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Ol  THE 

Vow.. LVI 


Void. II 



Vow.. II 


W. 13. PERRIN 










MOND DE B.,K.C.B., K.C.M.G., 
TAGUE E., G.C.M.G., K.C.B., 
P.C., K.C.B. 
K.T., O.M., K.C. 
D.Litt., LED. 


D.Litt., F.B.A. 
N., R.N. 
G.C.V.O., K.C.M.G. 
RousE, W. H. D., D.Litt., 
F.R.G.S., M.R.A.S. 
C.M.G., M.V.O., D.C.L. 
C.B.E., R.N.R. 

W. G. PERRIN, Admiralty, S.W. 



(i) Introduction and Bibliography 3 
(ii) ' Of the Beginnings, Practices, and Suppression 
of Pirates" 9 
(i) Introduction and Bibliography 69 
(ii) 'The Seaman's Dictionary' 83 
SEAS' 274 
IGHTFIELD ...... 282 



II. B 

Hatton MSS. belonging to The Rt. Hon. The Earl 
o! Winchilsea and Nottingham. 
' Sir Henry Manwayring's discourse on 
Pirates.' 1 

Trinity College, Dublin. 2 
'Capt. Manwaring, his Discourse on Piracy.' 

Manuscripts o! Sir Harry Mainwaring, Bart. 
' A discourse written by Sir .Henry Manwaringe, 
and by him presented to the Kinges Marie Ano 
Dni. 1618, wherein are discovered the beginnings, 
practises and Proceedings of the Pyrates, who 
now so much infest the Seas, together with his 
Advice and direction how to surprise and suppress 
them.' In folio, bound in a parchment cover 
with two other manuscripts. This transcript, 
which is early seventeenth century, is badly 
done and imperfect. The dedication to the King 
ends at Pulchrum Scelus. 

Hodgkin MSS. 
A copy was formerly in the possession of the 
late J. Eliot Hodgkin, and was afterwards sold 
at Sothebys. 8 It was found by Mr. Hodgkin 
among some odds and ends of fishing tackle in 
a shop in the Waterloo Road, and he records 
that in the ordinary course it would have probably 
gone to the mills.  It is entitled :---' A Discourse 
written by Sr Henrie Mainwaringe Knight, and by 

' Hist. MSS. Comm. Rep., i. p. 43- 
* Cat. of MSS. in the library of Trinity College, 19oo. 
No. 861 (15). 
3 In May 1914. 
" Note by the owner at the end of the volume. 



him presented unto Kinge James Ao di 1618, 
wherein are discovered the beginninges and pro- 
ceedinges of Pyrats, wth theire usuall places of 
aboad at all tymes of the year.e., together with 
advise and direction for surprlslnge and sup- 
pressinge of them.' Contemporary manuscript on 
paper (4 8 pp.), small folio, and neatly written. 
Begins : ' Dailie experience,' and ends : ' constanter 


[British Museum, Bibl. Regia, I7A, xlvii.] 


my most Gracious Sovereign, that 
represents the King of Heaven, vhose 
mercy is above all his works. 

Give leave I humbly beseech your Grace to me 
your own Creature ( newly recreated and 
restored by your gracxous Pardon to that life 
which was forfeited to the Law) humbly to offer 
with a faithful, loyal, obedient and a thankful 
heart to your Majesty's favour, this, as some 
oblation for my offences, and a perfect sign of 
the true and hearty acknowledgment I make 
of your Highness' grace unto me. I am so far 
from justifying my own errors, that I can 
scarce afford them those reasonable excuses, 
which might be perhaps allowable in any other 
As that I fell not purposely but by mischance 
into those courses; being in them, ever strove to 
do all the service .I could to this State, and the 
merchants. As that, where there were 30 sail of 



These truths though they cannot expiate yet 
they might extenuate the offence in another 
man, and may be called Pulchrum Scelus, 1 but 
in me so little, that did not the laws of Christianity 
and Nature interdict me I could easily be evidence, 
jury, judge, and executioner to myself. I trust 
your Majesty will not undervalue, but rather 
esteem me the more for having refused the free 
and voluntary pardons with proffers of good 
entertainment from other Princes, as namely 
the Duke of Medina 2 sent to me, that if I would 
deliver up Mamora 3 to the King of Spain, that 
I should have a great sum of money for me and 
my company, with a free pardon to enjoy all our 
ships and goods, and good entertainment if I 
would command in the King's ships. 
The Duke of Savoy sent me my pardon. 
The Duke of Florence sent me my pardon, and 
gave leave to the ship to wait on me till I was 
willing to come in, which did so for a great while. 
The Dey of Tunis eat bread and salt and swore 
by his head (which is the greatest asseveration 
they use) that if I would stay with him (4) he would 
divide his estate equally with me, and never 
urge me to turn Turk, but give me leave to depart 
whensoever it should please your Majesty to be 
so gracious as to pardon me. These I know 
of mine own knowl.edge and so do many more. 
And since my coming home I have heard that 
the Conde of Porto Legro 4 after I had put off 

' An honourable crime. 
* E1 Duque de Medina-Sidonia. 
3 Mamora was captured by Fajardo and placed under 
the Spanish crown in I614, see vol. i. pp. 23- 4. 
* Sic in MS., probably Juan de Silva, Conde de Portalegre0 
whose correspondence is in Col. de Docs. indilos #ara la hist. 
de Espaa, 39, 40, 43- 



5 sail of the King of Spain's men of war 1 (being 
m fight with them all midsummer day last) 
myself having but 2 he offered that if any would 
go out and advertise me he would get me my 
pardon, and give me 20,000 ducats a year, to 
go General of that Squadron. Monsieur Manti " 
was met in the Straits with my protection 
from the Duke of Guise. I forbear to speak 
how willing the Spanish .Ambassador 3 seemed 
to my brother, 4 to have me serve his Master at 
that time when he moved him for his consent to 
my pardon. By these it may appear to your 
Majesty that I did not labour my Pardon as one 
being banished from all Christian Princes, but 
as a dutiful subject preferring the service of my 
country and my particular obedience to (5) 
your Royal person before my own ends. In this 
respect I doubt not but your Majesty hath many 
malicious informations of me from other States, 
who being themselves refused would by dis- 
gracing me in your Majesty's favour, make me 
incapable of it. But let me humbly beseech 
your Majesty, that since life and honour are 
Individui Comites in every honestly resolved 
spirit, and that your gracious favour hath restored 
the one, so likewise to do the other, by your 
favourable acceptance of me, and that they may 

 See Vol. I. p. 26. The date of the contest was 1615, 
which would make it appear that the manuscript was partly 
written, if not actually finished, in 1616. On the copy 
among the MSS. of Sir Harry Mainwaring, Bart., it is stated 
to have been presented to James I in 1618. 
2 M. de Manti was a native of Marseilles, and is described 
'as a servant of the Duke of Guise, and a man of note 
in navigation and similar matters' (S.P. Venice, 1617-19, 
p. 405). 
-" E1 Conde de Gondomar. 
' Probably Sir Arthur Mainwaring. 


either live or die together by your Majesty's 
command. Though my course I confess were 
not honourable, yet since it was ordained to be 
unfortunate I am glad 'twas in a way which 
hath somewhat enabled me to do your Majesty 
service if occasion were given. 1 This small dis- 
course, of a boisterous argument, and as roughly 
handled (as also so unworthy your Majesty's 
eye) of myself I durst not have (6) presented 
but at the commandment of one of your Maj esty's 
most worthy servants. 
Your Majesty's new Creature, 

Of the Beginni.ngs, Practices, and Sup- 
pression of Pirates. 
The purpose of this discourse consists in showing : 
Their beginnings, and how they relieve themselves 
within your Majesty's Dominions. Cap. I. 
The ground of opinion which encourages men in 
this course of Piracy; and of those are 
called Perforst-men. Cap. II. 
How they use to work at Sea. Cap. HI. 
Where and what times they use to be where 
they must water, ballast, wood, trim their 
ships, and sell their goods. Cap. IV. 
A means as well to prevent as suppress them. 
Cap. V. 
* As Mr. Oppenheim remarks, 'the English rover was 
more than half patriot ; if he injured English commerce, he 
did infinitely more hurt to that of France and Spain' (Admin. 
of R.N., 177 ). 
' MS. ' Maynnaringe '--evidently the copyists' error for 
' Maynwaringe.' 


Cap. I. 
Daily experience proves it to be undoubtedly 
true, that English Pirates do first arm and horse 
themselves within your Highness' Dominions, as 
well England (8) as Ireland, which the easier 
happens by reason that there are divers plkces 
(and chiefly such as are not capable of great 
shipping), that have no command, x as also by the 
negligence of the Owners of such small Ships, 
that having no force to defend them keep ill 
watch, and leave their Sails aboard; wherein those 
Officers cannot be excused, that do not discreetly 
look into the disposition and resorts of such sea- 
men as either are within, or near their Harbours. 
So that it is commonly seen, that a very few, 
though but to the number of IO or 12, do easily 
get out, and being assured of more Company 
wheresoever they shall touch upon the Coast, 
(by reason that the common sort of seamen are 
so generally necessitous and discontented) they 
make no doubt but when they have somewhat 
increased their number, to better their Ship by 
going into the Trade of Brittany 2 where they 
meet continually with small Frenchmen, Pinks, 8 
and Brawmes* of Hoorn, 5 which being slightly 
manned are easily surprised. These commonly go 

i I.e. are not dominated by any fort or other military 
* MS. Brittaine. The 'Trade' was the name given to 
that part of the sea between Ushant and Brest which is 
now known as the Passage de l'Iroise (see Laughton, State 
Papers tel. to Spanish Armada, i. 196 n ; ii. 348). 
3 A pink was a small flat-bottomed vessel, having a very 
narrow stern, and used principally for coasting and fishing. 
 Prahm or Praam, a small coasting vessel. 
 MS. Horne. Twenty miles N.N.E. of Amsterdam. 



well, and are of good burthen, as between 18o 
and 200 Ton; and then by (9) the countenance of 
such a ship well manned they quickly overbear 
any small Ship with a few great Ordnance, and 
so by little and little reinforce themselves, to be 
able to encounter with a good Ship. 1 But if 
they chance to put out of the North part of these 
Coasts, then they fit themselves in the North Seas. 
And to give your Highness a particular instance 
and taste how these men may and do easily embark 
themselves: When small Pinks and little vessels 
do stop below Gravesend, in Tilbury Hope, or 
against Queenborough," the wind being westerly, 
they may, with one or two wherries in the night, 
go aboard and enter them, and put to sea before 
a wind, so that they cannot be stayed or pre- 
vented. In this manner, or the like, for the most 
part they begin both in England and Ireland ; and 
although these things happen more often in Eng- 
land than Ireland, by reason there is more plenty 
of Ports and Shipping, as also more abundance 
of Seamen, yet in proportion Ireland doth much 
exceed it, for it may be well called the Nursery 

1 In Fortune by Land and Sea, a tragic comedy by 
T. Heywood and W. Rowley, published 1655, but written 
during the beginning of the ITth century, occurs: 
When first we took you to our fellowship, 
We had a poor bark of some fifteen ton, 
And that was all our riches. But since then 
We have took many a rich prize from Spain, 
And got a gallant vessel stoutly rearm'd, 
And well provided of ordnance and small shot, 
Of men and ammunition, that we now 
Dare cope with any carrack that does trade 
For Spain. 
(Act IV, Sc. ii., On board a privateer.) 

" MS. Quinborow. 



and Storehouse of Pirates, 1 in regard (IO) of the 
general good entertainment they receive there; 
supply of victuals and men which continually 
repair thither out of England to meet with Pirates. * 
As also, for that they have as good or rather 
better intelligence where your Majesty's Ships are, 
than contrariwise they shall have of the Pirates. 
In regard of the benefit the Country receives by 
the one, and the prejudice, or incumber as they 
count it, of the other. Unto which must also be 
added the conveniency of the place, being that 
the South, the West, and the North Coasts, are 
so full of places and Harbours without command, 
that a Pirate being of any reasonable force, may 
do what he listeth. Besides that, many of that 
Nation are scarce so well reduced to any civil 
jurisdiction, as to make a conscience of trading 
with them. 
Mys61f saw the experience of these things, for 
being in the North-west, 8 where few Pirates come, 
and not understanding but hoping of your High- 
ness' gracious Pardon, being for my safety bound 
to stand off to Sea, till I might hear a happy 
answer from my friends, to whom I then sent (II) 
into England, I had near 60 new men come into 

i Sir W. Monson spoke of Broadhaven, a land-locked 
haven between Erris Head and Benwee Head on the west 
coast, as being the 'well-head of all pirates' (Naval Tracts 
N.R.S., xliii, p. 59)- 
* The great recourse of pirates to the coasts of Ireland 
was believed to be due to the want of a statute such as that 
of 28 Hen. VIII in England (Cap XV. For the punishment 
of pirates and robbers of the sea), which allowed their trial 
by commission. From time to time all pirates in Ireland 
whose conduct deserved death had to be sent over to 
Barnstaple, Bristol, or West Cheshire (S./., Jas. I. Ireland, 
16o8-1o, pp. lO5-6). 
- I.e. of Ireland. 



me, and received letters from the Southwards 
that here were divers expected, that I would 
touch in those parts to take them in. And 
generally a Pirate may in all those parts trim 
his Ships, without affront from the Country, 
although it be in such places as they may well, 
either surprise or disappoint them, as also victual 
themselves in this manner 1 : 
The Country people will not openly bring 
their victuals, nor in audience of any seem to 
harken to any such motion, yet privately with 
the Captain will appoint where he shall in the 
night find so many Beeves z or other refresh- 
ments as he shall need, who (that he may seem 
to take this away perforce) must land some small 
shot, and fetch them; with like cleanly 3 con- 
veyance, and secrecy, he must land the goods 
or money in exchange, which by custom, they 
expect must be 2 or 3 times the value. In the 
same sort shall he have all kind of Munition, or 
ship's provision, if it be there to be had. I say 
not that this is done by open allowance, or tolera- 
tion of the chief Governors and Commanders, 
yet I may well (12) imagine by proportion of 
other things in these days there may be some 
connivance where there is a fellow-feeling. 

1 On August 22, 16o 9, Sir Richard Moryson wrote from 
Youghal that the continued repair of pirates to the west 
coast of that province was in consequence of the remoteness 
of the place, the wildness of the people, and their own strength 
and wealth both to command and entice relief. There were, 
he reported, II pirate ships with IOOO men there then, and 
that he was forced to forbear any prosecution of them (S.P. 
Ireland, I6O8-IO, pp. 277-8. This calendar is teeming with 
accounts of piracy). 
 MS. ' clenly '--adroit, dexterous. For an incident of 
this nature see N.R.S., xliii. 60. 
IX. C 



Cap. II. 
The common sort of seamen, even those 
that willingly and wilfully put themselves into 
these courses, are greatly emboldened by reason 
of a received opinion and custom that is here 
for the most part used, that none but the Captain, 
Master, and it may be some few of the principal 
of the Company shall be put to deathY Now 
since ordinarily there is not any mean used be- 
twixt death and liberty, to punish them, unless 
it be a little lazy imprisonment, which is rather 
a charge to your Highness, than any affliction 
to them, since their whole life for the most part is 
spent but in a running Prison, and for that it may 
be thought too much effusion of blood, to take 
away the lives of so many, as may perchance 
be found together in such an action (I3), as a!so 
for that the State may hereafter want such men, 
who commonly are the most daring and service- 
able in war of all those kind of people2: and 
on the contrary, to set them at liberty is but 
licensing them to enter into the same way again, 
for that the most part of them will never be 
reclaimed, as appears plainly by those who have 
been heretofore pardoned: me thinketh (under 
correction of your Majesty's better judgement) 
it were no ill policy for this State, to make them 

' Mr. Oppenheim points out, that of the many pirate 
captains whose names continually recur in the State Papers 
of the reign of Elizabeth, not one is known to have been 
executed (Adm. ofR.N., p. 179 ). 
 Paul Hentzner, who travelled in England towards the 
end of Elizabeth's reign, wrote that the English were ' good 
sailors and better pirates' (Travels, 1797 ed., p. 63). Two 
famous pirates, Sir John Ferne and Walsingham, were em- 
ployed under Mansell in the Algiers Expedition of 162o. 



Slaves, in the nature of Galley-Slaves ; 1 whereof 
though now we have no use, yet for guarding of 
the Coast, there might be vessels of great force 
contrived, far more serviceable than any we 
have, especially for the Summer-time, to go 
with Sail and Oars: and in the meantime, they 
might be employed to the advancement of many 
good works, with small charge to your Majesty, 
as about the Navy; scouring of barred Havens, 
which especially on the East coast are choked 
up, to the great prejudice of the whole Kingdom, 
and almost the utter impoverishing of the 
particular places, and Inhabitants there; re- 
pairing of your Highness' Castles (14) and Forts 
on the Sea-Coast, which myself have since my 
coming, seen and perceived to be miserably 
ruined and decayed ; and divers such like, which 
men of better judgement and design than myself 
would easily invent. And this course, as it may 
be a means to save many their Souls, by giving 
them a long time of Repentance, so would it 
terrify and deter them, more than the assurance 
of Death itself. Myself have seen them in fight, 
more willingly expose themselves to a present 
and certain death, than to a doubtful and long 
slavery. Other Christian Princes use this kind 
of .punishment and so convert it to a pub!ic 

1 By an Act of I597-8 (39 Eliz., cap. 4), for punishing 
'rogues, vagabonds and sturdy beggars,' among which 
category were included ' all seafaring men pretending losses 
of their shippes or goods on the sea going about the Country 
begging,' it was enacted that all who would not reform, 
would be banished out of the Realm, or ' otherwise be judged 
perpetually to the Galleys of this Realm.' Sir William 
Monson was of the opinion that the minimum period of 
detention in the galleys should be for seven years (N.R.S., 
xlv. zo7). 



profit, amongst whom it is observable, that as 
many as make slaves of offenders, have not any 
Pirates of their Nation. 1 
Many Pirates, especially those who are in 
small ships, a few in number, and that have been 
out but a while, so that little notice is had of 
them, having gotten some purchase, do use to 
clear themselves, by running their Ships ashore, 
or else by sinking them; and so saving them- 
selves in Boats, whereby they are the less noted, 
and that (15) in some parts far from the places 
of their abodes, as also most distant from the 
Coast where they made purchase. In this course 
their opinion is that either they go clear, and 
then they have what they desire, or if they be 
taken it is but compounding with the Vice- 
Admirals or some under Officers who (because 
there is no man to give evidence against them, 
being that the parties injured may have no notice 
of their apprehending) may very colourably 
discharge them. And althoug.h this be many 
times used and that chiefly in Ireland, yet I 
know there are sufficient Laws, and institutions 
to prohibit and punish them. And therefore 
the error of this is nothing but abuse by the 
Officers, which by a strict and severe course taken 
by your Highness for the execution of Justice 
might easily be reformed. 
By reason that your Highness did grant a 

1 Cosimo of Tuscany had a short way with proved pirates. 
In November 1614 two English ships laden with spoil arrived 
in Leghorn. Suspecting that the plunder came from 
Christians and not from Turks, he had the crews arrested. 
On enquiry, his suspicions were found to be well grounded, 
and he had two of the ringleaders 'hanged, quartered and 
gibbeted as an example,' and sent the rest to the galleys 
for life (S.P. Venice, 1613-15, xliv). 


betwixt Christian States I know not, except 
either by treaty with them to abolish such ill 
customs, or by making the cause equal, by grant- 
ing free Ports for offenders against them in like 
nature, or by granting Letters of Reprisal to 
such as by the protection of those places, have 
their goods unlawfully detained from them. One 
thing I have not found to be well observed by 
any man, and yet is a great occasion to encourage 
men both to continue, and enter into those 
actions (I7), is the misunderstanding of such 
as are called Perforst-men, by which is commonly 
meant, such as are taken out of Ships at Sea, 
so that it is intended that they are taken away 
against their wills. But that your Highness 
may the better understand and judge of such 
men, I must report truly that when I have had 
near six or seven hundred men at one time, and 
for the most part all taken out of Ships, I know 
not that I had three Perforst-men, In all my 
Company, neither of all that I had at Sea, was 
any taken, but in this or the like sort. Having 
fetched up and commanded a Ship, some of the 
Merchants-men would come to me, or to some 
of my Captains and Officers, to tell me they 
were desirous to serve me, but they durst not 
seem willing, least they should lose their wages, 
which they had contracted for with their 
Merchants; as also that if by any occasion they 
should come home to their Country, or be taken 
by any other Princes, it would be a benefit to 
them, and no hurt to me, to have them esteemed 
Perforst-men. In which respect I being desirous 
to have men serve me willingly and cheerfully, 
(18) would give them a note under my hand to 
that purpose, and send men aboard to seem to 
take them away perforce. These men by such 


slender attestations are rather welcomed home, 
than any way molested or troubled, unless by 
mischance some under officer of the Admiralty 
light upon them, and pillage them of their goods. 
The inconvenience and mischief whereof is this: 
that such men knowing themselves to be privi- 
leged are more violent, head-strong, and mutinous, 
than any of the old Crew, either to commit any 
outrage upon their own Countrymen, or exercise 
cruelty upon others, as also the most unwilling 
men to be reduced home, till they have struck 
up a hand, and then they apprehend the first 
occasion they can to get ashore in any your 
Majesty's Dominions, where concealing their 
wealth they offer themselves to the next officers 
or Justices, complaining of the injury they have 
received in being so long detained by force, and 
so they are commonly not molested but relieved. 
The way in this case neither to punish the 
innocent, nor to let the guilty escape, is (in my 
conceit) to have all such committed, till a just 
proof may be made (19) whether they have 
received shares or pillage of the goods or not, 
more than to supply their necessary wants and 
wearing clothes; if they have, they are then 
absolutely as willing and as guilty as is the Com- 
mander. For I never knew seamen so violently 
liberal, as to force men to receive money, nor 
any so courteous and so conscionable as to refuse 
what was offered them. 

Cap. HI. 

In their working they usually do thus: a 
little before day they take in all their sails, and 
lie a-hull, till they can make what ships are about 
them; and accordingly direct their course, so as 


they may seem to such ships as they see to be 
Merchantmen bound upon their course. If they 
be a fleet, then they disperse themselves a little 
before day, some league or thereabouts asunder, 
and seeing no ships do most commonly clap 
close by a wind to seem as llyers. 1 
If any ships stand in after them, they heave  
out all the sail they can make, and hang out 
drags to hinder (20) their going, that so the other 
that stand with them might imagine they were 
afraid and yet they shall fetch them up.  
They keep their tops continually manned, 
and have signs to each other when to chase, 
when to give over, where to meet, and how to 
know each other, if they see each other afar off. 
In Chase they seldom use any Ordnance, but 
desire as soon as they can, to come a board and 
board; * by which course he shall more dishearten 
the Merchant and spare his own men. They 

t To ply - to beat up against a wind, to work to windward. 
* This word was originally ' have,' an 'e' has been added 
on top of the word. 
3 This appears to have been a favourite stratagem, which 
was adopted also by the King's ships. Sir William Monson 
states that 'a ship that is chased and desires to show fear, 
thinking to draw her that chases into her clutches, must 
counterfeit and work as though she were distressed, or lie 
like a wreck into the sea; she must cast drags, hogsheads, 
and other things overboard, to hinder her way' (Naval 
Tracts, N.R.S. xlvii, p. 142 ). On March I, 1579, Drake, 
in the Golden Hind, while off Cape Francisco, tell in ith 
the Spanish ship Cacafuego. 'To take in sail would be to 
arouse the suspicions of the chase.' Drake therefore 
hit on the ingenious idea ' of trailing at his stern empty wine 
jars, whereby his speed was reduced, and the chase deceived 
as to his power of sailing' (Corbett, Drake, i. 274). See also 
Sir Kenelm Digby's Voyage to the Mediterranean (Camden 
Society, 96, p. 82). 
4 When two ships touch. 


commonly show such colours as are most proper 
to their Ships, which are for the most part Flemish 
bottoms, if they can get them, in regard that 
generally they go well, are roomy Ships, floaty, 1 
and of small charge. 

Cap. IV. 
This part m.ay seem somewhat tedious to 
your Highness In regard that I imagine your 
Majesty hath not been much used to the (21) 
Sea, but I thought good to set it down, that it 
might serve a little to advise your Majesty 
(according to my small understanding) what 
directions to give in Commissions, if there should 
be any purpose to employ Ships for the suppressing 
of Pirates. 
Within the Straits of Gibraltar, 2 there is 
not any place for Pirates to resort to, but only 
Algiers and Tunis, where they may be fitted 
with all manner of provisions and to ride safely 
from the Christian forces; yet at Algiers their 
Ships are commonly betrayed from them and 
manned out by the Turks, after the proportion 
of 15o Turks to 20 English, yet the English in 
their persons are well used and duly paid their 
shares. 3 But at Tunis they are better people 

1 , A floaty ship is a ship which draws but little water' 
(vide p. 149). 
o, MS. Giberalter. 
 Lord Carew writing in 1616 records that, ' in the towne of 
Angire the Englishe are well enoughe intreated, but yf they 
be taken at sea, ether outward or homeward bound, they are 
esteemed good price without redemption .... To assure 
themselves of renegados, the Turkes are so careful1 as in every 
shippe there is three Turkes for one renegado ' (Carew : Letters 
to Sir T. Roe, p. 61). 


Falcon, x bearing North-east, and Cape Tres Forcas  
beating West-north-west; the people here are 
very treacherous. 
At Formentera  by Iviza 4 is water, wood, 
and ballast, but nothing else, being no inhabit- 
ants. They must shift Roads as the winds are 
either Easterly or Westerly, which they must 
do by putting through betwixt the Islands (23) 
wherein the best of the channel is 3 fathom water, 
and they tide in 5 or 6. 
At Cape De Gata s on the Christian shore they 
may water, but if they be discovered for Pirates 
they will be put off. 
At Bona  and Bougie  which are under 
the command of those of Algiers, Pirates may 
be very well refreshed with victual, water, and 
bread, and also sell goods well, and these are 
good Roads for Pirates, but they dare not trade 
with any unless they bring with them the Letters 
of Algiers; here they may ride under command 
of the Fort, and the people are very just. 
Those of Tunis seldom come out of the Straits, 
but for the most part do lie off of St. Peters  
by Sardinia, or Cape Passaro 9 in Sicily, or 

' MS. Faulcon. N.W. Coast of Algeria. 
 MS. Tres Forkes. On the N.E. point of Ras ed I)eir, 
N. coast of Morocco. 
* MS. Formetero. One of the Balearic Islands. 
4 MS. Euersay. Sir W. Penn spelt it Ivessy (Memorials, 
i. 332) ; Admiral Badiley in 1652 wrote Iversey (Spalding, 
Life of Badiley, p. 71). 
 MS. Degatt. S.E. Spain. 
6 B6ne is a fortified seaport town whose harbour is con- 
sidered the safest on the Algerian coast. 
' MS. Bogee. One hundred and twelve miles E. of 
Algiers. The roadstead is deep and sheltered. 
8 San Pietro, island off the S.W. point of Sardinia. 
 MS. Cape Passer in Sicillia. Extreme S.E. of Sicily. 



letters of Tunis or Algiers they shall be well 
used, but generally in all these places it is not 
safe trusting them. 
At Tripoli in Barbary they shall be enter- 
tained and refreshed, and ride in command ; but 
these are dangerous people, and the entrance 
bad for ships of any burthen, so that few dare 
come thither. 
Sowsey 1 is under the command of Tunis, 
and a good harbour there. Men shall be well 
dealt withal that have the Letters of Tunis, and 
there they ride safe under a Castle. 
Porto Farina  is 7 leagues from Cape Carthage, 
and there is very good watering, and a good 
place to careen m, being Land-locked, the 
North-west winds are dangerous, coming in 
Perries  down the high hills ; they can (25) have 
nothing here without leave from Tunis but water. 
Tunis is but an open Road, and the Castle 
cannot warrant the ships; it is a good Road 
all over the Bay in 5, 6, and 7 fathom, so that one 
or two Ships of force may keep them all in, 
where it is easy to fire all the Turks shipping .in 
regard that when any Christian force comes in, 
they will all forsake their Ships and run ashore. 
Algiers hath a mould 4 within which Ships 

1 Apparently Susa, on the Gulf of Hammamet; " com- 
mand' being here used in the sense of ' dominion.' 
t MS. Porto Feryn. In the Gulf of Tunis. At one time 
famous for its arsenal. It was the winter port of the Tunisian 
fleet. Blake gained one of his celebrated victories here on 
4th April, 1655. 
3 Perry, a squall or contrary wind (Halliwell's Dictionary). 
 The inner harbour of Algiers, originally built in 1518, 
consisted of a mole connecting the town with the rocks on 
which the lighthouse, built 1544, now stands. The citadel 
situated on the highest point of the city was defended by 
2o0 guns. 



ride and great store of singular good Ordnance, 
which commands the whole Road, which is very 
dangerous if the wind come Northerly, so that 
Ships cannot or dare not ride to keep them in. 
In Velez Malaga 1 there is no command, nor in 
Jabea-Roads,  and therefore they may take Ships 
at an Anchor. In Alicante  good Ships ride out 
far in the Road, and therefore there they may, 
the wind being landerly, take out a Ship, and 
in Cullera 4 they ride out of command. 
(26) Generally not any Pirates do stir in the 
Straits from the beginning or middest of May 
till towards the last of September, unless it be 
with their Galleys or Frigates,  yet to,yards 
the middest of August those of Algiers will go 
out of the Straits, if they meet with a set 
I purpose not to trouble your Highness with 
the business of these Seas much, or the means 
to suppress Pirates here, for that they lie more 
commodious for the bordering Princes to defend 
and suppress; yet before I come out of the 
Straits I think it fit to acquaint your Highness 
what unequal terms we hold with those of Tunis 
and Algiers, for although we have Merchants, 
Factors, Ledgers, 6 there, and a free trade with 
them, yet at Sea they will take our Merchants; 
only if they do not fight, they will not make 
slaves of them, nor keep their Ships, but their 

MS. Vealls Mallego. Fourteen miles E.N.E. of Malaga. 
MS. Shavia. Formerly Xavea, forty-five miles N.E. of 
MS. Allicant. 
MS. Callery. Twenty-one miles S. of Valencia. 
MS. Foriggotts. 
I.e. Ligier ; resident agent or consul. 



patch not in one day there the islanders will 
entrench themselves in the sand and cut them 
(34) At Lupo 1 they may get goats but nothing 
In the Western Islands 2 they may water, on 
St. George's, 3 on that side toward the Peak. 4 
At Flores, 5 round about the Island, they 
may water, wood, and ballast, and the inhabitants 
will not offer to molest them, but now they dare 
not trade with Pirates as they were wont, by 
reason that the Governor of the Terceiraes s 
hath punished them severely for it ; yet at Corvo 7 
they will trade by stealth, and there they use 
very much. 
On the bank 8 of Newfoundland they easily 
get bread, wine, cider, and fish enough, with 
all necessaries for shipping. 
In Newfoundland, if they be of good force, 
they will command all the land, in regard that 
the Fishermen will not stand to each other, and 
so may a small man fit himself in divers places 
of the Land, where there be but a few small 
Ships, yet there are not (35) many pretenders 
thither, in regard that the course is very long, 
and the wind so very apt to be betwixt the west 
and north-west, that unless they come by the 
middest of June, they may (if they be not well 
fitted) be starved in the traverse. 9 It hath been 

1 ? Lobos Island.  The Azores. 
" San Jorge.  Pico Island : has a volcanic peak. 
 MS. Flowers. * MS. Tarceres; i.e. the Azores. 
7 MS. Corves. Smallest of the Azores. 
8 I.e. the great fishing Banks. 
 MS. Travas. 'A Travers is the varietie or alteration 
of the Shippes motion upon the shift of windes, within any 
Horizontall plaine superficies, by the good collection of which 



moved to the State many times to send Wafters 1 
to safeguard the Fishermen, but the best and 
cheapest way were to command those of every 
harbour to fortify the place, and to mount some 
few ordnance, which might easily be done 
amongst so many men, especially in the beginning 
of the year when they have little or nothing to 
do; yet I must confess that 2 or 3 Ships would 
do much good, though they cannot absolutely 
perform the service, in regard that the current 
sets so strongl# to the southward, and the wind 
for the most part betwixt the west and north- 
west, so that those that sail to the northward 
shall be to windward, and besides there are so 
many Ships coming and going that they shall 
not know which to chase, and the fog so great 
that they can have no long chase (36). In the 
out Isles of Scotland * and in divers places of 

Traverses the ship's uniform motion or Corse is given' 
(Davis, The Seaman's Secrets, 16o7; Hakhtyt Soc. Reprint, 
p. 240). 
i Convoys. Requests to send men-of-war to guard the 
fishermen and convoy them home are frequently met with 
in the State Papers. In May 162o John Mason, governor 
of Newfoundland, was granted a commission in the ship 
Peter and A ndrew, of London, 32o tons burthen, to press such 
ships as were necessary for suppressing the pirates. Three years 
later two men-of-war were sent out to convoy the fishing fleet 
home. Lord Baltimore petitioned the King in 1628 that 
two of the Royal fleet at least might be appointed to guard 
the coast for the safety of thousands of British subjects. 
These appeals generally met with little response, and in 
1636 the merchants of the western ports of England were 
petitioning Charles for protection for the 3oo vessels that 
were then on their way home from Newfoundland (Prowse, 
lO8, 112; S.P. Colonial, vol. i. p. 93; Weymouth Charters, 
1883, p. 178). 
- On account of the alarm occasioned by the presence of 
pirates on the coast of Scotland, two ships under the command 
of Sir William Monson were despatched there in 1614. "When 



the Main, they may trim well and in the Isles 
have any provision they have; but because we 
have little trade into those places, there be few 
that know them, and so for want of Pilots they 
seldom come thither. 
Within St. George's Channel at Milford and 
the coast of Wales, they may trim, but because 
the coast and Channel are dangerous and that 
for the most part one of your Highness' ships 
is either at Milford or at Dublin, they use seldom 
thither unless it be some small nimble Ship. 
I never was at Iceland 1 or Friesland, and 
therefore can say nothing on my own knowledge 
what they may there do; yet I have heard and 
judge it may be true, that there amongst the 
Fishermen, they may fit themselves with men 
and victuals. Yet this I know by experience of 
divers that I have met, who have been there, 
and by the necessity of their voyage, that all 
those that (37) go for Iceland or Friesland must 
and do stop in Ireland, as they go back for the 
coast of Spain, to make clean their ships, and 
this place have I reserved for the last, in regard 
that it is most frequented by them, and there- 
fore of most importance to be remembered, where 
besides that they have all commodities and 
conveniences that all other places do afford them, 
Sir William arrived at Caithness, he found that their number 
had dwindled from twenty to two. One, when admonished 
on the wickedness of his course, surrendered, and the other, 
Monson recorded, had been ' not long before my boatswain's 
mate in the Narrow Seas.' Piracy was more remunerative 
than service in the King's ships, and Clarke, for such was 
the pirate's name, had the day previous to Monson's arrival 
been ' friendly entertained ' by the Earl of Caithness, as that 
nobleman's ' house and tenants lay open to his spoil' (Naval 
Tracts, N.R.S., xliii. 57). 
1 MS. Island. 



I know that there is such an order already, 1 and 
it is reasonable well observed in the South (39) 
Coast, yet not so well (as I have heard) but that 
some have lately run away with Ships from thence, 
and in the West and North-west on my knowledge 
it hath not been, nor is not so ; but me thinketh 
the best and surest way, and that which might 
much advance the wealth and glory of our State, 
were to devise some more universal employment 
than now we have, by which men of that spirit 
might not complain, as they now do, that they 
are forced for lack of convenient employment 
to enter into such unlawful courses. The proof 
of this is plain, for since your Highness' reign 
there have been more Pirates by ten for one, 
than were in the whole reign of the last Queen. z 
There being now no voyage to speak of but 
Newfoundland, which they hold too toilsome, 
that of Newcastle which many hold too base, 
and the East Indies which most hold dangerous 
and tedious, and for your Highness' Ships the 
entertainment is so small, and the pay so bad 
that they hold it a kind of slavery to serve in 
them. 3 I speak (40) of the private sailor not the 
officer. In this I must say to myself Ne sutor 
ultra Crepidam, 4 and leave the project to your 
Highness' singular judgment, only I will remember 

 In 1612 an Act was passed for punishing pirates and 
robbers of the sea ; and in October 1614 a further Act was 
passed for the suppression of pirates on the Irish coasts 
tStatutes Ireland, i. pp. 435-6 ; S.P. Irdand, 1611-14, pref. lxxi). 
 Piracy was almost a recognized profession in the reign 
of Elizabeth. In 1563 there were 4oo known pirates in the 
four seas (Admin. ofR.N., Oppenheim, p. 177 ). 
3 Sir Walter Raleigh wrote that men ' went with as great 
a grudging to serve in his Majesty's ships as if it were to 
be slaves in the galleys' (Oppenheim, p. 187). 
* ' Let not the cobbler judge beyond his last.' 

4 2 


this, that it is an ill policy, which provides more 
for punishing than preventing of offenders. 
Next, to take away their hopes and encourage- 
ments, your Highness must put on a constant 
immutable resolution never to grant any Pardon, 
and for those that are or may be taken, to put 
them all to death, or make slaves of them, for 
if your Highness should ask me when those 
men would leave offending I might answer, as a 
wise Favourite did the late Queen, demanding 
when he would leave begging, he answered, when 
she would leave giving; 1 so say I, when your 
Highness leaves Pardoning. And in the little 
observation I could make in my small travels, 
I have noted those Countries best governed, 
where the Laws are most severely executed; 
as for instance in Tunis, where no offence is 
ever remitted, but strictly punished according 
(41) to their customs and Laws. In 5 months 
together when I was coming and going I never 
heard of Murder, Robbery, or private Quarrel. 
Nay a Christian, which IS more than he can 
warrant himself in any part of Christendom, may 
on my knowledge travel 15o miles into the 
country, though he carry good store of money, 
and himself alone, and none will molest him. 
So likewise, in my Commonwealth of most un- 
civil and barbarous seamen (the common sort 
of seamen I mean), that are of all men the most 
uncivil and barbarous, I could never have sub- 
sisted as I did, if I had ever pardoned any notorious 

' Obviously in reference to Raleigh. The story as told 
by Oldys is to the effect that Raleigh one day approached 
the Queen, telling her that he had a favour to beg. ' xAtlen, 
Sir Walter,' said she, ' will you cease to be a beggar ? ' To 
which he replied, ' Vvtlen your gracious Majesty ceases to be 
a benefactor' (Raleigh Whs., 1829, i. 142 ). 



sold one with another; as also by purchase they 
may chance to find in them, I think by proba- 
bility, it might more than quit the charge. 1 And 
then the chief care must be to employ such 
Commanders as know how to work and command 
like a man-of-war, where to find, how to draw 
himself to them, as also have a Commission 
joined with a ready wit and judgment, to do 
sometimes that upon the occasion for which he 
can have no direction or rule, which thing is 
only mastered by experience, particular use, 
and knowledge of these things by the Com- 
mander, wherein it will be necessary to consider 
what the Spaniard means when he says Quien 
ha de ingaar uno Diabolo es rnenester que sea 
dos? The want whereof I take to be the chiefest 
reason that (43) neither the King of Spain's, 
nor the Hollanders', nor indeed any men-of-war 
that have been set out by the Christian Princes, 
have done any service toward the cutting them 
I speak not of your Highness' Ships, because 
I think they have not of late been much employed 
to that purpose. 3 Or at least the Commanders 

1 On the I9th of April, 1618, the Venetian Ambassador, 
Contarini, wrote that there had arrived in England a ' certain 
individual' who had surveyed the fortress of Algiers. He 
reported that it would be easy to surprise the place and 
burn the ships. The people of Barbary, hearing of this, 
mustered 30,0o0 soldiers, with 80 vessels, to defend the 
place. In 162o two English cavaliers went to Tunis and 
Algiers disguised as merchants, and contrived to bring 
back plans of the forts and harbours (S.P. Venice, 1617-19, 
p. 23o ; 1619-21, pref. Iv). 
 'He who would cheat a devil needs himself to be two 
devils in one.' 
3 Sir William Monson in 1617, giving evidence before 
the Lords of the Council regarding the pirates of Algiers, was 


have been so limited by their Commission, that 
they could not do what their own judgment 
would advise them to. 1 I cannot say to the glory 
of our Nation, nor your Highness' particular 
comfort and assurance, that we have many 
such, although there be some, whose eminent, 
long, and faithful service to the late Queen, as 
also to your Highness, makes them as plainly 
to be deciphered as if I should name them; yet 
to avoid the displeasure of those, who though 
they may not be worthy, yet will think them- 
selves injured to be left out of a particular 
calendar, I leave them to your Highness to 
guess at, and to esteem as so many diamonds 

of the opinion, that as the suppression of them was likely to 
be the work of years, all the maritime towns of Europe should 
contribute towards the charge. Spain and Holland should 
combine with England in the effort, and any Turks or Moors 
that were taken should be sold for slaves. The ships, he 
stated, should be between 250 and 3oo tons each, with the 
exception of the King's ships. The fleet should be well 
provided with muskets and ammunition, especially chain- 
shot. The chiefest care, in Monson's opinion, was to keep 
the voyage secret, the captains not to know of their destina- 
tion till they were at sea. The place of rendezvous for the 
combined fleets was to be the Isles of Bayon (i.e. Cies Islands 
off Vigo), they being most convenient for all squadrons to 
meet at without suspicion. The time of the year in which 
the expedition should start was in August or September, 
for in those months the Turks were usually at sea (Naval 
TractS, N.R.S., vol. xliii, pp. 79-85). Towards the end 
of 162o James dispatched a fleet consisting of eighteen 
ships, under the command of Sir Robert Manse[l, to Algiers, 
but, with the exception of obtaining the release of forty 
English captives, nothing was effected. 
1 A copy oI Manse[l's instructions in 162o has recently 
been brought to light. He was informed that his mission 
was to extirpate pirates, but on no account was he to attempt 
any hostile act against Algiers, 'for fear of its strength and 
the Grand Signior's Amity' (Corbett, England in the Mediter- 
ranean, i. 115). 


in your royal Crown. 1 And yet I think there 
may be many found able to command a private 
Ship, in company of a General, betwixt which 
and the (44) Commanding of an Armado and 
fleet, both for the discretion and judgment, to 
manage, handle, content, and command the Com- 
pany, both in fear and love (without which no 
Commander is absolute) as also in the particular 
disposing and ordering of his Ships in fight, 
[there is as much difference] as is betwixt 
hunting with a Lime-hound 2 in a st.ring, and 
a kennel of dogs that run loose, as xs betwixt 
a single combat, and a battle of two Armies. 
I doubt not but in this case your Highness doth 
and will imitate the policy of the wisest Princes, 
such as your Highness, who do make of peace 
but a storehouse of war. 
Lastly for the disappointing of them in 
Ireland, which I hold the most material of all; 
being that this is as the great earth for foxes, 
which being stopped, they are easily hunted 
to death, and for their best succour, can but 
hide themselves in cunny-holes, whence they 
are easily digged out. And as cunnies 3 may 
be easily destroyed, where they have no holes to 
hide themselves in, so I verity think that if they 
were (45) once debarred Ireland, they might 
easily be confounded, and without further trouble 
would end Per simplicem desinentiam. 4 To this 
purpose your Highness must allow one good 

 Probably meaning Sir William Monson, Sir Robert 
Mansell, the Earl of Nottingham, and Lord Thomas Howard, 
Earl of Suffolk. 
 Bloodhound. 8 Rabbits. 
4 By merely ceasing to exist. 



