjyefxiiv KaTaarrjvai. 

Alcibiades lands and is escorted to the city by his friends. 
His defence before the Senate and Assembly is favourably 
received. He is chosen commanders-in-chief and conducts 
the scured procession to Eleusis safely by land. Then 
having equipped 100 triremes and large reinforcement s^ he 
sails with them to Andros. He gains a slight success over 
the AndrianSf and then sails to Samos, 

'AAicij34<i8rjs bi itpbs ttjv yrjv 6p[ii,(r0€is inti^aiv^ fiiv 18 



. ^^ HELLENIC A /, C. 4* 

rov KaraoTpdixaTos ia-KOirei rovs avrov iTrtrrjSetovy, ei 

19 TrapcCria'av, Karibiiv hi EipvirrSkfixov rdv Ueia-iivaKTOs, 
avTov bi avcyffLOv, koI tovs iXkovs oIkcIovs Koi tov$ (^l- 
\ovs ii€T avT&v, t6t€ aiTophs ivafiaCvfi ds rriv ttoXlv 
fjtcra T&v TTapeaKevaa-jxivcav, cI tis &ittoito, fxri iTnTpiireiv. 

20 iv hi TTJ PovXrj Kol TTj iKKkrj(rCq &TTokoyrj(r&ix€vos &s ovk 
fjcrefirJKCL, et^o)!; bi &s fjbCKtiTaiy \€)(BivTOiV bi kcX iKKoav 
ToiovTcav KOI ovbevbs ivrenrovTos bia rd fxri avaayiaOai 
&v TTiv iKKKrja-CaVy ivapprjOels airavTctyv fiycpiiiv avrcr- 
Kpiro^py is oloff re tiiv <r&(rai rriv irporipav ttjs "ttoAcods 
bvvajxiv, TTpoTcpov jxiv TO. jxva-Trjpia tQv ^AOrjvaioiv Kara 
O-SXaTTav iyovTOiv bia tov TroXejutor, Karh, yrjv iTroirjaev 

21 i^ayayiiv rovs arpandTas iirairras' /utcra bi ravra Kare- 
\4^aT0 cTTpazLiv, dirkCras ijl€V ir^VTaKocrCovs Koi xiXCovs, 
linrias bi iTCVTrJKOVTa koI kKarov, vavs 8' kKarov. Koi 

October fi^Ta tov KardirXovv TplT<d fXTji^l &ini)(dr] I'n "Avbpov 

*®®» &<t)€(rT7iKvlav T&v * AOrfvalaiVf Koi /xer avrov 'Apioro- 

Kpirrfs Koi ^AbeifxavTos 6 A€VKo\o<f>Lbov (rvv€'ni[i.<f>6ii](tav 

22 yprjixivoi Kara yfjv o-TpaTTjyol. ^AXkifiiibris bi iirefil- 
j3a<r6 TO aTp&T^vp.a Tr\s *AvbpCas xdpas eh TaipcLov' 
iKPorjOrjoravTas bi tovs ^Avbplovs irpiyj/avTO koI Kari^ 
Kkeiaav ds ttiv ttoXiv Kal Tivas iiriKTcivav ov ttoWovs 

23 Koi TOVS. AiKcavas ot avToOi fjcrav, ^AkKiPiabrjs bi 
TpoTiaidv T€ larqare Koi fieCvas avrov dkCyas fjpjpas 
iirkevcrcv els ^ifiov, KaKeWev oppidyLevos iTTokipLei, 



HELLENICA /, C. 5. 73 



CHAPTER V. 

Lysander is appointed Spartan admiral and collects a fleet ^ 408-407 
of 70 ships at EphesuSy where he waits till Cyrus* arrival B.C. 
at SarcUs, 

01 he AaKebcuiiovioL irporepov toUtoov ov iroXk^ xpoptff 
Kparrja-LTTirCbq rrjs vavapxlas TrapekriXvOvias Aia-avhpov 
i^iTT€iJL\lfav vavapxpv. 6 be &<f>iK6fM€vos els *P6bov koI 
vavs iKeWev ka^dv, eh Kw kol MIKtjtov iTrXevo-er, 
eKeWev 6' els "'Ecj^ccoi;,' kolI iKei Ifxeive vavs i\(ov l)35o- 
firJKovra fi^xpi ov Kvpos els ^ipbeLS a(l>CKeTo, - iirel S' 2 
fJKev, ivipr] Trpos avrbv (tvv rois Ik AaKebalpLOVos Trpia-- 
fieaiv, ivravOa bri Kari re tov Ti(ra'a(f>epvovs ikeyov h 
TTeTroLrjK(i)s eXri, avTov re Kipov ibiovTo i>s irpoOvpLOTirov 
irpbs TOV TToXepLOv yevicrOai, 

Lysander obtains from Cyrus promises of vigorous support 
and increased pay for the Peloponnesians. 

YJopos b\ TOV Te TTaTepa i(f>r] TavTa iireoTakKivai, koX 3 
avrds ovk 4XX' eyvcoK^vai, &k\a irivTa iroLrjaeiv' e\<ov 
bi iJKeiv Tdkavra irevTaKoa-ia' iav b^ Tavra iKkCirri, toIs 
IbloLS xpria-ecBai e(f>r]y h 6 iraTrip avT^ IboiKev iciv bi 
Kol TavTa, Koi TOV Opovov KaTaK6y\teiv i(\>^ ov iKiSriTo, 
SvTa ipyvpovv Ka\ \pV(rovv. ol b^ TavT* iirrivovv Koi 4 
iKi\evov avTov rdfat t<3 va&rri bpaxjxriv *ATTiKrjvy 81- 
bia-KOVTes Stl &v oirros 6 fxia-Ohs yevrjTai, ol t&v 'A^i/- 
valoav vavTai anokely^ova-i, Tas i/a{}s« kcX fxelo) xprjfiaTa 
iva\(i(rei, 6 bi koX&s pikv i<f>r\ avTovs Xiyeiv, ov bv- 5 
vaTdv 8' elvai irap^ h fiaa-iXevs iireareiXev air<j) &XKa 
TTOLe'LV. eTvai bk koI tcls avvOrJKas oikois ixoio-as, rptd- 
KovTa fivas iKicTri vril tov jxrivos bibovai, 6i:6<ra$ hv 



74 HELLENICA /, C. 5. 

408-407 ^ovKtavrai Tpi<f>€tv AaKcbaLfJLovioi. 6 be Avaravhpos t6t€ 

6 fjikv iaLdirriae' /xcra bi rb bclirvov, iirel avr^ TrpoTtioav 6 
Kvpos rjpcTo tI &v /xdXtora xapl^oiTo iroi&v, eiTTcv on Kl 

7 Trpbs Tov pLLcrObv liccioTif) vaiirri djSoAoi/ Trpoa-Oelrjs. iK 
b€ TOTUTov rirrapes dfiokoX fjv 6 pna-OoSy irpoTcpov be 
TpL<&pokov, KOL TOV T€ 7rpov(f>€i,\6iJL€Vov iiriboiKe Kol in 
ixrjvbs irpovbayKev, Aare to arpdreviia ttoXv irpoOvp-orepov 
elvcu. 

The Athenians in despair send envoys to Cyrus ^ but he 
refuses to see them, Lysander had now 90 ships at 
Ephesus, 

8 01 b\ 'AOrjvaloi ixoiovres ravra iOvixays fx^r elxov, 
iirepLTTOv bi TTpbs rbv Kvpov Trpicrfieis bia Ti<r(ra(f>ipvov$. 

9 6 bi ov Trpo(r€b4\€To, beopAvov Tto-<ra<^^provs koX Xlyov- 
ro^y iiTcp avrbs iiroCei TTCia-dels vit 'A\Ki/3t(i8ov, <rKOT(€iv 
Sttohs tQv ^EWrjvoiv pLffbc otnvcs laxvpol Scrir, &\ka 

10 TrdvTes aarOcvcls^ avrol iv avroir <rra<rta^i;T€S. koL 
d pi,€v Av(ravbp09, lirel avr^ rb vavriKbv avvcTeraKTO, 
avekicvcras ray iv ttj *E(f>4(r<j^ ovtras vav9 ivevrjKOvra 
fjavxCav T^yev, ima-KcviC^v Koi i.va^)(a)v avrciy. 

Alcibiades crosses to Phocaea to visit Thrasybulus, leaving 
his fleet at Santos, in charge of AntiochuSy with strict 
orders not to fight. But Antiochus disobeys, and draws on 
a genercU engagement at Notium, in which he is defeated 
by Lysander with a loss of\^ ships, 

11 'AXKi)3i(id77; 6i AicolJo-as &paavfiov\ov cf 'EAXrycrTroi;- 
*^^~n^ ''^^ ^Koyra T€Lxl(€(,v ^dKaiav bUirXeva-c irpbs avroVy 

April. 'ffl'*«Xt'7r&)i; iiii rats vavaXv *AvtCoxov tov avrov *cv)3cp- 
vrfTTjv, ImoreiXas p.ri iTrnrkclv iirl ras Av<rdvbpov vavs. 

12 'O bi 'Avrioxos Tjj T€ avrov vrfi Koi SXKri iK Norfov 



HELLENICA /, C. 5. 75 

eJy rhv Xifuiva r&v ^E<f>€(rC(dv €l(nrk€V(ras nap aitras ras 407-406 
Ttptipas tQv Ava-ivbpov v€&v 'Trap^TrAci. 6 bk Av<ravbpos i^ 
rd fikv TTp&Tov dklyas t&v ve&v KaOcXicva-a^ ibC(OK€V 
avTov, iiTfl 8i ol ^AOrivaXoi r^ *Avti,6\<^ iporjOovv 
TTkcCocL vaval, t6t€ br} Koi irAcras avvri^as iTriirkeL 
fjL€Ta bi ravra koI el ^AOrjvalot Ik tov Notiov KaOckici' . 
caweff rets konrhs Tpirjp€is ivrj\6rj(raVy ws^Ikootos rjvoi- 
^€v. iK TovTov 6' ivaviMOLXTjcrav ot iM^v iv rafet, ol bi 14 
^Adijvatoi biea"napii.ivais rats vavai, jxixpi ov li^vyov 
iirokioravTcs vcvTcKaCbeKa Tpirjpeis. t&v bi ivbp&v ol 
pkv TrAcio-roi i^4(t>vyov, ol S' i^aiyprjOrja-av, Ava-avbpos 
bi ris T€ vavs ivakafioiv koX Tpiiraiov (7x170-09 iiii 
rov 'NotCov bUirkcvtrcv cIs ''E(f>€a-ov, ol 8' ^AOrjvaioL cJy 
2)(ifjior. 

• 

On his return to Safnos Aldbiades tries in vain to renew 
the battle and avenge the defeat, 

Merd b\ ravra 'AAKtjStcidT/s ikOoiv €ls ^ifiov avrJxOrj 15 
rais vavarlv airiorais ^'ttI rov kifxiva r&v ^E^€(rCwv, Kal 
irpo rov OTopLaros ttapira^iv, el ris fiovkoiro vavpiax^lv. 
iiT^ibri bi Awavbpos ovk ivravrjyayc bia rb irokkals 
vavalv ikarrova-dai, airiTrk^va-ev eh ^ip-ov, AaKcbai-- 
p^vioi bi dkCyif^ Harepov alpovaL ^ek<^lviov kcX 'HtJj;a. 

On hearing of this affair the Athenians at home choose ten 
other generals in place of Alcibiades^ who^ finding himself 
unpopular also with his fleets sails away to the Chersonese, 

01 b\ iv oIk<p *A^r;z;atot, iireibri fiyyikOri tj vavpaxCa, le 
Xak€TT&s etxoj; r^ ^AkKLPiibji, ol6p,€Voi bC &p.ik€iiv re 
Kal iKpireiav iiTok(ak€Kivai. ras vavs, Kal arparrjyovs 
ftkovro ikkovs biKa, Kovcova, Aiop.ibovra, Aiovra, 
IlepiKkia, ^EpatrivlbrjVi * ApiaroKparriy ^ Ap\i<nparoVy 



y6 HELLENIC A /, C. 5. 

407-406 npcorofxaxov, ©pciavXXov, ^Apiaroyivrj, ^AkKLpiiirjs 

17 M^^ ^^^ TTovripcas koI iv rfj orpan^ <^€pofji€i/09, kafioiv 
Tpirjpr) fxCav iTriirXeva-ev cJs Xeppdirqaov €ls ra iavTov 

Canon succeeds Alcibiades at Samos; he mans only 70 ships 
out of 100, and with them ravages the neighbouring 
coast, 

18 Mcra 8c ravra Koi^coj; ^k t^j ^Avbpov <rvv aly elx^ 
i/avcrlv. €lico(ri yjrrjcfiLa-apjivwv ^AOrivalcav els ^dp^ov IttXcv- 
cei; ^m TO vavTLKov, ivrl b^ K6v<»>vos els ''Avbpov 

10 i'ttep.y\fav ^^avoaOivri, rirrapas vavs i\ovTa. ovtos ^cpt- 
Tux^^ bvoiif rpirjpoiv (dovplaiv Ikafiev aifTols avbpia-L* 
KoX Tovs pL^v alxpakdrovs iiravras Ibrjaav ^AOrjvaloL, 
Tdv bk ipxovra avT(av AaypUa, ovra piev *P6bLov, irSXat 
bi <l>vy6.ba i^ ^AOrjvQv Kai *V6bov vir6 ^ABr\vamv Kare- 
^<f>i<rp€voiiv avTov Oivarov koI t&v ckcCvov avyycvQv, 
irpKiTevovra Trap' avTois, ikerja'avTcs A<^6t(rai; ovb^ XPl' 

20 /mara irpa^dpevoi, K6v(av 8' ^7re2 els ttiv ^ipiov i(l>CK€To 
KoX Td vavTiKov KariXaPev idvpLoas ^xov, crvp.Trkrjpda'as 
Tpirjpcis kfibopLrJKovTa ivrl tQv TrporipcDv, ovcrciv trkeov 
fj iKarSv, Kai Tovrais ivayay6p.€vos pL€Ta t&v ikkoav 
oTparqyQv, akkore akkji iTTo^aCvoiv rijs t&v vokcpiitav 
X<ipas ikrjCeTo, 

Contemporary events in Sicily: 

21 Kai 6 €2;iat;ro9 Ikrjyev, iv d Kapxribovtoi els ^iKekCav 
arpaTeva-avTes etKoai koI kKarov Tpvqpe<Ti koL TreCrjs arpa- 
TLOLs bdbeKa pLVpidaiv elkov ^AKpiyavra Xt/x^, M^X!7 M^^ 
fjTTrjOivTeSy irpoa-Kade^opLevoi bk kirra pLtjvas. 



HELLENIC A /, C. 6. 77 



CHAPTER VI. 

Callicratidas succeeds Lysander at Ephesus, His answer 406-405 

to Lysander^s empty bocLst, ®•^• 

T^ 8' i'tti6\ni ir^i & f\ r^ <T{Ki\vn\ k^iXvnev ka-iripas April. 
* Koi 6 irakaibs ttjs 'A^T/vas V€<i>s iv ^AOrjvais ivcTrprfaOrj^ 
[ITiTtJa fjL€v cipopeiovTos, ap\ovTos be KaXA^ov 'A^ryi/ry- 
flTii;,] ol AaKebaLfJiSvLOL t(3 Av(rdvbp<a irapekrikvOoTOS ijbrj 
Tov yjpovov \Kai r^ Tro\ijJL<a Terripaiv koI clKoav ir&v] 
iTr€fx\lrdv ^ttI tols vavs KakkiKpaTibav, ore b^ irapeblbov 2 • 
6 Aijcavbpos tols vavs, cAeyc to) KaWiKparlbq. on 
Ba\aTTOKpaT(op T€ irapabLbolri Koi vavpLa\Cq v€ViKr]K<&s. ' 
6 be avTov iKikevccv i^ 'Ec^eVou iv apiarep^ ^ifxov 
Trapairkeija-avTa, oi fja-av al tQv ^AOrivaionv vrjes, iv 
MiAtJtcj) TTapabovvai ras i^aOy, koL 6ixokoyrj(r€Lv Oakar- 

TOKpaT€lV, 

He increases his fleet to 140 vessels, and prepares for battle; 
but finding himself traduced by Ly Sander's friends, he 
assembles the Lacedaemonians and tells them thai he had 
come only in obedience to the Spartan government, and 
was ready to return if they so wished, 

Ov ^apAvov b\ TOV Avcivbpov TTokvirpaypLovclv akkov 3 
&£}(ovTos, avTos 6 KakkLKparCbas irpos ah irapa Ava-iv 
bpov ikafic vav(rl irpoareTrkrjpaxTcv iK XCov Kal *Po8ov 
xai ikkoOcv airo t&v avpLixixoiv irevrriKovTa vaus. rarf- 
ras b^ irdaras iOpoCaas, ova-as TerrapiKovTa koX kKarov, ' 
irapecTKevifero i? airavTrja-op.cvos toIs irok^pilois* Kara- 4 
fiadiav i*' virb rd>2/ Avcivbpov <^iXa>i; Karao-Taa-LaCdp^evos, 
ov pLOvov i.'npoOvp.oas virrjpeTovvTaiVi &kka Kal biaOpoovv- 
Tcav iv Tals irokea-Lv on AaKebaipLOvioi yAyiara irapa- 



e- ^ 



78 HELLENIC A /, C. 6. 

406-406 mTTToiev iv T^ biaXkiTTeiv Toifs vavapxovs, iroKkiKis 
* 4^ avcTTirribeCaiv yiyvojxivoiv koI apri avviivToyv ra vavriKO, 
Kot ivOpdirois &s xP^^^'^oi; ov yiyvdixTKOVTisiVy iirelpovs 
BaXimis Ttiiittovr^s kcX iyv&ras toIs iKel, KivbvvevoUv 
rt iraOelv hia rouro, Ik tovtov bi 6 KaXKiKparCbas dry- 
KoXicras Tovs AaKebaifxovCwv IkcI irapovras Ikeycv avrois 
rotdde. 
5 'Efiol (x^v ipK€l oIkol fX€V€i.v, Kot €?r€ Avoravbpos rfre 
iAA.09 Tis ifiTreipoTcpos ircpl ra vovtiko, ^oiK^rai eij/ai, 
ov KcoXvo) rb icar' kpA' kyia V vtto r^ff ttJXcws lirt tcls 
vavs TT€ix(l>6€ls ovK 1^^ ''^ oiXko TToto) ^ Ttt iccXevo/utei^a i)s 
hv bvv(OfjLaL Kpdriara, vjicXs bi Trpbs &. iyd T€ <^tAon- 
f iovna i Koi fj TTokis TiyL^iv alrii^^Tai, tare yoip avra 
&(nT€p Koi iyd; avp.pov\€V€T€ ra ipLora vfiiv boKOvvra 
ctvai TTcpl Tov ipik ivdabe p.iv€iv ^ olKob^ i/noTtX^iv 
ipovvra ra KaOearQra ivOibe. 

The malcontents thus quieted^ he tries to get supplies from 
Cyrus, but failing, appeals to the Milesians for help, till 
money should come from Sparta, 

e Ovb^vbs b\ ToXp.'/ja-avTos SXXo rt cItt^Iv rj rois oXkol 
TreCOccrOai ttolciv re !</)' & ^xet, ikOoiv irapa Kvpov jjfret ' 

7 pLiaObv Tots vavTaLS' o b^ avrw eiTTc 8vo fjfiepas iirLoxeiv. 
KaWiKparCbas b^ dx^ccr^cls rfj ivapoKfj koI rais Itti tols 
Ovpas (l>0LTrj(r€(TLV, dpyLtrOch Koi e^Tra)!; d^Aiwrirovy clvai 
Tovs "EAATjras, on ^appapovs KoXaKCuovcriv lv€Ka apyv- 
plovy <f>A(rKa>v T€, fjv (ro^Orj olKabc, Kari ye to ovtov 
bvvaTov bLa\XA^€iv ^AOrivaiovs xat AaKebaifMOvCovs, airi- 

8 ir\€V(r€v els MCKr]Tov' kolkcWcv Tre/ii/ras Tpirjp€LS eh 
AaK^baCpLOva iiri xP'7M^''^j i/cKAT^o-^ai; aOpoCa-as T(av 
Mikqalayv robe cItfcv. 

'Efxol fjiivy Si MiXiyo-tot, iviyKTi toIs oIkoi ipxovori 



HELLENICA 7, C. 6. 79 

ireCOccOai' vfxas hi €y<a a^ta> TrpodvfJLOTaTovs ^Ivai els 406-405 
TOP TToKeixoy dia to olKOVvras iv ^appipois TrXercrra 
KttKci ijbr] vt: avr&v TTCirovOivai, Set 6' v/xay i^yelaOai 9 
rots iXAots (TVfi/xdxots Siroos hv rd;(i(n-(£ t€ xal /xdXtara 
^KiLirruiyiev tovs TroXe/xfovs, Icos ii; ot ^k AaKcbaCfxovos 
rJKCixnv, ots iyo} iTre/xx/ra xprfixara i^ovras, iircl ra 10 
^i^^cide viripxpvra Aijaavbpos Kvp<^ iiToboifs m irepLTra 
' ovTa olxcraf Kvpos Se kXOoyros ifxov iir avrbv del 
av€p6Xk€T6 ftoi dtoXex^^i^at^ lyo) 6' ^ttI ras iK^ivov 
Ovpas if>oiTav ovk ibvvijjiriy ifiavrbv ^ctcrat. VTrttrxroi}- 11 
fxat 8' ^y/jtii; Arrt t&v avix^ivrfov fjpLLv &ya6&v iv rw 
Xpovii^ <S &i; ^Kctva irpoa-bexjdficOa ^apiv a^lav dTroSco- 
<r£ti/.. dAAd crvv rots ^cots bei^oixev rots fiappipois ort 
Kal fivev rov l/cetVovs ^av/xd^etz/ bvvifxcOa tovs ^x^poi^s 
TLiMcopcia-Oai. , w •' * • ^^ >' . 

^/M /A^ supplies so obtained, he sails to Chios and Lesbos^ 
where he takes Methymna by storm^ and captures many 
prisoners; all the Greeks he sets free except the Athenians. 

'Eiret b\ TavT ctircv, dytordfiei^ot ttoWoI icat /xdAtoTa 12 
ot a!rta^ofX€2;ot ^z/ai^rtovo-^at ScStores Ain\yovvTo irSpov 
yjprip.6.T(iiiv KoX avToX ^TrayyeXXo/xerot !§ta. ka^iiv b€ 
TavTa iK^ivos koX iK XCov ir€VT€bpa\pLCav licdoro) t&v 
vavT&v iipobLacrapLcvos iTrKevare ttjs Aia-^ov kiii M^^v/x- 
vaif TToXcfxCav ovaav. ov Povkofxivcav bi t&v MrjBvfi- 13 
valoiv Trpo<r)(a)p€LVi &k)C kp.<f>povp(£iv SvTOiV ^AOrjvaCoiv koL 
T&v TCL irpiypLaTa ixpvT(av drrtictfoi;ra)i;, TrpoapaXuiV 
alpu Tr\v ttoKlv icard Kpdros. rd fikv ovv \prjpLaTa 14 
irdvTa btrjpiraa-av ol oTpaTi&Tai^ tol b\ avbpAiroba irivTa : 
avvrjOpoicrev 6 KaWiKpaTCbas cis ttiv iyopAv, koL iccXev- ( .^ ^ 1 
ovTcov T&v avfiixixoav airobocrOaL Koi tovs MrjOvpLvaiovs ' 
OVK l(l)r] kavTOv ye ipyovTos ovbiva 'EAXiyvoDz; els to 



8o ■ HBLLENICA 7, C. 6. 

406-405 Ik^Ivw) hwarov ivbpaTTobi.a'Orjvai,, rfj §' varepaCq, rovs 

' J- fjL€V i\€v6ipov9 a([>r]K€, tovs hi t&v *A0r]val(ov (f>povpovs 

Kol TO, avbpiiToba ra bov\a irivra iiriboro' Kovcavi b^ 

€liT€v OTL TTa'6<r€i, avr6z; jxoix&vra rriv OSXarrav, KaTiboav 

bi avTov avayopLcvov fi/xa rrj fipiipq,^ iblonKev viroTcpLVO- 

'ICccv>^ fxevos Tov els ^ApLOv irXovv, ^ttodj pri iKeia-c <fy6yoi. 






He chases Conon, returning towards SamoSy into the harbour 
of Mytilene^ where he captures 30 of the Athenian ships, 
and blockades the rest, Cyrus thereupon sends him money, 

16 Korcoi; 6' €<f)€xry€ rais vavcriv c5 TrAeovcaty bia to iic 
"iroWQv Tr\rjp(M>paT(ii)v els dklyas iKkeXixOai tovs iplo"- 

Tovs epeTas, koL KaTa<f>evyei els MvT{X-f\vr]v T7\s Aea-^ov 
KoX avv avT^ tS>v bina OTpaTqyQv Aeoiv Koi ^Epaa-ivibrjs. 
KoKkLKpaHbas bi ovveKriirXevcrev els tov Xipiiva, bLdKcav 

17 vavcrlv eKarov kol kpboprJKOVTU, Koi^ooi; be ws ecftOrj viro 
T&v Ttokepioav KaTaKcuXvOeCSf rjvayKicrOrj vavp,axrja-aL 
irpds r» At/xei;t, ical &iT<a\ea-e vavs Tpii,KOVTa' ol be 
ivbpes els TT}v yrjv aT:e<f>vyov* tcls b\ Koiiras T(av veQv, 

18 TeTTap6.K0VTa ovaas, vtto rw TeC\ei, ave[\Kvcre. KoXAi- 
KpaTCbas be iv r^ Kipevi oppiaipevos eTToXiopKei iv- 
Tav$a, TOV IkttXovv i\oiv. koL Kara yriv peTairepylri- 
p.evos TOVS MrjOvpvalovs iravbrjpLel Koi eK Trjs Xfov to 
(TTpi.Tevp.a biepCfiaae' xprjpaTi re 'Trapa Kvpov avT(^ 
^KOev. 

Conon by a stratagem contrives to send a ship to Athens 
with the news. In thirty days the Athenians equip a fleet 
of no vessels, manned by both slaves and free, 

10 *0 §6 Kovcoi; iiseX iiroXiopKeiTO Kal KaTa yrjv koX Kara 
^aAarrai;, Kal (tCtov ovbapLoOev fjv eifTTopija-ai, ol be 
ivOpaiTTOL TToXXol iv TJj irokeL fjcav Koi ol ^AOrjvaloi ovk 



HELLENIC A /, C 6. 8 1 

iporjOovv Sia rd fxri irvvOivea-Oai raCra, KaOckidcras t&v 406-405 
v€civ TCLS ipLo-Ta irXeova-as bvo iirXripaxre irpb fjiiipas, ii 
airaa&v t&v V€<ov roifs apCorovs ipiras iicki^as koI tovs 
€7rtj3cira9 els Kotkrjv vavv fxeTaj3tj3d<ras koX to, ir apappv - 
fMara irapaPaXdv. ttiv iiev ovv iipApav ovroas dz^eixoi;, 20 
els h\ rqv kmripav, iirii <tk6tos cIt], i^e^Cfia^ev, m fx^ 
Karabrfkovs elvai Toh TroXefxCoLS raika iroiovvras. iripL- 
irrrf be f]\xipa ela-OipLCVoi alra iiirpia^ c-ttciS^ ffir] fxia-ov 
Tjixipas fjv Koi ol i(l)opixovvT€S dKiydpois elxov koL Iviol 
iveiravovTo, i^iirkeva-av l^o) tov Xt/mcVo?, nal fj fxkv iirl 
^EXXrja-TTOVTOV Zpy^ia-ev^ fi b\ cJ? ro irikayos* t&v 8' 21 
i<f>oppLO'6vT<»>v &s iKaoTTOt ijvoLyov, rds T€ &yKvpa9 Atto- 
k6tttovt€S Kol iycipofievoi, iporjOovv TCTapayfxivoiy tvxov^ 
T€s iv rfj yfj apiaTOTroLOVfxevoi* cJo-jSii/res bi ibCcoKov 
TTIV eJs rd irikayos &(f)opixrj(ra<rav, koL &jxa T<p fjkCi^ 
bvvovTL Karikafiovy koX Kparrja-avTes p-ixV' CLvab-qa-ifxevoi 
ainjyov cis to arpaTOTrebov avTols ivbpicriv. fj 8' iirl 22 
TOV 'EAAryo-TTorrov (f>vyov<ra vavs bU<l)vy€, koI &([>LK0fjL4vri 
cJ? TCLS ^AOrjvas e^ayyikkcL Trfv irokiopKCav. AtOfxiboDV 
bi fiorjO&v KovoavL irokiopKOvpAvi^ bdbcKa vav(rlv d)p/xt- 
<raro els tov evpiirov tov t&v Mvnkrivaliav, d bi Kak- 23 
kiKparCbas iTTLTrkeva-as avT^ i^aC(f)vrjs b^Ka [xev tQv veQv 
IkafBe, ALopJb<ji)v 8' e(f)vy€ ttj t€ avTov koL ikkrf, oi bi 24 
^AOrjvaloL ra yeyevrjixiva kol T-qv itokiopKlav knel rJKOV- 
a-av, i\lr7j(f)[(ravTo jBorjOelv vavarlv kKarbv kol b^Ka, ela-pi- 
pi^ovTes Toifs iv ttj fjkiKCq SvTas iiravTas koL bovkovs 
Koi ikevdipovs' Koi irkripda-avTes tols bina koI (KaTov 
iv TpLCLKOVTa fifxipats iirijpav, ila-ifiriaav bi naX t&v 
liririoDv irokkoC. 



8« HELLENIC A /, C 6. 

406-405 The Athenian fleet sails to SamoSy and anchors at the 

B.C. Arginusae islands ^ mustering more than 150 strong, CaU 

Itcratidas leaves 50 ships under Eteonicus at Mytilene, 

and sails to Cape Malea with 120 ships to meet the 

Athenians, 

25 Mera ravra ivi^^Orjq'av cIs Sdjuioi;, k&k€i0€V ^ajxlas vavs 
ika^ov b€Ka* rjOpoLcrav bk Koi &Was TrXeCovs rj rpidKovra 
TTapa T&v iXkoiv aviniiiyoav, kia-^aivuv &vayK6,(ravT€9 
iirairras, SfioCcas b^ Kot el tlv^s avrols Itvxov Ifw o5<rat. 
iyivovTO 8c al iTa<rai ttKcCox^s fj TrcvTrJKovra Koi kKarov, 

26 6 h\ KoLKKiKpaHhas iLKoiaav Tr\v PorjOeiav TJbri iv 2<i/ji<p 
ovtravy avTov \i\v Karikiire TrevrriKOUta i/aus koI ipyovra 
'Ercrfi/iKOi;, rais be cIkoo-i kcX kKarov iivayOeis ibeiirvo- 
TTOLeiTo TTJs Aio-fiov iirl Tjj MaXiq tiKpa hvrlov r^s 

27 MvriXTjinyy. tt} 8' avT^ Vt^P^ ervyov /cat ol *A0rivaloi 
b€LiTvoTroiovix€VOL €v TOLS ^ Apyivov(Tais' aSrat 8' elcrXv 

28 amiov r^s Aia^ov. Tr\s 8c wktos lb(aiv to, itvpA, KaC 
Tivtav avT<^ i^ayy€iXivT(ov on ol ^Adrjvaioi etev, avrfyero 
TTcpl fiioras iWKTas, &s i^airivaluis irpocnricroc vbiap 8* 
iinyevopLcvov ttoXv koI ^povraX bieKiiXvG-av T7\v avaya}- 
yrjv. iirel bi iLvi(ryevy &p.a Ty fifiipc^ lirkci ^ttI tcls 
^ Apyivoijaas, 

Battle of Arginusae. 

Callicratidas refuses to flee befl)re the superior numbers of the 
Athenians, The fight begins; and when Callicratidas falls 
into the sea and is drowned^ the Peloponnesians flee to Chios 
and Phocaea with a loss of 6^ ships. The Athenians retire 
to Arginusae with a loss of 2% ships, 

29 01 8' ^AOrjvaloi, ivTavrjyovTo ds to irikayos rw rfoo- 
vvpLia, TTapaT€Tayp.4voL &b€, ^ ApiaroKpiTrjs fx^v to cvc5- 
wpLOV Ixcav ffyeiTo TrcvTCKaCbcKa vavaC, /xcra 8^ ravra 



HELLENICA /, C. 6. 83 

Aiofiiboov crepats ircvrcKaCbcKa' iiteriraKTO h\ 'Aptoro- 406-405 
icpdrci iuv Tl^piKKriSi Ato/icdojrrt h\ ^Epaa-iv Chris' irapa be 
Aiofxibovra ol Sa/itot 5eica vav(rXv iiii fiias TerayfiivoC 
ioTpaTTJyei bi avT&v 2<i/xt09 dvofxaTi 'IttttctJs' l\6ix€vaL 
b* al tQv Ta^LAp\<»>v biKa, koX avral iirl pnas' iirl bi 
TovTais al T&v vav6.p\(»>v rpcis, Koi ct rives iXXat. fj(rav 
avpLfiaxCbes* to be be^Lov Kipas UponTOfiaxos elx^ '^■ei;- 30 
TeKalbeKa vavcl' irapa 5' avrbv QpiavWos kripats irev^ 
TeKaibeica' eirereTaKTo b^ Hpa>Toixix<^ jxiv AvcrCas, Ix'^^ 
TOLS la-as vavSf 0paolJA\«p b^ ^ApLoroyivrjs. ovro) 8' 31 
irdx'^V^^^i ^^^ M b(,iKTr\ovv bibolev' x^^por yap iir\eov, 
al bi T&v AaKebaLixovl<»>v ' &vTLTeTayp.4vai, ^o'av iitaa-ai 
IttX fxias &s TTpds bUKirXovv Kal TrepCirXovv TrapecrKevaa-- 
fxivai, bia rh piXriov TtXetv.- etx^ ^^ '"^ be^Lov Kipas 
KaWiKparlbas. ''Epixmv b^ Meyapehs 6 r(o KoXXiKpa- 32 
Tiba Kvfiepv&v etire Ttphs aifTov on elrj Kak&s ^ov Atto- 
TiXevcaC al yap TpirjpeLS T(dv ^AOrjvaCcov ttoXX^ irkeCoves 
fj(rav. KaXXiKparCbas bi elireif Sti tj ^Traprr] ovbev jxri 
kAkiov olKelrai, avrov iiroOavovTos, (pevyeiv be alaxpov 
e<f>rj elvai. p.eTa b^ ravra ivavpLaxw^^ XP^^^^ ttoXvv, 33 
TTp&Tov fiev iOpoai, iireira b^ biea-Kebaa-jjievai. iirel be 
KaXkiKparlbas re ipL^aXovaTis rrjs veiis aTTOTrea-oav els 
Trfv BdXaTTav fj(f>avl(rOrj UpooToixaxos re Kal ol jxer avrov 
r<3 be^i(a rb evdwfxov ivLKr]<raVy ivrevdev (f>vyri T<av 
UekoTTovvqarloiv iyivero els %Cov, TrXelcrT(av be Kal els 
^<&Kaiav' ol bi ^A6r]valoi niXiv els ras ^ Apyivovcras 
KareirKevfTav. imJiXovTo b\ tG^v piv ^AOrjvaCcov vrjes 34 
TTevre Kal elKocLv dvrols ivbpi<rLv ^ktos dKiycav t&v 
TTpbs TTjj; yrjv 'npoaevexOevroav, tQv be IIe\oTTOvvq(ri(i>v 
2\aK<»>VLKal ixev ivvea, t&v Trao-Qv ovo'&v biKa, tQv b* 
iX\(i)v avjJLfiAx^^ irkeCovs ^ e^rJKOVTa, 

F 2 



84 HELLENICA /, C. 6. 

406-406 The Athenian z^nerals commission Theramenes and other 
officers to rescue the crews of their sunken vessels with 
47 vessels, while they themselves sail against Eteonicus at 
Mytilene, But both projects are prevented by a storm. 

85 "ESofc h\ kgX Toi'i T<ov ^A6rjvaC<»>v aTparrjyois iiTTa 
^iv Kol T€TTap6.K0VTa vavol Q-qpafiivrj re Koi Qpaavfiov-- 
\ov Tpiripdpxovs ovras koX tQv ra^iipxaiv rivas irkelv 
cttI Tas KarabebvKvCas vavs kol tovs I'n avTfav avOpd- 
TTovs, Tois bi ikkais ^ttI ras /act' ^EtcovCkov rfj Mvti- 
^V^V i<f>opixQva'as» ravra he ^ovkofxivovs iroulv avcfios 
KoX xcifxiav bL€K(i\v(r€v avTOvs fxiyas yevdjjLcvos' Tpoiraiov 
bi arria'avTes airov rjvkC^ovro. 



Eteonicus, by spreading false news of a victory, succeeds in 
despatching his fleet to Chios, and in marching himself to 
Methymna, 

86 Tw 6' 'Ereoz^^KO) 6 vrnipeTiKos Kikrjs iravra e^T/yyctXc 
rjt Trepl rriv vavp^axCav, 6 8e avrbv irdKiv i^iTreixyjfev 
eliTODv TOLS ivov<n (nwTnJ iKirkelv koX p.rjb€vl biaXiyeirOaL, 
irapaxprjixa b^ avOis ttXcIv eh to lavrwi; (TtpaTOTrebov 
€(n'€<t>av<»)ii€vovs koi fioc^vras on KaXXiKpaTibas vcvCktikc 
vaviJLax^v kol 8ti al rd>z/ *AOrjvaC(»)v vrjes &TTok(iKa<nv 

37 iiraa-ai. kol ol fxiv ravT iiroCovv' avTos 6', C7r€t5^ licci- 
VOL Kariirkeov, lOve tol evayyiXia, koX tois orpaTidTais 
iraprjyyeLXe beLTTVoiroiela-OaL, /cat rots ifxiropois tcl XPl- 
fiaTa (TLOiTrfj ivOefiivovs els Tci, irkoia iiroTrXelv els Xfoi;, 
ijv bi TO TTvevfia ovpiov, Koi TCLS Tpiripeis ttiv TaxCorqv, 
avTbs bi TO ireCov icnijyev els ttiv MrjOvfMvav, to (rrpa- 
Tdirebov iinrprj<ras. 



HELLENICA /, CC. 6, 7. 85 

Conon meets the Athenianfleet with the news about Eteonicus, 408-405 
The fleet sails to Mytilene, makes an attempt on ChioSy and ^'^^ 
finally returns to Samos, » 

Koi'cax/ h\ KaOekKva-as tcls vavs, IttcI ol T€ ttoX^/xioi 88 
&Tr€b€bp(i.K€crav koI 6 &V€iios cvbiolrcpos tJz^, ATravTrjcras 
Tols ^AO-qvaCois rjbr} avriyp-ivois €k Toiv ^ Apyivov(r&v 
i<f>paa'€ ra ircpl tov ^Et€OvCkov, ol bi 'AdrjvaloL Kwri- 
7rXcu(rai; els Tr]v MunXiJrr/r, iK^Wcv 8' €Travri\6r]<rav 
els Triv Hlovy koX ovbev biairpa^iiievoi dTTCTrXcvo-ai; 
iirl 2(ifiov. 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Athenian generals are replaced by ten others^ Conon 
alone being re-elected. Of the six who returned to Athens^ 
Ercmnides is cu:cused by Archedemus 0/ con^pt practices, 
and sentenced by the court to imprisonment, 

01 ^ Iv oIkcj) TQfirovs pkv rovs GrpaTrjyois iTravcrav 
irXriv K6v(i)vos' irpds be ravTia etkovro ^AbeCpiavTov koL 
rpirov ^iXoKkia, tQv b^ vavpLaxqadwiav arparqy&v 
TIpcoTopLaxos pL€v Koi ^ ApLOToyivris ovk airrjKOov els 
^AOrjvaSy r&v b\ 1^ Kara'nXevo'i.vTOiiV, YlepiKkeovs koX 2 
AiopiebovTos Kal Av<r[ov Koi ^ ApioTOKpirovs koi 0/)a- 
(TvXkov KcX ^EpacTLvCbov, ^ApxibrjpLOS 6 tov brjpLov Tore 
TTpoeaTrjKias iv ^AOrfvaLS koI ttjs biOiPekCas iTrifiekopievos 
^Epaa-LvCbrj iiri^okriv eTn^aktav Karriyopei ev biKaarripiii^y 
(f}d(rK(iiv i^ ^EkkricnrovTOv avrbv e\eiv \priyLaTa ovra tov 
brjpLOV' KaTTjyopeL b^ Koi irepl ttjs a-TpaTrjyCas* koX ebo^e 
T<^ bLKaarrjpCi^ brjo-ai, tov ^Epaa-ivCbriv* 



86 HELLENICA /, C. 7. 

406-405 T^^ other generals also, after informing the Senate about the 
B.C. battle and the storm, are arrested by its order, 

3 Mcra h\ ravra iv ttj ^ovXij birjyovvro ol oTpar?jyoi 
irepC T€ TTJs vavixaxCas koL tov ficyiOovs rod xeifxc^vos, 
TLfioKpirovs 6' cIttovtos on koI tovs i.k\ovs XPV ^^Oivras 
ciff TOV brjfiov irapaboOrjvat, rj PovXrj ibrjae. 

