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Treasure "S^om 



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Mojiiitiietil 17. ^eatniuistej- ALbev ^liS 

//^'//fy (dr>7^n/?/fyrne /^y^> 







AniHOR or 






" All the devices blazoned on the shield 
In their own tinct." 

Idylls of the King. 


^u6It!gf)cr til c^rttnarp ta ?§«■ MaSt^iv- 


PRi>TF.D nv wiM.iAM rr.owKS anp sons, STAMroni) sthef.t 




It is the aim of this Volume to inquire into the true character 
and right office of Heraldry, and to describe and illustrate its 
general condition as it is in use amongst ourselves. 

Of the rise and progress of Heraldry, and of its almost uni- 
versal prevalence under variously modified forms, I have not 
attempted to give more than a slight and rapid sketch. I have 
beeu content also to refer only incidentally and in a few words 
to the value and interest of Heraldry, as a handmaid of History, 
as an ally of Art, and as the chronicler of Archaeology — my 
purpose being not so much to lecid students on to the applica- 
tion of Heraldry, as to enable them to apply it by becoming- 
Heralds. In the following pages, accordingly, I have sought 
to define and elucidate the principles of Heraldry, to exemplify 
its practice, and to illustrate at once its utility and its attrac- 
tiveness. The Heraldry of the present time I have desired 
uniformly to exhibit as the direct descendant and the living 
representative of the Heraldry of the past; and the student 
will observe that I have systematically endeavoured to impress 
him with the conviction that Heraldiy is, essentially and at 
all times, inseparably associated with History, or at any rate 
with Biography. 



This Volume does not profess to extend its range to legendary- 
Heraldry, nor does it include even references to those fanciful 
and often fantastic speculations, in wliich the early Heralds 
delighted to indulge. The " Curiosities of Heraldry " in like 
manner, it leaves, with grateful and admiring acknowledgment, 
in the accomplished hands of Mr. Mark Anthony Lower. Ke- 
peated references to standard works upon Heraldry I have con- 
sidered to be neither necessary nor desirable, but instead of 
this, I have prepared and inserted a complete list of heraldic 
authorities; and in the preparation of my pages I have been 
scrupulously careful that every statement contained in them 
should be based upon certain and approved authority. 

Historical Heraldry occupies a position of such importance 
in Histories of England, that a certain amount of heraldic 
knowledge has become indispensable to the student of English 

Everj' Gothic Architect oxight to be a thorough Herald. 
Heraldry alone can enable him to render his works, in the 
noblest and most perfect sense, historic monuments, ^yitllout 
Heraldry, no lover of the great Art, which has been so happily 
revived amongst us, is able either to feel the full power of 
what the Gothic has transmitted to him from the olden time, 
or to realize all that it is now able to accomplish as a living 

Historical Painters, having at length learned to estimate 
aright the worth of archaeological accuracy, constantly re- 
quire that information which Heraldry is ever ready to 

It is the same with Sculptors, when they treat of subjects 
that are derived from either mediaeval or modern History, 
or that are in any way associated with Gothic Architec- 

To Illuminators, Heraldry opens a wide and richly diversi- 
fied field of attractive study. The beautiful and deservedly- 


popular Art of Illuminatioii finds in Heraldry a most versatile 
and efficient confederate. True Illumination, indeed, is in its 
nature heraldic; and true Heraldry provides for Illuminators 
the most appropriate, graphic, and effective, both of their sub- 
jects and of the details and accessories of their practice. 

In some sense or degree, also, Heraldry enjoys the favour of 
the general public. To many persons, as to seal engravers and 
herald painters, it provides what may be styled a profession. 
Whoever has, or desii'es to have, a " coat-of-arms," professes to 
know something about Heraldry ; that is, he is favourably dis- 
posed towards it, though perhaps he is unconscious of the 
sentiment. It is always pleasant to the pedestrian public — 
many of them bearers of time-honoured arms and having the 
reddest of red blood flowing in their veins — to be familiar with 
the heraldic blazoniy that appears upon the panels of aristo- 
cratic carriages. Nor is it less satisfactory, when we chance 
to see a flag displayed and blowing out in the breeze, or when 
our eyes rest upon an heraldic seal, or when we discover a 
shield of aims in a book, or on a monument, or amidst the 
decorative accessories of some building, to be able to read what 
Heraldry thus has written with her peculiar symbols. And 
then, as a matter of course. Heraldry, as of old, receives a 
becoming homage from the wealthy inheritors of historic names 
and noble titles; while a similar homage is no less cordially 
tendered by those whose Heraldry, like their own position in 
the great world of society, is at least of comparatively recent 

From each and all of these Friends of Heraldry, this Volume 
ventures to anticipate a welcome, inasmuch as it aspires to 
place before them, in a plain and simple form, whatever 
heraldic teaching they may require; and also because, as a 
book of reference, they will find it to be trustworthy, easy 
to be consulted, and, as far as it professes to go, complete. 




If ever I had indulged the hope that a Second Edition of this 
work might be required, I certainly had not contemplated the 
realization of any such speculation without an interval of several 
years between the publication of the First Edition and the 
appearance of its successor. My surprise, accordingly, was as 
great as my gratification, when I found myself called upon by 
my original publishers, before my First Edition had been pub- 
lished two months, to prepare for them a Second Edition with all 
possible speed. 

The corrections and additions that I was anxious to make, so 
far as 1 was enabled to accomplish them at all, were made while 
my Second Edition was actually passing through the press. 
Materials in abundance were ready at hand ; and indeed the 
cordial generosity with which the most valuable assistance, often 
unasked, has constantly been placed at my disposal, I am alto- 
gether unable adequately to acknowledge. From such great 
kindness, coupled with the very gratifying reception that my 
" Heiialdry " has experienced, I venture to infer that my Volume, 
however imperfectly executed, has been conceived in the right 


Whatever errors and omissions in tho First Edition had been 
brought to my notice, it was my endeavour in the Second Edition 
to correct and supply : at the same time, I was constrained to 
withhold various additions that had been suggested to me, in 
consequence of being unable to extend my volume beyond 
certain prescribed limits. Whatever fresh matter was intro- 
duced, was carefully kept in conformity with my original plan, 
and in itself it was what I hoped would prove to be both useful 
and attractive to students of Historical Heraldry. The Chapter 
on " Marshalling " was considerably extended ; and two Chapters 
instead of a single one were assigned to " Cadency :" the number 
of the Chapters, however, remained the same, since two very 
short Chapters of the Fii'st Edition were united together. The 
Illustrations in the Second Edition received numerous important 

About a year after the first appearance of this work, the 
Second Edition was exhausted, and at the same time the copy- 
right passed from the hands of Messrs. Winsor and Newton 
to those of Mr. Bentley, the eminent publisher of New Burling- 
ton Street. This Third Edition, now published by Mr. Bentley, 
I have most carefully revised and corrected tliroughout; and it 
has received many additions of the greatest importance. To all 
points connected with heraldic rule, authority and early usage, 
I have directed my special attention. The Chapters previously 
entitled " Marshalling " and " Cadency," now appear, enlarged 
and rearranged, severally bearing the following titles — " Mar-- 
shalling and Inheritance," and " Cadency and Diflerencing." 
Chapter XVI. has been devoted exclusively to " Eoyal Cadency," 
which has been treated in it in as systematic a manner as 
possible. The Chapter on the " Eoyal Heraldry of England " 
has been in part re-written ; and the Chapter on " Foreign 
Heraldry " has been considerably extended. 

Again I have inti'oduced several fresh Illustrations. They 
consist of twenty-four additional wood-cuts, printed with the 


text; and four lithographic Plates, numbered LXXIX., LXXX., 
LX.XXI., LXXXII., and containing twelve examples : thus, my 
Illustrations, in all, now number upwards of nine hundred and 
seventy examples. Plate IjXXIX., engraved from a photograph 
of the original slab, which several years ago was brought from 
Venice to England, will be regarded with much interest, both 
from its peculiar heraldic character, and from the singular 
circumstances connected with its recent history^ and also from 
the no less singular manner in which it was assigned to the 
individual— one of two great rivals, whose armorial insignia it 
does not display. 

I greatly regret to have been obliged again to reprint 
my original lithographs without any alteration in the num- 
bering; and also, as in the Second Edition, to intersperse 
the additional Plates amongst those that were before engraved. 
Thus, in the arrangement of the Plates the order of numerical 
succession has not been regularly maintained. I trust that the 
Lists of the Plates and of the Individual Examples in a great 
measure will rectify any inconvenience that may arise from this 
circumstance. In the text I have habitually inserted a reference 
to the Plate in which each example is placed, except in the case 
of those examples that are printed with the text itself. Many 
of the Illustrations that I have obtained from monumental 
memorials, have been engraved by StOTHARD and others ; but 
I have not considered it necessary to refer to the Plates in those 
more costly and less accessible works, in w^hich the Heraldiy is 
subordinate to the monumental character of the subject repre- 
sented ; and as, with rare exceptions, I have myself personally 
examined the originals, I have generally been enabled to rely 
UT)on my own notes and sketches for the fidelity of my examples. 
I feel sure that my additional examples from the grand old Abbey 
Church of St. Alban will continue to be regarded with the 
utmost interest, (Nos, 633, 690, and 711 to 717 inclusive). 
Plates XIX. and XXII I. have been lithographed again, since the 


publication of my First Edition, aud^the former Plate has been 
re-arranged. It will be understood that Ko. 364 A., in Plate 
XXIII., has been drawn in exact conformity with the original 
shield. My chromo-lithogi'aph, Plate VII., of the noble champleve 
enamel shield of Earl William de Valence, has also been en- 
graved, a second time, in order to render with exact accuracy 
the diaper upon the bars that are argent. I have elsewhere 
(see Chap. XXXIII.) noticed the publication of the fac-simile 
chromo-lithograph of this shield, of the full size of the original, 
after his own drawing, by Mr. L. Berrixgton, of Westminster 

The publication of Mr. Seton's able and thoroughly heraldic 
treatise on the Heraldry of Scotland, confirms my belief that a 
feeling for Historical Heraldry is gradually extending its influence 
throughout this country. It will rest with those to cherish and 
to stimulate such a feeling, who have already learned to value 
Historical Heraldry because they have foimed a just estimate of 
its ti-ue character. The " Herald and Genealogist," a periodical 
publication conducted with characteristic ability by Mr. John 
GouGH Nichols, while it renders valuable aid to students of 
Heraldry, bears testimony to the prevalence of an interest in 
heraldic subjects. And I am persuaded that LIr. Pap worth's 
excellent " Ordinary of Arms" only requires to be more widely 
known and more correctly understood, to be consistently appre- 
ciated, and consequently to be warmly supported. 

I venture to request from the possessors of early Polls of 
Arms, early Grants and Confirmations, and other unpublished 
heraldic documents, such information as may enable me to form as 
complete Lists as possible of such records for future publication. 
I shall also feel truly grateful for any notices of fine examples of 
Shields of Arms, Badges, &c., and any other heraldic memoranda. 
I have prepared, for the use of students of Heraldry, and others, 
several groups of plain shields, arranged in pages of the size of this 
volume, which may be filled in with the bearings of Shields of 


Arms. I myself have found these pages of outline shields to 
be very useful and convenient, and they have been approved 
by more than one friend who loves and studies Heraldry. 
They may be obtained from the publisher of this work, printed 
on paper adapted to receive colour. 

At the College of Arms I have always found the most valuable 
aid ready to be given to me with the greatest liberality and 
kindness ; and I also have invariably experienced at the hands 
of the professional Heralds the most generous encourage- 
ment, coupled with the most gratifj'ing approval. To AVilliam 
CouRTHOPE, Esq., Somerset Herald, Eegistrar of the College 
of Arms, I desire to tender my especial thanks; and I also 
gratefully acknowledge the assistance I have received from 
Egbert Laurie, Esq., Clarencieux King of Arms. "While to all 
who in any way have aided me, in general terms I offer my 
thanks, I am bound to record my more particular obligation 
to the Eev. John Woodward, of New Shoreham; to the Eev. 
Charles Brooke Bicknell, Eector of Stourton, near Bath; to 
John Gough Nichols, Esq., F.S.A. ; to the Eev. H. W. Hodgson, 
Eector of King's Langley, Herts ; to T. G. Bayfield, Esq., and 
to A. W. MoRANT, Esq., F.S.A., and F.G.S., of Norwich. 

In the First and Second Editions, the Index was divided 
into three distinct sections ; but for this present Edition I have 
prepared a single Index, which comprehends all that was con- 
tained in the three sections that preceded it, and which also is 
much more copious in itself, and will be found calculated greatly 
to facilitate reference to the work. 

Throughout the preparation of my First Edition I constantly 
received from one valued Friend the most important assistance : 
now, to my great sorrow, I associate this present Edition with 
the cherished Memory of the same dear and deeply-lamented 

C. B. 
Norwood, October, 18G4. 



Preface to the First Edition . . . . . v 

Preface to the Second and Third Editions . . . . viii 

Introductory ....... 1 


Heraldic Blazon, Nomenclature, Language, and Laws . . 8 

The Shield — its Parts, Points, and Primary Divisions; and 
Dividing and Border Lines . . . . .13 

Tinctures and Furs . , . . . . .19 

The Ordinaries and their Diminutives, and the Eoundles . . 21 

The Heraldry of the Cross . . . . . .26 


The Subordinaries . . . . . . .31 

Varied Fields and Diapers . . . . . .35 



Miscellaneous Charges : Part I., Inanimate Objects . . .39 

Miscellaneous Charges : Part II., Animate Beings . . .56 

Miscellaneous Charges: Part III., Natural Objects . . 70 

Descriptive Terms . . . . . .77 

IVIiscellaneous Names and Titles, not included under the term 
" Charges" ....... 90 

Marshalling and Inheritance . . . .135 

Cadency and Differencing . . . . .173 

Royal Cadency ....... 230 

Badges, Crests, Supporters, Mottoes, and Knots . . . 254 

Flags 286 

The Royal Heraldry of England . . . .293 

Orders of Knighthood, and Insignia and Augmentations of 
Honour . . . . . . . .333 



OflBcial and Corporate Heraldry ..... 357 

Architectural Heraldry ...... 372 

Monumental Heraldry ...... 380 

The Heraldry of Seals and Coins . . . . .397 

The Heraldry of Illuminations ..... 419 

Genealogies ....... 422 

Precedence . . . . . . . . 428 

Augmentation and Abatement ..... 433 

Modem Heraldry ....... 439 

Heraldic Treatment, Drawing, and Colour . . . 448 

Examples of Shields of Arms ..... 458 

Foreign Heraldry ....... 464 




Supplementary . . . • • • .481 

List of Plates 493 

List of Illustrations ...... 496 

General Index .....•• 507 





An inquiry into the Heraldry of the past leads us back almost 
to the remote fountain-head of human history. From the very 
earliest periods, we find it to have been an usage universally 
prevalent amongst mankind for both individuals and communi- 
ties to be distinguished by some Sigyi, Device, or Cognizance. The 
idea of symbolical expression coupled with a love of symbolism 
appear, indeed, to constitute one of the component elements 
of the human mind, as well in the rude condition of savage 
life as in every progressive advance of civilization and refine- 
ment. Through the agency of such figurative imageiy the 
mind is able both to concentrate a wide range of thought within 
a very narrow compass, and to give to the whole a visible 
form under a simple image. The mind thus speaks to the 
eye. By this symbolical blazonry a multiplicity of definite 
•impressions are conveyed, in the simplest manner, and with 
poetic impressiveness. By such means, also, the mind is em- 
powered to combine the imaginative with the real, and, while 
extending its speculations beyond the bounds of ascertained 
verities and actual facts, to impart a definite character to the 
visions of the imagination. 

The exercise of a faculty such as this, it is easy to conceive, 
would be held in the highest estimation in the primitive stages 



of human society. Men so circumstanced had much to say; 
but they had only rare opportunities for speaking, and they 
knew but few words in which to convey their meaning. They 
delighted, therefore, in an expressive symbolism, which might 
speak for them, laconically, but yet with emphasis and to the 
point. Their symbolical language, also, would commend itself 
to their favour in a peculiar manner, through the facility v^ith 
which it would extend and intensify its own phonetic powers 
by means of accumulative association. 

War and the chase would naturally furnish the imagery 
that would first become prevalent. A man's physical powers or 
peculiarities, as a warrior or a hunter, or the issue of some 
exploit in which he might have been engaged, would determine 
his distinctive personal cognizance. If swift of foot, or strong 
of hand, or fierce in demeanour, or patient of hardship, he 
would naturally seek to symbolize himself under the form of 
some animal distinguished pre-eminently for one or other of 
those qualities. For, it is natural that man should find symbols 
of his own physical attributes in the inferior animals ; because 
in mere swiftness, or strength, Qf such like qualities, those 
animals are superior to man. The next thing would be to 
render this personal symbolism hereditary'. A man's son 
would feel a natural pride in preserving the memorial of his 
father's reputation, by assuming, and also by transmitting his 
device. It would be the same with the comrades of a chief, 
and with the subjects of a prince. Thus a system of Heraldry 
would arise and become established. 

And such is actually the process, which has produced and 
matured its own Heraldry amongst each of the various races 
and tribes of the earth. In the Far West, the Eed Indian, 
from time immemorial, has impressed upon his person the 
totem of his people — the cognizance that his fathers bore, and 
by which they were distinguished before him. In the very 
constitution of his mind essentially a lover of symbolism, the 


Oriental revels, and he always has revelled, in a truly charac- 
teristic Heraldry. In the relics of the wonderful races that 
once, peopled the valley of the Nile, this Heraldry of the East 
is everywhere present. Another expression of the same semi- 
mystic symbolism was found, deep buried beneath the mounds 
of Assyria. Somewhat modified, it was well known in ancient 
Israel. In Europe, with the first dawn even of historical 
tradition, the existence of a Heraldry may be distinguished. 
Nearly six hundred years before the Christian era, iEschjdus 
described the heraldic blazonry of the chieftains who united 
their forces for the siege of Thebes, with all the minute 
exactness of our First Edward's chronicler of Caerlaverock. 
The well-known Eagle of the Romans may be said to have 
presided over the Heraldry of Eome, as their own Dragon has 
ever presided over that of the Chinese. The legendary annals of 
mediaeval Europe abound in traces of a barbaric Heraldry, in 
the war-banners of the chiefs and in their personal insignia. 
The Bayeux Tapestry of the Conqueror's Consort may be placed 
at the head of the early existing illustrations of the Heraldry 
of Britain. That celebrated piece of royal embroidery exhibits 
a complete display of the militaiy ensigns in use at the period 
of the Conquest, by both the Norman invaders and the Saxon 
occupants of this island. Illuminations in MSS. take up and 
carry on the Heraldic record. Seals, carvings in ivory, monu- 
mental memorials, stained glass, and the various productions 
of the architectural sculptor, gradually contribute their several 
memoirs, and lead us on to the full development of English 
mediaeval Heraldry through the agency of the Crusades. 

The Crusades, formed the armed followers of the different 
European princes into a military alliance for a common pur- 
pose, and also brought the rude yet gallant soldiers of the 
West into contact with all that then existed in Eastern lands 
of the refinement, both military and social, of still earlier 
times. Among the many and important results of those 

B 2 


strange and strangely romantic enterprises, were great changes 
in tlie weapons and armour of the western chivalry ; and these 
changes were accompanied with the introduction of an infinite 
variety of armorial devices. The Crusade confederacy itself 
would necessarily demand the adoption, by the allied Sove- 
reigns, of a more definite system of military standards and 
insignia than had been previously prevalent. The use of im- 
proved defensive armour, also, combined with a better system of 
organization and discipline in the armour-clad bands, rendered 
it necessary for each wan-ior of any rank to assume and wear 
some personal cognizance, without which he could not have 
been distinguished at a time when the ascertained presence 
of certain individuals was of such grave importance. And 
the device of each baron or knight would be assigned, with 
appropriate modifications, to their respective retainers and 
followers. In this manner, Create were introduced, and placed fj^ 
on basinets and helms ; and thus some recognized device or com- (i- 
position was displayed upon all knightly pennons and banners, 
and was emblazoned both upon the rich surcoats which the 
knights wore over their armour, and ui:)on the shields Avhich 
so long formed most important components of their defensive 
equipment. Such is the origin of SMelds-of-Arms and Coats- 
of-Arms, — teiTQS that we still retain, with representations of 
the Shield, and with Crests, in our own Heraldry at the pre- 
sent day. 

In England, Heraldry may be considered to have fii-st 
assumed a definite and systematic character during the reign of 
Henry III., a.d. 1216 to 1272; and at the close of the thir- 
teenth century it may be said to have been recognized as a 
distinct science. Tlie heraldic devices that were adopted in 
England in the thirteenth centurj'', in common with those 
which were added to them during the century that followed, 
partook of the ideal character of all symbols, but at the same 
time they were distinguished by a simple and dignified expres- 


siveness. And they were associated directly, and in a peculiar 
manner, either with individuals, families, establishments, poten- 
tates, or with the community at large : so that they may bo 
considered after a definite method, their varieties readily admit 
of classification, their characteristics may be clearly elucidated 
and fully set forth, and they may be subjected to certain general 
laws and treated as forming a system in themselves. This 
classification and description, and the general laws themselves, 
we now unite with the devices and compositions under the 
common name of Heraldry. And with the Heraldry of the 
thirteenth century we associate that of the fourteenth, and of 
succeeding centuries, and of our own era, assigning to the whole 
the same common title. For, as it happened in the instance 
of Architecture, when once it had been duly recognized in 
England, Heraldry rapidly attained to an advanced degree of 
perfection. Whatever the Heralds of Edward I. might have 
left to be accomplished after their time, their successors of 
the fourteenth century w^ere not slow iu developing. Under the 
genial influences of the long and brilliant reign of Edward III., 
mediaeval Heraldry attained to its culminating point. The 
last quarter of the fourteenth century proved to be equally 
favourable to the Heralds. And again, during the Lancastrian 
era, and throughout the struggle of the Eoses, English Heraldry 
maintained its reputation and its popularity. Its practical 
utility was felt and appreciated by the Plantagenets in their 
fierce social wars, as it had been before their time by the Ci'u- 
saders. Then, with a general decline of the Arts, Heraldry 
declined. Its art-character, indeed, had shown signs of a 
coming degradation before the accession of the Tudors to the 
disputed throne of this realm. The next downward step 
seriously afi"ected the early simplicity of the art-science, so 
that the Heraldry of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth 
centuries can advance but comparatively slight claims upon our 
present consideration. And thus we are brought onwards to 


the great and general Art-Eevival of our own times, in which 
Heraldry again appears in the act of vindicating its titles to 
honourable recognition, as an Art-Science that may bo advan- 
tageously and agreeably studied, and very happily adapted, in 
its practical application, to the existing condition of things by 

"When thus directing the attention of students to the 
Heraldiy of the past, I am anxious to impress upon them the 
remembrance of the fact, that the main object of our inquiry 
has reference to our own present use and application of 
Heraldry in the days of Queen Victoria. All true Heraldry 
is historical, though it by no means follows that it must always 
be necessarily popular. Our Heraldry, however, aspires to be 
such as may claim to be entitled both "popular" and "his- 
torical :" but the historical condition of our Heraldry' does not 
imply that we should enter into the elucidation of mediaeval 
Heraldry, purely for its own sake. We find Heraldry to have 
been in England a growth of the Middle Ages : and, conse- 
quently, when we desire to familiaiise ourselves with this Art- 
Science, we are constrained in the first instance to direct our 
thoughts back to the middle ages, in order to obtain much of the 
information that we need for present use. This differs widely 
from a study of mediaeval Heraldry, undertaken and conducted 
for the sake of reproducing mediaeval Heraldrj'. It is impossible 
to press this consideration too urgently, not only upon living 
Heralds, but also upon all who are interested in the Arts and 
Art-Manufactures of our country at the present day. The Arts 
of the middle ages are replete with precious teachings for our- 
selves ; and yet they are not by any means calculated to be 
reproduced by us in their original condition."^ They were the 
Arts of those times — they then arose, and they flourished 
through their direct association with their own era. It is most 
true, that at all times they may be studied with certain 
advantage ; and it is also no less true, that a mere imitation of 


their former operation indicates that error in judgment, which 
ignores the all-impoiiant mutatis mutandis, and so leads to a 
mistaken course of action. And then, on the other hand, 
nothing can he more absurdly irrational than to reject what the 
Arts of the middle ages can teach so well, upon the alleged plea 
that any such study involves a modem mediaivalism. Here, 
as in other matters, a middle course lies open invitingly before 
us. Whatever we find to be really valuable and useful in the 
Arts of the middle ages we gratefully accept ; and, as we know 
that our predecessors in departed centuries matured their own 
thoughts for their own advantage, and applied their Arts to 
their own use, so we take their teaching, and associate it in its 
practical application, not with them, but with ourselves. When 
we seek to apply our knowledge, from what source soever we 
may have acquired it, we look around us, and we look before 
us, seeking both to adapt our knowledge to present require- 
ments, and to expand its range that it may become applicable 
to the requirements of the future. By no means content to be 
imitators and copyists, we aim at excellence in our works, 
through the judicious, consistent, and appropriate application 
of sound principles, under the guidance of an observant and 
well- disciplined experience. It will be understood, then, when 
I refer in the following pages to the Heraldry of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, that I do so without the slightest 
intention, on the one hand, to suggest that either our Guards- 
men or our Volunteers should be equipped in the aiTuour and 
surcoats of the Plantaganets, or, on the other hand, to fix the 
standard of the Heraldr)- of to-day in accordance with the 
hei'aldic fashion prevalent when the Black Pi-ince was invested 
with the Order of the Garter. 

A. B. 

No. 1. — Arms of the CRrsADEU Kings of Jeucsalem. n.H . fi>t^^i<^JSI-X 



In Heraldrj', the term Blazon, or Blazoning, is applied 
equally to tlie description and to the representation of all 
heraldic figures, devices, and compositions. It also indicates 
the arrangement of the component members and details of any- 
heraldic composition. Historical Blazoning, also entitled Mar- 
shalling, denotes the combination and arrangement of several 
distinct heraldic compositions, with the view to produce a single 
compound composition. In like manner, the disposition and 
arrangement of a group or groups of heraldic compositions or 
objects, is styled Marshall iyig. 

All heraldic figures and devices, whether placed upon shields, 
or borne or represented in any other manner, are entitled 
Charges ; and every shield or other object is said to be charged 
Avith the armorial insignia that may be displayed upon it. 

Heraldic Language is most concise, and it is always minutely 


exact, definite, and explicit ; all unnecessary words are 
omitted, and all repetitions are carefully avoided ; and, at the 
same time, every detail is specified witli absolute precision. 

The Nomenclature is equally significant, and its aim is to 
combine definitive exactness with a brevity that is indeed 
laconic. As might naturally be expected, both the Language 
and the Nomenclature of Heraldry habitually indicate their 
Norman-French origin. 

Heraldic Devices are described, first, in the order of their 
comparative importance; and, secondly, in the order in which 
they are placed upon the shield, or other object that bears 
them. Thus the character of the surface of the shield itself, 
which forms the foundation of the heraldic composition, is first 
specified. Then follows a description of the principal charge, 
which occupies the most central and most commanding position, 
and which also is considered to rest immediately upon the 
sui-face of the shield. Objects of secondary importance, which 
also rest upon the shield itself, are next described ; and finally, 
descriptions are given of such other devices and figures as may 
be placed upon another charge, and which consequently appear 
to be carried by an object that is nearer to the surface of the 
shield than they are themselves. In some instances, as when a 
Chief, a Canton, and a Bordure appear and are charged, the 
composition will require to be blazoned in two groups, pre- 
cedence being given to the central and more important group. 

In blazoning any Charge, the title, position or disposition' 
tincture, arid distinctive conditions of the device or figure are 
first to be specified, and then there will succeed such descrip- 
tions of details and accessories as may be necessary, in their 
order of comparative importance : the tincture of any Charge, it 
is to be observed, is always to follow the name of the Charge 
itself; thus, a lion rampant sable, is the proper arrangement of 
the words. 

If a tincture or a number should occur twice in the same 




sentence of any descriptive blazon, such tincture or number is 
to be indicated by reference to the words already used, and 
■i^|^ticu<.-not by actually repeating them. Thus, should any Charge be 
^T t l^^ ^® same tincture as the field, it is said to be " of the field ;" 
or, as the tincture of the field is always the first that is specified 
in the blazon, a Charge of that tincture may be blazoned as 
" of the first:' 

So any Charge is said to be " of ike second" " of the third" 
" of the last" &c. if its tincture be the same as the second, the 
third, the last, or any other that has been already specified. 


t I In the instance of the metal gold, instead of reference to the 
heraldic term " Or," the word " gold " itself may be used. The 


position or disposition of any Charge or Charges are to be 
blazoned first after the name or title of the Charge or Charges. 
"When the same Charge is several times repeated in the same 
composition, the figures are generally aiTanged in rows, one 
row being above another. Such an aiTangement is indicated 
by simply stating the number of the figures in each row : as, 
" six crosses crosslets, three, two, and one," to denote three in the 
uppermost row, then two below them, and then one crosslet in 
base. AYhen anj' single Charge is blazoned between three others, 
as afesse between three torteaux, two of the torteaux are placed in 
chief and one in base ; and this same arrangement is observed, 
should the same Charge aj)pear three times without any other 
device. If a single Charge is placed between six others, then 
three are in chief and three in base. A single Charge occupies a 
central position. Any deviation from these dispositions must be 

In heraldic descriptions, the presence and the position of 
the stops or points demand especial attention. A comma pre- 
cedes and follows each item of every descriptive clause, and the 
consistent intervention of the more important points must be 
observed with rigid precision. Every abbreviation must be 
marked by a full stop ; thus, arg. is the abbreviated form of 


argent. This abbreviation-point is not to supersede or interfere 
with the comma or other point, which may bo required to 
follow any word whether abbreviated or expressed in full ; 
thus, arg., on a chev. gu. three lioncels sa., is correct pointing. 
It appears desirable always to print all heraldic blazon in Italic 
tj'pe, and all proper names in small capitals : also, it is always 
right to print, three lion's jamhs, three palmer 8 staves, dc, and 
not three lions' Jambs, three palmers' staves, <&c. The student will : ■ 
bear in mind that in Heraldry, while nothing is specified that 
can be distinctly and certainly understood without description, 
so nothing whatever is left to the possibility of contingency or 
j^fj; It is a positive rule in Heraldry, that Metal shall not appear "'' 

upon Metal, nor Colour upon Colour ; that is, a Charge of one i^ i^ \ 
of the Metals must rest upon, or be in contact with a surface 
or another charge of one of the Colours ; and in like manner, a 
charge of one of the Colours must rest upon, or be in contact 
with a surface or object of one of the Metals. This rule, • 
absolute in its primary application, admits of a partial relaxa- ^ 
tion in the case of varied surfaces, and of certain details of j o, ^. / / 
charges; and also in those compositions, in which a supported ~ 
device or figure extends in the shield beyond the charge that 
supports it. The solitary early violation of this heraldic law is i '^'iu.(f^ 
the armorial ensign ot the Crusader Kings of Jerusalem, who -i^ - :J *■ 
bore five golden crosses upon a silver shield, that thus their i ~- .^ ^ 
Arms might be distinguished from those of everj^ other poten- ^- -V'X^ 
tate; No. 1, p. 8, The early form of the Jenisalem Cross is . ioaa-.-Iit j 
represented in Shield B ; and the more recent and generally , Jfe<T«24«»-< 
accepted form in Shield A. r.\ VvUv*^. v.. ■• . '^.i 

"When any Charge is repeated in such considerable numbers, in 
the same composition, as to produce almost the appearance of a " 
pattern, the Field so covered is said to be Semee with the 
Charge in question. It will be observed that a Field which is 
Semee is often treated as if it were cut to the required size and 



shape from a larger extent of surface, some of the Charges being 
only partially represented. The ancient shield of France, nobly 
emblazoned in the North Choir- Aisle of Westminster Abbey, in 
the work either of Henry III., or of his son Edward I., bears 
azure, seme'e de lys or ; No. 2, p, 12. 
/ ' ^hen th e often-repeated figure is of very sm all si ze, the term 
, Powdered or Poudree is substituted for Semee. 

In Heraldry, every Coat or Shield of Arms, Crest and Badge 
is attached to the Name, and not to the Title, of the person who 
may bear them. 

All figures and devices represented in heraldic compositions 
have various attributes, qualities, and epithets assigned to them 
by Heralds, which express their several positions and disposi- 
tions, and indicate the parts which they take in the aggi'oupment 
of the whole. Thus the sun is said to be in its glory, or eclipsed ; 
the moon is said to be increscent, or decrescent ; human figures are 
variously habited ; animals are said to be armed with the horns, 
or the appendages provided for them by nature for their defence 
or for aggressive purposes. Similar appropriate terms indicate 
the circumstances under which figures and objects of all kinds 
appear in heraldic compositions, together with their individual 
peculiarities, details, and accessories. These terms are classified 
and explained in Chapters TX., X., XL, XII., and XIII. 

il. . '< 

No. 2.— Fr.A.NCE Ancient. 


No. 4. No. 5. 

Heraldic Sliields. 



The Shield, the most important piece of their defensive armour, 
was derived by the knights of the middle ages from remote 
antiquity, and at almost all times it has been decorated with 
some device or figure. The ancient Greek tragedian, ^schylus 
(about B.C. 600), describes with minute exactness the devices 
that were borne by six of the seven chiefs who, before the 
Trojan "War, besieged Thebes. The seventh shield is specially 
noted to have been uncharged. In the middle ages, in Europe, 
there prevailed a precisely similar usage ; and, indeed, so uni- 
versal was the practice of placing heraldic insignia upon shields, 
that the shield has been retained in modem Heraldry as being 
inseparable from all Heraldry, so that it still continues to be 
the figure upon which the heraldic insignia of our own times 
are habitually charged. 

Early heraldic Shields vary very considerably in their forms, 
the simplest and most effective forms having the contour of an 


inverted equilateral arcli, slightly stilted, as No. 3, or No. 7, in 
Plate I. The shields actually used by the Normans in England 
were long and tapering ; they are exemplified in the equipment 
of the knightly effigies in the Temple Church, London. To 
these succeeded short, almost triangular, heater-shaped shields. 
Examples abound in the monumental effigies of the thirteenth 
and the fourteenth centuries. The equilateral foi-m became 
prevalent early in the fourteenth century, at which period 
several modifications of the prevailing fonn were introduced. 
Two of the more efiective of these varieties, Nos. 4 and 5, are 
severally drawn from the Percy Monument at Beverley, a.d. 
1350, and the Monument of John of Eltham, in Westminster 
Abbey, a.d. 1336. In the next century the shields were 
shortened, and as it advanced their form was altogether 
changed, and became somewhat square, the outlines being pro- 
duced by a series of concave curves: No. 6a. Shields of this 
class appear to have been introduced during the second half of 
the fourteenth century, but they did not become general until 
a later period. In these shields a curved notch is cut out, for 
the lance to pass through, in the 'dexter chief; when thus 
pierced, the shield was said to be a houche ; No. 6. This form 
of shield may be advantageously used in Modem Heraldry, 
particularly when any composition has many charges, or when 
there are quarterings ; it would seem, however, to be desirable 
not to represent any shield as a houche in modem Heraldry, 
since shields now do not require any adjustment to knightly 
lances laid in rest. And there is some danger lest a misappre- 
hension shoTild arise with reference to the shield a houche, now 
that its use has so long passed away : thus, in each of the upper 
spandrels of the fine trussed timber roof of Lincoln's Inn HaU 
there is cai'ved a shield a houche ; and these shields have been 
made to correspond with one another, as they range along the 
two opposite sides of the Hall, so that on one side the shields 
have the notches CTit out, quite correctly, in their dexter 



chief, and the other series have their notches cut in their 
sinister chief. 

Several very effective forms of late shields are sculptured 
upon the monument to Abbot Ramrydge, in St. Alban's Abbey, 
which may be studied with advantage by modern Heralds, to- '^' ""**• 
gether with the simple pointed shields of earlier times ; No. 6 a. l.. 

No. 6 A. 

The form of the Shield, as a matter of course, may be deter- 
mined in Modem Heraldry in accordance with the preference of 
every Herald. All that I would suggest is, that the preference 
may as well rest upon the more agreeable rather than the less 
attractive forms. 

In early architectural and monumental compositions, and 
also often upon seals, heraldic shields are represented as if 
suspended from the guige, or shield-belt, which was actually 
worn by the knights to sustain and to secure their shields 
to their persons. In some instances of this always effective 
because always consistent and appropriate arrangement, the 
long gidge appears on either side of the shield, and is there 
passed over a corbel; as in Xo. 7, Plate I., one of the beautiful 
series of shields, in the choir-aisles of Westminster Abbey, 
which is charged with the arms of Raymond, Count of Pro- 
vence, — or, 4 pallets gules. The more prevalent usage was to 
"* represent the shield as being suspended from a single corbel, 
boss, or a cluster of foliage, or from some architectural member 
of the composition, as No. 135, Plate I. ; occasionally, and more 
particularly on seals, the shield appears as if suspended by the 


sinister chief angle, and so hangs diagonally from the helm and 
crest, as No. 301, Plate I., also No. 629, Plate LXVI. : a shield 
thus suspended is said to be coucliL These modes of arrange- 
ment, with the various modifications of them that will readily 
suggest themselves, are worthy of the most thoughtful attention 
of the practical modem Herald. 

The Heraldic Shield is sometimes entitled an Escutcheon : and 
when one shield is charged upon another, the shield thus placed 
is distinguished as an Inescutcheon, and is said to be borne in 

The different parts of an heraldic shield are distinguished and 
'"''' entitled as follows : — No. 8. 

A. Dexter Side. B. Sinister Side. 

C. Chief. D. Base. 

E. Dexter Chief. F. Sinister Chief. 

G. Middle Chief. H. Dexter Base. , 

I. Sinister Base. K. Middle' Base. 

L. Eoncfr Point.^ M. Fesse Point. 

Heraldic shields are divided in the manner indicated by 
examples, Nos. 9 to 14. 

No. 9, is Per Pale, or Impaled No. 10, is Per Fesse. 

No. 11, is Per Cross, or Quarterly. No. 12, is Per Bend. 

No. 13, is Per Saltire, and No. 14, is Per Chevron. 

When a Shield is divided into more than four parts by lines 
drawn in pale and in fesse, crossing each other at right angles, 
it is said to be Quarterly of the number of divisions, whatever 
that number may be : thus, No. 15 is Quarterly of eight. 

In the instance of a Quartered Shield having one or more of 
its Quarters quartered, this compound division is indicated by 
the term Quarterly-quartered ; and the four primary Quarters are 
distinguished as Grand Quarters ; thus in No. 16, A, B, C, D are 
the Grand Quarters, of which the first and the fourth, A and D, 
are Quarterly-quartered. 


'HAF T E RS 111 YII„ XY «c XXVi 


VVt-.stTr.jiisfe.T ALbfty <) 


Weslminster Abbe\^ about 1260 

CASTll-K \- l.KON 



■^e^tnvn3terAhhejAD1230. SoutKacre Church -NorfolKAr 1564 



The Heraldic Shield is always considered to bear its charge 
upon its face, or external surface, and consequently the Dexter 
and the Sinister sides of the shield itself are those, which 
would severally cover the right or the left side of a warrior 
when holding the shield in front of his person. The Dexter 
side of an heraldic composition or object, therefore, is opposite 
to the left hand of an observer, and the Sinister to his right 
hand. This use of the terms Dexter and Sinister is invariable in 

The heraldic shield is sometimes represented as bowed, or as 
if having a slightly convex contour ; and shields of the form of 
No. 6 often have a ridge dividing them in pale. 

The entire surface of a Shield is called the Field. The same 
term Field is also applied to the entire surface of any Charge or 

The same terms that denote the parts and points of a Shield, 
are also applicable to a Flag, or to any figure that may be 
charged with an heraldic composition. In Flags, the depth 
from chief to base is entitled the " Hoist," and the length from 
the point of suspension to the fore extremity is distinguished 
as the ^' Fly," which latter teim also denotes the fore extremity 
of any Flag. 

No. 8. No. 1.5. No. 16. 

c. ^■;,...v. O^jr 

f. A 




Dividing and Border Lines, in addition to simple right 
lines and curves, assume the forms indicated in Example, 
No. 17. 

A. Engrailed . . 

B. Invected . . . 


C. Wavy, or TJndee 

D. NebuUe . 

E. Indented . 

F. Dancette . 

G. Embattled 



EiwvWv^wvotMv' H- Bagulee 


V I. Dovetail 

\ Cr»Ke^ tiuo 

No. 17. 

The Ordinaries and other charges are constantly foimed 
with these lines : as a Bordure may be indented, a Chief 
nebidee, a Fesse dancette or embattled, a Cross engrailed, &c., &c. 
See Nos. 92, 94, 114, 115, 300 a, 319 b, 396, 410, 433 and 

No. 18. No. 19. 

Two Metals. 



The Tinctuues of Heraldry comprise two Metals, five Colours, fy^'^-'-^'^^y 
and eight ^Mr«. ff^^ cvv^Uv*( ?Vt'3/<<: ))ie^tki<.T^U- %1.. 

They are severally distinguished, entitled, and indicated as 
follows, in Examples, Nos. 18 to 32. 




Titles. Aljbievlations. 

Or. Or.^ 

Argent. Arg'. 

No. 18. 

.. 19. 

No. 20. 


21. No. 




No 2^ 

Five Colours 




1. Blue. 



No. 20. 

2. Eed/ 



„ 21. 

3. Black. 




4. Green. 
X;|)-7y 5. Purple. 



,, 23. 
„ 24. 



'•▼ l/wirurvaw 

wmw^j^ IXJ 

♦ t/O C»\v-* t**^ UMM\^. 







Black spots on a white field. 

No. 25. 



White spots on a black field. 

„ 2(5Xe\,Mi'.ln^v*{ 



Black spots on a gold field. 

„ 27. 



Gold spots on a black field. 




28 and 29. 


Counter Vair. 

No. 30. 



„ 31. , 


Counter Potent. 

„ 32. 1 

The Metals may be expressed by gold and silver, or by 
yellow and white. 

The representation of the Tinctures by means of dots and 
lines was not in use amongst Heralds before the time of the 
accession of the Stuarts to the English Crown, 

The student will observe that the metals alicays take pre- 
cedence of the colours, unless a contrary an-angement be specified. 
Also, that Vair, Counter Vair, Potent and Counter Potent are 
always Argent and Azure, unless other tinctures are named in 
the blazon. See Chap. XXX. 

Objects and Figures represented in heraldic composition in 
their natural colours, are said to be proper, abbreviated ppr. 


No. 25. 

No. 26. 

No. 27. 

No. 28. 

No. 29. 

No. 30. 

No. 31. 

No. 32. 


No. 40 a. — DE CLARE. 



The earlist devices of Mediseval Heraldry are simple figures, 
entitled Ordinaries, which have been held by all Heralds in 
high esteem and honour, and retain their old rank in. the 
Heraldry of the present day. They still sometimes appear, as of 
old, alone, or almost alone ; while in many instances the Ordina- 
ries are associated with other devices, or are themselves charged 
with various figures. In their simplest condition, the Ordi- 
naries are formed by right lines ; but they also admit, instead of 
right lines, the various border lines of Example, No. 17. 

The Heraldic Ordinaries are nine in number, and are severally 
entitled, the Chief, No. 33 ; the Fesse, No. 34 ; the Bar, No. 35 ; 
the Pale, No. 36 ; the Cross, No. 37 ; the Bend, No. 38 ; the 
Saltire, No. 39 ; the Chevron, No. 40 ; and the Pile, No. 41. See 
Plate II. 

Several of these Ordinaries have Diminutives, which are 
grouped with them in the following descriptions of the Oidi- 
naries themselves. 



I. The Chief, No. 33, formed by an horizontal line, contains 
in depth the uppermost third part of the field or area of the 

I shield. It may be borne in the same composition with any 
I other Ordinary, except the Fesse. 

The Diminutive of the Chief is the Fillet, the contents of which 

must not exceed one-fourth of the Chief, of which it always 

occupies the lowest portion. 

II. The Fesse, No. 34, which is identical in form and m area 
with the Chief, differs from that Ordinary only in its position 
in the field of the shield, of which it always occupies the 
horizontal central third part. 

The Fesse has no Diminutive, but it may be surmounted by 
a Pale or a Bend. 

III. The Bar, No. 35, difi"ers from the Fesse in its width 
being one-fifth, instead of one-third of the field. The Bar may 
be placed horizontally in any part of the field, except absolutely 
in chief or in base. Two Bars frequently appear in the same 
composition, in which case it is the usual practice to divide the 
field horizontally into five equal parts, and to assign to the Bars 
the two spaces that are on either side of the central space, as in 

i No. 42. A Single Bar never appears in an heraldic composition 
■ without some other Ordinary. 

The Bar has two Dim,inutive8, the Closet, and the Barrulet, 
which are respectively one-half and one- fourth of the width of 
the Bar itself. 

When either of these Diminutives is placed on each side 
of a Fesse or Bar, the Ordinary is said to be cotised, as 
No. 43. 

When Barrulets are placed together in couples, as in No. 44, 
each couple is entitled a pair of Bars Gemelles. 

IV. Like the Chief and the Fesse, the Pale, No. 3G, occupies 
one-third of the field ; but its position is vertical instead of hori- 
zontal, and it accordingly appears in an erect position always in 

, the centre of the field. The Pale is an Ordinaiy of compara- 




tjvely rare occurrence. It has two Diminutives, the Pallet, and 
the Endorse, which are severally one-half and one-fourth of its 

A Pale between two Endorses is said to be endorsed. No. 

A Pallet may appear in any vertical position in the shield. 
See No. 7, Plate I. 

V. In its simplest form, the heraldic Cross, No. 37, is pro- 
duced by the meeting of two vertical with two horizontal lines, 
about the Fesse point, No. 8, M, of the Shield ; or it may be 
defined to be the combination of a Fesse with a Pale. ^\Tien 
charged, the Cross occupies about one-third of the field ; but 
otherwise it occupies only one-fifth of the field. So numerous 
are the modifications of form, decoration, and arrangement 
which Heralds have introduced into this Ordinary, that I 
propose to devote a separate chapter to the " Heraldr}" of the 

VI. The Bend, No. 38, is formed by tioo parallel lines draion 
diagonally, at equal distances from the Fesse-point, from the Dexter 
Chief to the Sinister Base. When charged, the Ordinary con-i ^ 
tains one-third, but when plain it contains one-fifth part of the ; 
field. Two uncharged Bends may appear in the same Com- 
position. The Bend also is associated with other Ordinaries, 

or it may be placed over other Charges. Charges set on a 
Bend are placed Bendwise : that is, they slope with the Bend. ' 
No. 46. 

The Diminutives of the Bend are the Bendlet, containing i-wiiithv-jJ^t^i^l 
one-half of the Bend, and the Cotise, containing one-half of the 
Bendlet. ^ : 

A Bend placed between two Cotises, is said to be cotised. :rhh('i^ 
No. 47. 

A Biband is a Cotise couped (cut ofi" smooth) at its extremi- 
ties, so that it does not extend to the edges of the Shield. 
No. 48. 



A Bend, when issuing from the Sinister instead of the Dexter 
Chief, is distinguished as a Bend Sinister. 

VII. The Saltire, No, 39, or Diagonal Cross, is a combination 
of a Bend with a Bend Sinister. It contains one-fifth of the 
field, but one-third when it is charged. 

The Saltire may appear in the same Composition with the 
Chief. It has no Diminutive. Charges set on a Saltire slope 
with each of its limbs. No. 49. 

VIII. The Chevron, No. 40, which comprises somewhat 
more than the lower half of a charged Saltire, occupies one fifth 
of the field. 

,v Two Chevrons may appear in the same Composition, or a 

single Chevron may be blazoned with a Chief. Charges set on 
a Chevron slope in the same manner as those that are charged 
upon a Saltire. No. 49. 

The Diminutive of this Ordinary is the Chevronel, which con • 
tains one-half of a Chevron. The De Clares bore. Or, three 
chevronels, gules. No. 40 a, (p. 21). 
...(.w 1 IX. The Pile, No. 41, a wedge in fonn, generally issues 
jj;^' from the Middle Chief, and extends towards the Middle Base, 
of a shield. Occasionally, however, this Ordinary is borne in 
the same direction as the Bend ; or it may issue from various 
parts of the enclosing line of a shield. 

In early shields the Fesse, Pale, Cross, Bend, Saltire and 
Chevron are generally very narrow, as Nos. 33 a, and 33 b. 

Charges are often placed and ari-anged after the form of the 
Ordinaries : thus, charges may be in Chief, No. 49 a ; in Fesse, 
No. 49 B ; in Pale, No. 49 c ; in Cross, No. 49 d ; in Bend, 
No. 49 E ; in Saltire, No. 49 f ; in Chevron, No. 49 G ; and in 
Pile, No. 49 h. 

With the Ordinaries may be associated another group, of 
the simplest character and ui general use. These figures are 
the Seven Roundles, each of which possesses its own distinctive 
title. Plate II. 


They are : — 

1. Tho BezaM,—<yr. No. 50. "^^7' ^ " 

iV^'^ ji^J^ 2. The Plate,— argent. No. 51. ^^ • 

^t'A. ^1<^ 3. The Hurte,— azure. No. 52. 

^^hJf^y^^ 4. The Torfea'w;— j^M?e«. No. 53. "^l^jL,^^^ 

(S'^^l^is 5. The Pellet,— sable. No. 54. 

^ 6. The Pomme, — vert. No. 55. 

7. The Fountain. No. 56, 

which last is divided horizontally by wavy lines, and is alter- 
nately argent and azure. 

In representa,tion, the Bezant, Plate, and Fountain, are ^a<, but 
the other Eoundles are to appear spherical, and to be shaded 

A Koundle of one of the Furs, or tinctured in any other man- 
ner, or if charged, mvist have its distinctive character specified 
in the blazon. In early blazon all the Roundles have their 
tinctures specified ; and it would seem to be desirable to resume 
this early habit, except in the instances of the Bezant and the 

No. 33 a. No. 33 b. 


(Roll of Arms, temp. Edw. I.) (Couuter Seal, a.d. 1235.))i)).U4,iaOjiz^ 

No. 63. 
First Union Jack. 

No. 64. 
Second Union Jack. 



The Cross, as an lieraldic symbol, has already been defined 
to be a combination of two others of the Ordinaries of Heraldry, 
the Fesse and the Pale. When it is not repeated in the same 
Composition, and when the contrary is not set forth in the 
blazon, the simple Cross is placed erect in the centre of the 
Shield, and it extends to the limits of the field. Many Crosses, 
however, may be introduced into the same composition : or a 
single Cross may be placed within a Bordure : or it may be 
interposed between other Charges upon the Shield : or it may 
itself be charged : or it may appear under a variety of conditions 
affecting both its foim and its position. 

The Greek Cross, No. 57, has its four limbs all of equal 
length. Plate III. 

The Latin Cross, No. 58, has its uppermost limb and its 
transverse limbs of the same length, the fourth limb or shaft 
being considerably longer than the other three. In some cases 
the uppermost limb of a Latin Cross is either longer or shorter 
than the two transverse ones. 

The Cross without any upper limb, No. 59, is entitled the 







Cross of St. Anthony, or the Tau Cross, from its form being the 
same as the Greek Character Tau (T). 

A diagonal Cross is entitled a Saltirc. The Crosses of St. 
Andrew of Scotland, No. 60, and of St. Patrick of Ireland, 
No. 61, are Crosses-Saltires, the former being Argent, on a field 
Azure, and the latter Gules, on afield Argent. 

The Cross of St. George of England, No. 62, is Gules, upon a 
field Argent. 

The Combination of the Crosses of St. George and St. 
Andrew produced the First Union Jack, No. 63, which was 
declared in 1606, by King James I., to constitute the National 
Ensign of Great Britain. It happily symbolises the Union 
of England and Scotland, in the union of the Crosses of the 
two realms. 

In 1801, in consequence of the legislative Union with Ire- 
land, a Second Union Ensign superseded its predecessor. 
The new compound device was required to comprehend the 
three Crosses of St. George, St. Andrew, and St. Patrick in 
combination. It appears, charged upon a banner, in No. 64, 
and is well known to every Englishman as the blazonry dis- 
played upon that " Meteor Flag of England," of which the poet 
wrote in words of fire. The blazonry of this, the Second Union 
Jack, is borne by the Duke of Wellington, charged upon a 
Shield of Pretence over his paternal arms. It is an " Aug- 
mentation of Honor," significant and expressive, granted to 
the Duke. The Duke of Marlborough bears, in like manner, 
the Cross of St. George upon a Canton. See Chap. XXXI. 
The Union Device is displayed, as a national ensign, in Flags 
only, — except in the copper coinage of the realm, which exhibits 
a seated Britannia, with a shield always incorrectly blazoned 
with this Union Device. This inaccuracy is in the diagonal 
crosses, which are made to assume the appearance of a single 
diagonal Cross having a narrow fimbriation — a narrow border, 
that is, of equal width on either side of it. 


It will be observed that in both the Union Devices, Nos. 
63 and 64, the Cross of St. George appears with a narrow white 
border, which is entitled a Finibrlation. Also, that in the 
Second Union, the Cross-Saltire of St. Patrick has its four 
limbs fimbriated on one side. 

Xo. 65 is an example of a fimbriated Cross. It will be ob- 

1 served that the Fimbriation lies in the same plane with the 

\/ \ Cross, to which it forms a border. Hence there is no shading 

\hetween the Fimbriation and the Cross, but the Fimbriation 

. j itself is duly shaded. In case one Cross should be placed ujyon 

^ another, the primary or lower Cross would display a broader 

border than the Fimbriation ; and it is also indicated, by sJuxding 

both the Crosses, that one Cross is surmounted by another. The 

student will compare Nos. 65 and 66. 

When the central area of a Cross is entirely removed, so that 
of the Ordinary itself little more remains than the outlines, 
such a Cross is said to be voided, as No. 66 a. 
No. 67 is a pointed Cross. 

A Cross crossed at the head, as No. 68, is a Patriarchal 
Cross ; and when placed upon steps,- as No. 69, a Cross is 
said to be on Degrees. 

"When the extremities of a Cross do not extend to the Chief, 
Base, and Sides of a Shield, it is said to be couped, or humette'e, 
as No. 70. 
y' The Cross of eight Points, distinctively so called, and known 

also as a Maltese Cross, is represented in No. 71. This Cross 
was borne by the Knights Templars, Chiles, upon a field 
Argent. By the Hospitallers, or Kxights of St. John, the 
same Cross was borne Argent, upon a field Sable. The student 
of Mediaeval History wiU remember that between the years 
1278 and 1289, when engaged in military duties, the Knights 
Hospitallers bore a ichite Cross, straight, upon a red field. 

A Cross which expands into a square at the centre, as in 
No. 72, is a Cross Quadrate. When a square aperture is pierced 


through its centre, as in No. 73, a Cross is quarter pierced. 
The term quarterly pierced, denotes the entire removal of the 
central portion of the Cross, the four limbs only being left in 
contact, as in No. 74 : see also the arms of the Earl of 


The beautiful varieties of the Heraldic Cross which follow 
are generally borne in small groups ; occasionally, however, a 
single figure of any one of these Crosses may be seen alone. 

No. 75 is the Cross Moline : and No. 76 is the Cross Be- 

The Cross Patonce, No. 77, perhaps the most beautiful of the 
Heraldic Crosses, expands more widely than the Moline, and 
has its extremities floriated. It appears in the arms assigned 
to Edward the Confessor, No. 78, Plate I. ; and it was 
borne by Wm. de Vesci, a.d. 1220, and by Wm. de Fortibus, 
about 1250. 

The Cross Fleurie, No. 79, has its four limbs straight, instead 
of expanding like the Patonce ; and the Cross Fleurettee, No. 
80, which may be regarded as a modification of the Cross 
Fleurie (though by some Heralds these two Crosses are con- 
sidered to be identical), is a plain Cross, couped, and having a 
Fleur-de-lys issuing from each extremity. 

Examples of Crosses having floriated terminations, occur in 
Eolls of Arms of Hexrt III. and Edward I. 

No. 81 is the Cross Pomme'e ; No. 82 is the Cross Fourchee ; 
and No. 82 A is the Cross Urdee, p. 30. 

A Cross crossed towards the extremity of each limb, as No. 83, 
is a Cross Orosslet, and is an equally favourite and beautiful 
Charge. When the Field is covered with small Crosses Crosslets, 
it is said to be Cnisilly, or Crusilee. 

When the Shaft of any Cross is pointed at the hose, it is said 
to be Fitchee, " fixable," that is, in the ground. 

The Cross Crosslet FitcJiee is shown in No. 84. 

The Crosses Patee or Formee, and Patee or Formee Fitchee, 


are shown in Nos. 85 and 86. These Crosses may be drawn 
either with right lines, or with their radiating lines slightly 

The Crosses Botonee or Trefiee, and Botone'e or Treflee Fitche'e, 
Nos. 87, 88, and 388 e, PI. XLVIII., are modifications of the 

The Cross Potent, No. 89, resembles the Fur which bears the 
same name. No. 31. Nos. 90 and 91 severally represent the 
Crosses Potent Fitchee, and Potent Qtiadrate. 

A Cross maj' be formed of any of the Border Lines ; thus, 
Nos. 92, 93 and 94 are respectively Crosses Engrailed, Wavy or 
Undee, and BaguUe. 

When any Charges are placed upon a Shield in a crucifo^-m 
order of arrangement, they are said to be in Cross ; thus, No. 95 is 
Argent, Jive Fusils in cross, gides. 

No. 82 A.— Cross Urcl6e. 



"HAPTKPo '."!' S: 'X 

No. 99. 


No. 99 A. 





The tei-m Subordixary is applied to a group of devices, less 
simple, and also less important than the Ordinaries, but which 
still admit of a certain general classification. They are fourteen 
in number. Plate IV. 

1. The Canton, No. 96, is a square, situated in the dexter 
chief of the shield, and it occupies about one-ninth part of the / 
entire field. This Subordinary in early shields was of larger 
size, and it appears to have superseded the Quarter, now not in 

2. The Gyron, No. 97, is half of the first quarter of the -ituU^f^^ 
shield, that quarter being divided diagonally by a line drawn 

from the dexter chief. 

3. The Inescutcheon, or Shield of Pretence, No. 98, is o 

a small shield pretended upon the face of the shield. An In- P^^\- ^****^ 
escutcheon of silver; or sometimes of ermine, was bome by the 
Mortimers : Nos. 99 and 99 a, and Nos. 269, 270 ; also Nos. 
388 F, and 388 a, PI. XXVII. See PI. XXIV. 