Ship for the South coast, that must continually 
keep the Sea, not coming into Harbour, but to 
trim or victual; which must lie South of Cape 
Clear, 1 betwixt 2o and 30 leagues, for they 
that come from the South do ever make that 
Cape for their landfall if they can. To which 
Ship must belong a nimble Pinnace, such as a 
Penecho Carvel,  which may with sail and oars 
quickly turn to windward, and this must still 
be in Harbour, till she hear of any Pirates, and 
then having directions where to find the great 
Ship, to advertize her. 3 In the same manner 
must be provided for the West and North-west, 
where must be two such, the one lying off Black 
Rock 4 or betwixt that and Tillen-head-land-to, 5 
or not so far, for here they keep close aboard 
the shore, coming or going, unless it be like to 
grow a storm and then they hale further off. 
These ships would (46 ) quickly upon any notice 
be with the North Coast, so that I think these 
would serve for both those Quarters. I omit to 
speak of fortifying of Harbours there (which 
would put all out of question), both because of 

' The most southern headland of Ireland. 
* A carvel was the name given, from the fifteenth to the 
seventeenth centuries, to a somewhat smalllateen-rigged vessel, 
chiefly used by the Spaniards and Portuguese. A Penecho 
carvel took its name from Peniche, a seaport twenty miles south 
of Lisbon. The carvels of Peniche used to resort to the 
Burlings to fish ; they were excellent sailing vessels, and we 
are informed that ' there were few ships but they could fetch 
up, and then keep sight of them both night and day' (Monson, 
Naval Tracts in Churchill, iii. 199 ). 
-" I.e. advise. * An island off coast of Co. Mayo. 
 Malinmore or Teelin Head, the most western point of 
Donegal. In Seward's Topog. Hibernica, 1795, it is spelt 


the great charge, as also that for other reasons 
of State, it may be held both inconvenient and 
dangerous. Further there must be a strict 
course, and duly executed, that no Vice-Admiral, 
or other, be suffered to speak with any of the 
Pirates, but to forfeit either life or goods, for so 
long as they have any communication with 
them, so long will there be indirect dealing and 
relieving of them. 
And to conclude, neither the Deputy, nor 
any other Presidents, must have power to protect 
though it be but for one hour. x For by reason 
the Country be enriched very much by Pirates 
where they come, the Presidents of every place 
may be willing to protect and use them vith all 
respect they may conveniently, to draw them 
to their quarters. All which is done under 
colour of sending to the State, to know if they 
shall be (47) pardoned or not. In the meantime 
they trim their Ships, spend their money, are 
well refreshed, and almost weary of the shore, so 
that Pardon or no Pardon they must of necessity 
go to Sea again, and of this there is daily experi- 
ence. These things being strictly commanded by 
your Highness, and duly and honestly observed 
by the Officers, will questionless be an infallible 
way to destroy all that are out, and so dishearten 
all that have any pretence that way that within 
a short time there will not be one English Pirate, 
nor any have encouragement to enter into it 
again; which though it may be some charge to 
your Highness, yet will the honour which your 

t Sir Richard Moryson wrote in 162o that it was impossible 
to prevent the relief of pirates on the West coast of Ireland, 
contrary commissions being issued daily. X.en he intended 
to prosecute the pirates, he stated, others had authority to 
parley and protect them (S.P. Ireland, 1615-25, p. 3o2). 


Majesty shall gain thereby, with the benefit to 
all Christendom, much preponderate the pressure 
of the expense. 
In which business, if it be worth your 
Majesty's consideration I say no more but this, 
Deli3era lente, quod decreveris constanter urge. 1 
(48) My humble suit  now unto your High- 
ness is, that if there be anything remembered 
here that may serve to inform your Majesty in 
the course of these affairs as they may not be 
taken as a particular information ag.ainst any, 
for I protest on my allegiance I aim at no 
particular ends but merely to serve your High- 
ness and freely to tell the truth, which I humbly 
desire may serve to advise your Highness here- 
after, and not as an occasion to call anything 
past in question. 

Be slow in council, swift and determined in action. 
MS. Sewte. 

II. E 



To the Right Honourable Sir John Coke, 
Knight, z Principal Secretary of State to his 
Majesty of Great Britain. 
RIGHT HONOURABLE,---Your singular virtue, 
and prominent care and judgment in all things 
concerning Government of the State, more par- 
ticularly in affairs of the Sea, which tends to the 
King's present safety and honour, do properly, 
and as it were naturally draw the direction of this 
discourse unto you. And your honourable favours, 
wherewith you have obliged me to honour and 
serve you, merit more and greater acknowledge- 
ments than can be exprest by me in presenting 
it unto you. Were it better, I should with more 
confidence and cheer deliver it to your Honour, 
being conscious that wherein I could best serve 
you I should most delight myself. 
The matter and subject of it I dare assure 
your Honour is good, and worthy consideration ; 

x S.P. Dora., Chas. I, clxxx. 96 [163o ?]. 
2 Sir John Coke, born 1563. In 1618 he was appointed 
one of the Commissioners of the Navy, and the reform of 
the naval administration was mainly due to him. Between 
1621-28 he sat several times in Parliament. In 1625 he 
was made one of the principal Secretaries of State. 



though by my disability to clothe it better, I pre- 
sent it in rags: an imperfection I presume your 
Honour will easily dispense withal at my hands, 
knowing that my profession is rather action, 
than expression. The abuses and complaints, 
herein expressed are Catholic, the remedy 
Orthodox, such is my faith to God and belief 
in your Honour's noble inclination toward me, 
that I shall not only endeavour, but struggle 
and strive to apprehend any occasion whereby 
I may manifest to the world that I am in all 
duty and affection, 
Your Honour's humble servant, 

The State of the Proposition, and the manner of 
the Frenchmen's fishing upon the Sowe. 

There is a bank, or fishing ground called the 
Sowe, 1 which lies betwixt Rye  and Dieppe, 3 the 
outwardmost part whereof is near one third over 
the sea, this Sowe, which they call the Smooth 
Sowe, is three leagues long, and three broad, 
depth 26 and 28 fathoms; the French make it 
o leagues for they fish till they bring Beachy 
N., Fairlight W.N.W., and fish in 3o fathom; the 
Smooth Sowe (which now particularly they call 
ours) bring Fairlight N.W. till Fairlight N. 4 

1 MS. Zowe. Monson speaks of the Sowe as being 'a 
rocky ground a league and more in length, and six leagues 
south off at sea to Rye' (Naval Tracts (Ed. Oppenheim), 
v. 274). 
2 MS. Rey.  MS. Deepe. 
* MS. Fayre Lee. Fairlight near Hastings. In Norden's 
Map, 1616, it figures as Fayrleigh. On May 3, 16o9, Sir G. 
Newman, Judge of the Admiralty Court of the Cinque Ports, 


This Sowe is as a Park in the Sea, for it is 
encompassed with rocks, as they find by their 
sounding, and is the choice nursery for Turbots, 
Halibuts, Pearls, 1 Sole, Weavers, Gurnards, etc. 
that lies near these parts to supply his Majesty 
and the court with principal fish as also the City 
of London and the adjacent country. * 
There is no ground betwixt that and the coast 
of France where they have of these sorts of fish, 

wrote to the Mayor and Jurates of Rye: 'The French 
confesse the Sowe to be the King's wholly and promise never 
to use it more without leave, but when it cometh to be 
questioned where the Sowe lyeth and how much it conteyneth 
they allow us a peece of the sea about five miles from our 
shore and in length and breadth about some seaven miles, 
which as you know is not nigh the Sowe by many leagues 
. . . For that parte which you accompte the Sowe they terme 
it the Vergoye and the Aleppo and soe with strange names 
they intend to put us quite besydes the Sowe.' Newman 
then instructs the Mayor to send ten of the oldest fishermen 
of Rye to measure the Sowe :--' They must observe,' he 
writes, ' for the length from east to west, right over to what 
parte of Fraunce the east end lyeth and to what parte of 
England ; soe likewise right over to what part of France the 
west end lyeth and soe to England. Then for the breadth, 
to what part of Fraunce the nighest part of the ]3roadsmoth 
or the Sowe lyeth and how nigh to that coast; then must 
they as nigh as they can gesse and observe the juste length 
of the Sowe from east to west and the juste breadth from 
south-east to north-west. This being done, they must come 
up hyther when I send for them to depose this upon theyr 
oathes, and soe I doubt not to procure an order for per- 
petuall quitnes by the honorable Commissioners that it 
shall remaine without question herafter' (Rye MSS., Hist. 
MSS. Com. XIII. iv.-I43-4). 
1 I.e. ]3rill. 
2 , The towne of Rye hath binn of soe greate consequence 
to this State that it hath supplied his Majesty's howse and 
this parte of the kingdome with more plenty and store of 
fish then any two townes of England' (Rye MSS., Hist. 
MSS. Com. XIIL iv. x67). 


only Plaice and some Whitings, and therefore 
the French Kings time out of mind have by way 
of request obtained from the Kings of England 
leave to have some certain boats allowed them 
to fish for their own diet and the Court. 
All Queen Elizabeth's time they could never 
obtain license for more than 4 boats. 
In King James's (who did not much love fish) 
they got leave for 9 to serve the court, 4 for the 
Duchess of Guise, and I for the Governor of 
Dieppe. 1 
These boats and their Masters are chosen by 
the Governor of Dieppe who sends them over 
to the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports or his 
Lieutenant to receive License from him, and to 
enter their Licenses  in the Clerk's Office (pre- 
tending that no other ought to fish) and also to 
have their nets viewed to be of lawful scale, viz. 
5 inches, and so those nets to be sealed, and they 
enjoined to fish with no other nets; and these 
licenses they must renew yearly, for the which they 
pay three crowns a piece to the Lord Warden's 
secretary, and one to the Clerk of Dover Castle. 
These boats, in regard that the Fasts in France 
fall not out even with ours, as also out of especial 
respect to have the French King furnished, have 
leave to fish in season, and out of season. 3 That 

1 On the 5th of December, 1625, license was granted to 
nine fishermen of Dieppe, for the French King's service, and 
to four of Treport for the Duchess of Guise (S.P. Dora. 
DXXII. 58). A certain number of licenses were also granted 
in Cromwell's time, which were renewed at the conclusion of 
the first Dutch war (Fulton, Sovereignty of the Sea, p. 44o). 
* One of these licenses is printed in extenso in Fulton, 
Sovereignty of the Sea, p. 749- 
 'And whereas liberty is given to the French to begin 
their fishing the fourteenth day of February, which is one 
month before the time limited by the constitutions, because 


is, that whereas our English fishers are limited 
from the I5th of March until Bartholomew Day 
to fish with Trammels, and after that all the 
winter (which is the best time for Trammelling) 
till next March to fish with lines, and at no 
time to fish in the night, that the fish may 
have time to feed and rest? the French that 
are licensed do tramel all the winter, and in 
the night by allowance. 
These boats of Dieppe make two Seaings,  as the 
fishermen term it (that is two sea voyages) every 
week ; come from Dieppe Sunday night, and return 
a Wednesday, for Friday and Saturday at Paris, if 
possibly the wind and weather give them leave. 

The Inconveniences of these Licenses, A buses of the 
French by colour of them, and prejudice to our 

I. Under the colour of these 14 Boats so 
licensed, as many more do fish, for every Boat 
hath one other to attend her, that as one goes 

that their Lent falleth out commonly before ours, therefore 
because I will have them enioy no privilege whereof you 
shall not partake I am well content that you begin your 
fishing at the same time.' Feb. 8, 16o9-1o. The Earl of 
Northampton to Mayor etc. of Rye (Hist. MSS. Com. XIII. 
iv. 144). 
1 The fisherfolk of Rye sometimes evaded these restric- 
tions, and in 16o2 several of them were convicted of having 
' offended in fyshing with netts insufficient, and of unlawfull 
scale, and at prohibited tymes and seasons, especially con- 
trary to the lawes, in the night season, whereby the fysh, 
disquieted and wanting naturall rest, doe become both leane 
unserviceable and not so well bayted as in former tymes.' 
They were each fined IOS., and charged not to offend again, 
or they would answer to the same ' at ther uttermost perills ' 
(Hist. MSS. Com. XIII. iv. 124). 
2 MS. Seeinges. 



in, the other stays out and takes the License, so 
one License serves for two Boats. 
2. By reason that so many (or indeed any) 
French Boats are allowed, there come (conceiving 
they cannot be discovered, or distinguished by 
the English from the Licensed Boats) about 4.0 
or 50 at a time from Treport which lies 12 miles 
E. from Dieppe, 1 and Saint Valery which lieth 
12 miles S. and some other places upon the land, 
which for want of harbour do launch their boats 
off the land. 
3. These Boats carry unlawful nets of 3 Inch 
2{ Mesh by reason whereof, their number which 
over lay the ground, and their unreasonable 
fishing, the fish have no time to feed and grow. 
And the Taties  (that is stones that are a fist 
or more of bigness, whereon grows a little weed 
like a teat, which is full of very sweet water which 
the fish suck) all torn up, whereon the fish feed and 
spawn. And also they take all unserviceable 
fish, Viz. small Soles, Turbots, etc., which they 
throw to their hogs (as hath been seen by whole 
bushels full). 
4- The fish being destroyed by these means, 
his Majesty, the Court, City, and Country 8 are 

1 Depositions of William Palmer of Rye, fisherman, that 
on the 9th of February, 16o5, 'at a place called the Sowe, 
he came upon about five or six and thirty sail of French 
fishermen' (Hist. MSS. Com. XlII. iv. 131 ). 
2 This word is not in the Oxford English Dictionary. 
 By an ancient custom it was enacted that the Lord 
Warden of the Cinque Ports should have ' the choyse of the 
third fishe for his household provision.' This seems to have 
been neglected during the early part of the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and on February 15, 1622-3, the Lord Warden had 
cause to complain of this. ' I shall not looke back to neglects 
past,' he wrote, 'yet I shall from henceforth expect a refor- 
mation, and to that end I hereby will and requyre you to 



or 50 Trammels, Hookers, and Harbourmen, 
now they have but 6 or 7. Whereas there was 
50o seamen of the Train band, there is now few 
more then IOO. 
6. Our English being disheartened, the French 
do in a manner engross the whole fishing, for 
they are prohibited, and the fish as it were pre- 
served for the French, whereby they increase their 
navigation ; enrich their Subjects with our trade, 
which I know cannot quadrate with reason of 
State, especially at these times. 

The way to redress these abuses, w#h the objections 
against this Reformation, and their Answers. 
By reason of continual exclamations against 
the French, there have been many fruitless ways 
proposed for Reformation, but I conceive there 
is no other means, or course, to be used for re- 
dressing these extreme abuses but this. Whereas 
his Majesty doth give license to the French to 
serve the King and Court (as that is the pretence 
and ground of his request) his Majesty being 
moved by these inconvemences, which do and 
necessarily will follow these Licenses to the French, 
will now appoint so many boats of his own Sub- 
jects which shall wholly attend the French King's 
No question but the French King, knowing 
what a sensible great benefit his subjects receive 
by this fishing, will oppose it, but with other 
pretences than those which truly move him, or 
his Ministers. 
I. First, he may pretend that the English 
will not serve him with that care and diligence 
to observe his seasons, as his own subjects. 
I answer first, that those who shall be ap- 


4- But why should not the Governor of Dieppe 
(who chiefly doth interest himself in the behalf 
of the King) either use means to prohibit all those 
that fish without License (since their fishing is in 
part prejudicial to himself and the Boats licensed), 
or else forbear the charge and trouble of obtaining 
Licenses and fish freely as others do ? 
For answer to the first part, the Governor of 
Dieppe pretending great sincerity and care that 
the fishing should not be abused by any unlicensed 
French, hath made complaints of those of Tre- 
port and Saint Valery, which Re vera is pro inter- 
esse proprio, 1 that his care concerning his own 
town boats may be the less doubted, and also 
really desire the suppressing of the other, which 
are prejudicial to his particular. But he hath no 
power to suppress them, being out of his jurisdic- 
tion, and for the King to suppress them is not 
to be expected, it being against the general good 
of his Subjects. 
As for the second part to fish here without any 
License (the ground being undoubtedly appro- 
priated to the King of England by the affinity of 
it to his coast) were such an apparent insolency, 
and so uncompatible for his Greatness and 
Majesty to endure an entertainer with him, that 
the King of France (well knowing how much the 
honour and right of our King will preponder at 
the pressure of any affinity or Alliance) will for 
his own ease and benefit make use of this Arena 
tenenti ornnia dat qui justa negat, 2 and take 
licenses and use them like dark lanterns, which 
though one man carry, yet many may see by 
that light to follow in the dark unseen. 
i In reality he is looking after his own interests. 
 Lucan, Phars. i. 348. To him who comes in arms, He 
all things gives who justice would refuse. 



5. It may be the King of France will undertake 
himself to redress all these abuses occasioned by 
his Subiects and therefore desire that the licensed 
Boats may continue as they do. 
I answer if his real intent be only to be served 
with fish, then, grant the English can fish as well 
as the French (as there is no doubt), the King 
shall be served as he is now. But if under that 
colour, he desire to enrich his Subiects, to increase 
and strengthen his Navigation by impoverishing 
and weakening ours, I think the Law of Nature 
and reason of State will advise and oblige our 
King to prefer and preserve his own strength, and 
people, and quantum in se est, 1 to prevent such 
intentions, especially now the French begin to 
talk of Mare Liberum. Next if the Law of Nature 
and Nations agree in this rule, that no man must 
uti suo ut alieno noceat 2; a fortiori why should 
the King of France uti alieno ut sibi et alieno 
noceat  ? And for him to refuse, or dislike to be 
served by the King of England's subjects, when 
he receives this grace and benefit by the King's 
free grant, is as unreasonable as if I should lend 
one my horse, who should deny me to see him 
shod and saddled to my content that he may 
neither be foundered nor galled, but the better 
able to carry him his journey and do me service 
afterwards. And I should conceive by this nice- 
ness of the French King he should only present 
a looking glass to our Sovereign wherein to see 
what care he ought to take of his own and his 
Subjects' Boats. 

' So far as in him lies. 
* Make use of his own property in such a way as to 
injure other people's. 
- Make use of other people's property in such a way as 
to injure both that and himself. 


But the chiefest mover and stirrer in this 
business will be the Governor of Dieppe, though 
as I suppose in the King's name, in regard he gains 
near 2000 crowns a year by these Boats, as I have 
been credibly informed by the fishermen them- 
selves. How unconsiderable he is in a business 
of this nature is so obvious to every man's judg- 
ment that I afford no other answer. So that 
having now by way of objections proposed such 
other ways as may be conceived for the rectifying 
of this fishing, and finding none of them sufficient 
or convenient for our State, I conclude as I began 
this point, that there is no other course, but to 
have the English appointed for the French King's 

The Benefits which will arise to this Kingdom by 
this way of Reformation. 
I. The Port and Town of Rye will again 
flourish and be repopulated. 
2. Seamen, Shipping, and divers crafts be- 
longing to them will be increased and maintained. 
3-The Company of Fishmongers (who now 
complain of want) will be enriched. 
4. By the increase of Fish, the Court, City, 
and Country more plentifully served, and at 
better rates, and the King of France also. 
5. We shall return the French monies into 
this Kingdom for our Fish, which now they have 
for nothing. 
6. There being no Frenchman allowed to fish 
here, those of Treport, Saint Valery, etc., have no 
colour 1 to come, or if they do, the English will 
be so many and so frequent there, that they will 

MS. Culler. 

II. F 




THE name of Sir Henry Mainwaring deserves an 
honoured place in our naval literature on account 
of the unique distinction he holds in being the 
earliest authority we have in English on seaman- 
ship and nautical terms. His 'Seaman's Dic- 
tionary,' which is the text-book of seventeenth- 
century seamanship, was compiled during Buck- 
ingham's tenure of office as Lord High Admiral 
of England, although it was not printed until 
1644, when Parliament being in possession of the 
fleet it was thought ' so universally necessary for 
all sorts of men,' that it was conceived 'very fit 
to be at this time imprinted for the good of the 
Republic. I 
The rise of a school of professional seamen 
was a marked feature of the period, and Main- 
waring was an officer who represented both the 
scientific and practical sides of his profession. 
His book was primarily intended for the use of 
the gentlemen captains of the day, who, 'though 
they be called seamen,' did not ' fully and wholly 
understand what belongs to their profession,' and 
his object was to instruct those 'whose quality, 


attendance, indisposition of body (or the like),' 
would not permit them 'to gain the knowledge 
of terms, words, the parts, qualities, and manner 
of doing things with ships, by long experience.' 
It is curious that such a work, the subject of which 
opened up a new field in our naval literature, 
should have remained for twenty odd years in an 
unpublished state; but there is evidence to prove 
that it was freely circulated in manuscript among 
the naval commanders of the time, and that 
Buckingham, Mervin, Denbigh, and Northumber- 
land, among others, possessed copies. 1 Its publi- 
cation was fully justified, and the "high value 
placed on the work may be judged from the fact 
that during the Dutch wars there were two, and 
possibly three, reprints, though copies are now 
extremely scarce. 
By stating it to be the earliest treatise in 
English on seamanship we do not intend to 
infer that it was the first on navigation; many 
works on that subject appeared during the latter 
half of the sixteenth century. 2 As Mainwaring 
informs us in his preface, ' to understand the art 
of navigation is far easier learned than to know 
the practique of mechanical workng of ships, 
with the proper terms belonging to them. In 
respect that there are helps for the first by many 

1 A copy bearing the signature of Sir Henry Mervin is 
among the Sloane MSS. (No. o7) ; while one with the arms 
of the Earl of Denbigh is among the Additional MSS. in the 
British Museum (No. I57I ). A copy with the arms of 
Percy is among Lord Leconfield's MSS., and the copy dedi- 
cated to Buckingham is at present loaned to the Institution 
of Naval Architects. 
t For a list of works on navigation up to and including 
the reign of Elizabeth, see Admiral Sir A. H. Markham's 
edition of 'J. Davis, Voyages' (Hakluyt Society, 188o, 
PP. 339-367). 


books (which give easy and ordinary rules for 
the obtaining to it), but for the other, till this, 
there was not so much as a lneans thought of, to 
inform any one in it.' This last statement, of 
course, refers to the work when it was originally 
compiled, for the honour of being the author of 
the first printed work on the subject belongs to 
Captain John Smith, the Governor of Virginia. 
His book, which is entitled ' An Accidence, or the 
Pathway to experience Necessary for all young 
Sea-men,' was published in 1626, and appears in 
the Stationers Company's Registers under the 
date of October 23 in that year. 1 It is a small 
quarto volume, and was printed for Jonas Man 
and Benjamin Fisher. The late Professor Arber, 
who edited a complete edition of Smith's works, 
mentions that ' this tract was a new departure in 
our literature, being the first printed book on 
seamanship, naval gunnery, and nautical terms.' 2 
Captain Smith's work is in fact a 'tract,' and 
occupies 42 pages, against the 118 closely printed 
pages of the 'Seaman's Dictionary.' 
In the article on 'Seamanship' in the last 
edition of the'Encyclopaedia Britannica,' the 
'Seaman's Dictionary' of Sir Henry Mainwaring 
is stated to be, ' if not the first treatise on seaman- 
ship written in English, at least as old as its only 
rival, the "' Accidence."' Hitherto the date of 
its composition has been open to doubt, and it 
has generally been assigned to the year 1625, that 
being the date on a manuscript copy which 
belonged to the Earl of Denbigh. 
There are other manuscripts, however, which 
are certainly earlier than this, and we have been 

Arber, Transcripts, iv. 169. 
Works, 1884 ed., p. 786. 



fortunate enough to discover among the magni- 
ficent collection of naval books and manuscripts 
of the late Mr. CharMs Scott, the earliest of the 
manuscripts, which is dedicated 'to the Right 
Honourable the Marquis of Buckingham, Lord 
High Admiral of England, my most honoured 
Lord and Patron.' That the work was originally 
written solely for the use of .Buckingham, and 
possibly at his instigat!on, is shown by the 
following personal note in Mainwaring's hand- 
writing at the end of the preface, which is 
omitted from the other MSS. and from the printed 
editions : 

'This, as I framed it of purpose for your Lordship's 
use, so only to your Lordship do I present it with my 
most humble service, who for your Lordship's many 
truly noble favours am ever bound in all duty and 
affection to profess and express myself, your Lordship's 
most humble and faithful servant, H. M.' 

From this copy we are enabled to fix more 
precisely the date of its composition, as Bucking- 
ham was raised to the dignity of a Duke on the 
iSth of May, 1623. It is entitled' An Abstract and 
Exposition of all things pertaining to the practick 
of Navigation,' and at one time belonged to Peter 
le Neve (i66I-i729), the Norroy king-at-arms, 
and a zealous collector of manuscripts. His 
signature, ' Petri le Neve, Norroy,' appears on top 
of the title-page, which is reproduced as an 
illustration to this volume. There is also a copy 
among the Sloane MSS. in the British Museum 
with the same title, which is dedicated m 

' To the right Honourable and my ever most Honoured 
Lord, Edward, Lord Zouch, Lord Warden of the Cinque 
Ports, and one of his Majesty's most Honourable Privy 


Council. This discourse which I wrote in those lodgings 
wherewith it pleased your Lordship to honoured me, I 
held it my duty (in acknowledgment of that and many 
other your Lordship's most free and honourable favours) 
to present unto your Lordship with the faithful and 
affectionate service of Your Lordship's most humble and 
most obliged servant, 

Here we have a definite statement that it was 
written within the precincts of Dover Castle, and 
the date of the Buckingham and Zouch copies 
can be fixed to a period between February 162o, 
the date of Mainwaring's appointment to Dover 
Castle, and February 1623, when he incurred 
Zouch's displeasure. 
The different manuscript c.opies have varying 
titles, and these alterations m title connote an 
expansion of the text by the inclusion of new 
matter. With the exception of the Denbigh 
copy they are all in folio; the handy form of 
this copy, and the fact that it has been 
damaged by water, suggests that the Earl may 
have taken it to sea with him on his various 
It had been intended to reprint this work from 
the printed edition of 1644, adhering to the spell- 
ing of that book, but a careful comparison with 
the manuscripts revealed so many and such 
serious errors in it that the Council decided to 
abandon this idea. The text of the following 
pages is a composite text formed from the colla- 
tion of the undermentioned manuscripts. It was 
decided to modernise the spelling, which varies 
in the different manuscripts, but attention has 
been called to any spellings that seemed to present 
special points of interest. 



Add. MS. 2157I.--The copy that belonged 
to the Earl of Denbigh, and bears the date 1625. 
It is probably the latest of the MSS., as it con- 
talus a certain amount of matter not found in 
the others consulted. The errors and omissions 
are few in number, but unfortunately it has been 
so much injured by water as to be in places almost 
illegible. It is denoted in the footnotes by the 
letter (D). 
Harleian MS. 23Ol which appears to be a 
little, but not much, earlier than the above (H). 
Sloane MS. 2o7.--Dedicated to Zouch (Z). 
The book of 1644 was printed from a MS. of 
about the same date as this one. 
Scott MS.mDedicated to Buckingham (B). 

The additional matter not found in (B) is 
enclosed in square brackets [ ]. 

To the edition of 1644 the publisher prefixed 
an extract of four pages from 'The Victory of 
Patience,' 1636, entitled, 'The State of a Christian, 
lively set forth by an allegory of a ship under sail.' 
This has been omitted as not forming part of the 
original work. 

The Council is indebted to Mrs. Scott for per- 
mission to reproduce the title-page of the original 



TI-IE I Sea-mans Dictionary : [ Or An ] Exposition ] and 
Demonstration of all the Parts[and Things belonging 
to a IShippe" ] Together with an Explanation of all[ 
the Termes and Phrases used in the Practique of 
Navigation. [Composed by that able and experienced 
Sea-man S r Henry [ Manwayring Knight: And by him 
presented to the late Duke of[Buckingham, the then 
Lord High Admirall of England.. [ 

I have perused this book,, and find it so universally 
necessary for all sorts of men, that I conceive it very fit 
to be at this time imprinted for the good of the Republicke. 
Septemb. 20, 1644. JOHN BOOKER. 

London. [Printed by G. M. for John Bellamy, and 
are to be sold at his Shop at [the Signe of the three 
golden Lions in Comehill neare the ] Royall Exchange. 
1644. [ 

(118 pages 4to.) 

" Mainwaring's Seaman's Dictionary." J. Moxon. 

In Richard Clavel's ' Catalogue of books printed in England 
since the Fire of London in 1666 to I695,' published 1696, the 
above entry is to be found. 1 We have not succeeded in tracing 
a copy of this edition, which we believe appeared in I666. t 
Joseph Moxon (i627-i7oo), shortly after 166o, was appointed 
hydrographer to the King, and had a shop 'At the sign of 
the Atlas' on Ludgate Hill, where he suffered materially 

P. 98. 
Watt in his Bibl. Brit. mentions an ed. of I666, as does 
Allibone in his Dict. of Eng. Lit. 



Conditions, Proportions, Rigging, Fitting, Mannageing, and 
Sayling of Shipps ; with other Necessaries to be knowne 
in the Practique of Navigation. Also including so much 
of the Art of Gunnery, as concerns the Use of Ordinaunce 
at Sea. 

Mainwaring's name does not figure on the MS., which is 
well written. The volume is in folio, and is paged 1-162, 
but really consists of 91 folios. Following the 'Preface' is 
the 'Index,' then a second title: 'A breif Abstract, Ex- 
position, and Demonstration of all parts and things belonging 
to a ship and the practique of Navigation.' 

Sloane MSS. 207.--An abstract and exposition of 
all things Perteyninge to the Practiq of Navigation. 
This copy is dedicated to Lord Zouch, Lord Warden of 
the Cinque Ports, and signed 'Henry Maynwaringe.' On 
the first blank leaf is the signature of Sir Henry Mervin. 1 
It is written in a neat hand throughout, and is in splendid 
preservation. It comprises lO 9 folio leaves, the pages being 
numbered 1-2o 4. Following the dedication is an "Index' 
of 4 folios (i.e. 6 pages), but the letters A, B, and C are missing. 
Then comes 'An Abstract and Exposition of all things Per- 
teyninge to the Practique of Navigation," within a pen-and- 
ink frame. This copy has two title-pages, and following 
the second title given above is the first entry--' Aft.' 
Additional MSS. 21571.--Nomenclator Navalis or an 
Exact Collection & Exposition of all Wordes & Tearmes 
of Art belonging to the Parts Qualities Conditions 
Proportions Rigging Fitting Managing & Sailing of 
Ships. With other Necessaries to bee Knowne in the 
Practique of Navigation. Alsoe Including soe much of 
the Art of Gunnerie as concernes the use of Ordinance 
at Sea. 

This copy is beautifully written in a small hand through- 
out, and comprises 288 octavo pages, with two blank leaves. 

1 A famous Stuart seaman. In 1623 he was accused of 
piracy and lodged for a time in the Marshalsea. One of the few 
commanders of the age who had the interest of the seamen at 
heart. Admiral for the guard of the Narrow Seas and Rear- 
Admiral in the ship-money fleet of 1637. 


Lambeth Palace Library, Lambeth MSS. 91. 
A folio volume of 311 pages (and six blank leaves), in 
a clear bold hand, entitled: 'A breife Abstract, Expositi6 
& Demonstration of all Termes, Parts & Things belonging 
to a Ship, and the Practicke of Navigation,' within an orna- 
mental pen-and-ink frame, with drawings of astrolabes, 
compasses, anchors, and a ship. On the back of the title- 
page are the arms of George Abbot, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, painted in colours. Then follows the dedication: 
'To the most Reverend Father in God, George Lord Arch- 
bishop of Canterburie, his Grace, Primate and Metropolitaine 
of all England, and one of his Ma 'ies most honorable Privy 
Counsell.' 'Most reverend, & my most honourd Lord, 
Your many gratious favors shewen to me, as well as to many 
others of my neere kindred makes me both bold & desirious 
to present this Monument of my misspent time to yo* sacred 
view. The Subject is neither worthie, nor so worthilie 
handled, but that (in mine owne judgement) I thinck it far 
to meane to offer into the hands of a person so reverend and 
honorable. But my trust is, That yo r Grace will ever looke 
both upon it, and myselfe with such gratious Eies, that I 
may have some assuruance, that yo r Grace will not onely 
pardon both our Errors, But direct me from henceforth to 
Steere my course after yo r Grace, who are the most skillfull 
and worthie pilot of o r Churche & Comon-wealth. Soe 
humbly kissing yo re Graces hands, I rest 
Your Graces most humble, faithfull 
and affectionate Servant, 

Following the dedication is the 'Preface,' as printed in 
the 1644 edition, then ' An Index of the Names and Termes 
expounded in this Booke.' The volume is handsomely 
bound in calf, elaborately tooled with a gilt device in the 
centre of each side, surmounted with the arms of the Arch- 

Lambeth Palace Library, Lambeth MSS. 268.--Nomen- 
clator Navalis, &c. 

Title similar to Harleian 23Ol. Folio, seventeenth 
century, 323 pp. Without author's name. 


Lord Leconfield's MSS. at Petworth House, Sussex.-- 
A brief Abstract Exposition and Demonstration of parts 
and things belonging to a ship and the practique of 
The text comprises 357 pages folio, with an index ot I2 
pages. The 'Preface,' which occupies four pages, begins, 
' My purpose is not to instruct, &c.' The title-page has an 
ornamental pen-and-ink frame. The volume is bound in 
morocco, and stamped with the arms of Percy (six quarters), 
with the badge and coronet of the House of Percy in each 
corner. On the gilt fore-edge of the book is written 'Sir 
Hen. Manwaring,' and it was probably presented by Main- 
waring to Algernon Percy, tenth Earl of Northumberland, 
when Lord High Admiral. 
Library of the late C. C. Scott, Esq., Halkshill, Largs, 
Ayrshire.2--An Abstract and Exposition of all things 
pertayning to the Practick of Navigation. 
This copy consists of 268 pages, folio, and on the title- 
page appears the signature of ' P. Le Neve, Norroy.' 3 The 
' Preface' is signed ' H. M.' 
The above title appears within an ornamental pen-and 
ink-frame, and following the title is a dedication 'To the 
right Ho hie the Marquis of Buckingham, Lord high Admirall 
of England; Master of the Horse, & one of his Ma tl*S most 
ho be Privy Councll [sic]. My most honored Lord & Patron.' 
Lord Calthorpe's MSS.4--Nomenclator Navalis, or an 
exact collection and exposition of all terms of art, etc. 
This copy consists of I3o folio pages, and is dated ' x633.' 
Another copy, same collection, contents the same. 5 
We presume that one of the above copies is identical with 
a copy that was formerly in the possession of Henry Yelver- 
ton, Viscount Longueville (664-z7o4), entitled: "A brief 

1 Hist. MSS. Comm. vi. 304 . 
 Now loaned to the Institution of Naval Architects. 
 Norfolk antiquary (i66i-i729). In May 17o 4 he was 
appointed Norroy King-at-arms. Le Neve's library and some 
of his MSS. were sold in February and March 1731. [D.N.B.] 
* Hist. MSS. Comm., Rep. 2, App., p. 45, No. CLXIX. 
 Ibid., No. CLXXVII. 
II. G 



abstract, exposition, and true demonstration of all parts and 
things belonging to a ship, and the parts of Navigation,' 
with Preface and Alphabetical Index. The Yelverton MSS. 
came into the possession of Lord Calthorpe. x 

A copy was in 1697 in possession of Sir Erasmus 
Norwich, (3rd) Bart., of Brampton, co. Northampton. 

We have not succeeded in tracing its present whereabouts. 
Sir Erasmus died in 172o. The MS. was entitled 'A brief 
abstract Exposition and Demonstration of all parts and 
things belonging to a Ship and the Practique of Navigation, 
or a glossary of Maritime Words and Phrases delivered 
alphabetically: with a table of the names of the Great 
Ordnance, the heights of their Diameters, their weight, 
length, etc.' Folio.  

See Bernard's Cat. MSS. Angliae, ii. 169. 
Ibid. p. 215. 



MY purpose is not to instruct those whose experi- 
ence and observation have made them as suffi- 
cient (or more) than myself: yet even they 
should lose nothing by remembering, for I have 
profited by mine own labour in doing this; but 
my intent and the use of this book is to instruct 
one whose quality, attendance, indisposition of 
body (or the like) cannot permit to gain the 
knowledge of terms, names, words, the parts, 
qualities, and manner of doing things with ships, 
by long experience: without which there hath 
not any one arrived as yet to the least judgment 
or knowledge of them. It being so, that very 
few gentlemen (though they be called seamen) 
do fully and wholly understand what belongs to 
their profession ; having only some scambling i 

Slipshod, bungling. 



terms and names belonging to some parts of a 
ship. But he who will teach another man must 
understand things plainly and distinctly himself ; 
that instead of resolving another man's doubts, 
he do not puzzle him with more confusion of 
terms of art, and so, to appear to know somewhat, 
will still expound Ignotum per Ignotius. And for 
professed seamen, they either want ability and 
dexterity to express themselves, or (as they all 
do generally) will to instruct any gentleman. If 
any will tell me why the vulgar sort of seamen 
hate landmen so much, either he or I may give 
the reason why they are so unwilling to teach 
them in their Art: whence it is that so many 
gentlemen go long voyages and return, in a manner, 
as ignorant and as unable to do their Country 
service as when they went out. These words, 
terms, and proper names which I set down in this 
book are belonging either to a ship, to show her 
parts, qualities, or some things necessary to the 
managing and sailing of her; or to the art of 
gunnery, for so much concerns the use of ordnance 
at sea. And those which are familiar words, I 
set them down, if they have any use or meaning 
about a ship other than the common sense; and 
in expounding them I do shew what use, necessity, 
commodity, discommodity, wherefore and how 
things are done, which they import; and there- 
with the proper terms, and phrases, with the 
different uses, in any kind appertaining to that 
word; which for better and easier finding out, 
and to avoid confusion, I have brought into an 
The use and benefit whereof is so apparent 
for any who hath command at sea, or for any 
who may be called to censure and judge of the 
sea affairs, that I need use no reasons to enforce 


it: only this much; this book shall make a man 
understand what other men say, and speak 
properly himself; which how convenient, comely, 
and necessary a thing it is, all men (of sense) do 
know. Should not a man be leashed, 1 being a 
hunting or hawking, if he should cry Hey--Ret,  
to the hounds, and Hook again 3 to the spaniels: 
or were it not ridiculous for a man (speaking of 
the wars) to call a trench a ditch; or at sea, the 
starboard and larboard, the right and left side 
of a ship, and yet they do imply the same, and 
both dogs and men will understand them alike. 
To understand the art of navigation is far 
easier learned than to know the practice and 
mechanical working of ships, with the proper 
terms belonging to them, in respect that there 
are helps for the first by many books, which give 
easy and ordinary rules for the obtaining to it; 
but for the other, till this, there was not so much 
as a means thought of, to inform anyone in it. 
If a man be a sufficient seaman with whom I 
converse, and yet know not how to instruct me, 
I grant he may be fit to serve his Country, but 
not his friend. But I will speak it with as much 
confidence as truth, that in six months, he, who 
would but let me read this book over with him, 
and be content to look sometimes at a model of 
a ship and see how things are done, shall (without 
any great study, but conversation) know more, 
be a better seaman, and speak more properly to 

1 Beaten with a leash. 
2 According to the N.E.D. this is an obsolete, rare word 
of obscure origin. It was used of or to spaniels when game- 
3 There seems to be no other example of this expression, 
but the point evidently is that it would only be used in 
hunting, and the other expression only in game-shooting. 


into two parts ; the boatswain and all the common 
sailors under his command, to be before the main 
mast ; the Captain, master, master's mate, gunners, 
quartermasters, trumpeters, &c., to be abaft the 
/kloof is a term used in conding 1 the ship, when 
she goes upon a tack, and is commonly spoken 
from the mouth of the condor,  to the steersman 
when he suffers the ship to fall off from the wind 
and does not keep her so near by a wind as she 
may well lie. 
&main is a term used by Men-of-War (and not 
by Merchantmen) when they encounter a ship, for 
that implies as much to the other as to bid him 
yield. Amain is used in this sense also: when 
anything is to be let down by a tackle into the 
hold or elsewhere, or that a yard is to be lowered, 
or the like. Then when they would have it come 
down as fast as it can, they call Amain, which 
is to let go that part of the rope which they held 
before, to let it down easily and by degrees. It 3 
is also an adjunct to the greatest and chiefest of 
some parts of the ship, viz., the mainmast, the 
mainsail, the main beam [and the main yard, to 
distinguish it from others of the same kind, and 
by this difference it is understood that they are 
greater than the rest]. 
In Men-of-War we use waving amain, which 
is either with a bright sword, or any other thing, 
to make a sign to them that they should strike 
their top sails; which they commonly do, either 
from the foretop, or the poop. To strike amain ; 
to let fall their top sails. 

Directing the helmsman, vide s.v. 
More usually ' conder,' but now obsolete. 
He is, of course, confusing two quite different words. 



&nchor. The form and general use of an 
anchor is commonly known, but the several parts, 
proportions, distinctions, and appellations are 
understood by very few but practised and experi- 
enced seamen. The anchor doth consist of these 
several parts: the Ring, the Eye, the Head, the 
Nut, the Beam or Arm, the Shank, the Fluke, [to 
which belongeth a Stock, by which it is made to 
take hold of the ground]. 
The proportion which it holds in itself is : the 
Shank is thrice as long as one of the Flukes, and 
half the Beam. 1 The proportion in respect of 
shipping is--To a ship of 5o0 tons we allow 2o0o 
weight for a Sheet anchor. The biggest ship in 
England's anchor, is but 330o weight. 2 The dis- 
tinctions are made by their use, according to the 
proportion they bear in the ship in which they 
are employed; for that which in one ship would 
be called but a Kedger, or Kedge Anchor, in a 
lesser, would be a Sheet Anchor. 
The sorts of anchors, which by occasion of 
their several uses receive different names and 
appellations, are: first, a Kedger, which is the 
smallest, which by reason of the lightness is 
fittest [to carry in the boat,] to stop the ship in 
kedging down a river ; the next a stream Anchor, 
which we use in deep waters to stop a tide3 
withal in fair weather. The others they call by 
the name of the first, second or third anchor, 
all these being such as the ship may ride in 
any reasonable weather, sea-gate 4 or tide. These 
are somewhat bigger one than another, and usually 

Apparently the beam is measured from tip to tip of the 
D gives 3500, i.e. 35 cwt. 
I.e. to hold the ship fast whilst the tide runs against it. 
Long, rolling swell. 


when they sail in any Straits or are near a Port, 
they carry two of these at the bow. In which 
respect they are also called by the name of the 
first, second or third Bowers. The other, which 
is the biggest, and that which the seamen call 
their last hope, and is never used but in grea.t 
extremity, is called the Sheet Anchor; this is 
the true A nchora Spei, for this is their last 
The anchor is a Cock-bell when the anchor 
hangs right up and down by the ship's side: 
and this is appointed by the Master when 
he is ready to bring the ship to an anchor. 
Let fall the anchor, that is, let it go down 
into the sea. The anchor is a peak; that is, 
when heaving up the anchor, the cable is right 
perpendicular betwixt the hawse and the anchor. 
The anchor is foul, that is, when the cable [the 
ship riding at an anchor] by turning of the ship 
is got about the fluke, which will not only cut the 
cable asunder, but make the anchor not to hold. 
And therefore whenever we come to an anchor 
where there is tide, we lay out two anchors, 
so as that, upon the turning of the tide, the ship 
may wind up clear of either anchor. Clear 
the anchor, that is, get the cable off the fluke; 
or generally, when they let fall the anchor, 
they use this term, to see that the buoy rope, 
or no other ropes belonging to the ship, do hang 
about it. Fetch or bring home the anchor, that is, 
to weigh it in the boat, and bring it aboard the 
ship. The anchor comes home, that is, when the 
ship drives away with the tide or sea; this may 
happen either because the anchor is too small 
for the burthen of the ship, or for that the ground 
may be too soft and oozy. In such places we 
use to shoe the anchor, that is, to put boards to 


them : to which may be added that the lee shore 
on every side is so soft that if a ship come aground 
she can have no hurt. [For a road, we say there 
is good anchoring where there is good ground, 
and also where] 1 they may have sea room to 
set sail if their cables break or the anchors come 
home. That place which hath all these com- 
modities, is good to ride in, and here we say is 
good anchoring or good anchorage. Bad anchoring, 
or bad anchorage is a place where all or many of 
the contrary conditions are to be found. 
[Arm. This is not used as a word of alarmn 
at sea, as it is on land, for at sea we use to say, 
' make ready the ship,' which implies the fitting of 
all things belonging to a fight. A ship that is full 
of munition, small and great, and her fights and 
ordnance well disposed and placed, is called a 
ship well armed. To arm a shot is to bind some 
oakum, rope-yarn or old clouts, &c., about one 
end; as in cross-bar shot it is most commonly 
used, that that end which goes first out of the 
piece should not catch hold in any flaws of the 
piece, whereby it be in danger to break it. The 
same we use to any kind of broken iron, of two 
or three foot long, which we use when we come 
board and board in fight, out of our great ordnance. 
We also use to arm some small shot for muskets, 
like our cross-bars.] 
An Awning is a sail or any other thing made 
of canvas or the like, which is spread over any 
part, or all of the ship, above the decks to keep 
away the sun ; that thereby, in hot countries, men 
may take the air, and yet not be so subject to 
the beams of the sun. In all hot voyages this is 
of infinite use, both to keep men from the sun 

* B reads ' or else that.' 



by day and the dews by night, which in some 
places are wonderful infectious. 
Axletree. The axletree is the same in a 
carriage 1 as in a coach or cart, and supports the 
cheeks of the carriage whereon the piece doth lie. 
Also, we call the iron which goes through the 
wheel of the chain pump (and bears the weight 
of it) the axletree of the pump. 