Before the Assembly Theramenes and others attack the 
generals for not having rescued the shipwrecked crews, 
alleging as evidence the official despatch, 

4 Mera 5e ravra iKKkrjcrCa iyivero, ev 17 t&v orpaTrjy&v 
Karrjyopovv iXXoi T€ KalSrjpafxivrjs iMAkLorTaybiKaCov^ ctvax 
Koyov v'no(r)(jdv biori ovk olvcCKovto tovs vavayovs. oTt 
fxkv yap ovbevos SXXov KaOjiitTovTo kiriG-ToXriv iir^beUw 
fxapT6piov fjv iirefiylrav ol arpaTriyol els ttiv fiovXriv 
KoL els TOV brjfiov, aAAo ovbev alTLdfxevoi, fj tov yei\x&va. 

In defence the generals recount the facts, bringing forward 

some of the sailors as witnesses. 

5 Mcra Tavra b\ ol oTparriyol fipaxicos iKaaros aTreXo- 
IS^l) yrja-aTO, ov yap Tr povTJdr] a-(j)[(n \6yos KaTa^bv vop iov, 

Kttl TO. TTCTTpay/utera birjyovvTo, oti avTol pikv iirl Toxfs 
TTokepLiovs irkeoLev, ttiv be avaCpecnv tQv vavay&v 
TTpoara^eiav t&v Tpvripiipyjav avbpia-iv iKavois Koi iarpa- 
TrjyrjKoa-LV rjbrj, Q>r\pap.iv€i Ka\ Gpaavpovkta Kal ikkoLs 

6 TOLOvTois' Kal eliTcp yi Tivas bioi, irepl ttjs ivaipia-eois 
ovbiva ikkov ix.eiv avTovs alTiiLa-atrOat. 17 to^tovs ols 
TTpo(T€TixOri. Kal ovx oti ye KaTriyopovaiv fjjJL&v, €<pa(rav, 
yfrevaoixeOa (f)ia-KovT€S avTovs ahCovs etvai, akka to 
fiiyeOos tov \€LPlQvos etvai, to Kcokvaav ttjv avalpeaiv. 
TovToiV bk fxipTvpas irapelyovTo tovs KvfiepvrJTas Kal 
akkovsT&v avfXTTkeovTOiv irokkovs* 



HELLENIC A I, C. 7. 87 

Tke defence is favourahly received^ but, it being dark, the 406-405 
assembly adjourns without a vote being taken, after com- ^•^• 
missioning the Senate to bring forward a proposal as to the 
procedure of the tried, 

Totaura kiyovres IttclOov tov brjuoV i^ovKovro 8c 7 
TToXXot T&v IbioiT&v iyyvao'dai, iLviardfjicvoi.' ibo^€ hi '"^''- 
hva^akicrOai €h eripav iKK\rj(rCav' t6t€ yap dyjfi rjv Kai 
TCLs xelpas ovk &v Ka0€<ip(av' rfiv 8^ Povkriv irpo^ovkeij' 
(raarav ela-eveyKciv St(o rpoirto ol 6.vbp€S Kplvoivro. 



Theramenes avails himself of the Apaturia to excite the 
Athenians against the accused, 

Mcra h\ Tdvra iyCyvero ^AirarovpLa, iv ols ot re 8 
Ttaripes koX oi avyyevels (r6v€ia-L (rcpiariv avrois. ol ovv Novem- 
Tr€pi TOV &r}pafj,€jrq irapca-Kevaarav ivOpdirovs iiikava ' * 
IfxiTLa i^ovTas koX iv XP<? KCKapfjJvovs woXAovs iv 
Tainji TTJ koprfj, tva irpos ttiv iKKkriarCav iJKOLev, cos bri 
avyycvcis oirns t&v iirokoikoTaiv, kol KaWC^€vov circt- 
aav iv Tjj povXfj KaTrjyopelv t&v aTparrjy&v. 



At the second meeting of the Assembly Callixenus introduces 
the proposal of the Senate, that the people should decide, 
without further hearing, upon all the accused at once by 
a single vote, 

'Ei/rcu^ci; iKK\rj(rlav iirolovv, cts fjv ff fiovkri clarrjveyKC 
TTIV kavrrjs yv<ifjLr}v KaWi^ivov cIttovtos rrjvbc' 'EirctS^ 
T&v T€ KaTT/jyopovvToav Kara t&v orrpaTrjy&v koX iKclvoav 
airoXoyovixivoiv iv rfj irporipq, iKKkrjcrCa aKriKoaari, Sta^/r ry- lit<] 
<l>l(ra(r6ai ^AOrjvaCovs JiravTas Kara <l>vk<i s' Oeivai. bi els 



88 HELLENICA /, C. 7. 



•*/v-.,--^i 



406-406 Tt\v <f>v\rjv kKdoTtjv b^lo vbpias' ^0' kKiarri bi rfj <f>v\fi 
KTJfjVKa Kr]pvTT€tv^ ^TO) boKOV(nv abiK^iv ol a-Tparqyol ovk 
ivekofievoL tovs VLKifja-avTas iv rfj vavjiaxia, ets rriv 

10 irporipav \lrq(f)Ca-aa-Oai., 3r<j) b^ firj, ek ttiv varipav' hv b\ 
b6^<a<nv hbiK^lv^ Oavin^ Qr]p.iGi(Tai koX toIs ivb^Ka irapa- 
bovvai Koi ra xp'/jfiaTa brfpLoa-Levtraiy to V iinbiKaTov rrjs 

11 Ocov eZvai. Ttaprj\0€ b4 tls els ttiv iKKkrj<rCav iftaxTKoav 
iZJt iin Tiii\ovs &K<l)CT<i)v (roaOrjvaL' ^TrtoreXActi; 6' avr<p 

Toi/s iiroXXvixivovs, iav a-wOfj^ iTrayyeikai r<p 6^juio>, on 
ol orpaTrjyol ovk iv^CkovTO tovs ipCarovs virep ttjs 
irarpCbos y^vop,ivovs. 

Euryptolemus and others threaten to indict Callixenu^ 
proposal as unconstitutional^ but are compelled to with- 
draw their threat, 

12 Toi; b\ KaXkt^evov irpoo-eKaXio-avTo irapivopia </>(i(r- 
KovT€S y€ypa<f>ivai EipviTToKcpLos tc 6 Il€ lot livaKTos 
Koi AXXoi Tivis. Tov b\ brjfjLov Ivioi TavTa iTrrjvovv, to bi 
irXrjOos (fioa bcLvbv clvai d ix rj tls iiarci Tdv bTJpL OV 

(35$) 13 TTp6rT€Lv^ h &y 0oijkn TaL. Koi iiTl TotJrois €l'n6vT09 
AvkIotkov Koi TOVTovs Tjj avrfj ylnj<l><a Kplv^cOai yirep koI 
TOVS a-Tparriyovs, iav fxri d<^d)(ri t^iv kXtjo-iv, iir^Oopv^rjo'c 
irdXiv 6 6\\oSi koL -qvayKia-Orjarav a<f)UvaL Tas KXrja-eLS. 

The Prytanes refuse to put the question to the vote, but are 
all frightened into submission except Socrates. 

14 Td)i; b\ irpVTOivedv Tiviov ov <l>a(TK6vT<av 7rpo6rj(r€i.v 
Tr}v bLayjniipLo-LV irapa Tdv vofiov, aZBis KaXkC^cvos avafias 
Kanjy6p€i avT&v to, avri. ol be ifiocav Kok^lv tovs ov 

15 <f>A(rKOVTas. ol b€ TTpvTdv€t,s <f)oPriBivT€S i/ioXoyow irivTcs 
irpoOrjo'eiv 'nXriv ScoKpcirous tov ^<a(ppovicrKOv'' ovtos 6' 
OVK l<t>ri aXX' fj Kara vopiov irivTa iroirja-civ. 



HELLENICA /, C. 7. 89 

■ 

Speech of Euryptolemus. 4oe-405 

B.C. 

* Pericles andDiomedon were chiefly to blame ^ because they had 

persuaded their colleagues not to mention in their despatch 
the orders they had given to Theramenes and others to 
rescue the crews, 

Mcra 8^ ravra ava^as EipviTTok^fios IXc^cv virip tQv le 
arpaTrjy&v Tib€, 

Ta ixkv Karriyoprja-oiv, S ivbpcs *AdrjvaloL, ipipriv 
ivOabe UepiKkiovs ^vayKaiov fxot ovtos koX ^TriTrfbdov 
Kol AiofxibovTos <f>CX.ov, ra 5' VTrcpaTroXoyqaofjicvoSi tcl be 
avfxfiovkeia'aiv & fJLOL boK^l ipLora etvai aTrdoT/ r^ ir6\€i. 
KarrjyopQ fiiv oiv avr&v Stl iit^Krav tovs avvapxovras 17 
Povkopi4vovs irifXTTdv ypdiijJLaTa rfj T€ povkfj kol vplv 5t4 
itiira^av r^ QrjpafiivcL koX ©pacrvjSotJXw T€TTap(i.K0VTa 
KoX kirra rpirfpcrrLP ivckia-Oat, roifs vavay(y6s, ol bi ovk 
ivcCkovTo. ctra vvv ttiv alrCav kolvtjv Ix^'^^''^ iK^lvoav 18 
lbl(^ apjapTovTtiiVi KcX iLvri r^s t6t€ (f>i\av6pti>'nias vvv v'n 
iKeiv<av re Kal Tivodp iWoov iTTLfiovkcvopLevoi KLvbvveV' 
ov(riv iLTToXia-daL, 

* Two courses were open to the Athenians: the generals might 

be tried, either before the assembly according to the decree 
of Cannonus, or before a court according to the law against 
sacrilege and treason. 

Ovk hv vpLcis yi fioL ireCOrjo-Oe ra bUaia koX Sena 19 
TTOtoCrTes, Koi SOcv fiiXiara T&KrjOij ireia-ca-Bc Koi ov 
fjL€Tavorj(ravT€S Harepov €vp7J(r€T€ (r(f>as airrovs fnxaprrj' 
K6Tas ra iiiyiara eJs Oeovs re koX vp.as avrovs. avjX' 
povkeiio 8' Tz/utir, ^v oh ovB* vtt' ifMov ovff* vtt &X\ov 
ovbevbs ioTLV i^airarqOrjvaL vfias, Koi tovs ibtKOvvras 
€lb6T€9 Kokio-caSe fj hv fiovk-qtrOe bUrj, koi &p.a 'nivras 
KoL Ka0* Iva (KaaTov, e{ fxij irkiov, iXKa fxCav fifi4pav 



90 HELLENICA /, C. 7. 

406-405 5o2;r€9 avTOts vTskp avT&v &Tro\oY7Ja-a(rOcu, firj &XA01; 

20 fJi'OX^ov TnaT€vovT€S ^ vfuv aifTois. tare 6c, 2) ivbpcs 
^ AOrjvaloi., TrdvTcs Stl rd Kavvoivov ^/rT^^to-juici ^orti' 
laxvpoTaroVj h KcXeud, idv ns rdv 'AOrjvaloav bijiiov 

(^^7J obLKfj, hcbcjxivov aTTod txety iv ry Si7iA<t ), koI iav Kara- 

ypaxrOfj ihiKeiv, airoOaveLV els to fiipadpov ipL^XriOivTaf 
TO. b€ xprfpLara avrov brjpLcvdijvai, koI ttjs Oeov rd iiribi^ 

21 KaTOv etvaL. Kara tovto rd y\fri<\n(Tp.a kcXcvo) Kplv€<rOaL 
Toifs (TTpaTryyovs koL vr\ Ala, hv vpXv y€ boKrj, irp&Tov 
UepiKkia TOP ipLoi iTpo<rqKovTa' ai<r\pdv yip jxoC iariv 
iK€lvov irepl irkelovos iroiela-Oai, fj Trfv S\rjv iroXiv. 

22 TOVTO 6' el pov\€(rO€, Kara Tovbe tov vSpLOV KpCvaTc^ 5s 
io-Tiv iirl rots UpoavXoLS koI irpoboTMS, idv rts rj r^v 
irokiv TrpobLb(^ rj to. Upa KkiirTrj, KpiQivTa iv diKaorr/pfcp, 
h.v KaTayvaio-Ofi, pirj Ta<f>rjvaf, iv Tjj ' ArrtK^, tol bi xprjfiaTa 
airrov dT/fioo-ta etvat,, 

* But in either case they ought to be tried fairly and separately. 
Undue haste ought to be avoided^ especially in the case of 
generals who had deserved so well of their country, 

23 ToiJrcov OTTOTipip fioiiKca-Oe, S ivbpes ^AOrjvaloi, r^ 
pofKD Kpivia-Oonv ol ivbpes icara iva iKaarov biripr]pAva>v 
ffjs fifiipas TpL&v pL€p&v, kvos fi€v iv (^ avkkiyeardai 
Vfjias bel Kol bLa\lni(l>C^€a-6ai.y iiv re abiKciv boK&<nv iiv 
T€ firi, hipov 8' iv ^ KarqyopTJa-aL, CT^pov b^ iv <S 

24 iTTokoyrjaraa-dau ToiTtav b\ yLyvofxivcav ol p.€V abiKOVVT€s 
Teu^ovrai Trjs pLeylarrjs rtjuwopias, ol 8* ivalTLOL i\€V$€' 
pioOrjo-ovTai, v<f} vp.Qv, S> ^Adrivaioi, koL ovk &biKOVirr€s 

25 iiTTokovvTai. ifieis bi KaTa tov voyLOV eva-cfiovvTes Koi 
€vopKovvT€S KpLV€LT€ KOL ov (rvfXTrok€fxrj(reT€ AaKebaifio- 
i;iots rovs iKcCvovs ifiboiirJKOVTa vavs a(f)€kop.ivovs Koi 
veviKfjKOTas, rolJrovs dTroXXtJi/res UKpCTovs irapa tov 



HELLENIC A /, C 7. 9 1 

vofiov, tC bi Kal bcbioTcs (r<^6hpa oirons iirelyca-Oc ; ^ 
firi ovx vfiels hv hv pov\ri<r0€ airoKTclirrjTe kol ikevOepd- 
<n\T€, hv Kara rbv vofiov KpLvrjTc, oAX' ovk, &v irapa tov 
vofioVf &(nr€p KaXkC^evos ttjv povkriv iircLo-ev ety tov 
brjfjLov €l(r€V€yK€iv fiia V^77^<i> ; oOOC laias iv riva koI ovk ^7 
oXtlov Svra iiiroKTeCvaLTf, /mcrafxcX^o-at be Harrepov ai;a- * 
jxvrja-OrjTe iis dXyeivbv kol ai/ox^eA^y rjbrj iarC^ irpos 8' In . 
Kol TTcpl OavcLTov AvOpdiTov fffiaprrjKOTcs. beiva d' hift^a 
TroLTJaaLTe, el ^Apiaripxti^ fikv irpoTcpov tov brjfxov KaTa- 
XvovTi, €tra be Olvorjv irpobibovTi, Grj^aCois iroKepiCoLS 
ovariv, iboTe fifxepav &Trokoyri<raa-0aL fj ifiov\eTo koI 
T&Wa KaTCL TOV vofjLOv irpovOeTe, tovs be arparqyovs tovs 
irivTa vfXLV fcara yvdyjqv irpi^avTas, VLKriaravTas b^ tovs 
iroKefxlovs, t&v ovt&v tovtohv iLTro(rTeprj<reTe. jMri vfiels 29 
ye, S) 'Adrjvaloi, dXA' kavT&v ovTas Tois voixovSy 8t' ots 
/x(iA.t(rra fxeyia-Tot eorc, ^vXdirovrcs, &vev tovtchv fxrjbev 
TTp6.TTeiv TteipaaSet 

* To return to the facts : Diomedon proposed to rescue the 
crews, Erasinides to sail against the enemy, Thrasyllus to 
do both by dividing the fleet, 

^^TtavikQeTe be fcal eit avra tol irpdyfJiaTa KaO^ h koI 
al hfxapTiai boKOvart, yeyevrjarOat, tols arparrjyols. iirel 
yap KpaTfja'avTes Tjj vavp.ayla els tt]v yrjv KaTiirkeva'av, 
Atofiiboiv fiiv iKe\evev ava\6evTas ^ttI Kep(^s iiravTas 
avaipelcrOat tol vaviyia Kai Tois vavayoijs, ^EpacivCbris b* 
ein TOVS irpos MvTtXrjvqv irokefxCovs ttiv TaxLarriv ttAcci; 
imavTas' Qpi(rv\kos bi aiKftoTepa i^ri yeveaOai, hv tcls 
ixkv avTov KaTaKliraxTt,, Tois bi iiri tovs iroKefiCovs 
irkeaxTL, 




[3 si) 



g2 HELLENIC A /, C 7. 

406-406 ^According to Thrasyllus* proposal 47 vessels were told 
B.C. off to rescue the crews, and the rest were to sail against 

the enemy, but the storm prevented both projects* Many 
survivors would witness to the truth of this, 

30 Kal bo^ivTwv TovToov KaraXiTreti; rpeis vavs iKaarov 
iK TTJs avTov ovfxixopCaSi T&v oTparqy&v Ofcro) ovroov, kol 
TOLS T&v Ta^L(lpx<av biKa Koi tcls Da/x^caj; biKa Koi ras 
T&v vavdpxonv rpets* avrai ^Trao-ac yCyvovrai cirra koi 
T€TTapiKOVTay Tirrapes Trept eKianjv vavv t&v iiroXoi- 

31 KvL&v bdbcKa ovarmf. tQv b\ KaToXcKpOivTcav TpLrjpip)(a>v 
fjaav Kol Qpaavpovkos /cat QrjpafxiirrjSi os iv Tjj TTporepa 
iKK\r]<rCq KaTr]y6p€i T<ov arparqy&v. rals b^ iXXais 
vav<r\v lirkcov cttI tcls TroXe/xfas. t[ ro'iToav ov\ iKavQiS 
KcX KoXias iirpa^av ; ovkovv biKaiov ra fi^v irpos tovs 
TTokcfJiCovs fJiri KoX&s iTpa\6€VTa tovs irpds to'6tovs rax- 
Oivras imiyjEiv koyov, Tovs'bi irpbs rqv avalp^criv, p.T\ 
iroLrja-avras h ol arpaTriyol €Kik€va-av, 6iorc ovk aveikovro 

32' K.plv€(r6ai, Toa-ovTov 8' e^o) elirclv vir^p apLCpoTipaiv Stl 
6 x^Lnidv biCKdKvo'c fX7}b€v irpa^ai, &v ol arparqyol Trape- 
K^keva-avTo, tovto)v b^ fxipTVpes ol <r(»)0ivT€S iird rov 
avTOfidTOv, &v ets t&v fifieripaiv aTparqyQv eirl fcara- 
bv<rr}s vfobs 6ta(rft)^efc, bv fceAcl5ov(rc t^ avrfj >/n7^<^ 
Kpiv€(rOat,, Koi avTov t6t€ bcofxevov avaipi<r€<as, fl^^^p 
Tovs ov TTpd^avras to, itpoarayOivTa, 

* On M grounds therefore the generals ought to be acquitted^ 

33 • Mr) Toivvv, S) ivbpes 'AOrjvaioi., ivrl jxkv Trjs vUrjs Kal 
Trjs cvTvx^as Sfioia iroirjoTjTc rots TjTrqfxivois re Kal 
aruxova-Lv, &vtI b€ t&v eic Oeov &vayKalaiv ayvwyiovelv 
b6^T€, TTpoboa-iav KarayvovTcs iLvrl Trjs abvvaixiasy ovx 
iKavoifs y€vop.ivovs bia tov x<Eip.Qiva irpa^ai, to, irpoarax- 
divTa' dXXa ttoXv biKaLOTcpov a-Tcipdvois yepalpeiv Tois 



HELLENICA /, C 7. 93 

viKQiVTos 17 ^ai/dro) ^rjfxi^v irovripois ivOpdirois ttclOo- 406-405 
/ * B.C. 

At first the people accept Euryptolemus' proposal to try the 
generals separately, according to the decree of Cannonusj 
but at a second vote* the Senates proposal is preferred, and 
the eight generals are condemned and six of them executed. 
Not long afterwards the people repent of the injustice, 

TaSr' etTTO)!/ EvpvTrroAe/xos lypayj/e yvdfirjv Kara to 34 
Kavvoavov \lni(f>La-fxa KpCvea-Qai rovs ivbpas biy^a iKaaroV 
fj b^ TTJs povXrjs rjv /xtS yjnfjcfxd iiravras Kplveiv, to'Ctohv 
8e biayjEipOTOvoviUvoav to fxev TTp&TOv iKpivav Tr}v 
mpVTrTokefjuov' VTrouoa-afxivov bl MevcK^iovs koX irdkiv lA*-^*' > 
bidyj^ipoTovLas y€voiJL€V7js ^Kptvav ttjv ttjs jBovXrjs. koX 
fi€Tct TavTa KaT€\lrqcl>CQ-avTO t&v vavixaxqa-avTODV (TTpaTTj- 
y<av Sktoh ovtcdv airiOavov bk ol irapovTes i^. koL ov 35 
TToAXw XP^^^ varepov juiert'juieAe rots ^AOrjvaloLS, Koi 
ky\rri<f)la'avTOy oItiv€S tov brjfJLOV ^^rjirJiTrjcrav, irpo ^ok as 
avT&v clvaL, koL eyyvrjTas KaTaa-Trja-aiy l<t>s hv KpiO&<riv, 
€lvai b^ Kal Kakkl^evov tovto^v, TTpov^krjOTja-av bi koL 
iAAot TiTTapes, Koi ibiOrjcrav vtto tQv iyyv7}(raixiva>v. 
varepov be arda-eias tlvos yevofxivrjs, iv 77 KAeoc^toi; 
airiOavev, airibpaa-av ovtoi, irplv KpLOrjvaC KaXkC^evo^ 
bi KaTekdiov 0T€ Kol ol iK TleipaLQs eh to iarv, fiiarov- 
fxevos virb irdvTiav At/utw aireOavev. 



< - 



r ^. 



94 HELLENIC A II, C. i. 



Book II. 
CHAPTER I. 

406-405 The Peloponnesian soldiers at Chios, hard pressed by want, 
^•^- form apian to sack the city, Eteonicus discovers the plot, 

and by prompt measures puts it down. He asks and 
obtains from the Chians a contribution of money, 

Oi h\ iv Tjj X^o) fi€Ta Tov ^Et€ovIkov (TTpaTt&rat 

SvT€s, la)9 fx^v 64pos fjv, aiTO re rrjs &pas iTpi<f>ovTo koL 

October ipyaCopLevoL fMicOov Kara rrjv x<ipav' iircl hi xeipi&v 

' iyiv€TO Koi Tpo(f)rjv oifc etx^^ yvfxvol re fjaav kol dvv- 

TTobriToi, (TwiaravTO dAAijAots koX a-vverCOevTo i)s rfj 

Xto) i'ni6r](r6ix€voi' oXs h\ Tavra apia-KOi Kikajiov <pi^ 

2 peiv c6oK€t, tva aWrjkovs piiOoLev oiroa-oi €trj(rav, irv- 
Oofxevos be rb avvOrjixa 6 'Ereortfcos, aTTopcas jutcv elx^ 
tC xP^P^o rw 'npA.yixaTi hia rb ttX^^os rSiV KaXapLTjipoponv' 
TO re yap €k tov kii<f>avovs iinxeLpTJa-aL a-(f)ak€pbv iboKCL 
elvai, fxri els to, oirXa oppLrja-axn Kai ttiv irokiV Kara- 
a\6vT€S Kol 'noXip.ioi yevofievot, aTroXicaxri irivTa to. 
TTpdyfjLaTa, &v KpaTrjo-axn, to t av aT^oKKivai avOpdirovs 
(rvpLp.ixovs TToWovs beivbv icpaCveTo etvai., jjirj Tiva kclI 
els Tois iWovs "EWrjvas bta^okTiv (ryoiev koL ol orpa- 

3 TiSiTai bv<rvoi irpbs to, 'np6.yp.aTa S>a-iv' avaka^oiv be 
p.e6i* eavTov ivbpas TievTeKaCbeKa iyyeLplbia e^ovTas 
iiropeveTo KaTa ttjv ttoKlv, kol evTV)(jiv Tivi d(f>OaX' 
P.I&VTI &v6p(0TT<^ aiTLOvTi i^ laTpelov, K&\ap,ov exoim, 

4 aireKTeive, Oopv^ov b^ yevop.evov koX ^pooTdvTcov tiv&v 
dia Tt iiitedavev 6 &v0pa>iros, irapayyiWeiv iK^kevev 6 



HELLENICA II, C. i. 95 

'Ercoz^iKOS, on rov KiXafjuov clx^- Kara bi ttiv irapay- 406^05 
ycXlav ippCiTTovv ttAvtcs oaoi €tx,ov Tois KaAci/xovs, acl 
6 &KOva)V dedto)? firi 6(l>0€Cri l\(i)V. fxcTa hi ravra 6 5 
'ErerfrtKOs avyKoXia-a^ tovs XCovs xprjiiaTa iK4\€var€ 
avv€V€yK€lv, Sitijus ol vavrat, AijQoxrt fiia-Oov koX fx^ 
v€(ji>T€pC(roi)(rC rt" ol hi elarjvcyKav fi/uta 8c c^s ray vavs 
ioTJpLTjvev €l(rPaCv€LV' 'npocniiv 8e Iv fiipei. itap iKda-T7]v , 
vavv irapeOippvvi re koL Traprjvei irokki, i>s tov yeyevq- 

flivOV Ovblv €lb(iSi Koi llia-Obv kK&CTTt^ jXriVOS bUb(i>K€, 

On the appeal of her Asiatic allies, supported by envoys from 
Cyrus, Sparta appoints Lysander to be secretary and 
Aracus to be admiral of the fleet, 

Mcrct 8c raCra o\ Xiot koX o\ iXKoi (ji\ip.a\o\, <n;A.- e 
k€yivT€s els *'E^c<roz/ k^ovkeua-avro irepl t&v ivearrjKo- 
^ T(av TTpayiiiTOiv itipnT^iv cJs AaKc8a^fxo2;a irpia-^cLS ravrd 
re ipovvras koX Ava-avbpov alrrja-ovTas iirl ras vavs, ev 
<^€p6^i,€Vov irapa tois (rv/jt/xixo^y Kara rriv TTporipav vavap^ 
Xlav, St€ koX ttiv iv Norf^ ivUrjac vavp.W)(iav, kcX dire- 7 
Tri fi(l>6rj(rav irpia-peLS, avv avrols 8e Kal irapa Kvpov ravra 
Xiyovres fiyycAot. ol 8c AaKc8atfxoi;tot eboa-av tov Av- 
a-avbpov i)s CTTtoToXca, vaiapypv b\ '^Apanov' ov yap 
vofjLOS avToXs bis rdv avrbv vavapyeiv' ras fxivroL z^avy 
TTapiboaav Av(rAvbp<^ [ir&v ijbri r^ Tro\4p.<^ Tiivre kolL 
elKoa-t, TTap€K7]Xv66T(t)v]. 

Cyrus, having put Autoboesaces and Mitraeus to death, is 
summoned before Darius to answer for his conduct, 

Tovro) 8^ r<j5 Iviavrl^ k6X YJopos airiKTeivev AvrojQot- 8 
a-i.Kif]v KoX MiTpalov, vUls ovras ttjs AapiaCov d8cA.<^^9 
[rrjs TOV Sip$ov tov AapeCov Trarpds], on air<3 airav- 
TOiVTCS ov bUaxrav 8id ttjs KOprjs tols X€ipas, h Troiovcri, 



1 



g6 HELLENICA II, C. i. 

406-405 )3ao-t\ct fiovov* fj bi K6fyrj iarl fiaKporepov ^ X^ipk, iv 

' * fj rfjv x^W ^x*^^ ovbiv &v biivairo ttoi^o-cu. ^lepauplvqs 

fikv oJfv Koi ff yvvrj lk€yov itpbs Aapialov heivbv flvcu c! 

Tr€pLfi\lr€Tai rriv kCav v^piv ToiroV o h\ avrov /lera- 

• vV^ T€/i7rcrat is iLppoaar^v, Tr^/x^as ayyikovs. 

Lysander, on his arrival at Ephesus, collects all the ships 
he can from Chios, Antandros, and elsewhere, gets afresh 
supply of money from Cyrus, and refits his fleet. The 
Athenians make similar preparaiions at Samos. 

10 T<j) 8' €7n6vTL Ire4 [^-ttI ^Apyjira fxkv €(f>opeuovTos, 
405-404 ipypvTos 8' iv ^A07jvaf,s 'AXc^fov,] Aijo-avbpos d^tKO/xc- 

vos €ls "'Ec^eo-oi; pL€T€TT4pL^aTo ^EreovLKOv ck Jilov <rvv rais 
vava-L, Koi ray iXXas irda-as avvrjOpoLa-cVy el ttcpu t4s ijj;, 
Koi TavTas t iirea-Keva^e Koi aWas iv ^Avrivbpia ivav- 

11 TrqyeiTo, ikdatv bi irapa Kvpov xprniara "^reC 6 8' air<3 
cIttcv oTt TO. fikv TTapa pa(nk4<as &vri\(oniva clri, kol Irt 
TrXelm 7roXA(3, beiKvvoov oara iKaaros t&v vavap^onv ixoi, 

12 oficas 8' l8o)K€. Xap<$iv bi 6 Ava-avbpos rapyvpiov, iiii 
TCL^ TpiripHS TpLrjpApxov9 ^TT^oTrjcre koL toXs vavrais tov 
6(l)€ik6pL€Vov pLKrObv airiboiKc. TrapeaKeva^ovTo bi Koi 
ol T&v *A6r}vaC(i)v crrparqyol irpos to vavriKov iv rfj 
Sd/xo). 

Cyrus, before going up to his father in Media, leaves Lysander 
in charge of all the tribute of his satrapy, and warns 'him 
against fighting with the Athenians, 

13 Ki5po9 8' iT:\ tovtois p.€re'niiiy\raTO Avo-avbpov, iirel 
avT<a nrapa tov iraTpds rJK€V iyycKos \iyoiV otl iippaiaTQv 
iK€ivov KokoCri, (ov iv Qap-vriplois r^s M7/8€fas iyyifs 

14 Yiabova-L(av, i(j>* ots i<rTpiT€V(r€V dc^fcrroiras. rjKOVTa bk 
Avo-avbpov ovK eta vaviua,\€lv nrpos ^AOrjvalovs, iav firi 



HELLENICA II, C. T. ^^^ 97 

TToXX^ wXcfovy vavs ^xV ^irai yip xpr^iiaTa TroXXa koL 405-404 
/3ao-i\€t Kol ourQy cSorc tovtoP iv€K€v irokXas irkrjpodv, 
irapibeL^e 8' avr^ irdvTas tovs <f)6povs roifs ^k t&v 'TroAecoy, 
ot avT(D IbLOi fja-aVf Koi tol Treptrra xpTJfxaTa IScofce* fcal 
iLvaixirqaras wy cl^^ (pMas TTpos re t^i; r«y AafceSatfxoyfft)!; 
TToAty Kol irpbs Aiaravbpov iSfqt, ivifiaLVC iraph rov 
Ttaripa, 

Ly Sander takes Cedreiae in Carta by storm^ and then sets out 
for Rhodes,- The Athenians sail to Chios and Ephesus, 
and choose three additional generals, 

Av(ravbpos 5', iirel avr^ Kvpos itivra irapahovs ri 15 
avTov irpds tov itaripa ippcoorovvra ix^Tait^intros &vi' 
paiv€y fxiaSbv biabovs rfj orparc^ iivrjxOrj rrjs KapCas 
els rdv Kepineiov koXttov. koI irpoa-paX^v Tr6k€i 
T&v ^AOr\vamv avpLjxdx^ Svopia KebpelattS rfj varepala 
TTpoo-poXfj Karh Kpdros aipel koX i^vbpaTr6bL(r€V, fj(rav 
bl fiL^ofiipfiapoL ol ivoLKOvirrcs. iKcWev 8' iir^irkcvo-cv 
cJs *V6bov. ol 8' ^AOrjvaloi ck rijs 2(i/xov 6pfj,(&pL€Vot, 16 
Triv PaaiXiais KaKm iiroCovv, Kot iirl rrjv Xlov Koi riiv 
*'E<^e<roy iiriTrXeov, koL irapca-KevdiCoi^o Tipbs vavyLayJiav, 
KoX arpaTTjyovs irpos roty vTripxpv(n irpoareCkovTO M^- 
vavbpov, Tvbia, Krj(l>i,a-6boTov, 

m 

Ly Sander sails fia^t Ionia to the Hellespont, The Athenians ' 

put out to sea from Chios, 

Aiaavbpos 8' ^k rrjs *Po8oi; irapa i^v ^IcuvCav iKirkel 17 
irpdi TOV ^EXkrja-TTOVTOV ir pSs re r &v TrkoCoiv rhv iKirkovv ^ ^o - 
KOX kiiX ras iL(t>€&Tr]Kvias avr&v iroAety. dirrjyoi^ro 6^ xat 
ol ^AOrivaioL iK ttjs Xlov ireXiyioi, ^ yap *A(rla Trokciiia 
ovrois fjv. 



98 HELLENIC A 11^ C. 1. 

405-404 Ly Sander takes Lampsacus by storm. The Athenians, 180 
B.C. strong, sail in pursuit, first to Elaeus, then to Sestos, 

where they anchor off Aegospotami, opposite Lampsacus, 
and offer battle. 

18 Avaavbpos 6' i^ ^Afivbov TrapiTrkcL et? AdfiyfraKov 
<rifilia\ov oia-av ^ABr\val<av* koX ol ^Afivhrivol koX 01 
iXKoi irapfjarav Vc^* ^yetro 8c 0cSpa^ AaK€bai,fi6vios. 

19 Ttpoa'^aXovres hi Tjj -jroXet alpova-i Kara Kparos, koL 
biripiraa-av ol arTparL&Toi ovcrav irXovcriav koX oXvov kol 
(tCtov Kol T(av iXK(jiV iTTLTrjheCcDV Trkrjpri' ra be iKevBepa 

20 crdfiaTa TrAvra d^^ice Av(ravbpos. ol 8' ^Ad-qvoloi Kara 
Ttobas nrXiovres &pfil<ravTo ttjs Xcppovrjcrov iv ^Kkatovm'i 
vavolv dyborJKOvra koX kKarov, ivfavOa bri apiaro^ 
TTOLOvfjiivois avTols &yyiW€Tai, ra irepl AipAJraKOV, koX 

21 €v6ifs d.vrJxOrjo'av els ^rjarov* ck^Wcv 8' €v6vs iin<rLTL<ri- 
fievot iirkeva-av els Alyos irorafiovs avriov tt]s Aa/xi/raKou* 
St^ct 8' 6 *EXX?jo-'n'oi;ro9 ravrri orablovs &s irevreKaibeKa, 
ivravOa be ibenrvoiroLovvTo, 

Forfimr days they try in vain to draw Lysander out of his 
harbour, A Icibiades points out to them the disadvantages 
of their position, but their generals scorn his advice and 
refuse to move, * • 

22 Aijoravbpos bk Trj iinoija-ri vvktI, iirel opOpos fjv, i(rrj- 
pLtjvev els TOLS vavs apioToiroLrja-apLevovs elcr^aiveiv, irivra 
bk irapaarKevaa-dfievos m els vavp.a\iav koL tol irapa/SA?}- 
pxira TTapajBaXdv, Trpoeiirev &S firjbels KLvrjaroiTo iK Tys 

23 rd^ecas [xrjbi avi^otro, ol bi ^AOrivaioi ijia r<3 fjKtfa 
avCaxovTL eirl rw kipievi Traperi^avro iv /mcrciTro). &s els 
vavjiaxCav, iirel bi ovk avTavrjyaye AiJoravbpos, Koi ttjs 
fipiipas dxjf'k ^v, &Tr4Trkevarav irdXiv els tovs Alybs Trora- 

24 fioHs* Avcravbpos bi rets Ta^Ccrras tQv veQv iKekevcrev 



HELLENICA II, C. i. 99 

l7T€(r6al Tois ^AOrivalois, iircibav bk iK^Qai, KaTibovras 406-404 

X> ft 

Ti TTOiov&Lv &TroTr\€lv Kctl avT<^ ^fayyciAat. koX ov 
7rp6T€pov i^€plpa(r€V in tQv v^SiV, irplv avrai fJKOP. 
ravra 6* iiroCet, riiTapas fffiipas* Koi ol ^AOrjvaloi, iiravrj' 
yovTo. 'AX.Ktj3i(i67ys 8e KaTLb&>v ck tQv tcix&v tovs fikii 25 
^ kdrivalovs iv atytaAo) oppLOvvras kol Trpos ovbcpLiq ttoXci, 
TO. 6' eTTtTT^Seta ck 2?j(rro5 pLenovras Tr€VT€KaCb€Ka ora- 
^^ot;9 ^TTO rcoz' ve&v, tovs be iroXepLLOvs iv Kip^ivi koX 
irpbs ir6\€L ixovTas TTavTa, ovk iv KaX£ i(f>r\ avrovs 
oppieiv, dXXa peOoppiCa-ai, els ^r]or6v itapyv^i irpSs re 
XipJva KoX TTpbs ttSKlv oi ovres vavpLaxxja-ere, i^r\y Srav 
PovKrio-Oe, ol be a-TparqyoC, p.6XiarTa be Tvbevs koI 26 
MivavbpoSi iinivai avrdv iKiXevo-av avrol yap vvv 
oTpaTrjyeiVy ovk iK€ivov» Kal 6 pkv ^\€T0. 

Battle of Aegospotami, 

On the fifth day, at a given signal from his scouts , Lysander 
suddenly rows across, the strait with his whole fleet, and 
surprises the Athenians while they are scattered along the 
shore obtaining provisions. He captures without a blow 
the entire Athenian fleet, except ConorCs squadron and the 
Paralusy and most of the crews, 

Av<ravbpos b\ iirei fjv rjpuipa TripLTm] iTnirXiova-i toIs 27 
^ AOrjvalois, eiTTe toIs irap avTov iiropAvois, iirriv KarfSoa- 
(Ttz; avTovs ^Kj3ej3r;Koras koX iarKebacpiivovs Kara rriv 
Xeppovrjaov, oircp iiroCow ttoXv pLoXKov Kaff* kKiarrjv 
Tipiipav, ri re crtrta iroppcaOev i>voipL€vot, kol Kara(i>pO' 
VQVVT€S br\ Tcn) Avaiivbpov, otl ovk iLvravrjycv, aTroirXiovTas 
ToipiroKiv Tiap avrov Spat aa-irlba Kara piia-ov tov ttKovv, 

01 bi Tavra iTTolrj<rav &s iKi\€va'€. AHaavbpos 6' evOvs 28 
iarjprjve rriv rayio'T'qv itKely' avp/iraprjei. bi Koi Qdpa^ 
TO rrr^Cov ex^ov. K6v(»iv b^ lbi)V tov iirCirXovv, iaifjpLrivev 
els TCLS vavs fiorjOeiv KaTa KpaTos* bica-K^baarpLivoDV b€ 

G 2. 



lOO HELLENIC A IL C i. 

406-404 T&v iLvOpiitoav^ al /xev tQv v€&v bUpoTOi, fjaav, al b^ 
fiovoKpotoi, al hi iravT€kQs Kcval' fj bi Koviovos Koi 
ikKai 'ir€p\ avrbv kirra Tr\rjp€(,s ivrJx^W^^ idpoai Koi fj 
HipaXos, ras 6' SAAas iria-as Avaravbpos lA.aj3e irpds rfj 
yj}. Tovs bi wXefoTovs ivbpas iv ttj y^ avvi\€^€V oi 
bk Kol iifivyov eiy to. reiyibpia. 

Conon escapes to Cyprus, The Paralus carries the news to 
Athens, Lysander brings his prisoners to Lampsacus^ and 
sends Theopompus to Sparta to announce his victory, 

^9 KoVft)i; b\ rats ivvia vava\ <f)€vy<»)v^ e^rel iyvo) r&v 
^AOrivalcav ra TrpiyfiaTa bu<t>6appLiva, Kara(r)^v iTtX r^r 
^A^apvCba rffv AapL\j/dKov inpav iKafiev avT6d€V ra 
fi€y6Xa T&v Avtrivbpov vc&v lorla, koI avros iikv oKri^ 
vavalv &TriTr\€V(r€ Trap' Evay6pav ct? Kvirpov, fj bi 
UipaKos eZs ras ^A$rjva9i i'Trayyckova'a ra yeyovora. 

