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Full text of "Henley's twentieth century forrmulas, recipes and processes, containing ten thousand selected household and workshop formulas, recipes, processes and moneymaking methods for the practical use of manufacturers, mechanics, housekeepers and home workers"

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HENLEYS TWENTIETH CENTURY 

BOOK OF 

RECIPES, FORMULAS 
AND PROCESSES 



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HENLEY^ 
-TWENTIETH CENTURY 

FORMULAS. RECIPES 
AND PROCESSES 



CONTAINING TEN THOUSAND SELECTED HOUSEHOLD AND 
WORKSHOP FORMULAS, RECIPES, PROCESSES AND MONEY- 
SAVING METHODS FOR THE PRACTICAL USE 
OF MANUFACTURERS, MECHANICS, HOUSE- 
KEEPERS AND HOME WORKERS 

EDITED BY 

GARDNER D. HISCOX, M.K 

▲UTHOB or ''MECHANICAL MOVEMENTS, POWBRS AND DBTICBS,*' 

"COMFBB88BD AIR," **GA8« 0A8OLINB AND 

OIL XNOINXS," BTG., STG. 




1914 EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED 



NEW YORK 

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY 

132 NASSAU STREET 

1914 



u i (j i [ i ^^^HyCjOOg[C' 



J? 



COPTRIOHT, 1914 AND 1913, BT 

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY 



COPTRIQHT, 1912 AND 1907, BT 

THE NORMAN W. HENLEY PUBLISHING COMPANY 
Also, Entered at Stationers' Hall Court, London, England 



All righU reserved 



...^r34 



^' 



THE TROW PRBSa, NEW TOBX 



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PREFACE 

Ik compiling this book of formulas, recipes and processes, the Edi- 
tor has endeavored to meet the practical requirements of the home and 
workshop — ^the mechanic, the manufacturer, the artisan, the housewife, 
and the general home worker. 

In addition to exercising the utmost care in selecting his materials 
from competent sources, the Editor has also modified formulas which 
were obviously ill adapted for his needs, but were valuable if altered. 
Processes of questionable merit he has discarded. By adhering to this 
plan the Editor trusts that he has succeeded in preparing a repos- 
itory of useful knowledge representing the experience of experts in 
every branch of practical achievement. Much of the matter has been 
specially translated for this work from foreign technological period- 
icals and books. In this way the Editor has embodied much practical 
information otherwise inaccessible to most English-speaking people. 

Each recipe is to be regarded as a basis of experiment, to be modi- 
fied to suit the particular purpose in hand, or the peculiar conditions 
which may affect the experimenter. Chemicals are not always of uni- 
form relative purity and strength-; heat or cold may markedly influence 
the result obtained, and lack of skill in the handling of utensils and 
instruments may sometimes cause failure. Inasmuch as a particular 
formula may not always be applicable, the Editor has thought it ad- 
visable to give as many recipes as his space would allow under each 
heading. In some instances a series of formulas is given which appar- 
ently differ but slightly in their ingredients. This has been done on 
the principle that one or more may be chosen for the purpose in hand. 

Recognizing the fact that works of a similar character are not un- 
known, the Editor has endeavored to present in these pages the most 
modem methods and formulas. Naturally, old recipes and so-called 
trade secrets which have proven their value by long use are also 
included, particularly where no noteworthy advance has been made; 
but the primary aim has been to modernize and bring the entire work 
up to the present date. 

284534 THE editor- 

January, 1914* 

^ Digitized by Google 



Partial List of Authorities Consulted 



Apothecary, The. 
Berliner Drog. Zeitung. 
Brass World. 

British Journal of Photography.. 
Chemical News. 

Chemiker Zeitung Repertorium. 
Chemisch Technische Fabrikant. 
Chemische Zeitung. 
Chemist-Druggist. 
Comptes Renaus. 
Cooley's Receipts. 
Cosmos. 

Dekorationsmaler, Der. 
Deutsche) Drog. Zeitung. 
Deutsche Qoldschmiede Zeitung. 
Deutsche Handwerk. 
Deutsche Maler Zeitung. 
Deutsche Topfer und Ziefler Zeitung. 
Dingler's Polytechnic Journal. 
Drogisten Zeitung. 
Druggists' Circular. 
English Mechanic. 
Farben Zeitung. 
Gummi Zeitung. 
Journal der GoTdschmiedekunst. 
Journal of Applied Microscopy. 
Journal of the Franklin Institute. 
Journal Society of Chemical Industry. 
Journal Suisse d'Horlogerie. 
Keramische Rundschau. 
La Nature. 

La Science en Famille. 
La Vie Scicntiflque. 
Lack und Farben Industrie. 
Legierungen. 
Le Genie Civil. 
Le Praticien. 

Leipziger Farber und Zeugdrucker Zei- 
tung. 



Maler Zeitung. 
Metallarbeiter. 
Mining and Scientific Press. 
Neueste Erfinduneen und Erfahrungen. 
Nouvelles Scientinques. 
Oils, Colors, and Drysalteries. 
Papier-Zeitung. 
Parfumer, Der. 
Pharmaceutische Zeitung. 
Pharmaceutische Centralhalle. 
Pharmaceutische Era. 
Pharmaceutische Journal. 
Pharmaceutische Journal Formulary. 
Photo Times. 
Polytech. Centralblatt. 
Polyt. Notizblatt. 
Popular Science News. 
Pottery Gazette. 
Practical Druggist. 
Re\'ue Chronometrique. 
Revue de la Droguerie. 
Revue des Produits Chimiques. 
Revue Industrielle. 
Science, Arts and Nature. 
Science Pratique. 
Seifensiedcr Zeitung, Der. 
Seifenfabrikant, Der. 
Spatula. 

Stein der Weisen, Der. 
Sudd. Apoth. Zeitung. 
Technisches Centralblatt. 
Technische Rundschau. 
Uhland's Technische Rundschau. 
Verzinnen Verzinken Vernickeln, Das. 
Werkmeister Zeitung. 
Wiener Drogisten Zeitung. 
Wiener Gewerbe Zeitung. 
Zeitschrift fiir die Gesammte Kohlen- 
saure Industrie. 



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HENLEY'S BOOK OF RECIPES 



ABRASION REMEDY: 
See Cosmetics and Ointments. 

ABSniTHE: 
See Wines and Liquors. 

Acid-Proofing 

An Add-Prooi Table Top.— 
1. 

Copper sulphate 1 part 

Potassium chlorate. ... 1 part 
Water 8 parts 

Boil until salts are dissolved. 
2. 
Aniline h/drochlorate. S parts 
Water 20 parts 

Or, if more readily procurable: 

Aniline 6 parts 

Hydrochloric acid 9 parts 

Water 60 parts 

By the use of a brush two coats of so- 
lution No. 1 are applied while hot; the sec- 
ond coat as soon as the first is dry. Then 
two coats of solution No. 2, and the wood 
allowed to dry thoroughly. Later, a 
coat of raw linseed oil is to be applied, 
using a doth instead of a brush, in order 
to get a thinner coat of the oil. 

A writer in the Journal of Applied 
Microteopy states that he has used this 
method upon some old laboratory tables 
which hacl been finished in the usual way, 
the wood having been filled oiled, and 
Tarnished. After scraping off the varnish 
down to the wood, the solutions were ap- 
plied, and the result was very satisfae> 
tonr. 

After some experimentations the for- 
mula was modified without materially 
affecting the cost, and apparently in- 
creasing the resistance of the wood to the 
action ca strong acids and alkalies. The 
modified formula follows: 

1. 

Iron sulphate 4 parts 

Copper sulphate 4 parts 

Potassium permanga- 
nate 8 parts 

Water, q. s 100 parts 



2. 

Aniline 12 parts 

Hvdrochloric acid .... 18 parts 

Water, q. s 100 parts 

Or: 

Aniline hydrochlorate 15 parts 
Water, q. s 100 parts 

Solution No. 2 has not been changed, 
except to arrange the parts per hundred. 

Tne method of application is the same, 
except that after solution No. 1 has dried 
the excess of the solution which has dried 
upon the surface of the wood is thor- 
oughly rubbed off before the application 
of solution No. 2. The black color does 
not appear at once, but usually requires 
a few hours before becoming ebony 
black. The linseed oil may be diluted 
with turpentine without disadvantage, 
and after a few applications the surface 
will take on a cfull and not displeas- 
ing polish. The table tops are easily 
cleaned by washing with water or suds 
after a course of work is completed, and 
the application of another coat of oil 
puts them in excellent order for another 
course of work.^ Strong acids or alkalies 
when spilled, if soon wiped off, have 
scarcely a perceptible effect. 

A slate or tile top is expensive not only 
in its original cost, but also as a destroyer 
of glassware. Wood tops when painted, 
oiled, or paraffined have objectionable 
features, the latter especially in warm 
weather. Old table tops, after the paint 
or oil is scraped off down to the wood, 
take the above finish nearly as well as 
the new wood. 

To Make Wood Acid- and Chlorine- 
Proof. — Take 6 pounds of wood tar and 
12 pounds rosin, and melt them together 
in an iron kettle, after which^ stir in 8 
pounds finely powdered brick dust. 
The damaged parts must be cleaned 
perfectly and dried, whereupon they 
may be painted over with tne warm 

{>reparation or filled up and drawn off, 
eaving the film on the inside. 

Protecting Cement Against Add. — A 
paint to protect cement against acid is 
obtained dv mixing pure asbestos, very 
finely powdered, with a thick solution of 

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:ADHESIVES 



Bodiun^-'sOicate; T^^! ' sodium silicate 
must be u alkaliiie as possible. • . The 
asbestos is first rubbed with a small 
quantity of the silicate, until a cake is 
ODtained and then kept in well-dosed 
vessels. For use this cake is simply 
thinned with a solution of the silicate, 
which furnishes a paint two or three ap- 
plications of which protect the walls of 
reservoirs, etc., agamst any acid solid 
or liquid. This mass may also be em- 
ployed for making a coating of sand- 
stone. 

To Make Corks Impermeable and 
Acid-proof. — Choose your corks care- 
fully. Then plunge them into a solution 
of gelatin or common glue, 15 parts, in 
24 parts of glycerine and 500 parts of 
water, heated to 44« or 48*» C. (112*»-120* 
F.), and keep them there for several 
hours. On removing the corks, which 
should be weighted down in the solution, 
dry them in tne shade until they are free 
from all surplus moisture. They are now 
perfectly tight, retaining at the same 
time the greater portion of their elasticity 
and suppleness. To render them acicf- 
proof, tney should be treated with a 
mixture of vaseline, 2 parts, and parafiine 
7 parts, heated to about 105* F. This 
second operation may be avoided by 
adding to the gelatin solution a little 
ammonium dichromate and afterwards 
exposing the corks to the light. 

Lining for Acid Receptacles. — Plates 
are formed of 1 part of brown slate, 2 
of powdered glass, and 1 of Porthmd 
cement, the whole worked up with sili- 
cate of soda, molded and dried. Make 
a cement composed of ground slate and 
silicate of soda and smear the surface 
for the lining; then, while it is still plastic, 
apply thejMates prepared as above de- 
scribed. Instead of these plates, slabs 
of glass or porcelain or similar substances 
may be employed with the same cement. 

ACACIA, MUCILAGE OF: 

See Aahesives under Mucilages. 

ACID-PROOF GLASS: 
See Glass. 

ACID-RESISXmG PADTT: 
See Paint. 

ACIDS, SOLDERING: 

See Solders. 

ACID STAINS FROM THE SKIN, TO 
REMOVE : 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

ACID TEST FOR VINEGAR: 

See Vinegar. 



Adhesives 

GLUES: 

Manufacture of Glue.— I.—The usual 

Srocess of removing the phosphate of 
me from bones for fflue-makmg pur- 
poses by means of dilute hydrochloric 
acid has the disadvantage that the acid 
cannot be regenerated. Attempts to use 
sulphurous acid instead have so far 
proved unsuccessful, as, even with the 
large quantities used, the process is very 
slow. According to a German invention 
this difficultv with sulphurous acid can 
be avoided by using it in aqueous solu- 
tion under pressure. The solution of 
the lime goes on very rapidly, it is 
claimed, and no troublesome precipi- 
tation of calcium sulphite takes place. 
Both phosphate of lime and sulphurous 
acid are regenerated from the lyes by 
simple distillation. 

II. — Bones may be treated with suc- 
cessive quantities of combined sulphur- 
ous acid and water, from which the heat 
of combination has been previously dis- 
sipated, the solution being removed after 
each treatment, before the bone salts 
dissolved therein precipitate, and before 
the temperature rises above 74® F. — 
U. S. Pat. 783,784. 

III. — A patent relating to the process 
for treating animal sinews, preparatory 
for the ^lue factory, has been granted to 
Florsheim, Chicago, and consists in im- 
mersing animal sinews successively in 
petroleum or benzine to remove the outer 
fleshy animal skin; in a hardening or 
preserving bath, as boric acid, or alum 
or copper sulphate; and in an alkaline 
bath to remove fatty matter from the 
fibrous part of the sinews. The sinews 
are afterwards tanned and disintegrated. 

Test for Glue. — The more water the 
fine takes up, swelling it, the better it 
IS. Four ounces of the glue to be exam- 
ined are soaked for about 12 hours in a 
cool place in 4 pounds of cold water. If 
the glue has dissolved after this time, it 
is of bad quality and of little value; but if 
it is coherent, gelatinous, and weighing 
double, it is good; if it weighs up to 16 
ounces, it is very good; if as much as 
20 ounces, it may be called excellent. 

To Prevent Glue from Cracking.— To 
prevent glue from cracking, which fre- 
quently occurs when glued articles are 



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ADHESIVES 



11 



exposed to the heat of a stove, a little 
chloride of potassium is added. This 
prevents the clue from becoming drv 
enough to crack. Glue thus treated will 
adhere to glass, metals, etc., and may 
also be us^ for pasting on labels. 

PreventiJig the Putrefaction of Strong 
Glues.— The fatty matter always existing 
in small quantity in sheets of ordinary 
flue affects the adhesive properties and 
facilitates the development of bacteria, 
and consequently putrefaction and de- 
composition. These inconveniences are 
remedied by adding a small quantity of 
caustic soda to the dissolved glue. The 
soda prevents decomposition absolutely; 
with the fatty matter it forms a hard soap 
which renders it harmless. 

Liquid Glues. — 

L— Glue 8 ounces 

Gdatin 8 ounces 

Acetic acid 4 ounces 

Water 2 ounces 

Alum SO grains 

Heat together for 6 hours, skim, and 
add: 

11. — Alcohol 1 fluidounce 

Brown glue. No. 2. . 2 pounds 
Sodium carbonate . . 11 ounces 

Water Si pints 

Oil of clove 160 minims 

Dissolve the soda in the water, pour 
the solution over the dry elue, let stand 
OTer night or till thoroughly soaked and 
swelled, then heat carefully on a water 
bath until dissolved. When nearly cold 
stir in the oil of cloves. 

By using white glue, a finer article, fit 
for fancy work, may be made. 

III.— -Dissolve by heating 60 parts of 
borax in 420 parts of water, add 480 
parts dextrin (pale yellow) and 50 parts 
of glucose and heat carefully with con- 
tinued stirring, to complete solution; 
replace the evaporated water and pour 
through flannel. 

The glue made in this way remains 
dear quite a long time, and possesses 
gr«it adhesive power; it also dries very 
quickly, but upon careless and extended 
heating above 90* C. (194*» F.), it is apt 
to turn brown and brittle. 

IV.— Pour 50 parts of warm (not hot) 
water over 50 parts of Cologne glue and 
allow to soak over night. Sfext day the 
swelled glue is dissolved with moderate 
heat, and if still too thick, a little more 
water is added. When this is done, add 
fr«n 2} to 8 parts of crude nitric acid, 
stir wdl, and fill the lic]uid glue in well- 
corked bottles. This is a good liquid 
fiteamglue. 



V. — Soak 1 pound of good glue in a 
ouart of water for a few hours, then melt 
tne glue by heating it, together with the 
unabsorbed water, then stir in \ pound 
dry white lead, and when that is well 
mixed pour in 4 fluidounces of alcohol 
and continue the boiling 5 minutes longer. 

VI. — Soak 1 pound of good glue in \\ 
pints of cold water for 5 hours, then adu 
S ounces of zinc sulphate and 2 fluid- 
ounces of hydrochloric acid, and keep 
the mixture heated for 10 or 12 hours at 
175<» to 190"* F. The glue remains liquid 
and may be used for sticking a variety of 
materials. 

VII. — A very inexpensive liquid glue 
may be prepared b;^ first soaking and 
then dissolving gelatin in twice its own 
weight of water at a very gentle heat; 
then add glacial acetic acid in weif^ht 
equal to the weight of the dry gelatin. 
It should be remembered, however, that 
all acid glues are not generally applica- 
ble. 

Vin.— Glue 200 parts 

Dilute acetic acid. . 400 parts 
Dissolve by the aid of heat and add: 

Alcohol 25 parts 

Alum 5 parts 

IX. — Glue. 5 parts 

Calcium chloride. . 1 part 

Water 1 part 

X. — Sugar of lead 1 i drachms 

Alum 1 i drachms 

Gum arabic 2 j drachms 

Wheat flour 1 av. lb. 

Water, q. s. 

Dissolve the gum in 2 quarts of warm 
water; when cold mix in the flour, and 
add the sugar of lead and alum dissolved 
in water; heat the whole over a slow fire 
until it sho>vs signs of ebullition. Let it 
cool, and add enough gum water to bring 
it to the proper consistence. 

XI. — Dilute 1 part of official phos- 
phoric acid with 2 parts of water anci neu- 
tralize the solution with carbonate of 
ammonium. Add to the liquid an equal 
quantity of water, warm it on a water 
bath, and dissolve in it sufficient glue to 
form a thick syrupy liquid. Keep in 
well-stoppered bottles. 

XII. — ^Dissolve 3 parts of glue in small 

Sieces in 12 to 15 ot saccharate of lime. 
ly heating, the glue dissolves rapidly 
and remains liquid, when cold, without 
loss of adhesive power. Anv desirable 
consistence can be secured by varying 
the amount of saccharate of lime. Tliick 
glue retains its muddy color, while a thin 
solution becomes clear on standing. 
The saccharate of lime is prepared by 

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ADHESIVES 



dissolving 1 part of sugar in 8 parts of 
water, and after adding i part of the 
weight of the sugar of slaked lime, heat- 
ing the whole from 149° to 185° F., allow- 
ing it to macerate for several days, shaking 
it frequently. The solution, which has 
the properties of mucilage, is then de- 
canted from the sediment. 

XIII. — In a solution of borax in water 
soak a good quantity of glue until it has 
thorougnly imbibed the liauid. Pour off 
the surplus solution ana then put on 
the water bath and melt the glue. Cool 
down until the glue begins to set, then 
add, drop by drop, with agitation, 
enough acetic acid to check the tendency 
to ^ solidification. If, after becoming 
quite cold, there is still a tendency to 
solidification, add a few drops more of 
the acid. The li(|uid shoula be of the 
consistence of ordinary mucilage at all 
times. 

XIV.— Gelatin 100 parts 

Cabinetmakers' glue. 100 parts 

Alcohol 25 parts 

Alum 2 parts 

Acetic acid, 20 per 

cent 800 parts 

Soak the gelatin and glue with the 
acetic acid and heat on a water bath until 
fluid; then add the alum and alcohol. 

XV.— Glue 10 parts 

Water 15 parts 

Sodium salicylate. ... 1 part 
XVI. — Soak 5 parts of Cologne glue 
in an aqueous calcium chloride solution 
(1:4) and heat on the water bath until 
dissolved, replacing the evaporating 
water; or slack 100 parts of lime with 150 
parts of hot water, dissolve 60 parts of 
sugar in 180 parts of water, and add 15 
parts of the slacked lime to the solution, 
heating the whole to 75° C. (167° F.). 
Place aside for a few days, shaking from 
time to time. In the clear sugar-lime 
solution collected by decanting soak 60 
parts of glue and assist the solution by 
moderate heating. 

XVII. — Molasses, 100 parts, dissolved 
in 300 parts of water, 25 parts of quick- 
lime (slaked to powder), being then 
stirred in arid the mixture heated to 167° 
F. on a water bath, with frequent stir- 
rings. After settling for a few days a 
large portion of the lime will have dis- 
solved, and the clear, white, thick solu- 
tion, when decanted, behaves like rubber 
solution and makes a highly adherent 
coating. 

XVIIT. — Dissolve bone glue, 250 
parts, by heating in 1,000 parts of water, 
and add to the solution barium perox- 
ide 10 parts, sulphuric acid (66° B.) 5 



parts, and water 15 parts. Heat for 48 
hours on the water bath to 80° C. (176° 
F.). Thus a syrupy liquid is obtained, 
which is allowed to settle and is then 
decanted. This glue has no unpleasant 
odor, and does not mold. 

XIX. — A glue possessing the adhesive 
qualities of ordinary joiners* glue, but 
constituting a pale yellow liquid which is 
ready for use without reqmring heating 
and possesses great resistance to damp- 
ness, is produced by treating dry casein 
with a diluted borax solution or with 
enough ammonia solution to cause a 
faintly alkaline reaction. The prepara- 
tion may be employed alone or mixed 
with liquid starch in any proportion. 

Glue for Celluloid.— I.— Two parts 
shellac, 3 parts spirits of camphor, and 4 
parts strong alcohol dissolved in a warm 
place, give an excellent gluing agent to fix 
wood, tin, and other bodies to celluloid. 
The glue must be kept well corked up. 

II. — A collodion solution may be used, 
or an alcoholic solution of fine celluloid 
shavings. 

Glue to Form Paper Pads. — 

I. — Glue. 8J ounces 

Glycerine 8 ounces 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 
Pour upon the glue more than enough 
water to cover it and let stand for several 
hours, then decant the greater portion of 
the water; apply heat until the glue is 
dissolved, and add the glycerin. If the 
mixture is too thick, add more water. 

II. — Glue 6 ounces 

Alum . . . .^ 30 grains 

Acetic acid } ounce 

Alcohol 1 i ounces 

Water ej ounces 

Mix all but the alcohol, digest on a 
water bath till the glue is dissolved, allow 
to cool and add the alcohol. 

III. — Glue 5 ounces 

Water 1 ounce 

Calcium chloride. . 1 ounce 
Dissolve the calcium chloride in the 
water, add the glue, macerate until it is 
thoroughly softened, and then heat until 
completely dissolved. 

IV.— Glue. 20 ounces 

Glycerine 5 ounces 

Syrupy glucose. . . 1 ounce 

Tannin 50 grains 

Cover the plue with cold water, and let 
stand over night. In the morning pour 
off superfluous water, throw the glue on 
muslin, and manipulate so as to get rid 
of as much moisture as possible, then put 
in a water bath and melt. Add the glyc- 

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ADHESIVES 



18 



erine and syrup, and stir well in. Fi- 
nallj, flissolve tne tannin in the smallest 
quantity of water possible and add. 
This mixture must be used hot. 

v.— Glue 15 ounces 

Glycerine 5 ounces 

Linseed oil 2 ounces 

Sugar 1 ounce 

Soak the glue as before, melt, add the 
sugar and glycerine, continuing the heat, 
and finally add the oil gradually under 
constant stirring. 
This must be used hot. 

Glue for Tablets.— 

L — Glue 8 J ounces 

Glycerine ..... 8 ounces 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 
Four upon the glue more than enough 
water to cover it and let stand for several 
hours, then decant the greater portion of 
the water; apply heat until the glue is 
dissolved, and add the dycerine. If the 
mixture is too thick, add more water. 

H — Glue 6 ounces 

Alum 30 grains 

Acetic acid i ounce 

Alcohol 1 ^ ounces 

Water 6i ounces 

Mix all but the alcohol, digest on a 
water bath till the glue is dissolved, allow 
to cool and add the alcohol. 

in,— Glue 5 ounces 

Water ^ 1 ounce 

Calcium chloride. . . 1 ounce 
Dissolve the calcium chloride in the 
water, add the glue, macerate until it is 
thoroughly softened, and then apply heat 
until completely dissolved. 

I v.— CSue, 1 pound; glycerine, 4ounces; 
glucose syrup, i tablespoonfuls; tannin, 
Tx ounce. Use warm, and give an hour 
to dry and set on the pads. This can be 
colored with any aniline dye. 

Marine Glue. — Marine glue is a prod- 
uct consisting of shellac and caoutcnouc, 
which is mixed differently according to 
the use for which it is required. The 
quantity of benzol used as solvent gov- 
erns the hardness or softness of the glue. 

I.— One part Para caoutchouc is dis- 
solved in 12 parts benzol; 20 parts pow- 
dered shellac are added to the solution, 
and the mixture is carefully heated. 

11— Stronger glue is obtained by dis- 
solving 10 parts good crude caoutchouc 
in 120 parts benzine or naphtha which 
solution is poured slowly and in a fine 
stream into 20 parts asphaltum melted 
in a kettle, stirnng constantly and heat- 
^^- Pour the finished glue, after the 
*olTent has almost evaporated and the 



mass has become quite uniform, into flat 
molds, in which it solidifies into very hard 
tablets of dark brown or black color. 
For use, these glue tablets are first soaked 
in boiling water and then heated over a 
free flame until the marine glue has be- 
come thinly liquid. The pieces to be 
glued are also warmed and a very durable 
union is obtained. 

III. — Cut caoutchouc into small pieces 
and dissolve in coal naphtha by heat and 
agitation. Add to this solution pow- 
dered shellac, and heat the whole, con- 
stantly stirring until combination takes 
place, then pour it on metal plates to form 
sheets. W nen used it must be heated to 
SIS'" F., and applied with a brush. 

Water-Proof Glues.— I.— The glue is 
put in water till it is soft, and subse- 
quently melted in linseed oil at moderate 
beat. This glue is affected neither by 
water nor by vapors. 

II. — Dissolve a small quantity of san- 
darac and mastic in a little alcohol, and 
add a little turpentine. The solution is 
boiled in a kettle over the fire, and an 
equal quantity of a strong hot solution of 
glue and isinglass is added. Then filter 
through a cloth while hot. 

III. — Water- proof glue may also be 
produced by the simple addition of 
oichromate of potassium to the liquid glue 
solution, and subsequent exposure to the 
air. 

IV. — Mix glue as usual, and then add 
linseed oil in the proportion of 1 part oil 
to 8 parts glue. If it is desired tliat the 
mixture remain liouid, } ounce of nitric 
acid should be adaed to every pound of 
glue. This will also prevent the glue 
from souring. 

V. — In 1,000 parts of rectified alcohol 
dissolve 60 parts of sandarac and as 
much mastic whereupon add 60 parts of 
white oil of turpentine. Next, prepare a 
rather strong (^fue solution and add about 
the like quantity of isinglass, heating the 
solution until it commences to boil; then 
slowly add the hot glue solution till a thin 
paste forms, which can still be filtered 
through a cloth. Heat the solution be- 
fore use and employ like ordinary glue. 
A connection effected with this glue is 
not dissolved by cold water and even 
resists hot water for a long time. 

VI.— Soak 1,000 parts of Cologne glue 
in cold water for 12 nours and in another 
vessel for the same length of time 150 
parts of isinglass in a mixture of lamp 
spirit and water. Then dissolve both 
masses together on the w^ater bath in a 
suitable vessel, thinning, if necessary, 
with some hot water. Next add 100 



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14 



ADHESrVTES 



parts of linseed oil varnish and filter hot 
through linen. 

VII. — Ordinary clue is kept in water 
until it swells up without losiujg^ its shape. 
Thus softened it is placed in an iron 
crucible without adding water; then add 
linseed oil according to the quantity of 
the glue and leave this mixture to boil 
over a slow fire until a gelatinous mass 
results. Such glue unites materials in a 
very durable manner. It adheres firmly 
and hardens quickly. Its chief advan- 
tage, however, consists in that it neither 
absorbs water nor allows it to pass 
through, whereby the connecting places 
are often destroyed. A little borax will 
prevent putrefaction. 

VIII. — Bichromate of potassium 40 
parts (by weight); (gelatin glue, 55 parts; 
alum, 5 parts. Dissolve the glue in a 
little water and add the bichromate of 
potassium and the alum. 

IX. — This preparation permits an ab- 
solutely permanent gluing of pieces of 
cardboard, even when they are moist- 
ened by water. Melt together equal 
parts of good pitch and gutta-percha; of 
this take 9 parts, and add to it 3 parts of 
boiled linseed oil and H parts of litharge. 
Place this over the fire and stir it till all 
the ingredients are intimately mixed. 
The mixture may be diluted with a little 
benzine or oil of turpentine, and must be 
warm when used. 

Glue to Fasten Linoleum on Iron 
Stairs. — I. — Use a mixture of glue, isin- 
glass, and dextrin which, dissolved in 
water and heated, is given an admixture 
of turpentine. The strips pasted down 
must be weighted with boards and brick 
on top until the adhesive agent has hard- 
ened. 

II. — Soak 3 parts of glue in 8 parts 
water, add i part hydrocnloric acia and 
I part zinc vitriol and let this mixture 
boil several hours. Coat the floor and 
the back of the linoleum with this. 
Press the linoleum down uniformly and 
firmly and weight it for some time. 

Glue for Attaching Gloss to Precious 
Metals. — Sandarac varnish, 15 parts; 
marine glue, 5 parts; drying oil, 5 parts; 
white lead, 5 parts; Spanish white, 5 
parts; turpentine, 5 parts. Triturate all to 
torm a rather homogeneous paste. This 
glue becomes very hard and resisting. 

Elastic Glue.— Although elastic glue is 
less durable than rubber, and will not 
stand much heat, yet it is cheaper than 
rubber, and is not, like rubber affected 
by oil colors. Hence it is largely used 
for printing rollers and stamps. For 



stamps, good glue is soaked for 24 hours 
in soft water. The water is poured off, 
and the swollen glue is melted and mixed 
with glycerine and a little salicylic acid 
and cast into molds. The durability is in- 
creased by painting the mass with a solu- 
tion of tannin, or, better, of bichromate 
of potassium. Printing rollers require 
greater firmness and elasticity. The 
mass for them once consisted solely of 
glue and vinegar, and their manufacture 
was very difficult. The use of glycerine 
has remedied this, and gives great elas- 
ticity without adhesiveness, and has re- 
moved the liability of moldiness. Swol- 
len glue, which nas been superficially 
driea, is fused with glycerine and cast 
into oil molds. Similar mixtures are 
used for casting plaster ornaments, etc., 
and give very snarp casts. ^ A mass con- 
sisting of glue and glycerine is poured 
over tne model in a box. When the mold 
is removed, it is painted with plaster out- 
side and with boiled oil inside, and can 
then be used many times for making re- 
productions of the model. 

Glue for Paper and Metal. — A flue 
which will keep well and adhere tigntly 
is obtained by diluting 1,000 parts by 
weight of potato starch in 1,200 parts by 
weight of water and adding 50 parts by 
weight of pure nitric acid. The mixture 
is kept in a hot place for 48 hours, taking 
care to stir frequently. It is afterwards 
boiled to a thick and transparent consist- 
ency, diluted with water if there is^ occa- 
sion, and then there are added in the 
form of a screened powder, 2 parts of sal 
ammoniac and 1 part of sulphur flowers. 

Glue for Attaching Cloth Strips to Iron. 
— Soak 500 parts of Cologne ^ue in the 
evening with clean cold water in a clean 
vessel; m the morning pour off the water, 
place the softened glue without admix- 
ture of water into a clean copper or 
enamel receptacle, which is put on a mod- 
erate low fire (charcoal or steam appa- 
ratus). During the dissolution the mass 
must be continuallv stirred with a wood- 
en trowel or spatula. If the glue is too 
thick, it is thinned with diluted spirit, 
but not with water. As soon as the glue 
has reached the boiling point, about 50 
parts of linseed oil varnisn (boiled oil) is 
added to the mass with constant stirring. 
When the latter has been stirred up well, 
add 50 parts of powdered colophony and 
shake it into the mass witn stirring, 
subsequently removing the glue from the 
fire. In order to increase the binding 
(qualities and to guard against moisture, 
it is well still to add about 50 parts of 
isinglass, which has been previously cut 

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ADHESIVES 



15 



into narrow strips and placed, well 
beaten, in a vessel, into wnich enough 
spirit of wine has been poured to cover 
ail. When dissolved, the last - named 
mass is added to the boiling glue with 
constant stirring. The adhesive aeent 
is now ready for use and is employed not, 
it being advisable to warm the iron also. 
Appl^ glue only to a surface equivalent 
to a single strip at a time. The strips are 
pressed down with a stiff brush or a wad 
of doth. 

Glue for Leather or Cardboard.— To 
attach leather to cardboard dissolve 
good glue (softened by siifrelling in water) 
with a little turpentine and enough water 
in an ordinary glue pot, and then having 
made a thick paste with starch in the 
proportion of 2 parts by weight, of starch 
powder for every 1 part, by weight, of 
dry glue, mix the compounas and allow 
the mixture to become cold before appli- 
cation to the cardboard. 

For Wood, Glass, Cardboard, and all 
Articles of a Metallic or Mineral Char- 
acter.— Take boiled linseed oil 20 parts. 
Flemish glue 20 parts, hydrated lime 15 
parts, powdered turpentine 5 parts, alum 
S parts acetic acid 5 parts. Dissolve the 
glue with the acetic acid, add the alum. 
then the hydrated lime, and finally the 
turpentine and the boiled linseed, oil. 
Tnturate all well until it forms a homo- 
^neous paste and keep in well-closed 
nasks. Use like any other glue. 

Glue for Uniting Metals with Fabrics. 
^Colo^ne glue of good quality is soaked 
and boiled down to the consistency of 
that used by cabinetmakers. Then add, 
with constant stirring, sifted wood ashes 
until a moderately thick, homogeneous 
n)ass result*. Use hot and press the 
pieces well together during the drying. 
For tinfoil, about 2 per cent of boraac 
add should be added instead of the wood 
ashes. 

Glue or Ptote for Making Paper 

Boxes.— 

Chloral hydrate 5 parts 

Gelatin, white 8 parts 

Gum arable 2 parts 

Boiling water 30 parts 

Mix the chloral, gelatin, and gum 
arable in a porcelain container, pour the 
boiling water over the mixture and let 
stand for 1 day, giving it a vigorous stir- 
nng several times during the day. In 
cold weather this is apt to get hard and 
stiff, but this may be obviated by stand- 
ing the container in warm water for a 
few minutes. This paste adheres to any 
surface whatever. 



Natural Glue for Cementing Porcelain, 
Crystal Glass, etc.— The large shell 
snails which are found in vineyards have 
at the extremity of their body a small, 
whitish bladder filled with a substance 
of greasy and gelatinous aspect. If this 
substance extracted from the bladder is 
applied on the fragments of porcelain or 
any body whatever, which are juxtaposed 
by being made to touch at all parts, they 
acquire such adhesion that if one strives 
to separate them by a blow, they are 
more liable to break at another place 
than the cemented seam. It is necessary 
to give this glue sufficient time to dry per- 
fectly, so as to permit it to acquire the 
highest degree ot strength and tenacity. 

Belt Glue. — A glue for belts can be 
prepared as follows: Soak 50 parts of 
gelatin in water, pour off the excess of 
water, and heat on the water bath. With 
good stirring add, first, 6 parts, by 
weight, of glycerine, then 10 parts, by 
weight, of turpentine, and 5 parts, by 
weight, of linseed oil varnish and thin 
with water as required. The ends of the 
belts to be glued are cut off obliquely and 
warmed; then the hot glue is applied, and 
the united parts are subjected to strong 
pressure, aUowing them to dry thvs for 
24 hours before the belts are used. 

Chromium Glue for Wood, Paper, and 
Cloth. — I. — (a) One- half pound strong 
glue (any glue if color is immaterial, 
white fish glue otherwise); soak 12 hours 
in 12 fluidounces of cold water, (b) One- 
quarter pound gelatin; soak 2 hours in 
12 fluidounces cold water, (c) Two 
ounces bichromate of potassium dis- 
solved in 8 fluidounces boiling water. 
Dissolve (a) after soaking, in a glue pot, 
and add (6). After (a) and (b) are mixed 
and dissolved, stir in (c). ^ This glue is 
exceedinglv strong, and if the article 
cemented be exposed to strong sunlight 
for 1 hour, the glue becomes perfectly 
waterproof. Of course, it is understobd 
that tne exposure to sunlight is to be 
made after the glue is thoroughly dr^. 
The one objectionable feature of this 
cement is its color, which is a yellow- 
brown. By substituting chrome alum 
in place of the bichromate, an olive color 
is obtained. 

II. — Use a moderately strong gelatin 
solution (containing 5 to 10 per cent of 
dry gelatin), to which about 1 part of 
acid chromate of potassium in solution is 
added to every 5 parts of gelatin. ^ This 
mixture has the property of becoming in- 
soluble by water through the action of 
sunlight under partial reduction of the 
chromic acid. ^.g.,.^^^ ^^ GOOglC 



16 



ADHESIVES 



Fireproof Glue. — 

Raw linseed oil 8 parts 

Glue or gelatin 1 part 

Quicklime 2 parts 

Soak the glue or gelatin in the oil for 
10 to 12 hours, and tnen melt it by gently 
heating the oil, and when perfectly fluid 
stir in the quicklime until the whole 
mass is homogeneous, then spread out in 
layers to dry gradually, out of the sun's 
rays. For use, reheat the glue in a glue 
pot in the ordinary way of melting glue. 

CEMENTS. 

Under this heading will be found only 
cements for causing one substance to ad- 
here to another. Cements used prima- 
rily as fillers, such as dental cements, 
will be found under Cements, Putties, 
etc. 

Cutlers' Cements for Fixing Knife 
Blades into Handles. — 

I. — Rosin 4 pounds 

Beeswax 1 pound 

Plaster of Paris or 

brickdust 1 pound 

II. — Pitch 5 pounds 

Wood ashes 1 pound 

Tallow 1 pound 

III. — Rosin, 12; sulphur flowers, 3; 
iron filings, 5. Melt together, fill the 
handle wnile hot, and insert the instru- 
ment. 

IV. — Plaster of Paris is ordinarily 
used for fastening loose handles. It is 
made into a moderately thick paste with 
water run into the hole in the head of the 
pestle, the handle inserted and held in 
place till the cement hardens. Some add 
sand to the paste, and claim to get better 
results. 

V. — Boil together 1 part of caustic soda, 
3 parts of rosm, and 5 parts of water till 
homogeneous and add 4 parts of plaster 
of Paris. The paste sets in half an hour 
and is but little affected by water. 

VI. — ^"Equal quantities of gutta percha 
and shellac are melted together and well 
stirred. This is best done in an iron cap- 
sule placed on a sandbath and heated 
over a gas furnace or on the top of a 
stove. The combination possesses both 
hardness and toughness, qualities that 
make it particularly desiraole in mend- 
ing mortars and pestles. In using, 
the articles to be cemented should be 
warmed to about the melting point of the 
mixture and retained in proper position 
until cool, when they are ready for use. 

VII.— Rosin 600 ) Parts 

Sulphur 150^ by 

Iron filings 250 ) weight. 



Pour the mixture, hot, into the opening 
of the heated handle and shove in the 
knife likewise heated. 

VIII. — Melt sufficient black rosin, and 
incorporate thoroughly with it one-fifth its 
weight of very fine silver sand. Make 
the pestle hot, pour in a little of the mix- 
ture, then force the handle well home, 
and set aside for a day before using. 

IX. — Make a smooth, moderatelv soft 
paste with litharge and glycerine; fill the 
nole in the pestle with the cement, and 
firmly press the handle in place, keeping 
it under pressure for three or four days. 

Cements for Stone. — I. — An excellent 
cement for broken marble consists of 4 
parts of gypsum and 1 part of finely 
powdered gum arabic. Mix intimately. 
Then with a cold solution of borax make 
into a mortarlike mass. Smear on each 
face of the parts to be joined, and fasten 
the bits of marble together. In the 
course of a few days the cement becomes 
very hard and holds very tenaciously. 
The object mended should not be toucjied 
for several days. In mending colored 
marbles the cement may be given the hue 
of the marble by adding the color to the 
borax solution. 

II. — A cement which dries instanta- 
neously, qualifying it for all sorts of re- 
pairing and only presenting the disad- 
vantage of having to be freshly prepared 
each time, notwithstanding any subse- 

?uent heating, may be made as follows: 
n a metal vessel or iron spoon melt 4 to 
5 parts of rosin (or preferably mastic) 
and 1 part of beeswax. ^ This mixture 
must be applied rapidly it being of ad- 
vantage sligntly to heat the surfaces to be 
united, which naturally must have been 
previously well cleaned. 

III.— Slaked lime, 10 parts; chalk, 15 
parts; kaolin, 5 parts; mix, and imme- 
diately before use stir with a correspond- 
ing amount of potash water glass. 

IV.— Cement on Marble Slabs.— The 
whole marble slab is thoroughly warmed 
and laid face down upon a neatly cleaned 
planing bench upon which a woolen cloth 
is spread so as not to injure the polish of 
the slab. Next apply to the slab very 
hot, weak glue and quickly sift hot plaster 
of Paris on the glue in a thin even layer, 
stirring the plaster rapidly into the ap- 
plied glue by means or a strong spatula, 
so that a uniform glue- plaster coating 
is formed on the warm slab. Before this 
has time to harden tip the respective piece 
of furniture on the slab. The frame, like- 
wise warmed,will adhere very firmly to the 
slab after two days. Besides, this process 
has the advantage of great cleanliness. 



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17 



v.— Tlie following is a recipe used by 
marble worKers, and which probably 
can be used to advantage: Flour of sul- 
phur, 1 part; hydrocnlorate of am- 
monia, 2 parts; iron filings. 16 parts. 
The above substances must be reduced 
to a powder, and securely preserved 
in closely stoppered vessels. When the 
cement is to De employed, take 20 parts 
very fine iron filings and 1 part ot the 
alwvc powder; mix them together with 
enough water to form a manageable 
paste. This paste solidifies in 20 days 
and becomes as hard as iron. A recipe 
for another cement useful for joining 
small pieces of marble or alabaster is as 
follows: Add i pint of vinegar to \ pint 
skimmed milk; mix the curd witn the 
whites of 5 egs^, well beaten, and suffi- 
cient powderea quicklime sifted in with 
constant stirring so as to form a paste. 
It resists water and a moderate degree of 
heat 

VI.— Cement for Iron and Marble. — 

For fastening iron to marble or stone a 
jBTood cement is made as follows: Thirty 
parts plaster of Paris, 10 parts iron filings, 
] part sal ammoniac mixed with vinegar 
to a fluid paste fresh for use. 

Cement for Sandstones. — One part 
sulphur and 1 part rosin are melted 
separately; the melted masses are mixed 
and 3 parts litharge and 2 parts ground 
glass stirred in. The latter ingredients 
must be perfectly dry, and have been 
well pulverized and mixed previouslv. 

Equally good cement is obtained by 
melting together 1 part pitch and ^ part 
wax, and mixing with 2 parts brickdust. 

The stones to be cemented, or^ be- 
tween the joints of which the putty is to 
be poured, must be perfectly dry. If 
practicable, they should be warmed a 
little, and the surfaces to which the putty 
is to adhere painted with oil varnisn 
once or twice. The above two formulse 
are of especial value in case the stones 
are very much exposed to the heat of the 
sun in summer, as well as to cold, rain, 
and snow in winter. Experience has 
shown that in these instances the above- 
mentioned cements give better satisfac- 
tion than the other brands of cement. 

Cements for Attaching Objects to 
Glass.- 

Rosin 1 part 

Yellow wax 2 parts 

Mdt together. 

To Attach Copper to Glass.— Boil 1 
part of caustic soda and S parts of co- 
lophony in 5 parts of water and mix with 
the like quantity of plaster of Paris. 



This cement is not attacked by water, 
heat, and petroleum. If, in place of the 
plaster of raris, zinc white, white lead, 
or slaked lime is used, the cement hard- 
ens more slowly. 

To Fasten Brass upon Glass.— Boil to- 
gether 1 part of caustic soda, 3 parts of 
rosin, ii ^^s of gypsum, and 5 parts of 
water. The cement made in tnis wa^ 
hardens in about half an hour, hence it 
must be applied quickly. During the 
preparation it should be stirred con- 
stantly. All the ingredients used must 
be in a finely powdered state. 

Uniting Glass with Horn.— (1) A solu- 
tion of 2 parts of gelatin in 20 parts water 
is evaporated up to one-sixth ot its volume 
and i mastic dissolved in } spirit added 
and some zinc white stirrea in. The 
putty is applied warm; it dries easily 
and can be Kept a long time. (2) Mix 
gold size with tne equal volume of water 
glass. 

To Cement Glass to Iron. — 

I. — Ra<tin 5 ounces 

Yellow wax 1 ounce 

Venetian red 1 ounce 

Melt the wax and rosin on a water 
bath and add, under constant stirrir<;, the 
Venetian red previously well dried. Stir 
until nearly cool, so as to prevent the Ve- 
netian red from settling to the bottom. 

II. — Portland cement 2 ounces 

Prepared chalk 1 ounce 

Fine sand 1 ounce 

Solution of sodium silicate 
enough to form a semi- 
liquid paste. 

ni. — Litharee 2 parts 

White lead 1 part 

Work into a pasty condition by using 
S parts boiled linseed oil, 1 part copal 
varnish. 

Celluloid Cements. — I. — To mend brok- 
en draughting triangles and other cellu- 
loid articles, use S parts alcohol and 4 
parts ether mixed together and applied to 
the fracture with a brush until tne edges 
become warm. The edges are then 
stuck together, and left to dry for at least 
24 hours. 

II. — Camphor, 1 part; alcohol, 4 parts. 
Dissolve and add equal quantity (by 
weight) of shellac to this solution. ' 

III. — If firmness is desired in putting 
celluloid on wood, tin, etc., the following 
gluing agent is recommended, viz.: A 
compound of 2 parts shellac, S parts 
spirit of camphor, and 4 parts strong 

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18 



ADHESIVES 



IV. — Shellac 2 ounces 

Spirits of camphor. . 2 ounces 
Alcohol, 90 per cent. . 6 to 8 ounces 
V. —Make a moderately strong glue or 
solution of gelatin. In a dark place or 
a dark room mix with the above a small 
amount of concentrated solution of potas- 
sium dichromate. Coat the back of the 
label, which must be clean, with a thin 
layer of the mixture. Strongly press the 
label against the bottle and keep the two 
in close contact by tying with twine or 
otherwise. £xpose to sunlight for some 
hours; this causes the cement to be insol- 
uble even in hot water. 

VI. — Lime av. oz. 1 

White of egg. ..... a v. oz. 2 J 

Plaster of Paris. . . . av. oz. 5 J 

Water fl. oz. 1 

Reduce the lime to a fine powder; mix 
it with the white of egg by trituration, 
forming a uniform paste. Dilute with 
water, rapidly incorporate the plaster of 
Paris, and use the cement immediately. 
The surfaces to be cemented must first 
be moistened with water so that the ce- 
ment will readily adhere. The pieces 
must be firmly pressed together ana kept 
in tihis position for about 12 hours. 

Cementiiig Celluloid and Hard-Rubber 
Articles. — I. — Celluloid articles can be 
mended by making a mixture com- 
posed of 3 parts of alcohol and 4 parts of 
ether. This mixture should be kept in 
a well-corked bottle, and when celluloid 
articles are to be mended, the broken 
surfaces are painted over with the alcohol 
and ether mixture until the surfaces 
soften: then press together and bind and 
allow to dry lor at least 24 hours. 

II. — Dissolve 1 part of gum camphor 
in 4 parts of alcohol; dissolve an equal 
weight of shellac in such strong camphor 
solution. The cement is applied warm 
and the parts united must not be dis- 
turbed until the cement is hard. Hard- 
rubber articles are never mended to form 
a strong joint. 

HI. — Melt together equal parts of 
gutta percha and real aspnaltum. The 
cement is applied hot, and the broken 
surfaces pressed together and held in 
place while cooling. 

Sign -Letter Cements. — 

I. — Copal varnish 15 parts 

Drying oil 5 parts 

Turpentine (spirits). 3 parts 

Oil of turpentine 2 parts 

Liquefied glue 5 parts 

Melt all together on a water bath until 
well mixed, and then add 10 parts slaked 
lime. 



II. — Mix 100 parts finely powdered 
white litharge with 50 parts dry white 
lead, knead together 3 parts linseed oil 
varnish and 1 part copal varnish into a 
firm dough. Coat the side to be attached 
with this, removing the superfluous ce- 
ment. It will dry quickly and become 
very hard. 

in. — Copal varnish 15 parts 

Linseed -oil varnish . 5 parts 

Raw turpentine S parts 

Oil of turpentine. ... 2 parts 
Carpenters* glue, dis- 
solved in water ... 5 parts 
Precipitated chalk . . 10 parts 

rV. — Mastic gum 1 part 

Litharge, lead 2 parts 

White lead 1 part 

Linseed oil 3 parts 

Melt together to a homogeneous mass. 
Apply hot. To make a thorough and 
reliable job, the letters should be heated 
to at least the temperature of the cement. 
To Fix Gold Letters, etc., upon Glass. 
— I. — The glass must be entirely clean and 
polished, and the medium is prepared in 
the following manner: One ounce fish 
glue or isinglass is dissolved in water 
so that the latter covers the glue. When 
this is dissolved a quart of rectified spir- 
it of wine is added, and enough water is 
poured in to make up one-quarter the 
whole. The substance must be kept well 
corked. 

II. — Take * quart of the best rum 
and \ ounce fish glue, which is dissolved 
in the former at a moderate degree of 
heat. Then add } quart distilled water, 
and filter throush a piece of old linen. 
The glass is laid upon a perfectly level 
table and is coverea with this substance 
to the thickness of } inch, using a clean 
brush. Seize the gold leaf with a 
pointed object and place it smoothly 
upon the prepared mass, and it will be 
attracted Dv the glass at once. After 5 
minutes hold the glass slightly slantinc^ 
so that the superfluous mass can run o^ 
and leave the plate in this position for 24 
hours, when it will be perfectly dry. Now 
trace the letters or the design on a piece 
of paper, and perforate the lines with a 
thick needle, mak'ng the holes i^ inch 
apart. Then place the perforated paper 
upon the surface of the glass, and stamp , 
the tracery on with powdered chalk. The 
paper pattern is then carefully removed, 
and the accurate design will remain upon 
the gold. The outlines are now filled 
out with an oily gold mass, mixed with 
a little chrome orange and diluted with 
boiled oil or turpentine. ^ When all is 
dry the superfluous gold is washed ofi 

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19 



with water by means of a common rag. 
The back of the class is then painted 
with a suitable color. 

Attaching Enamel Letters to GUtas. — 
To affix enamel letters to glass, first 
clean the surface of the glass perfectly, 
leaving no urease or sticky substance 
of any kina adhering to the surface. 
Then with a piece of soap sketch the out- 
lines of the design. Make the proper 
division of the guide lines, and strike off 
accurately the position each letter is to 
occupy. Then to the back of the letters 
applv a cement made as follows: White 
lesd'ground in oil, 2 parts; dry white 
lead, S parts. Mix to a soft putty con- 
sistency with good copal varnish. 

With a small knife or spatula apply 
the cement to the back of the letters, 
observing especial care in getting the 
mixture well and uniformly laid around 
the inside edges of the letter. In at- 
taching ^he letters to the glass make sure 
to expel the air from beneath the char- 
acters, and to do this, work them up 
and down and sidewise. If the weather 
be at all warm, support the letters 
while drying by pressing tiny beads of 
sealing wax against the glass, close to 
the under side or bottom of the letters. 
With a putty knife, keenly sharpened 
on one edge, next remove all the sur- 
plus cement. Give the letters a hard, 
firm pressure against the glass around 
all edges to securely guard against the 
disruptive attacks of moisture. 

The seepage of moisture beneath the 
surface of the letters is the main cause 
of their early detachment from the glass. 
The removal of the letters from the 
gliass may be effected by applying tur- 
pentine to the top of the characters, 
allowing it to soak down and through 
the cement. Oxalic acid aoplied in tne 
same way will usually slick the letters 
off in a trice. 

Cement for Porcelain Letters. — Slake 
15 parts of fresh quicklime in 30 parts of 
water. Melt 50 parts of caoutchouc and 
M) parts of linseed-oO varnish together, 
and bring the mixture to a boil. While 
boiline, pour the liquid on the slaked 
lime, Uttie by little, under constant stir- 
ring. Pass the mixture, while still hot, 
through muslin, to remove any possible 
lumps, and let cool. It takes tne cement 
2 days to set completeljr, but when dry 
it makes a joint tnat will resist a great 
deal of strain. By thinning the mixture 
down with oil of turpentine, a brilliant, 
powerfully adhesive varnish is obtained. 

Water -Glass Cements. — I. — Water 
9^199 (sodium of potassium silicate), which 



is frequently recommended for cement- 
ing glass, does not, as is often asserted, 
form a vitreous connection between the 
joined surfaces; and, in fact, some of 
the commercial varieties will not even 
dry, but merely form a thick paste, 
which has a strong affinity for moisture. 
Good SO** B. water glass is, however, 
suitable for mending articles that are ex- 
posed to heat, and is best applied to sur- 
faces that have been gently warmed; 
when the pieces are put together they 
should be pressed warmly, to expel any 
superfluous cement, ana then heated 
strongly. 

To repair cracked glasses or bottles 
through which water will leak, water 
glasses may be used, the a]>plication 
being effected in the following^ easy 
manner: The vessel is warmed to induce 
rarefaction of the internal air, after 
which the mouth is closed, either hy a 
cork in the case of bottles, or by a piece 
of parchment or bladder if a wide- 
mouthed vessel is under treatment. 

While still hot, the ouUide of the 
crack is covered with a little glass, and 
the vessel set aside to cool, whereupon 
the difference between the pressure of the 
external and internal air will force the 
cement into the fissure and close it 
completely. All that is then necessary 
is to take off the cover and leave the 
vessel to warm for a few hours. Sub- 
sequently rinse it out with lime water, 
followed oy clean water, and it will then 
hold any hquid, acids and alkaline fluids 
alone excepted. 

II. — When water glass is brought into 
contact with calcium chloride, a cal- 
cium silicate is at once formed which 
is insoluble in water. It seems possible 
that this reaction may be used m bind- 
ing together masses of sand, etc. The 
process indicated has long been used in 
the preservation of stone which hss be- 
come "weathered." The stone is» first 
brushed with the water glass and after- 
wards with a solution of calcium chlor- 
ide. The conditions here are of course 
different. 

Calcium chloride must not be con- 
founded with the so-called " chloride of 
lime " which is a mixture of calcium hy- 
pochlorite and other bodies. 

To Fasten Paper Tickets to Glass —To 
attach paper tickets to glass, the em- 
ployment of water glass is efficacious. 
Care should be taken to spread this prod- 
uct on the glass and not on the paper, 
and then to apply the paper drv, which 
should be done immediately. When the 
solution is dry the paper cannot be de- 
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20 



ADHESIVES 



tached. The silicate should be some- 
what diluted. It is spread on the glass 
with a rag or a small sponge. 

JEWELERS' CEMENTS. 

Jewelers and goldsmiths require, for 
the cementing of genuine and colored 
gems, as well as for the placing of col- 
ored folio under certain stones, very 
adhesive gluing agents, which must, 
however, be colorless. In this respect 
these are distinguished chiefly by the 
so-called diamond cement and the regu- 
lar jewelers' cement. Diamond ce- 
ment is much esteemed by jewelers for 
cementing precious stones and corals, 
but may also be employed with ad- 
vantage for laying colored fluxes of 
glass on white glass. The diamond 
cement is of such a nature as to be able 
to remain for some time in contact with 
water without becoming soft. It ad- 
heres best between glass or between pre- 
cious stones. It is composed as follows: 
Isinglass 8 parts, gum ammoniac 1 part, 
galbanum 1 part, spirit of wine 4 narts. 
Soak the isinglass in water with admix- 
ture of a little spirit of wine and add the 
solution of the gums in the remainder 
of the spirit of wine. Before use, heat 
the diamond cement a little so as to 
soften it. Jewelers'^ cement is used for 
similar purposes as is the diamond ce- 
ment, and is prepared from: Isinglass 
(dry) 10 parts, mastic varnish 5 parts. 
Dissolve the isinglass in very little water, 
adding some strong spirit of wine. The 
mastic varnish is prepared by pouring 
a mixture of highly rectified spirit of 
wine and benzine over finely powdered 
mastic and dissolving it in the smallest 
possible quantity of liauid. The two 
solutions of isinglass and mastic are in- 
timately ground together in a porcelain 
dish. 

Annenian Cement. —The celebrated 
** Armenian " cement, so called formerly 
used by Turkish and Oriental jewelers 
generally, for setting precious stones, 
** facing diamonds," rubies, etc., is made 
as follows: 

Mastic gum 10 parts 

Isinglass (fish glue) . 20 parts 
Gum ammoniac .... 5 parts 

Alcohol absolute 60 parts 

Alcohol, 50 per cent. . 35 parts 

Water 100 parte 

Dissolve^ the mastic in the absolute 
alcohol; dissolve, by the aid of gentle 
heat, on the water bath, the isinglass in 
the water, and add 10 parts of the dilute 
alcohol. Now dissolve the ammoniacum 
in the residue of the dilute alcohol. Add 



the first solution to the second, mix thor- 
oughly by agitation and then add the 
solution of gum ammoniac and stir well 
in. Finally put on the water bath, and 
keeping at a moderate heat, evaporate 
the whole down to 175 parte. 

Cement for Enameled Dials.— The 
following is a good cement for enameled 
dials, plates, or other pieces: Grind into 
a fine powder 2 A parts of dammar rosin 
and 2^ parte of copal, using colorless 
pieces if possible. Next add 2 parte 
of Venetian turpentine and enough spirit 
of wine so that the whole forms a tnick 
paste. To this grind 3 parte of the finest 
zinc ^ white. The mass now has the 
consistency of prepared oil paint. To 
remove the yellow tinge of the cement 
add a trifle of Berlin blue to the zinc 
white. Finally, the whole is heated until 
the spirit of wine is driven off and a molt- 
en mass remains, which is allowed to cool 
and is kept for use. Heat the parte to be 
cemented. 

Watch-Lid Cement.— The hardest ce- 
ment for fixing on watch lids is shellac. 
If the lids are exceedingly thin the en- 
ffraving will always press through. Be- 
fore cementing it on the inside of the lid, 
in order not to injure the polish, it is 
coated with chalk dissolved in alcohol, 
which is first allowed to dry. Next melt 
the shellac on the stick, heat the watch 
lid and put it on. After the engraving 
has been done, simply force the lid off and 
'remove the remaining shellac from the 
latter by light tapping. If this does not 
remove it completely lay the lid in alco- 
hol, leaving it therein until all the shel- 
lac has dissolved. All that remains to be 
done now is to wash out the watch lid. 

Jewelers' Glue Cement.— Dissolve on 
a water bath 50 parte of fish glue in 
a little 95-per-cent alcohol, adding 4 
parts, by weight, of gum ammoniac. 
On the other hand, dissolve 2 parte, by 
weight, of mastic in 10 parte, by weight, 
of alcohol. Mix these two solutions and 
preserve in a well-corked flask. For 
use it suffices to soften it on the water 
bath. 

Casein Cemente. — 

I. — Borax 5 parte 

Water 95 parte 

Casein, sufficient quantity. 

Dissolve the borax in water and in- 
corporate enough casein to produce a 
mass of the proper consistency. 

II. — The casein is made feebly alka- 
line by means of soda.or potash lye and 
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ADHESIVES 



81 



then subjected for about 24 hours to a 
temperature of 140'' F. Next follow 
the customary admixture, such as lime 
and water glass, and finally, to accom- 
plish a quicker resinification, substances 
containing tannin are added. For tan- 
nic admixtures to the partially disinte- 
grated casein, slight quantities — about 
1 per cent — of gallic acid, cutch, or 
querdtannic acid are employed. The 
feebly alkaline casein cement contain- 
ing (anm'c acid is used in the well-known 
manner for the gluing together of wood. 

For Metals. — Make a paste with 16 
ounces casein, 20 ounces slaked lime, and 
id ounces of sand, in water. 

For Glass. — I.— Dissolve casein in a 
concentrated solution of borax. 

II.— Make a paste of casein and 
water glass. 

Pasteboard and Paper Cement. — I. — 

Let pure glue swell in cold water; pour 
and press off the excess; put on the 
water bath and melt. Paper or other 
material cemented with this is then 
immediately, before the cement dries, 
hubmitted to the action of formaldeh]rde 
and dried. The cement resists the action 
of water, even hot. 

11.— Melt together equal parts of 
good pitch and gutta percha. To 9 
parts of this mass add S parts of boiled 
linseed oil and i part litharge. The 
beat is kept up until, with constant 
stirring, an intimate union of all the in- 
gredients has taken place. The mix- 
ture is diluted with a little benzine or 
oil of turoentine and applied while still 
warm. The cement is waterproof. 

III. — The National Druggut says 
that experience with pasting or cement- 
ing parchment paper seems to show 
that about the best agent is casein 
cement, made by dissolving casein in 
a saturated aqueous solution of borax. 

IV.— The following is recommended 
for paper boxes: 

Chloral hydrate 5 parts 

Gelatin, white 8 parts 

Gum arabic 2 parts 

Boiling water 30 parts 

Mix the chloral, gelatin, and gum 
arabic in a porcelain container, pour the 
boiling water over the mixture and let 
stand for 1 day, giving it a vigorous 
stirring several times during the day. 
In cold weather this is apt to get hard 
and stiff, but this may be obviated by 
J'tanding the container in w^arm water 
for a few minutes. This paste adheres 
to any surface whatever. 



Waterproof Cements for Glass, Stone- 
ware, and Metal. — I. — Make a paste of 
sulphur, sal ammoniac, iron filings, and 
boued oil. 

II.— Mix together dry : Whiting, 6 
pounds; plaster of Paris, 8 pounds; 
sand, 3 pounds; litharge, 3 pounds; 
rosin, 1 pound. Make to a paste with 
copal varnish. 

III. — Make a paste of boiled oil, 6 
pounds; copal, 6 pounds; litharge, ft 
pounds; white lead, 1 pound. 

IV. — Make a paste with boiled oil, 
3 pounds; brickdust ft pounds; dry 
slaaed lime, 1 pound. 

V. — Dissolve 93 ounces of alum and 
93 ounces of sugar of lead in water to 
concentration, dissolve separately 152 
ounces of gum arabic in 25 gallons of 
water, and then stir in 62} pounds of 
flour. Then heat to a uniform paste 
with the metallic salts, but take care not 
to boil the mass. 

VI.— For Iron and Marble to Stand in 
Heat. — In 3 pounds of water dissolve 
first, 1 pound water glass and then 1 
pound of borax. With the solution 
make 2 pounds of clay and 1 pound of 
barytes, first mixed dry, to a paste. 

VII.— Glue to Resist Boiling Water,— 
Dissolve separately in water 55 pounds 
of glue and a mixture of 40 pounds of 
bichromate and 5 pounds of alum. Mix 
as wanted. 

VIII. (Chinese Glue).— Dissolve shel- 
lac in 10 times its weight of ammonia. 

IX. — Make a paste of 40 ounces of 
dry slaked lime 10 ounces of alum, and 
50 ounces of white of egg. 

X.— Alcohol 1,000 parts 

Sandarac 60 parts 

Mastic 60 parts 

Turpentine oil 60 parts 

Dissolve the sums in the alcohol and 
add the oil ana stir in. Now prepare 
a solution of eaual parts of glue and 
isinglass, by poaking 125 parts of each 
in cold water until it becomes saturated, 
pouring and pressing off the residue, and 
melting on the water bath. This should 
produce a volume of glue nearly equal 
to that of the solution of gums. The 
latter should, in the meantime, have 
been cautiously raised to the boiling 
point on the water bath, and then mixed 
with the hot glue solution. 

It is said that articles united with 
this substance will stand the strain of 
cold water for an unlimited time, and 
it takes hot water even a long time to 
affect it. 

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ADHESIVES 



SI, — Burgundy pitch ..... 6 parts 

Gutta percha 1 part 

Pumice stone, in fine 

powder 8 parts 

Melt the gutta percha very carefully 
add the pumice stone, and lastly the 
pitch, ana stir until homogeneous. 

Use while still hot. This cement will 
withstand water and dilute mineral 
acids. 

LEATHER AND RUBBER CEMENTS. 

1. — Use a melted mixture of gutta 
percha and genuine asphalt, applied 
not. The hard -rubber goods must be 
kept pressed together until the cement 
has cooled. 

11. — ^A cement which is effective for 
cementing rubber to iron and which is 
especially valuable for fastening rub- 
ber bands to handsaw wheels is made 
as follows: Powdered shellac, 1 part; 
strong water of ammonia, 10 parts. Put 
the shellac in the ammonia water and 
set it away in a tightly closed jar for 
3 or 4 weeks. By that time the mixture 
will become a perfectly liquid transpar- 
ent mass and is then ready for use. 
When applied to rubber the ammonia 
softens it, out it quickly evaporates, leav- 
ing the rubber in the same condition as 
before. The shellac clings to the iron 
and thus forms a firm bond between the 
iron and the rubber. 
111. — Guttapercha white. 1 drachm 
Carbon disulphide. . 1 ounce 

Dissolve, filter, and add: 

India rubber 15 grains 

Dissolve. 

Cement for Metal on Hard Rubber.— 
1. — Soak ^ood Cologne ^tueand boil down 
so as to give it the consistency of joiners* 
glue, and add with constant stirring, 
enough sifted wood ashes until a homo- 
geneous, moderately thick mass results. 
Use warm and fit the pieces well together 
while drying. 

How to Unite Rubber and Leather. — 
II. — Roughen both surfaces, the leather 
and the rubber, with a sharp glass edge; 
applv to both a diluted solution of gutta 
percha in carbon bisulphide and let this 
solution soak into the material. Then 
press upon each surface a skin of gutta 
percha i^ of an inch in thickness between 
rolls. The two surfaces are now united 
in a press, which should be warm but not 
hot. This method should answer in all 
cases in which it is applicable. The 
other prescription covers cases in which 
a press cannot be used. Cut 30 parts of 
rubber into small pieces, and dissolve 



it in 140 parts of carbon bisulphide, the 
. vessel being placed on a water bath of 
80*» C. (86* F.). Further, melt 10 parts 
I of rubber with 15 of colophony, and add 
S5 parts of oil of turpentine. When the 
rubber has been completely dissolved, 
the two liquids may be mixed. The 
resulting cement must be kept well 
corked. 

To Fasten Rubber to Wood.— I. — 
Make a cement by macerating virgin 
ffum rubber, or as pure rubber as can be 
nad, cut in small pieces, in just enough 
naphtha or gasoline to cover it. Let it 
stand in a very tightly corked or sealed 
jar for 14 days, or a sufficient time to 
become dissolved, shaking the mixture 
daily. 

II. — Dissolve pulverized gum shellac, 
1 ounce, in 0^ ounces of strong ammonia. 
This of course must be kept tightly 
corked. It will not be as elastic as the 
first preparation. 

Hi.— Fuse together shellac and gutta 
percha in equal weights. 

IV. — India rubber Bounces 

Gutta percha 4 ounces 

Isinglass 2 ounces 

BisiUphide of carbon 32 ounces 

V. — India rubber 5 ounces 

Gum mastic 1 ounce 

Chloroform S ounces 

VI. — Gutta percha 16 ounces 

India rubber 4 ounces 

Pitch 4 ounces 

Shellac 1 ounce 

Linseed oil 1 ounce 

Amalgamate by heat. 
VII. — Mix 1 ounce of oil of turpentine 
with 10 ounces of bisulphide of carbon in 
which as much gutta percha as possible 
has been dissolved. 

VIII. — Amalgamate by heat: 
Gutta percha.'. . . . 100 ounces 
Venice turpentine. 80 ounces 

Shellac 8 ounces 

India rubber 2 ounces 

Liquid storax 10 ounces 

IX. — Amalgamate by heat: 

India rubber 100 ounces 

Rosin 15 ounces 

Shellac 10 ounces 

Then dissolve in bisulphide of carbon. 
X. — Make the following solutions sep- 
arately and mix: 

(a) India rubber 5 ounces 

Chloroform 140 ounces 

\h) India rubber 5 ounces 

Rosin 2 ounces 

Venice turpentine. 1 ounce 



aDHESIVES 



28 



Cement for Patching Rubber Boots 
and Shoes. — 
L—India rubber^ finely 

chopped 100 parts 

Rosin 15 parts 

Shellac 10 parts 

Carbon disulphide, 
q. s. to dissolve. 
This vill not only unite leather to 
leather, india rubber, etc., but will unite 
rubber to almost any substance. 
U.— Caoutchouc, finehr cut 4 parts 
India rubber, finely 

cut .^ 1 part 

Carbon disulphide ... 82 parts 
Dissolve the caoutchouc in the carbon 
disulphide, add the rubber, let macer- 
ate a few days, then mash with a palette 
knife to a smooth paste. The vessel in 
which the solution is made in both 
instances above must be kept tightly 
closed, and should have frequent agita- 
tions. 

III.—Take 100 parts of crude rubber 
or caoutchouc, cut it up in small bits, 
and dissolve it in sufficient carbon bisul- 
phide, add to it 15 parts of rosin and 
10 parts of ffum lac.^ The user must 
not overlook the mat inflammability and 
exceedindy volatue nature of the carbon 
bisulphide. 

Tire Cements. — 

I.— India rubber 15 grams 

Chloroform 2 ounces 

Mastic i ounce 

Mix the india rubber and chloroform 
toother, and when dissolved, the mastic 
is added in powder. It is then allowed 
to stand a week or two before usinff. 

IL<-The following is recommended as 
^ sood for oementmg pneumatic tires to 
bicycle wheels: 

Shellac 1 ounce 

Gutta percfaa 1 ounce 

Sulphur 45 gruns 

Red lead 45 grains 

Melt together the shellac and ^tta per* 
cha, then add, with constant stirring, the 
sulphur and red lead. Use while hot. 
IlL— Raw gutta percha. . 16 ounces 
Carbon bisulphide. 72 ounces 
£au de Cologne. ... 2} ounces 
This cement is the subject of an Eng- 
lish |>atent and is recommended for 
patching cycle and motor tires, insulat- 
ing electric wires, etc. 

I v.— A good thick shellac varnish with 
which a small amount of castor oil has 
b««n mixed will be found a very excellent 
bicydc rim cement. The formula rec- 
ommeaded by £del is as folloVs: 



Shellac 1 pound 

Alcohol 1 pint 

Mix and dissolve, then add: 
Castor oil } ounce 

The castor oil prevents the cement 
from becoming hard and brittle. 

A cement used to fasten bicycle tires 
may be made by melting together at a 
gentle heat equal parts of gutta percha 
and asphalt. Apply hot. Sometimes a 
small quantity each of sulphur and red 
lead is added (about 1 part of each to 20 
parts of cement). 

CementB for Leather. — 
I.— Gutta percha ...... 20 parts 

Syrian asphalt, pow- 
dered 20 parts 

Carbon disulphide . . 50 parts 
Oil of turpentine ... 10 parts 

The gutta percha, shredded fine, is 
dissolved in the carbon disulphide and 
turpentine oil. To the solution add the 
aspnalt and set away for several davs, 
or until the asphalt is dissolved. The 
cement should have the consistency of 
honey. If the preparation is thinner 
than this let it stand, open, for a few 
days. Articles to be |Mitched should 
first be washed with benzine. 

n. — Glue 1 ounce 

<Starch paste 2 ounces 

Turpentine 1 drachm 

.Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Dissolve the g'ue in sufficient water 
with heat; mix the starch paste with 
water; add the turpentine, and finally 
mix with the glue wnile hot. 

III.— Soak for one day 1 pound of com- 
mon glue in enouffh water to cover,^ and 
1 pound of isinglass in ale droppings. 
Then mix together and heat eently un« 
til boiling. At this point add a little 
pure tannin and keep boiling for an 
nour. If the glue and isinglass when 
mixed are too thick, add water. Phis 
cement should be used warm and the 
jointed leather pressed tightly together 
tor 12 hours. 

IV. — A waterproof cement for leather 
caoutchouc, or balata, is prepared by 
dissolving gutta percha, caoutchouc, 
benzoin, gum lac, mastic, etc.. in some 
convenient solvent like carbon disul- 
phide, chloroform, ether, or alcohol. 
The best solvent, however, in the case ox 
gutta percha, is carbon disulphide and 
ether for mastic. The most favorable 
proportions are as follows: Gutta perclia, 
200 to SOO parts to 100 parts of the sol- 
vent, and 75 to 85 parts of mastic to 100 
parts of ether. From 5 to 8 parts of 
the former solution are mixed :with Ij 

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24 



ADHESIVES 



part of the latter, and the mixture is 
then boiled on the water bath, or in a 
vessel fitted with a water jacket. 

v.— Make a solution of 200 to SOO 
parts of caoutchouc, gutta percha India 
rubber, benzoin, or similar gum, in 1,000 
parts of carbon disulphide, chloroform, 
ether, or alcohol, and of this add 5 to 8 
parts to a solution of mastic (75 to 125 
parts) in ether 100 parts, of equal volume 
and boil together. Use hot water as the 
boiling agent, or boil very cautiously on 
the water bath. 

VI. — Forty parts of aluminum ace- 
Ute, 10° B., 10 parts of glue, 10 parts 
of rye flour. These materials are either 
to be simultaneously mixed and boiled, 
or else the glue is to be dissolved in the 
aluminum acetate, and the flour stirred 
into the solution. This is an excellent 
cement for leather, and is used in so- 
called art work with leather, and with 
leather articles which are made of sev- 
eral pieces. It is to be applied warm. 

Rubber Cement for Cloth.— The fol- 
lowing formulas have been recommended: 

I. — Caoutchouc, 5 parts; chloroform, 
3 parts. Dissolve and add gum mastic 
(powder) 1 part. 

II. — Gutta percha, 16 parts; india rub- 
ber. 4 parts; pitch, 2 parts; shellac, 1 
part; linseed oil, 2 parts. Reduce the 
solids to small pieces, melt together with 
the oil and mix well. 

III. — The following cement for mend- 
ing rubber shoes and tires will answer 
similar purposes: 

Caoutchouc in shavings . . 10^ FartB 

Rosin 4 > by 

Gum turpentine 40 ) weight. 

Oil turpentine, enough. 

Melt together first the caoutchouc and 
rosin, then add the cum turpentine, and 
when all is liquefiea, add enough of oil 
of turpentine to preserve it liquid. A 
second solution is prepared by dissolv- 
ing together: 

Caoutchouc 10 ) ^^^rts 

Chloroform 280 f weight. 

For use these two solutions are mixed. 
Wash the hole in the rubber shoe 
over with the cement, then a piece of 
linen dipped in it is placed over it; as 
soon as the linen adheres to the sole, the 
cement is then applied as thickly as re- 
quired. 

CEMENTS FOR METALS AND FOR AT- 
TACHING VARIOUS SUBSTANCES 
TO METALS: 
Cements for Iron. — I.— To make a 

good cement for iron on iron, make a 



thick paste, with water, of powdered 
iron, 60 parts; sal ammoniac, 2 parts, 
and sulphur flowers. 1 part. Use while 
fresh. 

II. — Sulphur flowers, 6 parts; dry 
white lead 6 parts, and powdered borax, 
1 part. Mix by sifting and keep as a 
dry powder in a closed tin box. To use, 
make into a thin paste with strong sul- 
phuric acid and press together immedi- 
ately. This cement will harden in 5 
days. 

ni. — Graphite 50 pounds 

Whiting 15 pounds 

Litharge 15 pounds 

Make to a paste with a boiled oil. 
IV. — Make a paste of white lead and 
asbestos. 

V. — Make a paste of litharge and glyc- 
erine. Red lead may be added. This 
also does for stone. 

VI. — Make a paste of boiled oil of 
equal parts of white lead, pipe clay, and 
black oxide of manganese. 

VII. — Make iron filings to a paste with 
water glass. 

Vin. — Sal ammoniac 4 ounces 

Sulphur 2 ounces 

Iron filings S2 ounces 

Make as much as is to be used at once 
to a paste with a little water. This re- 
mark applies to both the following dry 
recipes: 

IX. — Iron filings 160 ounces 

Lime 80 ounces 

Red lead 16 ounces 

Alum 8 ounces 

Sal ammoniac. . . 2 ounces 

X. — Clay. 10 ounces 

Iron filings 4 ounces 

Salt 1 ounce 

Borax 1 ounce 

Black oxide of 

manganese ... 2 ounces 
XL— Mix: 

Iron filings 180 ounces 

Lime 46 ounces 

Salt 8 ounces 

XIL— Mix: 

Iron filings 140 ounces 

Hydraulic lime . . 20 ounces 

Sand 25 ounces 

Sal ammoniac. . . S ounces 
Either of these last two mixtures is 
made into a paste with strong vinegar 
just before use. 

XIII. — Mix equal weights of zinc 
oxide and black oxide of manganese 
into a paste with water glass. 

XIV. — Copal varnish, 15 parts; hy- 
drated lime, 10 parts; glue ds nerja (of 
sinews), 5 parts; f at^rying .oil, 5 parts; 
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ADHESIVES 



25 



powdered turpentine, 8 parts; essence of 
turpentine, 2 parts. Dissolve the glue 
de nerfs on the water bath, add all the 
other substances, and triturate inti- 
mately. 

XV. — Copal varnish, 15 parts; pow- 
dered turpentine, 3 parts; essence of tur- 
pentine, 2 parts; powdered fish glue, 3 
parts; iron filings, 3 parts; ocher, 10 
parts. 

XVl. — To make a cement for cast iron, 
take 16 ounces cast-iron borings; 2 ounces 
sal ammoniac, and 1 ounce sulphur. Mix 
well and keep dry. When ready to use 
take 1 part of this powder to 20 parts of 
cast-iron borinffs and mix thorougnly into 
a stiff paste, adding a little water. 

XVIL— Litharee 2 parts 

Boiled linseed oil 2 parts 

White lead 1 part 

Copal 1 part 

Heat together until of a uniform con- 
sistence and apply warm. 

XVni. — A cement for iron which is 
said to be perfectly waterproof and fire- 
proof is made by working up a mixture 
of equal weights of red lead and litharge 
with ^ycerine till the mass is perfecUy 
homogeneous and has the consistency 
of a glazier's putty. This cement is 
said to answer well, even for very large 
iron vessels, and to be unsurpassable for 
stopping up cracks in large iron pans of 
steam pipes. 

Cement for Metal, Glass, and Porce- 
lain. — A soft alloy is prepared by mixing 
from 80 to 36 parts of copper precipi- 
tated in the form of a fine brown powder, 
with sulphuric acid of a specific gravity 
of 1.85 in a cast-iron or porcelain mor- 
tar and incorporating by stirring with 75 
parts of mercury, the acid being after- 
wards removed by washing with water. 
In from 10 to 14 hours the amalgam be- 
comes harder than tin, but when heated to 
69^"* P., it can be kneaded like wax. In 
this condition it is applied to the surface 
to be cemented, anci will fix them firmly 
together on cooling. 

Dissolve 1 drachm of ^um mastic in 3 
drachms of spirits of wine. In a sep- 
arate vessel containing water soak 3 
drachms of isinglass. When thoroughly 
soaked take it out of the water and put 
it into 5 drachms of spirits of wine. Take 
a piece of gum ammoniacum the size of 
a large pea and grind it up finely with a 
little spirits of wine and isinglass until 
it has dissolved. Then mix the whole 
together with sufficient heat. It will be 
found most convenient to place the 
vessel on a hot-water bath. Keep this 



cement in a bottle closely stoppered, and 
when it is to be used, place it in hot 
water until dissolved. 

Cements for Fastening PorceUun to 
Metal. — I. — Mix equal parts of alcohol 
(95 per cent) and water, and make a 
paste by incorporating the liauid with 
300 parts of fineN pulverized cnalk and 
250 parts of starch . 

II. — Mix finely powdered burned lime, 
300 parts, with powdered starch, 250 
parts, and moisten the mixture with a 
compound of equal parts of water and 
alcohol of 95 per cent until a paste 
results. 

III. — Cement or plaster can be used 
if the surfaces are sufficiently large; 
cement is the better article when tne 
object may be exposed to moisture or 
subjected to much pressure. A process 
which can be recommended consists in 
mingling equal weights of chalk, brick- 
dust, clay, and Romain cement. These 
materials, pulverized and sifted are in- 
corporated with linseed oil in the pro- 
portion of half a kilo of oil to 3 kilos of 
the mingled powder. The Romain or 
Romanic cement is so designated from 
the district in France where the calca- 
reous stone from which it is prepared is 
found in considerable quantity. Al- 
though its adhesive Qualities are unques- 
tioned, there are undoubtedly American 
cements equally as good. 

IV. — Acetate of lead, 46 J parts by 
weight; alum, 46} parts by weight; 
gum arabic, 76 parts by weight; flour, 
500 parts by weight; water, 2,000 parts 
by weight. Dissolve the acetate of lead 
and the alum in a little water; on the 
other hand dissolve the gum arabic in 
water by pouring, for instance, the 2 
liters of boiling water on the gum arabic 
reduced to powder. When tne gum has 
dissolved, add the flower, put all on the 
fire, and stir well with a piece of wood; 
then add the solution of acetate of lead 
and the alum; agitate well so as to pre- 
vent any lumps from forming; retire from 
the fire before allowing to boil. This 
glue is used cold, does not peel off, and 
IS excellent to make wood, glass, card- 
board, etc. adhere to metals. 

Cement for Leather and Iron. — To 
face a cast-iron pulley with leather applv 
acetic acid to the face of the pulley with 
a brush, which will roughen it by rusting, 
and then when drv apply a cement made 
of 1 pound of fisn glue and } pound of 
common glue, melted in a mixture of 
alcohol and water. The leather should 
then be placed on the pulley and dried 
under pressure. 



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ADHESIVES 



Amber Cements. — I. — To solder to- 
gether two pieces of yellow amber, 
slightly heat tne parts to be united and 
moisten them witti a solution of caustic 
soda; then bring the two pieces together 
quickly. 

II. — Dissolve in a closed bottle 75 
parts of cut-up caoutchouc in 60 parts of 
chloroform. Add 15 parts of mastic and 
let the mixture stand in the cold until all 
has dissolved. 

III. — Moisten the pieces to be joined 
with caustic potash and press them to- 
gether when warm. The union is so 
perfect that no trace of the juncture is 
visible. A concentrated alconolic solu- 
tion of the rosin over the amber, soluble 
in alcohol, is also employed for this pur- 
pose. Another medium is a solution 
of hard and very finely powdered copal 
in pure sulphuric ether. Coat both 
fractures, previously well cleaned, with 
this solution and endeavor to combine 
them intimately by tving or pressing. 

IV. — In 30 parts by weight of copal 
dissolve 30 parts by weight of alumina 
by means of a water bath. Bathe the 
surface to be cemented with this gelat- 
inous liquid, but very slightly. Unite 
the fractures and press them together 
firmly until the mixture is dry. 

Add-Proof Cements for Stoneware 
and Glass. — I, — Mix with the aid of heat 
equal weights of pitch, rosin, and plaster 
of Paris. 

II. — Mix silicate of soda to a paste 
with ground glass. 

III. — Mix boiled oil to a paste with 
china clay. 

IV. — Mix coal tar to a paste with 
pipe clay. 

y.-^Mix boiled oil to a paste with 
quicklime. 

VI.— Mix with the aid of heat: Sul- 
phur, 100 pounds; tallow, 2 pounds; 
rosin, 2 pounds. Thicken with ground 
glass. 

VII. — Mix with the aid of heat: 
Rosin. 2 pounds; sulphur, 2 pounds; 
brickdust, 4 pounds. 

VIII.— Mix with the aid of heat 2 
pounds of india rubber and 4 pounds of 
boiled oil. Thicken with 12 pounds of 
pipe clay. 

IX. — Fuse 100 pounds of india rub- 
ber with 7 pounds of tallow. Then 
make to a paste with dry slaked lime and 
finally add 20 pounds of red lead. 

X. — Mix with the aid of heat: Rosin. 
24 pounds; red ocher, 8 pounds; boiled 
oil, 2 pounds; plaster of Paris, 4 pounds. 



Add-Proof Cement for Wood, Metals, 
etc.— 

I. — Powdered asbestos ... 2 parts 

Ground baryta 1 part 

Sodium watei^glass so- 
lution 2 parts 

Mix. 

II. — To withstand hot nitric acid the 
following is used: 

Sodium water-glass so- 
lution 2 parts 

Sand 1 part 

Asbestos 1 part 

Mix. 

in. — Asbestos 2 parts 

Sulphate of barium ... 3 parts 
Silicate of sodium .... 2 parts 
By mixing these ingredients a cement 
strong enoufrh to resist the strongest 
nitric acid will be obtained. 

IV.— If hot acids are dealt with, the 
following miscture will be found to possess 
still more resistant powers: 
Silicate of sodium (50^ 

Baume) 2 parts 

Fine sand 1 part 

Asbestos 1 part 

Both these cements take a few hours 
to set. If the cement is wanted to set 
at once, use silicate of potassium, instead 
of silicate of sodium. This mixture will 
be instantly effective and possesses the 
same power of re^tance as the other. 

Directions for Repairing Broken Glass, 
Porcelain^ Bric-A-Brac. — Broken glass, 
china, bnc-k-brac, and picture frames, 
not to name casts, require each a differ- 
ent cement — in fact, several different 
cements. Glass may be beautifully 
mended to look at, but seldom so as to 
be safely used. For clear glass the best 
cement is isinglass dissolveain gin. Put 
2 ounces of isinglass in a clean, wide- 
mouthed bottle, add half a pint of gin, 
and set in the sun until dissolved. Shake 
well every day, and before using strain 
through double lawn, squeezing very 
gently. 

Spread a white cloth over the mend- 
ing table and supply it with plenty of 
clean linen rags, strong rubber bands, 
and narrow white tape, also a basin of 
tepid water and a clean soft towel. Wash 
the broken glass very clean, especially 
along^ the break, but take care not to 
chip it further. Wet both broken edges 
well with the glue, using a camel's-hair 
pencil. Fit the break to a nicetv, then 
slip on rubber bands length- ana cross- 
wise, every way they will hold. If they 
will not hold true as upon a stemmed 

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ADHESIVES 



27 



thing, a vase or jug or scent bottle, 
string half a dozen bands of the same 
size and strength upon a bit of tape, and 
tie the tape about neck or base before 
beginning the gluing. After the parts 
are joined slip another tape through the 
same bands and tie it above the fracture; 
thus with all their strength the bands 
pull the break together. The bands can 
De used thus on casts of china — in fact, 
to hold anything mendable. In glass 
mending the |^ater the pressure the 
better — if only »t stops short of the break- 
ing point. P^roperly made the isinglass 
cement is as clear as water. When the 
pieces fit true one on the other the break 
should be hardly visible, if the pressure 
has been ereat enough to force out the 
tioy bubbles, which otherwise refract 
the light and make the line of cleavage 
distressingly apparent. Mended glass 
may be used to hold dry things — as rose 
leaves, sachets, violet powder, even can- 
dies and fruits. But it will not bear 
to have any sort of liauid left standing 
in it, nor to be washea beyond a quick 
rinsing in tepid water. In wiping always 
ose a very soft towel, and pat the vessel 
dry with due regard to its infirmities. 

Mend a lamp loose in the collar with 
sifted plaster of Paris mixed to a very 
soft paste with beaten white of e^g. 
Have everything ready before wettinjj 
up the plaster, and work quickly so it 
may set in place. With several lamps to 
mend wet enough plaster for one at a 
time. It takes less than 5 minutes to 
!^, and is utterly worthless if one tries 
working it over. Metal work apart 
from the glass lieeds the soldering iron. 
Du5t the break well with powdered rosin, 
tie the parts firmly together, lav the stick 
of solder above the break, ana fetch the 
iron down on it lightly but firmly. When 
the solder cools, remove the melted rosin 
with a cloth dipped in alcohol. 

Since breakables have so unhappy a 
knack of fracturing themselves in such 
fashion they cannot possibly stand up- 
ri^hU one needs a sand box. It is only 
a box of handy size with 8 inches (» 
dean, coarse sand in the bottom. Along 
with it there should be some small leaden 
weights, with rings cast in them, run- 
ning from an ounce to a quarter pound. 
Two of each weight are needed. In use, 
tapes are tied to the rings, and the pair of 
weights swung outside the edges of the 
box, so as to press in place the upper 
part of a broken thing to which the tapes 
have been fastened. 

Set broken platters on edge in the sand 
box with the Dreak up. The sand will 
hold them firm, and the broken bit can 



be slapped on. It is the same with 
plates and saucers. None of these com- 
monly requires weighting. But ver^ 
fine pieces where an invisible seam is 
wanted should be held firm until partly 
set, then have the pair of heaviest weights 
accurateik balanced across the brolcen 
piece. The weights are also very useful 
to prop and stay topheavv articles and 
balance them so they shall not get out 
of kilter. A cup broken, as is so com- 
mon with cups, can have the tape passed 
around it, crossing inside the handle, 
then be set firmly in the sand, face down, 
and be held b^ the hanging weights 
pulling one against the other. 

The most dependable cement for china 
is pure white lead, ground in linseed oil, 
so thick it will barely spread smoothly 
with a knife. Given time enough to 
harden ^someS months), it makes a seam 
practically indestructible. The objec- 
tion to it is that it always shows in a 
staring[ white line. A better cement for 
fine china is white of egg and plaster. Sift 
the plaster three times and tie a generous 
pinch of it loosely in mosquito netting. 
Then beat the egg until it will stick to 
the plaster. Have the broken egg very 
clean, cover both with the beaten egg, 
dust well with the plaster, fit together at 
once, tie, usin^ rubber bands if possible, 
wrap loosely m very soft tissue paper, 
and bury head and ears in the sand box, 
taking care that the break lies so that 
the sand will hold it together. Leave in 
the box 24 hours. After a week the su- 
perfluous plaster may be gently scraped 
away. 

General Formulas for Cements for 
Repairing Porcelain, Glassware, Crock- 
ery, Plaster, and Meerschaum.— I. — 
An excellent cement for joining broken 
crockery and similar small articles can 
be made by melting 4 or 5 parts of rosin 
(or, better still, gum mastic) with 1 part 
of beeswax in an iron spoon or similar 
vessel. Apply while hot. It will not 
stand great neat. 

II. — An excellent cement for porcelain 
and stoneware is obtained by mixing 20 
parts of fish glue with an equal weight 
of crystallizable acetic acid and evapo- 
rate the mixture carefully to a syrupy 
consistency so that it forms a gelatinous 
mass on cooling. For use the cement 
thus obtained is made liquid again bv 
heating and applied to the fracture with 
a brush. The pieces should now be 
pressed firmly together, by winding a 
twine tightly around them, until the 
cement has hardened. 

in. — For luting vessels made of glass, 

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28 



ADHESIVES 



porcelain, etc., which are to be used to 
nold strong acids, a mixture of asbestos 
powder, water glass, and an indifferent pow- 
der (permanent white, sand, etc.) is rec- 
ommended. To begin with, asbestos 
powder is made into a pulp with three 
or four times the quantity (weight) of a 
solution of soda water glass (of 30® 
B.). The same is exceedingly fat and 
plastic, but is not very well suited for 
working, as it shrinks too much and 
cracks when drying. By an addition of 
fine writing sand of the same weight 
as the asbestos used, the mass can be 
made less fat, so as to obviate shrinking, 
without detracting from the plasticity. 
Small vessels were molded from it and 
dried in the air, to be tested afterwards. 
Put in water, the hardened mass becomes 
soft again and falls apart. Brought into 
contact, however, with very strong min- 
eral acids, it becomes even firmer and 
withstands the liquid perfectly. Con- 
centrated nitric acid was kept in such 
small vessels without the mass being 
visibly attacked or anythinj^ penetrating 
it. The action of the acid manifestly 
has the effect that silicic acid is set free 
from the water glass in excess, which 
clogs up the pores entirely and con- 
tributes to the lutation. Later on, the 
mass cannot be dissolved by pure water 
any more. The mass is also nighly fire- 
proof. One of the molded bodies can 
DC kept glowing in a Bunsen gas flame 
for about half a day after treatment with 
acid, without slagging in the least. For 
many purposes it ought to be welcome 
to have such a mass at hand. It cannot 
be kept ready for use, however, as it 
hardens a few hours after being pre- 
pared; if potash water glass is used, in- 
stead of the aodk 'composition, this in- 
duration takes pUce still more quickly. 

IV. — Cement for Glass, Porcelain, etc. 
Isinglass (fish glue) . . 50 parts 

Gum ammoniac 4 parts 

Gum mastic 2 parts 

Alcohol, 95 per cent . . 10 parts 
Water, q. s. 
^ Soak the isinglass in cold water over 
night, or until it has become swollen and 
soft throughout. In the morning throw 
off any superfluous fluid and throw the 
isinglass on a clean towel or other coarse 
cloth, and hang it up in such a way that 
any free residual water will drain awa^. 
Upon doing this thoroughly depends, in 
a great measure, the strength of the 
cement. When the gelatin has become 
thoroughly drained put it into a flask 
or other container, place it in the water 
bath and heat carefully until it becomes 



fluid, being careful not to let it come to 
a boil, as this injures its adhesive prop- 
erties (the same may be said in resard 
to glues and gelatins of all kinds). Dis- 
solve the gums in the alcohol and add 
the solution to the gelatin after remov- 
ing the same from tne water bath, and 
letting it cool down to about 160° F. 
Stir well together or mix b^ agitation. 

The following precautions must be 
observed: 1. Both surfaces to be joined 
must be absolutely clean, free from dust, 
dirt, grease, etc. 2. Where the cement 
is one that requires the application of 
heat before use, the objects to be united 
should also be heated to a point at least 
as high as the melting point of the cement. 
Otherwise, the cement on application is 
chilled and consequently fails to make a 
lasting joint. 3. The thinner the layer 
of cement the stronger the joint; avoid, 
therefore, using too much of the binding 
material. Cover both surfaces to be 
united, coapt them exactly, and press 
together as closely as possible. In this 
manner the thinnest possible layer is 
secured. 4. Bind the parts securely to- 
gether, and let remain without loosening 
or attempting to use the article for 2 or 
3 days or longer. A liquid cement ac- 
quires its full strength only after evapor- 
ation of the fluids used as solvents, and 
this can occur only from the infinitesimal 
line of exposed surface. 

V. — ^Liquid Porcelain Cement. — Fish 

glue, 20 parts; glass acetic acid, 20 parts; 
eat together until the mass gelatmizes 
on cooling. 

VI. — lake 1 ounce of Russian isin- 
glass, cut in small pieces, and bruise 
well; then add 6 ounces of warm water, 
and leave it in a warm place for from 
24 to 48 hours. Evaporate the re- 
sulting solution to about 3 ounces. 
Next dissolve \ ounce of mastic in 4 
ounces of alcoho^ and add the mastic 
solution to the isinglass in small quan- 
tities at a time, continuing the heat and 
stirring well. While still hot strain thci 
liquid through muslin. 

Vll. — For optical glasses, Canada bal^ 
sam is employed, the two pieces being firm^ 
1^ pressed together. After a while, espeJ 
cially by humidity, punctures will formj 
and the glass is separated by a mist o^ 
varying reflexes, while in certain climate^ 
the heat will melt the balsam. For all 
other glass articles which require onlv 
simple treatment, such as knobs of covers^ 
plates, etc., silicate of potash is excels 
lent. 

VIII. — Glass Cement. — Dissolve in 15(\ 
parts of acetic aoid of 96 ■ per cent, 10(] 

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ADHESIVES 



29 



parts of gelatin by the use of heat, and 
add ammonium bichromate, 5 parts. 
This glue must be kept away from the 

light. 

IX.— White glue. 10 parts 

Potassium bichromate 2 parts 
Water 100 parts 

The glue is dissolved in a portion of 
the water by the aid of heat, tne bichro- 
mate in the remainder, and the liquids 
mixed, the mixing being done in a feebly 
lighted place, and the mixture is then 
kept in the dark. It is applied in feeble 
light, being reliquefied by gentle heat, 
and the glass, the fractured pieces beinff 
tightly damped together, is tnen exposed 
to a strong light for some time. Bv this 
exposure the cement becomes insoluble. 
This is waterproof cement for glass. 

X.— Diamond Glass Cement. — Dis- 
solve 100 parts of fish glue in 150 parts 
of 90 per cent alcohol and add, with con- 
stant stirring, 200 parts of powdered 
rosin. This cement must be preserved 
in absolutely tight bottles, as it solidifies 
very quickly. 

XI —To unite objects of crystal dis- 
solve 8 parts of caoutchouc and 100 parts 
of gum mastic in 600 parts of chloro- 
form. Set aside, hermetically closed, 
for 8 days; then apply with a brush, 
cold. 

Xn.— To make a transparent cement 
for glass, digest together for a week in 
the cold 1 ounce of india rubber, 67 
ounces of chloroform, and 40 ounces of 
mastic. 

XIII. — A mixture of traumaticin, a 
solution of caoutchouc in chloroform, 
and a concentrated solution of water 
frlass make a capital cement for unit- 
ing articles of glass. Not only is the 
K>int very strong, but it is transparent. 
Neither changes of temperature nor 
moisture a£fect the cement. 

XI y. — A transparent cement for por- 
c-elain is prepared by dissolidng 75 parts 
of india rubber, cut into small pieces, 
in a bottle containing 60 parts chloro- 
form; to this add 15 parts green mastic. 
Let the bottle stand in the cold until the 
lopedients have become thoroughly dis- 

. XV. — Some preparations resist the ac- 
tion of heat and moisture a short time, 
but generally yield very quickly. The 
folloM-in^ cement for glass has proven 
most resistant to liquids and heat: 
Silver litharge .... 1,000 parts 

White lead 50 parts 

Boiled linseed oil . . 3 parts 

Copal varnish .... 1 part 



Mix the lead and litharge thoroughly, 
and the oil and copal in the same man- 
ner, and preserve separately. When 
needed for use, mix in the proportions 
indicated (150 parts of the powder to 4 
parts of the liquid) and knead well to- 
gether. Apply to the edges of the glass, 
bind the broken parts together, and let 
stand for from 24 to 48 hours. 

X\T. — To reunite plaster articles dis- 
solve small pieces of celluloid in ether; 
in a quarter of an hour decant, and use 
the pasty deposit which remains for 
smearing the edges of the articles. It 
dries rapidly and is insoluble in water. 

XVII.— To Mend Wedgwood Mortars. 
— It is easy enough to mend mortars so 
that they mav be used for making emul- 
sions and other light work which does 
not tax their stren^h too much. But 
a mended mortar will hardly be able to 
stand the force required for powdering 
hard substances. A good cement for 
mending mortars is the following: 

a, — Glass flour elutriated. 10 parts 
Fluorspar, powdered 

and elutriated 20 parts 

Silicate of soda 60 parts 

Both glass and fluorspar must be in 
the finest possible condition, which is 
best done by shaking each in fine pow- 
der, with water allowing the coarser 
particles to deposit, and then to pour off 
the remainder, which holds the finest 
particles in suspension. The mixture 
must be made very rapidly by quick 
stirring, and when thoroughly mixed 
must be at once applied. This is said 
to yield an excellent cement. 

b. — Freshly burnt plaster 

of Paris 5 parts 

Freshly burnt lime 1 part 

White of eggy sufficient 

Reduce the first two ingredients to a 
very fine powder and mix them well; 
moisten the two surfaces to be united with 
a small quantity of white of egg to make 
them adhesive; then mix the powder very 
rapidly with the white of egg and apply 
the mixture to the broken surfaces. If 
they are large, tr^-o persons should do this, 
each applying the cement to one portion. 
The pieces are then firmly pressed to- 
gether and left undisturbed for several 
da vs. The less cement is used the better 
will the articles hold together. 

c. — If there is no objection to dark- 
colored cement, the verj^ best that can 
be used is probably marine glue. This 
is made thus: Ten parts of caoutchouc or 
india rubber are dissolved in 120 parts 
of benzine or petroleum naphtha,^ with ^ 

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30 



ADHESIVES 



the aid of a gentle heat. When the so- 
lution is complete, which sometimes 
lequires from 10 to 14 da^rs, 20 parts of 
asphalt are melted in an iron vessel and 
the caoutchouc solution is poured in very 
slowly in a fine stream and under con- 
tinued heating, until the mass has be- 
come homogeneous and nearlv all the 
solvent has oeen driven oflF. It is then 
poured out and cast into greased tin 
molds. It forms dark brown or black 
cakes, which are very hard to break. 
This cement requires considerable heat 
to melt it; and to prevent it from being 
burnt it is best to heat a capsule contain- 
ing a piece of it first on a water bath until 
the cake softens and begins to be liquid. 
It is then carefully wiped dry and heated 
over a naked flame, under constant stir- 
ring, up to about 300® F. The edges of 
the article to be mended should, if possi- 
ble, also be heated to at least Stl^"" F., 
so as to permit the cement to be ap- 
plied at leisure and with care. The 
thinner the cement is applied the better 
it binds. 

Meerschaum Cements. — I. — If the ma- 
terial is genuine (natural) meerschaum 
a lasting joint can be made between the 
parts by proceeding as follows: Clean a 
clove or two of garlic (the fresher the 
better) by removing all the outside hull 
of skin; throw into a little mortar and 
mash to a paste. Rub this paste over 
each surface to be united and loin quick- 
ly. Bring the parts as closeiy together 
as possible and fasten^ in this position. 
Have ready some boiling f resit milk; 
place the article in it ana continue the 
boiling for 30 minutes. Remove and 
let cool slowly. If properly done, this 
makes a joint that will stand any ordi- 
nary treatment, and is nearly invisible. 
For composition, use a cement made of 
quicklime, rubbed to a thick cream with 
egg albumen. 

11. — Mix very fine meerschaum shav- 
ings with albumen or dissolve casein in 
water glass, stir finely powdered magne- 
sia into the mass, and use the cement 
at once. This hardens quickly. 

Asbestos Cement. — Ground asbestos 
may be made into a cement which will 
stand a high degree of heat by simply 
mixing it with a solution of soclium sih- 
cate. By subsec[uent treatment with a 
solution of calcium chloride the mass 
may be made insoluble, silicate of cal- 
cium being formed. 

A cement said to stand a high degree 
of heat and to be suitable for cementing 
glass, porcelain, or other vessels intended 
to hola corrosive acids, is this one: 



I. — Asbestos 2 parts 

Barium sulphate 3 parts 

Sodium silicate 2 parts 

By mixing these ingredients a cement 
strong enough to resist the strongest 
nitric acid will be obtained. If hot acid$ 
are dealt with, the following mixture will 
be found to possess still more resistant 
powers: 

II. — Sodium silicate 2 parts 

Fine sand 1 part 

Asbestos powder 1 part 

Both these cements take a few hours 
to set. If the cement is wanted to set at 
once, use potassium silicate instead oi 
sodium silicate. This mixture will b€ 
instantly effective, and possesses the 
same power of resistance as the other. 

Parisian Cement. — Mix 1 part of 
finely ground ^lass powder, ootained 
by ievigation, with 3 parts of finely pow- 
dered zinc oxide renaered perfectly free 
from carbonic acid by calcination. Be- 
sides prepare a solution of 1 part, hj? 
weight, of borax in a ver;^ small quantilv 
of hot water and mix this with 50 part:; 
of a highlv concentrated zinc chloride 
solution of 1.6 to 1.6 specific gravity, 
As is well known the mixture of this 

J>owder with the liquid into a soft uni- 
orm paste is accomplished only imme- 
diately before use. The induratioa U 
a stonelike mass takes place within s 
few minutes, the admixture of borai 
retarding the solidification somewhat. 
The pure white color of the powder maj 
be tinted with ocher, manganese, etc' 
according to the shade desired. 

Strong Cement. — Pour over welli 
washed and cleaned casein 12} parts o\ 
boiled linseed oil and the same amounj 
of castor oil. Boil. Stir actively an< 
add a small amount of a saturated aqu<^ 
ous solution of alum; remove from t' 
fire and set aside. After a while a mil 
looking fluid will separate and rise. T 
should be poured off. To the rcsid 
add 120 parts of rock candy syrup a 
6 parts of dextrin. 

A Cheap and Excellent Cement, 
cheap ana excellent cement, insolu 
after drying in water, petroleum, oi; 
carbon disulphide, etc., very hard wh< 
dry and of very considerable tensi 
strength, is composed of casein ai^ 
some tannic-acid compound, as, for it 
stance, calcium tannate, and is prepare 
as follows: 

^ First, a tannin solution^ is prepare 
either by dissolving a tannin salt, or I 
extraction from vegetable sources (i 
barks from certain trees, etc.), to whi« 



ADHESIVES 



81 



is added dear lime water (obtained by 
filtering milk of lime, or by letting the 
milk stand until the lime subsides) until 
no further precipitation occurs, and red 
litmus paper plunged in the fluid is 
turned blue. The iic[uid is now sepa« 
rated from its precipitate, either by de- 
cantation or otnerwise, and the precipi- 
ute is dried. In operating witn large 
quantities of the substance, this is done 
b^ passing a stream of atmospheric 
air throu^ the same. The lime tan- 
nate obtained thus is then mixed with 
casein in proportions running from 1 : 1 
up to 1 : 10, and the mixture, thoroughly 
dried, is milled into the consistency of the 
finest powder. This powder has now 
only to be mixed with water to be ready 
for use, the consistency of the prepara- 
tion depending upon the use to which 
it is to be put. 

UniTersal Cement. — Take gum arabic, 
100 parts, by weight; starch, 75 parts, by 
weight; white sugar, 21 parts, by weight; 
camphor, 4 parts, by weight. Dissolve 
the ffum arabic in a little water; also 
dissolve the starch in a little water. Mix 
and add the sugar and camphor. Boil 
on the water batn until a paste is formed 
which, on coating, will thicken. 

Cement for Ivory. — Melt together 
ec|ual parts of ^utta percha and ordinary 
pitch. The pieces to be united have to 
be warmed. 

Cement for Belts. — Mix 50 parts, by 
weight, of fish ^lue with eoual parts of 
whey and acetic acid. _ Tnen add 50 
parts, bj weight, of garlic in paste form 
and boil the whole on the water bath. 
At the same time make a solution of 
lOO parts, by weight, of gelatin in the 
5a me quantity of whey, and mix both 
liquids. To the whole add, finally, 50 
parts, by weight, of 90-per-cent alcohol 
and, after filtration, a cement is ob- 
tained which can be readily applied with 
a brush and possesses extraordinary 
binding qualities. 

Cement for Chemical Apparatus. — 
Melt together 20 parts of gutta percha, 
10 parts of yellow wax, and 80 parts of 

Size Over Portland Cement. — The 
l>est size to use on Portland cement 
molding for wall paper would ordinarily 
be glue and alum size put on thin and 
warm, made in proportion of ^ pound 
of glue and same weight of alum dis- 
solved in separate pails» then poured to- 
gether. 



Aquarium Cements. — 

I. — Litharffe 8 ounces 

Fine wnite sand ... 8 ounces 
Plaster of Paris. ... 8 ounces 
Rosin, in fine pow* 

der 1 ounce 

Linseed oil, enough. 
Drier, enough. 
Mix the first three ingredients, add 
sufficient linseed oil to make a homogene- 
ous paste, and then add a small quantity 
of drier. This should stand a few hours 
before it is used. It is said that glass 

I'oined to iron with this cement will 
>reak before it will come loose. 

II. — Litharffe 1 ounce 

Fine white sand. ... 1 ounce 
Plaster of Paris. ... 1 ounce 
Manganese borate. 20 grains 
Rosin, in fine pow- 
der 8} pounds 

Linseed varnish oil, 
enough. 
III. — Take equal parts of flowers of 
sulphur, ammonium chloride, and iron 
filings, and mix thoroughly with boiled 
linseed oil. Finally, add enough white 
lead to form a thin paste. 
IV. — Powdered graphite. 6 parts 

Slaked lime 8 parts 

Barium sulphate. . . 8 parts 
Linseed varnish oil. 7 parts 
V. — Simplv mix equai parts of white 
and red lead with a little kettle-boiled 
linseed oil. 

Substitute for Cement on Grinder 
Disks. — A good substitute in place of 
glue or various kinds of cement for fast- 
ening emery cloth to the disks of grind- 
ers of the Gardner type is to heat or warm 
the disk and apply a thin coating of 
beeswax; then put the emery cloth in 
place and allow to set and cool under 
pressure. 

Knockenplombe. — ^If 1 part of thymol 
be mixed with 2 parts ot iodoform we 
obtain a substance that retains its fluid- 
ity down to 72** C. (161.6* F.). If the 
temperature be carried down to 60** C. 
(140® F.) it suddenly becomes solid and 
hard. If, in its liquid condition, this 
substance be mixed intimately with an 
equal quantity of calcined bone, it forms 
a cement that can be molded or kneaded 
into any shape, that, at the temperature 
of the body (98® F.), becomes as hard as 
stone, a fact that suggests many useful 
purposes to which the mixture may be 
put 

Cement for General Use.— Take gum 
arabic, 100 parts, by weight; starch, 75 



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ADHESIVES 



parts by weight; white sugar, 21 parts, by 
weight; camphor, 4 parts, by weight. 
Dissolve the gum arable in a little water. 
On the other hand, dissolve the starch 
also in some water. When this is done 
add the sugar and the camphor and put 
in a water bath. Boil until a paste is 
formed, which must be rather tnin, be- 
cause it will thicken on cooling. 

Strong Cement. — Pour over well- 
washed and cleaned casein 12} parts 
of boiled linseed oil and the same amount 
of castor oil, put on the fire and bring 
to a boil; stir actively and add a small 
amount of a saturated aqueous solution 
of alum; remove from the fire and set 
aside. After standing a while a milky- 
looking fluid will separate at the bottom 
and rise to the top. This should be 
poured off and to the residue add 120 
parts of rock-candy syrup and 6 parts of 
dextrine. 

Syndeticon. — I. — Slake 100 parts of 
burnt lime with 50 parts of water, pour 
off the supernatant water; next, dissolve 
60 parts of lump sugar in 160 parts of 
water, add to the solution 15 parts of the 
slaked lime, heat to 70° or 80° C. (158"to 
176° F.), and set aside shaking fre- 
quently. Finally dissolve 50 to 60 parts 
of genuine Cologne glue in 250 parts of 
the clear solution. 

II. — A solution of 10 parts gum ara- 
bic and 30 parts of sugar in 100 parts of 
soda water glass. 

III. — A not solution of 50 parts of 
Cologne glue in 60 parts of a 20-per-cent 
aqueous calcium-chloride solution. 

IV. — A solution of 50 parts of Co- 
logne glue in 60 parts of acetic acid. 

V. — Soak isinglass (fish bladder) in 
acetic acid of 70 per cent until it swells up, 
then rub it up, adding a little water dur- 
ing the process. 

"Shio Liao." — Under this name the 
Chinese manufacture an excellent ce- 
ment which takes the place of glue, and 
with which gypsum, marble, porcelain, 
stone, and stoneware can be cemented. 
It consists of the following parts (by 
weight): Slaked powdered lime, 54 
parts; powdered alum, 6 parts; and 
fresh, well - strained blood, 40 parts. 
These materials are stirred thoroughly 
until an intimately bound mass of the 
consistency of a more or less stiff salve 
is obtained. In paste form this mass is 
used as cement; in a liciuid state it is 
emploved for painting all sorts of arti- 
cles which are to be rendered waterproof 
and durable. Cardboard covers, which 
are coated with it two or three times, be 



come as hard as wood. The Chinese paint 
their houses with "shio liao" and glaze 
their barrels with it, in which they trans- 
port oil and other greasy substances. 

LUTES. 

Lutes always consist of a menstruum 
and dissolved or suspended solids, and 
thev must not be attacked by the gases 
and liquids coming in contact with tnem. 
In some cases the constituents of the lute 
react to form a more strongly adhering 
mass. 

The conditions of application are, in 
brief: 

(a) Heatine the composition to make 
it plastic until firmly fixed in place. 

(6) Heating the surfaces. 

(c) Applying the lute with water or a 
volatile solvent, which is allowed to vola- 
tilize. 

(d) Moistening the surfaces with wa- 
ter, oil, etc. (the menstruum of the lute 
itself). 

(e) Applying the lute in workable con- 
dition and the setting taking place by 
chemical reactions. 

(/) Setting by hydration. 

(a) Setting by oxidation. 

These principles will be found to cover 
nearly all cases. 

Joints should not be ill-fitting, de- 
pending upon the lute to do what the 
pipes or other parts of the apparatus 
should do. In most cases one part of 
the fitting should overlap the otner, so 
as to make a small amount of the lute 
effective and to keep the parts of the ap- 
paratus rigid, as a luted joint is not 
supposed to be a particular!;^ strong one, i 
but rather one quickly applied, effective 
while in place and easily removed. i 

Very moderate amounts of the lute I 
should be used, as large amounts are, 
likely to develop cracks, be rubbed off, 
etc. 

A classification may be given as fol- 
lows: I 

(1) Plaster of Paris. 

(2) Hydraulic cement. 

(3) Clay. 

(4) Lime. 

(5) Asphalt and pitch. 

(6) Rosin. 

(7) Rubber. 

(8) Linseed oil. 

(9) Casein and albumen. 

(10) Silicates of soda and oxychlo^ 
ride cements. 

(11) Flour and starch. 

(12) Miscellaneous, including cor< 
compounds. 

I. Plaster of Paris is, of course, oftei 

used alone as a>r paste, which quicklj 

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soiiojoes, for gas and wood distillation 
retorts, etc., and similar places where 
quickness of setting is requisite. It is 
more often, however, used with some 
fibrous material to give it greater strength. 
Asbestos is the most commonly used 
material of these, as it will stand a high 
temperature. When that is not so im- 
portant, straw, plush trimmings, hair, 
etc., are used as binders, while broken 
stone, glass, and various mineral sub- 
stances are used as fillers, but they do 
not add anything to the strength. 
These lutes seem to be particularly suit- 
able for oO vapors and hydrocarbon 
gases. 
Formulas: 

(1) Plaster and water. 

(2) Plaster (wet) and asbestos. 

(3) Plaster (wet) and straw. 

(4) Plaster (wet) and plush trim- 

mings. 

(5) Plaster (wet) and hair. 

(6) Plaster (wet) and broken stone, 

etc. 

n. Hydraulic Cement. — Cement is 
used either alone or with sand, asbestos, 
etc. These lutes are suitable for nitric 
acid. When used with substances such 
as rosin or sulphur, cement is probably 
employed because it is in sucn a fine 
state of division and used as a filler and 
not because of any powers of setting by 
hydration. 

Formulas: 

(1) Cement — neat. 

(2) Cement and asbestos. 

(3) Cement and sand. 

in. Clay. — This most frequently en- 
ters into the composition of lutes as a 
filler, but even then the very finely divid- 
ed condition of certain grades renders 
it valuable, as it gives body to a liquid, 
such as linseed oil, which, unless stiff- 
ened,^ would be pervious to a gas, the 
clay in all ca.ses being neutral. Thus, 
for luting pipes carrying chlorine, a stiff 
paste of clav and molasses has been sug- 
gested by Theo. Koller in Die Surrogate, 
but it soon gives way. 
Formulas: 

(1) Clay and linseed oil. 

(9) Same, using fire clay. 

(3) Clay and molasses. 
^1) Is suitable for steam, etc.; (2) for 
chlorine, and (S) for oil vapors. 

IV. I4iiie is used in the old lute known 
a^ putty, which consists of caustic lime 
and linseed oil. Frequently the lime is 
replaced by chalk and china clay, but 
the lime should be, in part at least, caus- 
tic, so as to form a certain amount of 
lime soap. Lime is also used in silicate 



and casein compositions, which are very 
strong and useful, but will be described 
elsewnere. 
Formulas: 

(1) Lime and boiled oil to stiff mass. 

(2) Clay, etc., boiled oil to stiff 

mass. 

V. Asphalt and Pitch. —These sub- 
stances are used in lutes somewhat inter- 
changeably. As a rule, pitch makes the 
stronger lutes. Tar is sometimes used, 
but, because of the light oils and, fre- 
quently, water contained, it is not so 
good as either of the others. 

Asohalt dissolved in benzol is very 
useful for uniting glass for photographic, 
microscopical, and other uses. Also 
for coating wood, concrete, etc., where 
the melted asphalt would be too thick 
to cover well. Benzol is the cheapest 
solvent that is satisfactorv for this pur- 
pose, as the only one that is cheaper 
would be a petroleum naphtha, which 
does not dissolve all the constituents of 
the asphalt. For waterproofing wood, 
brick, ^ concrete, etc., melted asphalt 
alone is much used, but when a little 
parafline is added, it improves its water- 
proofing^ qualities, and in particular cases 
Doiled oil IS also added to advantage. 

Formulas: 

1. Refined lake asphalt. 

2. Asphalt 4 parts 

Parafiine I part 

3. Asphalt 10 parts 

Parafiine 2 parts 

Boiled oil 1 part 

Any of these may be thinned with hot 
benzol or toluol. Toluol is le.ss volatile 
than benzol and about as cheap, if not 
cheaper, the straw-colored grades being 
about 24 cents per gallon. 

Examples of so-called "stone cement" 
are: 

4. Pitch 8 parts 

Rosin 6 parts 

Wax 1 part 

Plaster i to « part 

5. Pitch 8 parts 

Rasin 7 parts 

Sulphur 2 parts 

Stone powder 1 part 

These compositions are used to unite 
slate slabs and stoneware for domestic, 
engineering, and chemical purposes. Va- 
rious rosin and pitch mixtures are used 
for these purposes, and the proportions 
of these two ingredients are determined 
by the consistency desired. Sulphur and 
stone powder are added to prevent the 
formation of cracks, sulphur acting chem- 
ically and stone powder mechanically 

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Where the lute would come in contact 
with acid or vapors of the same, lime- 
stone should not be the powder used, 
otherwise it is about the best Wax is a 
useful ingredient to keep the composi- 
tion from getting brittle with a^e. 

A class of lutes under this general 
grouping that are much used are so- 
called marine glues'* (q. v.). They 
must be tough and elastic. When used 
for calking on a vessel they must expand 
and contract with the temperature and 
not crack or come loose. 

Formulas: 

6. Pitch 8 parts 

Shellac 2 parts 

Pure crude rubber ... 1 part 

7. Pitch 1 part 

Shellac 1 part 

Rubber substitute .... 1 part 

These are used by melting over a 
burner. 

VI. Rosin, Shellac, and Wax. — A 
strong cement, used as a stone cement, 
is: 

1. Rosin 8 parts 

Wax 1 part 

Turpentine 1 part 

It has little or no body, and is used in 
thin layers. 

For nitric and hydrochloric acid 
vapors: 

2. Rosin 1 part 

Sulphur 1 part 

Fire clay 2 parts 

Sulphur gives great hardness and 
permanency to rosin lutes, but this com- 
position is somewhat brittle. 

Good waterproof lutes of this class 
are: 

3. Rosin 1 part 

Wax 1 part 

Powdered stone 2 parts 

4. Shellac 5 parts 

Wax 1 part 

Turpentine 1 part 

Chalk, etc 8 to 10 parts 

For a soft air-tight paste for ground- 
glass surfaces: 

5. Wax 1 part 

Vaseline 1 part 

6. A strong cement, without body, 
for metals (other than .copper or alloys 
of same), porcelain, and glass is made by 
letting 1 part of finely powdered shellac 
stand witn 10 parts of ammonia water 
until solution is effected. 

Vn. Rubber. — Because of its toughness, 
elasticity, and resistance to alterative 
influences, rubber is a very useful con- 



stituent in lutes, but its price makes its 
use very limited. 
Leather Cement. 

1. Asphalt 1 part 

Rosin 1 part 

Gutta percha 4 parts 

Carbon disulphide. . . 20 parts 

To stand acid vapors: 

«. Rubber... 1 part 

Linseed oil 8 parts 

Fire clay 8 parts 

3. Plain Rubber Cement— Cut the 
crude rubber in small pieces and then 
add the solvent. Carbon disulphide is 
the best, benzol good and much cheaper, 
but gasoline is probably most extensively 
used because of its cheapness. 

4. To make corks and wood im- 
pervious to steam and water, soak them 
in a rubber solution as above; if it is 
desired to protect them from oil vapors, 
use glue composition. (See Section IX.) 

Vin. Linseed Oil. — This is one of the 
most generally useful substances we have 
for luting purposes, if absorbed by a por- 
ous substance that is inert. 

Formulas: 1. China clay of general 
utility for aq^ueous vapors. 

Linseed oil of general utility for aque- 
ous vapors. 

2. Lime forming the well - known 
putty. 

Linseed oil forming the well-known 
putty. 

3. Red or white lead and linseed oil. 
These mixtures become very strong 

when set and are best diluted with pow- 
dered glass, clay, or graphite. There 
are almost an endless number of lutes 
using metallic oxides and linseed oil. A 
very good one, not getting as hard as 
those containing lead, is:^ 

4. Oxide of iron and linseed oil. 

DC. Casein, Albumen, and Glue. — 
These, if properly made, become very 
tough and tenacious; they stand moder- 
ate heat and oil vapors, but not acid 
vapors. 

1. Finely powdered case- 

in 12 parts 

Slaked lime (fresh).. . 50 parts 

Fine sand 50 parts 

Water to thick mush. 

A very strong cement which stands 
moderate heat is the following : 

2. Casein in very fine 

powder 1 part 

Rubbed up with sili- 
cate of soda 3 parts 

A strong lute for general purposes. 
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85 



which must be used promptly when 
made: 

3. White of egg made into a paste 
with slaked lime. 

A composition for soaking corks, 
wood, packing, etc., to render them im- 
perviQus to oil vapors, is: 

Gelatine or good glue 2 parts 

Glycerine J to 1 part 

Water 6 parts 

Oil of wintergreen, 
etc., to keep from 
spoiling. 

X. Silicate of Oxychloride Cements. — 
For oil vapors, standing the highest heat: 

1. A stiff paste of siRcate of soda and 
asbestos. 

Gaskets for superheated steam, re- 
torts, furnaces, etc. : 

i. Silicate of soda and powdered glass; 
dry the mixture and heat. 

Not so strong, however, as the follow- 
ing: 

3. Silicate of soda 50 parts 

Asbestos 15 parts 

Slaked lime 10 parts 

Metal Cement: 

4. Silicate of soda 1 part 

Oxides of metal, such 

as zinc oxide; lith- 
arge, iron oxide, 
singly or mixed 1 part 

^ Very hard and extra strong composi- 
tions: 

5. Zinc oxide 2 parts 

Zinc chloride 1 part 

Water to make a paste. 

6. Magnesium oxide ... 2 parts 
JVIagnesium chloride. 1 part 
Water to make a paste. 

XI. Flour and Starch Compogitioiis. — 

1. The well-known flaxseed poultice 
sets very tough, but does not stand water 
or condensea steam. 

2. Flour and molasses, made by mak- 
ing a stiff composition of the two. 
This is an excellent lute to have at hand 
si all times for emergency use, etc. 

3. Stiff paste of flour and strong einc- 
chloride solution forms a more imper- 
vious lute, and is more permanent as 
a cement. This is good for most pur- 
poses, at ordinary temperature, where it 
would not be in contact with nitric-acid 
vapors or condensing steam. 

4. A mixture of dextrine and fine sand 
makes a good composition, mainly used 
*s core compound. 

Xn. MtsceUaneoua. — 

1. litharge. 
Glycerine. 



Mixed to form a stiff paste, sets and 
becomes very hard and strong, and is very 
useful for inserting glass tubes, etc., in 
iron or brass. 
For a high heat: 

2. Alumina l part 

Sand 4 parts 

Slaked lime 1 part 

Borax } part 

Water sufficient. 
A class of mixtures that can be classi- 
fied only according to their intended use 
are core compounds. 

I. — Dextrine, about 1 part 

Sand, about 10 parts 

With enough water to form a paste. 
II. — Powdered anthracite coal, with 
molasses to form a stiff paste. 
III. — Rosin, parti V saponi- 
fied by soda lye .... 1 part 

Flour.... 2 parts 

Sand (with sufficient 

water) 4 parts 

(These proportions are approximate 
and the amount of sand can be increased 
for some purposes.) 

IV. — Glue, powdered 1 part 

Flour 4 parts 

Sand (with sufficient 

water) 6 parts 

For some purposes the following mix- 
ture is used. It does not seem to be a 
gasket or a core compound: 
v.— Oats (or wheat) ground 25 parts 

Glue, powdered 6 parts 

Sal ammoniac 1 part 

Paper read by Samuel 5. Sadiler before 
the Franklin InstUvie. 

PASTES: 

Dextrine Pastes. — 

I. — Borax, powdered.. . . 60 parts 
Dextrine, light yellow. 480 parts 

Glucose 50 parts 

Water 420 parts 

Bv the aid of heat, dissolve the borax 
in tne water and add the dextrine and 
glucose. Continue the heat, but do not 
let the mixture boil, and stir constantlv 
until a homogeneous solution is obtainecl, 
from time to time renewing the water 
lost by evaporation with hot water. 
Finally, bring up to full weight (1,000 
parts) by the addition of hot water, then 
strain through flannel. Prepared in this 
manner the paste remains bright and 
clear for a long time. It has extraor- 
dinarv adhesive properties and dries very 
rapidly. If care is not taken to keep the 
cooking temperature below the boiling 
point of water, the paste is apt to become 
Drown and to be very brittle on drying. 

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ADHESIVES 



II. — Dissolve in hot water a sufficient 
quantity of dextrine to bring it to the 
consistency of honey. This forms a 
strong adhesive paste that will keep a 
long time unchanged, if the water is not 
allowed to evaporate. Sheets of paper 
may be prepared for extempore labels 
bv coating one side with the paste and 
allowing it to dry; by slishtly wetting 
the gummed side, the label will adhere 
to glass. This paste is very useful in the 
office or laboratory. 

III. — Pour over 1,000 parts of dextrine 
450 parts of soft water and stir the mix- 
ture for 10 minutes. After the dextrine 
has absorbed the water, put the mixture 
over the fire, or, prcferaoly, on a water 
bath, and heat, with lively stirring for 
5 minutes, or until it forms a light milk- 
like liquid, on the surface of which lit- 
tle bubbles begin to form and the liquid 
is apparently beginning to boil. Do 
not allow it to come to a boil. Re- 
move from the fire and set in a bucket 
of cold water to cool oflF. When cold 
add to every 1,000 parts of the solution 
51 parts ^Ivcerine and as much salicylic 
acid as will stand on the tip of a knife 
blade. If the solution is too thick, thin 
it with water that has been boiled and 
cooled^ off again. Do not add any more 
glycerine or the solution will never set. 

IV.— Soften 175 parts of thick dex- 
trine with cold water and 250 parts of 
boiling water added. Boil for 5 minutes 
and then add 30 parts of dilute acetic 
acid, 30 parts glycerine, and a drop or 
two of clove oil. 

V. — Powder coarsely 400 parts dex- 
trine and dissolve in 600 parts of water. 
Add 20 parts glycerine and 10 parts glu- 
cose and heat to 90° C. (195° P.). 

VI. — Stir 400 parts of dextrine with 
water and thin the mass with 200 parts 
more water, 20 parts glucose, and 10 
parts aluminum sulphate. Heat the 
whole to 90° C. (195° F.) in the water 
bath until the whole mass becomes clear 
and liquid. 

VII. — Warm 2 parts of dextrine, 5 
parts of water, 1 part of acetic acid, 1 
part of alcohol together, with occasional 
stirring until a complete solution is at- 
tained. 

VIII. — Dissolve bv the aid of heat 100 
parts of builders* glue in 200 parts of 
water add 2 parts of bleached shellac 
dissolved previously in 50 parts of alcohol. 
Dissolve by the aid of heat 50 parts of dex- 
trine m 50 parts of water, and mix the two 
solutions by stirring the second slowlv 
into the first. Strain the mixture through 
a cloth into a shallow dish and let it 
harden. When needed cut off a piece of 



sufficient size and warm until it becomes 
liquid and if necessary or advisable thin 
with water. 

IX. — Stir up 10 parts of dextrine with 
sufficient water to make a thick broth. 
Then, over a light fire, heat and add 25 
parts of sodium water glass. 

X. — Dissolve 5 parts of dextrme in 
water and add 1 part of alum. 

Fastening Cork to Metal. — In fasten- 
ing cork to iron and brass, even when 
these are lacquered, a good sealing wax 
containing shellac will be found to serve 
the purpose nicely. Wax prepared with 
rosin is not suitable. The cork surface 
is painted with the melted sealing wax. 
The surface of the metal is heated with 
a spirit flame entirely free from soot, 
until the sealing wax melts when pressed 
upon the metallic surface. The wax is 
held in the flame until it burns, and it is 
then applied to the hot surface of the 
metal. The cork surface painted with 
sealing wax is now held in the flame, and 
as soon as the wax begins to melt the 
cork is pressed firmly on the metallic sur- 
face bearing the wax. 

To Paste Celluloid on Wood, Tin, or 
Leather. — To attach celluloid to wood, 
tin, or leather, a mixture of 1 part of 
shellac, 1 part of spirit of camphor, S to 
4 parts of alcohol and spirit of camphor (90°) 
is well adapted, in which 1 part of cam- 
phor is dissolved without neating in 7 
parts of spirit of wine of 0.832 specific 
gravity, adding 2 parts of water. 

