Skip to main content

Full text of "Henry Hill Goodell: The Story of His Life, with Letters and a Few of His ..."

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 

3.n.iiffid by Google 



il[nivereitt> of Mteconein 

3.n.iiffid by Google 

by Google 



3.n.iized by Google 

3.n.iiffid by Google 

3.a.i,zed by Google 


3.n.iized by Google 


rni; : toky of his life 






3,n.tized by Google 


3.n.iized by Google 


SEP 3 1,912 













aoNB OF Hia uro-LONo tbhindh 




3.n.iized by Google 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


In prepariDg this sketch of the life of President Goodell 
it has been the author's aim to make it as far as possible 
autobiographical. The letters written during the Civil 
War are a soldier's letters, written by camp-fires, amid the 
confusion of army life, and sometimes with the booming of 
great guns ringing in his ears. They are printed as he left 
them, without correction, omitting personal and family 
matters of no interest to the public. The letters are some- 
times arranged so as to appear like a diary, but he did not 
keep a diary. He wrote to his friends of what was going 
on around him; he has very httle to say of matters that did 
not come under his personal observation. 

President Goodell was very careless about his manu- 
scripts and seems to have looked upon them as of tempo- 
rary value; and except the addresses and papers which 
found their way into print, only a few out of many have 
been preserved. Those printed in this volume are se- 
lected as illustrative of the tone of his mind and his method 
of handling the subjects he studied. It will be pleasing to 
those to whom they were addressed to read his farewells 
to the graduating classes. 

It will be impossible to mention all the friends who have 
contributed to this story. It is sufficient to say that Mrs. 
Helen E. Goodell has been untiring in collecting material 
illustrative of the work and character of her husband. 
The sons of the late Colonel Mason W. lyier of Runfield, 

3.n.iized by Google 


N. J., have kindly loaned letters addressed to their father; 
many thanks are due to M. F. Dickinson, Esq., of Boston, 
for letters, papers, and valuable suggestions. Major Thomas 
McManus of the S5th Regiment of Connecticut Volunteers 
and the Honorable William R. Sessions, for many years 
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Agriculture, 
have contributed important facts, one in regard to the 
soldier, the other in regard to the affairs of the College. 
Professor William P. Brooks and Rtjfessor George F. Mills, 
for many years associated with President Goodetl in the 
Faculty of the College, have been very kind in furnish- 
ing information of great value on important subjects; and 
many of the graduates of the College have contributed 
interesting incidents and characterizations. 

3.n.iized by Google 


I. YocTH 1 


m. Edccatob 79 


Hov THs Pat of a Rxoiuent was cahried to New 

Oblhans 155 

Teb Channel Islanqb and tbeib Aoriuul/i'uux . . . 17S 

REiam&cxNcss or the Obient IM 

The Intltjbnce of xhs Monkb in Aoucdlturs .... 2S8 
The Mabsachubsttb Aasicci;ruRAii Comnas .... iSi 
Relation of the State Boabd of AoBicui/nmE to 

THE MASSACHUBi:rrs Aqricultubaij College . . . 268 
Addbebs befobb the Association of Ahebican Agbi- 
cnurchal coixeges and expebiusnt stations . . 284 

3.n.iized by Google 

What bhouu) bb tauobt at our Colleges or Agri- 
CDurcKS ., ...3 

VENTION, 1898 8 

Report of thb Executive Committee, Fiftbiinth Con- 
vention, 1001 3 

Addbbss to the Senior Class, 1887 8 

Address to the Gbaduatino Cl&bb, 1888 9 

AoDBEas TO THE Senior Class, 1890 8 

Captain Walter Mason Dickinson, U. S. A. .... 8 

3.n.iized by Google 


Bright wibi and inituict VUe, 
And goodneu wum, and tmtb without alloy. 

And temper iweet, and lov« of all tlungs pur^ 
And joy in the light, and power to Bpie«d the J07. 

3.n.iized by Google 

3.n.iiffid by Google 




The family name of Goodell appears in the Colonial Re- 
cords and in the Record of the soldiers who enlisted from 
Massachusetts during the Revolution, in some twenty 
different forms, Goodale and Goodell taking the lead. The 
stock from which Heuiy Hill Goodell sprang was of the 
genuine Puritan type, robust, healthy, brave, earnest, 
and rehgious. The first settler of the name in New England - 
was Robert Goodale, who with his wife Katharin and throe 
children, "Mary four years old, Abraham two, and Isaac 
one half," embarked at Ipswich, England, in the ship 
Elizabeth on April 10, 1634, and came to Salem, where he 
soon established himself among those who were called 
"the genteel." Before leaving En^and both he and his wife 
took a solemn oath to be loyal subjects of his Majesty, 
Eing Charles I. But while his descendants did not remain 
loyal to the English throne, they apparently clung to their 
Puritanism. Of the eighty or more Gioodales or Goodells 
who served as soldiers in the Revolution, all but seven were 
named after the lawgivers, the warriors, the singers and 
prophets of Israel, or the evangelists, disciples and writers 
of the New Testament. 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


His grandfather, \^iaiu Goodell, a soldier in the Re- 
volution, one of the seven of his "kith and kin" in the 
army, who did not have a name borrowed from the Scrip- 
tures, was bom in Marlborough, Massachusetts, July 9, 
1757, spent most of his active life in Templeton, Massa- 
chusetts, and died July 4, 184S, at Copley, Ohio. He had 
a family of ten children, of whom William, the father of 
Henry Hill, was the second child and first son. This Wil- 
liam seems to have inherited all the pluck and grit of his 
race. He was a man of great practical wisdom and of cour- 
age that never failed. His father was not able to help him 
in his ambition to acquire an education, but he contrived 
to fit for college, to graduate at Dartmouth in 1817, to study 
theology at Andover, and then devoted his life to the work 
of a missionary, and for forty years worked in the Otto- 
man Empire. Turkey was then a frontier position, and his 
trials came not "in single spears, but in fierce battalions." 
The enumeration of his trials and perils by the first great 
missionary of the Christian faith to his disciples at Corinth 
is almost equaled by those endured by William Goodell. He 
Buffered from fire and fiood, from plague and pestUence, 
from the bigotry of the Greek Churd), and lived in hourly 
expectation of an outburst of Moslem fanatidsm; yet he 
stood to his post and did his work bravely and well. 

He saw the humorous side of life and enjoyed it. His 
humor was spontaneous and came out as oddly as a Puri- 
tan quoted Scripture. "His sense of humor," s^s Dr. 
Jessup, "was refreshing, bubbling over all on occasions 
and sparkling even in the darkest hour of persecution and 
tribulation." ' Dr. Hamlin, as quoted by Dr. Jessup, says 
* Fiftti4hrM Ye«f» in Syria, i, 17. 

3.n.iized by Google 


of him; "His wit and mirthfMlness made perpetual sun- 

The first accoimt we have of Henry Hill is in a letter of 
his father to a friend annoimcing Ms birth. The quaint 
humor, mingled with a fervent yet anxious piety, is dunn- 
ing, and will throw a side-liglit on the character of the man. 

"On the 20th iost. a new missionary joined us. He came 
without a partner, and without any outfit; and, as is usual 
with all newcomers, he boards for the present in my family, 
till he shall become acquwnted with the language and cus- 
toms of the country; so that, what with his entire ignorance, 
and what with his entire dependence on us for even his 
ordinary clothiii^;, we are full of business these d^s. In 
other words, a week ago yesterday morning, a tMrd son 
and seventh child was added to my family; and we pray 
that they all may be like the seven lamps, which bum for- 
ever before the throne of God. I had loolwd forward to this 
event with more than ordinaiy anxiety, but the Lord was 
better to us than our fears, and instead of diminishing our 
numbers hath added thereto ; and if Job could say, ' Blessed 
be the name of the Lord,' how much more should we ! 'He 
bath not dealt with us after our sins, nor rewanled us ac- 
cording to our iniquities.' 

"The children have looked through the whole Old and 
New Testament, with all history, ancient and modem, 
for a name, but without success. Thm,. however, is not our 
greatest trouble. Our principal coneem is, that he may 
have that new name which no man knoweth, save he that 
receiveth it; and that his name, whatever it may be, 
may be written in Heaven. May the day of his death be 
better than the day of his birth ! " 

3.n.iized by Google 


He was bom at fifteen minutes past twelve on the mom- 
of iSay iO, 1839; and was christened) three days later, 
Henry Hill. 

The family ultimately consisted of nine children: four 
sisters and two brothers older than himself and a brother 
and a sister younger. When three years old, he lost a brother 
eight years older, and he survived all the family but a sister 
next older and a sister next younger, than himself. The 
ties of blood were very strong in him, and his posiUon in 
the family, with older and younger brothers and sisters, 
was a fortunate one for the development of the peculiar 
relations that really constitute the family, which, as Emer- 
son says, "makes a man love no music so well as his kitchen 

During his early teens the Crimean War broke out, and 
Constantinople became the centre of interest to the whole 
western world. The soldiers of three great nations, England, 
France and Sardinia, in their various uniforms, together 
with the great warships and innumerable transports hurry- 
ing to the scene of conflict, left an impression on his mind 
that years did not efface. He saw most of the great comman- 
ders, both of the land and sea forces, and beyond this many 
of the diplomats represeattng many nations and distin- 
guished visitors from the West. It is related that one day 
he heard that Lord Stratford de Reddiffe was going to call 
on bis father, and running home he rushed into the room 
without noticing that any one was there and burst out: 
"Papa, Lord Stratford de Bedcliffe ia coming to call on 
you," — "My son," said the father, "Lord Stratford de 
Bedcliffe is already here," introducing him to the dis- 
tinguished caller. The great ambassador, whom Tennyson 

3.n.iized by Google 


lescribes on his monument in Westminster Abbqr as "the 
voice of Englmd in the East," put his hand on the little 
fellow's head and gave him the patriarchial blessing. 

His letters to his brother William, who had come to this 
country to study for his profession and who had begun the 
practice of medicine, were full of war news and the doings 
of soldiers. Dec. 19, 1853, he writes from Constantino- 
ple, giving an account of the beginning of the war: — 

' Mt dbab BR(yiHEB WiLLiAM, — May your shadow never 
be less and may you soon have plenty of patients, — not that 
I wish folks might get sick, but that you might have practice. 
A week or two ago the Turks and the Russians had a 
naval engagement in which the Turks were utterly defeated . 
The circumstaDcea were these: IS of the Turkish fleet, 
mostly small vessels, went up into the Black Sea for a 
cruise; they came to Sinopi and anchored there for a few 
days, and not apprehending any danger they took no pre- 
cautions in case of a surprise. Well a Russian steamer saw 
them and went off and brought down upon them eight of 
the largest-sized Russian vessels. The vessels came in with 
a strong wind in their favour and immediately opened upon 
the Turks with red-hot shot. The Turks tried to get out 
of the way so as to let the battery from the town play on 
the enemy, but did not succeed, and every one of them ex- 
cept a steamer was either blown up or sunk. This steamer 
managed to get up her steam and slipt out in the midst of 
the action; she was pursued by R. steamers, but she used 
her stem guns upon them and when they came too near 
she would turn and give them a broadside, and thus she 
escaped, but in a somewhat shattered condition. 

3.n.iized by Google 


An English merchantmMi, which was lying up there at 
the time of the engagement, was sunk and two of her crew 
killed. Lnmediately upon hearing the news here, an Eng- 
lish and a French steamer of war were despatched up with 
surgeons and bandages and medicine for the soldiers who 
survived. As soon as the battle was over, the Russians 
hoisted sail and went off. The Greeks (the little rascals) 
at Sinopi were so delighted at the issue of the battle that 
they hoisted the Russian flag; this so exasperated the Turks 
that they went and burned down all their quarters- 
May 87, 1854, he writes: "Last week Friday we went to 
the 'Sweet Waters' of Europe; ahnost all the great folks 
were there. Of the latter, there were the American, English, 
French, Dutch, Persian, and Austrian ambassadors; there 
was also the Duke of Cambridge, Lord Raglan, Prince Na- 
poleon, and plenty of English officers." 

June 10: "I have been to the review — it took pUce 
last week. The Sultan was there to see them, the High- 
landers were there, they were really beautiful, and when 
they marched before the Sultan they played on their bag- 
pipes; the music was very fine and the cavahy eclipsed 
everything; even one of the generals said so. The music 
was splendid, they played 'God save the King and Queen,' 
the 'Sultan's March,' 'Scots wha hae,' and several others." 
Hemy did not attend school in Constantinople, but 
studied at home. In En^sh, mathematics and literature, 
his sisters were his teachers. He stu<Ued Latin with his 
father, Greek with his father's Greek translator of the New 
Testament, and history was read every night and questions 
were asked about it at the breakfast table the next mom- 

3.n.iized by Google 


ing. French he picked up in the street, as it was the lan- 
guage commonly spoken. 

But his parents were too viae to continue this method 
loi^. The growing boy must have more air and a larger 
world. Accordingly, at the age of seventeen, "a tender age," 
as he used to say, he left Constantinople, July 30, 1856, in 
company with an older sister, in the Race Horse, a suling 
vessel, and after a voyage of sixiy-seven days arrived in 
New York, October 5. 

He went immediately to Williston Senunary, Easthamp- 
ton, and for the first year studied with both the Junior and 
the Ididdle Classes and graduated with the class of 1858, 
doing the work of three years in two. In the Seminary he 
was very quiet, did nothing to attract attention, seemed to 
have few friends, or even acquaintances, and was almost 
unknown to those who became at once on entering college 
his companions, and lifelong friends after coUf^ days had 
become a matter of the past. He was looked upon as a 
hard-working student. Perhaps in the minds of some of 
Ids fellow-students there was a certain mystery about him, 
bom as he was in a strange land, under a strange civiliza- 
tion, and so far from friends and home. And then the new- 
ness of the new world may have had a repressing influence 
upon him. 

He entered Amherst College in the faU of 1858, and was 
graduated with ihe class of 1862. In college the real man 
came to the front, with a large percentage of the boy. He 
found friends everywhere, — in hia own class, in the higher 
classes and among the Faculty. He was always good- 
natured, always cheerful, at times rollicking, fmd ready to 
take a band in any good fun or practical joke. He was sUll 

3.n.iized by Google 


a worker, maintamed a good standard of scholarship, read 
a good deal and to the purpose, and when the time came, 
took up one study that was to be a great service to him in 
after life, the study of botany. During the Freshman year 
he accepted an invitation to become a member of the Fsi 
Upsilon Fraternity. The spirit of Fraternity seems to have 
been in accord with his nature, as he took a personal inter- 
est, not only in his associate members but in the new mem- 
bers, long after he left college. 

During the last years of his college life the great storm 
that had long been gathering burst suddenly upon the 
country. By a cannon shot in the harbor of Charleston, 
South Carolina, the greitt issue between free and slave labor, 
involving the preservation of the Union, was brought into 
the court of last resort. In this great contest, which grew 
greater as it went on, until it assumed proportions perhaps 
up to that time luisurpassed in the history of mankind, 
Goodell took a deep interest. It seemed to him to involve 
the bluest interests of civilization and all that he held dear. 
He said but little, but evidently thou^t a great deal as to 
his duty. The following letter addressed to his brother-in- 
law, Mr. James Bird of Hartford, Connecticut, will give 
his own account of his feelings. It was written more than 
five months after the Massachusetts troops went throu^ 
Baltimore, and two months after the first battle of Bull 
Run, which Genera! Sherman declared "one of the best- 
planned battles of the war, but one of the worst fought." 
He had had plenty of time to think. 

3.n.iized by Google 


AimsHBi, Sept. SO, 1861. 
Mt dbab JFauzs, — I want to ask your advice on a sub- 
ject I have been thinking on vety strongly the past weeks, 
viz: the advisability of my going to the war. The ques- 
tion has come home so strongly to me that I (eel as if I must 
decide it one way or another immediately. It's no use at- 
tempting to study while in such a state of indecision. Be- 
lieve me, this is no sudden question that has come up in 
my mind. It has scarcely been out of my thoughts since 
returning here this term. Within the past few weeks we have 
bade God speed to a dozen or more college-mates, who have 
gone to assume honorable positions in our regiments now 
forming, and I suppose during the present week some sax or 
seven more will leave. It's the very life-blood of the Col- 
lie we are sending; some of our best and noblest men. 
The other morning a letter was read to the College from 
Governor Andrew, strongly advi«ng us not to enlist a^ 
privates, but if we could get commissions, to go, stating 
that the great want of our armies is officers of intelligence 
to take the lead and direct. Now, James, the question 
that arises is this. Here I have been drilling, and have 
drilled men, for the past three months, and ou^t I to stay 
here, when perhaps I can be of service to my countiyP I 
am not thoroughly posted, and don't pretend to be, but 
I feel confident that I know more than one-half the officers 
that are beii^ accepted. Why, in Colonel Lee's repment 
now encamped at Springfield, except the Colonel, Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel and Major, there is not a single officer besides 
our College bc^s that knows anything about modem 
tactics, and it is our fellows that are drilling the men. As 
Governor Andrew says, there are not officers enough found 

3.n.iized by Google 


for the troops. I have had a lieutenant's i>ositJOD offered 
me, but declined it, as I could not give any immediate 
answ^. It is hard to tell what ia one's duty to do. The 
faculty are veiy much adverse to the students' leaving, but 
then on the other hand, the minister here, and other persons 
in whose judgment I place the strongest confidence, urge 
their going. A company left Amherst the other day, and 
when I saw husbands leaving their wives and diildren, it 
fairly stirred every particle of blood in my veins, and made 
me feel as ashamed as could be to he staying at home, 
when there was no one in the world dependent upon me. 
Don't think that I am fired with ambition or ^ory or any- 
thing of the sort. An officer's position is a dangerous one. 
and I cling too tenaciously to life and its pleasures to rashly 
throw mine Stwaj. No such motive I assure you influences 
me. I have not yet written to Mr. Robert, but shall await 
replies from you and William [his brother], to whom I 
write by this same mail, before sending to him. If you and 
he think favorably of this, I shall hold myself in readiness 
for whatever may turn up. 

nease write me as soon as convenient. Periiaps you had 
better not say anything about this to Eliza [his sist^] and 
the rest of the family just at present, as it will only worry 
them. Your aff. brother, 


From this letter it appears that he had made up his mind 
as to his duty. His friends, however, thought he had bet- 
ter complete his college course; and he reluctantly yielded 
to their wishes, and gave increased attention to gymnastics 
and military drill, which he afterwards said was of great 

3.n.iized by Google 


advantage to him. At the time of his graduation the cause 
of the Union was under a dark cloud. During the last of 
June, 1862, even the President of the United States did 
not know for days where the Army of the Potomac was. 
The gloom was deep but the people were not discouraged. 
At the request of the governors of eighteen loyal states 
President Lincoln, on July H, called out three hundred 
thousand men for three years, and on August 4 ordered 
a draft for three hundred thousand men for nine months. 

3.n.iized by Google 



On leaving College Goodell opened, on July 23, 1862, 
a recruiting office in the City of New York; but his ex- 
pectations did not materialize. He informed a friend that 
most of the men who called at his office came to see how 
he was getting along, or to sell him something that would 
be indispensable to him in campaigning. Only once did he 
feel sure of a recruit, but the feeling lasted only a moment. 
With all the patriotic enthusiasm and power of persuasion 
he possessed, he worked one fellow up to consent to enlist; 
"but when the papers were brought out he declined to 
sign that day, and when he left he threw down a card on 
which was written: 'If you want a good wife, 1st. Keep 
a good conscience; 2nd. Pay your honest debts; 3rd. Pur- 
chase your shirts at 263 Broadway ' ; remarking as he evac- 
uated, "That is my business'; and was followed by 'You 
stupid blockhead! you infamous wretch!' or words to that 

Abandoning the scheme of raising a company in New 
York, he went to Hartford and enlisted August 16 in the 
25tb Regiment of Connecticut Volunteers, then forming 
under Colonel George F. Bissell, for a service of nine months, 
and was appointed second lieutenuit in Company F. It 
was the smallest company in the regiment and was chris- 
tened by the other soldiers "Napheys's Brigade," in honor 

3.n.iized by Google 


of the captain, George H. Napheys. The re^ment was 
mustered into the service of the United States November 
11, and three days later sailed from Hartford to Centre- 
ville on Zxmg Island, the rendezvous of an expedition to be 
commanded by Major-Geneial N. P. Banks, destination 

There is no place tliat reveaJb the real chajacter of a man 
so quickly and so clearly as a shelter tent in an fumy in 
the field. All there is in him, be it noble or base, strong 
or weak, is brought to the front by the peculiar experiences 
of the soldier. This test Goodell could stand, and it has 
been said by one who had a good opportunity to know, that 
"he was, from first to last, a favorite with every officer and 
private in the regiment." This means that he was the same 
in the field that he was before he left the state, and that he 
made himself respected as a disciplinarian because he was 
one. No private under his command could make the com- 
plunt of Birdofredum Sawin: — 

I don't approve of U^lin' tales, but juat to yoa I ma^ it&te 
Our OBmfera un't wut they wuz afore ttiey lelt the Bay-State. 

The experiences of life in a camp of instruction are tedi- 
ous and wearisome, but when a regiment starts for the field 
under a government not prepared for war and unused to 
hftuHling and providing for large bodies of men, the real 
trials ot the soldier b^in. Even under these drcumstances, 
however, his cheerfulness did not desert him. When the 
regiment arrived at the camp at Centreville after a march 
of about ten miles, they foimd that no provision had been 
made for them, and it was the last of November. The next 
morning be writes that he "slept in the guard-house on the 

3.n.iized by Google 


bare floor, 'with nothmg under him but his blankets, and in 
the small hours of the morning he lan a mile on the race- 
course to get warm." 

The re^ment was ordered to embark on November id. 
In a letter written on the Atlantic Dock, Brooklyn, dated 
December 4, he gives an account of what had happened. 

Our regiment was to have left last Saturday, when lo, 
just as we were drawn up in battle-line preparatory to a 
start. General Banks's orderly gallops up and brings an 
order for Go's. C, D, F, and G to remain behind and go 
with the 26th [Connecticut]. Here was a pretty go, for 
tents, baggage and everything had already gone ! We in- 
stantly sent down to the depot for them, but they had al- 
ready gone. To add to our troubles, up came one of the 
heaviest rain-storms, such as Long Island only can pro- 
duce. As there was no other place, we all went into the 
guard-house, and there have we been lying ever since 
on the hard boards; not even a wisp of straw did we have 
till Tuesday, for it was so wet we could not bring it. The 
S6th boys were very kind and accommodated a whole 
company. We officers were not so well off as the privates, 
for we did not have our blankets with us. Yesterday I was 
sent down here with a guard to take care of our bi^age, 
which b lying piled upon the dock. It was bitter cold last 
night, but we managed to keep comfortable in some empty 
R.R. cars that were convenient. The regiment received 
marching orders last night and I expect them down every 
minute to embark on the Empire City with the 26th Ct. 
The rest of the regiment, or rather five companies, sailed 
in the Mary Boardman, day before yesterday morning. 

3.n.iized by Google 


and so crovded that part of the men are compelled to stay 
OD the upper deck. 
Good-bye, all hands, -with ever so much love to all. 


P. S. I 've found out where our expedition is going. It's 
going to sea. One thing is certdu — we are going pretty 
far South. 

There was consideFable confusion and much delay in 
getting off. Some of the transports were so crowded that 
the captains refused to siul. Part of the remaining com- 
panies of the %5th were taken on board the Che Eoang. 
Goodell, with one hundred and twenty men of his re^ment, 
sailed from New York December 18, in the Merrimac, 
with fifteeen hundred troops on board. The passf^ down 
the Atlantic coast was very rough, the machinery of the 
ship was disabled, and they were obliged to put into Hilttm 
Head for repairs. From here he writes December 27 to 
a classmate a very realistic account of his experience. 

"You would have laughed the first day, could you have 
seen the guards of the vessel from stem to stem lined with 
anxious sea-gazers, their knees knocking together, their 
countenances ashen, and a very intimate connection evi- 
dently existing between the stomach and the mouth. Even 
my risibles were excited, though myself not entirely in- 
sensible to the attractions of Neptune. Thou hast heard, 
friend of my soul, of that unh^py man mentioned in the 
Holy Writ, who had seven women hanging to the skirts of 
bis coat; but his condition was not a circumstance to be 
compared to that of the unfortunate Quartermaster and 

3.n.iized by Google 


Commissary of this ship, your humble servant tn propria 
persona. Each day I growl and say, *0h, men, why will 
you eat so much?' Over three thousand pounds of rations 
do I have to issue from that hold each day. It is no small 
job, with the vessel pitching everything hilter skilter, to get 
provisions up; and I assure you it is very disturbing to the 
equanimity of my temperature and requireth great nerve 
and presence of stomach to go below into the bowels of 
the ship and hear some hundred or two puking above you. 
Occasionally, I grieve to relate, I get disembowelled in the 
operation. Hilton Head b the most God-fors^en, misera- 
ble old hole yours respectfully ever got into. The sand is 
ankle-deep everywhere, and such a lot of negroes, — shift- 
less, la^ dogs, black as the ace of spades and twice as 
natural. But the little nigs kill me outright. Excepting a 
young elephant I know of nothing so comical. I can sit 
half the morning looking at them and hearing them jabber. 
We expect to sail to-night or to-morrow morning; but I 
must close as I have a chance to send this ashore." 

The Merrimac did not reach New Orleans imtil some 
days after the arrival of the other transports. Part of his 
regiment went immediately up the river to Baton Bouge, 
and part of it was left at New Orleans. On the arrival 
of the Merrimac, Goodell was employed in sui>erintend- 
ing the unlading of the ship, and had a very definite im- 
pression that the "Native Brethren" did not like the "New 
Massa"; for his ideas of a day's work were very different 
from those to which they had been accustomed. He had 
time, however, to visit many places in the city. He was 
attracted to the slave-market, and noticed the signs of the 
various dealers in human chattels. He made an excursion 

^atizsd by Google 


to Fort Jackson, — rowed, or rode, over the country for 
fifteen miles. He had an exquisitely fine sympathy with 
vegetable life in all its forms and especially with trees, 
and the country chanued him. "I wish you could see the 
orange and lemon groves," he writes, "with the trees per- 
fectly bowed down with their weight of fruit. Such oranges! 
Citrons almost as large as my head and lemons as would 
make the heart of a thrifty house-wife rejoice. Upon my 
word, I am in love with the sunny South. Don't be as- 
tonished if, finding my affinity, you should hear that 
Gibraltar had surrendered and I had settled down for life." 

But he was not likely to find an assailant of his fortress 
among the then inhabitants of New Orleans. He writes: 
"The ladieswore 'secesh' cockades in their bonnets. Oh, 
but it was amusing to see the curl of the lip and the un- 
pleased nose with which they would sweep by us. Of course 
I used my privilege of staring them full in the face." He 
was master of a peculiar facial expression of a serio-comic 
character, which he may have used, but he never had any 
success with what he called, "my bran-new, two-for-a- 
quarter smile." 

The object of the expedition was to co^rate with 
General Grant in the reduction of Vicksburg. But General 
Banks did not know until he arrived at New Orleans that 
Fort Hudson was f(»*tified and manned by almost as large 
a force as he could bring against it, or that fifty miles or 
so west of New Orleans was a force of five or six thousand 
men ready to move on the city and cut his lines of communi- 
cation the moment he moved up the river. In addition to 
this, he was furnished with transportation for only one 
division of his army, and a letter from General Grant was 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


forty days en route. There -wss only one thing that could 
be done, and that was to destroy the Confederate army 
west of the Mississippi, before he could with safety leave 
New Orieans in his rear and advance on Fort Hudson. 
So, concentrating his army at Donaldsonville, he marched 
across the country to Berwick Bay and followed up the 
Bayou Teche to Alexandria on the Red River; then, follow- 
ing down the Red River to the Mississippi, he advanced 
upon Fort Hudson from the North. The story of this long 
march with its various vicissitudes will be ^ven in Good- 
ell's letters to one of his sisterst with an occasional note to 
classmates, to illustrate the spirit with which he ^idured 
the trials of an exceedingly tedious and fatiguing camp^gn. 

On the 15th of January, 1863, the companies of the 25th 
Connecticut at New Orleans were sent up the river to Baton 
Rouge, and joining their old companions, were brigaded 
with the 13th Connecticut, the 26th Maine and the IS&th 
New York, imder Colonel H. W. Birge as brigade com- 
mander. These regiments formed the Third Brigade of 
the Fourth Division of the 19th Army Corps, General 
Grover division conunander. 

They were now in the presence of the enemy, and the 
position assigned to the 25th was on the extreme left in 
advance, and Groodell gets his first taste of active service. 
On January 28, he writes from Baton Rouge: — 

"Our camp is about half a mile from the town, just on the 
e«^ of a dense forest and cypress swamp. Last night Iwent 
out for the first time on picket duty, with forty-five men. 
Had fifteen posts to look after, extending over some mile 
and a half through the centre of the forest. It was no joke, 
I assure you, going the rounds all night visiting the posts. 

3.n.iized by Google 


for it was dark as a pocket, uid I lost my way quite a 
number of times and would wander hither and thither, 
stumbling over vines and branches, till some s^itinel 
would bring me up with a round turn, with a click of his 
musket-lock and 'Who goes there?'" 

In closing the letter he could not help adding: "TeU 
Mrs. B. that her nephew has improved so wonderfully in 
camp morals that he actually told me he thought if he 
could get a good chance to hook a hen, he should do it." 

In a letter to a classmate written Januuy 27, he made a 
few additions to the story of his first night on picket. 

The woods are plentifully stocked with game and we 
could hear most every sound, from the hooting of owls and 
rooting of wild hogs to the snari of the wild-cat and cry 
of the possum. You should see the vines that endicle 
the trees or festoon from tree to tree. Some of them are 
^gantic, as large round as my body, and their folds look 
like the coils of an immense snake. The smaller vines are 
so pliable you can twist and tie them like a rope. I slept 
an hour or two under a magnolia tree while my sergeant 
kept watch. You can't think how tough I am getting. I 
lie down on the ground with nothing but n^ overcoat on, 
and usii^ a log for a pillow sleep very comfortably. Adieu, 
my pirate of the deep blue sea. 




For some weeks after the arrival of the r^ment at 
Baton Rouge, the officers and men were busy with picket 

3.n.iized by Google 


and guard-dut^ and acqiurii^ the use of fire-arms, which 
they did not receive until after they arrived at New Or- 
leans. Goodell soon adjusted himself to the situation. He 
writes Februwy 7: — 

" Everything is peaceful and quiet round here juat now, 
but it 's frightfully cold. It is very singular weather here. 
Just about so often we have a terrific rain-storm; when it 
clears off, it will be intensely cold for three or four days, 
then it will get unpleasantly hot and we have another 
storm to subdue it. I don't think that these changes agree 
with the men, for we have a large number on the sick-list. 
The o£Scers* ranks are so reduced by resignation and sick- 
ness that, out of twenty lieutenants, we have only eight 
for duty; the consequence is we have to work like Trojans, 
for every day we detail two lieutenants, one for picket and 
the other for guard. You would lau^ to see me start out 
on picket. First I have my overcoat on, and my sword 
and fixings over that; then in my sling I carry my nine- 
pound woolen blanket and my rubber blanket; then I have 
m^ haversack with a day's rations, and lastly my canteen. 
Oh, but you ought to see some of my dishes that I get up. 
I should n't know how to name them, but they are luscious. 
The other day I managed to get hold of some codfish, and 
being in an experimenting frame of mind, made a delicious 
fry. Soaked the critter over night, and next morning threw 
the pieces into the frying-pan along with some pork; to this 
I added a little concentrated milk instead of butter. Then 
toasted some bread and poured the whole over it. TVhy, it 
was a dish fit for a king ! We are lucky in being able to pro- 
cure bread now. At first we could get nothing but hard- 
tack. Fresh meat I have not tasted since we landed, till the 

3.n.iized by Google 


other day, when out on picket, one of the men caught a 
young pig and forthwith flayed and roasted him. That same 
day, when on picket, a contraband brought us some fresh 
eggs and some sweet potatoes; but such instances are few 
and far between. Why, I became a nine-days' wonder on 
returning to camp and relating my experience." 

Hard as he worked, he seems to have enjoyed himself 
and got all the fun there was in the life he was living, and 
to have made some besides. On February 91 he writes to 
a classmate of a dream that carried him back to college 
days, and all the old hoys were there and each had his own 
peculiar characteristics and the fun grew louder and louder, 
unlil he awoke to find his captain sitting up and wondering 
what had got into his usually staid and sober Ueutenant. 

"With my elevation to my present elevated and hi^dy 
honorable position I have acquired a dignity of mien and 
aldermanic rotundity of person highly gratifying to the 
beholder. But I will tell you what I do miss, and that is 
books. It would be a perfect luxury to get hold of some- 
thing readable occasionally. Here we have nothing but 
army tactics and regulations, a faithful study of which is 
daily enjoined, which are very good in their way, but 
not very improving to the mind. I'm flourishing like the 
owl of the desert and the pelican of the wilderness. My 
nocturnal excursions in Amherst dodging the professors 
have developed in me a strategical skill which will no doubt 
cause my military genius soon to be recognized. But me- 
thinks I hear you growl, 'What a cussed Groodell it isl' 
80 I will just dry up." 

3.n.iized by Google 


Baton Hovue, FA., 22, 1803. 

Bblotxd in Tmhtbt., — Again (thou art owing me an 
epistle) have I taken up my pen, this time to request thee 
to forward the enclosed to Calvin Stebbins. I hate, Dick, 
to have to send my letters franked as soldier's letters, but 
nary a stamp have I and nary a one can I buy on these 
benighted shores. 

I have just been drilling my men in a sad duty in re- 
versed arms and rest, a duty which we are having to per- 
form quite often nowadt^s. It is sad to see men stricken 
down in their strength by the fever; one by one they drop 
off, many of them without ever having had a sight of the 
enemy — poor fellows! It is a sickening si^t to go over 
the hospitals and see the parched and wast«d sufferers, 
many of them stretched on the floor with only a blanket 
and scarce a comfort or luxury of any kind. 

Mortar and gun-boats are diuly arriving at this port. 
We have sis of the former and four or five of the latter. 
They are continually making reconnaissance up the river 
and occasionally give Port Hudson a touch of their balls, 
but most of them give her a wide berth. Oh, Dick, you ought 
to see us on our brigade drills I Such brilliant bayonet 
diarges as we perform! Your uncle whooping and yelling 
and waving his sword, men howling like so many Indians 
and tearing over the ground as if the old scratch were 
after them. It is exciting in the extreme, and it is just 
about as much as I can do to hold in from dashing ahead 
and cutting up my didoes. I verily believe that on a real 
charge, whatever else my feelings, I shall hold my own with 
the swiftest of them. Can't help it! It is so exciting! My 
blood gets regularly iq> in the seventh Heaven and I chafe 

3.n.iized by Google 


like a mettlesome steed. Inbred sin will stick out and I am 
no exception. . • . 

By the way, Dick, I should be very much obliged to you 
if you would f>ccasionaIly send me a weekly Springfield 
"Bepublican." Heading matter we have none, aad when 
New York papers arrive they command £5 and 80 cents, so 
that we poor devils, who have not yet received a cent of 
pay, are forced to go without. You don't know what it is 
to be cut oS from all communicatiou with the outer world 
for a week or ten days at a time, and during that interval 
hear nothing but the discouraging rumors and reports in- 
dustriously circulated by the rebels. However, we are fast 
getting over our first refreshing verdure and are learning 
to disbelieve everything we hear. 

I am in a confoundedly cross state of mind to-day for 
ye following good and suffident causes: 1st. I have just 
come oS guard iu a soaking rain, and though being neither 
si^ar nor salt, have yet nearly melted away. 2nd. Having 
a prisoner consigned to my tender mercies to be fed on ye 
bread of affliction and ye waters of repentance until further 
orders, ye same prisoner did at ye dead hour of noon break 
in ye guard-house and abscond to his quarters, did there 
fare sumptuously on hard-tack and salt-horse; that this 
same coming to ye ears of ye colonel, he did up and sour 
on ye officer of ye guard, and sending him a pair of hand- 
cuffs did order forthwith to arrest ye delinquent and confine 
him in close quarters; that in ye performance of ye atad 
du^ a spirited encounter did there and thereupon take 
place, in which ye offender did get upset in one comer and 
ye officer v^y nearly in the other; that ye criminal, beii^ 
fioidly secured, did create such a row. ye same was forced 

3.n.iized by Google 


to be gagged and bound hand and foot. Sd. That ye weather 
hath proved unpropitious for several d^^ raining heavily 
when ye humble servant did hope to go round and view 
ye beauties of ye delicate upturned nose of Baton Rouge. 
4th. That ye three commissioned officers of Co. G not 
knowing better than to all fall sick at once and go to ye 
hospital, ye subscriber was immediately detailed to take 
charge and command of ye Co. to be obeyed and respected 
accordingly; an honor by no means congenial since being 
alone it bringeth many cares. That ye paymaster, that 
much-desired individual, hath again disappointed ye ex- 
pectants and left us, like Patience on ye monument, to 
regret ye continued absence of ye "root of all evil." 
6th. That ye reasons and ye causes multiply so fast we 
would fain subscribe ourselves in bonds of Auld Lang Syne. 
With lots of love to thyself, thy fami^ and Sister Eben- 
ezer. Daddy, 


We had a division review ordered to-day but it has been 
countermanded. I wrote you and Fumald on the receipt 
of your letters, somewhere about the 12th of this month. 

But this camp-life was not to last. Admiral Farragut 
wished to run his fleet past the batteries of Port Hudson, 
that he might intercept the Bed Biver traffic and cooperate 
with Greneral Grant at Vicksbu^; and he asked General 
Banks to make a demonstration behind the fortress. The 
movement was intended as a diver^n. General Banks at 
once put his army in motion, and the 25th Connecticut, 
with a squadron of horse and a battery of regular artillery- 
men, commenced the advance on March 10. Five miles 

3.n.iized by Google 


up the road from Baton Rouge they had a sharp skurmish 
frith the enemy and found a bridge to build. Goodell was 
not one of those men who do not know what fear is, 
but he had moral strength to do his duty without r^ard 
todauger. "Iwasunder fire,"hewritesi "for ten or fifteen 
minutes, the bullets dppii^ in the trees over my head. I 
flatter myself that my hair rose to a reasonable height 
on that occasion." 

The army came within cannon-shot of the Confederate 
worits, but could not get their guns up in time to be of any 
service. But they were auditors and witnesses of a terri- 
ble scene. At 11.20 P.M., two rockets burst into the air, and 
in an instant all the guns of the fortress lit up the dark- 
ness with their flash. The fleet replied, and until S5 minutes 
after midnight the roar of one hundred and fifty gims was 
incessant. To add terror to the anxiety of the awful scene 
in the mind of the soldiers, "the U. S. Frigate Mississippi" 
grounded, and to save her from capture, she was fired 
in all parts, and when wrapped in flames that lit up the 
scene for miles around, went up with a terrific e^Iosion in 
fragments to the sky. Goodell's account of this daring and 
brilliant affair has been lost. Farragut's little fieet for this 
desperate enterprise consisted of four ships and three gun- 
boats, which were lashed to the port side of the forward 
ships. But only the Hartford, which flew the Adnural's 
"dauntless blue," and her consort, the little Albatross, 
succeeded in running past the batteries. The other ships 
were disabled by the enemy's fire and dropped down the 
stream. The Mississippi, which had no consort, grounded, 
became a target for the enemy's guns, and to save the 
lives of her men was abandoned and fired. 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


On the return inarch Goodell had a hard time. A heavy 
rain-storm flooded the country, and he writes from Baton 
Rouge on Mardi 28: — 

"Once more back at our old camping-ground, black as 
Cherokee Lidians, ragged as any old-clothesman, somewhat 
fatigued but still jolly, we resume the thread of our narra- 
tive and send you our salutations. On March 16, seven 
miles from Baton Rouge, on our retreat, we were encamped 
in a mud-puddle of pudding con^atency. We managed to 
get some rails and dry off in the smi, though I was so well 
soaked it took me nearly all day to get thoroughly dried. 
Towards noon, Billy Wilson's Zou-Zous hove in sight, his 
white nanny goat marching at the head of his brigade as 
complacently as you please. This goat he brought with him 
from New York, and it has accompanied him in all his 
marches, always stalking along in advance of the column. 
At 3 P.M.. we fell into line and marched one and one half 
miles to the banks of the Mississippi, where we encamped 
on a cotton plantation. It was about as pleasant a place 
as I have been in in Louisiana, on a high bluff overlooking 
the Mississippi, which spread out before us like some broad 
lake. The banks were lined with live-oak, and back of us 
were dense forests and impenetrable swamps. Hardly had 
we arrived when I was detailed officer of the brigade guard. 
Pretty rough on a fellow who had n't slept any for forty- 
eight hours; but we were most of us in ^e same predica- 
ment. Then there were three of us lieutenants, so we had 
two hoiu^ on and four Qff, but the 13th heutenaut was sick 
and I stood for him, and the Maine lieutenant unaccount- 
ably disappeared, so I had a weary watch of it till S in the 
momii^, when our cavahy was driven back upon us but 

3.n.iized by Google 


no one hurt. At three I was relieved, and lying down on 
the bare ground, I slept like a rock tJU eight, when the new 
guard came. Here let me say that that rain of Sunday, 
which so tired us, was probably the saving of mimy of our 
lives; for the rebs, when they found that we were retreat- 
ing, turned out infantry, cavalry and artillery and pressed 
hard upon out heels, but tlie rain providentially deterred 
them. The 18th and 95th covered tlie retreat. March 17 
found us still in Camp Allen, for so we had named our 
camp. In the afternoon I took six men and started on a 
foraging expedition. We laid a couple of cows over pretty 
quick. Leaving four men to diess them, I started for a 
sugar plantation a mile or so distant. I found it entirely 
deserted, but lots of sugar and molasses. As this had not 
been confiscated to the United States government, we laid 
in and managed to get a small cask of the sweetening elixir 
up to the camp. On our return I found I was detailed to 
take command of Co. G., whose officers still remained sick. 
(Since we started I had been acting 1st lieutenant in Co. 
A.) We held dress-parade at sunset in marching costume. 
I was very ragged, having burned the legs of my pants 
neariy off, and my blouse was well torn while skirmishing 
through the woods. 

"March 18, spent most of the day in mending the 
breaches in my breeches. Visited the 52nd Mass. and saw 
lots of Amherst boys, smol^ the calumet of peace, and 
had a good time generally. After dress-parade took out 
Co. G. on a fatigue-party after wood. I am sure the rebs 
have some need to bring ruling accusations gainst us, for 
I am certain there is not a raU to be found within twelve 
miles of Baton Rouge. 

3.n.iized by Google 


"March 10, there was ordered an in^>ectioii of amu in 
the morning. While wmting for the colonel to come round 
to my company, the adjutant came along and said that 
the colonel, relying on my discretion and judgment, had 
ordered me to take picked men from the regiment and go 
out foraging after corn, and that if I got mto any muss he 
would be ready to lend a helpmg hand. In a few minutea 
we were under way. Went out two miles and accomplished 
our mission satisfactorily. 

" March 20, received mioching orders. At 3 o'clock got 
under way, and after a weary, hot march we reached our 
camp-ground at Baton Boi^ at 7 o'clock. As we marched 
past Banks's head-quarters, he came out and saluted, 
while the bands of the different regiments played and 
we marched past at shouldered arms. We lay in the open 
air again all night, for it was too late and the men were 
too tired to pitch our tents that night." 

"March 21, was busy all day getting up our tent3 and 
fixing ourselves generally, and that will complete the thread 
of my tale up to to-day. Excuse all moral reflections on 
the object of this expedition and what it has accomplished, 
for I am writing at lightning speed, having just received 
marching orders again, and all b packing and confusion 
around me. Where we are going to, nobody knows, so I 
can't enlighten you." 

DoK'Uj>eoNTiLLB, Sundar, Mareh 29, 1863. 

At last, after being over a week packing up, waiting for 

orders, we are on the move. We left Baton Roi^ last night 

at 6.S0, and reached this place at 9 (as our luck would have 

it) in a run'Storm. Lay under the trees all night, and this 

3.n.iized by Google 


morning are endeavoring to enjoy ourselves drying off. I 
am writing on a drumhead to let you know where we are 
and where we are gcung. I suppose our present destination 
is Brashier City, Berwick Bay, but beyond that nothing 
is known. Rumor says Texas and Bed River. We have 
taken teats and all our baggage and do not expect again 
to see Baton Rouge or Port Hudson. There is a steamer 
coming up the Mississippi, so I must huny to get this off. 
Did n't I enjoy last night's meal on the boat ! It was worth 
p^^g fifty cents for a meal to see a white table-doth and 
sit down in a Christian manner. We drank coffee to such 
an unlimited extent that positively we could see each other 
visibly swell like the woman at the tea-drinking described 
in the " Pickwick Papers." Donaldsonville is an exceedingly 
pretty, very old-fashioned shin^e-roofed town. There is 
a bayou runs through its centre some three hundred yards 
wide, that runs clear to the gulf, and so deep that a frigate 
lies in it about a mile from where it sets in from the Missis- 
sippi. The catalpa and China-ball trees axe in full blossom 
and the pecans are leafing out. There is a Cathohc church 
that looks like a bam outside, but is quite tasty inside, and 
thither the inhabitants, who are mostly French and Spanish, 
are flocking. We have enjoyed the unwonted luxury of 
seeing ladies, white ladies, perambulating the streets in 
clean white petticoats. Don't laugh, but actually those 
white petticoats are the most homelike thing I have seen 
for months. Billy Wilson's Zouaves are in our division, but 
the whole regiment is under arrest and their arms taken 
away. They got drunk coming down on the boat, and 
mutineered. Since we returned to Baton Rouge from our 
eipedition to Port Hudson, we have done nothing except 

3.n.iized by Google 


lie round in a most uncomfortable state, with everything 
packed up, expecting to start every day. You can't think 
how beautiful everything is now. Cherokee roses, jessa- 
mines, jonquils, and a great v^ety of flowers, are in blos- 
som. We live out under the trees, with the rain pattering 
down upon us, and you shiver by your fires. We are greatly 
pestered with wood-ticks and it is almost impossible to 
pick them off. They stick so closely to the skin and burrow 
in. lam quite comfortable; campaigningevidently agrees 
with me. I have gained ten pounds since I left New York. 
The only thing I could wish for would be a havelock, — 
it*s so fearfully hot; but it would be a good two months 
before I should get it, so I will try and make one for myself. 

From Bayou Bceuf, seven miles from Br&shier City, 
writing on April 8, he continues his story: — 

"We have had some terribly hot and fatiguing marches, 
and the boys are many of them so foot-sore and blistered I 
doubt whether they could march much further. I have held 
out wonderfully. Have not so much as raised a sign of a 
blister, thou^ carrying a rubber blanket and a thick over- 
coat in a sling on my shoulders, my canteen full of water, 
a haversack with two days' rations — provisions — in it, 
and my sword and revolvers; by no means a small load as 
you can imagine and as I found after the first few miles. 
My nose and cheeks underwent one skinning operation in 
our Port Hudson expedition and it grieves me to relate 
that they are again peeling. I am writing on a wooden 
mallet which I have improvised into a writing-table for the 
occasion. But I will return to Donaldsouville and write up 
the march. — March 30, we crossed over the Bayou La 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


FoUTche to the main part of the town and spent a couple 
of hours in exploring it. It must have been an exceedingly 
beautiful place, though now many of the houses are lying 
in ruins from the bombardment last summer.* Then there 
is an exceedingly pretty cemetery, embowered in red and 
white roses which hang in clusters over the monuments. I 
noticed on many of the tombs fiesh wreaths of roses and 
myrtle, and before many there were pictures han^ng, re- 
presenting the survivors weeping beneath a willow. Blue 
pinks seem to be a veiy favorite flower and were planted 
aroimd almost every monument. 

" March 31. We were packed up and on the move at 8.50 
AM. Our road (in fact the whole way to Thibodeaux) lay 
along the Bt^ou La Fourche. a very deep and cold stream 
along which our steamers were passing bearing the sick and 
baggage. As we wound along under the China-ball and 
catalpa trees, the inhabitants were all on the piazzas watch- 
ing us. and that appeared to be their principal occupation 
eversnrhere. Such a slovenly, indolent set you never saw, 
r— the women especially, with frizzled hair, unhooked 
dresses, and slipshod shoes. They were evidently poor 
white trash. But oh, the clover fields we passed ! The heart 
of an Aldemey cow would have leaped into her mouth at 
the sight, and a butcher's mouth would have watered in 

1 During the fununercrf 1862 the people <rf D<HiaIdBonville punued tlie 
imitoRii jwactice of filing iqion our BtcBmen paaang iq> and down the 
river. AdmiralParragutTcporti August 10: "Iteotamessage to thein- 
habitanta that if they did not diacontinue the practice I would destroy 
thrir town. The next night th^ Gied on the St. Chatles. I theirfore 
ordered them to send their women and children out of town m I certainly 
intended to dettroy the town on my wty down the rivei, and I fulfilled 
my pnqnije to a certain exttfit" lOW. B.141. 

3.n.iized by Google 


anticipation, and it was just so all the way to Thibodeanz. 
Such a luxurious growth I never saw. After marching 
twelve miles we encamped at Cottonville [Paincourtville] 
pretty well fagged out. There were plenty of chickens, 
pigs and sheep running round loose, of which fact we were 
not slow to avul ourselves. The last vision I had as I 
closed my eyes was that of a porlrer squealing- at the top 
of its lungs and charging blindly among the camp-fires, 
over the couches of the slumbering soldiers, pursued by a 
rabble of shouting youths discharging sticks, bayonets 
and other deadly missiles. 

"April I, We were oS at 7 A.H., still among clover fields 
and fig trees. On our march we passed some beautiful 
plantations, one of them especially so. It waa perfectly 
embowered in trees, had a smootli-cut lawn, on which 
were a couple of deer feeding. There was a fountain play- 
ing and some swans swimming in a pond before the house. 
On the veranda a couple of ladies were working and some 
pretty little children were playing roimd. By Georgel it 
was the prettiest sight I have seen in Louisiana. It fairly 
stilled the clamor of the men, seeing these little children, 
and I heard more than one tough fellow ejaculate, 'God 
bless them!' At another little white cottage we passed, 
a lady whose husband had fallen in tlie Union ranks sent 
her slaves down the road with pails of cool water for us. 
It was a simple act, but we could not help blessing her for 
it, as we resumed our dusty way. Oh, the heat and the 
dust! Not a breath of tdr stirring. We marched fourteen 
miles [twelve miles to Labadieville] and encamped on a 
sugar plantation, where we just had sugar and molasses 
to our hearts' content The nights were extremely cold. 

3.n.iized by Google 


and in the momii^ I would wake up and find my overcoat 
as wet as if it Iiad been dipped in water. I have slept bare- 
headed in the open air every night, and yet strange to sty 
have never caught the least particle of cold. But if ever 
I start again I'll carry a woolen nightcap; a man needs 
Bometlung of the kind. 

"April i. Our brigade being in the advance, we were off 
at 5.S0 A.U. in a flood of moonlight that silvered the dew- 
drops in the meadows far and near. There is something 
very pretty in the camping-out of an army. The ciunp- 
fires far and wide, the hum and bustle, and last, the cry 
of that ridiculous creature, the mule. We reached Thibo- 
deaux at noon, passed directly through the town, and en- 
camped three miles beyond. It was the hardest day's march 
of all [fourteen miles]. The men staggered and reeled about 
the road from fatigue and blistered feet. We all took hold 
and helped cany guns and knapsacks, but such a relief it 
was when we passed from the hard road into a clover field 
and lay down ! At 6 p.m. came the order to fall in, and we 
marched back to the R.R. station [Terre Bonne Station 
oa the New Orleans and Opelousas B.R.] and took cars 
to Brashier City. It was very cold, and we were perched 
on top of the cars, while the 13th rode inside. Such a 
forsaken piece of country as we passed throng, marshes 
and swamps on both sides of us! Beached Bayou Boeuf at 
11, and were ordered to encamp. Was detailed to unload 
the cars, and worked till 2 in the morning unloading and 
stowing awiq'; consequently, as I was up at 5 a.m., I do 
not feel very smart. We shall probably rest here for a few 
days." [They remained here until the &th,] 
From Brashier City, under date of April 10, he writes 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


to a classmate who had sent him Victor Hugo's account of 
the battle of Waterloo: — 

I received your letter last nif^t after a hot, dusfy, 
weary march of twelve miles from Bayou Bceuf , and was 
so tickled at seeing the well-known hand of my Calvimistic 
friend that forthwith I sit down to reply to it. Thank you 
a thousand times, old fellow, for your kind offers. The 
battle of Waterioo came safely to hand. It is a most mag- 
nificent thing — the finest description of the battle I ever 
read. Tired as I was, I was so fascinated I sat up half the 
night till I had finished it. You would have thought it was 
a pursuit of knowledge under difficulties, could you have 
seen me last night rolled up in my blanket in the dewy grass, 
reading by my lantern that swtmg from the friendly branch 
of a tree hard by. I am beginning to count the days when 
I shall see dear old New England hills once more. This 
confounded country we are marching in is nothing but a 
vast plain of swamp and forest, infested by mosquitoes 
that present bills prodigious, in fact twice as long as any 
a Philadelphia lawyer would have the conscience to pre- 
sent. Such vermin! ungracious! I 'U bet you, if these were 
Homeric days, the old cock never would have died trying 
to solve the fishermen's enigma. By the way, speaking of 
Homer, I confiscated the other day in a secesh house a 
pocket edition of Pope's " Biad" and revived my classic 
love, reading of 

the twice twenty heroes f eU 
Sent by great Ajax to the shades of beU. 

I am writii^ under great difficulties in the open air, 
on a log, and everybody jabbering around me like so many 

3.n.iized by Google 


bees. I'm 80 fearfully demoralized, don't kuow as I shall 
succeed in getting this done so aa to be intelligible. Since 
I last wrote we have been marrliing here and there and 
ev^ywhere. Went within sight of the rebel fortifications. 
Lost one man the first night out. Our regiment led the 
advance the first three days. Our two divisions, Grover'a 
and Emory's, are now after the rebs at Faterson and ex- 
pect to have a fi^t there. 

But I must close, for we shall soon be marching and 
I must get my duds together. Allow me in conclusion to 
quote the celestial bard of " Scots wha hae," — 

I am & son of M&ra who have been in manjr wsn 
And show my cuts and acars where'er I come. 
Thii fight was for a wcuch and that other in a trench 
When welcoming the teba to the aound of the drum. 


Daodt Goodell. 

Amoi^ his college friends he was known by the sobriquet 
of "Daddy." When, where or why he got it, is not known, 
but he at once appropriated it and used it to the day of 
his death as his rightful designation, and made a good deal 
of fun out of the use of it. 

On Board the St. Mary's, G&um Laei. 
8 miles from Indi4n Bknd, AprH 18. 

While they are landing tro(^ from the other transports, 
I will try and write a few Unes to return by this boat. At 
Bayou Boeuf we were encamped several days. There are 
some old tombstones at that place. On one is the follow- 
ing curious inscription, — 

3.n.iized by Google 


AfficUrau Bore long time I boi«, 
Physidaiu iroa in vain, 
till God did plesse that death should cx}me 
And ease me of my pain. 

B^oa Boeuf was a most forlorn place, and we were 0Bd 
eaiough when at 3 o'clock, April 9, we received orders to 
strike our tents and stow them away, also all ba^age what- 
soever, aa we should carry nothing but a blanket and our 
rations. At9 westadrtedforBrashierCity.tenmilesaway, 
our brigade in advance, We had a frightfully hot and dusty 
march. The first two or three miles there was scarcely any 
road at all, a mere foot-path, passii^ now amid sugar plant- 
ations and now through potato fields. Several miles were 
through a dense wood, where the heat was perfectly 
stifling. I noticed pinks, verbenas growing wild along the 
roadside, also the n^Trlle. Soon we came out on the broad 
road running along the Bayou, and here we halted for an 
hour at noon and snatched a dinner and a bath. Beached 
Brashier City at S o'clock and put up our shelter tents, ex- 
pecting to cross in a few hours. Emory's division was then 
crossing. Here we lay, expecting every minute to leave, 
till Saturd^ at 3 o'clock, when we were ordered aboard 
the St. Mary's. Although it was a small boat, yet the 
£2nd Massachusetts, the 24th and iSth Connecticut, and 
a battery with horses, were stored on board. Just imagine 
how we were dove-twled and crowded together. We 
steamed out of the bay at 9 o'clock Sunday morning, — 
the Clifton, fii^ship, ahead, then the Calhoun, Arizona, 
St. Mary's, Laurel Hill, and two or three httle tugs, — up 
through the succession of littie lakes that chain together 
from Berwick Bay, through inlet and outlet, till we emei^ed 

3.n.iized by Google 


at noon into Grand Lake. Hete the Arizona got stuck, 
and after vainly tiying for two or three hours to get her 
off, we pushed ahead and about sundown came to an an- 
chorage in a pretty Uttle bay. But after sending a party 
ashore to reconnoitre, we discovered it was the wrong place, 
and General Grover signaled to heave anchor and stand 
off and on. This morning at daybreak we ran in, surprising 
the enemies* pickets, and a brisk skimdshing has been 
going on. We are landing under the cover of the Calhoun, 
which is shelling the woods. Our object I suppose is to cut 
off the retreat of the rebels, which Emory's and Sherman's 
division crossed Berwick Bay to attack. 

As he wrote these lines be probably little thought what 
a day might brii^ forth, and he could not have realized 
the scene if he had thoiight. The next morning, April 12, 
came the hard-fought battle of Irish Bend. In the evening 
he writes to all near and dear to him: — 

My deak Brothers and Sistebs, — Through the mercy 
of Grod, I am spared to write you of my safety. We have 
had a terrible battle and the ^th has suffered severely. 
For an hour and a half, we were under the hottest fire en- 
tirely unsupported; then the rebs succeeded in flanking 
us and we had to fall back a short distance, but the tune 
soon changed and the rebs retreated. We went mto battle 
with 380 men and lost 78 wounded, 10 killed and 14 miss- 
ing. Our brigade, was about the only one engaged, and we 
lost over 300 men killed, wotmded and missing.^ Colonel 

' In the offidal retunu Uie £5th Conn, is reported to have two officen 
killed and seven wounded, seven enlisted men killed, seventy-two wounded 
and ten misting. IS W. B. p. 819. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Birge had his horse shot under him, also Captain Norton. 
We had two ofiSceia killed and four wounded. I had a ball 
pass throu^ the sleeve of my left arm without so much aa 
scratching me. Another crossed my bieast, cutting neariy 
in two the strap coming over my shoulder to support my 
sword-belt. It seems ahnost a miracle that I escaped unhurt. 
When we fell back I was endeavoring to bring in a wounded 
man, and a second ball laid him lifeless in my very arms. 
The shots fell so thick and fast, we could see them strike 
within a foot or two all around us. This is no exaggeration. 
April 15. I have had no chance to send this, but as I find 
I can probably send it soon, I will try and add a few lines 
by the bivouac fiie. We have formed a junction with 
Emory's division and Weitzel's brigade, and are in close 
pursuit of the flying rebs, seven miles from New Iberia. 
We have taken something like five hundred prisoners, three 
pieces, and five or six cussons, and the rebs, fearful of the 
Diana and the Queen of the West falling into our hands, 
burned them. In addition to this, the Arizona, when 
aground, engaged and blew up a reb gun-boat. But I can 
write no more. Will try in my next to send a plan of the 
battle-field with a detailed account. We are in hot pursuit, 
our advaace skirmishing with General Moulton's rear 

"April 18, 1868. Two miles from Vermillionville. As 
we are halting to repur a bridge that the rascally lebs have 
burned I will try and write a few lines. Enclosed is a small 
plan of the battle of Irish Bend, which in my letter of 
April 15 I promised to send. I wiU now go a little more into 
detail of the events of April IS. We landed about 11 o'clock 

3.n.iized by Google 















and immediately marched up througb the woods to the 
edge of a caDe-field, where we h^ted till 4 in the afternoon. 
Meantime our forces were skirmishing with the rebs and 
gradually driving them back, just saving the bridge over 
the Bayou, the flames of which we succeeded in extin- 
gulshing. At 4 we started, crossed the bridge and advanced 
a mile, when we were drawn up in a field in line of battle; 
but the S6th Maine and the lS9th New York soon drove in 
the skirmishers, and night coming on, we lay on our arms. 
It was quite cold and showety, but we did n't dare build 
fires to dry us or make coffee. 
" At 4 AM., April 14, we started, the 20th in advance. 

3.n.iized by Google 


thrown out as skirmishers on the right of the road; the 
left was protected by the Bayou. We advanced for about 
two miles through cane-fields without meeting anything, 
till at 6.S0 we entered the main plantation, the mill on our 
extreme left close to the road, while on our right were 
thick woods. Here we first encountered a dropping fire, and 
our line of skirmishers gradually swung round till finaUy 
they occupied the place marked C — C. But for an hour, 
till reinforced, our line extended also over the space occu- 
pied by the 26th Mdne. As we swung into position, we sud- 
denly heard the cry, 'Attention Battalion, take aim, firel' 
and immediately the woods seemed to spring into life, while 
a perfect storm of canister, grape and minie balls was 
runed down upon our ranks. 

