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Full text of "Henry Cabot Lodge"

''No one can serve her (Massachusetts) with deeper 

love or greater loyalty." --Sym„h..n> .lall speech. Jan. .^ ...U 




HENRY CABOT LODGE 

Majority Leader of the United States Senate and Chairman of the Committee 

on Foreign Relations. 



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By Transfer 

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To the Voters of Massachusetts: 

This pamphlet is a review in brief of the pubHc services 
of United States Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, with especial 
reference to his position on various matters that came before 
the Senate since his last election in November, 1916. This 
period, including the two years immediately preceding^ 
constitutes an epoch in the history of the country. 

vDuring a part of this time Senator Lodge was, as he is 
today, the leader of the majority party in the Senate. How 
he met his responsibilities in the great crisis through which 
the country passed is a matter of public record. 

This record is herewith presented to the end that the 
voters in Massachusetts at the election this Autumn shall 
mark their ballots with a clear understanding of the influen- 
tial place Senator Lodge holds in Washington and of the 
character of service he gave to his State and to his country 
in these trying years. 

THE REPUBLICAN CLUB OF MASSACHUSETTS, 

George A. Rich, President 
Earl E. DAvmsoN, Secretary 

Boston, Mass., 

May 15, 1922. 



LOYALTY AND GRATITUDE TO MASSACHUSETTS. 

"No matter what the future may have in store, that gratitude which comes 
from my heart can never be either chilled or lessened. 

"Every tradition of our great state is dear to me, every page of her history 
is to me a household word. To her service I have given the best years of my 
life and the best that was in me to give. I hope that I have not been an al- 
together unprofitable servant. I have given my all; no man can give more. 
Others may well serve her with greater ability than L I fervently hope there 
will be many such in the days to come, when her light will still shine before 
men as it now shines with steady radiance in the pages of history. Others 
may easily serve her better than I in those days yet to be, but of this I am sure: 
that no one can serve her with deeper love or greater loyalty." — Senator Lodge 
in hi« S\injiliony Hall speech, Jan. 3, 1911. 



MASSACHUSETTS NOW, AS IN THE PAST, LEADS AT 

WASHINGTON 

In the selection of a United States Senator this year the voters of 
Massachusetts will consider how the interests of the Nation and the 
Commonwealth can best be served. 

Senator Henry Cabot Lodge is a candidate for re-election. He is 
the Republican leader of the Senate and the ranking member of that 
body in length and continuity of service. To those who know how 
rigidly the traditional rule of seniority is applied in Congress it is in- 
conceivable that the voters of the State will supplant Senator Lodge 
with a new man. 

To do so would mean a loss to Massachusetts in 
prestige and influence at Washington that might 
not be regained in a generation. 

The selection of the American Delegates to the Washington Con- 
ference on the Limitation of Armament furnishes a recent and notable 
example of the established custom of recognizing long and distinguished 
service in Congress. 

Senator Lodge and Senator Underwood were named by President 
Harding as American Delegates to represent the United States. Each 
had been in Congress more than a quarter of a century. Senator 
L^nderwood was the leader of his party in the House and is the minority 
leader in the Senate. 

Senator Lodge was chosen not solely because he is the majority 
leader. In his case that might well have been a secondary consideration 
in the mind of the President. 

Senator Lodge is the chairman of the committee on 
Foreign Relations and an admitted authority on in- 
ternational affairs. His experience and familiarity 
with matters affecting the foreign relations of the 
LTnited States eminently qualified him and made his 
appointment wholly logical and fitting. Neither 
Senator Lodge nor Senator Underwood would have 
been drafted for this great work if they had been un- 
tried and their statesmanship not proven. 

In advocating the principles of the Republican party in Washington 
and in his home State, Senator Lodge has been a hard-hitting fighter, 
but Democrats and Republicans at the Capital agree that his partisan- 
ship always "ends at the water's edge." 

On all matters affecting the international relations of 
the United States Senator Lodge is held at Washington 
as an uncompromising advocate of the rights of 
American citizens on land and sea. 



SENATOR LODGE ELECTED FOR HIS FIFTH TERM 

Senator Lodge was elected to the Senate for his fifth consecutive 
term in the Autumn of 1916, At a joint session of Congress, Feb. 3, 
1917, the President announced he had severed diplomatic relations with 
Germany. Four days later, the Committee on Foreign Relations 
reported to the Senate a resolution approving the action of the President. 
In urging the Senate to give to the Administration 
united support Senator Lodge reached the heights 
of non partisanship and loyalty to country and 
emphasized the constitutional authority of the Presi- 
dent to conduct, short of actual declaration of war, 
the foreign relations of the Ignited States. 