80 Avaravbpos bi rds re vavs Kal tovs alxpLoXdrovs koL raXXd 
Tt&UTa ds AipLylfOKW/ iirriyayeVy Ika^e bi kol t&v arparrj- 
y&v &Xkovs T€ Kal ^i\oK\4a Kal ^Abelfiavrov. fj 5' r^iiipa 
ravra KaT^ipyiaraTo, iTre/uti/re 0eo7ro/x7ro^ rdv MiAi^crior 
\ri<rn}v els AaKebaCjJLOva iirayyekovvra ra yeyovora, hs 
a(f)LK6ii€vos rpiToios A-mfyyetXc. 

Lysander summons a meeting of his allies at Lampsacus at 
which they make many complaints of Athenian cruelty. 
In revenge he executes all the Athenians among his captives, 
except the general Adimantus, 

31 Mcra tik ravTa Avo-avbpos aOpolaas roifs avjjLjjLixovs 
iKi\€V(r€ fiovkevearOai irepi t&v alxfiaXdroiv. ivravda bfi 
KarriyopCat, iyCyvovro iroXXal t&v ' A^Tyvatcoi;, & re ijbrj 
vapevevopjiKea-av koL h i\lrri<f>i,a'iJiivoi fjcav iroLeiv, el 
Kparrja-eiav rj vavpLaxC(^ ttiv be^av x^^P^ iLTTOKOirreLv 



HELLENIC A 12, CC. i, 2. lOI 

Tw duyypriOivTOiv Trivrcav, koX Stl kap6vT€S bio Tpirjp€iSi 406-404 
KopivOlav Koi ^Avhplavy rovs ivbpas i$ avr&v irivras 
KaraKpyiyLvla-eiav ^iKokKti^ 6' ^1; a-Tparriyos t&v 'A^tj- 
vaC<av, &s toiStovs bii<l>6€Lp€v. ikiyero bi koI oAXa -jroXAa, 32 
Koi Ibo^ev iiTroKTelvat, r&v a^XMoXcorcDz; oa-ou i'ja-av 'A^ry- 
valoi ttXtiv * AbeifJiivTov, otl fiSvos ^ircXajSero iv Tjj ck- 
Kkqartq Tov itepl rrjs &TroTOfirjs t&v x^^P^v \lrri<l>l<rfiaTOS* 
fjrLiOri iiivToi viro rivoav irpobovvat, tcls vavs. Aiaravbpos 
b^ <l>iAo/cA€a irpoiTov ipoarria-as, hs tovs ^Avbplovs koX 
KopivOiovs KaT€KpriixvL(r€i tC elrj &^ios iraO^iv ip^dfjievos 
€ts "EXAiyvas irapavoficlv, aTri(r(f)a^€V, 



CHAPTER 11. 

Byzantium and Ckalcedon submit to Lysander, who sends 
the Athenian garrisons in them and elsewhere back to 
Athensy hoping thereby the sooner to reduce the city to 
starvation* 

'Eircl b\ TO. Iv TTJ AaixyjriKi^ icar€cm]<raro, IttXci iifl 
TO BvCivTLOv Kot Ka\)(rib6va. ol d' avrbv xmebiypvroy 
Tovs T&v AOrivaCoav <ppovpovs viroo'TTdvbovs &<pivT€S. ol 
be TTpob6vT€S 'AAKtj3t(i8p rd BvCivnov roVe piv i<l>vyov 
eh TOV Ylomov^ va-Tcpov 8' eh ^AOrjvas Kai iyivovTO 
^AOrjvaioi, Aiaavbpos be toUs Te (Ppovpoxfs tq^v *A6rjval(»>v 2 
Kol el Tivi irov iWov Iboi, ^AOrjvaiovy airiiTep.'nev eh tcls 
^AOrjvas, bibovs iKelae p.6vov Trkiova-iv a<r<f>6Xeiav, SXkoa-e 
b^ oi, elb^s 074 5(r&) &v irXeCovs <rv\key&(ri,v eh ri Sort; 
KoX TOV JJeLpaia, Oarrov t&v iin,Tribei(ji)v Ivbeiav la-ea-Oax. 
KaTCL\nri>v bi Bv^avTlov koi Kak^ribovos ^devikaov 



1 02 HELLENIC A II, C. a. 

405-404 hpfwariiv AiKODva, avrds airoTrXeva-a? eh Aifiyj/aKOv ras 

7>ft^ Athenians^ on hearing of their disaster^ reflecting that 
the vengeance they had taken on many subject states was 
about to return upon their own heads, resolve to prepare 
the city for a siege, 

3 ^^v h\ rai? ^ kQr\va\,s rr\% ITapaAot; aj^iKO\Liirt\s voktos 
ikiycTO fj avix<l>opi, kol oljjLOiyrj iK tov Ylcipai&s dia tQv 
[laKpQv T€LxQv els iarv bi,f]K€v, 6 (repos rw kripta irapay- 
yikKcav' &<tt iKelvrjs rrjs wktos ovbels iKOifirjOrjf ov 

; p.6vov Tovs dTToAcoAoras TievOovvres^ dXAa -ttoAv p.aXXov 

' Itl avTol tavTovs, TT€C<r€<r$ai vop.CCovT€S ota iirolria-av 

Mr}\Covs re AaKehaipLOvloav iiroUovs SvraSi Kparrja-avres 

TToXiopKLq, Koi ^loTiaiias koX ^Kf,(jiivaCovs koL TopoavaCovs 

4 Koi AlyLvrJTas Kal iWovs iroXXoxfs r&v *EAA7]j;ft)j;. r^ 8* 
varepaCc^ iKKXria-Cav iirolria-av, iv fj ibo^e tovs T€ Xifiivas 
iTTox&a-M TrXrjv kv6s Koi tol T€l\ri evrpeirCCeLv Koi 
ff>vkaKas i<l>i<rTivaL Koi r^AAa irivra &s els iroXiopKCav 
irapaa-KeviC^LV lijv iroXtv, koI oJfTOL pikv irepl Tavra 
fjirav. 

Ly Sander sails to Lesbos, where he reorganizes the govern- 
ments of the several states, and despatches Eteonicus to do 
the same in Thrace, All the Athenian allies revolt, except 
the Samians, 

5 Av(ravbpos 8' Ik tov ^EXkrjcnrovTov vava-l biaKoalais 
&(f)i,K6fjLevos els Aia-^ov KaTea-KevdaaTo Tis re iAAay 
TToXeis iv avTrj koL MvTLXfjvriv' els be to. iirl (dpaKrjs 
\(apia Ittc/x^c beKa TpLrjpets l\ovTa ^ETeoviKOv, hs Th 

6 inel irivTa irpbs AaKebaifiovlovs p.eTe(m]<Tev. evBvs b\ 
kclX fi &XXr\ *EAAas d^etoTT^fcei *AOrivaC(ov fxcra ttji; vav- 



HELLENICA II, C. a. IO3 

lJ,a\Cav irkriv Safx^wr* oSrot 8^ (r^oyg g TcSr yyoiplfiwy 405-404 
-jTotTjcraz/Tcs icarctxoz; ttji; ttoAiz;. , 

Simultaneously the Spartans and their allies under king 
Pausanias invade Attica and encamp in the Academy, 
and Lysander, having restored Aegina and Melos to their 
exiled citizens, blockades Piraeus, 

Av<Tav^pos h^ fieTOL ravra lirefxr/fe irpbs ^AyCv re els 7 
AefceAeiai; koI €ls AaKebaCfxova 8ti irpocnrXel ovv biaKO- 
aiats vavaL AaKebaifxSvLot, 6' i^cav Travbrjflel Koi ol 
ik\oL Tl€koTTOvvrj<noi ttXtiv ^ApyeCwv, itapayy^iXavros 
Tov irlpov AaKebaipLOvloav paaLKims UavcavCov. iircl 8 
8' iiravTcs rj0poC(r0ri(rav, iva\ap<av avrohs irpos rqv 
ttoKlv iaTpaTOTrib€V(r€V iv rfj ^AKabrjfiela [rta KaXovix4v<a 
yvftrao-fo)]. AHaavbpos bi &(f>iK6p.€Vos els Alyivav iiri- 9 
boDKc TTiv ttoKlv AlyivrJTais, Scovs ibivaro TrXe^orovs 
aifT&v &Opol(raSi &s S* airms koI Mr}\loLS koX tois iXkoLS 
o<TOi TTJs avTwr iaripovTo* iiera bi tovto brj<i<ras SoXa- 
fxiva ipfiCaaTO irpos tov Ueipaia vaval ircvTrJKOvTa koI 
kKaroVy Kol TCL irkoia ttpy€ tov eXairXov, 

The Athenians maintain an obstinate resistance till all their 
com fails; then they send envoys to Agis with offers of an 
alliance, but he refers them to the Ephors at Sparta; by 
whom, however, they are refused permission to enter the 
country, 

01 8' ^AOrivaloi TToXi.opKOVp.€voL Kara yrjv Kal Kara 10 
Oikarrav -fjiropovv rl xpri iroieiv, ovre vc&v ovrc crv/x- 
pAyoiv avTols Svtodv ovt€ cCtov' ivofXL^ov bi ovbepiiav 
etvai (TwrrjpCav ixri iraOelv h ov Tip.<apovpL€voi, iiroCriaav 
iWci bih TTIV appLv rjblKovv ivOpdirovs fxiKpoiroXlras 
ovb^ iirl fxiq alrCq, kripq ^ 5ri iKcCvois <rwfpL6.\ovv* bia 11 
ravra tovs arCfiovs iinTlpiovs TTOirja-avTcs iKapripovv, koX 



I04 HELLENIC A II, C. 2. 

405-404 iTTo0vri(rK6vTa>v iv Ttj iroXei \ifi<^ iroXX&v oh huXiyovro 
irepl bLoWayrjs. iirel bi irajrreX&s ijbri 6 cItos lireAc- 
AofTTCt, lirciiylrav irpia-peLS itap *Ayti;, fiovXofxevoi <r6iX' 
ixaxpi . ciz^at AaKebaiiiovCois Ixovtcs to, tcCxtj koL tov 
•12 flcipa&a, KoX iirl toUtois avv&riKas TroLcla-Oai. 6 be 
airovs eh AaKebaCfXova iKi\€V€v Upar ov ycip elvai 
K6pt.os avTos* iirii 6' iirriyyeiXav ol irpiapeis ravra 

13 rot; ^AOrivaCois, iTreixyj/av airoifs els AaKebaifxova, ol V 
iTFel fjaav iv SeXXao-f^ [ttXijo-^oi;] ttjs AaKa>VLK7Js kol 
iwidovTo ol i<fiOpoi avT&v h iKeyov, ovra oliirep koX irpos 
^Ayiv, avToOey ovrois iKikevov iirUvaLf fcai el rt beoirrai 

14 elprjvris, KiXkiov rjKeLV Povkeva-apievovs. ol be Ttpeafieis 
irteX fJKov olKabe kol aTrrjyyeLkav ravra elsriiv iroktVf 
&6vp.Ca iviirea-e Tra<nv' i^ovto yap ivbpairobiO'drja'ea'Oai, 
Koi $<as hv Ttip.Tto^o'iv eripovs Trpea-fieLS, ttoWovs ro) 
Xtfiip iTToXeXaOaL. 

Stiil they will not hear of demolishing their Long Walls y and 
even arrest Archestratus for making such a proposal. 

16 ricpl S^ rwi; Tetx^z; 7^9 KaOaLpicecos oibeU ejBoiSXeTo 
crvpL^ovKeCeiv* ^Apxearparos yap eliriav iv rfj Povkfj 
AaKebaLfiovCois Kpiriarov elvai i<j>' ols irpovKakovirro 
elprjvrjv irotela-Oai,, ibeBrf' irpovKakovvro be t&v fiaKp&v 
TeL\&v iirl biKa a-rdblovs KaOeKeiv eKaripov iyivero be 
\lnj<f)L(rp,a /m?) i^elvaL irepl ro'CruiV <Tvp.^ovKeieiv. 

Theramenes procures his own despatch to negotiate with 
Ly Sander y but after waiting more than three fnonths returns 
with the informationy that the Ephors alone had power to 
make peace. However he and nine others are chosen as 
plenipotentiaries and sent to Sparta, 

16 TototJra)!/ 6^ ovTdav SrjpapLivrjs elirev iv iKKkrja-Ca Sri 
el fiovKovTcu oifTov irefiylrai iraph Avaavbpov, elbias rj^ei 



HELLENIC A II, C. a. I05 

hxkK^ha\.\kovLo\)s TTOTepov i^avbpairobCa-ao'Oai rriv iroKiv 406-404 
fiovX6iJ.€voi, Arr^ovo-t irepl rQv tclx&v ^ irlareais ivcKo, 
'ir€ix<f>d€ls hi bUrpipe itapa Ava-ivbpta rpcts firjvas Koi 
itKioVi kiriTrip&v ottotc ^AOrfvaXoL l/xeXXoi; 8ta to imXe- 
\onr4vaL tov avrov iiravra 5,Tt rts Xeyot 6}JLokoyrj(r€LV, 
iiTfl hi fJKe T€TipT<j^ P'f]vlt d-JTTjyyeiAci; iv iKKKr\a'i<^ otl 17 
avTov Ava-avhpos riuis iikv Karixoi, 'ctta K€\euoL els 
AaK€baCpLOva Uvai' ov yap eivat icipLos &v ipa>T(^to vit 
airrov, &AAd rovy i<l>6povs. fJL€Ta rarka 'pp^Or} irpfo-peV' 
TTjs els AaKehalpiova avroKpiToap hiKoros avros- Ava-av- is 
tpos h\ Tols i(t>6pois iirefxylrev iyyekovvra ii€t iXXoiv 
AaK€bai[xovioiv ^ Api,arori\r\, (f>vy6Jba ^AOrivaiov Sirra, Sri 
avoKplvaLTo QrjpafxiveL iKflvovs Kvplovs eTvai dprivrfs 

KOX VOkifJLOV. 

An audience is given to them at Sparta, where many accusa- 
tions are brought against the Athenians, especially by the 
Corinthians and Thebans; but the Spartans rejuse to 
destroy Athens utterly, and offer terms ofpecu:e. 

^papJvrjs bi Kot ol aWoi irpicpeis iircl ^cav iv 19 
^€XXa<rCq, ip<aT<ip,€V0L bi iirl tCvl XJy^ rJKOiev elirov Stl. 
avTOKpiropcs irepl elprjirqs, fierh ravra ol iff>opoi KoXeiv 
iniKevov avrois, IttcI 6' r^KOV, iKKkticlav iTToCrj<rav, iv 
fj iivrlKeyov K.oplvOi.01. koL &r}paLOi pLdXiara, iroXXol bi 
Koi SXkoi T&v 'EWrjvoiVf [xfi a-irivbeo'dai, ^AOrjvaCois, 
dW' i^aipelv. AaKebatpiovioi bi ovk iffyacav ttSKiv 20 
'EXXriviba ivbpairobielv p^iyO' iyaSov elpyaa-jjJvrjv iv 
Tois pLeyCtrrois Kivbvvois yevofxivois rfj ^EWibi, AXX' 
iiroiovvTO elp'/jvriv i<l>* ^ ri re fiaKpa TeCxrf Koi rdv Ilei- 
paia KadeXSvTas koI tols vavs irXfiv bdbcKa TTapa^6vTas 
Kol Toifs (t>vydbas KaOivTas Tdv avTov i\dp6v koX <I>C\ov 



I06 HELLENIC A II, C. a, 

405-404 vofxlCovTas AaK^iaiixovlois iTT€<r6ai koX Kara yrjv Koi 
Kara OdXarrav Siroi iiv ^ywrrai, 

TAe Athenians, notwithstanding the remonstrances of a few, 
readily accept the terms offered^ 

21 Q>r\pa\i.ivii\% Vk k(jX o\ avv aircj) irpia-pcLS iiTavi<l>^pov 
Tavra ck tols ^AOrjvas, cJcrtorray 8' ovtovs Sx^^^ 'ffepte- 
\€LTO TTok6s, <f)ofioiSfX€voi, fx^ iiTpaKTOi tJkoi€v' ov yap Itl 
iv€x<ip€i, ixiWciv bia TO ttXtjOos t&v iiroWvpLivoav r^ 

22 \ipL(^, TTJ bk vaT€pa[<i aTrrjyycXXov ol TTp4<rp€L9 l<^' ols 
ol AaKehaipLOVLot, ttoloivto ttiv clprjvrjv Trporjy6p€L bi 
avrQv Grjpaixivrjs, Xiyoav is XP^ ir^lO^a-Oai AaK€5ai- 

fJLOvCoLS KOL TO, TclxT] Tr€p(,aip€lv. i,VT€tTT6vT(0V bi TlVOiV 

avro), iroXv bi TrKciovoiv (rvv€TTai.v€0'6,vT<av, ibo^€ b€\€' 
<rdai TTIV flprjvrjv. 

Ly Sander and the exiles enter Piraeus and begin the destruc- 
tion of the Long Walls, celebrating the first day of Greek 
Freedom, 

23 Mera b\ rama Av<ravbp6s re KariirXci els top ITcipaia 
Koi ol (f)vy(lLb€S Karfjaav Kal rci t^Ixh KaTiaKairrov vii' 
avXtiTpCboav iroWfj irpoOvpLCq, vopLl(qvT€S iKclvriv ttiv 
fiiiipav rfj *EWibt ipx€i.v rrjs iXevOepCas. 

Contemporary events in Sicily, 

24 Kal 6 iviavrbs iXrjycv, iv ^ fi€(rovim, Aioinjcnos 6 
^EppLOKpirovs ^vpanoaios iTvpavvr\cr€, M^XS M^^ irpoTC- 
pov TjTTriOivTiov VTTO ^vpaKO<ri<ji)v KapxribovloiVf airivei 
b^ (tItov kXovTcav ^AKpiyavra, iKXnrovroiv t&v 2tic€Xta>« 

T&V TTlV TToXlV, 



HELLENICA Ily C. 3. I07 



CHAPTER III. 404-403 

B.a 



The Athenians appoint Thirty men to draw up a new constitu- 
tion^ whereupon Lysander sails to Samos^ and Agis with- 
draws from Decelea, 

T^ 6' iiTLoirrt Irei [^ ^2; 'OAv/utTrtds, fj to oT<i6tov 
ivUa KpOKlvas GcttoXos, EvbUov iv STrdprry iffyopev- 
ovTos, Uvdobdpov 6' iv ^AOrjvais ipxpvTos, hv ^AOrjvaioi, 
0T4 iv 6kiyap\la rjpiOrj, oifK drofidfovcrir, aX\' &vap\Cav 
rdv iviavTdv Kakov<ri,v, iyivero hi avrq rj d\Lyap\ia 
eSde.] lbo^€ TO) brjjjLOi Tpi,6,K0VTa ivbpas kXiadai, ot tovs 2 
irarpCovs vofiovs (rvyyp6.y\rov(TL^ KaO^ ots woAtTcvo-ovo-t. 
Kol '^pi6r](rav oKe, IToAvx^ip^s, Kptr^os, Mry\(J/3t09, 'Iir- 
'KoKo^oSy EvKAeiS?;?, 'lepcoi;, Mj/tjct^Aoxos, \p€fi<ov, ©rypa- 
/xeVrys, 'Apco-fas, AiokA^j, 4>ai5p^a9, XatpeAeooy, 'Arafrtoy, 
ITeio-a)!;, 2o0okA^9, ^Eparoa-Oivrj^, XapLKXrjs, 'OvofxafcA^s, 
&ioyvls, Al(r\ivris, (d€oyivr\s^ KAcojut?j5r;s, ^Epaa-CarparoSi 
4>efto)i;, ApaKOvrCbrjSy EvfidOriSi ^ ApioToriXris, 'IiTTro/jta- 
X09, MvTyo-i^e^Sr;?. tovto)!; 6^ itpaxdivToav iiriiTXcL Av- 3 
cavbpos TTphs ^ipLov, 'Ayty 6' ^k r^s AeKcAe^a? iiraya^ 
yiiv rh ireC^v arpirevixa bUXvac Kara woAeis ^Kiorovy. 

Contemporary events in Thessaly and Sicily, 

Kara 6^ rovror riz' Kaipbv ire pi fjXtov licAetT/rtz; Avko- 4 
<^pa)2; 6 4>6paroy, povX6pL€vos ip$ai SAtjj r^y 0€7TaA/as, Septem- 
roiy ivavrtovfjiivovs air<3 rwz; ©erraAo)!;, Aap^aaCovs t€ 
Koi iXXovs, p^ixy i^^i^W^ '^^^ 'ttoAAovs airiKTeLvev, 

'Ex; d^ r^ avro) xpovtj^ Koi Aiovwnos 6 ^vpaKOCios 5 
Tvpavvos p-ixjl VTTTiOeh virb Kapxrjbovioav TiXav koI 
Kapiipivav iirdXea-e. /xer' iXlyov bi Koi A^ovtlvoi 
^vpaKoa-Cois ovvoikovvtcs iTriaTrja-av ety Trfv avrQv 



I08 HELLENICA II, C. 3. 

404-408 TiiXiv ano Ai,ow<rCov Koi ^vpaKoaCoiiV. Trapaxprjfia hi 
Koi ol ^vpaKoa-LOL lTnr€is vtto Alowo-Cov eh Katijrqv 
iiT€aT6Xrj(Tav, 

Samos surrenders at discretion, Lysander, after reorganizing 
the government, dismisses the allied fleet, and at the head 
of the Lacedaemonian ships returns to Sparta in triumph 
with all the spoils of war, 

6 01 h\ 2a/jiio( Tro\iopKoviJ.€voi vtto Av(rivbpov irdirnj, 
iirel ov pov\ofi4voi)v avr&v rb iTp&Tov dfiokoyelv -Trpocr- 
fiiWeiv ijbr] l/xeXAei; 6 Avaavhpos, &iJLo\6yrj(rav iv t/jti- 
Tiov lx<ov IfcaoTos amivai t&v ikcvOiptov, ra 8' &AAa 

7 Trapabovvai' koi oijTays i^rjXOov, Avaavbpos hi tols 
ApXaCois TToXfrais Ttapaboifs rriv iroXiv koX to, ivovra 

(tirh) Triarra kcX b iica ipxoj^cis KaTa(rTrj(ras (t>povpj lv a(l>rJK€ rb 

8 T&v (n)pnx6.yjAv vavriKov Kara TrJXet?, tols 5^ AaKoaviKoXs 
vavaiv airiirX.eva'ev ets AanebalpLova, iTriymv tol T€ t&v 

* nlXfJ^akdroiiv ve&v aKpcoTrjpia kol ray Ik Yletpaim rpirj" 

p€is TtXiiv bdbeKa koI aT€<l>dvovSi 0^9 irapci r&v iroKeiov 
. i\dixpav€ b&pa Ibla, KaV dpyvpiov rerpaKOfna koX ifibo- 
fxrJKOvra rdkavra, h TtcpieyivovTO t&v <f>6paiv, ots avr^ 
Kvpos irapebci^ev els top itokep.oVy kcX ei ri iXKo iicrri- 
caro iv r^ TTok4pL<a, 

A list of the Ephors to show the duration of the war, 

TaOra b\ irivra AaKebaipLOvCois aTribcaKe Tekexrr&vTos 
Septem- tov Bipovs [eis h e^ifirivos kol SnTii koI €Iko<tl^ Irri 
ra> irokifJLia irekeiTa, kv oXs i(f>opoi ol ipidjJLOvfievot otbe 
iyivovTo, AlvritrCas Trp&TOSi l<^' ov rjp^aTo 6 irokefxos, 
'jr4fJL7TT<^ KoX beKirtj^ erei t&v /uter EvfioCas ikcuariv rpia- 
10 KOvraerCboiv airovbiav, jutcra be tovtov otbe, Bpao-^day, 
^Iciviap, ^(aarparCbas, '^E^apxps, ^ Ayrjcia-TpaTos, 'Ayyc- 



HELLENIC A II, C. 3. IO9 

i/fias, 'Oro/xaKX^s, Zei^nriTos, UiTvas, ITAciotoAos, 404-403 
Kkcivofxaxos, '^IXapxos, Aioav, XaiptAay, Uarqfri&baSf 
KXeoa-OitniSj AvKdpios, 'Einjparoy, 'Oi;o/x(li;rtos, 'AAeffjr- 
w^8as, MicryoAafeas, 'lo-fas, ''ApaKOS, Eiclpx*^^*^^'' ^**^~ 
TttKA^y, YlLTvas, ^Apx^fas, EibiKos^ €<^' oS Ai<ravbpo9 
irpi^as rh dp7\\i,iva oi/caSe Kar^'n'Aevo-ci;.] 

7i4^ Thirty delay to publish the new constitution, and put 
their own creatures into the senate and other offices. They 
proceed to purge the city of all extreme democrats, and to 
support their violent measures they procure from Lysander 
a Spartan garrison with CcUlibius as harmost, 

01 hi TpiiiKovra i^p40rj(rav fxkv iircl rixiora rh [laKpa 11 
TclxfJ f^cil TO, TTCpl Tov UcLpaLOL Ka0rjp46rj' alpeOivres hi 
i<f:K <5t€ avyypdxlfai vSjjlovs, KaO* oiarLvas TroAtrctJo-otvro, 
ToijTovs /xer del IfxeAAoi/ avyypd<t>€Lv re koX iiTTobeLKVvvai, 
fiovkriv hi Koi ras SAAas apx^s KaTi<m}crav &s ihoKCt, 
oifTOLs. iTretra irptaTov [xiv ots Trdvres yhca-av iv rfj 12 
hrnxoKparCq iirb avKO(f>avTlas C^vras Kot Tois koXois 
KiyaSoLS jSapety Svras, avXXafipivovres virrj-yov Oava- 

TOV' Kot ij T€ Povkfl flhi(OS aVT&V KaT€\lf'q(l)C(€TO oi T€ 

&AAo( Saoi <Tvvrih€(rah eavrots ixfj 5vt€s toiovtoi ovh\v 
iJxOovTo. ^TTcl hi ijp^avTO )3ovAcv6(r^ai oirtas hv i^^lrj 13 
aifTOis TTJ TToAct xPW^^j' ^'n'tt)5 fioijKoivTo, in rotJrov 
TTpoiTOv fxiv TtiiiylravT^s ek AaK^halpLOva Pdaxivr\v re kclL 
* ApLOTOTikrjv iit€i(Tav Avtravhpov (fypovpovs (r<f>l(ri crup/npa- 
fat ikBiiv, loas htf tovs irovripovs iKirohiav TToirja-dficvoi 
Karaarrio'aiin-o rriv irokLTcCav dpiyjfeiv hi airrol vTrwr- 
XVovvTO, 6 hi Tr€L<rO€ls rot/y re <f)povpovs koL KakkCpiov 14 
app.o(rn\v (rvv4irpa^€V avrols ir€pL<j>6rjvau ol 8' iircl ttji; 
<f>povpav ikafiov, rdv piiv KaXkC^Lov iOcpdirevov Trdaji 
O^pait^lf^i &s irdvra iiraivolri b, Ttpdrroi^v^ t&v hi <f>poV' 



110 HELLENIC A II, C. 3. 

404-403 pwy TOVTOV aVlXTtifXTTOVTOS OVTois ots k^OTuKoVTO <TVV€-^ 

kAfiPavov ovk4ti T0V9 irovripoHs re koI 6\Cyov a^lovs, 
dA\' Tjbrj ois ivoyndov ijKLa-Ta fiev irapcaOovixivqvs av^xe- 
crOai, iLVTLTTpiTTciv hi n iirLx^LpovvTas irXeCarovs &v 
rovs avvedikovras \apLfidv€iv, 



A disagreement arises between Critias and Theramenes, the 
former urging a policy of indiscriminate bloodsheds 

16 To) [ikv ovv irpdrta XP^^^ ^ KpirCas tw Srjpafiivci 
oiioyvdiMuav re Koi (jyCKos fjv iirel b^ avrbs fi^v TrpoTrerris 
fjv iirl TO TToWoifs aiTOKTeCveLVi fire kol <f>vyiiiv vtto rod 
brJiJLOV, 6 b^ Qrjpafiivrjs avriKOiTTc, Kiyoav on ovk cIkos 
€lrj 6avaT0VVi rf rty ^rt/xaro "virh tov brjyiov, tovs be 
KoXovs KayaOovs firjbev KaKOv elpyiC^To, ^Trei kol iyd, 

€(f>7), KOL (TV TToWa 6^ TOV &p4(rK€I.V €V€Ka TTj TTOKei. KOl 

16 elTTO/xej; kol iTrpd^afieV 6 6^, Iti. yap oIk€C(os ^xP^^^ '"^ 
GrjpapiivcL, avT^Kcyev otl ovKjEy)(a)po[r] toIs irX€ov€KTeiv 
fiovkofxivois fxri ovk iKirobiav Troteto-dai Toifs iKaviHTiTovs 

bt,aK(»)XV€LV' cJ b4, OTL TplSiKOVTi. i(Tfl€V KoX OV^ cIS", fJTTOV 

TL oUl &(nr€p Tvpavvlbos Toirqs ttjs &PXV^ XPV^^^ ^'''*' 

17 /meXcicr^at, evrjOris el. iirel bi, iitoOinja-KOVTiav ttoWQv 

KOL &bCKOiS, TTOkkol brjkoi fjcOLV aVVI.(TTdlX€VoC T€ KOL 

6av[iiCovT€S tI l<roLTo fj TroXtreta, iriXiv Ikeyev 6 Grjpa- 
IJ.iinjs OTL eJ ixTj tls kolv(ovovs LKavovs Xrjyl/OLTO t&v Trpay- 
^ fjLaT(Dv, ibvvaTov co-olto ttjv SkLyapxCoLV bLapAv^LV*. 

To satisfy Theramenes the Thirty nominate three thousand 
to participate in the government ; a measure which Thera- 
menes criticizes as at once dangerous and absurd, 

18 'Ek ToiTov pAvTOL KpLTLas Koi ol iXXoL TpiJiKovTa, rjbri 
<l>oPo'6p.€VOL KOL ovx rJKLOTa TOV Q>y\papAvr\, p.ri avppvcCri- 
aav vpos avTov ol TroXtrat, KaToKiyovcrL TpL(rxL\Covs tov^ 



HELLENIC A IL C 3. Ill 

pL^Oi^ovras hr\ t&v TrpayfjATtov. 6 6' av Sripafiivrjs koX 404-403 
TTpbs ravTa eAeyei; Sti iroirov hoKoiri iavTf^ y€ ctvaL Td 

TTp&TOV ll€V pOvXoflivOVS TOlfS PeXrloTOVS tC^V TTO\lT&V 

KOiv(ovovs TTOLTja'aa'dai Tpi(TxiXCovs, &<nT€p rov apidpLOV 
TOVTOV iyovri. Tiva ivdyKrjv koXovs KayaOovs etvaiy koI 

OVT 1^0) ToiTOaV (TTTOvbaCoVS OVT ivTOS TOVTCjUV TTOVrjpoifS 

otov T€ elri yevia-QoL' lireira b\ €(f>rj, 6p& iycaye bio fifias 
TOL ivaimdraTa TTpirrovTas, ^Lalav T€ rriv apxriv Koi 
rJTTOva T&v apxoixivcav KaTa<TK€vaCop.€vovs» 

By a stratagem the Thirty strip all the Athenians, except 
the Three Thousand, of their arms : they now begin a reign 
of terror, putting to death their own personal enemies and 
rich citizens for the sake of their money, 

'O pkv Tom lk€y€V. ol 5' i^iracw 'jroi,rj(ravT€S T&v 20 
fxkv Tpi<r\iki<jiiv iv rfj ayopq, tQv 8' e^o) tov KaToXoyov 
aXk<av akka\ov, ?7retra Kekajo-avres iirl to, oirka, iv <^ 
iK^ivoi iLTt^krikvO^a-av T:ip.y\ravT€S tovs (f)povpovs koI t&v 
irokiT&v TOVS ofioyvdixovas avrols ra oirka itavToav TTkr\v 
T&v TpicryOimv irapfikovro, koI avaKOixC<ravT€S tavra €ts 
T7IV iKpoTTokiv ovvidrjKav iv r<3 vata, tovto^v be yevo- 21 
liivdiv, is i^ov ijbrj ttolclv ovtols o,ti ^ovkoivTO, irokkovs 
liiv i^Opas lv€Ka iiriKTeivov, irokkovs bl \pr\p.6.T(av. i • hi-N 
ibo^t 8' avTolSi Sttoos i\oi€V rots (f)povpols \pripLaTa 
bibovai, KoX T&v \x€TolK<av Iva tKaarov A.a/3€ir, koX av- 
TOVS jJ-iv iTTOKTelvai, TOL be xpriiiaTa avT&v 6iT:o(niiir\vacr6ai, \ 

When Theramenes opposes these measures, the rest of the 
Thirty conspire against him, and Critias openly accuses 
him before the Senate, 

^EKikcvov bi Koi TOV Qripapjimi kap€iv ovTLva fioi- 22 
XotTO, 6 8' aiTCKpCvaTo, 'AAA' ov boKel \ioi, i(^r\, koXov 
elvai (ftdoTKOVTas jSeArforovs eti^ai abiKdT^pa TOiv ovko^ 




J 12 HELLENICA II, C 5- 

Speech of Crttias. 

= :7^ numerous execuHons were necessitated by the ^[K^'*" 
turn of democracy at Athens, and had the full approroal of 
dhe Lacedaemonians. -' 

^a &vhp€9 pavXevrai, el fUv ns v/i«r ro/ii'C« irXct'o- 
^sr rov Kaipov ^LTtoOvn^Keiv, ivporia&rf^ Sri Sttov itoj 
g^-r-eUi fieOCaravrai irairraxov rowro ytyycrar -irXci- 
,^^^^>vs l\ ardyicTy IvQ&he iroXe^iovs etvat rois els dXi- 
^^/ar ii€0i(rTa(rL bii re to TroXvav0p<oTroTaTriv tQv 
\^j^j^T}vih<»>v TTiv TToXiv elvai jcat 6io to irXcicrroF xpovov 
^^ ^^evOepCa Tdv brjiwv TeOpa^^dai, fi\kels h'k yvovres 
^ois olois T)pxv T€ Kal vfuv xoXcTT^v iToXiTeCav clvai 
^^^^aT^ai;, yvovTes he oti Aajc€5cufjLOVioi9 toZs ^rept- 
^^fXTt'V rifJLas o iiev hrjiAOS ovttot hv tpCXos yivovro, 
^ S^Xtkjtoi Quel hv ttiotoI dtareXoiei;, 5ia ravra <rvv 
^^ehaifJLOvC(ov yv<aiiri Trjvhe tjiv iroXiTeCav KadioTa- 
^al €(iz; ri2;a cd(r6av<oiie6a evavrCov r^ oX&yapx^s 
^t^pifieOa €K7ro§a>i; TTOiavpLeOa' iroXh be fjidXujTa 
^/J^^^ SfKatoi; eli/ai, ct ns ^/xcaj; avrcdi; Xv/xaivcrai 
^^„-^ icara(rr<io'€i, hiKrjv airrov bibovaL, ~ 



HELLENIC A, II, c. 3. 1 13 

^Theramenes had shown himself not an enemy only, but a 404^03 
traitors though he had been foremost in making peace with - B.C. 
Sparta and inputting down the democracy, he now wished 
to make his peace with the people and so secure a safe 
retreat, 

. NOr Qvv al(r0av6iJL€0a Grjpa^ivrj tovtovI ols hvvaTai 27 
aTToXkvvTa ^/xa?- re Koi vfxas, its bi ravra aXrjOrjj 
rjv KaravcrJTc, €vprj(r€T€ ovt€ yj/iyovTa ovhiva fiaWov 
Srjpajxivovs tovtovI to. irapovra ovt€ ivavTLOvpicvov, 
orav TLva iKitobiav PovkdjxcOa TroiTyo-ao-^at t&v brjixa- 
ycDy&v, €l fikv Tolvvv €^ o.pxvs ravra iyCyvaxTK^, tto- 
Xejutt09 fJL^V ^v, ov pAvTOL TTOjrqpos y &v biKaiois ivop.i^^ro" 
vvv bi avTos piv &p^as rrjs irpbs AaK^baipovlovs Trt'oreo)? 28 
Kal (t)LK[as, avrbs be ttjs tov brjpLov KaroXiJo-ea)?, /x(i- 
Xtora 8e i^opprjcras vpas tols irpdroLS virayopiivoLs els 
vpas blKrjv kiTLTLOivai, vvv IttcI Kal v/xcts Kal fipels 
'(l)av€p<as €\6poi rw brip<o ycyevrjpeOay ovkIt airoJ tol 
yiyvopeva &pi(TK€L, otto^s avrbs pkv av iv rep ao-c^oXci 
KaTaarrf], rjpels b^ bUrfv bQpev tQv TT€Trpayp4v(ov. (Sore 29 
ov povov &s ^X^P^ avr<3 irpoariKeL akXa Kal iy irpoboTji 
vpQv re Kal fjpiav bibovai ttiv bUrjv, KaCroL To<rovT<D 
pL€v beivorepov irpoboo-Ca iroXipov, o(r<o x^^'^^^^^poz; 
<f>v\6.^a(rOaL to a(f>av€s rod (jyave'pov, rocrovroi 8' i\6iov^ 
8(r<^ TTokepCoLS piv ivOpcoiroL koI o'TrivbovraL Kal avOis 
in<rTol yiy vOvraiy hv 8' hv irpobibovTa kappivcao-Ly tovti^ 
ovre icTTcCo-aTo TrdTTOre ovbeh ovt iTtCoreva-e tov Xoittot}. 

*In the past he had been highly honoured by the people; 

then he had been foremost in promoting the revolution of 

the Four Hundred^ atid foremost again in bringing cdfout 

. their fall. Well therefore had he deserved the nickname of 

Buskin, 

''Yva b\ ei5^re Sri ov Kaiva Tavra oSros Trotei, oXAct 80 

H 



114 HELLENIC A, IL C. 3. 

404-408 <f)'6a'€t 7rpoh6rr]s iarCv, ivainnjao} vfxas to Tot/rip Tre- 
irpayfjiiva, oJiros .yap i^ &PXV^ M^^ rtfxw/utez^os virb tov 
brjiiov Kara rdv iraripa "Ayviava, TtpoTteriarraTos iyivcro 
TTjv brjixoKparlav fjtcraor^o-at els tovs TCTpaKOcrlovSj Kai 
^TTpdrevcv Iv iK^lvois, imX 8' ^(rdcro avriitaXov rt t^ 
6KiyapyJi(^ avvL<rT6.p.€VOV, irp&Tos av rfycixiav t^ 5i7/x^ 
i'ff CKeCvovs iyivcTO' SOcv hrjirov koI KoOopvos iiTLKa-- 
• 31 Xctrat " [xal yap 6 KoOopvos apjxoTTciv fikv rots iroalv 

\ ^ an(f)OT€poi.s SoKct, aTTo^kiireL h^ ait ap.<f>0Tip<iiv^ 8€t 

hif S 0r}piix€V€s, &vhpa tov i^iov ^v ov irpodyeLV [Jl^v 
bcivbv elvai, els irpayixara tovs crvvovraSy rjv b4 ri aim- 
KOTTTrji €vdvs /utcTa)3<iAXc(r^at, dW' &a"iT€p iv vrji bia- 
TTovciarOai, Icos hv els ovpov KaraarQa-iv' eJ h\ /x?}, ttws 
hv &(t)CK0i,vT6 TTOT€ IvOa 8ei, eJ iircibiv rt Ai/rtKox/rjy, 
ei^iy els ravavrCa ir^ioiev ; 

* By such shifts he had caused the death of many; he had 
procured the condemnation of the generals after Arginusae 
to save his own life. 

32 Kal ela\ fxkv brjirov iraa-aL fierafioXal tto\lt€iQv 
6avaTq(f>6poiy cri be bia to eiffxeri^oXos elvaL Trkelarois 
pikv ixeralTkos el i^ 6\Lyap\las vtto tov brjixov a-TToXft)- 
kivai, TrkeCaroLs 8' Ik brjixoKpaTlas viro t&v ^eKTiovoav, 
(WTos bi ToL iamv hs Ta^Oels avekioSaL vtto tQv arpa- 
T7]y<Av TOVS KaTabvvTas ^AdrjvaC<ov iv r^ irepl Aiafiov 
vavfiaxCq avTos ovk &vek6pLevos ofKos t&v arpaTrjyQi^ 
Karrjyop&v aiteKTeivev avTovs, Iva avTos TTepia'aaOeiri. 

