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Hendricks County schools, 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 

§^itfo.d Do^ndip JJi^torlcat aUon 

=— -PLA'NFIELD. INDIANA -= --^-^ 


Hendricks Co unty Schools 


(Now abandoned) 

906 - 1907- 1908 







The HAND points the direction of progress for Country Children, 
from poor one*roomed schools to modern graded schools 



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A Teacher's Creed. 

I believe in boys and girls, the men and women of a 
great to-morrow ; that whatsoever the boy sowclh the 
man shall reap. I believe in the curse of ignorance, in the 
efficacy of schools, in the dignity of teaching, and the joy 
of serving another. I believe in wisdom as revealed in 
human lives as well as in the pages of a printed book; in 
lessons taught not so much by precept as by example; in 
ability to work with the hands as well as to think with the 
head ; in everything that makes life large and lovely. 
I believe in beauty in the school-room, in the home, in daily 
life and out-of-doors. I believe in laughter, in love, in all 
ideals and distant hopes that lure us on. I believe that 
every hour of every day we receive a just reward fur all we 
are and all we do. I believe in the present and its oppor- 
tunities, in the future and its promises, and in the divine 

joy of living. Amen. 

Edwin Osgood Grover. 




School Plans, 1907-8 : 5 

General Regulations 10 

History of Education in the County) 12 

Pedagogical 14 

Township Statistics 14 

The Growth of Our High Schools 18 

The High School Course of Study 22 

High School Athletics and Oratory 27 

High School Graduates, 1903-7 31 

Bulletins 33 

Beginning Teachers 50 

The Teacher's Visiting Day 51 

Corn Contests and Agriculture 53 

Improved Buildings and Consolidation 66 

Parents and the Schools 73 

The State Teachers' Association 75 

Schedule of Success Items 75 

Important Resolutions of Interest to Teachers 77 

Compulsory Education Law 77 

New School Laws 78 

In Conclusion 79 

School Calendar , 3d cover 

CJforJl Vou,n5kip JJidoricJ Colleclti^ 



1907-1908 School Plans. 

Hendricks County Public Schools 

Office Phone No. 236—2 G. M. WILSON, Supt. Residence Phone No. 236-3 

Office Day— Monday. 

Preliminary lustitutes — 

September 4 — Eel River. 

September 6 — Clay and Marion at Amo. 

September 7 — Liberty. 

September 12 — Union and Middle at Lizton. 

Scptenibcr 13 — Franklin. 

September 14 — Center. 

September 18 — Brown. 

September 19 — Guilford. 

September 20 — Lincoln. 

September 21 — Wasliington. 

Schools Begin — 

September 2 — Liberty. 

September 9 — Clay and Eel River. 

September 16 — Center, Franklin, Marion, Middle, and Union. 

September 23— Brown, Guilford, Lincoln, and Washington. 

Regular Tozvnship Institutes — 

First Saturday — Center, Guilford, Lincoln, Washington. 
Second Saturday — Brown, Franklin, Middle, Union. 
Third Saturday — Clay, Eel River, Liberty, Marion. 

Bi-Monthly Examination Dates — 
First — November 8, 1907. 
Second — January 17, 1908. 
'I'hird— On iwiday, one week before flie close of school. The date should be uniform 

throughout the township. It may be agreed upon at the township institute, and the 

county superintendent informed. 

Reports — 

First— At the close of the first week. 

Second— Grades of sixth, seventh and eighth year pupils after the first bi-niontlily 

Third— Y. P. R. C. and final report at the close of school. 

Promotions— The prol)lem of promotions is not an easy one. The Comity Board of 















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IIkndkicks GniNTY Schools. 7 

Education at the meeting in May, 1906, passed a resolution witli reference to promotions 
in the upper grades. It is self-explanatory and is as follows: "Resolved, that promotions 
from tile si.xtli, seventh and eighth years sliall he made hy the teachers of a township, the 
township principal, the trustee and the county superintendent acting jointly; that the bi- 
monthly examination manuscripts for the sixth, seventh and eighth grades shall be sub- 
mitted regularly to the township principal for inspection by himself, the trustee and the 
county superintendent, and that any pupil who has maintained an average of 85 per cent. 
throughout the sixth, seventh and eighth years, may, by unanimous judgment of teacher, 
township principal, trustee and county superintendent, be promoted from the eighth year 
to the high school and such promotion will entitle such pupil to enter any high school ot 
the county. Provided, that nothing herein contained shall in any manner abridge the 
rights of pupil-- under the law providing for the examinations for graduation from the 
common branches." 

The plan attaches more importance to a pupil's regular work. If his work is strong 
enough as shown by examinations and daily recitations, he may pass directly into high 
school without having to take the diploma examination. 'J his i-; a wise measure and will 
do some good if we can administer it wiselw 

Just before the schools close in the spring, I will meet witli the trustee, principal, and 
teachers of each townsliij) to carry out the details of this plan. 

BiKi) .\Ni) Aiuiou l).\v— The fourth Friday in October, October 25, should be observed 
as Bird and Arbor Day. Arrange a little program of songs, reailings and recitations. In- 
vite the patrons. Plant a tree or a vine, or several. But do your work well. If you 
haven't a recent Bird and Arbor Day Annual, write me for one. Make the day an oc- 
casion for meeting your patrons and interesting them in the success of your work, and 
in the appearance of the school grounds. 

ljr.i<.\kn:s — Get the Young Peoi)le's Reading Circle books for your library. If the 
books have not been catalogued and recorded, you should do it. Apply to the Public Li- 
brary Conuuission, Room 58, State House, indianapolis. for a six months free loan ot 
a fortj-volume library on almost any hue. 

Honor Rolls — The honor rolls and Y. P. R. C. diplomas for last year have been filled 
out and placed in the hands of the trustees for distribution. The pupils' names arc taken 
from the reports of the teachers, ar.d if a pupil has failed to gtt an honor roll or a 
diploma when entitled to the same, it is because his teacher's report failed to reach me. It 
is never too lale to look after these matters for the pupils. 

'liiE CouKsi-: OK SrisDv (See opi)osite page.) 

Ward's Manual of tin.' Rational Method in Reading shoulil be in the hands of all 
teachers having work in the lower grades (Silver, 15urdett & Co., Chicago, 3()c). 

The supplementary rea<lcrs are: (i) Ward's Primer for the first year (Silver, Bur- 
dctt & Co., Chicago, 36c, with 1-6 off tj dealers). (2) Progressive Course in Reading, 
Book Two, for the second year (American Book Co., Cincinnati, 30c, with lo per cent., or 
20 per cent, off to dealers, according to terms of sale). (3) Progressive Course in Read- 
ing, Book 'I'hree, for the third year (.American Book Co., 40c, with discount ti> dealers). 

Stud\ the plan of the new Si'KLLi'Ui. You will see that it is a vocabulary book, and 
that new words should be assigned only as they can be understood and used intelligently 
in sentences. 

Every pupil in school above the second year should own a small hictionaky. A fair 
dictionary can be secured for 25c. It should be taught systematically. In the third year 
teach pupils to use the dictionary to i-konounce for them. In the fourth year, begin to 
teach pupils how to find the meaning of a word. Gradually teach the use of derivations, 
and the more dilTicult points. 

•8 Manual 

Teach Wkiting by giving pupils, especially in the lower grades, a copy and a definite 
amount of work to do well. Do not have pupils write without copy and in a careless, 
rapid manner, merely to use up time. This is an important subject and you should take 
the time to teach it. 

Positively, no Number work should be done in the first year and little should be 
done in the second year. Spend time on Reading, and the related subjects, — Spelling, 
Writing and Language. In the third and fourth years, teach the tables, the addition table, 
the subtraction table, the multiplication table, the division table. The addition table en- 
ables pupils to add by endings. In the seventh year, enough work should be done in AI- 
gel)ra to enable pupils to use the algebraic mclhods in ijercentage and some of its ap- 

The lower grade History work and Language work can i)e easily and advantageously 
correlated. The history stories must be worked over orally until they can be reproduced 
orally and in written form by the pupils, and this is the best kind of language work. A 
day may be taken occasionally for more formal language work, such as the use of diflicult 
common verbs or pronouns. 

Teaching tlie rudiments of Music is expected only in the graded schools. But there 
should be singing in every scliool. Our 10,000 eilition of "Songs for Home and School" 
is luit exhausted, and if your scliool is lujt supplied, send to my office fur a su|)ply. 

Renieini)er Dr. Moran's excellent work on History. (let Fisk's Critical Period or 
Stanwootl's History of the Presidency, or Woodlmrn's Johnston's American Orations. Con- 
centrate upon some period. 

The Physiology work for the sixth and eighth years will be divided as follows: 

Sixth Year — Small Physiology. First bi-monthly,' pages 1-56. Second bi-monthly, 
pages 57-135. Third bi-monthly, pages 136-201. 

Eighth Year — Large Physiology. First bi-monthly, pages 1-79 and 283-295. Second 
bi-monthly, pages Xo-f(>7. Third bi-monthly, pages 19S-306. 

Make the Cieograpliy work real. Last year's suggestions on excursions and the cor- 
respondence method of studying some section of the United States brought good results 
where carried out. 

.\gkicultuke — Our work in Agriculture has received favorable comment at home and 
throughout the State. We have all pulled together to secure the results. The latest under- 
taking, the Purdue excursion, was entirely successful and highly profitable. We will do 
better work because of it. St;ite Superintendent F. A. Cotton is very favorable to the 
work in Agriculture. In a recent letter to county superintendents he said: "I am very 
anxious to have you urge the teachers to introduce the course in Agriculture, pp. 114-121, 
State Manual, in the township and town high schools, the township consolidated schools, 
and the graded schools in your respective counties. 'J he work for the grades in this 
subject may be used in the district schools, especially when the teachers are well qualified 
to do the work. The suggestions in this course will help the teachers to direct the boys 
and girls in an intelligent study of agriculture, to inspire in them a respect for honest 
labor, and to show them that there is a demand for brains on the farm." 

The township trustees at their meeting in August, 1906, passed a resolution conclud- 
ing as follows: "and that we, therefore, direct that the subject of Agriculture may re- 
place the subject of Botany in the township high schools for half the school year, or for 
the full school year if the teacher is prepared." The present law indirectly recjuires the 
teaching of Agriculture in the high school, and provision has been made for it in the 
Jiigh scliool course of study for the county. 

It seems now generally conceded by educators and small, that fi>r agricultural 
iCoinmunities like Hendricks Cnunty, the subject of ;i .;rieiillnre is not e.xcelled for mental 
training nor equalled for utility \aluc by- any other sui)jeet in the entire Held of knowl- 


IIk.nduicks CnUNiy Schools. 9 

The PuotiUAM (a suggestion, gr;uk", i, J, .?, 5, 7.)— npi-iiiiig 15 minutos. 

r /til Arithmotic. I 7tli Geography. 

I 5tli Aritlinutic. j 5tli Gcog. (3) Phys. (i). 

I ] I St Reading. IV -{ 1st Reading. 

I ^d Numbers. j 2d History and Language 

L 3d Numbers. I 3^ History and Language. 

f 7th Reading. I 7tli Grammar. 

j 5th Reading. { Sth Grammar. 

II -j ist Reading. V ' ^^^ ^^^^'^^'''g ^^'^^ Stories. 

j 2d Reading. | -'d Reading. 

I 3d Reading. I 3^1 Reading. 

^ 5 and 7 Spelling. 

I 71I1 Ilibtory. 
I 5th History. 

1st Writing and Spelling. 

2il Spelling. 

i 3d Spelling (3) (ieograpliy antl .Agriculture (1). 
I All, renmanship. 

Monday, I, II. Ill, IV. 1 [' Monday, I, II, 111, IV, 

Tuesday, V, 1, H, HL j \ Tuesday, 1, H, HI, V. 

W^edncsdav, IV, V, I, H. 1 or \ Wednesday, I, H, V, IV. 

Thursday, III, IV, V, I. | | Thursday, I, V, HI, IV. 

Friday, II, HI, IV, V. J I Lriday, V, H, III, IV. 

Cover the held. Divide the time equally among the grades. Reduce the number of 
recitations per day. 

In Conclusion — These plans are issued not for the purpose of confining you with- 
in narrow limits, but to stimulate you to mure positive and definite notions of your work 
for the year. Our work together at the prcliminar> institutes has further defined and 
explained our year's work. 

A word as to my visiting your school. Please hand me your register when I enter, 
but do not interrupt your work. I will make myself at home. I hope to make many 
favorable criticisms. But I come to help you and some of my criticisms may be unfavor- 
able, but in such eases they arc for you alone and become known to others only when 
itold by you. May the year be a good one and may we at all times be mutually helpful 
in the interests of t'.'e child. 

10 Manual 

General Regulations. 

1. The teacher should arrive at the school house not later than 8:00 a. m. daily. 

2. The teacher should remain on the school premises at noon, except that when there 
are several teachers in a building they may arrange to alternately go for dinner. 

3. School should begin at 8:30 a. m., and close at 4:00 p.m., with two iifteen-minute 
intermissions, and an hour for noon. 

4. In the pleasant fall weather the intermissions may be extended to twenty minutes 
for play purposes, provided they arc shortened to ten minutes when the weather becomes 

5. Ventilation — During weather that requires the closing of doors and windows, the 
teacher should at the middle of each of the four quarters of the day, Hush the room with 
fresli air. This is tlone by opening iloors and wimlows for one or two minutes, during 
which time the pupils should marcii about the room or enga;Ae in sonic form of physical 
exercise to prevent them from taking cold. 

6. Records and Reports — The teacher should properly keep each pupil's record of work 
and attendance, and should promptly make the bi-monthly reports to parents, the final re- 
port to successor, and the reports called for by the county superintendent. 

7. High School Records — In each high school there should be a permanent record, 
showing in detail the work completed by each pupil. This record beci)mes invaluable in 
case a pupil goes to another high school or to college. 

8. Vacations— Teachers will observe the Thanksgiving vacation, dismissing on Wednes- 
day evening until the following Monday, in order to attend the County Teachers' As- 

Schools shouUl be dismissed during Christmas week in order that teachers may at- 
tend the State Teachers' Association. 

9. Dismissions — The teacher is not permitted to dismiss school at pleasure, and in case 
of sickness or inal)ility to attend to duties, the trustee should be promptly notified. It is 
the trustee's duty to provide a substitute. 

ID. Use of Te.Kt During Recitation — No teacher, while conducting a recitation in geo- 
graphy, grammar, arithmetic, physiology, or history, shall use a text-book. Teacliers may 
make an abstract of the lesson, to be used during recitation. A thorough mastery of 
the matter contained in each lesson, as well as a detinitc method of presenting it, is ex- 
pected of each teacher. To be able to do the work in this manner a thorough preparation 
of the work for each day will be necessary. (Richmond rule). 

11. Authority — There is no appeal by the pupil from the reasonable rules of the 
teacher. Obedience is necessary to the life of the school, and the teacher may punish to 
secure obedience. 

Questions relating to the transportation of pupils, the school to which a pupil is at- 
tached, transfers, buildings, supplies, grounds, etc., should be referred to the township 

Questions relating to the course of study, methods of instruction, discipline and the 
conduct of the school, should be referred direct to the county superintendent. 

12. Appeals — An appeal may be taken from the decision of a t(jwnship trustee to 
the county superintendent, exceid that a trustee's decision is final on the suspension or ex- 
pulsion of a pupil. 

Questions may be furliier appealed from the county superintendent to the State super- 
intendent, e.\cei)t that the connls superintendent's <lecisi(in is final on all local questions 





relating to tlie legality of school meetings, establishment of schools, and the location, build- 
ing, repair, or removal of schoolhouses, or transfer of persons for school purposes, and 
resignation and dismissal of teachers. 

13. Pupils not six years old before Christmas, and under-age pupils who do not ex- 
pect to attend regularly, should be excluded. Pupils not six years old at the beginning of 
school may be excluded. 

14. Pupils between the ages of seven and fourteen, inclusive, may not be excluded 
from school by the teacher, but may be proceeded against by the truant officer for habitual 
tardiness or absence, or by the probation officer of the juvenile court for incorrigibility, 
vulgarity, or misconduct of any nature. 

15. No lesson for home study should be assigned to pupils in the first and second 
grades. Lessons in spelling may be assigned to pupils in third, fourth, and fifth grades. 
To pupils in grades six and seven, one lesson only may be assigned in addition to spelling, 
but arithmetic lessons should not be prepared at home. Eighth grade pupils should not be 
required to study more than one hour at home. (Indianapolis rule.) 

16. The principal of a graded school shall have the general management and discipline 
of the school under his control, and especially shall he have control of playgrounds and 
halls. The teachers in such graded school shall follow his directions and cooperate with 
him in all matters relating to the welfare of the school. 

17. In case it becomes necessary to change the date of a township institute or to close 
the school temporarily, the county superintendent should be informed. 

Wllll'l': I. UK. 
As bi'uutlful as tin- Ivluiit', l)\ii ill HeiutrlckH County. 

12 Manual 

Education in Hendricks County* 


When I came upon the educational stage of life, the log schoolhouse, the puncheon 
floor, and "the educational timbur of the teacher," were being rapidly relegated to the 
past. My school life began in the old, but noted, Belleville Academy, which was erected 
during the fifties of the nineteenth century. This was the second academy constructed in 
Hendricks County, the old Danville Scunnary having been established a few years pre- 
viously. The Belleville Academy was my Alma Mater, and, also, the building where I be- 
gan my career as a teacher in the public schools of Hendricks County. My hrst teaching 
was in the primary department of the Belleville schools, then under the supervision of 
Prof. A. J. Johnson, who was also what was then termed county examiner of Hendricks 
County. Our work began in September, i8()6, and contiiuied eleven weeks, that being the 
length of a public school term at that time. The daily compensation was one dollar and 
fifty cents for one holding a second grade or eighteen nmntlis' license, and two dollars 
per day for a first grade or twenty-four months' license. Third and fourth grades called 
for less compensation. Examinations were in the main oral. No one had ever dreamed 
of written examinations for primary and intermediate pupils. 1 he length of term, how- 
ever, increased every year until in 1871 the incorporated towns, especially, could boast a 
five-months term, country districts still having shorter terms. But the compensation ot 
teachers hardly kept pace with length of term, yet there was a growing demand for a 
higher standard of excellence among the teachers. And a few energetic and consciencious 
instructors, feeling that the individual is strong in proportion as he takes to himself the 
experience of all, organized the earlier, occasional township institutes; in Washington town- 
ship as early as 1864. But Hendricks County was not slow to imbibe the growing prm- 
ciple being disseminated by Horace Mann, that a more centralized administration of schools 
would conduce to their efficiency. Hence, county control was the next step in the develop- 
ment of its school system. And in accordance with this belief in 1873 James A. C. Dobson 
was elected county superintendent for a term of two years. During the same year town- 
ship institutes were introduced into our school system, and attendance at the meetings made 
compulsory, and they soon became an important factor in Hendricks County. The county 
institute had been organized and county examiners appointed as early as 1862. Soon 
county manuals were issued and the standard of requirements for securing teachers' li- 
censes were increased. The interests of education all along the line were so well cared 
for that in 1878 the number of school buildings was 105. Number of teachers employed 
130; 90 males and 40 fem.-iles. 