"Under these circumstances, so far as I am concerned, party lines 
vanish, and any criticism of the past or any criticism of the present is 

silenced for me," said Senator Lodge in his speech "There 

is one step more important than any other, if we are to preserve our 
peace under existing conditions, and that is to show to the people of the 
country that we are without divisions at this moment 

"My earnest hope is that at this time personal feelings, political 
feelings, political enmities will be laid aside, that we will remember 
only that we are citizens of a common country, and that we are all 
Americans .... and let that nation (Germany) and the 
w.)rld know that 

when the President speaks, as he has spoken, he 
has the Congress of the United States, and the people 
of the United States, no matter what their race or 
origin, behind him in the one simple character 
of American citizens." 

THE RIGHTS OF NEUTRALS 

The necessity of maintaining and guarding the rights of American 
citizens was emphasized by Senator Lodge at frequent intervals in the 
Senate during the pre-war period. 

The sinking by German submarines of unarmed merchant ships, 
with the loss of American men, women and children, was the subject 
of a brief, extemporaneous speech by Senator Lodge on Dec. 10, 1915, 
which was ajiplaudcd the country over. 

Speaking on a resolution calling for an in\estigation by the Com- 
mittee on Foreign Relations up(jn the law and the facts involved in the 
attacks and the destruction of several merchant siiips, including the 
Lusilania Senator Lodge said : 

"I think Americans should be i)r()tected in their li\es and in their 
liberty everywhere. I do not tliink tlu'\- ought to be niunlered in detail 

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in Mexico or openly and wholesale on the high seas. Although I am as 
anxious as anyone can be to care for our rights in trade if they are 
violated, to me 

American lives are more important than Ameri- 
can dollars. The body of an American child 
floating dead on the water, the victim of the destruc- 
tion of an unarmed vessel, is to me a more poignant 
and a more tragic spectacle than an unsold 
bale of cotton." 

In common with many Americans Senator Lodge realized, long 
before the actual declaration of war with Germany, that the United 
States would be compelled, unless hostilities ceased, to join the Allies 
and become an active participant in the struggle in Europe. 

With a vision unclouded by the propaganda of pacifists Senator 
Lodge constantly urged the country to prepare and thus make certain 
its own ultimate peace, security and freedom. 

WAR WITH GERMANY 

The ignited States entered the war April 6, 1917, this step being 
the inevitable sequel to the severance of diplomatic relations with 
Germany. Senator Lodge at that time was the ranking Republican 
member of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations and spokesman 
of the minority party on the floor. 

During the progress of the war Senator Lodge, in 
every act and utterance, steadfastly supported the 
war policies of the Administration. 

His first speech was co-incident with the adoption of the Senate 
Joint Resolution declaring war with Germany. This was made in the 
Senate April 4, 1917. 

Sorrowfully, but with hope and courage, Senator Lodge saw his 
country compelled to enter the war. He frankly declared there were 
some things worse for a nation than war. 

"National degeneracy is worse; national cowardice 
is worse," said Senator Lodge. "The division of our 
people into race groups, striving to direct the course 
of the United States in the interest of some other 
country when we should have but one allegiance, one 
hope and one tradition is far worse." 

Believing that human liberty, the principles of democracy, 
modern civilization and even the independence and security of 

the Nation were at stake. Senator Lodge called for the utilization to 

7 



the utmost of every resource aiul all the energies of the Republic in the 

prosecution of the war. 

Senator Lodgeadvised that 10,000 American Regulars 
be sent at once to France, in advance of the great 
Army that would follow, for the moral effect the pre- 
sence of these soldiers would have on the flagging 
spirits of the Allied troops. 

"We seek no conquests, we desire no territory and no new dominions," 
said Senator Lodge in concluding this speech. "We wish simply to 

preserve our own peace and security What we want 

most of all is to secure the world*s peace, broad-based on freedom 
and democracy, a world controlled by the will of the free people of 
the earth." 

THE ESSENTIAL TERMS OF PEACE 

The I'uited States had been in the war for mbre than a \ear and 
a half when the Armistice was signed, Nov. 11, 1918. During that 
period Congress was in session almost continuously. 

In the summer of 1918 the German forces sutYered severe repulses 
and the olTensive passed into the hands of the Allied armies. Rumors 
of peace proposals were widespread and in constant circulation in the 
L'nited States. 