" Taking advantage of eveiy little ridge and furrow, we 
slowly advanced, loading and firing, while our artillery en- 
gaged the rebel battery. Here we were in an open field for 
an hour and a half, seen but not seeing, for the rebs were 
concealed in the woods and did not needlessly expose them- 
selves, so the most of the time we could only aim and fire 
at the flash and the smoke. The men now began to be 
carried out pretty rapidly. About 7.S0, the 26th Maine 
came up on our left, wbUe the 13th crossed the road and 
tried to capture the reb batteiy. About 8 o'clock suddenly 
there was a terrific yell and 1100 men rushed in on our flank 
and commenced peppering us well. I have heard men speak 
of a hail-storm of bullets; but I never imagined it before. 
We were between two fires and the way the balls whisked 
and zipped among the cane-stalks and ploughed up the 
ground around us was truly astonishing. In less than ten 
minutes two thirds of all the loss we e^>erienced on that 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


d^ occurred; still, though under a tranendous fire, scuce 
s man left the r&nks, till the order was given to fall back. 
My former orderly, Holden, fell by my side pierced by thiee 
balls, my sergeant lost his leg, my first corporal had a ball 
pass through both jaws, cutting off his tongue, my second 
one had a flesh wound in his thi^, and one of my men 
was slightly wounded in the arm, as he stood behind me 
and passed me a cartridge (for I used a gun all through the 
action). There is scarcely a man in the regiment but what 
has a bullet-bole to show in some part of his clothing, and 
some have two or three. One had his life saved by his 
metal tobacco-box, which received and stopped the ball. 
Sergeant Goodwin of Co. A was wounded in his foot. It 
is a wonder Colonel Bissell was not shot, as he constantly 
passed up and down the line encoun^ing the men. Colonel 
Birge and all four of his staff officers had horses shot under 
them. But there was no use in our remaining under a 
i3oss-fire, and we were ordered to fall back, which we did 
while three other regiments advanced and drove our fiank- 
ersin; at the same time the 18th succeeded in flimking their 
ii|^t and they decanq>ed. 

"We halted for an hour, forming round the colors, and 
th^i advanced by the road into the woods and hete we re- 
mained HU S o'clock F.BI., when the rebs burned their gun- 
boats and skedaddled; but almost all the time we were con- 
stantly annoyed by then- sldnnishers and shells ham their 
gnn-boats and battery. Soon after entering the wood I 
was ordered to the front with four men, to keep concealed 
and send back reports of what the rebels were about; nff 
very pleasant job, for the balls were flying thick. I never 
suffered so horn thirst in my life aa I did during the ooa.- 

3.n.iized by Google 


flict. It seemed as thou^ my throat would burst. I had 
eaten nothing since the night before, a sick headache came 
on, tmd I could scarcely move after the real exdtement 
was over till I got an hour or two of sleep there in the woods. 
At 5 P.H. we marched back to the Bayou and encamped. 

" April IS, we started for Newton or New Iberia, distance 
thirty-one miles, reaching there on the eve of the 16th. It 
was a terribly hot and dusty march and the men were very 
foot-sore. Emory's Diviaon was ahead of us and skir- 
mished all the way with General Taylor's forces (for he 
commands the rebel forces and ia a son of old Z. Taylor). 
They took some five hundred prisoners. At Newton we 
found most of our missing men, who had been paroled 
by General Taylor and left there. New Iberia is a very 
pleasant place of some fifteen hundred inhabitants. There 
are some very beautiful mansions, with grounds laid out in 
fancy style. There is a small foundry In the place and a 
couple of magazines; one of its three churches was stored 
with powder and ammunition abandoned in the flight. 
The people were more Union than any we have previously 
seen, and were ot a better dass than the ordinary run. 
Provisions were at almost fabulous prices. Eggs fifty cents 
a dozen, coffee six dollars a pound, and flour one hundred 
and flfty dollars a barrell Just think of that! Bytheway, 
we found out from our rebel prisoners how their men lived. 
They had only one commissary wagon drawn by six oxen 
for an army of six thousand men. They lived upon the 
plantations as they passed along. 

" April 17, we were aroused at 3 ajw., but through some 
delay we did not start till 6 o'clock. Our division was alone, 
Emory's diviuon having taken a circuitous route. We made 

3.n.iized by Google 


a terrible march of twenty miles. The men fell out by scores, 
but we pushed the rebs so hard, we captured their officers' 
baggage-wagons. At S P.M. they made a shght stand, and 
an artillery duel of an hoiu-'s duration ensued, in which 
we lost two or three men. The rebs then retired burning 
the bridge over the Bayou. We halted for the night and 
have been most of the day constructing a new bridge. It 's 
a very good rest for the men, but those confoimded rebs 
will just escape us, I am afraid. I supppose we are bound 
for Alexandria via Opelousas. By to-morrow or to-night 
we shall be off again. I must close, for there is an opportun- 
ity, I hear, to send back." 

For once his guess was correct. They drove the Con- 
federates before them, and on April 20 occupied Opelousas, 
which since the capture of Baton Rouge had been the capi- 
tal of the State of Louisiana. Here Gener^ Banks gave his 
worn and weary army a rest until May 5. The 26th Con- 
necUcut took position about ten miles east of headquarters, 
at Barre'fi Landing, now called Fort Barre. While the 
privates eiqoyed the suspension of active operations the 
officers seem to have been unusually busy, as their num- 
bers had been greatly reduced by res^ation, sickness and 

With a little rest his natural exuberance of spurit burst 
out afresh. 

Babbb'b Lamdhhi, April 28, 1863. 

Daddy Goodell has been jubilant this morning and in 
a state of unwonted emtement. Cause, the receipt this 
moming of the "Atlantic" for April, and seven letters in- 
cluding yours of April 4. Thrice-happy dog of a GoodeU! 
Sweet Singer in Israel, why recall to my mind the touching 

3.n.iized by Google 


farewell sung in the streets of Springfield at midnight. It 
harrows up my soul and leaves me high and dry on a waste 
of mournful reflections. Don't speak to me of currency of 
any description. That infernal paymaster has not yet 
blessed us with his appearance, and deq>air drives me in a 
sinf^e night to swearing in bad German. Don't ask me 
where I am? Know then, Friend of my Soul, that we are 
seven miles from Opelousas, the rebel capital of Louisiana; 
that it has surrendered at discretion and lies prostrate at 
the feet of the American ea^e, while that most eccentric 
bird flops its broad wings from end to end of this most 
rebellious state and retires to brood in silence over the de- 
fiant aspect of Port Hudson. Since the battle of Irish Bend 
we have pressed the rebels hard all the way to O., fightii^ 
with their rear guard and taking prisoners all the way; 
and they were so completely demoralized that tiiey scat- 
tered in every direction. Our cavalry made a ^lendid 
duu^ at New Iberia, with bridles hanging loose and sabres 
drawn, waving, shouting at the top of their lungs, they 
galloped into the Tencans, hacking them hilter-skilter. 
It was a grand sight and stirred my very blood, I tell you. 
We are now at the port of Opelousas and are shipping cot- 
ton by the scores of bales. We have sent some two thou- 
sand bales and have about five hundred now on the landing 
and more coming in hourly. At one place we found nine 
hundred bales. I was on picket the other day and had the 
good luck to fall upon one hundred and fifty rebel aabres, 
not a bad haul altogether. 

He had a classmate who at this time was studying 
theology, of whom he made a world of good-natuied fun. 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


ScmteUines he would write in ladicrous and pathetic striuiu 
on the importance of the ministerial office, and then, as- 
smning the position of a penitent mmer, would ask ad- 
'nce for the guidance of his conduct, as absurd as to ask. 
for a dispensation before drinking a glass of water from 
the Mississippi Biver. From Barre's Landing he writes 
to this friend: 

Belotbd D, D., — How was my heart delighted yester- 
day on receiving the" Atlantic "directed in thine own hand. 
It smacked so strongly of a bookseller's shelves, that Daddy 
Goodell, like some worn-out war horse at the sound of a 
trumpet, pricked up his ears and for the space of an hour 
sat sniffing the leaves without reading a single word. I am 
promising myself all manner of feasts when I come to read 
it, but just at present I am terribly busy, for in addition 
to being the only officer in command of Co. A (both its of- 
ficers being put hora de comiat on the field of Irish Bend), 
I am sitting on a court>ntartial, trying those thrice un- 
happy cusses who have violated all law, civil, reh^ous 
and military. We are in a very interesting condition, for 
our baggage-trdns were seized at Franklin to carry ammu- 
nition, and all our bi^gage left there; consequently, this 
being the 11th hour, in which my shirt is washed, your 
nnde has to lie abed while it is drying. I have numbered 
my shirt No. 6, but it is a pleasing delusion from which I 
constantly awake to naked facts. Had a letter from Pater 
Gridley ' the other day. He is in for three years. Asked 
all about you and what you were doing. I wrote him that 
our D, D. was fighting the devil at Cambridge right man- 

3.n.iized by Google 


fully, acd was succeeding admirably in subduing bis carnal 
appetites and passions. 
Bless me, the steamer is wbistling and I must close. 
As ever 

Daddt Goodbll. 

Some time about the first of May the paymaster arrived. 
It was an occasion of great interest to the soldiers, as they 
had not been paid for nearly six months. Many widted 
to send money to their families, who in many cases were 
sorely in need of it. But they were more than two hundred 
miles from New Orleans, the nearest point from which they 
could ^d it with any safety. There were no Confederates 
in arms between them and New Orleans, but the country 
was full of menwho had broken with law and order.andwho 
held any human life very cheap except their own, and who 
would take great risks with that when money was at stake. 
How to send the money the men could spare to NewOrleans 
became a vital question. It not only required an honest 
man and a good accountant, but it required a m^i of cour- 
age, whose head was level, and would be under any cir- 
cumstances, and whose resources were at eonmiand in any 
emergency. The colonel nominated Lieutenant Goodell, 
and the regiment confirmed the nomination by unani- 
mous vote. This teUs its own stoiy of the position he had 
won for himself in the minds of his fellow soldiers, both 
officers and privates. 

In a paper printed in this volume entiUed, "How the pay 
of the regiment was carried to New Orleans," he has made 
it very apparent that the responsibifity he felt made the 
duty imposed upon him a very arduous one. During his 

3.n.iized by Google 


absence, wbidi was longer than he had expected, the army 
had marched a hundred miles in thiee d^s and four houiSi 
had occupied Alexandria, and in cotlperation with the navy 
had destroyed the Confederate fortresses and scattered their 
forces to the wind, and had started down the Red lUver on 
then: way to Fort Hudson. Goodell met them at Simsport 
and here he begins his story of the advance upon that 

On May 21, we leceived orders to march, and at 12 
embarked on board the Empire Parish along with the ISth 
Connecticut and the 159th New York. You can ima^e 
how crowded we were imd add to this tiie fact that a good 
many men of the . . . were drunk and inclined to be 
quarrelsome. Poor Colonel Bissell waa quite ill and had to 
seek a berth immediate^. Soon after 3 P.M., the rest of 
the boats being loaded, we stipped from our moorings and 
away up the Atchafalaya to the Red where we passed the 
Switzerland ^ and the Estrella watching for rebel craft from 
Sheveport. Down the Red to the Mississippi, where we 
came upon the grim old Hartford [Rear-Admiral Farragut's 
flag-ship]. The band of the 13tb saluted her as we ap- 
proached, playing 'The Star-Spangled Banner,' and 'Yan- 
kee Doodle.' 

At IS at night we disembarked at B^niu Sara some six- 
teen miles from Port Hudson. The rest of the brigade 

* IleU.S.S. Estrella hftd made its way tq) bom Berwick Ba7 with Ui« 
army. The U. S. Ram SnitzerlaDd had on the moming of March tS, ia 
company with the TJ. S. S. Lancaster, undertaken to run by th« batt^iea 
at ■Rckaburg. The Lancaster was destroyed by the enemy's fire and the 
Switzeriand received a ID-inch shell in her boilers, but escaped, to join 
Farrsgut and take a part in blockading the Bed Biver. 

3.n.iized by Google 


marched oa and left cnir regiment to miload the boata. 
It was 2 AM. before any of us lay down and at 4, May 2S, 
we marched breakfastless to overtake the brigade. The 
colonel we left at a house with a guard, the major as- 
suuuog command of the re^ment. "Vfe marched one and 
a half miles, and found the brigade encamped at St. Francis- 
viUe, which ia set on a high hill, the first we have seen since 
coming to Louisiana, and here we actually saw some stones. 
The boys welcomed them as old friends, and picked them 
up admiringly. Soon after 9 our column was set in motion, 
the 2nd brigade in advance. As we passed through the 
town of St. FrancisviUe the people thronged to the doors 
and windows, some curni^ and swearing, others welcoming 
and others again passive. One woman in a very spiteful 
tone calls out to a friend : " Come in, Mrs. Lewis, for God's 
sake and don't stand there staring at those Yankee devils 1 " 
I could n't resist taking off my cap and making her a low 
bow, which so exasperated her that, calling me some foul 
name imd kicking out her feet in a most indecent maimeri 
she vanished into the house. The maimers of these Southern 
women are truly astonishing. They will curse and revile 
and call you foul names and call upon heaven to smile on 
a just cause. We had a terrible march up and down bill, 
between magnificent hedges of cape jessamine in bloom, 
very beautiful but terribty' oppressive, for not a partide of 
air could reach us and the dust was stiffing. We advanced 
very slowly, for it was a terrible country for skirmishes. 
We had a couple of men wounded but that was all the loss 
we experienced that day. 

At 4 P.M. we halted and our regiment was ordered to 
the front as an advance picket for the night. We deployed 

3.n.iized by Google 


on a plain by a beautiful creek (Tbompson's), 'wbeie the 
vat«r was knee-deep and ran clear ss crystal. Co. K. was 
ordered across to bold tbe roads on the edge of the adjoin- 
ing woods, and after a short skirmish succeeded in effecting 
their object. It rained quite hard, and of course we had to 
be upon the watch most of tbe night. 

May 23, we started at 4 Aja., our men pret^ well 
fagged-out by two nights' duty; but no mercy was shown, 
and the S£th was ordered to take the advance as skirmish- 
ers; and a terrible time we bad of it str^gling through sand- 
banks and ravines, forcing ourselves through bamboo 
brake, pushing under and over vines, wading through 
wat^, scratching and tearii^ ourselves with thorns, and 
stumbling over ploughed fields. It was thoroughly ex- 
hausting work and mai^ a strong man gave out. At 9 
o'clock A.M. we met the advance of Colonel Grierson'a 
cavalry,' and our poor wearied column of men was called 

> The ium« of B. B. Grierson, Colimel of the 4th Qlioins Cavalry, it 
ODDnected with one of the moat dsring entetptues ot the Civil War. 
While General Grant was mBDceuvring to secure a position behind 
^Hcksburg, he wished to distract the attention of the enemy and wrote 
to MajoivGeneral Huribut on February 14, 1863: "Itseematome that 
Grierson with about SOO picked men might sncceed in making his way 
aouth and cut railroad east of Jackson, S£s8. The undertaking would be 
a hacardous one, but would pay well if carried out. I do not direct that 
it ahall be dime, but leave it for a volunteer enterprise" (21 W. B. P. 
ni, p. so). Colonel Grierson was not a man to dedine such a chal- 
lenge from the commanding general, and without doubt the general knew 
it. He started from La Grange, Teun., April 17, with about seventeen 
himdnd men, and four days later detadted nx hundred of them to destn^ 
the railroad between Columbns and Macon and make their way back to 
La Grange. Hiis move threw the enemy into confusitm, and with the ra> 
maioder of his command he pushed mi, making a march of nmie nx hun- 
dred miles in oxteen days, destroying as he went railroadg, telegnqtha. 

3.n.iized by Google 


in. Advancing one mile, we halted in a field near a well of 
deliciously cold water, about two miles from Fort Hudson. 
In a few minutea General Augur rode up and the generals 
held a c»nference together. 

At 7 P.M. I was sudden^ dettuled with forty men to go 
on picket. Pretty rough on a fellow to be three nights on 
duty; but a soldier's first dutyis to obey without grumblmg, 
so I went, though I could hardly keep my eyes open. It was 
ft magnificent moonUgbt night and I sat and watched the 
bombs from the mortar boats for hours, curving round 
in the heavens and bursting in a fieiy shower. The night 
passed without disturbance, save one or two false alarms. 

At 4 A.M. May 24, 1 started out black-berrying, and in 
a very few minutes had more than enough for a good meal. 
Fancy me peacefully gathering berries under the guns of 
Port Hudson. At 8 a. H we were called in uid at 9 we 
commenced making a Sunday advance on the centre forti- 
fications. The 2nd Brigade was in the advance, and the 
24th Connecticut lost a few men. At noon the first earth- 
work was taken and we deployed in the woods to the right 
and stacked arms. We lay here a couple of hours while 
shells exploded and hxaai around us and over our heads, 
but we were mercifully preserved though in great danger 
for a time. Soon after 4 p.m. the right wing was ordered out 
as picket-sldrmisliers, — that is, we were stationed behind 
trees, one to a tree all through the woods, to keep the enemy 
back. On our right was the 13th Connecticut, and on the 
left we joined the 24th Connecticut. This was the fourth 

and an immoise quanUtj' of public stores, arrived at BatonRouge, Majr S, 
and wtu debuued to coSperate witii General Banks in the opemtiou 
around Port Hudson. 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


night I had been on duty and I was thoroughly worn out, 
but they had n't done with the 26th yet. May 26, we were 
called in and relieved at 9 am. by the 12th M^ne. As I was 
relieving my men, followed by the 12th Maine, we had to 
pass over a plateau commanded by the abarpabooters of 
the enemy. The bullets whistled most unpleasantly near 
and killed one of the IStb. I saw him fall and called upon 
his comrades to bring him in, but not one started, and I 
actual^ had to go myself with one of my own company and 
pick up and bring in the dying man. We naturally sup- 
posed after being relieved we should get some repose; but 
hardly had we come in, when we were ordered to fall in. 
We marched out of the woods uid up over the hill and the 
intrenchments taken tlie day before, and immediately 
came imder a sharp fire from shaipshooters. The . . . 
having disgraceful^ abandoned their position, we were or- 
dered in to drive the rebels out, and after a sharp skirmish 
of half an hour we drove them clean out of the woods and 
into their rifle^its, while we occupied the woods, — the 
extreme edge of the woods, — and kept up such a sharp 
fire that not a mother's son of them durst lift his head above 
the works. We were just in time to save the 12th Maine 
from beii^ flanked and cut to pieces. In the afternoon 
General Weitzel's brigade attacked, imd aiter a severe 
fight drove the rebels out of the woods. This was going on 
on OUT right and we could hear the yells and hurrahs, the 
crackle of musketry and roar of arUlleiy, and other con- 
comitants of the fight, but we could see nothing and we sat 
and fidgeted roimd, not knowing when our turn might 
At 8 VM. we were relieved by the 15&th [New York], 

3.n.iized by Google 


and so tired out was I that I fell right down on the baie 
ground and never woke till 8 or 9 o'clock next morning. 

May 26, we lemiuned on the reserve till 4 f.u. when the 
three right companies were ordered to the front. We had 
a splendid sight of an artillery duel going on in which the 
practice of Nims's batt«ry was perfect. They dismounted 
two or three gmis, and altogether were so sharp that the 
rebel gunners did not dare load their pieces. 

May 27. We were relieved at 5 a,m. by the 13th [Con- 
necticut], but were almost immediately after ordered out to 
the support of a new section of Nims's battery which had 
just been got into position. Here we lay for five or six 
hours flat on oiu* faces, while the enemies' shells burst in 
most unpleasant proximity. Then our regiment and the 
159tb [New York] were ordered over to the support of 
General Weitzel on the right. We marched almost on the 
double-quick through the woods, and were ordered by 
General Grover to advance to the front and carry an eiuth- 
work. We were told there were hardly any rebels there, 
and Mayor Hxat of t^e ISSth, who was in command, was 
told that his regiment alone was su£Scient to carry the 
works, and to send back the 2Sth if it was not needed. A 
more bare-faced lie never was got up, as the sequel will 
show. We pushed on through the woods, rushed down a 
hill swept by the enemy's artillery, turned a sharp comer 
and emerged on the entrance to a plain. I shall never forget 
that sight : the valley was filled up with felled trees, ruins 
of houses and debris, while thick and heavy rolled the 
battle-smoke. There was a hill on the left strongly in- 
trenched, and from its centre loomed up a big gun, bUck 
and gloon^, threatening to annihilate us; just below, on a 

3.n.iized by Google 


little bridge, was planted a stand of the 8tlu^s and stripes, 
the glorious old banner, and clustered around it stood a 
handful of brave men pouring a stream of balls upon that 
piece; and for seven long hours the gunners did not dare 
approach to load, and that frowning gun kept silence. 

It was a sort of floating panorama that passed before me, 
a hideous dream in which I was a mere spectator. There 
was a roaring and crashing of artillery and bursting of 
sheila, a crackle and rattle of muskets with hissing and 
whistling of balls, and battle-smoke lowering and settling 
down upon us. There were men dropping here and there, 
headless trunks and legless, aimless unfortunates, and all 
the horrid concomita of war, and still we kept on. A short 
turn to the right, and in single file we conunenced ascending 
through a water-course. Wading through water, stumbling 
under and over It^s, we finally emerged in a square pit, 
some six foot deep ; climbing out of that, we were on the side 
of the hill. Oh, but it was a wicked place to charge, — the 
nature of the ground such we could not form battle line 
and had to make the attack in three columns, while felled 
trees were criss-crossed in most inextricable confuuon. 

We lay for two or three moments with beating hearts 
wuting for the forward charge. The word came, and with 
a terrific yell we rose to our feet and rushed forward. I 
headed the left colunm. It was a terrible moment when, 
bounding ova the last tree and crashing throi^ some low 
bushes, we came out not ten yards from the inttenclunenta 
and a himdred rifles cracking doom at us. Wlqr, we were so 
near they actually seemed to scorch us in firing ! It was too 
deadly for men to stand against, and our brave fellows, 
mowed down as fast as they could come up, were beaten 

3.n.iized by Google 


back. Here occurred one of those heroic deeds we some- 
times read of. The colors of the lS9th were left on the hill, 
their sergeants killed. Corporal Buckley, Co. K. of our 
regiment, hearing of it, calndy walked back in that terrific 
fire, picked them up and brought them in, turned to pick 
up his gun, and was killed. He was a noble fellow and 
much beloved in the regiment. 

Besting a short time, we made a second charge, but with 
like result. Our two regiments lost 75 killed and wounded. 
It was a horrid old place we were in. Sharpshooters on the 
left picking us off. Sharpshooters on the right giving it to 
us; and in front the rifle-pita. Here we lay till 10 o'clock 
at night, when we were ordered to fall back, which we did, 
bringing off most of our wounded. I had fallen asleep and 
barely woke in time to get off. One or two did sleep through 
till morning, uid then managed to get away. I had one 
killed and three wounded in my little company. 

As this is getting too long I will carry on the nuratlTe 
in my next. 

For Eliza's special benefit, though I have answered it 
three or four times already, I will state that Co. F. has not 
been dissolved and that I am at present acting adjutant, 
which office I have been endeavoring to fulfill the last three 
weeks, our adjutant having been sick almost ever since we 
came here. Our colonel we miss sadly, and do earnestly 
hope to welcome him back one of these days. Our regiment 
numbers 167 for duty and 9 officers. I am glad you did n't 
send any camphor, for I procured some in N. O. Thanks for 
the Springfield ["Kepublican"]. It comes quite regularly 
and is a great treat. U you make any extracts from my 
letters I wish you would pleaae not put my name to them. 

3.n.iized by Google 

They get back beie to camp and it is exceedingly pro- 
voldng. With ever bo much love, 


May 28 he writes: 

As there is an opportunity to send letters, I will write 
a tew lines to let you know of my safety. This is the siztli 
day of the aege and we are pretty well played out. We have 
had to fight for eveiy inch of ground, but have carried the 
first two earthworks by storm. It has been one continual 
fight since we conunenced, but there is a cessation of hostili- 
ties for a few hours, and the lull is a perfect relief, for my 
ears have been half -stunned by the deafening roar of artil- 
lery wid the crack of musketry. We have lost four killed 
and twenty wounded and some thirty in our regiment 
mis«ng. Again, in my little ccHupany, have four been 
wounded — one fatally, so I am afraid. My life has been 
in great danger several times, but a kind Providence has 
kept watch over me thus tar and I trust will bring me out 
safe to see you again, llie re^ment is now under the com- 
mand of Major McManus. The colonel is prostrate with 
a remittent fever at Bayou Sara, Euid the lieutenant-colonel 
is mck at New Orleans. The colored regiments have fought 
splendidly and made several brilliant charges. 

In haste, Henbt. 

The next letter is dated June 20 and carries the stoiy 
to a day or two after the sectmd assault on the rebel works, 
and was probably written ^m the camp of the storming 
column; but not a hint as to that subject. A chaplain's 
wife wriUng to her husband s^s, "We get no letters from 

3.n.iized by Google 


the soldiers these days." To which he replied, "The sol- 
di^is have no time and no material to write with and are on 
duty the whole time." The truth is, the siege was being 
pressed with the utmost vigor. Goodell entered into the 
spirit of the time, and we are told that, when his ref^ment 
was not employed, he would ask to be allowed to join some 
company where he had friends, and was once seen return- 
ing covered with blood; aid was sent out to him, but it was 
found to be only an attack of the nose-bleed. 

I left off in my last with the unsuccessful charges made 
by our regiment and the 159th on the S7th. About IQ 
o'clock that night we silently withdrew, bringing away all 
the womided we could reach, but there were some poor 
fellows lying up under tiie breastworks it was impossible 
to reach. Every time we tried to get to them the rebs would 
fire on us. We threw them canteens of water and the ia- 
himian rebs fired on them when tb^ tried to reach them. 
We marched back and lay on the battle-field of the pre- 
ceding day among wounded and dead men. 

May 28, at 4 am., we marched back into the woods, 
and lay in support of a battery. It was very tiying, for the 
lebs had a perfect range, and five or ax times a day they 
would throw those immense eleven-inch shells right over 
into our midst. >We could hear them coming for several 
seconds, and we lay flat behind trees. Luckily none were 
hurt, though we had some very narrow escapes. There was 
a cessation of hostilities all day to bury the dead. 

At 7 P.M. the enemy made a fierce onslaught on the 
right, but were driven back with heavy loss. We fell into 
our places, ei^iecting momentarily to be called into action. 

3.n.iized by Google 


bat we were spared it. At this place we remained till the 
1st of June when we were ordered quarter of a mile to the 
zear. Colonel Weld came up from New Orleans and assumed 
command of the regiment. It makes me heart-sick and in- 
dignant every time I think of the way some things have 
been managed here and the cowardice displayed by officers; 
but I may not mention it here. On the 3d [June] we were 
attacked in the rear and two br^ades were despatched to 
attend to the case of the rebs; but on reaching Clinton they 
found they had skedaddled and fled. While lying here in 
the woods, an awkward adventure happened to me. Being 
acting adjutant, I was sent one dark night to report a 
fatigue party to CreneralGrover's headquarters. Betimiing 
I lost nqr way. First, I found myself back at headquarters. 
Started ^un, and found myself out to the front, most un- 
pleasantly near the rifle-pits. My next essay took me to the 
watering-place for the horses, and from there I found my 
.way in, after a couple of hours wandering in the woods. 
June 7 we were ordered to the front to relieve the 15&th 
in the rifle-pits. We went out at night, as the enen^'s 
sharpshooters rendered it dangerous going in the day- 
time. We had pits dug on the crest of a hill about two hun- 
dred yards from the rifle-pits of the rebs, and had loop- 
holes from which to fire out. About one hundred yards 
back of us on another hill was planted one of our batteries, 
and as they flred over our heads you can imagine what a 
terrible report rui^ in our ears. It was truly deafening. 
Our boys got the range of the rifle-pits opposite perfectly, 
after a short practice, so that Mr. Secesh did n't dare show 
his head, though from his hiding-places he would annoy us 
all day long. After dark we usually held some interesting 

3.n.iized by Google 


conversations across the ravine, our boys telling them that 
if they wanted any soft bread, we would put some in a mor- 
tar and send it over, etc., etc. Our meab were brought out 
at 3 o'clock in the morning, and after dark at night. We lay 
here three days and were relieved on the 10th by the 
15&th. I was very much interested the last day in watching 
a snake swallow a toad. It was astonishing how wide he 
opened his jaws and pushed a toad down, three times his 
diameter. Rather a curious place to study natural hlstoty, 
under the guns of Port Hudson. We returned to our oW 
camping-ground. June 11, between H and 1 p.m., a general 
assault was planned, but owii^ to some misunderstanding 
the scheme failed and we were repulsed. 

June 14 we were under way at an early hour, for we 
formed the reserve to the attacking column on the centre. 
Colonel Birge was in command of the reserve. We rose at 
S A.M., had coffee, and started under the guidance of Cap- 
tain Norton at 3. In a few moments we heard a terrific yell 
and the crash and roar of artillery and musketry. Soon the 
wounded and dead began to be brought in, some faint and 
pale, others cursing and swearing and vowing they would 
go back for revenge. All kinds of conflicting rumors were 
rife as to the success of our brave fellows. Then General 
Paine was wounded and Colonel Birge assumed command, 
we, forming the reserve, being under Colonel Morgan. Soon 
we were ordered forward. On throng the scene of our first 
day's fight, then down through a ravine where a road had 
been cut. Halting at the foot of a hill we formed line of 
battle and charged, but it was a great mistake, for instead 
of creeping round the hill we had to charge over it, down 
through the ravine and up the next before we could reach 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


the breastworks. The consequence was we were exposed 
to a raking fiie as we went over the crest. Here we lost 
two Ueutenants and seventeen men wounded. We arrived 
at the other side in great confusion. There were parts of 
twelve or fifteen regiments all mixed up together and en- 
tangled among the fallen trees. After several hours straight- 
ening, line was once more formed; but the order to charge 
was countermanded, and we lay up there in a terrible sun 
all day. I was quite sick when we started, with violent 
vomitings, and had to tie down, but rejoined the regiment 
during the charge. At 8 p.u. we were ordered up into the 
outer ditch of the breastworks, but we had been there but 
a short time when we were ordered to the right, to our old 
position in the rifle-pits, which we reached about midnight. 
Poor General Paine had been wounded in the leg in the 
early part of the day, but we could not reach him to afford 
him any aid and he lay there in the burning sun till night, 
when we brought him off in safety. It was a fearfully hot 
d^ and quite a number were sunstruck, some fatally. I 
wore wet leaves in my bat, but about two in the afternoon 
could stand it no longer and had to lie down in the shade. 
This was a miserable Sunday scrape, and like all scrapes 
commenced on Sunday ended disastrously. The loss of life 
was frightful. 

June 15. We were relieved at ni^t by the 98th Con- 
necticut and returned once more to our old camping- 
ground, where we remwned till June 19, when we were 
ordered a mile and a half to the right, to siQ)port the col- 
ored brigade, where we are still, June 20. 

As ever, with oceans of love, 


3.n.iiffid by Google 


June 15, the day after the second assault on Fort Hud- 
son, General Banks issued his famous general order no. 49. 
the only one of the Idnd issued durii^ the war, calling for 
volunteers for a atonning column of a thousand men, "to 
vindicate the Flag of the Union and the memoiy of its 
defenders who had fallen! Let them come forward ■ ■ . 
every officer «id soldier who shares its perils and its ^ory 
shall receive a medal fit to commemorate the first grand 
success of the campaign of 186S for the freedom of the 
Mississippi. TTJa name mil be placed in general orders 
upon the Roll of Honor." ' 

The next day the order was promulgated and two days 
later, on the 18th, GoodeU wrote to a classmate: — 

In the words of Prof, l^ler in his 19th disquisition on 
Homer, "The battle still rages. Omnipotence holds the 
scales in equal hand, but vengeful Hera upsets them." This 
is the 2£th day of the siege and we are still stuck outside 
the fortifications. Last Sunday we made a general assault, 
but were repulsed with terrible loss. We got inside three 
times, but for want of support were driven out. Oh, but it 
was a terrible place where we charged, — a perfect murder 
thewayitwasmanaged. Instead of cre^iug round the hills 
(md starting directly for the breastworks, they ordered us 
to charge across two hiUs and two ravines before coming 
to the base of the last; and consequently we were exposed 
to a withering fire as we went over the crest of each hUl, 
men were mown down right and left. It is wonderful how 
I have been preserved. I have been in four direct assaults 
on the works, half a dozen skirmishes and one fight, and yet 
>4l W. B, M. 

3.n.iized by Google 


not a scratch have I received. Waahington Allen [a class- 
mate] was slightly wounded on Sundi^ by a piece of a 
ahell, but nothing dangerous. 

There has been a call for a thousand volunteers tb storm 
the works, and officers to lead them. I have volunteered 
among the number. Don't think me rash. I thought the 
matter over a whole day before signing my name, and it 
seemed too clearly my duty, to refuse. If I fall, " Dulce est 
pro patriamori." Your "Atlantic" I received safely. Mai^ 
thanks. It was indeed a treat to get something to read. 
There were some capital things in Gail Hamilton's "Spasms 
of Sense," espedally what she says of married women being 
heard from only six times in ten years and each time a 
baby. " Beminiscences of Buckle " were good; but is n't 
the author a conceited, egotistical wretch! But wasn't 
I living over college and Easthampton days when I read 
Ik Marvel's pastorals ! I could most hear the bees humming 
round the Castilian fount. Do you want to know how we 
are living in the woods? Well, we have scarce nothing at 
all for breakfast, and have the leavings for supper. We have 
become ardent students of botany, but it is trees we study, 
and in proportion as the shells fly thick so do we hug and 
admire some thick and sturdy magnolia. Yes, "paradoxical 
as it may appear," the larger the specimen, the greater our 
admiration. I am now acting adjutant. I am happy to 
report that I have been promoted to first lieutenant. 
In the bonds of Antiquity, 

H. H. GOODELL, Daodt. 

The use of the word "pwadwdcal " here is an illustration 
of the fact that nothing ludicrous ever escaped his notice. 

3.n.iized by Google 


One of the tutors, while <K»iiductmg devotional services in 
the College Chapet, in hia primer waded into the deep 
waters of theology, lost his foothold and slipped in all over, 
and after floundering about for a while came to the surface 
with a statement in flat contradiction to what he had been 
saying. But he took in the situation and veiy dexterously 
extrieated himself by saying : " Paradoxical as it may seem, 
oh, Lord!" This was too much for Goodell; he never en- 
tirely recovered from the shock and " Paradoxical as it may 
appear" became with him a favorite phrase, good on all 
occasions and for all purposes. 
June *8 he writes to a classmate: — 

Befoie PoBT Hcdsoii, Jutu 23d, 1863. 

There have been two espedal reasons for my not writing 
you before. One is that we have been told do soldiers' 
letters are allowed to leave for the North, and the other is 
that I have delayed hoping to write you of the fall of this 
stronghold; but still the siege drags its slow length along. 
Our days are divided betwixt rifle-pits, maldng assaults, and 
repelling sallies. The rebs hold their rifle-pits and we ad- 
vance ours or lemun stationary. Yesterday the colored 
brigade carried a hill by storm and have held it, notwith- 
standing the repeated and great efforts made by the rebs 
to retain it. Sunday, June 14, we attacked the fort at three 
points but were beaten back with a frightful loss. It was 
perfect murder, the w^ affairs were managed; where we 
charged at the centre, instead of creeping round the base 
of the hill and starting a few yards from the breastworks, 
they made us charge over a hill, down through the ravine 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


and op the next side. The consequence was we were exposed 
to a sweepii^ fire and everything got jumbled and mixed 
up, so that by the time the ditch was reached there were 
parts of eight or ten re^pments in the direst confunon, 
without head or t^. It took several hours to stnughten 
matters out, and just as we w^e reat^ to go at them 
again the order was countermanded. We lay there in the 
burning sun until night, and then withdrew with our 
wounded and dead under cover of the darkness. Ah, Dick, 
these Sunday attacks are worse than useless! They are 
criminal. It was with a heavy heart I went in on the 14th, 
for I felt we could do nothing. 

General Banks has now called tor a thousand volunteers, 
with officers, to lead in storming the works. Old Daddy has 
volunteered, not from any deme of reputation or honor, 
I assure you, but only because there seemed to be a lack of 
ofiicers and it seemed my duty to go. It is a desperate 
undertaking, but I am in the hands of One who is able to 
avert the deadly missiles if he sees fit. Captain Allen of 
the 81st Massachusetts was wounded but slightly on Sun- 
day, and Clary of '61 was kiUed. Captain Bliss of the Bid 
Massachusetts was badly wounded and has subsequently 
died. Ceph Gunn and Fruik Steams are all ri^t, but Jut 
Eello^ and Severance are both in New Orleans and 
have not been up here at all during the cdege. I had a letter 
from Pater Gridley the other day. He b still in Baltimore. 
\^^8he8 to meet some of the fellows this summer, but I do 
not expect (if I am ahve and well) to reach home before 
September for our Hme is not out until the 11th of August. 
However, nothing preventing, I shall make a tour among 
the fdlows when I get back. Along with your letter I got 

3.n.iized by Google 


a nice one from old Stebs the other d^. ... I have te- 
ceired five or six Springfields [" Republican "] lately from 
Charlie. Tell him I will tiy and write him soon. I am so 
^l&d Mase [M.. W. Ty]ei] and Rule |R P. Lincohi] came 
out of their baptism of fire and blood safely. God preserve 
them to the end! My kindest remembrances to Professor 
and Mrs. T^ler when you see them. I see by the p^>er9 
that the Faculty are up and preparing for themselves man- 
rions in Amherst. What demon of extravt^ance has seized 
them iu these war times? — Confound these £ies! I can't 
write ai^r more. They are the greatest pests going. There 
is no putting off their importunity. 

With ever so much love, in bonds of antiquity and '62, 
Daddy, H. H. Goodell. 

The newspf^ier reporters soon got hold of the list of 
volunteers and of course it was given to the winds. On the 
26th of June he wrote the following letter to his brother-in- 
law, Mr. James Bird of Hartford : — 

"For fear Abbie and Eliza should see in the papers my 
name among the list of those who have volunteered to 
storm the works of Port Hudson, I will write to you of it 
myself. I did not intend you should any of you know any- 
thing about it till it was all over, but some confounded news- 
paper correspondent has got hold of the list. If it is a pos> 
rible thing, keep the list out of Eliza and Abbie's hands. 
It will only cause them unavailing anxiety. I have volun- 
teered, and also, because there was a lack of officers, to lead. 
I assure you no other considerations would have induced 
me to put my name down. I trust it was nothing but a 
clear case of duty that impelled me to take this step. The 

3.n.iized by Google 


chai^ will probably take place in a day or two, and I win 
try and write as soon as possible afterwards. In the event 
of my falling I have pre^wtred a letter with some sli^t 
instructions about my things which I have placed in the 
hands of Quartermaster Ives. He has kindly promised to 
look after my traps here and bring them to Hartford on the 
return of the regiment. 

"Thereisnotlmigparticulargoingonjiistnow. Yesterd^ 
the rebs made a charge on the centre, endeavoring to cap- 
ture Terry's marine battery, but they were repulsed with 
conaderable loss. The darkies have behaved splendidly. 
Two days ago they carried some rifle-pits by storm, and 
ever since there has been sharp fighting, the rebs making 
ineffectual attempts to regiun them. We are all m good 
health and spirits and hope for a speedy termination of 
this terrible conflict. One of the 4th Wisconun captured 
on the 14tli of June e8C^>ed two or three days dnce. and 
he is to pilot us in. He represents them as having pro- 
visions for only a week longer. Would that they had them 
for only a day! 

"Please send this letter to Williiun {hia brother] when you 
have perused it, and do as you think best about letting 
A. and E. see it; but it would be better if they could know 
nothing of the storming-par^ till it was over. Colonel 
Birge leads us in person and General Grover leads a strong 

^bis body of men was made up principally from NewEng- 
land and New York regiments, with something like a hun- 
dred and sixty from the Corps d' Afriquc . "Two regiments 
in this corps, the First and Third Louisiana Guards, ex- 
pressed their willingness to go. But a selection was made." 

3.n.iized by Google 


What podtion Iiieutenant Goodell held is not known. On 
June 28, the colonel commanding, H. W. Bii^, informed 
General Banks that the organization was complete. "I 
have to report that the volunteers tor the storming column 
are o^anized in two battaUoos of eight companies each, 
strength of compaiqr about 50 enlisted men; three and 
in some cases four, commissioned ofiBcers to a company. 
Battalion officers are, to each, one heutenant-colonel com- 
manding, two majors or actii^ as such, one adjutant, one 
quartennaster. One surgeon (from One hundred and Six- 
teenth New York) has reported. I^esent strength for duty 
is. Commissioned officers 67, enlisted men 826. Total 

These men had bad two, and some of them three, dread- 
ful e^wriences in char^g earthworks within a few days, 
and yet they were willing to assault those same works 
again. "The stormers" as they were called were gathered 
in a camp by themselves and put on a re^^en calculated 
to promote physical strength, celerity of action, and en- 
durance. By every conceivable device did they prepare 
themselves for the work they were ei^jected to do. They 
knew that all the arrangements for their support had been 
made, but the expected order did not come. 

If ever a body of men deserved recognition tiom their 
coontry this column of stormers did. From June 18 to 
July 8 they waited for the word that meant death to many 
of them. General Gardner, the Confederate commander in 
Fort Hudson, knew of their existence and confessed that 
he dreaded their assault. Some twenty years afterwards 
the subject of the medal promised in the general order 
* 41 W. B, eos. 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


was brouglit to the attenticoi of Congress, and althou^ it 
was eloquently championed by the Hon. Heniy Cabot 
hodge, the House of Representatives refused to make the 
required appropriation on the ground that the men did 
not make the chaige. A man who is willing to engage in a 
service of peculiar peril for his country in her hour of need, 
and waits twenty days in hourly expectation of the call to 
discharge that duty, it would seem, ought to have some 
recognition of his willingness to serve; for in this case, it 
was not his fault that he did not make the terrible exposure 
of all that man holds dear in life. 

On July 4, Goodell wrote his last letter from Port Hud- 
son. As will be seen, he had no idea of what was going on 
two hundred and forty miles up the river at Vicksburg, 
or fifteen hundred miles away at Gettysburg. At Vicks- 
bu^ General Grant was quietly smoking a dgw- as he 
wrote a dispatch to be sent to Cdro to be telegraphed to 
the General in Chief at Washington: "The enemy surren- 
dered this momii^. The only terms ^owed is their pa- 
role as prisoners of war." The same dispatch was sent to 
Gmeral Banks. At Gettysburg the Army of the Potomac 
had inflicted a terrible defeat on the Army of Northern 

Pc»T HuDBOH, July 4, 1863. 

I verily believe this is the Quietest, most matter-of-fact 
4th of July I ever spent; positively not as much powder 
burnt as in New York or Boston; yea, verily, Hartford it- 
self, with its swarms of ragged brats, can outstrip us. All 
is supremely quiet along the lines. Every now and then a 
boom, a bang and the bursUi^ of a shell, for we must keep 

3.n.iized by Google 


the besieged from falling asleep and stir them up occa- 
donally. Then pop goes a rebel; anon some white-eyed 
eboi^ "t'inks he sees su£Bn* moving on dat ar hill," and ac- 
cordingly lets drive; or perchance some red-breeched Zou- 
ave, spying a mule wandering round in the fortificationa, 
swears by the beard of Mahomet hell q>oil the rebel beef, 
and forthwith downs the critter. Noon. The music is be- 
coming lively, the gun-boats arewalking in and the batteries 
are pitching in, and altogether we are giving them "Htul 
Columbia," to the tune of "Yankee Doodle." 

For the last fortnight we have been in an enviable frame 
of mind expecting each day to be ordered the next to par- 
ticipate in another general assault, but the orders have not 
come and eadi night we have drawn a long breath and said 
one more day of grace. "Very improper, Jane!" Well so 
it is, but while we are sp'iliag for a fight we have a singular 
desire to avoid charging on the breastworks. We've seen 
the elephant, some of us four times, and each time have got 
bitten. On the Ist GeneraJ Banks made us a stunning 
speech, assuring us that within three days Fort Hudson 
should be ours; but the three days have waxed and waned 
and those confounded rebels still per^st in keeping us out 
in tiie cold (a figure of speech, as it is the dog-days with a 
vengeance). There is no mistake about it; the rebs are 
mighty short off for provisions, and thou^ the fortifi- 
cations could probably now be stormed any day, yet wl^ 
waste life when a few days will fetch the recreants to their 
milk? They are reduced now to mule-meat and a Uttle 
com. Deserters come in thick and fast. One day as many 
as a hundred came over, vowing thqr could n't stand mule- 
meat. I feet confident in my next of being able to take up the 

;.a.i,zed by Google 


triumplis over the tall of Pott Hudson. General Gardner, 
who conunands, was a West Pointer with Generals Grover 
and Goodin, and they were together at the time the war 
broke out, as captain and lieutenants in the 10th Regiment 
at some frontier fort. Gardner sent in his resignation and 
immediately deserted (well knowing the penalty), leaving 
his wife behind. General Grover escorted her in safety to 
the north, and she has since rejoined her husband in Louisi- 
ana. She is now residing in Opelousas. When we were 
there General Grover called upon her. She es^ressed the 
hope that he might not be called upon to meet Frank in 
battle, but that appears to be a hope not realized. Since 
coming here the two former compuuons la arms have 
met during the flag of truce. The rebs army use our rear 
continually. Their cavalry from Clinton and Jackson 
hover about, striking here and there, sad picking up 
stra^ers and forage parties. De^ before yesterday they 
dashed into Springfield Landing, whence we draw all our 
stores and ammunition from New Orleans; but our cavalry 
were after them so sharp that they found pressing budness 
elsewhere, and could only stop a few minutes. On the oth^ 
side of the river quite a force has come down. They at- 
tacked Donaldsonville (of white-petticoat memory) a few 
days ago, demanding the surrender of the town and the 
fort, but the spirited provost-marshal, gathering together 
his forces amounting to about one hundred, got inside his 
fortifications and bid them come on. The unequal contest 
was kept up from midnight till daylight, when the sudden 
appearance of a gun-boat caused the rebs to skedaddle leav- 
ing a hundred dead on the field, several hundred wounded 
and one hundred and twen^ prisoners, including one 

3.n.iized by Google 


colonel, two majors, four captaios and several lieutenants.' 
Our loss was exceedii^y small. Since then the little garri- 
son has been stren^ened. 

Now comes the cream of eveiytlung. The rebs have got 
into Bayou Boeuf and captured or destroyed the whole of 
our division property there stored. Tents, baggage, knap- 
sacks, company and re^mental books, all swept away. 
We are all as poor as Job's turkey, or as that imfortunate 
damsel who had "nothing to wear." Except the rags that 
cover us we have not a thing. In common with the other 
officers, I have lost my blankets, overcoat, valise, dress- 
uniform and sash, and a hundred little knick-knacks picked 
up here and there. Were we new you 1 should write a feel- 
ing address to the soldiers' aid society for some pocket- 
handkercMefs, being reduced to the last shift, that is the 
flap of an ancient shirt picked up in a deserted mansion. 
The adjutant has now returned to duty. I have gone back 
to w^ own company, or rather the first three, A. F. and D. 
beii^ without officers, have been consolidated with F, and 
Captain Napheys and myself are in conmiand. From Colo- 
nel Bissell we heard not long since. He is slowly and steadily 
improving, luid we are hoping to count the days before 
we can welcome our colonel back. We have missed Mm 

t The incident here alluded to ought not to be forgotten. TheproToat- 
mATshal, Major H. M. Porter, leports. that "at 1.30 on the morning of 
the 28th, the enemy, about 5,000 atrong, attacked both the fort and the 
gunboat, with infantry and artillery, and continued fighting until 4. SO 
A.u. There were about 180 men in the Fort and tbii was the firat engage- 
ment of most of them. Nobly did the officers and men acquit themselves." 
Tlie loss of the enemy he puts at probably 350 killed and womided- In 
abort the httle garrison, with the gun-boat, put hon de combat about 
twice thdr own number. 41 W. R. MUi. 

3.n.iized by Google 


sadly. But I really believe hia sickness has saved his life. 
He never would have come out alive from the charge the 
regiment made on the !i7th of May. 

We are having just the tallest kind of dog-days. We 
spend all our time in trying to keep cool. You would laugh 
if you could see us at mealsi in simply shirt and drawers, 
while our respected colored boy, Oliver, squats on his heeb 
in front of us and keeps off the flies from our precious per- 
sons. This same Oliver is a case. Speaking of Mobile the 
other day he said, "Beckon you could n't feel dis nigga 
much in dat are town; specks he was bom and raised dere, 
yah, yah, yah! Reckons he knows ebry hole dere from 
de liquor-shops to de meeting houses," etc. 

We see by the papers Pennsylvania is again in danger. 
Were we only home, some of us would again be up a-girding 
on our armor and be marching along. But we trust you 
will do it without our aid and the Southerners will get so 
blessedly hcked they won't know which end they are 
standing on. 

Excuse this scrawl, but beii^ a little under the weather 
have been writing lying flat on my back. 
As ever with love, 


I have got some potatoes, 10 cents, a bit of mackerel, 
and a couple of bottles of porter, and mean to celebrate the 
4th to-night. 

Three days after this letter was written, the dispatch 
from General Grant, just referred to, was received. The 
booming of great guns, the dieers of the Union soldiers and 
strains of patriotic music informed the besieged that some- 

3.n.iized by Google 


thing bad happened, and they were not slow to divine the 
cause of the rejoicing. Greneral Gardner aent under a flag 
of truce to General Banks to know if the report that A^cks- 
burg had fallen was true, and received in reply a copy of 
General Grant's dispatch. The garrison had done their 
duty with courageous fortitude. The Union lines were al- 
ready in many places up to their breastworks, starvation 
was already beginning to pinch, and should the e^iected 
assault be delivered it would be a waste of life, for th^ 
could not expect to hold their position. The 8th was spent 
in airan^ng the terms of surrender, and on the Sth "The 
Stormers" led the advance as the victorious army en- 
tered Fort Hudson to put the stars and stripes in the place 
of the stars and bars. I^readent Lincoln's long-deferred 
hope was realized, and he could now say, "The Father of 
Waters agfun goes unvoted to the sea." 

The Hme of the nine-months' men was soon to expire and 
the iSih Connecticut 1^ almost immediately for New Or- 
leans, but was detained at Donaldsonville for a few days. 
The following letter will state the reason. 

DoKALDaoNTiuLi, Jtdg, 1863. 
Onoe more, O Dick, at Donaldsonville. Three months 
ago, March 20th, on Sunday, I received an epistle from 
thee, and lot on n^ second advent, on a Sunday, a second 
missive reaches me. To thy lares and penates I decree a 
hecatomb. Accept, my rustic pedagogue, my humble 
offering. You at the North are probably in a &enzy of ex- 
citement, we at the South have learned to take things cool, 
although the "canicula damnosa reigns supreme "; a phrase 
which, being translated into the vernacular d la H. W. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Beedier, ^gnifietli "damned hot." Vieksburg, the stum- 
bling-block to ^017, hsth fallen, Port Hudson hath caved 
in. Lee and his army have gone to one eternal smash. 

Port Hudstm has scarcely gone mider when we u« called 
to take the field again, ^te confounded rebs don't know 
how to stay wlii[q>ed, and General Taylor, le&iforced by 
General Magruder's Texicans, has again taken the field. 
He attacked us at Donaldsonville with a force in ptapor- 
tion to ours as SO to 1, and got soundly thrashed. We, 
strongly re&iforced, came out to meet him and got licl^d, 
and so the matter rests at present. It was a disgraceful 
affair our getting lidced a week ago. The commanding 
cokmel of the brigade suffered himself to be flanked through 
carelessness, being dead drunk, and they had to fall back 
withthelossoftwocannon. Our brigade was on thereserve; 
we fell in and double^iuicl^ it to the rescue, but too late, 
for they were in full retreat. A newline of battle was formed 
and the 25th was deployed and sent forward as skirmishers. 
but b^ond a shot ot two, we failed of falling in with the 
scoundrels. So after advancing about three quarters of a 
mile through the com, we were ordered back and our whole 
force fell back about one quarter of a mile, where we oc- 
cupied, and still hold, a strong portion, mierebs meanwhile 
have skedaddled, but are probably fortifying at Laborde- 
ville, distant acme twenty miles. What we are delaying 
here tor, I can't ima^ne, unless it is to give time to a part 
<^ our forces to get in their reiv. I hope it b so. By the 
way, I am happy to inform you that, Colonel Bissell being 
in command of the brigade, I have been appointed one of 
his staff as aide. 
Dick, I must say that though I volunteered on the storm- 

3.n.iized by Google 


ing party at Port Hudson, yet it gives me gieat pleasure not 
to have my services required. Those works were con- 
foundedly strong, and one half or two thirds of us would 
have paid the pemdty of OUT attempt with our lives. War 
b not the glorious thing it's cracked up to be. Though we 
get used to all kinds of horrid sights, yet we can't get per- 
fectly calloused. I could tell you some things that would 
fairly make your blood curdle with horror. I will omit aU 
description as that is best learnt in familiar discourse. 

The ^th ConnecUcut regiment, after one of the most 
trying campaigns of the war, was now to take another sea 
voyage and was mustered out at Hartford, August 96, 18dS. 
Scant justice has been done to the Nineteenth Coips. The 
field of their action while in Louisiima was far away, and, 
until the fall of Fort Hudson, was cut off from the North 
except by the sea. The public attention was absorbed by 
the operations in the states along the border, and even their 
great victory at Port Hudson was eclipsed e^d looked upon 
as a consequence of the fall of Vicksburg. But they did 
s great deal of hard fighting, and made hundreds of miles 
of hard marching in a climate to which the men were not 

Goodellhad entered the regiment as second lieutenant, 
but he had acted in many capacities. 'Ha had offidated as 
first lieutenant in his own and other companies, had often 
dischaiged the function of captdn, and had acted as ad- 
jutant of the regiment. He was promoted to first lieutenant 
on the 14th of April, and became aide-de-camp on the staff 
of Colonel Bissell, commanding the Sd Brigade of the 4th 
Division, on the 8th of July. 

3.n.iized by Google 


He said little about his army experience after he came 
home, and seldom spoke of it even to his own family. Oc- 
casionally some incident would bring out a scrap of his 
experience. The following wiU serve to illustrate the stories 
he sometimes told. Some years ago, but long after the War, 
at an educatioual couvention at Baton Rouge, his next 
neighbor at the banquet said to him, "This country is new 
to you?" — "No," saidGoodell, "I served in Louisiana in 
'62 and '6S, and was at the siege of Port Hudson." The 
gentleman said that he was taken prisoner there by a com- 
missioned officer. Goodell asked if he remembered the 
officer's name and regiment, to which the gentleman re- 
plied: "Yes, it was Lieutenant Goodell of the 25th Con- 
necticut." — "Then," said Goodell, "You are Captain 

." "How do you know that?" asked the gentleman 

with some surprise. "Because I am the Lieutenant Goodell 
you speak of." Their last meeting was undoubted^ much 
mor« pleasant, eE^)ec)ally to the Confederate gentleman, 
than their first. 

There is every evidence that he discharged lus du^ as 
a soldier with ability and with a high sense of loyalty to the 
cause be loved and to his superior officers. He never was 
absent from his company for twelve consecutive hours, 
except on duty, from the time the regiment was mustered 
into the service until it was mustered out. His idea of 
a soldier, of his calling, the principles he ought to hold, 
the duties he ought to be ready to discharge, and the senti- 
ment which should animate his conduct on all occasions, 
is stated, perhaps unconsciously, in his address at the 
memorial services of Captain Walter Mason Dickinson, 
which is given in this volume. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Of hi") personally one of his fellow officers of higher 
rank, M^oi Thomas McManus, writes: "His whole life, 
his whole conduct during our army experience, was so con- 
sistent and admirable that I am actually puzzled to dis- 
sect from it any special detail to memorize as an incident or 
saying even. You know he never was oracular. He never 
posed. He simply did everything perfectly and easily. I 
actually think that, if he tumbled oS a roof, he would have 
done it gracefully. He never once compluned, however 
great the hardship, on the march or in action. He never 
adversely criticised another officer, or harshly reproved a 
private, or murmured at a privation. He was on duty where 
he belonged, all the while. Nothing spasmodic in his service, 
but when an emergency did arise at Fort Hudson, that 
called for volunteers for the Forlorn Hope, he was with the 
very first to offer himself for a service that promisednothing 
but death as a result. Thank God, the service after all was 
not required I 

"He was everything good that could be desired in a sol- 
dier and he was so idl the time. You may portray in him 
every admirable quality that man can possess and you may 
rival Chrysoatom himself in eloquence, yet you cannot 
exaggerate, hardly equal his deserts." 

After the experience in the army he took a year to re- 
cuperate. He did not care to study any of the professions, 
imd it is safe to say that then he had no idea what his work 
in the world would be ; but he did not merely vegetate, nor 
was he "waiting for something to turn up." Hard work 
was mingled with recreation. A good deal of time is given 
to the study of German, or as he puts it, "studying high 
Dutch, low Dutch and German, three variations of the 

3.n.iized by Google 


Teutonic"; and be does not find ihe mixture palatable. 
He dips into literature, both grave and gay; reads Cbarlea 
Lamb's works with great delist; Benan's "Life of Jesus," 
— finds the author "an arrant doubter," and wants a good 
review of bim. Ticknor's "Life of Prescott" be tbinks 
"capital." "That's a curious thought," he writes, "that 
Prescott e^qiresses in a letter to Ticknor on the greater 
difficulty of representing happiness than misery, and the 
faultiness of the Scripture in that respect, offering nothing 
but singing and dancing as the happiness of ^aven, an idea 
which be s^s to many would be positively disagreeable. 
I can't help laughing every time I think of it. and yet the 
criticism is just." He reads Kirk's "Charles the Bold" 
and finds it as fascinating as a novel, and is interested in 
the articles in the "North American Review," eqjecially in 
the one on McClelLui; thinks "it uses bim up most com- 
pletely as a politician and a soldier." The article was by 
James Russell Lowell. 

To turn to the other side of his nature — he keeps in close 
touch with his classmates, especiallywitb those in the army. 
He bears that one of them (Captain Rufus P. Lincoln, of 
the 87th Massachusetts, afterwards a distinguished surgeon 
in New Yoric) had been wounded, and writes: "Those boys! 
I am thinlHng of tbem all the time. May they come out 
safe from these horrid battiest I am as uneasy as a fish 
out of water beie at home, lying round like an old cow at my 
ease andall these brave fellows periling their lives." He paid 
flying visits to those of his class who were near him, and 
writes of one after another, "the same good fellow as ever." 
He calls on his "beloved D.D." at Cambridge, and informs 
him by letter that be "found the Theologi-cuss out." 

3.n.iized by Google 


In the fall of 1864, he received and accepted an inTitation 
to return to his old preparatory school, Willistoo Seminary, 
Easthampton, as teacher of modem languages and instruc- 
tor in gymnastics. For this work he was well equipped, and 
had time to devote to favorite studies, tor he was begia- 
ning to have something like a passion for books. 

While teaching at Eastjiampton he was associated with 
such men as General Francis A. Walker, M. F. Dickinson, 
Charles M. Lamson, Judson Smith, and Charles H. Park- 
hurst. It was indeed a brilliant and inspiring corps of 
teachers, such as any institution has a right to be proud of. 
Goodell seems oftcner than occasionally to have disturbed 
the gravity and decorum of the faculty meetings by his 
remarks, although Dr. Henshaw, the principal, did not 
always perceive the suggestiveness of Goodell's sugges- 
tions. There was once a proposition made to appoint some 
member of the Faculty to do some particular duty, and 
Goodell said, with that peculiar innocence of which he was 
consummate master : "Dr. Henshaw, if you want a man who 
possesses both the auamter in modo and the fortiier in re, I 
would suggest the name of " 

3.n.iized by Google 



DUBiNB the last decade of the ei^teenth century the 
sttention of many thoughtful and far-seeing men was di- 
rected to creating a more intelligent culture of the soil. This 
resulted in the formation of the Massachusetts Society for 
the Promotion of Agriculture, in I79fl. Through the influ- 
ence of this organization, societies of a similar purpose were 
organized in the various counties of the Conmionwealth, 
and cattle-shows and horse-shows became a feature of the 
industrial life of the people. Public-spirited and wealthy 
men offered prizes for the best products of the farm, and 
subscribed money to collect and diffuse information on 
matters pertaining to agriculture. 

The printing-press was called into requisition, and on the 
2nd of August, 1818, "The American Farmer" was pub- 
lished at Baltimore; three years later came "The Plough 
Boy" (spelled Plow Boy), published at Albany; the follow- 
ing year "The New England Farmer" iq>peared in Boston; 
and soon papers devoted to this subject appeared in many 
locahties. As the nineteenth century advanced men began 
to talk of schoob of agriculture, ^ominent educators, like 
Edward Hitchcock of Amherst, a man of great practical 
wisdom, advocated the teaching of this great branch of in- 
dustry in academies and colleges, and as early as 1&43 the 
Trustees of Amherst College appointed Charles U. Shep- 
ard, Pn^essor of Agricultural Cheimstiy and Mineralogy. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Tile governors of states lecommended to the legi^tures 
to take such action as would advance this gieat utility. 
Our presidents have recomm^ided the subject to the con- 
sideration of Congress. Washington, who, whatever he was 
besides, was a farmer by nature, took a deep interest in 
this subject, and in his last annual message recommended 
to Congress that appropriations should be made, to en- 
courage en interest in it. President Jefferson in his first in- 
augural, when enumerating the objects of government, 
puts the encouragement of agriculture among them. But 
so negligent had Congress been in fostering the interests 
of this great phase of the national life, that President Lin- 
coln, in his first annual message December 3, 1861, said 
that "Agriculture, ccsifessedly the largest interest of the 
nation, has not a department, nor even a bureau, but a 
clerkship only, assigned to it in the government. While 
I make no suggestions as to details, I venture the opinion 
that an agricultural and statistical bureau might profit- 
ably be organized." In pursuance of this suggestion Con- 
gress passed an act May 4, 1869, oeating a Bureau of 
Agriculture. The President immediately set about organ- 
izing it and refers to it in t^ his annual messages; and in 
the veiy last one he speaks of it as "peculiarly the people's 
department, in which theyfeel moredirectty concerned than 
in any other. I commend it to the continued attention 
and fostering care of Congress." 

The next st^ in the national recognition of the import- 
ance of agriculture was an act of Congress, February II, 
1889, making the bureau a department, and the commis- 
sioner a secretary, with a seat in the President's cabinet. 