To Paste Paper Signs on Metal or 
Cloth. —-A piece of gutt^ percha of the 
same size as the label^ is laid under the 
latter and the whole is heated. If the 
heating cannot be accomplished by means 
of a spirit lamp the label should be ironed 
down under a protective cloth or paper 
in the same manner as woolen goods are 
pressed. This method is also very use- 
lul for attaching paper labels to minerals. 

Paste for Fastening Leather, Oilcloth, 
or Similar Stuff to Table or Desk Tops, 
etc. — Use the same paste for leather as 
for oilcloth or other goods, but moisten 
the leather before applying the paste. 
Prepare the paste as follows: Mjx 2} 
pounds of good wheat flour with 2 
tablespoonfuls of pulverized gum ara- 
ble or powdered rosin and 2 table- 
spoonfuls of pulverized alum in a clean 
dish with water enough to make a uni- 
formly thick batter; set it over a slow 
fire and stir continuously until the paste 
is uniform and free from lumps. When 
the mass has become so stout that the 
wooden spoon or stick will stand in it 



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87 



upright, it is taken from the fire and 
placed in another dish and covered so 
that no skin will form on top. When 
cold, the table or desk top, etc., is 
covered with a thin coat of the paste, the 
cloth, etc., carefully laid on and smoothed 
from the center toward the edges with 
a rolling pin. The trimming of edges is 
accomplished when the paste has dried. 
To smooth out the leather after pasting, a 
woolen cloth is of the best service. 

To Paste Paper on Smooth Iron. — 
Over a water bath dissolve 200 parts, by 
weight, of gelatine in 150 parts, by weight, 
of water; while stirring add 50 parts, by 
weight, of acetic acid, 50 parts alco- 
hol, and 50 parts, by weight, of pulver- 
ized alum. The spot upon which it is 
desired to attach the paper must first 
be rubbed with a bit of nne emery paper. 

Paste for Affixing Cloth to Metal.— 

Starch 20 parte 

Sugar 10 parts 

Zinc chloride 1 part 

Water 100 parte 

Mix the ingredients and stir .until a 
perfectly smooth liquid resulte entirely 
tree from lumps, then warm gradually 
until the liquid thickens. 

To Fix Paper upon Polished Metal.— 
Dissolve 400 parte, by weight, of dextrine 
in 600 parte, by weight, of water; add 
to this 10 parte, by weight, of glucose, 
and heat almost to boiling. 

Albumen Paste. — Fresh egg albumen 
k recommended as a paste for affixing 
labels on bottles. It is said that labels 
put on with this substance, and well 
dried at the time, will not loosen even 
when bottles are put into water and left 
there for some time. Albumen, dry, is 
almost proof a|!;ainst mold or ferments. 
As to cost, it IS but little if any higher 
than gum arabic, the white of one egg 
hein^ sufficient to attach at least 100 
medium-sized labels. 

Paste for Parchment Paper.— The best 
agent is made by dissolving casein in a 
saturated aqueous solution of borax. 

Medical Paste. — As an adhesive agent 
for medicinal purposes Professor Reihl, 
of Leipsic, recommends the viscous sub- 
stance contained in the white mistletoe. 
It is largely present in the berries and 
the bark of the plant; it is called viscin, 
and can be produced at one-tenth the 
price of caoutchouc. Solutions in ben- 
zine may be used like those of caout- 
chouc without causing any irritation if 
applied mixed with medicinal remedies 
to the skin. 



Paste That WiU Not Mold.— Mix good 
white flour with cold water into a thick 
paste. Be sure to stir out all the lumps; 
then add boiling water, stirring all the 
time until thoroughly cooked. To 6 
quarte of this add ^ pound light brown 
sugar and { ounce corrosive sublimate, 
dissolved in a little hot water. When the 
paste is cool add 1 drachm oil of lavender. 
This paste will keep for a long time. 

Pastins Wood and Cardboard on 
Metal. — In a little water dissolve 50 parte 
of lead acetate and 5 parte of alum. In 
another receptacle dissolve 75 parts of 

fum arabic in 2,000 parte of water, 
nto this gum-arabic solution pour 500 
parte of nour, stirring constantly, and 
neat graduallv to the boiling point. 
Mingle the solution first prepared with 
the second solution. It snould be kept 
in mind that, owing to the lead acetate, 
this preparation is poisonous. 

Agar Agar Paste.— The agar agar is 
broken up small, wetted with water, and 
exposed in an earthenware vessel to the ac- 
tion of ozone pumped under pressure into 
the vessel from the ozonizing apparatus. 
About an hour of this bleaches tne agar 
agar and makes it freely soluble in boil- 
ing water, when solutions far more con- 
centrated than has hitherto been possible 
can be prepared. On cooling, tne solu- 
tions assume a milky appearance, but 
form no lumps and are readily relique- 
fied by heating. If the solution is com- 
pletely evaporated, as of course happens 
when the adhesive is allowed to dry after 
use, it leaves a firmly holding mass which 
is insoluble in cold water. Among the 
uses to which the preparation can be 
applied are the dressing of textile fabrics 
and paper sizing, and the production of 
photographic papers, as well as the or- 
dinary uses of an adhesive. 

Strongly Adhesive Paste. — Four parts 
glue are soaked a few hours in 15 parts 
cold water, and moderately heated till 
the solution becomes perfectly clear, 
when 65 parte boiling water are added, 
while stirring. In another vessel 80 
parts boiled starch are previously stirred 
together with 20 parte cold water, so 
that a thin, milkj^ liquid without lumps 
results. ^ The ^ boiling glue solution is 
poured into this while stirring constantly, 
and the whole is kept boiling another 10 
minutes. 

Paste for Tissue Paper. — 
(a) Pulverized gum ara- 
bic 2 ounces 

White sugar 4 drachms 

Boiling water 3 fluidounces 

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88 



ADHESIVES 



(6) Common laundry 

starch 1} ounces 

Cold water 3 fluidounces 

Make into a batter and pour into 

Boiling water 32 fluidounces 

Mix (a) with (6), and keep in a wide- 
mouthed bottle. 

Waterproof and Addproof Pastes. — 

I. — Chromic acid 2 J parts 

Stronger ammonia. . . 15 parts 

Sulphuric acid } part 

Cuprammonium so- 
lution 30 parts 

Fine white paper .... 4 parts 
II. — Isinglass, a sufficient 
quantity 

Acetic acid 1 part 

Water 7 parts 

Dissolve sufficient isinglass in the mix- 
ture of acetic acid and water to make a 
thin mucilage. 

One of the solutions is applied to the 
surface of one sheet of paper and the other 
to the other sheet, and they are then 
pressed together. 

III. — A fair knotting varnish free 
from surplus oil is by far the best adhe- 
sive for fixing labels, especially on metal 
surfaces. ^ It dries instantly, insuring 
a speedy job and immediate packing, S 
needful, without fear of derangement. 
It has great tenacity, and is not only 
absolutelv damp-proof itself, but is actu- 
ally repellent of moisture, to which all 
water pastes are subject. It costs more, 
but the additional expense is often infini- 
tesimal compared with the pleasure of a 
satisfactory result. 

Balkan Paste.— 

Pale glue 4 ounces 

Whiteloaf sugar. .. . 2 ounces 
Powdered starch .... 1 ounce 

White dextrine J pound 

Pure glycerine 8 ounces 

Carbolic acid { ounce 

Boiling water 32 ounces 

Cut up the glue and steep it in i pint 
boiling water; when softened melt m a 
saucepan; add sugar, starch, and dex- 
trine, and lastly the glycerine, in which 
carbolic acid has been mixed; add re- 
mainder of water, and boil until it thick- 
ens. Pour into jars or bottles. 

Permanent Paste. — 

I. — Wheat flour 1 pound 

Water, cold 1 quart 

Nitric acid 4 fluidrachms 

Boric acid 40 grains 

Oil of cloves 20 minims 

Mix the flour, boric acid, and water» 
then strain the mixture; add the nitric 



acid, apply heat with constant stirring 
until the mixture thickens; when nearly 
cold add the oil of cloves. This paste 
will have a pleasant smell, will not attract 
flies, and can be thinned by the addition 
of cold water as needed. 

II. — Dissolve 4 ounces alum in 4 
quarts hot water. When cool add as 
much flour as will make it of the usual 
consistency; then stir into it \ ounce 
powdered rosin; next add a little water 
m which a dozen cloves have been 
steeped; then boil it until thick as mush, 
stirring from the bottom all the time. 
Thin with warm water for use. 

Preservatives for Paste. — Various an- 
tiseptics are employed for the preserva- 
tion of flour paste, mucilage, etc. Boric 
and salicylic acids, oil of cloves, oil of 
sassafras, and solution of formaldehyde 
are among those which have given best 
service. A durable starch paste is pro- 
duced by addinff some borax to the 
water used in maxing it. A paste from 
10 parts (weight) starch to 100 parts 
(weight) water with 1 per cent borax 
added will keep many weeks, while with- 
out this addition it will sour after six 
days. In the case of a gluing material 
prepared from starch paste and joiners* 
glue, borax has also demonstrated its pre- 
serving qualities. The solution is made 
by mixing^ 10 parts (weight) starch into 
a paste with water and adding 10 parts 
(weight) glue soaked in water to the hot 
solution; the addition of -^ part (weight) 
of borax to the solution will cause it to 
keep for weeks. It is equal to the best 
glue, but should be warmed and stirred 
before use. 

Board -Sizing. — A cheap sizing for 
rough, weather-beaten boards may be 
made b^ dissolving shellac in sal soda 
and adding some heavy-bodied pigment. 
This size will stick to grease spots. Lin- 
seed oil ma^ be added if desired. Lime- 
"^ater and linseed oil make a good heavy 
sizing, but hard to spread. They are 
usually used half and naif, though these 
jproportions may be varied somewhat. 

Rice Paste. — Mix the rice flour with 
cold water,^ and boil it over a gentle fire 
until it thickens. This paste is quite 
white and becomes transparent on dry- 
ing. It is very adherent and of great use 
for many purposes. 

Casein Paste. — A solution of tannin, 
prepared from a bark or from commer- 
cial tannin, is precipitated with lime- 
water, the lime being added until the 
solution just turns red litmus paper blue. 
The supernatant liquid is then oecanted. 



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89 



and the precipitate is dried without arti- 
ficial heat. The resulting calcium tan- 
iiate is then mixed, according to the pur- 
pose for which the adhesive is intended, 
with from 1 to 10 tim<ra its weight of dry 
casein by grinding in a mill. The ad- 
hesive compound is soluble in water, 
petroleum, oils, and carbon bisulphide. 
It is very strong, and is applied in the 
form of a paste with water. 

PASTES FOR PAPERHANGERS. 

I. — Use a cheap erade of rye or wheat 
flour, mix thoroughly with cold water to 
about the consistency of dough, or a little 
thinner, being careful to remove all 
lumps; stir in a tablespoonful of pow- 
dered alum to a quart of flour, then pour 
in boiling water, stirring rapidly untu the 
flour is thoroughly cooked. Let this cool 
before using, and thin with cold water. 

II.— Venetian Paste. — 
(a) 4 ounces white or fish glue 

8 fluidounces cold water 
(6) 2 fluidounces Venice turpentine 

(c) 1 pound rye flour 

16 nuidounces (1 pint) cold water 

(d) 64 fluidounces (} gallon) boiling 

water 
Soak the 4 ounces of glue in the cold 
water for 4 hours; dissolve on a water 
bath (glue pot), and while hot stir in the 
Venice turpentine. Make up (c^ into a 
batter free from lumps and pour into (d). 
Stir bnsklv, and finally add the glue so- 
lution. This makes a very strong paste, 
and it will adhere to a painted surface, 
owing to the Venice turpentine in its 
composition. 

III.— Strong Adhesive Paste. — 
(a) 4 pounds rve flour 
} gallon cold water 
(6) 1^ gallons boiling water 
(c) 2 ounces pulverized rosin 

Make (a) into a batter free from lumps; 
then pour into (6) . Boil if necessary, and 
while hot stir in the pulverized rosin a 
little at a time. This paste is exceed- 
ingly strong, and will stick heavy wall 
paper or thin leather. If the paste be 
too thick, thin with a little hot water; 
never thin paste with cold water. 

I v.— Flonr Paste. — 
(a) 2 pounds wheat flour 

32 nuidounces (1 quart) cold water 
Qf) 1 ounce alum 

4 fluidounces hot water 
(0 96 fluidounces (} gallon) boiling 
water 
Work the wheat flour into a batter free 
from lumps with the cold water. Dis- 
solve the alum as designated in (b). 



Now stir in (a) and (c) and, if necessary, 
continue boiling until the paste thickens 
into a semitransparent mucilage, after 
which stir in solution (6). The above 
makes a very fine paste for wall paper. 

v.— Elastic or Pliable Paste.^ 

(a) 4 ounces common starch 

2 ounces white dextrine 
10 fluidounces cold water 

(b) 1 ounce borax 

3 fluidounces glycerine 

64 fliudouncea (\ gallon) boiling 
water 

Beat to a batter the ingredients of (a). 
Dissolve the borax in the boiling water; 
then add the glycerine, after which pour 
(a) into solution (6) . Stir until it becomes 
translucent. This paste will not crack, 
and, being very pliable, b used for paper, 
cloth, leather, and other material where 
flexibility is required. 

VI. — A paste with which wall paper 
can be attached to wood or masonry, 
adhering to it firmly in spite of damp- 
ness, is prepared, as usual, of rye flour, to 
which, nowever, are added, after the boil- 
ing, 8^ parts, bv weight, of good linseed- 
oil varnish ana 8) parts, by weight, of 
turpentine to every 500 parts, by weight. 

VII.— Paste for Wall Paper.— Soak 18 
pounds of bolus (bole) in water, after it 
has been beaten into small fragments, 
and pour off the supernatant water. 
Boil 10 ounces of glue into glue water, 
mix it well with the softened bolus and 
2 pounds plaster of Paris and strain 
through a sieve by means of a brush. 
Thin the mass with water to the consist- 
ency of a thin paste. The paste is now 
ready for use. It is not only much 
cheaper than other varieties, but has the 
advantage over them of adhering better 
to whitewashed walls, and especially 
such as have been repeatedly coated over 
the old coatings which were not thor- 
oughly removed. For hanging fine wall 
paper this paste is less commendable, 
as it forms a white color,, with which 
the paper might easily become soiled if 
ll^reat care is not exercised in applying 
it. If the fine wall paper is mounted on 
ground paper, however, it can be recom- 
mended for pasting the ground paper on 
'the wall. 

LABEL PASTES : 

Pastes to Affix Labels to Tin.— Labels 
separate from tin because the paste be- 
comes too dry. Some moisture is pre- 
sumably always present; but more is 
required to cause continued adhesion in the 
case of tin than where the container uigj 



40 



ADHESIVES 



glass. Paste may be kept moist by the 
addition of calcium chloride, which is 
strongly hygroscopic, or of glycerine. 

The following formulas tor pastes of 
the type indicated were proposed by Leo 
Eliel: 

I. — Tragacanth 1 ounce 

Acacia 4 ounces 

Thymol 14 grains 

Glycerine 4 ounces 

Water, sufficient to 

make 2 pints 

Dissolve the gums in 1 pint of water, 
strain, and add the glycerine, in which 
the thymol is suspended; shake well and 
add sufficient water to make 2 pints. 
This separates on standing, but a single 
shake mixes it sufficiently for use. 

II. — Rye flour 8 ounces 

Powdered acacia 1 ounce 

Glycerine 2 ounces 

Oil of cloves 40 drops 

Rub the rye flour and acacia to a 
smooth paste with 8 ounces of cold water; 
strain tnrough cheese cloth, and pour 
into 1 pint of boiling water, and continue 
the heat until as thick as desired. When 
nearly cold add the glycerine and oil of 
cloves. 

III. — Rye flour 5 parts 

Venice turpentine. . . 1 part 
Liquid glue, a sufficient quantity 
Rub up the flour with the turpentine 
and then add sufficient freshly prepared 
glue (glue or gelatine dissolved in water) 
to make a stiff paste. This paste dries 
slowly. 

I V. — Dextrine 2 parts 

Acetic acid 1 part 

Water 5 parts 

Alcohol, 95 per cent . 1 part 
Dissolve the dextrine and acetic acid 
in water by heating together in the water 
bath, and to the solution add the alcohol. 

V. — Dextrine 3 pounds 

Borax 2 ounces 

Glucose 5 drachms 

Water 3 pints 2 ounces 

Dissolve the borax in the water by 
warming, then add the dextrine and glu- 
cose, and continue to heat gently until 
dissolved. 

Another variety is made by dissolving* 
a cheap Ghatti gum in limewater, but it 
keeps badly. 

Vl. — Add tartaric acid to thick flour 
paste. The paste is to be boiled until 
quite thick, and the acid, previously dis- 
solved in a little water, is added, the pro- 
portion being about 2 ounces to the pint 
of paste. 



VII. — Gum arable, 50 parts; glyeer- 
ine, 10 parts; water, 30 parts; liq. Stibii 
chlorat., 2 parts. 

VIII. — Boil rye flour and strong glue 
water into a mass to which are added, for 
1,000 parts, ^ood linseed-oil varnish 30 
parts and oil of turpentine 30 parts. 
This mixture furnishes a gluing agent 
which, it is claimed, even renders the 
labels proof against being loosened by 
moisture. 

IX.— Pour 140 parts of distilled cold 
water over 100 parts of gum arabic in a 
wide-necked bottle and dissolve by fre- 
quent shaking. To the solution, which 
is ready after standing for about 3 days, 
add 10 parts of glycerine; later, 20 parts of 
diluted acetic acid, and finally 6 parts of 
aluminum sulphate, then straining it 
through a fine-hair sieve. 

X. — Good glue is said to be obtained 
by dissolving 1 part of powdered sugar 
in 4 parts of soda water glass. 

XI. — A glue for bottle labels is pre- 
pared by dissolving borax in water; 
soak glue in this solution and dissolve 
the fi;lue b^ boiling. Carefully drop as 
mucn acetic acid into the solution as 
will allow it to remain thin on cooling. 
Labels affixed with this agent adhere 
firmly and do not become moldy in damp 
cellars. 

XII. — Dissolve some isinglass in acetic 
acid and brush the labels over with it. 
There will be no cause to complain 
of their coming off, nor of striking 
through the paper. Take a wide- 
mouthed bottle, fill about two-thirds with 
commercial acetic acid, and put in as much 
isinglass as the liquid will hold, and set 
aside in a warm place until completely 
dissolved. When cold it should form a 
jelly. To use it place the bottle in hot 
water. The cork ^ should ^ be well-fit- 
ting and smeared with vaseline or melted 
paraffine. 

How to Paste Labels on Tin. — Brush 
over the entire back of the label with a 
flour paste, fold the label loosely by 
sticking both ends together without 
creasing the center, and throw to one 
side until this process has been gone 
through with the whole lot. Then unfold 
each label and place it on the can in the 
regular manner. The paste ought not 
to be thicker than maple syrup. When 
of this consistency it soaks through the 
label and makes it pliable and in a con- 
dition to be easily rubbed into position. 
If the paste is too thick it dries auickly, 
and does not soak through the label suf- 
ficiently. After the labels have been 
placed upon the cans th^ latter must be 
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ADHESIVES 



41 



kept apart until dry. In putting the 
paste upon the labels in the first place, 
follow the method of placing the dry 
labels over one another, back sides up, 
with the edge of each just protruding over 
the edge of the one beneath it, so that 
the fingers may easily grasp the label 
after the pasting has been done. 

Druggists' Label Paste. — This paste, 
when carefully made, is an admirable one 
for label use, and a very little will go a 
long way: 

Wheat flour 4 ounces 

Nitric acid 1 drachm 

Boric acid 10 grains 

Oil of cloves 5 drops 

Carbolic acid } drachm 

Stir flour and water together, mixing 
thoroughly, and add the other ingre- 
dients. After the stuff is well mixed, 
heat it, watching very carefully and re- 
moving the instant it stiffens. 

To Attach Glass Labels to Bottles.— 
Melt together 1 part of rosin and 2 parts 
of yellow wax, and use while warm. 

Photographic Mountants (see also 
Photography). — Owing to the nature of 
the different papers used for printing 
photographs, it is a matter of extreme 
importance to use a mountant that shall 
not set up decomposition in the coating 
of the print. For example, a mountant 
that exhibits acidity or alkalinity is in- 
jurious with most varieties of paper; and 
in photography the following formulas 
for pastes, mucilages, etc., have there- 
fore been selected with regard to their 
absolute immunity from setting up de- 
composition in the print or changing its 
tone in any way. One of the usual 
mountants is rice starch or else rice water. 
The latter is boiled to a thick jelly, 
strained, and the strained mass used 
as an agglutinant for attaching photo- 
graphic prints to the mounts. There is 
nothing of an injurious nature whatever 
in this mountant, neither is there in a 
mucilage made with gum dragon. 

This gum (also called gum traga- 
canth) is usually in the form of curls 
(i.e., leaf gum), which take a long time 
to properly dissolve in water — several 
weeks, in fact — but during the past few 
years there has been put on the market a 
powdered gum dragon which does not 
occupy so many days in dissolving. To 
make a mucilage rom gum dragon a 
very large volume of water is required. 
For example, 1 ounce of the gum, either 
leaf or powder, will swell up and con- 
vert 1 gallon of water into a thickish 
mucilage in the course of ^ or 3 weeks. 



Only cold water must be used, and be- 
fore usin^ the mucilage, all whitish 
lumps (which are particles of undissolved 
gum) should be picked out or eLse the 
mucilage strained. The time of solution 
can be considerably shortened (to a few 
hours) bjr acidifying the water in which 
the gum is placed with a little sulphuric 
or oxalic acid; but as the resultant muci- 
lage would contain traces of their pres- 
ence, such acids are not permij8.*^ible 
when the gum-dragon mucilage is to be 
used for mounting photographs. 

Glycerine and gum arabic make a very 
good adhesive of a fluid nature suited 
to mounting photographs; and although 
glycerine is hygroscopic by itself, mu h 
tendency to absorb moisture is checked 
by the reverse nature of the gum arabic; 
consequently an ideal fluid mucilage is 
produced. The proportions of the sev- 
eral ingredients are tnese: 
Gum arabic, {genuine 
(gum acacia, not 

Bassora gum) 4 ounces 

Boiling water 12 ounces 

Glycerine, pure 1 ounce 

First dissolve the gum in the water, 
and then stir in the glycerine, and allow 
all debris from the gum to deposit before 
using. ^ The following adhesive com- 
pound is also one that is free from chem- 
ical reactions, and is suited for photo- 
graphic purposes: 

Water 2 pints 

Gum dragon, pow- 
dered 1 ounce 

Gum arabic, genuine 4 ounces 

Glycerine 4 ounces 

Mix the gum arabic with half the wa- 
ter, and in the remainder of the water 
dissolve the gum dragon. When both 
solids are dissolved, mix them together, 
and then stir in the glycerine. 

The following paste will be found a 
useful mountant: 

Gum arabic, genuine 1 ounce 

Rice starch 1 ounce 

White sugar 4 ounces 

W^ater, q. s. 

Dissolve the gum ^ in just sufficient 
water to completely dissolve it, then add 
the sugar, and when that has completely 
dissolved stir in the starch paste, and 
then boil the mixture until the starch is 
properly cooked. 

A very strong, stiff paste for fastening 
cardboard mounts to trames, wood, and 
other materials is prepared by making 
a bowl of starch paste in the usual way, 
and then adding 1 ounce of Venire tur- 
pentine per pound of paste, and boil- 
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42 



ADHESIVES 



in^ and stirring the mixture until the 
thick turpentine has become well incor- 

S orated. Venice turpentine stirred into 
our paste and boilea will also be found 
a very adhesive cement for fastening 
cardboard, strawboard, leatherette, and 
skiver leather to wood or metal; but 
owing to the resinous nature of the Venice 
turpentine, such pastes are not suitable 
for mounting photographic prints. The 
following half-dozen compounds are 
suitable mountants to use with silver 
prints: 

Alcohol, absolute. ... 10 ounces 

Gelatine, good 1 ounce 

Glycerine. } to 1 ounce 

Soak the gelatine in water for an hour 
or two until it is completely softened; 
take the gelatine out ot the water, and 
allow it to drain, and put it into a 
bottle and pour alcohol over it; add the 
glycerine (if the gelatine is soft, use 
only ) ounce; if the gelatine is hard, use 
1 ounce of the glycerine), then melt the 
gelatine by standing the bottle in a vessel 
of hot water, and shake up very well. 
For use, remelt by heat. The alcohol 
prevents the prints from stretching or 
cockling, as they are apt to, under the 
influence of the gelatine. 

In the following compound, however, 
only sufficient alcohol is used to serve as 
an antiseptic, and prevent the aggluti- 
nant from decomposing : Dissolve 4 
ounces of photographic gelatine in 16 
ounces of water (first soaking the gela- 
tine therein for an hour or two until it is 
completely softened), then remove the 
gelatine from the water, allow it to drain, 
and put it into the bottle, and pour the 
alcohol over it, and put in the glycerine 
(if the gelatine is soft, use only ) ounce; 
if the gelatine is hard, use 1 ounce of the 
glycerine), then melt the gelatine by 
standing the bottle in a vessel of hot 
water, and shake up well and mix thor- 
oughly. For use, remelt by heat. The 
alcohol prevents the print from stretch- 
ing or cockling up under the influence of 
the gelatine. 

The following paste agglutinant is one 
that is very permanent and useful for all 
purposes required in a photographic 
studio: Take 5 pints of water, 10 ounces 
of arrowroot, 1 ounce of gelatine, and a 
i pint (10 fluidounces) of alcohol, and 
proceed to combine them as follows: 
Make arrowroot into a thick cream with 
a little of the water, and in the remainder 
of the water soak the gelatine for a few 
hours, after which melt the gelatine in 
the water by heating it, add the arrow- 
root paste, and bring the mixture to the 
boil and allow to boiJ for 4 or 5 minutes, 



then allow to cool, and mix in the alcohol, 
addinff a few drops of oil of cloves. 

Perhaps one of the most useful com- 
pounds for photographic purposes is that 
prepared as follows: Soak 4 ounces of 
nard gelatine in 15 ounces of water for a 
few hours, then melt the gelatine by 
heating it in a glue pot until tne solution 
is quite clear and free from lumps, stir 
in 65 fluidounces of cold water so that 
it is free from lumps, and pour in the 
boiling-hot solution of gelatine and con- 
tinue stirring, and if tne starch is not 
completely cooked, boil ud the mixture 
for a few minutes until it 'Hjlows,'* being 
careful to keep it well stirred so as not 
to burn; when cold add a few drops of 
carbolic acid or some essential oil as an 
antiseptic to prevent the compound from 
decomposing or becoming sour. 

A useful photographic mucilage, which 
is very liquid, is obtained bv mixing equal 
bulks of gum-arabic and gum-dragon 
mucilages of the same consistence. The 
mixture of these mucilages will be con- 
siderably thinner than either of them 
when alone. 

As an agglutinant for general use in the 
studio, the following is recommended: 
Dissolve 2 ounces of gum arabic in 5 
ounces of water, and for every 250 parts 
of the mucilage add 20 parts of a solu- 
tion of sulphate of aluminum, prepared 
by dissolving 1 part of the sulphate in 
20 parts of water (common alum should 
not be used, only the pure aluminum 
sulphate, because common alum is a 
mixture of sulphates, and usually con- 
taminated with iron salts). The addi- 
tion of the sulphate solution to the 
gum mucilage renders the latter less 
hygroscopic, and practically waterproof, 
besides oeing very adhesive to any 
materials, particularly those exhibiting a 
smooth surface. 

MUCILAGES : 

For AffizingLabels to 61{iss and Other 
Objects. — I.-^-The mucilage is made bv 
simply pouring over the gum enough 
water to a little more than cover it, and 
then, as the gum swells, adding more water 
from time to time in small portions, until 
the mucilage is brought to such con- 
sistency that it may be easily spread with 
the brush. The mucilage keeps fairly 
well without the addition of any anti* 
septic. 

11. — ^Tragacanth 1 ounce 

Acacia 4 ounces 

Thymol 14 grains 

Glycerine 4 ounces 

Water, sufficient to 
make 2 pints 

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ADHESIVES 



43 



Dissolve the gums in 1 pint of water, 
btrain and add the f;1yoenne, in which 
the thymol is suspended; shake well and 
add suflicient water to make S pints. 
This separates on standing, but a single 
shake mixes it sufficiently for use. 

III. — Rye flour 8 ounces 

Powdered acacia. 1 ounce 

Glycerine 2 ounces 

Oil of cloves 40 drops 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 
Rub the rye flour and the acacia to a 
smooth paste with 8 ounces of cold water; 
strain tnrough cheese cloth, and pour 
into 1 pint of boiling water and continue 
the heat until as thick as desired. When 
nearly cold add the glycerine and oil of 
cloves. 

IV. — One part, by weight, of traga- 
canth, when mixed with 95-per-cent alco- 
hol to form 4 fluidounces, forms a liquid in 
which a portion of the tragacanth is dis- 
solved and the remainder suspended; 
this remains permanently fluid, never 
deteriorates, and can be used in place of 
the present mucilage; 4 to 8 minims to 
each ounce of mixture is sufficient to 
suspend any of the insoluble substances 
usually ^ven in mixtures. 

V. — 1 o 250 parts of gum-arabic muci- 
laeeadd 20 parts of water and 2 parts of 
sulphate of alumina and heat until dis- 
solved. 

VI. — Dissolve i pound gum traga- 
canth, powdered, i pound gum arabic, 
powdered, cold water to the desired con- 
sistency, and add 40 drops carbolic acid. 

Mucilage of Acacia. — Put the gum, 
which should be of the best kind, in a flask 
the size of which should be large enough 
to contain the mucilage with about one- 
fifth of its space to spare (i. e., the product 
should fill It about lour -filths full). Now 
tare, and wash the gum with distilled wa- 
ter, letting the latter drain away as much 
as possible before proceeding further. 
Add the requisite quantity of distilled 
water slowly, which, however, should 
first have added to it about 10 per cent of 
limewater. Now cork the flask, and lay 
it, without shaking, horizontally in a cool 
place and let it remain ouietly for about 
S hours, then give it a naif turn to the 
right without disturbing its horizontal 
position. Repeat this operation three or 
lour times during the day, and keep it 
up until the gum is completely dissolved 
(which will not be until the fourth day 
probably), then strain through a thin 
cloth previously wet with distilled wa- 
ter, avoiding, in so doing, the formation 
of foam or bubbles. This precaution 
should also be observad in decantation 



of the percolate into smaller bottles pro- 
vided with paraffine corks. The small 
amount of Innewnter, as will be under- 
stood, is added to the solvent water in 
order to prevent the action of free acid. 

Commercial Mucilage. — Dissolve } 
pound white glue in e<iual parts water 
and strong vinegar, and add \ as much 
alcohol and ) ounce alum dissolved in a 
little water. To proceed, first get f^ood 
glue and soak in cold water until it 
swells and softens, l^se pale vinegar. 
Pour off the cold water, then melt the 
glue to a thick paste in hot water, and 
add the vinegar not. When a little cool 
add the alcohol and alum water. 

To Render Gum Arabic More Ad- 
hesive. — I. — Add crystallized aluminum 
sulphate in the proportion of 2 dissolved 
in 20 parts of water to 250 parts of con- 
centrated gum solution (75 parts of gum 
in 175 parts of water). 

II. — Add to 250 parts of concentrated 
gum solution (2 parts of gum in 5 parts 
of water) 2 parts of crystallized alumi- 
num sulphate dissolved in 20 parts of 
water. This mixture glues even unsized 
paper, pasteboard on pasteboard, wood 
on wood, glass, porcelain, and other 
substances on whicn labels frequently do 
not adhere well. 

Envelope Gum. — The gum used by 
the United States Government on postage 
stamps is probably one of the best that 
coulci be used not only for envelopes but 
for labels as well. It will stick to almost 
any surface. ^ Its composition is said to 
be the following: 

Gum arabic 1 part 

Starch 1 part 

Sugar 4 parts 

Water, sufficient to 
give the desired con- 
sistency. 
The gum arabic is first dissolved in 
some water, the sugar added, then the 
starch, after which the mixture is boiled 
for a few minutes in order to dissolve 
the starch, after which it is thinned down 
to the desired consistency. 

Cheaper envelope gums can be made 
by substituting aextrine for the gum 
arabic, glucose for the sugar, and adding 
boric acid to preserve and help stiffen it. 

Mucilage to Make Wood and Paste- 
board Adhere to Metals. — Dissolve 60 
parts, by weight, of lead acetate together 
with 5 parts, by weight, of alum in a little 
water. Make a separate solution of 75 
parts, by weight, of gum arabic in 2,000 
parts, by weight, of water, stir in this 500 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



44 



ADHESIVES 



parts, by weig^ht, of flour, and heat slowly 
to boiling, stirring the while. Let it cool 
somewhat, and mix with it the solution 
containing the lead acetate and alum, 
stirring them well together. 

Preservation of Gum Solution. — Put a 
small piece of camphor in the mucilage 
bottle. Camphor vapors are generated 
which kill all the bacterial germs that 
have entered the bottle. The gum main- 
tains its adhesiveness to the last drop. 

ADULTERANTS IN FOODS: 

See Foods. 

ADUROL DEVELOPER: 

See Photography. 

JESCO-QUININE: 
See Hdrse Chestnut. 

AGAR AGAR PASTE: 
See Adhesives. 

AGATE, BUTTONS OF ARTIFICIAL. 

Prepare a mixture or frit of 33 parts 
of quartz sand, 65 parts calcium phos- 
phate, and 2 parts of potash. The frit, 
which has been reduced by heat to the 
fusing point, is finely ground, intimately 
mingled with a small Quantity of kaolin 
and pressed in molds wliich yield button- 
shaped masses. These masses, after hav- 
ing been fired, are given a transparent 
glaze by any of the well>known processes. 

AGATE aMITATION): 
See Gems, Artificial. 

AGING OF SILK: 

See Silk. 

AGING, SILVER AND GOLD: 

See Plating. 

AIR BATH. 

This air bath is employed in cases 
in which, upon drying or heating sub- 
stances, acid vapors arise because the 
walls of the bath are not attacked by 
them. For the production of the drying 
apparatus take a flask with the bottom 
burst off or a bell jar tubulated above. 
This is placed either upon a sand bath 
or upon asbestos paper, previously laid 
upon a piece of sneet iron. The sand 
bath or the sheet iron is put on a tripod, 
so that it can be heated by means of a 
burner placed underneath. The sub- 
stance to be dried is placed in a glass or 
porcelain dish, which is put under the 
Dell jar, and if desired the drying dish 
may be hung on the tripod. For regu- 
lating the temperature the tubulure of 
the jar is closed with a pierced cork, 



through whose aperture the thermom- 
eter is thrust. In order to permit the 
vapors to escape, the cork is grooved 
lengthwise along the -periphery. 

AIR BUBBLES IN GELATINE: 
See Gelatine. 

AIR, EXCLUSION OF, FROM SOLU- 
TIONS: 

See Photography. 

AIR-PURIFYING. 

Ozonatine is a fragrant air-purifying 
preparation consisting of dextrogyrate 
turpentine oil scented with slight quan- 
tities of fragrant oils. 

ALABASTER CLEANING: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

ALBATA METAL: 
See Alloys. 



ALBUMEN IN URINE, DETECTION 
OF. 

Patein {Pkarm. Zeit.) recommends the 
following test for albumen in urine: 
Dissolve 250 grams of citric acid in a 
sufficient quantity of water, add enough 
ammonia to neutralize, then 50 grams 
of alcohol, and finally enough water to 
make 1 liter. To the acid (or acidulated) 
urine, one-tenth its volume of the ammo- 
nium-citrate solution made as above is 
added, and the whole heated in the usual 
manner. The appearance of the faint- 
est turbidity is saia to indicate with pos- 
itive certainty the presence of albumen. 

ALBUMEN PAPER: 
See Photography. 

ALBUllEN PASTE: 
See Adhesives. 

Alcohol 

After the manuscript of this book was 
ready for the press. Congress passed the 
bill which has since become a law, whereby 
the prohibitive tax on industrial or de- 
natured alcohol is removed. So impor- 
tant is this legislative measure that the 
Editor has deemed it wise to insert an 
article on the sources of alcohol and the 
manufacture of alcohol from farm prod- 
ucts. Because the first portion oi the 
book was in type when this step was de- 
cided upon, tlie Editor was compelled to 
relegate to a later page a monograph 
which should properly have appeared 
here. The reader will find the matter 
on alcohol referred to under tlie heading 



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ALCOHOL 



45 



"Spirit"; likewise methods of denaturing 
aua a list of denaturants. 
ALCOHOL, DILUTION OF: 
See Tables. 

Alcohol, Tests for Absolitte.— The 
committee for the compilation of the 
German Arzneibuch established the fol- 
lowing tests for the determination of ab- 
solute alcohol: 

Absolute aloohd is a clear, colorless, vol- 
atile, readily imflammable liquid which 
burns with a faintly luminous flame. 
Absolute alcohol has a peculiar odor, a 
burning taste, and does not affect litmus 
paper. Boiling point, 78.50. Specific 
gravity, 0.795 to 0.797. One hundred 
parts contain 09.7 to 99.4 parts, by vol- 
ume, or 99.6 to 99.0 parts, oy weight, of 
alcohol. 

Absolute alcohol should have no for- 
eign smell and should mix with water 
without cloudiness. 

After the admixture of 5 drops of sil- 
ver-nitrate solution, 10 cubic centimeters 
of absolute alcohol should not become 
turbid or colored even on heating. 

A mixture of 10 cubic centimeters of 
absolute alcohol and 0.2 cubic centimeter 
of potash lye evaporated down to 1 cubic 
centimeter shoula not exhibit an odor of 
fusel oil after supersaturation with dilute 
sulphuric acid. 

Five cubic centimeters of sulphuric 
acid, carefully covered, in a test tube, 
with a stratum of 5 cubic centimeters of 
absolute alcohol, should not form a rose- 
colored zone at the surface of contact, 
even on standing for some time. 

The red color of a mixture of 10 cubic 
centimeters of absolute alcohol and 1 
cubic centimeter of potassium -perman- 
ganate solution should not pass into 
yellow before 20 minutes. 

Absolute alcohol should not be dyed 
by hydrogen sulphide water or by aque- 
ous ammonia. 

Five cubic centimeters of absolute al- 
cohol should not leave behind a weighable 
residue after evaporation on water bath. 

Absolute Alcohol. — If gelatine be sus- 
pended in ordinary alcohol it will absorb 
the water, but as it is insoluble in alcohol, 
that substance will remain behind, and 
thus nearly absolute alcohol will be ob- 
tained without distillation. 

Peifumed Denaturized Alcohol. — 
East India lemon oil 1 .250 parts 

Mirbane oil 1,000 parts 

Cassia oil 50 parts 

Clove oil. 75 parts 

Lemon oil 100 parts 

Amyl acetate 500 parts 

Spirit (95 percent). 7,000 parts 



Dissolve the oils in the spirit and add 
the amyl acetate. The mixture serves 
for destroying the bad odor of denatur- 
ized spirit in distilling. Use 50 parts of 
the perfume per 1,000 parts of spirit. 

SolidAlcohol.— I.— Heat 1,000 parts of 
denaturized alcohol (90 per cent) in a flask 
of double the capacity on the water bath 
to about 140"" F., and then mix with 28 to 
SO parts of well-dried, rasped Venetian 
soap and 2 parts of gum lac. After re- 
peated shaking, complete dissolution 
will take place. The solution is put, 
while still warm, into metallic vessels, 
closing them up at once and allowing the 
mixture to cool therein. The admix- 
ture of gum lac effects a better preserva- 
tion and also prevents the evaporation of 
the alcohol. On lighting the solid spirit 
the soap remains behind. 

II.— ^maraffdine is a trade name for 
solidified alconol. It consists of alcohol 
and gun cotton, colored with malachite 
green. It appears in the market in the 
form of small cubes. 

Alcohol in Fermented Beers. — Expe- 
rience has shown that i pound of sugar 
to 1 gallon of water vields about 2 per cent 
of proof spirit, or about 1 per cent of ab- 
solute alcohol. Beyond this amount it is 
not safe to go, if the legal limit is to be 
observed, yet a ginger beer brewed with 
i pound per gallon of sugar would be a 
verj wishy-washy compound, and there 
is little doubt that a much larger quantity 
is generally used. The more sugar that 
is used — up to 1 A or 1 J pounds per gallon 
— the better the drink will be and the 
more customers will relish it; but it will 
be as "strong" as lager and contain per- 
haps 5 per cent of alcohol, which will make 
it anything but a " temperance" drink. 
Any maker who is using as much as even 
i pound of sugar per gallon is bound to 

Set more spirit than the law allows, 
leanwhile it is scarcely accurate tu term 
ginger beers, etc., non-alcoholic. 

Alcohol Deodorizer. — 

Alcohol 160 ounces 

Powdered quicklime. 300 grains 

Powdered alum 150 grains 

Spirit of nitrous ether 1\ drachms 

Mix the lime and alum intimatelv by 

* trituration; add the alcohol and shake 

well; then add the spirit of nitrous ether; 

set aside for 7 days and filter through 

animal charcoal. 

Denaturized Alcohol. — There are two 
general classes or degrees of denaturizing, 
viz., the "complete" and the "incom- 
plete," according to the pjurpose for 

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46 



ALCOHOL 



which the alcohol so denaturized is to be 
ultimately used. 

I. — Complete denaturization by the 
German system is accomplished by the 
addition to every 100 liters (equal to 26} 
gallon'^ of spirits: 

(a) 'i Vo and one-half liters of the "stand- 
ard"' fleuaturizer, made of 4 parts of 
wood alcohol, 1 part of pyridine (a nitro- 
genous base obtained by distilling bone 
oil or coal tar), with the addition of 50 
grams to each liter of oil of lavender or 
rosemary. 

(6) One and one-fourth liters of the 
above "standard" and 2 liters of benzol 
with every 100 liters of alcohol. 

II. — Incomplete denaturization — i. e., 
sufRcient to prevent alcohol from being 
drunk, but not to disqualify it from use 
for various special purposes, for which 
the wholly denaturized spirits would be 
unavailable — is accomplished by several 
methods as follows, the quantity and 
nature of each substance given being 
the prescribed dose for each 100 liters 
(26^ gallons) of spirits: 

(c) Five liters of wood alcohol or J 
liter of pyridine. 

(d) Twenty liters of solution of shellac, 
containing 1 part ^um to 2 parts alcohol 
of 90-per-cent purity. Alcohol for the 
manufacture of celluloid and pegamoid 
is denaturized. 

(e) By the addition of 1 kilogram of 
camphor or 2 liters oil of turpentine or 
} liter benzol to each 100 liters of spirits. 
Alcohol to be used in the manufacture 
of ethers, aldehyde, agaricin, white lead, 
bromo-silver gelatines, photographic pa- 

Sers and plates, electrode plates, coflo- 
ion, salicylic acid and salts, aniline 
chemistry, and a great number of other 
purposes, is denaturized by the addition 
of — 

(/) Ten liters sulphuric ether, or 1 
part of benzol, or J part oil of turpentine, 
or 0.025 part of animal oil. 

For the manufacture of varnishes and 
inks alcohol is denaturized by the addi- 
tion of oil of turpentine or animal oil, 
and for the production of soda soaps bv 
the addition of 1 kilogram of castor oil. 
Alcohol for the production of lanolin is 
prepared by adding 5 liters of benzine to 
eacn hectoliter of spirits. 

ALE. 

The ale of the modern brewer is man- 
ufactured in several varieties, which are 
determined by the wants of the consumer 
and the particular market for which it 
is intended. Thus, the finer kinds of 
Hurton, East India, Bavarian, and other 
like ales, having undergone a thorough 



fermentation, contain only a small quan- 
tity of undecomposed sugar and gum, 
varying from 1 to 5 per cent. Some of 
these are highly "hopped" or "bittered," 
the further to promote their preservation 
during transit and change of temper- 
ature. Mild or sweet ales, on the con- 
trary, are less accentuated by lengthened 
fermentation, and abound in saccharine 
and gummy matter. They are, there- 
fore, more nutritious, thoueh less intox- 
icating, than those previously referred to. 

In brewing the finer kinds of ales, pale 
malt and the best hops of the current 
season's growth are always employed; 
and when it is desired to produce a liquor 
possessing little color, very great atten- 
tion is paid to their selection. With the 
same object, the boiling is conducted with 
more than the usual precautions, and the 
fermentation is carried on at a somewhat 
lower temperature than that commonly 
allowed for other varieties of beer. For 
ordinary ale, intended for immediate use, 
the malt may be all pale; but, if the liquor 
be brewed for keeping, and in warm 
weather, when a slight color is not objec- 
tionable, one-fifth, or even one-fourth of 
amber malt may be advantageously em- 
ployed. From 4 A to 6 pounds of hops is 
the Quantity commonly used to the one- 
fourtn of malt, for ordinary ales; and 7 
pounds to 10 pounds for "keeping" ales. 
The proportions, however, must greatly 
depend on the intended quality and de- 
scription of the brewing and the period 
that will be allowed for its maturation. 

The stronger varieties of ale usually 
contain from 6 to 8 per cent of "absolute 
alcohol"; ordinary strong ale, 4 A to 6 per 
cent; mild ale, 3 to 4 percent; and table ale, 
1 to lA per cent (each by volume); togeth- 
er with some undecomposed saccharine, 
gummy, and extractive matter, the bitter 
and narcotic principles of the hop, some 
acetic acid formed by the oxidation of 
the alcohol, and very small and variable 
quantities of mineral and saline matter. 

Ordinary ale- wort (preferably pale), 
sufficient to produce 1 barrel, is slowly 
boiled with about 3 handfuls of hops, 
and 12 to 14 pounds of crushed groats, 
until the whole of the soluble matter of 
the latter is extracted. The resulting 
liquor, after being run through a coarse 
strainer and become lukewarm, is fer- 
mented with 2 or 3 pints of yeast; and, 
as soon as_ the fermentation is at its 
height, is either closely bunged up for 
draft or is at once put into strong stone- 
ware bottles, which arc then well corked 
and wired. 

White ale is said to be very nutritious, 
though apt to prove laxative to those un- 



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ALLOYS 



47 



accustomed to its use. It is drunk in a 
Ftate of effervescence or lively fermenta- 
i?on; the glass or cup containing it being 
kept in constant motion, when removecl 
irom the mouth, until the whole is con- 
sumed, in order that the thicker portion 
may not subside to the bottom. 

ALE, GINGER: 

See Beverages. 

ALFENIDE METAL: 
See Alloys. 

ALKALI, HOW TO DETECT: 
See Soaps. 

ALKALOIDS, ANTIDOTES TO: 
See Atropine. 

Alloys 

No general rules can be given for 
alloying metals. Alloys differing greatly 
in fusibility are commonly made by 
adding the more fusible ones, either in 
the melted state or in small portions at a 
time, to the other melted or heated to 
the lowest possible temperature at which 
a perfect union will take place between 
them. The mixture is usuallv effected 
under a flux, or some material that will 
promote liquefaction and prevent vola- 
tilization and unnecessary exposure to 
the air. Thus, in melting lead and tin 
together for solder, rosin or tallow is 
thrown upon the surface is rubbed with 
sal ammoniac; and in combining some 
metals, powdered charcoal is used for 
the same purpose. Mercury or quick- 
silver combines with many metals in the 
cold, forming amaixjams, or easily fusible 
alloys (q. v.). 

Alloys generallv possess characteris- 
tics unshared by tneir component metals. 
Thus, copper and zinc form brass, 
which has a different density, hardness, 
and color from either of its constituents. 
Whether the metals tend to unite in 
atomic proportions or in any definite 
ratio is stiU undetermined. The evi- 
dence afforded by the natural alloys of 
gold and silver, and by the phenomena 
accompanying the cooling^ of several 
alloys from the state of fusion, goes far 
to prove that such is the case (Rud- 
berg). The subject is, however, one of 
considerable difficulty, as metals and 
metallic compounds are generally solu- 
ble in each other, and unite by simple 
fusion and contact. That they do not 
combine indifferently with each other, 
but exercise a species of elective affinity 
not dissimilar to other bodies, is clearly 



shown by the homogeneity and superior 
quality of many alloys in which the con- 
stituent metals arc in atomic proportion. 
The variation of the specific gravity and 
melting points of alloys from the mean 
of those of their component metals also 
affords strong evidence of a chemical 
change having taken place. Thus, alloys 
generally melt at lower temperatures than 
their separate metals. They also usually 
possess more tenacity and hardness than 
the mean of their constituents. 

Matthiessen found that when weights 
are suspended to spirals of hard-drawn 
wire made of copper, gold, or platinum, 
they become nearly straightened when 
stretched by a moderate weight; but 
wires of equal dimensions composed of 
copper-tin (12 per cent of tin), silver- 
platinum (30 per cent of platinum), and 
gold-copper (84 per cent of copper) scarce- 
ly undergo any permanent change in form 
when subjected to tension by the same 
weight. 

The same chemist gives the following 
approximate results upon the tenacity 
of certain metals and wires hard -drawn 
through the same gauge (No. 23): 

Pounds 

Copper, breaking strain ^5-SO 

Tin, breaking strain under 7 

Lead, breaking strain under 7 

Tin-lead (20% lead) about 7 

Tin-copper (12% copper). . .about 7 

Copper-tin (12% tin) about 80-90 

Gold (12% tin) 20-25 

Gold-copper (8.4% copper) 70-75 

Silver (8.4% copper) 45-50 

Platinum (8.4% copper) 45-50 

Silver-platinum (30% platinum) . 75-80 

On the other hand, the malleability, 
ductility, and power of resisting oxygen 
of alloys is generally diminished. The 
alloy formed of two brittle metals is 
always brittle; that of a brittle and a duc- 
tile metal, generally so; and even two 
ductile metals sometimes unite to form 
a brittle compound. The alloys formed 
of metals having different fusing points 
are usually malleable while cola and 
brittle while hot. The action of the air 
on alloys is generally less than on their 
simple metals, unless the former are 
heated. A mixture of 1 part of tin and 
3 parts of lead is scarcely acted on at 
common temperatures; but at a red heat 
it readily takes fire, and continues to 
burn for some time like a piece of bad 
turf. In like manner, a mixture of tin 
and zinc, when strongly heated, de- 
composes both moist air and steam with 
ramdity. 

The specific gravity of alloys is rarely 



48 



ALLOYS 



the arithmetical mean of that of their 
constituents, as commonly taught; ahd 
in many cases considerable condensation 
or expansion occurs. When there is a 
strong atfinitjr between two metals, the 
density of their alloy is generally greater 
than the calculated mean; and vice versa, 
as may be seen in the following table: 

Alloys having a density 
Greater than the Mean of their Constit- 
uents: 
Copper and bismuth, 
Copper and palladium. 
Copper and tin. 
Copper and zinc, 
Gola and antimony. 
Gold and bismuth. 
Gold and cobalt. 
Gold and tin. 
Gold and zinc. 
Lead and antimony. 
Palladium and bismuth. 
Silver and antimony. 
Silver and bismuth. 
Silver and lead. 
Silver and tin. 
Silver and zinc. 

Less than the Mean of their Constituents: 
Gold and copper. 
Gold and iridium. 
Gold and iron, 
Gold and lead, 
Gold and nickel. 
Gold and silver, 
Iron and antimony. 
Iron and bismuth. 
Iron and lead. 
Nickel and arsenic, 
Silver and copper. 
Tin and antimony, 
Tin and lead, 
Tin and palladium. 
Zinc and antimony. 

Compounding Alloys.— Considerable 
experience is necessary to insure success 
in compounding alloys, especially when 
the metals employed vary greatly in 
fusibility and volatility. The followinc 
are rules supplied by an experienced 
workman: 

1. Melt the least fusible, oxidizable, 
and volatile first, and then add the others 
heated to their point of fusion or near it. 
Thus, if it is desired to make an alloy of 
exactly 1 part of copper and 3 of zinc, it 
will be impossible to do so by putting 
proportions of the metals in a crucible 
and exposing the whole to heat. Much 
of the zinc would fly off in vapor before 
the copper was melted. First, melt the 
copper and add the zinc, which has been 
melted in another crucible. The zinc 



should be in excess, as some of it will be 
lost anyway. 

2. Some alloys, as copper and zinc, 
copper and arsenic, may be formed bj 
exposing heated plates of the least fusi- 
ble metal to the vapor of the other. In 
making brass in the large way, thin plates 
of copper are dissolved, as it were, in 
melted zinc until the proper proportions 
have been obtained. 

3. The surface of all oxidizable metals 
should be covered with some protecting 
agent, as tallow for very fusible ones, 
rosin for lead and tin, charcoal for zinc, 
copper, etc. 

4. Stir the metal before casting and 
if possible, when casting, with a white- 
wood stick; this is much better for the 
purpose than an iron rod. 

5. If possible, add a small portion of . 
old alloy to the new. If the alloy is re- 
quired to make sharp castings and 
strength is not a very great object, the 
proportion of old alloy to the new should 
be increased. In all cases a new or 
thoroughly well-cleansed crucible should 
be used. 

To obtain metals and metallic alloys 
from their compounds, such as oxides, 
sulphides, chlorides, etc., a process lately 
patented makes use of the reducing 
qualities of aluminum or its alloys with 
magnesium. The finely powdered ma- 
terial (e. g., chromic oxide) is placed in a 
crucible mixed with aluminum oxide. 
The mixture is set afire by means of a 
soldering pipe or a burning magnesium 
wire, anid tiie desired reaction takes place. 
For igniting, one may also employ with 
advantage a special priming cartridge 
consisting of pulverized aluminum to 
which a httle magnesium may be mixed, 
and peroxide of magnesia, which is 
shaped into balls and lighted with a 
magnesium wire. B^' suitable additions 
to the pulverized mixture, alloys con- 
taining aluminum, magnetism, chro- 
mium, manganese, copper, iron, boron, 
silicic acid, etc., are obtained. 

ALUMINUM ALLOYS. 

M. H. Pecheux has contributed to the 
Comptes RenduSy from time to time, the 
results of his investigations into the alloys 
of aluminum with soft metals, and the 
following constitutes a brief summary of 
his observations: 

Lead. — ^When aluminum is melted 
and lead is added in proportion greater 
than 10 per cent, the metals separate on 
cooling into three layers — lead, alumi- 
num, and between them an alloy contain- 
ing from 90 to 97 per cent of aluminum. 
DigiUzed by VjOOQLc 



ALLOYS 



49 



The all yjs with 93, 95, and 98 per cent have 
densities of 2.745. 2.674. and 2.600 re- 
spectively, and melting points near that 
oi aluminum. Their color is like that 
of aluminum, but they are less lustrous. 
AU are malleable, easily cut, softer than 
ahiminum, and have a granular fracture. 
On remelting they become somewhat 
richer in lead, through a tendency to 
liquation. They do not oxidize in moist 
air, nor at their melting points. They 
are attacked in the cold by hydrochloric 
and by strong sulphuric acid, with evo- 
lution of hydrogen, and by strong nitric 
acid when hot; strong solution of po- 
tassium hydroxide also attacks them. 
They are without action on distilled 
water, whether cold or hot. 

Zinc. — Well-defined alloys were ob- 
tained, corresponding to the formulas 
ZnaAl, Zn,Al, ZnAl, ZnAU, ZnAl,, 
ZnAl4, ZnAld, ZnAlio. ZnAl,,. Their 
melting points and densities all lie be- 
tween those of zinc and aluminum, and 
those containing most zinc are the hard- 
est. They are all dissolved by cold 
hydrochloric acid and by hot dilute nitric 
acid. Cold concentrated nitric acid at- 
tacks the first three, and cold dilute acid 
the first five. The Zn,Al, ZnAle. ZnAl.o, 
and ZnAl IS are only slightly affected by 
cold potassium-hyaroxide solution; the 
others are strongly attacked, potassium 
zincate and aluminate probaoly being 
formed. 

Tin. — A filed rod of tin-aluminum alloy 
plunged in cold water gives off for some 
minutes bubbles of gas, composed of 
hydrogen and oxygen in explosive pro- 
portions. An unfiled rod, or a filed rod 
of either aluminum or tin, is without 
action, though the unfiled rod of alloy 
will act on boiling water. The filed rod 
of alloy, in faintly acid solution of cop- 
per or zinc sulphate, becomes covered 
with a deposit of copper or zinc, while 
bubbles of oxygen are given off. M. 
Pecheux believes that the metals are truly 
alloyed only at the surface, and that filing 
lays bare an almost infinitely numerous 
series of junctions of the two metals, 
which, heated by the filing, act as ther- 
mocouples. 

Bismuth. — By the method used for 
lead, bismuth alloys were obtained con- 
taining 75, 85, 88, and 94 per cent of 
aluminum, with densities 2.86, 2.79, 
2.78 and 2.74 respectively. They were 
sonorous, brittle, finely^ grained, and 
homogeneous, silver- white, and with 
melting points between those of their con- 
stituents, but nearer that of aluminum. 
They are not oxidized in air at the tem- 



perature of casting, but are readily at- 
tacked by acids, concentrated or dilute, 
and by potassium-hydroxide solution. 
The filed alloys behave like those of tin, 
but still more markedly. 

Magnesium. — These were obtained 
with 66, 68, 73, 77, and 85 per cent 
of aluminum, and densities 2.24, 2.47, 
2.32, 2.37, 2.47. They are brittle, with 
larcre granular fracture, silver-white, file 
well, take a good polish, and have melt- 
ing points near that of aluminum. 
Being viscous when melted, they are dif- 
ficult to cast, and when slowly cooled 
form a gray, spongy mass whicn cannot 
be remelted. They do not oxidize in 
air at the ordinary temperatures, but 
burn readily at a bright-red heat. They 
are attacked violently by acids and by 
potassium-hydroxide solution, decom- 
pose hydrogen peroxide, and slowly de- 
compose water even in the cold. 

Tin, Bismuth, and Magnesium.— The 
action of water on these alloys just re- 
ferred to has been recently demonstrated 
on a larger scale, 5 to 6 cubic centimeters 
of hydrogen having been obtained in 20 
minutes from 2 cubic centimeters of the 
filed tin alloy. The bismuth alloy yield- 
ed more hydrogen than the tin alloy, and 
the magnesium alloy more than the bis- 
muth alloy. The oxygen of the decom- 
posed water unites with the aluminum. 
Larger quantities of hydrogen are ob- 
tained from copoer-sulphate solution, 
apart from the decomposition of this 
solution by precipitation of copper at the 
expense of the metal alloyea with the 
aluminum. The alloys of aluminum 
with zinc and lead do not decompose 
pure water, but do decompose the "water 
of copper-sulphate solution, and, more 
slowly, that of zinc-sulphate solution. 

Aluminum is a metal whose properties 
are very materially influenced by a pro- 
portionately small addition of copper. 
Alloys of 99 per cent aluminum and 1 per 
cent of copper are hard, brittle, and bluish 
in color; 95 per cent of aluminum and 5 
per cent of copper give an alloy which can 
DC hammerea. but with 10 percent of cop- 
per the metal can no longer be worked. 
With 80 per cent and upward of copper 
are obtained alloys of a beautiful yellow 
color, and these mixtures, containing from 
5 to 10 percent of aluminum and from 90 
to 95 per cent of copper, are the genuine 
aluminum bronzes. The lO-per-cent al- 
loys are of a pure golden-yellow color: 
with 5 per cent of aluminum they are 
reddish yellow, like gold heavily alloyed 
with copper, and a 2-per-cent admix- 
ture is of an »lmost.,^gj^re(«(9^{^. 



50 



ALLOYS 



As the proportion of copper increases, 
the brittleness is diminished, and alloys 
containing 10 per cent and less of aluminum 
can be used for industrial purposes, the 
best consisting of 90 per cent of copper and 
10 of aluminum. The hardness of this 
alloy a,:;proaches that of the general 
bronzes, whence its name. It can be 
stretched out into thin sheets between 
rollers, worked under the hammer, and 
shaped as desired by beating or pressure, 
in powerful stamping presses. On ac- 
count of its hardness it takes a fine pol- 
ish, and its peculiar ereenish-gold color 
resembles that of gold alloyed with cop- 
per and silver together. 

Alloys with a still greater proportion of 
copper approach this metal more and 
more nearly in their character; the color 
of an alloy, for instance, composed of 
95 per cent of copper and 5 per cent of alu- 
minum, can be distinguished from pure 
gold only by direct comparison, and the 
metal is very hard, and also very mal- 
leable. 

Electrical Conductivity of Aluminum 
Alloys. — During three years* exposure to 
the atmosphere, copper-aluminum alloys 
in one test gradually diminished in con> 
ductivity in proportion to the amount of 
copper they contamed. The nickel-copper 
aluminum alloys, which show such re- 
markably increased tensile strength as 
compared with good commercial alumi- 
num, considerably diminished in total con- 
ductivity. On the other hand, the man- 
ganese-copper aluminum alloys suffered 
comparatively little diminution in total 
conductivity, and one of them retained 
comparatively high tensile strength. It 
was thought that an examination of 
the structure of these alloys by aid of 
microphotography might throw some 
light on the great difference which exists 
between some of their physical proper- 
ties. For instance, a nickel-copper alu- 
minum alloy has 1.6 times the tensile 
strength of ordinary commercial alumi- 
num. Under a magnification of 800 
diameters practically no structure could 
be discovered. Considering the re- 
markable crystalline structure exhibited 
by ordinary commercial aluminum near 
the surface of an ingot, when allowed to 
solidify at an ordinary rate, the want of 
structure in these alloys must be attrib- 
uted to the process of drawing down. 
The inference is that the great difTer- 
enoe which exists between their tensile 
strengths and other qualities is not due 
to variation in structure. 

Colored Alloys of Aluminum. — A pur- 
ple scintillating composition is produced 



by an alloyage of 78 parts of gold and 22 
parts aluminum. With platinum a gold- 
colored alloy is obtained; with palladium 
a copper-colored one; and with cobalt 
and nickel one of a yellow color. Easily 
fusible metals of the color of aluminum 
give white alloys. Metal difficult of 
fusion, such as iridium, osmium, tita- 
nium, etc., appear in abnormal tones of 
color through such alloyages. 

Aluminum -Brass. — Aluminum, 1 per 
cent; specific gravity, 8.35 ; tensile strength, 
40. Aluminum, 3 per cent; specific grav- 
ity, 8.33; tensile strength, 65. The last 
named is harder than the first. 

Aluminum -Copper. — Minikin is prin- 
cipallv aluminum with a small percent- 
age of copper and nickel. It is alloyed 
by mixing the aluminum and copper, 
then adding the nickel. It resembles 
palladium and is very strong. 

Aluminum - Silver. — I. — Silver, 3 per 
cent; aluminum, 97 per cent. A hand- 
some color. 

II. — A silver aluminum that is easily 
worked into various articles contains 
about one-fourth silver and thrce-fourtlis 
of aluminum. 

Aluminum-Tin. — Bourbon metal is 
composed of equal parts of aluminum 
and tin; it solders readily. 

Aluminum-Timgsten.-— A new metal 
alloy consisting of aluminum and tung- 
sten is used of late in France in the <4>n- 
struction of conveyances, especially cir- 
riages, bicycles, and motor vehicles. 
The French call it parti iiium; the com- 
position of the new alloy varies according 
to the purposes for which it is used. It 
is considerably cheaper than aluminum, 
almost as light, and has a greater resist- 
ance. The strength is stated at 32 to 37 
kilograms per square millimeter. 

Aluminum -Zinc. — Zinc, 3 per cent: 
aluminum, 97 per cent. Very ductile, 
white, and harder than aluminum. 

AMALGAMS: 

See Fusible Alloys. 

Anti -Friction Bearing or Babbitt Met- 
als. — These alloys are usually supported by 
bearings of brass, into which it is poured 
after they have been tinned, and neated 
and put together with an exact model of 
the axle, or other working piece, plastic 
clay being previously applied, m the 
usual manner, as a lute or outer mold. 
Soft gun metal is also excellent, and is 
much used for bearings. They all be- 
come less heated in working than the 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ALLOYS 



51 



harder metals, and less grease or oil is con- 
sequently required when they are used. 

I.— An anti-friction metal of excellent 
quality and one that has been used with 
success is made as follows : 17 parts 
zinc; 1 part copper; li parts antimony; 
prepared in the following wav: Melt the 
copper in a small crucible, then add the 
antimony, and lastly the zinc, care being 
taken not to burn the zinc. Burning 
can be prevented by allowing the copper 
and antimony to cool slightly before add- 
ing the zinc. This metal is preferably 
cast into the shape desired and is not 
used as a lining metal because it requires 
too great a heat to pour. It macnines 
nicely and takes a fine polish on bearing 
surfaces. It has the appearance of 
aluminum when finished. Use a lubri- 
cating oil made from any good grade of 
machine oil to which 3 parts of kerosene 
have been added. 

II. — Copper, ^ parts; tin, 12 parts; 
lead, 150 parts; antimony, 30 parts; 
wrought iron, 1 part; cast iron, 1 part. 
For certain purposes the composition is 
modified as follows: Copper, 16 parts; 
tin, 40 parts; lead, 120 parts; antimony, 
24 parts; wrought iron, 1 part; cast iron, 
1 part. In both cases the wrought iron 
is cut up in small pieces, and in this state 
it will melt readily in fused copper and 
cast iron. After the mixture nas been 
well stirred, the tin, lead, and antimony 
are added; these are previously melted in 
separate crucibles, and when mingled the 
whole mass is again stirred thoroughly. 
The product mav then be run into ingots, 
to be employed when needed. When 
run into tne molds the surface should be 
well skimmed, for in this state it oxidizes 
rapidly. The proportions may be varied 
without materially affecting the results. 

III. — From tin, 16 to 20 parts; anti- 
mony, 2 parts; lead, 1 part; fused to- 
gether, and then blended with^ copper, 
80 parts. Used where there is much 
friction or high velocity. 

IV. — Zinc, 6 parts; tin, 1 part; cop- 
per, 20 parts. Used when the metal is 
exposed to violent shocks. 

V. — Lead, 1 part; tin, 2 parts; zinc, 
4 parts; copper, 68 parts. Used when 
the metal is exposed to heat. 

VI. — Tin, 48 to 50 parts; antimony, 5 
parts; copper, 1 part. 

VII.— (Fenton's.) Tin, with some 
zinc, and a little copper. 

VIII.— (Ordinary.) Tin, or hard 
pewter, with or without a small portion 
of antimony or copper. Without the 
last it is apt to spread out under the 
weight of heavy machinery. Used for 
the bearings of locomotives, etc. 



The following two compositions are 
for motor anu dynamo shafts: 100 
pounds tin; 10 pounds copper; 10 pounds 
antimony. 

83} pounds tin; 8} pounds antimony; 
SI pounds copper. 

Ia.— Leati, 75 parts; antimony, 28 
parts; tin, 2 parts. 

X. — ^Magnolia Metal.— This is com- 
posed of 40 parts of lead, 7} parts of 
antimony, 2} of tin, | of bismuth, } of 
aluminum, and } of graphite. It is used 
as an anti-friction metal, and takes its 
name from its manufacturer's mark, 
a magnolia flower. 

ARGENTAN: 

See German Silver, under this title. 

BELL METAL. 

The composition of bell metal varies 
considerably, as may be seen below: 

I. — (Standard.) Copper, 78 parts; 
tin, 22 parts; fused together and cast. 
The most sonorous of all the alloys of 
copper and tin. It is easily fusible, and 
has a fine compact grain, and a vitreous 
conchoidal and yeuowish-red fracture. 
According to Klaproth, the finest-toned 
Indian gongs have this composition. 

II. — (Founder's Standard.) Copper, 
77 parts; tin, 21 parts; antimony, 2 parts. 
Slightly paler and inferior to No. I. 

III. — Copper, 80 parts; tin, 20 parts. 
Very deep-toned and sonorous. Used 
in China and India for the larger gongs, 
tam-tams, etc. 

I v.— Copper, 78 to 80 parts; tin, 22 to 
20 parts. Usual composition of Chinese 
cymbals, tam-tams, etc. 

V. — Copper, 75 (- 3) parts; tin, 25 
(-1) part. ^ Somewhat brittle. In frac- 
ture, semi vitreous and bluish-red. Used 
for church and other large bells. 

VI. — Copper, 80 parts; tin, 10} parts; 
zinc, 5 A parts; lead, 4} parts. English 
bell metal, according to Thomson. In- 
ferior to the last; the lead being apt to 
form isolated drops, to the injury of the 
uniformity of the alloy. 

yiL— Copper, 68 parts; tin, 32 parts. 
Brittle; fracture conchoidal and ash- 
gray. Best proportions for house bells, 
hand bells, etc.; for which, however, 2 
of copper and 1 of tin is commonly 
substituted by the founders. 

VIII. — Copper, 72 parts; tin, 26 A parts; 
iron, 1 A parts. Used by the Paris houses 
for the hells of small clocks. 

IX. — Copper, 72 parts; tin, 26 parts; 
zinc, 2 parts. Used, like the last, for 
very small bells. 

X. — Copper, 70 parts; tin, -26 parts: 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



52 



ALLOYS 



zinc, 2 parts. Used for the bells of repeat- 
in^ watches. 

XI. — Melt together copper, 100 parts; 
tin, 25 parts. After being cast into the 
required object, it should be made red- 
hot, and then plunged immediately into 
cold water in order to impart to it the 
requisite degree of sonorousness. For 
cymbals and gongs. 

XII. — Melt together copper, 80 parts; 
tin, 20 parts. When cold it has to be 
hammered out with frequent annealing. 

XIII.— Copper, 78 parts; tin, 22 parts; 
This is superior to the former, and it can 
be rolled out. For tam-tams and gongs. 

XIV. — Melt together copper, 72 parts; 
tin, 26 to 50 parts; iron -A part. Used 
in making the bells of ornamental French 
clocks. 

Castings in bell metal are all more or 
less brittle; and, when recent, have a 
color varying from a dark ash-gray to 
grayish- white, which is darkest in the 
more cuprous varieties, in which it 
turns somewhat on the yellowish-red or 
bluish-red. The larger the proportion 
of copper in the alloy, the deeper and 
graver the tone of the bells formed of 
It. The addition of tin, iron, or zinc, 
causes them to give out their tones sharp- 
er. Bismuth and lead are also often 
used to modify the tone, which each 
metal affects differently. The addition 
of antimony and bismuth is frequently 
made by the founder to give a more crys- 
talline grain to the alloy. All these 
conditions are, however, prejudicial to 
the sonorousness ol bells, and of very 
doubtful utility. Rapid refrigeration 
increases the sonorousness of all these 
alloys. Hence M. D*Arcct recommends 
that the "pieces" be heated to a cherry- 
red after they are cast, and after having 
been suddenly plunged into cold water, 
that they be submitted to well-regulated 
pressure by skillful hammering, until they 
assume their proper form ; after which they 
are to be again heated and allowed to cool 
slowly in the air. This is the method 
adopted by the Chinese with their gongs, 
etc., a casing of sheet iron being em- 
ployed by them to support and protect 
the pieces during the exposure to heat. 
In a general way, however, bells are 
formed and completed by simple casting. 
This is necessarily the case with all very 
large bells. Where the quality of their 
tones is the chief object sought after, the 
greatest care should be taken to use com- 
mercially pure copper. The presence 
of a very little lead or any similar metal 
greatly lessens the sonorousness of this 
alloy; while that of silver increases it. 

The specific gravity of a large bell is 



seldom uniform through its whole sub- 
stance; nor can the specific gravity from 
any given portion of its constituent met- 
als be exactly calculated owing to the 
many interfering circumstances. The 
nearer this uniformity is approached, or, 
in other words, chemical combination is 
complete, the more durable and finer- 
toned will be the bell. In general, it is 
found necessary to take about one-tenth 
more metal than the weight of the in- 
tended bell, or bells, in order to allow for 
waste and scorification during the opera- 
tions of fusing and casting. 

BISMUTH ALLOYS. 

Bismuth possesses the unusual quality 
of expanding in cooling. It is, there- 
fore, introduced in many alloys to reduce 
or check shrinkage in the mold. 

For delicate castings, and for taking 
impressions from dies, medals, etc., va- 
rious bismuth alloys are in use, whose 
composition corresponds to the follow- 
ing ngures : 

1 II III IV 

Bismuth 6 5 2 8 

Tin 3 2 13 

Lead 13 3 1 5 

v.— ClicW MctaL— This alloy is com- 
posed of tin, 48 parts; lead, 32.5; bis- 
muth, 9; and antimony, 10.5. It is es- 
pecially well adapted to dabbing rollers 
tor printing cotton goods, and as it pos- 
sesses a considerable degree of hardness, 
it wears well. 

VI. —For filling out defective places in 
metallic castings, an alloy of bismuth 1 
part, antimony 3, lead 8, can be ad- 
vantageously used. 

VII.— For Cementing Glass.— Most 
of the cements in ordinary use are dis- 
solved, or at least softened, by petro- 
leum. An alloy of lead 3 parts, tin 2, 
bismuth 2.5, melting at 212® F., is not 
affected by petroleum, and is therefore 
very useful for cementing lamps made of 
metal and glass combined. 

LIPOWITZ'S BISMUTH ALLOY : 

See Cadmium Alloys. 

BRASS. 

In general brass is composed of two- 
thirds copper and one-third zinc, but a 
little lead or tin is^ sometimes advanta- 
geous, as the following: 

I. — Red copper, 66 parts; zinc, 34 
parts; lead, 1 part. 

II. — Copper, 66 parts; zinc, 32 parts; 
tin, 1 part; lead, 1 part. 

III. — Copper. 64.5 parts; zinc, 33.5 
parts; lead, 1.5 parts; tin, 0.5 part. 

Brass -Aluminum. — A small addition of 
aluminum to brass (l^StoSper poit) great- 



ALLOYS 



58 



!y increases its hardness and elasticity, 
and this alley is also easil}r worked for any 
purpr«^e. Brass containing 8 per cent of 
aiumirium has the valuable property of 
being b^it slightly affected by acids or gases. 
A larger (percentage of aluminum makes 
the brass brittle. It is to be noted that 
aluminum brass decreases very materi- 
ally in volume in casting, and the casts 
must be cooled slowly or they will be 
brittle. It is an alloy easily made, and 
its low price, combined with its excellent 
qualities, would seem to make it in many 
cases an advantageous substitute for the 
expensive phosphorous bronze. 

Bristol Brass (Prince's Metal).— This 
allov, which possesses properties similar 
to those of French brass, is prepared in 
the following proportions: 

I II III 

Copper 75.7 67.2 60.8 

Zinc .. «4.3 32.8 39,2 

Particular care is required to prevent 
the zinc from evaporating during the fus- 
ing, and for this purpose it is customary 
to put only half of it into the first melting, 
and to add the remainder when the first 
mass is liquefied. 

Brass-Iron (Aich's Metal).— This is 
a variety of brass with an admixture of 
iron, which gives it a considerable degree 
of tenacity. It is especiallv adapted for 
purposes which rec]^uire a hard and, at 
the same time, tenacious metal. Analvses 
of the various kinds of this metal show 
considerable variation in the proportions. 
Even the amount of iron, to which the 
hardening effect must be attributed, maj 
vary within wide limits without materi- 
ally modifving the tenacity which is the 
essential characteristic of this alloy. 

I.— The best variety of Aich's metal 
consists of copper, 00 parts; zinc, 38.2; 
iron, 1.8. ^ The predominating quality of 
this alloy is its hardness, which is claimed 
to be not inferior to that of certain kinds 
of steel. It has a beautiful golden-yellow 
color, and is said not to oxidize easily, a 
valuable property for articles exposed to 
the action of air and water. 

II. — Copper, 60.2 parts; zinc, 38.2; 
iron, 1.6. The permissible variations 
in the content of iron are from 0.4 to 3 
percent 

Sterro metal may properly be consid- 
ered in connection witn Aich's metal, 
since its constituents are the same and 
itsproperties very similar. The principal 
difference between the two metals is 
that sterro metal contains a much larger 
amount of iron. The composition of 
this alloy varies considerably with dif- 
ferent manufacturers. 



III. — Two varieties of excellent qual- 
ity are the product of the Rosthoin fac- 
tory, in Lower Austria — copper, 55.33 
parts; zinc, 41.80; iron, 4.66. Also 

IV. — English sterro metal (Gedge*s 
alloy for ship sheathing), copper, GO 
parts; zinc, 38.125; iron, 1.5. 

The great value of this alloy lies in its 
strength, which is equaled only bv that 
of the best steel. As an illustration of 
this, a wrought-iron pipe fa«>oke with a 
pressure of 267 atmospheres, while a 
similar pipe of sterro metal withstood the 
enormous pressure of 763 atmospheres 
without cracking. Besides its remark- 
able strength, it possesses a high degree 
of elasticity, and is, therefore, particular- 
ly suitable for purposes which require 
the combination of these two qualities, 
such as the construction of hydraulic 
cylinders. It is well known that these 
cylinders, at a certain pressure, begin to 
sweat, that is, the interior pressure is so 
great that the water permeates through 
the pores of the steel. With a sterro 
metal cylinder, the pressure can be con- 
siderably increased^ without any mois- 
ture being perceptible on the outside of 
the cylinder. 

Sterro metal can be made even more 
hard and dense, if required for special 
purposes, but this is effected rather by 
mecnanical manipulation than by anv 
change in the chemical composition. If 
rolled or hammered in heat, its strength 
is increased, and it acouires, in addition, 
an exceedingly high aegree of tenacity. 
Special care must oe taken, however, in 
hammering not to overheat the metal, 
as in this case it would become brittle and 
might crack under the hammer. Sterro 
metal is especially suitable for all the 
purposes for which the so-called red 
metal has been in the past almost ex- 
clusively used. Axle bearings, for ex- 
ample, made of sterro metal have such 
excellent qualities that many machine 
factories are now using this material 
entirely for the purpose. 

Cast Brass. — The various articles of 
bronze, so called, statuettes, clock cases, 
etc., made in France, where this industry 
has attained great perfection and exten- 
sive proportions, are not, in many cases^ 
genuine bronze, but fine cast brass. Fol^ 
lowing are the compositions of a few 
mixtures of metals most fiequently used 
by French manufacturers: 

Copper Zino Tin Lead 

1 63.70 33.55 2.50 0.25 

II 64.45 32.44 0.25 2.86 

III 70.90 24.05 2.00 3.05 

IV 72.43 22.75 V.»7^^^f 

Digitized byVjOOQlC 



64 



ALLOYS 



Their special advantap^e is that they 
can be readily cast, worked with file and 
chisel, and easily gilded. 

To Cast Yellow Brass. — If good, clean, 
yellow brass sand castings arc desired, 
the brass should not contain over 30 per 
cent of zinc. This will assure an alloy of 
good color and one which will run free 
and clean. Tin or lead may be added 
without affecting the property of casting 
clean. A mixture of 7 pounds of copper, 
3 pounds of spelter, 4 ounces of tin, and 
3 ounces of lead makes a good casting 
alloy and one which will cut free and is 
strong. If a stronger alloy be desired, 
more tin may be added, but 4 ounces is 
usually sufficient. If the alloy be too 
hard, reduce the proportion of tin. 

Leaf Brass.— This alloy is also called 
Dutch gold, or imitation gold leaf. It 
is made of copper, 77.75 to 84.5 parts; 
zine, 15.5 to 22.25. Its color is pale or 
bright yellow or greenish, according to 
the proportions of the metals. It has an 
unusual degree of ductility. 

Malleable Brass.— This metal is af- 
fected less by sea water than pure copper, 
and was formerly much used for ship 
sheathing, and for making nails and 
rivets which were to come in contact with 
sea water. At the present day it has 
lost much of its importance, since all the 
larger ships are made of steel. It is 
usually composed of copper, 60 to 62 
parts; and zinc, 40 to 38 parts. It is 
sometimes called yellow metal, or Muntz 
metal (called after its inventor), and is 
prepared with certain precautions, di- 
rected toward obtaining as fine a grain 
as possible, experience having shown 
that only a fine-grained alloy of uniform 
density can resist the action of the sea 
water evenly. A metal of uneven den- 
sity will wear in holes. To obtain as 
uniform a grain as possible, small sam- 
ples taken from the fused mass are cooled 
Quickly and examined as to fracture. If 
tney do not show the desired uniform 
gram, some zinc is added to the mass. 
After it has permeated the whole mass, 
a fresh sample is taken and tested, this 
being continued until the desired result 
is reached. It is^ scarcely necessary to 
remark that considerable experience is 
required to tell the correct composition 
of the alloy from the fracture. Tne mass 
is finally poured into molds and rolled 
cold. Malleable brass can be worked 
warm, like iron, being ductile in heat, a 
valuable quality. 

Experiments with malleable brass 
show that all alloys containing up to 
58.33 per cent of copper and up to 41.67 



per cent of zinc are malleable. There is, 
in addition, a .second group of such al- 
loys, with 61.54 per cent oi copper and 
38.40 per rent oi zinc, which are also 
malleable in heat. 

The preparation of tlie.se alloys re- 
quires considerable experience, and is 
best accomplished by melting the metals 
together in the usual manner, and heating 
the fused mass as strongly as possible. 
It must be covered with a layer of char- 
coal dust to prevent oxidation of the zinc. 
The mass becomes thinly fluid, and an 
intimate mixture of the constituents is 
effected. Small pieces of the same alloy 
are thrown into the liquid mass until it 
no longer shows a reflecting surface, 
when it is cast into ingots in iron molds. 
The ingots are plunged into water while 
still red-hot, and acquire by this treat- 
ment a very high degree of ductility. The 
alloy, properly prepared, has a fibrous 
fracture and a reddish-yellow color. 

Sheet Brass (For Sheet and Wire).— 
In the preparation of brass for the manu- 
facture of wire, an especially pure qual- 
ity of copper must be used; without this, 
all efforts to produce a suitable quality of 
brass will be in vain. That pure copper 
is indispensable to the manufacture of 
good, ductile brass may be seen from the 
great difference in the composition of the 
various kinds, all of which answer their 
purpose, but contain widely varying 
quantities of copper and zinc. The fol- 
lowing table shows the composition of 
some excellent qualities of brass suitable 
for making sheet and wire: 



Brass Sheet — Source 



Jcmappes 

Stolberg 

Romilly 

Rosthorn (Vienna). 
Rosthorn (Vienna). 
Rosthorn (Vienna). 
Iserlohn & Romilly 

Llidenscheid 

(Brittle) 

Ilegermiihl 

Oker 

Brass Wire — 

England 

Augsburg 

Neustadt 

Neustadt 

Neustadt 

Neustadt 

(Good quality) .... 

(Brittle) 

For wire and sheet. 

Digitized by 



Cop- 
per 



Zinc 



33.7 

32.8 

29.26 

31.9 

28.5 

27.6 

29.9 



73*^7.27 
66,33.02 
1627.45 
98,29.54 



70.29 29.26 
71.89 27.63 
70.1627.45 
71.3628.15 
71.5 28.5 



71.0 
65.4 
65.5 
67.0 



27.6 
34.6 

|32.4 
32.0 



Lead 



1.4 
2.0 
0.38 



1.3 



2.52 
0.79 
0.97 

0.28 
0.85 
0.2 



2.1 
0.5 



C^oog ie 



Tin 

0.2 
0.4 
0.17 



0.20 

0.17 
6.'79 



0.5 



ALLOYS 



55 



As the above figures show, the per- 
centage of zinc in the different kinds of 
brass lies between 27 and 34. Recently, 
alloys containing a somewhat larger 
quantity of zinc have been used, it hav- 
ing been found that the toughness and 
ductility of the brass are increased there- 
by, witnout injury to its tenacity. Al- 
loys containing up to 37 per cent of zinc 
possess a high decree of ductility in the 
culd. and are well adapted for wire and 
sheet. 

Gilders' Sheet Brass. — Copper, 1 part; 
zinc, 1 part; tin, A* part; lead, -^ part. 
Very readily fusible and very dense. 

White Brass. — Birmingham platina is 
an alloy of a pure white, almost silver- 
white color, remaining unaffected by 
tolerably long exposure to the atroos- 

{)here. Unfortunately this alloy is so 
jrittle that it can rarely be shaped ex- 
cept by casting. It is used only in the 
manufacture of buttons. The alloy is 
poured into molds giving rather sharp 
impressions and allowing the design on 
the button (letters or coat of arms) to 
stand out prominently with careful 
stamping. The composition of this 
alloy, also known by tne name of plati- 
num lead, is as follows: 

I II 

Copper 46 . 5 4 

Zinc 53.5 16 

III. — Zinc, 80 parts; copper, 10 parts; 
iron, 10 parts. 

BRITAimiA METAL. 

Britannia metal is an alloy consisting 
principally of tin and antimony. Many 
varieties contain only these two metals, 
and may be considered simply as tin 
hardened with antimony, while others 
contaiii, in addition, certain quantities of 
copper, sometimes lead, and occasion- 
ally, though rarely on account of its cost, 
bismuth. Britannia metal is always of a 
silverjr-white color, with a^ bluish tinge, 
and its hardness makes it capable of 
taking a high polish, which is not lost 
through exposure to the air. Ninety per 
cent of tin and 10 per cent of antimony 
gives a composition which is the best for 
many purposes, especially for casting, as 
it fills out the molds well, and is readily 
fusible. In some cases, where articles 
made from it are to be subjected to con- 
stant wear, a harder alloy is required. 
In the proportions given above, the metal 
is indeed much harder than tin, but 
would still soon give way under usage. 

A table is appended, giving the com- 
position of some of the varieties of Bri- 
tannia metal and their special names. 



Tin l^"*»- ^'^'P-lzii 
many per ** ' 



English 

English 

English 

English 

Pewter 

Pewter 

Tutania 

Queen's metal 

German 

German 

German (for' 

casting) 

Malleable ( for' 

casting) . . . . 



81.90 16.25 1.84 
90.62 7.81 1.46 
6.3 3.1 
9.66 0.81 
5.7 1.60 
7.6 



90.1 
85.4 
81.« 
89.3 
91.4 
88.5 
72.0 
84.0 

20.0 

48.0 



7.1 

24.0 

9.0 



1.8 
0.7 
!3.5 
4.0 
!2.0 



64.0 jlO.O 
.... 3.0 



0.5 
3.06 



0.3 
0.9 



5.0 
6.0 



48.0 



Lead 



11.5 
1.8 
7.6 



1.0 



Britannia metal is prepared by melting 
the copper alone first, then adding a 
part of the tin and the whole of the an- 
timony. The heat can then be quickly 
moderated, as the melting point of the 
new alloy is much lower tnan that of 
copper. Finally, the rest of the tin is 
added, and the mixture stirred constantly 
for some time to make it thoroughly 
homogeneous. 

An alloy which bears a resemblance 
to Britannia metal is Ashberry metal, 
for which there are two formulas. 

I II 

Copper 2 3 

Tin. 8 79 

Antimony 14 15 

Zinc 1 2 

Nickel 2 1 

BRONZES. 

The composition of bronze must be 
effected immediately before the casting, 
for bronze cannot be kept in store ready 
prepared. In forming the alloy, the re- 
fractory compound, copper, is first melted 
separately, the other metals, tin, zinc, 
etc., previously heated, being then 
added; the whole is then stirred and the 
casting carried out without loss of time. 
The process of forming the alloy must be 
effected cjuickly, so that there may be no 
lo.ss of zinc, tin, or lead through oxida- 
tion, and also no interruption to the 
flow of metal, as metal added after an 
interval of time will not combine per- 
fectly with the metal already poured in. 
It is important, therefore, to ascertain 
the specific weights of the metals, for 
the heavier metal will naturallv tend to 
sink to the bottom and the fighter to 
collect at the top. Only in this way, 
and by vigorous stirring, can the com- 
plete blending of the two metals be 
secured. In adding the zinc, great care 



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56 



ALLOYS 



must be taken that the latter sinks at 
once to the level of the copper, otherwise 
a considerable portion will be volatilized 
before reaching the copper. When the 
castings are made, they must be cooled 
as quickly as possible, for the compo- 
nents of bronze have a tendency to form 
separate alloys of various composition, 
thus producing the so-called tin spots. 
This IS much more likely to occur with a 
slow than with a sudden cooling of the 
mass. 

Annealing Bronze. — This process is 
more particularly employed in the prep- 
aration of alloys used in the manufacture 
of cymbals, gon^, bells, etc. The alloy 
is naturally brittle, and acquires the 
properties essential to the purpose for 
which it is intended only after casting. 
The instruments are plunged into cold 
water while red-hot, hammered, re- 
heated, and slowly cooled, when they 
become soft and sonorous. The alloy 
of copper and tin has the peculiar prop- 
erty that, whereas steel becomes hard 
through cooling, this mixture, when 
cooled suddenly, becomes noticeably soft 
and more malleable. The alloy is 
heated to a dark-red heat, or, in the case 
of thin articles, to the melting point of 
lead, and then plunged in cold water. 
The alloy may be hammered without 
splitting or breaking. 

Aluminum Bronze. — This is prepared 
by melting the finest copper in a cruci- 
ble, and adding the aluminum. The 
copper is cooled thereby to the thickly 
fluid point, but at the moment of the 
combination of the two metals, so much 
heat is released that the alloy becomes 
white hot and thinly fluid. Aluminum 
bronze thus prepared is usually brittle, 
and^ acQuires its best qualities only after 
having ocen remelted several times. It 
may be remarked that, in order to obtain 
a bronze of the best quality, only the very 
purest copper must be used; with an infe- 
rior quality of copper, all labor is wasted. 
Aluminum bronze is not affected by ex- 
posure to the air; and its beautiful color 
makes it very suitable for manufactur- 
ing various ornamental articles, includ- 
ing clock cases, door knobs, etc. 

Aluminum bronze wire is almost as 
strong as good steel wire, and castings 
made from it are almost as hard as steely 
iron; its resistance to bending or sag- 
ging is great. 

I. — A good formula is 90 to 95 per cent 
of aluminum and 5 to 10 per cent of cop- 
per, of golden color, which keeps well m 
the air, without soon becoming dull and 
changing color like pure copper and its 



alloys with tin and zinc (bronze, brass, 
etc.). It can be cast excellently, can be 
filed well and turned, possesses an ex- 
traordinary hardness and firmness, and 
attains a high degree of polish; it is 
malleable and forgeable. On the latter 
quality are founded applications which 
were formerly never thought of, viz.: 
forged works of art for decorative pur- 
poses. An alloy of 95 parts aluminum 
and 5 parts copper is used here. The 
technical working of bronze is not mate- 
rially different from that of iron. The 
metal, especially in a hot condition, is 
worked like iron on the anvil, with ham- 
mer and chisel, only that the tempera- 
ture to be maintained in forging lies 
between dark and light cherry red. If 
the articles are not forged in one piece 
and the putting together of the separate 
parts becomes necessary, riveting or 
soldering has to be resorted to. Besides 
forging, aluminum bronze is well suited 
for embossing, which is not surprising con- 
sidering the nigh percentage of copper. 
After finishing the pieces, the metal can 
be toned in manifold ways by treatment 
with acid. 

II. — Copper, 89 to 98 per cent; alu- 
minum and nickel, 1 to 2 per cent. Alu- 
minum and nickel change in the opposite 
way, that is to say, in increasing trie per- 
centage of nickel the amount of alu- 
minum is decreased by the equal quan- 
tity. It should be borne in mind that the 
best ratio is aluminum, 9.5 per cent; 
nickel, 1 to 1.5 per cent at most. In 
preparing the alloy a deoxidizing agent 
IS added, viz., phosphorus to 0.5 per 
cent; magnesium to 1.5 per cent. The 
phosphorus should always be added in 
the form of phosphorous copper or phos- 
phor aluminum of exactly determined 
percentage. It is first added to the 
copper, then the aluminum and the 
nickel, and finally the magnesium, the 
last named at the moment of liquidity, 
are admixed. 

III. — A gold bronze, containing 3 to 
5 per cent aluminum; specific gravity, 
8.37 to 8.15.^ Handsome golden color. 
This alloy oxidizes less on heating than 
copper and iron, and is therefore espe- 
cially adapted for locomotive fireboxes 
and spindles, etc. 

IV. — A steel bronze containing on an 
average 8.5 per cent aluminum (includ- 
ing 1 per cent silicium); specific gravity, 
7.7. Very ductile and tough, but slightly 
elastic; hence its use is excluded where, 
with large demands upon tension and 
pressure, no permanent change of form 
must ensue. This is changed by work- 
ing, such as rolling, drawing, etc. Es- 

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ALLOYS 



67 



pecially useful where infrangibility is de- 
sired, as in machinery, ordnance, etc. 
At high temperature this bronze loses its 
elasticity again. 

V. — This contains 8.5 per cent alu- 
minum and 1 A to 2 per cent silicium. Its 
use is advisable in cases where the metal 
is to possess a good elasticity, even in 
the cast state, and to retain it after 
being worked in red heat. 

VI. — An acid bronze, containing 10 
per cent aluminum; specific gravity, 
7.65. Especially serviceable to resist 
oxidation and the action of acids. 

VII. — Diamond bronze, containing 

10 per cent aluminum and 2 per cent 
silicium. Specific gravity, 7.3. Very 
hard; of great firmness, but brittle. 

Art Bronzes. (See also Aluminum 
Bronzes and Japanese Bronzes under 
this title.)— I. — Copper, 84 parts; zinc, 

11 parts; tin, 5 parts. 

II. — Copper, 90 parts; zinc, 6 parts; 
tin, 2 parts; lead, 2 parts. 

III. — Copper, 65 parts; zinc, 80 parts; 
tin, 5 parts. 

IV. — Copper, 90 parts; tin, 5 parts; zinc, 
4 parts; lead, 1 part. 

V. — Copper, 85 parts; zinc, 10 parts; 
tin, 3 parts; lead, 2 parts. 

VI. — Copper, 72 parts; zinc, 23 parts; 
tin, 3 parts; lead, 2 parts. 

Statuary Bronze. — Many of the an- 
tique statues were made of ffenuine 
bronze, which has advantages for this 
purpose, but has been superseded in 
modern times by mixtures of metals 
containing, besides copper and tin — the 
constituents of real bronze — a Quantity 
of zinc, the alloy^ thus formea being 
really an intermediate product between 
bronze and brass. The reason for the 
use of such mixtures lies partly in the 
comparative cheapness of their produc- 
tion as compared with genuine bronze, 
and partly in the purpose for which the 
metal is to be used. A thoroughly good 
statuary bronze must become thinly fluid 
in fusing, fill the molds out sharply, allow 
of being easily worked with the file, and 
must take on the beautiful green coating 
called patina, after being exposed to the 
air for a short time. 

Genuine bronze, however strongly 
heated, does not become thin enough to 
fill out the molds well, and it is also 
difficult to obtain homogeneous castings 
from it. Brass alone is also too thickly 
fluid, and not hard enough for the re- 
quired fine chiseling or chasing of the 
finished object. Alloys containing zinc 
and tin, in addition to copi>er, can be 
prepared in such a manner that they will 



become very thinly fluid, and will give 
fine castinss which can easilv be worked 
with the file and chisel. The best pro- 
portions seem to be from 10 to 18 per 
cent of zinc and from 2 to 4 per cent 
of tin. In point of hardness, statuary 
bronze holds an intermediate position 
between genuine bronze and brass, 
being harder and tougher than the latter, 
but not so much so as the former. 

Since statuary bronze is used prin- 
ci pally for artistic purposes, much de- 
pends upon the color. This can be varied 
irom pale yellow to orange yellow by 
slightly varying the content of tin or 
zinc, which must, of course, still be kept 
between the limits given above. Too 
much tin makes the alloy brittle and dif- 
ficult to chisel; with too much zinc, on 
the other hand, the warm tone of color is 
lost, and the bronze does not acquire a 
fine patina. 

The best proportions for statuary 
bronze are very definitely known at the 
present day; yet it sometimes happens 
that large castings have not the right 
character. They are either defective in 
color, or they dc not take on a fine patina, 
or they are difficult to chisel. These 
phenomena may be due to the use of 
impure metals — containing oxides, iron, 
lead, etc. — or to improper treatment of 
the alloy in melting. With the most 
careful work possible, there is a consid- 
erable loss in melting — 3 per cent at the 
ver^ least, and .sometimes a^much as 10. 
This is due to the large proportion of 
zinc, and it is evident that, in conse- 
quence of it, the nature of the alloy will 
be different from what might be expected 
from the quantities of metals usea in its 
manufacture. 

It has been remarked that slight vari- 
ations in composition quickly change 
the color of the alloy. The following 
table gives a series of alloys of different 
colors, suitable for statuary bronze: 



I.. 
II.. 
III. 



Cop- 
per 



IV... 83 

v.. .81 



Zinc 



Tin 



81 
178 



.05, 15, 
.00,15 
09,18 



VI 
VII 

Vlll...]73.58j23. 
IX...|73.00|23, 

X...,70 

XI..., 70 

Xll...i65 



[).86i26 
[).00'27, 
i.95,31 



4.30 
5.00 
3.92 
005.00 
32 3.63 
00 4.00 
47 3.44 
27 3.15 
00 4.00 
88 2.76 
00 3.00 

56 2.49 

I 



Color 



Reddish yellow 
Orange red 
Orange red 
Orange red 
Orange yellow 
Orange yellow 
Orange yellow 
Orange yellow 
Pale orange 
Pale yellow 
Pale yellow 
Pale yellow 



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58 



ALLOYS 



Perhaps the most satisfactory bronze 
metal is the alloy used in France for more 
than a century. It contains 91.60 per 
cent of copper, 5.33 per cent of zinc, 1.70 
per cent of tin, and 1.37 per cent of lead. 
Somewhat more zinc is taken for articles 
to be gilded. 

Bismuth Bronze. — Copper, 52 parts; 
nickel, 30 parts; zinc, 1^ parts; lead, 5 
parts; bismuth, 1 part ror metallic 
mirrors, lamp reflectors, etc. 

Gun Bronze. — See Phosphor Bronze 
under this title. 

Japanese Bronzes. — ^The fonnulas given 
below contain a large percentage of lead, 
which greatly improves the patina. The in- 
gredients and the ratio of their parts for sev- 
eral sorts of modem Japanese bronze follow: 

I. — Copper, 81.62 per cent; tin, 4.61 
per cent; lead, 10.21 per cent 

II.— Copper, 76.60 per cent; tin, 4.38 
per cent; lead, 11.88 per cent; zinc, 6.58 
per cent 

III.— Copper. 88.55 per cent; tin, 2.42 
per cent; lead, 4.72 per cent; zinc, 3.20 
per cent^ 

Sometimes a little antimony is added 
just before casting, and such a composi- 
tion would be represented more nearly 
by this formula: 

IV. — Copper, 68.25 per cent; tin, 5.47 
per cent; zinc, 8.88 per cent; lead, 17.06 
per cent; antimony, 0.34 per cent. 

For imitation Japanese bronze, see 
Plating und^r Bronzing. 

Machine Bronze. — I. — Copper, 89 per 
cent; tin, 11 per cent. 

II. — Copper, 80 per cent; tin, 16 per 
cent 

Phosphor Bronze. — Phosphor bronze 
is bronze containing varying amounts 
of phosphorus, from a few hundredths 
of 1 per cent to 1 or 2 per cent. Bronze 
containing simply copper and tin is very 
liable to be defective from the presence 
of oxygen, sulphur, or occluded gases. 
Oxygen causes the metal to be spongy 
and weak. Sulphur and occluded gases 
cause porosity. ^ Oxygen gets' into the 
metal b^ absorption from the air. It can 
be eliminated by adding to the metal 
something which combines with the oxy- 
gen and then fluxes off. Such deoxidizers 
are zinc, antimony, aluminum, man- 
ganese, silicon, and phosphorus. Sul- 
phur and occluded gases can be elimi- 
nated by melting the metal, exposing it to 
the air, and^ letting it thus absorb some 
oxygen, which then burns the sulphur 
and gas. The oxygen can then be re- 
moved by adding one of the above- 
mentioned deoxidizers. The important 
use of phosphorus in bronze is, there- 



fore, to remove oxygen and also indirect- 
ly to destroy occluded gas and sulphur. 

A bronze is sometimes made with an 
extra high percentage of phosphorus, 
namely, 6 per cent This alloy is made 
so as to have phosphorus in convenient 
form for use, and the process of manu- 
facture is as follows: Ninety pounds 
of copper are melted under charcoal in 
a No. 70 crucible, which holds about 
200 pounds of metal when full; 11 
pounds of tin are added and the metal is 
allowed to become hot. The crucible is 
then removed from the furnace and 7 
pounds of phosphorus are introduced 
in the following manner: A 3-gaIlon 
stone jar, half full of dilute solution 
of blue vitriol, is weighed. Then the 
weights are increased 7 pounds, and 
phosphorus in sticks about 4 inches 
lon^ b added till the scales balance 
again. The phosphorus is left in this 
solution half an hour or longer, the phos- 
phorus being given a coating of copper, 
so that it may be dried ana exposed to 
the air without igniting. Have ready 
a pan about 30 inches square and 6 
incnes deep, containing about 2 inches of 
water. Over the water is a wire netting, 
which is laid loose on ledges or supports 
along the inner sides of the pan. On the 
netting is blotting paper, and on this the 
phosphorus is laia to dry when taken 
out of the blue-vitriol solution^ The pan 
also has a lid which can be put down in 
case of ignition of the phosphorus. 

The phosphorus is now readj^ for 
introduction into the metal. This is 
done by means of a cup-shaped instru- 
ment called a retort or phosphorizer. 
One man holds the retort on the rim of 
the crucible in a horizontal position. A 
second man takes about three pieces of 
phosphorus and throws them into the 
retort. The Rrst man then immediately 
plunges the mouth of the retort below 
the surface of the metal before the phos- 
phorus has a chance to fall or flow out 
Of course the phosphorus immediately 
melts and also oegins to volatilize. As 
the phosphorus comes in contact with 
the metal, it combines with it. This 
process is continued till all the 7 pounds 
of phosphorus has been put into the metal. 
The metal is then poured into slabs about 
3 inches by 4 inches by 1 inch thick. The 
metal is so hard that a greater thickness 
would make it difficult to break it up. 
When finished, the metal contains, by 
analysis, 6 per cent of phosphorus. When 
phosphorus is to be added to metal, a 
little of this hardener is employed. 

Copper is a soft, ductile metal, with its 
melting point at about 2,000® F. Mol- 
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ALLOYS 



59 



ten copper has the marked property of 
absorbing various ^ases. It is for this 
reason that it is so difficult to make sound 
castings of clear copper. Molten copper 
combines readily with the oxygen ot the 
air, fornsing oxide of copper, which dis- 
soItcs in the copper ana mixes homo« 
geneousl^ with it. 

A casting made from such metal would 
be very spongy. The bad effect of oxy- 
gen is intended to be overcome by adding 
zinc to the extent of 1 per cent or more. 
This result can be mucn more effectively 
attained by the use of aluminum, man- 
ganese, or phosphorus. The action of 
these substances is to combine with the 
oxygen, and as the product formed sepa- 
rates and goes to the surface, the metal 
is left in a sound condition. Aluminum 
and manganese deoxidize copper and 
bronze very effectively, and the oxide 
formed goes to the surface as a scum. 
When a casting is made from such metal, 
the oxide or scum, instead of freeing it- 
self from the casting perfectly, generally 
remains in the top part of the casting 
mixed with the metal, as a fractured 
surface will show. Phosphorus deox- 
idizes copper, and the oxide formed 
leaves the metal in the form of a gas, so 
that a casting made from such metal 
shows a clean fracture throughout, al- 
though the metal is not so dense as when 
aluminum or manganese is used. 

Copper abo has the property of ab- 
sorbing or occluding carbon monoxide. 
But the carbonic oxide thus absorbed 
is in a different condition from the oxv- 
gen absorbed. When oxygen is ab- 
sorbed by copper, the oxygen combines 
chemically witn the copper and loses its 
own identity as a gas. But when coal 
^as is absorbed bv the copper, it keeps 
Its own physical identity and simply ex- 
ists in the copper in a state of solution. 
All natural waters, such as lake water, 
river water, spring water, etc., contain 
air in solution or occlusion. When such 
water is cooled and frozen, just at the 
time of dianging from the liquid to the 
solid state, the dissolved gas separates 
and forms air bubbles, which remain 
entangled in the ice. The carbonic 
oxide which is dissolved or occluded in 
copper acts in exactly the same way. 

Hydrogen acts^ in exactly the same 
manner as carbonic oxide. Sulphur also 
has a bad effect upon copper and bronze. 
Sulphur combines with copper and other 
metals, forming sulphide of copper, etc. 
When molten copper or bronze contain- 
ing sulphur comes in contact with air it 
absorbs some oxygen, and this in turn 
combines with the sulphur present. 



forming sulphur dioxide, which is a gas 
which remains occluded in the metal. 

Tin is a soft, white metal, melting at 
440^ F. Toward gases it acts something 
like copper, but not in so marked a de- 
gree. Although copper and tin are both 
soft, vet when mixed they make a harder 
metal. When bronze cools from the 
molten state, the copper and the copper- 
tin alloy tend to crystallize by themselves. 
The quicker the cooling occurs the less 
separation will there be, and also the 
fracture will be more homogeneous in ap- 
pearance. 

Gun bronze contains copper and tin 
in the proportion of 9 or 10 parts of 
copper to 1 of tin. This is the metal 
used when an ordinary bronze casting 
is wanted. A harder bronze is copper 
and tin in the ratio of 6 to 1. This is 
often used as a bearing metal. When 
either of these metals is to be turned in 
the machine shop, they should contain 
about S per cent of lead, which will make 
them work very much better, but it also 
decreases their tensile strength. Bear- 
ing metal now generally contains about 
10 per cent of lead, with copper and tin 
in varying ratios. The large percentage 
of lead is put in that the metal may wear 
away slower. Lead, althoufi^h a metal 
having properties similar to tin, acts en- 
tirely different toward copper. Copper 
and tin have a good deal of affinity fo; 
each other, but copper and lead show 
no attraction at all for each other. Cop- 
per and tin mix in all proportions, but 
copper and lead mix only to a very limit- 
ed extent. About 8 per cent of lead can 
be mixed with copper. With bronze 
about 15 per cent to 20 per cent of lead 
can be mixed. In bearing bronze the 
lead keeps its own physical properties, 
so that tne constituent lead melts long 
before the metal attains a red heat. It 
sometimes happens when a bearing runs 
warm that the lead actually sweats out 
and forms pimples on the metal. Or, 
sometimes, in remelting a bearing bronze 
casting the lead may be seen to drop 
out while the metal is warming up. AU 
of these metals, however, should contain 
something to flux or deoxidize them, 
such as zinc, manganese, aluminum, 
silicon, antimony, or phosphorus. 

The phosphor bronze bearing metal in 
vogue has the following composition : Cop- 
per, 79.7 per cent; tin, 10 per cent; lead, 
10 per cent; and phosphorus, 0.3 per cent. 

Melt 140 pounds of copper in a No. 
70 pot, covering with charcoal. When 
copper is all melted, add 17) pounds of 
tin to 17) pounds of lead, and allow the 
metal to become sufficiently warm, but 



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60 



ALLOYS 



not any hotter than is needed. Then 
add 10 pounds of "hardener" (made as 
previously described) and stir well. Re- 
move from furnace, skim off the char- 
coal, cool the metal with gates to as low 
a temperature as is consistent with get- 
ting a good casting, stir well aeain, and 
pour. The molds for this kina of work 
are faced with plumbago. 

There are several firms that make 
phosphor-bronze bearings with a com- 
position similar to the above one, and 
most of them, or perhaps all, make it by 
melting the metals and then charging 
with pnosphorus to the extent of 0.7 to 
1 per cent. But some metal from all 
brands contains occluded ^as. So that 
after such metal is cast (in about two 
minutes or so) the metal will ooze or 
sweat out through the gate, and such a 
casting will be found to oe porous. But 
not one such experience witn metal made 
as described above has yet been found. 
^ This practical point should be heeded, 
viz., that pig phosphor bronze should be 
brought to tne specifications that the 
metal should have shrunk in the ingot 
mold in cooling, as shown by the con- 
cave surface of the upper side, and that 
it should make a casting in a sand mold 
without rising in the gate after being 
poured. 

In bearing metal, occluded gas is very 
objectionable, because the gas, in trying 
to free itself, shoves the very hard cop- 
per-tin compound (which has a low 
melting point and remains liquid after 
the copper has begun to set) into spots, 
and thus causes hard spots in the metal. 

Phosphorus is very dangerous to han- 
dle, ana there is great risk from fire with 
it, so that many would not care to handle 
the phosphorus itself. But phosphor 
copper containing 5 per cent of phos- 
phorus, and phosphor tin containing 2 to 
7 per cent of phosphorus, and several 
other such alloys can be obtained in the 
market. It mav be suggested to those 
who wish to make phosphor bronze, but 
do not want to handle phosphorus itself, 
to make it by using the proper amounts 
of one of these high phosphorus alloys. 
In using phosphorus it is only necessary 
to use enough to thoroughly deoxidize 
the metal, say 0.3 per cent. More than 
this will make the metal harder, but not 
any sounder. 

Phosphor bronze is not a special kind 
of alloy, but any bronze can be made 
into phosphor bronze; it is, in fact, sim- 
ply a xieoxidized bronze, produced under 
treatment with phosphorus compounds. 

Although the effect of phosphorus in 
improving the quality of bronze has been 



known for more than fifty years, it is only 
of late that the mode for preparing phos- 
phor bronze has been perfected. It is 
now manufactured in many localities. 
Besides its action in reducing the oxides 
dissolved in the alloy, the phosphorus 
exerts another very material influence 
upon the properties of the bronze. The 
ordinary bronzes consist of mixtures in 
which the copper is really the only crys- 
tallized constituent, since the tin crys- 
tallizes with ffreat difficulty. As a con- 
sequence of tnis dissimilarity in the na- 
ture of the two metals, the alloy is not 
so solid as it would be if both were crys- 
tallized. The phosphorus causes the 
tin to crystallize, and the result is a more 
homogeneous mixture of the two metals. 

If enough phosphorus is added, so 
that its presence can be detected in the 
finished bronze, the latter may be con- 
sidered an alloy of crystallized phosphor 
tin with copper. If the content of phos- 
phor is still more increased, a part of the 
copper combines with the phosphorus, 
and the bronze then contains, oesides 
copper and tin, compounds of crystal- 
lized copper phosphide with phosphide 
of tin. The strength and tenacity of the 
bronze are not lessened by a larger 
amount of phosphorus, and its hardness 
is considerably increased. Most phos- 
phor bronzes are equal in this respect to 
the best steel, and some even surpass it 
in general properties. 

The phosphorus is added to the bronze 
in the form of copper phosphide or phos- 
phide of tin, the two being sometimes 
used together. They must be specially 
prepared for this purpose, and the best 
metnods will be here given. Copper 
phosphide is prepared by heating a mix- 
ture of 4 parts of superphosphate of lime, 
2 parts oi granulated copper, and 1 part 
of finely pinverized coal in a crucible at a 
temperature not too high. The melted 
copper phosphide, containing 14 per cent 
of phosphorus, separates on the bottom 
of the crucible. 

Tin phosphide is prepared as follows: 
Place a bar of zinc in an aqueous solution 
of tin chloride. The tin will be separated 
in the form of a sponge-like mass. Col- 
lect it, and put it into a crucible, upon 
the bottom of which sticks of phosphorus 
have been placed. Press the tin tightly 
into the crucible, and expose to a gentle 
heat. Continue the heating until Sames 
of burning phosphorus are no longer 
observed on the crucible. The pure tin 
phosphide, in the form of a coarselv 
crystalline mass, tin-white in color, will 
be found on the bottom of the crucible. 

To prepare the phosphor bronze, the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ALLOYS 



61 



alloy to be treated is melted in the usual 
waj, and small pieces of the copper phos- 
phide and tin pnosphide are added. 

Phosphor bronze, properly prepared, 
has nearly the same melting point as that 
of ordinary bronze. In cooling, how* 
ever, it has the peculiarity of passing 
directly from the liquid to the solid state, 
without first becoming thickly fluid. In 
a melted state it retains a perfectly bright 
surface, while ordinary oronze in tnis 
condition is always covered with a thin 
film of oxide. 

If phosphor br'^nze is kept for a long 
time at the melting point, there is not 
any loss of tin, but the amount of phos- 
phorus is slightly diminished. 

The most valuable properties of phos- 
phor bronze are its extraordinary te- 
nacity and strength. It can be rolled, 
hammered, and stretched cold, and its 
strength is nearly double that of the best 
ordinary bronze. It is principally used 
in cases where great strength and power 
of resistance to outward influences are re- 
quired, as, for instance, in objects which 
are to be exposed to the action of sea water. 

Phosphor bronze containing about 4 
per cent of tin is excellently well adapted 
lor sheet bronze. With not more than 5 
per cent of tin, it can be used, forged, 
for firearms. Seven to 10 per cent of 
tin gives the greatest hardness, and such 
bronze is especially suited to the manu- 
facture of axle bearings, cylinders for 
steam fire engines, cogwheels, and, in 
general, for parts of machines where 
great strength and hardness are reauired. 
Phosphor bronze, if exposed to tne air, 
soon becomes covered with a beautiful, 
closely adhering patina, and is therefore 
well adapted to purposes of art. The 
amount of phosphorus added varies 
from 0.25 to 2.5 per cent, according to 
the purpose of the bronze. The com- 
position of a number of kinds of phos- 
phor bronze is given below: 





per 


Tin 


Zino 


Lead 


Iron 


Pho»- 
pho- 
rufl 


I. 


85,55 


9.85 


3.77 


0.62 


trs. 


0.05 


II. 




4-15 
4-15 
11.00 


*8-V6 
7.65 


4-15 
4-15 




0.5-3 


III. 




.25-2 


IV. 77.85 






V.:72.50 


8.00 


17.00 








VI.'7S.50 


6.00 


19.00 








Vn.|74.50 


11.00 


11.00 








VIII.;83.50 


8.00 


3.00 








IX;90.34 


8.90 








0.76 


X. 90.86 


8.56 


.... 






0.196 


XL 94.71 


4.39 








0.053 



I for axle bearings, II and III for 
harder and softer axle bearings, IV to 
VllI for railroad purposes, IV especially 
for valves of locomotives, V and Vl axle 
bearings for wagons, VII for connecting 
rods, VlII for piston rods in hydraulic 
presses. 

Steel Bronze.— Copper, 60; ferro- 
manganese (containing 70 to 80 per cent 
manganese), 40; zinc, 15. 

Silicon Bronze.— Silicon, similarly to 
phosphorus, acts as a deoxidizing agent, 
and the bronzes produced under its 
influence are very ductile and elastic, do 
not rust, and are very strong. On ac- 
count of these qualities silicon bronze 
is much used for telegraph and telephone 
wires. The process of manufacture is 
similar to that of phosphor bronze; the 
silicon is used in the form of copper sili- 
cide. Some good silicon bronzes are 
as follows: 

I II 

Copper 97.12 97.37 

Tin 1.14 1.32 

Zinc 1.10 1.27 

Silicon 0.05 0.07 

Sun Bronze.— The alloy called sun 
bronze contains 10 parts of aluminum, 
30 to 50 parts of copper, and 40 to 60 
parts of cobalt. The mixture known by 
the name of metalline has 25 per cent of 
aluminum, 80 of copper, 10 of iron, and 
35 of cobalt. These alloys melt at a point 
approaching the melting point of copper, 
are tenacious, ductile, and very hard. 

Tobin Bronze. --This alloy is nearly 
similar in composition and properties to 
Delta metal. 

I II III IV 

Copper. .. 61.203 59.00 61.20 82.67 

Zinc 27.440 38.40 37.14 3.23 

Tin 0.906 2.16 0.90 12.40 

Iron 0.180 0.11 0.18 0.10 

Lead 0.359 0.31 0.35 2.14 

Silver 0.07 

^••Tu^M 0.005 

The alloy marked IV is sometimes 
called deoxidized bronze. 

Violet-colored bronze is 50 parts cop- 
per and 50 parts antimony. 

CADMIUM ALLOYS: 

See also Fusible Alloys. 

Lipowitz»8 Alloy.— I.— This alloy is 
composed of cadmium, 3 parts; tin, 4; 
bismuth, 15; and lead, 8. The simplest 
method of preparation is to heat the 
metals, in small pieces, in a crucible, 
stirring constantly, as soon {BsJusion^ 
Digitized by VjCJOy IC 



62 



ALLOYS 



begins, with a stick of hard woo(}. The 
stirring is important, in order to prevent 
the metals, whose specific gravity varies 
considerably, from being deposited in 
layers. The alloy softens at 140° F. and 
melts completely at 158° F. The color 
is silvery wnite, with a luster like polished 
silver, and the metal can be bent, ham- 
mered, and turned. These properties 
would make it valuable for many pur- 
poses where a beautiful appearance is of 
special importance, but on account of 
the considerable amount of ^ cadmium 
and bismuth which it contains, it is 
rather expensive, and therefore limited 
in use. Casts of small animals, insects, 
lizards, etc., have been prepared from 
it, which were equal in sharpness to 
the best galvanoplastic work, rlaster of 
Paris is poured over the animal to be 
cast, and after sharp drying, the animal 
is removed and the mold filled up with 
Lipowitz's metal. The mold is placed 
in a vessel of water, and by heating to 
the boiling point the metal is melted and 
deposited in the finest impressions of the 
mold. 

This alloy is most excellent for solder- 
ing tin, lead, Britannia metal, and nickel, 
bemg especially adapted to the last two 
metsds on account of^ its silver-white 
color. But here again its costliness pre- 
vents its general use, and cheaper alloys 
possessing the same properties have been 
sought. In cases wnere the silver-white 
color and the low melting point are not 
of the first importance, tne alloys given 
below may very well be used in the place 
of it. 

II. — Cadmium alloy (melting point, 
170° F.): Cadmium, 2 parts; tin, 3; lead, 
11; bismuth. 16. 

III. — Cadmium alloy (melting point, 
167° F.): Cadmium, 10 parts; tin, 3; lead, 
8; bismuth, 8. 

Cadmium alloys (melting point, 203° 
F.): 

IV V VI 

Cadmium 1 1 1 parts 

Tin 2 3 1" 

Bismuth 3 5 2" 

VII. — A very fusible alloy, melting at 
150° F., is composed of tin, 1 or 2 parts; 
lead, 2 or 3; bismuth, 4 or 15; cadmium, 
lor 2. 

VIII. — Wood's alloy melts between 
140° and 161.5° F. It is composed of 
lead, 4 parts; tin, 2; bismuth, 5 to 8; 
cadmium, 1 to 2. In color it resembles 
platinum, and is malleable to a certain 
extent. 

IX. — Cadmium alloy (melting point, 
179.5° F.): Cadmium, 1 part; lead, 



parts; bismuth, 7. This, like the pre- 
ceding, can be used for soldering in hot 
water. 

X. — Cadmium ialloy (melting point, 
300° F.): Cadmium, 2 parts; tin, 4; lead, 
2. This is an excellent soft solder, with a 
melting point about 86 degrees below that 
of leacfand tin alone. 

Cadmium Alloys with Gold, Silver, and 
Copper. — I. — Gold, 750 parts; silver, 166 
parts; cadmium, 84 parts. A malleable 
and ductile alloy of green color. 

n.— Gold, 750 parts; silver, 125 parts; 
and cadmium, 125 parts. Malleable and 
ductile alloy of yellowish-green hue. 

111. — Gold, 746 parts; silver, 114 
parts; copper, 97 parts; and cadmium, 
43 parts. Likewise a malleable and 
ductile alloy of a peculiar green shade. 
All these alloys are suitable for plating. 
As regards their production, eacn must 
be carefully melted together from its 
ingredients in a covered crucible lined 
with coal dust, or in a graphite crucible. 
Next, the alloy has to oe remelted in a 
graphite crucible with charcoal (or rosin 
powder) and borax. If, in spite thereof, 
a considerable portion of the cadmium 
should have evaporated, the alloy must 
be re-fused once more with an addition of 
cadmium. 

ALLOYS FOR CASTING COINS, M£. 
DALLIONS, ETC. 

Alloys which fulfill the requirements of 
the medalist, and capable, therefore, of 
reproducing all details, are the following: 
I II 

Tin 3 6 parts 

Lead 13 8 " 

Bismuth 6 14 " 

III. — A soft alloy suitable to take im- 
pressions of woodcuts, coins, metals, en- 
gravings, etc., and which must melt at 
a low degree of heat, is made out of bis- 
muth, 3 parts; tin, IJ parts; lead, 2} 
parts; ana worn-out type, 1 part. 

Acid-proof Alloy. — This alloy is char- 
acterized by its power, of resisting^ the 
action of acids, and is therefore especially 
adapted to making^ cocks, pipes, etc., 
which are to come in contact with acid 
fluids. It is composed of copper, zinc, 
lead, tin, iron, nickel, cobalt, and an- 
timony, in the following proportions : 

Copper 74.75 parts 

Zinc 0.61 " 

Lead 16.35 " 

Tin 0.91 " 

Iron 0.43 - 

sy ••••• o-^i I 

T)igitized by VJOOQIc 



ALLOYS 



68 



Albata MetaL — Copper, 40 parts; sine, 
3^ parts; and nickel, 8 parts. 

Alfenide HetaL — Copper, 60 parts; 
zinc, 30; nickel, 10; traces of iron. 

Bath Metal. — This' alloy is used es- 
pecially in £n£fland for the manufacture 
of teapots, and is very popular owing to 
the fine white color it possesses. It 
takes a high polish, and articles made 
from this alloy acquire in the course of 
time, upon only being rubbed with a 
white cloth, a permanent silver luster. 
The composition of Bath metal is cop- 
per, 55 parts; zinc, 45 parts. 

Baudoin Metal. — This is composed of 
7'i parts of copper, 16.6 of nickel, 1.8 of 
cobalt, 1 of zinc; ) per cent of aluminum 
may be added. 

CASTING COPPER: 

Macht'8 Yellow Metal.— I.— This alloy 
consists of S3 parts of copper and 25 of 
zinc. It has a dark golden-yellow color, 
great tenacity, and can be forged at a 
red heat, properties which make it es- 
pecially suitable for fine castings. 

n. — YeDow.— Copper, 67 to 70 parts; 
zinc, 33 to 30 parts. 

III. — ^Red. — Copper, 82 parts; zinc, 
18 parts. 

Copper Arsenic — Arsenic imparts to 
copper a very fine white color, and makes 
it very hard and brittle. Before Ger- 
man sfl-yer was known, these alloys were 
sometimes used for the manufacture of 
such cast articles as were not to come in 
contact with iron. When exposed to the 
air, they soon lose their whiteness and 
take on a brownish shade. On account 
of this, as well as the poisonous character 
of tne arsenic, they are very little used 
at the present time. Alloys of copper 
and arsenic are best prepared by pressing 
firmly into a crucible a mixture of 70 
parts of copper and 30 of arsenic (the 
copper to be used in the form of fine 
shavings) and fusing this mixture in a 
furnace with a good draught, under a 
cover of glass. 

Copper Iron. — The alloys of copper 
and iron are little used in the industries 
of the present day, but it would seem 
that in earlier times they were frequently 
prepared for the purpose of giving a con- 
siderable degree of nardness to copper; 
for in antique casts, consisting princi* 
pally of copper, we regularly find large 
quantities of iron, which leads to the sup- 
position that they were added intention- 
ally. 

These aUoys, when of a certain com- 



position, have considerable strength and 
nardness. With an increase in the quan- 
tity of* the iron the hardness increases, 
but the solidity is lessened. A copper 
and iron alloy of considerable strength, 
and at ^he same time very hard, is 
made of copper, 66 parts; iron, 34. 
These alloys acquire, on exposure to air, 
an ugly color inclining toward black, 
and are therefore not adapted for arti- 
cles of art. 

Copper Nickel.— A. Morrell, of New 
York, nas obtained a'patent on a nickel- 
copper alloy which he claims is valu- 
able on account of its noncorrosive 
qualities, therefore making it desirable 
for ships, boiler tubes, and other uses 
where the metal comes much in contact 
with water. The process of making the 
metal is b^ smelting ore containing sul- 
phide of nickel and copper, and besem- 
erizing the resultant matter. This is 
calcined in order to obtain the nickel 
and copper in the form of oxides. The 
latter are reduced in reverberating fur- 
nace with carbon, or the like, so as to 
produce an allov which preferably con- 
tains 2 parts of nickel and 1 part of 
copper. 

Delta Metal.— An alloy widely used for 
making parts of machinery, and also 
for artistic purposes, is the so-called 
Delta metal. Tliis is a variety of brass 
hardened with iron; some manufacturers 
add small quantities of tin and lead; 
also, in some cases, nickel. The follow- 
ing analysis of Delta metal (from the fac- 
tory at DUsseldorf) will show its usual 
composition: 



Copper. . . . 

Zinc 

Lead 

Iron 

Manganese 



55.94 

41.61 

0.72 

0.87 

0.81 



Nickel I tra- 

I ces. 
Phosphorus 0.013 



II III 



55.80 55.82 

40.07 41.41 

1.82 0.76 



1.28 
0.96 
tra- I 
ces. I 
0.011 



t 



0.86 
1.88 
0.06 

tra- 
ces. 



IV 



54.22 
42.25 
1.10 
0.99 
1.09 
0.16 

0.02 



58.61 

38.95 

0.67 

1.62 

o.ii 



I is cast, II hammered. III rolled, 
and IV hot-stamped metal. Delta 
metal is produced by heating zinc very 
strongly in crucibles (to about 1600^ F.), 
and adding ferromangancso or "spiegel- 
eisen," producing an alloy of 95 per cent 
zinc anci 5 per cent of iron. Copper and 
brass and a very small amount of copper 
phosphate are also added. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



64 



ALLOYS 



Gone Metal. — A sonorous metal for 
cymbals, gongs, and tam-tams consists 
of 100 parts of copper with 25 parts tin. 
Ignite tne piece after it is cast and plunge 
it into cold water immediately. 

Production of Minargent. — This allov 
consists of copper, 500 parts; nickel, 
350; tungsten, 25, and aluminum, 5. The 
metal obtained possesses a handsome 
white color and greatly resembles silver. 

Minof or. — The so-called Mi nofor metal 
is composed of copper, tin, antimony, zinc, 
and iron in the following proportions: 

I II 

Copper 3.26 4 

Tin 67.53 66 

Antimony 17.00 20 

Zinc 8.94 9 

Iron 1 

Minai^nt and Minofor are sometimes 
used in England for purposes in which the 
ordinary Britannia metal, 2 parts tin and 
1 part antimony, might equally well be 
employed; the latter surpasses both of 
them in beauty of color, but they are, on 
the other hand, harder. 

Retz Alloy. — This alloy, which resists 
the corrosive action of alkalies and acids, 
is composed of 15 parts of copper, 2.34 
of tin, 1.82 of lead, and 1 of antimony. 
It can be utilized in the manufacture of 
receivers, for which porcelain and ebo- 
nite are usually employed. 

Ruoltz Metal. — This comprises 20 
parts of silver, 50 of copper, 30 of nickel. 
These proportions may, however, vary. 

Tissier's Metal. — This alloy contains 
arsenic, is of a beautiful tombac red 
color, and very hard. Its composition 
varies a great deal, but the peculiar alloy 
which gives the name is composed of 
copper, 97 parts; zinc, 2 parts; arsenic, 
1 or 2. It may be considered a brass 
with a very high percentage of copper, 
and hardened by tne addition of arsenic. 
It is sometimes used for axle bearings, 
but other alloys are equally suitable for 
this purpose, and are to be preferred on 
account of the absence of arsenic, which 
is always dangerous. 

FILE ALLOYS.— Many copper-tin al- 
loys are employed for the making of files 
which, in distinction from the steel files, 
are designated composition files. Such 
alloys have the following compositions: 
Geneva Composition Files. — 

I II 

Copper 64.4 62 

Tin 18.0 20 

Zinc 10.0 10 

Lead 7.6 8 



Vogel's Composition Files. — 

III IV V 

Copper 57.0 61.5 78.0 

Tin 28.5 31.0 19.0 

Zinc 78.0 8.0 

Lead 7.0 8.5 8.0 

VI.. — Another alloy for composition 
files is copper, 8 parts; tin, 2; zinc, l,and 
lead, 1 — lused under a cover of borax. 

EASILY FUSIBLE OR PLASTIC AL- 
LOYS. 

(These have a fusing point usually 
below 300° F.) 

iSee also Solders.) 
. Rose's Alloy. — Bismuth, 2 parts; 
lead, 1 part; tin, 1 part. Melting point, 
200° F. 

II. Darcet Alloy. — This is composed of 
8 parts of bismuth, 5 of lead, and 3 of tin. 
It melts at 176° F. To impart greater 
fusibility, t^^- part of mercury is added; 
the fusing is tfien lowered to 149° F. 

III.— Newton alloy melts at 212° F.. 
and is composed of 5 parts of bismuth, 2 
of lead, and 3 of tin. 

IV.— Wood's Metal.— 

Tin 2 parts 

Lead 4 parts 

Bismuth 5 to 8 parts 

This silvery, fine-grained alloy fuses 
between 151° and 162° F., and is ex- 
cellently adapted to soldering. 