In a notable speech in the Senate on Aug. 23, 1918, 
Senator Lodge warned the country against the "in- 
sidious and poisonous peace propaganda" of Germany. 
To avert the danger which he believed seriously 
threatened a "just and righteous peace" Senator 
Lodge boldly announced to the American people the 
essential terms on which peace should be made. 

These terms he enumerated in substance as follows: Restoration 
of Belgium; Alsace and Lorraine returned to France and the Italia 
Irredenta to Italy; independence for Serbia and Roumania; security 
for Greece; an independent Poland; Russian provinces taken by the 
villainous Brest-Litovsk treaty returned to Russia; Constantinople 
taken from Turkey and established as a free port; Palestine made 
safe; compensation to France and Belgium for ruthless destruction of 
property. 

l/nwavering in the conviction that the Allies should 
insist on a dictated and not a negotiated peace with 
Germany — fearful of a "peace of bargain, of give and 
take, and of arrangement" — Senator Lodge brought all 
the powers of his eloquence to present to the countr\- 
the danger of a peace reached in that way. 

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"No peace that satisfies Germany in any degree can ever satisfy 
us," said Senator Lodge. "It cannot be a negotiated peace. As this 
war is utterly different from any war the world has ever known, so must 
the peace which concludes it be utterly different from any peace the world 
has ever known. The only peace for us is one that rests on uncondi- 
tional surrender It must be a dictated peace 

and we and our Allies must dictate il." 



THE TREATY OF PEACE AND THE LEAGUE COVENANT 

Senator Lodge, as Chairman of the Committee on F'oreign Rela- 
tions, reported to the Senate on Sept. 10, 1919, the treaty of peace with 
Germany, including the covenant of the league of nations, with certain 
amendments and reservations thereto. This document had been trans- 
mitted to the Senate by the President on July 10, 1919, eight months 
almost to a day, from the date of the ending of the war. 

Senator Lodge regarded the treaty and co\-enant 
in the original form in which it came to the Senate from 
the Paris Conference as constituting a dangerous 
alliance, really dominated by three great powers, 
into which the United States should not enter. 
The sole purpose of the amendments and reservations 
was to guard American rights and American 
sovereignty. 

The most important amendments to the treaty were, first, the 
one designed to secure to the United States voting strength in the 
league assembly equal to that of any other power; second, an amend- 
ment to restore to China the German lease and rights in the Pro\ ince 
of Shantung which the Paris treaty gave to Japan. 

The reservations proposed to the covenant of the league were tour 
in number as follows: 

1. Unconditional right of the United States to withdraw from 
the league. 

2. A reservation to Article 10 by which the United States declined 
to assume any obligation to preserve the territorial integrity or politi- 
cal independence of any other country or to permit American soldiers 
or sailors to be sent to fight in other lands at the bidding of a league 
of nations. 

3. Exclusive right of the United States to decide what questions 
are within its own domestic jurisdiction. 

4. Preservation of the Monroe doctrine from any interference or 
interpretation by foreign powers. 

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lM)ll()\ving a prolonged debate in the Senate, running over a period 
of more than two months, Senator Lodge secured the adoption of the 
reservations as reported from the Committee on Foreign Relations. 

On Nov. 19, 1919, the (luestion being on the ratification of the 
treaty. Senator Lodge and 33 Republicans and seven Democrats voted 
in the affirmative. Thirty-eight Democrats and 13 Republicans, a 
total of more than one-third of the Senate, voted against ratification 
and the treaiy failed. 

Another attempt was made on March 19, 1920, to secure ratification. 
Again Senator Lodge and a majority of the Republicans in the Senate 
voted in the affirmative, and again a majority of the Democratic Senators 
and a minority of the Republicans joined in voting in the negative. 
Fojr the second time the treaty failed of the two-thirds vote required 
under the constitution for ratification. 

The record shows that the position of Senator Lodge 
on the league of nations was always consistent. He 
early announced his unalterable opposition unless 
changes were made that would preserve the safety 
and independence of the LInited States. When 
reserxations bringing this to pass had been adopted 
Senator Lodge voted to ratify the treaty each 
time that question was before the Senate. 

THE WASHINGTON CONFERENCE 

Senator Lodge was selected by President Harding as one of the four 
delegates to represent the United States at the Conference for the 
Limitation of Armament. He welcomed with gratitude and high hope 
the opportunil>- thus gi\en him to serve his country and promote the 
peace of the world. 