While these steps were being taken by the national 

3.n.iized by Google 


goTemment, thoughtful and pTogiessive men of hi{^ stand- 
ing and character were urging with eloquent earnestness 
that education in agriculture was as important as education 
in the so-called liberal professions. But as Walter Bagehot 
has Btdd, "One of the greatest pains to human nature is the 
pain of a new idea. It is, as conmion people say, 'so up- 
setting, it makes you think that, after all, your favorite 
notions may be wrong, your firmest beliefs unfounded.' " ^ 
But the whole subject was put in a new light by the Hon. 
Justin S. Morrill, then a lepiesentative in Congress from 
Vermont, himself a farmer's boy, then a merchant, and 
afterwards a farmer. He brou^t in, December 14, 1857, a 
bill devoting large areas of the pubhc lands to the states 
which should within a given time establish colleges for 
the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts. The bill 
passed the House by a vote of 105 to 100. Some thirteen 
months afterward, on February 7, 1859, it passed the Sen- 
ate by a vote of 25 to 92. President Buchanan returned it 
to the House with a long veto message, the sum and sub- 
stance of which was stated in the first sentence: "I deem 
it to be both inexpedient and unconstitutional." 

The fact that such a bill had passed both houses of Con- 
gress gave new inspiration to the friends of the movement, 
and it is said that in the next contest for the presidoicy 
two of the leading candidates, Mr. Lincoln and Judge Doug- 
las, were pledged to favor the bill. The people now began 
to talk of agricultural colleges, and two of the states went 
fuward aod established them. 

Mr. Morrill, on December 13, 1861, agdn presented his 
bilL It passed both houses, and on July 2, 1862, received 
> Phytitu onJ PoKHet. 108. 

3.n.iized by Google 


the aanction of Fl^^dent Lincoln and became a law. Tliia 
bill, known as the Morrill Act, had a tremendous influence 
upon agricultural education. Mr. Morrill lived to see in- 
stitutions of this kind established and sustained b^ this 
act in eveiy state of the Union. 

This law was strengthened by the "Hatch Bill "approved 
by President Cleveland, March 2, 1886,creating experiment 
stations in connection with the land-grant colleges; and 
four years later, Senab» Morrill brought in a bill, approved 
by President Harrison, August 80, 1890, for a more com- 
plete endowment of the land-grant colleges. All the bills 
for the advancement of industrial education were cham- 
pioned by the practical wisdom and consummate tact of 
Mr. Morrill; and he will stand at the bar of history as 
one of our greatest national benefactors. 

A gentleman was once introduced to Mr. Morrill as a 
friend of President Goodell, and the Senator, taking his 
hand in both his own, said, with an eamestness not to be 
mistaken, "I congratulate you ax, most heartily, on having 
such a man for yoiu* friend." When George F. Hoar pub- 
lished his " Autobi<%raphyof Seventy Years," the attention 
of President Goodell was called to the diapter on some of 
the Senators with whom Mr. Hoar had served. After read- 
ing it he wrote : "All this is very beautiful, but as I went on 
from one splendid characterization to another, I began to 
fear that he would get exhausted and break down before 
he got to Senator MorrilL But he rose to the occasion. It 
was the last, and fine as the others were, this was the best of 
all. It was beautiful b^ond any words of mine to describe, 
and it is as true as it is beautiful. It b a mystery to me how 
a man could write such a chapter as that." 

3.n.iized by Google 


Ptefddent Goodell had occasion often to consult ■with 
Senator Morrill, but unfortunately little that passed be- 
tween them in writing has as yet been discovered. 

The story is too long to be told here of the many sugges- 
tions and plans which engaged the attention and occiq>ied 
the minds of men, which eventually led up to the estab- 
lishment of the Massachusetts Agricultural College. It will 
be sufficient to say that in his annual message to the Gen- 
eral Court, January 6, 1865, Governor Andrew announced 
that the Massachusetts Agricultural College had been lo- 
cated at Amherst, and added: "I beg to commend the sub- 
ject of agricultural education, and the patronage of this 
institution of the State to your liberahty. I should deeply 
regret to see an instituUon which bears the name of Massa- 
chusetts and will be held to be representative of the Com- 
monwealth, eqiecially of the highest aspirations of her 
yeomanry, allowed, for want of generous support, to de- 
generate into a mere industrial school." 

In his concluding remarks on this subject his Excellency 
states the spirit in which the Commonwealth should pursue 
the work she has begun; and his words so completely de- 
scribe the feelings which animated President Goodell in 
his long service at the institution then inaugurated that 
they may be quoted as eminently appUcable to him and 
his work: — 

" When the Conmionwealth touches such a subject, she 
ought to feel herself to be like the priestess, advancing to 
handle the sacred symbols, and on holy ground. She should 
remember her own dignity, the immortality always pos- 
sible to states, the error of which she is the promoter here- 
after, if she commits herself to error now, the boundless 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


scope of her good inBuence. the millions of men on whom 
hei influence may be made to tell through all the ampli- 
tudes of space and time. When I contemplate such a sub- 
ject, the reason is content to yield to the imaginaUou. I 
temember the photograph, the magnetic tel^raph, the 
discovery of vaccination, the painless operations of surgery, 
— the triumphs, the miracles of genius. I seem to see, tor 
the Earth herself and her cultivators, the coming time, 
when husbandry, attended by all the mioistries of science 
and art, shall illumine and rejuvenate her countenance, 
aod recreate our life below." 

Notwithstanding the magnificent appeal of his Excel- 
lency the Governor, the inauguration of the new college 
dragged slowly on until the election of William Smith Clark 
to the presidency in 1867. Clark was by nature and culture 
a man of science. He had for sever^ years been professor 
of chemistiy and had also occupied the chairs of botany 
and zoelogy in Amherst College. He had made a brilliant 
record in the Civil War, as Colonel of the Twen^-Pirst 
Massachusetts Volunteers, and had had some experience 
in political life. He brought to his new duties fine abilities 
as an organizer and administrator, was possessed by an en- 
thu^bsm, founded on moral convictions, that a great work 
could be done, of lasting benefit to the people, and that he 
could help do it. He wielded a graceful pen, possessed ad- 
mirable powers of persuasion and a knowledge of men 
which came both by instinct and a large experience of the 
world. He was emphatically a man of affairs and knew how 
to meetm^L 

The unexpected is among the certainties in the lives of 
men. "No man," said Oliver Cromwell, to the agents 

3.n.iized by Google 


of Henrietta Maria, who were sounding him as to his am* 
biUonS) "do man ever dimbs so high as the man who does 
Dot know where he is g«ng." We left Goodell quietly 
teaching at \miiston Seminaiy, with perhaps no idea of ai^ 
change in his position in life, at least for the present, and 
certainly no idea of the change that was about to oome. 
But President Clark's eye was upon him. At m Alumni 
dinner of the Agricultural College in 1886, while he was 
acting as president, he was called upon to speak t^ Presi- 
dent Gark, who had recently died, and in his remarks he 
indulged in a bit of personal reminiscence. He said: "It 
was in the summer of 1867 that I leoeiTed a brief note from 
him [Clark] asking me to come to Amherst and see him. 
No building had as yet been erected, and the several farms 
of which the college property was composed had not yet 
been thrown into one. Leading me out into the fields, 
very near where South College now stands, he unfolded his 
plans, and turning to me with his hand on my shoulder 
said: 'There is a great and glorious work to be done. Will 
you come and help?' And what could I do with that eye 
lookii^ straa^t into mine and that hand resting on my 
shoulder, but say, 'I will'?" 

To be in at the beginning of a new movement, or a new 
d^iarture horn the beaten tra*^ of common eq>erience, 
which proves successful, is a matter of congratulation when 
success has been attuned. But it requires more courage 
than men usually get credit for, to start with a movement 
that is in advance of the common thought, when there is 
li^ility that one may be buried in the ruins of the under- 
taking. The new college had not only to face ignraant 
prejudice, but it had the more difficult task of vindicating 

3.n.iized by Google 


its right to be, and this was no easy matter, for the results 
of its work might not be manifest for years to come. 

The Faculty of those early days was not a fonoidable 
bo<^ in numbers. It consisted of the President, \miiam 
S. Clark, Professor E. S. Snell, of Amherst College, teach- 
ing maUiematlcs, Henry H. Goodell, Professor of Modem 
Languages and En^ish Literature, and the farmer, Levi 
Stockbridge, who gave instruction in agriculture. This was 
indeed rather a smaJI crowd to face an indifferent and some- 
times hostile world; but indifference was to them far more 
dangerous than hostility. 

Goodell's department was very congeni^ to his feelings 
and tastes, especially English Literature. But during its 
eariy years the College, although a state institution, was 
handicapped in many ways. It was poor, and as a natural 
consequence its appliances were insufficient and the corps 
of teachers too small to meet the demands of even a small 
number of pupils; so that at the beginning some important 
branches of study were not provided with any instructors. 
Goodell seems to have been called upon to fill the g^. It 
seems almost impossible for a man to adjust himself to so 
many different relations. "He was instructor in mihtary 
tactics and gymnastics from 1867 to I860, lecturer on ento- 
mology in 1869, instructor in zoology from 1869 to 1871, in 
anatomy and physiology from 1869 to I87I and again from 
188S to 1883, instructor in riietoric and Engli^ liwguage 
from 1871 to 1873 and from 1883 to 1885, and in history 
from 1872 to 1883; and in addition to this he was secretary 
of the Faculty for four years, and librarian from 1885 to 

Had all these branches of instruction be^i in accord 

3.n.iized by Google 


fritli his tastes, his work would have been very confining 
and laborious. But his tastes were literary rather than 
sdentiflc. It is doubtful whether he really enjoyed any of 
the sciences, with the single exception of botany; but the 
work he did enabled him to grasp something more than the 
rudiments of the sciences as taught in the ordinary college 
course, and to understand the interdependence of the 
sciences and their federal relations to each other. This was 
of great importance to him in after life. It was a hard school, 
but no other could have better prepared him for his future 
work. It was with sufficient cause that Amherst College 
conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of 
Laws in 1891. 

While discharging these various duties he acted as sec- 
retary of his own class (the Class of '62 in Amherst Col- 
lege), and published in 1872 a little booklet giving an ac- 
count of all who had ever been connected with the class, 
telling how far each had advanced in the ten years since 
graduation in professional, commercial and matrimonial 
life. It was a tedious bit of work. His own description 
of the booklet is correct so f ar afi the history of each one 
is concerned. "I have brought you up from the 'mewl- 
ing infant in the nurse's arms ' to 'the lover sighing like a 
furnace, with a woful ballad to his mistress's eyebrow.'" 
But while his story of each one was told with fidelity and 
acciuacy, his way of telling it was diaracteristic, both of 
himself and of the person of whom he wrote. In writing of 
one who had a genius tor getting conditioned at the end 
of every term in Latin and Greek, he st^s: "He studied di- 
vinity, wrestling with the Hebrew, and prevailing mightily 
with the Greek." He gave the statistics of the protesuons 

3.n.iized by Google 


and occupations of liis classmates and OTer every list put 
a motto of his own choice. Heading the list of lawyers we 
have: — 

Here lies a iawyer, rude and hiAdi 

He by hii trade mboisted. 

Beader, tiiiiikl How many lies the nseal miut have toUI 

Over the list of bachelors, and he was then among them, 
he put this bit of good adnce: — 

Thanlca, my good friends foi your advice, 
But muriage b a thing m nice. 
That he who mean* to take a mfe 
Had better think on 't all hii Ufe. 

GoodeU acted not only as secretary of the class, but as 
treasurer, and was actively iostnimental in raising money 
to establish a Class Bcholarahip at Amherst CoUege. It 
was a fund of two thousand dollars, the income of which 
was to aid indigent students. It was called the Henry 
Gridley Scholarship of the Class of '62, in Memory of a 
classmate. Lieutenant Heniy Gridley of the 150th Regi- 
ment of New York Volunteers, who fell on June S2, 1864, 
in an ei^agement which General Sherman calls the "affair 
of the Kolb House, where the enemy received a terrible 
repulse." * 

Cobnel Ketcbnm in his report of the battle saya; "First 
lieutenant Heniy Gridley, a valuable officer, was Idlled in 
this engagement." * The scene of this battle was some three 
or four miles from Marietta, Georgia. 

After the death of President Groodell his classmates 
established another scholarship of equal value, called the 
Henry Hill GoodeU Scholarship of the Class of '69. 
« W. H, 88, P. n, «. * W. H.. 88, P. n, 78. 

3.n.iized by Google 


It is Qot A little singular tliat after all the contempt 
with which the ladies of the Crescent City treated him in 
'6S, he should have won the hand and the heart of Helen E., 
datt^ter of John Stantont of New Orleans. They were 
married December 10, 1873. This event was quickly fol- 
lowed by the establishment of a home. He was veiy happy 
in bis home, which stood on rising ground overiooking 
the valley of the Connecticut. The outlook was delightful. 
The varied scenes of meadows and fields, of hills and the 
mountains beyond, had a restful influence upon his spirits. 
He had a sensitive ear for the sounds of Natm«. He loved 
to listen to the gossiping of the wind with the leaves on the 
trees about his house, and he took great pleasure in the 
roar of the advancing storm, as it came up from the west, 
or down from the north. He would call attention to those 
moments of quiet, when Nature seemed to be listening, and 
he enjoyed the solemn stillness. Indeed, he had an eye to 
see, an ear to hear and a spirit to feel, "what he could n't 
near express but could not all conceal." "It is a delightful 
rest," he used to say, "to look on that landscape." The spot 
he chose for his home illustrates one side of his character. 

Their two children, both boys, were a great delight to 
him, and he alwi^s attributed their good conduct to the 
influence of their mother, who, he said, understood the art 
of inculcating good principles without making them dis- 
agreeable by tedious lectures ; but he would add with a snule, 
that he was sometimes afraid that the boys were not al- 
ways getting "the sincere milk of the Word." He lived to 
see one of them started in the world. Here is the introduc- 
tion his father gave him as he went out to try his hand in the 
affairs of real life. It was written to a college classmate, a 

3.n.iized by Google 


life-long friend, an eminent lawyer practidng in New York 

Ahbbbst, Mass., October 7, 181>S. 

Colonel Mabon W. Ttleb, 
Plainfield, N. J. 
Deab Mabon, — A boy — family name GoodeU, Chris- 
tian name John — accompanies this letter. Just out of the 
TioyFolytechnic,butwithout experience. He is seeking a 
place into which he can thrust his lever and turn the world 
over. Civil-engineering his profession, railroadii^ his de- 
light. He is seeking for some railroad magnate who will 
adopt an orphan, side-track him in some fat office where 
he can try his little lever. Do you know any such people 
to introduce him to? If you do, help him, and believe me 
Yours gratefully, 

H. H. GooDEU- 

Although Groodell had little, if any, ambition to figure in 
political life, he was faithful in the dischai^ of bis civic 
duties. He usually attended the caucus of his party, es< 
peciaUy in his early days, and while he never sought office, 
he was always ready to serve on committees where he 
thought he could be of any assistance. But at the Republi- 
can caucus held October 27, 1884, things were in some con- 
fusion, to say the least, and he wus nominated to represent 
the then Fourth Hampshire District in the General Court, 
not as "a dark horse," but as a man whose personal pop- 
ularity was likely to unite <»nflicting interests and secure 
victory for the party at the polls. !l^ declined the honor 
and refused positively to allow his name to be put in nomi- 

3.n.iized by Google 


nation against a gentleman who, he said, "had been a father 
to him." But the caucus insisted ufran its action, and before 
election day matters were so arranged that he accepted the 
nomination and of the 793 votes cast he received 517, or a 
majority of 241. It was fortunate that he was persuaded 
to withdraw his objections, for he was able to be of vastly 
greater service to the College in the hall of representatives 
at Boston, than he would have been in the recitation room 
at Amherst. 

The Legislature of 1885 was a veiy able body of men. 
Several of his associates attained eminence in political life 
and many were afterwards distinguished as men of affairs. 
Here he made the acquaintance of men interested in indus- 
trial education, several of whom afterwards became trustees 
of the College. He served on the standing committee on 
education. This session of the legislature was really the 
turning point in the interests of the College. It has been 
said by one who had ample opportunity to know whereof 
he spoke, Hon. William R. Session, who was then serving 
as Senator and who was for many years Secretary of the 
Board of Agriculture and a trustee of the College: "I am 
convinced that the favorable change in the temper of the 
Massachusetts legislature toward the College, which set in 
at that time and has continued ever since, was very largely 
due to President Goodell's influence on the representative 
men from all over the state, with whom he was brought in 
contact during that season's service at the State House." 

During the winter South College was destroyed by fire, 
and the friends of the College were very much depressed ; but 
Goodell was equal to the exigences of the case. He se- 
cured the necessary appropriations not only to rebuild and 

3.n.iized by Google 


refit, but also to make improvements and repairs, amount- 
tag in all to fifty thousand dollars. This was a large sum 
for those times and a great triumph when we consider the 
feeling i^ainst the College, which was widespread and quite 

From that Ume Professor Goodell began to attract the 
attention of men interested in industrial education. When 
the presidency of the College became vacant, one of the 
trustees, onhis way to Amherst, happened to meet at Palmer 
the Hon. Levi Stockbridge, a veteran agriculturist and ex- 
perimenter, and asked liim whom they should elect aa 
President? Mr. Stockbridge replied without a moment's 
hesitation : " If you choose Professor Goodell you will make 
no mistake." 

On the death of President Chadboume in 188S, Professor 
Goodell was chosen acting president, and served in that 
capacity from February to September of that year. On the 
retirement of President Greenough, three years later, in 
1886, he was elected president. He was very reluctant to 
accept the position, but finally yielded to the solicitation 
of his friends and the friends of the College; but he looked 
upon it as a temporary appointment and expected to be 
relieved at the end of the year, if not before. He had a very 
modest estimate of his own abiUties and his success was 
always a mystery to him. But his resources were greater 
than he knew and were at once recognized by others. His 
health was not firm, and after serving for about nine months 
he sent the following letter to the trustees; — 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


Amhkbst, April 9, 1887, 
To the Honorable Board of Trustees of the Mass. 
Agb'l College: — 

Gentlemen, — I hereby tender my resignation of the 
Presidency of the Mass. Agr'I College, to take efifect July 
1st, 1887. When you did me the honor last year to elect 
me to that position, I hesitated long before accepting it, 
feeling that my health was inadequate to the responsibili- 
ties and care attending it, and it was only at the earnest 
solicitation of my friends that I yielded. But I feel that my 
strength will not permit of this continued drain upon it, 
and that it is merely a question of time when I shall be 
compelled to lay down these duties. I therefore tender 
my resignation now, before the time comes when I can 
neither be a credit to yourselves nor to myself. Thanking 
you for the consideration and support I have rec'd at your 
hands, I am, 

Very faithfully yours, 

Hbnet H. Goodbll. 

The letter was read at a meeting of the trustees held 
Jime 22, 1887; and they immediately referred the whole 
matter to the Conunittee on the Course of Study and 
Faculty, to confer with the President and report at an ad- 
journed meeting of the board to be called together at the 
option of the committee. The following Resolutions were 
then presented by Mr. Root and unanimously adopted : — 

"Whereas, we the Trustees of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College one year ago unanimously elected Prof. 
Henry H. Goodell as President of the College ; and. Whereas, 
President Goodell has during the year just closed performed 

3.n.iized by Google 


the many and arduous duties as the chief executive of the 
Institution with rare ability and eminent success, and to the 
entire satisfaction and hearty approval of this Board, and 
we believe of the entire Faculty, Alumni, students of the 
College, and the public at large; and, Whereas, it is with 
the most sincere regret that we have received his resigna- 
tion as President of the CoEege, expressing a desire to be 
relieved from the Presidency of the Institution, therefore. 
Resolved, That we as trustees most earnestly request 
that President Goodell withdraw his resignation and con- 
tinue to act as President of the College, in which position 
he has done so much to bring it into complete, successful, 
harmonious, and effective working condition during the 
past year; that we pledge to him our hearty and earnest 
support in the future as in the past : that we pledge our- 
selves that we will do all that is possible to release him from 
some of the many duties that now rest upon him, trusting 
he will consent to withdraw his resignation. 

At a meeting of the Board held June 19, 1888, the Com- 
niitt«e on Course of Study and Faculty reported that Presi- 
dent Goodell had consented to withdraw his resignati<m 
upon the following terms: That he be reheved from the 
duty of instruction in declamation and composition with- 
out increase of work or decrease of compensation on the 
part of any other member of the Faculty. This propor- 
tion was agreed to and President Goodell withdrew his 

Even with this amelioration of his labors the position 
was an exceedingly trying one. The College was as yet an 
experiment and bad to prove its right to be. But the presi- 

3.n.iized by Google 


dent was equal to the emergendes as they came. He pos- 
sessed in a remarkable degree that important factor in deal- 
mgwithmencalled'*tact." There was little of the dogmatic 
in his nature, although he had very decided opinions of his 
own and he valued them. He had great reverence for the 
past, for an institution, a custom, or an opinion 

That cairiea age so nobly in itB looka; 

but with all he was progressive. The windows of his mind 
were opened not only toward Jerusalem but towMd all 
points of the compass. He seems to have followed, perhaps 
unconsciously. Lord Bacon's advice: "Men in their inno- 
vations should follow the example of time itself, which in- 
novateth greatly, but quietly and by degrees scarce to be 

The new president understood the situation perfectly. 
The College was in a state whose leading industry was 
manufacturing and whose stingy soil could not compete 
with the plains of the West. The first enthusiasm of some 
of its early friends had subsided. The air was pervaded with 
the chill of disappointment and the proposition was made to 
give the College awf^. HeknewperfecUywellthat it would 
be a long struggle to excite any enthusiasm in regard to it 
and to make the people feel its importance to one of the 
industries of the state. For long years he worked with ex- 
uberant cheerfulness and unabated enthusiasm, facing dis- 
couragements of every description. Proper buildings and 
apparatus were wanted, his teachers were overworked and 
underpaid, new problems were presenting themselves for 
which he was not prepared, the people were disappointed 
because they did not see immediate results and compl^ned 

3.n.iized by Google 


tliat the College educated men away from the farm and that 
comparatively few availed themselves of the opportunity 
it afforded to acquire an education. But he so managed 
i^aits as to have the support and encouragement of an able 
imd wise board of trustees, who had confidence in him and 
faith in the mission of the College, and he was hacked by a 
corps of teachers after his own heart. But it was not until 
18d6, twelve years after he assumed the presidency that he 
could report to the Governor and Council that, — 

"Reviewing the past, we cannot but feel that the stage 
of experiment is over and we enter upon this the first year of 
its fourth decade with quickened hope that from a broader 
foundation the College will continue to rise and fulfil its 
mission of providing that 'liberal and practical education 
that shall fit the industrial classes for the several pursuits 
and professions of life.' " 

President Goodell believed with all the energy of his in- 
tellectual and moral nature that behind the farmer should 
be the educated man. Hence he was anxious to maintain 
a high standard of scholarship. But the class from which 
recruits are drawn for our agricultural colleges, as a general 
rule, is not the same as that which recruits our classical 
schools. A season of stringency in the money-market makes 
no perceptible difference in the number of students at our 
great academic institurions, but the case is very different 
with the agricultural colleges. Their ranks are recruited 
from families which often have little, if any, reserve capi- 
tal to fall back upon, and in times of stringency are com- 
pelled to retain their sons at home, or recall them to join 
the army of bread-winners. This want of reserve capital 
may account in part for the neglect of early training com- 

3.n.iized by Google 


pluned of by President GoodeU in one of his reports of the 
number of young men who hod presented themselves but 
failed to pass the required examination. He remarks that 
"the ignorancedisplayedof the very rudiments of grammar 
and arithmetic would almost lead to the conclusion that 
the grammar school had been suppressed throughout the 

He was ever anxious to make the College useful to the 
people, and inaugurated, as its means would permit, courses 
of study for those who wished to do advanced work, and 
also courses of instruction, during the three winter months, 
in practical farming for those who could not take the full 
course; and for these courses no examination was required. 
The growing interest of women in agriculture and flori- 
culture led to courses for their beneflt. 

The work of the College was continually increasing. Ex- 
perimental work of great importance had been carried on 
ever dnce its establishment, and in 1882 the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural Experiment Station was organized, with 
Dr. C. A. Goessmann as director. The Hatdi Experiment 
Station, under the direction of President Goodell, was 
organized in accordance with an act of Congress in 1888, 
as the Experiment Department of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural College. The two stations maintained a sepa- 
rate existence until 1895, when they were imited under the 
name of the Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College, under the directorship of Pre- 
sident H. H. Goodell. 

The first duty of the new president was to let the people 
know what the College was for, and how it would affect 
them. This involved an immense amount of work, the pre- 

3.n.iized by Google 


paration of addresses, traveling to eveiy comer of the 
Commonwealth, and appearing bdFore committees of the 
legislature. In his addresses on agricultmul education lie 
had an apt text which he used to illustrate: "How can he 
get wisdom that holdeth the plow and glorieth in the goad, 
that drivetb oxen and is occupied in their labors, and ^ose 
talk is of bullocks?"' — and in answering the questicm he 
adjustedhisaddresstothecharacterofhisaudience. Many 
of these popular addresses in the early days of his presi- 
dency are out of tune with the spirit of to-dt^, and would 
excite a smile, not on account of the manner of handling 
the subjects, but on account of the subjects themselves. 
They bad to do with what would seem to us the petty and 
trivial, the creatures of a persistent hostility or ignorant 
criticism. It seems impossible to-day that such objections 
should be raised against such an institution ; but they had 
to be met and the work had to be done over and over 
again for years. It was a pleasure to him to meet the peo- 
ple and answer their honest questions, but men soon found 
that it was not safe to trifle with him. Pages might be 
filled with smart questions intended to put him and his 
cause in a ludicrous position; but his ready wit and good- 
natured replies were sure to turn the tables on the ques- 
tioner and leave him in a very undesirable situation. 

A few of the graduates of the College had entered the 
ministry, and the chairman of one of the committees of the 
Massachusetts legislature before whidi he had to appear, 
said to him: "I notice you have some ministers among 
yotu* graduates. Will you please tell me what the connec- 
tion is between agriculture and theology?" 

I Witdomi^Jeni*ih«S<m(if8iraduxxxvm,U. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Wlien the laugh had subsided, in which he undoubtedly 
joined. President Goodell replied; "I have just received a 
letter from one of these ministers in which he says, ' I know 
of no more perfect illustration of original sin than the pus- 
ley I used to dig on the college farm.' " 

Of course the relationship between agriculture and theo- 
logy was settled in a roar of laughter at the expense of the 

President Goodell was patient in dealing with the limita- 
tions of men, but persistent in meeting their objections. 
It was by pressure and not by blows that he carried bis 
point and made bis mark upon his hearers. It was not unUl 
after years of discussion that he could feel that the College 
had passed its experimental stage. It was a long and weary 
way, but he was bravely supported by the friends of the 
best interests of the people and of civilization itself. Too 
little credit is given to men who stand for an institution 
devoted to the benefit of those who do not wish to be bene- 
fited in the only way in which their situation can be per- 
manently improved. 

His annual reports are a striking illustration of the ever- 
widening scope of the work he was doing. In the first report 
he describes briefly the actual state of things, the improve- 
ments that have been made, and the pressing wants of the 
College. He pleads for a labor fund out of which indigent 
students could be paid for work done. "It would be," he 
8aya, "one of the noblest of charities. It would not sacri- 
fice the students' feeling of self-respect, for they would be 
giving an honest equivalent for money received." He calls 
attention to the changes in the course of studies, "to carry 
out more fully the intention of the original bill, to give a 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


thorough practical knowledge of agriculture and horticul- 
ture andat the same time liberally educate the man." Mote 
iimek tobe devoted "to the study of one's mother tongue "; 
and in this connection he adds: "Too much value cannot 
be placed upon the Library. It is now only the nucleus of 
what it ought to be, and a thousand dollars should be ex- 
pended at once in fumisliing the latest scientific works in 
the several departments." 

In his next report we have a new feature. A list is given 
of some thirty lectiu«s by experts, not connected with the 
College, on various subjects, ranging from the nebular hy- 
potliesis and evolution to the various breeds of cattle and 
the culture of bees. The labor fund is agdn presented, with 
such force and cogency of reasoning that it did not escape 
the attention of the legislators. The culture of "one's 
mother tongue" b again emphasized: "A knowledge of 
English composition, the power of adequately expressing 
thought in words, lies at the base of all education." An- 
other appeal is made for the library: "*Gyf to ye foke ye 
beste and muche of it and they will stomak no thing else,* 
is as true now as when penned well nigh two hundred and 
fifty years ago." 

These annual reports are a striking illustration of the 
practical nature of the man and his growing breadth of 
view. With one or two exceptions they were accepted and 
adopted, without change, as the report of the Board of 

This may be a fit place to introduce some account of 
President Goodell's ideas of the functions of an agricult- 
ural college. It will be remembered that the mechanic arts, 
as provided for in the Morrill Act, were taught in the Massa- 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


chusetts Institute of Technology, which shared in the funds 
allowed the Commonwealth by the national government. 
By this arrangement the College was left to teach what 
pertains to agriculture. At the tenth annual convention of 
the Association of American Agricultural and Experiment 
Stations, held in the Ctty of Washington, November 12, 
1896, four college presidents from different parte of the 
country were appointed to discuss the question, "What 
shouIdbetaughtinourCoIlegesof Agriculture?" In these 
papers the individuality of the writers stands out dearly, 
and in none more piomiuently than in the paper presented 
by the representative from Massachusetts. President 
Goodell presented the subject as it had been developed at 
Amherst, and the reader is referred to his address printed 
in this volume. It is to be noticed that, in his schedule of 
studies, he made English an important factor in fitting a 
man to be a farmer. Some of the speakers dismissed the 
subject at the end of the first year, while he carried it 
through the whole course. His reason for this is thus co- 
gently stated: "The student's mind being brought in con- 
tact with the great minds that have adorned the pages of 
American and Enghsh history, his mind, his powers are 
quickened and developed thereby, his mental horizon is 
enlarged, and thus a most important educational advantage 
is secured." 

Dr. E. W. Allen, Assistant Director in the Office of Ex- 
periment Stations at Washii^ton, and a graduate of tlie 
Massachusetts Agricultural College, in a private letter, 
which he has kindly allowed to be published, has summed 
up the whole subject of President Goodell's ideas of agricul- 
tural education, in a most admirable wKy, as will be seen 

3.n.iized by Google 


by comparing the letter with the address above referred to. 
Dr. Allen writes: — 

"Among President Goodell's services to the Massachu- 
setts Agricultural College it seems to me none have been 
more far-reaching than the high educational ideals which 
he contended for. He never forgot that the institution was 
a college, and not a farm school; that its prime object was 
the education of men for real life — not merely the giving 
of superficial training, which would make its graduates 
simply skilled technicians. He contended that the college 
must teach facts and principles as well as things, and that 
the true agricultiual education rescues man from the rule-of- 
thumb only as it gives him an intellectual grasp of his sub- 
ject and the ability to use knowledge with discrimination. 

"To him more than to any other single man, it seems to 
me, is due the high conception of the educational aims of 
the College which have prevailed almost from the first, and 
whidi have differentiated it quite sharply from most of the 
agricultural colleges. To understand the courage which 
this required it is necessary to realize the wave of enthusi- 
asm which has swept over the country for the more super- 
ficial kinds of instruction at these colleges. This superfi- 
cial instruction, which dealt with things mainly rather than 
with principles, and gave a mininm in of attention to the 
general educational features, was spectacular and attract- 
ive to the uneducated man, and from its popularity rather 
than its pedagogic value it came to be adopted veiy widely. 
The Massachusetts College stood almost alone in its per- 
sistency in holding to some of the old ideas of education, 
and the wisdom of its course is every year becoming more 

3.n.iized by Google 


"Aside from this very potent influence in holding the 
college to a high education standard, it is difficult to enume- 
rate his special services to the institution, they were so many 
and so varied. I think he more than any other man con- 
tributed to an esprit de corps among the students and the 
alumni. For many years he gave much time to keeping in 
contact with the graduates, purely as a voluntary under- 
taking, and he made many of them feel what they really 
owed to the college. The vast amount of work which he put 
upon the college libraty resulted in the building up of the 
best selected and arranged i^cultural library in this coun- 
try, which I think b only surpassed at the present time by 
the library of the National Department of Agriculture 
It b his most conspicuous monument. 

" In hb plans for organization and development President 
Goodell built symmetrically, aiming to develop the vari- 
ous departments unifonnly, rather than one or two de- 
partments at the expense of all others. He was exceeding)^ 
just and broad in his sympathies with all departments of 
the institution, believing that each had its place and that 
togethertheymadeastrongfSymmetricalwhole. Hispoli*^ 
seemed to be to give quite large liberty to the heads of 
departments in order that they might have the inspiration 
of the field, and to hold them accountable for the results. 
He stamped upon aU the necesuty for a clear and definite 
plan, and for thoroughness in aU that was undertaken." 

After the establishment in 1886 of the Hatch Experiment 
Stations in connection with the land-grant colleges* it 
became at once apparent to the leaders of E^ricultural 
education, that cooperative action was necessary to secure 
the best results, not only in work but in legislation. It was 

3.n.iized by Google 


felt that if they could go to Cougresa as a body, they would 
have more influence than they would if colleges presented 
their cases singly. To this end an association of the ezecu- 
tive officers of these institutions was formed, called the 
American Association of Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 
ment Stations. With this very important movement Presi- 
dent Goodell was intimately connected from the beginning. 
The confidence reposed in his judgment and abilities is beat 
illustrated by the positions of responsibility assigned to him 
by his associates. Here it will be sufficient to cite the testi- 
mony of two of his fellow workers. The editor of the Ex- 
periment Station Record, in the June number for 1905, 
gives the following account of his relations with tJie associ- 
ation: — 

"With the oi^anization of the agricultural colleges and 
experiment stations of the country into an associatJon, 
President Goodell became a conspicuous figure in the na- 
tional association, and was prominently identified with all 
the movements supported by it during the first fifteen years 
of its existence. He was a member of its executive commit- 
tee from 1888 to 1902, and for the last eight years of that 
period was chairman. As a member of that committee he 
had a prominent part in securing the legislation leading to 
the establishment of ^ricultural experiment stations in 
every state and territory, and the further endowment of the 
land-grant colleges. 

"As chmrman of the executive committee he devoted 
much time to the business of the association and to looking 
after the interests of the institutions represented in it. He 
was conservative in his action, and his management helped 
to economize the time of the association and to make its 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


meetings effective. He urged a strict interpretation of the 
Morrill and Hatch acts, and a careful use of the privileges 
conferred by them. He pointed out the dangers to tJie col- 
lege and station funds of legislation which reduced the in- 
come from the sale of public lands: and his committee was 
instrumental in securing the passage in 1900 of a clause pro- 
viding that, if at any time the proceeds from the sale of pub- 
lic lands should be insufScient to meet the annual appropri- 
ations for the colleges and experiment stations, the same 
should be paid from any funds in the Treasury, thus plac- 
ing these funds on a sure foundation. 

"President Goodell was President of the Association of 
American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations 
in 18dl, being the third to hold that office. His address be- 
fore the convention of that year dealt with some of the 
adiievements of the agricultural experimentation and the 
guiding principles underlying it. It led up to an ^precia- 
tion of the work of the Bothamsted Experiment Station, 
concluding with the presentation of Dr. R. Warington, 
who came as the first representative of the English station 
to deliver a course of lectures under the provisions of the 
Lawes trust. Two years later, when Sir Heniy Gilbert 
came to this country on a similar mission, President 
Goodell arranged to have these classic lectures delivered 
under the auspices of the Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege, the pressure of other bu^ness making it impractica- 
ble for more than an introduction to them to be delivered 
at the meeting of the associaUon." 

In an address delivered at the request of the association. 
President W. E. Stone of Purdue University, Indiana, gives 
the following account of his work: — 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


"la the work of this association, and in the establish- 
ment of the foundations of the land-grant colleges and ez- 
periment stations. President Goodell had an important and 
almost unique part. A full comprehension of this can only 
be had by those who shared with him these labors. With the 
passage of the Hatch Act it became apparent that an organ- 
ization of the executive o£Bcers of these institutions was a 
necessity. The attention of Congress could be secured only 
by the presentation of matters of national scope in concrete 
and unified form. The plan of education and research 
mapped out for the land-grant colleges was too broad, 
varied and comprehensive, and too vital, to permit of its 
development without organized direction. It was necessary 
on more than one occasion to urge upon departments of the 
government a consideration of conditions which led to fair 
and beneficial rulings with regard to these institutions. The 
questions of juiisdiction and of the relations between the 
separate institutipns and governmental departments were, 
and have ever been, of greatest importance. The beads of 
these colleges were pushing out into new and unexplored 
regions, and felt the need of mutual aid and advice. All of 
these considerations emphasized to Goodell and his col- 
leagues the necessity of an association for mutual aid and 
protection, as well as for the general advancement of the 
interests to which these institutions were devoted. In the 
organization of this association he was a moving spirit, and 
inits subsequentwork always anactive participant. He was 
a member of the executive committee bom. 1886 to 1902, and 
during the last eight years of this time was chairman of the 
same. In this capacity he labored untiring, not only in 
the broader duties of the position, but in multitudinous de- 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


t^ls which contributed to the success of the organization. 
One can recall distinctly his methods of preparing and pre- 
senting the business of the association in a complete and 
finished manner, which expedited the routine of its work, 
even at the cost of apparent officiousness on his part. His 
rare tact and insist into human nature; his broad outlook 
upon the field of agricultural education; his wide know- 
ledge of public men, and tJiorougb familiarity with the his- 
tory of the laud-grant college movement, fitted him for the 
place of leader in the work of the executive committee and 
enabled him to render inestimable service. 

"The attention of Congress and of governmental depart- 
ments has been favorably moulded by the wisdom and firm- 
ness of this committee. The threatening danger to the Fed- 
eral appropriation for the colleges and eq}eriment stations, 
through the gradual diversion of the proceeds of the sale of 
public lands, was foreseen and averted throu^ his efforts 
and leadership in securing protective legislation in IdOO. 
His conservative and wise but energetic action averted 
many dangers and laid foundations which will sustain our 
institutions for a long time to come. That we have passed 
through this period of development so safely is due to a 
strong organization and able leaders, among whom Henry 
Hill Croodell'stands conspicuous. To few, if any, of these 
do the i^ricultural colleges and experiment stations owe 
a greater debt than to him." 

President Stone, in the address just quoted, remarks that 
President Goodell took so important a part in the delibera- 
tions of the association as almost to expose him to the sus- 
picion of being offi<nous. At one of the annual meetings in 
Washington, besides deUvering an address, he is rqrarted 

3.n.iized by Google 


to have been on his feet some twenty-five times, not how- 
ever to make a speech, but to make a brief explanation of 
the action of the executive committee, to call attention to 
pending business, or to suggest new business prepared by 
the committee. It is said that a new member, then present, 
asked, with perhaps pardonable irreverence, "Who is that 
little cuss who seems to run the whole business?" 

From the nature of the case it is difScuIt to get a clear 
idea of the work of the executive committee, but this at 
least is certiun, it must have been veiy onerous.' A single 
item will throw a httle Ught on the subject. President Good- 
ell in one of his reports incidentally notes the fact that the 
committee had written 383 letters during the year in the in- 
terest of the association. They prepared the business to be 
submitted, made reports of what they had done, and re- 
commended measures that would be of advanti^e to the 
colleges and experiment stations, which often required the 
accumulation of a good many data and much hard thinking. 
They also kept a sharp watch on the national legislation. 
This brought them into close connection with almost every 
department of the national govermuent, and called upon 
them to appear before many committees and joint commit- 
tees of the House and the Senate. 

A single illustration will give some idea of their work, at 
least so far as legislation is concerned. For some years after 
the passage of the first Morrill Act in 1862, the public lands 
were a subject of great anxiety to the executive committee, 

' Aa an illustration of the nature of the buuneas that came before the 
executive comiuittee and of the chumuui's way of pKKDting it, the re- 
port of the committee to the twelfth coaveutitHi, 1898, is given in this 


3.n.iized by Google 


for Congress was prone to devote the income accruing from 
their sale to other putposes than that to which they were 
devoted by that act, — the cause of agricultural and me- 
chanical education, — and it was foreseen that the revenue 
from that source would soon be exhausted and that the col- 
leges and experiment stations would be left without the 
income upon which their usefulness and life depended. 

To save the colleges and e^>etiment stations from utter 
ruin, Senator Morrill presented in 1890 a bill known as the 
Second Morrill Act, which provided that the annuity to 
these institutions should be paid from the Treasury of the 
United States. To secure the passage of such a bill a great 
variety of opinions and interests had to be reconciled. 
There is many a pitfall in the way of a bill throi^h Con- 
gress. After the friends of this bill thought their work was 
done and were resting upon their oajs. Senator Morrill 
informed President Goodell of the situation as follows: — 

WABHnraroN, D. C. Jtau 16, 1890. 
My deab Sih, — Aa you may perhaps have seen, 1 at- 
tempted to get up the College Bill on Saturday last but 
had to consent to its goiog over until Thursday next. I 
find that there are various amendments to be proposed. 
Alabama wants one to talro care of a colored institution 
established by the state, and I regret to say your Senator 
Hoar desires to put in some provisions so that he can get 
in an institution at Worcester, I suppose of some techni- 
cal or mechanical character, and this I very much regret. 
I think your Instituiioa ought to have the whole of the 
appropriation as well as all others, for I do not want to 
raise the question in all the states as to where the addi- 

3.n.iized by Google 


tional endowment should go. It would be well for you to 
do everything you can. 

Yours very truly, 


While this bill was pending, another subject came up, of 
great importance to the land-grant colleges, — the proposi- 
tion to establish schools of mines and mining. It was a very 
popular movement. The executive conmiittee of the asso- 
ciation at once caused a bill to be drawn to connect these 
schools with the colleges in such a way "as to secure the 
most desirable end of muTiTniiTii advantage at a minimi im 
of expense." The bill was in charge of Senator Tilhnan of 
South Carolina, who was very much interested in it. Every- 
thing seemed to be going well for a time, but objection soon 
came to the front and the Senator wrote to President Good- 
ell on April 26, 1900. as follows: — 

De!ar Sm, — I have your letter of April 25th. I have 
^ been looking out for a favorable opportunity to call up the 
bill, but as yet have not seen one. Hale of Maine is opposed 
and I think will "object," and Senator Allison of Iowa also 
told me this morning that it was a serious matter and 
he would have to consider it before he would be willing to 
aUow it to go to a vote. Urge your friends to press the mat- 
ter upon Senators from their states. I am practically cer- 
tain there will be a majority for it if we can get a vote on 
the question, but you know when objection is made it pre- 
vents present consideration. I shall let no grass grow under 
my feet as soon as I return from the West, whitier I start 
to-night to be gone until Monday. 

Yours truly, B. B. Tillman. 

3.n.iized by Google 


In hia report next year to the assodaticm, lh«sident 
Goodell thus describes the result: "An old Norse proverb 
nins "The must-be goes ever as it should-be.* The bill es- 
tablisbing schools of mines and Tn''"''"g in connection with 
the colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic 
arts haa evidently not been a must-be, for it has gone ever 
8s it should not"; and he adds: "The situation was such 
that it required the presence of tbe entire committee in 
Washington four times, and individual members ten and 
twelve times." 

But at this session of Coi^ress a great victory was won 
for the land-^rant collies by the passage of the Second 
Mortill Act, and Senator Morrill from bis home in Ver- 
mont wrote President Goodell a letter which tells its own 

Stbaitdbi), Vbbhont, Ai^. 91, 18D0. 

My DEiAR Sm, — Please accept my cordial admowledge- 
ments for the valuable aid you rendered in promoting the 
passage of the Agricultural Collie Bill. A veto would 
seem impossible, but I have not yet noticed that the Pred- 
dent has signed tbe bill. 

Very sincerely yours, 

Justin S. MoBBiUi. 
Pbeb. Goodell 
Mass. Agric. College, 
Amherst, Mass. 

As president of the Agricultural College President Goodell 
was ez-officio a member of the State Board of Agriculture, 
and as such always attended the meetings of the board, 
served on committees and was, during hia entire connection 

3.n.iized by Google 


with the board, a member of the standmg committee on 
Listitutes and Public Meetings. This involved the selection 
of subjects for discussion, and his wide and intimate ac- 
quaintance with men eminent in agricultural matters helped 
materially in selecting and procuring speakers. During the 
ten years that the campiugn agfunst the gypsy moth was 
cairied on by the State Board of Agriculture, he made many 
ai^uments in favor of appropriations for the extermination 
of the pest. He eloquently warned the legislators of the re- 
sults of a cessation of the work, and the present condition 
of the war and its heavy cost are sufficient proof of the 
wisdom of his unheeded warning. 

The real position of President GioodeU in the estimation 
of his fellow citizens is periiaps as well stated as it could be 
in the following letter of introduction to President Cleve- 
land from His Excellency, Governor Russell ; — 


ExBctmra Dbfabtuhnt, Boston, Jan. S, isas. 
Hon. Gbovbb Cleveland, New York. 

Mr DEAR Mr. Cleveland, — Mr. H. H. Goodell, 
President of the Massachusetts Agricultural College, has 
been appointed by the association of agriculturaJ colleges 
of the country as a committee of one to wut upon you and 
lay before you it^ views in reference to making the office of 
Assistant Secretary of the Department of Agriculture a per- 
manent office, and to suggest the name of Major Alvord as 
their candidate for the position. 

I am veiy glad to say that Mr, Goodell is a man of the 
highest character and position here in Massachusetts, 
thoroughly fearless and independent in his views of fKilit- 

3.n.iized by Google 


ical and public questdons, and one who has been most suc- 
cessful as the head of a great mstitution. His views upcm 
a question of this nature aie entitled, and I am suie will 
receive, careful consideration. 

As I have known Major Alvord for some years as a most 
able and uncompromising Democrat, I cannot refrain from 
speaking a word of recommendation in his bdialf . 

I have not, nor had I intended to, bother you with re- 
commendations of candidates for office. While scores of 
men apply to me for recommendations I have luiiformty 
refrained from giving them, because it seemed to me that 
you were already sufficiently beset with matters of this 

With kind regards, I am. 

Sincerely yours, 
William E. 

As the natural result of overwork and the burden of the 
great eiqteriment he was carrying, which pressed very 
heavity for years, admonitions came, of a very seriotts na- 
ture. His health while in coU^^ seemed to have been good, 
and according to his account improved during his service 
in the army. But after going to Amherst weaknesses de- 
veloped of so serious a character as to demand periods of 
entire rest. Asearlyasl880hewasintheAdirondacksfrom 
June 4 until deep into September; the next year he went 
to Georgia for two months; the followii^ year he made a 
flying trip to Europe with his brother, Dr. WiUiam Gooddl, 
visiting France and the Netherlands; in 1887 he resigned 
the presidency of the coU^^ on account of his health; in 
1891 he went to England; ear^y in 1894 he was obliged to 

3.n.iized by Google 


submit to an operation for appendicitis, and in July went 
abroad with family friends, Mr. and Mrs. Tbomas GU- 
man Stanton of Wincbester, Mass., but was home again 
tbe last of August; in 1903 be went to Nassau and Florida, 
and in 1905 to Florida. Tbe last tbiee years of Ms life be 
was obliged to wear a corset, or as be called it " a harness, " 
for osteo-artbritjs. His life was one long fight with disease, 
but tbe moment there was any improvement in bis condi- 
tion, be was bad£ at his post, for he felt that a neces^ty 
was upon bim and be must work. His indomitable energy 
could not be restrmned, and he never knew bow to bus- 
band bis strength. Tbe talent of repose was denied bim. 
He could not do nothing; he could not lie by. 

The trustees of the Colle^ did everything ia their power 
to relieve him of work. They voted bim vacations without 
loss of sahuy; and when be was elected chairman of tbe ex- 
ecutive committee of tbe Association of Agricultural Col- 
lies and Experiment Stations, tb^ allowed bim tbe neces- 
sary time to attend to those duties, which often required 
long absences from the c<Jlege; as in the case of tbe Second 
Morrill Act in 1890, when he was in Washington most of 
tbe time for more than two months. These are only illus- 
trations, among many, of their tboughtfulness. 

Some account m^ now be given of four ot his enforced 
pauses, the only ones of which any record is 1^. He saUed 
for England August 31,1891, in company with bis wife, 
who remtuned with him at Southampton until October 11, 
vben she returned to America, as be was sufficiently re- 
covered to be left alone. On October 13 he wrote: — 

"I skipped down to the island of Jersey for four or five 
days, and took notes which I hope to work up into a lecture 

3.n.iized by Google 


sometime. Itwas a most enjoyable trip and a unique one 
to me. I went round among the farmers and saw the cattle 
at home. I was luclq' in going with a man who haa im- 
ported Jerseys for over fifty years, and he took me round 
irith him on his buying trips. It was about as instructive 
and pleasant a trip as I ever took. Sunday I attended 
service in a church about ei^t hundred years old. The 
English garrison marched in in full regimentab and the 
music was by the full band. You can't think how it echoed 
and rolled around in the stone arches. It happened to be 
Harvest Home festival and the church was filled with flow- 
ers, fruits and vegetables." 

A lecture entiUed "The Agriculture of the Channd 
Islands " was prepared on his return to America, and is given 
in this volume. 

From London, November 11, he wrote: "I am, I hope, 
entirely recovered. Have pulled up steadily ever since I 
left America and hc^ before long to be turning my face 
towards the States." But his hope of recovery was not to 
be realized. 

During his visit to England in 1894, he was very much 
interested at Oxford in the Bodleian Library, at Stratford 
in everything pertaining to Shakespeare, and in the Isle of 
Wight, in Carisbrooke Castle, now mostly in ruins, with 
its historical associations, its foundation going back to 
Saxon times, its keep of Norman times, its walls and tower 
of the thirteenth century, and its residential buildii^ 
added during the reign of Elizabeth. Here King Charles I 
spent a year, a prisoner of the Parliament, scheming to 
pair ofiF the Parliament against the army, and made his last 
move on the checkerboard of Fate, in an attempt to bring 

3.n.iized by Google 


a Scottish army into England, which led to his trial, and, 
as Ohver Cromwell SMd, to the "cruel necessity" of his 

In the year 1895 came a period of terrible and torturing 
anxieties, which made his life, for months, an awful night- 
mare, bristling with horrors. The son of a missionary, he 
knew something of the exposures of a missionaiy, even in 
the near East. He had a aster in Armenia with her family, 
who was particularly exposed, as her husband was a mis- 
tdonaty. He knew the character of the Armenians and of 
the wild tribes of the mountiuns, and the character of 
the Sultan, Abd-ul Hamid II, "the assassin," as Gladstone 
caUedhim. When the Sultan let loose the savage Kurds and 
supported them with Turkish soldiers, inspired by Moslem 
fanaticism, upon a clever and industrious, but unpopular 
and unwarlike people, Goodell knew full well what would 
be the result, and his imagination pictured such scenes 
as Milton described as taking place in the valleys of Pied- 
m<Htt, two hundred and forty years before. "Atrocity," 
says the great poet, "horrible and before unheard of! 
SuchsavE^ery — Good God, were all the Neros of all times 
and all ages to come to life again, what a shame they would 
feel at having contrived nothing equally inTiiiman '" 

He not only prepared an address, which was published, 
but he appealed to the Governor of the Commonwealth to 
use his influence with the authorities at Washington, and 
addressed lett^s to influential members of Congress. But 
nothing came of it. The great powers, for one reason or 
another, declined to interfere. But the next year came 
the Turkish St. Bartholomew Day, or days, in the streets of 
Constantinople, and Lord Salisbury, then at the head of 

3.n.iized by Google 


the Britisli Government, "Bolemnly and publicly warned 
the Sultan of the consequences of his misgovermnent and 
suggested the eventual necessity of the employment of 
force." Happily Goodell's sister and her family escaped the 
brutalities they were obliged to witness. 

Amid all his trials be had many things to cheer him. At 
Commencement, 1897, he was presented with a very large 
and beautiful loving cup, with the following inscription: 
" By the Ahunni and Former Students of the Massachusetts 
Agricultural Collie, June 2S, 1897. In recognition of 
Thirty Years of F^thful Service to our Alma Mater, and 
in loving remembrance as a friend and teacher." It was a 
tribute he greatly appreciated, and he could not speak of 
it without emotion. 

In the fall of 1902 it became alarmingly apparent to his 
friends that his condition was critical and demanded im- 
mediate attention, although it did not seem so to him. He 
thought that if he could get away for a week or two, it would 
do him a world of good, but he did not see how even that 
was possible. His friends, however, so arrutged matters 
that there could be no reasonable excuse on his part, and 
one of them. Colonel Mason W. Tyler of Plainfield, N. J., 
offered to relieve him of any finandal difficulty. This move- 
ment was generously seconded by the trustees, who unani- 
mously voted him leave of absence without loss of salary. 
When he was informed of what was going on, he expressed 
at least a part of his feelings in the following letters. 

t 18,1003. 

Mt dear Blessed Mason, — Truly am I blessed above 
all others in my friends. Stebs has just sent me your generous 

3.n.iized by Google 


offer, but I cannot accept it, much as I would lite to. My 
annual report to tlie legislature is due in about two weeks, 
I have only juist commenced it. Then I shall have three bills 
in the l^islature whose wild career must be watched over. 
After that, if I could get away for a couple of weeks, it 
would greatly build me up. I have had a little whack of 
bronchitis and to-day was out for the first tune. So you 
see I am. improving and my back, under the gentle treat- 
ment of a corset, is slowly limbering up. 

Heaven bless you for your kindly thoughts of me. 

Your Dad. 

A few days later, when the whole scheme was revealed 
to him, he wrote: — 

Ahhebst, Mabb., Decemher 23, lOOe. 

Mt dear Mason, — They say corporations have no 
soiUs. I am beginning to doubt it. The committee of 
trustees with whom for six months I have been a co-worlrer 
met last Saturday unbeknownst to me (but I suspect 
Stebs) ; agreed to take upon themselves the duty of care 
of our bills in the legislature this winter, and voted to 
recommend to the full board of trustees to give me leave 
of absence immediate^ after presentation of my report. 
Venly n^ cup runneth over, and when I think of the beau- 
tiful friendship that has bound you and Dick and Stebs 
and myself together for so many years, my eyes grow quite 
shiiQ' and I thank the Lord that I have beoi permitted to 
be one of you. And so, my dear Mase, sometime after New 
Years I will come down to Flainfield and report for orders. 

3.n.iized by Google 


May all the j<^ of Christinas and the brightness of the 
New Year descend ufwu you in a four-fold measure, and 
what an aureole will be yours! 

With love to Mrs. Mase, 

Ever thy Dad. 

After completjng his annual report to the l^islature, he 
started Januaiy 16, 1903, for Nassau. He saw many things 
that interested him and as usual the vegetation attracted 
his attention. Januaiy S7 he writes: — 

"This is a w<mderful Httle island. The tempeiatuie has 
not fallen below70 and it has twice gone up to 70. It has 
showered every day but one, and what with the warm 
debilitating atmosphere, filled with moisture, one does not 
care to move much. But sitting on the piazza, looking off 
upon the water, there is a moat delicious breeze and it is 
hard to realize that at home you are all shivering over 10 to 
20 temperature. The two most delightful things here are 
the fruits, — grape-fruit, three kinds, shaddocks, paw- 
paws, . . . bananas, and cocoa trees, — and the bathing. 
The latter is simply dehcious. I go in every day and come 
out feeling like the morning star. It (the water) is so pure 
and fresh and green that you can look down a good many 
feet. They have one or two boats constructed with a glass 
bottom, and as you are towed along by a small tug you can 
watch the coral, the sponge and the star-fish on the bot- 
tom. I have not yet tried it but they say it is most beauti- 
ful in effect. 

"The star excursion is a kind of combination one. You 
are rowed a mile across to Hog's Island, furnished with 
bathing suit, and take a swim, eat all the fruit you care to, 

3.n.iized by Google 


aod then rowed back, all for twenty-five cents. Here is 
richness for you! There are no troops here and the police 
are colored. They look fumiy enough in their helmets and 
red stripes. They are either very effective or else the people 
are very good. I think it must be the latter, for I am told 
they all eat oatmeal in the morning, and you know what 
a penitential diet does for me. I dcm't know just what to 
say about nq'self . Caught some cold yesterday and don't 
feel like the morning star to-day, — short breath and puffi- 
ness, — but I hope for the best." 

Writing again from Nassau on February 7, he gives this 
account of himself: — 

"I am just out of the water from a swim and find your 
cheery letter, but my hand is so sha^ that I have taken 
to a pencil. My friends have been more than kind to 
me, for the post-office to-day brou^t me seven letters; 
three of these, it is needless to say, came from my wife. 
And here let me stop to say: Heaven bless our wives! 
What in the world could wc possibty do without them? 
The worst, or the best, of it is that they treat us so wdl. 
We get the swelled bead and think we are some pumpkins, 
when we are not worthy to kiss the ground on which they 
stand. I am afraid you may think this is somewhat Van- 
cien, but I have been thinking all this morning how she. 
i. e. my wife, has had to watch over and take care of me 
all the time, and how little I have been able to do for her. 

"An interesting item to you may be that there are no 
taxes here except on glass. Hence you may drive through 
the coon quarter of the city, namely, in the quarter where 
11,000 live, and you will not see a smgle glass window, — 
nothing but wooden shutters. At night, after six o'clock. 

3.n.iized by Google 


it 13 very gloomy. Eveiy house and 8tx>ie shut up td^t, 
without a gleam of light. Contiaty to all precedent, it has 
runed eveiy day but thiee since my coming heie, aad I 
cannot truthfully say anything more about my health 
than that my bark is on the island." 

It would seem from this parody on Byron's line and pun 
on the word "bark" that his cough had not subsided. 

The weather was unfsTorable, and finding that his st^ 
on the island was not likely to prove benefitnal, he crossed 
over to the mainland and settled for a few daya at Jensen, 
Florida. There was at once a marked change in his con- 
diti<m and he writes March 7: — 

"Here I am in this beautiful httle town on the Indiiut 
River drawing in life and health with every breath I draw. 
Have ceased coughing, — can breath like a major and even 
survey the intricacies of my collar-button, or the lacing 
of my shoe-strings without a quiver. A narrow island 
separates us from the ocean, and I fall asleep to the mur- 
muring of the wind and the steady beat of the surf. Noone 
could help getting well in the soft, babny air and beautiful 
sunshine. But the old problem of steering by the North 
Stat confronts me worse than ever, f ot the sun rises in the 
South and the Big Dq)per is upside down. How can I 
right myself when all signs fail? I think I shall stay here a 
week longer and then go to Jacksonville. 

"Hie Indian Biver — horrible misnomer, for an arrant 
ann of the sea that has lost its w^ and goes wandetiug 
along some hundred miles or more — is chuck-full of 
fish, and you cannot look upon it without seeing half a 
dozen or more splendid red mullets leap into the air and 
fall back with a splash into the water. All manner of tropi- 

3.n.iized by Google 


caj fruits grow here. In our hotel garden are seven or eight 
different-hued hibiscus in bloom, orange trees, limes, gua- 
vas, all in fruit, phim trees, Australian oaks and pines, the 
camphor and cinnamon. The last two have very fragrant 
leaves. But alas ! that amid all this beauty there should be 
any offset. But there surely is. A depraved microscopical 
red spider called 'Jigger' [chego] inhabits the vegetation 
and burrows in the person of the unwary !^>ectator. I have 
met the jiggers and I am 'theim.' They have rioted and 
are still rioting over my blameless body. From my wust, 
in fact my neck, down to my toes I am a qwtted leopard, 
and in fact I find it as hard as he does to change his spots. 
Z counted 153 burrows of these sinful miscreants and gave 
it up. But, oh, the blissful luxury of a scratch ! Job and his 
potsherd are nowhere. I have been told to grease UQ'self, 
and I have done so till I can wiggle through the smiUlest 
hole a politician ever found. I think I am heading them 
off, but the race is a hot <me, for they got a m^hty fine 
start. From Jacksonville I shall go to Asheville to acclimate 
myself, and so North and homewards which I ajn forbidden 
to reach till the 12th or 13th of April." 

Jensbh, Flobida, ManA 14, 190S. 

Mt de^ar , — I have been having a most ddight- 

ful time here in Jensen. Allen ^ has returned, and we see 
each other almost every day. The old frienddiip and 
associations have beea renewed, and as We skimmed the 
waters in our light boat we have talked and laughed over 
the old times. I have questioned him closely about the 
' paragogic nu, ' and as he professed an entire ignorance of 
^ W. Irving Allffn, a <^ASSDiate. 

3.n.iized by Google 


the subject) I owned iq> tliat it was a terra incognita to 
me. He owns a fine plantation of pineapples and about 
tesa acres of bean-land across the river, on the island tliat 
separates us from the ocean. ... A pineapple plantation 
is a very beautiful sight, for you see bud, flowers and per- 
fect fruits at the same time in the plantation, l^e flowers 
come out singly on each scale of the half^rown apple. 
ThQ'ftre of a de^ blue and contrast with the brilliant red 
of the inner leaves and the red brown of the fruit. How the 
mischief such a luscious fruit ever grows out of the pure 
white sand gets me, but Nature beats us all, and I am not 
going to set myself in opposition to her laws. The beans 
do not grow in this sand but in a fine soil on the island. 
They are shipping at this station about a thousand crates 
a day to New York. The leaves of the pineapples termi- 
nate in a very sharp, i^gressive thorn, and as the edges 
are alive mth thorns it is no joke to gather the fruit. The 
picker goes in with leather guters, gray duck trousers and 
long gauntlets, and throws the iq>ples to the catcher, who 
follows him up in small paths that have been cut or left 
across the field twenty or thirty feet apart. Then they are 
taken to the packing-house on wooden tram-ways that 
bisect the field, and there the? are sorted, packed and 
crated. There are about four miles of this pine^ple plan- 
tation skirting the rivei^front. But how Nature, — Well, 
there; I'll sure just leave Nature to work out her own sal- 
vation alone in her own sweet way, without interference 
on my part. The planters all up and down the coast line 
recognize me as Captun Allen's friend, and I have received 
many courtesies from them. 
I shall stay here till Wednesday the 17th, then go to Jack- 

3.n.iized by Google 


sonville, stay a couple of days to see Sam Vance, thence to 
Aaheville for a fortnight's stay to harden myself, and so 
work nq' way slowly North, for the Drs. won't hear to my 
getting back before the 9th or lOth of April. You will be 
delighted to know that I have not coughed nor had an at- 
tack of short breathing since coming here. 