V. — Bismuth, 7 parts; lead, 6 parts; 
cadmium, 1 part. Melting point, 180° F. 

VI. — Bismuth, 7 to 8 parts; lead, 4; 
tin, 2; cadmium, 1 to 2. Melting point, 
149° to 160° F. 

Other easily fusible alloys : 

VII VIII IX 

Lead 1 2 3 

Tin 1 2 3 

Bismuth 1 11 

Melting Point. . . . 258° F. 283° 31 1*> 

Fusible Alloys for Electric Installa- 
tions. — These alloys are employed in 
electric installations as current inter- 
rupters. Serving as conductors on a 
short length of circuit, they melt as soon 
as the current becomes too strong. Fol- 
lowing is the composition of some of 
these alloys. 





Fusing 
temper- 
ature 


Lead 


Tin 


Bis- 
muth 


Cad- 
mium 


I... 


203° F. 


250 


500 


500 




II... 


193° F. 


397 




532 


71 


III... 


168° F. 


344 


94 


500 


62 


IV... 


153° F. 


260 


148 


522 


70 


V... 


150° F. 


249 


142 


501 


108 


VI... 


145° F. 


267 


136 


500 


100 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ALLOYS 



65 



These alloys are prepared by melting 
the lead in a stearine oath and adding 
successiyely, and during the cooling, 
first, the cadmium; second, the bismuth; 
third, the tin. It is absolutely necessary 
to proceed in this manner, since these 
metals fuse at temperatures ranging 
from 850*» F. (for lead), to 551° F. (for 
tin). 

Fusible Safety Alloys for Steam 
Boilers. — 





Bis- 
muth 


Lead 
5 


Zinc 
3 


Melting 
point 


Atmos. 
pres- 
sure 


I 


8 


212** F. 


1 


n 


8 


8 


4 


235° F. 


1.5 


Ill 


8 


8 


3 


253° F. 


2 


IV 


8 


10 


8 


266° F. 


2.5 


V 


8 


1« 


8 


270° F. 


3 


VI 


8 


16 


14 


280° F. 


3.5 


VII 


8 


16 


12 


285° F. 


4 


VIII 


8 


22 


24 


309° F. 


5 


IX 


8 


32 


36 


320° F. 


6 


X 


8 


32 


28 


330° F. 


7 


XI 


8 


30 


24 


340° F. 


8 



Lipowitz Metal. — This amalgam is pre- 
pared as follows: Melt in a dish, cad- 
mium, 3 parts, by weight; tin, 4 parts; 
bismuth, 15 parts; and lead, 8 parts, 
adding to the alloy, while still in fusion, 
2 parts of quicksilver previously heated 
to about 212° F. The amaljzamation 
proceeds easily and smoothly. The 
liquid mass in the dish, which should 
be taken from the fire immediately upon 
the introduction of the mercurv, is stirred 
until the contents solidify. While Lipo- 
witz alloy softens already at 140° F. and 
fuses penectly at 158°, the amalgam has 
a still lower fusing point, which lies 
around 143J° F. 

Thia amalgam is excellently adapted 
for the production of impressions of 
various objects of nature, direct im- 
pressions of leaves, and other delicate 
parts of plants having been made with its 
aid which, in point of sharpness, are 
equal to the best plaster casts and have 
a very pleaaing appearance. The amal- 
gam has a silver-white color and a 
fine gloss. It is perfectly constant 
to atmospheric influences. This amal- 
gam has also been used with good suc- 
cess for the making of small statuettes 
and busts, which are hollow and can be 
readily gilt or bronzed by electro-depo- 
sition. The production of small statues 
is successfully carried out by making a 
hollow gypsum mold of the articles to 
be cast and heating the mold evenly to 



about 140° F. A corresponding quan- 
tity of the molten amalgam is then poured 
in and the mold moved rapidly to and 
fro, so that the alloy is thrown against the 
sides all over. Tne shaking should be 
continued until it is certain that the amal- 
gam has solidified. When the mold 
has cooled off it is taken apart and 
the seams removed by means of a sharp 
knife. If the operation is carried on 
correctly, a chasing of the cast mass be- 
comes unnecessary, since the alloy fills 
out the finest depressions of the mold 
with the greatest sharpness. 

Axnalgam for Plaster. — Tin, 1 part; 
bismuth, 1 part; mercury, 1 part. Melt 
the bismuth and the tin together, and 
when the two metals are in fusion add 
the mercury while stirring. For use, 
rub up the amalgam with a little white of 
eeg and brush like a varnish on the 
plaster articles. 

Plastic Metal Composition. — I. Copper 
oxide is reduced by means of hydrogen 
or copper sulphate by boiling a solution 
of the same in water with some zinc filings 
in order to obtain entirely pure copper. 
Of the copper powder obtained in this man- 
ner, 20, 30, or 36 parts, by weight, accord- 
ing to the decree of hardness desired for 
the composition (the greater the quantity 
of copper used the harder will the composi- 
tion become), are thoroujs^hly moistened 
in a cast-iron or porcelain mortar with 
sulphuric acid of 1.85 specific gravity; 
70 parts, by weight, of mercury are then 
added to this paste, the whole being con- 
stantly stirred. When all the copper 
has been thoroughly^ amalgamated with 
the mercury, the sulphuric acid is washed 
out again with boiling water, and in 12 
hours after it has become cold the com- 
position will be so hard that it can be 
polished. It is impervious to the action 
of dilute acids, alcohol, ether, and boil- 
ing water. It contains the same specific 
gravity, alike in the soft or the hard con- 
dition. When used as a cement, it can 
at any time be rendered soft and plastic 
in the following manner: If applied 
while hot and plastic to the deoxiaized 
surfaces of two pieces of metal, these 
latter w^ill unite so firmly that in about 10 
or 12 hours the metal may be subjected 
to any mechanical process. The prop- 
erties of this composition render it 
very useful for various purposes, and it 
forms a most effective cement for fine 
metal articles which cannot be soldered 
in fire. 

II. — Bismuth, 5.5 parts; lead, 3; tin, 
1.5. 

III. Alloy d'Homburg. — Bismuth, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



66 



ALLOYS 



3 parts; lead, 3; tin, 3. This alloy is 
fusible at 251° F., and is of a silvery 
white. It is employed for reproductions 
of medals. 

IV. Alloy Valentine Rose. — Bismuth, 

4 to 6 parts; lead, 2 parts; tin, 2 to 3 parts. 
This alloy fuses at 212° to 250° F. 

V. Alloy Rose pere. — Bismuth, 2 
parts; lead, 2; tin, 2. This alloy fuses 
at 199° F. 

The remainder are plastic alloys for 
reproducing cuts, medals, coins, etc.: 

VI. — Bismuth, 4 parts; lead, 2 parts; 
tin, 1 part. 

VII. — Bismuth, 3 parts; lead, 3 parts; 
tin, 2 parts. 

Vni. — Bismuth, 4 parts; lead, 2 parts; 
tin, 2 parts. 

IX. — Bismuth, 5 parts; lead, 2 parts; 
tin, 3 parts. 

X. — Bismuth, 2 parts; lead, 2 parts; 
tin, 2 parts. 

Quick -Water. — That the amalgam 
mav easiljr take hold of bronze objects 
and remain there, it is customary to 
cover the perfectly cleansed and shining 
article with a thin coat of mercury, which 
is usually accomplished by dipping it into 
a so-called quick-water bath. 

In the form of minute globules the 
mercury immediately separates itself 
from the solution and clings to the bronze 
object, which thereupon presents the 
appearance of being plated with silver. 
After it has been well rinsed in clean 
water, the amalgam may be evenly and 
without difficulty applied with the 
scratch brush. 

This quick- water (in reality a solution 
of mercurous nitrate), is made in the sim- 
plest manner b^ taking 10 parts of mer- 
cury and pouring over it 11 parts of 
nitric acid of a specific gravity equal to 
1.33; now let it stand until every part 
of the mercury is dissolved; then, w-hile 
stirring vigorously, add 540 parts of 
water. This solution must be kept in 
closed flasks or bottles to prevent im- 
purities, Such as dust, etc., irom falling 
into it. 

The preparatory work on the object 
to be gilded consists mainly in cleansing 
it from every trace of oxidation. First, 
it must be well annealed by placing it in 
a bed of glowing coal, care being exer- 
cised that the heating be uniform. 
When cooled, this piece is plunged into 
a highly diluted sulphuric-acid bath in 
order to dissolve in a measure the oxide. 
Next it is dipped in a 36° nitric-acid bath, 
of a specific gravity equal to 1.33, and 
brushed off with a long brush; it is now 
dipped into nitric acid into which a little 



lampblack and table salt have been 
thrown. It is now ready for washing 
in clean water and drying in unsoiled 
sawd ust. It is of the greatest importance 
that the surface to be gilded should ap- 
pear of a pale yellow tint alt over. If it 
be too smooth the gold will not take hold 
easily, and if it be too dull it will require 
too much gold to cover it. 

GOLD ALLOYS : 

Colored Gold Alloys.— The allocs of 
gold with copper have a reddish tinge; 
those of gold with silver are whiter, and 
an alloy of gold, silver, and copper to- 
gether is distinguished by a greenish 
tone. Manufacturers of gold ware 
make use of these different colors, one 
piece being frequently composed of 
several pieces of varying color. Below 
are given some of these alloys, with their 
colors: 





Gold 


Silver 


Copper 


Steel 


Catl- 
mium 


L. 


2.6 


1.0 








II.. 


75.0 


16.6 


.... 




8.4 


III.. 


74.6 


11.4 


9.7 




4.3 


IV.. 


75.0 


12.6 






12.5 


v.. 


1.0 


2.0 








VI.. 


4.0 


3.0 


i.o 






VIL. 


14.7 


7.0 


6.0 






VIII.. 


14.7 


9.0 


4.0 






IX.. 


3.0 


1.0 


1.0 






X.. 


10.0 


1.0 


4.0 






XI.. 


1.0 


.... 


1.0 






XIL. 


1.0 




2.0 






XIII.. 


30.0 


'3.0 


.... 


*2'6 




XIV.. 


4.0 


. 


.... 


1.0 




XV.. 


29.0 


ii.o 


.... 






XVI.. 


1.3 


.... 




i.o 





Nos. I, II, III, and IV are green gold; 
No. V is pale yellow; Nos. VI, VII, and 
VIII bright yellow; Nos. IX and X pale 
red; Nos. XI and XII bright red; Nos. 
XIII. XIV, and XV gray; while No. 
XVI exhibits a bluish tint. The finished 
gold ware, before being put upon the 
market, is subjected to a special treat- 
ment, consisting either in the simple 
pickling or in the so-called coloring, 
which operation is conducted especially 
with alloys of low degree of fineness, the 
object being to give the layers a super- 
ficial layer of pure ffold. 

The presence of silver considerably 
modifies the color of gold, and the jewel- 
er makes use of this property to obtain 
alloys of various shades. The following 
proportions are to be observed, viz.: 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ALLOYS 



67 



Gold Silver Copper 
Color of Gold per per per 

1.000 f.OOO 1.000 

I. Green 750 250 ... 

II. Dead lea ves.. .. 700 300 ... 

III. Sea green 600 400 ... 

IV. Pink 750 200 50 

V. English yellow.. 750 125 125 

VI. English white. . . 750 150 100 

VII. Whiter 750 170 80 

VIII. Less white 750 190 60 

IX. Red 750 ... 250 

Other colored gold alloys are the fol- 
lowing: 

X. Blue.— Fine gold. 75; iron, 25. 

XI. Dark Gray. — Fine gold, 94; 
iron, 6. 

XII. Pale Gray. — Fine gold, 191; 
iron, 9. 

XIII. Cassel YeUow. — Fine gold, 75; 
fine silver, 12 A; rose copper, 12 A. 

The above figures are understood to 
be by weight. 

The gold solders, known in France 
under the names of soudurea au quart 
(13^ carat), au tiers (12 carat), and au 
deux (9 caral), are composed of 3, 2, or 
1 part of gold respectively, with 1 part of 
an alloy consisting of two-thirds silver and 
one-third copper. Gold also forms with 
aluminum a series of alloys of greatly vary- 
ing coloration, the most curious of them, 
composed of 22 parts of aluminum for 88 
parts of gold, possessing a pretty purple 
shade. But all these alloys, of a nignly 
crystalline base, are very brittle and can- 
not be worked, for which reason their 
handsome colorings have not yet been 
capable of being utilized. 

Enameling AlloYS. — I. Transparent 
— This allo^ shoula possess the property 
of transmitting ravs of light so as to give 
the highest possible effect to the enamel. 
The alloy of gold for transparent green 
should be pale; a red or copper alloy 
docs not do for green enamel, the copper 
has a tendency to darken the color and 
thus take away a part of its brilliancy. 
The following alloy for transparent 
^reen possesses about the nearest print, 
m color, to the enamel — which snould 
represent, as near as possible, the color 
and brilliancy of the emerald — that can 
be arrived at: 

OS8. dwts. gn. 

Fine gold 18 8 

Fine silver 1 6 

Fine copper 10 

No borax must be used in the melting 
of this alloy, it being of a more fusible 
nature than the ordinary alloy, and will 
not take so high a heat m enameling. 

II. Fed Enamel. — The enamel which 
forms this color being of a higher fusing 



point, if proper care be not taken, the 
gold will melt first, and the work become 
ruined. In the preparation of red enam- 
el, the coloring matter is usually an oxide 
of gold, and this so raises the tempera- 
ture at which it melts that, in order to 
prevent any mishap, the gold to be enam- 
eled on should be what is called a 22- 
carat red, that is, it should contain a 
preponderance of copper in the alloying 
mixture so as to raise tne fusing point oi 
the gold. The formula is: 

OM. dwts. grs. 

Fine gold 18 8 

Fine silver 10 

Fine copper 1 6 

Gold-leaf Alloys. — All gold made into 
leaf is more or less alloyed. The gold 
used by the goldbeater is alloyed ac- 
cording to the variety of color required. 
Fine gold is commonly supposed to be in- 
capable of being reduced to thin leaves. 
This, however, is not the case, although 
its use for ordinary purposes is uncle- 
sirable on account of its greater cost. It 
also adheres by contact of one leaf with 
another, thus causing spoiled material 
and wasted labor; but for work exposed 
to the weather it is much preferable, as 
it is more durable and docs not tarnish 
or change color. 

The following is a list of the principal 
classes of leaf recognized and ordinarily 
prepared by beaters with the proportion 
of alloy they contain: 

Gold Silver Copper 
srs. grs. grs. 

I. Red gold... 456-460 ... 20-24 

II. Pale red... 464 ... 16 

III. Extra deep. 456 12 12 

IV. Deep 444 24 12 

V. Citron 440 80 10 

VI. Yellow .... 408 72 .... 

VII. Pale yellow 384 96 .... 

VIII. Lemon.. .. 360 120 

IX. Green or pale 312 168 

X. White 240 240 .... 

Gold-Plate Alloys.— Gold, 92 parts; 
copper, 8 parts. 

11. — Gold, 84 parts: copper, 16 parts. 
III. — Gold, 75 parts; copper, 25 parts. 

IMITATION GOLD. 

I. — One hundred parts, by weight, of 
copper of the purest quality; 14 of zinc 
or tin; 6 of magnesia; % of sal ammoniac, 
limestone, and cream of tartar. The 
copper is first melted, then the magnesia, 
sal ammoniac, limestone, and cream of 
tartar in powder are added separately 
and gradually. The whole mass is kept 
stirred for a half hour, the zinc or tin 
being dropped in piece by piece, the stir- 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



68 



ALLOYS 



rins being kept up till they melt. Fi- 
nally the crucible is covered and the mass 
is kept in fusion 35 minutes and» the same 
being removed, the metal is poured into 
molds, and is then ready for use. The 
allov thus made is said to be fine-grained, 
malleable, takes a high polish, and does 
not easily oxidize. 

II. — An invention, patented in Ger- 
many, covers a metallic alloy, to take 
the place of gold, which, even if exposed 
for some time to the action of ammonia- 
cal and acid vapors, does not oxidize or 
lose its sold color. It can be rolled and 
worked Tike gold and has the appearance 
of genuine gold without containing the 
sligntest admixture of that metal. The 
alloy consists of copper and antimony in 
the approximate ratio of 100 to 6, and is 
produced by adding to molten copper, 
as soon as it has reacned a certain degree 
of heat, the said percentage of antimony. 
When the antimony has likewise melted 
and entered into intimate union with the 
copper, some charcoal ashes, magne- 
sium, and lime spar are added to the mass 
when the latter is still in the crucible. 

III. Aluminum Gold. — This allov, 
called Nuremberg gold, is used for mak- 
ing cheap gold ware, and is excellent for 
this purpose, as its color is exactly that of 
pure gold, and does not change in the air. 
Articles made of Nuremberg gold need 
no gilding, and retain their color under 
the hardest usage; even the fracture of 
this alloy shows the pure gold color. The 
composition is usually 90 parts of cop- 
per, 2.5 of ^old, and 7.5 of aluminum. 

IV. — Imitation gold, capable of being 
worked and drawn into wire, consists of 
950 parts copper, 45 aluminum, and 2 to 
5 of silver. 

V. — Chrysochalk is similar in com- 
position to Mannheim gold: 

I II 

Copper 90.5 58.68 

Zinc 7.9 40.22 

Lead 1.6 1.90 

In color it resembles gold, but quickly 
loses its beauty if exposed to the air, on 
account of the oxidation of the copper. 
It can, however, be kept bright for a long 
time by a coaUng of colorless varnish, 
which excludes the air and prevents 
oxidation. Chrysochalk is used for 
most of the ordinary imitations of gold. 
Cheap watch chains and jewelry are 
manufactured from it, and it is widely 
used by the manufacturers of imitation 
bronze ornaments. 

Mannheim Gold or Similor. — Mann- 
heim gold is composed of copper, zinc, 
and tin, in proportions about as follows: 



I II 

Copper 88.7 89.8 

Zinc 9.3 9.9 

Tin 7.0 0.6 

It has a fine yellow color, and was 
formerly much used in making buttons 
and pressed articles resembling gold. 
Later alloys, however, surpass it in color, 
and it has fallen somewhat into disuse. 
One variety of Mannheim gold, so 
called, contains 1.40 parts of brass 
(composition 3 Cui 1 Zn) to 10 of copper 
and 0.1 of zinc. 

Mosaic Gold.^This is an alloy com- 
posed — with slight deviations — of 100 
parts of copper and 50 to 55 of zinc. ^ It 
nas a beautiful color, closely resembling 
that of gold, and is distinguished by a 
very fine grain, which makes it especially 
suitable for the manufacture of castings 
which are afterwards to be gilded. The 
best method of obtaining a thoroughly 
homogeneous mixture of the two metals 
is first to put into the crucible one-half 
of the zinc to be used, place the cover 
upon it, and fuse the mixture under a 
cover of borax at as low a temperature 
as possible. Have ready the otner half 
of the zinc, cut into small pieces and 
heated almost to melting, ana when the 
contents of the crucible are liquid throw 
it in, a small portion at a time, stirring 
constantly to effect as intimate a mixture 
of the metals as possible. 

Oreide or Oroide (French Gold).— The 
so-called French gold, when polished, so 
closely resembles genuine gold in color 
that it can scarcely be distinguished from 
it. Besides its beautiful color, it has the 
valuable properties of being very ductile 
and tenacious, so that it can easily be 
stamped into any desired shape; it also 
takes a high polish. It is frequently 
used for the manufacture of spoons, 
forks, etc., but is unsuitable for this pur- 
pose on account of the large amount of 
copper contained in it, rendering it in- 
jurious to health. The directions for 
preparing this alloy vary greatly. The 
products of some Paris factories show 
the following composition: 

I II III 

Copper 90 80.5 86.21 

Zinc 10 14.5 31.52 

Tin 0.48 

Iron 0.24 

A special receipt for oreide is the fol- 
lowing: 

IV. — Melt 100 parts of copper and 
add, with constant stirring, 6 parts of 
magnesia, 3.6 of sal ammoniac, 1.8 of 
lime, and 9 of crude tartar. Stir again 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ALLOYS 



thoroughly, and add 17 parts of |^nu- 
lated zinc, and after mixing it with the 
copper by vigorous stirring keep the 
aHoy liquid for one hour. Then care- 
fully remove the scum and pour ofiF the 
alloy. 

Pinchbeck. — This was first manufac- 
tured in England. Its dark gold color 
is the best imitation of gold alloyed with 
copper. Being very ductile, it can easily 
be rolled out into thin plates, which can 
be given any desired shape by stamping. 
It does not readily oxidize, and thus 
fulfills all the requirements for making 
cheap jewelry, which is its principal use. 

Copper 88.8 93.6 

Zinc 11.2 6.4 

Or 

Copper 2.1 1.28 

Zinc 0.7 

Brass 1.0 0.7 

PallAdium Gold. — Alloys of gold, cop- 
per, silver, and palladium have a brown- 
ish-red color and are nearly as hard as iron. 
They are sometimes (although rarelv) 
used for the bearings for the axles of the 
wheels of fine watches, as they invite little 
friction and do not rust in the air. The 
composition used in the Swiss and Eng- 
lish watch factories consists usually of 
gold 18 parts, copper IS parts, silver 11, 
and palladium 6. 

Talmi Gold.;— The name of talmi gold 
was first applied to articles of jewelry, 
chains, earrings, bracelets, etc., orougnt 
from Paris, and distinguished by beau- 
tiful workmanship, a low price, and 
great durability. Later, when this al- 
loy had acquired a considerable reputa- 
tion, articles were introduced under the 
same name, but which were really made 
of other metals, and which retained their 
beautiful gold color only as long as they 
were not used. The fine varieties of talmi 
gold are manufactured from brass, cop- 
per, or tombac, covered with a thin plate 
of gold, combined with the base by roll- 
ing, under strong pressure. The plates 
are then rolled out by passing through 
rollers, and the coating not only acquires 
considerable density, but adheres so 
closely to the base that the metal will 
keep its beautiful appearance for years. 
Of late, many articles of talmi gold 
have been introduced whose gold coat- 
ing is produced by electroplating, and 
is in many cases so thin that hard 
rubbing will bring through the color of 
the base. Such articles, of course, are 
not durable. In genuine talmi gold, the 
coating, even though it may be thin, ad- 
heres very closely to the base, for the rea« 



son that the two metals are actually 
welded by the rolling, and also because 
alloyed gold is always used, which is 
much harder than pure gold. The pure 
gold of ejectroplating is very soft. The 
composition ot some varieties of talmi 
gold are here given. It will be seen that 
the content of gold varies greatly, and 
the durability otthe alloy will, of course, 
correspond to this. The alloys I, II, III 
are genuine Paris talmi ^old; IV, V, and 

VI are electroplated imitations; and 

VII is an alloy of a wrong composition, 
to which the gold does not adhere firmly: 



Copper 


Zino 


Tin 


Iron 


Gold 


I. 89.9 


9.3 


...» 


.... 


l.S 


II. 90.8 


8.3 






0.9 


III. 90.0 


8.9 


.... 


.... 


0.9 


iv 90.7 
^^- 88.2 


89.0 
11.4 






0.5 


y . 87.5 
^- 83.1 


12.4 
17.0 


.... 




0.8 


VI »»^ 


6.6 
15.8 


.... 


.... 


0.05 


VII. 86.0 


12.0 


1.1 


o.s 


... 



Japanese Alloys.— In Japan some 
specialties in metallic alloys are in use of 
which the composition is as follows: 

Shadke consists of cop]>er with from 1 to 
10 per cent of gold. ^ Articles made from 
this alloy are laid in a pickle of blue 
vitriol, alum, and verdigris, until they 
acquire a bluish-black color. 

Gui-shi-bu-ichi is an alloy of copper 
containing 30 to 50 per cent of silver. It 
possesses a peculiar gray shade. 

Mokume consists of several composi- 
tions. Thus, about 30 gold foils (gen- 
uine) are welded together with shadke, 
copper, silver, and gui-shi-bu-ichi and 

gierced. The pierced holes are, after 
rmly hammering together the plates, 
filled up with the above-named picKle. 

The finest Japanese brass consists of 
10 i>arts copper and 8 parts zinc, and is 
called siachu. The bell metal kara kane 
is composed of copper 10 parts, tin 10 
parts, iron 0.5 part, and zinc 1.5 parts. 
The copper is first fused, then the re» 
maining metals are added in rotation. 

GERMAN SILVER OR ARGENTAN. 

The composition of this alloy varies 
considerably, but from the adjoined fig- 
ures an average may be found, whicn 
will represent, approximately, the normal 
composition: 

Copper 50 to 66 parts 

Zinc 19 to 31 parts 

Nickel 13 to 18 parts 

The properties of the different kinds, 
such as their color, ductility, fusibility, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



70 



ALLOYS 



etc., vary with the proportions of the 
single metals. For making spoons, forks, 
cups, candlesticks, etc., the most suitable 
proportions are 50 parts of copper, 25 of 
zinc, and 25 of nickel. This metal has 
a beautiful blue-white color, and does 
not tarnish easily. 

German silver is sometimes so brittle 
that a spoon, if allowed to fall upon the 
floor, will break; this, of course, indicates 
faulty composition. But the following 
table will snow how the character of the 
alloy changes with the varying percent- 
age of the metals composing it: 





Copper 


Zino 


Nickel 


Quality 


I. 


8 


S.5 


4 


Finest quality. 


11. 


8 


3.5 


6 


Beautiful, but 
refractory. 


111. 


8 


6.5 


3 


Ordinary, 
readily fus- 
ible. 


IV. 


52 


26.0 


22 


First quality. 
Second quality. 


V. 


59 


30.0 


11 


VI. 


63 


31.0 


6 


Third quality. 



The following analyses give further 
particulars in regard to different kinds 
of German silver: 



For sheet 



(French) . . . . 

(French) 

(French) . . . . 

Vienna 

Vienna 

Vienna 

Berlin 

Berlin 

English 

English 

English 

English 

Chinese 

Chinese 

Chinese 

Chinese 

Castings 

Castings 

Castings 

Castings 

Castings 



Cop- 
per 



Zinc 


Nickel 
18.7 


Lead 


31.3 


30.0 


20.0 




25.0 


16.7 




25.0 


25.0 




22.0 


22.0 




20.0 


20.0 




28.0 


18.0 




20.1 


17.5 


... 


17.01 


19.13 




22.15 


15.05 




26.05 


10.85 




25. 


13.0 




36.8 


36.8 


. . . 


40.6 


15.6 




36.9 


17.9 




25.4 


31.6 




24.3 


24.3 


2.9 


21.8 


21.8 


1.9 


19.4 


19.4 


2.9 


27.1 


14.3 


0.8 


20.0 


20.0 


3.0 



Iron 



3.0 



2.6 



In some kinds of German silver are 
found varying quantities of iron, man- 
ganese, tin, and very frequently lead, 
added for the purpose of changing the 
properties of the alloy or cheapening the 
cost of production. But all these metals 
have a detrimental rather than a bene- 
ficial effect upon the general character of 
the alloy, and especially lessen its power 



of resistance to the action of dilute acids, 
one of its most valuable properties. 
Lead makes it more fusible; tin acts 
somewhat as in bronze, making it denser 
and more resonant, and enabling it to 
take a higher polish. With iron or man- 
ganese the alloy is whiter, but it be- 
comes at the same time more refractory 
»nd its tendency toward brittleness is 
increased. 

SUBSTITUTES FOR GERMAN SIL- 
VER. 

There are many formulas for alloys 
which claim to be substitutes for Ger- 
man silver; but no one of them has yet 
become an article of general commerce. 
It will be sufficient to note these ma- 
terials briefly, giving the composition of 
the most important. 

Nickel Bronze. — This is prepared by 
fusing together very highly purified 
nickel (99.5 per cent) with copper, tin, 
and zinc. A bronze is producea contain- 
ing 20 per cent of nickel, light-colored 
and very hard. 

Bismuth Bronze. — 

I II III IV 

Copper 25.0 45.0 69.0 47.0 

Nickel 24.0 32.5 10.0 30.9 

Antimony 50.0 

Bismuth 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.1 

Tin 16.0 15.0 1.0 

Zinc. 21.5 20.0 21.0 

Aluminum 1.0 ... 

I is hard and very lustrous, suitable 
for lamp reflectors and axle bearings; II 
is hard, resonant, and not affected by 
sea water, for parts of ships, pipes, tele- 
graph wires, and piano strings; III and 
IV are for cups, spoons, etc. 

Manganese Argentan. — 

Copper 52 to 50 parts 

Nickel 17 to 15 •• 

Zinc 5 to 10 •« 

Manganese 1 to 5 *• 

Copper, with 15 per 

cent phosphorus. 3 to 5 ** 

Readily cast for objects of art. 

Aphtite. — 

Iron 66 parts 

Nickel 23 " 

Tungsten 4 " 

Copper 5 •* 

Arguzoid. — 

Copper 55.78 parts 

Zinc 23.198 " 

Nickel 13.406 " 

Tin 4.035 « 

Lead... 3.544 " 

Silver white, almost ductile, suited for 
artistic purposes. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



ALLOYS 



71 



Feno-Argentan. — 

Copper 70.0 parts 

Nickel 20.0 " 

Zinc 5.5 « 

Cadmium 4.5 ** 

Resembles silver; worked like Gennan 
silver. 

Silver Bronze. — Manganese, 18 per 
cent; aluminum, 1.2 per cent; silicium, 
5 per cent; zinc, 13 per cent; copper, 67.5 
per cent. The electric resistance of sil- 
ver bronze is greater than that of Ger- 
man silver, hence it ought to be highly 
suitable for rheostats. 

Instrument Alloys. — The following 
are suitable for physical and optical in- 
struments, metallic mirrors, telescopes, 
etc.: 

I. — Copper, 62 parts; tin, 88 parts; 
lead, 5 parts. 

II. — Copper, 80; antimony, 11 ; lead, 9. 

III. — Copper, 10; tin, 10; antimony, 
10; lead, 40. 

IV. — Copper, SO; tin, 50; silver, 2; 
arsenic, 1. 

v.— Copper, 66; tin, S3. 

VI.— Copper, 64; tin, 26. 

VII.— Steel, 90; nickel. 10. 

VIII.— Platinum, 60; copper, 40. 

IX.— Platinum, 45; steel, 55. 

X. — Platinum, 55; iron, 45. 

XI. — Platinum, 15; .steel, 85. 

XII.— Platinum, 20; copper, 79; ar- 
senic, 1. 

XIII.— Platinum, 62; iron, 28; gold, 
10. 

XIV.— Gold, 48; zinc, 52. 

XV. — Steel, 50; rhodium, 50. 

XVI.— Platinum, 12; iridium, 88. 

XVII.— Copper, 89.5; tin, 8.5; zinc, 2. 

LEAD ALLOYS. 

The following alloys, principally lead, 
are used for various purposes: 

Bibra Alloy. — ^This contains 8 parts of 
bismuth, 9 of tin, and 38 to 40 of lead. 

Metallic Coffins. — Tin, 40 parts; lead, 
45 parts; copper, 15 parts. 

Plates for Engraving.— I. — Lead, 84 
parts; antimony, 16 parts. 

II. — Lead, 86 parts; antimony, 14 
parts. 

III. — Lead, 87 parts; antimony, 12 
parts; copper, 1 part. 

IV. — Lead, 81 parts; antimony, 14 
parts; tin, 5 parts. 

V. — Lead, 73 parts; antimony, 17 
parts; zinc, 10 parts. 

VI. — Tin, 63 parts; lead, 48 parts; 
antimony, 4 parts. 



Hard lead is made of lead, 84 parts; 
antimony, 16 parts. 

Sheet Metal Alloy.— 

Tin 35 parts 

Lead 250 parts 

Copper 2.5 parts 

Zinc 0.5 part 

This alloy has a fine white color, and 
can be readily rolled into thin sheets. 
For that reason it is well adapted for 
lining tea chests and for the production 
of tobacco and chocolate wrappers. The 
copper and zinc are used in the form 
of fine shavings. The alloy should be 
immediately cast into thin plates, which 
can then be passed through rolls. 

MAGNETIC ALLOYS. 

Alloys which can be magnetized most 
strongly are composed of copper, man- 
ganese, and aluminum, the quantities of 
manganese and aluminum being pro- 
portional to their atomic weights (55.0 to 
27.1, or about 2 to 1). The maximum 
magnetization increases rapidly with 
increase of manganese, but alloys con- 
taining much manganese are exceedingly 
brittle and cannot be wrought. The 
highest practicable proportion of man- 
ganese at present is 24 per cent. 

These magnetic alloys were studied by 
Ilensler, Haupt, and Starck, and Gum- 
lich has recently examined them at the 
Physikalisch - technische Reich.sanstalt, 
with very remarkable and interesting re- 
sults. 

The two alloys examined were com- 
posed as follows: 

Alloy I. — Copper, 61.5 per cent; man- 
ganese, 23.5 per cent; aluminum, 15 per 
cent; lead, 0.1 per cent, with traces of iron 
and silicon. 

Alloy II.— Copper, 67.7 per cent; 
manganese, 20.5 per cent; ai"iiinum, 
10.7 per cent; lead, 1.2 per cent, with 
traces of iron and silicon. 

Alloy II could be worked without dif- 
ficulty, but alloy I was so brittle that it 
broke under the hammer. A bar 7 inches 
long and J inch thick was obtained by 
grinding. This broke in two during the 
measurements, but, fortunately, without 
invalidating them. Such a material is 
evidently unsuited to practical uses. 

The behavior of magnetic alloys at 
high temperatures is very peculiar. Al- 
loy I is indifferent to temperature chan- 
ges, which scarcely affect its magnetic 
properties, but the behavior of alloy II is 
very different. Prolonged heating to 230® 
F. produces a great increase in its capa- 
bility of magnetization, which, after 544 
hours' heating, rises from 1.9 to 3.2 kilo- 



72 



ALLOYS 



fauss, approaching the strength of alloy 
But when alloy II is heated to SSO"" 
F., its capability of magnetization fails 
again and the material suffers permanent 
iniurv, which can be partly, but not 
wholly, cured by prolonged heating. 

Another singular phenomenon was 
exhibited by both of these alloys. When 
a bar of iron is magnetized bv an electric 
current, it acquires its full magnetic 
strength almost instantaneously on the 
closure of the circuit. The magnetic 
alloys, on the contrary, do not attain 
their full magnetization for several min- 
utes. In some of the experiments a 
gradual increase was observed even after 
the current had been flowine five minutes. 

In magnetic strength alloy I proved 
far superior to alloy II, which con- 
tained smaller proportions of manga- 
nese and aluminum. Alloy I showed 
magnetic strengths up to 4.5 kilogauss, 
while the highest magnetization ob- 
tained with alloy II was only 1.9 kilo- 
gauss. But even alloy II may be called 
strongly magnetic, for its maximum mag- 
netization is about one-tenth that of good 
wrought iron (18 to 20 kilogauss), or 
one-sixth that of cast iron (10 to 12 
kilogauss). Alloy I is nearly e^ual in 
magnetic properties to nickel, which can 
be magnetized up to about 5 kilogauss. 

MANGANESE ALLOYS: 

Manganese bronze is a bronze de- 
prived of its oxide by an admixture of 
manganese. The manganese is used as 
copper manganese containing 10 to 3Q 
per cent manganese and added to the 
bronze to the amount of 0.5 to 2 per cent. 

Manganese Copper.— The alloys of 
copper with manganese have a beauti- 
ful silvery color, considerable ductility, 
great hardness and tenacity, and 'are 
more readily fusible than ordinary 
bronze. A special characteristic is that 
they exactly fill out the molds» with- 
out the formation of blowholes, and pre- 
sent no difficulties in casting. 

Cupromanganese is suitable for many 
purposes for which nothing else but 
bronze can advantageously be used, and 
the cost of its production is no greater 
than that of genuine bronze, in pre- 
paring the alloy, the copper is used in the 
form of fine grains, obtained by pouring 
melted copper into cold water. These 
copper grains are mixed with the dry 
oxide of manganese, and the mixture put 
into a crucible holding about 66 pounds. 
Enough space must be left in the cruci- 
ble to allow a thick cover of charcoal, 
as the manganese oxidizes easily. The 
crucible is placed in a well-drawing 



wind furnace and subjected to a strong 
white heat. The oxide of manganese is 
completely reduced to manganese, which 
at once combines with the copper to form 
an alloy. In order to prevent, as far as 
possible, the access of air to the fusing 
mass, it is advisable to cover the crucible 
with a lid which has an aperture in the 
center for the escape of the carbonic 
oxide formed during the reduction. 

When the reduction is complete and 
the metals fused, the lid is removed and 
the contents of the crucible stirred with 
an iron rod, in order to make the alloy 
as homogeneous as possible. By re- 
peated remelting of the cupromanganese 
a considerable quantity of the man- 
ganese is reconverted into oxide; it is, 
therefore, advisable to make the casts 
directly from the crucible. When poured 
out, the alloy rapidly solidifies, and re- 
sembles in appearance good German 
silver. Another reason for avoiding re- 
melting is that the crucible is strongly 
attacked bv the cupromanganese, and 
can be used but a few times. 

The best kinds of cupromanganese 
contain between 10 and 80 per cent of 
manganese. They have a beautiful 
white color, are hard, tougher than cop- 
p>er, and can be worked under the ham- 
mer or with rolls. Some varieties of 
cupromanganese which are especially 
valuable for technical purposes are given 
below: 

I II III IV 

Copper 75 60 65 60 

Manganese. 25 25 20 20 

Zinc 15 5 .. 

Tin 10 

Nickel 10 10 

^ Manganin. — This is an alloy of copper, 
nickel, and manganese for electric re- 
sistances. 

MIRROR ALLOYS : 

Amalgams for Mirrors. — I. — Tin, 70 
parts; mercury, 80 parts. 

II. — For curved mirrors. Tin, 1 part; 
lead, 1 part; bismuth, 1 part; mercury, 9 
parts. 

III.— For glass balls. Tin, 80 parts; 
mercury, 20 parts. 

IV. — Metallic cement. Copper, 30 
parts; mercury, 70 parts. 

V. — Mirror metal. — Copper, 100 parts ; 
tin, 50 parts; Chinese copper, 8 parts; 
lead, 1 part; antimony, 1 part. 

Reflector Metals. — I. — (Cooper's.) 
Copper, 35 parts; platinum, 6; zinc, 2; 
tin, 16.5; arsenic, 1. On account of the 
hardness of this alloy, it takes a very 
high polish ; it is impervious to the effects 
of the weather, ana ia^ther^oze remark- 
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ALLOYS 



78 



ably well adapted to the manufacture 
of mirrors for fine optical instruments. 

II. — (Duppler*s.) Zinc, 20 parts; sil- 
ver, 80 parts. 

III. — Copper, 66.22 parts; tin, S3. 11 
parts; arsenic, 0.67 part. 

IV. — Copper, 64 parts; tin, 82 parts; 
arsenic, 4 parts. 

v.— Copper, 82.18 parts; lead, 9.22 
parts; antimony, 8.60 parts. 

VI.— (Little's.) Copper. 69.01 parts; 
tin. 30.82 parts; zinc, 2.44 parts; arsenic, 
1.83 parts. 

Speculiixn Metal. — Alloys consisting 
of 2 parts of copper and 1 of tin can 
be very brilliantly polished, and will 
serve for mirrors. Good speculum metal 
should have a very fine-grained fracture, 
should be white and very hard, the high- 
est decree of polish depending upon these 
qualities. A composition to meet these 
requirements must contain at least 35 to 
36 per cent of copper. Attempts have 
frequently been made to increase the 
hardness of speculum metal by additions 
of nickel, antimony, and arsenic. With 
the exception of nickel, these substances 
have the effect of causing the metal to 
lose its high luster easily, any consid- 
erable quantity of arsenic in particular 
having this effect. 

The real speculum metal seems to be 
a combination of the formula Cu4Sn, 
composed of copper 68.21 per cent, tin 
31.7. An alloy of this nature is some- 
times separated from ordnance bronze 
by incorrect treatment, causing the so- 
called tin spots; but this has not the pure 
white color which distinguishes the spec- 
ulum metal containing 31.5 per cent of tin. 
By increasing the p>ercentage of copper 
the color gradually shades into yellow; 
with a larger amount of tin into blue. It 
» dangerous to increase the tin too much, 
as this changes the other properties of the 
alloy, and it becomes too brittle to be 
worked. Below is a table showing differ- 
ent compositions of speculum metal. The 
standard alloy is unaoubtedly the best. 

Ane- Sil- 
Copper Tin Zino nio ver 

Standard 
alloy 68.21 31.7 

Otto's 
alloy 68.5 81.5 

Richard- 
son's alloy 65.3 30.0 0.7 2. 2. 

SolHt's al- 
loy 64.6 31.3 4.1 Nickd .... 

Chinese 
speculum 
metal. .. 80.83 8.5 Anti- 



OldRoman 63.39 19.05 



mony 
. . 17.29 Lead 



PALLADIUM ALLOYS. 

I. — An alloy of palladium 24 parts, 
gold 80, is white, hard as steel, unchange> 
able in the air, and can, like the other 
alloys of palladium, be used for dental 
purposes. 

11.— Palladium 6 parts, gold 18, sil- 
ver 11, and copper 13, gives a reddish- 
brown, hard, and very fine-grained 
alloy, suitable for the bearings of pivots 
in clock works. 

The alloys of most of the other plati- 
num metals, so called, are little used on 
account of their rarity and costliness. 
Iridium and rhodium give great hardness 
to steel, but the commercial rhodium 
and iridium steel, so called, frequently 
contains not a trace of either. The alloy 
of iridium with osmium has great hard- 
ness and resistance and is recommended 
for pivots, fine instruments, and points 
of ship compasses. 

Palladium Silver. — This alloy, com- 
posed of 9 parts of palladium and 1 of 
silver, is used almost exclusively for den- 
tal purposes, and is well suited to the 
manufacture of artificial teeth, as it does 
not oxidize. An alloy even more fre- 
quently used than this consists of plati- 
num 10 parts, palladium 8, and gold 6. 

Palladium Bearing Metal.— This alloy 
is extremely hard, and is used instead of 
jewel bearinffs in watches. It is com- 
posed of palladium 24 parts, gold 72, 
silver 44, copper 92. 

PLATINUM ALLOYS. 

Platinum^ has usually been alloyed 
with silver in goldsmith s work, 2 parts 
silver to 1 of platinum being taken to 
form the favorite "platinum silver." 
The object has been to produce an alloy 
having a white appearance, which can be 
polished, and at the same time has a 
low melting point. In addition to this 
platinum alloy the following are well 
known: 

I. — A mixture of 7 parts platinum with 
3 parts iridium. This gives to platinum 
the hardness of steel, which can be still 
further increased by taking 4 parts of 
iridium. 

II.— An alloy of 9 parts platinum and 
1 part iridium is usea by tne French in 
the manufacture of measuring instru- 
ments of great resisting power. 

Compounds of copper, nickel, cad- 
mium, and tungsten are also used in the 
construction of parts of watches; the lat- 
ter acquire considerable hardness with- 
out becoming magnetic or rusting like 
steel. 

III. — For this purpose a cpQi pound of 
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74 



ALLOYS 



62.75 parts platinum, 18 parts copper, 
1.25 parts cadmium, and 18 parts nickel 
is much recommended. 

IV. — Very ductile platinum - copper 
alloys have also been made, e. g., the so- 
called Cooper gold, consisting of S parts 
platinum and 13 parts copper, which is 
almost equal to 18-carat gold in regard 
to color, finish, and ductility. If 4 per 
cent of platinum is taken, these latter 
alloys acquire a rose-red color, while a 

?:olaen-yellow color can be produced by 
urther adding from 1 to 2 per cent (in 
all 5 to 6 per cent) of platinum. The 
last-named alloy is extensively used for 
ornaments, likewise alloy V. 

V. — ']fen parts platinum, 60 parts 
nickel, and 220 parts brass, or 2 parts 
platinum, 1 part nickel and silver re- 
spectively, 2 parts brass, and 5 parts 
copper; this also gives a golden-yellow 
color. 

VI. — Fqr table utensils a favorite alloy 
is composed of 1 part platinum, 100 parts 
nickel, and 10 parts tin. Articles made 
of the latter alloy are impervious to at- 
mospheric action and keep their polish 
for a long time. Pure white platinum 
alloys have for some time been used in 
dental work, and they have also proved 
serviceable for jewelry. 

VII. — A mixture of 30 parts platinum, 
10 parts gold, and 3 parts silver, or 7 
parts platinum, 2 parts gold, and 3 parts 
silver. 

VIII. — For enameled articles: Plati- 
num, 35 parts; silver, 65 parts. First 
fuse the silver, then add tne platinum 
in the spongy form. A good solder for 
this is platinum 80 parts, copper 20 
parts. 

IX. — For pens: Platinum, 4 parts; 
silver, 3 parts; copper, 1 part. 

Platinum Gold. — Small quantities of 
platinum change the characteristics of 
gold in many respects. With a small 
percentage the color is noticeably lighter 
than that of pure gold, and the alloys are 
extremely elastic; alloys containing more 
than 20 per cent of platinum, however, 
almost entirely lose their elasticity. The 
melting point of the platinum -gold alloy 
is high, and alloys containing 70 per cent 
of platinum can be fused only in the 
flame of oxy hydrogen gas, like platinum 
itself. Alloys with a smaller percentage 
of platinum can be prepared in furnaces, 
but require the strongest white heat. 
In order to avoid the chance of an im- 
perfect alloy from too low a temperature, 
It is always safer to fuse them with the 
oxyhydrogen flame. The alloys of plat- 
inum and gold have a somewhat lim- 



ited application. Those which contain 
from 5 to 10 per cent of platinum are 
used for sheet and wire in the manu- 
facture of artificial teeth. 

Platinum-Gold Alloys for Dental Pur- 
poses. — 

I II III 

Platinum 6 14 10 

Gold 2 4 6 

Silver 1 6 . . 

Palladium 8 

Platinum Silver. — An addition of plat- 
inum to silver makes it harder, but also 
more brittle, and changes the white color 
to gray. An alloy which contains only 
a very small percentage of platinum is 
noticeably darker in color than pure 
silver. Such alloys are prepared under 
the name of platine au litre, containing 
between 17 and 35 per cent of plati- 
num. They are almost exclusively used 
for dental purposes. 

Imitation Platinum. — I. — Brass, 100 
parts; zinc, 65 parts. 

II. — Brass, 120 parts; zinc, 75 parts. 

III. — Copper, 5 parts; nickel, 4 parts; 
zinc, li parts; antimony, 1 part; lead, 1 
part; iron, 1 part; tin, 1 part. 

Cooper's Pen Metal. — This alloy is 
especially well adapted to the manufac- 
ture of pens, on account of its great hard- 
ness, elasticity, and power of resistance 
to atmospheric influences, and would 
certainly have superseded steel if it were 
possible to produce it more cheaply than 
is the case. The compositions most fre- 
quently used for pen metal are copper 
1 part, platinum 4, and silver 3; or, 
copper 21, platinum 50, and silver 36. 
^ reus have been nianufactured, con- 
sisting of several sections, each of a dif- 
ferent alloy, suited to the special purpose 
of the part. Thus, for instance, the 
sides of the pen are made of the elastic 
composition just described; the upper 
part is of an alloy of silyer and platinum; 
and the point is made either of minute cut 
rubies or of an extremely hard alloy of 
osmium and iridium, joined to the body 
of the pen by melting in the flame of 
the oxyhydrogen blowpipe. The price of 
such pens, made of expensive materials 
and at the cost of great labor, is of course 
exceedingly high, but their excellent 
qualities repay the extra expense. They 
are not in tne least affectoa by any kind 
of ink, are most durable, and can be used 
constantly for years without showing any 
signs of wear. 

The great hardness and resistance to 
the atmosphere of Cooper's alloys make 
them very suitable for manufacturing 
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ALLOYS 



76 



mathemAtical instruments where great 
precision is required. It can scarcely 
t>e calculated how long a chronometer* 
for instance, whose wheels are construct- 
ed of this alloy, will run before showing 
any irregularities due to wear. In the 
construction of such instruments, the 
price of the material is not to be taken 
into account, since the cost of the labor 
in their manufacture so far exceeds this. 

PEWTER, 

This is an alloy of tin and lead only, 
or of tin with antimony and copper. 
The first is properly called pewter. 
Three varieties are known in traae: 

I (Plate Pewter).— From tin, 79 per 
cent; antimony, 7 per cent; bismuth and 
copper, of each 2 per cent; fused to- 
gether. Used to make plates, teapots, 
etc. Takes a fine polish. 

II (Triple Pewter).— From tin, 79 
per cent; antimony, 15 per cent; lead, 
6 i>er cent; as the fast. Used for minor 
articles, syringes, toys, etc. 

III (Ley Pewter).— From tin, 80 
per cent; lead, 20 per cent. Used for 
measures, inkstands, etc. 

According to the report of a French 
commission, pewter containing more 
than 18 parts of lead to 82 parts of tin is 
unsafe for measures for wine and similar 
liquors, and, indeed, for an}[ other uten- 
sils exposed to contact with food or 
beverages. Xhe legal specific gravity 
of pewter in France is 7.764; if it be 
greater, it contains an excess of lead, 
and is liable to prove poisonous. The 
proportions of these metals may be ajp> 
proximately determined from the specific 
gravity; but correctly only by an assay 
for the purpose. 

SILVER ALLOTS: 

^ Aluminum Silver. — Aluminum and 
silver form beautiful white alloys which 
are considerably harder than pure alu- 
minum, and take a very high polish. They 
have the advantage over copper allovs 
of beinff unchanged by exposure to tne 
air, anaof retaining their white color. 

The properties of aluminum and silver 
alloys vary considerably according to 
the percentage of aluminum. 

I.— An alloy of 100 parts of aluminum 
and 5 parts of silver is very similar to 
pure alununum, but is harder and takes 
a f<ner polish. 

II.— One hundred and sixty-nine parts 
of aluminum and 5 of silver make an 
elastic alloy, recommended for watch 
springs and dessert knives. 

III. — An alloj of equal parts of silver 
•nd aluminum is as hard as bronze. 



IV. — Five parts of aluminum and 1 
part of silver make an alloy that is eas- 
ily worked. 

V. — Also aluminum, 3 parts, and sil- 
ver, 1 part. 

VI. Tiers-Argent. — This alloy is pre- 
pared diicfly in Paris, and used for the 
manufacture of various utensils. As in- 
dicated by its name (one-third silver), 
it consists of 33.33 parts of silver and 
66.66 parts of aluminum. Its advan- 
tages over silver consist in its lower price 
and greater hardness; it can also be 
stamped and engraved more easily than 
the alloys of copper and silver. 

VII. — Thi9 IS a hard alloy which has 
been found verj useful for the operating 
levers of certain machines, such as the 
spacing lever of a typewriter. The metal 
now generally used for this purpose by 
the various typewriter companies is "alu- 
minum silver, or "silver metal." The 
proportions are given as follows: 

Copper 67.00 

Nickel 20.00 

Zinc. 20.00 

Aluminum 3 . 00 

This alloy when used on typewriting 
machines is nickel-plated for the sake of 
the first appearance, but so far as corro- 
sion is concerned, nickeling is unneces- 
sary. The alloy is stiff and strong and 
cannot be bent to any extent without 
breaking, especially if the percentage of 
aluminum is increased to 3.5 per cent; 
it casts free from pinholes and blow- 
holes; the liquid metal completely fills 
the mold, giving sharp, clean castings, 
true to pattern; its cost is not greater 
than brass; its color is silver white, 
and its hardness makes it susceptible to 
a high polish. 

AiBenic. — Alloys which contain small 
quantities of arsenic are very ductile, 
have a beautiful white color, and were 
formerly used in England in the man- 
ufacture of tableware. They are not, 
however, suitable for this purpose, on 
account of the poisonous character of 
the arsenic. They are composed usually 
of 49 parts of silver, 49 of copper, and 2 
of arsenic. 

China Silver. — Copper, 65.24 per cent; 
tin, 19.52 per cent; mcKel, 13.00 per cent; 
silver, 2.05 per cent. 

Copper-Silver. — When silver is alloyed 
with copper only one proportion is known 
which will give a uniform casting. The 
proportion is 72 per cent silver to 28 per 
cent copper. With more silver than 72 
per cent the center of a cast bar will be 

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ALLOYS 



richer than the outside, which chills 
first; while with a less percentage than 
72 per cent the center of the bar will be 
poorer and the outside richer than the 
average. This characteristic of silver- 
copper alloys is known to metallurgists 
as segregation." 

When nickel is added to the silver and 
copper, several good alloys may be 
formed, as the following French com- 
positions: 

I II III 

Silver 38 40 20 

Copper.... 87-42 30-40 45-55 
Nickel 25-80 20-30 25-35 

The whitening of alloys of silver and 
copper is best accomplished by anneal- 
ing the alloy until it turns black on the 
surface. Cool in a mixture of 20 parts, by 
weight, of concentrated sulphuric acid to 
1,000 parts of distilled water and leave 
therein for some time. In place of the 
sulphuric acid, 40 parts ol potassium 
bisulphate may be used per 1,000 parts 
of liquid. Repeat the process if neces- 
sary. 

Copper, Silver, and Cadmium Allo3rs. 
— Cadmium adaed to silver alloys ffives 
great flexibility and ductility, witnout 
affecting the white color; these proper- 
ties are valuable in the manufacture of 
silver-plated ware and wire. The pro- 
portions of the metals vary in these al- 
loys. Some of the most important vari- 
eties are given below. 

Silver Copper Cadmium 

1 980 15 5 

II 950 15 35 

III 900 18 82 

IV 860 20 180 

V 666 25 309 

VI 667 50 284 

VII 500 50 450 

In preparing these alloys, the great 
volatility of cadmium must be taken 
into account. It is customary to pre- 
pare first the alloy of silver and copper, 
and add the cadmium, which, as in the 
case of the alloys of silver and zinc, must 
be wrapped in paper. After putting it 
in, the mass is quickly stirred, and the 
alloy poured immediately into the molds. 
This is the surest way to prevent the 
volatilization of the cadmium. 

Silver, Copper, Nickel, and Zinc Alloys. 
—These alloys, from the metals con- 
tained in them, may be characterized as 
ar^entan or German silver with a cer- 
tain percentage of silver. They have 
been used for making small coins, as in 
the older coins of Switzerland. Being 
quite hard, they have the advantage of 



wearing well, but soon lose their beau- 
tiful white color and take on a disagree- 
able shade of yellow, like poor brass. 
The silver contained in them can be 
regained only by a laborious process, 
which is a great drawback to their use 
in coinage. The composition of the 
Swiss fractional coins is as follows: 

20 oen- 10 oen- 5 cen- 
times times times 

Silver 15 10 5 

Copper 50 55 . 60 

Nickel 25 25 25 

Zinc 10 10 10 

Mousset's Alloy. — Copper, 59.06; sil- 
ver, 27.56; zinc, 9.57; nickel, 3.42. This 
alloy is yellowish with a reddish tinge, 
but white on the fractured surface. It 
ranks next after Argent-Ruolz, which 
also contains sometimes certain quanti- 
ties of zinc, and in this case may be 
classed together with the alloy just de- 
scribed. The following alloys can be 
rolled into sheet or drawn into wire: 
I II III 

Silver 33.3 34 40.0 

Copper 41.8 42 44.6 

Nickel 8.6 8 4.6 

Zinc 16.3 16 10.8 

Japanese (Gray) Silver. — An alloy is 
prepared in Japan which consists of 
eaual parts of copper and silver, and 
wnich IS given a beautiful gray color bv 
boiling in a solution of alum, to which 
copper sulphate and verdigris are added. 
The so-called "mokum," idso a Japanese 
alloy, is prepared by placing thin plates 
of gold, silver, copper, and uie alloy just 
described over each other and stretch- 
ing them under the hammer. The cross 
sections of the thin plates obtained in 
this way show the colors of the different 
metals, which give them a peculiar 
striped appearance. Mokum is prin- 
cipally used for decorations upon gold 
and silver articles. 

Silver-Zinc. — Silver and zinc have 
great affinity for each other, and allovs 
of these two metals are therefore easily 
made. The required quantity of zinc, 
wrapped in paper, is thrown into the 
melted and strongly heated silver, the 
mass is thoroughly stirred with an iron 
rod, and at once poured out into molds. 
Alloys of silver and zinc can be obtained 
which are both ductile and flexible. An 
allo^ consisting of 2 parts of zinc and 1 
of silver closely resemoles silver in color, 
and is quite ductile. With a larger pro- 
portion of zinc the alloy becomes brittle, 
in preparing the alloy, a somewhat larger 
quantity of zinc must be taken than Uie 

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77 



finished alloy is intended to contain, as a 
small amount always volatilizes. 

Imitation Silver Alloys. — There are a 
number of alloys, composed of different 
metals, which resemble silver, and may 
be bnefipr mentioned here. 

I. — Wame*s metal is composed of tin 
10 parts, bismuth 7, and cobalt 3. It 
is white, fine-grained, but quite diflicult 
to fuse. 

II. — Tonca's metal contains coppei 5 
parts, nickel 4, tin 1, lead 1, iron 1, 
zinc 1, antimony 1. It is hard, difficult 
to fuse, not very ductile, and cannot be 
recommended. 

III. — Trabuk metal contains tin 87.5, 
nickel 5.5, antimony 5, bismuth 5. 

IV. — Tourun-Leonard's metal is com- 
posed of 500 parts of tin and 64 of bell 
metal. 

V. — Silveroid is an alloy of copper, 
nickel, tin, zinc, and lead. 

VI. — ^Minargent. Copper, 100 parts; 
nickel, 70 parts; tungsten, 5 parts; alu- 
minum, 1 part. 

VII. — Nickel, 23 parts; aluminum, 
5 parts; copper, 5 parts; iron, 65 parts; 
tungsten, 4 parts. 

VIII.— Argasoid. Tin, 4.035; lead, 
3.544; copper, 55.780; nickel, 13.406; 
zinc, 23.198; iron, trace. 

SOLDERS: 
See Solders. 

STEEL ALLOYS: 
See also Steel. 

For Locomotive Cylinders. — This mix- 
ture consists of 20 per cent steel castings, 
old steel springs, etc.; 20 per cent No. 2 
coke iron, and 60 per cent scrap. From 
this it is stated a good solid metal can be 
obtained, the castings being free from 
honeycombing, and finishing better than 
the ordinary cast-iron mixture, over which 
it has the advantage of 24 per cent great- 
er strengtb. Its constituents are: Sili- 
con, 1.51; manganese, 0.33; phosphorus, 
0.65; sulphur, 0.068; combined carbon, 
0.62; graphite, 2.45. 

Nickel steel is composed of nickel 36 
per cent, steel 64 per cent. 

Tungsten steel is crucible steel with 
5 to 12 per cent tungsten. 

STEREOTYPE METAL. 

» Lead 2 parts 

Tin 3 parts 

Bismuth 5 parts 

The melting point of this alloy is 196^ 
F. The alloy is rather costly because 
of the amount of bismuth which it 
contains. The following mixtures are 
cheaper: 



I 

1 
1 
2 



n III 

3 1 
5 1.5 
8 3 



IV 

2 

2 
5 

1 



Tin 

Lead 

Bismuth 

Antimony. . . 

TIN ALLOYS: 

Alloys for Dentists' Holds and Dies. 
— I. — Very hard. Tin, 16 parts; anti- 
mony, 1 part; zinc, 1 part. 

II.— Softer than the fonner. Tin, 8 
parts; zinc, 1 part; antimony, 1 part. 

III. ~ Very hard. Tin, 12 parts; an- 
timony, 2 parts; copper, 1 part. 

Cadmium Alloy, about the Hardness 
of Zinc. — Tin, 10 parts; antimony, 1 part; 
cadmium, 1 part. 

Tin-Lead. — Tin is one of those metals 
which is not at all susceptible to the 
action of acids, while lead, on the other 
hand, is very easily attacked by them. 
In such alloys, consequentiy, used for 
cooking utensils, the amount of lead 
must be limited, and should properly not 
exceed 10 or 15 per cent; but cases have 
been known in wnich the so-called tin con- 
tained a third part, by weight, of lead. 

Allovs containing from 10 to 15 per 
cent of lead have a oeautiful white color, 
are considerably harder than pure tin, 
and much cheaper. Many alloys of tin 
and lead are very lustrous, and are used 
for stage jewelry and mirrors for reflect- 
ing the light of lamps, etc. An especially 
brilliant alloy is called "Fahlun bril- 
liants." It is used for stage jewelry, and 
consists of 20 parts of tin and 19 of lead. 
It is poured into molds faceted in the 
same way as diamonds, and when seen 
by artificial light, the effect is that of dia- 
monds. Other alloys of tin and lead are 
employed in the manufacture of toys. 
These must fill the molds well, and 
must also be cheap, and therefore as 
much as 50 per cent of lead is used. 
Toys can also be made from type metal, 
which is even cheaper than tne alloys 
of tin and lead, but has the disadvantage 
of readily breaking if the articles are 
sharply bent. The alloys of tin and 
lead give very good castings, if sharp iron 
or brass molds are used. 

Lead 19 parts 

Tin 29 parts 

This alloy is very bright and possesses 
a permanent sheen. It is well adapted 
for the making of artificial^ gems for 
stage use. It is customary in carrying 
out the process to start with two parts of 
tin and one part of lead. Tin is added 
until a sample drop which is allowed to 
fall upon an iron plate forms a mirror. 
The artificial gems are produced by 



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ALLOYS 



dipping into the molten alloy pieces of 
glass cut to the proper shape. The tin 
coating of metal wnich aciheres to the 
glass cools rapidly and adheres tena- 
ciously. Outwardly these artificial gems 
appear rough and gray, but inwardly they 
are highly reflective and quite deceptive 
when seen in artificial light. 

If the reflective surfaces be coated 
with red, blue, or green aniline, various 
colored effects can be obtained. In- 
stead of fragile glass the gems may be 
produced by means of well-polished 
pieces of steel or bronze. 

Other Tin-Lead Allocs. — Percentage 
of lead and specific gravity. 
P.C. S.G. P.O. S.G. 

7.290 28 8.105 

1 7. 316 29 8.137 

2 7.342 80 8.169 

3 7.369 81 8.202 

4 7.396 32 8.235 

5 7.423 3S 8.268 

6 7.450 34 8.302 

7 7.477 35 8.336 

8 7.505 36 8.379 

9 7.533 37 8.405 

10 7.562 88 8.440 

11 7.590 89 8.476 

12 7.619 40 8.512 

13 7.648 41 8.548 

14 7.677 42 8.584 

15 7.706 43 8.621 

16 7.785 44 8.658 

17 7.764 45 8.695 

18 7.794 46 8.732 

19 7.824 47 8.770 

20 7.854 48 8.808 

21 7.885 49 8.846 

22 7.916 50 8.884 

23 7.947 60 9.299 

24 7.978 70 9.736 

25 8.009 80 10.225 

26 8.041 90 10.767 

27 8.073 100 11.370 

Tin Statuettes, Buttons, etc.— 

I.— Tin 4 parts 

Lead 3 parts 

This is a very soft solder which sharp- 
ly reproduces all details. 

Aiiother easily fusible alloy but some- 
what harder, is the following: 

II.— Tin 8 parts 

Lead 6 parts 

Antimony 0.5 part 

Miscellaneous Tin Alloys.— I.— Alger 

Metal. — Tin, 90 parts; antimony, 10 

parts. This alloy is suitable as a protector. 

II. Argentine Metal. — Tin, 85.5 per cent; 

antimony. 14.5 per cent. 

III. — Ash berry metal is composed of 
78 to 82 parts of tin, 16 to 20 of antimony, 
2 to 3 of copper. 



IV. Quen's MeUl.— Tin, 9 parts; lead, 
1 part; antimony, 1 part; bismuth, Ipart. 

Type Metal. — An alloy which is to 
serve for tyi>e metal must be readily 
cast, fill out the molds sharply, and 
be as hard as possible. It is difficult to 
satisfy all these requirements, but an 
alloy of antimony and lead answers the 
purpose best. At the present day there 
are a great many formulas for type 
metal in which other metals besides 
lead and antimony are used, either to 
make the allov more readilv fusible, as 
in the case of additions of bismuth, or 
to give it greater power of resistance, 
the latter being of especial importance 
for types that are subjected to constant 
use. Copper and iron have been rec- 
ommended for this purpose, but the 
fusibility of the allovs is greatly im- 
paired by these, and tne manufacture of 
the types is consequently more difficult 
than with an alloy of lead and antimony 
alone. In the following table some al- 
loys suitable for casting tyi>e are given: 

T-««H Anti- Cop- Bill- ». _ f«;„ Nick- 

18 1 

II 5 1 

III 10 1 

IV 10 2 .. 1 

V 70 18 2 .... 10 .. 

VI 60 20 20 

VII 55 25 20 .. 

VIII 55 30 15 

IX 100 30 8 2 .. 20 8 
X 6 4 .. 90 .. .. 

The French and English tvpes contain 
a certain amount of tin, as snown by the 
following analyses: 

EngliahType. * &«^ 
I II III "^ 

Lead 69.2 61.3 55.0 55 

Antimony... 19.5 18.8 22.7 SO 

Tin 9.1 20.2 22.1 15 

Copper 1.7 

I^edebur gives the composition of type 
metal as follows: 

I II III IV 

Lead 75 60 80 82 

Antimony... 23 25 20 14.8 

Tin 22 15 8.2 

WATCHMAKERS' ALLOYS: 

See Watchmakers* Formulas. 
WHITE METALS. 

The so-called white metals are em- 
ployed almost exclusively for bearings. 
(See Anti-friction Metals under Alloys.) 
In the technology of mechanics an ac- 
curate distinction is made between the 
different kinds of metals for bearings; 
and they may be classed in two groups, 
red brass and white metal. The red« 



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ALLOYS 



79 



brass bearings are characterized by great 
hardness and power of resistance, and 
are principally used for bearings of heav- 
ily loaded and rapidly revolving axles. 
For the axles of large and heavy fly- 
wheels, revolving at great speed, bearings 
of red brass are preferable to white metal, 
though more expensive. 

In recent years many machinists have 
found it advantageous to substitute for 
the soft allovs generally in use for bear- 
ings a metal almost as hard as the axle 
itself. Phosphor bronze (q. v.) is fre- 
quently employed for this purpose, as it 
can easily be made as hard as wrought 
or cast steel. In this case the mctai is 
used in a thin layer, and serves only, 
as it were, to fill out the small interstices 
caused by wear on the axle and bearing, 
the latter being usually made of some 
rather easily fusible alloy of lead and tin. 
Such bearines are very durable, but ex- 
pensive, ana can only be used for !ar^ 
machines. For small machines, ripe- 
ning gently and uniformly, white-metal 
bearings are preferred, and do excellent 
work, if the axle is not too heavily loaded. 
For axles which have a high rate of revo- 
lution, bearings made of quite hard 
metals are chosen, and with proper care 
— which, indeed, must be given to bear- 
ings of any material — they will last for a 
long time without needing repair. 



o 

K 

S 

;i 



Other white bearing metals are: 

XXI. — Tin, 8.6; antimony, 10; cop- 
per, 5 parts. 

XXII. — Tin, 42; antimony, 16; lead, 
42 parts. 

XXIII.—Tin, 72; antimony, 26; cop- 



81; antimony, 12.5; 



25 
24 



per, 2 parts. 

XXIV.— Tin, 
copper, 6.6 parts. 

White Metals Based on Copper. — 

I. — Copper, 65 parts ; arsenic, 55 parts. 

II. — Copper, 64 parts; arsenic, 50 
parts. 

III. — Copper, 10 parts; zinc, 20 parts; 
nickel, 30 parts. 

IV. — Nickel, 70 parts; copper, SO 
parts; zinc, 20 parts. 

V. — Nickel, 60 parts; copper, SO parts; 
zinc, SO parts. 

VI. — Copper, 8 parts; nickel, 4 parts; 
zinc, 4 parts. 

VII.— Copper, 10 parts; nickel, 5 
parts; zinc, 5 parts. 

VIII. — Copper, 8 parts; nickel, S 
parts; zinc, 4 parts. 

IX.— Copper, 50 parts; nickel, 
parts; zinc, 25 parts. 

X. — Copper, 55 parts; nickel, 
parts; zinc, 21 parts. 

XI. — Copper, 56 parts; nickel, 24 parts; 
zinc, 16 parts; iron, 2 parts; tin, 3 parts. 

IX, X, and XI are suitable for table- 
ware. 

XII. — Copper, 67 parts, and arsenic, 
53 parts. 

XIII. — Copper, 63 parts, and arsenic, 
57 parts. 

All and XIII are bright gray, un- 
affected by the temp>erature of boiling wa- 
ter; they are fusible at red heat. 

White Metals Based on Platinum.— 

I. — Platinum, 1 part; copper, 4 parts; 
or platinum, l\ parts; copper, 3} parts. 

II.— Platinum, 10 parts; tin, 90 parts; 
or platinum, 8 parts; tin, 92 parts. 

III. — Platinum, 7 parts; copper, 13 
parts; tin, 80 parts. 

I v.— Platinum, 2 parts; steel, 98 parts. 

v.— Platinum, 2.5 parts; steel, 97.6 
parts. 

IV and V arc for gun metal. 

Miscellaneous White-Metal Alloys. — 

I. — For lining cross-head slides: Lead, 
65 parts; antimony, 25 parts; copp>er, 
10 parts. Some object to white metal 
containing lead or zinc. It has been 
found, however, that lead and zinc 
have properties of great use in these 
alloys. 

II. — Tin, 85 parts; antimony, 7 J 
parts; copper, 7 J parts. 

III. — Tin, 90 parts; copper, 8 parts; 
antimony, 7 parts. Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



80 



ALUMINUM AND ITS TREATMENT 



ZmC ALLOYS : 

Bidery Metal. — This is sometimes 
composed of SI parts of zinc, 2 parts of 
copper, and 2 parts of lead; the whole is 
melted on a layer of rosin or wax to avoid 
oxidation. This metal is ver^r resistive; 
it does not oxidize in air or moisture. It 
takes its name from the town of Bider, 
near Hyderabad (India^, where it was 
prepared for the first time industrially 
lor the manufacture of different utensils. 

Other compositions of Indian Bidery 
metal (frequently imitated in £ngland) 
are about as follows: 

P.C. P.C. P.C. 

Copper... 8.5 11.4 16 

Zinc 93.4 84.3 112 

Tin 1.4 2 

Lead 3.1 2.9 4 

Erhardt recommends the following as 
being both ductile and hard: 

Zinc 89 to 93 

Tin 9 to 6 

Lead 2 to 4 

Copper 2 to 4 

The tin is first melted, and the lead, 
zinc, and copper added successively. 

Zinc-Nickel. — Zinc, 90 parts; nickel, 
10 parts. Used in powder form for 
painting and cloth printing purposes. 

Platine for Dress Buttons. — Copper, 
43 parts; zinc, 57 parts. 

UNCLASSIFIED ALLOYS : 

Alloys for Drawing Colors on Steel. — 
Allovs of various composition are suc- 
cessfully used for drawing colors on steel. 
To draw to a straw color use 2 parts of 
lead and 1 part of tin, and melt in an 
iron ladle. Hold the steel piece to be 
drawn in the alloy as it melts and it will 
turn to straw color. This mixture melts 
at a temperature of about 437° F. For 
darker yellow use 9 parts of lead to 4 
parts of tin, which melts at 458° F. For 
purple, use 3 parts of lead to 1 part 
of tin, the melting temperature being 
482° F. For violet, use 9 parts of lead 
to 2 parts of tin, which melts at 494° F. 
Lead without any alloy will draw steel 
to a dark blue. The above apply to 
steel only since iron requires a somewhat 
greater heat and is more or less uncer- 
tain in handling. 

Alloy for Pattern Letters and Figures. 
— A good alloy for casting pattern letters 
and figures and similar small parts of 
brass, iron, or plaster molds, is made of 
lead 80 parts, and antimony 20 parts. 
A better alloy will be lead 70 parts, an- 



timony and bismuth each 15 parts. To 
insure perfect work the molds should 
be quite hot by placing them over a Bun- 
sen Durner. 

Alloy for Caliper and Gage -Rod Cast- 
ings. — A mixture of 30 parts zinc to 70 
parts aluminum gives a light and durable 
alloy for gage rods and caliper legs; the 
gage rods must be steel tipped, for the 
alloy is soft and wears away too rapidly 
for gage points. 

Alloys for Small Casting Molds. — Tin, 
75 parts, and lead, 22 parts; or 75 parts 
of zmc and 25 parts of tin; or 30 parts of 
tin and 70 parts of lead; or 60 parts of 
lead and 40 parts of bismuth. 

ALLOYS FOR METAL FOIL: 
See Metal Foil. 

ALMOND COLD CREAM: 

See Cosmetics. 

ALMOND LIQUEURS: 

See Wines and Liquors. 

ALTARS, TO CLEAN: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

ALUM: 

Burnt Alum. — I. — Heat the alum in a 
porcelain dish or other suitable vessel 
till it liquefies, then raise and continue 
the heat, not allowing it to exceed 400°, 
till aqueous vapor ceases to be disen- 
gaged, and the salt has lost 47 per cent of 
its weight. Reduce the residue to pow- 
der, and preserve it in a well-stoppered 
bottle. — Cooley. 

II. — Heat ordinary alum (alumina 
alum^ with constant stirring in an iron 
pan in which it will first melt quietly, 
and then commence to form blisters. 
Continue heating until a dry white mass 
of a loose character remains, which is 
powdered and kept in well-closed glasses. 

ALUM BATH: 
See Photography. 



Altuninum and its Treatment 

HOW TO COLOR ALUMINUM: 

Blanching of Aluminum. — Aluminum 
is one of the metals most inalterable by 
air; nevertheless, the objects of aluminum 
tarnish quickly enough without being 



ALUMINUM AND 11^ TREATMENT 



81 



^tered. They mav be restored to their 
mat whiteness in tne following manner: 
Immerse the aluminum articles in a 
boiling bath of caustic potash; next 
plunge them quickly into nitric acid, 
rinse and let dry. It must be under- 
stood that this method is applicable only 
to pieces entirely of aluminum. 

Decolorized Altiminum. — Gray or un- 
sightly aluminum may be restored to its 
wnite color bv washing with a mixture 
of 30 parts of borax cussolved in 1,000 
parts of water, with a few drops of am- 
monia added. 

Mat Aluminum. — In order to impart 
to aluminum the appearance of mat 
silver, plunge the article into a hot bath 
composed of a 10-per-cent solution of 
caustic soda saturated with kitchen salt. 
Leave it in the bath for 15 to 20 seconds, 
then wash and brush; put back into the 
bath for half a minute, wash anew and 
dry in sawdust. 

To Blacken Aluminum. — I. — The sur- 
face of the sheet to be colored is polished 
with vcrv fine emery powder or finest 
emery cloth. After polishing pour a 
thin layer of olive oil over the surface 
and heat slowly over an alcohol flame. 
Large sheets must, of course, be heated 
in the drying oven. After a short while 
pour on oil again, in order to obtain ab- 
solute uniformity of the coating, and heat 
the plate once more. Under the action 
of the heat the plate turns first brown, 
then black, according to the decrees of 
heat. When the desired coloration has 
been attained, the plate is polished over 
again, after cooling, with a woolen rag 
or soft leather. 

II. — White arsenic 1 ounce 

Sulphate of iron .. ... 1 ounce 
Hvarochloric acid . . 12 ounces 

Water 12 ounces 

When the arsenic and iron are dis- 
solved by the acid add the water. The 
aluminum to be blackened should be 
well cleaned with fine emery powder 
and washed before immersing in the 
blackening solution. When the deposit 
of black is deep enough dry off with fine 
sawdust and lacquer. 

Decorating Aluminum. — A process for 
decorating aluminum, patented in Ger- 
many, prescribes that the objects be first 
corroded, which is usually done with 
caustic soda lye, or, better still, by a new 
method whic£ consists in heating 3 parts 
of sulphuric acid with 1 part of water to 
140** to 158** F., in an enameled vessel. 
Into this liquid dip the aluminum arti- 



cles, rinsing them off clean and then dry- 
ing them well. The corroded articles 
are now placed in a bath consisting of 
1,000 parts of alcohol (90 per cent), 
1.50 parts of antimony, 250 parts of 
chemically pure hydrochloric acid, 100 
parts of manganous nitrate, and 20 parts 
of purified and finally elutriated graph- 
ite. In this bath, which is heated to 
86**-95*» F., the objects are left until 
fumes develop around them, which takes 
place in a few seconds. Now they are 
.put over a coal fire or similar arrange- 
ment until the alcohol is burned i*p and 
there is no more smoke. After they are 
somewhat cooled off, they are laid into 
cold water and worked with a brush, then 
rinsed with water and well dried. The 
pieces are now provided with a gray me- 
tallic coating, consisting mainly of anti- 
mony, manganese, and graphite. This 
metallic layer renders them capable of re- 
ceiving a lacquer which is best prepared 
from 1,000 parts of alcohol (90 per cent), 
50 parts of sandarac, 100 parts of shellac, 
ana 100 parts of nigrosine (black aniline 
color). Then the articles are cjuickly 
but thoroughly rinsed off, dried in 
warmed air for a few minutes, and baked 
in ovens or over a moderate coal fire 
until they do not smoke any more and no 
more gloss can be seen. Finally they 
are rubbed with a cotton rag saturated 
with thin linseed-oil varnish, and the ob- 
jects thus treated now appear dull black, 
like velvet. The covering withstands all 
action of the weather, so that cooking 
vessels coated with this varnish on the 
outside can be placed on the fire without 
injury to the coating. If the articles are 
engraved, the aluminum appears almost 
glossy white under the black layer at the 
engraved places. When the pieces have 
been provided with the gray metallic 
coating, colored lacquer may also be 
applied with the brush. In this manner 
paintings, etc., may be done on alu- 
minum, while not possible on unprepared 
aluminum surfaces, which will not retain 
them. 

Making Castings in Aluminum. — The 
method adopted in preparing molds 
and cores for aluminum work is neces- 
sarily somewhat the same as for brass, 
but there are particular points which 
need attention to insure successful work. 
Both in the sand and the making of the 
molds there are some small differences 
which make considerable variation ^ in 
the results, and the temperature at which 
the metal is poured is a consideration of 
some importance. 

In selecting the sand, which should 
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82 



ALUMINUM AND ITS TREATMENT 



not have been previously used» that of a 
fine grain should be chosen, but it should 
not have any excess of aluminous matter, 
or it will not permit of the free escape 
of gases and air, this being an important 
matter. Besides this, the sand must be 
used as dry as possible consistent with its 
holding against the flow of the metal, 
and having only moderate compression 
in ramming. 

In making the molds it is necessary 
to remember that aluminum has a large 
contraction in cooling, and also that* at 
certain temperatures it is very weak and 
tears readily, while all metals shrink 
awav from the mold when this is 
wholly outside the casting, but they 
shrink on to cores or portions of the 
mold partly inclosed by metal. Thus, 
if casting a plate or bar of metal, it will 
shrink away from the mold in all direc- 
tions; but if casting a square frame, it 
shrinks away from the outside only, 
while it shrinks on to the^ central part 
or core. With brass, or iron, or such 
metals, this is not of much importance, 
but with some others, including alumi- 
num, it is of great importance, because 
if the core or inclosed sand will not give 
somewhat with the contraction of the 
metal, torn or fractured castings will be 
the result. Both for outside and inside 
molds, and with cores used with alu- 
minum, the sand should be compressed 
as little as possible, and hard ramming 
must in every case be avoided, particu- 
larly where the metal surrounds the sand. 
The molds must be very freelv vented, 
and not only at the joint of tne mold, 
but by using the vent wire freely through 
the body of the mold itself; in fact, for 
brass the venting would be considered 
excessive. With aluminum it is, how- 
ever, necessary to get the air off as rapid- 
ly as possible, because the metal soon 
gets sluggish in the mold, and unless it 
runs up quickly it runs faint at the edges. 
The ingates should be wide and of fair 
area, but need careful making to prevent 
their drawing where they enter the cast- 
ing, the method of doing this being 
known to most molders. 

If it is considered desirable to use a 
specially made-up facing sand for the 
molds where the metal is of some thick- 
ness, the use of a little pea or bean meal 
will be all that is necessary. To use this, 
first dry as much sand as may be re- 
quired and pass through a SO-mesh sieve, 
and to each bushel of the fine sand rub 
in about 4 quarts of meal, afterwards 
again passing through the sieve to insure 
regular mixing. This sand should then 
be damped as required, being careful 



that all parts are equally moist, rubbing 
on a board being a good way to get it 
tou^h, and in good condition, with the 
minimum of moisture. 

The molds should not be sleeked with 
tools, but they may be dusted over with 
plumbago or steatite, smoothing with 
a camePs-hair brush, in cases in which a 
very smooth face is required on the 
castings. Preferably, however, the use 
of the brush even should be avoided. 
Patterns for aluminum should be kept 
smooth and well varnished. 

In melting the metal it is necessary to 
use a plumbago crucible . which is clean 
and which has not been used for other 
metals. Clay or silica crucibles are not 
good for this metal, especially silica, on 
account of the metal absorbing silicon 
and becoming hard under some condi- 
tions of melting. A steady fire is neces- 
sary, and the fuel should reach only 
about halfway up the crucible, as it is 
not desirable to overheat the crucible or 
metal. The metal absorbs heat for 
sonie time and then fuses with some ra- 
pidity, hence the desirability of a steady 
neat; and as the metal should be poured 
when of a claret color under the film of 
oxide which forms on the surface, too 
rapid a heatinff is not advisable. The 
molding should always be well in ad- 
vance of the pouring, because the metal 
should be used as soon as it is ready; for 
not only is waste caused, but the metal 
loses condition if kept in a molten state 
for long periods. The metal should be 
poured rapidly, but steadily, and when 
cast up there should not be a large head 
of metal left on top of the runner. In 
fact, it is rather a disadvantage to leave 
a large head, as this tends to draw rather 
than to feed the casting. 

With properly prepared molds, and 
careful melting, fluxes are not required, 
but ground cryolite — a fluoride of sodium 
and aluminum — is sometimes used to 
increase the fluidity of the metal. In 
using this, a few ounces according to 
the bulk of metal to be treated is put 
into the molten metal before it is taken 
from the furnace, and well stirred in, 
and as soon as the reaction apparently 
ceases the pot is lifted and the metal at 
once skimmed and poured. The use of 
sodium in any form with aluminum is 
very undesirable, however, and should 
be avoided, and the same remark applies 
to tin, but there is no objection to alloy- 
ing with zinc, when the metal thus pro- 
duced is sold as an alloy. 

Aluminum also casts very well in molds 
of plaster of Paris and crushed bath 
bricK when sueh molds^ are perfectly dry 
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ALUMINUM AND 11^ TREATMENT 



8S 



and well vented, smoothness being se- 
cured by brushing over with dry stea- 
tite or plumbago. When casting in 
metal molds, uiese should be well 
brushed out^ with steatite or plumbago, 
and made fairly hot before pouring, as in 
cold molds the metal curdles and be- 
comes sluggish, with the result that the 
castings run up faint. 

To Increase the ToughnesSi Density, 
and Tenacity of Aluminum. — For the 
purpose of improving aluminum, with- 
out increasing its specific gravity, the 
alununum is mixed with 4 to 7 per cent 
of phosphorus, whereby the density, te- 
nacity, and especially the toughness are 
said to be enhanced. 

WORKING OF SHEET ALUMINUM : 
The great secret, if there is any, in 
working aluminum, either pure or al- 
loyed, consists in the proper lubricant 
and the shape of the tool. Another 
great disadvantage in the proper working 
of the metal is that, when a manufac- 
turer desires to make up an article, he 
will procure the pure metal in order to 
make his samples, which, of course, is 
harder to work than the alloy. But the 
different grades of aluminum sheet which 
are on the market are so numerous for 
different classes of work that it might 
be advisable to consider them for a mo- 
ment before passing to the method of 
working them. 

The pure metal, to begin with, can 
be purchased of all degrees of hardness, 
from the annealed, or what is known as 
the "dead soft" stock, to the pure alumi- 
num hard rolled. Then comes a harder 
grade of allovs, running from "dead 
soft" metal, which will draw up hard, to 
the same metal hard rolled; and, still 
again, another set of alloys which, per- 
haps, are a little harder still when hard 
rolled, and will, when starting with the 
"dead soft," spin up into a utensil which, 
when finished, will probably be as stiff as 
brass. These latter alloys are finding 
a large sale for replacing brass used in all 
classes of manufactured articles. 

To start with lathe work on aluminum, 
probably more difficulty has been found 
nere, especially in working pure metal, 
and more complaints are heard from 
this source than from any other. As 
stated before, however, these difficulties 
can all be readily overcome, if the proper 
tools and the proper lubricants are used, 
as automatic screw machines are now 
made so that they can be operated when 
working aluminum just as readily as 
when tney are working brass, and in 
some cases more readily. To start with 



the question of the tool, this should be 
made as what is known as a ''shearing 
tool," that is, instead of a short, stubby 
point, such as would be used in turning 
Drass, the point should be lengthened 
out and a lot of clearance provided on 
the inside of the tool, so as to give the 
chips of the metal a good chance to free 
themselves and not cause a clog^in^; 
around the point of the tool — a simi- 
lar tool, for instance, to what would be 
used for turning wood. 

The best lubricant to be used would 
be coal oil or water, and plenty of it. The 
latter is almost as good as coal oil if 
enough of it is used, and with either of 
these lubricants and a tool properly 
made, there should be no difficulty what- 
soever in the rapid working of aluminum, 
either on the lathe or on automatic screw 
machines. 

To go from the lathe to the drawing 
press, the same tools here would be used 
in drawing up shapes of aluminum as 
are used for drawing up brass or other 
metals; the only precaution necessary 
in this instance being to use a proper 
lubricant, which in this case is a cheap 
grade of vaseline, or in some cases lard 
oil, but in the majority of instances better 
results will be secured by the use of 
vaseline. Aluminum is probably sus- 
ceptible of deeper drawing with less 
occasion to anneal than any of the other 
commercial metals. It requires but 
one-third or one-fourth of as much an- 
nealing as brass or copper. For in- 
stance, an article which is now manu- 
factured in brass, requiring, say, three or 
four operations before the article is fin- 
ished, would probably have to be an- 
nealed after every operation. With 
aluminum, however, if the proper grade 
is used, it is generally possible to perform 
these three operations without annealing 
the metal at all, and at the same time to 
produce a finished article which, to all 
intents and purposes, is as stiff as an 
article made of sneet brass. 

Too much stress cannot be laid on the 
fact of starting with the proper grade of 
metal, for either through ignorance or 
by not observing this point Is the founda- 
tion of the majority of the complaints 
that aluminum "has been tried andfound 
wanting." If, however, it should be 
found necessary to anneal aluminum, 
this can be readily accomplished by 
heating it in an ordinary muffle, being 
careful that the temperature shall not 
be too high— about 650° or 700° F. The 
best test as to when the metal has 
reached the proper temperature is to take 
a soft pine stick and draWi-it- across ithe 
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84 



ALUMINUM AND 11^ TREATMENT 



metal. If it chars the stick and leaves 
a black mark on the metal, it is suffi- 
ciently annealed and is in a proper con- 
dition to proceed with further opera- 
tion. 

Next taking up the question of spin- 
ning aluminum, success again depends 
particularly on starting with the proper 
metal. The most satisfactory speed 
for articles from 5 to 8 inches m diam- 
eter is about 2,600 revolutions a minute, 
and for larger or smaller diameters the 
speed should be so regulated as to give 
tne same velocity at the circumference. 
Aluminum is a very easy metal to spin 
and no difficulty should be found at all 
in spinning the proper grades of sheets. 
Several factories tnat are using large 
quantities of aluminum now, both for 
spinning and stamping, are paying their 
men by the piece tne same amount that 
thev formerly paid on brass and tin work, 
and it is stated that the men working on 
this basis make anywhere from 10 to 
20 per cent more wages by working alu- 
minum. 

After aluminum has been manufac- 
tured into the shape of an article, the next 
process is the finishing of it. The best 
polish can be obtained by first cutting 
down the metal with an ordinary ra^ bun 
on which use tripoli, and then finish it 
with a dry red rouge which comes in the 
lump form, or that which is known as 
"White Diamond Rouge." One point, 
however, that it is necessary to observe 
carefully is that both the tripoli and the 
rouge should be procured ground as fine 
as it is possible to grind them; for, if this 
is not done, the metal will have little fine 
scratches all over it, and will not appear 
as bright and as handsome as it other- 
wise would. 

If it is desired to put on a frosted ap- 
pearance, this can either be done by 
scratch brushing or sand blasting. A 
brass wire scratch brush, made of 
crimped wire of No. 32 to No. 36 B. & 
S. gage, with three or four rows of bris- 
tles, will probably give the best results. 
This work of scratch brushing can be 
somewhat lessened, however, if, before 
applying the scratch brush to the surface 
or the aluminum, the article is^ first cut 
down by the use of a porpoise-hide wheel 
and fine Connecticut sand, placing the 
sand between the surface of the alumi- 
num and the wheel, so that the skin and 
the irregularities on the surface are re- 
moved, and then putting the article on 
a buffing wheel before attempting to 
scratch brush it. This method, how* 
ever, is probably more advantageous in 
the treating of aluminum castings than 



for articles manufactured out of the sheet 
metal, as in the majority of cases it is 
simply necessary before scratch brushing 
to cut down the article with tripoli, and 
then polish it with rouge as already de- 
scribed, before putting on the scratch 
brush; in this way the brush seems to 
take hold quicker and better, and to pro- 
duce a more uniform polish. 

An effect similar to the scratch-brush 
finish can be got by sand blasting, and 
by first sand blasting and then scratch 
brushing the sheets, a good finish is ob- 
tained with very much less labor than by 
scratch brushing alone. Another very 
pretty frosted effect is procured by first 
sand blasting and then treated as here- 
inafter described by "dipping" and 
"frosting," and many variations in the 
finish of aluminum can be got by varying 
the treatment, either by cutting down 
with tripoli and polishing, scratch brush- 
ing, sand blasting, dipping, and frosting, 
and by combinations of those treatments. 
A very pretty mottled effect is secured on 
aluminum by first polishing and then 
scratch brushing and then nolding the 
aluminum against a soft pine wheel, run 
at a high rate of speed on a lathe, and by 
careful manipulation, quite regular forms 
of a mottled appearance can be obtained. 

The dipping and frosting of aluminum 
sheet is probably the cheapest way of 
producing a nice finish. First remove 
all grease and dirt from the article by 
dipping in benzine, then dip into water 
in order that the benzine adhering to 
the article may be removed, so as not to 
affect the strength of the solution into 
which it is next dipped. After they have 
been taken out of the water and well 
shaken, the articles should be plunged in 
a strong solution of caustic soaa or caus- 
tic potash, and left there a sufficient 
length of time until the aluminum starts 
to turn black. Then they should be 
removed, dipped in water again, and then 
into a solution of concentrated nitric 
and sulphuric acid, composed of 24 parts 
of nitric acid to 1 part of sulphuric acid. 
After being removed, the article should 
be washed thoroughly in water and dried 
in hot sawdust in the usual way. This 
finish can also be varied somewhat by 
making the solution of caustic soda of 
varying degrees of strength, or by adding 
a small amount of common salt to the 
solution. 

In burnishing the metal use a blood- 
stone or a steel burnisher. In burnish- 
ing use a mixture of melted vaseline and 
coal oil, or a solution composed of 2 
tables poonfuls of ground borax dissolved 
in about a quart of hot wa^^^jth a few 
Digitized by* ^' 



AMALGAMS 



85 



drops of ammonia added. In engrav- 
ing, which adds materially to the ap- 
pearance of finished castings, book cov- 
ers, picture frames, and similar articles 
made of sheet, probably the best lubri- 
cant to use on an engraver's tool in order 
to obtain a clean cut, which is bright, is 
naphtha or coal oil, or a mixture of coal 
oil and vaseline. The naphtha, how- 
ever, is preferred, owing to the fact that 
it does not destroy the satin finish in the 
neighborhood of the cut, as the other 
lubricants are very apt to do. There is, 
however, as much skill required in using 
and making a tool in order to give a 
bright, clean cut as there is in the choice 
of the lubricant to be used. The tool 
should be made somewhat on the same 

?ian as the lathe tools already outlined, 
'hat is, they should be brought to a 
sharp point and be "cut back * rather 
far, so as to give plenty of clearance. 

There has been one class of work in 
aluminum that has been developed 
lately and only to a certain extent, in 
which there are great possibilities, and 
that is in drop forging tne metal. Some 
very superior bicycle parts have been 
manufactured by drop forging. This can 
be accomplished proDably more readily 
with aluminum than with other metals, 
for the reason that it is not necessary 
with all the alloys to work them hot; 
consequently, they can be worked and 
handled more rapidly. 

ALITMINnM^ TO CLEAN: 

See Cleamng Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

ALUMINUM ALLOYS: 
See Alloys. 

ALUMINUM BRONZE: 
Sec Alloys under Bronzes. 

ALUMINUM CASTINGS: 
See Casting. 

ALUMINUM PAPER : 
See Paper. 

ALUMINUM PLATING: 
See Plating. 

ALUMINUM POLISHES: 
See Polishes. 



Amalgams 

See also Easily Fusible Alloys under 
Alloys. 

The name amalfjam is given to al- 
loys of metals containing mercury. The 
term comes to us from the alchemists. 
It signifies softening, because an excess 



of mercury dissolves a large number of 
metals. 

Preparation of Amalgams. ~ Mercury 
forms amalgams with most metals. It 
unites directly and readily, either cold or 
hot, with potassium, sodium, barium, 
strontium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, 
cadmium, tin, antimony, lead, bismuth, 
silver, and gold; directly, but more dif- 
ficultly, with aluminum, copper, and 
pallacfium. This combination takes 
place oftenest at the ordinary temper- 
ature; certain metals, however, like 
aluminum and antimony, combine only 
when heated in presence of quicksilver. 

Quicksilver has no direct action on 
metals of high fusing points: manganese, 
iron, nickel, cobalt, uranium, platinum, 
and their congeners. Still, amalgams 
of these metals can be obtained cf buty- 
rous consistency, either by electrolysis of 
their saline solutions, employing quick- 
silver as the negative electrode, or by the 
action of an alkaline amalgam (potas- 
sium or sodium), on their concentrated 
and neutral saline solutions. These 
same refractory metals are also amalga- 
mated superficially when immersed in 
the amalgam of sodium or of ammonium 
in presence of water. 

Processes for preparing amalgams by 
double decomposition between an alkaline 
amalf^am and a metallic salt, or by elec- 
trolysis of saline solutions, with employ- 
ment of mercury as the negative elec- 
trode, apply a fortiori to metals capable 
of combining directly with the quick- 
silver. The latter of these methods is 
especially utilized for the preparation of 
alkaline earthy metals by electrolytic 
decomposition of the solutions of their 
salts or hydrated oxides with quicksilver 
as a cathode. 

General Properties of Amalgams. — 
Amalgams are liquid when the quick- 
silver is in great excess; solid, but readily 
fusible, when the alloyed metal pre- 
dominates. 

They have a metallic luster, and a 
metallic structure which renders them 
brittle. They even form crystallized 
metallic combinations of constant propor- 
tions, dissolved in an excess of quick- 
silver, when the excess is separated by 
compression in a chamois skin, or by 
filtration in a glass funnel of slender 
stem, terminating with an orifice almost 
capillary. 

According as the fusing heat of a metal 
is less or greater than its combination 
heat with quicksilver, the amalgamation 
of this metal produces an elevation or a 
lowering of temp>erature. Thus potas- 



86 



AMALGAMS 



sium, sodium, and cadmium, in alloy 
with quicksilver, disengage heat; while 
xinc, antimony, tin, bismuth, lead, and 
silver combine with mercury with ab- 
sorption of heat. The amalgamation of 
162 parts of quicksilver with 21 parts of 
lead, 12 parts of tin or of antimony, and 
28.5 parts of bismuth, lowers the tem- 
perature of the mixture 79° F. 

Amalgams formed with disengage- 
ment of heat are electro-negative with 
reference to the metals alloyed with the 
quicksilver. The products with absorp- 
tion of heat are electro-necative with ref- 
erence to the metals comoined with the 
quicksilver; consequently, in a battery 
of elements of pure cadmium and amal- 
gamated cadmium, the cadmium will be 
the negative pole; in case of zinc and 
amalgamated zinc, the zinc will be the 
positive pole. 

Heat decomposes all amalgams, va- 
porizing the mercury and leaving the 
metal alloys as a residue. 

Water is decomposed by the amal- 
gams of potassium and sodium, because 
the heat of formation of these amalgams, 
although considerable, is even less than 
the heat disengaged by potassium and 
sodium, on decomposing water. The 
alkaline amalgams may, therefore, serve 
as a source of nascent hydrogen in pres- 
ence of water, giving rise to an action 
less energetic, and often more advan- 
tageous, than that of the alkaline metals 
alone. Thus is caused the frequent em- 
ployment of sodium amalgam tor hydro- 
genizing a large number of bodies. As 
a consequence of their action on water, 
the alkaline amalgams are changed by 
moist air, with production of free alkali 
or alkaline carbonate. 

Applications of Potassium Amalgams. 
— I. — They furnish a process for prepar- 
ing potassium by the decomposition of 
potash by the electric current, by em- 
ploying quicksilver as^ the cathode, and 
vaporizing the quicksilver of the amal- 
gam formed by neating this in a current 
of dry hydrogen. 

II. — They can serve for the prepara- 
tion of the amalgams of the metids, other 
than those of the alkaline group, by de- 
composing the salts of these metals, with 
formation of a salt of potash and of the 
amalgam of the metal corresponding to 
the original salt. 

III. — They can be employed as a 
source of nascent hydrogen in presence 
of water for hydrogcnizmg many sub- 
stances. 

Applications of Sodium Amalgams. — 
These arc nearly the same as those of the 



potassium amalgams, but the sodium 
amalgams are employed almost exclu- 
sively, because sodium is easier to handle 
than potassium, and is cheaper. These 
employments are the following: 

I. — Sodium amalgam furnishes a proc- 
ess for the preparation of sodium when 
soda is decomposed by means of the 
electric current, employing quicksilver 
as the cathode, and afterwards vaporizing 
the quicksilver of the amalgam formed 
by heating this in a current of dry hy- 
drogen. 

II. — Amalgams of sodium serve for 
the preparation of amalgams of the oth- 
er metals, particularly alkaline earthy 
metals and metals of high fusing points, 
by decomposing the salts of these metals, 
with formation of a salt of soda and of 
the amalgam of the metal corresponding 
to the original salt. 

III. — Tney serve for amalgamating 
superficially the metals of hign fusing 
point, called "refractory," su(3i as iron 
and platinum, when a well-cleaned plate 
of these metals is immersed in sodium 
amalgam in presence of water. 

IV. — An amalgam of 2 or 3 per cent of 
sodium is employed in the processes of 
extraction of gold by amalgamation. It 
has the property of rendering quick- 
silver more brilliant, and consequently 
more energetic, by acting as a deoxidant 
on the pellicle of oxide formed on its 
surface in presence of certain ores, 
which, by keeping it separated from the 

g articles of gold, destroy its activity, 
odium amalgam of 3 per cent is utilized 
with success for the amalgamated plates 
employed in crushers and other appa- 
ratus for treating the ores of gold. If a 
few drops of this amalgam are spread 
on a plate of copper, of tin, or of zinc, a 
brilliant coating of an amalgam of tin, 
copper, or zinc is immediately formed. 

V. — Amalgams of from 2 to 8 per cent 
of sodium serve frequently in laborato- 
ries for reducing or hydrogenizing or- 
ganic combinations, ^without running 
the risk of a partial destruction of these 
compounds by too intense action, as 
may occur by employing free sodium 
instead of its amalgam. 

Applications of Barium Amalgams. — 
These can, by distillation, furnish bari- 
um. It is one of the processes for pre- 
paring this metal, which, when thus ob- 
tained, almost always retains a little 
sodium. 

Applications of Strontium Amalgams. 
— These amalgams, washed and dried 
rapidly immediately after their prepara- 
tion, and then heated to a nascent red 



AMALGAMS 



87 



in a current of dr^ hydrogen, yield a 
fused mass of strontium. 

Apolicatioiis of Cadmium Amalgams. — 
Amalgams of cadmium, formed of equal 
weights of cadmium and quicksilver, 
have much power of cohesion and are 
quite malleable; the case is the same with 
an amalgam formed of 1 part of cad- 
mium and 2 parts of quicksilver. They 
are used as dental cements for plugging 
teeth; for the same (>urpose an amalgam 
of 2 parts of quicksilver, 1 Dart of cad- 
mium, and 2 parts of tin may oe used. 

AppHcations of Zinc Amalgams. — The 
principal employment of zinc amalgams 
IS their use as a cathode or negative elec- 
trode in the batteries of Munson, Dan- 
iels, and Lechanche. This combination 
is designed to render the zinc non-attack- 
able by the exciting liquid of the battery 
with open circuit. The action of the 
mercury is to prevent the zinc from form- 
ing a large number of small voltaic ele- 
ments when foreign bodies are mingled 
with the metal; in a word, the giving to 
ordinary zinc the properties of pure zinc, 
and consequently of causing a great sav- 
ing in expense. 

For amalgamating a zinc plate it is 
pluneed for a few seconds into water in 
whicn there is one-sixteenth in volume 
of sulphuric add, then rubbing with 
a copper-wire brush which has been 
dipped in the quicksilver. The mercury 
takes more readily on the zinc when, 
after the zinc has been cleaned with 
water sharpened with sulphuric acid, 
it is moistened with a solution of corro- 
sive sublimate, which is reduced and 
furnishes a first very thin coat of amal- 
gam, on which the quicksilver is im- 
mediately fixed by simple immersion 
without rubbing. 

The zinc of a battery may be amalga- 
mated by putting at the bottom of the 
compartment containing each element, 
a little quicksilver in such a way that the 
zinc touches the liquid. The amalga- 
mation is effected under the influence of 
the current, but this process applies only 
on condition that the zinc alone touches 
the bottom of the vessel containing the 
quicksflver. 

Applications of Manganese Amalgams. 
— These may serve for the preparation 
of manganese. For this purpose it is 
sufficient to distill in a current of pure 
hydrogen. The manganese remains in 
the form of a grayish powder. 

Applications of Tin Amalgams. — I. — 
Tinning of glass. This operation is 
accom^ished in the following manner: 



On a cast-iron table, quite horizontal, a 
sheet of tin of the dimensions of the glass 
is spread out and covered with a layer of 
quicksilver, 5 or millimeters in thick- 
ness. The glass is made to slide on the 
sheet of tin in such a way as to drive ofF 
the excess of quicksilver; when the two 
surfaces are covered without interposi- 
tion of air, weights are placed on the 
glass. In a few days, the glass may be 
removed, having been covered with an 
adhering pellicle of amalgam of 4 parts 
of tin and 1 part of quicksilver. (See 
also Mirrors.) 

II. — An amalgam consisting of 2 parts 
of zinc and 1 part tin may be used for 
covering the cushions of frictional elec- 
tric machines. This amalgam is pre- 
pared bv first melting the zinc and tin in 
a crucible and adding the quicksilver 
previously heated. 

III. — Mention has been made of the 
cadmium amalgam employed for plug- 
ging teeth, an amalgam of 2 parts of 
quicksilver, 2 parts of tin, and 1 part of 
cadmium. For the same purpose an 
amalgam of tin, silver, and gold is em- 
ployed. (See also Cements, Dental.) 

Applications of Copper Amalgams. — 
I. — An amalgam of SO per cent of copper 
has^ been employed for filling teeth. 
This use has been abandoned on account 
of the inconvenience occasioned by the 
great changeableness of the product. 

II. — The amalgam of 30 per cent of 
copper, designated by the name of "me- 
tallic mastic," is an excellent cement for 
repairing objects and utensils of porce- 
lain. For this employment, the broken 
surfaces are heated to 662® F., and a little 
of the amalgam, previously heated to the 
consistency of melted wax, is applied. 

III. — Copper amalgam, of 80 to 45 

Eer cent of copper, rendered plastic by 
eating and grinding, may serve for ob- 
taining with slight compression copies of 
delicate obiccts, which may, after hard- 
ening of the amalgam, be reproduced, 
either in wax or by galvanic process. 

IV. — According to Dcbray, when a 
medal, obtained with an amalgam of 
45 per cent of copper, by compression in 
the soft state, in molds of gutta percha, 
is heated progressively to redness in an 
atmosphere of hydrogen, the quicksilver 
is volatilized gradually, and the particles 
of copper come together without fusion 
in such a way as to produce a faithful 
reproduction, formed exclusively of me- 
tallic copper, of the original meJal. 

V. — In the metallurgy of gold the 
crushers are furnished with amalga- 
mated plates of copper for retaining the 
gold. The preparation of these plates. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



88 



AMALGAMS 



which are at least 0.128 inches in thick- 
ness, is delicate, requiring about two 
weeks. They are freed from greasv mat- 
ter by rubbing with ashes, or, better, 
with a little sand and caustic soda, or if 
more rapid action is desired, with a cloth 
dipped in dilute nitric acid; they are 
washed with water, then with a solution 
of potassium cyanide, and finally brushed 
with a mixture of sal ammoniac and a 
little quicksilver, until the surface is 
completely amalgamated. They are 
finally made to absorb as much quick- 
silver as possible. But the plates thus 
treated are useful for only a few days 
when they are sufficiently covered with a 
layer of gold amalgam; in the meantime 
they occasion loss of time and of gold. 
So it is preferable to cover them arti- 
ficially with a little gold amalgam, which 
is prepared by dissolving gold in quick- 
silver. Sometimes the amalgam or gold 
is replaced hj an amalgam of silver, 
which is readily poured and more eco- 
nomical. 

Another method giving better results 
consists in silvering copper slabs by elec- 
troplating and covering them with a layer 
of silver. Then it is only necessary to 
apply a little quicksilver, which adheres 
quite rapidly, so that they are ready for 
use almost immediately, and are quite 
active at the outset. 

These amalgamation slabs ought to 
be cleaned before each operation. Po- 
tassium cyanide removes fatty matter, 
and sal ammoniac the oxides of the low 
metals. 

Applications of Lead Amalgams. — 
These meet with an interesting employ- 
ment for the autogenous soldering of 
lead. After the surfaces to be soldered 
have been well cleaned, a layer of lead 
amalgam is applied. It is afterwards 
sufficient to pass along the line of junc- 
tion a soldering iron heated to redness, 
in order that the heat should cause the 
volatilization of the quicksilver, and that 
the lead, liberated in a state of fine divi- 
sion, should be melted and cause the 
adherence of the two surfaces. The 
only precaution necessary is to avoid 
breathing the mercurial vapor, which is 
quite poisonous. 

Applications of Bismuth Amalgams. — 
The amalgam formed of 1 per cent of 
bismuth and 4 parts of quicksilver will 
cause the strong adherence of glass. It 
is employed with advantage in the tin- 
ning of glass globes. For this operation 
it is poured into a dry hot receiver, and 
then passed over the whole surface of 
the glass; it solidifies on cooling. For 



the purpose of economizing the bismuth, 
the price of which is high, the preceding 
amalgam is replaced by anotner com- 

gosed of 2 parts of quicksilver, 1 part of 
ismuth, 1 part of lead, and 1 part of tin. 
The bismuth, broken into small frag- 
ments, is added to the tin and lead, pre- 
viously melted in the crucible, and wnen 
the mixture of the three metals becomes 
fluid, the (quicksilver is poured in, while 
stirring with an iron rod. The impuri- 
ties floating on the surface are removed, 
and when the temperature is sufficiently 
lowered this amalgam is slbwly poured 
into the vessels to be tinned, whicn have 
been previously well cleaned and slightly 
heated. M. Ditte recommends for the 
same employment, as a very strong ad- 
herent to the glass, an amalgam obtained 
by dissolving not 2 parts of bismuth and 
1 part of lead in a solution of 1 part of 
tin in 10 parts of quicksilver. By caus- 
ing a quantity of tliis amalgam to move 
around the inside of a receiver, clean, 
dry, and slightly heated, the surface will 
be covered with a thin, brilliant layer, 
which hardens quite rapidly. 

For the injection of anatomical pieces 
an amalgam formed of 10 parts of quic.c- 
silver, 50 parts of bismutn, 31 parts of 
lead, and 18 parts of tin, fusible at 77.5** 
and solidifiable at 60° C, is made use of; 
or, again, an amalgam composed of 9 
parts of Darcet alloy and 1 part of quick- 
silver fusible at 127i® F., and pasty at a 
still lower temperature. This last amal- 
gam may also be used for filling carious 
teeth. The Darcet alloy, as known, con- 
tains 2 parts of bismutn, 1 part of lead, 
and 1 part of tin, and melts at 199i** F. 
The addition of 1 part of quicksilver 
lowers the fusing point to 104° F. 

Anplications of Silver Amalgams. — I . — 
In the silvering of mirrors by the Petit- 
jean method, which has almost univer- 
sally replaced tinning, the property of 
silver in readily amalgamating is taken 
advantage of, by substituting the glass 
after silvering to the action of a dilute 
solution of ^ double cyanide of mercury 
and potassium in such a manner as to 
form an amalgam of white and brilliant 
silver adhering strongly to the glass. To 
facilitate the operation and utilize all the 
silver, while economizing the double cya- 
nide, M. Lenoir has recommended the 
following: Sprinkle the glass at the time 
when it is covered with the mercurial 
solution with very fine zinc powder, 
which precipitates the quicksilver and 
regulates the amalgamation. 

11. — The metallurgy of silver also 
takes advantage of the property of this 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



AMALGAMS 



89 



metal in combining cold with quicksil- 
ver; this for the treatment of poor silver 
ores. 

In the Saxon or Freiburg process for 
treating silver ores, recourse is had to 
quicksilver in the case of amalsam in 
amalgamating casks, in which tne ore, 
after grinding, is shaken with disks of 
iron, and with mercury and water. The 
amalgam, collected and filtered under 
strong pressure, contains from SO to 33 
per cent of silver. It is distilled either 
in cylindrical retorts of cast iron, fur- 
nished with an exit tube immersed in 
the water for condensing the mercurial 
vapors, or on plates of iron, arranged 
over each other along a vertical iron 
stem, supported bv a tripod at the bot- 
tom of a tank filled with water, and 
covered with an iron receiver, which is 
itself surrounded with ignited charcoal. 
It should be remarked that the last por- 
tions of Quicksilver in a silver amalgam 
submitted to distillation are voiaiiiized 
only under the action of a high and pro- 
longed temperature. 

Applications of Gold Amalgams. — I. — 
Gilding with quicksilver. This process 
of gilding, much employed formerly, is 
now but little used. It can be applied 
only to metals slightly fusible and capa- 
ble of amalgamation, like silver, copper, 
bronze, and brass. Iron can also be 
gilded by this method, provided it is 
previously covered with a coating of 
copper. To perform this gilding the 
surface is well cleaned, and the gold 
amalgam, consisting of 2 parts of gold 
and 1 part of quicksilver, prepared as 
mentioned before, is applied. The piece 
is afterwards heated to about the red, so 
as to volatilize the mercury. The gold 
remains, superficially alloyed with the 
metal, and forms an extremely solid 
layer of deadened gold, which can be 
afterwards ]>olished. The volatilization 
should be effected under a chimney hav- 
ing strong draught, in order to avoid the 
poisonous action of the mercurial vapors. 

II. — The amalgamation of gold finds 
its principal applications in the treatment 
of auriferous ores. The extraction of 
small spangles of gold scattered in gold- 
bearing sands is oased on the ready 
dissolution of gold in quicksilver, and 
on the formation of an amalgam of solid 
gold by compression and filtering through 
a chamois skin, in a state more or less 
li<}uid. The spangles of gold are shaken 
with about their weight of Quicksilver, 
collected in the cavities of sluices and 
mixed with a small quantity of sand. 
The gold is dissolved and the sand re- 



mains. The amalgam thus obtained is 
compressed in a chamois skin, so as to 
separate the excess of mercury which 
passes through the pores of the skin; or, 
vet again, it is filtered through a glass 
funnel having a very slender stem, with 
almost capillary termination. In both 
cases an amalgam of solid gold remains, 
which is .submitted to the action of heat 
in a crucible or cast-iron retort, com- 
municating with a bent-iron tube, of 
which the extremity, surrounded with a 
cloth immersed in water, is arranged 
above a receiver half full of water. The 
(juicksilver is vaporized and conden.sed 
in the water. Tne gold remains in the 
retort. 

The property of gold of combining 
readily witn Quicksilver is also used in 
many kinds ot amalgamating apparatus 
for extraction and in the metallurgy of 
gold. 

In various operations it is essential 
to keep the quicksilver active by preserv- 
ing its limpidity. For this purpose 
potassium cyanide and ammonium 
chloride are especially employed; some- 
times wood ashes, carbonate of soda, 
hyposulphite of soda, nitrate of potash, 
cupric sulphate, sea salt, and lime; the 
latter for precipitating the soluble sul- 
phates proceeding from the decomposi* 
tion of pyrites. 

The amalgamation of gold is favored 
by a temperature of 38® to 45° C. (100° 
to 113° F.). and still more by the em- 
ployment of quicksilver in the nascent 
state. This last propertv is the base of 
the pesignol process, which consists in 
treating auriferous or auro-argentiferous 
ores, first ground with sea salt, in revolv- 
ing cylinders of cast iron, with iron and 
mercury bichloride, in such a way that 
the mercury precipitated collects the gold 
and eventually tne silver more emca 
ciously. 

Gold Amalgam. — Eight parts of gold 
and 1 of mercury^ are formed into an 
amalgam for plating by rendering the 
gold into thin plates, making it red hot, 
and then putting it into the mercury while 
the latter is also heated to ebullition. 
The gold immediately disappears in 
combination with the mercury, after 
which the mixture may be turned into 
water to cool. It is then ready for use. 

Zinc Amalgam for Electric Batteries. 
— Dissolve 2 parts of mercury in 1 part 
of aqua regia. This accomplished, add 
5 parts of hydrochloric acid. This solu- 
tion is made warm. It suffices to dip 
the zinc to be amalgamated into this 
liquid only for a few seconds. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



90 



AMALGAMS— AMBER 



Amalgam for Cementing Glass, Por- 
celain, Etc. — Take tin 2 parts, and cad- 
mium 1 part. Fuse in an iron spoon 
or some vessel of the same material. 
When the two materials are in fusion add 
a little mercury, previously heated. Place 
all in an iron crucible and boil, agitating 
the mass with a pestle. This amalgam 
is soft and can be kneaded between the 
fingers. It ma^r be employed for luting 
glass or porcelain vessels, as well as for 
filling teeth. It hardens in a short while. 

Amalgam for Silvering Glass Balls. — 
Lead, 25 parts; tin, 25 parts; bismuth, 
25 parts; mercury, 25 parts; or, lead, 20 
parts; tin, 20 parts; bismuth, 20 parts; 
mercury, 40 parts. Melt the leaa and 
the tin, then add the bismuth; skim sev- 
eral tiroes and add the mercury, stirring 
the composition vigorously. 

(See also Mirror-Silvering). 

Copper Amalgam. — Copper amalgam, 
or so-called Viennese metal cement, crys- 
tallizes with the greatest readiness and 
acquires such hardness on solidifying 
that it can be polished like gold. The 
amalgam may also be worked under the 
hammer or between rollers; it can also 
be stamped, and retains its metallic luster 
for a long time in the air. In air con- 
taining hydroffen sulphide, however, it 
quickly tarnisnes and turns black. A 
very special property of copper amalgam 
consists in that it becomes very soft when 
laid in water, and attains such pliancy 
that it can be employed for modeling the 
most delicate objects. After a few 
hours the amalgam congeals again into 
a very fine-|frained, rather malleable 
mass. An important application of 
capper amalgam is that tor cementing 
metals. ^ All that is necessary for this 
purpose is to heat the metals, which must 
be bright, to 80-90*' C. (176-194** F.), to 
apply the amalgam and to press the metal 

gieces together. They will cohere as 
rmly as though soldered together. 
Copper amalgam may be prepared in 
the following manner: 

Place strips of zinc in a solution of blue 
vitriol and agitate the solution thor- 
oughly. The copper thus obtained in 
the form of a very fine powder is washed 
and, while still moist, treated in a mor- 
tar with a solution of mercury nitrate. 
The copper powder thereby amalga- 
mates more readily with the quicksilver. 
Next, hot water is poured over the cop- 
per, the mortar is kept hot, and the mer- 
cury added. Kneaa with the pestle of 
the mortar until the copper, pulverulent 
in the beginning, has united with the 
mercury into a very plastic mass. The 



longer the kneading is continued the 
more uniform will be the mass. As soon 
as the amalgam has acouired the suitable 
character— 3or its production 8 parts of 
copper and 7 parts of mercury are used 
— the water is poured off and the amal- 
gam still soft is given the shape in which 
it is to be kept. 

For cementing purposes, the amalgam 
is rolled out into small cylinders, whose 
diameter is about 0.16 to 0.2 inches, with 
a length of a few indies. In order to 
produce with this amalgam impressions 
of castings, which are made after wood- 
cuts, the amalgam is rolled out hot 
into a thin plate and pressed firmly 
onto the likewise heated plaster cast. 
After the amalgam has hardened the 
thin plate of it may be reinforced by 
pouring on molten type metal. 

Silver Amalgam. — Silver amalgam can 
easily be made with the help of finely 
powdered silver. The mercury need 
only be heated to 250« to S00*» C. (482*» 
to 572® F.); silver powder is then sprin- 
kled on it, and mixed with it by stirring. 
The vessel is heated for several minutes 
and then allowed to cool, the excess of 
mercury being removed from the granu- 
lated crystalline amalgam by pressing in 
a leather bag. Silver amalgam can also 
easily be made by dissolving silver in 
nitric acid, evaporating the solution till 
the excess of free acid is eliminated, di- 
luting with distilled^ water, and adding 
mercury to the fluid in the proportion of 
4 parts, by weight, of mercury to 1 of the 
silver originally _ used. The mercury 
precipitates the silver in a metallic state, 
and immediately forms an amalgam with 
it; the fluid standing above after a time 
contains no more silver, but consists of 
a solution of mercury nitrate mixed with 
whatever copper was contained in the 
dissolved silver in the form of copper 
nitrate. The absence of a white pre- 
cipitate, if a few drops of hydrochloric 
acid are added to a sample of the fluid 
in a test tube, shows that all the silver 
has been eliminated from the solution 
and is present in the form of amalgam. 

Amalgam for the Rubber of Electric 
Machines. — Mercury, lOOparts; zinc, 50 
parts; tin, 50 parts. Tnis amalgam 
reduced to powder and incorporated 
with grease can be applied to the rubber 
of electric machines. 
AMALGAM GOLD PLATING: 

See Gilding under Plating. 
AMBER: 

Imitation Amber. — Melt carefully to- 
gether pine rosin, 1; lacca in tabuhs, 2; 
white colophony, 15 parts. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



AMBER CEMENT— ANILINE STAINS 



91 



AMBER CEMENT: 

See Adhesives under Cements. 

AMBER VARinSH: 

See Varnishes. 

AMBROSIA POWDER: 

See Salts (Effervescent). 

AMIDOL DEVELOPER: 

See Photography. 

AMETHYST aMTATION): 
See Gems, Artificial. 

AMMON-CARBONITE : 
See Explosives. 



Ammonia 

Honseliold Ammonia. — (See alsoHouse- 
hM Formulas.) — Household ammonia is 
simply diluted ammonia water to which 
l>orax and soap have been added. To 
make it cloudy add potassium nitrate 
or methylated spirit. The following are 
good formulas: 

I. — Ammonia water .... 16 parts 

Yellow soap 64 parts 

Potassium nitrate... 1 part 
Soft water, sufficient 

to make 200 parts 

Shave up the soap and dissolve it in 
the water by heating, add the potassium 
nitrate and dissolve. Cool, strain, skim 
off any suds or bubbles, add the am- 
monia, mix, and bottle at once. 

II. — Yellow soap 10 grains 

Borax 1 drachm 

Lavender water. ... 20 minims 
Stronger ammonia 

water 6 ounces 

Water, enough to 

make 20 ounces 

Dissolve the soap and borax in 5 
ounces of boiling water; when cold add 
the lavender water and ammonia, and 
make up to a pint with water. 
III. — Methylated spirit. .. 1 gallon 

Soft water 1 gallon 

Stronger ammonia 

water 1 gallon 

IV. — Ammonia water. ... 5 pints 

Distilled water 5 pints 

Soap 100 grains 

Olive oil 5 drachms 

Cut the soap in shavings, boil with the 
oil and water, cool, add the ammonia 
water, and bottle. For use in laundries, 
baths, and for general household pur- 
poses add one tablespoonful to one 
gallon of water. 



v.— The best quality: 

Alcohol, 94 pMcr cent . . 4 ounces 

Soft water 4 gallons 

Oil of rosemary 4 drachms 

Oil of citronella 8 drachma 

I Dissolve the oils in the alcohol and 
add to the water. To the mixture add 
4 ounces of talc (or fuller's earth will 
answer), mix thoroughly, strain through 
canvas, and to the colate add 1, 2, or S 
gallons of ammonia water, according to 
the strength desired, in which has Men 
dissolved 1, 2, or 3 ounces of white *curd, 
or soft soap. 

Liauor Ammonii Anlsatiu. — 

Oil of anise, by weight 1 part 

Alcohol, by weight 24 parts 

Water of ammonia, by weight. . 5 parts 

Dissolve the oil in the alcohol and add 
the water of ammonia. 

It should be a clear, yellowish liquid. 

Violet Color for Ammonia, — A purple- 
blue color may be given to ammonia 
water by adding an aqueous solution 
of litmus. The shade, when pale 
enough, will probably meet all views as 
to a violet color. 

Perfumed Ammonia Water. — The 
following are typical formulas: 

I. — Stronger water of am- 
monia 6 ounces 

Lavender water 1 ounce 

Soft soap 10 grains 

Water, enough to 

make 16 ounces 

II. — Soft soap 1 ounce 

Borax 2 drachms 

Cologne water ) ounce 

Stronger water of am- 
monia 5) ounces 

Water, enough to 

make 12 ounces 

Rub up the soap and borax with water 
until dissolved, strain and add the other 
ingredients. The perfumes may be 
varied to suit the price. 

AMMONIA FOR FIXING PRINTS: 

See Photography. 

ANGOSTURA BITTERS: 

See Wines and Liquors. 

ANILINE: 
See Dyes. 

ANILINE IN PIGBfENTS, TESTS FOR: 

See Pigments. 

ANILINE STAINS, TO REMOVE: 
See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



9S 



ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS 



ANISE CORDIAL: 

See Wines and Liquors. 

ANKARA: 

See Butter. 

ANNEALING OF STEEL, TOOLS, WIRE, 
AND SPRINGS: 

See Steel. 

ANODYNES : 

See Pain Killers. 

ANi DESTROYERS: 

Se*e Insecticides. 



Antidotes for Poisons 

POISON, SYMPTOMS AND ANTI- 
DOTES. 

When a person has taken poison the 
first thing to do is to compel the patient 
to vomit, and for that purpose give any 
emetic that can be most readily and 
quickly obtained, and which is prompt 
and energetic, but safe in its action. 
For this purpose there is, perhaps, 
nothing better than a large teaspoonful 
of ground mustard in a tumblerful of 
warm water, and it has the advantage of 
being almost always at hand. If the dry 
mustard is not to be had use mixed 
mustard from the mustard pot. Its 
operation may generally be facilitated 
by the addition of a like quantity of 
common table salt. If the mustard is 
not at hand, give two or three teaspoon- 
fuls of powdered alum in syrup or 
molasses, and give freely of warm water 
to drink; or give 10 to 20 grains of sul- 
phate of zinc (white vitriol), or 20 to 30 
grains of ipecac, with 1 or 2 grains of 
tartar emetic, in a large cup of warm 
water, and repeat every ten minutes until 
three or four doses are given, unless 
free vomiting is sooner produced. After 
vomiting has taken place large draughts 
of warm water should be given, so 
that the vomiting will continue until the 
poisonous substances have been thor- 
oughly evacuated, and then suitable anti- 
dotes should be given. If vomiting can- 
not be produced the stomach pump 
should be used. When it is known what 
particular kind of poison has been swal- 
lowed, then the proper antidote for that 
poison should be given; but when this 
cannot be ascertained, as is often the 
case, give freely of equal parts of cal- 
cined magnesia, pulverized charcoal, 
and sesquioxide of iron, in a sufficient 
quantity of water. This is a very harm- 
less mixture and is likely to be of great 
benefit, as the ingredients, though very 



simple, are antidotes for the most com- 
mon and active poisons. In case this 
mixture cannot be obtained, the stomach 
should be soothed and protected by the 
free administration of demulcent, muci- 
laginous, or oleaginous drinks, such as the 
whites of eggs, milk, mucilage of gum 
arabic, or slippery-elm bark, flaxseed 
tea, starch, wneat flour, or arrowroot 
mixed in water, linseed or olive oil, or 
melted butter or lard. Subsequently 
the bowels should be moved by some 
gentle laxative, as a tablespoonful or 
two of castor oil, or a teaspoonful of cal- 
cined magnesia; and pain or other evi- 
dence of inflammation must be relieved 
by the administration of a few drops of 
laudanum, and the repeated application 
of hot poultices, fomentations, and mus- 
tard plasters. 

The following are the names of the 
substances that may give rise to poison- 
ing, most commonly used, and their anti- 
dotes: 

Mineral Acids — Sulphuric Add (Oil 
of Vitriol), Nitric Acid (Aqua Fortis), 
Muriatic Acid (Spirits of Salts). — Symp- 
toms: Acid, burning taste in the moutii, 
acute pain in the throat, stomach, and 
bowels; frequent vomiting, generally 
bloody; mouth and lips excoriated, 
shriveled, white or yellow; hiccough, 
copious stools, more or less bloody, "with 
great tenderness in the abdomen; diffi- 
cult breathing, irregular pulse, excessive 
thirst, while drink increases the pain 
and rarely remains in the stomach; fre- 
quent but vain efforts to urinate; cold 
sweats, altered countenance; convul- 
sions, generally preceding death. Nitric 
acid causes yellow stains; sulphuric 
acid, black ones. Treatment: Mix 
calcined magnesia in milk or water to the 
consistence of cream, and give freely to 
drink a glassful every couple of minutes, 
if it can be swallowed. Common soap 
(hard or soft), chalk, whiting, or even 
mortar from the wall mixed in water 
may be given, until magnesia can be ob- 
tained. Promote vomiting by tickling 
the throat, if necessary, and when the 
poison is got rid of, flaxseed or slippery- 
elm tea, gruel, or other mild drinks. 
The inflammation which always follows 
needs good treatment to save the pa- 
tient's life. 

Vegetable Acids — ^Acetic, Citric, Ox- 
alic, Tartaric. — Symptoms: Intense 
burning pain of mouth, throat, and 
stomach; vomiting blood which is highly 
acid, violent purging, collapse, stupor, 
death. 

Oxalic ac^f^^^y(r5Qy0gJe**k«» >" 



ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS 



93 



mistake for Epsom salts, to which in 
shops it often bears a strong resemblance. 
Treatment: Give chalk or magnesia in a 
large quantity of water, or large draughts 
of Timewater. If these are not at hand, 
scrape the wall or ceiling, and give the 
scrapings mixed with water. 

Pnxssic or Hydrocyanic Acid — Laurel 
Water, Cyanide of Potassium, Bitter 
Almond OU, Etc. — Symptoms: In laree 
doses almost invariably instantaneouslv 
fatal; when not immediately fatal, sud- 
den loss of sense and control of the vol- 
untary muscles. The odor of the poison 
generally noticeable on the breath. 
Treatment: Chlorine, in the form of 
chlorine water, in doses of from 1 to 4 
fiuidrachms, diluted. Weak solution 
of chloride lime of soda; water of am- 
monia (spirits of hartshorn), largely 
diluted, ma^ be given, and the vapor of it 
('autiously inhaled. Cold affusion, and 
chloroform in half to teaspoonful doses 
in glycerine or mucilage, repeated every 
few minutes, until the symptoms are 
ameliorated. Artificial respiration. 

Aconite — Monksho od, Wolfsbane. -^ 
Symptoms: Numbness and tingling in 
the mouth and throat, and afterwards in 
other portions of the body, with sore 
throat, pain over the stomach, and vom- 
iting; dimness of vision, dizziness, great 
prostration, loss of sensibility, and de- 
lirium. Treatment: An emetic and 
then brandy in tablespoonful doses, in 
ice water, every half hour ; spirits of 
ammonia in half- teaspoonful doses in 
like manner; the cold douche over the 
head and chest, warmth to the extrem- 
ities, etc. 

Alkalis and Their Salts ~ Concen- 
trated Lye, Wood-ash Lye, Caustic Pot- 
ash, Ammonia, Hartshorn. — Symptoms: 
Caustic, acrid taste, excessive heat in 
the throat, stomach, and intestines; 
vomiting of bloody matter, cold sweats, 
hiccough, purging of bloody stools. 
Treatment: The common vegetable 
acids. Common vinegar, being alwavs 
at hand, is most frequently used. The 
fixed oils, as castor, flaxseed, almond, 
and olive oils form soaps with the alka- 
lis and thus also destroy their caustic 
effect. They should be given in large 
quantity. 