The story of the Conference has been so recently written that it 
is unnecessary to repeat it here, save in the briefest way. Its accom- 
plishments are not only of immediate effect but loom large "with the 
fate of ages yet unborn." Time alone will fully reveal the far-reaching 
and beneficent influence of the Washington conference on international 
relations. 

Six treaties were negotiated by the Conference, and later ratified 
b\- the Senate, as follows: 

1. A treaty between the I'niled States of America, the British 
Empire, France, Italy and Japan, with respect to the limitation of na\al 
armament. 

2. A treaty between the same Powers in relation to the use of 
submarines and no.xious gases in warfare. * 

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3. A treaty between the United States of America, the British 
Empire, France and Japan relating to their insular possessions and in- 
sular dominions in the Pacific ocean. 

4. A treaty between the same Powers supplementarj- to the abo\e- 
mentioned treaty in relation to (he insular possessions and insular 
dominions in the Pacific ocean. 

5. A treaty between the United States of America, Belgium, British 
Empire, China, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, and Portugal 
relating to policies in matters concerning China. 

6. A treaty between the same nine Powers relating to the Chinese 
Customs tariff. 

When President Harding transmitted these treaties to the Senate 
for ratification he delivered an address explaining the purpose of each. 
To the suggestion that the four-power Pacific treaty constituted an 
"alliance" of doubtful expediency for the United States the President 
said: 

"The four-power treaty contains no war commitment. 
There is no commitment to armed force, 
no alliance, no written or moral obligation to join in 
defense, no expressed or implied commitment to 
arrive at any agreement except in accordance with 
our constitutional methods." 

In support of this treaty Senator Lodge delivered in the Senate on 
March 8, 1922, what was editorially characterized by the Washington 
Star as "one of the most impressive speeches ever heard in that forum 

impressive for its clarity, for its logic, for its measured 

calmness and for its lack of exaggerated statement." 

Senator Lodge made it plain that if the four-power treaty failed 
the other conference agreements must fail also or, remaining, be but 
empty shells. 

The work of the Washington Conference, if the treaties 
had failed in the Senate, would have been of no im- 
. mediate effect. The prompt ratification of the 
treaties is regarded as a splendid tribute to the 
diligence and leadership of Senator Lodge. The 
three great objectives of the American delegates — 
termination of the Anglo-Japanese treaty, reduction 
of naval armament, aid to China, including the res- 
toration of the Province of Shantung — were all 
finally attained. 

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SENATOR LODGE'S SUPPORT OF LIBERAL MEASURES 

The foregoing is an accurate, if necessarily brief, presentation of 
the part Senator Lodge played in the official life of the nation in a time 
that called for unselfish devotion and loyalty to country, and wisdom, 
patience and tact in legislative and political leadership. 

The complete public record of Senator Lodge forms a part of the 
history of Massachusetts. To give it in full would require volumes. 

Inuring his Congressional career he has constantly supported laws 
for the benefit of the whole people, never for the benefit of the 
few as against the many. He is an unfaltering champion of a pro- 
tective tariff. He believes the Republican policy of protection has 
developed American industry and has enlarged and enriched 
American home and family life. 

Senator Lodge maintains that the application of the 
principles of a protective tariff" means better living 
conditions for the millions of operati^•es employed 
in the mills and factories of the land. 

Regarding child labor as one of the greatest evils of American life, 

Senator Lodge has consistently aided and encouraged restrictive child 

labor legislation. 

He was especially effective as a supporter of the bill to regulate 

child labor in the District of Columbia when that measure was under 

consideration by Congress. 

In the 64th Congress the child labor bill raising the age 
limit for compulsory school attendance and decreasing 
the hours of employment, which was opposed by a 
group of Southern Senators, had his active and earnest 
support. 

He was among the pioneers in Congress who strongly advised and 
voted for the passage of pure food laws and the record shows he offered 
amendments to strengthen pending measures on that vital subject 
which were finally enacted into law. 

When the subject of Government regulation and increased efficiency 
of the railroads was being discussed Senator Lodge was foremost in the 
fight for fair treatment for the shippers. 

In the rate regulation fight, when the railroads of the country, 
almost without exception united to raise a great publicity fund to be 
used for the purpose of discrediting President Roosevelt, Senator Lodge 
was a staunch supporter of the Administration. 

He voted for the Klkins bill, which put an end to open relxiting, the 
greatest evil in the transportation history of the country. He took an 
active part in the debate and vote for the two great railroad rate bills 
enacted in the Roosevelt and Taft Administrations. 