I don't know when I shall be at Asheville, but I think 
old General Delivery will ta^ care of my nuiil. 

My very best love to Mrs. and believe me. 

Yours always. 

This is omr first raii^ day since reaching here. 

From Asheville, N. C. March ii, he writes: " Yomr letter 
warning me of Asheville foimd me here. To tell you the 
truth I think a little cold will do me good. I have found 
it rather warm and enervating, and want to be able to do a 
little walking without perapiring to beat the band, and feel 
my collar and bosom mating away. I shall be aorry indeed 
not to stop over and see you, but I cannot tell. The Chinese 
Ambassador has brought five boys with him for education. 
He wants me to take one into my own family, provide 
places for the others, aud be their guardian. I have agreed 
to stop in Wasbingtoa and see him." 

The Ambassador was Sir Chentung Liang-Cheng, who 
DOW (1911) represents the Celestial Empire at theCourt of 
Berlin. When a b<^ he was sent to America for education, 
and while here, pursuing his studies, became very intimate 
in Professor Groodell's family. A friendship grew up be- 
tween the professor and the boy, which was cherished by 
both with ever-increasing admiration and affection until 
the hand of one had withered. 

3.n.iized by Google 


On April 18, Frestdent Goodell arrived in Amherst, but 
not very much improved in health. A council of physicians 
■was called and on the 27th he Tnites: — 

"I have delayed writing until I could give you the re- 
port of the Doctors. They have now pinched, pimched and 
rapped at the seat of life. Thej have listened to the pro- 
longed expuldon of the ur from my hmgs and they have 
twisted, pulled out sideways and shut up like a jack-knife 
my l^s, and they all with one accord declare there is no- 
thing the matterwithmeexcept 'that tired feeling.' They 
have given me a mixture of iron, quinine and strychnine to 
take three times a day. They have given me nitroglycerine 
and strychnine pills to take when I feel my breath is com- 
ing short and fast; and they are building on an ingenious 
plan a new corset to fit more tenderly around my ribs. 
Well, now, my dear M., all this is literally true. They find 
no organic disease, but declare me to be worn out and 
without strength to «q)el the ur from n^ lungs; and hence 
the struggle, in which the impure air gets the better of me. 
It is very mortifying to know that I am not sick but only 
tired, and so I am slapping into my sacred person sU sorts 
erf poisonous and sedative drugs and trying to sleq> eight 
hours a night. Please don't think I am exaggerating, for 
I do not believe I have one «ngle word. But when Dr. S. 
in New London,Dr. H. in Amherstj and Dr. G. in Boston, 
all tell me the same thing, I can't help feeling a little bit 
easy round the edges as ii I had been babying myself — 
and yet th^ all hint at all sorts of abominable things if I 
don't let up on work. It *8 dreadful h^ti when there is so 
much to be done. 

"Dick was here yesterd^ for ten or fifteen minutes. 

3.n.iized by Google 


What a pleasure it u to get back once more into tbe midst 
of our ciicle! I did n't know how dear you all were to me 
tin I came aw^, and then M. and D. and S. tugged at my 
heart-strings. The Bible says, 'Every heart knoweth its 
own bitterness/ I think there ought to be something like 
this: 'Every heart knoweth its inability to express its in- 
most feelings.' For I can't measiue out in words my thank- 
offering. I can only thank God for giving me so dear a 
friend as you, who have been loyal to me so many years." 

From this attack he gradually recovered strength to aX- 
tend to the ordinary business of the Collie; but the brisk 
step and sptoitaneous activity, so characteristic of him, were 
gone. It was very iq>parent, even to a casual observer, 
that every movemmt was the result of a conscious effort of 
the will. But the blithe, mirthful spirit was still deariy in 
evidence, and he faced the duties of his position with the 
cheerfulness and self-possession of a man in full health. 
This probably led maiq' to think that his condition was 
not so serious as it realty was. But for two years the stu- 
dents lost something of his cheering and inspiring person- 
ality. Yet there seems to have been no failure in his 
mental grasp. His last report, that of 1905, which must 
have received its finUmng touches after his final and fatal 
attack, shows no loss of intellectual power or enthusiasm. 
Lideed it ia the most potent of ihem all, especially in his 
statement of the needs of the College. 

In the meantime he was really hovering so near (he edge 
of life that an exposure of any kind was pretty sure to prove 
fatal. It seems impossible that he should not have been 
aware of his condition; but if he was, it did not seem to 
have disturbed him in the least, and probably did not. His 

3.n.iized by Google 


personal friends and tlie trustees, however, were not with- 
out grave apprehensions. About the middle of December, 
1901, while waiting for a car at Holyoke, he took a chill 
which utterly prostrated him. This attack was much more 
alarming than any he had as yet experienced. Again his 
friend Colonel T^ler made it financially easy for him to go 
wherever it was thou^t best, asd have his wife as his 
companion. The trustees -were not to be outdone, and at 
a meeting held January 2, 1905, voted to give him six 
months' leave of absence with full pi^. The moUoo was 
made by Mr. William H. Bowker, one of the graduates of 
the first class sent out from the College, who spoke with a 
good deal of feeling, and there was a very warm expression 
of sympathy and affection for the president in this new 

^re is his own account of his condition, written Decem- 
ber 27, 1904:— 

"Tiaa last attack seems to have knocked things upside 
down and left me as far as heidth is c<Hicemed in a pretty 
shaky condition. To state very briefly, there is a slight ef- 
fusion of serum in the lung cavity, which is gradually bang 
absorbed. Then there is a constant emphysema of the lung 
which keeps me short-breathed. My limbs are slightly 
swollen, but the most smous trouble is some irritation of 
the urinary organs. Anyway, as near as I can find out the 
doctors propose to keep me in the house until everything 
is cleaned up and then send me South till warm weather. 
For eleven days I have not had a bit of anything sohd, — 
nothing except milk and soda water, — and I think I am 
slowly improving, but it is not absolutely strengthening." 

The improvemeDt he looked for was very (How and on 

3.n.iized by Google 


Januaiy 15i 1905, he expresses his feelings and states his 
eondition: — 

"No human being has ever had so many friends as I have. 
It is almost worth falling on evil days to see how they rally 
round me. Giod bless and ke^ you all. Pardon my delay 
in not answering your last, but I have had three very bad 
days without any breath to speak of. The serum in my 
chest has stopped being absorbed and I don't know when 
the Doctor will let me start." 

Ten d^s later, Januaiy 25, he writes: "In r^ard to the 
tjme of my going South, I am sony to say I can teU you 
nothing about it. I got into a pretty miserable situation 
with certain features that were rather alarming. They sent 
for a specialist from Boston. He was here Tuesday night, 
looked me over, and pronounced it as his opinion that I 
shall pull up from this provided I give myself complete 
rest, — and so he commenced giving me rest by sending 
me to bed and ordering me to remain there — or on the 
lounge — until such time as it seems feasible to let me 
loose on Florida." 

It would give a very erroneous impression as to the state 
of his mind if the lettCTs here cited were thought to be wholly 
given to describing his various symptoms. His referraices 
to his condition are a veiy small part of them. The great 
burden of the letters from which oixacts are made is given 
to making fun of the friend he happens to be writing to, or 
to some personal matters which interest him, and especially 
to expressing his gratitude to his friends. It is all told in 
this sentence, although expressed in many different wi^s: 
"It is very del^htful to see how my friends rally round 
me and I assure you I appreciate it to the uttermost." 

3.n.iized by Google 


He liad a friend to whom the spellii^ of ordinary Eng- 
lish words was an inscrutable mystery, who happened to 
dictate a letter to a typewriter for him, and he wrote in 
reply February 20: "Thanks for your good long letter of 
February 13. The neatness of your letter and the accuracy 
of your spelling leads me to think that the use of the type- 
writer is a means of grace to you. I am still housed here in 
Amherst. 'Afflictions sore long time I bore,' but rough 
breathing seems to hang on worst of all. I have been hop- 
ing against hope, to leave here next week, about the end of 
Maitiit but I am very much airud that the doctor will put 
me off another week. I think we will settle down for our 
health at Fort Pierce. When we get comfortably settled, 
I will let you know just where we are, and then I shall 
expect frequent messages." 

The last letter written in Amherst, the day he left for Flo- 
rida, shows that he knew that his case was serious, but it 
has in it the ring of courage that never fuls. He was not 
of those who accept Longfellow's sentimental met^ihor: — 
And our hearts, though stout and brave. 
Still, like muffled druots, are beating 
Funeral mardtes to the grave. 

It was written to his amanuensis: "For all your hopes 
and prayers in my behalf, accept my thanks. I need them 
all. For verily I have been down into the depths and my 
head is barely above the waves now. 'Yes,' said the doctor, 
'there is not an organ in your body performing its functions 
property, sir.' Hence you may know why I closed up my 
note so hurriedly last week. The spirit indeed was willing 
but the flesh was almighty weak. We expect this afternoon 
to proceed to New York and take boat for Jacksonville. 

3.n.iized by Google 


I do not know whether serving two masters is another case 
of God and Mammon, but taiyway I commend to your care 
Professor Brooks. Deal gently with him — and hold the 
fort." (Professor Brooks had been appointed president 
pro tempore.) 

But at last, to use his own «cpressioD, he was "let loose 
on Florida"; or,as he states it in another place: "I am to 
flee to the mountains of Hepsidam." He felt great confi- 
dence that the climate would have an invigorating influ- 
ence, and said that it was the only place that did him ai^ 
good before. He left Amherst in company with his wife, 
on March 6, and sailed from New York the next day for 
Jacksonville on the way to Fort I^erce. They arrived at 
Jacksonville Saturday morning, March 11, spent the day 
in the city, and went on to Fort Pierce in the evening, 
driving there about 8 o'clock. 

The joum^ was very tedious and irritating. He writes 
March 17: "We have fairly comfortable quarters at this 
hotel. I am afraid your good wife would have something 
to say about the beds, — the same as mine does, — but 
that is one of the things that has to be endured. As we sit 
in our room, in the second story, the oleanders in the garden 
are flush with the windows — there are palmetto, rubber 
and lemon trees, and the garden slopes down to the wat«r, 
where are colonized something like a hundred pelicans, and 
it is our great amusement to watch them dive and catch 
the fish, which they lay neat^ away in their pouches for 
future reference. I am sorry to say that my legs b^an 
swelling again as soon as I left home, so that I am confined 
quite severely to the house. The weather to-day is all that 
one could ask and I shall hope now to improve." 

3.n.iized by Google 


A few days after hia arrival he wrote: "If I had had the 
Btroigth of a flea and the perseverance of an ant, I should 
have written you before this, but the fact was that two c^ 
the (Jd symptoms came hack on me after reaching here, 
the swelling (^ my legs and increased difficulty in breathing. 
The weather is not altogether what one could wish. Yes- 
terday we had a day to make one dream, temperature 79, 
with a fine breeze blowing most of the di^. I expect as soon 
as the weather becomes settled and wann that I shall brace 
up and take a fresh hold. I shall trust in mynezt lett^to 
be able to say: 'Behold how long a letter I, Dad, have 
written unto my Calvin.'" 

If fine spirits and courage could have saved a man in his 
c<mdition he would surely have pulled up. 

He had ^pected to stay at Fort Fierce a month longer, 
but as the season was ov^ and the hotel was closed, there 
was nothing for him to do but to go to St. Augustine. This 
he did the more readily for, as he said, it was a larger place 
and there he was sure of finding a good phy^ian. But the 
joum^ was very tedious and aggravated all his synq>toms. 
Almost immediately on arriving, the doctor ordered him 
to the hospital. The evidences of failing strength were very 
apparent. On April 10, he asked his wife to write at his 
dictation, butwhen he came to the case in hand he did not 
feel equal to it. Shewritesthe same day: "He is very cheer- 
ful as usual." 

The n^t day he put a postscript to her letter: "I hardly 
know what I can sa:y to you. I came down here hoping and 
^^>ecti]^ to improve immediate^, but instead of that I 
had to go to the hospital and it is too soon to speak of re- 
sults. My doctor used to know my brother William, and 

3.n.iized by Google 


took care of him in bis last di^s of Ufe, when he was lieie 
in St. Augustine. He is a man wonderfully well posted and 
there seems to be no end to the reserve forces that he is able 
to fall back on. As soon as I learn anything from him, or 
can speak favorably myself of my condition, I wiU write 
you more fully. My breathing this morning is much easier, 
but the swelling has not gone down very much but ia im- 
proved somewhat." 

His next letter is written with pencil and simply says 
that the doctor has recommended that he go North. He 
was disappointed as he wished to stay longer at St Au- 
gustine. His wife writes April 19: "The doctor advises 
us to get nearer home. We go by the SaTannah line of 
steamers direct and will arrive in Boston Monday the 
24th." She understood what the doctor's advice meant, 
for it had bem evident to her for some tJme that the end 
might come at any moment, although be showed no sign 
to the last, by word or look, of anzie^ on that point. 

When within a few hours' sail of Boston Bay, at 1.45 on 
Sunday morning, April S8, while in the full possession of 
his faculties, he was relieved of "the tunnoil for a little 
breath," so gent^ tbat he probably mistook the Angel of 
Death for the Angel of Sleep. 

like A thadow ibtowD 
Softly and lightly fnxa a pasdng doud. 
Deatli tell on him. 

The funeral services were conducted in the Colle^ 
Chapel at Amherst, on the afternoon of April 27, and were 
of the simplest kind. The casket was covered and surrounded 
with xntaiy beautiful tributes of esteem and affection, and 
the audience was one whose very presence was the finest of 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


tributes. Such a concouise of intelligent, active and enter- 
prising men is sddom seen together, and among them was 
the conspicuous figure of the Tnininfffr of the Chinese Em- 
pire. He had been informed of the death of President 
GoodeU just in time to take the train that made it possible 
for him to reach Amherst in season for the funeral ; and can- 
celling all his social engagements for fourteen days, he came 
to pay the tribute of Ida presence to a friend of whom he 
said, "He has been as a father and a brother to me." 

While the remains were being escorted to their final rest- 
ing place in West Cemetery by the battalion of college cadets, 
the bells of his Alma Mater and of the Collie of which he 
had been President sent out, to slow and measured beat, 
sounds that to some in that company of friends did not seem 
to have the solemn, funeral toll, but rather the tone of the 
bells that Bunyan's Pilgrim heard as he ^proached the 
gate of the Celestial City. A few words were offered of 
prayer, of thanks^ving that "the song of woe is aft» all 
an earthly song," of heartfelt thanks for what we had had, 
and for the hope immortal; and Motlier Earth received to 
her safe keeping all that was visible to the mortal eye. 

When the cadets returned they gathered round the flag- 
pole in the college Campus, where the beautiful symbol of 
the Bepubhc, which he had followed when it was being 
torn by shot and shell, hung at haU-mast, and taps were 
sounded. It was both a beautiful and a significant service. 
The soldier, in the army and out, had fought the good 
fight, had finished his course, had kept the faith. The 
world was all before them, to be made better by th^ 
words, or works, or both, and the music that calls to duty 
after taps is inspiring. 

3.n.iized by Google 



It has been the general purpose in this sketch to let 
President Goodell, so far as possible, give Ms own account 
of things, events and persons as he met them from time 
to time. There are, however, certain traits of character 
that lent an indescribable charm to fais conduct and re- 
lations with men, which deserve special notice. After he 
resigned the presidency in 1887 he consented to reflection 
on condition that, when he was relieved of certain work 
himself, it should not result in increasing the labors, or di- 
minishing the pay, of any of his associates in the Faculty. 
This is illustrative of his whole career. Thoi^tfulness of 
others was ever in the foreground of his mind. It may be 
saf e^ doubted whether he ever consciously soi^t an 
advantage for himself which would resiUt in an injury, or be 
unjust, to any one else. Indeed, the various positions which 
he held were not of his own seddng, but veie thrust upon 
him, and whatever honor, or emolument, was connected 
with them was earned by bearing the great responsibiUties 
they imposed and the h^d work they entailed. 

An unobtrusive guardianship of the interests of others 
was characteristic ot his generous nature and manifested 
itself in many ways. He took a deep interest in the children 
of missiomiries who were sent to this country to be edu- 
cated. He kept in touch with his collie classmates and 

3.n.iized by Google 


took a lively interest in their varying fortunes, and the same 
spirit vas extended to the students of his own coU^^ both 
b^ore and aft^ graduation. The bright boy struggling for 
an education could have no better friend than the pred- 
dent, and the drain on his resources was sometimes very 
great. There is always a liability of pecufaiary loss in such 
cases, which he could ill afford to bear; but like all generous 
men, he never learned anything by hia own ^cperience or 
the experience of others. When the stud^it had gone out 
into the world, he was still an object of personal interest. 
President Goodell often did, to help others, what very few 
m^ieven of a generous nature would have done,especiaUy 
if th^ had a reasonable excuse for taking no interest in 
the matter. 

Beference has already been made to the effort to estab- 
lish schools of mines and minii^; in connection with the 
land'^ant colleges. Of President Goodell's part in this 
undertaking it has been said: "Nothing, perhaps, better 
shows President Goodell's consci^itious devotion to the 
duties of his office, r^ardless of the interest to Imn per- 
sonally and to his institution, than his persistent efforts, as 
chfurman of the executive committee, to secure the passage 
of a bill to provide a school of mines in connection with the 
land-^rant colleges. This was a matter in which most <tf the 
institutions represented by the Association were greatly 
interested, and President Goodell worked long and faith- 
fully in its interests, althouj^ knowing full wdl that the 
school if provided would become a part of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology. It never seemed to occur to 
him to labor less diligently on that account, and he spent 
weeks in Washington during the sessions of Congress, 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


and made frequent trips back and f ortli, when the condition 
of his health would have been abundant excuse for less 
strenuous effort." 

He was a keen observer of men, and his large experience 
in l^islative businesa caused him to recognize the value to 
a cause of its being well stated. This undoubtedly led him 
to emphasize strongly, as it was natural for him to do, "the 
study of one's mother tongue," and to give it a larger place 
in the curriculum than is usual in oui agricultural colleges. 
In this respect he was master of what he admired. Resolu- 
tions referred to a committee of which he was a member 
were usually returned to the assembly much shorter and 
very much clearer. His annual reports to the Governor 
and Council, and especially ids report aa chairman of the 
executive committee of the National Association of Agri- 
cultural Colleges and Experiment Stations, show a full 
knowledge of the subject and a conciseness and lucidity 
of statement which reflect the nature of his mind. Hard- 
headed business men, who usually have strong convicticms 
that their ideas are right, found him clear uid just in his 
statement of the point in controversy. 

A contractor had a large bill against the College, which 
had been running some three years and had been the sub- 
ject of much angry altercation. It was han^ng over the 
College when Professor Goodell was elected president, and 
he (the contractor) thought that, before having recourse to 
the law, he would present his bill agtaa. To use his own 
words: "I stated my side of the case and then President 
Goodell stated what he thought would be right for the Col- 
lege and just to me, and I thought so too, and we settled 
in half an hour." 

3.n.iized by Google 


Professor Goodell was a teacher par excellence, but after 
he became president, the work of admimstration gradually 
increased to such an detent that after 1890 he did little 
work in the class-room. But that he was a great success 
there is the unanimous testimoiQ' of all who entered his 
room. The testimony of three of his old pupils who have 
attained eminence as educators will give a clear idea of 
his rdatious with the students in and out of the class- 

A professor of agriculture wntes: "His relations with the 
young men were of the closest. He made them feel his love 
and his interest in them, wliile at the same time he retained 
their thorough respect. His great ability and sound scholar- 
ship, combined with his great warm heart, his bright and 
genial personal characteristics, his quick and clear perc^K 
tions and excellent judgment, made the students feel ab- 
solute confidence in him. They knew he was equal to any 
emergency. They not only felt he was their friend, but 
knew it. He was a rare teacher. He alw^s had perfect 
command of his subject, and the students under him soon 
came to feel a strong desire to work in his subjects." 

The preddent of an agricultural collie writes: "I take 
pleasure in saying that he was one of the most animated 
and in^iring teachers that I ever knew. His class-room 
was always filled with radiations of animation and wit He 
had an originid way of putting things, and expounded every- 
thii^ with such vim and snap that no one could sleep in his 
class-room and all must listen and learn. As an illustration 
of his quick wit, I r^nember that a classmate of mine was 
reading German one day, when he unwitting^ translated 
the word ' bauer ' as pheasant, whereupon Professor Gooddl 

3.n.iized by Google 


immediately louarked: 'Dtm't make game of him, don't 
m&ke game of him.'" 

The eminent diplomatist who represented witli distin- 
guished ability the Chiiwae Empire for some years at 
Washington, Sir Chentung liang-Cheng, writing from 
Berlin, pays the following tribute to the influence of the 
character of Fre^dent Goodell: — 

It was my good fortune in my bc^hood days spent as a 
student in America, to have enjoyed the friendship and ever- 
inspiring influence of Professor Goodell. And now I avail 
[myself of] the opportuniiy to express my deep satisfactioD 
that a memoir of his life is being written, to perpetuate the 
memory of one whose life of usefulness may be well fol- 
lowed by others. 

Professor Goodell possessed all the human good quali- 
ties which won for him the respect and love of Us students, 
his neighbors and his acquaintances. Be was a man with a 
big heart, always ready and most cheerful to assist or do a 
kind turn to his fellowmen. He oftentimes sacrificed his 
own wants, in a quiet way, in order to relieve the more ur- 
gent needs of those who were under his charge. Duty to 
his college, which he had served so faithfully and admir- 
abty, was his foremost interest. He labored incessant^ for 
its betterment, notwithstanding his failing health demanded 
a relax of his enei^ies. His cheerfulness never seemed to 
forsake him even under the most perplexing circumstances. 
He was ever ready to have a sympathetic word and impart 
Ms counsel to the youthful student who sought his guid- 
ance; and was always able to inspire hope and courage. To 

3.n.iized by Google 


be in his ssaociation was to survive in an atmospliere of 
cheerfulness and enlightenment. 

A soldier, as well as educator, one cannot fail to be im- 
pressed by him. The highest citizeniihip is pubUc welfare 
first and private interest secondary. Nor can one be re- 
strained to be imbued from him that sense of honor, justice, 
duty, and fraternity — all essential qualities for the make- 
up of a successful and a happy life. 

Professor Goodell, in Ms long valuable service to the 
Massachusetts State Agricultural College, during which 
lime a number of my countrymen have received his watch- 
ful care, has moulded the lives of many a sturdy young 
man for the world of usefulness. His life will be cherished 
with grateful memory by all. No profusion of words is 
su£Scient to etalt his noble character. And the same grate- 
ful sentiments will be reSchoed from the fields of distant 
Manchuria and from the far-off shores of the Orient. 

Chentunq Liang-Cheng. 

BusLiM, S5th April, 1911. 

And still another says: "Pre^dent Goodell was an in- 
spiring teacher, very thorough and exacting in his work, 
and spared himself no pains in making his subjects thor- 
oughly understood by his students. He had a great faculty 
tor discerning very quickly whether or not a student under- 
stood the matter he was trying to present, and had little 
patience with shamming or superficial work. From the 
earliest days he evidently had a very strong influence over 
the boys. He was to them a counsellor and companion, one 
whom they admired and trusted. He always impressed me 
as being eminently just. He divorced personal feeling from 
<^<3al du^." 

3.n.iized by Google 


To help Ms classes m Iiistoiy and literature he drew up 
and published "A List of Fictilious Works illustrating His- 
toric Epochs," giving the century when and the counti? 
where the scenes of the stories were laid. There are some- 
thing like five hundred and fifty entries. He prepared also 
a Chart of Contemporary Sovereigns of Europe. 

Discipline in an army and discnpline in a college is an es- 
sential feature in the success of both. President Goodell 
seems to have understood how to get on with young men. 
As a disciplinarian it has been s^d by one who had been long 
associated with him in the Faculty: "He was patient and 
long-suffering, but when patience was exhausted and trans- 
gression was continued, he was firm and uiQrielding in in- 
flicting punishment. He knew when to compromisei and 
the kindness of his heart prconpted him to search for every 
avenue of compromise not inconsistent with justice and 
equity. He knew too when not to compromise, and when 
this time came he was ready to stand his ground regardless 
of the consequences personal to himself." 

The faculty of a coU^e are not always "a happy family ," 
and it is sometimes more difficult to govern them than the 
student body. One of President Goodell's predecessors 
is said (on good authority) to have remarked, that "the 
students did not give him half as much trouble as the 
professors and their wives." In answer to the question, 
"What were President Goodell's relations to his Faculty ? " 
the following answer was received from one who had full 
knowledge of the case. 

"Li all his relations with his Faculty, President Groodell 
was uniformly kind and considerate. He respected the 
dignity and authority of his Faculty as a governing body. 

3.n.iized by Google 


In cases of severe discipline he always allowed the students 
to have a fair and impartial hearing; but when the Faculty 
had reached a decision and passed sentence, he insisted 
that there should be no appeal and that the sentence be 
executed. He had great sympathy with inexperienced 
teachers. Many an hour did he give in counsel and advice 
to them, trying to bring them lessons from his own experi- 
ence. Even when he thought that the archer waald never 
be able successful^ to " teach the young idea how to shoot, " 
he would hope against hope and give the unfortunate an- 
other chance. Among the many hearts saddened by his 
death not a few were those whom the President had helped 
in the trying task of teaching college students." 

His acquaintances were very numerous. There were 
probably very few men interested in industrial education 
whom he did not know personal^; and beyond this, from 
year to year he had been accustomed to appear before 
committees of the Massachusetts Legislature and of the 
National Congress, and became acqumnted with the leading 
men in those shifting assemblies, and he never foi^t their 
looks or their opinions. Such was his nature that the casual 
acquaintance was so favorably disposed toward him as to 
proceed naturally to esteem and frieadship. His circle of 
friends was very large, and included the representatives 
of all conditions, all parties, all races, and all religions. Dif- 
ferences of opinion on im^rtant points, and even sharp 
contests where large pecuniary interests were involved, did 
not disturb his feelings toward the friend who opposed. In 
the contest between the Massachusetts Agricultural College 
and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, in regard 
to the division of the money granted by the Federal govern- 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


ment for agricultutal and medumica! education, the two 
coutestaats. President Goodell and President Francis A. 
Walker, came into court every morning, shook hands, chat- 
ted together and addressed each other by the old familiar 
names of "Prank" and "Harry." Yet each one waa dead 
in earnest that he was right, and the other was wrong; 
but when the smoke of the contest had cleared away, it did 
not leave even the shadow of a hght cloud on their spirits. 
Indeed his loyalty to his friends was chivalrous. He could 
not desert a friend even when that friend was guilty of 
an unpardonable mi'rfjtlr*' or even a crime. He illustrated 
in his conduct Emerson's declaration, "A friend may be 
regarded as the masterpiece of Nature." 

President Goodell waa a man of deep, strong and active 
himianitarian sentiments. He knew what it cost to be pa- 
triotic in the true sense of the word, in "times that tried 
men's souls," and his interest in his old comparrions in 
arms was green and fresh to the last. He was a mranber 
of the Loyal L^on and of the Edwin M. Stanton Grand 
Army post, was coirmiander at one time of the post and 
for many years a member of the relief corrmiittee. He 
looked after the memory of the dead with t^ider care; the 
imfortunate were always an object of his solicitude, arrd 
his apology for the old soldier, who had lost not a leg or an 
arm, but his self-control, is a fine bit of writing on a high 
plane of morality. 

Insight as keen as froat; star 
Was to his charity no bar. 

He had a profound sympathy with the toiling millions 
of earth, whose names are writ on water, who have done so 

cv Google 


much for man and his advaiiceaneDt, and when taUdng 
of their situation would <^ten repeat the linea of Bi^ard 
Taylor, which seem to have been favorites with him. 

The healing <A the irorld 
!• in ita nameks* Saints. Each aeparate star 
Seenu nothing but a myriad separate stars 
Break iq> the night and make it beautiful. 

He was very much mterested in the views of FHnce 
Kropotkin, especially in his articles on "Mutual Aid" 
which appeared in the "Nineteenth Century." In these 
articles the Prince brought out the fact that the great 
principle of mutual aid gave the best chance for the 
survival of those who best support each other in the 
struggle for life. He began with the lower «ninml« and 
traced it through savagery, barbarism, and every stage 
of civilization. The wealth of illustration and the tri- 
umphant march of the argument cleared i^ some vexed 
questions in Goodell's mind and strengthened his opti- 
mistic views by showing that the realization of the golden 
rule was a part of Nature's plan. 

His sympathies were not of a sentimental nature. There 
was hardly a movement for sodal betterment in his lime 
in wluch he was not interested. But what he did was usu- 
al^ done quietly, with the hope to secure a better under- 
standing of the case. His ideas of woman as wife and mother 
have been made sufficiently evident, but he did not con- 
fine her activities to those important functions and was 
desirous to illustrate her contributions to dvilization in 
another direction. For this purpose he gathered materials 
for a p^>er on "Woman as an Inventor," but ftuling health 
compelled him to abandon the project for the time bdng. 

3.n.iized by Google 


In 1891, he caUed the attention of the Executive of the 
Commonwealth to the "sweating system," sending refer- 
ences, to which GoTemor Russell replied: "I thank you 
very much for your lett^ of March 9 with its references on 
the 'sweating system,' which I shall be glad to euunine." 

In his immediate environment he was a transcendent 
power of beneficent action, but this action was silent in its 
operations and shunned publicity. Indeed, he was one of 
those rare spirits, "who passing through the vall^ of 
Baca make it a weU." 

He was one of the most grateful of men, and his grati* 
tude extended bo'ond the courteous or kindfy act done per- 
sonally to him to the heroes who had struck a blow for 
right, or ennobled life by a heroic deed or beautiful thought. 
This enabled him to appreciate every institution, or opin- 
ion, that had done ai^ihing to ennoble the lot of men. He 
probably thought that the monks were men "whose chief 
distinction was to be unmanly"; but he saw one phase of 
their life, and in his address on "The Influence of the Monks 
on Agriculture," he speaks of them as fellow workers. It 
was a luxury to do him a favor, not because he never foi^ot 
it, but because he made you feel that he stood on that high 
vantage ground where a "grateful mind by owing owes 

He saw the beauty in the common relations of life, in 
noble conduct, in heroic deeds, in wide sympathies and in 
the ai^irations of mankind. Of the invocation at the end 
of the Governor's Proclamation for the annual Thanks- 
giving, — "Grod save the Commonwealth of Massachu- 
setts," — he said, "It always fills me with uncontrollable 
emotions, and I wonder how anybody can read it in public." 

cv Google 


fie loved to read that stirring Lyric ot Brownell, '"nie 
Bay Fight," when "Fairagut's Flag was flying," but he 
could never get beyond the passage beginning: "Up went 
the white." What follows is a vivid description of the sud- 
den change that comes over brave men, all savage with 
fight, when the? come to look at the cost ot victory, the 
dead, the dying, the wounded, and think of the heartrend- 
ing sorrows that come to men, women and little children 
in some far-away and once happy home. 

Althoui^ not "a book man," or a collector of books, in 
the ordinary sense, he was a lover of books and familiar 
with the great masters of our speech from Chaucer to 
Tennyson. Literature was to him not so much an inter- 
preter of natmc and man, as a revelation of the widening 
possibilities of human life, of finer modes of feeling, and of 
nobler thoughts. Of the older writers, Edmund Spenser 
seems to have been a favorite, and as he entered the long 
picture-gallery of the "Faerie Queene," he felt as Milton 
did: "Our sage and serious Spenser is a better teacher than 
Scotus or Aquinas." The old dramatists, who are known 
to the great majority of modem readers only by name, were 
a mine in which he worked, and he made extensive studies 
of some of them. Massinger seems to have been his favorite. 
He possessed in a remarkable d^ree "retentiveness," 
which Greorge Eliot calls "a rare and massive power, like 
fortitude." It is indeed a happy ^t to be able to enjoy and 
profit by a good book and keep both the enjoyment and 
the profit as a perpetual inheritance. He had a remarkably 
retentive memory which served him well both in work and 
pUy. The scenes he had witnessed, the persons he had met, 
the heroic deeds and noble thoughts of which he had heard 

3.n.iized by Google 


or lead, seemed to liang to it aa clusters of grapes to tlieir 
stem, always ripe and ready for use. But, more tliau this, 
he had a peculiar memory for queer things and odd scraps 
of poetry, old saws, bits of simon-pure nonsense, the blmi- 
ders or unfortunate speeches of his friends, and he had an 
abrupt way of addressing them, suggested by some curious 
thing in the past. One <rf his students, now the president of 
an agricidtural college, he usually accosted with some long 
German compound, as — " Constantinopolischerdudel- 
sackspleikugesellscbaft ! " 

While this love of literature left a charming impression 
upon his reports and addresses, and, as we have seen, was 
cwried into the curriculum of the college, it made itself felt 
in another and very practical way. Year by year we find 
a statement in the annnftl report of the value of the library, 
and the statements grow stronger with advancing years. 
"What tools and stock are to the workman," he says, 
"books are to the professor and students. The library is 
the right arm of the instructing and the most important 
factor in the education of the pupU. There is no one thing 
which conduces so powerfully to inteUectual growth and 
activity in a college as a general and intdligent use of the 
library." Again, "In its relations to education the library 
goes hand in hand with the instruction in the recitation 
room and is its strongest support. It touches the pupil and 
the teacher alike, and is the fountain-head from which each 
d^Mirtment draws its in^iration." In the Ust report but 
one he says: "The Hbraiy should be kept up to the very 
highest state of efficiency. It is really the pivot on which 
the whole college turns and should be the -v&y centre of 
college life." He acted for many years as librarian, and gave 



a good deal of thought and the best part of his spare time 
to building up and strengtheiUBg the Ubra^ along the 
lines of study pursued in the college. As the result of his 
untiring efforts it became one of the best equipped libra- 
ries for its purpose in the country, and one that the people 
of the Commonwealth have a just right to be proud of. 
Toward the last he began to call attention to its limited 
quarters and said that a new fire-proof building would be 
needed in the near future. 

But his interest in hbiaries was not confined to that of 
the coU^^. He lent a helping hand in buQding up tlie li- 
brary of the town of Amherst. With this institution he 
was connected in various ways for twenty-seven years, and 
here as everywhere he was not a-figure-head, or contented 
to i^ve a little good advice, but a worker. It is said that the 
card-catalogue contains some seven thousand entries in 
his handwriting. He thought that the Hbraries of the land- 
grant collies should be enriched by the publications of the 
government, and that so important a matter should not 
be left to the representatives of the various states in Con- 
gress hut should be upon a firm basis. To accomplish this 
he commenced a cunpaign with great earnestness. In 
reply to his appeal Soiator George F. Hoar writes: — 

Fedrtwrji M, IBM 
Mt DBAS Fbssidbnt Goodell, — I think the Land- 
Grant Colleges should all be pubhc depositories of public 
documents, and I will endeavor to have the pending bill 
so amended as to accomplish the purpose. 
I am faithfully yours, 

Geo. F. Hoab. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Many of the symbols of rdigion in common use were ex- 
ceedingly distasteful to him on account of what seemed 
to him their coarse and vulgar materialism, and he did 
not possess the faculty of spiritualizing that which had 
no possible suggestion of the spirit. Of religion itself he said 
little and of theology nothing, especially in his later years. 
His early impressions on the subject were calvinistic in their 
tone and temper and would probably seem rigid from the 
standpoint of to-day. But Calvinism was in its best days 
one of the finest schools for the education of the domestic 
affections the world has ever seen, and his loyalty to the 
m«nory of his father and his teachings may have led to 
his reticence on this subject. During freshman year (No- 
vember 14, 1858) he united with the church connected with 
Amherst College, and scema never to have severed his 
relations with it. But after his marriage, as there was no 
church of the den<auination his wife preferred in town, a 
compromise was made and they worshiped at the Episco- 
pal church. Although he was never a communicant he held 
several offices in the society and was clerk of the parish 
long after his position as president made it incumbent on 
him to attend services at the College chapel, although he 
always maintained that the college, being a state institu- 
tion, should not be connected with any particular form of 
religion. There is eveiy evidence that he was attracted by 
the preacher more than by any dogmas he might or might 
not teach. When a young man he used to attend, as oppor- 
tunity offered, services at the West (Unitarian) Church. 
Boston, and he wrote that when his family heard of it they 
were both shocked and alarmed, but he said that he did not 
know that he was walking in the paths of Satan until they 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


told him. The truth was that the preacher's poetic intet- 
pretation of things and events, and the light he threw on 
the hidden beauty and inner meaning of the common re- 
lations of life) fascinated him. He was looking for what the 
preacher suggested concerning the significance and reahty 
of daily life, rather than for either of the doxies, and he saw 
nether. His mind was so liberal that there was probably 
not a church in Christendom with whom he could not have 
worshiped, but it is. very doubtful whether he would have 
united with any of them. 

When asked what he thought of death, he replied: "It is 
a perfectly natiyal event and that is all we know about it." 
To funerals as usually conducted he had an instinctive 
averfflon. His cheerful and Itopeful nature recoiled from 
the amount of doleful and depressing Scripture commonly 
read, and the dark symbols of mortality so often exhibited 
were not in accordance with his feelings or thoughts on 
such occasions. "How easy," he said in going aw^ from 
the funeral of one of his friends, "how easy it would have 
been to have selected some Scripture that would have 
cheered and comforted instead of that which was so duUy 
and heartless! It was enough to give one the nightmare." 
It is easier to get a look at the true inwardness of the 
moral and religious tone of a man's mind and nature by 
what he loves than by what he says. In talking with a 
friend as they sat on the piazza of his home, the conversa- 
tion turned on favorite passives in literature ; and after the 
exchange of quite a number, he went into the libraiy and 
brought out a copy of Edmund ^>enser, and turning to the 
8th Canto of the second book of the"FaerieQueene,"read 
not without emotion the two opening stanzas ; — 

3.n.iized by Google 


And u there care in heaven? And ia there love 
In heaven]; spirits to these creatures bace 
That maf compassiou of their evill«s moveP 
There is: else much more wretched were the caoe 
Of men th^ beasts. But Ot th' exceeding grace 
Of hi^lest God that loves his creatares so. 
And all his workes with mercy doth embrace. 
That blessed Angels he sends to and fro. 
To serve to wick«d men, to serve his wicked toe. 

" How oft do they their silver bowers leave. 
To come to succour us that succour wantl 
How oft do they with gdden pineons cleave 
The flitting skyes, like Sying Punuivont, 
Against fowle feendes to ayd us militant 1 
They tor u* fi^t, they watch and dewly ward. 
And tbdr bri^t Squadrons round about us plant: 
And all tor love, and nothing for reward. 
O! idiy should hevenly God to men have such regard?" 

A man who really feela what these lines express, — that 
there is an eternal guardianship of the individual and his 
hi^iest interests by an infinitely wise and intelligent good- 
ness; that the air of this world is filled with ministering 
pow^« and helpful judgments, — has arrived at a very 
high attitude of experience. Come what may, be it suo- 
idiine or storm, victory or apparent defeat, it is all the same 
to him. Cheerfidness, hop^uluess and courage will inspire 
him to the work that is before him, and no stormy night, 
however dark, can quench the genial li^t that emanates 
from the thought of a hving God in a living Humanity. 

Hemy Hill Goodell did the work of a true man. He was 
s brave soldier, an inspiring teacher, an able administra- 
tor, an active citizen, and a dear good friend. Into all these 
relations and duties he put a fine spirit of mingled cheerful- 
ness, hopefulness and courage. The monuments he has 

3.n.iized by Google 


built in the hearts of his many friends may seem ev^i now 
to be crumbling to the dust; but things ate not as they 
seem; they ^rill stand "while time and thought and being 
last and immortidity endures." He was an important fac- 
tor at the beginning of a great work destined to be of in- 
calculable importance to a great people; and when its his- 
tory b written he will appear as a wise and courageous 
pioneer and be assigned to his ri^tf ul place t^ an admiring 
and grateful posterity. 

3.n.iized by Google 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


3.n.iiffid by Google 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


You have done me the honor to ask me to address you 
to-Dight OD some personal incidents connected mth the 
late war. and I accept the more gladly because, wh^i those 
stirring scenes weie being enacted, you who sit before me 
to-night were only a possibiUty and had not then become 
an actuality. It seems hard to believe that a generation 
has passed away — a whole generation of breathing, speak- 
ing men; and when another thirty years has gone, there will 
lemsin few if any survivors to tell the story of those days. 
It is fitting then, before the whole has faded into a dream 
of the past, enveloped by that haze which time eventually 
throws round everything of bygone times, to try and recall 
some few of its features. What was worth fightii^ for dur- 
ing four years is worth talking about now — not boastingly, 
but reverently, forever and forever and forever. 

If law and order, honor, dvil right — 

If they WBa't worth it. yAuA vai worth a fight? 

Happily all strife is ended. The loyal common sense of 
the nation demands and will have a real peace, that means 

' This addieaa was prepared for the Gnind Army post in Amhent, and 
was afterwards repeated, with some alteratiom, at the request of the 
Btudenta of the Agricultural College. As here printed it was delivered to 
the students. 

3.n.iized by Google 


a peace of political life, not the peace of poHtical death. 
"No North! No South! No East! No West! But one 
people," — as our lamented Governor, in his matchless ad- 
dress at Chattanooga, puts it, — "but one people, animated 
by one purpose as splendid as ever the heart of man con- 
caved, — with one desUny, so grand and high that it fills 
the future with a glory such as the sons of men never looked 
on before." 

Old Homer in his blindness understood this when he put 
into the mouth of the gallant Trojan these words: "Tell me 
not of auguries. Let your birds fly to the East or to the 
West. I care not in this cause; we obey the will of Zeus who 
rules over us all, and our own best omen is our cotmtry's 

Did you ever think how lai^e a part sentiment plays in 
the great crises of the world? In the ordinary affairs of life 
one acute Yankee peddler mind is worth more for service 
to his d^ and generation than forty poetic souls ; but when 
the storm and strife of politics spUt states, and we are where 
steel and not gold will get us honorably and honestly out, 
and the world is war, then it is that the sentimental side 
of human nature, that sentiment that poets and thinkers 
feel, steps to the front and leads where the peddler nature 
dares not lead the way. The men who hold thewidest sway 
in the hearts of humanily, who have defended liberty when 
assaulted, who have poured oil and healing balm into her 
woimds after battle, are the men of this sort, men of this 
deep, poetic instinct, this moral tenderness, this apprecia- 
tion of the immortal. It is all that survives of the influence 
of Greece and Rome, of every ancient state. Sparta, a land 
of soldiers and slaves, gave us nothing; but the wry-minded 

3.n.iized by Google 


AthemaQ, the antique dreamer, holds the ear and the eye 
of the race to-day. Philip and his phalanx drove Demos- 
theses to death; while Demosthenes touches the lips of 
every fiery-souled orator that has ever stirred us to tears 
or rage. It is Plato's page against the sword of Sparta. It 
is the difference between Hamilton, the financial savior of 
a poor and struggling nation, and Jay Gould, the mere 
dancing bear of a stock-market, — the statesman versus 
the speculator. It is Napoleon at Wagram, riding up and 
down his shot-riddled ranks to save his crown, as opposed 
to Winthrop or Shaw leading the assault to save his coun- 
try. It is the man who thought and fought for all time as 
opposed to the man who fought only for himself and his 
little hour. It is spirituality against sordidneas; it ia high 
thoughts against low; it is the visible ag^nst the invisible; 
it is the dollar against the whole duty of man ; it is the world 
and its baseness against heaven and its purity. 

There has been a great amount of nonsense written about 
the war and its heroes. In books, war is most dramatic 
and poetic reading ; in life it is horrid cruelty, pure, unadul- 
terated cruelty — the savagery of wild beasts. The harvest 
blackens beneath its breath, the sweet, fair flowers cower 
and pale at its approach. The springing grass is crushed 
under the ceaseless roll of artillery wheels, or is dyed a 
crimson red, drunk with the blood of heroes. Leonidas and 
his brave three hundred, dark with the dust and blood of 
conflict, — that was real war, and yet tail ladies who have 
read their story with IHn d lin g eyes and burning cheek would 
have thought them no lovely sight in their hour of travail. 
The hero of a Sunday-school book b sometimes a muff or a 
milk-sop, sometimes a fiur ideal; but the hero of a battle- 

3.n.iized by Google 


field, grimed with powder, ay, sometimes black with guilt, 
is life, — half-humanities, half-brutalities. ShaJiespere 
makes Norfolk in the play s^: — 

"As gentle and u jocund, u to jest 
Go I to fi^." 

There are natures, I suppose, occasionaJly, who really 
feel the joy of conflict and go as jocund to a fray as to a 
feast; but in my heart of hearts I cannot help suspecting 
them. Thank heaven! they are few and far between. No- 
bodb^ sane and fairly intelligent ever went out to try conclu- 
sions with death in this dancing humor, and the herobm 
of the boys in blue had little of pride and pomp, of sounding 
music and streaming banner and "Vive TEmpereur" bois- 
terousness about it. No! there was nothing of the kid- 
glove review or pomp and finish of a dress parade about 
their battles. With faces drawn and gray, with heart in 
mouth and pulse beating like a trip-hammer, men stood and 
fought, wondering whether they could possih^ hold on a 
sin^e moment longer, wondering whether it were possible 
th^ could ever get out alive, and yet fixing their mold- 
ing feet as fimdy in the earth as a badger's claws and mak- 
ing a badger's bitter fight, simply because it was the hard 
but single road to their full duty. Homely heroes they were, 
but as genuine specimens as ever foi^t at the front and 
fell where they fought. 

It is not pleasant to think that a man with heroism 
enough to rally a losing fight by personal exposure should 
not be noble aU the way throng, but human nature is often 
like a pocket-miue out of which may come great nuggets, 
but no continuous yield. So the man who astonishes you 

3.n.iized by Google 


by taking lus life in his hands and heroically exposing it 
m^ often disappoint you by sordidness when you expect 
continuous and consistent sacrifice. There was none of 
the romance of historical heroism about our boys : in camp 
there was something of the meanness, something of the 
hypocrisy, something of the cowardice and blatant boast- 
ing found among mankind out of camps; but this was ex- 
ceptional where suffering and privation and peril were 
daily probing every man to the very marrowbones of his 
manhood. There b sturdy, admirable manliness in dying 
bravely for error, but there is more than manliness, there 
is magnificent moral sense, in dying for truth. Coun^e 
alone is not a patent of nobihty, for Macbeth, steeped to 
his Ups in crime, teemed with valor, with desperate, Satanic, 
self-preservative, not self-abnegating instinct. Martyrdom 
is of itself no proof of morality; many a so-called martyr's 
ashes are not worth collecting; the smoke of his sacrifice 
only vexed the sweet air of heaven, and his blood was the 
seed of no church that was worth humanity's sustaining. 

The poor drunken wretches in tattered clothes, reeling 
through OUT streets to-day, but wearing the button of the 
Grand Army of the Republic, are not pleasant objects to 
contemplate and are too often dismissed with sneer and 
scorn. But never forget the debt of gratitude you owe them. 
Life was just as dear to them as to you, but they risked it. 
Death was just as much an object of fear to them as to you, 
but they dared it. And for what? For a mere bit of senti- 
ment? For a bit of bunting bearing a square of blue, sown 
with stars, and barred with stripes of red and white? No! 
not that. But for an idea, a principle, eternal as the ever- 
lasting hills, — for right, for justice, for humani^. Ft^ve 

3.n.iized by Google 


them then for the sake of the victory th^ von. Forgive 
them for the blood they lavishlypoured out. Forgive them 
for the lives they freely offered. 

Martyrs tor freedom cannot die. 

TVhen marchea end, when strifes are o'er. 
In deathlesfl deeds they live, whose sleep 

The roll-call shall disturb so wxin. 

I have wandered far from my subject, but I could not 
help giving expression to the thoughts that have so often 
burned within me, as sitting on the chapd stage I have 
looked down into your faces and realized bow little you 
could posfflbly know or feel the great heart-throbs of your 
country during the years 1861 to 186fi. But you have asked 
me for some personal reminiscence, and discarding those 
of general interest, I have selected an incident wbicb may 
be entitled, "How the pay of a regiment was carried to 
New Orleans," 

Itwas the spring of 1863, and General Banks had inau- 
gurated the campaign which ended in the capture of the 
last rebel stronghold. We had marched to the very out- 
works of Port Hudson and engaged the Confederate forces 
on that historic night, when, lashed to the main-top high 
above the boiling surges, stout-hearted Farragut drove his 
vessels through the storm of shot and shell that was hurled 
upon him from the heights above, and cut the rebel com- 
munications between Fort Hudson and Vicksburg. These 
two fortified places were the only ones left on the Missis- 
sippi not in our hands. Grant was already hammering at 
Vicksburg, but before Fort Hudson could be invested, it 
was necessary to dispose of General Ti^lor and his forces. 

3.n.iized by Google 


who from thdr position in the south could fall upon our un- 
protected rear or make a dash for New Orleans. Returning 
then to our camp at Baton Roiige, after a few d^s' resti 
we were suddenly divided into two forces, one maichii^ 
down through the country to engage the enemy at New 
Iberia, and the rest of us sent round by water and up through 
the Atchafalaya to intercept and cut them to pieces. 

It was ordy a partial success. Driven from their position 
in Fort Bisland, they fell upon us in their retreat before 
we were fairly in position, and held us in <dieck while the 
whole anny slipped by. Then commenced the long pursuit, 
enlivened by daily sidrmiah and Bghting, which lasted 
from the shores of the Gulf to Shreveport in the extreme 
northwestern comer of the State, where they Were driven 
across the border into Texas. 

It was on this march that the incident occurred which I 
am about to narrate. We had been marching all day, in 
fact from before the dawn, trying to reach the Bayou Ver- 
milion before the enany could destroy the bridge. Men fell 
out by the score, but still we hurried on with all the speed 
our wearied limbs could support. Just as it was growing too 
dark to see, a battety opened upon us and there was a sharp 
charge of cavaliy. We were hastily thrown into position 
to receive them, but in an instant, wheeling, they had 
daahed across the bridge, destroying it in our veiy faces 
before it could be prevented. 

The next day was Sunday, and while we camped there, 
waiting for the constructioa of a new bridge, about half 
the advance division took the opportuni^ to strip and go 
in bathing. Suddenly, without an instant's warning, a troop 
of cavalry dashed down the opposite bank and opened fire 

3.n.iized by Google 


upon us. Such a spectacle never before was seen. The long 
roll was sounding, and naked men in every direction w^e 
making a da^ for their guns, trying to dress as they ran. 
Some, with their trousers on hindside before, did n't know 
whether they were advancing or retreatii^ and ran the 
wrong way; others, with simply a shirt and cap, were try- 
ing to adjust their belts. Officers were swearing and mounted 
aides were dashing about trying to bring order out of con- 
fusion. It was the foundation of the story Kipling tells of 
the parade after the taking of Lungtungpen. "Thin we 
halted and formed up, the wimmen hoiking in the houses 
and Lift'nint Brazenose blushin' pink in the light av the 
momin' sun. 'T was the most ondasint parade I iver tuk a 
hand in. Foive and twenty privits an' a officer uv the line 
in review order, an' not so much as wud dust a fife betune 
'em all in the way of clothin'. Eight av us had their belts 
an' pouches on; but the rest had gone in wid a handful of 
cartridges an' the skin God gave thim. They was as nakid 
as Vanus." 

The next day we were ordered to Barrett's Landing to 
act as guard for a steamer coming up through the bayous 
with supplies, and here my story properly begins. 

It was April S%, 186S, and the regiment, exhausted by 
the conflict of the 14th and the rapid march ensuing, fol- 
lowing hard upon the track of Taylor's flying forces, horn 
Franklin on to Opelousas, was resUng at Barrett's Landing, 
when sudden^ the whole camp was thrown into a ferment 
and fever of excitement by the news that the paymaster 
had arrived and would be at headquarters at twelve o'clock. 
Oh, welcome news to men who bad been without p^ for 
six months ! How the eye glistened, and the mouth watered 

3.n.iized by Google 


for the leeks and fieshpots of Louisiana t What visions of 
sutler's delicatnes opened up once more to those whom long 
Hck had gradually restricted to a Spartan diet of hard tack 
and salt pork I What thoughts of home and the money that 
could be sent to loved ones far away, suffering peihaps for 
lack of that very money ! But how to do it — there was 
the question. Here we were in the voy heart of the leixA 
country, two hundied miles at least from New Orleans, 
in the nUdst of an active campmgn. No opportunity to 
send tetters except such as chance threw in the way, 
and no certtunty that such letters would ever reach thdr 
destination. Added to this came the order to be ready to 
march at four o'clock. Whither we knew not; but the foe 
was ahead, and our late experience had tau^t us that 
life was but an uncertuu element and that a rebel bullet 
had a very careless way of seeking out and finHing ita 

Id the midst of all the bustle and confusion, the sergeant- 
major came tearii^ along through the camp, excitedly 
inquiring for lieutenant Goodell. That estimable officer, I 
am sorry to say, having received no pi^, owing to some 
infonnalify in his p^>ers when mustered in from second to 
first lieutenant, had retired into the shade of a nd^boring 
magnolia tree and was there meditating on the cussedness 
of pi^masters, mustering officers, the aimy in general. la 
fact everything looked imcommonly black, and never be- 
fore had he so strong beheved in universal damnatioa. 
To him, then, thus communing, came king-legged Symonds, 
the aergeant-major, and aud: "You will report for duty at 
once to head-quarters. You are directed to receive the pay 
of the regiment and proceed forthwith to New Orleans, 

3.n.iized by Google 


there to express it home, retuming to the regiment as soon 
thereafter as practicable." 

Gone at once were my sulks, — vanished in an instant 
my ill-humor, black demons and everything. Though I 
could not help wondering how in all creation I was going 
to perform a journey of several hundred miles, that would 
occupy a week at least, without a cent of mon^ in my 
pocket. A clerk was detailed to a^st me, and for the next 
hour I counted money over a hard-tack box. jamming it 
away instantly into my haversack, while he entered in a lit- 
tle book the lunounts received from each person, the sums 
given to pay for its expressage, and the addresses to which 
it was to be sent. No time to make change. Even sums 
were given, counted, and tucked away with a rapidity 
which, it seems to me now, could not have been equaled 
even by the deft cashier of our own First National. 

At the IftnHing was a Httle stem-wheel steamer, captured 
from the rebels, which was to leave for Brashear City in an 
hour or two. The sick and wounded were hastily transferred 
to it, and as the regiment marched off, I stepped on board, 
with my precious haversack, now swollen out to unwonted 
proportions. Not a stateroom, not a berth was to be had. 
Here was no safe in which I could deposit valuables. Too 
many knew what I was carrying, and I dared not for an 
instant lift the weight from my shoulders, or ronove my 
sword and pistoL like Mary's lamb, where'er I went, the 
haversack was sure to go. 

Never shall I forget the beauty of that sail, and, but for 
the feeling of distrust and suspicion that made me look 
upon every man that approached me as a personal enemy, 
I should have thoroughly enjoyed it. We were dropping 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


down one of those little bayous tliat intersect the State in 
every direction. The spring freshets had swollen the stream 
and set its waters far back into the forests that lined its 
banks on ^ther side. Festoons of Spanish moss drooped 
like a mourning veil from bough to bough. Running vines 
with br^t-colored sprays of flowers twined in and out 
among the branches of the trees. The purple passion flower 
flung out its starry blossoms to the world, the sign and sym- 
bol of a suffering Sairtour, — while the air was heavy with 
the scent of magnolias and yellow jessamines. Crested 
herons, snowy white, rose from the water, and, stretching 
their long necks and legs out into a straight line with thdr 
bodies, winged theit flight above the tree-tops; pelicans 
displi^ed their ungainly forms as they snapped at the pass- 
ing fish and neatly laid them away for future reference in 
their pouches; strange birds of gaudy plumage flew from 
aide to side, harshly screaming as they hid tbem^ves in the 
dense foliage. Huge alligators sunned themselves along 
the shore, or showed their savage muzzles as they slowly 
swam across our path. Frequently, at some sharp bend, it 
seemed as if we must certainly run ashore; but, the engine 
being reversed, the current would swing the bow round, and 
by dint of hard pushing with poles, we would escape the 
threatened danger, and start ag^ in our new direction. 

Sunset faded into twilight, and twilight deepened into 
the darkness and silence of a Southern night, — and then 
the entire loneliness and responsibility of my portion sud- 
denly overwhelmed me. I had no place to Ue down, and 
hardly dared ut, for fear of fallii^ asleep. It seemed as 
though I could hear whispers behind me, and every now 
and then I would catch myself nodding, and wake with a 

3.n.iized by Google 


cold chill nmning up and down the small of my back, as I 
felt sine that some unlawful hand was tunpermg with my 
burden. With the coming of the dawn, I breathed moie 
freely, but the day seemed interminable, and it became a 
very burden to hve. Twice we broke down, aud tying up 
to a friendly tree repaired the damage. Night came again, 
and found us still miles away from our destination. It was 
horrible. I walked the deck — drank coffee — pinched my- 
self — ran pins into my legs. "Oh, if I can only keep 
awake!" I kept repeating to myself. But at twoo'clock in 
the morning we brokedown again, with the prospect of being 
detained some hours. I knew that , if I did not reach Brashear 
City by seven o'clock, I shoidd be another dreary day on 
the way, and lose my connections with the single train for 
New Orleans. Time was an element of importance, for I 
should lose the mail steamer tor New York and be delayed 
in my return to the regiment, which I had left in the heart 
of Louisiana, marching onward — I knew not where, but 
with faces set towards the North, 

Finding that we were distant from eight to twelve miles 
across country, according to the different estimates, I deter- 
mined to make the attempt to reach it on foot. Any danger, 
anything seemed preferable to storing on the boat. With 
the first breaking of the dawn, when I could get my bear- 
ings, I slung myself ashore. A private in my regiment, 
discharged for disability, begged to accompany me. With 
weapons ready for instant use, we pushed along, afraid of 
our own shadows, looking for a lurking foe behind every 
bush; and when some startled bird suddenly broke from its 
covert, the heart of one, at least, stood still for a moment, 
and then throbbed away like a steam-engine. If a man was 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


seen, hbwever distant, we dropped to cover and watched 
him out of sight before we dared move. For the first mile 
our progress was very slow — now wading through water, 
DOW sinking in the mud, floundering about as best we could, 
while the mosquitoes and gnats settled down on us in 
swarms, uttering a triumphant buzzing as though they 
recognized the fact that they had fresher blood to feed on 
than that offered by the fever-stricken victims of the 
South, and were determined to make the most of their oppor- 
tunity. But the open country once reached, we lengthened 
out our steps and struck into a six-mile gut. Soon my com- 
panion began to falter and fall behind. But I could not af- 
ford to wait. Telling him that I presumed he was all right, 
buti could not run any risks, I stood him up by a tree, and 
taking his gun, marched off a couple of hundred yards, then 
laying it down, I shouted to him to come on, and, setting 
off at the top of my speed, saw him no more. Whether he 
ever reached his destination, or whether — wandering 
helplessly along — he was swooped down upon by some 
guerilla and led away to starve and die in a Southern 
prison, I did not leant for many years. But at the last re- 
union I attended, having been called on to respond to the 
toast, "The postal service of the regim^it tead what you 
know about it," at the conclusion of my remarks, a stout, 
grizzled veteran grasped my hand and said: "Loot. I'm 
glad to see you. I thought it pretty cruel of you to leave 
me alone in Dixie, but you had warned me beforehand, 
and I guess you were right." 

Avoiding the bouses and striking across the fields, I made 
the last part of the way at full run, and drew up panting and 
exhausted at Berwick Bay shortly after six. Not a moment 

3.n.iized by Google 


■WBB to be lost. I could hear the engine pufiBng across the 
waters. Shouting to a darkey who seemed to rise up pre- 
tematurally out of the ground, I ordered him to row me 
over; and a more astonished man I think I never saw, than 
he was, when, on reaching the opposite shore, with but 
ten minutes to spare, I bolted from the boat without a word 
and started on the run for headquarters. The general was 
asleep, but tea mde carried In my pass, dgoed by General 
Banks, brought it back countersigned, and in five minutes 
more I was aboard the train moving on to New Orleans. 

Of this paxt cJ n^^ journey I have a very indistinct re- 
monbrance. My impression is that I dozed whenever I 
sat down, and I was so dog-tired I could hard^ stand. I 
had had nothing to eat since the night before, and was faint 
and exhausted with hunger and my exertions. Nothing 
but the special trdning my class had taken in the gymna- 
sium during the previous year for just such an emeigency 
pulled me through the long run and long fast following it. 
It was only a run of one hundred miles, but I think we must 
have stopped to wood and water at every cottonwood grove 
and swamp along the way; and I remember at one of these 
periodical stops going out on the platform and there falling 
into an altercation with a litUe red-headed doctor, who — ' 
whether he had scented my secret or not, with that divine 
intuition for discovering the hidden peculiar to the craft, 
— had made himself officiously offensive to me, and now 
wanted to borrow my revolver to shoot a copper-head that 
lay coiled up by the side of the track. Refused in that, he 
next wanted to examine my sword; and when, under some 
triffing pretext, I abruptly left him, and, going inside the 
car, sat down as near as possible to a bluff-looking lieuten- 

3.n.iized by Google 


ant, whose honest face seemed a true indication of char- 
acter, his wrath knew no bounds and was quite out-spoken. 
Peace to your injured spirit, oh fiery-headed son of Es- 
culapius. if you are still in the land of the living! I here 
tender you my humble aptdo^es. Doubtless you intended 
nothii^ more than to cconpare the efficiency of my leaden 
balls with one of your own deadly boluses, or to see how my 
cleaver compared in sharpness with one of your own little 
scalpeb. But at that particular time I should have been 
suspicious of my own brother had he desired to inspect or 
use my arms. 