To Bale is to lade water out of the ship's hold 
with buckets, cans or the like. This because it is 
more labour and tires men sooner, and doth not 
deliver so much as all the pumps will, we never 
use but in great extremities, when either a leak 
doth over-grow the delivering of the pumps, or 
else that the pumps do fail us: which happens 
many times in extraordinary long pumping, that 
the pumps, with overmuch wearing, draw wind 
or chance to be stoaked, 2 or else the pump-boxes, 
irons or the like do fail us. 
Ballast is that gravel, stones, lead or any 
other goods which is laid next the keelson of the 
ship to keep her stiff in the sea. Of ballast that 
is best which is heaviest, lies closest, and fastest, 
and is driest, both for the ship's bearing a sail, 
stowing of goods, the health of the company, and 
saving of cask and other goods; whereof if a 
ship have too much, she will draw too much 
water; if too little, she will bear no sail. To 
trench the ballast; that is, to divide the ballast in 
any part of the ship's hold, which is commonly 
done, to find a leak in the bottom of the ship, or 
to unstoak [the limbers of] the ship [when the 

I.e. a gun-carriage. 2 Vide s.v. 


water which the ship makes cannot come to the 
pump]. The ballast shoots, that is, runs over from 
one side to the other; and therefore corn and all 
kind of grain is dangerous lading for that will 
shoot [and is very apt to stoak the limbers], but 
only that they make pouches, as they are called, 
that is bulkheads of boards, to keep it up fast 
that it do not run from one side to the other, 
as the ship doth heel upon a tack. 
[A Bay is when two points or headlands lie so 
far off into the sea that, drawing a straight line 
from the one to the other, there is made towards- 
the mainland a hollowness or part of a circle 
which is filled with water, be it more or less, 
that same is called a Bay unless there be any 
passage navigable through, for then it beareth 
the name of a strait, and not of a bay. But 
commonly we do not give it the name of a bay 
unless there be some eminent depth and indraught, 
as it is usually termed. And it matters not 
whether the distance betwixt the points be little 
or much, for the Bay of Biscay, the Bay of Port- 
ingale, 1 the Bay of Mexico and divers others are 
many score leagues over from headland to head- 
land, and also in depth, and Torbay  in Devon- 
shire, with many the like, is not above (blank) mile 
over.] 3 
The Beak, or Beakhead is that part which is 
fastened to the stem of the ship, and is supported 
with a knee which is fastened into the stem, and 
this is called the main knee; to this is fastened 
the collar of the main stay. In the beakhead the 
fore tacks are brought aboard, and is the proper 

The indentation of the coast between Finisterre and 
Peniche was exaggerated in old maps. 
' Tarbey.' 
Found only in D. 



stand where men do handle most part of the 
spritsails, and spritsail-topsail rigging; and this 
is also placed for the fashion and grace of the ship. 
The beakhead steeves, or stands steeving, that is, 
stands very much with the outwardmost end up 
towards the bowsprit. The beakheads of the 
Venetian Argosies and Spanish Galeons do so 
very much, by which we know them afar off. 
Beams. The beams are those great cross 
timbers which keep the ship sides asunder and 
support the decks and 1 orlops ; according to whose 
strength, a ship is much the better or worse able 
to carry ordnance. All strong and great ships 
have a tier of beams in hold, that is, a row of beams 
whereon lies no deck. The main beam is ever 
the next to the main mast, at which place we 
reckon the breadth of the ship ; and from this we 
call the beams, both forward and aftward, by 
the name of the first, second, third, &c., beginning 
from this, which we call the midship beam. 
To Bear. This word in some cases is taken in 
the ordinary sense, as for carrying much, as when 
we say a ship will bear much ordnance; that is, 
carry much by reason of her strength: also the 
bearing or stowing of much goods, from whence, 
when we describe the greatness of the ship, we 
say she is a ship of such a burthen; but this is 
used in many senses different, according to the 
.diversity of the phrases. To bear sail well, that 
is as much as to say, she is a stiff-sided ship, 
and will not cower down on a side with a great 
deal of sail. A ship to bear-out her ordnance; that 
is meant, her ordnance lie so high, and she will 
go so upright, that in reasonable fighting weather 
she will be able to keep out her lower tier, and not 

Or' in B. 


be forced to shut in her ports. One ship overbore 
the other ; that is, was able in a great gale of wind 
to carry out more sail than the other could endure 
to do, viz., a topsail more, or the like. To bear with 
the land, or with a harbour, or a ship, is to sail 
towards it, when we are to windward of it. To 
bear under the lee of a ship is when that ship 
which is to weather comes under the other ship's 
stern, and so gives the wind to her. This is the 
greatest courtesy that a ship can give another 
at sea. The piece will bear more shot or not so 
much, that is, she is over charged, or will endure 
a greater charge. The piece doth come to bear; 
a term in the use of ordnance, by which is meant 
that now she lies right with the mark. 
Bear in. When a ship sails before or with 
a large wind into a harbour, or channel, or else 
sails large towards the land, we say she bears in 
with the channel, land or harbour ; but if she sail 
close by a wind we do not use that speech. 
Bear off. When a ship would not come near a 
land or another ship but goes more roomer 1 than 
her course doth lie, we say that she bears off from 
the land. Also, when we tell how one headland, 
island, ship, or the like, doth lie from another 
(that is, upon what point of the compass) we say 
they bear right East, or West, or otherwise, one 
of another. In hoisting anything into the ship, 
if it catch hold by any part of the ship, or ordnance 
or the like, they say bear it o.ff from the ship's 
side. So if they would have the breech or mouth 
of a piece of ordnance or the like put fromward 
one, they say, bear oJJ, or bear about the breech ; 
so that generally seamen use this word 'bear off,' 
in business belonging to shipping, instead of the 

Goes more large. 



word 'thrust off,' which to the like sense is most 
commonly used amongst others. 
Bear up. This is a word we use in conding 
the ship, whenas we would have her go larger or 
more before the wind than she did. Bear up round, 
that is, to put her right before the wind, or to 
bring her by the lee: the manner of doing it is 
no more but thrusting the helm up to windward 
as far,as it will go towards the ship's side. [This 
word is much abused and misconstrued in the 
common phrase and speech of men; for when 
they encourage a man, as if they would say be 
of good cheer or be not dismayed or be coura- 
geous, they say, Bear up man, which in true sense 
is to go down the wind ; and that we use when 
a man is decaying or out of heart. But the phrase 
is taken from the manner of doing, which is the 
putting of the helm up to windward, which when 
you do the ship falls from the wind and goes 
down the wind.] 
Beds. When the decks lie too low from the 
ports, so that the carriages of the pieces with 
the trucks cannot mount the ordnance fittingly, 
but that they will lie too near the port-last, or 
gunwale, then we make a false deck, for so much 
as the piece will require for her traversing, to 
raise it higher, this we call a bed: also in the 
carriage of the piece, that plank which lies lower- 
most next the carriage under the breech of the 
piece, whereon the quoins do lie, is called the bed. 
[Also when a ship lies aground in soft ooze and 
hath settled herself as in a bed, we say she hath 
made herself a bed. This is also called docking 
of herself.] 
To Belay is to make fast any running rope 
when it is hauled as much as you would, as the 
halliards, when you hoist a yard, or the sheets or 


tacks, &c., so that it cannot run forth again till 
it be loosed. [Belay fast, belay sure; this we 
use when we would have them very carefull, 
for in some cases the slipping of a rope may be 
the loss of the ship by breaking a yard, coming 
down or fluttering out a sail, by the rising of 
the tack, or letting go the sheet.] 
A Bend is the outwardmost timber on the 
ship's side and is also called a wale: [they are 
easily known by their thickness, which makes 
them stand farther out than the planks of the 
ship's sides]. These are the chief strength of the 
ship's side, to which the futtocks and knees of 
the beams are bolted, and they are called by the 
name of the first, second, third, &c., beginning 
with that next the water. 
To Bend, or Bent, is taken in the common sense ; 
as when the shank of the anchor is with over much 
straining crooked, we say it is bent: but this is 
otherwise used, as when they say, is the cable 
bent ? ; that is, when it is seized and made fast to 
the ring of the anchor. Unbend the cable, that 
is, unbind it, which we do commonly when we 
make account to be long at sea, before we come 
into harbour. To bend two cables or ropes 
together, that is, to tie them together with a knot, 
and so to make their own ends fast upon them- 
selves. This is not so sure as splicing two ropes 
together, but it is sooner done, and most com- 
monly used when we mean to take them asunder 
again, as when a warp or any rope is too short 
for the present use. 
[A Berth is a convenient distance and room 
to moor a ship in, which being done they say 
the ship is well bertAted, intending that no other 
ships or impediments do hinder her from riding 
well; also, when they would go clear of a point, 
II. vi 

9 8 


or a rock, they say, take a good berth, that is, 
go a pretty distance off to sea-board of it.] 
[Berthing. They call the raising and bringing 
up of ship's sides the berthing of her : as they say, 
a clincher hath her sides berthed up, before any 
beams be put into her.] 
A Bight. By a bight is meant any part of a 
rope, as it is taken compassing; as when we 
cannot, or mean not to take the end in hand, be 
it of a cable, or other small rope being coiled up, 
we say givc me the bight, or hold by the bight ; that 
is, by one of the fakes, which lie rolled up one 
over another in circle-wise compassing. 1 
Bilge or Bulge. The bilge of the ship, is the 
breadth of the floor, whereon the ship doth rest 
when she is aground. A ship is bilged, that is, 
when she strikes on a rock or an anchor or the like, 
and breaks some of her timbers or planks there, 
and so springs a leak. 
Bilge-water is the water which, by reason of 
the ship's breadth and depth, lies in the bilge, 
and cannot come to the well; and therefore the 
Flemish ships, which have generally broader and 
longer floors than our ships: have, besides the 
ordinary pumps at the mmn mast, two bilge 
pumps, [and those pumps are commonly placed 
forwards-on by the bitts. When the ship is trim- 
ruing most ahead, then she holds most bilge]. 
A Bittakle is a close cupboard placed in the 
steerage before the whip or tiller, wherein the 
compass doth stand, which is not fastened together 
with iron nails, but wooden pins, because that 
iron would draw the compass so that it would 
never stand true. These are to be so contrived, 
that they may carry a candle or lamp in them to 

The last three words only appear in B. 


give light to the compass, so as they disperse no 
light [further], nor yet let any be seen about the 
A Bitter is no more but a turn of the cable 
about the bitts, which is used in this kind when 
we come to anchor in any great tide, or current, 
or wind, especially in deep water. After the cable 
is run out a convenient way, we take a turn 
with it about the bitts that we may by little and 
little veer it out at ease, for otherwise if a stopper 
should chance to fail, the cable would run all out, 
or, as the phrase is, end for end. Now this turn 
of the cable is called a bitter, and when the ship 
is by this means stopped we say the ship is 
brought .tp to a bitter. 
A Bitter-end is that end of the cable which is 
used to be within board, still at the bitts, when the 
ship rides at an anchor; so that upon occasion 
when they would have that end bent to the 
anchor, they say bend-to the bitter-end, Ewhich we 
use when we find that the other end which was 
bent to the anchor, is worn, fretted or galled]. 
The Bitts are the two main square pieces of 
timber which stand pillar-wise, commonly placed 
abaft the manger in the loof of the ship and for 
no other use but to make fast, and (as it were) to 
belay the cable unto when we ride at an anchor ; 
the lower part of them is fastened in hold to the 
riders, but the middle part doth bear [for their 
better strength], and are bolted, in great ships, 
to two beams, which cross to the bows of the 
ships ; and therefore sometimes, in extraordinary 
storms, we are fain to make fast the cable to the 
main mast for the better relieving the bitts and 
safety of the bows, which have in great road- 
steads been violently torn from the after part of 
the ship. 



Blocks are those small wooden things having 
shivers 1 in them wherein all the running ropes 
do run. There are divers kinds of blocks; as 
single blocks, double blocks, and blocks with 3, 
4, or 5 shivers in them, and they are called by 
the names of the ropes whereunto they serve, as 
the Sheet-block, the Tackle-block, the Fish-block, 
&c. Note that double blocks do p.urchase more 
than single blocks, and therefore in all places 
where we have occasion to use strength with few 
hands we have double blocks, as to the tackle of 
our ordnance. But you must note also lhat though 
double blocks purchase with more ease, yet single 
blocks do purchase faster. When we haul upon 
any tackle, halliard, or the like, to which two 
blocks do belong, when they meet and touch we 
can haul no more, and this we call block and block. 
Blow. Every one knows when the wind blows, 
but there are some speeches used at sea, which 
are not generally understood, as the wind blows 
home, or blows through; that is, when the wind 
doth not cease, or grow less till it come past 
that place: also blow through is sometimes used, 
when they think the wind will be so great that 
it will blow asunder the sails. In some places, 
as I have seen at Santa Cruz  in Barbary, 
the wind being right off the sea and a fresh gale, 
as much as we could bear our top sails, when 
we came within less than a league of the road we 
had little or no wind at all, and it is infallibly 
ever so. The natural cause whereof I could never 
find out: for it cannot be the height of the 
land [which deads the wind], since all that bay 
is low land, only the Cape, which is not very 
high; and we know that at the peaks of Teneriff 

* ' Sheevers.' * ' St. Ecruce.' 


and Fayal, 1 which are the highest lands in the 
world, it does the contrary. Nor can it be the 
heat of the land, which should duller  the wind, 
for this happens there in the winter also; and 
besides we see the contrary in hotter countries. 
When a wind increases so much that they cannot 
bear any topsails, then they use to say that they 
were blown into their courses, that is, could only 
have out those sails. It blows hard, fresh, stiff, 
high; all words easily known. When they ex- 
press an extraordinary wind, they say, it will 
blow the sail out of the bolt ropes. If the touch-hole 
of a piece be gulled 3 much powder will flame 
out, and that is also called blowing. 
Bluff or Bluff-headed 4 is when a ship hath 
but small rake forward-on, and is built with her 
stem as it were upright, which will make her 
seem as if she had a broad face, like a Venetian 
Owl. [These commonly are not well wayed  
ships forward on, for they meet the head sea too 
full without cutting it by degrees as sharper ships 
do, yet I have seen of them excellent good ships 
and fast ships by a wind.] 
Board, or aboard. By this is not only meant 
deal boards or the like, but otherwise; for when 
we use the word aboard at sea, it is as much as to 
say, within the ship. To go aboard, that is, to go 
in{o the ship. Bring the tack close aboard, that 
is, pull down the tack close to the chesstree or 
the gun-wale. Board and board, that is, when 
two ships touch each other. The weather board, 
that is as much as to say, to windward. To make 

1 ,Fiall.'  Moderate ; see Phineas Pert, p. 94- 
3 Hollowed out. 
4 The remainder is omitted in the printed edition which 
runs on with the next paragraph, omitting the catchword 
' Boat.'  ' Wade.' 



a board, or as we use to say to board it up to a 
place, is to turn to windward; which we do by 
standing sometimes one way, sometimes the other, 
for the gaining a place to windward: in which 
note that the farther you stand off upon one 
point of the compass the better board you shall 
make; and it is better making long boards than 
short boards if you have sea room. A long board 
is when you stand a great way off before you tack 
or turn. A short board is when you stand off but 
a little way. A good board is when we have got up 
much to windward, for sometimes we take a great 
deal of pains and get little, either by reason of a 
current or tide that may take her on the weather 
bow, or by reason of a head sea, which may drive 
her to leeward and hinder her way, or for that the 
ship may be a leeward ship. Sometimes again 
when it is a smooth sea, a current under the lee 
bow and a good ship by a wind, she will get a 
point or two more into the wind than we expect. 
Here note that a cross-sail ship in a sea cannot 
make her way nearer than 6 points unless there 
be tide or current which doth set to windward. 
Within board ; without board ; over-board ; by the 
board.: all terms obvious to common sense. To 
leave a land on back-board is to leave it astern or 
behind, for the back-board is that which in boats 
or skiffs we lean our backs against. In fight, to 
board a ship is to bring the ship to touch the other ; 
where you must note the advantages and dis- 
advantages of every place in boarding, and know 
that when two ships fight, the defendant may 
choose whether you shall board him or no, but 
only in the quarter, which is a bad place to board, 
for men can worst enter there, in respect that it 
is the highest part of the ship's hull, and for that 
there is only the mizen shrouds to enter by; as 


also for that ships are hottest 1 there, and men 
being entered there can do little good and are 
easily scoured off with murderers from the close 
fights. The best boarding for entering is, if you 
can, to board on the bow, for then you may quickly 
bring all your broadside to; but the greatest 
advantage for use of ordnance is to board athwart 
her hawse, for then you may use all your ordnance 
on one side and she can only use her chase and 
her prow pieces. 
Boat. The boat belonging to a ship is either 
called the ship's boat or the long-boat, and this 
is ever intended to be able to carry forth and weigh 
her sheet anchor. Other smaller boats which 
they carry for lightness to hoist in and out quickly, 
are called skiffs or shallops, according to their 
form. A good long boat will live in any grown 
sea if the water be sometimes freed, unless the 
sea break very much. The rope by which it is 
towed at the ship's stern is called the boat rope, 
to which, to keep the boat from sheering, we add 
another, which we call a guest-rope.  We do 
also to save the bows of the boat, which would 
be torn out with the twitches which the ship under 
sail would give, use to swift her, that is, make fast 
a rope round by the gunwale, and to that make 
fast the boat rope. Free the boat, that is, fling 
out the water : man the boat, that is, some men go 
to row the boat. The boat's gang, 3 that is, those 
which use to row in a boat, which are the cock- 
swain 4 and his gang, to whom the charge of the 
boat belongs, s Fend the boat, that is, save her 

1 I.e. the fire of the small-arms is concentrated there. 
2 , Gestrope.' - ' Gingge.' 4 , Cockson.' 
 D reads : ' which are one of the Boatswain's Mates ever to 
command her, and such younkers as he shall appoint ; for the 
charge of the longboat belongs to the Boatswain and his mates.' 



from beating against the ship's side. Wind the 
boat, that is, bring her head the other way. A 
bold boat, that is, one that will endure a rough 
sea well. A ship's boat is the very model of a 
ship and is built with parts in all things answer- 
able to those which a ship requires, both for 
sailing and bearing a sail, and they bear the same 
names, as do all the parts of a ship under water, 
as, rake, run, stem, stern, bow, bilge, &c. 
Bolt or Bolts are iron pins belonging both to 
the building and rigging of a ship, of which there 
are divers kinds, as ring bolts, which are of infinite 
necessary use, both for the bringing to of the planks 
and wales to the ship, as also the chief things 
whereunto we fasten the tackles and breachings 
of the great ordnance. Drive bolt, which is a 
long one to drive out another bolt or trenail by. 
Set bolts, used in the building for forcing the 
planks and other works together. Rag bolts, 
which are sharpened at one end and jagged that 
they may not be drawn out. Clench bolts, which 
are clinched with a riveting hammer, to prevent 
drawing out. Forelock bolts, which are made at 
the end with an eye, vhereinto a fore-lock of iron 
is driven over a ring to keep it fast from starting 
back. Fender bolts, which are made with a long 
head and beat into the outwardmost bend of the 
ship to save the ship's sides, if another ship 
should lie aboard her. Bolts are many times 
called according to the places whereunto they are 
used, as chain bolts, bolts for carriages and the 
like. The use of them is so great that without 
them a ship cannot be built strong, for they bind 
together all the timbers, knees, and the like, 
which do strengthen the ship. 
A Bolt-rope is the rope into which the sail is 
sewed, or made fast: that is a three-strand rope 


made gentle and not twisted so hard as the others, 
of purpose to be the more pliant to the sail, as 
also that they may sew the sail into it the 
Boltsprit. To this is fastened all the stays 
that belong to the foremast, and fore-topmast, 
and fore-topgallant, &c., with their bowlines, 
tacks, besides the rigging which belongs to his 
particular sails, which are only two: viz., sprit- 
sail, and spritsail-topsail. If a ship spend her 
boltsprit, or as the more proper speech is, if the 
boltsprit drop by the board, the foremast will 
quickly follow, if it be a rough sea, especially if 
you go by a wind [for the stay of the foremast 
is made fast to the boltsprit]. This bears the 
same proportion for length and bigness as the 
foremast doth. 
A Bonnet is belonging to another sail, but is 
commonly used with none but the mizen, main 
and fore sails, and the spritsail. I have seen 
(but it is very rare) a topsail bonnet and hold it 
very useful in an easy gale, quarter winds, or 
before a wind. This is commonly one-third as 
deep as the sail it belongs to ; there is no certain 
proportion, for some will make the mainsail so 
deep that with a shoal bonnet, they will clothe 
all the mast without a drabler : others will make 
the mainsail shoaler, that they may with foul 
weather bear it safer, and then the bonnet will 
be the deeper. Lace on the bonnet, or bring-to the 
bonnet, that is, put it to the course : lacing is here 
very proper, because it is made fast with latchets 
into the eyelet holes of the sail. Note that when 
we do speak of the sail in any correspondence to 
the bonnet, we call it the course, and not the sail : 
as we say, when a ship hath those sails out, 
' course and bonnet' of each : not ' mainsail and 



bonnet,' and ' foresail and bonnet.' Shake off the 
bonnet; that is, take it off. 
A Boom is a long pole which we use commonly 
to spread out the clew of the studding sail; yet 
sometimes also we boom out the clew of the main- 
sail and foresail to spread them out so much the 
broader to receive more wind. When we say a 
ship comes booming towards us, it is as much as 
to say she comes with all the sail she can make. 
Note that booming of sails is never used but 
quarter winds or afore a wind, for by a wind 
studding sails and booming the sails is not useful. 
In coming into harbours where the channel is 
narrow and crooked, and the land about it over- 
flown, they use to set poles with bushes, or 
baskets, at the tops to direct how men should 
steer along the channel by them: and these are 
also in many places called booms, but in some 
others they are called beacons. 
The Bow is that part of the ship which is 
broadest before, and begins from the loof till it 
come compassing about towards the stem. The 
proportioning of this part is of great importance 
for the sailing of the ship, for this first breaks 
off the sea, and is that part which bears all the 
ship forward on [when she is pressed down .with 
a sail], which is in a manner all the bearing 
of the ship. If the bow be too broad the ship 
will not pass easily through the sea, but carry a 
great deal of dead water before her ; if it be too 
lean or thin, she will pitch or beat mightily into 
a hollow sea for want of breadth to bear her up, 
so that there must be a discreet mean betwixt 
both these. The shaping of this part doth much 
import the ship's going by a wind; yet I have 
seen ships of both sorts go well by a wind, but most 
commonly those that have good bold bows, and 



cry Bowse hoa x ; that is, pull more upon the tackle, 
and then they know to pull together; and also 
when there is occasion to pull more upon one 
tackle than the other, they will say Bowse tpon 
that tackle. 
Braces. These ropes do belong to all the 
yards excepting the mizen-yard. They have a 
pendant which is seized to the yard-arms, for to 
every yard belongs two braces, and at the end of 
a pendant a block is seized through which the 
rope is reeved, which they call the brace, the use 
whereof is to square the yards and traverse the 
yards. Brace the yard to right, that is, to make 
it to stand just cross the ship, to make right angles 
with the length of the ship. All the braces do 
come afterward on, as the main brace to the poop, 
the main topsail brace to the mizen top, and so 
to the main shrouds. The fore and fore-topsail 
braces, down by the main and main-topsail 
stays; and so of the rest. The mizen bowline 
doth serve for a brace to that yard, but the cross- 
jack braces are brought forward to the main 
shrouds when we go close by a wind.] 
Brackets are certain little pieces in the nature 
of knees, which belong to the supporting of galleries 
or ship's heads. 
Brails are small ropes reeved through blocks 
which are seized on either side the ties, some 
small distance off, upon the yards, and so come 
down before the sail and are fastened to the 
cringles at the skirt of the sail: the use whereof 
is to haul up the bunt of the sail when we do 
farthell  our sails across, which are in this com- 
modious for a man-of-war that he may instantly 

' Bowes hoe.' 
Furl ; derived apparently from ' fardel,' a bundle. 


make up his sails and let them fall, if in fight he 
should fall astern: for note that in fight we 
desire to use as few sails as we can, both for the 
trouble in trimming them, for saving our sails, 
for hiding our sight, and for avoiding of fire 
which might light in them; and therefore when 
we say we will strip ourselves into our figh.ting 
sails it is meant that we have only the mizen, 
main-topsail and foresail, with which sails a ship 
will work every way. These brails do only belong 
to the two courses and to the mizen. Haul up 
the brails and brail up the sail is all one. When 
merchantmen will seem to brave a man-of-war, 
if he chase them, they will brail up their sails, 
which is as much as to make a sign they will fight 
with them.] 
Breaming is when a [boat or] ship is brought 
aground or on the careen to be trimmed, that is, 
to be made clean ; they burn off the old weeds or 
stuff which hath gathered filth. 1 This they usually 
do either with reeds, broom, old ropes or the like, 
[and then they scrape that stuff, being hot, off 
with iron scrapers; and so continuing heating 
the ship they rub the planks as clean as may be 
with dry mops, that the new stuff wherewith they 
pay the ship may stick on the better, and the 
ship be the longer before she be foul again]. 
Breech and Breeching. The breech is the 
aftermost part of the gun from the touch hole, 
which is in brass ordnance ever allowed to be as 
thick as the diameter of the bullet; and those 
ropes which are bigger than the tackles that do 
make or lash fast the ordnance to the ship's side, 
being brought about the breech of the piece, are 

' D reads: 'they burn off the weeds, stuff, filth or 
foulness which the ship hath gathered under water.' 



called breechings: these we do not use in fight, 
but at sea, and chiefly in foul weather. 
A Breeze is a wind which blows out of the 
sea and doth daily in all seasonable fair weather 
keep his course, beginning likely about nine in 
the morning and lasting till it be within little of 
night. We do not commonly call all winds that 
blow off the sea upon any coast breezes, unless 
it be there where this course is certain, or rarely 
misses but in storms and foul weather: as for 
example, here on our coast the winds are never 
certain, but on the coast of Barbary and other 
places more southerly they are certain to have 
the wind off the land all night, and off the sea 
all day. This breeze is also called a sea turn. 
EA Breast-fast is a rope which is fastened to 
some part of the ship forward on, and so doth 
hold fast the ship's head to a wharf or anything 
else, and a stern-fast is the same for the stern.] 
EBreast-ropes are the ropes which make fast 
the parrel to the yar.d.] 
A Budge-barrel IS a little barrel, not alto- 
gether so big as a barrel, which holds a hundred- 
weight of powder, and hath a purse of leather 
made at the head of it which is to shut over the 
powder to keep it from danger of] firing. We 
use to lay 1 ordnance with this in harbour for 
healths 2 and the like, but at sea we use it not 
in fight if we can get cartridges, 3 which is the 
safest way. There are also latten 4 budge-barrels, 
which are the best. 
Bulk. The bulk of a ship is her whole content 
in hold; as to say, she is a ship of a great bulk, 
1 D ' load.' 
 I.e. when firing salutes while the health of the King 
or other important personage is being drunk. 
 ' Cathrages.' 4 Brass. 


that is, will stow much goods. Sometimes it is 
taken for the merchants goods, as when they say, 
let our stock go in bulk together. To break bulk 
is as much as to say, open the hold, and sell, or 
part the goods in hold; as the Indies ships may 
sell any goods they have betwixt the decks, but 
they must not break bulk till. they have order 
from the Company, that is, they must not open 
the hold to meddle with any merchandise therein 
Bulkhead is generally any division which is 
made across the ship with boards, whereby one 
room is divided from another, as the bulkhead 
of the cabin, the bulkhead of the half deck, the 
bulkhead of the bread room, gun room, or the like. 
Bunt. The bunt of a sail is, as it were in 
comparison to the wind, the cod of the net, which 
receives all the fish, and may as well be called 
the very bag of the sail; and therefore we give 
a bunt to all sails to the intent they may receive 
much wind, which is the anirna sensitiva of a ship. 
If a sail have too much bunt it will hang too much 
to leeward, and, as they call it, hold much lee- 
ward wind [which will hinder the ship's sailing, 
especially by the wind] ; if it have too little then 
it will not hold wind enough [before a wind], 
and so not give the ship sufficient way. The 
difference is rather perceived in top-sails than 
the other, for courses are cut square, or at least 
with allowance of small compass [unless it be at 
the clew, which some give more or less according 
to their judgments and pleasure]. 
Bunt-lines are small lines which are made fast 
to the bottom of the sails in the middle part of 
the bolt rope, to a cringle, 1 and so reeved through 

* ' Creengell.' 



a small block, seized to the yard, the use whereof 
is to trice up the bunt of the sail for the better 
farthelling and making up of the sail to the yard. 
[The smaller sails and topgallant sails do not 
need them.] 
[& Buoy is that piece of wood, barrel, or the 
like, which floats right over the anchor and is 
made fast by the buoy rope unto the fluke of the 
anchor ; the use whereof is not only to take know- 
ledge where the anchor is, but also by that to 
weigh the anchor with the boat, which is sooner 
done than to weigh it with the ship. Stream the 
buoy, that is, before they let the anchor fall whilst 
the ship hath way, they put the buoy into the 
water so that the buoy rope may be stretched 
out straight, and then the anchor will fall clear 
from entangling itself with the buoy rope, and 
nothing else belonging to the ship will catch hold 
of it when it runs down with the anchor. To 
buoy up a cable, that is, to make fast a piece of 
floating wood, barrel, or the like to the cable 
somewhat near to the anchor that the cable may 
not touch the ground. This we use in foul grounds 
where we fear the cutting or galling 1 of our 
cables. There are buoys also which do not 
belong to ships, and these are left at an anchor 
in the sea to show where any danger is of sands 
or rocks; these are especially most needful to 
be used where the sands do use to alter, or where 
we can have no fitting landmarks [to direct our 
course amongst sands, rocks and the like, and 
in shoal waters where the channels betwixt the 
sands are narrow.] 
[Buoyant. When any thing is apt to float 
above water of its own natural inclination we 

Chafing. B, ' gawling.' 


say 'tis buoyant, be it cask, timber or what else 
soever. The ship is very buoyan.t ; that is under- 
stood when she is not deep m the water, as 
when she wants ballast or other loading to 
sink her with the water, and then she will not 
be stiff enough to bear so much sail as is fit. 
In this case we also use to say the ship is very 
jocant. 1] 
A Butt. By this word taken indefinitely is 
meant a vessel or cask, as a butt of wine, &c., but 
in sea language, thus: a b,tt is properly the end 
of a plank joining to another, on the outward 
side of the ship under water. To spring a butt, 
that is when a plank is loose at one end, and there- 
fore they bolt, in most great ships, all the butt- 
heads. By butt-heads is meant the end of the 
The Buttock. The breadth of the ship right 
astern from the tuck upwards; and therefore 
according as she is built broad or narrow at the 
transom or laying out of her stern, we say the 
ship hath a broad or narrow buttock. 

A Cable is a three-strand rope intended to be 
sufficient for a ship to ride by at anchor, for 
otherwise it is counted but a hawser, 2 for a great 
ship's hawser will make a small ship's cable. 
Cables have several appellations, as the anchors, 
and are called the first, second or third, as they 
grow in greatness, beginning with the last till 
it come to the sheet-anchor cable. The best 
cables are those which are made of the whitest 
stuff, and therefore the Straits cables [cables which 

1 Merry. H, ' jovant.'  B, ' hassar.' 


are bought in the Mediterranean, or the Straits 
as 'tis commonly termed,] are the best [for 
they are smaller and will hold much better than 
our ordinary cables, the only fault is they are 
so stiff that they will not bitt well]; the next, 
the Flemish and Russian 1; the last, ours. The 
making a cable is termed the laying; as to say, 
this cable was well laid. Serve the cable or plat 
the cable is to bind some old rope, clouts, or 
the like to save it from galling in the hawse. 
Splice a cable is to fasten two cables together with 
a splice. Coil a cable is to lay it up in rolls 
one above another. Cable tier is the cable so 
laid up in rolls. Pay more cable, that is, when 
they carry out an anchor and cable in the boat, 
to turn over into the sea some cable that the 
boat may row the easier, and the cable be slack 
in the water. Pay cheap, that is, fling it over 
apace. Veer more cable, that is, let more go out. 
Shot of cable, vide Shot. 
[Caburn is a small line made of spun yarn to 
bind the cables or to make a bend of two cables, or 
to seize the winding-tackles, and the like.] 
A Calm and Becalming is when, at sea, we have 
not any wind, and then we add to it these epithe- 
tons-//at, dead, or stark-calm. A calm is more 
troublesome to a seafaring man than a storm, if 
he have a strong ship and sea room enough. In 
some places, as in the Straits, when it is an extra- 
ordinary great storm with much wind and a 
wrought sea, on the sudden there will be no wind, 
but a flat calm, yet an extraordinary billow 
which is wondrous troublesome and dangerous; 
for then having no use of sail to keep her steady 
on a side, the great sea will make a ship roll so 

 B, ' Rowsie.' 


that unless she be a very fast ship in the water, 
she will be in danger to roll her masts by the 
board, or herself under water. Becalming is 
when anything takes away the wind from another ; 
as when one ship is close under the lee of another, 
the windermost 1 ship doth becalm the leeward- 
most; also when we are near the land, which 
keeps the wind from us, we say it doth becalm us. 
To Camber, or Cambering. We say a deck 
lies cambering when it is higher at the middle than 
at either end, and so doth not lie upon a right 
line. This word is most commonly applied to 
the ship's keel and beams, and other rounding 
pieces in the ship's frame. Camber-keeled is when 
the keel is bent in the middle upwards, which 
happens many times by a ship's uneven lying 
aground, when either her aftermost part or fore- 
most doth not touch: but the most common 
cause and the chiefest reason of cambering in 
great and long ships is the sharpness of the hull 
afore and abaft and the fullness of their floor 
amidships, which having more breadth to bear 
upon the water is harder to sink than both ends 
before and abaft, which by reason of their sharp- 
ness and great weight overhead, their rakes, 
which overhang the ground-work, sink faster 
into the water, and so that weight forces the keel 
and whole work in the midships to give way 
upwards, which is the main reason of these ships 
cambering, [and this is the chief cause that the 
King's ships do decay in the harbour at Chatham 
with long lying there at an anchor]. 
The Cap is that square piece of timber which 
is put over the head of any mast, with a round 
hole for to receive into it the topmast (or flag- 

1 Windward-most. 


staff) by which the topmast is kept steady; for 
if the head of the mainmast be too short, so 
that the cap stand too near the heel or bottom 
of the topmast, the topmast will never stand 
steady; and besides the weight of the topmast 
will strain the head of the mainmast so much 
that it will be in danger to spend it, or bear it 
by the board. Every mast hath a cap, if it carry 
another (or but a flag-staff), at the top. 
Cap Squares are the broad pieces of iron 
which belong to either side of the carriage of a 
piece of ordnance, to lock over the trunnions of 
the piece over which there is made fast an iron 
pin with a fore-lock [passed through it], the use 
whereof is to keep the piece from flying or falling 
out of the carriage when it is shot off, the mouth 
of it lying very low, or, as the phrase is, under 
The Capstan. There are two kinds of cap- 
stans; the first called the capstan, or the main 
capstan, and is that piece of timber which is ever 
placed right up and down next abaft the main mast, 
the foot standing in a step on the lower deck and 
the head being betwixt the two upper decks. 
The parts are these--the /oot, the spindle, the 
whelps, the barrels and the holes for the bars, to 
which also belongeth the pawl of iron. The use 
of it is chiefly to weigh our anchors and generally 
to hoist or strike-down topmasts, or to heave 
in any thing of weight, as ordnance or the like, 
or indeed to strain any rope that requires great 
force. The second is a jeer-capstan  which is 
placed in the same manner betwixt the main and 
foremast, the use whereof is chiefly to heave 
upon the jeer rope, or else to hold off by when 

i B, ' mettle.'  B, ' geer.' 


we weigh the anchor. At the foot of this there 
are whelps placed in a lesser proportion, which 
is to heave upon the voyol 1 for the help of the 
main capstan in weighing a great anchor. Come 
up capstan, that is, those at the capstan must go 
backward and slacken the rope or cable which 
they did heave at. In the same sense they also 
use these words--Launch at the capstan, that is, 
heave no more ; Pawl the capstan, that is, to stay 
it with the iron pawl which, bearing against the 
whelps, keeps the capstan from turning back. 
Capstan Bars are small pieces of timber put 
through the barrel of the capstan, through square 
holes of equal length of both sides, by which the 
men do heave and turn about the capstan. 
A Card, or Sea Card is a geographical de- 
scription of coasts, with the true distances, heights 
and courses, or winds laid down in it; not de- 
scribing any inland, which belongs to maps. The 
differences and uses of them will require a long 
discourse, and they are set down in most books 
which write of navigation, and therefore I leave 
them to those books. 
Careen. Careening is the best way of trimming 
a ship under water, both for that the carpenters 
may stand upon the scaffolds most commodiously 
to caulk the seams or do any other .thing that 
shall be requisite; also for the sang of the 
ground timbers, which, especially in ships of 
great burthen and weight, must needs be much 
wrung, though they be laid never so strong: 
besides, it is a most necessary trimming for great 
ships which are either old or weak built, and also 
for any ships that have but small floor, and are 
built so sharp under water that they will be in 

x B, ' voyall ' ; D, ' viall ' ; often spelt ' viol." 


danger of overthrowing when they shall be brought 
aground. This careening is to be done in harbour, 
where the slower the tide runs the better: and it 
is most commonly used in such places, where 
there are no docks to trim a ship in, nor no good 
graving places, 1 or else that it doth not ebb so 
much that a ship may sew dry. For the manner 
of careening it will be too long and unnecessary 
to set down all the particulars; in general, it is 
thus: they take out all, or leave but little of the 
provision, ballast, ordnance, or the like, in the 
ship ; they 2 have a lower ship by her with which 
she must be hauled down on the side and righted 
again with tackles, yet with the weight of ballast 
above, or below in hold, they do effect the chief 
force of the business and so never strain the ship's 
masts much. Note that all ships are not of a like 
condition to careen; for some ships will be very 
hard to come down though they have no ballast 
in them, and those are Flemings, built with two 
standing strakes : these must have some weight 
upon the deck to help them down and yet these 
will right themselves very easy, and therefore 
need not much in hold to help to right them. 
Some (as our English built and the like) will come 
down easy and be hard to right, and therefore 
we keep somewhat in all these (to right them) in 
hold; and having nothing on the deck, some 
will come down easily and fight themselves well. 
Some will do neither, so that there is not one way 
for all, but as we see the condition of the ship 
we fit things and work accordingly. Any kind 
of bringing the ship over to lie on one side, she 
being afloat, 3 is called careening, though it be but a 

1 D, ' places to grave a ship on.' 
2 D, ' and you must.' 3 D, ' on float.' 


few strakes ; as we say, she was careened three, 
four or five strakes. If a ship lie down much 
with a sail they will say, she sails on the careen. 
Carlings are those timbers which lie alongst 
the ship from one beam to another, which do not 
only serve to help strengthen the ship, but on them 
the ledges do rest whereunto the planks of the 
deck are fastened. 
Carling-knees are those timbers which come 
thwartships from the ship's sides to the hatchway, 
which is betwixt the two masts. These do bear 
upon them the deck on both sides the mast, and 
on their ends do lie the coamings of the hatches. 
A Carriage is that whereon we mount our 
ordnance, the parts whereof are the two cheeks, 
the axletrees, the bolts, the cap-squares, the hooks, 
the fore-locks, the trucks, and the linch-pins 1; 
vide every one of these in his proper place. The 
fashion of those carriages we use at sea are much 
better than those of the land, yet the Venetians 
[and Spaniards] and divers others use the other 
in their shipping. [I think it rather for that they 
want good timber for to make them after the 
fashion of ship carriages than that they approve 
more of the field carriages, for only elm doth make 
them, whereof they have none.] A piece carries 
a shot well, that is, shoots far and right, which is a 
sign that she is smooth Ewithin] and well metalled. 
A Cartridge is a bag made of canvas which is 
reasonable good, being made upon a former, the 
diameter whereof must be somewhat smaller than 
the cylinder 2 of the piece, and of such a length 
or depth as that it shall contain just so much 
powder as is the charge of the piece. This is 
wondrous necessary for our great ordnance [in 

1 , Lins pins.' * B, ' sillender ' ; D, ' cilinder.' 



fight both for speedy lading our ordnance] and 
also for saving the powder, which is in danger to 
be fired if in fight we should use a ladle [and 
carry a budge-barrel about the ship]. These 
cartridges are many times made of paper, parch- 
ment, or the like, but are not so good as the other. 
There are also other cartridges, or more properly 
they are to be called cases for cartridges, which 
are made of latten, in which we use to put these 
other cartridge.s to bring alongst the ship so much 
the safer from fire, till we put them into the piece's 
mouth ; which is a care that in fight there cannot 
be too much diligence and order used. 
[Carvells are vessels which go with mizen- 
sails 1 instead of main-sails: They have three 
mizens: the main mizen, which belongs to the 
mainmast;the after  mizen and bonaventure 
mizen as in some of the King's ships; but they 
have foremast and boltsprit rigged in every sort 
like other ships. These will lie nearer the wind 
than cross sails, but are not so commodious to 
handle. We have here little use of them, and 
therefore I speak not much ; but they are excellent 
boats by a wind, and chiefly used by the Portugals. 
There are some of a smaller sort, as many belonging 
to Peniche, a which have only mizens and sail 
excellently well, and will lie within four points 4 
of the wind.] 
[Carvell-work. The building of ships first 
with their timbers and beams and after bringing 
on their planks is called carvell-work to distin- 
guish it from clinch-work.] 
A Case is commonly made round of wood, 
hollowed and fit for the bore of the piece, by which 
1 I.e. lateen sails.  B, ' ater ' ; It, ' offer.' 
 ' Penecha,' on the coast of Portugal near Cape Carvoeiro. 
4 H, ' a point.' 


most conveniently we can put murdering shot 
into the piece. We likewise use bags to the same 
purpose, but they are not so convenient as wooden 
cases, because they are apter to catch hold by the 
way in the flaws of the pieces" also some call the 
sheathing of a. ship, the casing of her. 
Case-shot is any kind of old iron, stones, 
musket-bullets or the like which we put into 
cases to shoot out of our great ordnance. These 
are of great use and do much execution amongst 
men that ply their small shot [upon the upper 
deck] when we come near or lie board and board. 
Caskets 1 are small strings made of sinnet, 
flat. They are made fast to the upper part of 
the yards, in little rings which they call grommets. 
Their use is to make fast the sail to the yard when 
we farthel it up. The biggest and longest are 
placed just in the middle of the yard betwixt 
the ties; these make up the bunt of the sail and 
are termed the breast caskets. 
Cat. The cat is a piece of timber fastened 
aloft right over the hawse, and hath at the end 
thereof two shivers wherein is reeved a rope with 
a block, whereunto is fastened a great hook of 
iron after the manner of a double tackle. The 
use is to trice up the anchor from the hawse to 
the top of the forecastle, where it is fastened with 
a stopper. Cat the anchor is to hitch that hook 
in the ring of the anchor. 
Catharpings are small ropes which run in 
little blocks, like a minim,  from one side of the 
shrouds to the other near the upper  deck ; the use 
whereof is to force the shrouds tauter for the 
better ease and safety of the mast in the rolling 

Now usually spelt ' gasket.' 
This word is omitted in D. 