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Senator Lodge supported and voted for the law which compelled 
the great Chicago packers to submit their buildings and their food 
products to government inspection. The law against the opium traffic 
was reported by Senator Lodge, who secured its enlargement and the 
inclusion of cocaine in the rigidly restricted list in the tariff act of 1909. 

In the Congress in 1910 Senator Lodge introduced from the Com- 
mittee on Wages and Prices, on which he was serving, a bill to limit the 
time during which articles of food could be kept in cold storage. This 
measure was finally enacted into law by the present Congress, thus 
abolishing one method commonly used by dealers in food supplies to 
maintain an abnormal price level. 

AN EDITORIAL OPINION 

From the Boston Post (Lid. Dem.), Editorial of Jan. 26, 1922: 

"Senator Lodge, with whom the Boston Post has often disagreed on 
public questions, is the most influential man in the United States Senate 

His qualities as a statesman have broadened with the 

passing years and he deserves and will receive the compliment of a re- 
election if he will accept it." "In the present troublous 

times a Senator of Mr. Lodge's experience and scholarship cannot be 
spared at Washington." 



Li 



ROOSEVELT'S ENDORSEMENT 



THEODORE ROOSEVELT, in the name of ''common Americanism,'* 

urged the nomination of Senator Lodge for President in 1916. 

Extract from a letter addressed to the Conferees of the Progressive 
Party at the Progressive National Convention, and presented to the 
Republican National Convention, in Chicago, June 10, 1916, by 
Theodore Roosevelt: 

In view of the conditions existing, I suggest the name of Senator Lodge, 
of Massachusetts. He is a man of the highest integrity, of the broadest 
national spirit and of the keenest devotion to the public good. For thirty- 
years he has been in the House of Representatives and in the Senate at Wash- 
ington. For twenty years he has been a member of the Foreign Affairs Com- 
mittee. For a very long period he was a member of the Naval Affairs Committee. 
He has not only a wide experience in public affairs but a peculiarly close 
acquaintance with the very type of questions now most pressing for settlement. 
He has consistently fought for Preparedness, preparedness for the Navy, 
preparedness in fortifying the Panama Canal, preparedness in upbuilding the 
Army. He has been on the whole the member with the largest vision and the 
most intelligent devotion to American needs that we have had on the Foreign 
Affairs Committee during this generation. He rendered distinguished service 
on the Alaskan Boundary International Commission. In addition, he has 
been one of the staunchest fighters for different measures of economic reform 
in the direction of justice, championing such measures as the Pure Food Law, 
the Safety Appliance Law, the Workmen's Compensation Act, the National 
Law prohibiting the labor of Children, the Hepburn Rate Bill, the bill creating 
a Bureau of Corporations, and many similar measures. I, therefore, urge 
upon you favorably to consider his name and report on it to the conferees 
from the Republican National Convention, and if you do not agree with me 
in this respect nevertheless to transmit this telegram to the Republican con- 
ferees and to request them to place it before their Convention at the same 
time yourself laying the telegram before the Progressive Convention. 

Let me again quote from my telegram of the day before yesterday to 
Senator Jackson, of Maryland: "The differences that have divided, not merely 
Republicans and Progressives, but good Americans of all shades of political 
belief from one another in the past, sink into nothing when compared with 
the issues now demanding decision, for these issues are vital to the national 
life. They are the issues of a unified Americanism and of National Prepared- 
ness. If we are not all of us Americans and nothing else, scorning to divide 
along lines of section, of creed, or of national origin, then the Nation itself 
will crumble into dust. If we are not thoroughly prepared, if we have not 
developed a strength which respects the rights of others but which is also ready 
to enforce from others respect for its own rights, then sooner of later we shall 
have to submit to the will of an alien conqueror." 

I wrote the above sentences because I felt them deep in my heart. They 
set forth the vital needs of this time. The nomination of Senator Lodge will 
meet those vital needs. I earnestly ask that what you can do to bring about 
that nomination in the name of our common Americanism be done. 

THEODORE ROOSEVELT. 

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"I believe, with all my heart, the powers in conference have com- 
bined to make the world a safer and better and more hopeful place in 
which to live." — President Hanlino. 




SENATOR LODGE SIGNING WASHINGTON TREATIES 

in Memorial Continental Hall, Feb. 6, 1922. Standing at the right of Senator Lodge 
are Secretary of State Hughes, Senator L^nderwood and Mr. P:iihu Root, the other 
American Delegates. 

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LIBRftRY OF CONGRESS 



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