Antimony and Its Preparations — ^Tar- 
tar Emetic, Antimomal Wine, Kerme's 
Mineral. — Symptoms : Faintness and 
nausea, soon followed by painful and 
continued vomiting, severe diarrhea, 
constriction and burning sensation in 
the throat, cramps, or spasmodic twitch- 



ings, with symptoms of nervous derange- 
ment, and great prostration of strength, 
often terminating in death. Treatment: 
If vomiting has not been produced, it 
should be effected by tickling the fauces, 
and administering copious draughts of 
warm water. Astringent infusions, such 
as of {^all, oak bark, Peruvian bark, act 
as antidotes, and should be given prompt- 
ly. Powdered yellow bark may be used 
until the infusion is prepared, or very 
strong green tea should oe given. To 
stop the vomiting, should it continue, 
blister over the stomach by applying a 
cloth wet with strong spirits of hartshorn, 
and then sprinkle on one-eighth to one- 
fourth of a grain of morphia. 

Arsenic and Its Preparations— Rats- 
bane, Fowler's Solution, Etc.— Symp- 
toms: Generally within an hour pain 
and heat are felt in the stomach, soon . 
followed by vomiting, with a burning 
dryness of the throat and great thirst; 
the matters vomited are generally colored 
either green yellow, or brown, and are 
sometimes bloody. Diarrhea or dys- 
entery ensues,^ while the pulse becomes 
small and rapid, yet irregular. Breath- 
ing much oppressed; difficulty in vom- 
iting may occur, while cramps, convul- 
sions, or even paralysis often precede 
death, which sometimes takes place with- 
in five or six hours after arsenic has been 
taken. Treatment : Give a prompt 
emetic, and then hydrate of peroxide of 
iron (recently prepared) in tablespoon- 
ful doses every 10 or 15 minutes until the 
urgent symptoms are relieved. In the 
absence of this, or while it is being pre- 
pared, give lar^e draughts of new milk 
and raw eggs, limewater and oil, melted 
butter, magnesia in a large {quantity of 
water, or even if nothing else is at hand, 
flour and water, always,^ however, giv- 
ing an emetic the first thing, or causing 
vomiting by tickling the throat with a 
feather, etc. The inflammation of the 
stomach which follows must be treated 
by blisters, hot fomentations, muci- 
laginous drinks, and tlie like. 

Belladonna , or Deadly Nightshade. — 
Symptoms: Dryness of the mouth and 
throat, great thirst, difficulty of swal- 
lowing, nausea, dimness, confusion or 
loss of vision, great enlargement of the 
pupils, dizziness, delirium, and coma. 
Treatment: There is no known anti- 
dote. Give a prompt emetic and then 
reliance must be placed on continual 
stimulation with brandy, whisky etc., 
and to necessary artificial respiration. 
Opium and its preparations, as morphia, 
laudanum, etc., are thought by som^^^ 



94 



ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS 



counteract the effect of belladonna, and 
may be given in small and repeated doses, 
.as also strong black coffee and green tea. 

Blue Vitriol, or Blue Stone. — See Cop- 
per. 

Cantharides (Spanish or Blistering 
Fly) and Modem Potato Bug.— Symp- 
toms: Sickening odor of tbe breatn, 
sour taste, with burning heat in the 
throat, stomach, and bowels; frequent 
vomiting, often bloody; copious bloodv 
stools, great pain in the stomach, with 
burning sensation in the bladder and 
difficulty to urinate followed w^ith ter- 
rible convulsions, delirium, and death. 
Treatment: Excite vomiting by drinking 
plentifully of sweet oil or other whole- 
some oils, sugar and water, milk, or 
slippery-elm tea; give injections of castor 
oil and starch, or warm milk. The in- 
flammatory svmptoms which generally 
follow must be treated by a physician. 
Camphorated oil or camphorated spirits 
should be rubbed over the bowels, stom- 
ach, and thighs. 

Caustic Potash. — See Alkalis under this 
title. 

Cobalt, or Fly Powder. — Symptoms: 
Heat ana pain in the throat and stomach, 
violent retching and vomiting, cold and 
clammv skin, small and feeble pulse, 
hurriedf and difficult breathing,^ diar- 
rhea, etc. Treatment: An emetic, fol- 
lowed by the free administration of milk, 
eggs, wheat flour and water, and muci- 
laginous drinks. 

Copper — ^Blue Vitriol, Verdigris or 
Pickles or Food Cooked in Copper Ves- 
sels. — Symptoms: General inflamma- 
tion of the alinientary canal, suppres- 
sion of urine; hiccough, a disagreeable 
metallic taste, vomiting, violent colic, 
excessive thirst, sense of tightness of the 
throat, anxiety; faintness, giddiness, 
and cramps and convulsions generally 
precede death. Treatment : Large 
doses of simple syrup as warm as can oe 
swallowed, until the stomach rejects the 
amount it contains. The whites of eggs 
and large quantities of milk. Hydrated 
peroxide of iron. 

Creosote — Carbolic Acid. — Symptoms: 
Burning pain, acrid, pungent taste, 
thirst, vomitinp[, purging, etc. Treat- 
ment: An emetic and the free adminis- 
tration of albumen, as the whites of eggs, 
or, in the absence of these, milk, or flour 
and water. 

Corrosive Sublimate. — See Mercury 
under this title. 



Deadly Nightshade. — See Belladonna 
under this title. 

Foxglove, or Digitalis.— Symptoms: 
Loss of strength, feeble, fluttering puLsc, 
faintness, nausea and vomiting and stu- 
por ; cold perspiration, dilated pupils, 
sighing, irregular breathing, and some- 
times convulsions. Treatment: After 
vomiting, give brandy and ammonia in 
freciuently repeated doses, apply warmth 
to the extremities, and if necessary resort 
to artificial respiration^ 

Gases — Carbonic Acid, Chlorine, Cy- 
anogen, Hydrosulphuric Acid, Etc. — 
Symptoms: Great drowsiness, difficult 
respiration, features swollen, face blue 
as m strangulation. Treatment: Arti- 
ficial respiration, cold douche, friction 
with stimulating substances to the sur- 
face of the body. Inhalation of steam 
containing preparations of ammonia. 
Cupping from nape of neck. Internal 
use of chloroform. 

Hellebore, or Indian Poke. — Symp- 
toms: Violent vomiting and purging, 
bloody stools, great anxiety, tremors, 
vertigo, fainting, sinking of the pulse, 
cold sweats, and convulsions. Treat- 
ment: Excite speedy vomiting by large 
draughts of warm water, molasses and 
water, tickling the throat with the finger 
or a feather, and emetics; give oily and 
mucilaginous drinks, oily purgatives, 
and clysters, acids, strong coffee, cam- 
phor, and opium. 

Hemlock (Conium). — Symptoms: Dry- 
ness of the throat, tremors, dizziness, 
difficulty of swallowing, prostration, and 
faintness, limbs powerless or paralyzed, 
pupils dilated, pulse rapid and feeble: 
insensibility and convulsions sometimes 
precede death. Treatment: Empty the 
stomach and give brandy in tablespoon- 
ful doses, with half teaspoonful of spirits 
of ammonia, frequently repeated, and 
if much pain and vomiting, g[ive bro- 
mide of ammonium in 5-grain doses 
every half hour. Artificial respiration 
may be required. 

Henbane, or H3roscyamtis. —Symp- 
toms: Muscular twitching, inability to 
articulate plainly, dimness of vision and 
stupor; later, vomiting and pur^ng, 
small intermittent pulse, convulsive 
movement of the extremities, and coma. 
Treatment: Similar to opium poison- 
ing, which see. 

Iodine. — Symptoms: Burning pain in 
throat, lacerating pain in the stomach, 
fruitless effort to vomit, excessive ten- 
derness of the epigastriusK\QT^atmcnt: 



ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS 



95 



Free emesis, prompt administration of 
starch, wheat nour, or arrowroot, beaten 
up in w^ater. 

Lead — ^Acetate of Lead, Sugar of Lead, 
Dry White Lead, Red Lead, Litharge, or 
Pickles, Wine, or Vmesar Sweetened by 
Lead. — Symptoms: When taken in large 
doses, a sweet but astringent metallic 
tai>te exists, with constriction in the 
throat, pain in the region of the stomach, 
painful, obstinate, and frequently bloody 
vomitings, hiccough, convulsions or 
spasms, and death. When taken in 
small but Ions-continued doses it pro- 
duces colic, called painters' colic; great 
pain« obstinate constipation, and in ex- 
treme cases paralytic svmptoms, es- 
pecially wrist-drop, with a blue line along 
the edge of the gums. Treatment: To 
counteract the poison give alum in water 
H ounce to a quart; or, better still, Ep- 
som salts or Glauber's salts, an ounce of 
either in a quart of water; or dilute sul- 
phuric acid, a teaspoonful to a quart of 
water. If a large quantity of sugar of 
lead has been recently taken, emptv the 
stomach by an emetic of sulphate of zinc 
(1 drachm in a quF.rt oi water), giving 
one-fourth to commence, and rei>eating 
smaller doses until free vomiting is pro- 
duced; castor oil should be given to clear 
the bowels and injections of oil and 
starch freely administered. If the body 
is cold use the warm bath. 

Meadow Saffron. — See Belladonna. 

ijt^tA^ttnm. — See Opium. 

Lobelia — Indian Poke. — Symptoms : 
Excessive vomiting and purging, pains 
in the bowels, contraction of the pupils, 
delirium, coma, and convulsions. Treat- 
ment: Mustard over the stomach, and 
brandy and ammonia. 

Mercury — Corrosive Sublixnate (bug 
poisons frequently contain this poison). 
Red Precipitate, Chinese or English 
Vermilion. — Symptoms: Acrid, metallic 
ta.ste in the mouth, immediate constric- 
tion and burning in the throat, with anx- 
iety and tearing pains in both stomach 
and bow^els, sickness, and vomiting of 
various-colored fluids, and sometimes 
bloody and profuse diarrhea, with dif- 
ficulty and pain in urinating; pulse 
quick, small, and hard; faint sensations, 
great debility, difficult breathing, cramps, 
cold sweats, syncope, and convulsions. 
Treatment: If vomiting does not al- 
ready exist, emetics must be given im- 
mediately — white of eggs in continuous 
large doses, and infusion of catechu after- 
wards, sweet milk, mixtures of flour and 



water in successive cupfuls, and to check 
excessive salivation put a half ounce of 
chlorate of potash in a tumbler of water, 
and use freciv as a gargle, and swallow a 
tablespoonful every hour or two. 

Morphine. — See Opium. 

Nitrate of Silver (Lunar Caustic). — 
Symptoms: Intense pain and vomiting, 
and purging of blood, mucus, and shreds 
of mucous membranes; and if these stand 
they become dark. Treatment: Give 
freely of a^ solution of common salt in 
water, which decomposes the poison, 
and afterwards flaxseed or sUppery-elm- 
bark tea, and after a while a dose of 
castor oil. 

Opium and All Its Compounds — 
Morphine, Laudanum, Paregoric, Etc. — 
Symptoms: Giddiness, drowsiness, in- 
creasing to stupor, and insensibility; 
pulse usuallv, at first, quick and ir- 
regular, anci breathing hurried, and 
afterwards pulse slow and feeble, and 
respiration slow and noisy; the pupils are 
contracted and the eyes and face con- 
gested, and later, as death approaches, 
tne extremities become cold, tne surface 
is covered with cold, clammy perspira- 
tion, and the sphincters relax. The ef- 
fects of opium and its preparations, in 
poisonous doses, appear in from a half 
to two hours from its administration. 
Treatment: Empty the stomach imme- 
diately with an emetic or with the stom- 
ach pump. Then give very strong 
coffee without milk; put mustard plasters 
on the wrists and ankles; douche the head 
and chest with cold water, and if the 
patient is cold and sinking, grve brandy, 
or whiskv and ammonia. Belladonna is 
thought by many to counteract the poi- 
sonous effects of opium, and may be 
given in doses of hall to a teaspoonnil of 
the tincture, or 2 grains of the extract, 
every 20 minutes, until some effect is 
observed in causing the pupils to ex- 
pand. Use warmth and friction, and 
if possible prevent sleep for some hours, 
for which purpose the patient should 
be walked about between two persons. 
Finally, as a last resort, use artificial 
respiration, persistence in which will some- 
times be rewarded with success in ap- 
parently h opel ess cases. Electricity should 
also be tried. 

Cooley advises as follows: Vomiting 
must be induced as soon as possible, by 
means of a strong emetic and tickling the 
fauces. If this does not succeed, the 
stomach pump should be applied. The 
emetic mav consist of a halt drachm of 
sulphate of zinc dissolved in a^ half pint 
of warm water, of which one-third should 



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96 



ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS 



be taken at once, and the remainder at 
the rate of a wineglassful every 6 or 10 
minutes, until vomiting^ commences. 
When there is much drowsiness or stupor 
1 or 2 flui drachms of tincture of capsi- 
cum will be found a useful addition; or 
one of the formulas for emetic draughts 
may be taken instead. Infusion of galls, 
cinchona, or oak bark should be freely 
administered before the emetic, and 
water soured with vinegar and lemon 
juice, after the stomach has been well 
cleared out. To rouse the system 
spirit and water or strong coffee may be 
given. To keep the sufferer awake, 
rough friction should be applied to the 
skin, an upright posture preserved, and 
walking exercise enforced, if necessary. 
When this is ineffectual cold water may 
be dashed over the chest, head, and 
spine, or mild shocks of electricity may 
be had recourse to. To allow the suffer- 
er to sleep is to abandon him to destruc- 
tion. Bleeding may be subsequently 
necessary in plethoric habits, or in 
threatened congestion. The costiveness 
that accompanies convalescence may be 
best met by aromatic aperients; and the 
general tone of the habit restored by stim- 
ulating tonics and the shower bath. 
The smallest fatal dose of opium in the 
case of an adult within our recollection 
was 4 J p^rains. Children are much more 
susceptible to the action of opium 'than 
of other medicines, and hence the dose of 
it for them must be diminished consid- 
erably below that indicated by the com- 
mon method of calculation depending on 
the age. 

Oxalic Acid. — See Acids. 

Phosphorus — Found in Lucifer 
Matches and Some Rat Poisons. — Symp- 
toms: Svmptoms of irritant poisoning; 
pain in th » stomach and bowels; vomit- 
ing, diarrhea; tenderness and tension 
of the abdomen. Treatment: An emetic 
is to be promptly given; copious draughts 
containing magnesia in suspension; mu- 
cilaginous drinks. General treatment 
for inflammatory symptoms. 

Poisonous Mushrooms. — Symptoms: 
Nausea, heat and pains in the stomach 
and bowels; vomiting and purging, 
thirst, convulsions, and faintings; pulse 
small and frequent, dilated piipil and 
stupor, cold sweats and death. Treat- 
ment: The stomach and bowels are to be 
cleared by an emetic of ground mustard 
or sulphate of zinc, followed by frequent 
doses of Glauber's or of Epsom salts, and 
large stimulating clysters. After the 
poison is evacuated, either may be given 1 
with small quantities of brandy and | 



water. But if inflammatory symptoms 
manifest themselves such stimuli snould 
be avoided, and these symptoms appro- 
priately treated. A hypodermic injection 
of ^ grain of atropine is the latest discovered 
antidote. 

Potash.— See Alkali. 

Prussic or Hydrocjranic Acid. — See 
Adds. 

Poison Ivy. — Symptoms: Contact 
with, and witn many persons the near 
approach to, the vine gives rise to vio- 
lent erysipelatous inflammation, espe- 
cially^ of tne face and hands, attended 
with itching, redness, burning, and swell- 
ing, with watery blisters. Treatment: 
Give saline laxatives, and apply weak 
sugar of lead and laudanum, or limewater 
and sweet oil, or bathe the parts freely with 
spirits of niter. Anointing with oil will 
prevent poisoning from it. 

Saltpeter (Nitrate of Potash). — Symi>- 
toms: Only poisonous in large quanti- 
ties, and then causes nausea, painful 
vomiting, purging, convulsions, faint- 
ness, feeble pulse, cold feet and hands, 
with tearing pains in stomach and bowels. 
Treatment! Treat as is directed for 
arsenic, for there is no antidote known, 
and emptying the stomach and bowels 
with mild drinks must be relied on. 

Savine. — Symptoms: Sharp pains in 
the bowels, hot skin, rapid pulse, violent 
vomiting and sometimes purging, with 
great prostration. Treatment: Mus- 
tard and hot fomentations over the 
stomach and bowels and ice allowed 
in the stomach only until the inflam- 
mation ceases. If prostration comes on, 
food and stimulants must be given by 
injection. 

Stramonium. Thorn Apple, or James- 
town Weed. —Symptoms : Vertigo, hea d- 
ache, perversion of vision, slignt delir- 
ium, sense of suffocation, disposition to 
sleep, bowels relaxed, and all secretions 
augmented. Treatment: Same as for 
befladonna. 

Snake Bites, Cure for. — The Inspector 
of Police in the Bengal Government re- 
ports that of 939 cases in which ammonia 
was freely administered, 207 victims have 
recovered, and in the cured instances the 
remedy was not administered till about 
84 hours after the attack; on the average 
of the fatal cases the corresponding 
duration of time was 4} hours. 

Strychnine or Nux Vomica. — The char- 
acteristic symptom is the special influ- 
ence exerted upon the nervous system, 

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ANTIDOTES FOR POISONS 



97 



which is manifested by a general con- 
traction of all the muscles of the body, 
with rigidity of the spinal column. A 
profound calm soon succeeds, which is 
followed by a new tetanic seizure, longer 
than the first, during which the respira- 
tion is suspended. These symptoms 
then cease, tne breathing becomes easy, 
and there is stupor, followed by another 
general contraction. In fatal cases 
these attacks are renewed, at intervals, 
with increasing violence, until death en- 
sues. One phenomenon which is found 
only in poisonings by substances con- 
taining strychnine is that touching any 
part of the body, or even threatening 
to do so, instantly produces the tetanic 
spasm. Antidote: The stomach should 
be immediately cleared by means of an 
emetic, tickling the fauces, etc. To 
counteract the asphyxia from tetanus, 
etc., artificial respiration should be 
practiced with diligence and care. **If 
the poison has been applied externally, 
we ought immediately to cauterize the 
part, and apply a ligature tightly above 
the wound. If the poison has been 
swallowed for some time we should give 
a purgative clyster, and administer 
draughts containing sulphuric ether or 
oil of turpentine, which in most cases 
produce a salutary effect. Lastly, in- 
jections of chlorine and decoction of 
tannin are of value." 

According to Ch. Gunther the great- 
est reliance maj be placed on full doses 
of opium, assisted by venesection, in 
cases of poisoning by strychnia or nux 
vomica. His plan is to administer this 
drug in the form of solution or mix- 
ture, in combination with a saline ap<s 
rient. 

Another treatment is to give, if obtain- 
able, I ounce or more of bone charcoal 
mixed with water, and follow with an 
active emetic; then to give chloroform in 
teaspcHmf ul doses, in flour and water or 
glycerine, every few minutes while the 
spasms last, and afterwards brandy and 
stimulants, and warmth of the extremi- 
ties if necessary. Recoveries have fol- 
low^ed the free and prompt administra- 
tion of oils or melted butter or lard. ^ In 
all cases empty the stomach if possible. 

Sulphate of Zinc— White Vitriol.— See 
Zinc. 

Tin— Chloride of Tin, Solution of Tin 
(used by dyers), Oxide of Tin, or Putty 
Powder. — Symptoms: Vomiting, pains 
in the stomach, anxiety, restlessness, fre- 
quent pulse, delirium, etc. ^ Treatment: 
Emptj the stomach, and give whites of 
eggs in water, milk in large quantities, 



or flour beaten up in water, with mag- 
nesia or chalk. 

Tartar Emetic- See Antimony. 

Tobacco. — Symptoms: Vertigo, stu- 
por, fainting, nausea, vomiting, sudden 
nervous debility, cold sweat, tremors, 
and at times fatal prostration. Treat- 
ment: After the stomach is empty apply 
mustard to the abdomen and to the ex- 
tremities, and give strong coffee, with 
brandy and other stimulants, with 
warmth to the extremities. 

Zinc— Oxide of Zinc, Sulphate of 
Zinc, White Vitriol, Acetate of Zinc— 
Symptoms: Violent vomiting, astrin- 
gent taste, burning pain in the stomach, 
pale countenance, cold extremities, dull 
eyes, fluttering pulse. Death seldom 
ensues, in consequence of the emetic 
effect.^ Treatment: The vomiting may 
be relieved by copious draughts of warm 
water. Carbonate of soda, administered 
in solution, will decompose the sulphate 
of zinc. Milk and albumen will also act 
as antidotes. General principles to be 
observed in the subsequent treatment. 

Woorara. — Symptoms: When taken 
into the stomach it is inert; when ab- 
sorbed through a wound it causes sudden 
stupor and insensibility, frothing at the 
mouth, and speedy death. Treatment: 
Suck the wound immediately, or cut it 
out and tie a cord around the limb be- 
tween the wound and the heart. Applj 
iodine, or iodide of potassium, and give it 
internally, and try artificial respiration. 

ANTIFERMENTS. 

The following are tried and useful 
formulas : 

I. — Sulphite (not sulphate) of lime, 
in fine powder, 1 part; marble dust, 
ground oyster shells, or chalk, 7 parts; 
mix, and pack tight, so as to excluae the 
air. 

II. — Sulphite (not sulphate) of potassa, 
1 part; new black-mustard seed (ground 
in a pepper mill), 7 parts; mix, and pack 
so as to exclude air and moisture per- 
fectiy. Dose (of either), J ounce to IJ 
ounces per hogshead. 

III. — Mustard seed, 14 pounds; cloves 
and capsicum, of each, l\ pounds; mix, 
and grind them to powder in a pep- 
per mill. Dose, 1 to i pound per hogs- 
nead. 

A portion of any one of these compounds 
added to cider, or the like, soon allays 
fermentation, when excessive, or when 
it has been renewed. The first formula 
is preferred when there is a lendency to 
acidity. The second and third may be 
advantageously used for wine and beer, as 

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98 



ANTISEPTICS 



well as for cider. The third compound 
greatly improves the flavor and the ap- 
parent strength of the liq^uor, and also 
improves its Keeping qualities. 



Anchovy Preparations 

Eztemporaneous Anchovy Sauce. — 
Anchovies, chopped 

small S or 4 

Butter 3 ounces 

Water 2 ounces 

Vinegar 1 ounce 

Flour 1 ounce 

Mix, place over the fire, and stir until 
the mixture thickens. Then rub through 
a coarse sieve. 

Essence of Anchovies. — Remove the 
bones from 1 pound of anchovies, reduce 
the remaining portions of the fish to a 
pulp in a Wedgewood mortar, and pass 
through a clean hair or brass sieve. Boil 
the bones and other portions which will 
not pass through the sieve in 1 pint of 
water for 15 minutes, and strain. To 
the strained liquor add 2^ ounces of salt 
and 2} ounces of flour, and the pulped 
anchovies. Let the whole simmer over 
the fire for three or four minutes; re- 
move from the fire, and when the mix- 
ture has cooled a little add 4 ounces of 
strong vinegar. The product (nearly 
8 pounds) may be then bottled, and the 
corks tied over with bladder, and cither 
waxed or capsuled. 

Anchovy Paste. — 

Anchovies 7 pounds 

Water 9 pints 

Salt 1 pound 

Flour 1 pound 

Capsicum J ounce 

Grated lemon peel. . . 1 

Mushroom catsup. . . 4 ounces 

Anchovy Butter. — 
Anchovies, boned and 

beaten to a paste . . 1 part 

Butter 2 parts 

Spice enough 

ANTIFOULING COMPOSITIONS: 
See Paints. 

ANTIFREEZING SOLUTION : 
See Freezing Preventives. 

ANTIFRICTION METAL : 

See Alloys, under Phosphor Bronze 
and Antifriction Metals. 



ANTIQUES, TO PRESERVE. 

The best process for the preservation 
of antique metallic articles consists in a 
retransformation of the metallic oxides 
into metal by the electrolytic method. 
For this purpose a zinc strip is wound 
around the article and the latter is laid 
in a soda-lye solution of 5 per cent, or 
suspended as the negative pole of a small 
battery in a potassium cyanide solution 
of 2 per cent. Where this method docs 
not seem practicable it is advisable to 
edulcorate the objects in running water, 
in which operation fragile or ea.sily de- 
stroyed articles may be protected by 
winding with ^auzc; next, they should 
be carefully dried, first in the air, then 
with moderate heat, and finally protected 
from further destruction by immersion 
in melted parafHne. A dry place is re- 
quired for storing the articles, since par- 
afline is not perfectly impermeable to 
water in the shape of steam. 

ANTIRUST COMPOSITIONS: 
See Rust Preventives. 



Antiseptics 

Antiseptic Powders. — 

I. — Borax 3 ounces 

Dried alum 3 ounces 

Thymol 22 grains 

Eucalyptol 20 drops 

Mentliol lA grains 

Phenol 15 grains 

Oil of gaultheria ... 4 drops 
Carmine to give a pink tint 

II. — Alum, powdered ^^^ ^ 

Borax, powdered 50 ? 

Carbolic acid, crystals ... 5 £ 

Oil of eucalyptus 5 V §^ 

Oil of wintergreen 5 J 

Menthol 5 fi" 

Thymol 5 J ST 

III. — Boracic acid 10 ounces 

Sodium bi borate. . . 4 ounces 

Alum 1 ounce 

Zinc sulphocarbolate 1 ounce 

Thymic acid 1 drachm. 

Mix thoroughly. For an antiseptic 
wash dissolve 1 or 2 drachms in a quart 
of warm wavter. 

I v.— Ektogan is a new dusting powder 
which is a mixture of zinc hydroxide and 
dioxide. It is equivalent to about 8 per 
cent of active oxygen. It is a yellowish- 
white odorless and tasteless powder, in- 
soluble in water. It is used externally in 
wounds and in skin diseases as a moist 
dressing mixed with citric, tartaric, or 

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ANTISEPTICS 



99 



ill 



taanic acid, which causes the liberation 
of oxygen. With iodides it liberates 
iodine. It is stated to be strongly anti- 
septic; it is used in the form of a powder, 
a gauze, and a plaster. 

Antiseptic Pencils. — 

I. — Tannin q. s. 

Alcohol, q. s 1 part 

Ether, q. s 3 parts 

Make into a mass, using as an excip- 
ient the alcohol and ether previously 
mixed. Roll into pencils of tne desired 
length and thickness. Then coat with 
collodion, roll in pure silver leaf, and 
finally coat with the following solution of 
gelatine and set aside to dry: 

Gelatine 1 drachm 

Water 1 pint 

Dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat. 
When wanted for use, shave away a 
portion of the covering, dip the pencil 
into tepid water and apply. 

II. — Pencils for stopping bleeding are 
prepared by mixing: 

Purified alum 480 

Borax.. 24 

Oxide zinc 2^ 

Thymol 8 

Formalin 4 ^ 

Melting carefully in a water bath, add- 
ing some perfume, and forming mixture 
into pencils or cones. 

A very convenient way to form into 
pencils where no mold need be made is 
to take a small glass tube, roll a piece of 
oil paper around the tube, remove the 
glass tube, crimp the paper tube thus 
formed on one end and stand it on end 
or in a bottle, and pour the melted so- 
lution in it and leave until cool, then re- 
move the paper. 

Antiseptic Paste (Poison) for Organic 
Specimens. — 

(a) Wheat flour 16 ounces 

Beat to a batter with 

cold water 16 fluidounces 

Then pour into boil- 
ing water 82 fluidounces 

(6) Pulverized gum ar- 

abic 2 ounces 

Dissolve in boil- 
ing water 4 fluidounces 

i,cj l^ulverizedalum. . . 2 ounces 
Dissolve in boil- 
ing water 4 fluidounces 

(d) Acetate of lead .... 2 ounces 
Dissolve in boil- 
ing water. ...... 4 fluidounces 

(e) Corrosive sublimate 10 grains 

Mix (a) and (6) while hot and continue 
to simmer; meanwhile stir in (r) jind 



mix thoroughly; then add (d). Stir 
briskly, and pour in the dry corrosive 
sublimate. This paste is very poison- 
ous. It is used for anatomical work and 
for pasting organic tissue, labels on skel- 
etons, etc. 

Mouth Antiseptics.— I. --Thymic acid, 
25 centigrams (Si grains): benzoic acid, 
8 grams (45 grains); essence of pep- 
permint, 75 centigrams (10 minims): 
tincture of eucalyptus, 15 grams (4 A 
drachms); alcohol, 100 grams (3 ounces). 
Put sufl[icient in a glass of water to render 
latter milky. 

II. — Tannin, 12 grams (8 drachms); 
menthol, 8 grams (2 drachms); thymol, 
1 gram (15 grains); tincture benzoin, 6 
grams (90 minims); alcohol, 100 grams 
(8 ounces). Ten arops in a half-glassful 
of tepid water. 

See also Dentifrices for Mouth 
Washes. 

Antiseptic Paste.— Difficulty is often 
experienced in applying an antiseptic 
dressing to moist surfaces, such as the 
lips after operation for harelip. A paste 
for this purpose is described by its origi- 
nator, Socin. The composition is: Zinc 
oxide, 50 parts; zinc cnloride, 5 parts; 
distilled water, 50 parts. The paste is 
applied to the wound, previously dried 
by means of a brush or spatula, allowed 
to dry on, and to remain in place five or 
six days. It may then be removed and 
a fresh application made. 
Potassium bicar- 
bonate 82.0 grams 

Sodium benzoate . . 82.0 grams 

Sodium borate 8.0 grams 

Thymol 0.2 gram 

Eucalyptol 2.0 c. cent. 

Oil of peppermint. . 0.2 c. cent. 
Oil of wintergreen. . 0.4 c. cent. 
Tincture of cudbear 15.0 c. cent. 

Alcohol 60.0 c. cent. 

Glycerine 250.0 c. cent. 

Water, enough to 

make 1,000.0 c. centimeters 

Dissolve the salts in 650 cubic centi- 
meters of water, and the thvmol, eucalyp- 
tol, and oils in the alcohol. Mix the 
alcoholic solution with the glycerine and 
add the aqueous liquid, then the tincture 
of cudbear, and lastly enough water to 
make 1,000 cubic centimeters. Allow 
to stand a few days, then filter, adding a 
little magnesium carbonate to the filter, 
if necessary, to get a brilliant filtrate. 

This is from the Formulary of the 
Bournemouth Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, as reported in the Canadian Phar- 
maceutical Associatioi^j^^^ by Google 



100 



ANTISEPTICS 



Alkaline Glycerine of Thymol. — 

Sodium bicarbonate. . 100 grains 

Sodium biborate 200 grains 

Sodium benzoate 80 grains 

Sodium salicylate .... 40 grains 

Menthol 2 grains 

Pumilio pine oil 4 minims 

Wintergreen oil 2 minims 

Thymol 4 grains 

Eucalyptol 12 minims 

Compound Solution of Thymol. — 
A 

Benzoic acid 64 grains 

Borax 64 grains 

Boric acid 128 grains 

Distilled water 6 ounces 

Dissolve. 

B 

Thymol 20 grains 

Menthol 6 grains 

Eucalyptol 4 minims 

Oil of wintergreen. ... 4 minims 
Oil of peppermint. ... 2 minims 

Oil of thyme 1 minim 

Alcohol (90 per cent) . 3 ounces 
Dissolve. 

Mix solutions A and B, make up to 
20 fluidounces with distilled water, and 
filter. 

Oil of Cinnamon as an Antiseptic. — 
Oil of cinnamon in a 9-per-cent emulsion, 
when used upon the hands, completely 
sterilizes them. A 7-to 8-per-cent emul- 
sion is equal to a 1-per-cent solution of 
corrosive sublimate and is certainly far 
more agreeable to use. Oil of thyme in 
an 1 1-per-cent solution is equal to a 7-per- 
cent solution of cinnamon oil. 

Green Coloring for Antiseptic Solu- 
tions. — The safest coloring substance for 
use in a preparation intended either for 
internal administration or for applica- 
tion to the skin is the coloring matter of 
leaves, chlorophyll. A tincture of spin- 
ach or of grass made by macerating 2 
ounces of the freshly cut leaves in a pint 
of alcohol for five days will be found to 
give good results. If the pure coloring 
substance is wanted the solvent should 
be evaporated off. 

Antbeptic Bromine Solution. — 

Bromine 1 ounce 

Sodium chloride 8 ounces 

Water 8 pints 

Dissolve the sodium chloride in the 
water and add the bromine. This solu- 
tion is to be diluted, when applied to 
broken skin surfaces, 1 part with 15 
parts of water. 

Substitute for Rubber Gloves.— Mur- 



phy has found that a 4-, 6-, or 8-per-cent 
solution of gutta-percha in benzine, when 
applied to the hands of the surgeon or 
the skin of the patient, will seal these 
surfaces with an insoluble, impervious, 
and practically imperceptible coating — 
a coating that will not allow the secre- 
tions of the skin to escape, and will not 
admit secretions, blood, or pus into the 
crevices of the skin. At the same time 
it does not impair the sense of touch nor 
the pliability of the skin. A similar solu- 
tion in acetone also meets most of the 
reauirements. 

Murphy's routine method of hand prep- 
aration is as follows: First, five to seven 
minutes' scrubbing with spirits of green 
soap and running hot water; second, 
three minutes* washing with alcohol; 
third, when the hands are thoroughly 
dried, the gutta-percha solution is poured 
over the hands and forearms, care being 
taken to fill in around and beneath the 
nails. The hands must be kept exposed 
to the air with the fingers separated until 
thoroughly dry. The coating is very 
thin and can be recognized only by its 
glazed appearance. It will resist soap 
and water, but is easily removed by wash- 
ing in benzine. The hands can he 
washed in bichloride or any of the anti- 
septic solutions without interfering with 
the coating or affecting the skin. If 
the operations be many, or prolonged, 
the coating wears away from the tips 
of the finders, but is easily renewed. For 
the remaining portion of the hands one 
application is sufiicient for a whole morn- 
ing's work. 

The 4-per-cent solution of rubber wears 
better on the tips of the fingers, in han- 
dling instruments, sponges, and tissues 
than the acetone solution. 

For the abdomen the acetone solution 
has the advantage, and it dries in three 
to four seconds after its application, 
while the benzine solution takes from 
three to four and a half minutes to make 
a dry, firm coating. 

Tne preparation of the patient's skin 
consists in five minutes' scrubbing with 
spirits of green soap, washing with ether, 
followed by alcohol. The surface is then 
swabbed over thoroughly with the ben- 
zine or acetone solution. 

The gutta-percha solution is prepared 
by dissolving the pure gutta-percha chips 
in sterile benzine or acetone. These 
solutions do not stand boiling, as^ this 
impairs the adhesiveness and ela.sticity of 
the coating. 

ANTISEPTICS FOR CAGED BIRDS: 

See Veterinary Fomulas. 

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ANTISEPTICS 



101 



APOLLUfARIS: 
See Waters. 

APPLE SYRUP: 

See Essences and Extracts. 

AQUA FORTIS FOR BRIGHT LUS- 
TER: 
See Castings. 

AQUA FORTIS FOR THE TOUCH- 
STONE: 
See Gold. 

AQUARIUM CEMEHTS: 
See Adhesives. 

AQUARIUM PUTTY: 
See Putty. 

ARGEHTAN : 
Sec Alloys. 

ARMENIAH CEMENT: 

Sec Adhesives under Jewelers* Ce- 
ments. 

ARMS, OIL FOR: 

See Lubricants. 

ARNICA SALVE: 
See Ointments. 

ARSENIC ALLOYS: 

Sec Alloys. 

ASBESTOS CEMENT: 
See Adhesives. 

ASBESTOS FABRIC : 

See Fireproofing. 

ASPHALT AS AN INGREDIENT OF 
INDIA RUBBER: 
See Rubber. 

ASPHALT nr PAINTING: 
See Paint 

ASPHALT VARNISHES: 
See Varnishes. 

ASSAYING: 
See Gold. 

ASTHMA CXSRSS.—Asthma Papers.— 
I. — Impregnate bibulous paper with the 
following: Extract of stramonium, 10; 
potassium nitrate, 17; sugar, 20; warm 
water, «00 parts. Dry. 

II. — Blotting or gray filter paper, 120; 
potassium nitrate, 60; powdered bella- 
donna leaves, 5; powdered stramonium 
leaves, 5; powdered digitalis leaves, 5; 
powdered lobelia, 5; myrrh, 10; oli- 
oanum, 10; phellandrium fruits, 5 parts. 

Stramcnivm Candle. — Powderea stra- 
moniam leaves, 120; potassium nitrate, 
72; Peruvian balsam, 8; powdered sugar, 
1; powdered tragacanth, 4 i)arts. (Water, 
q. 5. to mass; roll into suitable shapes 
and dry.) 



Cleary's AHhhui Futfiigating Fowder. 
— Powdered stramonium, 15; powdered 
belladonna leaves, 15; powdered opium, 
2; potassium nitrate, 5. 

Asthma Fumigating Powders. — I. — 
Powdered stramonium leaves, 4; pow- 
dered aniseed, 2; potassium nitrate, 2 
parts. 

II. — Powdered stramonium, 80; potas- 
sium nitrate, 5; powdered tea, 15; pow- 
dered eucalyptus leaves, 15; powoered 
Indian hemp, 15; powdered lobelia, 15; 
powdered aniseed, 2; distilled water, 45 
parts. (All the herbal ingredients in 
coarse powder; moisten with the water in 
which the potassium nitrate has been 
previously dissolved, and dry.) 

Schifmanns Asthma Powder. — Potas- 
sium mtrate, 25; stramonium, 70; bella- 
donna leaves, 5 parts. 

Neumeyer*s Asthma Powder. — Potas- 
sium nitrate, 6 parts; sugar, 4; stramo- 
nium, 6; Dowdered lobelia, 1. 

Fischers Asthma Powder. — Stramo- 
nium, 5 parts; potassium nitrate, 1; pow- 
dered Achillea millefolium leaves, 1. 

Vorlaender^s Asthma Powder. — Stra- 
monium, 150; lobelia, 80; arnica flowers, 
80; potassium nitrate, 80; potassium 
iodide, 3; naphthol, 1,100 parts. 

Asthma Cigarettes. — I. — Belladonna 
leaves, 5 parts; stramonium leaves, 5 
parts; digitalis leaves, 5 parts; sage 
leaves, 5 parts; potassium nitrate, 75 
parts; tincture of benzoin, 40 parts; boil- 
ing water, 1,000 parts. Extract the 
leaves with the boiling water, filter, and 
in the filtrate dissolve the salts. Im- 
merse in the fluid sheets of bibulous 
paper (Swedish filter paper will an- 
swer) and let remain for 24 hours. At 
the end of this time remove, dry, cut into 
pieces about 2f by 4 inches, and roll into 
cigarettes. 

II. — Sodium arseniate, 8 grains; ex- 
tract of belladonna, 8 grains; extract of 
stramonium, 8 grains. Dissolve the ai^ 
seniate of sodium in a small quantity of 
water, and rub it with the two extracts. 
Then soak up the whole mixture with 
fine blotting paper, which is dried and 
cut into 24 equal parts. Each part is 
rolled up in a piece of cigarette paper. 
Four or five inhalations are generally 
sufficient as a dose. 

ASTHMA IN CANARIES: 

See Veterinary Formulas. 

ASTRINGENT FOR HORSES: 

See Veterinary Formulas. 

ATOMIC WEIGHTS: 

See Weights and Measuresr^^^^T^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



102 



:! -'.BAKING POWDERS 



The usual physiological antidotes to 
the mydriatic alkaloids from belladonna, 
stramonium, and hyoscyamus are mor- 

Ehine or eserine. Strong tea, coffee, or 
randy are usually administered as stim- 
ulants. Chief reliance has usually been 
placed upon a stomach siphon and 
plenty of water to wash out the contents 
of the stomach. The best antidote ever 
reported was that of muscarine extracted 
by alcohol from the mushroom, Amanita 
miucarta, but the difficulty of securing 
the same has caused it to oe overlookea 
and almost forgotten. Experiments 
with this antidote showed it to be an al- 
most perfect opposite of atropine in its 
effects upon the animal body and that 
it neutralized poisonous doses. 

AQUA AROliATICA.— 

Cort. cinnam. chinens. 8 parts 

Flor. lavanduUe 5 parts 

Fol. Menth. pip 5 parts 

Fol. rosmarini 5 parts 

Fol. sal vice 10 parts 

Fruct. foeniculi 8 parts 

Spiritus 70 parts 

Aqua 800 parts 

Macerate the drugs in the mixed al- 
cohol and water for 24 hours and distill 
200 parte. 

AQUA RE6IA. — Aqua regia consiste 
in principle of 2 parte of hydrochloric acid 
and I part of nitric acid. But this quan- 
tity varies according to the shop where it 
is used for gilding or jewelry, and some- 
times the proportion is brought to 4 parte 
of hydrochloric acid to 1 of nitric acid. 

AUTOMOBILES, ANTIFREEZIlfG SO- 
LUTION FOR: 
See Freezing Preventives. 

AXLE GREASE: 

See Lubricante. 

BABBITT METAL: 

See Alloys. 



Baking Powders 

I. — Tartaric acid, S parte; sodium 
bicarbonate, 1 part; starch, 0.75 part. 
Of this baking powder the required 
amount for 500 parte of flour is about 
20 parte for rich cake, and 15 parte for 
lean cake. 

The substances employed must be 
dry» each having been previously sifted 



by iteelf, so that no coarse pieces are 
present; the starch is mixea with the 
sodium bicarbonate before the acid is 
added. When lar^e Quantities are pre- 
pared the mixing is done by machine; 
smaller quantities are best mixed to- 
gether in a spacious mortar, and then 
passed repeatedly through a sieve. In- 
stead of starch, flour may be used, but 
starch is preferable, because it inter- 
feres with the action of the acid on the 
alkali. 

II. — A formula proposed by Cramp- 
ton, of the United States Department of 
Agriculture, as the result of an investi- 
gation of the leading baking powders of 
the market, is: 

Potassiuna bitartrate. . . 2 parte 
Sodium bicarbonate. . . 1 part 
Cornstarch 1 part 

The addition of the starch serves the 
double^ purpose of a " filler" to increase 
the weight of the powder and as a pre- 
servative. A mixture of the chemicals 
alone does not keep well. 

The stability of the preparation is in- 
creased by drying each ingredient sepa- 
rately by exposure to a gentle heat, mixing 
at once, and immediately placing in bot- 
tles or cans and excluding access of air 
and consequently of moisture. 

This is not a cheap powder; but it is 
the best that can be made, as to health- 
fulness. 

III. — Sodium acid phos- 
phate 20 parte 

Calcium acid phos- 
phate 20 parte 

Sodium bicarbonate 25 parte 
Starch 85 parte 

Caution as to drying the ingrediente 
and keeping them dry must be observed. 
Even the mixing should be done in a 
room free from excessive humidity. 

IV.— Alum Baking Powder. — 
Ammonium alum, 

anhydrous 15 parts 

Sodium bicarbonate 18 parte 
Cornstarch, q. s. to make 100 parte. 
Mix. The available carbon dioxide 
yielded is 7i per cent or 8 per cent. 

BALANCE SPRING: 

See Watchmakers' Formulas. 

BALDNESS: 

See Hair Preparations. 

BALL BLUE: 

See Laundry Preparations. 

BALSAMS : 

See also Ointmente. 

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; BALSAMS 



103 



WM'ChtTTj Balsam.— 

Wild-cherry bark . . 1 ounce 

Licorice root 1 ounce 

Ipecac 1 ounce 

Bloodroot 1 drachm 

Sassafras 1 drachm 

Compound tincture 

of opium 1 fluidounce 

Fluid extract of 

cubeb 4 fluidrachms 

Moisten the ground drugs with the 
fluid extract and tincture and enough 
menstruum consisting of 25 per cent 
alcohol, and after six or eight hours pack 
in a percolator, and pour on menstruum 
until percolation begins. Then cork the 
orifice, cover the percolator, and allow to 
macerate for 24 hours. Then percolate 
to 10 fluidounces, pouring back the first 
portion of percolate until it comes through 
clear. In the percolate dissolve i ounce 
of ammonium chloride and I pound of 
sugar by cold percolation, adding si mole 
syrup to make 16 fluidounces. Finally 
add 1 fluidrachm of chloroform. 

Balsani Spray Solution. — 

Oil of Scotch pine. . . 80 minims 
on of eucalyptus. ... 1 drachm 
Oil of cinnamon .... 80 minims 

Menthol crystals q. s. 

Fluid extract of balm- 

of-Gilead buds ... 1 drachm 
Tincture of benzoin, 

enough to make . . 4 ounces 
This formula can, of course, be modi- 
fied to suit your requirements. The oils 
of eucalvptus and cinnamon can be omit- 
ted ancl such quantities of tincture of 
tola and tincture of myrrh incorporated 
as may he desired. 

Birch Balaam. — 

Parts by 
weight 

Alcohol 80,000 

Birch juice 8,000 

Glycerine 1,000 

Bergamot oil 90 

Vanillin 10 

Geranium oil 50 

Water 14,000 

BALSAM STAINS, TO REMOVE: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

BAHAMA BRONZING SOLUTION: 
See Plating. 

BANANA STRUP: 

See Essences and Extracts. 

BANANA TRICK, THE BURNING: 
See Pyrotechnics. 



BANJO SOUR: 

See Beverages under Lemonade. 

BAR POLISHES: 

See Polishes. 

BARBERS'-rrCH CURE: 
See Ointments. 

BARBERS' POWDER: 

See Cosmetics. 

BAROMETERS (PAPER): 

See Hygrometers and Hygroscopes. 

BATH, AIR: 
See Air Bath. 

BATH METAL: 
See Alloys. 

BATH POWDER: 

See Cosmetics. 

BATH TABLETS, EFFERVESCENT. 

Tartaric acid 10 parts 

Sodium bicarbonate. . 9 parts 

Rice flour 6 parts 

A few spoonfuls of this, when stirred 
into a batntubful of water, causes a co- 
pious liberation of carbon dioxide, which 
IS refreshing. This mixture can be made 
into tablets by compression, moistening, 
if necessary, with alcohol. Water, of 
course, cannot be used in making them, 
as its presence causes the decomposition 
referred to. Perfume may be added to 
this powder, essential oils being a good 
form. Oil of lavender would be a suit- 
able addition, in the proportion of a 
fluidrachm or more to the pound of 
powder. A better but more expensive 
perfume mav be obtained by mixing 1 
part of oil of rose geranium with 6 parts 
of oil of lavender. A perfume still more 
desirable may be had by adding a mix- 
ture of the oils from which Cologne water 
is made. For an ordinary quality the 
following will suffice: 

Oil of lavender . . 4 fluidrachms 
Oil of rosemary. . 4 fluidrachms 
Oil of bergamot. . 1 fluidounce 

Oil of lemon 2 fluidounces 

Oil of clove 80 mini ms 

For the first quality the following may 
be taken: 

Oil of neroli 6 fluidrachms 

Oil of rosemary. . 8 fluidrachms 
Oil of bergamot.. 8 fluidrachms 

Oil of cedrat 7 fluidrachms 

Oil of orange peel 7 fluidrachms 
A fluidrachm or more of either of these 
mixtures may be used to the pound, as in 
the case of lavender. 

These mixtures may also be used in the 

preparation of a bath powder Cnon-effer- 

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104 



BATTERY FILLERS 



▼escent) made by mixing equal parts of 
powdered soap and powdered borax. 

BATH-TUB ENAMEL: 
See Varnishes. 

BATH-TUB PAmTS: 
See Paint. 

BATTERY FILLERS AND SOLUTIONS. 

I. — In the so-called dry batteries the 
exciting substance is a paste instead of 
a fluid; moisture is necessary to cause 
the reaction. These pastes are gener- 
ally secret preparations. One of the 
earlier "dry batteries is that of Gassner. 
The apparatus consists of a containing 
vessel of zinc, which forms the positive 
element; the negative one is a cylinder 
of carbon, and the space between is 
filled with a paste, the recipe for which is: 

Oxide of zinc 1 part 

Sal ammoniac 1 part 

Plaster 8 parts 

Chloride of zinc 1 part 

Water 2 parts 

The usual form of chloride-of-silver 
battery consists of a sealed cell contain- 
ing a zinc electrode, the two being gen- 
erally separated by some form of porous 
septum. Around the platinum or silver 
electrode is cast a quantity of silver 
chloride. This is melted and general- 
ly poured into molds surrounding the 
metallic electrode. The exciting fluid 
is either a solution of ammonium chlo- 
ride, caustic potassa, or soda, or zinc 
sulphate. As ordinarily constructed, 
these cells contain a paste of tlie electro- 
lyte, and are sealed up hermetically in 
glass or hard-rubber receptacles. 

II. — The foUowin^ formula is said to 
yield a serviceable filhng for dry batteries: 

Charcoal 8 ounces 

Graphite 1 ounce 

Manganese dioxide. . . 8 ounces 

Calcium hydrate 1 ounce 

Arsenic acid 1 ounce 

Glucose mixed with 

dextrine or starch . . 1 ounce 
Intimately mix, and then work into a 
paste of proper consistency with a sat- 
urated solution of sodium and ammo- 
nium chlorides containing one-tenth of 
its volume of a mercury- bichloride solu- 
tion and an equal volume of hydrochloric 
acid. Add the fluid gradually, and well 
work up the mass. 
111. — Caloium chloride, 

crystallized ...... 80 parts 

Calcium chloride, 

granulated 80 parts 

Ammonium sulphate 15 parts 
Zinc sulphate 2o parts 



Solutioiis for Batteries.— The almost 
exclusively employed solution of sal am- 
moniac (ammonium chloride) presents 
the drawback that the zinc rods, glasses, 
etc., after a short use, become covered 
with a fine, yellow, very difficultly sol- 
uble, basic zinc salt, whereby the gen- 
eration of the electric current is impaired, 
and finally arrested altogether. This 
evil may be remedied by an admixture of 
cane sugar. For a battery of ordinary 
size about 20 to 25 grams of su^ar, dis- 
solved in warm water, is sufficient per 
50 to 60 erams of sal ammoniac After 
prolonged use only large crystals (of a 
zinc saccharate) form, which, however, 
become attached only to the zinc rod in 
a few places, having very little disad- 
vantageous effect upon the action of the 
batteries and being easy to remove, owing 
to their ready solubility. 

BAUBOm METAL: 

See Alloys. 

BAY RUM. 

I. — Oil of bay 1 drachm 

Alcohol 18 ounces 

Water 18 ounces 

Mix and filter through magnesia. 

II. — Bay-leaf otto J ounce 

Magnesium carbonate, i ounce 

Jamaica rum 2 pints 

Alcohol 8 pints 

Water 8 pints 

Triturate the otto with the magnesium 
carbonate, gradually adding the other 
ingredients, previously mixed, and filter. 
If the rum employed contains sufficient 
sugar or mucilaginous matter to cause 
any stickiness to be felt on the skin, rec- 
tification will be necessary. 



BEAR FAT: 
See Fats. 

BEARING LUBRICAIIT: 

See Lubricants. 

BEARING METAL : 

See Babbitt Metal, Bearing Metal, and 
Phosphor Bronze, under Alloys. 

BEDBUG DESTROYERS: 

I See Insecticides. 

. BEEF. IRON. AND WINE. 

Extract of beef 512 grains 

I Detannated sherry 

i wine '. 26 ounces 

Alcohol 4 ounces 

Citrate of iron and 

ammonia 256 grains 

Simple sirup 12 ounces 



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BELT PASTES 



106 



Tincture of orange. 
Tincture of carda- 



2 ounces 



mom CO 1 ounce 

Citric acid 10 grains 

Water, enough to make 4 pints 
Let stand 24 hours, agitate frequently, 
and filter. See that the orange is fresh. 

BEEF PEPTONOmS: 
See Peptonoids. 

BEEF PRESERVATIVES: 
See Foods. 

BEEF TEA: 
See Beverages. 

BEERS, ALCOHOL IN: 
See Alcohol. 

BEER, GINGER, HOP-BriTER, 
SCOTCH, AND SPRUCE : 
See Beverages. 

BEER, RESTORATION OF SPOILED. 

L — Powdered chalk is poured into the 
cask and allowed to remain in the beer 
until completely precipitated. 

n. — The liquor of boiled raisins mav 
be poured into the beer, with the result 
that the sour taste of the beer is disguised. 

IIL — A small quantity of a solution of 
potash will remove the sour taste of 
Deer. Too much potash must not be 
added; otherwise the stomach will suffer. 
Beer thus restored will not keep long. 

ly. — If the beer is not completely 
spoiled it may be restored by the addi- 
hon of coarsely powdered charcoal. 

V. — If the addition of any of the above- 
^ mentioned substances should affect the 
taste of the beer, a little powdered zingi- 
ber may be used to advantage. Syrup 
or molas&es may also be employed. 

BEES, FOUL BROOD IN. 

'*Foul brood" is a contagious disease 
to which bees are subject. It is caused 
by bacteria and its presence may be 
known by the bees becoming languid. 
Dark, stringy, and elastic masses are 
found in the bottom of the cells, while 
the caps are sunken or irregularly punc- 
tured. Frequently the disease is said to 
be accompanied by a peculiar offensive 
odor. Prompt removal of diseased col- 
onies, their transfer to clean and thor- 
oughly disinfected hives, and feeding on 
antiseptically treated honey or sjrrup are 
the means taken for theprevention and 
cure of the disease. The antiseptics 
used are salicylic acid, carbolic acid, or 
formic acid. Spraying the brood with 
any one of these remedies in a solution 
and feeding with a honey or syrup medi- 
cated with them will usually be all that 
is required by way of treatment. It is 



also said that access to salt water is im* 
portant for the health of bees. 

BEETLE POWDER: 
See Insecticides. 

BELL METAL: 
See Alloys. 

BELLADONNA, ANTIDOTES TO: 

See Antidotes and Atropine. 

BELT PASTES FOR INCREASING 
ADHESION. 

I.— Tallow 60 parts 

Caster oil, crude 20 parts 

Fish oil 20 parts 

Colophony 10 parts 

Melt on a moderate fire and stir until 
the mass cools. 

II. — Melt 250 {Mirts of gum elastic 
with 250 parts of oil of turpentine in an 
iron, well-closed crucible at 122° F. 
(caution!) and mix well with 200 parts of 
colophony. After further melting add 
200 parto of yellow wax and stir carefully. 
Melt in 750 parts of heated train oil, 
250 parts of tallow, and to this add, with 
constant stirring, the first mixture when 
the latter is still warm, and let cool slowly 
with stirring. This grease is intended 
for cotton belts. 

III. — Gutta-percha 40 parts 

Rosin 10 parts 

Asphalt 15 parts 

Petroleum 60 parts 

Heat in a glass vessel on the water 
bath for a few hours, until a uniform so- 
lution is obtained. Let cool and add 15 
parts of carbon disulphide and allow the 
mixture to stand, shaking it frequently. 
Directions for Use, — The leather belts 
to be cemented should first be roughened 
at the joints, and after the cement has 
been applied they should be subjected 
to a strong pressure between warm 
rollers, whereupon they will adhere to- 
gether with much tenacity. 

Preset vation of Belts. — In a well-cov- 
ered iron vessel heat at a temperature of 
50° C. (152° F.) 1 part by weight of 
caoutchouc, cut in small pieces, with 1 
part by weight of rectified turpentine. 
When the caoutchouc is dissolved add 
0.8 part of colophony, stir until this is 
dissolved, and add to the mixture 0.1 
part of vellow wax. Into another vessel 
of suitable size pour 3 parts of fish oil, 
add 1 part of tallow, and neat the mixture 
until the tallow is melted; then pour on 
the contents of the first vessel, con- 
stantly stirring — an operation to be con- 
tinued until the matter is cooled and 
congealed. This grease is to be rubbed 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



106 



BENZINE 



on the inside of the belts from time to 
time, while they are in use. The belts 
run easily and do not slip. The urease 
may also serve for improving old belts. 
For this purpose the grease should be 
rubbed on both sides m a warm place. 
A first layer is allowed to soak in, and 
another applied. 

To Make a Belt Pull.— Hold a piece of 
tar soap on the inside of the belt while it 
is runmng. 

BELT CEBIEHT: 

See Adhesives. 

BELT GLUE: 
See Adhesives. 

BELT LUBRICAHT: 

See Lubricants. 

BENEDICTINE : 

See Wines and Liquors. 



Benzine 

Benzine, to Color Green. — Probably 
the simplest and cheapest as well as the 
best method of coloring benzine green is 
to dissolve in it sufficient oil soluble aniline 
green of the desired tint to give the re- 
quired shade. 

Purification of Benzine. — Hi-smelling 
benzine, mixed with about 1 to 2 per cent 
of its weight of free fatty acid, will dis- 
solve therein. One-fourth per cent of 
tannin is added and all is mixed well. 
Enough potash or soda lye, or even lime 
milk, IS added until the fatty acids are 
saponified, and the tannic acid is neu- 
tralized, shaking repeatedly. After a 
while the milky liquid separates into two 
layers, viz., a salty, soapy, mud-sediment 
and clear, colorless, and almost odorless 
benzine above. This benzine, filtered, 
may be employed for many technical 
purposes, but gives an excellent, pure 
product upon a second distillation. 

Fatty acid from tallow, olive oil, or 
other fats may be used, but care should 
be taken that they have as slight an odor 
of rancid fat as possible. The so-called 
elaine or olein — more correctly oleic acid 
— of the candle factories may likewise 
be employed, but it should first be agi- 
tated with a iV-per-cent soda solution to 
get rid of the bad-smelling fatty acids, 
especially the butyric acid. 

The Prevention of the Inflammability 
of Benzine. — A mixture of 9 volumes 
tetrachloride and 1 volume of benzine is 
practicably inflammable. The flame is 
.soon extinguished by itself. 



Substitute for Benzine as a deansing 
Agent. — 

I. — Chloroform 75 parts 

Ether 75 parts 

Alcohol 600 parts 

Decoction of quillaya 

bark 22,500 parts 

Mix. 
II. — Acetic ether, tech- 
nically pure 10 parts 

Amyl acetate 10 parts 

Ammonia water 10 parts 

Alcohol dilute 70 parts 

Mix. 

III. — Acetone 1 part 

Ammonia water 1 part 

Alcohol dilute 1 part 

Mix. 

Deodorizing Benzine. — 

I. — Benzine 20 ounces 

Oil of lavender. . . 1 fluidrachm 
Potassium dichro- 

mate 1 ounce 

Sulphuric acid ... 1 fluidounce 
Water 20 fluidounces 

Dissolve the dichromate in the water, 
add the acid and, when the solution is 
cold, the benzine. Shake everv hour 
during the day, allow to stand all night, 
decant the benzine, wash with a pint of 
water and again decant, then add the oil 
of lavender. 

II. — First add to the benzine 1 to 2 per 
cent of oleic acid, which dissolves. Then 
about a quarter of 1 per cent of tannin is 
incorporated by shalcing. A sufficient 
quantity of caustic potassa solution, or 
milk of lime, to combine with the acids 
is then well shaken into the mixture, 
and the whole allowed to stand. The 
benzine rises to the top of the w^aterv 
fluid, sufficiently deodorized and decol- 
orized for practical purposes. 

III.— To 1,750 parte of water add 250 
parte of sulphuric acid, and when it has 
cooled down add SO parte of potassium 
permanganate and let dissolve. Add 
this solution to 4,500 parte of benzine, 
stir well together, and set aside for 24 
hours. Now decant the benzine and to 
it add a solution of 7^ parte of potassium 
permang[anate and 15 parte of sodium 
hydrate in 1,000 parte ot water, and agi- 
tate the substances well together. Let 
stand until the benzine separates, then 
draw off. 

IV. — Dissolve S parte of litharge and 
18 parte of sodium hydrate in 40 parte of 
water. Add this to 200-250 parte of 
benzine and agitate well together for two 
minutes, then let settle and draw off the 
benzine. Rinse the latter by agitating 

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BEVERAGES 



107 



it with plenty of clear water, let settle, 
draw off the benzine, and, if necessary, 
repeat the opemtion. 

BENZmE, CLEANING WITH: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth* 
ods, under Miscellaneous Methods. 

BENZOIC ACm IN FOOD: 
See Food. 

BENZOnr SOAP: 
See Soap. 

BENZOPARAL: 

A neutral, bland, oily preparation of 
benzoin, useful for applying various 
antiseptics by the aid of an atomizer, 
nebulizer, or vaporizer. Can be used 
plain or in combination with other easily 
dissolved medicinals. 

ParafRne, lic^uid 16 ounces 

Gum benzoin 1 ounce 

Digest on a sand bath for a half hour 
and mter. 



Beverages 

GINGER ALE AND GINGER BEER: 
Old-Fashioned Ginger Beer. — 
Lemons, large and 

sound 6 only 

Ginger, bruised 8 ounces 

Sugar 6 cups 

Yeast, compressed ... } cake 

Boiling water 4 gallons 

Water enough 

Slice the lemons into a larse earthen- 
ware vessel, removing the seed. Add the 
ginger, sugar, and water. When the 
mixture has cooled to lukewarmness, add 
the yeast, first diffused in a little water. 
Cover the vessel with a piece of cheese 
cloth, and let the beer stand 24 hours. 
At the end of that time strain and bottle 
it. Cork securelv, but not so tightly that 
the bottles would break before the corks 
would fly out, and keep in a cool place. 

Ginger Beer. — Honey gives the bever- 
age a peculiar softness and, from not 
having fermented with yeast, is the less 
violent in its action when opened. In- 
gredients: White suj^ar, } pound; honey, 
I pound; bruised ginger, 5 ounces; juice 
of sufficient lemons to suit the taste; water, 
4 A ffallons. Boil the ginger in 8 quarts 
of Uie water for half an hour, then add 
the ginger, lemon juice, and honey, with 
the remainder of the water; then strain 
through a doth; when cold, add the 
quarter of tl^ white of an egg and a tea- 
spoonful of essence of lemon. Let the 
whole stand for four days before bot- 



tlinff. This quantity will make a hun- 
dred bottles. 

Ginger Beer without Yeast. — 

Ginger, bruised 1 } pounds 

Sugar 20 pounds 

Lemons 1 dozen 

Honey 1 pound 

Water enough 

Boil the ginger in 8 gallons of water 
for half an hour; add the sugar, the 
lemons (bruised and sliced), the honey, 
and 17 gallons of water. Strain and, 
after three or four days, bottle. 

Package Pop.— 

Cream of tartar 8 ounces 

Ginger, bruised 1 ounce 

Sugar 24 ounces 

Citric acid 2 drachms 

Put up in a package, and direct that it 
be shaken in 1} gallons of boiling water, 
strained when cooled, fermented with 1 
ounce of yeast, and bottled. 

Ginger- Ale Extract. — 
I. — Jamaica ginger, 

coarse powder. . 4 ounces 
Mace, powder. ... } ounce 
Canada snakeroot, 

coarse powder. . 60 ffrains 

Oil of lemon 1 nuidrachm 

Alcohol 1£ fluidounces 

Water. 4 fluidounces 

Magnesium car- 
bonate or puri- 
fied talcum 1 av. ounce 

Mix the first four ingredients, and 
make 16 fluidounces of tincture with 
the alcohol and water, by percolation. 
Dissolve the oil of lemon in a small quan- 
tity of alcohol, rub with magnesia or tal- 
cum, add gradually with constant trit- 
uration the tincture, and filter. The 
extract may be fortified bv adding 4 
avoirdupois ounces of powdered grains 
of paradise to the ginger, etc., of the 
above before extraction with alcohol and 
water. 
II. — Capsicum, coarse 

powder 8 ounces 

Water 6 pints 

Essence of ginger. 8 fluidounces 
Diluted alcohol.. . 7 fluidounces 
Vanilla extract. . . 2 fluidounces 

Oil of lemon 20 drops 

Caramel 1 fluidounce 

Boil the capsicum with water for three 
hours, occasionally replacing the water 
lost by evaporation; filter, concentrate 
the filtrate on a hot water bath to the con- 
sistency of a thin extract, add the remain- 
ing ingredients, and filter. r - . 

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108 



BEVERAGES 



III. — Jamaica ginger, 

ground 12 ounces 

Lemon peel» fresh, 

cut fine 2 ounces 

Capsicum, powder 1 ounce 

Calcined magne- 
sia ". . . 1 ounce 

^^^^^^'^j of each, sufficient 

Extract the mixed ginger and capsi- 
cum by percolation so as to obtain 16 
fluidounces of water, set the mixture aside 
for 24 hours, shaking vigorously from 
time to time, then filter, and pass through 
the filter enough of a mixture of 2 vol- 
umes of alcohol and 1 of water to make 
the filtrate measure 32 fluidounces. In 
the latter macerate the lemon peel for 
7 days, and again filter. 

Ginger Beer. — 

Brown sugar 2 pounds 

Boiling water 2 gallons 

Cream of tartar 1 ounce 

Bruised ginger root. . . 2 ounces 

Infuse the ginger in the boiling water, 
add the sugar and cream of tartar; when 
lukewarm strain; then add half pint good 
yeast. Let it stand all night, then bot- 
tle; one lemon and the white of an egg 
may be added to fine it. 

Lemon Beer. — 

Boiling water 1 gallon 

Lemon, sliced 1 

Ginger, bruised 1 ounce 

Yeast 1 teacupful 

Sugar 1 pound 

Let it stand 12 to 20 hours, and it is 
ready to be bottled. 

Hop Beer. — 

Water 6 quarts 

Hops 6 ounces 

Boil 3 hours, strain the liquor, add : 

Water 5 quarts 

Bruised ginger 4 ounces 

and boil a little longer, strain, and add 
4 pounds of sugar, and when milk- 
warm, 1 pint of yeast. Let it ferment; 
in 24 hours it is ready for bottling. 

(Enanthic Ether as a Flayoring for 
Ginger Ale. — A fruity, vinous bouquet 
and delightful flavor are produced by the 
presence of oenanthic ether or brandy 



flavor in ginger ale. This ether throws 
off a rich, pungent, vinous odor, and 
gives a smoothness very agreeable to any 
nquor or beverage of which it forms 
a part. It is a favorite with "brandy 
sophisticators." Add a few drops of 
the ether (previously dissolved in eight 
times its bulk of Cologne spirit) to the 
ginger-ale syrup just before bottling. 

Soluble Extract of Ginger Ale.— Of 
the following three formulas the first is 
intended for soda-fountain use, the sec- 
ond is a "cheap** extract for the bottlers 
who want a oncrounce-to-the-gallon ex- 
tract, and the third is a bottlers* extract 
to be used in the proportion of three 
ounces to a gallon of^ syrup. This latter 
is a most satisfactory extract and has 
been sold with most creditable results, 
both as to clearness of the finished ginger 
ale and delicacy of flavor. 

It will be noted that in these formulas 
oleoresin of ginger is used in addition to 
the powdered root. Those who do not 
mind the additional expense might use 
one-fourth of the same Quantity of vola- 
tile oil of ginger instead. This should 
develop an excellent flavor, since the oil 
is approximately sixteen times as strong 
as tne oleoresin, and has the additional 
advantage of being free from resinous 
extractive. 

The following are the formulas: 

I. — (To be used in the proportion of 
4 ounces of extract to 1 gallon of syrup.) 

Jamaica ginger, in 

fine powder 8 pounds 

Capsicum, in fine pow- 
der 6 ounces 

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix the powders intimately, moisten 
them with a sufficient quantity of alco- 
hol, and set aside for 4 hours. Pack 
in a cylindrical percolator and percolate 
with alcohol until 10 pints of percolate 
have resulted. Place the percolate in a 
bottle of the capacity of 16 pints, and 
add to it 2 fluidrachms of oleoresin of 
ginger; shake, add 2} pounds of finely 
powdered pumice stone, and agitate thor- 
oughly at intervals of one-half hour for 12 
hours. Then add 14 pints of water in 
quantities of 1 pint at each addition, 
snaking briskly meanwhile. This part 
of the operation is most important. Set 
the mixture aside for 24 hours, agitating 
it strongly every hour or so during that 
period. Then take 

Oil of lemon 1 J fluidounces 

Oil of rose (or ge- 
ranium) 3 fluidrachms 

Oil of bergamot .... 2 fluidrachms 



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BEVERAGES 



109 



Oil of cinnamon. . . . S fluidrachms 

Magnesium carbon- 
ate S fluidounces 

Rub the oils with the magnesia in a 
large mortar and add 9 ounces of the 
clear portion of the ginger mixture to 
which have been previously added 2 
ounces of alcohol, and continue tritu- 
ration, rinsing out the mortar with the 
^nger mixture. Pass the ginger mixture 
through a double filter and add through 
the filter the mixture of oils and magnesia; 
finally pass enough water through the 
filter to make the resulting product 
measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons. If the 
operator should desire an extract of more 
or less pungency, he may obtain his de- 
sired effect by increasing or decreasing 
the quantity of powdered capsicum in 
the formula. 

n. — (To be used in the proportion of 1 
ounce to 1 gallon of syrup.) 
Ginger, in moderately 

fine powder 6 pounds 

Capsicum, in fine pow- 

aer 2 J pounds 

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 

Mix, moisten the powder with 3 pints 
of alcohol, and set aside in a suitable 
vessel for 4 hours. Then pack the pow- 
der firmly in a cylindrical percolator, 
and percolate until 6 pints of extract are 
obtained. Set this mixture aside and 
label Percolate No. 1, and continue the 
percolation with 1} pints of alcohol 
mixed with 1^ pints of water. Set the 
resultant tincture aside, and label Per- 
colate No. 2. 

Take oleoresin ginger 5 fluid ounces 
and add to Percolate No. 1. Then take: 

Oil of lemon 1} fluidounces 

Oil of cinnamon. . . 1 fluidounce 

Oil of geranium i fluidounce 

Magnesium carbon- 
ate 8 ounces 

Triturate the oils with the magnesia, 
add gradually Percolate No. 2, and set 
aside. Then place Percolate No. 1 in a 
large bottle, add 3} pounds of finely pow- 
dered pumic^ stone, and shake at inter- 
vals of^half an hour for six hours. This 
bein^ completed, add the mixture of oils, 
and later 10 pints of water, in quantities 
of ^ a pint at a time, shaking vigorously 
after each solution. Let the mixture 
stand for 24 hours, shaking it at inter- 
vals, and then pass it through a double 
filter. Finally add enough water through 
the filter to make the product measure 
24 pints, or 3 gallons. 

ni. — (To be used in proportion of 3 
ounces to 1 gallon of syrup.) 



Ginger, in moderately 

fine powder 8 pounds 

Capsicum, in moder- 
ately fine powder . . 2 pounds 

Alcohol, q. 8. 

Mix, moisten with alcohol, and set 
aside as in the preceding formula; then 
percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of 
extract are obtained. To this add oleo- 
resin of ginffer 3 drachms, and place in 
a large bottle. Add 2} pounds of pow- 
dered pumice stone, and shake as di- 
rected for formula No. 1. Then add 14 
pints of water, in quantities of 1 pint at a 
time, shaking vigorously after each addi- 
tion. Set the mixture aside for 24 hours, 
shaking at intervals. Then take: 

Oil of lemon 1 } fluidounces 

Oil of geranium ... } fluidounce 
Oil of cinnamon ... 3 fluidrachms 
Magnesia carbonate 3 ounces 

Rub these in a mortar with the mag- 
nesia, and add 9 ounces of the clear por- 
tion of the ginger mixture mixed with 2 
ounces of alcohol, rubbing the mixture 
until it becomes smooth. Prepare a 
double filter, and filter the ginger mix- 
ture, adding through the filter the mix- 
ture of oils and magnesia. Finally add 
enough water through the filter to make 
the final product measure 24 pints, or 3 
gallons. 

If these formulas are properly manip- 
ulated the extracts shoulci keep for a 
reasonable length of time without a pre- 
cipitate. If, however, a precipitate oc- 
cur after the extract has stood for a 
week, it should be refiltered. 

LEMONADES: 

Lemonade Preparations for the Sick. — 
I. — Strawberry Lemonade: Citric acid, 6 
parts; water, 100 parts; sugar, 450 parts; 
strawberry syrup, 600 parts; cherry syr- 
up, 300 parts; claret, 450 parts; aromatic 
tincture, ad lib. 

II. — Lemonade Powder: Sodium bi- 
carbonate, 65; tartaric acid, 60; sugar, 
125; lemon oil, 12 drops. 

III. — Lemonade juice: Sugar syrup, 
200; tartaric acid, 15; distilled water, 
100; lemon oil, 3; tincture of vanilla, 6 
drops. 

IV. — Lemonade Lozenges: Tartaric 
acid, 10; sugar, 30; gum arable, 2; pow- 
dered starch, 0.5; lemon oil, 6 drops; 
tincture of vanilla, 25 drops; and suffi- 
cient diluted spirit of wine so that 30 
lozenges can be made with it. 

Lemonade for Diabetics. — The follow- 
ing is said to be useful for assuaging the 
thirst of diabetics: ^.^^.^^^^^ ^^ GOOglC 



no 



BEVERAGES 



Citric acid 1 part 

Glycerine 60 parts 

Cognac 50 parts 

Distilled water 500 parts 

Hot Lemonade. — Take ft large, fresh 
lemons, and wash them clean with cold 
water. Roll them until soft; then divide 
each into halves, and use a lemon-s()ueez- 
er or reamer to express the juice into a 
small pitcher. Remove all the seeds 
from the juice, to which add 4 or more 
tablespoonfuls of white sugar, according 
to taste. A pint of boiling water is now 
added, and tne mixture stirred until the 
sugar is dissolved. The beverag^ is very 
effective in producing perspiration, and 
should be drunk whue hot. The same 
formula may be used for making cold 
lemonade, by substituting ice water for 
the hot water, and adding a piece of 
lemon peel. If desired, a weaker lemon- 
ade may be made by using more water. 

Lemonades, Lemon and ^ur Drinks 
for Soda- Water Fountains. — ^Plain Lem- 
onade. — Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized 
sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; filtered water, suffi- 
cient; shaved ice, sufficient. 

Mix and shake well. Garnish with 
fruit, and serve with both spoon and 
straws. 

Hurler's Lemonade. — Juice of 1 lem- 
on; simple syrup, 2 ounces; soda water, 
sufficient. Dress with sliced pineapple, 
and serve with straws. In mixing, do 
not shake, but stir with a spoon. 

Pineapple Lemonade.— -Juice of 1 
lemon; p]neat)ple syrup, 2 ounces; soda 
water, sufficient. Dress with fruit. 
Serve with straws. 

Seltzer Lemonade. — Juice of 1 lemon; 
pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls. Fill 
with seltzer. Dress with sliced lemon. 

Apollinaris Lemonade. — The same as 
seltzer, substituting apollinaris water for 
seltzer. 

Limeade. — Juice of 1 lime; pulverized 
sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; water, sufficient. 
IVnere fresh limes are not obtainable, 
use bottled lime juice. 

Orangeade. — Juice of 1 orange; pul- 
verized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; water, 
sufficient; snaved ice, sufficient. Dress 
with sliced orange and cherries. Serve 
with straws. 

Seltzer and Lemon. — Juice of 1 lemon; 
seltzer, sufficient. Serve in a small 
glass. 

Claret Lemonade. — Juice of 1 lemon; 
pulverized sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls. Make 
lemonade, pour into a glass containing 



shaved ice until the glass lacks about one 
inch of being full. Pour in sufficient 
claret to fill the g[lass. Dress with cher- 
ries and sliced pineapple. 

Claret Punch. — Juice of 1 lemon; pul- 
verized sugar, 8 teaspoonfuls; claret 
wine, 2 ounces; shaved ice, sufficient. 
Serv^ in small ^lass. Dress with sliced 
lemon, and fruit in season. Brijght red 
cherries and plums make attractive gar- 
nishings. 

Raspberry Lemonade. — ^I.-^ Juice of 1 
lemon; 8 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar; 
1 tablespoonful raspberry juice; shaved 
ice; plain water; shake. 

li. — Juice of 1 lemon; 2 teaspoonfuls 
powdered sugar; i ounce raspberry 
syrup; shaved ice; water; shake. 

Banjo Sour. — Pare a lemon, cut it in 
two, add a large tablespoonful of sugar, 
then thoroughly muddle it; add the 
white of an egg; an ounce of sloe gin; 3 
or 4 dashes of abricotine; shake well; 
strain into a goblet or fizz glass, and fill 
balance with soda; decorate with a slice 
of pineapple and cherry. 

Orgeat Punch.— Orgeat sjrup, 12 
drachms; brandy, 1 ounce; juice of I 
lemon. 

Granola. — Orange s^up, 1 ounce; 
grape syrup, 1 ounce; juice of } lemon; 
shaved ice, q. s. Serve with straws. 
Dress with sliced lemon or pineapple. 

American Lemonade. — One ounce or- 
ange syrup; 1 ounce lemon syrup; 1 tea- 
spoonful powdered sugar; 1 dash acid- 
pnosphate solution; i glass shaved ice. 
Fill with coarse stream. Add slice of 
orange, and run two straws through it. 

Oid-Fashioned Lemonade. — Put in a 
freezer and freeze almost hard, then add 
the fruits, and freeze very hard. Serve 
in a silver sherbet cup. 

"Ping Pong" Frapp^. — Grape juice, 
unfermented, 1 quart; port wine (Cali- 
fornia), i pint; lemon syrup, 12 ounces; 
pineapple svrup, 2 ounces; orange syrup, 
4 ounces; Benedictine cordial, 4 ounces; 
sugar, 1 pound. 

Dissolve sugar in grape juice and put 
in wine; add the syrup and cordial; 
serve from a punch bowl, with ladle, into 
12-ounce narrow lemonade glass and 
fill with solid stream; garnish with slice 
of orange and pineapple, and serve with 
straw. 

Orange Frapp^.— Glass half full of 
fine ice; tablespoonful powdered sugar; 
i ounce orange syrup; 2 dashes lemon 
syrup; dash prepared.r^pberry; J ounce 

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BEVERAGES 



111 



acid-phosphate solution. Fill with soda 
and stir well ; strain into a mineral glass 
and serve. 

Hot Lemonades. — 
I. — Lemon essence. . 4 fluidradmis 
Solution of citric 

acid 1 fluidounce 

Syrup, enough to 

make 8£ fluicrounces 

In serving* draw 2} fluidounces of the 
syrup into an 8-ounce mug, fill with hot 
water, and serve with a spoon. 

II. — Lemon 1 

Alcohol ........ 1 fluidounce 

Solution of citric 

acid 2 fluidrachms 

Sugar 20 av. ounces 

Water 20 fluidounces 

White of 1 egg 

Grate the peel of the lemon, macerate 
with the alconol for a day; express; also 
express the lemon, mix the two, add the 
sugar and water, dissolve by agitation, 
and add the solution of citric acid and 
the white of egg, the latter first beaten to 
a froth. Serve like the preceding. 

Egg Lemonade. — I. — Break 1 egg into 
asoda fflass, add 1} ounces lemon syrup, 
a drachm of lemon juice, and a little 
shaved ice; then draw carbonated water 
to fill the glass, stirring well. 

11. — Shaved ice } tumblerful 

Powdered sugar 4 tablespoonfuls 

Juice of 1 lemon 

Yolk of 1 egg 

Shake well, and add carbonated water 
to fill the glass. 

HOT SODA-WATER DRIKKS: 

Chocolate. — I. — This may be prepared 
in two ways, from the powdered cocoa or 
from a syrup. To prepare the cocoa for 
use, dry mix with an equal quantity of 
pulverized sugar and use a heaping 
teaspoonful to a mug. To prepare a 
syrup, take 12 ounces of cocoa, 5 pints 
of water, and 4 pounds of sugar. ^ Re- 
duce the cocoa to a smooth paste with a 
little warm water. Put on the fire. 
When the water becomes hot add the 
paste, and then allow to boil for 8 or 4 
minutes; remove from fire and add the 
sugar; stir carefully while heating, to 
prevent scorching; when cold add 3 
drachms of vanilla; } to ] ounce will suf- 
fice for a cup of chocolate; top off with 
whipped cream. 
U. — Baker's fountain choc- 
olate 1 pound 

Syrup 1 gallon 

Extract vanilla enough 



Shave the chocolate into a ffallon por- 
celained evaporating dish and melt with 
a gentle heat, stirring with a thin-bladed 
spatula. When melted remove from the 
fire and add 1 ounce of cold water, mix- 
ing well. Add ^adually 1 gallon of hot 
syrup and strain; flavor to suit. Use 
1 ounce to a mug. 

III.— Hot Egg Chocolate.— Break a 
fresh egg into a soda tumbler; add 1} 
ounces chocolate syrup and 1 ounce 
cream; shake thoroughly, add hot soda 
slowly into the shaker, stirring mean- 
while; strain carefully into mug; top off 
with whipped cream and serve. 

IV.-^Hot ChocoUte and Milk.— 
Chocolate syrup .... 1 ounce 
Hot milk 4 ounces 

Stir well, fill mug with hot soda and 
serve. 

v.— Hot Eeg Chocolate.— One egg, U 
ounces chocolate syrup, 1 teaspoonful 
sweet cream; shake, strain, ado 1 cup 
hot soda, and 1 tablespoonful whipped 
cream. 

Coffee. — L — Make an extract by mac- 
erating 1 pound of the best Mocha and 
Java with 8 ounces of water for 20 min- 
utes, then add hot water enough to per- 
colate 1 pint. One or 2 drachms of this 
extract will make a delicious cup of cof- 
fee. Serve either with or without cream, 
and let customer sweeten to taste. 

II. — Pack i pound of pulverized cof- 
fee in a percolator. Percolate with 2 
auarts of boiling water, letting it run 
irough twice. ^ Add to this 2 quarts of 
milk; keep hot in an urn and draw as a 
finished arink. Add a lump of sugar 
and top off with whipped cream. 

III. — Coffee syrup may be made by 
adding boiling water from the apparatus 
to I pound of coffee, placed in a suitable 
filter or coffeepot, until 2 auarts of the 
infusion are ootained. ' Add to this 8 
pounds of sugar. In dispensing, first 
put sufficient cream in the cup, add the 
coffee, then sweeten, if necessary, and 
mix with the stream from the draught 
tube. 

IV. — Mocha coffee (ground 

fine) 4 ounces 

Java coffee (ground 

fine) 4 ounces 

Granulated sugar. ... 6 pounds 
Hot water q. s. 

Percolate the coffee with hot water un- 
til the percolate measures 72 ounces. 
Dissolve the sugar in the percolate by 
agitation without heat and strain. 

Hot Egg Orangeade. — One e^g; juice 

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112 



BEVERAGES 



of i orange; 2 teaspoonfuls powdered 
sugar. Shake, strain, add 1 cup of hot 
water. Stir, serve with nutmeg. 

Hot Egg Bouillon. — One-half ounce 
liquid extract beef; 1 egg; salt and pep- 
per; hot water to fill 8-ounce mug. Stir 
extract, egg, and seasoning together; add 
water, still stirring; strain ana serve. 

Hot Celery Punch. — One - quarter 
ounce of clam juice; I ounce beef extract; 
1 ounce of cream; 4 dashes of celery es- 
sence. Stir while adding hot water, and 
serve with spices. 

Chicken Bouillon. — Two ounces con- 
centrated chicken; J ounce sweet cream 
and spice. Stir while adding hot water. 

Ginger.— 

Fluid extract of ginger 2} ounces 

Sugar 40 ounces 

Water, to 2i pints 

Take 10 ounces of the sugar and mix 
with the fluid extract of ginger; heat on 
the water bath until the alcohol is evap- 
orated. Then mix with 20 ounces of 
water and shake till dissolved. Filter 
and add the balance of the water and the 
sugar. Dissolve by agitation. 

Cocoa Sjmip. — 
I. — Cocoa, light, soluble. 4 ounces 
Granulated sugar.. . . 2 pounds 

Boiling hot water 1 quart 

Extract vanilla 1 ounce 

Dissolve the cocoa in the hot water, by 
stirring, then add the sugar and dissolve. 
Strain, and when cold add the vanilla 
extract. 

II. — Cocoa syrup 2 ounces 

Cream 1 ounce 

Turn on the hot water stream and stir 
while filling. Top off with whipped 
cream. 

Hot Soda Toddy.— 

Lemon juice 2 fluidrachms 

Lemon syrup 1 fluidounce 

Aromatic bitters. ... 1 fluidrachm 
Hot water, enough to fill an 8-ounce 
mug. 

Sprinkle with nutmeg or cinnamon. 

Hot Orange Phosphate.— 

Orange syrup 1 fluidounce 

Solution of acid 

phosphate 1 fluidrachm 

Hot water, enough to fill an 8-ounce 

mug. 

It is prepared more acceptably bv mix- 
ing the juice of half an orange with acid 
phosphate, sugar, and hot water. 



Pepsin Phosphate. — One teaspoonful 
of liquid pepsin; 2 dashes of acid phos- 
phate; 1 ounce of lemon syrup; 1 cup hot 
water. 

Cream Beef Tea. — Use 1 teaspoonful 
of liquid beef extract in a mug of hot 
water, season with salt and pepper, then 
stir in a tablespoonful of rich cream. 
Put a teaspoonful of whipped cream on 
top and serve with flakes. 

Cherry Phosphate. — Cherry-phosphate 
syrup, IJ ounces; hot water to make 8 
ounces. 

Cherry-phosphate syrup is made as 
follows: Cherry juice, S pints; sugar, 6 
pounds; water, 1 pint; acid phosphate, 
4 ounces. Bring to a boil, and when 
cool add the acid phosphate. 

Celery Clam Punch. — Clam juice, 2 
drachms; beef extract, 1 drachm; cream. 

1 ounce; essence of celery, 5 drops; hot 
water to make 8 ounces. 

Claret Punch. — Claret wine, 2 ounces; 
sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls; juice of } lemon; 
hot water to make 8 ounces. 

Ginger. — Extract of ginger, 2 drachms; 
sugar, 2 drachms; lemon juice, 2 dashes; 
hot water to make 8 ounces. 

Lemon Juice, Plain. — Fresh lemon 

t'uice, 2^ drachms; lemon syrup, 1 ounce; 
lot water, q. s. to make 8 ounces. 

Lime Juice. — Lime juice, f drachm; 
lemon syrup, 1 ounce; hot water to make 
8 ounces. Mix. Eberle remarks that 
lemon juice or lime juice enters into 
many combinations. In plain soda it 
may be combined with ginger and other 
flavors, as, for instance, chocolate and 
coffee. 

Lemonade. — Juice of 1 lemon; pow- 
dered sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; hot water to 
make 8 ounces. A small piece of fresh 
lemon peel twisted over the cup lends an 
added flavor. 

Hot Malt.— Extract of malt, 1 ounce; 
cherry syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, suffi- 
cient to make 8 ounces. Mix. 

Malted Milk.— Horlick's malted milk, 

2 tablespoonfuls; hot water, quantity 
sufficient to make 8 ounces; flavoring to 
suit. Mix. Essence of coffee, choco- 
late, etc., and many of the fruit syrups 
go well with malted milk. 

Hot Malted Milk Coffee (or Chocolate). 
— Malted milk, 2 teaspoonfuls; coffee 
(or chocolate) syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, 
quantity sufficient to make 8 ounces. 

Hot Beef Tea. —I . —Best beef extract . 1 
tablespoonful; sweet cream, 1 ounce; hot 



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BEVERAGES 



118 



vater, 7 ounces; pepper, salt, etc., quan- 
tity saiBcient. Aix . 

II.~£xtract beef bouillon, 1 teaspoon- 
fiil; extract aromatic soup herbs (see 
Condiments), 10 drops; hot soda, 1 cup- 
ful. Mix. 

III.— Extract of beef 1 teaspoonf ul 

Hot water q. s. 

Pepper, salt, and celery salt 
Mix. 

Hot Bouillon. — 

Beef extract 1 ounce 

Hot water, q. s. to 

make 8 ounces 

Pepper, salt, etc q. s. 

Mix. 

dam Boidllon. — 

I. — Clam juice 12 drachms 

Cream 2 ounces 

Hot water, q. s. to make 8 ounces 
Mix. 

II. — Extract clam bouillon 2 ounces 

Prepared milk 2 drachms 

Extract of aromatic 

soup herbs 5 drops 

Extract white pepper.. 5 drops 

Hot soda 1 cupiul 

Mix. 

in. — Clam juice may be served with 
hot water, salt and pepper added. Add- 
ing butter makes this bouillon a broth. 

It may also^ be served with milk or 
cream, lemon juice, tomato catsup, etc. 
Hot oyster juice may be served in the 
same way. 

Hot Tea.— 

I. — Tea syrup sufficient 

Hot water, q. s. to 

make 1 cupful 

II- — Loaf sugar 4 cubes 

Extract of Oolong 

tea, about 1 dessertsp'f ul 

Prepared milk, about 1 dessertsp'ful 

Hot soda 1 cupful 

Whipped cream. . . 1 tablespoonful 
Mix the tea extract, sugar, and pre- 
wired milk, pour on water, and dissolve. 
Top off with whipped cream. 

Hot £gg[ Drinks.— I.— One-half to 1 
ounce liquid extract of beef, 1 egg, salt 
and pepper to season, hot water to fill an 
8-ounce mug. Stir the extract, egg, and 
seasoning together with a spoon, to get 
well mixed, add the water, stirring brisk- 
Iv meanwhile; then strain, and serve. 
Or shake the egg and extract in a shaker, 
add the water, and mix bv pouring back 
and forth several times, from shaker to 
mug. 



II.— Hot Egg Chocolate.— One to 1} 
ounces chocolate syrup, 1 egg, i ounce 
cream, hot water sufficient to fill an 
8-ounce mug. 



Mix the syrup, egff, and cream to- 
_ ither in an egg-shaKer; shake as in 
making cold drinks; add the hot water. 



and mix all by pouring back and 
forth several times, from shaker to mug. 
Or, prepare by beating the egg with a 
spoon, add the syrup and cream, mix all 
quickly with the spoon, and add hot 
water, stirring constantly, and strain. 

III.— Hot Egg Coffee.— One egg, 1 
dessertspoonful extract of coffee, 1 tea- 
spoonful sweet cream, 1 ounce syrup. 
Shake well, strain, and add 1 cupful hot 
water and top with whipped cream. 

IV.— Hot Egg Lemonade.— One egg, 
juice of 1 lemon, 8 teaspoonf uls powdered 
sugar. Beat the esg with lemon juice 
and sugar thoroughly. Mix while add- 
ing the water. Serve grated nutmeg and 
cinnamon. The amount of lemon juice 
and sugar may be varied to suit different 
tastes. 

v.— Hot Egg Ifilk.— Two teaspoon- 
fuls sugar, 1 ounce cream, 1 egg, hot 
milk to fill an 8-ounce mug. Prepare as 
in hot egg chocolate, top with whipped 
cream, and sprinkle with nutmeg. If 
there are no facilities for keeping hot 
milk, use about 2 ounces of cream, and 
fill mug with hot water. 

VI.— Hot Egg Nogg.— Plain syrup, 
i ounce; brandy, i ounce; Angostura 
bitters, 8 drops; 1 egg. Put in shaker 
and beat well. Strain in 10-ounce mug, 
and fill with hot milk; finish with 
whipped cream and nutmeg. 

VII.— Hot Egg Phosphate.— Two 

ounces lemon syrup, 1 egg, A ounce solu- 
tion of acid phospnate. Mix in a glass, 
and shake together thoroughly; pour in- 
to another glass, heated previously, and 
slowly draw full of hot water; season with 
nutmeg. 

VIII.— Hot Egff Phosphate.— Break 
fresh egg into shaker and add i ounce 
pineapple syrup, } ounce orange syrup, 
1 dash phosphate. Shake, witnout ice, 
and pour into bouillon cup. Draw cup- 
ful oi hot water, sprinkle a touch of cin- 
namon, and serve with wafers. 

FANCY SODA DRINKS: 

Coffee Cream Soda.— Serve in a 12- 
ounce glass. Draw 1} ounces of syrup 
and 1 ounce of cream. Into the shaker 
draw 8 ounces of carbonated water, pour 
into the glass sufficient to fill it to within 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC. 



114 



BEVERAGES 



1 inch of the top; pour from glass to 
shaker and back, once or twice, to mix 
thoroughly; give the drink a rich, creamy 
appearance, and make it cream suffi- 
ciently to fill the glass. 

Iced Coffee. — Serve in a 10-ounce 
glass. Draw 1 ounce into glass, fill 
nearly full with ice-cold milk, and mix by 
stirring. 

Egg Malted Milk Coffee.— Prepare 
same as .malted milk coffee, with the ex- 
ception of adding the egg before shaking, 
and top off with a litUe nutmeg, if de- 
sired. This drink is sometimes called 
coffee light lunch. 

Coffee Firnpp^. — Serve in a 12-ounce 
glass. Coffee syrup, 1} ounces; white 
of 1 egg; 1 to li ounces of pure, rich, 
sweet cream; a small portion of fine 
shaved ice; shake thoroughly to beat the 
white of the eg^ light, and then remove 
the glass, leaving the contents in the 
shaker. Now fill the shaker two-thirds 
full, using the fine stream onlv. Draw 
as quickly as possible that the drink may 
be nice and light. Now pour into glass 
and back, and then strain into a dean 
glass. Serve at once, and without 
straws. This should be drunk at once, 
else it will settle, and lose its lightness 
and richness. 

Coffee Nogg. — 

Coffee syrup bounces 

Brandy 4 drachms 

Cream ft ounces 

One egg. 

Coffee Cocktail.— 

Coffee syrup 1 ounce 

One eg[g. 

Port wine 1 ounce 

Brandy 2 dradims 

Shake, strain into a small glass, and 
add soda. Mace on top. 

Chocolate and Milk.— 

Chocolate syrup. .... 2 ounces 
Sweet milk, sufficient. 

Fill a glass half full of shaved ice, put 
in the syrup, and add milk until the glass 
is almost full. Shake well, and serve 
without straining. Put whipped cream 
on top and serve with straws. 

Chocolate Frapp^. — 

Frozen whipped cream, sufficient. 
Shaved ice, sufficient. 

Fill a glass half full of frozen whipped 
cream, fill with shaved ice nearly to the 



top, and pour in chocolate syrup. Other 

syrups may be used, if desired. 

Royal Flrapp^. — This drink consists of 
S parts black coffee and 1 part of brandy, 
frozen in a cooler, and served while in a 
semifrozen state. 

Mint Julep. — One-half tumbler sha ved 
ice, teaspoonful powdered sugar, dash 
lemon juice, £ or 8 sprigs of fresh mint. 
Crush the mint against side of the glass 
to get the flavor. Then add claret syrup, 
^ ounce; raspberrv syrup, 1} ounces; and 
draw carbonated water nearly to fill 
glass. Insert bunch of mint and fill 
glass, leaving full of shaved ice. Serve 
with straws, and decorate with fruits of 
the season. 

Grape Glac^.- Beat thoroughly the 
whites of 4 eggs and stir in 1 pound of 
powdered sugar, then add 1 pint grape 
juice, 1 pint water, and 1 pound more of 
powdered sugar. Stir well until sugar 
IS dissolved, and serve from a pitcher or 
glass dish, with ladle. 

"Golf Goblet."- Serve in a l£-ounce 
glass; fill two- thirds fuU of cracked ice, 
add ^ ounce pineapple juice, 1 teaspoon- 
ful lemon juice, 1 teaspoonful raspberry 
vinegar. Put spoon in glass, and fill to 
within one-half inch of top with carbon- 
ated water; add shaved ice, heaping full. 
Put strawberry or cherry on top, and 
stick slice of orange down side ot glass. 
Serve with spoon and straws. 

Goldenade. — Shaved ice, } tumbler- 
ful; powdered sugar; juice of 1 lemon; 
yolk of 1 egg. Shake well, add soda 
water from large stream, turn from tum- 
bler to shaker, and vice versa, several 
times, and strain through julep strainer 
into a 12- ounce tumbler. 

Lunar Blend. — Take two mixing 
glasses, break an egg, putting the volk 
in one glass, the white into the otner; 
into the glass with the yolk add 1 ounce 
cherry syrup and some cracked ice; 
shake, add small quantity soda, and 
strain into a 12-ounce glass. Into the 
other mixing glass add 1 ounce plain 
sweet cream, and beat with bar spoons 
until well whipped; add i ounce lemon 
syrup, then transfer it into the shaker, 
and add soda from fine stream only, 
and float on top of the one containing 
the yolk and snerry. Serve with two 
straws. 

Egg Chocolate. — 

Chocolate syrup 2 ounces 

Cream 4 ounces 

White of one egg. 



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BEVERAGES 



115 



Egg CiteiA de Menffae. — 

Mint syrup 12 drachma 

Cream 8 ounces 

White of one egg. 

Whisky 4 drachms 

Egg Sherbet — 

Sherry syrup 4 draduns 

Pineapple syrup 4 drachms 

Raspberry syrup 4 drachms 

One egg. 
Cream. 

EggQaiet — 

Claret syrup ft ounces 

Cream 3 ounces 

One egg. 

Royal Mist- 
Orange syrup 1 ounce 

Catawba syrup 1 ounce 

Cream 2 ounces 

One egg. 

Banana Cream. — 

Banana syrup 12 drachms 

Cream 4 ounces 

One egg. 

Egg Coffee.— 

Coffee syrup 2 ounces 

Cream S ounces 

One egg, 
Shayed ice. 

Cocoa Hint- 
Chocolate syrup 1 ounce 

Peppermint syrup. ... 1 ounce 
Wmte of one egg. 

Cream 2 ounces 

The peppermint syrup is made as fol- 
lows: 

Oil of peppermint. . . 80 minims 

Syrup simplex 1 gallon 

Soda foam 1 ounce 

Egg Lemonade. — 
Juice of one lemon. 

Pulyerized sugar 8 teasp'f uls 

One egg. 
Water, q. s. 
Shake well, using plenty of ice, and 
serye in a small glass. 

Hadjy.- 

Raspberry juice 1 ounce 

Pineapple syrup 1 ounce 

One egg. 

Cream 2 ounces 

Sberian FUp.— 

Orange syrup 1 ounce 

Pineapple syrup 1 ounce 

One egg. 

Cream 2 ounces 



Egg Orgeat—- 

Orgeat syrup 12 drachms 

Cream 8 ounces 

One egg. 

Nonnona. — 

Peach syrup 1 ounce 

Grape syrup 1 ounce 

Cream 8 ounces 

Brandy 2 drachms 

One egg. 

SUyer Firz.— 

Catawba syrup 2 ounces 

Holland gin 2 drachms 

Lemon juice 8 dashes 

White of one egg. 

Golden Fizz. — 

Claret syrup 2 ounces 

Holland gin } ounce 

Lemon juice 8 dashes 

Yolk of one egg* 

Rose Cream.— 

Rose syrup .12 drachms 

Cream 4 ounces 

White of one egg- 
Violet Cream.- 

Violet syrup 12 dradims 

Cream 4 ounces 

White of one egg. 

Rose Mint- 
Rose syrup 6 drachms 

Mint syrup 6 drachms 

Cream 8 ounces 

White of one egg. 

Ctsrrmnt Cream.— 

Red-currant syrup. . . 2 ounces 

Cream 8 ounces 

One egg. 

Quince Flip. — 

Quince syrup 2 ounces 

Cream 8 ounces 

One CM. 
Shayed ice. 

Coffee Hogg. — 

Coffee syrup 2 ounces 

Brandy 4 drachms 

Cream 2 ounces 

One egg. 

Egg Sour. — 

Juice of one lemon. 

Simple syrup 12 drachms 

One egg. 

Shake, strain, and fill with soda. Mace 
on top. 

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116 



BEVERAGES 



Lemon Sour. — 

Lemon syrup 12 drachms 

Juice of one lemon. 
One egg. 

Raspberry Sour. — 

Raspberry syrup 12 drachms 

One egff. \ 

Juice of one lenum. 

Yama. — 
One egg. 

Cream £ ounces 

Sugar 2 teaspoonfuls 

Jamaica rum i ounce 

Shake well, put into cup, and add hot 
water. Serve with whipped cream, and 
sprinkle mace on top. 

Prairie Oyster. — 

Cider vinegar 2 ounces 

One egg. 
Put vinegar into glass, and break into 
it the egg. Season with salt and pepper. 
Serve without mixing. 

Fruit Frapp^. — 

Granulated gelatin. . . 1 ounce 
Juice of six lemons. 
Beaten whites of two eggs. 

Water 5 quarts 

Syrup. 1 quart 

Maraschino cherries. . 8 ounces 

Sliced peach 4 ounces 

Sliced pineapple 4 ounces 

Whole strawDerries. . . 4 ounces 

Sliced orange 4 ounces 

Dissolve the eelatin in 1 auart boiling 
hot water; add tne svrup ana the balance 
of the water; add the whites of the eggs 
and lemon juice. 

KOUMISS. 

The original koumiss is the Russian, 
made from mare's milk, while that pro- 
diiced in this country and other parts of 
Europe is usually, probably always, made 
from cow's milk. For this reason there 
is a difference in the preparation which 
-may or may not be of consequence. It 
has been asserted that the ferment used 
in Russia differs from ordinary yeast, but 
this has not been established. 

In an article on this subject, contrib- 
uted bv D. H. Davies to the Pharma- 
ceutical Journal and Transactions^ it is 
pointed out that mare's milk contains less 
casein and fatty matter than cow's 
milk, and he states that it is 'therefore 
far more ea,sy of digestion." He thinks 
that cow's milk yields a better prepara- 
tion when diluted with water to reduce 
the percentage of casein, etc. He pro- 
poses the following formula: 



Fresh milk . . 12 ounces 

Water 4 ounces 

Brown sugar 150 grains 

Compressed yeast. . . 24 grains 

Milk sugar 8 drachms 

Dissolve the milk sugar in the water, 
add to the milk, rub the yeast and brown 
sugar down in a mortar with a little of 
the mixture, then strain into the other 
portion. 

Strong bottles are very essential, cham- 
pagne bottles being freauently used, and 
the corks should fit tigntly; in fact, it is 
almost necessary to use a bottling ma- 
chine for the purpose, and once the cork 
is properly fixed it should be wired down. 
Many failures have resulted because the 
corks did not fit properly, the result being 
that the carbon dioxide escaped as 
formed and left a worthless preparation. 
It is further necessary to keep the prepa- 
ration at a moderate temperature, ana to 
be sure that the article is properly fin- 
ished the operator should gently shake 
the bottles each day for about 10 min- 
utes to prevent the clotting of the casein. 
It is weH to take the precaution of rolling 
a cloth around the bottle during the 
shaking process, as the amount dt gas 

fenerated is great, and should the bottle 
e weak it might explode. 
Kogelman says that if 1 volume of 
buttermilk be mixed with 1 or 2 vol- 
umes of sweet milk, in a short time 
lively fermentation sets in, and in about 
3 days the work is completed. This, ac- 
cording to the author, produces a wine- 
scentea fluid, rich in alcohol, carbon 
dioxide, lactic acid, and casein, which, 
according to all investigations yet made, 
is identical with koumiss. The follow- 
ing practical hints are given for the pro- 
duction of a good article: The sweet milk 
used should not be entirely freed from 
cream; the bottles should be of strong 
glass; the fermenting milk must be in- 
dustriously shaken by the operator at 
least 3 times a day, and then the cork 
put in firmly, so that the fluid will become 
well charged with carbon-dioxide gas; 
the bottles must be daily opened and at 
least twice each day brought nearly to a 
horizontal position, in order to allow the 
carbon dioxide to escape and air to enter; 
otherwise fermentation rapidly ceases. 
If a drink is desired strong in carbonic 
acid, the bottles, toward the end of fer- 
mentation, should be placed with the 
necks down. In order to ferment a 
fresh quantity of milk, simply add } 
of its volume of either actively fer- 
menting or freshly fermented milk. The 
temperature should be from 50** to 60® 
F., about 60® being the xnost favorable. 
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BEVERAGES 



117 



Here are some miscellaneous formulas: 
I. — Fill a quart champagne bottle up 
to the neck with pure milk; add 2 ta- 
blespoonfuls of wnite sugar, after dis- 
solving the same in a little water over a 
hot fire; add also a quarter of a 2-cent 
cake of compressed yeast. Then tie the 
cork in the bottle securely, and shake 
the mixture well; place it m a room of 
the temperature of 50** to 95*» F. for 6 
hours, and finally in the ice box over 
night Handle wrapped in a towel as 
protection if the bottle should burst. 
Be sure that the milk is pure, that the 
bottle is sound, that the yeast is fresh, to 
open the mixture in the morning with 
great care, on account of its effervescent 
properties; and be sure not to drink it at 
all if there is any curdle or thickening 
part resembling cheese, as this indicates 
that the fermentation has been prolonged 
bevond the proper time. 

ll. — Dilute the milk with f part of 
hot water, and while still tepid add | 
of verv sour (but otherwise good) but- 
termilk. Put it into a wide jug, cover 
with a clean cloth, and let stand in a 
warmish place (about 75° F.) for 24 
hours; stir up well, and leave for an- 
other 24 hours. Then beat thorough Iv 
together, and pour from jug to jug tiU 
perfectly smooth and creamy. It is 
now "still" koumiss, and ma;|^ be drunk 
at once. To make it sparkling, which 
is generally preferred, put it into cham- 
pagne or soda-water bottles; do not 
quite fill them, secure the corks well, 
and lay them in a cool cellar. It will 
then keep for 6 or 8 w^eeks, though 
it becomes increasingly acid. To ma- 
ture some for drinking quickly, it is as 
well to keep a bottle or two to start with 
in some warmer place, and from time to 
time shake vigorously. With this treat- 
ment it should, in about 3 days, be- 
come sufficiently effervescent to spurt 
freely through a champagne tap, which 
must be used for drawing it off as re- 
quired. Later on, when very frothy and 
acid it is more pleasant* to drink if a 
little sweetened water (or milk and wa- 
ter) is first put into the glass. Shake 
the bottle, and hold it inverted well into 
the tumbler before turning the tap. 
Having made one lot of koumiss as above 
you can use some of that instead of 
buttermilk as a ferment for a second 
lot, and so on 5 or 6 times in succession; 
after which it will be found advisable to 
bqg;in again as at first. Mare's milk is 
the best for koumiss; then ass's milk. 
Cow*s milk may be made more like them 
by adding a little sugar of milk (or even 
loaf sugar) with the not water before fer- 



menting. But perhaps the chief draw- 
back to cow's milk is that the cream 
separates permanently, whereas that of 
mare's milk will remix. Hence use par- 
tially skimmed milk; for if there is much 
cream it only forms little lumps of butter, 
which are apt to clog the tap, or are left 
behind in the bottle. 

Kwass. — Kwass is a popular drink 
among the Russian population of Kun- 
zews, prepared as follows: In a big kettle 
put from 13 to 15 quarts of water, and 
bring to a boil, and when in active ebul- 
lition pour in 500 grams of malt. Let 
boil for 20 minutes, remove from the 
fire, let cool down, and strain off. The 
liquid is now put into a clean keg or 
barrel, 30 grams (about an ounce) of oest 
compressed yeast added along with about 
600 j(rams (20 ounces) of sugar, and the 
cask is put in a warm place to ferment. 
As soon as bubbles of carbonic gas are de- 
tected on the surface of the liquid, it is a 
signal that the latter is read^ for bottling. 
In each of the bottles, which should be 
strong and clean, put one big raisin, fill, 
cork, and wire down. The bottles 
should be placed on the side, and in the 
coolest place available— best, on ice. 
The liquor is ready for drinking in from 
2 to 3 days, and is said to be most pal- 
atable. 

" Braga." — Braga is a liquid of milky 
turbidity, resembling cafS au lait in 
color, and forming a considerable pre- 
cipitate if left alone. When shaken it 
sparkles and a little gas escapes. Its 
taste is more or less acid, possessing a 
pleasant flavor. 

About 35 parts of crushed millet, to 
which a little wheat flour is added, are 
placed in a large kettle. On this about 
400 parts of water are poured. The 
mixture is stirred well and boiled for 3 
hours. After settling for 1 hour the lost 
water is renewed and the boiling^ con- 
tinued for another 10 hours. A viscous 
mass remains in the kettle, which sub- 
stance is spread upon large tables to 
cool. After it is perfectly cool, it is 
stirred with water m a wooden trough 
and left to ferment for 8 hours. This 
pulp is sifted, mixed with a little water, 
and after an hour the braga is ready for 
sale. The taste is a little sweetish at first, 
but becomes more and more sourish in 
time. Fermentation begins only in the 
trough. 

WINTER BEVERAGES : 

Campchello. — Thoroughlv beat the 
yolks of 12 fresh eggs witn 2i pounds 
finely powdered, refined sugar, the juice 

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118 



BEVERAGES 



of S lemons and 2 oranges* and 8 bottles 
of Graves or other white wine, over the 
fire, until rising. Remove, and slowly 
beat 1 bottle of Jamaica rum with it. 

Egg Wine. — Vigorously beat 4 whole 
eggs and the yolks of 4 with } pound of 
fine sugar; next add 2 quarts of white 
wine and beat over a moderate fire until 
rising. 

Bavaroise an Cognac. — Beat up the 
yolks of 8 eggs in 1 c^uart of good milk 
over the fire, until boiling, then quickly 
add 5 ounces of sugar and | quart of 
fine cognac. 

Bavaroise au Caf6. — Heat 1 pint of 
strong coffee and 1 pint of milk, 5 ounces 
of sugar, and the yolks of 8 egffs, until 
boiling, then add i^ quart of Jamaica 
rum. 

Carbonated Pineapple Champagne. — 

Plain syrup, 42*^ 10 gallons 

Essence of pineapple 8 drachms 
Tinctureof lemon.. . 5 ounces 
Carbonate of magne- 
sia 1 ounce 

Liquid saffron. ..... 2} ounces 

Citric-acid solution. . 30 ounces 

Caramel 2} ounces 

Filter before adding the citric-acid so- 
lution and limejuice. Use 2 ounces to 
each bottle. 

A German Drink.— To 100 parts of 
water add from 10 to 15 parts of sugar, 
dissolve and add to the syrup thus formed 
an aqueous extract of 0.8 parts of sreen 
or black tea. Add fresh beer or brew- 
ers' yeast, put in a warm place and let 
ferment. When fermentation has pro- 
gressed to a certain point the liouid is 
cleared, and then bottled, corkea, and 
the corks tied down. The drink is said 
to be very pleasant. > 

Limejuice Cordial. — Limejuice cor- 
dial that will keep good for any length of 
time may be made as follows: ou^ar, 
6 pounds; water, 4 pints; citric acid, 4 
ounces; boric acid, h ounce. Dissolve 
by the aid of a gentle heat, and when cold 
add refined limejuice, 60 ounces; tinc- 
ture of lemon peel, 4 ounces; water to 
make up to 2 gallons, and color with car- 
amel. 

Summer Drink.— 

Chopped ice 2 tablespoonfuis 

Chocolate syrup . . 2 tablespoonfuis 
Whipped cream . . . S tablespoonfuis 

Milk i cup 

Carbonated water. J cup 

Shake or sbr well before drinking. A 
tablespoonful of vanilla ice cream is a 



desirable addition. A plainer drink is 
made by combining the syrup, f cup of 
milk, and the ice, and shaking well. 

American ChamfMigne. — Good cider 
(crab-apple cider is the best), 7 gal- 
lons; best fourth- proof brandy, 1 quart; 
genuine champagne wine, 5 pints; milk, 
1 ffallon; bitartrate of potassa, 2 ounces, 
^x, let stand a short time; bottle while 
fermenting. An excellent imitation. 

British Champagne. — Loaf sugar, 
56 pounds; brown sugar (pale), 48 
pounds; water (warm), 45 gallons; white 
tartar, 4 ounces; mix, and at a proper 
temperature add yeast. 1 quart; and 
afterwards sweet cider, 5 gallons; bruised 
wild cherries, 14 or 15 ounces; pale 
spirits, 1 gallon; orris powder, } ounce. 
Bottle while fermenting. 

Champagne Cider.— Good pale cider, 
1 hogshead; spirits, 8 gallons; sugar, 
20 pounds; mix, and let it stand one 
fortnight; then fine with skimmed milk, 
i gallon; this will be very pale, and 
a similar article, when properly bottled 
and labeled, opens so briskly that even 
good judges have mistaken it for genuine 
diampagne. 

BEER : 

Scotch Beer.— Add 1 peck malt to 4 

ffallons of boiling water and let it mash 

for 8 hours, and then strain, and in the 

strained liquor boil: 

Hops 4 ounces 

Coriander seeds 1 ounce 

Honey 1 pound 

Orange peel 2 ounces 

Bruised ginger 1 ounce 

Boil for half an hour, then strain and 

ferment in the usual way. 

Hop Bitter Beer.— 

Coriander seeds 2 ounces 

Orange peel 4 ounces 

Ginger 1 ounce 

Gentian root } ounce 

Boil in 5 gallons of water for half an 
hour, then strain and put into the liquor 
4 ounces hops and 3 pounds of sugar, 
and simmer for 15 minutes, then add 
sufficient yeast, and bottle when ready. 

Sarsaparilla Beer. — I. — Compound ex- 
tract of sarsaparilla, 1 } ounces; not water, 
1 pint; dissolve, and when cold, add of 
good pale or East India ale, 7 pints. 

II. — Sarsaparilla (sliced), 1 pound; 
guaiacum bark (bruised small), i pound; 
guaiacum wood (rasped) and licorice root 
(sliced), of each, 2 ounces; aniseed 
(bruised), 1} ounces; mezereon root- 
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BEVERAGES 



119 



bark, 1 ounce; cloves (cut small), } 
ounce; moist sugar, 3} pounds; hot 
water (not boiling), 9 quarts; mix in a 
clean stone jar, and keep it in a moder- 
ately warm room (shaking it twice or 
thrice daily) until active fermentation 
sets in, then let it repose for about a week, 
when it will be ready for use. This is 
said to be superior to the other prepara- 
tions of sarsaparilla as an alterative 
or purifier of the blood, particularly in 
old affections. That usuallv made has 
generally onlv } of the above quan- 
titv of sugar, for which molasses is often 
substituted; but in either case it will not 
keep well; whereas, with proper caution, 
the products of the above formulas may 
be kept for 1 or even 2 years. No 
yeast must be used. Dose: A small 
tumblerful 3 or 4 times a day, or oftener. 

Spruce Beer. — I. — Sugar, 1 pound; 
essence of spruce, i ounce; boiling water, 
1 gallon; mix well, and when nearly cold 
add of yeast i wineglassful; and the 
next day bottle uke ginger beer. 

II. — Essence of spruce, } pint; pi- 
mento and ginger (bruised), ot each, 6 
ounces; hops, } pound; water, 8 gallons; 
boil the whole for 10 minutes, then add 
of moist sugar, 12 pounds (or good mo- 
lasses, 14 pounds); warm water, 11 gal- 
lons; mix well, and, when only luke- 
warm, further add of yeast, 1 pint; after 
the liquid has fermented for about 24 
hours, bottle it. 

This is diuretic and antiscorbutic. It is 
regarded as an agreeable summer drink, 
and often found useful during long sea 
voyages. When made with lump su£[ar 
it is called White Spruce Beer; when with 
moist sugar or treacle. Brown Spruce 
Beer. An inferior sort is made by using 
less sugar or more water. 

Treacle'Beer. — ^L — From treacle or mo- 
lasses, f to 2 pounds per gallon (accord- 
ing to tne desired strength) ; hops, i to } 
ounce; yeast, a tablespoonful; water, 
q. s. ; treated as below. 

II. — Hops, 1} pounds; corianders, 1 
ounce; capsicum pods (cut small), i 
ounce; water, 8 gallons;^ boil for 10 or 
15 minutes, and strain the liquor 
through a coarse sieve into a barrel con- 
taining treacle, 28 pK>unds; then throw 
back the hops, etc., into the copper and 
reboil them, for 10 minutes, with a 
second 8 ^llons of water, which must be 
strained into the barrel, as before; next 
"rummage" the whole well with a stout 
stick, add of cold water 21 gallons (suf- 
ficient to make the whole measure 37 
f lions), and, again after mixing, stir in 
pint of good fresh yeast; lastly, let it 



remain for 24 hours in a moderately 
warm place, after which it may be put 
into the cellar, and in 2 or 8 days bottled 
or tapped on draught. In a week it will 
be fit to drink. For a stronger beer, 36 
pounds, or even half a hundredweight of 
molasses may be used. It will then 
keep good for a twelvemonth. This is a 
wholesome drink, but apt to prove laxa- 
tive when taken in large quantities. 

Weiss Beer.— This differs from the 
ordinary lager beer in that it contains 
wheat malt. The proportions are f 
wheat to } barley malt, 1 pound hops 
being used with a peck of the combined 
malt to each 20 gallons of water. A 
good deal depends on the yeast, which 
must be of a special kind, the best grades 
being imported from Germany. 

Yellow Coloring for Beverages. —The 
coloring agents employed are fustic, saf- 
fron, turmeric, quercitron, and the va- 
rious aniline dyes. Here are some for- 
mulas: 

I.— Saffron. 1 ounce 

Deodorized alco- 
hol 4 fluidounces 

Distilled water ... 4 fluidounces 
Mix alcohol and water, and then add 
the saffron. Allow the mixture to stand 
in a warm place for several da vs, shaking 
occasionally; then filter. The tincture 
thus prepared has a deep orange color, 
and when diluted or used in small quan- 
tities gives a beautiful yellow tint to 
syrups, etc. 
II. — Ground fustic 

wood. li ounces 

Deodorized alco- 
hol 4 fluidounces 

Distilled water. . . 4 fluidounces 
This color may be made in the same 
manner as the liquid saffron, and is a fine 
coloring for many purposes. 
III. — Turmeric powder. ... 2 ounces 

Alcohol, dilute 16 ounces 

Macerate for several days, agitating 
frequently, and filter. For some bev- 
eraffes the addition of this tincture is not 
to oe recommended, as it possesses a 
very spicy taste. 

The nonpoisonous aniline dyes rec- 
ommended for coloring confectionery, 
beverages, liquors, essences, etc., yellow 
are those known as acid yellow R and 
tropeeolin 000 (orange I). 

BICYCLE-TIRE CEMERT: 

See Adhesives, under Rubber Cements. 

BICYCLE VARNISHES: 

See Varnishes. ^.^.^.^^^ ^^ GOOglc 



120 



BLEACHING 



BIDERY METAL: 
See Alloys. 

BILLIARD BALLS: 

See Ivory and Casein. 

BIRCH BALSAM: 
See Balsam. 

BIRCH WATER: 

See Hair Preparations. 

BIRD DISEASES AND THEIR REM- 
EDIES: 

See Veterinary Formulas. 

BIRD FOODS: 

See also Veterinary Formulas. 

Mixed Birdseed. — 

Canary seed 6 parts 

Rape seed 2 parts 

Maw seed 1 part 

Millet seed 2 parts 

Mocking-Bird Food. — 

Cayenne pepper .... 2 ounces 

Rape seed 8 ounces 

Hemp seed 16 ounces 

Corn meal 2 ounces 

Rice 2 ounces 

Cracker 8 ounces 

Lard oil 2 ounces 

Mix the solids, grinding to a coarse 
powder, and incorporate tne oil. 

Food for Redbirds. — 

Sunflower seed 8 ounces 

Hemp seed 16 ounces 

Canary seed 10 ounces 

Wheat 8 ounces 

Rice 6 ounces 

Mix and grind to coarse powder. 

BIRD LIME: 
See Lime. 

BIRD PASTE: 

See Canary- Bird Paste. 

BISCHOFF: 

See Wines and Liquors. 

BISCUIT, DOG: 
See Dog Biscuit. 

BISMUTH ALLOYS: 
See Alloys. 

BISMUTH, PURIFICATION OF: 

See Gold. 

BITTERS: 

See Wines and Liquors. 

BITTER WATER: 
See Waters. 

BLACKING FOR HARNESS: 
See Leather. 



BLACKING FOR SHOES: 

See Shoedressings. 

BLACKING, STOVE: 

See Stove Blackings and Polishes. 

BLACKBERRY CORDIAL AND BLACK- 
BERRY MIXTURE AS A CHOL- 
ERA REMEDY: 
See Cholera Remedy. 

BLACKBOARD PAINT AND VARNISH : 

See Paint and Varnish. 

BLACKHEAD REMEDIES: 

See Cosmetics. 

BLANKET WASHING: 
See Household Formulas. 

BLASTING POWDER: 

See Explosives. 



Bleaching 

Linen. — Mix common bleaching pow- 
der in the proportion of 1 pound to a 
gallon of water; stir it occasionally for 

3 days, let it settle, and pour it off clear. 
Then make a l^e of 1 pound of soda to 
1 gallon of boihng water, in which soak 
the linen for 12 hours, and boil it half an 
hour; next soak it in the bleaching 
liquor, made as above; and lastly, wash 
it in the usual manner. Discolored 
linen or muslin may be restored by put- 
ting a portion of bleaching liquor into 
the tub wherein the articles are soaking. 

Straw. — I. — Dip the straw in a solution 
of oxygenated muriatic acid, saturated 
with potash. (Ciiyisrenated miiriate of 
lime IS much cheaper.) The straw is 
thus rendered very white, and its flexi- 
bility is increased. 

II. — Straw is bleached by simply ex- 
posing it in a closed chamber to the 
fumes of burning sulphur. An old flour 
barrel is the apparatus most used for the 

Gurpose by milliners, a flat stone being 
lid on the eround, the sulphur ignited 
thereon, and the barrel containing the 
goods to be bleached turned over it. 
The goods should be previously washed 
in pure water. 

Wool, Silk, or Straw. — Mix together 

4 pounds of oxalic acid, 4 pounds of 
table salt, water 50 gallons. The goods 
are laid in this mixture for 1 hour; 
they are then generally well bleached, 
and only require to be thoroughly rinsed 
and worked. For bleaching straw it is 
best to soak the goods in caustic soda, 
and afterwards to make use of chloride 
of lime or Javelle water. The excess of 



BOILER COMPOUNDS 



121 



chlorine is afterwards removed by hypo- 
sulphite of soda. 

Feathers. — Place the feathers from 
3 to 4 hours in a tepid dilute solution 
of bichromate of potassa, to which, 
cautiously, some nitric acid has been 
added (a small quantity only). To 
remove a greenish hue induced by this 
solution, place them in a dilute solu- 
tion of sulphuric acid, in water, whereby 
the feathers become perfectly white and 
bleached. 

Bleaching Soliitioii. — Aluminum h^po- 
chloride, or Wilson's bleaching liquid, is 

i>roduced by adding to a clear solution of 
ime chloride a solution of aluminum 
sulphate (alumina, alum) as long as a 
precipitate keeps forming. By mutual 
decomposition aluminum chloride re- 
sults, which remains in solution, and 
lime sulphate (gypsum), which separates 
out in the form of an insoluble salt. 

BLIGHT REMEDIES. 

I I.— Soft soap 40 parts 

! Amyl alcohol 50 parts 

Methylated spirit. 20 parts 
Water 1,000 parts 

n.— Soft soap 80 parts 

Sulphureted pot- 
ash 2 parts 

Amyl alcohol 82 parts 

Water 1,000 parts 

m. — Soft soap 15 parts 

Sulphureted pot- 
ash 20 parts 

Water 1,000 parts 

BLEACHING SOLUTIONS FOR THE 
LAUNDRY: 

See Laundry Preparations. 

BLEACHING SOLUTION FOR PHOTO- 
GRAPHS: 

See Photography. 

BLEEDING, LOCAL: 
See Styptics. 

BLISTER CURE: 
See Turpentine. 

BLISTERS, FOR HORSES: 
See Veterinary Formulas. 

BLOCK, HOLLOW CONCRETE 
BUILDING: 

See Stone, Artificial. 

BLOCK FOR SOLDERING: 

See Soldering. 

BLOTTING PAPER: 
See Paper. 



BLUE FROM GREEN AT NIGHT, TO 

DISTINGUISH: 

To distinguish blue from green at 
night, use eitner the light of a magnesium 
wire for this purpose or take a number 
of Swedish (parlor) matches, light them, 
and as soon as thev flash up, observe the 
2 colors, when the aifference can be easily 
told. 

BLUE (BALL): 
See Dyes. 

BLUING: 

See Laundry Preparations. 

BLUING OF STEEL: 
See Steel. 

BLUE PRINTS, TO MAKE CHANGES 
AND CORRECTIONS ON: 

Use a solution of sodium carbonate 
and water, with a little red ink mixed in. 
This gives a very pleasing pink color to 
the changes which, at the same time, is 
verv noticeable. The amount of sodium 
carbonate used depends upon the sur- 
face of the blue- print paper, as some 
coarse-erained papers will look better if 
less soda is used and vice versa. How- 
ever, the amount of powdered soda held 
on a small coin dissolved in a bottle of 
water gives good results. 

BLUE-PRINT PAPER MAKING: 

See Photography. 

BLUE PRINTS, TO TURN BROWN: 

See Photography, under Toning. 

BOIL REMEDY. 

Take a piece of soft linen or borated 
gauze, rub some vaseline upon one side 
of it, quickly pour upon it some chloro- 
form, apply it to the unopened boil or 
carbuncle, and place a bandage over all. 
It smarts a little at first, but tnis is soon 
succeeded bjr a pleasing, cool sensation. 
The patient is given a bottle of the rem- 
edy, and directed to change the cloth 
often. In from 2 hours to 1 day the 
boil (no matter how indurated) softens 
and opens. 



Boiler Compounds 

There are three chemicals which are 
known to attack boiler scale. These are 
caustic soda, soda ash, and tannic-acid 
compounds, the last being derived from 
sumac, catechu, and the exhausted bark 
liquor from tanneries. 

Caustic soda in large excess is inju- 
nous to boiler fitting,, ^^as^^^gj^ 



122 



BOILER COMPOUNDS 



etc. That it is injurious, in reasonable 
excess, to the boiler tubes themselves is 
yet to be proved. Foaming and priming 
may be caused through excess of caustic 
soda or soda ash, as is well known by 
every practical engineer. Tannic acid 
is to be condemned and the use of its 
salts is not to be recommended. It may 
unite with the organic matter, present in 
the form of albuminoids, and with cal- 
cium and magnesium carbonates. That 
it removes scale is an assured fact; that 
it removes iron^ with the scale is also 
assured, as tannic acid corrodes an iron 
surface rapidly. 

Compounds of vegetable origin are 
widely advertised, but they often contain 
dextrine and gum, both of which are 
dangerous, as uiey coat the tubes with a 
compact scale, not oermittin^ the water 
to reach the iron. Molasses is acid and 
should not be used in the boiler. Starch 
substances generally should be avoided. 
Kerosene must be dangerous, as it is 
verv volatile and must soon leave the 
boiler and pass over and through the 
engine. 

There are two materials the use of 
which in boilers is not prohibited through 
action upon the metal itself or on ac- 
count of price. These are soda ash and 
caustic soda. Sodium triphosphate and 
sodium fluoride have both been used with 
success, but their cost is several hundred 
per cent greater than soda ash. If pre- 
scribed as per analysis, in slight excess, 
there should be no injurious results 
through the use of caustic soda and soda 
ash. It would be practicable to manu- 
facture an intimate mixture of caustic 
soda and carbonate of soda, containing 
enough of each to soften the average 
water of a given district. 

There is a great deal of fraud in con- 
nection with Doiler compounds gener- 
ally. The better class of venders ad- 
vertise to prepare a special compound for 
special water. This is expensive, save on 
a large scale, in reference to a partic- 
ular water, for it would mean a score or 
more of tanks with men to make up the 
mixtures. The less honest of the boiler- 
compound guild consign each sample of 
water to the sewer and send the regular 
goods. Others have a stock analysis 
which is sent to customers of a given 
locality, whether it contains iron, lime, 
or magnesium sulphates or carbonates. 

Any expense tor softening water in 
excess of 3 cents per 1,000 gallons is for 
the privilege of usin^ a reac^-made soft- 
ener. Every superintendent in charge 
of a plant should insist that the com- 
pouna used be pronounced by competent 



authority free from injurious materials, 
and that it be adapted to the water in 
use. 

Boiler compounds should contain only 
such ingredients as will neutralize the 
scale-forming salts present They should 
be used only by prescription, so many 
gallons per 1,000 gallons of feed water. 
A properly proportioned mixture of soda 
ought to answer the demands of all plants 
depending upon that method of softening 
water in limestone and shale regions. 

The honest boiler compounds are, 
however, useful for small isolated plants, 
because of the simplicity of their action. 
For plants of from 75 to 150 horse power 
two 24-hour settling tanks will answer 
the purpose of a softening system. Each 
of tnese, capable of holding a da^'s sup- 
ply, provided with a soda tank m com- 
mon, i^nd with sludge valves, has pad- 
dles for stirring the contents. Large 
plants are operated on this principle, 
serving boilers of many thousand horse 
power. Such a system has an advan- 
tage over a continuous system, in that 
the exact amount of chemical solutions 
required for softening the particular 
water can be applied. For some varia- 
tions of such a system, several companies 
have secured patents. The fundamen- 
tal principles, nowever, have been used 
for many years and are not patentable. 