 ' Mynom.' 


power, force, and aptness they have to keep the 
mast steady, as is obvious and plain to sense]. 
A Chamber is a charge made of brass or iron 
which we use to put in at the breech of any 
murderer or fowler, and contains just so much 
powder as is fit for to deliver away the murdering 
or case shot contained in that piece: also the 
chamber of a great piece of whole ordnance is 
counted so far or so much of it as doth contain 
the whole charge it hath. 
Channel. By channel is meant the deepest 
part of any river or harbour's mouth; as when 
we say steer in the channel, is meant the deepest 
part of the river. In places where there are loose 
sands the channels do alter much according to 
extraordinary winds which come and drive the 
sands with the sea, sometimes on one side, some- 
times on the other ; as when I came into Mamora  
the channel lay E.S.E. and W.N.W., but in two 
months after, by reason of a fresh shot  it changed 
to lie in E.N.E. and W.S.W., which is five points 
of the compass difference]. Sometimes we also 
call narrow seas channels, as the English Channel 
betwixt France and England and Saint George's 
Channel betwixt England and Ireland : but being 
in those seas, if we say steer into the channel it is 
meant in the middest of the sea. 
Charge. We use to say, charge a musket, but 
load or lade a piece of ordnance. A ship of great 
charge is commonly meant by a ship that draws 
much water, and sometimes for an unwieldy ship 
that will not wear or steer, for then she is dangerous 
and chargeable upon a lee shore : also every man's 
office in a ship is called his charge. 
Chase. When a man-of-war doth follow any 

i Mehedia, on the coast of Morocco.  Freshet. 


ship out of his course, or else when any other ship 
doth alter her course so as to use all the means 
they can to fetch up and speak with another ship, 
we call that chasing : and the ship so followed we 
call the chase, as (meaning by her) we say, the chase 
stands thus, or the chase hath taken in her top- 
sails, or the chase is struck a hull, &c. There is 
a great experience and judgment 1 to be used in 
chasing, for though two men be equally mariners 
and know how to sail and direct the ship [alike], 
yet if one be a practical man of war  and the other 
not, the man of war will do much better. The 
pretence in any chasing is to make the shortest 
way of it that they can; which is by judging 
of the chase's course so to shape yours that you 
may meet in the nearest angles. There is no 
certain rule for chasing, for we must many times 
be ruled by the condition of our ship; as if the 
chase clap close by a wind, it being a head sea, 
and the man of war's ship be a short ship that 
beats  much into the sea, and a leeward ship, then 
if he clap close by a wind his ship will make no 
way and therefore he must go a little more large, 
though he chase under the lee of the other Ethat 
he may fore-reach upon]. In chasing we always 
covet to get to windward in respect that it is 
advantage in fight, and for that we cannot board 
a ship, being to leeward; but sometimes, as if it 
be towards night, to keep sight of the ship or the 
like, we_must be content to come under his lee 
and get as near as we can. The stern chase ; that 
is, when we follow her right astern, and she and 
we go right upon one point of the compass [and 
1 D reads: 'There is great skill and judgment (which is 
gained by practice and experience).' 
* Here used in its literal and apparently original meaning. 
3 D, H, ' bears ' ; Z, ' beats off too.' 


this is the longest chase, that is the longest time 
spent before we can fetch her up]: to lie with 
her fore-foot is the nearest and shortest ; that is, 
as you would say, to lie just across her way, so 
that both keeping on their courses they shall meet 
at a certain point. Chase pieces are those which 
lie right forward or right aftward on. \Vhen we 
say that a ship hath a good chase indefinitely, it 
is meant of her chase forward ; and that is when 
she is so contrived that she can carry many 
pieces to shoot right forward, for to tile other 
tt.ley ever use to add the word stern chase. Tile 
pieces of ordnance which lie right forward on 
are called chase pieces. 
Cheeks are two pieces of timber vhich are 
fitted on each side of the mast from beneath the 
hounds to the upper end of the mast, and they 
are made of oak to strengthen tile mast there- 
abouts, both for the bearing of the topmast and 
hoisting tile yard. In these are tile hounds made 
for the ties to run in. The knees which fasten 
the beakhead to the bow of tile ship are called 
cheeks: also tile sides of any blocks are called 
the cheeks. Likewise the sides of the carriages 
where the trunnions of the pieces do lie, are 
called the cheeks oJ the carriages. 
Chess-trees are the two small pieces of timber 
with a hole in them in which the main tack doth 
run, and to which the tack is hauled down. These 
are placed a little abaft the loof of the ship ; tile 
one on the one side, the other on the other. 
Chinching is, as you would say, a slight caulking 
and is most used when we are at sea and suspect 
foul weather so that we may take in water at 
tile ports. \Ve use to command the carpenter 
to chinch the ports; that is, to drive a little 
oakum into tile seams of the ports which may 


be done, to serve turn, x either within board or 
without board. 
Choke. When a running rope sticks in the 
block either by slipping betwixt the cheek and 
the shiver; or by any other occasion that any- 
thing be got about it ; or that it have a kink so 
that it cannot run and be hauled through; we 
say the block is choked. 
[Clamps are those thick timbers which lie 
fore and aft, close under the beams of the first 
orlop, and do bear them up at either end, and are 
the same that the risings are to the other decks; 
vide Risings.] 
A Cleat is a small wedge of wood fastened 
on the yards to keep any ropes from slipping by 
where that is fastened. There are also divers 
other uses of it, as to keep the earing of the sail 
from slipping off the yard. 
Clew. The clew of a sail is the lower corner 
of the sail, which reaches down to the place where 
the tacks and sheets are made fast to the sail, 
and it is counted that part which comes goring  
out from the square of the sail towards the lower 
corner. When a sail is much goring then she 
hath a great clew; when a little goring then she 
hath a little clew. When it is cut right square 
then it hath no clew and yet that lower corner 
ot the sail shall retain the name of the clew of 
the sail. A ship spreads a great clew; that is, 
hath very broad yards and so spreads much 
canvas. It is good to allow a good clew to a 
main sail, for by that means the tack will come 
the better aboard, and the sheet will come farther 
aft, whereby the sail will hold more wind. 
Clew garnet is a rope which is made fast to 

 To suffice for the purpose. 2 Vide s.v. 


Coaks i are little square things of brass with 
a hole in them, put into the middle of some of 
the greatest wooden shivers to keep them 
from splitting and galling by the pin of the block 
whereon they turn. 
Coamings. The coamings or coaming of the 
hatches, or the gratings, is that piece of timber 
or plank which bears them up higher than the 
decks so as that they do not lie even with the 
deck; the uses whereof are to keep the water 
from running down at the hatches and to give 
some ease for men to stand upright betwixt the 
lower decks, if the decks be low and near together ; 
and also in the coamings they may fit holes for 
to use muskets and to serve for a close-fight. 
[Coats. Those pieces of tarred canvas which 
are put above the masts at the partners, and the 
pumps at the deck, that no water may run down 
by them, are called coats. The same is used to 
the rudder-head.] 
A Coil," or a coil of ropes is a rope laid up 
round, one fake over another ; as a coil of cable, 
that is, a cable coiled up. But sometimes the 
word coil is taken for a whole rope coiled, so that 
if half the rope is cut away, they say there is 
but half a coil of that rope. 
To Coil is to lay the fakes of a rope round over 
one another so that when occasion is they may 
run out smooth without any kinks and also lie 
handsomely in the ship; and many of the small 
running ropes, as the braces, topsail halliards, or 
the like, we hang up at the ship's sides when they 
are so coiled. It is a manner at sea every night 
when they set the watch, to coil up all the ropes 

x I)  cockes.' 
 ' Quoyle ' ; in the original placed under ' Q.' 


in order that so they may have them all clear to 
come by in the night, if they have occasion to use 
any of them. 
The Collar is that rope which is made fast 
about the beak-head, whereunto the dead man's 
eye is seized unto which the main stay is fastened. 
There is also a rope about the mainmast-head 
which is called a collar or a garland, and is there 
placed to save the shrouds from galling. 
The Comb is a small piece of timber set under 
the lower part of the beak-head, near the midst, 
with two holes in it; and is just in the nature 
and hath the same use to the fore tacks that the 
chess-trees hath to the main tacks; which is, 
to bring the tack aboard. 
Compass is that movable instrument with a 
fly 1 whereon are described the 32 points or winds, 
by which we direct and steer our courses at sea. 
The fashion is known to all, and for the uses they 
are handled at large in many books which write 
of navigation. There are three kinds; first the 
plain meridional compass, which is the ordinary 
one; the second a compass oJ variation, which 
shows the variation of the compass from the 
true north and south ; the third is a dark compass, 
which, being but an ordinary compass in use, is 
only so called because the fly hath the points 
described with no colours, as the other are, but 
only black and white, being most convenient to 
be seen when we steer by night without any light 
but only sky-light. 
To Cond or Cun. I think this word comes of 
conducere in Latin, for it imports as much as to 
lead or direct the ship which way she shall go; 
it is commonly pronounced thus: curt the ship, 


II. K 



which implies as much as to direct him at the 
helm how to steer. In long courses when we ale 
off at sea there is not so much heed taken of it, 
for then they direct their course upon a point 
of the compass and so let him at the helm look to 
steer fight on that point ; but in chases and narrow 
channels, where the course lies not directly lpon 
a point of the compass, there the master, mate, 
or some other standing aloft doth give direction 
to him at the helm and this we call conding or 
cunning. Sometimes he who conds the ship will 
be speaking to him at helm at every little yaw; 
which the sea-faring men love not, as being a kind 
of disgrace to their steerage; then in mockage 1 
they will say, sure the channel is narrow he conds 
so thick, whereby you may gather that in narrow 
channels it is necessary and useful to cond thick 
[because the points and shelves do lie so near 
that there cannot a long time be given for a ship 
to run 2 on, lest she should miss working]. Note 
that according as the ship's sails are trimmed 
either before or by a wind so they use several 
terms [in conding]; and to lse others were 
improper and ridiculous amongst them. If the 
ship go before a wind or (as they term it) betwixt 
two sheets, then he who conds uses these terms 
to him at the helm: starboard, larboard, the helm 
amidships. Note that when we say starboard, 
the meaning is that he must put the helm to the 
starboard side, and then the ship will go to lar- 
board, for the ship doth ever go contrary to the 
helm. If the ship go by a wind, or quarter winds, 
they say aloof or keep your loof, or fall not off, 
wear  no more, keep her to, touch the wind, have a 

Obsolete form of ' mockery ' ; II reads ' mocking.' 
It, ' come.'  D, It, ' veer.' 


care oJ the lee-latch ; all these do implytheTsame 
in a manner, and are to bid him at thehelm 
to keep her near the wind. Ease the helm; no 
nearer, 1 bear up; these words do appoint him 
to keep her from the wind and make her go 
more large or right before. Some speeches are 
common to both; as steady, that is, keep the ship 
from going in and out, but just upon the point 
that you are to steer, and as you go, and such like. 
Cook Room. The cook room is the place 
where they dress their victuals, and this room is 
to be placed in divers parts of the ship according 
to the ship's employment. In Merchantmen, 
who must employ all their hold for the stowing 
of their goods and so stow their victuals betwixt 
the decks, it is best to have the cook room in the 
forecastle, especially being contrived in furnaces 
for the saving of wood in long journeys; as also 
for that in fight they bring their stern and not 
their prow to fight, and therefore it will be the less 
discommodity to them: besides they do not 
carry so much ordnance forward on, and therefore 
the weight of the cook room is not so offensive. 
But in a man-of-war it is most inconvenient to 
have it in the foreship or forecastle. My reasons 
these : 
() It will (be it placed as well as can be) 
hinder the use of the ordnance. 
(2) It will lie over the powder. 
(3) Being a man-of-war pretends to fight 
most with his prow, that part is likeliest to 
receive shot, which if any chance to come amongst 
the bricks of the cook room they will spoil more 
men than the shot; and besides the cook room 
itself for that voyage is spoiled, there being no 

x, no neere.' 



means to repair it at sea, and then they must 
needs use another, so that I think no man of 
discretion will commend or use that for most 
sufficient which is most subject to be destroyed 
and cannot be repaired. 
(4) A man-of-war ever carries much ordnance 
there, and therefore it is fit to avoid (as much as 
may be) any weight that may charge her fore- 
(5) It is dangerous for firing 1 the ship; 
for being made up to the ship's sides so that men 
cannot go round about it, in long continuance and 
much heating they may fire the ship unawares. 
(6) It takes away the grace and pleasure of 
the most important and pleasantest part of the 
ship; for any one who comes aboard a man-of- 
war will principally look at her chase, being the 
place where the chief offensive force of the ship 
should lie. 
And to conclude, I do not know any commodity 
it can give to a man-of-war; wherefore in my 
opinion the best placing the cook room is in the 
hatchway, upon the first orlop (not in the hold 
as the King's ships do, which must needs spoil 
all the victuals with too much heating the hold, 
or at the least force them to stow it so near the 
stem and stern that it must needs wrong and wring 
the ship much and lose much stowage). It being 
there placed, as it doth avoid all the former in- 
conveniences both of the hold and the forecastle, 
and yet shall be as serviceable; so hath it this 
benefit more--that it doth wonderfully well air 
the ship betwixt the decks, which is a great 
health unto the company. But if I were to go 
to sea as a man-of-war I would have no cook 

I.e. setting her on fire. 


room at all but such a one as I would contrive 
to be removed and struck 1 down in hold if I 
list ; and yet it should waste no more wood than 
these do, and dress sufficient victuals for the 
company and roast or bake some competent 
quantity for the Commander or any persons 
of quality. 
Cordage. All kind of ropes belonging to 
the rigging of a ship is by a general appellation 
called cordage. 
Counter is the hollow arching part in the ship's 
stern, betwixt the transom and the lower part 
of the gallery, which is called the lower counter; 
the upper counter is from the gallery to the lower 
part of the upright of the stern. 
Course is taken for that point of the compass 
which the ship is to sail upon; as to say, the 
place we must now go to lies East, we then direct 
our course East. Alter the course, that is, sail upon 
another point of the compass ; mistake the course, 
that is, not to know how the land lies or which 
way to go. Also main course and fore course, 
mizen course are the sails without the bonnets. 
Note all ships of great burden have double courses 
to hold more wind and give the ship more way 
in a fresh gale, but in an easy gale they hinder, 
as do all things that are weighty overhead. 
A Crab is an engine of wood with three claws 
placed on the ground just in the nature of a 
capstan, being placed and most commonly used 
where they build ships for the launching out or 
heaving in of a ship into the dock or off the quay. 
A Cradle is a frame of timber brought along 
the outside of the ship by the bilge, wherein they 
do launch ships for their greater safety. In 

' Strooken.' 


Spain and other places they use to trim all their 
[great] ships in them. 
Craft is any kind of nets or lines or hooks to 
catch fish, for at sea they will say, when they 
have lost their lines or nets, that they have lost 
their craft. We all call small vessels as ketches, 
hoyes, crays and the like, small craft, and he that 
sails in them we say he uses small craft. 
Crank. We say a ship is crab, k-sided xvhen 
she will bear but small sail, and will lie down 
very much with little wind; the cause thereof 
is that her breadth 1 being laid too low she hath 
nothing to bear her up when once she begins to 
heel. We also say she is crank by the ground when 
she cannot be brought aground but in danger to 
overthrow; the reason whereof is she hath no 
bilge to bear her, her floor being laid too narrow. 
Cringles are little ropes spliced into the 
bolt-ropes of all sails belonging to the main and 
fore mast, unto [those which are put to the sides 
or leech of the sail] the bowline bridles are made 
fast; and [those which are put to the bottom of 
the sail are] to hold by when we shake off [or lace 
on] a bonnet. 
Cross-bar is a round shot with a bar of iron 
(as it were) put through the middle coming out 
at both ends. some 6 or 8 inches more or less. 
This will not fly so far as a round shot but further 
than a langrel or chain shot: it is very good 
to use in fight, for the cutting and spoiling of 
ropes, sails, yards and masts; as also to do 
execution amongst men where they stand plying 
their small shot ; but it is not used under water 
for that it will hardly go through a good ship's 
sides unless it be used out of very great ordnance. 

I.e. greatest breadth amidships. 


[Cross-jack is a yard at the upper end of 
the mizen mast under the top and there is 
slung, having no halliards nor ties belonging to it ; 
the use whereof is to spread and haul on the 
mizen-topsail sheets.] 
Cross-piece is the great piece of timber which 
goes across the bitt pipes, and is that whereunto 
we belay the cable. 
Cross-trees are those cross pieces of timber 
which are set on the head of the mast [being 
bolted] and let into one another very strong. 
In a general appellation all those four 1 pieces, 
being so made and put together, are called the 
cross-trees, but in truth and more strictly only 
those two pieces which go thwart ships are called 
cross-trees and the other which go longst ships are 
called trestle trees,  the use whereof is to bear 
and keep up the topmast; for the foot of the 
topmast is fastened in them so that they bear 
all the stress. These also do bear upon them the 
tops, and do necessarily belong to all masts which 
carry any other top or flagstaff at the head. 
Crow-feet are those small lines or ropes vhich 
stand in 6, 8, IO or more parts, being so divided 
and put through the holes of the dead-man's-eye. 
They are of no necessity, but only set up by the 
boatswains to make the ship show full of small 
rigging, and are placed to the bottom of the back 
stays of the fore-topmast, spritsail-topmast, mizen 
topmast and the topgallant masts. 
Cubbridge-head is the same that is a bulk- 
head, only that we use this word to the bulkhead 
of the forecastle and the half deck, which we call 
the cubbridge head afore or the cubbridge head 

Fore."  ' Tressell.' 


the wind doth not blow home as at Santa Cruz 
in Barbary where some have rid such a road 1 
that the sea hath broke over their foretop and 
yet not a breath of wind. At sea they cut the 
masts on these occasions, when an extraordinary 
gust or storm hath so laid the ship on side that 
there is no hope that she can right again, and so 
would quickly be overset or filled with water. 
Then in cutting the mast, first cut the lee shrouds, 
for else when the mast is overboard it will be 
hard cutting them, and the end of the mast may 
chance to beat out the ship's side. Next cut a 
little into the weather side of the mast, and then 
cutting the weather shrouds the mast will instantly 
and without danger fall overboard. Likewise at 
sea in a great storm where the ship rolls much, 
if the partners give way the mast will roll out 
the ship's sides. In this case also, if they cannot 
be mended, the mast must be cut by the board. 
Cut-water. The cut-water is the sharpness of 
the ship before, which doth (as it were) cut the 
water and divide it before it comes to the bow, 
so that it may come by degrees and not too 
suddenly to the breadth of the ship, otherwise the 
ship would beat so full against the water that she 
would make but little way; and therefore many 
times when a ship is too bluff we put-to a false 
stem, and as it were lengthen her forward on ; and 
this we call a cut-water, which will not only 
make her sail better but also make her keep a 
better wind and not to beat so much against a 
head sea. 
The Cylinder.  The bore or hollow concave 
of a piece of ordnance is called the cylinder. 

I.e. at an anchor. 
' Sillinder ' ; found under ' S,' but in B and Z only. 


The Davit is a piece of timber having a notch 
at one end whereon they hang a block by a strap ; 
and this is only used to hang that block on, which 
is called the fish block, by which they haul up 
the fluke of the anchor to the ship's bow or loof. 
It is shifted to either side as they have occasion, 
and is not made fast to the ship, but laid by till 
it be used. It is put out betwixt the cat and the 
loof. Launch out or launch iz the davit ; that is, 
put it out or in. Also the boat hath a davit 
which is set out over the head of the boat with a 
shiver into which they bring the buoy rope to 
weigh the anchor, and it stands in the carlings 
that are in the boat's bow. 
Dead-men-eyes are a kind of blocks wherein 
there are many holes but no shivers, wherein the 
lanniers go that make fast the shrouds to the 
chains. The main stays in some ships are set 
taut by lanniers in dead-men-eyes, but most great 
ships use double blocks. The crow-feet do reeve 
through dead-men-eyes. 
[Dead-water. The water which is the eddy 
water at the stern of the ship is called dead-water ; 
and therefore we say a ship holds much dead-water, 
that is which hath a great eddy following her at 
the stern or rudder, and this may be called dead 
because it doth not pass away with that life and 
quickness as the other doth. Note that if a ship 
hath much dead-water it is a sign that she is not 
well wayed (? aftward) on, and by this we judge 
of the ship's sailing, for no ship sails swift or well 
that hath much dead-water astern.] 
Deck. The deck is that floor of plank where- 
on we place our ordnance. It lies upon the beams. 
They are called by the name of first, second or 


third deck, beginning at the lowest : also there is 
the half deck, that is the deck which is from the 
mainmast to the steerage1; and quarter deck, 
which is from the steerage aloft to  the master's 
cabin. There is also the spar deck, which is upper- 
most betwixt the two masts, and is made very 
slight, with a netting or slight boards towards the 
sides of the ship, and a grating in the midst. 
Also the decks are called by the name of orlops, 
as they use to say, the first or second orlop. A 
flush deck, or as they use to say, a deck flush ]ore 
and aJt; that is, when from stem to stern it lies 
upon a right line without any fall. Note that the 
best contriving of a man-of-war is to have [the 
decks flush and to have] all her ports on that 
deck on an equal height so as that every piece 
may serve any port: the reasons are, for that 
the decks being flush, men may pass fore and aft 
with much more ease for the delivering powder 
and shot, or relieving one another, but chiefly for 
that if a piece or two be dismounted by shot in 
any place where there is a fall, another cannot be 
brought to supply its place; besides this dis- 
commodity, that by disjoining the equal bearing 
part of the ship the ship is much weakened, and 
also it loseth much stowage in the sternsheets : 
yet there may be some use of these falls to a mer- 
chantman for his defence, who may fit a close- 
fight out of every fall ; and though he lose one part 
of his deck, yet he may still keep more to be gained 
from him. The deck cambers, that is, when it doth 
not lie flat, but compassing. To sink a deck, or to 
let Jall a:deck, is to remove it and place it lower. 
To raise a deck is to put it higher above water. 
The making of a deck is termed the laying of a deck. 

reads ' stern.' 2 It reads ' over.' 



Deep-Sea-Lead is the lead which is hung at 
the deep-sea-line to sink it down, the weight 
whereof is commonly 14 pounds. This has some 
white hard tallow laid upon the lower end of it 
which brings up the ground, and so by the differ- 
ences of the ground we know where and upon what 
coast we are lit being in such places as the sounding 
and ground is formerly known]. But in oozy 
ground we use a white woollen cloth upon the lead 
with a little tallow, without which cloth the ooze 
would not stick unto the tallow. 
Deep-Sea-Line is a small line with which we 
sound in deep waters to find ground; and so 
according to the depth and ground in many 
known places, as in the coming into our Channel 
and many other places, when we can see no land 
yet we know where we are. 
[To Disembogue is as much as to say, to 
come out of the mouth of any gulf, which being 
larg.e within may have some strait or narrow 
coming out ; being used thus :--when they come 
out of the West Indies betwixt Cuba and Cape 
Florida, which is the strait whereout the current 
doth set, they say they disembogued out of the 
gulf; but it is not used for the going out of a 
harbour or the like.] 
To Dispert. I)isperting is the finding out of 
the difference of the diameters of the metals 
betwixt the breech and the mouth of any piece 
of ordnance, by which we know what allowance 
to give to the mouth of the piece (being ever less 
than the breech) that thereby we may make a 
just shot. There are divers ways, but the plainest 
is the surest and best, which is by putting in a 
straw, or small stick, at the touch-hole to the 
lower side of the concave or cylinder of the piece, 
and then apply it in the same manner to the mouth 


and it will exactly show the difference of the 
thickness of the metal at the breech and mouth 
of the piece. 
Dock. There are two kinds of docks: a dry 
dock, which is made with flood gates to keep out 
the tide, in which we build ships and repair them, 
wherein they sit without danger and harm: the 
other is a wet dock, which is any creek or place 
where we may haul in 1 a ship out of the tide's way 
in the ooze; and there, when a ship has made 
herself, as it were, a place to lie in, we say the 
ship hath docked herselJ. 
A Drabler, vide Bonnet, for this is in all 
.respects the same to the bonnet that the bonnet 
is to the course. This is only used when the 
course and bonnet are too shoal for to clothe the 
mast. Some small ships which are coasters (and 
therefore are for most convenience to have short 
courses) do use two drablers. 
Drags. Anything that is hung over the ship 
in the sea, as shirts, gowns and the like, as also 
the boat in that respect, all which do hinder the 
ship's way under sail, are called drags. 
Draught. By draught in water is meant so 
many foot as the ship goes in water. [A ship 
draws much water, that is, goes deep in water.] 
A ship of small drazght ; that is, draws but little 
water. Note that ships of great draught are com- 
monly wholesome ships in the sea, and ships of 
little draught commonly go best but roll most. 
The first is best for a long voyage Elf it be not upon 
a shoal coast], the last for a discovery. 
A Dredge is an engine wherewith they take up 
oysters out of the sea, being made of a frame of 
iron sharp at the bottom, and a very strong net 

and It read ' lay.' 


of a small compass fastened to it to contain the 
oysters or anything else which the iron rakes off 
the ground.] 
To Dredge, or Dredging, is to take a little 
grapnel, which being hung over the boat's stern, 
we let down to drag upon the ground to find a 
cable which hath been let slip, unto whose anchor 
there was no buoy; for this, passing along the 
ground as the boat doth row, will catch hold of it 
if it meet with it. 
[A Drift Sail is a sil used under water, being 
veered out right ahead, having sheets to it ; the 
use whereof is to keep a ship's head right upon 
the sea in a storm ; also it is good where a ship 
drives in fast with a current, to hinder her driving 
in too 1 fast; but it is most commonly used by 
fishermen in the North Sea. The manner of it is 
thus : fasten the head of it to some yard, and at 
either clew hang a chamber or some competent 
weight which may sink the sail downright, but 
not to be so heavy as to sink the yard.] 
Drive. We say a ship drives when we let fall 
the anchor and it will not hold the ship fast, but 
that she falls away with the tide or wind; for 
which we have no help but to veer more cable, for 
you must note that the more cable is out the faster 
and surer the ship will fide, or else to let fall more 
anchors. Also when a ship is a-hull or a-try,  
we say, she drives to leeward, or drives in with the 
shore, and the like, according to the way she makes. 
Duck-up. This term is used with the clew- 
garnets and clew-lines of the mainsail, foresail 
and spritsail, when as the mainsail or foresail 
doth hinder his sight forward that steers, or any 
1 D, H, ' so.' 
 Lying to under bare poles (a-hull), or with a minimum 
of sail set (a-try). 


the like occasion. And to the spritsail most 
commonly when we make a shot with a chase 
piece, for the clew of the spritsail will hinder the 
sight, and being not ducked up will be shot away, 
so then we say, duck up the clew-lines. 

Earing is that part of the bolt-rope which at 
all the four corners of the sail is left open, as it 
were a ring. The two uppermost are put over 
the ends of the yards or yard arms, and so the 
sail is at those two ends made fast to the yard. 
Into the lowermost the tacks and sheets are 
seized, or (as the more proper term is) they are 
bent unto the clew. 
To Ease. This word is used in the same sense 
at sea as otherwise we use the word slack, for 
generally when we would have any rope slacker 
and not so hard strained, we say ease it ; as ease 
the bowlines, sheets, &c. Only, when the tack 
should be slackened, the proper term is let rise 
the tack, which is a very fit term in respect that 
the tack being loosed it rises up from the chess- 
trees unto which it was hauled close. 
An Eddy is the running back of the water in 
some place contrary to the tide, and so falling 
into the tide again, which happens by reason of 
some headland or great point in a river coming 
out suddenly, and so hindering the full passage 
of the water, which it had in the channel before 
it came to this point. [So the eddy-water which 
hangs astern at the rudder of a ship under sail is 
so much the more by how much the ship is made 
fuller and her work not carried by even proportions 
in her run, which is a cause that she cannot sail so 
swift as otherwise she would.] 



An Eddy-wind is that wind which recoils or 
returns back from any sail, house, or the like, 
going contrary to that wind whence it proceeds, 
but is never so strong as the other. 
End for End. That is a term used when any 
rope doth run all out of the block so that it is 
unreeved; or as when a cable or hawser doth 
run all out at the hawse, which may happen either 
of purpose to save the cable or by chance when 
coming to an anchor, if they should miss laying 
on the stoppers, or that the stoppers should break ; 
then they say the cable at the hawse is run out 
end for end. 
Enter. To enter is to come into a ship; but 
in fight they must be careful to clear the decks 
with fire pots or the like, if it be possible, from the 
trains of powder before men do enter, for it 
happens many times that there are more men 
lost in a minute by entering than in long fight 
board and board; and therefore being so dan- 
gerous it is fit that men should be well advised 
first, though many times if a ship is not well 
provided of close fights it is the speediest and 
safest way of taking her. 
Entering Ladder. Of these there are two sorts ; 
the one which is used by the ship's side in harbour 
and fair weather, with entering ropes to it ; this 
is all made of wood. The other is made of ropes, 
with small staves for steps, which is hung over 
the gallery for entering out of the boat in foul 
weather when, by reason of the ship's heaving 
and setting, they dare not bring the boat to the 
ship's side for fear of staving. 
Entering rope is the rope which hangs by the side 
of the ship in the waist where men do usually come 
aboard the ship out of a boat, but it is taken generally 
for any rope which is given a man to enter by. 


Eyes. The hole wherein the ring of the anchor 
is put is called the eye oJ the anchor ; also the 
compass or ring which is left of the strap where- 
unto a block is seized, is called the eye oJ the strap. 
Eylet-holes 1 are those round holes alongst 
the bottom of those sails unto which do belong 
the bonnets ; and the bonnets have the same for 
the drablers. They have a little line sewn about 
them to make them strong, and serve for no other 
use but to receive into them the latchets of the 
bonnets, or drablers, with which the bonnet is 
laced to the course and the drabler to the bonnet. 

A Fake is one circle of any rope or cable that 
is coiled up round; and so, when we veer out a 
cable, they many times ask to know how much 
is left behind within-board: how many fakes 
are left. 
Fall-off. When a ship under sail doth not 
keep so near the wind as we appoint, we say that 
the ship falls off. This happens many times 
by the negligence, of the steersman; but some- 
times the fault is in the ship, which happens 
either because she may be too light ahead or that 
her masts may be stayed too forward on, for these 
two things make a ship's head fall from the 
Falls. When we mention the falls of a ship 
(as to say a ship hath a fall, or many falls) it is 
meant by the raising or laying some part of the 
deck higher or lower than the other; also the 
small ropes which we haul by in all tackles is 
called the fall of the tackle; as to say, overhaul 

I B, ' Ilett ' ; D, ' Eylot.' 

II. L 


the fall of your main tackle, or clear the fall of 
your tackle. Only the winding tackle hath no 
To Farthell 1 or Farthelling a sail is when we 
wrap up a sail close together, and so bind it 
with the caskets to the yard; but towards the 
yard-arm we use rope yarns, for the sail is not 
very weighty. This manner we use only to the 
mainsail, foresail and spritsail. 
Farthelling Lines are small lines which are made 
fast to all the topsails, topgallant sails, and also 
the mizen yard-arms. The mizen hath but one; 
the other  one, on either side. By these we 
farthell those sails; but the topsails have not 
the bunt bound up to the yard as the main and 
foresails have, but is laid on the top and so bound 
fast to the head of the mast. This we call stowing 
the topsail. 
EThe Fashion Pieces are the two timbers which 
describe the breadth of the ship astern, and are 
the outwardmost timbers of the ship's stern on 
either side (excepting aloft where the counter 
is connected 8).] 
Fathom. A fathom a is six foot; which, 
though every one know, I set down to give notice 
that we measure the length of all our ropes by 
fathoms, and not by any other measure, as we 
do the compass of the ropes by inches, for we 
say a cable or hawser of so many fathom lon.g 
or so many inches about; also we reckon In 
sounding by fathoms. 
Fender Bolts : for this vide Bolts. 
Fenders are any pieces of old cables, or ropes 
1 Sometimes spelt ' furthell.' Apparently ' furl ' is a con- 
traction of this word. 
t I.e. the topsails and topgallant sails. 
3 D and H read ' counted.' 4 , Fadom.' 


or billets of wood, which are hung over the ship's 
side to keep another ship or boat from rubbing 
on the ship's side, that they may not break her 
bends or rub off the stuff when she is new trimmed. 
Boats have the same to keep them from much 
beating against the ship's side. In the boat 
the men have also little short staves which they 
call fenders: hence we say, fend the boat; that 
is, save her from beating against the ship's 
Fid is, as it were, an iron pin made tapering 
and sharp at the lower end, which is for to open 
the strands of the ropes when we splice two ropes 
together; but when we splice cables we use rids 
of wood in the same form and nature but much 
bigger, which if they were made of iron would 
be too heavy to work withal. The pin in the 
heel of the topmast which bears it up on the 
chess-trees is a rid. 
Fid-hammer is a rid made sharp at one end 
to splice a rope, and a hammer at the other end, 
with a head and a claw to drive or draw a nail. 
Fights. The waist cloths which hang round 
about the ship to hide men from being seen in 
fight are called the fights; also any bulkhead 
afore or abaft out of which they may use murderers 
or small shot, or generally any place wherein 
men may cover themselves and yet use their 
arms, are called close fights. 
Fireworks are any kind of artificial receipts 
applied to any kind of engine, weapon, or instru- 
ment, whereby we use to set on fire the hulls, 
sails, or masts of a ship in fight; whereof there 
are many sorts, but the most commonly used 
at sea are these: fire-pots, fire-balls, fire-pikes, 
trunks, brass-balls, arrows with firework, and the 
like. To say all that might concerning these, 



will require too long a discourse for this that I 
here pretend. 
A Fish is any piece of timber or plank which 
we make fast either to mast or yard, to succour 
and strengthen it when it is in danger to break. 
Then we command the carpenter to fish the mast 
or yard; which is done, first hollowing it fit 
for the place, and then nailing it with spikes 1 
and woolding it about with ropes. This fish is 
very dry meat. 
The Fish is a tackle hung at the end of the 
davit by the strap of the block, in which block 
there is a runner with a hook at the end which 
doth hitch the fluke of the anchor ; and so they 
haul by the fall that belongs to it, and so raise 
the fluke to the bow or chain-wale of the ship. 
Fish-Block. The block is the block which 
belongs to the fish and is called the fish-block. 
Fish-Hook is the hook which appertains to 
the fish, and is called the fish-hook. 
Flags. These are not only used at sea for 
distinctions of Nations, or Officers of Fleets (as 
that the Admiral should have his in the main- 
top, the Vice-Admiral in the fore, and the Rear- 
Admiral in the mizentop), but also for distinc- 
tions and signs what ships must do, according as 
they have directions from the Chief Commander ; 
as to chase, to give over, to come to Council, 
or the like. At sea, to lower or strike one's flag 
in fight is a token of yielding, but otherwise of 
great obedience and respect; and to be made 
to take it in perforce, the greatest disgrace that 
can be. When they would have the flag out, 
they say, heave out the flag ; and take in the flag, 
or farthell the flag, that is, to wrap it close about 

1 ' Speekes.' 


the staff. To strike the flag is to pull it down 
upon the cap, and so let it hang over loose. 
Flare. When a ship is a little housed-in near 
the water, and above that the work doth hang 
over again and is laid out broader aloft, they say 
that the work doth flare over. This makes a 
ship more roomy within board, for a man-of-war ; 
but it is not sightly, nor by the most common 
opinion held to be wholesome for a ship; yet 
I have seen the experience, and am of opinion 
that it can wrong a ship but little, if her bearing 
be laid high enough. 
Float. We say anything doth float that 
swims above water, not touching ground; as 
the ship is afloat, that is when it is borne up 
clear from the ground by the rising of the water. 
A floaty ship is a ship which draws but little water. 
Flood. It is flood when the water begins to 
rise; young flood, quarter-flood, half, are all terms 
commonly known. 
The Floor. The floor of the ship is so much 
of the bottom of her as she doth rest upon when 
she is aground; and therefore those which have 
long and broad floors lie best and safest with the 
ground, and the others are crank and dangerous 
both to wring themselves and to overthrow. 
Flow. When the water doth rise or heighten 
we say it doth flow. But note that it doth ever in 
all places, seas or rivers, where it flows, flow by 
the shore before it flows by the offing or middle 
of the stream, and so it doth ebb by the shore 
before it doth in the stream likewise; the reason 
is for that the water is of most force and weight 
where it is deepest and so is hardlier returned, 
being once bent 1 any way. When we say it flows 

1 Cf. note to Phineas Pat. (N.R.S. Vol. 51), p. 128. 



at London Bridge, south-west, or at any other 
.place south or west, or as it happens, by this 
is meant that when the moon is at the full, or 
else new moon, then upon that day, the sun being 
in the south-west point, which is three of the 
clock in the afternoon, it is high water at London 
Flown. When any of the sheets be not hauled 
home to the blocks, then they say that the sheet 
is flown; but when they say let fly the sheet, 
that is to let it go amain, or as far as it will. This 
is most commonly used in great gusts [when we 
still appoint one to stand at the topsail sheets, to 
be ready to let them fly if occasion be], for fear 
of spending the topmasts or oversetting the ship, 
for the sheet being flown doth hold no wind. I 
have seen in an extraordinary gust that when 
the ship hath lain down on the quick side in the 
water, we have, to make her right again, let fly 
the sheet, but the gust hath fluttered all the sail 
to pieces, leaving not any jot, or but some rags 
in the bolt-ropes. 
The Fluke. 1 This is the broad part of the 
anchor which takes hold in the ground; as also 
those of the grapnels, which have four flukes. 
Flush. When a deck is laid from stem to 
stern without any falls or risings, we say her 
deck lies flush, fore and aft, and this word is not 
used in any other sense. 
The Fly is that part of the compass whereon 
the 32 points of the winds are described ; to which 
underneath is the needle made fast. 
The Fore-foot. There is no such part of a 
ship which is termed her fore-foot, but it is a 
word used in this kind: when two ships sail, 

* ' Flook.' 



her, she is foul: also when any rope which we 
should haul is hindered by another or tangled 
in itself (as topsail halliards, tackle-falls, and 
the like may be), or anything else so that it cannot 
run, we say the rope is foul; as the sheets are 
foul of the ordnance; the halliards, clewdines, 
or the like, are foul, and so must be cleared before 
they can be made to run. 
Foul Water. When a ship under sail comes 
into shallow water so as she raises the mud or 
sand with her way (which she may do though 
she do not touch the ground, but come very 
near it) we say she makes foul water. Note that 
a ship in shoal water, when she sails with her keel 
near the ground, cannot feel her helm as well 
as in deep water. The reason is for that near 
the ground the water has not that weight and 
force as it hath when it is deep; and also by 
reason of an eddy, which is made betwixt the 
ground and the bottom of the ship, being so near 
together, the water cannot come so swift to the 
rudder as it doth in deeper water. And note 
also that the swifter the water comes to the rudder 
the better the ship doth steer, or feel her helm. 
Founder. \Vhen a ship by an extraordinary 
leak or else by any great sea that hath broke into 
her is half full, or full of water, so that we cannot 
free the water forth, we say, she is fondered. 
The word is significant, for just as a foundered 
horse cannot go, so a ship which is full, or near 
full of water, will not feel her helm, that is, will 
neither wear nor steer, but drive away with the 
sea, just like a log of wood. 
To Free. When a ship hath much water 
in her, we say the pumps will free her, or will 
not free her. Or when we bale out the water, 
that is called freeing the ship. Also, when the 


boat hath water in her we command them to 
free the boat. So that this word free is not used in 
any other respect about a ship but to get out 
the water, nor is there any other word used so 
properly for the getting-out of the water of ship, 
or boat, as this. 
Freshet. 1 When any extraordinary land-water 
comes down a river suddenly, or else when any 
great river comes into a sea so as that the water 
is fresh a mile or two (as in many places it is), 
we say it is a great freshet. 
Fur or Furred. There are two kinds of 
furring: the one is after a ship is built, to lay 
on another plank upon the sides of her, which 
is called plank upon plank. The other, which is 
more eminent and more properly furring, is to 
rip off the first planks and to put other timbers 
upon the first, and so to put on the planks upon 
these timbers. The occasion of it is to make 
a ship bear a better sail, for when a ship is too 
narrow and her bearing either not laid out enough 
or too low, then they must make her broader 
and lay her bearing higher. They commonly 
fur some two or three strakes under water and 
as much above, according as the ship requires, 
more or less. I think in all the world there are 
not so many ships furred as are in England, and 
it is pity that there is no order taken either for 
the punishing of those who build such ships or 
the preventing of it, for it is an infinite loss to 
the owners and an utter spoiling and disgrace 
to all ships that are so handled. 
Futtocks. 2 This word is commonly so pro- 
nounced, but I think more properly it should 

 B, ' free-shot ' ; D, ' fresh-shott.' 
 B, ' Futhookes.' 



be called foot-hooks; for the futtocks are those 
compassing 1 timbers which give the breadth 
and bearing to the ship, which are scarfed to the 
ground timbers; and because no timbers that 
compass can be found long enough to go.up through 
all the side of the ship, these compassing timbers 
are scarfed one into the other, and those next 
the keel are called the lower or ground futtocks, 
the others are called the upper futtocks. 

Gale. When the wind doth not blow too hard, 
but reasonably, so that a ship may bear her 
topsails a-trip we call it (according to the strength 
of it) either an easy, or loom, gale, which is when 
it is little wind ; a flesh, stiff, strong gale, when 
it is much wind. Sometimes at sea, two ships 
being not far asunder, if it be fair, 2 smooth, gentle 
weather and but little wind, one ship will have 
more wind than the other; and sometimes the 
one be flat becalmed, the other have a little 
breath of wind; then they say, the ship which 
hath the wind doth gale away from the other. 
The Garboard is the first plank that is brought 
on the outside of the ship next to the keel. 
Garboard-strake is the first strake, or (as you 
may say) the first seam next to the keel. Here 
is the most dangerous place in all the ship to spring 
a leak, for it is almost impossible to come to it 
Garland. Vide Collar. 
The Garnet is a tackle wherewith we hoist 
in all casks and goods if they be not too heavy 
(as great ordnance, &c.). It hath a pendant comes 

Curving. * D, ' fine.' 


from the head of the mainmast, with a block 
which is strongly seized to the mainstay just 
over the hatchway where we use to take in our 
goods to hold. In this block they ieeve the 
runner, which hath a hook at one end within which 
we hitch the slings, and at the other a double 
block, in which we reeve the fall of the runner, 
and so by that we haul and hoist in the goods. 
When it is not used it is made fast along by the 
stay, at the bottom of the stay. 
Gauge. We use to gauge our cask that we 
may see how great it is, or how much is leaked 
out, which we do by putting down a stick at the 
bung; and that, by the wetness, will show how 
much liquor is in it. Also when we would know 
how much water a ship draws vhen she is afloat, 
we stick a nail into a pike or pole and so put it 
down by the rudder till this nail catch hold under 
the rudder, and this we call gauging the ship. Note 
that we cannot by this tell exactly how much 
water she draws ; for we must allow for the rake 
of a ship aftward on; for the pole doth not go 
down in a perpendicular line, and so many foot 
as she draws is called the ship's gauge. When 
one ship is to-weather of another, she hath, as 
they term it, the weather-gauge; but they never 
use to say the lee-gauge. 
A Girding, vide Trusses. 
[Girt. When the cable is so taut that upon 
the turning of the tide the ship cannot go over 
it with her stern-post, then she will lie across 
the tide; and then we say she is girt, which 
will instantly be undone, if the cable be veered 
out slack.] 
Goose-wing. When we are going before a 
wind, or quarter-winds, with a fair flesh gale, 
we many times (to make more haste) unparrell 



the mizen-yard, and so launch out the yard and 
sail over the quarter on the lee side, and so 
fitting guys at the farther end to keep the yard 
steady, with a boom we boom out the sheet of 
the mizen sail. This doth help to give the ship 
some way, which otherwise the mizen sail will not, 
especially before a wind. This sail so fitted is 
called a goose-wing. 
Goring. A sail is cut goring when it comes 
sloping by degrees, and is broader at the clew 
than at the earing. All topsails and topgallant- 
sails are so. 
Grapnels are in nature of anchors, being used 
for galleys or boats to ride by; only they differ 
in form, for a grapnel hath four flukes and never 
a stock, for it needs none, being that which way 
soever it fall two of the flukes do ever hold by 
the ground. In men-of-war we use them that 
are light to fling into a ship to catch hold on some 
of her gratings, rails, gunwales, or the like ; and so, 
having a chain made fast unto it, we lash fast 
the ships together. There are also small grapnels, 
with three hooks, but not broad like flukes, with 
which we use to sweep for hawsers or small cables. 
Gratings are small ledges laid one across 
another, like a portcullis or a prison gate. Those 
which are called the gratings are betwixt the main 
and fore masts, which do serve for a close fight 
and also for the succour of men either in too hot 
or too foul weather, with a tarpaulin upon them. 
There are also in many places of the ship, gratings 
made for air and light, but chiefly over the 
ordnance for the vent of the smoke of the powder 
which comes out of the touch-hole in fight. 
To Grave. Graving a ship is bringing her 
to lie dry aground, and then to burn off the old 
filth and stuff with reed, broom, or the like, and 


so to lay on new stuff. Some use only tallow, but 
that will quickly grow foul; others tallow and 
soap, which will also quickly grow foul. The 
most common and best is with train oil, rosin 
and brimstone boiled together, for this will last 
longest clean. The laying on of the stuff is called 
paying the ship. 
A Gripe. The gripe of the ship is the compass 
and sharpness of the stem under water, especially 
towards the lower part. The use whereof is to 
make a ship keep a good wind; and therefore 
sometimes when a ship will not keep a wind 
well they put on another false stem to the true 
stem to make her gripe more. 
To Gripe. We say a ship doth gripe when 
she is apt (contrary to the helm) to run her head 
or nose into the wind more than she should. There 
are commonly two causes of this: the one, 
when a ship may be too deep ahead that her head 
is not apt, by reason of the weight which presses 
her down, to fall away from the wind ; he other 
may be the staying of her masts, for if she be 
a short ship and draw much water, if her masts 
be stayed too much aftward on, it will cause her 
head sill to run into the wind. The Flemings, 
being generally long floaty ships, do stay all 
their masts aftward on very much, else their 
ships would never keep a wind : for it is apparent 
to sense that all sails from the mainmast aftward 
on, the farther aft they stand, the more they 
keep the ship to the wind ; as the head sails, the 
more forward on they stand, the more they have 
power to flat the ship about from the wind. 
Grommets are little rings which are made fast 
to the upper side of the yard, with staples which 
are driven into the yard, which have no other use 
but to tie and make fast the caskets into them. 