^ Death was the only punishment meet for such a man. If 
they should condemn him they would, but follow the 
example of Sparta J while if they acquitted him^ he was 
sure to prove the ruin of them alV 

83 ''Ocms ye fJLrjv (f}avep6s ia-Ti, tov fiiv irkeoveKTelv iel 



HELLENIC A, Ily C z. II5 

iiTLfJLcXoficvos, Tov bc Kokov Kol tQv <f>CXa)V fxribiv ijrrp€' 404-4oa 
TTOfMcvoSf TT&s TovTov xprj iroT€ (f)€C(ra<r6aL ; ttcSj hi ov ^'^' 
(jyvXa^curOaL, elboras avTov ras fxeTafBokisi &s fx^ Koi 
fjfjLas TaifTo bvvaa-Ofj iroLTJa-at ; fjfx^LS ovv tovtov VTrdyoixev 
Kol &s iTti^ovkevcrvra koL a>9 irpobibovra fifxas re Kal. 
viJLas. &s b' cUora TTOLOVjxfv, koX rdb^ ivvorjcraTC, 
KokkCaTT] fikv yap brjirov boKel irokiTcla etva^ ff Aajce- 34 
boLiMOvCcDV' el bi iK€i €TTiX€t,prj(r€Li Tis tQv i<t)6p<ov airrl 
TOV Toh wXctoo-t irelOea-Oat yjriyeiv t€ rr)i; &PXV^ f^oX 
ivavTLovo'OaL toIs TTpaTTOfJiivoLS, ovk &v oU(rd€ avrhv 
Kol VTT^ avT(av T(av i<l>6p<t)v Koi inrb ttjs &XAr/s airiairjs 
TTokeias TTJs ix€ylarr)s riixoopCas i^ioiOTJvai ; Kal vfieis 
oiv, iav (r(i>(f)povrJT€, ov tovtov oAX' vpL&v avT&v (I>€t(r€(r0€f 
&s oJjTos aoiOcls fi€v TTokkovs iiv fxiya (fypovelv TTotT^o-ete 
T&v ivavTCa yiyvonfJKOvTaiv vfuv, iirokoixevos b^ irivTcov 

Koi T&V iv fff 'Jr6k€l KOi T&V 1^0) VTTOTiflOl &V TttS 

^kirCbas. 

Theramenes speaks in his own Defence. 

^Really the generals at Arginusae had been the first to accuse 
him. In alleging the violence of the storm he had offered 
a reasonable defence^ so that in accusing him they had pro- 
nounced their own condemnation, Critias knew nothing 
of the matter^ being at that Hme in Thessaly, 

*0 pikv TavT eliriav inadi^eTo' QrjpajjJvrjs .be avaaras 35 
ik€^€V, 'AXAa irp&Tov p.\v ixvYiadrja-opiai,, 2) &vbp€9, h 
T€k€VTdlov KQT ifiov €1716. (f)rj<rl yip fjte tovs a-Tparri- 
yovs &TTOKT€lvaL KarrjyopovvTa, iyia b^ ovk fip\ov brjirov 
KaT iKelvcav koyov, akk^ iKeivoL if^atrav itpoaraxOiv • 
/xot i</)' iaxrr&v ovk ivekiardaL tovs bvaTvxovvTas iv ttj 
7F€pl Aeafiov vavjmax^^* ^ycl) bi iTTokoyovfievos &s 5ia 
Tbv xetfic^ra ovbi TtkeiVy fx^ oti ivaipela-Oai tovs ivbpas 

H 2 



Il6 HELLENIC A, II, C. 3. 

404-403 hvvaTov i^z;, iho^a rfj ttoAci clKora Xeyetr, iK^ivoi 8' 
€avT(av Karrjyopelv i(f)aLvovro. (ftaa-Kovres yap olov T€ 
elvat, (Two-at roifs iphpas, irpoeixcvoi airoXio-Oai avTOVs 

36 &iTQTTkiovT€S f^xovTo. ov piivTOL ^au/mdfo) ye rd KpirCav 

* TTap avev oyLrjKivaL' ore yap ravra ^z;, ov TTapa>v krvy- 
\av€v, oXA.' ^2; ©cTToXia /utera UpopLrjOecDS brjiiOKparlav 
Kareo-Kcvafe xal rovs TT^vicTas coTrXifei; €7rt rovs Se- 
(TTroras. 

* j^«/ /V 7e/«j «^/ w^w //>^tf himself who endangered the exist- 

ence of the Government, but those who had wished to put 
to death the foremost men in the state. 

37 *12i; pikv ovv o^TO^ €K€1 eTrparre firjb^v evOibe yivovro' 
T&be ye fxivTOL ofiokoyo^ eyo) rovro), el rts v/utas fjtez; r^s 
apxvs /3oi;Xerat TratJcrai, roiy 8' eTTt/SouAeiJoi/ray v/xcz; 
tcTxvpovs TTotet, bCKaiov etvai rrjs pLcyLarrjs avrbv Tiixoapias: 
Tvy\av€LV* oaTLS [xivTOL 6 TavTa. Trpdrrcoi; eorti; ot/xai 
&z; v/xas KoXkiara KpCvcLV, rd re ircTrpaypiiva Kal h vvv 

38 7TpaTT€L €KaaTos fjpiQv et KararoTycrere. ovkoui; piixpL fikv 
Tov vpias re Karao-Trjvai eJs rrji; fiovkeCav Kal ap\as 
airobeLxOrjvaL koI Toifs ojutoAoyov/xercas (rvKO(l)ivTas vttA- 
y€(r6aL irivrcs Tavra iyiyvdaKopLcv' ii^el bi ye ovtoi 
ijp^avTo ivbpas Kakovs re KayaOovs crvAAa/utjSdi/eir, e/c 
TotJrov Kayo) fjp^dpiriv TavavHa' tovtols yiyvdaK^iv, 

39 ^8e«; yap ort d7ro^i;?}(rfcoi^ro9 /ut^i; AiovTo^ tov DaXa- 
fjLLvCov, &vbpo9 Kal ovTos Kol boKOvvTos iKavov ^Ivai, 
ibLKOvvTOs 8' ov8e iv, ol SfjLOioL rovro)' <l>opri(roi,vTo,, 
<l)opoviJL€voi bh ivavrioL rfjbe rrj TTokiT^Ca 1(tolvto' 
iylyvodCTKOV b\ otl (TvkKap.pavop.ivov ^LKr^pirov tov 
Nifciou, Kal irkovclov Kal oib^v irdiroTe btjpLOTiKOV ovt€ 
avTov ovT€ tov iraTpos irpi^avTos, ol to^to^ SpotoL 8u<r- 

40 pL€V€is fjpXv yevqa-oivTOi *AAXa /utTji; Kal ^ AvTi(f>&vTos 



HELLENIC A II, C. 3. I T 7 

v<^ fjixQv airoWvixivov, hs iv rw iroXifKa hvo TpLrfpeis 404-403 
€V 7r\€ov<ras irapeCx^rOy fjTna-Tafirjv on koI ol irpoOvfioi, ' * 
TTJ ttSXci y€y€vi]pLivoi irdvTes viroirTdis fjpLLv ?^oter. 

* He had consistently resisted such measures as the arrest of 
the metoect, the seizure of arms, the hiring of the Spartan 
garrison, the banishment of leading citizens, 

'Ai/reiiroi; §€ koX ot€ tc^v ixeTolKoav Ira ?Ka&Tov Ka^elv 
i(f)aa'av xprjvaL' €vbrj\ov yap fjv ori, tovtohv airokofiivtiiv 
Kot ol iiiroiKOi &7rairr€S iroXipnoL rfj ttoXlt^Ccl Io-olvto, 
avT€LTrov 8c kol ot€ to, oirXa tov TTkrjdovs TraprjpovvTO, ov ^.l 
voijlCC(^v XPV^^^ ao-OevT] Trjv ttoXlv ttoi^Iv' ovbe yap tovs 
AaKcbaifJiovCovs kdponv tovtov €V€Ka povKofxivovs Tre/otaw- 
a-ai, Tjixas, oiroi>s okCyoi yevofjL^voL pirjb^v bwaCfxeB^ avTovs 
d)(j>€\€iv' i^rjv yap avTols, €l tovtov ye bioivTo, Kal fjL7}biva 
XLirelv oXiyov Itl \p6vov rw At/mw nUa-avTaSi ovbi yc to 42 

(j>pOVpOVS fJLLO'doVO'daL aVVTlp^OTKi fXOL, €^0V aVT&V T&V TTO- 

Xlt&v Toa-ovTovs irpockaiJipdveLV, lias paStcos iixiXXoixev 
ol &pxovT€s T&v apxpii^viav KpaTrja-€Lv, iirei ye fxriv 

TTOWOVS €<opODV Iv TTj Tr6\€L TTJ apxfj TTJbc bV(rpL€V€ls, 

TToXXovs be (I)vy6.bas yiyvop.ivovSy ovk av iboKCL pLoi, 
ovT€ Q>pa(TvPovXov ovT€ "AwTov oiJre 'AAKtjScdSr/i; 
<l>vyab€V€Lv' fjbetv yap ort ovTOi> ye to avTliraXov Icrxvpov 
€(roLTO, cl 76) fjikv TrAij^ct Tjycpiovcs iKavol Trpoayevrj- 
(TOLVTO, Tols 5' Tjyela-OaL jSovAo/xeVots crvixjJLaxoL ttoXXoI 
<f)avrja-oi.vTo, 

' Did such conduct show him to be a friend or a traitor f 
Surely those rather were traitors who by such evil counsel 
had made so many enemies, 

*0 TavTa ovv vov0€T&p iv rw (j>av€p^ iroTepa. €Vfi€V7js 43 
iiv bLKaCws fj TrpoboTTjs voiiiCoiTo ; oi\ ol kyfipovs, S 



Il8 HELLENIC A //, C. 3. 

404-403 Kptrfa, KCoXvorrcj ttoXXovj Troteto-^at, ov8' ol avfifxixovs 
ttXcCcttovs bMcTKOvres KTacrOat, oiroL tov9 TroXejuitouy 
Icr^vpovs TTOLOva-LV, iXKa ttoXv fiaXkov pi ASticcos T€ 
XPVI^cLTa a(j>aLpoiufX€Voi kol tovs ovhev abtKovvTas daro- 

KT€CvOVT€Sy OVTOL elcTLV ol KOL TTOkXoifS TOlfS kvaVTlOVS 

iroLovvT€S KOL TTpobibovTes ov fxovov Tovs </)tXovs iXKa 
44 Kol eavToifs bu alayjiOKiplb^iav* cJ 8^ yL7] iKXtas yvoaarbv 
oTi aKrjOrj Xcyo), cUSe i'ni,a'Kiy\raa'6€* iroTcpov oUa-Oe 
SpaavPovKov Koi ''Awtov koX tovs fiXXov? <f>vydbas h 
eyo) Xeyo) ixaWov. hv ivOibe ^ovk^a-Oai ylyvea-Oai fj 
b. oiroL TTpi.TTovo'iv ; iy<a p,\v yap otfxai iwv fxkp avToifs 
vop.C(€Lp avixpLdxoov Tt&vTa fxea-ra clraf e! bk rd npd- 
TLorov TTJs -TToXccos 7rpo(r<^iXa>9 fipXv clx€, x^^^^^ ^^ 
^yeto-^at ctrat koi to iiriPaCvcLv iroi ttjs X'^po-^^ 

* I/e had indeed turned against the Four Hundred, but only 
when he had perceived that they had deluded the people 
with the vain hope of a Spartan alliance, 

* 45 *A 8' a55 eiTrei; ws ly& etjuit olos act TTore iierapd^" 
Xeo"^at, fcararoT^o-are Kal raCra. ttjv jxkv yap iirl tQv 
T€TpaKO<r[oov TToKiTeCav Kal avTos brjirov 6 brjpLOS 1^- 
<t)C(raTO, bibaaKopievos &s ol AaKebaipLOvioi Ttiiari iroXireia 
46 /xoXXoj; hv ri brjuoKparlc^ TTLo-Teicreiav. iTrel b4 ye iKeivoi 
p.iv ovbiv avUtraVy ol b^ djui<^l ' A/otoror^Xr; /cat NLcXavOiov 
Kal ^Apla-rapxpv (rrpaTrjyovvTes (j)av€pol lyivovro kTU 

TO) xdpMTL .IpVpia T€L\lCoVT€S, cJs h i^OvKoVTO TOXfS 

TToKcpilovs b€^ip.€voi v(j>* avTOLs Kal Tols kralpois t^i; 
TTokiv iroirja-aa-dai, eJ TavT ala-OopLcvos cyo) bL€K<iXv(ra, 
TovT iarl TrpoboTrjv ctrat t&v </)tXa)z; ; 



HELLENIC A II, C.'3, II9 

* He was nicknamed the Buskin for suiting both sides j hut 404-103 

what of Critias who suited neither side f He had con- ^-C* 
sistently advocated a moderate constitution, opposed alike 
to extreme democracy and extreme oligarchy, 

'A'TTOKoA.Ct h\ KoOopVOV fJL€, 0)9 iflifyOTipOLS Tr€Lp<ill€VOV 47 

apiiomiv. SfTTLs 8e pLrjheripoLS ipio-KeL, rovfov i> irpos 
rSiv 6€oiv tC TTore Koi KoXia-ai xprj ; <tv' yap brj iv piiv 
Tjj brjfjLOKpaTC(^ TrivT(ov juito-oSr/juwraros €Vop.l(<oVy iv he ttJ 
&pL<rTOKpaTCq TtavTonv iii(ro\prf(rT6TaTOS yeyivrjcrai. iyxo 48 
fi', £ KpirCa, iKeCvoLS fJi^v aeC ttotc tto\€ijl& tois oi 
irpoa-dev olofxivois KaXriv hv brjuoKparCav elvaL, irplv koX 
ol bovkoL Kai ol bC cLTiopCav bpa\ixrjs &v airobSfJieifOL Trjv 
TTokLv bpa)(jjLT]9 iM€T€xoi€V, KoX Toi(rb4 y o5 OiV. kvavijios 
cJ/xl ot ovK oiovrai KaKr\v hv iyyevia-Oai iXiyapyJiav^ 
Trplv els TO vii dkCycov TvpavveiaOai, rqv irokiv icara- 
&Trj(r€Lav, rd [xivToi <rvv rot? bwafxivoLS Koi p,€0^ linTOiv 
Kal /xer acTrCbcov w<^cXcty bia tovtohv Tr\v irokireCav 
Trp6a-0€v ipioTov fiyovfxrjv etvai Kai vvv ov iieTa^&k' 
kofiai, 

* If Critias could convict him of treachery to such a policy, 

he was indeed worthy of deaths 

EZ 6' ^X^*^ Antiv, 2) Kpirto, Sirov ^yo) <jvv roi% bjq- 49 
[XOTiKOLS fj TvpavvLKois Tovs Ka\ovs re KayaSovs iiroorc- 
pcti; irokireCas iircxeCprja-a, Xcye' iav yap ikeyxOQ fj vvv 
Tavra TrpirTODV ^ irpoTepov irdiroTe TrkiroLrjKds, 6iiokoy& 
TO, TrivT(»>v ecrxara Trad<»>v &v biKalias a7ro6vrj<rK€LV, 

Critias, seeing that Theramenes would be acquitted by the 
senate,^ arbitrarily erases his name from the roll of the 
Three Thousand and condemns him to death in the name 
of the Thirty, 

*X2^ V cZirwi; ravja iTraijo-aTOf kol fj fiovXfi 8?}Xij 50 



120 HELLENIC A II y C. 3. 

404-^08 iyiv€TO cv/mcpors iinOopvPrja-ao-a, yvovs 6 Kpirias otl 
€? i'niTpiy\roi rfj pov\fj bLa\ln](pC(€<rdaL irepl airoS, ava- 
(t>€V^OLTO, Kal TOVTO ov ^Kordv 7jyrj(r<!ip.€Vo^, Ttpoakkd^v 
KoL hiaX€\6€is Tf, rots rpiaKOvra €^k0€, koX iirLOTTJvaL 
iK4\€V(r€ Toifs ret iyxclpCbia iyovras ^av€p&s rfj ^ovkfj 

51 iTzl Tols bpv^KTOLS, ttoXlv 8e eJo-eX^o)!/ cIttcz;, 'Eyw, . 
S PovXrjf vop.l^<jii irpoo-Tirov Ipyov ctvat otov Set, 6s &V 
opGiv Tovs (f)lkovs i^airaTiOfiivovs /x?) iiTLTpiTrrj. koi iyo} 
ovv TOVTO TTOirja-co. Koi yap olbc ol ^</)caTrjKor€s ov 
<l>a<nv fjixlv iiTLTpeylfciv, €l &vrj<roii€V ivbpa tov <l>av€pm 
TTiv 6\iyapyjiav kvpLatvopLcvov, lori 8e €v tois Kau/ols 

VOpLOLS T&V llkv Iv TOIS Tpt,Cr)(^LKCoLS OVTtiiV flTfbiva OLTTO- 

$vrj(rK€iv 6.V€V ttjs ifxeTipas ylrri(j>0Vy t&v 8' l^co tov 
KaTaX6yov Kvpiovs cTvaL Toifs TpiaKovTa OavaTovv. iyia 
dvv^ Icfyr], Qrjpatiivq tovtovI i^QX€l(l)OD €K tov KaToXo- 
yov, avvboKOvv iirao-tv ^juv. Koi tovtov, €(f)r]y 7ifX€LS 
OavaTovjJLCv, 

Theramenes takes refuge at the altar ^ appealing against this 
illegal procedure ; but Critias, relying on the guard he had 
posted round the senate house, hands him over to the 
Eleven. 

52 ^AKOvaas ravra 6 Qhjpafxivrjs &V€Trrjbr](r€v iin Trjv 
'EarCav koX etTTCz/, 'Eyo) b\ i<t)r], S> &vbp€Sy Ik€T€Vco to, 
Triirruiv lvvop.iiTaTa, fxri iifi KpirCa etvai i^aX€C(j)€i,v /xTjre 
ip^ pLrJT€ vpiQv hv hv PovkrjTat, oAX' ovircp vopLov ovtol 
lypa\lrav Tre/ot tQv kv t^ /caraAoyo), Kara tovtov kolL vpXv 

53 KoX €p.ol TTIV KpicLv etvoL, Kal TOVTO pL€V, l(priy fxa Toifs 
Oeovs ovK ayvo&i 5tl ovbiv jmol apKicr^i obc 6 jScojitos, 
iXka PovkopLat Kal tovto iinbil^aL, Stl ovtol ov p.6vov ' 
elal TiepX ivOpdirovs d5£K(ii>raroi, a\Xa Kal ircpl 6€ovs 
ia-efiiaraTou ip.(dv piivTOi, i(f)rj, S> ivbp€S koXoI KayaOoCy 



HELLENIC A II, C, %, 121 

OavfiiC^, cJ fJLTi porjdrj<r€T€ v^ilv ovtols, koI ravra yiyvd- 404-403 
(TKovres Stl ovblv to ejuioz; ovoyia ciefaXetTrrorcpoi; ri ro 

VfX&V kKicTTOV. CK 8^ TOVTOV €K(lA.€<7C [Xev 6 T&V Tpid- 54 

Kovra KTJpv^ Toifs Ivhena iirl tov Qrjpdixivrj. iK€ivoL be 
da-ekOovTcs avv tols VTrr/peVat?, fjyovfiivov aifT&v ^arvpov 
TOV OpaavriiTov T€ koX Az;at8co-r(irov, cittc ^ikv 6 Kptrtas, 
Yiapahihoix€v vfuv, i<i>y]^ Q'qpajxivr] tovtovI KaTaKeKpip.ivov 
Kara tov vofiov vfxels b€ kafiovTcs kol airayayovTcs ol 
(vbcKa ol bel Ta €k TovT(av Trptirrere. 

The senate^ panic stricken^ passively allows Theramenes to be 
dragged away from the altar and hurried to execution. 
His last sayings, 

*12s b\ Tama . ctTrer, cIAkc pkv ano tov ^odpiov 6 Sfirv- 55 
poSi (IKkov b^ ol VTTrjpiTau 6 be ©r/pajuicrryy &o"jT€p elKos 
Kal &€ovs ^7reKaA.€tro Kal avSpdirovs KaOopav to. ytyvo- 
IJ.€va, 7} b'k povXrj fiov^iav €t\€v, opQaa koX tovs iTil 
Tols bpv(l>6.KT0LS djjLolovs So^rvpo) Kal Tb ip.'npocrOev tov 
pov\€VT7jpCov irXrjpes t&v ^povpQv, Kal ovk ayvoovjrrcs 
oTi iyxeLpCbLa ixpvTcs Traprj<rav. ol 8' aTrrjyayov tov 56 
ivbpa bia TTJs Ayopas pioXa pL€y6.krj Tjj ([xxivfi brjXovvTa 
ola i7ra(TX€. X^yerat 6' kv p^ip-a Kal tovto avTov, i)s ctTrcr 
6 Sdrupoy Stl olpid^oiTo, ct p.ri o-icoTrryo-ctei;, lirrjpero, ^Av 
bi (TLiaTrQ, ovk Sp', l<l>rj, olp.<i^op.ai ; Kal cttci ye Atto- 
6vri<rK€Lv ivayKaCopievos to Ktiveiov line, to \en:6p.evov 
€(j>a(rav iTroKOTTapCcrajrra etireLV avToVf KpiTCa tovt iaroi 
T<3 KaX<a. Kal tovto pikv ovk ayvoQ, on TavTa aTio- 
<l>6iyp.aTa ovk i^ioXoya, iKeivo be Kplvo^ tov &vbpos 
ayaaT6v, Tb tov Oav&Tov Trapea-Tri kotos pirJTe Tb <l>p6vi,piOv 
p^rJTe Tb iraLyvL&bes airoXiirelv €k ttjs yjrvxv^* 



12^ HELLENIC A II, C. 4. 



CHAPTER IV. 

404-403 The Thirty expel all not on the roll of the Three Thousand 
■^•^- from Attica, Tlie refugees assemble in Megara and 

Thebes, 

Qrjpafiivrjs fji^v bri ovTias airiOavcV oi 8^ TpidKOjrra, 
is €^dv ijbrj avfols rvpavveiv d5ea)9, TTpoeiTTOv fxkv rots 
1^0) Tov KaraXoyov jm^ ela-iivat, els to aoru, rjyov bi in 
tQv \ODpl(i)v, tv avTol Kol ol </)tXot Tovs TovToiv oypovs 

€XPL€V» (f)€Vy6vT(JiV b\ cZs TOV WeipaiO, KoI ivT€V0€l/ 

TTokkoifs &yovT€S kviiikricrav koX to. Miyapa koL tols 
GrjIBas t&v imo^oipovvTuav. 

ThrasybuluSj starting fromThebes with a few refugees ^ seizes 
Phyle, repulses the attack of the Thirty^ and makes a 
successful sally upon their campy his forces being now 
increased to 700. 

2 'Ek 8^ tovTov (dpaai^ovkos dpfirjOcls iK 0r;j35z; m 
cvv ifibofxriKOVTa ^v\riv xcapCov KaToXapL^iivei la-xypov- 
ol 8e TpioLKOVTa ifBorjOovv iK tov Soreias aiiv re rots 
rpto^tXfots Kol aiv roty tTnrcuo-t koL p.6X^ cifrffxepCas 
ot/oTjs. iirel be atpUovTOj evOvs pikv Spaavvopievoi tlv€S 
T&v pi(av Ttpoa-i^dkov irpos to \(jipioVy koX iTToir](rav fxev 

3 ovbivy TpavpiaTa be ka^ovTes &iTfj\dov, Povkotiivoiv b^ t&v 
Tpi6,K0VTa aTroTeL)(^CC^Lv, oircas eKTTokiopKrfa'eLav oifTois airo- 
kkeia-ajrres Tas e<f)6bovs tQ^v eitiT-qbeloiVy einylyveTai, Trjs 
pvKTos x^^^ T:aiJ.TT\7j67js KoL TTJ varepaicL, ol b^ vi<i>6p.evoL 
airrjkOov els rd fioru, pi6Xa av)(Vovs t&v a'Kevo(f)6p(av vtto 

4 T&v eK ^Xrjs &TroPaX6vTes, yiyvda-KovTes b\ otl koI iK 
T&v iypQv \€TjXaT^(rotet, el pirj tis </)i;XaK^ lo-otro, Stairc/ut- 



HELLENIC A II, C 4. 123 

irovcTLv 6ts Tas eor^^artas o(rov TrevTeKaCbeKa ardbia Airb 404-403 
<l>vA^s Tovs T€ AaKoavLKOvs TrXrjv okiyoav <\>povpovs koX ^•^' 
tQv liTTTiiav bvo c^vXcis. ovtol be a-TparoTTcbeva-dficvoL kv 
X^P^^ AacTici) l(f)vkaTTOv. 6 be Spaavfiovkos, rjbrj avv- 5 
eikeyixevt^v els Ty\v ^vKt]v irepl cTrraKOo-tovs, Xaj3a)r 
avTovs Kara^aivei rrjs vvktos' 6ep.evos be to, oirka Strop 
TpCa 7] Terrapa oraSta cnrb t&v (jypovp&v i](Tvylav eXyev, 
eiieX be irpbs f,pLepav eyiyvero, koX ijbr] avLoravTo Siroi 6 
ebeiTo eKaa-TOs dirb rSiv ottAcoz;, koX 01 iTnTOKopLoi. ylrrj^ov 
Tes TOVS Xttttovs y\r6(f>ov eTtoiovv^ ev Tovrta avaXap6pTes ol 
irepl Qpaov^ovkov to. oirXa bp6p.(o Trpoa-eiTLTTTOv' Kai lort 
fiev ois airr^v Kare^aXov, iravTas be ^pe^/r(l/xepot ebCoi^av 
e^ 7] eiTTa <rr<i8ta, koI inteKTeiwiv r&v fiev OTTktTiov irkeov 
rj eLKoa-L kol eKarov, tQv be linreuiv NtKOorparoi; re tov 
Kakbv iirLKaXovjjLevov, kol &kkovs be bvo, en Karakafiov-' 
res ev rais evvais. i7rava)(a)prj(TavTes b^ kol Tpoiraiov 7 
(TTrjardpLevoL kol avo'Kevao'dp.evoi, oirka re o<ra IkajBov kol 
(TKevT) &Trfjkdov cttI <I>t;X^s. ol be i^ aarecas iiTTTels 
fioriOrja-avTes t&v piv irokep.mv ovbeva en etbov^ wpocr- 
pieCvavTes be etas tovs veKpovs dveikovTo ol TrpoorjKovTes 



f 



avex<»>prj(rav ets 



doTv. 



The Thirty seize Eleusis as a place of retreat for themselves, 
by a stratagem capturing all the able-bodied Eleusinians, 

. Next day they compel the Athenian knights and the Three 
Thousand to condemn all these prisoners to death, 

'Ek b\ ToijTov ol TpidKOirra, ovk4tl vopl^oirres da-ffxikri 8 
<T(^i(n Ta TtpdypLUTa, ijBovk'qdrja-av ^Ekev<nva e^Lbida-a- 
(rSai, (SoT€ elvai o'(pi<rL KaTa(pvyrjv, el berjireLe. Kai 
TTapayyeCkavTes rots liriTeva-LV fjkdov els 'Ekeva-lva 
KpLTlas Te Koi ol dkkoi TpidKOirra* e^eTaa-iv re Trot^- 
(TavTes \ev toIs lTntev(ri\, <f>darKOVTes elbivai fiovkea-dai 



1 24 HELLENIC A II, C. 4. 

404-403 Tt6<T0L €l€V KoX Tr6(T71S (bvXttKrjs TTpOaberjo-OlVTO, iK€\€VOV 

a'noypi.<f>ea-Oai Travras' tov be airoypa^ipLevov act 6ta 
TTJs TTvkChos iirl TTjv OdXaTTav k^iivai, kin 6c rcS alyiaX^ 
Tovs fxev linrias Ivdev koI Ivdcv KariaTTja-av, tov 6* 
i^LOVTa ael ot virqpiTat . avvibovv. cttcI 8c irivTes 
<TvveiKr\p.p.ivoL rja-av, Ava-Cfiaxov tov liiTiapyov ckcXcvoz/ 
9 avayayovTa irapabovvai avTovs rots IvbeKa, ttj 8' 
vorepaia els to ^Slibelov irapeKiXea-av tovs iv tQ xara- 
Aoyo) oTTkCTas kol Tohs iWovs liriTias, ava<rTas b^ 
KpLTias eke^ev, *H/xct9, c</)tj, 2) ivbpes, ovb^v tjttov vfilv 
KaTaa-Kevi.Copi'ev ttjv TroXtrctai; fj TjpXv avTois, bel oiv 
vfjias, uKTirep kol TLfxQv fieOi^eTCf ovtoh koL tc^v Kivbivo^v 
pL€Tiyeiv. tQv ovv crvveiX.7jpLpLiv(ov ^Ekeva-tvCoiv Kora- 
\lrr](pi,aTiov iariv, Iva raira Tjfuv Koi OapprJTe kol 
^oPrJGrOe, beC^as bi rt yoaplov, els tovto iKeXeve 

10 (jyavepav ^epeiv T-qv \j/rj(pov, ot b^ AaKcoi^tKOt <i>povpo\ 
iv TO) fifXL(reL tov '12t8ciot' e^onTrKio'pievoL rja-av fjv be 
TavTa apeo'TCL koX t&v TToXiTOiv ols TO irkeoveKTeiv [xovov 
epiekev. 

Thrasybulus marches upon Piraeus, but unable to hold so 
large a town against the forces of the Thirty, occupies a 
strong position on Munychia, 

'Ek §c tovtov \al3i)v 6 (dpa<rvl3ovkos tovs airo ^vkrjs 
TTepl x^^ovy rjbri (rvveikeyp.ivovsy cKfuKvevrai ttjs wktos 
els TOV IleLpaia. ol be TpidiKovTa eirel fjaOovTo TavTa, 
evOvs e^orfOovv <rvv Te rots AaKa)i;iKOts koX ovv rots 
tTTTTcOo-i KoL Tols OTikiTais' cTTctTtt eyj^povv Kara Tr\v els 

11 TOV rictpata d/utaftroi; ava(j>4pova-av, ol be airo ^kijs 
crt piiv iirexelprjo-av imtj avUvai avTovs, iirel be p.eyas 6 
kvkXos iiv TTokkrjs ^vkaiajs iboKei belcrOai, oviro) irokkols 
ova-Lf crvvecnreLpiOrjaav iirl Trjv Movvv)(^iav. oi 8' in tov 



HELLENIC A, II, C \. I ^5 

Aorecos et? Ti\v ^linrobaixeLov ayopav i\66vT€9 TTpQTov 404-403 
fikv avv^rd^avTo, (Sore ifXTrkija-aL rrfv obov rj <f>ip€i irpos 

T€ TO UpOV TTJS MoVVVxicLS 'ApT^fXtSoS KOL T O BcvhCbeiOV ' ( \i,t.9 

Kal iyivovTO p&Oos ovk iXaTTOv rj iirl ircvTriKOVTa 
aiTTTlbaiV, ovroj b^ avvT€TayfjL€V0L i\(opovv &vo), ol be 12 
aiTO ^vXrjs avT€V€7rX7](rav pikv Trjv obov, paOos be ov 
irkiov ^7 els beKa oirXCTas iyevovTo, iTd\6rj(ray fjiivToi, 
ctt' avTois Tre\TO(f>6poL Te koL yjnXol aKovTicrrai, eitl be '" 
ToijTOLs ol TTeTpo^okoL. ovTOL [livToi av)^o\ ria-av' Kal 
yap avToOev irpocreyevovTo, ev <p be irpooija'av ol 
evavTLOL, ©patrvjSouAoy tovs jxed^ avTov dicrdai KeXevcras , 
TOLS acnrCbas koL ovtos Oepievos, tol 6' aWa oirka e)(aiv, 
Kara p,e(rov (ttols l\e^ev' 

Thrasybulus addresses his troops, * On the right they had 
against them the men they had already defeated^ on the left 
the hated Thirty, The gods were evidently now on. their 
side : for victory was certain over an enemy placed in so 
unfavourable a position, 

''Avbpes TToXirat, tovs fJikv bibd^ai, tovs be avafivrjcrai 13 
vpiQv' ^ovKofxaL otl el(n t(ov Ttpoo'iovToav ol fjiev to be^idv 
expvTes ois vfxels rjixepav itep^nT-qv Tpey^dp,evoi eStwfare, 
ol 6' eirX Tov evoDiwixov eayojoi^ ovtoi bj] ol TpidKovTa, o% 
fffxas KOL 'JToXeoi)^ direa-Tepovv ovbev dbiKovvTas koI olKtiav 
e^rfXavvov kol tovs <^iA.rdroi>s t&v fipLeTepoDV direo^pLaC- 
vovTO, aXKa vvv toi irapayeyivrjvTai ol ovtol ixev oviroTe 
.(^ovTo, Tjixels be ael rji^^^ofxeda. expvTes yap OTrXa 1* 
ivavTCoi fxev avTois KaOiorafxev* ol b^ Oeoiy oti ttot\ koX 
bemvovvTes avvcXapL/SavoixeOa koI KaOevbovres koI ayopd- " - 
CovTeSi ol be Kal ov\ Sttcos dbiKovvTes, oAA* ovb^ iinbr}' 
fiovvTes i(pvyabev6fie0a, vvv (pavep&s ripXv aviiiiaypva-i. 
ical yap ev eibCa ^eip^Qva Trotovo-ti;, Srav fjpXv orvfxcpepri 



1 26 HELLENIC A II, C. 4. 

404-403 Kttl oTov iyx^tptafxcv, iroXX&v SvTcav ivavrCoDv SXiyoLs 

15 ov(TL TpoTtaia XaracrQai bihoaa-C Ka\ vvv h\ K€KOfji.CKa(riv 
Tjfxas els xtiipiov iv ^ ovtol [xkv ovre fiaWcLv ovtc olkov 
tCC^lv virep tQv irpoTCTayfiivoDv 8ta to irpos opOiov Uvat 
bvvaivT^ aVi ?7/x6Ts 6e eJj to KOLTavTes koX bopaTa a<l)UvT€9 
Kal cLKovTia Koi TT€Tpovs i^iiofiedoL re avT&v Koi ttoWovs 

16 KaTaTp(i(roii€V. ical (S^to fjiev &v tls berjcrcLv tols ye 
TTpcaTooTaTaLS eK tov taov yL&)(€(r6ai' vvv b\ iav vfMeis, 
&(nr€p TrpoarjKCi, TipoBv^ioas a^irJTe to. j^iKrj, ^fiapTrja-cTai 
fxkv ovbels &v ye fxeor^ fj obos, (jyvkaTTojjLevoi be bpfnrc- 

jev(rov(nv del vitb rat? aa-TrCa-LV ata-Te c^e'orat &(Tir€p 
TV(f)kovs Kai TVTTTCLv oTTot) &v fiovkdjjLeOa /cat ivakkofiivovs 
/ s iivaTpiiTeiv, 

^ Every one of them must fight, remembering the high stakes 
at issue, and the vengeance due to all of them* 

17 'AAX', a> ivbpes, oiHro) )(j)rj iroiciv ottods €Ka(TT69 tls 
kavT(o (rov€l(T€Tai r?J9 vlKr\s ahidiTaTOs &v. aijTrj yap 
Tjixiv, hv dcos OiXrj, vvv airobdcrei /cat naTpiba koX oIkovs • 
Kol ikcvOcplav Koi rtfxay xat TratSas, oh €l<rC, kol yv- 
vaiKas. S iiaKipLOL brJTa, ot hv fip.(ov vLKrjo-avT^s iTrCbtaa-i, 
TTjv 'naa&v fjbCa-Trjv fjixepav. evbaCfxcav bi kol av res 

. &iroOdvrj' yLvq^i^iov yap ovbeis oi;ra) TrXova-Los i>v koKov 
retJferat. i^dp^<a ixkv ovv iyla tjvCk hv Katpos "p itaiava' 
OTav b^ Tdv ^F,w6X(,ov Trapa/caXeVcoftei^, t6t€ iravTes 
ojioOvfJiabov avO^ &v vppla-Orjficv TLpicopdncOa tovs avbpas* 

iVamed by the seer^ who is himself the first to fall, Thra- 
sybulus waits for the enemy to attack, whereupon he gains 
a complete victory, Critias himself being among the slain. • 

18 Tavra 5' c^ttwi; xai iiera(rTpa(f>iLS irpos tovs ivavTLovs, 
riovyjiav et^e' xat yap 6 fxivTis Trapi/yycAXcv avTois ft^ 



HELLENIC A II, C. 4. l2^ 

TTporepov iiTLTCOca-OaL, irplv t&v (r(l)€T€p(DV rj iricroL tls rj 404-403 
TpoDOeCrj* iTT^cbav pl4vtol tovto yivrjrai,, fiyrjirofxeOa p-iv, 
i(prj, fipLels, vtKrj bk vp.lv €(rrai kiropivoLS, ipol pivroL 
OdvaTOS, &s y e/xot hoKei. kol ovk hlreva-aTo, aX)C iirel 19 
avika^ov ra oirXa, avrbs pkv &(nT€p vird polpas Tivbs 
ayopevos iKTTrjbri<ras irp&Tos' ipTT€<ri)v toIs ttoK^plols 
a7To0irri<rK€L, nal TiOaTTTai kv rfj 6iaj3(ji<ret rod Kri(f)i,(rov' 
ol d' iAAot ivLKcav kol KarebCcD^av p^\pi tov 6p.aXov, 
airiOavov 8' evravda tcov pkv TpiaKovra KpiHas t€ kol 
'iTTTTopaxps, tQv b€ kv Yl^ipaiil beKa apxovToav Xappibrfs 
6 T\avK(avos, t&v 8' olXXodv Trepl kpbop.rJKOVTa. kol to, 
pev oirka Ikufiov, roits be xiT&vas ovbevbs t&v TroXtrcSi; 
io'KiiKevo'av* 

JV^en after the battle the troops of the two factions met 
together, Cleocrttus, the sacred herald, proclaims on be- 
half of the refugees with Thrasybulus, that they had no 
quarrel with their fellow-citizens, but only with the Thirty, 
who in eight months had caused th^ death of more Athe- 
nians than the Lacedaemonians in ten years. The Thirty 
withdraw their forces to Athens. 

'EttcI 8^ rovro lyivfTo koL tovs v€Kpovs vTrocnrovbovs 
&7r€bCbo(rav, Trpo&iovTes aWijXoLs irokkol bt^Xiyovro, 
KAcoKptros 8^ 6 t&v pLva-T&v KTJpv^, pd}C eicfxavos &v, 20 
KaTacTLiOTrrja-ipevos ike^ev, '^Avbpes TToklrai, tC ripas i$€- 
kw6v€T€ ; tC a7T0KT€LvaL fioijk€<T0€ ; ^/xcis yap vpas KaKov 
p€v ovb^v irdiroTe iiroLTJa'apcv, p^rea-^riKapev b\ vplv koX 
Up&vj r&v a'€pvoT6,To>v koI $v<n&v koI kopT&v t& v fcoA- loo) 
kC(rT(a v^ KOL avyxop€VTal koI avp(l)OLTfjTal yeyevTjpeOa koX 
avoTpaTiS^Tai, koI irokka peff vp.&v K€KLvbvvevKap€v koI 
Kara yrjv koX Kara 66XaTTav viikp t^s koivtis ap(f)OTip(jiiv 
fipQv (TOiTripLas re Kai ikcvOepias, Tipos OcQv TraTp(i(ov 21 
KOL p,riTp<^<ov Koi avyyeveCas koX Krjbearlas koI kraiplas, • (i-f^j 



128 HELLENIC A II, C. 4. 

404-403 wiirrcoi; yap tovtohv TioWoi KOivo^voviiev aXAT/Xots, aJSoiJ- 
fi€voL Kol O^ovs KoL avOpcoTTOvs TTava-ao-Oc afxaprdvovTes 
els TTiv TTarpCbay Koi fxri TreWeo-^e rots avoa-ioDraTOLS rpii- 
KovTa^ 0% lbL<t)v K€pbi(av €V€Ka d\Cyov beiv TrXeCovs ottck- 
Tovao'iv ^AOrjvaioiiv iv o/cro) ixrja-lv fj irivres IleXoTroi;- 

22 vrja-LOL biKa €Tr] TToAe/xowres. i^bv 6' fjfuv iv elprjvT] 
TToXLTevea-Oai, oSroi rdv TT<!iVTa>v ai(r\LaT6v re koI x^^- 
TTwraroi; koX avocndTaTov kol (E\0ifrTOV koX Oeols koX 
avOpdiTOLS TToXefjLOv rjixip irpds aX\rj\ovs Trap4)(0V(nv. 
aAX' €v ye [livToi, I'nlo'Taa'Oe on koX t&v vvv vcj)^ 7ipi.&v 
airoOavovTOdv ov [lovov ifxels akXa Koi fjfxeis lariv ovs 
TToWa KarebaKpia-aiiev. 6 jxev Totavra IXeyev 01 be 
koLTTol ipyovres koX bia to Toiama TrpocraKOveiv Toifs 
lieB^ avT<ai> aTTrfyayov eh rd Slo-tv, 

At a meeting of the senate open dissension breaks out among 
the Three Thousand^ until they vote to depose the Thirty . 
and appoint Ten in their place, 

23 Try 8' vaTepaCa ol fxev TpiaKOvra ttolw brj Taireivol kol 
eprjpjot ovveKiOrivTO iv rw avvebpLid' t&v be rpiayjXmv 
OTTov eKaa-TOL TerayfievoL fjcav, TTavTa)(ov bie(t)epovTO irpos 
ak\rj\ovs^ ocTOL ^xev yap eireiroiriKea-av tl ^laiorepov kolL 
eipo/SovvTo, evTovoiS eXeyov i)S ov XP^^V K.o.0v(\)le(T6ai roty 
ev Yleipaiel' ocroi b\ emarevov }xi)bev rfbLKrjkevai, avroC 
T€ aveXoyC^ovTO Kal tovs aXXovs ebibacTKov i>s ovbev 
beoLVTo TovToav t&v KaK&v, Kal roTs TpidKOvra ovk e(f>a(Tav 
Xp^vo.1 TreCOea-Qat, oi5' k'nirpeneiv aiioXXvvaL Tr\v ttoXlv, 
Kal TO TeXevTalov eyfnj^pCa-avTo eKeCvovs jxev KaTairavaai,, 
iXXovs be eXeaOai. Kal etXovTo Sexa, eva aird <l)vXrjs. 