It was late Saturday afternoon, when, tired, and fiunt, 
the ferry landed me in the city. Pushing straight to the 
office of the Adams Express Company, I told them I had 
the pay of a regiment to express home, and wanted five or 
six hundred money-blanks and envelopes. I shall never 
forget the look of incredulity with which the clerk looked 
at me. I was dirty and ra^ed, just in from the front — 
wore no shoulder-straps, for we had been ordered to remove 
than and diminish the chances of being picked off by the 
sharp-shooters, but bad sword and pistol and an innocent- 
looking haversack hanging at n^ side. However, he said 
not a word but passed over the papers. 

My next adventure was in a saloon, where, on calling 
for a drink of whisky, I was informed that they were not 
allowed to sell to privates. On my throwing down my pass 
signed by General Banks, the courteous keeper acknow- 
ledged his mistake, and invited me to take something at his 
expense. Immediatdy after supper, to which — it is hardly 
necessary to say — I was accompanied by that conf oimded 
haversack (I f air^ loathed it by this time) , I retired to my 

3.n.iized by Google 


room, locked the door and went to vork. Excitement kept 
me up and by two o'clock everything was done; the mon^ 
counted and placed in the envelopes, and the blanks filled 
out, and the footing correctly made. Then only did I know 
how much I had carried with me, and how precious were 
the cont«nts of my haversack. Barricading my door with 
the table, and wedging a chair in between it and the bed, 
Ithrustthe haversack between the sheets,slid in afteriti 
liud my revolver by the pillow, and in an instant was sound 
asleep. The next morning, on going down to breakfast, 
I innocently inquired of the clerk in the office if he would 
give me a receipt forvaluables. "Certainly," was his smil- 
ing rejomder, "for how much?" — "$24,346," I replied, 
and half-opening n^ haversack, showed him the bundles of 
express envelopes, ei^laiuing that it was the pay of a regi- 
ment. "Wheredidyouke^thislastnigbt?" wasthenext 
question. "In hq' room," — "Youd — fool, it might have 
been stolen." — "True, but I thought it would be sate 
enough, and besides I did not know how much I had." 

Breakfast over, I repaired at once to the office of the ex- 
press company, and by noon, with my receipts in my 
pocket, I stepped forth feeling as if a ^gantic load had 
been rolled from my shoulders. 

Of u^ joum^ back there is no need to speak : but suf- 
fice it to say that two or three wedu thereafter, one night 
as the sun was settiog, I stood with beating heart on the 
levee, outside of Sim^Kirt on the Red River, waiting for 
the coming of the raiment on its march down from Al^»n- 
dria. Column after column passed and still I waited. But 
suddenly I caught the roU of drums and there came a dim- 
ness over my eyes, for I recognized familiar forms. The 

3.n.iized by Google 


colonel riding at the hefid — the little drum-major — the 
colors and each well-known face. As they came up and I 
saluted, some one recognized me and called my name. 
Instantly the cty, "Lieutenant Goodell has cornel" swept 
down the line, and with one mighty shout the boys wel- 
comed bach the bearer of their pay. That night I went 
from campfire to campfiie and gave to each orderly ser- 
geant the receipts for his company. Of all that money only 
one envelope went astray, and the express compai^ made 
good the loss. 

But one more incident remains to be told, and then my 
etoryisdone. It seems that, owing to my delay in returning 
to the r^pment (having to wait for transportation more 
than a week) , the men began to get imeasy, and finally one 
day a man hinted that I had made off with the money. 
Instantly the httle drum-major, whom I had once rescued 
in an evil ph^t in Hartford where we were encamped, 
leaped at him, knocked him down and gave him such a 
licking as he had not had since his childhood days, when, 
stretched across the maternal knee, he shed bitter tears, 
as the shingle sought and found him every time. 

3.n.iized by Google 


The subject assigned me to-night Is the Channel Islands 
and their agriculture. There is no more interesting spot on 
the face of the globe, uid none that displays shaiper con- 
trasts. Geographically belonging to France, territorially 
they form an outlying dependency of the British crown. 
Apparently most barren and unfertile of soU, th^ yield 
crops rivaling in richness those of the virgin plains of our 
own great West. Bent and torn by the waves that rush in 
upon them from the Atlantic, lashed by the refluent surge 
from the coast of France, and swept by the boiling tides that 
under favoring circumstances rise to a he^t of over forty 
feet, they find in the floating sea-wrack of the v^y waves 
which threaten their existence the chief elemrait of their fer- 
tility. Lying at the very entrance of the English Channel, 
just where it broadens out and loses itself in the immensity 
of the ocean, and exposed to every wind that blows, th^ yet 
enjoy a climate so equable and mild that the flowers of the 
tropics bloom there the year round in the open air. 

No less remarkable in their characteristics are the people. 
Calling themselves Englishmen, they yet speak a paloU of 
Freoch impossible to be understood by any one not native 
bom, and compel its use in school and court. Bhndly adher- 
ent to ancient law and custom, tb^ have made themselves 
known the worid over for the advanced position they have 
taken on all matters pertaining to t^culture. Jealously re- 

3.n.iized by Google 


sisting every eDcroachment upon their liberties, and soinde- 
pendent that all laws affecting them have first to be passed 
upon and approved by their own States before becoming 
vahd, they yet are the most loyal of subjects and tena- 
cious ia their support of the crown. The last of the great 
French possessions united to England when William the 
Conqueror crossed the Channel and overthrew the Saxon 
dynasty, they have remained through all these years 
unshaken in their fidehty to the representatives of their 
hereditary sovereigns. Race, language, contiguity of terri- 
tory, would seem to have allied them to Norman France; 
yet so slight was the bond that held them, that shortly after 
the separation we find this added petition in their htany: 
"From the fury of the Norman, good Lord dehver us." 
Undoubtedly in bygone ages, before subsidence had taken 
place, these islands formed a part of the continent, and were 
actually joined to France; but now they stand like sentinels, 
lone outposts, surrounded l^y rualung tides and raging seas, 
which in their ceaseless action have eaten out and swept 
away the softer and more friable rocks, leaving only a " fret 
work of those harder barriers that still resist attack, and are 
enabled to present a bold and serried front against their 
relentless enemy." 

"Die Channel Islands are six in number, namely, Jersey, 
Guernsey, Aldemey, Sark, Jethou and Henn, and lie one 
hundred miles south of England and fifteen from the shores 
of France, bemg well within a Hne drawn parallel to the 
coast, from the end of the peninsula on wluch Cherbourg is 
built. Hie two largest of these — Jersey and Guernsey — 
are the ones with which we shall concern ourselves to-night. 
Small in area, mere dots on the smiace of the globe, they 

3.n.iized by Google 


yet have won for themselves a name and place in the agri- 
culture of eveiy civilized nation of the woild. The first, 
some eleven miles in length by five and a half in breadth, 
covers an area of 28,717 acres; the second, nine and a half 
miles in length by ^ and a half in breadth, contiuns about 
19,706 acres. Of these areas scarce two-thirds is land that 
can be cultivated, for we must bear in mind that the f tmna- 
tion is mostly granite, rising in cUffs from two hundred to 
four hundred feet, with de^ indentations aad wide encirc- 
ling bays where the sea has eaten into the shore. From 
the elevated crest to the water's edge is a "wide margin of 
descent upon which fertile soil cannot accumulate, and a 
poor and scanty pasturage, its only possible produce, is gen- 
erally more or less overpowered by brake, gorse and heath." 

As you approach the Jersey coast nothing more pictur- 
esque can well be imagined. Ten miles of granite cliff stretch- 
ing along its northern exposure, two hundred and forty to 
fourhundred and eighty-fivefeetinheight, while oathe south 
eight miles of similar formation rise from two hundred to 
two hundred and fifty feet, and agdnst this the waters madly 
foam and break and dash tbdr spray far up the sides, rend- 
ing and rifting them in every possible maimer, or wearily 
out dark chasms and overhanging arches. There results 
from this formation a general slope and exposure to the 
south very favorable to vegetation. Furthermore, the whole 
island is intersected from north to south by a succession of 
ravines or vall^s, gradual^ widening and increasing in 
depth, and forming a natural chaimel for the small streams 
taking their origin in the springs which everywhere abound. 

It has been said that the three primary elements necessary 
to the success of agricultural operations are skiUul hus- 

3.n.iized by Google 


baodiy, a well-constituted soU and a genial climate. All 
three (^ these requifdtes Jeraey possesses in the bi^test 
d^ree. Thou^ resting on a bed of primaiy rocks of gran- 
ite, qrenite, and schist, absolutely vantiug in organic re- 
mains, yet the soil is a rich loam, vaiying in lightness with 
the character of the und^lying stratum. Even in the bays, 
where the sand driven by the winds has encroached upon 
the soil, the land is so successfully tilled, that St. Clements 
Bay has won for itself the title of the "Garden of Jersey." 
Thedimate is one of the most equable and mild in the world. 
Barely does it fall below the freezing point, and there is 
but one instance on record of its reaching 8S degrees. The 
ground seldom freezes more than ui inch or two, and the 
slight snows serve to keep off the frost altogether. Winter 
there is none^ but the spring is usually cold and late. The 
mean daily rai^ of the thermometer is ^»;eptiotia]Iy small. 
Taking the average of ten yeaxs, it is found to be but 8.1 de- 
grees. The days of summer are not very hot, but the ni^ts 
are comparatively warm, and there is hardly any chill in the 
ni^t air at any season of the year. There is no recorded 
climate, uid probaUy no climate whatever in north temper- 
ate latitudes, on either side of the Atlantic, that presents so 
small a daily range of the thermometer. Such is the opinion 
of an enthusiastic traveler. 

As a result of this, many kinds of plants end shrubs are 
at least a fortnight earlier than even in the warmer parts 
of England, and the ripening of fruit in the open air during 
July, August uid Septonber is invariably some days ear- 
lier than at Greenwich, although the summer is cooler than 
at that place. Another striking peculiarity, which doubt- 
less has its effect upon vegetation, is the nunfall. Taking 

3.n.iized by Google 


the average of six years, rain is fomid to fall on one liun- 
dred and fifty days, but it most frequently occurs at night 
or early in the morning, seldom lasting through the day, 
th^eby securing the maximmn of sunshine. The mean an* 
nual rainfall is about thirty-three inches. Under these 
favorable conditions of temperature and moisture a flora 
that is almost trc^ical prevails. Fuchsias reaching the pro- 
portions of shrubs, rhododendrons twenty to twenty-five 
feet in height, araucarias, — or monkey-trees, as they are 
popular^ designated, — oleanders, yuccas, pahns, azaleas, 
and camellias floiuisb in the open air, while climate and soil 
appear to be particulariy suitable for the cultivation of the 
dahlia. Kner specimens I have never seen. The lauresti- 
nus was in bloom in November, and fig trees and oranges 
were everywhere to be seen trained against the south walls 
of enclosures. 

It b a climatic law that in all places where the mean 
temperature is below 62.6 degrees, the revival of nature in 
spring takes place in that month of whic^ the mean tem- 
perature reaches 4S.8 degrees. On the island of Jersey this 
occurs in February. This again is a very important factor 
in the agricultural development of the place, fer the earty 
spring and the proximily of the great markets of London 
and Paris enable the inhabitants to dispose of their produce 
at a great profit. It is no uncommon thing for a man to 
p^ tor a piece of potato land as high a rental as two to 
three hundred dollars aa acre, and to sell his crop of four or 
five hundred bushels for $1,000 or $1,100. But this is not 
the end, for immediately after the gathering of the first crop 
the land is freshly manured and a second crop is planted, 
yielding from two-thirds to three-fourths the amount of the 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


first, llieae results can be seemed only by the application 
of lai^ quantilies of manuie. Bam-yard manure and also 
artificial fertilizers are used; but tbe main dependence is 
placed upon the vraic or sea-weed. The old l^end runs: 
"No Traic, no com; no com, no cows; no cows, no bread 
for children's mouths." This is ^ther washed ashote t^ 
the action of the waves, or, at the period of maturity, is 
separated by bill-hooka or si<^Ies fastened to long poles 
and drawn in by rakes with a head two or three feet wide 
and handles twelve to twenty feet long. The cutting and 
gathering of the vraic is a general holiday, terminating 
usually in a frohc. It is only allowed twice a year: once in 
February, b^inning with the first new or full moon and 
lasting five weeks; and ag^n in June, begirming in the 
middle of the month and closing on the Slst of August. 
Whole families will frequently unite, and, going to some 
spot previously selected, work hard all day, the men stand- 
ing up to their waists in water, using their unwieldy sickles 
and rakes, and the women and children dragging the prize 
up beyond the reach of the tide. With the conung of night 
the sea-weed is removed in carts, uid then all hands, meet- 
ing at the house of some one of th^ number, spend the 
hours in dancing and sin^ng. During the first four weeks of 
the summ» cutting, only the poor, or those having no 
cattle, are allowed to gather this harvest of the sea. That 
cast up by the waves may be taken at all seasons by any per- 
son between the hours of sunrise and ^ght o'clock at night. 
About sixty thousand loads are gathered annually, valued 
for menurial purposes at about fifty cents per load. It is 
applied either fresh at the rate of ten loads to the acre, or 
in the form of ashes obtained by burning it, a load yielding 

3.n.iized by Google 


about three bushda of ash. There are two species of this 
vraic, the Fucus and the Laminaria, and tJlie following 
analyses will give an idea of their value: — 




Water in the imdried weed .... 

Dm Weed 

Orgiiuc matter, per cent 






Sulphuric acid 

Chlorides <rf PoUah and sodium . . . 









The drift weed bdongs to the Laminaria, of which there 
ore two varieties, and the cut weed to the Fucus, of which 
there are three. The latter b considered the more valuable, 
perhaps ham its containing a larger perceuti^^ of organic 

The population of Jers^, according to the last census, is 
a little over 65,000. The area of the island is, as already 
stated, S8,717 acres. Of this, only 19,514 are under cul- 
tivation, so that practically three persons are supported 
to each acre. It may not be uninteresting to note the 
acreage of the different crops, and compare it with the 
amount of produce exported. In 1891, the com crops 

3.n.iized by Google 


(wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans, and peas) occupied 2,199 
acres, wheat leading with 1,700; green crops, including 
potatoes, turnips, mangolds, cabbages, and vetches, 
7,816, potatoes leading with 7,000; clover and grasses under 
rotation, S,%47; permanent pasture, 4,058; flax, 3; smaU 
fruits, 1S8; and uncropped arable land, 38. Horses num- 
bered 2,S60; cattle, 12,073; she^, 805; and pigs, 7,618. 
In that same year th^« were exported, into England alone, 
2,800 cows and calves, or a little over one-sixth the en- 
tire number; 25 tons of butter; 1368,165 bushels of po- 
tatoes, an average of 266 bushels to every acre under cul- 
tivation; 86,000 dozen eggs; 74,969 busheb of fruit and 
vegetables, to the value of $400,000; the whole footing up 
to the snug little income of $3,700,000, to be distributed 
among the 2,600 farmers owning or cultivating land. It is 
a noticeable fact that, while the cattle were valued at 
£40,000, the potatoes were placed at £447,184, or eleven 
times that sum. 

The above figures are equally applicable to Guernsey, 
except that there a greater amount of fruit is grown, the 
year^ export of grapes footing up to more than 500 tons. 
Tomatoes are raised in immense quantities for the Lon- 
don market, but no reliable statistics were avtulable. As 
compared with our best varieties, they are very inferior 
in size and quality. The vines are trained up against the 
sides of the houses, and continue bearing sometimes more 
than (me year. The principal fruits are grapes, apples and 
pears. Jersey dder was at one time so celebrated that the 
agricultural sode^ of the Department of the Lower Sdne 
in France seat over a commission to learn the methods of 
manufacture; but the apple trees are now giving yray to the 

3.n.iized by Google 


potato, though still 80,000 to 40,000 busheb ,of the fruit 
are eqwrted annually. Climato and soil seem especially 
adapted to the cultivation of pears, of which there are some 
fifty varieties grown, — bergamottes, doyennea, beurrSa, etc. 
But the most remarkable are the chaunKmid, whose fruit 
frequently reaches proportions that are truly wonderful. 
For fear you should think I am drawing on my imagination, 
permit me to quote from official records: — 

"These pears are usua%plucked about the 10th ctf Octo- 
ber, but are not fit for use for several weeks, being in per- 
fection about Christmas. Those weighing sixteen ounces 
are r^arded as first-rate, and fetch good prices. Fears of 
this size averse in value twenty-five to thirty dollars per 
hundred in the island markets; but as they diminish in size 
and weight the value falls rapidly, the numerous small fruit 
being considered only fit for baking, althou^ in point of 
flavor they are httle inferior. The largest and best grown 
fruit on record was r^sed at Laporte in Guernsey in 1849. 
It measured ax and one-half inches in length, fourteen and 
one-half in girth, and weighed thirty-eight ounces. As a 
group of pears from a migle tree, there is periiaps no more 
remarkable instance recorded than <me occurring in the sea- 
son of 1861, when, of five fruit obtained from one tree in 
the garden of Mr. Maiquand of Bailiff's Cross, Guernsey, 
four of them weired tc^ther seven and one-half pounds. 
It is worthy of remark that in this case the tree, though 
usually proliflc, bore only these five fruit. The pears in 
question weighed respectively thirty-two and one-half, 
thirty-three, thirty-one and one-half, and tw^ity-two 

Equally remarkable among the v^etables are the great 

3.n.iized by Google 


cow cabbages. They reacb a height of ei^t to ten feet. I 
myself measured one that was over eleven, and at the agri- 
cultural rooms at St. Helier there is preserved the record 
of one whose stalk measured sixteen. It takes a year for 
these plants to mature. Th^ are set in November or De- 
cember, about two feet ^Mirt, and grow all through tlie 
following season. The ground is hoed up against thent when 
ihey have reached a certain h^ght, having been previously 
enriched with sea-weed. The leaves are stripped off as 
they become large, being used either for feeding cattle or 
packing butter, and the plants are left to spindle up with a 
small crown at the top. The stalks, which occasionally take 
on tree-like dimensions, ace used as palisades for fences or 
poles for beans, but most frequently they are shellacked 
over or varnished and made into canes, selling readily to 
tourists at prices ranging from fifly cents to a couple of 

From what has been sdd it will be readily conjectured 
that the potato is the chief crop. The greatest care is taken 
in the selection of seed, and they are handled as tenderly as 
the choicest fruit, each tuber being picked up separate and 
placed in an <q>en crate, only one layer deep. In some 
sheltered spot or in a shed these crates are piled up one 
above the other UU ready for use. When preparing for 
planting, these are placed in some warm comer and the 
potatoes allowed to sprout, selection beii^ made of those 
shoots which have formed a healthy top and spring from 
a good eye. About twenty-two hundred-weight of seed per 
acre is used, being set about ten inches apart, and in rows 
some twenty-two or three inches wide. Cultivated in the 
open air, they are ready for market in April and Meq', but 

3.n.iized by Google 


witli the glass-house system now in vogue they aie matured 
much earher. Previous to the mroads of the potato disease, 
which greatly affected the crops, it was no micommon thing 
to have a yield of twenty tons to the acre, and the average 
was fourteen; but it has now dropped to ten or eleven. So 
great is the demand for these potatoes that few are retained 
for home use, and large quantities are imported fromFrance 
into Jersey for consumption; but, owing to the early crop 
being e:^>orted at a very high price, and the French potatoes 
purchased when the price is lowest, the balance of profit 
remains very largely in favor of the island. 

Some idea of the fertility of the soil may be formed from 
the following figures: Hay averages three and one-half tons 
to the acre; a good return of one-year-old clover is over four 
tons, of two-year-old not more than three oad one-quarter; 
wheat averages thirty-five bushels, though in some favored 
fields the yield has reached sixty ; mangolds fifty tons, occa- 
uonally reaching seventy; parsnips twenty-five to thirty; 
and carrots thirty. Wheat is sown ui January, and that 
is followed by parsnips and potatoes; oats in February, and 
mangolds in April. The rotation of crops is a five-year cme, 
namely, turnips, potatoes, wheat, hay, hay. The grass is 
top-dressed in January or February mth sea-weed, and that 
is followed later in the season by an application of liquid 
manure. Everything is turned to getting the most possible 
out of the land; and a recent writer, with just a touch of 
sarcasm, remarks: "Jersey still remains a land of open- 
field culture, and yet its inhal>itatits, who happily have not 
known the blessings of Roman law and landlordism, and 
still hve under the common law of Normandy, obtain from 
\bear land twice as much as the best farmers of England. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Besides their potatoes, they grow plenty of cereals and 
grass for cattle; they have mrae than one cow to each acre 
of meadows and fields under grass; they export every year, 
besides a large amount of dairy products, some 2,300 milch 
cows; and, on the whole, obtun agricultural produce to the 
amount of $750 to each acre of the surface of the island." 
So much has been said and written of late years respect- 
ing the cattle of Jersey that it would seem almost unneces- 
sary to ma\ce mention of them. A few facts, however, in 
re^^ard to their numag^nent and c^e, may not be unin- 
teresting. In roimd numbers, twdve thousand are scattered 
over the island, but nowhere are large herds to be seen. 
Bunches of two or three, at most five or six, are found on the 
different farms, rarely more. This is easily accounted for by 
the small holdings of the farmers, the 19,000 acres of arable 
land being distributed among 2,600 owners. Of the entire 
number, according to the returns of 1891, 6,700 were cows 
and heifers in milk tn- in calf, 668 were two years and over, 
and 4,600 were under two years. Cows are considered in 
their prime at six and continue good until ten. After that 
they deteriorate rapidly. The first calf is usually drojq^ed 
when the animal is two or under, and this has been offered 
as a reason for the small size of the breed. Cattle are al- 
lowed to remdn out from May to October. After that they 
are housed at night, being driven in at four and let out at 
nine the following day. Th^ aie fed morning and evening, 
their ration being the same, three-fourths bushel of roots 
and a little hay, and are milked three times a day during 
the summer. When out at paatuie ihey are never allowed 
to roam, but are close tethered by a rope about four yards 
in length. Three times a day the stake to which the tether 

3.n.iized by Google 


is attached is moved dghteen inches on a line parallel to the 
side of the field. Ltthis manner the most econcanical use is 
made of the pasturage, and every blade of grass is cropped 
close. The wholecare of the cattle devolves upon the women, 
who make great pets of them. As a result, they become 
Angularly gentle and docile. 

Since 1789, when a very stringent law was passed, the 
breed has been kept absolutely pure, a fine of one thousand 
dollars being imposed for every head of foreign cattle intro- 
duced, besides confiscation of cattle and boat, the cattle 
confiscated being killed on the spot, and the meat distributed 
sold for the benefit of the poor of the parish where it is 
seized. In addition to the above heavy fine imposed on 
the captain, each sailor is liable to a fine of two hundred 
and fifty dollars, or in lieu thereof to six months' imprison- 
ment. Up to 1838 no one had thought of improving the 
breed hy taiy system or fixed rule, but on the formation of 
the Royal Jersey Agricultural Sodety, a scale of points for 
judging cattle was adopted, premiums were offered and the 
following regulations laid down: "Any person withholding 
from the public the service of a prize bull shall forfeit the 
premiums; and all heifers having had premiums adjudged 
them shall be kept on the island until they have drojq^ed the 
first calf." These efforts and the increasing demand for the 
stock have led to the improvement of the breed in certain 
definite directions. The following scale of points has been 
adopted by the society : — 


S. Head fine and tapering, forehead broad 
8. Cbeek smoU 

3.n.iized by Google 


4. Tbimmt data i 

5. Mnzile dark, endrcled by light color, irith noBtrila high aud t^iea 4 

6. Honu small, not thick at the baae, crumpled, yelloff, tipped with 

blat^ S 

7. Ears amall and thin, and of a deep orange color within . S 

S. Eyes tull and lively 4 

9. Neck arched, powerful, but not coarse and heavy . . . S 

10. Withers fine, Bhoulders flat and deling, cheit broad and deep . 4 

11. Band-hooped, broad, deep, and well riUxd up ... S 

12. Ba<i straight bom the witbeis to the setting on (4 the tail S 

13. Back broad across the loins 3 

14. Hips wide apart and 6ne in the bone 8 

15. Rump long, broad and level 3 

16. Tail fine, rea<Jung the hocks, and b ft n grp g at right an^es with the 

back 3 

17. Hide thin and mellon, covered with fine, soft hair ... 4 

18. Hide of a yellow color 4 

10. Legs Bh<^ struct and fine, with small hoofs .... 4 

SO. Arms tuU and sweUing above the knees 3 

21. Hind quarters from the hock to point at rump long, wide apart, 

and well filled up S 

22. Hind legs squarely placed when viewed from behind, and not to 

<Toss or sweep in walking 8 

83. Nipples to be squarely placed and wide apart .... 5 

24. Growth 4 

2d. Gennal appearance 5 

Noprisetobeawarded to bulls having less than 80 ptnnts. Bullshaving 
obtained 7S points shall be allowed to be branded. 


1. Registered pedigree 

2. Head small, fine and tiq»ering 

3. Cheek small, throat clean 

4. Miuzle dark, and endrded by a light colcw, with nostrils high aud 

3.n.iized by Google 


5. Hans small, not thkk at the base, crumpled, yellow, tq)pedwitli 

block S 

6. Ebtb small and thin, and of a deep orange ccAor within . . S 

7. Eye tull and placid 3 

8. Neck strdgfat. Sue, and lightly placed on the abouldera . . 3 
8. Wtbers fine, dioulderg fiat and sloping, chest broad and deep . 4 

10. Barrel-hooped, broad and deep, being well ribbed up . .6 

11. Back straight from the withers to the ietting on of the tail . 5 

12. Back broad ocroas the loins 3 

13. Hips wide apart and fine in the bone; rump long, broad and 

level 6 

14. Tail fine, readiing the hocks, and hanging at li^t an^es with 

the back 3 

U. Hide thia and mellow, covered with fine, goft hair ... 4 

16. Hide of a yellow color 4 

17. Legs short, straif^t and fine, with small hoofs .... 3 

18. Arms fuU and swelling above the knees 3 

19. Hind quartets from the hock to ptmt of rump long, wide apart 

and well tilled up, 8 

20. Hind legs squarely placed when viewed from behind, and not to 

cross or sweep in walking 3 

Zl. Udder Urge, not fleshy, running well forward, in line with the 

belly, and well up behind 6 

28. Teats moderately large, yellow, o( equal sire, wide apart and 

squaidy placed 6 

83. Milk vans about the udder and abdomen prominent 4 

a. Growth 4 

is. General appearance 5 

No prize shall be awarded to cows having less than 80 points. 
No prize shall be awarded to hdfcrs having less than 70 points. 
Articles 21 and 28 shall be deducted from the number required tor per- 
fection in heifers, as their udder and milk veins cannot be fully developed. 

We liave thus far dealt only with open-air ctiltivation, 
but there is another phase, still more interesting, in which 
eveything is giown under cover. Until the glass-houses of 

3.n.iized by Google 


Jers^ and Guernsey have been visited, no one can I^rly 
appreciate the possibilities of intensive gardening. Ongin- 
ally erected for the purpose of growing grapes, they now 
combine that with the raising of all crops grown in the open 
air. These glass shelters are of the simplest construction, 
in most cases mere frames of glass and wood, sometimes 
heated, but oftener not. But they yidd enonnously, crop 
after crop, throughout the entire season. Hardly is one out 
of the way than another takes its place. Before the potatoes 
are out of the groimd, beet or broccoB is set between the 
rows, etc. The whole island of Guernsey is dotted with 
them : here mere lean-tos against the sides of the buildings, 
there more substantia] structures in the fields, or again 
rising tier upon tier up the steep hillsides. The grape crop, 
of which the annual exportation from the island of Guernsey 
is over five hundred tons, valued at some two hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and on which the inhabitants chiefly relied for 
an inc<nne, has now become a side issue, and is entirely 
eclipsed by the immense quantities of potatoes, tomatoes, 
peas, beans, and carrots raised under these shelters. It was 
not my good fortune to visit these glass-houses in the early 
season : but in Novembn, on the island of JersQ', at Goose 
Green, in a house some nine himdred feet Icoig 1^ f or^-one 
or two broad, I saw them ploughing down the centre while 
they gathered tomatoes from the vines on either hand, 
and picked the pendent hunches of grapes from the trellis- 
work on the sides. 

No more mteresting description of the vegetable houses 
has been written than that by Prince Krojwtkin, and you 
vrill, I asa sure, bear with me for a few moments if I quote 
from his recent article on the "Possibilities of Agriculture." 

3.n.iized by Google 


"I s&v tluee-fourths of an acre, covered with glaaa and 
heated for three months in the spring, yielding about eight 
tons of tomatoes and about two hundred pounds of beans 
aa a first crop in ^ril and May, to be followed by two crops 
more during the summer and autumn. Here one gardener 
was employed, with two assistants; a small amount of coke 
was cfHisumed; and there was a gas engine for watering 
purposes, consuming one dollar's worth of gas every m<mth. 
I saw again, in cool greenhouses, pea plants covering the 
walls for a loigth of a quarter of a mile, which already 
had yielded by the end of April thirty-two hundred [xnmds 
of exquisite peas, and were yet as full of pods as if not one 
had been talrcn away. I saw potatoes dug from the soil in 
April to the amount of five bushels to the twenty-one feet 
square, and so on. And yet all that is eclipsed by the 
immense vineries of Mr. Bashford in Jersey. Th^ cover 
thirteen acres, and from the out^de these huge glass-houses 
and chimneys look like a factory. But when you enter one 
of the houses, nine hundred feet long and forty-six feet 
wide, and your eye scans that worid of green embellished 
by the reddening grapes or tomatoes, you forget the ugli- 
ness of the outside view. As to the results, I cannot better 
characterize them than by quoting what Mr. W. Bear, the 
well-known writer upon English agriculture, wrote after a 
visit to the same estabUshment; namefy, that the money re- 
turns from these thirteen acres 'greatly exceed those of an 
ordinary EngUah farm of thirteen hundred acres.' The last 
year's crops were twenty-five tons of grapes (which are cut 
from May till October, ranging in price at wholesale from 
one dollar a pound to eighteen cents), eighty tons of toma- 
toes, thirty tons of potatoes, six tons of peas, and two tons of 

3.n.iized by Google 


beans, to saynothing of other subsidiary crops. On seeing 
such results one might imagiue that all this must cost a 
formidable amount of money; but not so. Tbe cost of Mr. 
Bashford's houses, most excellently well built, ia only $2.84 
per square yard (heating pipes not taken into accoimt) ; and 
all the work is done by thirty-six men only; three mea to 
each acre of greenhouses seems to be a Guernsey average. 
As tor fuel, the consumption amounts to no more than one 
thousand cart-loads of cdce and coal. Beddes, <me can see 
in the Channel Isles all possible gradations, from the weU- 
conatructed greenhouses just mentioned, to the simple shel- 
ters made out of thin planka and glass, without artificial 
heat, which cost only ten c^its per square foot, and never- 
theless allow of having the most surprising crops quite ready 
for sale hy the end of April. Alt<^ther, the glass-house is 
no more a luxury. It becomes the kitchen garden of the 
market gardener." 

One of the most noticeable features of these islands is the 
appearance of thrift everywhere discernible. Everything 
efpeaks of ease and prosperity; paupers there are none. The 
poor are rarely seen. Roadside, garden, and house alike 
betol»n comfort and sufficiency. Not only are the out- 
skirts of the town filled with substantial buildings, but the 
homes of the farmers are sohd granite structures, it may be 
with cement floor instead of boards, the roofs thatched or 
tiled, showing red agfunst the dark, rich background of foli- 
age, but all comfortably, neat^' furnished, the windows cur- 
tuned with cambric or lace, while outside they are bowered 
in roses, jasmines, or myrtles. There is a feeling of home, <A 
ownership, of pride in possesion that strikes one at once; 
and who thathas once enjoyed the simple, hear^ hospitality 

3.n.iized by Google 


ot those kindly people will ever forget it? The loaf of cake 
profferedbythegoodliousewife.'withahalf apology peihaps 
for its not being as li^t as it ought to be; the "jers^ 
w<Hider" (a species of doughnut) indting away in the 
mouth before tme fairly knows it is there; the pitcher of 
cider or bottle of wine, — everything is freely offered, and 
the guest made welcome to the best. The exquisite neatness 
which characterizes the house is just as pl^nly visible in its 
out-door surroundings. The well-kept walks, the neat, 
orderly bams and sheds, the gardens with their flowers and 
f riiit, and, above all, the trim, cleanly roads, all bespeak the 
same care and thrift. Everything is turned to account; the 
droiqmtgs of the horses and cattle along the roads are care- 
fully swc^t up and placed on the manure heap, the twigs 
broken by the gales are picked up and put aw^ for fuel, 
and the leaves falling from the trees are gathered together 
and carried away to enrich the land. NoUung b lost, and 
the waste, except in questions of labor, is reduced to a 
minim iim But the tools are heavy and clumsy, and to 
this day most of the tanners work their ground with a 
plough that has a wooden mould-board with an iron point, 
the horses being hitched tandem. 

Tlie roads and lanes deserve special mention. The former 
are well built, and as a general thing foUow the windings of 
the valleys, while branching from them in every direction 
are an infinity of lanes, so narrow that at mtervals bays are 
constructed to allow teams to pass each other. No weeds 
along the margins are to be seen, for both road and lane are 
macadamized and bordered, sometimes by stone walls or 
well-trimmed hedges, but ofteuer by earth-banks, upon or 
besidewhich are rows of trees. These high, earthen banks. 

3.n.iized by Google 


taking the place of fences, with trees growing on top, and 
covoed all over with the greenest and most lururiant of 
ivies, give to the lanes the appearance of trenches cut in the 
soil, and this effect is heightened by the arching of the trees 
overhead and the interladng of their branches, which even 
in midday cast a shade that is ahnost twilight; and for 
miles you ride along through these leafy bowers, ahdtered 
from the sun, protected from the wind, listening to the song 
of birds, till at last the vista t^ns, and suddenly you see 
the waves rolling madly in, and catch the thunders of the 
surf tqjon the granite cliffs. 

The question is often asked. To what do the Channel 
Islands owe their prosperity. Given an equable climate, a 
fertile but not rich soil, and a skilful husbandry, and you 
have the three prime requisites of success. That is true as 
far as it goes, but there is still a factor wanting to make the 
explanation complete. Other writers have placed it in the 
[xissesrion of a race of cattle popular throughout the world, 
a climate which is periection, and a ready market ahnost at 
their very door. To these combined, I would add, "A 
disused "property, a disused atjntal, and a disused inieUi- 
gmce." The 19,000 acres of arable land of Jersey are 
divided among 2,600 farmers; only six have farms of one 
hundred acres; some fifty or more own twenty acres; 
but the great majority have small holdings from one-half 
acre to five or six. Land does not often change hands. If 
inherited, it cannot be devised by will, but must foUow the 
line ot succession, the law requiring that at death every 
child shall receive a part, the oldest son having the house 
in addition. The land taws thus discourage aggregation of 
property, and favor its distribution among the members of 

3.n.iized by Google 


the family. Every man is at the same time a land-owner, a 
capitalist and a laborer. To this "diffuaon of property," 
and to the uniTersat thrift and industry naturally following 
such diffufflon, I attribute the general prosperity of the 
people. It is natural that a man owning his Uttle piece of 
land should improve it to the utmost, and make it yield the 
largest income possible. The man occupying temporarily 
another's land will not lay out upon it any more than he can 
possibly help. There results, then, from these small hold- 
ings, an intense cultivation not possible on large estates. 

How different the case is in England may be seen from 
the following figures : of the 36,000,000 acres compriang 
England and Wales, 4,500 persons own 20,000,000; 288 
hold over 5,000,000; 52 hold over 8,000 acres apiece; 204 
hold over 5,000 and 2,4S2hold over 1,000. More than one- 
half b owned by private individuals, holding 1,000 acres 
and upward. In Scotland this aggregation of land by the 
few is still more strikiug. Of its 19,000,000 acres, nine- 
tenths are hdd by less than 1,700 persons, and tme-half of 
the whole of its area is held by 70 persons. The whole num- 
ber of land-ownos is 181,530, but of these 111,658 own 
less than an acre apiece. The largest estate is held by the 
Duke and Duchess of Sutheriand, and amounts to 1,826,- 
000 acres. Wtih such a distribution of pnq>erty, and with a 
poor law c(»ting thirty-five million dollars annual^, what 
outlook is there for the Enghsh tanner? What hope of ev^ 
acquiring possession of the little plot of land on which he 
works and sp^ids his days, or what motive to induce him to 
improve property he cannot leave to his children? A recent 
writer puts it in an nutshell wh^i he says: "In England 

3.n.iized by Google 


the agricultural laborers, with the lands about them all 
tak^i up and so unsaUible, and with a poor law to provide 
for them under all the calamities of life, whether brought 
about by mishap or by their own wilful vice, have but little 
motive, even if they had the opportunity, tor saving." 

3.n.iized by Google 


"Many a traveUer will r^nember, no doubt, a sudden 
thrill on awakening suddenly in the midst of his first night 
on Eastern soil — waking as it were from dream into dream. 
For there came a voice, solitary, sweet, sonorous, floating 
from on high through the moonli^t stillness, the voice of 
the blind Muezzeen, singing the Ulah or first call to prayer. 
And at the sound, many a white figure would move silently 
on the low roofs, and not merely, like the palms and cy- 
presses around, bow his head, but prostrate, and bend his 
knees. And the sounds went and came: 'God is good! 
God is great I Prayer is better than sleep t There is no 
God, but God, and Mahomet is his prophet! L& elah il 
Allah! Mahconet ra^ul Allah! He giveth life and he 
dieth not! O thou bountiful! Tby mercy ceaseth not! 
My sins axe great! Greater is thy mercgr! I ertol thy 
perfections!' And then the cry would be taken up and 
prolonged by other Muezzeens, and from the north and 
the south, the east and the west, came floating on the 
morning stillness this pious invitation to prayer, — this 
proclamation to all the world of the embodiment of the 
Moslem creed: 'There is no God, but God, and Mahomet 
is his prophet.'" 

Who that has ever been in the East can for an instant 
lose the impression of that first moment, so vividly por- 
trayed in the above sketch? It is perhaps the most charac- 
terisUc feature of Eastern life, and one that is repeated duly , 

3.n.iized by Google 


sgun and agun, in every Turkisli city. A creed so simple 
and yet so bold in its uttenincel Its veiy strength lies in its 
mmplicity; and the millions who have lived and died in the 
profession of its faith have carried its tenets triimq>hant^ 
from the shores of the Atlantic to the great wall of China 
and the heart of further India. 

Reminiscences of the East : of the land of the fig-tree and 
olive, the vine and the pom^ranate, the myrtle and roaei 
the musk and the ottar of Araby the Blest, and the delicious 
notes of nightingales warbling as though intoxicated with 
th^ own sweet song. What images rise up before me and 
return to my memory! Out of all this luxuriance, what 
shall I select as my theme? 

Shall I tell you of that wondrous <nty, "alone of all the 
dties of the woild. standing on two continents," massed on 
itsseven hills, and nsing tier on tier of swelling domes and 
burnished minarets, each one a centre of refulgent light, yet 
so ttmed down and softened under the light of a sky known 
in no other clime than in the East, so circled round by masses 
of deak verdure which cluster round the sacred edifices, that 
the eye finds no inharmonious point, but wanders with re- 
curring delight over the whole? 

Or shall I tell you ot the great war between the crescent 
and the cross, idien, ^dng almfist within sound of thegreat 
guns whose iron hail was crashing upcm the doomed city of 
Sevastopol, we watched the transports sailing by, carrying 
reinforcements to the allied troops or bringing to the city 
the thousands of unhapi^ wretches, gashed and maimed, 
battered out of the semblance of humanity, or who, stricken 
down 1^ the insidious attack of disease, had been brought 
there to linger a while and die? 

3.n.iized by Google 


Or, once more, shall I tell you of the land itself, its 
products and resources, the people and their ways, their 
lives and occupations, thdr various methods of gaining 
their daily bread? 

It has seemed to me that perhaps this last was the more 
appropriate. And yet I ahnost despair of giving you an 
adequate idea of a country and a people where everything 
is done in a manner so exactly oppodte to our own. The 
distinction they make between the religious and the moral 
character is very singular. With us there can be no reli^cm 
without morality; but with them the religious has nothing 
to do with the moral character. The pirate committing 
murder on the high seas, and taken red-handed, refuses to 
eat meat on Friday and thus imperil his soul, even while his 
hands are yet wet with his brother's blood. The robber 
stripes you to the skin, takes everything you possess, mal- 
treats and threatens you with death, and then calmly 
ejaculates as he leaves you.'MayGod save you,mylamb, 
if in danger! I give you into EQs keeping." 

No one is ever supposed to be the less covetous, the less 
a cheat, a gambler, a liar, a def rauder, a robber, a murderer, 
because he prays. Nothing is further from his own thoi^ts 
or the thoi^ts of the bystand^?, than that his prayers 
should exert any transf onoing influence upon his own char- 
acter. And why should they? For when they have busi- 
ness to transact with their neighbors on temporal matters, 
th^ use a language which all can understand, but whenever 
thqr have any business with their Maker about their eternal 
interests, it is always done in a language they do not unda- 
stand. Outwardly pious and sincere, inwardly they are 
whited sepulchres and full <i dead men's bones. The 

3.n.iiz«i by Google 


traveler in the highway, the artisan in his shop, the mer- 
chant in the bazaar, the lounger in the caf£, when the hour 
for prayer arrives, hastens to spread his little carpet on the 
ground and goes through the required formula. But he is 
keenly alive all the time to whatever is going on about him, 
and when his pious ejaculations are ended, wilt be found to 
have lost not an iota of anything that may have been sud 
during his temporary fit of pie^. If a professional story- 
teller has been amusing the crowd with some enterUuniug 
tale while he was prying, he will be found not to have lost 
the point of the stoiy, or the pith of any joke. 

The writer of the article entitled "Baron Hirsch's R^- 
way in Turkey," tella the following story: A peasant one 
day sent in all haste for an American missionary to come 
and pray for him. Not a little surprised at the unusual re- 
quest, the missionary went, and the peasant remarked, 
"Your prayers are more efficacious than those of our 
priests." The missiomiry was somewhat surprised at this, 
and after modestly murmuring something concerning fEuth, 
was pr^taring to con^^ with the request, when the man 
continued, "I have taken a ticket in the Vienna lottery. 
If I win through your prayers, you shall have one-half." 

It was apparently a perfectly natural thing, this copart- 
nership of earth and heaven, and the peasant could see no 
impropriety in invoking the pn^ers of those he considered 
more potent than he. He put up the money, the missionary 
furnished the prayers, and they went diwys on the result. 

But to ttun from the moral side to the customs of every- 
di^ life. The barber, for example, pushes the razor from 
him; ours draws it to him. The carpenter draws the saw 

3.n.iized by Google 


towards him, for all the teeth are set in; ours does the re- 
verse) for the teeth are set out. The mason sits while he ]ay8 
and trims his stone, ours stands. The scribe writes from 
light to left, usual^ upon his handorknee;oura from left to 
right, Ufwn the table or de^. Even in the matter of build- 
ing a house, the same law prevails. We b^a at the bottom 
and finish at the top; the Turks b^in at the top, and fre- 
quently the upper rooms- are entire^ finished and habit- 
able, while all below is a mere framework like a lant^n. 

The Oriental uses a pipe so long that he cannot hold a 
coal to the bowl and at the same time draw a whiS of to- 
bacco smoke from the other esiA. We use one so short that 
the scent of burned hmr too often mingles with that of the 
fragrant weed. We polish our boots with elaborate care; 
but these people, whose religion, perhaps, will not allow 
them to use brushes made from the bristles of the unclean 
beast, wipe up their shoes with their hands, and then put 
on the last finiahing touches with th^ handkerchiefs, or 
the slack of those wonderful things denominated Turkish 
trousers. Bumaby, in his "On Horseback through A«a 
Minor," quotes a missionary as saying; "The Turks about 
here are just the bottom-side-upwardest, and the top-side- 
downwardest, the back-side-forwardest, and the forward- 
side-backwardest people I have ever seen. Why, they call 
a compass which points to the north, 'queblen,' or south, 
just for the sake of contradiction; and th^ have to change 
their watches every twenty-four hours, because they count 
their time from after sunset, instead of reckoning up the diqr 
like a Chiistian." One more striking point of difference, and 
we have done. The Turks through long ages led a roving, 
wandering life in the immense plains of northern and c^i- 

3.n.iized by Google 


tral Asia. Bising from the portion of slave and subject to 
that of master, they gradually fought thm way down to 
the shores of the Mediterranean and occupied the entire 
t^ritoiy. But the inherited instincts of so many genera- 
tions have never been completely laid aside. As in th^ 
warlike, migratory state, the t«it was to them simply a 
sleeping-place to whidi th^ letu^ for the nif^t, so the 
house has been to them ever since. ffo?ne,inoursenseof the 
word, with all its beautiful associations, has no answering 
equivalent in their mind, and, in fact, there is no word in 
th^ language which can convey such an idea. 

Toaddtothedifficultyofpvinganyadequateideaofthe . 
Iteople of Turic^, is the fact that the? do not form a single 
race, amalgamated and blended into one, though made up 
of differ^it race-dements, but are composed of Turks, Jews, 
Greeks, Armenians, wild tribes of Eoords, Turcomans, 
Kuzel Bash, and the Bulgarian, Croatian, and Slavonian 
tribes of the Danubian principalities, each retaining its dis- 
tinct nationality, its own religious rites, and its own peculiar 
customs and ways. Of the population of eight millions in 
round numbers in European Turkey, the Turks number 
about 3,600,000, and the rest are Christian and Jews. In 
Aidatic Turk^ the proportion is about the same. Of these, 
the Greeks and the Jews are the tradesmen; the Armenians 
the artizans and bankers; the Bulgarians and Croats are 
agricultural in their tastes, while the Koords and Turco- 
mans live largely by plunder and by the produce of th^ 
herds. In such an assemblage of races you would naturally 
expect to find great differences; and yet, after all, certain 
distinct features will be found peculiar to all, and certain 
customs that are cconmon to all. 

3.n.iized by Google 


As a role, the Turk trill be found to be honest and truth- 
ful, and living up to the command laid down by Mahomet 
intheearlierdaysof his inspiration: "Wheal thou hast ^vm 
thy word, stand fast by it, and let the wwda of thy mouth 
be even as thy written agreement." Of the other races we 
cannot say as much. The Jews, as in all ages, are the 
mon^-getters, and Kve and thrive in th^ quarters, as in 
the Ghetto of Rome, in a squalor and filth that would 
quick^ exterminate any other race. The Greeks are shrewd 
and enterpriang, but the characterization trf the Cretans by 
St. Paul b DO imq>t description of their character "The 
Cretans are always liars, evil beasts, slow bellies." Their 
own countryman, Euripides, even before the time of the 
apostle, wrote: "Greece never had the least spark of hon- 
esty "; and Lord Byron, twenty cmturies after, one of the 
most enthufdastic in their cause, ^claims: "I am of St. 
Paul's opinion, that there is no difference between Jews and 
Greeks — the character of both bang equally vile." 

The Armenians, on the other hand, are a purer, simpler 
race, retaining much of that individual nationaE^ which 
made them formidable in the d^s of the Romans. But 
contact with the outCT world — with the f or^gners pouring 
iuto Turkey — is changing thdr character for the worse. 
It need hardly be said that the farther you go from the coi- 
tal and the large cities, the simpler and more innocent the 
lives of the pe<^le. 

In nothing is this difference of nationality so strikingly 
manifested as in the cemeteries. The Turks plant theirs 
with the cypress, and at the head of a grave where a man is 
buried, a stcme is ««cted crowned with a turban, or, in more 
recent times, with the national embl^n — the fez. At the 

3.n.iized by Google 


foot of the grave a pltuner stone marks the resting-place of 
the woman. The turhan is absent, and in its place the top 
of the stone is rounded or pointed, while a running vine is 
worked around the outer edge. The inscnption is very 
simple — only the name of the family of the deceased, and 
a recommendation of his soul to the only living and true 
God. A beautiful custom prevails, both among the Turks 
and the Christian population, of hollowing out two small 
cavities in the tablet covering the grave itself, which are 
kept filled with seeds and fresh water to attract the birds to 
come and build their nests near by and sing their songs over 
the graves of the departed. 

The c^neteries of the Jews are in keying with their daily 
life. As their object is so to hve as not to attract attention 
and thus call down upon themselves the persecution of their 
neighbors, so the resting-places of thdr dead displi^ the 
same neglect and want of care. Nothing drearier or more 
desolate can be imagined. Not a tree or shrub to relieve the 
melancholy waste. Nothing but the barren hillsides, strewn 
for miles around with gray slabs, lying in the most terrible 

Not so the Gredis and Armenians. Choosing some beau- 
tiful site, as in the "Grand Champ des Morts" at Constan- 
tinople, overlooking the Bosphorus and the Marmora, they 
plant the stately palm or the graceful terebinthus [turpen- 
tine], erect a coffee-house, and make it a fashionable 
resort. Its cool and airy situation, its agreeable shade and 
the convenience of comfortable seats afforded by the tomb- 
stones, make it a pleasant promenade. Here, on the flat 
tablets, the elders mark out a rough board and play games 
of chance or checkers, or perchance discuss the merits of 

3.n.iized by Google 


their ancestors sleeping quietly beneath. Here lovers wan- 
der arm in arm and whisper their fond nothings, undis- 
turbed by ghosts of former days. And here the gallants, as 
they MP thrar wine, order so many Roman candles burnt in 
honor of ihai ladies. 

The occupation of the deceased is always portrayed 
upon his tombstone: an adze or saw representing a carpen- 
ter; a lancet, a barber; an anvil, a blacksmith; an inkstand, 
a scribe or lawyer; and if, perchance, his end has been 
hastened by violence, the manner of his "taking off" is 
faithfully portrayed. Here you may see a representation 
of the deceased upcsi his knees, holding his head iu his 
hands,whilejets of blood spoutftx>mhis neck in stiff curves, 
like those issuing from a beer bottle on a tavern sign. There 
you m^ see the fatal bowstring adjusted about the neck 
as he awaits the tightening <A the cord. These representa- 
tions carry with them no associations of infamy or crime. 
They are but the heraldic quarterings to be found among 
the aristocracy of other nations, and if th^' had a name 
would be called the "sdmetar pendant, or the bowstring 
displayed in a field azure." Only, instead of being blazoned 
upon the carriages of the living, they are placed upon the 
tombstones of the dead; for they signify that the wealth 
of the deceased was sufficient to excite the avarice of the 
reigiung power. "To die, then, by the sword or bowstring, 
implies the possession of wealth, and the surviving relatives 
glorify themselves iu perpetuatii^ this record of financial 
standing and consideration." 

To the observant traveler in the East, one of its most 
noticeable features is the absence of taim life among its in- 
habitants. Between village and village you rarely meet 

3.n.iized by Google 


with isolated farm-houses or cultivated areas. You pass 
directly from the tovn or hamlet, with its surrounding 
gBidens and arable land, into a wild, unbroken tenitoiy, in- 
fested only by wild beasts and lawless men. From motives 
of security, the people all live together in the villages; the 
fanner going to his fann, two or three miles away, every 
morning, and quitting work an hour before sundown, to re- 
tmn to his distant family. Even in the neighborhood of 
large cities you find this to be the case; and within fifteen 
miles of Constantinople itself, with its miUion or more of 
population, could still be shot, only a few years ago, wild 
boars and wolves in the dense forests surrounding the Bents 
of Belgrade. 

Another very noticeable fact is the utter disregard of fer- 
tilizers. Great heaps of manure accumulate in the sheep- 
folds, the poultry yards and horse-stables, which are allowed 
to waste from lack of knowledge of tlidr value. It is true 
that on the banks of the Euphrates imd Tigris, where are 
grown the celebrated melons, three of which make a camel's 
load of, say, sis hundred pounds, a hole is scooped in the 
sand, a handful of hen or pigeon manure thrown in, the seed 
planted, and Nature left to do the rest. But this is the ex- 
ception to the rule. Nor should we blame these pecq>le too 
severely, when we have such bright and shining examples of 
the same pernicious practice in this country. In California, 
in the vicinity of Santa Barbara, the manure is hauled, not 
to the field, but to the public highw^s, where it is care- 
fully spread to keep down the dust; and in Canada the farm- 
ers were reported only this last summer as dumping it by 
the cart-load into the rivers. 

The droppings of the cow, on the other hand, are care- 

3.n.iized by Google 


fully preserved, wraked up with coarse straw and stubble, 
and dried for winter fuel; for over large areas the woods 
have entirely disappeared, and the poor people have no 
other resource. The preparation of the winter's supply is 
especially the duty of the women, and, to quote the words 
of the veteran missionary Van Lennep: "We have watched 
them collecting the manure from the track which the cattle 
follow m going to pasture in the morning, dicing it into 
round cakes, six or eight inches in diameter, by handling it 
as they would a lump of dough, and with a skilful twist of 
their hand suddenly sticking it on the walls of their houses 
to dry in the sun. They seem to enter upon this duty as a 
matter of course, and conduct it with an artistic dexterity 
which proves that it is one of the accomplishments of the 
good housewife much to be defdred." 

As to the distribution of the arable land, we may make 
the general divisitm into villages and "Chifliks," or farms of 
considerable extent. The common farmers live in villages 
for safety. They may own the land around them in common, 
but generally each man has Ids own. The commune system 
is mainly in Eim>pean Turkey, and b the ancient c^stem of 
the Slavic race. 

The "Chifliks," or large farms, are usually owned by 
Turks, and vary in size from several hundred to as many 
thousand acres. They constitute a village in themselves: 
the lauded proprietor in the centre, usual^ on an elevated 
bit of ground, and the huts of his dependents clustered 
around and below. It is on^ the old feudal system revived : 
the lord m his castle, and the hovels of his humble retfuners 
grouped about the walls. These large estates are devoted 
principally to grazing; but if there is good wheat land you 

3.n.iized by Google 


may see immenae fields of gi^n, from wliich a good yield ia 
coDsideied nine to ten bushela for one of sowing. The crops 
are never measured by the acre, and the above yield would 
probably be not over twenty bushels to the acre. 

The threshing fioor and its implem^its and operations 
would interest an American fanner in the very highest de- 
gree. Frequently a whole village will unite in constructing 
cme tor ccnmnon use. A description of such an one from 
Hamlin's "Among the Turks" may not be uninteresting: 
"I exanuned one that was about one thousand feet in length, 
and, say, one-third ot that in breadth. It was made by 
hauling on to it hundreds of loads of clay and coarse gravel. 
The whole was made into mortar, and spread some five or 
six inches deep on a level, well-prepared surface. It was 
then tamped every day by a force of men, that went all over 
it twice a day, until it became too dry and solid for further 
work. It is now artificial stone. Its inclination from a level 
b just enough to keep it clear of water. With occasional 
repairs, it lasts for generations. About three-fourths of 
this fioor ia given to threslung, the rest to winnowing. The 
grain from the field is spread six or eight inches deep over 
the floor, and then the whole animal force of the village is 
turned in upon it, — horses, donl«ys, mules, homed cattle, 
with carts and drags, or with nothing but the feet." 

But the most effective, the finishing-oS instrument, is 
doubtless that referred to by the Prophet Isaiah (idi. Id- 
le), where he aaya: "Behold, I will make thee anew sharp 
threshing instrument having teeth." Andiiaa hoeing teethis 
what I desire especia% to bring to your attention. In ap- 
pearance it looks very much on the upper ^de like a com- 
mon stone drag or boat. It is of plank, about three inches 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


thick, of the toughest wood, and studded on the under side 
with sharp flints. The edges of these flints, after being 
driven into the socket chiseled out for them, are trimmed 
sharp; and thus completed it makes a most savage-looking 
implement. Seated on this, with a long pole to prevent 
the bundles from riding up over the bow, the driver urges 
on his bullocks. As it goes round and round the area, it cuts 
and bruises the straw flne, and this, with the chaff, takes the 
place of hay for cattle-feed in the East. The threshing 
process over, there are two raking operations: one to clear 
off the coarse straw not good for food; this is piled up as 
worthless chaff to be burned. Then follows a skillful raking 
off of the finer straw without taking up the wheat. After 
being passed through sieves, which let the wheat and chaff 
pass through but retain the coarser stuff, it is ready for 
the winnowing. This is accomplished by tossing the wheat 
high into the air, from shovels made of beech, with long, 
elastic handles, to allow the breeze to cany off the lighter 
particles. Two more siftings, in sieves (A different-sized 
meshes, complete the operation. 

The wheat thus cleaned looks well, but oh, the labor! 
Thousands and thousands of busheb are injured or destroyed 
annually by the runs before the threshing is over; for at 
best, even with several threshing-floors, it will take a num- 
ber of weeks for all in the village to have their turn. Efforts 
have been made from time to time to introduce more p^- 
fect machines, but the attempt has always been viewed 
with distrust by the natives, and dark hints have been 
mysteriously circulated of the agency of the Evil One. We 
all remember the stoiy of the opposition to the peony post 
in ]x>ndon, and bow it was denounced by the long-headed 

3.n.iized by Google 


ones as an "insidioua Pt^ish ccmtrivance." History only 
repeats itsdf ; and it is tUs same conservative spirit that 
Sir Walter Scott satirizes in his "Antiquary," wh^i he puts 
into the mouth of Mause Headrigg the following objections 
to winnowing machines: "It is a new-fangled machine for 
freeing the com frae the chaff, thus impiously thwarting 
the will o' divine Rt)vidence, by ndsing wind for your 
leddyship's use by human art, instead of sdiciting it \iy 
prayer, or patiently wfuting for whatever dispensation 
of wind Providence was pleased to send upon the sbieUng 

The other implements of husbandry are very simple and 
primitive. The ox-yoke is made of two stnugbt pieces, one 
above, the other below the neck, the top piece alone being 
hdlowed. Two stnught pina serve instead of the yoke to 
inclose the neck, a strong trunnel in the middle taking the 
place of staple and ring. 

The plough is absurdly ridiculous. Take a pole about 
ten feet long, tour or five inches in diameter at the butt; 
and by mortise and tenon unite this at a slight^ acute angle 
to another piece of about equal size, sharpened and shod 
with iron to plough the earth, and variously provided with 
s<nne sort of a handle for the ploughman's hand, and you 
have an Oriental plough. It does not turn a furrow, it 
simply scratches the earth to the depth of four or five inches, 
and then the ground must be cross-ploughed in order to 
seciu^ anything like an adequate preparation for the sowing. 
European ploughs, to which several pairs of buffaloes were 
attached, have been introduced at various times, but were 
soon given up on account of the di£Sculty of finding animals 
strong enou^ to draw them. The hope of success lies in 

3.n.iized by Google 


the improvemeDt of the breed, but there is something be- 
yond this, for the best breeds introduced soon d^enerate 
from lack of nourishment. The country must be better 
governed, property made more secure, before farmers will 
find it to their advantage to give their cattle more than 
the scanty grass they can pick up here and there on tlie 
parched hillsides. The improvement of implements will fol- 
low as a mattOT of course. The same thing is true of the 
ordinary horses: barley and straw alone, and the treatment 
received through many generations, have produced the 
small, wiry, enduring hack of Asia Minor, as far removed 
from the lithe form and airy grace of the Arab steed as 
light is from darkness. 

The spade is triangular in shape, with a str^^t handle, 
longer than a man is tall. A few inches above the blade, a 
piece of wood is mortised in, upon which the foot is set, to 
force the blade deep into the earth. The length of the 
handle enables the laborer to lay his whole weight upon the 
extremity, and afterwards use it aa a lever in order to rwse 
a large quantity of soil, which he merely turns over. " Shal- 
low ploughmg but deep spading seem then to be the two 
chief rules of Oriental agriculture." 

The hoe has a broad blade, not fiat, but slightly concave, 
the handle very short, compelling the laborer to crouch 
to his work. The sickle is about the same form as our own. 
The scythe shorter, heavier, clumsier, the snath nearfy 
straight, with but one handle, the left hand grasping the 
snath itself. The blade has no curve worth mentioning. 
Fortunately for the back of the laborer, hay is in so Uttle de- 
mand that the scythe is practically used only in the cradle, 
and that not by Turks, but almost exclusively by the Bul- 

3.n.iized by Google 


garians. As you paas by the great wheat fields you will see 
men and women with their sickles slowly and laborioualy 
reaping the golden harvest. Ask them whether they could 
not do the work much more rapidly and easily with the 
cradle, and they will answer, "Doubtless." Ask them why 
they do not use it, they will reply, "Good Lord! it is not 
our custom." And Uiat ia the end of all controversiy with 
an Oriental. To change the custom of his fathers is as 
impious an act as to defile the bones of his ancestors or 
curse his grandmother. 

One is sometimes in despair of any progress in the East- 
em world. The beginnii^ must be made at the root. Edu- 
cate the youth, and they are as ready for improvement as 
any people. In some places on the rich lands of the Danube, 
modem implements of harvesting have been introduced, 
and the produce doubled, because the farmer is no longer 
afrud of sowing more than he can gather. The women do a 
great deal of work in the fields, and may be seen laboring 
side by side with the men. The position occupied by thrau 
may be fairly well illustrated by the following stoiy: A 
gentleman riding one day in the countiy overtook a man 
who had laden his wife with a heavy bundle of sticks. He 
remonstrated with him, s^ing, "My good man, it is too 
bad that you should load your wife down in thb way. 
What she is carrying is a mule's burden." — "Yes, youi 
excellency," the man replied, "what you say is true. It m 
a mule's burden. But then you see Providence has not stq>- 
plied us with mules, and he has supplied us with women." 

It is the same all through the East. Sir Thomas Munro, in 
his "Traveb to the City of the Cahphs," relates as a reason 
why an Indian should be exempt from piling his tax that 

3.n.iized by Google 


he pleaded the loss of his wife, who "did as much work as 
two bullocks." 