4. The Orle, Nos. 100 and 376, may be described as the 



narrow border of a shield charged upon the field of a larger 
shield. Sometimes a series of separate charges fonn an Orle ; 
that is, when they are so arranged that they foim a kind of 
border to the shield. In this case, such charges are said to be 
In Orle, or they may be blazoned as an Orle. Thus, the De 
Valences bore Barruly arg. and az., an orle of martlets gu. ; 
No. 101, Plate V. : Plates YII., and XXXVIII. : also Plates 

5. The Tressure, No. 102, is a double Orle enriched with 
Fleurs de lys : it is blazoned in the Eoyal Shield, No. 1 03, PI. 
v., and in several of the baronial shields of Scotland. The 
Tressure first appears in the Shield of Alexander III., a.d. 
1249-1287. See also Plates LII., LVIII., LIX. Impalement 

generally dimidiates the Tressure, as in No. 345, PI. XXII. ; but ^ 
in early examples this rule is occasionally superseded, as in 
il^o. 344, PI. ;KXII., and No. 719, PI. LllJin 


r- N jJUU 6. The LoiiNGE, No. 104, is a four-sided figure, set diagonally 
^Y<^^^" iipon the shield. See also No. 719, PI. LII. V^w,.., - . • - f y,'^,.\::^[ 
L ■ 7. The Fusil, Nos. 105, 405-7, is a narrow elongated 

Lozenge. ^ 

8. The Frette, No. 106, is an interlacing figure, which may 
be said to be compounded of a narrow Saltire, and a Mascle. 
It was borne by the Despencers, No. 107, and still appears 
in Arms of the Earl Spencer. When the interlacing bars of 
a Frette are repeated, so as to cover the field either of the 
Shield or of any Charge, such a field is said to be Frettie.' This 
Frette-Work is supposed to be in relief upon the field, and 
therefore in any representation of it it is to be shaded : Nos. 
106 A, PI. IV., 435 A, and 436, PL L. 

9. Flanches, No. 108, and No. 662, and Flasques or Voiders.'^' 


^ No. 108 A, are formed by two cui-ved lines, and are always borne 
in pairs, one on either side of the field. 

10. The Mascle, Nos. 101, 441, PI. XLIX., and 609, PI. 
XLV., is a Lozenge voided. 

'^l- U*,.,«, -r lU rt 101 


r- ' :\-j^. 










11. The RusTRK, No. 110, is a Lozenge, pierced with a 
circular opening in its centre. 

12. The Billet, No. Ill, is a rectangular oblong. A field 
iemee of Billets is Billete'e ; Nos. 410, 411, PI. XLVIII. ^ 

13. The Label, No. 112, is a Riband crossing the shield bar- J^^-O'"*^ 
wise, and having three, four, five, or sometimes a larger number 

of shorter ribands depending from it at regular intervals : see 
Ldbel, in Chap. IX. : also Plates XXXL, XXXIIL, XXXIV., 
XXXVI., XLIX., and No. 33 b, p. 25. ^i.'//'»- t^^*h i . .v-a -.Vvy^ .^ry. 

14. The BoRDURE, No. 113, constitutes a border to the shield, 

and contains in breadth one-fifth part of the field. In Mediaeval ' v ^ 

Heraldry both the Label and the Bordure were borne as Differ- j ^afcjvf' 

ences. The Bordure now is frequently borne as a Charge : itisj '^^^^ Vem 

always represented in relief upon the shield, and in the same' 

plane with the Ordinaries. (See Bordered, in Chap. XII.) Thei, 

Bordure is not affected by Quartering ; No. 364 a, PI. XXIII., 

and No. 663, PI. LXII. ; but Impalement dimidiates the Bordure, 

as in Nos. 320, 321, PI. XVIII., and Nos. 346, 346 A, PI. XXII. ; 

in some early examples, however, as No. 340, PI. XX., andl ^^Le^.tH' 
/T- I r . , - 

i Nos. 342, 343, PI. XXII., an impaled Bordure is not dimidiated.! '' ''- 

The Bordure may be plain, as in No. 113; or engrailed, or in- 
dented, as in Nos. 114, 115; or it may be charged with any 
device, as in No. 194, PI. V., the Arms of Eichard, Earl of 
Cornwall, second son of King John, who died a.d. 1296. His 
shield — arg., within a bordure sa. hezante'e, a lion rampt. gu., croicned 
or — remains in the choir-aisle series at Westminster : see Plates 
LXXIII. A curious early example of a Bordure bezantee is 
preserved on the shield of an unknown knight, whose effigy yet 
remains at Whitworth: this shield. No. 115 a, p. 34, is carved 
in low relief. . ■■ '■'.'..,'.,.' ''>-'-Mi»*i H»Jk'Un<x i,if/. 

When a Canton and a Bordure are blazoned upon the same 
shield, the Canton surmounts the Bordure ; as in No. 116, PI. V., 




the Anns of John de Dreux, Count of Brittany, nephew of 
Edw. I., thus blazoned in the Caerlaverock Roll, — chequee or and 
az., a hordure gu. seme'e of lions of England ; a canton (or quarter) 
erm. See also Nos. 442, 453-6, Plates XL. and L. 

No. 115 A. Shield of Effigy at Whitwortli. 



No. 121.— De Grey. f^\^'* 



Both Shields and tlie Charges which they bear frequently 
have their surfaces varied in their tincttires, the devices or 
patterns thus adopted being derived from the Ordinaries and 


: .1. 

It must be carefull}^ observed, that in these Varied Fields 
all tlie parts lie in the same plane or level, and that they differ in 
this respect from fields which are charged or have devices set 
upon them. It follows that in Varied Fields no shading what- 
ever is introduced, nor is any relief indicated. 

1. A Field divided after the manner of a Gyron, is said to n ^^^i^j U^^^ 
be Gyronny. This division generally comprises eight pieces, >i^ft«i»t,iC,JC 
as in No. 117, PI. IV.; but, sometimes, as in No. 118, it has 
six only. ^f\uM. f^'^W1L*i.• <i\ K* V«. tit( ilCU^CntA^U>y,a.^t'f). 

2. A Field Lozengy, No. 119, PI. IV., is divided into Lozenge- 
shaped figures. 

3. In a Field Fusilly, No. 120, the divisions are narrower than 
in Lozengy. 

4. Barry is formed by dividing a Field into an even number of 
Bars. In blazoning, the number is specified; thus. No. 121, 
page 35, is — Barry of Six, org. and az., borne by the Earl Dk 



I Grey. When the bars are more than eight in nuriiber, the term 
' Barruly may be used; as in Xo. 101, Plate VIT. 

5. Paly is formed by dividing the Field into an even number of 
Pales, the number to bo specified; thus, No. 121 a is paly of 8. 
Compare No. 7, Plate I. 

6. Bendy is formed by dividing the Field into an even number 
of Bends, in blazoning the number being specified; No. 121 b, 
PI. IV. 

fc?it4nut3 r '^' -^^^ Bendy, No. 122, is produced by lines drawn hori- 
ivu«tib\»«*» \zontally, har-wise, crossed by others drawn diagonally, or hend- 
'" wise. 

8. Paly Bendy, No. 123, is produced by lines ditdiwa. pale-wise, 
crossed by others drawn bend-wise. 

9. When the Field of any charge is divided into a series of 
small squares, if there is a single rcno only of such squares, that 
arrangement, exemplified in No. 124, is styled Compony or 
Componee; accordingly, No. 124, PI. IV., is blazoned, — A Bor- 
dure componee, arg. and az., borne by the Duke of Beaufort: see 
Plates XXII. and XXXII. 

10. When there are two rows of squares, having the metal - 
and colour alternating, it is Counter Componee, as in No. 125. 

11. Should the division exhibit more than two rows of alter- 
nate squares, as in No. 126, and in No. 623, PI. LII., it is Chequee 
or Cheeky. In all these instances the Tinctures must be specified 
in the blazon. 

12. A Field may also be divided simply after the manner 
indicated by the form and position of an Ordinary ; as Per Pale, 
&c., as I have already shown in Chapter III. 

13. The term Counter- changing is employed to denote a reci- 
procal exchange of Metal for Colour, and Colour for Metal, either 
in the same Composition or the same Charge. This arrange- 
ment implies the presence of one Metal (or Fur), and one Colour, 
and that whatever is charged upon the Metal should be tinctured 
of the Colour, and that whatever is charged upon the Colour 



should be tinctured of the Metal. In one of the Rolls of Arms 

of Henry III. a curious early example of Counterchanging occurs ' ^^t^hi : 

in the Shield of Egbert de Chandos, No. 127, — Or, a Pile gules, /)f n^ft i - 

charged with three Estoiles and between six others, all of them counter- ^,':T-'^. ' ,.^ ■ 

changed : Plate VI. - .'-^ -o •( ^^ 


14. Diaper is every system of decorative design that is intro- 
duced by Heralds to increase the vividness of any surface, 
whether the Field of a Shield or of any Charge. Diaper, accord- ! V 
ingly, is an ornamental accessory only, and not a Charge. Great 
care, therefore, must always be taken in the introduction of 
Diapering, to keep the accessory in due subordination to the 
true heraldic design, that there may not arise even a suspicion 
of the Diaper taking a part in the blazon. I 

This Diaper may be executed in any Tincture that is in V 
keeping with heraldic rule, but it does not affect in any degree 
the heraldic Tinctures of the composition. A very effective 
Diaper is produced by executing the decorative accessory in a 
different tint of the same tincture with the Field, or in black. 
Gold and Silver Diapers may be placed upon Fields of any of 
the Colours ; and all Diapers are applicable to every variety of 

In the Heraldry of the middle ages Diapering was in con- 
stant use, and the Heralds of those days have transmitted to us 
abundant evidence of their skill in its application. It appears 
to be most desirable to revive the general adoption of this beau- 
tiful system of ornamentation in all surfaces of any extent. 

In Heraldiy in Stained Glass it is always peculiarly desir- 
able to diaper the Field, and also all Ordinaries and other 
Charges of large size and simple form ; such also is the case in 
whatever Heraldry may be introduced into Illuminations. 
In Sculptured Heraldry, Diapers may be executed with excel- 
lent effect in slight relief. 

From amongst almost innumerable fine examples of early 



heraldic Diaper, I must be content to specify those which may 
yet be traced upon the Monuments of Queen Eleanor of Castile, 
A.D. 1290; of William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, a.d. 1206, 
No. 101, Plate YII. ; and of Edmond, surnamed " Crouchback," 
Earl of Lancaster, a.d. 1296 : also upon the EfiSgies of King 
Henry III., a.d. 1272 ; of King EichardX, and Anne of Bohemia, 
his Queen, a.d. 1394, all of them in Westminster Abbey : as also 
the yhields upon the Percy Shrine, about a.d. 1350, in Beverley 
Minster; the Shield of Egbert de Vere, Earl of Oxford, a.d. 
1298, at Hatfield Broadoak, Essex, No. 158, Plate VI., (this 
Diaper, like those of Beverley, is in relief). The Field of the 
Brass to Abbot Thomas De la Mere, about a.d. 1375, in St. 
Alban's Abbey Church; and the entire Brass, a.d. 1347, to 
Sir Hugh Hastings, at Elsyng, in Norfolk. In Plate VI. two 
of the diapered Shields of the Percy Shrine are represented : 
No. 127 a is Pekcy — Or, a lion ramp. az. ; and No. 127 c is De 
Warrenne — Chequee or and az. No. 127 b is another Shield of 
De Warrenne, diapered in gold and colour, from the remains of 
Castle Acre Priory, Norfolk, about a.d. 1300. The examples of 
admirable Diaper that abound in early Seals, Illuminations, and 
Glass, almost defy selection. I give a single specimen in No. t5l0 : 
see also Chapter XXX. 

No. 510.— Diaper of the Seal of Thomas Plantagenet, K.(;., Duke of 
Gloucester (enlarged). See Chap. XVII , Section 1. 


?^-?^zp: X s< XXVI 



Roil of Arms aboirt 1250 Bev»?rl''v Mmster aibout 1550 


Hatt;e;d BroiidoakEssex AD 12i 


i32ver]ev Minster, aboirt I5b0 


■H--^rTEJ? X 








No. 128.— Admiralty Flag. 




With the view to place in the simplest manner before students 
of Heraldry the various objects and figures that are charged 
upon Heraldic Shields, I have arranged in Classified Groups 
these different Charges, only excluding such as are too simple, 
and too well known in their non-heraldic capacity, to require 
any specific notice when the Herald summons them to appear 
and act at his bidding. 

All Descriptive Terms I have placed in a separate group. 
So also all Heraldic Titles and Terms that are neither simply 
descriptive, nor the names of Charges, form a group by them- 
selves. In each Group the terms are placed and treated after 
the manner of an Heialdic Glossary. 


Anchor : — appears as a Charge in Heraldry. It is borne with 
H cable, set fesse-wise, all of gold, on a red Flag, by the British 
Admiralty; No. 128. 

Angenne : — a six-leaved flower, or six -foil ; No. 244, PL XIII. 

Annulet .-—a ring, plain, and of any size ; No. 129, PL VIII. ; /^<3niW ^ 
No. 454, PL XL. : and No. 440, PL L. In Cadency, the Annulet 


is the Difierence of the Fifth Son ; No. 383, PL XII. The 
V ' Annulet is sometimes blazoned as a False Eoundle. 

Arrow: — this missile, when borne as a Charge, is blazoned 
as armed, and feathered or flighted. A bundle of arrows is 
entitled a Sheaf; No. 129 A, Plate VIII., from the monument 
of Arthur Tudor at Worcester. 

Axe : — see Hatchet. 

Ball : — a spherical Eoundle. 

Banner : — borne by Sir. E. Bannerman ; No. 129 b, PI. VIII. 

Bar : — one of the Ordinaries ; No. 35. 

Barnacles : — see Breys. 

Barrulet : — a diminutive of the Bar. See Chap. V. 

Baton : — a diminutive of the Bend Sinister, couped at its 
extremities : see Chap. V. 

Battering Bam : — borne by the Earl of Abixgdon ; No. 1 29 c, 
I'l. VIII. 

Beacon : — an iron case containing some inflammable substance 
in active combustion, set on the top of a pole, against which a 
ladder is also placed; No. 130. It was a badge of Henry V., 
and appears on his monument at Westminster : see Chap. 
XIX., Section IV. It is also a Badge of the Compxons: see 
Chap. XVII., Section 1. 

Bell : — borne by the name Bell. This Shield is at Canterbury. 

Bend : — one of the Ordinaries ; No. 38. 

Bend Sinister : — see Chap. V. 

Bendlet : — a diminutive of the Bend : see Chap. V. 
i, ^Ct^K i'y j Bezant : — a plain flat golden Disc, or Eoundle, No. 50, sup- 
posed to be derived from the gold coins found by the Crusaders 
to have been current at Byzantium. 

Billet : — an oblong square of any Tincture; No. Ill, PI. IV. 

Bird-holt : — an arrow with a blunt head. 

Booh: — borne both open and closed; Nos. fiOO, 601, PI. 

Bordure .-No. 1 13. See p. 33 ; also Chap. XV. 



Botonee, and Botonee Fitchee : — a Cross, having its arms ter- 
minating in trefoils ; Nos. 87, 88, Tl. III., and 388 e, PL XL VIII. 
See Treflee. 

Bourdon : — a Palmer's Staff; No. 158 a, PL LXIX. 

Breijs .•—barnacles for a horse's nose, used in breaking the 
auimal. This Charge appears on the shields of the brothers 
I)e Geneville, in the Eoll of Henry III. ; also in the stained glass 
at Dorchester, &c. ; No. 131, PL VIII., and No. 131 a, PL XIV. 

Brizure : — a Difference or Mark of Cadency. 

Buckle : — the common instrument for fastening, which is bome 
in Heraldry both separately and attached to straps, as in the arms 
of the Pelhams ; Nos. 132, PL VIII. and 132 a, PL XLIX., also 
No. 460. In the thirteenth century, Thomas Eocelane or Eocelyn, 
bore, gu., three hucJdes arg. ; No. 132 B, PL XLIX. 

Burgonet : — a variety of Helmet, worn principally in the six- 
teenth century. 

Caltrap, or Galtrap : — a ball of iron, from which foiir long and 
sharp spikes project in such a manner, that when the Caltrap 
lies on the ground, one spike is always erect. It was used in 
war to maim horses ; No. 133, PL VIII. 

Canton :— No. 96, PL IV. 

Carbuncle, or Escarhuncle : — in Heraldry, a figure formed by 
a rose, from which issue eight rays of sceptre-like form and 
character; these rays are sometimes united both at their ex- > 
tremities, and again midway between their extremities and the 
central rose. It appears upon the shield of Geoffrey de t 
Mandeville, Earl of Essex, in the eflSgy attributed to him in 
the Temple Church, the date being about a.d. 1160.; This 

example, however, is earlier than the period in which any 
peculiar heraldic charges can be considered to have assumed 
definite and recognized forms. A device which in its general 
aspect resembles the Escarbuncle constitutes the arms of Na- 
varre (it superseded the silver cross upon blue about a.d. 1200), 
and it is chaiged upon the Eoj'al Shield of Henry IV., by 



impalement, as the eusign of Queen Joanna of Navarre ; Nos. 
134, 134 a, 323, 335 a, 348, Pis. VIIL, XVIII., and XXHI. See 
Navarre, in Chap. XXX III. 

Castle : — a turretted and embattled military edifice, generally 
triple-towered. It is the well-known heraldic device of Castile, 
borne by Alianore, Queen of Edward I. ; No. 135, PI. I., and 
No. 1.S5 A, PI. VIIL 

Chamfron : — armour for a horse's head. 
Chaplet : — an entwined wreath : see Garland. 
Chess-rook : — one of the pieces used in the game of Chess ; 
Nos. 136, 448, Plates VIII. and XL. Borne by the name Eoke- 
woode : borne also in the thirteenth century by Simon le Fitz- 
SiMoN, gu., three chess-rooks erm. ; No. 136 c, PI. LXIX. 
Chevron : — one of the Ordinaries ; No. 40. 
CJievronel : — a diminutive of the Chevron ; No. 40 a. 
Chief: — one of the Ordinaries; No. 33. 

Cinque-foil, or Quintefoil : — a figure formed after the fashion of 
a five-leaved grass; No. 136 A, PI. VIIL ; see also PI. XVI. 
Civic Crown : — a wreath of oak leaves and aconis. 
Clarion : — this charge is also called a Best, and occasionally a 
Sufflue, or a Claricord or Clavicord. It most probably is the 
' heraldic representation of the ancient musical instrument called 
a " Clarion," possibly a species of " Pandean Pipe." It was 
borne in the arms of Neath Abbey, and was apparently a Kebus- 
Badge of the De Clares. It is now borne for the name Gran- 
ville; Nos. 136 B, and 137, PI. VIIL 

Closet : — a diminutive of the Bar : see ("hap. V. 

Comb : — borne for the name Ponsoxby. 

Cotise, or Coiiste : — a diminutive of the Bend : see Chap. V. 

Couple-Close : — half a Chevronel : see Chap. V. 

Crampette : — the ornament at the end of a sword-scabbard. 

Crancelin : — See Saxony, in Chap. XXXII. 

Cross : — one of the Ordinaries. See Chap. VI. 

Crozier :■ — see Pastoral Staff. 


Cros8-Cro8slet .-—No. 83, PI. III. 
Jt^./ ^"'P^ or Covered Cup: — No. 137 a, PI. VIII., from the Slab of 
C^ John le Botiler, about a.d. 1300 ; and the Brass to Judge 
)' Mar'I'yn, a.d. 1436, Graveney, Kent. 

Cushion, or Pillow (Oreiller) : — usually of a square form, with 
a tassel at each corner, borne by the Kirkpatricks ; No. 138. 
The Cushions represented beneath the heads of mediaeval eflSgies 
are often richly diapered, and it is common for the upper of two ' , 
cushions to be set lozengewise upon the lower; as in No. 138 a, I 
PL XV., from the De Bohun Brass, Westminster. 

Dagger: — a short sword, called a " Misericorde," and in 
military monumental effigies worn on the right side. 

Dancette, or Z)anse .'—sometimes ut^ed by early Heralds to 
denote a Fesse Dancette. It occurs in this acceptation in the 
Eoll of Caerlaverock. 

Degrees : — steps. 

Endorse : — a diminutive of the Pale : see Chap. V. lei^i l^li)>nty o/« i^t'^iv. b-i 

Estoile : — a star, having six, or sometimes eight, or more wavy \^*^'n^* •''''*'' 
points or rays ; No. 140. See Mullet. 

False Cross, False Escuicheon, False Boundle : — a Cross voided, 
an Orle and an Annidet. 

Fan: — a winnowing implement used in husbandry ; No. 141, 
PI. VIII. It appears charged upon the Shield, the Surcoat and ^ 

the Ailettes of Sir E. De Sevans, in his Brass at Chartham, •'-^1'^''**'^ 
Kent, about a.d. 1305 ; also upon a Shield in the Cloisters at 

Fer-de-MoUne : — see Mill-rind. c!>a^u7iM^2o). 

i -^ 

Fermaile, plural Fermaux : — a buckle. 

Ferr : — a horse-shoe. 

Fesse : — one of the Ordinaries ; No. 34, PI. II. 

Fetter-loch : — a shackle and padlock ; No. 142, PI. VIII. It 
was the Badge of Edmond Plantagenet, of Langley, fifth son 
of Edward III. ; and of his great-grandson, Edward IV. It 
appears, charged on a shield, in the Brass of Sir Syjiox de Fel- 


BRiGGE, K.G., Banner-bearer to Richard II., a.d. 1416, at Felbrig, 
in Norfolk ; also, it forms a diaper in the stained glass of the 
north window of the great transept at Canterbury. 
(/ — File : — a Label, apparently from filum, a narrow riband. 
Fillet : — a diminutive of a Chief : see Chap. V. 
Flagon : — borne by De Montbourchier, No. 464, PI. LI. 
Flanches and Flasques : — Nos. 108, 108 a, and 622. 
Fountain : — No. 66, PI. V. 

Fourchee : — a modification of the Cross Moline ; No. 82, PL III. 
Frette .-—No. 106, PI. IV. 
Fusil : — a narrow Lozenge ; No. 105. 

Fylfot : — JS^o. 143, PI. VIII. It is supposed to bo a mystic 
symbol. It occurs in Brasses at Kemsing, Leuknor, Oakham, 
Shottesbrooke, and Merton Chapel, Oxford. 

Gads, or Gadlyngs : — small spikes projecting from the knuckles 
of mediaeval gauntlets. In some instances, small figures in 
metal were substituted for the spikes, as in the gauntlets of the 
BiiACK Prin'CE, still preserved at Canterbury, which have small 
gilt lions for gadlyngs. 

Galley : — see Lymjphad. • 

Garde-bras : — armour to defend the elbow ; See No. 695. h v^^ 
Garland : — a wreath, whether of leaves only, or of flowers and 
leaves intermixed. Garlands are quartered upon the banners 
that are sculptured on the monument of Lord Bourchier, banner- 
bearer of Henry V., at Westminster. They are also blazoned 
upon the banner itself, harry argent and azure, of Ralph de Fitz 
William, in the Caerl. RoU ; No. 432, PI. XLIX. 
Gauntlet : — an armed glove ; No. 145, PI. VIII. 
Gemelles, or Bars Gemelles : — barrulets placed together in 
couples ; No. 44, PI. II. 

Gimmel-Bing : — two annulets interlaced. 

Globe, the Terrestrial, or Sphere : — bonie in his arms by Sir 
H. Dryden', and in the Crests of the Hopes and the Drakes; 
Nos. 144 A, 144 li, PI. XXVL 


Gorge, or Gurge : — No. 146, PI. VIII., supposed to indicate a 
whirlpool . It appears in the Roll of H. III. , borne by E. de Gorges. 

Greeces : — steps. 

Gutte'e .-—see Chap. XII., and Nos. 250, 251. 

Gyron .-—No. 97, PL IV. 

Hackle : — see Hemp-brake. 

Hames, or Heames : — part of a horse's harness ; a badge of the 
St. John's. 

Hammer, or Martel : — an early charge. John de Martell, in 
the thirteenth century, bore, sa., three hammers arg. ; No. 146 a, 
PI. LXIX. ; in the example the charges are drawn from a re- 
markable military effigy of the period, at Great Malvern : heraldic 
hammers are also sculptured upon an equally remarkable effigy 
of a lady at Selby, in Yorkshire. 

Harp : — the national Device of Ireland ; No. 537 a : see Notes 
and Queries, 1st Series, XII., 328, 350. 

Hatchet : — an early charge. Thus, in the 13th centuryjWM. de 
HuRSTHELVE borc, az., three hatchets arg. ; No. 146 b, PI. LXIX. 

Hawk's-lure : — a decoy used by falconers, and composed of two 
wings with their tips downwards, joined with a line and ring ; 
No. 147, PI. IX. 

HaicTcs hells and jesses : — ^bells, with the leather straps for 
fastening them to the hawk's legs ; borne on a chevron by Baron 
Llanover; No. 148j??.lX- 

Helm, Heaume, Helmet : — defensive armour for the head. This 
charge is variously modified, in accordance with the varieties of 
the early head-pieces. Thus, the Earl of Cardigan bears three 
morions, or steel caps, while the Marquis of Cholmondeley bears, 
with a garbe, two helmets. In the thirteenth centuiy, John 
Daubeny bore, sa., three helms arg.; No. 144, PI. LXIX. See 
Helm, Chap. XIV. 

Hemphracke, or Hackle : — a serrated instrument, formerly used 
for bruising hemp; borne bj^ Sir G. F. Ha3IPson, Baronet; 
No. 149, PI. IX. 



Horseshoe : — a charge borne in the arms of the Fkrrers, Earls 
of Derby, who appear to have derived it from the Marshals. 
When the Earls Ferrers changed their shield to vairee or and 
g^tt., they placed their golden horse-shoes upon a hordure azure; 
No. 463, Plate LI. Sometimes blazoned a Ferr. 

Hunting-horn : — a curved horn, the crest of De Bryenne ; 
Xo. 267, Plate XXVI. When it has a belt or baudrick, it is 
said to be stringed ; No. 150, PI. IX. 

Hurte : — a blue roundle ; No. 52, PI. II. 

Javelin : — a short barbed spear. 

Jesses : —straps for hawks' bells. 

Key : — borne in the arms of several of the Bishops and others. 

Knot : — see Chap. XVIL, Section 4. 

Label : — a narrow riband or bar, having three, four, or five 
pendants or points : it is always borne in chief, and should 
extend across the Field; No. 112, PI. IV. The Label is the 
Difference which distinguishes an Eldest Son, except in Eoyal 
Cadency. See Chaps. XV., XVI., and XIX., Section 7. A Label 
is sometimes borne as a sole Charge: and in Foreign Heraldry,. 
Labels of a single point or of «ix points occasionally appear : see 
Chap. XXXII. ; see also p. 33. ^tt'HU. 

Leash : — a strap, or other similar coupling or fastening. 

Letters of the Alphabet are sometimes used as Charges. 

Lozenge : — No. 104. The arms of an unmarried lady and of a 
widow are placed upon a Lozenge, and not on a Shield. 

Lure : — see HawTcs-lure. 

Lijmphad, : — a galley of early times, having one mast, but also 
propelled by oars. It is blazoned with its sail furled, and with 
its colours flying. The Lymphad is borne by the Duke of 
Argyll and the IMarquis of Abercorn. It was also the device of 
the Macdoxalds, the Lords of Lorn, and it appears repeatedlj' 
upon their monumental memorials at lona; No. 151, PI. IX. 

Manche, or Maiinche : — a sleeve having long pendant ends, 
worn in the time of Henry I. It has been borne from an early 



period by the family of IIastixgs. The prevalent modes of 
representing the Maunche in Heraldry are shown in Xos. 152, 
152 A, PI. IX., and No. 338 a, Chap. XIV. . 

Martel : — a Hammer. 

Mascle: — a voided Lozenge; Nos. 109, 441, 442. 

Mill-rind, or Fer-de-Moline : — the iron affixed to the centre of 
a mill-stone; No. 153.^; It is a modification of the Cross Moline, 
No. 75, which in a Roll of Edward I. is styled a Fer-de-Moline : 
thus Guy Ferre bears, gu., a fer-de-moline org., over all a 
hendlet az. ; No. 153 A. It is also the bearing of De Molines, 
or Molyneux. 

Mitre : — This episcopal ensign is borne in the arms of the Sees 
of Norwich, Chester, Llandaff, Meath, and others : see Mitre in 
Chap. XIII. A Mitre is the Crest of the Berkeleys. 

Moline : — a cross terminating like a Mill-rind ; No. 75. 

Morion : — a steel cap. 

Morse : — a clasp, usually enriched with varied ornamentation. 

Mortier : — a cap of estate. 

Mount : — the base of a shield, when made to represent a 
hillock, and tinctured vert. 

Mullet : — a star of five points or raj'S, all foiTaed by right 
lines, as No. 154.\' This Charge is also borne with six, or eight, 
or even more points, bi;t the rays are always straight, and thus J 
the Mullet essentially differs from the Estoile, the rays of which 
are always wavy. When they exceed five in number, the raj'S 
of the Mullet must be specified; thus, No. 155 is a Mullet of 
six points. See also No. 127, PI. VI. This favourite Charge, 
so well known in the first quarter of the shield of the De 
Veres, No. 156, PI. VI. [Quarterly gu. and m-, a Mullet arg.), 
maybe regarded as representing the Boicel of a Sj)nr, and it is v 
often pieired, No. 157 (to be indicated in blazon), as if to 
exhibit the adjustment of the rowel to its axis. A pierced 
mullet, which appears to demonstrate conclusively the deriva- 
tion of this Charge from a pointed spur-rouelle. appears as the 

k^lA. li.\ ^ .. tl . I, J t \ S.^ f. ^ I . « .. . 


crest of Sir John Daubygni^, upon his monumental slab at 


Norton Brise, Oxfordshire, a.d. 1345; No. 408, In Cadency, k 13< 
the Mullet is the diflference of the Third Son. See Plates 
^,;f-v-XXVin. and XXXVII./. Vt 


'*^x^./■ Ogress : — a Pellet. 

t U^kf S^ (■ Ordinaries : — the nine primary simple Charges of Heraldry : 
see Chap. V. 

Oreiller : — a cushion or pillow. 

Orle ;— No. 100, PI. IV. : see p. 31. 

Padlock : — a Badge of Johx of Ghent, Duke of Lancaster. 

Pale : — one of the Ordinaries ; No. 36, PI. II. 

Pall : — an archi-episcopal vestment, worn by the Eoman 
hierarchy, and indicative of the order and rank of Archbishops. 
In Heraldry, the Pall, of which one half only is displayed, in 
form closely resembles the letter Y, and it is always charged 
with crosses patees fitchees. It is borne in the arms of the 
archi-episcopal sees of Canterbury, Armagh, and Dubijn; 
No. 255. As a vestment, the Pall is a narrow circular band of ^•'«' 
white lamb's-wool, which is adjusted about the shoulders, and 
has two similar bands hanging down from it, the one before, 
and the other behind. It is clearly shown in the EfiSgies and 
Brasses of Archbishops at Canterbury, York, Westminster, Oxford, 
and elsewhere ; in the early Effigies and Brasses of Ecclesiastics 
not of episcopal rank, it is frequently represented in embroidery 
upon the Chesuble, as in the sculptured Effig}^ at Beverley, and in 
the incised Brasses at St. Alban's, North Mimms, and Wensley ; 
No. ,158, PI. IX. See Archbishop, Chap. XIIl. 
<^ Pallet: — a diminutive of the Pale : see Chap. Y. 
•)Wl^ ^«^; p^i^^,g gf^^^ Qj. Pilgrim^ g Staff, in French Heraldry, 5oMr- 

don : — an early Charge. This device appears on a slab at Halt- 
whistle. In one of the earliest Rolls, John Bourdon bears, arg., 
three Palmer's Staves gu. ; No. 158 A, PI. LXIX. 
J^lv Pastoral Staff:— the official staff of a Bishop or Abbot, having 

a crooked head. No. 159, PI. XV., and thua in diB tinfflushed jyom. 


%p. J i^III . ) A Vexillum, or scarf,! • 
hangs from almost all representations of tho Pastoral Staff, I 
encircling its shaft. The earlier examples are generally very 
plain; hut the custom of richly adorning this staff was prevalent 
also from an early period. The enamelled staff of Bishop i 
William of Wykeham, preserved in New College, Oxford, is a 
splendid sjDecimen of the second half of the fourteenth centuiy. ^ 
The Pastoral Staff is borne in the arms of Westminster Abbey, 
No. 599, PI. XL VII. ; in those of the See of Llandaff, &c. See 
Bishop in Chap. XIII. 

Patee, or Formee : — a variety of the Cross ; No. 85, PI. III. 

Patee, or Formee FiicJiee : — a similar Cross, pointed at the foot ; 
No. 86, PI. III. 

Patonce :— -a, Cross, of which the four arms expand in curves 
from the centre, and the ends are foliated; No. 77, PI. III. 

Patriarchal : — a Cross which has its head crossed horizontally ; 
No. 68, PI. III. 

Pauldron : — aimour to defend the shoulder. 

Pellet : — a black spherical roundle ; No. 54, PI. II. See 0^***-i . 

Penner and Likhorn : — a pen-case and vessel containing ink, 
as they were carried in the Middle Ages by Notaries, appended 
to their girdles; No. 161, PI. IX. The Penner and Inkhora 
are represented in two Brasses of Notaries, a.d. 1475 and 1566, 
preserved in the Church of St. Mary Tower, Ipswich ; in a 
monument in Oxford Cathedral, about a.d. 1503 ; and in a verj- 
interesting monumental slab, at Sawley Abbey, Lancashire. 
Other early examples have also been noticed. 

Pheon: — the barbed head of a spear or arrow. No. 162. Qn- 1 
less the contrary be specified, the point of the Pheon is blazoned 
to the base, as in the arms of the Earl Brownlow, and the Baron 
De L'Isle. 

Pickaxe, or Pic : — an early Charge, borae by a De Pickworth : 
Roll of Edward III. 







Pile:— No. U. 

Pillow : — see Cushion. 

Pitcher : — see Flagon. 

Plate : — a silver or white flat roiindle ; No. 51. 

Playing Tables : — a cliess-board. 

Points : — the pendants of a Label. 

Pomme : — a gi-een spherical roundle ; Ko. 55. 

Pommee : — a form of Cross ; No, 81. 

Portcullis : — a defence for a gateway, formed of transverse bars 
bolted together, the vertical bars terminating in base in pheons. 
In Heraldry, a Portcullis is always represented as having rings 
at its uppermost angles, from which chains depend on either 
side ; No. 163, PI. IX. This charge is the well-known Badge of 
the Beau FORTS, and through them of the Tudor Princes : it is 
borne in the arms of Westminster City, No. 607, PI. XLVIL, and 
of Ulster King-of-Arms, No. 606, PI. XLVI. Sec also Herald. 

Purse : — represented as worn in the middle ages suspended 
from the girdle. The badge of CROiiWELL of Tateshall. 

Quadrate: — squared; a fonn of the Cross; No. 72, PI. III. 

Quarter : — the first quarter of the Shield, now superseded in 
use by the Canton. 

Quarter-Pierced, and Quarterly-Pierced : — Nos. 73, 74., PI. III. 

Quatrefoil : — a figure formed of four curved leaves. In archi- 
tecture, a Quatrefoil within a circle, or a square, or a lozenge 
panel, very commonly contains an heraldic shield ; as in Nos. 
164, and 164 n, PI. XV. 

Bainbow : — borne with their Crest by the Hopes ; No. 1 44 a, 

Papier .-—a narrow stabbing sword. 

Pays : — when drawn round a figure of the disc of the sun, 
heraldic rays are sixteen in number, and they are/ alternately 
straight and wavy. 

Itecercelee : — curled ; a form of the Cross ; No. 76, PI. III. 

Pest : — see Clarion. 


Biband : — a diminutive of the Bond. See Chap. VI. 
Boundle, or Bondelet : — a circular Charge, which, when of metal, 
is flat, but when of colour, spherical. See Chap. V. 
Ewsfre;— No. 110, Tl. IV. 

Saltire : — one of the Ordinaries; Nos, 39, 49, PI. II. 
Scding-Ladder : — No. 1 64 A. The Crest of the Greys. 

No. 164 A. — Scaling-Ladder. 

Scarpe : — a diminutive of the Bend Sinister. 

Seax : — a Saxon weapon, or scimetar, having a curved notch 
cut off the back of it near the point; No. 165, PI. IX. It is 
borne in the arms of the County of Middlesex. 

Semse, or Cerise : — a Torteau. 

ShacMe-boU .-—see Fetter-Lock. 

Shahe-forlc: — a Charge resembling a Pall, but humettee, and v 
pointed; No. 166, PI. IX. It is borne by the Marquess of 


Shield : — a shield is sometimes borne as a Charge : thus the 
Hays bear, Argent, three shields gules; No. 167, p. 54; and a 
single shield (or inescutcheon) appears in the well-known 
blazon of the Moktimers, Nos. 99, and 99 A, p. 31. In the Poll 
of H. III., Warix de Monchesney bears, or, three shields harry 
vair and gu.. No. 447, PI. XLVIII. : and in the Second Poll of 
the same era, John Fitz Simon bears, gu., three shields arg., 
reversing the tinctures of the Hays. In addition to their 
habitual use as architectural accessories in every variety of 
early Gothic edifice, Shields of arms, in the Middle Ages, 
were often emploj^ed as decorative accessories of costume ; 



thus the surcoiit of Wiluam de Valence, a.p. 129G, at West- 
minster, the Brass of Margaret Lady Camoys, a.d. 1310, at 
Trotton, Sussex, and the effigy of a Lady at Worcester of the 
period of Edward I., are decorated with small Shields of Arms. 
Nine of these shields, originally enamelled, have been taken 
within a few yeai'S from the Trotton Brass. For various exam- 
ples of early Shields, see Chap. III. 

Ship: — besides the ancient Galley, ships of a more modem 
character appear amongst the Charges of Heraldry : thus, the 
arms of the Corporation of the Trixity House are, four Sliips 
under sail gules, cantoned hy a Cross of Si. George ; No. 168. 

Spear : — ^borne on a bend by Shaki^spere ; No. 679, PI. LXIX. 
Spur : — this knightly appointment, which from its associa- 
tions claims the special regard of the Herald, was worn with a 
single goad-like point, and known as the " Pryck-Spur," No. 
I 169, PI. IK., before the reign of Edward II. About a.d. 1320, 
^r.ffwv ^6 Spur having a Wheel began to supersede the earlier form, 
''^{'e No. 170: and, shortly after, the tnio Bouelle Spur, having* the 
' ■ wheel spiked, made its appearance, No. 171. The examples 
that I have given in Nos. 169, 170,*171, and 172, are from the 
effigies of John of Eltham ; of a Knight at Clehongre, Here- 
fordshire ; of the Black Prince ; and of Richard Delamere, 
I Esq., Hereford. In the beginning of the fifteenth centuiT 
^o^cv^vJirU spurs appear sometimes to have been worn with Guards to 
, their Eouelles ; as in No. 172. In the middle of that century 
they became of extravagant length, but towards its close they 
assumed a more sensible form. See Mullet. 

Staple : — an iron fastening, a Badge of the SrAPLEXOXs. 
Steel-cap : —a close-fitting defence for the head. 
Stirrup : — this characteristic Charge is of comparatively rare 
occurrence. Gu., three stirrups leathered and budded or, were borne 
by ScUDAJiORE ; and the same composition on an azure field forms 
the arms of Gifford. This shield is carved in the vaulting of 
the Canterbuiy Cloisters. A Spur erect between a pair of Wings 



■r.AFTERt XI kXll. 


^TL CA«>4'Wi,^M>UyVia(trTt(U.-n-/,H|J. 


was the Crest of the Marquess of Annandale, a Lord Marcher of 
the olden time. 

SiBivel : — two iron links connected by a bolt, around which 
they revolve : borne by the Ironmongers' Company. 

Sword:— i\xQ Knightly Weapon of all ages, in Heraldry is 
represented unsheathed, straight in the Blade, and pointed. In 
blazon, the Hilt, Pommel, and Accoutrements of Swords are 
^ alwa3's to be specified. Swords are borne in the Arms of the 
Sees of London, Winchester, Exeter, and Cork. A Sword erect 
also is cantoned by the Cross of St. George in the first quarter, 
in the Aitos of the City of London ; and in this instance the 
weapon represents the emblem of St. Paul, the patron Saint of 
London, Xo. 139, p. 54. The Earl Poulett now bears, — Sa, 
three Swords in pile arg., their points in base, hilts and pommels or, 
Xo. 173, PL XIV. 

Target : — a circular Shield, represented in the curious armed 
effigy of the period of Henry II L, at Great Malvern. 

Tail : — a Cross resembling the letter T, called also the Cross 
of St. Anthony; Xo. 59, PI. III. See Chap. XX., 3. 

Threstle : a three-legged stool. 

Tilting-Spear : — a heavy lance. See Spear. 

Torch : — generally borne inflamed, or lighted. 

Torse : — a wreath. 

Torteau, plural Torteaux : — A red spherical Eoundle. 

Tower : — a smaU Castle ; Xo. 173 a, PI. IX. 

Treflee : — the same as Botonce,- — trefoiled, that is. 

Treille, or TreUise : — lattice-work. It differs from Frette, and 
Frcttee, in that the pieces do not interlace under and over, but 
cross each other in such a manner that all the pieces from the ,_^ 
dexter are in the same plane, and they lie over those from the .'/&».^ t^^"- 
sinister, and they all are fastened by nails at the crossings. / 

1 A^Treille is said to be clouee of its Xails ; Xo. 174, PI. IX. 

Tressure : — one of the Subordinaries. See Tressure, p. 32, and 
Xo. 102, PL IV. It is commonly blazoned as fleurie. The Koyal 


Tressure of Scotland is blazoned as a Double Treasure, fleurie 
counfer-fleurie ; No. 103, PL V. 

Trumpet : — in Heraldry, a long straight tube, expanding to- 
wards its extremity : it is well exemplified in the Brass to Sir 
EoGER DE Trumpingdon ; Nos. 175, PI. IX., and 375, PI. XLVIII. 

Tun : — a cask. It occurs constantly to represent the syllable 
TON in a Eebus upon some name ending in that syllable : thus, 
at St. John's, Cambridge, the Eebus of Ashton is an ash-tree 
grovnng oiU of a tun ; in Bristol Cathedral, Abbot Burton's Eebus, 
a hurr plant growing out of a tun, is carved in several places ; and 
again, a tun pierced hy an arrow or holt frequently occurs as the 
Eebus of Bolton. See Bebus in Chap. XIII. 

Vair .-—one of the Furs ; Nos. 29, 30, p. 20. 
IvAj Vamhrace : — armour for the fore-arm. 

Vanvplate : — a guard for the hand upon a tilting-spear. 
, . Verules : — concentric rings or annulets. 

Vervels, or Varvels : — small rings. 

Water-Bouget : — a vessel used by mediajval soldiers for cany- 
ing water. It is borne by the Baron De Eos, and by the 
BouRCHiERS. Two modifications of the form of this Charge 
are shown in No. 17G, PI. IX. See also No. 338 A, in Chap. 
XIV. On the shield of a crossed-legged knight in the Temple 
Church, which is attributed to a Uk Eos, three water-bougets 
are very boldly sculptured ; the efiigy is of the period of Ed- 
ward I. : and again, good later examples appear on the banners 
that are represented in the monument of Louis Eobsart, Lord 
BbuRCHiER, the standard-bearer of Henky V., at Westminster. 

Winnowing-Fan : — sec Fan. 

No. 139.— London. No. 167.— Hay. 

No. ] So. — The Feucy Lion. 

No. 18G. — The IIowaku Lion. 




This Group of Charges comprises, with a varied series of 
Creatures that exist in Nature, several others that are indebted 
for their shadowy existence only to the poetic imagination of 
the early Heralds. Those Paiis of the Bodies of Animals also, 
which constitute distinct Heraldic Charges, I have associated 
with the Creatures themselves ; and the whole have been sub- 
jected to a classified arrangement. 

1. Human Beings occasionally appear in heraldic composi- 
tions, in which case the blazon always expresses with consistent 
distinctness the attitude, costume, action, &c., of every figure. 
Human figures, however, generally occur as Supporters, or 
Crests ; and Parts of the human body are more frequently 
introduced than actual Figures. 

Human figures appear in the arms of the Sees of Salisbury, 
Chichester, Lincoln, Clogher, and Waterford. In the 
Anns of the See of Oxford are three demi-figures. The Head 
and the Hands of a man, when they appear as Charges, must 
be so blazoned as to define and describe their position, &c. 
Thus, a head would be in profile, or affrontee, or reguardant, or 



uncovered, or helmed, &c. ; and the Hand would be either the 
Dexter, or the Sinister, or erect, or grasping some object, &c. ; 
an open hand is said to be appaumee. The same would be 
the case with an Arm, which, when bent at the elbow, is em- 
howed, &c. The very singular armorial ensign of the Isle of 
Max, now quartered hy the Duke of Athol. is thus blazoned : 
Gules, three Legs armed proper, conjoined in the Fesse point at 
the upper part of the thighs, flexed in a triangle, garnished and 
spurred or ; No. 176 A, PI. XIV. : this example is drawn from a 
Eoll of Edward I., preseiTcd in the Heralds' College. See Isle 
OF 3Ian in Chap. XXXIII. Archbishop Juxox, who died a.d. 1663, 
bore — Or, a Cross gu., between four BlacJcamoors' Heads, couped at 
the shoulders ppr., ivreathed about the temples of the field.- The same 
Charge is borne by the Earl Canning. The Badge of Ulster, 
the distinctive Ensign of the Order and Eank of Baronets, 
instituted in 1612, by James I., the ancient armorial Ensign of 
the Irish Kingdom of Ulster, is thus blazoned, upon a small 
shield— argr., a Sinister Hand, coiqied at the wrist and erect, gu. ; 
No. 177, PI. IX. 

Inseparably associated with their* historic name, tlie Dou- 
glases bear, as the armorial insignia of their house, Arg., a 
human Heart gu., imperially crowned ppr. ; on a Chief az., three 
Mullets of the field. The royal Heart was that of Egbert Bruce, 
which the " Good Sir James Douglas " was carrying to the Holy 
Land, that he might bury it at Jemsalem, when he himself fell 
in battle with the Saracens of Andalusia, a.d. 1330. The crown 
is a comparatively recent addition to the original Charge ; No. 
177 A, PI. XIV. See Arms of Douglas, Chap. XXXIII. 

II. The Heraldry of the Lion. The King of Beasts is 
the animal which, as a Charge of Heraldry, has always been 
held in the very highest estimation. He appears in heraldic 
Blazonry under ihc varied conditions, and in association- 
with almost cvorv other device. I have considered it to be 





desirable, accordingly, to assign to the " Heraldry of the Lion," 
a distinct section of its own. 

The Lion was not only the favourite Beast with the early \/ 
Heralds, but also almost the only one that they introdiaced into 
their blazon. And they considered that the natural and proper 
attitude for their lions was rampant — erect, looking intently 
before them towards their prey, and preparing to make their 
formidable spring. To the Lion in this attitude, accordingly, 
the early Heralds applied his true title, and they blazoned 
him as "a Lion." But, when he was to be represented as 
in the act of walking, whether -with his head in j)rofile or 
looking outwards from the shield, whether simply passant or I ^ 
passant guardant, they entitled the royal beast a " Lion-leojparde," i 

a " Lion Leopard," or simply a ^^ Leopard." Hence the Lions ok \li<;i)tt : .- 
England are found to have been habitually blazoned as Leopards '^ " ^' 
(" Lupards," " Leoparts") until the fifteenth century was far 
advanced ; then, at length, the Lion of Heraldrj-, whatever his 
attitude and his action, received his time name, which he has 
retained under all circumstances until our own times. In the 
Eoll of Arms of Henry III. the first entry is, " Le Roy d'Angleterre 
parte goules trois lupards d'or :" so, again, the statute of Edw. I. 
(a.I). 1300, 28 E. I., cap. 20) ordains that all pieces of gold and 
silver plate, when assayed, should be ''sigme de une teste de 
leopart" — marked, that is, with the head of the King's Lion- 

The Lion is borne in heraldic Compositions emblazoned in 
fourteen varieties of attitude. 

1. Hie Lion Passant, No. 178, PI. X., is walking, and has three 
of his paws placed on the ground, the fourth (one of the fore 
paws) being raised up. He looks in the direction that he is 
walking, which, unless the contrary be specified, is towards 
the Dexter. This Lion was borne by the L'Estranges, No. 660, 
PI. LXIL, and the Carews, and it is now charged upon a Fesse 
by the Earl of Cauysfokt. 



2. The Lion Passant Giiarclant, No. 179, differs from the 
Lion Passant, in the circumstance that he is affronte — looking 
out from the shield at the spectator. A Golden Lion Passant 
Guardant, upon a Field gules, is a Lion of England ; Ko. 198. 

3. The Lio7i Passant Begiiardant, is walking in the same 
manner and towards the same dii'ection as Ko. 179, but he 
looks back to the Sinister; No. 179 a, PI, X. 

4. The Lion Bampant, No. 180, stands erect on bis two hind 
legs, but has only one of his fore legs elevated. 

The Scottish Lion is Mampant, his Tincture being gides, on 
afield or : No. 103, PI. V., and Plates XXIL, LVIIL, and LIX. : 
thus, Sir Walter Scott, speaking of tlie Eoyal Banner of Scot- 
land, says that upon it 

" The ruddy lion ramps in gold." 

5. The Lion Bampant Guardant, No. 181, is the same as 
the Lion Eampant, except that he is affronte, instead of looking 
before him. The Dexter Supporter of England is such a Lion, 
of gold. This is the habitual attitude of Lions when they are 
Supporters. • 

G. The Lion Bampant Beguardant, No. 182, looks behind 
him. Such Lions are the Supporters of the Barons Braybroke 
and Brownlow. 

7. The Lion Salient, No. 183, is in the act of making his 
spring, erect, with both his fore paws elevated. 

8. Two Lions Comhattant, No. 184, are Eampant and ftice to 
face, as if in combat. They may also be blazoned as Counter 
Bampant. They were thus charged upon the shield of Ei- 
CHARD I., before he assumed upon it the three Lions Passant. 
Two Lions Combattant are now borne by the Viscount 
LoRTON. In Foreign Heraldry if two Coats of Arms are im- 
paled, each of which bears a Lion Eampant, the two Lions are 
placed Counter Bampant, facing each other on the impaled 
shield ; See No. 344, PI. XXIL, and No. 722, PI. LII. 



9. A Lion Statant has his four feet upon the ground, and 
looks before him. A Lion Statant, having his Tail extended 
in a right line, is the Crest of the Duke of Northumbebland ; 
No. 185, p. 55. 

10. A Lion Statant Guardant, stands looking affronte. Such 
a Lion, having his tail extended in a right line, is the Crest of 
the Duke of Norfolk : No. 186, p. 55. 

11. When sitting down, his four legs being stretched out 
on the ground, but his head erect, a Lion is Sejant ; No. 187. 

12. A lAon Sejant, having his fore legs elevated, is Sejant 
Rampant ; No. 187 A, PI. X. 

13. When in the attitude of taking repose, the Lion is 
Couchant, or Dormant; No. 187 b. 

14. A Lion Coicard, is passant with a downcast look, and 
his tail between his legs ; No. 187 c, drawn from a Seal of 
Arthur Tudor, as Prince of Wales. 

No. 187 c. — Lion Coward. 

A Demi Uon Bampant, No. 188, PI. X., and No. 131 A, PI. XIV., 
is the upper half of the body of the animal, and half its tail 
with the tuft in which it terminates. 

Lions occur so constantly in Polls of Arms and in other 
early authorities, that I do not consider it necessary continually 
to refer to examples. 

A Lion's Face, No. 189, PI. X., is a Charge : and his Head 
also is a Charge that frequently occurs ; it may be either coiiped, 
No., 190, or erased, No. 191. See Chap. XXX. 

The entire leg, No 192, PL X., is a Lion's Jambe, or Gambe, 
when borne alone ; but if the limb be cut oif, whether a-ased or 
cotiped, at or below the middle joint, it is a Paic. 


Two Lions Eampant, placed back to back, are addorsed ; No. 
193. If they are passant, the one to the Dexter, and the other 
to the Sinister, they are Counter-passant. 

The Lion is fretjuently crowned, No, 194, PI. X., and Nos. 
416, 417, I'l. XXXVIII., &c. ; or he grasps some object in either 
his mouth or his paw, No. 195, PI. X. ; or he is collared, and 
perhaps a chain may be attached to his collar, No. 196 ; or he 
may have his neck gorged (encii'cled, that is,) with a coronet ; 
or his body may be charged with various devices ; or he may 
be Vigilant, or Vorant — watching for his prey, or devoiiring it ; 
or he may have Wings, as in the instance of the Supporters 
of the Baroness Braye ; or he may be double tailed. No. 197, 
PI. X. (queue fourcJiee), as he Avas borne by the De Montfouts, 
No. 399, PI. XLIX. 

A Lion is said to be armed of his claws and teeth, and langued 
of his tongue. 

When an Ordinary is set over a Lion, the animal is debruised 
by such Ordinary. 

"When a Lion is represented as proceeding or rising up out 
of a Chief, or Fesse, or any others Charge, he is said to be 
issuant, or naissant — as in the Arms of the De Gemevilles, No. 
131 A, PI, XIV. A Lion Naissant is now borne upon a chief 
by the Baron Dormer. 

Several Lions, whether Passant, or Rampant, may be charged 
upon a single shield ; thus, England bears, gu., three Lions pass, 
guard., in pale, or. No. 198 ; and the Earl of Pembroke bears — per 
pale az. and gu., three Lions Rampant, two and one, arg., No, 199, 
PI. X. 

When more than four Lions occur in the same composition, 
they are termed Lioncels. In this case, the animals are almost 
invariably Eampant. When charged upon an Ordinary, even 
two or three Lions would be entitled Lioncels — as in the chevron 
. of the CoBHAMS; No. 377, PI. XXV!^ The Shield, No. 200, of 
William Longespee, Earl of Salisbuuy, who died a.u. 1220, 


bears six Lioncels upon a Field azure. Another fine early 
example is the Shield of the De Bohuns, Earls of Hereford, 


No. 198.— England. 
TliG Crown and Shield of the time of Henry III. 

which is thus blazoned : Azure, a Bend arg., cotised and between 
six Lioncels or : Nos. 201, 397, and PI. XX. Amongst the 
other celebrated names with which the Lion is associated as 
an heraldic charge, are Percy, De Laci, Fitz Alan, Mowbray, 
De Bruce, Segrave, &c., &c. See Chap. XXXI. 

The Lion is borne of every variety of Tincture. He is 
always armed and langued, gules ; unless he himself or the 
field be of that colour, in which case both his claws and his 
tongue are azure. 

I have considered the Drawing of the Lion in Chap. XXX. 

III. Various other Animals take those parts which Heralds 
have been pleased to assign to them ; their especial vocation, 
however, appears to be to act as Supporters. As Charges, the 
Horse, the Elephant, the Camel, the Dog, the Stag, the Ante- 
lope, the Tiger, the Leopard, the Bear, the Bull, the Calf, the 



Goat, the Earn, the Lamb, the Boar (Sanglier), the Fox, the 
Wolf, the Cat-a-mountain or Wild Cat, the Ermine, the Hedge- 
hog, the Beaver, the Otter, the Squirrel, and many others 
will attract the attention of the student. The Heads of many- 
Animals also appear in Blazonry. The example of an Ermine, 
No. 199 A, is drawn from the Garter-Plate of Lord Dynham, 
K.G., at Windsor, who died a.d. 1501. The animal stands 

No. 199 A.— The Ermine Crest of Lord Dtkham, K.G. ^ >' f([ 

upon a cap of Estate, between two spikes, and thus foiTiis a 
Crest. In every instance, the terms that give a precise and de- 
finite individuality to each animal may easily be acquired. 

The terms that are applied to Lions are also applicable to all 
beasts of prey. Any animal in a sitting posture is Sejant, and 
Statant when standing ; and, in like manner, other terms, which 
have no special reference to habits of violence and ferocity, are 
alike applicable to every animal. 

Stags and their kindred animals have several terms peculiarly 
their own. Their antlers are Attires, the branches being Tynes ; 
when they stand, they are at gaze. No. 202, PI. XL ; when in 
easy motion, they are tripping. No. 203 ; when in rapid motion, 
they are at speed. No. 203 a ; and when at rest, they are lodged, 
No. 204, PI. XL 

All the fiercer animals are armed of their horns ; but a stag 
is attired of his antlers. 





The Attires of Stags arc borne as separate Charges. The 
Head of a stag, when placed affronte, is cahossed. No, 205, PI. XI. ; 
this is the well known charge of the families of Stanley and 
Cavendish, the former bearing, on a bend az., three stags' heads 
cahossed, arg. ; the latter a similar nrmiber of the same device, 
arg., upon a sable field ; Nos. 205 a, 205 b, PI. XIV. 

A stag, full-grown and of mature age, is generally styled a 
Hart ; the female, without Horns, is a Hind. A Beindeer, in 
Heraldry, is represented as a stag with double attires. The 
Bear and Bagged Staff, No. 206, PL XXX., form the famous 
Badge of the Earls of Warwick: ; and the Talbot Dog, No. 207, 
PL XL, is the Badge" of the Earls of Shrewsbuet. Another 
heraldic Dog, a mastiff with short ears, is distinguished as an 
Alant. Greyhounds, again, have found favour with Heralds. 
The Marquis Cajiden bears on his shield three Elephants' 
heads. The Baron Blayney bears three Horse's heads. The 
supporters of the Earl of Orkney are an Antelope and a Stag ; 
those of the Baron Macdonald are two Leopards ; and those of 
the Duke of Bedford are a Lion and an Antelope, the Kcssell 
crest being a Goat, The Earl of Malmesbdry bears three Hedge- 
hogs ; and two Foxes are leaping, saltire-wise, on the ancient 
shield of Sir Watkin Williams Wynne. The Peerage will also 
give many examples of various other animals acting as heraldic 
Supporters, See Armes Parlantes and Bebus in Chap. XIIL 

A singular Charge, that must be placed with this group, 
was borne by the De Cantelupes, and it also constitutes the 
Arms of the See of Hereford : this is a Leopard's face, 
affronte, resting upon a Fleur-de-Lys, and having the lower 
part of the flower issuing from the animal's mouth. In the 
Hereford shield, the Leopard's faces are reversed. This is 
emblazoned as jessant-de-lys ; Nos, 208, 208 a, PI. XL, and 436 c, 


IV, Birds, Fishes, Insects, and Reptiles, also, form 

y- ^i^t^^Kl* i^.'^^KCCHljiU^. 