HELLENIC A II, C. 4. 1 29 

Tke Thirty retire to Eleusis, The Ten supported by the 403-402 
Knights keep guard over the city. Their opponents at ' 

Piraeus make new weapons and organize their ever increase 
ing forces. 

Kat (A fikv TpiiKovra ^EXevaivibe &Tr7J\6ov' ol bi hiKa 24 
T&v iv icFTct Koi fii\a TcrapayfiivcDv koX iLTnarovvrdnv 
iXKriXois (Tvv tols linripxois iiTeixikovTo. i^cKddevbov 
b^ Koi oi Ittttcis iv rep 'X2t8c^ft), rotJj re tinTovs koi ras 
&o"irlbas IxPVTes, koL 6t' iTnarCav itjxibcvov to jxev at^ 
kanipas avv rals i,<rTrl<rL Kara roi TeCxVt '"o be irpd^ 
SpOpov (jiv Tois tirirois, del ff>oPovp,€VOL firi iiteiaTtia-oiiv 
TLV€S avTois tQv iK Tov Ueipai&s, ol bi TToXXol re ijbrj 26 
SvT€S Kot iravTobaTToC, SirXa iiroiovvro, ol pikv ^Atva, ol 
$e olaijiva, koX ravra iXcvKOVvro, irplv b^ fiiiipas biKa 
yivia-Oai, Triara bovTcs, ohwes avfjLTTo\€iJLri<r€LaVi Koi el 
^4voi clev, la-oT^Xeiav larca-BaL, i^<rav iroWol piiv 
oirAtrat, ttoAXoI 6^ yv/xv^res' iyivovro b\ avTols koX 
iTTTrets m e! i^bofiriKovTa' irpovofxas b^ Troioi^/xerot, koI 
XapiPivovTcs $v\a koI oirdpav, iKidcvbov ttSXlv iv 
Efeipaiei. 

Meantime they make constant sallies, in revenge for which 
the knights ruthlessly butcher some Axionians, In return 
they kill the knight Callistratus, and soon venture to march 
close up to the walls of Athens. 

Tc5v V iK TOV ioTfios iXXos fiiv ovbcls avv SttXois 26 
^^ei, ol bi linTeh Iotlv ore koI Xrjaras ix^^povvro t&v 
iK TOV UeipaL&s, koX ttiv (f>ikayya ovt&v iKaKoiipyovv, 
ir€pUTVxpv bi Kal tQv Al^oi)vi<i>v Tia-lv els Tohs air&v 
iypovs iirl Th ^Trtnfdeia iropevoixivoLs' koI toUtovs Avcrf- 
fiaxos 6 tTnrapxos iTTiar(f)a^€, voWh XiTaveiovras kolL 



130 HELLENIC A II, C 4. 

403-402 TioKKQiv y^oK^TiQi^ tf^fpovraiv lTnTloi>v» avrairiKTcivav bi 
' 27 'cal ol iv rTcipaiet t&v linriiav iir^ ay pod XajSorres KaX- 
KloTpaTov <l>v\rjs Aeovrlbos, Koi yap rjbrj jiiya i(f)p6' 
vow, <SoT€ Kal irpos rh rcTxoy rod iareois TrpoaipaXKov, 
cl bi Kal TovTO 8ct eiTTcti; tov pLr}\avoTroi.ov rod iv t^ 
fioTct, hs iiTcl lyv(a Srt, Kara tov Ik AvkcCov bpofj.o'v /xcX- 
Xoiev Tas firjxavas Trpoa-dyeLV, ra C^iyr] iK4\€V(T€ irdvTa 
ifia^LaCovs \C6ovs iy€iv Kal KarafidXkeiv Sttov iKaaros 
j3ot;Aoiro tov bpofiov, &s bi tovto iyivcTO, iroXXa ely 
iKaoTos T&v \l0<»>v Ttp6.yp.aTa nap^lyje. 

In response to an appeal from the Three Thousand at Athens 
(^ v-v ^ 5> and the Thirty at Ptremis, the Spartans send out Lysander 

as harmost and his brother as admiral to blockade Piraeus, 
so that the tables ure once m/ore turned, 

28 nejut-Trrfrro)!; b\ vpia-peis cJs AaKebalpLOva tQv jut^v 
TpiiiKOVTa i^ 'EXevcTtros, t&v 8' Iv tw KaraAoycp l^ ia- 
T€<a9, Kal PoriOelv Kek€v6vTa>v, m a<^e(rnjKoros tov brfpLOv 
iirb AaK€baip.ovC(av, Avaavbpos \oyf.(rdp.€VOs ort otov re 
€lr} Taxy iKTToXiopKrja'aL tovs iv t<^ Iletpatft KaTi re yrjv 
Kal Korh 66XaTTav, el t&v iiriTrjbeioiv airoKXeLaOeCrja'av, 
avviirpa^ev kKaTov re T&KavTa airrols baveKrdrjvai, Kal 
avTov p.€v KaTa yrjv appLoaTrjv, ACfivv bi tov &b€\<f>bv 

29 vavapxovvTa iKTr€p.(l}07JvaL, Kal i^ekOiav avTbs p.iv 
^Ekevalvibe avvikcyev oirXlTas ttoXXovs UekoTTOvvrjarlovs' 
6 bi vavapyos KaTa BiiKaTTav i(l>vXaTT€V Sirias [Mribiv 

' elcrirkioL avTols t&v iTnrqbeCoDv' (Sore Tayy irdXiv iv 
iiropCa fjaav ol iv netpatei, ol 5' iv r^ aarei 'n'ciXii; av 
fiiya i<f>p6vovv iirl T<f Ava-ivbpfj^, 



HELLENIC A II, C. 4. I31 

But Pausanias, out of jealousy against Lysander, persuades 408-402' 
three of the ephors to let him head a second expedition B.C. 
to Athens, All the allies follow him, except the Corin- 
thians and Boeotians, who refuse to join, and with them he 
encamps near the Piraeus, 

OiJro) 8c Trpox(ap€y6vT0i>v Ylavaavlas 6 ^acriXcvs (jyOovrj^ 
aas Av(rivbp<j^, cl Karcipyaa-fxivos ravra i/xo fJikv efi- 
boKLpirj(roL, ifia hi IbCas iroirja-oLTo ras ^AOrjvas, TrcCa-as 
T&v k<\)6p(av Tpeis iiiyci <l>povp6.v, ovvcCttovto bi Kai 01 30 
(rilxfjiaxoL . TrivT€S irXriv BoLcar&v koI KopivOLcov oiroi 
hi ikeyov fiiv 8tl ov vojxlCoicv evopKclv iiv arparcvi-' 
pL€VOi Itt* *Adrjvalovs fir^bcv 'napi.airovhov iroi.ovvTas' 
lirpaTTOv hi ravra, or; iyCyvaxrKOv AaKebaipLOvCovs j3ov- 
kofUvovs TTiv T&v ^AOrjvaloiv xdpav olKclav Kal inarriv 
TTOirjo'ao'Oai,, 6 bi UavaavCas ioTpaToirebeva-aTO p.iu iv 
T(a *AXt7r^8cp KaXovfiiv<j^ irpds rw neipaici be^idv Ixcoi; 
K^pas, Av<ravbpos bi avv toIs yLi(r6o<f)6pois to ev<iS- 
irup.ov. 

Pausanias summons the refugees at Piraeus to disperse, and 
on their refusal makes a half-hearted attack upon them. 
Failing in this and in a similar attack the next day 
he advances with all his forces and gains a complete 
victory over Thrasybulus ,and his supporters, 

UifjiTroiv bi irpialBeLS 6 Tlava-avCas irpds rois iv ITet- 31 
/oaict iK€\€V€V ainivai iirl ra iavr&v* iircl 5' ovk iiiel^ 
BovTOy Tipoai^aXkiv Ho'ov amo ^orjs Iv€K€V, Sttods /x^ -^ ^ 
8^Xos €lrj €vpL€vris avrois &v, in^X 8' ovb\v imo tt]s 
TTpoa-poXrjs irpa^as iirrjkde, rfj varepalc^ Xaj3a)j; t&v fi^v 
AaKcbatfiovCoav bvo p.6pas, r&v bi ^AOrjvaCoiV linrioDv rpei? 
(f)vk6.9y iraprjKOcv iirl rdv K(o<^dv KipAva, (tkott&v Tnj eva- 
'TTorctxtoToraros clij 6 Il€ipa(.e6s, iirel be iiriovTos avTOv 32 
TTpoa-ideov tlvcs Kal irpiyiiara avr<5 irapclxpv, i.xdeo'Oeis 

I 2 






» 1 



13a HELLENIC A II, C. 4. 

^ * 

403-402 Trapriyy€t\€ t(ws fiiv iTTTreay ikav els avrovs iviirras, koX 
■ ,',. rgjcKq a^' 2i?35^ crvviirca-Oai' avv b€ roiy SXAot; avrdy 
^ iirTjKoKovOei, koI iiriicTCivav fx^v cyyiy Tpi,6.K0Trra r&v 
yInXciVf Tovs 6' ^AXov? KarebCoo^av irpbs to Ylcipaiol 
88 Oiarpov. iKel 5e ervxov i^oTr\L0pL€Voi, ot re ircXraaral 
?r(i2;r6? koL ol OTrXirat ra>2; ^k Ueipai&s. Koi ol ^ikv yjnKoi 
evOifs iKbpajjLOVTcs rJKovTLCov, IpaWov, iro^evov, €0-</)ci;- 
boviav" ol b^ AaKebaifiovLoi, iirel avroiv iroWol krvrpd" 
a-KOVTo, fidka ?rif ^o/x€z;ot avexdpovv ^ttI iroba. ol 6' iv 
T0'6T<a TToKv iiakkov iiriKCLvro, ivravOa koX iiroOvrja-Kci 
l^alpoav T€ KoX Qlfipaxps, &iJL(l>(i> TroXeixdpxca, Koi AaKpi- 
TTjs & dKvfiTTLovCKrjs KOL iWoL ol TeOafipjivoi AaKcdai/xo- 

84 vCoiv Ttpb tQv Tsvkciv iv KepafxeLK^. op&v bi ravra 6 
®pacrvfiovkos kol ol ikkoL o-TrXtrat, iporjdovv, Koi raxp 
Ttaperii^avTo trpb tQv iXXoov e^r' (JktcJ. 6 8c HavtravCas 
li6Xa TTLCcOels koI ava)(oi>pri<ras oaov (rrabia rirrapa ^ 
T:ivT€ Ttpos kqtjyov Tivd, Traprj-yyeike Toty AaKcbaLjxovCois 

, Kal rots iXKois crv/uL/xdxots I'niy^dip^v irpos kavrov, ^/cci 
bk oDVTo^ijJLevos iravrekm ^aOelav Tr\v <j)6.\ayya fjyev 
iirl TOVS ^AOrjvaiovs* ol 8' els xclpas fMkv ^bi^avTO, iTrcira 
be ol p,€v i^€<i<rdrj<rav els tov iv rats *A\ats 7717X01;, ol be 
iveKkivav koX i.itodvria'Kova'iv avT&v is itevTqKovTa /cat 
eKaTov, 

Pausanias urges the two factions at Piraeus and Athens to 
send envoys to him and the ephors present in his camp; 
and when they arrive in obedience to his summons , he sends 
them on to Sparta, where they both tender a complete sub- 
mission to the Lacedaemonian supremacy, 

85 *0 b\ naviraj;tas Tpoiraiov oTTjo-d/xcyos ivexiipria-e* koX 
ov8' &s dipyiCeTo avTols, a\ka \d0pa Tre/utircor ibiba<rKe 
Toifs iv Ueipaiel ola XPV keyovTas irpia-peis iteyLitelv 



HELLENIC A ZI, C. 4. 1 33 

Ttphi kavTov Koi T0V9 TTopovTas l</)cfpovs. oi 6' iirelOovTo, 403-402 
bUarrj be koL tovs iv t« Scrret, koL iKi\€V€ irpos <r(f>as 
TTpoaUvaL &s ttKcIotovs avXXcyofUvovs, kiyovras on, 
ovb^v biovrai rots iv rw Iletpaicfc TroAe/xeii;, dA.Xa 8taA.i;- 
d4vT€S KOLvfj aiM<f>6T€pot AaKebai^ovCoLs <I>(\ol eiz/ai. 
fjbioas bk Tavra Koi NavKXeida? i(l>opos tbv avvrJKOvcv* 86 
&(m€p yap vofilC^raL <tvv /^ao-iXei bvo t&v ifftopoav crv- I 
oTpaTeiea-Oai, ical t6t€ Trapijv oUtos tc koL IlWos, afitfyo- ' 
TcpoL TTJs ixera Uavo'avCov yvdfJLTis Svt€s fxaWov fj ttjs 
ficTOL Ava-ivbpov, 8ia raOra oiv koI els T-qv AaKebialfiova 
TTpoMfKiis lirefiTTOv T(y6s T iK Tov . Ilcipatci)? exojrras ras 
irphs AaKcbaLfiovCovs aTTovba^ Koi tovs aird t&v iv na - ' 

iaT€L Ibidras, K7}<^6(ro</>tti^r(i re koX MikriTov. iirel 37 
fiivTOL oBrot (fxpvTo els AaKebaCpLOva, iTrefiirov bri koX 
ol ivb TOV Ko^vov iK TOV 6.aT€(os kiyovras 5ti avTol fxkv 
TTopabiboao'i Kal to, relxfj & ^x^^^^ '^^^ a-(j>as avTovs 
AaKebaiyLOvCois XRW^^^ ^'^^ fiovkovTat' d^LOvv 5' itjyaa-av 
Kal TOVS iv HetpaLcl, el (jiCkoi (f>aa-lv elvai AaKebaip.o- 
vCoiSi TTapajbibovaL, tov Te HeipaLa Koi ttjv Movw\Cav, 

T/te Spartan government despatches fifteen commissioners 
to arrange the terms of reconciliation. These settled^ Pau- 
sanias disbands his army, and Thrasybulus marches up to 
Athens. 

'Anova-avTes bi irivTOiv avTciv ol e(ftopoi koi ol iKKkrjTO L 38 (^ otT; 
i^4iTepi\lrav irevTeKatbeKa ivbpas' els Tas ^AOrjvas, Kal 
iireTa^av <rvv UavcavCq biakki^at, Sttji b'CvatvTo koX- 
Aiora. ol b^ birjkka^av i<f)* <5re elprjvrfv pikv l\eiv irpds 
iXk'rjkovs, ainevai bi iirl to. iarrroiv eKAarovs irkfjv t&v 
TpiiiKovTa KOL tQv IvbeKa Kal tQv iv t^ Yleipatel ip^iv- 
Toav biKa. el be Tives (pofioivTO t&v i^ iarecas, ebo^ev 
avTols ^EkevG-lva KaToiKeiv. TovTcav b^ Trepav9ivTa>v 89 



134 HELLENIC A IT, C. 4. 

403-402 Yiav(ravlas [i^v dt^Ke to arpiTevfia, 01 bi iK tov HciptuQs 
av€\06vT€S <Tvv Tols oirkoLs cJs rrfv iKpoiroXiv iOvaav rfj 



^AOrivq. 



Speech of Thrasybulus." 



* On what grounds did their opponents claim to rule over 
them f Facts had shown them to be no juster^ braver, or 
wiser than themselves. Even the Lacedaemonians had for- 
saken them. Once more he wished his followers to show 
themselves the better m,en by keeping their oath of recon- 
ciliation^ 

• 

'EttcI h\ KaTipr](rav ol arparriyoly €v6a bri 6 Q>pa<TV' 

40 )3ov\o9 i\€^€v, ^pXv, i<f>r\, £ Ik tov ia-r^oas ivbpcs, 
av^povXevoi iyob yvQvai vp.as avro'us* fiAXiora b^ hv 
yvoCrjT€y ci &vaKoyCa-ai,<r0€ iirl rlvi vjuv jxiya <\>povr)^ 
riov iariv, &crT€ fifji&v ipx^iv iirLx^ipeiv. irorepov 6t- 
KaioTcpoC i<rT€', iW 6 jptjy §w oy irevioTepos vpLCdv i >v 

(3 3"^) ovbiv irdiT OTc lv€Ka '^rnxaTODV ipJas TibJKrjKe v' ]5y£i£_8c 

Tr\ova'L(a T€poi irivrcav orrcg 7ro XXaKal_j tt<7x/)a (v€ Ka 
K€pbi(it)v TT€Troi,r}Ka T€, iirel 6e biKaLoavvrfs oibev Vfxlv 
irpotr/JKCh (TKiylfaa-Oc el &pa iii ivbpeCq vpXv y^ya <f>po- 

41 vrjTiov. Kai tCs hv KoXkiaiv Kpla-is tovtov yivoiro ^ is 
iirok€fxri(raiJi€v irphs iXKrjKovs ; iXKa yvdifiri <f)ulriT &v 
irpoixetv, 0% 1\ovt€s koi tcIxos koI Sirka koX xpw^'"^ 
Kol avfiixixovs HcXoirovvria-tovs virb t&v ovbcv ToUraiv 
iX'^VT(fiv TTapaXiXva-de ; AAA' iirl AaKebaLixovlois bri 
oX^aOe fxiya <l>povrjT4ov etvai; irm, oiy€ & ircp tovs 
biKVovras Kvvas kAokJ) bri(ravT€S irapabibSao'i.Vi otro) 

K&K€lvOL Vp.aS TTapab6vT€S TO) 7JblKr]fjJv<a TOijTij^ brj[x<a ol- 

42 x^^^^i^ iirioirrcs ; ov jxivroi ye i[iasy (o ivbp€S, i^iQ eyo) 
&v dficapLOKare TrapafirjvaL ovbiv, iX\a koI tovto irpos 



HELLENIC A II y C. 4. 1 35 

Toi^ iXKoi^ KoXots ^TrtSci^at, Srt k6X €V0pK0i Koi S<rLoC 403-402 
iaT€» elTtiiv hi ravra Kal &Wa TotavTa, Koi Stl ovbkv 
bioi TapifTeirOai,, iWci Tois vofiOLS toIs ip\aloi.s XPV' 
&Oai, avi(m](r€ ttiv iKK\rj(T[av. 



The Athenians then reorganize their constitution ; but shortly 
afterwards y hearing the Thirty are forming a conspiracy y 
they seize and slay their generals ^ but come to terms with 
the rest, to which ever since they have faithfully adhered. 

m 

Kal t6t€ ijl€v ipxcLs Karaorrjo-dftci/oi iiroXiTevovro' 43 
voripi^ hi Xp6v(o iKova-avTcs ^ivovs ixi,<r6ov(T0ai, Tohs 
'EXcvo-iyt, aTpaT€V(T6,fi€V0i Travbrffifl kit avrovs tovs fxiv 
arparriyoifs avT&v els \6yovs ikdovras iiriKTeLvav, rots 
bk &XX01S d(TiripLylravT€S tovs (f>CXovs koX avayKalovs 
fir€t,(rav (TVvaXXayrjvai* Koi dpAa-avres opKOVs 1j pitiv firi 
liVT](nKaKrj<r€LV, in koI vvv SyMv re TroXirevoi^rat Kal Tois 
opKOis ifxpiiveL 6 brjiios^ 



I 






\ 



ij 



Ctotitrxm: |pr^ss S^itmn 



XENOPHON 



HELLENICA, BOOKS I, II 



WITIf INTRODUCTION AND NOTES 

BY 

G. E. UNDERHILL, M.A. 

FELLOW AND TUTOR OF MAGDALEN COLLEGE 



PABT II. — NOTES 



AT THE CLARENDON PRESS 

1888 

[ All rights reserved] 



HENRY FROWDE 



Oxford University Prsss Warehouse 
Ahbn Corner, E.C. 



NOTES. 



§ I. McTcL Zl TavTtt. For the interval that must have elapsed between BOOK I. 
the points, where Thucydides* narrative ends and Xenophon*s begins, ^^ 

see Introd. pp. 6, 7. j 

at9i%, in a second battle ; the Athenian victory at Cynossema being | 
apparently the first (Thuc. viii. 106). 

§ 2. cK T680V. For the positions of Dorieus,Mindarus, Tissaphemes, 
and Alcibiades at this time see Introd. pp. 6, 7. 

Toi« orpaTHYOis, i. e. Thrasyllus and Thrasybulus (Thuc. viii. 104). 
&s f^voiytf ' a s soon as he got clear,* i.e. of the narrow strait of 
the Hellespont, ircpl rd ToCtciov must be joined with irpds rt^v 7% 
dvcpC|^{c. The imperfect tense expresses the attempt. 

§ 3. cU MdSvTov, in the Thracian Chersonese not far from Sestos. 

§ 4. Iirl ttJv 6<&XaTTav, i.e. to Abydos. 

§ 5. I£ IcdOivoO. Mindarus had moved his fleet from Elaeus to Abydos 
(cf. Diod. xiii. 45), so that, since Ilium is twenty miles from Abydos, 
and since he saw Dorieus entering ifia ^/lifx}, in all probability the fight 
must have been renewed the day after Dorieus' arrival in the Hellespont. 
Moreover the Athenian ships seem (cf. §§ 2, 3) to have sailed from 
Madytus, fought against Dorieus and returned to Madytus again before 
the second battle — a process, which, considering the twenty or thirty 
miles thus traversed, must have occupied several .hours. Further, since 
Madytus was nearly opposite to Abydos, the second battle must have 
been fought somewhere between the two cities, and consequently much 
higher up the Hellespont than the first. Diodorus (1. c.) speaks of one 
battle only, making Mindarus sail down from Abydos to the support of 
Dorieus at the Dardanian promontory. Accordingly Breitenbach, wish- 
ing to reconcile the two accounts, regards l£ kotdivov as an interpolation. 

§ 6. ^apvdpa^os was satrap of Phrygia Minor and Bithynia, and 
was now in league with the Peloponnesians (Thuc. viii. 80, 99). 

§ 7. (rv|«.(^pd(avTC8, 'having formed in close order.' 

§ 9. avXXojp^y. Though after this Alcibiades could never again hope 
to delude the Athenians with promises of Persian aid (Thuc. viii. 82), 
his own naval successes round Samos and now in the Hellespont seem 
to have been sufficient to secure for him their confidence. Tissaphemes 

A 2 3 



HELLENICA. 

Book I. evidently wanted to retrieve his position in the opinion of the Peloponne- 
— M — sians (Thuc. viii. 109). 

j^ § 10. |iCTol MavTiOcov : Mantitheus is mentioned again i. 3. 13. 

§ II. ol 8' cv 2T)<rr$, k.t.\. From this point some commentators 
date the campaign of 410-409, because Diodorus says that the battle of 
Cyzicus was fought ^817 rov x^'At^vos \i\^ovro^. But Diodorus by the 
end of the winter means February, not, like Thucydides and Xenophon, 
the beginning of April. 

els KapSCav. On the west coast of the Chersonese. 
§ 12. OT]pa|jiivT)S. (Diod. xiii. 47, 49.) After trying in vain to prevent 
the Euboeans and Boeotians from uniting Euboea with the mainland by a 
bridge across the Euripus, Theramenes had sailed to the Aegean islands 
in order to replace the democracies in the various states, had then lent 
aid to king Archelaus of Macedon in the siege of Pydna, and finally 
joined Thrasybulus (cf. supr. § 8) on the Thracian coast. 

§ 13. cJcXoi&lvois Tol iJic-ydXa lo-rCa, i.e. the sails of the greater of the 
two masts. So too, vi. 2. 27, Iphicrates leaves his large sails behind 
to make his ships lighter and more manageable for fighting. 

els JIdpiov. On the E. shore of the entrance to the Propontis. 
§ 14. avTots, i.e. roh arpa.Tiijrai% in the ktcKXrjaia. 
§ 15. uip\kia-avro, i. e. at Proconnesus in the Propontis. 
§ 16. lireiBtJ 8* eyyvs, k.t.\. See note on the battle of Cyzicus at the 
end of the volume. 

vir' ovroO, i. e. by Alcibiades. Cobet and others conjecture dir* 
ouToC, * from the harbour ' ; an idea already sufficiently expressed by 
dir€tXT)}&}&£vas. 

§ 18. Tois ciKoox. The article is accounted for by the previous mention 
of the Athenian fleet (cf. infr. i. 6. 26). There is no need to suppose 
that dpiffrcus has dropped out of the text (cf. Plut. Ale. 28). 

&irdous. The Peloponnesians did not succeed in collecting a fleet 
again till Lysander was appointed admiral in 408 B. c. ; cf. Plato, 
Menex. 243 fuq, fiky ^/J^^pq- irdtras rds tSjv voXcfiiojv i\6vT€s vavs. 

SvpaKocrCuv. Thucydides (viii. 26) relates that the S3rracusan8 had 
sent a squadron under Hermocrates to aid the Lacedaemonians. 

§ 21. nipivOov Kol ^TiXvppCav. Both on the N. coast of the Propontis. 
§ 22. Xpvo-6iroXitr, on the Bosporus, opposite Byzantium. 

ScKOTcvTifjptov. The establishment of this custom-house was of the 
greatest importance to Athens now that her treasury was exhausted, and 
she had lost so many of her subject allies, more especially Euboea 
(Thuc. viii. 95). 

4{^XcY0v . . . Kal . . . I KaTaXiir6vTcs : from the confusion of the 
order of thought in. these two lines, commentators have suspected the 
MS. reading. 

4 






NOTES. CH. /, § lo — § 29. 

§ 23. ciacrroX^cas : this officer held the second command in the Lace- Book I. 
daemonian fleet (cf. vi. 2. 25 and note on i. 5. i). m 

cdXcD. The MSS. read laXojaav, j 

KdXa. This is Bergk's conjecture for the MS. «aX<£. The word 
is equivalent to ^y\a and is used by Aristophanes, Lys. 1 251, to denote 
ships. Tcl KixKk = * our honour is gone * hardly seems to suit the passage. 

dir€(r<rua, Doric form of dvtav^j slot. pass, of diroatvoj, is explained 
by Eustathius as oir^A^c, ridv-qKi, 

ircivwvTi TwvSpcs. diropCo|&cs. Doric for •neivSxTi ol avdpfs. dnopovfji€v. 
For the offers of peace apparently made by the Spartans at this time 
(cf. Introd. pp. 11, 26). 

§ 24. ^apvAjpa^os. Diodorus (xiil. 51) says that the Feloponnesians 
fled to his camp. 

§ 25. Tovs dird T«v ir6Xco)v OTpaTrjYovs, i.e. the generals from the 
several states in the Peloponnesian confederacy. * . 

§ 26. vavin|'Yov|i4v(ov. Genitive absolute, sc. alrSJv. 
§ 27. *Ev hk T^ XP^^SP Tovnp. This and the similar formulae in §§ 31, 
32, 33 seem to mean that all the events here mentioned occumed just 
about the time of the battle of Cyzicus. 

*Ep|jioKpdTovs. The leader of the oligarchical party at Syracuse 
(cf. Thuc. viii. 85). 

^|jivY)|icvoi;s . . . virdpxovGTOv. In the MSS. these words are placed 
after XP^^^*- ^^^vat in § 28. In this case the phrase \6yov diSovai would 
have to bear the unusual sense 'to give an opportunity of speaking,' and 
the words fieixvrjfiivovs . . . vvdpxovffav must then be an appeal made by 
the generals to their soldiers to give them a fair hearing, when they 
returned to Syracuse, — an appeal quite uncalled for after the loyalty 
which these soldiers had just shown them. If however the words be 
transposed, withDindorf,to their present position in the text, the passage 
at once becomes intelligible. When the soldiers refused to elect new 
generals, notwithstanding the news that the present generals had been 
exiled, Hermocrates told them that they ought not to rebel against the 
home government ; but that if any one had any charge to make against 
himself or his colleagues, both he and they were in duty bound to give 
an account of their commands. As however no one brought any accu- 
sation against them, they consented to continue in command till their 
successors arrived. 

vcytK-fiKaTC. Many parallels may be found for this abrupt change 
to the oratio recta (cf. infr. i. 4. 14, vi. 5. 35, etc.). 

f||iCTcpav . . . ^iicT^pav. There is no need to transpose these words : 
dp€Tt\ can very well mean courage and skill in commanding ; irpo9v|jiCa, 
sc. rav arpariorrSjVy ' zeal in obeying.' 
§ 29. 8c«>|i,^vttv. Genitive absolute. 

5 



HELLENICA. 

Book I. Kai^^civ, * would bring them back from exile.' 

M § 30. irpoo-0}&iXot)vT€s. The pres. part, expresses frequency. 

J^ SxV =TOVTa)V ovs, 

dvcJwovTO. Doric for dy^feoivovro. 
§ 31. KaniYopifio-as. Thucydides (viii. 85) narrates, how in 41 1 B.C. Her- 
mocrateis had accused Tissaphernes at Sparta of playing a double game 
between the Peloponnesians and Athenians. He is mentioned (infr. i. 
3. 13) as accompanying some Spartan envoys, who, at the same time as 
some Athenian envoys, were to meet Pharnabazus at Cyzicus, 409 B.C. 
Since Diodorus puts his expedition against Syracuse in 408 B. c, it must 
have been shortly after this meeting that he obtained from Pharnabazus 
the assistance described in this passage. Tissaphernes was the personal 
enemy of Pharnabazus. 

€v Tovnp 8i -TJKov, cf. ififivav tojs dfiteovro . . . AvewifjapciyTO. The 
chronological sequence of events here seems to be hopelessly confused. 
How could the old generals have at the same time waited for the new 
ones to arrive and been sent on their way with promises of future help ? 
Why in § 31 does Xenophon tell the story already narrated by Thucy- 
dides (viii. 85) of what had already happened to Hermocrates early in 411, 
and couple with that his visit to Pharnabazus, which must certainly have 
been subsequent to his exile, mentioned in § 27 as apparently occurring 
about the beginning of 410 B.C.? and why does he insert at this point his 
preparations for his attack upon Syracuse, which was not actually made 
• till 408 B. c. according to Diodorus (xiii. 63) ? Again, to what interval 
of time does kv rovrqt refer ? for the new ships building at Antandros in 
the spring of 410 cannot have been finished till the summer, i.e. after 
the beginning of the next campaign. Perhaps it may be interpreted 
to mean the time following the agreement made between the old generals 
and the army, inclusive of the time required for building the ships. -Tikov 
must therefore be translated as a pluperfect, * had arrived.' 

els MCXtitov. This agrees with Thucydides, 1. c. 
§ 32. *Ev 0d(rcp. Thasos had revolted from Athens in 411 B. c, two 
months after Diotrephes, an Athenian oligarch, bad put down the 
democracy, then existing, in favour of an oligarchy (cf. Thuc. viii. 64), and 
had since submitted to the government of a Spartan harmost. Now it 
appears that the popular party under Ecphantus had expelled Eteonicus 
the harmost and his supporters, and admitted Thrasybnlus with an 
Athenian force just after the battle of Cyzicus : cf. this section with 
§§ 22. 12, and with Demosthenes (c. Lept. § 67), who adds that this 
affair further led to t6v irepl Bpdicrjv t&itov entering the Athenian alliance. 

&p|jio(rrfjs. In 423 B. c. the Spartans appointed governors in 
Thrace (Thuc. iv. 131), and in 413 king Agis made Alcamenes harmost 
of Euboea (Thuc. viii. 5). But it was not till the admiralty of Lysander, 
6 



I 



NOTES. Cff. /, § zo—CIf. //, § I. 

408 B. c, that it became a principle of the Lacedaemoniaa hegemony Book L 
to appoint these officers backed up by oligarchies of ten in all the subject j 
states; cf. Diod. xiv. 10 KaraaT^aavrts 8c yctdapxw AvaavSpov rot/r^i 
vpoffiTO^av iimroptheaOai r^s vSKeis kv kxdffTy robs nap* oOtms KoXovfilvovs 
ApHocrrds kyKaOiardyTa' rats ySip StjiiOKparlms frpofftcSwrwrfs ol AcuccSai- 
fiSvioi 8t' dXiyapxias k^ovKovro rd.t v6\tis ZkOiKiTaOm, Other instances of 
harmosts in these books are (i. 2. 18) Labotas in Heraclea, (i. 3. 5) 
Hippocrates in Chalcedon, (i. 3. 15) Clearchus in Byzantiun, (ii. 3. 14) 
Callibius at Athens. 

ncunirniSas. It is impossible to determine whether Pasippidas 

I was actually va^apxos in succession to Mindarus/or whether he merely 

filled his place till the newly appointed successor Cratesippidas arrived. 

§ 33. AcKcXcCos. Agis had commanded this imrtixifff^s ever since 
its fortification in 413 B. c. (Thuc. vii. 19). 

0|>d(niAXos had returned to Athens immediately after the battle at 
Abydos (supr. § 8) to procure reinforcements. 

§ 34* T*av «irl irftotv, . * o f those i n the rear.* 

§ 35 • oTC^o*- *^oX 86ev, 'stould also seize the places from which, etc' 
Kal KXIapxov. ical is to he retained : the passage means that, just 
as Agis prevented provisions coming into Athens by land, so also Clear- 
chus was to do the same by sea. Clearchus had been designated to ' 
command a squadron in the Hellespont in 412 B. c, and on his arrival 
there in 411 B. c. Byzantium had revolted to him (ITiuc. viii. 8, 39, 80). 

§'36. CIS 5tj<rT6v. Sestus was at this time occupied by the Athenians 
(cf. supr. § 11), so that it has been proposed to read tls^AfivBov, 

§. 37. 'AwCpa. This Hannibal was the son of Cisco, and according • 
to the narrative of Diodoriis (xiii. 62) he captured Himera two years 
later, in 409 B.C. Dindorf regards this reference to Sicilian affairs and 
the similar ones in i. 5. 21, ii. 2. 24, so too the references to Persian 
history, i. 2. 19, ii. i. 8-9, as interpolations : but they may very well be 
justified on the analogy of Thuc. ii. 28, iii. 87, 92, etc., and indeed, since 
. the Sicilian Creeks and the Persians had begun actively to interfere, 
they may be regarded as necessary to the understanding of the course of 
the war. 

§ I. 'OXvfjtmds. See Introd. § 2. on Xenophon's chronology. II. 

irpoarcOcio-a £wa)pCs. Pausanias (v. 8. 3) relates, that the two- 
horse chariot race was first added in the 93rd Olympiad, i.e. 408 B.C. or 
two years later than this date on Breitenbach's calculation, or one year 
on Bruckner's. 

BopiK^v. On the S.E. coast of Attica. 

BpdovXXos supr. i. 8 was sent to obtain reinforcements for the 
Hellespont, but now, for some unexplained reason, he takes his new fleet 

7 



HELLENICA. 

• 

Book I. to Ionia. Probably the Athenians were already completely masters of 
M the Hellespont, and so could afford to use their forces elsewhere. 

II. ^ ^1"* '**^» IC.T.X. : probably a gloss. Peter translates the words, 

' together with those who were to serve as peltasts ' ; but anyhow d>s is out 
of place. 

§ 2. IlvycXa. A small town five miles S.W. of Ephesus. 

§ 4. els N6tu)v. The harbour of Colophon, N.W. of Ephesus. 

• dK|jL<£{ovTos ToO otCtov, * when the com was ripening,* i. e. about 
June. 

§ 5. XrdYvis. Thucydides (viii. 16) calls him (hmpxoi Tiaaaupipvovs. 

§ 6. TQ *ApTC}u8L. The famous temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 

§ 7. Kopii(fo-6v, a hill four and a-half miles S.W. of Ephesus. 

§ 8. ar(|>C<nv can hardly be right. Sauppe conjectures *E<J>4aioi, 

§ 9. &s cl JKOTov, 'about a hundred.' 

§ 12. avTots dvSpdox, ' crews and all.* 

§ 13. dirlXvo^v, *he let go free,* is a correction of Dindorf for the 
MS. KarkXwcfv. The sense evidently requires some such change in the 
text, as it can scarcely be true that Thrasyllus 'stoned to death* the 
cousin of his own friend Alcibiades. Others conjecture leariKvfftv or 

§15. ^(vTCS . . . fJKoicv : two different constructions are here used 
after &s. 

§ 16. 'AXKiPtd8i|S as the commander-in-chief alone is mentioned, 
though it appears from Plut. Ale. 29 that Thrasyllus also took 
part. 

§ 18. Kopv^doxov. Xenophon.here gives rather a one-sided version 
of the recapture of Coryphasium or Pylos on the Messenian coast by the 
Spartans, which the Athenians had held ever since it was seized by their 
general Demosthenes in 425 B.C. Diodorus (xiii. 64) says that the place 
was at this time garrisoned by some Messenians, and when they were 
attacked by the Spartans, the Athenians sent a fleet of thirty vessels 
under Anjrtus to raise the siege. Anytus, however, was unable to 
weather Cape Malea, and therefore returned to Athens ; whereupon 
the Messenians shortly after surrendered. Xenophon omits altogether 
' to notice the important recapture of Nisaea by the Megarians about the 
same time (Diod. xiii. 65). 

TOV8 citoCkovs. It appears from Thuc. iii. 92, viii. 3 that when the 
Spartans in 426 B.C. settled 6000 colonists at Heraclea, they refused to 
allow any Achaeans to join in the settlement: and that in 413 B.C. 
king Agis had extorted money and demanded hostages of the Achaeans 
of Phthia. 

§ 19. Kal 6 4viavT6s, k,t.\, Dindorf prints this section in brackets 
for the same reasons as supr. i. 37. 
8 



NOTES. CH, II, § 2—CH. Ill, § 20. 

- 

§ I. iravrl t^ orpaToir^Scp, i.e. the united forces of Alcibiades and Book I. 
Thrasyllus, who had wintered at Lampsacus, supr. 2. 15. —m — 

§ 2. KaXxTiSova Kal Bv{dvnov, now in possession of the Lace- Yd. 
daemonians (of. supr. i. 35). - 

§ 4. T rCo-T€is TTcirot'rin.^vos, i.e. trp3g Toi>y 'RiBwom . 

§ 6. 'AXki^i^Stis. According to Plutarch's account, Alcibiades had 
been previously engaged in repelling Phamabazus* attack on the outside 
of the Athenian siege works. 

§ 7. o-TcvoiropCav. The narrow passage in between the river and the 
Athenian lines. 

§ 8. ol 84 Xoiirol (rTparrj^oC. Thrasyllus and Theramenes (cf. Diod. 
xiii. (i^), 

§ 9. T^v <|>6pov . , . SiTOvircp cu2»9co'av. There is no evidence to show 
whether this ip6po% was the ^lKoari\ or five per cent, duty on all imports 
and exports, for which the Athenians in 413 B.C. commuted the tribute 
originally assessed, by Aristides (Thuc. vii. 28) ; or whether in the interval 
they had returned to the old system. 