Of the number of schools, 14 were graded schools, where provisions were made for 
thorough instruction in all the elementary and many higher branches; and there was an 
oppDrtunity for pursuing the higher branches in some of the district schools. 

Aliunt this time the Central Normal College was removed from Ladoga lo Danville, 
and ostalili.^iied upon a permanent basis, and furnished excelK-nt opportunities for a scien- 
tilie, classical, or business education. 

Superintendent Dolison, during his ten years active service, gave to education an im- 
petus and inspiration which set a high standard for ail the succeeding superintendents, and, 
year by year, a degree of proficiency and advancement has crowned their efforts. Dur- 
ing the last twt) decades through the inllucnce and under the direction of A. E. Rodgers, 
T. A. Gossett, J. D. Hostetter, and (i M. Wilson, education in Hendricks County has 
J-ccpl ,pace with ail the reforms and movenu-nls for llu' betterment of its school system. 

IkNDKKKs County Schools. 


Thruugh the intluence and earnest work of U. J. Biller, the teachers' association was or- 
ganized and incorporated into our school system on December 19, 1884. Durins,' the same 
year the course of study for the Teachers' Reading Circle was welcomed by both it iichcrs 
and superintendent. In 1887 Hendricks County was among the first to orr;ani/.e a young 
people's reading circle. Township outlines had grown out of the demand for uniformity in 
our schools and was adopted in 1896. Trior to that the same demand made possible a 
uniform course of study for the common schools, and in 1891 a system of iM-moithly ex- 
aminations, based on that course was inaugurated. 

This same principle evolved uniform text-books for the common schools, and ?n May, 
1902, uniform high scliool text-books and course of study were adopted by the County 
Board of Education. 

So we trust forces arc now shaping themselves to enable us in '.he near future to hail 
the advent of centralized schools and a maximum term and wage law. 

In the last three decades the educational interests of llendricks County have moved on- 
waid until today it may be said that our school system is the gre.ites: si.cccss of any public 

James A. C. Dobson, the first county superintendent, was elected in 1873 and served 
until 1883, five terms. 

A. E. Rodgers, from 1883 to 1887, two terms. 

T. A. Gossett, from 1887 to 1893, three terms. 

J. D. Ilostetter, from 1893 to 1903, four terms. 

G. M. Wilson, since 1903. 

("HA 1,1; F.vr.LS. 

Not ill tlio Alps, liiit 111 llciuh-lck.s County. 




1. A teacher cannot teach correctly what he does not know thoroughly. 

2. In conducting a recitation do you follow with the book, reading and asking ques- 
tions — or do you prepare your lessons? 

3. Have you been doing the dissecting suggested in the physiologies, or have you been 
foolishly pleading lack of time? Time misspent is worse than wasted. 

4. Do you figure at the board doing most of the reciting in arithmetic, or do you give 
the pupils the full advantage of this best opportunity fur self-expression? 

5. Do you repeat answers, improving them as you do so? A telling teacher trains 
pupils for beggars. 

6. Are unused seats full of paper and apple cores? You cannot thus build character. 

7. Do your decorations consist of twenty or forty cheap pictures tacked upon the 
Better have none than such. We wish to make voters, not floaters. 

Take time to correct improper language. 

Dismiss your school with system. 

Be simple, honest, direct. 

The great lessons of the schools are found not in text-books, but in teachers — 



sympathetic, scholarly, honest, hard-working teachers. 

Township Statistics^ 1906-7* 
















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iH Manual 

The Growth of Our High Schools* 

The high school is the people's college. Its growth among agricultural communities 
contains the farmer's best promises for the future. It has caused the tlicrmometer of gen- 
eral intelligence to rise several degrees. It gives the country boy or girl equal advantages 
with the city boy or girl. It is here to stay and to get better each year. 

The growth of the high schools of the county under the present administration is ex- 
ceedingly gratifying to all concerned. This growth is closely associated with the intro- 
duction of a uniform course of study for the high schools and competitive contests in ora- 
tory and athletics. The relation may be casual, or, more probably, a new spirit has brought 
all of these things to pass at the same time. 

The fourth year of high school work in a township high school was first added at North 
Salem in iQor, while the writer was in charge of the schools there. The first uniform high 
school course of study for the county was prepared the next year l)y a connnittee of three 
(T. J. Kirby, J. U. Jones and C. M. Wilson), and th-- II. C. II. S. A. and O. A. was or- 
ganized. In the fall of 1904, the fourth year was added at Amo, Clayton, Plainfield and 
Brownsburg. The fourth year was added at Avon in i(jo6, and at Lizton this fall (1907). 
The next move was to secure conunissions from tlie State Board of Education for some 
of these schools. The North Salem high school was commissioned in the spring of 1905, 
Plainfield in 1906, Amo and Cla\ton in 1907. The graduates of these schools enter any 
college or university of the State without examinations or conditions. They are placed on 
an cciuality with the graduates of city schools. Our children are no longer comi)elled to 
endure pioneer hardshii)s in order to secure a good secondary education. 

The remarkable thing about all this forward movement is tliat the people were more 
willing and anxious for the most part than the authorities. The people are prosperous 
and they are willing to pay for the best for their children. And in PittsI)oro, Brownsburg, 
and Stilesville, for example, where progress along some of these lines has been slower, 
the people are clamoring to have their schools brought up to the standard of the best. 

'I he high school enrollment of the county (outside Danville) has increased from 191, in 
1898, to 262 in 1903, and 372 in 1907. Present indications are that this year the enroll- 
ment will exceed 400, the figure now reached, and this does not tell the whole story, for 
there are 15 country pupils in the first year at Danville, and several in Indianapolis. Less 
than 40 per cent, of the common school graduates of the United States enter high school, 
and only 47 per cent, of the township connnon school graduates of the State of Indiana 
enter high school, as shown by last year's record. But in this county 86.4 per cent, of 
the common school graduates zvere in first year high school last year, or 179 out of 207. 
While if the corporation of Danville is excluded from the count, 83 per cent, of the 
township graduates were in first year high school last year. This year will almost surely 
show a bcKer ri'cord than the high record of last year. 

The exi)ense per pupil last year was less in the commissioned schools of the county 
than iu the non-commissioned schools, and was as follows: 

Commissioned, per pupil $26.79 

Non-connnissioned, per pupil $36.00 

This does not mean that one of the commissioned schools is maintained at less total 
cost than a non-conmiissioned school. But the larger number of pupils in attendance re- 
duces the per pupil cost. Our i)urpos&, however, is to educate as many as possible, as 
well as possible, and since the cf)nnnissioned school in this county is giving a longer term 
for less money per pupil, we may truly say that it is the better investment. 

J ll'.NDKICK.S CdUNTy S('ll<)(il..S. 




































. (1 

























Hijrh school cxti-ndiMl to four years. 



North Center, one year 

New Winchester, three years 

I'ittsboro, three years 

Stilesville, three years 

Avon, four years 

BrownsburR. certified 1908 

Lizton, certilied 1908 

Amo, coininissioned 1907 

Clayton, coininissioned 1907 

Plainlield, coininissioned 1906 

Nortli Salem, commissioned 1905.... 

Totals 191 








269 257 







7 2 



Every boy and ^ir\ in the county is entitled bo four years of hi^'h school work free of tuition. 
best is not too good for ouk boys and girls. 




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High School Course of Study* 

This course of study was worked out by the high school teachers of the county dur- 
ing the school year 1906-7, the details being arranged by a committee composed of Messrs. 
O'Mara, Keeney, and Linke. It was adopted by the County Board of Education on May 
I, 1907, for a period of five years, subject to revision. There are many advantages re- 
sulting from a uniform course of study and uniform texts throughout the county. These 
advantages will not be argued here, but it is undoubtedly true that the uniform course, the 
uniform texts, and the uniform bi-monthly questions have had much to do in bringing all 
the high schools up to the standard of the best. The course follows: 


Second Year. 

TiiiKD Year. 

Fourth Year. 

Latin iir (lerimin 
Ani-iciilture or Uotany 

Latin or (iernian 
Physical (ieot^rapliy am} 
lieiieral History 
AlKt'bra and Geometry 

Latin or (ierman 
(ienoral History 

U. S. History and 

Oniiiiiicreiul Arith. 

The Latin is not to be discontinued until the Latin for entrance to college is completed. 

Preference is to be given Agriculture over Botany in the first year. Five months of 
the second year are to be devoted to Physical Geography, and the balance to Ancient 
History. This should be done even if some portions of the text are omitted. 

The English work is to consist of English Classics and English Composition. The 
Classics are to be read three days a week in both first and second years, and English 
Composition twice each week. In the third and fourth years the Classics are to be taught 
four (lays, and Composition one day. 


Latin — 

lUunlett & Co. 

Beginner's Latin Book, Gunnison & Harley. Silver, 
Caesar, Gumiison & Ilarley. Silver, Burdctt & Co. 
Cicero, D'Ooge. Benjamin H. Sanborn & Co. 
Vergil, no adoption. 

Mathematics — 

Algebra, Wells. D. C. Heath. 

Geometry, Wells. D. C. Heath. 

Conuncrcial Arithmetic, Moore. American Book Co. 

Science — 

Agriculture, Bailey. The Macmillan Co. 
Botany, Bailey's l'".lementar_\ . The Macmillan Co. 
Physics, lloadley. American Book Co. 
Physical Geography, Dryer. American Book Co. 

History — 

Ancient History, Myers. Giim. 

Modern and Medieval, Myers. Ginn. . , 

U. S. History, Hart. Anurican Book Co. 

Civics, Ashley — "The American Government." The Macmillan Co. 

1 Ikniiuu KS CoUNlV SCIKIDI.S. 23 


Composition, Brooks and Hubbard. American Book Co. 

lui^^lisli Clas.sics, no text adopted except Swan Kdition of Sliakespearc (Longsman, 
(Ireen «.^ Co. )> Howe's I'rimer of I''n^;lisb Literature, 1), C. I leatb & Co. 


Commercial Geography, Adams. Appletons. 


(A term herein means two school months.) 


First Year. 

FiKST Term — Emphasis on forms throughout. Sounds should be learned from board, 

and text should be used as reference merely. More declining and conjugating should be 

insisted upon than is required in the text. Cover pages i to 56. 

Second Term — The declension of Qui and its agreement, and the form of the present 
subjunctive are to receive special attention. Cover pages 56 to 96. 

riHRi) Term — The perfect system is to be emphasized. Cover pages 96 to 136. 
FoiKTii Term — Pages 136 to 182. 

Second Year. 
First Term — Complete text, including Caesar, Book I to Chapter 30. 
Second Term — Caesar, Book IT, and such composition as is found in Gunnison & 
Harley, based on the Latin read. 

I'HiRi) Term — Book HI, including daily composition as above. 
I""uURTH Term — Complete Book IV, composition as before. 

Third Year. 
First Ter.m — Cicero, tirst oration against Catiline. Composition based on Latin read. 
Second Ierm — Second oration and ct)mposition. 

TiiiRD Ter.m — Cicero, orations 111 and IV, and such conii)i)sition as can be done. 
Imihrtii Ter.m — Two short orations of Cicero or one of the longer. 

Text — Bailey's Principles of Agriculture. 

Siippleinentary Text — Streeter's Fat of the Land (The Macmillan Co.). 
Reference.'i — i. Brook's Agricultiu'e (The Home Correspondencv Sciiool, 5 pringtield, 
Mass. ). 3 volumes, !f3.o(). 

2. Agriculture for Beginners (Ginn & Co.). 75c. 

3. I"'irst Principles of Agriculture (American Book Co.). 80c. 

4. Winslow's Principles of Agriculture (American Book Co.). 

5. James' Practical Agriculture (I). .Appleton & Co.). 8oc. 

6. Bessey's New Elementary Agriculture (University Publishing Co., Lincoln, 

Nebraska). 60c. 

7. King's The Soil (The Macmillan Co.). 75c. 

8. Roberts' bVrlility of the Land Clhe Macnnllan Co.). $1.23. 

9. Voorhees' l'\'rtili/ers (The Macmillan Co.). $1.00. 

10. i'^isher's Practical Studies in .Agriculture (Purdue), h'ree. 

11. I'^armer's Bulletins from Purdue University, h'ree. 

12. h'armer's Bulletins from the Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, Free. 

13. Bulletins may be obtained free from any State agriculture eNpuiment station. 

14. See State Course of Study for further references. Term — Text, pp. 1-105. 'he meaning of agriculture. 'I he soil. Soil texture 
Preservation of soil moisture. Tiliane. Tlu' soil nudch. Drainage. Maintaining soil 
fertility. I'erliii/ers. (See pp. 77 <)i> of Winslow's Principles of Agriculture, on l'\rtiii/.ers. ) 

.t>&vi uiJii^i rto b3?r.*\ 



Send for the bulletins to which references are made at the close of chapters. 

Second Term — Text, pp. io(>200. Four or five days may be profitably spent on a 
brief general view of the plant kingdom from the simple t)ne-celled Pleurococcus of the 
Thallophytes to the hii4hly developed composites of the Spcrmatophytes (Coulter's Plant 
Studies, pp. 221-2S2). lUit this work should not be attempted unless the teaclier is sufficiently 
prepared that he can do it without nnich effort. 

Structure and function of leaves, pp. 28+. Coulter's Plant Studies. 

Structure and function of roots, pp. Sg-f-, Coulter's Plant Studies. The seed bed. 
Tillage and plant growth. Pruning and spraying. Pastures, meadows, and forage. 

Some special work should be done upon seed selection, and the work of Prof. Holden 
on corn. (See harmer's Bulletin No. yj, from Ames, Iowa; bulletins on corn-breeding 
from Urbana, Illinois; bulletins No. 199 and 272, from Washington, D. C. ; and Bulletin 
No. no, and Circular No. 2, from Purdue). 

Special bulletins from the United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. : 

No. 215 — Alfalfa Growing. 

No. (;6 — Meadows and Pastures. ■ 

No. 24() — Sorghums for Forage. 

.\'(). i()4--l\ape as a I'orage C"ri)(). 

Xii. iSi — I'runing. 

No. i()i — Suggestions for Fruit Growers. 

No. 146 — Insecticides and Fungicides. 

No. 171— The Codling Moth. 

Thiku Term — Text, pp. 201-279, omitting pp. 259-263 in mixed classes. The farm 
animal. Animal life. Feeding. Composition of foods. The balanced ration. The feed 
lot. The stock barn. 

Before this part of the work is reached, St'reeter's Fat of the Land should be read (ex- 
cept m commissioned schools). It will aid greatly in the discussion of poultry, the dairy, 
and hog-raising. 

l'\)ll()wing are some special bulletins from Washington, D. C. : 

.\o. 205 — Pig Management. 

Xo. J72 — Hogs and Corn. 

No. 141 — Poultry Raising. 

No. 170 — Principles of Horse Feeding. 

No. 143 — Conformation of Beef and Dairy Cattle. 

No. 71 — Beef Production. 

No. 49 — Sheep b'eeding. 

No. 96 — Raising Sheep for Mutton. 

Note — If time remains after the completion of the work outlined above, special subjects 
should be assigned for investigations and reports. 

FouKiH Term — (Conmiissioned schools) Streeter's Fat of the Land, and special sub- 

First Year. 

T'lK-ST Ti:uM — Well's .-Mgebra to page 75. It is assumed that all pupils entering high 
school lea\e the gradis with the elements of .Algebra and, therefore, have need only of a re- 
view of the fundamental processes. However, Chapter \'H should receive special em- 

Second Teum — This term is the most important in the .Vlgebra course. Emphasis on 
factoring and fractions. Pages 75 to 127. 

Tmiud Tek.m — Pages 127 lo iSo. 

i'MHiKTii Teum- l'age>> iSo in .'4S. 

Hendricks County Schools. 25 

Second Year. 
First Term — A brief review of previous four chapters. Pages 248 to 2S6. 
Second Term — Complete text to page 321. 
Third Term — Well's Geometry, Book I. 
Fourth Teum^ — Books II and III. 

Third Year. 

First Term — Books IV and V. 

Second Term — Review Plane Geometry. Some teachers will prefer to devote more 
time in doing the work of the past terms. 

TiiiKiJ Term — Complete Books VI and VII of y/ells' Solid Geometry. 
Fourth Term — Complete text. 

Fourth Year. 
Commercial Arithmetic, first two terms of fourth year, if needed. The amount covered 
is left to instructor, 


First Term — Chapters I, II, III to page 108. 

Second Term — Chapters IV, V, VI to page 190. 

Third Term — Chapter VII and X. This includes heat and light in the same term's, 
work, and is preferable to separating these topics by other unrelated subjects. Heat, sound 
and light are all forms of wave motion and should be studied consecutively. 

Fourth Term — Chapters VIII and IX. Electricity and Magnetism. 

First Year. 
For class study, one book each term; Sketch Book, Mosses from an Old ]\Ianse, 
Twice Told Talcs, Evangeline, to be studied in order named. Outside reading: Vicar 
of Wakefield, Treasure Island, Last of Mohicans, Bunyan's Pilgrims Progress. 

Second Year. 
First Term — Pope's Iliad. 

Second Term — Lays of Ancient Rome and Ivanhoc. 
Third Term — The De Coverlcy Papers, and Essay on Addison. 
Fourth Term — Julius Caesar, As You Like It. 
Ontsidc reading: ('ranfortl, Sil;is Marner, Talisman. 

Third Year. 
First Term — Merchant of Venice and Twelfth Night. 
Second Term — Macbeth. 
Third Term — Idylls of the King, Tennyson. 
Fourth Term — Emerson's Essays. 
Outside reading: Henry Esmond, She Stoops to Conquer, Tale of Two Cities. 

Fourth Year. 
First Term — Chaucer's Prologue and Knight's Tale. 
Second Term — Milion's Minor J'oonis or Books I-II of Paradise Lost. 
TiUKD Term — Macaulay's Essay on Milton, 
Fourth Term — Burke's Conciliation. 
Outside reading; Franklin's Autobiography, The Ancient Mariner, 

First Year. 
Two days each week. Dcscripliou and Narration. I'ollow text. 

26 Manuaf, 


Second Year. 
Two days each week. A review of Description and Narration ; also Exposition and 
Arginncntation. Follow and complete text. 

Third Year. 
One day each week. Complete text if not previously completed. Longer themes should 
now be attempted. The Short Story. 

Fourth Year. 
One day each week. Work on longer themes, investigating topics for original pre- 
sentation, leading up to the graduating thesis. 


Dryer's Physical Geography. 