Charges of Heraldiy. They appear in Blazon under their 
habitual natural guise : but there are descriptive tonus used 
by Heralds, which these creatures may claim as exclusively 
their own. 

Birds in the act of flight are volant, when fl}ing aloft they 
are soaring, and their expanded wings are said to be overt; 
No. 209. In the instance of Birds of Prey, the expanded wings 
are also said to be displayed, while those of all birds that are 
not Birds of Prey, are disclosed. If the tips of the wings droop 
downwards, they are inverted, or in Lure; No. 210, 1*1. XI.: 
but, if elevated without being expanded, the wings are erect; 
No. 211: and if turned backwards, addorsed ; Nos. 212, 213. 
A Bird, about to take wing, is rising or roiissant ; but trussed 
or closed. No. 215, when at rest. A Bird preying on another, 
No. 212, is trussing it, and not vorant, as a Beast of Prey. The 
Example, No. 212, is drawn from the Brass of Sir Peter 
CouRTENAY, K.G., (a.d. 1409) in Exeter Cathedral. 

A Haioh is helled and jessed. 

A Game-cock is armed of his Beak and Spurs, crested of his 
Comb, And jowlopped of his Wattles, pr simply wattled. 

A Peacoch, or Paicne, having its tail displayed, is in its 
pride, as it is borne by the Duke of Eutland for his crest. 

An Eagle, or Erne, with expanded wings. No. 212 a, is dis- 
played ; as borne by tho Montmorencies and the Mont- 
HERMERs, and quartered by the Montagues. An Eagle appears 
on the seal of Eichard, Earl of Cornwall, supporting his 
Shield of Arms from its beak, about a.d. 1260; No. 212 c, o 
PI. LXII. See Chap. XXX. . , 

A young, or a small eagle, is an Eaglet; No. 459, PI. XLIX. pxU 

An Imperial Eagle has two heads, and is crowned, as No. 
212 B, PI. XI., and No. 349, PI. XXIII. In the Eoll of 
Edward II., Sir Walter Baud bears, gu., three eagle's wings or. 
I The two wings of an Eagle displayed, when conjoined and 
borne as a charge, are blazoned as a Vol. 



A Pelican, represented as standing above its nest, having 
its wings addorsed, and nourishing its young with its blood, 
is blazoned as a Pelican in its Piety. The example. No 213, 
PI. XL, foi-ms the finial of the fine Brass to Dean Prestwych, 
at Warbleton, Sussex, a.d. 1436. 

A Swan, when blazoned p-oper, is white, with red beak, and j ./ 
has some black about the nostrils. Such a Swan, ducally 
gorged and chained, was the Badge of the De Bohuns, No. 
214, PI. XL, and No. 234 b, PL XII. See also No. 511. f^l.^t 

Various sea-birds appear in blazon : thus, the Crest of Sir 
Richard Pole, K.G., the father of the Cardinal, is a Cormorant 
preying on a fish. 

A Cornish Chough, No. 215, the crest of the Baron BRiDPOiiT, 
is black, with red legs and beak. 

Small Biids are generally drawn in the form of Blackbirds, ! V 
but their colour must be blazoned. 

The Martlet, or Merlotte, No. 216 and 216 a, PL XI., may be 
regarded as the heraldic swallow. In Cadency, the Martlet is 
the Difference of the fourth son ; No. 382, PL XIII. It was 
borne by the De Valences, No. 101, PL V., and PL VII., Nos. 
419, 420 ; and in the Arms of Edward the Confessor, No. 78, 
PL I., and 349, 350, PL XXIII. See also Nos. 365, 369, 
PL XXV., and Nos. 412, 413, PL XL VIII. The Martlet is 
generally represented without feet, as in No. 216 a ; but the feet I 

1 v/ 

are drawn correctly in many early examples. It now is charged 

upon the shield of the Earl o f Arundel. 

Ravens, Parrots called by Heralds Popinjays (see No. 458, PL 
XL.), Herons, Falcons, Cocks, Doves or Colombs, and manv 
others, and the Wings of birds in various attitudes, and their 
Feathers also under various conditions, appear in Hei-aldrj'. See 
Armes Parlantes and Bebus, in Chap. XIII. 

Fish of every variety are borne as heraldic Charges ; but | 
when no particular variety is specified and the creature is of 
small size, the blazon simply states the Charge to be " a fish." i 


T^iJ-v:!^ / 


When swimming in /esse, across the field, a fish is naiant ; 
No. 217, PI. XI. When in pale, No. 218, as if rising to the 
surface for breathing, it is hauriant ; but urianf when its head 
is in base. No. 218 a ; and when its body is bent, as a dolphin 
is represented, it is eniboxced ; No. 219. A good example of an 

No. 219 A. — Dolpliiu. Brass lo Nicholas Aumberdene. 

heraldic Dolphin appears at the base of the Cross-brass to 
Nicholas Aumberdene, " Fishmonger of London," a.d. 1350, 
at Taplow, Bucks, No. 219 A. 

The fish borne by the Duke of Northumberland are styled 
\M i.fl^c^ ( Lucies, a kind of pike. Amongst the other fish commonly borne 
ilLtlUiiKf ) in Heraldry are Barbels, Nos. 325, VI. XVIII., and 329 a, J).)i 
PI. XIX. ; Herrings, Roach, &c. "The Heraldry of Fish" forms \>- 
the subject of a beautiful and valuable monograph by Mr. Moule. 

Various Shells occur in Heraldry, and particularly the 
Escallop, No. 220, borne by the Russells and the Grahams : 
See Nos. 388, PI. XLVIIL, 402, PI. XXXVII., and 409, 
PI. XXVIII. : see also No. 513, PI. XXXIX. 

Bees and Butterflies are blazoned volant, thus, — Az., three butter- 
flies volant or, are the arms of Muscamp: this shield is in the 
cloisters at Canterbury. A Tortoise is passant. A Snake (in Roll of 
E. III. a '■'Bisse ") may be gliding, or if twined into a knot it is nowed. 

Imaginary Beings. Heralds have introduced amongst the 
figures that act as both Supporters and Charges, imaginar}' 
representations of the heavenly hierarchy. Thus Angels form 
the Supporters of the Barons Decies, Northwick and Abinger, 
of Sir M. Barlow, Bart., and others. 




Several animal forms have been added by Heralds, from their 
own creative imaginations, to those which Nature has provided 
for them to introduce into their symbolical blazonry. A few- 
only of these occur in English Heraldry. 

The Allerion,—an eagle destitute of both beak and feet. The 
same term is also sometimes applied to heraldic natural eagles. 

The Cockatrice, No. 221, PI. XII., a winged monster, having 
the head, body, and feet of a cock, and the tail of a dragon ; 
bonie for Supporters and Crest by the Earl of Donoughmore. 
The head of a Cockatrice is borne as a Crest, and is represented 
in the Brasses to Sir N. Dagworth, a.d. 1401, at Blickling, 
Norfolk, No. 222, and to Eoger Elmebrygge, a.d. 1435, at 
Bedington, Surrey, No. 222 a. It was also the crest of the 
Earls of Arundel. 

The Centaur, or Sagittarius, which was the Device, and has 
been mistaken for the Arms, of King Stephen. 

The Dragon, No. 223, a winged animal, generally with four 
legs and having a tail like that of a serpent. It appears as a 
military ensign in the Bajeux Tapestry, No. 223 a, and is 
common in more recent Heraldry. 

The Griffin, or Gryphon, No. 224, PI. XII., combining the 
bodily attributes of the lion and the eagle, is of the same family 
with a group of the sculptured figures of Assyria. AVhen in its 
customary attitude, erect and with wings expanded, this monster 
is segreant. A gryphon is the dexter Supporter of the Duke of 
Cleveland, and the sinister Supporter of the Duke of Man- 
chester; the Baron Dynevor has, for his dexter Supporter, a 
gryphon coward — that is, having his tail hanging down. The 
gryphon borne by the Marqxiis of Ormonde is wingless : this 
creature, distinguished in blazon as a Male Ch-yphon, has two 

The Harpy : — Two of these monsters appear supporting his 
shield {qiuirterly arg. and sa.) on a seal of Thomas Hoo, a.d. 

F 2 



A Mermaid, No. 225, PI. XII., a Badge of the Bkrkeleys, was 
the dexter Supporter of Sir \\^ alter Scoit; aud both the sup- 
porters of the Viscount Boyne are also Mermaids. Lord Berke- 
ley, in his fine Brass at Wotton-under-Edge, a.d. 1392, wears a 
Collar of Mermaids, No. 225 a, over his camail. In St. Alban's 
Abbey there is an early tile charged with a Mermaid. The 
shields of the Baron Lyttleton and Sir G. G. Otway, Bart., are 
supported on each side by a Triton, or Merman, No. 226, PI. XII. 

No. 225 A. — Collar of Mermaids. 
Brass to Thomas, Lord Berkeley, a.d. 1392, Wotton-under-Edge, ' 

The Wyvern, No. 227, may be described as a flj'ing monster 
of the Dragon order, having only two legs and feet ; its Tail is 
said to be nowed. Two \Vyverns support the shield of the Earl 

of Eg LINTON. 

The Unicorn is the well-known dext er Supporter of England. 
See Chap. XIX., Section 3. A pair of Unicorns also support 
the shield of the Duke of Eutland; No. 227 a, PI. XII. 

A Monster, a compound of a Lion and Fish, or a Sea-Lion, is 
known in the fabulous menagerie of Heraldry. Two of these 
Sea-Lions are .Supporters of the Viscount Falmouth. So also are 
the Pegasus, No. 227 b, the winged Horse of Classic antiquity, 
the dexter Supporter of the Baron Berwick ; the Phoenix, No. 
227 c, PI. XII., another relic of remote tradition, that sits 
amidst flames, doing duty for a crest above the shield of Sir 
W. B. Johnston ; the Salamander, another inhabitant of flames, 
the Crest of the Earl of Selkirk ; fhe heraldic Ibex, or Antelope, 
the sinister Supporter of Baron Dunsany ; and certain heraldic 





Panthers and Tigers, and other fierce animals, which breathe 
fire, and have various strange modifications of what nature has 
assigned to their prototypes. T must add to the imaginary 
groups the little Martlet, when that favourite heraldic bird is 
blazoned without feet, as in No. 216a, PI. XI. 

A golden Salamander is the Crest of James, Earl Douglas, K.G., 
the first Scottish noble who was elected into the Order of the 
Garter, and who died, a.d. 1483 ; this animal is represented on 
the Garter-Plate of the Earl as breathing flames ; No. 227 d. 

No. 227 D. — A Salamander. 
Crest of James, Earl Dolglas, K.G., a.d. 1483, from his Garter-Plate. 


No. 239 a. — CHESTER, 

No. 234. — BLACK PRINCE. 

No. 239. — LEVESON. 



Natural objects of every kind have placed tbemselves without 
reserve under the orders of the Herald, that they maj'' con- 
tribute to the Charges which he places upon shields, and in any 
other capacity may realize his wishes. 

The Sun, the Moon, and the Stars, appear in Heraldry. Trees, 
Plants, and Floicers, in like manner, are constantly to be found 
in the capacity of heraldic Charges and Devices. A few descrip- 
tive terms are peculiarly appropriate to objects of this class. 
Thus: trees, &c., if grown to maturity, are accrued; if bearing 
fruit or seeds, fructed ; if clothed with leaves, in foliage ; if 
drooping, pendent; if having their roots exposed, eradicated; 
slipped, when irregularly broken or torn off; when cut off, 
couped ; when deprived of their leaves, blasted ; and propei-, 
when of their natural aspect and hue. The term barbed de- 
notes the small green leaves, the points of which appear about 
an heraldic rose : and seeded indicates any seed-vessel, or seeds. 



The Sun in Heraldry is generally represented with a human 
face upon its disc and environed with rays, these rays being] ^ 
sometimes alternately straig ht an d wavy^ The great celestial j 
luminary is blazoned as " in his splendour," or " in his glory." 
He appears thus in the shield of the Marquess of Lothian ; 
and in a Eoll of arms of about 1250, (British Museum, Harl. 
MSS. 6589) Jean de la Hay bears, — Arg., the Sun in his splen- 
dour gu. ; No. 228, Plate XII. In some instances, always to be 
specified, the sun appears as shining from behind a cloud ; or, 
as rising or setting ; or, a ray of the sun is borne alone, as by 
Eauf de la Hay, in the KoU of Henry III., No. 229, PI. XII. 

The Moon is in her Complement, or in Plenitude, when at the 
full ; she is a Crescent, when her horns point towards the chief, 
No. 230 ; in Cadency, No. 380, Plate XIII., is the Difference 
of the second son. She is Decrescent, No. 231, PI. XII., when her 
horns point to the sinister. She is Increscent, or in Increment, 
when her horns point to the dexter, No. 232, PI. XII., and No. 
428, Plate XXVIII. In the Eoll of Henry III., F. de Boun 
bears, — gu., within an orle of martlets, a crescent arg., or erm. ; 
No. 413, PI. XL VIII. Wm. de Eyther's shield, represented 
upon the arm of his sculptured effigy (temp. Edw. I.), is charged 
with three crescents ; No. 427 A, PI. XXXVIII. : see also No. 427 b. 

Star : — see Mullet and Estoile, in Chap. IX. 


The Charges of this class which are generally in use, are the 
following : — 

Cinquefoil, or Quintefoil : — a leaf or flower, having five cusps. 
No. 233, PI. XII. : see also PI. XXVII. In the early Polls the I ^ 
cinquefoil and the six-foil are used without any distinction . 

Ears of Barley, Wheat, dc. : — represented in their natural 
forms. At St. Alban's Abbey, the shield of Abbot John de 

72 misckllank:ous charges. 

Wheathampstede, of the time of Hexry VI., displays gules, a 
chevron, between three clusters of as many ears of toheat, or : 
No. 201 A, Plate XV.: also No. 717.1;'^:- 

Feathers : — the Ostrich feather is the one that is usually borne 
as an heraldic device. It sometimes is charged upon shields ; 
and it constantly appears as a favourite Badge of the Plan- 
tagen'ets. The shields that are placed about the monument 
of the Black Prixce are alternately charged with his arms, and 
with three ostrich feathers upon a sable field ; Xo. 234, p. 70. 
Each of these feathers has its quill piercing a small scroll, bear- 

[^I'iffcA-, ing the words — Ich dien ; No. 234 a, Plate XIl!,' The ostrich 
^itjXjtXI I ^feather was habitually used by the Black Prince, as a Badge. 

"^"^ ^ It appears, with the scroll, upon the seal of Henry IV., before 

he became sovereign. His son, Henry V., bore a similar badge, 
the feather being carried by a swan (a badge of his mother, Mary 
de Bohun) in its beak ; No. 234 b, PI. XIl!f*=? The ostrich feather 
and scroll have a place also amongst the heraldic insignia of 
Prince Arthur Tudor, a.p. 1502, at Worcester; No. 235^'^ The 
feathers of other birds besides the ostrich sometimes appear in 
early blazonry. Thus, the Crest of Sir Hugh Courtenay, K.G., 
(about a.d. 1365) is formed of a plumage of swanks feathers, in 
three rows, (Garter-Plate). The Crest of Sir Thomas Lovell, 
K.G., (temp. Henry VII.) is composed of a bundle of peacock's 
feathers ppr., in the form of a garb, banded gu. ; (Garter-Plate). 
Again, the panache-crest of Lord Ferrers of Chartley, consists 
of peacock's feathers, (Brass, Merevale Abbey, a.d. 1412), No. 
., r.y= 267 A, Plate XXVI. ; and a panache of turkey's feathers is the 
Crest of Sir John Harsyck, (Brass, Southacre, Norfolk), No. 301, 
> ' Plate I. See Chap. XVII., Sect. I. 
klt»'^1^ Fieur-de-Lys : — this most beautiful and effective Charge, gene- 

. (*'*n rally supposed to be the flower of the Lily, is the ancient 

cognizance of France. In its origin, the Fleur-de-Lys or Fleur- 
de-Luce, may be a Rebus, signifying the " Flower of Louis." 
Mr. Planche, (who always speaks with authority when he dons 


CHAPTERS xir,:xni, xrr &z'/^ 

i^ TJ '1 1 

pisLte xm. 


his tabard), after stating this supposition, adds that " Clovis is 
the Frankish form of the modern Louis, the C being dropped, 
as in Glothaire, Lothaire, &c." If Clovis himself bore the Fleur- 
de-Lys, that famous heraldic Charge may have been assumed by 
the Frankish Prince as his Kebus, from the favourite Clove pink, 
or gillyflower. The Fleur-de-Lys appears in early Heraldry 
under several modifications of its typical form. It was in 
especial favour with the designers of the inlaid pavement-tiles 
of the Middle Ages; Nos. 236, 236 A, 23G b, Plate XIII. It 
forms one of the figures of the diaper of the shield of Eobeut 

r DE Vere, No. 156, Plate VI.; and it decorates the Royal 
Tressure of Scotland, in the shield placed by Henry III., or 
Edward I., in Westminster Abbey; No. 103, Plate V. This] / 
same figure was known to the Romans ; and it formed the orna- 
mental heads of sceptres and pommels of swords from the earliest 
period of the French monarchy. No. 238, PI. XIII. ; Nos. 237, 

'^X 237 A, PI. XV. ; the former from St. George's Chapel, "Windsor, 
and the latter from the monument of Edward III. at West- 
minster, are beautiful examples of Fleurs-de-Lys. 

The Fleur-de-Lys was first borne on a Eoyal Seal by Louis VII. I / 
of France, a. d. 1137 — 1180. The Counter-Seal of the Dauphin , 
Louis, (afterwards Louis VIII.), attached by him to a deed 
dated Nov. 21, 1216, during the time that he was in England 
supporting the Barons in their resistance to King John, is a 
most interesting early example of a French Royal Shield, semee 

^l, de-lys, No. 238 a, Chap. XXIV. Edward III. quartered the 
French shield, semee de-lys, on his Great Seal and in his Anns, 

^ A.D. 1340, No. 536' B, Plate LVIIL, and No. 286, &c. ; and in or /3-3i3 
about 1405, Henry IV. reduced the number of the Fleur-de-Lys t 
to three, that reduction having been effected in the French Seal j ^ 
by Charles Vf, a.d. 1364—1380, No. 5361^, Plate LVIII. The < ^ ^^ 
Fleurs-de-Lys were removed from the English Shield in 1801. 
In modern Cadency the Fleur-de-Lj-s is the mark of the sixth 
son : No. 384, Plate XIII. 



See Plates XXVIII., 






This charge is blazoned in the Eoll of Henry III. One of 
the early shields in Westminster Abbey is semee de-lya ; No. 2, 
p. 12. The Fleur-de-Lys is now borne, without any other 
charge, in the shield of the Baron Digby 
lxV+9 XXXII., and XXXIX. \y^<»^ 

Garbe : — a wheatsheaf, borne in the arms of the Earls of 
Chester, and still apparent in the greater number of the 
shields of the nobility and gentry of the County Palatine of 
Cheshire ; No. 239 b, Plate XII., and 239 a, p. 70 : see also 
No. 466, Plate LI. The Arms of the Prince of Wales, as 
Earl of Chester, are, az., three garbes or, as No. 239 A. : see 
Chap. XIX., Sect. VII. A Garbe is borne in the arms of the 
town of Sheffield, {Sheaf -field). Garbes, or sheaves, of barley, 
&c., are also borne as Charges. 

Gillyflower : — a species of pink, in great favoiir in the middle ages. 

Hill and Hillock : — A green mound. When only one appears, 
the former term is used ; but the latter denotes several mounds, 
their exact number to be specified. 

Hurst : — a group of trees. Thus, Elmhurst bears seven elm- 
trees on a mound. 9 

Leaves : — the leaf or leaves, or the branches of any tree or 
plant must be specified and described in the blazon. Hazel- 
leaves are bome by Hazelrigg ; OaTc-branches by Okstead, No. 
239 a, Plate XII., and Oakes; Strawberry-leaves (or Fraises) by 
Frazer ; Laurel-leaves, by Leveson, No. 239, p. 70, az., three laurel 
leaves, two and one, or, quartered by the Duke of Sutherland ; 
■^ Holly-leaves, by Blackwood, &c. 

Planta-Genista : — the Broom-plant, the famous Badge of the 
Plantagenet family. The pods, with their seeds, as well as 
the leaves and flowers, are represented upon the bronze eflBgy of 
Eichard II. in Westminster Abbey ; No. 240, PI. XII. The field 
of the seal of Jaspar Tudor, is semee of the Planta-Genista, and 
is another good example of its treatment in heraldic composition. 
" Archcelogia," xviii., p. 429 : see also Chap. XIX., Sect. IV. ft«<r^,if?.)i|,4 




Pods of Beans, &c. : — when used as Charges, the pods are open, 
and show their seed. There is a good example in the Brass to 
Walter Pescod, merchant, a.d. 1398, at Boston, in Lincolnshire. 
JBose;— in Heraldry, the Rose is represented after the con- 
ventional manner exemplified in No. 385, PI. XIII. In some 
few early examples the small inner leaves are omitted, as 
P'2<;|2) in No. 242, Chap. XIX. When tinctured gules, the Kose is the 
Badge of the Plantagenets of the House of Lancaster, the 
Yorkist Eose being argent. A pleasing example of the heraldic 
Rose with foliage associated with the flower, occurs, carved 
upon an oak bench-end, in the Chancel of Pulham, in Norfolk ; 
b.^t No. 241 a. In some early shields several Roses are blazoned, 
Pji as in No. 393TPlate XXXVIL, by a Berkeley ; and in No. 43T, f ^^ 
Plate XXXVIII., by a De -^ressel: see also Nos. 388 k and T 
bSo<^ 388 l, in PI. LXXI. Chaplets of Roses also sometimes appear 
in blazon. In Cadency, the Rose is the Difference of the seventh 
son ; No. 385. Occasionally, the Queen of Flowers is in use in 
Heraldry in its natural form and aspect, with stalk, leaves, and 
buds. Such a Rose is the Emblem of England. See Chap. XVII., 
Sect. I. ; and Chap. XIX., Sect. IV. 

Bose-en-Soleil : — the white Rose of the Plantagenets of the 
House of York, surrounded by rays, as of the sun. It was 
assumed by Edward IV., after the Battle of Mortimer's Cross, 
1^4^ Feb. 2nd, 1461 ; No. 243, and No. 248 a, Plate xill. The '^H^ 
Monument of Prince Arthur Tudor, a.d. 1502, at Worcester, 
abounds in fine examples of the heraldic roses of the House of 
York and Lancaster, and also of the Tndors ; as in Nos. 242, 243, \> ■ ^<? J 
and 247, Chap. XIX. 

Shamrock : — a trefoil, or three-leaved grass, the Emblem of 
Ireland. It is represented now as growing on the same stalk as 
the Rose and the Thistle. 

Six-foil : — a flower having six leaves or cusps. It is an earl}' 
Charge. By the French Heralds, at an early period, six-foils 
were blazoned as Angennes ; No. 244, Plate XIII. 



Stock .-—the stump of a Tree ; No. 245, PI. XIII. The Eebus 
of Woodstock. 

Teazle : — the head or seed-vessel of a species of thistle used in 
cloth manufactures. 

Thistle : — the Emblem of Scotland. It is now represented as 
growing on the same stalk as the Eose and the Shamrock. 

Trefoil : — a flower or leaf, having three cusps. It is generally 
blazoned with a stalk — a trefoil slipped ; No. 246, PI. XIII. 

Tudor-Bose : — a combination of the Lancastrian and Yorkist 
Roses. Sometimes it quarters the two Tinctures, as in No. 241, 
PI. XIII. ; and sometimes it has the rose argent charged upon 
the rose gules. Splendid examples of Heraldic Eoses occur in 
King's College Chapel, Cambridge, and in Henry VII. 's Chapel, 
Westminster. At King's, the Eose, Fleur-de-Lj's, and Port- 
cullis are sculptured with extraordinary boldness, each figure 
being surmounted by a crown, as in No. 248, PL XIII. 

Various Fruits, Seeds, and Berries are borne as Charges, and 
they are tinctured as well as drawn proper, unless the contrary 
be specified. Thus, Peaches were borne by Sir John Pechie : the 
arms of George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury, a.d. 1611-1633, 
are, — gii., a chevron between three pears or (at Canterbury and 
Guildford) ; the three pears are still borne by the Baron Col- 
chester; three acorns appear in the arms of Sir W. W. Dallixq; 
three fir-cones in the arms of Sir E. G. Perrott, &c. 

No. 241 A.— Heraldic Rose, Pulham Cliurch, Norfolk. b-'JJ' 


No. 250. 

No. 249. 



f f T TT 
f f f T 

r? f 

No. 251. 

The Descriptive Heraldic Terms that are arranged in alphabetical 
order in this Chapter are of general application. 

Abatement : — any sign of degradation. 

Accosted : — placed side by side. 

Accrued : — grown to maturity. 

Addorsed : — placed back to back ; or, pointing or inclining 

Affrontee : — so placed as to show the full face, or the front of 
any figure or object. 

Appaume'e ;— the hand opened and set upright, and presenting 
the palm to view. 

Armed : — provided, as a beast or bird of prey is, with the natural 
weapons for defence and offence. 

Armoyee : — charged with a shield of arms. 

Arrondie : — rounded, curved. 

Attired : — having Antlers, or such Horns as are natural to all 
animals of the Deer species. 



Axujmented : — having Augmentations, or honourable additions 
to Arms. 

Banded : — encircled with a band or riband. 

Barbed : — having small green leaves, as the heraldic Eose. 

Barded : — caparisoned, as a Charger. The Bardings of the 
knightly war-horses were commonly charged with heraldic 

Barruly, Barrulee, Burle'e : — barry of ten or more pieces. 

Barry : — divided Bar-wise into an even number of parts. 

Barry-Bendy .-—divided into an even number of parts, both 
horizontally and diagonally. 

Bar-wise : — disposed after the manner of a Bar. 

Battled, or Embattled : — having Battlements, or bordered after 
the manner of Battlements. 

Battled-Embattled : — having double Battlements, or one Battle- 
ment set upon another. i€.u.*hi il^g, ttUvlgk^ Su>**K f %>^^/^4*j fw<» /W7w<f >^. 

Beaked : — applied to Birds not of prey, to denote the Tincture 
of their Beaks. 

Belled : — having a Bell or Bells attached. 

Bend-wise : — disposed after the manner of a Bend. 

Bendy : — divided Bend-wise into an even number of parts. 

Bezantee : — studded with Bezants. 

Billetee : — studded with Billets. '- 

Blasted : — deprived of leaves, or withered. 

Bordered : — ^having a border of the same tincture as the field. 
This is an arrangement of common occurrence in continental 
Heraldry ; but it is almost, if not altogether, unknown in the 
Heraldry of England. (See Bordure, p. 3.3.) 

Braced, or Brazed : — interlaced. 

Brett^ei/: — counter-embattled, having Battlements facing both 
ways^ ^cM-aJc~\ittsL.tu.J-'\*i^u'ic^ »%t c^tto^U K i»tl\ Mav^ (^f, Cfy*n-U^i\ t(ftN|[ 

Cahossed : — when the Head of an animal is borne affrontee, 
MuA>^m'o without any part of the nock being seen. 

Cadency : — see Chapters XV. and XVI. 


Cantoned : — placed between four objects or Charges : or when 
a single Charge is placed in the first quarter of a shield. 

Cercelee, or RecerceUe : — curling at the extremities. 

Charged : — placed or borne upon the field of a Shield, Banner, 
Ordinary, or any other object. 

Chausse : — wearing shoes. 

Cheeky, or CJieqiiee : — a Field covered with small squares 
alternating of two Tinctures, there being more than two hori- 
zontal rows of such squares; A'o. 126, PI. lY. The shield of 
the De Warrenes, still quartered by the Duke of Norfolk, is 
chequee oj- and az. ; Xos. 127 B, 127 c, PI. YI. 

Clenched : — closed, as the Hand may be. 

Close : — when the Wings of a Bird lie close to its Bod}'. 

Chuee : — studded or fastened with nails. 

Combatant : — as if in the act of fighting. 

Company, Componee, or Gobony : — a series of small squares of two 
alternating Tinctures, arranged in a single row; No. 124, PI. IV. 

Compounding Arms : — see Chap. XIY. 

Conjoined : — united and joined together. 

Conjoined in Lure : — two wings joined together wdth their 
tips downwards, as borne by the Seymours. 

Contournee : — sitting, standing, or moving, with the Face to 
the Sinister. 

Cotised : — placed between two Cotises. 

Couchant : — lying down. 

Couche'e : — when a shield is suspended diagonally from the 
-sinister chief angle ; as in No. 626, PI. LXYI. p-li6 

Counter : — ^I'eversed. 

Counter-Changed : — having a reciprocal interchange of Tinc- 
tures : see Chap. YIII. 

Counter-Componee : — having a Double Componee. 

Counter-Embattled : — having revei-sed BattlementSj St> HU.^ hurtAv is«3ph° 

Counter-Emboxced : — bent with the Elbow to the Sinister ; or '*** 
bent in reversed directions. 

iLJUvd J3 ll.; No- CjO . 


Counter-Fleurie : — when a pair or several pairs of J"leurs-de-lys 
are set opposite to each other. 

Counter- Passant : — walking in opposite directions. 

Counter-Salient : — leaping in opposite directions. 

Counter-Vair : — a variety of Vair, in which the bells are 
arranged base to base ; No. 30, p. 20. 

Couped : — cut off smoothly as by a sharp instrument, and 
bounded by a right line. It is the converse to Erased. 

Courant : — running. 

Covert : — partly covered. 

Coward, or Cowed : — when an animal has its tail between its 
legs, and in various ways indicates terror. 

Crampette'e : — ornamented, as the scabbard of a sword is at its 

Crenellee : — embattled ; the open spaces are the Crenelles, or 
Embrasures, and the masses which rise alternately between them 
are Merlons. 

Crested : — having a Crest, as a bird has a crest of feathers. 

Crined : — having hair or a mane. 

Crusily, or Crusilee : — semee of Crosses-Crosslets. If any other 
form of Cross is introduced, its distinctive character must be 

Dancettee : — deeply indented. 

Debruised : — ^when an Ordinary rests upon an Animal, or 
another Ordinary. 

Decked : — adonied. 

Degreed, or Degraded : — placed upon Steps. 

Demembred, or Dismembered : — cut into several pieces, but 
without having the severed fragments disarranged. 

Demi : — the Half. The upper or front Half is always under- 
stood, unless the contrary be stated. 

Developed : — fully displayed, as a Flag. 

Diapered : — see Chap. VIII., and Plates VI., VII. 


Dimidiated : — cut. in halves, and one lialf removed. See r'li;i]i. 
^< Disclosed: — having the Wings expanded — applied to all Birds 
that are not Birds of prey. 

Displayed: — having the wings expanded — applied to all Birds 
of prey. 

Disponed : — arranged. 

Dormant : — in the attitude and act of sleeping. 

DoMe-tete : — having two Heads. 

Dovble-qtieue, or Queiie-fourchee : — having tino Tails, as in the 
case of some lions. 

Dovetail : — a system of Counter-wedging. 

Emhattled : — battled. 

Emhowed : — bent, with the Elbow to the Dexter : arched. 

Emhrued : — stained with Blood. 

Enfiled : — thrust through with a Sword. 

Engoulee : — pierced through the Mouth. 

Engrailed : — ^having an arched border line, the small contiguous 
arches being concave : it is the converse to Invected ; No. 17 a, p. 18. 

Enhanced : — raised towards the chief. Thus, the Baron Byron 
bears, — arg., three Bendlets enhanced gtt. ; Ko. 249, p. 7©. "7/ 

Ensigned : — adorned, bearing insignia of honour. 

Environnee, and Enveloped : — siirrounded. 

Equipped : — fully caparisoned and provided. 

Eradicated : — torn up by the Boots. 

Erased : — torn off roughly, so that the severed parts have 
jagged edges. It is the converse to Couped. 

Erect : — set upright in a vertical position. 
>- False : — voided. Thus, an Orle is blazoned a.s a " false es- 
cutcheon," by the early Heralds. 

Fesse-wise : — disposed after the manner of a Fesse. 

Figured : — when an object, as the Sun's Disc, is charged with 
a representation of a human face. 

Fimbriated : — having!: a narrow border. 



Finned : — having fins, as Fish. 

Ftrme'e : — extended to the extremities of the Shield. 

Fitchee : — pointed at the base, and so "fixable" in the 

Flanched : — a shield, of which the Flanches only are disclosed, 
the rest of the field being surmounted by some distinct compo- 
sition, or covered by some plain Tincture ; as in No. 622, 
Chap. XXVIII. k 3<5. 

Fleurettee, or Florettee : — terminating in Fleurs-de-Lys ; also 
semee of Fleiirs-de-Lys. 

Fleurie : — terminating in three points ; also, semee de lys. 

Flexed : — bent or bowed. 

Flighted : — feathered, as an Arrow. 

Fly: — ^the length of any Flag, from its point of suspension 
outwards; also, the outer side or extremity of any Flag. See 

Flotant : — floating. 

Foliated : — ^having Cusps, and being formed like a Leaf or 

Fourchee : — divided into two partg"towards the extremity. 

Fresnee : — rearing up on the liind legs. 

Frettee : — covered with Frette-worh. <\ %v>vvt- Hl ^v. 5^ |^Uto \^*^^ ^3)^ 

Fructed : — bearing fniit or seeds, of whatsoever kinds. 

Fumant : — emitting smoke. 

Furnished : — equipped or provided with. 

Fiisillee, Fusilly : — covered with Fusils. 

Garnished : — appropriately adorned. 

At Gaze : — when an animal of the chase stands still, affrontee. 

Gerattyng : — see Chap. XV. 

Girt, or Girdled : — bound round any object. 

Gliding : — the movement of Snakes. 

Gohony : — Compony. 

Gorged ;— encircled round the neck or throat. 

Gouttee, or Guttee .- — sprinkled over with Drops. 


This tei-m is used with various affixes, as follows : — Gouttee de 
larmes, " sprinkled with tears," or gouttee (Vazure (tinctured azure) ; 
gouttee d'eau, "with water" (argent); gouttee d'olive, "with oil" 
(vert) ; gouttee d'or, " with gold ;" gouttee de poix, " with pitch " 
(sable) ; and gouttee du sang, " with blood " (gules) ; No, 250, at 
the head of this Chapter. 

The arms of John' Feld, emblazoned upon his tabard and 
also on his shield (in his Brass at Standon, PTerts), are, — gu., a 
fesse or, between three eagles displayed arg. guttees du sang ; No. 25 a. 
See Tabard, Chap. XIII. 

Gouttee reversed : — when the Drops have their natural po.sition 
inverted ; No. 251, at the head of this Chapter. 

Cfradient : — the act of walking, as by a Tortoise. 

Grafted : — inserted and fixed in. 

Guardant : — looking with the full face towards the spectator. 
The term is applied to Beasts of Prey. See Gaze and Affrontee. 

Gyronny, Gyronnee : — divided after the manner of a Gyron. 

Habited : — clothed. 

Haurient : — applied to a Fish, when placed in Pale, and having 
its head in chief. It is the converse of Uriantj^\y ttuwawtj, 

Hause : — placed higher than in its customary position. 

Heightened : — having a decorative accessory or another charge, 
placed higher in the field than any Charge. 

Hilted : — having a handle, as a Sword. 
/ Hoist: — The depth of any Flag from its point of suspension 
downwards : also its head or upper side. See Fly. 

Hooded : — having the Head covered with a Coif or Hond. 

Hoofed : — having Hoofs of any particular Tincture. 

Horned : — having Horns of any particular Tincture. 

Humettee : — couped, or cut short, at the extremities. 

Hurtee : — semee of Huries. 

Imbrued, Imbued : — stained with Blood. 

Impaled .-—united by Impalement. 

Imperiaily Crowned: — surmounted by the Crown nf England. 

G 2 


Incensed : — having Fire issuing from the Mouth and Ears. 

Increment, or Increscent : — a New Moon, having its Horns 
towards the Dexter. 

Indented .-—having a serrated border line. 

Inflamed : — burning in Flames. 

In Bend : — set Bend-wise. 

In Chevron : — set in the form of a Chevron. 

In Chief: — set in the Chief of the Shield. 

In Cross : — set in the form of a Cross. 

In Fesse : — set Fesse-wise. 

In Foliage : — a Plant or Tree bearing Leaves. 

In Glory : — the Sun surrounded by rays. 

In Lure : — two Wings conjoined, with their tips in Base. 

In Pale : — set Pale-wise. 

In Pile : — set after the form of a Pile. ,^ 

In Pride : — when a Peacock or other Bird has its tail displayed. 

In Quadrangle : — four charges, or four gi'oups of charges, so 
arranged that one charge or one group is placed in each quarter 
of a Shield. 

In Saltire : — set after the form of a Saltire. 

In Splendour : — the same as In Glory. 

Interlaced : — linked together. 

Invected : — having an arched border line, the small contiguous 
arches being convex : it is the converse to Engrailed ; No. 17 b, 
p. 18. 

Inverted : — reversed. 

Irradiated : — illuminated or decorated with Pays or Beams of 

Issuant : — proceeding from or out of. 

Jessant : — shooting forth, as Plants do out of the Earth. 

Jessant-de-lys : — when a Fleur-de-lys issues from any object. 

Jessed : — having straps, as a Hawk in Falconry. 

Jowlopped : — having Gills, as a Game-cock, 

Laminated, or Scaled : — having scales. 


Langued : — applied to denote the Tincture of the Tongue of any 

Legged, or Memhered : — to denote the Legs of Birds. 

Lined : — having an inside Lining : also to denote having Cords 
or Chains attached. 

Lodged : — when an Animal of the Chase is at rest. 

Lozengy, Lozengee : — divided into Lozenges. 

Maned : — having a Mane, as a Lion, a Horse, &c. 
/ Mantelee : — a shield divided, as in No. 252, PI. XIII. 

Masoned : — made to represent Masonry or Brickwork. 

3Iemhered : — to denote the Beak and Legs of any Bird. 

Mounted : — applied to a Horse when carrying a Eider. 

Muraille'e : — see Walled. 

Naiant : — when a Fish swims in Fesse. 

Naissant : — the same as Issuant, but applied only to limng 

Nebulee : — having a peculiar wavy border line ; No. 1 7, d. 
y Nerved : — having Fibres, as Leaves have. 

Noiced : — tied in a Knot. 

Oppressed : — ^the same as Debruised. 

Over all, or Sur le tout : — when one Charge is borne over all 

Overt : — having the Wings expanded for flight. 

Pale-wise,' or In Pale : — placed or an-anged after the manner "^ 
oi a Pale ; that is, set in B.^ertical position, or arranged vertically / 
one above another;r5wbAtt! ^ Ifti.c;''^; 

Pcdy : — divided Pale-mse into an even number of Parts. 

Paly Bendy : — divided evenly both Pale-wise and Bend-wise. 

Party, or Parted : — divided after an heraldic manner. 

Pascuant : — grazing. 

Passant : — walking. 

Passant Giiardant : — walking, with the Face affrontee. A 
Lion passant guardant was distinguished by the early French 
Heralds, as a Leopard or a Lion Leoparde. 

Passant Bcguardant : — walking, and looking back. 

y. VK^vevl iU»'r^itiv*jtrvii<vi*>c 


Passant Repassant : — the same as Counter Passant ; that is, when 

one animal is passant to the dexter, and another to the sinister. 

/y^j Patoiice : — a very beautiful foiTa of Cross ; No. 77, PI. III. 

' Pellettee : — studded with Pellets. 

Pendent .-—drooping. 

Per :— by means of. 

Pierced : — perforated, so as to show either the Field, or some 

different Tincture through the aperture. 

Pily : — divided Pile-wise. 

Pily Bendy : — divided both Pile-wise and Bend-wise. 

.y^ Platte'e : — studded with Plates. 

Poinelled : — to denote the Tincture of the uppermost part of 

a sword-hilt. 

Powdered, Poudree : — semee of small objects. 

Preying .-—when a Beast devours its Prey : see Trussing. 

ILu iiU<J Purfled : — lined, guarded, or bordered with Fur. 

Quarterly : — divided into four Quarters ; also divided into more 

than four sections, in which case the number is to be specified in 

the Blazon, as Quarterly of six, of eight, &c. 

Queue-Fourchee : — see Double-queue. 

Quilled : — to denote the Tincture of the Quills of Feathers. 

Radiant, or Bayonnee : — eucii-cled with Bays. 

Baguly, or Bagulee : — serrated, as in No. 17, h. 

Rampant, and Rampant Sejant : — see Chap. X., " Heraldry of 
the Lion." 

Rasee : — erased. 
xy^ Rebated : — broken off, cut short, or recessed. 

Reflected, or Reflexed : — bent, curved, or carried backwards. 

Reguardant : — looking backwards. 

Removed : — oiit of its proper position. 
^ Retorted : — intertwined frette-wise. 

Rising, or Roiissnnt : — about to take wing. 

Rompu : — broken or interrupted. 

Salient .-—leaping or bounding. /?</t<H/vv<(^fc.v<>ivA**4^^ II.. 

Saltire-icise .- — divided or arranged j^er Saltire. 


Sans : — without ; as Sans nomhre, to imply that a charge is re- 
peated many times, without the precise number of the repetitions 
being specified. 

Sarcellee : — cut through the middle. 

Scintillant : — sparkling, or emitting Sparks. 

Seeded : — bearing Seeds or Seed-vessels. 

Segreant : — when a Griffin or Wyvern is erect with expanded 

Sejant : — sitting. 

Sejant Addorsed : — sitting back to back. 

Semee : — strewed, or scattered over with any Charge or Object. 
See p. 11, and see also Powdered. 

Shafted : — to denote the Shaft of a Spear, Arrow, &c. 

Slipped : — when a Leaf, Twig, Branch, or Flower is torn from 
off the parent stem. 

Soaring : — flying aloft. 

Springing : — Salient, also Issuant. 

Statant .-—the ordinary attitude in which an animal "stands 
at ease." 

Stringed : — having Strings, as a Harp ; or, being suspended by a 
Cord, as a Bugle-Horn ; or, being in any way attached to a String, 
or fastened by one. 
, /' Subverted :—rQ\e:rsedi. 

Surmounted : — when one Charge is placed over another. 

Sur-tout, Sur le tout : — surmounted, or over all. 
■ Sustained, Soutennee : — having a narrow lower border; as, a 
Chief gu. sustained or, would be a red Chief having a narrow lower 
border of gold. 

Tasselled : — adorned with Tassels, as the cushions below the 
heads of Monumental Effigies. 

Tiercee : — divided into three equal parts. Ju. fUt'Srt^ w*r- ^P-Jfii',^^. 

Torqued : — wreathed. 
\y Tournee : — the same as Beguardant. 

Towered : — crowned with Towers or Turrets. 

Tramjioced : — pierced through, or Transpierced. 


Transfluent : — flowing through. 

Transmuted :—c<ninterchanged. 

Transposed : — having the original or natural position or ar- 
rangement reversed. 
, ' Traversed : — facing to the Sinister. 

Treflee : — semee of Trefoils, or hordered, or otherwise adorned 
with them. 

TricJced : — sketched in outline with pen and ink. 

Tric&i-porated : — having three bodies united to a single head, 
from which, as a centre, the bodies radiate at equal distances. 
A tricarporaie lion appears on a seal of Edmond, First Earl of 
Laxcaster, a.d. 1250. 

Tripping, or Trippant : — applied to Animals of the Chase, when 
in easy motion. No. 20'3, PI. XI., and corresponding whh. Passant. 
When moving more rapidly, such animals are ai speed. Counter- 
Tripping implies that two or more animals of the chase are 
tripping past each other in opposite directions. 

Trononee : — cut to pieces, the pieces standing separately, but 
retaining in their arrangement the original figure or contour of 
the Charge : as in the instance of the Saltire in No. 25.), 

Trunked : — ^having a Stem or Trunk, as a Tree. 

Trussed : — having the wings closed. 
\/^ Trussing : — devouring, as a Bird of Prey does : see Preying. 

Turretted : — crowned with Turrets. 

Tusked : — having Tusks. 

Umhrated, or Adumbrated : — shadowed, or under Shadow. 

Undee, or Undy : — wavy. 

Unguled : — having Hoofs. 
jk {tvi «'»': Uririant : — when a Fish swims pale-wise with its Head to the 
"" Base, the reverse of Hauriant. 

, - Verdee, or Verdoy : — charged with any Plants. 

Verted, or Beverted : — the same as Flexed and Beflexed. 
, Vervelled, or Varvelled : — having small rings attached. 

Vested : — habited, clothed. 



Vigilant : — on the watch for prey. 
Voided : — having the entire central area removed. 
Volant : — flying. 
Vorant : — devouring. 

Vidned : — wounded, so that the blood is dropping. 
Walled, Miirallee : — covered with a representation of Masonry. 
Wattled : — having a Comb and Gills, as a Cock and a Cockatrice . 
Wavy : — having an undulated border line. 
Winged : — provided with Wings. 

Wreathed : — adorned with a Wreath, or twisted in the form of a 
Wreath or 'Garland. 


No. 200.— Sliield of William Longlspek, Earl of Salisbiry. Died 
A.r). 1226. From his Effigy iu Salisbury Cathodral. See p. 60, <, b- 

A.D. 1407. 

A.D. 1554. 

A.D. 1631. 

No. 309.— Mitres. 



The important Group of Heraldic Terms Ihat constitute the 
contents of the present Chapter, are arranged in the same 
Alphabetical Order that obtains in Chapters IX,, X., XL, and 

Abatement : — a sign of Degradation : see Chap. XXVIII., 
Sect. 2. 

Abeyance : — denotes that condition in the descent of a Peer- 
age, in which it is vested in two or more Co-heirs, both or all 
of them having precisely the same claim ; and consequently, 
since the Peerage can descend only in such a manner as to be 
held by one person, when there are several equal Claimants 
none of them can maintain any claim. This state of things 
continues, until all the original Co-heirs bvi one fail, and then the 
Representative of that one becomes the true Heir and inherits 
the Peerage. Thus, the Peerage that is in Abeyance is dormant 
only, and not dead, since it revives at once when the Abeyance 
ceases to affect it. 


Achievement of Arms : — a complete heraldic Composition, in 
whicli the Shield exhibits all its Quarterings, and its Impale- 
ment, together with its external accessories of Coronet, Sup- 
porters, Crests, Motto, &c. Any complete heraldic Composition 
may be entitled an Achievement of Arms. 

Archhishoi) : — the highest Older in the English Church. The 
Archbishop of Canterbury is the first subject of the realm, next to 
the Princes of the Blood Eoyal. He is the " Most Eeverend 
Father in God," is Archbishop " by Divine Providence," and is 
styled " Your Grace." The Lord High Chancellor ranks next 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and then follows in the order 
of precedence the Archbishop of York : he is " by Divine Permis- 
sion," his style in all other respects being the same as his Grace 
of Canterbury. Of the two Irish Archbishops of Armagh and 


Dublin, the former is the Primate : their Graces rank imme- 
*ta^ diately after the Archbishop of York. The wives of Archbishops 
and Bishops have no title, and take no rank from their husbands. 
See Pall and Pastoral Staff, in Chap. IX. ; and Bishop and Mitre 
in Chap. XIII. 

Argent : — the Metal Silver. 

Armory : — the Herald's Science and Art, which is more gene- 
rally entitled and recognized as Heralcry. Also, a List of 
Names and Titles, to which their several Ai-ms aie attached and 
blazoned. See Ordinary. 

Arms: — an heraldic composition, complete in itself, and now 
generally borne upon a shield. 

Arms of Dominion : — the armorial insignia of a Sovereign 
Kegnant, borne by him or her in right of the regal office and 
rank, and as the symbols of supreme authority and power. Such 
arms are also, by custom, held to be the arms of the country 
and the nation, as well as of the Sovereign. True Heraldry 
distinguishes these arms of Dominion from all other armorial 
ensigns, and it restricts them absulutely to the successive 
occupants of the throne. Thus, the Poyal Arms are not to be 



borne tcithout Difference, even by the nearest relatives of the 
Sovereign; and no person whatever can rightly quarter these 
arms without some mark of Cadency. Princesses, indeed, fre- 
quently bear their paternal arms with no other Difference than 
a lozenge instead of a shield, and their own Coronet in place of 
the Crown ; and this is a sufficient distinction while Princesses 
remain unman-ied ; as it is also sufficient that they should place 
their arms in the sinister half of a shield, in impalement with 
the anns of their husbands when they marry. In this manner, 
the arms of the sons and daughters of Edward III. are blazoned 
upon his monument in "Westminster Abbey : the shield of each 
of the Princes, his sons, has its own proper Label for Differ- 
ence ; but the Princesses, the daughters of the King, have their 
arms impaled by the anns of their husbands, with no other 
difference than their position in the sinister halves of the shields. 
In our own times, Labels charged with distinct marks of Cadency 
have been assigned to the Princesses, as well as to the Princes 
of the Eoyal Family : see Chap. XIX., Section 7 ; see, also, 

Armes Parlantes : — such armorial devices and compositions 
as fall under the definition of a Rebus. This is a modern dis- 
'tinction; and it does not indicate any profound appreciation of 
early Heraldry on the part of those who introduced and adopted 
it. Allusive or Canting Anns abound in early Heraldry ; and 
if it were possible to trace every early shield to its actual 
origin, it would very probably be discovered that in some 
degi'ee or in some circumstance all arms were Armes Parlantes. 
See JRehus, in this same Chapter. 

Attainder : — absolute deprivation of every civil right and 
privilege, involving a transmission of the same fearful penalty, 
and a consequent forfeiture even of pure blood and descent, as 
well as of all hereditaiy claims. It was the weapon with which 
Treason, or what passed for Treason, used to be smitten down. 
Attainder required a Special Act of the Legislature, and it 


held in force until revoked by the same process and authority. ^ "^ 
The efifect, indeed, of the Act or " Bill of Attainder," was to 
place the accused person, without trial, in the position of a 
criminal who had been tried upon the Charge of Treason, and 
convicted upon regular evidence. 

Augmentation: — an honourable addition to an heraldic Com- 
position, which is distinct and complete in itself, and conveys 
emphatically a definite signification of its own : such as the 
Union Device of the United Kingdom, added as an "Augmenta- 
tion of Honour" to the Arms of the Duke of Wellington; 
see No. 614, Chap. XXVIII., Sect. 1. Complicated Augmenta- ^■ 
tions, which assumed the condition of a series of quarterings, 
were granted by Henry VIII. to his successive Consorts, for 
the purpose rather of heraldic display than of significant dis- 
tinction, thus most seriously affecting the historic truthfulness 
and the independent authority of Heraldry in England: see 
Chap. XIX., Sect. 5. 

Azure : — the Colour Blue. 

Badge : — an heraldic Device, having a distinctive significa- 
tion of its own, and borne alone without being charged upon a 
Shield : see Chap. XVII., Sect. 1. 

Banner : — a Square Flag, emblazoned in the middle ages 
with a complete Coat of Arms, which was the distinctive Ensign 
of a Knight-Banneret, and also of the higher Orders of Military 
Chiefs. The Boll of Caerlavercck gives the Blazon of the 
Banners of the Princes, Nobles and Knights who were present 
at the Siege of that Border Stronghold in the year loOO, Tinder 
the Eoyal Banner of Edward I. This term ought to be re- ' 
tained and used by us for the " Standards " of our Cavaliy, and 
tiS^«^ for the Flag that we style " the Eoyal Standard," which really 
is the " Eoyal Banner :" see Chap. XVIII. 

Banneret, or Knight-Banneret ; — a knight, who, for good 
service under the Eoyal Banner, was advanced by the King to 
a higher Order of Knighthood on the Field of Battle. From "' 


that time he would be entitled to bear, and would be distin- 
guished by a Banner instead of a Pennon. 

Baron : — a Husband, the Wife in Heraldry being styled 

Baron : — a Title and Bank of Nobility derived from the 
early days of English History, and in a peculiar manner asso- 
ciated with the memories of the olden time. It corresponds 
with the Tliane of the Anglo-Saxons. 

A Baron now holds the lowest Rank in the British Peerage. 
He is styled " My Lord," and is " Right Honourable." The 
Coronet of a Baron has six large Pearls, set separately upon a 
jewelled Circlet of gold, of which number four only are apparent 
in representations. The Cap is of Crimson Velvet, guarded 
Avith Ennine, and is surmounted by a gold Tassel. This 
Coronet, No. 254, was first gi-anted by Charles II., before 

whoso time the Barons wore plain golden Circles. The ]\Iantlc, 
or Kobe of State, is Scarlet, and has two Doublings of Ermine. 
See Coronet, and Tl. LXIV. 

Baroness : — the wife of a Baron. She is styled " My Lady," 
and is "Eight Honourable." Her Coronet is the same as that 
of her Husband. 

Baronet : — an hereditary Rank, lower than the Beerage, in- 
stituted by James L, a.d. 1612. Baronets, as originally 
created, were either " of Ulster," or " of Nova Scotia." 

The armorial Ensign of the former is the Badge of Ulster, — 
org., a sinister Jiand, couped at the wrist and appaumee gu.. No, 177, 


PI. IX., borne generally upon a small Shield of Pretence. The 
Scottish I'aronets of Nova Scotia were authorized to augment 
their own Arms, either on a canton or in an inescutcheon at 
their pleasure, with the Arms of that Province, — arg., on a saltire 
az., the Royal Arms of Scotland. Supporters : Dexter, — the Unicwn 
of Scotland ; Sinister, — a savage Man ppr. ; Crest, — two hands con- 
joined, the one naked, the other armed in mail, a laurel-hranch and a 
thistle issuing between them; Motto, — " Munit hoec, et altera vincit." 
In practice, the external accessories were and are generally 
omitted. By a grant from Charles I. the Nova Scotia Baronets 
are entitled to wear upon an oval Badge, pendent from an orange 
ribbon, the Arms of Nova Scotia (as above), without the Sup- 
porters or Crest, the Badge ifeelf being ensigned with an Impe- 
rial Crown, and encircled with the Motto, — " Fax mentis honestce 
gloria." All Baronets now are " of the United Kingdom." 

Basinet : — a Close-fitting steel covering for the head. See 

Bath, Order of the : — see Chap. XX. 

Bath : — see Herald. 

Bearing: — any heraldic Device or Figure, or a complete 
Coat of Arms. 

Bishop: — the Bishops in number are twenty-one for England, 
four for Wales, ten for Ireland, one for Sodor and Man, and 
forty for the Colonies. The Bishops of England and Wales 
are all Peers Spiritual of Parliament, except always the 
Bishop last consecrated. | Also the Irish Prelates are Spiritual ^' /cwit^ap 
Peers alternately, four in each session of Parliament! The 
Bishop of LoNJ^ON is always a Privj'-Councillor, and therefore 
is " Eight Honourable." He has precedence of all his Brethren. 
Next in Order are the Bishops of Durham and Winchester. 
The others rank according to seniority of Consecration. All 
the Bishops are "Eight Eeverend Fathers in God," and 
Bishops " by Divine Permission." They are styled : "My Lord 


Archbishops and Bishops impale their own Aims with the 
Arms of their See, the latter being placed to the dexter. They 
have no Supporters, Crest, or Motto, but they ensign their 
Shields with their Mitres. The Arms of Canterbury, are : 
Az., a Crozier or, the Cross-head arg., surmounted by a pall of 
the last, fimhriated and fringed gold, and charged with four 
crosses paiee-fitchee sa. In No. 255, PI. XIV., these Arms impale 
Kempe, gu., three garbs within a bordure engrailed or, for John 
Kempe, Archbishop of Canterbuiy, Cardinal and Lord High 
Chancellor, who died a.d. 1454. The Anns of the See of 
York, are, Gu., two keys, in saltire, arg. : in chief, a Boyal 
Crown or. The Arms of London are, Gu., two swords, in saUire, 
arg., pommels or: those of Durham are, Az., a Cross cantoning 
four lioncels rampt. or: and those of Winchestkr are, — Gu., two 
keys, addorsed, in bend, the uppermost argent, the other or, a sword 
interposed between them, in bend sinister, of the second, hilt and 
pommel gold. See Mitre, and Pastoral Staff; also see Chap. XXI. 

Blazon and Blazonry : — the description and also the repre- 
sentation of any heraldic device, figure, or composition, in 
accordance with the principles and the practice of Heraldry. 

Blue Mantle : — see Herald. 

Cadency : — that heraldic distinction of the several members of 
the same famil}-, or of the collateral branches of the same house, 
which is indicated by some Device specially adopted and borne 
for that purpose : see Chapters XV. and XVT. 

Cadet : — a junior member or branch of a famil}'. 

Canting Heraldry : — see Armes Parlantes. 

Cardinal's Hat : — is low in the crown, with a broad brim, 
and of a scarlet colour, with two long pendent cords, curiously 
knotted and intertwined and tassellcd. It appears above 
certain shields of arms of the mediaeval hierarchy. 

Clarenceux : — see Herald. 

Coat of Arms: — a complete and distinctive heraldic composi- 
tion. The expression is evidently derived from the mediaeval 




Plate XY. 


usage of embroidering the armorial insignia of a noble or knight 
upon the surcoat, jupon, or tabard which he wore over his 

Collar : — an Ornament to be woni about the neck, and indi- /^fu%^ /SS". 
cative of certain rank, oflSce, and position. See Chap. XX. 

College of Arms : — see Herald. 

Colours : — Naval and Military Flags. The term is now used, 

not only in a general acceptation, but also specifically to dis- 

-^ tinguish the Flags of the Infantry from those (styled 

" Standards ") of the Cavalry. Shakespeare uses the word 

" Colours " to denote Military Flags. See Chap. XVIII. 

Coiiis : — the Heraldry that may bo learned from both y 
British and Foreign Coins is of the iitmost value, since it is 
always historically correct, and moreover it invariably exem- 
plifies contemporary heraldic feeling and usage. See Chap. 

Compounded Arms : — Arms formed by the Combination of y 
two or more distinct bearings, in such a manner as to produce 
a single composition. This process has been adopted only in 
rare instances (as in the Union Flag of England, Nos. 63, 64), 
since the introduction of systematic Marshalling by Quartering. 
See Chap. XIV. 