Ground and Grounding. Vqlen a ship is 
brought of purpose to be trimmed on the ground, 
or otherwise, that is called grounding the ship. 
There are three manners of laying a ship aground ; 
that is, either laying her head upwards towards 
the bank and stern towards the offward [or 
offing], and is termed layizg her pitch-long to" 
this is used to ships that are crank with the 
ground, for this way they take the best advantage 
for the ship to bear herself. The second is to 
lay her all alongst the shore and to heel her 
to the shoreward: this is used to ships which 
have reasonable good floors and will bear them- 
selves sufficiently well. The third is laying her 
alongst the shore, and heeling her to the offward : 
this we use to ships which have great broad 
and long floors (as Flem. ings, which have standing 
strakes): the reason xs for that otherwise we 
should hardly come to her keel. Some seafaring 
men are very superstitious of going to sea at certain 
days, and commonly those hold it good to begin 
the voyage on Sundays ; and therefore to seem to 
have begun the voyage that day (though they be 
not ready to go they will weigh, or (as the term is) 
trip the anchor, and go a little way, and so come 
to anchor again : this they call breaking ground. 
Ground timbers are those timbers which are 
first laid upon the keel, and so bolted through 
the keelson into the keel, and are those which 
make the floor of the ship; and are therefore 
called ground timbers because the ship doth rest 
upon these when she lies aground. 
Gudgins are those irons which are made fast 
to the stem post, into which the pintles of the 
rudder are hanged. 
To Gull. When the pin of a block cloth eat 
or wear into the shiver, it is called gulling. Also 


when a yard doth rub against the mast, we say 
it will gull the mast; and therefore to avoid 
that we put a platt made of sennit to the middle 
of the yard to keep it from g.ulling the mast. 
The Gunwale. That piece of timber which 
reacheth on either side of the ship from the 
half deck to the forecastle, being the uppermost 
bend as it were, which finisheth the upper works 
of the hull there, and wherein they put the stan- 
chions x which support the waist-trees,  is called 
the gunwale whether there be any guns there or 
not. Also the lower part of any port where any 
ordnance doth lie, is called the gunwale. 
A Guy is any rope which is used to keep a piece 
of ordnance or anything else (the boat or the like) 
which is hoisted into the ship, from swinging into 
the ship too fast. When it is over the gunwale 
to be hoisted in, then by this rope we do ease 
it in gently, and it is commonly made fast to the 
stanchions of the waist-trees, and that is called 
a guy, which word, I think, comes from guide, 
for this doth guide it in. Also there is a rope 
which is fastened to the foremast at one end, and 
is reeved through a single block which is seized 
to the pendant of the winding tackle, and so reeved 
again through another, which is seized to the 
foremast somewhat lower than the first part, 
and this is to haul forward the pendant of the 
winding tackle, and this rope is called a guy. 

To Hail, or Hailing. Hailing of a ship is 
calling to her to know whence she is, or whither 
i, Stanshines.' 
 Rails along the waist, where there is no bulwark. 



she is bound, or any other occasion; which we 
do commonly in these words--O the ship, or 
(at sea) no more but Ho4 and the other then 
answers--Hay& These words are common to 
all christian seamen to hail each other in. Also 
sometimes we seem to call to them or salute them 
with whistles or trumpets, and this is called 
hailing with trumpets or whistles. 
[Halliards qztasi haul-yards, for they are the 
ropes by which we hoist up all the yards; only 
the cross-jack nor the spritsail yard have none, 
because they are ever slung: yet in small craft 
they have halliards to the spritsail yard.] 
To Hand, or Handing. When they would 
deliver away anything to be passed to another, 
or to have it brought to them, they say, hand 
this away, or hand me that, or hand it along. So 
when they want men to hoist or do any labour, 
they use to call for more hazds ; not more men. 
A Handspike is but a wooden lever, which 
is used instead of a crow of iron to traverse the 
ordnance, but most especially to the windlass 
in the boat or ship, which have windlasses to 
heave up the anchor by. 
The Harpings. The harpings of a ship is the 
breadth of her at the bow : also some call the ends 
of the bends which are fastened into the stem, 
the harpings. 
Hatches are those loose parts, or as it were 
doors, of the deck which are in the midship before 
the mainmast, that we open to let down things 
!nto the hold, having at each corner a shackle of 
iron to lift them by. 
Hatchway. By the hatchway is meant the 
place perpendicular over the hatches. When 
they say lay a thing in the hatchway, that is 
on the hatches. 


To Haul, or Overhaul. That which others 
commonly call pulling a rope the seafaring men 
call ever hauling (as haul tau the bowlines, or 
haul in a rope that hangs without board, or the 
like in any kind). To overhaul is, when a rope 
is hauled too stiff, or taut, then to haul it the 
contrary way than it was hauled before, and so 
to make it slacker. 
The Hawses are those great round holes, 
before, under the head, out of which the cables 
do come when the ship is at an anchor. A bold 
hawse is when they lie high from the water ; and 
this is best, for when they lie low, if there be a 
great sea, the hawse will still be in the water and 
take in much water into the ship. Fresh the hawse; 
that is when we suspect that the cable is fretted 
or chafed, or is like (as many times it will) to 
burn in the hawse (for there the cable endures 
the greatest stress), then we veer out a little to 
let another part of the cable endure the stress. 
Also when we lay new plats upon the cable in 
the hawse it is called freshing the hawse. Clear 
the hawse; that is when two cables which come 
out at two hawses, and by the winding of the 
ship having some turns one about the other, 
then the undoing these turns is clearing the hawse, 
which is necessary to be done, for else the cables 
will gall one another very much. Any ship or 
thing that is cross afore the hawse or lies athwart 
the hawse, or when one ship rides with her stern 
just afore the other's hawse, they say she rides 
upon her hawse. 
A Hawser is a three-strand rope and may 
be called a little cable, for that which is one 
ship's hawser will be another ship's cable. These 
serve for many uses, as to warp the ship over a 
bar. The main and fore shrouds are made of 
II. M 



hawsers, etc. ; only note the difference of the 
making or laying is the cause of the difference of 
the names, which to know, vide Ropes. 
The Head, vide Beakhead. Yet sometimes it 
is not exactly taken only for the beakhead ; for 
sometimes they say ahead, that is, about the 
foremast, taking (as it were) all the fore part of 
the ship for the head. 
Head-lines are the ropes of all sails which are 
uppermost next the yard, by which the sail is 
made fast unto the yards. 
Head-sails are all sails belonging to the fore- 
mast, spritsail, and spritsail-topmast ; for these 
are the sails which govern the head of the ship, 
to make it fall off, and to keep out of the wind. 
The head-sails (quarter-winds) are the chief 
drawing sails. 
Head-sea. When it hath been a great storm, 
the wind (it may be) will suddenly alter 6 points 
or more, but the sea will go the same way it did 
for some hours ; then if our course lie to go right 
against this sea (as we may, the wind being altered) 
we shall meet this sea right ahead, and so we call 
it a head-sea. Sometimes also when it hath been 
but a little wind, there will be a sea, which will 
come contrary to the wind; but then, not long 
after, the wind will come that way, and doth 
show that on that point of the compass, whenas 
that sea comes, there has been much wind. Note 
that generally before any great storm the sea 
will come that way before any wind, which shows 
that the sea outruns the wind; the reason I 
take to be for that, the sea being a continuate 
body, one part being moved the wind doth 
quickly infuse motion to the rest, as we see by 
the circles which a stone doth make when-it is 
thrown into the water. Note in head-seas all 


short ships are bad sailers, for they beat much 
against the sea; but long ships do go more 
easily, for they will ride upon two waves at once 
and fall more gently into the sea. 
To Heave. As we commonly use the word 
fling away, so seamen they use the word heave 
away, for if it be but a rope yarn, or chip, they 
will say, heave it away. Heave overboard that 
rope, yard, or the like. Also the turning 
about of the capstan is called heaving at the 
capstan. Also when a ship at anchor doth rise 
and fall with the waves, they say she heaves 
and sets. 
The Heel. The heel of the mainmast, fore- 
mast, or mizen is nothing but that part which 
is pared away a little, slanting on the aftward 
side of the foot of the mast, like a heel, to give 
the mast leave to be stayed aftward on ; as the 
Flemings do especially. But the heels of the 
topmasts are square, and in that they put 
the rid of the topmast. 
To Heel is for the ship to lie down on a side, 
whether she be afloat or aground, and so she heels 
much or little. She heels to starboard or to port. 
Some superstitious seamen, when they take in 
goods or victuals for a voyage, if by chance in 
stowing the provision she heel to the starboard, 
will say it is a sign of a long and bad voyage, 
for then they will say she heels from handward, 1 
because they take in all their goods on the larboard 
side. But if she heel to larboard it is sign of a 
good voyage, and some goods to come in. When 
she is aground, we say she heels to the shore-ward, 
or to the offward, according as it is. 

 Sic, in all the MSS., but probably the word should be 
' landward.' 



The Helm is that piece of timber which the 
helmsman doth hold in his hand to steer and 
govern the rudder by ; and one end is made fast 
to the head of the rudder, but so as that it may be 
taken off. Though the rudder be the cause of 
the ship's working, yet the helm is the instrument 
which governs the rudder, and therefore we 
impute it all to the helm; as when we say the 
ship feels he helm, or doth not feel the helm; 
that is, will work and be governed by the helm, 
or not: for if a ship be very foul or out of her 
trim, or too deep or too light, many times she 
will not feel the helm, but sail as if she had none. 
Port the helm; Sarboard the helm; Amidshi#, 
or righ the helm; terms of conding, to direct 
which way the steersman should put the helm. In 
smaller ships, under the rate of 500 ton Eor there- 
abouts], they use to put a whip to the other end of 
the helm and so steer and govern the helm by that. 
To Hitch is to catch hold of anything with 
a rope to hold it fast, or with a hook; and we 
say, hitch the fish-hook to the fluke of the anchor. 
When we hoist in the boat: hitch the tackles 
in the ring of the boat; or the garnet in the 
slings, that is, catching hold of it by the hook 
to hoist in the goods. 
The Hold. All the room betwixt the keelson 
and the first or lower decks, is called the hold; 
and it is that place where all our victuals, goods 
and stores do lie; yet it is divided into several 
rooms with bulkheads, as the Steward's room, the 
powder room, the boatswain's store, and the like. 
Rummage 1 the hoM ; stow the hold ; clear he hold ; 
vide the proper names. 
To Hold-off is when we heave the cable at 

 ' Rumidge.' 


the capstan. If the cable be very stiff and great, 
or else have lain in slimy, oozy ground, it surges 
and slips back, unless that part which is heaved 
in be still hauled away hard from the capstan, 
to keep the cable close and hard to the capstan 
whelps. If it be a small cable, men may do it 
in their hands; but if great, then either they 
hold-off with nippers or else (as in all great ships) 
they do bring it to the jeer capstan, and this is 
called holding-off. 
Honeycomb. When a piece of iron ordnance 
(either by. being ill cast, or with over much 
wearing) IS rugged and hath little holes in the 
concave of the piece, she is said to be honey- 
combed. This is very dangerous for a cross 
bar shot to catch in, or any ragged shot ; as also 
that some rag of the cartridge or piece of the wad 
may stick in it and so fire the powder that shall 
instantly be put in; and therefore we refuse 
these pieces as much as we inay. To try whether 
a piece be honeycombed, we put in a nail or 
crooked piece of wire at the end of a staff, and 
so where that catches we know she is honey- 
combed ; or light a candle on the end of a staff, 
and that will show all the imperfections of the piece. 
The Hooks. The hooks of the ship are all 
those forked timbers which are placed upright on 
the keel, both in the rake and run of the ship. 
These do give the narrowing and breadthening 
of the ship in those parts, according as they are 
framed, and they are bolted into the keel. The 
compassing timbers, which are before and do help 
to strengthen the stem and fore part of the ship, 
are called breast-hooks. 
A Horse is a rope which is made fast to one 
of the foremast shrouds with a dead-man-eye 
at the end of it, through which is reeved the 



pendant of the spritsail sheets, and is for no other 
use but to keep the spritsail sheets clear of the 
flukes of the anchor [that it should not gall, or 
be foul of them, when it is hawled or veered]. 
Also when a man heaves the lead out of the 
shrouds there is a rope made fast to the shrouds, 
for him to lean against for falling into the sea. 
Also they use a rope to set taut the shrouds with 
wale-knots, one end made fast to the shrouds ; to 
the other the lanniers are brought, and so with 
handspike turning it, they set taut the halliards ; 
this is called a horse. Also those little short ropes 
which are seized to the middle of the topmast and 
topgallant stay with a block wherein are reeved the 
topsail and topgallant bowlines, are called horses. 
Housing-in. When a ship, after she is past 
the breadth of her bearing, is brought in narrow 
to her upper works, they say she is housed-in. 
Most are of opinion that the housing-in of a ship 
makes her the more wholesome i in the sea, because 
the weight of the ordnance and her upper works 
do not overhang the nail, 2 which as they suppose 
would make her roll the more; but I am sure 

1 , Howlsom.' 
 This expression, which occurs again on p. 207, is not 
illustrated in the N.E.D., and no other instance of it can be 
found. It may be conjectured that the load waterline was 
marked with nails (an Act of 1677 provides for the marking 
of the loadline upon the stem and stern of Newcastle keels 
in this way), and that when a perpendicular from the centre 
of gravity of any weight on board fell outside this line, such 
weight was said to overhang the nail. A somewhat similar 
expression occurs in Pepys. MS. 1173 (Fortree : OfNavarchi) ; 
' Whereas, it is the usual practice of builders to house and 
draw in all ships from the waterline upwards, conceiving that 
they are the stronger and more able to support any weight, 
as guns or the like, being near to the centre : whereas by 
spreading above, the weight hangs more upon the nail (as 
they call it).' 


it takes away a great deal of room for a man-of- 
war, and the tack will never come so well aboard 
as when she is laid out aloft. I have so much 
experience of both sorts that I am of opinion if 
two ships be given, ceteris paribus, a ship which 
is laid out aloft, not flaring 1 off but propor- 
tionably finished to her other works, shall be the 
wholesomer ship, for that the counterpoise on 
either side (the whole weight not so much over- 
hanging the perpendicular of the keel) shall keep 
her more steady and make her be the longer 
in fetching over a seel. The reason is the same 
and will hold proportion in a ship to the walking 
of a funambulus, who with equal weight will go 
much more sure if his weight wherewith he doth 
steady himself be at the end of a long staff, which 
by reason of the greatness of the circle must have 
a longer time to come over his perpendicular 
than if the same were in a shorter staff or in a 
lump together in his hand, which once inclining 
either way he hath nothing by which to succour 
and counterpoise the weight. 
To Hoist.  When they would haul up any- 
thing into the ship with a tackle .or a dead rope, 
or get up a yard, they call it hoisting; as, hoist 
the water in, hoist up the yards. 
The Hounds are the holes in the cheeks which 
are fastened to the head of the masts, wherein 
the ties do run to hoist the yard. The topmasts 
have but one hole aloft in the head of the mast 
because they have but single ties, and this is 
also called the hounds. 
The Hull is the very body or bulk of the ship ; 
without masts, yards, ropes or sails. 
Hulling is when a ship is at sea and hath taken 

 ' fflayreinge,' ' flairing.' o. , hoise,' ' hoyse.' 


in all her sails in calm weather; it is done to 
save the sails from beating out against the masts. 
But in foul weather, when they are able to bear 
no sail, the manner is no more but taking in all 
the sails and tying down the helm to the lee side 
of the ship (and so if she be a good conditioned 
ship she will lie easily under the sea), and thus 
she makes her way one point afore the beam; 
that is, if the wind be at west and the ship look 
south, she will make way east and by south which 
is one point afore the beam ; the beam will bear 
east and west. It is not yet agreed on amongst 
all seamen whether it is better for a ship to hull 
with her topmast up or down : the most received 
opinion is to have it down, in respect that generally 
they suppose the weight aloft will make her seel 
the more dangerously in a storm. But besides 
the experience which I have seen to the contrary, 
I can give this reason why it is best in a dangerous 
and desperate storm to hull with the topmasts 
up. All seamen will confess that the weather 
seel is the most dangerous seel and therefore 
must grant that it is the safest hulling which 
doth most prevent the danger of that seel. If 
her topmasts be down when she seels to leeward, 
the less w.eight overhead she hath to hinder her 
from coming and rolling back over again to 
windward, the faster she will seel over, and the 
shorter, so that meeting the windward sea so 
short and suddenly it may endanger to break in 
and founder her, but if the topmast be up she must 
needs be the longer in coming up to windward 
and so meet the sea with more ease that it may 
have leisure to break away under her; yet it 
is true she will make the greater lee seel, but in 
that there is no danger, though to an inexperienced 
man there may seem to be. 


A Hullock is a small part of a sail which is 
loosed and left open in a great storm when we 
dare not have any more out; and is only used 
in the mizen sail when we would keep the ship's 
head to the sea with a little sail, making all up 
excepting a little at the mizen-yard-arm. Or 
else when a ship will not weather-coil, to lay her 
head the other way, we loose (for that is the term) 
a hullock of our fore sail; and so, changing the 
helm to the weather side, the ship will fall off and 
lay her head where her stern lay before. 

The Jeer is a piece of a hawser which is made 
fast to the main-yard and fore-yard of a great 
ship close to the ties (for small ships do not use 
it); and so is reeved through a block which is 
seized close to the top, and so comes down and 
is reeved through another block at the bottom 
of the mast close by the deck. Great ships 
have one on one side, another on the other side 
of the ties. The use of this rope is to help to 
hoist up the yard, but the chiefest is to succour 
the ties and to hold the yard from falling down if 
the ties should break. 
The Jeer Capstan. This hath its name from 
the jeer which is ever brought to this capstan 
to be heaved-at by. It stands in the waist in 
the hatchway, and serves for many other uses; 
as to heave upon the viol, or hold off the cable from 
the main capstan. 
Iron-sick. A ship or boat is said to be iron- 
sick when the bolts, spikes, or nails are so eaten 
away with the rust of the salt water that they 
stand hollow in the planks, and so the ship doth 
receive in water by them ; and this is the reason 



why they put lead over all the bolt heads under 
A Junk. Any piece of cable that is cut off, 
most commonly any part of an old cable, is called 
a junk. Such as this they hang for fenders by the 
ship's sides, or else untwist it and make plats for 
cables, rope-yarn or sennit, if it be not too old and 
rotten. If it be old then they make oakum of it. 
A Jury-mast. When, by occasion of storm 
or fight, we have lost either the foremast or main- 
mast we do reserve (if it be possible) the main 
or fore-yard, which we put down into the step 
of the mast, and so fasten it in the partners and 
so take the mizen-yard (or if we have any other 
which serves for a yard), which fitting with sails 
and ropes in form of the other, we make a shift 
with to steer and govern the ship. 

To Keckle, or Keckling. We use this term 
only to the cable and the bolt-rope. \hen we 
fear the galling of the cable in the hawse, or the 
bolt-rope against the quarter of the ship, we turn a 
small rope round about it, but in manner it differs 
not from serving of other ropes, though to these 
this serving is called keckling. 
To Kedge, or Kedging. When in a narrow 
river we would bring up or down a ship, the wind 
being contrary to the tide and we are to go with 
the tide, then they use to set the foresail, or 
fore-topsail and the mizen, and so let her drive 
with the tide. The reason of using these sails 
is to flat her about if she come too near the shore. 
Also they use a small anchor in the head of-the 
boat with a hawser that comes from the ship; 
which anchor they let fall in the middle of the 


stream, if the ship come too near the shore, and 
so wind her head about by that, and so lift up 
the anchor again when she is about: from this use 
the anchor is called a kedger, or kedge-anchor. 
A Kedger. Vide Anchor. 
The Keel is the first timber which is laid of a 
ship, and is the basis whereon all the rest are 
fastened; and so much is to be accounted the 
keel as doth lie in a straight line, at the one end 
whereof is scarfed in the stem, and at the other 
is let in the stern post. To this are all the ground 
timbers and hooks, fore and aft, bolted; and on 
them all the upper works are raised. A rank 
keel is when a ship hath a deep keel, and this 
is good to keep a ship from rolling, for if a floaty 
ship roll too much, that hath but a shoal keel, 
we put-to another keel under the first, to make it 
deeper, for that will take some more hold in the 
water ; and this we call a false keel. 
The Keel-rope is a rope which runs alongst 
the ship upon the keel within the limbers of the 
ground timbers; one end coming out before, 
the other abaft. Some will have this of a bass 
rope, but the best is a hair rope for lasting. The 
use of it is to clear the limber holes when they are 
stoaked with ballast, or anything else, so as the 
water which lies betwixt the timbers cannot come 
to the well of the pump. 
Keelson is the lowest piece of timber within 
the ship's hold which lies all along upon the 
ground timbers right over the keel, through 
which are driven the bolts which fasten the keelson, 
ground timbers and the keel together. 
A Ketch is a small boat such as useth to come 
to Billingsgate 1 with mackerel, oysters, etc. 

1 D, ' Belins-gate.' 


Kevels are small pieces of timber nailed to 
the inside of the ship, unto which we belay the 
sheets and tacks. 
Kink. 1 When a rope which should run 
smooth in the block hath got a little turn, so as 
it comes double (as it were), this we call a kink. 
Also the same is in a cable, if it run out doubling 
in like manner, which happens either by ill 
coiling of the cable, or by letting it run out too 
fast; but if it be perceived it is remedied by 
oversetting the cable, else the cable will gall 
very much in that place. 
The Knave-line is a rope, the one end fastened 
to the cross-trees under the main or foretop, 
and so comes down by the ties to the ram-head, 
to the which there is seized a small piece of billet, 
some two foot long with a hole in the end of it, 
in which hole this line is reeved and so brought 
to the ship's side and hauled up taut to the rails ; 
the use whereof is to keep the ties and halliards 
from turning about one another; which, being 
new, they would do were it not for this line; 
but after the halliards and ties are stretched 
awhile it is taken away, and no more used but on 
the like occasion. 
Knees are those crooked timbers which are 
so called in respect they represent a man's knee 
bowing. These do bind the beams and futtocks 
together, being bolted into both of them. Some 
do stand alongst ships and some right .up and 
down. You may easily know them m part 
where they are used, by the form of them. 
The Knights. There is the main knight and 
the fore knight; one standing aft the main, the 
other abaft the foremast upon the second deck, 

 ' Keenk.' 


b.eing fast bolted to the beams. A knight is a 
piece of timber wherein are four shivers, three 
for the halliards and one for the top rope to run 
in, when they are hoisted. They are commonly 
carved with the picture of some head upon them, 
by which they are easily known. 
Knittles 1 are two rope yarns twisted together 
in a knot at each end, to seize a rope, or block, 
or the like. 
Knittlidge. Vide Ballast, for it is all one. 
Knots. There are two sort of knots which 
are used at sea ; the one is a bowline knot, which 
is so made that it will not slip nor slide. With 
this knot the bowline bridles are made fast to 
the cringles, but it is used many other ways. 
The other is a wale-knot, which is a round knot 
or knob made with the three strands of a rope 
so that it cannot slip. The tacks, topsail sheets, 
and stoppers have these wale-knots, and many. 
other ropes. 


To Labour. We say a ship labours in the sea 
when she rolls and tumbles very much, either 
a-hull or under sail, or at an anchor. A ship 
rolls most a-hull when it hath been a grown 
storm and suddenly the wind ceases, but the seas 
continue great still; then she will roll for want 
of wind. Under sail a ship rolls most right before 
a wind, but beats most upon a head sea, so that 
some ships are most dangerous to put afore the 
sea in a great storm, and weak ships dangerous 
to beat against the head sea. At an anchor, 
ships roll and labour most when they lie betwixt 
wind and tide, which is upon the turning of the 

 ' Kneetles.' 



tide, when the wind and the tide are contrary 
and neither hath got power to make her strain 
her cables to ride with her head either to the 
wind or tide. 
To Lace, or Lacing, is the proper term for 
putting-to the bonnet to the course, or the drabler 
to the bonnet: as lace on the bonnet. Also we 
say lace on the netting to the roof-trees or the 
Ladder. There are three usual ladders belong- 
ing to a ship; the entering ladder in the waist; 
a ladder of ropes, which hangs out of the gallery 
for foul weather, and, at sea, to come out of the 
boat, or go into it; and one at the beakhead 
which is made fast over the boltsprit to get up 
upon the boltsprit by. The Venetians and most 
Levant ships, and also Spanish galleons, have 
ladders which go into the top and come down 
abaft the ties, for they seldom go up by the 
To Lade is to fill the ship with goods or pro- 
vision; for when the hold is full they say she 
hath her lading. Also to charge a piece of 
ordnance is to lade the ordnance; also some say, 
lade the water out of the boat. 
A Ladle is that wherewith we put the powder 
into a piece of ordnance, wherein we take the 
powder out of a budge-barrel. We never use 
this in fight unless we have spent all out cart- 
ridges, for they are both troublesome and not so 
speedy, and dangerous for scattering of powder. 
[Land-fall is as much as the falling with the 
land, as thus: if we say we shall see land such 
a day, and that it fall out so just according to 
our reckoning, we say we have made a good land- 
fall; or if we be mistaken, then we made a bad 


Land-locked. When we are in any road or 
harbour, so that the land lies round about us 
and the sea lie not any point open upon us, we 
say we ride land-locked. These are ever good 
roads and harbours, for no sea can come in to 
wrong the ship. 
[Land-to. By this is meant just so far off 
at sea as we can see the land ; as when we direct 
one to lie off at sea in the height of a Cape land-to, 
that is so near, and so far off, as he may even 
just see and discern the land, and no nearer.] 
Land-turn is the same off the land that a 
breeze is off the sea, only differing that the land- 
turn comes by night, and the sea-turn, or breeze, 
by day. Vide Breeze. 
A Langrel is a loose shot which goes in with 
a shackle, to be shortened when it is put into 
the piece and to fly out at length when it is dis- 
.charged; with a half bullet either of lead or 
xron at the either end. This is good shot near 
hand to use out of our ordnance, to cut down 
masts, yards, ropes and sails; and also it will 
do much execution among the men aloft, but it 
is not used betwixt wind and water for it will 
not pierce a good ship's sides. 
Lanniers are the small ropes which are reeved 
in the dead-men-eyes of all the shrouds and chains, 
and the use of them is either to slacken or to set 
taut the shrouds. Also all the stays belonging 
to any mast (vhether they have blocks or dead- 
men-eyes belonging to them) are set taut by a 
lannier. Also the small rope which makes fast 
the stopper 1 of the halliards to the halliard, is 
called a lannier. 
Large. When a ship goes neither by a wind 

1 B,' topper.' 



nor before a wind, but as it were betwixt both 
[then we say she goes large], that is quartering, 
and such a wind that carries her so we call a large 
To Lash, or Lasher. When we bind anything 
up to the ship's sides or masts (as pikes, muskets, 
or a butt to the mast, or the like, as fishes and 
spare topmasts without board) we call it lashing- 
to ; but the lashers chiefly are those ropes which 
do bind fast together the tackles and breechings 
of the great ordnance when they are hauled within 
board. The reason is because the breechings 
cannot be hauled up taut by hand; therefore 
this rope is brought about the breeching and 
tackles a little before the carriage, right under 
the piece, and so lashes them fast together. 
Lasking. Note that when we say a ship goes 
lasking, veering, quarter-winds, large and roomer, 
it is in a manner all one; for then they neither 
go by a wind or before. 
Latchets are small lines which are sewn into 
the bonnets and drabler, like loops, wherewith 
they lace the bonnet to the course, or the drabler 
to the bonnet, putting them into the eyelet-holes 
and so lacing them one over another. 
Launch. This word is used instead of put 
out, as we say launch a ship out of a dock, or out 
of the quay; launch the boat; launch-out or 
launch-in the davit ; launch-out the capstan bars. 
Also in another sense when they have hoisted up 
a yard high enough, or the topmast, they cr.y 
launch-hoG that is hoist no more. Also In 
stowing the hold they will say launch aft or launch 
.forward, when they would have a butt or the like 
brought forward or aftward on. Also when they 
are pumping, if the pump sucks, then they cry, 
launch-hoa, that is, pump no more. 


[To Lay a Land. When we are sailed out 
of sight of a land, so that we cannot see it, we say 
that we have laid the land. But if it be so that 
some other point of land do hinder us from seeing 
it, then we say that we have shut in, or shut it 
into, the other point.] 
A Leak. There is no ship so tight but that with 
her labouring in the sea (nay though she ride in 
harbour) she will make some water; but we say 
a ship is leaky when she makes more water than 
is ordinary, which is some hundred strokes in 
twenty-four or forty-eight hours. The causes of 
leaks are either the starting some trenails [or 
oozing of some sappy trenails], the opening of the 
seams; the eating of the worms; [the rottenness 
of their oakum; the iron sickness of bolts ;] or 
else by receiving some shot under water. The 
ways of stopping are but two: either within- 
board, which can hardly be if the leak is low 
amongst the ground timbers or the hooks, but 
then the best remedy is to drive down tallow and 
coals 1 mingled together, raw beef, oatmeal 
bags or the like; if it can be come at, then it 
is easily stopped with lead. If it be a shot they 
drive in a plug with some canvas about it. The 
other is without board ; when it is easily stopped 
(if it be not too low) by heeling the ship over 
on the other side, and so nailing lead over it; 
but if it be low, then to stitch a bonnet (or a 
netting, which is better) with long rope yarns 
opened, and so sinking it under the keel to bring 
it against the leak. The indraught of the water 
will suck in the oakum, and so stop herself, but 
this will not continue long. When a ship is leaky, 
the term is, she hath sprung a leak, or she makes 
much water. 
1 I.e. charcoal. 
II. 1" 



The Ledges are those small pieces of timber 
which come thwartships from the waist-trees to 
the roof-trees x to bear up the nettings; and 
so if there be a grating over the half deck [they 
are called the same]. 
Lee. This word is many ways used, but 
.generally the lee is understood for that which 
IS opposite to the wind. The lee-shore, that is 
the shore against which the wind blows; yet 
to be under the lee of the shore is to be close under 
the weather shore ; that is, whence the wind doth 
come. A-lee the helm; that is, put the helm 
to the leeside of the ship. In conding they use 
to call him at helm to have a care of the lee latch ; 
that is, to look that the ship go not to leeward 
of her course. A leeward ship is one that is not 
fast  by a wind, and doth not make her way so 
good as she might. To come by the lee, or to 
lay a ship by the lee, is to bring her so that all her 
sails may lie against the masts and shrouds flat, 
and the wind to come right on her broadside, 
so that the ship will lie, as it were, stark still; 
or if she make any way it will be with her broad- 
side, right with the beam. The manner of bring- 
ing a ship by the lee (if she have all her sails 
abroad) is to bear up the helm hard to windward, 
let rise 3 the fore tack, and veer out the main sheet 
and take in the mizen, or peak it up (which is 
called spilling 4 the mizen). 
The Leech.  The leech of a sail is the outward 
side, or skirt of the sail, from the earing to the 

1 B, ' ruff-trees ' ; sometimes spelt ' rough-trees,' but 
"roof' seems the more probable derivation. The term 
' rough-tree ' is used at a later date for an unfinished spar and 
some confusion has resulted from this. 
* I.e. steady.  B, ' rear.' 
* B, ' spelling.'  B, ' leatch.' 


clew; the middle betwixt which is especially to .be 
accounted the leech. 
Leech-lines are small lines which are fastened 
to the leech of the topsails (for they belong to 
no other sails) and are reeved into a block at the 
yard, close by the topsail ties. The use whereof 
is, when they take in the topsails, to haul in the 
leech of the sail; and note they ever haul the 
lee leech-line first, for then the rest will come in 
with more ease. 
The Lee-fangs is a rope which is reeved into 
the cringles of the courses when we would haul 
in the bottom of the sail to lace on the bonnet. 
In a strong gale they serve also to help to take 
in the sail. 
Legs. They are called the legs of the martnets, 
and are small ropes put through the bolt-ropes 
of the main and foresail in the leech of the sail, 
near a foot of length, and so at either end, being 
spliced into themselves, they have a little eye 
whereinto the martnets are made with two 
hitches, and the end seized to the standing part 
of the martnets. 
Let fall is a phrase generally used for the 
putting out of any sails when the yards are aloft ; 
but not if the main-yard and fore-yard be struck 1 
down, so as that the sails may be loosed before 
the yards be hoisted. But most properly it is 
used to the mainsail, foresail and s.pritsail (for to 
topsails the more proper term is, heave out 
your topsails, because they do lie in the top) 
and to the mizen-sail, we say set the mizen, and 
not let it fall. 
[Lie under the sea. When in a storm we 
are a-hull and make fast the helm a-lee, so that 

 ' Stroken.' 



the sea breaks upon the bow and broadside of 
the ship, we say she lies, or is laid, under the sea.] 
[Lifts are ropes which belong to the yard-arms 
of all yards, and do only serve to top the yard- 
arms, that is to make the ends of the yards hang 
higher or lower, or even, as we list. But the top- 
sail lifts do serve for sheets to the topgallant 
yards, as well as for lifts to the topsail yards. 
The hauling of them is called topping the l([ts, as 
top a-starboard, or top a-port; that is, haul upon 
the starboard, or larboard, lift.] 
Limbers, or limber holes, are little square 
holes cut in the bottom of all the ground timbers 
and hooks next to the keel, right over the keel, 
about 3 or 4 inches square. The use whereof is 
to let the water pass to the well of the pump, 
which else would lie betwixt the timbers; into 
these is put the keel rope. 
Lins-pins are only used about the trucks of 
the carnages, to keep on the trucks upon the 
axle-tree, being little iron pins, just the same 
that keep on coach wheels. 
A List. 1 When a ship heels a little to star- 
board or port, we say she hath a list that way; 
though this happen by stowing her hold unequally. 
But most properly a ship is said to have a list 
to one side or other, when (out of her own mould 
and making) she hath a kind of inclination to one 
side more than the other, which happens by the 
unequal carrying of the works, or it may be by 
the unequal weight of timbers, for it is a very 
hard matter to carry a ship's works so even but 
that there shall be some small difference. I have 
seen the experience in many ships that, being 
equally ballasted, they would carry a greater 



sail, stoop less, and go better upon one tack than 
upon the other. 
Lockers. Any little boxes (or, as it were, 
cupboards) which are made by the ship's sides, 
to put in shot by the pieces, or in any other 
places, are (by a common name) called lockers. 
We have them to every piece, to have shot lie 
ready, if on the sudden we should have occasion ; 
but in fight the shot lies not there, but in a rope 
made like a ring, which lies flat upon the deck, 
so that the shot cannot do so much hurt if that 
another shot should light amongst it. EFrom 
hence the beef we keep cold at sea is called locker- 
beef, for that the cook keeps it in his lockers.] 
A Log-line. Some call this a minute-line. 
It is a small line, with a little piece of a board 
at the end, with a little lead to it to keep it 
edgelong in the water. The use of it is that by 
judging how many fathom this runs out in a 
minute, to give a judgment how many leagues 
the ship will run in a watch; for if in a minute 
there run out 14 fathom of line, then they con- 
clude that the ship doth run a mile in an hour, 
for 60 (the number of minutes in an hour) being 
multiplied by 14 (the number of fathom) make 
just so ma.ny paces as are in a mile: so accord- 
ingly, as in a minute there runs out more or 
less, they do by judgment allow for the ship's 
way. But this is a way of no certainty unless 
the wind and seas and the course would continue 
all one, besides the error of turning the glass and 
stopping the line, both at an instant; so that 
it is rather to be esteemed as a trick for a con- 
clusion, than any solid way to ground upon. 
The manner of doing it is : one stands by with a 
minute glass, whilst another out of the gallery 
lets fall the log; just as the log falls into the 



water the other turns the glass, and just when 
the glass is even out he cries 'stop'; then he 
stops and reckons how many fathom are run out ; 
so gives his judgment. 
The Loof of the ship is counted that part 
[aloft] of the ship which lies just before the chess- 
trees, as far as the bulkhead of the forecastle; 
and therefore we call those pieces of ordnance 
which lie there, the loof pieces. Loof up, a term 
in conding the ship ; to have him keep her nearer 
the wind. Loof into a harbour, that is, to keep 
close to a wind, and so go into it. teep your 
loof; that is, to keep close to the wind. To spring 
one's loof; that is, when a ship is going large, to 
clap dose by a wind. 
A Loof-hook is a tackle with two hooks; one 
to hitch into a cringle of the main and foresail, 
which cringle is in the bolt-rope of the leech of 
the sail, not far above the clew; and the other 
to hitch into a strap, which is spliced into the 
chess-tree, and so to bowse down the sail. The 
use whereof is to succour the tack in a great 
gale, that all the force and stress may not bear 
upon the tack; and also it is used when we would 
seize the tack surer, or the like. 
To Loom. The looming of a ship is (as you 
would say) the very prospective of a ship, for 
the word is used in this sense. A ship looms a 
great sail; that is, she seems to be a great ship. 
She looms but small; that is, shews or seems to 
be but a little ship. 
A Loom-gale. Vide Gale. 

To Man. We say a ship is well nanned when 
she hath men enough to use her ordnance, trim 


her sails, and ply a convenient number of small 
shot; besides chirurgeons, 1 carpenters, and some 
to hand [along] powder, and other men that are 
necessary, but not fighters. I mean so as that men 
being appointed to their charge shall only intend 
that, 2 though it be true that a man may step from 
a gun to a rope, or from a rope to use a small shot, 
and the like, and therefore it may be thought 
there should not need so many ; yet I would have 
those things done, as works of supererogation, not 
as being forced to them, for if necessity then 
require, whilst the sails are a-trimming, the ord- 
nance or small shot must lie still. Wtiat incon- 
venience the want of sufficient manning is, in a 
man-of-war, they can best tell who have been 
experienced in that laboursome fight at sea which 
many times doth not only last for a day, but two 
or three. For mine own part, though I might well 
be ashamed not to know, and dare to do as much 
with a few men as any other, yet to speak my con- 
science and tell my mind clearly, were I worthy to 
command the King's ships in any service, I would 
rather have twenty men too many than ten too 
few. A merchantman is counted well manned 
when he hath double so many men as would else 
barely sail his ship ; yet commonly they lose their 
ships rather for want of men than desire to save 
themselves, for though for a while he may defend 
himself, yet the man-of-war will be sure of him, 
if he can have sea room and time enough. When 
they would have men to go heave at the capstan, 
they say, man the capstan ; also when ships meet 
and desire to shew all their men, they are com- 
manded to come all up aloft, and this they call 

D has the modern form, ' surgeons.' 
I.e. shall confine themselves to that duty. 


at anchor in great stresses, that the water should 
not run aft on the decks, and so into hold as it 
may. Some ships whose hawses lie high, and 
that do ride easily in the sea, need them not, but 
others have much use of them. 
Marline 1 is a small line made of untwisted 
hemp to be more gentle and pliant than other 
lines, and it is also tarred ; the use whereof is to 
seize the ends of ropes from faying  out; also 
they use to seize the sides of the straps at the 
arse of the blocks together with this; also if a 
sail be ripped out of the bolt-rope, then if they 
have haste, or cold weather, so as they cannot 
sew it in, they take marline, and with that put 
through the eyelet-holes they make fast the sail 
to the bolt-rope. This is called marling the sail. 
Marlin spike is a small spike of iron made 
of purpose for splicing together of small ropes, 
and also to open the bolt-rope when they sew 
in the sail. 
Martnets are small lines which are fastened 
to the legs on the leech of the sail and seem like 
crow feet, the fall being reeved through a block 
at the topmast-head and so comes down by the 
mast to the deck: the martnets of the topsails 
are in the same manner to the head of the top- 
gallant mast, but their fall comes no farther than 
the top, where it is hauled. When they are to 
haul these martnets, the term is, top the martnets : 
the use of them are to bring that part of the leech 
of the sail which is next to the yard-arm up close 
to the yard when we farthel the sail. These most 

1 , Marling ' ; ' marling-spike.' 
2 This word is not in N.E.D. ; evidently it means' fraying.' 
D reads 'ffarsing,' and H 'fassing,' derived apparently 
from 'fas,' a fringe. See also p. 200. The word 'fag' is 
sometimes used in this meaning. 


commonly belong to the two courses, yet many 
great ships have them to the topsails and sprit- 
Masts. The masting of a ship is of much 
importance to the sailing and conditions of a ship, 
for if she be overmasted, either in length or 
bigness, it will overcharge the ship and make her 
lie down too much by a wind, and labour too 
much a-hull. If she be undermasted (that is, too 
small or too short), then she loses the benefit and 
advantage of spreading so much more sail to give 
her way. There are some differences in the pro- 
portioning of masts according to the use of the 
ship (for those which are to go long voyages are 
not to be masted according to true proportion, 
but to be made shorter and bigger than ordinary 
for fear of spending them in a long journey where 
they cannot be repaired), but the rule and way 
whereby we give the true proportion for the 
length of any mast is to take - of the breadth of 
the ship, and that multiplied by 3 shall give the 
just number of feet that the mainmast shall be 
In length; the bigness to be one inch to a 
yard in length, but more if it be a made mast, for 
example: Take a ship whose breadth is 30 foot, 
four-fifths of 30 are 24 foot, so I say that this 
ship's mainmast must be 24 yards long (for every 
yard is 3 foot), and 24 inches through, allo.wir}.g 
one inch to every yard. The foremast is m 
length to be - of the mainmast, which will be 
20 yards lacking one  part of a yard and 20 inches 
through: the boltsprit ever the same in length 
and thickness with the foremast. The mizen- 
mast to be half the length of the mainmast, which 
will be 12 yards long and 12 inches through. And 
so this is the true proportion for the masts of a 
ship which is 30 foot broad at the beam, for as 


we take the proportion of the length of our yards 
from the keel, so do we take the proportion of her 
masts from the beam, or breadth of the ship. 
A long mast is termed a taunt mast ; a short mast 
is termed a low mast. 
Mats are broad clouts weaved of sennit and 
thrums together [and some are made without 
thrums], the use whereof is to save things from 
galling, and are used in these places :--to the 
main and fore yards at the ties, to keep the yards 
from galling against the mast; upon the gunwale 
of the loof, to keep the clew of the sail from galling 
there ; upon the boltsprit and beak-head, to save 
the clew of the foresail. 
Metal. 1 By speaking of the metal of a piece 
of ordnance is commonly meant not the quality, 
but the quantity of that metal whereof it is made : 
(as to dispert the metal: Vide Dispert). When 
they say the piece is laid under metal, that is, with 
her mouth lower than the breech; or contrary, 
she lies over metal if the mouth lie higher than the 
breech ; and if she lie point blank, then they say, 
she lies right with her metal: so that it seems 
because the breech hath most metal they do more 
singularly attribute the word metal to that, than 
any other part. If a piece have much metal in 
any part, they say, she is well fortified there, and 
so contrary. 
The Mizen. When we say the mizen, it is 
meant, that we speak of the sail, not of the mast, 
as set the mizen, that is fit the mizen-sail : change 
the mizen, that is bring the yard to the other side 
of the mast, and so the tack to the other board. 
And so, peak the mizen, that is put the yard right 
up and down by the mast : spill the mizen, that is 

a ' Mettle.' 



let go the sheet and peak it up. The use of the 
mizen is to keep the ship close to a wind. Note, 
if a ship gripe too much then we use no mizen, for 
then she will never keep out of the wind. Some- 
times also we use the mizen when we are at an 
anchor, to back the ship astern, to keep her from 
fouling her anchor upon the turning of the tide ; 
sometimes also we try with the mizen. Some 
great long ships require two mizens, then .they 
call that next the mainmast the main-mizen; 
that next the poop, the bonaventure mizen. 
The Mizen-mast. Vide Mast. 
The Mizen-sail. Vide Sail. 
The Mizen-topmast. Vide Topmast. 
The Mizen-yard. Vide Yard. 
[Monk-seam. This is a kind of sewing the 
canvases of the sails together, when the edge of 
the one is sewn over the edge of the other, and 
so it is sewn on both sides. This is the strongest 
way of sewing the sails.] 
[To Moor, or Mooring. To moor a ship is 
to lay out her anchors, as is most fit for the ship 
to ride by in that place where she is; for there 
are these kind of mooring: first to moor across 
or thwart, which is to lay one anchor on one side of 
the river and the other on the other, right against, 
so as both cables (either for ebb or flood) m.ay 
bear together. Next, to moor alongst, that is, 
to lay one anchor right in the middle of the 
stream on ahead, and the other astern; and 
this is where they fear driving ashore, for then 
both the cables will bear together if she tally 1 
in upon either shore. The third is, mooring 
water-shot, that is (as you would say) quartering 
betwixt both, for this is neither across the tide 

 D, H, ' talee ' ; Z, ' falle.' 


nor alongst the tide. When they come into any 
place, they perceive where, which way, and upon 
what point of the compass, the wind or sea is 
likely to endanger them most ; and so just there 
they lay out an anchor, and this they call mooring 
.for West, North-west, or as the point is. Note 
that a ship is not said to be moored with less than 
two anchors aground, yet if she have but one 
a-ground and a hawser ashore (which is called 
a proviso) we say she is moored with her head to 
the shore.] 
To Mount. Mounting a piece of ordnance is 
taken in two senses ; that is, either to put them 
upon and into their carriages: as we say, the 
ship's ordnance are not mounfed, that is, not 
on their carriages; or else when they are in their 
carriages and the mouth of her lies too low for the 
mark, we say, mount the piece higher. But if 
she lie with her mouth too high for the mark, 
we say, let .fall the piece a little, not dismount the 
piece; for to dismount the piece is to take it out 
of the carriage, or that the carriage is not service- 
able; as in fight when a shot hath taken, or 
broken a carriage, we say the piece is dismounted. 
Murderers are small iron or brass pieces with 
chambers. In merchant-men they are most used 
at the bulkheads of the forecastle, half-deck 
or steerage, 1 and they have a pintle which 
is put into a stock,  and so they stand and are 
traversed; out of which they use murdering 
shot to scour the decks when men enter; but 
iron murderers are dangerous for them which 
discharge them, for they will scale extremely 
and endanger their eyes much with them. I have 
known divers hurt with shooting them off. 