Fn<ST Term — To Lakes and Lake Basins, page 135. 

Second Term — To Chapter XXII, page 27^. 

Third Term — (First half) Complete as much as is deemed essential of Book IV. 
Omit Book V. These should l)e covered in Botan\- or Agriculture, and in the Commercial 
Geography work. 

Work should cease at the end of the fifth month. 


Since the history course is confined to less than two and one-half years, and must 
cover a great field of history, the teacher should very carefully organize the work so as 
to put the emphasis upon the important movements and phases. Completion of the work 
outlined in the course requires the class to take long lessons, but the skillful teacher can, 
by directing the attention to threads of thought and movements of importance, lead them 
to do the work with a considerable degree of thoroughness. 

The work should begin with .\neient History, not later than the middle of the third 
term of the second vvav. 

In the third year the remainder of .Ancient, the Mediaeval and Modern History should 
be covered, and in the fourth year United States Hist(iry, followed by Civics. 

Second Year. 

Third Term— (Last half) Pages 1-107. 

Introduction. Races and Groups of People, Part L 

An attenii)t should be made to show the relation of the eastern nations to each, 
other in time, space and progress in civili/ati')n. 

lM)L!KTa Term — Pages 107-350, Part II. This covers one of the most important periods 
and countries of the world and should l)e carefully done. 

Tliird Year. 

Imrst Term — Pages 350-571, Part HI. 

Second Term — Pages 571, Book I to Chapter XVII, page 198, Book II. 

TjiiuD Term — Pages 198-454. 

This completes the work to Chapter XXIX, The Rise of Russia. 

Imuuth Term — Pages 454 to end. 

Fourth Year. 

bikST Term — United States History, pages 13-303. 

Second Term — Lhiitcd States History, pages 303 to end. 

Third Term — Civics, pages 1-147. The plan of this work is to begin at home and 
learn just iiow our town and township governments are carried on bcfuro the state and 
national governments are considered. This, gives life and interest to tlie work, and leads 
the pupil to feel llial there is suniething real in Civics. 

Imhiriii Term — Civics, pages 147 to end. 

Hknukicks County Schools. 27 

High School Athletics and Oratory* 

At the county institute in August, 1902, steps were taken looking toward a permanent 
organization to control and direct athletics and oratory in the high schools of the county. 
A committee was appointed to draft a constitution. This committee consisted of G. M. 
Wilson, Chairman, C. O. Free, and O. C. Pratt, and a report was made on the following 
dav. The constitution remains today almost as drawn, but is here given with all changes 
and additions. 

Cciislitution of^he Hendricks County High School Athletic and Oratorical Association. 

1. The voting members shall consist of the high school teachers of the county. The 
officers shall be a president, a vice-president, and a secretary-treasurer. 

2. The purpose of the association shall be to manage a football league, a basketball 
league, an athletic meet, and an oratorical contest. 

3. The president shall be the executive officer, presiding at meetings; and he with the 
other two officers shall constitute an executive committee on the management of details. 
But all matters of policy, and so far as possible all details, shall be submitted to the as- 
sociation for vote, by letter if the association can not be called together conveniently. 

The secretary-treasurer shall receive and keep funds, disbursing them only on an 
order from the executive committee. He shall keep a permanent record. 

The vice-president, in addition to the usual duties of a vice-president shall be yell- 
captain for the evening of the oratorical contest, with duties implied by the term. 

4. Football or basketball league. 

a. Thirty-live per cent, of the gross receipts of each game shall go to the visit- 

ing team, five per cent, to the secretary-trcasurt-r, and si.xty per cent, to 
the homo team. The visiting team shall 00 luruLshed a dressing room. 

b. The International League rules shall govern, and umpire and referee shall be 

chosen from other towns when possible. VVIien not, the \isiting team shall 
have choice of umpire or referee. But disputed rlecisions nuist be proven 
by the rules. 

c. The score shall be based upon the number of games won out of all played, 

ties not counted, standard 1,000. A team shall not win the pennant unless 
it siiall have played live or more games, shall have played return games 
lairly antl when possible, and shall have had a game each with the second 
and third teams. The executive committee shall nave power to change the 
schedule to secure these points. 

d. Only pupils of the school shall play, and a team violating this rule shall for- 

feit a game if won. 
Before a game principals must certify as follows : 

(i) '1 hat the following persons, to-wit : are members of 

the team of the school. 

(j) That each of the above persons has been in actual attendance at the 
school since within two weeks of the present school year. 

(3) 'I hat each has carried during this time four regular school studies and 

lias maintained a passing grade in each. 

(4) That each during his last year in school made promotion or at least 

three credits under a credit system. 

(5) 'I hal none of tluiu is a graduate of this or any other school of four 

years' work. 
(<>) I hal none has received reinuneralion for playing or inslrnctiii'; in 

H'-i .iiU) 

28 Manual 

(7) Tliat cacli of tlitin aKr*-t.s lo forfeit his (or licr) place on the team if 
he indulges in smoking or intoxicants or improper language or con- 
duct, on the practice field, during any athletic contest, or while away 
from home as a member of the team representing the school. 
(S) That r.o one of them has represented this school in athletic contests 
more than three previous years. 
c. A pennant shall be bought with the five per cent, by the secretary-treasurer. 
The same shall be in the colors of the winning school and contain, "Hen- 
dricks County High School championship, iQO..." The 

pennant shall be presented to the winning school by the officers of the 

5. Athletic meet. 

a. Held at Danville in the spring at the convenience of the weather, the execu- 

tive committee managing the same. 

b. Events and details to be announced by the executive committee at the Thanks- 

giving meeting of the teachers of the county. 
The events last spring (1907) were: 
(i) One-hundred-yards dash. 

(2) Running broad jump. 

(3) One-hundred-twenty-yards, hurdles. 

(4) Shot put. 

(5) Running high jump. 

(6) Mile run. 

(7) Pole vault. 

(8) Baseball throw, 
(g) Quarter-mile run. 

(10) Running hop-step or hop-hop and jump. 

(11) Half-mile relay by team of four. 

c. Proceeds to go into the association fimds. 

6. Oratorical contest. 

a. The oratorical contest shall be held in Danville on the first Friday evening in 


b. Each high school shall have one representative, whose name shall be 

filed with the president of the association at least three weeks prior to the 
contest. This contestant must be doing regular and ^creditable work in the 
high school which he or she represents. 

c. No contestant shall be permitted to deliver any oration, part of which has 

ever previously been delivered in public or appeared in print, unless due 
credit is given. The length of an oration shall not exceed ten minutes. 

d. Appropriate gold and silver medals shall be awarded to the winners of first 

and second places respectively. 

€. There shall be tliree judges on composition and three judges on de- 
livery. Composition and delivery shall each count 50 per cent. The judges 
shall be chosen by the executive counnittee, and no one shall be eligible 
who is comu'cted with any contesting school. Tin- names of the judges 
sli.ill be aimouneeil at least two weeks prior to the contest and changes 
sh.ill be made if reasonable objections are offered against any of them. 

/. No till horns or unruly conduct allowed. The vice-president shall direct the 

g. The order in which schools speak shall rotate, the first one year being last 
the next year, except new schools enti'ring lake last pkiee always. 
Scliools spoke in 11)07 as follows; 

Brownsburg, Plainlield, Amo, Clayton, DanvilK', Pittsboro, .\von, New Win- 
chester, North Salem. 

Pauline White, lt)04 

Forrest KUis, 10(i6 

Kstliur Ward, 11)05. 

Kay Whytf, 1007. 

i»l<.\ lOKM^AL WlNNKUs. 

Wull.T KallllT won llrst luniors In IliiKi fui- North Salem, hut he in in Ciillfornia ami 
lilidtoi^raph was not seeured. 



Koot-Ha 1,1.. 


Kii;i,i) Meet. 


North Salciii. 

Nortli Salcin. 
(Walter HiitlifT.» 


North .Salem. 

A 1110. 
U'auliiie White.) 

North Salem. 
(04 points out of lOS. ) 


A mo. 

(Esther Ward ) 

(3J poiiit.s out oflOS.) 



(Forre^jt KUis.) 


(48 points out of lf;8.) 



(Ray Whyte.) 



(42 points out of 99.) 


New Wiiu-lie.stor boys. 

The value of athletics and oratorj' in a high school depends entirely upon how it is 
used and controlled by the teacher. It is impossible to calculate the harm done by a teacher 
who will scheme to play a boy not eligible under the rules. The rules should be enforced 
strictly, and to my knowledge there has been no exception in this county. The highest 
standard lias been maintained, so that it is an honor to be on one of the athletic teams. 
Athklics properly puided and conlrolleil is a great power for good, and iovms the best 
-sort of a lever for holding the boys in* school and dt)ing creditable work. 

IIkndkicks County Sciioms. 31 

High School Graduates, 1903-1907. ' 


1904 — Course extended to four years. 

1905 — Jessie Varley, Wett Varley, (lurn Cooprider, Charles Osborii, Ora Phillips, Ross 
Trester, Adolpluis Cooprider, Ruth Cates, Charles Lambert. 

ic;o() — Lena Phillips, Pansy Creenlee, Clarence Masten, Will iMcAninch, Orpha Masten, 
Edith Owen, Fred McAninch, Kstella Phillips. 

1907 — Henry H. Vickrey, Jilsie M. Ciarrison, Frank H. O'Neal, Thomas O. Masters, 
Edith E. Atkins, Merwyn Hunt, ICarle W. Record, Lou Etta Davis, Forest Kelley. 


1904 — ^Minter Bailey, Stella Hadley, Earl Eerree, Irene Barker, Herman Barker, Kate 
Long, Grace Carter, Grace Hollingsworth. 

1905 — (Four years course) Kate Long, Irene Barker. 
1907— Sarah B. Watt, Ada Reed, Orion S. Merritt. 


1904 — Course extended to four years. 

1905 — Arlo Walker, Kate Walsh, I'rank Davison, Clara Arbuckle, Ernest Gray, Nella 
Carter, Blain Gilbert. 

ujof) — Laurel Lingeman, Vance Mugg, Inirrest Hughes, Margaret Greeley. 

1907 — I'lorenee Griner, {'"orrest Leonard, lM)rrest Ellis, Saluda Kildow, Lawrence 
Synunonds, llarrv Hughes. 


1904— Course extended to four years. 

1905 — Alljert Hayworth, Grace Baron, Frank Edmonson, Osie Overman, Benjamin Ed- 

1906 — Esther E. Ward, Nelle L Peck. 

1907— i'.thel Mae Peck, Osie I'-ula Scott, Beulah May Trester, Nettie b'.llen Harper, 
Wiilard iuwin Worrell, Maurice luigene Worrell, I'^lossie Eunice Craven, Pearl Amanda 
Richardson, Ralph Wallace Edmondson. 

1904 — I'^thel Wilson, Alvin Hall. 

1905 — Orphic Graham, George Dungan. 

1906 — Artie Bailey, Walter Shartle, John Dungan, Nitis Hall, Clco Higgins. 

1907 — Course extended to four years. 


1904 — Everett Kurtz, Murle Davidson, Vera Noland, Walter RatlilT, George Tucker, 
Asa Kurtz, Charley Montgomery, Jessie Lamb. 

1905 — Clay Pickett, Albert Ratliff, Francis Hypes, Eugenia Wren, Edith Cook, Logan 
Owen, Harry Ennnons, Mabclle Kendall, Vesta Robbins, Otha Duckworth. 

1906 — .Angelina Mary Miles, James Henry Clay, Emma Catharine Martin, Clarence 
Edmund Sparks, Irene Maurine Snnnnerville, Ralph J'jnerson Jones, Laura Jane Smith, 
Daniel Sonnm-r Robinson, h'lva bmc Shockles. 

1907— l-nla Miller, Lottie Davis, I'erne Chapman, Coldie Davidson, Retta Henry, Lora 
Hypes, Agnes Tucker. 

32 , Manuai, 


1904— Grant Martin, Clayr Alexander, Esther Wells, Carl McDaniel, Ernest Brumfield, 
Grace Ilott, Maude Worrell, Blaine Brumfield, Chester Pike, Bertha Thompson. 

^905 — l^'red Abnfer Parker, Charles Ginn, Loyal Monroe Schenck, Emma Viola Goodson, 
Cora Edna Taylor. 

1906 — Ruth Wells Janes, Ernest Ross Walter, Letha Ethel Booker, William Ernest 

1907 — Jennie Keenan, Nellie Neaville, Edna Duncan, Ruth Ridgeway, Edna McDaniel. 


1904— Albert P. Barlow, Ralph J. Bly, Harry S. Havens, Lola Blaine Kelley, Grace 
Hortense Mattcrn, Bessie Sulvay Westlake. 

i90S^(Four years course). Hattic Mae Calbert, Mary Irma Ragan, Vance C. Smith, 
Artelia Tomlinson, Georgiana Vickrey. 

1905 — William Herringiake, Joseph Morgan, Edith Ellis, Helen Havens, Letina Blair, 
Minnie Sims, Joyce Bridges. 

1907 — Minnie Carter, Nancy Hadley, Eva B. Hiatt, Chester A. Tilghman. 


1904 — Arthur Woods, Hugh Crawford. 

1905— Callie M. Shields, Ralph Martin, Stella A. Shields, Ivan F. Ruark, Hallie Merle 
York, ALnry J. Dyer, Dorus T. Macy, Hazel Gladys Gibbons. 
l9o6--I-jnmctt Staggs, Melville McHaffie, Austin Terril. 
1907— Lesta Buis, Hurley Rector, Ruth Coble. 

A — fjfK.f 

I IkNDKK KS CoUNl'Y ScilDiil.S. 33 


During the last four years, bulletins have been sent out from time to time dealing with 
various phases of the school work, as follows : 

Bulletin, Ocloljcr 2, 1904. 

Bulletin, February 22, 1904. 

School Plans, County Institute, 1905. 

Bulletin No. 2, 1905-6. 

School Plans, First Township Institute, 1906. 

Bulletin No. 2, 1906-7. 

Special Corn Show Bulletins, 1905, '06, '07. 

Special bulletins on composition contests and Louisiana Exposition work. 

Many requests for the early bulletins can not be complied with, as the supply has been 
long since exhausted. 'I'o meet this demand and to enable patrons and pupils to have an 
opportunity to ryad them, they arc included in this manual. The material has been re-ar- 
ranged and all matter is omitted which is not of a more or less permanent nature. 


Danville, Inu., October 2, 1904. 

Fellow Teachers: We are beginning a new year with its many and new opportuni- 
ties. Let us improve them. Our advantages are also increased. Let us appreciate and use 
them. The success of your school will depend upon YOU, however. The new course of 
study may assist. The new wall paper, the oiled floors, the supplementary reading, the 
primary supplies and other assistance furnished by the trustee will make your work easier. 
My suggestions, t'xample and elTorts may mean something to you. But, in tlie last instance, 
the success or failure of your school depends upon you, the teacher. I shall iiold you re- 
sponsible for success, and I shall give you full credit fur the measure of success attained. 
Have courage, show decision, work hard. Make your school work in its various phases the 
one object for your strength and ability. 

Danville, Ind, February 22, 1904. 

Fellow TKAriii'K.s; Tlie hearty responses to my last lelter indicate that it rc- 
ceiveil ill the siiirit of good fellowsliii) ami helpfulness in which it was sent. 'I he county 
superinteutlent of a neighboring county is attempting a close sui)ervision of his schools. He 
sends out a letter (.ach week making the assignments in each subject for the following week. 
I doubt the advisability of such a course and I shall not imitate it. My purpose in this 
letter, as in the last, is : 

first — To answer many questions which naturally arise with the conscientious teacher. 

SciOiid — To give suggestions the need of which has been indicated i)y experience or 

Third — To join favorable criticism with unfavorable in such manner as to bring the 
poorir scIkxjIs nearer the standards of the best. Let us ivork to<^cllur. 

January 25, 1906. 

Fellow 1'eacheus: There are less than a dozen teachers under my jurisdiction that 
I have not visited at least once this school year. My observation convinces me that my 
"School Plans" issued last fall has done some good; and leads me to reinforce it with 
this mid-wiiiler bulletin. Mucli that is contained in this bulletin has been taken from my 
observations of the work of the best teachers. Strangely enough the best teachers will be 
most helped by liiis bulletin. To him hath shall be given; from him liiat hath not 
shall fMi.illy be taken away even that which he h.lth. Let us usi- our talents, fellow teachers, 
and so iueieasi- them. Let us strive constantly to become better teachers, more earnest, 
more honest, more progressive. 



Niivi'iiiIk'i- j.i, i';<)<'> 

1'"ki,i.()\v 'I'kaciikus : In coming to you vvilli this stcoinl I)ulk'liu lliu^ caily in llie 
year, 1 assure you that I coiuc in the host of .si)irits. '1 ho visiting thiy for each teacher ui 
the county, tlie large attendance at the State 'leacliers' Association, the beginning teachers' 
meetings followed by an early visit to each beginner, the work ni agriculture culniinatnig 
in the corn contest and the Purdue excursion, the raising of the high school course from a 
three to a four-year course and the systematic effort to build up the high schools by 
getting all common school graduates into high school and by pushing to the standard of 
the commissioned school, the effort to plan and supervise the work a littk- mc^re closely than 
lieretofore, these things, together with the fme spirit of helpfulness and co-operation among 
the teachers and trustees, have made it possible to raise the standard of our schools and 
to secure results not possible without much effort and sacril'ice. 

The notion once prevailed that a beginning teacher should not be expected to accomplish 
anything the first year, that a year was necessary in which to learn. But this is a great 
economic loss when one-fifth of the teachers are beginners each year. The work with be- 
gimiers proves that the first year may be a year of real results, and that a beginning teacher 
for a school need not mean much loss to the pupils. The situation is helped by the fact 
that the high school course is now four years. All beginners are high school graduates and 
some secure a year of normal training before teaching. The trustees help secure this 
standard by paying more to those meeting certain educational requirements. But the visit- 
ing day has been the greatest single aid in raising the standard of our school work, and 
the attitude of the trustees when the subject of a visiting day for this year was brought up 
at their November meeting, shows that it has come to stay. The visiting day tends to 
bring all wOrk up to the standard of the best by passing the good things around. Ivach 
of these advance steps is small in itself, and its effect alone can scarcely be noticed in a 
single year. But taken together in the course of a few years, their effects are very ap- 
parent, it is like the five per cent, saved on the book business during the last three years. 
In a single year it amounts to only about $200. But in three years it is $600, or in ten 
years $2,000, and $2,000 saved to the taxpayers of the county is worth considering. 

The successes of the past need not receive further comment at this time, but they are 
sufficient to give us courage for the future. The future will see $3.00 a day paid to our best 
grade and district teachers. The future will sec the rural population demanding that their 
children be placed on an educational footing equal to the best in towns and cities, and this 
will mean sclu)ol consolidation, longer terms, and the best teachers for their children. The 
future will see the farm reinforced by the school through more industrial and agricultural 
education. The future will see the township prmcipal doing more supervision in co-opera- 
tion with the county superintendent. But the future will see none of these things except 
as we, the teachers, prepare for them, work up to them, and carve them out. Let us up- 
ward then and onward. 