Coronet : — the Ensign of Princely and Noble Eank, corre- 
sponding in its own degree with the Crown of a Sovereign 
Eegnant. The Coronets of the Peers of England are worn by 
them on the occasion of the Coronation of their Sovereign. 
They all, in comparatively modern times, have been made to v 
enclose a Cap of crimson velvet, lined with ermine, and sur- 
mounted by a tassel of rich gold bullion. Coronets, as insignia 
of Nobility, were evidently in general use by the Nobles of 
England in the reign of Edavard III., but they did not assume 
their present (or, indeed, an}^) distinctive characteristics until a 
period much nearer to our own times. See Prince, Duke, Mar- 
quess, Earl, Viscount, Baron, and Crest, in this Chapter.(^A.A^(?j - 





The examples of Coronets, represented in Nos. 254, 276, 281, 
and :317, and also in Nos. 564, 565, and 566, in PI. XLT.,^ - 
are drawn in accordance with the commonly accepted forms of 
these symbols. A more artistic style of design, however, which 
is in better keeping with true heraldic feeling, is beginning to 
prevail in such representations of Coronets as enjoy the highest 
approval. Coronets of this order, based upon the beautiful 
design of the Crown that encircles the head of the effigy of 
Edward II. at Gloucester, No. 550, are sketched in PI. LXIV. '' 

Contoise : — a scarf, worn loose and flowing, attached to the 
helm with the crest, but discontinued after the middle of the 
fourteenth century. A singularly characteristic example occurs 
in the monument of Aymer de Valence, at Westminster ; 
No. 256, PI. XY.'^.y. 

Count, or Gompte : — in Latin, " Comes," a Continental title and 
rank of Nobility, corresponding with that of "Earl." The 
Coronet is set round closely with small pearls, slightly raised, 
and it has no Cap. 

Countess: — the title and rank of the Wife of an Earl, and 
also of a Count. An English Countess is " l^ight Honourable ;" 
she is styled " My Lady ;" and her Coronet is the same as 
that of her husband. 

Courtesy, Titles of: — certain nominal degrees of Pank, that 
are conceded by Eoj^al Grace, and sanctioned by prevailing 
usage, to some of the children of the Peers. The term is 
especially applicable to the "Second Titles" of their Fathers, 
that are thus borne by " Courtesy" by the eldest sons of Dukes, 
Marquesses, and Earls. 

Crest : — a figure or device, independent and complete in 
itself, worn by the Knights of the middle ages upon their 
helms and basinets. Crests are exclusively the heraldic insignia 
of men. See Chap. XVIL, Section 2. 

Crest-Coronet :— see Chap. XVIL, Section 2. 

Crcst-Wi-eath : — see Chap. XVIL, Section 2. 



Crown .-—the Imperial, of Great Britain. See Chap. XIX., 
Section 6. 

Crowns Foreign : — see Chap. XXXII. 

Crovm : — when borne as a charge, a Crown generally is drawn 
after the form of the crest-coronet, No. 257 a. The arms of 
St. Edmund, one of the most popular national Saints of 
mediseval England, in the Caerlaverock EoU associated with 
the ensigns of St. George and St. Edward, are, — azure, three 
crowns, two and one, or; No. 271, PI. XIV. This Shield appears 
on the monument of Prince Edmond Plantagenet, of Langley, 
at King's Langley, in Hertfordshire. Three similar crowns 
on a field gules constitute the arms of the See of Ely. 

Certain varieties and modifications also of ancient Crowns 
are in use as heraldic accessories, and sometimes they are borne 
as charges in modem Heraldry. The Mural Crown, No. 272, 
a circle of gold embattled, is associated with military s\iccess 

No. 272. 

No. 273. 

in sieges: it is borne, as a crest of augmentation, with other 
devices, by Sir Edward Kerrison ; and, as both crest and 
charge, by the Baron Seaton. The Naval Crown, No. 273, 
borne by Earl Nelson, as a similar crest, and by Sir George 
Parker as a charge, is formed by the alternate stems and 
masts of ships set upon a golden circle, and significantly de- 
clares its own peculiar meaning. The Crown Vallary, No. 

No. 274. 

H 2 

^w^^v^{^^^;^ t'%i>.y), "fu*'\^\v> , ^rT ,1 , 2?if, 



274, borne with his crest by Sir Matthew Barkington, refers 
to the forcing an enemy's entrenched camp, and is formed of 
small palisades placed npon a golden circle. The Madiated -or 
Eastern Crown, called also the Antique Crown, No. 275, borne 
as both crest and charge by the Earl of Seafield, the late 
lftm€«*e4- Sir James Outram, and Sir John Laavrence, has 

1 its rays pointed, in which respect it differs from the heraldic 
V Celestial Crown, which has each of its rays charged with a 

, star. 

Crozier : — the Cross-headed Pastoral-Staif of an Archbishop, 
which is borne as a Charge in the Anns of the Sees of Canter- 
hury, Armagh, and Dublin. Characteristic examples occur in 
the Brasses to Archbishops De Waldeby, 1397, Westminster, 
No. 160, Pl'.^V., and Cranley, 1407, New College, Oxford; 
in the Brass to Dean Thomas Nelond, Cowfold, 1443 ; and in 
the Monument of Archbishop AVarham, 1532, at Canterbuiy. 
The effigy of Archbishop Walter Grey, 1255, in his noble 
Monument at York, has a staff with a crook-head of beau- 
tiful foliage. See Pastoral-Staff, Chap. IX., and No. 159, in 
PI. XV.^V • 

Dalmatic : — a robe of state worn by both Sovereign Princes 
and by the Mediceval Hierarchy. It was also the distinctive 
vestment of a Deacon. It has rather wide sleeves, and it 
hangs loosely about the person, being open at the sides at the 
lower part. It is exemplified in all episcopal effigies, and is 
represented immediately below the chesuble. It occurs in 
royal effigies, and is shown most clearly in the effigy of Henry 
IV., at Canterbury. 

Diapei- : — a surface pattern, which simply imparts a decora- 
tive character, without assuming the distinctive attributes of a 
charge. See Chap. VIII. 

Difference : — a figure or device introduced into heraldic com- 
positions, for the purpose of distingiiishing several persons who 
bear the same arms. Sec Chapters XV. and XVI. 



Dimidiation ;-— tlio original method of Impalement, effected 
by mutually dividing the two shields per pale, and by forming 
the compound shield from the union of the Dexter-half of one 
of the divided shields with the Sinister-half of the other. 
See Chap. XIV. 

Dividing Lines: — see Chap. III. 

Doubling : — the lining of a robe : also any enrichment of a 
robe or mantle by means of ermine or other rich material. 

Dulce .-—next to the Princes and Princesses of the Blood 
Eoyal and to the fotH=- Archbishops of England aB4~l¥eltmd, 
the highest order and rank of the British Peerage. 

This title was intioduced by Edwaud III., a.d. 1337, when he 
created his son Prince Edward, the Black Prince, Duke of 
Cornwall. The second of the English Dukes was Henry 
Plantagenet, Earl of Lancaster, Derby, and Leicester, and 
Count of Provence, who was created Duke of Lancaster, a.d. 
1351. A Duke's coronet, as now worn, has eight strawberry- 
leaves of a conventional type, set upon an enriched circle of gold, 
the cap (if a cap be worn) being of crimson velvet, with a golden 
tassel and guarded with ermine ; in representations, five only of 
the leaves are shown, Ko. 27G. The opinion is prevalent that \/ 

No. 276. 

this distinctive form of coronet appears for the first time, placed v 
upon the basinet of Prince John Plantagenet, of Eltham, Earl 
of Cornwall, in his effigy at Westminster, a.d. 1336. That 
there is no foundation for such an origin of the Ducal Coronet 


is evident from the cflSgy itself. The decorations of the head- 
piece and of the rest of the armour are precisely the same, and 
they are also identical with similar decorations that appear in 
other efiSgies of about the same date. The hasinet of Prince 
John, No. 277, PI. XVI., however, evidently was once encircled 
by a plain naiTow fillet, which is not the case in any other 
instance, so far as I am aware. In the efSgy at York, of the 
nephew of John of Eltham, Prince William, second son of 
Edward III., who was bom a.d. 1336, and died in childhood, the 
head has the long and flowing hair encircled by a jewelled fillet, 
\ represented in No. 278. The effigy of the Black Prince him- 
'■ self, A.D. 1376, at Canterbury, exhibits on the basinet what may 
possibly have been the prototype of the Duke's strawberry-leaf 
I coronet, No. 279. From the jewelled circle that encompasses 
the basinet there rise sixteen leaves, with a second series of the 

No. 279 B. 

same number and much smaller size alternating with the larger 
/ ones. These leaves differ very slightly fi'om those that are 
carved upon the armour of John of Eltiiam, and they are in 
exact accordance with a favourite form of decorative foliage in 
general use when the eflfigy was executed. In Nos. 277 a, and 
279 A, PI. XVI., I have given enlarged representations of por- 



'Inte XT. 



tions of the basinets of the two Princes, in order to show more \J 
plainly the details of their enrichment. No. 279 b shows the 
basinet of the Black Prince, with its coronet and^namail, as 
seen from the front. Lionel Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, 
who died a.d. 1368, in his will bequeathed " Two Golden 
Circles" with one of which ho states that he himself had been 
" created a Duke," while with the other his elder brother, the 
Black Prince, had been " created a Prince." It would seem 
that for a while the coronets of both Dukes and Earls were 
decorated rather after an arbitrary taste, than in accordance 
with any established rule. Indeed, more than a century after 
the death of the Black Prince, the effigies of John de la 
Pole, K.G., Duke of Suffolk, and his wife Elizabeth Plan- 
tagenet, sister of Edward IV., have Coronets, No. 280, PI. 
XVI., of Fleurs de lys, alternating with clusters of three small 
balls. Possibly, the Fleurs de lys here may denote the Lady 
to have been a Princess. See Coronet, and PI. LXIV. i * 

The Latin equivalent of Duke is " Dux." A Duke is styled 
" Your Grace," and he is " Most Noble ;" all his sons are 
" Lords," and all his daughters " Ladies ;" but his eldest son 
bears his father's " second title," and accordingly he ranks as a ^/ - 
Marquess, and generally bears that title. See Chap. XXVII. ( ^.j^ /j.*.*, 

The Mantle or parliamentary robe of a Duke is scarlet, and it 
has four doublings of ermine. There are twenty English Duke- 
doms, seven Scottish, and one Irish. 

Ducal Coronet, or Crest-Coronet : — see Chap. XVII., Section 2. 

Duchess : — the wife of a Duke. She is styled " Your Grace," 
and is " Most Noble." Her Coronet is the same as that of her 

Earl : — a title and rank of Nobility, in Latin " Comes," now 
the third in the order of the British Peerage, but the highest title 
and rank of the English Nobles '';post conquestum " until the year 
1337, when the Black Prince was created Duke of Cornwam^^ 
The " Earl " of England was identical with the " Compte " or 


^jJ^Mi* " C^ount " of France ; and while Xorman-French was in use in 
^^/♦^ this country, the English "Earls" were styled "Counts" in 
fvtz&vUL England as well as on the Continent. These powerful Barons 
/•K. succeeded to the Tlianes of the Saxons, their own peculiar title 

being of Danish origin. 

An Earl is " Right Honourable," and is styled " My liord." 
His eldest son bears his father's " second title," and therefore is 
generally styled " Viscount ;" his other sons are " Honourable," 
but all his daughters are " Toadies." See Chap. XXVIT. 

No. 281. 
The Coronet of an Earl has eight lofty rays of gold rising 
from a golden circlet, each of which" upon its point supports 
a laige pearl ; also between each pair of rays, at their bases, 
there is a golden strawberry-leaf. In representation. Jive of 
the elevated pearls and four of the leaves are apparent ; No. 
281. The cap is the same as in the other Coronets. The scarlet 
parliamentary robe has three doublings of ermine. See Coronet, 
and No. 281 a, PI. LXIV. '. '• 
y/ In the monumental effigies of noble personages which yet 

remain from the middle ages, there are many highly interesting 
examples of the varieties of Coronets worn by the Earls of those 
days and their Countesses, before this Coronet had assumed its 
present definite and fixed character. I must bo content to refer 
to a few examples only. The Crest of Eiciiard Beauchajip, 
Earl of Warwick, No. 2G5, PI. XLI., a.d. 1439, in his effigy at 1^^^ 
Warwick, rises from a plain circlet that is surmounted by a 



series of pearls slightly raised, but without any strawberiy- 
leaves. The Earl and Countess of Arundel, at Anindel, 
early in the fifteenth century, have remarkably rich Coronets, 
No. 282 : the Earl's has a series of leaves and of clusters of 

No. 282. — Coronet of Thomas Fitzalan, Earl of AErNDEL : a.d. 1445. 

three small balls alternating, all of them being equally raised to 
a considerable height ; the Coronet of the Countess differs in 
having the raised groups set alternately with single balls that 
are less elevated. Later in the century, a.d. 1487, another Earl 
and Countess of Arundel have Coronets, No. 283, formed 
entirely of the conventional architectural leaves of the period. 

No. 283. 

Similar leaves, no less than thirteen in number, rise to a slight 
and uniform elevation along the front of the ample Coronet, 
No. 284, PI. XLI., of Isabel Plaxtagenet, Countess of Essex, 
in her Brass at Little Easton in Essex, a.d. 1483. And, once 
more, at Hever in Kent, a.d. 1536, the Brass to Sir T. Boleyn, 
K.Gr., Earl of Wiltshire and Orjionde, represents the maternal 
grandfather of Queen Elizabeth in the Insignia of the Garter 


and wearing a rich Coronet, the circle of which is set with 
small pearls, not raised, and in contact, and so numerous that 
upwards of twenty are displayed ; No. 285, PI. XLI. '- ' ?^ 

Ermine : — \ 

Ermines: — ( Heraldic 2^«trs. See Chap. IV. ]5<2.o, 

Erminois : — ) 

Escutcheon : — an Heraldic Shield. See Chap. III. 

Escutcheon of Pretence : — a small Shield charged upon the 
Field of another Shield ; as in Nos. 388 F and 388 g, PI. XXVII. 

Esquire: — a title of honourable distinction, in rank below that 
of Knight. Esquires are personal companions and attendants 
of the Knights of the Orders of Knighthood : such are the 
Esquires of the Order of the Bath, Avho have their stall- 
plates in Westminster Abbey. Amongst other Esquires are 
all attendants upon the Person of the Sovereign : all eldest 
sons of Baronets and Knights : all eldest sons of the younger 
sons of Peers : all persons holding commissions direct from the 
Crown, but not being of rank lower than Captain : all Eoyal 
Academicians, and Barristers-at-Law : also all Bachelors of Law 
and Physic and Masters of Arts. SeeX]!hap. XXVII. 

Femme : — the Wife, as distinguished from the Baron her 

Fesse-Point : — the central point of a Shield. See Chap. III., 
No. 8 M. 

Field: — the suifaco of a Shield or of its Parts, or of any 
Charge or Object. 

Furs : — see Chap. IV. 

Garter : — the most celebrated Order of European Knight- 
hood. See Chap. XX., Section 7. 

Garter : — see Herald. 

Garter : — a strap or riband, fastened with a bucldo in such a 

maimer as to form a circle, and having the end dei:)ending. 

I Such a Garter may be of any tincture, and it may be assumed 

for the purpose of being charged with any motto. It was known 


•HAPTERS X x: 7Z. xiv XV &xxv: 










168 \ 

- rSljE OF MAX 














1*2+ 2B6 


]Z f-ioy 


to Heralds, and in uso as an heraldic device, before the institu- / 
tion of the Order. 

The Garter of the Order is azure, bordered with gold, and 
having a golden buckle and appendages. In letters of the same 
precious metal it is charged with the motto, — HoNi : soiT : qui : 
JiAL : Y : PEXSE. Since the year 1350, this Garter has occasionally ^ 
been placed about the Shield of ExoLiVXD, as in No. 28G, ' 
which represents the arms of Edward III. as they are blazoned 
upon his monument ; the Garter and Motto, however, are added 
to the shield of arms, for it is a very singular circumstance 
that none of the insignia of the Order appear in the monuments 
of either Edward III. or the Black Prlnce. The Garter 
of the Order also encircles the shield of arms of every Knight 
of the Order. A shield thus gartered appears in the fine Brass 
to the Baron Camoys, K.G., a.d. 142-1, at Trotton in Sussex. 
This Brass also exemplifies the heraldic usage which restricts y 
the knightly ensign of the Garter to the shield of the Knight 
himself. Accordingly, above the heads of both Lord and Lady 
Camoys, on either side of the two compartments of their double 
canopy, are two shields ; of which one is charged with Cajiovs 
only, or, on a chief gu., three plates, and is gartered, No. 287^c>ffV 
and the other bears Camoys impaling Mortimer, No. 288, 
PI. XIV. The two shields represented in Nos. 287 and 288 
show the relative sizes of the originals. In the effigy of Lord 
Camoys, the Garter is adjusted about the left leg, as in No. 
288 A, PI. XLIII. The canopy of the Brass at Constance 
Cathedral to Robert Hallam, Bishop of Salisbury, a.d. 1417, 
is enriched vsdth a gartered shield of the Royal Arms, No. 289» (<s|*V*»^^-) 
PI. XIV. ; the Fleurs de lys are three in number, and the 
shield is environed with rays: again, at Magdalen^ College, 
Oxford, the shield of the Founder, William de Way'xflete, 
Bishop of Winchester, as Prelate of the Garter, is encircled 
by this ensign of the Order. Many admirable examples of 
the adjustment of the insignia of the Garter occur in monu- 


mental effigies : as in that of Eichard Beauchamp, Earl of 
Warwick, 1439 ; of Sir R. Harcourt, at Stanton Harcourt, 
1471 ; of John de la Tole, Duke of Suffolk, No. 200, PI. 
XLIV., at Wingfield, 1431; and of Sir Thomas Bolkyx, at 
Hever, 153G. The Mantle is represented in all these examples, 
except the first. Sir Thomas Boleyn also wears the Collar of 
the Order. Sir R. Harcourt wears the Yorldst Collar of the 
Suns and Roses, having the white Lion of the Mortimers as 
a pendent; No. 291, PI. XLIV. : and, what is remarkable, in 
her effigy. Lady Harcourt wears the Garter of the Order 
hucTded about her left arm, No. 292, precisely as it is worn hy 
Her Majesty the Queen. See Chap. XX., Section 7. 

Garter-Plate : — see Stall-Plate. 

Gonfannon : — a Flag suspended from a transverse bar 
attached to a staff, and commonly swallow-tailed at the " ny," ')?.>;• 
as in No. 293, PI. XXIX. l-^es 

Grand Quarters : — the primary sections of a quartered Shield. 
See Chap. III., No. 16. 

G^des : — the Colour Bed. 

Hatchment .-—the Armorial Bearings of a deceased person, 
usually enclosed within a black lozenge-shaped frame, and placed 
upon a house-front. When a Hatchment is erected on the JU**' 
death of a Husband, the Dexter half of the Field of the Hatch- 
ment itself is Sahle, the Sinister being Argent. On the death 
of a Wife, this order of the Tinctures is reversed. The Whole \/ 
of its Field is Scible, when a Hatchment bears the aims of a 
Widower, a Widow, or an Unmarried Person. In the blazoning 
of Hatchments all the rules of Marshalling are to be carefully 
observed. The Tinctures, Argent and Sable, of the Field of 
Hatchments will require lo be thoughtfully adjusted, when 
there are many quarterings and other heraldic combinations. 
See Chaps. XIV. and XXX. It is customary to jjlace on a 
Hatchment some brief legend of a religious character, in place 
of the Motto of the deceased. 



Helm, Heaume, or Helmet: — the defence for the Ilead. In 
the middle ages, the Knights wore a second Helm of ample 
dimensions and great strength when in actual action, whether 
in the Field or[ the Lists. This gi'eat Helm was commonly 


made to rest upon the shoulders, and was secured to the 
Knight's person by a chain, as in the Brass to Sir E. de Trump- 
INGTON. In monumental efSgies the gi'eat Helm frequently 
forms a characteristic pillow for the head of the deceased 
warrior, and it is adorned with its Crest, WreatJi, and Mantling. 
Occasionally, after the year 1425, the smaller Helm is similarl^l ",i^ ;t^^, . 
used, and the efiSgy has the Head uncovered. Beneath the I '^J^'"' *^ 
great Helm the head was protected by a Coif of Mail, and 
sometimes also by a species of close-fitting steel cap. A small 
Helm, known as a Basinet, was introduced early in the four- 
teenth century, from which a Tippet-like defence of Mail, 
called the Gamail, hung down and covered the neck and 
shoulders. The Basinet and Camail of the Black Prixck are 
shown in No. 279 b, p. 102 ; see also other examples in PI. XVI. r' ^ 
The Camail was superseded by a Gorget of plate about the 
year 1408. 

Modern Heralds place the Helm, as an accessory, above a \/ 
shield of arms'^ and they have both introduced fanciful and 
singularly unbecoming fonns of Helms, and have adopted ab- 
surdly complicated rules for their disposition. Such rules 
were altogether unknown in the palmy days of early Heraldry, 
and they might be advantageously dism issed from the heraldic 
usages of our own times. No. 264, and Nos. 611, 612 in PL 
XL v., represent such Helms as might be uniformly introduced 
into all rnodern Achievements of Arms. No. 264 is the Helm 
of Sir Edward de Thorpe, a.d. 1418, and Nos. 611 and 612 
are severally the Helms of the Black Prinxe, at Canterbury, 
and of Ealph, Lord Bassett, K.G., upon his Garter-Plate. 
See Chap. XVII., Section 2. The rules at present generally 
observed are as follows : The Helm of the Sovereign to be of 



Gold, and to stand affrontee, being guarded with six Bars, No. 
294. The Helm of Princes and Nobles to be of Silver, decorated 


No. 2G4.— Helm, Crest, &e., of Sir E. de THOnrE, ^\). i(r^)^^, hST 

with Gold; to stand in profile, and to show fi,ve Bars only. 
No. 295. The Helm of Baronets and Knights to be of Steel, 


No. 294. 

No. 295. 


adorned with Silver, and to stand affrontee, having the Vizor 
raised and ivithont Bars, No. 290. The Helm of Esquires and 
Gentlemen to have the Vizor closed, and to stand in profile, No. 

Heralds : — the Officers who preside over the Modcni 


irERALDiiY of England, and who derive both their titles and 
their official duties from times long passed away, as their 

No. 290. No. 297. 

predecessors of the middle ages were themselves officially 
ihe descendants and representatives of the Eoyal Messengers 
and Ambassadors of Antiquity. 

The exclusive privilege of deciding officially respecting Eights 
of Arms and Claims for Descent was bestowed upon the Heralds 
by Edward III., and about the year 1425 they were regularly 
constituted a Corporate Body. Their official residence, situated 
between St. Paul's Cathedral and the Thames, stands upon the 
site of Derby House, which was given to them by Mary and 
Philip, and was afterwards destroyed in the Great Fire, 

The College of Arms, or Heralds' College, as at present 
constituted, consists of Three Kings-of-Arms, entitled Garter, 
Clarenceux, and Norroy ; of these Garter is the Chief, and 
Clarenceux and Norroy have jurisdiction severally to the South 
and North of the Trent : of 

Six Heralds, entitled Windsor, Chester, Lancaster, Somerset, 
TorJc, and Richmond : and of Four Pursuivants, Rouge Croix, 
Rouge Dragon, Bluemantle, and Portcullis. 

There is another King-of-Arms, styled Bath, or Gloucester, who 
has not a place in the Heraldic Chapter, whose jurisdiction ex- 
tends to the Principality of Wales. There are also two other 
Heraldic "Kings" — Lord Lyon, for Scotland, and Ulster, for 


Ireland. The Kings-op- Amis have a Croim composed of sixteen 
\^^^l ^^^^ leaves, No, 298, Chap. XXI., set erect upon a golden circle, 
^j>.M,««»e of which leaves appear in representations. The Cro^vn 
encloses a Cap of crimson satin turned up with EiToine, and it 
is sui-mounted by a golden Tassel ; and on the Circle itself is the 
Legend, Miserere mei Deiia secundum magnam misericonliam tuam. 
The Herald Kings also have their own official Arms, which they 
impale on the dexter side with their paternal Arms. See Chap. 

The Official Habit of all the Heralds is a Tabard, or sleeved 
Surcoat, upon which the Eoyal Arms are emblazoned, the 
Blazonry being repeated on the Front, Back, and Sleeves. All 
the Heralds also wear, as part of their Official Insignia, the 
Lancastrian Collar of SS. See Tabard, in this Chapter, and j^.'J 
Chap. XX. 

At the Head of the whole Heraldic Brotherhood, having 
his high Commission direct from the Sovereign, is the Earl 
Marshal of England. This Office is held by the Duke of 
Norfolk, and it is hereditary in his family. The Arms of 
his Grace quarter the hereditary Insignia of Howard, Brother- 
ton, Warren, and Mowbray, and behind the Shield, crossed 
in saltire, are two MarsliaVs Staves or, enamelled at the ends 
UlC sable; No. 229, Chap. XXVII. For the blazon of the 

Arms of the Heralds' College, see Chap. XXL, Section 7, b../| 
and the Example, No. 602, at the commencement of Chap. 
\\.u.n,i XXVI. The Heralds of Scotland, in addition to the " Lord 
Lyon," are entitled, Islay, Botliesaij, Marchmont, Albany, Boss 
and Snowdon, with six Pursuivants. 

The present duties of Heralds comprise Grants of Arms; 
the Tracing and Drawing up of Genealogies; the L'ccording 
Arms and Genealogies in the Kegisters of the Heralds' College ; 
recording the Creation and Succession of Peers and others, 
with all similar matters, including the Direction of Eoyal 
Pageants and Ceremonials. 



j.y Hand' Point : — see Chap. III., and No. 8 l. 

Hospitallers : — see Chap. XX. 

lUuminaiion : — for a full and most satisfactory notice of this 
beautiful Early Art, now happily revived, I must refer to the 

" Manual of Illumination," by luji 1 Iiid fiwil, Mr. J. J. Laing, n^^'^'A 

published by Messrs. Winsor and Newton : see Chap. XXV. |im:j-'<^ 

Imj^alement : — tbe vertical division of a Shield into two or 
more equal parts, and the placing /two or more distinct Coats ^/ / 
of Arms severally in those parts. This is the prevailing 
arrangement for uniting the arms of a Husband and a Wife. ntKAAi^u 
In the Impalement of a Bordure, that Subordinary now is 
^ always dimidiated — that is, the Bordure does not extend to the 
.tty^'^ impaled side of the Shield. It is the same also with an imjjaled 
(*^ Treasure. See D«rm'c?/a^»o», and Cbap. XIV. p' 1357 

Jousts : — tournaments. 

Jupon : — a Short Surcoat fitting the person, without sleeves, 
worn over their armour by the Nobles and Knights of the 
Middle Ages, from about a.d. 1360, to about a.d. 1405. The 
Jupon was generally of rich materials, and emblazoned with 
the heraldic insignia of the wearer ; it was also almost in- 
variably invected or jagged at the bottom. Amongst very 
many others, fine examples exist in the Effigies of the Black 
Prince, at Canterbury, and of the Earl of Warwick (a 
Brass, a.d. 1401), at St. Mary's, Warwick, j. The Surcoats 
represented in the Effigies^ of John de Hastings, Earl of 
Pembroke, No. 338, PI. XXI., and of Henry Plantagenet, ' /' 
Duke of Lancaster, No. 488 a, Pl. LXIII., both from the Brass h ,2i^ 
at Elsyng in Norfolk, are somewhat longer than the Jupon. 

King-at-Arms : — see Herald. 

Knight: — in Latin, "Eques;" a mounted Warrior, who in 
the Middle Ages was a man of military rank, entitled to bear 
a Pennon and a Shield of Arms, and further distinguished b}' 
his Golden Spurs. When used alone, the term now denotes a 
rank somewhat resembling that of a Baronet, except in the 



important particular that it is not hereditary. TJie Orders of 
Knighthood of our own day, like those of the days of i\Iediaeval 
Chivalry, are Fraternities of Honour : see Chap. XX, 

Knight-Banneret : — see Banneret. 

Lambrequin : — see Mantling. 

lAsts : — enclosed spaces for holding Tournaments. 

Livery Colours : — colours adopted by certain eminent person- 
ages and families, for various decorative uses : as, scarlet and 
white, by the Planta genets ; blue and white, by the Lancas- 
trians ; blue and crimson, by the House of York ; white and 
green, by the Tudors ; gold and scarlet, by the Stuarts, &c. 

Maintenance, Cap of: — also called a Chapeau of Estate, was 
an early symbol of high Dignity and Eank. It appears sup- 
porting the Crest of the Black Prince at Canterbuiy, No. 263, 
y^U PI. XXVI. This Cap is still retained in use, and is occa-' 
sionally placed beneath modem Crests in place of the customary 
Wreath. In form, the Cap of Maintenance somewhat resem- 
bles the modern Scottish " Glengary," but it is made of Crirnson 



Velvet, and guarded with Ermine; No. 133 a, PI. VIII.: see 

1 ^' 


njt4 also No. 520, PI. XXX.; No. 267, PI. XXVI., and Nos. 451, Y 


521, PI. XLI. : also No. 199 a, p. 62. 

Mantle : — a long and flowing Robe, worn in the Middle Ages 
over the armour. The Mantle also constitutes an important 
part of the oflScial Insignia of the Knightly Orders. See Chap. 
XX. In the Middle Ages, Ladies of Eank wore similar 
Mantles, and in many instances they were decorated witli 
heraldic charges, in which case the Mantle generally bore either 
the Impaled Arms of the Lady and her Husband, or her Hus- 
band's Arms only. Numerous examples exist in Monumental 
Effigies ; as in the Brass at Enfield, a.d. 1446, to Lady Tiptoft, 
No. 300, PL XVII. : in this instance, hoAvever, the Mantle is 
charged with the impaled arms of the father and the mother of 
the wearer, Edward Baron Cherlton of Powys, and Alianore 
Holland, /nioi (n^ij h'^lLU^U^C h<A*^*0 ,lSh) : hu^-^^ I ,"243. 




Fictf^ xy:: 

EiS^y of Lsctj' Tiptof: . -A-ith. tne Snields of TiptcrL 3:±'of\^ys 


Mantling, or Lainhrequin : — a small Mantle, generally of 

crimson velvet or silk and lined with ermine, with tassel.s, 

attached to the Basinet or Helm, and hanging down over the 

shoulders of the wearer. In Herald rj', the Mantling is often 

so adjusted that it forms a background for the Shield and its 

accessories, and thus with them it constitutes an Achievement 

in. of Arms; No. 523, Chap. XVII.: or, it simply hangs in such 

/O ^ . 
a manner as to cover the back of the Helm, as in No. 301, PL I., 

the Achievement of Sir John Harsyck, a.d, 1384, at Southacre, 

Norfolk ; the Arms are, or, a chief dancettee az. ; and the Crest 

is, a panache of turkey's feathers sa., rising out of a hoop or : 

J^ see also No. G12, PI. XLV., and No. 264, p. 110. Another 
early example of a Mantling appears in the Brass to Sir Hugh 
Hastings, a.d, 1347, at Elsyng, Norfolk. The Knightly 
Mantling being necessarily much exposed, was constantly cut 
and torn in the melee; this is indicated by the jagged edges i'{r/Lj^ 
and irregular form given to their Mantlings by Heralds. I ^i"/'*^ 

In No, 408, the Mantling of John Daubygne', a.d. 1346, is 
arranged after a peculiarly graceful manner. This example 
illustrates the usage, prevalent in both the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth centuries, of differencing Mantlings with the same Charges 
that mark Cadency in Shields of Anns. This Mantling is - ^- 
semee of mullets. See Nos. 405, 406, 407, PI. XXVIII. The 'f 
Mantling of George Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of Clarence, is 
semee of the white roses of the House of York, No. 451, PI. 

1^14 LI. (Garter-Plat^f). No. 450, also in Plate LL, represents two 
portions of the Mantling of Henry Bourciiier, K.G., Earl of 
Essex, who died in 1483 ; here the crimson mantling itself is 
hillettee, or, and the lining is semee of small icater-hougets, sable ; 
(Garter-Plate, and Brass at Little Easton in Essex). The 
Mantling of John Bourchier, E.G., Lord Berners (died 
1449), is also hillettee, and its lining is semee alternately of Bour- ^ . 
cliier-hiots and loaler-hougets ; No. 450 a., PI. LXV. Sir E. 
Harcourt, K.G.. has his ermine-lined Mantling semee of quatrc- 

1 2 


foils, (Gai-ter-Plate). The Mantling of Kichard Widville, E.G., 
Earl Rivers, the father-in-law of Edward IV,, is semee of 
^0 trefoils; No. 450 b. Williaai, Lord Hastings, K.G. (executed 
by Richard III.) has his Mantling adorned with sprigs of 
flowers: James, Earl Douglas, the first Scottish K.G., has 
both his Mantling and the Cap of j\Iaintenance which sup- 
ports his Crest adorned with slips of leaves and flowers: and 
the Mantling of John, Lord Beaumont, K.G. (a.d. 1397), like 
the field of the Beaumont shield, is semee de lys, the lining 
being ermine; No. 450 c, PI. LXIV. (Garter-Plates). And, p i; 
once more, Henry V., who, as Prince of Wales, above his 
Shield in his Garter-Plate displays Helms and Crowns of both 
France and England, from his Helm pf France has the Mantling 
semee de lys. (Garter-Plate). 

The Mantling of Sir Hugh Courtenay, K.G. (died before 
1370), is a singular variety, being formed of Swan's feathers, 
like his Crest, inverted, and terminating in two golden tassels • 
(Garter-Plate). The achievement of Humphrey de Bohun, 
K.G., last Eai'l of Hereford, who died a.d. 1373, has a good 
example of a plain Mantling lined ^ith ermine, No. 629, PI. 
LXVI. : it must be understood, however, that the Garter-Plates (■^^ 
which are charged with these achievements of arms were not 
blazoned and fixed in their places in St. George's Chapel until 
several years after the commencement of the second quarter of 
the fifteenth century. 

As a general rule, the Mantling is of the Metal and Colour 
of the arms; or, if there be more than one metal and colour, 
of those that are of the chief importance. This rule obtains in 
the Heraldry of the Continent. See Chap. XXXII. The 
Mantling may, perhaps, be considered to have been derived 
from the Contoise, worn by the Knights of an earlier period. 
See Contoise : see also Chap. XVII., Section 2. 

Marquess : — (sometimes also Marquis), the Second Order of 
English Nobility, in rank next to that of Duke. The first 






lastEari of iiereford Essex & iNortha3nptcni, died AD 1373, 

Date -f -S ^-:^- !^ate,abo-ut 1440 fi.'S 


^Ljkrtw^M vvia>^<-W tov*v| jovW^v c 



Marquess in England was ItonEUT de Vere, Earl of Oxford, 
who by Richard II., a. p. 1387, was created Marquess of 
Dublin. This Eank and Title then, with one other exception 
only, lay dormant until the time of Henry VI. A Marquess 
is " Most Honourable," and is styled " My Lord Marquess ;" 
his sons are all " Lords," and his daughters " Ladies," his 
eldest son bearing the Second Title of his father. The Coronet 
is a circlet of gold, from which there arise four strawberry- 
leaves and as many pearls alternately, all of them being but 
slightly raised, and of equal height ; in representations two of 
the pearls and three of the leaves are seen, Ko. 302 ; also, Ko. 

No. 302. 

362 A, PI. LXIV. The Cap is the same as in the other Coronets. 
The Mantle of Parliament is Scarlet, and it has three and a half 
doublings of Ermine. The wife of a Marquess is styled a Mar- 
chioness. See Coronet. 

Marshalling : — the arrangement and aggroupment of Heraldic 
Compositions. See Chap. XIV. 

Medals : — honourable insignia, bestowed for meritorious 
service in the Navy and Army, and also for eminent worth or 
noble conduct of whatever kind. In very rare instances the \ 
Medal itself has an intrinsic value, but the prevailing usage 
is that the worth of this decoration of Honour should consist 
exclusively in its associations. See Chap. XX., Sections 13, 15, 
and 17. 

Metals: — in Heraldry, Gold, Or, and Silver, Argent. 

Merchants' Marhs : — devices that were adopted, as a species 


of Mercantile Heraldry, by the wealthy Merchants of the Middle 
Ages, to whom the use of true heraldic insignia originally was 
not conceded. They repeatedly occur in monumental memo- 
rials, and consist of a monogram of the initials of the Merchant, 
with a compound figure, which is in part a cross, and in part 
is derived from a mast of a ship. These Marks were often 
borne on shields, and they may be considered to be the prot o- 
types of the Trade Brands and Marks of our own times. The 
Example, No. 303, PI. XIII., is from the Brass to Thomaa 
Pownder, a.d. 1525, in the Church of St. Mary Quay, Ipswich. 
In the Brass to William Grevel, a.d. 1401, at Chipping 
Campden, there are both a Merchant's Mark and a Shield of 
Arms, (the shield is represented in No. 396, PI. XXXVII.) ; and 
the Brass to John Terri, a.d. 1524, at St. John's, Maddermarket, 
Norwich, has a shield which quarters the arms of a commercial 
guild with a merchant's mark. 

Merchants of the Staple, — of London and Calais, incoi-porated 
by Edward III. See Chap. XXI., Section 10. 

Merchants- Adventurers, — of Hamburgh and London, incor- 
porated by Edward I. See Chap. XXL, Section 10. 

Mitre: — the Cap of Official Eank and Dignity, placed above 
their Arms, and used as a Badge of their oflSce by the Arch- 
bishops and Bishops of the Church of England and Ireland, but 
worn only by prelates of the Roman Church. Mitres are 
always represented as golden, and the}' are aU cleft from the 
summit downwards, so that they terminate in two points. Two 
Infulcc, or ribbons fringed at the ends, depend from every Mitre. 
Until recent times all Mitres were so far alike that they were 
without any distinction whatever of ecclesiastical rank : thus, 
one of the finest and richest of the existing early examples is 
the Mitre represented in the Brass to Thomas Delamere, Abbot 
of St. Alban's (about a.d. 1375), in the Abbey Church of St. 
Alban : see also the examples at the head of this chapter, of 
which the latest is from the monument of Archbishop Samuel 



Harsnett, A.I). ICol. The Mitres of Archbishops are now gene- 
rally! represented rising from ducal coronets, as in No. 307 ; fitJ»A«^i^ 
but the Mitres of their Graces and also those of the Bishops 
all rise alike from plain golden circlets, in No. 30G. See 
Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, viii., 248, and ix., 67, 188, and 295. 
The Bishops of Durham, as nominally Counts Palatine of the I « i y. 
County of Durham as well as Bishops of the See, had their j IT- 7^ 
Mitres rising from a similar Coronet, as in No. 308. Curious ' 
examples of Mitres with Coronets, Feathers, and Creste, appear 

No. r.o«. 

No. 307. 

i\o. 308. 

on the Seals of Thomas de Hatfield, a.d. 1345 ; of John de 
FoRDHAM, 1382; of EoBERT DE Neville, 1438; and of Richard 




Fox, 1494, all of them Bishops of Dnihani. (See the Plates in 
SuRTEEs' History of Durham.) 

In the Middle Ages, Mitres underwent several important 
changes in their contour and general aspect. At first very 
low, simple, and concave in outline, during the fourteenth 
century they became more elevated, rich, and splendid. Still 
later. Mitres changed their contour from concave to convex, 
and were considerably elevated, and thus they assumed their 
present form and character. In Mediaeval Efiigies and Seals, 
Mitres are constantly represented with chai'acteristic accuracy. 
In No. 309, at the head of this chapter, I have given outlines 
from some of these examples for the sake of comparison ; they 
are from the Brasses to Archbishop Cranley, a.d. 1417, at 
Oxford; Bishop Goodryke, a.d. 1554, at Ely; and Archbishop 
Harsnett, a.d. 1631, at Chigwell, Essex. 

Monogram : — a single initial or other letter, also a combina- 
tion of several initials or letters, so arranged as to foiTQ a 
single compound device. A remarkable series of Monograms is 
carved in the bosses of the vaulted ceiling of the Divinity School, 

Motto : — a woi-d or a brief epigrammatic sentence, supposed 
to be in some manner characteristic of the Bearer, and usually 
placed on a scroll either beneath a shield, or about a crest. 
The latter position should be adopted when the Motto has, 
evident reference to the crest itself. When no Helm is intro- 
duced, the Motto may be efiectively placed between the Shield 
and the Crest. A Motto may also be charged upon a garter. - 
In Heraldry, as a law, a Motto is not held to be hereditarj^ 
but is supposed to be of a strictly personal character ; in almost 
every instance, however, in actual usage, the Motto is trans- 
mitted and borae with the Shield and Crest. Mottoes are not 
borne by Bishops. See Behus ; and see Chap. XVII., Section 6. 

Mound .-—see Chap. XIX., Section 6. 

Norroy : — see Herald. 


Nova Scotia, Arms of: — see Baronet. 

Or .-—the Metal Gold. 

Orders of Knighthood : — see Chap. XX. 

Ordinary of Arms : — a series of Heraldic Bearings, or Coats 
of Arms, classified and arranged in accordance with the princi- 
pal Charges, and having the names of the Bearers attached. It 
is the reverse of an Armoury. 

Panache : — a Plume of Feathers, generally those of the 
peacock, set upright, so as to form a Crest. Such a decoration ' 
for the Helm appears to have been occasionally in use from an | 
early period until the" concluding quarter of the fifteenth | 
century, when waving plumes were first introduced. The [ 
Panache was almost always regarded as a Crest. It appears 
in the Brass to Lord Ferrers, of Chartley, about a.d. 1410, at 
Mere vale, in Warwickshire, Xo. 267 A, PI. XXVI. ; also, but 
not of peacock's feathers, in the sculptured effigy of Sir T. 
Arderne, a. p. 1400, at Elford, in Staffordshire : and again in 
the Brass to Sir J. Harsyck, a.d. 1384, at Southacre, Norfolk, 
No. 301, PI. I. The Mortimers had for their Crest a 
Panache of many azure feathers, rising from a Crest-Coronet ; 
No. 269, PL XXVL, and No. 270, Chap. XXIV. Another 
example of a Panache is represented in No. 522, which is the 
Crest of John, Lord Scrope, K.G. See Chap. XXVIL, Sec. I. 

Paschal Lamb : — a White Lamb, passant, represented as 
carrying the Eed Cross Banner or Pennon of St. George. It 
was a device of the Knights Templars. 

Pean : — an heraldic Fur. See Chap. IV. 

Peer : — the general title of the Nobility of Great Britain, in- 
dicating their equality of rank as a class, as the " Nobles," dis- 
tinguished from the " Commons," of the realm. For the 
History, Succession, Honours, Arms, Privileges, &c., of the Peers, 
I must refer to the " Peei-age" hy Sir Bernard Burke, Ulstei- 
King at Arms, publisbed every year, and to the other Peerages. 

Pennon : — a small pointed or swallow-tailed Flag, carried by 



every mediajval Knight upon his own Lance, and which bore 
his own personal Device. The Pennon appears to have been 
adopted in its distinctive character during the reign of Henry 
III. My example, No. 310, PI. XXIX., from the Brass to Sir 
John D'Aubernoun, at Stoke Daubernon, Surrey, is of the 
period of Edward I. ; it is azure, charged icith a chevron and 
fringed or : see Chap. XVIII. 

Pennoncelle : — a long streamer-like Pennon. 

Planta Genista : — the Broom-plant, the celebrated Badge of 
the Plantagenet Princes, which was assumed and borne by Geof- 
frey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, the Founder of the Plan- 
tagenet Family. In Heraldry, a sprig of the Broom appears 
with its spike-like leaves, its golden blossoms, and its pods, the 
latter sometimes open and disclosing their seeds. The effigy of 
Richard II., at Westminster, has the Dalmatic and Mantle 
diapered with the Plantagenista (No. 240, PL XII.), and the other 
badges of that unfortunate Prince. The pod of the pea-plant 
is used somewhat after a similar manner in the Brass to 
Walter Pescod, Merchant, a.d. 1398, at Boston, in Lincolnshire. 

Plume : — see Panache. 

Portcullis : — see Herald ; also see Portcullis in Chap. IX. 

Potent : — an Heraldic Fur. See Chap. IV. 

Powdering : — scattering irregularly over a.nj field : specially 
applied to small objects. 

Prince and Princess: — see Chap. XIX., Section 6. 

Purpure : — the colour Purple. 

Pursuivant :— a, Herald of the lowest rank. For the sake of 
distinction, the Pursuivants wore their Tabards having the 
sleeves hanging in front and behind, not being allowed to wear 
them as the Heralds wore their sleeves. This singular usage is 
distinctly marked in the representation of the Funeral Proces- 
sion of Queen Elizabeth, in the " Vetusta Monumenta," vol. iii., 
Plates XVIII. to XXIV. 

Quartering : — the arranging different armorial compositions 


in those divisions of a shield, which are either four or more than 
four in number. iSee Chap. XIV. 

Quarterings : — quarterly divisions of a shield ; also the anns 
emblazoned upon such divisions. 

Behiis : — a charge or charges, or any heraldic composition 
which has an allusion to the name of the bearer, or to his i 
profession, or his personal characteristics, and thus may be * ■y^ /r 
said to speak to the beholder, " non verbis, sed rebus." For i ■'* ^^^*^ 
example, three salmons for the name Salmon ; a spear on a 
bend for Shakspeare, &c., &c. In the Middle Ages, the Eebus 
was a favourite form of heraldic expression, and many quaint 
and curious examples remain of such devices : for instance, 
the monument of Abbot Bamryijlge, at St, Alban's, abounds in 
figures of Bams, each of which has, on a collar about its neck, 
the letters rydge : these Eams, which are sculptured with 
remarkable spirit, support the Shield of Arms of the Abbey of 
St. Alban, — az., a saltire or; Xos. 623, 711, 712, PL LXXYII. ; 
see also Chap. XVII., Section 3, and Chaps. XXIII. and XXX, 
An Ash tree growing out of a Cask or Tun, for the name Asliton, at 
St. John's, Cambridge, is another example of a numerous series. 
The tun, to represent the terminal syllable " ton," was in great 
favour ; see Tun, in Chap. IX. ; thus at Winchester, in the 
Chantry of Bishop Laxgton, a.d. 1 500, a musical note called 
a long is inserted into a tun, for Langton ; a vine and a tun, for 
his See, Winton ; and a hen sitting on a tun, for his Prior, 
Hunton. In No. 628, drawn from the panelling of the Chan- 
try of Bishop Oldham, a.d. 1519, in Exeter Cathedral, the 
owl with the label in its beak charged with the letters dom, 
forms what was held to be a Eebus of the Bishop's name — 
Oicl-dom, Old-ham. About the same period, in the sculjDtures 
of Norwich Cathedral, Bishop Walter Lyhart has his Eebus 
many times repeated ; it is a stag or hart lying dmcn in a 
conventional representation of icater : this is carrying the 
principle of the Eebus about as far as it can be carried. 


Another curious and characteristic example of a Rehus occurs 
CAtll '" *^^ monument of Sir .Toh\ Pkche, at LuUingstone, Kent, 


No. 628. — Kebus of Bishop Oldham, Exeter Cathedral. 

A.D. 1522, and also in the stained glass of the chapel in which 
this monument is preserved : the shield of arms of Sir John 
Peche (az., a lion rampt. queue fourcliee erm., crowned or), is sur- 
rounded by branches of a peach-tree, each peach being charged tcith 
the letter £ ; also the crest, a lion's head crowned, stands upon a 
toreaih of peach-branches fruited, the peaches charged as before. See 

In Westminster Abbey, Abbot Islip's Chapel gives two forms 
of his Rebus ; one, a human Eye, and a small branch or " Slip " 
of a tree ; the other, a man in the act of falling from a tree, 
and exclaiming, " I slip .'" Such heraldic puns are distin- 
guished as Canting Heraldry. This system extends to mottoes, 
as in the well-known instance of the Vernons, whose motto is 
" Ver non semper viret." 

This Canting Heraldry, which was carried to so strange an 

excess in the sixteenth century, had a prevailing influence un- 

} der a much simpler form of expression with the early Heralds. 

A searching investigation, indeed, of the true origin of the 

I surnames of the men who in the thirteenth and fourteenth 

; centuries bore arms, would go far to show that an allusive 

j connection between names and arms was so prevalent, as to 

;' constitute the general rule. Names have undergone many 

changes, partly through translation from their original Norman- 


French or Latin, partly from a combination of the Latin and 
the Xorman-French versions of the same name, and in part 
from variations of orthography ; and the armorial devices and 
compositions having also commonly lost their original Norman- 
French titles and descriptions, the allusive nature of the 
early Heraldry has ceased to he palpable, and therefore has in 
a great measure ceased to be recognized. It is of the very j 
essence of all Heraldry, however, that in some respect or degree i 
it should be allusive — sho uld have in it something^qf the Eebus j ! 
other wise it w o uld not fulfil its aim a nd purpose of being a 
symbolic al language. A few examples from the early EoUs of 
Arms will suffice to illustrate the manner in which shields of 
arms were Armes Parlantes in the olden time : 

A Cross Moline, borne by De Molines, or Molyneux. 

Three Hammers, (French Martel), by John Martel, and by 
the Hammertons. 

Two Trumpets, by De Trumplngdon. 

Horseshoes, by De Ferrers. 

Tliree human hands, by Tremaln. 

l^iree Boars' heads, by Swyneburne. 

A Hart, by De Hertley. 

A Bear, by Fitz Urse. 

Bams, by Eamsey. 

Tliree Otters (French, Loutres), by Luttrel. 

Martlets, by De Merley. 

Three Ravens, by Corbett. 

Tliree Lucies (Lucy, a pike), by De Lucy. 

Tliree Laurel Leaves, by Leveson. 

Tliree Hedge-Hogs (French, Herrison), by De Heriz or 
Harris. (Example on the shield of an eflSgy at Gonaldston 
Xotts ; also, as a Badge, in a Brass at Diggeswell, Herts). 

Two Barbels, for De Barre : &c., &c. 

Begalia : — the insignia of Eoyalty. See Chap. XIX. 

Boll of Arms : — an heraldic record with a blazon of Arms, 





^icttui . h 

usually written and illuminated upon a long strip of vellum, 
and rolled up instead of being folded into leaves. The earliest 
English Bolls are of the reign of Henry III. ; and the earlier of 
these contains almost a complete Baronial Armoury of that pe- 
riod, the shields of arms being two hundred and sixteen in number. 

Bose : — the badge of England. See Bose in Chap. XI. 

Bouge Croix : — see Herald. 

Bouge Dragon : — see Herald. 

Sable : — the colour Black. 

St. Allan : — the English Protomartyr. The arms of the 
famous Abbey that bore his name were, az., a saltire or : 
see No. 466, PI. LI. A figui-e supposed to represent St. Alban 
appears in the canopy of the Brass to Abbot Delamere, about 
A.D. 1375, still preserved in the Abbey Church of St. Alban. 

;S'^. Andrew : — the Patron Saint of Scotland. His arms are, 
azure, a saltire argent ; No. 60, PI. III. 

St. Edmund : — one of the fixvourite popular Saints of mediaeval 
England. His arms are, azure, three crowns, two and one, or; 
No. 271, PI. XIV. 

St. Edward, or Edward the Cfonfessor : — another popular 
Saint of the olden time. His arms are, azure, a cross fleurie. 

ftfcOJ- between five martlets, or. Sometimes the cross is blazoned pa- 
tonce, as in Westminster Abbey ; and sometimes fleurettee, as in 
the stalls at Luton Church in Bedfordshire. There is a fine 
example of this shield, executed in relief, and diapered, in the 
South Choir Aisle of Westminster Abbey, No. 78, PI. I. ; also, 
another fine example at the entrance to Westminster Hall. 
This coat of arms was impaled by Eichard II., Nos. 349, 350, 
PI. XXriI. ; No. 636 c, PI. LVIII. ; and No. 529, PL XXXV. ; 
and it was also granted by him to some of his near kinsmen. 
Thus, the arms of the Coxfessor were granted to Thomas 
Holland, second Earl of Kent and Duke of Surrey, to be 
impaled to the dexter within a bordure ermine; No. 342, PI. 
XXII,; to John Holland, K.G., first Duke of Exeter, to be 


differenced with a label argent, and impaled to the dexter ; 
and to Thomas Mowbray, K.G., first Duke of Norfolk, the 
arms of the Confessor were also granted, icitli tico ostrich fea- 
thers erect, the arms to be impaled to the dexter, toithout differ- 
ence ; Xos. G31, 632, PL LXV. Henry Bolingbroke assumed 
the arms of the Confessor, and impaled them, differenced 
with a label of three points, to the dexter of his own impaled 
shield ; No. 347, Chap. XIV. It was one of the capital charges 
against the Duke of Norfolk, in 1546, that he had assumed 
this coat of arms. See Chap. XY., Martlets. 

St. George : — the Patron Saint of England. The incident (if 
au}') which led to the association of St. George with England 
is unknown. The aims of this illustrious saint are, argent, a 
cross gules; Xo. 62, PI. III. I am not able to refer to any 
earlier example of the arms of St. George, as borne by the 
saintly warrior himself, than that which occurs in the Brass to 
Sir Hugh Hastings, at Elsjoig, Norfolk, a.d. 1347, No. 311, 
PI. XXIX. In the canopy of this fine Brass, St. George ap- 
pears mounted and transfixing the Dragon, and he has his 
Cross charged upon his Shield, his Surcoat, and the Bardings 
of his charger. Another small figure of St. George on foot, 
Avith his shield duly charged, is introduced into the canopy of 
the Brass to Sir Nicholas Hawberk, a.d. 1407, at Cobham, in 
Kent. St. George appears upon the Great Seal of Edward HI., 
A.D, 1360 : and in the Eoll of Caerlaverock, a.d. 1300, the Ban- 
ner of St. George is mentioned, with the Banners of St. 
Edmund and St. Edward, but these saintly ensigns are not 
blazoned. The arms of St. George are also mentioned in the 
inventory of the Earl of Hereford, a.d, 1322, Each of the 
large shields upon the Monument of Edward HI. is charged 
with a Eed Cross, but the field now is or and not argent. In 
illuminations of the fourteenth century', a portraiture of St. 
George and the Dragon appears upon some of the standards of 



St. Michael: — see Chap. XX., Section 11; also, Chap. XXIV., 
Section 2. 

St. Patrick: — the Patron Saint of Ireland. His Arms are, 
argent, a saltire gules ; No. 61, PI. III. 

Second Title : — this expression denotes the second in a series 
of dignities, accumulated in the persons of Peers of the 
higher ranks. Thus, each Peer, in addition to the highest 
rank that he holds, and by which he is himself known, also 
generally enjoys the several lower ranks besides : for example, 
— an Earl may be also a Viscount and a Baron ; a Marquis 
may also be an Earl, a Viscount, and a Baron; and a Duke 
may hold, with his Dukedom, all the lower grades of the 
peerage. In any such case, the second in the order of these 
lesser titles is conceded " by courtesy " to the eldest son of either 
a Duke, a Marquis, or an Earl. 

Shamrock ;-^the badge of Ireland. 

Shield .'—see Chap. III., also Shield in Chap. IX. 

Sinister : — the left side ; see Xo. 8 in Chap. III. 

S.S., Collar of: — the Badge of the Lancastrian Princes 
and their Friends, Partisans, and Dependents : see Chap. XX., 
Section 5. 

Standard : — a Mediaeval Flag, apparently introduced during the 
reign of Edward III., which was always of considerable length 
in pi'oportion to its depth, and was made tapering (sometimes 
swallow-tailed), towards the fly. Standards appear to have 
been always large, but their dimensions were determined by 
the rank of the personages by whom they were displayed. The 
devices charged upon early Standards were not determined 
by any heraldic rule ; but it was a prevalent custom to charge 
them with numerous and varied devices. Edward III. had one 
Standard with figures of St. George and the Dragon; and 
another semee of Fleurs-de-lys and Lions, with France and 
England quarterly at its head; No. 312, PI. XXIX. The 
Standard of the Earl of Warwick had the Cross of St. George 


at tho head, and was semee witli his Badge of the Bear and 1/ 
the Kagged Staff; No. 313, PL XXXV. Except when they 
bore Eoyal Devices, the English Standards of the Tudor era 
universally had the Cross of St. George at their head ; then 
came the Device, Badge, or Crest of the Owner, with his Motto. 
I, Standards never bore a regular Coat of Arms. They were dis- 
V tributed amongst the Corps of any Baron, Knight, or other 
Commander, and were displayed without a distinctive or special 
signification (as was so emphatically the case with both the 
Pennon and the Banner,) as decorative accessories which might 
enhance " the pomp and circumstance of War." Examples, 
Nos. 315 and 316, PI. XXIX., are two Standards of Henry 
VIII., drawn from the curious picture at Hampton Court, repre- 
senting his embarkation at Dover for France, on the occasion of 
the "Field of the Cloth of Gold." Both display the Tudor 
Livery Colours, argent and vert; one has a Fleur-de-lys charged 
upon these Colours, and the other has the Cross of St, George 
at the Head. In the Funeral Procession of Queen Elizabeth 
there are many curious examples of Tudor Standards : ( Vetust. 
Mon., iii., 18, &c.) See Chap. XVIII. 

Stall-Plaie : — a square or oblong plate of gilt copper, upon 
which the Arms of Knights of the Garter and the Bath are em- 
blazoned, and fixed in their stalls in the Chapels of St. George 
at Windsor, and of Henry VII. at W^estminster. The arms 
of the Esquires of the Bath are similarly disj^laj'ed and re- 
corded in the lower range of Stalls. The Stall-Plates of the | 
Garter are amongst the most interesting and valuable of the ( ^ 
Historical records that the Heraldry of England possesses: 
these Plates are so arranged at Windsor, that the Shields of 
arms on both sides of the Chapel face towards the Stalls of the 
Sovereign and the Prince of Wales at the western extremity 
of the choir; consequently, the Shields on the Prince's side 
sometimes appear to be reversed. 

It is not known whether Plates with the armorial insignia of 






the Knights were fixed in the Stalls at Windsor at, or soon 

after the first institution of the Order of the Garter, 

The Plates now in existence cannot be assigned to a period 

earlier than the commencement of the reign of H enry VI. ; the 

forms of the helm?, indeed, the adjustment of the mantlings, 

' and the drawing of the lions, are conclusive in determining the 

era of the Plates to be that of the fifteenth centurj,\ Possibly, 

;: some of the earliest of the existing Plates may have been copied 

j from still earlier records of a similar class ; and the earliest 

i Shields of arms ma}' have had their blazonry determined by the 

seals and other authoritative heraldic relics of the Personages 

to whom they belong; but this is doubtful, since more than 

one Garter-Plate of the Plantagenet Princes bears France 

modern in the first and fourth quarters, whereas it is certain 

j that these Princes themselves in their lifetime quartered 

I France ancient. The usage of encircling the Shield with the 

j Garter of the Order did not prevail until the reign of Henry 

I VII. A most valuable collection of tracings from the Garter 

Plates by Leake ^^is presei'ved in the College of Arms ; and 

happily "Garter" is a vigilant observer of the safe keeping 

of the original Plates. 