§ 13. Ilao-iinriSas was exiled (i. i. 32) on suspicion of treachery at 
Thasos. In the interval therefore h6 mi;st have been recalled. These 
Spartan envoys, who were evidently sent to counteract the influence of 
the Athenian envoys, are not to be confused with those who (infr. 4. 2) 
met Phamabazus at Gordium with the news of Cyrus' appointment to be 
satrap of Sardis. 

fjBT) ^€VY«v (supr. I. 27-32). Xenophon apparently inserts these 
words to denote that Hermocrates was not with the envoys as com- 
missioned by the Syracusan government, but hoping to gain, as he 
actually did, some aid for the expedition which he was preparing against 
his country. 

§ 15. KXIapxo«: cf. i. i. 35. 
vco8a|jLa)8wv. The name given to newly manumitted Helots : -what 
their privileges were, cannot be ascertained (cf. Thuc, iv. 26, 80, vii. 58). 

§ 1 7. dtXXat. There seems to be no need to change the MS. reading 
to &Kka .aAAp. The construction &KXqx — kqX — kox — Koi oiroas aWai is 
somewhat irregular, but the meaning is plain. 

liri|3dTT)S ordinarily means either a marine or a private passenger. 
There is no evidence to show that it was a title of an inferior naval officer 
(cf. Thuc. viii. 61). 

§ 18. ol irpo8i86vTCS. An anacoluthon: the nominative has no verb. 
The interrupted sentence is taken up again at § 23 with evel d4. 

§ 19. voTcpov. Byzantium surrendered a second time to the Lace- 
daemonians in the autunm of 405 B.C. (cf. ii. 2. i). 

dirl<|>vYev. P regnant meanings * got off b y s avin g.* 
§ 20. dvoC{avT€S. Diodorus (xiii. 66) and Plutarch (Alcib. 31) give 



HELLENICA. 

Book I. a much fuller and somewhat different account of the capture of Byzan- 
M tium, detailing an elaborate stratagem of Alcibiades, and speaking of 
III. * hard-fought battle within the town. 

rV. § 2. ot Tc AaKc8ai|iovC(ov. Although Xenophon introduces these 

envoys with the article ol, as if already mentioned, they evidently cannot 
be the same as those mentioned in ch. 3. 13 as journeying to Persia. 
Probably therefore they had been despatched previously by the •Spaj> 
tans to procure the dismissal of Tissaphemes from Sardis. . 
irdvTcov &v by attraction for ircii'Ta c&i'. 

§ 3. irdvTwv T^ lirl OoXdrrt). In the Anabasis (i. 9. 7) Xenophon 
describes Cyrus more exactly as ffarpdmis AvBias re icat ^pvyias r^s 
/AtydXfjs Koi KawaSo/clas, ffTpanjybs fik koI wdyrojv ... ots KaB'^teei €is 
■ KourrouXov ircBlop &$p<A(€(rOai, 

K^pavov. Doric for Kaprjvos, * chief.' Segaar however considers it 
to be a Persian word, to account apparently for Xenophon's explanation 
of the term. 

§ 5. |At\ clScvoi. For the su(5cess of this measure cf. note on § 8. 

§ 6. |i,l|j,i|rr|Tai, sc. 6 Kvpos. Some commentators have needlessly 
conjectured /lifjaf/oivTo, sc. ol vpcffPtts ; for Phamabazus aimed not so 
much to avoid the remonstrances of the envoys, as the displeasure of 
Cyrus. 

§ 7. (viavTol Tpcis, i. e. they returned to Athens in the spring of 
405 B. c. just before the battle of Aegospotami. 

ov iTGipd PocnXca. Some word like dvaydyoi must be supplied 
from dir(Sf C(v immediately preceding. 

§ 8. povX6|i,cvos, K.T.\, Cyrus' measures to prevent the news of his 
own arrival, and of the intention of the Persian king to aid the Lace- 
daemonians from reaching the Athenians, must have proved successful. 
Otherwise it is hard to believe that Alcibiades would have chosen this 
moment to return to Athens ; whereas, supposing him to have been in 
ignorance, no moment could have seemed more propitious. He had 
restored the Athenian dominion over the Bosporus, Propontis, and 
Hellespont, had concluded a favourable treaty with Phamabazus, and 
had sent an embassy to the Persian king in the hope of bringing him 
over to the side of Athens. 

§ 9. 0p(UTvPovXos here reappears in Xenophon*s narrative, nothing 
having been said of him since the battle of Cyzicus in 410 B. c. ; cf. supr. 
note on i. 32. From this passage it would seem that the Lacedaemo- 
nian party had once more gained the upper hand in the island. 

§ 10. oTpaniYovs ctXovro. It is not to be supposed that only three 
generals were elected instead of the usual ten. Xenophon probably 
names the three who were to command the fleet. - 
10 



NOTES. CH. IV, § 2— § i6. 

<|>cvYOVTa. Thucydides (viii. 95) says that -the people lifnjtfHffcofTo Kot Book I. 
'AXictfiiddfjy , ..Kariivcu in the year 411 B.C., but Alcibiades had never — »^— 
availed himself of the permission, so that perhaps now the decree may py^ 
have been renewed. The cuise pronounced .over him by the priestly 
family of the Eumolpidae was certainly not recalled till his return in 
408 B.C. 

§ II. rv0cCov. On the southern Laconian coast. 

ToO . . . KardirXov. . The genitive may be made to depend on 
KaToo'Ko'ir'fiv, or be regarded as a sort of partitive genitive dependent on 
StrcDS. The meaning is the same in dther case. 

i 12. 'Qpt||i,^ovs, sc. roifs fToKiras, from the preceding ir6\ts. 

nXwn^pia. The washing of the statue of the goddess took place 
on the 25th of Thargelion, i.e. about June 12 ; cf. Mommsen, Heorto- 
logie. 

dv€iriTifi8€iov.' So Plutarch, Alcib. 34 66tv \v toTs ^Xicto rSw 
dvoippdSojv T^v iiiiipav ravTijv dirpa«ror *A07fvaToi vofjd(ovffiv' ov ^tXo- 
<pp6vaJ5 o^ ovb' €v/JL€ySj5 iB6K€i vpoadfxofiivrj rhv *AXKi0t6drjv i) Beds 
vapaKoXvirreaOai leal dtreXai&Vfiv iavrijs. 

§ 13. 2x^os • • • Oav|i,d^ovTcs, a construction tcarcL aiviffiv, 

ol |ji^ corresponds to olH % 1 7. 

p.6vos, i. e. alone of those who had been banished at the same time. / 

dircXoYif|OT| <S>s. Dindorf incloses the words in brackets as a gloss : 
diTf A.071^^ is used passively. 

dird To€ rf|s ir6Xca>s 8waTo{> : ' from the resources of the state ' ; 
cf. i. 6. 7 Kard. T^,avTov Swardv, 

§ 14. ^cppaX6|icvoi, MSS. vwcp^aWo/juvoif literally ' having put off I 
that which seemed to be just to another time ' ; i. e. the demand for an | 
immediate trial, which seemed to be just. 

€€rript\<rav. The oratio recta is somewhat irregular, but is due to 
the length of the sentence. 

§ 15. SotiXcvcDv is appropriate as expressing the relation between 
Alcibiades as a subject, and the Persian king as a master. 

§ 16. etvai. Dindorf inserts (hau from one MS. It is a contracted 
expression for rStv roio^rrmv oT6<Tir€p avrbs Tjv ovrwf (tvaif * they denied 
that it was the part of men who were such as he was, to need, etc' 

otoio-ircp irpoTcpov, ic.t.X. The words, as they stand in the text, are 
a correction, almost universally adopted, of the unintelligible MSS. 
TOiovTos oXos. But even so corrected it is very hard to extract any 
meaning out of them, rots . . . cxOpots is the dat. depending on inr&pxfiy, 
and ototairep is the dat. instead of the nom. by attraction after roiovrois : 
the sequence of cases SwewrOctcnv . . . X€v4>0.lvTas is very irregular. Per- 
haps therefore the passage might be rendered : ' they said that nothing 
was left to his enemies except to appear to be what they had been before 

II 



HELLENICA. 

Book I. (i.e. to try to appear to-be as powerful as they really had been in th^e 

M oligarchy of 41 1 B. c), and afterwards, when they should really have 

py gained power, to make away with the best citizens, and thus being 

themselves alone left remaining, to be courted by their fellow-citizens 

for the very reason that they would have no better men to employ.' 

§ 17. Twv TC 4>oPcp(<^v, K.rX. Ycv4(r9(u is the infinitive dependent on 
<l>o0€pSfv. Translate : * and that there was a danger that he alone would 
be the author of the evils that it was feared would befall the state ' : 
<l>ofi€p(av . . . y€vi<r0cu = (l>ofi(pafV fif^ y4vrjTcu. 

§ 19. Join trapeaicevaayAvtav [li^ iitirpiireLv. 

§ 20. a^okp&nwp. For a parallel cf. Thuc. vi. 8, when Nicias, 
Alcibiades, and Lamachus were appointed ar partly ol airoKp&Topes, 

o-c^cai, i. e. to secure what remained and to recover what was lost 
of the Athenian power. 

irpoTcpov |iev. For the first time since the Imrtix'^aK was estab- 
lished at Decelea, Alcibiades now conducted the procession to Eleusis, 
as of old, along the Sacred Way. He evidently meant it to be not only 
a military demonstration, but an act of atonement to the priestly party, 
whose hatred he had so deeply incurred (cf. Thuc. viii. 53). Plutarch 
indeed says that he roused such enthusiasm among the common people, 
that they hoped that he would make himself tyrant (cf. Thuc. vi. 15). 

§ 21. rpCrcp |jiT|vt. The Eleusinian mysteries were celebrated on the 
20th of Boedromion, i. e. Oct. 4 : the Plynteria on the 25th of Tharge- 
lion, i.e. June 12. Alcibiades therefore must have stayed at Athens 
within a week of four months. 

'QpT)|icvoi KOTcl yi|v, i. e. Alcibiades selected them out of the college 
of generals to command the troops on board his fleet. Diodorus (xiii. 
72) erroneously mentions Adimantus and Thrasybulus. For the latter 
was still absent from Athens (cf. Hell. i. 4. 9, 5. 11). It appears from 
i. 4. 22, 5. 18 that Conon must have accompanied Alcibiades as 
second commander of the fleet, as he was left by him to carry on the 
siege of Andros. 

§.22. rijs 'AvSpias xi»pa.%. This failure to capture Andros was made 
a matter of reproach against Alcibiades by his enemies at Athens (Plut. 
Ale. 35). 

§ 23. ciroX^^ct. Diodorus and Plutarch state that Alcibiades made 
plundering expeditions to Caria, Cos, and Rhodes, apparently in the 
winter 408-407 b. c. 

V. § I. irpArepov TovTaiv,i.e. a little before Alcibiades sailed for An- 

dros and Samos, in the autumn of 408 B. c. Xenophon now proceeds 
to bring his account of the doings in the enemy's camp up to the same 
date. 

12 



NOTES. CH, IV, § i^—CH. F, § r. 

rxfi vavapx^as. The origin of the admiralty at Sparta, like that of Book I. 
other Lacedaemonian institutions, is shrouded in some obscurity. Hero- ^ — m — 
dotus (}ii. 56) speaks of a Spartan naval expedition undertaken against -y 
Polycrates, tyrant of Samos, about 525 B.a, but does not mention who 
was the commander. He does however apply the title of vavapxos to 
Eurybiades at the battle of Salamis (viii. 42), but he calls king Leoty- 
chides, who commanded the Greek fleet at Mycale in '4'j^ B.C. arparrjy^s 
Kal vavapxos (viii. 131), showing that at that date the office was not 
permanently separated from the kingship. From this time, with the 
doubtfiil exceptions of the regent Paiisanias and Dorcis (Thuc. i. 95), we 
hear nothing of the admiralty till the time of the Peloponnesian War, 
after the outbreak of which till its close a tolerably complete list of 
admirals can be made out all the time that the Spartans maintained a 
fleet at sea. The list begins with Cnemus 430-429 B.C. (Thuc. ii. 66, 80, 
93), who seems, like the other Spartan magistrates, to Have entered on his 
office in September. Alcidas succeeded after a year's interval, 428-427 
(Thuc. iii. 16, 26), and then after another year's interval, Thrasymelidas^ 
426-425 (Thuc. iv. 11). In 425 the Spartans lost their entire fleet at 
Pylos, and built no more ships until after the Athenian disaster at 
Syracuse. In 413-412 Melancridas was admiral of the newly built 
fleet : he was followed in the two next years by Astyochus (Thuc. viii. 
20) and Mindarus (Thuc. viii. 85), who perished at the battle of Cyzicus 
in the spring of 410 B.C. It is doubtful whether Pasippidas, who was 
commissioned to collect together what ships he could (Xen. i. i. 32) was 
actually admiral or not, and it is doubtful again, when the titular 
admiral Cratesippidas took command over the ships that he had thus 
collected, although Xenophon narrates the fact as occurring apparently 
in the campaign of4ii-4io. At any rate Cratesippidas was not suc- 
ceeded by Lysander till the autunm of 408 (Xen. i. 5. i). At the end 
of his year of office Lysander was followed by Callicratidas, who was 
drovmed at the battle of Arginusae in 406 B.C. (c. June). After an 
interval of some months the fleet- was handed over to Lysander as 
kmaroXevs or second in command, the nominal admiral being Aracus. 
Then there is d. gap of one year in our information, during which 
Lysander was again actual commander of the fleet, whoever may have 
been the titular admiral, and for the following year (404-403) Libys, the 
brother of Lysander, was appointed to be admiral. 

As to the powers of the office Aristotle (Pol. ii. 9. 33) calls it o'x«8^i' 
iripa fiaatXeia — a criticism which seems, however, to be true only of 
Lysander, and possibly of Teleutias, the brother of king Agesilaus 
(392-391 B.C.) ; and which seems tacitly to refer to Aristotle's previous 
definition of the kingship as merely a ffTparrjyia BicL fiiov. In this respect 
the admiral was indeed another king, having a power independent of 

13 



HELLENICA. 

Book I. and parallel with that of the two ordinary kings. But in another respect 
— M— his position was far inferior and more precarious : for the office was, as 
•y a general rule (the case of Cratesippidas, who was sent out. to command 

whatever ships he could find, being apparently an exception), an 
annual one— at least so it would appear from the list of admirals that 
can be made ont with tolerable certainty so long as the Spartans main- 
tained a fleet at sea — and moreover the same individual could not legally 
hold it twice (Xen. ii. 1.7). In the case of Lysander indeed the ephors 
discovered an easy evasion of the law, by appointing him for two 
years liriCToXcvs or second in command to a merely nominal admiral : 
and it was while holding this subordinate position that Lysander attained 
to his greatest power, and acted like a sovereign prince in the 
Aegean. Thus at the siege of Athens (405-404) he appears as con^- 
mander of the fleet quite on an equality with the kings Agis and Pausa- 
nias in command of the army, and further to have the advantage over 
them in that his action was not hampered by the presence of a colleague. 
Again, when any admiral had proved himself inefficient or untrust- 
worthy, the Spartan government preferred, as they did with the kings, 
rather to send out ovyL^ovKoi to advise him than simply to deprive him of 
his office (cf. Thuc. vi. 85, viii. 39), unless this was absolutely necessary. 
The office of the kitioroK^^t^ or second in command has already been 
referred to in the case of Lysander. But in ordinary cases the secretary 
was appointed, as Pollux (i. 96) declares, to be simply b kir\ rov ut6\ov 
itdSoxos rov vavdpxov. Thus after the death of Mindarus, his secretary 
Hippocrates took the command of the fleet (Thuc. i. i, 23), and the 
admiral Callicratidas left his secretary Eteonicus at the head of the 
squadron blockading Conon atMytilene, while he himself sailed to meet 
the Athenians at Arginusae, and after his death his place was filled by 
Eteonicus until the arrival of a definitely appointed successor. 

As to the method of election to the admiralship nothing at all is 
known, though it is plain that the post must have been regarded as of 
great significance in the struggle of political parties at Sparta. Thus 
the choice of L3^sander three times to command the fleet, once as 
admiral and twice as secretary, followed by the choice of his brother 
Libys and later of his friend Anaxibius, points to the supremacy of his 
party in the home government, and similarly the appointment of his 
opponent Callicratidas in the autunm of 407 must mean a temporary 
check to his policy, though but few details can be made out from the 
confused and unchronological account of Plutarch. 

jp8o|iif|KovTa. This was the first fleet the Spartans had cqllected 
since the battle of Cyzicus, 410 B.C. (sup. i. 18). 

clt SdpScis : from Gordium in Phrygia Minor (sup. 4. 3), where he 
had been in the spring of 408. 

14 



NOTES. Cff. Vy § 2 — § 1 6. 

§ a. Tots Ik AaK€8aX|iovos Trplo-pco-iv : these must be the same as in 4. 2. Book I. 

§ 5. tAs <rwOif|Ka8 (cf. Thuc. viii. 29, 45, 58). One mina=: 100 drach- ,, 

mae=6oo obols, or three obols a day for every sailor in a crew of 200. «* 

§• 9. W 'AXKiPulSov (cf. Thuc. vui. 46). 

1*118^ otiavcs =/<ti78^vcs drivis tlffi : * none of the Greeks whatever.' 

§ II. Cf. Introd. § 2 on Xenophon*s chronology for the reasons for 
putting the beginning of the new year at this poitat. 

BpacruPovXov. Xenophon does not relate how Thrasybulus sailed 
from Thrace and Thasos (supr. 4. 9), nor why he was now fortifying 
Phocaea. This town was occupied by the Spartan admiral Astyochus 
412 B.C. (cf. Thuc. viii. 31), and after Arginusae, 406 B.C., the Pelopon- 
nesians fled to it for refuge. But, like Cyzicus, it may have been un- 
walled, and so liable to occupation by either side, so that there is no 
need to change ruxlCfiv into imrfixiCciv, Diodorus (xiii. 73) has a 
different story altogether, that Alcibiades sailed not to Phocaea, but to 
Clazomenae. 

'AvtCoxov. Plutarch (Ale. 36) calls him an experienced seaman, but 
rash and inconsiderate. In ch. 10 he jelates a story of the manner in 
which, as a boy,, he gained the friendship of Alcibiades. 

§ 13. &s ?Ka<rros ijvoifey : ' as each got clear of land.' 

§ 15. AcX^Cviov Kal *Hi6va. Delphinium was in Chios. Diodorus 
(xiii. 76) ascribes the capture of Delphinium and Teos not to Lysander, 
but to Callicratidas, and therefore to the year 406 B. c. Hence some 
commentators have proposed to read l4<uv ^ or Tfjiovs instead of 
*Ui6va. 

§' 16. -fj-YYcXOTi. Plutarch (Ale. 36) makes a certain Thrasybulus, son 
of Thraso [to be distinguished from the famous Thrasybulus], return to 
Aliens immediately after the battlq, and there formally impeach Al- 
cibiades for general misconduct. Diodorus (xiii. 73, 74) here again gives 
quite a different account : the general discontent at Athens was, accord- 
ing to him, increased by the accusations of some Cymaean envoys, who , 
complained that, after the battle of Notium, Alcibiades had made a 
descent upon Cyme and ravaged its land, notwithstanding that it \ifas 
an allied state. But something must be wrong in Diodorus* account, 
because Thucydides (-viii. 31, 100) distinctly states that Cyme was on the 
Peloponnesian side. Nepos (Ale. 7) has yet another version, that 
Alcibiades was accused at Athens, not for the defeat at Notium, which 
he does not mention, but for his failure in an attempt upon Cyme. 

dXXovs 84Ka. Since the battle of Notium must have taken place 
in the spring of 407, and elections were held at Athens about May i, 
it would seem that Xenophon must mean, not an extraordinary election 
of generals to replace Alcibiades, but the ordinary elections for the 
year 407-406, at which Alcibiades failed to secure re-election. Other- 

*5 



HELLENICA, 

Book I. wise we should expect to hear not of ten, but only of two or three new 
■ M generals appointed to supersede him in command of the fleet Cf. 

■y^ Introd. p. 32. 

§ 17. rd lavrot) (Diod. xiii. 74, l*lut. Ale. 36): a castle named 
Pactyes near the Thracian town of Bysanthe on the Propontis. 

§ 1 8. TTJs "AvBpoti, where apparently he had been left by Alcibiades 
(i. 4. 23). 

^avooOevY) : since the name of Phanosthenes does not occur in the 
list of the new generals, it would seem that he was one of the generals 
of the preceding year, and that he was sent to replace Conon at Andros 
in the interval which elapsed between the election of the new generals 
in May, and their entering office in July. 
§ 19. AcDpUa: cf. i. i. 2, Thuc. viii. 35, 84. 
€j 'A6t|vwv. Rhodes was one of the subject allies of Athens, and 
therefore under her jurisdiction. 
I Trap' avTois, i. e. at Thurii. 

cXcTJauvTcs, because of the fame he had won as an Olympic victor. 
Cf. Thuc. iii. 8. 

§ 20. cp8o|XT|KovTa. Plutarch (Lys. 4) speaks of the impoverishment 
of Athens at this juncture. 

"VT. § !• ■?! ©"cX-fivTi, K.rX. On the chronological data see Introd. p. ao sqq. 

This eclipse occurred on April 15, 406 B.C. 

h iraXat6s, K.rX. Probably the temple of Athena Polias on the 
Acropolis, called * old ' in opposition to the newer Parthenon. 

§ 4. Twv Av<r(&v8poti <^CX(i>v. Diodorus (xiii. 70) states that Lysander 
during his period of office organized the various oligarchical clubs in 
the Ionian states in his own favour, promising them the government of 
their cities (cf. ii. 2. 2). . 

dv€'nxrr|8cCo}v. Translate: 'since often unsuitable men were ap- 
pointed, who had only just studied naval matters, and did not know 
how to employ men.' Dindorf corrects the MS. reading to hrt \wtj^ 
Sctcuv ycvofievojVf and omits oi before ytyvoj<TK6vTOJVy — changes, which 
certainly give an easier meaning, but there seems to be no absolute neces- 
sity to change the text. 
I § 5* '"'pos ^ ^y^ TC* ^•'''•X. : ' in relation to those measures for which 
I am myself ambitious, and our country is accused, etc' 

§ 8. ir€|i.i|;as Tptifjpcis. Xenophon nowhere relates the result of their 
mission. 

§ II. iKctva: the money from Lacedaemon. 

Oav)td{civ : a stronger word than Btpavtvuv, 
§ 12. ol alTia{Sj]icvbi cvavnovcrOat : 'those who were accused of 
opposing him.' 
16 



NOTES, CH. V, § 17 — CH, VI, § 29. 

liraYY€XX6fA€voi, sc. Zovvax : * promising themselves to give money Book I. 
from their private means.* , ,« 

c(|>o8ia<rd^cvos K,r.\. : ' having had his seamen paid five drachmae -ot 
apiece.' 

§ 13. tQxv Tcl irpdyiiaTa Ix^vrwv : * those who were in power.' 

§ 15. Tovs 8i Twv 'AO-qvaCcov 4>povpoi}s. Gr6te (vii. 406) overlooks the 
fact that Callicratidas allowed the Athenians to be sold. 

^oixcovra. Plutarch (* non posse suaviter,' etc., xviii. 6) explains : 
aiffxp^ f^ol Kpvfpa wfipav Kal irapafiid^taOcu r^v 6d\aTTav, 

§ 16. els oXC^as : cf. supr. 5. 20. 
iKardv Kal lp8o|iifJKovTa : the thirty Athenian ships captured' § 17 
seem to be reckoned by ahticipation : for according to § 3 and Diod. 
xiii. 76 the number was now 140. « 

§ 17. KaraKuXvOcCs, i.e. prevented from beaching his ships under the 
city walls. 

§ 19% KoCXYivvavv: ' the ship's hold.' 
Tcl irapoppviiaTa : what particular kind of coverings these were, is 
unknown. Apparently the crews remained below during the day-time 
to escape the notice of the enemy, and to fit out the ships. They had 
to wait five days before they caught the Peloponnesians off thieir 
guard. 

§ 20. &s . . . '€ivai : d)s is here used with the infinitive, like ware. 

§ 21. us iKaoTOt fjvoiYov : * as they severally got clear of land.' This 
seems a simpler rendering than to take w;, as Peter does, as qualifying 
txaaroi only, and t€ as copulative, ijvoiyov . . . k^prljdovv. The logical 
order of ideas appears to be somewhat confused in the phrases dyia^s 
a-noKdirrovTfs . . . kyeipdfievoi . , . elaPdures. 

The detail with which Xenophon narrates this incident of personal 
skill and courage is noticeable. 

§ 22. Aio|j,l8a)v. Xenophon does not say where he was coming 
from : from the context it would appear that it was not from Athens. 

§ 24. 8ovXovs. To enrol slaves, even as rowers in the fleet, was a 
very exceptional measure. These slaves who fought at Arginusae were 
•rewarded with their freedom, and were given allotments of land together 
with the same political privileges as the Plataeans enjoyed at Athens (cf. 
Arist. Frogs 190, 693 ; Miiller, Fr. Hist. Gr. i. 56, 80). 

Twv tinrlcov : the knights formed the second of Solon's five classes 
and were usually exempt from naval service (cf. Thuc. iii. 16). 

§ 27. cv rats 'ApYtvovouts : three small islands between Lesbos and 
the mainland. 

§ 28. dvl<rx€v, sc. 6 vtiu^v^ * when the storm ceased.' 

§ 29. 'Epao-ivi8T|s. Xenophon nowhere relates how he escaped from 
Mytilene, in which, according to § 16, he was blockaded together with 

B 17 



HELLENICA, 

Book II. § 24. ciravifJYovTO : imperfect, to express that the Athenians also did 
— M— so for four days. 

J, § 25. *AXKipLd8t|S : last mentioned as sailing to these forts, i. 5. 17. 

According to Diodorus (xiii. 105) he now demanded a share in the com- 
mand of the fleet . Lysias (xiv. 38) actually accuses Alcibiades of having 
betrayed, in conjunction with Adimantus, the Athenians at Aegospotami 
in revenge for this repulse. But, if Xenophon's account of the circum- 
stances be correct, any treachery* on his part seems to have been quite 
impossible,, and in the following year it was Adimantus and his party 
who contrived the assassination of Alcibiades. 

§ 26. auTol . . . cKcivov : for this the regular construction of nominative 
and accusative in oratio obliqua cf. ii. 3. 17, Thuc. iv. 28. 

§ 27. TOis irap* avTOv lirofjilvois, i.e. those who had been ordered by 
him to follow the Athenian movements, supr. § 24. 

§ 28. t6v ciriirXovv. Diodorus (xiii. 106)' gives a totally different ac- 
count of the battle, making the Athenians, led by Philocles, take the 
offensive. 

SCKpoToi, i. e. with only two out of the three tiers of oars manned. 
UdpoXos : this and the XaXafiivia were sacred vessels used by the 
Athenians for religious missions, for conveying ambassadors, and for 
carrying the commands of the home government to the generals : cf. 
infra vi. 2. 14 ; Thuc. vi. 53 ; viii. 86. 

owcXc^cv : cf. supr. dteaKtdcuTfjLtvQJV rojv avOpinrtuu, 
els rd TCixvSpia, i. e. of Sestos. Xenophon omits to relate its 
capture. Diodorus (1. c.) puts the event immediately after the battle. 

§ 29. Td {jLcydXa . . . toria. Lysander must have left them behind 
to lighten his ships for rowing; cf. i. i. 13. Xenophon says nothing 
. more about Cdnon till just before his great victory over the Lace- 
daemonians at Cnidus in 394 B.C. ; cf. iii. 4. i. 

§ 30. Tovs aixi^taXdaTOvs : according to Plutarch (Lys. 11) 3000 in 
number. 

§ 31. tt\v 8€jidv x^^P^^' So Plutarch (Lys. 9), Philocles tirua^ ifnj<f>i- 
ffaaOai rbv d^fjLOV dvoit6irT€iv rbv St^iov dvTixfipct rSrv &KiCKoiiivoav, 
Swojs ddpv fji^v (pfptiv fifj Si/i'oui/rat, K^irqv 5* kXavvojai. 

§ 32. iiTidOTj . . . |icvTOv, i. e. in contradiction to the pretended reason 
for sparing his life. The evidence against Adimantus is very doubtful. 
Lysias (xiv. 38) speaks of Alcibiades "rdis vavs Avadi/Spc^ fxtroL 'Adtifidmov 
vpodovvaif where he is certainly misrepresenting much of Alcibiades' 
conduct. Indeed, in another speech (ii. 58), he regards the cause of the 
• disaster as doubtful, ttre ^yffjiSvos xaKiq, (irc Ofwv ^lavoiq. Pausanias 
(iv. 17, X. 9) preserves the Athenian tradition, that Adimantus and 
Tydeus were the traitors, the latter being the bitterest opponent of 
Alcibiades. Isocrates (v. 62) expresses no decided opinion. The ac- 



NOTES, CH. /, § 24— C/r. 77, § 6. 

cusation of treachery brought by Conon against Adimantus (mentioned Book II. 
by Demosthenes xix. 191) belongs to a much later date, c. 393, after the — m— 
amnesty of 403. In the midst of such uncertain evidence it is impossible to j^ 

form a definite opinion either way, especially as accusations of treachery 
to account for so irretrievable a disaster would lie so ready to hand. 

irapavofjictv. The MS. D has interpolated in it after vapavofjifiv 
— vuc^aas €<ptj volfi d va^€tv cfifWfs -^TTrjOuSt €v6hs tovtov du€cr(pa^€ 
fAcrd, TU)v aXKojv arparrj^Stv, which exactly agrees with the story of his 
answer given by Plutarch (Lys. 13). 

• 

§ I. KaXxii&ova. This city was, by the treaty with Phamabazus in II. 
409 B. c, left in the hands of the Lacedaemonians, and must therefore 
at some time since have been taken by the Athenians. 

ol h\ irpoSovTcs : cf. i. 3. 18. 

rhm : before the surrender of Athens. 

vorrcpov : after the restoration of the democracy in 403 B. c. 
§ 2. ci8(^ Srt . . . co-coOai. The construction is altered owing to the 
intermediate clause oo-cp . . . Ilcipaid : cf. iii. 4. 27. 

o<rcp irXcCovs : the correlative roaovn^ is wanting before 0aTTOv : 
cf. iv. 2. II. 

BvHavrCov, k.t.K As masters of the Bosporus, the Lacedae- 
monians could now prevent the passage of all corn ships on their way 
to Athens; cf. i. i. 35 ; ii. i. 17. 

ApiAoorV* It appears from Diodorus (xiv. 13) and Plutarch (Ljrs. 
i 3) that Lysander now established, in connection with the oligarchical 
clubs that he had previously organized in Asia Minor and the Aegean, 
a system of decarchies or councils of ten men in every subject state, 
to replace the democracies, and to support the Spartan harmost or 
governor, and his garrison ; cf. note on i. 5. 8. 

§ 3. & Srcpot T^ Ircpcp : in partitive apposition to the nominative, as 
iftonoi^ov had preceded: the genitive absolute would have been more 
regular. 

Mt|XCovs: cf. Thuc. v. 116. 

IcTTUu^: cf. Thuc. i. 114. 

SKUovaCdvs Kal TopwvaCovs : cf. Thuc. v. 3, 32. 

AiYLW|Tas : cf. Thuc. i. 108, ii. 27. 
§ 5. els Ala^ov. The Athenians had held this island, with the 
exception of Methynma, since they had recovered it after its revolt in 
412 B.C. (Thuc. viii. 23). 

KaTC<rKcvd<raTO. For the system introduced cf. note On § 2. The 
same is meant infra by trpds Acuetdaufwylovs fUTitrnjaev, 

§ 6. rQiv yyapi^uay, i. e. the oligarchs, who often too called themselves 
KoXol K&rfoBoL For the conduct of the Samian democrats cf. Thuc. viii. 21. 



HELLENICA. 

■ 

Book II, § 7. tpXt^v 'ApYcCow, who had concluded an alliance with Athens in 
o 420 B.C. (Thuc. V. 47), to which they seem now to have been faithful. 

J J $ 8. T^ Ka\ov)icv<p -YV}iva<rC(p : evidently a gloss. 

§ 9. irXcCoTTOvs avTi^ dOpoC<ras : most of them had settled at Thyrea, 
on the south border of the Argolis; cf. Thuc. ii. 27. 
rf)s a^T^, sc. irarplSos, 
rd irXoia : the com ships. 
§ 10. €v6)u^ov 81, /C.T.A. This is one of the chief passages on which 
the theory of Xenophon*s philo-Laconism in Hellenics I, II has been 
based. But when compared with the impartiality of the rest of the 
books, it may very well be that Xenophon is merely chronicling what 
were actually the feelings of the Athenians at the time. 
cKcCvois : the Lacedaemonians. 
§ II. Tovs aTi\iovs. The proposal was made by Patroclides (Andoc. 
1. 73). It did not apply to the exiles (cf. infr. § 20), but only to those 
who had been in any measure disfranchised for the part they had played 
in the oligarchical revolution of the Four Hundred in 41 1 B. c. ; cf. 
Introd. p. 35. 

irap* *A*ytv. Lysander had already crossed with part of his fleet 
to Asia in order to lay siege to Samos ; cf. infr. § 16. 

§ 12. ov Y^tp ctvai Kvpios: for the almost supreme power of Agis, 
when he was at Decelea, cf. Thuc. viii. 4, 71. 

§ 13. ScXXoo-Cqi: the frontier town of Lacedaemon. 

aur66cv : temporal, * at once,' * on the spot.' 
§ 15. Ti)s Kadaipccrccos. This shows that the Athenian envoys were 
not simply dismissed by the Spartans, but had definite terms proposed 
to them, on which a peace could be concluded. 

Ti&v |Mucp^ TCtx&v . . . ^Karlpov. There were two long walls 
joining Athens and Piraeus, and one joining Athens and Phalerum ; 
itcaripov must therefore mean each of the two outer walls. 

CY^CTO tk ^-({^Kriux. This was the work of the demagogue Cleo- 
phon; cf. Lysias xiii. 11. 

§ 16. TowoTow 8i Svrav. roioiroav is the predicate, the participle 
having no subject, as supr. i. 2. 26. 

irapd Av(rav8pov : now engaged in the siege of Samos ; cf. supr. §11. 
cl8c^s . . . AaKc8ai|j.oviovs Tr6Tipov . « . dvrcxovox. The Greek 
idiom often puts the subject of the dependent sentence as the direct 
object of the principal verb. 

irC<rrco)s IvcKa, i. e. as a pledge that the conditions would be ob- 
served. 

Tpets fit^vos ical irX^ov : from December 405 to the end of March 
404 B. c. 

ciitTT)ptfv 6ir6TC = rbv xaiphv <pv\6.TT0)v, kv $. 
26 



NOTES. CH, II, § ^—CH, III, % i. 

Sid rd ImXcXoiir^vcu. rdv cItov: it* seems to be impossible to Book II. 
reconcile this with the statement in § 1 1 that the com supply had already ■ m — 
failed three months ago, before Theramenes* mission to Lysander. jx, 

&iravTa SjTI : for the irregularity cf. Cyrop. i. 6. 1 1 5 n . . . ravra. 

§ 17. ctra without Ik strengthens the opposition between the sen- 
tences. 

ov YcLp ctvoi Kvpios : cf. the answer of Agis supr. § 12. 
-qP^OtI ... els AaKc8a()jiova : cts expresses motion ; ' to go to Lace- 
daemon.' S^KaTos auT6s : ' with nine others.' 

§ 18. 'ApwrroTlXii : cf. ii. 3. a, 13. Afterwards he was one of the 
Thirty, and was sent by them to Sparta to obtain a Lacedaemonian 
garrison for Athens. 

§ 19. c£aipciv, sc. rhs *A$ifivaSf to be supplied from 'A^vaCais. 

§ 20. *AaKc8aip,6viOi 81 : cf. Justin v. 7 ' Negarunt Spartani se ex 
duobus Graeciae oculis alteram eraturos.* Infr. ii. 3. 41, however, 
Theramenes attributes to them mere motives of political expediency. 

KaOlvras = icartKOuv k(f>iyras, * having allowed to return.' Plutarch 
and Diodoras add as one of the conditions, that the Athenians were for 
the future to confine themselves to their own territory [touk 76 v6k€<av 
waaSw l/rxo'p^o'at]. Plutarch (Lys. 14) professes to give the actual 
words of the treaty : Kaj3/3aX6vTcs t6v n€ipaid Moi rcl fjuuepd aKiKq icaL 
ttcfiduTfs kie vaawv rwv n6X.€0)v Td.v avrSjv ySy Ix^'''''^^ ravrd xa SpSfVTts 
riiv tlp&vcof ixoirt, aX xpifioirtf md tovs (l>vy6das &ytyT€s. Utpl rSav vcuS/y 
rw vk^Otos 6koi6v rl xa rrjvtl Boiciyf ravra voiiert, 

§ 23. Av<rav8p6s re KariirXci, i.e. from Samos, which he was still 
besieging : he entered the dty, according to Plutarch (Lys. 15), on the 
i6th. of Munychion, i. e. the beginning of April, 404 B.C. 

KaT^KaiTTov : * began to demolish.' The work was not completed 
till the autumn of this year; cf. ii. 3. 11. . 

vop,£^ovTcs : on the question of Xenophon's impartiality, cf. Introd. 
pp. 14, 15, and note on supr. § 10. 

§ 24. ik6yrav 'AKp^yavra. Xenophon has already, in i. 5. 21, 
narrated this same defeat of the Carthaginians and capture of Acragas as 
events of the year 407, 406. But it appears from Diodoras (xiii. 87, 9a) 
that the capture did not occur till eight months after the defeat, L e. 
December 406, and that Dionysius made himself tyrant of Syracuse 
about June 405. In this passage {kv f /icaovvn, i. e. autumn) it is put 
a few months later. 

$ I. EuSCkov. Some MSS. read Ev5iov, which Dindorf corrects to III. 
*EvMov, because an ephor of that name for. the year 413 B.C. is men- 
tioned in Thuc. viii. 6. But Evdueov is the reading of the best MS. both 
here and infra § 10. 

27 



HELLENICA, 

Book II. dvapxCav, i. e. this year was not named, like the other years, after 

,^ the dpxotfv €ir6}vvfio5. 

TIT § 2. ^8o{€ T$ S^H^' This decree was passed, on the proposal of 

Dracontides, in the autumn 404, five months after the conclusion of the 
peace, ii. 2.23. Xenophon passes over all the intervening events, viz. 
the nomination of five ephors through the agency of the oligarchical, 
clubs, the embitterment of internal dissensions, the arrest of the demo- 
cratical leaders, and the invitation sent by the oligarchs' to Lysander, 
who was still besieging Samos, to interfere in the domestic politics of 
Athens (§ 9, in September). When he airived in Athens, his oligarchical 
partisans easily procured the passing of the decree mentioned in the 
text through the assembly with all the usual legal forms, backed 
as they were by the threats of Lysander, on the ground that the 
Athenians had not completed the demolition of the walls within the 
time prescribed in the treaty. Of the Thirty ten were nominated by 
Theramenes, ten by the five ephors, and ten by. the assembly itself. 
oCSc. Most had been members of the Four Hundred in 411 B.C. 
§ 5. irpds ]Sd|Jiov, i. e. back to Samos. 
€K T^s AcKcX^Cas, which Agis had first occupied in the summer of 
413 B.C. 

§ 4. ir<pl fiXCov IkXci\|/iv : September 3. 

§ 5. dir(oX€<r€. It appears from Diodorus (xiii. 109-113) that Dio- 
nysius was never really master of these two towns, but was defeated by 
the Carthaginians in marching to the relief of Gela, and then led the 
inhabitants of Gela and Camarina back with him to S3rracuse, and that 
all this happened in the year 405 B.C. 

vird AiovuaCov . . . dirc(rTdXT)(rav. Diodorus relates that the 
Syracusan knights or aristocrats rebelled against Dionysius, and fled to 
Catana. Unger therefore conjectures dvd Aiovvciov . . . dir€<TTr)<rav. 

§ 7. Tois dpxaCoLS iroXtTais. Thucydides (viii. 21) relates that the 
Samian brj/xos had in the year 412 B.C. expelled 400 of the aristocrats. 

8lKa ctpxovras . . . <t>povp€tv, i. e. Lysander organized the govern- 
ment of Samos in the same way as he had previously done in the other 
subject states ; cf. note on ii, 2. 2. ^povpeiv is epexegetical, c&o-tc ippovpuv, 
unless indeed it be a gloss. 

d4>'fjKe, because with the surren<Jer of Samos the reduction of the 
Athenian empire was complete ; c€ ii. 2. 6. 

§ 8. CIS AaK€daC)iova. Diodorus (xiii; 106) and Plutarch (Lys. 16) 
give a much more detailed account of the triumphal entry of Lysander, 
with considerable exaggeration of the treasures that he brought back 
with him. 