Tmk Tkacukk. — Schools are supported that the child may be trained in politeness, 
disciplined into strong character, and refined and cultured by knowledge. The teacher is 
the important factor in securing these results. The child is the ol)ject but the teacher is 
the means. A teacher should remember this and neglect nothing that will make her a more 
effective means. A strong personality can be developed. Politeness and general refinement 
are taught bv example or not at all. In securing work, order, and obedience, the teacher 
does more to develop character than in hearing lessons. A school should be dismissed 
with system for this reason. The spirit of the teacher should fill the scliot)l-room, making 
pupils more orderly, more polite, more tasteful in dress, more considerate of others. 1 
was with a teacher recently at the close of school. The pupils were merely "excused." At 
the word, they leaped from their seats, ran, jumped, scrambled, shouted, stamped. They 
snatched their wraps and dinner-buckets. A few started home. The rest lingered, shuffled 
noisily about, beat the stove and desks with "shinney" clubs, or crowded around the teacher 
refusing to "run on home" or "go away" at her bidding. Poor teacher! What could slie 
do? One thing is certain — she can accomplish nothing until those pupils are disciplined. 
I (ioubt if whipping or scolding will meet the requirements of this case. When a house 
is made clean by whipping out one evil spirit, immediately seven more will enter. A teacher 
should he large minded, should understand herself and should know from the beginning 
what to require from her pupils Many teachers enter the profession witlunit adequate 
preparation rmd are so overcome with routine work and minor details, that they fail m the 
larger things of the profess-on instilling |itiliteness and respect for others, building up good 
liabits and strong character, seeming refinement ami true culture, and establishing high 
ideals of manhood and citizenship. 


Okukk. — 1 arrived at noon. 'I'hc pnpils had finished dinner and were standing aronnd 
in knots. I spoke. Most of the pupils looked bashful, until the leader of the Ijig-boj- knot 
said, "liar — ye." Then the others laut^iied. "Do you want Bill," said the same hoy. "Who 
is liill?" "Our teacher." "I'll go in." As I walked in, the teacher rose from his chair. 
In my mind, his personal appearance justified the pupils in calling him "Bill." If he had 
shaved, changed collars, put on a tie, polished his shoes and brushed up, they would have 
called him "William" or possibly "Air. Smith.'' The bell was rung at i o'clock, and In 
came the pupils, running, stamping, scraping, pushing, laughing and talking. The teacher 
finally secured quiet and said "Books!" Classes were called without any system. Pupils 
stood, sat, or lounged around in reciting. Recitations were interrupted by snapping fingers, 
whispering and general confusion, although the teacher made an extra effort to maintain 
order while the county superintendent was present. At rest the pupils were turned out. 
(1 wo schools furnish all the material useil in the above.) 

At noon 1 arrived at school No. I, Marion Township. The teacher was in the yard play- 
ing with the pupils. She recognized me as I drove up and came to the house. .Shortly be- 
fore bell-time, she called in her eighth year pupils and introduced them to me. I talked 
to them until the bell rang. The pupils came in quietly and orderly, going to their seats 
and immediately beginning work. There was no whispering. All but two pupils had their 
names on the "Honor Roll." There was no snapping of fingers. There was no confusion, 
all were busy, for assignments had been made definite and the teacher expected lessons 
prepared. Classes were called with system and at rest the school was dismissed with system. 

Remarks: The pupils in the first school were naturally as bright and as governable as 
ill the second. The second teacher projected her own neatness, politeness, diligence and 
order into the school. The first teacher lacked these himself and the pupils would not 
supply them of their own accord. The teacher makes the school. Do not continue work 
for one minute'while confusion reigns. >| Qi 01 ^S^ 

Teaching vs. Keeping School. — Within a single week this fall, I saw three shame- 
ful illustrations of school keeping. A seventh year class was trying to recite "Little and 
Great," while the teacher followed with open book to see if the pupils were saying it 

In another school there was what was supposed to be a recitation on the participle. 
The teacher with open hook asked (|uestions; the pupils with open books, answered. There 
was no leaching, no thinking, no understanding, but mere formal word saying. 

In another school a teacher was conducting a Physiology recitation by merely asking 
the questions at the close of the chapter, when she had not so much as read the chapter. 

Why should someone be paid the wages due to expert service for such miserable work. 
There was no teaching. An ignorant chaperon or guardian might be secured for $i.oo or 
$1.50 a day and do as well, h'or a member of the class could follow with open book to 
see if lessons were learned. Such uni)rofessi()nal service is what keeps teachers' wages 
down, and it should. Such teachers should be heavily fined for neglect of duty, and the 
proceeds used to increase the salaries of true teachers. 

The true teacher works early and late, and spares no sacrifice. She works with the 
pupils, i)reeeding them and guiding them in the thought process. If a poem is to be com- 
mitted, it is fust thoroughly understood, and then committed by all, including the teacher. 
Lessons are mastered by the teacher and taught, not in the words of the book, parrot-like, 
but in the realm of the child's experience. The new truth is related to the old and the 
thread of thought is kept by constant review. There is masterly, scholarly, organized teach- 

Do not be a drone in the profession, a dead weight upon the wheel of progress. Do 
not even be content with fairly good formal text work. Be a true teacher in the broadest 
and deepest sense of the term — a giver of new life and truth and inspiration. 

The School Yard. — In connection with our work on agriculture, nature study, and 
geography, the school yard may very properly receive attention. The purpose in this case 
is beauty rather than knowledge, ^lany school yards have an appearance of barrenness, 
desolation, and unatlractivencss. At least one school yard in the county is being trans- 
formed. For years it has been like other school yards — littered with leaves, scrap-paper, 
dead grass, weeds and chunks. It was rough and uneven in a corner where the dirt from 
the well had been dumped when the well was dug. The teacher has divided the yard into 
sections, assigning a section to each grade. The yard is now taking on the appearance of 
a public park. It has been leveled and raked. All leaves, chunks, and dead grass have 
disappeared. Scrap-paper is not thrown on it -by pupils, as formerly. Trees, roses, shrub- 
bery, and some perennial flowers (like chrysanthemums) are being set out. The pupils 
are doing the work. The teacher is merely planning and suggesting (as per Farmers' 

36 Manual 

lUiUcliii No. 185, \Vasliiiij>toii, 1). C), ami making a record of the work aiul workers to 
leave ill the register for the benefit of the next teacher. 

This is an actual case. It shows the leadership of a true teacher. Does it contain a 
suggeslion for you? The suggestion is more easily carried out in a graded school, hut it 
may be carried out in any school. 

Decorations. — I wish to commend you, teachers, upon the high standard of school-room 
decoration now prevalent in the county. A Sistine Madonna, a Transfiguration, a Sir Gala- 
had, a masterpiece in large form and well framed, is now the rule. Klagazinc covers and 
cheap unframed pictures should not be tacked up. The tacks deface the walls and the pic- 
tures are no credit. A school house should rank as a dwelling, not as a barn. Scliool olB- 
cials realize this, and are improving school houses accordingly. Good teachers realize this, 
and are decorating accordingly. Better one good picture, than many poor ones. 

Gkaimng. — There is only one way to grade a manuscript, and that is to give just what 
it is worth, the text and the additional material brought out in the recitation being used as 
the standard. Proper forms should be insisted upon at all times, and some little deductions 
made for improper forms or misspelled words. Deductions due to improper forms, absence 
of capitals or periods, and misspelleil words should never exceed say 10 per cent. 0:1 ;my 
subject; but all such mistakes should be indicated by the teacher. 

1 h(j grades placed in the register and sent home on the report cards, should 1k' made 
up from the pupil's class work as well as all examinations for the two months. The bi- 
monthly examination grades should not count more than half in determining a pupil's 

Pkomotions. — Your school will soon close. Let me urge you to be faithful unto the 
last. In making promotions, do not try to curry favor. Do the best thing for the school 
and for the pupils. An undeserved promotion injures the pupil, injures the school, and 
is not best for you. If you are in doubt about a pupil, fail him conditionally instead ot 
promotmg him conditionally. Such a course will make it fifty per cent, bettor for your suc- 
cessor, and you will likely be some one's successor, if not your own. 

One word more about your successor. You should make your report to him full and 
complete. Indicate the page or the lesson where you stopped in each text. Try to leave 
your school classified into five grades (if a country scliool). 

FuKTHER Schooling. — I'm glad to note that many of the teachers expect to attend a 
normal school or college during tlie spring and summer vacation. The County Board of 
]ulucatit)ii encourages further schooling and has offered to pay higher wages to teachers 
who meet tlu- now generally accepted standard (see p. 82). 1 have offered to consider the 
same in determining the success grade (p. 82). Thoroughly trained teachers do not go beg- 
ging for a position. There is much friendly rivalry among trustees and school boards to 
secure the best teachers. 

Arithmetic. — The eighth year arithmetic was called. 'TJid you get your problem to- 
day, Stella?" "No, I don't understand it." "Well, you may try it at the board again to- 
day." The other members of the class were assigned problems that they had solved. "Our 
Aime is about up. You may pass to j'our seat, Stella." "1 didn't get it." "Well, I'll try 
to notice that one to-night." "John, you may explain." John explained. Time was up. 
The next ten problems were assigned for the next day. 

In a graded school, the fourth grade arithmetic was called. Two pages of problems 
were explained from the note books. Each pupil used a different form for his work so 
there was much disagreement and useless discussion even when results were uniform. The 
teacher's lack of decision (or preparation) made matters worse. 1 he work was finally com- 
pleted and the next lesson assigned. 

It was the first recitation on the G. C. D. (in algebra) by the second method, p. QI, Milne. 
"How many didn't understand these problems?" All but two raised their hands. "Well, 
they are a little difficult, but you ought to be able to L^et them. J(»hn, you and Emma pass 
to the board with the fourth and fifth problems." John solved his problem by the first 
method (factoring), securing the correct result. Emma tried to solve by the second proc- 
ess, liut missed the result because f)f a mistake in subtraction. The teacher sat on a stool 
at the side of the room. The pupils were asked to notice I'"mma's problem. Finally one 
of them noticed the mistake in sui)traction. ^ The teacher told Emma to be more careful. 
John was asked to c»xplain his jjroblem. Tie did so. "How do you know your result is 
correct?" The pupil was disturbed by this question, but said they had been securing tlic 
answers by that method. .Attention was again directed to h-mma's problem, but It was 


ikjI cnnc'clfd ;iii(l I'liiisliid. '1 lie loacluT look aiiollior tack ami aski-il liow many icincin- 
bcrccl lincIiiiK the (i. C. I), of large immbcrs in arithmetic, nunil)ers too large to factor. No 
one remembered. The teacher left his stool, went to the board and solved a problem. But 
the pupils could not tell which number was the G. C. D., the last cjuoticnt, the last dividend, 
or something else. Finally, a pupil who had solved the problem by the factoring method, 
correctly guessed, "the last divisor." The class was sent to the board — and the bell rang. 

Remarks : Not one of the above cases has been exaggerated. Each is an illustration 
in a different way of wasted energy on the part of pupils, of lack of energy on the part 
of the teacher. At the hrst school, I asked for a book and glanced through Stella's prob- 
lem. I immediately saw the mistake, pointed it out to the teacher at rest, and asked him 
to speak to Stella about it. The teacher should have seen the mistake the day before and 
saved Stella two days of worry and discotn-agcment. 

I he otiicr instances tell their own stories of drudgery and lack of interest. The 
teacher who is simply hearing lessons or "putting in time" is a thi(;f and a robber. He 
steals public money, lie robs youth of the joys of attainment and progress. 

Notice a brief report of a fifth year recitation by a teacher who prepared before reci- 
tation and zoorkcd during recitation. "Any difficulties today? Which problem, Mary?" 
"The tenth." "How did you solve it?" Mary told. "Your process is correct. Let me 
see your work." "Your mistake is liere. Correct it at once." There was no other troulilc. 
The class was sent to the board and given ten minutes practice in solving problems like 
those assigned. '1 he teacher followe<l every pupil (eight in the class) and as soon as a mis- 
take was made, the attention of the pupil was called to it. The last five nunutes was taken 
in noticing the new points in tomorrow's lesson and in solving one of the problems. 

READiNG.^S-eventh year reading. "Attention!" "Begin reading, Glen." Glen read 
a paragraph from the "Great Stone Face," spelling two words and mispronouncing three. 
The other three members of the class read a paragraph each, in similar fashion. "Con- 
tinue the reading for tomorrow." The class was dismissed. No discussion. 

The third year reading class read four pages near the middle of "Washington in the 
Wilderness." Pupils stood and read in turn, pupils and teacher telling unknown words. 
One-half to one-fourth of the words wltc unknown. Assignment — "finish the reading (4 
pages) and tell all about the story, for tomorrow." 

First year reading (p. 88). "You may read first, John." John read the entire lesson, 
one word at a time. Teacher corrected mistakes as made, being interrupted by a third year 
pupil spelling "Marathon" to be pronoimced. Sam then read in the same manner, "never- 
theless" being spelled out by a second year pupil. When Walter's turn came, he couldn't 
pronounce words and was excused. John was praised and was allowed to read again in 
the same monotonous fashion. The teacher made a capital for a third year pupil. Some 
discussion followed. Sam played with his pencil-box after he had read. 

Remarks: The teacher in the first case above was simply putting in time. He had 
no other purpose. The teacher in the second case was a beginner. He was doing his best. 
He tf)nk my suggestions gladly. T expect to visit him again and see better work. The 
teaelier in the third case had as his itKal of reading, the correct pronunciation of words. 
There was no expression. There was not much understanding. There was no team work 
or class interest. The teacher should not have permitted other pupils to interrupt the 

I have seen some good recitations in reading. The new words were mastered as to 
pronunciation and meanine, and the thought of the selection was mastered before oral 
reading was attempted. The energy of the recitation was not consumed in having pupils 
correct mistakes. Phonics were properly used in the lower grades. The theme and pm^pose 
were properly worked out in higher grades. 

Notice a brief description of a reading recitation in the first year. Tt was the third 
lesson on "Jumbo and Baby."' The nine new words of the lesson were reviewed by being 
again spelled phonetically and pronounced. The pupils then began for the first time to 
read the lesson orally. The excellent results justified the teacher in entirely deferring the 
oral reading until the third lesson. There were eight in the class. All stood. The read- 
mg proceeded one paragraph at a time around the class. The lesson was read through six 
times so that each pupil should read each paragraph. One pupil stumbled on the word 
"around," another on the word "dead." Aside from these two errors, there was no mis- 
pronouncing, no hesitating, no stopping to spell words, no reading monotonously one word 
at a time. Periods, interrogation points and exclamation points were properly observed. 
There was good, intelligent exprcssicni. 

This recitation so impressed me tliat T asked the teacher for the plans of the two pre- 
ceding recitations. The nine new words had been noted as follows : "Jumbo, mother (c. f. 
mamma, pp. 23, 45, 57), dead, care, tnmk, around, harm, hag. peamits." These words had 
l)con placed upon the board. The vowels, consonants and silent letters h.ul been marked. 

38 • Manual 

The words had been spelled phonetically and pronounced. The pupils were then asked to 
"say something" and use each word. The teacher had assisted freely in this part of the 
work. The following old words had been noticed: "Odd — p. 42; takes — take, p. zi \ keep 
— keeps, p. 44 ; puts — put, p. 43 ; candj'- — p. 44. 

The work on this lesson is not recommended as ideal, but the chances are favorable 
that you can receive help by a careful study of its description. If you are a higii school 
teaclier, the description will apply with equal ft)rce to an attempt at translation without 
knowing forms and constructions. 

Advanced Reading. — The art laws of purpose, unity, coherence and ''oi'siitency, as ap- 
plied to literature should be left for advanced high school and college work. The critical 
study of the adaptation of form to purpose and the intensive study of embodiment and pur- 
pose should be deferred until the high school is reached. But beginning with the sixth 
year a little work can be done in the grades upon the central thought or theme of the se- 
lection. The danger is that this point shall be emphasized too early in the reading work. 
The tirst three years should be devoted to phonics and the meclianics of reading; tcaclnng 
the ear-vocabulary as an eye vocabulary ; getting the form for meaning already known ; 
learning to read, so tiiat later the child may read to learn. 

IJuring the fourth, fifth and sixth years, the child must begin to read to learn, and 
the time should be spent chiefly on story and narrative prose. Hut a little in the sixth year 
and more in the seventh and eighth years, attention should be given to literature i)roper 
in prose and poetic form. Tiie llienie of a poem can be worked out mii>l easily for the 
first time, by the use of one of tlie simiile picture-poems of our American authors. I'.ach 
feature of tlnj physical picture has a corresponding siiirilnal meaning. The theme is directly 
suggested by the spiritual meaning of the central physical feature, and the statement of 
the theme becomes merely a matter of stating the meaning worked out. Let us take Lcjiig- 
fellow's Light of Stars as an illustration : 


Physical picture. ^ Spiritual ineauiiti^. 

Night Sorrow in Longfellow's life, as the death of 

his wife. 

Moon Some encouragement or hope. 

Light of stars Light of reason. 

Mars Will ("The star of the unconquered will"). 

Chief point to picture^='Mars watching Spiritual Meaniugi=:The will should control the 

over the night. passions (sorrow, grief, etc.). 

And so the theme arrived at is — "The will should control the passions." It has not 
oeen merely stated by the teacher and accepted by the pupils. It has been worked out by 
the pupils one step at a time, and it is theirs, their ox^.'ii. It was not accomplished in a 
single recitation. If this is the first time a theme has been worked out, it has taken a week 
or possibly two weeks, for the pupils have done the work. This does not mean that the 
teacher has not been working. He has been working, not scolding, not (luestioning coldly 
and disinterestedly, but working hard and sympathetically. He made out a list of ques- 
tions before he began the study of the selection, but he has changed it and omitted from 
it, and added to it daily, while the selection has been before the class. 

Some teachers may object that the theme of "The Light of Stars" is not properly 
stated above, that it is stated by Longfellow in the last stanza, or next to the last stanza. 
But the last two stanzas arc not really a part of the poeuL They contain a corollary each 
:o the theme of the poenv The poem is really complete without them, but properly used 
and understood they re-enforce the theme. 