Star : — an Ensign of Knightly Pank, common to the He- 
raldry of every civilized people. See Chap. XX. 
Star of India .-—see Chap. XX., Section 12. 
Suns and Hoses: — see Yorkist Collar. 

Super-Charge .-—one Device or Figure charged upon another. 
Supporter : — a Figure, whether of a human or of an imagi- 
nary being, or of any living creature of whatever kind, which 
stands on one side of a Shield, or sometimes behind it, as if in 
the act of holding the Shield up {supporting it), or guarding it. 
Supporters generally appear in pairs, one to the Dexter and the 
other to the Sinister of the Shield ; in the greater number of 
examples they are both alike, but frequently they are altogether 
distinct from one another, as in the instance of the Royal Sup- 



porters of England, the Lion and the Unicom. See Supporters, 
in Chap. XVII., Section 3. 

^|t-ff"^)e Surcoat : — a long, loose, and flowing garment of rich mate- -^ 
rials, worn by the early Knights over their armour. It was 

yj ^ sometimes charged with the aiinorial insignia of the Wearer, 
as in the Brass at Chartham, in Kent, to Sir Robert De Setvans, 
about A.D. 1305. About the year 1325 the Surcoat began to 
be superseded by a singular Garment entitled a Cyclas, which, H 
while long and flowiag behind, was cut off short in the front. 
The Brass to Sir John D'Aubernoun the younger, a.d. 1327, A"/' 4/ 
and the sculptured Effigy of Prince John Plantagenet, of 
Eltham, a.d. 1337, afford admii-able examples. About a.d. 1345 
the Cyclas was shortened behind, and about 1355 it was super- 
seded by the Jupon. 

Tabard : — the Garment that was worn by the Knights of the 
Tudor Era. When the Jupon ceased to be worn, about a.d. ' 
1405, the splendid Panoply of Plate Armour was not covered ^ 

No. 630.— Tabard of John Feld, Esq., A.u. 1477. 

by any Garment, until after 1450, when the Tabard was 
introduced. It was short, and had wide sleeves reaching to 

K 2 

'^^K;:H7HTn»3L,x ,^. \S ^f 1^7- ^•:i;.^2. 

,1 I.. A, fc- r4 


the elbows; and the arms of the wearer were displayed on 
both the front and back of the Tabard itself, and of its sleeves. 
The Brasses to Sir John Say, a.d. 1473, at Broxbourne, Herts; 
to John Feld, Esq., a.d. 1477, at Standon, Herts; and to 
Peter Gerard, Esq., a.d. 1492, at Winwick, Lancashire, are 
good examples. No. 630 represents the Tabard of John Feld, 
with its armorial blazonry, — gii., a fesse or, between three eagles 
displayed arg., guttees du sang. One eagle only is visible above 
the fesso on the sleeves. An excellent example of the military 
Tabard in its earliest and partially developed form appears in 
the sculptured effigy of John Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, 
a.d. 1434, at Arundel. This Tabard has the sleeves adjusted 
more closely about the upper arms than was the custom at a 
later period; it is charged with the quartered arms of Fitz- 
Alan and Maltravers. The Tabard remains in use as the Offi- 
cial Habit of Heralds, b i?.-/ 

Templars : — see Chap. XX,, Section 2. 

Thistle : — the Badge of Scotland : see Chapter XIX., Section 4. 
'' Timbre : — the Helm, when placed above the Shield in an 
Achievement of Arms ; No. 301, PI. I., &c. 

Tinctures : — the Metals, Colours, and Furs of Heraldry. See 
Chap. IV. 

Truncheon : — the official Badge of the Earl Marshal of Eng- 
land, consisting of a golden Pod, tipped at each end with 
black enamel, and having the Royal Arms blazoned on the 
upper, and the Earl Marshal's own arms on the lower end. It 
was gi-anted, with the Patent of the Earl Marshal's Office, in the 
ninth of Richard II., to Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Noitingham. 
See No. 299, Chap. XXVII. 

Ulster, Badge of: — see Baronet : also. No. 177, PI. IX. 

Vert : — the Colour Green. 

Victoria Cross: — see Chap. XX., Section 12. 

View : — the trail, or trace of any Animal of the Chase. 

Visitations, Heralds': — periodical Circuits performed at inter- 

(PH*iy*( ^t^'J.Jw^o^ tt^A^JUu V\(S^'^ (^^^iUpJI^ S8i} 


vals of about thirty years by the Heralds, under the authority 
of Royal Commissions, for the purpose of inquiring into all 
matters connected with the bearing of Arms, Genealogies, 
and similar subjects, for collecting information, and for drawing 
up authoritative Records. The earliest of these Visitations 
took place in the year 1413, but they did not become general 
until after the commencement of the sixteenth centmy. The 
latest Commission of Visitation bears date May 13, 1686. 
On these occasions the Heralds were attended by Registrars, 
Draftsmen, and other appropriate oflBcers. The Records of 
these Visitations are preserved in the College of Arms, and a 
large proportion of the hereditary Arms of the Realm is borne 
on their authority. 

Viscount : — the fourth Degi'ee and Title in the Order of Rank 
in the British Peerage, intervening between the Earl and the 
Baron. In Latin, Vice-Comes. This dignity was first granted 
by Henry VT., a.d. 1440, to John, Baron Beaumont, K.G. A 
Viscount is Bight Monourahle, and is styled " My Lord." His 
Sons and Daughters are Honourable. The Coronet, first granted 

No. 317. 
by James L, enclosing a Cap like those of the other Orders of 
Nobility, has a row of fourteen Pearls (smaller than those of 
the Baron's Coronet) set upon a Circle of Gold, the Pearls 
being in Contact. In representations nine of these Pearls are 
shown; No. 317. The Parliamentary Robe of a Viscount is 
scarlet, and it has two and a half Doublings of Eimine. The 
wife of a Viscount is styled a Viscountess. See Coronet. 

Wreath or Orle : — a Circlet entwined about a Helm to sup- 
port the Crest, and which is still represented as discharging 


that office beneath the greater number of the Crests of Modem 
Heraldry. This Wreath was formed of two Eounds or Eolls 
of Silk or other rich material, one of them of the principal 
Metal, and the other of the principal Colour in the Aims, which 
were twisted in such a manner as to show the Metal and the 
Colour in alternation, the Metal having the precedence in re- 
presentations ; Nos. 318, and 318 a, PI. XV. Many of the 
Mediaeval Helm-Wreaths were splendidly enriched ; and nu- 
merous fine examples exist in sculptured and engi-aven monu- 
mental effigies : Nos. 257, 258, PI. XVI., represent the close- 
fitting and the projecting types of Crest- Wreath, from the Effi- 
gies of Sir Hdgh Calveley, and of Ealph Neville, Earl of 
Westmoreland. The Crest-Wreath of Sir John Harsyck, a.d. 
1374, in his Brass at Southacre, No. 301, PI. I., is one of the 
earliest known examples ; but the Crest of Sir Hugh Hastings, 
in his Brass at Elsjmg, also in Norfolk, A.p. 1347 — it is a hull's 
head cowped — also rests upon a Crest- Wreath, which is carried by 
a helm with its mantling. See Crest in Chap. XVII., Section 2. 
TorJcist Badge and Collar : — formed of Suns and Roses. See 
Chap. XX., Section 6. 

No. 408. Acliievement of Arme of John Paubtgni^, a.d. 1345, from his 
raoQumental slab at Norton Brise, Oxfordshire. See p.j 48 and Chap. XV. 


4. 4* ^ 

Aa fiK aIa 

No, 335 A. Quartered Shield of Arms borne upon one of lier seala by 

Isabella, Queen of Edward II. See also No. 335 c, PI. LXXX. bb 15^ j '7' 



The Association of certain Heraldic Insignia, or " Arms," 
with the Possessors of certain Dignities or Properties, and the 
Transmission of the Heraldry with the Eank and Estates by 
Hereditary Descent, would often render it necessary for the 
same Individual to bear more than one Armorial Ensign, since 
instances might occur in which several Dignities with their 
appanages might become concentrated in a single person. So 
also with Families and Estates, it might happen that a single 
Individual would in some instances become the sole Representa- 
tive of several Houses, and the Possessor of Accumulated 
Properties. Again : Alliances might be formed between persons 
either entitled to bear the same Arms, or distinguished by 
different Heraldic Insignia, which Alliances Heraldry might 
both significantly declare and faithfully record. Hence arose 
the System which Heralds call Marshalling. 

This Marshalling, accordingly, is the practical application of 





the Principles wliicli guide Heralds in their owti treatment of 
Heraldry, when they would employ it to chronicle History, and 
to record Biography. 

With the right to possess and to bear Heraldic Insignia is 
directly associated the privilege to transmit and to inherit them. 
For while, in the first instance, strictly personal in their charac- 
ter, Arms, at a very early period in the History of Heraldry, 
were regarded and treated as hereditary possessions. Hence it 
becomes necessary that the Marshalling and the Inheritance 
OF Arms should be considered together. 

In the days of the early Heralds there existed a Court of 
Chivalry, which took cognizance of matters connected with the 
Inheritance and the Eight and Title to bear and to transmit 

I Arms ; but at the present day it would be difficult to appeal on 
any such points to higher or more definite authorities, than the 

\ XTsage of Heraldry and that prescrijitive right to which the 
power of Law is fre<iUGntly coucedud. 

Heraldic Insignia or " Arms " are unquestionably " property ;" 
and the lawful holder of Arms has in them a true estate in fee. 
This possession, however, is now subject to these two remark- 
able and important conditions : first, the lawful possessor of 
Arms does not possess any right or power to alienate them ; and, 
secondly, the inheritance of Arms is restricted to Heirs who are 
lineally descended from the first lawful possessor of those Arms. 
In the 14th and 15th centuries, indeed, deeds of questionable 
validity were frequently executed for alienating what may be 
entitled heraldic pioperty ; and in the 1 -Ith centuiy Arms were 
occasionally granted, without any restriction, to Heirs general : 
still, in our own times the general Rule obtains, on the one hand, 
that Arms cannot be alienated, and, on the other hand, that 
Arms can be inherited only by lineal descendants. Sound He- 
raldry certainly determines both that the tnie title to Arms is 
Inheritance, and that the true Inheritance of Arms descends 
with the direct lineage. 




It is also a general Eule of Ileialdry that the right to hold and V 
use the Arms of a Family appertains to the existing Head of such 
Family, and is possessed by him with his personal position, and 
with the family dignities and property that are vested in him. 

In tracing descent, male issue always has the preference ; and 
where there exist several male descendants equal in the degree 
of their hereditary relationship, the eldest always has the pre- 
ference. Should a male Heir of direct lineage fail, a female suc- 
ceeds ; and if there be several female descendants equal in degree 
they all inherit equally. 

The Heir, while he yet continues to be heir, bears the Arms 
of his Father (or other lineal progenitor), with the addition of 
that Difference which the usage of Cadency assigns to the Heir 
as his own proper distinctive mark. All the Sons also now bear 
their Father's Arms, in each case the appropriate mark of Ca- 
dency being added. It will be understood that neither the Heir 
nor the Cadets of any House bear the impaled Arms of their 
Father and Mother ; but, on the contrary, should their Father 
bear their Mother's Arms on an Escutcheon of Pretence, then 
i^^they all bear their Father's Arms charged with their Mother's 
Escutcheon of Pretence, their several Differences being charged 
upon their Father's Shield and not upon the Inescutcheon. , 

When the Heir succeeds, he inherits the Arms of his Father 
without any Difference, and without the Arms of his Mother ; 
but if his Mother had been an Heiress, he quarters her Arms 
with the Arms of his Father ; that is, he inherits the Arms of 
both his Father and his Mother, and thus becomes the possessor 
of a quartered Shield, with the power and privilege to transmit 
it to his descendants. 

Daughters all bear on lozenges the same Arms as their eldest 
brother bears (or the same as their eldest Brother would bear, 
had they any such Brother), both during the lifetime of their 
Father and after his decease, but without any mark of Cadency 


y U^<^ite^fti±.i^ty^t^%U>,^,Cj>,z^\by ht^^vvjU£,Vt*-/-»£a«_ t^^iSuQt 


Marshalling, as distinguished from Blazoning, may be defined 
to signify — I. The Arrangement and Disposition of more than 
one distinct Heraldic Composition, or Coat of Arms, upon a 
single Shield : — or, 

II. The Disposition and Aggroupment of two or more dis- 
tinct Shields of Arms, so that they shall foi-m and constitute a 
single Heraldic Composition : — and 

III. The Association of certain Accessorial Devices and In- 
signia with the Shield of Arms, with the view to render any 
Heraldic Composition absolutely complete in every consistent 
and appropriate Detail. It will be desirable to consider Mar- 
shalung under each of these three applications of its Principles 
and System of Action. 

I. The Arrangement and Disposition of two or more 
DISTINCT Coats of Arms upon a Single Shield, would na- 
turally admit of two pimary distinctions, the one having re- 
ference to such combinations as would constitute a permanent 
Heraldic Chronicle, to be transmitted upon precisely the same 
principle as an Heir would inherit the Arms with the Estate 
of his Father ; and the other having regard only to a tempo- 
rary Alliance, which would extend to and be terminated with 
the life of the Person who would bear the United Arms. 
Heraldry is very careful in thus discriminating between a Com- 
bination which is, and another which is not, to become heredi- 

The non-hereditary Combination which is habitually mar- 
shalled by Heralds, is that produced by the Union of the Arms 
of a Husband ^vith those of his Wife, in all cases in which the 
wife does not possess in her own person hereditary rank, or is 
not the Heiress, or Eepresentative, (or Co-Heiress, or Co- 
Eepresentative) of any Family. It is obvious that if in every 
instance the Arms of a Mother were borne by her sons, with 
their Father's Armsj and the two thus united were to bo con- 
tinually transmitted, there would speedily arise so great a 


complication of Armorial Insignia as would inevitably render 
Heraldry itself either an impossibility, or a mere arbitrary and 
unmeaning method of Ornamentation. Under all ordinary 
circumstances, therefore, in such marriages as those that have 
been specified, the Arms of the Husband and the Wife are borne 
together (in the manner immediately to bo described) by the 
Husband and the Wife, and by the Survivor of them ; but, the 
Arms of the Wife are not hereditary, and are not borne by any, 
either of her own Children, or of their Descendants. The only 
admissible Deviation from this Law would apply to the con- 
tingency of some very unusual alliance, (as between a private 
gentleman and a Princess, the Princess being absolutely dower- 
less,) when the Lady's remarkable personal Eank or Position 
might justify a departure from heraldic Eule — a departure that 
would exactly fulfil the conditions of such an exception as would 
corroborate the Eule itself. ''W/t*^ ^'^*<^ ^fe****^^ 

The Arms of a Husband and Wife are marshalled .{in a single 
Shield by an heraldic process, entitled Impalement.' It is.^, 
effected by dividing the Shield by a vertical line through its 
Fesse-point, into two equal parts, (as in No. 9, Chap. III.), and 
then placing one complete Coat of Arms in each half of the 
Shield, The Arms of a Husband and Wife are thus impaled, the 
Arms of the Husband always occupying the Dextef, and those 
of the Wife the Sinister half of the Shield. In thus impaling 
two Coats of Arms, the arrangement of the Charges and their 
proportions are in every instance to be adapted to the altered 
space afforded by the impaled Shield. In descriptive blazoning, 
each Coat of Ai-ms so far retains its own distinctive indivi- 
duality, that the second description is treated as altogether 
distinct from the first, though the two descriptions are gi'ouped 
together. I assume, for the sake of illustration, that a 
Stafford marries a Butler ; then their impaled Shield, No. 319, 
is blazoned, or, a Chevron gules, for Stafford, No. 319 A; im- 
paling, or, a Chief indented azure, for Butler, No. 319 b : see 



PI. XXIV. This Impaled Shield sets forth that the StaflFord 
who married a Butler had impaled his wife's Arms (which she 
bore as her Father's Daughter, and not as his Heiress or Co- 
Heiress) with his own Arms of Staflbrd. But should the lady- 
be an Heiress or Co-Heiress of the House of Butler, instead of Im- 
palement, another process would be adopted. The Arms of the 

Sj Heiress (in accordance with a comparatively recent usage ) are 

placed upon a small Shield in Prdence%pon the Shield of Stafford. 
And this would be done by each Co-Heiress on her marriage, 
should there be Co-Heiresses. Such is the usage which now 
\i^ > \ obtains. It must be observed, however, that a Husband then 
[^'^ " ' only has a true heraldic right to bear in Pretence the Arms of 
the Heiress his Wife when he has b}^ her Issue, who, after his 
decease, may quarter her Arms with his own. This Marshalling 
in Pretence is shown in No. 354, PI. XXIV. The Impaled 
Shield, No. 319, is not hereditary, and the Butler Arms would 
not be transmitted to the Issue of the marriage. But the Arms 
of the Heiress are hereditary, and would be transmitted. They 
are to be permanently associated with the Arms of Stafford, and 
the two together are to become the Quartered Arms of the suc- 
ceeding Descendants and lineal Heirs and Representatives of the 
united Houses of Stafford and Butler. Thus, if the Butler Lady 
were not an Heiress, her Children and Representatives would 
bear simply their Father's Arms of Stafford, as No. 319 A; but 
the Children and Descendants of the Butler Lady who teas an 
Heiress would quarter Butler with Stafford, as in No. 355, which 
has in the 1st and 4th Quarters Staffoi-d, and Butler in the 2nd 
and 3rd Quarters. The Blazon would be, Quarterly, Ist and 4th, 
Stafford ; 2nd and Srd, Botler. 

Thus, a permanent and hereditary combination of two Coats'^ 
of Arms has arisen, produced through the circumstance that 
the Son of an Heiress is Heir to his Mother as well as to his 
Father; and this conjoint Inheritance Heraldry sets forth, re- 
cords, and hands down to succeeding generations through its 


:h-apter xy 


I /^..^ ^^P 



happily appropriate and consistent system of Marshalling hy . 

IJuartenng. iu..D«>^-« 

In Quartering Arms in our own times we have to keep in re- ^ 
membrance that the first Quarter is always to be charged with 
the Arms that are the most important in the group ; and also 
that the other Coats take precedence in the quartered compo- 
sition in their order of chronological association, that is, as they 
severally were added to the group and incorporated with it — as 
modem Heralds say, as they were "brought in," With a view 
to illustrate Marshalling as it is now practised, I proceed to 
exemplify the varied treatment of two Coats of Arms under dif- 
ferent conditions of this process. I shall employ throughout the 
Shields of Stafford and Butler, Nos. 319 a and 319 b, which I 
have already shown combined by simple Impalement in No. 
319, PI. XXIV., and which also appear in No. 354 in the same 
Plate with the Anns of the Butler Heiress marshalled in Pre- 
tence upon the Shield of her Husband ; and again, in No. 355, 
these two Shields appear quartered, as they would be borne by 
the Descendants of the Butler Heiress and her Husband. 

Now, assuming that another Stafford, a Son, or lineal De- 
scendant of this Butler Heiress, and himself, therefore, bearin<r 
"■Stafford and Butler quarterly" No. 355, should marry a Camp- 
bell, then, as before, if the Lady be not an Heiress, he simply 
Impales Campbell, No. 356, gyronny or and sable, with his own 
quartered Arms, as in No. 357 ; or, if the Lady be an Heiress, 
upon his own quartered Shield he places Campbell hi Pretence, 
as in No. 358. Ffom Ihenceforward the hereditary Shield in- 
cludes Campbell in its Quarterings, and it assumes the aspect of 
No. 359. And so, in precisely the same manner, other Quarter- 
ings might be introduced during the lapse of time ; or the Shield, 
No. 359, with its three Quarterings, might long remain un- 

There yet remains one contingency that requires attention. 
In the case of a Daughter of the Campbell Heiress, any such 

'U^ tfiik ^ W* ''(^^^*^^>*^ ( ^ /vj 


Lady would bear the Arms of Stafford, Butler, and Campbell 
quarterlj', No. 359, on a Lozenge, and not on a Shield. Were 
she to man-y, if she herself were not to be an Heiress, her Hus- 
band would simply impale with his own Arms her quartered 
Arms ; and their Children would bear their Father's Arms only. 
But if she, like her Mother, were to be an Heiress, then, as 
before, her Husband would chaige her quartered Arms upon a 
separate Shield in Pretence upon his own; and their Children 
and Descendants would quarter the quartered Shield of the Heiress. 
This must be exemplified. 

Suppose the Daughter of the Campbell Heiress (who would 
bear No. 359) to marry a Bentinck, who bears, — Az., a Cross 
moline arg., No. 360 : if she is not an Heiress, her quartered 
Shield is impaled by her Hxisband, as in No. 362 ; but if an 
Heiress, her quartered Shield is set in Pretence upon the Ben- 
TINCK Arms, as in No. 363. In order to transmit these Arms by 
means of Quartering, a new modification of that process will be 
necessary, since now a quartered Shield has to be quartered. The 
Marshalling now proceeds by Quarterly Quartering. Here, as in 
No. 16, p. 17, the primary Quarters are Grand Quarters, any or 
all of which may be quartered. We require a Shield quarterly 
quartered in the 2nd and 3rd Quarters, as No. 364. In this 
Shield, Grand Quarters 1 and 4 bear Bentinck ; and Grand Quar- 
ters 2 and 3 are each charged with Stafford, Butler, and Camp- 
bell. This Shield becomes hereditary, and admits of further 
quarterings, should occasions arise, upon the same system. If a 
Son of the Campbell Heiress, who had married a Stafford- 
Butler, were to marry a Bentinck, he would simply impale her 
Arms, or if she were an Heiress, would charge them in Pretence 
upon his quartered Shield, No. 359 ; and in this last case, his Chil- 
dren would quarter Bentinch in the 4th Quarter, as in No. 361. 

Should a man bearing a quartered Shield marry an Heiress, 
he would place her Anns in Pretence upon his own quartered 
Shield. Should her Arms be quartered, then the hereditary 




Shield would bo quarterly quartered, and each of the Grand 
Quarters would be quartered; and the quartered Arms of the 
Father would be in the 1st and 4th Grand Quarters, and the 
quartered Arms of the Mother in the 2nd and 3rd Grand Quar- 
ters. If any student will work out such a system of Marshalling, 
he will speedily become familiar with the entire range of quar- 
tering, while at the same time he will be impressed with the 
versatility and the precision of Heraldic Chronicles. The Peer- 
age, with such old authorities as may be available, will furnish 
an ample variety of examples for study and practice. 

When younger Sons bear the Quartered Shield of their Father \/' 
and the Heiress their Mother, they place their mark of Cadency 
so that it may cover all their quarterings. 

In the case of a Gentleman marrying an Heiress, and having a \. x 
Daughter by her but no Son, and afterwards having a Son by /t\ 
another marriage, the Daughter is the Heir of the Heiress her \*^j^J^ 
own Mother, but she never becomes Heir of her Father. Such 
a Daughter, therefore, inherits the Arms of her Mother, while 
. her Brother of the half-blood inherits the Arms of their Father. 
In order to save a Lady thus circumstanced from losing all 
heraldic memorial of her Father, the usage of Heraldry authorises 
her to have recourse to Marshalling hy Incorporation, and either to 
charge the Arms of her Father ujpon a Canton, this Canton to be 
added to her Maternal Arms, or to place her Father's Arms in 
the chief of the Lozenge upon which she bears the Ai-ms of her 
Mother. The Arms thus augmented by Incorporation are trans- 
mitted to the Descendants of the Lady, who, in this manner, 
would show that she was the Heir of her Mother but not of her 
Father. ^ 

Augmentations of Honour, which in the first instance «re charged 
upon small Shields of Pretence, are never quartered, but alwaj^s 
retain their original position as integral components of their own 
Shields, whether those Shields themselves be or be not quartered. 
See Chap. XXVIII. 




When any Coat of Arras that bears a Bordtire or a Tressure is 
marshalled quarterly with other Coats, then no part of the Bor- 
dure or Tressure is to be omitted in the quartered Coat ; that is, 
Quartering does not affect a Boi-dure or Tressure. Thus, in the 
Royal Arms, No. 334, the Tressure of Scotland is blazoned com- 
plete in the second quarter ; and in No. 364 A, PI, XXIII., from 
the Brass to Lady Tiptoft, at Enfield, a.d. 1446, Poicys quarters 
Holland, Holland retaining in both quarters the Silver Bordure 

Marks of Cadency remain unaffected by quartering ; and if they 
have been assumed, and are retained, they may be transmitted 
and may become hereditary. Thus, the Label of the Courtenays 
has long ceased to be a Difference, and has become an integral 
component of the Courtenay Arms ; but, in the Roll of Henry III., 
the representative of this Family bears, or, three torteaux, without 
any label. 

Archbishops and Bishops impale their paternal Arms with the 
Arms of their Sees, placing the latter on the dexter side of their 
Shields. These and all other Official Arms are not hereditary. 

The Arms of the Herald Kings are marshalled after the same 
manner; that is, they place their Official Arms on the dexter 
side of their Shields, impaling their hereditar}- insignia. 
, / Tlie Daughter of a Peer bears her Father's Arms, but without 
any Coronet or Supporters ; and her Husband impales her Arms, 
which do not become hereditary. 

Should a Widoicer marry again, he sometimes impales the Arms 
of both his wives, the two being placed in the Sinister half of 
the Shield, those of the first wife in Chief, and those of the second 
in Base, or both Coats marshalled per pale. But if the former wife 
should have been an Heiress, her Anns would appear in Pre- 
tence lapon those of her husband on the dexter side, and the Arms 
of the second wife would be impaled in the ordinary manner ; 
and, contrariwise, if the second wife be an Heiress, her Arms 
woiild be charged in Pretence upon the Shield still impaled as at 



first; In caso both tlie ladies should be ITeiresses, then their |/ 
respective Arms might bo marshalled per fesse upon a single 
Escutcheon of Pretence, precedence being given to the first 
wife ; or, the second Shield of Pretence might be charged upon 
the first, as in No. 720, PI. LIU. The Inheritance of these 
Arms is clear and decided; but the hereditary quarterings in 
every such instance would have to be determined in accordance 
with the special circumstances of each particular case, but always 
in strict adherence to heraldic principle arid heraldic rule. 

An unmarried Lady bears her paternal Coat of Arms, whether /^^ r. A/iz-f 
single or quartered, upon a Lozenge, without any Crest. See / 
No. 104. This most inconvenient Lozenge was in use at an t/jfcc*ii 
early period : thus, an example of impaled Arms, blazoned upon 
a Lozenge and borne hy a Queen in her husband's lifetime, is 
shown in No. 719, PI. LII. ; the Arms are those of Margaret, 
Queen of James III. of Scotland, about a.d. 1480. 

A Widoic, not an Heiress, retains the impaled Arms as borne Q^;jllftn1^,V 
by her late husband and herself; or, if an Heiress, a Widow 
retains her husband's Arms charged with her own in Pretence ; 
but, in either case, the Arms of a Widow are borne upon a 
Lozenge, and without a Crest. Should a Widow marry a second 
time, unless her former husband was a Peer, she ceases to bear 
liis Arms. The Marshalling of the Arms of the Widow of a 
Peer who may many again is given in the next Section of this 

The Arms of Corporate Bodies, and also of Institutions and Asso- 
ciations, of whatsoever kind, may be marshalled by means of 
regular quartering, the several Coats of Arms being arranged 
and assigned to their proper quarters in the Compound Com- * 

position in the order of their relative precedence. 

Marslialling hy Incoi-poration, that is, instead of quartering, '. 
actually constructing a single Coat of Arms from the component 
elements of two or more distinct heraldic compositions, is gene- 
rally repudiated by modern Heralds as inconsistent with that 



V distinct and expressive definition whicli Heraldry impresses on 
its productions. Still, a foremost place in the very front rank 
of English Heraldry must be assigned to the UxiON Jack, which, 
as I have shown, is an example of such Marshalling by Incor- 
poration : see Nos. 63 and 64, p. 26, and also Chap. XVIII. As 
I have just shown also (p. 143), in modern practice a paternal 
Coat is marshalled by Incorporation upon the Arms of a daughter 
who is Heir to her mother but not to her father, and thus is 
transmitted to that daughter's children and descendants. 

When first introduced, Impalement' was effected in a manner 
which, however natural in the first instance, would necessarily 
; be speedily abandoned, since it would be found in many in- 
^ I stances to affect and even to destroy the distinctive character 
■ of the Charges, and therefore to overthrow heraldic accuracy 
j and truthfulness. The primitive method of Impalement con- 
sisted in actually cutting into halves, by a vertical section, 
each Coat of Arms, and taking the Dexter half of the Husband's 
Arms, and the Sinistr half of the Wife's Arms, and placing 
these two halves side by side in contact, to form a single com- 
bined armorial composition.'' This was styled Impaling by 
j Dimidiation or Dimidiating ; and it appears to have been intro- 
I duced into English Heraldry during the Eeign of Edward I., 
A.D. 1272-1307. I illustrate this process by another historical 
example. No. 194, Plate V., is the Shield of Edmond Plan- 
TAGENET, Eurl of Comwall, (son of Eichard Plantagenet, 
himself the Second Son of King John,); and Xo. 40 a, p. 21, 
is that of his wife, Margaret, daughter of Earl Richard dk 
Clare, This Edmond died a.d. 1300, and his Seal is charged 
with the dimidiated Arms of Cornwall and Clare, No. 320, 
Plate XVIII., of which the blazon is, — arg., a Lion rampt. gu., 
crotvned or, within a Bordure sable bezantee, for Cornwall, 
(the Lion for PoiCTOU, and the Bordure for Cornwall); im- 
paling by Dimidiation — or, three Chevronels gu., for De Clare. 
It will be observed in No. 320, that each of the Shields, Nos. 

tn tiu'i'av vwi/vU; <.; t w,„'J iiLUiv H* A»ci*t, ^'"y,- ^-1 fO<«i. ii^ifc^i-i'Uat-^H- ■^7.'''^,. 





' A'w*.'* 

p. ik9 rsC 


Plate X\^n 


194 and 40 a, is cut in halves per pale, and that the Dexter half 
of No. 194, and the Sinister half of No. 40 a constitute No. 320. 
The evil effects of Dimidiation are exemplified in a striking 
manner in this dimidiated Shield, in which the three half 
Chevronels become as many Bendlets, and, consequently, the asso- 
ciation with the historical Shield of the Ue Clares is altogether 
lost. Had Nos. 319 a, and 319 b, PI. XXIV., been dimidiated, i 
the Stafford chevron could no longer have been recognized. 
In No. 321, PI. XVII., I have shown the Coat of Arms of 
Cornwall and De Clare united bj^ simple impalement. Here 
the arms of De Clare appear complete, though there is neces- 
sarily some modification of the proportion of the chevrons : 
while in the Arms of Cornwall the bordure alone is affected 
by the impalement. The Seal of the " Provostry of the town of 
Youghal," in Ireland (see Herald and Genealogist, i. 485), about 
A.D. 1274, displays a Shield charged with the dimidiated Arms 
of Clare and FitzGerald : here the Dexter semi-chevrons are shown 
in combination with the Sinister semi-salt ire of the Irish Coat, 
which in this iristance is differenced with a label of three points. 
Another Seal of the same period, for the " Burgesses of Youghal,'' 
has the same two Shields side by side, FitzGerald — arg., a saltire 
gu. — being to the Dexter differenced with a label of five points, 
while a label of three points differences the Shield of Clare. 
The Arms are those of Sir Thomas de Clare, younger son of 
EiCHARD, Earl of Hertford, and his wife Juliana FitzGerald of 
Youghal; No. 320 A, PL. LXXX. 

Upon one of her seals, Margaret of France, the second Queen 
of Edward I., bears England dimidiating France ancient, 
No. 322, PI. XVIII. The dimidiation in this instance does not 
very materially affect the arms of England, but, the fleurs de lys 
are bisected. Two lions rampant are introduced upon this seal, 
on either side of the Shield, respecting it. See Chap. XXIV., 
Sect. 1. I may here refer to a notice in the Arch(fological 
Journal (for the year 1858, p. 134). of a small silver casket in the 

L 2 


Goodrich Court Collections, which has on each sloping face of 
its lid three quatre-foil panels, containing either England dimi- 
diating France, or the same dimidiated coat differenced icith a label 
of three points : possibly this casket may have been the property 
of Queen Margaret, or of her eldest son. Isabelle, the 
Queen of Edward II., upon one of her seals also dimidiates 
ExGLAXD and France ancient ; and another of her seals is 
charged with her effigy standing between two Shields, one of 
them bearing England, and the other France ancient, dimi- 
diating Navarre ; No. 323, PI. XVIII. : these shields are 
severally those of her husband and of her father and mother. 
Another characteristic example of the effect of dimidiation 
upon the fleur de lys appears in the Shield, No. 324, PI, XVIIT., 
that is carved upon the curious chess-knight, (about a.d. 1 285), 
in the possession of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
One of the Shields upon the monument to Earl William de 
Valence in Westminster Abbey, a.d. 129G, bears Dn Valence 
dimidiating Claremonte Nesle (a French coat), gu., seme'e of 
trefoils, two hai^els haurieni, addmsed, or; No. 325, PI. XVIII. 
In Miscellanea Curiosa (Coll. Arm. LXIV.), the Anns of both 
Claremonte and De Barr are blazoned with dolphins em- 
howed, but the fish are certainly barhels. Other examples of 
dimidiation may yet be distinguished in the Heraldry of the noble 
monument to Earl Aymkr de Valence, a.d. 1323, also at West- 
minster. Another good example of this usage appears on the seal 
of Eleanor, widow of Guy Ferre, a.d. 1348, which beai-s on a shield 
the Arms of Ferre, dimidiating those of Montendre ; No. 325 A, 
PI. LXXX. A Poll of Arms of E. II. gives for "Sire Guy de 
Ferre," " de goules a unfer de molin de argent, e un hastoun de azure ;" 
Montendre is, — gu., a lion rampt. within an orle of trefoils slipped or. 
From the early dimidiation of two distinct coats of arms, the 
compound devices tliat occasionally appear in more recent 
armorial bearings may be considered to have derived their 
oiigin. Tims, tlie arms of the Borough of Great Yarmouth 

;maksiial-I/TXCt a:^!. cadency 










\ /V 


Plate LXXX, 

marshalling; and iniieiutance. 149 

have resulted from tlie shield of England having dimidiated 
another shield, azure, charged with three herrings naiant in pale 
arg., finned or: a shield, No. 326, PI. XVIII., charged with 
these dimidiated arms, and to be referred to about the year 1390, 
occurs upon one of the bosses of the roof of the south aisle of 
the church of Great Yarmouth. In like manner, the arms of 
Ipswich in Suffolk are compounded of England dimidiating an 
azure shield, charged with the hulls of three ships in pale. In 
the church of St. Mary Quay, Ipswich, are two Brasses to bur- 
gesses of that town, severally a.d. 1525 and 1551 ; upon the 
foi-mer, to Thomas Pownder, the Shield of tlie borough is 
blazoned with a single half-lion and a single half-ship, the lion 
facing to the sinister ; but Henry Tool ye, on his Brass, marshals 
a single lion rampant and three half-ships. The seals of the 
Cinque Ports bear Shields charged with the same Arms — England 
dimidiating three ship^s hulls in pale. See Chap. XXIV., Sect. 1. An 
excellent example of a Cinque Port Shield, with the Arms in 
relief, is preserved in the cloisters at Canterbury : it is the third 
from the eastern end of the south walk. At Fordwich, near 
Canterbury, the compound device, half-lion and half-ship, of the 
Cinque Ports, forms the vane of the church. Again, the Arms 
of the City of Chester are, England, dimidiating az., three garhes 
or; No. 326 A., PI. LXXX. See Chap. XXXII. 

Mr. Planche is of opinion that " to this practice of dimidia- 
tion we owe the double-headed eagle of the German Empii-e." 
This must imply that one of the dimidiated eagles should 
originally have faced to the sinister. Mr. Plaxche adds 
" that several instances of dimidiation occur in the arms of 
German Cities and Counts of Flanders, which will illustrate his 
theory for the origin of the German double-headed eagle, by 
showing the effect of the eagle dimidiated by other animals or 
heraldic figures :" and he gives a curious example of the in- 
corporation of a semi-eagle and a semi-lion, the evident result 
of dimidiation, the lion facing to the sinister, from the seal of 


Alice D'Avesnes, No. 327, PI. XVIII. I may place side by \>'^ 
bide with Mr. Planche's example, the seal of Petek Tederade, 
" canonici cretensis " (a personage of whom I am unable to give 
any particulars, but whose seal is in existence,) in which the 
eagle faces to the sinister, and the eflfect of the dimidiation is 
peculiarly striking ; No. 328. The Griffin of English Heraldry |' 
might reasonably be regarded as a further development of a 
similar dimidiation, unless it is held to be a veritable member 
of that family of mediaeval Griffins whose ancestry flourished in 
the remote ages of Assyrian greatness. See Chap. XXXII. 

The beautiful and elaborate seals that were held in such es- 
teem in the Middle Ages, were frequently charged with heraldic 
insignia in association with rich architectural details. See Chap. 
XXIV., Section 1. In many examples, the early seals of per- 
sonages of eminence display several shields of arms placed in the 
different compartments of a composition of an architectural 
character ; and thus these Shields are grouped together so as to 
form a single compound heraldic composition. Thus, the seal 
of Joan, wife of Johx de Warrenne, Earl of Surrey, though 
not more than one and a half inches in diameter, is charged 
with nine distinct heraldic bearings, each of which is so placed 
that it takes a becoming part in the architectural composition. 
In No. 329 I give a diagram of the arrangement of this seal, in 

No. 329. 
the principal pails of which the arms are charged upon lozenges. 
In the centre is 1. Warrenne ; 2, 2. are England; 3, 3. are De 

SHiErrj:)s of arms of the de uohuxs. 

CHAPTERS r^, Jyi k X7.V 



?Ja-te XZ. 




"■ ^. . ^ _ ' 

Barr, (No. 329 A, PI. XIX., az., crusille'e, two barbels haurient ad- ( "- 
dorsed or, within a bordure engrailed gu.) ; and in the four quatre- 
foils are Leon and Castile alternately. The lady was the daughter 
of Henry, Count De Bark (in France), and Alianore, eldest 
daughter of Edward I., and Alianore of Castile and Leon. The 
Seal of Egbert de Saint Quintin, a.d. 1301, is another good 
example of such an aggroupment of several Shields. It is shown 
in the accompanj-ing diagi'am, Ko. 329 B : 1, is an early shield of '' 

Saint Quintjn, cheque'e arg. and vert, on a /esse gu., three martlets 
or; 2, 2, 2, 2. is Hastings, or, a manche gu. ; and 3, 3, 3, 3. is 
Firz-W alter, or, a fesse between two chevrons gu. ; (Vincent MS. 
S3, in Coll. Arm.). See Xo. 7oTin Chap. XXIY., Sect. 1 ; also f''*'^ 
the seal of Eliz. de Burg, in Norfolk ArchceoL, v. 301. This i \' 
system of grouping together several Sbields of arms in an archi- 
tectural composition, would naturally lead to the grouping together 
several coats of arms in an heraldic composition. The Shields were 
all borne by the same person, and so their several hearings 
might obviously be concentrated upon a single shield. In other 
words, a single Shield charged with any required series of coats 
of arms duly arranged would naturally be substituted, as a more 
compact and expressive arrangement, for a group of separate 
though associated Shields. The quartered blazonry also might 
be actually displayed about his person, or on his Shield, by any 
noble or knight. 

The counterseal of Humphrey de Bohun, fourth Earl of Here- 
ford and third Earl of Essex, a.d. 1327, affords an excellent 
illustration of that aggroupment of Shields, of which the full 
development was quartering. This seal, Xo. 201, PI. XX., bears -^^/a 
a large central Shield for the Hekeford Earldom between two 
smaller ones. No. 330, both of them {quarterly, or and gules) for 
the Earldom of Essex. The same aggroupment of Shields ap- 
pears upon the counterseal of John de Bohun, the fifth Earl of 
Hereford. Two or more Shields of arms are frequently found ^ 
upon early seals of Eoyal and Noble Ladies, with their effigies : 



thus, Margaret, second Queen of E. I., is represented upon one 
of her seals having the three lions of England charged ujjon her tunic, 
and having on her right side a shield of France ancient, and on 
her left side a shield charged with a lion rampant. In like manner 
the effigy of Isabella, Queen of E. II,, is represented upon her 
seal standing between a shield of England and another of France 
^njlj^cc^^ .ancient dimidiating Navarre. On her seal Melicext de Montault 
e ^- (a.d. 1235) has her own eflBgy between two Shields, the one 
bearing a lion rampt,, and the other three fleurs-de-lys (Vincent, 
MS. SS. in Coll. Arm.) Again, the seal of Margaret, wife 
of John de Neville, and afterwards of Sir J. Giffaud (about 
A.D. 1300), displays her effigy between two Shields, the one to 
the dexter bearing Giff^vrd {gu., three lions pass, in pale arg.), and 
the other being charged with a lion rampt. ; upon the tunic (jf the 
effigy the three lions are rej)eated. Many other early examples 
might be adduced of this practice of forming groups of Shields of 
arms before true quartering was regularly recognized ; nor_was____ 
' this us age altogether superseded by quartering until after the close 
i of the fou rteenth century. Accordingly, the secretum of Thomas /i?(ii. jai^^ 
Plantagenet, youngest son of Edward III., in its three princi- ' 
pal compartments has his own arms. Diagram No. 331, 2, ; those 
of his Duchess, Alla.noee de Bohun, 3.; his helm and crest 1. ; 
the Swan badge, 4. ; and the legend, 5. In like manner, the 

No. 329 A. 3. No. 331. 

seal of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Noufolk, who died in ban- 
ishment at Venice, a.d. 1400, bears three Shields, of which the 


central Shield, No. 632, Pl.LXV., is charged with the arms of 
the Confessor, (a special grant from Richard II.,) impaling 
Brotherton, {England, with a silver label of five points) ; the 
dexter Shield beai-s Mowbray, {gu., a lion rampant arg.), and 
the sinister Shield displays Segrave, (^sa., a lion rampt. arg., 
crowned or,) the anus of the Duke's mother. The Brother- 
T0\ label was blazoned of three points at a later period ; as in 
No. 299, Chap. XXVII. Mowbray is sometimes blazoned pur- 
pure instead of gules. On his seal also, Joiix Mowbray, Duke 
of Norfolk, son of the last-named Thomas Mowbray, placed a 
shield of Brotherton between two Shields of Moicbray and as 
many Ostrich Feathers, the Feathers being a special grant. 
Again, Margaret, eldest daughter of Thomas Plantagexet de 
Brotherton, charged her seal with three Shields, those of her 
father and her two husbands, John Lord Segrave, and Sir 
Walter Manny : or, three chevronels sa., the middle one charged 
miih a lioncel passant of the field (Eoll of Arms, a.d. 1337-1350); 
but in the Calais Roll of Edward III., this lioncel is rampant. 
I may add that a Castle of Castile appears on either side of the 
revei-se of the great seal of Edwaud II. ; and that Edward III., 
when on his accession he used his father's seal, added a small 
fieur-de-lys above each of the castles ; w^hile on his own first great 
seal, published in October, 1327, there appear two large fieurs- 
dt-lys without the castles. 

But, before the usage obtained for marshalling a series of 
distinct and complete coats of anus by quartering so as to pro- 
duce a single compound heraldic composition, the desired com- 
bination of two or even three coats of arms upon a single Shield 
was frequently effected by forming a new composition from all 
the charges of the several Shields, or from the most important 
and characteristic of them. Many of the early h istorical Shields 
of our English Heraldry were unquestionably produced by this 
simple process of Compounding Arms. For example, John de 
Dreux, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond (died a.d. 


1330), whose mothei- was a daughter of IIenuy UL, when he 
accompanied his uncle, Edwaud I., to the siege of Caer- 
Livei"ock, displayed a banner charged with chequee or and az., 
{De Dreux,) with a bordure of England, (gu., with eight lions of 
England,") and a canton ermine to represent the ermine Shield 
of Brittany; No. 116, PI*. V. The fine Shield of Prince John 
" of Eltham," second son of Edward II. and of Isabella of 
France (admirably sculptured in alabaster with his effigj' at 
Westminster), is charged with England withifl a bordure of France, 

WiSt? No. 332, PI. XIX. :_tliis is both a true example of compounded 
V arms, and also /ia Shield differenced wiili a bordure. Thus Mar- 
shalling gained an important advance when the counterseal of 
Margaret, second Queen of Edward I., had suggested (as we 
may presume that it did suggest) the Shield of her husband's 

«r- ,• ^ ;Krandson. This counterseal, one of the most interesting of our 

I y Eoyal Historical Series, bears the shield of England suspended 

from a tree, and suiTOunded on the field of the seal itself with a 
border of fleur-de-lys ; No. 332 A, PI. LXXXI. The well-known 
Shield of the Boiiuns, of which so many fine original examples 
are still in existence, has been adduced' by Mn. Planche as a 
remarkable example of the early heraldic u«age now under con- 

. 'J, sideration. The blazon of this Shield, No. 201, PI. XX., is azure, 
a bend argent, cotised and beticeen six lioncels rampt. m\ (See 
Chap. XVII., Section 3.) The founder of the Boiiuns as an 
English family was a Humphrey de Bouun, one of the fortunate 
adventurers at Hastings. His son of the same name acquired 
important territorial possessions near Salisbury, by his marriage 
with Matilda, daughter of tlie feudal Baron, Edward dk Sarum. 
Their son, another Humphrey de Bohun, married Margeria, one 
of the co-heiresses of Milo, Constable and Lord of Gloucester 
and Hereford, and their grandson, Henry de Bohun, a.d. 1199, 
was created Earl of Hereford. Now, the arms attributed to 
the Earls of Salisbury, and borne by the renowned son of Fair 
KosAMOND, Wji. de Longesi'^e, are azure, six lioncels rampt. or, 



Ko. 200, p. 89 : and these aims the Bohuns may be considered to 
have adopted in commemoration of their own advantageous al- 
liance with an heiress of Salisbury. The arms attributed to MiLO, 
on the other hand, (and still emblazoned and quartered in the 
Brass to his descendant, Alianore, Duchess of Gloucester,) 
are gules, two bends, the one or and the other argent; No. 333, 
PI. XX. As Lords of Hereford in their own persons, the 
Bohuns evidently placed upon their Shield the silver bend of 
Hereford, interposing it between the two groups into which 
their Salisbury lioncels would thus be divided ; and at the same ) 
time, farther to show their descent from MiLO, they appear to j / 
have bisected his golden bend bend-wise, and then to have I 
cotised their own silver bend with the two bendlets thus 
obtained. Possibly these bends of the Shield of MiLO may be . 
heraldic representations of the official batons of that bold war- 
rior, as Constable of the Castles of Gloucester and Hereford; 
and in the Shield of the Bohuxs their bend in the first in- 
stance may have been regarded as associated with the office 
and rank of Constable of England, so long held in the De 
BoHUN family with their Hereford Earldom. (For a further 
notice of the arms of the Bohuns, see Chap. XV., Differencing 
hy mullets.') 

In Scotland the Stuarts produced a compound Shield by 
encircling their own fesse chequee, (or, a /esse cliequee arg. and 
az.,) with the Eoyal tressure. In 1374, the seal of David, son 
of King Egbert Stuart and Euphemia, Countess of Strathern, 
is charged with the Stuart fesse interposed between the two 
chevrons of Strathern, the whole being within the tressure : 
and, A.D. 1377, upon the seal of Alan Stuart of Ochiltree, the 
chequee fesse is surmounted with a bend charged with three 
huclcles, sTich being the anns of Ochiltree. 

The Union JacJc Flags of Jaaies I. and George III. are more [ 
recent but eminently characteristic examples of compounding 
arms. See Chapteis VI. and XVIII. 



/ An easy step in advance from such a composition as the seals of 
the fourth and fifth Earls of Hereford, Xos. 201 and 300, and '^ 
1 from others of the same class, leads us on to the true Quartering 

of Arms. This mode of arrangement, indeed, was suggested to 
the Heralds of the Edwards hy such Shields as were simply 
quartered for diversity of tincturing, as in the two small Shields, 
No. 330, in No. 33 b, p. 25, and in Ko. 156, PI. VI. Numerous pf 
examples of such Shields quarterly of two tinctures occur in the 
early KoUs. 

The process of Quartering divides the field of a siugle Shield 
into four divisions of equal area, by one vertical line cutting one 
horizontal line, as in No. 11, p. 17. Into each of these divisions 
one of the coats of arms to be " quartered " is placed. K there 
are four coats, one of them is placed in each of the four quarters, 
their precedence being determined by their relative importance 
— that is, in almost all cases determined by the seniority of the 
several coats in their present alliance. Should there be two 
ij. J" coats of arms only to be quartered, the first and fourth quarters 
■ both bear the most important coat, and the second and third 
'-^quarters bear the other coat; as in No. 355, PI. XXIV. In 
the case of three coats of arms for quartering, the fourth quar- 
ter repeats the coat that is charged upon the first quarter ; as 
in No. 359. The Eoyal Arms of England, (No. 334, Chap. 
XIX., and No. 543 a, PI. LIX.,) as now borne by Her Majesty 
the Queen, exemplify a Shield thus quartered with three quar- 
terings : it is charged with, 1 and 4, England ; 2, Scotland; and, 
3, Ireland. Four coats of arms, when quartered, are placed 
in their proper order of succession, each in one of the four quar- 
ters of the Shield, as in No. 361, PI. XXIV. Again, should 
more than four coats of arms require to be quartered upon 
one Shield, the field of that Shield is to be divided, upon the 
same principle as before, into the requisite number of com- 
partments, and such repetitions are to bo introduced as the 
special circumstances of each case may render necessary. I'laus 




in No. 15, p. 17, the Shield is quarterly of eight. If one of 
the Shields to he quartered is itself quartered, it is to he treated 
precisely as if it were one single coat of arms, and snch a coat 
is said to he quarterly quartered. Quarterly quarters are 
shown in No. IG. The early Her alds also occas iona lly quar- 
tered impaled coats of arms : but in more recent Marshalling 
impaled coats are held to be ineligible for quartering ; and, in- 
deed, the act of quarterly quartering at once indicates and super- 
sedes an impalement. 

The earliest example known in England of a Shield upon 
which two distinct armorial ensigns are marshalled by quarter- 
ino;, is the shield. No. 135, PI. I., upon the monument of /. / 
Alianore, Queen of Edward I., at Westminster. It bears -k^uh^ 
quarterly, 1 ctnd 4, Castile; and, 2 and 3, Leon. Its date --,/' 
is 1291. These quartered arms were first adopted by the 
ftither of Queen Alianore, Ferdinand III., on the union of 
the provinces of Castile and Leon under his rule. In this 
noble monument, the beautiful effigy of the tAily royal Lady 
rests upon a plate of gilt latten, that is covered with a diaper 
of castles and lions alternating in lozenges. Upon her seal the 
effigy of the Queen stands between a castle and a lion in pale to 
the dexter, and a lion and castle in pale to the sinister : the coun- 
terseal has a sliield of England only suspended from a tree. One 
of the smaller enamelled Shields that yet remain upon the south 
side of the monximent of Edward III., in Westminster Abbey, 
is charged with this quartered shield of Castile and Leon impaling 
France ancient and England quarterly. 

Contemporary with the Westminster Abbey Shield is the 
mail-clad and cross-legged effigy in Winchester Cathedral, that 
Mr. Walford has such good reason for assigning to Sir 
Arnold de Gaveston, the father of Piers de Gaveston, the 
favourite of Edward II. This aimed effigy has a Shield 
charged with a cross, which quarters, 1 and 4, oj-, two cmrs i.^a 
jmssant gidcs, collared and belled az., being the arms of Gas- 


TON, Viscount DE Bearn ; and, 2 and 3, three garbs ; No. 335, 
J ! PI. XIX. The presence of the cross in this curious example 
is precisely such a modification of quartering as might, in the 
first instance, have been expected. This cross may have re- 
presented a third Shield, or it may have been simply either 
a structural or a decorative accessory of the Shield itself. 
This Shield is sometimes assigned to William he Foix. The 
arms of De Foix are, or, three pallets gu. The well-known 
Shield of Piers de Gaveston himself, who was created Earl of 
CoiiNWALL by his hapless friend, the second Edward, are, 
vert, six eaglets or; No. 335 b, Plate XIX. They are thus 
blazoned for " Le Codnte de Cornewaile," in the Poll of 
Edward II., a.d. 1308-1314. This Shield formed one of the 
series that were carved upon the tomb, which supported the 
effigy that Mr. Walford assigns to the elder Gaveston. An- 
other of these Shields bore Castile and Leon quarterly, as they 
still appear upon the monument at Westminster. For all 
particulars relative to Sir Arnold de Gavestox, I must refer 
to Mr. Walfoud's equally able and interesting paper, in the 15th 
vol. of the Archceological Journal. 

Somewhat later, Isabella, daughter of Philip IA^. of France, 
the Qiieen of Edward II., upon the reverse of one of her seals 
marshals four coats quarterly: that is, 1, England (her hus- 
band); 2, France (her father); 3, Navarre, (her mother); and 
4, az. a hend arg., cotised potent counter-potent or, fi^r Champagne, then 
a most important appanage of the crown of France; No. 335 a, 
page 135. In No. 335 c, page 170, I give the Shield of Cham- 
pagne, in order to show more clearly the field of the Shield 
between the counter-potences of the cotises. 

Early in the year 1340 Edward III. adopted his fourth great 

seal, (seal D. of Willis,) upon which the Poyal Arms appeared 

fi>ni. >-i> quartering France Ancient and England, as in No. 53G B, PI. 

LVIII. This quartered Shield stands foremost in the blazonry Ksoc 
of the Royal Heraldry of England. It appears differenced with 




)>f.. U, I5"l,l 



hte XiX 




the utmost heraldic skill, and impaled and quartered with a 
long array of noble and famous arms ; and, as the Eoyal Shield, 
with no other change than in the number of the fleurs-de-lys, it 
continued in use until the accession of the Stuarts to the 
English Crown in the person of James I., in the year 1G03. 
The change in the 1st and 4th quarters from an azure field 
semee-de-lys or, to a field charged with tliree golden fieurs-de-lys, 
took place during the reign of Hexry IV., perhaps in the year 
1403/ This same change had been made by the French Kings 
as early as the year 1364. I must add that Richard II. appears 
to have quartered England and France, as well as France and 
England; that is, he sometimes placed England and sometimes 
France in the first quarter/^Sfrcv^r|vM)l^|) 

Philippa, the Queen of Edward III., on her secretum quar- 
ters her paternal arms of Hainault with those of her husband; 
thus, this seal is an early example of compound quartering. It 
is thus blazoned : quarterly, 1 and 4, grand quarters, England ; 
2 and 3, grand quaiiers, 1 and 4, or, a lion rampant sa., for 
Flanders ; 2 and 3, or, a lion rampant gu., for Holland ; Xo. 
337. A small Shield bearing these arms exquisitely carved in 



No. 387. Queen Philippa of IL\inault. 
alabaster yet exists upon the south side of the monument to 
Queen Philippa herself in Westminster Abbey. The Shield of 


HainauU also remains, with another Shield of Navarre, on the 
east end of the monument of Queen Philippa. The arms of 
E. III. (^France Ancient and England) impale those of Queen 
Philippa upon a Shield in the Brass to Canon John Sleford, 
A.D. 1401, at Balsam, in Cambridgeshire: he had held the two 
not very consistent offices of Master of the Wardrobe to Ihe King 
and Chaplain to the Queen. A German Herald would have re- 
presented the first and third lions of quarters two and three of 
No. 337 facing to the sinister. See Chap. XXXII. On her other 
seals Queen Philippa impales England with HainauU, and France 
with England and HainauU. 

The first English subject who is recorded to have quartered 
arms, so far as it is at present known, was Symon de Montagu, 
whoso Shield, No. 635, Plate XTX., is marshalled as follows in the 
U Roll of Edward IT., a.d. 1308-1311 :— 

"Sire Symon de Montagu, quartile de Argent e de azure; 
^ '"^j . ' en les quarters de azure lea griffons de or ; en les quarters de 
argent les daunces de gotdes.'^ (The " daunces" are equivalent 
to a group of fusils conjoined in fesso across the shield, which 
is sometimes blazoned as a " dancette" or a fesse dancette'e.) 
In this composition two distinct coats of arms borae by the 
IMoNTAGUES are marshalled together by quartering : that is to 
say, — 1. " Ai-gent, a fesse engrailed (or dancettee) of three pieces 
gules," for " William Montague," (Poll of Henry III.) ; and 2. 
" azure, a griffin segreant or," for " Simon de Montagu," (Roll of 
Caerlaverock, a. d. 1300.) ; Nos. 636 and 636 A, PI. XIX. 

The inventoiy of his property, made in 1322, one year after 
the death of Humphrey de Bohun, third Earl of Hereford, 
at the battle of Borougbbridge, incidentally shows that mar- 
shalling arms bj" quartering two distinct coats that had become 
allied, was practised by English Heralds in the first quarter of 
the fourteenth century. Among the objects particularly speci- 
fied is a courte-pointe, quintepoint, or quilt, embroidered quar- 
terly, '* c'carfcW or ^' qnarfele" of the Arms of England and 


M A R S H X Dili >\ (> , 

:hapter :-: 


Plate XX: 

,0 L/HUntuu ,, - , -r-, - -_ 

±;ffigy of J - oim d e nastm^s. iar^ o- rein^r_«^jve, 

■KT,-s^+",^l Ir- A 7^ 'S4.' 


Hereford. The Earl had married Elizabeth Plantagenet, the 
youngest daughter of Edward I. ; so, in evident anticipation of 
impalement, he quarters the arms of his consort with his own ; 
and, as the lady was a Princess, her arms appear in precedence j 


in the first quarter. In one of his seals the Earl places the j 
three lions of England in cusped circles about his own shield : 
PI. LXX., 3, (No. 398^. ^^^^ 

These examples thus deprive John Hastings, Earl of Pem- / 
broke, of the honour that has been assigned to him of having 
been the first English subject who quartered arms. This Earl' 

Ij^w married Margaret Plantagenet, the youngest daughter of 
Edward III. ; and, in his shield of arms he marshalled by im- 
palement tiGo quartered coats of arms, — his owti arms, Hastings 
and De Valence quarterly, and France Ancient and England 
quarterly, the arms of the Princess, his Countess : No. 338 a, 
p. 172. 