& ^cpicY^ovTo. Contrast the conduct of Lysander, when Callicra- 
tidas succeeded him in 406, i. 6. 10. irapcSctfc : cp. supr. i. 14. 
28 



NOTES, CIL III, § 2— § 14. 

§ 9. €|<5.|jiY)vos Kal 6kt(&. Thucydides (v. 26) distinctly says that the Book II. 
war from the Theban attack on Plataea down to the capture of Athens m ■ 
lasted almost exactly twenty-seven years, and if to this the six months be TXL. 
added down to Lysander's return to Sparta in Sept. 404, the total number 
of years is twenty-seven and a half. Morus (Xenophon, Hellenic, p. xxiii) 
ingeniously shows how the interpolator arrived at the mistaken total. 
For it appears from Thuc. v. 36 that the ephors entered on their office 
about the autumnal equinox. When the war began therefore, Aenesias, 
who had entered on his office in Sept. 432, had still four months of his 
ephorate to run. Twenty-seven more names would bring us down to 
September 404. Then the interpolator adds a twenty-ninth, because 
Eudicus must have entered on his office just before Lysander returned. 

§ II. 01 8^ TpK^Kovra. Xenophon takes up the narrative where he 
left it in § 2. 

KaO^pc^ : the aorist expresses the completion of the process, the 
beginning of which several months before was expressed by the im- 
perfect KariffKairrov, supr. 2. 23. 

c()>* ({^TC (nryYpdi|i(u : for a similar use of c^* frc with an infinitive 
cf. iii. 5. 24. 

KaT4<m)(rav &% I86k€1 avrrots. Diodorus (xiv. 4) adds l/r rwv iSiwv 
<pi\(uv' &aT€ TOVTOvs KaXfiaOcu fjiiv af^xovras^ tJvai 8* vrnipiras r&y 
rpi&Kovra. Moreover, as appears from §§12, 23, 28, they had trans- 
ferred all judicial powers to the fiovkij. 

§ 12. irp^ov p,cv. Xenophon, as already mentioned, passes over 
entirely the arrest of the democratical leaders in the months before the 
nomination of the Thirty ; cf. note on § 2. 

€v TQ StiiiioKpaTi^i, i. e. in the time when the government was still 
a democracy. 

diT-d <rvKO<^VT(as, i. e. by bringing quibbling accusations against 
the rich in the popular law courts. 

o-uvQSco-av JavTois p.i^ 5vtcs toioOtoi: for a similar constructiqn 
cf. ii. 4. 17. 

ovBlv ijxOovTO. Even Lysias (xih 5) admits that at first the conduct 
of the Thirty had at least a show of justice about it. 

§ 13. AlcrxCvijv T€ Kal 'ApurTorcXiiv : two members of the Thirty ; cf. 
supr. § 2. -^ 

o-^tin crviAtrpaSat, K.T.X., lit. ' that X,ysander would join them in 
•effecting that guards should come * ; cf. § 14 avvltrpa^^v. 
§. 14. Tciv h\ ^povpuv. Partitive genitive with ous. 

tJKurra fiiv irapo)Oov|jilvovs, k.t.\. : * would be least likely to allow 
themselves to be set aside,' i. e. from a share in the government. 

£v : notice the unusual omission of a» with da^ix'^aOaxj the first of 
the two opposed sentences. 

^9 



HELLENICA. 

Book II. § 15. circl 8c: the apodosis is wanting. It is virtually taken up at 
<» § 18 with the words \k to^tov. 

III. ^''■* *^^^ ^vy^v. The date and cause of his banishment are un- 

known. He was in Athens at the time of the conspiracy of the Four 
Hundred in 411 B.C., had proposed the recall of Alcibiades c. 408 B.C. 
(cf. Plut. Ale. 33), and was an exile in Thessaly during the trial of the 
ten generals in 406 B.C. (cf. infr. § 36). So that some have supposed 
that he was banished in 407, as being mixed up with the affairs of 
Alcibiades. He came back with the other exiles after the capture of 
Athens, and was nominated one of the five ephors ; cf. Lysias xii. 78. 

§ 16. ouK lyx<opoLy\, k.t.\.: * that it was impossible for those who 
aimed at extraordinary power not to put out of the way those who were 
most capable of hindering them.* 

wo-ircp TvpavviSos, as it stands, is out of place. Jacobs therefore 
brackets it. Hermann proposes to read fj &(nr€p rvpavvidoSf which gives 
the sense that the passage requires. 

§ 18. 01 dWot TpidKovra, although Theramenes was one of them. 
oi rpioKovTa is similarly used as a proper name in ii. 4. 21, 23, 38, 
after several of the number had been killed. 
ovx IjicwrTa, i. e. li&Kiara. 

Tous p.€0^JovTas — ot iiiOi^ovai. Similarly the Pour Hundred, in 
411 B.C., had pretended to enroll 5000 citizens from those capable of 
supplying themselves with heavy armour at their own expense ; cf infr. 
§ 48. It appears from § 51 that no member of the 3000 could be con- 
demned without the warrant of the Senate, while any other Athenian 
could be put to death simply at the orders of the Thirty. 

§ 19. pov\o|jievovs, K.T.\. KOivo)vov$ iroiifjo-aadai must be joined with 
TpurxtXCovs, as appears from the order of the words. The meaning is, 
* though wishing to take the best of the citizens into partnership, they 
had taken only three thousand.' 

Tov dpv6p.6v toOtov txovra, is in the accusative absolute. 
ol6v Tc €iTj, as if S(nr€/) tX 6 dpiSfxds oxh-os Ix^* l^^id preceded. 
^[ndLs, i..e. the Thirty. 
§ 20. KcXcvo-avTCs €iri tcI SirXa : rohs rpio'xiA.tovs is to be supplied as 
the object of ic€\€vaavT€s, as is apparent from the following kKuvoi = ol 
. ^^fltf TOV KaTa\6yov. Most commentators interpret the phrase (irl rd. ov\a 
as equivalent to Uvai Iir2 rci 5irA.a, arma capere, ^ having bidden the 
three thousand to take up their arms ' : but Mr. E. Abbott would trans- 
late, * having set them on the arms,* i.e. having bidden them to seize the 
arms of the other citizens, while the latter were away from home, 
— an interpretation which gives the meaning that the context requires. 
Cobet (Mnemos3me vi. 47) points out that the passage must indicate 
some stratagem by which all (^<u tov /earaXdyov were induced to leave 
30 



-M- 



in. 



NOTES, Cff. Ill, % 15—5 31. 

their arms behind them, but denies that any such meaning can be ex- Book II. 
tracted from the words as they stand : he conjectHres, therefore, that- 
several words have fallen out of the text. 
Tovs <^povpovs : the Spartan garrison. 
§ a I. I^KooTov, i. e. row rpidKovra, *that each of the Thirty should 
seize one of the Metoeci.' 

§ 32. XaiJipdvoicv : the optative expresses frequency. 
§ 23. T(f iravrC, adverbial, • in every point,' * altogether.' 
irpds Tov$ PovXcvnils : to whom the judicial power had been trans- 
ferred ; cf. note on § li. 

irapa-ycv4<rOat : just outside the senate house ; cf. § 50. 
a-uvfXc{av. The Thirty summoned the Senate, and directed the 
course of procedure ; cf. Lysias xiii. 37 o2 /i^v ydp rpidicoyra €«d$rjvTo M 
tSjv fidBpojVf oZ vvv ol trpvTavth KoBk^ovrai, 

§ 24. trXcCovas tov Kaipo€ : ' more than is expedient.' 
p,cOurrdox : from the preceding words t^v voXir^iay can be easily 
supplied. 

§ 25. rots oiois '^H'iv TC Kal v|Jitv, i. e. toio^toh oXoi -^fifis re koI {ffAtK 
ifffxev. 

§ 26. Xvp^aCvcrai with the dative has the same meaning as with the 
accusative, * to injure,' ' do mischief to.* 
§ 27. ols Swarai, ' by what means he can.' 
&s 8^ raOra dXt|OTJ. After this one would expect puapripiov to 
follow, which however is really implied in IJv KaTavo-i^Te, cvp-fjo-crc. 

iroX^jxios |Jk4v ^, without Sy, to express the certainty of the supposed 
case. 

§ 28. avT^ . . . dpIoKct, an anacoluthon, just as if, not ap^as and 
k^opixfiaasy but hvtl . . . J^p^t . . . k((i;pfiTfff€ had preceded. 
a(i : cf. infp. § 30 wpStros aZ "^ytfi^v, 
§ 29. 8<r(|p iroXciiCois. Here there is no correlative comparative with 
Scry, although one is implied in the meaning : * men are more ready to 
trust enemies than traitors.' Here o<r<p may be translated ' inasmuch as ' ; 
cf. Cyrop. vi. 2. 19. 

§ 30. icaTcl Tov irar^pa ''A'yvcDva, 'just as his father Hagnon had been.' 
Hagnon was one of the vp6fiovX,oi appointed immediately after the 
Sicilian disaster (Thuc. viii. i), who according to Lysias (xii. 65) prepared 
the way for the conspiracy of the Four Hundred. 

irpoirfTfcrroTos. For the facts alluded to cf. Thuc. viii. 68, 92. 
§ 31. Kol ^dp 6 KoOopvos, Ar.r.X. Moras and other commentators put 
this sentence in brackets as a gloss, such an explanation being quite 
superfluous before such an audience. Moreover diropXIirei dir' d|i<^OT4p<iiv 
cannot possibly be translated in the sense required, viz. 'fits neither 
foot.' 

31 



HELLENLCA, 

Book II. Set . . . ou ; . . Scivdv elvat mijst be translated together. 

M— *is irpA-yiMiTa, i. e. * to dangerous undertakings.* 

Ill *^ ^^ *''^' * otherwise,' more fully explained by ci . . . irXcoicv. 

§ 32. 8i?|irov : cf. § 24. 
irXctoTois . . . cj oXiyapX^Q'S = •nXtiaroi^ rwv PeknSvojv and irA.€/- 
ffTOis (K Sr)fiOKpaTlas = vK€iffTOis rod S-qfjiov. 

iva avTos irepicrwOeiTi : cf. Introd. p. 40, on the * Trial of the 
Generals.' 

§ 33- """ws 8i ov, sc. xp4. 

ws . . . iroiovijiev . . . cwo-ficraTe : cf. note on § 27. 
§ 34. Twv IJcp. The democrats in exile. 

§ 35- *Y*^ 8i owK flpxov. For how this assertion of Thei3.menes is 
to be reconciled with Xenophon's narrative in i. 7. 4 cf. Introd. p. 42, 
on the Trial. 

irpoo-raxO^v |i,oi v<|>* lavruv, accus. absolute, * that although orders 
had been given me by themselves, I had not rescued,' etc. 
|jn?j oTt, elliptic phrase /*») {^^yf) on, * much less to.' 
4>do-K0VTCS ^dp, K.T,\. This is a direct contradiction to the generals' 
own statement in i. 7. 6. Probably Theramenes means, that if the 
generals said that a rescue was possible, and yet in their despatch made 
no mention of any orders given to himself and other subordinate officers, 
they would themselves appear responsible for the death of the ship- 
wrecked sailors. But the generals never said anything of the kind. 
§ 36. ^irapavevoiiTiKlvai. A word is required meaning that Critias had 
' misunderstood the matter. Wolf therefore conjectures vapavcvorjKivat, 
Cobet vafKLvevofxiKevai. 

«v 06TTaXC^. In the Mem. i. 2. 24 Xenophon adds Kpirias . . . ipvyobv 
eh @€rT(x\iau €kh avvrjv dvOpdnrois dvofxiq. fioKKov ^ diKatoavvn xp^f^^^^^^ • 
cf. note supr. ii. 2. 15. Theramenes ridicules Critias for taking exactly 
the opposite side in Athens to what he had taken in Thessaly: for 
the Penestae, like the Helots in Lacedaemon, were * adscripti glefiae.' 

§ 38. ixcxpt jiiv ToO vp.ds, if.T.X., * up to your being put into the senate 
and to magistrates being appointed, and to the notorious sycophants 
being tried, so far we were all of the same opinion.' 

Tovs 6|xoXoYov|x€va>s o"UKo4>dvTas : cf. § 12 ots ttclvtcs -jScaav dvo 
ffVKotjKivrias (Sn/ras. For the zdveih d/jio\oyovftivoJs cf. Demosth. xxix. 14 
. rdv dfwkoyovfxivcos SovKov. 

§ 39. AcovTos : for the previous history and democratical proclivities 
of Leon, cf. Thuc. viii. 23, 55, 73, supr. i. 5. 16, vi. 16. Plato (Apol. 32) 
gives a fuller account of this incident, in which Socrates was involved, 
and showed his courage. 

NikCou. The Athenian general at Sicily. Nothing more is known 
of the son here mentioned. 
32 • 



NOTES. CH, III, § 32— § 48. 

§ 40. *AvTi4«SvT08. Not to be .confused with Antiphon theifietorician. Book II. 
who was executed for the part he played in the conspiracy of the Four %% 

Hundred. Nothing more is known of this Antiphon, unless he is to be ttt 
identified with the Antiphon mentioned in Memorab. i. 6. i. 
cva cKooTov : cf. note on § 21. 
§ 41. Stc toL SirXa, K.r.\,y § 20. 
TovTov IvcKa povXo|Mvovs : cf. Diod: rv. 63, Polyaenus i. 45. 5, 
whence it appears that the Spartan reasons for sparing Athens were 
based as much on policy as on generosity ; cf. supr. ii. 2. 20. 

84oivTO. If the reading be right, the present tense must show that 
Theramenes alludes to the feeling that the Lacedaemonians entertained 
towards the Athenians at the moment he was speaking. Cobet (Mnem. 
vi. 46) corrects it to 7* idioirro. 

$ 4'2. r6 <^pot>povs |ua9ova^ai, § 13. 
i<ai ^^ici>s cp,^XXo|xcv, H.r.K.y ' until we, the rulers, should easily 
have made ourselves masters of the ruled.' 

OpocrupovXov . . .'Avxn-ov . . . 'AXKiPi(i.8T|v. In §§ 13, 14, 21 
Xenophon alludes only in general terms to the banishment and execu- 
tion of the leading democrats. More extraordinary still, he never even 
mentions the assassination of Alcibiades at this time by Phamabazus, 
at the wish of Lysander, who had been instigated by Critias to accomplish 
it ; cf. Plut. Ale. 38. For Thrasybulus cf. infr. .ii. 4. 2 sqq. Anytus 
was one of the leading democrats, and after his return from exile was the 
foremost accuser of Socrates. 

§ 44. & lyClt X4yw, sc. Seiv ylyv€(r$at. 
avTovs, Thrasybulus and the pxiles. 
•? IYtta0ai, sc. avTovs, accus. and infin. depen ding on olfim. 
irot TTjs X^P^^i partitive genitiveT" 
§ 45. *A 8' a^ ctircv, k.t.\. : ' again as for his saying that I am of a 
character always to change,' etc. 
, c(|n)<^i(raTO : cf. Thuc. viii. 69. 

§ 46. cKcivoi )A^v, K,T.K : ' the Lacedaemonians were as vigorous as 
ever'; cf. Thuc. viii. 70. 

«irl T<p xayLatx ^pv|jia, i. e. the fort Eetionea ; cf. Thuc. viii. 90. 
Tavr* ai(r66)icvos. So Thucydides (viii. 92) attributes the discovery 
and exposure of the plan to Theramenes. 
§ 47. K69opvov, cf. § 30. 

§ 48. 8paxp.'ns . . . fiCTf xoicv, i. e. should be made senators, a drachma 
being the daily pay for sitting in the Senate. Cobet thinks the expres- 
sion too artificial, and conjectures avrrj^, i.e. t^s ir6\€cas. 

r6 [Uvroi . . . u^cXciv, k.t.X. If the reading be correct, the sen- 
tence as it stands is an anacoluthon. Xenophon begins with rd fjUvroi 
ally roTs dwafUvois (sc. dxf>€k(iv t^v voMrtiay) Kal fi($* tvvuv Kcd /i€t 

C 33 



HELLENICA. 

Book II. dcirt&uv d^^eXco', as if he were going on to say t^i' troXiretai' aplarrjv 
M jrap4xfiv i^oiyariv. Instead of doing so however he breaks off with 5id 

III To^TOJV (i.e. SicL Twv Swafiiv'atv d)(p€\(Tv Kal fjieO^ tvnojv, k.t.K) in the same 
sense as Demosthenes uses the phrase rSts 8icl t&v oXiyojv voXireias and 
entirely alters the construction. Translate : " * but to support the consti- 
tution with the hejp (aiJv) of those who are able to do so both with 
horses and with shields. ... I say, I used formerly to think that a con- 
stitution formed by (8ta) such men is the best/ etc. ; cf. note on § 1 8. For 
the part that Theramenes played in the Four Hundred cif. Thuc. viii. 68. 
§ 50. ov Pui>t6v, ' unendurable.* 
TOtis rd CYXcif>^S*^ Ixovras : cf. § 22. 

cirl Tols Spvi^^KTOis, • at the bar,' a railing made of lattice work, 
with which the dicasts were surrounded. ■ 

§ 51. irpoo-TArov Ip-yov etvai otov Bet, ' that it is the duty of such a 
president as a man ought to be.* otov is attracted into the case of 
vpoaT&Tov. Two constructions, are here confounded : (1) vofu(o) vpoffrd- 
Tov Hpyov flvcu otov Sef . . . dpofvra . . . fx^ imrpiirfiVf and (2) vofjd(ca 
vpoffTdTTjv ttvai otov Scr, ts &v 6pSjv , . . fi^ (mrpiny. 

Iv Tois Kaivois v6(iois : cf. §11 aip€$€VT(s 1^* ^rc <fvyyp&}f/di vS/iovs : 
and in the Mem. i. 2. 31 Xenophon speaks more specifically of© Kpirias 
. . . Twv rpidKOVTQ. &v vofioOirrjs ptfrd XapiK\4ovs. 

T«v t^to, genitive dependent on levpiovs : Oavarovv is added epexe- 
getically. 

oruvSoKO-Ov, used absolutely ; cf. § 35 rrpooTaxOh. 
§ 52. firl Tt^v *E<rr£av, where stood the altar at which the senators 
took their oath. 

§ 53. Kal TaOra y^-YvtioicoyTCs, i.e. 'especially when you perceive.' 
§ 54. T01JS lv8€Ka: cf. note on i. 7. 10. The Thirty seem to have 
retained this old democratical magistracy, filling it however with the 
most violent of their partisans. 

cKcivoi h\ ctacX06vTcs, a nominativus pendens without an accom- 
panying finite verb. 

Tol €K TOVTwv = tA KoiTrdy lit. * what comes next.' 
§ 56. airoKOTTaPicravTa, i. e. * having jerked out the last drop.* The 
K6rTa0os was a convivial practice, consisting in jerking out the last drop 
from a cup, which was supposed to furnish an omen by its sound in 
falling. Then the guest, who had just drunk, handed on the cup to the 
guest whose turn came next. 

cKcivo 8i KpCvco. Here for the oAly time in the first two books the 
noble death of Theramenes draws from Xenophon a remark in the first 
person. His portrait of him agrees well with that in Thucydides (viii; 6S, 
89. 92) ; cf. Arist. Frogs 968. Theramenes in the Trial of the Generals 
does not scruple to sacrifice the lives of others to secure his own. In bring- 

34 



NOTES, CH, III, § 10— CH, IV, § 6. 

ing about the -second oligarchical revolution he is as skilful and successful Book II. 
in his intrigues as he was in the first. So soon as he perceives that the '* ' 

policy of the Thirty is leading them to certain destruction, he opposes III, 
them with the same skill as he had used in setting them up ; and when 
at last his opposition brings him into personal danger, the nobler side 
of his character shines out, till he drinks the cup of hemlock with the 
courage and cheerfulness of Socrates. But after all that can be said in 
his favour, it is hard to understand Aristotle's judgment on Theramenes, 
quoted by Plutarch (Nicias 2), where he mentions him in the same 
category with the statesmen Nicias and Thucydides, as ^iXntrroi rSw 
voXirSav teal rtarpiic^v ^xoJ'tcs tvvoiav koI <l>i>dav irpds rhv drjfioVy though at 
the same time admitting the justice of his nickname of K60opvos. Beloch 
indeed" (Die Politik Athens seit Perikles), relying on Theramenes' own 
words in § 48, tries to show that he consistently aimed to establish a 
moderate democracy at Athens, based on the middle classes, who had 
some stake in the state, both when he joined the conspiracy of the Four 
Hundred in 411, and when he became one of the Thirty in 404 B.C., and 
that he turned against his colleagues on both occasions, not from a mere 
wish to save his own life, but because he really disapproved of the 
extreme form of oligarchy, which they had introduced, based as it was 
upon robbery and murder. From the epithet 6 K0fjaf/6sf which is given to 
him by Aristophanes, we may conclude that he was in the habit of draw- 
ing delicate distinctions ; and very delicate distinctions indeed are required 
to free him from the charge of treachery in his conduct at the trial of the 
generals and the capitulation of Athens. 

§ I. irpoeiirov |iiv . . . liYoy 81. It appears that- here Xenophon is IV. 
summarizing in a few words numerous acts of violence on the part of the 
Thirty. He omits altogether the edict of the Lacedaemonians forbidding 
any state to harbour the Athenian refugees ; cf. Plut. Lys. 27, Isocr. 7. 
67, Diod. xiv. 6, 32. -JiYov, * evicted.* 
^YOVTCS, sc. ol rpiiucovTO. 
% 2. SpcurvpovXos : cf. ii. 3. 42. 
^XV; between Mounts Cithaeron and Pames, on the road from 
Athens to Thebes. 

§ 4. ^vXds : the Athenian army was organised on the basis of Cleis- 
thenes* ten tribes. Cp. Hdt. vi. iii, and note infr. § 23. 

§ 5. owciXc'Yp.cvonf . . . ircpl lirraKoaCovs : cf. iv. 6. la ica2 dniBavoy 
. . . vfpi rpiaieoalow. 

4j8i| shows that some considerable interval had elapsed since $ 3. 
§ 6. dvCcrravTO, ie.T.\., ^had already risen and were going.' The notion of I 
motion implied being shown by Sirot. The nom. is ol voXifuoi understood. ( 
dird Tvv SirX«>v, * fr om the camp .' 

c a 35 



HELLENICA. 

Book II. % 8. ovklrt vo|jiC{ovtcS| ir.r.X. Lysias (xxv. 23) represents dissensions 
■ M as having already broken ont among the Three Thousand theml^lves. 

jY*. KaTa4^V> Eleusis being a fortified town. 

iropaYYcCXavTCS, sc. iKBuv, 

€v Tott linrcvoxv has probably crept into the £ext from roh Imttvaiv 
immediately above. For if the Athenian knights are meant in the sense 
of * under the protection of the knights/ we should rather expect aw 
Tois ImrtOffiv : and it can hardly mean the Eleusinian knights, because 
it appears, from what immediately follows, that the review was of th6 
whole forces, horse and foot alike. Moreover k^iraaiv kv rots Imr^vaty 
can scarcely be equivalent to k^haaiv rwy Imriwy., Classen conjectures 
iv rots *E\€vaivioi5. 

dvayaY^vra, i. e. from the coast to Athens. 
rots ^vScKa : cf. ii. 3. 54. 
§ 9. rd 'nificiov, built by Pericles for musical contests. 
'£X€votvC(ov. Both Lysias (xii. 52) and Diodorus (xiv. 32) say that 
the Salaminians were involved in the same fate as the Eleusinians, but 
they put the total number of victims altogether at 300 only. 

<^vcpdy . . . TT|v «|rf|<|>ov : cf. the decree of the Senate as to the trial 
of the generals, i. 7. 9. 

§ 10. Twv iroXiTcSv, the Three Thousand. 

dva<^^poti<rav. The participle is here transposed as vefi^ivra i. i . 2 3. 
§ II. ^Tk |i.^v, ' for a while,' here opposed to a second action, which has 
not yet begun — circl 8^. 

I&t\ dvicvai, k e. * to prevent their march back again to Athens.' 
h kvkXos, *the wall surrounding Piraeus.' Thucydides (ii. 13) 
calls it sixty stadia, or nearly seven miles round. 

*Iinro8d|Miov. Hippodamus, the Milesian architect, had laid out 
the town of Piraeus. 

Bcv8C8cu>v, the temple of Bendis, the Thracian Moon-goddess. 
€iii itcvTT|KovTa. This unusual depth was on account of their great 
number. The ordinary depth of the phalanx was eight. 
§ 12. cir* avTo IS, * behind them.' 
a^66cv, *from the place itself,' i.e. from Munychia and the Piraeus, 
rd 8' dXXa SirXa, i. e. spear and sword. 
§ 13. oOs . . . cSidjfaTC : cf. § 4. 
fjlJilpav ir^|iim|v, * four days ago ' ; cf. Anab. iv. 5. 24 Ivarrfv ijfi4pav\ 
TOV8 4^iXTdTovs . . . dirc<rr){ui(vovTO. dnodrffjuiivfaOai is properly 
applied to the confiscation of goods and chattels only. Here, in his 
indignation, the speaker applies it to citizens. 

irapaYCYcvT)VTa4,. The subject is 'the exiled citizens': with ol 
• . . (povTO supply vapayfyiaOcu &r. 

§ 14. <rwcXa|Apav6)M0a, ' were arrested.* 

3^ 



NOTES. Cff. /F, § S — § 23. 

o^ SircDS . . . aXX* ov8^, * non modo . . . sed De quidem.' Book IT. 

hf cvSCqi xcLfj^va : cf. §§ a, 3, 7. ^ 

§ 16. T6is 7c irpo>TO(rr(L'nus. The dative may be either after 8c-/|(rciv n^ 
or after |ji<ixc<'^0M* 

d|jicbpT^I<rcTai . . . £v . . . |icoTifj, i. e. roirwv Sjv. 

<^vXaTT6(icvoi. hkj K.r.K., * but to protect themselves they will always 
be skulking behind their shi.elds.* 

lvaXXo|ji^o'vs makes better sense if taken of the enemy, * to drive 
them back, when they leap upon our ranks.' 

§ 1 7. ovTu irXoi^o-ios ^v KaXo€ : here o{;rai belongs to koXov, Its | 
force is strengthened by the interposition of irXotJcios wVy * however rich I 
he may be.' 

t6v *EvvdXiov, 'the war-god*,; cf. Anab. i.. 8. 18 ry 'Ei/i/oX/y 

§ 18. i&t^ irp6Tcpov cirtTCOco^ai . . . rpttOcCt), i.e. in order that the guilt 
of being the first to shed a fellow-citizen*s blood might be upon the 
enemy. . 

§ 19. T&v h\ cv Ilcipaict 8lKa &px6vTo>v. Neither Xenophon, L3rsias, 
Diodorus, Nepos, nor Justin mention the appointment of these magis- 
trates, who are here introduced with the article as if already known to 
the reader! Plutarch (Lys. 15) says (vOvs h\ tcai rd. irtpl Tijv iroXcrctov 
iKivrjff€ (AiftravSpoi) rpi6jcovra fiiv Iv dffrtif Ziica 8^ iv n€ipai€i Haraar^ffas 
dpXovTai. In any case they must have been subordinate to the Thirty, 
who were aifTOKpdroptSf and it can only have been after the refugees from 
Athens had fled to the Piraeus that their office was of any importance. 

§ 20. KXc6Kpi.T08 8^ & To^v livoTfiov K^jpuf, ouc of the Eumolpidae, 
the hereditary heralds in the Eleusinian mysteries, Arist. Frogs 1085. 
§ 21. oXCyov 8civ, 'almost/ used absolutely. 
cv 6kt«^ H''no-(y, from September 404 to April 403. 
8cKa Iti], i. e. the last ten years of the Peloponnesian War» known 
as the Decelean War. Isocrates (xii. 24, 67) says that the Thirty put 
1 500 citizens to death. 

§ 22. Tuv . . . diroOavovTuv . . . Jfartv ovt, 'some of those who have 
been slain.' 

ol hk Xotirol dpxovTcs : of the Thirty at Athens twenty-seven, and of 
the Ten at Piraeus nine, were still left alive. 

K ol 8icL t 6, k.t.\., i.e. as well as an account of their defeat. 
§ 23. Sic^lpovTO irp69 dXX-fiXovs : cf. note on § 8. 
Tois cv Ilcipaiit : the followers of Thrasybulus, now In occupation 
of Piraeus. 

ov8^v 8I01VTO, «.T.X., lit. * they had no need of these evils'; i. e. there 
was no reason why they should suffer them. 

Kol ctXovTO 84Ka, Iva dird ^vX^s, i. e. one' from each tribe ; cf. iv. 

. 37 



HRLLEmCA. 

Book II.; 2. 8 efs Air3 iriJXfcw. Cleisthenes in 509 B.C. had divided the Athenians 

. M into ten tribes, Hdt. v. 66. It appears from Lysias (xii. 55) that these Ten 

jy were of that section of the oligarchical party of which Theramenes had 

been the leader, and that they were chosen becanse it was thought that 

h-Koi^ hv vir6 tSjv avrSnf roii re Tpt&Hovra fiLffttaBou teal tovs ev Iltipai€i 

§ 24. 'EXcvo-tvdSc : their /eara(f»(rfrj, § 8. 

<ruv rats dcnrCox : shields were part of the equipment of the hoplites 
or heavy-armed soldiers. ' The Athenian knights were now obliged to 
serve as horsemen by day and as hoplites by night. 
§ 25. ol 8c, i. e. ol (K Tov Ileipai&s. 

fllA^pas S^Ka, since they had occupied Piraeus. 

lo-OTcXcCav. Such fiiroiKoi as paid no fjifToiKioVf but paid the same 
taxes as full citizens, were called l<TOTf\€is. Before iaoTcktiav, robots 
must be supplied : the infin. lo-coOai depends on irurrd 8qvt€s. 

iroiovfAcvoi . . . Xa|jip(£vovTes. .The present participles here denote 
frequent repetition. 

oirddpav : cf. § 26 kirl tA lirtri^Scm. This shows that it was already 
summer time, although Xenophon has not marked the beginning of 
another year. 

§ 26. Aifcov^cDv. This is Palmer's conjecture for ruv Ifa; vtoaVf which 
is quite unintelligible. Ai^dnnj was a village between Hymettus and the 
west coast of Attica. 

§ 27. irpds r6 Tcixos. Xenophon (Mem. ii. 7. 2) makes Aristarchus 
describe the necessities to which Athens was reduced by these attacks 
from Piraeus; cf. Isocr. xvi. 13. 

cl 8^ Kal TovTO 8€i, /e.T.\. To complete the construction ep& before 
OS is required. For the genitive rov |jiT|xavoiroioO aftfer ciirciv cf. Plat. 
Rep. 439 B TOV to^6tov oi /caXojs tx^i ^^iyttv, 

TOV «K AvKcCov 8p6p.ov, the open space between the Lyceum and 
the city wall. 

|j,4XXoicv. . . . irpoo-d'yeiv, sc. ol kx UfipcuSfs. 
§ 28. Tc5v 8* €v T$ KaraX6y(^f i.e. by order of the Ten, who, instead 
of fulfilling the hopes with which they had been appointed (§ 23), vo\v 
fi€i(ov ardaiv xal n6K€fiov kvl roifs kv Hnpaiet . . . ivoirjaav : cf. Lysias 
xii. 55. 

o-w(irpa|«v, i. e. with the ambassadors. 

iKardv rdXavra, with which to collect a mercenary army, as the 
Spartans refused to send any troops of their own ; cf. Lysias xii. 59, 60. 
Isocrates (vii. 77), citing it as an instance of the kirifiKeia tov hrnxovy says, 
that shortly after its restoration the democracy repaid this loan to the 
Lacedaemonians, as a debt incurred by the Athenian state, and not 
merely by the oligarchs, who had contracted it j cf. Dem. p. 460. 

38 



NOTES. Cff. IV, § 24 — $ 35. 
§ 29. OiiTw hi irpoxupovvT«>v, * while things were going on in this way ;* Book II . 

Cf. ii. 3. 16 TOIOVTOJV 8^ SVTCOV. .^-*4 — 

^Bovfyras Avo-dySpcp. So Diodoms xiy. 33 and Plutarch, Lysan- JV. 
der, 21. 

Tpcts, i. e. a majority out of the Five Ephors. 
^povpdv : a Lacedaemonian word for an army. L3rsander had only 
mercenary forces. 

§ 30. irk^y BoudT^ Kal Kopiv6Ca>v : cf. iii. 5. 5, where the Lacedae- 
monians charge the Boeotians with .having persuaded the Corinthians to 
refuse to follow. 

cvopKctv : consistently with the Treaty olf Peace concluded in 404 
B.C., ii. 2. 22. ' 

€YC*YVciKrKov : ' supposed ' (wrongly). 

cv T^ *AXiirl8<p : the level ground between Piraeus and Hymettus. 
The fugitives from the violence of the Thirty and the Ten flocked round 
Pausanias at Piraeus, where the king so far showed his real feelings as to 
•refuse the presents offered him by the Thirty ; cf. Lysias xviii. 8-12. 

§ 31. S<rov dtrd PoYJs Svckcv : ' so far as cries went/ i. e. in appearance 
only, fioff is the battle cry. Thuc viii. 92 joins the same two pre- 
positions with the same meaning. 

8vo |ji6pas : according to Xenophon (Rep. Laced.) the whole Spartan 
army was divided into six morae. Contrast Thucydides v. 68. 

T^v Kco^ov Xip.4va. K(»Hp6v is ' dumb/ ' quiet/ in the sense of ' smooth.* 
Cnrtius supposes it to be the innermost part of the harbour. 
• § 32. cvcvTos : * pressing on.* Xenophon uses the word intransitively 
also in the Cyrop. vii. i. 29. 

fd S^Ka d<^' ^f>'Vfi> lit. ' the men ten years from military age/ which 
^ at Sparta was fixed at eighteen. The use of the neuter rd is a Lacedae- . 
monian usage ; cf. iii. 4. 23, iv. 5. 15. 

rd Ilcipaiot O^arpov. Ilcipator is the old locative case. The theatre 
was on the hill of Munychia. 
J^ § 33. cirl ir68a, * foot by foot/ i.e. slowly. 

Iv Kcpa^iciK^, in the north-west part of Athens. 
§ 34. trpd rQiDf dXXcuv cir* 6kt(&, i.e, formed eight deep in front of the 
light-armed troops. 
^ fls xc^O'S V"^ c8f£avTO, ' let them come to close quarters.* 

cv rats 'AXats, on the coast, south of Phalerum. 
§ 35* X^Yovras . . . ir^fAirciv : present participle where the future would 
naturally be expected, as ii. i. 29, iv. 37. 

8tC<rn| hi Kal rovs cv t^ dcrrci, * he created a division among/ etc. 
irpd^o'^ds : to himself and the Ephors. 

AaKc8(up.ovCois ^CXoi ctvcu, i. e. in accordance with the terms of the 
former .treaty; cf. ii. 2. 20. 

39 



HELLENICA. 

Book II. § 36. vo|iX{eTCu : cf. Xen. Rep. Lac. viii. 5 vdptiei B^ leai rSiv tipSpenf 
n ■ B6oy ot rroX.vwpayfiovov(riv oMvy ^v fii) 6 fiaffik€vs vpocKdXy: dpwvrts Hi S 
j^^ Tt voi€i^tcaffToSf v6yTas ffOMppowfovaiVf &s t6 dic6s : cf. Arist. Pol. ii. 9. 30. 
Ttis p-crd Ilavo-avCov 7V(&|jit|s, two modes of expression are here con- 
fiised : (l) rrjs Havffaviov yvufxris Syrts, and (2) fitrd TLav.fftOflov oyrts. 
Tcls •. . . <nrov8As : here, * the terms/ or * offers of peac^.* 
ISic^ras opposed to ol dvb rod kowov in § 37. 
§ 37- yLp^f^^ S,Ti' povXovTou : for the expression cf. ii. i. a. 
§ 38. ol l^opdi : the three remaining in Sparta. 
ol IkkXtjtoi : Hermann (Gr. Staatsalterth. § 25) identifies these with 
the jUKfid (KKkrjfflaf mentioned in iii. 3. 8. But in v. 2. 33, where they 
are again mentioned, no distinction seems to be drawn between them 
and the irXrjBos, who formed the ordinary assembly. Cp. iv. 6. 3 ; v. 2. 
II ; vi. 3. 3. 

iirl rd lavrSv. This implied, as far as practicable, a restitution of 
the confiscated property; cf. Harpocr. sub voce aijyBiKoi,, 

avTots : to those who Sf^kXa^av, i. e. to the Lacedaemonians and • 
Athenians. 

§ 39> av€X66vTcs . . . cl« tt\v dKp'6'iroXiv. This procession, which 
Lysias (xiii. 86) describes at some length, Plutarch (Glor. Athen. 7) 
puts on the 1 2th of Boedromion, i. e. 26th Sept. 403 6. c. 

KaT^PT|ouv . . . ol oTpaTT)YoC. Cobet inserts kKKXrjtriay kvoirjaay. 
Some words of this kind are evidently required to complete the sense ; 
cf. § 42 ad fin. 

§ 40. 7voCt)T€, sc. hfias ovtoijs, 
§ 41. -^ &s, i. e. 4 ^ '/epl(TK ojs, 
irapaX^voOc : the best MSS. give irepicX^Xv^cv, which is quite 
unintelligible. Some word is required in the perfect tense, meaning to 
'outwit,' as opposed to yj^fAH . .^. vpoix^iv. In his earlier editions 
Dindorfbonjectured vap€\v9ijT€y which in his last edition he has changed 
to vap€LKi\va$€. Translate, * ye have been outdone.* 
ircos, oiY*, i. e. vSk kirX rovroiSf otyf,' 

KX019 Sifjo-avTcs, te,T.\. The allusion is to a law of Solon preserved 
in Plutarch (Solon 24) tcvva daxdvTa irapahovvat k\oi$ rpur^x^i S^- 
B€fiivov,' 

KaKctvoi repeats the subject ot y€, strengthening. the comparison 
after ovroj, 

§ 42. v|i.ds. Thrasybulus now addresses his own followers. 
§ 43. dpxds KaTa<mf|o-d|icvoi ciroXircvovro. EucHcles was created 
dpxoiv ivdnnffios, and in. his archonship and the following years a com- 
plete revision of the Solonian laws and constitution took place to suit 
the altered condition of affairs, when Athens had lost her sovereign 
rights and her empire over the subject allies ; cf. Andoc. i. 88 sqq. 
40 



NOTES. CH. IV, § 36— § 43. 

£lvovs (iurOoOo^at. Justin (v. 10. 11) gives -an account of the Book IL 
afiair but little more intelligible than Xenophon's. The Thirty, it m 

would appear, were suspected of once more conspiring to regain their jy. 
supremacy at Athens. 

Tovs *EAev<rtvt. The Thirty, their adherents, and such other Athe- 
nians as had since joined them ; cf. §. 38. 'EAcvo-fvi is the locative case. 

|tt\ lAVTicnKoucfio-civ : cf. Cor. Nepos, Thras. iii. 2 * Legem tulit (Thra- 
sybulus) ne quis ante actarum rerum accusaretur neve multaretur, 
eamque illi oblivionis appellanint' The oath was taken by the knights,* * 
the senate, and the whole people ; and Andocides (i. 90) preserves the 
actual words, imX ov fiinjcritcoK^ffoj rSw troXirSjv M^vl vK^v rau rpicucovTa 
leat Twv tvh€ica^ oh^\ roirow hs hv i$€\oi tvOvvas biSSvai t^s ^XV^> 4' ^Pi*^- 

Irt Kal vOv. It is impossible to fix with any exactitude what time 
is denoted by these words. Xenophon accompanied C3TUS on his expe- 
dition against his brother in 401 B.C., a time which allows too short an 
interval to give the words any real meaning ; and he did not return to 
Greece till 394 B.C. On the other hand it cannot be very long after 
the events described, because the praise assigned to the Athenians must 
mean that consistently with the amnesty they did not prosecute certain 
definite persons, who had been implicated in the enormities of the 
Thirty, and such prosecutions were only likely to have taken place in 
the succeeding ten or fifteen years. We may therefore perhaps infer 
that Xenophon wrote these words not very long after his return to 
Greece. 



NOTE ON THE BATTLE OF CYZICUS. 

(1. 1. 16.) 

^irctS^ JS* CTY^) «.T.X. Diodorus (xiii. 49-51) gives a much fuller 
account of the battle, and conceives it quite differently. Plutarch (Ale. 
28) seems to follow Xenophon in the main, but to add details frond the 
same source as Diodorus. 