Not every selection studied in the sixth, seventh and eighth year work should be worked 
out with the care and detail here indicated. In fact very few should be so studied, and 
those few should be selected with great care. The attempt to squeeze a theme out of every 
selection studied, and that, too, before the thought of tlie selection is half mastered, re- 
sults in all sorts of abortive results An eighth year pupil, writing on the diploma exami- 
nation, gave the meaning of "The Day is Done" as follows: 

"The meaning of the selection 'The Day is Done.' It is compared to the end of your 
life. When the day is done is compared to when the life is done, and you are in darkness, 
but when the judgment day comes you will be back to the light again, and when the sun 
goes around and comes back to light.^' 

This sample is a fair average of the answers of those who wrote on tiie diploma ex- 
amination last spring. It is true that all the best pupils were eliminated from the diplonLi 
examination by the method of proinotioiL But the poorest piii)il should have done much 

I ll.NUUIl kS C'oiNIV S( llDdl.S. V) 

l)t;ttcr willi a solccUon so simi)lc as "Tlic Day is Done." It indicates tluit the attempt tu 
force the theme lias been premature and witliout ade(|uato preparatory work. It indicates 
tliat mure narrative prose should l)e read in the sixth, seventh and eighth years in order 
to a\oid far-fetched, unwarranted, and al)orti\e interpretations. 

PuiMAKY Reading. — Those who teach primary reading properly, easily complete the 
Primer, and the T'^irst Reader during the lirst year. Some cmnplete a supplementary first 
reader in adilition to the aiune. 'I hey complete the Second Reader and one or two supple- 
mentary second readers dming the second year. Their pupils have "learned to read,"' and 
are prepared to begin "reading to learn." 

If you, teacher, meet up to this standard of elficicucy, continue your method. If you 
do not, I must insist tliat you attempt to improve. 

Send 36 cents in stamps to Silver, Burdett & Co., Chicago, for a "Teachers' Manual 
i)f Instruction, Ward's Rational Method in Reading." Get this manual in your possession 
ind study it some before the preliminary institute. According to this manual, 30U should 
jo the following work in the first year during the first eight weeks : 

First. Do i-,()t use the Primer in the hands of the jjupils. 

SccoiuL Teach the following list of sight-words comprising the full vocabulary of the 
lirst forty pages of the Primer : 

I, see, a, kill\, l)ali. b.xik, top, ll iwer, yellow, blue, green, red, black, whito, my. Is, 
I'md. roll. — s. the. eatcii, si)in, baby, has, little, run, and, she, can, he, dog, cat, big. this, 
li;i\e. }'ou. it, iidI,, bird, nest, tree, lly, ci)W, horse, lish, fan, mouse, one. two, three, four 
live, eggs, bluebird, in, are, to, 60, come, girl, boy, Fan, Hen, Prince, Howard, May, like, 
— iug. what, am, 'me, want, swim, here, goldfish, 110, yes. doll, an, iiapa. gives, milk, some, 
does, catch, niamiii;i. mice, them, her, scpiirrel, nut, rabbit, apple, umbrella, tub, ship, iron, 
pig, grass, hay. eat, feed, him, away, give, too, will, you, your. 

There are Tie words in this list. As rapidly as possible, the pupils should be taught 
to know the meaning of these words and to recognize them re.ulily. Use the words in 
sentences from the beginning, but do not use the sentences found in the b.)ok. Construct 
your own sentences and make plenty (;f them, but make them very short. Never alK)w a 
pupil to read a sentence until he is ready to read the entire sentence without a break, etc. 
Use script only at first. Gradually introduce print. Have the pupils f.imiliar with print 
and ready for the book by the end of eight weeks. 

'I liird. Drill on phonograms, as preparation for phonetic reading. Begin with the 
following: f, 1, k, t, m, n, r, s, — a. o, e, i, — iug, ings, ight, etc. Gradually teach all conso- 
nants, consonant combinations, vowels, diphthongs, and common phono;|rams. Observe the 
three cautions on page seven of Ward's manu.d. 

Fourth. Ear training, (i) Train pupils to have sharp ears that they may recog- 
nize words pronounced phonetically. (2) Each pupil will take an interest in learning its 
initial-letter sound, and the sounds of initial letters of other pupils. 

Each day during the first eight weeks, attention should be given to the three lines 
indicated above — sight-words, drill on phonograms, and ear training. These three lines 
constitute the reading work. Along with this will go writing, story work, and some busy 

.\t the beginning of the ninth week (possibly sooner, or later) sight-reading from the 
Primer should begin. And if the preparatory work has been well done, the first forty 
pages can be covered in about two weeks. During this time the drill on phonograms will 
continue, but the ear training will be replaced by the drill on the "blend." 

Some time before Christmas the a, b, c's should be taught by means of the a-b-c song. 
Place the song on the board, and see who can follow it witb the pointer. The names of 
the letters having been learned, spelling can begin. 

T cannot follow this work further. The Rational Method has been thoroughly tested 
during the last eleven years, ;iii(l 1 can reasonably expect that you use it, unless you have 
a better method. The work in phonics should continue through ihe fourth year at least. 

Thk Dictionary — In the third year, teach pupils to use the dictionary to t>ronounce for 

Tn the fourth year, begin to teach them how to find the meaning of a word. 

Teach the inipils how to use the dictionarv. It is a great storehouse of knowledge. Do 
not expect j)upils to get a thing from the dictionary until you ha\e t.uight them how to 
get that thing from it. 

Mouic RtiAiHNC — There is a diirerencp in the wav different te.ichers take hold of 
the first year re:iding work. .Some barely touch it, permilting the "little dears" to pl.iv and 
idle away Iheir time. (Others take bold with .a linn gr.isp and do work from the sl.irt. I 
can refer to some beginning tciclurs who are doing more work with lirst year pupils th.'iu 



soiiic teaclicTS of C(jiisi(lt;ral)le (.•xpcriciice. A second year tcaclicr svlio niaiia^^c's six grades 
in a district school in l.inculn 'lownship, had, on November u, Uugiit the following to a 
class of beginners: 

(i) Phonogratiis - a, a, a, li, e, e, i, i, o 6. o, 6, u, u, s, s, c, c, k, 1, m, n, p, 

r, qii, t, V, w, y, v, z, ch, sh, th, ow, er, oy, ight, ail, an, ink, ook, ing, ings. 

(2) Words — a, again, all, am, and, any, garden, flower, red, white, black, yellow, blue, 
little, kitty, pretty, rabbit, apple, (.)Ut, owl, hay, say, da\-. lay, is, liors.', home, the, them, they, 
1, give, has, have, milk, mice, mouse, catch, find, roll, spin, fish, fly, my, like, make, rake, 
bake, lake, take, he, she, me, ball, come, horn, not, man, ran, fan, pan, baby, yt)u, your, let, 
blow, sheep, toad, play, to, too, two, one, three, four, Hour, toe, Ben, right, light, bright, 
light, sight, fail, nail, rail, quail, pan, can, ran. Fan, sink, think, book, look, took, nook, and 
the words in the list on p. 4 of Ward's Manual. 

It is possible that pupils should not start to school until they are seven years old, but 
if they do start at six, they should not be permitted to form habits of idleness. 

Mr. Gray, the teacher referred to above, started his beginners to work. In eight weeks 
they not only mastered the no words of the first forty pages of the Primer, but the 83 
words given on p. 4 of Ward's Manual, and a few other "family" words. 

iMom the first day they worked on the three lines : — sight words, phonograms, and 
car-training, ;is explained in Ward's Manual. The work was done on the blackboard, 
etc., according to \Vard's Manual. On November 12, they began in the Primer. They will 
easily read the first forty pages in less than two weeks. After finishing the Primer, they 
will have tiipe for the supplementary reader, as explained in "School Plans." 

This is an actual case, in an ordinary country school, with ordinary pupils. The secret 
is honest work and systematic planning on the part of the teacher. 

Glogkai'HY. — Geography, properly taught, enables the pupils to come in touch with the 
earth in relation to man. It cannot be taught satisfactorily from books alone. The text 
should be supplemented by two things at least — excursions and correspondence. 

-\s to excursions, see State Manual. 

A two-cent stamp will carry a letter of inquiry to any part of the United States or 
Canada. In almost any school there is a pupil who has a relative living in a "distant 
region." If not, a letter directed to a teacher or princip.U in a distant region will receive 
prompt attention ; and the English-speaking world is very large. A reply in English may 
be expected in answer to a letter directed to any part of the United States, Canada, Great 
Britain, South Africa, India, Australia, or the Philippines. 

If there are no relatives to which to write, or if teachers do not reply, railroads and 
real estate men may be relied upon, and their circulars will furnish some of the very best 
material upon the sections in which they are interested. For information on Canada and 
the Northwest write one of the following : 

1. l\Iax Bass, General Immigration Agt., 220 South Clark St., Chicago, III. 

2. W. D. Scott, Supl. of Innnigration, Ottawa, Canada. 

.V C. W. Mott, General Innnigration Agt., St. Paul, Minn. 
For information on the South and Southwest, write: 

1. G. A. Park, Immigration and Industrial Agt., Louisville, Ky. 

2. J. F. Merry, A. G. P. A., Dubuque, Iowa. 

3. Frisco System, Immigration Dept., St. Louis, Mo. 

Write steamship companies for illustrations of tours. Take some particular section and 
confine vonr efforts to it, working it up thoroughly and making an illustr.ited note book. 

M:d<e the writing of these letters a part of the regular work. Direct the writing, see 
that it is well done, and have one of the best letters sent. 

If the directions of the St.ite superintendent on excur?.ions, and my directions oncor- 
rcspondence, are c;irried out, your pupils will begin to realize that they are actually living 
in the world about which they are studying. And the spirit of these suggestions should 
be present in all your Geography work. 

.'Ks last year, the final examination in Geography will be given at the close of the 
seventh year work. 

IIiSTouv — The excellent work that is being done in history in the lower grades, is most 
gr.itifying to one who didn't have the advantages of such work, or one who remembers the 
op))osition to it among teachers, when it CLune into our course of study a few ye;irs ago. 
With many of us .'\dam and Coliunbus were coiUemporaries, until after we entered a normal 
school f)r a university. Tod.iy ciuiUry children are being taught as well and as systematic- 
ally as city children, in these respt'cts. 

JIknukicks County Schools. 41 

Yet there is a clifTeieiice in the way tlic work is being presented. I'^or example, notice 
two recitations which 1 heard on the same day in country schools in the same township. 
Tiu!y were in the third year, and dealt with Hebrew life. In the first, the teacher read 
the story of Jephthah, pp. 50-56 of lleerman's Stories from the Hebrew. It was September 
27, and the preceding stories of the book had been read since school began on September 
17. This story was read by the teacher, commented upon a little, and the next story indi- 
cated for the next day. 

In the second recitation, the story of Abraham was being finished. The pupils knew 
that he started from Ur, that he went north and west to Haran, that he turned south and 
west into Canaan, that he went into Egypt seeking pastures, that he returned into Canaan, 
that he divided the country with Lot, etc., that he was called of God, that he was visited 
by angels, that a son was finally born, that a wife was selected for this son in a way to 
keep the race-blood pure, and that a nation was thus fairly started. The pupils also knew 
something about the life lived by Abraham, and something about his tents, his servants, and 
his flocks. They had made the acquaintance of one Hebrew character, and they knew hhn. 

I think all will agree as to the merits of the two recitations. The second teacher in- 
tended to study Moses next, then David, and then Christ, making the connections very 
briefly. These .are the four great historic characters in Hebrew history, and no doubt 
enough to study with the third year pupils if the work is well done. 

The tendency lo merely cover territory is bad, whet'.ier in lower grade history work, 
or reading, or advanced history, or any other line. A little work upon the essentials, well 
done, is much better than a great deal of work not done at all. The essentials should be 
recognized and the work organized accordingly. This is illustrated in eighth year history 
work by a suggestion given a teacher on the first two months work. To a teacher who was 
merely teaching "pages," I suggested that she organize her work along three lines, viz.: 
(i) DevelopmeUt of a strong nationality. (2) l-^xpansion of territory. (3) Growth of 
the slavery and secession sentiment. The first point is shown by Hamilton's financial plans, 
the assumption of the state debts, domestic and foreign, the law establishing imposts and 
excises, the national bank, the government mint, the suppression of the whiskey rebellion, 
the neutrality policy of Washington, the Jay treaty, the defeat of the Tripoli pirates, 
the war of 1812, the protective tariff, the work of John Marshall on the supreme bench, the 
Monroe Doctrine, etc., etc. The second point, the expansion of the national domain, is 
shown not only by Capt. Gray's discovery of the mouth of the Columbia River, the Lou- 
isiana purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, the Florida purchase, and the annexation 
of the Texan and Oregon territories, but also by the invention of the steamboat, the open- 
ing of the Erie Canal, the building of the National Road, the invention of the telegraph, 
and the construction of railroads. 

.'\round the ideas of slavery and secession may be organized such facts as the invention 
of the cotton gin, the prohibition of the slave trade in iSoS, the Hartford coMvention, the 
Missouri Compromise, tlie Mexican War, the Wilmot Proviso, the Omnibus Rill, the Kan- 
sas-Nebraska Rill, the Webstcr-Haynes debate, the Lincoln-Douglas debates, the work of 
Garrison and other aliolitionists, Hnde Tom's Cabin, John Brown, the Knights of the Golden 
Circle, the Cub.i filibusters, etc. 

Thus it is seen tiiat pr.iclically every important event from i/St) to i<S6o, can be grouped 
about three great organizing ideas. .'\nd with prop<"r thoroughness and drill, work or- 
ganized in this manner will stick. It does away with isolated events and dates. It changes 
history from mere memory work into organized thinking. 

I have tried to discuss the history work fully enough to show the difference between 
good and poor work. The thoroughness and organization here insisted upon can easily be 
applied to any grade of history work or any line of school work. 

WKiiiNr. AND Si'Ki.i.iNG. — Ou an examination manuscript, writin.g and spoiling arc 
closely rel.'ited. Many applicants make 11 for ic, / for /' and (/ for c. These errors may be 
consideri'd as mistakes in spelling or Ihey may reduce ihe grade on writing, bul they .should 
not oeeur. Tliev are largely due to carelessness. 

A mistake in spelling that is easily corrected is tlie failure to use, and the misuse of 
capitals. Some applicants will write an entire page of a dozen or more sentiences and use 
just one capital (at the bcMimiing") and one period (at the closv of the page). .Any teacher 
should know ih.'it rarli sciitrinu' should hrffiti with a aif^ilnl diiil riosr n'ilh a t^oiod. Other 
aitplit'anls eapilalize nouns eonlinu.illv whether i)ropi'r or comin( n. i'or each omission or 
misuse of a c.ii)i)ai, the state reduces vonr yrade on snelling one per cent. I follr.vv the 
s.nne practice, and I'm safe in s.i\iii)^ two thirds of the misl.ikes in spelling are mis- 
takes in ca|)it.alization. 

In a teacher's program, I reeeulK noticed "writinu" spelled with two t's. In another 
school room 1 noticed proyr-'un spelled with two g's He careful. Vse the dictionary. 

42 * Manual 

I iiK CoKN QjNTKsr. — lln." corn selection, corn scoring, ;incl Ijread contest, for coinnioii 
school pupils will be held in the court room at Danville, December 7. as annouiicecl. The 
work in preparation for these contests gives a teacher an excellent opportunity to (l'si)lay real 
leadership. If the teacher simply asks and urges her pupils to participate, witiiout doing 
more, the pupils will be less likely to participate than if the teacher had said nothing. Such 
a teacher gives a stone instead of bread. The teacher who gives bread must be interested, 
must be enthusiastic (not gushing), must knoiu. She will have some corn brought to school. 
She will teach the points in scoring. She will have ten ears brought to school. She will 
have her pupils score them. She will score them herself. She may not know as much as 
some of her pupils about farm work. But she can easily know something about corn. Few 
pupils know anytliing about the protein content of corn, or the marks that indicate high 
feeding value, or a dozen other things that are explained in Bulletin No. no from Purdue, 
Prof. Holden's bulletin from the station at Ames, Iowa, and the bulletins on corn breeiling 
from the station at Urbana, 111. There is an abundance of material free for the asking. 

Some teachers say that their pupils are not interested. I have just been trying to say 
that this is not true. The truth in such cases is that the teacher is not interested. Other 
teachers plead lack of time. But you can not spend a little time to better advant.ige. Such 
work should receive .some time, for it is not excelled in mental training nor e(iualled in 
utility value by any other work at which you can employ your time in school. 

After the corn contest is past, continue your intlustrial anil agricultural work. Get 
your school in touch with the Department of Agriculture at Washington. If you studied the 
codling moth last year, as suggested (Farmers' Bulletin No. 171), study the American toad 
this year (Farmers' Bulletin No. 196). There are a dozen other lines that I might suggest, 
but I suggest one line only, preferring that you work it thoroughly than to skim over a 
large territory and get nothing. If you get the idea and develo]) an interest you will fuid 
the material (and the time). 

Busv Work. — If you have pupils below the fifth year, you should be prepared to direct 
at least one line of industrial (or Inisy) work. It may be paper folding, paper cutting, weav- 
ing, moulding, or basket making, or drawing. If you are not prei)ared to do at least ov.t^ 
of the^i" lines of work smd JS cents to Thomas CJiarles Co., 260 \Vat)ash avenue, Cliicago, 
for either "Illustraled l.cssons in Paper h'olding" or 'T'aper and Scissors in tii- School 
Room." From one of these manuals you can learn enough to interest your pupils. 

Instruction and character-building being the chief aims of the school, teachers should 
organize their work with a deeper purpose than merely keeping pupils out of mischiet. 
Reading, writing, and spelling should form most of the busy work of the first year; number 
work is added in the second year. Writing is one of the best and most profitable forms ot 
busy work. Word, sentence, and number builders will aid a little. The teachers of a town- 
ship can get together and ask the trustee to get word and munber builders and other needed 
m.iterial. Write The Thomas Charles Co. for a catalogue. 

NiiMiii.KS.- No munber work should be done in the first year. Spend the time upon 
reading, writing, spelling, and the storv. Itut e>pecially upou reading. 


1. When I visit your school, hand me your register at once, and a copy of your pro- 
gram, if the same is not in sight. I come to study the sch )ol with you and to help you. 
Supply me with the means. 

2. The list of books required for the various grades was fiu'nished you and the pupils, 
through the county pa[)ers. RenaMuber tliat pupils taking up a study or a text for the first 
time, must have the new books. Others are not re(|uired to have the new books, init may 
choose to get them. For example, the eighth grade pupils may use the old arithmetic, the 
fifth grade pujjils nmst have the new arithmetic. .\nd seventh grade pupils may use the old 
geography, but sixth grade pupils must have the reviseil geographw 

3,. The seventh grade arithmetic for the first two months, is the work in algebra. Do 
not falter or hesitate to do this work. The State Course of Study is alright on this point. 
The l)i-monthly examiration questions will l)e based on this work. I expect to see you doing. 
it, but do not hesitate to help the pupils all they need. Work slowly and symiiathetically 

4 T am glad to notice that the llislory work for the lower gr.ides is being done this 
year. There should be no exeeiilioii to the iiile. The history work for the firsl. si'cond and 
thii'tl K'''ides mav b<' made ihe b.i-is of the oral and wrillen lanKna>.;e woi k of these giad<s. 