In the fine Brass to Sir Hugh Hastings, at Elsyng in Nor- 
folk, the date of which is 1347, there is an eifigy of Earl Jewn, /an>^W- 

f^gj (who died in 137^), having his jupon charged with Hastings and 
De Valence quarterly ; No. 338, PI. XXT. This same Brass also 
contains an effigy of Edward III. himself in armour, and his 
jupon of arms bears France and England quarterly. The shield, 
twice quartered and impaled, of the Earl of Pembroke, forms 
one of the small group, carved with the purest artistic feeling 
in alabaster, that still remains to shew how lich and splendid 
was the original heraldic adornment of the monument of his 
royal mother-in-law, Queen Philippa; No. 338 a, p. 172. 

In the course of the second half of the fourteenth century both 
quartering and impaling arms gi-adually became established as 
heraldic usages, and impaled and quartered shields soon began to 
abound ; nor was it long before quarterings in many instances 
were very considerably increased in their numbers. ^ 

I now give a few additional early examples of both impalement 
and quartering. 



In the well-known Eoll of Arms of Henry III., Le Mareschal 
charges a lion ramjpant gules upon a shield per pale or and vert ; and 
the field of the shield of Fitz Mayhewe, is per pale az. and gu. : 
and in the same Koll and in the Koll of Caerlaverock, the arms of 
De Vere, De Mandeville, De Say, Le Despencer, De Eocheford, 
and De Beauchamp ha.Ye the G.eld quarterly of two tinctures ; Wm. 
de Beauchamp charges his quarterly shield with a hend, and the 
De Laci of the first Eoll beare a hendlet sable upon a shield quar- 
terly or and gules. Other examples occur in considerable numbers 
I in other early Eolls. These early shields may be regarded as the 
I prototypes of true impalement and quartering. 

On the monument of Edward III., at Westminster, are two 
noble shields of his own royal aims of France and England quar- 
terly, emblazoned in enamel ; also, five others, all of them 
quartered and some of them impaled also, smaller in size, but of 
equal excellence. 

Another very fine example of the quartered royal shield is 
sculptured in the southern spandrel of the entrance archway to 
Westminster Hall : and other examples, most of them with labels, 
surround the monuments of Bishop Buhghersh (about a.d. 1370) 
at Lincoln, PI. XXXIV ; of the Black Prince at Canterbury ; and 
of Prince Edmond of Langley, at King's Langle}'. King's College 
Chapel, at Cambridge, also contains a splendid series of sculptured 
examples of the Eoyal quartered shield of a much later period. 

Upon the Brass of Alianore de Bohun, also at Westminster, 
A.D. 1399, are the following shields: 1. The shield of the hus- 
band of the Duchess Alianore, Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of 
Gloucester — France and England quarterly, within a bordure argent : 
2. The shield of the Duchess herself and her husband impaled ; 
No. 340, PI. XX. The Duchess Alianore quarters De Boiiun f'-'SJ 
and MiLO of Hereford, Nos. 201, and 33lj, PI. XX. 3. The shield 3| ji.;! 
of the father and mother of the Duchess Alianore — De Bohun 
impaling FItz-Alan and Warrenne quarterly, Ko. 341, PI. XX.; 
Fitz Alan is, gu., a lion rampt. or. 



'JHAPTEPS 7:^r, xt: ^ x7.v. 








'Plate XXn. 


In a Eoll of Arms, temp. Richard II., (a.d. 1392-1397,) the 
Arms of Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, are blazoned in this re- 
markable manner: — Quarterly, 1. France Ancient: 2 and 3. 
England : 4. De Bohun : a»(i a bordure argent, which encloses only 
the first three quarters. ' 

In the second of these shields the bordure of Woodstock is not 
dimidiated by the impalement. This is also the case in many- 
other early examples of impaled shields which are charged with 
bordures. Thus, Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, bore, as a 
special grant from Eichard II., the Arms of the Confessor, 
No. 78, PI. I, loithin a bordure ermine, impaling Holland modern, 
that is, impaling England within a hordure argent. Upon the seal 
of this Thomas Holland his shield is charged with the impaled 
arms, having both the bordures complete ; as in No. 342, 
PI. XXII. In the Seal, the same composition is repeated upon 
the sleeved jupon of the Eavl himself and upon the barding of his 
charger. Considerably later, a.d. 1446, the Brass of Lady Tip- 
toft, at Enfield, displays a shield charged with a double impale- 
ment^ that is, Tiptoft, No. 300 a, PI. XVIL, (arg., a saltire en- '^j>"^ 
grailed gu.) impaling Holland, and this impaled coat impaling ?f.Wi\j3^S « 
Powys, No. 300 b, (or, a lion rampt. gu. :) here, as before, the A "" I 
bordure of Holland is blazoned without any dimidiation. In 
like manner, upon the seal of Mary of Gdeldees, Queen of 
J AMES II., of Scotland, a.d. 1459, No. 344, PI. XXIL, the complete c|'|pes.t 
tressure appears upon the impaled shield : but xipon the monu- 
ment of Margaret, Countess of Lennox, the mother of Lord 
Darnley, in Westminster Abbey, one of the shields (all of them 
elaborately quartered) impales Scotland, having the tressure 
dimidiated by impalement, No. 345, PI. XXIL In No. 3'14, the 
arms of Gueldres are, az., a lion rampt. or ; impaling Holland, 
or, a lion rampt. sa., the two lions respectin g e ach ot her, after the - /^ 
usage of Continental Heraldr3% M. Bouton {Nouveau Traite de 
Blason, p. 322,) blazons the arms of Gueldrf^ as, — az., a lion 
rampt. contourne or, crovmed and langiied gu., impaling Flander.s or 

M 2 


Holland, — or, a lion ramjyt. sa., armed org., langued gu. ; No. 722, 
.-1 PI. LIT., drawn from M. Bouton's example. In an illuminated 
MS. of the fifteenth century, in the College of Arms, {Collectanea 
Curiosa, L. XIV.), both the lions are crowned, and the lion of 
Gueldres is also queue fourcltee. One of the quartered and im- 
paled shields upon the monument of Margarkt of Eichmond, 
mother of Henry VII., bears France Modern and England 
QUARTERLY, within a bordure compony, which bordure is dimi- 
diated ; No. 346, PI. XXII. : the dexter half of this shield, which 
is placed at the east end of the monument, bears the arms of 
Thomas Stanley, Earl of Derby. The shield at the west end of 
this fine monument bears Tudor, No. 482, PI. XXXII., impaling 
Beaufort, both the bordures being dimidiated; No. 346 a, 
\ Upon one of his seals John Plantagenet of Ghent impales 

Castile and Leon with France and England differenced with a label 
'• ermine ; and in this instance, in honor of his royal consort, CoN- 
i stance of Castile and Leon, he places his own aims on the 
sinister side of the shield : in his other impaled shields the arms 
of this Prince occupy the customary dexter half of the 
escutcheon : he also used seals bearing his own arms without 
any impalement. 

Henry Bolingbroke. afterwards Henry IV., during his father's 
lifetime bore England differenced with a label of Lancaster ; but, 
on the death of John of Ghent, he assumed the arms his father 
had borne, and those arms he sometimes impaled with the coat 
of the Confessor. On one of his seals, certainly engraved and 
used between Feb. 3, and September 30, 1399, (the dates of his 
father's death and his own accession), Henry bears the Confessor 
differenced with a label of three points, impaling France and 
England quarterly with a label of five points of Brittany, impaling 
Lancaster, and this impaled coat impaling De BoJiun, for Mary de 
Bohun, his first wife, who died a.d. 1394. The annexed diagram. 
No. 347, shows this remarkable aggroupment. In the original 



Ritn.\iu)ii - .\.N.\r-:oKHoiii:.\iiA HiCHARn ii isarhi. .>t fraxck 






^^: K_ 






VAT- . 













f lU 




seal, the shield hangs diagonally from a large helm surmounted 
by the lion crest, and on either side is an ostrich feather 

No. 347. 

curiously entwined with a ribbon charged with the word " so VE 


Upon his monument at Canterbury, Hexry IV. charges the 
first and fourth quarters of his shield with France Modern ; and it 
is probable that his Queen Joan shortly after her second marriage 
adopted the three fleurs tie hjs in place of the field semee de lys. In 
the Canterbury shield, France Modern and England quarterly im- 
pale Navarre and Eureux. 

Henry VI. impaled the arms of his Queen, Margaret of 
Anjou ; and thus his own quartered aims, in ISo. 352, PL XXIII., 
are seen to be marshalled by impalement with a coat of six quar- 
terings. The quarterings of Queen Margaret are blazoned in 
Chap. XIX., Section 6. |i>3>d-|. 

Edavard IV., as if he felt it to be a point of honour that his 
Queen should be distinguished by an heraldic display at least 
equal in its quarterings to the insignia of her Lancastrian rival, 
granted to Elizabeth Widville on her marriage with him, a series 
of augmentations derived from the armorial insignia of her ma- 
ternal ancestry, all of which were to be borne quarterly, and 
were duly blazoned on their impaled shield. This example was 
improved in a characteristic manner by Henry VI II., in his grants 



of arms to Lis own successive Consorts. See Chapter XIX., Sec- 
tion 5. Y'^t'i. 

JoANE of Navarre, the second wife of Henry IV., (she was the 
widow of John de Montfort, Duke of Brittany, and she married 
Henry IV. in 1403,) impaled with her husband's arms those of 
her father, Charles II., King of Navarre and Count of Eureux ; 
and she bore Navarre and Eureux per fesse, the former in chief, 
and the latter (France Ancient charged with a heml compony arg. and 
^vVi? £/"•) i^^ base; No. 348, PI. aXIII. Queen Joane also quartered 
Eureux and Navarre, and a shield thus quartered is blazoned upon 
the canopy of the monument to Henry IV. and herself in Can- 
terbury Cathedral. 
- i*rit. ] Richard II. impaled the Confessor with France and England 
i ' quarterly, and again to the sinister impaled Bohemia for Anne, his 

first Queen, No. 349, PI. XXIII. ; afterwards, for Isabella, his 
second Queen, Richard substituted France Ancient in the sinister 
impalement. No. 350, PI. XXIII. ; see also No. 529, PI. XXXV. ^i^o. 

Upon his monument in his own chapel at ^\'estminster, Henry 
VII. displays a shield charged with his royal arms of France 
Modern and England quarterly, impaling the arms of Elizabeih of 
York, that is, quarterly, in the first grand quarter, France Modem and 
England quarterly, for her father, Edward IV. ; 2 and 3. Ulster, 
(or, a cro8S gu.) ; and 4. Mortimer, — to declare her descent from 
the Houses of both York and Clarence; No. 351, PI. XXIII. ^itr 

Again, the arms of Piciiard III., impaling those of his Queen, 
Anxe Neville, are blazoned in the Warwick Eoll, now preserved 
in the College of Arms, as follows — France Modern and England 
quo,rterhj, in the dexter half of the escutcheon, impaling quarterly, 
1. Newburgh, (chequee arg. and az., a chev. erm.,) impaling Beau- 
champ, {gu., a fesse beticeen six crosses crosslets or) : 2. Montagu, 
{arg., three fusils conjoined in fesse gu.,) impaling Monthcrmer, (or, 
an emjle displayed vert,) : 3. Neville, (gu., a sallire arg.,) diflerenced 
with a label compony of silver and azure : and 4. De Clare, im- 
paling Le Despencer. 


From the Windsor Garter-Plates I obtain the four following 
examples of Marshalling : — 

Sir John Neville, E.G., Lord Montagu, (afterwards Duke of 
Northumberland,) brother of Eichard Neville, Earl of Warwick, 
married Isabelle, daughter and heiress of Sir Edmond Engle- 
thorpe ; and he fell a.d. 1471, at Barnet: Quarterly; 1 and 4, 
Montagu ; 2 and 3, Neville, differenced with a label of three points 
company arg. and az. ; charged in pretence with an inescutcheon 
bearing, quarterly ; 1. Bradstone, (arg., on a canton gu., a rose or) ; 
2. EngletJiorpe, (gu., a cross engrailed arg.); 3. De la Pole, {az., on 
a f esse, between three leopard's faces or, an anmdet gu.) ; 4. Montagu. 
KiCHARD Beauchamp, K.G., Earl of Warwick, (died 1439) : 
Quarterly: 1 and 4, Beauchamp; 2 and 3, Newburgh; and, in 
pretence, the arms of his wife, Isabelle, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Le Despencer, Earl of Gloucester : Quarterly : 1 and 4, 
De Clare; 2 and 3, Le Despencer. 

Thus these noblemen associated the arms of the great 
Heiresses, their consorts, with their own, in tlieir capacity of 
Knights of the Garter. 

John de Vere, K.G., Earl of Oxford, (his grandfather, another 
John de Vere, man-ied Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir 
John de Howard) : Quarterly : 1 and 4, De Vere ; 2 and 3, Howard 

Henry, Lord Stafford, K.G., (second son of Henry Stafford, 
second Duke of Buckingham) ; Quarterly : 1. Woodstock, (No. 340, 
PI. XX.) ; 2. De Bohun, (No. 397); 3. Stafford, {or, a chevron gu.) ; 
4. De Bohun of Northampton, (No. 398) ; differenced on the fesse 
point with a crescent. 

In our own times, we have seen a very singular example 
of Quartering in the arms of the late- lamenteA Prince Consort, 
No. 353. H.E.H. Prince Albert differenced the Eoyal Arms 
of England, which he quartered in the first and fourth quarters, 
with a label argent charged on the central point with the Cross 
of St. George — an anomaly in Heraldry, and indeed an heraldic 



-J contradiction, for which I am altogether unable to offer any 
explanation. Had the Prince borne the Royal Shield of England 
{England, Scotland, ami Ireland, quarterly) alone, in that case 
a label for difference would have been both a necessaiy and an 
expressive accessory to his shield ; but to have differenced the 
Eoyal Arms when quarterly quartered, as in Xo. 353, in heraldic 
language was to suggest, (for it cannot possibly be said to have 
spoken plainly), that the Eoj'al Consort of the Prince was some 
near relative to the Sovereign of England, but not the illustrious 
Lady herself who wears the Crown of these realms. The 
paternal coat of His late Eoyal Highness, marshalled in the 2nd 
and 3rd quarters of No. 353, is harry of ten, or and sahle, a chaplet 
of rue in head vert, for Saxony. See Chap. XIX., Section VI. 

I conclude this brief series of examples with the historical 
shield of four quarters, which, next to the Eoyal Annotjry, 
stands at the head of the modern Heraldry of England — the 
Shield of the Earl Marshal, the Dukk of Noufolk. This 
Shield, No. 299, (as I have already shown) thus marshals four >'4! 
coats of aims of high renown in English history: l.Hotoard; 
2. De Brotherton; 3. Warrenne ; and 4. Motcbray : No. 299,p-'*tS' 
Chap. XXVIII., and No. 394, PI. XXXVII.; also see pages 38 ojij 
•ftftd 153,1)7.. 

II. The Disposition and Agghoupment of two or siore Shields 
OF Arms, so that tiiey shall form and constitute a single 
Heraldic Composttion. 

In many cases, Marshalling requires that Shields of Arms 
should retain their individual characteristics, while they also 
have to form associations with other heraldic compositions. 
This is effected by grouping together the allied shields. 

Knights of the Garter, the Bath, and other Orders, if married, 
bear two Shields. On the first, placed to the dexter, are the 
paternal Arms of the Knight himself, being surrounded with the 
Insignia of his Order of Knighthood. On the second shield he 



bears his own Arms repeated, without any Knightly Insignia, 
impaling those of his wife, or charged with them in pretence ; 
and this second shield is usually encircled with a garland of V 
oak-leaves, as a decorative accessory only, and without any 
heraldic significance : vine-leaves might be very happily com- 
bined with the foliage of the oak about the sinister half of the 
impaled shield. This English usage is not followed in Foreign 
Heraldiy. See Chap. XXXII. 

Though not customary in actual practice, a similar arrange- v 
ment might be adopted, in exact conformity with heraldic rule, 
in the instances of Archbishops and Bishops who are married : 
as it is, in like manner, by the Herald Kings. , 

A Peeress in her own Bight bears her hereditary arms (without v 
Helm or Crest) on a Lozenge, with her Coronet and Supporters. 
If she be married to a Peer, both her Arms and those of her 
husband are fully blazoned, and the Shield and the Lozenge 
are grouped together to form a single Compotmd Composition, 
precedence being given to the achievement of the higher rank. 
If she be married to a commoner, her husband charges her 
paternal Anns ensigned with her Coronet, in Pretence upon 
his own; and she also bears her own Achievement of Anns, 
distinct and complete, as she bore it before her marriage : and, 
in this instance also, the Lozenge and the Shield are grouped 
together, the Lozenge yielding precedence. 

If the WidoiD of a Peer should many a Commoner, she con- y 
tinues to bear the Arms of her former husband, as before, on 
a separate Lozenge ; and, on another Shield her second husband 
impales or charges in pretence her paternal Arms, the two 
forming a single group, the shield having precedence. Should 
she marry a second peer, she would not retain the Arms of her 
fonner husband, unless his rank had been higher than that of 
her second husband. 

Boyal Personages, when married, bear their own Arms, being 
both the Arms of their Dominion and also their Personal Insignia, 


alone on a separate shield, which is placed to the dexter ; and a 
second shield bears the impaled arms of the husband and the 
\\nfe, the arms of the personage of the higher rank being to the 
dexter. In some instances, quartering is used in the second 
shield instead of impalement, — a practice that ought to be 
altogether discontinued. 

Two or more shields may be grouped together by placing 
them upon a mantle of crimson velvet lined with ermine ; or by 
the instiTimentality of any such simple accessories as the artist 
may devise. Or it may be sufficient either to place the shields^ 
or the shield and lozenge, side by side, or to ari'ange them in 
such a manner that the shield to the dexter should rest upon the 
dexter chief of the other shield or of the lozenge. 

.', I^ift^^ 

No. 335 c. Champagne. 
See pp. 135, 158. 

III. Marshalling the Accessories ok any Shield, Lozenge or 
Grocjp, is necessarily determined by the circumstances of every 
individual case. 

The Accessories are the Helm, Wreath, Cap, Crest-Coronet, Crest, 
Coronet, Crown, MantUnr/, Supporters, Scroll and Motto, Badges, 
and Knifjlitly or Official Insignia. The several characteristics 
and uses of these accessories having been described in Chapter 


XIV. their treatment in Marshalling requires but brief 

The Eelm alwaj's rests upon the Chief of the Shield. Com- 
moners, Knights, and Baronets have their Crests placed upon 
their Helms, the Crest in every case being sustained by its 
Wreath, Cap, or Crest-Coronet. Peers and Princes place the 
Coronet of their rank upon their Helm, and their Crest, duly sup- 
ported, is placed above the Coronet. The Sovereign places the 
Koyal Crest above the Imperial Crown The Mantling always 
falls, or is displayed, from the back of the Helm. The Scroll 
and Motto, and also all Badges, are jplaced below the shield : but | / 
should any Motto have a special reference to the Crest, in that ! 
case such Motto should stand either in chief of the entire achieve- i 
ment, or, if only the Crest and the Shield are blazoned, it may 
intervene between them. The Supporters are to be adjusted to 
the shield or lozenge in such a manner that they may appear 
to be in the act of supporting and protecting it. Supporters 
and Crests also admit Maries of Cadency. 

Official Insignia may be associated with any Achievement, in 
such a manner as may be best calculated to display them with 
becoming effect. Thus, the official staves of the Earl Marshal 
are blazoned and crossed behind his shield. An Official Badge or 
Jewel may be suspended from the shield itself. Other objects 
and devices must determine their own most appropriate display, 
care being taken that the true Heraldic Achievement should 
maintain its own distinct individuality. 

Knightly Insignia are always associated with Achievements of 
Arms. The Garter and Motto of the Order encircle the shields 
of all Knights of the Garter ; and the Collar, with the " George," 
may also be blazoned about the Garter itself. Knights of the Bath 
encircle their shield with a Eeil Eiband charged with the Motto 
of the Order, and having the Jewel depending. In like manner, 
the Knights of the Thistle and of St. PatricJc, of St. Michael and of 
St. George, and of the Star of India, place the Ribands of their 



Orders with their Mottoes, each about his own shield. These 
Eibands are severally Green, Sky Blue, Deep Blue with a 
Scarlet Stripe, and Light Blue having edges of White. The 
Badge or Jewel of each Order depends from the Riband. The 
Collars also of all these Orders may be blazoned about the shield 
of any Knight : and a Knight of more than one Order may 
display the Insignia of each Order. In like manner, all honour- 
able Insignia of every kind may be displayed in association Avith 
a Shield or Achievement of Arms. And, in accordance with the 
same rule. Foreign Orders and Insignia may be displayed, pro- 
vided that they have been duly recognized and admitted in this 

./i p. 

No. 338 A. Shield of John de Hastings, K.G., Earl of Pembroke, quarter- 
ing De Hastings and De Valence, and impaling France Ancient and 
England quarterly : from the Monument of Queen Praui'PA, in West- 
minster Abbey. See pp. 100, 161. 


No. 470. 
Edwakd I, AS Prince Eoyal. 

No. 471. 
Henry of Lancaster. 




By Cadency Heralds distinguish the different individuals or 
the several branches of the same family, all of whom, in right of 
their common descent, inherit and bear the same arms. 

Differencing, as distinc t from Cadency properly so called, is 
applied^ to distinguish the arms of individuals and families who, 
_without any tie of blood-relationsliip, are connected throtigh 
Alliance, or who iu early times were more or less directly aflected 
by Feudal Dependency. This term Differencing also denotes 
the secondary charges, by which those shields of arms are dis- 
tinguished that bear the same Ordinances. 

A shield of arms may thus be " differenced," either by modi- 
fying orl adding to the original blazon, while retaining its dis- 
tinctive character ; . or by introducing upon the shield some fresh 
charge, which is to take no part in the actual composition of the 
arms, but is to have a special and a separate existence of its own 
as a " Difference." 

The modified shield, when once adopted, would become in 


>^ lutdiU^^^.r. H^Jii^^.tl. ^-Irf.ll ^Li^i^iiU-kdM^^^^^^v't io' 



fact an independent heraldic composition, and would be per- 
manently retained, while yet at the same time it would indicate 
clearly and emphatically both its origin and its alliances. 

The shield, on the other hand, that in its own blazon remains 
, . unchanged and without even the very slightest modification, 
b?'^'^ but is d!fferenced by a " Mark," or " Marks of Cadency," would 
!<,£A.^ "^ be bonio only as a temporary distinction, contingent upon the 
-JVK.. /£c- duration or the change of certain conditions ; and subsequently 
^.«Ai*->/^wo such a shield would alter its .Differences "Or remove them alto- 
i^rc, i^.ij-'^. gether, in accordance with the new requirements of advancing 
time. In these changes in the " Marks of Cadency " which may 
be borne at different times by the same individuals, and in the 
origin of the '' Marks " themselves, the student of Historical 
Heraldr}' will find lying open before him a wide field for sin- 
gularly interesting and attractive inquiry. 
/ Occasionally, more than one Mark of Cadency or Difference 
appear in the same shield ; and it also was a practice habitually 
prevalent with the early Heralds to difference their Differences, 

or. ] 

that is, to charge one Mark of Cadency or, Difference upon i^ 

an other . • 

I. 1. The former of the two processes for Differencing Arms 

— 1 may be effected, first, by changing the iincUire either of the field, 

*/eft*v>, or of the ordinary, or of any other charge, in any Heraldic Com- 

'*• position ; or by simply reversing the tinctures of the field and the 

ordinary and other charges. 

Thus, in the time of Hknry III,, the two Furnivals appear 
bearing, the one upon a field of gold, and the other upon a field 
of silver, the same red bend and the same six martlets also red. 
This shield, No. 365, Plate XXV., is repeated in the curious 
monument to a lady of the same family in Selby Church, York- 
shire. At the same period the brothers De la Zouche severally''''^ 
V.,C, bear gides, hezante'e, and azure, bezante'e. No. 366. The De la 
ZoucHEs subsequently further difference their shield by intro- 
ducing a canton ermine, as appears in the Brass to Lady 









Phile LXVU 









"^a^ ^^ »^ 


WiLLOUGHBY DE Eresby, A.i), 1391, at Spilsby in Lincolnshire, 
tc") Ko. 366 A ; and also by charging their shield with fi lahd azure, \^ 
[7") a chevron ermine, No. 366 b, Plate LXVII., and a bend arg. (Koll 
Ei)W. II., 1308-1314) ; and again, by adding a chief ermine, (EoU 
Eicir. II.). 

Sir John de Harcourt, a Banneret, in the time of Edw. II. 
bears, or, two bars gu. ; and at the same period a second Sir 
John de Harcourt, of Leicestershire, reverses these tinctures, 
and bears, gu., iivo bars or. The Eoll of Edw. III. gives for 
" Monsire Le Strange, Baro de Knocking," gu., two lions passant 
arg., and adds that " Monsire Le Strange de Blackmere port le 
revers," — arg., two lions pass. gu. : and again, in the same Roll, the 
Lord MoTJLTON of Gilsland bears, arg., three bars gu., and the Lord 
MoDLTON of Frankton " le revers." 

The De Genevilles, Seigneurs de Broyes, bear, the elder bro- 
ther, sa., three breys or barnacles \ in pale or, and on a chief erm. a 
demi-lion rampt. issuani gu.. No. 131 A, PI. A.IV. : and the younger )>ioi 
differences the same arms by simply changing the tincture of the 
field of his shield from sable to azure; (Polls H. III.) These I ; 
arms of the De Genevilles may be considered to exemplify the i ' 
compounding two distinct coats. The Mortimers difference by 1 
changing the tincture of their inescutcheon from argent to ermine, 
Nos. 99 and 99 A, p. 31 ; Hugh de Mortimer, of Chelmarsh, sub- 
stitutes gules for the azure of the original shield ; and (Eoll Edw. 
II.), EoGER and John de Mortimer severally charge their silver 
inescutcheons with a saltire gules, and a lion rampt. purpure. The 
change from argent to ei-mine for the tincture of the field was fre- 
quently adopted, as by the Montacutes ; or for the tincture of an 
ordinary, as in their chevron by the Berkeleys. Again, (Eoll 
E. II.), Sir Giles de Brewts bears, arg., crusilee, a lion rampt. queue 
fourche'e gu. ; and Sir Eichard differences this same shield by 
charging his lion and his crosslels on a field ermine. No. 390 a, 
\\^\ PI. LXVII. Sir Wm. de Brewys bears, az., crusilee, a lion rampt.};^^^] 
or, thus changing both the original tinctures ; and another Sir 



WiLLUM differences this last shield by charging a fleur-dc-Iys 
gules upon the shoulder of the lion. Sir John de Bre^vys, (temp. 
E. III.), introduces another slight modification; he bears, az., 
crusile'e, a lion rampt. or, crotcned and armed gu., (Calais Eoll, a.d. 
1347); and, seventy-five years later, the same shield, No. 390, 
]p '*> PL XXXVII., is six times repeated in the Brass to another John 
DE Brewys, at Wiston in Sussex. In the Calais Eoll a second Sir 
John de Brewys appears, who difierences simply by bearing his 
lion without a crown. Sir William Fitz Waryn, or Fitz 
Warren bears, quarterly, joer /esse indented, arg. and gu., and Sir 
John difierences this shield with a label of three points azure, 
(Calais Eoll) ; but the Garter-Plate of Sir William Fitz Waryn, 
K.G,, (died 1362), changes the argent for ermine. The arms of 
De Eos appear varied in their tinctures in the following manner ; 
gu., three water-bougets arg., No. 374, PI. XXVII. ; then ei-mine ' 
takes the place of argent ; and again, the same charges sable are 
blazoned on a shield or. This shield of De Eos appears amongst 
the Windsor Garter-Plates, in the well known effigy in- the 
Temple Church, and in the Spilsby Brass, and it is also blazoned 
in the early Polls of Arms ; in the Eoll of Eichard II., ^Villiam 
DE Eos bears, gu., three water-bougets arg., the first charged with a 
crescent sable. 

The Caerlaverock Eoll gives an example of a double change of 
tincture in the banner of John Paignel, a friend and comrade of 
the brothers De Hastings, who bears, vei-t, a maunche or. The 
Earl himself displays the Hastings banner, or, a maunche gu., 
which his brother Edmond de Hastings differences with a label of 
five points vert. This Hastings label sometimes appears blazoned 
sable ; it is vert, however, in the Eoll of E. II., as in the Caer. 
Roll. WiLLLiM Bardolf bears, az., three cinquefoils or, (Eolls 
H. III. and Caer.), No. 388 b, PI. XXVII. Another W^illiam 
Bardolf, (Eoll of E. II.) bears, az., three cinquefoils arg. ; and 
Thomas and John Bardolf severally bear, or, three cinquefoils az., 
and gu., three cinquefoils arg. And, once more, Philip D'Arcy 









Pla^e XXYII 


" 3 



/> Zllf 


-'81 388 c 



(ipiPv, i<jif 



4+ »f» ^ 


|M//2 /<//, 



bears, arg., three roses gu. (Rolls 11. III., and E. II.) : in the 
Calais Roll this shield is blazoned for Sir John D'Arcy, arg., three 
cinquefoils gu. William D'Arcy dififercnces his shield to, gu., three 
roses arg. (Roll E. II.) ; Robert D'Arcy bears the red roses upon 
silver within a hardure indented sable ; Nokman, instead of this 
bordure, differences the same shield with a lahel of three points 
azure ; and John bears, az., cruslUe, three roses arg. (Roll E. II.). 
I must resei*ve for future consideration other differenced shields 
of both the D'Arcies and the Bardolfs. (See pp. 181, 182.) , 
\- 2. Secondly reta,ining the identity of the tinctures, the Cadency v 
and Differencing may be effected by introducing some fresh 
charge, of at least a comparatively subordinate character, and in- 
3^ coi-porating it with the original composition of any shield ; or, by 
y slightly varying the charges that are borne on any shield ; or, liy 
'\ substituting one charge for another under like conditions ; or, by 
associating with one heraldic composition the distinctive insignia 
of another in such a manner that, while the original design may pro- 
dominate, the presence of the allied arms may readily be recogTiized. 
In the great majority of instances the minor charges of shields V 

were unquestionably introduced with a view to " Cadency," 
while less frequently samo e]urj-i;'es may be considered 
to have appeared in blazon simply for the purpose of " Differ- 
ence :" and, accordingly, in either case Heiaklry appears to have 
derived the most popular associates of its Ordinaries from its own 
early efforts, more suo, to distinguish and also oftentimes to con- 
nect the different bearers of those simple insignia. When not 



derived from an allied shield, the fresh charges introduced by 
the early Heralds for marking Cadency or for Differencing do not 
appear to have been selected upon any definite principle, unless, 
indeed, the idea of a Rehus may be supposed whenever practicable 
to h ave been recognized as possessing a paramount claim. Small 
Crosses were evidently held in especial esteem ; and, in some 
cases, devices used as Badges may have been adopted for Dif- 
ferencing. These fresh charges are placed either upon the field 





of the Shield itself or upon the Ordinary, and in the earliest ex- 
amples they are almost invariably many times repeated. As a 
matter of necessity, these charges would he drawn to so s mall a 
comparative scale, that their presence would not very seriously 
affect the primary idea of the original composition. When set 
upon the field of any shield, the small charges at first appear 
poudree or semee over the entire area, or arranged to form an orle^ 
or as the old Heralds wrote it, an ourle or uric — this orle or urle 
being a modification of the hordure : the term " urle " is used in 

I the KoU of H. III., but poudree does not occur till the time of 
E. III., and semee is even later : the treatment which we now 
describe by one or other of these terms poudree and semee, is thus 
blazoned in the Eoll of H. III., for Eauf le Fitz Nicole, who 
bore, gu., seme'e of escallops arg., a cinquefoil or, — " de goules ung 
\/| quintefueil de or,le champ pleyn des escallopes d' argenV At a later 
' period, the numbers of the smaller charges are generally reduced 
so as not to exceed six, and they are disposed in some regular 
order; and thus, being also drawn on a larger scale, these 
secondaiy charges become component members of the heraldic 
composition in which they appear. Later still — that is to say, 
about the middle of the fourteenth century — single small charges 
begin to bo used, under special circumstances, " for Difference." 
J ^ The idea of differencing shields of arms by means of small 
I charges again and again repeated, may possibly have been 
suggested by the early practice of Diapering ; but, whatever its 
origin, this system of marking Cadency from the first is alto- 
gether distinct from any merely decorative accessories. It will 
va- ' be understood, that the term " Cadency " applies only to the 

differencing of the shields of several members either of the same 
family or of different branches of the same family : at the same 
time it is obvious that by a change of tinctures, by fresh combi- 
nations and dispositions, and by the introduction of various minor 
charges, a series of shields all bearing the same Ordinary may be 
effectually " differenced " for different families who may be allied 





ajLjv vvJCiv, vv]l.'- 


<|o 0§O <f> 



f> 180 "fst? 

■CI--. v-\' 


without any blood relationship, or between whom there exists no 
alliance whatever. True " Cadency," I may add, if traced up 
to its source, will be found in the greater nimiber of instances to 
imply a certain degree of Marshalling. 

3, In the first Koll of Henry III. four shields of Beauchamp 
are blazoned : of these, one is simply vairee — a second is quarterly 
arg. and sa., — a third charges a bend gu. upon afield quarterly arg. 
and of the first, and the fourth is »a., an eagle displayed arg., armed 
or. The well known shield of the Beauchamps, Earls of 
Warwick, (No. 370, PI. XXV.), accordingly does not appear in 
this group; but the Koll gives the shield of De Newburgh, Earl 
of Warwick, cJieque'e arg. and az., a clievron erm., No. 367, PI. XXV. 
The shield vairee is repeated in the Caer. and the Calais Polls, 
and in the Poll of Richard II. In the Caer. Roll also the arms 
of Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, are blazoned, j/m., semee of 
crosslets, a f esse or, No. 368 ; and a third banner of Beauchamp, is 
gu., afesse hetween six martlets or, No. 369, PI. XXV. The cross- 
lets were reduced to the same number, six, early in the fourteenth 
century (Roll E. I.). In the Elsyng Brass, a.d. 1347, in the 
Beauchamp monuments at Warwick, in the Calais Roll and the 
Roll of Richard II., and in the Garter-Plates, the Beauchamps, 
Earls of Warwick, bear the six golden crosslets. No. 370. Sir John 
DE Beauchamp, K.G. brother of the Earl, differences his shield by 
charging a crescent sable upon his fesse, No. 371, (Calais Roll); 
and (Roll of Richard II.), somewhat later, Wm. de Beauchamp 
does the same, while the Earl quarters Beauchamp (crosslets) and 
Newburgh, The shield with the six marllets is repeated for Sir 
Walter de Beauchamp, and within a bordure indented arg. for Sir 
Wm. de Beauchamp, in the Roll of Edw. II. ; without any dif- 
ference it appears, for Sir Giles, in the Calais Roll ; in the Roll 
of Rich. II., Roger de Beauchamp differences the same shield with 
a mullet sable pierced, charged upon the fesse : and it is also 
charged with a label azure for an eldest son. Upon a monument, 
about a.d. 1400, in Worcester Cathedral, this martlet shield of 

N 2 


the Beauciiamps is very effectively blazoned (in this monument 
the effigy of the lady has the head resting npon a swan of ample 
size), and also in the Brass of the same period to Sir Nicholas 
Dagwortii, at Blickling in Norfolk. In other shields of the 
members of different branches of this family, six crescents, or the 
same number of billets, all of gold, are blazoned -with a golden 
fosse upon a red field. 

The Cliffords, who bear clicqiiee or and az., a bend gu., in the 
lioll of Henry II I., No. 372, 1'l. XXV,, at Caerlaverock display a [.- 
fcsse in place of the bend, No. 373 ; and, subsequently, they 
charge on their bend three lions of England. The Cobiiaiis bear, 
gu., a chevron or. In the Calais EoU this shield, without doubt 
the original shield of his family, is assigned to Sir Joux de 
CoBHAJi, but with the addition of a silver label. A second Sir 
JoHX DE Cobham bears, gu., on a cheiron or, three lioncels rampt. 
sa.. No. 377, PI. XXV. : Sir Reginald differences by substituting >•'"'• 
three estoiles pierced, of the same tincture, for the three lioncels. 
No. 379 : another Sir John, a.d. 1420, charges his golden chevron 
with three eaglets sable (Collections of Nich. Charles, p. 158, in Coll. 
Arm.) : and other Cobfiams cany out the system by severally 
chai'ging their chevron, which is always golden, with either 
three crosslets, or three fictirs de lys, or three crescents, or three mart- 
lets, all sahle ; (Calais Roll, Roll of E. II., Seals, Canterbury \ 
Cloisters Shields, Brasses at Cobham in Kent and Chrishall in 
Essex, and Brass to Sir Joiix de Harpedene at Westminster). 
Rauf de Cobiiam adds an estoilc, for a secondary Difference, with 
his crosslets, No. 378, Rl. XXV. ; (Brass at Cobham, A. d. 1402). ^ n'\ 
In another Roll of Einv. III., a fourth John de Cobiiam is said 
to have bonio " gnlcs, sur une chevron d'or, trois estoiles de sahle, 
entre trois lis le asiir ;" the azure of the fleurs de lys here is pro- 
bably a mistake of the transcriber of the original MS. for argent. 
I must add that in the Roll of Rich. II., a Thomas de Cobham 
bears, gu., a cross arg. 

Crosslets were evidently the favourite charges for marking 


eai-ly Cadency ; some other forms of small crosses also frequently } ^ 
occur. And Martlets and Mullets appear to have been held in 
esteem as Differencing Changes, in a degree inferior only to 
that accorded to Crosslets. In the EoU of Henry III., Piers | 
DE Brewys bears, arg., a lion rampt. az. ; but Wii. de Brewys 
changes this to, az., crusile'e, a lion ramjit. or., as I have already 
shown, p. 175, The De Balliols difference, gii., an orle arg. in 

i-j? a remarkable manner, Ko. 645, PI. LXVII., by placing in the 
dexter chief a small azure inescutcheon charged with a lion rampt. 
crowned or ; and secondly they difference by simply modifying 
the original blazon to az., semee of crosses crosslets, an orle or, 

';,-j^ Ko. 37G, PI. XXVII. In his Brass, a.d. 1275, Sir Eoger de 
Trumpingdon (also Eoll E. I.) bears on his shield, az., crusile'e, 

,ji^S two trumpets in pile or, No. 375, PI. XL VIII. : Sir Giles de 
Trujipington repeats the same arms, somewhat later, (EoU E. 11.) 
(See also early stained glass at Tnimpingdon). Upon his 
ailettes and upon small escutcheons upon his sword-scabbard Sii' 
Eoger adds a label of three points, thus corroborating the evi- f^i . 
dence borne by his shield to show that the engi-aving of this 
interesting Brass was never completed. The arms of De Lucy 
are, gu., three lucies haurient in fesse arg. (Eoll H. III). This 
shield is differenced by substituting or for arg., and jDowdering 
the field with crosslets first of silver and then of gold. Six 
shields are blazoned, each with a single cinquefoil, in the Eoll of 
Henry III. Of these one bears the charge of silver and another 
of gold, on a red field. Fitz Nichol retains the gold and red 
tinctures, but powders his field with silver escallops. No. 388, 

7(, PI. XXVII. On a field sable, De Faucombe bears both the 

|5r- cinquefoil and an orle of martlets arg.. No. 390 /L. De [Jmphratille 
adheres to the original tinctures, but adds a hordure az., semee of 

fij, horsesJioes or, No. 388 A. Thomas Bardolph has an azure shield, 

crusilee and with the cinquefoil or — ^his elder brother, Willlvm ?i<^' 
Bardolpu bearing, as I have alieady shown, az., three cinquefoils 

\.\-] (> o^' — No. 388 B. In addition to the shields of his own house, 

*wlii Civl xU^.^^ GJ^ 9^ r.U »^ftiw CU-V^ ^ ^S 


Thomas de Saint Quintin, a.d. 1445, at Hai-pham in his Brass, 
has a shield charged with the arms of Thomas Bardolph, 
No. 388 c, PL XXVII.; in this example the crosslets are drawn ^.\-}\, 
Jieurie, No. 388 d, PL XLVflL At Tnimpington, Elsyng, '^^.i«)9 
Warwick, Cobham, and in the earlier Stall-Plates at Windsor, 
the crosslets are botonee — No. 388 e, PL XL VIII. : this appears fM^ 
to be the favourite manner of rendering this popular chai'ge, 
though in many instances its points are cut off square, as in 
No. 83, PL III. The shield of Sir Amorye D'Aecy, in the Calais 
Eoll, bears arg., witJdn an orle of cinquefoih, an incscutehcon gu.. 
No. 388 F, PL XXVU, and, in the same Roll, Sir William >.r 
D'Arcy differences this shield to az., cnisiUe, three cinquefoih arg., 
No. 388 H. Other D'Arcies bear, ar^., three sixfoilsgu.; andaz., F- 
cnisilee, three sixfoils arg., No. 388 i: and, for further difference, '^Vol 
arg., loithin an orle of sixfoils gu., ati inescutclieon sa., No. 388 g. A ^/^T' 
monument of the Caerlaverock period at Ilowden in Yorkshire, 

to a De Saltmarsh, displays a shield, cnmlee, charged with three 

f^ . . , 

sixfoils, No. 389; this shield is blazoned, ar^., crtw/Zce three roses p.i-o 

gu., (lioll E. II). In their noble Brass at Little Horkesley in 
Essex, A.D. 1412, the shields of the Swynbornes, No, 391, PL 
XXXVII., are, gu., crusilee, three boar's heads couped arg.; the b.'i 
same shield is blazoned in the Eoll of Henry III., and the Eoll 
of EiCHARD II. Thomas Swyxborne differences it with a label of 
three points or, while a William Swynborne boars, per /t'«se gu. and 
arg, three roses counterchanged, seeded or. A shield semee of quo- 
trefoils, with a wild boar, (sanglicr,^ in chief, appears in the Brass 
to Sir Thomas Massyngberde, a.d. 1405, at Gunby, in Lincoln- 
shire. Sir John Comyn bears, arg., crusilee three garbs gu. 
(Eoll E. II). Sir Thomas Dalton bears, az., crusilee or, a lion 
ranipt. guard, arg.. No. 391 A, PL LXVII. (Calais Eoll and ^'l?* 
Eoll E. II.) Bawdwyn Beresforde (Eoll E. II.), beai-s, arg., 
three fleurs de lys, two and one, between six crosslets Jitchecs sa. John 
Warre, Eicuard Louel and Geoffrey Hauteville severally 
boar, gn., rrusilec, a lion ruuqtt. arg, ; or, ausilec, a lion rampt. az. ; 

CHAPTER XVJ y,.nUsl4^UcA.^u^:\ 


HP". i!i; i:\vv- 

DE S >\'rXB ORNE , 






-3— TT 



/ / / / / v1 

'Hi ii I 

H I S i 


PJate XXXT:- 


i]^ and, sa., crmilee or, a lion rampt. arg.. No. 391 b., PI. LXVII. 
In tho Eoll of E. I., John dk la Waure bears the same shield ; 
but William de Warre bears, gu., a lion rampt. queue fourcMe 
arg., over all a bendlet sa. The red shield of the Berkeleys, with 
their chevron variously tinctured, appears in tho early Eolls 
powdered with either silver crosses pattees, silver crosses crosslets, 

t) silver cinquefoils, or silver roses, Nos. 392, 393, PI. XXXVII. 
(See the shield andjupon of the effigy in Bristol Cath., Seals, 
Eoll E. I., and Collections of NicJiolas Charles, p. 228, in Coll. 
Arm.) The Berkeley shield is further differenced with either a 
label azure or a hordure argent ; and in the Eoll of H. III. Mau- 
rice DE Barkele bears simply, gu., a cheveron arg. I am not 
able to show that as a Berkeley originally bore a silver chevron 
without any other charge, so a Howard once bore a silver bend 
alone upon a field gules ; but I see no reason for doubting that 
the Howard of an earlier time than that of Ed. II. placed the 
crosses crosslets upon the well known shield of his house for 
Difi'erence : the blazon of this shield is, gu., a lend between six 

k) crosslets fitchees arg. No. 394, PI. XXXVII. See Chap, XXVIII. 

1,1 and No. 613. At Checkenden, Bucks, the spirited effigy of a 
mail-clad De Montfort exhibits the remarkable shield of that 
family differenced with crosslets fitchees : it may be thus bla- 
zoned, gu., crusilee fitchee, a lion rampt. queue fourchee arg., preying 
on an infant ppr. ; in this example the sculptor has represented 

j,i the lion facing to the sinister. No. 399, PI. XLIX. In the Eoll 
of E. II., the De Montfort Crosslets are not fitchees. And, once 
more, the shield of the Botilers, Barons of Wem, afibrds another 
example : it is, gu., between six crosses patees fitchees arg., a fesse 
counter-componee sa. and of the second. 

4. In one of the Eolls of H. III., the red pile of Chandos 

•3)8 appears differenced with mullets: this shield. No. 127, PI. VI., 
is, or, a pile gu., charged with three mullets of six points gold, between 
m man y others of the second. In the Calais Eoll, William Clynton, 
Earl of Huntingdon, bears arg., six crosslets fitchees sa., and on a 


cMef az., two mullets or. No. 400, PI. XXXVII. : but Thomas K«3 
CiA'NTON retains a simpler shield, arg., on a chief az., two mullets of 
six points or, pierced gu., and he adds over all, a label of three pohiis 
crm., No. 400 a, PL LXVII. At Caerlaverock, the brothers '|»-i7 
Bassett, who both bear, erm., a chief indented gu., difference their 
shields by severally charging their chiefs with three mullets and 
three escallops or, Nos. 402, 403, PI. XXXVII. The earliest ")> '*3 
known seal of the Douglasses, the secretum of Willtam, Lord 
Douglas, a.d. 1296, bears simply, arg., on a chief az. three mullets 
of the field : the Koyal Heart first appears on the field of the 
shield, A.D. 1355, on the seals of Willia:^!, first Earl Douglas ; 
and the Heart is cnsigncd with a Crown, a.d. 1617, on the seal of 
William, eleventh Earl of Angus : the five shields upon the 
monument of the Countess of Lennox, at Westminster, a.d. 1577, 
have in pretence the Douglas shield bearing the throe mullets 
and the heart without a crown ; the Garter-l'late of J ames, 
Earl Douglas, K.G., however, displays the crowned heart : See 
No. 177 A, PI. xTv. (See Seton, p. 224.) The St. Johns, in "^■•«; 
like manner, bear mullets on a chief John de St. John, arg., 
on a chief gu., two mullets or; and hie son, John the younger, 
differences this shield with a label of five points azure ; Nos. 404, 
404 A, PI. XXVIII. Another John de St. John, instead of (^ff5>^«» 
the label, differences with a hordure indented sa. ; Koger changes 
the tincture of the field from argent to ermine; and another 
brother of the same house bears, arg,, crusilee sa., on a chief gu. 
two mullets or, (Koll E. II.). Sir Edmond Bacoun modifies the 
St. John shield thus, gu., on a chief arg., ttoo midlets sa. The three 
shields which follow are blazoned in the first Poll of II. III. : 
K. DE Shastone, gu., on a bend arg., three mullets az. ; 11. de 
Moelles, arg.f two bars, and in chief as many mtdlets gu. ; and 
William D'Odingseles, arg., a fesse, and in chief two mullets gu. 
In the Koll of Ed. I., the mullets of Wiluam D'Odingskles have 
six 2)oints, and his brother has a single midlet only. In this same 
Kull, the shield ul Kauf Dauueny is blazoned, gu., four fusils 

CHAPTER XTi. f>f,.Hni 



ST .rOHN. 



1^ ^k< 





i r>F. DEVriLLE. WEPF.V^'KR. 



%'^ '^ ' 






Plate XX^'^ 



i^^Jl^ conjoined in /esse arg.. No. 405, PI. XXVIII. (See also the eame 
.shield upon the pommel of the sword-hilt of Sir Giles Daubkny, 
K.G., in \Vcstminster Abbey, a.d. 1507.) In the year 1345, o 
a monumental slab was sculptured and placed at Norton Briso J^y^^ 
in Oxfordshire, to commemorate Sir John Daubygn^. It is a 
veiy remarkable composition in every respect, and singularly 
interesting in its Heraldry. Four of its five shields are charged 
witli the aims of Daubygne. Of these one bears, two chevrons 
icithin a hordure engrailed ; in the Eoll of Henry HI., William 
Daubeny beai'S, or, two chevrons within a hordure gu. The second 
of the Norton Brise shields bears Daubygne as in the Koll of 

Igtf Edward I., No. 405, PL XXVIII. ; the third shield charges each 
I fusil with a pierced mullet ; and the fourth bears the fusils erm., H«^«f^HK*< 

.. \ with the addition of three mullets in chief, No. 40G. Philip 

'j.v'U Daubeny bears, three martlets above his silver fusils ; No. 408 a ; 
and Elys differences by simply charging an azure hendlet over 
all. At p. 134 I give a representation of the achievement of 
Sir John Daubygne', No. 408, drawn from the original monu- 
ment ; he himself is thus seen to bear the shield, No. 407 ; his 
Crest is a pierced mullet within a wreath of olive-leaves, and his 
Mantling is also powdered with pierced mullets. Again, Sir 
Thomas Ughtred bears (Calais Koll), gu., on a cross fleurie or, 

|t^ Jive mullets sa., No. 401, PI. XXXVII. This shield is differenced 
as follows : by Sir Egbert Ouctred (Roll E. II.), or, on a cross 

1^ IMttee gu.,four mullets of the field. No. 401 A, PL LXVII. ; and by 
Thomas Oittrich (Eoll E. II.), gu., on a cross patonce or, five 

-jf mullets of six points pierced of the field. No. 401 b, PI. LXVII. 

In the first and fourth quarters of his shield, the present Earl 
of Verulam bears, arg., on a f esse sa., three mullets of six points or, 
pierced gu., in the dexter chief an ermine spot for difference. This 

$1 shield. No. 395, PI. XXXVII. is engraved on a brass plate with 
an inscription to Sir Edward Grimston, in Eishangles Church, 
Suffolk, a.d. 1599 ; also Eoll EicHAiiD II. The Les Despensers 

:x charge their bend, No. 107, PI. V. with three mullets, for Differ- 


ence, and they also engrail the bend itself, (Calais EoU). In 
like manner, in the year 1337, Williajm de Bohun, Earl of 
Northampton (afterwards a Knight Founder of the Garter), 
differences his paternal shield by charging upon the silver bend 
three mullets of six points. In the Calais EoU these mullets are 
blazoned gules, but they are also elsewhere tinctured sable. The 
shields of this renowned Baron and of his son, both drawn from 
their seals, are placed side by side in Plate XX., Nos. 397, 398. |^<^5i 
It will be seen that in No. 398 the cotises are better developed 
than in the shield of the earlier Humphrey de Bohun, No. 201, 
the father of the Earl of Northampton. The shield of the De 
BoHUNS, both with and without a label, is blazoned in the Eolls 
of Henry III., Edw. I., and Caerlaverock ; it occupies a foremost 
place amidst the Stall-Plates of the Knights of the Garter, 
No. 629, PI. LXVI. ; it yet lingers over what remains of the p-<H 
once honoured burial-place of their powerful family, the Llan- 
thony Abbey, founded by themselves near Gloucester; it ap- 
pears, finely sculptured, both alone and impaling Fitz Alan and 
Warrenne, in places of distinguished honour at Canterbury ; 
and it occurs repeatedly in the Heraldry of both Seals and 
Monuments — as in the Seals of Henry IV. and Thomas of Wood- 
stock his ill-fated uncle, and also in those of the Staffords, Dukes 
of BucKiNGHAJM, in the Brasses at Westminster, Spilsby, and 
Exeter, and the Beauchamp Chapel monument at Warwick. 
/ 5. The Martlets that are charged upon the shield attributed to 
Vuc^^' the Confessor, No. 78, PI. I., have been assumed by Mr. Planche " js-^' 
^^K'*f*» to have been derived from the impress of the pennies of the last 
^ /A^«A./k- Saxon Edward, which are stamped with a plain cross between 
,Vjf .il>i-,5' four doves. (See Pursuivant of Arms, p. 93, where one of these 
coins is figured.) This shield of St. Edward, which appears at 
the head of the fine early series in Westminster Abbey, may f)0 
have suggested the adoption of the Martlet as a Differencing ' [ 
charge. The Furnivals, whether at a still earlier period they 
did or did not bear their bend alone, in the Eoll of H. III. 


appear diflferencing with martlets. (See p. 174, and No. 365, 

fa PI. XXV.) The Louterels and the Mounteneys, also early 
bearers of bends, in like manner associate martlets with their 
Ordinary : thus, Sir Andrew and Sir Geoffrey Louterel severally 
bear, or, a bend between six martlets sa., and arg., a bend between six 
martlets sa. ; Sir Ernauf Mounteney bears, az., a bend between six 
martlets or, which one Sir John further differences with a mullet 
gu. charged upon the bend, while a second Sir John blazons this 
last combination upon a field gu., and a third Sir John upon a 
field gu. bears a bend cotised between six martlets or, Ko. 413 c, 

l<^v PI. LXVIII. ; EoU E. II. The same Eoll of E. II. gives for 
Sir EoGER Brabazon, gu., on a bend or, three martlets sa., and for 
Sir Eenard le Gros, quarterly arg. and az., on a bend sa., three 
martlets or. The Bbauchamps, as I have shown, (p. 179,) differ- 
enced their golden fesse with six martlets : and Sir John de Lacy 
bears or, a fesse and in chief three martlets gu. : Sir S. de Cheney 
bears the same on a field argent: and Sir T. Blount bears, gu., 
a fesse between six martlets arg. Again (Eoll E. II.), John 
BuRDET bears, az., ttoo bars or, each charged with three martlets gu., 
and John Bagot, arg., a chevron gu., between three martlets sa. 

Martlets were also commonly borne for Difference so arranged 
as to form an Orle or Bordure. Thus, in the Eoll of H. III., 
EoGER DE Merley bears, barry of six arg. and gu., a bordure gu. 

^A^ charged with martlets or, No. 412, PI. XL VIII ; Walter de Fau- 
COMBE bears, sa. a cinquefoil within an orle of martlets arg.. No. 390 b, 

< PI. LXVII. ; and Franc de Boun, gu., a crescent within an orle 

g of martlets erm.. No. 413, PI. XL VIII. Sir "Wm. de Paynel 

bears, arg., two bars sa., loithin an orle of martlets gu., which Sir 

Thos. Paynell modifies by bearing his two bars azure on afield or, 

J- i-etaining the orle of martlets unchanged. No. 41 2 a, PI. LXVII. 
I may here observe that in the original Eoll of Edw, II. the 
blazon of the shield of Sir Wm. Paynel describes the martlets as 
" en k^ianer de bordure assis,." Again, Sir William and Sir John 
Vaus bear, arg., within an orle of martlets, an inescutchcon gu. ; and, 


gu., semie of martlets (yr, and on an inescutcheon gold two lions passant 
azure, No. 413 a, Tl. LXVIII. Sir Thomas Eupingiiam, K.G. ''|'tt\i 
(a.d. 1425), bears, vert, an inescutcheon icithin an orle of martlets arg., 
No. 643, n. LXVIII. (Garter-riate, and " Ei-pingham Gate" I'll 
to the Cathedral Close, Norwich.) 

The orle of mai-tlets, once more, that is so happily effective in 
the shields of William and Aymeu de Valence, No. 101, PI. V., If-"^^ 
and PI. VII., is another familiar example of the use of this luxi 
favourite charge in early Cadency. The paternal shield of these 
distinguished Barons was simply harruly (the bars sans nombre) 
arg., and az., No. 414, PI. XXXVIII. This shield was once y'*"' 
blazoned upon the "Westminster Monument, and it is still pre- 
served in connection with the curious semi-effigy of E ihelmer or 
Aymer de Valence, brother of Earl Willlvm, Bishop of Win- 
chester, in Winchester Cathedral. I have engraved this relic in 
my " Christian IMonuments." Upon this shield a label gides is 
charged, for an eldest son. No. 415 — the arms of the Counts of ' 
LusiGNAx. Then, upon the barruly field there is introduced — 
possibly to compound two Coats of Arms — a lion ramjpt. gu., 
crowned or, — No. 41 G. The orle of red martlets succeeds. No. 101 ; (c 
and at the same time, three crovmed lioncels of the same tincture 
modify the Difference effected by the single lion, No. 417 : this 
last shield, No. 417, remains in the Westminster Monument, the 
original enamel being still fresh and brilliant. And, once more, 
Guy, the younger brother of William de Valenck, so far alters 
the shield of his house, that ho bcai-s, arg., three bars az. over all a 
bendlet gu. : I add this shield. No. 418, to complete the De '^(f(f-) 
Valence group, in which the student will observe that the 
tincture, gides, is retained in all these shields for their varied. 
Differences. The Count De Kochefoucault, uho was descended 
from the Lusignan family, bears, harry of ten arg. and az., three 
chevronels gu. Another group of shields, three in number, may be 
associated with the shields of the De Valencks, in order to ex- 
emplify more fully their system of marking Cadency : these arc 


r.HAPTEP X\'' 



\) m 



DR C}i.WVOKT>t DF. (HAWORTH T>E ('li.\>\-ORTH. 




l>-:n i 


& 0t 01 
ft ^ 


Plate x.xy: 



tho shields of tho De Chaworths, whicli severally are blazoned, 
harrnly arg. and gu., an orle of martlets sa. ; then three martlets,! two ^"^ "*"' 
and one}sa., take the place of the orle; and, finally, a hendlei 
supersedes^the martlets altogether; Nos. 419, 420, and 421, 

.m Plate XXXVIII. (See Aspilogia, I. 55, and Phillpot (mullet) 
p. 55, in Coll. Arm.) In the Koll of Enw. II,, Sir Patrick 
Chaworthe bears, han-y or and az., an orle of martlets sa. (See 
Chap. XVI., " Cadency of the De Beauforts.) 