Prevention of Boiler Scale.— The lime 
contained in the feed water, either as bi- 
carbonate or as sulphate, is precipitated 
in the shape of a light mud, but the walls 
of the boiler remain perfectly bright 
without being attacked in anv manner. 
While under ordinary atmospheric pres- 
sure calcium chromate in solution is pre- 
cipitated by soda or Glauber's salt as 
calcium carbonate or as calcium sul- 
phate; the latter is separated under 
higher pressure by chromates as calcium 
chromate. An excess of chromates or 
chromic acid does not exercise any dele- 
terious action upon the metal, nor upon 
the materials used for packing. By the 
slight admixture of chromates, two 
pounds are sufficient for a small boiler 
tor weeks; no injurious ingredients are 
carried in by the wet steam, the injection 
water, on the contrary, having been 
found to be chemically pure. 

Protecting Boiler Plates from Scale. — 
I. — For a 5-hor8e-power boiler, fed 
with water which contains calcic sul- 
phate, take catechu, 2 pounds; dex- 
trine, 1 pound; crystallized soda, 2 
pounds; potash, } pound; cane sugar, i 
pound; alum, } pound; gum arabic, i 
pound. r " * I 

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BOILER COMPOUNDS 



123 



n. — For a boiler of the same size, fed 
with water which contains lime: Tur- 
meric, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; so- 
dium bicarbonate, 2 pounds; potash, } 
pound; alum, } pound; molasses, ^ 
pound. 

IH. — For a boiler of the same size, fed 
with water which contains iron: Gam- 
boge, 2 pounds; soda, 2 pounds; dex- 
trine, 1 pound; potash, } pound; sugar, 
I pound; alum, i pound; gum arabic, i 
pound. 

IV. — For a boiler of the same size, fed 
with sea water: Catechu, 2 pounds; 
Glauber's salt, 2 pounds; dextrine, 2 
pounds; alum, } pound; gum arabic, } 
pound. 

When these preparations are used add 
1 quart of water, and in ordinary cases 
charge the boiler every month; but if the 
incrustation is very bad, charge every 
two weeks. 

v.— Place within the boiler of 100 
horse power 1 bucketful of washing soda; 
put in 2 gallons of kerosene oil (after 
closing the blow-off cock), and fill the 
boiler with water. Feed in at least 1 
<^uarl of kerosene oil every day through a 
sight-feed oil cup attached to the feed 

Eipe near the boiler— i. e., between the 
eater and the boiler — so that the oil is 
not entrap|>ed within the heater. If it 
is inconvenient to open the boiler, then 
dissolve the washing soda in hot water 
and feed it in with the pump or through a 
tallow cock (attached oetween the eject- 
or and the valve in the suction pipe) 
when the ejector is working. 

VI. — A paint for protecting boiler plates 
from scale, and patented in Germany, is 
composed of 10 pounds each of train oil, 
hone fat, paraffine, and of finely ground 
zinc white. To this mixture is aoded 40 
pounds of graphite and 10 pounds of 
soot made together into a paste with 
1} gallons of water, and about a pound 
of carbolic acid. The horse fat and the 
zinc oxide make a soap difficult to fuse, 
which adheres strongly to the plates, and 
binds the graphite and the soot. The 
paraffine prevents the water from pene- 
trating the coats. The scale which forms 
on this application can be detached, it is 
said, witn a wooden mallet, without in- 
jurm^ the paint. 

Vu. — M. E. Asselin, of Paris, recom- 
mends the use of glycerine as a preventive. 
It increases the solubility of combinations 
of lime, and especially of the sulphate. 
It forms with these combinations soluble 
compounds. When the quantity of lime 
becomes so great that it can no longer 
be dissolved, nor form soluble combina- 
tions, it is deposited in a gelatinous sub- 



stance, which never adheres to the sur- 
face of the iron plates. The gelatinous 
substances thus formed are not carried 
with the steam into the cylinder of the 
engine. M. Asselin advises the employ- 
ment of 1 pound of glycerine for every 
300 pounds or 400 pounds of coal burnt. 

Preyention of Electrolysis. — In order 
to prevent the eating away of the sheets 
and tubes by electrolytic action, it has 
long been the practice of marine engi- 
neers to suspend slalM of zinc in their 
boilers. The zinc, being more suscepti- 
ble to the electrolytic action than the 
iron, is eaten away, while the iron re- 
mains unimpaired. The use of zinc in 
this way has been found also to reduce 
the trouble from boiler scale. Whether 
it be due to the formation of hydrogen 
bubbles between the heating surfaces 
and incipient scale, to the presence in the 
water of the zinc salts resulting from the 
dissolution of the zinc, or to whatever 
cause, it appears to be a general conclu- 
sion among those who have used it that 
the zinc helos the scale, as well as the 
corrosion. Nobody has ever claimed 
for it that it prevented the attachment of 
scale altogether, but the consensus of 
opinion is that it "helps some." 

BOILER PRESSURE. 

It hardly pa^s to reduce pressure on 
boilers, except m very extreme cases, but 
if it can be a one by throttling before the 
steam reaches the cylinder of the engine 
it would be an advantage, because this 
retains the heat units due to the higher 
pressure in the steam, and the throtUing 
nas a slight superheating effect. As a 
matter of fact, tests go to show that for 
li^ht loads and high pressure a throt- 
tling engine may do better than an auto- 
matic cut-off. The ideal arrangement 
is to throttle the steam for light loads; for 
heavier loads, allow the variable cut-off 
to come into play. This practice has 
been carried into effect by tJie design of, 
Mr. E. J. Armstrong, in which he ar- 
ranges the shaft governor so that there is 
negative lead up to nearlv one-quarter 
cut-off, after which the lead becomes 
positive, and this has the effect of throt- 
tling the steam for the earlier loads and 
undoubtedly gives better economy, in 
addition to making the engine run more 
quietly. 

BONE BLACK: 

Bone or Ivory Black. — All bones (and 
ivory is bone m a sense) consist of a 
framework of crystallized matter or 
bone earth, in the interstices of which 
organic matter is embedded. Hence il 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1S4 



BONE BLACK 



bones are heated red-hot in a closed 
vessel, the organic matter is destroyed, 
leaving carbon, in a finely divided state, 
lodged in the bony framework. If the 
heat is applied gradually the bone re- 
tains its shape, but is quite black and of 
much less weight than at first. This 
bone black or animal charcoal is a sub- 
stance which has great power of absorb- 
ing coloring matter from liquids, so that 
it IS largely used for bleaching such liauids. 
For example, in the vast industry of oeet- 
sugar manufacture the solutions first 
made are very dark in color, but after fil- 
tration through animal charcoal will give 
colorless crystals on evaporation. Chem- 
ical trades require such large quantities 
of bone charcoal that its production is 
a large industry in itself. As in breaking 
up the charred^ bones a considerable 
amount of waste is produced, in the form 
of dust and small grains which cannot be 
used for bleaching puri)oses, this waste 
should be worked up into a pigment. 
This is done by dissolving out the mineral 
with hydrochloric acid, and then rinsing 
and drying the carbon. 

The mineral basis of bones consists 
mainly of the phosphates of lime and 
magnesia, salts soluble in not too dilute 
hydrochloric acid. A vat is half filled 
with the above-mentioned waste, which 
is then just covered with a mixture of 
equal volumes of commercial hydro- 
chloric acid and water. As the mineral 
matter also contains carbonates, a lively 
effervescence at once ensues, and small 
quantities of hvdrofluoric acid are also 
formed from tne decomposition of cal- 
cium fluoride in the bones. Now hydro- 
fluoric acid is a very dangerous sub- 
stance, as air containing even traces of it 
is very injurious to the lungs. Hence the 
addition of hydrochloric acid should be 
done in the open air, and the vat should 
be left by itself until the evolution of 
fumes ceases. A plug is then pulled out 
at the bottom and the carbon is thor- 
oughly drained. It is then stirred up 
with water and again drained, when it 
has fully settled to the bottom. This 
rinsing with clear water is repeated till all 
the hydrochloric acid is washed away 
and only pure carbon remains in the vat. 
As for pigment- ma king purposes it is 
essential tnat the carbon should be as 
finely divided as possible, it is as well to 
grind the washed carbon in an ordinary 
color mill. Very little power is required 
for this purpose, as when once the bone 
earth is removed the carbon particles 
have little cohesion. The properly 
ground mass forms a deep-black mud, 
which can be left to dry or be dried by 



artificial heat. When dry, the purified 
bone black is of a pure black and makes 
a most excellent pigment. 

Bone black is put upon the market 
under all sorts of names, such as ivory 
black, ebur ustum, Frankfort black, neu- 
tral black, etc. All these consist of 
finely ground bone black purified from 
mineral matter. If leather scraps or 
dried blood are to be worked up, iron 
tubes are employed, closed at one end, 
and with a well-fitting lid with a small 
hole in it at the other. As these bodies 
give off large volumes of combustible 
gas during the charring, it is a good plan 
to lead the vapors from the hole by a 
bent tube so that they can be burnt and 
help to supply the heat required and so 
save fuel. Leather or blood gives a char- 
coal which hardly requires treatment 
with hydrochloric acid, for the amount 
of mineral salts present is so small that 
its removal appears superfluous. 

BONES, A TEST FOR BROKEN. 

Place a stethoscope on one side of the 
supposed fracture, and a tuning fork on 
the other. ^ When the latter is vibrated, 
and there is no breakage, the sound will 
be heard distinctly through bone and 
stethoscope. Should any doubt exist, 
comparison should be made with the 
same bone on the other side of the body. 
This test shows the difference in the 
power of conducting sound possessed by 
Done and soft tissue. 

BONE BLEACHES: 
See Ivory. 

BONE FAT: 

See Fats. 

BONE FAT, PURIFICATION AND 
BLEACHING OF: 

See Soap. 

BONE POLISHES: 

See Polishes. 

BONE FERTILIZERS: 
See Fertilizers. 

BONES, TREATMENT OF, IN MANU- 
FACTURING GLUE: 

See Adhesives. 

BONE, UNITING GLASS WITH: 

See Adhesives. 

BOOKS, THEIR HANDLING AITO 
PRESERVATION: 

The Preservation of Books in Hot 
Climates. — Books in hot climates quicklv 
deteriorate unless carefully guarde<{. 
There are three destructive agencies: 
(1) damp, (2) a small black insect, (8) 
cockroacnes. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BOOKS 



1S5 



(1) Books which are kept in a damp 
atmosphere deteriorate on account of 
molds and fungi that erow rapidly when 
the conditions are favorable. Books 
are best kept on open, airy, well-lighted 
shelves. When there has been a pro- 
longed spell of moist weather their covers 
should be wiped, and they should be 
placed in the sun or before a fire for a 
few hours. Damp also causes the bind- 
ings and leaves of some books to sep- 
arate. 

(2) A small black insect, one-eighth of 
an inch long and a sixteenth of an inch 
broad, somewhat resembling a beetle, is 
very destructive, and books will be 
found, if left untouched, after a few 
months to have numerous holes in the 
covers and leaves. If this insect be al- 
lowed plenty of time for its ravages it 
wiU make so many holej that bindings 
originally strong can be easily torn to 
pieces. AU damage may be prevented 
by coatinff the covers of books with the 
varnish described under (8). When 
books are found to cuntain the insects 
they should be well wrapped and phiced 
in the sun before varnishing. 

(S) The appearance of a fine binding 
mav be destroyed in a single night bv 
cockroaches. The lettering of the bind- 
ing may, in two or three oays, be com- 
pletely obliterated. 

Tlie following varnishes have been found 
to prevent effectually the ravages of 
cockroaches and of aU insects that feed 
upon books: 

I. — Danunar resin ft ounces 

Mastic ft ounces 

Canada balsam 1 ounce 

Creosote J ounce 

Spirit of wine 20 fl. ounces 

Macerate with occasional shaking for 
a few days if wanted at once, but for a 
longer time when possible, as a better 
varnish will result after a maceration of 
several months. 

U. — Corrosive sublimate, 1 ounce; car- 
bolic acid, 1 ounce; methylated or rum 
spirit* 1 quart 

Where it is necessary to keep books or 
paper of anv description in boxes, cup- 
boards, or closed bookcases, some naph- 
thalene balls or camphor should be al- 
ways present with tncm. If camphor 
be used it is best to wrap it in paper, 
otherwise it volatilizes more quickly than 
is necessary. In dry weather the doors 
of closed bookcases should be left open 
occasionally, as a damp, still atmosphere 
is most favorable for deterioration. 

How to Open a Book. — Never force the 
back of the book. Hold the book with 



its back on a smooth or covered table; 
let the front board down, then the other, 
holding the leaves in one hand while you 
open a few leaves at the back, then a few 
at the front, and so on, alternately open- 
ing back and front, gentlv pressing open 
the sections till you reacn the center of 
the volume. Do this two or three times 
and you will obtain the best results. 
Open the volume violently or carelessly 
in any one place and you will probably 
break the back or cause a start in the 
leaves. 

BOOK DISmFECTANT: 

See Disinfectants. 

BOOKS, TO REMOVE FINGER-MARKS 
FROM: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

BOOKBINDERS' VARNISH: 

See Varnishes. 

BOOKWORMS: 

See Insecticides. 

BOOT DRESSINGS: 
See Shoe Dressings. 

BOOT LUBRICANT: 
See Lubricant. 

BOOTS, WATERPROOFING : 

See Waterproofing. 

BORAX FOR SPRINKLING. 

I. — Sprinkling borax is not only 
cheaper, but also dissolves less in solder- 
ing tnan pure borax. 

The borax is heated in a metal vessel 
until it has lost its water of crystallization 
and mixed with calcined cooking salt 
and potash — borax, 8 parts; cookinjp^ 
salt, 3 parts; potash, 8 parts. Next i; 
is pounded in a mortar into^ a fine pow- 
der, constituting the sprinkling borax. 

II. — Another kind of sprinkling borax 
is prepared by substituting glass-gall for 
the potash. Glass-gall is the froth float- 
ing on the melted glass, which can be 
skimmed off. 

The borax is either dusted on in pow- 
der form from a sprinklinjc box or 
stirred with water before use into a thin 
paste. 

BORAX AND BORIC ACID IN FOOD: 

See Food. 

BORDEAUX MEKTURE: 
See Insectiddes. 

BOROTONIC: 

Sec Dentifrices. 



Digitized by VjOOQiC 



126 



BOTTLES 



BOTTLE-CAP LACQUER: 
See Lacquer. 

BOTTLE CLEANERS: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods, under Miscellaneous Methods. 

BOTTLE STOPPERS: 

See Stoppers. 

BOTTLE VARNISH: 
See Varnishes. 

BOTTLE WAX: 

See Photography. 

BOUILLON: 

See Beverages. 

BOURBON METALS: 

See Alloys. 

BOWLS OF FIRE TRICK: 

See Pyrotechnics. 

BOX GLUE: 

See Adhesives. 

BRAG A: 

See Beverages. 

BRAN, SAWDUST IN. 

For the detection of sawdust in bran 
use a solution of 1 part of phloroglucin 
in 15 parts of alcohol, 15 parts of water, 
and 10 parts of syrupy phosphoric acid. 
Place 2 parts of the solution in a small 
porcelain dish, add a knifepointful of 
the bran and heat moderately. Saw- 
dust is dyed red while bran parts only 
seldom acquire a faint red color. By a 
microscopic examination of the reddish 
parts, sawdust will be readily recognized. 



Bottles 

Magic Bottles. — 

The mystery of the "wonderful bot- 
tle," from which can be poured in sue* 
cession port wine, sherry, claret, water, 
champagne, or ink, at the will of the op- 
erator, IS easily explained. The mate- 
rials consist of an ordinary dark-colored 
pint wine bottle, seven wine glasses 
of different patterns, and the chemicals 
described below: 

Solution A: A mixture of tincture of 
ferric chloride, drachms vi; hydro- 
chloric acid, drachms ii. 

Solution B: Saturated solution of am- 
monium sulphooyanide, drachm i. 

Solution C: Strong solution of ferric 
chloride, drachm i. 

Solution D: A weak solution of am- 
monium sulphocvanide. 

Solution £: Concentrated solution of 
lead acetate. 



Solution F: Solution of ammonium 
sulphide, drachm i; or pyrogaUic acid, 
drachm i. 

Package G: Pulverized potassium bi- 
carbonate, drachm iss. 

Having poured two teaspoonfuls of 
solution A into the wine bottle, treat the 
wine glasses with the different solutions, 
noting and remembering into which 

f lasses the several solutions are placed, 
nto No. 1 wine glass pour one or two 
drops of solution B; into No. 2 glass 
pour one or two drops of solution C; into 
No. 8 one or two arops of Solution D; 
leave No. 4 glass empty; into No. 5 glass 
pour a few drops of Solution E; into No. 
6 glass place a tew grains of Package G; 
into No. 7 glass pour a little of solution F. 
Reouest some one to bring you some 
cold drinking water, and to guarantee 
that it is pure show that your wine bot- 
tle is (practically) empty. Fill it up 
froin the carafe, and having asked the 
audience whether you shall produce wine 
or water, milk or ink, etc., you may ob- 
tain any of these by pouring a little of 
the water from the bottle into the pre- 
pared glass. Thus No. 1 glass gives a 
port- wine color; No. 2 gives a sherry 
color; No. 3 gives a claret color; No. 4 is 
left empty to prove that the solution in 
the bottle is colorless; No. 5 produces 
milk; No. 6, effervescing champagne; 
No. 7, ink. 

Bottle-Capping Mixtures. — 
I. — Soak 7 pounds of good gelatin in 
10 ounces of glycerine and 60 ounces of 
water, and heat over a water bath until 
dissolved, and add any desired color. 
Pigments may be used, and various tints 
can be obtained by the use of aniline 
colors. The resulting compound should 
be stored in jars. To apply liquefy the 
mass and dip the cork and portion of 
the neck of tne bottle into the liquid; it 
sets very quickly. 

II. — Gelatin 1 ounce 

G um arable 1 ounce 

Boric acid 20 grains 

Starch 1 ounce 

Water 16 fluidounces 

Mix the gelatin, gum arable, and 
boric acid with 14 fluidounces of cold 
water, stir occasionally until the gum is 
dissolved, heat the mixture to boiling, 
remove the scum, and strain. Also mix 
the starch intimately with the remainder 
of the water, and stir this mixture into 
the hot gelatin mixture until a uniform 
product results. As noted above, the 
composition may be tinted with any suit- 
able dye. Before using, it must be soft- 
ened by the application of heat. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BRASS 



1*7 



m.— Shellac 9 ounces 

Venice turpentine 1 jounces 

Boric acid 72 grains 

Powdered talcum. 8 ounces 

Ether 6 fluidrams 

Alcohol 12} fluidounces 

Dissolve the shellac, turpentine, and 
boric acid in the mixed alcohol and ether, 
color with a spirit-soluble dye, and add 
the talcum. During use the mixture 
must be agitated frequently. 

Show Bottles.— 

I. — Place in a cylindrical bottle the 
following liquids in the order named: 

First, sulphuric acid, tinted blue with 
indigo; second, chloroform; third, glyc- 
erine, slightly tinted with caramel; 
fourth, castor oil, colored with alkanet 
root; fifth, 40-per-cent alcohol, slightly 
tinted with aniline green; sixth, cod- 
liver oil, containing 1 per cent of oil of 
turpentine. The liquids are held in 
iJacc by force of gravity, and alternate 
with fluids which are not miscible, so 
that the strata of layers are clearly de- 
fined and do not mingle by diffusion. 

n. — Chromic acid 1 drachm 

Commercial "muri- 
atic" acid 2 ounces 

Nitric acid 2 ounces 

Water, enough to 

make 3 gallons 

The color is magenta. 
The following makes a fine pink for 
show carboys: 

III. — Cobalt oxide 2 parts 

Nitric acid, c. p 1 part 

Hydrochloric acid. ... 1 part 
l^lix and dissolve, and to the solution 
add: 

Strongest^ water of 

ammonia 6 parts 

Sulphuric acid 1 part 

Water, distilled, q. s. 

to make 400 parts 

This should be left standing in a dark, 
cool place for at least a month before put- 
tine m the window. 

Iv. — Green. — Copper sulphate, 300 
parts, by weight; hydrochlonc acid, 450 
parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 
parts, by weight. 

V. — Blue. — Copper sulphate, 480 parts, 
by weight; sulphuric acid, 60 parts, by 
weight; distilled water, to 450 parts, by 
weight. 

VL — Yellowish Brown. — Potassium 
dichromate, 120 parts, bv weight; nitric 
arid, 150 parts, by weight; distilled wa- 
ter, to 4,500 parts, by weight. 

Vn. — Yellow. — Potassium dichramate, 
80 parts, by weight; sodium bicarbon- 



ate, 225 parts, fay weisfat; distilled water, 
to 4,500 parts, by wei^nt. 

VllL — Red. — Liquid ferric chloride, 
oflicinal, 60 parts, by weight; co: cen- 
trated ammonium-acetate solution, 120 
parts, by weight; acetic acid, 30 per 
cent, 80 parts, by weight; distilled water, 
to 9,000 j>arts, by weight. 

IX. — Crimson. — Potassium iodide, 7.5 
parts, by weight; iodine, 7.5 parts, by 
weight; hydrochloric acid, 60 parts, by 
weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, 
by weight. 

All the solutions IV to IX should be 
filtered. If distilled water be used these 
solutions should keep for ^ve to ten years. 
In order to prevent them from freezing, 
either add 10 per cent of alcohol, or re- 
duce the quantity of water by 10 per cent. 

A Cheap and Excellent Wtnning 
Bottle. — Mix sodium acetate and sodium 
hvposulphate in the proportion of 1 part 
of the former to parts of the latter, and 
with the mixture fill an earthenware bottle 
about three-quarters full. Close the ves- 
sel well with a Cork and place it either 
in hot water or in the oven, and let re- 
main until the salts within melt. For 
at least a half day the jug will radiate its 
heat, and need only be well shaken from 
time to time to renew its heat-giving 
energy. 

Bottle Deodorizer.— Powdered 'blade 
mustard seed is successfully employed. 
Pour a little of it with some lukewarm 
water into the receptacle, rinsing it after- 
wards with water. If necessary, repeat 
the process. 

BRANDY AND BRANDY BITTERS 

See Wines and Liquors. 



Brass 

Formulas for the making oi Brass will be 
found under Alloys. 

Colors for Polished Brass.— The brass 
objects are put into boiling solutions 
composed of different salts, and the in- 
tensity of the shade obtained is depend- 
ent upon the duration of the immersion. 
With a solution composed of 

Sulphate of copper. . . 120 grains 

Hydrochlorate of am- 
monia 30 grains 

Water 1 quart 

ffreenish shades are obtained. With the 
following solution all the shades of brown 
from orange brown to cinnamon are ob- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



128 



BRASS 



Chlorate of potash . . . 150 grains 
Sulphate of copper. . . 150 grains 

Water 1 quart 

The following solution gives the brass 
first a rosy tint and then colors it violet 
and blue: 

Sulphate of copper. . . 435 grains 
Hyposulphite of soda 300 grains 

Cream of tartar 150 grains 

Water 1 pint 

Upon adding to the last solution 
Ammoniacal sulphate 

of iron 300 grains 

Hyposulphite of soda 300 grains 
there are obtained, according to the dura- 
tion of the immersion, yellowish, orange, 
rosy, then bluish shades. Upon polar- 
izing the ebullition the blue tint gives 
way to yellow, and finally to a pretty 
gray, ffllver, under the same circum- 
stances, becomes very beautifully col- 
ored. After a long ebullition in the 
following solution we obtain a yellow- 
brown snade, and then a remarkable fire 
red: 

Chlorate of potash ... 75 grains 
Carbonate of nickel . . 30 grains 

Salt of nickel 75 grains 

Water 16 ounces 

The following solution gives a beau- 
tiful, dark-brown color: 

Chlorate of potash . . 75 grains 

Salt of nickel 150 grains 

Water 10 ounces 

The following gives, in the first place, 
a red, which passes to blue, then to pale 
lilac, and finally to white: 

Orpiment. 75 grains 

Crystallized sal sodee 150 grains 

Water 10 ounces 

The following gives a yellow brown: 

Salt of nickel 75 grains 

Sulphate of copper. . 75 grains 
Chlorate of potash . . 75 grains 

Water 10 ounces 

On mixing the following solutions, 
sulphur separates and the brass becomes 
covered with iridescent crystallizations: 

I. — Cream of 'tartar 75 grains 

Sulphate of copper. . 75 grains 

Water 10 ounces 

n. — Hyposulphite of soda 225 grains 

Water 5 ounces 

Upon leaving the brass objects im- 
mersed in the following mixture con- 
tained in corked vessels they at length 
acquire a very beautiful blue color: 
Hepar of sulphur .... 15 grains 

Ammonia 75 grains 

Water 4 ounces 



IGscellaneous Coloring of Brass. — 
Yellow to bright red: Dissolve 2 parts 
native copper carbonate with 1^ part 
caustic soda in 10 parts water. Dip for 
a few minutes into the lic{uor, the^ va- 
rious shades desired beingj obtained 
according to the length of time of the 
immersion. Green: Dissolve 1 part cop- 
per acetate (verdigris), ^ 1 part blue 
vitriol, and 1 part alum in 10 parts of 
water and boil the^ articles therein. 
Black : For optical articles, photographic 
apparatus, plates, rings, screws, etc., 
dissolve 45 parts of malachite (native 
copper carbonate) in 1,000 parts of sal 
ammoniac. For use clean and remove 
the grease from the article bv pickling 
and dip it into the bath until the coating 
is strong enough. The bath operates 
better and quicker if heated. Should 
the oxidation be a failure it should be 
removed by dipping into the brass 
pickle. 

A verdigris color on brass is produced 
by treating the articles with dilute acids, 
acetic acid, or sulphuric acid, and drying. 

Brown in all varieties of shades is ob- 
tained by immersing the metal in solu- 
tions of nitrates or ferric chloride after 
it has been corroded with dilute nitric 
acid, cleaned with sand and water, and 
dried. The strength of the solutions 
governs the deepness of the resulting 
color. 

Violet is caused by immersing the thor- 
oughly cleaned objects in a solution of 
ammonium chloride. 

Chocolate color results if red ferric 
oxide is strewn on and burned off, fol- 
lowed by polishing with a small quantity 
of galena. 

Olive green is produced by blacken- 
ing the surface with a solution of iron in 
hydrochloric acid, polishing with galena, 
and coating hot witn a lacquer composed 
of 1 part varnish, 4 parts cincuma, and 1 
part gamboge. 

A steel-blue coloring is obtained by 
means of a dilute boiling solution of 
chloride of arsenic, and a blue one by a 
treatment with strong hyposulphite of 
soda. Another formula for bluing 
brass is: Dissolve 10 parts of antimony 
chloride in 200 parts of water, and add 30 
parts of pure hydrochloric acid. Dip the 
article until it is well blued, then wash 
and dry in sawdust. 

Black is much used for optical brass 
articles and is produced by coating with 
a solution of platinum or auric chloride 
mixed with nitrate of tin. 

Coloring Unpolished Brass. — A yellow 

color of handsome ^ffeeLy^h^ned on 

Digitized by ' 



BRASS 



129 



unpolished brass by means of antimony- 
chloride solution. This is produced by 
finely powdering ^ray antimony and boil- 
ing it with hyorochloric acid. With 
formation of hydrogen sulphide a solu- 
tion of antimony results, which must not 
be diluted with water, since a white pre- 
cipitate of antimony oxychloride is im- 
mediately formed upon admixture of 
water. For dilution, completely satu- 
rated cooking-salt solution is employed, 
using for 1 part of antimony chloride 2 
parts of salt solution. 

Coloring Fluid for Brass. — Caustic 
soda, 33 parts; water, 24 parts; hydraled 
carbonate of copper, 5.5 parts. 

Dissolve the salt in water and dip the 
metal in the solution obtained. The in- 
tensity of the color will be proportional 
to the time of immersion. After remov- 
ing the object from the liquid, rinse with 
water and dry in sawdust. 

Black Color on Brass. —A black or ox- 
idized surface on brass is produced by a 
solution of carbonate of copper in am- 
monia. The work is immersed and al- 
lowed to remain until the required tint 
is observed. The carbonate or copper is 
best used in a plastic condition, as it is 
then much more easily dissolved. Plas- 
tic carbonate of copper may be .mixed as 
follows: Make a solution of blue vitriol 
(sulphate of copper) in hot water, and 
add a strong solution of common washing 
soda to it as lon^ as any precipitate 
forms. The precipitate is allowed to 
settle, and the clear liquid is poured off. 
Hot water is added, and the mass stirred 
and a^in allowed to settle. This oper- 
ation is repeated six or eight times to re- 
move the impurities, ^ter the water 
has been removed during the last pour- 
ing, and nothing is left but an emulsion 
of the thick plastic carbonate in a small 
quantity of water, lic^uid ammonia is 
added until everything is dissolved and a 
clear, deep-blue liquid is produced. If 
too strong, water may be added, but a 
strong solution is better than a weak one. 
If it is desired to make the solution from 
commercial plastic carbonate of copper 
the following directions may be followed : 
Dissolve 1 pound of the plastic carbonate 
of copper in 2 gallons of strong ammonia. 
This gives the required strength of so- 
lution. 

The brass which it is desired to black- 
en is first boiled in a strong potash solu- 
tion to remove grease and oil, then well 
rinsed and dipped in the copper solution, 
which has previously been heated to 
from 150* to ITS** F. This solution, if 
heated too hot, gives off all the ammonia. 



The brass is left in the solution until the 
required tint is produced. The color 
produced is uniform, black, and tena- 
cious. The bra.ss ia rinsed and dried in 
sawdust. A great variety of effects may 
be produced b^ first finishing the brass 
before blackening, as the oxidizing proc- 
ess does not injure the texture ot the 
metal. A satisfactorv finish is produced 
by first rendering the surface of the 
brass matt, either bv scratch-brush or 
similar methods, as the black finish thus 
produced by the copper solution is dead 
— one of the most pleasing effects of an 
oxidized surface. Various effects may also 
be produced by coloring the entire article 
and then buffing the exposed portions. 

The best results in tie use of this so- 
lution are obtained by the use of the so- 
called red metals— i. e., those in which 
the copper predominates. The reason 
for this is obvious. Ordinary sheet brass 
consists of about 2 parts of copper and 1 
part of zinc, so that the large quantitv of 
the latter somewhat hinders the produc- 
tion of a deep-black surface. Yellow 
brass is colored black by the solution, 
but it is well to use some metal having a 
reddish tint, indicating the presence of a 
large amount of copper. The varieties 
of sneet brass known as gilding or bronze 
work well. Copper also gives excellent 
results. Where the best results are de- 
sired on yellow brass a very light electro- 
plate of copper before the oxidizing 
works well and gives an excellent black. 
With the usual articles made of yellow 
brass this is rarely done, but the oxida- 
tion carried out directly. 

Black Finish for Brass. ~I.— A hand- 
some black finish may be put on brass 
by the following process: Dissolve in 
1,000 parts of ammonia water 45 parts of 
natural malachite, and in the solutionput 
the object to be blackened, after nrst 
having carefully and thoroughly cleaned 
the same. After letting it stand a short 
time gradually warm the mixture, ex- 
amining the article from time to time 
to ascertain if the color is deep enough. 
Rinse and let dry. 

II. — The blacking of brass may be 
accomplished by immersing it in the fol- 
lowing solution and then heating over 
a Bunsen burner or a spirit flame: 
Add a saturated solution of ammo- 
nium carbonate to a saturated copper- 
sulphate solution, until the precipitate 
resulting in the beginning has almost en- 
tirely dissolved. The immersion and 
heating are repeated until the brass 
turns dark; then it is brushed and dipped 
in negative varnish or dull varnish. i 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



180 



BRASS 



To Give a Brown Color to Brass.— I.— 
In 1.000 parts of rain or distilled water 
dissolve 5 parts each of verdigris (copper 
acetate) and ammonium chloride. Let 
the solution stand 4 hours, then add 1,500 
parts of water. Remove the brass to be 
browned from its attachment to the fix- 
tures and make the surface perfectly 
bright and smooth and free from grease. 
Place it over a charcoal fire and heat un- 
til it "sizzes" when touched with the 
dampened finger. The solution is then 
painted over tne surface with a brush or 
, swabbed on with a rag. If one swab- 
bing does not produce a sufficient depth 
of color, repeat the heating and the ap- 

Elication of the liquid until a fine durable 
rown is produced. For door plates, 
knobs, and ornamental fixtures gener- 
ally, this is one of the handsomest as well 
as the most durable surfaces, and is 
easily applied. 

II. — A very handsome brown may be 
produced on brass castings bv immersing 
the thoroughly cleaned and dried articles 
in a warm solution of 15 parts of sodium 
hydrate and 5 parts of cupric carbonate 
in 100 parts of water. Tne metal turns 
dark yellow, light brown, and finally 
dark brown, with a greenish shimmer, 
and, when the desired shade is reached, 
is taken out of the bath, rinsed, and dried. 
III.— Paint the cleaned and dried sur- 
face uniformly with a dilute solution of 
ammonium sulphide. When this coat- 
ing is dry, it is rubbed over, and then 
painted with a dilute ammoniacal so- 
lution of arsenic sulphide, until the 
required depth of color is attained. 
If the results are not satisfactory the 
painting can be repeated after washing 
over with ammonia. Prolonged im- 
mersion in the second solution produces 
a grayish-green film, which looks well, 
and acquires luster when polished with 
a cloth. 

Refinishinz Gas Fixtures. — Gas fix- 
tures which Tiave become dirty or tar- 
nished from use may be improved in ap- 
pearance by painting with bronze paint 
and then, if a still better finish is re- 
auired, varnishing after the paint is 
tnoroughly dry with some light-colored 
varnish that will give a hard and brilliant 
coating. 

If the bronze paint is made up with 
ordinary varnish it is liable to become 
discolored from acid which may be pres- 
ent in the varnish. One method pro- 
posed tor obviating this is to mix the 
varnish with about five times its volume 
of spirit of turpentine, add to the mixture 
dried slaked lime in the proportion of 



about 40 grains to the pint, agitate 'well, 
repeating the agitation several times, and 
finally allowing the suspended matter to 
settle and decanting the clear liquid. 
The object of this is to neutralize any 
acid which may be present. To deter- 
mine how effectively this has been done 
the varnish may be chemically tested. 

Steel Blue and Old Silver on Brass. — 
For the former dissolve 100 parts of car- 
bonic carbonate in 750 parts of ammonia 
and dilute this solution with distilled 
water, whereupon the cleaned articles 
are dipped into the liquid by means of a 
brass wire. After two to three minutes 
take them out, rinse in clean water, and 
dry in sawdust. Old silver on brass is 

groduced as follows: The articles are 
rst silvered and next painted with a thin 
paste consisting of graphite, 6 parts; 
pulverized hematite, 1 part; ana tur- 
pentine. Use a soft brusn and dry well ; 
then brush off the powder. Oxidized 
silver is obtained by aipping the silvered 
goods into a heated solution of liver of 
sulphur, 5 parts; ammonia carbonate, 10 
parts; and water, 10,000 parts. Only sub- 
stantially silvered objects are suited for 
oxidation, as a weak silvering is taken 
off by this solution. Unsatisfactory col- 
oring is removed with potassium-cya- 
nide solution. It is advisable to lay the 
articles in hydrogen sulphide-ammonia 
solution diluted with water, wherein they 
acquire a blue to a deep-black shade. 

Tombac Color on Brass. — This is pro- 
duced by immersion in a mixture of cop- 
per carbonate, 10 parts; caustic soda, 30 
parts; water, 200 parts. This layer will 
only endure wiping with a cloth, not vig- 
orous scouring with sand. 

^ Graining of Brass. — Brass parts of 
timepieces are frequently provided 'with 
a dead grained surface. For this pur- 
pose they are fastened with flat-headed 
pins on cork disks and brushed with a 
paste of water and finest powdered 
pumice stone. Next they are thor- 
oughly washed and placed m a solution 
of 10 quarts of water, 30 grains of mer- 
curic m'trate, and 60 grains of sulphuric 
acid. In this amalgamating solution 
the objects become at once covered with 
a layer of mercury, which forms an amal- 
gam with the copper, while the zinc 
passes into solution. After the articles 
nave again been washed they are treated 
with graining powder, whicn consists of 
silver powder, tartar, and cooking salt. 
These substances must be pure, dry, and 
very finely pulverized. The roixinff is 
done witfi^m^pd^^«(e;^l^ccopJing 



BRASS 



181 



to whether a coaner or finer grain is de- 
sired, more cooking salt or more tartar 
must be contained in the powder. The 
ordinary proportions are: 
Si]««r powder.. 28 ^8 28 parts 

Tartar «8» 110-140 85 parts 

Cooking salt. .. 900 870 900 parU 

This powder is moistened with water 
and applied to the object. Place the article 
with the cork support in a flat dish and 
rub on the paste ivith a stiff brush while 
turning the !ish incessantly. Gradu- 
ally fresh portions of graining powder 
are put on until the desired grain is ob- 
tained. These turn out the rounder the 
more the dish and brush are turned. 
When the right grain is attained, rinse 
off with water, and treat the object with 
a scratch brush* with employment of a 
decoction of saponaria. The brushes 
must be moved around in a circle in 
brushing with the pumice stone, as well 
as in rubbing on the graining powder 
and in using the scratch brush. The 
required silver powder is produced by 
precipitating a oiluted solution of silver 
nitrate with some strips of sheet copper. 
The precipitated silver powder is washed 
out on a paper filter and dried at moder- 
ate heat. 

The Bead, or Matt. Dip for Brass. — 

The dead dip is used to impart a satiny 
or crystalline nnish to the surface. The 
bright dip gives a smooth, shinv, and per- 
fectly even surface, but the dead dip is 
the most pleasing of any dip finish, and 
can be used as a heise for many secondary 
finishes. 

^ The dead dip is a mixture of oil of 
vitriol (sulphunc acid) and aqua fortis 
(nitric acid)^ in which there is enough 
sulphate of zinc (white vitriol) to saturate 
the solution. It is in the presence of the 
sulphate of zinc tnat the essential differ- 
ence between the bright and the dead dip 
exists. Without it the dead or matt sur- 
face cannot be obtained. 

The method generally practiced is to 
add the sulphate of zinc to the mixed 
acids (sulphuric and nitric), so that some 
remains undissolved in the bottom of the 
vessel. It is found that the sulphate of 
sine occurs in small crystals having the 
appearance of very coarse granulated 
sngar. These crystals readily settle to the 
bottom of the vessel and do not do the 
work of matting properly. If they are 
finely pulverized the dip ia slightly im- 
proved, but it is impossible to pulverize 
such material to a fineness that will do 
the desired work. The use of sulphate 
of zinc, then, leaves much to be desired. 

The most modem method of making 



up the dead dip is to inroduce the sul- 
phate of zinc directly in the solution 
and in the precipitated form. It is well 
known that the most finely divided ma- 
terials are those which are produced by 
preupitaticn. and >n the dead dip it is 
verv important ha* h? sulphate of zinc 
shall be finely d*v d^d so that it will not 
immediately settle to he bottc m. There- 
fore it chould be precrpitaied so that 
when it is mixed witn the aads it will not 
settle immediately. The method of mak- 
inff the sulphate of zinc directly in the 
solution is as follows: 

Take 1 gallon of yellow aqua fortis 
(S8** F.) and place in a stone crock 
which is surrounded with cold water. 
The cold water is to keep the heat, 
formed by the reaction, from evaporating 
the acid. Add metallic zinc in small 
pieces until the acid will dissolve no 
more. The zinc may be in any conven- 
ient form — ^sheet clippings, lumps, ffran- 
ulated, etc., that mav be added litUe by 
little. If all is added at once it will boil 
over. When the acid will dissolve no 
more zinc it will be found that some of 
the acid has evaporated by the heat, and 
it will be necessary to add enough fresh 
acid to make up to the original gallon. 
When this is done add 1 gallon of strong 
oil of vitriol. The mixture should be 
stirred with a wooden paddle while the 
oil of vitriol is being added. 

As the sulphuric acid is beinff added 
the solution begins to grow milky, and 
finally the whole has the consistency of 
thick cream. This is caused by the sul- 
phuric acid (oil of vitriol) precipitating 
out the sulphate of zinc. Tnus the very 
finely^ divided precipitate of sulphate of 
zinc is formed. If one desires to use 
known quantities of acid and zinc the 
following amounts may be taken: Oil of 
vitriol, 1 gallon; aqua fortis (38^ F.), 1 
gallon; metallic zinc, 6 ounces. 

In dissolving the zinc in the aqua for- 
tis it is necessary to be sure that none re- 
mains undissolved in the bottom. 

The dead or matt dip is used hot, and. 
therefore, is kept in a stone crock sur- 
rounded with hot water. The articles to 
be matted are polished and cleaned, and 
the dip thoroughly stirred with a wooden 
paddle, so as to bring up the sulphate of 
zinc which has settled. Dip the work in 
the solution and allow it to remain until 
the matt is obtained. This is a point 
which can be learned only by experience. 
When the brass article is first introduced 
there is a rapid action on the surface, but 
in a few seconds this slows down. Re- 
move the article and rinse and immedi- 
ately dip into the usual bright dip. This 



ISft 



BRASS 



is necessary for the reason that the dead 
dip produces a dark coating upon the 
surface, which, were it left on, would not 
show the real effect or the color of the 
metal. The bright dip, however, re- 
moves this and exposes the true dead 
surface. 

The usual rule for making up the dead 
dip is to use equal parts of oil of vitriol 
and aqua fortis; but these may be altered 
to suit the case. More oil of vitriol gives 
a finer matt, while a larger quantity of 
aaua fortis will give a coarser matt. 
When the dip becomes old it is unneces- 
sary to add more zinc, as a little goes into 
the solution each time anything is dipped. 
After a while, however, the solution be- 
comes loaded with copper salts, and 
should be thrown away. 

A new dip does not work well, and 
will not give good results when used at 
once. It is usual to allow it to remain 
over night, when it will be found to be in 
a better working condition in the morn- 
ing. A new dip will frequently refuse to 
work, and the addition of a little water 
will often start it. The water must be 
used sparingly, however, and only when 
necessary. Water, as a usual thinff, 
spoils a dead dip, and must be avoided. 
After a while it may be necessary to add 
a little more aqua fortis, and this may be 
introduced as desired. Much care is 
needed in working the dead dip, and it 
requires constant watching and experi- 
ence. The chief difficulty in worning 
the dead dip is to match a given article. 
The onlv wav that it can be done is to 
"cut and try, and add aqua fortis or oil 
of vitriol as the case requires. 

The dead or matt dip can be obtained 
only upon brass or German silver; in 
other words, only on alloys which con- 
tain zinc. The best results are obtained 
upon yellow brass high in zinc. 

To Improye Deadened Brass Parts. — 
Clock parts matted with oilstone and 
oil, sucn as the hour wheels, minute 
wheels, etc., obtain, by mere grinding, a 
somewhat dull appearance, with a sensi- 
tive surface which readily takes spots. 
This may be improved by preparing the 
following powder, rubbing a little of it 
on a buff stick, and treating the deadened 

Carts, which have been cleansed with 
enzine, by rubbing with slight pressure 
on cork. This imparts to the articles a 
handsome, permanent, metallic matt 
luster. The smoothing powder consists 
of ^ parts of jewelers' red and 8 parts of 
lime carbonate; levigated in water, and 
well dried. Jewelers' red alone may be 
employed, but this requires some prac- 



tice and care, especially in the treatment 
of wheels, because rays are liable to 
form from the teeth toward the center. 

Pickle for Brass. — Stir 10 parts (by 
weight) of shining soot or snuff, 10 parts 
of cooking salt, and 10 parts of red tar- 
tar with 250 parts of nitric acid, and 
afterwards add 250 parts of sulphuric 
acid; or else mix 7 parts of aqua fortis 
(nitric acid) with 10 parts of English 
sulphuric acid. For the mixing ratio of 
the acid, the kind and alloy of tne metal 
should be the guidance, and it is best 
found out by practical trials. The bet- 
ter the alloy and the less the percentage 
of zinc or lead, the handsomer will be 
the color. Genuine bronze, for instance, 
acquires a golden shade. In order to 
give brass the appearance of handsome 
gilding it is often coated with ^old var- 
nish by applying same thinly witn a brush 
or sponge and immediately heating the 
metal over a coal fire. 

Pickling Brass to Look Like Gold. — 
To pickle brass so as to make it resem- 
ble gold allow a mixture of 6 parts of 
chemically pure nitric acid and 1 part of 
English sulphuric acid to act for some 
hours upon the surface of the brass; then 
wash with a warm solution, 20 parts of 
tartar in 50 parts of water, and rub off 
neatly with dry sawdust. Then coat 
the article with the proper varnish. 

Pickle for Dipping Brass. — To im- 
prove the appearance of brass, tombac, 
and copper goods, they are usually 
dipped. For this purpose they are first 
immersed in diluted oil of vitriol (brown 
sulphuric acid), proportion, 1 to 10; next 
in a mixture of 10 parts of red tartar; 10 
parts of cooking salt; 250 parts of Eng- 
lish sulphuric acid, as well as 250 parts of 
aaua fortis (only for a moment), rinsing 
off well in water and drying in sawdust. 
For obtaining a handsome matt gold 
color A part of zinc vitriol (zinc sul- 
phate) is still added to the pickle. 

Restoration of Brass Articles. — The 
brass articles are first freed from adher- 
ing dirt by the use of hot soda lye; if 
bronzed they are dipped in a highly dilute 
solution of sulphuric acid and rinsed in 
clean water. Next they are yellowed in 
a mixture of nitric acid, 75 parts; sul- 

Churic acid, 100 parts; shining lamp- 
lack, 2 parts^ cooking salt, 1 part; then 
rinsed and polished and, to prevent 
oxidation, coated with a colorless spirit 
varnish, a celluloid varnish being best 
for this purpose. 

Tempering Brass. — If hammered too 
brittle orass can be tempered and made 



BRICK 



188 



of a more even hardness throughout by 
warming it, as in tempering steel; but 
the heat must not be nearly so great. 
Brass, heated to the blue heat of steel, is 
almost soft again. To soften brass, heat 
it nearly to a dull red and allow it to cool, 
or, if time is an object, it may be cooled 
by plunging into water. 

Drawing Temper from Brass. — Brass 
is rendered harci by hammering or roll- 
in(^, therefore when a brass object re- 
quires to be tempered the material must 
be prepared before the article is shaped. 
Temper may be drawn from brass by 
heating it to a cherry red and then sim* 
ply plunging it into water, the same as 
though steel were to be tempered. 

BRASS. FASTENING PORCELAIN TO: 

See Adhesives. 

BRASS POUSHES: 
See Polishes. 

BRASS SOLDERS: 

See Solders. 

BRASS BRONZING: 
See Plating. 

BRASS CLEANERS: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

BRASS PLATINIZING: 
See Plating. 

BRASS, SAND HOLES IN: 
See Castings. 

BRASSING: 
See Plating. 

BREAD, DOG: 
See Dog Biscuit. 

BREATH PERFUMES: 
See also Dentifrices. 

Remedies for Fetid Breath.— Fetid 
breath may be due to the expelled air 
(i. e., to disease of the respirational tract), 
to gases thrown off from the digestive 
tract, or to a diseased mouth. In the 
fint two cases medication must be di- 
rected to the causative diseases, with the 
last, antisepsis principallv and the neu- 
tralization of the saliva, aJso the removal 
of all residual food of dental caries. 

I. — Potassium perman- 
ganate 1 part 

Distilled water. ... 10 parts 

Mix and dissolve. Add -from 5 to 8 
drops of this solution to a glass of water 
and with it gargle the mouth. 



II. — Infusion of salvia 250 parts 

Glycerine 80 pariB 

Tincture of myrrh 12 parts 
Tincture of laven- 
der 12 parts 

Labarraque*s so- 
lution 80 pariB 

Mix. Rinse the mouth frequently 
with this mixture. 
III. — Decoction of cham- 
omile 80 pariB 

Glycerine 80 parts 

Chlorinated water. 15 parts 
Mix. Use as a gargle and mouth 
wash. 
IV.— Peppermint water 500 parts 
Cherry-laurel wa- 
ter 60 parts 

Borax 25 pariB 

Mix and dissolve. Use as gargle and 
mouth wash. 

v.— Thymol 8 pariB 

Spirit of cochlea- 

ria 800 pariB 

Tincture of rhat- 

anv 100 pariB 

Oil of peppermint 15 parts 

Oil of cloves 10 parts 

Mix. Garble and wash mouth well 
with 10 drops in a glass of water. 

VL— Salol 5 parts 

' Alcohol 1,000 parts 

Tincture of white 

canella 80 parts 

Oil of pepper- 
mint 1 part 

Mix. Use as a dentifrice. 
VII. — Hydrogen perox- 
ide 25 parts 

Distilled water. . . 100 parts 
Mix. Gargle the mouth twice daily 
with 2 tablespoonf uls of the mixture in a 
glass of water. 
VIII. — Sodium bicarbon- 
ate 2 parts 

Distilled water. ... 70 parts 
Spirit of cochlearia SO parts 
Mix a half-teaspoonful in a wine- 
glassful of water. Wash mouth two or 
three times daily. 

BRICK STAIN. 

To stain brick flat the color of brown- 
stone, add black to Venetian red until 
the desired shade is obtained. If color 
ground in oil is used, thin with turpen- 
tine, using a little japan as a drier. If 
necessary to get the desired shade add 
yellow ocher to the mixture of red and 
black. If the work is part old and part 
new, rub the wall down, using a brick 



134 



BRONZING 



for a rubber, until the surface is uniform, 
and keep it well wet while rubbing with 
cement water, made by stirring Portland 
cement into water until the water looks 
the color of the cement. This opera- 
tion fills the pores of the brick and makes 
a smooth, uniform surface to paint on. 
Tinge the wash with a little dry Vene- 
tian red and lampblack. This will help 
bring the brick to a uniform color, so that 
an even color can be obtained with one 
coat of stain. 

BRICKS: 

See Ceramics. 

BRICKS OF SAin)-LIM£: 

See Stone, Artificial. 

BRICK POLISHES: 

See Polishes. 

BRICK WALLS, TO CLEAN: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods and Household Formulas. 

BRICK WATERPROOFING: 

See Waterproofing. 

BRICKMAKERS' NOTES: 

See Ceramics. 

BRIIKrE PAINT: 

See Paint. 

BRILLIANTINE : 

See Hair Preparations. 

BRIMSTONE (BURNING): 
See Pyrotechnics. 

BRIONY ROOTS: THEIR PRESER- 
VATION: 

Sec Roots. 

BRITANNIA METAL: 
See Alloys. 

BRITANNIA METAL, TO CLEAN: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

BRITANNIA, SILVERPLATING : 

See Plating. 

BROMINE, ANTISEPTIC: 
See Antiseptics. 

BROMOFORM. 

Bromoform is insoluble in dilute al- 
cohol, but mav be dissolved by the aid of 
glycerine. The following formula has 
been devised: 

Bromoform 1 part 

Alcohol 2 parts 

Compound tincture of 

cardamon 2 parts 

Glycerine 1 § parts 



Some other formulas are: 

Syrup of Bromoform. — Bromoform, 
5 parts; alcohol (95 per cent), 45 parts; 
glycerine, 150 parts; syrup, 800 parts. 
aiix in the order given and place the con- 
tainer in warm water until the syrup be- 
comes perfectly clear. 

Emulsion of Bromofonn. — Add 3 parts 
of bromoform to 20 parts of expressed oil 
of almond; emulsify this mixture in the 
usual manner with 2 parts of powdered 
tragacanth, 4 parts of powdered acacia, 
and sufficient water, using for the com- 
pleted emulsion a total ol 120 parts of 
water, and add, finally, 4 parts of cherry- 
laurel water. 

Bromoform Rum. — Bromoform, 1.2 
parts; chloroform, 0.8 parts; rum, suffi- 
cient to make 120 parts. Claimed to 
be an effective remedy in the treatment of 
whooping cough. 



BRONZES: 

Sec Alloys. 

BRONZE CASTING: 

See Casting. 

BRONZE, IMITATION: 
See Plaster. 

BRONZE POLISHES: 

See Polishes. 

BRONZE, RENOVATION OF: 
See Cleaning Compounds. 



Bronze Powders, Liquid 

Bronzes, Bronze Substitutes, 

and Bronzing 

BRONZE POWDERS. 

Gold bronze is a mixture of equal 
parts of oxide of tin and sulphur, which 
are heated for some time in an earthen 
retort. Silver bronze is a mixture of 
eoual parts of bismuth, tin, and mercury, 
which are fused in a crucible, adding the 
mercury only when the tin and the bis- 
muth are in fusion. Next reduce to a 
very fine powder. To apply these 
bronzes, white of e^g, gum arabic, or 
varnish is used. It is preferable to ap- 
ply them dry upon one of the above- 
named mediums serving as size, than to 
mix them with the li<]|uias themselves, for 
in the latter case their luster is impaired. 

Simple Coloring of Bronze Powder. — 
In order to imparl different colors to 



BRONZING 



185 



bronze powders, such as pale yellow, 
dark yellow to copper red, tne powder is 
heated with constant stirring in flat iron 
pans until through the oxidation of the 
copper — the bronzes consist of the brass 
powder of an alloy from which the so- 
called Dutch gold is produced — the de- 
sired shade of color is reached. As a 
rule a very small quantity of fat, wax, or 
even paraffine is added in this operation. 
The oronze powders are employed to 
produce coatings or certain finishes on 
metals themselves or to give articles of 
wood, stone, pasteboard, etc., a metallic 
appearance. 

General Directions for Bronzing. — The 
choice of bronze powders is determined 
by the degree of brilliancy to be ob- 
tained. The powder is mixed with 
strong gum water or isinglass, and laid 
on with a brush or pencil, almost but not 
absolutely dry. A piece of soft leather, 
wrapped around the finger, is dipped into 
the powder and rubbed over the work; 
when all this has been covered with the 
bronze it must be left to dry, and the 
loose powder is then cleared away with 
a hair pencil. 

UQUm BRONZES. 

Liquid Bronzes. — 1. — For the produc- 
tion of liquid bronze, acid-free varnish 
should be used, as bronze ground with 
ordinary varnish will form verdigris. 
For the deacidification of dammar rosin 
pour 1,000 parts of petroleum benzine 
over 350 parts of finely ground daminar 
rosin, ana dissolve by repeated shaking. 
Next add to the solution 250 parts of a 
10-per-cent aqueous solution of caustic 
soda and shake up well for 10 minutes. 
Aiier standing for a short time two 
strata will have formed, the upper one 
consisting of benzine-rosin solution and 
the lower, aqueous one containing the 
resinicacid dissolved as soda salts. Four 
off the benzine layers and aeitate again 
assiduous! jr with 250 parts of the 10-per- 
cent caustic-soda solution. Now set 
aside for a complete classification and 
separation of the two liquids. The 
dammar solution siphoned off will be per- 
fectly free from acid. To obtain gold- 
bronze varnish add to the dcacidified 
daminar solution about 250 parts of 
bronze or brocade per liter. 

II. — Or else carefully mix 100 parts of 
finely ^ound dammar rosin with 30 parts 
of calcined soda and heat to fusion, in 
which state it is maintained 2 or 3 hours 
with frequent stirring. Let cool, grind 
the turbid mass obtained, and pour a little 
coal benzine or petroleum benzine over 



it in a flask. By repeated shaking of the 
flask the soluble portion of the molten 
mass is dis.solved: filter after allowing to 
settle: into the filtrate put 300 to 400 
parts of bronze powder of fknyr desired 
shade, the brocades being especially well 
adapted for this purpose. If the metallic 
powder remains distributed over the 
mass for a lon^ time it is of the right 
consistency; if it deposits quickly it is 
too thin and a part of the solvent must 
be evaporated before stirring in the 
bronze powder. 

III. — A liquid bronze, which, while 
it contains no metallic constituent, yet 
possesses a metallic luster and a bronze 
appearance, and answers excellently for 
many purposes, is made as follows: 
Dissolve by the aid of genUe heat 10 
parts of aniline red and 5 parts of aniline 
purple in 100 parts of alcohol. When 
solution is complete, add 5 parts of ben- 
zoic acid, raise the heat, and let boil 
from 5 to 10 minutes, or until the green- 
ish color of the mixture passes over to a 
clear bronze brown. For "marbling" 
or bronzing paper articles, this answers 
particularly well. 

Incombustible Bronze Tincture. — 
Finely pulverize 5 parts, by weight, of 
prime Dammar rosm and 1.5 parts of 
ammonia soda. Heat gentiy, and stir fre- 
quently, until no more carbonic acid bub- 
bles up. Cool and pulverize again. Put 
the powder into a glass carboy, and pour 
over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride; 
let this stand for 2 days* stirring fre- 
ouently. Then filter. Ten parts of the 
fluid are mixed with 5 parts of metallic 
bronze of any desired shade, and put 
into bottles. Shake well before using. 

General Formulas for Bronzins Prepa- 
rations. — I. — Take 240 parts subacetate 
of copper, 120 parts oxidle of zinc in pow- 
der form, 60 parts borax, 60 parts salt- 
peter, and 3.5 parts corrosive sublimate. 
Prepare a paste from it with oil, stir to- 
gether, and continue working with boiled 
unseed oil and turpentine. 

II. — Dissolve 120 parts sulphate of 
copper and add 120 parts chipping of 
tin; stir well and gather the precipitating 
copper. After complete drying, ffrina 
very finely in boiled linseed oil and tur- 
pentine. 

III. — Melt in a crucible 60 parts sul- 
phur and 60 parts stannic acid; stir with 
a clay tube until the mixture takes on the 
appearance of Dutch gold and pour out. 
Wnen cold mix the color with boiled lin- 
seed oil and turpentine, adding a small 
quantity of drier. These three bronzes 
must be covered with a palej resistanA^ 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



IM 



BRONZING 



lacquer, otherwise tW wlU soon Urniah 
in rooms where gas is ourned. 

Florentine Bronzes.— I.— -To produce a 
Florentine bronzing, apply to the articles, 
which must have previously been dipped, 
a varnish composed of cherry gum lac 
dissolved in alcohol. This varnish is 

Cut on with a brush, and after that the 
ronzed piece is passed through the 
stove. 

II.— If the article is of brass it must 
be given a coat of copper by means of 
the oattery. Next dip a brush in olive 
oil and brush the piece uniformly; let 
dry for 5 or 6 hours and place in saw- 
dust. Then heat the article on a mod- 
erate charcoal dust fire. 

Preparation of French Bronze. — 
Frencn bronze may be prepared by re- 
ducing to a powder hematite,^ 5 parts, 
and plumbago, 8 parts, and mixing into a 
paste with spirit of wine. Apply the 
composition with a soft brush to the 
article to be bronzed and set it aside for 
some hours. By polishing with a toler- 
ably hard brush tne article will assume 
the beautiful appearance of real bronze. 
The desired tint may be regulated by the 
proportions of the ingredients. 

How to Bronze Metals. — Prepare a 
solution of 1 ^ ounces of sodium hvposul- 
phite in 1 pint of water and add to the 
same a solution of H ounces of lead 
acetate dissolved in 1 pint of water. 

If, instead of lead acetate, an equal 
weight of sulphuric acid (1^ ounces) is 
added to the sodium hyposulphite and 
the process carried on as before, the 
brass becomes coated with a very beau- 
tiful red, which changes to green, and 
finally a splendid brown with a green 
and red iridescence. This last is a very 
durable coating and may be especially 
recommended. It is very difficult to 
obtain exact shades by this process with- 
out some experience. The thorough 
cleansing of all articles from grease by 
boiling in potash is absolutely necessary 
to success. By substituting other metal 
salts for the lead acetate many changes 
in tints and quality of the coatings can 
also be effected. 

When this mixture is heated to a tem- 
perature a little below the boiling point 
It precipitates sulphide of lead in a state 
of fine division. If some metal is pres- 
ent some of the lead is precipitated on 
the surface and, according to the thick- 
ness of the layer, different colors are pro- 
duced. To produce an even color the 
articles must be evenly heated. By im- 
mersion of brass articles for 5 minutes 



the same may be coated with eolors 
varying from gold to copper red, then to 
carmine, dark red, and irom light blue 
to blue white, and at last a reddish white, 
depending on the time the metal remains 
in the solution and the temperature used. 
Iron objects treated in this solution take 
a steel-blue color, zinc a brown color. In 
the case of copper objects a golden yellow 
cannot be obtained. 

New Bronzing Liquid. — Dissolve 10 
parts of fuchsine and 5 parts of aniline 
purple in 100 parts of alcohol (95 percent) 
and add to the solution 5 parts of ben- 
zoic acid. Boil the whole for 10 min- 
utes until the color turns bronze brown. 
This liquid can be applied to all metals 
and dries quickly. 

A Bronze for Brass. — Immerse the 
articles, freed from dirt and grease, in a 
cold solution of 10 parts of potassium 
permanganate, 50 parts of iron sulphate, 
5 parts of hydrochloric acid in 1,000 
parts of water. Let remain 30 seconds, 
then withdraw, rinse, and let dry in fine, 
soft sawdust. If the articles have be- 
come too dark, or if a reddish-brown 
color be desired, immerse for about 1 
minute in a warm (140° F.) solution of 
chromic acid, 10 parts; hydrochloric 
acid, 10 parts; potassium permanganate, 
10 parts; iron sulphate, 50 parts; water, 
1,000 parts. Treat as before. If the 
latter solution alone be used the product 
will be a brighter dark-yellow or red- 
dish-brown color. By heating in a dry- 
ing oven the tone of the colors is im- 
proved. 4k 

To Bronze Copper. — This process is 
analogous to the one practiced at the 
Mint of Paris for bronzing medals. 

Spread on the copper object a solution 
composed of: 

Acetate or chlorhy- 

drate of ammonia . . 30 parts 

Sea salt 10 parts 

Cream of tartar 10 parts 

Acetate of copper .... 10 parts 
Diluted acetic acid. . . 100 parts 
I^t dry for 24 to 48 hours at an ordi- 
nary temperature. The surface of the 
metal will become covered with a series 
of varying tints. Brush with a waxed 
brush. The green portions soaked with 
chlorhydrate of ammonia will assume a 
blue coloring, and those treated with 
carbonate will be thick and darkened. 

Bronzing and Patinizing of Small Zinc 
Articles. — Coatings of bronze tones and 
patina shades ma)^ be produced on zinc 
oy means of various- liquids, but the 

Digitized by VjODQIC 



BRONZING 



187 



articles, before being worked upon, 
should be rubbed down with very fine 
glass or emery paper, to make them not 
only perfectly metallic, but also some- 
what rough, as a consequence of which 
the bronze or patina coatings will adhere 
much better. The best bronze or pa- 
tina effects on bronte are obtained by 
electroplating the article with a fairly 
thick deposit of brass rich in copper and 
then treating it like genuine bronze. The 
solutions used, however, must always be 
hii^hly diluted, otherwise they may eat 
entirely through the thin metallic coat- 
ing. 

Bronzing of Zinc. — Mix thoroughly 30 
parts of sal ammoniac, 10 parts of 
oxalate of potash, and 1,000 parts of 
vinegar. Apply with a brush or a rag 
several times, until the desired tint is 
produced. 

Bronze Gilding on Smooth Moldings. — 
A perfect substitute for dead gilding can- 
not be obtained by bronzing, because of 
the radically different reflection of the 
light, for the matt gilding presents to the 
light a |>erfectly sniooth surface, while 
in bronzing every little scale of bronze 
reflects the light in a different direction. 
In consec|uence of this diffusion of light, 
all bronzing, even the best executed, is 
somewhat darker and dimmer than leaf 
gilding. This dimness, it is true, ex- 
tends over the whole surface, and there- 
fore is not perceptible to the layman, and 
cannot be callea an evil, as the genuine 
leaf gold is so spotted that a bronzed 
surface is cleaner than a gilt one. The 
following process is the best known at 
present: Choose only the best bronze, 
which is first prepared thick with pure 
spirit. Next add a quantity of water 
and stir again. After the precipitation, 
which occurs promptly, the water is 
poured off and renewed repeatedlv by 
fresh water. When the spirit has been 
washed out again in this manner, the re- 
maining deposit, i. e., the bronze, is 
thinned with clean, good gold size. The 
bronze must be tnin enough just to 
cover. The moldings are coated twice, 
the second time commencing at the op- 
posite end. Under no circumstances 
should the dry, dead gilding give off 
color when grasping it firmly, u it does 
that, either the size is inferior or the so- 
lution too weak or the mixture too thick. 

Incombustible Bronze Tincture. — Five 
parts of prime dammar rosin and 1.5 
parts of ammonia soda, very finely pul- 
verized. Heat gentlv, with frequent 
stirring, until the evolution of carbonic 
add ceases. Then take from the fire» 



and when cool pulverize again. Pot 
the powder into a glMs carboy, and |>our 
over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride; 
let this stand for 2 days, stirring fre- 
cjuently, then filter. Ten parts of the 
fluid are to be mixed with each 5 parts 
of metallic bronze of any desired shade, 
and put into bottles. Shake the tincture 
well before using. 

Bronzing Engrayed Onuunents. — 
Take bronze and stir. with it pale copal 
varnish diluted one-half with turpentine. 
With this paint the ornaments neatly. 
In i hour the bronze will have dried. 
The places from which the bronze is to 
be removed, i. e., where the bronze has 
overrun the polished surface, are dabbed 
with a small rag soaked with kerosene, 
taking care that it is not too wet, so as 
to prevent the kerosene from running 
into the ornament. After a short while 
the bronze will have dissolved and can 
be wiped off with a soft rag. If this 
does not remove it entirely, dab and wipe 
again. Finally finish wiping with an 
especially soft, clean rag. Kerosene 
does not attack polish on wood. The 
bronze must become dull and yet adhere 
firmly, under which condition it has a 
hardened color. If it does not become 
dull the varnish is too strong and should 
be diluted with turpentine. 

Durable Bronze on Banners. —To 
render bronzes durable on banners, etc., 
the ground must be primed with gum 
arable and a little glycerine. Then ap- 
ply the bronze solution, prepared with 
dammar and one-tenth varnish. In- 
stead of gum arabic with glycerine, gela- 
tine glue may also be employed as an 
underlay. 

BRONZE SUBSTITUTES. 

The following recipe is used in making 
imitation gold bronzes: 

Sandarac 50 parts 

Mastic 10 parts 

Venice turpentine. . . 5 parts 

Alcohol 135 parts 

In the above dissolve: 
Metanil yellow and 

gold orange 0.4 parts 

and add 

Aluminum, finely 

powdered 20 parts 

and shake. 

If a deeper shade is desired it is well 
to use ethyl orange and gold orange in 
the same proportion, instead of the dyes. 
For the production of imitation copper 
bronze take the above-mentioned rosin 
mixture »nd dissolve therein only gold 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



1S8 



BRONZING 



orange 0.8 parts, and add aluminum 20 
parts, whereby a handsome copper color 
IS produced. Metanil yellow 0.4 parts 
witnout gold orange gives with the same 
amount of lacquer a greenish tone of 
bronze. The pigments must not be 
made use of in larger quantities, because 
the luster of the bronze is materially 
affected. Only pigments of certain 
properties, such as solubility in alcohol, 
relative constanc]^ . to reductive agents, 
are suitable; unsuitable are, for instance, 
naphthol yellow, phenylene-diamin, etc. 
LdKewise only a lacquer of certain com- 
position is fit for use, other lacquers of 
commerce, such as zapon (celluloid) 
lacquer being unsuitable. The bronzes 
prepared in this manner excel in luster 
ana color effect; the cost is very low. 
They are suitable for bronzing low- 
priced articles, as tinware, toys, etc. 
under the action of sun and moisture the 
articles lose some of their luster, but ob- 
jects kept indoors such as figures of plas- 
ter of Paris, inkstands, wooden boxes, 
etc., retain their brilliancy for years. 

Some use powdered aluminum and yel- 
low organic ayestuffs, such as gold orange. 
These are employed together with a var- 
nish of certain composition, which im- 
parts the necessary gloss to the mixture. 

BRONZE COLORING: 

To Color Bronze. — Bronze articles ac- 
quire handsome tempering colors by 
beating. In order to impart an old ap- 
pearance to new objects of bronze, they 
mav be heated over a flame and rubbed 
with a woolen rag dipped in finely pow- 
dered i^raphite, until the desired snade 
is attained. Or else a paste is applied 
on the article, consisting of grapliite 5 
parts and bloodstone 15 parts, with a suf- 
ficient quantity of alcohol. After 24 
hours brush off the dry powder. A hot 
solution composed of sal ammoniac 4 
parts, sorrel salt 1 part, vinegar 200 
parts, may also be brushed on. Another 
wa^ is to dip the pieces into a boiling so- 
lution of cupric acetate 20 parts, and sal 
ammoniac 10 parts, dissolved in 60 to 
100 parts of vinegar. 

Patent bronzes (products colored by 
means of aniline dyes) have hitherto 
been used in the manufacture of toys and 
de luxe or fancy paper, but makers of 
wall or stained paper have recently given 
their attention to these products. Wall 
-^or moirS — paper prepared with these 
dves furnishes covers or prints of silken 
gloss with a peculiar douole-color effect 
m which the metallic brilliancy charac- 
teristic of bronze combines with the 
shades of the tar pigments used. Very 



beautiful reliefs, giving rise to the most 
charminff play of colors in perpendicular 
or laterally reflected light, are produced 
by pressing the paper lengths or web 
painted with aniline-bronze dyes. The 
brass brocade and tin bronzes serve as 
bases for the aniline dyes; of the tar pig- 
ments only basic aniline dyes soluble m 
alcohol are used. In coloring the pul- 
verized bronze care must be taken that 
the latter is as free as possible from or- 
ganic fats. Tar dyes should be dis- 
solved in as concentrated a form as pos- 
sible in alcohol and stirred with the 
bronze, the pigment being then fixed on 
the vehicle witn an alcoholic solution of 
tannin. The patent bronze is then 
dried by allowing the alcohol to evapo- 
rate. This method of coloring is purely 
mechanical, as the tar dyes do not com- 
bine with the metallic bronze, as is the 
case with pigments in which hydrate of 
alumina is used. A coating of aniline 
bronze of this kind is therefore very sen- 
sitive to moisture, unless spread over 
the paper surface with a suitaole protect- 
ive binding medium, or protected by a 
transparent coat of varnish, which of 
course must not interfere with the special 
color effect. 

Pickle for Bronzes. — Sulphuric acid, 
1,000 parts; nitric acid, 500 parts; soot, 
10 parts; sea salt, 5 parts. 

Imitation Japanese Bronze.— ^ When 
the copper or coppered article is per- 
fectly dry and tne copper or copper 
coating made brilliant, wnich is produced 
by rubbing with a soft brush, put graph- 
ite over tne piece to be bronzed so 
that the copper is simplv dyed. Wipe 
off the raised portions w^ith a damp clotn, 
so that the copper makes its appearance. 
Next put on a thin coat of Japanese var- 
nish; wipe the relief again and let dry. 
Apply 1 or 2 coats after the first is per- 
fectly dry. Handsome smoked hues 
may be obtained by holding the bronze 
either over the dust of lighted peat or 
powdered rosin thrown on lighted coal, 
so as to obtain a smoke which will change 
the color of the varnish employed. The 
varnish must be li(^uid enough to be 
worked easily, for this style of oronzing 
is only applicable to brass. 

Green Bronze on Iron. — Abietate of 
silver, 1 part; essence of lavender, 19 
parts. Dissolve the abietate of silver in 
the essence of lavender. After the arti- 
cles have been well pickled apply the 
abietate-of -silver solution with a brush; 
next place the objects in a stove and let 
the temperature attain about 150° C. 

Blue Bronze. — Blue-Jbronz^^ is pro- 
Digitized by ' 



te^'Sgte" 



BRONZING 



189 



duced by the wet process by coloring 
white bronze (silver composition) with 
aniline blue. A blue-bronze color can be 

Eroduced in the ordinary way from white- 
ronze color, the product of pure Eng- 
lish tin, and with an alum solution con- 
sisting of 20 parts of alum in 4,500 parts 
of water boiled for 5 hours and washed 
clean and dried. The bronze prepared 
ia this manner is placed in a porcelain 
dish, mixed with a solution of 15 parts of 
aniline blue in 1,500 parts of alcohol, 
stirring the bronze powder and liquid 
until the alcohol has evaporated entire- 
ly and the bronze color becomes dry. 
This manipulation must be repeated 6 
or 8 times, until the desired blue shade 
is reached. When the bronze is dark 
enough it is washed out in warm water, 
and before entirely dry 1 tablespoonful 
of petroleum is poured on ft pounds of 
bronze, which is intimately mixed and 
spread out into a thin layer, exposed to 
the air, whereby the smell is caused to 
disappear in a few days. 

Bronzing with Soluble Glass. —To 
bronze wood, porcelain, glass, and metal 
by means of a water-glass solution, coat 
the article with potash water-glass of 
30** Be. and sprinkle on the respective 
bronze powder. 

Brown Oxidation on Bronze. -y Genu- 
ine bronze can be beautifully oxidized by 
painting it with a solution of 4 parts of 
sal ammoniac and 1 part of oxalium 
(oxalate of potash) in SOO parts of vine- 
gar, allowing it to dry, and repeating the 
operation several tinges. These articles, 
protected against rain, soon lose the un- 
pleasant glaring metallic luster and as- 
sume instead a soft brown tint, which 
bronze articles otherwise acquire only 
after several years' exposure to the at- 
mosphere. A beautiful bronze color 
which will remain unaffected by heat 
can be imparted to bronze articles by the 
following process: The object is first 
washed m a solution of 1 part of crystal- 
lized verdigris and 2 parts of sal ammo- 
niac in 260 parts of water, and then dried 
before an open fire till the green color 
begins to disapp>ear. The o[>eration is 
repeated 10 to 20 times, but with a solu- 
tion of 1 part of verdigris crystals and 2 
part? of sal ammoniac in 600 parts of 
water. The color of the article, olive 
green at first, gradually turns to brown, 
which will remain unaltered even when 
exposed to strong heat. 

BRONZE POWDERS: 

See also Plating for general methods 
of bronzing, and Varnishes. 



Gold and Silver Bronze Powders. — 
Genuine gold bronze is produced from 
the waste and parings obtained in gold 
beating. The parings, etc., are ground 
with honey or a gum solution, upon a 
glass plate or under hard granite stones, 
into a very fine powder, which is re- 
peatedly washed out with water and 
dried. There are various shades of gold 
bronze, viz., red, reddish, deep yelTow, 
I>ale yellow, as well as greenish. These 
tints are caused bv the various percent- 
ages of gold or the various mixtures of 
the gold with silver and copper. 

By the use of various salt solutions or 
acidulated substances other shades can 
be imparted to bronze. In water con- 
taining sulphuric acid, nitric acid, or 
hydrochloric acid, it turns a bright yel- 
low; by treatment with a solution of crys- 
tallized verdigris or blue vitriol in water 
it assumes more of a reddish hue; other 
tints are obtained with the aid of cooking 
salt, tartar, green vitriol, or saltpeter in 
water. 

Gold bronze is also obtained by dis- 
solving gold in aqua regia and mixing 
with a solution of green vitriol in water, 
whereupon the ffold falls down as a me- 
tallic powder which may be treated in 
different ways. The green vitriol, how- 
ever, must be dissolved in boiling water 
and mixed in a glass, drop by drop, with 
sulphuric acid and stirrea until the basic 
iron sulphate separating in flakes has re- 
dissolved. Another wa^ of producing 
gold bronze is by dissolving gold in aqua 
regia and evaporating the solution in a 
porcelain dish. When it is almost dry 
add a little pure hydrochloric acid and 
repeat this to drive out all the free chlo- 
rine and to produce a pure hydrochlorate 
of gold. The gold salt is dissolved in 
distilled water, taking i liter per ducat 
(3} grams fine gold); into this solution 
drop, while stirring by means of a glass 
rod, an 8^ solution (by Beaume) of an- 
timony chloride, as long as a precipitate 
forms. This deposit is gold bronze, 
which, dried after removal of all liquids, 
is chiefly employed in painting, for bronz- 
ing, and for china and glass decoration. 

Metallic gold powder is, furthermore, 
obtained by dissolving pure and alloyed 
gold in aqua regia ana precipitating it 
again by an electro- positive metal, such 
as iron or zinc, which is placed in the liq- 
uid in the form of rods. The gold is 
completely separated thereby. The rods 
must be perfectly clean and polished 
bright. The color of the gold bronze 
depends upon the proportions of the gold. 
In order to further increase the brilliancv 
the dried substance may still be ground. 
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140 



BRUSHES 



Mosaic Gold. — Mosaic gold, generally 
a compound of tin, 64.63 parts, and sul- 

f)hur, 35.37 parts, is odorless and taste- 
ess, and dissolves only in chlorine solu- 
tion, aqua regia, and boiling potash lye. 
It is employed principally tor bronz- 
ing plaster-of-Pans figures, copper, and 
brass, by mixing it with 6 parts of bone 
ashes, rubbing it on wet, or applying it 
with varnish or white of egg in tne prep- 
aration of gold paper or for gilding 
cardboard and wood. Mosaic gold of 
golden-yellow color is produced by heat- 
ing 6 parts of sulphur and 16 parts of 
tin amalgam with equal parts of mer- 
cury and 4 parts of sulphur; 8 parts of 
precipitate from stannic muriate (stannic 
acid) and 4 parts of sulphur also give a 
handsome mosaic gold. 

The handsomest, purest, and most 
gold-like mosaic gold is obtained by 
melting IS parts of pure tin, free from 
lead, and mixing with 6 parts of mercury 
to an amalgam. This is mixed with 7 
parts of flowers of sulphur and 6 parts of 
sal ammoniac, whereupon the mass is 
subjected for several nours ^ to a heat 
which at first does not attain redness, 
but eventually when no more fumes are 
generated is increased to dark-red heat. 
This operation is conducted either in a 
glass retort or in an earthenware cru- 
cible. The sal ammoniac escapes first 
on heating, next vermilion sublimates 
and some stannic chloride, while the 
mosaic gold remains on the bottom, the 
upper layer, consisting of lustrous, 
golden, cfelicately translucent leaflets, 
being the handsomest mosaic gold. 

Genuine Silver Bronze. — This is ob- 
tained by the finely ground waste from 
beating leaf silver or oy dissolving silver 
in aqua fortis. This solution is then 
diluted with water and brightly scoured 
copper plates are put in, whereby the 
silver precipitates as a metallic powder. 

Imitation Silver Bronze. — This is ob- 
tained through the waste in beating imi- 
tation leaf suver, which, finely ground, 
is then washed and dried. In order to 
increase the luster it is ground again in a 
dry condition. 

Mosaic Silver. — Mosaic silver is an 
amalgam of equal parts of mercury, bis- 
muth, and tin. One may also melt 50 
parts of good tin in a crucible, and as 
soon as it becomes liquid add 50 parts 
of bismuth, stirring all with an iron wire 
until the bismuth is fused as well. As 
soon as this occurs the crucible must be 
removed from the fire; then stir in, as 
long as the contents are still liquid, 25 
parts of mercury and mix the whole mass 



evenly until it can be ground on a stone 
slab. 

BRONZE VARNISHES: 

See Varnishes. 

BRONZING SOLUTIONS FOR PAINTS : 

See Paints. 

BRONZING OF WOOD: 

See Wood. 

BROOCHES, PHOTOGRAPHS ON: 

See Photography. 

BROWN OINTMENT: 

See Ointments. 

BROWNING OF STEEL: 

See Plating.' 

BROWNSTONE, IMITATION: 

See Brick Stam. 

BRUNETTE POWDER: 
See Cosmetics. 



Brushes 

HOW TO TAKE CARE OF PAINT 
AND VARAISH BRUSHES. 

It is a good plan to fill the varnish brush 
before putting it in the keeper. 

Whitewash or kalsomine brushes 
should not be put into newly slaked 
lime or hot kalsomine. 

Cement-set brushes should never be 

Eut in any alcohol mixture, such as shel- 
ves and spirit stains. 
Varnish brushes should be selected 
with a view to their possessing the follow- 
ing qualities: 1st, excellence of mate- 
rial; 2d, excellence of make, which 
includes fullness of hair or bristles and 
permanency of binding; dd. life and 
spring, or elasticity sufficient to enable 
the varnisher to spread the varnish with- 
out reducing it with turpentine; and 
4th, springing, when in use, to a true 
chisel edge. 

Temperature for Brushes.— The bris- 
tles of every brush are held in place bv 
the handle. It passes through the shank 
of the brush and is kiln-dried to fit 
perfectly. If it shrinks, however, its 
outward tension is lost and the bristles 
loosened. For this reason the first 
principle in brush care is to keep the 
tool, when it is new or not soaking, in a 
cool place, out of hot rooms, and anv 
temperature that would tend to shrink 
the wood of the handle. 

Cleaning Paint Brushes. — No new 
brush should be dipped in the paint 
and put to work without first being 

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BRUSHES— BUNIONS 



141 



cleaned. By working it with a brisk 
moTement back and forth through the 
hand most of the dust and loose hairs 
will be taken out. * A paint brush, when 
thus thoroughly dry cleaned, should be 
placed in water for a few minutes, not 
ion^ enough to soak or swell it, but only 
until wet through, and then swung and 
shaken dry. It is then ready to dip in 
the paint, and although some of the hairs 
may still be loose, most of them will 
come out in the first few minutes' work- 
ing and can be easily picked from the 
surface. 

Cleaning Varnish Brushes. — Varnish 
brushes, and brushes used in varnish 
stain, bug^y paint, and all color in var- 
nish require different handling than 
paint brushes. They should be more 
thoroughly dry cleaned, in order that 
all loose hairs may be worked out. 
After working them through the hand it 
is a ffood thing to pass the brush back 
and forth over a sheet of sandpaper. 
This rough surface will pull out the loose 
bristles and smooth down the rough 
ends of the chisel point. The brush 
should then be washed by working it for 
a few minutes in clean turpentine and 
swinging it dry. It should never be put 
in water. For carriage work and nne 
varnishing the brush should be broken 
in on the rubbing coat in order to work 
out all the dust particles before it is used 
on the finishing coats. 

Setting the Paint-Bnish Bristles.— 
For the first 2 or 3 days new brushes 
require special care while at rest. They 
should be dipped in raw oil or the 
paint itself and smoothed out carefully, 
then laid on their sides over night. The 
chisel-pointed brushes should be set at 
an incline, the handle supported just 
enough to allow the brush to lie along 
the point. This is done to prevent twist- 
ing of the bristles, and to keep the shape 
of the brush. It is necessary to ao 
this only 2 or 3 times before the shape 
becomes set. 

Paint Brushes at Rest. — An impor- 
tant principle in brush care is never to 
leave the brush on end while at rest. 
Even for temporary rest during a job 
the brush should never stand on end. 
At night it should always be placed in a 
"brush-keeper" — a water-tight box, or a 
paint keg, with nails driven through the 
sides on which the brushes can be sus- 
pended in water. Holes are bored in 
the handles so the brush will hang free 
of the bottom, but with the bristles en- 
tirely under water. Before placing 



them in water the brushes should be 
wiped so as not to be too full of paint, 
but not cleaned. 

Varnish Brushes at Rest.— Varnish 
brushes should be kept at rest in tur- 
pentine and varnish, or better, in some 
of the varnish that the brush is used for. 
They should preferably not be kept in 
turpentine, as that makes the brush 
•* lousy" — roughening the bristles. 

Washing Brushes.— All brushes should 
be washeaiu benzine or turpentine and 
shaken dry — not whipped — when it is 
desired to change from one color to an- 
other, or from one varnish to another. 

To Restore Brushes. — A good remedy 
to restore lettering brushes which have 
lost their elasticity and do not keep a 
point, is as follows: 

Put the pencil in oil and brush it sev- 
eral times over a hot iron in such a man- 
ner that the hairs touch the iron from 
each side; then dip the pencil quickly in 
cold water. 

A Removable Binding.— The bristle 
bunch of brushes is bound with rope so 
as to keep them together for use. In- 
stead of the twine, a covering of rubber 
may be emploved, which is easily slipped 
over the bristles and can be conveniently 
removed again. The cleaning of the 
brush is much facilitated thereby, and 
the breadth of the stripe to be drawn 
with the brush can be accurately regu- 
lated, accordiuff to how far the covering 
is slipped over tne brush. 

See also Cleaning Preparations a>d 
Methods. 



BUBBLES \lX GELATIN : 

See Gelatin. 

BUBBLE (SOAP) LIQUID: 
See Soap Bubble Liquid. 

BUBBLES. 

Bubbles of air often adhere to molds 
immersed in depositing solutions. They 
may be prevented by previously dipping 
the object into spirits of wine, or be re- 
moved by the aid of a soft brush, or by 
directing a powerful current of the li(|uid 
against them bv means of a vulcanized 
india-rubber bladder, with a long and 
curved glass tube attached to it; but the 
liquid should be free from sediment. 

BUG KILLERS: 

See Insecticides. 

BUNIONS: 

See Corn Cures. 



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142 



BURNS— BUTTER 



BURNS: 

See also Ointments and Turpentine. 

Mixture for Bums.— I. — A mixture of 
castor oil with the white of egg is recom- 
mended for burns. The eggs are broken 
into a bowl and the castor oil slowly 
poured in while the eggs are beaten. 
Enough oil is added to make a thick, 
creamy paste, which is applied to the 
burn. The applications are repeated 
often enough to prevent their becoming 
dry or sticky. Leave the surface un- 
covered. 

II. — Put 27 parts, by measure, of 
menthol into 44 parts, by measure, of 
witch hazel (distillate) and apply freely. 
A good plan is to bandaee the parts and 
wet the wrappings with tnis mixture. 

III. — A verv efficacious remedy for 
burns is a solution of cooking salt in 
water. It is best to immerse fineers, 
hands, and arms in the solution, wnich 
must be tolerably strong. For burns in 
the face and otner parts of the body, 
salt water poultices are applied. 



Butter 

(See also Foods.) 

Butter Color. — Orlean, 80 parts, by 
weight; curcuma root (turmeric), 80 
parts, by weight; olive oil, 240 parts, by 
weight; saffron, 1 part, by weignt; alco- 
hol, 5 parts, by weight. The orlean and 
turmeric are macerated with olive oil and 
expressed. The weight of the filtered 
liquid is made up again to 240 parts, by 
weight, with olive oil, next the filtered 
saffron-alcohol extract is added, and the 
alcohol is expelled again by heating the 
mixture. 

Artificial Butter.— I.— Carefully 
washed beef suet furnishes a basis for 
the manufactures of an edible substitute 
for natural butter. The thoroughly 
washed and finely chopped suet is ren- 
dered in a steam-heated tank; 1,000 
parts of fat, 800 parts of water, 1 part of 
potassium carbonate, and 2 stomachs of 
pigs or sheep, are taken. The temper- 
ature of the mixture is raised to 113® F. 
After 2 hours, under the influence of the 
pepsin in the stomachs, the membranes 
are dissolved and the fat is melted and 
rises to the top of the mixture. After 
the addition of a little salt the melted fat 
is drawn off, stood to cool so as to allow 
the stearine and palmitin to separate, 
and then pressed in bags in a hydraulic 
press. Forty to 50 per cent of solid 
stearine remains, while 50 to 60 per cent 



of fluid oleopalmitin (so-called "oleo- 
margarine*') IS pressed out. The "oleo 
oil" is then mixed with 10 per cent of its 
weight of milk and a little butter color 
and churned. The product is then 
worked, salted, and constituted the 
"oleomargarine," or butter substitute. 
Leaf lard can be worked in the same way 
as beef suet, and will yield an oleopal- 
mitin suitable for churning up into a 
butter substitute. 

II. — Fat from freshly slaughtered cattle 
after thorough washing is pliu:ed in clean 
water and surrounded witn ice,^ where it 
is allowed to remain until all animal heat 
has been removed. It is then cut into 
small pieces by machinery and cooked at 
a temperature of about 150** F. (65.6** C.) 
until the fat in liquid form has separated 
from the tissue, then settled until it is 
perfectly clear. Then it is drawn into 
the graininff vats aud allowed to stand 
for a day, wnen it is ready for the presses. 
The pressing extracts the stearine, leav- 
ing a product commercially known as 
oleo oil which, when churnea with cream 
or milk, or both, and with usually a pro- 
portion of creamery butter, the whole 
Deing properly salted, gives the new food 
product, oleomargarine. 

III. — In making butterine use neutral 
lard, which is made from selected leaf 
lard in a very similar manner to oleo oil, 
excepting that no stearine is extracted. 
This neutral lard is cured in salt brine 
for from 48 to 70 hours at an ice- water 
temperature. It is then taken and, with 
the desired proportion of oleo oil and fine 
butter, is churned with cream and milk, 
producing an article which when proper- 
ly salted and packed is ready for the 
market. In both cases coloring matter 
is used, which is the same as that used by 
dairymen to color their butter. At cer- 
tain seasons of the year — viz., in cold 
weather, a small quantity of sesame oil 
or salad oil made from cottonseed oil is 
used to soften the texture of the product. 

IV. — "Ankara" is a substance which 
in general appearance resembles a good 
article of butter, being rather firmer at 
ordinary temperatures than that sub- 
stance, approaching the consistency of 
cocoa butter. It is quite odorless, but in 
taste it resembles that of a fair article of 
butter and, what is more, its behavior 
under heat is very similar to that of but- 
ter — it browns and forms a sort of spume 
like that of fat. Ankara consists of a 
base of cocoa butter, carrying about 10 
per cent of milk, colored with yolk of egg. 
While not derived from milk, on the one 
hand, nor does it come from a single 
vegetable or animal fat on the other, an- 

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BUTTER— CAFfi PARFAIT 



148 



kara may be considered as belonging to 
the cateffory of the margarines. An- 
kara is obtained in the market in the form 
of cakes or tablets of 2 pounds in weight. 

V. — Fresh butter, 150 parts, by weight; 
animal fat, 80 parts, by weight; sun- 
flower oil, 40 parts, by weight; cocoanut 
oil, 30 parts, by weight. 

VI. — Fresh butter, 100 parts, by 
weieht; animal fat, 100 parts, by weight; 
sunflower oil, 80 parts, bv weight; cocoa- 
nut oil, 20 parts, by weight. 

VII.— Fresh butter. 50 parts, by 
weight; animal fat, 150 parts, by weight; 
sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoa- 
nut oil, 20 parts, by weignt. 

It is seen that these three varieties 
contain respectively 50, 83, and about 16 
per cent of cow's butter. The appear- 
ance of the mixture is nearly perfect. 

Fcwmulas V to VII are for a Uussian arti- 
ficial butter called " Pcrepusk." 

To Impart the Aroma and Taste of 
Natural Gutter to Margarine. — In order 
to give margarine the aroma and flavor of 
cow butter, add to it a fatty acid product, 
which is obtained by saponification of 
butter, decomposition of the soap, and 
distillation in the vacuum at about 140^ 
F. The addition of the product is made 
upon emulsification of the fats with milk. 
'The margarine will keep for months. 

Harmless Butter Color. — Alum, pul- 
verized finely, 30 parts; extract of tur- 
meric, 1 part. With the extract damp- 
en the powder as evenly as possible, then 
spread out and dry over some hot sur- 
face. When dry, again pulverize thor^ 
oughly. Protect the product from the 
light. As much of the powder as will 
lie on the point of a penknife is added 
to a churnful of milk, or cream,. before 
churning, and it gives a beautiful golden 
color, entirely harmless. To maxe the 
extract of turmeric add 1 part of pow- 
dered turmeric to 5 parts of alcohol, and 
let macerate together for fully a week. 

To Sweeten Rancid Butter. —I. —Wash 
the butter first with fresh milk and after- 
wards with spring water, carefully work- 
ing out the residual water. 

II. — Add 25 to 30 drops of lime chlor- 
ide to every 2 pounds of butter, work the 
mass up thoroughly, then wash in plenty 
of fresh, cold water, and work out the 
residual water. 

III. — Melt the butter in a water bath, 
along with some freshly burned animal 
charcoal, coarsely powdered and care- 
fully sifted to free it from dust. After 
this has remained in contact for a few 
Hiinutes, the butter is strained through 
a dean flannel. If the rancid odor is 



not completely removed, complete the 
process. 

An English Margarine. — A mixture of 
edible fats of suitable consistency, e. g., 
oleo oil, 5 parts; neutral lard, 7 parts; and 
butter, 1 part; is mixed with alouminous 
"batter," 4 parts, with the addition of 1 
part of salt as a preservative. If the 
albuminous constituent be composed of 
the whites and yolks of eggs beaten to a 
foam the product will have the consist- 
ency and color of butter. The molten 
fats are added to the egg batter and the 
whole is stirred at a temperature suffi- 
cient to produce coagulation of the albu- 
men (150-200** F.). The mass is then 
cooled graduallv with continuous stir- 
ring, and the salt is worked in. 

Olive-Oil Paste.— If an ounce of peeled 
garlic be rubbed up into a pulp, in a 
dean Wedgwood mortar, and to this be 
added from 3 to 4 ounces of good dive 
oil, with constant rubbing up with the 
pestle, the oil becomes converted into a 
pasty mass, like butter. It is possible 
that the mucilage obtainable from other 
bulbs of the Luium tribe would prove 
equally efficient in conferring semi- 
solidity on the oil, without imparting anj 
strong smell. The above composition is 
largely used by the Spanish peasantry, 
instead of butter, which runs liquid in 
the Spanish summer. It is known as 
"aleon." The more easily solidified 
portion of olive oil is stearine, and this 
may be cheapljjr prepared from mutton 
fat. If addea, in certain proportions, to 
olive oil, it would certainly raise its melt- 
ing point. 

BUTTERMILK, ARTIFICIAL. 

Buttermilk powder, 10 parts; vinegar, 
1 part; syrup of buckthorn, 1 part. Dis- 
solve the powder in the water and add 
the vinegar and syrup. The powder is 
prepared as follows: Sodium chloride, 
50 parts; milk sugar, 100 parts; potas- 
sium nitrate, 5 parts; alum, 5 parts. 
Mix. 

BUTTER, ARTIFICIAL: TESTS FOR: 
See Foods. 

BUTTER COLORAITT: 
See Foods. 

BUTTONS OF ARTIFICIAL AGATE: 
See Agate. 

CADMIUM ALLOTS: 
See Alloys. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



144 



eALAMltS COHDiAL-CAMl'ttOfl 



CALCIUM CARBIDE: 

Preservation and Use of Calcium 
Carbide. — Calcium carbide is readily at- 
tacked by the air and the moisture con- 
tained in the geherators and consequent- 
ly decomposes during the storing, with 
formation of acetylene gas. Aside from 
the loss, this decomposition is also at- 
tended with dangers. One of the oldest 
methods of preservation is the saturation 
of the carbide with petroleum. In using 
such carbide a layer of petroleum forms 
on the surface of the water in the gener- 
ator, which prevents the water from 
evaporating, thus limiting the subse- 
quent generation of acetylene from the 
remaining carbide. Instead of petro- 
leum many other substances have been 
proposed which answer the purpose 
eaually well, e. g., toluol, oils, solia bodies, 
wbich previou3y have to be liquefied, 
such as stearine, paraffine, rosin, etc. 

Of a different nature is a medium of- 
fered by Letang of Paris. He em- 
ploys sugar or saccharine bodies to which 
ne adds, if necessary, a little petroleum, 
turpentine, vaseline, or varnish of any 
kind, as well as chalk, limestone, talc, 
sulphur, or sand. The carbide is coated 
witn this mixture. The saccharine sub- 
stances dissolve in the generating water, 
and also have a dissolving action on the 
slaked lime, which is formed by the de- 
composition of the carbide which admits 
of its easy removal. 

According to another process carbide 
is put on tne market in such a shape 
that, without weighing, merely by count- 
ing or measuring one is in a position to 
use equivalent quantities for every charge. 
Gearing casts molten carbide in tne 
shape of bars, and pours a laver of gela- 
tin, glue, and water soluble varnish 
over the carbide bars. Others make 
shells containing a certain quantity of 
reduced carbide. For this ordinary and 
varnished pasteboard, wax paper, tin- 
foil, thin sneet zinc, and similar sub- 
stances may be used which ward off 
atmospheric moisture, thus protecting 
the carbide from premature decompo- 
sition. Before use, the cartridge-like 
shell is pierced or cut open, so that the 
water can get at the contents. The 
more or less reduced carbide is filled in 
the shell, either without any admixture 
or united into a compact mass by a bind- 
ing agent, such as colophony, pitch, tar, 
sand, etc. 

Deodorization of Calcium Carbide. — 
Calcium carbide is known to possess a 



very unpleasAnt odor because it com 
stantly aevelops small quantities of im- 
pure acetvlene in contact with the mois- 
ture of tne air. Le Roy, of Rouen, 
proposes for portable — especially bicy- 
cle — lamps, in which the evil is more 
noticeable than in large plants, simply to 
pour some petroleum over the carbide 
and to pour off the remainder not ab- 
sorbed. The petroleum, to which it is 
well to add some nitro-benzol (mir- 
bane essence), prevents the access of air 
to the carbide, but permits a very satis- 
factory generation ol gas on admission of 
water. 

CALCIUM SULPHIDE (LUMINOUS): 
See Paints. 

CALFSKIN: 
See Leather. 

CAMERA RENOVATION: 

See Photography. 

CAMPHOR PREPARATIONS: 
Fragrant Naphthalene Camphor. — 
Naphthalene white, 

in scales 3,000 parts 

Camphor 1,000 parts 

Melt on the steam bath and add to the 
hot mass: 

Coumarin 2 parts 

Mirbane oil 10 parts 

Cast in plates or compressed tablets. 
The preparation is employed as a moth 
preventive. 

Powdered Camphor in Permanent 
Form. — I. — Powder the camphor in the 
usual manner, with the addition of a 
little alcohol. When it is nearly reduced 
to the proper degree of fineness add a 
few drops of fluid petrolatum and imme- 
diately triturate again. In this manner 
a powder as fine as flour is obtained, 
which does not cake together. This 
powdered camphor may be used for all 
purposes except for solution in alcohol, 
as it will impart to the latter a faint opal- 
escence, owing to the insolubility of the 
petrolatum. 

II. — Take equal parts of strong ether 
and alcohol to reduce the camphor to 
powder. It is claimed for this method 
that it onlv takes one-half of the time 
required wnen alcohol alone is used, and 
that the camphor dries more ouickly. 
Before sifting add 1 per cent ot white 
vaseline and 5 per cent of sugar of milk. 
Triturate fairly dry, spread out in the air, 
say 15 minutes, then pass through a 
moderately fine wire sieve, using a stubby 
shaving brush to assist in working it 
through. 

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CAMPHOR— CANDLES 



145 



Camphor Pomade — 

Oil of bitter almonds. 1 drachm 

Oil of cloves SO drops 

Camphor IJ ounces 

White wax 4 ounces 

Lard» orepared 1 pound 

Melt the wax and lard together, then 
add the camphor in saturated solution 
in spirit; put in the oils when nearly 
cold. 

Camphor Ice. — 

I.— White wax 16 parts 

Benzoated suet 48 parts 

Camphor, powdered. 8 parts 
Essential oil, to perfume. 
Melt the wax and suet together. 
When nearly cold, add the camphor and 
perfume, mix well, and pour into molds. 

II. — Oil of almond 16 parts 

White wax. 4 parts 

Spermaceti 4 parts 

Parafiine 8 parts 

Camphor, powdered. 1 part 
Perfume, quantity sufficient. 
Dissolve the camphor in the oil bv the 
aid of a gentle heat. Melt the solids to- 
gether, remove, and let cool, but before 
the mixture begin9 to set add the cam- 
phorated oil and the perfume, mix, and 
pour into molds. 
III. — Stearine (stearic acid) 8 pounds 

Lard 10 pounds 

White wax 5 pounds 

Spermaceti 5 pounds 

Melt on a water bath in an earthen or 
porcelain dish; strain into a similar ves- 
sel; add a solution of 2 ounces powdered 
borax in 1 pound of glycerine, previously 
warmed, to the melted substance when at 
the point of cooling; stir well; add cam- 
phor, 2 pounds, powdered by means of 
alcohol, S ounces; stir well and pour into 
molds. 



CAMPHOR SUBSTITUTES IN THE 
PREPARATION OF CELLULOID: 

See Celluloid. 

CAMPHOR AND RHUBARB AS A 
REMEDY FOR CHOLERA: 
See Cholera Remedies. 

CAN VARNISH: 

See Varm'shes. 

CANARY-BIRD PASTE. 

The following is a formula much used 
by German canary-bird raisers: 
Sweet almonds* 

blanched 16 parts 

Pea meal , . . 92 parts 



Butter, fresh (un- 

salted) 3 parts 

Hone^Tt quantity sufficient to make 
a stiff paste. 
The ingredients are worked into a 
stiff paste, which is pressed through a 
colander or large sieve to granulate the 
mass. Some add to every 5 pounds, 
10 or 15 grains of saffron and the yolks 
of 2 eggs. 

CANARY BIRDS AND THEIR DIS- 
EASES: 

See Veterinary Formulas. 

CANDLES: 

Coloring Ceresiiie Candles for the 
Christmas Tree. — For coloring these 
candles only dye stuffs soluble in oil 
can be employed. Blue: 23-24 lav- 
ender blue, pale or dark, 100-120 parts 
per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Violet: 26 
fast violet K, 150 parts per 5,000 parts of 
ceresine. Silver gray: 29 silver gray, 
150 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. 
Yellow and orange: 80 wax yellow, me- 
dium, 200 parts per 5,000 parts of cere- 
sine; 61 old gold, 200 parts per 5,000 
parts of ceresine. Pmk and red: 
27 peach- pink, or 20 chamois, about 100 
parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Green: 
16-17 brilliant green, 83 May green, 41 
May green, 200-250 parts per 5,000 
parts of ceresine. The above-named 
colors should be ffround in oil and the 
ceresine tinted witn them afterwards. 

Manufacture of Composite Paraffine 
Candles. — Three parts of hydroxy- 
stearic acid are dissolved in 1 part of a 
suitable solvent (e. g., stearic acid), and 
the solution is mixed with paraffine wax 
to form a stock for the manufacture of 
composite candles. 

Transparent Candles. — The following 
are two recipes given in a German 
patent specification. The figures de- 
note parts by weight: 

I. — Paraffine wax, 70; stearine, 15; 
petroleum, 15. 

II. — Paraffine wax, 00; stearine, 5; 
petroleum, 5. Recipe I of course gives 
candles more transparent than does 
recipe II. The 15 per cent may be re- 
garded as the extreme limit consistent 
with proper solidity of the candles. 

To Prevent the Trickling of Burning 
Candles. — Dip the candles in the fol- 
lowing mixture: 

Magnesium sulphate 15 parts 

Dextrin 15 parts 

Water 100 parts 

The solution dries quickly and does 
not affect the burning of the candle. 



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146 



CANDLE— CARAMELS 



Candle Coloring. — Candles are colored 
either throughout or they sometimes 
consist of a white body that is covered 
with a colored layer of paraffine wax. 
According to the material from which 
candles are made (stearine» parafBne, 
or ozokerite), the process of coloring 
varies. 

Stearine, owins to its acid character* 
dissolves the coal-tar colors much more 
readily than do the perfectly neutral par- 
afBne and ozokerite waxes. For coloring 
stearine the necessary quantity of the 
color is added to the melted mass and 
well stirred in; if the solution effected 
happens to be incomplete, a small addi- 
tion of alcohol will prove an effective 
remedv. It is also an advantage to dis- 
solve the colors previously in alcohol and 
add the concentrated solution to the 
melted stearine. The alcohol soon evap- 
orates, and has no injurious effect on 
the quality of the stearine. 

For a number of years there have been 
on the market so-called "fat colors," 
formed by making concentrated solu- 
tions of the color, and also special prep- 
arations of the colors in stearine. They 
are more easily applied, and are, there- 
fore, preferred to the powdered aniline 
colors, which are apt to cause trouble by 
beinj^ accidentally distributed in soluble 

g articles, where they are not wanted, 
ince paraffine and ozokerite dissolve 
comparativelv little, they will not be- 
come colored, and so must be colored 
indirectly. One way is to dissolve the 
color in oleic acid or in stearine acid and 
add the solution to the wax to be col- 
ored. Turpentine may be employed for 
the same purpose. Concerning the colors 
suitable lor candles, there are the cosine 
colors previously mentioned, and also 
chroline yellow, auramine, taniline blue, 
tartrazine, brilliant green, etc. The 
latter, however, bleaches so rapidly that 
it can hardly be recommended. An 
interesting phenomenon is the change 
some colors undergo in a warm tem- 
perature; for instance, some blues turn 
red at a moderate degree of heat (120° 
F.) and return to blue onlv when com- 
pletely cooled off; this will be noticed 
while the candle mixture is being melted 
previous to molding into candles. 

CAJOLES (FUMIGATING) : 

See Fumigants. 

CAITDT COLORS AND FLAVORS: 
See Confectionery. 

CANDY: 

See Confectionery. 



CANVAS WATERPROOFING: 

See Waterproofing. 

CAOUTCHOUC: 
See Rubber. 

CAOUTCHOUC SOLUTION FOR 
PAINTS: 
See Paint. 

CAPPING mXTURES FOR BOTTLES : 

See Bottle- Capping Mixtures. 

CAPSULE VARNISH: 

See Varnishes. 

CARAMEL: 

Cloudless Caramel Coloring. — I. — 
When it is perfectly understood that in 
the manufacture of caramel, sugar is to 
be deprived of the one molecule of its 
water of constitution, it will be apparent 
that heat must not be carried on to the 
point of carbonization. Cloudy cara- 
mel is due to the fact that part of the 
sugar has been dissociated and reduced 
to carbon, which is insoluble in water. 
Hence the cloudiness. Caramel may be 
made on a small scale in the following 
manner: Place 4 or ^ ounces of granu- 
lated suj|[ar in a shallow porcelain-lined 
evaporating dish and apply either a 
direct heat or that of an oil bath, con- 
tinuing the heat until caramelization 
takes place or until tumescence ceases 
and the mass has assumed a dark-brown 
color. Then carefully add sufficient 
water to bring the viscid mass to the 
consistence of a heavy svrup. Extreme 
care must be taken ana the face and 
hands protected during the addition of 
the water, owing to the intensity of the 
heat of the mass, and consequent sput- 
tering. 

II. — The ordinary sugar coloring 
material is made from sugar or glucose 
b^ heating it, while being constantly 
stirred, up to a temperature of about 
405^ F. A metal pan capable of holding 
nearly ten times as much as the sugar 
used, is necessary so as to retain the 
mass in its swollen condition. As soon 
as it froths up so as nearly to fill the pan, 
an action which occurs suddenly, the fire 
must instantly be extinguished or re- 
moved. The finished product will be 
insoluble if more than aoout 15 per cent 
of its weight is driven off by the heat. 

CARAMEL IN FOOD: 

See Food. 

CARAMELS: 

See Confectionery. 



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CARBOLIC ACID— CARPET SOAP 



147 



CARBOLIC ACID. 
Perfumed Carbolic Add. — 
I. —Carbolic acid (cryst.). 1 ounce 

Alcohol 1 ounce 

Oil bergamot 10 minims 

Oi] eucalyptus 10 minims 

Oil citronella 3 minims 

Tincture cudbear. ... 10 minims 

Water, to make 10 ounces 

Set aside for several days, and then 
filter through fuller's earth. 
II.— Carbolic acid (cryst.) 4 drachms 

Cologne water 4 drachms 

Dilute acetic acid 9 ounces 

Keep in a cool place for a few days, 
and filter. 

Treatment of Carbolic-Add Bums.— 
Thorouehlv wash the hands with alco- 
hol, and the burning and tingling will 
almost immediately cease. Unless em- 
ployed immediately, however, the alco- 
nol has no effect. When the time 
elapsed since the burning is too great 
for alcohol to be of value, brush the 
burns with a saturated solution of picric 
acid in water. 

Decolorization of Carbolic Add.— To 
decolorize the acid the following simple 
method b recommended. For purify- 
ing carbolic acid which has already be- 
come quite brown-red on account of 
having been kept in a tin vessel, the re- 
ceptacle is exposed for a short time to 
a temperature of 25*» C. (77*> F.), thus 
causing only a part of the contents to 
melt. In this state the acid is put into 
^lass funnels and left to stand for 10 to 
12 days in a room which is likewise 
kept at the above temperature. Clear 
white crystals form from the drippings, 
which remained unchanged, protected 
from air and light, while by repeating 
the same process more clear crystals are 
obtained from the solidified dark col- 
ored mother lye. In this manner 75 to 
80 per cent of clear product is obtained 
altogether. 

Disguising Odor of Carbolic Add.-— 
Any stronger smelling substance will dis- 
guise the odor of carbolic acid, to an ex- 
tent at least, but it is a difficult odor to 
disguise on account of its persistence. 
Camphor and some of the volatile oils, 
such as peppermint, cajeput, caraway, 
dove, and wintergreen may be used. 

To Restore Reddened Carbolic Add. 
— Demont's method consists in melting 
the acid on the water bath, adding 12 per 
cent of alcohol of 95 per cent, letting cool 
down and, after the ^eater part of the 
substance has crystallized out, decanting 



the liquid residue. The crystals ob- 
tained in this manner are snowv white, 
and on being melted yield a nearly color- 
less liquid. The alcohol may be recov- 
ered by redistillation at a low tempera- 
ture. This is a rather costly procedure. 

CARBOLIC SOAP: 

See Soap. 

CARBOLINEUM: 

See abo Paints and Wood. 

Preparation of Carbolinetsm. —I. —Melt 
together 50 parts of American rosin (F) 
and 150 parts of pale parafiine oil (yel- 
low oil), and add, with stirring, «0 parts 
of rosin oU (rectified). 

II.— Sixty parts, by weight, of black 
coal Ur oil of a spedfic gravity higher 
than 1.10; «5 parts, by weight, of creo- 
sote oil; 85 parts, by weight, of beech- 
wood tar oil of a higher specific weight 
than 0.9. Mix together and heat to 
about 847* F., or until the fumes mven 
off beein to deposit soot. The resulting 
carbolineum is brown, and of somewhat 
thick consistency; when cool it is ready 
for use and b packed in casks. This 
improved carbolineum is applied to wood 
or masonry with a brush; the surfaces 
treated dry quickly, very soon loose the 
odor of the carbolineum, and are effec- 
tively protected from dampness and for- 
mation of fungi. 

CARBON PRINTING: 

See Photography. 

CARBON PROCESS IN PHOTOGRA- 
PHY: 

See Photography. 

CARBONYLE: 

See Wood. 

CARBUNCLE REMEDIES: 

See Boil Remedy. 

CARDS (PLAYING), TO CLEAN : 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

CARDBOARD, WATERPROOF GLUE 
FOR: 

See Adhesives under Cements and 
Waterproof Glues. 
CARDBOARD, WATERPROOFING: 

See Waterproofing. 

CARMINATIVES: 

See Pain Killers. 

CARPET PRESERVATION: 

See Household Formulas. 

CARPET SOAP: 

See Soap. 



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148 



CASEIN 



CARRIAGE-TOP DRESSEETG: 

Sec Leather. 

CARRON OIL: 

See Cosmetics. 

CASE HARDENING: 
See Steel. 



Casein 

Dried Casein, its Manufacture and 
Uses. — For the production of^ casein, 
skimmed milk or buttermilk is used, 
articles of slight value, as they cannot be 
employed for feeding hogs or for making 
cheese, except of a very inferior sort, of 
little or no alimentive qualities. This 
milk is heated to from TO"" to 90"" C. 
(175^-195® F.). and sulphuric or hydro- 
chloric acid is added until it no longer 
causes precipitation. The precipitate 
is washed to free it from residual lactose, 
redissolved in a sodium carbonate solu- 
tion, and again {>recipitated, this time bv 
lactic acid. It is again washed, driecl, 
and pulverized. It takes 8 gallons of 
skimmed milk to make 1 pound of dry 
casein. 

In the manufacture of fancy papers, 
or papers that are made to imitate the 
appearance of various cloths, laces, 
ana silks, casein is veiy widely used. 
It is also largely used in waterproof- 
ing tissues, for preparation of water- 
proof products, and various articles 
prepared from agglomeration of cork 
(packing boards, etc.). With lime water 
casein makes a glue that resists heat, 
steam, etc. It also enters into the manu- 
facture of the various articles made from 
artificial ivory (billiard balls, combs, 
toilet boxes, etc.), imitation of celluloid, 
meerschaum, etc., and is finding new 
uses every day. 

Casein, as known, may act the part 
of an acid and combine with bases to 
form caseinates or caseates; among these 
compounds, caseinates of potash, of 
soda, and of ammonia are the only ones 
soluble in water; all the others are insol- 
uble and may be readily prepared by 
double decomposition. Thus, for ex- 
ample, to obtain caseinate of alumina it 
is sufficient to add to a solution of casein 
in caustic soda, a solution of sulphate of 
alumina; an insoluble precipitate of ca- 
sein, or caseinate of alumina, is instantly 
formed. 

This precipitate ought to be freed 
from the sulphate of soda (formed by 
double decomposition), by means of pro- 
longed washing. Pure, ordinary cellu- 



lose may be incorporated with it by this 
process, producing a new compound, 
cheaper than pure cellulose, although 
possessing the same properties, and capa- 
ble of replacing it in all its applications. 

According to the results desired, in 
transparencv, color, hardness, etc., the 
most suitable caseinate should be select- 
ed. Thus, if a translucent compound is 
to be obtained, the caseinate of alumina 
yields the best. If a white compound is 
desired, the caseinate of zinc, or of mag- 
nesia, should be chosen; and for colored 
products the caseinates of iron, copper, 
and nickel will give varied tints. 

The process employed for the new prod- 
ucts, with a base of celluloid and casein- 
ate, is as follows: On one hand casein is 
dissolved in a solution of caustic soda (100 
parts of water for 10 to 25 parts of soda), 
and this liquid is filtered to separate the 
matters not dissolved and the impurities. 
On the other hand, a salt of the base of 
which the caseinate is desired is dis- 
solved, and the solution filtered. It is 
well not to operate on too concentrated a 
solution. The two solutions are mixed 
in a receptacle provided with a mechan- 
ical stirrer, in order to obtain the in- 
soluble caseinate precipitate in as finely 
divided a state as possible. This precip- 
itate should be washed thoroughly, so 
as to free it from the soda salt formed by 
double decomposition, but on account of 
its gummy or pasty state, this washing 
presents certain difficulties, and should 
DC done carefully. After the washing 
the mass is freed from the greater part 
of water contained, by draining, followed 
by drying, or energetic pressing; then it 
is washed in alcohol, dried or pressed 
again, and is ready to be incorporated in 
the plastic mass of the celluloid. 

For the latter immersion and washing 
it has been found that an addition of 1 to 
5 per cent of borax is advantageous, for it 
renders the mass more plastic, and facil- 
itates the operation of mixing. This 
may be conducted in a mixing appara- 
tus; but, in practice, it is found prefer- 
able to effect it with a rolling mill, oper- 
ating as follows: 

The nitro-cellulose is introduced in 
the plastic state, and moistened with a 
solution of camphor in alcohol (40 to 50 
parts of camphor in 50 to 70 of alcohol 
tor 100 of nitro-cellulose) as it is prac- 
ticed in celluloid factories. 

This plastic mass of nitro-cellulose is 
placed in a rolling mill, the cylinders of 
which are slightly heated at the same 
time as the cdseinate, prepared as above; 
then the whole mass is worked by the 
cylinders until th« mixture of the two 



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CAVriNG 



149 



b perfeetlThomo9etteott0,ft&d the final 
mass is aumdently hard to be drawn out 
in leaves in the same way as practiced 
forpurc celluloid. 

These leaves are placed in hydraulic 
Dresses, where they are compressed, 
nrst hot, then cold, and the block thus 
formed is afterwards cut into leaves of the 
thickness desired. These leaves are 
dried in an apparatus in the same way 
as ordinary celluloid. The product 
resembles celluloid, and has all its prop- 
erties. At 90** to 100*' c. (194^ to aia** 

P.), it becomes quite plastic, and is 
easily molded. It may be sawed, filed, 
turned, and carved without difficulty, 
and takes on a superb ]>olish. It burns 
less readily than celluloid, and its com- 
bustibility diminishes in proportion as 
the percentage of caseinate increases; 
finally, the cost price is less than that of 
celluloid, and by using a large proportion 
of caseinate, products may be manu- 
factured at an extremely low cost. 

Phosphate of Casein and its Pro- 
duction. — The process is designed to 
produce a strongly acid compound of 
phosphoric acid and casein, practically 
stable and not hydroscopic, which may 
be employed as an acid ingredient in 
bakers yeast and for other purposes. 

The pnosphoric acid may be obtained 
by any convenient method; for example, 
bv decomposing dicalcic or monocaicic 
phosphate with sulphuric acid. The 
commercial phosphoric acid may also be 
employed. 

The casein naay be precipitated from 
the skimmed milk by means of a suitable 
acid, and should be washed with cold 
water to remove impurities. A casein- 
ate may also be employed, such as a 
compound of casein and an alkali or 
an alkaline earth. 

The new compound is produced in the 
following way: A sufficient quantity of 
phosphoric acid is incorporated with the 
casein or a caseinate in such a way as to 
insure sufficient acidity in the resulting 
compound. The employment of 23 to 
23 parts by weight of phosphoric acid 
with 75 to 77 parts of casein constitutes 
a good proportion. 

An aqueous solution of phosphoric 
acid is made, and the casein introduced 
in the proportion of 25 to 50 per cent of 
the woght of the phosphoric acid pres- 
ent. The mixture is then heated tin the 
curdled form of the casein disappears, 
and it assumes a uniform fluid form. 
Then the mixture is concentrated to a 
syrupy consistencv. The remainder of 
the casein or of tne caseinate is added 



and mixed with tha lolutlon until it is 
intimately incorporated and the mass 
becomes uniform. The compound is 
dried in a current of hot air, or in any 
other way that will not discolor it, and it 
is ground to a fine powder. The inti- 
mate union of the pnosphoric acid and 
casein during the gradual concentra- 
tion of the niixture and during the grind- 
ing and drying, removes the hydroscopic 
properly of tne phosphoric acid, and 
produces a dry and stable product, 
which may be regarded as a hjrperphos- 
phate of casein. When it is mixed with 
water, it swells and dissolves slowly. 
When this compound is mingled with it; 
ecjuivalent of sodium bicarbonate it 
yields about 17 per cent of gas. 

CASEIH CEKENTS: 
See Adhesives. 

CASEIN VAJUflSH: 

See Varnishes. 

CASKS: 

To Render Shrunken Wooden Casks 
Watertight. — When a wooden receptacle 
has dried up it naturally cannot hold the 
water poured into it for the purpose of 
swelling it, and the pouring has to be 
repeated many times before the desired 
end is reached. A much quicker way is 
to stuff the receptacle full of straw or bad 
hay, laying a stone on top and then filling 
the vessel with water. Although the 
water runs off again, the moistened 
straw remains behind and greatly assists 
the swelling up of the wood. 

CASSIUS. PURPLE OF: 

See Gold. 

CASKET TRIMMINGS: 
See Castings. 

CASTS (PLASTER), PRESERVATION 
OF: 

See Plaster. 

CASTS, REPAIRING OF BROKEN : 

See Adhesives and Lutes. 

CASTS FROM WAX MODELS: 
See Modeling. 



Casting 

Castings Out of Various Metals. — Un- 
til recent years metal castings were all 
made in sand molds; that is, the patterns 
were used for the impressions in the 
sand, the same as iron castings are pro- 
duced to-day. Nearly all of the softer 
metals are now cast in brass, copper, 
zinc, or iron molds, and only the silver 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



150 



CASTING 



and German silver articles, like wire 
real bronze, are east the old way, in sand. 
Aluminum can be readily cast in iron 
molds, especially if the molds have been 
previously heated to nearly the same 
temperature as the molten aluminum, 
and after the molds are full the metal is 
cooled gradually and the casting taken 
out as soon as cooled enough to prevent 
breaking from the shrinkage. Large 
bicycle frames have been successfully 
cast in this manner. 

The French bronzes, which are imi- 
tations, are cast in copper or brass molds. 
The material used is principally zinc and 
tin, and an unlimited number of castings 
can be made in the mold, but if a real 
bronze piece is to be produced it must be 
out of copper and the mold made in 
sand. To make the castings hollow, 
with sand, a core is required. This fills 
the inside of the figure so that the molten 
copper runs around it, and as the core is 
made out of sand, the same can be after- 
wards washed out. If the casting is to be 
hollow and is to be cast in a metal mold, 
then the process is very simple. The 
mold is lolled with molten metal, and 
when the operator thinks the desired 
thickness has cooled next to the walls, he 
pours out the balance. An experienced 
man can make hollow castings in this 
way, and make the walls of any thick- 
ness. 

Casket hardware trimmings, which 
are so extensively used on coffins, es- 
pecially the handles, are nearly all cast 
out of tin and antimony, and in brass 
molds. The metal used is brittle, and 
requires strengthening at the weak por- 
tions, and this is mostly done with wood 
filling or with iron rods, which are 
secured in the molds before the metal is 
poured in. 

Aluminum castings, which one has 
procured at the foundries, are usually 
alloyed with zinc. This has a close affin- 
ity with aluminum, and alloys readily; 
but this mixture is a detriment and 
causes much trouble afterwards. While 
this alloy assists the molder to produce 
his castings easily, on the other hand it 
will not polish well and will corrode in 
a short time. Those difficulties may be 
avoided if pure aluminum is used. 

Plaster, of Paris molds are the easiest 
made for pieces where only a few cast- 
ings are wanted. The only difficulty is 
that it requires a few days to dry the 
plaster thoroughly, and that is abso- 
lutely necessary to use them successfully. 
Not only can the softer metals be run 
into plaster molds, but gold and silver 
can be run into them. A plaster mold 



should be well smoked over a gaslight, 
or until well covered with a layer of soot, 
and the metal should be poured in as 
cool a state as it will run. 

To Prevent the Adhesion of Modeling 
Sand to Castings. — Use a mixture c? 
finely ground coke and graphite. Al- 
though the former material is nighly por- 
ous, possessing this quality even as a 
fine powder, and the fine pulverization 
is a difficult operation, still the invention 
attains its purpose of producing an ab- 
solutely smooth surface. This is ac- 
complished by mixing both substances 
intimately and adding melted rosin, 
whereupon the whole mass is exposed to 
heat, so that the rosin decomposes, its 
carbon residue filling up the finest pores 
of the coke. The rosin, in melting, 
carries the fine graphite particles along 
into the pores. After cooling the mass 
is first ground in edge mills, then again in 
a suitable manner and sifted. Sur- 
prising results are obtained with this 
material. It is advisable to take pro- 
portionately little graphite, as the dif- 
ferent co-efficients of expansion of the 
two substances may easily exercise a dis- 
turbing action. One-fifth of graphite, 
in respect to the whole mass, gives the 
best results, but it is advisable to add 
plenty of rosin. The liquid mixture 
must, before burning, possess the con- 
sistency of mortar. 

Sand Holes in Cast-Brass Work. — 
Cast-brass work, when it presents nu- 
merous and deep sand holes, should be 
well dipped into the dipping acid before 
being polished, in order thoroughly to 
clean these objectionable cavities; and 
the polishing should be pushed to an ex- 
tent sufficient to obliterate the smaller 
sand holes, if possible, as this class of 
work looks very unsightly, when plated 
and finished, if pitted all over witD mi- 
nute hollows. The larger holes cannot, 
without considerable labor, be obliter- 
ated; indeed, it not infrequently happens 
that in endeavoring to work out such 
cavities they become enlarged, as they 
often extend deep into the body of the 
metal. An experienced hand knows 
how far he dare go in polishing work of 
this awkward character. 

Black Wash for Casting Molds.— 
Gumlac, 1 part; wood spirit, 2 parts; 
lampblack, in sufficient quantity to color. 

How to Make a Plaster Cast of a Coin 
or Medal. — The most exact observ- 
ance of any written or printed direcb'ons 
is no guarantee of success. Practice 
alone can give expertness in this work 



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CASTING 



151 



The composition of the mold is of the 
most varied, but the materials most gen- 
erally used are plaster of Paris and brick 
dust, in the proportion of 2 parts of the 
first to 1 of t^e second, stirred in water, 
with the addition of a little sal ammo- 
niac. The best quality of plaster for 
this purpose is the so-called alabaster, 
and the brick dust should be as finely 
powdered as possible. The addition of 
day, dried and ver^ finely powdered, is 
recommended. With verr delicate ob- 
jects the proportion of plaster may be 
slightlv increased. The dry material 
should be thoroughly mixed before the 
addition of water. 

As the geometrically exact contour of 
the coin or medal is often the cause 
of breaking of the edges, the operator 
sometimes uses wax to make the edges 
appear half round and it also allows the 
casting to be more easily removed from 
the second half of the mold. Each half 
of the mold should be about the thickness 
of the finger. The keys, so called, of 
every plaster casting must not be for- 
gotten. In the first casting some little 
naif -spherical cavities should be scooped 
out, which will appear in the second half- 
round knobs, and which, by engaging 
with the depressions, will ensure exact- 
ness in the nnished mold. 

After the plaster has set, cut a canal 
for the flow of the molten casting mate- 
rial, then dry the mold thoroughly in 
an oven strongly heated. The halves 
are now ready to be bound together with 
a liffht wire. When bound heat the 
mold gradually and slowly and let the 
mouth of the canal remain underneath 
while the heating is in progress, in order 
to prevent the possible entry of dirt or 
foreijgn matter. The heating should be 
continued as long as there is a suspicion 
of remaining moisture. When nnallv 
assured of this fact, take out the molcl, 
open it, and blow it out, to make sure of 
aosolute cleanness. Close and bind 
again and place on a hearth of fine, hot 
sand. The mold should still be glowing 
when the casting is made. The ladle 
should contain plenty of metal, so as to 
hold the heat while the casting is being 
made. The presence of a litUe zinc in 
the metal ensures a sharp casting. 
Finally, to ensure success, it is always 
better to provide two molds in case of 
accident. Even the most' practiced 
metal molders take this precaution, es- 
pecially when casting delicate objects. 

How to Hake Castings of Insects.— 
The object — a dead beetle, for example 
—is first arranged in a natural position, 



and the feet are connected with an oval 
rim of wax. It is then fixed in the cen- 
ter of a paper or wooden box by means of 
pieces of nne wire, so that it is perfectly 
free, and thicker wires are run from the 
sides of the box to the object, which sub- 
sequently serve to form air channels in 
the mold by their removal. A wooden 
stick, tapering toward the bottom, is 
placed upon the back of the insect to 
produce a runner for casting. The box 
IS then filled up with a paste with 8 
parts of plaster of Paris and 1 of brick 
dust, made up with a solution of alum 
and sal ammoniac. It is also well first to 
brush the object with this paste to pre- 
vent the formation of air bubbles. Af- 
ter the^ mold thus formed has set, the 
object is removed from the interior by 
first reducing it to ashes. It is, there- 
fore, allowed to dry, very slowly at first, 
by leaving in the shade at a normal tem- 
perature (as in India this is much higher 
than in our zone, it will be necessary to 
place the mold in a moderately warm 
place), and afterwards heating gradually 
to a red heat. This incinerates the ob- 
ject, and melts the waxen base upon 
which it is placed. The latter escapes, 
and is burned as it does so, and the ob- 
ject, reduced to fine ashes, is removed 
through the wire holes as suggested 
above. The casting is then made m the 
ordinary manner. 

Castins of Soft Metal CastiiigB.— I.— It 
is often diflicult to form flat back or half 
castings out of the softer metals so that 
they will run full, owing mostly to the 
thin edges and frail connections. In- 
stead of using solid metal backs for the 
molds it is better to use cardboard, or 
heavy, smooth paper, fastened to a 
wooden board fitted to the back of the 
other half of the mold. By this means 
very thin castings may be produced that 
would be more diflicult with a solid 
metal back. 

II. — To obtain a full casting in brass 
molds for soft metal two important 
points should be observed. One is to 
nave the deep recesses vented so the air 
will escape, and the other is to have the 
mold properly blued. The bluing is 
best done by dipping the mold in sul- 
phuric acid, then placing it on a gas 
stove until the mold is a dark color. 
Unless this bluing is done it will be im- 
possible to obtain a sharp casting. 

Drosses. — All the softer grades of 
metal throw off considerable dross, 
which is usually skimmed off: especially 
with tin and its composition. Should much 
of this gather on the top of the^ molten 

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16S 



CASTING 



metal, the drosses should all be saved, 
and melted down when there is enough 
for a kettle full. Dross may be remelted 
five or six times before all the good 
metal is out. 

Fuel. — Where a good soft coal can be 
had at a low price, as in the middle West, 
this is perhaps the chea[>est and easiest 
fuel to use; and, besides, it has some ad- 
vantages over gas, which is so much used 
in the East. A soft-coal fire can be regu- 
lated to keep the metal at an even tem- 
perature, and it is especially handy to 
keep the metal in a molten state during 
the noon hour. This refers particularly 
to the gas furnaces that are operated 
from the power plant in the shop; when 
this power shuts down during tne noon 
hour the metal becomes chilled, and 
much time is lost by the remeltin^ after 
one o'clock, or at the beginning in the 
morning. 