1 B, ' steer-reach.' 2 D, H, ' socket.' 


[Neal-to. That is, when it is deep water 
close to the shore (as you would say a bank) 
that is right up and down without any shoaling.] 
Neaps, or Neap Tide. When the moon is in the 
midst of the second and last quarter, then we have 
neap tides. The etymology of the word I know 
not, but the meaning of it is this: the neap is 
opposite to the spring, and there are as many 
days allowed for the neap or falling of the tides 
as are for the spring or rising of the tides. These 
do cause, that where it doth not ever 1 flow high 
enough, we are forced to stay for the launching 
and grounding of ships, and also for going over 
some bar, till a spring. Note, in neap tides 
the water is never so high nor so low as in the 
spring tides; also the tide never runs so swift 
in neaps as it doth at springs. Note that as the 
highest of the spring is three days after the full, 
or change of the moon, so the lowest of the neap 
is four days before the full or change, and then 
we say it is dead neap. When a ship lacks water 
so that it doth not flow high enough to bring her 
off the ground, or out of a dock, we say she is 
be-heaped. So if a ship is within a barred harbour 
that there lack water to carry her over till the 
spring, we say she is be-heaped. 
The Needle is that iron wire which is made 
fast to the fly of the compass, and is that which 
gives the motion to it, being touched with a 
loadstone. The best for to receive and retain 
the virtue of the stone are made of steel, and the 
best form is to make them round with two small 
points directing to the North and South, for in 

I.e. always. 


this form they do most equally poise the fly. 
Who would understand more of these, let him 
read Dr. Barlow's book of the loadstone, 1 where 
all things belonging to the needle are most exactly 
and compendiously set down. 
Nettings are those small .ropes which are seized 
together with rope yarns In the form of a net 
with meshes, and are for the most part only used 
in the waist (yet I have seen Flemings have 
nettings over all, from the top of the forecastle 
over the poop) ; and are stretched upon the ledges, 
which are placed from the waist-trees to the 
roof-trees. In merchantmen it is chiefly used 
having a sail laid over it, for to shadow their men, 
and for a close fight ; but I think they are in an 
error, for it is most dangerous for firing, of small 
defence if men enter, being quickly cut dol, 
and being once torn down (as it may easily with 
small grapples 8) it doth cloy all the waist. In a 
man-of-war it is good to have them for the pleasure 
and succour of the company Ein foul weather or in 
extreme sunshine], but not to use them in fight. 
Netting-sails are the sails which they lay 
upon the nettings. 
.Nippers are small ropes (about a fathom and 
a half or two fathom long) with a little truck 
at one end (or some have only a wale-knot), the 
use whereof is to hold off the cable from the main 
capstan, or the jeer-capstan, when the cable 
is either so slippy 3 or so great that they cannot 
strain it, to hold it off, with their hands only. 

' William Barlow (d. 1625), chaplain to Prince Henry and 
afterwards Archdeacon of Salisbury. He made important 
improvements in connexion with compasses at sea. His book, 
Magnetical Advertisements concerning the property o] the 
Loadstone, was published in 1616. 
 D, ' grapnells.' 3 D, ' slimie.' 



Oakum 1 is nothing but old ropes, or others 
untwisted, and so pulled out as it were into loose 
flax again ; also, tow, 2 or flax being so employed 
about a ship is called white oakum. The use of 
it is to drive into the seams and to all parts 
where they suspect water may come in, as the 
heads of the trenails, etc. White oakum is best 
to drive first into the seam, but tarred oakum 
is best for the outside of the seam next the water. 
lrhen it is rolled up, so as when the caulker 
drives it in, it is called a thread of oakum. [If a 
ship open her seams so much that the oakum come 
out, whereby she becomes leaky, they say she 
spews her oakum.] 
To Observe is to take the height of sun or star 
with any instrument, whereby we know in what 
degree of latitude the ship is. I need not say 
much of this, for it would require many lines, 
and it is taught in every book of navigation. 
The Offing. By this is meant as much as 
to say out in the open sea, from the shoreward; 
as if I be at sea in a ship, the shore on one side 
of me and on the other side, to sea-board, another 
ship, she is in the offing. So if a ship be sailing 
into the seaward fromwards 3 the shore, we say 
she stands for the offing. Or when a ship (as 
in our Channel) keeps in the middle of the Channel 
and comes not near the shore, we say she keeps 
in the offing. 
Offward is a term used when a ship is ashore 
land heels to the waterward, fromwards the 
shore]; they say, she heels to the offward. Or 
if her stern lie towards the sea, we say her 

t ' Ockham.'  ' toa,' ' towe.' 3 D, ' frowards.' 


stern lies to the offward, and her head to the 
Orlop. The Orlop is no other but the deck. 
As we say the lower deck, the second deck, so 
you may as well say the lower orlop, or the second 
orlop, for this word orlop seems to be appropri- 
ated only to these two decks; for if there be a 
third deck it is never called by the name of orlop, 
but by the upper, or third, deck. 1 
The Outlicker is a small piece of timber (some 
two or three yards long, as they have occasion 
to use it) and it is made fast to the top of the poop, 
and so stands right out astern. At the outward- 
most end there is a hole, into which the standing 
part of the sheet is made fast, and so, being reeved 
through the block of the sheet, is reeved again 
through another block which is seized to this 
piece of timber near the end; and so the use 
of this is to haul down the mizen sheet to it. 
This is seldom used in great ships, but the cause 
why in any ship it is used is for that the mizen 
mast is placed so far aft that there is not room 
enough within-board to haul down the sheet 
fiat, and so are forced to use this without-board. 
The small French Burtons and Allowns  do 
use this most of any ships which I have seen, 
and generally all Newcastle carvels have them. 
Overset. When a ship at sea, with bearing 
1 D reads : ' for if a ship have three decks they never call 
the uppermost (which is the third) by the name of orlop, but 
by the name of deck, as to speak of them they will say she 
hath a tier of ordnance on the first and second orlop, and also 
upon the upper deck.' 
* Burton is apparently a corruption of Breton (vide 
Mariners' Mirror, February 1914): presumably 'allown' 
(or ' allowner ' as it reads in D, H, and Z), is a similar corrup- 
tion, but it is difficult to conjecture what the original was; 
possibly ' Olonne.' 
II. 0 



too much sail, is borne over on a side and so 
foundered in the sea, we say she was overset. 
Sometimes with an extraordinary wind the ship 
may be overset with nothing but the power which 
the wind may have over her hull, especially if 
the wind and current go contrary. I have heard 
some say that disemboguing out of the Indies 
by Cape Florida (where the current ever sets 
very strong to the Northward) that if they have 
met with a gust at the North, the wind having 
power over the hull of the ship aloft, and file 
current setting to windward, having power of 
the hull alow, they have been in great danger of 
foundering. Also the turning over of any cable 
or small rope which is coiled up, is called over- 
setting ; as overset the cable, etc. 
Overthrow. When a ship that is brought to 
be trimmed aground doth fall over on a side, we 
call it overthrown, and not overset; the reason 
whereof is her want of floor to bear her upon the 
ground; and sometimes it may happen by the 
indiscretion of those who bring the ship aground, 
heeling to the offward, if the ground be too steep, 
whenas they should heel her to the shoreward; 
to prevent which, we have no way but to shore 
her up with her topmast and yard. 
Ooze, or Oozy is a soft, slimy, muddy ground. 
This is no good ground to ride at anchor in, for 
the anchors will not hold here in great stresses; 
but the best way to make them hold is to shoe 
them, and in some places that will not serve neither ; 
besides this is very bad ground for the rotting of 
cables. If a man would have a ship lie long 
aground, it is best laying her in ooze, for there 
she will lie very soft and easily, for she will quickly 
dock herself there. It is very bad also for rotting 
the plank, and the oakum which is in the seams. 


A Parbuckle 1 is a rope which is used in the 
nature of a pair of slings. It is a rope seized 
together at both ends, and so put double about 
the cask to hoist it in by; and the hook of the 
runner is hitched into it, to hoist it in. This is 
the quickest way of slinging the cask, but not so 
sure a way for slipping as the .slings. 
To Parcel, or parcelling, IS to take a little 
canvas (about the breadth of a hand) and so lay 
it over a seam, which is first caulked, and it is 
most commonly used alongst the ship's sides over 
the cabins, on the quarter deck over the master's 
cabin : then heat a little pitch and tar very hot, 
and pour upon this canvas, and all this together 
is caged parcelling a seam. 
[Parrels are those things made of trucks and 
ribs and ropes, which go about the mast and are 
at both ends made fast to the yards; and are so 
made with trucks and ribs, that the yard may 
slide up easily. These also, with the breast rope, 
do hold the yard close to the mast.] 
The Partners are those timbers which are 
bolted to the beams and do compass and shut 
in the mast at the deck; and are the strength 
that do keep up the mast steady in the step, and 
also that it should not roll out the ship's sides. 
There are partners also at the second deck in the 
same nature, but the mizen hath but one pair 
of partners. The mast doth use to be wedged 
fast in these from stirring or wagging, yet I 
have seen some ships that would not sail well 
unless the mast were loose and, as they term it, 
had leave to play in the partners ; but in a storm 

' ' Parbunckle.' 


To Pay is the same that parcelling is, only 
wanting the canvas ; for we call it paying a seam, 
when after it is caulked we heat pitch to lay upon 
the seam to keep it from being pierced with the 
water. We also use no tar to this. Also, when 
we grave a ship we call the laying on the stuff 
(whatever it be, rosin and brimstone and oil, 
or the like) paying her, for they say, pay her up 
to the bends, pay thicker, or the like. Also when 
a ship is to tack, and that all her sails are aback- 
stays (that is, flat against the shrouds and mast, 
so that we are sure she will not fall back again), 
we say the ship is paid, and then we let rise the 
tack and haul the sheets, and so come to lay her 
head the other way. 
A-peak. To heave a-peak is to heave the hawse 
of the ship right over the anchor, so that the cable 
is then a right perpendicular betwixt them. To 
ride a-peak is to have the main-yard and fore-yard 
hoisted up, and so one end brought down close 
to the shrouds, the other being raised up;and 
so are they done to the contrary sides, the star- 
board yard-arm of the main-yard coming down 
to the starboard side, and the larboard of the 
fore-yard, so the yards seem to cross one another 
like a St. Andrew cross. The manner of doing 
it is, for the main-yard, letting go starboard 
topsail sheets and topping up the larboard lifts; 
and so contrarywise for the fore-yard. To ride a 
broad peak, is to ride in the same manner, but the 
yard must be but half mast high. They never 
lig.htly ride in this manner with their yards, but in 
a river ; the reason : lest, riding with their yards 
across, some ship might by chance come foul of 
them and break their yards. Also that room 
which is in a ship's hold, from the biffs forward 
on to the stem, is called the peak, or fore-peak 



of the ship. In the King's ships the powder is 
placed there. Merchantmen place their victuals 
there outward bound, but other men-of-war, 1 
which are full of men, will use it for to lodge 
some of the company. 
Pendants. A pendant is a short rope made 
fast at one end, either to the head of the mast, 
or to a yard, or to the clew of a sail, and are 
in bigness according to the places where they 
are used; having at the other end a block with 
a shiver, to reeve some running rope into it: 
as the pendants of the tackle, which are made 
fast to the head of the mast ; and so the pendants 
of the back-stays which are there made fast 
and hang a little way down on the inside of 
the shrouds. Generally all the yard-arms except- 
ing the mizen have pendants into which the braces 
are reeved, and by them they are easily known. 
Also they call those colours which are hung out 
on the yard-arms, or from the head of the mast, 
for a show to beautify the ship, pendants. 
[The Pillow. That timber whereon the bolt- 
sprit doth bear, and rest on, at the coming out of 
the hull of the ship aloft by the stem, is called 
the pillow of the boltsprit.] 
A Pintle is a small iron pin which is fastened 
to murderers, as also to harquebusses--croc, 
which is put into a socket or any hole, to keep 
the piece from recoiling. Also those iron pins 
which are made fast to the rudder and do hang 
the rudder to the stem post, being put into iron 
sockets, are called the pintles of the rudder. 
Pitching is not only laying pitch upon any 
place (which yet is more properly called paying) 
but it is taken also for the placing of the step of 

I.e. privateers. 


a mast; as they say, the main mast is pitched 
a little too far aft, that is, stands and is placed 
too far towards the stern of the ship, but it is 
not meant by the head hanging too far aft. So 
the foremast is pitched too far forth, that is 
the mast stands too far forward on. Also if a 
ship fall much into a sea they say she pitches much 
into the sea ; or if she beat much against the sea, 
so as to endanger her topmasts with the stroke, 
they say, she will pitch her masts by the board. 
Plats are flat ropes made of rope-yarn woven 
one over another, and are for to save the cable 
in the hawse from galling. Also we use them on 
the flukes of the anchor to save the pendant 
of the fore-sheet from galling against the anchor. 
A Plot and Sea-Card is all one. Vide Card. 
To prick a Plot is to note down the traverse of 
the ship's way and so, comparing it to your 
observation finding where the ship is; to make 
a small prick in the plot in that latitude and 
longitude where you suppose the ship to be, and 
so, still keeping account of the days, you shall 
still see how near or far off you are from the place 
which you sail to. 
A Point. The sharpness of any headland 
is called the point of the land. When they say 
that two points are one in another, that is they 
are so just in a right line from us, one betwixt 
the other, that we cannot see the one for the other. 
Also the compass is divided into 32 points, repre- 
senting 32 winds, so that we call sailing by the 
compass sailing upon a point. They also use to 
undo the strand at the end of a cable (some two 
feet long), and so make sennit of the rope yarn and 
lay them one over another again ; making it less 
towards the end, and so at the end make them 
all fast with a piece of marline or the like. This 


is called pointing the cable; the use whereof is 
to keep the cable from fassing, 1 but chiefly to 
see that none of the end is stolen off and cut away. 
[The Poop. The poop of the ship is the upper- 
most part astern of the ship's hull, and is the deck 
over that which is commonly the master's cabin.] 
A Port is that place out of which the ordnance 
are put through the ship's sides, and these are 
to be made so large that the ordnance may have 
leave to traverse as much bowing and quartering 
as may be. About 30 inches is the ordinary rate 
for a port for a demi-culverin. 
To Port is a word used in conding the ship 
when she is right before a wind, or if the weather 
sheet be aft as far as the bulkhead, which is more 
than quarter winds but not right afore. They 
will use the word steady a-port, or steady a-star- 
board; the ship heels to porl, bring things over2 
to port, and the like terms easily understood. 
Pouches are small bulkheads made in hold, 
either thwartships or longst-ships. Those who 
carry corn, or any such goods that will shoot 
over from one side to the other, do make many 
bulkheads, or several rooms (as it were) to keep 
it up, and these are called pouches. Also when 
we careen ships there are small bulkheads made 
some distance from the keelson on either side in 
the hold, which serve to keep up the ballast 
when we shift it either for the righting or bringing 
down of the ship when she is on the careen, and 
these are also called pouches. 
Powder. There are two sorts of powder; 
the one serpentine powder, which powder is dust, 
as it were, without corning ; and this we never 

Fraying out. See note on p. 185. 
D, H, Z, ' near.' 


use at sea in ordnance, nor small shot, both 
because it is of small force, and also, for that 
it will (with the &ir of the sea) quickly die and 
lose its force.. The other is corn powder, whereof 
there are two sorts: cannon powder, which 
is a great corn, and not very strong; the other 
musket powder, which is the finest, strongest, 
and best we can get. The ingredients which make 
the powder are: first, saltpetre, wherein the 
force of the powder consists; next brimstone, 
which is apt to flame, and once flamed causes 
the saltpetre to flame; lastly, coal, 1 which is 
apt with any sparkle to kindle, but not to flame, 
yet doth maintain the flame of the other two. 
The best saltpetre is that which hath no fat; 
the best brimstone without dross; and the best 
coal that which is made of the lightest wood. 
I only touch some chief things of this because 
there are divers books concerning main conclu- 
sions touching the effects of powders in all kinds. 
The Powder-room is that room in hold where 
we lay the powder. The greatest care in placing 
this room must be, to have it farthest from the 
use of any fire, and freest from the danger of 
Predy z is a word used amongst them in the 
stead of ready; as when we come to fight the 
commander bids them make the ship predy, 
make the ordnance predy, that is, make them 
.ready for to use in fight. A predy ship; that 
is when her decks are all clear, and the ordnance 
and all things fitted for fight. Also make the 
hold predy is to lay things out of the way, so as 
that they may stow the goods in commodiously. 

Cole'; i.e. charcoal. 
D, ' preddie ; H, ' preddy.' 


shivers in them, and may either be called so, or 
by the name of small blocks (for great blocks 
are not usually called by the name of pulleys), 
as the pulleys of the topsail braces, clewlines, 
martnets, &c. 
Pumps. There are three sorts of pumps 
used in ships. The first and most common are 
ordinary pumps such as are used ashore, and these 
do stand by the mainmast. The next is a 
burr-pump, which is not used in English ships, 
but Flemings have them in the sides of their 
ships, and are called by the name of bilge pumps, 
because they have broad long floors that do hold 
much bilge water. The manner of these is to 
have a staff some six or seven feet long, at the 
end whereof is a burr of wood whereto the leather 
is nailed, and this doth serve instead of the box ; 
and so two men standing right over the pump 
do thrust down this staff, to the midst whereof 
is seized a rope long enough for six, eight, ten or 
more to hold by, and so they pull it up and draw 
the water. This pump doth deliver more water 
than the former and is not so laborious to pump 
at. The third and best sort are chain-pumps. 
These deliver most water and with most ease 
for the company and are soonest mended if 
anything fail, having spare esses, 1 ii any chance 
to give way. These have a chain full of burrs 
and a wheel which makes it deliver so much and 
go so easily. The term is for pumping, to pump 
a spell, and at ordinary and burr-pumps they 
reckon by the stroke. As to say, a spell of 200 
strokes; but a chain pump, the spells go by 
glasses. The pump sucks, that is draws wind, 
and hath no water that comes to it. There are 

S-shaped links. 



also pumps made of a cane, or else of latten 
which we put down into the cask, to pump up 
the drink, for at sea, in hold, we use no spigots. 1 
The Pump-brake is the handle they pump 
by in the ordinary sort of pumps. 
The Pump-can is the can which they draw 
water in to pour into the pump, and this is a 
great can. 
The Pump-dale is (as it were) the trough 
wherein the water doth run alongst the deck 
out to the scupper holes. 
To Purchase. We call the gaining or coming 
in of a rope by our hauling of it in with our hands, 
or heaving it in at the capstan, or otherwise, 
purchasing. As the capstan doth purchase apace, 
that is, draws in the cable apace, or the tackles 
do purchase, and the contrary. When we cannot 
get in anything or haul it away, we say, we cannot 
purchase with the rope, tackle, or like. Note 
that the more parts that any tackle, halliard, 
or the like do go in, the more easily a man may 
purchase upon them ; as it is easier to purchase 
with a block which hath three shivers than with 
a block that hath but two ; but then this is longer 
Puttocks are the small shrouds xvhich go from 
the shrouds of the main, fore, and mizen masts, 
and also to the topmast shrouds, if the topmast 
have a topgallant top. The use whereof is to 
go off the shrouds into the top, for when the 
shrouds come near up to the mast they fall in 
so much that otherwise they would not get into 
the top from them. The puttocks are at the 
bottom seized to a staff which is made fast there 
to the shrouds, or some rope which is seized there, 

1 , Spicketts.' 


and above to a plate of iron or to a dead-man-eye, 
to which the lanniers of the topmast-shrouds 
do come. 

The Quarter. That part of the hull of the 
ship which is from the steerage to the transom, 
or fashion piece, is called the quarter, or the ship's 
Quarter Deck is that deck which is over the 
steerage, till it come to the master's cabin. 
Quartering is when a piece of ordnance lies 
so, and may be so traversed, that it will shoot 
in the same line, or on the same point of the 
compass, as the quarter bears. Also, when a 
ship sails with quarter winds, we say, she goes 
quartering ; then we let rise the weather tack 
and haul aft the sheet to the foremost 1 shroud 
and veer out the lee sheet a little. This way 
she goes fastest, for now all sails draw together. 
Quarter Winds are when the wind comes in 
abaft the mainmast-shrouds, just with the quarter. 
Quoins. There are three sorts of quotas 
used in a ship: that is, the quoins which the 
gunners use under their ordnance for to mount 
them higher or lower; they are made broad, 
but thinner at one end than at the other, with 
a handle at the thick end to draw it out or put 
it farther in, as you have occasion to mount 
the piece. Pulling out the quoin is termed to 
draw the quoin. Another sort are called cantic 
quoins : these are short--the length of a hand-- 
and are made with three edges; the use vhereof 
is to put betwixt the cask, at the bilge hoops of 
the cask, to keep the cask steady from rolling 

* ' Fore-mast.' D, ' for-mast of the main shrouds.' 



and labouring one against another. The third 
sort are standing quoins, and they are made of 
barrel boards, some four fingers broad, of a fit 
length to be driven across betwixt the butts, 
one end, two or three hoops from the chine 
hoops of one butt, and the other in the same 
manner to another, to keep the chine of the butt 
steady from gaging. 1 

Rabbeting is the letting in of the planks to 
the keel, which is a little hollowed away that the 
plank may join in the better and closer to the 
hooks and the keel; and this is only used in the 
rake and run of the ship, and not in the flat floor ; 
and this hollowing away is called the rabbet of 
the keel. 
Rake. The Rake of a ship is so much of her 
hull as doth overhang both ends of the keel; 
so that, let fall a perpendicular upon the end of 
the keel at the setting on of the stem, so much 
as is without that forward on is her rake forward 
on. And so in the like manner at the setting in 
of her stern post, and that is her rake aftward on. 
Commonly the rake forward on is more than a 
third, but less than one-half of the length of her 
keel. There is not any one rule observed amongst 
all nations, for some give long great rakes, as 
generally all French built; the Flemings not so 
much. And for the rake aftward on, it being 
of no use for the ship but only for to make her 
ship-shapen (as they call it), they give as little 
as may be, which commonly is about a fourth or 
fifth part of her rake forward on. A great rake 

Jerking. D, H, Z, read 'jogging.' 


forward on gives a ship good way and makes her 
keep a good wind, but if she have not a good full 
bow it will make her pitch mightily into the head 
sea; besides, it doth mightily charge i.the ship 
because it doth overhang the nailY And if 
a ship have but a small rake she will commonly 
be too bluff, and so meet the sea too suddenly 
upon her bows, which will hinder her .going through 
much. The longer a ship's rake IS, the fuller 
must be her bow. The best conditioned ships 
have neither too much nor too little. 
Ram-head. The ram-head is a great block 
with three shivers in it, into which are reeved 
the halliards, and at the head of it into a hole 
are reeved the ties. This block doth only belong 
to the main and fore halliards. 
A Rammer is a staff with a round piece of 
wood at the end of it, the outwardmost being 
flat, somewhat less than the bore of the ordnance 
to which it doth belong; and this is to drive home 
the powder close to the breech of the piece, and 
so the shot to the powder, and the wad to the 
shot, and that is called ramming home the powder 
or shot. 
Ranges. There are two; the one aloft upon 
the forecastle a little abaft the foremast, the 
other in the beakhead before the wooldings of 
the boltsprit : that in the forecastle is a small 
piece of timber which goes over from one side to 
the other, and there is fastened to two timbers, 
and in the middle, on either side the foremast, 
two knees, which are fastened to the deck and this 
timber, in which run the topsail sheets in a 
shiver, and hath divers wooden pins through it 
to belay ropes unto (as the foretacks, fore-topsail 

See note on p. 166. 



sheets and fore bowlines, the fore loof-hook), 
and that in the beakhead is in the same form, 
whereunto is belayed the spritsail lifts, the garnet 
of the spritsail, and other ropes belonging to the 
spritsail and spritsail-topsail. 
Ratling is a line wherewith they make the steps 
by which we go up the shrouds and the puttocks, 
and so the topmast shrouds in great ships; and 
these steps, which make the shrouds look like 
ladders, are called the ratlings of the shrouds. 
A Reach is the distance of any two points 
of land which bear in a right line to one another, 
which term is most commonly used in rivers; 
as Limehouse Reach, Greenwich Reach, Long 
Reach, and the like; the reach being counted 
so far as you can see the reach to lie in a strai.ght 
line. Also some call the distance and crossing 
betwixt Cape Verde and the first islands, entering 
to the West Indies, Long Reach. 
To Reeve. The word is used just in the same 
sense, in respect of ropes, that putting in or 
putting through or passing through would be, 
but they ever use this word reeve; as when we 
would express that the tack is put through the 
chess-trees, we say it is reeved through, or instead 
of putting a rope through a block, we say reeve 
it in that block (as the halliards are reeved in 
the knights and ram-heads) ; and it is generally 
to be understood and applied to all ropes that 
pass through blocks, dead-men-eyes, chess-trees, 
and the like. And so when we would have that 
rope pulled out of the block, etc., we say, unreeve 
that rope; or the braces, lifts, sheets, etc., are 
Ribs. By a resemblance that the timbers 
(that is the futtocks) of a ship have when the 
planks are off to the ribs of a dead carcase, we 


do in that kind call all those timbers by a general 
appellation, the ribs of the ship, though otherwise 
.they have particular names; as if two ships 
m a sea-gate lie aboard one another and break 
with her weight some of the other's futtock 
timbers, they will say, she hath broke some of 
her ribs. Also those little long wooden pieces 
which are made with holes, like the comb under 
the beakhead, and do belong to the parrels of 
the yards, are called the ribs of the parrels. 
To Ride. We say a ship rides whenas her 
anchors do hold her fast so as that she doth not 
drive away with the tide or wind; for though 
she sheer from one side to the other, yet if her 
anchors do hold fast and come not home we say 
she rides. To ride a great road ; that is, to ride 
where the sea and wind have much power over 
the ship and strain the cables very hard. Note 
a ship rides easiest and with more security having 
but two cables spliced together (which they call 
a shot) than she will by three single cables; for 
the length of the shot will give her more scope 
to play and rise upon the sea with ease; for by 
reason also of the weight, the ship can hardly 
strain it: for when a great sea comes to jerk up 
the ship, the shot is so long afore it comes to 
straining that the force of the sea will be past 
before it can come up to bear so much stress as 
a shorter cable would do. The deeper the water 
is, the worser it is to ride, and requires much more 
cable in proportion than shoaler water. For 
though in shoaler water the sea will break more, 
yet it hath not that power and weight which the 
deep water hath. When we ride any extra- 
ordinary road we strike down our .topmasts 
and bring our yards alongst-s.hips, m much 
wind especially. To ride across is to ride with 
II. p 



our main-yards and fore-yards hoisted up to the 
hounds, and both yard-arms topped alike. To 
ride a-peak is to ride with the yards peaked a- 
peak; and also when we ride with the hawse 
just over the anchor, then we ride a-peak, that is, 
when we ride ready to set sail. When they 
would express that they have rid a great road 
and stress, they say they rid hawse :full, that is, 
that the water broke into the hawses. To ride 
thwart is to ride with her side to the tide; then 
she never strains her cables. To ride betwixt 
wind and tide is when the wind and tide have 
equal power: one, one way; the other, the 
other way, so that the ship lies rolling with her 
broadside in the trough of the sea; and thus 
she will roll mightily, but not strain her cables. 
[Riders are great timbers (in hold, or else 
aloft) which are not properly belonging to the 
build of the ship, but only bolted on upon the 
other timbers to strengthen them where they 
find the ship to be weak. Merchantmen spare 
them as much as they can, because they hinder 
stowage of cask in hold.] 
Rigging. The rigging of a ship are all ropes 
which belong either to masts or yards : and more 
particularly we say, the mast is rigged, the yards 
are rigged ; that is, when they have all the ropes 
that belong to them. We say a ship is well 
rigged when the ropes belonging to her are of 
a fit size, not too big nor too little; also when 
there are no unnecessary ropes put up, as too 
many shrouds, tackles for the mast, crow-feet, 
or the like. When that we say a ship is over 
rigged it is meant the ropes are too big for her, 
which is a great wronging to the ship's sailing; 
for a little weight aloft doth hinder more than 
a great deal alow, by making the ship apter 



headland, or the like, this we call" shifting of 
roads. A wild road is a road where there is little 
land on any side, but lies all open to the sea ; as 
to ride upon a headland, or alongst a shore where 
there is no bay, nor anything to break off the 
sea, or wind if it come off the sea. A bad road 
is the contrary to the good. 
A Roader. We call any ship that rides at 
an anchor in the road, a roader. 
Robbins are little lines reeved into the eyelet 
holes of the sail under the head-line, 1 and are to 
make fast the sail unto the yard; and the term 
is, make fast the robbins, and not tie them. And 
note that seafaring men use the word make .last 
instead of tieing, as land men use to say, tie a 
Roof-trees are those timbers which are made of 
light wood (as of masts sawn) that go from the 
half deck to the forecastle, and are to bear up the 
gratings and the ledges whereon the nettings lie. 
These are supported under with stanchions which 
rest upon the deck. Also if they have occasion 
to use any such piece over the half deck for 
nettings or sails, it is called a roof-tree.  
Ropes. Generally all the cordage belonging 
to a called by the name of rope, as we say 
a cable is a good or bad rope (according as it 
is), and so a hawser or the like; but more par- 
ticularly only some, which beside their particular 
appellation have the general word rope added to 
them. These are an entering rope, a top rope, 
a boat rope, a buoy rope, a guest rope, a keel rope, 
a bucket rope, a rudder rope, a preventer rope 
(which is a little rope seized cross over the ties 
close at the ram-head, that if one part of the 

1 D, I-I, , read ' head-rope.' * See note on p. 178. 


ties should break, the other should not run through 
the ram-head to endanger the yard), a breast rope, 
and is the rope which lashes the parrel to the mast. 
Rope Yarns are the yarns of any ropes un- 
twisted, but most commonly it is made of the 
ends of cables half worn or so. They serve for 
many uses to serve small ropes with, or to make 
sennit mats, or the like; also knittles, which is 
two twisted together, and caburns. They serve 
also to make up the yard-arms of the sails, and 
therefore still when we take in our sails the boys 
of the ship are to attend the sailors with these 
rope yarns, to furnish them as they have occasion 
to use them. 
The Round-house is the uppermost room of 
the stern of the ship, and that which commonly 
is the master's cabin. 
Round-in. This is a term used to the main 
and foresail when the wind larges upon them; 
then they let rise the main tack, or fore tack and 
haul aft the fore sheet to the cathead, and the 
main sheet to the cubbridge head. This they 
call rounding aft, or rounding in the sail; the 
sheets being there, they haul them down, to keep 
them steady from flying up, with a rope called 
a passarado. 
Rouse-in is a word they use particularly 
whenas a cable or hawser doth lie slack in the 
water, and they would have it made taut; as 
when a ship rides but by one anchor, upon the 
turning of the tide the cable will be slack and 
so will be in danger to foul about the anchor, 
then to keep it stiff and taut they will haul in 
so much as lies slack, and this they call rousing in 
the cable, or rouse in the hawser; but it is not 
used in the hauling in of any other rope, as boat 
rope or the like. 


Rove and Clinch. The Rove is that little 
iron plate unto which the clinch nails are clinched. 
The planks of clincher boats are thus fastened 
together, also the planks of the ports are fastened 
so together; which kind of work is called rove 
and clinch. 
The Rowl is that round piece of wood or iron 
wherein the whip doth go, and is made to turn 
about that it may carry over the whip from side 
to side with more ease. 
The Rudder is that piece of timber which 
hangs at the.sternpost of the ship, having four, 
or five, or six irons which are called pintles, 
according to the bigness of the ship, fastened to 
them, which pintles are fitted for the gudgeons 
at the sternpost, and so by these the rudder is 
hanged to the sternpost. This is the bridle 
which governs the ship. The narrower the rudder 
is, the better, if the ship do feel it ; for a broad 
rudder doth hold much dead-water, if the helm be 
put over to any side, but if the ship have a fat 
quarter so that the water cannot come quick and 
strong to the rudder, then she will require a broad 
rudder. The putting-to of the rudder is termed 
the hanging the rudder. The part or edge of the 
rudder which is next the sternpost is called the 
inside of the rudder ; the aftermost part is called 
the back 1 of the rudder. 
The Rudder-rope is a rope or strap which is 
reeved into one hole of the rudder near the head, 
and so likewise through the sternpost, and then 
both ends are spliced together. This serves to 
save the rudder if it chance to be beaten off when 
the ship strikes aground. 
Rudder-irons are the cheeks of that iron 

" D, ' rake.' 


whereof the pintle is part, and these are fastened 
and nailed round about the back 1 of the rudder. 
To Rummage is to remove any goods or 
luggage out of a place betwixt the decks or any 
where else; but most commonly we use this 
word to the removing and clearing of things in 
the ship's hold, so that goods or victuals may 
be well stowed and placed. So when they would 
have this done they say they will go rummage 
the hold. 
The Run is that part of the ship's hull under 
water which comes thinner and lanker away by 
degrees from the floor timbers all along to the stern- 
post. This is also called the ship's way aftward 
on ; for as she hath either a good or bad run, so 
the water doth pass away swiftly or slowly 
alongst her, and the ship doth make more way. 
We say a ship hath a good run when it is long 
and comes off handsomely by degrees, and that 
her tuck do not lie too low, which will hinder 
the water from coming strongly and swiftly to 
the rudder; and a bad run whenas it is short 
and that the ship is too full below, so that the 
water comes slowly and weakly to the rudder, 
the force of it being broken off by the breadth 
of the ship alow, which will make (as it were) 
an eddy-water at the rudder; and that we call 
a dead-water. The run is of much  importance 
for the ship's sailing, for if the water come not 
swiftly to the rudder, she will never steer well; 
and it is a general observation that that ship which 
doth not steer well cannot sail well, and then she 
cannot keep a good wind, for if a ship have not 
fresh way through the sea she must needs fall 
to leeward with the sea; and therefore when 

 D, H, Z, ' rake.'  D, H, Z, ' main.' 


pull down that end which hath the hook in it, 
to hitch it into the slings or the like. 
[Running Ropes. We call all those ropes in 
a ship which belong to the yards and sails, for the 
traversing of the yards or trimming the sails, 
running ropes; and are taken generally for all 
ropes that do not stand fast to the masts, without 
veering or hauling ; as the shrouds, stays, and the 

Sails. To every yard in the ship there belongs 
a sail, and they are called after the name of those 
yards whereunto they belong. All head-sails (that 
is those that belong to the foremast and bolt- 
sprit 1) do keep the ship from the wind and are 
used to flat the sh.ip. All after sails, that is the 
mainmast and mizen sails, do keep her to the 
wind; and therefore few ships are so well con- 
ditioned as to steer quarter winds with one sail, 
but must have one after sail and another head 
sail, as it were, to countermand one another; 
yet some ships will steer with their main topsail 
only. At sea they call a ship a sail, as when they 
descry a ship, they say, a sail, a sail. The sails 
are cut in proportion as the masts and yards are 
in length and breadth one to another, excepting 
the mizen and spritsail. The mizen sail is cut 
by the leech, twice as deep as the mast is long 
from the deck to the hounds, and the spritsail 
is  as deep as the foresail. 
A Scarf is when the end of one timber is let 
into the end of another very close and even, or as 
they term it wood and wood, that is, so much wood 
taken away of the one as is of the other. In this 

I B, ' bosprit.' 


manner the stem is fastened to the keel, and that 
is called the scarf of the keel ; but yet when there 
is not a piece of timber long enough to make the 
keel then they make it of more, which are scarfed 
one into the other; so when the stem or any 
other timber (which ought to be entire and all 
one) is too short it is pieced in this manner, and 
that they call scarfing. 
A Scuttle is a square hole. (so much as con- 
veniently a man may go down at) cut through 
any hatch or any part of the deck to go down b.y 
into any room. Most commonly they are m 
these places: one close before the mainmast; 
at the main halliards before the knight; in the 
forecastle; in the hatchway; for the steward's 
room; one in the g.un room to go down into the 
stern sheets; one m the master's cabin to go 
down into the Captain's cabin, if they be put 
from the fight aloft; and so in any place where 
they desire to go through one deck down into 
another. Also, for vent for the ordnance, there 
are small scuttles with gratings. They have all 
covers fitted for them lest men in the night should 
fall into them. Also all the little windows and 
holes which are cut out Moft in the Captain's or 
Master's cabins, are called scuttles. 
Scuppers, or Scupper Holes, are the holes 
close to all the decks through the ship's sides, 
whereat the water doth run forth of the ship from 
the decks; and many ships have them made of 
Scupper Leathers are the round leathers which 
are nailed over the scupper holes that belong to 
the lower deck, which will keep out the sea water 
from coming in and yet give leave to any water 
to run out off the deck. These are also over the 
scuppers of the manger. 


made fast into a little chain or a ring in fore-ship 
of the boat, and is the rope which in harbours 
they make fast the boat by, to the ship's side. 
Send. When a ship falls (whether under sail 
or at anchor) with her head or with her stern deep 
into the trough of the sea, we say she sends much, 
either astern or ahead. The reason of sending 
with her head is if she have a little bow, not 
sufficient to bear her up, and a fat quarter to 
pitch her forward. And so for her sending astern, 
it is contrary, when she hath too lank a quarter 
and too full or fat a bow.-i 
Sennit is a line or a string made of rope yarn 
(commonly of 2, 6, or 9, which are divided in 
three parts and plaited one over another as they 
plait horses' manes) and so is beaten smooth and 
flat with a mallet. The use of it is to serve ropes. 
To Serve. To serve an.y rope is to lay sennit, 
spun yarn, rope-yarn, a piece of canvas, or the 
like, upon a rope, and so roll it fast about to keep 
the rope from galling; as we serve the shrouds 
at the head of the mast, the boat rope, or any the 
like, which are in danger of fretting against any 
part of the ship, masts, or yards. 
To Set a Land, Sun, or Ship by the Compass. 
That is to observe by compass how the land bears 
upon any point of the compass. This they use 
most commonly to do when they are going off 
to sea from any land, to mark how it did bear 
off them, that thereby they may keep the better 
account, and direct their course. Also they use 
to set the sun by the compass, that is to mark 
upon what point it is, to know thereby the hour 
of the day. So when two ships sail in sight 
(especially when a man-of-war chases a ship) they 
will set her by the compass, that is mark upon 
what point she bears ; then if they stand both one 


way (as commonly they do, if the chase strive 
to go away) by this we know whether we reach 
forth upon her, that is outsail her, or no. For if 
we bring her aft we do outsail her; if we bring 
her forth she outsails us ; if we alter not, then we 
go both alike. As for example, the wind being 
at North, we stand both away West and the 
chase bears North-West (that will be on my 
weather bow), then if in sailing I bring her to 
bear North-West and by North, I have brought 
her a point aft ; and if I bring her North I have 
brought her just with my midship beam, and so 
I see I fetch upon her ; and it is called bringing aft 
because, whereas before she bore upon my loof, now 
she bears upon my quarter ; and so the contrary. 
Settle a Deck. When we have occasion to 
lay a deck lower it is termed settling the deck; 
as if her ordnance lie too high and we would have 
them lie nearer the water; or that the decks be 
too close, and we desire rather to settle the lower- 
most than to raise the uppermost. 
Sewing, or to Sew. When the water is gone 
from the ship so that she lies dry, we say the ship 
is sewed ; or if it be but gone from any part (as her 
head) we say the ship is sewed ahead; if it be a 
place where the water doth not ebb so much that 
the ship may lie dry round, we say she cannot 
sew there. 
Shackles are a kind of rings (but not round) 
made somewhat longwise, larger at one end than 
the other, in the middle of the ports on the inside. 
They are used to shut fast the ports with a 
billet, which they use to bar down the port with, 
and that is called the bar of the port. Also some 
of the same fashion, but small ones, are made fast 
to the corners of the hatches, to lift the hatches 
up by them. 