5. The special couqiosil ion work lo which reference was made at Ihe County Iiisliliite 
may be li.iM'd upon Ihe hisloi \ or .niy line 'of work or nia\' deal with games ,nid exp.-riences. 
Us aims are frindom of expiession and proper form in written work. It should nroceed ac- 
cording to the following plan in any instance: (t) Assign a subject for investn^ation and 
thought (2) Thoroughly discuss the subject with the class. (3) Organize the subject 

I Iknuuhks Couniy Schools. .».i 

(possibly by onlliiic) for tlic composition ibc next clay. (4) Have the pupils write com- 
position in rough form, read in class, compare and correct. (5) Next recitation, have 
corrected composition put in i^ood form with pen and ink, read, and handed in for the 
teacher's suggcsti(Ji;s. (6) Have linished work copied into a i)crmanent composition book. 

7. I havf constantly urged trustees not to buy just anything that an agent may briiig 
around, but to ask teachers as to supplies needed. 'I'he chances are that your trustee will 
buy sui)plies that yoii need and will agree to use. 

8. Plan to have a set of the Young People's Reading Circle books in your school room 
at an early date. The nineteen bonks will cost $11.85. Get the trustee to pay half, and 
raise the. other lialf. 

9. In the matter of aiteniatmg and combining recitations in order to reduce tiie num- 
ber, try to do the best thing for the school. Ample preparation will enable you to accom- 
plish much in a short recitation. 

10. Finally, remember that order is the first law of the school room, and that abundant 
work properly assigned is the best means of securing good order. Character-building is 
the chief purpose of the school. 

Additional Pointers. — Read "School Plans 1905-06" again. Are jou meeting reasonable 
expectations on the work there suggested? 

The use of Ward's Rational Method has done much for the reading wor'<. Most 
teachers h;,ve iniislied the I'rimer and iiave made a good start on the l-'irst Reader. Are 
you doing yov.}- duty? Are you teaching phonics in a comprehensive, systematic way? Are 
you doing wo'k in phonics witii pupils above the lirst grade? Are you teaching the diction- 
ary? Are you using the work in phonics to make the spelling easier and better? Do your 
pupils undcrsliind ^ a reading lesson and read it understandingly, l)efore you assign tlie next 
lesson'' T have Seen many recitations this year in which an entire lesson of two or tlirce 
pages was slumliled through and the next lesson assigned for the ne.xt day. That is the 
poorest kind of teaching. If you have i)een guilty, don't be guilty again. .And don't blame 
the former teacher. Master the thougiit and expression before leaving a selection. Spend 
a week 0.1 it if necessary. 

In your (leography work, you are making the work 0:1 ilistant regions interesting and 
real by the use of my su<4gestion on correspondence? Read it again in "Sclir)ol Plans." 
One teacher has studied the Southern States in this way; another has studied river and 
ocean navigation; another has studied the Pacific States. Are you imal)le to take hold? 
Write me the number in your class and tiie work you are doing, and I will try to send you 
specific directions. Write me. I will be glad to hear frotn you. I may not be able to meet 
evory case, but I am willing to work with you. Through the courtesy of the Southern R. 
R., 1 am sending each teaclier in the county a copy of "The Southern Field," December 
number. It deals chielly with cotton raising and cotton mantifacturing. It is a s.ample of 
abundant literature that you can get for the asking, on almost any section of our country. 

("live yoiu" i)upils i)lenty of fresh air and exercise. 

In making i)romotions consider the child first, your successor next, your <luty ever, your 
popularity never. \'our lr\istee will provide promotion cards. In your register leave a full 
report to your successor. 

Some of the lownsjnp principals are doing good service in township institutes in guiding 
the work along practical lines. They avoid pitch-fork debates, and theory for theory's sake. 
1 hey seek to apply the work to actual school conditions. 

Arc you using McMurry in your daily school work? Are you finding the large organ- 
izing ideas? Arc you using the type? Are you observing the five formal steps? Are you 
observing the laws of mental activity? 

The course of study is a friendly guide, not a slave-master. 

There are many good school libraries in the county that are not catalogued. A teacher 
can do a good work by numbering and recording books and properly charging them when 
taken out. This will prevent loss and enable the school to build up a permanent lil)rary. 

When a true teacher assigns a selection to be committed, she commits it herself, so 
that she can hear the recitation without using the book. This plan makes her more sym- 
pathetic, and makes her careful about assigning only the best selections for committing. 

Some excellent work is being done in IVriting. In starting the first year pupils, all 
Avriting should be at the board for at least one month. The board should be lined with 
lines four indies apart put on with glued crayon or an indelible pencil. The letters and 
their combin.ations should be taught one at a time and systematically. Motioning in the air, 
tracing, and copying shoidd be used. The crayon should not be held like a pencil, but be- 
tween the fore-finger and thumb and within the hand. If you have not been teaching writ- 
ing, and your pupils write a crumi)led Iiand, begin at the beginning «r>7t' and teach it. 

Do you have the second part of the eighth year history work organized? Send for 
"Johnson's American Orations," Vol. IV. ($1.25, Putnam's Sons), or have your dealer send 
for it. Read the speeches upon Re-constrnction, by Davis, Pendleton, Raymond and 

•II Manual 

SU'vciih. Ri.- cousliiu'liuii i.s Diic of tlio large oryaiii/iiig iclcas i»l llu' sccmiil term's woik. 
Master it. 

I recently visited tlie boisterous school described in my second bulletin of last year. 
'I'iie same pupils were present, but not the same spirit. 'Jhere was a different teacher and 
the teacher makes the school. 'The pupils were quiet, polite, and industrious. I expected 
a change, but was really surprised at the completeness of the ch.inge. i'upils are about the 
same everywhere, in this county, [f 1 liud a good school, a school where the pupils are 
jiolite, industrious and bright, 1 propose to give the teacher most of the credit. 

Some teachers are bothered by pupils asking them how to make letters. Much time may 
be saved by keeping the alphabet in large and small letters, at the top of the blackboard at 
some convenient place in the room. 

How arc you teaching the third year pupils to use the dictionary to pronounce for them? 
Did you start in the year by asking them to look up every word they didn't know? If you 
started in that way, the work was a failure and you are by this time neglecting the diction- 
ary entirely, unless you have learned a better method. The best teachers (i) first teach 
the pupils iiow to find a word in the dictionary. (2) They take from two weeks to a month, 
drilling pupils on how to find words in the dictionary. This takes a few minutes each day. 
Pupils race to find words. This step is mastered. (3) After the second step is mastered, 
two or three words are assigned each day to be pronounced from the dictionary. The 
teacher is careful to assign easy words, and not difficult words with several pronunciations. 
The other hard words of the lesson are placed on the board by the teacher and marked, as 
in the second year. (4) The list of words to pronounce from the dictionary may be grad- 
ually increased, but it never exceeds six or eight words a day during the year. 

Teaching fourth year pupils to find the meaning of a v.>ord from the dictionary, should 
be puusu;;u in the same systematic manner. Never tell a fourth year pupil (or class) to 
use the dictionary for all words he can not pronounce or of which he can not give the 
meanin','. Teach them how the dictionary tells the meaning, first by using words they are 
familiar with, then by using words new to them. After this point is mastered, assign a 
fe-iU of the difficult words to be mastered from the dictionary. The other difficult words 
should be placed on the board, marked for pronunciation, and the meaning worked out by 
pupils and teacher from the context. 

Even in the seventh and eighth years, pupils should not be referred to the dictionary 
•for every difficult word. Many words should be worked out from the context by the pupils 
and teacher. 

A few teachers may object that they are not paid for doing some of the things men- 
tioned in this bulletin. This is not the objection of a true teacher. As a teacher I am 
paid for the best that is in me. Mine is a life of service and sacrifice for my pupils. I must 
build their ideals. T must spiritualize farm life. I must teach citizenship, and train law- 

Let us do our work as well. 

Whether paid for it or not; 
And so by extra work and effort, 
Rise above the common lot. 

Honest work and willing labor 

Of enjoyment are the soul. 
They who profit by their practice, 
Never fail to reach their goal. 
The above may not be good poetry, but it is good thought. If the sentiment is not uni- 
versal, it ought to be. 

"H ye know these things, happy are 
' ye if ye do them." 


G/vvvo. -rvcM>/t^7 '/wiiur /t{<r^' ;,, 4 

G/vvn -K>aA /ou orvflMT ^AmJi * 

Ut'sults of TKA('iuN(i Writing to beginiiiiiK iJiipih 
(Aflor tlinc months In school.) 



-^i!reoJaf^- McL^ ^\>^A^ 

i-[cv.d;v Jtoxl J-^A^^ 

;^^a^. y^^riy^ yvxy-,vx^. 


•3ix/vA;<. 'v^--^ "(''•^^ 

Kfsiiltb of 'rKACuiNG U'ritiiiK to LeKiiuiiag i)Uj)iU 

This is a siieeimen of u inipil's work at the close of the piust ybau in school, with a i-uok teacher. 

See next page. 



L/' ' / 

/> J ;.- /•■ 

f) n ■ 


/A^/- x?aA(| /i^H 



IlJ.^ yfUU^ 

li.V llie snino iiii|)ll mh (lie work on the lust imK<', after SKVKN wkekh jiohk lii ft-lioul wnii a (i()oi> tkacukk. 
OiU' si-liuol is not liftli'i- tliiin anollicr licciuise of the lillTorcnci' In pupils, but beouuseof llir liilTcri'iice 

in tcae-licr!-. TiiK tkacmkii .makks a sciidui 

v.^ ■^^^^•" ■ J^: 

.■e.-T ■ ^■'- "^■Ifc- * '^&^ ^». 

•■■ ^aJ^ uMji^^"'*^^. ^ vv ■ 






Mrs. Ethel Bell, 2S years. 

J. L. Osborn, 21 years. 

Mrs. M. A. Keeiiey, 2.') years. 

Mrs. r.ydia Warner, "27 years. 
J. M. Kellum, 28 years. 
Mrs. M. J. Bland, 29 years. 

Mattle A. Cope, 40 years. 

Beginning Teachers^ 

Nearly ono-ritlli of tlic teachers each year arc beginners. This has l)eon the rule for 
a number of years. It is apparent, therefore, that unless these beginners are made effective 
teaeiiers .it it\\K.\\ a great amount of time is wasted. The notion once ])revailed that a lie- 
ginner was entitled to one >ear in wdiich to learn to teach, but my experience ccMivinces me 
that iieginners with sulVicient education can be made into effective teacliers in a very short 
time. In fact, some beginners last year did better work in Reading, in Writi^ig, in History, 
and in character building, than some of those who had been teaching for s.'veral years. In 
working with beginners, I have done the following: 

First. Met them in special sessions at the County Institute. 

Second. Met them in a special beginners' meeting before the opening of school. This 
has usually been an all-day sessif)n at my office. 

Third. Visited beginners early, with the understanding that my Hrst visit was to help 
them, not to grade their work. 

I'Ourtli. (liven i)eginners a visiting day each, early and with special directions as to 
what to observe. 

In this way 1 make a specialty of the beginners, and take upon myself a measure of 
the responsibility for their success. The results have justified the e.xtra effort. 

JIkndkicks CouNiv Schools. 51 

The Teacher^s Visiting Day* 

Since the autumn of 1904, the teacliers of the county have had one day each, early in 
the year, to observe the work of other teachers. Teachers have been carefully assigned by 
the county superintendent to visit work which in his judgment wt)uld be especially helpful. 
'I'lic visiting has been largely coniined to tiie county, teacliers with little cxi)erience and 
schooling being assigiud to visit teachers of wider experience and more training. iUit some 
of the best grade teachers have been assigned out of the county, in this way visits have 
been made to Indianapolis, Crawfordsville, Greencastle, Jamestown, Roachdale, Franklin, 
and Terre Haute. Indianapolis has been most visited outside the county, because of its 
convenience and the high character of the work. The superintendent and his assistants have 
shown great courtesy and helpfulness in directing teachers to the work desired. 

1 believe the visiting day is the best single feature of the work and policy of the present 
management of the schools of the county. It tends to bring the poorer schools up to the 
standard of the best. It passes the good things around. Some teachers cannot be made to 
understand a different plan by merely being told, but they can hardly fail to understand 
when they see the plan iji operation. Beginning .teachers without nuich training tend to 
imitate a former teaciier ; the visiting day enables them to imitate more modern methods. 
That teaching as an art is iiasetl upon imitation, is generally conceded. The visiting dav 
selects the object for imitation ; it sometimes leads the teacher to sec the significance of 
underlying principles and starts him on the road to scientific teaching. The scientific teacher 
is the true artist, since he comprehends the principles and significance of his art. 

For three years tiie blank which appears l)elow was used for visiting permit and re- 
port. This year a slu)rter form of report has been substituted, merely calling for a para- 
graph upon each of the following: 

1. Grounds, buildings, ventilation, lighting, heating. 

2. The teacher — appearance, personality, disposition, attitude toward work. 

3. Order and how secured. 

4. The recitation and school work. 

5. Mention anything that will be especially helpful to you (or to mc). 

The trustees are to be commended for their progressive spirit in assenting to the 
visiting day in its iiicei)tion. They have never wavered in its support. I'^ollowing is the 
form used for three j ears : 


\i.srn.V(; i' 

Danvii.i.e, Ini)., 1(^0. . 

M ; 

Dear Teacher: You are hereby directed, your trustee having assented, to dismiss your 
school and spend a day in visiting other schools as follows: 



Report to me promptly on the attached form, and send this permit to your trustee after 
signing the statement addressed to him. Respectfully, 

(Signed) ' County Supt. 

52 , Manual 

To the Trustee: 

I dismissed my school on ( date ) and 

spent the full day in visiting otluT schools as directed b}- my county superintendent. 

(Signed) , Teacher. 

Report lo County Superintendent. 

(Study the points called for in this report before doing the visiting. See fully and report 
accurately. Do not allow this report to worry you. I am anxious that the day shall be 
profitable to you, and that is my ciiief purpose in calling fur a report.) 

Report by on work observed 

in visiting on 19. . . . 

1. State the work observed, indicating recitations 

2. The grounds and buildings. 

a. General appearance 

b. Cleanliness 

c. V^entilation 

d. Lighting .' 

e. Heating 

f. Decorations. What ? 

g. \Valls , black boards, .* , window shades 

h. Needed improvements 

3. Teacher. 

a. Pleasing and attractive in appearance or not? 

b. Voice • • 

c. Honesty, sincerity 

d. Characterize, giving strong and weak points 

4. Government, satisfactory or not? 

a. Work is the true jireventive of disorder. Are pupils busy? 

b. Are pupils polite? Do they stare at visitors? 

Are they in sympathy with their teacher ? 

c. Is teacher indifferent, or full of enthusiasm and sympathy? 

d. Do voice and bearing indicate confidence and courage ? 

c. Is there scolding, threatening or nagging on tlie part of the teacher? 

f . What school virtues arc most in evidence ? 

g. Does formalism or connnon sense govern teacher's directing of pupils? 

h. As to the formation of right character, is the atmosphere of tiie school positive, 

neutral or negative ? 

5. School Work. 

a. What are the pupils' incentives to work? 

b. y\re assignments defmite and suited to ability of pu:)il>,? . 

c. Is lower grade J listory work being done ? 

d. Is work being done in Music (in graded schools)? , 

e. Nature of opening exercises 

f. Preparation .uid spirit of teacher 

g. I'reparalion and s|)irit of pui)ils 

(). The l\ocitation. 

a. (.haracteri/e according lo Dutlon, Chapters Xi and XII 

b. Briefly describe the best recitation observed 

7. Note one or two things trained by the day's visiting 

Hendricks County Schools. 53 

The Corn Contests and Agricultural Work. 

I bcc;iino convinced some years ago that tliere existed a prejudice against the farm 
among coninion school and high school graduates. After considerable study and research 
and some experimenting, I decided that agriculture in our schools would overcome this 
prejudice and would also do for our country boys what manual training is doing for our 
city boys. 

The work being done in other States and other countries was cspi.-ciall\ encouraging to 
me. The elements of agriculture and domestic science are being taught throughout the 
length and breadth of Italy, in rural schools. The people heartily support the movement. 
Thousands of small tracts of land (valued at over 1,000,000 lire) have been donated as 
school gardens and experiment fields. The present minister of education says : "Agricul- 
ture now succeeds where manual training failed, because the people are interested." The 
course in agriculture is further adapted to local needs. Silk-culture is emphasized in one 
district, stock raising in another ; the vineyard in one part, the olive and orange in another. 

In France, in Germany, in Scandinavia, agriculture is thoroughly established, the people's 
high schools of Norway being a special feature in that country. Even old Spain is waking 
up and is now planning for half a dozen agricultural colleges, after the American pattern, 
these to form the apex of a system that shall reach downward and outward to the district 

To come nearer home, what is being done in our own country? I had long known of 
the Hampton and Tuskeegee schools. I was a little surprised to find agriculture established 
in the district schools of Illinois, Minnesota, Wisconsin and Tennessee, and in the high 
schools of Vermont and Alabama. I was pleased to find the movement encouraged by such 
able men as Dean Russell of the New York Teachers' College, and the late President Harper 
of Chicago University. 

Most cduialors now agree witii Ihe 1905 National Educational Association rci)ort on 
Industrial Education — "that the mastery of such parts of this rapidly developing body of 
industrial knowledge as is within the capabilities of elementary and secondary school pupils, 
furnishes a mental training unsurpassed in extent and quality by the mastery of any other 
body of knowledge now regarded as essential in our common school courses and requiring 
an equal amount of time; and that for utility value it is not equalled by any other body 
of knowledge at present acquired through the expenditure of the same amount of time and 

Agriculture is a regular part of the high school course of study since the last legisla- 
ture passed a law to that effect. The corn shows and Purdue excursions of tiie last three 
years in this county have at least put all of us in a favoral)le attitude toward this work, 
and have emphasized the common interests of the farmers and the schools. 

The bulletin and views following tell their own stories of effort antl progress. 


CoKN Crowing and Siii.iiCTiON CoNiKsr. 

I. This contest is open to any school pupil in the county (common school or high 
)ol pupil) who is regularly enrolled and doing creditable work. I-'.ach pupil entering 
it present a statement from his teacher certifying that the above conditions are fully com- 
:1 with. 




2. All c<M-n must be grown upon land owned or Icabcd by the pupil's father. No land 
must be leased especially for this purpose. 

3. Enough pure seed corn will be furnished each pupil (or the pupils of one family) 
to plant one acre of corn. But if pupils prefer they may pri)cure their own seed. Appli- 
cation for seed should reach the county superintendent by April i. 

4. Where there are two or ukkc pupils in one family, who enter this contest, tlu-y 
may plant just one acre and work together in growing the corn. 

5. Each pupil who receives seed for this contest must exhibit twenty ears in the corn 
siiow at Danville, December 7, 1907. 