Molds. — I. — Brass molds for the cast- 
ing of soft metal ornaments out of bri- 
tannia, pewter, spelter, etc., should be 
made out of brass that contains enough 
zinc to produce a light-colored brass. 
While this hard brass is more difficult 
for the mold maker to cut, the superior- 
ity over the dark red copper-colored brass 
is that it will stand more heat and 
rougher usage and thereby offset the 
extra labor of cutting the hard brass. 
The mold should be heavv enough to re- 
tain sufficient heat while the worker 
is removing a finished casting from the 
mold so that the next pouring will come 
full. If the mold is too light it cools 
more quickly, and conseouently the cast- 
ings are chilled and will not run full. 
Wnere the molds are heavy enough they 
will admit the use of a swab and water 
after each pouring. This chills the 
casting so that it can be removed easily 
with the plyers. 

II. — Molds for the use of soft metal 
castings may be made out of soft metal. 
This is done with articles that are not 
numerous, or not often used; and may 
be looked upon as temporary. The 
molds are made in part the same as when 
of brass, and out of tin that contains as 
much hardening as possible. The hard- 
ening consists of antimony and copper. 
This metal mold must be painted over 
several times with Spanish red, which 
tends to prevent the metal from melt- 
ing. The metal must not be used too 
hot, otherwise it will melt the mold. By 
a little careful manipulation many pieces 
can be cast with these molds. 

111. — New iron or brass molds must 
be blued before they can be used for 



I casting purposes. This is done by 
placing the mold face downward on a 
charcoal fire, or by swabbing with sul- 
phuric acid, then placing over a gas 
name or charcoal fire until the mola is 
perfectly oxidized. 

IV. — A good substantial mold for 
small castings of soft metal is made of 
brass. ^ The expense of making the cast 
mold is considerable, however, and, on 
that account, some manufacturers are 
making their molds by electro-deposition. 
This produces a much cheaper mold, 
which can be made verv quicKly. The 
electro-deposited mold, however, is very 
frail in comparison with a brass casting, 
and consequently must be handled very 
carefully to keep its shape. The elec- 
tro-deposited ones are made out of cop- 
per, and the backs filled in with a softer 
metal. The handles are secured with 



Plaster Molds. — Castings of any metal 
can be done in a plaster mold, provided 
the mold has dried, at a moderate heat, 
for several days. Smoke the mold well 
with a brand of rosin to insure a full 
cast. Where there are only one or two 
ornaments or figures to cast, it may be 
done in a mold made out of dental plaster. 
After the mold is made and set enough 
so that it can be taken apart, it should be 
placed in a warm place and left to dry 
for a day or two. When ready to use 
the inside should be well smoked over 
a gaslight; the mold should be well 
warmea and the metal must not be too 
hot. Very good castings may be ob- 
tained this way; the only objection being 
the length of time needed for a thorough 
drying of the mold. 

Temperature of Metal. — Metals for 
casting purposes should not be over- 
heated. If any of the softer metals show 
blue colors after cooling it is an indi- 
cation that the metal is too hot. The 
metal should be heated enough so that it 
can be poured, and the finisned casting 
have a bright, clean appearance. The 
mold may be very warm, then the metal 
need not be so hot for bright, clean cast- 
ings. Some of the metals will not stand 
reheating too often, as this will cause them 
to run sluggish. Britannia metal should 
not be skimmed or stirred too much, 
otherwise there will be too much loss in 
the dross. 

CASTING IN WAX: 

See Modeling. 

CASTINGS, TO SOFTEN IRON: 
See Iron. . . . 

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CASTOR OIL 



168 



Ci^IOIt OIL: 

Porifyini; Rancid Castor Oil.— To 
clean rancid castor oil mix 100 parts of 
the oil at 95° F. with a mixture oi 1 |>art 
of alcohol (96 per cent) and 1 part of 
sulphuric acid. Allow to settle for 24 
hours and then carefully decant from 
the precipitate. Now wash with warm 
water, boi1inf|[ for ^ hour; allow to settle 
for 24 hours m well closed vessels, after 
which time the purified oil may be taken 
off. 

How to Pour Out Castor Oil.-^Any one 

who has tried to pour castor oil from a 
square, 5-gallon can, when it is full, 
knows how difficult it is to avoid a mess. 
This, however, may be avoided by hav- 
ing a hole punched in the cap which 
screws onto ttie can, and a tube, S inches 
long and f of an inch in diameter, sol- 
dered on. With a wire naU a hole is 
punched in the top of the can between the 
screw cap and the edge of the can. This 
will admit air while pouring. Resting 
the can on a table, with the screw-cap 
tube to the rear, the can is carefully tilted 
forward with one hand and the shop 
bottle held in the other. In this way the 
bottle may be filled without spilling any 
of the oil and that, too, without a funnel. 
It is preferable to rest the can on a table 
when pouring from a 1- or 2-gallon 
square varnisn can, when filling shop 
bottles. With the opening to the rear, 
the can is likewise tilted forward slowly 
so as to allow the surface of the li<]|uid to 
become "at rest." Even mobile liquids, 
such as spirits of turpentine, may be 
poured into shop bottles without a fun- 
nel. Of course, the main thing is that 
the can be lowered slowly, otherwise the 
first portion may spurt out over the bot- 
tle. With 5-gallon round cans it is 
possible to fill shop bottles in the same 
manner by resting the can on a box or 
counter. When a funnel is used for non- 
greasv li(|uids, the funnel may be slightly 
raised with the thumb and little finffer 
from the neck of the bottle, while hold- 
ing the bottle by the neck between the 
nuddle and ring fingers, to allow egress 
of air. 

Tasteless Castor Oil.— 
L — Pure castor oil . . 1 pint 

Cologne spirit . . 8 nuidounces 
Oil of winter- 
green 40 minims 

Oil of sassafras. 20 minims 

Oil of anise 15 minims 

Saccharine 5 grains 

Hot water, a sufficient quantity. 

Place the castor oil in a gallon bottle. 



Add a pint of hot water and shake vig- 
orously for about 15 minutes. Then 
pour the mixture into a vessel with a 
stopcock at its base, and allow the mix- 
ture to stand tor 12 hours. Draw off 
the oiK excepting the last portion, which 
must be rejected. Dissolve the essential 
oils and saccharine in the cologne spirit 
and add to the washed castor oil. 

II. — First prepare an aromatic solution 
of saccharine as follows] 

Refined saccharine.. 25 parts 

Vanillin 5 parts 

Absolute alcohol .... 950 parts 
Oil of cinnamon .... 20 parts 

Dissolve the saccharine and vanillin 
in the alcohol, then add the cinnamon oil, 
agitate well and filter. Of this liquid add 
20 parts to 980 parts of castor oil and 
mix b^ agitation. Castor oil, like cod- 
liver oil, ma^ be rendered nearly taste- 
less, it is claimed, by treating it as fol- 
lows: Into a matrass of suitable size put 
50 parts of freshly roasted coffee, ground 
as fine as possible, and 25 parts of puri- 
fied and freshly prepared bone or ivory 
black. Pour over tne mass 1,000 parts 
of the oil to be deodorized and renoered 
tasteless, and mix. Cork the container 
tightly, put on a water bath, and raise 
the temperature to about 140® F. Keep 
at this heat from 15 to 20 minutes, then 
let cool down, slowly, to 90®, at which 
temperature let stand for 3 hours. 
Finally filter, and put up in small, well- 
stoppered bottles. 

III. — Vanillin 8 grains 

Garantose 4 grains 

Ol. menth. pip. ... 8 minims 

Alcoholis 3 drachms 

Ol. ricinus 12 ounces 

Ol. olivse (im- 
|)orted), quan- 
tity sufficient ... 1 pint 
M. ft. sol. 
^ Mix vanillin, garantose, ol. menth. 
pip. with alcohol and add castor oil and 
olive oil. 

Dose: One drachm to 2 fluidounces. 

IV. — The following keeps well: 

Castor oil 24 parts 

Glycerine 24 parts 

Tincture of orange 

peel . . ; 8 parts 

Tincture of senega 2 parts 
Cinnamon water 
enough to make. 100 parts 
Mix and make an emulsion. Dose is 
1 tablespoonful. 

V. — One part of common cooking mo- 
lasses to 2 of castor oil is the best dis- 

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154 



CASTOR OIL— CATATYPY 



guise for the taste of the oil that can be 
used. 

VI. — Castor oil IJ ounces 

Powdered acacia. . 2 drachms 

Sugar. 2 drachms 

Peppermint water. 4 ounces 
Triturate the sugar and acacia, adding 
the oil gradually; when these have been 
thorougnly incorporated add the pep- 
permint water .in small portions, tritu- 
rating the mixture until an emulsion is 
formed. 

VII. — This formula for an emulsion 
is said to yield a fairly satisfactory prod- 
uct: 

Castor oil ...... . 500 c.c. 

Mucilage of acacia 125 c.c. 
Spirit of gaultheria 10 grams 

Suffar 1 gram 

Sodium bicarbonate. 1 gram 

VIII. — Castor oil. ...... . 1 ounce 

Compound tinc- 
ture of carda- 
mom 4 drachms 

Oil of wintergreen S drops 
Powdered acacia.. 3 drachms 

Sugar 2 drachms 

' Cinnamon water enough to 
make 4 ounces. 

IX. — Castor oil 12 ounces 

Vanillin 3 grains 

Saccharine ....... 4 grains 

Oil of peppermint. 8 minims 

Alcohol 3 drachms 

Olive oil enough to make 1 pint. 
In any case, use only a fresh oil. 

How to Take Castor Oil. — The disgust 
for castor oil is due to the odor, not to the 
taste. If the patient grips the nostrils 
firmly before pouring out the dose, 
drinks the oil complacently, and then 
thoroughly cleanses the mouth, lips, 
larynx, etc., with water, removing tne 
last vestige of the oil before removing 
the fingers, he will not get the least taste 
from the oil, which is bland and taste- 
less. It all depends upon preventing any 
oil from entering the nose during the 
time while there is any oil present. 

Castor-Oil Chocolate Lozenges.— 
Cacao, free from oil . 250 parts 

Castor oil 250 parts 

Sugan pulverized, . . 500 parts 

Vanillin sugar 5 parts 

Mix the chocolate and oil and heat in 
the water, both under constant stirring. 
Have the sugar well dried and add, stir- 
ring constantly, to the molten mass. 
Continue the heat for 30 minutes, then 
pour out and divide into lozenges in the 
usual way. 



CAT DISEASES AUD THEIR REME- 
DIES: See Insecticides and Veteri- 
nary Formulas. 

CATATYPY. 

It is a well-known fact that the reac- 
tions of the compounds of silver, plat- 
inum, and chromium in photographic 
processes are generallv voluntary ones 
and that the light really acts onlv as an 
accelerator, that is to say the cnemical 
properties of the preparations also change 
m the dark, though a longer time is re- 
quired. When these preparations are ex- 
posed to the light under a negative, the 
modification of their chemical proper- 
ties is accelerated in such a way that, 
through the gradations of the tone- 
values in the negative, the positive print 
is formed. Now it has been found that 
we also have such accelerators in ma- 
terial substances that can be used in the 
light, the process being termed catalysis. 
It is remarkable that these substances, 
called catalyzers, apparently do not take 
part in the process, but bring about 
merely by their presence, decomposition 
or combination of other bodies during or 
upon contact. Hence, catalysis may be 
defined, in short, as the act of changpne 
or accelerating the speed of a chemical 
reaction by means of agents which ap- 
pear to remain stable. 

Professor Ostwald and Dr. O. Gros, 
of the Leipsic University, have given the 
name of calatypy" to the new copying 
process. The use of light is entirely 
done away with, except that for the sake 
of convenience the manipulations are 
executed in the light. All that is neces- 
sary is to bring paper and negative into 
contact, no matter whether in the light 
or in the dark. Hence the negative (if 
necessary a positive may also be em- 
ployed) need not even be transparent, 
for the ascending and descending action 
of the tone values in the positive picture 
is produced only bv the quantity in the 
varying density of the silver powder 
contained in the negative. Hence no 
photographic (light) picture, but a ca- 
tatypic picture (produced by contact) is 
created, out the final result is the same. 

Cata^y is carried out as follows: 
Pour dioxide of hydrocen over the nega- 
tive, which can 'be aone without any 
damage to the latter, and lav a piece of 
paper on (sized or unsized,, rou^h or 
smooth, accordinjj; to the effect desired); 
by a contact lasting a few seconds the 
paper receives the picture, dioxide of 
hydrogen being destroyed. From a 
single application several prints can be 
made. The acquired picture — still in- 
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CATATYPY— CELLULOID 



155 



visible— may now in the further course 
of the process, have a reducing or oxy- 
dizing action. As picture-producing 
bodies, the large group of iron salts are 
above all eminenUy adapted, but other 
sabstanoes, such as chromium, manoa- 
nese, etc., as well as pigments with imie 
solutions may also be employed. The 
development takes ^ place as follows: 
When the paper which has been in con- 
tact with the negative is drawn through 
a solution of ferrous oxide, the protoxide 
is tzansfonned into oxide b^ the per- 
oxide, hence a yellow positive picture, 
consisting of iron oxide, results, which 
can be readily changed into other com- 
pounds, so that the most varying tones of 
color can be obtained. With tne use of 
pigments, in conjunction with a glue 
solution, the action is as follows: In the 
piaees where the picture is, the layer with 
the pigments becomes insoluble and all 
other dye stuffs can be washed off with 
water. 

The chemical inks and reductions, as 
vdl as color pigments, of which the pic- 
tures consist, have been carefully tested 
and are composed of such as are known 
to possess unlimited durabilitv. 

After a short contact, simply immerse 
the picture in the respective solution, 
wash out, and a permanent picture is 
obUined. 

CATERPILLAR DESTROYERS: 
See Insecticides. 

CATGUT: 

Preparation of Catgut Sutures.— The 
catgut is stretched tightly over a glass 
plate tanned in 5 per cent watery extract 
of quebracho, washed ^or a short time in 
water, subiected to the action of a 4 per 
cent formalin solution for 24 to 48 hours, 
washed in running water for 24 hours, 
boiled in water for 10 to 15 minutes, 
and stored in a mixture of absolute al- 
cohol with 5 per cent fflycerine and 4 per 
cent carbolic acid. In experiments on 
dogs, this suture material in aseptic 
wounds remained intact for 65 days, and 
was absorbed after 88 days. In infected 
wounds it was absorbed after 32 days. 

CATSUP (ADULTERATED): 
See Foods. 

CATTLE DIPS A5D APPLICATIONS: 
See Disinfectants and Insecticides. 

CEILIHG CLEANERS: 

Sec Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods, and also Household Formulas. 



CELERY COMPOUND. 

Celery (seed ground) . 25 parts 
Coca leaves (ground). 25 parts 
Black haw (ground).. 25 parts 
Hyoscyamus leaves 

(ground) 12} parts 

Podophvllum (pow- 
dered) 10 parts 

Orange peel (ground) 6 parts 
Sugar (granulated). . . 100 parts 

AlcohoH 150 parts 

Water* q. s. ad 400 parts 

Mix the alcohol with 150 parts of 
water and macerate drugs for 24 hours; 
pack in percolator and pour on men- 
struum tul 340 parts is obtained ; dis- 
solve sugar in it and strain. 



CELLS, SOLUTIONS AND FILLERS 
FOR BATTERY: 
See Battery Solutions and Fillers. 

CELLARS, WATERPROOF: 

See Household Formulas. 



CELLOmm PAPER: 
See Paper. 



CeUuloid 

New Celluloid.— M. Ortmann has as- 
certained that turpentine produced by 
the Pinus larxx, generally denominated 
Venice turpentine, in combination with 
acetone (dimethyl ketone), yields the best 
results; but other turpentines, such as 
the American from the Pinus australis, 
the Canada turpentine from the Pinus 
haUamea, the French turpentine from 
the Pinus maritima, and ketones, such 
as the ketone of methvl-ethyl, the ketone 
of dinaphthyl, the ketone of methyl- 
oxynaphthyl, and the ketone of dioxy- 
naphtnyl, may be employed. 

To put this process in practice, 1,000 
parts of pyroxyline is prepared in the 
usual manniT, and mixed with 65 parts 
of turpentine, or 250 parts of ketone and 
250 parts of ether; 500 parts or 750 parts 
of methyl alcohol is added, and a col- 
orant, such as desired. Instead of tur- 
pentine, rosins derived from it may be 
employed. If the employment of cam- 
phor is desired to a certain extent, it may 
be added to the mixture. The whole is 
shaken and left at rest for about 12 hours. 
It is then passed between hot rollers, and 
finally pressed, cut, and dried, like or- 
dinary celluloid. 



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166 



CELLULOID 



The product thus obtained is without 
odor, when camphor is not employed; 
and in appearance and properties it can- 
not be aistinffuished from ordinary cel- 
luloid, while tne expense of production is 
considerably reduced. 

Formol Albumen for Preparation of 
Celluloid. — Formol has the property of 
forming combinations with most albu- 
minoid substances. These are not iden- 
tical w^ith reference to plasticity, and the 
use which may be derived from them for 
the manufacture of plastic substances. 
This difference explains whjr albumen 
should not be confounded with gelatin 
or casein. With this in view, the Soci^6 
Anonyme TOyonnaxienne has originated 
the following processes: 

I. — The albumen may be that of the 
egg or that of the blood, which are readily 
found in trade. The^ formolizin^ may 
be effected in the moist state or in the 
dry state. The dry or moist albumen 
is brought into contact with the solution 
of commercial formol diluted to 5 or 10 
per cent for an hour. Care must be 
taken to pulverize the albumen, if it is 
dry. The formol penetrates rapidly 
into the albuminoid matter, and is fil- 
tered or decanted and washed with 
water until all the formol in excess has 
completely disappeared; this it is easy to 
ascertain by means of aniline water, 
which produces a turbid white as long 
as a trace of formic aldehyde remains. 

The formol albumen is afterwards 
dried at low temperature by submitting 
it to the action of a current of dry air at 
a temperature not exceeding 107** F. 
Thus obtained, the product appears as 
a transparent corneous substance. On 
pulverizing, it becomes opaque and loses 
its transparency. It is completely in- 
soluble in water, but swells in this 
liquid. 

II. — The formol albumen is reduced 
to a perfectly homogeneous powder, and 
mixed intimately with the plastic matter 
before rolling. This cannot be con- 
sidered an adequate means for effecting 
the mixture. It is necessary to introduce 
the formol albumen, in the course of the 
moistening, either by making an emul- 
sion with camphor alcohol, or by mixing 
it thoroughly with nitro-cellulose, or by 
making simultaneously a thorough mix- 
ture of the three substances. When the 
mixture is accomplished, the paste is 
rolled according to the usual operation. 
The quantity of formol albumen to add 
is variable, being diminished according 
to the quantity of camphor. 

Instead of adding the desiccated for- 



mol albumen, it may previously be 
swoUeii in water in order to render it 
more malleable. 

Instead of simple water, alkalinized or 
acidified water may be taken for this pur- 
pose, or even alcoholized water. The 
albumen, then, should be pressed be- 
tween paper or cloth, in order to remove 
the excess of moisture. 

Plastic Substances of Nitiro -Cellulose 
Base. — ^To manufacture plastic substances 
the Compagnie Fran^aise du Celluloid 
commences by submitting casein to a 
special operation. It is soaked with a 
solution of acetate of urea in alcohol; 
for 100 parts of casein 5 parts of acetate 
of urea and 50 parts of alcohol are em- 
ployed. The mass swells, and in 48 
hours the casein is thoroughly penetrat- 
ed. It is then ready to be incorporated 
with the camphored nitro-cellulose. The 
nitro-cellulose, having received the addi- 
tion of camphor, is soaked in the alcohol, 
and the mass is well mixed. The casein 
prepared as described is introduced into 
the mass. The whole is mixed and left 
at rest for 2 days. 

The plastic pulp thus obtained is 
rolled, cut, and dried like ordinary cel- 
lulose, and by the same processes and 
apparatus. The pulp may also be con- 
verted into tubes and other forms, like 
ordinary celluloid. 

It is advisable to subject the improved 
plastic pulp to a treatment with formal- 
dehyde for the purpose of rendering in- 
soluble the casein incorporated in the 
celluloid. The plastic product of nitro- 
cellulose base, thus obtained, presents 
in employment the same general proper- 
ties as ordinary celluloid. It may be 
applied to the various manufacturinfi| 
processes in use for the preparation of 
articles of all kinds, and its cost price 
diminishes more or less according to the 
proportion of casein associated with the 
ordinary celluloid. In this plastic prod- 
uct various colorants may be incor- 
porated, and the appearance of shell, 
pearl, wood, marble, or ivory may also 
be imparted. 

Improved Celluloid.— This product is 
obtained by mingling with celluloid, un- 
der suitable conaitions, gelatin or strong 
glue of gelatin base. Iti s clear that the 
replacement of part of the celluloid bv 
the gelatin, of which the cost is much 
less, lowers materially the cost of the 
final product. The result is obtained 
without detriment to the qualities of the 
objects. These are said to be of superior 
properties, having more firmness than 
those of celluloid. And the new material 

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CfiLLULOm 



151f 



ii worked more readily thftn the celluloid 
employed alone. 

The new product may be prepared in 
open-air or in a closed vessel under pres- 
sure. When operated in the air, the gel- 
atin is first immersed cold (in an^ form, 
and in a state more or less pure) in alco- 
hol marking about 140® F., with the 
addition of a certain quantity (for exam- 
ple, 5 to 10 per cent) of crystallizable 
acetic acid. In a few hours the^ material 
has swollen considerably, and it is then 
introduced in alcohol of about 90 |3er cent, 
and at the same time the celluloid pulp 
(camphor and gun cotton), taking care 
to add a little acetone. The proportion 
of celluloid in the mixture may be 50 to 
75 per cent of the weight of the gelatin, 
more or less, according to the result 
desired. After heating the mixture 
siiehtly, it is worked, cold, bv the rollers 
ordinariljr employed for celluloid and 
other similar pastes, or by any other suit- 
able methods. 

The preparation in a closed vessel does 
not diner irom that which has been de- 
scribed, except for the introduction of 
the mixture of gelatin, celluloid, alco- 
hol, and acetone, at the moment when 
the heatins is to be accomplished in an 
autoclave Seated with steam, capable of 
supporting a pressure of 2 to 5 pounds, 
and furnished with a mechanical agita- 
tor. This method of proceeding abridges 
the operation considerably ; the paste 
comes from the autoclave well min- 
gled, and is then submitted to the 
action of rollers. There is but little 
work in distilling the alcohol and acetic 
acid in the autoclave. These may be 
recovered, and on account of their evap- 
oration the mass presents the desired 
consistency when it reaches the rollers. 
Whichever of the two methods of prep- 
aration may be employed, the sub- 
stance may be rolled as in the ordinary 
process, if a boiler with agitator is made 
use of; the mass may be produced in any 
form. 

Preparation of Uninflammable Cellu- 
loid. — The operation of this process by 
Woodward is the following: In a receiver 
of fflass or porcelain, li<)uefied fish glue 
and gum arabic are introduced and 
allowed to swell for 24 hours in a very 
dry position, allowing the air to circulate 
freely. The receiver is not covered. 
Afterwards it is heated on a water bath, 
and the contents stirred (for example, 
by means of a porcelain spatula) until 
the ^m is completelv liquefied. The 
heatng of the mass snould not exceed 
TT"* F. Then the gelatin is added in 



such a way that there are no aoUd pieeei. 
The receiver is removed from the water 
bath and colza oil added, while agitating 
anew. When the mixture is complete 
it is left to repose for 24 hours. 

Before cooling,^ the mixture is passed 
through a sieve in order to retain the 
pieces which may not have been dis- 
solved. After swelling, and the dissolu- 
tion and purification by means of the 
sieve, it is allowed to rest still in the 
same position, with access of air. The 
films formed while cooling may be re- 
moved. The treatment of celluloid 
necessitates employing a solution com- 

{)letely colorless and clear. The cellu- 
oid to be treated while it is still in the 
pasty state should be in a receiver of 
glass, porcelain, or similar material. 

The mass containing the fish glue is 
poured in, drop by drop, while stirring 
carefully, taking care to pour it in the 
middle of the celluloid and to increase 
the surface of contact. 

When the mixture is complete, the cel- 
luloid is ready to be employed and does 
not produce flame when exposed. 

The solution of fish glue may be pre- 
pared by allowing 200 parts of it to swell 
lor 48 hours in 1,000 parts of cold dis- 
tilled water. It is then passed through 
the sieve, and the pieces which ma^ re- 
main are broken up, in order to mingle 
them thoroughly with the water. Ten 
parts of kitchen salt are then added, and 
the whole mass passed through the 
sieve. 

This product may be utilized for the 
preparation of photographic films or for 
those used for cinematographs, or for 
replacing hard caoutchouc for the insu- 
lation of electric conductors, and for the 
preparation of plastic objects. 

Substitute for Camphor in the Prepa- 
ration of Celluloid and Applicable to Other 
Purposes. — In this process commercial 
oil of turpentine, after being rectified by 
distillation over caustic soda, is subjected 
to the action of gaseous chlorhydric acid, 
in order to produce the solid mono- 
chlorhydrate of turpentine. After hav- 
ing, by means of the press, extracted the 
liquid monochlorhydrate, and after 
several washings with cold water, the 
solid matter is desiccated and introduced 
into an autoclave apparatus capable of 
resisting a pressure of 6 atmospheres. 
Fiftv per cent of caustic soda, calculated 
on tne weight of the monochlorhydrate, 
and mingled with an equal quantitv of 
alcohol, IS added in the form of a thick 
solution. The apparatus is closed and 
heated for several hours at the temper- 



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168 



CELLULOID 



ature of 284*» to S0«*» F. The material 
is washed several times for freeing it 
from the mingled sodium chloride and 
sodium hydrate, and the camphor re- 
sulting from this operation is treated in 
the following manner: 

In an autoclave constructed for the 
purpose, camphene and water strongly 
mixed with sulphuric acid are introduced 
and heated so as to attain pounds of 
pressure. Then an electric current is 
applied, capable of producing the de- 
composition of water. The mass is 
constantly stirred, either mechanically 
or more simply by allowing a little of the 
steam to escape by a tap. In an hour, 
at least, the material is drawn from the 
apparatus, washed and dried, sublimed 
according to need, and is then suitable 
for replacing camphor in its industrial 
employments, for the camphene is con- 
verted entirely or in greater part into 
camphor, either right-hand camphor, or 
a product optically inactive, according 
to the origin of the oil of turpentine made 
use of . . 

In the electrolytic oxidation of the 
camphene, instead of using acidulated 
water, whatever is capable m furnishing, 
under the influence of the electric cur- 
rent, the oxygen necessary for the reac- 
tion, such as oxygenized water, barium 
bioxide, and the permanganates, may be 
employed. 

Plastic and Elastic Composition. — 
Formaldehyde has the property, as known, 
of removing from gelatin its solu- 
bility and its fusibilitpr, but it has also 
another property, prejudicial in certain 
applications, of rendering the composi- 
tion hard and friable. In order to 
remedy this prejudicial action M. De- 
borda adds to the gelatin treated by 
means of formaldehyde, oil of turpen- 
tine, or a mixture of oil of turpentine and 
German turpentine or Venice turpentine. 
The addition removes from the composi- 
tion its friability and hardness, imparting 
to it great softness and elasticity. The 
effect is accomplished by a slight pro- 
portion, 5 to 10 per cent. 

Production of Substances Resembling 
Celluloid. — Most of the substitutes for 
camphor in the preparation of celluloid 
are attended with inconveniences limiting 
their employment and sometimes caus- 
ing their rejection. Thus, in one case 
the celluloid does not allow of the prepa- 
ration of transparent bodies; in another 
it occasions too much softness in the 
products manufactured; and in still an- 
other it does not allow of pressing, fold- 
ing, or other operations, because the mass 



is too brittle; in still others combinations 
are produced which in time are affected 
unfavorably by the coloring substances 
employed. 

Callenberg has found that the halo^e- 
nous derivatives of etherized oils, prin- 
cipally oil of turpentine, and especially 
the solid chloride of turpentine, which is 
of a snowy and brilliant white, and of 
agreeable odor, are suitable for yielding, 
either alone or mixed with camphor or 
one of its substitutes, and combined by 
ordinary means with nitrated cellulose, 
or other ethers of cellulose, treated with 
acetic ether, a celluloidic product, which, 
it is said, is not inferior to ordinary cellu- 
loid and has the advantage of reduced 
cost. 

Elastic Substitute for Celluloid. — 
Acetic cellulose, like nitro-cellulose, can 
be converted into an elastic corneous 
compound. The substancefi particu- 
larly suitable for the operation are or- 
ganic substances containing one or more 
nydroxy, aldehydic, amide, or ketonic 
groups, as well as the acid amides. Prob- 
ably a bond is formed when these com- 
binations act on the acetate of cellulose, 
but the bond cannot well be defined, 
considering the complex nature of the 
molecule of cellulose. According to the 
mode of preparation, the substances 
obtained form a hard mass, more or less 
flexible!. In the soft state, copies of en- 
graved designs can be reproduced in 
their finest details. When hardened, 
they can be cut and polished. In cer- 
tain respects they resemble celluloid, 
without its inflammability, and they can 
be employed in the same manner. They 
can be produced by the following meth- 
ods — the Lederer process: 

I. — Melt together 1 part of acetate of 
cellulose and 1} parts of phenol at about 
the temperature of 104*» to 122* F. When 
a clear solution is obtained place the 
mass of reaction on plates oi glass or 
metal slightly heated and allow it to cool 
gradually. After a rest of several days 
the mass, which at the outset is similar 
to caoutchouc, is hard and forms flexible 

f>lates, which can be worked like cellu- 
oid. 

n. — Compress an intimate mixture of 
equal parts of acetic cellulose and hy- 
drate of chloride or of aniline, at a tem- 
perature of 122® to 140® F., and proceed 
as in the previous case. 

In the same way a ketone may be em- 
ployed, as acetophenone, or an acid 
amide, as acetamiae. 

III. — A transparent, celluloid-like sub- 
stance which is useful for the produc- 

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159 



tion of plates, tubes, and other articles, 
but especially as an underlay for sensitive 
films m photography, is produced by 
dissolving 1.8 parts, by weisht, of nitro- 
cellulose in 16 parts of glacial acetic acid, 
with heating and stimng and addition 
of 5 parts of gelatin. After this has 
swelled up, add 7.5 parts, by weight, of 
alcohol (96 per cent), stirring constantly. 
The syrupy product may be pressed into 
molds or poured, after furtner dilution 
with the said solvents in the stated pro- 
portion, iipon fflass plates to form thin 
layers. Tne dried articles are well 
washed with water, which may contain a 
trace of soda lye, and dried again. Pho- 
tographic foundations produced in this 
manner do not change, nor attack the 
layers sensitive to light, nor do they be- 
come electric and in developing they 
remain flat. 

IV. — ^Viscose is the name of a new 
product of the class of substances like 
celluloid, pegamoid, etc., substances hav- 
ing most varied and valuable appli- 
cations. It is obtained directlv irom 
cellulose by mascerating this substance 
in a 1 per cent dilution of hydrochloric 
acid. The maceration is allowed to con- 
tinue for several hours, and at its close 
the liquid is decanted and the residue 
is pressed off and washed thoroughly. 
The mass (of which we will suppose 
there is 100 grams) is then treated with a 
20 per cent aqueous solution of sodium 
hjdrate, which dissolves it. The solu- 
tion is allowed to stand for 8 days in a 
tightly closed vessel; 100 grams carbon 
disulphide are then added, the vessel 
closed and allowed to stand for 12 hours 
longer, when it is ready for purification. 
Viscose thus formed is soluble in water, 
cold or tepid, and yields a solution of a 
pale brownish color, from which it is 
precipitated by alcohol and sodium 
chlonde, which purifies it, but at the 
expense of much of its solubility. A so- 
lution of the precipitated article is color- 
less, or of a suffhtly pale yellow. Under 
the action of neat, lon^ continued, vis- 
cose is decomposed, yielding cellulose, 
caustic soda, and carbon disulphide. 

See also Casein for Celluloid Substi- 
tutes. 

Celluloid of Reduced Tnflammability. 
—I. — A practicable method consists in 
incorporating silica, which does not 
harm the essential properties of the cel- 
luloid. The material is divided by the 
usual methods, and dissolved by means 
of the usual solvents, to which silica has 
been added, either in the state of amylic, 
ethylic, or methylic silicate, or in the state 



of any ether derivative of silicic acid. 
The suitable proportions var^ according 
to the degree of inflammability desired, 
and according to the proportion of silica 
in the ether derivative employed; but 
sufficient freedom from innammability 
for practical purposes is attained by the 
following proportions: Fifty-five to 65 
parts in volume of the solvent of the 
celluloid, and 85 to 45 parts of the de- 
rivative of silicic acid. 

When the ether derivative is in the 
solid form, such, for instance, as ethyl 
disilicate, it is brought to the liquid state 
by means of any of the solvents. The 
union of the solvent and of the derivative 
is accomplished by mixing the two 
liquids and shaking out the air as 
much as possible. The incorporation 
of this mixture with the celluloid, pre- 
viously divided or reduced to the state of 
chips, is effected by pouring the mixture 
on the chips, or inversely, snaking or stir- 
ring as free from the air as possible. The 
usual methods are employed for the des- 
iccation of the mass. A ffood result 
is obtained by drying very slowly, pref- 
erably at a temperature not above 10° 
C. (50'' F.). The resulting residue is a 
new product scarcely distinguished from 
ordinary celluloid, except that the in- 
herent inflammability . is considerably 
reduced. It is not important to emplov 
any individual silicate or derivative. A 
mixture of the silicates or derivatives 
mentioned will accomplish the same 
results. 

II. — Any ignited body is extinguished 
in a gaseous medium which is unsuitable 
for combustion; the attempt has there- 
fore been made to find proaucts capable 
of producing an uninflammable gas; and 
products have been selected that yield 
chlorine, and others producing bromine; 
it is also necessary that these bodies 
should be soluble in a solvent of cellu- 
loid; therefore, among chlorated prod- 
ucts, ferric chloride has been taken; this 
is soluble in the ether-alcohol mixture. 

This is the process: An ether-alcohol 
solution of celluloid is made; then an 
ether-alcohol solution of ferric perchlor- 
ide. The two solutions are mingled, and 
a clear, syrupy liquid of yellow color, 
vieldin^ no precipitate, is obtained. The 
liquid IS poured into a cup or any suit- 
able vessel; it is left for spontaneous 
evaporation, and a substance of shell- 
color is produced, which, after washing 
and dryingj effects the desired result. 
The celluloid thus treated loses none of 
its properties in pliability and trans- 
parency, and is not only uninflammable, 
out also incombustible. . . . 

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CELLULOID 



Of bromated compounds, calcium 
bromide has been selected, which pro- 
duces nearly the same result; the product 
obtained fuses in the flame; outside, it is 
extinguished, without the power of igni- 
tion. 

It may be objected that ferric perchlor- 
ide and calcium bromide, bein^ soluble 
in water, may present to the celluloid a 
surface ^ capable of being affected by 
moist air; but the mass of celluloid, not 
being liable to penetration by water, fixes 
the cnlorinated or brominated product. 
Still, as the celluloid undergoes a slight 
decomposition, on exposure to the light, 
allowing small quantities of camphor to 
evaporate, the surface of the perchlorin- 
atea celluloid may be fixed by immer- 
sion in albuminous water, after previous 
treatment with a solution of oxalic acid, 
if a light yellow product is desired. 

For preventing the calcium bromide 
from eventually oozing on the surface of 
the celluloid, by reason of its deliques- 
cence, it may be fixed by immersing the 
celluloid in water acidulated with sul- 
phuric acid. For industrial products, 
such as toilet articles, celluloid with fer- 
ric perchloride mav be employed. 

Another method of preparing an un- 
inflammable celluloid, based on the prin- 
ciple above mentioned, consists in mix- 
ing bromide of camphor with cotton 
powder, adding castor oil to soften the 
product, in order that it may be less 
brittle. The latter product is not in- 
combustible, but it is uninflammable, 
and its facility of preparation reduces at 
least one-half the apparatus ordinarily 
made use of in the manufacture of cellu- 
loid. The manufacture of this product 
is not at all dangerous, for the camphor 
bromide is strictly uninflammable, and 
may be melted without any danger of 
dissolving the gun cotton. 

III. — Dissolve 25 parts of ordinary 
celluloidin in 250 parts of acetone and 
add a solution of 50 parts of magnesium 
chloride in 150 parts of alcohol, until a 
paste results, which occurs with a pro- 
portion of about 100 parts of the former 
solution to 20 parts of the latter solution. 
This paste is carefully mixed and worked 
through, then dried, and gives an abso- 
lutely incombustible material. 

IV. — Glass-like plates which are im- 
pervious to acids, salts, and alkalies, 
flexible, odorless, and infrangible, and 
still possess a transparency similar to 
ordinary glass, are said to be obtained 
by dissolving 4 to 8 per cent of collodion 
wool (soluble pyroxylin) m 1 per cent of 
ether or alcohol and mixing the solution 
with 2 to 4 per cent of castor oil, or a 



similar non-resinifying oil, and with 4 to 
6 per cent of Canada balsam. The in- 
flammability of these plates is claimed to 
be much less than with others of collo- 
dion, and may be almost entirely obviat- 
ed by admixture of magnesium chloride. 
An addition of zinc white produces the 
appearance of ivory. 

Solvents for Celluloid. — Celluloid dis- 
solves in acetone, sulphuric ether, alco- 
hol, oil of turpentine, benzine, amyl 
acetate, etc., alone, or in various com- 
binations of these agents. The follow- 
ing are some proportions for solutions 
of celluloid: 

I. — Celluloid 5 parts 

Amyl acetate 10 parts 

Acetone 16 parts 

Sulphuric ether .... 16 parts 

XL— Celluloid 10 parts 

Sulphuric ether .... 80 parts 

Acetone 80 parts 

Amyl acetate'. 80 parts 

Camphor 3 parts 

III.— Celluloid 5 parts 

Alcohol 50 parts 

Camphor 5 parts 

IV.— Celluloid 5 parts 

Amyl acetate 50 parts 

v.— Celluloid 5 parts 

Amyl acetate 25 parts 

Acetone 25 parts 

Softenins; and Cementing Celluloid. — 
If celluloid is to be warmed only suffi- 
ciently to be able to bend it, a bath in 
boiling water will answer. In steam at 
120^ C. (248*» F.), however, it becomes 
so soft that it may be easily kneaded like 
dough, so that one may even imbed in it 
metal, wood, or any similar material. If 
it be intended to soften it to solubility, 
the celluloid must then be scraped fine 
and macerated in 90 per cent ^alcohol, 
whereupon it takes on the character of 
cement and may be used to join broken 
pieces of celluloid together. Solutions 
of celluloid may be prepared: 1. With 
5 parts, by weight, of celluloid in 10 
parts, by weight, each of amyl acetate, 
acetone, and sulphuric ether. 2. With . 
10 parts, by weight, of celluloid in 30 
parts, by weight, each of sulphuric ether, 
acetone, amyl acetate, and 4 parts, by 
weight, camphor. 3. With 5 parts, by 
weight, celluloid in 50 parts, by weight, 
alcohol and 5 parts, by weight, camphor. 
4. With 5 parts, by weight, celluloid in 
50 parts, by weight, amyl acetate. 5. 
Witn 5 parts, by weight, celluloid in 25 
parts, by weight, amyl acetate and 25 
parts, by weight, acetone. i 

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It is often desirable to soften celluloid 
so that it will not break when hammered. 
Dipping it in water warmed to 40® C. 
(104° F.) will suffice for this. 

Mending Celluloid. — Celluloid dishes 
which show cracks are easily repaired 
by brushing the surface repeatedly with 
alcohol, S parts, and ether, 4 parts, until 
the mass turns soft and can be readily 
squeezed together. The pressure must 
he maintained for about one day. By 
putting only 1 part of ether in 3 parts of 
alcohol ana adding a little shellac, a ce- 
ment for celluloid is obtained, which, 
applied warm, produces quicker results. 
Another very useful gluing agent for cel- 
luloid receptacles is concentrated acetic 
acid. The celluloid fragments dabbed 
with it stick together almost instantane- 
ously. 

See also Adhesives for Methods of 
Mending Celluloid. 

Printing on Celluloid. — Printing on 
celluloid may be done in the usual way. 
Make ready the form so as to be perfectly 
level on the impression — that is, uniform 
to impressional touch on the face. The 
tvmpan should be hard. Bring up the 
form squarely, allowing for about a 3- or 
4-sheet cardboard to be withdrawn from 
the tympan when about to proceed with 
printing on the celluloid; tnis is to allow 
lor the thickness of the sheet of celluloid. 
Use liye hut dry and well-seasoned roll- 
ers. Special inks of difiPerent colors are 
made tor this kind of presswork; in 
black a good card-job quality will be 
found about right, if a few drops of 
copal yarnish are mixed with the ink 
before beginning to print. 

Colored CeUuloid.— 

Black: First dip into pure water, then 
into a solution of mtrate of silyer; let dry 
in the light. 

Yellow: First immerse in a solution 
of nitrate of lead, then in a concentrated 
solutioK of chromate of potash. 

Brown: Dip into a solution of per- 
manganate of potash made strongly 
alkaline bV the addition of soda. 

Blue: Di}) into a solution of indigo 
^ neutralized by the addition of soda. 

Red: First dip into a diluted bath of 
nitric acid; then into an ammoniacal 
solution of carmine. 

Green: Dip into a solution of yerdi- 
gris. 

Aniline colors may also be employed 
but they are less permanent. 

Bleaching Celluloid.— If the celluloid 
has become discolored throughout, its 
whiteness can hardly be restored, but if 



merely superficially discolored, wipe with 
a woolen rag wet with absolute alcohol 
and ether mixed in equal proportions. 
This dissolves and removes a minute 
superficial layer and lavs bare a new 
surface. To restore tne polish rub 
briskly first with a woolen cloth and fin- 
ish with silk or fine chamois. A little 
jeweler*s rouge or putzpomade greatly 
facilitates matters. Ink marks may be 
removed in the same manner. Printer's 
ink may be removed from celluloid by 
rubbing first with oil of turpentine and 
afterwards with alcohol and ether. 

Process of Impregnating Fabrics with 
Celluloid.— The fabric is first saturated 
with a dilute celluloid solution of the 
consistency of olive oil, which solution 
penetrates deeply into the tissue; dry 
quickly in a heating chamber and satu- 
rate with a more concentrated celluloid 
solution, about as viscous as molasses. 
If oil be added to the celluloid solution, 
the cjuantity should be small in the first 
solution, e. g., 1 to 2 per cent, in the 
following ones 5 to 8 per cent, while the 
outer layer contains very little or no oil. 
A fabric impregnated in this manner 
possesses a very flexible surface, because 
the outer layer may be very thin, while 
the interior consists of many flexible 
fibers surrounded by celluloid. 

CELLULOn) CEMElfTS AlVD GLUES: 
See Adhesives. 

CELLULOm LACQUER: 

See Lacquer. 

CELLULOID PUTTY: 

See Cements. 



Cements 

(See also Putties.) 

For Adhesive Cements intended for 
repairing broken articles, see Adhe- 
sives. 

Putty for Celluloid.— To fasten cellu- 
loid to wood, tin, etc., use a compound of 
2 parts shellac, 3 parts spirit of cam- 
phor, and 4 parts strong alcohol. 

Plumbers' Cement. — A plumbers' ce- 
ment consists of 1 part^ black rosin, 
melted, and 2 parts of brickdust, thor- 
oughly powdered and dried. 

Cement for Steam and Water Pipes. — 
A cement for pipe joints is made as fol- 
lows: Ten pounds fine yellow pcher; 4 

— rfe 



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162 



CEMENTS 



pounds ground litharee; 4 pounds whit- 
ing, and ^ pound of hemp, cut up fine. 
Mix together thoroughly with linseed oil 
to about the consistency of putty. 

Gutter Cement. — Stir sand and fine 
lime into boiled paint skins while hot and 
thick. Use hot. 

Cement for Pipe Joints. — A good ce- 
ment for making tight joints in pumps, 
pipes, etc., is made of a mixture of 15 
parts of slaked lime, 30 parts of graphite, 
and 40 parts of barium sulphate. Tne in- 
gredients are powdered, well mixed to- 
g ether, and stirred up with 15 parts of 
oiled oil. A stiver preparation can be 
made by increasing the proportions of 
graphite and barium sulphate to 30 and 
40 parts respectively, and omitting the 
lime. Anotner cement for the same 
purpose consists of 15 parts of chalk 
and 50 of graphite, ground, washed, 
mixed, and reground to fine powder. To 
this mixture is added 20 parts of ground 
litharge, and the whole mixed to a stiff 
paste with about 15 parts of boiled oil. 
This last preparation possesses the ad- 
vantage of remaining plastic for a long 
time when stored in a cool place. Finally, 
a good and simple mixture for tightening 
screw connections is made from powdered 
shellac dissolved in 10 per cent ammonia. 
The mucinous mass is painted over the 
screw threads, after the latter have been 
thoroughly cleaned, and the fitting is 
screwed home. The ammonia soon 
volatilizes, leaving behind a mass which 
hardens quickly, makes a tight joint, 
and is impervious to hot and cold water. 

Protection for Cement Work. — A 
coating of soluble glass will impart to 
cement surfaces exposed to ammonia 
not only a protective covering, but also 
increased solidness. 

Cemented surfaces can be protected 
from the action of the weather by re- 
peated coats of a green vitriol solution 
consisting of 1 part of green vitriol and 
3 parts of water. Two coatings of 5 
per cent soap water are said to render 
the cement waterproof; after drying and 
rubbing with a cloth or brush, this coat- 
ing wiU become glossy like oil paint. 
This application is especially recom- 
mended for sick rooms, since the walls 
can be readily cleaned bj washing with 
soapy water. The coating is rendered 
more and more waterproof thereby. 
The green vitriol solution is likewise 
commendable for application on old and 
new plastering, since it produces thereon 
waterproof coatings. From old plas- 
tering the loose particles have first to be 
removed by washing. 



Puncture Cement. — A patented prepa- 
ration for automatically repairing punc- 
tures in bicvcle tires consists of glycerine 
holding gelatinous silica or aluminum 
hydrate in suspension. Three volumes 
of glycerine are mixed with 1 volume of 
liquid water glass, and an acid is stirred 
in. The resulting jelly is diluted with 3 
additional volumes of gl)rcerine, and 
from 4 to 6 ounces of this fluid are placed 
in each tire. In case of puncture, the 
internal pressure of the air forces the fluid 
into the nole, which it closes. 

To Fix Iron in Stone.— Of the quickly 
hardening^ cements, lead and sulphur, 
the latter is popularly employed. It can 
be rendered still more suitable for pur- 
poses of pouring by the admixture of 
rortland cement, which is stirred into 
the molten sulphur in the ratio of 1 to 3 
parts by weignt. The strength of the 
latter is increased by this addition, since 
the formation of so coarse a crystalline 
structure as that of solidifying pure sul- 
phur is disturbed by the powder added. 

White Portland Cement. — Mix togeth- 
er feldspar, 40-100 parts, 'by weight; 
kaolin, 100 parts; limestone, 700 parts; 
magnesite, 20-40 parts; and sodium 
chloride, ^.5-5 parts, all as pure as 
possible, and heat to USO"" to ISOO"" C. 
(2606* to 2732° F.), unUl the whole has 
become sintered together, and forms a 
nice, white cement-Tike mass. 

Cement for Closing Cracks in Stoves. 
— Make a putty of reduced iron (iron 
by hydrogen) and a solution of sodium 
or potassium silicate, and force it into 
the crack. If the crack be a very nar- 
row one, make the iron and silicate into 
paste instead of putty. This material 
grows firmer and harder the longer the 
mended article is used. 

Cement for Waterpipe. — I. — Mix to- 
gether 11 parts, by w^eight, Portland 
cement; 4 parts, by weight, lead white; 
1 part, by weight, litharge; and make to 
a paste with boiled oil in which 3 per 
cent of its weight of colophony has been 
dissolved. 

II.— Mix 1 part, by weight, torn-up 
wadding; 1 part, by weight, of quicklime, 
and 3 parts, by weight, of boiled oil. 
This cement must be used as soon as 
made. 

Cement for Pallet Stones.— Place small 
pieces of shellac around the stone when 
m position and subject it to heat. Often 
the lac spreads unevenly or swells up; 
and this, in addition to being unsiji^htly, 
is apt to displace the stone. This can 
be avoided as follows: The pallets are 



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163 



held in Ions sliding tongs. Take a piece 
of shellac, heat it and roll it into a cylin- 
der between the fingers; again heat the 
extrenutj and draw it out into a fine 
thread. This thread will break off, leav- 
ing a point at the end of the lac. Now 
beat the tongs at a little distance from 
the pallets, testing the degree of heat by 
touchinjg the ton^ with the shellac. 
When it melts easily, lightly touch the 
two sides of the notch with it; a very 
thin layer can thus be spread over them, 
and the pallet stone can then be placed 
in position and held until cold enough. 
The tongs will not lose the heat sud- 
denly, so that the stone can easily be 
raised or lowered as required. The pro- 
jecting particles of cement can be re- 
moved by a brass wire filed to an angle 
and forming a scraper. To cement a 
rubv pin, or the Uke, one mav also use 
shellac dissolved in spirit, applied in the 
consistency of syrup, and liquefied again 
by means of a hot pincette, by seizing 
the stone with it. 

DENTAL CEMENTS: 

Pairthome'8 Cement. — Powdered ^lass, 
5 parts; powdered borax, 4 parts; silicic 
aad, 8 parts; zinc oxide, 200 parts. 
Powder veir finely and mix; then tint 
with a small quantity of golden ocher or 
manganese. The compound, mixed be- 
fore use with concentrated syrupy zinc- 
chloride solution, soon becomes as hard 
as marble and constitutes a very durable 
tooth cement. 

Huebner's Cement. — Zinc oxide, 500.0 
parts; powdered manganese, 1.5 parts; 
yellow ocher, powdered, 1.5-4.0 parts; 
powdered borax, 10.0 parts; powdered 
glass, 100.0 parts. 

As a binaing liquid it is well to use 
acid-free zinc chloride, which can be 
prepared by dissolving pure zinc, free 
from iron, in concentrated, pure, hydro- 
chloric acid, in such a manner that zinc 
is always in excess. When no more hy- 
drogen is evolved the zinc in excess is 
still left in the solution for some time. 
The latter is filtered and boiled down to 
the consistencv of syrup. 

Commercial zinc oxide cannot be em- 
ployed without previous treatment, be- 
cause it is too loose; the denser it is the 
better is it adapted for dental cements, 
and the harder the latter will be. For 
this reason it is well, in order to obtain a 
dense product, to sUr the commercial 
pure zinc oxide into a stiff paste with 
water to which 2 per cent of nitric acid 
has been added; tne paste is dried and 
heated for some time at white heat in a 
Hessian crucible. 



After cooling, the zinc oxide, thus ob- 
tained, is very finely powdered and kept 
in hermetically sealed vessels, so that 
it cannot absorb carbonic acid. The 
dental cement prepared with such zinc 
oxide turns very hard and solidifies with 
the concentrated zinc-chloride solution in 
a few minutes. 

Phosphate Cement. — Concentrate pure 
phosphoric acid till semi-solid, and mix 
aluminum phosphate with it by heat- 
ing. For use, mix with zinc oxide to 
the consistency of putty. The cement 
is said to set in 2 minutes. 

Zinc Amalgam, or Dentists' Zinc — 
This consists of pure zinc filings com- 
bined with twice their weight of mercury, 
a gentle heat being employed to render 
the union more complete. It is best ap- 
plied as soon as made. Its color is gray, 
and it is said to be effective and durable. 

SorePs Cement. — Mix zinc oxide with 
half its bulk of fine sand, add a solu- 
tion of zinc chloride of 1.260 specific 
gravity, and rub the whole thoroughly 
together in a mortar. The mixture 
must be applied at once, as it hardens 
very quickly. 

Metallic Cement. — Pure tin, with a 
small proportion of cadmium and suf- 
ficient mercury, forms the most lasting 
and, for all practical purposes, the least 
objectionable amalgam. Melt 2 parts 
of tin with 1 of cadmium, run it into in- 
gots, and reduce it to filings. Form 
those into a fluid amalgam with mercury, 
and squeeze out the excess of the latter 
througn leather. Work up the solid 
residue in the hand, and press it into the 
tooth. Or melt some beeswax in a pip- 
kin, throw in 5 parts of cadmium, and 
when melted ada 7 or 8 parts of tin in 
small pieces. Pour the melted metals 
into an iron or wooden box, and shake 
them until cold, so as to obtain the alloy 
in a powder. This is mixed with 2 J to 
3 times its weight of mercury in the palm 
of the hand, and used as above described. 

CEMENT COLORS: 
See Stone. 

CEMENT, MORDANT FOR: 

See Mordants. 

CEMENT, PAINTS FOR: 

See Paint. 

CEMENT, PROTECTION OF, AGAINST 
ACID: 

See Acid- Proofing. 



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CERAMICS 



CHAIN OF FIM: 
See Pyrotechnics. 

CHAINS (WATCH), TO CLEAN: 

See CleaELmg Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

CHALK FOR TAILORS. 

Knead together ordinary pipe clay, 
moistened with ultramarine blue for 
blue, finely ground ocher for yellow, etc., 
until they are uniformly mixed, roll out 
into thin sheets, cut and press into wood- 
en or metallic molds, well oiled to pre- 
vent sticking, and allow to dry slowly at 
ordinary temperature or at a very gentle 
heat. 



CHAPPED HANDS: 

See Cosmetics. 

CHARTA SINAPIS: 
See Mustard Paper. 

CHARTREUSE: 

See Wines and Liquors. 



Ceramics 

GROUND CERAMICS— LAYING OIL 
FOR: 

See Oil. 

Notes for Potters, Glass-, and Brick- 
makers.— It is of the highest importance 
.in selecting oxides, minerals, etc., for 
manufacturing different articles, for 
potters' use, to secure pure goods, es- 
pecially in the purchase of the following: 
Ijead, manganese, oxide of zinc, borax, 
whiting, oxide of iron, and oxide of 
cobalt. The different ingredients com- 
prising any given color or glaze should 
DC thoroughly mixed before being cal- 
cined, otherwise the mass will be of a 
streaky or variegated kind. Calcination 
requires care, especially in the manu- 
facture of enamel colors. Over-firing, 
particularly of colors or enamels com- 

f>osed in part of lead, borax, antimony, or 
itharge, causes a dullness of shade, or 
film, that reduces their value for decora- 
tive purposes, where clearness and bril- 
liancy are of the first importance. 

To arrest the unsightly defect of 
"crazing," the foUowinff have been the 
most successful methoas employed, in 
the order given: 

I. — Flux made of 10 parts tincal; 4 
parts oxide of zinc; I part soda. 



II. — A calcination of 5 parts oxide of 
zinc; 1 part pearl ash. 

III. — Addition of raw oxide of zinc, 
6 pounds to each hundredweight of 
glaze. 

To glazed brick and tile makers, whose 
chief difliculty appears to be the produc- 
tion of a slip to suit the contraction of 
their clay, and adhere strongly to either 
a clay or a burnt brick or tile, the follow- 
ing method may be recommended: 

Mix together: 

Ball clay 10 parts 

Cornwall stone 10 parts 

China clay 7 parts 

Flint 61 parts 

To be mixed and lawned one week 
before use. 

To Cut Pottery.— Pottery or any soft 
or even hard stone substance can be cut 
without chipping by a disk of soft iron, 
the edge of wnicn has been charged with 
emery, diamond, or other grinding pow- 
der, that can be obtained at any tool 
agency. The cutting has to be done 
with a liberal supply of water fed con- 
tinually to the revolving disk and the 
substance to be cut. 

BRICK AND TDLEMAKERS' GLAZED 
BRICKS: 

White. — When the brick or tile leaves 
the press, with a very soft brush cover the 
part to be glazed with No. 1 Slip; after- 
wards dip tne face in the same mixture. 

No. I Slip.— 

Same clay as brick . . 9 parts 

Flint 1 part 

Ball clay 5 parts 

China 4 parts 

Allow the brick to remain slowly dry- 
ing for 8 to 10 hours, then when moist 
dip in the white body. 

White Body.— 

China clay 24 parts 

Ball clay 8 parts 

Feldspar 8 parts 

Flint 4 parts 

The brick should now be dried slowly 
but thoroughly, and when perfectly dry 
dip the face in clean cold water, and im- 
mediately afterwards in glaze. 

Hard Glaze.— 

Feldspar 18 parts 

Cornwall stone 3} parts 

Whiting 1 1 parts 

Oxide of zinc 1^ parts 

Plaster of Paris^ .-. . . 4 ^^ 
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165 



Soft Glaze. — 

White lead 18 parts 

Feldspar 20 parts 

Oxide of zinc. S parts 

Plaster of Paris 1 part 

Flint glass IS parts 

Cornwall stone Si parts 

Paris white l| parts 

Where clay is used that will stand a 
very high fire» the white lead and glass 
may be left out. A wire brush should 
now be used to remove all superfluous 
giaze, etc., from the sides and ends of the 
brick, which is then ready for the kiln. 
In placing, set the bncks face to face, 
about an inch space being left between 
the two glazed faces. All the mixtures, 
after being mixed with water to the con- 
sistency of cream, must be passed 2 or 
3 times through a very fine fawn. The 
kiln must not be opened till perfectly 
cold. 

Process for Colored Glazes. — Use color, 
1 Wirt, to white body, 7 parts. Use 
color, 1 part, to glaze, 9 parts. 

Prepaiation of Colors. — The specified 
ingredients should all be obtained finely 
ground, and after being mixed in the 
proportions given should, in a saggar or 
some clay vessel, be fired in the brick 
kiln and afterwards ground for use. In 
firing the ingredients the highest heat 
attamable is necessary. 

Turquoise. — 

Oxide of zinc 8 parts 

Oxide of cobalt 1} parts 

Grass Green. — 

Oxide of chrome 6 parts 

Flint 1 part 

Oxide of copper J part 

Royal Blue. — 

Pure alumina 20 parts 

Oxide of zinc 8 parts 

Oxide of cobalt 4 parts 

Mazarine Blue. — 

Oxide of cobalt 10 parts 

ii^aris white 9 parts 

Sulphate barytes 1 part 

Red Brown. — 

Oxide of zinc. 40 parts 

Crocus of martis 6 parts 

Oxide of chrome 6 parts 

Redlead.. 5 parts 

Boracic acid 5 parts 

Red oxide of iron .... 1 part 

Orange. — 

Pure alumina 5 parts 

Oxide of zinc 2 parts 

Bichromate of potash. 1 part 

Iron scale } part 



Claret Brown. — 

Bichromate of potash. 2 parts 

Flint 2 parte 

Oxide of zinc 1 part 

Iron scale 1 part 

Blue Green. — 

Oxide of chrome 6 parts 

Flint « parts 

Oxide of cobalt } part 

Sky Blue.— 

Flint 9 parts 

Oxide of zinc 13 parts 

Cobalt 2} parte 

Phosphate soda 1 part 

Chrome Green. — 

Oxide of chrome 8 parte 

Oxide of copper 1 part 

Carbonate of cobalt . . 1 part 

Oxide of cobalt 2 parte 

Olive.— 

Oxide of chrome 3 parte 

Oxide of zinc 2 parte 

Flint 5 parte 

Oxide of cobalt 1 part 

Blood Red.— 

Oxide of zinc 30 parte 

Crocus martis 7 parte 

Oxide of chrome 7 parte 

Litharge 5 parte 

Borax 5 parte 

Red oxide of iron 2 parte 

Black.— 

Chromate of iron 24 parte 

Oxide of nickel 2 parte 

Oxide of tin 2 parte 

Oxide of cobalt 5 parte 

Imperial Blue. — 

Oxide of cobalt 10 parte 

Black color 1 } parte 

Paris white 7} parte 

Flint 2} parte 

Carbonate of soda ... 1 part 

Mahogany. — 

Chromate of iron 30 parte 

Oxide of manganese. . 20 parte 

Oxide of zinc 12 parte 

Oxide of tin 4 parte 

Crocus martis 2 parte 

Gordon Green. — 

Oxide of chrome 12 parte 

Paris white 8 parte 

Bichromate of potash. 4^ parts 

Oxide of cobalt | part 

Violet.— 

Oxide of cobalt 2 J parte 

Oxide of manganese. . 4 parte 

Oxide of zinc 8 parts 

Cornwall stone ^^^..^ byl^Cfgle 



166 



CERAMICS 



Lavender. — 

Calcined oxide of zinc 5 parts 

Carbonate of cobalt . . f P*rt 

Oxide of nickel J part 

Paris white 1 part 

Brown. — 

Manganese 4 parts 

Oxide of chrome 2 parts 

Oxide of zinc 4 parts 

Sulphate barytes 2 parts 

Dove. — 

Oxide of nickel 7 parts 

Oxide of cobalt 2 parts 

Oxide of chrome 1 part 

Oxide of flint 18 parts 

Paris white 3 parts 

Yellow Green. — 

Flint 6 parts 

Paris white 4 parts 

Bichromate of potash. 4 A parts 

Red lead 2 (mrts 

Fluorspar 2 parts 

Plaster of Paris 1 ^ parts 

Oxide of copper } part 

BODIES REQUIRING NO StAIN: 
Ivory. — 

Cane marl 16 parts 

Ball clay 12 parts 

Felds(>ar 8 parts 

China clay 6 parts 

Flint 4 parts 

Cream. — 

Ball clay 22 parts 

China clay 5\ parts 

Flint 5 parte 

Feldspar 3 § parts 

Cane marl 12 parts 

Black.— 

Ball clay 120 parts 

Grouncl ocher 120 parts 

Ground manganese. 35 parts 

Buff.— 

Ball clay 12 parts 

China clay 10 parts 

Feldspar 8 parts 

Bull nre clay 16 parts 

Yellow ocher 3 parts 

Drab.— 

Cane marl 80 parts 

Ball clay 10 parts 

Stone 7 parts 

Feldspar 4 parts 

Brown. — 

Red marl 50 parts 

China clay 7 parts 

Ground manganese . . 6 parts 

Feldspar 3 parts 



In making; mazarine blue g[lazed bricks 
use the white body and stain the glaze 
only. 

Mazarine blue 1 part 

Glaze 7 parts 

For royal blue use 1 part stain to 6 
parts white body, and glaze unstained. 

Blood-Red Stain. — Numerous brick 
manufacturers possess beds of clay from 
which good and sound bricks or tiles 
can be made, the only drawback being 
that the clay does not burn a good color. 
In many cases this arises from the fact 
that the clay contains more or less sul- 
phur or other impurity, which spoils the 
external appearance of the finished 
article. The following stain will con- 
vert clay of any color into a rich, deep 
red, mixed in proportions of stain, 1 
p>art, to clay, 60 parts. 

Stain.— 

Crocus marUs 20 parts 

Yellow ocher 4 parts 

Sulphate of iron 10 parts 

Rca oxide of iron 2 parts 

A still cheaper method is to put a slip 
or external coating upon the goods. 
The slip being quite opaque, effectively 
hides the natural color of the brick or 
tile upon which it may be used. 
The process is to mix: 

Blood-red stain 1 part 

Good red clay 6 parts 

Add water until the mixture becomes 
about the consistency of cream, then 
with a sponge force the liquid two or three 
times through a very fine orass wire lawn. 
No. 80, and dip the goods in the liquid 
as soon as they are pressed or molded. 

Blue Paviors. — Blue paving bricks 
may be produced with almost any kind 
of clav tnat will stand a fair amount of 
heat. DV adopting the same methods as 
in the former case of blood- red bricks, 
that is, the clay may be stained through- 
out, or an outside coating may be ap- 
plied. 

Stain for Blue Paviors. — 

Ground ironstone 20 parts 

Chromate of iron 5 parts 

Manganese 6 parts 

Oxide of nickel 1 part 

Use 1 part clay and 1 part stain for 
coating, and 50 or 60 parts clay and 1 
part stain for staining tnrough. 
Fire blue paviors very hard. 

Buff Terra-Cotta Slip.— 

Buff fire clay 16 parts 

China clay 6 parts 

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167 



Yellow ocher S parts 

Ball clay 10 parts 

Flint 4 parts 

Add water to the materials after mix- 
ing well, pass through the fine lawn, and 
dip the goods when soft in the liquid. 

Transparent Glaze. — 

Ground flint glass 4 parts 

Ground white lead .... 4 parts 
Ground oxide of zinc, i part 
This flsiZfi is suitable for bricks or tiles 
made of very good red clay, the natural 
color of the clay showing through the 
glaze. The goods must first be fired 
sufiiciently hard to make them durable, 
afterwards glazed, and fired again. The 
glaze beinff comparatively soft will fuse at 
about half the heat required for the first 
burning. The glaze may be stained, if 
desiredT with any of the colors given in 
glazed-brick recipes, in the following 
proportions: Stain, 1 part; glaze, 1 part. 

SPECIAL RECIPES FOR POTTERY 
AHD BRICK AKD TILE WORKS: 
l^trifiable Bodies.— The following mix- 
tures will flux only at a very high heat. 
They^ require no glaze when a proper 
heat is attained, and thev are admirably 
adapted for stoneware glazes. 

I. — Com wall stone. .. . 20 parts 

Feldspar 12 parts 

China clay 3 parts 

Whiting 2 parts 

Plaster of Paris ... 1} parts 

II. — Feldspar SO parts 

Flint 9 parts 

Stone 8 parts 

China clay 3 parts 

III.— Feldspar 20 parts 

Stone. 6 parts 

Oxide of zinc 3 parts 

Whiting 2 parts 

Plaster of Paris ... 1 part 
Soda crystals, dis- 
solved 1 part 

Special Glazes for Bricks or Pottery 
at One Burning. — To run these glazes 
intense heat is required. 

I. — Cornwall stone 40 parts 

Flint. 7 parts 

Paris white 4 parts 

Ball clay 15 parts 

Oxide of zinc 6 parts 

White lead 15 parts 

II.— Feldspar 20 parts 

Cornwall stone. ... 5 parts 

Oxide of zinc 3 parts 

Flint 3 parts 

Lynn sand 1 A parts 

Sulphate barytes. . . 1 ^ parts 



III.— Feldspar 25 parts 

Cornwall stone 6 parts 

Oxide of zinc 2 parts 

China clay 2 parts 

IV. — Cornwall ^tone 118 parts 

Feldspar 40 parts 

Paris white 28 parts 

Flint 4 parts 

V. — Feldspar 16 parts 

China clay 4 parts 

Stone 4 parts 

Oxide of zinc 2 parts 

Plaster of Paris .... 1 part 

VI.— Feldspar 10 parts 

Stone 5 parts 

Flint 2 parts 

Plaster J part 

The following f^laze is excellent for 
bricks in the biscuit and pottery, which 
require an easy firing: 

White.— 

White lead 20 parts 

Stone parts 

Flint 9 parts 

Borax. 4 parts 

Oxide of zinc 2 parts 

Feldspar 3 parts 

These materials should be procured 
finely ground, and after being thoroughly 
mixed should be placed in a fire-clay 
crucible, and be fired for 5 or 6 hours, 
sharply, or until the material runs down 
into a liquid, then with a pair of iron 
tongs draw the crucible from the kiln 
and pour the liquid into a bucket of cold 
water, grind the flux to an extremely 
fine powder, and spread a coating upon 
the plate to be enameled, previously 
brusning a little gum thereon. The 

Elate must then be fired until a sufficient 
eat is attained to run or fuse the pow- 
der. 

POTTERY BODIES AlVD GLAZES: 
Ordinary. — 

I. — China clay 2 J parts 

Stone 1 J parts 

Bone 3 parts 

II. — China clay 5 parts 

. Stone 2J parts 

Bone 7 parts 

Barytes 3 parts 

III. — Chain clay 5 parts 

Stone 3 parts 

Flint i part 

Barytes 8 parts 

Superior. — 

I. — China clay 35 parts 

Cornwall stone 23 parts 

Bone 40 parts 

F*''^* [^przeabyC^W^le 



168 



CERAMICS 



II.— China clay 35 parts 

Cornwall stone 8 parts 

Bone 50 parts 

Flint 3 parts 

Blue clay 4 parts 

III.— China clay 8 parts 

Cornwall stone 40 parts 

Bone 29 parts 

Flint 5 parts 

Blue clay 18 parts 

IV,— China clay 32 parts 

Cornwall stone 23 parts 

Bone 34 parts 

Flint 6 parts 

Blue clay 5 parts 

v.— China clay 7 parts 

Stone 40 parts 

Bone... 28 parts 

Flint 5 parts 

Blue clay 20 parte 

Finest China Bodies. — 

I.— China clay 20 parts 

Bone 60 parte 

Feldspar 20 parte 

II.— China clay 30 parte 

Bone 40 parte 

Feldspar 30 parte 

III.— China clay 25 parte 

Stone 10 parte 

Bone 45 parts 

Feldspar 20 parte 

I v.— China clay 30 parte 

Stone 15 parte 

Bone 35 parte 

Feldspar 20 parte 

Earthenware Bodies.— 

I.— Ball clay 13 parte 

China clay 9i parte 

Flint 5i parts 

Cornwall stone 4 parts 

II.— Ball clay 12i parte 

China clay 8 parts 

Flint 5i parts 

Cornwall stone ... 2 J parte 
One pint of cobalt 
stain to 1 ton of 
glaze. 

III.— Ball clay 131 part^ 

China clay 11 parte 

Flint 4 parte 

Cornwall stone 5 parte 

Feldspar 4 parte 

Stain as required. 

IV.— Ball clay 18i parte 

China clay ISi parts 

Flint 8i parte 

Stone 4 parte 

Blue stain, 2 pinte to ton. 



v.— Ball clay 15 parte 

China clay 12 parte 

Flint 6 parte 

Stone 4 parte 

Feldspar 4 parte 

Blue stain, 2 pinte to ton. 

VI. (Parian).— 

Stone 11 parte 

Feldspar 10 parte 

China clay 8 parte 

COLORED BODIES: 
Ivory Body. — 

Ball clay 22 parte 

China 5} parte 

Flint 5 parte 

Stone 31 parte 

Dark Drab Body.— 

Cane marl 30 parte 

Ball clay 10 parte 

Cornwall stone 7 parte 

Feldspar 4 parte 

Black Body.— 

Ball clay 120 parte 

Ocber 120 parte 

Mansanese 35 parte 

Cobalt carbonate. . 2 parte 

Grind the three last mentioned ingre- 
diente first. 

Caledonia Body. — 

Yellow clay 32 parte 

China clay 10 parte 

Flint 4 parte 

Brown Body. — 

Red clay 50 parte 

Common clay 7i parte 

Manganese 1 part 

Flint 1 part 

Jasper Body.— 

Cawk clay 10 parte 

Blue clay 10 parte 

Bone 5 parte 

Flint 2 parte 

Cobalt J part 

Stone Body. — 

Stone 48 parte 

Blue clay 25 parte 

China clay 24 parte 

Cobalt 10 parte 

Egyptian Black. — 

Blue clay 235 parte 

Calcined ocher. . . . 225 parts 

Manganese 45 parte 

China clay 15 parte 

Ironstone Body. — 

Stone 200 parte 

Cornwall clay. . .^. . 150 parte 

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169 



Blue day 200 parts 

Flint 100 parts 

Calx 1 part 

Cream Body.— 

Blue clay 1 i parts 

Brown clay 1 J parts 

Black clay 1 part 

Cornish clay 1 part 

Common ball clay. . } part 

BuflF color i part 

Light Drab.— 

Cane marl 80 parts 

Ball clay 24 parts 

Feldspar 7 parts 

Sage Body.— 

Cane marl 15 parts 

Ball clay 15 parts 

China clay 5 parts 

Stained with turquoise stain. 

COLORED GLAZES FOR POTTERY: 
Blue- 
White glaze 100 parts 

Oxide of cobalt ... 3 parts 

Red lead 10 parts 

Flowing blue S parts 

Enamel blue 3 parts 

Grind. 

Pint- 
White glaze 100 parts 

Red lead 8 parU 

Marone pink U. G. 8 parts 

Enamel red 8 parts 

Grind. 

Buff.— 

White glaze 100 parts 

Red lead 10 parts 

Buff color 8 parts 

Grind. 

Ivory. — 

White glaze 100 parts 

Red lead 8 parts 

Enamel amber 8 parts 

Yellow underglaze 2 parts 

Grind. 

Turquoise. — 

White glaze 100 parts 

Red lead 10 parts 

Carbonate of soda. 5 parts 

Enamel blue 4 parts 

Malachite, 110 4 parts 

Grind. 
Yellow.— 

L— White glaze 100 parte 

Red lead 10 parts 

Oxide of uranium . 8 parts 

Griud. 



II.— Dried flint 5 parts 

Cornwall stone 15 parts 

Litharge 50 parts 

Yellow underglaze. . . 4 parts 
Grind. 

Green.— 

I. — Oxide of copper 8 parts 

Flint of glass 3 parts 

Flint 1 part 

Red lead 6 parts 

Grind, then take: 

Of above 1 part 

White glaze 6 parts 

Or stronger as required. 

II.— Red lead 60 parts 

Stone 24 parts 

Flint 1« parts 

Flint glass 12 parts 

China clay. 3 parts 

Calcined oxide of 

copper 14 parts 

Oxide of cobalt \ part 

Grind only. 

Green Glaze, Best. — 

III.— Stone 80 parts 

Flint 8 parts 

Soda crystals 4 parts 

Borax 3} parts 

Niter 2 parts 

Whiting 2 parts 

Oxide of cobalt \ part 

Glost fire, then take: 

Above frit 60 parts 

Red lead 57 parts 

Calcined oxide of 

copper 5J parts 

Black.— 

Red lead 24 parts 

Raddle 4 parts 

Manganese 4 parts 

Flint 2 parts 

Oxide of cobalt 2 parts 

Carbonate of cobalt . 2 parts 

Glost fire. 

WHITE GLAZES: 
China.— Frit: 

I. — Stone 6 parts 

Niter 2 parts 

Borax 12 parts 

Flint 4 parts 

Pearl ash 2 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 24 parts 

Stone 154 parts 

Flint 6J parts 

White lead 31 , parts t 

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170 



CERAMICS 



II.—Frit: 

Stone 24 parts 

Borax 53 parts 

Lynn sand 40 p&rts 

Feldspar 32 parts 

Paris white 16 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 90 parts 

Stone 30 parts 

White lead 90 parts 

Flint 4 parts 

Glass 2 parts 

III.— Frit: 

Stone 50 parts 

Borax 40 parts 

Flint 30 parts 

Flint class 30 parts 

Pearl barytes 10 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 160 parts 

Red lead 30 parts 

Enamel blue } part 

Flint glass 2 parts 

IV.— Frit: 

Borax 100 parts 

China clay 55 parts 

Whiting 60 parts 

Feldspar 75 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 200 parts 

China clay 16 parks 

White clay 3i parts 

Stone 3 parts 

Flint 2 parts 

v.— Frit: 

Stone 40 parts 

Flint 25 parts 

Niter 10 parts 

Borax 20 parts 

White lead 10 parts 

Flint glass 40 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 145 parts 

Stone 56 parts 

Borax 16 parts 

Flint 15 parts 

Red lead 60 parts 

Flint glass 8 parts 

Earthenware. — Frit : 

I.— Flint 108 parts 

China clay 45 parts 

Paris white 60 parts 

Borax 80 parts 

Soda crystals 30 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 270 parts 

Flint 20 parts 



Paris white 15 parts 

Stone 80 parts 

White lead 65 parts 

II.— Frit: 

Flint 62 parts 

China clay 30 parts 

Paris white 38 parts 

Boracic acid 48 parts 

Soda crystals 26 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 230 parts 

Stone 160 parts 

Flint 60 parts 

Lead 120 parts 

III.— Frit: 

Stone 56 parts 

Paris white 55 parts 

Flint 60 parte 

China clay 20 parte 

Borax 120 parte 

Soda crystals 15 parte 

To mill: 

Frit 212 parte 

Stone 130 parte 

Flint 50 parte 

Lead 110 parte 

Stein as required. 

IV.— Frit: 

Stone 100 parte 

Flint 44 parte 

Paris white 46 parte 

Borax 70 parte 

Niter 10 parte 

To mill: 

Frit 200 parte 

Stone 60 parte 

Lead 80 parte 

Pearl White Glaze.— Frit: 

Flint 50 parte 

Stone 100 parte 

Paris white 20 parte 

Borax 60 parte 

Soda crystels 20 parte 

To mill: 

Frit 178 pounds 

Lead 55 pounds 

Stain 3 ounces 

Opaque Glaze. — Frit: 

Borax 74 parte 

Stone 94 parte 

Flint 30 parte 

China clay 22 parts 

Pearl ash 5 J parte 

To mill: 

Frit 175 parte 

Lead 46 parte 

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CERAMICS 



171 



Flint 10 parts 

Oxide of tin 12 parts 

Flint glass 12 parts 

Glaze for Granite. — Frit: 

I.— Stone 100 parts 

Flint 80 parts 

China clay SO parts 

Paris white 30 parts 

Feldspar 40 parts 

Soda crystals 40 parts 

Borax 80 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 860 parts 

Flint 50 parts 

Stone 50 parts 

Lead 80 parts 

II.-Frit: 

Borax 100 parts 

Stone 50 parts 

Flint 50 parts 

Paris white 40 parts 

China clay 20 parts 

To mill: 

Frit 210 parts 

Stone 104 parts 

Flint 64 parte 

Lead 95 parte 

Raw Glazes.— White: 

L— White lead 160 parte 

Borax 32 parte 

Stone 48 parte 

Flint 52 parte 

Stain with blue and grind. 

II.— White lead 80 parte 

Litharge 60 parte 

Boracic acid 40 parte 

Stone 45 parte 

Flint 50 parte 

Treat as foregoing. 

III.~White lead 100 parte 

Borax 4 parte 

Flint 11 parte 

Cornwall stone. ... 50 parts 

IV.— Red lead 80 parte 

litharge 60 parte 

Tincal 40 parte 

Stone 40 parte 

Flint 52 parte 

ROCKINGHAM GLAZES. 

I.— Litharge 50 parte 

Stone 7J parts 

Red marl 3 parte 

Oxide of manganese 5 parte 
Red oxide of iron ... 1 part 

n.— White lead SO parte 

Stone 3 parte 

Flint 9 parte 

Red marl 8 parte 

Mancranese 5 parte 



III.— Red lead 20 parte 

Stone 3 parte 

Flint 2 parte 

China clay 2 parte 

Manganese 3 parte 

Red oxide of iron ... 1 part 

Stoneware Bodies.— 

Ball clay ^ 14 parte 

China clay 10 parte 

Stone 8 parte 

Ball clay 8 parte 

China clay 5 parte 

Flint 3 parte 

Stone 4 parte 

Ball clay 14 parte 

China clay 11 parte 

Flint 4 parte 

Stone 5 parte 

Feldspar 4 parte 

Cane marl 16 parte 

China clay 10 parte 

Stone 9 parte 

Flint 5 parte 

Glazes. — Hard glaze: 

Stone 10 parts 

Flint 5 parte 

Whiting 1 A parte 

Red lead 10* parte 

Hard glaze: 

Feldspar 25 parte 

Flint 5 parts 

Red lead 15 parte 

Plaster 1 part 

Softer: 

White lead IS parte 

Flint glass 10 parte 

Feldspar 18 pmrte 

Stone 8 parte 

Whiting 1 J parte 

Best: 

Feldspar 20 parte 

Flint glass 14 parte 

White lead 14 parts 

Stone 3 parte 

Oxide of zinc 3 parts 

Whiting li parts 

Plaster 1 part 

Rockingham Bodies.— 

Ball clay 20 parte 

China clay 13 parts 

Flint 7 parte 

Stone 1 part 

Cane marl 22 parts 

China clay 15 parte 

Flint 8 parte 

Feldspar 1 part , 

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in 



CERAMICS 



Glazes. — 

I.— Red lead 60 parte 

Stone 8 parte 

Red clay 8 parte 

Best manganese. . . 5 parte 

II.— White lead 60 parte 

Feldspar 6 parte 

Flint 16 parte 

Red clay 6 parte 

Manganese 12 parte 

III.— Red lead 100 parte 

Stone 15 parte 

Flint 10 parts 

China clay 10 parte 

Manganese 40 parte 

Crocus martis 2 parte 

IV.— -Litharge 100 parts 

Feldspar. 14 parts 

China clay 20 parts 

Manganese 40 parte 

Oxide of iron 2 parte 

Jet. — Procure some first-class red marl, 
add water, and, by passing through a fine 
lawn, make it into a slip, and dip the 
ware therein. 

When fired use the following: 

Glaze. — 

Stone 60 parts 

Flint 80 parte 

Paris white 71 parte 

Red lead 140 parte 

One part mazarine 'blue stain to 10 
parte glaze. 

Mazarine Blue Stain. — 

Oxide of cobalt 10 parte 

Paris white 9 parte 

Sulphate barytes 1 part 

Calcine. 

Another Process Body. — 

Ball clay 16 parte 

China clay 12 parte 

Flint clay 9 parte 

Stone clay 6 parte 

Black stain 7 parte 

Glaze. — 

Litharge 70 parte 

Paris white 3 parte 

Flint 12 parts 

Stone 80 parte 

Black stain 20 parte 

Black Stain.— 

Chromate of iron ... 12 parte 

Oxide of nickel 2 parte 

Oxide of tin 2 parts 

Carbonate of cobalt . 6 parte 

Oxide of manganese . 2 parte 

Calcine and grind. 



Blue Stains. — 

I. — Oxide of cobalt 2 J parte 

Oxide of zinc 7i parte 

Stone 71 parte 

Fire this very hard. 

II. — Zinc 6 pounds 

Flint 4 pounds 

China clay 4 pounds 

Oxide of cobalt 5 ounces 

Hard fire. 

III.— Whiting SJ parte 

Flint 3} parte 

Oxide of cobalt 21 parte 

Glost fire. 

Turquoise Stain.— 

Prepared cobalt .... 11 parte 

Oxide of zinc 6 parte 

China clay 6 parte 

Carbonate of soda . . 1 part 

Hard fire. 

MATERIALS: 
Tin Ash. — 

Old lead 4 parte 

Grain tin 2 parte 

Melt in an iron ladle, and pour out in 
water, then spread on a dish, and calcine 
in glost oven with plenty of air. 

Oxide of Tin.— 

Granulated tin 5 pounds 

Niter 1 (>ound 

Put on saucers and fire in glost oven. 

Oxide of Chrome is made by mixing 
powdered bichromate of potash with 
sulphur as follows: 

Potash 6 parte 

Flowers of sulphur. . 1 part 
Put in sagj^r, inside kiln, so that 
fumes are carried away, and place 4 or 
5 pieces of red-hot iron on the top so as 
to ignite it. Leave about 12 hours, then 
pound very fine, and put in saggar again. 
Calcine in hard place of biscuit oven. 
Wash this until the water is quite clear, 
and dry for use. 

Production of Luster Colors oh Por- 
celain and Glazed Pottery.— The luster 
colors are readilj decomposed by acids 
and atmospheric^ influences, Decause 
they do not contain, in consequence of 
the low baking temperature, enough 
silicic acid to form resistive compounds. 
In order to attain this, G. Alefeld has 
patented a process according to which 
such compounds are added to the luster 
preparations as leave behind after the 
Durning an acid which transforms the 
luster preparation into more resisting 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CERAMICS 



178 



compounds. In this connection the ad- 
mixture of such bodies has been found 
advantageous, as the^ form phosphides 
with the metallic oxides of the lusters 
after the burning. These phosphides 
are especially fitted for the production of 
saturated resisting compounds, not only 
on account of their insolubility in water, 
but also on account of their colorings. 
Similarly titanici molybdic, tungstic, and 
vanadic compounds may be produced. 
The metallic phosphates produced by 
the burning give a luster coating which, 
as regards gloss, is not inferior to the non- 
saturated metallic oxides, while it mate- 
rially excels them in power of resistance. 
Since the lusters to be applied are used 
dissolved in essential oils, it is necessary 
to make the admixture of phosphoric 
substance also in a form soluble in essen- 
tial oils. For the production of this 
admixture the respective chlorides, pre- 
eminently phosphoric chloride, are suit- 
able. Thev are mixed with oil of lav- 
ender in tne ratio of 1 to 5, and the 
resulting reaction product is added to the 
commercial metallic oxide luster, singly 
or in conjunction with precious metal 
preparations (glossy gold, silver, plati- 
num, etc.) in the approximate propor- 
tion of 5 to 1. Then proceed as usual. 
Instead of the chlorides, nitrates and 
acetates, as well as any readily destruc- 
tible organic compounds, may also ^ be 
employed, which are entered into fusing 
rosm or rosinous liquids. 

Metallic Luster on Pottery. — Accord- 
ing to a process patented in Germany, a 
mixture is prepared from various natural 
or artificial varieties of ocher, to which 
25-50 per cent of finely powdered more 
or less metalliferous or sulphurous coal is 
added. The mass treated in this man- 
ner is brought together in saggars with 
finely divided organic substances, such 
as sawdust, shaving, wood-wool, cut 
straw, etc., and subjected to feeble red 
heat. After the heating the material is 
taken out. The glazings now exhibit 
that thin but stable metallic color which 
is governed by the substances used. 
Besides coal, salts and oxides of silver, 
cobalt, cadmium, chronic iron, nickel, 
manganese, copper, or zinc may be em- 
ployed. The color-giving layer is re- 
moved by washing or brushing, while 
the desired color is burned in and re- 
mains. In this manner handsome shades 
can be produced. 

Metallic Glazes on Enamels. — The 
formulas used by the Arabs and their 
Italian successors are partly disclosed in 
manuscripts in the British and South 



Kensington Museums; two are given 
below: 

Arab Italian 

Copper sulphide 46 . 87 24 . 74 

Silver sulphide 1.15 1.03 

Mercury sulphide 24 . 74 

Redocher 71.98 49.49 

These were ground with vinegar and 
applied with the brush to the already 
baked enamel. A great variety of iri- 
descent and metallic tones can be ob- 
tained by one or the other, or a mixture 
of the f oflowing formulas : 

I II III IV V VI 
Copper carbonate. . 30 .... 28 .. 95 

Copper oxalate 5 .. 

Copper sulphide 20 

Silver carbonate 3 .. 2 1 5 

Bismuth subnitrate. . . 12 . . . . 10 . . 

Stannous oxide 25 

Redocher 70 85 55 70 84 .. 

Silver chloride and yellow ocher may 
be respectively substituted for silver car- 
bonate and red ocher. The ingredients, 
ground with a little ^um tragacanth and 
water, are applied with a brush to enam- 
els melting about 1814** F., and are fur- 
naced at 1202^ F. in a reducing atmos- 
phere. After cooling the ferruginous 
deposit is rubbed off, and the colors thus 
brought out. 

Sulphur, free or combined, is not nec- 
essarv, cinnabar has no action, ocher 
may be dispensed with, and any organic 
gummy matter may be used instead of 
vinegar, and broom is not needed in the 
furnace. The intensity and tone of the 
iridescence depend on the duration of 
the reduction, and the nature of the 
enamel. Enamels containing a coloring 
base — copper, iron, antimony, nickel — 
especially in presence of tin, give the 
best results. ' 

To Toughen China.— To toughen 
china or glass place the new article in 
cold water, bring to boil gradually, 
boil for 4 hours, and leave standing in 
the water till cool. Glass or china 
toughened in this way will never crack 
with hot water. 

How to Tell Pottery and Porcelain.— 
The following simple test will serve: 
Hold the piece up to the light, and if it 
can be seen through — that is, if it is 
translucent — it is porcelain. Pottery is 
opaque, and not so hard and white as 
porcelain. The main differences in the 
manufacture of stoneware, earthenware, 
and porcelain are due to the ingredients 
used, to the way they are mixed, and to 
the degree of heat t^^wjiic^ t^c56^^ 



174 



CHEESE 



jected in firing. Most of the old English 
wares found m this country are pottery 
or semichina, although the term china 
is commonly applied to them all. 

Cheese 

Manufacture. — The i)rocess of cheese 
making is one which is eminently in- 
teresting and scientific, and which, in 
every gradation, depends on principles 
which chemistiy has developed ana il- 
lustrated. ^ When a vegetable or min- 
eral acid is added to milk, and heat 
applied, a coagulum is formed, which, 
wnen separated from the liquid por- 
tion, constitutes cheese. Neutral salts, 
earthy and metallic salts, sugar, and 
gum arabic, as well as some other sub- 
stances, also produce the same effect; 
but that which answers the purpose 
best, and which is almost exclusively 
used by dairy farmers, is rennet, or the 
mucous membrane of the last stom- 
ach of the calf. Alkalies dissolve this 
curd at a boiling heat, and acids again 
precipitate it. The solubility of casein 
m milk is occasioned by the presence of 
the phasphates and other salts of the alka- 
lies. In fresh milk these substances ma^ 
be readily detected by the property it 
possesses of restoring the color of red- 
dened litmus paper. The addition of an 
acid neutralizes the alkali, and so pre- 
cipitates the curd in an insoluble state. 
Tne philosophy^ of cheese making is thus 
expounded b^ Lie big: 

" The acid indispensable to the co- 
agulation of milk is not added to the milk 
in the pre(>aration of cheese, but it is 
formed in the milk at the expense of the 
milk-sugar present. A small quantity 
of water is left in contact with a small 
quantity of a calf's stomach for a few 
hours, or for a night; the water absorbs 
so minute a portion of the mucous mem- 
brane as to DC scarcely ponderable; this 
is mixed with milk; its state of transfor- 
mation is communicated (and this is a 
most important circumstance) not to the 
cheese, but to the milk-sugar, the ele- 
ments of which transpose themselves 
into lactic acid, which neutralizes the 
alkalies, and thus causes the separation 
of the cheese. By means of litmus paper 
the process may be followed and observed 
through all its stages; the alkaline re- 
action of the milk ceases as soon as the 
coagulation begins. If the cheese is not 
immediately separated from the whey, 
the formation of lactic acid continues, 
the fluid turns acid, and. the cheese itself 
passes into a state of decomposition. 



"When cheese-curd is kept in a cool 
place a series of transformation takes 
place, in consequence of which it as- 
sumes entirely new properties; it gradu- 
ally becomes semi-transparent, and more 
or less soft, throughout the whole mass; 
it exhibits a feebly acid reaction, and 
develops the characteristic caseous odor. 
Fresh cheese is very sparingly soluble in 
water, but after having been left to itself 
for two or three years it becomes (es- 
pecially if all the fat be previously re- 
moved) almost completely soluble in 
cold water, forming with it a solution 
which, like milk, is coagulated b^ the 
addition of the acetic or any mineral 
acid. The cheese, which whilst fresh is 
insoluble, returns during the maturation, 
or ripening, as it is called, to a state sim- 
ilar to that in which it originally existed 
in the milk. In those English, Dutch, 
and Swiss cheeses which are nearly in- 
odorous, and in the superior kinds of 
French clieese, the casein of the milk is 
present in its unaltered state. 

" The odor and flavor of the cheese is 
due to the decomposition of the butter; 
the non- volatile acids, the margaric and 
oleic acids, and the volatile butyric acid, 
capric and caproic acids are liberated 
in consecjuence of the decomposition 
of glycerine. Butyric acid imparts to 
cheese its characteristic caseous odor, 
and the differences in its pungency or 
aromatic flavor depend upon the propor- 
tion of free butyric, capric, and caproic 
acids present. In the cheese of certain 
dairies and districts, valerianic acid has 
been detected along with the other acids 
just referred to. Messrs Jljenjo and 
Laskowski found this acid in the cheese 
of Limbourg, and M. Bolard in that of 
Roquefort. 

" The transition of the insoluble into 
soluble casein depends upon the de- 
composition of the phosphate of lime by 
the margaric acid of the butter; mar- 
garate of lime is formed, whilst the phos- 
phoric acid combines with the casein, 
forming a compound soluble in water. 

"The bad smell of inferior kinds of 
cheese, especially those called meager or 
poor cheeses, is caused by certain fetid 
products containing sulphur, and which 
are formed by the decomposition or pu- 
trefaction of the casein. The alteration 
which the butter undergoes (that is, in 
becoming rancid), or which occurs in the 
milk-sugar still present, being trans- 
mitted to the casein, changes both the 
composition of the latter substance and 
its nutritive qualities. 

" The principal conditions for the prep, 
aration of the superior kinds of cheesQ 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CHEESE 



176 



(other obvious circumstances being of 
course duly regarded) are a careful 
removal of the whey, which holds the 
milk-sugar in solution, and a low tem- 
perature during the maturation or rip* 
ening of the cheese." 

Cheese differs vastly in quality and 
flavor according to the method em- 
ployed in its manufacture and the rich- 
ness of the milk of which it is made. 
Much depends upon the quantity of 
cream it contains, and, consequently, 
when a superior quality of cheese is de- 
sired cream is frequently added to the 
curd. This plan is adopted in the man- 
ufacture of Stilton cheese and others of 
a like description. The addition of a 
pound or two of butter to the curd for a 
middling size cheese also vastly improves 
the quality of the product. To insure 
the richness of the milk, not only should 
the cows be properly fed, but certain 
breeds chosen. Those of Alderney, 
Cheddar, Cheshire, etc., have been 
widely preferred. 

The materials employed in making 
cheese are milk and rennet. Rennet is 
used either fresh or salted and dried; 
generally in the latter state. The milk 
may be of any kind, according to the 
quality of the cheese required. Cows' 
milk is that generally employed, but occa- 
sionally ewes' milk is used; and some- 
times, though more rarely, that from 
goats. 

In preparing his cheese the dairy 
farmer puts the greater portion of the 
milk into a large tub, to which he adds 
the remainder, sufRciently heated to 
raise the temperature to that of new 
milk. The wnole is then whisked to- 
gether, the rennet or rennet liquor added, 
and the tub covered over. It is now al- 
lowed to stand until completely " turned," 
when the curd is gently struck down 
several times with the skimming dish, 
after which it is allowed to subside. 
The vat, covered with cheese cloth, is 
next placed on a " horse " or " ladder " 
over the tub, and filled with curd by 
means of the skimmer, care being taken 
to allow as little as possible of the oily 
particles or butter to run back with the 
whey. The curd is pressed down with 
the hands, and more added as it sinks. 
This process is repeated until the curd 
rises to about two inches above the edge. 
The newly formed cheese, thus partially 
separated from the whey, is now placed 
in a dean tub, and a proper Quantity of 
salt, as well as of annotta, added when 
that coloring is used, after which a board 
is placed over and under it, and pressure 
applied for about 2 or 3 hours. The 



cheese is next turned out and surrounded 
by a fresh cheese cloth, and then again 
submitted to pressure in the cheese 
press for 8 or 10 hours, after which it is 
commonly removed from the press, salted 
all over, and again pressed tor 15 to 20 
hours. The Quality of the cheese es- 
pecially depends on this part of the proc- 
ess, as if any of the whey is left in the 
cheese it rapidly becomes bad-flavored. 
Before placing it in the [>ress the last 
time the common practice is to pare the 
edges smooth and sightly. It now only 
remains to wash the outside of the 
cheese in warm whey or water, to wipe 
it dry, and to color it with annotta or 
reddle, as is usually done. 

The storing^ of the newly made cheese 
is the next point that engages the atten- 
tion of the maker and wholesale dealer. 
The same principles which influence 
the maturation or ripening of fermented 
liquors also operate here. A cool cellar, 
neither damp nor dry, and which is un- 
influenced by change of weather or sea- 
son, is commonly regarded as the best 
for the purpose. If possible, the tem- 
perature should on no account be per- 
mitted to exceed 50*=^ or 5^^ F. at any 
portion of the year. An average of 
about 45^ F. is preferable when it can be 
procured. A place exposed to sudden 
changes of temperature is as unfit for 
storing cheese as it is for storing beer. 
" The quality of Roquefort cheese, which 
is prepared from sneep's milk, and is 
very excellent, depends exclusively upon 
the places where the cheeses are kept 
after pressing and during maturation. 
These are cellars, communicating with 
mountain grottoes and caverns which 
are kept constantly cool, at about 41° to 
42** F., by currents of air from clefts in 
the mountains. The value of these cel- 
lars as storehouses varies with their 
property of maintaining an equable and 
low temperature." 

It will thus be seen that very slight 
differences in the materials, in the prep- 
aration, or in storing of the cheese, ma- 
terially influence the quality and flavor 
of this article. The richness of the milk; 
the addition to or subtraction of cream 
from the milk; the separation of the 
curd from the whey with or without com- 
pression; the salting of the curd; the 
collection of the curd, either whole or 
broken, before pressing; the addition of 
coloring matter, as annotta or saffron, or of 
flavoring; the place and method of stor- 
ing; ana the length of time allowed for 
maturation, all tend to alter the taste and 
odor of the cheese in some or other par- 
ticular, and that in a way readily percep- 
Digitizea " *^ *^ 



176 



CHEESE 



tible to the palate of the connoisseur. 
No other alimentary substance appears 
to be so seriously affected by slight 
variations in the quality of the materials 
from which it is made, or by such ap- 
parently trifling differences in the meth- 
ods of preparing. 

The varieties of cheese met with in 
commerce are very numerous, and differ 
greatlv from each other in richness, color, 
and flavor. These are commonly dis- 
tinguished by names indicative of the 
places in which they have been manufac- 
tured, or of the quality of the materials 
from which they have been prepared. 
Thus we have Dutch, Gloucester, Stil- 
ton, skimmed milk, raw milk, cream, and 
other cheeses; names which explain them- 
selves. The following are the principal 
varieties: 

American Factory. — Same as Cheddar. 

Brickbat. — Named from its form; 
made, in Wiltshire, of new milk and 
cream. 

Brie. — A soft, white, cream cheese of 
French origin. 



Cheddar. — A fine, sponsy kind of 
heese, the eyes or vesicles oi which con- 
tain a rich oil; made up into round, thick 



cheeses of considerable size (150 to 200 
pounds). 

Cheshire. — From new milk, without 
skimming, the morning's milk being 
mixed with that of the preceding even- 
ing's, previously warmed, so that the 
whole may be brought to the heat of new 
milk. To this the rennet is added, in 
less quantity than is commonly used for 
other kinds of cheese. On this point 
much of the flavor and mildness of the 
cheese is said to depend. A piece of 
dried rennet, of the size of a half-dollar 
put into a pint of water over night, and 
allowed to stand until the next morn- 
ing, is sufficient for 18 or 20 gallons of 
milk; in large, round, thick cheeses (100 
to 200 pounds each). They are gen- 
erally solid, homogeneous, and dry, and 
friable rather than viscid. 

Cottenham.— -A rich kind of cheese, in 
flavor and consistence not unlike Stilton, 
from which, however, it differs in shape, 
being flatter and broader than the latter. 

Cream. — From the "strippings" (the 
last of the milk drawn from the cow at 
each milking), from a mixture of milk 
and cream, or from raw cream only, ac- 
cording to the quality desired. It is 
usually made in small oblong, square, or 
rounded cakes, a general pressure only 
(that of a 2- or 4-pound weight) being 



applied to press out the whey. After 12 
hours it is placed upon a board or wood- 
en trencher, and turned every day until 
dry. It ripens in about 3 weeks. A 
little salt is generally added, and fre- 
quently a little powdered lump sugar. 

Damson. — Prepared from damsons 
boiled with a little water, the pulp passed 
through a sieve, and then boiled with 
about one-fourth the weight of sugar, 
until the mixture solidifies on cooling; it 
is next poured into small tin molds pre- 
viously dusted out with sugar. Cherry 
cheese, gooseberry cheese, plum cheese, 
etc., are prepared in the same way, using 
the respective kinds of fruit. Thej^ are 
all very agreeable candies or confections. 

Derbyshire.— A small, white, rich 
variety, very similar to Dunlop cheese. 

Dunlop. — Rich, white, and buttery; 
in round forms, weighing from 30 to 60 
pounds. 

Dutch (Holland).— Of a globular 
form, 5 to 14 pounds each. Those from 
Edam are very highly salted; those from 
Gouda less so. 

Emmenthaler. — Same as Gruy^re. 

Gloucester. — Single Gloucester, from 
milk deprived of part of its cream; dou- 
ble Gloucester, from milk retaining the 
whole of the cream. Mild tasted, semi- 
buttery consistence, without being fri- 
able; in large, round, flattish forms. 

Green or Sage. — From milk mixed with 
the juice of an infusion or decoction of 
sage leaves, to which marigold flowers 
and parsley are frequently added. 

Gruyire. — A fine kind of cheese made 
in Switzerland, and largely consumed 
on the Continent. It is firm and dry, 
and exhibits numerous cells of con- 
siderable magnitude. 

Holland. — Same as Dutch. 

Leguminous. — The Chinese prepare 
an actual cheese from peas, called tao- 
foo, which they sell in the streets of Can- 
ton. ^ The paste from steeped ground 
peas is boiled, which causes the starch to 
dissolve with the casein; after straining 
the liquid it is coagulated by a solution 
of gypsum; this coagulum is worked up 
like sour milk, salted, and pressed into 
molds. 

Limburger. — ^A strong variety of cheese, 
soft and well ripened. 

Lincoln. — From new milk and cream: 
in pieces about 2 inches thick. Soft, and 
will not keep over 2 or 3^ months. 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CHEESE 



177 



Neufch&tel. — A much-esteemed vari- 
ety of Swiss cheese; made of cream, and 
weighs about 5 or 6 ounces. 

Norfolk. — Dyed yellow with annotta 
or saffron; f^ood, but not superior; in 
cheeses of 30 to 50 pouads. 

ParmesaiL — From the curd of ski mmed 
milk, hardened by a gentle heat. The 
rennet is added at about 120^, and an 
hour afterwards the curdling milk is set 
on a slow fire until heated to about 150° 
F., during which the curd separates in 
small lumps. A few pinches of saffron 
are then tnrown in. About a fortnight 
after making the outer crust is cut off, 
and the new surface varnished with lin- 
seed oil, and one side colored red. 

Roquefort. — From ewes* milk; the 
best prepared in France. It greatly 
resemoles Stilton, but is scarcely of 
equal richness or quality, and possesses 
a peculiar pungency and flavor. 

Roquefort, Imitation. — The gluten of 
wheat is kneaded with a little salt and a 
small portion of a solution of starch, and 
made up into cheeses. It is said that 
this mixture soon acquires the taste, 
smell, and unctuosity of cheese, and 
when kept a certain t'me is not to be dis- 
tinguished from the celebrated Roquefort 
cheese, of which it possesses all the pecu- 
liar pungency. Bv slightly varying the 
process other kinds of cheese may be 
imitated. 

Sage. — Same as green cheese. 

SUpcoat or Soft. — A very rich, white 
cheese, somewhat resembling butter; 
for present use only. 

Stilton. — The richest and finest cheese 
made in England. From raw milk to 
which cream taken from other milk is 
added; in cheeses general! v twice^as high 
as the^ are broad. Like wine, this 
cheese is vastly improved by age, and is 
therefore seldom eaten before it is 2 
years old. A spurious appearance of 
age is sometimes given to it by placing 
it in a warm, damp cellar, or by sur- 
rounding it with masses of fermenting 
straw or dung. 

Suffolk. — From skimmed milk; in 
round, flat forms, from 24 to SO pounds 
each. Very hard and horny. 

Swiss. — The principal cheeses made 
in Switzerland are the Gruyere, the 
Neufchatel, and the Schabzieger or 
green cheese. The latter is flavored 
with melitot. 

Westphalian. — Made in small balls or 
rolU pf nbout 1 pound ^ch. It derives 



its peculiar flavor from the curd l>eing 
allowed to become partially putrid before 
being pressed. In small balls or rolls of 
about 1 pound each. 

Wiltshire. — Resembles Cheshire or 
Gloucester. The outside is painted with 
reddle or red ocher or whey, 

York. — From cream. It will not keep. 

We give below the composition of 
some of the principal varieties of cheese: 

Double 

Ched- Glouces- Skim 
dar ter 

Water 36.64 S5.61 43.64 

Casein 23.38 21.76 45.64 

Fatty matter 35.44 38.16 5.76 

Mineral matter.. 4.54 4.47 4.06 



100.00 100.00 100.00 

Stilton Cother- 
stone 

Water 32.18 38.28 

Butter 37.36 30.89 

Casein 24.31 23.93 

Milk, sugar, and ex- 
tractive matters 2.22 3.70 

Mineral matter 3.93 3.20 



100.00 100.00 

Gruyfere Ordinary 

(Swiss) Dutch 

Water 40.00 36.10 

Casein 31.50 29.40 

Fatty matter 24.00 27.50 

Salts... 3.00 .90 

Non - nitrogenous or- ' 
ganic matter and 

loss 1.50 6.10 

Vob.OO 100.00 

When a whole cheese is cut, and the 
consumption small, it is generally found 
to become unpleasantly dry, ana to lose 
flavor before it is consumed. This is 
best prevented by cutting a sufl[icient 
quantity for a few days' consumption 
from the cheese, and keeping the re- 
mainder in a cool place, rather damp 
than dry, spreading a thin film of butter 
over the fresh surface, and covering it 
with a cloth or pan to keep off the dirt. 
This removes trie objection existing in 
small families against purchasing a 
whole cheese at a time. The common 
practice of buying small quantities of 
cheese should be avoided, as not onl^ a 
higher price is paid for any given quality 
but there is little likelihood of obtaining 
exactly the same flavor twice running. 
Should cheesy become too ^^^r^'^lk^ 



178 



CHEWING GUMS 



agreeable, it may be used for stewinff, 
or for making grated cheese, or Welsn 
rarebits. 

Goats' Milk Cheese.— Goats' milk 
cheese is made as follows: Warm 20 
quarts of milk and coagulate it with 
rennet, either the powder or extract. 
Separate the curds irom the whey in a 
colander. After a few days the dry curd 
may be shaped into larger or smaller 
cheeses, the former only salted, the latter 
containing salt and caraway seed. The 
cheeses must be turned every day, and 
sprinkled with salt, and any mold re- 
moved. After a few days they mav be 
put away on shelves to ripen, and left for 
several weeks. Pure goat's milk cheese 
should be firm and solid all the wav 
through. Twenty quarts of milk will 
make about 4 pounds of cheese, 

CHEESE COLORANT: 
See Food. 

CHEmCAL GARDENS: 

See Gardens, Chemical. 

CHERRY BALSAM: 

See Balsam. 

CHERRY CORDIAL: 

See Wines and Liquors. 



Chewing Gums 

Manufacture. — The making of chew- 
ing gum is by no means the simple oper- 
ation which it seems to be. Much expe- 
rience in manipulation is necessary to 
succeed, and the published formulas can 
at best serve as a guide rather than as 
something to be absolutely and blindly 
followed. Thus, if the mass is either too 
hard or soft, change the proportions until 
it is right; often it will be found that 
different purchases of the same article 
will vary in their characteristics when 
worked up. But given a basis, the man- 
ufacturer can flavor and alter to suit 
himself. The most successful manu- 
facturers attribute their success to the 
employment of the most approved ma- 
chinery and the greatest attention to 
details. The working formulas and the 
processes of these manufacturers are 
guarded as trade secrets, and aside from 
publishing general formulas, little in- 
formation can be given. 

Chicle gum is purified by boiling with 
water and separating the foreign matter. 
Flavorings, pepsin, sugar, etc., are 
worked m under pressure by suitable 
machinery. Formula: 



I. — Gum chicle 1 pound 

Sugar 2 pounds 

Glucose 1 pound 

Caramel butter 1 pound 

First mash and soften the gum at a 
gentle heat. Place the sugar and glu- 
cose in a small copper pan; add enough 
water to dissolve tne sugar; set on a fire 
and cook to 244'' F. ; lift off the fire; add 
the caramel butter and lastly the gum; 
mix well into a smooth paste; roll out on a 
smooth marble, dusting with finely pow- 
dered sugar, run through sizing machine 
to the proper thickness, cut into strips, 
and again into thin slices. 

II. — Chicle 6 ounces 

Paraffine 2 ounces 

Balsam of Tolu ... 2 drachms 
Balsam of Peru. . . 1 drachm 

Sugar 20 ounces 

Glucose 8 ounces 

Water 6 ounces 

Flavoring, enough. 
Triturate the chicle and balsams in 
water, take out and add the paraffine, 
first heated. Boil the sugar, glucose, 
and water together to what is known to 
confectioners as "crack " heat, pour the 
svrup over the oil slab and turn into it 
the gum mixture, which will make it 
tougn and plastic. Add any desired 
flavor. 

III.— Gum chicle 122 parts 

Paraffine 42 parts 

Balsam of Tolu 4 parts 

Sugar 384 parts 

Water 48 parte 

Dissolve the sugar in the water by the 
aid of heat and pour the resultant syrup 
on an oiled slab. Melt the gum, balsam, 
and paraffine together and pour on top 
of the syrup, and work the whole up to- 
gether. 

I v.— -Gum chicle 240 parts 

White wax 64 parte 

Sugar 640 parte 

Glucose 128 parte 

Water 192 parte 

Balsam of Peru. . . 4 parte 
Flavoring matter, enough. 
Proceed as indicated in U. 

V. — Balsam of Tolu 4 parte 

Benzoin 1 part 

White wax 1 part 

Paraffine 1 part 

Powdered sugar. ... 1 part 
Melt together, mix well, and roll into 
sticks of tne usual dimensions. 

Mix, and, when sufficiently cool, roll 
out into sticks or any other desirable 
form. 

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CHEWING GUMS— CHOLERA REMEDIES 



179 



Spruce Chewing Gum. — 

Spruce gum 20 parts 

Chicle 20 parts 

Sugar, powdered . . 60 parts 

Melt the gums separately, mix while 
hot, and immediately add the sugar, a 
small portion at a time, kneading it thor- 
oughly on a hot slab. When com- 
pletely incorporated remove to a cold 
slab, previously dusted with powdered 
sugar, roll out at once into sheets, and 
cut into sticks. Any desired flavor or 
color may be added to or incorporated 
vith the sugar. 

CHICKEN-COOP APPLICATION: 

See Insecticides. 

CHICKEN DISEASES AND THEIR 
REMEDIES: 

See Veterinary Formulas. 

CHICORY, TESTS FOR: 

See Foods. 

CHILBLAINS: 
See Ointments. 

CHH^BLAIN SOAP: 

Sec Soap. 

CHH^DREN, DOSES FOR: 
See Doses. 

CHILLS, BITTERS FOR: 
See Wines and Liquors. 

CHINA CEMENTS: 
See Adhesives and Lutes. 

CHIHA: 
See Ceramics. 

CHINA, TO REMOVE BURNED LET- 
TERS FROM: 
See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods, under Miscellaneous Methods. 

CHINA REPAIRING: 
See Porcelain. 

CHINA RIVETING. 

China riveting is best left to practical 
men, but it can be done with a drill made 
from a splinter of a diamond fixed on a 
handle. If this is not to be had, get a 
small three-cornered file, harden it by 
placing it in the fire till red hot, and then 
lounging it in cold water. Next grind 
the point on a grindstone and finisn on 
an oilstone. With the point pick out the 
place to be bored, taking care to do it 
gently for fear of breaking the article. 
In a little while a piece will break off, 
then the hole can easily be made by 
working the point round. The wire 
may then be passed through and fas- 



tened. A good cement may be made 
from 1 ounce of frated cheese, i ounce 
of finely powdered quicklime, and white 
of egg sufficient to make a paste. The 
less cement applied the better, using a 
feather to spread it over the broken 
edge. 

CHLORIDES, PLATT'S: 

See Disinfectants. 

CHLORINE-PROOFING : 

See Acid- Proofing. 

CHOCOLATE. 

Prepare 1,000 parts of finished cacao 
and 80 parts of fresh cacao oil, in a 
warmed, polished, iron mortar, into a 
liquid substance, add to it 800 parts of 
finely powdered sugar, and, after a good 
consistency has been reached, 60 parts of 
powdered iron lactate and 60 parts of 
sugar syrup, finely rubbed together. 
Scent with 40 parts of vanilla sugar. Of 
this mass weigh out tablets of 125 parts 
into the molds. 

Coatiiig Tablets with Chocolate.— If a 
chocolate which is free from su^ar be 
placed in a dish over a water bath, it will 
melt into a fluid of proper consistence 
for coating tablets. No water must be 
added. The coating is formed by dip- 
ping the tablets. When they are suffi- 
ciently hardened they ar^ laid on oiled 
paper to dry. 

CHOCOLATE CASTOR -OIL LOZ- 
ENGES: 
See Castor Oil. 

CHOCOLATE CORDIAL: 

See Wines and Liquors. 

CHOCOLATE EXTRACTS: 

See Essences and Extracts. 

CHOCOLATE SODA WATER: 
See Beverages. 

CHOKING IN CATTLE: 

See Veterinary Formulas. 

CHOLERA REMEDIES: 
Sun Cholera Mixture. — 

Tincture of opium ... 1 part 

Tincture of capsicum. 1 part 

Tincture of rhubarb. . 1 part 

Spirit of camphor .... 1 part 

Spirit of peppermint. . 1 pa-t 

Squibb's Diarrhea Mixture. — 

Tincture opium 40 parts 

Tincture capsicum. . . 40 parts 

Spirit camphor 40 parts 

Cfhloroform 15 parts 

Alcohol 65 J)^rts , 

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180 



CHOLERA REMEDIES— CIDER 



Aromatic Rhubarb. — 

Cinnamon, ground . . 8 parts 

Rhubarb 8 parts 

Calumba 4 parts 

Saffron 1 part 

Powdered opium 2 parts 

Oil peppermint 5 parts 

Alcohol, q. s. ad . . . . 100 parts 
Macerate the ground drugs with 75 
parts alcohol in a closely covered per- 
colator for several days, then allow per- 
colation to proceed, using sufficient al- 
cohol to obtain 95 parts of percolate. ^ In 
percolate dissolve the oil of peppermint. 

Rhubarb and Camphor. — 

Tincture capsicum ... 2 ounces 

Tincture opium 2 ounces 

Tincture camphor. ... 8 ounces 

Tincture catechu 4 ounces 

Tincture rhubarb. ... 4 ounces 

Spirit peppermint 4 ounces 

Blackberry Mixture. — 
Fluid extract black- 

berrjr root 2 pints 

Fluid ginger, soluble. 5} ounces 

Fluid catechu 5J ounces 

Fluid opium for tinc- 
ture 160 minims 

Brandy 8 ounces 

Sugar 4 pounds 

Essence cloves 256 minims 

Essence cinnamon . . 256 minims 

Chloroform 128 minims 

Alcohol (25 percent), 

q. s. ad 1 gallon 

CHOWCHOW: 

See Condiments. 

CHROBCE YELLOW, TEST FOR: 

See Pigments. 

CHROmUM GLUE: 

See Adhesives. 



CHROMO MAKING. 

The production of chromo pictures 
requires a little skill. Practice is neces- 
sary. The glass plate to be used should 
be washed off with warm water, and then 
laid in a 10 per cent solution of nitric 
acid. After one hour, wash with clean, 
cold water, dry with a towel, and polish 
the plate with good alcohol on the in- 
side — hollow side — until no finger marks 
or streaks are visible. This is best as- 
certained by breathing on the glass; the 
breath should show an even blue surface 
on the glass. 

Coat the unmounted photograph to be 
colored with benzine by means of wad- 



ding, but without pressure, so that the 
retouching of the picture is not dis- 
turbed, rlace 2 tablets of ordinary 
kitchen gelatin in 8} ounces of distilled 
or pure rain water, soak for an hour, and 
then heat until the gelatin has com- 
pletely dissolved. Pour this warm solu- 
tion over the polished side of the glass, 
so that the liquid is evenly distributed. 
The best way is to pour the solution on 
the upper right-hand corner, allowing it 
to flow into the left-hand corner, from 
there to the left below and right below, 
finally letting the superfluous liquid 
run off. Take the photograph, which 
has been previousl]^ slightly moistened 
on the back, lay it with the picture 
side on the gelatin-covered plate, cen- 
tering it nicely, and squeeze out the 
excess gelatin solution gently, prefer- 
ably by means of a rubber squeegee. 
Care must be taken, however, not to dis- 
place the picture in this manipulation, as 
it is easilv spoiled. 

The solution must nev^r be allowed to 
boil, since this would render the gelatin 
brittle and would result in the picture, 
after having been finished, cracking off 
from the guiss in a short time. When 
the picture has been attached to the glass 
plate without blisters (which is best ob- 
served from the back), the edge of the 
glass is cleansed of gelatin, preferably 
By means of a small sponge and luke- 
warm water, and the plate is allowed to 
dry over night. 

When the picture and the gelatin are 
perfectly dry, coat the back of the picture 
a few times with castor oil until it is per- 
fectly transparent; carefully remove the 
oil without rubbing, and proceed with 
the painting, which is best accomplished 
with good, not ovei^thick oil colors. The 
coloring must be observed from the glass 
side, and for this reason the small details, 
such as eyes, lips, beard, and hair, 
should first be sketched in. When the 
first coat is dry the dress and the flesh 
tints are painted. The whole surface 
may be painted oter, and it is not neces- 
sary to paint shadows, as these are al- 
ready present in the picture, and con- 
sequently show the color through in 
varying strength. 

when the coloring has dried, a second 
glass plate should be laid on for protec- 
tion, pasting the two edges together with 
narrow strips of linen. 

Cider 

To Make Cider.— Pick the apples off 
the tree by hand. Every apple before 
going into the press ^hould be carefully 

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CIDER 



181 



wiped. As soon as a charge of apples 
is ground, remove the pomace and put in 
a cask with a false bottom and a strainer 
beneath it, and a vessel to catch the 
drainage from pomace. As fast as the 
juice runs from the press place it in 
clean, sweet, open tubs or casks with the 
heads out and provide with a faucet, put 
in about two inches above bottom. The 
juice should be closely watched and as 
soon as the least sign of fermentation ap- 
pears (bubbles on top, etc.) it should be 
run off into casks prepared for this pur- 
pose and placed m a moderately cool 
room. The barrels should be entirely 
filled, or as near to the bunghole as 
possible. After fermentation is well 
under way the spume or foam should be 
scraped off with a spoon several times a 
day. When fermentation has ceased 
the cider is racked off into clean casks, 
filled to the bunghole, and the bung 
driven in tightly. It is now ready for 
use or for bottling. 

Champagne Cider. — I. — To convert or- 
dinary cider into champagne cider, pro- 
ceed as follows: To 100 g[allons of good 
cider add 3 gallons of strained honey (or 
24 pounds of white sugar will answer), 
stir in well, tightly bung, and let alone 
for a week. Clarify the cider by adding 
a half gallon of skimmed milk, or 4 ounces 
of gelatin dissolved in sufficient hot 
water and add 4 gallons of proof spirit. 
Let stand S days longer, then syphon off, 
bottle, cork, and tie or wire down. 
Bunging the cask tightly is done in order 
to induce a slow fermentation, and thus 
retain in the cider as much carbonic acid 
as possible. 

II. — Put 10 gallons of old and clean 
cider in a strong and iron-bound cask, 
pitched within (a sound beer cask is the 
very thins), and add and stir in well 40 
ounces of simple syrup. Add 5 ounces 
of tartaric acia, let dissolve, then add 7) 
ounces sodium bicarbonate in powder. 
Have the bun^ ready and the moment 
the soda is added put it in and drive it 
home. The cider will be ready for use 
in a few hours. 

Cider Preservative. — I. — The addition 
of 154 grains of bismuth subnitrate to 22 
gallons of cider prevents, or materially 
retards, the hardening of the beverage on 
exposure to air; moreover, the bismuth 
salt renders alcoholic fermentation more 
conoplete. 

. II.— Calcium sulphite (sulphite of 
lime) is largely used to prevent fermen- 
tation in cioer. About ( to } of an ounce 
of the sulphite is required for 1 gallon of 
cider. It should first be dissolved in a 



small quantitv of cider, then added to 
the bulk, ana the whole agitated until 
thoroughly mixed. The barrel should 
then be bunged and allowed to stand for 
several days, until the action of the sul- 
phite is exerted. It will preserve the 
sweetness of cider perfectly, but care 
should be taken not to add too much, as 
that would impart a slight sulphurous 
taste. 

Artificial Ciders.-— To 25 gallons of 
soft water add 2 pounds of tartaric acid, 
25 or 30 pounds of sugar, and a pint of 
yeast; put in a warm place, and let fer- 
ment for 15 days, then add the flavorinjn; 
matter to suit taste. The various fruit 
ethers are for sale at any wholesale drug 
house. 

Bottling Sweet Cider.— Champaf^ne 
quarts are generally used for bottling 
cider, as they are strong and will stand 
pressure, besides being a convenient 
size for consumers. In making cider 
champagne the liquor should be clari- 
fied and bottled in the sweet condition, 
that is to say, before the greater part of 
the sugar which it contains has been 
converted into alcohol by fermentation. 
The fermentation continues, to a certain 
extent, in the bottle, transforming more 
of the sugar into alcohol, and tne car- 
bonic acid, being unable to escape, is 
dissolved in the cider and produces the 
sparkling. 

The greater the quantity of sugar 
contained in the liquor, when it is bot- 
tled, the more complete is its carbona- 
tion by the carbonic-acid jg;as, and con- 
sequently the more sparkling it is when 
poured out. But this is true only within 
certain limits, for if the production of 
sugar is too high the fermentation will 
be arrested. 

To make the most sparkling cider the 
liquor is allowed to stand for three, four, 
five, or six weeks, during which fermen- 
tation proceeds. The time varies ac- 
cording to the nature of the apples, and 
also to the temperature; when it is very 
warm the first fermentation is usually 
completed in 7 days. 

Before bottling, the liquid must be 
fined, and this is oest done with catechu 
dissolved in cold cider, 2 ounces of cate- 
chu to the barrel of cider. This is well 
stirred and left to settle for a few days. 

The cider at this stage is still sweet, 
and it is a point of considerable nicety 
not to carrv the first fermentation too 
far. The bottle should not be quite 
filled, so as to allow more freedom for 
the carbonic-acid gas which forms. 

When the bottles have been filled. 
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182 



CIDER— CIGARS 



corked, and wired down, thev should be 
placed in a good cellar, whicn should be 
dry, or else the cider will taste of the 
cork. The bottles should not be laid 
for four or five weeks, or breakage will 
ensue. When they are being laid they 
should be placed on laths of wood or on 
dry sand; they should never be allowed 
on cold or damp floors. 

Should the cider be relatively poor in 
sugar, or if it has been fermented too far, 
about 1 ounce of powdered loaf sugar 
can be added to each bottle, or else a 
measure of sugar syrup before pouring 
in the cider. 

Imitation Cider. — 

I. — A formula for an imitation cider is 
as follows: 

Rain water 100 gallons 

Honey, unstrained . . 6 gallons 
Catechu, powdered. S ounces 

Alum, powdered 5 ounces 

Yeast (brewer's pref- 
erably) 2 pints 

Mix and put in a warm place to fer- 
ment. Let ferment for about 15 days; 
then add the following, stirring well in: 

Bitter almonds, crushed 8 ounces 
Cloves 8 ounces 

Let stand 24 hours, add two or three 
gallons of good whiskey, and rack off into 
clean casks. Bung tightlv, let stand 48 
hours, then bottle. If a higher color is 
desired use caramel sufficient to^ pro- 
duce the correct tinge. If honey is not 
obtainable, use sugar-house molasses 
instead, but honey is preferable. 

II. — The following, when properly 
prepared, makes a passable substitute 
for cider, and a very pleasant drink: 
Catechu, powdered. 3 parts 

Alum, powdered. . . 5 parts 

Honey 640 parts 

Water 12,800 parts 

Yeast 32 parts 

Dissolve the catechu, alum, and honey 
in the water, add the yeast, and put in 
some warm place to ferment. The con- 
tainer should be filled to the square open- 
ing, made by sawing out five or six inches 
of the center of a stave, and the spume 
slcimmed off daily as it arises. In cooler 
weather from 2 weeks to 18 days will be 
required for thorough fermentation. In 
warmer weather from 12 to 13 days will 
be sufficient. When fermentation is com- 
plete add the following solution: 
Oil of bitter almonds 1 part 

Oil of clover 1 part 

Caramel 32 parts 

Alcohol 192 parts 



The alcohol may be replaced by twice 
its volume of good bourbon whiskey. A 
much cheaper, but correspondingly poor 
substitute for the above may be made as 
follows: 

Twenty-five gallons of soft water, 2 
pounds tartaric acid, 25 pounds of brown 
sugar, and 1 pint of yeast are allowed to 
stand in a warm place, in a clean cask 
with the bung out, for 24 hours. Then 
bung up the cask, after adding 3 gallons 
of whisKey, and let stand for 48 hours, 
after which the liquor is ready for use. 

CIDER VINEGAR: 
See Vinegar. 



Cigars 

Cigar Sizes and Colors. — Ciffars are 
named according to their color and 
shape. A dead-black cigar, for instance, 
is an "Oscuro," a very dark-brown one 
is a "Colorado," a medium brown is a 
"Colorado Claro," and a yellowish light 
brown is a "Claro." Most smokers 
know the names of the shades from 
"Claro" to "Colorado," and that is as 
far as most of thf m need to know. As to 
the shapes, a "Napoleon" is the biggest 
of all cigars — being 7 inches long; a * Per- 
fecto" swells in tne middle and tapers 
down to a very small head at the lighting 
end; a "Panatela" is a thin, straight, up- 
and-down cigar without the graceful 
curve of the Perfecto"; a "Conchas" is 
very short and fat, and a "Londres" is 
shaped like a "Perfecto" except that it 
does not taper to so small a head at the 
lighting end. A "Reina Victoria" is a 
"Londres" that comes packed in a rib- 
bon-tied bundle of 50 pieces, instead of 
in the usual four layers of 13, 12, 13 and 
12. 

How to Keep Cigars. — Cigars kept in 
a case are influenced every time the case 
is opened. Whatever of taint there may 
be m the atmosphere rushes into the 
case, and is finally taken up by the cigars. 
Even though the cigars have the appear- 
ance of freshness, it is not the original 
freshness in which they were received 
from the factorv. They have been dry, 
or comparatively so, and have absorbed 
more moisture tnan has been put in the 
case, and it matters not what that mois- 
ture may be, it can never restore the 
flavor that was lost during the drying-out 
process. 

After all, it is a comparatively simple 
matter to take good care of cigars. All 
that is necessary is a comparativelv air- 
tight, zinc-lined chest; ^-.Tju^i should be 
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CIGAHS— CLARET PUNCH 



183 



behind the counter in a place where the 
temperature is even. Wnea a customer 
calls for a cigar the dealer takes the box 
out of the chest, serves his customer, and 
then puts the box back again. The box 
being opened for a moment the cigars are 
not perceptibly affected. The cigars in 
the close, heavy chest are always safe 
from atmospheric influences, as the boxes 
are closed, and the chest is open but a 
moment, while the dealer is taking out a 
box from which to serve his customer. 

Some of the best dealers have either a 
large chest or a cool vault in which they 
keep their stock, taking out from time to 
time whatever they need for use. Some 
have a number of small chests, in which 
they keep different brands, so as to avoid 
opening and closing one particular chest 
so often. 

It mav be said that it is only the high- 
er priced cigars that need special care in 
handling, although the cheaper grades 
are not to be handled carelessly. The 
Havana cigars are more susceptible to 
change, for there is a delicacy of flavor to 
be preserved that is never present in the 
cheaper grades of cigars. 

^ Ever^ dealer must, of course, make a 
display in his show case, but he need not 
serve his patrons with these cigars. The 
shrinkage in value of the cigars in the 
case is merely a business proposition of 
profit and loss. 

Cigar Flavoring. — I. — Macerate 2 
ounces of cinnamon and 4 ounces of 
tonka beans, ground fine, in 1 quart of 
rum. 

II. — Moisten ordinary cigars with a 
strong tincture of cascarilla, to which a 
little gum benzoin and storax may be 
added. Some persons add a small quan- 
tity of camphor or oil of cloves or cassia. 

III. — Tincture of valerian. 4 drachms 

Butyric aldehyde. . . 4 drachms 

Nitrous ether 1 drachm 

Tincture vanilla. ... 2 drachms 

Alcohol 5 ounces 

Water enough to 

make 16 ounces 

IV. — Extract vanilla 4 ounces 

Alcohol i gallon 

Jamaica rum \ gallon 

Tincture valerian. . . 8 ounces 

Caraway seed 2 ounces 

English valerian root 2 ounces 
Bitter orange peel. . . 2 ounces 

Tonka beans 4 drachms 

Myrrh 16 ounces 

Soak the mvrrh for 3 days in 6 quarts 
of water, add the alcohol, tincture va- 
lerian, and extract of vanilla, and after 



grinding the other ingredients to a coarse 
powder, put all together in a jug and 
macerate for 2 weeks, occasionally shak- 
ing; lastly, strain. 

v.— Into a bottle filled with \ pint of 
French brandy put 1} ounces ot cascar- 
illa bark and l\ ounces of vanilla pre- 
viouslv ground with A pound of sugar; 
carefully close up the nask and distil m a 
warm place. After 8 days pour off the 
liauid, and add I pint of mastic extract. 
Tne finished ciffars are moistened with 
this liquid, packed in boxes, and pre- 
served froin air by ^ a well-closed lid. 
They are said to acquire a pleasant flavor 
and mild strength through this treat- 
ment. 