The Shank. The longest part of the anchor 
is called the shank of the anchor. 
Shank-painter is a short chain fastened under 
the foremast shrouds with a bolt to the ship's 
side, and at the other end hath a rope. Upon 
the chain doth rest the whole weight of the after 
part of the anchor when it lies by the ship's side, 
and the rope by which it is hauled up is made 
fast about a timber head. This is seldom or 
not at all used at sea, but in a harbour or a 
Sheathing is, as it were, casing of a ship. It 
is done with thin boards, hair, and tar laid 
betwixt the ship's sides and those boards. This 
is done only under water or a very little above. 
The use whereof is to keep the worms from eating 
through the planks, as generally in all places to 
the southward they do. The thinner the boards, 
the better, for then the worm will presently 1 be 
at the tar (which he cannot abide) and so hath 
not means nor room to work in and out of the 
plank; and so will eat away more when it is 
thick than when it is thin. 
Sheepshanks is a kind of knot which they 
cast upon a runner when it is too long, so that 
they cannot hoist in the goods over the ship's 
sides unless it be shortened; and by this knot 
they can quickly shorten it up as much as they 
list, and instantly undo it again. 
Sheer Hooks are great hooks of iron (about the 
size of a small sickle, and more). They are set 
into the yard-arms of the main and fore-yards. 
The use whereof is that if a ship under sail come 
to board her that hath these hooks, she will cut 
her shrouds or tear her sails down with these 



hooks. Some do use them, but they are most un- 
useful and unnecessary things, and dangerous for 
the breaking of a yard if the hook should catch 
in the other ship's masts. 
Sheering is when the ship goes in and out 
under sail, and he at the helm doth not steer her 
steady. Also where a tide-gate runs very swift, 
the ship will sheer in and out, and so much in 
some places that they are fain to have one stand 
at the helm and to steer her upon the tide for fear 
she should sheer home her anchors, that is draw 
them home: or if it be near the shore she may 
sheer aground. 
Sheers. When two masts or yards (or if it 
be but poles), are set up on end a pretty distance 
off at the bottom, but seized across one another 
aloft near the top, we call them a pair of sheers. 
To this seizing is fastened a double block with a 
strap. They are placed, at the bottom, upon the 
chain-wales of the shrouds and there are lashed 
fast to the ship's sides, with tackles aloft which 
come down to the ship's sides to keep them steady 
aloft. The use of them is either to set in a mast 
or take out a mast, or if they have no mast, these 
serve to hoist in and out goods. 
Sheets. The sheets are bent to the clews of 
all sails. In all sails that are low sails they serve 
to haul aft, or round aft, the clew of the sail ; but 
in topsails they serve to haul home (that is, to 
haul close) the clew of the sail to the yard-arms. 
When they haul aft the sheet of the mainsail it 
is to make the ship keep by the wind ; when they 
haul aft the sheet of the foresail it is to make her 
fall off from the wind (for the sheet doth trim the 
after leech of the sail by the wind).1 When the 

These words are not in D or H. 



ship will not fall off from the wind, they flat in 
the fore sheet, that is, pull the sail flat in by the 
sheet, as near into the ship's sides as may be. 
They ease the sheet of the sail, that is to veer out 
or let go a little of it. Let fly the sheet, that is, let 
it run out as far as it will and then the sail will 
hold no wind, but lie fluttering loose; and then 
if it be an extraordinary stress of wind it will 
split the sail to pieces. But this we do both with 
topsail sheets and the other sheets when we 
suspect the wind will be so great that it will carry 
our masts by the board, or overset the ship. Also 
in great stiff gales we use to bind another rope to 
the clew of the sail above the sheet block, to 
succour and ease the sheet lest it should break, 
and that rope we call a false sheet, and this is only 
used to the main and foresails. Those planks 
under water which come along the run of the 
ship and are closed to the stern-post are called 
sheets, and that part within board abaft, in the 
run of the ship is called the stern-sheets. 
Shivers. 1 There are two sorts of shivers used, 
either of brass or wood. The brass shivers are 
now little used but in the heels of the topmasts. 
The wooden shivers are either of one whole piece, 
and these they use for all small pulleys and small 
blocks; but in the knights and winding-tackle 
blocks they use shivers which are made of quarters 
of wood let in to each other, for these will hold 
when the whole shivers will split, and are called 
quarter shivers. 
Shoal. Shoal and shallow are all one. When 
they say there is very good shoaling, it is meant 
that the water doth grow shallower by degrees 
and not suddenly ; nor sometimes deep, and some- 

1 Sheevers. 


times suddenly a shoal, or bank. It is very safe 
and commodious going in with a shore where 
there is good shoaling, for by that we have some 
certainty whereabouts we are and how far distant 
from the land, if the shoaling be first known; 
and commonly where there is good shoaling the 
coast is not dangerous. 
The Shore is counted x the land near the sea, or 
the banks of the sea. The lee shore is that whereon 
the wind blows. Seamen avoid these by all means, 
for it is dangerous if it overblow. The weather 
shore is that from whence the wind comes. 
Shores are any pieces of timber or anything 
else that is fit to bear up another from sinking or 
falling, as when a ship is in danger of overthrowing 
aground we lash fast masts or yards to their 
sides, they bearing on the ground ; and these we 
call shores, shoring her up. Also some timbers 
that are set to bear up a deck, when it is weak 
or overcharged with weight, are called shores. 
Shot. There are many kinds of shot. That 
which flies farthest and pierces most is round shot ; 
the next is cross bar, which is good for ropes and 
sails and masts ; the other langrel, which will not 
fly so far but is very good for the rigging, and the 
like, and for men ; so is chain shot and case shot, 
or burr  shot, which is good to ply amongst men 
which stand naked, plying of their small shot. 
Shot of Cable. Two cables spliced together 
make a shot, and the use of them is great in deep 
waters and great roads ; for a ship doth ride much 
easier by one shot than by three short cables 
ahead. Vide Ride. 
Shrouds. The shrouds are those ropes which 
come from either side of all the masts, the mizen, 

 B, H, ' called.' 

 D, H, ' burrell.' 



mainmast and foremast shrouds have at the 
lower ends dead-men-eyes seized into them [and 
are set up taut by lanniers to the chains, which 
have also dead-men-eyes in them]. At the other 
end they are fastened over the head of the mast, 
the pendants, foretackle, and swifters being first 
put on under them. At this uppermost part they 
are served, for galling against the mast. The top- 
mast shrouds are in the same manner fastened 
with dead-men-eyes and lanniers to the puttocks, 
or the plates of iron which belong to them, and 
aloft over the head of the mast at the other, 
Ease the shrouds ; slack the shrouds ; that is when 
they are too stiff set up. Set taut the shrouds; 
set up the shrouds, that is, make them stiffer. 
Some ships desire to have the shrouds taut, some 
slack. The lanniers are to set up the shrouds. 
Vide Lanniers. The boltsprit hath no shrouds. 
The Skeg is that little part of the keel which 
is cut slanting and is left a little without the 
stern-post. The reason and use whereof is only 
intended to be that it should save the rudder 
from beating off if the ship should chance to beat 
aground: but these skegs are very unuseful and 
inconvenient; for, first, they are apt to snap off 
and so endanger the sternpost ; next, in a harbour 
or river where ride many ships, they are apt to 
catch another ship's cables betwixt that and the 
rudder; and lastly, when the ship is under sail 
they hold much dead-water betwixt them and the 
rudder. Therefore it is better to have no skeg, 
but to hang the rudder down close to the stern- 
post, with the bottom even to the bottom of the 
keel, only pared away a little sloping towards the 
aftermost side of it. 
The Skiff, vide Boat. 
A Slatch. When any part of a cable or rope 


(that is meant of the middle, not of the end) doth 
hang slack without the ship (as the cable when 
it is slack in the water, or the lee-tack, sheets, 
braces, or the like, do hang in the water, or loose 
by the ship's side), then they say haul up the 
slatch of the rope or cable. Also when it hath 
been a set of foul weather, and that there comes an 
interim or small time of fair weather to serve 
their turns, they call it a little slatch of fair 
weather, or the contrary. 
Sleepers are those timbers which lie fore and 
aft the bottom of the ship on either side the 
keelson, just as the rung-heads do go. The lower- 
most of these is bolted to the rung-heads, and the 
uppermost to the futtocks, and so these between 
them do strengthen and bind fast the futtocks 
and the rungs, which are let down one by another 
and have no other binding but these sleepers. 
These do line out (as it were) and describe the 
narrowing of the ship's floor. 
To Sling is to fasten any cask, ordnance, yard, 
or the like in a pair of slings. 
Slings. There are first slings to sling casks 
in (when we hoist it in, or any the like) which are 
made of rope spliced at either end into itself, 
making an eye at either end so large as they 
think fit to receive into it the cask ; and then the 
middle part of the rope also they seize together, 
and so make another eye for to hitch in the hook 
of the tackle or garnet. Another sort are made 
long with a small eye at either end, to put the 
one over the breach of the piece, the other to 
come over the end of a crow of iron which is put 
into the mouth of the piece,, and so by these they 
hoist it in. A third sort is any rope or chain 
wherewith we bind fast the yards aloft to the 
cross-trees and the head of the mast, to the end 



that if the ties should break the yard may not 
come down. These are called slings, which are 
chiefly used when we come to fight, for fear of 
cutting the ties. 
A Smiting Line is a small rope which is made 
fast to the mizen-yard-arm below, next the deck ; 
and when the mizen-sail is farthelled up this is 
made up alongst with it to the upper end of the 
yard (the sail being made up with rope yams), 
and so comes down to the poop. The use whereof 
is to loose the mizen-sail without striking down 
the yard ; for they pull this rope and that breaks 
all the rope yarns, and so the sail comes down. 
This line is called a smiting line, so they smite the 
mizen, that is, pull that rope that the sail may 
come down. 
A Snatch Block is a great block with a shiver 
in it and a notch cut through one of the cheeks 
of it, by which notch they reeve any rope into 
it ; and this is for quickness to reeve the rope in, 
for by this notch one may reeve the middle part 
of a rope into the block without passing it in by 
the end, which would be longer a-doing. It is 
made fast commonly with a strap about the main- 
mast, close to the upper deck, and is chiefly used 
for the fall of the winding tackle, which is reeved 
in that block, and so brought to the capstan. 
Sockets. The holes into which the pintles of 
the murderers, fowlers, or the like, do go, are called 
sockets. Also some call the gudgeons, wherein 
the pintles of the rudder do hang, by the name 
of sockets. 
A Sound. Any great in-draught of the sea 
betwixt two headlands, where there is no passage 
through, may be called a Sound (as Plymouth 
Sound, &c.), but when they name The Sound, it is 
meant of that of the East countries, being the 


most famous and greatest sea that is known by 
the name of a sound. 
To Sound is to try with a line, a pole, or any- 
thing else, the depth of the water. Also when 
we would know what water is in the well of the 
pump we put down a small line with a weight to 
it, and that is called sounding the pump. Vide 
.Deep Sea Line if you would know more of sound- 
lng: instead of bidding one sound, they say 
heave the lead. 
Sounding-Lead is as the deep-sea-lead, only 
it is commonly but seven pound weight, and 
about 12 inches long. 
Sounding-Line. The difference betwixt the 
sounding-line and deep-sea-line are these: the 
sounding-line is bigger I than the deep-sea-line ; 
a sounding-line is commonly cut to twenty 
fathom, or little more ; the other will be a hundred 
or two hundred fathom. The one is used in 
shoal, the other in deep water. The deep-sea- 
line is first marked at twenty fathom, and so to 
thirty, forty, &c. ; but the sounding-line is thus 
marked: at two fathom next to the lead it is 
marked with a piece of black leather put into it 
betwixt the strands; and at three fathom the 
like; at five, a piece of white woollen cloth; at 
seven fathom a piece of red cloth ; at ten a piece 
of leather, at fifteen fathom, either a white cloth 
or a piece of leather; and so it is marked no 
farther. This may be used when the ship is 
under sail, but the deep-sea-line cannot with any 
A Spell is, as you would say, the doing any 
labour for a short time, and so ceasing for others 
to take their turns ; as when they pump a hundred 

I.e. thicker. 



strokes, or a glass, they call it a spell. A fresh 
spell ; that is, others come to work, as rowing in 
the boat. When one says to another he will give 
him a spell ; that is, row or pump in his plac.e ; 
and this word is commonly used only to pumping 
and rowing. 
To Spend. When a mast or yard is broken 
by foul weather, or any the like occasion, they 
say they have spent their masts or yards; but 
if it come by fight, or so, they do not use the 
word spent, but shot by the board, or carried 
away by the board with a shot, or with another 
ship's masts or yards that may be bigger and 
Spikes 1 are (as it were) great, long iron nails 
with fiat heads, and are of divers lengths, a 
foot or two long. Some of them are ragged 
spikes that they may not draw out again. They 
are used in many places for fastening of timbers 
and planks. In foul weather they use to spike 
up the ordnance; that is, nail down a quoin, 
and the like, to the deck close to the breech of 
the carriage, to help to keep the ordnance strong 
up to the ship's side, lest they should break 
loose when the ship rolls. And for their further 
ease they use to take off the after trucks. 
To Spill. \Vhen a sail has much wind in it 
and that for any occasion (either to take in, or 
for fear of wronging the masts) we let the wind 
out of it, so as that it may have no force in it, 
ve say spill the sail, which is done by letting 
go the sheets and bowlines, and bracing the 
weather brace in the wind; then the sail will 
lie all loose in the wind. But this vord is most 
commonly used to the mizen-sail when they 

1 , Speekes.' 



take in the mizen, or peak it up, they say spill 
the mizen. 
A Spindle is the smallest part of the capstan, 
which is betwixt the two decks. To the spindle 
of the jeer capstan are whelps to heave the 
To Splice is to make fast the ends of ropes, 
one into the other, by opening the strands at 
the ends of both the ropes, and then with a rid 
laying every strand orderly one into another. 
Also when we would make an eye at the end of 
a rope, we take the end of the rope and undo 
the strands, and so opening the strands where 
we would have the splice, with a rid, we draw 
in the ends of the strands, and so weaving of 
them orderly make the splice ; and so seize the 
end down with some sennit or the like. There 
are these sorts of splices: the round splice, that 
is the splicing of the ends of two ropes one into 
another, as I described; the ctnt splice, that 
is when the ends of either rope are spliced into 
the other rope some distance from the end, and 
not one end in another (as the first), then they 
will make a long slit (as it were) betwixt them, 
which is the reason of the name. 
Split. When the wind hath blown a sail to 
pieces, we say the sail is split. Also when 
shivers break, we say they split. If a shot 
come and break a carriage of a piece, we say, it 
hath split the carriage. 
Sponge. The sponge of a piece of ordnance 
is that which makes it clean. They are commonly 
sheep-skins put at the end of a staff, which is 
made somewhat bigger there according to the 
bore of the piece, so as the sponge may go in 
full and close but not too strait; but we 
have it also fitted to the ends of a stiff rope, 



so is the rammer also, to spong.e and lade within 
board. We ever sponge a piece of ordnance 
before we put in powder. In fight when the 
ordnance is plied fast, to keep it from heating 
we wet the sponges; urine is the best, but else 
with vinegar, water, or what we have. 
To Spoon is to put a ship right before the 
wind and the sea without any sail, and that is 
called spooning afore. This is done most 
commonly when in a great storm a ship is so 
weak with age or labouring that we dare not lay 
her under the sea, for though a ship when she 
spoons afore do roll more, yet she strains not so 
much; but if she be a dangerous rolling ship, 
then perforce she must be laid under the sea, 
for else she will roll her mast by the board, and 
also it is dangerous, for if a sea should overtake 
her, when she hath a desperate seel, it may 
chance to break in and founder her. Sometimes 
then to make her go the steadier they set the 
foresail, which is also called spooning with the 
foresail. When they do this they are sure of 
sea room enough. 
The Spring, or Spring-tide. When after the 
dead neaps the tides be.gin to lift and grow 
higher, we say it is spring. Near upon three 
days before the full and change of the moon, 
the spring .begins; and the top or highest of 
the spring is three days after, then the water 
doth high most with the flood and low most 
with the ebb; which is the reason that at these 
times we launch and grave all of our great ships. 
The tides also run much stronger and swifter, 
than in the neaps. 
To Spring. When a mast is but cracked in 
any place (as at the hounds, partners, or else- 
where), we say it is sprung, as they sprung their 


masts with bearing a sail, &c. To spring one's 
loof, vide Loof. 
Spritsail, vide Sail. 
Spritsail-topmast, vide Topmast. 
Spritsail-topsail, vide Sail. 
Spritsail-yard, vide Yard. 
Spun-yarn is rope-yarn, the end scraped thin, 
and so spun one to the end of another with 
a winch, 1 and make it as long as they list. This 
serves to serve some ropes with, but most com- 
monly it is made to make caburn of. 
Spurkets are the holes or spaces betwixt 
the futtocks or betwixt the rungs by the ship's 
sides, fore and aft, above and below. To the 
spurkets below in hold (which are below the 
sleepers) there are boards fitted, which they take 
up to clear the spurkets if any ballast go in 
betwixt the timbers; but for those aloft there 
is no use, only it were good they were in all ships 
fitted up with light wood, or old junks, to keep 
the ship's sides, aloft, musket-free.  
Standing parts of running ropes. The stand- 
ing parts are those parts of running ropes (or 
rather that end of a running rope) which is made 
fast to any part of the ship; to distinguish it 
from the other part whereon we use to haul: 
(as the standing part of the sheet, is that part 
which is made fast by a clinch into a ring at the 
ship's quarter, and the like) for when we say 
haul the sheet, that is meant by the running part ; 
but if they say overhaul the sheet, then they haul 
upon the standing part. The same IS of all 
tackles and running ropes. 
Standing ropes are counted all those ropes 

D, H read ' wrentch.' 
I.e. proof against musket bullets. 



(as the shrouds, stays, and backstays) which 
are not used to be removed or to run in any 
block, but are only set taut or slacker as they 
have occasion. 
To Stay, or, Bring a Ship a-stay. YVhen we 
tack the ship, before the ship can be ready to 
be tacked she must come a-stays or a-backstays; 
that is, when the wind comes in at the bow which 
was the lee bow before, and so drives all the 
sails backward against the shrouds and masts, 
so that the ship hath no way but drives with the 
broad side. The manner of doing it is at one 
time and together to bear up 1 the helm, let fly 
the sheet of the foresail, and let go the fore bow- 
line, and brace the weather brace of the foresail ; 
the same to the topsail and topgallant-sail, 
only they keep fast their sheets. If the sprit- 
sails be out, then they let go the spritsail sheet 
with the fore sheet and brace the weather brace ; 
(the tacks, sheets, braces, bowlines of the main- 
sail, main topsail and mizen standing, fast as they 
did). To be taken a-stays, that is when the 
wind comes contrary on the sudden (which 
happens most upon headlands or calm weather) 
and so brings the ship a-stays. Sometimes by 
the negligence of him at the helm, sometimes 
if it be little wind and a head sea on the weather 
bow, a ship may miss staying ; that is to fall 
back and fill again. The best conditioned ships 
are those which stay with least sails, as with two 
topsails, or fore-topsail and mizen, but no ship 
will stay with less sail than those, [and few with 
so little]. 
Stays, and Backstays. All the masts and 

Sic in the MSS., but evidently the helm should be put 


topmasts and flag staves have stays (exceptin.g 
the spritsail-topmast). The mainmast stay is 
made fast by a lannier to a collar which comes 
about the knee of the head. The main-topmast 
stay is made fast into the head of the foremast 
by a strap and a .dea.d-man-eye there ; the main- 
topgallant mast xs in like manner to the head 
of the fore-topmast.. The foremast, and masts 
belonging to it, are xn the same manner stayed 
at the boltsprit, and spritsail-topmast, and these 
stays do likewise help to stay the boltsprit. The 
mizen stay comes to the mainmast by the half 
deck, and the topmast stays come to the shrouds 
with crow feet. The use of these stays is to 
keep the masts from falling aftward towards the 
poop. There is much difference in staying of 
masts, in respect of a ship's sailing or working. 
Generally, the more aft the masts hang, the more 
a ship will keep in the wind ; and the forwarder, 
the less. The Flemings stay their masts much 
aft, because else their ships, being long floaty 
ships, would never keep a wind; but short and 
deep ships rather covet upright masts. There 
are many differences of conditions in ships for 
their sailing according as they are stayed, for 
some will have the stay taut, some slack. The 
backstays of all masts which have them (those 
are only the mainmast and foremast, and the 
masts belonging to them), go down to either 
side of the ship, and are to keep the mast from 
pitching forward on overboard. 
To Steer is to govern the ship with.the helm. 
He steers best that keeps the ship evenest, from 
yawing in and out, and also that uses least motion 
m putting the helm too far over. There are 
three kinds of directions to steer by" the one 
is by the land, that is to steer by any mark on 


To Steve, or Steving. We say the boltsprit 
or beakhead steves when it stands too uptight 
and not straight forward enough. Also the 
merchants call the stowing of their cottons 
(which they force in with screws so much that 
the decks will rise 6 or 8 inches), steving of cottons. 
Steward's Room. That is that part of the 
hold where the victuals are stowed. 
A Stirrup. 1 When a ship by any mischance 
hath lost a piece of her keel and that we cannot 
come well to mend it, but (as it were) patch a 
new piece unto it, they bind it with an iron which 
comes under the keel, and so upon either side 
the ship, where it is nailed very strong with 
spikes to strengthen it. This piece so put to the 
keel we call a stirrup. 
Stoaked. When the water cannot come to 
the well, then we say the ship is stoaked, and 
that is when the limber holes have some ballast 
or anything else got into them so as that the 
water cannot pass, we say the limbers are stoaked. 
Also when anything is gotten in or about the 
bottom of the pump so that it cannot draw 
water, we say the pump is stoaked. Corn and 
the like is very bad for this. 
Stop. Vvhen they come to an anchor and have 
let run out as sufficient quantity of cable as will 
make the ship ride, or that the ship be in a current 
where it is best to stop her a little by degrees, 
then they say stop the ship ; and so hold fast the 
cable, and then veer out a little more, and so 
stop her fully, to let her tide. For stopping 
leaks, vide Leaks. 
A Stopper is a piece of a rope having a wale- 
knot at one end and a lannier spliced to it, and 

 ' Sturrop.' 



the other end is made fast to some part ; as the 
stoppers for the cables, to the bottom of the 
bitts, by the deck; the stoppers for the main 
halliards, to the knight. The use of them is 
chiefly for the cables, to stop the cables when we 
come to an anchor, that it may go out by little 
and little. The manner is but binding this wale- 
knot about the cable with the lannier, and it 
will instantly catch hold in it so that it cannot 
slip away, as the nippers do which hold off the 
cable. The term is laying on the stoppers and 
casting off the stoppers. Also we use them to 
the halliards when the yard is hoisted aloft, to 
stop it till the halliards be belayed. A ship 
rides by the stoppers when the cable is not bitted, 
but only held fast by them, but this is not safe 
riding in a stress. 
To Stow is to put any goods in hold in order ; 
for else we say it is not stowed, but laid in hold. 
Also we call it stowing between the decks, if any 
goods or victuals be placed in order upon the 
decks; but it is not used in this kind to small 
things, as to a chest or the like. Also the placing 
and laying of the topsails in the top is called 
stowing the topsails. 
A Strake is the term for a seam betwixt 
two planks; as the garboard strake, or the 
ship heels a strake, that is one seam. Some ships 
are built with a standing strake or two, that is 
when there is the whole breadth of a plank or 
two rising from the keel before they come to the 
floor timbers. These ships are naught to lie 
with the ground, for wringing their keels, but 
this doth make them keep an excellent wind: 
this build is most used amongst the Flemings. 
A Strap. A rope which is spliced about any 
block, that the block thereby be made fast to 


any place where they have occasion to use it, 
by the eye which is made in the strap at the arse 
of the block. 
Stream Anchor is a small anchor which we 
use to the stream cable. 
Stream Cable is a small cable which we ride 
withal in streams, as rivers, or in fair weather 
when we stop a tide. For ever we use the smallest 
ground tackle that we have if it will serve, both for 
lightness to weigh and to save the best from wetting. 
A Stretch. They use this word, not as it 
is commonly, to strain a rope, but thus: when 
they go to hoist a yard, or haul the sheet, they 
say stretch forward the halliard, or the sheet; 
that is, deliver along that part which they must 
haul by into the men's hands, that they may be 
ready to hoist or haul. 
To Strike is to pull down the sails. When 
one ship strikes to another it is a sign of respect, 
unless it be for occasion of staying for one. If 
a man-of-war come up with a merchant, or any 
other, if he strike it is intended that he yields 
himself. Also when a ship beats upon the ground, 
they say she strikes. So when we take down 
the topmasts, they say strike them down. So 
when we lower anything into the hold with the 
tackles or any other rope, we call it striking down 
into hold. 
Studding Sails. Vide Boom. 
Suck. When all the water is pumped out, 
and that the pump doth draw wind, we say she 
sucks. Also when a ship cloth draw down the 
helm and doth, as it were, suck the whip staff out 
of his hand at the helm. A ship gripes when she 
doth thus; the reason may be either much 
foulness, the staying of her masts too much aft, 
or that she may be out of her trim. 



Surge. We call a wave a surge, but it is used 
in this sense: when they heave at the capstan 
and the cable slips back again, they say the cable 
surges, to prevent which vide Nippers. 
Swifters do belong to the main and foremast, 
and are to succour the shrouds and keep stiff 
the mast. They have pendants, which are made 
fast under the shrouds at the head of the mast 
with a double block, through which is reeved the 
swifter, which at the standing part hath a single 
block with a hook, which is hitched in a ring by 
the chain-wales, and so, the fall being hauled, 
doth help to strengthen the mast; and this fall 
is belayed about the timber heads of the lower 
rags aloft. 
Swifting. When we bring ships aground or 
careen them we use to swift the masts, to ease 
them and strengthen them, which is done in this 
manner: they lash fast all the pendants of the 
swifters and tackles with a rope close to the 
mast as near their blocks as they can ; then they 
carry forward the tackles, and so bowse them 
down as hard and taut as they can; and this 
eases the mast, so that all the weight of the 
mast doth not hang by the head, as otherwise it 
would, and also doth help to keep it from rising 
out of the steps. 

Tacks. Tacks are great ropes, having a wale- 
knot at one end which is seized into the clew of 
the sag, and so reeved first through the chess-tree 
and then comes in at a hole of the ship's side. 
The use of this is to carry forward the clew of 
the sail and to make it stand close by a wind, 
and then the sails are thus trimmed: the main 
tack, foresail and mizen tacks are close aboard 


or hauled as forward on as may be, so are the 
bowlines of the weather side; the lee sheets 
are hauled close aft, but the lee sheet of the 
foresail not so much, unless the ship gripe; the 
lee braces of all the yards are braced aft, and the 
topsails are governed as the sails whereunto they 
belong. And hence they say a ship stands or 
sails close upon a tack, that is close by a wind. 
Haul aboard the tack; that is to have it down 
close to the chess-trees. Ease the tack; that is 
not so close aboard. Let rise the tack; that is 
let it go all out. It is commonly belayed to the 
bitts, or else there is a kevell which belongs to 
them. These tacks do only belong to the main- 
sail, foresail, and mizen, and they are ever made 
To Tack a Ship. To tack the ship is to bring 
her head about to lie the other way, as if her head 
lay first west-north-west now it must lie east- 
north-east, the wind being at north. Then 
supposing the ship hath all her sails out which 
we use by a wind, thus they do : first they make 
her stay (for which, vide to stay); when she is 
stayed then they say she is payed, and so let rise 
and haul, that is, let the lee tack rise and haul 
aft tile sheets; and so trim all the sails by a 
wind as they were before, that is, cast off that 
bowline which was the weather bowline and now 
set up taut the other, and so all sheets, braces, and 
tacks, as a ship that is trimmed by a wind must 
Tackles are small ropes which run in three 
parts, having either a pendant with a hook to 
it or a runner, and at the other end a block and 
hook to catch hold and heave in goods into the 
ship. There are these inany sorts used : that is, 
the boat's tackles, which stand one on the main- 
II. R 



mast shrouds, the other on the foremast shrouds 
to hoist in the boat, and do serve also for other 
uses; the tackles which belong to the mast, 
which serve in the nature of shrouds to keep the 
mast from straining; the gunner's tackles, with 
which they haul in and out the ordnance, and, 
lastly a winding tackle (which vide). The rope 
of a tackle is called the fall (that part which we 
haul upon) but that end whereunto the block is 
seized is called the standing part. To haul upon 
a tackle is termed to bowse upon the tackle. 
Tally is a word the.y use when they haul aft 
the sheets of the main or foresail; they say, 
tally aft the sheets. 
Tampkin is a small piece of wood turned fit 
for the mouth of any piece, which is put in there 
to keep out the rain or sea water from washing 
in when the pieces lie without board. 
Taper Bore is when a piece's bore is wider at 
the mouth than towards the breech. Some are 
of opinion that these pieces do not recoil so much ; 
but they are not so good, for sometimes if the 
shot be too high 1 it may be it will not come home 
to the powder, which is dangerous for the piece. 
Tapering is when any rope or anything else 
is made bigger at one end than at the other; 
as the tacks are made tapering, which makes them 
purchase the better, and saves a great deal of 
stuff because the rope at one end bears little 
or no stress. I have seen in Flemings the top- 
sail sheets tapering. 
Tarpawling is a piece of canvas that is all 
tarred over, to lay upon a deck or grating to keep 
the rain from soaking through. 
Taunt is when a mast IS very high for the 

I.e. too large in diameter. 


proportion of the ship ; we say it is a-taunt mast. 
The Flemings have them so for the most part; 
for taunt masts and narrow yards are best to 
sail by a wind, for the sails stand so much the 
sharper, but yet they do wring a ship's side more 
than a short mast and a broad yard, which is 
the reason that our ships use short masts and broad 
Taut. 1 That is to set a rope stiff and fast; 
as we say, set taut the shrouds, the stay, or any 
other rope, when it is too slack. 
A Tempest. When it overblows so exceed- 
ingly that it is not possible to bear any sail, and 
that it is a wind mixed with rain or haft, they call 
it a tempest, which they count a degree above 
a storm. 
The Thaughts  are the seats whereon those 
that row in the boat do sit. 
Thight. 3 When a ship is staunch and makes 
but little water she is thight, which is quickly 
known by the smell of the water, for if the water 
stink much it is a sign it hath laid long in the 
ship, and if it be sweet it is a sign it comes in newly. 
Thowles are the small pins which they bear 
against with their oars when they row, and 
stand in holes upon the upper side of the gunwale 
of the boat. They are commonly made of ash 
for toughness. 
Thwart-ships. That is anything that is done 
or lies across the ship from one side to the other ; 
we say it lies thwart-ships, and the contrary is 
longst-ships, that is, along the ship. 
Tides. This word tide is common both to 

i ' Tawght.' 
* According to the N.E.D., the word 'thwart' was not 
introduced until about 1736. 
 Tight. The older word is now obsolete, except in dialect. 


Tier. 1 When a deck hath ordnance fore and 
aft (though there want some) we call that a tier 
of ordnance. Some ships have two tier, or three. 
The forecastle and the half deck being furnished 
make half a tier. The cable tier;that is the 
row 2 which is in the middle of the cable when it 
is coiled up. 
Ties are four-strand ropes, hawser-laid, which is 
in respect that this kind of laying doth not stretch 
so much as three-strand ropes, and besides run 
smoother in the hounds. These are the ropes by 
which the yards do hang, and do carry up the 
yards when the halliards are strained to hoist 
the yards. The main-yard and fore-yard ties 
are first reeved through the ram-heads, then 
through the hounds at the head of the mast, and 
so, with a turn in the eyes of the slings which are 
made fast to the yard, they are seized fast and 
close to the yard. The mizen-yard and topmast- 
yard have but single ties, that is one do run in 
one part. The spritsail-yard hath none, for it is 
made fast with a pair of slings to the boltsprit. 
Tiller. The helm and the tiller is all one 
(therefore vide Helm), only the word tiller is more 
properly used for that which we steer the boat 
by; as they say give me the tiller of the boat, 
not the helm, yet it is all one in use. 
Top-armours are the cloths which are tied 
about the top of the masts for show, and also 
for to hide men in fight which lie there to fling 
firepots, use small shot, or the like. 
Topgallants are the masts above the topmasts. 
These sails do draw very much, quarter winds, 
in a loom or fresh gale, so it blow not too much. 
1 , Tire.' 
 B reads ' room.' The term 'cable tier' now means the 
space in the ship in which the cables are placed. 



Topmast. The topmasts are ever half so 
long as the masts unto which they belong; but 
there is no one absolute proportion in these and 
the like things, for if a man will have his mast 
short, he may the bolder make his topmast long. 
Top Ropes are those ropes wherewith we set 
or strike the topmasts. They belong only to the 
main and fore-topmast. This rope is reeved 
through a great block which is seized under the 
cap on one side, and then it is reeved through the 
heel of the topmast, where is a brass shiver which 
is placed thwartships, and then is brought up 
and made fast on the other side of the cap with a 
clinch to a ring which is fastened into the cap. 
The other part comes down by the ties, and so is 
reeved into the knight, and brought to the capstan 
when they heave it. 
To Tow is to drag anything astern the ship 
in the water; as to tow the boat or to tow a small 
ship, or the like, with a hawser out astern. The 
nearer anything is to the boat, or the like, when 
it is towed, the less it doth hinder the ship's way ; 
but the farther off, the easier it is for that which 
is towed, for then the ship will not give it such 
Transom. That timber which lies athwart 
the stern of the ship betwixt the two fashion 
pieces, and doth lay out her breadth at the 
buttock, is called the transom. This is just under 
the gun-room port astern. To lie with a ship's 
transom; that is to lie just with the end of the 
p!anks where they are fastened to the fashion 
pieces astern. To come in a ship's transom ; that 
is, just betwixt her gun-room port and her quarter 
port: this is the safest coming up [in fight, or 
assaulting of a ship], for there ships are most 
naked, and there galleys do use to come up ; but 


now they begin to cut out ports close by the 
Traverse. We call the way of the ship (in 
respect of the points whereon we sail, and the 
angles which the ship makes in going to and again) 
the traverse of the ship; as we say, a man doth 
traverse his ground when he goes in and out. 
We use to note how many hours the ship hath 
gone upon a point, what sails she hath forth, how 
near a wind, and so judge what way she makes. 
This we set down upon a paper besides the plot 
which we call a traverse, and then drawing a line 
from the place where we last were to that place 
where the last prick or mark is, we see in the 
whole what course, and how far, we are gone. 
This we call a dead reckoning; then if we can 
observe and find the observation, and this meet, 
we are sure we are right, otherwise we trust more 
to the observation and reform our reckoning by 
that. Also the laying and removing a piece of 
ordnance till it come to lie with the mark is 
called the traversing of the piece. 
Traverse Board is a board which they keep 
in the steerage, having the thirty-two points of 
the compass marked in it with little holes on every 
point, like a noddy 1 board. That is for him at 
the helm to keep (as it were) a score, how many 
glasses they have gone upon 2 of the compass, and 
so stick a pin on that point. This is to save 
the Master a labour, who cannot with so much 
curiosity watch every wind and course so exactly 
as he at helm, especially when we go by a wind 
and the wind veers and hauls. 

1 Noddy was a card-game, apparently an early form of 
* The words ' any point,' seem omitted here ; but they do 
not appear in any of the MSS. 



Trenails (quasi nails made of a tree)1 are the 
long wooden pins made of the heart of oak, where- 
with they fasten all the planks unto the timbers ; 
for though we bolt the buttheads for the better 
assurance and strength, yet the trenails are they 
which do most fasten the planks, for we do use 
as little iron under water as we may conveniently, 
lest the ship should grow iron sick. These tre- 
nails must be well seasoned and not sappy, for 
then the ship will be continually leaky, and it 
will be hard to find. If a ship by any beating 
upon the ground do make a trenail give back and 
come a little out again, they term it starting of a 
Trestle-trees are joined to the cross-trees, and 
do lie across each other and serve to the same 
use. They differ only that the trestle-trees are 
those which go longships, the other thwart-ships. 
Vide Cross-trees. 
To Trice is to haul up anything with a dead 
rope; that is when we haul by a rope that doth 
not run in any block, or haul up by any device 
but by hand, as if an empty cask be made fast 
to a rope that is no tackle they say, trice it up; 
or any chest, or like goods, which is fastened to a 
rope and so hauled up by hand into the ship. We 
call it hauling by hand, when we have not the 
help of any capstan, tackle, or the like which might 
purchase easier, but only do it by the immediate 
and only force of hands. 
The Trim. Though commonly by the trim 
of a ship is understood the swimming of her, 
either ahead or astern or on an even keel, in 
whether of these the ship goes best, that they 

1 D reads, 'Trenells, quasi tree-nails, being made of a 


call her trim ; but that is not only to be counted 
her trim, for some ships will go well or ill according 
to the staying of the masts, the slackness of the 
shrouds, or the like. Therefore, in my mind, 
the order of her swimming considered with this 
fitting of her masts and ropes wherein the ship 
sails best should be counted her trim, and not 
only the line of her swimming in water. The 
ways of finding a ship's trim must be in sailing 
with another ship, to bring her ahead so many 
glasses;then astern as many;then on even 
keel. That way which she goes best is her trim, 
in respect of her mould under water. Then, to 
make her go better, ease the stays or set them up ; 
also the shrouds. Then wedge the mast, or give 
it leave to play; and so in time it is easy (with 
a little diligence) to find the trim of a ship. Next 
to Men-of-War (whose daily practice it is) the 
Scotchmen are the best in the world to find out 
the trim of a ship, for they will never be quiet, 
but try her all ways, and if there be any goodness 
in her they will make her go. 
The Trough of the Sea. That is in the 
hollow betwixt two waves. When we lay a 
ship under the sea (that is, when we lay her 
broadside to the sea) we gay she lies in the trough 
of the sea. 
Trucks are those little wooden wheels (being 
made without any spokes) that the carriage of 
the ordnance do run on. Also those little round 
things of wood which belong to the parrells are 
called trucks. 
Trunnions are those knobs which come from 
the side of the ordnance and do bear them up 
upon the cheeks of the carriages. 
Trusses are ropes which are made fast to the 
parrell of the yard, and are used to two uses: 



one to bind fast the yard to the mast when she 
rolls either a-hull or at an anchor; the other is 
to haul down the yard in a storm or gust. These 
belong only to the main-yard and fore-yard, 
and they are brought-to but upon occasion; 
and also to the mizen, which hath ever a truss. 
To Try. Trying is to have no more sail 
forth but the mainsail, the tack aboard, the 
bowline set up, the sheet close aft, and the helm 
tied down close aboard. Some try with their 
mizen only, but that is when it blows so much 
that they cannot maintain the mainsail. A 
ship a-try with her mainsail (unless it be an 
extraordinary grown sea) will make her way two 1 
points afore the beam; but with a mizen not so 
The Tuck. The word is significant, for it is 
(as you would say) the very gathering up of the 
ship's quarters under water. If it lie low, that 
makes the ship have a fat quarter, and hinders 
the water from passing swiftly to the rudder. 
If it lie high, the ship must be well laid out in the 
quarter, else she will want bearing for her after- 
works, which being so high and weighty do charge 
a ship much. 
To Turn, vide Board. 


Veer. To veer out a rope is to put it out by 
hand, or to let it run out whenas you may stop 
it; as veer more cable, that is let more run out. 
Veer, it is generally used to the letting out of 
more rope to those ropes which are used without 
board (as to the boat-rope, log-line, or any rope 

1 D, 1t read ' four.' 


whereby we tow anything), but it is not used to 
any running rope, but only to the sheets. Veer 
more sheet, that is, put out. When the wind 
doth go in and out, that is sometimes to one 
point, sometimes to another, and that suddenly 
(as in the storms it will very much) they say the 
wind doth veer and haul. 
Veering. When a ship sails, and the sheet 
is veered out, we say she goes veering. Vide 
Large and Quarter winds, for it is all one. 
A Violl. When the anchor is in such stiff 
ground that we cannot weigh it, or else that the 
sea goes so high that the main capstan cannot 
purchase in the cable, then, for more help, we 
take a hawser and open one strand, and so put 
into it nippers (some seven or eight, a fathom 
distant from each other) and with these nippers we 
bind fast the hawser to the cable; and so bring 
this hawser to the jeer capstan and heave upon it, 
and this will purchase more than the main cap- 
stan can. The Violl is fastened together at both 
ends with an eye and a wale knot, or else two 
eyes seized together. 

Waft. To waft is to guard any ship or fleet 
at sea, as we call Men-of-War which attend 
merchants, to conduct them safe along, Wafters. 
Also wa[ts are used for signs to have the boat 
come aboard (which is a coat, gown, or the like 
hung up in the shrouds). Also it is a common 
sign of some extremity when a ship doth hang 
a waft upon the mainstay. 1 Any blanket, gown 

1 D, H continue, ' either that it hath sprtmg a leak or is 
in some distress,' omitting the last paragraph. 



or the like hung out for a sign is called a waft, 
which if it be hung upon the mainstay is a sign 
that the ship hath sprung a leak or is in some 
[Waist is that part of the ship which is be- 
tween the mainmast and the forecastle.] 
Waist-boards are the boards which are set up 
in the waist of a ship, betwixt the gunwale and 
the waist-trees ; but they are most used for boats, 
to be set up alongst the sides to keep the sea 
from breaking into them. 
Waist-cloths. By a general term all the 
cloths which are round about the cage work of 
the hull of the ship are called waist-cloths, and 
are the same that are called the fights of the ship. 
The Wake. The wake of a ship is the smooth 
water which the ship cloth make astern her, 
showing the way that the ship hath gone in the 
sea. By this we give a judgment what way the 
ship doth make, for if the wake be right astern 
then we know she makes her way good, as she 
looks, but if the wake be a point, two, or more 
to windward, 1 then the ship goes to leeward of 
her course. When a ship doth stay a-weather 
her wake, that is when she doth not fall to leeward 
at her staying, but doth it quickly, and then when 
she is tacked the wake is to leeward, it is a sign 
she feels her helm well and is a nimble ship. In 
chasing they say we have got her wake, that is we 
are got as far into the wind as she, and so go right 
after her as she goes. 
Wale, vide Bend. 
Wall-reared. That is when a ship is built 
right up, after she comes to her bearing. This 

1 So B, but D, FI, Z read 'leeward,' which is clearly 


is unsightly and (as they term it) not ship-shapen, 
but it makes a ship within board much the 
roomier, and not the less wholesome ship in the 
sea if her bearing be well laid out. 
Walt. A ship is said to be walt when ske 
hath not ballast enough to keep her stiff to bear 
a sail. 
A Warp is any rope which is used to warp a 
ship, which most commonly is a hawser. 
To Warp is to have a hawser or any other rope 
(sufficient to haul up the ship) and an anchor 
bent to it, and so to lay that out over the bar 
over which we are to go, and so by that to haul 
the ship forward. It is used when we want a 
wind to carry us out or into a harbour, and this 
is called warping. 
To Wash a Ship. That is used at sea when 
we cannot come aground or careen her. We 
make her heeled over, with her ordnance and 
men upon the yard arms, to a side ; and so wash 
that side and scrape it, so much as is out of the 
water, which is commonly some five, or six, 
strakes. This is done in calms or in a smooth 
Wash of the Shore. That is, close by the 
Watch. At the sea the ship's company is 
divided into two parts, the one called the star- 
board watch, the other the larboard watch. The 
Master is the chief of the starboard, and his right- 
hand 1 mate of the larboard. These are in their 
turns to watch, trim sails, pump and do all duties 
for four hours; and then the other watch is to 
relieve them. Four hours they call a whole 

1 The first mate: cf. 'right-hand man,' the principal 
non-com, officer in a troop of horse. 


watch. In Harbour and Roads they watch but 
quarter watch, that is when one quarter of the 
company do watch at a time. 
Water-borne. That is, when a ship is even 
just off the ground that she floats; then she is 
The Water-line is that line which the ship- 
wrights do pretend should be the depth that the 
ship should swim ill when she is laden, Eboth ahead 
and astern;for you must know a ship never 
draws so much ahead as she cloth astern, for if she 
should she would never steer well]. 1 
Water-shot is a kind of mooring; that is to 
lay the anchors not cross the tide nor right up 
and down the tide, but (as you would say) betwixt 
both, that is quartering. 
The Water-way. That small piece or ledge 
of timber which lies fore and aft on all the ship's 
decks close by the sides (which is to keep the 
water from running down there) is called the 
Waving is making a sign for a ship or boat to 
come toward them, or else to go from them ; as 
the sign is made either towards or fromwards 
the ship. 
Way of a Ship. The rake and run of a ship 
are called her way forward on or aftward on. 

x These words do not appear in D and H, which read: 
' Where note that they ever project their ships to draw more 
astern than ahead ; for if a ship draw more ahead than astern, 
if it chance to touch the ground should not come off so easily 
as otherwise. But the reason why many times they are 
forced to put her deeper into the water is for that her flat 
floor is carried so far aft, and her tuck laid so low, that the 
water cannot come quick to the helm and then, to mend her 
steerage and her way, they are constrained to raise her so 
much out of the water' (i.e. put her deeper ahead and raise 
her astern). 