0. 'Ihe corn exhibited at the corn show will become the property of the Trustees" .As- 
sociation, and may be sold at auction or otherwise used in the interests of corn work in the 

7. Boys who enter this contest will be expected to do their own work of grcnving :ni 
acre of corn. Girls will only l)e required to supervise the growing of the corn. Neither 
boys nor girls will be allowed to receive help in selecting the twenty ears for the corn show. 

8. All entering this contest must make a special study of the corn plant, and submit 
a record of how the corn was grown. 

9. The contest will be decided according to the following conditions, making 100 points 
in all: 40 points on yield, standard being 80 bushels or more per acre; 50 points for tlie 
score of the twenty ears entered in the corn show; 10 points on record of how grown. 

10. In each township the township trustee and the vice-president of the farmers' m- 
stitute will act as a connuittee to determine the yield, 70 lbs. being considered as a bushel. 

11. All entries in the corn show should be in Wilhite's jewelry store or the county 
superintendent's office by December 2, but entries will be received up to 6:00 p. nv, Decem- 
ber 6, 1907. 

12. The prizes are as follows: ist prize, $20.00 cash; 2d prize, $10.00 cash, jd prize, 
$5.00 cash or equivalent ; 4th prize, $3.50 cash or equivalent ; 5th prize, $2.00 cash or equiv- 
alent ; next ten prizes, $1.00 each, cash or equivalent. 

Remarks: If it becomes necessary to limit the number of entries, an effort will be 
made to e(|ualizi' the numlier in each township. Teachers having jjupiis desiring to enter, 
should send in tiie nanus and addresses at once, so that arrangements ma> l)e nnde for 
enough seed corn. 

The acre selected for growing the corn should be clover sod, separated by several rods 
from any other corn. The soil should be fertile and well drained. A moderately heavy coat 
of barnyard manure should be spread over the ground and tlisced in before the ground is 
broken. After the ground has been broken it should be disced and cross-disced and har- 
rowed until the soil is thort)Ughly pulverized. A thin coat of barn-yard manure may be 
applied after breaking and before discing. If a commercial fertilizer is used it should be 
drilled in with a large wheat drill just before planting. After planting, the ground should 
be regularly cultivated each week and after every rain even if there arc no weeds. Culti- 
vation should be shallow and may continue with profit even into August. 

As soon as the tassels appear they should be removed from all barren, weak and 
smutted stalks. Your seed for next year should be selected between October 10 and Oc- 
tober 15, and should be preserved according to Circular No. 2 from Purdue. 

References: (l'>ee for the asking as long as the supply lasts.) 

1. Earmers' lUdletin No. 19'.), Washington, D. C. 

2. b'arniers' Bulletin No. 272, Washington, D. C. 

3. I'armers' lUilietin No. 81, Washington, 1). C. 

4. Bulletin No. 110, Purdue University. 

5. Bulletin No. 82, University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

(). r.ulletin No. ^^ (April, 1904), Iowa Agricultural College, .Ames. la. 
7. The Kansas Corn I'lonk, Stale liorird of Agriculture, TopeUa, Kansas. 

Hkndkicks Cdunty ScHdoi.s. 55 

Corn Scoring Contest. 

1. Open to common school pupils (holow the high school) who are regularly enrolled 
and doing creditable work, as shown by llie teacher's certilVcate. 

2. Prizes will be announced later. 

3. The folhnving questit)ns must be answered !)}■ competitnrs in the corn scoring con- 
test and will count ten points. 

(i.) When should seed corn be gathered and how? 

(2.) How should it be kept through the winter? 

(3.) How should seed be tested before planting? 

(4.) What is the purpose of cultivation wdien corn is not weedy? 

(5.) Slumld cultivation be deeii or shallow? Why? 

(6.) What per cent, of the food valui.- of corn is in the ear? In tho fodder? 

(7.) Wiiat feeds go well with corn to make a balanced ration in feeiiing hogs 

or cattle? 
(S. ) How should corn land be handled to maintain its fertility? 
((). ) I'^xplain the corn breetling plot, why certain rows are detassclled, and the 
seed used in ilelasselleil rows. 
(10.) Tfi your name on the mailing list of the Purdue station? 
1 heso questions may seem a little dilVuult, hut after reading lUdletin No. no on "Corn 
Improvement" from Purdue, you should answer any of them. 

Whe.xt Bke.m) Contest. 

1. Open to any common school pupil (below the high school) who is regularly en- 
rolled and doing creditable work, as shown by the teacher's certilicate. 

2. An entry will consist of one loaf. The dough should weigh one pound, and should 
be baked in a single pan, 4 in. x 4 in. x J^ in. 

3. See b'armer's liulletin No. 112. from the Department of Agriculture, Washington, 
D. C. 

Corn Score Card — Truciiess to t>pe, 10; shape of ears, 5; color of grain anil cob, 10; 
vitality, 10; tips of ears, 5; butts of ears, 5; kernel uniformity, 10; kernal shape, 10; length 
of ears, 5; circumference of ears, 5; spaces between rows and kernels, 10; proport on of 
corn, 15. Total 100. 

Wheat l?read Score Card — Flavor — nutty, 35. Texture — even, elastic, but breaking 
readily, 25. Lightness — pores medium, uniform, 15. Color inside — creamy white, 5, Crust 
— color, tliicknos. texture, 10. Si/e and sh.ipe — medium, symmetrical, 5. .Moisture — not 
dry, not sad, 5. Total 100. 

RiceoKi) OF Corn Crowing. 

1. Name and address Age 


2. Was seed tested before planting and how ? 

3. Source of seed and how handled from gathering to planting time? 

4. Dimensions of jilat in feet 

5. Character of soil 

6. Ch.iracter of sub-soil 

7. I )rainage 

8. Crop grown on land in io<M , 1905 i(;o'') 

9. Manure used in 1904, , k^o.t , I'jo'i 

ID. Manures or fertilizers used in KJ07 

11. Dale of breaking ground 

12. De[)lh of brval<iug 



Preparation f»f j^roiiiul hcfoic planting 

Date of plantini,' 

Variety of corn 


Any replanting? 

Distance between rows 

Distance between hills 

Distance apart, if drilled 

Date of cultivation — ist 2d 

4th , 5th ; Any more times. 

21. Depth of cultivation each time and reason 

22. Any special cultivation or work 

23. Were alternate rows detasselled ? 

Were weak, barren and smutted stalks detasselled? 


Average No. of stalks per hill 

Have you saved seed corn for next year? 






NoTK. — The school excursion to Purdue University was a success last year and the de- 
mand is so great that it will, of course, be run next summer. Special amiouncement will 
be made in due time, but the date will be about the last of August. 

RuFus Wkight, I c • 1 /- 

' ' Special Committee. 
Nathan 1 ucker, ) 

A. K. Gilbert, Pros. Trustees' Association. 

G. M. Wilson, County Superintendent. 

March 12, 1907. 

First uiul'Thinl I'ri/es in Hi-iiilriil;.-i Comity Clorii (Contest, DfcciulitT it, I'.io-"), diaili- I'lipild 


■iv •!■'■'.. ■>>!>■••; I 

lOriirsl 'I'liomp'-ciii iiikI his corn, lli'sl pii/c wliiiici- In lUOO. 

Hendricks County School Excursion to Purdue University. Bo;irdinf< tlie 
Cars for Trip to liattleRrouud, lUiHi. 

Ilciiiirloks (U)unty Hcliool Kxeurslim in I'urdut; liiiiver.Hity. 'I'lu; l.iidles "f 
Ihf I'lirly VlsltluK HoiilfHtlf ScitMic.' Iliill, ll'OH. 

IIknukicks County Schools. 6i 

The corn selection contest lias been the chief contest, and the winners for the past 
three years have been, in order: 

1905 — Russell Griffith of jMiiklle, 

Ernest Thompson of Center, 
Russell INIartin of Eel River, 
Russell Wills of Middle, 
Alta Schenck of Middle, 
INlarie Ousler of Clay, 
Chauncy Phillips of Clay, 
Homer Walls of Washington. 
1906 — Ernest Thompson of Center, 
Hubert Wear of Washington, 
Anna Kcllum of Guilford, 
Corbett Warren of IMiddle, 
Russell Griffith of Middle, 
Urban Greenlee of Marion, 
Herman GritT^th of Middle, 
Horace Parsons of Guilford, 
Chester Walton of Marion. 
1907 — Harter Greenlee of Marion, 
Worth M Buis of Franklin, 
Ena Masten of Clay, 
Corliss Ewing of Marion, 
Eddie Blair, Jr., of Washington, 
Tom Thompson of Libert)', 
Albert Ramsey of Washington, 
Willie Mcrritt of Washington, 
Harold Walter of Union, 
Oscar Bradford of Wasiiington, 
James Wilson of Washington, 
Lester McClain of Washington, 
James Dinigan of Union. 
Floyd Crews of Marion, 
Urban Gri'( nice of Marion. 

Tiiosc contribr.ting tinancial support to the 1907 corn contest were: From .\von, Smith 
and iMigleman : from Danville. Iwrst National Bank, Danville State Bank, Joe Hess. C. L. 
Thompson, E. M. Williitc. Reed P.ros., James McConn. PL H. Mills, Osborne Hardware 
Co., Rcichard & Son, Snyder and Newman, A. G. Prentice, Pierson Bros., Swartz Depart- 
ment Store, ILulan Ibos., C. E. Edwards. Christie Bros., C. O. Haines, The Indianapolis 
News, Danville Cash Store, Jasper Tl'.ompson, and Shirley. Showalter & Co. 

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IJiiiiuproved and Improved. Which Will You Raise? 
(From (iiiin's Af^rii-iilture fur IJegiiiners.) 

The lust few years have witnessed wonderful iniprovein.iit and progress on the 
farm The farmer owes it to his ehildren to demand the same imi)rovemenl and 
])ro;,'ress in the sehonl. 

Improvement of Corn by Selection. Boone <;ounty White on left and oii«inal type 

from whleh It was develojied. 

(Krom (iinn's AKrieiilture fi>r HcKinners.) 

The above apiiK-s were not sprayed niul tlio result i:= plainly visible. 
^Kindiii'ss I'luvliic I'liivcrsity.) 

These apples were sprayed tliree times at intervals u( tea days, hc^rinninj,' just after the 
blossoms fell. At tweniy eents a tree It was a jiayinn pnipusition. 

(Kindness I'nnlue l'nlv«i>ily .) 

(Children, likewise, respond lo ^.'ood ireatmenl. <'an we alTord to do lesB for tliem 
than the best that we know? I'an we alTord lo dwarf tlic ruture manhoud and womanhood 
of our eommiinity V No. 'I lie hesl is none too ^ood for ouu children. 

.-t T* 

I jfr 

s 3 

£ 5 

a' 1- 

66 Manual 

Improved Buildings and Consolidation of Schools^ 

No trustee in this count}' has made much of an effort to consolidate his schools. The 
rule has been to aliandon any school where the average daily attendance has fallen below 
12, and to abandon other schools only on petition of the patrons. 

Consolidation is coming gradually, however, because of the better instruction and su- 
perior eiiuipnicnt possible in a graded school, 'i here is a great saving in money also. School- 
ing will Cost as nnich as $50 per pupil this year in several of our small country schools. The 
cost in graded schools rarely exceeds $10 or $12 per pupil. 

LaGrange County (this State) his 14 schools receiving 428 conveyed pupils. Thirtv- 
eight schools have been abandoned. Last year the county saved $12,911.60 in teachers' sal- 
aries, fuel and repairs. The increased expenditure for wagons and transportation was 
$6,176.86, or a net saving of $6,734.74. The people are well satisfied and do not desire a 
return to the "old way." 

There are 20 school wagons in Hendricks County. Experience has shown and the law 
now provides that the trustee should enter into a written contract with the driver of a 
school wagon, specifying the route, recpiiring reasonable speed and safety, requiring that 
pupils shall be delivered at the school house not more than 20 nor less than 10 minutes be- 
fore the beginning of school, prohibiting profane or obscene language, boisterous conduct, 
or the use of tobacctj ; and specifjing other requirements. The driver should give bond to 
guarantee the full performance of his duties. 

Peoiile are gradually demanding consolidation as they realize that it is belter and 

The University of Illinois has recently made an exhaustive study of the consolidation 
of country schools in Illinois. The conditions in this state and in our comity are very 
similar, although a little better on the whole, and so the conclusions of the Illinois report 
are given herewith. Study them carefully. 


Whatever dilTerence of opinion may exist, those who have studied it must agree upon 
the following points : 

1. i bat many country school districts are so small and weak that no school is con- 

2. That many others consist of i>ut three or four pui)ils and the expense for elementary 
schooling fre(|ueiitly rises to more thrm $100.00 per i)upil, which is higher than the tuition 
for collegiate instruction. 

3. That at least one-third of the country schools are too small to be even fairly suc- 

4. That when the school is of fair size, consisting of many classes of a few each, with 
but one teacher to do the work, the time is frittered away in a large number of short recita- 
tions, often but five minutes each. 

5. That fully one-third of all the teachers have had less than one year's experience and 
never even saw a really good school. 

6. That the best teachers are taken for the graded schools, and that of those available 
for count ry schools, from fifty to seventy-five per cent, are "young girls" who have had 
no more (r.iining than is given in the school they are to attempt to teach. 

7. '1 hat when schools are est.iblished within walking distances of each other, the above 
mentioned conditions are certain to follow, and that tlie only way ever tried or even proposed 
by which these schools can be made effective is to combine them into small numbers with 
fewer and better teachers whose work can then be better di\i(le<l and belter supervised. 

8. That as conditions exist today little children walk long distances :ind suffer much 





Coiist)litlated Grade Building at Hadley. 

Kloor IMuii, Hadley Building. 

This Inexpensive buildtnt^ is eiimil to the fina buildings at Amo and Clayton, in 
UghtinR, heatlnj?, ventilation, and all essentials of school arcliitccturt'. Tlie best 
is within the reach of all and is none too Kood for ouk chlhlrcn. 


The picture at the top shows a survival of the past, still used as a home in Heiulrleks 
County. The bottom pieture shows the palacial residence of County (V)nimlssioner K. M. 
Murphy, on his farm in Kel Kiver 'J'ownshi]). 

Tliere is as itiiich dilTcrcncc lielween some of lhi> ulil and ni'W sehool houses of the 
eounty. Can we afford to train our children for lieg^ary liy sending them to old shaeks of 
school houses? The people arc answeriuf; "no," l)y jjuttiiif^ u\i inoilern l)iiildinKs. 



. 'iJMBb'.-jcjrrg.Tii n. .',iJLilft¥ '. 

IIknukicks Oa'NTv SiiKini.s. C<) 

clisconiforl and ill-healtli by roasoii i)f exposure to storms ami from sitting all day uitii 
wet feet ami damp clothing after wading snow drifts, slush, and mud on the way to school. 
This is especially true of young girls. 

g. That the only humane way of putting children of all ages and conditions into 
school through all kinds of weather is to transport them in wagons that are covered, and, 
when necessary, warmed. 

10. That consolidation and transportation tend greatly to lessen expense so that the 
same grade of schools can be had much cheaper, or a far better grade at the sanie expense, 
as patrons may desire, or, if they please, a full equivalent of the best city schools may be 
established and conducted at slightly greater cost than heretofore and at a much lower 
rate than in the city. 

11. That as things are today without consolidation, country people not only pay more 
for elementary instruction alone than city schools cost, including the high school course, 
but, in addition, farmers pay out vast sums for tuition and other expenses of their older 
children attending city schools for what is not offered at home. 

12. That though enormously expensive, these schools are not eflfective, necessitating 
large additional outlay in sending the older children to the city schools at excessive cost and 
with nuK-h inconvenience because done entirely as private enterprise and at personal cost. 

i,v That this contlition often results in the whole family "moving to town to educate 
the children" to the damage of the school left behind, to the disadvantage of the business, 
at the expense of breaking up the old home and at the risk of giving the family false ideas 
of both city and country life. 

14. That the only proper way to educate a child up to and including the high school 
is to do it without disturbing his home or taking him out of it, and that the country child is 
entitled to as good an education as the city child and at no more risk or inconvenience to 
him or his family. 

15. That it is not necessary to consolidate about a village school, but that wherever 
it is done the result should be a country and not a city school." 

16. That consolidation is the only way of securing really good country schools, and it 
is the only means of introducing the study of agriculture generally into the public schools. 

17. No one can avoid the conclusion that the objections offered in advance of trial 
arc mostly either fanciful or sellish ; that they are not realized in practice; that consoli- 
dation is the only plan tried or proposed by which the country child can secure such an 
education as modern conditions demand, and such as is already afforded the city child. 

iS. It lessens the expense and equalizes the cost; it protects the health and morals of 
the child and makes the introduction of agriculture and the other industries possible; it 
enhances the value of farm property as a whole; it brightens and broadens country life; it 
preserves ils virility unimpaired and rationalizes the movement toward population centers. 
Such difficulties as are found are trivial or transient, or both, and are such as would not 
stand in the way of any commercial enterprise for a moment. 

19. Consolidation of country schools is the solution of the problem of agricultural edu- 
cation and it is the only complete solution that has been offered. 

Ihe following statistics prepared in ]3ecember, 1907, indicate the progress of consolida- 
tion in Hendricks County: 

1. Aban(K)ned .schools in countv 22 

2. Schools abandoned this year 4 

,r Nundier of consolidated schools 12 

4. Nund)er of wagons 20 

5. Pupils transported in wagons ^jj 

6. Total cost per day $38.10 

7. Cost per pupil per day r lo^c 

8. 1 ransported by cars and buggies at township exi)ense 5S 

0. 'I olal Iransported at townsliip expense 4_>i) 

tioiN<i FitojM Sciiooi.— riiK oi.i) Way 
U''ii>in Kern's ('ountry Scliools.) 

Going Home Kkom Sciiooi.— Tire New Way. 

"Consolidation of country schools is tlie solution of the pn>blcni of rural and 
agricultural education, and it is the only eouiijlete SDlutioii that lias been otl'ered." 
The best is none too good for ouk children. 

Si.'H(K)l. Nu. 3, MAKION TOWNSHll', l'JOO-7. 

It cost the township $45. (iu pei^ pupil to run tliis .-^chool last year, and on account 
of the small numbers and poor conditions it was not a nood school at that price. 

4) _ 

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Hknukicks Cchniv Schools. 73 

Parents and the Schools* 

The parents of a community may often make or mar the success of a school by their 
attitude toward tlie teacher and his purposes. It is the sincere desire of school officials and 
teachers that a school in any community may do its full measure of service in bringing its 
boys and girls to their highest possibilities of intelligent and useful citizenship. But no 
school can do its best service without the hearty co-operation and support of the parents. 