6. The always beautiful Fleur de lys appears as a DiiBFerencing j| \/ 
charge in the blazon of early shields. It would seem, indeed, i 
that the fleurs de lys which are scattered over the field in the old ; 
anus of France, were designed to mark a difference from a 
kindred shield charged with a single de lys, as, subsequently, j 
tho shield sem^e de lys, was difi'erenced by Bordures, Bendlets 
and Cantons : or, if not thus in itself an actual example of 
heraldic Cadency, the shield that is so well known as France 
Ancient (No. 2, p. 12,) could not fail to be regarded as eminently 
suggestive, when the Heralds of England for the fibi'st time were 
engaged in working out some system of difi"erencing anns. In 
the early examples of France Ancient the fleurs de Ij's are very r 
small, and they are scattered thickly over the field : thus, in the 
shield sculptured in tho north choir-aisle of "Westminster Abbey 
there are no less than eighteen complete fleurs de lys and parts of 
eight others : another early example of this shield I give in 

frt Chap, XXIV., Section 1. In the Poll of Henry III., Egbert 
Agulon bears, gu., a single fleurs de lys arg. ; and the shield of De 
Tatelo^v is, gu., three fleurs de lys or. A remarkable incised 
monumental slab at Abergavenny has a shield charged also with 
three large fleurs de lys, No. 425 a, PI. XXXIX. Vincent (MS. 
SS. in Coll, Arm.) gives the seal of Melicent de Monte Alto (De 
Montault), A.D. 1235, with her effigy between two shields, tho 
dexter shield bearing a lion rampant, and the sinister shield tJa-ee 
fleurs de lys ; at Stradsett in Norfolk there is a noble monumental 
slab, despoiled of its cross, shields and inscriptions, to Emma, 





widow of EiCHARD FiTZ John and of Eobert de Montault, a.d 
1329, who also displayed upon her seal an interesting heraldic 
combination: (See Arcliceol. Journal, XV., 280). Fleursdelys 
thus borne in small, or comparatively small numbers, as primary 
charges, are not of very frequent occurrence. Wiluam de 
Peyver bears, (Roll H. III.), arg., on a chevron gu., three fleurs de 
lys or, No. 423, PI. XXVIII. This shield is repeated in the Poll 
of Edw. II. for John de Peyvre, and borne also by Eoger Peyvre 
with the chevron azure. John de Deyville (Roll H. III.) modifies 
this composition to, or, on a f esse gu., three fleurs deli/s the central 
one reversed gold, No. 424. A second John Deyvillk (De Yuile} '^V " 
(Roll E. I.) bears, or, on a fesse gu., tioo fleurs de hjs gold, heticeen 
four others of the second. No. 424 a, PL LXVIII. ; and the Roll of p.i^ 
E. II. repeats this last shield for Johan de Deyville. One of the 
shields in the Selby monument bears three fleurs de lys, all of 
them erect, upon a fesse. No. 425, PI. XXVIII. The Brass to ^l'-^ 
Sir John Giffard, a.d. 1348, which has lately been restored to 
Bower Giflford Church in Essex, upon a field beautifully diapered 
bears, six fleurs de lys, three, two and one. No. 425 b, PI. 
XXXiX. John Neville, (Roll B. II.) bears, gu 
three fleurs de lys arg.. No. 424 b, PI. LXVIII. The shield ^i* 
of Sir Theobald de Rachecodrte, blazoned in the Calais 
Roll, displays the singular arrangement of five golden fleurs 
de lys set in saltire upon a sable field, No. 426, PI. XXVIII. f>i8< 
Richard Hakebut bears, arg. on a lend cotised gu. three fleurs de lys 
or, No. 426 A, PI. LXVIII. Henry de Cobham bears, gu., on a'^^\ 
chevron or, three fleurs de lys arg. In the Roll of Rich. II., the anns 
of John Walsh and Alnack de Anlaby are arg., a chevron between 
three fleurs de lys sa., and, arg., a fesse between six fleurs de lys sa. 
Shields not unfrequently have their field fleurettee or semee of 
fleurs de lys : thus, the original shield of the Hollands bears, az., 
fleurettee, a lion rampt. arg.. No. 637, PI. LXV. In the Calais y^<- 
Roll, Sir Thomas and Sir Otho Holland both bear this shield, the 
former charging the shoulder of his lion with an annulet sable, and 



crusilee, '^ijiff 



ridre aa^.^a. 


the latter with a crescent of the same tincture, for Difference : (see 
also Ashmole's blazon of the Arms of the Knights of the Garter.) 
The De Beaumonts, in like manner, bear the field of their shields 
semee de lys. The arms are, az., semee de lys, a lion rampt. or. An 
example of this coat occurs in one of the shields of the Spilsby 

,18^ Brass, No. 427, PI. XXVIII. Other branches of the same family 
change the tinctures to gides and argent, they substitute an orle of 
silver crescents for the field fleurettce, and they place over all either 
an azure label or a hendlet comjponee arg. and gu. In the Calais 
Eoll, Sir Thomas Bkaumonte bears the crescents. No. 638, PI. 

\a> LXVIII., and Sir John Beaumonte, the younger, adds a label to a 
similar shield. Again, at a considerably later period (a.p. 1G22), 
Lionel, BaronCRANFiELD bears, or, on a pale az., three fleursdelys gold. 
The Brass to a Fitz Ealph, at Pebmarsh in Essex, near Clare, 
about A.D. 1320, has a differenced shield of the De Clares, which 
charges each chevronel with three fleiirs de lys, and surrounds the 
whole with a hordure : in the Eoll of Edward II. the arms of Fitz 
Ealph are blazoned, or, three chevronels gu., fleurettce arg., No. 422, - v 

1^0 PI. XXXIX. In the east window of the south aisle of the 
chxirch at Pebmarsh, two of these shields of Fitz Ealph appear 
charged upon panels of rich blue glass, within quatrefoils formed 
of gold and black. Another similar panel contains a correspond- 
ing shield bearing, quarte^-ly arg. and gu., on a bend sa.,five annulets or. 
These are very fine examples of Heraldry in stained glass, temp. 
Edward IL (See also Collections of Nicholas Charles,!^. 139, in Coll. 
Arm.) In the arms of Sir Thomas Bromflete, in his Brass at Wim- 
ington in Bedfordshire, a.d. 1430, the fleurs de lys assume a very 
peculiar position : his shield, No. 426 b, PI. XXXIX., bears, sa., 
a bend fleurie counter-fleurie or. This shield the Bromfletes further 
difference by charging their bend with three hurtes. This bend 
of the Bromfletes naturally directs the attention of students to the 
EoYAL Tressure of SCOTLAND, which is also fleurie counter-fleurie ; 

l^itj Plates V. and XXII. Lawrence Hameldene (Eoll E. II.) uses 
the fleurs de \ys, for cadency after a different fashion ; he bears, 


arg., frdleo gu., the frette fleurdtee, No. 634, PI. LXVIII. The (jjv^: 
shield of the De Cantelupes, again, fumishcs another ciinous 
instance of the use of the same charges, which have been placed 
in strange association with lion's faces evidently with a view to 
compound two coats of arms. The blazon of this shield, for 
William de Cantelupe at Caerlavcrock, is, gu., between three lion's 
faces jessant de lys or, a f esse vair : in the Eoll of E. I. William de 
Cantelo omits the fesso. No. 42G c, PI. 'XXXIX. ^ \>-^\ 

7. The aims of Fitz Nichol, No. 388, PI. XLVIII., are, gu., Y^\ 
semee of escallo^-sliells arg., a cinqucfoU or ; the original blazon of 
this shield is thus given in the Eoll of IT. III. — " de goidcs ung 
quintefueil de or, le chamj) pleyn des escallopes d'argent." The 
escallop shells appear again upon the shield of De Bigot, who 
bears, or, on a cross gu.. Jive escallops arg.. No. 639, V]. LXXI. \>'>-^ 
Again, the aims of the De Grahams are, gu., a saltire and chief 
arg., the latter charged xoith three escallops of the field. No. 409, PI. 
XXVIII. In the Eoll of E. II., a Plompton bears, az., five'^)>-'9. 
fusils in fesse or, each charged xcith an escallop gu., No. 640, PI. 
LXXI. Earlier in the foui-teenth century. Sir Eauf de Hemex- v" 
HALE bears, or, on a fesse between two cheironcls gu., three escallops 
arg.. No. 641, PI. LXXI ; Sir Gilbert le Boun or Boiiun charges 
the bend of the Bohun shield (No. 397, PI. XX.) with three t s 
escallops gu., (Eoll of E. III.) ; Henry Spencer first differences the 
old shield of the Le Despencers in the year 1476 by charging 
three escallops argent on the sable bend, and the arms thus dif- 
ferenced are now bonie by both the Duke of Marlborough and 
the Earl Spencer. Again, Sir J. Fastolf, K.G., bears, quar- 
terly oil- and az., on a bend gu., three escallops arg. Sir W. de Acre 
bears, gu., three escallops arg., which Sir Edmon differences by 
bearing the field of his shield semee of trefoils or. No. 642, PI. 
LXXI ; (Eoll E. II.). Again, Tnos. de Wennesley bears, erm., P 
on a bend gu., three escallops or ; Wm. Cogsale, arg., a cross between 
four esccdlops sa, ; Wauter Strykeland bears, sa., three escallops, 
two and one, arg. ; Wauter Taylp.ovs bears, arg , a saltire gu., on a 









Plate LX\aiI. 


chief of the last three escallops of the field ; and the sliicld of John . 

BE Dabriciiecourt displays, erm., three bars humettee gu., eachYi. .^ 

charged with as many escallops or ; Koll E. II. L'oClr. 

8. In his effigy at Eyther, in Yorkshire, Sir William de 
Eyther, a.d. 1275, bears a shield charged with three Crescents, 

,68 No. 427 A, PI. XXXVIII. In the Eoll of E. II., another 
William db Eyther bears, az., three crescents or. Franc le Boun, 
in one of the earliest Eolls, bears the same shield, the tinctures 
being m., three crescents or. The Brass to Egbert Parys, a.d. 
1408, at Hildersham in Cambridgeshire, is charged with a cross 

,g^ fleurie, and has two crescents in chief ; No. 427 b. I have already 
given, from the other Eoll, for Franc le Boun, a shield charged 
with a single crescent, within an orle of martlets ; No. 413, Pl.XLyH, p '^3 
Again, in the Calais Eoll, John de Potenhaij. bears, oi; on a/esse>)n^^ev,H,.»l-«, 

if If arg., three increscents of the field ; No. 428, PI. XXVIII. Sir 
Egbert de Farnham bears, per pale arg. and az., four crescents 
counter-changed ; and Sir John de Welle, gu., ivithin a hordure 
compone'e or and az., six crescents arg. ; (Eoll E. II.). Nycol de 
Clyfton bears, sa., on a bend arg. three crescents gu., in the sinister 
chief a crescent of the second; and Thos. Cheyne, az., on a f esse 
nehulee, between three crescents or, a fleur de lys gu. ; Eoll E. II. 

9. The Berkeleys, as I have already shown, No. 393, PI. 
5S XXXVII. bore Moses for difference. In the Caer. Eoll, the 

banners of the Earl of Laonis or Lothm^n and his son Patrick of 
Dunbar bear, gu., a lion ramjjL, idthin a bordure arg. semee of roses 

[jti of the field, No. 429 a, PI. LXXI., the son adding an azure label, 

>jfi No. 429, PI. XXXII. (In the Herald and Genealogist, II., 9 and 
34, attention is directed to the correct rendering of '^Laonis " by 
Lothian and not Lennox, a correction made by the learned author 
of " Laio and Practice of Scottish Peerages," 1842, p. 988.) Again, 

S8 Simon de Fressel bears, sa., six roses arg.. No. 431 ; and (Eoll of 
H. III.) Philip D'Arcy bears, arg., three roses gu. This shield 

I ^-Egbert D'Arcy differences by placing it within a bordure indented 
* sable ; Norman D'Arcy substitutes a label for the bordure; 



William counter-changes the tinctures; and John bears, az., 
crusilee, three roses arg. ; Nos. 388 ic and L, Fl, LXXI. ; see also, f '^^, 
Nos. 388 F, 0, II, I, ■ n. XXVII. Eob. Knolles bears, gu., on a \^''1 
chevron arg., three roses of the field ; Wm. de Cosyngton, az., three 
roses, two and one or ; and Rich, de Bldxee, quarterly arg, and gu., 
a rose counter- changed, seeded or ; Eoll E. II. In early blazoning 
but little difference appears to have been recognized between 
sixfoils and roses. Garlands or chaplets, or roses with or with- 
out leaves, were borne as charges, and they may have done duty 
as Marks of Cadency. At Caerlaverock, Ealpii de Fitzwilliam 
bore a banner, harry arg. and az., charged with three chajilets of 
roses pp'. ; Xo. 432, PI. XLIX ; (also Eoll E. II.). William Y' 
Bassett bears, arg., two bars, and in chief three chaplets of roses gu. ; 
(Eoll E. I.). Another example of a shield bearing three chaplets 
of roses, occurs in the Brass to Eoger Elmebrigge, a.d. 1430, at 
Beddington in Surrey. This shield, which exemplifies a very 
singular manner of drawing the roses, also bears ttco chevronels, 
and it has a label of three points ; No. 432 A, PI. XLIX. In the />■* 
Brass this shield appears both alone and impaled by Elmebrigge, 
chequee arg. and sa. ; and, consequently, it is an example of dif- 
ferencing by a label in the arms borne by a lady. 

10. The Deixcourts bear, az. bilcttee, a fesse dancetie or : X'o. 
410, PI. XL VIII. ; (Eolls of Henry IIL, Edward HI., and Caer.)' >'' 
Sir Edmond de Gacelyn, or Gaceline, bears, oi; hilettee az. ; and 
this shield Sir Walter and Sir John difference, the one with a 
label of five points gu., and the other with a bendlet gu. ; Eoll E. II. 
The shield of Louvaine, Loveyne or Lovayne is, gu.,billettee or, a 
fesse arg., and that of St. Omer, az., billettee, a fesse or ; Eolls 
H. III. and E. II. Eoger de Wassixgtone (a.d. 1341), on his 
seal displays a shield having the field hillcttee, and charged 
with three swans upon a bend, No. 644, PI. LXXI. The seal 
of Eauf de Bulmer, (Eoll E. II.), bears a lion rampt. on a field 
billettee; and another shield difierenced with billets appears in 
the Brass to John Haydon, at Theddlethorpe in Lincolnshire, 



CADE T." C Y. 


Sr AM.\N|) 





G Q) 


Plate L 


A.D. 1424, the principal charge being a lion passant; No. 411, 
^.)Y ri. XLVIIL 

1 1. The EouNDLEs of different tinctures that are charged, for 
Difference, upon Borduies and Labels, with other Charges borne 
in the same manner and for the same purpose, I reserve to be 
exemplified at the close of this chapter, with the Bordures and 
Labels themselves. Boundlcs borne under other conditions do 
not appear so frequently as might have been expected. The 
shields of Courtenay, Devereux, and Wake, all bear torteaux, 
and are thus blazoned, (Roll H. III.) : Courtenay, or, three tor- 
teaux ; Devereux, arg., a fesse git., and in chief three torteaux ; 
4. Wake, or, tivo bars gu., and in chief three torteaux ; No. 437, PI. L. 
At Caerlaverock, Hugh de Courtenay, bore an azure lahd charged 
over his torteaux ; and the shield thus differenced has become re- 
cognized as the arms of Courtenay, No. 438, PI. L. ; it appears in 
Brasses at Cobham, Exeter, Shillingford, &c., and frequently at 
Canterbury. Eauf de Camoys bears, or, on a chief gu., three plates, 
.loy (Roll of H. III. and Trotton Brass), Nos. 287, 288, Bl. xfv. The 
shield of Sir Thomas Latham is, or, on a chief indented az., three 
plates, (Calais EoU, and Arderne Monument at Elford, Stafford- 
shire). The early Rolls contain also the following shields ; for 
William de Bascrevill, arg., hetween three Imrtes, a chevron gu.. 
No. 439, PI. L. ; which Walter de Bascreville differences by 
charging his chevron with golden crosslets ; for Aumery St. 
Amand, or, frettee and on a chief sa., three bezants. No. 436, PI. L. ; 
for Robert de Welle, arg., two bendlets gu., bezantee, No. 435; for 
*.ur- Sir Warren Trussell, arg., frettee gu., the frette bezantee. No. 435 a. 
In the Roll of Henry III., Robert de Estofford bears arg., a 
^. chevron gu., bezantee ; No. 434, PL L. This shield, slightly modi- 
X, fied, and having on the chevron three bezants only, appears for 
^L " Sire Robert de Esstafforde," in the Edw. II. Roll. As the 
^y fourteenth century advances, this family is known under the 
name of Stafford; accordingly, in the Roll of Rich. II., " Monsr. 
NicoL. DE Stafford " bears, or, a chevronel gu., and a chief az. ; and 



" Monsr. Robert de Stafford," or, a chev. gu., and over all a bendlet 
az. ; the arms of the head of the House of Dp: Stafford at this 
period being simply or, a chevron gu., (Calais Eoll), which coat 
was quartered by the Dukes of Buckingham in the fifteenth 

12. Amongst the early Differencing Charges Annulets occa- 
sionally appear. Thus, Joiin de Vipont bears, gu.,six annulets or ; 
John de Plessis, arg., six annulets gu., No. 440, PI. L. ; and Sir f"'^ 
William de Avenel, arg., a f esse between six annulets gu. ; No. 440 a, 

PI. LXIX. At Kilfane, in Kilkenny, the crossed-legged effigy H*' 
of a De Cauteville has on the shield four annulets and a canton in 
relief, the canton being ermine. It is probable that this shield, 
if entirely shown, would have borne six annulets, 3, 2, and 1 ; 
No. 454, PI. XL., represents what is shown of this shield in the ^•f'h 
original. The Eoll of L'ich. II. gives the following blazon of the 
shields of Andrew, John and Egbert de Leyke, — the first, arg., a 
chief gu., surmounted by a bend engrailed az.; the second, arg., on a 
saltire engrailed sa., nine anmdets or ; and the third, arg., a chief 
gu., surmounted by a bend engrailed az., in the sin. chief a pierced 
inidlet or. A Brass in Merton College Chapel, Oxford, a.d. 1471, 
to Warden Henry Sever, bears two shields, both of which are 
charged with afesse nebidee bettceen three annulets. In the original 
blazon, the annulets of De Vipont and De Plessis are described 
as ^^faux rondlets," or false roundlets — that is, as roundlets voided 
of the field. Mascles, in like manner, which appear in several 
early shields in groups, are blazoned as " voydes du champ," when 
they are to be understood to be what we now distinguish as 
mascles : otherwise the early mascle, when not thus voided, be- 
comes the modern lozenge. Shields masculee like those sem^e of 
annulets or roundles, or shields charged with mascles in con- 
nection with other charges, may have been intended by early 
Heralds to indicate Difference. 

13. Mr. Planche has directed attention to the seal of William 
DE KoMARE III., Earl of Lincoln, who died as early as 1198, 

CJ\D KK C ^ . 








which is both maaculee and crusilee. My representation of this 

^40* seal in PI. XLV., is drawn from Mr. Planch^'s engraving. 
EoGER DE QuixcEY, Earl of Winchester, bears, gu. mascuUe or : 
and this shield, which is blazoned in the Eoll of H. III., appears 
upon the seal of the Earl, and also in the series of early ex- 
amples that yet remain in the south aisle of Westminster Abbey ; 
the mascles, seven in number, are pierced with veiy small open- 
ings, and disposed over the entire field of the shield, being in 

•lA contact with one another, as in No. 441, PI. XLIX. The Koll of 
H. III. also blazons the following shields : for Richard de Kokele, 
erm., masculee gu. ; for William le Blonde, or, mascuUe sa. ; and 

x'ai for John de Neville, gu., mascuUe or, a canton erm. ; No. 442, PI. L. 
The shield of Hubert de Burgh, Earl of Kent, also bears, mas- 
culee vair and gu. — " masculee de verre et de goules ;" but this is 
really lozengy vair and gu., as appears from the shield that is dis- 
played upon the seal of the Earl, and represented in No. 443, 

[0^^ PI. L. This shield is blazoned in all the earliest KoUs. Egbert 
de Tony bears erm., masculee gu.; (another shield of Tony or 
ToNi is arg., a maunche gu.) : John de Eivees, gu., masculee or ; 
and William de Ferrers, or, masculee gu., (Caer. Eoll). Sir 
Eauf de Ferrers bears this same shield in the Calais Eoll ; the 
shield of Eauf de Gorges (Caer.), is lozengy or and az. The Eoll 
H. III. gives one example of an Ordinary that is lozengy, in the 
shield of De Vaux — arg., a hend lozengy gu. and of the field ; No. 

■"((jr 444, PI. L. The Brass to John de Creke, about a.d. 1320, at 
Westley Waterless in Cambridgeshire, affords an early example 
of separate lozenges charged upon an ordinary : this shield bears, 

I'af or, on a fesse gu., three lozenges vair ; No. 445, PI. XLVIII. The 
Brass to Sir Peter Arderne, Chief Baron, at Latton, a.d. 1467, 
gives another good example of lozenges ; one of the shields dis- 
played in this memorial bears, paly of six or and gu., on a chief 
arg. three lozenges of the second, the central lozenge charged with a 

I'qt golden chess-rooJc, No. 448, PI. XL.; another shield upon this 
same Brass bears, arg., a chevron engrailed, between three chess- 



rooks sa. Robert de Urswike (Roll R. II.) bears, arg., on a bend 
sa., three lozenges of the field, each charged icith a saltire gu. A field 
or an Ordinary freitee is, apparently, a modified form of represent- 
ing a surface as lozengy. John de Verdox, (Roll II. III.), bears, or, 
frettee gu. ; but Sir Robert de Verdon, (Roll E. II.) bears, " de argent, 
a une crois de azure, frette de or ;" No. 449, PI. XL. In the Calais P 
Roll, Sir Thomas Hawkestone bears, arg., a f esse gu., frettee or. 

14. Vair occurs repeatedly in early shields, and it certainly 
bore its part in effecting Difference, by means of varying the 
I tincture of any shield or of its charges. Thus, William de 
FoRTiBus, Earl De Aumale or Albemarle (Roll H. III.), bears, gu., 
a cross patonce vairee (Roll II. III., and shield at Westminster.) 
Traces of these arms, emblazoned on the dress of Aveline, 
Countess of Lancaster, the Earl's daughter, are yet visible in 
her eflBgy, a.d. 1274, at Westminster ; No. 446, PI. L. In the )\<\S 
same Roll, one De Ferrers bears, vairee arg. and az., and another, 
vairee or and gu. ; and this last shield is repeated for Sir Rauf de 
Ferrers, of Chaiiley, (Calais Roll). Fixz Geoffrey bears, quar- 
terly or and gu., xcithin a bordure vairee ; and De Fitz Rauf bears, 
gu., a fessee vairee ; (Roll H. III.) One of the early shields of 
the Beauchamps is vairee; and Sir William Marmion bears, 
vair, a f esse gu., with a label of three points or ; (Calais Roll). In the 
Roll of H. III., De Monchesney on a golden shield bears three 
small shields, two and one, each of them vair, with two bars gu., 
J \- <v)">**' I No. 447, PI. XLVIII. ; a truly original mode of differencing, '^^ 
•^ '•'''*vW»i but one which is at once very clear and very decided. 

I must leave students to seek for other examples of early 
shields, differenced and marked for Cadency, together with ex- 
amples of shields which are charged with other varieties of 
devices and figures for the same purpose. 
, / , The usage of Differencing the Accessories of Shields of Arms, as 
well as the shields themselves, has already been exemplified in 
the achievement of Sir John Daubygne, No. 408, p. 134, and in 
several of the interesting mantlings that are blazoned in the 

C K D E N C If . 





Vy,''- X 



Windsor Garter-Plates; (see Mantling, in Chap. XIII.) Crests, 
Supporters, and Badges are all charged with Diffeiences, pre- 
cisely in the same manner as Mantlings. In the instance of 
Animals, the Marks of Cadency are sometimes charged upon their 
shoulders, or they are semee with them ; and sometimes the 
Marks are formed into Collars. The lion crest of Thomas Beau- 
fort, Duke of Dorset, is gorged about the throat with a collar 
company erm. and az., as the bordure of his shield; and the lion 
crest of his father, John Beaufort, E.G., Duke of Somerset, has 

>.i%\ a collar company arg. and az. ; !No. 451 A, PI. XLI. In like 
manner, the shield of Sir Thomas Lancaster (Calais Eoll), bears, 
gu., a lion rampt. guard, or, gm'ged with a collar of France — a blue 
collar, that is, charged with three golden fleurs de Ij's ; No. 451 b, 

U.7.ovPl. LXXII. Collars appear to have been used for differencing 
crests, when the shields were differenced with bordures ; as 
labels were habitually repeated on both crests and shields. 


In the " BoKE of St. Alban's," (printed 1486, being a species i7/o A**»« 
paraphrase of a part of an earlier treatise on Heraldry by '^ *^h'ti^ ^ 
Nicholas Upton, a.d. 1440), the ancient practice of Powdering /;, ^,^v^ 
Shields for Difference is described under the title of " Geraiiyng." - . .-', 
This Gerattyng is defined to include nine figures or charges, • 

each of which is said to have been used with a definite and dis- 
tinct signification. The nine figures are crosslets (anj- small 
crosses), fleurs de lys, roses, primroses (probably quatrefoils), cinque- 
foils, escallops, chaplets, mullets, and crescents. This series, accord- 
ingly, does not include martlets, billets, annulets, or roundles of 
any tincture. Whatever may have been the original intention,! y 
in actual practice all traces were soon lost of any systematic 
Gerattyng for the purpose of Marking Cadency, or otherwise dif- 
ferencing allied and similar shields of arms, so that this Gerattyng 
itself gradually became identified with the development and 
ramifications of armorial bearings. The Crosslets, accordingly, 
and the other charges which once had been assumed for dif- 
ference, having become integral components of heraldic com- 
positions, ceased to be regarded as Marks of Cadency or Dif- 


^ ferences ; except, indeed, when a single crescent, mullet, or other 
figure was still employed to perform the duties that once had 
devolved on the orle or the powdered field, and thus would havo 
to act alone as a " Difierence." The term " Gerattyng," which it 
does not seem to be desirable to introduce into modem blazon, 
has been very ingeniously derived (through the surprising spell- 
ing and the perpetual misprints of the " Boke of St, Alban's " 
itself), from ingerata, — a " reading " for ingesta, the participle of 
ingero, " to pour upon ;" as the charges in geratted shields are 
povdrees, or semees— poured over their fields ; (See Herald and 
j Genealogist, II., 40.) 

>yj I 15. The idea of differencing by a Single Mark of Cadency or 
Difference, was regarded with favour at an early period. The 
small charges that were oftentimes repeated in shields of arms, 
soon began to be regarded as components of the blazon : and 
they were regularly transmitted with the Ordinary or other pri- 
mary charge with which they had been associated. Hence a 
single distinct charge of small size for difference, would natu- 
rally appear not desirable merely, but absolutely necessary, in 
order to carry out the system of Cadency and Differencing, under 
i the altered conditions of more matured Heraldry. When brought 
to the test of experiment, this method of differencing proved to 
be far less satisfactory than had been expected : on the one hand, 
the single small differencing charge was not found always to tell 
its own proper tale with sufficient distinctness and emphasis, 
while, on the other hand, even this addition to a shield fre- 
quently lost its differencing attributes, and assumed a position 
, as a permanent charge. It must bo added, that this method of 
differencing has produced indirectly more of confusion than of 
that clear and authoritative definition, which is the aim and 
object of all true and consistent Heraldic Difference. 

[ The silver mullet of the De Veres is one of the earliest, as it 

is one of the best known and most characteristic examples of Dif- 

j ferencing by a Suigle Charge. In the Rolls of H. III. and E. I., the 

Earl of Oxford — " Le Comie de Hoxenfordc " — bears, quarterly gu. 


^g and or, in the first quarter a mullet arg.. No. 156, PI. VI. ; and this 
shield Hugh de Verb, the Earl's son, further differences with 

yo , a hordiire indented sa., No. 477, PI. XXXII ; Caer. Eoll, and Kolls 
of E. I., E. II., E. III. ; see also numerous shields at Canterbury, 
the Hatfield shield, and the De Vere mullets at Earl's Colne, in 
Essex. In the Eoll of R. II., Aubry de Vere bears the mullet of 
his house ermine. In the Eoll of E. II. (a. d. 1308-14) there 
occur many remarkable examples of Difference marked by a 
single small charge : and the Difference effected by this process 
in the examples contained in this Eoll is made the more impres- 
sive, from the circumstance that the shields of the heads of tho 
several families are generally blazoned without the Differences, 
in association with the differenced shields. The differencing 
charges employed in these shields, on investigation, would prove, y- 
in almost every case, to have been derived from some allied 
shield of arms, and consequently they at once suggest the idea of 
Marshalling. It was evidently a favourite usage with the early 
Heralds to charge these small single Differences in prominent 
positions : thus, when a lion was in the blazon of any shield, 
they evidently delighted to charge the Difference upon his 
shoulder. The examples which follow are from the Eoll of E. II. :j 
— Sir Giles de Brewys or Braose : arg., cnisilee, a lion rampt. or, 
charged on its shoulder with a fleur de lys gu. Sir Esteveste de 
Segrave : sa., a lion rampt. arg., croicned or, on the shoidder a fleur 

,ioz. de lys gu.. No. 646, PI. LXXII. Sir Nicholas de Estlee: arg., 
a lion rampt. gu., on the shoulder a cinquefoil of the field, No. 647 ; 
Sir Giles de Estlee added to this differenced shield an azure 
label, for further Difference. Sir Eichard de Echebaston, arg., a 
lion rampt. gu., on his shoulder a cinquefoil of the field, a lahel of 
three points az. Sir Philip de Barixgton, in like manner, differ- 
ences with a fieur de lys. Sir Egbert de Walkefare, again, bears 
arg., a lion rampt. sa., charged on the shoulder with a mullet or. Sir John 
DE Eesoun : gu., a lion rampt. or., in the dexter chief of the shield a 
cross patiee vair. Mounpynzon, of Norfolk, (whose name has 
since been written Mompesson), bears, arg., a lion rampt. sa., on his 


shoulder a chaffinch (" un pinzon ") or. No. 648, PI. LXXIT. Sir '■- 
John de Peche : az., an eagle d'lsp. arg., on its breast a maunclie gu., 
No. G49, PL, LXXII. Sir Edmond de Pagenham: quarterly or "TT 
and gu., in the first quarter an eagle displayed vert. (Sir "William 
Philip, K.G., a.d. 1440, bears, quarterly gu. and arg., in the first 
quarter an eagle or, No. 650, PI. LXXII., from his Garter-Plate.) 
Sir John Modnteney : az., on a hend between six martlets or, a mullet 
gu. ; and a second Sir John bears the same shield similarly dif- 
ferenced, with a field gules. Sir John de Beche, arg., on a bend 
gu., three stag's heads or, in the dexter chief a Tnartlet sa. Sir Thomas 
DE St. Leger : az., fretty arg., on a chief or a mullet gu. Sir 
Edmond de Wellyngtone : gu., a saltire vairee, in chief a mullet or. 
No. 651, PI. i£kJ. ''r^°. 

The shield of Sir John De Beauchamp, brother of the Earl 
of Warwick, blazoned in the Calais Roll, is differenced with a 
crescent sa.. No. 371, PI. XXV. This shield is blazoned again in P'^I 
the Eoll of R. II., and with it is the Beauchamp shield with the 
martlets (No. 369, PI. XXV.,) also dififerenced with a pierced mid- ' I" *5 
let sa. : a scd>le crescent differences this same shield at Worcester. 
Sir Thomas and Sir Otf.s or Otho «e Holland severally dif- 
ference Holland ancient, No. 637, PI. LXV., with an annulet and a ^-^ 
crescent gu., (Calais Roll) : both brothers were Knights Founders 
of the Garter, and they were the second and tliird sons of Robkrt 
de Holland and Maud de la Zodciie. The Calais Roll also 
blazons the shield of Sir Adam Ashehurste, gu., a cross engrailed, 
and in the dexter chief a flew de hjs arg. ; and that of Sir Thomas 
Bradstone, arg., on a canton gu. a rose or. ; the Roll of E. III. bla- 
zons a cinquefoil instead of a rose on this canton. This shield of 
Bradstone is marshalled in the first quarter of an escutcheon of 
pretence in the Garter-Plate of Sir John Neville, K.G., Lord 
Montagu. In the fourth quarter this same escutcheon bears 
De la Pole, az., on a f esse between three leopard's faces or, an annulet 
gu.. No. 452 a, pi. XL. ; and, in the second quarter of Sir John's I*'' 
own shield is Neville of Salisbury, gu., a saltire arg., charged toith 
a label of three points rompouee arg. and az.. No. 452 B. This last 

CAD EX (^ Y 



I)K SK(;i<AVK. 



r iate LXXil 



shield is several times repeated upon the Beauchamp Monument 
at Warwick. Another Neville, Lord Latymer, charges a pellet 
(T.i, U2J071 his silver saltire, for difference, No. 452 c, PI. XL.; and yet 
another peer of the same family, Neville, Lord Bergavenny, dif- 
ferences his saltire with a rose gu. No less than eight other dif- 
ferences of the simple shield of Neville of Eahy are found 
to have been assumed to distinguish the various branches of 
that powerful and far-spreading house : thus the entire group of 
these Neville differences are three labels, the crescent, maHlet, 
mullet, fleur de lys, cinquefoil, rose, pellet, and tico interlaced annulets 
forming a gimmel-ring, all of them charged upon the silver sal- 
tire, as in the following shields. No. 452 d. 

No. 452 D. — Differenced Shields of Neville of Raby. 


The Roll of R. II. gives the fifth, sixth, and seventh of these 
shields, and it blazons the mullet as sahle pierced : this Eoll also 
gives for " Le Sr. de Nevyll," gu., a saltire arg., and for " Mons. 
Robert Nevill," arg., a saltire gu., — " the reverse." Other shields 
of Neville that are altogether diflferent, appear in the Rolls of 
II. III., E. I., E. IL, and E. III. (See Chap. XXXI.) 

The Beauforts difference with either a Mullet or a Crescent, in 
addition to their differenced Bordure, No. 480, PI. XXXII. ; V^-^ 
and the Cardinal also charges his Bordure with a Mitre instead 
of the Crescent, (Seal). From the Eoll of R. II. I select the 
following examples of differencing by a single small charge : — 
George Felbrige : or, a lion rampt. gu., on his shoulder a mullet 
arg., pierced. Roger Faulcoxbridge : arg., a lion rampt. az., on 
his shoulder a fleur de lys or. Richard Stort : arg., a lion rampt. 
queue fourchee purp., on his shoulder a cross pattee or. Wm. BagoT: 
arg., on a chevron gu., between three martlets sa,, a crescent of the 
field. Roger Curson : arg., on a bend sa. three popinjays or, col- 
lared and legged gu. ; in the sin. chief a crescent of the last. Rauf 
Freschevill : az., between six escallops, a bend arg., charged in chief 

I mth a pierced mullet gu. John de Pbyton : sa., a cross eng. or, in 

I the dext. chief a mullet arg. The head of the family of Heron 
bears, gu., three herons, two and one, arg., beaked and legged or: 
this shield is differenced by Walter Heron and Gerard Heron 
by their severally adding in chief a crosslet or, and an annulet or, 
while William and John Heron add a chevron and a chevron en- 
grailed argent. Upon the Brass in Westminster Abbey to Sir 
John de Harpedon, a.d. 1451, his arms are blazoned, arg., a 
midlet gu., pierced of the field and charged with a martlet sa., for 
difference. No. 652, PI. LXixII. ; in the Roll of E. II., this shield ")po 

I is borne without the martlet by Sii' William de Harpedene. As 
the fifteenth century advances, examples of Cadency marked by 

( a Single Small Charge increase in number. Thus, at Childrey, 
in Berkshire, in his Brass, a.d. 1 444, the arms of William Fyn- 
DERNE, repeated both upon shields and upon his tabard, arc, arg., 


between three crosses paitecs fitcMes, a chevron sa., charged for differ- 
t^ ence with an annulet of the field. No. 452, PI, XL. Thomas 
Lanoley, Bishop of Durliam (a.d. 140G-1437), differences his 
paternal arms, paly of six arg. and vert, with a mullet, (OflScial 
Seal). Sir John Stanley in 1474, at Elford, upon his monument 
differences his quarterly shield of Stanley and Lathom with a 
crescent gides. In the Arderne Brass at Latton, one of the 
shields bears De Bohun differenced with a single mullet on the 
bend : and Nicholas Charles gives a seal of Edward de Bohun, 
(without date, but evidently of the fourteenth century,) which 
bears a shield of Bohun charged with a single lozenge on the bend. 
Sir Thomas Lovell, K.G. (temp. Henry VII.) bears quarterly, 1 
and 4, arg., a chevron az., between three squirrels seiant gu., a 
crescent, for difference, or ; 2 and 3, vert, two chevronels arg., each 
clmrged with three cinquefoils gu. Sir Gilbert Talbot, K.G., 
(temp. Henry VII.), differences his lion crest with a crescent ; 
and, in the third quarter of his shield he marshals Neville of 
Eaby, having the saltire charged with a martlet gu. Egbert Wil- 
loughby, K.G., Lord Broke (died 1502) differences his first 
tiitS grand quarter with a crescent, charged (as in the shield, No. 480, 
of the Beauforts) upon the fesse point. And Henry Stafford 
K.G., Lord Stafford, second son of Henry, second Duke of 
Buckingham (temp. Henry VIIL), also differences his quartered 
shield upon the fesse point with a crescent; (Garter-Plate). 
And, once more, about the same period, in a monument of the 
Verneys at King's Langley, the Verney shield is differenced 
with a crescent az. At an earlier period the same Verneys dif- 
ference, after the manner then prevalent, by changing the 
tinctures of their shield and its charges, and by modifying the 
general character and arrangement of their arms. And again, 
A.D. 1597, Charles Howard, son of William, Lord Howard of 
Effingham, differences Hoivard ancient with a single mullet sa. on 
the bend : an Ermine spot is also used in the same manner by 
other Howards for Difference. 



10. With the exception of Eoyal Cadency, which now is 
marked exclusively with the label, the Differences of Modern 
Heraldry are the same in their general character as they may be 
considered to have been since the commencement of the fifteenth 
century. The motive or reason, which might have assigned to 
: each of the differencing charges now in use its own particular 
i position in the order of their arrangement, (if any such motive 
; or reason ever existed,) is no longer known ; neither is thereh, 
. any evidence to show that the present accepted order of arrange- 
■ii-j /i' , ment has been recognized" earlier than the sixteenth century. 

These Modern Differences are for, - .•^ 

1. The eldest son, (during his father's life-time) a Label : 
No. 379 a, pi. XIII. fV 

2. The second son or brother — a Crescent : No. 380. 
I'i H^*^- x 3. The third son— a 3Iullet : No. 381. 

'7,?T,.J- ^ \ 4. The fourth son— a il/ar/Zei : No. 382. 

'^*" 5. The fifth son— an Annulet : No. 383. ^ 

nd-O' I 0. The sixth son — a Fleur de lys : No. 384. 

7. The seventh son — a Rose : No. 386. 

8. The eighth son— a Cross 3Ioline : No. 386. 

9. The ninth son — a Double Quatrefoil : No. 387. 

The fij'st son of the first son may cliarge his label with a 

label, his second son may charge his label with a crescent, and 

so on ; and the first son of the second son may charge his 

^ I crescent Avith a label, &c., &c., though happily this complicated 

I , and involved differencing is very rarely adopted. All Marks of 

I Cadency are now generally borne in the chief of the shield. 

{ In actual practice in our own times, these differences are rarely 

"^ ' used by the brothers of the same family during their father's 

' life-time, but they are almost universally regarded as the here- 

I ditary MarJcs of the junior branches of the same family, and thus in 

some families they are systematically transmitted with the Arms 

which are differenced by them. Examples ma}' be taken from 



the Peerage, in the Crescent of Cecil, Marquess of Salisburt, and 
of the Earl Stanhope; the Mullet of the IIgwards, Earls of 
Carlisle and Effingham ; the Martlet of Brudenell, Earl of 
Cardigan, and of Murray, Lord Elibank; the ^nnwZe^ of Bertie, 
Earl of Abingdon ; the Fleur de lys of Wedderburn, Lord Lough- 
borough ; and the Bose of Neville, Earl of Abergavenny. I may 
add, the Arms of the Earl of Eldon, which are differenced with 
a Mullet^ to show that they were first borne by the younger of 
the two illustrious legal brothers, William and John Scott, and 
by the third son of their father. In like manner, a Mullet upon 
the shield of the Duke of Wellington shows that the Duke was 
the third son of the Earl of Mornington. ^ 

Daughters, the Princesses excepted since the accession of the rtJlif'\»^ ^ 
present Eoyal Family to the Cro\\Ti of England, being all equ ally 
co-heiresses, do not difference their paternal arms ; but when a v 


differenced Coat of Arms retains its Difference as a Charge, as 
in the instance of the Courtenays, such a coat of arms is borne 
by daughters as well as [sons. In early Heraldry, however, 
ladies commonly bore their paternal Differences ; (see p. 194). 

The Bordure, the Bend, the Canton, and the Chevron would I 
always afford ready facilities for compounding two coats of arms, j 
and, with the Label, they might also with ease, be added to any 
shield " for difference." And, Cadency and Differencing thus 
effected might as easily receive a secondary series of differences 
— small figures and devices, that is, might be charged either 
upon a label or any 6f its comrades, thus Differencing them from 
themselves when they were added uncharged to any Shield of 
Arms. Upon the same principle, a Chief may sometimes havei v/ 
first been added to the shield, and then charged for difference ; I 
and again always with a view to differencing. Ordinaries may 
have been cotised ; a Chevron or a Fesse may have been resolved 
into a group of either chevronels or bars gemelles ; and a Bend 
may have been superseded by a single bendlet or a group of 



Boforo I enter more fully upon a consideration of Cadency 
effected by the Label and the Bordure, it may be desirable to 
adduce a few additional early examples of Shields, which illus- 
trate those other modes of Differencing to which I have just 
/ 17. Examples of Cantons or Quarters. Cadency and Differ- 
ence marked by the Canton may bo regarded, with comparatively 
rare exceptions, as a modified form of Marshalling. The devices 
that are charged upon a Canton, with occasional exceptions only, 
are taken from and represent some allied Coat of Aitqs. And 
the prevailing usage is, on the one hand, that a man who does 
not quarter his maternal arms should either canton them, or 
charge some significant reference to them upon a Canton, " for 
Difference j" or, on the other hand, that the children and heirs 
of an Heiress, who are not also heirs of their father, .should bear 
on a Canton their father's arms. It will bo borne in mind that 
'hr«iv|- ^^ *^® earliest Eolls of Arms a Canton is entitled a " Quarter." ^ >^ 

t * ■ , ^ 

A Canton or Quarter Ermine, apparently derived from the ermine 
shield of John Count of Brittany Earl of Richmond, appears 
differencing the Arms of several eady families. The Shield of 
John de Dredx himself. Count of Brittany, (No. 116, PI. V., and. ; 
p. 34,) is a most expressive example of the use of the Canton. 
The mother of the Count was a sister of Edward I. ; he there- 
fore placed about his shield a Bordure of England ; and, as Earl 
of Richmond, he added the Canton ermine. Robert de Tateshall 
bears, cliequee arg. and gu., a quarter erm. : E, de Boys, arg., two 
bars gu., a quarter erm. : Roll of 11. III. Thomas de Hewes, arg., 
a frette gu., a quarter erm. : Philip le Despencer, harry of six or 
and az., a quarter erm. : Rape Bassett, arg., three piles gu., a quarter 
erm. : Roll of E. III. In the Calais Roll Sir Symon de Bassett 
bears, or, three piles in point gu., a canton erm., which shield is 
repeated in the Gartcr-Plato of Ralph, Lord Bassett, of Drayton, 
who died in 1390, No. 456, PI. XL. In the Calais Roll, R. de Jr'') 
Bassett bears, or, three pallets gu., a canton erm., No. 455, PI. aL. : 

L ^- ^^ 

=-F7» H^ 






















1»F. HF,]Vn:\HALE 






Plate LXXl 

f> 2.02. 


ii (see also Nos. 402, 403, PI. XXXVII.); By comparing these 
two shields, it will be seen that the Bassktts, while retaining 
the same ermine canton, differenced three pallets with as many 
plea, both the tincture, and the number, and also the general 
character of the charges being the same in the two shields ; and 
a further comparison with Nos. 402 and 403, will show the 
ermine field which is represented in the Canton, and the tinctures 
or and gules. In the Eoll of E. II., again, Sir John Bassett 
bears, with the three piles in point, a canton arg., charged icitli a 

[>• griffin segreant sa., armed gu., No. 654, PI. LXXI. " Le Sr. la 
ZowcH^" (Eoll E. II.) bears, gu. hezantee, a canton erm.. No. 366 A, 

\^ PL LXVII, (see p. 174.) The Staffords also, with some other 
families of less note, difference with the same canton ermine. 
From the Eoll of E. II. I obtain one other excellent example, the 
shield of Sir William le Bryan, or, three piles from the chief az., 
a canton paly of four arg. and of the second, charged tcith a hend gu. , 
thereon three eaglets disp. gold, — this shield accordingly is Bryan 
differenced ivith a canton o/Grandison. (See p. 211.) 

William de Dunstanville bears, arg., frettee gu., a canton of 
England — that is, a canton or quarter gu., charged icith a lion pass, 
guard, or : and William de Lancaster bears the same canton on 

^ a shield arg., charged with two bars gu.. No. 453, PI. XL. ; Eoll 
H. III. : this same shield is blazoned for John de Lancaster in 
the Caer. Eoll. Again, Sir Thomas Kyriell, K.G. (a.d. 1460), 
bears, or, two chevrons gu., a canton of England ; in this instance 
the Eoyal Canton was certainly a " Difference by augmentation," 
obtained in acknowledgment for good service done to the House 
of Lancaster : about a century earlier, John Kyriel bears, or, 
three chevronels and a quarter gu. In the Calais Eoll, Sir William 
de Warren bears, chequee or and az., on a canton gu. a lioncel rampt. 
arg. that is, he bears a canton of Fitz-Alan, No. 653, PI. LXXI. 
In the Eoll of E. II., Eichard de Kyrkeby bears, arg., two bars 
gu., on a canton of the last a cross moline or. : De Etton, bairy of 
twelve arg. and gu., a label of three points az., over all a canton sa. 





charged icith a cross patonce or : and Avery Britchebury bears, 
arg., two bars az., on a canton of the last a martlet or. The arms of 
the WmviLLES or Woodvilles are arg. a fesse and a canton gu. 
These arms it is customary to blazon with a f esse and canton 
conjoined ; but the canton certainly ought to be repr esente d as 
raised in relief above the fesse, for a bordure is charged uEon_a. 

fesse, and a canton is charged upon a bordure. The Harfords 

record the alliance of an Heiress of the Scropes with their house, 
; I by adding the arms of Scrope, bo famous in their severe sim- 
i plicity, to their paternal shield. A good example occurs in the 
Brass to Anthony Harford, a.d. 1590, at .Col wall in Hereford- 
shire : this shield is thus blazoned, sa., two bends arg., icith a 
canton of Scrope, that is, a canton az., charged with a bend or. 

"With examples of Cantons I may here notice the remarkable 
Difference blazoned in the Eoll of H. III. for Hugh de Balliol, 
No. 645, n. LXVII. The shield of " John de Balliold" is 
given as, gu., an orle ('^^ faux escochon') arg.; and for Hugh, his 
son, the same shield, charged in the dexter chief with a small 
shield bearing, az., a lion rampt. arg. croioned or : I may add, for 
Eustace de Balliol, the shield differenced again, " d'azur aufaus 
escocheon d'or crusule d'or." The Pcci'agc gives characteristic 
examples of shields charged with small shields w^hich are them- 
selves charged, in the arms of the Cecils, Marquesses of Salis- 
bury and Exeter, who bear, barry often arg. and az., over all six 
escutcheons, three, two, and one, sa., each cltarged with a lion ramp, of 
the first. 

18. Examples of Bends and Bendlets. The simple Bend as 
borne on the shield of Scrope, would readily suggest the fitness 
of this Ordinary and its Diminutive for Differencing ; and accord- 
ingly in many instances Bends and Bendlets are found to have 
been charged upon early shields for marking Difference. Roll 
of H. III. : William dk Gant, barry of six arg. and az., a bend gu. : 
E. de Kendall, arg., a bend az., cotised vert ; in another Roll of 
the same period this shield is blazoned, arg., a bend cotised in- 


C .^ D E N C^ "1^ 

^ X \' 



!-.'ate XL IX 


dented vert ; and in the Eoll of E. II., arg., a bend vert, cotised 
indented gu. In a Brass at Long Melford, the same blazonry- 
appears, but differently tinctured, for a Cloi'TON, sa., a lend erm., 
cotised indented or. Roll of Caor. : John de Grey, harry of six, 
arg. and az., a bendlet engrailed gu. ; (Compare No. 121, p. 35; 
this shield of De Grey with the barry field, but withoiat the 
bendlet, is also blazoned in the Caer. Eoll.) ; Eobert le Fitz- 
Payne, gu., three lions pass, in pale arg., over all a hendlet az. : Wil- 
liam de Grandison, paly of six arg. and az., on a bend gu. three 
eaglets displayed or. The shield of the Grandisons in its original 
simplicity is, paly of six, arg. and az. Upon this a bend gules is 
charged. Is extv upon the bend itself three golden eaglets appear ; 

\\ No. 459, PI. XLiIX ; (this shield is blazoned in the Eoll of 
E. II., and in the Calais Eoll). These eaglets are then differ- 
enced by the substitution, first, of three escallops, and subsequently 
of three buckles, aU or ; and finally, John de Grandison, Bishop 
of Exeter, a.d. 1327-1369, completes the group with his shield, 
having the red bend charged with a silver mitre between, two golden 

Jp. buckles; No. 460, PL XLIX. I must add that, in Harl. ^IS. 
5827, the shield of Bishop John de Grandison, is blazoned paly 
of six arg. and az., on a bend gu., a mitre between two eaglets or ; 

T^ No. 460 a, pi. LXXIII. In the Caer. EoU, John Fitz-Mar- 
MADUKE bears, gu., a fesse between three popinjays arg. ; but in the 

■ Eoll of Henry HI., Egbert Fitz-Marmaduke adds to the same 

j<)t arms an azure bendlet, as iu No. 458, PI. XL. ; which example, 
having the bendlet added, is drawn from the shield of an 
effigy of the time of Edward I., probably the effigy of the 
Caerlaverock Fitz-Marmaduke himself, at Chester-le- Street, 

Eoll of E. II. : Sir Henry de Segrave, sa. a lion rampt. arg., 
crowned or, over all a bendlet gu. ; Sir Symon bears the bendlet or, 

r No. 655, PI. LXVII. ; and Sir Stephen engrails the red bendlet. 
Sir Hugh Wake, Sir Philip Courtenay, and Sir John Gasceline, 
all difference their paternal arms with a bendlet : — thus, Wakk, 

1' 2 


or, two bars gti., in chief three torteaux, and over all a hendlet az, ; 
CouRTENAY, oT, three torteaux, over all a hendlet az. ; Gasceline, or, 
billettee az., a hendlet gu. ; Sir Simon Lyndeshaye, or, an eagle dis- 
played purp., dehruised hy a hendlet componee arg. and gu. ; Thomas 
DE Garshale, quarterly arg. and sa., on a bend gu. three fleurs de lys 
or. Calais Eoll : Sir Nicholas Poynings, harry of six or and vert, 
over all a hend gu. ; Sir Hdgh le Despencer charges his sable hend 
with three mullets arg. ; and Sir Philip engrails the bend itself; 
Sir Nicholas Langforde, paly of six or and gu., and over all a 
hend arg. ; Sir Allan Clavering, quarterly or and gu., an a hend sa. 
three midlets arg. Eoll of E. II. : Thomas de Walsh e, gu., two 
bars gemelles arg., surmounted by a hendlet of the same ; John le 
Strange, gu., two lions pass, in pale arg., a hendlet or, the same 
arms without the hendlet being given for another John le 
Strange ; and Egbert de Stafford, or, a cJievron gu., surmounted 
hy a hendlet az. I add another example from the sculptured 
eflSgy of a cross-legged knight at Whatton in Nottinghamshire, 
whose mutilated shield still shows that it originally bore on a 
bend, between six crosslets, three roundles, No. 656 ; one more, from'^|:>.2. 
the bold effigy of a knight of the period of Edward II., from 
Clehongre in Herefordshire, whose shield bears, sculptured with 
extraordinary spirit, harry of six, on a bend three lion's faces, 
No. 657 ; and one from a Brass of the same period at Gorleston V5 
in Suffolk, in which the knight, a De Bacon, whose ailettes 
are charged with a, plain cross, displays on his shield a hend in- 
dented (or dancettee, or perhaps five lozenges conjoined in hend), and 
on a chief two mullets of six points pierced ; No. 658, PI. L!]^XIII. '^^'^I 

19. Examples of Chiefs. The shield of the De Genevilles, 
No. 131 A, PI. XIV., already blazoned (sa.,*three barnacles in pale '^.n 
or, and on a chief erm. a demi-lion rampt. issuant gu.), is an ad- 
mirable example ; (Eoll 11. III). In this same Eoll, Egbert le 
Brus bears, arg., a saltire and a chief gu. ; FiTZ Ealdolf boars, 
arg., the chief of the shield frettee, gu. ; and A. de St. Amand, arg., 
fretty, a chief -ea. This last shield in the Caer. Eoll is differenced 



DE BA('<IV. 

D' AVUYl.yE. 



6 2/S 



Flate 1:^X111 


for AuMERY DE St. Amand, by having three bezants charged upon 
the chief. De Tateshall, chequSe or and gu., a chief erm. ; De 

No. 656. — Fragment of a Shield at Wbatton, Northamptonshire ; (p. 212.) 

Graham, gu., a saltlre arg., on a chief or three escallops of the first ; 
No. 409, PI. XXVIII., Caer. KoU. John de Clinton, arg., on a 
chief az. three fleurs de lys or, EoU E. II. Sir John Strevelyn 
arg., on a chief gu. three huchles, their tongues in fesse, or ; Sir Amy AS 
Brett gu., in chief a lion of England ; Sir Gal yon Corder arg., on 
a chief dancettee three crosslets or, Calais Roll. William de Ermine, 
erm., a saltire eng. gu., on a chief of the last a lion of England ; John 
Deverose, arg., on a fesse gu. a mullet or, in chief three torteavx, 
EoU R. II. 

20. Examples of Chevrons and Bars Gemelles. Roll of 
H. III. : De Meynell, az., three bars gemelles and a chief or ; De 
Monemue, or, three chevronels gu., and over all a fesse az. ; De 
Richmond, gu., tioo bars gemelles and a chief or ; De Tregos, gu., 
three 6ars gemelles and in chief a lion pass. or. Caer. Roll : Bartho- 
lomew de Badlesmere, arg., a fesse bettoeen two bars gemelles gu., 
over all a label of three points az. ; No. 659, PL LXXIII. De Pache, 
arg., a fesse between two chevrons gu. This aggi'oupment often 
occurs with several variations in the tinctures. The famous 
Robert de Fitz Walter, a member of the family of the De 
Clares, bears, or, a fesse between two chevrons gu. Upon the shield 
and surcoat of a knightly effigy of a De L'Isle, (temp. Edw. I.), 


at Rampton in Cambridgeshire, the fesse and the two chevrons 
are sable upon or ; this same shield is blazoned in the Calais Roll, 
which also gives, for Sir William Kydesbye, sa., a fesse or, 
between two chevrons org. The St. Quintins*, on a field of gold, 
bear either a single cheiron, or tico chevrons, or three chevronels of 
the same tincture, always, retaining the same chief vairee ; ^ 
Nos. 461 and 402, PI. XX'viI.; these shields are drawTi from V'^ 
the Brasses to the St. Quintins at Brandsbm-ton and Ilarpham in 
Yorkshire. Henry Fitz Hugh bears, az., three chevronels interlaced, 
and a chief or ; John Boteler, az., a chevron between three covered 
cups or ; and Piers de Carew, arg., three bars gemelles sa. ; Roll 
R. II. 

21. The BoRDURE would enable the early Herald to mark 
Cadency with the utmost distinctness, and yet without infring- 
ing in the slightest degree upon the original composition of the 
shield to be differenced ; and also, at the same time, in anticipa- 
tion of marshalling arms, it aftbrds ready facilities for incor- 
porating the distinctive insignia of two different shields into a 
single composition. The Bordure of France of John Plantagenet 
of Eltham, (No. 332. PI. XIX.), is a fine example of both r-''^ 
Cadency and Marshalling. The Bordure bezantee of the Earl 
of Cornwall, the first of the eight bordered shields that are 
blazoned in the Roll of H. III. (No. 194, PI. V.), and the Bor- '^t^ ^^ 
dure of England that surrounds the banner of John de Dreux of 
Brittany, in the Caerlaverock Roll (No. 116, PI. V.), are equally ^v 
* characteristic examples of Marshalling and Cadency effected by 
the same process. The differenced shields of the Plantagenets, 
Beauforts, Hollands, and TunoRS, with their Bordures are 
described in full in the next Chapter : here, I now proceed to 
adduce some examples of shields differenced by Bordures and 
Labels, in addition to those that have been already noticed. 

Examples of Bordures. Roll of Henry III. : — Fitz Geoffrey 
quarterly or and gu., a bordure vairee ; De Montgomery, erm., a 
bordure gu., seinee of horse-shoes or : De Aubeny, or, two chevrons 

C K D K N r; Y 

;riAPTERXVl |,a,t 

4. '-r 



Plate L 



gu., within a hordure of the last : De^ Ui^PHRAViLLE, or, a cinquefoit 
gu., within a hordure az. semee of horse-shoes or. Caer. Roll : — John 
DE Barr, az., crusily fitcliy or, tico barbels haurient addorsed gold, 

^g icithin a bm-dure engrailed gu., No. 329 a, PI. XIX. : Hugh de Vere, 
son of the Earl of Oxford, De Vere, within a hordure indented sa. 

y^ (this shield occurs in several EoUs), No. 477, PI. XXXII. : The 
Earl of LoTHiAX, gu., a lion rampt. arg., loithin a hordure of the 

1.1C9 fi>'st, semee of roses of the second, No. 429 a, PI. LXXI. Bertram 

r De Montbourchier, arg., three pitchers gu., within a hordure sa. 