Also when she sails apace they will say the ship 
hath good way, fresh way, or the like. Likewise 
in casting the dead reckoning, they allow her 
leeward way, that is so much as she drives to 
leeward from that she seems to go. 
To Weather. That is, to go to windward 
of a place or ship. Sometimes we are embayed 
so that we cannot weather a headland to get 
clear, and then we must do our best to turn in 
and out till we can have a fair wind or claw it off. 
Weather Bow. That is the bow next the 
weather; and so of all parts of the ship or any- 
thing that is to the windward-most side we say 
it is the weather part or a-weather, etc. 
Weather coil is when a ship is a-hull, to lay 
her head the other way without loosing any sail, 
which is only done by bearing up the helm. It 
is an excellent condition in a ship, for most ships 
will not weather coil. The use of it is that when 
we desire to drive with her head the other way 
a-hull, then we need not open any sail, wherewith 
before the ship can come to wear she will run a 
great way to leeward, when once she is before 
the wind and sea under sail. 
Wedges. We use to make fast the mast in 
the partners with wedges, and also to put a wedge 
into the heels of the topmasts, to bear up the 
topmast upon the trestle-trees. 
The Whelps are like brackets set to the body 
of the capstan close under the bars down to the 
deck, and are they which give the sweep to the 
capstan. These are made so in parts that the 
cable may not be so apt to surge, as it would if 
it did run upon a whole round body. 
The Whip is that staff which the steersman 
doth hold in his hand whereby he governs the 
helm and doth port it over from one side to 



another. It hath a ring at one end which is put 
over the end of the helm and so comes through 
the fowl up into the steerage. In great ships 
they are not used, for by reason of the weight of 
the rudder and the water which lies upon it in 
foul weather they are not able to govern the 
helm with a whip, because conveniently there 
can stand but one man at the whip. 
Wholesome. x We say a ship is a wholesome 
ship in the sea when she will hull, try and ride 
well at an anchor, without rolling or tumbling and 
labouring much in the sea. A long ship which 
draws much water will hull well, try well, and 
ride well. If she draw much water and be 
short, she may hull well, but neither try well 
nor ride well at an anchor. If she draw little 
water and be long, she may ride well and try well, 
but not hull well. If she be short and draw 
little water, she will neither hull, try nor ride 
well, and therefore those are the most unwhole- 
some ships. Note also that the housing-in or 
laying of the upper works of a hip do much ease 
or wrong her in all these manner of workings; 
but however the over carrying of her is bad for all, 
and makes her more laboursome than otherwise 
she would be. 
Whoodings. The planks which are joined 
and fastened alongst the ship's sides into the 
stem, are called the whoodings. 
To Wind. To wind a ship is to bring her 
head about, either with the boat or with some 
oars out at her hawse, or stern ports (if she be a 
small ship). The ship winds up ; that is when she 
comes to ride by her anchor. When they are 
under sail they use to ask how winds the ship; 

* ' Howlsom,' ' Holesom ' ; appearing under H. 

tlat is, upon what point of the compass doth she 
lie with her head. 
Winding tackle. The winding tackle is thus 
fitted: a great double block with three shivers 
in it, which is fast seized to the end of a small 
cable, which is brought about the head of the 
mast and so serves for a pendant; this hath a 
guy brought to it from the foremast. Into the 
block there is reeved a hawser, which is also 
reeved through another double block having a 
strap at the end of it, which strap being put 
through the eye of the slings is locked into it with 
a fid, and so hoists the goods. The fall is reeved 
into the snatch block, and so brought to the 
capstan whereby they heave in the goods. 
A Windlass is a piece of timber having some 
six or eight squares, 1 and is placed from one 
side of the ship to the other close abaft the stem 
aloft, where the cables come in. These are never 
used in our great ships, but the Flemings do use 
them in good ships. The reason is for that they 
go very slightly manned, and the windlass doth 
purchase much more than a capstan, and with no 
danger to the men. For the windlass they heave 
about with handspikes put into holes made at 
either end; and though they cannot heave for- 
ward, or one should fail, the windlass will pawl 
itself. But at the capstan, if any fail, it may be 
the rest will be thrown from the capstan and 
their brains beaten out against the ship's sides, 
if they weigh in a sea-gate ; but the capstan doth 
purchase faster by much [and therefore we 
(having men enough to man it) do use that]. 
They have a windlass also in the head of the 
boat, to weigh the anchor by the buoy rope. 

i I.e. with six or eight faces to the spindle. 



Wind-taut. Anything that holds wind aloft, 
which may prejudice the ship's sailing or riding, 
is said to be wind-taut (as too much rigging, 
high poops, and the like). Also when we ride in 
any great stress we bring our yards alongst-ships, 
strike down our topmasts and the like, because 
they hold wind-taut, that is, they hold wind stiffly 
(for taut is as much as stiff in the sense of the sea 
language:as set taut the shrouds, that is, set 
them stiff). 
Wood and Wood. That is when two timbers 
are let into each other so close that the wood of 
the one doth join close to the other. 
To Woold, or Woolding is to bind ropes about 
any mast, yard, or the like, to keep on a fish, or 
somewhat to strengthen it. Sometimes when the 
whoodings give way by the over-charging of the 
boltsprit, they are fain to woold to the bows; 
which they do by passing a cable through both 
sides, and so bringing it in again, and with hand- 
spikes to twist it together as strong as may be. 
We never fish any mast or yard but we woold it 
also, and that is called the woolding of the mast 
or yard. Also these ropes which come from the 
beakhead over the boltsprit and lash it fast 
down from rising off the pillow (the pillow is the 
timber which the boltsprit bears upon aloft, close 
by the stem 1) are called the wooldings of the 
A Worm is an iron on the end of a staff, 
wherewith we draw out the shot of a piece, if 
there be any occasion. 
Worming is the laying of a small rope or line 
alongst betwixt the strands of a cable or hawser. 
The use whereof is to help to strengthen the 

These words are not in D, I-I, or Z. 



doth put such to the helm who can keep her 
steadiest and evenest upon a point ; which is done 
only by care and judgment, to meet her with the 
helm, before her head fall off, or else come to. 
A Yoke. When the sea is so rough that men 
cannot govern the helm with their hands, then 
they seize two blocks to the helm on each side at 
the end, and reeving two falls through them like 
gunner's tackles, them to the ship's sides; 
and so having some at one tackle, some at the 
other, they govern the helm as they are directed. 
There is also another way with taking a double 
turn about the end of the helm with a single 
rope, the end being belayed fast to the ship's 
sides;and by this they may guide the helm, 
but not with so much ease as the other way. 
Now either of these is called the yoke to steer by. 







i. ' The Memorial of Sir Henry Mainwaring 
to the Doge, 25th of January, I619 .'1 
MOST SERENE PRINCE,--Last Christmas day the 
Secretary Lionello  and Michielini  another Italian 
gentleman who speaks English came to see me 
and ask if I would accept a good appointment. 
I said : Yes. They asked me if I would oblige the 
Venetian Republic by supplying particulars for 
the ordering of some ships already granted by his 
Majesty, that I should have the command of these 
and of others when I reached the Gulf of Venice, 
and that I should be satisfied with the terms. 
I asked if the need were pressing. They said 
that the matter required the utmost possible 
despatch. Accordingly on the following morning 
I searched the River Thames for suitable ships. 
Seeing that there were none suitable at the 
moment, I told Michielini of their nature. He 
said that these ships were to transport some 

1 State Papers Venice, 1617-19, ed. A. 13. Hinds, No. 
713. (The original is in Italian.) 
2 Venetian Secretary in England. 
8 Lunardo Michielini. 



companies of English and they were to have 
more ships from the Low Countries and they 
would have to be satisfied with the ships at 
present in the river. On hearing this, I advised 
them either to buy those ships altogether, or at 
least to furnish them themselves and not by the 
owners, with sailors and victuals. But they were 
dissuaded from this by the advice of others, 
possibly to their disadvantage. 
Owing to my going up and down, rumours got 
about that I was to command the fleet. When 
I asked your Serenity's ambassador about it, he 
replied that he had no authority to appoint a 
commander-in-chief, but he had informed the 
republic of my zeal and was awaiting their 
This moved me to beg his Majesty to tell the 
ambassador his opinion of me in a few lines, but 
his Majesty, of his own accord, decided to honour 
me more and sent the Earl of Montgomery 1 to 
tell the ambassador that as his Majesty had 
granted the ships asked for, he hoped that the 
republic would allow one of his subjects to com- 
mand them, and suggested me as one fitted by 
long experience and offered to pledge his word 
for my good behaviour. The ambassador said that 
he had not sufficient authority, but he hoped 
that the republic would gratify his Majesty and 
promised to write. He persuaded me to come 
here by land, promising to write all these things 
to your Serenity, and give you some idea of my 

1 Philip Herbert, Earl of Montgomery and foulth Earl 
of Pembroke, born 1584 . Gentleman of the Privy Chamber, 
16o3-25 ; Keeper of Vestminster Palace, 1617 ; Lord- 
Lieutenant of Kent, 1624; Lord Chamberlain of the House- 
hold, 1626. Sided with the Parliament in the Civil War and 
died in 165o. 


personal expenses in the matter. At the time, 
the ambassador, though a man of the greatest 
diligence, judgment and temper, was much worried 
by his negotiations with our sailors, who are mostly 
a rough lot. These circumstances have led me 
to come to your Serenity. I should have come 
before but for the opposition of the Spanish 
ambassador. I now understand that the com- 
mand of the ships has been entrusted to one of 
your nobles, therefore I only beg that in case you 
need further vessels from our ports your Serenity 
will employ me. Above all, I ask your Serenity 
to decide quickly, as my personal affairs demand 
this. 1 


"Statement of Antonio Foscarini regarding 
his interview with Mainwaring. ' 

He (Mainwaring) first repeated matters con- 
tained in his letter. He said that when the 
Spanish ambassador 3 heard about it he had gone 
to the Council chamber to the King himself to 
stop him going. He asked if as much would be 
conceded to his own They told him your 
Excellencies were arming for defence. To give 
some satisfaction in appearance the King ordered 
Mainwaring to defer his departure until the 

1 Endorsed 'That the Captain-General at sea give his 
opinion on the above letter.' 
' Cal. of Slale Papers Venice, 1617- 9, No. 716, trans- 
lated from the Italian by Mr. A. B. Hinds. Foscarini had 
received instructions from the republic to interview Main- 
waling, and the above is the information he sent to Venice 
regarding his conversations with him. 
8 Gondomar. 



Spanish ambassador had left. The Spanish am- 
bassador reached Dover soon after him and ex- 
pressed pleasure that he had not gone, and said that 
he would have fared badly as he had sent orders 
to all ports subject to his King for his detention. 
He argued against Mainwaring serving your Ex- 
cellencies, offering him a pardon and an honour- 
able post under the Catholic King. He said that 
if the Duke of Ossuna had been given a free hand 
he would have taken Venice already, but it will 
come : your Excellencies will soon be consumed and 
will fall into his King's hands, and it will soon 
appear which has most gold, the Indies or your 
treasury. He said this contemptuously, adding: 
They will speak Spanish soon at Venice, speaking 
slightingly of your Excellencies. He told me all 
this at different times in various conversations. 
After the ambassador left he started, but 
finding himself in danger in Flanders, he returned 
to England. He then sailed in a small ship from 
the Isle of Wight to [ . . . ]1 in Normandy, 
and passed through France and Savoy, being wel- 
comed by the Duke at Turin. 
I discovered that hardly had he arrived here 
than he was told all manner of ill of the govern- 
ment, that he would get no employment for a 
long time, and then only a base one; and he 
would be treated like a common sailor, without 
character or honorer. This moved him greatly 
and induced him to obtain a letter from his King 
to offer his services and to go back at once. I 
spoke suitably and think I produced a good 
impression (here follows a summary of Main- 
waring's ' considerations '  which Foscarini en- 
closed). He said your Excellencies were under 

Blank. 2 See Vol. I, pp. 52-56. 


two disadvantages in arming in England : firstly, 
in point of time, as the merchants were arming 
to send to divers parts; secondly, by hurrying 
things on, the men raised their terms every day 
foreseeing that if peace followed your Serenity 
would not have them at any price, and if war 
you would not be able to consider a little more 
or less. If your Serenity wishes to arm it would 
be better to begin early, as in March a number 
of ships are prepared in England for the East 
Indies, Greenland, and Newfoundland, a fleet 
for each. The seven ships now engaged cost 
about 18o,ooo ducats a year and the large ones 
would cost less than 70,000. He would undertake 
the command and get his King to guarantee his 
In buying vessels he said it would be better 
to go to the Low Countries for the ships, 
their tackle and gunpowder, wtfich are cheaper 
there; for cannon shot and victuals to England. 
In any case he would always get the money from 
merchants, if the republic paid in good time. 
This would increase the number of ships of great 
draught in his city. 
He told me that if the needs of your Serenity 
become greater, as seems likely, the same money 
which is spent on the seven ships would allow 
him to obtain four large ships from his Majesty, 
which he thinks he could easily get and they 
would suffice with but little help, to meet all the 
galleys that Ossuna possesses. He said if your 
Serenity wished to make such a request of his 
King it would be necessary to say a word to the 
ambassador here, and it would be advisable to 
ask for ten for emergencies, and you would be 
sure to get four or six at least. You should 
thank his Majesty for the seven merchant ships, 


iii. Sir John Finett's account of the negotiations 
resbecting Sir Henry Mainwaring's ernbloyrnent 
in the Venetian service. 1 

' In March, 1617 .3 The Earl of Montgomery, 
Gentleman of his Majesty's Bedchamber, was 
pleased to entreat my Service and company with 
him to the Venetian Ambassador Signor Con- 
tarini, his Lordship being sent to him from the 
King with a Message in the behalf of Captain 
Mainwaring, which I delivered by interpretation 
from his Lordship's mouth to this purpose. 
'His Majesty understanding what present use 
the State of Venice had of men for their Service, 
and desirous to shew his affection towards them, 
in giving them his leave to raise certain companies 
here for their War, had taken further notice, 
that since they were to have Land-men to be 
commanded by Sir Henry Peyton, and ships 
from hence for their Convoy to Venice; he 
thought fit to Recommend for command, and 
conduct of those Ships, Captain Mainwaring, a 
Gentleman that he had made special choice of, 
and held most fit for that employment; and 
though the Ambassador might have heard, 
perh.aps, that heretofore the said Captain Main- 
warlng had followed the not approved course 
of a Pirate, it was in his unsettled years, and 
more desperate fortune, but that now his Majesty 
knew him to be so reclaimed, as if he should 
himself have present use of such a Commander, 
he would employ him as soon as any other of his 
Subjects, and would take it for an Argument 

1 In his Finetti Philoxensis, 1656, pp. 49-51. Sir John 
Finett was Master of the Ceremonies to James I and Charles I 
2 I.e. Old style, really 1618. 



of that Common Weales respects to him, if they 
would upon his recommendation entertain him. 
For doing which, they should find him more 
forward hereafter to further, and assist them in 
any the like occasion, when he should see that 
at his request they had made use of so fit a Subject 
for their Service. 
'To this the Ambassador made answer, that 
the Republic was much obliged to his Majesty 
for his so gracious notice, and furtherance of 
their Assignes, and in particular for recommending 
one to their Service, whom he himself, and the 
World knew to be so worthy, and whom he had 
already recommended to that State for employ- 
ment, but had as yet received no answer, which 
daily expecting, he must beg pardon if he did 
yet attend it without giving his resolution. My 
Lord replied, that the King had been informed 
that the Ambassador had full Commission, and 
power to employ whom he should be pleased, and 
that with that liberty he might (he thought) admit 
of the Captain. The Ambassador disclaimed, that 
he had any such liberty, and said, that on the 
contrary he had order from the State to send the 
Ships away without any other Commander than 
such as were to go along with them to govern 
them, in regard they had a Commission with 
them not to offend or assail any they should 
encounter at Sea, but if they should be assailed, 
then to defend themselves as they might with 
the power that was to go along with them. 
' In conclusion, his Lordship fell to demand 
(that since Captain Mainwaring could not have 
the command that his Majesty thought to prefer 
him to) whether the Ambassador would not let 
him assure the King (as from the Ambassador 
himself) and in the name of the Republic, that 


if there should be hereafter any other employment, 
suiting with the condition of Captain Mainwaring, 
that he should have the offer of it before any man ? 
The Ambassador assured his Lordship he might 
rest upon that, both for the respect, that the 
Republic (he knew) carried to his Majesty's 
Recommendation, and for the merit also of the 
Gentleman then Recommended, whom he had 
already (as he had said) by his Letters presented 
to the State for his valour, and forwardness to do 
them service.' 

iv. Mainwaring's suggestion regarding the loan 
o/ warships to the Venetian Republic, 1619 .1 
'For the right honourable my singular good 
Lord, the Lord Marquis of Buckingham, 
Lord High Admiral of England. 
'Right Honourable may it please your Lord- 
ship,---The Venetians' request to his Majesty 
is only for the loan of some of his Majesty's ships, 
and they to bear the charge of waging and 
victualling the men, giving sec.urity to restore, 
or repair them if they decay In their service. 
Their Ambassador hath no direction to proceed 
upon the demand of these ships, but by notice 
from me; that his Majesty will be willing to 
furnish them (it pleased them to trust me with 
their whole secret concerning this despatch). 
And therefore if I might know his Majesty's 
inclination, I could save him the denial, or make 
it appear how his Majesty may do them a greater 
favour than they expect in setting out these 
ships, and save himself a great charge in fitting 

t S.P. Dora., Jas. I, cv. 148. The letter itself is undated. 



them, and effect his own design upon their charge. 
His Majesty may pretend to lay down any 
suspicion of this fleet (i.e. the Spanish) in regard 
of himself, and therefore that he will desist from 
fitting his oa ships. But if the Venetians 
will be at the charge, they may have order to 
go forth with this Commission; that if the 
Spanish fleet bear in with the Straits they may 
follow them, and so stand for the Gulf (i.e. of 
Venice), whether (though they follow the fleet 
into the Straits) they will arrive first; because 
the Spanish fleet must of necessity stop at 
Messina. If the Spanish fleet go not to the 
southward, then the Venetians have no need 
of a supply, and the ships are ready to proceed 
upon his Majesty's own designs. But if the 
Spanish fleet should dissolve, the ships being 
forth, might be employed against the Turkish 
pir.ates, wherein your Lordship would merit and 
gain a fame proportionable to your singular 
virtues, who in the first entrance to your most 
honourable office do show yourself so great a 
Patron over your Country. 
' It shall be no dishonour for the King to let 
them bear the charge of fitting the ships, and 
the favour is great to them, for by lending of his 
Majesty's ships they save half of the whole charge 
which now they are at in other ships. 1 Besides 
this business may be negotiated privately betwixt 
the Ambassador and me who hath direction to 
agree with me both for victualling and waging 
the company. And he is (in case his Majesty 
will favour them with his ships) to signify unto 
his Majesty their good opinion of me. And that 
it is their desire, if I shall be found in so good 

The English merchantme that had been hired. 


estimation with his Majesty, that I should com- 
mand those ships. 13ut I urge not my particular 
[suit] 1 who do only aim at the public service. 
And for myself will be willing in any condition 
whatsoever to serve his Majesty and your Lord- 
ship with all humble and affectionate service. 
' Your Lordship's in all duty 
'to be commanded, 

' I humbly beseech your Lordship to do me the 
favour to let me know his Majesty's pleasure, and 
your Lordship's commands.' 

Word omitted in the original. 

II. T 

HENRY MAINWARING. (c. 1646-47). 

JEAN CHEVALIER, born in 1589, was a vingtenier, 
or tything man of St. Heliers, Jersey. A moderate 
royalist, he carefully noted all the principal events 
of the Island, during the period in which he lived, 
and his chronicle, which is entitled" 'Journal 
et Recueil de choses remarquables en l'isle de 
Jersey, arriv6es pendant les Guerres Civiles sous 
les regnes des Rois, Charles Premier, et Charles 
Second,' was acquired by Dr. S. E. Hoskins, and 
forms the basis of that author's work on ' Charles 
II in the Channel Islands,' published in 1854 .1 
Chevalier relates so many particulars of 
Mainwaring's early career, as to lead to the 
surmise that they must have lived on very intimate 
terms, ' an intimacy which may perhaps account 
for much of the secret history' that Chevalier 
relates. 2 This Journal is remarkably curious, 
both for its disregard of proper names and its 
quaint orthography, and Mainwaring figures as 

 Jean Chevalier died November 30, 1675, at the age of 
eighty-six. Dr. Hoskins' manuscripts were reported on by the 
Historical Manuscripts Commission (2nd Report), whero 
extracts from Chevalier are given. Chevalier's Journal 
has now been issued by the Soci6t6 Jersiaise, under the title 
of Journal de Jean Chevalier, 1643-57. 
 Hist. MSS. Com., ii. p. 161. 


'sire hanry mannery.' Dr. Hoskins transcribed 
parts of it into English, and it is from his work 
stated above that the following is extracted : 

Sir Henry Mainwaring, a man between seventy and 
eighty years of age, who had been a terrible pirate in the 
flower of his youth, consorting with the King of Morocco, 
and carrying into his ports all prizes captured by him 
from English, French, Spaniards, and Flemings, indis- 
criminately. By such corsair-like pursuits he contrived 
to amass immense riches in gold and silver, and owned 
a large fleet of galleys, which was for a long time the terror 
of all traders navigating the Straits. Reiterated com- 
plaints of the intolerable depredations committed by 
this redoubtable pirate were made to James the First 
of England, who at length despatched an envoy to 
Morocco, threatening on the one hand to send out a fleet 
sufficient to overwhelm him, even in the harbours of his 
ally ; on the other, offering him a free pardon on his royal 
word if he would abandon his piratical proceedings and 
come to England. 
Relying on the royal promise, Mainwaring accepted 
the offer of pardon and came to England, bringing over 
with him a considerable sum of money, which he presented 
to King James. His Majesty graciously took him into 
his service, appointed him to the command of one of his 
ships of war, and knighted him. Sir Henry Mainwaring 
at this time lived in great state, entertaining a large 
retinue when on shore; but on his coming to Jersey he 
was as poor as the rest, with only a single person, his own 
nephew, to attend him. 1 

1 Hoskins, i. pp. 357-8- ' Sire hanry mannery home aage 
de-7o-ou-8o ans il a volt este pirate en la fleur de la ieunesse 
se retirant a vecq le roy de rnarroque en turquie ou il rnenoit 
ses prinzes et les Js vandoit le quel prenoit sur les anglois 
sur les fransois sur les espagnols tout luy estoit de bonne 
prinze de sorte 61 se vit quantitey de nauires an guerre eta 
rnassa force or et argant se faissant reDouter de tousles 
nauigans c allois vers le destroit ayant des nauires en guerre 
1 rotes donc il y a volt de grands plaintes sur luy a loccasion 



Mainwaring, being one of the few royalists who 
remained in Jersey after the departure of the Prince 
of Wales, no doubt entertained Chevalier with 
stories of his piratical days, and in a subsequent 
part of Chevalier's Journal is found an astounding 
recital of the 'heroic feats of Sir Henry.' How 
the Emperor of Morocco gave him a castle to 
protect his four and twenty galleys, their intimacy 
being such that they addressed each other as 
brothers! 'How by tricks and cunning strata- 
gems he contrived to escape from the Spanish 
fleet; how at another time, being attacked by 
a superior force, and his shot expended, he beat 
off the enemy by loading his guns with pieces of 
eight. How he afterwards rescued Charles the 
First, then Prince of Wales, from being detained 
by the Spaniards, beguiling their grandees on 
board his ship, and then bringing them captives 
to England.' 

de quoy le roy J aques luy mandit 0,1 san reuiensist an angleterre 
et 1 auroit grace ou sil ne le faissoit quil anvoiroit ses nauires 
appres luy et quil auroit la possession de son bien sur la prolle 
du roy a vecq son lpdon general que on luy porta il sanvint 
en angleterre ou il rut receu en grace le quel fit vn present 
aux roy J aques de quantitey dot et dargent ayant a rneney 
plussieurs nauires a vecq luy donc le roy le fit cheuaillier et 
capitaine en vn de ses nauires le quel lots quil estoit a terre 
a voit plussieurs homes ale su.vure et rnaintenant il na l vn 
sien neueu a vecq luy et peu de Inoyans ' (Journal de Jean 
Chevalier (Soci6t6 Jersiaise), pp. 293-4). 
t Hoskins, i. p. 358, note. 


VERY few Gentlemen (though they be called Sea-men) 
do fully and wholly understand what belongs to their 
profession... And for professed Sea-men they either 
want ability, and dexterity to express themselves, or 
(as they all do generally) will, to instruct any Gentleman : 
If any will tell me why the vulgar sort of Sea-men hate 
land-men so much, either he or I may give the reason, 
why they are so unwilling to instruct them in their art. 
Thus wrote Mainwaring in his preface to ' The 
Seaman's Dictionary, and his remarks dealt 
with a long-standing controversy between the 
professional seamen or 'tarpaulins,' who had 
acquired their knowledge through practical experi- 
ence, and the so-called 'Gentlemen Captains,' 
who were ignorant of naval affairs, and who, 
through influence at court, or military service on 
the Continent, were frequently appointed to 
command a man-of-war. The evil existed long 
before Mainwaring's time, and Drake was one 
of the first who saw the deterrent effect it would 
have on sea service if there was not unity among 
the sailors and commanders. After the execution 
of Thomas Doughty, during the voyage of circum- 
navigation, Drake commanded his men on shore, 
and in a stirring speech addressed them thus : 
'We must have these mutinies and discords that are 
grown amongst us redrest, for by the life of God it cloth 
even take away my wits from me to think it; here is 
such controversy between the sailors and gentlemen, 


quality possessed by the majority of gentlemen 
captains. Whereas a 'tarpaulin' captain made 
himself familiar with his men, talking to them 
on the watch, and in foul weather cheering the 
most active of the crew with 'a dram of the 
bottle,' a gentleman commander had 'a sentinel 
at his cabin door (to keep silence in the belfry).' 1 
In the summer of 163o Sir Henry Mervin, 
who was Admiral for the guard of the Narrow 
Seas, wrote that he had captains 'who knew 
neither how to command, nor how to obey,' and 
asked that Mennes might be appointed to the 
St. Claude, ' that he might once more have some 
captains that had passed their a, b, c.' 2 
When part of the fleet revolted to the King 
in the Downs in 1648, after refusing to acknow- 
ledge Thomas Rainborowe as their Vice-Admiral, 
two of their principal grievances were, that lands- 
men had been made sea-commanders; and that 
the insufferable pride, ignorance, and insolency 
of Rainborowe had alienated their hearts. 3 
One notable instance of the seamen's love for 
a 'tarpaulin' is worth recording--that of Sir 
.Christopher Mings, who was mortally wounded 
in an engagement with the Dutch. After his 
funeral, a dozen lusty seamen who had served 
under him petitioned that they might be given 
a fireship, so that if possible they could do ' that 
that shall show our memory of our dead com- 
mander and our revenge.'  
1 Charnock, i. p. xcii. 
 S.P. Dora., Charles I, clxxii. 42, clxxiii. 47- After- 
wards the famous Admiral, Sir John Mennes. For other 
instances of this period, see Advice oJ a Seaman, by N. Knott 
(S.P. Dora., Charles I, cclxxix, lO6).  Penn's LiJe, i. 259. 
* Pepys' Diary, June 13, 1666. For Lord Macaulay's 
criticisms on gentlemen captains of the time of Charles II, 
see his History oJ England, i. 3o0-5. 


IN the Loseley Chapel in the Church of St. 
Nicholas, Guildford, the burial place of the More 
family, there is an alabaster memorial to the two 
daughters of Sir William More. This is in two 
compartments, with an effigy of a lady in each, 
kneeling. The first is to his eldest daughter 
Elizabeth, while the second bears this inscription : 
This figure was erected in the memory 
of Ann, second Dar. of Sr. William More, 
who was married to Sr. George Manwaring 
of Ightfeild in Shropshire, Kt., and by him 
had Sr. Arthur, Sr. Hen, Sr. Thomas 
Manwaring, Kts., and George Manwaring, 
and two Dars. the elder mar. Sir Richard 
Baker Kt., and the younger mar. Sir John 
Corbet, Kt. x 

Arthur, the eldest son, matriculated at 
Brasenose College, receiving his degree of B.A. 
the 7th of July, 1598, and that of M.A., I5th of 
June, 16Ol. 2 He was created a knight by James I 
on the Ilth of May, 16o3. From 1624 to 1626 he 

1 Manning and Bray, Surrey, i. 6 7. 
t Alumni Oxon., ed. Foster. Sir Arthur was also a donor 
of plate to Brasenose (Quatercentenary Monog. i. 15, 19). 


sat in Parliament as member for Huntingdon, 
and was a well-known figure at court and a favourite 
of Prince Henry. Among other offices he held 
that of Lieutenant of Windsor Castle, and keeper 
of the Forest of Windsor. 1 He married Margaret, 
daughter of Thomas Denny, of Holcombe, Devon, 
and was succeeded in the Ightfield estates by 
his eldest son Charles, the father of Arthur Main- 
waring, the famous wit and auditor of Imprests. 
George, the third son, matriculated at 
Brasenose College, I9th of November I6o2, aged 
fifteen.  During the Civil War he held Tonge Castle 
in Shropshire for the King, and the following 
letter from Prince Rupert to the Gentlemen 
Commissioners of the County sets forth his 
services in that capacity : a 

GENTLEMEN,--It is known to you that Captain George 
Mainwaring, a gentleman of your own county, did for 
some time command in chief at Tonge Castle; and it is 
by him signified to me that in regard there was no 
established pay for the command, he was, and still is, 
unrecompensed for his service. I desire you that he 
be paid out of the next contribution coming to the garrison 
of Bridge North, after the proportion of five pounds per 
week for the time of his continuance in that command, 
being from the I8th of July to the last of October 1644, 
by which he may be encouraged and enabled to apply 
himself to his Majesty's farther service, either in your 
parts or where else he shall be required. 
I rest 
Worcester, Your friend, 
3rd December 1645. RUPERT. 

S.P. Down. Charles I, cxxi. 13. 
Alunni Oxon. 
Coll. topog, et genealog, vii. lO 9. 



Thomas, the youngest son, matriculated at 
Brasenose College, 3Ist May, 1616, aged seventeen, 
receiving his B.A., 6th June, 1616. He was called 
to the Bar in 1626, and was for some time Recorder 
of Reading, at which place he was knighted on 
the 29th of November, 1642. On the 2oth of 
December in that year he was created a D.C.L. 1 
Of the two daughters, Anne married Sir John 
Corbet, Baronet, of Stoke-on-Tern, Shropshire, 
famous as one of the five patriots who opposed 
the forced loan of 1627. She was known as the 
'Good Lady Corbet,' and had issue ten sons and 
ten daughters. She survived her husband twenty 
years, her death being recorded on the 29th of 
October, 1682. 2 
Margaret, the elder daughter, married Sir 
Richard Baker of Kent, the famous historian, 
whose monumental work,' Chronicles of the Kings 
of England,' was published in 1643, two years 
before his death. 3 

Alumni Oxonienses and Brasenose Coll. Regisler. 
Dictionary oJ Nat. Biog. 

INDEX 287 

Burr shot, 225 
Buttons (i.e. Breton 
32, 193 and n. 
Butt, 113 
butt-heads, 113 
Buttock, 113 


CABLE, II3, 128, 194, 199, 
209, 213, 237, 245, 250, 258 
pointing the, 200 
shot of, 225 
slatch of the, 227 
stoppers for, 238 
stream cable, 239 
the cable surges, 240 
Caburns, 114, 213, 233 
Cadiz, 32 
Calm, 114 
Calthorpe, Lord, MS. copies 
of the Seaman's Dictionary 
ovned by, 81 
Camber, 115 
Cambridge University, MS. 
copy of Mainwaring's Dis- 
course of Pirates in, 6 
Canary Islands, pirates resort 
to, 34, 36 
Cap, 115, 246 
Cap squares, 116, 119 
Cape Verde, 208 
Capstan, 116. i63, 165. 183, 
191. 196, 2o 4, 228, 251,255, 
kinds and parts of. 116- 7 , 231 
capstan bars, I 17 
jeer-capstan, 169, 191, 231 
See also Crab 
Captain, 87 
captain's cabin, 218 
Card (sea), I i7 
Careening, lO9, 117 , 200, 253 
manner of, 118 
Carling-knees, I I9 

Carlings, 119, 136 
Carpenter, 125 
Carriage. See Gun carriage, 
Carthage, Cape, 29 
Cartridges, II0, 119, 202 
Carvells, 120 
Carvell-work, 120, 127 
Case, 120-1 
Case-shot, 121, 123 , 225 
Caskets, 121, 146 
Cat, 121 
Cat head. 196, 213 
Cat-holes, 122 
Catharpings, 12i 
Caulk and Caulldng, 122, 125, 
195, 197 
Chafe, 122 
Chain shot, 225 
Chains, 122 
Chain-wales, 122, 223 , 240 
Chamber, 123 
Channel, I23, 130 
Charge, 123 
Chase. 123 , 202 
Chase pieces, 125 
Chatham. 115 
Cheeks, 125, 167 
Chess-trees, ioi, 125, 129, 147, 
182, 208, 24o-1 
Chevalier, Jean, his account of 
Mainwaring, 276-8 
Chinching, 125 
Choke, 126 
Cinque Ports, Lord Warden of, 
licenses for the Sowe 
fishery granted by, 56 
fishery rights of, 58 n. 
Judge of the Admiralty 
Court of. See Newman, 
Sir G. 
Clamps, 126, 21I 
Clavel, Richard, 75 
Clear, Cape, 47 



Ordnance. See Guns and 
Orlops. See Decks 
Ossuna, Duke of, 266, 268 
Outlicker, 193 
Overbore, 95 
Overhang the nail, 166 and n., 
Overset, 193-4 
Overthrow, 194 

PALOS, Cape de, 26 
Parbuckle, x95 
Parcel, or Parcelling, 195-6 
Parrels, 195, 2o9, 213, 249 
Partners, 128, 137, 196, 255 
Passage de l'Iroise, 14 
Passarado, 196, 213 
Passaro, Cape, Sicily, pirates 
at, 27 
Passenger, Thomas, 77 
Paunch (mats), 196 
Pawl, 116, 196, 257 
Pay, to, 196- 7 
A-peak, 197, 21o 
Peeters, Peter, pirate pardoned, 
Pendants, I98, 240 
Peniche, carve[Is of, 47, 12o 
Pennington, Sir John, 274 
Perforst-men, 22 
Perry, a squall or contrary 
wind, 29 and n. 
Peyton, Sir Henry, commands 
English troops in the 
Venetian service, 269 
Pico Island, 37 
Pillow, 198 
Pinks, i4-i 5 
Pintle, I98 
Pirates, Mainwaring's Discourse 
on, 3-49 

Pirates (cont.) 
at Mamora, IO 
in Thames, io 
their beginnings, 14-17 
in Ireland, 14-17 
when captured should be 
made galley-slaves, or 
found useful employment, 
bravery of, 19 
assure themselves of a par- 
don if they take a good 
English ship, 21 
Leghorn and Villefranche 
free to them, 2I 
how they operate at sea, 
stratagems of, 24 
where they revictual and 
refit their ships, 25-4 o 
how to prevent and sup- 
press, 40-49 
increase of, during the reign 
of James I, 41 
plan to suppress, on the 
Irish coast, 46-48 
Pitching, 198-9 
Plats, 199 
Plot, 199, 247 
See also Card (sea) 
Plyers, 24 
Plymouth Sound, 228 
Point, a, 199-2oo 
Pontevedra, pirates at, 34 
Poop, lO8, 191, 193, 2oo, 228 
Port, I8O, 2oo, 255 
See also Larboard 
Porto Farina, pirates at, 29 
famous for its arsenal, 29 n 
mentioned, 9o 
Porto Legro, the Conde of, his 
offer to Mainwaring. 11-12 
Ports (of a ship), 2oo, 214, 221, 



Sheets, 223-4. 233, 251 
false sheet, 224 
fore topsail sheets, 207-8 
fore-sheet, 199, 213, 223-4 
lee sheets, 205 , 241 
main sheet, 213 , 223 
topsail sheets, 202, 207 , 242 
weather-sheet, 2oo 
Sheevers. See Shivers 
Ships, English merchant ships 
loaned to Venice. 267 
suggested loan of English 
warships to Venice. 271- 3 
proposition for ships and 
pinnaces for guard of the 
Narrow Seas, 274- 5 
Ship's boat, lO3- 4 
Ships named-- 
Bonaventure, 21 n. 
Concord, 21 
Jeter and Andrew, 38 
St. Claude, 281 
Shivers, IOO, 121, 2o3-4. 2o7. 
224 . 228, 246, 257 
Shoal, 224- 5 
Shore, 225 
wash of the, 253 
Shores (pieces of timber), 225 
Shot. various kinds of, 225 
Shot of cable, 225 
Shrouds, 121-2, 161, 204- 5 . 
208, 216, 220, 222- 3 , 225-6, 
240, 242-3, 249, 258 
Sicily, 27 
Skeg, 226 
Skiffs, lO 3 
Slatch, 226-- 7 
Sleepers, 227 , 233 
Sling, to, 227 
Slings, 122, 227-8, 245 
Smith, Captain John, Acci- 
dence for all Young Seamen, 
Smith, Ialph, 77 

Smiting line, 228 
Snatch block, 228, 257 
Sockets, 228 
Soles, 55 
price of, 61 
Sound, a. 228-9 
Sound, to, 229 
sounding-lead, 229 
sounding-line, 229 
Sound, The, 228 
pirates in, 33 
Sowe, Mainwaring's Discourse 
on the French fishing upon 
the, 53-66 
a fishing-ground between 
Iye and Dieppe, 54 
extent of, 54, 55 n. 
evils of allowing the French 
to fish at the, 56 et seq. 
illegal fishing of the French 
at, 62-65 
Spain, pirates resort to the 
coast of, 31 , 33, 39 
yearly ]3razil fleet of, 32 
threat to Venice, 265-73 
Spartel, Cape, 34 
Spell, 229-30 
Spend, 23o 
Spigots (taps), 2o 4 
Spikes, 230 
Spill, 23o-1 
Spindle (of the capstan), 231 
Splice, 231 
kinds of, 231 
Split, 231 
Sponge, the, 231-2 
Spoon, to, 232 
Spring, to (a mast), 232- 3 
Spring-tide, 232 
Sprit-sails. See Saris 
Spritsail topmast. See Masts 
Spritsail-yard. See Yards 
Spun-yarn, 233 
Spurkets, 233 


Stanchions, 159 
Standing parts of running 
ropes, 233 
Standing ropes, 233- 4 
Starboard, 13o, I8O, 2oo 
starboard watch, 253 
Stay, to, 234, 241 
Stays, 175, 234-5, 249 
back stays, 135, 198, 234-5 
forestay, 235 
mainstays, 129, 138 , 235 , 
mizen stay, 235 
topmast stay, 235 
Steer, to, 235-6 
See also Cond 
Steerage, 189, 2o5, 236, 247, 
Steevmg, 94 
Stem, 236 
Step, 236 
Stern, 236 
Stern-fast, iio, 122 
Stern-ports, 122, 256 
Stern-post, 214-15, 224, 226 
Stern-sheets, 224 
Steve, or Steving, 237 
Steward's room, 218, 237 
Stirrup, 237 
Stoaked, 92, 237 
Stop, 237 
Stoppers, 144, 175, 237-8 
Stow, to, 238 
Strake, 238 
Strap (a rope), 238-9 
Stream anchor. See Anchors 
Stream cable, 239 
Stretch, 239 
Strike, to, 239 
Studding sail. See Sails 
Suck, 239 
Suffolk, Lord Thomas Howard, 
Earl of. See Howard 
Surge, 240 

Susa, pirates at, 29 
Swifters, 226, 240 
Swifting, 240 

TACK, tO, 241 
Tackles, 241-2 
gunner's tackles, 242 
Tacks, 219, 24o-1 
fore tacks, 93, 129, 2o 7 , 213, 
main tacks, 129, 213 
See also lopes 
Taffny, pirates resort to, 35 
Tally, 242 
Tampkin, 242 
Taper bore, 242 
Tapering, 242 
Tarpaulin and Gentlemen 
Commanders, 279-81 
Tarpawling, 242 
Taunt, 242- 3 
Taut, 243 
Teelin Head, 47 
Tempest, 243 
Teneriff, wind at, IOO-I 
Tetuan, pirates at, 26 
Thames, 263 
Thaughts, 243 
Thight (tight), 243 
Thornback (ray), price of, 61 
Thowles, 243 
Thwart-ships, 243 
Tides, 243- 4 
ebb tide, 244 
flood tide, 244 
leeward tide, 244 
neap tides, I9O, 232 
spripg tides, 232 
tide-gate, 223, 244 
windward tide, 244 
Tier, 245 
Ties, 245 
Tight. See Thight 



Tilbury Hope, 15 
Tiller, 98, 245 
Tlemen, pirates at, 26 
Tonge Castle, Shropshire, 283 
Top-armours, 245 
Topgallants. See Masts 
Topmast. See Masts 
Top ropes, 212, 246 
Torbay, 93 
Tow, to, 246 
Trammels, 57, 60 
Transom, 113, 133 , 205, 236, 
246- 7 
Traverse, 37, 247 
Traverse Board, 247 
Trenails, 122, 177, 192, 248 
Treport, fishermen of, 58, 63, 
Tres Forcas, Cape, 27 
Trestle-trees, 135, 248, 255 
Trevor, Sir Sackville, 274 
Trice, to, 248 
Trim (of a ship), 248 
A-trip, 154 
Trip, 154 
Tripoli, pirates at, 29 
Trough of the sea, 249 
Trucks, 249 
Trumpeters, 87 , 16o 
Trulmions, 116, 125, 249 
Trusses (ropes), 249-50 
Try, to, 142, 250 
Tuck, the, 250 
Tunis, pirates of, 4, IO, 25, 29, 
Dey of. II. 26 
laws of. 42 
Turbots, 55 
Turn, to. See Board 

VEER, 250 
Veering, 251 
Velez Malaga, 30 

Venice, Mainwaring's negotia- 
tions on behalf of, 263 - 
Gondomar's threat against, 
English troops for, 269 
Mainwaring's suggestion re- 
garding the loan of war- 
ships to, 271- 3 
galligrosses of, 28 
Villefranche, 21 
Violl, 251 

WAFT, tO, 251--2 
Wafters (convoys), 38, 251 
Waist (of a ship), 252 
Waist-boards, 252 
Waist-cloths, 147, 252 
Waist-trees, I59, 174, 178, 
191, 252 
See also Ioof-trees 
Wake (of a ship), 252 
Wale, 97 
See also Bend, Chain-wales 
Wale-knot, 237, 240, 251 
Wall-reared, 252- 3 
Walt, 253 
Ward, John, pirate, 21 n. 
Warp, 253 
Wash a ship, 253 
Wash of the shore, 253 
Watch, 253 
Water-borne, 254 
Water-line, 254 
Water-shot, 254 
Waterward, 192 
Water-way, 254 
Way of a ship, 254- 5 
Waying, 254 
Weather, to, 255 
Weather bow, 255 
Weather coil, 255