The following, clipped from the manual of one of Indiana's leading school systems, is 
so pertinent that it is given space here in the hope that it may suggest to the parents 
some ways in which tiiey may co-operate and help in the work of the schools: 

1. Get acquainted with the teacher of your child. 

2. Be free to talk to the teacher about the traits, characteristics, etc., of your child. 
The better the teacher understands \our child the better she will be able to teach it. 

3. Visit the school room in which your child is at work just as often as you conven- 
iently can. 

4. If your child is corrected do not berate the teacher and say all manner of things 
about her. Remember there is also the teacher's side to the case which your child may not 
understand. Never say anything unkind about the teacher in the presence of your child — 
you harm your child more than you do the teacher every time you do so. 

5. Observe good training and discipline in your own home. A child that is well dis- 
ciplined and well trained at honie rarely needs being corrected at school. It is too often 
the case that the scliools have to do the things that should have been done at home. Our 
schools are not reformatories. They have to do with the FORM.\TION of the pupil, not 
with his reformation. Parental authorities and responsibilities do not cease when the chil- 
dren are sent to school. ■"The confession of many parents who bring their children to our 
schools and ask liie teachers to take charge of them because they can do nothing with them, 
is a sad comment on the parental authority in those homes from which the children come. 
If the children are beyond the control of parents, what may be expected from the teacher, 
whose authority over the children is certainly less than that of the parents?" 

6. See to il that your child always gets to school on time. There is no better lesson 
that the school child can learn than the lesson of punctuality. 

7. Sec to it that your child is regular in attendance. Irregularity in attendance, or 
absence for frivolous reasons, interferes most seriously with the advancement of the pupil. 

8. See to it that your child makes good progress and does satisfactory work. Encour- 
age him to take an interest in his work. See to it that you know what your boy is doing 
and where he spends his lime when he is not at home. 

9. Comply cheerfull>- with all the recjuests of your child's teacher as well as those of 
the trustee and superintendent. 

10. The schools are not working your children to death. Much of the fear that the 
public schools are making "nervous wrecks" of pupils has foundation only in the imagination 
of parents ignorant of the real work of the schools. Late hours, social dissipation, unnutri- 
tious food, improper clothing and other similar causes produce by far most of the nervous- 
ness among i)upils and lack of ability to keeji u]) with the reasonable demands of the school. 
The aver;ige public school room is a place of comfort and hai)])iness where the children are 
kept busy with t.isks that are wholesome and interesting. .Serious work is necessary to 
the normal develoi)ment of the cliild and the proper training for industry and right livmg. 
Play also is essential :nid both work and play have their i)lace and receix e tlieir duo attention 
in the modern school. A visit to the nearest school will dispel nian\ of the criticisms that 
arise in the minds of parents. 


aJ 2 

ITkndkicks County Schools. 75 

Hendricks County at the State Teachers^ Association^ 

The attoiiclancc of teachers at educational meetings is a fair index of their earnestness 
and entliusiasm, and, therefore, a fair index of the educational progress of the county 
which they represent. Notice the steady advance of our county according to this standard: 

1903. — Attendance 20, rank 19th. 

1904. — Attendance 64, rank 3d. 

1905. — Attendance 102, rank 2d. 

1906. — Attendance 175. rank ist. 

I am willing that the teachers and principals shall have entire credit for this splendid 
showing. We all pulled together, 'lickels were secured in advance and distrihnled through 
the principals. All were interested and wanted to go. Our many connections with In- 
dianapolis enabled all to go last year, and practically every teacher was present. There is 
no doubt that the inspiration of these meetings has contributed no small amount to the In- 
crease of the excellence of our school work in all of its departments and phases. 

December 26, 27, 28, 1907, is the date of the meeting this year. Let us maintain our 
standing of last year. Let every teacher plan to attend. /\rrangemei.ts are already made 
for Dr. Gunsaulus and President Woodrcnv Wilson. Other educational leatlers will be 
present. You cannot afford to miss them. 

Schedule of Success Items* 

I. The Teacher. 

.\. [Vrsonality, 20 per cent. 

1. I'hysical : babils, health, industry, abiliis to do things, neatness of 


2. Mental : hal)its, disposition, attitude towards children, use of sarcasm, 

sincerity of purpose, ability to meet people, pcjwer to take the initia- 
tive, moral worth. 

B. Scholarship, 15 per cent. 

1. Educational advantages. 

2. l^resent attitude as a student. 

a. Lines of study. 

C. Professional Training, 10 per cent. 

1. In school. 

2. Through experience. 

3. 1 hrough individual study. 

4 .\tliliide to\v:ii(l tile calling. 

a. I'reNvni lines of i)rofessiona| >tnilv. 

b. .Attendaiiei' at I'llncalional nieelings. 


76 Manual 

L). As All JiislnutDr, jo pir ciiil. 

1. Prc'i);iratii)ii. 

a. lUforc coming to class. 

b. Assignments. 

c. Skill in bringing tbe pupils into tbc rigbt conscious attitude for 

tbc new trutii to be presented. 

2. Presentation. 

a. Knowledge of tbe mind of tbe pupil.' 

b. Knowledge of tbe matter to be presented. 

c. Knowledge of tbe ways of presentation. 

d. Skill in presentation. 

3. Comparison. 

a. Skill in keeping tbe minds of all tbe pupils centered on tbe new 
trutb being presented, and upon tlieir own experience tbat will 
belp tbem interpret at tbe same time. 

4. Generalization. 

a. Skill in leading pupils to draw correct conclusions and to state 
tbem well. 

5. Application. 

a. Skill in making pupils realize tbe new trutb as tbeir own. 
Ability in leading pupils to discover tbat scbool problems are 
life problems. 

E. Govermiient, 20 per cent. 

1. Two ways. 

a. Tbrougb tbe conscious use of rewards and punisbments. 
1). Tbrougb tbe inspiration of personality. 

2. Two types of order. 

a. Constrained, unnatural and dead. 

b. l'>ee, natural and alive witb tbe busy bum of industry tbat ac- 

companies tbe understanding tbat eacli pupil is to do bis work 
witbout disturbing bis iieigbbors. 

F. Conununity Interest, 15 per cent. 

1. Sbown by — 

a. I'art taken in tbe plans and affairs of tbe conununity. 

b. Care of scbool jjroperty. 

c. Co-operation witb teacbers, supervisors and scbool officials, in 

scbool plans, exbil)its, reports, etc. 

2. Sbown by — 

a. Ability to send conuiion scbool graduates to bigb scbool. 
I). Ability to send bigb scbool pu[)ils to iiiglier institutions. 


See State Course of Studx- for tbe State Superintendent's explanation. 

• Some of tbe items entering into tbe teacber's grade on success cannot be definitely meas- 
ured in any particular case. On sucb items, tbe county suiierintendent luust rely on bis 
own judgment. I sball very carefullv and conscientiously enileavor to do justice to eacb 

Otber iteius of success (amounting in all to some /uv/f/.v-^^'i" /><'/■ cent.) can be defi- 
nitely measured ;md are imder llu- ruiitroi uf eacb teacher, Stliolarshii^ means four years 
of study in adxance of tlie work the teacher is doing. A strict application of this rule 

I Iknuuh Ks C'ni'NTv Siiionis. 77 

will bi' waivid in favor of tlioso who aii- atUiidinn soliool v.n.-h spring or siimnu'r, llKTchy 
attaining tlic staiulanl as rapidly as posMlilc. I'rofi'ssidiuil Irdiniii^ means al least one year 
spent in a repntal)le training school for teachers. Under l"".i live per cent, will be taken as 
referring to the township and connty institutes. Mere attendance at townsliip institute is 
not sufticient. A teacher is paid for attending. Her presence should be marked by a zeal 
and a preparation which are unmistakable. The same may be said of attendance at the 
county institute. 

The changes suggested b\' the new success schedule are generally accepted as good 
and wholesome for the profession. I'.very true teacher welcomes a change which betters 
her and exhalts her profession. If the change lowers your success grade, before living to 
the county superintendent with a complaint, examine your schedule carefully to see if the 
items which are lowered come under your control entirely. If the change gives you a 
higher success grade, you will rejoice and I will rejoice with you. 

I may add that higii school teachers are placed in a class by themselves when I make 
out the success grades. In the matter of scholarship, careful daily preparation, and skill in 
conducting" a recitation, the high school teaclurs should be sui)erior to the grade teachers. 
In some cases I have found them inferior, and have graded accortlingiy. In general, how- 
ever, high school teachers should not compare their grades in success with gr.ide teachers, 
nor compare them at all for that matter, but rather take them as an honest, sympathetic 
effort on my part to indicate where improvement is needed. 

Important Resolutions of Interest to Teachers^ 

"Rcsolz'cd (by the trustees), That applicants for teachers' licenses who do not re- 
ceive the same prior to or on the July examination, be not further considered by the 
trustees in placing teachers." 

"Ri'soii'tii (by the County [V)ard of lulucation, 1904). That the mininunu wage law 
of Indiana for teachers, approved March n, 1903, be changed by inserting 2], 2^ and 3 
cents instead of 2I, 2V and s\ cents, respectively, the change being m.ide in favor of such 
teachers only as have had four years of high school work or an equivalent, and one year 
of normal school training; Provided, That this resolution shall go into effect after the 
present school year of 1903-4." 

'' Rt'soli'cd (by the Farmers' Institute. 1907), That we conunend the corn show, the 
Purdue excursion, and the sentiment of our high school teachers in favor of placing agri- 
culture in the township high schools as a regular course and that we tender the services 
of our president anil vice-president to co-operate with the township trustees and county 
superintendent in furthering any of these ends." 

Compulsory Education Law* 

Section i. Be it enacted by the (General Assembly of the State of Indiana, That every 
parent, guardian, or other person in the State of Indiana, having control or charge of any 
child or children between the ages of seven (7) and fourteen (14) years, inclusive, shall be 
reciuired to send such child or children to a public, private or parochial school or to two 
or all (more) of these schools, each school year, for a term or period not less than that ot 
the public schools of the school corporation where the children reside. 

Si:c. 2. The truant officer shall see that the provisions of this act arc complied with, 
and when from knowledge or by report or compl.iint from .any resident or teacher 
of the township under his supervision, he believes th;it any child subject to the provisions 
of this act is hiihiliially turdy or tihscnt from school, he shall imniedi;itely give written 
notice to the parent, guardian, or custodian of such child the ;ittend;nice of such child 
at school is re(|uired, and if, wilbin live (5) d.ays such i)arent, gu.ardian or custodian of said 
child docs not comply with the i)rovisions of 'this section, then such truant officer sli.all make 
complaint ag.'iinst such p.irent, gn.irdian or custodian of such child in any court of record 
for violation of the provisions of ihis .act; I'rovidcd, oidy one ni>tice fihall be re- 

yH . Manual 

(liiirid for any diic child in any one year. Any sncli parent, Knardian or cnslodian of the 
cliild who shall violate the provisions of this act shall he adjudged guilty of a misdemeanor, 
and upon conviction thereof shall he fined in any sum not less than five dollars ($5.00) nor 
more than twenty-live dollars ($25.00), to which may he adiled, in the discretion of the court, 
imprisonment in the county jail not less than two. nor more than ninety days. 

Six. 6. If any parent, guardian or custodian of any child or children is too poor to 
furnish such child or children with the necessary books and clothing with which to attend 
school, then the scliool-trustec of the township, or the hoard of school trustees or com- 
missioners of the city or incorporated town where such parent, guardian or custodian re- 
sides shall furnish temporary aid for such purpose to such ciiild or children. 

Sk( . 8. Any child who absents itself from school hahilually may he adjudged a con- 
firmed truant by the truant officer and superintendent of the schools of the county or city. 
Such confirmed truant may be sentenced by the judge of the Circuit Court to the Reform 
School for Ho>s, if a boy, or the Industrial School for Girls, if a girl, provided its age is 
within tile limits set for admission to such institution. If deemed advisable by said judge, 
such incorrigilile child or children may he sent to such other custodial institution within 
the State as may be designated by liim. 

Ora Bryant, AIai)lewood, Ind., is the county truant officer, whose duty it is to en- 
force this law. The teacher should promptly notify the truant officer of any infraction ot 
the law in his school district. Cases of habitual tardiness should be reported. 

The New School Laws* 

1. Janitors. — The trustee must now provide janitor service in all schools. The teacher 
is relieved from the responsibility of janitor service. 

2. Consolidcil'uni and TransJ^orlalioii. — A school must be discontinued when the aver- 
age daily attendance for the year goes to twelve (12) pupils or fewer, and may be dis- 
continued at the trustee's discretion when the average attendance goes as low as fifteen (15) 
pupils or fewer. 

Transportation must be furnished to all pupils of a iliscontinued school >vho live over 
two miles from another school, (irovided, that pujiils less than twelve (12) years old must 
be transportaled if more than one mile from a school. 

3. Slate Aid. — The State will aid a corporation to maintain a seven months school, it 
the corporation has a forty (40) cent tuition levy. 

4. Minimum Wage Law. — Teachers with experience will not be required to have the 
high school and professional training required by this law. 

To be eligible to a teachers' examination henceforth an inexperienced applicant must be 
a graduate from a commissioned high school or its equivalent (or must have successfully 
passed the high school examination, such as will be held in February and April in 1908), and 
must have had twelve weeks of professional training. 

The daily wage is found by multiplying 2\, 3, or 3J cents by the general average. (See 
Acts of 1907, p. 146.) 

5.^ Ii.remplii)ii far Bcf^inners. — It is now possible for a graduate of a commissioned or 
a certified high school to begin to teach ivithont an examination for a teacher's license. He 
may attend a normal school for two years and thereby secure a permit to teach for three 
years in district and village schools. At the end of the three years, he may have completed 
the work for a State Normal diploma by attending the Normal in the spring and summer, 
and then he will be forever exempt from examination. (See Acts of 1907. p. 452.) 


Life State — one. 

Sixty monllis— six. 

Exemptions account of State Normal diploma — eight. 

F.xcmptions under law of iS8() -seven. 

Thirty-six months — eighteen. 

Twenty-four months — fifty-fivc. 

Twelve months- seventy-six. 

Six months — six. 

I Ir.r.PKUKS Ctii'NTv Sell ('(U.S. T} 

In Conclusion* 

The (.'ciucatiDiial creed of tlie prestiit school managenient ma}- be briefly state(.l as follows: 

Country boys and tiii'ls are fully ecjual to the best city 
boys and girls in natural al)ility and educational possi- 
bilities ; they are. therefore, entitled to equal advantages. 
'I hi> means progressive teachers, modern eciuipment, 
graiied schools, and a diversified course of study. 

It will be iielpful in the ligiil of this creed to bring together the tlneads of our <tory, 
luaUing a i)rief statement of the work of the last four \ears, the present w(jrk, and the 
plans for the future. 

The high school course of study has been extended to four j-ears throughout the county, 
and diplomas are not given for a shorter course. Formerl\' two and three \ears was the 
rule, except that the course was extended at North Salem in u)02. Four township high 
schools ha\e been conuuissioned by the State Board of Kducation. And, on Jan. 16, 190S, 
Lizton and lirt)wnsburg were placed in the list of certified high schools, b\- the State Board 
of Education. 

Five modern buildings have been erected at Amo, Nortii Salem, Lizton, Iladlcy and 
Clayton, and a new high school building is nearing completion at Plainlield. 

Agricultural education has been somewhat emphasized through the corn shows, the 
Purdue excursions, .igricultural work in tlie grades, until finally agriculture has been made 
a regular subject in the high school course of study. 

These things are all good and all important, but not the most important work that has 
been done. The most important work and the most efTcctive has been the attempt to reach 
the teachers and improve tlie work of instruction. This work secured returns for the 
poorest i)upil in llie poorest countr\ school. It has gradually developel into the following 
lines ol elforl ; 

1. School plans for the year have been printed, distributed to the teachers, and fully 
explained at the preliminary institutes. This sets a standard toward which to work. 
For example, four years ago, the primer was completed during the first year and the first 
reader during the second year ; while now the primer, the first reader and one or two sup- 
plementary readers are all completed during the first year, and pupils are ready for tlie 
second reader at the beginning of the second year. 

2. .•Xt the close of the first week of school a report is required froni each teacher. This 
calls for the names of pupils and enables the truancy officer to know from my ofifice at 
the close of the first week of school what pupils are not in school. It calls for the program, 
and helps me in securing music in the graded schools and the lower grade history work in all 
the schools where formerly little of this work was done. I write many letters to teachers 
about their programs as soon as this report is received. This report also calls for the con- 
dition of the building and supplies needed, and enables me to bring these matters to the at- 
tention of trustees at the beginning of the school year. 

3. My visits are not mere social calls. If I find a teacher far below par in any re- 
spect, I tell him so frankly and agree to see him again within a month. My second visit 
frequently shows such improvement that it does not seem like the same school. On the 
other hand, I stand for the teachers' rights and interests with all parties, until all know that 
T am always for the frcirlirr. Teachers know when I criticise them niost s.'ven'ly, I 

j^,, Manl'.m. 

am lln-ir frii'iid aii<l ready Id lu'lp iIumii tn any prDiMDlioii for wliioli ihoy arc prcpaicd. 'llioy 
arc fiiondly, tlicroforo, and will Irccly tell mc their diriiculties. 

4. The towiisliip iiislitiite is used as an opportunity to follow up the work seen in visit- 
ing. 1 take the opportunity to talk over the work frankly, especially mentioning examples 
of superior teaching or discipline. 

5. The visiting day (see p. 54) is made an integral part of the school work and teahcers 
are assigned with especial reference to tlieir needs. 

6. Promotions from the sixlli, seventh and eighth gratlcs are now made by the prni- 
cipal, trustee, and county superintendent, acting with the teacher. This is (U'signed to re- 
lieve the teacher (jf some of the responsibility for the sixth and seventh years, to prevent 
too rapid promotion, and to recognize faithful work on the part of pupils. 

7. beginning teachers are given special help and consideration as explained on p. 52. 
It is right and proper that a leader shouUl have in mind defmite plans for the future, 

but it is seldom tlie part of wisdom to state sucii plans, except in general terms. The edu- 
cational creed staled above recpiires llic hrst far our hoys and skirls. Hut at present many 
of our boys and girls are [)OorIy provided for. Some are hcnisetl in poorly heated, badly 
lighted, and unvenlilaled buildings. Many are not in graded schools. Some do not have 
the best teachers. There is nuicli to be done. It is possible t(j do more. Our school levies 
are very low. Our tuition levy averages only twenty-one cents (21c), and runs as low as 
eight cents (8c). Most cities carry a tuition levy of forty to hfty cents. This is a wealthy 
community. There is practically no poverty. With good roads, rural mail delivery, inter- 
urbans, and many steam roads, we are in close touch with the world and enjoy almost 
every convenience. If our schools were made the equal of the best city systems, we would 
give our children an eminence and a leadership which wealth alone can never give. IVIien 
it comes to our children Irt us look forward and nhieard. .\'otIti)ig is too good for them 
that is reasonahlv x^'itliin reacli. 




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