According to Diodorus,. the several divisions of the Athenian fleet 
united at Cardia, and then sailed up the Hellespont to Proconnesus, 
taking care to pass Abydos by night, that the increase m their numbers 
might not be noticed by the enemy. Mindarus, with the help of Phar- 
nabazus, had just taken Cyzicus by storm. Next day the Athenians 
disembarked their soldiers, under Chares, upon the Cyzicene territory, 
and with their fleet in three divisions, under Alcibiades, Thrasybulus, 
and Theramenes, sailed against the enemy at Cyzicus. Alcibiades went 
ahead in order to vpo/ea\i<raa0cu rovs voXtfjiiovSj the other two generals 

41 



HELLENICA, 

aiming to surronnd'them and cut them off from the city. Mindarus 
saw only Alcibiades' ships, and, despising their numbers, sailed out to 
meet them; whereupon Alcibiades by pretending flight drew him 
voppojripo) Tfjs irdKeojSf till suddenly he faced about, and Theram«ies 
and Thrasybulus, seeing his signal, sailed towards the city and cut off 
the Peloponnesians. Mindarus, now seeing the whole Athenian fleet 
(nothing is said about any mist), fled to shore at Cleri, where Phama- 
bazus was encamped. Alcibiades hotly pursued him, sunk some of his 
ships, took others, and tried to drag others off the beach. The Pelo- 
ponnesian land forces and the troops of Phamabazus now came to the 
assistance of Mindaiiis, whereupon Thrasybulus disembarked his marines 
and sent word to Theramenes to bring up the soldiers under Chares. 
Meanwhile Mindarus, supported by the mercenaries of Phamabazus and 
also by Clearchus, firmly stood his ground. "When however Thera- 
menes arrived with the reinforcements and joined Thrasybulus, first the 
mercenaries broke the line and fled, and then Clearchus was obliged to 
retire. Theramenes and his.troops jiow went off to the help of Alcibiades. 
Mindarus was thus obliged to divide his forces : one division he sent to 
oppose Theramenes, while he 'himself at the head of the other made 
a brave resistance against Alcibiades, until after many heroic exploits 
he was himself slain. His death was the signal for a general flight 
among the Peloponnesians ; but the Athenians were unable to pursue 
them far, because their retreat was covered by Phamabazus, who now 
arrived on the scene. 

According to Plutarch, Alcibiades, on arriving in the Athenian camp, 
hearing that Mindams and Phamabazus were in Cyzicus, determined to 
fight, and exhorted his troops accordingly. Then he sailed with the 
whole fleet to Proconnesus, where he ordered ivrbs v€pifidk\€iv rSi XenrA 
vkoia, that no news of his intended attack might reach the enemy, his 
precaution being much aided by a great thunderstorm and thick mist. 
Then the whole fleet set sail, and when the mist gradually lifted, Alci- 
biades saw the Peloponnesian fleet vpo rov ki/iivos tSjv Kv(iKrjvSfv. 
Thereupon he ordered the other generals to keep behind out of sight, 
while he himself, sailing on in front with forty ships, vpovicaXuro rov^ 
voKffxious. The Peloponnesians, despising his small numbers, sailed to 
meet him, and at once joined battle ; but when the rest of the Athenian 
fleet came up, they turned and fled. At this juncture Alcibiades, 8tcic- 
vXfwxas with twenty of his fastest vessels, made for the shore, disembarked, 
and slew many of the enemy, as they fled from their ships. Mindams 
(who is not mentioned as being on board the Peloponnesian fleet at all) 
and Phamabazus now came up to the rescue, but in vain : for Alcibiades 
quickly slew Mindarus and put Phamabazus to flight. 

42 



INDEX. 



*A$apvh &Kpa, ii. i. 29. 

*AfivSjjv<Hf ii. I. 18. 

"A/SuSos, 1. I. 5, 2. 15 ; ii. I. 18. 

*Ay€wltaSy ii. 3. 10. 

'AyrjffavdplSaSy i. i.i, 3. ijr. 

'AyrjffiffTfKLToSf ii. 3. 10. 

•A7ts : i. I. 33, sally from Decelea ; 
ii. 2. 7, Lysanders message to 
Agis at Decelea; § 11, re- 
ception of the Athenian en- 
voys ; 3. 3, departure from De- 
celea. 

"AyvaiUy ii. 3. 30. 

'AdclfMVTos: i. 4. 21, colleague of 
Alcibiades; 7* i> colleague of 
Conon; ii. i. 30, captured at 
Aegospotami; § 23, accused of 
treachery. 

*A$rivdy i. I. 4, 3. I (in Phocaea), 
4. 1 2, 6. I ; ii. 4. 39. 

'A^vctt, i. I. 33, 2. I, 6. I ; ii. i. 

10, 3. I, 24. 

^AOrfvcuoif i. I. I, 9, 22, 33, and 

passim. 
Aiyiva, ii. 2. 9. 
AiytvrJTatf ii. 2. 3, 9. 
Alybi -norafwi^ ii. i, 21. 
Aivrfoias, ii. 3. 9. 
Aliouveit, ii. 4. 26. 
AlcrxtViys, ii. 3. 2, 13. 
'Ajcadrjijua, ii. 2. 8. 
*AJcp6,yaif i. 5. 21 ; ii. 2. 24. 
*AXat, ii. 4. 34. 
*AA€£/as, ii. i. 10. 
'AKt^iinrldas, ii. 3. 10. 
*A}dv€^ov, ii. 4. 30. 
'AXHifiidSirjif the general: i. i. 5, 

arrives in the Hellespont ; §§ 9- 

11, made prisoner by Tissapher- 



nes, but escapes and return? to the 
Hellespont; §§ 13-19, defeats 
Mindarus at Cyzicus ; 2. 15-17, 
fights round Lampsacus; 3. 3, 
besieges Chalcedon ; § 10, takes 
Selybria and swears to the con- 
vention with Phamabazus; 4. 
8-19, returns to Athens; § 20, 
is made commander-in-chief ; 
§ 21, sails to Andros ; § 23, to 
Samos; 5. ii, joins Thrasy- 
bulus at Phocaea; § 15, offers 
battle to Lysander and returns 
to Samos ; §§ 16, 17, incurs the 
displeasure of the Athenians and 
retires to the Chersonese; ii. i. 
25, warns the Athenians of their 
danger at Aegospotami ; 3. 42, 
sentenced to exile by the Thirty. 

*AXKtfiid^s, cousin of the former, 
i. 2. 13. 

*AyaiTios, ii. 3. 2. 

*Avci^i\a65y i. 3. 18. 

"AvdfHot, i. 4. 22 ; ii. i. 31, 32. 

"AvBpos, i. 4. 21, 22, 5. 18. 

*Awlfiai, i. I. 37. 

'ApTavdpioiy i. I. 26. 

"AvravhpoSy i. I. 25, 3. 17; ii. i. 
10. 

*AvTiyhijSf i. 3. I. 

'AvrloxoSj i. 5. 1 1 flf. 

*Avri<pSjv, ii. 3. 40. 

"Avtrros, ii. 3. 42, 44. 

*Airarovpta, 1. 7. 8. 

'ApoKOiy ii. I. 7, 3. 10. 

*Apy^ioi, i. 3. 13; ii. 2.^7. 

*Apyivov<raif 1. 6. 27, 38. 

*Ap€(rlaSt ii. 3. 2. 

*Apiofiap(&vfjs, i. 4., 7. 

43 



INPEX. 



'AfHffTOpxos, i. 7. 28 ; ii. 3. 46. 

*Api(TToy4vriSf the Athenian general, 
i. 5. 16, 6. 29, 7. I. 

'ApiffToyivrjf, the Syracusan gene- 
ral, i. 2. 8. 

^ApKTTOKp&TTjs: i. 4. 21, colleague 
of Alcibiades ; 5. 16, again 
chosen general; 6. 29, com- 
mands on the left wing at Argi- 
nusae; 7. 2, returns to Athens. . 

*Api(TTor4\rjs: ii. 2. 18, Athenian 
exile, sent byLysander to Sparta ; 
3. 2, one of the Thirty;* § 13, 
sent to Sparta to ask for a gar- 
rison ; § 46, oligarchical leader 
among the Four Hundred. 

'AplffTcuVy i. 3. 18. 

'Apvdmjs, i. 3. 12. 

"ApTCfus, i. 2. 6 (in Ephesus); ii. 4. 
II (1) Mowvxta). 

*Apx^^A*05> i* 7* 2. 
'Apx^ffrparos, i. 5. 16; ii. 2. 15. 
'ApxyraSf ii. I. 10, 3. 10. 
*A<r/a, ii. I. 18. 
'Aarvoxos, i. i. 31. 
*ATTt«4, i. 7. 22. 
. AvTofioiadmjSf ii. i. 8. 
'Axotoc, i. 2. 18. 

Bev2^8((ov, ii. 4. 11. 

BiOwol Qp^K€s, i. 3. 2. 

Boidrriost Lacedaemonian, i. 4. 2. 

BoiojTolj i. 3. 15 ; ii. 4. 30. 

Bpaaidas, ii. 3. 10. 

Bi/fAj'Ttot, i. 3. 16, 18, 19. 

Bv(6yriov: i. i. 35, Clearchus de- 
spatched to guard Byzantium; 
3. 10, Alcibiades goes to By- 
zantium, and, § 14, lays siege to 
it; § 18, Byzantium betrayed 
, into the hands of the Athe- 
nians ; ii. 2. I, 2, opens its gates 
to Lysander. 

TavpioVf i. 4. 22. 
TiKttj ii. 3. 5. 
TXaiJKuv, ii. 4. 19. 
TvSfffis, i. Ik 29. 
Tdpdtov, i. 4. I. 
Tv$€iw, i. 4. II. 

44 



Aap€uuoSt ii. i. 8. 

Aapcfos, i. 2. 19 ; ii. I. 8. 

A€K€\(ia, I I. 33, 35, 2. 14, .3. 
22; ii. 2. 7, 3. 3. 

A€\<pii/iov, i. 5. 15. 

A-f/fmpxos, i. I. 29. 

^iOK\rjSf ii. 3. 2. 

AiofjiiSajv : i. 5. 16, chosen general ; 
6. 22, tries to help Conon at 
Mytilene; § 29, commands on 
the left wing at Arginusae ; 7. 
2, returns to Athens ; §§ 16, 17, 
persuaded his colleagues not 
to mention their orders to the 
trierarchs ; § 29, wished to rescue 
the survivors after the sea-fight. 

Atovvffios the elder, ii. 2. 24, 3. 5. 

At6TifjioSf i. 3. 12. 

ApaKovriSrjSt ii. 3, 2. 

Aojpi€vi: i. I. 2, comes from 
Rhodes to the Hellespont; 5. 
19, captured by the Athenians, 
but afterwards released. 

EcAwrey, i. 2. 18. 

*EKcuovs, ii. I. 20. 

'EXcixrtvtoi, ii. 4. 9. 

'EKevffis, ii. 4. 8, 24, 28, 43. 

"EXi^os, i. 3. 15, 21. 

'E\A.(£;, ii. 2. 6, 20. 

"EWrp^fSy i. 5. 9, 6. 14. 

'EWrjvides itSktiSt ii. 2. 20. 

'EwijffvovTos : i. i. 2, Athenians 
check Dorieus' entrance at the 
mouth of the Hellespont ; § 9, 
visit of Tissaphemes to the 
Hellespont; 3. 8, Alcibiades 
goes to the Hellespont to raise 
money; ii. i. 17, Lysander sails 
from Rhodes to the Hellespont ; 
2.5, Lysander leaves the Helles- 
pont. 

'EvvdXioSf ii. 4. 17. 

"E^apxos, ii. 3. 10. 

*ETrfiparoSy ii. 3. lo. 

'EniSoKoSy i. I. 29. 

'EpaawiSrjs : i. 5. 16, chosen gene- 
ral ; 6. 16, flees with Conon to 
Mytilene; § 29, posted on the 
left wing at Arginusae; 7. 2, 



INDEX. 



returns to Athens ; § 39, wished 
after the battle to sail against 
the enemy at Mytilene. 

'EpaariffTpaToSy ii. 3. 2. 

'EpOTocdeViyy, ii. 3. 2. 

*EpiJU)KptdTi]i, the S3rracnsan gene- 
ral : i. I. 27, banished by the 
Syracusans ; § 30, influence over 
his officers and troops; § 31, 
accused Tissaphernes at Sparta ; 

3. 13, accompanied the Athe- 
nian ambassadors. 

'EpfjLOKpdrrjSf father of the elder 
Dionysius, ii. 2. 24. 

'EpfioiVj i. 6. 32. 

*EaTta, ii. 3. 52. 

*Et€6vikos: i. i. 32, as Spartan 
harmost, expelled from Thasos ; 
6. 26, left by Callicratidas to 
blockade Mytilene ; § 36, strata- 
gem to conceal the defeat at 
Arginusae ; § 38, retreat to Me- 
thymna ; ii. 1. 1-4, quells mutiny 
of his troops at Chios; § $, 
obtains money from the Chians ; 
§ 10, summoned by Lysander 
to Ephesus;' 2. 5, causes the 
Athenian allies in Thrace to 
revolt. 

EvaydpaSj an Elean, i. 2. i. 

Evay6pas, of Cyprus, ii. I. 29. 

Evdpxt'ir''ros, i. 2. I ; ii. 3. 10. 

Ei/iSota, ii. 3. 9. 

Evfi^jras, i. 2. I. 

EvSiicos, ii. 3. I. 

EvKXfiSrjSj ii. 3. 2. 

EvKXrjSf i. 2. 8. 

EvtcriiiJLOJv, i. 2, I. 

Evfi&97}St ii. 3. 2. 

EvfxaxoSf i. i. 22. 

Evpvnr6K€poif i. 3. 12. 

Evpvirr6\€fioSy son of Pisianax : i. 

4. 19, welcomes Alcibiades at 
Piraeus; 7. 12, threatens Cal- 
lixenus with impeachment; §§ 
16-33, addresses the Assembly 
in defence of the generals ; § 34, 
proposes a counter-motion. 

*E<p4crioi, i. 2. 10, 5. 12, 15. 
"Eiptffos : i. 2. 6; attacked by Thra- 



syllus; 5. I, lo, head-quarters 
of Lysander; 6. 2, Callicratidas 
assumes command at Ephesus; 
ii. 1. 6, conference of Lacedae- 
monian allies at Ephesus. 

• 

Zcu^iinros, ii. 3. 10. 

'm^i' (T^ow ?), i. 5. 15. 
*iipdK\€a Tpaxivia, i. 2. 18. 
'Hpa/cAciSi;;, i. 2. 8. 
*1ipdK\€ioVf at Chalcedon, i. 3. 7.. 

eafiv-fjpiaf ii. I. 13. 

Qdffosi i. 1. 1 2, Thrasybulus comes 
from Thasos; § 32, revolution 
at Thasos ; 4. 9, subjugated by 
Thrasybulus. 

®(oy€vi]s, i. 3. 13; ii. 3. 2. 

Qloyvis, ii. 3. 2. • 

&€6iroiino5, ii. i . 30. 

©€TTaA.(a, ii. 3. 4, 36. 

©erraAo/, ii. 3. 4. 

Qrj$ai, ii. 4. i. 

Qrj^cuoi, i. 7. 28 ; ii. 2. 19. 

Qjjpafiivrjs: i. i. 12, comes to 
Sestos from Macedonia; § 22, 
left to garrison Chrysopolis ; 6. 
35, as trierarch, ordered to rescue 
the drowning sailors after the 
battle of Arginusae; 7. 4, ac- 
cuses the generals before the 
assembly ; § 8, intrigues at the 
Apaturia; ii. 2. 16, sent as envoy 
to Lysander ; § t 7, sent as pleni- 
potentiary to Sparta; §§ 21, 22, 
announces the terms of peace 
at Athens ; 3. 2, chosen one 01 
the Thirty; § 15, quarrels with 
Critias; §§ 24-34, accused of 
treachery by Critias; §§ 35-49, 
speaks in his own defence; 
§§ 51-56, ruthlessly executed. 

eifipaxosj ii. 4. 33. 

&opiK6Sf i. 2. I. 

Qovpiai rpirjpfis, i. 5. 19. 

0pq.K€S, cf. BiOvvoi. 

®p4/ci], i. 3. 10, 17, 4. 9 ; ii. 2. 5. 

epqiciov in Byzantium, i. 3. 20. 

epaavfiovKos {6 Xrapttvs) : i. 1. 12, 

45 



INDEX, 



comes from Thasos to Sestos; 
4. 9, subjugates Thasos and 
various towns in Thrace ; § 10, 
chosen general; 5. 11, comes 
from the Hellespont and fortifies 
Phocaea ; 6. 35, as trierarch, 
ordered to rescue the drowning 
sailors after the battle of Argi- 
nusae ; cf. 7. 5, 17, 31 ; ii. 3. 42, 
exiled by the Thirty ; 4. 2, 
marches jfrom Thebes and seizes 
Phy le ; § § 5 - 7, defeats the troops 
of the Thirty; % 10, marches 
upon Piraeus and occupies Muny- 
chia; §§ 12-19, again defeats 
the forces of the Thirty ; § 34, 
defeated by Pausanias; §§ 40- 
42, addresses the Athenian as- 
sembly. 

0pa<r{;XA.os : i. 1 . 8, sails from the 
Hellespont to Athens for rein- 
forcements; § 33, repulses a 
sally of King Agis ; % 34, re- 
ceives reinforcements; 2. 1-5, 
sails to Samos, ravages Ionia, 
but suffers a repulse near Co- 
lophon;' §§ 6-9, defeated at 
Ephesus; § 13, sails to Sestos; 
§§ 15-17, joins Alcibiades in 
operations round Lampsacus ; 
3. 6, helps in the siege of Chal- 
cedon ; 4. 10, returns with the 
greater part of the. fleet to 
Athens; 5. 16, chosen general; 
6. 30, posted on the right wing 
at Arginusae; 7. 2, returns to 
Athens ; § 29, wished after the 
battle to divide the fleet, and 
thus both to rescue the drown- 
ing sailors and to sail against 
the enemy. 

SvfJioxaprjs, i. i. i. 

Bijpa^j ii. I. 18, 28. 

^1817, i. I. 25. 

'ifpafiivTji, ii. I. 9. 

*Upan/, the Athenian, ii. 3. 2, 

"IKapxoSf ii. 3. 10. 

''JXioVy i. I. 4. 

'I/iipa, i. I. 37. 

46 



*linr€vSf i. 6. 29. 

*lirnoBd/i€ios ay opa, ii. 4. II. 

'linrotepdrTjs : i. I. 23, sends a de- 
spatch to the Spartan govern- 
ment ; 3. 5, harmost at Chal- 
cedon ; § 6, slain in battle. 

*lTnr6koxoSj ii. 3. 2. 

*lirir6fMxos, ii. 3. 2, 4. 19. 

"IirnooVj i. 2. 8. 

'ladpojp, ii. 3. 10. 

*I<ytas, ii. 3. 10. 

*laTiai€is, ii. 2. 3. 

'lojvia, ii. i. 17. 



KaBovffiotf ii. i. 13. 

KaXXiaSf Archon, i. 6. I. 

KaWi^tos, ii. 3. 13, ISpartan har- 
most at Athens. 

KaWiKpaTidas : i. 6. I -3, succeeds 
Lysander; §§ 4, 5, conspired 
against by Lysander's partizans ; 
§§ 6» 7> fails to get money from 
Cyrus ; §§ 8-1 2, obtains supplies 
from the Milesians; §§ 13-15, 
storms Methymna ; §§ 16-23, 
blockades Conon in Mytilene ; 
§§ 26-33, defeated and t&owned 
at Arginusae. 

KaWi^cvos : i. 7. 8, accuses the 
generals before the Senate ; § 9, 
moves the Senate's irpo0ov\€v/ia 
in the Assembly; § 12, threat- 
ened with ypatp^ vapavofxctw ; 
§ 14, denounces the Prytanes; 
§ 35> accused of deceiving the 
people, escapes from Athens, 
afterwards returi^s, and dies of 
hunger. 

KaXkiffTpaTOSf ii. 4. 27* 

KoAx^/SoWa, i. I. 22. 

KoAxi/Sot'tot, i. 3. 2-9. 

KaKxv^^^' i- ^* 26, Phamabazus 
goes to Chalcedon ; § 35, Clear- 
chus despatched to Chalcedon ; 
3. 2-8, besieged by the Athe- 
nians and made tributary ; ii. 2. 
1, 2, opens its gates to Lysander, 
who appoints Sthenelaus har- 
most. 



INDEX. 



KafJtipiva, ii. 3. 5. 

KawojySsy i. 7. 20, 34, 

KapSia, i. i. 11.' 

Kap)(rfh6vioif i. i. 37, 5. 21 ; ii. 2. 

34» 3- 5- 
KaaTa;X<$s, i. 4. 3. 

Kardvri, ii. 3, 5. 

Kt5p€taty ii. I. 15. 

K€pafi€iK6s, in Athens, ii. 4. 33. 

K€pafx€uc6s and Ktpdfiuos tc6\vos, 
in Caria, i. 4. 8 ; ii. 1. 15. 

K)70t(7<$SpTos, ii. I. 16. 

Kij^iaSst ii. 4. X9. 

KiT^Kro^f, ii. 4. 36. 

Kios, i. 4. 7. 

K\a{o/i€vaif i. i. 10. 

KX^apxo^: i* i« 35, despatched by 
Agis to Chalcedon and Byzan- 
tium; 3. 15, harmost at Byzan- 
tium; §§ 17-19, leaves Byzan- 
tium in charge of Coeratidas 
and Helixus, while he goes to 
Phamabazus for aid. 

Kk€iv6iMxoi, ii. 3. 10. 

^kcdxpires, ii. 4. 20. 

KXtofifidrjSy ii. 3. 2. 

KK€o<r0€vijSy ii. 3. 10. 

KXedffTparoSy i. 3. 13. 

KX«o^. i. 7. 35. 

Koipardlbas, i. 3. 1 5-2 2. 

KoKo^v, i. 2. 4. 

Ko\o<p^ioiy i. 2. 4. 

Kdvatv :'i. 4. 10, chosen to be col- 
league of Alcibiades; 5. 16, 
again chosen general; §§ 18, 
20, sails from Andros to Samos 
to take command of the fleet ; 
6. 15-18, pursued by Callicra- 
tidas, and blockaded in Myti- 
lene; §§ 19-22, by a stratagem 
sends the news to Athens ; § 38, 
sails to meet the Athenian gene- 
rals after Arginusae ; 7. i, con- 
tinued in his command; ii. i. 
28, 29, escapes with nine ships 
from Aegospotami and sails 'to 
Cyprus. 

KoptfaaSs, i. 2. 7i 9) 10. 

KopivOioi, ii. I. 32, 2. 19, 4. 30. 

Kofwpdffiov, i. 2. 18. 



KpaTtjffiTrmdas, Spartan admiral, i. 

1.32, 5- I- 

KfHTias : ii. 3. 2, one of the Thirty; 
§ 15, quarrels with Theramenes ; 
§ 18, chooses 3000 to be full 
citizens; §J 24-34, accuses The- 
ramenes of treachery ; §§ 50-56, 
strikes his name from the roll 
and orders his execution ; 4. 8, 
9, seizes the Eleusinians and 
procures their execution ; § 19, 
slain in battle at Munychia. 

KpoKivasy ii. 3. i 

Ku&w, i. 3. 18. 

Kv{iK7jvoi, i. I. 19. 

KviiKos: i. I. 11-18, defeat of the 
Peloponnesians at Cyzicus ; § 19, 
falls into the possession of the 
Athenians; 3. 13, Athenian en- 
voys are bidden to meet Phar- 
nabazus at Cyzicus. 

Kvpos : i. 4. 3-7, appointed satrap 
of Sardis, with orders to support 
the Lacedaemonians ; 5. 1-7, 
graciously receives Lysander, 
and promises higher pay to the 
Peloponnesian sailors ; $ 8, dis- 
misses the Athenian ambassa- 
dors ; 6. 6, 10, refuses to assist 
Callicratidas; § 18, but sends 
him money after his successes 
in Lesbos; ii. i. 7, invites the 
Lacedaemonians to appoint Ly- 
sander a second time; f§ 8, -9, 
is sunmioned to visit his father ; 
§§ 11-15, before he goes, he 
entrusts Lysander with the reve- 
nues of his satrapy, warning him 
not to engage with the Athenian 
fleet. 

KcDs, i. 5. I. 

Aafidjrasy i. 2. 18. 

Acuc€SaifJL6vioi, i. i. i, 2, 19, and 

passim. 
AatefpaifjMV, i, i. 23, 2. 1 8, and 

passim. 
AaKparrjSy ii. 4. 33. 
Af£«otiv, i. I. 32. 
A&KCJvts, i. 4. 22. 

47 



INDEX. 



lixueaviicij, ii. 2. 13. 

hoKOJviKos, i. 6. 34 iyijis) ; ii. 3. 8, 
4. 10. 

AdfjafHucos, i. 2. 15; ii. I. 18, 20, 
29, 2. I. 

Aa/)i(raroc, in Thessaly, ii. 3; 4. 

A€ovTrvo(, ii. 3. 5. 

AcovTts ^vX^, ii. 4. 27. 

Aifffios: i. 2. 11, Athenian fleet 
under Thrasyllus sails to Les- 
bos; 6. 12, Callicratidas sails 
against Lesbos ; § 16, Condn 
taices refuge in Mytilene in 
Lesbos; § 27, Arginusae islands 
opposite Lesbos; cf. ii. 3. 32, 
35 ; ii. 2. 5, Lysander reorgan- 
izes the cities of Lesbos. 

A€vko\o<t>l8i]s, i. 4. 21. 

Atojy, Athenian : i. 5. 16, chosen 
general ; 6. 16, flees with Conon 
to Mytilene. 

Aiojv, Spartan, ii. 3. 10. 

Aiojv, Salaminian, ii. 3. 39. 

Aifivs, ii. 4. 28. 

AvStq, i. 2. 4. 

AvKcipios, ii. 3. 10. 

AvKHoVy i. I. 33 ; ii. 4. 27. 

AvkIokos, i. 7. 13. 

AvKOvpyos, i. 3. 18. 

Avic6<ppatVf ii. 3. 4. 

AviTavbpos: i. 5. i, appointed ad- 
miral; §§ 2-7, gets increased 
pay for his sailors from Cyrus ; 
§ 10, makes Ephesus his head- 
quarters ; §§ 12-15, defeats An- 
tiochus at Notium, but refuses 
to meet Alcibiades in battle; 
6. 1-5, prejudices his troops and 
partizans against his successor 
Callicratidas; § 10, to injure 
whom he had sent back the 
money, not as yet expended, to 
Cyrus; ii. i. 6, 7, at the request 
of the allies and Cyrus is once 
more appointed to command 
the fleet, this time as secretary ; 
§§ J3> i4» entrusted by Cyrus 
with the money and revenues 
of his satrapy; §§ 15-19* sails 
to Caria, to Khodes, then past 

48 



Ionia up the Hellespont to 
Lampsacus, which he takes by 
storm; §§ 22-30, surprises the 
Athenian fleet at Aegospotami 
and captures the whole of it ; 
§§ 3i» 32> executes the Athenian 
prisoners ; 2. i, 3, subjugates the 
Hellespont, sending back all the 
Athenian garrisons to Athens; 
§ 5, reorganizes Lesbos, and 
other revolted Athenian allies; 
$S 7-9. blockades Piraeus ; $ 23, 
enters Piraeus and begins the 
destruction of the Long Walls ; 

3. 3, 6, besieges and captures 
Samos; §§ 7-9, dismisses his 
fleet and returns to Sparta in 
triumph ; § 13, helps the Thirty 
to procure a Spartan garrison ; 

4. 28-30, cf. 36, appointed to be 
harmost of Athens, he collects 
a mercenary force at Eleusis 
to support the Thirty against 
Thrasybulus, but is thwarted 
by Pausanias. 

Avaias : i. 6. 30, posted on the 
right wing at Arginusae ; 7. 2, 
returns to Athens. 

Avaifjuixos, ii. 4. 8, 26. 

M(£8vro;, i. i. 3. 

Ma/ircSovia, i. i. 12. 

MaXea, in Laconia, i. 2. 18. 

MaA.^a cuepa, in Lesbos, i. 6. 26. 

f/lavTl$€0Sy i. I, 10, 3. 13. 

Miyapa: i. i. 36, Clearchus ob- 
tains ships from Megara; cf. 
2. 14, 3. 15, Syracusan prisoners 
escape from Piraeus to Megara ; 
ii. 4. I, Athenian exiles in Me- 
gara.^ 

Mtyapfis, i. 3. 15. 

McAdv^cos, ii. 3. 46. 

M(\r)Tos, ii. 4. 36. 

M.ivavSpos : i. 2. 16, commander of 
Athenian hoplites; ii. i. 16, 
chosen as an additional general 
by the fleet; § 26, foremost in. 
rejecting Alcibiades* advice at 
Aegospotami. 



INDEX. 



McKCtfX^, i. 7. 34. 

MfytKpdrrjs, i. I. 29. 

Mrj^a, ii. I. 13. 

M^Sot, i. 2. 19. 

M-fjOvfiva: i. 2. 12, Thrasyllus 
anchors at Methymna ; 6. 12, 
though strongly garrisoned by 
the Athenians, Methymna is 
stormed by Callicratidas ; § 38, 
Eteonicus retires to Methymna. 

fSjjBv/ivaToi, i. 6. 13, 14. 

Mi^Xiot, ii. 2. 3, 9. 

fdrjKdfiios, ii. 3. 2. 

Mikifaioif i. 6. 8 ; ii. i. 30. 

MikrfTos: i. I. 31, new Syrapusan 
generals take up their conmiand 
at Miletus ; 2. 2, 3, Milesians 
worsted in battle by Thrasyllus ; 
5. I, Lysander sails to Miletus ; 
cf. 6. 2 ; 6. 7, 12, Callicratidas 
obtains money from Miletus. 

MlvSapos: i. i. 4-6, sees battle 
between Dorieus and the Athe- 
nians from Ilium: sails to the 
rescue, but is compelled to retire 
by the arrival of Alcibiades; 
§ II, threatens the Athenians 
with a fleet of sixty ships ; 
§§ 14-18, defeated and slain at 
Cyzicus. 

MtffyoXatdas, ii. 3. 10. 

Mirpaios, ii. i. 8. 

MiTpo^arrjSy i. 3. 12. 

VlvrjaiOel^Sj ii. 3. 2. 

MytjalXoxos, ii. 3. 2. 

Movvvxla, ii. 4. 11, 37. 

Mvaia, i. 4. 7. 

MvffKajVf i. I. 29. 

"MvTtXrjvoioif i. 6. 22. 

MvTikfjuri : i. 6. 16^23, Conon is 
blodcaded in the harbour of My- 
tilene ; §§ 26, 35, Eteonicus is 
left in command of the block- 
ading squadion at Mytilene; 
§ 38, Athenians after Arginnsae 
sail to Mytilene ; cf. 7. 29 ; ii. 
2. 5, reorganized by Lysander. 

Ifa^apxos: cf. note on i. 5. i. 
Nav^Ac^&is; ii. 4. 36. 



"SiKfiparos, ii. 3. 39. 

Jfticias, ii. 3. 39. 

"Si/eSffTparos, ii. 4. 6. 

N<$T*ov : i. 2. 4, Thrasyllus sails to 
Notium ; § II, after his defeat at 
Coressus he retires to Notium ;. 
5. 12-14, Antiochus, Alcibiades* 
lieutenant, is defeated at No- 
tium; cf. ii. I. 6. 

Bip(fjSy ii. I. 8. 

OtV^, i. 7. 28". 
OItcuoi, i. 2. 18. 
'OvofULxX^s, Athenian, ii. 3. 2. 
'OvofiaKXrjs, Spartan, ii. 3. 10. 
*Ovop6yTios, ii. 3. 10. 

TlayTCLieXrjs, i. 3. I ; ii. 3, lO. 

ndpaXm, ii. i. 28, 2. 3. 

ndfHoVf i. I. 13. 

ndpos, i. 4. II. 

naertirv/Sa? : i. I. 32, exiled from 
Sparta for the part that he had 
played in the revolt of Thasos ; 

3. 13, Spartan envoy; § 17, 
various guaidships had been left 
by Pasippidas in the Helles- 
pont. 

TlaTqaiddas, ii. 3. lO. 
Uavffavlas: ii. 2. 7, leads Pelo- 
ponnesian army against Athens ; 

4. 29, 30, through jealousy of 
Lysahder, leads out Pelopon- 
nesian allies to Athens; §§31- 
34, conducts at the same time 
negociations with, and military 
operations against, the Athe- 
nian democrats in Piraeus; §§ 
35-39, effects a peace between 
Sparta and Athens, and a re- 
conciliation between the Athe- 
nian factions. 

U€ipai€jis, i. I. 35, 3. 22, 4. 12, 

and passim. 
Tl€i(Tiava^, i. 4. 19, 7. 12. 
Ucicajv, ii. 3, 2. 
UeXoirovv^ffioif i. I. 6, 17, 19, and 

passim. 

49 



INDEX, 



UcpiKXfjs : i. 5. 16, chosen general ; 
6. 29, posted on the left wing 
at Arginusae ; 7. 3, returns to 
Athens; § 16, kinsman of £ury- 
ptolemus; cf. § 21, persuaded 
his colleagues not to mention 
their orders to the trierarchs to 

, rescue the crews. 

IJeplvdioi, i. I. 21. 

nifHvBoSf i. I. 21. 

nipffcUf i. 2. 19. 

IliTvaSj i. 6. i ; ii. 3. 10. 

UKeiffrSXaSf ii. 3. 10. 

IlKvyr^pia^ i. 4. 12. 

noXuxa/wys, ii. 3. 2. 

n6vTos, i. I. 22 ; ii. 2. i. 

ndrafus, i. I. 29. 

npoiKovvr/aoSf i. I. 13, 18, 3. I. 

.npo]xrj0€vs, ii. 3. 36. 

np6^€vos, Syracusan, i. 3. 13. 

npoarSiJiaxos : i. 5. 16, chosen 
general ; 6. 30, cf. § 33, posted 
on the right wing at Arginusae ; 
7. 1, does not return to Athens. 

lliiyeXa, i. 2. 2. 

HvyeXiis, i. 2. 2. 

IlvOoSoapoi, ii. 3. i. 

IlvppdKoxos, i. 3. 13. 

*Fafjuplas, i. I. 35. 

*F6bios, i. 5. 19. 

*P(55oi : i. I. 2, Dorieus comes from 
Rhodes ; 5. i, Lysander sails to 
Rhodes; § 19, Dorieus, an exile 
from Rhodes ; 6. 3, Callicratidas 
gets ships from Rhodes; ii. i. 
15, 17, Lysander sails to Rhodes. 

'PoiTtiov, i. 1. 2. 

jULXafus, ii. 2. 9. 

Xdfjiiot, i. 6. 29 ; ii. 2. 6, 3, 6 ; 
VTJ€S X&fuaif i. 6. 25, 7. 30. 

S(i/io;: i. 2. 1, Thrasyllus sails to 
Samos; 4. 8, 9, Alcibiades at 
Samos; 5. 14, Athenians after 
their defeat at Notium retire to 
Samos; 6. 15, Conon is cut off 
while sailing to Samos; § 25, 
cf. S 29, Athenians before Argi- 
nusae get reinforcements from 

50 



Samos; § 38, Athenians retire 
to Samos; ii. i. 12, Athenians 
fit out their fleet at Sanios, 
cf. § 16 ; ii. 2. 6, remains faithful 
to Athens ; 3. 3, 6, 7, surrenders 
to Lysander, who sets up an 
oligarchy within it. 

Sd^cis,!. I. 9, 10, 5. I. 

2aTt;/)os, ii. 3. 54. 

'XcKivovSf i. 1. 37, 

^ekivovaioit i. 2. to; ^ekivovauu 
vQ^s, i. 2. 8. 

^€Waaia, ii. 2. 13, 19. 

Xrj\vfipia: i. I. 21, gives money to 
Alcibiades; 3. 10, captured by 
Alcibiades. 

^7i<rr6s: i. i. 7, 11, headquarters 
of the Athenians on the Helles- 
pont; § 36, Clearchus* ships 
flee to Sestus ; 2. 13, Thrasyllus 
joins the main Athenian fleet at 
Sestus ; ii. i. 20, 25, Athenian 
fleet sails to Sestns and anchors 
fifteen stades from the town. 

X$€v4\aoSf ii. 2. 2. 

:SiK(\ia, i. I. 37, 5. 21. 

^iK€\iSn-ai, ii. 2. 24. 

XKiofycuoi, ii. 2. 3. 

^o<l>oK\7JSf ii. 3. 2. 

'Xvaprrj, i. i. 32, 2. I, 6. 32; ii. 

3- I- 

ST^Tiyy, i. 2. 5. 

ISvpaKdaioi : i. i. 18, bum their 
ships after their defeat at Cy- 
zicus ; § 26, build new ships at 
Antandros; 2. 8, 10, lend help 
to the Ephesians at Coressus; 
§ 14, Syracusan prisoners escape 
from the stone quarries at Pi- 
raeus; ii. 2. 24, Dionysius tyrant 
of Sjrracuse ; cp. 3. 5. 

^vpaKovaai, i. I. 29, 31. 

'SMKp&rris, i. 7. 15. 

'XcuaTparihas, ii. 3. 10. 

"SfijippoviaKoSf i. 7.' 15. 

lilxoKp&TTjs, Athenian, i. 7. 3. 

Tia(Ta<p€ppi]s : i. i. 9, comes to the 
Hellespont and makes Alci- 
biades prisoner; § 31, formerly 



INDEX, 



accused by. Hermocrates at 
Lacedaemon ; 2.6-8, helps Ephe- 
sians against Thrasyllus ; 5. 3, 
complained of before Cyrus by 
Lysander and the Lacedaemo- 
nians ; §§ 8, 9, fails to persuade 
Cyrus to adopt his own tempo- 
rizing policy. 

Tpaxivia, cf. updKKtia. 

TvSci/s, ii. I. 16, 26. 

^ocyoff0itn]Sf i. 5. 18. 

^apdtos, ii. 3. 4. 

^api/dfia(os : i. i. 6, covers Pelo- 
ponnesian retreat to Abydos; 
§ 19, abandons Cyzicus ; $ 24, 
supplies the Peloponnesians with 
provisions and timber to build 
new ships ; § 26, goes to Chal- 
cedon ; 2. 16, defeated by Al- 
cibiades; 3. 5-7, fails to raise 
the siege of Chalcedon ; §§8-12, 
makes a convention with the 
Athenians and Alcibiades; §§ 
12, 13, promises a safe escort to 
the Athenian ambassadors; §17, 
Clearchus,harmostof Byzantium, 
applies to Pharnabazus for aid ; 
4. 1-7, meets Cyrus at Gordium, 
and at his entreaty detains the 
Athenian envoys for three years. 

^fiBpias, ii. 3. 2. 

^flSojv, ii. 3. 2. 

^iKodiKijs, i. 3. 13. 

^i\oK\^ : i. 7. I, chosen general ; 
ii. I. 30-32, taken prisoner by 
Lysander at Aegospotami and 
executed, because he had butch- 
ered the crews of two Andrian 
and Corinthian triremes. 

^vkfi: ii. 4. 2-s, 7, occupied by 



Thrasybulus and . successfully 
defended against the attacks of 
the Thirty; cf. §§ 10, 12. 
^ooKoia : i. 3. I, temple of Athena 
in Phocaea burnt; 5. 11, Alci- 
biades joins Thrasybulus at 
Phocaea ; 6. 33, Peloponnesian 
fleet after Arginusae mostly flees 
to Phocaea. 

Xoip^Acotis, ii. 3. 2. 

Xnipi\as, ii. 3. 10. 

Xoi/xwi/, ii. 4. 33. 

XapiK\^Sf ii. 3. 2. 

XapfjUSrjs, ii. 4. 19. 

Xcppoyrjatrai, i. 3. 10. 

Xeppdvrjaoi : i. 3. 8, 10, Alcibiades 
gets money and troops from 
Chersonesus; 5. 17, Alcibiades 
retires to his forts in Cherso- 
nesus ; ii. I. 20, Athenian fleet 
anchors in Elaeus in Chersone- 
sus ; $ 27, Athenian crews scat- 
tered throughout Chersonesus. 

Xios : i. I. 32, the admiral Crate- 
sippidas assumes his command 
in Chios; 6. 3, 12, 18, Calli- 
cratidas gets ships, money, 
and troops from Chios ; ii. 
I. 5, 6, Chians give money to 
Eteonicus and urge the Spartans 
to appoint Lysander a second 
time; cf. §§ 10, 17. 

XpifAow, ii. 3. 2. 

Xpvff6vo\is: i. i. 22, Alcibiades 
sets up a toll-house at Chryso- 
polis ; 3. 12, Alcibiades swears 
to the convention with Pharna- 
bazus at Chrysopolis. 

*CliBuoVt ii. 4. 9. 



THE END. 



51 



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