Stuart Woods, in a recent number of the "Quarter^ Jour- 
nal of Economics," s^s : " The agricultural processes of dif- 
ferent countries are among the surest indications of the 
condition of the laboring population. In Germany it is a 
common sight to see a cart drawn by a woman and a dog. 
Where labor is dearer and money more plenl^*, or the 
people a little easier, a horse releases both alike from th^ 
mmatural task. In the United States, where labor is dear, 
costly agricultural machinery is ezten^ve^ used in spite of 
tliB smallness of the farms. It is much used in England also, 
because there the farms are large ; and wages, although lower 
than in the United States, still far exceed those of other 
countries. In Russia, on the other hand, in Turk^ and in 
Afflatic countries, we find the rudest tools; baskets are used 
instead of wheelbarrows, wooden ploughs instead of iron 
ones; and gangs of spade-men replace both the ploughs and 
the beasts which draw them, A part of this is no doubt due 
to sheer stupidity, but much is also due to the price of labor 
and the rates of interest." 

The products of the soil are as various as the climate and 
geolo^cal character of the country. Fruits are abun- 
dant, of excellent quality, and extensively used by the whole 
population. Grapes are delicious, and within reach of the 
poorest, selling at the rate of two pounds and three-fourths 
for two or three cents. Apples, apricots, peaches, cherries, 
and plums have their localities of abundant growth, but no 
attrition is paid to obtaining the best kinds, or improving 
those already possessed.' 

' I am lorgelj indebted to Hamlin's AgricuUuTe cif the Etui for my luta. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Of grapes, whoever has once partaken of the famous 
chaotith from the Bithyniaa side of the Bosphorus, mil 
forever eschew all others : thin-skinned, small-seeded, fine- 
pulped, — a dream, a delight, — something to be talked 
about, never to find equaled. The vineyards of the Chris- 
tians and the Moslems differ in one very important particu- 
lar. The former cultivate those kinds suitable for making 
wines ; the latter, those that are best for food. While the one 
are making spirits, the others are preparing that grape- 
molasses called pekmez, which is extensive^ used. In it, 
all manner of fruits are stewed'or boiled, and the preserves 
laid aside for winter use. With it, savory dishes of quinces 
and meat, or chestnuts and meat, are prepared, much re- 
lished by the poor. 

The olive is grown over a very wide area, especially in 
Asiatic Turkey and the Mediterranean islands. It is a uni- 
versal article of food. Give an Oriental bread and black 
olives for a luncli,andheisliappy. Addtothis,oliveoilto 
flavor his stewed beans, his clam and rice, and his salads, 
and he is happier. Beyond that it is not necessary to go. 
The oUve orchard in the flowering time is one of the most 
beautiful sights in the world, — the gnarled and twisted 
trunks hoar with age; the short, oblate, slightly curled sil- 
very leaves ; the branches iaaly bending bwieath the weight 
of the snowy petals, and the ground beneath and around 
white as with flakes of snow. Job says, referring to this 
peculiarity of its shedding its blossoms: "He shall cast off 
his flowers as the olive." Next to the cereab, it is by far 
the most important agricultural product of Turicey. Its 
beny, pickled, forms the chief article of food; the oil, pro- 
duced from its pericarp, seasons most of t)ie dishes, and 

3.n.iized by Google 


keeps alive the light that cheers the winter's gloom; its 
wood, close-grained and hard, takes on a beautiful polish 
and is very highly prized; while its bark and leaves, pos- 
sessing certain febrifuge principles, are much sought after 
by the leeches of the country. The tree is slow in reaching 
maturity, but after the fifteenth or sixteenth year it bears on 
indefinitely, and seems never to lose its vitahty. There are 
trees in the garden of Gethsemane estimated to be one thou- 
sand years old, still in full sap and vigor. It is of all fruit 
trees the hardiest, for scarcely any amount of mutilation, 
any severity of frost, or even sharp scorching by fire, suf- 
fices to destroy its life. "So long as there is a fragment 
remaining, though externally the tree looks as dry as a post, 
yet does it continue to bear its load of oily berries; and for 
twenty generations the owner gathers fruit from the futhf ul 
old patriarch. This tree also requires but little labor or care 
of any kind, and, if long neglected, will revive again when 
the ground is dug or ploughed, and yield as before. Vine- 
yards forsaken die out almost immediately, and mulberry 
orchards n^lected run rapidly to ruin; but not so the ohve. 
Though they may not have been attended to for half a cen- 
tury, yet they continue to be a souree of income to. their 

These peculiarities Virgil observed and carefully noted in 
his "Greorgics" nearly two thousand years ago: — 

But, on tbe other hand, no culture needa 
The olive tiee at all; not if the knifa 
Forthcnrved expects, nor i-linging hoe, when once 
It in the field la fixed, and bears the breeie. 
To it the earth, ita bosom loosened up 
By furrows of the ploughshare's hook-like tooth. 

3.n.iized by Google 

Suffident mmsture pvte, and gives the plou^ 
Betunu of wd^tj biiitAge rich and ripe. 

Georqics, □. 

Why, cleave an olive tree's diy stump, and, itroiige 
And wondrous sttange to teU, an olive loot 
Vfm from the di7 wood come! 

Frequently a whole village wiD umte and plant a grove 
in common. Then not even the berries that fall to the 
groimd are allowed to be picked till a proclamation is is- 
sued by the bead man of the village or the governor of the 
province. A tree yields from ten to fifteen gallons of oil, and 
the profits are about one hundred dollars to the acre. It is 
claimed that the tree bears only every other year; but this 
is due probably to the vicious manner of gathering the fruit, 
— beating the branches with long poles to shake off the 
berries, and, in so ddng, bruising and destroying the tender 
buds that are setting for the next year's crop. 

The husks with which the prodigal son would fun have 
filled his belly, and which Scripture says the swine did eat, 
were not i^ter all such very poor fare. Many a repentant 
^nner might go farther and fare worse. They are the fleshy 
pods pf the locust tree, a leathery brown when fit to eat, 
from six to eight inches in length, contdning a spongy, 
mealy pulp, of a sweet and pleasant taste in its ripened state, 
and in which are imbedded anumberof shining brown seeds, 
very hard, and somewhat resembling a split pea. These 
seeds are of no value whatsoever, on account of their bitter 
flavor; but the sweet pulp of the pod, when dry, is exten- 
sively used as an article of food, particularly among tlie 
laboring classes. In Syria it is ground up into a coarse flour, 
and a species of molasses made, wluch is used in the prc^tara- 

3.n.iized by Google 


tion of different kinds of sweetmeats. As food for horses it 
is exported in large quantities into the south of Europe. 
Into this country and Great Britain it finds its way, under 
the name of locust beans or St. John's bread, receiving both 
namesfromtheancienttraditionthatthey are the "locusts " 
which formed the food of John the Baptist in the Tnldemess. 
The tree is cultivated extensively in all the countries bor- 
dering the shores of the Mediterranean, both for its food- 
producing qualities and its wood, which is hard and sus- 
ceptible of a fine polish. In size and manner of growth it 
res^nblea an apple tree, but is more bushy and thick-set. 
It yields a prolific harvest, and it is not unusual to see a tree 
bearing over half a ton of green pods. 

One other tree deserves mention, not on account of its 
food-producing qualities, but for its importance in a com- 
mercial point of view. It is the shrub oak, — the Querem 
(Bffilvpa, — which, growing wild on the mountain slopes and 
rugged steeps, where nothing else will grow, gives «mpl<^- 
ment to htmdreds of men, women, and children, who, in the 
season, go out to gather the acorns. These are brought 
down in sacks to the nearest seaport, whence they are ex- 
ported, thousands of tons annually, under the name of 
"valonia," to be used in the tanneries of Eiu^pe. They 
readily command eighty to ninety dollars a ton; and, from 
the seaport towns of Smyrna and the islands adjacent, 
forty thousand tons have been sent to England alone in a 
single year. 

The cereals of the empire do not differ much from ours. 
The exports are barley, maize, and wheat. Rye, oats, and 
millet give good results, and there are various other seeds 
of good native use. Looking only at the soil, climate, in- 

3.n.iized by Google 


dustrial population, and the rivers and coasts of lier great 
inland seas, Turkey ouglit to be our formidable rival in tlie 
markets of Europe; but her state of paralysis ia such that 
nothing is to be apprehended from that quarter. Destruc- 
tive treaties with England and stupid legislation on the part 
of her own government have reduced her to a state of hope- 
less bankruptcy. 

Turkish agriculture and hortieuhure furnish all that the 
heart could wish in the shape of edible vegetables. All that 
weproduceisthereproduced,withthe exception of potatoes, 
^diich are imported from Europe; squashes of various kinds, 
and measure unlimited; okra, spinach, celery; melons, un- 
rivaled in flavor and size; cuciunbers of &n^ length you 

The people of the East eat hardfy any meat, but live 
almost wholly on vegetables. The same regimen that made 
the three Israelitish captives at the Babylonian court so 
much fairer and fatter than those fed on the king's meat, 
seems to agree remarkably with the people now. (^ven a 
httie rice, some unleavened bread, a few olives, a cucumber 
cut up with garlic and seasoned with oil, and a pound or two 
of gn^>es or other fruit, and you produce those miracles of 
strength to be foimd in the Turkish porters, who, adjusting 
the burden to the pack they carry on th^ backs, walk off 
with a load of from five to seven hundred pounds, and make 
nothing of it. 

Tobacco b grown in mmiy parts of the empire, but it is a 
govenunent monopoly, and the taxes levied upon the un- 
happy cultivators are so burdensome that they are gradu- 
ally being forced to ^ve up the bu^ness. The finest tobacco, 
distinguished for its mild character and exquisite flavor, 

3.n.iized by Google 


comes from the hill-ddes of Latakia, a seaport town of 
Syria. It is a little singular that smoloDg, introduced into the 
East not earlier than the seventeenth c^ituiy, should have 
taken such deep root that the Turks and the Persians are 
now looked upon as the greatest smokers in the world. Men, 
women, and children, with consummate skill, roll their lit- 
tle cigarettes, — for they are never purchased ready made; 
and the yellow stiun on the finger-tips is as charactetistjc 
a mark as the black on the hand of a printer's deviL 

Coming now to the farm-yard, we find it abundantly pro- 
vided with animal life. Li every part of Turkey domestic 
fowls are met with, and the traveler always finds eggs and 
chickens, if nothing more. Li European Turk^ large fiocks 
of geese and turkeys are rwsed for the Constantinople mar- 
ket, and are driven down from the inland farms, a distance 
even of one hundred and fifty miles. This task is usually 
performed by gypsies; and we have often wondered at the 
unerring precisian with which, with their hooked sticks, 
they would suddenly arrest some lunatic goose in full career 
of mngs and feet. The hens are transported in crates on 
the backs of horses. 

The Turkish horse is a smaller, hardier animal than ours. 
It is more tractable, less nervous, has a better disposition, 
and rarely runs away. It is broken only to be ridden, and 
not driven; for, outside of the city of Constantinople, there 
is not a pleasure carriage to be found in the whole empire. 
In the cities tjl loads are carried on the backs of the porters, 
or, siispended on poles, are carried 1^ two or more of the 
same class. In the country are to be found only the rudest 
kinds of carts, drawn by bullocks or buffaloes, — the wheels 
cut out of a solid piece of wood four or five inches thick; and 

3.n.iized by Google 


as no grease is used, the terrible aqueaking and groaning 
that is made, as the carts lumber along, remind one, as has 
been quaintly sud, of "all the pandemonium of heU let 

The horses of the sultan's stable, and of some of the 
pashas', are magnificent creatures, wholly or in part of Arab 
blood. But the larger proportion of the horses met with 
are of a veiy inferior breed. The Turkish cavalry is well 
mounted, and the horses are far lighter and smaller than 
those in the English or French service; and during the 
Crimean war there was nothing attracted so much admira- 
tion as the splendid horses of the allies. The sultan, and, 
indeed, the whole Turkish government, jealously guard the 
Arab race of horses, that no infidel foreigner may ever pos- 
sess the pure breed. The pure-blooded Arab mare is never 
to be sold or given away to a foreigner, nor can the Moslem 
takeherwithhimout^deof thecountry. It may be doubted 
whether it ever has been done, and whether, in the cases 
claimed, the blood is pure and the pedigree sure. 

Perhaps no one is better qualified to speak of the Arab 
horses than the traveler Palgrave, whose command of the 
Eastern languages was such, that, in the guise of a native, 
he penetrated into the very heart of Arabia, and lived for 
months unsuspected among the people. Nay, in one of his 
journeys in Turkey, he actually officiated in one of the 
mosques in place of the regular priest, who had been taken 
aick. Practicing as a physician in the Nejed district, where 
the race of horses is the purest, and having been permitted 
to see and examine the stud of the sultan, he says: "Never 
had I seen or imagined so lovely a collection. Their sta- 
ture was, indeed, somewhat low, — I do not think that 

3.n.iized by Google 


any cimie tvUy up to fifteen hands : fourteen appeared te me 
to be about their average; but they were so exquisitely well 
shaped that want of greater size seemed hard^, if at all, a 
defect. Kemarkably full in the haunches, with a shoulder 
of a slope so elegant as to make one, in the words of an 
Arab poet, 'go raving mad over it'; a little, a very little 
saddle-backed, just the curve wluch indicates springiness 
without any weakness; a head broad above, and tapering 
down to a nose fine enough to verify the phrase of ' drinking 
from a pint-pot,' did pint-pots exist in Nejed; a most intel- 
ligent yet singularly gentle look; full eyes; sharp, thorn-like 
little ear ; legs fore and hind that seemed as if made of ham- 
mered iron, so clean and yet so well twisted with sinew; a 
neat, round hoof, just the requisite for hard ground ; the tail 
set on, or rather thrown out, at a perfect arch; coat smooth, 
shining and light; the mane long, but not overgrown or 
heavy; and an dr and step that seemed to say, 'Look at 
me; am I not pretty?' Their appearance justified all repu- 
tation, all value, all poetry. . . . But, if asked what are, 
after all, the especially distinctive pointe of the Arab horse, 
I should reply, the dope of the shoulder, the extreme clean- 
ness of the shank, and the full, rounded haunch, — though 
every other part, too, has a perfection and a harmony un- 
witnessed anywhere else." 

No Arab ever dreams of tying up his horse by the neck, 
The tether r^laces the halter. A light iron ring furnished 
with a padlock encircles the hind leg just above the pastern. 
A rope is attached to this, and made fast to an iron peg set 
in the ground. To make of their horse a devoted friend is 
the end sought after by all Arabs. With them he leads, so 
to speak, a domesticated life, in wluch, as in all domestic 

3.n.iized by Google 


life, women play a conspicuous part, — that, in fact, of pre- 
paring, by their gentleness, vigilance, and unceamig atten- 
tion, the solidarity that ought to exist betveen the man and 
the animal, A sustained education, daily contact with man, 
— that is their grand secret; it b that which makes the 
Arab horse what he is, — an object worthy of our unexcep- 
rional admiration. No wonder the Arab poets sing, with the 
metd^hor and hyperbole peculiar to that glowing clime: 
"Say not it is my horae; say it is my son. He outstrips the 
flash in the pan, or the glance of the ^e. His eye-sight is so 
good that he can distinguish a black hair in the night-time. 
In the day of battle he delights in the whistling of the balls. 
He overtakes the gazelle. He st^s to the eagle, 'Come 
down, OF I will ascend to thee.' Wh^i he hears the voice 
of the maidens, he n^hs with joy. When he gallops, he 
plucks out the tear from the ^e. He is so light he could 
dance on the bosom of thy mistress without bruising it. He 
b a thorough-bred, the very head of horses. No one has ever 
possessed his equal. I depend on hir" as my own heart." 

The famous Arab chieftain, Abd-el-Kadr, who for so many 
years gloriously resisted French aggression in northern 
Africa, betrayed unhappily by fortune, but saved by his- 
tory, prepared, while languishing in confinement in France, 
a series of maxims concerning the horse and its management, 
that are worthy of close attention. Hb method of judging a 
horse b " to measure him from the root of the mane close to 
the withers, and descend to the end of the upper lip be- 
tween the nostrils. Then measure from the root of the mane 
to the end of the tail-bone, and if the fore-part b longer than 
the hind part, there b no doubt the horse will have exceUent 
qualities. To ascerttun if a young horse will grow any more, 

3.n.iized by Google 


meaanre first hom the knee to the highest point situated in 
ihe prolongation of the limb above the withers, then from 
the knee downwards to the b^inning of the hair abovethe 
coronet (to the crest of the hoof) ; if these two measures are 
to one another as two-thirds to one-third, the horse will grow 
no more. If this proportion does not exist, the animal has 
not done growing; for it is absolutely necessaiy that the 
height from the knee to the withers should represent, in a 
fiill-grown horse, exactly double the length of the leg from 
the knee to the hoof." 

And now, with a few choice maxims from the same band, 
I must pass on to other themes: — 

No one becomes a boneman until he has been often thrown. 

Thorou^-bred horses have no vice. 

A hoTse in a leading-stiing is an honor to his master. 

Whoso forgets the beauty of horses for that of women.^will never prosper. 

Horses know th»r riders. 

The best time of day for giving bailey is the evening. Unless on a 

journey, it is useless to give it in the morning. 
Water a horse at sunrise, and it makes him lose flesh. Water him in 

the evening, and it puts him in good ccmdition. Water him in the 

middle of the day, and you keep Mm as he is. 
Dming the great forty-day heats, water your horses only every other 

"The pious Ben-el*Abbas — Allah be good to him! — 
hathaud": — 

Love horses and take care of them. 
Spare no trouble; 

By them comes honor, by them comes beauty. 
If horses are forsaken of men, 
I will receive them into my family, 

I win share with them the bread of my childfeu; 

My wives shall cover them with their veils. 

And cover themsdves witii the hc«se-cloths. 

3.n.iized by Google 


I ride them every day 

Over the field of adventures; 
Carried Hway in Uieir iD:q)etuoiu career, 

I combat the most valiant. 
My steed ia as bUck as a night without moon or stats. 

He was foaled ia vast solitudes; 

He is an air-drinker, son of an air-drinker. 
His dam also was of noble race, and our horsemen have named 
bim the javelin. 

The lightning flash itself camiot overtake him; 

Allah save him from the evil eye! 

The mule needs no remark. He is the same useful, hard- 
working, impopular animal in Tm'key as in America. He 
has the same moral obliquity of character, and the same 
uncertainty in hia business end, as elsewhere. His great 
usefulness in the transportation of goods makes him worthy 
of better treatment than he receives. 

The donkty, the poor donkey, b everywhere in the way. 
He is the common bearer of a certain class of burdens in all 
the cities. You meet him in every street. He crowds you 
to the wall with protruding load. Everylxxfe^ curses and 
kicks him, while he is doing bis best. He carries all the 
sand, lime, bricks, boards, and lighter timbers for building. 
He carries away all the refuse of every kind. He is the 
most iiseful, abused, and patient of animals. Men, women, 
and children ride him. He always leads the caravan of 
cameb, mules, or horses. Everybody uses him; nobody 
loves him; everyboc^ abuses him. The Eastern world could 
not live without him. 

The prince of buiden-bearers is the camel. He is in 
truth the "ship of the desert." He bears enormous loads, 
of from six to ei^t hundred pounds, twenty-five to thirty 
miles a d^. But for him all inland commerce would cease. 

3.n.iized by Google 


From the tar-oB, isolated hamlets of the East he gathers 
up and brings down to the seaport towns, or to the few 
through which a railway passes, the products of the country , 
and returns laden with the merchandise of Europe. Awk< 
ward beyond description, with his short body and long neck 
and legs, moving noisdessly over the ground with his soft- 
padded feet, you wonder, and yet shrink from him. Dia- 
bolical in expression, he is ugliness personified. 

In the breeds of cattle there is room for great inqirove- 
ment. 'IHiere are none of superior breed; and beef of good 
qiuility is not to be foxmd in Turkey. The best quality, 
which is imported, is from South Russia. Until the time of 
the Crimean War such a thing as beefsteak was hardly 
known. It was mutton, mutton everywhere. Well do we 
remember the first morsel of steak we ever tasted. It was 
fried in a fiying-pan, done till there was n't a dri^ of juice 
in it, and came up garnished with garlic and onions, and 
covered over with parsley. But what a flavor it possessed ! 
"Something original and authentic," as Howells puts it, 
" mingled with vague reminiscences of canal-boat travel and 
woodland can^." Like the Englishman "who had no pre- 
judices," from that moment I hated mutton. 

The ox is small and hardy, but for heavy draft the buffab 
is in constant use. This ugly-looking animal, whose para- 
dise is a mud-hole, into which he can sink with the escep- 
tion of his mouth and eyes, is very powerful. The female 
gives a milk that is rich, though somewhat strong and odor- 
ous. The manufacture of butter is infamously bad. The 
chums used are of various kinds. Earthen jars, shaped like 
a barrel, swelling in the centre, are filled with cream and 
then tilted up and down. The trunk of a tree, hoUowed out 

3.n.iized by Google 

and boarded at both ends, is bung to a beam and swung to 
and fro. Tbe skins of animals, particularly tbe goat, vith the 
hair in^de, are sewed in the form of a bag, and, being filled 
with cream, are rapidly rolled over and over on the ground 
until the butter comes. The gypsies, it is stud, when start- 
ing on their journeys, wiU fill the skins with cream, and, sit- 
ting upon them, will find butter when they reach their jour- 
ney's end. It is s^d that in early times the missionaries 
used to punish their children by putUng tiiem imder the 
table and making them shake a bottle of milk. Sawing the 
butter is a very necessary operation, and all well-provided 
families have a fine-tooth saw with which to extract the 
hairs from the butter. The natives melt the butter for cook- 
ing, and easily strain out the hair. But no attempt is ever 
made to eat it on bread. 

A missionary on the rich plains of the Sangarius tried 
to introduce a reform in the process of churning. He showed 
the fanners that in the marlrets of Constantinople their 
butter brought less than one-half the price of good English 
or Italian butter. He tried to introduce theAmericanchum, 
and the mode of working, salting, and putting down. It is 
needless to say the attempt was an utter failure. They had 
always had hair and butter together, and they always would 
have, till death. In ftoverbs (xxx, 83) we are told: "Surely 
the churning of milk bringeth forth butter, and the wringing 
<rf the nose bringeth forth blood." There would seem to be 
at first sight, no special analogy between the process of 
churning and pulling a man's nose until the blood comes, 
if you consider our method alone. But, in the native op- 
eration, the con^Hirison is a just one and natural: for 
the women seize and squeeze and wring tbe milk in their 

3.n.iized by Google 


goat-skin bottles in a vigorous way which would soon fetch 
the blood if applied to the nasal organ of some antagonist. 

The mountuns and pbuns of this great empire, both in 
Eunq>e and Asia, afford unrivaled facilities for the kecking 
of 8beq>. In the sununer the flocks pasture on the mountain 
slopes, while the sh^herds with fire-anns and dogs ke^ 
careful watch against the attacks of wild beasts. In the 
winter, immense flocks migrate from European Turkey into 
the milder climate of Asia Minor. There is such an enor- 
mous extent of vacant pasture-land that no expense is 
incurred, except in the transportation of so many animals 
across the Bosphonis or Dardanelles. 

The fat-t^ed Caramanian sheep are the most singular 
and surprising animals to be met with in Turkey. While yet 
lambs, the tail begins to broaden and thidiBn with a fat 
which is regarded by the natives as a great delicacy, and 
equal to butter for cooking purposes. In a few months the 
weight and size of the tail becomes a positive bimlm to the 
animal, furnishing, in those creatures that have been care- 
fully fed and tended, from fourteen to twen^ pounds of pure 
fat, superior to lard, and entering into competition with but< 
ter. If, as often happens, the end of the tail drags upon the 
ground, so as to endanger excoriation, a very simple though 
laughable remedy is resorted to. A little carriage, rude^ 
made, with wheds about six or eight inches in diameter, is 
placed under the end of the tail, which is thus suflSciently 
sloped out from the body, and is so harnessed to the lord 
(or lady) of the tail, that it is home about without injury, 
and may "laugh and grow fat" at its leisure. You may 
thus often see a sheep going on foot, and its tul following 
in a carriage. The natives will tell you that these carriage 

3.n.iized by Google 


ttuls sometimes produce seventeen okes (forty-six and three 
qiiarters pounds) of pure fat; but the Oriental imagination 
is prone to get the better of the real facts, and the figures 
above given (fourteen to twenty pounds) are perhaps nearer 
the truth. It is sufficient to know that the tails do some- 
times become so heavy as to anchor the she^ and cause 
its death, if suitable precautions are not taken. 

Aecording to a recent article in the "Country Gentle- 
man," these sheep are found in Syria, Egypt, north Africa, 
Asia Minor and western Asia, and were described by Herod- 
otus and Aristotle more than two thousand years ago; but 
the writer could not resist adding a pound or two to his tale, 
and he claims that " animals are not rare whose tails weigh 
from one hundred to one hundred and twenty pounds, 
while the average weight is forty to sixty." 

Another fact is peculiar about the flocks of sheep and 
goats. The ewes are milked as regularly as we milk our 
cows, and it is done with wonderful rapidity. Two grasps 
of the overflowing udder, and it is emptied. Among my 
earliest recollections is that of a flock of goats being driven 
every morning to my father's door and there milked, in 
order to insiue oiur receiving our day's supply of the lacteal 
fluid in its virgin purity. Immense quantities of cheese, 
made from the milk of sheep and goats, moulded into disks 
twelve to fourteen inches in diameter and an inch thick, 
are transported from the interior of the country to the mar- 
kets of the great city. 

Of the Angora goats, with their long, fine, sil^ h^, 
natives of the rocky slopes in the province of Angora, I 
have not the heart to speak. From the silky fibre of their 
hair, skilled workmen had long supplied the world with rare 

3.n.iized by Google 


and hi^-priced goods of female apparel. But, witli the 
pricdess blessings of free trade, the country was flooded 
with a cheap imitation made by machinery. The flocks 
dwindled away, the occupation of whole villages was gone, 
and abject poverty and nun overtook the wretched inhabit- 

You wifl perhaps have noticed the abs^ice of any allusion 
to the swine among the domestic animals caiumCTated. The 
reason is obvious. Con^dered as unclean beasts by both 
Turk and Jew, it b only in Christian viflages that they are 
to be found. What was cursed under the Mosaic dispensa- 
tion and continued to be cursed under the Mohammedan, 
is stOI looked upon with suspicion by the faithful; and, 
though their mouths may water as the dehcate tuxtma of 
roast suckling pig arises on ihe aii, yet they rigidly abstain 
from any participation. Two infaUible signs, one negative 
and one positive, disclose the character of a Chiistian town 
in Turkey, — the absence of minarets and the presence of 
pigs. In consequence of the pig being in this manner a 
Christian animal, there is an oppressive tax on pigs, levied 
when the animal is three months old. The risk incurred 
from the payment of so large a tax (ten piasters) on so yoiing 
an animal is so great that many of them are killed shortly 
after birth, and an important article of food is lost to the 

I have rambled on longer than I intended, for one re- 
miniscence has led on to another; but I cannot close without 
alluding to one more fact which must be patent to every 
thoughtful observer traveling in the Levant to-day, and 
that is, the constancy of the Eastern nund to itself, and the 
immutabiUty of its customs and observances. The same 

3.n.iized by Google 


scenes penned by the writers of Holy Writ two thousand 
years ago are r^teated to-day unchanged. 

Rebekah still lets down her pitcher at the wayside foun- 
tun, and be^ the thirs^ Labans to a refreshing draught. 

The tender Ruths still glean where Boaz reaps. 

The Miriams still dance and sing the song of triumph, 
as th^ go forth to welcome home their conquering heroes. 

The women stiU in humble posture grind their com, as, 
sitting on the gromid, th^ whirl the upper grindstone round 
upon the nether one. 

SUU, at the evening meal, reclined about the table, raised 
but a few inches from the floor, they dip their piece of un- 
leavened bread into the common dish, just as in the days 
when Jesus said, " He that dippeth his hand with me in the 
dish> the same irhfl^l betray me." 

3.n.iized by Google 


I HAVE chosen for my subject this afternoon "The influ- 
ence of the monks in agricultm^," — the influence of men 
who, taking their lives in their hands, flung themselves into 
the wild forests and abandoned wastes of Europe and the 
remoter East, and wrought a work which, so far as we can 
judge, could have been wrought in no other way; "for it 
was done by men who gave up all that makes life dear and 
worth the living, for the sake of being good themselves and 
making others good." They were the pioneers of a physical, 
no less than a moral, civilization. Never were instruments 
less conscious of the high ends they were serving, and never 
were high ends more rapidly or more effectually achieved. 
Apostles of the Lord, they pushed out into the midst of 
tribes only wilder and more savage than the country they 
inhabited, determined to bring them within the f<dd. But 
the instinct of self-preservation compelled them first to turn 
aside to reclaim and till the soU, to construct houses, to pro- 
vide themselves with the necessities of life, to practise the 
arts and sciences in order that they might live. And so, 
ministering to their bodily wants, they ended by forcing 
upon thar barbaric neighbors, first, civilization, and then 
Christianity. Kingsley, in his spirited way, tells us: "They 
accepted the lowest and commonest facts of the peasant's 
life. They outdid him in helplessness and loneliness, in 
hunger and dirt and slavery, and then sud :' Among all these 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


I can yet be a man of God, wise, virtuous, free and noble in 
tbe sight of God, thou^ not in the sight of Csesar's courts 
and knights.' " 

The time at which this great work began was ahnost coin- 
cident with the Christian era. and lasted through what we 
are pleased to call the dark or mediaeval ages, which, how- 
ever, when we come to examine them, we find to our sur- 
prise filled with light, with charities of the noblest kind 
and enduring monuments of Christian grace. 

With the faJI of the Roman empire and the influx of the 
great waves of barbaric tribes that swept over Europe, 
civilization was stamped out and Christianity ceased to 
exist. The cleared lands and cultivated fields reverted to 
forest and moor, cities and towns 1^ in ruins, and the citi- 
zen was reduced to the condition of the beggar and the slave. 
Thb despairing cry of St. Jerome from his peaceful hermit- 
age at Bethlehem fell vainly on the ears of a hopeless world: 
"For twenty years Roman blood has been flowing every 
day between Constantinc^le and the Julian Alps. Scythia, 
Thrace, Macedonia, Dacia, Thessalooica and Epirus all 
belong to the barbarians, who ravage, rend and destroy 
everything before them. How many noble matrons and 
maids have been the toys of their lust; how mai^ bish<q>s in 
chains, priests butchered, churches destroyed, altars turned 
into stables, relics profaned! Sorrow, mourning and death 
are everywhere. TheRomanworldiscrumblingintoruins." 
And what St. Jerome so vividly describes of the Eastern 
world was equally true of the West. France, Germai^, 
Spain, Italy, and England had all fallen a prey to the never- 
ending swarms that poured across the barrier rivers, the 
Rhine and the Danube. 

3.n.iized by Google 


But out ot the midst of this universal chaos and desola- 
tion now burst forth an army of Christian soldiers. Some, 
taking upon themselves vows of solitude and self-renuncia- 
tion, penetrated the wilderness to live as ascetics, — a life 
of prayer and holy calm, withdrawn from the turmoil and 
wretchedness of the world; others, seeking out the most 
inaccessible and unfrequented spots, erected their build- 
ings, and, gathering about them their disciples, entered upon 
the true monastic life; while yet others again, as missiona- 
ries, advanced boldly into the enemy's dominions, to con- 
quer back for the church the territory it had lost, and to 
gather into its folds these new peoples and new tribes whose 
invasion had destroyed the Roman world. And it was their 
gloty that in a few short centuries they succeeded. But, 
whether as hermits or missionaries or monks they aban- 
doned their homes and embraced this painful life, the result 
was in every case the same, — agriculture and the arts first, 
and civilization and Christianity last. It could not be other- 
wise; the necessities of the case compelled it. Solitaries 
who shrank from all contact with humanity were becoming 
the unconscious instruments of the civilization and con- 
version of savages and heathen. They penetrated valleys 
choked with rocks, brambles, and brushwood, the over- 
growth of generations interlaced into a barrier not to be 
penetrated by anything weaker than their untiring energy. 
They are the sternest of ascetics and most isolated of her- 
mits. But then- rest b broken by penitents who come to 
ask their blessing and v^o implore permission to live imder 
their authority. The solitary cell of the hermit becomes the 
nucleus of a society, — the society a centre of many congre- 
gations radiating from it. The little plot of herbs becomes 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


a garden; the garden stretches out into fields of wavmg 
grain; the hills are clothed with vines, the valleys bowered 
in fruit trees. 

Opening their doors to all, receiving under their shelter 
and protection the oppressed, the weak, the criminal, the 
slave, the sin-sick soul, weary of this life and despairing of 
another, the mourner and the comfortless, it frequ^itly 
happened that the inmates of these clobters, those attached 
to one community and under one jurisdiction, numbered 
thousands. Lecky tells us that in one city on the Nile 
there were twenty thousand monks and ten thousand 
nuns, — the religious far outnumbering the other classes of 
society. In England and Ireland these monastic commu- 
nities assumed a. pecullu* form. Kings, followed by their 
entire tribe, presented themselves at the baptismal font and 
came under religious rule; and frequently these kings were 
chosen abbots, and as in their worldly life they had ruled 
their subjects, so in their spiritual life they continued to be 
th^ recognized head and leader. To such an extent was 
this carried, that in England in the course of a single cen- 
tury there resulted an alarming diminution of the miUtary 
resources of the country; and there is still extant a letter of 
the great chim:hman, the Venerable Bede, in which, im- 
ploring the kings and bishops to put a stop to the grants of 
land for monastic piuposes, because subsequently misused, 
he says: "Many Northumbrians put aside their arms, cut 
off their hair and hasten to enroll themselves in the monas- 
tic ranks, instead of exercising themsdves in their military 
duties. The future alone will tell what good will result from 
this." Perhaps some of you will recollect a more modem 
instance in the law of Peter the Great, forbidding any State 

3.n.iized by Google 


officii atizai in business, or workman, to enter the cloisterSf 
declaring that he would not consecrate to idleness subjects 
that might be useful. 

To support now these throngs of people that assumed the 
cowl, it was necesaaiy for the monks to devote themselves 
to agriculture and horticulture, and this they did in a most 
successful maimer. "It is impossible to forget," says the 
great historian of the monks, "it is impossible to forget the 
use they made of so many vast districts (holding as they did 
one fifth of all the land in England), uncultivated and unin- 
habited, covered with forests, or surrounded with marshes. 
For such, it must not be foi^ten, was the true nature of 
the vast estates given to the monks, and which had thus the 
double advantage of offering to communities the most inac- 
cessible retreats that could be found, and of imposing the 
least possible sacrifice upon the mimificence of the giver." 
Kings and barons vied with each other in their eagerness to 
save their souls from hell and pave the way to heaven by 
giving to these poor monks land the most desolate and un- 
fertile, land no other bimiaa beings would inhabit, land cov- 
ered with sand or rock or buried in water for the greater 
part of the year. 

How man or woman bom could live in such unwholesome 
and improductive spots and thrive seems abs<dutely mi- 
raculous, but these patient toilers of the church surmounted 
all the difSculties which stared them in the face, of begin- 
ning the cultivation of a new country.^ The forests were 
cleared, the marshes made wholesome or dried up, the 
soil irrigated or drmned, according to the requirements 
of each localityt while bridges, roads, dykes, havens, and 
I Montalembert, MonkM of Iha Wat. 

3.n.iized by Google 


lighthouses were erected wherever their possessions or in- 
fluence extended. The half at leaat of broad Northumber- 
land, covering an area of about two thousand square miles, 
was lost in sandy plains and barren heaths; the half at 
least of East Anglia and a considerable part of Mercia were 
covered with marshes, difficult of access. Yet in both 
these regions the monks substituted for these uninhabit- 
able deserts fat pasturage and abundant harvests. The 
latter district, the present name of which (the Fens) alone 
recalls the marshy and unwholesome nature of the soil, 
became the principal theatre of the triumphs of agricult- 
viai industry, performed by the monks. Medehampstead 
(now Peterborough), Ely, Croyland, Tlomey (now South- 
ampton), Ramsay, were the first battl^elds of these con- 
querors of nature, these monks who made of themselves 
ploughmen, breeders and l^epers of stock, and who were 
the true fathers of Enghsh agriculture, which, thanks to 
their traditions and example, has become the first agri- 
culture in the world. 

Perhaps in no better way can I more graphically bring 
before you the immraise woric of the monks than by giving 
you a picture of the fen district of Southampton before 
Thomey Abbey was founded, and then reading you the 
description of this abbey by the great bishop of Tyre, Wil- 
liam of Malmesbury. Southampton is a peninsula m ftlHng 
down between the mouths of the Itchen and the Test or 
Anton into the tide-sw^t channel that separates it from 
the Isle of Wight. It was nothing but a vast morass.' The 
fens in the seventh century were probably like the forests at 
the mouth of the Mississippi or the swamp shores of the 
1 Euigdey, Bermiit. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Carolinas. It was a labyrinth of black, wandering streams; 
bioad lagoons, morasses submerged every spring-tide; 
vast beds of reed and sedge and fern; vast copses of willow, 
alder, and gr^ poplar, rooted in the floating peat, which 
was swallowing up slowly, all-devouring, yet all-preserving, 
the forests of fir and oak, ash and poplar, hazel and yew, 
whidi had once grown in that low, rank sml. Trees torn 
down by flood and storm floated and lodged in rafts, dam- 
ming the waters back upon the land. Streams bewildered 
in the forests dianged thwr channels, ming lin g gilt and sand 
with the black soil of the peat. Nature left to herself ran 
into wild riot and chaos more and more, tUl the whole 
fen became one dismal swamp. 

Four or five centuries later \^^am of Matmesbuty visits 
the place and leaves us this charming picture of the change : ' 
"It is a counterfeit dt Paradise, where the gentleness and 
purity of heaven appear already to be reflected. In the 
midst of the fens rise groves of trees which seem to touch 
the stars with their tall and slender tops; the charmed eye 
wanders over a sea of verdant herbage, the foot which 
treads the wide meadow meets with no obstacle in its 
path. Not an inch of land as far as the eye can reach lies 
uncultivated. Here the soil is hidden by fruit trees; there 
by vines stretched upon the ground or trailed on trellises. 
Nature and art rival each other, the one supplying aU that 
the other forgets to produce. O deep and pleasant sohtude! 
Thou hast been given by God to the monks, so that their 
mortal life may diuly bring them nearer to heaven." 

Everywhere we see the monks instructing the population 
in the most profitable methods and industries, naturalizing 
' CkrtmideqfWHiioKdf Maime^Tj/. 

3.n.iized by Google 


under a vigorous sky the most useful vegetables and tlie 
most productive gtaina, importing continually into the 
countries they colonized animals of better breed, or plants 
new and unknown there before; here introducing the rear- 
ing of cattle and horses, there bees or fruit; in another place 
the brewing fd beer with hops; in Sweden, the com trade; 
in Burgundy, artificial pisciculture; m Ireland, salmon 
fisheries; about Parma, cheese-making, and fina% occupy- 
ii^ themselves with the culture of the vine, and planting 
the best vineyards of Bui^undy, the Bhine, Auveigne, and 
England; for the monks of Croyland introduced the vine 
even into the fens of Wy and in other countries where it 
has now disappeared. They were the first to turn their at- 
tention to improving the breeds of cattle, declaring that 
the promiscuous union <^ nobody's son with everybody's 
daughter resulted in half-starved oxen "euyll for the stone 
and euyll for digestyon, fitter to be \ised outside as a water- 
proofe than inside." They taught the necessity of letting 
the land be fallow for a time after several years of continu- 
ous cropping; they practised rotation of crops, using clover 
as the last in the series; they improved the different varieties 
of fruits and learned the art fd grafting, budding, and holer- 
ing; they taught by precept and example the value of drain- 
age and irrigation. In short, in everything making for pro- 
gressive agriculture we find them blazing the w^; and when 
the monasteries were suppressed by Henry VIII, a death- 
blow was struck for a time at scientific agriculture and 

And what they did for England was paralleled by their 
work upon the contment. Need we point to any other in- 
stance than that of Vitrucius peopling the sand-banks of 

3.n.iized by Google 


Flftud^s or Belgium with religious, who, by their unwearied 
industry, reclaimed Uiose arid wastes and turned those 
buimng sands into one vast garden? Need we speak of the 
country separating Bdgium from Holland, and how it was 
cleared by the monks who taught its wild inhabitants agri- 
culture as well as Christianity? In a manuscript bearing 
date of 1420 a monk proposed the artificial propagation of 
trout. It was the monks of Fulda who started the cele- 
brated vineyards of Johannisberg, the Cisterciau monks 
that of Clos Vougeot. The Benedictines brought vines from 
Beaune to plant on the banks of the Allier. The mtNiks of 
Mozat set out walnut trees, still so abundant in Lower Au- 
vergne. They first cared for the preservation of forests as 
affecting climate and fertility. They stored up the waters 
of springs and distributed them in drou^t; and it was the 
monks of the abbess of St. Laurent and St. Martin who 
first brought together and conducted to Paris the waters of 
springs wasting themselves on the meadows of St. Gervais 
and Belleville; and in Lombardy it was the foUowers of St. 
Bernard who taught the peasants the art of irrigation, and 
made that country the most fertile and the richest in Europe. 
We approach now another and higher phase of monastic 
life. Li its eariier days we find the mraiks engaging in the 
practice of agriculture from the necessities arising out of 
the conditions in which th^ were placed. They had 
ploughed, they had sowed, they bad reaped, in order to 
preserve iheir lives. But now agriculture becomes a part 
of their religion, and the great St. Benedict enjoins upon 
his di5cq>les three objects for filling up their time : Agricul- 
ture, literary pursuits, and copyii^ manuscripts.^ He 
' W«shanlt, Binary c^ Momutiaitm. 

3.n.iized by Google 


conies before the world saying: "No person is ever more 
usefully employed than when working with his hands or 
following the plough, providing for the use of man. . . . 
He bent himself to the task of teaching the rich and the 
proud, the poor and the la^, the alphabet of prosperity 
and happiness." 

Agriculture was sunk to a low ebb. Marshes covered once 
fertile fields, and the men who should have tilled the land 
spumed the plough as d^rading. The monks left their 
cells and their prayers to dig ditches and plough fields. The 
effort was magical. Men once more turned back to a noble 
but despised industry, and peace and plenty supplanted 
war and poverty. So weU recognized were the blessings they 
brought, that an old German proverb among the peasants 
runs,"It is good to live under the crozier." They ennobled 
manual labor, which, in a d^enerate Roman world, bad 
been performed ezclusivdy by slaves, and among bar- 
barians by women. For the monks, it is no exaggeration to 
say that the cultivation of the soil was like an immense 
alms sin«ad over a whole country. The abbots and super- 
iors set the example, and 8trq>ping off their sacerdotal 
robes toiled as common laborers. Like the good parson 
whom Chaucer portn^ in the Prologue to the "Canter- 
bury Tales": — 

Thia noble auan^le unto hii idiMp he gaf 
That first lie iTTQii^te uid after tbat he tan^te. 

When a papal messenger came in haste to consult the 
Abbot Equutins on important matters of the church, he 
was not to be found ai^ywhere, but was finally discovered in 
the valley cutting hay. Under such guidance and such 
example the monks upheld and taught everywhere the 

3.n.iized by Google 


(%uity ot labor, first, by consecrating to agriculture the 
energy and intelligent activity of freemen, often of high 
birth and clothed with the double authority of the priest- 
hood and of hereditary nobility, and second, by associating 
under the Benedictine habit sons of kings, princes, and 
nobles with the rudest labors of peasants and serfs. 

There is still another phase of this monastic life. We 
have seen that the one universal and regular duty imposed 
was the necessity of being constantly employed. , It was 
work for the sake of work. The object sought was not so 
much what would be produced by the labor as to keep the 
body and mind so constantly employed that temptations 
could find no access and sin would therefore be escaped. 
Consequently it was a matter of comparative indifference 
what the work was. 'Hie harder and more painful and un- 
attractive to men in general it might be, so much the better 
for the monk. If sufficiently difficult, the element of pen- 
ance was added, and it became a still more effectual meana 
of grace. In this way the monks did a great amount of 
extremely useful work which no one else would have imder- 
tak^i. Especiallyis this true of die clearing and reclaming 
of land. A swamp was of no value. It was a source of 
pestilence. But it was just the place for a monastery be- 
cause it made life especially hard; and so the monks carried 
in earth and stone, and made a foundation, and built their 
convent, and then set to work to dyke and drain and fill up 
the swamp, till they had turned it into fertile plough-land 
and the pestilence had ceased. 

The cotmection of the monasteries with the great centres 
of population to-day is an interesting one.' The require- 
* Gibbiiu, Indutirial Biitory of England. 

3.n.iized by Google 


meats of the monks and the instruction they were enabled 
to impart soon led to the establishment in their immediate 
ndghboihood of the first settlement of arUficers and retui 
dealers, while the excess of their crops, their flocks and their 
herds gave rise to the first marlrctai which were as a rule 
held before the gate of the abbey church, or within the 
church-yard, among the tombs. Thus hamlets and towns 
were formed which became the centres of trade and general 
intercourse, and thus originated the market-tolls and the 
jurisdiction of these spiritual lords. Out of these hamlets 
clustered around the monasteries arose in England South- 
ampton, Peterborough, Bath, Colchester, Oxford, Cam- 
bridge, Ely, and many others. 

In the earlier days the monks had alw^s taken the lead 
in farming, and if improvements were introduced it was 
siu« to be the monks who were the pioneers. How useful 
the monasteries had been, and what an important factor 
they were, b perhaps best seen ^m the eGFect th^ disso- 
lution had upon the l^rarii^ classes. Heniy VUI sup- 
pressed six hundred and forty-four monasteries, ninety col- 
lies, two thousand three hundred and seventy-four free 
chapels, and one hundred and ten hospitals. These held 
one fifth Mall the land in the kingdom and one third thena- 
tional wealth. At the same time nearly one hundred thou- 
sand male persons were thrown out of employment. " It is 
posdble," s^s Symes in Traill's "Social England," "that 
the relieving of a large number of persons from the obliga- 
tions of celibacy partly accounts for the great increase of the 
population which undoubtedly took place in Henry's reign. 
Moreover, experience proves that people reduced to poverty 
and desperation often show extraordinary recklessness in 

3.n.iized by Google 


bringing people into the world." However that may bci we 
find the population, from the reign of Henry VII to the 
death of Henry VUI, increasing from two and one half 
mill i nn n to fouT millions. 

But this change in population without corresponding dis- 
tribuUon of wealth, this transference of one third the na- 
tional wealth, was attended by another still more disas- 
trous effect, and that was "the change in the character of 
the demand tor labor, which reduced to the ranks of the 
unskilled those whose skill was no longer in demand." 
The land taken up by the king was bestowed upon his 
nobles and favorites, and these, desirous of securing im- 
mediate and larger profits, enclosed immense areas and 
turned to the breeding and pasturing of sheep. It was 
the substitution of pasture for tillage, of sheep for com, 
of conmiercialism for a simple, self-sufficing industiy, of 
individual gam for the old agrarian partnership in which 
the lords or abbots, the parsons, yeomen, farmers, copy- 
holders, and laborers were associated for the supply of the 
wants of the villagers.^ A perfect frenzy for rtusing sheep 
took possession of the agricultural community. No pmns 
were spared to increase the extent of pasturage. Small 
tenants were evicted, laborers' cottages were pulled down, 
the lords' demesnes turned into pastures, and wastes and 
commons which had before been open to all were now en- 
closed for the same purpose. Every one was now con- 
vinced that "the foot of the sheep would turn sand into 
gold," and hastened to substitute grazing for tillage. 

But while there was this sudden and wholesale trans- 
ference of the arable land to pasturage, as sudden and vio- 
* Tiull, Social England. 

cv Google 


lent a change in the character of labor was required. The 
dog and the shepherd took the place of the ploughmen and 
their teams, and thua diminished the demand for labor at 
the very moment when the supply was increased. Very 
serious results followed. The poorer tenants were ruined and 
an immense number of persons were thrown out of employ- 
ment, to become beggars and thieves. Itwas, saysGibbins, 
in the "Industrial History of England," the beginnii^ of 
English pauperism. That this was no trifling change in the 
social condition of the people the following quotations will 
prove; "The Statute-book for 1489 tells us that the Isle of 
Wight is lately become decayed of people, by reason of 
many towns and villages having been beaten down and is 
desolate and not inhabited, but occupied with beasts and 
cattle; throughout England, too, we are assured that idle- 
ness daily doth increase; for where in some towns two him- 
dred were occupied and lived of their lawful labor, now there 
are occupied only two or three herdsmen." Starkey, the 
royal chaplain in the next r^gn, only puts this more t5>i- 
granunatically when he says: "Where hath been many 
bouses and churches to the honor of God, now you shall find 
nothing but sheepcotes and stables to the ruin of men, and 
that not in one place or two, but generally throughout this 
realm." Finally, if any further evidence is wanted to show 
that great hardships were being entailed upon the peasantry 
there are the indignant words of Sir Thomas More, in which 
he bids us sympathize with "the husbandmen thrust out 
of their own, or else by covin and fraud, or by violent 
oppression put beside it, or by wrongs and injuries so 
wearied that they sell all"; and goes on to denounce the 
noblemen and gentlemen, yea, and certain abbots that lease 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


no groimds for tillage; that enclose all into pasture, and 
throw down houses; that pluck down towns and leave no- 
thing standing, but only the church to be made a sheep- 

In a word, then, the monks were the scientific farmers of 
the day. They had access to all the knowledge of the an- 
cients, and the constant intercourse with their brethren in 
other countries kept them acquunted with methods of agri- 
culture and products other than their own; and when their 
great reli^ous houses were suppressed, agriculture, of which 
they had been the pioneers, came for a time to a standstill. 

There were four great periods in which these dist^ples of 
civilization were steadily pushing their way into the dark- 
ness of an unregenerate world; and in like manner there 
were four great periods in which, in one way or another, 
vast estates were added to their jurisdiction and came under 
thdr kindly influence. The first, covering the first five 
c^tturies of the Christian era, may not inappropriately be 
termed that of the Apostles and early fathers. And I can- 
not help quoting here the vivid words of Hillis, descriptive 
of that era: "With matchless enthuaasm these youi^ 
knights of the new chivalry leaped into the arena. Be^- 
ning at Jerusalem they scattered in every direction, march- 
ing forth like columns of light. When twenty years had 
passed Matthew was two thousand miles to the southwest. 
At the same time Jude was two thousand miles to the 
northeast. James the X^ess joum^ed east into Judea. Paul 
journeyed to the west. When twoscore years had passed 
all the disciples save one had achieved a violent death and 
blazed out paths in the dark, tangled forests. And when 
the torch fell from the hands of these heroes, their disciples 

3.n.iized by Google 


snatched up the light and rushed on to new victories. Now 
that long time has passed, history has summarized the influ- 
ence of these missionaries. If we ask who destroyed the 
great social evils of Rome. Lecky answers, 'The Christian 
missionaries.' Ask when the rude tribes of the northern 
forests began to be nations, Eallam answers, 'When Boni- 
face crossed the Alps on his Christian mission.' Asked for 
the beginning of England's greatness. Green tells us the 
story of the two Christian teachers who one winter's night 
entered the rude banquet hall of King Ethelbert." 

About the middle of this period commenced the hermit 
or ascetic life in the far East. Paul, Anthony, Pacomius, 
and others, gathering together the thousands of disciples 
that had followed them, peopled the arid wastes and rocky 
valleys of the Thebud with their nuns and monks. 

N^; follows the missionary period, in which these de- 
voted soldiers of the cross, pushing their adventurous way 
into every part of Europe, reconquered for the church the 
territory it had lost, and, planting their monasteries in the 
wildest and most unfrequented spots, became the heralds of 
civilization and Christiamty. In this period and in the last 
the monasteries were largely enriched by the gifts of the 
ffuthful, — in most cases the donors begging the interces- 
sion of the monks in their behalf. Thus St. Eloysius in his 
charter to the monks of Solignac writes: "I, your suppli- 
ant, in the sight of the mass of my sins, and in hopes <rf 
being detivered from them by God, give to you a litUe 
tiling for a great, earth in Kichange for heaven, that wiach 
passes away for that which is eternal." So Peter, the Lord 
of Maule, says: "The prudent ant as she sees winter ap- 
proach makes the more haste to bring in her stores, so as to 

3.n.iized by Google 


assure herself of abundant food during the cold weather. 
I, Feter, profiting by this lesson, and desirous, though a 
sinner and unworthy, to provide for my future destiny, I 
have desired that the bees of God may come to gather 
honey in my orchards, so that when their fair hives shall be 
full of rich combs of this houey, they may be able, while 
giving thanks to their Creator, to remember him by whom 
this hive was given." 

Eager, ardent, and impetuous, these anchorites seemed 
to take the continent by storm.' Amid the gloom of the 
lliurind^an forests, among the wild precipices and caves of 
the mountuns of the Hartz, on the wild, desolate shores of 
the German and Baltic seas, amid the glaciers and fiords 
of the Scandinavian peninsula, on the banks of the Ysill 
and the Weser, from the Weser to the Elbe and thence to 
the ocean, these devoted missionaries toiled and taught and 
laid down their lives. 

The third great period came at the close of the tenth cen- 
tury, and may be termed the age of raqiectancy and dread. 
All things seemed coming to an end, and the year one thou- 
sand was fixed upon as the day when the heavens should 
melt with fervent heat and the hills be rolled together and 
crushed. We can scarcely form any idea of the feverish 
state of mind of society. As the days sped on and the time 
approached for the universal dissolution of nature, the panic 
was at its hei^t. Property was disposed of for a merely 
nominal sum, or willed to the Church, the bequest commenc- 
ing with these words, " In eq>ectation of the approaching end 
of the world." llie monasteries and abbeys received vast 
acquisitions of property and were thronged with Eonners 
I McLeu, ApottUt qf MtduswU Europe. 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


seeking a refuge within the pale of the Church. ^ng3 laid 
down their sceptres and lands were left untilled. Famine 
and pestilence added their horrors to the universal despair. 
Human flesh was openly consumed and the graves of the 
dead were rifled to furnish sustenance to the living. Night 
after night, at any unusual disturbance of the elements, 
whole families, nay, the inhabitants of whole villages, left 
their beds and watched the livelong night, shivering, upon 
the ble^ hillsides, or in the gateways of the churches. 
The fear of death was upon all, — God and the judgment- 
bar an ever-present reality. The terrors of an unknown 
world stared them in the face. Hell opened wide the por- 
tals of its gates, and the cries and torments of the danmed 
seemed to rise up, upon the excited ear. "Help, Lord, for 
we perish! Save, Lord, from thy wrath!" was the wail of 
a despairing world. 

Can we wonder that, in such circumstances as these, 
surrounded by such an atmosphere as this, the Church 
should gain a predominating influence, and that as a me- 
dium between God and man it should stretch forth its arm 
and be rect^nized as all-pow^ful and effinentF And when 
the last night of suspense was over and the sun had risen 
again, and men breathed freer and felt that the crisis was 
past, would they not have a feeling of gratitude that ex- 
pressed itself in gifts to those whom they had learned to 
look upon as intercessors? 

■nie fourth and last period is that of the Crusades, when 
all Europe, stirred by one single impulse, leaps into vigorous 
life, and hurries, men, women, and children, to the rescue of 
the Holy Land. Of the universality of this movement, the 
last impulse of the migratory instinct among these tribes so 

3.n.iized by Google 


lately settled down, 'William of Malmeabury, afterwards 
Bishop of Tyre, has left us a striking account in his Chrom- 
cle. Having said that after the great council of Clermont 
every one retired to his home, he continues thus: "Imme- 
diately the fame of this great ev^it being spread throi^h 
the universe, penetrates the minds of Christians vith its 
mild breath, and wherever it blew there was no nation, how- 
ever distant or obscure it might be, that did not said some 
of its people. This zeal not only animated the provmces 
bordering on the Mediterranean, but all who had ever heard 
the name of a Christian in the most remote isles and among 
barbarous nations. Then the Welshman abandoned his 
forests and neglected his hunting; the Scotchman deserted 
his fleas, with which he is so familiar; the Dane ceased to 
swallow his intoxicating draughts, and the Norican turned 
his back upon his raw fish. The fields were left by the cul- 
tivators and the houses by the inhabitants; all the cities 
were deserted. People were restrained neither by lies of 
blood nor the love of country; they saw nothing but God. 
All that was in the granaries or destined for food was left 
under the guardianship of the greedy agricultmist. The 
voyage to Jerusalem was the only thing hoped f (NT or thought 
of. Joy animated the hearts of those who set out; grief 
dwelt in the hearts of those who remained. Why do I say 
of those who remained? You might have seen the husband 
setting forth with his wife, with aO his fami^; yea, you 
would have laughed to see aJI the penates put in motion and 
loaded upon carts. The road was too narrow for the pas- 
sengers, more room was wanted for the travelers, so great 
and numerous was the crowd." 
From this great movement, which lasted two hundred 

3.n.iized by Google 


years , the Church gained an enormous increase of power and 
territory. The secular princes ruined themselves for the 
cause of Jesus Christ, whJht the princes of the Church took 
advantage of the fervor of the Christians to enrich them- 
selves. It bought up for a mere song an inunense extent 
of property, whicti the owners disposed of to raise the 
funds requisite to equip them for this long journey, and thus 
lud the foundation for those extensive church ^idowments 
which in the time of Luther and the Fr^ich Revolution 
excited so bitter a controversy. 

Summing up then the influence of the monks, we can 
outline it thus; The rule of St. Benedict presented agri- 
culture as an occupation useful and worthy of a truly reli- 
gious person whose life was to be spent between manual 
labor and spiritual contemplation^^ He taught that the 
brothers ought not to feel themselves humiliated if poverty 
compelled them to gather with their own hands the pro- 
ducts of the soil. First, then, they themselves cultivated the 
ground, and this has been continued even until our own 
time in certain orders. The monks of Citeaux were par- 
ticularly distinguished in this respect, for in their earlier 
days it was not permitted them to possess any revenues. 
When a new monastery was founded there was ordinarily 
bestowed upon it land not yet broken or land which, hav- 
ing been devastated by the incursions of the enen^, had 
become useless to its owner. Sometimes it was covered 
with forests or with water, or it was a sterile valley sur- 
rounded by lofty mountains, or a country in which there 
was no arable land and it was necessary for the monastery 
to purchase earth in the neighborhood and bring it in. The 
I Hurter, QuefuMt PaptI Intmsmx III und $einer Zetigmottm. 

3.n.iized by Google 


monks cleared with tlieir own hands the forests and erected 
peaceful habitations for man in the spots where formerly 
hadlurkedthewolf andthebear. They tmned aside devast- 
ating torrents, they restrained, by means of dykes, rivers 
accustomed to overflow their banks; and soon the deserts 
where before was heard only the cry of the owl and the 
hiss of the serpent were changed into smiling fields and fat 
pasturage. The love of soUtude, the desire of placing by 
every means possible a check to human passion, inspired 
them to seek out sites the most unhealthy and to render 
them by cultivation not only sanitary but even profitable. 
Modem writers recognize that Italy, devastated by the re- 
peated incurraons of Barbarians, owed its restoration, its 
tranquillity, and the preservation of the last remains of art 
to the monasteries. Wherever we see them rise we see 
agriculture reappear, — the people relieved from their bur- 
dens, and kindly relations established between the master 
and the slave. 

In the twelfth century impenetrable forests still covered 
the valley of the Jura. A monastery of the order of Fr^mon- 
tr4 cut down the first trees in their forests and attracted 
therethefirstcolonists. A monastery of the order of Citeaux 
had but a short time previously restricted within its 
banks the river Saone, which covered with its overflow the 
foot of Rodomont. It cleared the soil of the virgin forest 
where now is situated the Uttle city of Rougemont with its 
two thousand inhabitants. At great e^>ense and by almost 
superhuman effort dykes were opposed to the waves of the 
ocean, and they snatched from the element a soil which the 
work of man changed afterward into fertile fields. Marshes 
became arable land and the home of man. The monks 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


loved to acquire these marslies in order to render them 
amenable to ctiltivation, and frequently even their monas- 
teries rose out of the bosom of the waters. When it was 
impossible to dr^ them, or when economy demanded it, 
they brought straw and laid it down in bundles, and upon 
these bundles earth was placed. They dug out ponds into 
which they collected the superfluous waters by tiles used to 
drain the land. In this way the monastic orders extended 
the cultivation of the soil from the south of Europe even 
to the most distant north. They facilitated communication 
between different points, and were the organizers of differ- 
ent kinds of industry. Sweden owes to them the perfection 
of its race of horses and the beginnings of conmierce in wheat . 
On the island of Tuterwi, where was formerly located a 
monastery of the order of Citeaux, plants still grow spon- 
taneously, which in the neighborhood one is compelled to 
cultivate with care. The Abbot William broiight the first 
salad from France into Denmark. If in the eleventh cen- 
tury England could boast of an agriculture more advanced 
than many other countries, if it presented less forest and 
heath and more cultivated lands and fat pasturage, it owes 
it to the zeal of the monks who had found there in early 
times a hospitable welcome. It was the monks who in 
Flanders cleared the forests, drained the marshes, rendered 
fertile the sandy lands, snatched from Uie sea its most an- 
cient possessions and changed a desert into a blooming 

There were certain abbeys, especially in England, that 
took the greatest care not to clear the country of all trees. 
It is related of Alexander, the first Abbot of Kirkstall, that, 
foreseeing the necessities of the future, he forbade the cut- 

3.n.iized by Google 


ting down of the vast forest he had acqtiired by divine pro- 
tection, and preferred to purchase elsewhere the timber he 
required in erecting his hirge buildings. The monks of 
Pipwel in Northampton did not cease to plant trees in thdr 
forests and were said to watch over them as a mother over 
an only child. For th^ own private necessities they made 
use of dead, dry wood and reeds. 