Cigar Spots. — The speckled appear- 
ance of certain wrappers is due to the 
work of a species of fum^us that attacks 
the growing tobacco. In a certain dis- 
trict of Sumatra, which produces an ex- 
ceptionally fine tobacco for wrappers, 
the leaves of the plant are commonly 
speckled in this way. Several patents 
have been obtained tor methods of spot- 
ting tobacco leaves artificially. A St. 
Louis firm uses a solution composed of: 

Sodium carbonate 8 parts 

Calx chlorinata 1 part 

Hot water 8 parts 

Dissolve the washing soda in the hot 
water, add^ the chlorinated lime, and 
heat the mixture to a boiling tempera- 
ture for 8 minutes. When cool, decant 
into earthenware or stoneware jugs, cork 
tightly, and keep in a cool place. The 
corks of jugs not intended for immediate 
use should be covered with a piece of 
bladder or strong parchment paper, and 
tightly tied down to prevent the escape of 
gas, and consequent weakening of the 
bleaching power of the fluid. The pre- 
pared liquor is sprinkled on the tobacco, 
the latter being tnen exposed to light and 
air, when, it is said, the disagreeable odor 
produced soon disappears. 

CINCHONA: 

See Wines and Liquors. 



CINNAMON ESSENCE: 

See Essences and Extracts. 

CINNAMON on. AS AN ANTISEPTIC: 

See Antiseptics. 

CITRATE OF MAGNESIUM: 
See Magnesium Citrate. 

CLARET LEMONADE AND CLARET 
PUNCH: 

See Beverages, under Lemonades. 

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184 



CLARIFYING— CLEANING PREPARATIONS 



CLARIFICATION OF GELATIN AND 
GLUE: 
See Gelatin. 

CLARIFYING. 

Clarification is the process by which 
any solid particles suspended in a liquid 
are either caused to coalesce together or 
to adhere to the medium used for clar- 
ifying, that they may be removed by fil- 
tration (which would previously have 
been impossible), so as to render the 
liquid clear. 

One of the best agents for this purpose 
is albumen. When clarifying vegetable 
extracts, the albumen which is naturally 
present in most plants accomplishes this 
purpose easily, provided the vegetable 
matter is extracted in the cold, so as to 
get as much albumen as possible in solu- 
tion. 

Egg albumen may also be used. The 
effect of albumen may be increased by 
the addition of cellulose, in the form of a 
fine magma of filtering paper. This has 
the further advantage that the subse- 
quent filtration is much facilitated. 

Suspended particles of j^um or pectin 
may be removed by cautious precipita- 
tion with tiinnin, of which only an ex- 
ceedingly small amount is usually neces- 
sary. It combines with the gelatinous 
substances better with the aid of heat 
than in the cold. There must be no ex- 
cess of tannin used. 

Another method of clarifying liquids 
turbid from particles of gum, albumen, 
pectin, etc., is to add to them a definite 
quantity of alcohol. This causes the 
former substances to separate in more or 
less large flakes. The quantity of alco- 
hol required varies greatly according to 
the nature of the liquid. It should be 
determined in each case by an experiment 
on a small scale. 

Resinous or waxy substances, such as 
are occasionally met with in honey, etc., 
may be removed by the addition of bole, 

Eulped filtering paper, and heating to 
oiung. 

In each case the clarifying process 
may be hastened by making the separat- 
ing particles specifically heavier; tnat is, 
by incorporating some heavier sub- 
stance, such as talcum, etc., which may 
cause the flocculi to sink more rapidly, 
and to form a compact sediment. 

Clarifying powder for alcoholic liquids: 

Egg albumen, dry 40 parts 

Sugar of milk 40 parts 

Starch 20 parts 

Reduce them to very fine powder, and 
mix thoroughly. 



For clarifying liquors, wines, essences, 
etc., take for every quart of liquid 75 
grains of the above mixture, shake re- 
peatedly in the course of a few days, the 
mixture being kept in a warm ' room, 
then filter. 

Powdered talcum renders the same 
service, and has the additional advan- 
tage of being entirely insoluble. How- 
ever, the above mixture acts more ener- 
getically. 

CLAY: 

Claying Ifixture for Forges.— Twenty 
parts fire clay; 20 parts cast-iron turn- 
ings;^ 1 part common salt; ) part sal am- 
moniac; all by measure. 

The materials should be thoroughly 
mixed dry and then wet down to the con- 
sistency of common mortar, constantly 
stirring the mass as the wetting proceeds. 
A rough mold shaped to fit the tuyere 
opening, a trowel, and a few minutes* 
time are all that are needed to complete 
the successful claying of the forge. This 
mixture dries hard and when glazed by 
the fire will last. 

Plastic Modeling Clay. — A perma- 
nently plastic clay can be obtained by 
first mixing it with glycerine, turpen- 
tine, or similar bodies, and then adding 
vaseline or petroleum residues rich in 
vaseline. Tne proportion of clay to the 
vaseline varies according to the desired 
consistency of the product, the admix- 
ture of vaseline varying from 10 to 50 
per cent. It is obvious that the hardness 
of the material decreases with the 
amount of vaseline added, so that the one 
richest in vaseline will be the softest. By 
the use of various varieties of clay and 
the suitable choice of admixtures, the 
plasticity, as well as the color of the mass, 
may be varied. 



Cleaning Preparations and 
Methods 

(See also Soaps, Polishes, and House- 
hold Formulas). 

TO REMOVE STAINS FROM THE 

HANDS: 

Removal of Aniline-D^e Stains from 
the Skin. — Rub the stained skin with 
a pinch of slightljr moistened red crys- 
tals of chromic trioxide until a distinct 
sensation of warmth announces the de- 
struction of the d^e stuff by oxidation 
and an incipient irritation of the skin. 
Then rinse with soap and water. A sin- 
gle application usually^ suffices to remove 
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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



185 



the stain. It is hardly necessary to call 
attention to the poisonousness and strong 
caustic action of chromic trioxide; but 
only moderate caution is required to 
avoid evil effects. 

Pyrogallic-Add Stains on the Fingers 
(see also Photography). — Pyro stains may 
be prevented fairly well by rubbing in a 
little wool fat before beginning work. A 
very effective way of eliminating devel- 
oper stains is to dip the finger tips occa- 
sionally during development into the 
clearing bath. It is oest to use the 
clearing bath, with ample friction, be- 
fore resorting to soap, as the latter seenis 
to have a fixing effect upon the stain, 
liemon peel is useful for removing pyro 
stains, and so are the ammonium per- 
sulphate reducer and the thiocarbamide 
clearer. 

To Clean Very Soiled Hands.— In the 
morning wash m warm water, using a 
stiff brush, and apply glycerine. Re- 
peat the application two or three times 
during the aay, washing and brushing an 
hour or so afterwards, or apply a warm 
solution of soda or potash, and wash in 
warm water, using a stiff brush as before. 
Finally, rub the nands with pumice or 
infusorial earth. There are soaps made 
especially for this purpose, similar to 
those for use on woodwork, etc., in 
which infusorial earth or similar matter 
is incorporated. 

To Remove ITitiic-Acid Stains. — One 
plan to avoid stains is to use rubber 
nnger stalls, or rubber gloves. Nitric- 
acid stains can be removed from the 
hands by painting the stains with a solu- 
tion of permanganate of potash, and 
washing off the permanganate with a 5 
per cent solution of hydrochloric (muri- 
atic) acid. After this wash the hands 
with pure castile soap. Any soap that 
roughens the skin should be avoided at 
all times. Castile soap is the best to 
keep the skin in good condition. 

CLEAIIING GILDED ARTICLES: 

To dean Gilt Frames and Gilded Sur- 
faces Generally. — Dip a soft brush in 
alcohol to whicn a few drops of ammonia 
water has been added, and with it go 
over the surface. Do not rub — at least, 
not roughly, or harshly. In the course 
of five minutes the dirt will have become 
soft, and easy of removal. Then go over 
the surface again gently with the same or 
a similar brush dipped in rain water. 
Now lay the damp article in the sunlight 
to dry. If there is no sunlight, place it 
near a warm (but not hot) stove, and 
let dry completely. In order to avoid 



streaks, take care that the position of the 
article, during the drying, is not exactly 
vertical. 

To Clean Fire-Gilt Articles. —Fire-gilt 
articles are cleaned, according to their 
condition, with water, diluted hydro- 
chloric acid, ammonia, or potash solu- 
tion. If hvdrochloric acid is employed 
thorough dilution with water is especially 
necessary. The acidity should hardly 
be noticeable on the tongue. 

To clean gilt articles, such as gold 
moldings, etc., when they have become 
tarnished or covered with fiyspecks, etc., 
rub them slowly with an onion cut in half 
and dipped in rectified alcohol, and wash 
off lightly with a moist soft sponge after 
about 2 hours. 

Cleaning Gilded and Pol}[chromed 
Work on Altars. — To clean bright gold 
a fine little sponge is used which is 
moistened but lightly with tartaric acid 
and passed over the gilding. Next go 
over the gilt work with a small sponge 
saturated with alcohol to remove aU dirt. 
For matt gilding, use only a white flannel 
dipped in lye, and carefully wipe off the 
dead gold with this, drying next with a 
fine linen rag. To clean poljrchromed 
work sponge with a lye or rain water, 
1,000 parts, and calcined potash, 68 
parts, and immediately wash off with a 
clean sponge and water, so that the lye 
does not attack the paint too much. 

SPOT AND STAIN REMOVERS: 
To Remove Aniline Stains. — 

I. — Sodium nitrate 7 grains 

Diluted sulphuric add 15 grains 

Water 1 ounce 

Let the mixture stand a day or two 
before usinff. Apply to the spot with a 
sponge, and rinse the goods with plenty 
oi water. 

II. — An excellent medium for the re- 
moval of aniline stains, which are often 
very stubborn, has been found to be 
liquid opodeldoc. After its use the 
stains are said to disappear at once and 
entirely. 

Cleansing Fluids. — A spot remover is 
made as follows: 

I. — Saponine 7 parts 

Water 130 parts 

Alcohol 70 parts 

Benzine > 1,788 parts 

Oil mirbane 5 parts 

II. — Benzene (benzol).. 89 parts 

Ascetic ether 10 parts 

Pear oil 1 part 

This yields an effective grease eradi- 
cator, of an agreeable odor. 

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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



m.— To Remove Stains of Sulphate of 
copper, or of salts of mercury, silver, or 
gola from the hands, etc., wash them first 
with a dilute solution either of ammonia, 
iodide, bromide, or cyanide of potassium, 
and then with plenty of water; if the 
stains are old ones they should first be 
rubbed with the strongest acetic acid 
and then treated as above. 

Removal of Picric-Add Stains. — I. — 
Recent stains of picric acid may be re- 
moved readily if the stain is covered with 
a layer of magnesium carbonate, the car- 
bonate moistened with a little water to 
form a paste, and the paste then rubbed 
over the spot. 

IL — Apply a solution of 

Boric acid 4 parts 

Sodium benzoate 1 part 

Water 100 parts 

m. — ^Dr. Prieur, of Besan9on, recom- 
mends lithium carbonate for the removal 
of picric-acid stains from the skin or 
from linen. The method of using it is 
simply to lay a small pinch on the stain, 
and moisten the latter with water. Fresh 
stains disappear almost instantly, and 
old ones in a minute or two. 

To Remove Finger Marks from Books, 
etc. — I. — Pour benzol (not benzine or 
gasoline, but Merck's "c. p.** cr^stalliz- 
able) on calcined magnesia until it be- 
comes a crumbling mass, and apply this 
to the spot, rubbing it in lightly, with the 
tip of the finger. When tne benzol 
evaporates, brush off. Any dirt that re- 
mains can be removed by using a piece 
of soft rubber. 

II.— If the foregoing fails (which it 
sometimes, though rarely, does), try the 
following: Make a hot solution of sodium 
hydrate in distilled water, of strength of 
from 3 per cent to 5 per cent, according 
to the age, etc., of the stain. Have pre- 
pared some bits of heavy blotting paper 
somewhat larger than the spot to be re- 
moved; also, a blotting paa, or several 
pieces of heavy blotting paper. Lay the 
soiled page face downwara on the olot- 
ting pad, then, saturating one of the bits 
of olotter with the hot sodium hydrate 
solution, put it on the stain and go over 
it with a hot smoothing iron. If one ap- 
plication does not remove all the grease 
or stain, repeat the operation. Then 
saturate another bit of blotting paper with 
a 4 per cent or 5 per cent solution of hy- 
drochloric acid in distilled water, apply 
it to the place, and pass the iron over it 
to neutralize the strong alkali. This process 
will instantly restore any faded writing 
or printing, and make the paper bright 
ana fresh again. 



Glycerine as a Detergent.— For cer- 
tain kinds of obstinate spots (such as 
coffee and chocolate, for instance) there 
is no better detergent than glycerine, 
especially for fabrics with delicate colors. 
Apply the glycerine to the spot, with a 
sponge or otherwise, let stand a min- 
ute or so, then wash off with water or 
alcohol. Hot glycerine is even more 
efficient than cold. 

CLEANING SKINS AND LEATHER: 

See also Leather. 

To Clean Colored Leather. — Pour car- 
bon bisulphide on non-vulcanized gutta- 
percha, and allow it to stand about $4 
hours. After shaking actively add more 
gutta-percha gradually until the solution 
becomes of gelatinous consistency. 
This mixture is applied in suitable quan- 
tity to oil-stained, colored leather and 
allowed to dry two or three hours. The 
subse(^uent operation consists merely in 
removing the coat of gutta-percha from 
the surface of the leatner — that is, rub- 
bing it with the fingers, and rolling it off 
the surface. 

The color is not injured in the least by 
the sulphuret of carbon; only those 
leathers on which a dressing containing 
starch has been used look a little lighter 
in color, but the better class of leathers 
are not so dressed. The dry gutta-per- 
cha can be redissolved in sulphuret of 
carbon and used over again. 

To Clean Skins Used for Polishing 
Purposes. — First beat them thoroughly 
to get rid of dust, then ^o over the surface 
on Dot h sides with a piece of good white 
soap and lay them m warm water in 
which has been put a little soda. Let 
them lie here for i hours, then wash them 
in plenty of tepid water, rubbing them 
vigorously until perfectly clean.- This 
bath should also be made alkaline ^th 
soda. The skins are finally rinsed in 
warm water, and dried quickly. Cold 
water must be avoided at all stages of the 
cleansing process, as it has a tendency to 
shrink and harden the skins. 

The best way to clean a chamois skin 
is to wash and rinse it out in clean water 
immediately after use, but this practice is 
apt to be neglected so that the skin be- 
comes saturated with dirt and grime. 
To clean it, first thoroughly soak in 
clean, soft water. Then, after soaping 
it and rolling it into a compact wad, beat 
with a small round stick — a buggy spoke, 
say — turning the wad over repeatedly, 
and keeping it well wet and soaped. 
This should suffice to loosen the dirt. 
Then rinse in clean water until the skin 

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187 



is clean. As wringing by hand is apt to 
injure the chamois skin, it is advisable to 
use a small clothes wringer. Before 
using the skin again rinse it in clear water 
to which a little pulverized alum has 
been added. 

STRAW-HAT RENOVATION: 

To Renovate Straw Hats.— I. — Hats 
made of natural (uncolored) straw, which 
have become soiled by wear, may be 
cleaned by thoroughly spon^iujg with a 
weak solution of tartaric acid in water, 
followed by water alone. The hat after 
bein^ so treated should be fastened by 
the nm to a board by means of pins, so 
that it will keep its snape in drying, 
n. — Sponge the straw with a solution of 

By weight 
Sodium hyposulphite. 10 parts 

Glycerine 5 parts 

Alcohol 10 parts 

Water 75 parts 

Lay aside in a damp place for 24 hours 
and then apply 

By weight 

Citric acid 2 parts 

Alcohol 10 parts 

Water 90 parts 

Press with a moderately hot iron, after 
stiffening with weak gum water, if neces- 
sary. 

ni. — ^If the hat has become much dark- 
ened in tint by wear the fumes of burning 
sulphur may be employed. The material 
should be first cleaned by thoroughly 
sponging with an aqueous solution of 
potassium carbonate, followed by a sim- 
ilar application of water, and it is then 
suspended over the sulphur fumes. 
These are generated by placing in a metal 
or earthen dish, so mounted as to keep the 
heat from setting fire to anything beneath, 
some brimstone (roll sulphur), and 
sprinkling over it some live coals to start 
combustion. The operation is con- 
ducted in a deep box or barrel, the dish 
of burning sulphur being placed at the 
bottom, and the article to be bleached 
being suspended from a string stretched 
across the top. A cover not fitting so 
tightly as to exclude all air is placed over 
it, and the apparatus allowed to stand 
for a few hours. 

Hats so treated will require to be stif- 
fened by the application of a little gum 
water, and pressed on a block with a 
hot iron to bring them back into shape. 

Waterproof Stiffening for Straw Hats. 
—If a waterproof stiffening is reouired 
use one of the varnishes for whicn for- 
mulas follow: 



I. — Copal 450 parts 

Sandarac 75 parts 

Venice turpentine 40 parts 

Castor oil 5 parts 

Alcohol 800 parts 

II.— Shellac 500 parU 

Sandarac 175 parts 

Venice turpentine 50 parts 

Castor oil 15 parts 

Alcohol 2,000 parts 

III.— Shellac 750 parts 

Rosin 150 parts 

Venice turpentine 150 parts 

Castor oil 20 parts 

Alcohol 2,500 parts 

How to Clean a Panama Hat.— Scrub 
with castile soap and warm water, a 
nail brush being used as an aid to get 
the dirt away. The hat is then placea in 
the hot sun to dry and in the course of 
two or three hours is ready for use. It 
will not only be as clean as when new, 
but it will retain its shape admirably. 
The cleaned hat will be a trifle stiff at 
first, but will soon grow supple under 
wear. 

A little glvcerine added to the rinsing 
water entirely prevents the stiffness and 
brittleness ac<]uired by some hats in drv- 
ing, while a little ammonia in the wash- 
ing water materially assists in the scrub- 
bing process. Ivorv, or, in fact, any 
good white soap, will answer as well as 
castile for the purpose. It is well to 
rinse a second time, adding the glycerine 
to the water used the second time. Im- 
merse the hat completely in the rinse 
water, moving it aoout to get rid of 
traces of the dirtv water. When the hat 
has been thorouglily rinsed, press out the 
surplus water, using a Turkish bath towel 
for the purpose, and let it rest on the 
towel when drying. 

PAHTT, VAimiSH, AND ENAMEL RE- 
MOVERS: 

To Remove Old Oil, Paint, or Varnish 
Coats. — I. — Apply a mixture of about 5 
parts of potassium silicate (water glass, 
36 per cent), about 1 part of soda lye (40 
per cent), and 1 part of ammonia. The 
composition dissolves the old varnish 
coat, as well as the paint, down to the 
bottom. The varnish coatings which 
are to be removed may be brushed off or 
left for days in a hardened state. Upon 
being thoroujg^hly moistened \yith water 
the old varnish may be readily washed 
off, the lacquer as well as the oil paint 
coiping off completely. The ammonia 
otherwise employed dissolves the var- 
nish, but not the paint. 

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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



II. — Apply a mixture of 1 part oil of 
turpentine and 2 parts of ammonia. 
This is eflFective, even if the coatings 
withstand the strongest lye. The two 
liquids are shaken in a bottle until they 
mix like milk. The mixture is applied 
to the coating with a little oakum ; after a 
few minutes the old paint can be wiped 
off. 

To Clean Brushes and Vessels of Dry 
Paint (see also Brushes and Paints). — 
The^ cleaning o£ the brushes and ves- 
sels in which the varnish or oil paint had 
dried is usually done by boiling with 
soda solution. This frequentljr spoils the 
brushes or cracks the vessels if of glass; 
besides, the process is rather slow and 
dirty. A much more suitable remedv is 
amyl acetate, which is a liquid with a 
pleasant odor of fruit drops, used mainlv 
for dissolving and cementing celluloid. 
If amyl acetate is poured over a paint 
brush the varnish or hardened paint dis- 
solves almost immediately and the brush 
is again rendered serviceable at once. If 
necessary, the process is repeated. For 
cleaning vessels shake the liquid about in 
them, which softens the paint so that it 
can be readily removed with paper. In 
this manner much labor can be saved. 
The amyl acetate can be easily removed 
from the brushes, etc., by alcohol or oil 
of turpentine. 

Varnish and Paint Remover. — Dis- 
solve 20 parts of caustic soda (98 per 
cent) in 100 parts of water, mix the solu- 
tion with 20 parts of mineral oil, and stir 
in a kettle provided with a mechanical 
stirrer, until the emulsion is complete. 
Now add, with stirring, 20 parts of saw- 
dust and pass the whole through a paint 
mill to oDtain a uniform intermixture. 
Apply the paste moist. 

To Remove Varnish from Metal. — To 
remove old varnish from metals, it suf- 
fices to dip the articles in equal parts of 
ammonia and alcohol (95 per cent). 

To Remove Water Stains from Var- 
nished Furniture.— Pour olive oil into a 
dish and scrape a little white wax into it. 
This mixture should be heated until 
the wax melts and rubbed sparingly on 
the stains. Finall;^, rub the surface with 
a linen rag until it is restored to bril- 
liancy. 

To Remove Paint, Varnish, etc., from 
Wood. — Varnish, paint, etc., no matter 
how old and hard, may be softened in a 
few minutes so that they can be easily 
scraped off, by applying the following 
mixture; 



Water glass 5 parts 

Soda lye, 40*» B. (27 | 

per cent) 1 part ' 

Ammonia water 1 part i 

Mix. ! 

Removing Varnish, etc. — A patent , 
has been taken out in England for a I 
liquid for removing varnish, lacquer, tar, 
and paint. The composition is made by , 
mixing 4 ounces of benzol, 3 ounces of ' 
fusel oil, and 1 ounce of alcohol. It is 
stated by the inventor that this mixture, , 
if applied to a painted or varnished sur- 
face, will make the surface quite clean in 
less than 10 minutes, and that a paint- 
soaked brush " as hard as iron '* can be 
made as soft and pliable as new by 
simply soaking for an hour or so in the 
mixture. 

To Remove Enamel and Tin Solder. — 
Pour enough of oil of vitriol (concen- 
trated sulpnuric acid) over powdered 
fluorspar in an earthen or lead vessel, so 
as just to cover the parts whereby hydro- 
fluoric acid is generated. For use, dip 
the article suspended on a wire into the 
liquid until the enamel or the tin is eaten 
away or dissolved, which does not injure 
the articles in any way. If heated, the 
liquid acts more rapidly. The work 
should always be conducted in the open 
air, and care should be taken not to in- 
hale the fumes, which are highly inju- 
rious to the health, and not to get any 
liquid on the skin, as hydrofluoric acid 
is one of the most dangerous poisons. 
Hydrofluoric acid must be kept in earth- 
en or leaden vessels, as it destroys glass. 

Removing Paint and Varnish from 
Wood. — The following compound is 
given as one which will clean paint or 
varnish from wood or stone witnout in- 
juring the material: 

Flour or wood pulp.. 385 parts 
Hydrochloric acid. . . 450 parts 
Bleaching powder. . . 160 parts 

Turpentine 5 parts 

This mixture is applied to the surface 
and left on for some time. It is then 
brushed off, and brings the paint awav 
with it. It keeps moist quite long enough 
to be easily removed after it has acted. 

Paste for Removing Old Paint or 
Varnish Coats. — 

I. — Sodium hydrate 5 parts 

Soluble soda glass ... 3 parts 

Flour paste 6 parts 

Water 4 parts 

II. — Soap 10 parts 

Potassium hvdrate. . . 7 parts 

Potassium silicate 2 part9 

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189 



To Remove Old Enamel.— Lay the 
articles horizontally in a vessel contain- 
ing a concentrated solution of alum and 
bod them. The solution should be just 
sufficient to cover the pieces. In 20 or 
•iS minutes the old enamel will fall into 
dust, and the article can be polished with 
emery. If narrow and deep vessels are 
used the operation will require more 
time. 

IHK ERADICATORS: 
Two-Solution Ink Remover. — 

L — (a) Citric acid 1 part 

Concentrated solu- 
tion of borax ... 2 parts 
Distilled water. ... 16 parts 
Dissolve the acid in the water, add the 
borax solution, and mix by agitation. 

(fc) Chloride of lime. . . S parts 

Water 16 parts 

Concentrated bor- 
ax solution 2 parts 

Add the chloride of lime to the water, 
shake well and set aside for a week, then 
decant the clear liquid and to it add the 
borax solution. 

For use, saturate the spot with solu- 
tion (a\ apply a blotter to take off the ex- 
cess 01 liquid, then apply solution (6). 
When the stain has disappeared, apply 
the blotter and wet the spot with clean 
water; finally dry between two sheets of 
blotting paper. 

II. — (a) Mix, in equal parts, potassium 
chloride, potassium hypochlorite, and oil 
of peppermint. (6) Sodium chloride, 
hrdrochloric acid and water, in equal 
parts. 

Wet the spot with (a), let dry, then 
brush it over lightly with (6), and rinse in 
Clearwater. 

A good single mixture which will an- 
swer for most inks is made by mixing 
citric acid and alum in equal parts. If 
desired to vend in a 11 quia form add an 
equal part of water. In use, the powder 
is spread well over the spot and (if on 
cloln or woven fabrics) well rubbed in 
with the fingers. A few drops of water 
are then added, and also rubbed in. A 
final rinsing with water completes the 
process. 

InkEragers. — I. — Inks made with nut- 
galls and copperas can be removed by 
using a moaeratelv concentrated solu- 
tion of oxalic acia, followed by use of 
pure water and frequent drying with 
clean blotting paper. Most other black 
inks are erased by use of a weak solution 
of chlorinated lime, followed by dilute 
acetic acid and water, with frequent dry- 



ing with blotters. Malachite green ink 
is bleached by^ ammonia water; silver 
inks by potassium cyanide or sodium 
hyposulphite. Some aniline colors are 
easilv removed by alcohol, and nearly all 
by chlorinated lime, followed by diluted 
acetic acid or vinegar. In all cases 
applv the substances with cameFs-hair 
bru.slies or feathers, and allow them to 
remain no lonffer than necessarv, after 
which rinse well with water and dry with 
blotting paper. 
II. — Citric acid 1 part 

Water, distilled 10 parts 

Concentrated solution 

of borax 2 parts 

Dissolve the citric acid in the water 
and add the borax. Apply to the paper 
with a delicate camel's-hair pencil, re- 
moving any excess of water with a blot- 
ter. A mixture of oxalic, citric, and tar- 
taric acids, in equal parts, dissolved in 
just enough water to give a clean solution, 
acts energetically on most inks. 

Erasing Powder or Pounce. — Alum, 1 
part; amber, 1 part; sulphur, 1 part; 
saltpeter, 1 part. Mix well together and 
keep in a i^lass bottle. If a little of 
this powder is placed on an ink spot or 
fresh writing, rubbing very lightly with a 
clean linen rag, the spot or the writing 
will disappear at once. 

Removing Ink Stains. — I. — The ma- 
terial requiring treatment should first be 
soaked in clean, warm water, the super- 
fluous moisture removed, and the faoric 
spread over a clean cloth. Now allow 
a few minims of liquor aromoniie fortis, 
specific gravity 0.801, to drop on the ink 
spot, then saturate a tiny tuft of absorbent 
cotton- wool with acidum phosphoricum 
dilutum, B. P., and apply repeatedly and 
with firm pressure over the stain; repeat 
the proceaure two or three times, and 
finally rinse well in warm water, after- 
wards drying in the sun, when everj 
trace of ink will have vanished. This 
method is equally reliable for old and 
fresh ink stains, is rapid in action, and 
will not injure the most delicate fabric. 

II. — To remove ink spots the fabric 
is soaked in warm water, then it is 
squeezed out and spread upon a clean 
piece of linen. Now apply a few drops 
of liquid ammonia of a specific gravity 
of 0.891 to the spot, and dab it next 
with a wad of cotton which has been 
saturated with dilute phosphoric acid. 
After repeating the process several times 
and drying the piece in the sun, the ink 
spot will have disappeared without leav- 
ing the slightest trace. 

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CLEANLNG PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



III. — Ink spots may be removed by 
the following mixture: 

Oxalic acid 10 parts 

Stannic chloride .... 2 parts 

Acetic acid 5 parts 

Water to make 500 parts 

Mix. 

IV. — The customary method of cleans- 
ing ink spots is to use oxalic acid. Thick 
blotting paper is soaked in a concen- 
trated solution and dried. It is then laid 
immediately on the blot, and in many 
instances will take the latter out without 
leaving a trace behind. In more stub- 
born cases the cloth is dipped in boiling 
water and rubbed with crystals of oxalic 
acid, after which it is soaKed in a weak 
solution of chloride of lime — say 1 ounce 
to a quart of water. Under such circum- 
stances the linen should be thoroughly 
rinsed in several waters afterwards. 
Oxalic acid is undesirable for certain 
fabrics because it removes the color. 

V. — Here is a more harmless method: 
E(^ual parts of cream of tartar and citric 
acid, powdered fine, and mixed together. 
This forms the " salts of lemon ** sold by 
drugcists. Procure a hot dinner plate, 
lay tne part stained in the plate, and 
moisten with hot water; next rub in the 
above powder with the bowl of a spoon 
until the stains disappear; then rinse in 
clean water and dry. 

To Remove Red (Aniline) Ink.~ 
Stains of red anilines, except eosine, are 
at once removed by moistening with 
alcohol of 94 per cent, acidulated with 
acetic acid. Eosine does not disappear 
so easily. The amount of acetic acid to 
be used is ascertained by adding it, drop 
by drop, to the alcohol, testing the 
mixture from time to time, until when 
dropped on the stain, the latter at once 
disappears. 

CLEANING OF WALLS, CEILINGS, AND 
WALL PAPER: 

See also Household Formulas. 

To Renovate Brick Walls. — Dissolve 
glue in water in the proportion of 1 ounce 
of glue to every gallon of water; add, 
while hot, a piece of alum the size of a 
hen's egg^ J pound Venetian red, and 1 
pound Spanisn brown. Add more water 
if too dark; more red and brown if too 
light. 

Cleaning Painted Doors, Walls, etc. — 
The following recipe is designed for 
painted objects that are mucn soiled. 
Simmer gently on the fire, stirring con- 
stantly, 30 parts, by weight, of pulverized 
borax, antl 450 parts of brown soap of 



good quality, cut in small pieces, in S,000 
parts of water. The lic^uid is applied by 
means of flannel and rinsed on at once 
with pure water. 

To Remove Aniline Stains from Ceil- 
ing, etc. — In renewing ceilings, the old 
aniline color stains are often very annoy- 
ing, as they penetrate the new coatinfr. 
Painting over with shellac or oil paint 
will bring relief, but other drawbacks 
appear. A very practical remedy is to , 
place a tin vessel on the floor of the room, ! 
and to burn a quantity of sulphur in it | 
after the doors and windows ot the room 
have been closed. The sulphur vapors \ 
destroy the aniline stains, which disap- 
pear entirely. 

Old Ceiling. — In dealing with ol<I 
ceilings the distemper must be washed 
off down to the plaster face, all cracks 
raked out and stopped with putty (plas- 
ter of Paris and distemper mixed), a ml 
the whole rubbed smooth with pumice 
stone and water; stained parts should be 
painted with oil color,^ and the whole 
distempered. If old ceilings are in bad 
condition it is desirable that they should 
be lined with paper, which should have 
a coat of weak size before being distem- 
pered. 

Oil Stains on Wall Paper.— Make a 
medium thick paste of pipe clay and 
water, applying it carefully flat upon the 
oil stain, but avoiding all friction. The 
paste is allowed to remain 10 to 12 hours, 
after which time it is very carefully re- 
moved with a soft rag. In many cases a 
repeated action will be necessary until 
the purpose desired is fully reached. 
Finally, however, this will be obtained 
without blurring or destroying the de- 
sign of the wall paper, unless it be of the 
cheapest variety. In the case of a light, 
delicate paper, the paste should be com- 
posed of magnesia and benzine. 

To Clean Painted Walls.— A simple 
method is to put a little aqua ammonia 
in moderately warm water, dampen a 
flannel with it, and gently wipe over the 
painted surface. Wo scrubbing is nec- 
essary. 

Treatment of Whitewashed Walls. — 
It is sugj^ested that whitewashed walls 
which it is desired to paper, with a view- 
to preventing peeling, should be treated 
with water, after which the scraper 
should be vigorously used. If the whitc- 
•wash has been thoroughly soaked it can 
easily be removed with the scraper. 
Care should be taken that every part of 
the wall is well scraped. . 

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191 



Cleaning Wall Paper.— I. — To clean 
wall paper the dust should first be re- 
moTed Dj lightly brushing, preferably 
with a feather duster, and the surface 
then gently rubbed with slices of moder- 
ately stale bread, the discolored surface 
of the bread being removed from time 
to time, so as to expose a fresh portion for 
use. Care should be taken to avoid 
scratching the paper with the crust of the 
bread, and the rubbing should be in one 
direction, the surface oeing systematically 
gone over, as in painting, to avoid the 
production of streaks. 

II. — Mix 4 ounces of powdered pumice 
with 1 quart of flour, and with the aid of 
water make a stiff dou^h. Form the 
dough into rolls 2 inches in diameter and 
6 inches lone; sew each roll separately 
in a cotton cloth, then boil for 40 or 50 
minutes, so as to render the mass firm. 
Allow to stand for several hours, remove 
the crust, and they are ready for use. 

III.—Bread will clean paper; but un- 
less it is properly used the lob will be a 
very tedious one. Select a * tin " loaf at 
least two davs old. Cut off the crust at 
one end, and rub down the paper, com- 
mencing at the top. Do not rub the 
bread backwards and forwards, but in 
single strokes. When the end gets dirty 
take a very sharp knife and pare off a 
thin layer; then proceed as before. 

It is well to make sure that the walls 
are quite dry before using the bread, or it 
may smear the pattern. If the room is 
furnished it will, of course, be necessary 
to place cloths around the room to catch 
the crumbs. 

IV. — A preparation for cleansing wall 
paper that often proves much more effec- 
tual than ordinary bread, especially when 
the paper is very dirty, is made by mix- 
ing J dough and } plaster of Paris. This 
should be made a day before it is needed 
for use, and should be very gently baked. 
If there are any erease spots they 
should be removed oy holding a hot 
flatiron against a piece of blotting paper 
placed over them. If this fails, a little 
fuller's earth or pipe clay should be made 
into a paste with water, and this should 
then be carefully plastered over the 
grease spots and allowed to remain till 
quite dry, when it will be found to have 
absorbed the grease. 

V. — Mix together 1 pound each of rye 
flour and white flour into a dough, 
which is partially cooked and the crust 
removed. To this 1 ounce common 
salt and J ounce of powdered naph- 
thaline are added, and finally 1 ounce of 
corn meal, and | ounce of burnt umber. 
The composition is formed into a mosa^ 



of the propter size to be grasped in the 
hand, and in use it should be drawn in 
one direction over the surface to be 
cleaned. 

VI. — Procure a soft, flat sponge, being 
careful that there are no hard or gritty 
places in it, then get a bucket of new, 
clean, dry, wheat bran. Hold the 
sponge flat side up, and put a handful of 
bran on it, then quickly turn against the 
wall, and rub the wall gently and care- 
fully with it; then repeat the operation. 
Hold a large pan or spread down a drip 
cloth to catch the bran as it falls, but 
never use the same bran twice. Still 
another way is to use Canton flannel in 
strips a foot wide and about S yarda 
lonff. Roll a strip around a stick 1 
inch thick and 10 inches long, so as to 
have the ends of the stick covered, with 
the nap of the cloth outside. As the 
cloth gets soiled, unroll the soiled part 
and roll it up with the soiled face inside. 

In this way one can change places on 
the cloth ,when soiled and use tiie whole 
face of the cloth. To take out a grease 
spot requires care. First, take several 
thicknesses of brown wrapping paper 
and make a pad, place it against the 
grease spot, and hold a hot flatiron 
against it to draw out the grease, which 
will soak into the brown paper. Be 
careful to have enough layers of brown 
paper to keep the iron from scorching or 
discoloring tne wall paper. If the first 
application does not take out nearly all 
the grease, repeat with clean brown 
paper or a blotting pad Then take an 
ounce vial of washeci sulphuric ether and 
a soft, fine, clean sponge and sponge the 
spot carefully until all the grease disap- 
pears. Do not wipe tiie place with tne 
sponge and ether, but dab the sponge 
carefully against the place. A small 
quantity of ether is advised, as it is very 
inflammable. 

CLOTHES AND FABRIC CLEANERS: 
Soaps for Clothing and Fabrics. — 
When the fabric is washable and the 
color fast, ordinary soap and water are 
sufficient for removing grease and the or- 
dinarily attendant dirt; but special soaps 
are made which may possibly be more 
effectual. 

I. — Powdered borax 30 parts 

Extract of soap bark 30 parts 

Ox gall (fresh) 120 parts 

Castile soap 450 parts 

First make the soap-bark extract by 
boiling the crushed bark in water until 
it has assumed a dark color, then strain 
the liquid into an evaporating dish, and 



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CLEANLNG PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



by the aid of heat evaporate it to a solid 
extract; then powder and mix it with the 
borax and the ox gall. Melt the castile 
soap by adding a small quantity of water 
ana warming, then add the other ingre- 
dients and mix well. 

About 100 parts of soap bark make 20 
parts of extract. 

II. — Castile soap 2 pounds 

Potassium carbonate. . i pound 

Camphor i ounce 

Alcohol i ounce 

Ammonia water i ounce 

Hot water, i pint, or sufficient. 

Dissolve the potassium carbonate in 
the water, add the soap previously re- 
duced to thin shavings. Keep warm over 
a water bath, stirring occasionally, until 
dissolved, adding more water if neces- 
sary, and finally, when of a consistence 
to become semisolid on cooling, remove 
from the fire. When nearly ready to 
set, stir in the camphor, previously dis- 
solved in the alcohol and the ammonia. 

The soap will apparently be quite as 
efficacious without the camphor and 
ammonia. 

If a paste is desired, a potash soap 
should be used instead of the castile in 
the foregoing formula, and a portion or 
all of the water omitted. Soaps made 
from potash remain soft, while soda 
soaps narden on the evaporation of the 
water which they contain when first 
made. 

A liquid preparation may be obtained, 
of course, oy the addition of sufficient 
water, and some more alcohol would 
probably improve it. 

Clothes-Cleanine Fluids : 
See also Household Formulas. 

I. — Borax 1 ounce 

Castile soap 1 ounce 

Sodium carbonate. . . 3 drachms 

Ammonia water 5 ounces 

Alcohol f 4 ounces 

Acetone 4 ounces 

Hot water to make. . . 4 pints 
Dissolve the borax, sodium bicarbo- 
nate, and soap in the hot water, mix the 
acetone and alcohol together, unite the 
two solutions, and then add the ammonia 
water. The addition of a couple of 
ounces of rose water will render it some- 
what fragrant. 

II. — A strong decoction of soap bark, 
preserved by the addition of alcohol, 
torms a good liquid cleanser for fabrics 
of the more delicate sort. 

III. — Chloroform 15 parts 

Ether 16 parts 



Alcohol 120 parts I 

Decoction of quillaia I 

bark of 80*^ 4,500 parts 

IV. — Acetic ether 10 parts | 

Amyl acetate 10 parts 

Liquid ammonia 10 parts 

Dilute alcohol 70 parts 

V. — Another good non-inflammable 
spot remover consists of equal parts of 
acetone, ammonia, and diluted alcohol. 
For use in large quantities carbon tetra- 
chloride is suggested. 

VI. — Castile soap 4 a v. ounces 

Water, boiling 32 fluidounces 

Dissolve and add: 

Water. 1 gallon 

Ammonia 8 fluidounces 

Ether 2 fluidounces 

Alcohol 4 fluidounces 

To Remove Spots from Tracinfi^ Cloth. 
— It is best to use benzine, whicn is ap- 

f)Iied by means of a cotton rag. The 
>cnzine also takes off lead-pencil marks, 
but does not attack India and other inks. 
The places treated with benzine should 
subsequently be rubbed with a little 
talcum, otherwise it would not be pos- 
sible to use the pen on them. 

Removal of Paint from Clothing. — 
Before paint becomes ** dry " it can be 
removed from cloth by the liberal appli- 
cation of turpentine or benzine, if the 
spot is not large, it may be immersed in 
tne liquid; otherwise, a thick, folded, 
absorbent cloth should be placed under 
the fabric which has been spotted, and 
the liquid sponged on freely enough that 
it may soak throujzh, carrym^ the greasy 
matter with it. Some skill in manipu- 
lation is requisite to avoid simply spread- 
ing the stain and leaving a "ring" to 
show how far it has extended. 

When benzine is used the operator 
must be careful to apply it only in the 
absence of light or fire, on account of the 
extremely inflammable character of the 
vapor. 

Varnish stains, when fresh, are treated 
in the same way, but the action of the 
solvent may possibly not be so complete 
on account of the gum rosins present. 

When either paint or varnish has 
dried, its removal becomes more diffi- 
cult. In such case soaking in strong 
ammonia water may answer. An emul- 
sion, formed by shaking together 2 parts 
of ammonia water and 1 of spirits of tur- 
pentine, has been recommended. 

To Remove Vaseline Stains from 
Clothing. — Moisten the spots with a mix- 
ture of 1 part of aniline oil. 1 of pow^- 

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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 193 



dered soap, and 10 of water. After 
allowing the cloth to lie for 5 or 10 min- 
utes, wash with water. 

To Rem6ye Grease Spots from Plush. 
—Place fresh bread rolls in the oven, 
break them apart as soon as they have 
become very hot, and rub the spots with 
the crumbs, continuing the work by us- 
ing new rolls until all traces of fat have 
di-sappeared from the fabric. Purified 
benzine, which does not alter even the 
most delicate colors, is also useful for 
this purpose. 

To Remoye Iron Rust from Muslin 
and Linen. — Wet ivith lemon juice and 
salt and expose to the sun. If one ap- 
plication does not remove the spots, a 
second rarely fails to do so. 

Keroclean. — This non - inflammable 
cleanser removes grease spots from deli- 
cate fabrics without injury, cleans all 
kinds of jewelry and tableware by re- 
moving fats and tarnish, kills moths, 
insects, and household pests by suffo- 
fation and extermination, and cleans 
ironware by removing rust, brass ware by 
removing grease, copperware by remov- 
ing verdigris. It Js as clear as water 
and will stand any fire test. 

Kerosene 1 ounce 

Carbon tetrachloride 

(commercial) 8 ounces 

Oil of citronella 2 drachms 

Mix, and filter if necessary. If a 
strong odor of carbon bisulphide is de- 
lected in the carbon tetrachloride first 
shake with powdered charcoal and filter. 

To Clean Gold and Silver Lace. — 
I-— .Alkaline liquids sometimes used for 
cleaning gold lace are unsuitable, for 
they generally corrode or change the 
color of the silk. A solution of soap also 
interferes with certain c'olors, and snould 
therefore not be employed. Alcohol is 
an effectual remedy for restoring the 
luster of gold, and it may be used with- 
out any danger to the silk, but where the 
gold is worn oflF, and the base metal ex- 
posed, it is not so successful in accom- 
plishing its purpose, as by removing the 
tarnish the base metal becomes more 
distinguishable from the fine gold. 

n.—To clean silver lace take alabas- 
ter in very fine powder, lay the lace upon 
& cloth, and with a soft brush take up 
some of the powder, and rub both sides 
*ith it till it becomes bright and clean, 
afterwards polish with another brush 
Mntil all remnants of the powder are re- 
nioved, and it exhibits a lustrous surface. 

m.— Silver laces are put in curdled 



milk for 24 hours. A piece of Venetian 
soap, or any other gooa soap, is scraped 
and stirred into 2 quarts of rain water. 
To this a quantity of honey and fresh ox 
gall is added, and the whole is stirred for 
some time. If it becomes too thick, 
more water is added. This mass is al- 
lowed to stand for half a day, and the 
wet laces are painted with it. Wrap a 
wet cloth around the roller of a mangle, 
wind the laces over this, put another wet 
cloth on top, and press, wetting and re • 
pea ting the application several times. 
Next, dip the laces in a clear solution of 
equal parts of sugar and gum arabic, 
pass them again through the mangle, 
Detween two clean pieces of cloth, and 
hang them up to dry thoroughly, attach- 
ing a weight to the lower end. 

iV. — Soak g[old laces over night in 
cheap white wine and then proceed as 
with silver laces. If the gold is worn off, 
put 771 grains of shellac, 31 grains of 
dragon's olood, 31 grains of turmeric in 
strong alcohol and pour off the ruby -col- 
ored fluid. Dip a fine hair pencil in this, 
paint the pieces to be renewed, and hold 
a hot flatiron a few inches above them, 
so that only the laces receive the heat. 

V. — Silver embroideries may also be 
cleaned by dusting them with Vienna 
lime, and brushing off with a velvet 
brush. 

For gildings the stuff is dipped in a 
solution of gold chloride, and this is re- 
duced by means of hydrogen in another 
vessel. 

For silvering, one of the following two 
processes may be employed: (a) Paint- 
ing with a solution of 1 part of phos- 
phorus in 15 parts bisulphide of carbon 
and dipping in a solution of nitrate of 
silver; (o) dipping for 2 hours in a solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver, mixed with am- 
monia, then exposing to a current of pure 
hydrogen. 

To Remove Silver Stains from White 
Fabrics. — Moisten the fabric for two or 
three minutes with a solution of 5 parts 
of bromine and 500 parts of water. 
Then rinse in clear water. If a yellow- 
ish stain remains, immerse in a solution 
of 150 parts of sodium hyposulphite in 
500 parts of water, and again rinse in 
clear water. 

Rust-Spot Remover. — Dissolve potas- 
sium bioxalate, 200 parts, in distilled 
water, 8,800 parts; add glycerine, 1,000 
parts, and filter. Moisten the rust or 
ink spots with this solution; let the linen, 
etc., lie for 3 hours, rubbing the moist- 
ened spots frequenUy, and then wash well 
with water. 



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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



To Clean Quilts. — Quilts are cleaned \ 
by first washing them in lukewarm soap- 
suds, then layinff them in cold, soft (rain) 
water over night. The next day they 
are pressed as dry as possible and hung 
up; the ends, in which the moisture re- 
mains for a long time, must be wrung 
out from time to time. 

It is very essential to beat the drying 
quilts frequently with a smooth stick or 
board. This will have the effect of 
swelling up the wadding, and preventing 
it from felting. Furthermore, the quilts 
should be repeatedly turned during the 
drying from right to left and also from 
top to bottom. In this manner streaks 
are avoided. 

Remoyal of Peruvian-Balsam Stains. 
— The fabric is spread out, a piece of 
filter paper being placed beneath the 
stain, and the latter is then copiously 
moistened with chloroform, applied by 
means of a tuft of cotton wool. Rubbing 
is to be avoided. 

Solution for Removing Nitrate of Sil- 
ver Spots. — 

Bichloride of mercury 5 parts 
Ammonium chloride. 5 parts 

Distilled water 40 parts 

Apply the mixture to the spots with a 
cloth, then rub. This removes, almost 
instantaneously, even old stains on linen, 
cotton, or woof. Stains on the skin thus 
treated become whitish yellow and soon 
disappear. 

Cleaning Tracings. — Tracing cloth 
can be very quickly and easily cleaned, 
and pencil marks removed by the use of 
benzine, which is applied with a cotton 
swab. It may be rubbed freely over the 
tracing without injury to lines drawn in 
ink, or even in water color, but the pencil 
marks and dirt will quickly disappear. 
The benzine evaporates almost immedi- 
ately, leaving tne tracing unharmed. 
The surface, nowever, has been softened 
and must be rubbed down with talc, or 
some similar substance, before drawing 
any more ink lines. 

The glaze may be restored to tracing 
cloth after using the eraser by rubbing 
the roughened surface with a piece of 
hard wax from an old phonograph 
cylinder. The surface thus produced is 
superior to that of the original glaze, as 
it IS absolutely oil- and water-proof. 

Rags for Cleaning and Polishing. — 
Immerse flannel rags in a solution of 20 
parts of dextrine and 30 parts of oxalic 
acid in 20 parts of logwood decoction; 
gently wring them out, and sift over them 
a mixture of finely powdered tripoli and 



pumice stone. Pile the moist rags one 
upon another, placing a layer of the pow- 
der between each two. Then press, sepa- 
rate, and dry. 

Cleaning Powder. — 

Bole. 500 parts 

Magnesium carbo- 
nate 50 parts 

Mix and make into a paste with a 
small quantity of benzine or water; apply 
to stains made by fats or oils on the cloth- 
ing and when dry remove with a brush. 

CLEAirafG PAINTED AND VAR- 
NISHED SURFACES: 
Cleaning and Preserving Polished 
Woodwork. — Rub down all the polished 
work with a very weak alcoholic solu- 
tion of shellac (1 to 20 or even 1 to 30) 
and linseed oil, spread on a linen cloth. 
The rubbing should be firm and hard. 
Spots on the polished surface, made by 
alcohol, tinctures, water, etc., should be 
removed as far as possible and as soon as 
possible after they are made, by the use 
of boiled linseed oil. Afterwards they 
should be rubbed with the shellac and 
linseed oil solution on a soft linen rag. 
If the spots are due to acids go over them 
with a nttle dilute ammonia water. Ink 
spots may be removed with dilute or (if 
necessary) concentrated hydrochloric 
acid, following its use with dilute ammo- 
nia water. In extreme cases it may be 
necessary to use the scraper or sandpa- 
per, or both. 

Oak as a general thing is not polished, 
but has a matt surface which can be 
washed with water and soap. First all 
stains and spots should be gone over 
with a sponge or a soft brush and verv 
weak ammonia water. The carved work 
should be freed of dust, etc., by the u.se 
of a stiff brush, and finally w^ashed 
with dilute ammonia water. When dry 
it should be gone over very thinly and 
evenly with brunoline applied with a 
soft pencil. If it is desired to give an 
especially handsome finish, after the 
surface is entirely drjr, give it a prelim- 
inarv coat of brunoline and follow this 
on the day after with a second. Bruno- 
line may be purchased of any dealer in 
paints. To make it, put 70 parts of lin- 
seed oil in a very capacious vessel (on 
account of the foam that ensues) and add 
to it 20 parts of powdered litharge, 20 
parts of powdered minium, and 10 parts 
of lead acetate, also powdered. Boil 
until the oil is completely oxidized, stir- 
ring constantly. When completely oxi- 
dized the oil is no longer red, but is of a 
dark brown color. When it acquires 

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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



196 



this color, remove from the fire, and add 
160 parts of turpentine oil, and stir well. 
This brunoline serves splendidly for 
polishing furniture or other polished 
wood. 

To Clean Lacquered Goods. — Papier- 
mache and lacquered goods may be 
cleaned perfectly by rubbing thoroughly 
with a paste made of wheat flour and 
olive oil. Apply with a bit of soft flan- 
nel or old linen, rubbing hard; wipe off 
and polish by rubbing with an old silk 
handKerchief. 

Polish for Varnished Work.— To reno- 
vate varnished work make a polish of 1 
quart good vinegar, 3 ounces butter of 
antimony, 2 ounces alcohol, and 1 quart 
oil. Shake well before using. 

To Clean Paintings. — To clean an oil 
paintine, take it out of its frame, lay a 
piece of cloth moistened with rain water 
on it, and leave it for a while to take up 
the dirt from the picture. Several appli- 
cations may be required to secure a 
perfect result. Then wipe the picture 
very gently with a tuft of cotton wool 
damped with absolutely pure linseed oil. 
Gold frames may be cleaned with a 
freshly cut onion; they should be wiped 
with a soft sponge wet ytrith rain water a 
few hours after the application of the 
onion, and finally wiped with a soft rag. 

Removing and Preventing Match 
Marks. — The unsightly marks made on 
a painted surface by striking matches on 
it can sometimes be removed by scrub- 
bing with soapsuds and a stiff brush. 
To prevent match marks dip a bit of 
flannel in alboline (liquid vaseline), and 
with it go over the surface, rubbing it 
hard. A second rubbing with a dry bit 
of flannel completes the job. A man 
may ** strike " a match there all day, and 
neither get a light nor make a mark. 

GLOVE CLEANERS: 

Powder for Cleaning Gloves. — 
I.— White bole or pipe 

clay 60 . parts 

Orris root (pow- 
dered) 30 . parts 

Powdered grain 

soap 7.5 parts 

Powdered borax ... 15.0 parts 
Ammonium chlor- 
ide 2.5 parts 

Mix the above ingredients. Moisten 
the gloves with a damp cloth, rub on the 
powder, and brush oflf after drying. 

n. — Four pounds powdered pipeclay, 
2 pounds powdered white soap, 1 ounce 



lemon oil, thoroughly rubbed together. 
To use, make powder into a thin cream 
with water and rub on the gloves while 
on the hands. This is a cheaply pro- 
duced compound, and does its work ef- 
fectually. 

Soaps and Pastes for Cleaniag Gloves. — 

I. — Soft soap 1 ounce 

Water 4 ounces 

Oil of lemon ) drachm 

Precipitated chalk, a 
sufficient quantity. 
Dissolve the soap in the water, add the 
oil, and make into a stiff paste with a 
sufficient quantity of chalk. 

II. — White hard soap 1 part 

Talcum 1 part 

Water 4 parts 

Shave the soap into ribbons, dissolve 
in the water by the aid of heat, and in- 
corporate the talcum. 

III. — Curd soap 1 av. ounce 

Water 4 fluidounces 

Oil of lemon J fluidrachm 

French chalk, a sufficient quantity. 
Shred the soap and melt it in the water 
by heat, add the oil of lemon, and make 
into a stiff paste with French chalk. 

IV. — White castile soap, 

old and dry 15 parts 

Water 15 parts 

Solution of chlorin- 
ated soda 16 parts 

Ammonia water. ... 1 part 
Cut or shave up the soap, add the 
water, and heat on the water bath to a 
smooth paste. Remove, let cool, and 
add the other ingredients and mix thor- 
oughly. 

V. — Castile soap, white, 

old, and dry 100 parts 

Water 75 parts 

Tincture of quillaia 10 parts 
Ether, sulphuric. . . 10 parts 
Ammonia water, 

FF 5 parts 

Benzine, deodorized 75 parts 
Melt the soap, previously finely 
shaved, in the water, bring to a boil and 
remove from the fire. I^et cool down, 
then add the other ingredients, incor- 
porating them thoroughly. This should 
be put up in collapsible tubes or tightly 
closed metallic boxes. This is also use- 
ful for clothing. 

Liquid Cloth and Glove Cleaner. — 

Gasoline 1 gallon 

Chloroform 1 ounce 

Carbon disulphide. . . 1 ounce 

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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



Essential oil almond. . 5 drops 

Oil bergamot 1 drachm 

Oil cloves 5 drops 

Mix. To be applied with a sponge 
or soft cloth. 

STONE CLEAinifG: 

Cleaning and Polishing Marble. — 
I. — Marble that has become dirty by 
ordinary use or exposure may be cleaned 
by a simple bath of soap and water. 

If this does not remove stains, a weak 
solution of oxalic acid should be applied 
with a sponge or rag, washing cjuickly 
and thoroughly with water to minimize 
injury to the surface. 

Rubbing well after this with chalk 
moistened with water will, in a measure, 
restore the luster. Another method of 
finishing is to apply a solution of white 
wax in turpentine (about 1 in 10), rub- 
bing thoroughly with a piece of flannel 
or soft leather. 

If the marble has been much exposed, 
so that its luster has been seriously im- 
paired,, it may be necessary to repolish 
it in a more thorough manner. ^ This 
may be accomplished by rubbing it first 
with sand, beginning with a moderately 
coarse-grained article and changing this 
twice for finer kinds, after which tripoli 
or pumice is used. The final polisn is 
given by the so-called putty powder. A 
plate of iron is generally used in applying 
the coarse sand; with the fine sand a 
leaden plate is used; and the pumice is 
employed in the form of a smooth-surfaced 
piece of convenient size. For the final 
polishing coarse linen or bagging is used, 
wedged tightly into an iron planing tool. 
During all these applications water is 
allowed to trickle over the face of the 
stone. 

The putty powder referred to is bin- 
oxide of tin, obtained by treating metal- 
lic tin with nitric acid, which converts 
the metal into hydra ted metastannic acid. 
This, when heated, becomes anhydrous. 
In this condition it is known as putty 
powder. In practice putty powder is 
mixed with alum, sulphur, and other 
substances, the mixture used being de- 
pendent upon the nature of the stone to 
DC polishea. 

According to Warwick, colored mar- 
ble should not be treated with soap and 
water, but only with the solution of bees- 
wax above mentioned. 

II. — Take 2 parts of sodium bicarbon- 
ate, 1 part of powdered pumice stone, 
and 1 part of finely pulverized chalk. 
Pass through a fine sieve to screen out 
all particles capable of scratching the 
marble, and add sufficient water to form 



a pasty mass. Rub the marble with it 
vigorously, and end the cleaning with 
soap and water. 

III.— Ox gall 1 part 

Saturated solution 
of sodium carbo- 
nate • • • • ^ parts 

Oil of turpentine. . 1 part 

Pipe clay enough to form a paste. 

IV. — Sodium carbonate. 2 ounces 
Chlorinated lime, . 1 ounce 
Water 14 ounces 

Mix well and apply the magma to the 
marble with a clotn, rubbing well in, and 
finally rubbing dry. It may be neces- 
sary to repeat this operation. 

V. — Wash the surface with a mixture 
of finely powdered pumice stone and vin- 
egar, ana leave it for several hours; then 
brush it hard and wash it clean. When 
dry, rub with whiting and wash leather. 

VI. — Soft soap 4 parts 

Whiting 4 parts 

Sodium bicarbonate 1 part 
Copper sulphate. . . 2 parts 

Mix thoroughly and rub over the mar- 
ble with a piece of flannel, and leave it 
on for 24 hours, then wash it off with 
clean water, and polish the marble with 
a piece of flannel or an old piece of felt. 

VII. — A strong solution of oxalic acid 
effectually takes out ink stains. In 
handling it the poisonous nature of this 
acid should not be forgotten. 

VIII. — Iron mold or ink spots may 
be taken out in the following man- 
ner: Take i ounce of butter of antimony 
and 1 ounce of oxalic acid and dissolve 
them in 1 pint of rain water; add enough 
flour to bring the mixture to a proper 
consistency. L#ay it evenly on the 
stained part with a brush, and, after it 
has remained for a few days, wash it off 
and repeat the process if the stain is not 
wholly removea. 

IX. — To remove oil stains apply com- 
mon clay saturated with benzine. If 
the ffrease has remained in long the 
polisn will be injured, but the stain will 
DC removed. 

X. — The following method for remov- 
ing rust from iron depends upon the solu- 
bility of the sulphide of iron in a solution 
of cyanide of potassium. Clay is made 
into a thin paste with ammonium sul- 
phide, and the rust spot smeared with 
the mixture, care being taken that the 
spot is only just covered. After ten 
minutes this paste is washed off and re- 
placed by one consisting of white bole 
mixed with a solution of potassium 
cyanide (1 to 4), which is in its turn 

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197 



washed ofiF after about 2) hours. Should 
a reddish spot remain after washing off 
the first paste, a second layer may be ap- 
plied for about 5 minutes. 

XI. — Soft soap 4 ounces 

Whiting 4 ounces 

Sodium carbonate. 1 ounce 
Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Make into a thin paste, apply on the 
soiled surface, and wash off after 24 
hours. 

XII. — In a spacious tub place a tall 
vessel upside down. On tnis set the 
article to be cleaned so that it will not 
stand in the water, which would loosen 
the cemented parts. Into this tub pour 
a few inches of cold water — hot water 
renders marble dull — take a soft brush 
and a piece of Venetian soap, dip the 
former in the water and rub on the latter 
carefully, brushing off the article from 
top to bottom. When in this manner 
dust and dirt have i)een dissolved, wash 
off all soap particles by means of a water- 
ing ppt ana cold water, dab the object 
with a clean sponge, which absorbs the 
moisture, place it upon a cloth and care- 
fully dry with a verjr clean, soft cloth, 
rubbing gently. This treatment will 
restore the former gloss to the marble. 

XIII. — Mix and shake thoroughly in 
a bottle equal quantities of sulphuric acid 
and lemon juice. Moisten the spots and 
rub them lightly with a linen cloth and 
tbef will disappear. 

XIV. — Ink spots are treated, with acid 
oxalate of potassium; blood stains by 
brushing with alabaster dust and dis- 
tilled water, then bleaching with chlorine 
solution. Alizarine ink and aniline ink 
spots can be moderated by laying on rags 
saturated with Javelle water, chlorine wa- 
ter, or chloride of lime paste. Old oil 
stains can only be effacea by placing the 
whole piece of marble for hours in ben- 
zine. Fresh oil or grease spots are oblit- 
erated by repeated applications of a 
little damp, white clay and subsequent 
brushing with soap water or weak soda 
solution. For many other spots an ap- 
plication of benzine and magnesia is useful. 

XV. — Marble slabs keep well and do 
not lose their fresh color if they are 
cleaned with hot water only, without the 
addition of soap, which is injurious to 
the color. Care must be taken that no 
liquid dries on the marble. If spots of 
Wine, coffee, beer, etc., have already ap- 
peared, thev are cleaned with diluted 
spirit of sal ammoniac, highly diluted 
oxalic acid, Javelle water, ox gall, or, 
take a quantity of newly slaked lime, mix 
it with water into a paste-like consistency, 



apply the paste uniformly on the spot 
with a brusn, and leave the coating alone 
for two to three days before it is washed 
off. If the spots are not removed by a 
single application, repeat the latter. In 
using Javelle water 1 or 2 drops should 
be carefully poured on each spot, rinsing 
off with water. 

To Remove Gfeaae Spots from Marble. 
—If the spots arc fresn, rub them over 
with a piece of cloth that has been dipped 
into pulverized china clay, repeating the 
operation several times, and then brush 
with soap and water. When the spots 
are old brush with distilled water and 
finest French plaster energetically, then 
bleach with chloride of lime that is put 
on a piece of white cloth. If the piece of 
marble is small enough to permit it, soak 
it for a few hours in refined benzine. 

Preparation for Cleaning Marble, 
Furniture, and Metals, Especially Cop- 
per, — This preparation is claimed to give 
very quickl^ perfect brilliancy, persisting 
without soiling either the hand or the 
articles, and without leaving any odor of 
copper. The following is the composi* 
tion for 100 parts of the product: Wax, 
2.4 parts; on of turpentine, 9.4 parts; 
acetic acid, 42 parts; citric acid, 42 parts; 
white soap, 42 parts. 

Removing Oil Stains. from Marble. — 
Saturate fuller's earth with a solution of 
equal parts of soap liniment, ammonia, 
and water; apply to the greasy part of 
the marble; keep there for some hours, 
pressed down with a smoothing iron 
sufficiently hot to warm the mass, and 
as it evaporates occasionally renew the 
solution. When wiped off dry the stain 
will have nearly disappeared. Some 
days later, when more oil works toward 
the surface repeat the operation. A few 
such treatments should suffice. 

Cleaning Terra Cotta. — After having 
carefully removed all dust, paint the terra 
cotta, by means of a brush, with a mix- 
ture of slightly gummed water and finely 
powdered terra cotta. 

Renovation of Polished and Varnished 
Surfaces of Wood. Stone, etc. — This is 
composed of the tollowing ingredients, 
though the proportions may be varied: 
Cereal flour or wood pulp, 38 J parts; 
hydrochloric acid, 45 parts; chloride of 
lime, 16 parts; turpentine, \ part. After 
mixing the ingredients thoroughly in 
order to form a homogeneous paste, the 
object to be treated is smeared with it 
and allowed to stand for some time. 
The paste on the surface is then removed 
by passing over it quickly a piece of soft 
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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



leather or a brush, which will remove 
dirt, grease, and other deleterious sub- 
stances. By rubbing gently with a 
cloth or piece of leather a polished sur- 
face will be imparted to wood, and ob- 
jects of metal will be rendered lustrous. 

The addition of chloride of lime tends 
to keep the paste moist, thus allowing the 
ready removal of the paste without dam- 
aging the varnish or polish, while the 
turpentine serves as a disinfectant and 
renders the odor less disagreeable during 
the operation. 

The preparation is rapid in its action, 
and does not affect the varnished or 
polished surfaces of wood or marble. 
While energetic in its cleansing action on 
brass and other metallic obiects, it is 
attended with no corrosive enect. 

mtrate of Silver Spots. — To remove 
these spots from white marble, they 
should be painted with Javelle water, 
and after having been washed, passed 
over a concentrated solution of tniosul- 
phate of soda (hyposulphite). 

To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from 
Sandstones. — This may be done by 
washing the spots with pure turpentine 
oil, then covering the place with white 
argillaceous earth (pipe clay), leaving it 
to dry, and finally rubbing with sharp 
soda lye, using a brush. Caustic am- 
monia also removes oil-paint spots from 
sandstones. 

RUST REMOVERS: 

To Remove Rust from Iron or Steel 
Utensils. — 

I. — Apply the following solution by 
means of a brush, after having removed 
any grease by rubbing with a clean, dry 
cloth: 100 parts of stannic chloride are 
dissolved in 1,000 parts of water; this 
solution is added to one containing 2 
parts tartaric acid dissolved in 1,000 
parts of water, and finally 20 cubic cen- 
timeters indigo solution, diluted with 
2,000 parts of water, are added. Afte 
allowing the solution to act upon the 
stain for a few seconds, it is rubbed clean, 
first with a moist cloth, then with a dry 
cloth; to restore the polish use is made of 
silver sand and jewelers* rouge. 

II. — When the rust is recent it is re- 
moved by rubbing the metal with a cork 
charged with oil. In this manner a per- 
fect polish is obtained. To take off old 
rust, mix equal parts of fine tripoli and 
flowers of sulphur, mingling this mixture 
with olive oil, so as to orm a paste. 
Rub the iron with this preparation by 
means of a skin. 

III. — The rusty piece is connected 
with a piece of zinc and placed in water 



containing a little sulphuric acid. After 
the articles have been in the liquid for 
several days or a week, the rust will have 
completely disappeared. The length of 
time will depend upon the depth to 
which the rust has penetrated. A little 
sulphuric acid may oe added from time 
to time, but the chief point is that the 
zinc always has good electric contact 
with the iron. To insure this an iron 
wire may be firmly wound around the 
iron object and connected with the zinc. 
The iron is not attacked in the least, as 
long as the zinc is kept in good electric 
contact with it. When the articles are 
taken from the liquid they assume a dark 
grav or black color and are then washed 
and oiled. 

IV. — The rust on iron and steel ob- 
jects, especially large pieces, is readily 
removed by rubbing the pieces with ofl 
of tartar, or with very fine emery and a 
little oil, or by putting powdered alum in 
strong vinegar and rubbing with this 
alumed vinegar. 

V. — Take cyanide of calcium, 25 
parts; white soap, powdered, 25 parts; 
Spanish white, 50 parts; and water, SOO 
parts. Triturate fidl well and rub the 
piece with this paste. The effect will be 
quicker if before using this paste the 
rusty object has been soaked for 5 to 
10 minutes in a solution of cyanide of 
potassium in the ratio of 1 part of cya- 
nide to 2 parts of water. 

VI. — lo remove rust from polished 
steel cj^anide of potassium is excellent. 
If possible, soak the instrument to be 
cleaned in a solution of cyanide of potas- 
sium in the proportion of 1 ounce of cya- 
nide to 4 ounces of water. Allow this 
to act till all loose rust is removed, and 
then polish with cyanide soap. The 
latter is made as follows: Potassium cya- 
nide, precipitated chalk, white castile 
soap. Make a saturated solution of the 
cyanide and add chalk sufficient to make 
a creamy paste. Add the soap cut in 
fine shavings and thoroughly incorporate 
in a mortar. When the mixture is stiff 
cease to add the soap. It should be re- 
membered that potassium cyanide is a 
virulent poison. 

VII. — Apply turpentine or kerosene 
oil, and after letting it stand over night, 
clean with finest emery cloth. 

VIII. — To free articles of iron and 
steel from rust and imbedded grains of 
sand the articles are treated with fluor- 
hydric acid (about 2 per cent) 1 to 2 
hours, whereby the impurities but not tlie 
metal are dissolved. This is followed by 
a washing with lime milk, to neutralize 
any fiuorhydric acid reinaining. 
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199 



To Remove Rust from Nickel. — First 
grease the articles well ; then, after a few 
days, rub them with a rag charged with 
ammonia. If the rust spots persist, add 
a few drops of hydrochloric acid to the 
ammonia, rub and wipe off at once. 
Next rinse with water, dry, and polish 
with tripoli. 

Removal of Rust. — To take off the 
rast from small articles which glass or 
emery paper would bite too deeply, the 
ink-erasing rubber used in business 
offices may be employed. By beveling it, 
or cutting it to a point as needful, it can 
be introduced into the smallest cavities 
and windings, and a perfect cleaning be 
effected. 

To Remove Rust from Instruments.-^ 
I.— Lay the instruments over night in 
a saturated solution of chloride of tin. 
The rust spots will disappear through 
reduction. Upon withdrawal from the 
iiolution the instruments are rinsed with 
water, placed in a hot soda-soap solution, 
and dried. Cleaning with absolute alco- 
hol and polishing chalk may also follow. 

II. — Make a solution of 1 part of 
kerosene in 200 parts of benzine or car- 
bon tetrachloride, and dip the instru- 
ments, which have been dried by leaving 
them in heated air, in this, moving their 
parts, if movable, as in forceps and scis- 
sors, about under the liquid, so that it 
may enter all the crevices. Next lay the 
instruments on a plate in a dry room, so 
that the benzine can evaporate. Nee- 
dles are simply thrown in the paraffine 
solution, anci taken out with tongs or 
tweezers, after which they are allowed to 
drv on a plate. 

in. — Pour olive oil on the rust spots and 
leave for several days; then rub with 
emery or tripoli, without wiping off the 
oil as far as possible, or always oringing 
it back on the spot. Afterwards remove 
the emery and the oil with a rag, rub 
again with emery soaked with vinegar, 
and finally with fine plumbago on a piece 
of chamois skin. 

To Preserve Steel from Rust.— To 
preserve steel from rust dissolve 1 part 
caoutchouc and 16 parts turpentine 
with a gentle heat, then add 8 parts 
boiled oil, and mix by bringing them to 
the heat of boiling water. Apply to the 
steel with a brush, the same as varnish. 
It can be removed again with a cloth 
soaked in turpentine. 

METAL CLEAinifG: 

Cleaning and Preserving; Medals, 
Coins, azia Small Iron Articles. — The 



coating of silver chloride may be reduced 
with molten potassium cyanide. Then 
boil the article in water, displace the 
water with alcohol, and dry in a drying 
closet. When dry brush with a sou 
brush and cover with ** zaponlack *' (any 
good transparent lacquer or varnish will 
answer). 

Instead of potassium cyanide alone, a 
mixture of that and potassium carbonate 
may be used. After treatment in this 
way, delicate objects of silver become less 
brittle. Another way is to put the article 
in molten sodium carbonate and remove 
the silver carbonate thus formed, by 
acetic acid of 50 per cent strength. This 
process produces the finest possible 
polish. 

The potassium-cyanide process may be 
used with all small iron objects. For 
larger ones molten potassium rhodanide 
is recommended. This ^ converts the 
iron oxide into iron sulphide that is eas- 
ily washed off and leaves the surface of a 
fine black color. 

Old coins may be cleansed hy first 
immersing^ them in strong nitric acid and 
then washing them in clean water. Wipe 
them dry before putting away. 

To Clean Old Medals. — Immerse in 
lemon juice until the coating of oxide has 
completely disappeared; 24 hours is gen- 
erally sufficient, out a longer time is not 
harmful. 

Steel Cleaner. — Smear the object with 
oil, preferably petroleum, and allow some 
days for penetration of the surface of the 
metal. Then rub vigorously with a piece 
of flannel or willow wood. Or, with a 
paste composed of olive oil, sulphur 
flowers, and tripoli, or of rotten stone 
and oil. Finally, a coating may be em- 
ployed, made of 10 parts of potassium 
cyanide and 1 part of cream of tartar; or 
*5 parts of potassium cyanide, with the 
niddition of 55 parts of carbonate of lime 
and 20 parts of white soap. 

Restoring Tarnished Gold. — 

Sodium bicarbonate. 20 ounces 

Chlorinated lime 1 ounce 

Common salt 1 ounce 

Water 16 ounces 

Mix well and apply with a soft brush. 

A ver^ small quantity of the solution 
is sufficient, and it may be used either 
cold or lukewarm. Plain articles may 
be brightened by putting a drop or two 
of the liquid upon them ana lij^htly 
brushing the surface with fine tissue 
paper. , . , 

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CLEANLVG PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



Cleaning Copper. — 
I. — Use Armenian bole mixed into a 
paste with oleic acid. 

II. — Rotten stone 1 part 

Iron subcarbonate . . 3 parts 
Lard oil, a sufficient quantity. 

m. — Iron oxide 10 parts 

Pumice stone 82 parts 

Oleic acid, a sufficient quantity. 

IV.— Soap, cut fine 16 parts 

Precipitated chalk . . S parts 

Jewefcrs* rouge 1 part 

Cream of tartar 1 part 

Magnesium carbonate 1 part 
Water, a sufficient quantity. 
Dissolve the soap in the smallest quan- 
tity of water that will effect solution over 
a water bath. Add the other ingredients 
to the solution while still hot, stirring 
constantly. 

To Remove Hard Grease, Paint, etc., 
from Blachinery. — To remove grease, 
paint, etc., from machinery add naif a 
pound of caustic soda to 2 gallons of 
water and boil the parts to be cleaned in 
the fluid. It is possible to use it several 
times before its strength is exhausted. 

Solutions for Cleaning Metals. — 

I.— -Water 20 parts 

Alum 2 parts 

Tripoli 2 parts 

Nitric acid 1 part 

II.— Water 40 parts 

Oxalic acid 2 parts 

Tripoli 7 parts 

To Cleanse Nickel. — I. — Fifty parts of 
rectified alcohol; 1 part of sulphuric 
acid; 1 part of nitric acid. Plunge the 
piece in the bath for 10 to 15 seconds, 
rinse it off in cold water, and dip it next 
into rectified alcohol. Dry witn a fine 
linen rag or with sawdust. 

II.— Stearine oil 1 part 

Ammonia water 25 parts 

Benzine 50 parts 

Alcohol 75 parts 

Rub up the stearine with the ammonia, 
add the benzine and then the alcohol, 
and agitate until homogeneous. Put in 
wide-mouthed vessels and close care- 
fully. 

To Clean Petroleum Lamp Burners. — 
Dissolve in a quart of soft water an 
ounce or an ounce and a half of washing 
soda, using an old half-gallon tomato can. 
Into this put the burner after removinj? 
the wick, set it on the stove, and let it 
boil strongly for 5 or 6 minutes, then 
take out, rinse under the tap, and dry. 



Every particle of carbonaceous matter 
will thus be got rid of, and the burner be 
as clean and serviceable as new. This 
ought to be done at least everv month, 
but the light would be better if it were 
done every 2 weeks. 

Gold-Ware Cleaner. — 

Acetic acid. 2 parts 

Sulphuric acid 2 parts 

Oxalic acid 1 part 

Jewelers' rouge 2 parts 

Distilled water 200 parts 

Mix the acids and water and stir in the 
rouge, after first rubbing it up with a por- 
tion of the liquid. With a clean cloth, 
wet with this mixture, go well over the 
article. Rinse off with hot water and 
dry. 

Silverware Cleaner.— ^ Make a thin paste 
of levigated (not precipitated) chalk and 
sodium hyposulphite, in equal parts, 
rubbed up in distilled water. Apply 
this paste to the surface, rubbing well 
with a soft brush. Rinse in clear water 
and dry in sawdust. Some authorities 
advise the cleaner to let the paste dry on 
the ware, and then to rub off and rinse 
with hot water. 

Silver-Coin Cleaner. — Make a bath of 
10 parts of sulphuric acid and 90 parts of 
water, and let the coin lie in this until the 
crust of silver sulphide is dissolved. From 
5 to 10 minutes usually suffice. Rinse 
in running water, then rub with a soft 
brush and castile soap, rinse again, drv 
with a soft cloth, and then car^uUy rub 
with chamois. 

Cleaning Silver-Plated W**** — I^*® 
a wide-mouthed bottle provided with a 
good cork put the following mixture: 

Cream of tartar 2 parts 

Levigated chalk 2 parts 

Alum 1 part 

Powder the alum and rub up with the 
other ingredients, and cork tightly. 
When required for use wet sufficient of 
the powder and with soft linen rags rub 
the article, being careful not to use 
much pressure, as otherwise the thin 
la^er of plating mav be cut through. 
Rinse in hot suds, and afterwards in dear 
water, and dry in sawdust. When 
badly blackened with silver sulphide, if 
small, the article may be dipped for an 
instant in hydrochloric acid and imme- 
diately rinsed in running water. Larger 
articles mav be treated as coins are — 
immersed for 2 or 3 minutes in a 10 
per cent aqueous solution of sulphuric 
acid, or the surface may be rapidly w^iped 

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201 



vilh a swab carrying nitric acid and in- 
stantly rinsed in running water. 

Cleaning Gilt Bronze Ware. — If greasy, 
wash carefully in suds, or, better, dip into 
a hot solution of caustic potash, and then 
wash in suds with a soft rag, and rinse in 
running water. If not then clean and 
bright, dip into the following mixture: 

Nitricacid 10 parts 

Aluminum sulphate . . 1 part 

Water 40 parts 

Mix. Rinse in running water. 

Britannia Metal Cleaner. — Rub first 
with jewelers' rouge made into a paste 
with oil; wash in suds, rinse, dry, and 
finish with chamois or wash leather. 

To Remove Ink Stains on Silver. — 
Silver articles in domestic use, and espe- 
cially silver or plated inkstands, fre- 
quently become badly stained with ink. 
These stains cannot be removed by ordi- 
nary processes, but readily yield to a 
paste of chloride of lime and water. Ja- 
veile water may be also used. 

Removing Egg Stains. — A pinch of table 
salt taken between the thumb and finger 
and rubbed on the spot with the end of 
the finder will usually remove the darkest 
egg stain from silver. 

To Clean Silver Ornaments. — Make a 
strong solution of soft soap and water, 
and in this boil the articles for a few min- 
utes—five will usually be enough. Take 
out, pour the soap solution into a basin, 
and as soon as the liquid has cooled down 
sufficiently to be borne by the hand, with 
a soft brush scrub the articles with it. 
Rinse in boiling water and place on a 
porous substance (a bit of tiling, a brick, 
0/ uoglazed earthenware) to dry. Fi- 
nally give a light rubbing with a chamois. 
Articles thus treated look as bright as 
new. 

Solvent for Iron Rust. — Articles at- 
tacked by rust may be conveniently 
cleaned by dipping them into a well- 
saturated solution of stannic chloride. 
The length of time of the action must be 
regulated according to the thickness of 
the rust. As a rule 12 to 24 hours will 
suffice, but it is essential to prevent an 
excess of acid in the bath, as tnis is liable 
to attack the iron itself. After the ob- 
jects have been removed from the bath 
they must be rinsed with water, and sub- 
sec^uently with ammonia, and then 
quickly dried. Greasing with vaseline 
seems to prevent new formation of rust. 
Objects treated in this manner are said 
to resemble dead silver. 
Professor Weber proposed ft diluted 



alkali, and it has been found that after 
employing this remedy the dirt layer is 
loosened and the green platina reappears. 
Potash has been found to be an efficacious 
remedy, even in the case of statues that 
had apparently turned completely black. 

To Clean Polished Parts of Machines. 
— Put in a flask 1,000 parts of petroleum; 
add 20 parts of paradffine, shaved fine; 
cork the bottle and stand aside for a 
couple of days, giving it an occasional 
shaKe. The mixture is now ready for 
use. To use, shake the bottle, pour a 
little of the liquid upon a woolen rag and 
rub evenly over the part to be cleaned; 
or apply with a brush. Set the article 
aside and, next day, rub it well with a 
dry, woolen rag. Every particle of rust, 
resinified grease, etc., will disappear 
provided the article has not been neglected 
too long. In this case a further applica- 
tion of the oil will be necessary. If too 
great pressure has not been made, or the 
rubbing continued too long, the residual 
oil finally leaves the surface protected by 
a delicate layer of paraffine tnat will pre- 
vent rusting for a long time. 

To Clean Articles of IHckeL— Lay 

them for a few seconds in alcohol con- 
taining 2 per cent of sulphuric acid; re- 
move, wash in running water, rinse in 
alcohol, and rub dry with a linen cloth. 
This process gives a brilliant polish and 
is especially useful with plated articles on 
the plating of which the usual polishing 
materials act very destructively. The 
yellowest and brownest nickeled articles 
are restored to pristine brilliancy by 
leaving them in the alcohol and acid for 
15 seconds. Five seconds suffice ordi- 
narily. 

How to Renovate Bronzes. — For gilt 
work, first remove all grease, dirt, wax, 
etc., with a solution in water of potas- 
sium or sodium hydrate, then dry, and 
with a soft rag apply the following: 

Sodium carbonate. . 7 parts 

Spanish whiting. ... 15 parts 

Alcohol, 85 per cent 50 parts 

Water 125 parts 

Go over every part carefully, using a 
brush to get^ into the minute crevices. 
When this dries on, brush off with a fine 
linen cloth or a supple chamois skin. 

Or the following plan may be used: 
Remove grease, etc., as directed above, 
dry and go over the spots where the gilt 
surface is discolored with a brush dipped 
in a solution of two parts of alum in 250 
parts of water and 65 parts of nitric acid. 
As soon »9 the gilding reappears or Xhp 
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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



surface becomes bright, wash off, and 
dry in the direct sunlight. 

Still another cleaner is made of nitric 
acid» 30 parts; aluminum sulphate, 4 
parts; distilled or rain water, 125 parts. 
Clean of grease, etc., as above, and applv 
the solution with a camel's-hair pencil. 
Rinse off and dry in sawdust. Finally, 
some articles are best cleaned by im- 
mersing in hot soap suds and rubbing 
with a soft brush. Rinse in clear, hot 
water, using a soft brush to get the residual 
suds out of crevices. Let dry, then finish 
by rubbing the gilt spots or places with a 
soft, linen rag, or a bit of chamois. 

There are some bronzes gilt with imi- 
tation gold and varnished. Where the 
work is well done and the gilding^ has not 
been on too long, they will deceive even 
the practiced eye. The deception, how- 
ever, may easily be detected by touching 
a spot on the gilt surface with a glass rod 
dipped in a solution of corrosive subli- 
mate. If the gilding is true no discolor- 
ation will occur, but if false a brown 
spot will be produced. 

To Clean a Gas Stove. — An easy meth- 
od of removing grease spots consists in 
immersing^ the separable parts for sev- 
eral hours in a warm lye, heated to about 
70*» C. (158° F.), said lye to be made of 
9 parts of caustic soda and 180 parts of 
water. These pieces, together with the 
fixed parts of the stove, may be well 
brushed with this lye and afterwards 
rinsed in clean, warm water. The 
grease will be dissolved, and the stove 
restored almost to its original state. 

Cleaning Copper Sinks.— Make rot- 
ten stone into a stiff paste with soft soap 
and water. Rub on with a woolen rag, 
and polish with dry whiting and rotten 
stone. Finish with a leather and dry 
whiting. Many of the substances and 
mixtures used to clean brass will effec- 
tively clean copper. Oxalic acid is said 
to be the best medium for cleaning cop- 
per, but after using it the surface of the 
copper must be well washed, dried, and 
then rubbed with sweet oil and tripoli, or 
some other polishing agent. Otherwise 
the metal wul soon tarnish again. 

Treatment of Cast-iron Grave Crosses. 
— The rust must first be thoroughlv re- 
moved with a steel-wire brush. When 
this is done apply one or two coats of red 
lead or graphite paint. After this prim- 
ing has become hard, paint with double- 
burnt lampblack and coual parts of oil of 
turpentine and varnish. This coating 
is followed by one of lampblack ground 
with coach varnish. Now paint the sin- 



gle portions with "mixtion" (gildinc 
oil) and gild as usual. Such crosses look 
better when they are not altogether 
black. Ornaments may be very well 
treated in colors with oil paint and then 
varnished. The crosses treated in this 
manner are preserved for many years, 
but it is essential to use ^ood exterior or 
coach varnish for varnishing, and not the 
so-called black varnish, which is mostly 
composed of asphalt or tar. 

Cleaning Inferior Gold Articles. — The 
brown film which forms on low-quality 

?:old articles is removed by coating witn 
uming hydrochloric acid, whereupon 
they are brushed off with Vienna lime 
and petroleum. Finally, clean the ob- 

t'ects with benzine, rinse again in pure 
>enzine, and dry in sawdust. 

To Clean Bronze. — Clean the bronze 
with soft soap; next wash it in plenty of 
water; wipe, let dry, and apply light en- 
caustic mixture composecf of spirit of 
turpentine in which a small quantity of 
yellow wax has been dissolved. The en- 
caustic is spread by means of a linen or 
woolen wad. For gilt bronze, add 1 
spoonful of alkali to 3 spoonfuls of water 
and rub the article with this by means 
of a ball of wadding. Next wipe with a 
clean chamois, similar to that employed 
in silvering. 

How to Clean Brass and Steel. — To 
clean brasses quickly and economically, 
rub them with vinegar and salt or with 
oxalic acid. Wash immediately after 
the rubbing, and polish with tripoli and 
sweet oil. Unless the acid is washed off 
the article will tarnish quickly. Copper 
kettles and saucepans, brass andirons, 
fenders, and candlesticks and trays are 
best cleaned with vinegar and salt. 
Cooking vessels in constant use need only 
to be well washed afterwards. Things 
for show — even pots and pans — need 
the oil polishing, which gives a deep, 
rich, yellow luster, good for six months. 
Oxalic acid and salt should be employed 
for furniture brasses — if it touches the 
wood it only improves the tone. Wipe 
the brasses well with a wet cloth, and 
polish thoroughly with oil and tripoli. 
Sometimes powdered rotten stone does 
better than tne tripoli. Rub, after using, 
either with a dry cloth or leather, until 
there is no trace of oil. The brass to be 
cleaned must be freed completely from 
grease, caked dirt, and grime. Wash 
with strong ammonia suds and rinse dry 
before beginning with the acid and salt. 

The best treatment for wroujDfht steel 
is to wash it very clean with a stiff brush 

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203 



ftnd ammonia soapsuds, rinse well, dry 
by heat, oil plentifully with sweet oil, and 
dust thickly with powdered quicklime. 
Let the lime stay on 2 days, then brush 
it off with a clean, very stiff brush. Polish 
with a softer brush, and rub with cloths 
until the luster comes out. By leaving 
the lime on, iron and steel may be kept 
from rust almost indefinitely. 

Before wetting any sort of bric-a-brac, 
and especially bronzes, remove all the 
dust possible. After dusting, wash well 
ip strong white soapsuds and ammonia, 
rinse clean, polish with just a suspicion 
of oil and rotten stone, and rub off after- 
wards every trace of the oil. Never let 
acid touch a bronze surface, unless to 
eat and pit it for antique effects. 

Composition for Cleaning Copper, 
Nickel, and other Metals. — Wool grease, 
46 parts, by weight; fire clay, SO parts, 
by weight; paraffine, 5 parts, by weight; 
Canova wax, 5 parts, bjr weight; cocoa- 
nut oil, 10 parts, by weight; oil of mir- 
bane, 1 part, by weight. After mixing 
these different ingredients, which con- 
stitute a paste, this is molded in order to 
^ve a cylindrical form, and introduced 
into a case so that it can be used like a 
stick of cosmetic. 

Ptttz Pomade. — I. — Oxalic acid, 1 part; 
caput mortuum, 15 parts (or, if white 
pomade is desired, tripoli, 12 parts); 
powdered pumice stone, best grade, 20 
parts; palm oil, 60 parts; petroleum or 
oleine, 4 parts. Penume with mirbane 
oil. 

ll.~0xalic acid 1 part 

Peroxide of iron 

(jewelers' rouge).. 15 parts 

Rotten stone 20 parts 

Palm oil 60 parts 

Petrolatum 5 parts 

Pulverize the acid and the rotten stone 
and mix thoroughly with the rouge. 
Sift to remove all grit, then make into a 
paste with the oil and petrolatum. A 
little nitro- benzol may be added to scent 
the mixture. 

Ill— Oleine 40 parts 

Ceresine 5 parts 

Tripoli 40 parts 

Lignt mineral oil 

(0.870) 20 parts 

Melt the oleine, ceresine, and min- 
eral oil toeetBer, and stir in the tripoli; 
next, grina evenly in a paint mill. 

To Clean Gummed Parts of Ma- 
chinery.— Boil about 10 to 15 parts of 
caustic soda or 100 parts of soda m 1,000 
parts of water, immerse the parts to be 



cleaned in this for some time, or, better, 
boil them with it. ^ Then rinse and dry. 
For small shops this mode of cleaning la 
doubtless the Dest. 

To Remove Silver Platinf.—I.^Put 
sulphuric acid 100 parts ana potassium 
nitrate (saltpeter) 10 parts in a vessel 
of stoneware or porcelain, heated on the 
water bath. When the silver has left the 
copper, rinse the objects several times. 
This silver stripping bath may be used 
several times, if it is Kept in a well-closed 
bottle. When it is saturated with silver, 
decant the liquid, boil it to dryness, then 
add the residue to the deposit, and melt in 
the crucible to obtain the metal. 
^ II. —Stripping silvered articles of the 
silvering may be accomplished by the fol- 
lowing mixture: Sulphuric acid, 60* B., 
S parts; nitric acid, 40® B., 1 part; heat 
the mixture to about 166® F., and im- 
merse the articles by means of a copper 
wire. In a few seconds the acid mixture 
will have done the work. A thorough 
rinsing off is, of course, necessary. 

To Clean Zinc Articles. — In order to 
clean articles of zinc, stir rye bran into a 
paste with boiling water, and add a hand- 
ful of silver sand and a little vitriol. 
Rub the article with this paste, rinse with 
water, dry, and polish with a cloth. 

To Remove Rust from IHckel. — Smear 
the rusted parts well with grease (ordi- 
nary animal fat will do), and allow the 
article to stand several days. If the 
rust is not thick the grease and rust may 
be rubbed off with a cloth dipped in am- 
monia. If the rust is very deep, appl]^ a 
diluted solution of hydrochloric acid, 
taking care that the acid does not touch 
the metal, and the rust may be easily 
rubbed off. Then wash the article and 
polish in the usual way. 

Compound for Cleaning Brass. — To 
make a brass cleaning compound use 
oxalic acid, 1 ounce; rotten stone, 6 
ounces; enough whale oil and spirits of 
turpentine of equal parts, to mix, and 
make a paste. 

To Clean Gilt Obiects.— I.— Into an 
ordinary drinking ^fass pour about 20 
drops of ammonia, immerse the piece to 
be cleaned repeatedly in this, and brush 
with a soft Drush. Treat the article 
with pure water, then with alcohol, and 
wipe with a soft rag. 

II. — Boil common alum in soft, pure 
water, and immerse the article in the 
solution, or rub the spot with it, and dry 
with sawdust. 

III. — For cleaning picture . frames. 
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ft04 CLEANING PftEPAHATIONS AND METHODS 



moldlnffs, and, in fact, all kinds of gilded 
work, the best medium is liquor potassse, 
diluted with about 5 volumes of water. 
Dilute alcohol is also excellent. Methylated 
wood spirit, if the odor is not objectionable, 
answers admirably. 

To Scale Cast Iron. — To remove the 
scale from cast iron use a solution of 1 
part vitriol and 2 parts water; after mix- 
ing, apply to the scale with a cloth rolled 
in the lorm of a brush, using enough to 
wet the surface well. After 8 or 10 hours 
wash off with water, when the hard, scaly 
surface will be completely removed. 

Cleaning Funnels and Measures. — 
Funnels and measures used for measur- 
ing varnishes, oils, etc., may be cleaned 
by soaking them in a strong solution of 
Ive or pearlash. Another mixture for 
the same purpose consists of pearlash 
with quicklime in aqueous solution. 
The measures are allowed to soak in the 
solution for a short time, when the resin- 
ous matter of the paint or varnish is 
easily removed.^ A thin coating of pe- 
troleum lubricating oils mav be removed, 
it is said, by the use of napntha or petro- 
leum benzine. 

To Clean Aluminum. — I. — Aluminum 
articles are very hard to clean so they will 
have a bright, new appearance. This is 
especially the case with the matted or 
frosted pieces. To restore the pieces to 
brilliancy place them for some time in 
water that has been slightly acidulated 
with sulphuric acid. 

II. — Wash the aluminum with coal-oil, 
gasoline or benzine, then put it in a con- 
centrated solution of caustic potash, and 
after washing it with plenty of water, 
dip it in the bath composed of | nitric 
acid and ^ water. Next, subject it to a 
bath of concentrated nitric acid, and 
finally to a mixture of rum and olive oil. 
To render aluminum capable of being 
worked like pure copper, J of oil of tur- 
pentine and i stearic acid are used. 
For polishing by hand, take a solution of 
30 parts of borax and 1,000 parts of 
water, to which a few drops of spirits of 
ammonia have been added. 

How to Clean Tarnished Silver.— I.— 
If the articles are only slightly tarnished, 
mix 3 parts of best washed and purified 
chalk and 1 part of white soap, adding 
water, tdl a ttiin paste is formed, which 
should be rubbed on the silver with a dry 
brush, till^ the articles are quite bright. 
As a substitute, whiting, mixed with caus- 
tic ammonia to form a paste, may be 
used. This mixture is very effective, but 
it irritates the eyes and nose. 



n. — An efficacious preparation is ob- 
tained by mixing beech-wood ashes, S 
parts; Venetian soap, tozj part; cooking 
salt, 2 parts; rain water, 8 parts. Brush 
the silver with this lye, using a somewhat 
stiff brush. 

III. — A solution of crystallized potas- 
sium permanganate has been recom- 
mended. 

IV. — ^A grayish violet film which silver- 
ware acquires from perspiration, can be 
readily removed by means of ammonia. 

V. — To remove spots from silver lay it 
for 4 hours in soapmakers' lye, then throw on 
fine powdered gypsum, moisten the latter 
with vinegar to cause it to adhere, drv 
near the fire, and wipe off. Next rub 
the spot with dry bran. This not only 
causes it to disappear, but gives extraor- 
dinary gloss to the silver. 

VI. — Cleaning with the usual fine 
powders is attended with some difiiculty 
and inconvenience. An excellent rcsuft 
is obtained without injury to the silver by 
employing a saturated solution of hypo- 
sulphite of soda, which is put on witn a 
brush or rac. The article is then 
washed with plenty of water. 

yil. — Never use soap on silverware, 
as it dulls the luster, giving the article 
naore the appearance of pewter than 
silver. When it wants cleaning, rub it 
with a piece of soft leather and prepared 
chalk, made into a paste with pure water, 
entirely free from grit. 



To Clean Dull Gold. —I.— Take 80 parts 
by weight, of chloride of lime, and rub it 
up witn gradual addition of water in a 
porcelain mortar into a thin, even paste, 
which is put into a solution of 80 parts, 
by weight, of bicarbonate of soda, and 20 
parts, by weight, of salt, in 3,000 parts, 
oy weight, of water. Shake it, and let 
stand a few days before using. If the 
preparation is to be kept for any length 
of time the bottle should be placed, well 
corked, in the cellar. For use, lay the 
tarnished articles in a dish, pour the 
liquid, which has previously been well 
shaken, over them so as just to cover 
them, and leave them therein for a few 
days. 



II. — Bicarbonate of soda. 81 parts 
Chloride of lime. . . . 15.5 parts 

Cooking salt 15 parts 

Water 240 parte 

Grind the chloride of lime with a little 
water to a thin paste, in a porcelain ves- 
sel, and add the remaining chemicals. 
Wash the objecte with the aid of a soft 
brush with the solution, rinse several 
times in wacer, ana ary in fine sawdust. 
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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



205 



Qeaning Bronze ^ Objects. — Employ 
powdered chicory mixed with water, so 
as to obtain a paste, which is applied 
with a brush. After the brushing, rinse 
off and dry in the sun or near a stove. 

Cleaning Gilded Bronzes. — I. — Com- 
mence by removing the spots of srease 
and wax with a little potash or soda dis- 
solved in water. Let dry, and apply the 
following mixture with a rag: Carbonate 
of soda, 7 parts; whiting, 15 parts; alco- 
hol (85''}, 50 parts; water, 125 parts. 
When this coating is dry pass a fine linen 
cloth or a piece of supple skin over it. 
The hollow parts are cleaned with a 
hrush. 

II. — After removing the grease spots, 
let dry and pass over all the damaged 
parts a pencil dipped in the following 
mixture: Alum, 2 parts; nitric acid, 65; 
water, 250 parts. When the gilding be- 
comes bright, wipe, and dry in the sun or 
near a fire. 

III. — Wash in hot water containing a 
little soda, dry, and pass over the gilding 
a pencil soaked in a liquid made of SO 
parts nitric acid, 4 parts of aluminum 

ephate, and 125 parts of pure water, 
m sawdust. 
IV. — Immerse the objects in boiling 
soap water, and facilitate the action of 
the soap by rubbing with a soft brush; 
put the objects in hot water, brush them 
carefully, and let them drv in the air; 
when they are quite dry rub the shining 
parts only with an old linen cloth or a 
soft leather, without touching the others. 

Strippin|[ Gilt Articles. — Degilding or 
stripping gilt articles may be done by at- 
taching the object to the positive pole of 
a battery and immersing it in a solution 
composed of 1 pound of cyanide dissolved 
in about 1 gallon of water. Desilvering 
may be efifected in the same manner. 

To Clean Tarnished Zinc— Applj with 
a rag a mixture of 1 .part sulphuric acid 
with 12 parts of water. Rinse the zinc 
with clear water. 

Cleaning Pewter Articles. — Pour hot 
lye of wood ashes upon the tin, throw on 
sand, and rub with a hard, woolen rag, 
hat felt, or whisk until all particles of dirt 
have been dissolved. To polish pewter 
plates it is well to have the turner make 
similar wooden forms fitting the plates, 
and to rub them clean this way. Next 
they are rinsed with clean water and 
placed on a table with a clean linen cover 
on which thev are left to dry without 
being touchea, otherwise spots will ap- 
pear. This scouring is not necessarv so 
often if the pewter is rubbed with wneat 



bran after use and cleaned perfectly. 
New pewter is polished with a paste of 
whiting and brandy, rubbing the dishes 
with it until the mass becomes dry. 

To Clean Files.— Files which have be- 
come clogged with tin or lead are 
cleaned by dipping for a few seconds into 
concentrated nitric acid. To remove 
iron filinj^s from the file cuts, a bath of 
blue vitriol is employed. After the files 
have been rinsed in water they are like- 
wise dipped in nitric acid, rile-ridja^es 
closed up by zinc are cleaned by im- 
mersing the files in diluted sulphuric 
acid. Such as have become filled with 
copper or brass are also treated with 
nitric acid, but here the process has to be 
repeated several times. The files should 
always be rinsed in water after the treat- 
ment, brushed with a stifiT brush, and 
dried in sawdust or by pouring alcohol 
over them, and letting it burn off on the 
file. 

Scale Pan Cleaner. — About the quick- 
est cleaner for brass scale pans is a solu- 
tion of potassium bichromate in dilute 
sulphuric acid, using about 1 part of 
chromate, in powder, to 3 parts of acid 
and 6 parts ot water. In tnis imbibe a 
cloth wrapped around a stick (to protect 
the hands), and with it rub the pans. 
Do this at tap or hydrant, so that no time 
is lost in placing the pan in running 
water after having rubbed it with the 
acid solution. For pans not very badly 
soiled rubbing with ammonia water and 
rinsing is sufficient. 

Tarnish on Electro -Plate Goods. — 
This tarnish can be removed by dipping 
the article for from 1 to 15 minutes — 
that is, until the tarnish shall have been 
removed — in a pickle of the following 
composition: Rain water 2 gallons and 
potassium cvanide } pound. ^ Dissolve 
together, and fill into a stone jug or iar, 
and close tightly. The article, after 
having been immersed, must be taken 
out and thoroughly rinsed in several 
waters, then dried with fine, clean saw- 
dust. Tarnish on jewelry can be speed- 
ily removed by this process; but if the 
cyanide is not completely removed it 
will corrode the goods. 

OIL-, GREASE-, PAINT-SPOT ERAD- 

ICATORS: 

Grease- and Paint -Spot Eradicators. — 

I. — Benzol 500 parts 

Benzine 500 parts 

Soap, best white, 

shaved 5 parts 

Water, warm, sufficient./ ^ r^r\r^]r> 
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S06 



CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



Dissolve the soap in the warm water, 
using from 50 to 60 parts. Mix the ben- 
zol and benzine, and add the soap solu- 
tion, a little at a time, shaking up well 
after each addition. If the mixture is 
slow in emulsifying, add at one time from 
50 to 100 parts of warm water, and shake 
violently. Set the emulsion aside for a 
few days, or until it separates, then de- 
cant the superfluous water, and pour the 
residual pasty mass, after stirring it up 
well, into suitable boxes. 

II. — Soap spirit 100 parts 

Ammonia solution, 

10 per cent 25 parts 

Acetic ether 15 parts 

m. — Extract of quillaia . 1 part 

Borax 1 part 

Ox gall, fresh 6 parts 

Tallow soap 15 parts 

Triturate the quillaia and borax to- 

t ether, incorporate the ox gall, and, 
nally, add the tallow soap and mix 
thoroughly by kneading. The product 
is a plastic mass, whicn may be rolled 
into sticks or put up into boxes. 

Removing Oil Spots from Leather. — 
To remove oil stains from leather, dab 
the spot carefully with spirits of sal am- 
moniac, and after allowing it to act for 
a while, wash with clean water. This 
treatment may have to be repeated a few 
times, taking care, however, not to injure 
the color of the leather. Sometimes the 
spot may be removed very simply by 
spreading the place rather thickly witn 
butter and letting this act for a few hours. 
Next scrape off the butter with the point 
of a knife, and rinse the stain with soap 
and lukewarm water. 

To Clean Linoleum. — Rust spots and 
other stains can be removed from lino- 
leum by rubbing with sl^eel chips. 

To Remove Putty, Grease, etc., from 
Plate Glass. — To remove all kinds of 
greasy materials from glass, and to leave 
the latter bright and dean, use a paste 
made of benzine and burnt magnesia of 
such consistence that when the mass is 
pressed between the fingers a drop of 
Denzine will exude. With this mixture 
and a wad of cotton, go over the entire 
surface of the glass, rubbing it well. 
One rubbing is usual! v sufficient. After 
drying, any of the substance left in the 
corners, etc., is easily removed by brush- 
ing with a suitable brush. The same 
preparation is very useful for cleaning 
mirrors and removing grease stains from 
books, papers, etc. 



Removing Spots from Furniture. — 
White spots on polished tables are re- 
moved in the following manner: Coat the 
spot with oil and pour on a rag a few 
drops of " mixtura balsamica oleosa," 
which can be bought in every drug store, 
and rub on the spot, which will disappear 
immediately. 

To Remove Spots from Drawings, 
etc. — Place soapstone, fine meerschaum 
shavings, amianthus, or powdered mag- 
nesia on the spot, and, if necessary, lay 
on white filtering paper, saturating it 
with peroxide of hydrogen. Allow this 
to act for a few hours, and remove the 
application with a brush. If necessary, 
repeat the operation. In this manner 
black coffee spots were removed from a 
valuable diagram without erasure by 
knife or rubber. 

WATCHMAKERS' AJTD JEWELERS' 
CLEANING PREPARATIONS: 

To Clean the Tops of Clocks in Re- 
pairing. — Sprinkle whiting on the top. 
Four good vinegar over this and rub 
vigorously. Rinse in clean water and 
dry slowly in the sun or at the fire. A 
good polish will be obtained.* 

To Clean Watch Chains.— Gold or 
silver watch chains can be cleaned with 
a very excellent result, no matter whether 
they be matt or polished, by laying them 
for a few seconds in pure aqua ammonia : 
they are then rinsed in alcohol, and 
finally shaken in clean sawdust, free from 
sand. Imitation gold and plated chains 
are first cleaned in benzine, then rinse<l 
in alcohol, and afterwards shaken in dry 
sawdust. Ordinary chains are first 
dipped in the following pickle: Pure 
nitnc acid is mixed witn concentrated 
sulphuric acid in the proportion of 10 
parts of the former to 2 parts of the latter; 
a little table salt is cdaed. The chains 
are boiled in this mixture, then rinsed 
several times in water, afterwards in 
alcohol, and finally dried in sawdust. 

Cleaning Brass Mountings on Clock 
Cases, etc. — The brass mountings are 
first cleaned of dirt by dipping them for 
a short time into boiling soda lye, and 
next are pickled, still warm, if possible, 
in a mixture consisting of nitric acid, 60 
parts; sulphuric acid, 40 parts; cooking 
salt, 1 part; and shining soot (lamp- 
black), J part, whereby they acquire a 
handsome golden-yellow coloring. The 
pickling mixture, however, must not be em- 
ployed immediately after pouring together 
the acids, which causes a strong genera- 
tion of heat, but should- settle for at least 
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CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



207 



] day. This makes the articles hand- 
somer and more uniform. After the dip- 
ping the objects are rinsed in plenty of 
(lean water and dried on a hot, iron plate, 
and at the same time warmed for lac- 
(juering. Since the pieces would be 
bcauercd too thick ana unevenly in pure 
gola varnish, this is diluted with alcohol, 
1 part of gold varnish sufficing for 10 
parts of alcohol. Into this liquid dip the 
mountings previously warmed and dry 
them again on the hot plate. 

Gilt Zinc Clocks. — It frequently hap- 
pens that clocks of gilt zinc become 
covered with green spots. To remove 
such spots the following process is used: 
Soak a small wad of cotton in alkali and 
rub it on the spot. The green color will 
disappear at once, but the gilding being 
gone, a black spot will remain. Wipe 
off well to remove all traces of the alkali. 
To replace the gilding, put on, by means 
of liquid gum arabic, a little bronze pow- 
der of the color of the eilding. The 
powdered bronze is applied dry with the 
aid of a brush or cotton wad. When the 
gilding of the clock has become black or 
dull from age, it may be revived by im- 
mersion in a bath of cyanide of potas- 
sium, but frequently it suffices to wash it 
with a soft brush in soap and water, in 
which a little carbonate of soda has been 
dissolved. Brush the piece in the lather, 
rinse in clean water, and drv in rather 
hot savdust. The piece should be dried 
well inside and outside, as moisture will 
cause it to turn black. 

To Clean Gtimmed Up Springs. — 
Dissolve caustic soda in warm water, 
place the spring in the solution and leave 
it there for about one half hour. Any 
oil still adhering may now easily be 
taken off with a hard brush ; next, dry the 
spring with a clean cloth. In this man- 
ner gummed up parts of tower clocks, 
locks, etc., may oe quickly and thor- 
oughly cleaned, and oil paint may be 
removed from metal or wood. The lye 
is sharp, but free from danger, nor are 
the steel parts attacked by it. 

To Clean Soldered Watch Cases.— 
Gold, silver, and other metallic watch 
cases which in soldering have been ex- 
posed to heat, are laid in diluted sul- 
phuric acid (1 part acid to 10 to 15 parts 
water), to free them from oxide. Heat- 
ing the acid accelerates the cleaning proc- 
ess. The articles are then well rinsed 
in water and dried. Gold cases are next 
brushed with powdered tripoli moistened 
with oil, to remove the pale spots caused 
by the heat and boiling, ana to restore 



the original color. After that they are 
cleanea with soap water and finally pol- 
ished with roufje. Silver cases are pol- 
ished after boiling, with a scratch brush 
dipped in beer. 

A Simple Way to Clean a Clock.— Take 
a bit of cotton the size of a hen*s eM, 
dip it in kerosene and place it on tne 
floor of the clock, in the corner; shut the 
door of the clock, and wait 3 or 4 days. 
The clock will be like a new one — and 
if you look inside you will find the cotton 
batting black with dust. The fumes of 
the oil loosen the particles of dust, and 
they fall, thus cleaning the clock. 

To Restore the Color of a Gold or Gilt 
Dial. — Dip the dial for a few seconds in 
the following mixture: Half an ounce of 
cyanide of potassium is dissolved in a 
quart of hot water, and « ounces of 
strong ammonia, mixed with i an ounce 
of alcohol, are added to the solution. On 
removal from this bath, the dial should 
immediately be immersed in warm water, 
then brushed with soap, rinsed, and 
dried in hot boxwood dust. Or it mav 
simply be immersed in dilute nitric acia; 
but in this case any painted figures will 
be destroyed. 

A Bath for Cleaning Clocks. — In an 
enameled iron or terra -cotta vessel 
pour 2,000 parts of water, add 50 parts 
of scraped Marseilles soap, 80 to 100 
parts of whiting, and a small cup of 
spirits of ammonia. To hasten the proc- 
ess of solution, warm, but do not allow 
to boil. 

If the clock is very dirty or much oxi- 
dized, immerse the pieces in the bath 
while warm, and as long as necessary. 
Take them out with a skimmer or 
strainer, and pour over them some ben- 
zine, letting the liquid fall into an empty 
vessel. This being decanted and bot- 
tled can be used indefinitelv for rinsing. 

If the bath has too mucn alkali or is 
used when too hot, it may affect the 
polish and render it dull. This may be 
obviated by trying different strengths of 
the alkali. Pieces of blued steel are not 
injured by the alkali, even when pure. 

To Remove a Figure or Name from a 
Dial. — Oil of spike lavender may be 
employed for erasing a letter or number. 
Enamel powder made into a paste with 
water, oil, or turpentine is also used for 
this purpose. It should be previously 
levigated so as to obtain several degrees of 
fineness. The powder used for repol- 
ishing the surface, where an impression 
has been removed, must be extremely 
fine. It is applied with a piece of peg- 



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Jt08 



CLEANING PREPARATIONS AND METHODS 



wood or ivory. The best method is to 
employ diamond powder. Take a little 
of the powder, make into a paste with 
fine oil, on the end of a copper polisher 
the surface of which has been f resnly filed 
and slightly rounded. The marks will 
rapidly disappear when rubbed with this. 
The surface is left a little dull; it may be 
rendered bright by rubbing with the 
same powder mixed with a greater quan- 
tity ot oil, and applied with a stick of 
peg wood. Watchmakers will do well to 
try on disused dials several degrees of 
fineness of the diamond powder. 

Cleaning Pearls. — Pearls turn yellow 
in the course of time by absorbing per- 
spiration on account of being worn m the 
hair, at the throat, and on the arms. 
There are several ways of rendering 
them white again. 

I. — The best process is said to be to 
put the pearls into a bag with wheat bran 
and to heat the bag over a coal fire, with 
constant motion. 

II. — Another method is to bring 8 
parts each of well-calcined, finely pow- 
dered lime and wood charcoal, which 
has been strained through a gauze sieve, 
to a boil with 500 parts of pure rain 
water, suspend the pearls over the steam 
of the boiling water until they are 
warmed through, and then boil them in 
the liquid for 5 minutes, turning fre- 
quentlv. Let them cool in the liquid, 
take tnem out, and wash off well with 
clean water. 

III. — Place the pearls in a piece of fine 
linen, throw salt on them, and tie them 
up. Next rinse the tied-up pearls in 
lukewarm water until all tne salt has 
been extracted, and dry them at an ordi- 
nary temperature. 

IV. — The pearls may also be boiled 
about ^ hour in cow's milk into which a 
little cheese or soap has been scraped; 
take them out, rinse off in fresh water, 
and dry them with a clean, white cloth. 

V. — Another method is to have the 
pearls, strung on a silk thread or wrapped 
up in thin gauze, mixed in a loaf of bread 
ot barley flour and to have the loaf baked 
well in an oven, but not too brown. 
When cool remove the pearls. 

yi. — Hang the pearls for a couple of 
minutes in hot, strong, wine vinegar or 
highly diluted sulphuric acid, remove, 
and rinse them in water. Do not leave 
them too long in the acid, otherwise they 
will be injured by it. 

GLASS CLEAmSTG: 

Cleaning Preparation for Glass with 
Metal Decorations. — Mix 1,000 parts of 
denaturized spirit (96 per cent) with 150 



parts, by weight, of ammonia; 20 parts 
of acetic ether; 15 parts of ethylic ether; 
200 parts of Vienna lime; 950 parts of 
bolus; and 550 parts of oleine. With 
this mixture both glass and metal can be 
quickly and thoroughly cleaned. It is 
particularly recommended for show 
windows ornamented with metal. 

Paste for Cleaning Glass. — 

Prepared chalk 6 pounds 

Powdered French 

chalk 1} pounds 

Phosphate calcium ... 2| pounds 

Quillaia bark i\ pounds 

Carbonate ammonia. . 18 ounces 

Rose pink 6 ounces 

Mix^ the ingredients, in fine powder, 
and sift through muslin. Then mix 
with soft water to the consistency of 
cream, and apply to the glass by means 
of a soft rag[ or sponge; allow it to dry on, 
wipe off with a cloth, and polish with 
chamois. 

Cleaning Optical Lenses. — For this 
purpose a German contemporary rec- 
ommends vegetable pith. Tne medulla 
of rushes, elders, or sunflowers is cut out, 
the pieces are dried and pasted singly 
alongside of one another upon a piece of 
cork, whereby a brush-like apparatus is 
obtained, which is passed over the sur- 
face of the lens. For very small lenses 
pointed pieces of elder pith are em- 
ployed. To dip dirty and greasy lenses 
into oil of turpentine or etner and rub 
them with a linen rag, as has been pro- 
posed, seems hazardous, because the Can- 
ada balsam with which the lenses are 
cemented might dissolve. 

To Remove Glue from Glass. — If glue 
has simply dried upon the glass hot 
water ought to remove it. If, however, 
the spots are due to size (the gelatinous 
wash used by painters) when dried they 
become very refractorv and recourse 
must be had to chemical means for their 
removal. The commonest size being a 
solution of gelatin, alum, and rosin dis- 
solved in a solution of soda and com- 
bined with starch, hot solutions of caus- 
tic soda or of potash may be used. If 
that fails to remove them, try diluted 
hydrochloric, sulphuric, or anv of the 
stronger acids. If the spots still remain 
some abrasive powder (flour of emery) 
must be used and the glass repolished 
with jewelers' rouge applied by means of 
a chamois skin. Owing to the varied 
nature of sizes used the above are only 
suggestions. 

Cleaning Window Panes. — Take di- 
luted nitric acid about as strong as strong 

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CLEANING PREPARAllONS AND METHODS 



209 



vinq^r and pass it over the fflass pane, 
leave it to act a minute and throw on 
pulverized whiting, but just enough to 
give off a hissing sound. Now rub both 
with the hand over the whole pane and 
polish with a dry rag. Rinse off with 
clean water and a little alcohol and polish 
dry and clear. Repeat the process on 
the other side. The nitric acid removes 
aU impurities which have remained on 
the glass at the factory, and even with 
inferior panes a good appearance is ob- 
tained. 

To Clean Store Windows. — For clean- 
ing the large panes of glass of store win- 
dows, and also ordinary show cases, a 
semiliquid paste may be employed, 
made of calcined magnesia and purified 
benzine. The glass should be rubbed 
with a cotton rag until it is brilliant. 

Cleaning Lamp Globes. — Pour 2 spoon- 
fuls of a slightly neated solution of potash 
into the globe, moisten the whole surface 
with it, and rub the stains with a fine 
linen rag; rinse the globe with clean 
water and carefully dry it with a fine, soft 
doth. 

To Clean Mirrors. — Rub the mirror 
with a ball of soft paper slightly damp- 
ened with methylated spirits, then with a 
duster on which a little whiting has been 
sprinkled, and finally polish with clean 
paper or a wash leather. This treatment 
will make the glass beautifully bright. 

To Clean Milk Glass.— To remove oil 
spots from milk glass panes and lamp 
globes, knead burnt magnesia with ben- 
zine to a plastic mass, which must be 
kept in a tight-closing bottle. A little of 
this substance rubbed on the spot with a 
linen rag will make it disappear. 

To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from 
Glass. — If the window panes have been 
bespattered with oil paint in painting 
walls, the spots are, oi course, easily re- 
moved while wet. When they have 
become dry the operation is more difli- 
cult and alcohol and turpentine in eaual 
parts, or spirit of sal ammoniac should be 
used to soften the paint. After that go 
over it with chalk. Polishing with salt 
will also remove paint spots. The salt 
grates somewhat, but it ^ is not hard 
enough to cause scratches in the glass; a 
subsequent polishing with chalk is also 
advisable, as the drying of the salt might 
injure the glass. For scratching off soft 
paint spots sheet zinc must be used, as it 
cannot damage the glass on account of its 
softness. In the case of silicate paints 
(the so-called weather-proof coatings) the 



panes must be especially protected, be- 
cause these paints destroy the polish ot 
the glass. Rubbing the spots with 
brown soap is also a good way of remov- 
ing the spots, but care must oe taken in 
rinsing off that the window frames arc 
not acted upon. 

Removing Silver Stains.— The follow- 
ing solution will remove silver stains 
from the hands, and also from woolen, 
linen, or cotton goods: 

Mercuric chloride 1 part 

Ammonia muriate. ... 1 part 

Water 8 parts 

The compound is poisonous. 

MISCELLAIIEOUS CLEANING IfETH- 
ODS AND PROCESSES : 

Universal Cleaner. — 

Green soap 20 to 85 parts 

Boiling water 750 parts 

Liquid ^ ammonia, 

caustic SO to 40 parts 

Acetic ether 20 to SO parts 

Mix. 

To Clean Playing Cards.— Slightly 
soiled playing cards may be made clean 
by rubbing them with a soft rag dipped 
in a solution of camphor. Very little of 
the latter is necessary. 

To Remove Vegetable Growth from 
Buildings. — To remove moss and lichen 
from stone and masonry, apply water 
in which 1 per cent of carbolic acid has 
been dissolved. After a few hours the 
plants can be washed off with water. 

Solid Cleansing Compound. — The basis 
of most of the solid grease eradicators 
is benzine and the simplest form is a 
benzine jelly made by shaking 3 ounces 
of tincture of quillaia (soap bark) with 
enough benzine to make 16 fluidounces. 
Benzine ma^r also be solidified by the use 
of a soap with addition of an excess of 
alkali. Formulas in which soaps are 
used in this way follow: 
I. — Cocoanut-oil soap. 2 a v. ounces 
Ammonia water. . . S fluidounces 
Solution of potas- 
sium 1 } fluidounces 

Water enough to 

make 12 fluidounces 

Dissolve the soap with the aid of heat 
in 4 fluidounces of water, add the am- 
monia and potassa and the remainder of 
the water. 

If the benzine is added in small por- 
tions, and thoroughly agitated, 2} fluid- 
ounces of the above will be found suffi- 
cient to solidify 32 fluidounces of benzine. 

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210 



CLEANING PREPARATIONS— COFFEE 



II. — Castile soap, white. 8* a v. ounces 
Water, boiling. .... SJ fluidounces 
Water of ammonia 5 fluidrachms 
Benzine enough to 

make 16 jQuidounces 

Dis.solve the soap in the water, and 
when cold, add the other ingredients. 

To Clean Oily Bottles.— Use 2 heaped 
tablespoonfuls (for every quart of capac- 
ity) ot fine sawdust or wheat bran, and 
shake well to cover the interior surface 
thoroughly; let stand a few minutes and 
then add about a gill of cold water. If 
the bottle be then rotated in a horizontal 
position, it will usually be found clean 
after a single treatment. In the case of 
drying oils, especially when old, the bot- 
tles should be moistened inside with a 
little ether, and left standing a few hours 
before the introduction of sawdust. 
This method is claimed to be more rapid 
and convenient than the customary one 
of using strips of paper, soap solution, 
etc. 

Cork Cleaner. — Wash in 10 per cent 
solution of hydrochloric acid, then im- 
merse in a solution of sodium hypo- 
sulphite and hydrochloric acid. Finally 
the corks are washed with a solution of 
soda and pure water. Corks containing 
oil or fat cannot be cleaned by this 
method. 

To Clean Sponges.— Rinse well first in 
verv weak, warm, caustic-soda lye, then 
with clean water, and finally leave the 
sponges in a solution of bromine in water 
until clean. They will whiten sooner if 
exposed to the sun in the bromine water. 
Then repeat the rinsings in weak lye 
and clean water, using the latter till all 
smell of bromine has disappeared. Dry 
quickly and in the sun if possible. 

CLEARING BATHS: 
See Photography. 

CLICHi METALS: 
See Alloys. 

CLOCK-DIAL LETTERING: 

See Watchmakers' Formulas. 

CLOCK-HAND COLORING: 

See Metals. 

CLOCK OIL: 

See Oil. 

CLOCK REPAIRING: 

See Watchmaking. 

CLOCKMAKERS' CLEANING PROC- 
ESSES. 
See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 



CLOTH TO IRON, GLUEING: 
See Adhesives. 

CLOTHES CLEANERS: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth 
ods; also. Household Formulas. 

CLOTHS FOR POLISHING: 

See Polishes. 

CLOTH. WATERPROOFING: 

See Waterproofing. 

CLOTHING, CARE OF: 

See Household Formulas. 

COACH VARNISH: 

See Varnishes. 

COALS. TO EAT BURNING: 

See Pyrotechnics. 

COAL OIL: 

See Oil. 

COBALTIZING: 

See Plating. 

COCOAS: 

See Beverages. 

COCOA CORDIAL: 

See Wines and Liquors. 

COCOANUT CAKE: 

See Household Formulas and Recipes. 

COCHINEAL INSECT REMEDY: 
See Insecticides. 

COD-LIVER OIL AND ITS EMULSION : 

See Oil, Cod-Liver. 

COFFEE, SUBSTITUTES FOR. 

I. — Acorn. — From acorns deprived of 
their shells, husked, dried, and roasted. 

II. — ^Bean. — Horse beans roasted along 
with a little honey or sugar. 

III.— Beet Root.— From the yellow 
beet root, sliced, dried in a kiln or oven, 
and ground with a little coffee. 

IV. —Dandelion. — From dandelion 
roots, sliced, dried, roasted, and ground 
with a little caramel. 

All the above are roasted, before grind- 
ing them, with a little fat or lard. Those 
which are larger than coffee berries are 
cut into small slices before being roasted. 
They possess none of the exhilarating 
properties or medicinal virtues of the 
genuine coffee. 

V. — Chicory, — This is a common adul- 
terant. The roasted root is prepared by 
cutting the full-grown root into slices", 
and exposing it to heat in iron cylinders, 
along with about li per cent or 2 per 
cent of lard, in a similar way to that 
adopted for coffee. When ground to 
powder in a mill it constitutes th^ «hi- 



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COFFEE— COLD AND COUGH MIXTURES 



211 



coiy coffee so generally employed both 
as a substitute for coffee and as an 
adulterant. The addition of 1 part of 
good, fresh, roasted chicory to 10 or 12 
parts of coffee forms a mixture which 
yields a beverage of a fuller flavor, and 
of a deeper color than that furnished by 
an equal quantity of pure or unmixed 
coffee. In this way a less quantity of 
coffee mav be used, but it should be re- 
membered that the article substituted 
for it does not possess in any degree the 
peculiar exciting, soothing, and nunger- 
staying properties of that valuable prod- 
uct. The use, however, of a larger 
proportion of chicory than that just 
named imparts to the beverage an in- 
sipid flavor, intermediate between that 
•I treacle and licorice; ^ while the con- 
tinual use of roasted chicory, or highly 
chicorized coffee, seldom fails to weaken 
the powers of digestion and derange the 
bowels. 

COFFEE CORDIAL: 
See Wines and Liquors. 

COFFEE EXTRACTS: 
See Essences and Extracts. 

COFFEE SYRUPS: 
See Syrups. 

COFFEE FOR THE SODA FOUN- 
TAIN: 
See Beverages. 

COIL SPRING: 
Sec Steel. 

COIN CLEANING: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

COINS. IMPRESSIONS OF : 
See Matrix Mass. 

com METAL: 
See Alloys. 

COLAS: 
See Veterinary Formulas. 



Cold and Cough Mixtures 

Cough Synip. — The simplest form of 
cough syrup of good keeping q^uality is 
syrup of wild cherry containing am- 
monium chloride in the dose of 2* grains 
to each teaspoonful. Most of the other 
compounds contain ingredients that are 
prone to undergo fermentation. 

I. — Ipecacuanha wine 1 fluidounce 
Spiritof anise. . .. 1 fluidrachm 
Syrup 16 fluidounces 



Syrup of squill. ... 8 fluidounces 

lincture of Tolu. 4 fluidrachms 
Distilled water 

enough to make 30 fluidounces 

II. — Heroin 6 grains 

Aromatic sulphur- 
ic acid 1 } fluidounces 

Concentrated acid 

infusion of roses 4 fluidounces 

Distilled water. . . 5 fluidounces 

Glycerine 5 fluidounces 

Oxymel of squill.. 10 fluidounces 

III. — Glycerine 2 fluidounces 

Fluid extract of 

wild cherry .... 4 fluidounces 

Oxymel 10 fluidounces 

Svrup 10 fluidounces 

Cochineal, a sufficient quantity. 

Benzoic- Acid Pastilles. — 

Benzoic acid 105 parts 

Rhatany extract .... 525 parts 

Tragacanth 35 parts 

Sugar 140 parts 

The materials, in the shape of pow- 
ders, are mixed well and sufficient fruit 
paste added to bring the mass up to 4,500 
parts. Roll out and divide into lozenges 
weighing 20 grains each. 

Cough Balsam with Iceland Moss. — 
Solution of morphine 

acetate 12 parts 

Sulphuric acid, dilute 12 parts 
Cherry-laurel water. 12 parts 
Orange-flower water, 

triple 24 parts 

Syrup, simple 128 parts 

Glycerine 48 parts 

Tincture of saffron . . 8 parts 
Decoction of Iceland 

moss 112 parts 

Mix. Dose: One teaspoonful. 

Balsamic Cough Syrup. — 

Balsam of Peru 2 drachms 

Tincture of Tolu .... 4 drachms 
Camphorated tincture 

of opium 4 ounces 

Powdered extract lic- 
orice 1 ounce 

Syrup souill 4 ounces 

Syrup dextrine (glu- 
cose) sufficient to 

make 16 ounces 

Add the balsam of Peru to the tinc- 
tures, and in a mortar rub up the extract 
of licorice with the syrups. Mix to- 
gether and direct to be taken in tea- 
spoonful doses. 

Whooping-Cough Remedies. —The fol- 
lowing mixture is a spray to be used 

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212 COLD AND COUGH MIXTURES— CONDIMENTS 



in the sick room in cases of whooping 
cough: 

Thymol 1.0 

Tincture of eucalyptus. 30.0 
Tincture of benzoin .... 30.0 

Alcohol 100.0 

Water enough to make 1000.0 
Mix. Pour some of the mixture on a 
cloth and hold to mouth so that the mix- 
ture is inhaled, thereby giving relief. 

Expectorant Mixtures. — 
I. — Ammon. chloride. 1 drachm 
Potass, chlorate.. 30 grains 

Paregoric 2 nuidrachms 

Syrup of ipecac. . . 2 fluidrachms 
Syrup wild cherry 

enough to make 2 fluidounces 
Dose: One teaspoonful. 

11. — Potass, chlorate . . 1 drachm 
Tincture guaiac . . 3) drachms 
Tincture rhubarb. 1 i drachms 
Syrup wild cherrv 

enough to make 3 fluidounces 

. Dose: One teaspoonful. 

Eucalyptus Bonbons for Coughs. — 

Eucalyptus oil 5 parts 

Tartaric acid 15 parts 

Extract of malt. ... 24 parts 

Cacao 100 parts 

Peppermint oil ... . 1 .4 parts 

Bonbon mass 2,203 parts 

Mix and make into bonbons weighing 
SO grains each. 

COLD CREAM: 

See Cosmetics. 

COLIC IN CATTLE: 

See Veterinary Formulas. 

COLLODION. 

Turpentine 5 parts 

Ether and alcohol. ... 10 parts 

Collodion 94 parts 

Castor oil 1 part 

Dissolve the turpentine in the ether 
and alcohol mixture (in ec|ual parts) and 
filter, then add to the mixture of collo- 
dion and castor oil. This makes a good 
elastic collodion. 

See also Court Plaster, Liquid. 

COLOGNE: 

See Perfumes. 

COLOGNE FOR HEADACHES: 
See Headaches. 

COLORS: 

See Dyes and Pigments. 

CtfLORS, FUSIBLE ENAMEL: 
Se^ Enameling. 



COLORS FOR PAINTS: 
See Paint. 

COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY: 

See Photography. 

COLORS FOR SYRUPS: 

See Syrups. 

CONCRETE: 

See Stone, Artificial. 



Condiments 

Chowchow. — 

Curry powder 4 ounces 

Mustard powder 6 ounces 

Ginger 3 ounces 

Turmeric 2 ounces 

Cayenne 2 drachms 

Black pepper powder. 2 drachms 

Coriander 1 drachm 

Allspice 1 drachm 

Mace 30 grains 

Thyme 30 grains 

Savory 30 grains 

Celery seed 2 drachms 

Cider vinegar 2 gallons 

Mix all the powders with the vinegar, 
and steep the mixture over a very gentle 
fire for 3 hours. The pickles are to be 
parboiled with salt, and drained, and the 
spiced vinegar, prepared as above, is to 
be poured over them while it is still 
warm. The chowchow keeps best in 
small jars, tightly covered. 