As a rule, tlie monks took great care in the cultivation of 
their land to conform to the lavs of climate, soil, and lo- 
cality. Li the north they devoted themselves espeda% 
to the raising of cattle, and in these countries the greatest 
privileges that could be givea them were woods and the 
ri^t to allow the swine to wander in them. In other coun- 
tries tbey occupied themselves in the cultivation of fruit 
trees, the improvement of i^ch was their work. It was 
the celebrated nursery of Chartreuse of Fans that up to the 
epoch of the Revolution furnished fruit trees to almost the 
whole of France, and the remembrance of their Idbors still 
lives in the name of certain delicious fnuts, such as the 
doyenne and bon chritiea pears. The finest orchards and 
vin^ards belonged to the monasteries. All the chronicles 
speak of the cultivation of Mt. Menzing in the Canton of 
Zug, which produced abundantly wheat and fruits and par- 
ticularly nuts. The friendly relations existing between the 
monasteries, the interchange of visits between the monks of 
the different establishments, were of great advantage, for 
foreagn plants and fruits were ^ichanged imd cultivated. 

The monks were the first to devise tools for gardening. 
They had calendars in which were set down all that experi- 
ence had taught them respecting the breeding of catUe, the 
sowing of land, the harvesting of crops, and every kind of 

3.n.iized by Google 


plantation. William of Malmesbuty boasts of the fertility 
of the valley of Gloucester in wheat, in fruits, and in vine- 
yards, adding that the wines of Ibis province are the beat in 
England and scarcely yield in quality to the wines of France. 
The best vineyards of Germany not only belonged to the 
monasteries, but had been planted by them, and we are 
forced to recognize the judgm^it with which these first 
planters selected their grounds. Tradition tells us that the 
monks of St. Peter in the Black Forest planted the firstvines 
in the neighborhood of Weilheim and Bissingen, and the 
wine of this latter placeis still the best in the whole country. 
The monks of Lorsch planted the vineyards of Bergstrasse 
and those along the banks of the Rhine. Epicures when 
drinking the delicious wine of Johannisberg still recall with 
gratitude the monastery of Fulda. In every country of 
Europe the monks stimulated the progress of a^culture as 
much by their personal efforts as by the rumple they gave 
to others. It was fortimate for the world that the first ^ 
founders of the religious orders enjoined upon their dis- 
ciples cuinual labor rather than spiritual, and that the first 
monasteries were founded not in the cities, as those which 
were founded later, but in the wildest and most unfre- 
quented spots, which were transformed by their activity 
and labors into the homes of thousands of peaceful and in- 
dustrious men. 

What I have said of the monks of Europe is equally true 
of the missions of this country. There was the same evolu- 
tion, and at their dissolution the same fate. 

When Father Jump4ro Serra and his followers came as 
Franciscan missionaries and established the chain of mis- 
sions at San Di^o, Los Angeles, San Gabriel, Mont^«y, 

3.n.iized by Google 


Santa Clara, San Buenaventura, San Juan Capistrano and 
San Fiandsco (Dolores), and San Luis Obbpo, between 
1767 and 1783, they estimated that there were over eighty 
thousand TnHiAna in Alta CaUfomia. At the mission of 
San Gabriel there were about seven thousand. The priests 
wrote that they had never found anywhere such tractable 
and enngetic savages as those m California.^ 

After a few years the missionaries were never afraid to 
trust their lives and property among the Indians. The 
fathers taught the Indians at the several missions to sow 
wheat, grind com, till the soil, raise herds of cattle, dress 
hides, and make their clothing. The priests brought grape- 
vines, olives, fruits, and nuts from their old homes in Spain 
and Castile, and taught the Indians how to cultivate them 
in California soil. In time the missionaries had induced 
all the Indian families to come and dwell in pueblo com- 
munities about the missions, where the Spanish padres were 
monitors, socia%, industrially, and religiously. When the 
mis^ons were legally disestabUshed by order of the Mexi- 
can government, and the lands were partitioned to Mexican 
families, the herds and flocks sold, and the missionaries told 
to sedt other walks of life, the Indian pueblos soon went to 
ruin. The Indians themselves wandered aimlessly away, 
settling in one place until driv^i to another by the white 
man. No one attempted to preserve their moral condition, 
and to the natural savage inclination for licentiousness was 
added the bad ^simple of the low whites of the frontier of 
those days. 

My friends, I have outlined to you in briefest manner to- 
day the work of these grand old monks during a period of 
' Baocrof t. Pacific Statu ; Griswold, SpattUh Miuiim*. 

3.n.iized by Google 


fifteen himdied years. They saved agriculture when no- 
bcK^ else could save it. They practised it under a new 
life and new conditions when no one else dared undertake 
it. They advanced it along every line of theory and prac- 
tice, and when they perished they left a void which geaeiO' 
tions have not filled. 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


In 1862, when the nation was struggling with the most 
gigantic rebellion the world has ever seen, Congress, with 
a wise foresi^t seldom equaled, and a reversal of the old 
motto, "In time of peace prepare for war," calmly turned 
from the peipledng questitois 4^ the conflict and con- 
sidered and passed an act donating to the "several states 
and territories which may provide colleges for the benefit 
of ^riculture and the mechanic arts," pubhc lands equal- 
ing in amount thirty thousand acres for each senator and 
representative then in Congress. In return for this dona- 
tion it stipulated two thii^: first, that the income of the 
fund derived from the sale of those lands should be held 
inviolab^ for purposes of instruction; and, second, that 
military instruction should be given, for which a regular 
army officer would be detailed by the United States govern- 
ment. Under the provisions of this endowment fif^-two 
colleges and schools have been established, either as inde- 
pendent organizations or as colleges of universities al- 
ready existing, with a teaching force of about 900, and an 
attendance of some 15,000 students. 

Let it be deariy understood at the outset that these 
are not exclusively agricultural colleges, but institutions 
designed for the benefit of the industrial classes. "With- 
out excluding any studies recognized as forming part of 

3.n.iized by Google 


a liberal education, they are directed to teach such branches 
of learning as are related to agriculture and the mechamc 
arts, with the declared object of providing for those classes 
a liberal and practical education in the various pursuits futd 
professions in life." It has resulted from this that, adapt- 
ing themselves to the individual needs of their respective 
states, some are exclusively agricultural, while others 
combine the agricultural with the mechanical. Three 
things are named in the organic law: agriculture, mechanic 
arts, and military tactics. The name "agricultural" used 
alone is therefore as misleading as that of "mechanical" 
or "military" would be, 

A qumler of a century has passed since the passage of 
the act, and suffident time has now elapsed to show its 
merits or defects. The grant was originally based upon 
representation in population, resulting in very unequal 
endowments, the smaller states receiving a much smaller 
amount than the larger ones, while the expenses of main- 
tenance were about the same. Agmn, it was found that in- 
stitutions tor teaching natural sdence required a much 
larger outl^ for the "plant" and for their annual work 
than purely literary institutions. The scientific work re- 
quired to be done in the course of instruction ^id experi- 
m^it demanded an extennve equipment in the way of 
laboratories, machine-shops, apparatus, farms to be used 
for purposes of experiment, cattle to be tested for their 
quahties, etc. In the twenty-five years past the field of 
science had so greatly enlarged, and the demands made 
upon the colleges so greatly increased, that none but the 
wealthier institutions cotdd ke^ pace with them, or even 
measurably answer the requirements of the times. To 

3.n.iized by Google 


provide tlien for this growing demand for instruction in the 
sciences, with special reference to their applications in the 
industries of life, and to compensate for the inadequat«nes3 
of the original endowment. Congress has this year [1890] 
passed an act, supplementing that of 1862, in further aid 
of the agricultural and mechanical colleges, granting an 
equal amount to each state. In doing this it has but fol- 
lowed the general tendency of the age. "Thegovemment 
of every leading country outside of the United States has 
recognized the necessity of providing on a large and gener- 
ous scale for the establishment and maintenance of scien- 
tific instruction of every grade, from the primary to the 
highest, and it is everywhere regarded as one of the first 
duties of statesmanship to see that the citizens of the 
country are not left behind in the race of modem com- 
petition for lack of any resource that science can bring to 
their aid. The margin of pn^t in the competition of 
modem industries is so small and so closely calculated 
that ths best imtmded people wiU be the vnnniTtg people." 

The Massachusetts Agricultural College is located at 
Amherst. The act of incorporation by which it was es- 
tablished became a law April 29, 1863, while the accept* 
ance of the congressional graut was declared eleven days 
before. The College is under the control of a board of 
trustees, consisting of the Governor of the Commonwealth, 
the Secretary of the Board of Education, the Secretary of 
the Board of Agriculture, and the President of the Faculty. 
as ex-cffficio members, and fourteen others appointed by the 
Govemor for a term of seven years. The appointed mem- 
bers are divided into seven classes, so that two vacancies 
in their number regularly occur each year. The board was 

3.n.iized by Google 


organized November 8, 186S, with Jolm A.Andrew as presi- 
dent, Allen W. Dodge as vice-presideat, mid Charies 
L. Flint as secretaiy. The question of the location 
of the college was the occasion of considerable debate. 
A number of influential men, including Governor An- 
drew, Professor Agassiz, and President Thomas Hill, 
favored making the agricultural college a department of 
Harvard. The decision of the legislature and the trustees 
was in favor of a separate institution. It was characteris- 
tic of our great war governor, that no sooner was the de- 
(nsion of the legislature made in favor of a separate institu- 
tion, than, abandoning all his previous opinions, he entered 
heartily into this plan and coHperated to the extent of 
his power. Several towns offered to conq>ly with the re- 
quirement of the legislature, that $75,000 for the erection 
of buildings be pledged before any portion of the public 
funds should be given to the college. Amherst was finally 
selected. On the Sdth of November, 1864, the Hon. Henry 
F. French was elected president of the College. He was 
a man thoroughly identified with agricultural pursuits, 
had written a work on drainage, and was widely known 
by his contributions to the different journals. It was felt 
that his knowledge of the subject and his large experience 
in men and affairs ensured his success; but he failed to 
meet the demands of the situation; and after two years, a 
difference of opinion having arisen between himself and 
the trustees as to the proper site for the college buildings, 
he resigned. Ill luck seemed destined to pursue the College 
at its founding; for his successor. Professor Paid A. Chad- 
bourne, for many years an enthusiastic and successful 
instructor in the natural sciences at Williams College, 

3.n.iized by Google 


was compelled to resign in a few months, by reason of ill- 
Iiealtli. The trustees then elected Professor William S. 
Clark, who had been for yeaia interested in the movement 
for agricultUTal education, and who was at that time 
filling the chur of chemistry and botany in Amherst Col- 
lege. He was a man of singular enthusiasm and energy, and 
to him more than any one else the College owes the meas- 
ure of success it has attained. The course of study mu^ed 
out by him has been substantially followed ever ance. 
Resolved on having the best, he quickly gathered about 
him a corps of instructors that made the College at once 
leap into prominence; and the series of novel experiments 
he conducted relating to the circulation of sap in plants 
and the expansive force exerted by the vegetable cell in 
its growth, caused the gifted Agassiz to remark that if the 
College had done nothing else, this alone was sufficient to 
compensate the state for all its outlay. The squash he 
had selected for observation, in its iron harness, lifting 
five thousand pounds before it had ceased to grow, exdted 
attention far and wide, and was visited by thousands.* 
But his best work was as an educator. Bringing to the 
lecture-room that intense enthusiasm and personal mag- 
netism so characteristic of the man, he quickly established 
a bond of sympathy between teadier and scholar that 
was never broken. The same brilliant qualities that at- 
tracted men in the outnde worid made themselves felt 
in his teaching. The dry detdls of science were enlivened 
by the light play of his fancy, and the diarming method of 
bis teaching seldom failed to ^ouse the dullest intellect. 
The College was opened to receive students on the 2d 
> See (kBegi Heport, ISJS. 

3.n.iized by Google 


of October, 1867, and forty-seven students were admitted 
before the close of the first term. Never will the writer of 
this article forget the remark of President Clark, as we 
drove over together, on the opening d^, to the place of 
examination : " I do not know of a dngle man that is coming 
to-d^, but I believe the heart of the old Bay State will 
beat true to the opportunity presented it." And vrfien we 
found twenty-seven young men awiuting the ordeal, his 
jay knew no bounds, and I think he was inclined to admit 
the whole number at once, withour further trial. During 
his administration the perpetual fund for the maintenance 
of the College was largely increased by the generosity of 
the state, new buildings were erected, and the faculty was 
enlarged. Ilie College also entered into an agreement to 
represent the agricultural department of Boston Univer- 
fflty, the matriculants of the one being eligible to take 
the diploma of the other. 

The buildings of the Massachusetts Agricultural Col- 
lege at the present time include a laboratory, botanic 
museum, two plant-houses, dormitories containing red- 
tation-rooms, a chapel-library building, club-bouse, farm- 
house with bam and sheds, drill-hall, and five dwelling 
houses, representing a total value of about $200,000. 
The farm consists of 384 acres, some eighty acres of 
which are set oB for experimental purposes, and the rest 
divided between cultivated, grass, and wood-land. It is lo- 
cated on the eastern water-shed of the Connecticut River, 
bounded west by a tributary of that stream, with a rivu- 
let running through it from southeast to northwest, empty- 
ing into the tributary. The land adjacent to these streama 
is rolling and high enough to give good drainage; the 

3.n.iized by Google 


soil, 8 heavy, sandy loam, wiili underlying clay. The east- 
ern and highest part of the farm is drift, covered ^th 
gravelly loam, with occasional pockets of heavy, sandy 
Ioam~ Much of this part of the farm has a substratmn of 
hard pan. In short, the soil does not materially differ ^m 
that found in other parts of the state, always excepting 
such as is peculiar to particular localities, a^ the sand of 
Cape Cod, etc. Seventy to eighty head of live stock are 
k^t, including representatives of Ayrshires, Guernseys, 
Holstein-Friesians, Jerseys, Shorthorns, Percherons, South- 
down sheep, and small Yorkshire swioe. 

While all the departments are fairly well equipped, the 
agricultural and horticultural, as would naturally be ex- 
pected, are best supphed, and no pains are spared to prac- 
tically drive home the teachings of the recitation-room. 
As the agricultural department has its bams and different 
breeds of cattle, its labor-saving implements and silos, so 
the horticultural has its green-houses and nurseries, its 
herbaria and models. Orchards ot fifteen to twenty acres, 
cont^ning all the standard varieties of smaU and large 
fruits, lie in immediate proxinuty, and for further prac- 
tical study there is a vineyard containing thirty to forty 
varieties of fully tested grapes; a nursery of S0,000 to 
40,000 trees, shrubs, and vines in various stages of 
growth; a market garden; and a grove covering several 
acres, affording anq»le opportunity for observations in 
practical forestry. &kthods of planting, training, and 
pruning, budding, layering and grafting, gathering and 
packing fruits are taught by field excrdses, the students 
doing a large part of the work. The botanical department, 
naturaUy jomed with the horticultural, is in like manner 

3.n.iized by Google 


well supplied. In the museum is the Kuowlton herbariumt 
collected by W. W. Denslow of New York, consisting 
of over 15,000 species of plants from all parts of 
the world; a collection of models of nearly aU the leading 
varieties of apples and pears; hundreds of sections of wood, 
cut so as to show their individual structure; specimens <A 
abnormal and peculiar forms of stems, fruits, and vege- 
tables; tt^ther with many specimens and models prepared 
for illustrating the growth and structure of plantji. Sec- 
tions of trees joined together like the Siamese twins stand 
side by side, with the "giant squash" in its iron harness, 
while along the walls are suspended gigantic specimens of 
marinealgse. For use in the lecture-rooms are diagrams and 
charts containing over 3,000 figures, illustfating structural 
and systematic botany; and immediately adjacent is the 
laboratory fitted up with tables and compound microscopes, 
where the students engage in practical study of the growth 
and structure of the couunon plants cultivated in the green- 
house and the garden or on the farm. Valuable adjuncts to 
the recitation-room are the conservatories containing a 
large collection of tropical productions, blether with all 
the leading plants used for house culture, cut fiowers, and 
outdoor ornamentation. The same practical work is en- 
gaged in here, and the student is expected to make himself 
familiar with the different methods of propagating, hybrid- 
izing, and cultivating useful and ornamental plants. All 
kinds of garden and farm-garden crops are grown in this 
department, special attention being given to the treatment 
of market-garden crops, the selection of varieties, and the 
growth of seed. 
Located on the college grounds are two experiment 

3.n.iized by Google 


stations, the one established and maintained by the state, 
the other by the United States govemmeitt, entitled the 
Hatch Experiment Station of the Massachusetts Agri- 
cultural College.^ The former is under a board of control 
made up of eleven members, four of whom are members 
ex officio, and the rest elected respectively by the Board 
of Agriculture, the Massachusetts State Horticultural 
Society, the Massachusetts Society for Promoting Agri- 
culture, the trustees of the Agricultural College, and the 
State Grange, to represent their organizations. The latter 
forms a department of the college, c<mtrolled by its trus- 
tees and subject to their directioa. Each is distinct from 
the other in its organization and work. The Hatch Experi- 
ment Station devotes itself to the investigation of meteoro- 
logicaJ phenomena as affecting plant growth, economic 
entomology, and the practical questions of every load 
arising in horticulture and agriculture, while the state 
station turns its attention to questions of analysis, food 
rations, diseases of plants, and the Uke. With its accus- 
tomed liberahty the state has erected and equipped, at an 
expense of about $30,000, a fine laboratory, and a build- 
ing with a glass house attached, to be used exclusively for 
the investigation of such diseases as the smut, the mildew, 
and the scab. This station has been in existence about 
eight years, and has recently issued its seventh annual re- 
port, filled with information of value to the farmer. 

The Hatch Experiment Station is of more recent origin, 
being created by an act of Congress, passed February 25, 
1887, appropriating $15,000 annually to each state and 

I The two Espmment StatioDS were united in 1895, after diis paper 

3.n.iized by Google 


territory for the purpose of establishing and maintaining 
an experiment department in connection with the colleges 
of agriculture and the mechanic arts, to be known and 
de^gnated as an "agricultural experiment station." 

Under the provisions of this act the station at Amherst 
waa organized, March 2, 1888, with four departments, — 
the agricultural, horticultural, entomological, and mete- 
orological. By an arrangement with the state station all 
questions of a chemical nature are referred to it for in- 
vestigation, thereby saving the expense of erecting and 
equipping another laboratory. Each department has a 
building of ita own allotted exclusively to its own use. In 
the meteorological department a full set of self-cecording 
instruments has been placed, where daily and hourly ob- 
servations of all meteorological phenomena are taken and 
kept. The horticultural department has its green-houses, 
in which tests of fertilizers under glass are made, and where 
experimentation is ccmtinued throughout the year. The 
agriciUtural department has its bam fitted up in the most 
iq>proved way for conducting tests in feeding, or investi* 
gating questions pertaining to the dairy. The entomoh^- 
cal department has its insectary, where plants are grown 
and the life-histories of their insect enemies studied, while 
at the same time trial b being made of the best methods 
of applying different insecticides. The general policy of the 
station has been to furnish information on such subjects 
as were attracting the attention of the public, and to in- 
vestigate questions of practical importance. It issues regu- 
lar quarterly bulletins, and E{)ecial ones, as occasion seems 
to demand; thus, when the gypsy moth appeared in the 
eastern part of the state a special illustrated bulletin. 

3.n.iized by Google 


describing the insect, its destractive Itabit^, and the best 
remedies for combatting it, was prepared and sent to eveiy 
tax-payer in the infested district and tlie adjacent towns. 
AH these bulletins are sent free to each newspaper in the 
state, and to such residents engaged in farming as msy 
request the same. The CoUege for many years prior to the 
establishment of these stations had been carrying on ex- 
periments in a limited way, and the investigations of 
Goessnuum, Stodcbridge, Maynard, and Clark have been 
of immense value to the farmers of the state, and are re- 
cognized throughout the country. 

We are told that "agriculture is not a patchwork of 
all the natural sciences, but is itself a vast subject upon 
which the various natural sciences shed their rays of 
Ught," and that the teacher of agriculture can do little 
more than indicate the points of contact between his 
own great subject and the sciences which surround it, 
leaving the expluiations to those into whose domains they 
properly fall. With this broad definition of agriculture, — 
itself a science, complete in itself, yet touching all sciences 
and aU branches of knowledge, — - and taking as our guide 
the law that the teacher of agriculture can but indicate 
these points of contact and leave to others their explana- 
tion, we have endeavored to rear our superstructure of 
agricultural education: (^culture, our foundatiim; bot- 
any, chemistry, veterinary, and mathematics, our four 
comer-stones; while the walls arebuilt high with horti- 
culture, market-gardening, and forestry on the one side, 
phydology, etymology, and the comparative anaton^ of 
the domestic ftninnaU on the second, mechanics, physics, 
and meteorology on the third, and a study of the English 

3.n.iized by Google 


lungimgp, pditical economy, and constitutional history on 
the fourth. These separate lines of study, each distinct 
in itself, yet each uding in the interpretation or solution 
of the difficult problems met with, require a four-year 
course. They proceed hand in hand, and the completion 
of a study in one department is coincident with that in 
another. Mutual help is the watchword; each for all and 
all for each, in the luring broad and deep the foundation, 
and building up the solid structure. Thus, when the rela- 
tions of the weather — of heat, Bxr, moisture — to fannii^ 
are considered, on the botanical aide are being studied 
the structure of the plant, its organs, the relations of its 
root-^stem to soil and moisture; on the chemical, the 
elements important in an agricultm«l point of view and 
their properties; and on the mathematical, such algebra 
and geometry as will lead to practical work in drainage and 
surveying. So, too, when soils and tillage are being con- 
sidered, are studied in like nuumer those plants benefidal 
or injurious to man, general geology, and the insects 
hurtful or otherwise to the crops. In short, the effort is 
made to have each course supplement and harmonize 
with the other, and the different studies so fit into eadi 
other as to make one rounded whole. But let it be under- 
stood that wbiiB the greatest effort and the largest ex- 
pense have been bestowed upon the agricultural depart- 
ment, the authorities of the CoUege entirely disclaim any 
attempt to narrow its graduates down to a choice of that 
profession alone. The opportunity for acquiring a valu- 
able education, which shall fit one for the practical duties of 
life, is open to all, and aU are welcomed, whatever the pro- 
fessbn they may ultimately pursue. Believing that the 

^atizsd by Google 


truning of her young men in all that pertains to the uae 
of arms, in the duties of the officer in handling and in- 
structing troops, and in the construction of fortifications, 
would be of immense value to the commonwealth, the state 
has made amide provision for this department. A fine 
drill hall and armory have been erected, and arms and 
equipments issued. The United States details one of its 
officers for duty at the College, who is reckoned as one of 
the faculty, and who is responsible for the efficiency and 
good order of the department. 

It will have been noticed that in the course of instruc- 
tion no mention is made of the mechanic arts. At the time 
of the legislative acceptance of the national grant the 
Institute of Technology in Boston was already established, 
and it was deemed wiser to extend aid to it than to start 
a new school. Accordln^y, one third of the income de- 
rived from the muntenance fund of the United States has 
ever since been annually psid over to it from the treasuiy 
of the commonwealth. This action of the legislature re- 
lieves the College from the necessity of ^ving instruction 
in that department, and has resulted in making the Col- 
lege more piu«ly agricultural than any other in the coun- 
try. Realizing the necessity of providing a higher educa- 
tion witiiiu the readi of those in moderate or straitened 
circumstances, the state has thrown wide the doors of its 
College and furnished every facility for acquiring such 
education at a minimum cost. Its tuition has been made 
practically free, and by the estabhshment of a labor fund, 
out of which a portion of the expenses can be paid in hon- 
est work, it has brouf^t within the reach of a class of de- 
serving young men forming tiie best possible material for 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


manhood and dtizensliip an educatJOD obtainable in no 
other way, 

The College has had many earnest ^ndstbut itiias also 
encountered much opposition. The importance of a tech- 
nical education has until recently been hardly {^predated 
by the fanners of the state. The i^idity with which the 
native population has emigrated to the western states, 
leaving their farms in the hands of an alien population, 
has been a factor of great importance in this connection. 
In 1870 a determined attenq>t was made to stop all further 
grants of money from the state; and several years later it 
was proposed to make the Agricultural College a depart- 
ment of Amherst College. The only result of these attenq>t8. 
however, has been to establish it on a firmer basis than 
ever, and give to it renewed hfe and vigor. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Many centuries ago the Apostle Peter, writing to his 
followers, said: "I stir up your pure minds b; way of re- 
membrance"; and centuries before the Apostle Peter lived 
it had been written: "Remember the days of old; ask thy 
father and he will show thee; thy elders and th^ will tell 
thee." It is fitting, ther^ore, that at the close of this first 
half-centuiy of its existence the Board of Agriculture should 
hold its day of remembrance, and, calling upon its father 
to show them and its elders to tell them, should gather up 
the memories of the past and transmit them to their child- 
ren to hold and guard forever. My mission, then, to-day 
is to stir up your pure minds by recalling to your remem- 
brance the relation of this Board to agricultural education, 
and more particiUarly to its college of agriculture. Thirly- 
nine years, coimting from the charter of this College, is the 
measure of it^ span, and each year has brought with it some 
ei^ressioD of the Board's thoughtful care. Even before its 
establishmoit as a Board we find thetrustees of the Norfolk 
Agricultural Society voting that its "president and secre- 
taries be a committee to mature and adopt a plan for a 
convention of delegates from the various agricultural socie- 
ties of the Commonwealth, to be holden at some convenient 
time and place, the object of which shall be to concert 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


measures for their mutual advanta^, and for the promotion 
of the cause of agricultural education." At the morning 
sesdoD of that convention, held at the State Housei March 
20, 1851, the president, Marshall P. Wilder, announcing the 
subjects for discussion, spoke as foUovs: "It is also to be 
hoped that thecause of agricultural education, now about to 
receive the consideration of theL^islaturcwill not be over- 
looked in the delibosUons of this body; and, if it be the 
(q>inion of this convention that agriculture ma; be pro- 
moted by the ^plication of science, that such a sentiment 
may be expressed in terms so explicit as not to be misunder- 
stood, and that the ^d of government may be solicited for 
this purpose." At the afternoon ses«on Mr. Sewall of Med- 
field, from the biuoness committee, presented a preamble 
and resolutions, the fourth, fifth, and eighth of which bear 
directly upon the subject now under con^deration: — 

Resolved (4), That agricultural schoolshaving been found, 
hy the experi«ice of other nations, efficient means in pro- 
moting the cau^ of agricultural education, which is so es- 
sential to the prosperity of farmers and to the welfare of 
communities, it becomes at once the duty and policy of the 
Commonwealth to estabhsh and maintain such institutions 
for the benefit of all its inhabitants. 

Remked (5), That the several plans for an agricultural 
school, recentiy reported by the Boiwl of Commissioners 
appointed for that purpose, are worthy the profound con- 
sideratitHk of the people of Massachusetts and their r^re- 
seutatives in the General Court, as indicating the feasi- 
bility and practicability of an establishment worthy that 
malted character which the State has secured by the en- 

3.n.iized by Google 


AcmvaeiA of kindred institutioiis, designed, Uke these, (or 
the diffusioD of useful knowledge among the people. 

Reeohed (8), That the convention respectfully suggests 
to the Le^slature the propriety and expediency of reserving 
the entire proceeds of the sales of the public lands of the 
CommoDwealth — from and after the period when the 
commoD-school fund shall have reached the TnnTimum 
fixed by the act of 18S4 — tor purposes of education and 
charity, with a view to extending that aid and encourage- 
ment to a ^stem of agricultural education, which the im- 
portance of the subject so inqierioxisly demands. 

The discussion over the different resolutions was, as the 
faithful chronicler puts it, continued, protracted, and at 
times vigorous. It was carried over into the evening session, 
and among those taking part we find the names of Marshall 
P. Wilder, Governor Boutwell, President Hitchcock of 
Amherst College, Professor Fowler of the same institution. 
Judge Mack of Salem, and William Buckminster, editor 
of the "Massachusetts Ploughman." 

John Brooks of Princeton appears to have been the only 
opponent. Hesaid:"Thiare8olutionseemstosquint toward 
a college. If it has that tendraicy I shall be opposed to it, 
for I do not beUeve that the farmers are pr^>ared to spend 
money in instituting a college. ... As for lecturing to the 
people, I doubt whether that is advantageous, for the ray 
beat reason to my mind in the world, — that the lecturer 
will not know what to say; that he has no data on which 
to make out any speech, because science, as I understand 
it, is based upon facts. What facts has this commissions 
that are iqtplici^le to agriculture in this State? I aay, or. 

3.n.iized by Google 


generally speaking, no fact. And why? Because the science 
of agriculture has not yet grown up in this coxmtry." 

Bichard Bagg, Jr., of Springfield, closed some breezy re- 
marliB by exclaiming: "Let ua remember that if the State 
provide the means and appliances for a scientific course of 
agricultural study, the young man must 'wake up from 
his drowsy nap,' and qualify himself 'to go up higher.' " 

The fourth and fifth resolutions were adopted, but we 
fail to learn the fate of the eighth, having reference to re- 
serving the entire proceeds of the sale of public lands for 
purposes of education and charity. 

At the first meeting of the Massachusetts Board of Agri- 
culture, September 3, 1861, Marshall P. Wilder, William 
C. Fowler, John W. Proctor, J. H. W. Page, and S. Reed 
were chosen a conmiittee to report on the subject of agri- 
cultural education and the beat measures to be adopted for 
the encouragement of such education. The report of this 
committee was presented at the second meeting of the 
Board on January 14, 1852. It was discussed at this 
meeting, and also at the third meeting of the Board, on 
February 3, 1852, when it was adopted.. This report, 
signed by Marshall P. Wilder as chairman, resolves : "That 
Massachusetts, by an ^ilightened policy and wise l^isla- 
tion, has rendered her system of education worthy of her 
exalted reputation, and that this Board most earnestly 
desire her to complete that system by providing kindred 
institutions for the scientific education of the farmer, upon 
whom is levied so lat^ a share of the taxes for the support 
of governmental and philanthropic objects; that it is the 
duly, as well as the interest of the State, to aid in furnish- 
ing the means for such an education; and that a thorough 

3.n.iized by Google 


systemaUc course of education is as necessaiy to pr^are 
the cultivator of the soil for preSmiiieiice in his calling, as to 
secure excellence in any of the schools of science or art." 
These are no uncertain words, and fittingly echo the fer- 
vent hope of Mr. Wilder in his opening remarks, " that, if 
it be the opinion of this convention that agriculture may be 
promoted by the application of science, such a sentimait 
may be expressed in terms so expUcit as not to be mis- 

There seems to have been at this time a general awjJcen- 
ing to the necessities of an agricultural education. Henry 
L. Dawes, in an address on agricultural education before 
the Housatonic Agricultural Society in 185S, after enumer- 
ating the obstacles to be encoimtered by the farmer in the 
discharge of the grand, crowning duty of the day, — the 
regeneration of the soil of Massachusetts, — said : "And the 
means not now within his reach, that shall enable him to 
triumph over them in this great attainment, are the neces- 
sities of the farmers of this Commonwealth. The means 
lie in an agricultural education. And for their acconqtlish- 
ment let Massachusetts establish an agricultural school, 
where will be taught the principles of the sci^ice and their 
application to the art of agriculture; and let the doors of 
knowledge be opened wide to all the sons of her soil, — not 
for the study of the speculative and mysterious, but of the 
practical and useful." 

The Board of Agriculture led the way in this popular 
movement; and we find that at its third meeting, held 
September 7, ISfiS, a committee was appointed to consider 
the expediency of prc^mring a T"«""fll on agriculture for the 
uae of conmu>n schools. 

cv Google 


Agiun, at a meeting held three years later, January 16, 
1856, a committee previously appointed to consider and 
report to the Board what further measures, if any, vere 
needed to subserve the cause of agriculture in this Com- 
monwealth, made the following report, which was ac* 
cepted: — 

Having given the subject their careful consideratioo, the 
committee are of the opinion that nothing would be better 
calculated to advance the cause of agricultiu^ and foster 
and direct the growing interest therein throughout the com- 
munity at large, than the immediate establishment of an 
experimental farm, and, as soon as the funds shall permit, 
of an agricultural school in connection therewith, where 
both the sdence and the practice of farming msy be taught 
in all thdr departments. 

Your committee do not propose to set forth in detail 
the many reasons which have led them to this conclusion, 
but they will be pardoned in suggesting one or two of the 
most important: — 

First. There is not at the presrait time, to the knowledge 
of your committee, any society or board ensting in the 
Commonwealth authorized by act of the Legislature to 
hold fimds to be applied exclu^vely to the advancement of 
scientific and practical agriculture or the diffusion of know- 
ledge connected with rural economy. 

Secondly. In the opinion of your committee, the time 
has arrived when the wants of the community demand 
something of this kind; a time when the learned profes- 
sions seem more than full; when the attention of our citi- 
zens, and in particular of our young men, is bong more than 

3.n.iized by Google 


ever directed to tlie cultivatjon of the soil ; and when many 
both wealtl^ and liberal men in the Commonwealth aie 
holding out the inducement of an ample supply of funds in 
furtherance <^ such an undertaking. 

Influenced by these conjdderations, among many others, 
your committee respectfully recommend that a committee 
be chosen by this Board to apply to the present L^islatiure 
for an act authorizmg the f onnation of a Board of Trustees, 
capable of holding fuitda to be implied in establishing an 
ezpmmental farm and agricultural school connected with 
it, designed to furnish instruction in every branch of rural 
economy, theoretical and practical. 

B. V. Pbknch. 

Sbth Sfbaoub. 


Acting on the reconuuendation in the above report, the 
Board appointed Messrs. French, Newell, Sprague, Wilder, 
and Secretary Flint a committee; and, as a result of this 
action, the Legislature incorporated the Massachusetts 
School of Agriculture, but no institution was established. 

At a meeting of the Board of Agriculture, October 15, 
1856, Messrs. John C. Bartlett, Ben]anmi V. French and 
Secretaiy Flint were appointed a committee to take into 
consideration the propriety ot having a text-book on agri- 
culture, prepared under the sanction of the Board. 

At the anr mal meeting, January 5, 1860, Mr. Bichaid S. 
Fay offered the following resolution, which was adopted : — 

Beaolved, as the opinion of this Board, that a system of 
agricidtural education should be adopted and form a part 
of the educatJooal ^stem of the State. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Following the adoption of this resolution, the Board 
chose by ballot Messrs. Simon Brown, Richard S. Fay and 
MarshaU P. Wilder a committee to prepare a plan for 
carrying it into effect, and to report the same to the Board 
for further action. 

At a later meetii^, held February 9, 1860, Dr. Gieorge 
B. Loring offered the following resolutions, which were 
adopted: — 

ReadUed, That the committee on agricultural ediicatioa 
be and hereby are authorized to prepare an dementary 
manual of agriculture for the use of our common schoob, 
to be submitted to this Board for approval. 

Reserved, That the said committee be requested to cause 
to be introduced the aforesaid manual, when approved by 
this Board, into the common schoob of Massachusetts, in 
the manner provided for the introduction of school books 
by the laws of theCommonwealth; and that said committee 
be authorized to apply to the L^pslature for the passage 
of an act for the accomplishment of this object. 

At a meeting held January 10, 1861, on motion of Mr. 
Yay, it was 

Vided, That the committee on the muTm^^l be authorized 
to accept a proposition from Mr. Emerson and Mr. Flint, 
securing to them the copyright of the manual as a comprat- 
sation for their services in preparing the book, upon such 
terms as to price of the work to be furnished to pubhc 
schools, farmers' clubs and agricultural associations in 
Massachusetts as m^ be agreed \xpon by said committee. 

3.n.iized by Google 


At a meeting of the Board, Januaiy iS, 1861, Colonel 
\^lder presented the following resolution, which was unan- 
imously adopted: — 

Besohed, That this Board approve of the Manual of 
Agriculture, submitted by its authors, Messrs. Geo. B. 
Emerson and Charles L. Flint, and recommend its publica- 
tion by those gentlemen as a work well adapted for use in 
the schools of Massachusetts. 

And at a meeting of the Board, January 17, 1869, on 
motion of Mr. James S. Grinnell, it was 

JteioUed, That a committee of three, consisting of Messrs. 
Joseph White, Charles C. Sewall, and Heniy H. Peters, be 
requested to represent the merits of the Manual of Agri- 
culture to the committee of the Legislature on education, 
on the order "To consider the expediency of including the 
elements of agricultiu^ among the branches to be taught in 
all the public schools in which the school committee deem 
it eq>edient." 

As a result of this action, the L^islature of 1862, by 
Chapter 7, provided that "agriculture shall be taught, by 
lectures or otherwise, in all the public schools in which the 
school committee deem it expedient." 

But it must not be imagined for a moment that all was 
plain sailing. There were to be found, even as now, those 
who sneered at book knowledge, or doubted the expediency 
of any such measure. Hon. Amasa Walker did not hesitate 
to say, in an address before the Worcester South Agricul- 
tural Society: "Farmers are the great mass of the people, 

3.n.iized by Google 


and haw can thc^, from thdr very numbers, be educated at 
college? And then the ei:pense could never be encountered 
by the fanning interest, nor coiild the sons be spared from 
the farms, nor would it be desirable to so break up thrar 
habits as farmers as to put them under one, two or more 
years' tuition at college. Besides, colleges are made for 
professional men, not for the people, and their mission 
never was and never will be to educate the millioD." Mr. 
Jackson said that if a boy learned to read, write, cipher, and 
q}etl, he would make an excellent farmer. What need of 
science? The good old way of his fathers was sufficient. 
It was only the old story told by George Eliot in the "Mill 
on the Floss," and it is Fanner John who speaks: "What 
Z want," said he, "is to give Tom a good eddication, — an 
eddicatioD as 'ud be bread for him. That was what I was 
thinking of when I gave notice for him to leave the academy 
at Lady D^. I mean to put him to a downright good 
school at midsummer. The two years at th' scaden^ 'ud 
ha' done well enough, if I 'd metuit to ha' made a farmer ol 
him, for he's had a fine si^t more schoolin' nor ever I got. 
All the leamin' my father ever pwd for was a bit o' biich at 
one end and the alphabet at the other." 

And even our good Governor, who has charmed us this 
morning with his reminiscences of the past, is reported as 
saying that all this matter of agricultural education was 
mere nonsense, — that he had always said that the agri- 
cultural college would be a failure ; that it could not succeed 
in the nature of things, for as soon as you educated a boy, 
be would leave the farm. Consequently, the conclusion be 
came to was, that aU the education a fanner got he would 
have to get at the tml of a plough. 

3.n.iized by Google 


At theveiy first intiiiuti<Hi of amoTement in the national 
House of Bepresentatives, looking towards the establisli- 
ment of colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the me- 
chanic arts, the Board of Agriculture promptly placed 
itself on record. At a meeting held April 7, 1858, it was 

lUsohed, That this Board do most heartily approve of the 
objects of a bill presented in the House of BepiesentaUves 
in Congress, December 14, 1857, I^ Hon. Justin S. Morrill 
of Vermont, requesting Congress to donate public lands to 
each State and Territtny which may provide colleges for 
the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts; and that 
our Senators and Representatives in Congress be requested 
to render their best aid in securing the passage of said bill 
into a law; and that our secretary be requested to serve 
each of our Senators and Representatives with a copy of 
the above. 

At a meeting of the Board, January 8, 1861, Mr. Levi 
Stockbridge of Hadley offered the following resolution: — 

Resolved, That, in the opinion of this Board, the time has 
arrived for the inauguration of measures tending to the es- 
tablishment of an agricultural school of high grade under 
the patronage of the Commonwealth. 

At a meeting hdd the 25th of the same month, on motion 
of Mr. James S. Grinnell of Greenfield, it was 

Resolved, That this Board, believing that the establish- 
ment of an agricultural school would advance the interests 

3.n.iized by Google 

of agricultuie in this Commonwealth, is disposed to give 
its influence to any well-directed plan for sucli a school. 

Following this resolution, Messrs. Marshall P. Wilder, 
Freeman Walker, William S. Clark, Levi Stockhridge, and 
Charles C. SewaU were chosen a committee "to coiipoate 
at their discretion with any men or bo^y of men who may 
have any plan for an agricultural school, and to present and 
report their proceedings at the next meeting of the Board." 

At a meeting held Febniaiy 27. 186S, Colonel Wilder 
made a statement of the doings of the above committee. 
After some discussion. Dr. George B. Loring presented the 
following resolutions, which were unanimoualy adopted : — 

Bes6U)ed, That, in the opinion of the State Board of Agri- 
culture, the grant of land made by Congress to the several 
States for the establishment of colleges for instruction in 
agriculture and the mechanic arts is designed expressly for 
the general diffu^on of useful knowledge in these two 
branches among the people. 

Resolved, That the Legislature is hereby respectfully re- 
quested to make such disposition of the grant as will en- 
able the Board of Agriculture, as immediately r^resenting 
the farming interests of the Conunonwealth, to enlai^ its 
sphere of usefulness by exercising a siq>errision over the 
employment of the funds arising from the grant, for the 
purpose of secimng the confidence of the agricultural com- 
munity, and of conducting such a scheme as wUl operate 
for the benefit of those engaged in this business. 

ReaoU>ed, That, in the opinion of this Board, the interests 
of the State and intentions <d Congress require that the 

3.n.iized by Google 


grant should be principally devoted to the establishment 
of an educational institution for the practical andscientifie 
study of agriculture and for the instructioD of youths who 
intend to follow industrial pursuits, and that the institu- 
tion should not be inunediately connected with any insti- 
tution established for other purposes. 

Resobied, That a conunittee of five be appointed to 
present these resolutions to the comniittee of the Legisla- 
ture having the subject under consideration, and to express 
the views of this Board upon the proper disposition of the 
Congresssional grant. 

The committee provided for in the last resolution was 
constituted by the appointment of Messrs. Marshall P. 
Wilder, Paoli Lathrop, Greorge B. Loring, S. B. Phimie^, 
John Brooks, Henry Colt, and Charies G. Davis. 

At a meeting held January SO, 1866, Dr. Loring offered 
the following resolutions, which wete unanimously adopted : 

Resolved, That the agricultural College should maintain 
an intimate relation to the agricultural societies and the 
farmers of the Commonwealth, as a means of disseminating 
practical information and affording the best means of edu- 
cating young men for the business of farming. 

Resolved, That, for this purpose, every effort should be 
made to connect the State Board of Agriculture with the 
government of the college, for the express object of bringing 
the agricultm^ societies into close connection with that 
institution, and as the most useful method of combining all 
the efforts of the Conmionwealth in one ^stem of practical 
agricultural education. 

3.n.iized by Google 


From this time on we find the Board taking the moat 
active interest in the establishment of the Cdl^^, provid- 
ing in every possible way for its welfare, and seeking to 
enter into a closer and more intimate umoD. We can do 
little more than bri^y enumerate these continued expres- 
sions of its good-will. 

We find it in 1866 the author of an act constituting the 
president of the College a member ex officio of the Board; 
and further providing that it should be constituted into a 
Board of Overseers over the CoU^e, but without powers 
to control the action of its trustees or to negative th«r 
powers and duties. In this same act the Board was 
authorized to locate its cabinet and library at the College, 
and to hold its stated meetings there. 

We next find it in 1867 ui^ing upon the agricultural 
societies to establish and miuntain at least one scholarship 
at the College. As a result of this effort, we find in 1869 
eighteen of these societies supporting a scholarship, while 
the Massachusetts held itself responsible for three and the 
Essex and the Plymouth each two. At this same time it 
advocated the proposal that each agricultural society should 
set aside one sixth of the monies granted to it l^ the State 
as a fund towards the support of a professor at the College, 
whose duty it should be to cany out such experiments as 
the Board might from time to time direct. A circular was 
sent out to each of the thirty agricultural societies, asking 
whether it would consent to such setting aside of one sixth 
of its stated income. This proposition, however, fuled to 
go into effect; and a resolution was then ad<^ted stating 
that it was desirable that the secretary of the Board should 
be located at the College and become a professor, performing 

3.n.iized by Google 


such professional duties as the trustees might direct, and 
receiving a competent salaiy from the CommoQwealth. 
This resolution was reconsidered the next year, and the fol- 
lowing resolution adopted: "That Charies L. Flint, the 
secretary of this Board, be authorized to deliver a course of 
lectures at the Agricultural College, or to discharge such 
duties connected with the instruction of the students at that 
institution, as the trustees may assign to him, provided 
that such services do not conflict with his duties as secre- 
tary aforesud." 

Under this resolve Mr. Hint lectured at the College for 
four successive years, his name being canied on the cata- 
logue as lecturer on dairy-farming. 

Agun in 1875 we find the Board renewing its eGForts to 
induce the several agricultural societies to m^taln each a 
scholarship at the collie, and to secure the attendance of 
one or more students from the district covered hy their 

In all matters of financial aid the Board, by direct effort 
and petition to the Creneral Court, was a powerful support 
to the trustees. This was particularly manifest in the years 
1868, 186d, 1876, 1877, 1882, and 1899. 

When, in 1880, Governor Talbot and the Council ad- 
vocated the union of Amh^^ Collie and the Massachu- 
setts Agriculture CoUege, it was the Board iduch, under 
the leadership of Benjamin P. Ware of Marblehead, drew 
up a series of resolutions embodying its adverse feeling; 
and again in 1881 it was the Board which directed its 
secretary to petition the L^islature to establish an experi- 
ment station at the Collie. In short, wherever we look we 
find the Board of Agriculture at the front, moulding public 

3.n.iized by Google 


opioioQ and leading the way. For what it has purposed and 
tried to do, for what it has done in the past, for what it will 
do in the future, permit me, in the name of the College 
I represent, to egress my grateful appreciation. With 
the Board for its councillors and overseers, its future is 

3.n.iized by Google 


Gentlemen op the Absocution: — Tlie great apostte 
of GennaD materialism was wont to say in Ms lectures: 
"Miracles, gcaitlemeD, are like pills, to be swallowed, not 
chewed." He was dealing with the supernatural and what 
is contrary to natural law. But in the vast realm of Nature 
and the investigationof faerph^iomena, the miracles dsJly 
performed before our eyes can not be carelessly disposed 
of in a moment, swallowed without consideration. The un- 
rolling of the leaf, the budding of the flower, the maturing 
of the perfect fruit, the wonderful adaptation of parts to 
specific ends, tlie differentiation of various orgmts, as the 
filaments of certain plants for tactile organs, the lobes for 
ci^turing insects, and the glands of secretion and absorp- 
tion — all these require the most careful and patient 
observation. All natural phenomena have their physical 
and nattu^ causes, and to find out these underlying 
causes is often a morsel of the toughest land, to be turned 
and returned, again and again, before the final act of 
deglutition takes place and we are prepared to hazard 
an opinion. And these adaptations of nature are as 
countless as the sands upon the shore, each one in itself 

I Addrfss delivered at Waahington, D.C., August 12, 1S91, on taking 
the chair m President of the Assodatiaii. 

3.n.iized by Google 

ADDRES^^S 285 

a wonderful physical nuiacle, only to be interpreted by 
the patient worker. 

We are tempted to exdaim in the words of the magic song, 
when Akphistopheles draws wine out of the table in Auer- 
bach's cellar: — 

Wine is gtt/pea and gt^iea axe wood, 
Ute wooden board yields wine as good. 
It a but a deeper glance 
Into Nature's countfsiance. 
All is plain to him who saith, 
" Uft the v»l and look beneath. 
And behold," the wise man saith, 
" Miracles it you have faith." 

The n^t seer, looking over the broad field, eschumed: 
"Animate and inanimate creation are mountainous and 
^tteiing with them. Down into the regions of the in- 
finitely small, whither only the most searching nucroscopes 
cany the sight; up into the rej^ns of the infinitdy large, 
whither only mistiest telescopes lift out struggling vision; 
among the mechanisms of the atomic hosts that people 
a single leaf and among the mechanisina of those swarming 
celestial empires whose starry banners sweep our mighty 
skies, it is everywhere the same" — exquisite adaptations 
crowding exquisite adaptations; means so exquisitely 
adapted to the end that every part stands in the most per- 
fect balance and adjustment to the other. What more per- 
fect illustration of this corrdation of parts can be pre- 
sented than in the family of the VandeiB, where the related 
positions and shapes of the parts — the friction, viscidity, 
elastic and hygrometric movements, all nicely related to 
oneanother — comeinto play. Yet all these t^pliauces are 
subordinated to the aid of insects; for when the retreating 

3.n.iized by Google 


insect, having satisfied its quest, gradually wonns its way 
out, the labellum springs back into place, the lip of the 
anther is lifted up, and the viscid mass from the rostrum, 
forced into the anther, glues the pollen mass to the insect 
and thus insures its transportation to some other flower. 

Darwins and Mullers, it is true, are not bom every day, 
but every man has within him the same elements of success 
if he will only use them aright, brining to bear upon each 
problem the same patient, intellig^it observation, ad<Ung 
link to link, till at last the lei^thening chain stands per- 
fect and complete. 

And yet there will always remain some problems that 
will baffle the closest scrutiny. "Thedeepersciencesearches 
into the mysteries of nature, the more clearly it evolves 
the simplicity of the means used and the infinite divo^ty 
of results. Thus from under the edge of the v^ which we 
are ^lahled to lift, a glimpse of the harmonious plan of the 
universe is revealed to us. But as for the primary causeSi 
th^ reniEun beyond the ken of mortal nund; they lie 
within another domain; which man's intellect will ever 
strive to enter and search, but in vmn." 

The German scholar who, after a life of patient study of 
a single word, the relative pronoun, regretted on his death- 
bed that his efforts had been scattered and that he had not 
confined himself to a sin^^e letter of the Greek alphabet, 
is but a ^rpe of the labor required in establishing a single 
tact. Diffusion is weakness, concentration, strength; and 
the man who with divided energies studies a mass of facts 
is outstripped in the race by him who confines hims^ to 
one. It takes ten years at least, said President Clark, to 
establish one agricultural fact; but it is on the a^regation 

3.n.iized by Google 


of facts that stable law depends, and although we ciui not 
alwfQTS see the immediate practical value of the addition 
of a new fact to tlie fund of knowledge, still no one can ever 
tell how much vital importance b hidd^i in it. The boy 
dallying with the steam issuing from his mother's teapot 
established the fact of its nmdaisation, and forthwith be- 
came possible its implication to all the trem^idous enginery 
of modem science. Nor should a fact be despised because 
of its apparent triviality. The great father and founder of 
fruitful investigation, Lord Bacon, says: "The eye of the 
understanding is like the eye of the sense: for as you may 
see great objects through small crannies or levels, so you 
may see great axioms of nature through small and contemp- 
tible instances." 

Not a single phydcal science can be named that has not 
been built up by the labors of men who were seeking for 
truth while those very labors were considered puerile and 
ridiculous by mere utilitarians. Every scientific truth, it 
has been aptly said, has to pass through three initial stages 
bdore it can be firmly established: first, that of denial and 
ridicule by the world ; second, that of acceptance ; and third, 
that of calm assumption that it has always been so. We are 
told that Pythagoras, when he discovered that the square 
of the hypotenuse was equal to the sum of the squares of the 
other two sides, offered up a hecatomb, in grateful recog- 
nition of what had been vouchsafed him, since which time 
whenever a scientific truth has been discovered the ox^i 
have alw^s bellowed. The best scientific results of the 
present day which have not yet borne fruit — the ques- 
tions that engage the attention of our scientists — are 
recounted with the same sneers and ridicule by Ukose who 

3.n.iized by Google 


cl^m to be practically wise as were observations In geolc^ 
and experiments in electricity a century ago. " Every great 
advance in practical scien<» in the last half-century has 
been simply the combining or utilizing of materiab and le- 
flults wrought out as isolated products of facts, after long 
years of careful investigation, by the patient truth-search- 
ers in aU portions of the worid." The studies of Frankiiu, 
Volta, Arago, Hemy, and Faraday in accumulating facts, 
discovering laws, and inventing instruments, made the 
electric telegraph a possibility in our day. 

Those m^i prosper best in this world of universal in- 
quiry who sit silent, watch longest, and acc^t most quickly 
each suggestion of change. The thrifty trees hug the earth 
and rocks with a thousand rootlets, feed on air with ten 
thousand leaves, and feel everywhere through and through 
them the throbbing force of life; but who can tell the count- 
less generations through which they have stood, silently 
drinking in the sunshine of heaven and gatb^ing and ma- 
turing their strength. 

All theories are open to ceaseless inquiry and correction 
and we can expect to progress only by the patience, the 
breadth and the sagacity of our work in uncovering laws 
and methods of life in themselves very secret and obscure. 

The fundamental working conceptions of science change 
with the changLDg knowledge of the facts they interpret, but 
the foundation renuuns the same, and he interprets best 
who penetrates most deeply to its heart and questions most 
closely its workings. The good agriculturist stands in a kind 
of awe of living things. He is diffident in the suggestions 
he makes to them, and if the hint is not taken he withdraws 
it at once. If any predispo^tion appears, he humors it 

3.n.iized by Google 


immediately and is ready to stand a quiet observer in the 
presence of the putting forth of vital powers. 

Variety is the initiatory step of all progress, and we may 
thankfully accept a score of unimportant foundlings, if 
after repeated faUiuvs we succeed in producing one ser- 
viceable one of lasting benefit to the human kind. 

But theworld is too impatient forresults — liketheAthen- 
ians of old, madly rushing about, ever seeking for something 
new. Progress is the cry of the age, progressive thought 
the pet pride of to-day. The charm of antiquity is broken. 
The historic tales of our childhood have faded into myth 
brfore the cold scrutiny of modem learning. The idols of 
the past are overthrown and trodden underfoot by the 
iconoclasts of the present. No doctrine is too sacred, no 
dogma too hoary for the levelers of to-day. Every year, 
nay every month, witnesses the birth of some new theory, 
some grand discovery in the laws of Nature, who in her old 
age seems as prolific of law as a continental congress. New 
creeds, new sciences, new methods are springing up like 
the fabled race of heroes from the uncanny sowing of the 
dragon's teeth, and all under the ^orious reign of progres- 
sive thought. Well will it be for us if in this universal 
demand for something new, something strange, some- 
thing out of the beaten track, we can heed the lesson of the 
hour and patiently watch and wait — watch though the 
world deride our waiting; wait till the harvest crowns our 

From the "seely wench," who, according to Piatt, taught 
the art of setting com by accidentally dropping some wheat 
seeds in holes into which she ought to have dibbled car- 
rots and radishes; from the sowing of potatoes broadcast 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


and the drawing of ploughs and harrows by the tails of 
the unfortunate horses in the eighteenth century, to thediill- 
ing and the sulky or steam-traction ploughs of the present 
age, is indeed a great advance. The patient workers in thia 
our chosen field have not been many, at least till we come 
down to our own time; and too often, alas, to quote the 
spirited words of another, "like the ancient alchemists have 
starved in the midst of their golden dreams. Tusser, teach- 
ing thrift, never throve. GabrielHatter,thecom-seller,^dio 
boasted that he could raise thirty bushels of wheat to the 
acre, died in the streets for want of bread. Jetfaro TuII, 
instead of gaining an estate, lost two by his horse-hoeing 
husbandry. Arthur Young failed twice in farm management 
before he began his invaluable totus of observation"; and 
BateweU, irrigating his meadows and raising four crops in a 
single season, was compelled to give up his farm, and died 
in comparative poverty. 

But each one has lifted the veil a little high^ and left 
the way a Uttle clearer for those who followed him. Tull, 
ezperim^iting in drilling and horse-hoeing husbandly, aU 
hut divined the mysteries of chemisiiy, which then, as 
appBed to agriculture, were undiscovered. Thaer, implying 
the natural sciences to agriculture, established a system 
of farm accoimts, placing values on the various farm ma- 
terials, and introduced the great principle of rotation of 
crops. Bakewell, discovering the principle of selectioh in 
breeding, raised to the highest pitch of perfection his flock 
of Leicesters. Stock husbandry rose at a single bound, and 
h^iceforth the "promiscuous imion of nobody's son with 
everybody's daughter" was at an end, Davy, by his chem- 
ical analyses and explanations of agricultural processes, laid 

3.n.iized by Google 


broad and deep the toundatioDS of agricultural chemistry, 
liebig, teaclimg the appUcations of chemistry to agricul' 
ture and the nutrition and growth of plants and animab, 
inaugurated the era of progress of scientific agriculture. 
Boussingault, whose careful analyses and experiments in 
connection with his investigations into the sources of the 
elemoits of nutrition for plants and the value of food- 
rations for animals, led the "Agricultural Gazette" to say 
of hb " Economic Rurale" that it was the most important 
and valuable book for farmers that the chemists of the 
present century have produced; StSckhardt, popularizing 
agricultural chemistry by his lectures and his writings; 
Mecbi, laying down the rational principles of farm-manage- 
ment; Henneberg, unfolding the mysteries of the physio- 
ology and ecoaou^ of feeding farm animals ; Vilie, teaching 
the principles of complete manures; Grandeau, teaching 
the analytic methods of agricultural chemistry; Deherain, 
for years conducting exhaustive field experimmts ; Moerckw 
and Wagner studying the appHcation of potash, nitrogen, 
and phosphoric acid to the growing plant; the two KUhns, 
working in the respective fields of the pl^siology of cattle- 
feeding and the chenustry of the respiration of animals; 
Wolff, in food-rations, Pettenkofer in respiraUon; and the 
lengthening list closes with the name of one whose careful^ 
conducted experiments for half a century have made the 
estate of Rothamsted a shrine for all true workers in the 
sci^ice of agriculture — a Mecca to which the devout 
r^Miir as do the followers of the prophet to their holy dty. 
Fifty-seven years ago Sir John Bennct Lawes, Altering 
into possession of his estate, commenced a few experiments 
on the effects of different manures upon potted plants and 

3.n.iized by Google 


afterwards upon plants in the field. Led by the striking 
results obtuned to cany on the same line of investigation 
on a broader scale, nine years later he associated with him- 
sdf Dr. Gilbert, turned a bam into a laboratoiy, and com- 
menced that series of patient and exhaustive experiments 
which have won for him and his work a worid-wide reputa< 
tion. From the few experiments with potted plants of 1835 
and 18S6, and from a single associate working in a bam 
used tor chemical puiposes in 184S, his station has risen 
in staff and equipment to one oi national importance, with 
its sixty or more broad acres permanently set aside for 
agricultural experiment; its trtuned st^ of workers, chem- 
ists, botanists, veterinarians, computers, and recorders; 
its laboratory, presented by interested agriculturists in 
recognitioii of the importance of his work; its munificent 
endowment; its collection of over 40,000 bottles, contain- 
ing the results of thousands of analyses, samples of the 
various animal and vegetable products, ashes, soils, etc., 
connected with the various experiments ; and last, its manu- 
script hbrary, a nrnrvd in itself — thousands of pages, 
classified and indexed, containing a complete record of 
every ascertuned fact; a life-history, if we may so term 
it, of every ^periment undertaken; a maaa of all concriv- 
able data on a great variety of subjects, tabulated and 
arranged for ready referoice. 

Rothamsted has from the outset — and for nearly half a 
century — voluntarily placed itself at the disposition of 
the advocates and practitioners of advanced agriculture. 
Scientific and practical problems, as offered, have been 
accepted and faithfully and exhaustively worked out, re- 
gardless of expense either in time or money. Practical 

3.n.iized by Google 


agriculture in all its possible bearings is represented in 
the publications, and hence the variety of the style of 
its writings, suited to the education of an audience at 
Oxford or a farmers' club. All things have heea laid under 
contribution and made to minister to it. The earth, the ail, 
and the water have in turn given up their secrets. like the 
All-seeing One, the hundied-Q^ed Argus of anUquity, or 
Briareus of the hundred hands, it has suffered nothing to 
escape its close scrutiny and inquiry. From the pure rain- 
dro[>s of heaven to the drainage waters of the earth, and 
from the capture and imprisonment of the free nitrogen of 
the atmosphere to the competition, utilization, and value 
(tf towB-sewerage, it questions them all; and whether th^ 
answer in the tongue oi Oie chemist, the botamst, or the 
engineer, the answer has invariably been in the direct in- 
terests of practical progressive ^riculture. 

The value to agriculture of the work already accon^Iished 
is wdl-nigh incalculable. Far less can be estimated that 
of the future, for which, in the will of the generous founder, 
ample provision has been made. Of its immediate import- 
ance, English agriculturists speak in no uncert^ terms. 
The author of the " Koneers and Progress of English Farm- 
ing," referring to the experiments of Sir John Bennet 
Lawes and Dr. Gilbert, says: "The triumph of chemistry 
is summed up in the system of successive croiq>ing without 
impoveiishment, which has been established by them. 
It is difficult to estimate the enormous influence which 
their experiments have already exercised upon farming, or 
to assign Hmits to the increased productiveness of the soil 
which England might have witnessed but for the disastrous 
period of 1873-89." 

3.n.iized by Google 


Gentlanen of the Assodati<m : in my feeble way I 
have endeavored to outline to you the great work accom- 
plished at Rothamsted. I have likened that station to 
Argus of thehundredeyeSitoBriareusof the hundred hands. 
Hiose mystic impersonations of power and sight were de- 
pendent each of them upon the individuid eyes and hands, 
which went to make up their being. In like manner the 
strength of the station depends upon the individual char- 
acter and make-up of its staff. 

We have with us here to-night an eye and hand of Roth- 
amsted — an eye which has not sought in vtun the inter- 
pretation of Nature's problems; a hand which has most 
skillfully assisted the eye in these interpretaUons. 

3.n.iized by Google 


In an old book cont^ning the wisdom of an age two tliou- 
sand years olda than the pres^it, I find this quotation: 
"How can he get wisdom that holdeth the plow and that 
glorieth in the goad, that diiveth oxen and is occupied in 
their labors and whose talk is of bullocks?" 

Apparently the same need of instruction was as urgent 
then as now, and the tiller of the soil in the fertile plains 
of the eastern world felt that there was something mote to 
be desired than nmply following, day is, day out, the dreary 
routine his fathers had left him. That there were soiut^s 
of information even then is evident from the fact that the 
wise Solomon could discourse of trees, from the cedar of 
Lebanon even to the hyssop springing out of the wall; and 
it is added that he spake also of beasts, of fowk, of cre^ing 
things, and of fishes. The same questions that stirred the 
heart of the agricultural seer so many centuries ago are 
pFes^ng with renewed force now, and more light is sought 
on all the difficult problems that present themselves to the 
farmer of to-day. Itisthemissionof the agricultural colleges 
to furnish this li^t and lead the way. 

X am asked to present this afternoon a brief paper on 
what should be taught in our agricultural colleges. Per^ 

' An Address delivered at Washington, D. C, November 10, 1806. 
Vrom Proceedingt of the Tenth AnntuU Contvnfum eif the Attoa/ditm 
qf Atntrican AjriadtuTol College* and Experiment Slatioiu. 

3.n.iized by Google 


haps I can express myself in no way more clearly than by 
outlining to you the course at the Massachusetts Agricul* 
tural College. That has stood ever since its foundation, 
in 1867, for agriculture alone, instruction in the mechanic 
arts being supplied by the Institute of Technology, which 
has shared with it the proceeds of the grant of 186S and 
the later one of 1890. 

While it has been the purpose of the faculty to give the 
best possible instruction upom every subject taught, there 
has been no effort to expand the course b^ond the pnqier 
limits of a simple profes«onal school, or to compete in any 
manner with other *>Tnating institutions. On the other hand, 
the College has from the outset been intended to be some^ 
thing very different from a mere manual-labor or farm 
sdtool for trmning ^prentices in the various op^^tioDS of 
husbandry. Since the first few years manual labor has been 
enUrely discarded, ^cept in so far as it has an educational 
value — not how to plough and hoe, but when and where 
to do it to the best advantage. The hours of student-life 
can be much more profitably employed than in mere manual 
labor, opportunities for which are eveiywhere presented, 
while the facilities for education are offered only at the 
collie and for a limited period. More mind and less 
muscle is the watchword of to-day. In preparing the soil, 
in planUng, in cultivating, in tu^dng, in harvesting, in 
thrashing, in the management of the dairy, in fact almost 
evoywhere, intelligence is the principal thing, and mere 
brute force comparativdy worthless. The old prejudice 
agunst thoughtful, studious, and progres^ve men aa book- 
farmers and fancy farmers has at length been overcome by 
the mass'of printed matter which is flooding with li^t 

3.n.iized by Google 


every housdiold, and by the numberless improTements 
which have been demonstrated to be not merely expensive 
luxuries for the rich, but of priceless value to eveiy tiller 
of the soil. 

But to turn more directly to the curriculum itself. This 
naturally divides itself into seven departments : the Enghsh, 
the agricultural, the chemical, the botanical, the mathe- 
matical, the zotflogical, and that of languages and social 

I. English has a place in the curriculum of the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural College because of its practical value 
and its educational value. 

By its practical value we mean its value in enabling the 
student to express his thought by oral and written language. 
Looking at the study from this point of view, we may name 
it the study of oral and written expression. The specific 
subjects and exercises set for securing this practical ad- 
vantage from the study are these : rhetoric, during tbe faesh- 
man year; declamations, during freshman and sophomore 
years; essays, in the freshman, sophomore, and senior 
years; orations, in the junior year; logic and debates, in 
the senior year. The principal object in these ex^cises is 
to secure accuracy and facility in the use of the English 
language as an instrument by which thou^t is expressed. 

In addition to these studies, American literature is 
studied in the sophomore year and English literature in the 
junior and senior years. While, as an incidental advantage, 
the student's style in writing and speaking may be im- 
proved and perfected by reading and studying the best 
works of the best authors, literature b studied chie^ for 
its educational value. As literatiue is one means by which 

3.n.iized by Google 


the thoughts and aspirations of men are expressed, one can 
learn the history and progress of the thought of the Ameri- 
can and EngUsh people from the study of American and 
EngUah literature. The student's mind being brought in 
contact with the great minds that have adorned the pages 
of EngUsJi and American history, his powers are quick- 
ened and developed thereby, his mental horizon is en- 
larged, and thus a most important educational advantage 
b secured. 

n. The agricultural course covers a fiehi of such wide and 
varied extent that it is hard to compasa it in a four-years' 
course. The graduates must know the origin and nature of 
soils and subsoils, and the proper treatment of each; the 
methods and advantages of the various kinds of tillage, and 
the modes of drainage and irrigation, with their cost and 
value. They must understand the worth and peculiar ef- 
fect of every variety of mineral and organic fertilizers; the 
construction and use of all the implements and machines of 
improved husbandly; the best modes of planting, cultivat- 
ing, and harvesting all sorts of crops, and the varieties of 
each which are most valuable for different localities and 
objects. Th^ must be familiar with the characteristics of 
the different breeds of domestic animalff and their various 
adaptations; with the proper modes of feeding for particu- 
lar purposes, and of treatment in health and sickness, and 
with the priudples of breeding. They must be acqudnted 
with the keying of farm accounts, the ordinary rules of 
business and the legal rights and obUgations of landholders; 
with the renovation of worn-out lands and the improve- 
ment of those which are new and rough; with the most de- 
sirable location and construction of farm buildings, the 

3.n.iized by Google 


correct division of an estate into arable, pasture, meadow, 
and woodland, according to circumstances, and the build- 
ing of roads, bridges, and f^ices. Th^ must understuu] 
the use of rotation in crops; the management of the dairy; 
the cultivation of vegetables in the market-garden and under 
glass; the nusing of small fruits and their transportation 
and sale; the planting and culture of vineyards, orchards, 
and forest trees ; and the theory and practice of landscape- 
gardening, with the proper selection and treatment of or- 
namental plants. Tliestrictlyagriculturalpartofthiscourse 
is carried on for eight terms, mostly by lecture, embracing 
the following topics: the history of agriculture, soils, drain- 
age, irrigation, disposal of sewage, fertilizers, fields, crops, 
implements, breeds and breeding, d^ry-farming, cattle- 
feeding, laboratory and experimental work. The horticul- 
tural work covers six terms under the following heads: 
horticulture, market-gardening, landscape-gardenitig, flori- 
culture, sylviculture, care of greenhouses, and construction. 

III. The course in chemistry extends over nine terms, 
the htst three of which are almost entirely laboratory work, 
eight hours per week. Commencing with lectures and prac- 
tice in elem^itary chemistry, there follow in succession dry 
and humid qualitative analysis, lectures and practice in 
organic chenustiy, chemical physics, and quantitative 
analysis. In connection with this is a series of lectures on 
the application of chemistiy to the industries of life. 

IV. Botai^ covers seven terms, embracing structural, 
analytical, economic, with laboratory work, cryptogamic, 
and physiological. The course urns to treat of all the more 
important features connected with the study of plants 
which have a close bearing upon agriculture, without at the 

3.n.iized by Google 


same time deviatjng ttom a ^rstematic and logical plan. 
Throughout the entire course the objective methods of 
teaching are followed, and the student is constantly fur- 
nished with an abundance of plant-material for practical 
study, together with an daborate series of preserved speci- 
mens for illustration and comparison. In the freshman 
year the study of structural and systematic botany is pur- 
sued, with some observation on insect fertilization. Iliis 
is followed in the first term of the sophomore year by the 
systematic study of grasses, trees, and shrubs, and this 
during the winter term by an investigation into the micro- 
scopic structure of the plant. The senior year is ^ven up 
entirely to cryptogamic and physiolo^cal botany. 

V. The mathematical course. In this day of stnentific 
experiment, observation, and research on the farm, the 
advantage of a thorough knowledge of the more elementary 
branches of mathematics, general physics, and engineering 
must be more than ever apparent; and it is to meet the 
needs of the agricultural college student in these lines 
that the work in the mathematical department has been 

The mathematics of the freshmen, sophomore, and junior 
year is required; that of the senior year elective. The se- 
quence of subjects is as follows: bookkeeping, algebra, 
geometry, and mechanical drawing in the freshman year; 
tr^nometiy, mechanical drawing, and plane-survqnng — 
the latter embracing lectures and field-work in elementary 
engineering, the use of instruments, computation of areas, 
leveling, etc. — in the sophomore year; general physics, — 
including mechanics, electricity, sound, light, and heat, — 
and descriptive geometry or advanced mechanical drawing 

3.n.iized by Google 


in the junior year; and, finally, two electives in tlie senior 
year, — mathematics and engineering. 

The mathematical option includes the following subjects : 
Fall Term, plane analytic geometry, embracing a study of 
the equations and properties of the point, line, and drcle, 
and of the parabola, ellipse, and hyperbola; Winter Term. 
diSerenUal calculus; and Summer Term, integral calculus. 

The senior engineering option is designed to give to the 
student the necessary engineering tnuning to enable him 
to take up and apply, on the lines of landscape-engineering 
and the development of property, his knowledge of agricul- 
ture, forestry, botany, and horticulture. It embraces a 
course of lectures, recitations, and field-work on the follow- 
ing subjects: topc^aphy, railroad curves, earthwork, con- 
stnictiou and nuuntenance of roads, waterworks and sewer- 
age systems, etc. 

The en^eering elective is intended to equip the stu- 
dent to enter a comparatively new field — that of land- 
scape engineering, which is coming more and more promi- 
nently before the public attention; for with tiie increasing 
consideration which is being paid to the public health and 
the development and beautifying of our towns and cities, 
come fresh needs and opportunities. 

VI. The zoSlogical course commences with one term of 
anatomy and physiology, followed by a term of laboratory 
work, eight hours per week, in which each student is re- 
quired to make dissections, use the microscope, and make 
drawings of his work. This is followed by one term of 
zoology, three of veterinary science, and fotu" of ento- 
mology, the last three being optional, consisting largely of 
microscopic work and drawing, eight hours pet week. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Vn. The seventh and last course embraces the modern 
languages (French and German), political economy, con- 
stitutional history, and a course of lectures on rural law, 
including the rights and obligations of landholders, and 
other subjects of practical importance to every citizen, 
whatsoever his profession. 

I have now sketched more or less in detail the seven 
divisions of our agricultural course. It isfor three years rigid 
tmd defined, with liberty to select and specialize in the fourth. 
The structure is reared somewhat after this fashion: Agri- 
culture the foundation; botany, diemistry, zotilogy, and 
mathematics the four corner-stones; while the walls are 
solidly built up with English, horticulture, floriculture, and 
forestry on one side ; English, physiology, entomology, com- 
parative anatomy of the domestic animals, and veterinary, 
on another ; English, mechamcs, pl^rsics, and civil engi- 
neering on the third; and English, French, German, pohti- 
cal economy, and constitutional history on the fourth. The 
study of English is made the basis of all study. It is inter- 
woven with every course. It is, in fact, the very warp and 
woof of every branch pursued. These seven courses, each 
distinct in itself, yet each aiding in the interpretation or 
solution of the difficult problems met with, require a tour 
years* course. They proceed hand in hand, and the com- 
pletion of a study in one de^>artment is coincident with 
that in another. Mutual help is the watchword. Each for 
all, but all for each, in laying broad and deep the fouoda- 
tionandbuildingupthesolidstructure. Thus, when the re- 
lations of the weather — of heat, air, moisture — to farm- 
ing are considered, on the botanical side are being studied the 
structure of the pUnt, its organs, the relation of its root- 

3.n.iized by Google 


system to soil and moisture; on the chemical, the elements 
important in an agricultural point of view and their proper- 
ties; and in the mathematical, such algebra and geometry as 
will lead on to practical work in surveying and drtdnage. So, 
too, when soils and tillage are under consideration, in like 
manner are studied plants beneficial or injurious to man, 
general geology, and those insects hurtful or otherwise to 
the crops. In short, the effort is made to have each course 
supplement and be in harmony with the others, and the 
different studies so fit into each other as to make one 
rounded whole. 

3.n.iized by Google 


To your executive tMnmnittee were intrusted a number 
of very important measures vitally affecting the interests 
of the Association. All these have received careful consider- 
ation, and such action has been taken as the circumstances 
seemed to wurant. 

Very early in the year a letter was received from the 
chairman of the committee on seed-testing, appointed 
at the 1896 convention, stating that he had been unable to 
be present when the committee made its report in 1897, 
and that he had sent a letter asking for the continuance of 
the committee for another year, in order that it might de- 
termine practically the values of the apparatus and methods 
proposed rather than leave it to the seed-dealers. The let- 
ter arrived too late for action, and he now asked the execu- 
tive conunittee to grant such authority. The matter being 
an important one and requiring inuuediate action, your 
conmiittee, under the fourth article of the section relating 
to officers, authorized by written vote the continuance of 
the said committee for another year. 

The question of securing necessary legislation for the sale 
of uniforms, either made up or the cloth for the same, at 
government prices, to the cadets of the different colleges, 
was taken before the Mihtary Committee of the House at 

' Of the Assodatlon erf AgriculturoJ Colleges and Eip«riiiient SUtioiu. 

3.n.iized by Google 


ita short session. Tlie ch^nnan refused to consider it, tm 
the ground that the appropriations had ahready been made 
up, that this would require an extra appropriation for the 
purchase of extra cloth, and that he was pledged not to ask 
for any extra appropriations. It was urged that this did not 
call for any extra expense, as the money from the sales 
would be covered back into the Treasury. But the chair- 
man refused to recede from his position. Your commit- 
tee recommend a continuance of effort on the same lines. 

At the same time legislation was sought tor making the 
land-grant colleges depositories of all government publica- 
tions. A bill was drafted and introduced into the Com- 
mittee on Printing. Objection on technical grounds having 
been made, it was withdrawn, and introduced a second time 
in a modified form. The approaching difficulty with Spdn, 
however, soon absorbed the entire attention of Congress, 
and it failed to be reported. Your committee has since 
learned that ihae are not copies of the public documents 
suffident to supply the colleges, and that a second bill, 
providing for this addition, would be necessary. 

Of all the questions submitted for the consideration of 
your committee no one has caused so much anxiety as that 
involving the annuity passing under the name of the Morrill 
fund. The act (Senate, S72) providing free homes on the 
public lands for actual and bona fide settlers by reserving 
the public lands, twenty million acres, for that piupose, 
struck immediately at the source from which the Morrill 
annuity is derived, namely, the proceeds derived from 
the sale of public lands. The act provides "That all set- 
tlers imder the homestead laws of the United States upon 
the public luids acquired prior to the passage of this act 

3.n.iiffid by Google 


by treaty or agreement from the various Indiao tribes, or 
upon military reservations which have been opened to 
settlement, who have or who shall hereafter reside upon the 
tract, entered in good faith, for the period required by exist- 
ing law, shall be entitled to a patent for the land so entered 
upon the payment to the local land officers of the usual and 
customary fees, and no other or further charge of any kind 
diall be required from such settler to entitle him to a patent 
for the land covered by his entry," 

The act passed the Senate and was in the hands of the 
House Committee on Indian Affairs, by whom it was fa- 
vored, before it was discovered, or its mischievous effects 
upon the college revenues realized. Your committee, as- 
sisted by others, was promptly on the ground, not once, but 
five or six times, and every effort was made to warn the 
colleges of the peril. But for the energetic action of thdf 
officers during the two days of debate upon the bill it must 
certwnly have passed. It was finally rejected, but, the 
Senate refusing to recede, the following compromise was 
agreed upon: "That the settlers who purchased with the 
condition annesed of actual settlement on all ceded Indian 
res^vations be, and they are hereby, granted an exten- 
sion to Ju^ 1, 1900, in which to make payments as now 
provided by law." That is, instead of making the settlers 
a free gift of the land, the government has extended the 
time for payment. It is like the case of the creditor who 
refuses to cancel his debtor's note, but gives him easier 
terms as to installments. There is, however, this difference, 
that the government does not call for any installment. Do 
not deceive yourselves, gentlemen of the Association : sooner 
or later this question will agiun confront you, and it is the 

cv Google 


part of wisdom to settle upon our future poEcy. Wliile the 
bill was bdug debated is tlie House. Senator Morrill intro' 
duced a measure into the Senate providing that the college 
annuities should be pfud from any unappropriated sums in 
the Treasury. This bill passed through two readings and 
was then lost sight of in the greater interests of the war. 
It is the unanimous opinion of your conunittee that either 
that bill or one of similar import should be passed. 

In response to the many requests for information respect- 
ing the detail of officers to the coUeges, a personal interview 
with the Adjutant-General of the Army was secured, and 
the order of the War Department forbidding the detwl of 
any officer for any service imtil after the report of the peace 
commissioners was sent out in a circular letter to each pre- 
siding officer. While it would seem impossible at present 
to secure any details, would it not be for the best interests 
of this Associatioa to place itself on record, eilhet now or at 
such time as m^ seem suitable, respecting the value of 
these details to the colleges and the country at large? The 
law distinctly states that in the details to the several States 
preference is to be given to the colleges of agriculture and 
mechanic arts. It further states that officers must be de- 
tailed who are agreeable to the authorities of the different 
institutions. Both these provisions have been disregarded 
in two or three instmices. It is recomm^ided that, when 
action is taken, the whole subject of these details be care- 
fully reviewed and that colleges receiving officers on their 
faculty be allowed a choice in this matter. 

The order of the President during the late war, allowing 
a certain niunber of second lieutenants to be appointed from 
the colleges, did not entirely secure the result intended. 



Consultation was not bad with the college authorities. 
Selection was made from the ranking men in the militaiy 
department; and when, as happened in three eases, the 
men were unable to accept, from physical disability or other 
cause, the colleges were passed by. The subject has seemed 
of sufficient importance to have a special paper presented 
to this convention on "Land-grant and other colleges and 
the national defense." 

Special committees have been appointed to forward the 
interests of the cooperative station exhibit at Paris in 1900, 
the establishment of experiment stations of engineering, 
and the securing facilities for graduate work in the several 
departments at Washington. Reports will be made by their 
respective chairmen, and we will not occupy your time with 
what would be mere repetition. 

In conclusion, we would state that the usual duties de- 
volving upon the committee have been faithfully performed. 
The proceedings of the last convention have been edited 
and published, the various papers recommended by the 
conunittee appointed for that purpose, have been published, 
and the customary notices, programs, etc., have been is- 

In behalf of the executive conmiittee, 

Hbnkt H. Goodbll, Chairman, 

3.n.iized by Google 


Immediatklt following sdjoununeat of the last conven- 
tion, the new executive committee met and organized for 
the year, making choice of E. B. Voorhees for secretary 
and H. H. Goodell for chairman. 

To the nine measures referred to it for consideration 
careful attention has been paid, and such action taken as 
the circumstances in each case seemed to warrant. I^t 
m importance was the bill for the establishment of schools 
or departments of mining and metallurgy m connection 
with the colleges for the benefit of agriculture and the me- 
chanic arts. It will doubtless be remembered that during 
the last session of Congress (Fifty-sixth Congress, First 
Session) the Senate Committee on Mines and Mining re- 
ported a bill (S. 3989) entitled "A bill to apply a portion 
of the proceeds of the sale of the public lands to the endow- 
ment, support, and maint^iance of schools or d^artments 
of mining and metallurgy in the several States and Terri- 
tories, in connection with the colleges for the benefit of 
agriculture and the mechanic arts, established in accord- 
ance with the provisions of an act of Congress approved 
July 2, 1868." 

The conmiittee gave a very careful and detailed consider- 
ation to all the provisions of the bill, and imanimously ic 
ported it to the Senate with a favorable recommendation, 

3.n.iized by Google 


acconqMinymg it with s report which fully set forth the 
merits of the measure and the great aational importance 
of the interests it was intended to promote. 

The Senate, in turn, subjected the bill to a searching and 
thorough discussion, adopted a few useful amendments, 
and passed it without a dissenting voice. 

TVhen the bill reached the House of Representatives it 
was referred to the Committee on Mines and Mining, was 
there fully conadered aud unanimously reported to the 
House with a favorable recommendation, as a substitute 
for one that had been previously reported from the same 
committee and was then on the House Cal^idar. The 
bill was reported by Mr. Mondell, of Wyoming, who had 
given particular attention to the subject and who accom- 
panied it with a strong and convincing report. 

Thus the measure stood when Congress adjourned, the 
pressure of other bu^ness preventing this from reaching a 
vote. The bill as it stood was in the nature of a compromise, 
and is beheved to be just and acc^table to all interests. 
Several bills relating to the same subject-matter have been 
before each committee, and the form finally agreed upon 
seems to embody the best features of all. Your committee 
recommends that this bill or one of amilar import be intro- 
duced at the earliest practicable moment of the next session 
of Congress. 

Under the resolution that the executive committee take 
into consideration the matter of making the collective ex- 
hibit of the stations a permanent exhibit of the experiment 
stations at the national capital, and endeavor to make suit- 
able arrangements for its permanent installation and care 
at Washington, a communication was sent to the honorable 

3.n.iized by Google 


Secretary of Agricultuie, stating the wish of tlie Associatdon, 
and askiiig whether such instatlation and care were feaable. 
The following reply was received: "The exhibit is now at 
Buffalo, and very likely will be used at Charleston next 
winter. The question of its permanent installation h«e 
will be carrfuUy considered when we are throu^ with its use 
at these e^tositions." 

In the closii^ hours of the last convention a communica- 
tion was received from the management of the Fan Ameri- 
can ExpoEdtion, asking that a del^ate be appointed to the 
ddry test to be held in Buffalo. The executive committee 
was directed to appoint a delegate. At a meeting held later. 
Director W. H. Jordan was so appointed. 

Conformab^ to resolution offered by Dr. Dabney, a me- 
morial was sent to the honorable Secretary of Agriculture 
indorsing his action in opening the D^>BTtm^it of Agri- 
culture to the graduates of the colleges established for the 
benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts, and pledging 
the earnest support of the Assodation in carrying out that 

The execuUve committee was further directed to ui^ 
upon the honorable Secretary of Agricultiu>e the desirability 
<A publishing : — 

(o) A second edition of the history and description of ex- 
periment stations as originally prepared for the Paris 

(6) A separate edition of the addresses of Pre^dent 
Atherton and Director Jordan; 

(c) The lectures of Dr. Bernard Dyer. 

The second edition of the histoiy of the exi>eriment sta- 
tions in this country has already been published and dis- 

3.n.iized by Google 


tributed. The lectures of Dr. Dyer have been approved 
and will shortly be issued, but in regard to the ad- 
dresses of President Atherton and Director Jordan it was 
thought wiser to publish separates from the account of the 
proceedings of the convention than to ask for a separate 

The question of constituting all land-grant colleges 
designated depositories of government publications has 
continued through the past year to claim the attention 
of your committee. Taking advantage of the fact that a bill 
to amend the act regulating the public printing and distri- 
bution of pubUc documents was then being considered, it 
succeeded in having an additional section incorporated, 
including all the colleges among the number of designated 
depositories. The bill, however, failed of being called up, 
and the section shared the fate of the bill, dying with the 
last Congress. It seems unwise to introduce this into 
Congress as a special bill, and it is recommended that the 
new executive committee keep in touch with the printing 
committee and see that a section providing for our inter- 
ests is inserted in the amended bill. 

The executive committee has considered the summer 
school of graduate instruction in agriculture, suggested by 
the Ohio State University, and the offer of the university 
to assume responsibiUty for the expense of the first session. 
The committee recommends that the convention approve 
the holding of a session during the summer of 190%, to be 
under the control of the president of the stdd university, 
with the expectation of adopting the school as a coiiperative 
enterprise, under the control of the convention, should the 
success of the first session seem to justify the continuance 

3.n.iized by Google 


of the school. The following outline is submitted as a basis 
for the discussion of the convention: — 

(1) A summer school of graduate instruction in agricul- 
ture shall be conducted under the auspices of the American 
Association of Agricultural Colleges and E^)eriment 
Stations, the sessions to be held at different institutions be- 
longing to the Association, as the convention from time 
to time may direct. 

(S) Each convention shall appoint a committee of control, 
to be composed of three members, one of whom shall he 
the president of the institution at which the next session 
is held, or some other represraitative selected by that in- 

(3) The committee of control shall have power to select 
the director and other officers of the school and to fix their 
duties and compensation. 

(4) The convention shall provide, either by its^ or in 
cooperation with the institution at which the sesfflon is to 
be held, for the expenses of the school, and for this purpose 
a spedal annual assessment, not to exceed ten dollars, may 
be laid upon the colleges and experiment stations belong- 
ing to the Association. 

For the executive committee, 

H. H. GooDKii, Chairman. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Young Gentlemen ow the Seniob Class : — As the 
hour draws nigh when we must part, I feel that I cannot 
let you go without m some more personal manner wishing 
you God-speed, and that good fortune and success that 
waits on honest endeavor. Four times since first we met 
the year has renewed its beauty, and now the spring 
stands crowned in all its loveliness. 

Wherever the eye may rest, on valley, wood, or mountiun, 
everywhere is life — life in its prime of beauty. This week 
you enter upon your life-work, whose harvest will be what 
you make it. Can I do more wisely than to recall to mind 
the golden words the Hindoo uttered more than two thou- 
sand years ago : " Man follows the bent of his will ; subdues, 
or is led by hia passion; bows to the law of his conscience 
or willfu% lives in rebellion. He says to himself, 'I am 
free!' He says true! He is free to grow noble; he is free, 
too, to work his undoing. But though he act as he will, he 
is but a tool in the great hand of destiny, used to perfect its 
fabric of life. Out of evil comes good, but not for the doer 
of evil ; he has earned for himself sorrow that he did freely ; 
he has worked for the good that be did blindly. Out of evil 
comes good, from sorrow shall follow a blessii^." 

Yours will be a stirring age. The great questions now 
agitating humanity will confront you at every step, and 
you will have to decide for yourself their right or wrong. 
Consciously, or unconsciously, you will play your little part 
in the great drama of life, and work for the general harmony 
of the whole. StandfastffN'the tight; strike at the rootof evil. 

3.n.iized by Google 

Be honest! Be true, and eschew the hollow shams and 
pretences by which you will be surrounded ! 

Fight wd], and thou sb^t see after th«se wars 
Thy head wear sunbeaitu and thy head toudi atan. 

Use your talents on the side of morality and justice. 
Never prostitute them to a cause you disbelieve in. Re- 
member that they are a special gift of God, and are not 
objects of barter and trade to be knocked down to the 
h^hest bidder. If you hut have his seal upon them, you 
will wear the Uvery of the Deity. Wherever you may settle, 
remember that the community has a right to expect in- 
finitely more of you than of the clever young mechanic, 
who may chance to live next door. It has a right to demand 
that you shall be a cultured gentleman. Genius and leum- 
ing must go hand in hand with character. The man who 
can stand forth with uplifted brow in the conscious sense 
of a pure body and an unsoiled mind is a power which none 
can withstand. For the angels of light toe on his side, and 
the powers of darkness cannot harm him. 

And now, as we bid you farewell, we wish you success 
in eveiy good and honorable undertaking. We pray that 
every blessing may attend you, and that the riches of that 
mercy we ask for ourselves may rest upon you. Perplexi- 
ties and trials will come. The worid will seem dark and the 
way dreary. There will be times when you will not know 
which way to turn. But rest assured that the darkness 
comes before the di^, and if you but have futh the light 
will surely break. Be yours the pn^er of the poor Breton 
fisherman as he puts to sea in his wretched skiff : " Oh, God, 
thy ocean is so large and n^ boat so small." 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 



YODNG Gentlemen op the Geaduatino CtiASs: — It 
is not vitbout emotion that I see you here to-day, for there 
comes vividly back to me the time when, a quarter of a 
century a^, I too stood, aa you are now standing, on the 
threshold of the great world, looking out on its busy scenes 
and wondering where my place woidd be, and what the 
work I should be called upon to do. I cannot help rejoicing 
with you in all your glad hopes and aspirations, in your 
generous enthusiasms and warm-hearted confidence, for in 
the vigor of your young life everything now seems pos- 
sible, and the difficult, easy. And yet there is a feeling of 
sadness blended with it all, for I know that the wi^ will 
not be one all of ease, and mai^ times you will be tempted 
in your desptur to give up the contest and turn your back 
upon it. 

What better wish, then, can I offer you than that you 
should fill yourplace in life, — fill it so completely that there 
can be no question about it, — fill it with your might, — 
fill it in ^ honesty of heart and uncerity of purpose. Let 
there be no half-way work about it. If it is worth the doing 
at all, it is worth the doing well, and the judgment of man- 
kind will estimate you according to your doing. The world 
admits no shirks, and the half-in-eamest man receives 
but half recognition. Put yoiu" whole soul in your work, 
and as sure as day succeeds the ni^^t yoiu* reward will 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


come. The patriarch of old vrestled with Uie aogd of the 
Lord thiou^ the entire night, and woiild not let him go 
even at the coming of the dawn, till he had received the 
wished-for blessing. He was terribly in earnest, and the 
shrunlten answ and the hollow of his thigh bore witness 
to the intenuty of his purpose. 

Be not cast down by the thought that yours is but a 
humble place and it makes no difference what you do. 
It does make a difference and the worid cannot do without 
you. It is the filling of just such places that makes the 
perfect whole. 

The heBling <d the world 
Ii in its uuneleu Baints. Each separate star 
Seems uotAing, but a myriad scattered stars 
Break iq> the oi^t and make it beautifuL 

To fill worthily your place you must look up. Walk with 
your face downwards considering the things of earth, and 
your purposes will be low and groveling. Accustom your- 
self to look upon latMH" as low, and naught can save it from 
being drudgery. Join brains with hands and you emanci- 
pate it. "Drudgery without intelligence b slavery. Labor 
with intelligence is freedom." High thoughts will lift you 
— low ones degrade you. Respect for things above will draw 
you upward to their level. An instructive fable tells us 
that men once walked upon all fours like beasts of the field, 
but they caught sight of the stars, and the heavenly attrac- 
tion lifted them up to the human form and semblance of the 
divine. And so with you, — with eyes turned upward to the 
heavenly light you will lose the dross of earth and walk in 
that divine radiance which is a part ot God. 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


And now, as we set upon you tbe seal of our approval, 
and send you forth to justify to the world our action, we 
bid you Grod-speed in all that is true and right; and as we 
grasp your right hand, we s^ from out the veiy depths of 
oup hearts, not good-bye, but God be with you! 

3.n.iized by Google 


GcNTiiaiEN 07 THE Seniob Class: — The liour so im- 
patiently looked lorward to by you Itas come, and but a 
few brief moments more and you too mU have crossed the 
dividing line that separates the present from the past, and 
have taken your place in the fighting ranks of life. Four 
times the spring has clothed these hills in all the beauty of 
its green. Four times the wintry storms have wrapped the 
mantle of the snow about them. From yonder rooms you 
have daily watched the glories of the sun descending be- 
hind the western hills, and daily, as your eyes have swept 
the outlines of the wondrous picture nature has spread out 
before you, you have gathered fresh inspiration and gone 
forth with renewed courage to perform the tasks assigned 
you. But now, too soon, the vivid surroundings of the pre- 
sent will be but a memory of the past, and the scenes amid 
which you have delighted to wander, will be the homes of 
others than yourselves. It will cost you a pang to root out 
these ideals of the present hour and make for yourselves 
new homes, new friends, new hves. Yet after all it is right 
and natural that it should be so. For separation is the com- 
mon inheritance of man. No propi^ated life can be fully 
developed till it is separated from the parent stock. 

AH life that lives to thrive 

Must sever from its birtliplace and its rest; 

Still must the sapling t<^ 

Eie mink in cwth its fibres fresh nill root; 

3.n.iized by Google 


Nay, even death itself must 1^ its blasting hand upon all 
that is dearest and most precious, eie it can be transplanted 
to a more perfect life and growth. Time has wrought many 
changes in your midst. As I look down upon you, I miss 
familiar faces, faces of those who set out with you. Some 
have fallen out by the way, — others have entered upon 
new purposes and activities, — and one, alas! whose eager 
soul outstripped the fetters of his mortal frame, has laid 
down his, young^Ufe at the very outset of his career and 
finished his work ere it was well begun. This is the hour for 
sober thought, for self-commmiion, for looking over your 
stock in trade and seeing what you have to offer to the world . 
Grone now are all the petty animosities of your college years, 
banished the little dissensions and jealousies of your 
younger days. The world is too large, too grand for you 
to harbor them longer. The cry of battle is ringing in your 
ears, and in the pressing duties of the present forgotten are 
the resentments of the past. "When," says the Apostle 
Paul, "when I was a child, I spake as a child, I understood 
as a child, I thought as a child, but when I became a man 
I put aw^ childish things." 

Yom^ men, manhood with all its glorious possibilities 
lies open before you, and the question comes to you, not 
what can the world do for me, but what can I do for the 
world? What can I do to make it wiser and better? What 
can I give to my fellow men to help and bless them? 
And just in pnqtortion as you answer that question aright, 
will be the measure of your success. 

And now, as for the last time we meet, as students and 

3.n.iized by Google 


instructor, as for the last time I grasp your hands and iriah 
you every success that follows earnest, right endeavor, then 
comes to ray lips the blessing hallowed by the usage of 
three thousand years : — 

The Lord bless thee, and keep thee ; 

The Lord make his face shine upon thee, and hegrammia 
unto thee ; 

The Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give thee 

3.n.iized by Google 

SON, V. S. A.' 

Mt Fbienvb, we have met to-day to hold memorial ser- 
vices for one who was dear to us all. It is very fitting that 
such services of remembrance should be held here. For 
this was his home. Thesewerethe hills beloved. Thiswas 
his college, and here he came back in his riper years to share 
the knowledge he had obtmned with his younger brothers. 
And if the single story of his life may lead any one not 
merely in word, but in deed, to follow the path he chose and 
take as his precious legacy all that was pure and noble and 
lofty in him, I shall feet that this hour will not have been 
spent in vain. 

When I first knew him, he was a little curly-headed lad, 
who, standing at n^r knee and asking all manner of ques- 
tions about the Civil War, used to declare that he was 
going to run away and become either a sailor, or a soldier 
in the cavalry. PropheUc utterance! The dream of the 
boy became the reahty of the man, and what in his child- 
ish heart he had longed to be, found its fulfillment in the 
chosen profession of hia life. It ia interesting to note how 
unconsciously, all through his life, there was the same strong 
undercurrent of patriotic feeling, only occasionally coDiing 
to the surface. The crude composition of his sophomore 
year on "The Greatness of the United States" anditsabil- 

* Address ddivered at die Massachusetts Agricultural College, Novem- 
ber 0. 1S98, at the memorial exercises for Captain Diddnson. 

3.n.iized by Google 

ity to conquer any oUier nation, -~ his fondnesa for the 
study of American history, not mere^ at the acaden^, but 
I may add, to the very close of his life, — the hearty em- 
phatic support of Resident develand's attitude on the 
Venezuelan question, found its fitting culmitiation in the 
noble words pronounced in this very chapel at the me- 
morial service for Governor C^eenhalge. They will bear 
repeating, and I would that every young man listening to 
me to-day would take them to his heart and grave them 
there as with a pen of iron. Speaking of the higher duty, he 
says: — 

"That duty is the one you owe to your country. By 
your country I do not mean this small space, crossed and 
recrossed by the beautiful and granite-capped hills which 
so closely encircle us, but I speak of a country, a part of 
whose wide domain is always in sunlight, extending west- 
ward from the storm-washed rocks of the New En^and 
shore to the farthest extremities of the Aleutian Isles — 
from the present frozen shores of the great lakes to the ever 
tropical climate of the Mexican gulf — a country with 
seventy millions of people — a country of free speech and 
free religion — a country covered with schools and churches 
— a coimtry to be proud of; a countty to respect; and above 
all, if need be, a countty to die for. This is the spirit which 
should be taught in all our public schools, encouraged at 
the fireside and in the churches, that the aim of every boy 
and young man might be to make this our common country 
imited — one for all, for in unison only is there strength. 
Then the day un!I surely come when one could wish no other 
epiioph than this: 'He lived and died an American cUizen.' " 

'Be had learned well the lesson that the civic virtues, 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


tlie duty man owes to the State, tower above all else. Like 
Andrew Fletcher, he could ezclum: "I would readily lose 
my life to serve my country, but would not do a base thing 
to save it." 

Entmng the Massachusetts Agricultural College in 
September, 1878, he pursued the regular course for nearly 
three years, leaving in his junior year to accept an appoint- 
ment to the MiUtary Academy at West Point, offered him 
by President Julias H. Sedye, who was then in Congress. 
He entered on June 14, 1876. Of his life there and the 
iiiq>ression made, let his classmates bear witness. Of the 
many letters received, I can only make use of a few, just 
enough to give you an. inside view of the man in this forma- 
tive period of life. 

"I remember him as bong a high-strung young fellow, 
conscientious and energetic in the performance of his duty, 
and just the kind of man whom you would expect to be at 
his post of duty in an emei^ency." — "Generous, honest 
and unselfish — inflexible in his adhermce to truth, he made 
friends whenever he went." — "Z>ickinson had a lovely 
disposition ^riiich made him most congenial company. He 
always did his very best wherev^ he was put, and as a 
sddier always did his duty. He was beloved by his men 
and respected by his fellow officers." — "He learned eas- 
ily, took good rank in his class, and was universally popu- 
lar. Bright, genial, and a good soldier, he was a most wel- 
come addition to any tnrde. Transferred from the cavalry 
to the Seventeenth Infantry, and serving up to the time of 
his glorious, but regretted death, at the front at his troops, 
where he voluntarily placed himself, despite the fact that 
his duties asa quartermast^ ai^minted his place in the rear, 

3.n.iized by Google 


Iiis soldierly instincts and aeaae of duty prevailed, with 
tliat sad result. A soldier, a gentleman and a scholar. God 
rest Ills soul!" — "My classmate Dickinson has always 
been tlie same sunny, li^t-hearted boy he appeared to be 
when we reported at West Point in 1876. The last long talk 
Z had with him was at Tampa, discussing the projected 
campaign. He was eager for the active service and looked 
forward with high hopes to our immediate success with the 
effident army then organizing. 'Dick,' as we were wont to 
call bim among ourselves, was natur^ly a great favorite 
in liis class and among his brother officers, and withal he was 
a most efficient officer. The loss on the day of Jidy 1 was 
so heavy and immediate to us that at first I hardly appre- 
dated that we had lost our classmate, but as time goes on, 
I find that I miss him the more, as my mind is capable of 
appreciating the fact that we can never.hope to see again 
his cheery smile or hear his hearty laugh.'* 

What higher commendation can a man seek than this? 
Conscientious in the discharge of duty — Doing his beat 
in whatever position placed — Inflexible m his adherence 
to truth — A soldier, gentleman and scholar — these are 
no uncertain words of pruse. They represent the noblest 
ideals and highest conceptions of duty. 

Graduating from the Academy in June, 1880, he was 
assigned as Second Lieutenant to the Fourth U. S. Cav- 
alry. At last his boyish dreams were realized and he was 
in truth a memher of that gallant army in which he took 
so much pride. Hie next eleven years were busy ones for 
our young, untried office. We catch glimpses of him now 
in the field i^ainst the Indians and now in garrison on 
some lone frontier post — now doing duty as quarter* 

3.n.iized by Google 


master and now on recruitmg service. But wherever {Jacedt 
the same record for efficiency and thorou^iness follows 
him. He was complimented by General Ruger for a forced 
march, made alone with fifty Indian scouts, covering a 
distance of two htmdred and fifty miles from San Carlos 
agency to Sipa, New IV&xico, in three days, the Indians 
running by the side of his horse. And his captain writes: 
"He was unusually attentive to duty and thorough in all 
that he did. I alw^^ <x>nsidered him a brave, true man, 
extremely ancere in his attachments and relations with 
others. He was a devoted husband, and just and generous 
in all his relations with his friends." 

The following brief synop^ of his army life, furnished 
by a brother officer, ^ves continuity to the picture: — 

"Upon graduation he was as^gned to the Fourth U. S. 
Cavalry, joining his troop at Fort Sill, Indian Territory 
(the Kiowa and Comanche Reservation). From the In- 
dian Territory the regiment was ordered to Cobrado, 
keeping in check the Vtes; then to New Mexico for gar- 
rison duty, which at that time meant continuous field 
service against the Apaches. After three years' service 
he was det^ed to the Infantry and Cavalry School at 
Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. After graduation he was re- 
tained at the post until 1886, when with his trocq> he was 
again ordered to New Mexico. 

" Receiving hia promotion to a first lieutenancy, Sep- 
tember 1, 1886, he was ordered to Fort Huachuca, Ari- 
zona, then to the Cavalry Depot, Jefferson Barracks, 
Missouri, and agiun to Ariz<ma, remaining there until the 
refpment was ordered to the Pacific coast. In 1891 he 
transferred to the Sevcait«enth Infantry and was stationed 

3.n.iized by Google 


at Fort D. A. Russell. Wyommg. From this post lie was 
detailed to Amherst, Massachusetts, as Professor of Mill- 
taiy Sdence at the Massachusetts Agricultural CoU^e. 
After a tour of service at this college he r^oined his regi- 
ment at Columbus Barracks, Ohio, remaining on duty at 
that post until the late declaration of war, when he was 
ordered to active service in Cuba. At this time he was the 
regimental quartermaster, ^pointed April 1, 1898, re- 
ceiving his promotion to a captaincy April 26, 1898, which 
was confirmed by the Senate, after his death, July 14, 1898. 

"Captfun Dickinson was stationed at a number of posts 
during his service, the following being a partial list: — 
Fort Sill, Indian Territory; Forts Cummings, Bayard and 
Stanton, New Mexioi; Forts McDowell, Huachuca, and 
Bowie, Arizona; Fort Walla Walla, Washington; Presidio 
of San Francisco and Yosemite National Park, California; 
Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming; Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, 
and Columbus Barracks, Ohio." 

One last picture of the dashing cavalryman we have, 
drawn by the hand of one who was in action with him, 
and we see him juat where we should expect to see him, 
in the fore-front of the battle, leading a charge against the 
lurking Apaches: — 

"We were in but one Indian fight together, at Horae- 
Shoe Cation, on the Arizona-M^can fine, April 22, 1882. 
The Indians occupied a strong position on a high bluff , which 
we finally carried by assault In the assault, Walter was 
the very first to reach the summit, and I well remember, 
as the line of his troop swept up the hill, be was the foiv 
ward apex of a triangle, of which the two sides were formed 
of the men of his troop on his right and left rear." 

3.n.iized by Google 


Transferred at his own request November 4, 1891, to 
the Sevecteenth Raiment U. S. Infantry, he renudned 
in this new branch of the service only a bri^ nine months, 
and was then detailed as military mstructor to the Massa- 
chusetts Agricultural CoU^e. Why should I dwdl upon 
his work here? Is it not known to you all? The puns he 
took in bringing up the battalion to the hi^iest pitch of ex- 
cellence, eUcitJDg from the Am^ Inspector the comment, 
"The youngster has done irell"; the interest he took in 
every man of his command; the solid conscientious work he 
put into his duty. Who of you that ever saw him walk 
across the parade ground as if he owned the very ground he 
trod upon, but recognized that he was s leader among men? 
Who that ever saw him handle the cadets, and watched the 
animation and the force with which he drilled them, but 
recognized the bom soldierP Obedience, implicit obedience, 
he demanded. Unstinted pnuse he gave when merited; 
sharp, stinging rebuke when deserved. But with all this 
the boys liked him — nay, more, they loved him while they 
feared him. That same nameless charm of personality which 
led his broths offic^v to call him "Didde," charmed them, 
and their admiration for the man blossomed into affectioa 
for the friend. 

How completely he won their hearts this extract from 
a letter written by one of the graduates, speaks eloquently : 
"I am grateful for the opportunity to help in this me- 
morial. The de^ po-sonal interest he took in each of us 
who came under his instruction and discipline, hb complete 
devotion to duly, to the battalion, to the whole coU^e; 
his sorrow at our shtntcomings and his pride in our successes, 
made us rq^ard him with more than ordinary feelings as our 

3.n.iized by Google 


friend. His last words to our class in our class-room were so 
characteristic of him that I will repeat them as nearly as 
my memory will allow: ' If you ever come where I am, come 
and see me — I'll try and make it pleasant (or you. If you 
are ever in trouble, let me know — I'll try and help you. 
Good-bye. ' — And he was gone from the recitation room 
to his office. Every man in that room knew he meant just 
what he said and that he meant it to apply to Am. The 
cdlege has lost a good champion and the country a noble 

The words of parting to the class that had heea under 
his instruction for four years convey so clearty his own con- 
ception of duty that I know you will bear with me a mo- 
ment longer while I repeat them: — 

"Young gentlemen, the time has now come wh^i we are 
to separate, and there are a few things that I take occa- 
sion to say to you, because I shall never have the oppor- 
tunity again. I came here from twelve years' contiouous 
army service on the Plains, beyond the Mississippi. You 
thought, perhaps, I was rather a rou^ fellow. My way 
of dealing with you at first seemed, probably, somewhat 
severe. I tried to teach you lessons of unquestioning obedi- 
ence, for obedience is Uie first duty of a soldier; but I think 
you have learned to understand me. as I have learned to 
understand you, and our relations, on the whole, have been 
very pleasant. And now, as you leave the coll^^ to go out 
into the world, I wish to say two or three things which I 
trust you will not forget. The first is: Rememb^ always 
to be a gentleman. Second: Be truthful; always truthful. 
No man can be a true soldier on any other basis. Third: 
Wherever you are placed, xaidet whatever orcumstances 

3.n.iized by Google 


and oa every occaaon, be true to yourselves. And last: 
Whatever you find to do in the world, ^ve to it the best 
that is in you and do it for all you are worth." 

Homely words, tersely expressed, but strildiig out 
stnught from the shoulder to the mark. What Christopher 
North calls "A cut and thrust s^le, without any flourish. 
Scott's style when his blood was up and the first words came 
like a van-guard impatient for battle." 

A man is judged not by the place he fills, but by the 
way in which he fills it. He was an unknown quantity 
so far as instructing was concerned, and when he found that 
he really could teach, he suddenly woke to a consciousness ' 
that life had a deeper meaning for him than he had ever 
realized before. It was most stimulating to hear bis enthu- 
siasm over his new wtn-k. He went at it in the same con- 
scientious manner in which he performed every duty, but 
there was added to that a wondering delight in bis new- 
found powers. He studied international law — he worked 
at constitutional history and called upon all the resources 
of his previous years of reading American history to pre- 
pare himself the better for the lecture room. In fact — 
"his work at the college was so well done that it seems as 
if he could sleep better in the seal of the town wh«% he 
did one piece of thorou^dy finished work and for which he 
is sure to be remembered." 

Rejoining his regim^it in 1806, he served with it for 
the next ^ghteen months at Columbus, Ohio. Then came 
the call to arms and with it his appointment as quarter- 
master, and the movement of the regiment to Tampa 
and thence to Cuban soil. When they reached Biuquiri, the 
regiment marched on and he was left to unload the stores 

3.n.iized by Google 


and baggage. Chafing under iaa forced inactivity and hear- 
ing that a battle was imminent, he left the ship and re- 
joined the regiment Monday, June 27, five miles from 
Santiago. B^ng ordered by the lieutenant-colonel to return 
and finish the unloading, he made his way back on the fol- 
lowing day to the shore, completed his task, and once more 
— late on the night of June 29 — reached his command. 
On Thursday the army advanced, and that night the regi- 
ment bivouacked so near the enemy that firea were not 
allowed to be lit and the utmost quiet was enjoined that 
their position might not be betrayed. 

It is not my purpose to go into details of the battle of El 
Caney. Thathas already been donebyablerpensthanmine. 
Suffice it to say that El Caney is a small village cresting a 
hill three and a half miles northeast of San Juan, three 
miles north of El Poso, and five or six miles northeast of 
Santiago. In the native language it signifies "the tomb," 
because upon this hill were buried many of the ancient 
inhabitants — a fit name for the battle-field where so many 
of our bravest found their last resting-place. On that fatal 
morning no one was calmer or more cheerful than Lieuten- 
ant Dicldnson. No fear nor disturbing thought seemed 
to enter his mind, and he made his few preparations for the 
advance as quiet^ and with the same care as if going on 
parade. His duties as quartermaster did not require his 
presence at the front, but he could not bear to renuun at the 
rear and not share the dangers of his comrades. Going to 
Ijeutenant-Colonel Haskell he said: "Colonel, I want to go 
with you to-day " ; and from that dme, with the exception 
of two short intervals, during which he was carrying orders, 
never left his side until he received his death woimd. 

3.n.iized by Google 


Tlie brigade was in motion shortly before daybreak, pain- 
fully makJBg its way over the narrow, slippery paths and 
climbing the grassy ridge overiooking the village. The 
Twelfth and the Seventh raiments first deployed and took 
position. Then came the order for the Seventeenth to 
place itself on the ri^t of the Seventh. Cautiously ad- 
vancing in single file, it struck the sunken road running 
parallel to the northeast slopes of El Caney. It was com- 
manded by block-bouses at either end, and in front was an 
open coimtry swept by the Spanish marksmen. Tbe hedge 
along the road was strongly interlaced with barbed wire. 
The Colonel directed this to be cut, and throu^ the open- 
ing passed out into the field beyond, attended only by 
Dickinson. In an instant this drew upon them the fire from 
a hundred unseen guns. What followed is best described 
in the words of the Colonel, taken from a private letter 
written a short time before his death: — 

" Captain Diddnson's death wound was received at the 
same mom^it I was shot through the left breast. He ihea. 
received a bidlet through his right arm at the same in- 
stant I was shot through the knee. This shot knocked me 
down, and seeing me fall, he ran toward the men and told 
them to ' Go and bring in the Colonel.' In other words, he 
did not leave my side till he had been wounded twice." 

It is only right to a«y that all other accounts r^wrt 
Capt^ Dicldnson as being shot first m the arm; and seeing 
the Colonel fall, he went back for help, and on his return 
received his fatal wound. The wei^t of evidence would 
seem to indicate that this is the correct version. Placed in 
a fitter and receiving such aid aswas possible on the field, 
he remained all day exposed to the bullets of the sharp- 

3.n.iized by Google 


shooters, being wounded a third time in the fleshy psrt 
of the leg, and a little later grazed in the arm and ear. Who 
can tell the agony of that long d^ in the burning heat of 
a tropic sun ! But his courage never faltered and he greeted 
each comrade with a wan smile and pressure of the hand. 

Heroes are forged on aavik hot with pain 
And Bplendid courage comes but with the test. 

It is a beautiful incident that, as he lay there, at inter- 
vals amid the crash and uproar of the battle there came 
to his ears the familiar soimds of his childhood. In the 
village but a few himdred yards distant the cackling of 
hens and the crowing of cocks could be distinctly heard. 
The Bob Whites were calling to th«r mates, and the 
hoodioa, a species of daw, flying horn tree to tree, were 
calling in strange, but pleasant notes. 

Removed to the field hospital, he seemed troubled at 
the presence of so many wounded men, and at his own 
request was placed in a smaU shelter tent under a mango 
tree. And here, watched over by his futhful sergeant, 
George Kaltschmidt, he lingered on through that soft 
moonlit night till the end came. 

An hour before the dawn the forest birds stir uneasily 
inthdrsle^. They are dreaming of the day. Anhourbefore 
the dawn, his trembling spirit, stni^ling from its mortal 
frame, flew upward and found rest. The dawn of that 
great day which comes to all alike, had come to him, 
and on his wondering eyes ihere broke the glories of a 
never-ending life. 

My friends, "there is no heroic poem in the world but 
is at bottom a biography, the life of a man ; and also it may 

3.n.iized by Google 


be sfud, there is no life of s man faithfully recorded, but 
is a heroic poem of its sort." W^ter Dicldiison was a mau 
like unto ourselves — a man of like weaknesses and passions, 
but bis biography is written in our hearts, and in our hearts 
rings on forever the poem of his strong yoimg life. 

Chaplain Trumbull in one of Ms "War Memories" has 
a chapter devoted to "the soldier heart buttoned over by 
the soldier coat," and tells the following incident: Be- 
ing called upon one day to conduct burial services over 
two men who had died in the hospital, he was greatly 
shocked aa be entered the hall where the bodies were lying, 
at the apparently unfeeling manner of their comrades, 
who were jesting and laughing as though nothing unusual 
had occurred. But in the midst of their chattering, one 
suddenly turned to the other and said: "Jem, have you cut 
a lock of Bill's h^F I reckon his mother would like it. 
yty mother would." It was a revelation to him, for under- 
neath the rough exterior he recognized the soldier heart 
beneath the coat, beating true to the mother-love of his 
boyhood's days. Somebody's mother wanted a lock of her 
boy's hair, and he remembered it because he too had a 

Soldiers do not like to display any emotion. Their rigid 
discq)line has taught them to be calm and self-contained, 
and they carefully r^ress any signs of outward feeling. It 
b not shame. Only a desire to conceal from the worid the 
aching heart. Walter Dickinson was no exception to this 
rule. The deeper feelings of his nature seldom, if ever, came 
to the surface. On the very eve of leaving for Cuba, with 
all the uncertainties of an active campaign staring him 
in the face, he could not bring himself to speak of it, and 

3.n.iized by Google 


it was only in the last letter before sailing from Tampa, that 
the mask was thrown aside and he penned a brief farewell 
to his brothers and sisters, commending to their tender love 
his wife. Not more than a dozen lines, but all the same it 
was the human ciy of "the soldier heart buttoned over by 
the soldier coat." 

We have said that he was brave. When on that fatal 
morning he said, "Colonel, I want to go with you to-day," 
it was with full knowledge of the risks he ran. He had 
been in battle before. He had heard the spiteful hiss of 
bullets and had seen men struck down around him. But 
his keen sense of duty would not allow him to remwn be- 
hind in safety when he might be of service as one of the 
Colonel's staff. Tliere is a moral bravery which far trans- 
cends that of the battlefield. Theoneisoftheearth.earthy. 
"Hie other is of the spirit, heavenly. He possessed both. 
Whatever interfered with his usefulness must be overcome, 
and when once he had made up his mind, no power on 
earth could move him. In temptation oft, beset by enticing 
snares, his courage stood the test. The Good Book says: 
"He that nileth his spirit is better than he that taketh a 
city." Verily he showed in this a moral force and nigged 
strength that clothes his life with nobility and beauty. 
The hero living for a principle. The hero dying for bis coun- 
try. Eadi in itself beautiful — each the necessary com* 
plement of the other — together rounding out the perfect 
life of the man. Alas, that such men must die! Alas, that 
they are snatched from us too soon! 

Not like scMne diooping flower, that no man noticetli. 
But like the great braocli of some stately tree 
Rent in a tenqwat, and Sung dom to death, 

3.n.iized by Google 


Thick with green foliage — bo that piteously 
Each passer-bj' Uiat ruin shuddereth. 
And Baltb "The gap this branch bath left ia wide ; 
The loss thereof can never be supplied. " 

One sentence among the tributes to his memory has 
deeply stirred me. It runs thus: "Flease accept my thanks 
as an army o£Scer (or your interest in end desire to pay 
tribute to the memory of a fellow officer who sacrificed his 
life in his country's servira. It is the knowledge that friends 
at home do not forget, that encourages the soldier in the 
field and gives to him the feeling that he ia truly a champion 
of the people and not a hireling. It is sentiment that wins 
our battles, not brute courage or love of carnage." 

That gallant army to which Walter Dickinson belonged 
and of which he was so justly proud ia an army of trdned 
and educated patriots. If "This war has tau^t us the 
morahty of education," and "if the schoob have fought 
it," none the less has it been fought aadbroughtte aclose 
by that little band, the regulars, — scholars, patriots and 
soldiers. The thinking bayonet, the scholarly sword, have 
gone hand in hand with the most marvelous exhibitions of 
courage and undying patriotism. An army of heroes — 
bearing the summer's heat and wintry cold without a mur- 
miur — endiiring all things — suffering all things — with 
too often the certainty that pofitics and influence would 
play their part in preferment, rather than mmt. Yet never 
for an instant swerving from the path of duty, though that 
duty led them unto death: officers leading their men and 
men vying with th^ officers: performing such prodi^es td 
bravery that the foreign attach^ in breathless surprise ^- 
claimed: "This is not war, but it is magnificent." This is 

3.n.iized by Google 


tiie am^ we love and admire. This is the army we cherish 
in our hearts. Its list "is like the tower of David, builded 
for an armoiy, whereon there hang a thousand bucklers, 
all shields of mighty men." 

Out of the mass of letters received, two have seemed to 
me especially fitting with wluch to close this brief, imp^ect 
sketch of his life and work. 

The General commanding the Division, Major-Grenerd 
H.W.Lawton, writes: "I knew Lieutenant Dickinson well 
for some years, and I knew him to be a patriot end a 
true soldier. And though there is no one who laments his 
untimely death more than I, still we have the happiness 
of knowing that he died like a nobleman and a soldier." 

Ijeutenant-Colonel J. T. Haskell, commanding the Sev- 
enteenth U. S. Infantry, whose judgment is entitled to the 
hi^est consideration, sums up his traits of character in 
these words : "He was an honest, upright, honorable gentle- 
man without fear or reproach ; he had all the qualifications 
of an excellent officer; weU-educated, refined in his manners, 
prompt and energetic in the dischu'ge of his duties, end 
very conscientious; his time was well spent with some good 
object in view; a great reader, very domestic in his habits; 
his own handiwork added much to the comfort and beauty 
of his army home ^diich was Eilways a delightful place for 
the guest. Unselfish, he was always pleased to contribute 
to the enjoyment of others. 

"He was beloved by the offices and enlisted men of 
his regiment, especial^ for his business ways and just treat- 
ment of aJl. An active man, he loved field-duty, and his 
bravny in the field was one of his most noticeable qualifica- 
tions. I loved him as a brother, and his loss to me wiU al- 

3.n.iized by Google 


ways be tdt the same as though he were of my blood. To 
the Be^ment, his loss was a great blow. As a Mason, he 
tried to live up to the principles of the Fraternity, and was 
held in high esteem by all with whom he came in contact. 
In writing as I have, the de^re has been to impress you with 
the fact that Captain Dickinson was one of a few officers 
who, with no lack of manly or social qualifications, spent 
very few hours otherwise than in ddng his whole duty and 
trying not only to improve himself, but also his fellow com- 
rades. I know he loved to help the college boys." 

Precious testimony from one so soon, alas, to follow 
him! Death loves a shining mark, and our hearts go out 
in sympathy to the officers of the Seventeenth, thrice so 
severely smitten. 

In our blundering short-d^tedness we call this death a 
needless sacrifice. A sacrifice of what? Can anything good 
evGT perish? It fives forever with a vitality and persistence 
no power can check, and with an influence widening as the 
years roll on. "Baseness is dissolution, nobifity is resur- 
rection." The seed must rot, to grow; every dying body ia 
such a seed. Can anything then be a needless sacrifice in 
the great providences of God? 

There are no enors in the great eternal plan. 

And all things woik together tor the final good of man. 

What is man that he should try to solve the purposes 
of the Infinite! His ways are not as our ways, and what 
now seems wrapped in darkness and impenetrable myBtsry, 
shines in the after-Hght of a more perfect knowledge with 
a glory unsurpassed and with a meaning none foresaw. The 
Roman s^itinel found standing on guard in the place as- 

3.n.iized by Google 


signed him, when the lights of Pompeii went out eighteen 
hundred years ago, will forever stand as the type of obedi- 
ence even unto death. To desert his post was perhaps to 
save his life. To stay was seemingly a needless sacrifice. 
But duty triumphed over fear, and the world for a score of 
centuries has been the brighter tor his example. The dying 
martyrs racked and tortured for their ftuth, with gazing 
eye and quivering frame looking upward into heaven, prayed 
God to bless their persecutors. "Another ChrisUan dead," 
was the contemptuous renuu'k. But the eloquent Presbyter 
of Carthage, catching the true meaning of this steadfast 
adherence to duty, gazed down the long vistas of the com- 
ing centuries and exclaimed: "The blood of martyrs is the 
seed of the church." 

The Forty-sixth and Fifty-first Massachusetts Volun- 
teers, on the very eve of being transported home, their 
mne months' term of service having expired, learning that 
Lee had crossed the Rappahannock and was in Pennsyl- 
vania, offered their services by telegraph to the Secretary 
of War and were accepted. Will asiy one dare to s^ that 
this was a needless sacrifice P No legal claim could hold 
tltem — Home with its thousand blessed memories was 
before them — every consideration of love and family was 
ur^ng their return. But duty triumphed over inclinaUon, 
intense loyalty over affection, and to-day a grateful and 
united nation rises up and calls them blessed. 

There is a conventional morality that amounts to nothing 
more tlian legality. It does nothing but what it can show 
the warrant for. It is incapable of judging self-sacrifice. 
In the high moments of a man's life it disappears alto- 
gether. Duty takes command and has no thought of con- 

3.a.t,zsd by Google 


sequences, and du^ never throws away a hitman life. 
Living or dead, self-sacrifice is not only in God'a hand, but 
by his command. And there is, there can be, no needless 
sacrifice. The law may not command an officer to be with 
his regiment in battle; but if bis sense of duty does, that 
is the supreme law, and he is a coward unworthy of the 
place he holds, who does not obey. 

Walter Dickinson is dead, but the good that was in him 
will never die. The example of that splendid courage, that 
intense devotion to country, that laying down of life 
for duty and humanity will live forever. He bought with 
his blood the ransom of a nation. He baptized anew 
that flag 

Washed in the blood of the brave and the blooming. 
Snatched from the altan of insolent foea, 

Blazing with star-fires, but never consuming, 
Hash its broad ribbons (rf My and rose. 

The sunh^t fades from off the hills. The hills are there, 
but the light is gone. The kindly smile, the pleasant 
voice, the hearty grasp of the hand warm from the heart 
— these, indeed, are gone; but the remembrance of all that 
is good and noble and true in tiiy life will linger in our 
hearts forever. Rest in thy quiet sleeping place, bdoved 
soldi^, friend, and brother. Rest by the side of him thou 
lovedst so well, and for whose life thou gav'st thine own. 
Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives 
and in their death they were not divided. 

The noblest place where man can die 
Is where he dies for man. 

3.n.iized by Google 

by Google 




3,n.tized by Google 


3.n.iized by Google 

3.n.iiffid by Google