Essence of Extract of Soup Herbs. — 
Thyme, 4 ounces; winter savory, 4 ounces; 
sweet marjoram, 4 ounces; sweet basil, 
4 ounces; grated lemon peel, 1 ounce; 
eschalots, 2 ounces; bruised celery seed, 

1 ounce; alcohol (50 per cent), 64 ounces. 
Mix the vegetables, properly bruised, add 
the alcohol, close the container and set 
aside in a moderately warm place to digest 
for 15 days. Filter and press out. Pre- 
serve in 4-ounce bottles, well corked. 

Tomato Bouillon Extract.— Toma- 
toes, 1 quart; arrowroot, 2 ounces; ex- 
tract of beef, 1 ounce; bay leaves, 1 
ounce; cloves, 2 ounces; red pepper, 4 
drachms; Worcestershire sauce, quantity 
sufficient to flavor. Mix. 

Mock Turtle Extract.— Extract of 
beef, 2 ounces; concentrated chicken, 

2 ounces; clam juice, 8 ounces; tincture 
of black pepper, 1 ounce; extract of 
celery* 3 dracnms; extract of orange peel, 
soluble, 1 drachm; hot water enough to 
make 2 (quarts, . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONDIMENTS 



RELISHES: 

Digestive Relish. — 

I.— Two ounces Jamaica ginger; 2 
ounces black peppercorns; 1 ounce mus- 
tard seed; 1 ounce coriander fruit (seed); 
1 ouDce pimento (allspice); } ounce 
mace; i ounce cloves; } ounce nutmegs; 
\ ounce chili pods; S drachms cardamom 
seeds; 4 ounces garlic; 4 ounces escha- 
lots; 4 pints malt vinegar. 

Bruise spices, garlic, etc., and boil in 
vinegar for 15 minutes and strain. To 
this add 2A pints mushroom ketchup; 
U pints India soy. 

A^in simmer for 15 minuted and 
strain through muslin. 

II.— One pound sov; 50 ounces best 
megar; 4 ounces ketchup; 4 ounces gar- 
iie; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 ounces capsi- 
cum; } ounce cloves; J ounce mace; } 
ounce cinnamon; 1 drachm cardamom 
seeds. Boil well and strain. 

Lincolnshire Relish. — Two ounces gar- 
lic; 2 ounces Jamaica ginger; 3 ounces 
black peppercorns; } ounce cayenne pep- 
per; \ ounce ossein; } ounce nutmeg; 
i ounces salt; 1} pints India soy. 
Enough malt vinegar to make 1 gallon. 
Bruise spices, garlic, etc., and simmer 
in i a gdlon of vinegar for 20 minutes, 
strain and add soy and sufficient vinegar 
to make 1 gallon, then boil for 5 minutes. 
Keep in bulk as long as possible. 

Curry Powder. — 

I.— Coriander seed 6 drachms 

Turmeric 5 scruples 

Fresh ginger 4} dracnms 

Cumin seed 18 grains 

Black pepper 54 grains 

Poppy seed 94 grains 

Garlic 2 heads 

Cinnamon 1 scruple 

Cardamom 5 seeds 

Cloves 8 only 

Chillies 1 or 2 pods 

Grated cocoanut. ... i nut 

IL — Coriander seed J pound 

Turmeric J pound 

Cinnamon seed 2 ounces 

Cayenne . . . . » J ounce 

Mustard.. 1 ounce 

Ground ginger 1 ounce 

Allspice i ounce 

Fenugreek seed 2 ounces 

TABLE SAUCES: 

Worcestershire Sauce. — 

Pimento 2 drachms 

Clove 1 drachm 

Black pepper 1 drachm 

Ginger 1 drachm 

Curi7 powder 1 ounce 



Capsicum 1 drachm 

Mustard 2 ounces 

Shallots, bruised 2 ounces 

Salt 2 ounces 

Brown sugar 8 ounces 

Tamarinds 4 ounces 

Sherry wine 1 pint 

Wine vinegar 2 pints 

The spices must be freshly bruised. 
The ingredients are to simmer together 
with the vinegar for an hour, adding 
more of the vinegar as it is lost by evap- 
oration; then aod the wine, ana if de- 
sired some caramel coloring. Set aside 
f or a week, strain, and botue. 

Table Sauce. — Brown sugar, 16 parts; 
tamarinds, 16 parts; onions, 4 parts; 
powdered ginger, 4 parts; salt, 4 parts; 
garlic, 2 parts; cayenne, 2 parts; soy, 2 
parts; ripe apples, 64 parts; mustard 
powder, 2 parts; curry powder, I part; 
vinegar, quantity sufficient. Pare and 
core the apples, boil them in sufficient 
vinegar with the tamarinds and raisins 
untilsoft, then pulp through a fine sieve. 
Pound the onions and garlic in a mortar 
and add the pulp to that of the apples. 
Then add the other ingredients and vin- 
egar, 60 parts; heat to boiling, cool, and 
add sherry wine, 10 parts, and enough 
vinegar to make the sauce just pourable. 
If a sweet sauce is desired add sufficient 
treacle before the final boiling. 

Epicure's Sauce. — Eight ounces tam- 
arinds; 12 ounces sultana raisins; 2 
ounces garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 
ounces horse-radish root; 2 ounces black 
pepper ; i ounce chili pods ; 8 ounces 
raw Jamaica ginger; 1} pounds golden 
syrup; 1 pound burnt sugar (caramel); 
1 ounce powdered cloves; 1 pint India 
soy; 1 gallon malt vitiegar. Bruise roots, 
spices, etc., and boil in vinegar for 15 
minutes, then strain. To the strained 
liquor add golden syrup, soy, and burnt 
sugar, then simmer for 10 minutes. 

Piccalilli Sauce. — One drachm chili 
pods; 1} ounces black peppercorns; 
« ounce pimento; } ounce garhc; i gal- 
lon malt vinegar. Bruise spices and 
garlic, boil in the vinegar for 10 minutes, 
and strain. 

One ounce ground Jamaica ginger; 
1 ounce turmeric; 2 ounces flower of mus- 
tard; 2 ounces powdered natal arrowroot; 
8 ounces strong acetic acid. Rub pow- 
ders in a mortar with acetic acid and 
add to above, then boil for 5 minutes, 
or until it thickens. 

FLAVORING SPICES. 

I. — Five ounces powdered cinnamon 
bark; 2} ounces powdered cloves; 2} 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



214 



CONDIMENTS 



ounces powdered nutmegs; IJ ounces 
powdered caraway seeds; IJ ounces 
powdered coriander seeds; 1 ounce pow- 
dered Jamaica einger; i ounce powdered 
allspice. Let all be dry and in fine pow- 
der. Mix and pass through a sieve. 

II. — Pickling Spice. — Ten pounds 
small Jamaica ginger; 2} pounds black 
peppercorns; if pounds white pepper- 
corns; 1} pounds allspice; f pound long 
pepper; 1^ pounds mustard seed; } 
pound chill pods. Cut up ginger and 
long pepper into small pieces, and mix 
all the other ingredients intimately. 

One ounce to each pint of boiling vin- 
egar is sufficient, but it may be made 
stronger if desired hot. 

Essence of Savory Spices. — Two and 
one-half ounces black peppercorns; 1 
ounce pimento; } ounce nutmeg; A ounce 
mace; J ounce cloves; J ounce cinnamon 
bark; \ ounce caraway seeds; 20 grains 
cayenne pepper; 15 ounces spirit of wine; 
6 ounces distilled water. Bruise all the 
spices and having mixed spirit and water, 
digest in mixture 14 days, shaking fre- 
quently, then filter. 

MUSTARD: 

The Prepared Mustards of Commerce. 
— The mustard, i. e., the flower or pow- 
dered seed, used in preparing the different 
condiments, is derived from three varie- 
ties of Brassica (Crvcifera:) — Brassica 
alba L.j Brassica nigra, and Brassica 
juncea. The first yields the "white** 
seed of commerce, which produces a mild 
mustard; the second the "black** seed, 
yielding the more pungent powder; and 
the latter a verv pungent and oily mus- 
tard, much employed oy Russians. The 
pungency of the condiment is also af- 
fected by the method of preparing the 
paste, excessive heat destroying the 
sharpness completely. The pungency 
is further controlled and tempered, in 
the cold processes, by the addition of 
wheat or rye flour, which also has the 
advantage of serving as a binder of the 
mustard. The mustard flour is pre- 
pared by first decorticating the seed, 
then grinding to a fine powder, the ex- 
pression of the fixed oil from which 
completes the process. This oil, unlike 
the volatile, is of a mild, pleasant taste, 
and of a greenish color, wnich, it is said, 
makes it valuable in the sophistication 
and imitation of "olive** oils, refined, 
cottonseed, or peanut oil being thus con- 
verted into huile merge de Lucca, Flor- 
ence, or some other noted brand of olive 
oil. It is also extensively used for illu- 
minating purposes, especially in south- 
ern Russia. 



The flavors, other than that of the 
mustard itself, of the various^ prepara- 
tions are imparted by the judicious use 
of spices — cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, 
pimento, etc. — aromatic herbs, such as 
thyme, sage, chervil, parslev, mint, 
marjoram, ^ tarragon, etc., and finally 
chives, onions, shallots, leeks, garlic, 
etc. 

In preparing the mustards on a large 
scale, the mustard flower and wheat 
or rye flour are mixed and ground to a 
smooth paste with vinegar, must (un- 
fermented grape luice), wine, or what- 
ever is used in tne preparation, a mill 
similar to a drug or paint mill being used 
for the piA-pose. This dough immedi- 
ately beconies spongv, and in this^ condi- 
tion, technically called "cake,** is used 
as the basis of the various mustards of 
commerce. 

Mustard Cakes. — In the mixture, the 
amount of flour used depends on the 
pungency of the mustard nower, and the 
flavor desired to be imparted to the fin- 
ished product. The cakes are broadly 
divided into the yellow and the brown. 
A general formula for the yellow cake is: 

lellow mustard, from 20 to 30 per 
cent; salt, from 1 to 3 per cent; spices, 
from } to i of 1 per cent; wheat flour, 
from 8 to 12 per cent. 

Vinegar, must, or wine, complete the 
mixture. 

The brown cake is made with black 
mustard, and contains about the follow- 
i ng proportions : 

Black mustard, from 20 to 30 per 
cent; salt, from 1 to 3 per cent; spices, 
from i to J of 1 per cent; wheat or rye 
flour, from 10 to 15 per cent. 

The variations are so wide, however, 
that it is impossible to give exact pro- 
portions. In the manufacture of table 
mustards, in fact, as in every other kind 
of manufacture, excellence is attained 
only b^ practice and the exercise of 
sound judgment and taste by the manu- 
facturer. 

Moutarde des Jesuittes. — Twelve sar- 
dels and 280 caperS are crushed into a 
paste and stirrea into 3 pints of boiling 
wine vinegar. Add 4 ounces of brown 
cake and 8 ounces of yellow cake and 
mix well. 

Kirschner Wine Mustard. — Reduce 30 
quarts of freshly expressed grape juice 
to half that quantity, by boiling^ over a 
moderate fire, on a water bath. Dissolve 
in the boiling liquid 5 pounds of sugar, 
and pour the syrup through a colander 
containing 2 or 3 large horse-radishes cut 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONDIMENTS 



215 



into very thin slices and laid on a coarse 
towel spread over the bottom and sides 
of the colander. To the colate add the 
following, all in a state of fine powder: 
Cardamom seeds .... 2} drachms 

Nutmeg ii drachms 

Cloves 41 drachms 

Cinnamon 1 ounce 

Ginger 1 ounce 

Brown mustard cake . 6 pounds 
Yellow mustard cake . 9 pounds 
Grind all together to a perfectly 
smooth paste, and strain several times 
through muslin. 

Duesseldorff Mustmrd.— • 

Brown mustard cake. 10 ounces 
Yellow mustard cake. 48 ounces 

Boiling water 96 ounces 

Wine vinegar 64 ounces 

Cinnamon 5 drachms 

Cloves 15 drachms 

Sugar 64 ounces 

Wine, gorod white .... 64 ounces 
Mix after the general directions given 
above. 

German Table Mustard.— 

Laurel leaves 8 ounces 

Cinnamon 5 drachms 

Cardamom seeds.... 2 drachms 

Su^ar 64 ounces 

Wme vinegar 96 ounces 

Brown cake 10 ounces 

Yellow cake 48 ounces 

Mix after general directions as given 
above. 

Ej-ems Mustard, Sweet. — 

Yellow cake 10 pounds 

Brown cake 20 pounds 

Fresh grape juice .... 6 pints 

Mix and boil down to the proper con- 
sistency. 

Krems Mustard, Sour. — 

Brown mustard flour. SO parts 
Yellow mustard flour. 10 parts 
Grape juice, fresh. ... 8 parts 

Mix and boil down to a paste and then 
stir in 8 parts of wine vinegar. 

Tarragon Mustard. — 

Brown mustard flour . 40 parts 

Yellow mustard flour. 20 parts 

Vinegar 6 parts 

Tarragon vinegar. ... 6 parts 
Boil the mustard in the vinegar and 
add the tarragon vinegar. 

Tarragon Mustard, Sharp. — This is 
prepared by adding to every 100 pounds 
of the above 21 ounces of white pepper, 
5 ounces of pimento, and 2} ounces of cloves. 



mixing thoroughly by grinding together 
in a mill, then put in a warm spot and let 
stand for 10 days or 2 weeks. Finally 
strain. 

Moutarde auz Epices. — 

Mustard flour, yellow. 10 pounds 
Mustard flour, brown. 40 pounds 

Tarragon 1 pound 

Basil, herb 5 ounces 

Laurel leaves 12 drachms 

White pepper 8 ounces 

Cloves 12 drachms 

Mace 2 drachms 

Vinegar 1 gallon 

Mix the herbs and macerate them in 
the vinegar to exhaustion, then add to 
the mustards, and grind together. Set 
aside for a week or ten days, then strain 
through muslin. 

In all the foregoing formulas where 
the amount of salt is not specified, it is to 
be added according to the taste or dis- 
cretion of the manufacturer. 

Mustard Vinegar. — 

Celery, chopped fine. 82 parts 

Tarragon, the fresh 

herb 6 parts 

Cloves, coarsely pow- 
dered 6 parts 

Onions, chopped fine 6 parts 

Lemon peel, fresh, 

chopped fine S parts 

White-wine vinegar. . 575 parts 

White wine 515 parts 

Mustard seed, 

crushed 100 parts 

Mix and macerate together for a week 
or 10 days in a warm place, then strain 
off. 

Ravigotte Mustard. — 

Parsley 2 parts 

Chervil 2 parts 

Chives 2 parts 

Cloves 1 part 

Garlic 1 part 

Thyme 1 part 

Tarragon 1 part 

Salt 8 parU 

Olive oil 4 parts 

White- wine vinegar. . 128 parts 
Mustard flower, sufiScient. 
Cut or bruise the plants and spices, 
and macerate them in the vinegar for 15 
or 20 davs. Strain the liquid through a 
cloth an^ add the salt. Rub up mustard 
with the olive oil in a vessel set in ice, 
adding a little of the spiced vinegar from 
time to time, until the whole is incorpo- 
rated and the complete mixture makes 
384 parts. , . . 

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S16 



CONDIMENl^— CONtTSCTIONERY 



CONDIMENTS, TESTS FOR ADUL- 
TERATED: 
See Foods. 

CONDITION POWDERS FOR CAT- 
TLE: 

See Veterinary Formulas. 

CONDUCTIVITY OF ALUMINUM AL- 
LOYS: 

See Alloys. 



Confectioneiy 

Cream Bonbons for Hoarseness. — 
Stir into 500 parts of cream 500 parts of 
white su^ar. Put in a pan and cook, 
with continuous stirring, until it becomes 
brown and viscid. Now put in a bak- 
ing tin and smooth out, as neatly as pos- 
sible, to the thickness of, sav, twice that 
of the back of a table knife and let it 
harden. Before it gets completely hard 
draw lines with a knife across the sur- 
face in such manner that when it is quite 
hard it will break along them, easily, into 
bits the size of a lozenge. 

Nut Candy Sticks.— Cook to 320*» F. 
8 pounds best sugar in ^ pints water, 
with 4 pounds glucose added. Pour out 
on an oiled slab and add 5 pounds al- 
monds, previously blanched, cut in small 
pieces, and dried in the^ drying room. 
Mix up well together to incorporate the 
nuts thoroughly with the sugar. When 
it has cooled enough to be handled, form 
into a round mass on the slab and spin 
out in long, thin sticks. 

Fig Sauares. — Place 5 pounds of 
sugar and 5 pounds of glucose in a cop- 
per pan, with water enough to dissolve 
the sugar. Set on the fire, and when it 
starts to boil add 5 pounds of ground 
figs. Stir and cook to 240° on the ther- 
mometer. Set off the fire, and then add 
5 pounds of fine cocoanuts; mix well and 
pour out on greased marble, roll smooth, 
and cut like caramels. 

Caramels. — Heat 10 pounds sugar and 
S pounds glucose in a copper kettle until 
dissolved. Add cream to the mixture, 
at intervals, until 2 J Quarts are used. 
Add 2i pounds caramel butter and 12 
ounces parafiine wax to the mixture. 
Cook to a rather stiff ball, add nuts, pour 
out between iron bars and, when cool 
enough, cut into strips. For the white 
unes flavor with vanilla, and add 2 
pounds melted chocolate liquor for the 
chocolate caramel when nearly cooked. 

Candy Orange Drops.— It is compar- 



atively easy to make a hard candy, but 
to put the material into "drop" form 
apparently requires experience and a 
machine. To make the candy itself, 
put, say, a pint of water into a suitable 
pan or kettle, heat to boiling, and add 
gradually to it 2 pounds or more of sugar, 
stirring well so as to avoid the risk of 
burning the sugar. Continue boiling 
the syrup so formed until a little of it 
poured on a cold slab forms a mass of the 
required hardness. If the candy is to be 
of orange flavor, a little fresh oil of or- 
ange is added just before the mass is 
ready to set and the taste is improved 
according to the general view at least 
by adding, also, say, 2 drachms of citric 
acid dissolved in a very little water. As 
a coloring an infusion of safflower or 
tincture of turmeric is used. 

To make such a mass into tablets, it is 
necessary only to^ pour out on a well- 
greased slab, turning the edges back if 
inclined to run, until the candy is firm, 
and then scoring with a knife so that 
it can easily be broken into pieces when 
cold. To make "drops'* a suitable 
mold is necessary. 

Experiment as to the suflSciency of the 
boiling in making candy may be saved 
and greater certainty of a good result se- 
cured bv the use of a chemical thermom- 
eter. As the syrup is boiled and the 
water evaporates the temperature of the 
liquid rises. When it reaches 220® F., 
the sugar is then in a condition to vieid 
the "thread" form; at 240*» "soft Gall" 
is formed; at 245^ "hard ball"; at 252°. 
"crack"; and at 290^ "hard crack." 
By simply suspending the thermometer 
in the liquid and observing it from time 
to time, one may know exactly when to 
end the boiling. 

Gum Drops. — Grind 25 pounds of 
Arabian or Senegal gum, place it in a 
copper pan or in a steam jacket kettle, 
and pour 3 gallons of boiling water over 
it; stir it up well. Now set the pan with 
the gum into another pan containing 
boiling water and stir tne gum slowly 
until aissolved, then strain it through a 
Mo. 40 sieve. Cook 19 pounds of sugar 
with sufficient water, 2 pounds of glu- 
cose, and a teaspoonful of cream of tar- 
tar to a stiff ball, pour it over the gum, 
mix well, set the pan on the kettle with the 
hot water, and let it steiim for lA hours, 
taking care that the water in the kettle 
does not run dry; then open the door of 
the stove and cover the fire with ashes, 
and let the gum settle for nearly an hour, 
then remove the scum which has settled 
on top, flavor and ruiyout withithe fun- 
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CONFECTIONERY 



«n 



nel dropper into the starch impressions, 
and place the trays in the drying room 
for 2 days, or until dry; then take the 
drops out of the starch, clean them off 
well and place them in crystal pans, one 
or two layers. Cook sugar and water 
to S4 J® on the syrup gauge and pour over 
the drops lukewarm. Let stand in a 
moderately warm place over night, then 
drain the syrup on, and about an hour 
afterwards knock the gum drops out on a 
clean table, pick them apart, and place 
on trays until dry, when they are reaay for 
iale. 

A Good Summer Taffy. — Place in a 
kettle 4 pounds of sugar, 8 pounds of 
glucose, and lA pints of water; when it 
boils drop in a piece of butter half the 
size of an egg and about 2 ounces of 
paraffine wax. Cook to 262®, pour on a 
slab, and when cool enough, pull, flavor, 
and color if you wish. JPuU until light, 
then spin out on the table in strips about 3 
inches wide and cut into 4- or 4}-inch 
lengths. Then wrap in wax paper for 
the counter. This taffy keeps long with- 
out being grained by the heat. 

Chewing Candy. — Place 20 pounds of 
sugar in a copper pan, add 20 pounds of 
glucose, and enough water to easily dis- 
solve the sugar. Set on the fire or cook 
in the steam pan in 2 quarts of water. 
Have a pound of egg albumen soaked in 
2 quarts of water. Beat this like eggs 
into a very stiff froth, add gradually the 
sugar and glucose; when well beaten up, 
add 5 pounds of powdered sugar, and 
beat at very little heat either in the steam 
beater or on a pan of boiling water until 
light, and does not stick to the back of 
the hand, flavor with vanilla, and put in 
trays dusted with fine sugar. When cold 
it may be cut, or else it mav be stretched 
out on a sugar-dusted table, cut, and 
wrapped in wax paper. This chewing 
canay has to be kept in a very dry place, 
or else it will run and get sticky. 

Montpelier Cough Drops. — 

Brown sugar 10 pounds 

Tartaric acid 2 ounces 

Cream of tartar J ounce 

Water ij quarts 

Anise-seed flavoring, 
quantity sufficient. 
Melt the sugar in the water, and when 
at a sharp bou add the cream of tartar. 
Cover the pan for 5 minutes. Remove 
the lid and let the sugar boil up to crack 
degree. Turn out the batch on an oiled 
slab, and when cool enough to handle 
mold in the acid and flavoring. Pass it 
through the acid drop rollers, and when 



the drops are chipped up, and before 
sifting, rub some icing with them. 

Medicated Cough Drops. — 

Light-brown sugar. . . 14 pounds 

Tartaric acid 1) ounces 

Cream of tartar J ounce 

Water 2 quarts 

Anise-seed, cayenne, 
clove, and pepper- 
mint flavoring, a few 
drops of each. 
Proceed as before prescribed, but 
when sufficientlv cool pass the batch 
through the acid tablet rollers and dust 
with sugar. 

Horehound Candy. — 

Dutch crushed sugar . 10 pounds 
Dried horehound leaves 2 ounces 

Cream of tartar } ounce 

Water 2 quarts 

Anise-seed flavoring, 
quantity sufficient. 
Pour the water on the leaves and let it 
gently simmer till reduced to 8 pints; then 
strain the infusion through muslin, and 
add the liquid to the sugar. Put the pan 
containing the syrup on the fire, and 
when at a sharp bou add the cream of 
tartar. Put the lid on the pan for 5 min- 
utes; then remove it, and let the sugar 
boil to stiff boil degree. Take the pan 
off the fire and rub portions of the 
sugar against the side until it produces a 
creamy appearance; then add the flavor- 
ing. Stir all well, and pour into square 
tin frames, previously well oiled. 

Menthol Cough Drops. — 

Gelatin 1 ounce 

Glycerine (by weight) 2 J ounces 
Orange-flower water.. 2§ ounces 

Mentnol 5 grains 

Rectified spirits I drachm 

Soak the gelatin in the water for 2 
hours, then neat on a water bath until 
dissolved, and add 1 1 ounces of glycerine. 
Dissolve the menthol in the spirit, mix 
with the remainder of the glycerine, add 
to the glyco-gelatin mass, and pour into 
an oilea tin tray (such as the lia of a bis- 
cuit box). When the mass is cold divide 
into 10 dozen pastilles. 

Menthol pastilles are said to be an 
excellent remedy for tickling cough as 
well as laryngitis. They should be 
freshly prepared, and cut oblong, so that 
the patient may take half of one, or less, 
as may be necessary. 

Violet Flavor for Candy. —Violet fla- 
vors, like violet perfumes, are very com- 
plex mixtures, and their imitation is. a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



218 



CONFECTIONERY 



correspondingly difficult undertaking. 
The basis is vanilla (or vanillin), rose, 
and orris, with a very little of some pun- 
gent oil to bring up the flavor. The fol- 
lowing will give a basis upon which a 
satisfactory flavor may be built: 

Oil of orris 1 drachm 

Oil of rose 1 drachm 

Vanillin 2 drachms 

Cumarin SO grains 

Oil of clove 30 minims 

Alcohol 11 ounces 

Water 5 ounces 

Make a solution, adding the water last. 

CONFECTIONERY COLORS.— The 

following are excellent and entirely 
harmless coloring agents for the pur- 
poses named: 

Red. — Cochineal syrup prepared as 
follows: 

Cochineal, in coarse 

powder 6 parts 

Potassium carbonate 2 parts 

Distilled water 15 parts 

Alcohol 12 parts 

Simple syrup enough 

to make 500 parts 

Rub up the potassium carbonate and 
the cochineal together, adding the water 
and alcohol, little by little, under constant 
trituration. Set aside over night, then 
add the syrup and lilte^. 

Pink,— 

Carmine 1 part 

Liquor potassae 6 parts 

Rose water, enough 

to make 48 parts 

Mix. Should the color be too high, 
dilute with water until the requisite tint 
is acquired. 

Orange. — Tincture of red sandalwood, 
1 part; ethereal tincture of orlean, quan- 
tity sufficient. Add the tincture of or- 
lean to the sandalwood tincture until the 
desired shade of orange is obtained. 

A red added to any of the yellows gives 
an orange color. 

The aniline colors made by the "Ak- 
tiengesellschaft fiir Anilin - Fabrika- 
tion," of Berlin, are absolutely non-toxic, 
and can be used for the purposes recom- 
mended, i. e., the coloration of syrups, 
cakes, candies, etc., with perfect confi- 
dence in their innocuity. 

Pastille Yellow.— 

Citron yellow II 7 parts 

Grape sugar, first 

quality 1 part 

White dextrine 2 parts 



Sap-Blue Paste.— 

Dark blue 8 parts 

Grape sugar 1 part 

Water 6 parts 

Sugar-Black Paste.— 

Carbon black 3 parts 

Grape sugar 1 part 

Water 6 parts 

Cinnabar Red.* — 

Scarlet. ......* 65 parts 

White dextrine SO parts 

Potato flour 5 parts 

Bluish Rose.*— 

Grenadine 65 parts 

White dextrine 30 parts 

Potato flour 5 parts 

Yellowish Rose. — 

Rosa II 60 parta 

Citron yellow 5 parts 

White dextrine 30 parts 

Potato flour 5 parts 

Violet,— 

Red violet. 65 parts 

White dextrine 30 parts 

Potato flour 5 parts 

Carmine Green. — 

Woodruff (Waldmeis- 

ter) creen 55 parts 

Rosa II 5 parts 

Dextrine 35 parts 

Potato flour 5 parts 

To the colors marked with an asterisk 
(*) add, for every 4 pounds, 4^ ounces, a 
grain and a half each of potassium iodide 
and sodium nitrate. Colors given in 
form of powders should be dissolved in 
hot water for use. 

Yellow. — Various shades of yellow 
majr be obtained by the maceration of 
Besiello saffron, or turmeric, or grains 
d*Avi^non in alcohol until a strong tinc- 
ture IS obtained. Dilute with water 
until the desired shade is obtained. An 
aqueous solution of quercitrine also 
gives an excellent yellow. 

Blue.— 

Indigo carmine 1 part 

Water 2 parts 

Mix. 

Indigo carmine is a beautiful, power- 
ful, and harmless agent. It may usually 
be bought commercially, but if it can- 
not be readily obtained, proceed as fol- 
lows: 

Into a capsule put 30 grains of indigo 
in powder, place on a water bath, and 
heat to dryness. When entirely dry put 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONFECTIONERY— COPPER 



219 



into a large porcelain mortar (the sub- 
stance swells enormously under subse- 
quent treatment — hence the necessity 
for a large, or comparatively large, mor- 
tar) and cautiously add, drop by drop, 
HO grains, by weight, of sulphuric acid, 
C. P.. stirring continuously during the 
addition. Cover the swollen mass close- 
Iv, and set aside for 24 ^ hours. Now 
add 3 fluidounces of distilled water, a 
few drops at a time, rubbing or stirring 
continuously. Transfer the liquid thus 
obtained to a tall, narrow, glass cylinder 
or beaker, cover and let stand for 4 days, 
nving the liquid an occasional stirring. 
Make a strong solution of sodium car- 
bonate or bicarbonate, and at the end of 
the time named cautiously neutralize the 
liquid, adding the carbonate a little at a 
time, stirring the indigo solution and 
testing it after each addition, as the least 
excess of alkali will cause the indigo to 
separate out, and fall in a doughy mass. 
Stop when the test shows the near ap- 
proach of neutrality, as the slight re- 
maining acidity will not affect the taste 
or the properties of the liquid. Filter, 
and evaporate in the water bath to dry- 
ness. The resultant matter is sulphin- 
digotate of potassium, or the "Indigo 
carmine" of commerce. 

Tincture of indigo may also be used as 
a harmless blue. 

Grreen. — The addition of the solution 
indigo carmine to an infusion of any of 
the matters given under "yellow" will pro- 
duce a green color. Tincture of crocus 
and glycerine in equal parts, with the 
addition of indigo-carmine solution, also 
gives a fine green. A solution of com- 
mercial chlorophyll gives grass-green, in 
shades varving according to the concen- 
tration of the solution. 

Voice and Throat Lozenges. — 

Catechu 191 grains 

Tannic acid 273 grains 

Tartaric acid 273 grains 

Capsicin 30 minims 

Black-currant paste . 7 ounces 
Refined sugar. 
Mucilage of acacia, 

of each a sufficient 

quantity. 

Mix to produce 7 pounds of lozenges. 

CONSTIPATION IN BIRDS: 
See Veterinary Formulas. 

COOKING TABLE: 
See Tables. 

COOLING SCREEN: 
See Refrigeration. 



Copper 

Annealing Copper. — 

Copper is almost universally annealed 
in muffles, in which it is raised to the 
desired temperature, and subsequently 
allowed to cool either in the air or in 
water. A muffle is nothing more or less 
than a reverberatory furnrce. It is 
necessary to watch the copper carefullv, 
so that when it has reached the rignt 
temperature it may be drawn from the 
muffle and allowed to cool. This is 
important, for if the copper is heated too 
high, or is left in the muffle at the ordi- 
nary temperature of annealing too long, 
it is burnt, as the workmen say. Copper 
that has been burnt is vellow, coarsely 
granular, and exceedingly brittle — even 
more brittle at a red neat than when 
cold. 

In the case of coarse wire it is found 
that only^ the surface is burnt, while the 
interior is damaged less. This causes 
the exterior to split loose from the in- 
terior when bent or rolled, thus giving 
the appearance of a brittle copper tube 
with a copper wire snugly fittea into it. 
Cracks a half inch in depth have been 
observed on the surface of an ingot on its 
first pass through the rolls, all due to 
this exterior burning. It is apparent 
that copper that has been thus over- 
heated m the muffle is entirely unfit for 
rolling. It is found that the purer forms 
of copper are less liable to be harmed by 
overheating than samples containing 
even a small amount of impurities. 
Even the ordinary heating in a muffle 
will often suffice to burn in this manner 
the surface of some specimens of copper, 
rendering them unfit for further working. 
Copper that has been thus ruined is of 
use only to be refined again. 

As mav be inferred only the highest 

§rades of refined copper are used for 
rawing or for rolling. This is not be- 
cause the lower grades, when refined, can- 
not stand sufficiently high tests, but be- 
cause methods of working are not 
adequate to prevent these grades of cop- 
per from experiencing the deterioration 
due to overheating. 

The process of refining copper con- 
sists in an oxidizing action followed by 
a reducing action which, since it is per- 
formed by the aid of gases generated by 
stirring the melted copper with a pole, is 
called poling. The object of the oxida- 
tion is to oxidize and either volatilize or 
turn to slag all the impurities contained 
in the copper. This procedure is ma- 
terially aided by the fact that the sub-. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



820 



COPPER 



oxide of copper is freely soluble in 
metallic copper and thus penetrates to 
all parts of the copper, and parting with 
its oxygen, oxiaizes the impurities. 
The object of the reducing part of the 
refining process is to change the excess 
of the suboxide of copper to metallic 
copper. Copper containing even less 
than 1 per cent of the suboxide of copper 
shows decreased malleability and duc- 
tility, and is both cold-short and red- 
short. If the copper to be refined con- 
tains any impurities, such as arsenic or 
antimony, it is well not to remove too 
much of the oxygen in the refining proc- 
ess. If this is done, overpoled copper 
is ^ produced. In this condition it is 
brittle, granular, of a shining "yellow 
color, and more red-short than cold- 
short. When the refining has been prop- 
erly done, and neither too much nor too 
little oxvgen is present, the copper is in 
the conclition of " tough pitch, and is in 
a fit state to be worked. 

Copper is said to be "tough pitch" 
when it requires frequent bending to break 
it, and when, after it is broken, the color 
is pale red, the fracture has a silky lus- 
ter, and is fibrous like a tuft of silk. On 
hammering a piece to a thin plate it 
should show no cracks at the edge. At 
tough pitch copper offers the nighest 
degree of malleability and ductility of 
which^ a given specimen is capable. 
This is the condition in which refined 
copper is (or should be) placed on the 
market, and if it could be worked with- 
out changing this tough pitch, any 
specimen of copper that could oe brought 
to this condition would be suitable for 
rolling or drawing. But tough pitch is 
changed if oxygen is either added or 
taken from refined copper. 

By far the more important of these is 
the removal of oxygen, especially from 
those specimens that contain more than a 
mere trace of impurities. This is shown 
by the absolutely worthless condition 
of overpoled copper. The addition of 
carbon also plays a very important part 
in the production of overpoled copper. 

That the addition of oxygen to refined 
copper is not so damaging is shown by 
the fact that at present nearly all the cop- 
per that is worked is considerably oxi- 
dized at some stage of the process, and 
not especially to its detriment. 

Burnt copper is nothing more or less 
than copper m the overpoled condition. 
This is brought about by the action of 
reducing gases in the muffle. By this 
means the small amount of oxygen nec- 
essary to give the copper its tough pitch 
is removed. This oxygen is combined 



with impurities in the copper, and thus 
renders them inert. For example, the 
oxide of arsenic or antimony is inca- 
pable of combining more than mechan- 
ically with the copper, but when its oxy- 
gfen IS removed the arsenic or antimony 
IS left free to combine with the copper. 
This forms a brittle alloy, and one that 
corresponds almost exactly in its proper- 
ties with overpoled copper. To be sure 
overpoled copper is supposed to contain 
carbon, but Uiat this is not the essential 
ruling principle in case of annealing is 
shown by the fact that pure copper does 
not undergo this change under condi- 
tions that ruin impure copper, and also 
by the fact that the same state may be 
produced by annealing in pure hydro- 
gen and thus removing the oxygen that 
renders the arsenic or antimony inert. 
No attempt is made to deny the well- 
known fact that carbon does combine 
with copper to the extent of 0.2 per cent 
and cause it to become exceedingly 
brittle. It is simply claimed that this is 
probably not what occurs in the pro- 
duction of so-called burnt copper during 
annealing: The amount of impurities 
capable of rendering copper easily burnt 
is exceedingly small. This may be bet- 
ter appreciated when it is considered 
that from 0.01 to 0.2 per cent expresses 
the amount of oxygen necessary to ren- 
der the impurities inert. The removal 
of this very small amount of oxygen, 
which is often so small as to be almost 
within the limits of the errors of analysis, 
will suffice to render copper overpoled 
and ruin it for any use. 

There are methods of avoiding the 
numerous accidents that may occur in 
the annealing of copper, due to a change 
of pitch. As already pointed out, the 
quality of refined copper is lowered if 
oxygen be either added to or taken from 
it. It is quite apparent, therefore, that 
a reallv good metnod of annealing cop- 
per will prevent any change in the state 
of oxidation. It is necessary to prevent 
access to the heated copper both of at- 
mospheric air, which would oxidize it, 
and of the reducing gases used in heat- 
ing the muffle, which would take oxygen 
away from it. Obviously the only way 
of accomplishing this is to inclose the 
copper wnen heated and till cool in an 
atmosphere that can neither oxidize nor 
deoxidize copper. By so doing copper 
may be heatea to the melting point and 
allowed to cool again without suffering 
as regards its pitch. There are com- 
paratively few gases that can be used for 
this purpose, but, fortunately, one which 
is exceedingly cheap- and universally 

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COPPER 



221 



prevalent fulfills all reauirements, viz., 
steam. In order to apply the principles 
enunciated it is necessary only to anneal 
copper in the ordinary^ annealing pots 
sucn as are used for iron, care being 
taken to inclose the copper while heating 
and while cooling in an atmosphere ol 
steam. This will effectually exclude air 
and prevent the ingress of gases used 
in heating the annealer. Twenty-four 
hours may be used in the process, as in 
the annealing of iron wire, with no detri- 
ment to the wire. This may seem in- 
credible to those manufacturers who 
have tried to anneal copper wire after 
the manner of annealing iron wire. By 
this method perfectly bright annealed 
wire may be produced. Such a process 
of annealing copper offers many advan- 
tages. It allows the use of a grade of 
copper that has hitherto been^ worked 
only at a great disadvantage, owing to its 
tendency to get out of pitch. It allows 
the use of annealers such as are ordi- 
narily employed for annealing iron, and 
thus cheapens the annealing consider- 
ably as compared with the present use of 
muffles. Tnere is no chance of produc- 
ing the overpoled condition from the 
I action of reducing gases used in heating 
the muffles. There is no chance of pro- 
ducing the underpoled condition due to 
the absorption ot suboxide of copper. 
None of the metal is Lost as scale, and the 
saving that is thus effected amounts to a 
considerable percentage of the total 
value of the copper. The expense and 
time of cleaning are wholly saved. In- 
cidentally brignt annealed copper is 
produced by a process which is appli- 
cable to copper of any shape, size, or 
condition — a product that has hitherto 
been obtained only by processes (mostly 
secret) which are too cumbersome and 
too expensive for extensive use; and, as 
is the case with at least one process, with 
the danger of producing the overpoled 
condition, often in only a small section 
of the wire, but thus ruining the whole 
piece. 

COPPER COLORING: 

Blackinfi^ Copper.— To give a copper 
article a black covering, clean it with 
emery paper, heat gently in a Bunsen or 
a spirit flame, immerse for 10 seconds in 
solution of copper filings in dilute nitric 
acid, and heat again. 

Red Coloring of Copper. — A fine red 
color may be given to copper by gradu- 
ally heating it in an air bath. Prolonged 
heating at a comparatively low temper- 
ature, or rapid heating at a high tem- 
perature, produces the same result. As 



soon as the desired color is attained 
the metal should be rapidly cooled by 
quenching in water. The metal thua 
colored may be varnished. 

To Bye Copper Parts Violet and Or- 
ange. — rolished copper acquires an 
orange-like color leaning to gold, when 
dipped for a few seconds into a solution 
of crystallized copper acetate. A hand- 
some violet is obtained by placing the 
metal for a few minutes in a solution of 
antimony chloride and rubbing it after- 
wards with a piece of wood covered with 
cotton. Dunng this operation the cop- 
per must be heated to a degree bearable 
to the hand. A crystalline appearance 
is produced by boiling the article in 
copper sulphate. 

Pickle for Copper.— Take nitric acid, 
100 parts; kitchen salt, 2 parts; calcined 
soot, 2 parts; or nitric acici. 10 parts; sul- 
phuric acid, 10 parts; hydrochloric acid, 
1 part. As these bleaching baths attack 
the copper quickly, the objects must be 
left in only for a^ few seconds, washing 
them afterwards in plenty of water, and 
drying in sawdust, bran, or spent tan. 

Preparations of Copper Water. — I. — 
Water, 1,000 parts; oxalic acid, 30 parts; 
spirit of wine, 100 parts; essence of tur- 
pentine, 50 parts; fine tripoli, 100 parts. 

II, — Water, 1,000 parts; oxalic acid, 
30 parts; alcohol, 50 parts; essence of 
turpentine, 40 parts; fine tripoli, 50 
parts. 

III. — Sulphuric acid, 800 parts; sul- 
phate of alumina, 80 parts; water, 5^0 
parts. 

Tempered Copper. — Objects made of 
copper may be satisfactorily tempered 
by subjecting them to a certain decree 
of heat for a determined period of time 
and bestrewing them with powdered 
sulphur during the heating. While hot 
the objects are plunged into a bath of 
blue vitriol; after the bath they may be 
heated again. 

COPPER ALLOYS: 

See Alloys. 

COPPER CLEANING: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods. 

COPPER ETCHING: 

See Etching. 

COPPER IN FOOD: 

See Food. 

COPPER LACQUERS: 

See Lacquers. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



COPPER— COPYING PRINTED PICTURES 



COPPER PAPER: 

See Paper, Metallic. 

COPPER PATINIZING AND PLATING : 
See Plating. 

COPPER POLISHES: 
See Polishes. 

COPPER, SEPARATION OF GOLD 
FROM: 

See Gold. 

COPPER SOLDER: 

See Solders. 

COPPER VARNISHES: 

See Varnishes. 

COPYING PRINTED PICTURES. 

The so-called "metallic" paper used 
for steam-engine indicator cards has a 
smooth surface, chemically prepared so 
that black lines can be drawn upon it 
with pencils made of brass, copper, sil- 
ver, aluminum, or any of the softer 
metals. When used on the indicator it 
receives the faint line drawn by a brass 
point at one end of the pencil arm, and 
its special advantage over ordinary paper 
is that the metallic pencil slides over its 
surface with very little friction, and keeps 
its point much longer than a graphite 
pencil. 

This paper can be used as a transfer 
paper for copying engravings or sketches, 
or anything printed or written in ink or 
drawn in pencil. 

The best copies can be obtained by 
following the directions below: Lay 
the metallic transfer paper, face up, upon 
at least a dozen sheets of blank paper, 
and lay the print face down upon it. On 
the back of the print place a sheet of 
heavy paper, or thin cardboard, and run 
the ruobing tool over this protecting 
sheet. In tnis manner it is comparative- 
ly easy to prevent slipping, and prints 8 
or 10 inches on a sicle may be copied 
satisfactorily. 

Line drawings printed from relief 
plates, or pictures with sharp contrast 
of black and white, without any half- 
tones, give the best copies. Very few 
half-tones can be transferred satisfac- 
torily; almost all give streaked, indis- 
tinct copies, and many of the results are 
worthless. 

The transfer taken ofif as described is 
a reverse of the original print. If the 
question of right and left is not impor- 
tant this reversal will seldom be objec- 
tionable, for it is easy to read back- 
ward what few letters generally occur. 
However, if desired, the paper may be 
held up to the light and examined from 
the back, or placed before a mirror and 



viewed by means of its reflected image, 
when the true relations of right and left 
will be seen. Moreover, if sufficiently 
important, an exact counterpart of the 
original may be taken from the reversed 
copy by laying another sheet face down- 
ward upon it, and rubbing on the back 
of the fresh sheet just as was done in 
making the reversed copy. The im- 
pression thus produced will be fainter 
than the first, out almost always it can 
be made dark enough to show a distinct 
outline which may afterwards be re- 
touched with a lead pencil. 

For indicator cards the paper is pre- 
pared by coating one surface with a suit- 
able compound, usually zinc oxide mixed 
with a little starch and enough glue to 
make it adhere. After drying it is 
passed lietween calendar rolls under great 
pressure. The various brands manii- 
lactured for the trade, though perhaps 
equally good for indicator diagrams, are 
not equally well suited for copying. If 
paper of firmer texture could be prepared 
with the same surface finish, probably 
much larger copies could be produced. 

Other Kinds of paper, notably the 
heavy plate papers used for some of the 
best trade catalogues, possess this trans- 
fer property to a slight degree, though 
they will not receive marks from a me- 
tallic pencil. The latter feature would 
seem to recommend them for transfer 
purposes, making them less likely to be- 
come soiled by contact with metallic 
objects, but so far no kind has been 
found which will remove enough ink 
to give copies anywhere near as dark as 
the indicator paper. 

Fairiy good transfers can be made 
from almost any common printers' ink. 
but some inks copy much better than 
others, and some yield only the faintest 
impressions. The length of time since a 
picture was printed does not seem to de- 
termine its copying quality. Some very 
old prints can be copied better than new 
ones; in fact, it was by accidental trans- 
fer to an indicator card from a book 
nearly a hundred years old that the 
peculiar property of this "metallic" 
paper was discovered. 

Copying Process on Wood. — If wood 
surfaces are exposed to direct sunlight 
the wood will exhibit, after 2 weeks 
action, a browning of dark tone in the 
exposed places. Certain parts of the 
surface being covered up during the en- 
tire exposure to the sun, they retain their 
original shade and are set off clearly and 



harply against the parts browned by the 
unlight. Based oiythis propert 



sunlig! 



property ot the 



COPYING PROCESSES— CORKS 



228 



wood is a sun-copying process on wood. 
The method is used for producing tarsia 
in imitation on wood. ^ A pierced stencil 
of tin, wood, or paper is laid on a freshly 
planed plate oi wood, pasting it on in 
places to avoid shifting, and put into a 
common copying frame. To prevent the 
wood from warping a stretcner is em- 
ployed, whereupon expose to the sun for 
from 8 to 14 days. After the brown 
^hade has appeared the design obtained 
» partly fixea by polishing or bjr a coating 
of varnish, lacquer, or wax. Best suited 
for such works are the pine woods, espe- 
cially the 5-year fir and the cembra pine, 
which, after the exposure, show a yellow- 
ish brown tone of handsome golden gloss, 
that stands out boldly, especially after 
subsequent polishing, anci cannot be 
replaced by any stain or by pyrography. 
The design is sharper and clearer than 
that produced by painting. In short, 
the total effect is pleasing. 

How to Reproduce Old Prints. — Pre- 
pare a bath as follows: Sulphuric acid, 
3 to 5 parts (according to the antiquitv of 
print, thickness of paper, etc.); alcohol, 
3 to 5 parts; water, 100 parts. In this 
soak the print from 5 to 15 minutes (the 
time depending on age, etc., as above), 
remove, spread face downward on a 
glass or ebonite plate, and wash thor- 
oughly in a genUe stream of running 
water. If the paper is heavy, reverse 
the sides, and let the water flow over 
the face of the print. Remove care- 
fully and place on a heavy sheet of 
blotting paper, cover with another, and 
press out every drop of water possible, 
where a wringing machine is convenient 
and sufficiently wide, passing the blot- 
ters and print through the rollers is bet- 
ter than mere pressing with the hands. 
The print, still moist, is then laid face 
upward on a heavy glass plate (a mar- 
ble slab or a lithographers* stone an- 
swers equally well), and smoothed out. 
With a^ very soft sponge go over the sur- 
face with a thin coating of gum-arabic 
water. The print is now ready for ink- 
ing, which is done exactly as in litho- 
graphing, with a roller and printers' or 
litho^aphers' ink, cut with oil of tur- 
pentine. Suitable paper is then laid on 
and rolled with a dry roller. This gives 
a reverse image of the print, which is 
then applied to a zinc plate or a lithogra- 
phers* stone, and as many prints as de- 
sired pulled off in the usual lithographing 
raethod. When carefully done and the 
nght kind of paper used, it is said that 
the imitation of tne original is perfect in 
every detail. , 



To Copy Old Letten, ManuscriDtB, etc. 
— If written in the commercial ink of the 
period from 1860 to 1864, which was 
almost universally an iron and tannin or 
gallic-acid ink, the following process may 
succeed: Make a thin solution of glucose, 
or honey, in water, and with this wet the 
paper in the usually observed way in 
copying recent documents in the letter 
book, put in the press, and screw down 
tightly. Let it remain in the press some- 
what longer than in copying recent docu- 
ments, when removed, before attempt- 
ing to separate the papers, expose to the 
fumes of strong water of ammonia, copy 
side downward. 

CORDAGE: 

See also Ropes. 

Strong Twine. — An extraordinarily 
strong pack thread or cord, stronger even 
than the so-called " Zuckerschnur," may 
be obtained by laying the thread of fibers 
in a strong solution of alum, and then 
carefully drying them. 

Preseryation of Fishing Nets. — The 
following recipe for the preservation of 
fishing nets is also applicable to ropes, 
etc., in contact with water. Some have 
been subjected to long test. 

For 40 parts of cord, hemp, or cot- 
ton, 3 parts of kutch, 1 part of blue 
vitriol, i part of potassium chromate, 
and 2} parts of wood tar are required. 
The kutch is boiled with 150 parts of 
water until dissolved, and then the blue 
vitriol is added. Next, the net is entered 
and the tar added. The whole should 
be stirred well, and the cordage must boil 
5 to 8 minutes. Now take out the net- 
ting, lay it in another vessel, cover up 
well, and leave alone for 12 hours. After 
that it is dried well, spread out in a clean 

Clace, and coated with linseed oil. Not 
efore 6 hours have elapsed should it be 
folded together and put into the water. 
The treatment with linseed oil may be 
omitted. 

CORDAGE LUBRICANT: 

See Lubricants. 

CORDAGE WATERPROOFING: 

See Waterproofing. 

CORDIALS: 

See Wines and Liquors. 

CORKS: 

Impervious Corks. — Corks which have 
been steeped in petrolatum are said to be 
an excellent substitute for glass stoppers. 
Acid in no way affects them and cnemi- 
cal fumes do not cause decay in them, 
neither do they become fixed by a blow 
or long disuse. , . . 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



224 



CORKS— CORN CURES 



Non-Porous Corks. — For benzine, tur- 
pentine, and varnish cans, immerse the 
corks in hot melted paraffine. Keep 
them under about 5 minutes; hold them 
down with a piece of wire screen cut to 
fit the dish in which you melt the paraf- 
fine. Whon taken out lay them on a 
screen till cool. Cheap corks can in this 
way be made gas- and air-tight, and can 
be cut and bored with ease. 

Substitute for Cork. — Wood pulp or 
other ligneous material may be treated 
to imitate cork. For the success of the 
composition it is necessary that the con- 
stituents be mingled and treated under 
special conditions. The volumetric pro- 
portions in which these constituents 
combine with the best results are the fol- 
lowing: Wood pulp, 3 parts; cornstalk 
pith, 1 part; gelatin, 1 part; glycerine, 
1 part; water, 4 parts; 20 per cent formic- 
aldehyde solution, 1 part; but the pro- 
portions may be varied. After disinte- 
grating the ligneous substances, and 
while these are in a moist and hot condi- 
tion the^ are mingled with the solution 
of gelatin, glycerine, and water. The 
mass is stirred thoroughly so as to obtain 
a homogeneous mixture. The excess of 
moisture is removed. As a last opera- 
tion the formic aldehyde is introduced, 
and the mass is left to coagulate in this 
solution. The formic aldenyde renders 
the product insoluble in nearly all liquids. 
So it is in this last operation that it is 
necessary to be careful in producing the 
composition properly. When the oper- 
ation is terminated the substance is sub- 
mitted to pressure during its coagulation, 
either by molding it at once into a desired 
form, or into a mass which is afterwards 
converted into the finished product. 

CORKS. TO CLEAN: 

See Cleaning Preparations and Meth- 
ods, under Miscellaneous Methods. 

CORK TO METAL, FASTENING: 
See Adhdsives, under Pastes. 

CORK AS A PRESERVATIVE: 
See Preserving. 

CORKS, WATERPROOFING: 

See Waterproofing. 

CORN CURES: 

I. —Salicylic- Acid Com Cure. — Extract 
cannabis indica, 1 part, by measure : 
salicylic acid, 10 parts, by measure; oil 
of turpentine, 5 parts, by measure; acetic 
acid, glacial, 2 parts, by measure; coca- 
ine, alkaloidal, 2 parts, by measure; col- 
lodion, elastic, sufficient to make 100 
parts. Apply a thin coating every night, 
putting each layer directly on the pre- 



ceding one. After a few applications, 
the mass drops off, bringing the indurateti 
portion, and frequently the whole of the 
com, off with it 

II. — Compound Salicylated Collodion 
Corn Cure. — Salicylic acid, 11 parts, by 
weight; extract of Indian hemp, 2 parts, 
by weight; alcohol, 10 parts, by weight; 
flexible collodion, U. S. P., a sufficient 
quantity to make 100 parts, by weight. 

The extract is dissolved in the alcohol 
and the acid in about 50 parts, by weight, 
of collodion, the solutions mixed, and 
the liquid made up to the required 
amount. The Indian hemp is presum- 
ably intended to prevent pain; wnether it 
serves this or any other useful purpose 
seems a matter of doubt. The acid is 
frequently used without this addition. 

III. — Extract of cannabis indica, 90 
grains; salicylic acid, 1 ounce; alcohol, 1 
ounce; collodion enough to make 10 
ounces. Soften the extract with the 
alcohol, then add the collodion, and 
lastly the acid. 

IV.— Resorcin, 1 part, by weight; 
salicylic acid, 1 part, by weight; lactic 
acid, 1 part, by weight; collodion eiasti- 
cum, 10 parts, by weight. Paint the 
corn daily for 5 or 6 days with the above 
solution and take a foot bath in very hot 
water. The corn will readily come off. 

Com Plaster.— Yellow wax, 24 parts, 
by weight; Venice turpentine, 3 parts, 
by weight; rosin, 2 parts, by weight; 
salicylic acid, 2 parts, by weight; balsam 
of Peru, 2 parts, by weight; lanolin, 4 
parts, by weight. 

Com Cure. — Melt soap plaster, 85 

Earts, by weight, and yellow wax, 5 parts 
y weight, in a vapor bath, and stir finely 
ground salicylic acid, 10 parts, by weight, 
into it. 

Removal of Corns. — The liquid used 
by chiropodists with pumice stone for the 
removal of corns and callosities is usually 
nothing more than a solution of potassa 
or concentrated lye, the pumice stone 
being dipped into the solution by the 
operator just before using. 

Treatment of Bunions. — Wear right 
and left stockings and shoes, the inner 
edges of the sole of which are perfectly 
straight. The bunion is bathed nigh*t 
and morninff in a 4 per cent solution of 
carbolic acid for a few minutes, followed 
by plain water. If, after several weeks, 
the bursa is still distended with fluid, it 
is aspirated. If the bunion is due to 
flatfoot, the arch of the foot must be 
restored by a plate. When the joints 
are enlarged^becaui^^|^ rheuma- 



CORN CURES— COSMETICS 



iiS 



tism, the constitutional conditions must 
be treated. In other cases, osteotomy 
and tenotomy are required. 

The Treatment of Corns. — Any corn 
may be speedily and permanently cured. 
The treatment is of three kinds — preven- 
tire» palliative, and curative. 

I.— The preventive treatment lies in 
adopting such measures as will ^ secure 
freedom from pressure and friction for 
the parts most liable to corns. To this 
end a well-fitting shoe is essential. The 
shoes should be of welUseasoned leather, 
soft and elastic, and should be cut to a 
proper model. 

II. — The palliative treatment is gen- 
erally carried out with chemical sub- 
stances. The best method, is, briefly, 
as follows: A ring of glycerine jelly is 
painted around the circumference of the 
corn, to form a raised rampart. A piece 
of salicylic plaster mull is then cut to the 
size and shape of the central depression, 
and applied to the surface of the corn. 
Thb is then covered with a layer of glyc- 
erine jelly, and before it sets a pad of 
cotton wool is applied to the surface. 
This process is repeated as often as is 
necessary, until the horny layer separates 
and is cast off. 

If the point of a sharp, thin-bladed 
knife be introduced at the groove which 
runs around the margin of the corn, and 
be niade to penetrate toward its central 
axis, by the exercise of a little manual 
dexterity the horny part of the corn can 
be easily made to separate from the parts 
beneath. 

III. — Any method of treatment to be 
curative must secure the rem'oval of the 
entire corn, together with the under- 
lying bursa. It is mainly in connection 
with the la'ttcr structure that complica- 
tions, which alone make a corn a matter 
of serious import, are likely to arise. 
Freeland confidently advises the full and 
complete excision of corns, on the basis 
of his experience in upward of 60 cases. 

Every precaution^ naving been taken 
to render the operation aseptic, a spot is 
selected for the iniection of the anaesthetic 
solution. The skin is rendered insen- 
sitive with ethyl chloride, and 5 minims 
of a 4 per cent solution of cocaine is in- 
jected into the subcutaneous tissue be- 
neath the corn. After a wait of a few 
minutes the superficial parts of the site 
of the incision are rendered insensitive 
with ethyl chloride. Aniesthesia is now 
complete. 

Two semiellip^L-al incisions meeting 
at their extremities are made through 
the akin ai:ound the circumference of the 



growth, care being taken that they pen- 
etrate well into the subcutaneous tissue. 
Seizing the parts included in the incision 
with a pair of dissecting forceps, a wedge- 
shaped piece of tissue — including the 
corn, a layer of skin and subcutaneous 
tissue, and the bursa if present — is dis- 
sected out. The oozing is pretty free, 
and it is sometimes necessary to torsion a 
small vessel; but the hemorrhage is 
never severe. The edges of the wound 
are brought tof^ether by one or two fine 
sutures; an antiseptic dressing is applied, 
and the wound is left to heal — primary 
union in a few days being the rule. The 
rapidity of the healing is often phenom- 
enal.^ There is produced a scar tissue at 
the site of the corn, but this leads to no 
untoward results. 



Cosmetics 

COLD CREAM. 
I. — Oil of almonds .... 425 parts 

Lanolin 185 parts 

White wax. 62 parts 

Spermaceti 62 parts 

Borax 4.5 parts 

Rose water 800 parts 

Melt together the first four ingredients, 
then incorporate the solution of borax in 
the rose water. 

II. — Tra^acanth 125 parts 

Boric acid 100 parts 

Glycerine 140 parts 

Expressed oil of al- 
monds 50 parts 

Glyconine 50 parts 

Oil of lavender. ... 0.5 parts 

Water enough to 

make 1,000 parts 

Mix the tragacanth and the boric 
acid with the glycerine; add the almond 
oil, hi vender oil, and egg glycerite, which 
have been previously well incorporated, 
and, lastly, add the water in divided 
portions until a clear jelly of the desired 
consistency is obtained. 

III. — Oil of almonds 26 ounces 

Castor oil (odorless). 6 ounces 
Lard (benzoated) ... 8 ounces 
White wax.. . . ..... 8 ounces 

Rose water (in win- 
ter less, in sum- 
mer more, than 
quantity named) .. 12 ounces 
Orange-flower water 8 ounces 

Oil ofrose 15 minims 

Extract of jasmine. . 6 drachms 
Extract of cassia.. . . 4 drachms 

Borax. 2 ounces 

Glycerine 4 ojunces 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



226 



COSMETICS 



Melt the oil of sweet almonds, wax, and 
Uird together, and stir in the castor oil; 
make a solution of the borax in the 
glycerine and rose and orange-flower 
waters; add this solution, a little at a 
time, to the melted fat, stirring con- 
stantly to insure thorough incorporation; 
finally add the oil of rose dissolved in the 
extracts, and beat the ointment until 
cold. 

IV. — Spermaceti (pure), J ounce; 
white wax (pure), J ounce; almond oil, J 
pound; butter of cocoa, i pound; lano- 
lin, 2 ounces. 

Melt and stir in 1 drachm of balsam 
of Peru. After settling, pour off the clear 

Sortion and add 2 fluid rachms of orange- 
ower water and stir briskly until it 
concretes. 

Camphorated Cold Cream. — 
Oil of sweet al- 
monds 8 fluidounces 

White wax 1 ounce 

Spermaceti 1 ounce 

Camphor 1 ounce 

Rose water 5 fluidounces 

Borax (in fine pow- 
der) 4 drachms 

Oil of rose 10 drops 

Melt the wax and si>ermaceti, add the 
oil of sweet almonds, in which the cam- 
phor has been disdoived with very gentle 
neat; then gradually add the rose water, 
in which the borax has previously been 
dissolved, beating or agitating^ con- 
stantly with a wo^en spatula until cold. 
Lastly add the oil of rose. 

Petrolatum Cold Cream. — 

Petrolatum (white).. . 7 ounces 

Paraffine J ounce 

Lanolin 2 ounces 

Water 3 ounces 

Oil of rose 8 drops 

Alcohol 1 drachm 

A small cjuantity of borax may be 

added, if desirable, and the perfume may 

be varied to suit the taste. 

LIP SALVES: 

Pomades for the Lips. — Li|> pomatum 
which is said always to retain a hand- 
some red color and never to grow rancid 
is prepared as follows: 

I.— Parafline 80 . parts 

Vaseline 80 . parts 

Anchusine 0.5 parts 

Bergamot oil 1.0 part 

Lemon peel 1.0 part 

II. — Vaseline Pomade. — 

Va.seline oil, white. . . 1,000 parts 
Wax. white SOO parts 



Gerani u m oil, Afri- 
can 40 parts 

Lemon oil 20 parts 

III. — Rose Pomade. — 

Almond oil 1,000 parts 

Wax, white 800 parts 

Alkannin 8 parts 

Geranium oil 20 parts 

rV.— Yellow Pomade.— 

Vaseline oil, white. 1,000 parts 

Wax, white 200 parts 

Spermaceti 200 parts 

Saffron surrogate. 10 parts 

Clove oil 20 parts 

V. —White Pomade. — 

Vaseline oil, white. 1,000 parts 

Wax, white. ..... SOO parts 

Bitter almond oil, 

genuine 10 parts 

Lemon oil 2 parts 

VL— ParaflPne 49 . parts 

Vaseline 49 . parts 

Oil of lemon . 75 parts 

Oil of violet . 75 parts 

Carmine, quantity sufficient. 

Lipol. — For treating sore, rough, or 
inflamed lips, appl^r the following night 
and morning, rubbing in well with the 
finger tips: Camphor, J ounce; men- 
thol, i ounce; eucalyptol, 1 drachm; 
petrolatum (white), 1 pound; parafline, 
A pound; alkanet root, i ounce; oil uf 
bitter almonds, 15 drops; oil of cloves, 
10 drops; oil of cassia, 5 drops. Digest 
the root in the melted parafline and pe- 
trolatum, strain, add the other ingre- 
dients and pour into lip jars, hot. 

MANICURE PREPARATIONS: 
Powdered Nail Polishes. — 

I. — Tin oxide 8 drachms 

Carmine } drachm 

Rose oil 6 drops 

Neroli oil 5 drops 

IL — Cinnabar 1 drachm 

Infusorial earth 8 drachms 

III. — Putty powder (fine) . 4 drachms 

Carmine 2 grains 

Oil of rose 1 drop 

rV. — White castile soap. . . 1 part 

Hot water. 16 parts 

Zinc chloride solu- 
tion, 10 per cent, 
quantity sufficient. 
Dissolve the soap in the water and to 
the solution add the zinc-chloride solu- 
tion until no further precipitation oc- 
curs. Let stand over night: pour off the 
supernatant fluid, wa^sh the precipitate 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 



COSMETICS 



m 



well with water, and dry at the ordinary 
temperature. Carmine may be added if 
desired. 
Polishing Pastes for the Nails.— 

I. —Talcum 6 drachms 

Stannous oxide 8 drachms 

Powdered tra^acanth 5 grains 

Glycerine 1 drachm 

Rose water, quantity 

sufficient. 
Solution of carmine 
sufficient to tint. 
Make paste. 

For softening the nails, curing hang- 
nails, etc., an ointment is sometimes used 
consisting of white petrolatum, 8 parts; 
powdered castile soap, 1 part; and per- 
nime to suit. 

II.— Eosine 10 grains 

White wax J drachm 

Spermaceti J drachm 

Soft paraffine 1 ounce 

Alcohol, a sufficient quantity. 
Dissolve the eosine in as little alcohol as 
will suffice, melt the other ingredients to- 
gether, add the sol ution, and stir until cool. 

Nail-Cleaning Washes.— 

L— Tartaric acid 1 drachm 

Tincture of myrrh . . 1 drachm 

Cologne water 2 drachms 

Water 3 ounces 

Dissolve the acid in the water; mix 
the tincture of myrrh and cologne, and 
add to the acid solution. 

Dip the nails in this solution, wipe, 
and polish with chamois skin. 

II.— Oxalic acid 30 grains 

Rose water 1 ounce 

Nail Varnish. — 

Paraffine wax 60 grains 

Chloroform 2 ounces 

Oil of rose 3 drops 

POlfADES: 

I. —Beef-Marrow Pomade.— 
Vaseline oil, yel- 
low 20,000 parts 

Ceresine, yellow 3,000 parts 
Beef marrow . . 2,000 parts 
Saffron substi- 
tute 15 parts 

Lemon oil 50 parts 

Bergamot oil. . . 20 parU 

Clove oil ...... 5 parts 

Lavender oil. . . 10 parts 

n.— China Pomade. — 

Vaseline oil, 
yellow 20,000 parts 

Ceresine, yel- 
low 5,000 parts 



Brilliant, 

brown 12 parts 

Peru balsam. . . 50 parts 

I^emon oil. .... 5 parts 

Bergamot oil . . 5 parts 

Clove oil, ..... 5 parts 

Lavender oil . . 5 parts 

III.— Crystalline Honey Pomade.— 
Nut oil, 125 drachms; spermaceti, 15 
drachms: gamboge, 2 drachms; vervain 
oil, 10 drops; cinnamon oil, 20 drops; 
bergamot od, SO drops; ro.se oil, 3 drops. 
The spermaceti is melted in the nut oil 
on a water bath and digested with the 
gamboge for 20 minutes; it is next 
strained, scented, and poured into cans 
which are standing in water. The cool- 
ing must take place very slowly. In- 
stead of gamboge, butter color may be 
used. Any desired scent mixture may 
be employed. 

IV.— Herb Pomade.— 
Vaseline oil, yel- 
low 20,000 parts 

Ceresine, vellow 5,000 parts 
ChlorophvH ... 20 parts 

Lemon oil 50 parts 

Clove oil 20 parts 

Geranium oil, 

African 12 parte 

Curled mint oil. 4 parte 

V. — ^Rose Pomade. — 
Vaseline oil, 

white 20,000 parte 

Ceresine, white 5,000 parte 

Alkannin. .... 15 parte 
Geranium oil, 

African 50 parte 

Palmarosa oil. 30 parte 

Lemon oil 20 parte 

VI. —Strawberry Pomade. —When the 
strawberry season is on, and berries are 
plenty and cheap, the following is timely: 
Strawberries, ripe 

and fresh 4 parte 

Lard, sweet and 

fresh 25 parte 

Tallow, fresh 5 parte 

Alkanet tincture, 
q^uantity suffi- 
cient. 
Essential oil, quan- 
tity sufficient to 
perfume. 
Melt lard and tellow together on the 
water bath at the temperature of boiling 
water. Have the strawberries arranged 
on a straining cloth. Add the alkanet 
tincture to the melted grease, stir in, and 
then pour the mixture over the berries. 
Stir the strained fate until the mass be- 
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COSMETICS 



gins to set, then add the perfume and 
stir in. A little artificial essence of 
strawberries may^ be added. The odor 
usually employed is rose, about 1 drop to 
every 2 pounds. 

VII.— Stick Pomade.— 

Tallow 600 parts 

Ceresine 150 parts 

Wax, yellow 50 parts 

Rosin, light 200 parts 

Paraffine oil 

(thick).. SOO parts 

Oil of cassia 5 parts 

Oil of bergamot. . 5 parts 
Oil of clove 2 parts 

.VIII.— Vaseline Pomade— Melt 250 
parts of freshly rendered lard and 25 
parts of white wax at moderate heat and 
mix well with 200 parts of vaseline. 
Add 15 parts of bergamot oil, 3 parts of 
lavender oil, 2 parts of geranium oil, and 
2 parts of lemon oil, mixing well. 

IX.— Witch-Hazel JcUy.— 
Oil of sweet al- 
monds 256 parts 

Extract of witch- 
hazel fluid 10 parts 

Glycerine 32 parts 

Soft soap 20 parts 

Tincture of musk, quantity suf- 
ficient to perfume. 

Mix in a large mortar the glycerine 
and soft soap and stir until incorporated. 
Add and rub in the witch-hazel, and 
then add the oil, slowly, letting it fall 
in a very thin, small stream, under con- 
stant agitation; add the perfume, keep- 
ing up the agitation until complete in- 
corporation is attained. Ten drops of 
musk to a quart of jelly is sufficient. 
Any other perfume may be used. 

Colors for Pomade. — Pomade rnay be 
colored red by infusing alkanet in the 
grease; yellow may be ootained by using 
annotto in the same way; an oil -soluble 
chlorophyll will give a green color by 
admixture. 

In coloring grease by means of alkanet 
or annotto it is best to tie the drug up in 
a piece of coarse cloth, place in a small 
portion of the grease, heat gently, squeez- 
ing well with a rod from time to time; 
and then adding this strongly colored 
grease to the remainder. This proce- 
dure obviates exposing the entire mass 
to heat, and neither decantation nor 
straining is needed. 

Brocq's Pomade for Itching. — 

Acid phenic 1 part 

Acid salicylic 2 parts 



Acid tartaric ... 3 parts 

Glycerole of 

starch 60 to 100 parts 

Mix and make a pomade. 
White Cosmetique. — 

Jasmine pomade 2 ounces 

Tuberose pomade. ... 2 ounces 

White wax 2 ounces 

Refined suet 4 ounces 

Rose oil 15 minims 

Melt the wax and suet over a water 
bath, then add the pomades, and finally 
the otto. 

Glycerine and Cucumber Jelly. — 
Gelatin. . . . . 160 to 240 grains 

Boric acid 240 grains 

Glycerine 6 nuidounces 

Water 10 fluidounces 

Perfume to suit. The perfume must 
be one that mixes without opalescence, 
otherwise it mars the beauty of the prep- 
aration. Orange-flower water or rose 
water could be substituted for the water 
if desired, or another perfume consisting 
of 

Spirit of vanillin (15 

grains per ounce). 2 fluidrachms 
Spirit of coumarin 
(15 grains per 

ounce) 2 fluidrachms 

Spirit of bitter al- 
monds (I) 8 minims 

to the quantities given above would 
prove agreeable. 

Cucumber Pomade. — 

Cucumber pomade. . . 2 ounces 
Powdered white soap. jounce 

Powdered borax 2 drachms 

Cherrv-laurel water. . 3 ounces 

Rectined spirit 3 ounces 

Distilled water to make 48 ounces 
Rub the pomade with the soap and 
borax until intimately mixed, then add 
the distilled water (which may be 
warmed to blood heat), ounce by ounce, 
to form a smooth and uniform cream. 
When 40 ounces of water have been so 
incorporated, dissolve any essential oils 
desired as perfume in the spirit, and add 
the cherry-laurel water, making up to 
48 ounces with plain water. 

ROUGES AND PAINTS: 

Grease Paints. — Theatrical face paints 
are sold in sticks, and there are many 
varieties of color. Yellows are obtained 
with ocher; browns with burnt umber; 
and blue is made with ultramarine. 
These colors should in each case be levi- 
gated finely along with their own weight 

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of equal parts of precipitated chalk and 
oxide of zinc and oiluted with the same to 
the tint required, then made into sticks 
with mutton suet (or yaseline or paraf- 
fine, equal parts) well perfumed. By 
blending these colors, other tints may 
thus be obtained. 

White Grease Paints.^ 
I.— Prepared chalk . . 4 av. ounces 

Zinc oxide 4 av. ounces 

Bismuth subni- 

trate 4 av. ounces 

Asbestos powder. 4 av. ounces 
Sweet almond oil, 

about 2} fluidounces 

Camphor 40 ffrains 

Oil peppermint. . . 3 nuidrachms 
EsoDouquet ex- 
tract 8 fluidrachms 

Sufficient almond oil should be used 
to form a mass of proper consistence. 

II.— Zinc oxide 8 parts 

Bismuth subnitrate. . 8 parts 
Aluminum oxychlor- 

ide 8 parts 

Almond oil, quantity sufficient, or 

5-6 parts. 
Perfume, quantity sufficient. 

Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum 
o]^cfaloride thoroughly; make into a paste 
with the oil . Any pen ume may be added, 
but that generally used is composed of 1 
drachm of essence of bouquet, 12 grains 
of camphor, and 12 minims of oil of pep- 
permint for every 3} ounces of paste. 

Bright Red.— 

Zinc oxide 10 parts 

Bismuth subnitrate. . . 10 parts 
Aluminum oxychlor- 

ide 10 parts 

Almond oil, quantity sufficient. 

Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum 
salts, and to every 4 ounces of the mix- 
ture add 2 1 grain J of eosine dissolved in 
a drachm of essence of bouquet, 12 minims 
oil of peppermint, and 12 grains of cam- 
phor. Make the whole into a paste with 
almond oil. 

Red.— 

Cacao butter 4 a v. ounces 

White wax 4 av.^ ounces 

Olive oil 2 fluidounces 

Oil of rose 8 drops 

Oil of bergamot . . 3 drops 

Oil of neroli 2 drops 

Tincture musk ... 2 drops 

Carmine 90 grains 

Ammonia water . . 3 nuidrachms 



Deepi or Bordeaux, Red. — 

Zinc oxide 30 parts 

Bismuth subnitrate.. . 30 parts 
Aluminum oxychlor- 

ide. 30 parts 

Carmine 1 part 

Ammonia water 5 parts 

Essence bouquet 3 parts 

Peppermint, camphor, etc., quan- 
tity sufficient. 
Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum 
salts. Dissolve the carmine in the am- 
monia and add solution to the mixture. 
Add 24 grains of camphor, and 24 minims 
of oil of peppermint dissolved in the 
essence bouquet, and make the whole 
into a paste with oil of sweet almonds. 

Vermilion. — 

Vermilion 18 parts 

Tincture of saffron. . 12 parts 
Orris root, powdered 80 parts 
Chalk, precipitated. . 120 parts 

Zinc oxide 120 parts 

Camphor 2 parts 

Essence bouquet 9 parts 

Oil of peppermint. . . 2 parts 
Almond oil, quantity sufficient. 

Mix as before. 

Pink.— 

Zinc carbonate 250 parts 

Bismuth subnitrate. . 250 parts 

Asbestos. 250 parts 

Expressed oil of al- 
monds 100 parts 

Camphor 55 parts 

Oil ot peppermint . . 55 parts 

Perfume 25 parts 

Eosine 1 part 

Bark Red. — Like the preceding, but 
colored with a solution of carmine. 

Rouge. — 

Zinc oxide 2} ounces 

Bismuth subnitrate.. . 2} ounces 
Aluminum plumbate. 2 } ounces 

Eosine 1 drachm 

Essence bouquet 2 drachms 

Camphor 6 drachms 

Oil of peppermint. ... 20 minims 
Almond ou, quantity sufficient. 

Di-ssolve the eosine in the essence 
bouquet, and mix with the camphor and 
peppermint; add the powder and make 
into a paste with almond oil. 

Black Grease Paints. — 

I. — Soot 2 av. ounces 

Sweet almond oil . 2 fluidounces 

Cacao butter 6 a v. ounces 

Perfume, sufficient. ^ 

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The soot should be derived from 
burning camphor and repeatedly washed 
with alcohol. It should be triturated to 
a smooth mixture with the oil; then add 
to the melted cacao butter; add the per- 
fume, and form into sticks. 

Brown or other colors may be obtained 
by adding^ appropriate pigments, such as 
finely levigated burned umber, sienna, 
ocher, jeweler's rouge, etc., to the fore- 
going base instead of lampblack. 

II. — Best lampblack 1 drachm 

Cacao butter 3 drachms 

Olive oil 3 drachms 

Oil of neroli 2 drops 

Melt the cacao butter and oil, add the 
lampblack, and stir constantly as the 
mixture cools, adding the perfume 
toward the end. 

III. — Lampblack 1 part 

Cacao butter ...... 6 parts 

Oil neroli, sufficient. 
Melt the cacao butter and the lamp- 
black, and while cooling make an inti- 
mate mixture, adding the perfume toward 
the last. 

IV. — Lampblack. 1 part 

Expressed oil of al- 
monds 1 part 

Oil cocoanut 1 part 

Perfume, sufficient. 
Beat the lampblack into a stiff paste 
with glycerine. Apply with a sponge; 
if necessary, mix a little water with it 
when using. 

V. — Beat the finest lampblack into a 
stiff paste with glycerine and apply with 
a sponge; if necessary, add a little water 
to the mixture when using. Or you can 
make a grease paint as follows: Drop 
black, 2 drachms; almond oil, 2 drachms; 
cocoanut oil, 6 drachms; oil of lemon, 5 
minims; oil of neroli, 1 minim. Mix. 

Fatty Face Powders.— These have a 
small percentage of fat mixed with them 
in order to maxe the powder adhere to 
the skin. 

Dissolve 1 drachm anhjrdrous lano- 
lin in 2 drachms of ether in a mortar. 
Add 3 drachms of light magnesia. Mix 
well, dry, and then add tne following: 
French chalk, 2 ounces; powdered 
starch, IJ ounces; boric acid, 1 drachm; 
perfume, a sufficient quantity. A good 
perfume is coumarin, 2 grains, and attar 
of rose, 2 minims. 

Nose Putty. — ^I. — Mix 1 ounce wheat flour 
with 2 drachms of powdered tragacanth 
and tint with carmine. Take as much 
of the powder as necessary, knead into a 



stiff paste with a little water and apply 
to the nose, having previously paintea it 
with spirit gum. 

II. — White wax, 8 parts; rosin, white, 
8 parts; mutton suet, 4 parts; color to 
smt. Melt together. 

Rose Powder. — As a base take 200 
parts of powdered iris root, add 600 parts 
of rose petals, 100 parts of sandalwood, 
100 parts of patchouli, 3 parts of oil of 
geranium, and 2 parts of true rose oil. 

Rouge Tablets. — There are two dis- 
tinct classes of these tablets: those in 
which the^ coloring matter is carmine, 
and those in which the aniline colors are 
used.^ The best are those prepared with 
carmine, or ammonium carminate, to 
speak more correctly. The following is 
an excellent formula: 

Ammonium carminate. . . 10 parts 

Talc, in powder 25 parts 

Dextrin 8 parts 

Simple syrup, sufficient. 
Perfume, to taste, sufficient. 

Mix the talc and dextrin and add the 
perfume, preferably in the shape of an 
essential oil (attar of rose, synthetic oil of 
jasmine, or violet, etc.), using 6 to 8 
drops to every 4 ounces of other in- 
greaients. Incorporate the ammonium 
carminate and add just enough simple 
svrup to make a mass easily rolled out. 
Cut into tablets of the desired size. The 
ammonium carminate is made by adding 
1 part of carmine to 2 J parts of strong 
ammonia water. Mix in a vial, cork 
tightly, and set aside until a solution is 
formed, shaking occasionally. The am- 
monium carminate is made by dissolving 
carmine in ammonia water to saturation. 

Rouge Palettes. — To prepare rouge 
palettes rub up together: 

Carmine 9 parts 

French chalk 50 parts 

Almond oil 12 parts 

Add enough tragacanth mucilage to 
make the mass adhere and spread the 
whole evenly on the porcelain palette. 

Liquid Rouge. — 

I. — Carmine 4 parts 

Stronger ammonia 

water 4 parts 

Essence of rose .... 16 parts 
Rose water to make. 500 parts 

Mix. A very delightful violet odor, if 
this is preferred, is obtained by using 
ionone in place of rose essence. A cheaper 
preparation may be made as follows: 

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231 



II.— Eosinc 1 part 

Distilled water 20 parts 

Glycerine 5 parts 

Cologne water 75 parts 

Alcohol 100 parU 

Mix. 

Rub toffether with 10 parts of almond 
oil and add sufficient mucilaffe of traga- 
canth to make the mass adnere to the 
porcelain palette. 

III. — Carmine 1 part 

Stronger ammonia 

water 1 part 

Attar of rose 4 parts 

Rose water 125 parts 

Mix. Any other color may be used 
in place of rose, violet (ionone), for in- 
stance, or heliotrope. A cheaper prep- 
aration may be made by substituting 
eosine for the carmine, as follows: 

IV.— Eosine 1 part 

Distilled water .... 20 parts 

Glycerine 5 parts 

Cologne water 75 parts 

Alcohol 100 parts 

Mix. 

Peach Tint— 
0.— Buffalo eosine .... 4 drachms 

Distilled water 16 fluidounces 

Mix. 

6.— Pure hydrochloric 

acid 2i drachms 

Distilled water 64 fluidounces 

Mix. 

Pour a into 6, shake, and set aside for a 
few hours; then pour off the clear por- 
tion and collect the precipitate on a 
filter. Wash with the same amount of 
h and immediately throw the precipitate 
into a glass measure, stirring in with a 
glass rod sufficient of b to measure 16 
ounces in all. Pass through a hair sieve 
to get out any filtering paper. To every 
16 ounces add 8 ounces of glycerine. 

Theater Rouge. — Base: 

Cornstarch. 4 drachms 

Powdered white tal- 
cum 6 drachms 

Mix. 

a.— Carminoline 10 grains 

Base 6 drachms 

Water 4 drachms 

Dissolve the carminoline in the water, 
mix with the base and dry. 

6.— Geranium red 10 grains 

Base 6 drachms 

Water 4 drachms 

Mix as above and dry. 



SKIN FOODS. 

Wrinkles on the face yield to a wash 
consisting of 50 parts milk of almonds 
(made with ro.se water) and 4 parts alu- 
minum sulphate. Use morning and night. 

Rouffh skin is to be washed constantly 
in Vicny water. Besides this, rough 
places are to have the following applica- 
tion twice daily— either a few drops of: 

I. — Rose water 100 parts 

Glycerine 25 parts 

Tannin f part 

Mix. Or use: 

II. — Orange-flower water 100 parts 

Glycerine 10 parts 

Borax 2 parts 

Mix. Sig.: Apply twice daily. 

" Beauty Cream.'*— This formula gives 
the skin a beautiful, smooth, and fresh 
appearance, and, at the same time, serves 
to protect and preserve it: 

Alum, powdered 10 grams 

Whites of 2 eggs 

Boric acid 8 grams 

Tincture of benzoin . . 40 drops 

Olive oil 40 drops 

Mucilage of acacia. . . 5 drops 
Rice flour, quantity sufficient. 
Perfume, quantity sufficient. 

Mix the alum and the white of eggs, 
without any addition of water whatever, 
in an earthen vessel, and dissolve the alum 
by the aid of very gentle heat (derived 
from a lamp, or gaslight, regulated to a 
very small name), and constant, even, 
stirring. This must continue until the 
aqueous content of the albumen is com- 
pletely driven off. Care must be taken 
to avoid coagulation of the albumen 
(which occurs very easily, as all know). 
Let the mass obtained in this manner get 
completely cold, then throw into a Wedg- 
wood mortar, add the boric acid, tinc- 
ture of benzoin, oil, mucilage (instead 
of which a solution of fine gelatin may 
be used), etc., and rub up together, 
thickening it with the addition of suffi- 
cient rice flour to give the desired con- 
sistence, and i)erfuming at will. In- 
stead of olive oil any pure fat, or fatty 
oil, may be used, even vaseline or glyc- 
erine. 

Face Bleach or Beautifier. — 

Syrupy lactic acid 40 ounces 

Glycerine 80 ounces 

Distilled water 5 gallons 

Mix. Gradually add 

Tincture of benzoin . . 3 ounces 

Color by adding j 

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COSMETICS 



Carmine No. 40 40 grains 

Glycerine 1 ounce 

Ammonia solution. .. i ounce 

Water to 3 ounces 

Heat this to drive off the ammonia, 

and mix all. Shake, set aside; then 

filter, and add 

Solution of ionone.. . . 1 drachm 
Add a few drachms of kaolin and 

filter until bright. 

BLACKHEAD REMEDIES. 

I. — Lactic acid 1 drachm 

Boric acid 1 drachm 

Ceresine 1 drachm 

Paraffine oil 6 drachms 

Hydrous wool fat. . . IJ ounces 

Castor oil 6 drachms 

II. — Unna advises hydrogen dioxide 
in the^ treatment of blackheads, his pre- 
scription being: 

Hydrogen dioxide 20 to 40 parts 
Hydrous wool fat . . 10 parts 

Petrolatum SO parts 

III.— Thjrmol. 1 part 

Boric acid 2 parts 

Tincture of witch- 
hazel 18 parts 

Rose water suffi- 
cient to make . . . 200 parts 
Mix. Apply to the face night and 
morning with a sponge, first wasning the 
face with hot water and castile soap, and 
drying it with a coarse towel, using force 
enough to start the dried secretions. An 
excellent plan is to steam the face by 
holding it over a basin of hot water, 
keeping the head covered with a cloth. 

IV. — Ichthyol 1 drachm 

Zinc oxide 2 drachms 

Starch 2 drachms 

Petrolatum 3 drachms 

This paste should be applied at night. 
The face should first oe thoroughly 
steamed or washed in water as hot as 
can be comfortably borne. All pus- 
tules should then be opened and black- 
heads emptied with as little violence as 
possible. After careful drying the paste 
should be thoroughly rubbed into the 
affected areas. In the morning, after 
removing the paste with a bland soap, 
bathe with coot water and dry with little 
friction. 

HAND CREAMS AND LOTIONS: 
Chapped Skin. — 

1.— Glycerine 8 parts 

Bay rum 4 parts 

Ammonia water 4 parts 

Rose water 4 parts 



Mix the bay rum and glycerine, add 
the ammonia water, and nnally the rose 
water. It is especially efficacious after 
shaving. 

II. — As glycerine is bad for the skin 
of many people, here is a recipe which 
will be found more generally satisfactory 
as it contains less glycerine: Bay rum, 
3 ounces; glycerine, 1 ounce; carbolic 
acid, i drachm (30 drops). Wash the 
hands well and apply while hands are 
soft, preferably just before going to bed. 
Rub m thoroughly. This rarely fails to 
cure the worst **chaps*' in two nights. 

III. — A sure remedy, for chapped 
hands consists in keeping them carefully 
dry and greasing them now and then w^itn 
an anhydrous fat (not cold cream). The 
best substances for the purpose are un- 
guentum cereum or oleum olivarum. 

If the skin of the hands is already 
cracked the following preparation will 
heal it: 

Finely ground zinc oxide, 5.0 parts; 
bismuth oxychloride, 2.0 parts; with fat 
oil, 12.0 parts; next add glycerine, 5.0 
parts; lanolin, 30.0 parts; and scent with 
rose water, 10.0 parts. 

IV. — Wax salve (olive oil 7 parts, and 
yellow wax 3 parts), or pure olive oil. 

Hand-Cleaning Paste. — Cleaning pastes 
are composed of soap and grit, either 
with or without some free alkali. Any 
soap may be used, but a white soap is 
preterred. Castile soap docs not make 
as firm a paste as soap made from animal 
fats, ancl the latter also lather better. 
For grit, anything may be used, from 
powoered pumice to fine sand. 

A good paste may be made by dissolv- 
ing soap in the least possible quantity of 
hot water, and as it coold and sets stirring 
in the grit. A good formula is: 

White soap 2} pounds 

Fine sand 1 pound 

Water 5} pints 

Lotion for the Hands. — 

Boric acid 1 drachm 

Glycerine 6 drachms 

Dissolve by heat and mix with 

Lanolin 6 drachms 

Vaseline 1 ounce 

Add any perfume desired. The bora- 
ted glycerine should be cooled before 
mixing it with the lanolin. 
Cosmetic Jelly. — 

Tragacanth (white rib- 
bon) 60 grains 

Rose water 14 ounces 

Macerate for two days and strain 
forcibly through coarse muslin or cheesr. 

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S88 



doth. Add glycerine and alcohol, of 
each 1 ounce. Perfume to suit. Use 
immediately after bathing, rubbing in 
well until dry. 

Perspirmg Hands.— I. — Take rectified 
eau de cologne, 60 parts (by weight); 
belladonna dye, 8 parts; glycerine, 8 
parts; rub gently twice or three times a 
day with half a tablespoonful of this 
mixture. One may also employ chalk, 
carbonate of masnesia, rice starch, hot 
and cold baths of the hands (as hot and 
as cold as can be borne), during 6 min- 
utes, followed by a solution of 4 parts of 
tannin in 82 of glycerine. 

II. — Rub the hands several times per 
day with the following mixture: 

By weight 

Rose water 125 parts 

Borax 10 parts 

Glycerine 8 parts 

Hand Bleach. — Lanolin, 30 parts ; 
f^lycerine, 20 parts ; borax, 10 parts ; 
eucalvptol, 2 parts ; essential oil of al- 
monds, 1 part. After rubbinir the hands 
with this mixture, cover them with gloves 
during the night 

For the removal of developing stains, 
see Photography. 

MASSAGE CREAMS: 
Massage Application. — 
White potash soap, 

shaved 20 parts 

Glycerine SO parts 

Water. .' 30 parts 

Alcohol (90 per cent) . 10 parts 
Dissolve the soap by heating it with 
the glycerine and water, mixed. Add 
the alcohol, and for every 30 ounces of 
the solution add 5 or 6 drops of the mis- 
tura oleoso balsa mica, German Phar- 
macopoeia. Filter while hot. 

Medicated Massage Balls. — They are 
the balls of paraffine wax molded with 
a smooth or rough surface with menthol, 
camphor, oil of wintergreen, oil of pep- 
permint, etc., added before shaping. Spe- 
cially useful in headaches, neuralgias, 
and rheumatic affections, and many 
other afflictions of the skin and bones. 
The method of usinff them is to roll the 
bay over the affected part bv the aid of 
the palm of the hand witn pressure. 
Continue until relief is obtained or a 
sensation of warmth. The only external 
method for the treatment of all kinds of 
headaches is the menthol medicated mas- 
sage ball. This mav be made with 
smooth or corrugated surfaces. Keep 
wrapped in foil in cool places. 



Casein Massage Cream. ^The basis of 
the modern massage cream is casein. 
Casein is now produced very cheaply in 
the powdered form, and by treatment 
with glycerine and perfumes it is possible 
to turn out a satisfactory cream. The 
following formula is suggested: 

Skimmed milk ..... 1 gallon 

Water of ammonia. . 1 ounce 
Acetic acid ........ 1 ounce 

Oil of rose geranium 1 drachm 
Oil of bitter almond. 1 drachm 

Oil of anise 2 drachms 

Cold cream (see below), enough. 
Carmine enough to color. 

Add the water of ammonia to the milk 
and let it stand 24 hours. Then add 
the acetic acid and let it stand another 24 
hours. Then strain through cheese cloth 
and add the oils. Work this thoroughly 
in a Wedgwood mortar, adding enough 
carmine to color it a delicate pink. To 
the product thus obtained adcl an equal 
amount of cold cream made by the for- 
mula herewith given: 

White wax 4 ounces 

Spermaceti 4 ounces 

White petrolatum 12 ounces 

Rose water 14 ounces 

Borax 80 grains 

Melt the wax, spermaceti, and petro- 
latum together over a water bath; dis- 
solve the borax in the rose water and add 
to the melted mass at one time. Agitate 
violently. Presumably the borax solu- 
tion should be of the same temperature 
as the melted mass. 

Massage Skin Foods. — 
This preparation is used in massage for 
removing wrinkles: 

I. — White wax J ounce 

Spermaceti } ounce 

Cocoanut oil 1 ounce 

Lanolin 1 ounce 

Oil of sweet almonds 2 ounces 

Melt in a porcelain dish, remove from 
the fire, and add 

Orange-flower water. . . 1 ounce 
Tincture of benzoin. . . 3 drops 

Beat briskly until creamy. 

II. — Snow-white cold 

cream 4 ounces 

Lanolin 4 ounces 

Oil of theobroma ... 4 ounces 

White petrolatum oil 4 ounces 

Distilled water 4 ounces 

In hot weather add 

Spermaceti 1 } drachms 

White wax 2} drachms 

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COSMETICS 



In winter the two latter are left out and 
the proportion of cocoa butter is modi- 
fied. Prepared and perfumed in pro- 
portion same as cold cream. 

III. — White petrolatum 7 av. ounces 
Paraffine wax. ... i ounce 

Lanolin 2 av. ounces 

Water 8 fluidounces 

Oil of rose 3 drops 

Vanillin 2 grains 

Alcohol 1 nuidrachm 

Melt the paraffine, add the lanolin and 
petrolatum, and when these have melted 
pour the mixture into a warm mortar, 
and, with constant stirring, incorporate 
the water. When nearly^ cold add the 
oil and vanillin, di.ssolved in the alcohol. 
Preparations of this kind should be 
rubbed into the skin vigorously, as fric- 
tion assists the absorbed fat in developing 
the muscles, and also imparts softness 
and fullness to the skin. 

SKIN BLEACHES, BALMS, LOTIONS, 
ETC.: 
See also Cleaning Methods and Photog- 
raphy for removal of stains caused, 
by photographic developers. 

AsMngent Wash for Flabby Skin.— 
This is used to correct coarse pores, and 
to remedy an oilv or flabby skin. Apply 
with sponge nignt and morning: 

Cucumber juice IJ ounces 

Tincture of benzoin . . , i ounce 

Cologne 1 ounce 

Elder-flower water. . . 5 ounces 
Put the tincture of benzoin in an 
8-ounce bottle, add the other ingredients, 
previouslv mixed, and shake slightly. 
There will be some precipitation of ben- 
zoin in this mixture, but it will settle out, 
or it may be strained out through cheese 
cloth. 

Bleaching Skin Salves. — A skin- bleach- 
ing action, due to the presence of hydro- 
gen peroxide, is possessed by the follow- 
ing mixtures: 

I. — Lanolin 30 parts 

Bitter almond oil. . . . 10 parts 
Mix and stir with this salve base a 
solution of 

Borax. 1 part 

Glycerine 15 parts 

Hydrogen peroxide.. 15 parts 
For impure skin the following com- 
position is recommended: 
II. — White mercurial oint- 
ment 5 grams 

Zinc ointment 5 grams 

Lanolin SO grams 

Bitter almond oil. . . . 10 grams 



And gradually stir into this a solution 
of 

Borax 2 grams 

Glycerine 30 grams 

Rose water 10 grams 

Concentrated nitric 

acid 5 drops 

III. — Lanolin 30 grams 

Oil sweet almond. . . 10 grams 

Borax 1 gram 

Glycerine 15 grams 

Solution hydrogen 

peroxide 15 grams 

Mix the lanolin and oil, then incor- 
porate the borax previously dissolved^ in 
the mixture of glycerine and peroxide 
solution. 
IV. — Ointment ammoniac 

mercury.^ 5 grams 

Ointment zinc oxide. 5 grams 

Lanolin 30 grams 

Oil sweet almond. . . 10 grams 

Borax ^ 2 grams 

Glycerine 30 grams 

Rose water 10 grams 

Nitric acid, C. P. . . . 5 arops 
Prepare in a similar manner as the 
foregoing. Rose oil in either ointment 
makes a good perfume. Both ointments 
may, of course, be employed as a general 
skin bleach, which, in fact, is their real 
office — cosmetic creams. 

Emollient Skin Balm.— 

Quince seed ) ounce 

Water 7 ounces 

Glycerine 1 J ounces 

Alcohol 4i ounces 

Salicylic acid 6 grains 

Carbolic acid 10 grains 

Oil of bay 10 drops 

Oil of cloves 5 drops 

Oil of orange peel .... 10 drops 
Oil of wintergreen. ... 8 drops 

Oil of rose 2 drops 

Digest the quince seed in the water for 
S4 hours, and then press through a 
cloth; dissolve the salicylic acid in the 
alcohol; add the carbolic acid to the glyc- 
erine; put all together, shake well, and 
bottle. 

Skin Lotion.— 

Zinc sulphocarbo- 

late 30 grains 

Alcohol (90 per cent) 4 nuidracffms 

Glycerine 2 fluidrachms 

Tincture of cochi- 
neal 1 fluidrachm 

O r a ng e-flower 

water 1} fluidounccs 

Rose water (triple) 
to make 9 fluidounc^s 

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235 



Skin Discoloratioii. — Discoloration of 
ihe neck may be removed by the use of 
acids, the simplest of which is that in 
buttermilk, but if the action of this is too 
slow try 4 ounces of lactic acid, 2 of 
gl^-cerine, and 1 of rose water. These 
will mix without heating. Apply sev- 
eral times daily with a soft linen rag; 
pour a small quantity into a saucer and 
dip the cloth into this. If the skin be- 
comes sore use less of the remedy^ and 
allay the redness and smarting with a 
good cold cream. It is always an acid 
that removes freckles and discol orations, 
by burning them off. It is well to be 
slow in its use until you find how severe 
its action is. It is not wise to try for 
home making any of the prescriptions 
which include corrosive sublimate or any 
other deadly poison.^ Peroxide of hydro- 
gen diluted with 5 times as much water, 
also will bleach disco! orations. Do not 
try any of these bleaches on a skin freshly 
sunburned. For that, wash in hot water, 
or add to the hot water application enough 
witch-hazel to scent the water, and after 
that has dried into the skin it will be soon 
enough to try other applications. 

Detergent for Skin Stains. — Morits 
Weiss has introduced a detergent paste 
which will remove stains from the skin 
without attacking it, is non-poisonous, 
and^ can be used without not water. 
Moisten the hands with a little cold water, 
apply a small quantitv of the paste to 
the stained skin, rub the hands together 
for a few minutes, and rinse with cold 
water. The preparation is a mixture of 
soft soap and hard tallow, melted to- 
gether over the fire and incorporated 
with a little emery powder, flint, glass, 
sand, quartz, pumice stone, etc., with 
a little essential oil to mask the smell of 
the soap. The mixture sets to a mass 
Hke putty, but does not dry hard. The 
approximate proportions of the ingre- 
dients are: Soft soap, 80 per cent; tal- 
low, 15 per cent; emery powder, 55 per 
cent, and a few drops of essential oil. 
^ If an extra detergent quality is de- 
aired, 4 ounces of sodium carbonate may 
be added, and the quantity of soap may 
he reduced. Paste thus made will at- 
tack grease, etc., more readily, but it is 
harder on the skin. 
Removing Inground Dirt. — 

Egg albumen 8 parts 

Boric acid 1 part 

Glycerine 32 parts 

Perfume to suit. 

Distilled water to make. 50 parts 
Dissolve the boric acid in a sufficient 
quantity of water; mix the albumen and 



glycerine and pass through a silk strain- 
er. Finally, mix the two fluids and add 
the residue of water. 

Every time the hands are washed, dry 
on a towel, and then moisten them lightly 
but thoroughly with the liquid, and dry 
on a soft towel without rubbing. At 
night, on retiring, apply the mixture and 
wipe slightly or just enough to take up 
superfluous liquid; or, better still, sleep 
in a pair of cotton gloves. 

TOILET CREAMS: 

Almond Cold Creams. — A liquid al- 
mond cream may be made bv the ap- 
pended formula. It has been known as 
milk of almond: 

I. — Sweet almonds 5 ounces 

White castile soap. 2 drachms 

White wax 2 drachms 

Spermaceti 2 drachms 

Oil of bitter al- 

monds 10 minims 

Oil of bergamot. . . 20 minims 

Alcohol 6 fluidounces 

Water, a sufficient quantity. 

Beat the almonds in a smooth mortar 
until as much divided as their nature will 
admit; then gradually add water in very 
small quantities, continuing the beating 
until a smooth paste is obtained; add to 
this, gradually, one pint of water, stirring 
well all the time. Strain the resulting 
emulsion without pressure through a 
cotton cloth previously well washed to 
remove all foreign matter. If new, the 
cloth will contain starch, etc., which 
must be removed. Add, through the 
strainer, enough water to bring the meas- 
ure of the strained liquid to 1 pint. 
W^hile this operation is j^oing on let the 
soap be shaved into thin ribbons, and 
melted, with enough water to cover it, 
over a ver^ gentle fire or on a water bath. 
When fluid add the wax and spermaceti 
in large pieces, so as to allow them to melt 
slowly, and thereby better effect union 
with the soap. Stir occasionally. When 
all is melted place the soapv mixture in 
a mortar, run into it slowly the emulsion, 
blending the two all the while with the 
pestle. Care must be taken not to add 
the emulsion faster than it can be incor- 
porated with the soap. Lastlv add the 
alcohol in which the perfumes have been 
previously dissolved, in the same man- 
ner, using great care. ^ 

This preparation is troublesome to 
make and rather expensive, and it is 
perhaps no better for the purpose than 
glycerine.^ The mistake is often made 
of applying the latter too freely, its 
"stickiness being unpleasaiU,-ancL it iis 
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COSMETICS 



best to dilute it largely with water. Such 
a lotion may be made by mixing 

Glycerine 1 part 

Rose water 9 parts 

Plain water may, of course, be used 
as the diluent, but a slightly perfumed 
preparation is generally considered more 
desirable. The perfume may easily be 
obtained by dissolving a very small pro- 
portion of handkerchief ''extract* or 
some essential oil in the glycerine, and 
then mixing with plain water. 

II. — White wax \ ounce 

Spermaceti 2} ounces 

Oil of sweet al- 
monds 2) ounces 

Melt, remove from the fire, and add 
Rose water H ounces 

Beat until creamy: not until cold. When 
the cream begins to thicken add a few 
drops of oil of rose. Only the finest 
almond oil should be used. Be careful 
in weighing the wax and spermaceti. 
These precautions will insure a good 
product. 

III. — White wax. .... 4 ounces 

Spermaceti 3 ounces 

Sweet almond 

oil. 6 fluidounces 

Glvcerine 4 fluidounces 

Oil of rose gera- 
nium 1 fluidrachm 

Tincture of ben- 
zoin 4 fluidrachms 

Melt the wax and spermaceti,^ add 
the oil of sweet almonds, then beat in the 
glycerine, tincture of benzoin, and oil 
of rose geranium. When all are incor- 
porated to a smooth, creamy mass, pour 
into molds. 

IV. — Sweet almonds, 

blanched 5 ounces 

Castile soap, 

white 120 grains 

White wax 120 grains 

Spermaceti 120 grains 

Oil of bitter al- 
monds 10 drops 

Oil of bergamot 20 drops 

Alcohol ... 6 fluidounces 

Water, sufficient. 
Make an emulsion of the almonds 
with water so as to obtain 16 fluidounces 
of product, straining through cotton 
which has previously been washed to 
remove starch. Dissolve the soap with 
the aid of heat in the necessary amount 
of water to form a liquid, add the wax 
and spermaceti, continue the heat until 
the latter is melted, transfer to a mortar, 
and incorporate the almond emulsion 



slowly with constant stirring until all has 
been added and^ a smooth cream has 
been formed. Finally, add the two vola- 
tile oils. 

V. — Melt, at moderate heat. 

By weight. 

White wax 100 parts 

Spermaceti 1,000 parts 

Then stir in 

By weight. 

Almond oil 500 parts 

Rose water 260 parts 

And scent with 

By weight. 
Bergamot oil ... . 10 parts 

Geranium oil 5 parts 

Liemon oil 4 parts 

By weight. 

VI.— Castor oil 500 parts 

White wax 100 parts 

Almond oil 150 parts 

Melt at moderate heat and scent with 
By weight 

Geranium oil 6 parts 

Lemon oil. .^ 5 parts 

Bergamot oil ... . 10 parts 
By weight. 

VII.— Almond oil 400 parts 

Lanoline 200 parts 

White wax. 60 parts 

Spermaceti 60 parts 

Rose water 800 parts 

By weight. 

VIII.— White wax 6 parts 

Tallow, freshly 

tried out 4 parts 

Spermaceti 2 parts 

Oil of sweet al- 
monds 6 parts 

Melt together and while still hot add, 
with constant stirring, 1 part of sodium 
carbonate dissolved m 79 parts of hot 
water. Stir until cold. Perfume to the 
taste. 

IX. — Ointment of 

rose water. . . 1 ounce 
Oil of sweet 

almonds 1 fluidounce 

Glycerine 1 fluidounce 

Boric acid 100 grains 

Solution of 

soda 2 J fluidounces 

Mucilage of 

quince seed . 4 fluidounces 
Water enough to 

make 40 fluidounces 

Oil of rose, oil of bitter almonds, 

of each sufficient to perfume. 

Heat the ointment, oil, and solution of 

soda together, stirring constantly until 

an emulsion or saponaceous mixture is 

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«87 



formed. Then warm together the glyc- 
erine, add, and mucilage and about SO 
fluidounces of water; mix with the emul- 
sion, stir until cold, and add the re- 
mainder of the water. Lastly, add the 
volatile oils. 

The rose-water ointment used should 
be the "cold cream" of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia. 

X. — Spermaceti. ... 2 ounces 

White wax .... 2 ounces 
Sweet almond 

oil ... 14 fluidounces 

Water, distilled 7 fluidounces 

Borax, powder 60 grains 

Coumarin i grain 

Oil of beigamot 24 drops 

Oil of rose 6 drops 

Oil of bitter 

almonds .... 8' drops 
Tincture of am- 
bergris 5 drops 

Melt the spermaceti and wax, add the 
sweet almond oil, incorporate the water 
in which the borax has previously been 
dissolved, and finally add the oils of ber- 
gamot, rose, and bitter almond. 

XI. — Honey 2 av. ounces 

Castile soap, 

white powder 1 av. ounce 
Oil sweet al- 
monds 26 fluidounces 

Oil bitter al- 
monds 1 fluidrachm 

Oil bergamot. . } fluidrachm 
Oil cloves .... 15 drops 
Peru balsam. . . 1 fluidrachm 
Liquor potassa. 

Solution carmine, of each suffi- 
cient. 
Mix the honey with the soap in a mor- 
tar, and add enough liquor potassa 
(about 1 fluidrachm) to produce a nice 
cream. Mix the volatile oils and balsam 
with the sweet almond oil, mix this with 
the cream, and continue the trituration 
until thoroughly mixed. ^ Finally add, 
if desired, enough carmine solution to 
impart a rose tint. 

XIL —White wax 800 parts 

Spermaceti 800 parts 

Sweet almond 

oil 5,600 parts 

Distilled water.. 2,800 parts 

Borax 50 parts 

Bergamot oil . . . 20 parts 

Attar of rose 5 parts 

Coumarin 0.1 part 

Add for each pound of the cream 5 

drops of etheric oil of bitter almonds, 

andS drops tincture of ambra. Proceed 

as in makmg cold cream. 



The following also makes a fine cream: 

XIII. — Spermaceti S parts 

White wax 2 parts 

Oil of almonds, 

fresh 12 parts 

Rose water, double 1 part 
Glycerine, pure. . . 1 part 
Melt on a water bath the spermaceti 
and wax, add the oil (which should be 
fresh), and pour the whole into a slightly 
warmed mortar, under constant and Hvely 
stirring, to prevent granulation. Con- 
tinue ^e trituration until the mass has 
a white, creamy appearance, and is 
about the consistence of butter at ordi- 
narv temperature. Add, little by little, 
uncier constant stirring, the orange- 
flower water and glycerine mixed, and 
finally the perfume as before. Con- 
tinue the stirring for 15 or 20 minutes, 
then immediately put into containers. 

Chappine Cream. — 

Quince seed 2 drachms 

Glycerine 14 ounces 

Water 1 J ounces 

Lead acetate 10 grains 

Flavoring, sufficient. 
Macerate the quince seed in water, 
strain, add the glycerine and lead ace- 
tate, previously aissolved in sufficient 
water; flavor with jockey club or orange 
essence. 

Cucumber Creams. — 

I. — White wax 8 ounces 

Spermaceti 3 ounces 

Benzoinated lard. ... 8 ounces 

Cucumbers 3 ounces 

Melt together the wax, spermaceti, and 
lard, and infuse in the liquid the cucum- 
bers previously grated. Allow to cool, 
stirring well; let stand a day, remelt, 
strain and again stir the "cream" until 
cold. 

II. — Benzoinated lard . ... 5 ounces 

Suet 3 ounces 

Cucumber juice 10 ounces 

Proceed as in making cold cream. 

Glycerine Creams. — 

I. — Oil of sweet al- 
monds 100 parts 

White wax 13 parts 

Glycerine, pure 25 parts 

Add a sufficient quantity of any 

suitable perfume. 

Melt, on the water bath, the oil, wax, 

and glycerine together, remove and as 

the mass cools down add the perfume in 

sufficient quantity to make a creamy 

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II. — Quince seed 1 ounce 

Boric acid 16 grains 

Starch 1 ounce 

Glycerine. 16 ounces 

Carbolic acid SO minims 

Alcohol 12 ounces 

Oil of lavender 30 minims 

Oil of rose 10 drops 

Extract of white rose 1 ounce 
Water enough to make 64 ounces 
Dissolve the boric acid in a quart of 
water and in this solution macerate the 
quince seed for 3 hours; then strain. 
Heat together the starch and the glycer- 
ine until the starch granules are broken, 
and mix with this the carbolic acid. 
Dissolve the oils and the extract of rose 
in the alcohol, and add to the quince- 
seed mucilage; then mix all together, 
strain, and add water enough to make 
the product weigh 64 ounces. 

III. — Glycerine 1 ounce 

Borax 2 drachms 

Boracic acid 1 drachm 

Oil rose geranium . . 30 drops 
Oil bitter almond. . . 15 drops 

Milk 1 gallon 

Heat the milk until it curdles and 
allow it to stand 12 hours. Strain it 
through cheese cloth and allow it to 
stand again for 12 hours. ^ Mix in the 
salts and glvcerine and triturate in a 
mortar, finally adding the odors and 
coloring if wanted. The curdled milk 
must be entirely free from water to avoid 
separation. If the milk will not curdle 
fast enough the addition of 1 ounce of 
water ammonia to a gallon will hasten it. 
Take a gallon of milk, add 1 ounce am- 
monia water, heat (not boil), allow to 
stand 24 hours, and no trouble will be 
found in forming a good base for the 
cream. 

IV. — This is offered as a substitute 
for cucumber cream for toilet uses. 
Melt 15 parts, bjr weight, of gelatin in 
hot water containing 15 parts, by weight, 
of boracic acid as well as 150 parts, 
bv weight, of glycerine; the total amount 
of water used should not exceed 300 
parts, by weight. It may be perfumed 
or not. 

Lanolin Creams. — 
I. — Anhydrous lanolin. 650 parts 
Peach-kernel oil . . . 200 parts 

Water 150 parts 

Perfume with about 15 drops of 
ionone or 20 drops of synthetic ylang- 
ylang. 

II. — Lanolin 40 parts 

Olive oil 15 parts 

Paraffine ointment. . 10 parts 



A^ua naphse 10 parts 

Distilled water 15 parts 

Glycerine 5 parts 

Boric acid 4 parts 

Borax 4 parts 

Geranium oil, sufficient. 
Extract, triple, of ylang-ylang, 
quantity sufficient. 
III. — Anhydrous lanolin. 650 drachms 

Almond oil 200 drachms 

Water 150 drachms 

Oil of ylang-ylang. 5 drops 
Preparations which have been intro- 
duced years ago for the care of the skin 
and complexion are the glycerine gelees, 
which have the advantage over lanolin 
that they go further, but present the 
drawback of not being so quickly ab- 
sorbed by the skin. These products are 
filled eitner into glasses or into^ tubes. 
The latter way is preferable and is more 
and more adoptea, owing to the conven- 
ience of handling. 

A good recipe for such a gelee is the 
following: 

Moisten white tragacanth powder, 50 
parts, with glycerine, 200 parts, and spirit 
of wine, 100 parts, and shake with a suit- 
able amount of perfume; then quickly 
mix and shake with warm distilled water, 
650 parts. 

A transparent slime will form imme- 
diately which can be drawn off at once. 

Mucilage Creams. — 

L— Starch 30 parts 

Carrageen mucilage. 480 parts 

Boric acid 15 parts 

Glycerine 240 parts 

Cologne water 240 parts 

Boil the starch in the carrageen muci- 
lage, add the boric acid and the glycer- 
ine. Let cool, and add the cologne 
water. 
II. — Linseed mucilage. .. 240 parts 

Boric acid 2 parts 

Salicylic acid 1.3 parts 

Glycerine 60 parts 

Cologne water 120 parts 

Rose water 120 parts 

Instead of the cologne water any ex- 
tracts may be used. Lilac and ylang- 
ylang are recommended. 

Witch-Hazel Creams.— 

I. — Quince seed 90 grains 

Boric acid 8 grains 

Glycerine 4 nuidounces 

Alcohol 6 fluidounces 

Carbolic acid 6 drachms 

Cologne water .... 4 fluidounces 
Oil lavender flow- 
ers ^. 40 drops 

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239 



Glycerite starch ... 4 av. ounces 
Distilled witch-hazel extract enough 
to make Si fluidounces 
Dissolve the boric acid in 16 ounces of 
the witch-hazel extract, macerate the 
quince seed in the solution for 3 hours, 
strain, add the glvcerine, carbolic acid, 
and glycerite, and mix well. Mix the 
alcohol, cologne water, lavender oil, and 
mucilages, incorporate with the previous 
mixture, and add enough witch-hazel 
extract to bring to the measure of 32 
fluidounces. 

II. — Quince seed 4 ounces 

Hot water 16 ounces 

Glycerine 32 ounces 

Witch-hazel water . . 128 ounces 

Boric acid 6 ounces 

Rose extract 2 ounces 

Violet extract 1 ounce 

Macerate the quince seed in the hot 
water: add the glycerine and witch-hazel, 
in which the boric acid has been pre- 
viously dissolved; let the mixture stand 
for 2 days, stirring occasionally; strain 
and add the perfume. 

Skin Cream for Collapsible Tubes. — 
I. — While vaseline. .. ^. 6 ounces 

White wax T. 1 ounce 

Spermaceti 5 drachms 

Subchloride bismuth 6 drachms 

Attar of rose 6 minims 

Oil of bitter almonds 1 minim 

Rectified spirit ) ounce 

Melt the vaseline, wax, and sperma- 
ceti together, and while cooling incor- 
porate the subchloride of bismuth (in 
warm mortar). Dissolve the oils in the 
alcohol, and add to the fatty mixture, 
stirring all until uniform and cold. In 
cold weather the quantities of wax and 
spermaceti may be reduced. 

II. — Lanolin 1 ounce 

Almond oil 1 ounce 

Oleate of zinc (pow- 
der) 3 drachms 

Extract of white rose 1} drachms 

Glycerine 2 drachms 

Rose water 2 drachms 

Face Cream Without Grease. — 

Quince seed 10 parts 

Boiling water 1,000 parts 

Borax 5 parts 

Boric acid 5 parts 

Glycerine 100 parts 

Alcohol, 94 percent. 125 parts 
Attar of rose, quantity sufficient to 
perfume. 
Macerate the quince seed m half of 
the boiling water, with fre()uent agita- 
tions, for 2 hours and 30 minutes, then 



strain off. In the residue of the boiling 
water dissolve the borax and boric tLcidl 
add the glycerine and the perfume, the 
latter dissolved in the alcohol. Now 
add, little by little, the colate of quince 
seed, under constant agitation, which 
should be kept up for 5 minutes after 
the last portion of the colate is added. 

TOILET MILKS: 
Cucumber Milk. — 

Simple cerate 2 pounds 

Powdered borax 11 i ounces 

Powdered castile soap 10 ounces 

Glycerine • . . 26 ounces 

Alcohol 24 ounces 

Cucumber juice 32 ounces 

Water to 5 gallons 

lonone 1 drachm 

Jasmine i drachm 

Neroli i drachm 

Rhodinol 15 minims 

To the melted cerate in a hot water 
bath add the soap and stir well, keeping 
up the heat until perfectly mixed. Add 
8 ounces of borax to 1 gallon of boiling 
water, and pour gradually into the hot 
melted soap ana cerate; add the re- 
mainder of the borax and hot water, then 
the heated juice and glycerine, and 
lastly the alcohol. Shake well while 
cooling, set aside for 48 hours, and siphon 
off any water that may separate. Snake 
well, and repeat after standing again if 
necessary; then perfume. 

Cucumber Juice.— It is well to make 
a large quantitv. as it keeps indefinitely. 
Washed unpeefed cucumbers are grated 
and pressed; the juice is heated, skimmed 
and boiled for 5 minutes, then cooled 
and filtered. Add 1 part of alcohol to 
2 parts of juice, let stand for 12 hours or 
more, and filter until clear. 

Glycerine Milk. — 

Glycerine 1,150 parts 

Starch, powdered. . 160 parts 
Distillea water. .... 400 parts 
Tincture of benzoin 20 parts 
Rub up 80 parts of the starch with the 
glycerine, then put the mixture on the 
steam bath and heat, under continuous 
stirring, until it forms a jcllylike mass. 
Remove from the bath and stir in the 
remainder of the starch. Finally, add 
the water and tincture and stir till homo- 
geneous. 

Lanolin Toilet Milk.— 
White castile soap, 

powdered 22 grains 

Lanolin 1 ounce 

Tincture benzoin .... 12 drachms 

Water, enough. ( ^ r\r\n\r> 

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COSMETICS 



Dissolve the soap in 2 fluidounces of 
warm water, also mix the lanolin with 
2 fluidounces of warm water; then in- 
corporate the two with each other, 
finally adding the tincture. The latter 
may be replaced by 90 grains of pow- 
dered borax. 

Jasmine Milk. — To 25 parts of water 
add gradually, with constant stirring, 
1 part of zinc white, 2 quarts of grain 
spirit, and 0.15 to 0.25 part of glycerine; 
finally stir in 0.07 to 0.10 part of jasmine 
essence. Filter the mixture and fill into 
glass bottles. For use as a cosmetic, 
rub on the raspberry paste on retiring at 
night, and in the morning use the jas- 
mine milk to remove the paste from the 
skin. The two work together in their 
effect. 

SUNBURN AND FRECKLE REME- 
DIES. 

I. — Apply over the affected skin a 
solution of corrosive sublimate, 1 in 500, 
or, if the patient can stand it, 1 in SOO, 
morning and evening, and for the night 
apply emplastrum hydrargyri com- 
positum to the spots. In the morninff 
remove the plaster and all remnants of 
it by rubbing fresh butter or cold cream 
over the spots. 

For redness of the skin apply each 
other day zinc oxide ointment or oint- 
ment of bismuth subnitrate. 

II. — Besnier recommends removal of 
the mercurial ointment with green soap, 
and the use, at night, of an ointment 
composed of vaseline and Vigo's plaster 
(emplastrum hydrargyri compositum), 
in equal parts. In the morning wash off 
with soap^ and warm water, and apply 
the following: 

Vaseline, white 20 parts 

Bismuth carbonate. . . 5 parts 

Kaolin 5 parts 

Mix, and make an ointment. 

III. — Leloir has found the following 
of service. Clean the affected part with 
green soap or with ' alcohol, and then ap- 
ply several coats of the following: 

Acid chrysophanic . . 15 parts 

Chloroform 100 parts 

Mix. Apply with a cameFs-hair pencil. 
When the application dries thoroughly, 
go over it with a la]^er of traumaticine. 
This application will loosen itself in 
several days, when the process should 
be repeated. 

IV. — When the skin is only slightlv 
discolored use a pomade of salicylic acid, 
or apply the following: 



Acid chrysophanic, 

from 1 to 4 parts 

Acid salicylic 1 to 2 parts 

Collodion 40 parts 

v.— When there is need for a more 
complicated treatment, the following is 
used: 

(a) Corrosive sublimate 1 part 

Orange- flower 

water 7,500 parts 

Acid, hydrochloric, 

dilute 500 parts 

(6) Bitter almonds. . . . 4,500 parts 

Glycerine 2,500 parts 

O range-flower 

water 25,000 parts 

Rub up to an emulsion in a porcelain 
capsule. Filter and add, drop by drop, 
and under constant stirring, 5 grams of 
tincture of benzoin. Finally mix the 
two solutions, adding the second to the 
first. ^ 

This preparation is applied with a 
sponge, on retiring, to the anected places, 
and allowed to dry on. 

VI. — According to Brocq the follow- 
ing should be penciled over the affected 
spots: 

Fresh pure milk 50 parts 

Glycerine 30 parts 

Acid, hydrochloric, 

concentrated 5 parts 

Ammonium chlorate. 3 parts 

VII. — Other external remedies that 
may be used are lactic acid diluted with 
3 volumes of water, applied with a glass 
rod: dilute nitric acid, and, finally, per- 
oxide of hydrogen, which last is a very 
powerful agent. Should it cause too 
muph inflammation, the latter may be 
assuaged by using an ointment of zinc 
oxide or bismuth subnitrate — or one may 
use the following: 

Kaolin 4 parts 

Vaseline 10 parts 

Glycerine 4 parts 

Magnesium carbonate 2 parts 

Zinc oxide 2 parts 

Freckle Remedies. — 

I. — Poppy oil 1 part 

Lead acetate 2 parts 

Tincture benzoin. ... 1 part 
Tincture quillaia. ... 5 parts 
Spirit nitrous ether. . . 1 part 

Rose water 95 parts 

Saponify the oil with the lead acetate; 
add the rose water, and follow with the 
tinctures. 

II. — Chloral hydrate 2 drachms 

Carbolic acid ....... 1 drachm 

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241 



Tincture iodine 60 drops 

Glycerine 1 ounce 

Mix and dissolve. Apply with a 
camelVhair pencil at night. 

lU.— Distilled vinegar. . . 660 parts 
Lemons, cut in 

small pieces 135 parts 

Alcohol, 85 per 

cent 88 parts 

Lavender oil 23 parts 

Water 88 parts 

Citron oil 6 parts 

This mixture is allowed to stand for 3 
or 4 days in the sun and filtered. ^ Coat, 
bv means of a sponge before retiring, the 
places of the skin where the freckles are 
and allow to dry. 

Freckles and Liver Spots. — Modem 
dermatological methods of treating 
freckles and liver spots are based partly 
on remedies that cause desquamation 
and those that depigmentate (or de- 
stroy or neutralize pigmentation). Both 
methods may be distinguished in respect 
to their effects and mode of using into 
the following: The active ingredients of 
the desquamative pastes are reductives 
which promote the formation of epithe- 
lium and hence expedite desquamation. 

There are many such methods, and 
especially to be mentioned is that of 
Unna, who uses resorcin for the purpose. 
Lassar makes use of a paste of napnthol 
and sulphur. 

Stmbnm Remedies. — 
I.—Zinc sulphocar bo- 
late 1 part 

Glycerine 20 parts 

Rose water 70 parts 

Alcohol, 90 per 

cent 8 parts 

Cologne water. ... 1 part 
Spirit of camphor. 1 part 

n.— Borax. . . ^ 4 parts 

Potassium chlorate 2 parts 

Glycerine 10 parts 

Alcohol 4 parts 

Rose water to make 90 parts 

tlL — Citric add 2 drachms 

Ferrous sulphate 

(cryst.) 18 grains 

Camphor 2 trains 

Elder-flower water 3 nuidounces 

IV.— Potassium carbon- 
ate 3 parts 

Sodium chloride . . 2 parts 
Orange- flower 

water 16 parts 

Rose water 65 parts 



V. — Boroglycerine, 50 

per cent 1 part 

Ointment of rose 

water 9 parts 

VI. — Sodium bicarbon- 
ate 1 part 

Ointment of rose 

water 7 parts 

VII. — Bicarbonate of soda 2 drachms 
Powdered borax .. . 1 drachm 
Compound tincture 

of lavender H drachms 

Glycerine 1 ounce 

Rose water 4 ounces 

Dissolve the soda and borax in the 
g^lycerine and rose water, and add the 
tincture. Apply with a small piece of 
sponge 2 or 3 times a day. Then gently 
dry by dabbing with a soft towel. 

VIII. — Quince seeds 2 drachms 

Distilled water.. . . 10 ounces 

Glycerine 2 ounces 

Alcohol, 94 per 

cent 1 ounce 

Rose water 2 ounces 

Boil the seeds in the water for 10 min- 
utes, then strain off the liquid, and when 
cold add to it the glycerine, alcohol, and 
rose water. 

IX.— White soft soap. . . 2) drachms 

Glycerine 1} drachms 

Almond oil 11 drachms 

Well mix the glycerine and soap in a 
mortar, and verv gradually add the oil, 
stirring constantly until perfectly mixed. 

X. — Subnitrate of bis- 
muth 1 } drachms 

Powdered French 

chalk 30 srains 

Glycerine 2 drachms 

Rose water 1 } ounces 

Mix the powders, and rub down care- 
fully with the glycerine; then add the 
rose water. Shake the bottle before use. 
XI. — Glycerine cream . . 2 drachms 
Jordan almonds . . 4 drachms 

Rose water 5 ounces 

Essential oil of al- 
monds 3 drops 

Blanch the almonds, and then dry and 
beat them up into a perfectly smooth 
paste; then mix in the glycerine cream 
and essential oil. Gradually add the 
rose water, stirrinff well after each addi- 
tion; then strain through muslin. 

Tan and Freckle Lotion.— 

Solution A: ^ ^ ^ 
Potassium iodide, iodine, glycerine, 
and infusion rose. 

DiMolvt the poUs«um^^^^g[^ 



S42 



COSMETICS 



small quantity of the infusion and a 
drachm of the glycerine; with this fluid 
moisten the iodine in a glass of water 
and rub it down, eradually adding more 
liquid, until complete solution has been 
obtained; then stir in the remainder of 
the ingredients, and bottle the mixture. 

Solution B: 

Sodium thiosulphate and rose water. 
With a small camel's-hair pencil or piece 
of fine sponge apply a little of solution A 
to the tanned or treckled surface, until a 
slight or tolerably uniform brownish 
yellow skin has been produced. At the 
expiration of 15 or 20 minutes moisten 
a piece of cambric, lint, or soft rag with 
B and lay it upon the affected part, re- 
moving, squeezing away the liquid, 
soaking it afresh, and again applying 
until the iodine stain has disappeared. 
Repeat the process thrice daily, but 
diminish the frequency of application if 
tenderness be produced. 

A Cure for Tan. — Bichloride of mer- 
cury, in coarse powder, 10 grains; dis- 
tilled water, 1 pint. Agitate the two 
together until a complete solution is 
obtained. Add } ounce of glycerine. 
Apply with a small sponge as often as 
agreeable. This is not strong enough to 
blister and skin the face in average cases. 
It may be increased or reduced in strength 
bv adding to or taking from the amount 
of bichloride of mercury. Do not for- 
get that this last ingredient is a powerful 
poison and shoulcT be kept out of the 
reach of children and ignorant persons. 

Improved Carron Oil. — Superior to 
the old and more suitable. A desirable 

C reparation for burns, tan, freckle, sun- 
urn, scalds, abrasions, or lung affec- 
tions. Does not oxidize so quickly or 
dry up so rapidly and less liable to ran- 
cidity. 

Linseed oil 2 ounces 

Limewater 2 ounces 

Paraffine, liquid 1 ounce 

Mix the linseed oil and water, and add 
the paraffine. Shake well before using. 

LIVER SPOTS. 

I. — Corrosive s u b 1 i - 

mate 1 part 

White sugar 190 parts 

White of egg 34 parts 

Lemon juice 275 parts 

Water to make. . . . 2,500 parts 

Mix the sublimate, sugar, and albu- 
men intimately, then add the lemon 
juice and water. Dissolve, shake well, 
and after standing an hour, filter. Ap- 



ply in the morning after the usual ablu- 
tions, and let dry on the face. 

II. — Bichloride of mercury, in coarse 
powder, 8 grains; witch-hazel, 2 ounces; 
rose water, 2 ounces. 

Agitate until a solution is obtained. 
Mop over the affected parts. Keep out 
of tne way of ignorant persons and chil- 
dren. 

TOILET POWDERS: 

Almond Powders for the Toilet. — 
I. — Almond meal .... 6,000 parts 

Bran meal 8,000 parts 

Soap powder 600 parts 

Bergamot oil 50 parts 

Lemon oil 15 parts 

Clove oil 15 parts 

Neroli oil 6 parts 

II. — Almond meal 7,000 parts 

Bran meal 2,000 parts 

Violet root 900 parts 

Borax 350 parts 

Bitter almond oil . 18 parts 
Palmarosa oil.. .. 36 parts 
Bergamot oil 10 parts 

III.— Almond meal .... 3,000 parts 

Bran meal 3,000 parts 

Wheat flour 3,000 parts 

Sand 100 parts 

Lemon oil 40 parts 

Bitter almond oil . 10 parts 

Bath Powder.— 

Borax ^ 4 ounces 

Salicylic acid 1 drachm 

Extract of cassia 1 drachm 

Extract of jasmine. . . 1 drachm 

Oil of lavender 20 minims 

Rub the oil and extracts with the borax 
and salicylic acid until the alcohol has 
evaporated. Use a heaping tcaspoonf ul 
to tne body bath. 

Brunette or Rachelle. — 

Base 9 pounds 

Powdered Florentine 

orris 1 pound 

Perfume the same. 
Powdered yellow 

ocher (av.) 3 ounces 120 grains 

Carmine No. 40 60 grains 

Rub down the carmine and ocher with 
alcohol in a mortar, and spread on glass 
to dry; then mix and sift. 

Violet Poudre de Riz. — 

I. — Cornstarch 7 pounds 

Rice flour 1 pou