1^ hezantee, (also Eoll of E. II. and Seal), No. 464, PI. LI. Eoll 
of E. I.: — EoGER L'Estrange, gu., two lions pass, in pale arg., 

2J^ within a hordure eng. or. No. 660, PI. LXII. Simon de Lybourn, 
az., six lioncels rampt. arg., icitMn a hordure eng. or. Another Eoll 
of E. I. : — De Ferrers, vairee, a hordure sa. semee of horse-shoes 
arg. : this shield of De Ferrers is more commonly blazoned, 
vairee or and gu., a hordure az. semee of horse-shoes or. No. 463, 
PI. LI. Eoll of E. II. : John de Hastings, oj-, a maimcJie gu., 
icithin a hordure of Valence, (" de or, a une maunche de goules od la 

i.'6 hordure de Valence") No. 661, PI. LXII. ; this is a remarkable [ / 
example of the use of the bordure for marshalling, as a prelude | 
to quartering. William de Beauchamp, Beauchamp with martlets, \ 
within a hordure indented arg. : TnoiiAS de Pickering, arg., a lion 
rampt. sa., icithin a hordure gu. hezantee; John de Wigtone, sa., 
three mullets and a hordure indented or ; John de Welle, gu., six 
crescents arg., within a hordure componee or and az. : Nicholas de 
Eivere, vairee arg. and gu., a hordure az. hezantee : Eauf de Eoch- 
FORD, quarterly or and gu., a hordure sa. hezantee, which shield John 
DE EocHEFORD differences by bearing his hordure indented ; Eichard 
DE Bassett, paZ?/ of six or and gu., a hordure az. hezantee ; John de 
Westone, arg., a fesse sa., a hordure gu. hezantee; and for Johan 
DE Weston, " sun filz," the same shield having the hordure in- 
dented. Calais Eoll: — Sir Andrew de Montaulte, of. Messenden, 
az., a lion rampt. arg., a bm-dure or ; Sir Eoger Neville, gu., a 
fesse dancette arg., a hordure or. Garter-Plates : — Gilbert Lord 


Talbot, K.G., brother of the Earl of Shrewsbury, gu., a lion 
rampt., within a hordure engrailed or, No. 662, PI. LXII. ; John " 
Grey, K.G., Earl of Tankerville, gu., a lion rampt., within a hor- 
dure engrailed arg. ; Sir John de Cornwall, K.G., Lord Fanhope, 
enn., within a hordure sa. hezantee, a lion rampt. crowned or, and 
charged for Difference with a mullet arg. No. 433, PI. LI. Eoll of \'^ 
R. U. : John Montagu, arg., three fusils in f esse gu., a hordure sa. ; 
John Rocheford, quarterly or and gu., a hordure sa. cMrged with 
eleven bezants ; Rauff Rocheford, quarterly or and gu., in the sinister 
chief an annulet arg., a hordure sa. charged with ten hezants ; Nichol 
Byllynge, gu., three fish naiant in pale or, a hordure eng. arg. ; 
Edm. FiTZ Hugh, gu., three lions rampt, two and one, or, a hordure 
eng. arg., ; Rauff Cheyne, gu., four fusils infesse arg., each charged 
icith an escallop sa., a hordure of the second. A remarkable Bordure 
was borne by Henry Courtenay and by his son Edward, the last 
two Earls of Devon of their race. This Henry was the son of 
William Courtenay, (died 1502,) and his wife Catherine Plan- 
tagenet, youngest daughter of Edward IV. ; his arms are, 
quarterly, 1, (he marks his mother's royal rank by placing the 
heraldic insignia which represent her in the first quarter,) 
France Modem and England quarterly, differenced with a bordure 
quarterly of England and France ; 2 and 3, Courtenay ; 4. Rivers, 
or, a lion rampt. az., armed gu. ; No. 663, PI. LXII. '^ 

I j "When the Constable and Marshal of England pronounced 
sentence (a.d. 1390) in the famous controversy between Richard, 
Lord ScROPE of Bolton, and Sir Robert Grosvenor of Cheshire, 
in favour of the claim of Lord Scrope to bear the disputed Arms, 
az., a bend or, the sentence went on to authorize Sir Robert 
Grosvenor to bear the same arms within a hordure argent, — this 
oonceesion being made in consideration of the good presumptive 
evidence that had been adduced in support of his claim : but the 
King finally decided, on an appeal to him, that the arms were 
exclusively those of Scrope, and that they could not be borne 
simply differenced with a bordure by Grosvenor, considering 








that " a bordure is not a suJBficient dijBerence between two / 
strangers in the same kingdom, but only between cousin and 
cousin related by blood." Thus did Eichard II. rule that the 
Bordure is a Mark of Cadency properly so called. 

In the Heraldry of Scotland, Bordures appear differencing their 
paternal shields on the Seals of Sir Andrew Murray, (a.d. 1292), 
Hugh Fraser (1o77), and Patrick Hepburn (1371) : the first of 
these Bordures is charged with eleven roses, the second with nijie 
mullets, and the third is simply engrailed : (Seton's Scottish He- 
raldry, p. 196). Maule, Earl of Panjiure; per pale arg. and gu., 
on a hordure also per pale eight escallops, all countercharged. Again, 
" when Hamilton of Innerwick, the earliest Cadet of the House 
of Hamilton, married the daughter and heiress of Stewart of 
Cruxton, he placed a /ess checquy between his three paternal 
cinquefoils, which figures were afterwards suiTounded by a 
bordure charged with eight buchles for De Glay of Innerwick, in 
consequence of another alliance ;" {Scottish Heraldry, p. 110.) 

The Bordure was frequently used by Prelates for differencing 
their arms. Thus, Glover gives the following amongst other 
examples: — William Courtenay, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
A.D. 1381-1396, or, three torteaux, on a label of three poinds az. as 

lit many mitres arg., No. 664, PL LXXIII. ; and these arms the 
Archbishop bears impaled by those of the See of Canterbury. 
Thomas Fitz-Alan or Arundel, Archbishop Cantuaji., a.d. 1396- 
1414, (son of Egbert Fitz-Alan, thirteenth Earl of Arundel), 
Fitz-Alan and Warrenne quarterly, within a hordure engrailed arg. 
John Stafford, Archbishop Cantuar., a.d. 1443-1452, or, on a 
chevron gu. a mitre arg., the whole within a hordure sa. Walter de 
Stapledon, Bishop of Exeter, a.d. 1806-1329, arg., two hendlets 
nebulee sa., within a hordure of the second charged icith eight keys, or, 

2-/2- No. 665, PI. LXXIII. ; Bishop Stapledon's bordure is sometimes 
blazoned gules and sometimes azure, as at Exeter College, Oxford. 
Edmund de Stafford, Bishop Exeter, a.d. 1394-1419, or, a clievroii 
gu,, within a hordure of the second, clutrged with eight mitres arg., 





(sometimes the mitres are or). Henry Le Despencer, Bishop 
Norwich, a.d. 1370-140G, Le Despencer (No. 107), icithin a hardure '^^?'2 
az., charged icitJi fifteen mitres or. No. 465, PI. LI. : this shield is f^"* 
thus blazoned on a boss in roof of the south aisle of the Church 
of Great Yarmouth ; and it also appears with several archiepis- 
copal shields of the Metropolitan See, in the remarkable series J 
of heraldic bosses at Canterbuiy. In his official seal. Bishop * 
Henry Le Despencer has the shield of the see of Norwich on the 
dexter side of his effigy, and on the sinister side his differenced 
shield of Le Despencer. The personal seal of this Bishop is a 
most interesting example of heraldic composition. From a 
helm and mantling sui-mounted by a mitre and the Le Despencer 
crest — a griffin's head, the shield of the prelate, hangs by its 
sinister angle : it is charged with the Le Despencer arms within 
a bordure, upon which are eight mitres. On either side of the 
helm is a shield : the one to the dexter bears the arms of the 
See of Norwich — az., three mitres or : while the sinister shield is 
charged with seven mascles. The bordure in this seal having 
the number of the mitres reduced from fifteen to eight, exem- 
plifies t he herald ic feeling of the time which held the number 
of the repetitions of the differencing charges of any shield to be 
^_a matter of indifference ; No. 666, PI. LXXIII. At St. Alban's ' **■ 
in the north aisle, there remains in the stained glass, a shield 
of Abbot John de WnPLVTiiAMrsxEDE, a.d. 1421-1460, which may 
be said to bear the arms of the Abbey witliin a bordure of the 
Abbot, — az., a saltire or, within a hordure gu., charged loith eight 
garbs of the second; No. 466, PI. LI. : see also No. 201 A, PI. XV. 
I may here notice, as a singular illustration of the prevalence 
of what may be styled the heraldic sentiment of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, that the Bishops of that day sometimes 
blazoned their paternal arms upon their official vestments. Thus, 
upon the seal of Anthony Bec, the celebrated Bishop of Durham, 
A.I). 1283-1310, the effigy of the Prelate is vested in a chosuble 
charged with his a-oss recercclee ; and Lewis de Beaumont, Bishop 



of the same See (a.d. 1317-1333), appears upon his Seal having 

his chesublo semee de-lys and charged icith a lion ravijd. (See 

PI. XXVIII., No. 427). This episcopal eflRgy stands between 

two shields, that to the dexter bearing England, while the other 

would seem to be a modification of the arms of Jerusaleji (No. 1, 

p. 8) ; it is charged with a cross potent, hetioeen four groups of small 

crosses pattees, three crosses in each group.* 

22. Cadency marked by the Label. The earliest known Label 

appears upon the counter-seal of Saer de Quincey, first Earl of 
Winchester, one of the Magna Charta Barons, who died in 1219 : 
his arms are, or, a fesse gu., in cJiief a label of many points — their 
exact number, which probably is twelve, it is not easy to deter- 
mine ; nor can it be certainly demonstrated that this label was 
borne as a Mark of Cadency, and yet Saer was certainly the 
younger brother of Kobekt de Quincey. 

In 1235, John de Laci, Earl of Lincoln, displays upon his 
counter-seal a label of four points, over a bendlet. No. 33 b, p. 25. 
In "Westminster Abbey, one of the shields emblazoned by the 
Heralds of either Henry III. or Edward I., bears the same arms 
of the Earl of Lincoln ; the shield is quarterly or and gu. ; but the 
black bendlet, which is very narrow, is a hendlet sinister, and the 
label is set very high in tlie shield, and there is also a narrow 
border, raised and tinctured sable. No. 467, PI. XLIX. During 
the lifetime of his father, Edward I. charged his shield upon 
his seal with a label, as the recognized heraldic Difi'erence which 
should distinguish his own shield as the Prince Eoyal of Eng- 
land, from the shield of the King his father. Prince Edward's 
label is so placed as to form the actual chief of the escutcheon, and 
two of its five points lie alternately over and under the tail of 
the uppermost lion. No. 470, p. 173. Edward II., while Prince 
Eoyal, bore the label set lower on the shield and with longer 

* Even now, ecclesiastics of the Eoman Church sometimes blazon their arms I 
upon their vestments, as appears from a photograph portrait of the present 
Pope, Pros IX., in which the stole is charged with the paternal arms of the 



i^*^^^*o (vKt^tv c\jL (L^TolrlX, wm^U^l^ , j,.37 \ 




>U r^. 





points, No. 430, PI. XLV. This label of Prince Edward is >- 
blazoned azure in the Eoll of Cacrlaverock, and in the Roll of 
H. III., his father's label has the same tincture. It will be 
borne in remembrance that labels, when they were first intro- 
duced, were borne as well by younger brothers as by sons in 
their father's lifetime ; and also that at an early period in the 
history of heraldry labels became hereditary, as in the instance 


The early labels were always blazoned in a conspicuous 
fanner ; and, when they had not their tincture determined by_ 
any s pecial circumstances, thej were tjnctiired in_ such colours_ 

as might contrast most effectively w ith the blazonry of Jhe 
shields upon which they were charged. These early labels are_ 
found always to extend across the entire field of the shield from Ij.^ 
dexter to sinister ; they have the ribbon itself very narrow, and_ 

it is generally set in close proximity to the uppermost margin 

of the shield, as in the examples upon the monuments of Edward 

' III, and Edmond of Langley. The points, which are broader 

(sometimes considerably broader) than the horizontal ribbon, are 

>'^_^4^ilbt'' in almost all cases either five or three in number ; but a few 

i examples of early labels having foui^oints have been observed. 
The secretum of John de Laci, Earl of Lincoln, a.d. 1232-1258, 
has the label of four points, No. 33 b, p. 25. In like manner, 
upon his magnificent monument in Westminster Abbey, Edmond 
Crouchback, first Earl of Lancaster, displays a label of four points : 
this Earl, however, and his eldest son also, in their seals bear 
labels of both five and three points. (See Label, in Chap. Vll., 
and also in Chap. XXXII.) 

An early seal of one of the Nevilles, No. 667, Chap. XXXI., hasl»-i 
the label oifoiir points charged upon the chief of the shield : but 
another Egbert de Neville, about a.d. 1270, bears his label of 
five points, as in No. 668. It does not appear that any peculiar 'r 
significaucy is attached to the number of these " points ;" at any 
rate, labels of five and of three points were certainly borne by 

'^Vum^<^<^lu«Jl*H<^^jjj^.a,|,. ,/|0. 


the same individual at the same time, and they are even charged 
upon the obverse and the reverse of the same seal. The seal and 
the counter-seal of Edward II., as Prince Eoyal, for example, 
have severally labels of three and five points : and Henry Plan- 
TAGEXET of Bolingbroke displays, on his impaled shield, a label of 
fivepoints and a label of three points side by side, No. 347, p. 165. 

The Charges with which labels are constantly diiferenced are 
always intended to convey some significant meaning of their 
own, and thus they take an important part in giving an historical 
character to heraldic compositions. These charges, necessarily 
drawn to a very small scale, are placed upon the points of any 
label ; sometimes a single charge appears upon one point only, 
at other times it appears upon each point, but more frequently 
the charge is repeated so that the same device is generally repre- 
sented three times upon each point. This arrangement, however, 
is left entirely to the discretion of the artist, there being no 
heraldic signification implied in the repetition of the charges ; 
when they are repeated, the object is to establish more decidedly 
the character of these small difierencing charges, and to render 
their presence more conspicuous. The small figures are almost 
invariably all drawn to the same scale, and placed one above 
another ; but, at St. Alban's there is a shield in stained glass of 
France Ancient and England quarterly, diff'erenced with a label of 
three points having on each point three ermine spots, which are ar- 
ranged two and one, each of the single spots, being much larger 
j-j^ than the pair of spots above them ; No. 468, PI. XXXI. In this 
example, and in several others also, I have not considered it to 
be necessary to engrave more than the label with its charges, 
the shields always being repetitions of either England, France 
Ancient and England, or France Modern and England, 

Labels charged with three ermine spots, three flenrs de lys, &c., 
placed in pale oneach of the points, are of common occurrence ; 
and this, indeed , is always implied, unless some other arrange- 
ment should be expressly specified. Two of the Plantagenet 


Shields at Great Yarmouth have two ermine spots only on each 
point of their labels, and a third shield has two torteaux only on 
each point, Nos. 469 and 472, PL XXXI. : and, in like manner, y 
one of the shields on the Burghersh monument has its label 
charged on each point with two fleurs de lys, and another with 
tioo ermine spots, while a third has a sinrjle red cross upon each point ; 
2 PI. XXXIV. Upon the Stall-Plate of George Plantagenet, ^^ 
E.G., brother of Edward IV., his label is blazoned with a single 
canton upon each of its three points : and this same label is re- 
peated in the stained glass at St. Alban's, No. 473, PI. XXXI. : >' 
and again, Eichard Plantagenet, second son of Edward IV., 
upon his Stall-Plate charges a single red canton upon the first point 
only of his silver label, No. 474. I may add here, that during his 
father's lifetime, Eichard II. differences his shield with a silver 
label of either five or three points, charged on the central point only 
with a Cross of St. George, No. 485. Occasionally two distinct 
groups of differencing charges appear upon the same label ; in 
this case the label has five points, and it either divides its cen- 
tral point per pale, or allots two points to one group of charges 
and three to the other; thus, on the monument at King's 
Langley, the shield that stands last of the series on the south 
side bears, France Ancient and England quarterly, with a label of 
five points per pale of Brittany and of France; points 1 and 2, 
ermine (three spots on each) ; and points 3, 4, 5, of France (three 
fleurs de lys on each). No. 486. The Stall-Plate of John Plan- 
TAGEXET, son of Henry IV., is differenced with a similar label, 
charged upon France Modern and England quarterly. Leaving the 
differenced Arms of the Plantagenet Princes for more full consi- 
deration in the following Chapter, I now proceed to notice some 
examples of labels borne upon shields that are not of Eoyal 

In one Eoll of Henry III., thirteen shields are differenced 
with labels of five points ; of these labels six are azure, five are 
gules, and there is one of each of the metals. A second Eoll of 












tho same period has fifteen labels of five points; one or, one 
argent, seven azure, five gules and one sahle. There are five 
banners or shields differenced with azure labels of five points in 
the Caerlaverock EoU ; one with a similar label vert, and one 
sahle; one azure, and one gules of three points; and a third of 
three points, of France. The Calais Eoll, which blazons one 
hundred and eighteen shields, has twelve labels ; two only are 
oifive points, and of these one is argent, and the other of France ; 
two, of three points, are or, one is argent, four are azure, one is 
gules, a fifth azure label is charged with nine silver crescents, and 
a second golden label bears on each point an eaglet vert. In about 
the same proportion to the numbers of the shields blazoned in 
other Rolls, are the numbers and also the varieties of the labels 
that appear in them to mark cadency. 

Examples of Labels. Eoll of H. III. : De Laci, Earl of Lincoln, 
quarterly or and gu., a bend sa., over all a label of five points vert 
(compare No. 33 b, p. 25) ; Eustace de Tours, gu., an orle and a 
label of five points or ; William de Clare, or, three chevronels gu., a 
label of five points az. ; J. le Strange, gu., tico lions pass, in pale arg., 
a label of five points az. ; E. de Longespee, az., six lioncels rampt., 
three, tivo and one, or, a label of five points gu. Eoll of E. I. : Sir 
John Louell or Lovel, barry nebulee of six or and gu., on a label of 

^t five points az., fifteen mullets arg. No. 502, PI, XXXIII. (Compare 
No. 670, PI. LXXIV.) Eoll of Caer.: John de Segrave (eldest 
son), sa., a lion ramp, arg., croivned or, and a label of five points gu. ; 
John de St. John (the heir), his father's arms, arg., on a chief gu. 
two mullets pierced or, with a label of five points az.. No. 40-1, PI. 

^ XXVIII. ; John Chavering, son and heir of Egbert Fitz Eoger, 
quarterly or and gu., a bend sa., over all a label of five points vert ; Ed- 
mond de Hastings, brother of the Earl, or, a maunche gu., and a 
label of five points sa. ; Maurice de Berkeley had, upon his father's 
bannei-, "a label of azure because his father was living ;" See No. 392, 
PI. XXXVII. ; and Patrick of Dunbar, son of the Earl of Lothia:!^, 
a label of five points az., charged upon a banner otherwise identical 


vnth that of his father. See No. 429, PI. XXXII., and No. 429 a, f^^' 
n. LXXI., and p. 193. Roll of E. II. : Sir John Daubexy, gu.y \' 
a fesse indented (or five fusils conjoined in fesse) erm., in chief three 
mullets or, over all a label of three points az. Sir Hugh Audele, gu., 
frettee or, a label az. ; Sir James Aupele, gu., frettee or, a label of 
Longespee (on each point of the azure l.ahel alioncel or) — his mother 
was a daughter of William de Loxgespee, No. 669, I'l. LXXIV. h** 
Sir William Lovp:l, tptdSe or and gu., a label of Valence (the points 

/I* »l iw harrulee arg. and az., and on each a martlet gu.) ; No. 670, PI. 

, (^ LXXIV. Sir EicHARD de la Vacua, gu., three lioncels arg., a label ^• 

of Warrenne, (chequee or and az.); No. 671, PI. LXXIV. Sir j'- 
John Tendringe, az., a fesse between two chevrons or, a label gu., 
fieurettee arg., No. 672, PI. LXXIV. ; Sir William de Suleye, or, '^h 
two bends gu., a label barridee arg. and az. ; Sir Egbert Peche, arg. 
a fesse between two chevrons gu., a label az. bczantee. EoU of E. III. : 
James d'Audeley, gu., afrette or, a label componee az. and arg. ; his 
cousin bears the same arms, substituting for the label a bordure 
arg. ; and Hugh, the head of the family, bears the frette without 
any difference. Eiciiard de Grey " de Sandiacre," differences 
DeGrey, No. 121, p. 35, with a label fu.bezantee ; and Byron, in like 
manner, No. 249, p. 77, is differenced with a label az. ; Hugh and 
Eobert de Men ell bear, vairee arg. and sa., a bendlet gu., the one 
adding a label gu., and the other a label componee erm. and gu. ; 
and Edward Chandos bears, arg., a pile gu., a label az. Calais 
Eoll : Sir Edward de Montague, erm., three fusils conjoined in fesse 
gu., a label of three points or, charged on each point loith an eaglet 
^>>^^I" vert; Thomas Clynton (also in Eoll of R. II.), arg. on a chief 

az., two mullets of six points or pierced gu., over all a label of three 
points erm.. No. 400 a, PI. LXVII. (See p. 184, and No. 400, l^'j 

Roll of R. II. This Roll records the cadency of no less than 
seven members of the family of Scrope, with the memorable 
shield of the head of the house, Richard le Scrope, az., a bend or, 
borne by him without any difference. This same shield Henry, 



William, and John lk Sceope severally diiferencc with laheU of 
three points argent, gules and e^-mine ; a second Henry, bears, on a 
label of three points arg., as many bars gii. Thomas le Sckope charges a 

No. 503. — Shield of Sir Edw. de Montague, h. ii-i/ 

single annulet sa. upon his silver label ; while Stephen and another 
kinsman, whose Christian name is not recorded, charge, the one 
a lozenge erm., and the other a mullet erm., in chief upon the Ordi- 
nary of their shields : a Eoll of E. III. adds, for " Monsire Wil- 
liam LE ScROPE, d'asure, une bend d'o)' en le point de la bend un lyon 
rampant de pourpre." I return to the Labels of the Eoll of E. II. : 
William Marny bears, gu., a lion rampt. guard arg., a label of 
three points or. Eeynald Lucy, gu., semee of crosslets, three lucies 
haurient, tioo and one, or, a label of three points az. Thomas de 
Asteley, az. a cinquefoil erm., a label of three points or, charged 
with two bars gu. John de Aylesbury, az., a cross arg.; and 
Thomas, his son, the same, differenced with a label gu. John 
Clavering, quarterly or and gu, a label of three points arg. ; and De 
Etton, barry of twelve arg. and gu., a label of three points az., over 
all a catUon sa. charged with a cross patonce or. 

Sir Alexander Giffard, the friend and companion in anus of 
Earl William Longespee, whose noble effigy lies, crossed-legged, 
in the fine church of Boyton in Wiltshire, bears, gu., three lions 
pass, in pale arg., a label of five points az., charged on each point u-ith 
twofleurs de lys or. This shield, Xo. 503 a, El, LXXX, is blazoned 
in the glass of the south-east window. The other chosen comrade 



of the Earl of Salisbury, Sir Robert de Vere, his banner-bearer in 
the Cinisade, is commemorated by an equally characteristic effigy, 
also representing the good knight crossed-legged, at Sudborough, 
in the same county of Wilts. The label componee arg. and az. of 
the Nevilles, Earls of Salisbury, I have already alluded to 
j,,,'J (p. 203), No. 452 'c, Tl. XL. John Bourchier, K.G., Lord Ber- 
NERS, A.D. 1475 (Garter-Plate), over Bourchier and Lorraine quar- 
te)-hj, in the first and fourth grand quarters of his shield, has a label 
of three poitiis of England, that is, a label gu., charged on each point 
icith three lions of England ; No. 673, PI. LXXIV. This nobleman 
became Lord Berners, ywre uxoris, having married the heiress, 
Margery Berners, whose arms (quarterly or and vert) appear in 
the 2nd and 3rd quarters of his shield. His father's mother was 
Alianore de Lorraine, in whose right he quarters Lorraine (gu., 
hillettee or, a fesse arg.), with Bourchier. His own mother was 
Anne Plantagenet, daughter of Thomas of Woodstock, youngest 
son of Edward III. ; and hence, in reference to his maternal 
descent from Edward III., he bears his Lahel of England. At 
Canterbury, his shield in the 4th quarter bears Bourchier only, 
without any label. William Bourchier, Baron Fitz-AVaryn, 
brother of Lord Berners, differences Bourchier with a Label of 
France, also to denote his descent from Edward II L Henry 
Bourchier, K.G., the eldest brother, who married Isabella 
Plantagenet, daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, was cre- 
ated Earl of Essex and Eu, and bears his paternal arms without 

The Courtenays in their arms have a series of Labels of sin- 
gular interest, fiom which I select a group of examples. John 
de Courtenay (Roll H. III.) bears, oi; three torteaux. Hugh de 
Courtenay (Caer. Roll), bears, or, three torteaux, a label of five 
points az. ; and from this time the Courtenay shield is always 
charged with a label. This Hugh de Courtenay, the eldest son 
of another Hugh de Courtenay and of Alianore Le Despencer, 
was created Earl of Devon, and married Agnes de St. John. His 


eldest son, Hugh de Couutenay, second Earl of Devon, bears the 
uncharged azure label, as it had been borne by his father ; he 
married Margaret de Boiiun, granddaughter of Edward I. 
This impaled shield appears in the Brass at Exeter. The second 
son of the first Earl, Egbert de Courtenay, bears an azure label 
charged with nine golden mullets ; his mother, it will be remem- 

. bered, was a St. John (See No. 404 a, Tl. XXVIII.). Sir Hugh, 
K.G., the eldest son of the second Earl, died in his father's life- 
time, having married Elizabeth de Bryan ; he differences with 
a label sa., hezantee. His only son and heir, Hugh, married 
Matilda de Holland of Exeter, and he differences with a label 

y- of France, az., fleurettee ; Ko. 674, PI. LXXIV. (See No. 477 a, 

q PL LXV. : and see pp. 166, 195.) 

Edward de Courtenay, second son of the second Earl, suc- 
ceeded his father as third Earl of Devon ; he died in 1419, 
having married Maud de Camoys. His son, Edward, bears 
an azure label of three points, each point charged with a plate ; 

y (See No. 287, PI. xTv.). 

Sir Hugh de Courtenay, third (but second surviving) son of 
the second Earl, bears a label of three points az., charged with nine 
crescents arg. ; No. 504, PI. XXXIII. (Calais Koll). His son, b iz,{, 
Sir Edward, bears, a label of three points az., charged with nine 
mullets pierced or ; No. 506, PI. XXXIII. ; (Brass at Christchurch p :%(, 
Cathedral, Oxford, about a.d. 1440). » 

The arms of William de Courtenay, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, fourth son of the second Earl, have been already blazoned ; 

I (No. 664, PI. LXXifl. ; and p. 217.) I? ^Tr 

! Sir Philip, fifth son of the second Earl, bears a label of three 

[ points az.,plattee (nine plates) ; No. 505, PI. XXXIII. ; he married ^'i^o 
Margaret Wake, and is the direct ancestor of the present Cour- 
TFj^AYS. His son, Sir "William, charges his silver label with three 
torteaux (See No. 437, PI. L.). )' ''^-^ 

Sir Peter de Courtenay, K.G., youngest son of the second 
Earl of Devon, differences his shield with a label of three points 

Q 2 


sa., charged with nine anmdets arg. ; No. G75, PI. LXXIV. (Garter- 
Plate ; and Brass in Exeter Cathedral.) 

Another Courtenay lahel is, az., guttee d'or ; and the sons of 
Thomas, fifth Earl of Devon, who married Margaret de Beau- 
fort, difference with a labd and a hendlet componee arg. and az. 
(See No. 479, PI. XXXII. : see also Canterbury shields ; Harl. 
M.S. 1366; Seals; Roll of E. II., &c.) 

The Latymers have another small group of Labels, which they 
charge as distinct marks of cadency upon the same shield. Wil- 
liam LE Latymer (Caer. Roll), bears, gu. a cross patonce or. In 
the Eoll of E. II., another William le Latymer differences 
this shield (his cross is blazoned pattee), with a lahel of three points 
sable, plattee ; No. 507 ; and his brother, Thomas, has his label, 
also of three points, az., fleurettee ; No. 508. A third Latymer 
label is sable uncharged. The Roll of E. II. gives for Thomas 
Latymer a plain label az. ; and two other members of the family 
difference by charging either Jive escallops sable,, or Jive martlets 
gules upon their cross. 

No. 507. No. 508. 

Arms of William and Thobias le Latymer. ■ • 

Thomas Grey, K.G., Marquess of Dorset (son of Elizabeth 
Widville), bears De Grey (No. 121, p. 35), differenced with 
three torieaux in chief, and a lable of three points erm. ; and his son, 
Thomas, also bears the same arms. 

A singular Label is assigned to Gaston de Foix, K.G., Count 
of Longueville, Captal De Buck, and also to John he Foix, K.G., 



Viscount do Chastilion, Captal De Buck and Earl of Kendall. 
The arms of both are given as, quarterly, 1 and 4, De Foix, or, 
three pallets gu. ; 2 and 3, Beam, az., three garbs or ; and these 
shields are differenced with a label having, instead of points, 
three crosses sable depending from it, each cross being charged 
with five escallops arg. (Ashmole). This label, No. 676, PI. hi-^^ 
LXXIV., commemorates the marriage of Blanche de Foix with 
John de Gkeilly, Captal De Buck, a.d. 1328, whose arms are, 
or, on a cross sa.,five escallops arg. 

23. Difference by Augmentation. This most interesting sys- 
tem of Differencing, which, in almost eveiy individual instance 
of its application, is directly associated with History, I have re- 
served for separate treatment in Chapter XXVIII., Section I. 

No. 725. — MOLES\\^RTH — 

Baronet, a.d. 1689. 

No. 726. ASTLEY- 

Baron Hastings. 


HAKPifK Cbeve — Baronet, a.d. 1626. 
(See Chap. XXX I.) 

QJ No. 4jf7.— Shitld of Henhy V., as Prince of Walks, from iiis Stall-Plate in 
St. Georges Chapel, Windsor. 



In this Chapter I have considered tlie Marks of Cadency which 
distinguish the shields of arms of the Plantagenet and Turx)R 
Princes, with those of the De Beauforts and the De Hollands, 
and also the Differences borne by the members of our own Eoyal 
Family at the present day. 

T. The Cadency of the Plantagenets. 

The surname of Plantagenet probably was formally adopted 
and recognized about the close of the fourteenth century. 1 
apply it, however, not only to Edward III. himself, and to his 
descendants, but also to his predecessors and other relatives who 
lived nearer to the time of Henry II., in order to distinguish, by 
a single well-known family name, all the direct male descendants 
of the same Royal House. 


The Names and principal Titles of the Princes of this House 
of Plantagenet are : — 

1. King Henry II. 

The four sons of King Henry II. 

2. Henry, Duke of Normandy. 

3. King EiCHARD I. 

4. Geoffrey, Count of Brittany. 

5. King JoH\. 

Tlie only son of Count Geoffrey (No. 4) : — 

6. Arthur, Prince Eoyal. 

Tlie tico sons of King John (No. 5.) : — 

7. King Henry III. 

8. EiCHARD, Earl of Cornwall, and King of the Romans. 

Tlie tivo sons of King Henry III. (No. 7) : — 

9. King Edward I, 

fp 10. Edmond, " Crouchback," first Earl of Lancaster. 

Tlie three sons of Earl Eichard (No. 8) : — 

11. Henry, of Cornwall. 

12. Eichard, of Cornwall. 

13. Edmond, second Earl of Cornwall. 

Tlie three sons of King Edward I. (No. 9) : — 

14. King Edward II. 

15. Thomas, " De Brotherton," Earl of Norfolk. 
IG. Edmond, " De Wodestock," first Earl of Kent. 

The two sons of King Edward II. (No. 14) : — 

17. King Edward III. 

18. John, " of Elthura," Earl of Cornwall. 


The six sons of King Edward III. (No. 17) : — 

19. Edward, K.G., "the Black Prince," first Prince of Wales, 
Duke of Cornwall and Earl of Chester. 

20. William, "of Hatfield." 

21. Lionel, K.G., "of Antwerp," Duke of Clarence. 

22. JoHX, K.G., " of Ghent," Earl of Derby, second Duke of 

23. Edmond, E.g., "of Langley," first Earl of Cambridge, 
and Duke of York. 

24. Thomas, E.G., " of \Yoodstock," Earl of Buckingham and 
Hereford, Duke of Gloucester. 

The two sons o/ Edmond, ^rs< Earl of Lancaster (No. 10) : — 

25. Thomas, second Earl of Lancaster. 

26. Henry, third Earl of Lancaster. 

The only son o/ Henry, third Earl of Lancaster (No. 26) :— 

27. Henry, first Duke of Lancaster. 

The mhj son o/ Thomas, Earl of Norfolk (No. 15) : — 

28. Edward, of Norfolk. 

The two sons of 'Eduoihd, first Earl of Kent (No. 16) : — 

29. Edmond, second Earl of Eent. 

30. John, third Earl of Eent. 

The two sons o/ Edward, the Blach Prince (No. 19) : — 

31. Edward, " of Angouleme." 

32. Eing Richard IL, second Prince of Wales. 

Tlie only son (by Mary de Bohun) of John, " of Ghent," (No. 

33. Eing Henry IV., "of Bolingbroke." 


The two sons of Edmond " of Langley" (No. 23) : — 

34. Edward, K.G., Earl of Kutland, second Duke of York. 

35. Eichard, " of Coningsburgh," second Earl of Cambridge. 

Tlie only son of Thomas, " of Woodstocic" (No. 24) :— 

36. Humphrey. 

Tlie four sons of King Henry IV., (No. 33) : — 

37. King Henry V., third Prince of Wales. 

38. Thomas, K.G., second Duke of Clarence. 

30. John, K.G., Duke of Bedford, Earl of Eichmond. 

40. Humphrey, K.G., second Duke of Gloucester. 

Hie only son o/ Eichard, " of Coningsburgh," (No. 35) : — 

41. Eichard, K.G., third Duke of York, Earl of Cambridge 
and Eutland. 

The only son of King Henry V., (No. 37) : — 

42. King Henry VI. 

TJie four sons o/^ Eichard, third Duke of York, (No. 41) : — 

43. King Edward IV., fourth Duke of York. 

44. Edmond, third Earl of Rutland. 

45. George, K.G., third Duke of Clarence. 

46. King Eichard III., third Duke of Gloucester. 

The only son of King Henry VI., (No. 42) : — 

47. Edward, K.G., fourth Prince of Wales. 

Tlie three som of King Edward IV., (No. 43) : — 

48. King Edward V., fifth Prince of Wales. 

49. Eichard, K.G., fifth Duke of York, &c. 

50. George, second Duke of Bedford. 

Tlie only son of King Eichard III., (No. 46) :— 

51. Edward, sixth I'riuce of Wales. 



The only son of Geokge, third Duke of Clarence, (No. 45) : — 
52. Edward, Earl of U'ai-wick, the last of the Plaxtagenets. 

I now proceed to blazon the Arms of the Plantagenet 
Princes, with their Marks of Cadency. The figures that are 
attached to the names refer to the corresponding figures in the 
foregoing List. 

King Edward I. (9), as Prince Eoyal, " Primo-genitus Begis :" 
— England, with a label of Jive or three points az. ; No. 470, p. 173 : 
Roll of H. III., and Seals. Jec /"c^* //■* 

King Edward II. (14), as Prince Eoyal: — England, with a 
label of jive or three points az. ; No. 430, PI. XL V. : KoUs of E. I. 
and Caer., and Seals, u*. /i <*.c,c ^ <7 3 

King Edward III. (17), as Prince Eoyal and Earl of Chester : 
— England, with a label of Jive or three points az. : Roll E. II., 
Seal A.D. 1327. 

Richard, (8), Earl of Cornwall and Emperor. After he had 
aspired to the Imperial Dignity he was generally styled " King 
of the Romans;" died in 1272. As Earl, — Poidou, vnthin a bor- 
dure of Cornwall, that is, arg., a lion rampt. gu., croicned or, within a 
bordure sa., bezantee ; No. 194, PI. V. As Emperor, — or, an eagle 
displayed, sa. ; No. 677, PI. LXXVI. 

Edmond, (13), second Earl of Cornwall : — the same as his 
father, No. 194. He also bore this shield carried by an eagle 
displayed, as in No. 212 c, PI. LXII. ; and having married the 
daughter of the Earl Richard de Clare, he dimidiated Cornwall 
and Clare, No. 320, PI. XVIII. : Rolls of H. III., E. I., E. II., 
and Caer., Westminster Shields, Seals. This same shield of 
arms, differenced by having the field erm., the bordure engrailed, 
and a silvei' mullet charged on the shoulder of the lion, is borne, a.d. 
1443, by Sir John de Cornwall, K.G., Lord Fanhope; No. 433, 
PI. LI. : Windsor Garter-Plate. 

Edmond, (10), surnamed " Crouchback," first Earl of Lan- 
caster, the younger brother of the King; died 1296 : — England, 

PTvATK I.XIII. CiiAi'TEws xiii, XVI., xvm. 

No. 488a.— j:iHgy of Hknkv, Di kj; of Laxcastku, a.o. 1347. 

From tlio IJiass lo Siu High 11a.stixg.s, at Klsyng, Nortolk. 

See pp. 113, 23."), niid 287. 


loith a label of France — a lahd, that is, of three, four, or five points 
az., fieurettie ; No. 433, PI. XLV., and No. 493, PI. XXXIV. 
Earl Edmoni) appears to have assumed this label as his DifiFcrence, 
on his marriage with his second Countess, Blaxcii of Artois, 
A.D. 1276. 

Thomas, (25), second Earl of Lancaster : — the same Arms 
and Difference as Earl Edmond his father : what Difference he 
may have borne during the lifetime of his father I am unable 
to show. He himself was executed in 1322. His only brother, 
Henry, (26), third Earl of Lancaster, before his accession to 
the Earldom in 1322, bore England, differenced with a hendlet az., 
No. 471, p. 173, and No. 610, Chap. XXIV., Section I. After 
1322, Earl Henry (who died 1345) bore the same Arms and 
Difference as his father and elder brother : Eolls E. I., E. II., 
and Caer., Westminster Monument, Seals. 

Thomas, " de Brotherton," (15), Earl of Norfolk and Marshal 
of England ; died 1338 : — England, with a label of three points arg. 
Edmond, " de Wodestock," (16), first Earl of Kent; executed 
in 1329 : — England, iciili a bordure arg. ; No. 475, PI. XXXII. : 
Eoll. of E. IL, Seals. 

John, " of Eltham," (18), Earl of Cornwall, younger brother 
of the King ; died 1336 : — England, with a bordure of France ; 
No. 332, PI. XIX. : Monument at Westminster. 

Henry, (27), fourth Earl and first Duke of Lancaster, died 
1362 : — before 1345, England, with a bendlet az. ; Seal, No. 610 : 
as Earl, — England, with a label of three ov five points of France ; 
also, France Ancient and England quarterly, icith a label of France ; 
Seal. It is probable that he assumed the quartered aiTus on his 
accession to the ducal dignity in 1352, In the Calais Roll, 
A.D. 1347, his arms are blazoned as, England, with a label of 
France ; and in his effigy in the Elsyng Brass, of the same date, 
he appears wearing upon his jupon these arms — the arms of all 
his predecessors, the Earls of Lancaster ; No. 488 a, PI. LXIII, 

Edmond, (29), second Earl of Kent; died without issue, 1333 : 



— and John, (30), his brother, third Earl of Kent ; died, also 
without issue, 1353 : the same Anns and Difference as their 
father, No. 475, PI. XXXII. 

The Marks of Cadency borne on their shields by the Sons of 
Edward III. now come under consideration. His eldest son, 
Edward, K.G., (19), the renowned Black Prince, bom at "Wood- 
stock, A.D. 1330, Earl of Chester in 1333, (after the death of his 
uncle John, " of Eltham," in 1337,) Duke of Cornwall, in 1343 
was created Prince of Wales ; died in 1376, and buried in 
Canterbury Cathedral: — (1.) England, tcifh a label of Jive points 
org. ; (2.) France Ancient and England quarterly, with a label of 
three points arg. ; No. 339, PL XXXIV., from the Burghersh 
Monument at Lincoln. The quartered shield appears upon the 
Monument of the Prince, and the same arms are blazoned on his 
jupon in his efSgy; they appear in enamel colours upon the 
Monument of Edward III., at King's Langley, in the Great 
Yarmouth series, and in his seals ; the shield with England only, 
used as late as the year 1372, appears in seals of the Prince. 
See Cott. MS. Jul. cvii, 158 b, 182 b; Harl. MS., 2099, 433 b, 1 d. 
14,188 ; and Vincent SS, fol. 88, in Coll. Arm. 
/ In his Will, the Black Prince gives directions that on the 
occasion of his funeral two distinct armorial compositions should 
be displayed in the procession, immediately before his remains ; 
one, for icar — " I'un pur la guerre, de nos armes entiers quartelles " — 
of his quartered arms ; and the other, of his Badge of Ostrich 
Feathers, for peace — " et F autre pur la paix, de nos bages des 
plumes d'ostruce. Similar shields " for war," and " for peace," 
alternate about the monument of the Prince. Each shield " for 
peace " bears, on a sable field, three ostrich feathers erect, two and 
one, arg., with labels cJuirged ivith the looi'ds IcH Dien : No. 234, p. 70, 
In right of his wife, the Princess Joan, the Black Prince would 
c I impale mditmd of Kent ; No. 476, Pis. XXXII. and LXV. 

The plain silver label, first adopted by the Black Prince, has 
been borne by all the succeeding Princes of Wales as their 


■:-:a?ter rri. 

KING i:i>VVAKD in rHE bi^ck pp, n^e 


OF « NT V. E R F . • :. , ■ 



From theMonu]r.enttoEi6hopBl'?,lT}iEP?H :r. Lincoln Jathearai aboiftU-60 -■ 



special armorial distinction. The Black Prince himself stands 
at the head of the group of historical Princes of Wales, his 
grandfather Edward II., having borne that title only by virtue 
of a romantic legend. The Caerlaverock Koll, which gives a 
graphic sketch of Prince Edward, the eldest son of King 
EdWjVRd I., then " a youth of seventeen years of age and bearing 
ai-ms for the first time," in proclaiming the style of the King 
himself is careful to entitle him " Prince of Wales." In like 
manner, Edward III, before his accession was Earl of Chester, 
but not Prince of Wale.s. 

The Princes of Wales of the House of Plant agenet are as ^^-x^**-^ 
lollows : — 

1. The Black Prince. 

2. KicHARD, son of the Black Prince, afterwards Richard II. 

3. Henry, son of Henry IV., afterwards Henry V. 

4. Edward, son of Henry VI. 

5. Edward, son of Edward IV., afterwards Edward V. 

6. Edward, son of Eichard III. 

The last four of these Princes bear the silver label charged upon 
France Modern and England quarterly, as in No. 487, p. 230, the 
shield of Henry V., as Prince of Wales, from his Garter-Plate in 
St. George's Chapel. 

No armorial insignia appear to have been assigned to Prince 
William, (20), second son of Edward III., who died young, and 
was buried in York Cathedral, where his effigy still remains. 

Lionel, (21), third son of Edward III., Duke of Clarence; 
died 1368: — France Ancient and England quarterly, with a label 
of either Jive or three points, the label itself being charged with certain 
devices for secondary difference. One of the shields upon the 
Burghersh Monument, Xo. 490, PI. XXXIV., has been assigned 
to Prince Lionel; this label is of five points, and a single cross 
is blazoned on each point; and it has been suggested that this 
may have been a Label of Ulster — that is, or, charged on each point 


with a cross gu. Lionkl man-ied the heiress of Ulster in 1352, 
and in 1355 he became Earl of Ulster, jure tixoris. The same 
lady, Elizabeth de Burgh, was also co-heiress of the De Clares, 
and in 1362 her husband was created Duke of Clarence, when 
he appears to have assumed a silver Label, charged on each point 
loith a canton gules — such a canton being reputed to be an ancient 
bearing of the family of De Clare. At St. Alban's, as I have 
already mentioned, there remains a shield of France Ancient and 
England, differenced with a Label of three points arg., on each point 
a canton gu. ; No. 473, PI. XXXI. Among other authorities for 
the label borne by this Prince, reference has commonly been 
made to the small enamelled shield, the third in the series, 
that remains beneath one of the " Weepers " on the south side of 
the monument of Edward III., in Westminster Abbey. In 
No. 489, PI. XXXI., I give a facsimile (engraved from my own 
tracing) of the original of the label blazoned upon this shield, 
\y from which it appears that each point is charged with a canton 
gules (or rather a hillet), interposed between two torteaux. The 
original shield is of metal, and the charges upon the label are 
formed of a vitreous paste, inlaid in«aatrices sunk for its recep- 
tion, the paste itself having been raised so as to represent these 
small charges in relief upon the polished silver of the label. 
It is singular that a correct description of this remarkable label 
should not have been before given. The original is open for 
examination, and it does not appear to be possible that it 
should have been subjected to any alteration ; unless, indeed, in 
the first instance, this label bore three torteaux ; and afterwards, 
on the union of the houses of York and Clarence by the marriage 
of Richard Plantagenet " of Coningsburgh " with Anne Mor- 
timer, the central torteau of York was cut away, and the canton 
of Clarence made to assume its place. This suggestion would 
assign both this shield in its original condition, and the statuette 
above it, to Edmond Plantagenet " of Langley," and not to his 
elder brother Lionel. In right of his wife, Elizabeth de Burgh, 



Fiale XXX 1, 


Prince Lionel would impale T)e Burgh of Ulster — or, a cross gu. : 
Monuments at "Westminster, Langley, and Lincoln. 

JoHX, " of Ghent," (22), fourth son of Edwakd III, E.G., 
Duke of Lancaster and King of Castile and Leon ; died Feb. 3, 
1399 : — France Ancient and England, with a label of three points 
ermine. This label may be blazoned " of Brittany," having been I / 
derived from the ermine canton borne by JoHx de Dreux, Count I 
of Brittany and Earl of Eichmond, on whose death, in 1342, the 
Earldom of Eichmond was conferred by Edward III. on his 
infant son. Prince John. The eimine label is generally blazoned ^ y' 
with three spots on each point, as in No. 494, PL XXXI., the spots | 
being in pale : a diflferent arrangement has been shown in 
No. 468, at St. Alban's ; and again, at Great Yarmouth, in No. 469 ; : 
at Lincoln also, the same label appears charged with two spots . 
only upon each point, No. 491, PL XXXIV. John of Ghent! 
was created Duke of Lancaster in 1362, and in the following 
year Earl of Derby, Lincoln, and Leicester : also, on his mar- 
riage with Constance of Castile, he assumed the title of King 
of Castile and Leon. He impales the arms of his fii'st wife, 
Blanche of Lancaster, No. 488, PL XLV. : he afterwards impales 
Castile and Leon, No. 135, PL I., placing his Eoyal coat on the 
dexter side of his shield. He also beai-s, sa., ^^ree osin'c^ feathers ''«*^';'''5>^ 
erm., the quills and scrolls or: Seals; Monuments at Canterbuiy, 'u5aJ^f^ 
Westminster, and Lincoln ; Eoll of E. II. 

Edmond, " of Langley," (23), fifth son of Edward in., E.G. 
Duke of York ; died 1 402 : — France Ancient and England quaHerly, 
with a label of three points arg., charged on each point icith torteaux ; 
these torteaux are generally blazoned three on each point, as in 
No. 496, PL XXXI. : but in No. 472, from Great Yarmouth, the 
torteaux on each point of this label are two only. The seals 
of this Prince and his stall-plate blazon his label with three 
torteaux on each point ; and his label appears charged in the same 
manner upon his monument at King's Langley. A label counter 
componee or chequee, (probably derived from the well-known 


shield of De Warrenne, (No. 127 b, PL VI.), carved upon the 
Burghersh monument, No. 492, PI, XXXIV., has been attributed 
to Edmond of Langley, and is considered to have been borne by 
him before he assumed what may be distinguished as the Label 
of York — the silver label, that is, charged with torteaux. The 
origin of this difference by torteaux is by no means eas}'^ to be 
determined. Three torteaux, however, were bonie in chief by 
Thomas, Lord Wake of Lydel, (or, two bars gu., in chief three 
torteaitx, No, 437, PI. L.), whose sister and sole heiress married 
another Edmond Plantagenet, the youngest son of Edward I. 
ITiis Edmond was executed in 1329, being then twenty-eight 
3'ears of age ; his two sons died without issue, and thus his only 
daughter became the sole heiress of both her father and her 
mother. This lady, the Princess Joan, mamed, first, Sir Thomas 
Holland, K.G., and afterwards, the Black Prince. Sir Thomas 
Holland was created Lord Wake of Lydel, jure uxoris ; his eldest 
son, Thomas Holland, bore the same title; and the second ■ 
daughter of his eldest son, Joan Holland, after the year 1394, 
married Prince Edmond of Langley, then Duke of York. In 
\J ( default of any more probable theory, I venture to suggest that 
the torteaux of the York Label may possibly have been derived 
from the shield of WaJce of Lydel, No. 437, through Edmond of p.i« 
Woodstock and the Hollands. Very strange were both the 
distribution and the combination of titles, and the assignment of 
estates and properties in those days ; so that in the torteaux of 
the York Label there may linger evidence of a part, and perhaps 
by no means an unimportant part of the wealth which supported 
the Dukedom of York at the time of its first creation. That 
Prince Edmond of Langley attached very great importance to his 
alliance with the Hollands is declared by the presence of two 
shields, charged with the arms of Holland, upon his monument 
at King's Langley. These two shields, the one bearing England 
within a hordure of France, and the other England within a plain 
hordure, I have recently liberated from the thick coverings of 


mortar which had long completely concealed them ; they are t V 
admirably drawn and carved with great spirit and delicacy in 
alabaster, and (thanks to the mortar) they remain in perfect 
preservation. The exact time in M'hich Edmoxd of Langley 
adopted the label charged with torteaux, has not yet been de- 
termined : he sealed with this label, however, before his advance 
to the Dukedom of York in 1385, (see Vincent, " Nicholas 
Charles," f. 97, in Coll. Arm.) ; and torteaux are certainly upon 
the label, No. 489, PL XXXI., blazoned on the Monument of 
Edward III. The Garter-Plate of Prince Edmoxd is differenced 
with a label charged with nine torteaux, and (at whatever period 
the existing plate may have been executed) its inscription de- 
signates the Piince by his title of Duke of York — " le Duh de 
TorJc Edmod." Still further inquiry, perhaps, may positively v 
determine the source ^mam whence the torteaux of the York 
label were derived, and may also assign an exact date to the 
assumption of that label, in the place of its compony predecessor, 
by Ed^iond of Langley. 

Prince Edmond was created Earl of Cambridge in the year 1362, 
and Duke of York in 1385. He impales Castile and Leon, in right 
of his wife, Isabel, younger daughter of Peter, King of Castile 
and Leon : Eoll of E, II. ; Seals ; Monuments ; Canterbury shields. 

Thomas, " of Woodstock," (24,) youngest son of Edward III., 
K.G., Duke of Gloucester : — France Ancient and England quarterly, 
within a hordure arg., No. 340, PI. XX., (from the De Bohun 
Brass at Westminster) ; also No. 509, PI. LXX. (See his other 
seals). He was created Earl of Buckingham in the year 1377, 
and, jure uxoris, Earl of Essex and Northampton; and in 1386, 
he was created Duke of Buckingham. Murdered at Calais in 
1397. He impales, for his wife Alianore de-Bohun, the arms 
of the Earls of Hereford, as in No. 340 : Canterbuiy Shields ; 
Eoll E. II. 

Eichard, Prince of Wales, (32,) afterwards King Eichard II : 
in the lifetime of the Black Prince, his father, France Ancient 




and England, with a label of five or tliree jiointa arg., charged on the 
central point only icith a cross gu.. No. 485, PI. XXXI. 

Henry " of Bolingbroke," (33), K.G., Earl of Derby, Here- 
ford and Lancaster, afterwards King Henry IV., only son of 
John of Ghent : England tcith a label of France — the shield of the 
Earls of Lancaster, whom he represented, No. 488, PI. XLV., 
and No. 493, PI. XXXIV. This shield appears to have been 
borne, as an oflScial ensign, by many persons who were in various 
ways connected with the Lancastrian Princes. A good example 
occurs in the Brass to Thomas Leventhorpe, a.d. 1433, at Saw- 
bridgeworth : See Chap. XXIIl. The Label of France, assumed 
after his marriage with Blanche D'Artois by Edmond " Crouch- 
back," was evidently derived from the paternal arms of the 
French Princess ; and thus it may be grouped with the Boi-dure 
of France of John of Eltham, and the Bordure of England of John 
DE Dreux, Count of Brittany, as an example of tha t early 
Cadency which anticipated Marshalling. 

After the death of his father, February 3, 1399, until his own 
accession on the 30th September following, Henry Bolingbroke 
bears, France Ancient and England ^quarterly, with a label of five 
points per -pale of Brittany and of France — that is, the three dexter 
points ermine, and the two sinister points azure charged with 
golden fleurs do lys. This label, which is foimed by impaling 
his father's label with his men, appears upon a Seal of Prince 
Henry to a charter dated 18 Eich. II., (Vincent, 33 — 9G, in Cull. 
Arm.) Upon the monument at King's Langley, this label has 
the first and second point ermine, and points three, four and five 
of France, as in No. 486, at the end of this Chapter. At Great 
Yarmouth, points one, two and three are eimine, as in No. 495, 
PI. XXXIII. Piince Henry was created Earl of Derby in 1386 ; 
and in right of his wife, Mary de Bohun, Earl of Hereford and 
Baron Brecknock, and in 1397 he was created Duke of Hereford : 
he succeeded his father as Duke of Lancaster, February 3, 
1399. On the Seal already described (p. 164), he impales the 


Confessor with a label of three points with his quartered shield, 
and again impales De Boitun, No. 347, p. 165: Canterbury 
Shields; EoUofE. IT. 

Edward, (34), E.G., Earl of Rutland in 1390, Duke of Al- 
bemarle in 1898, and second Duke of York in 1402, eldest son 
of Edmoxd of Langley; killed at Agincourt, 1415: — before the 
death of his father, — France Ancient and England quarterly, ivith a 
label of Castile — a label gu., charged on each point with three castles 
or, in commemoration of his mother, Isabelle of Castile and 
Leon, No. 498, PL XXXIIL Vincent (No. 18, f. 88) assigns 
to this Prince at this period a label per pale of Castile and Leon, 
as in No. 499; and the EoU of Eichard XL, (a.d. 1392—1397) 
blazons the arms of " Le Conte de Euttlande " with a label of 
five points per pale of York and Castile, — points one, two and three 
org. having three torteaux charged on each point ; and points four 
and five gules having on each point three castles or, No. 499 a, 
PL LXXIV. After the death of his father, Prince Edward bears 
the label of York (with nine torteaux) only, and eventually he 
substitutes France Modern for France Ancient in the first and 
fourth quarters of his shield. This Prince, for his wife Philippa, 
daughter of Lord Mohun, impales, or, a cross engrailed sa. ; Monu- 
ment at Westminster ; Canterbuiy Bosses ; Seals. 

Eichard, " of Coningsburgh," (35,) Earl of Cambridge, second 
and youngest son of Edmond of Langley: executed in 1415: — 
before 1402, France Ancient and England quarterly icithin a bordiire 
of Leon — a bordure arg., charged with lioncels rampt. gu. (or, 
purpure), in commemoration of his mother. After 1402 he adds 
the label of York (with nine torteaux) icithin his bordure; and 
eventually he changes France Ancient for France Modern, No. 478, 
PI. XXXII. ; Seals ; Canterbury Bosses. For his wife Anne 
Mortimer, this Prince impales Mortimer and De Burgh quarterly. 

Thomas, (38,) E.G., Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry 
IV.; killed in battle in Anjou, March 22, 1421 : — France Modern 
and England, with a label ermine, charged on each point rcith a canton 

n 2 


gtt., No. 500, PI. XXXI. Before his advance to the Dukedom of 
Clarence Ib 1411, this Prince appears to have "borne his label of 
ermine only loithoiit the cantons ; Seals ; Stall-Plato ; Monument 
at Canterbury. He impales Holland of Kent, No. 477 a. PI. 
XL v., for his wife Margaret de Holland. 

John (39), K.G., Duke of Bedford (in 1415), Anjou and 
Alen^on, Earl of Eichi^iond, &c., third son of Henry IY. ; died 
at Eouen in 1435 : — France Modern and England, icith a label im- 
paling Brittany and France, No. 486, p. 253. This label, as I 
have shown, was borne by the father of Duke Joun between 
Februai-y 3, and September 30, 1399; consequently it maybe 
assumed that he did not difference his own shield with it until 
after his father had become king. Duke John without doubt, 
and his elder brother also, in the first instance bore France 
Ancient. Duke John would bear the label of ermine, as the ensign 
of his own Earldom of Eichmond, and also to denote his descent 
from "time-honoured Lancaster," Prince John of Ghent, his 
grandfather, whose name he himself bore ; and the label charged 
with fleurs de lys he would also bear, as the distinguishing label 
of Lancaster, while at the same time the fleurs de lys might 
further refer to his own alliances with two Princesses connected 
with France. His elder brother, the Duke of Clarence, may be 
considered in like manner to have assumed the ermine label, as a 
grandson of John of Ghent ; and the cantons he may be considered 
to have regarded as the difference of Clarence. In the Garter- 
Plate of the Duke of Bedford, his lion crest is gorged witli a label 
of five imnts, identical in its character with the label that dif- 
ferences his shield. This Prince was twice married; first, to 
Anne, sister of Philip, Duke of Burgundy ; and, secondly, to 
Jaqueline of Luxemburg, who subsequently became the wife of 
Sir EiCHARD WiDViLLE, and mother of Elizabeth, the Queen of 
Edward IV. : he, therefore, impales Burgundy — France Ancient, 
within a bordure gu. ; and Luxemburg — arg., a lion rampt. queue four - 
cliee gu., crowned or. Seals ; Canterbury Bosses, &c. 


Humphrey, (40,) K.G., Duke of Gloucester, youngest son of 
Henry IV. ; died 14-17 : — France Modern and England, within a 
hordure arg., No. 47G, PI. XXXII. ; Monument at St. Alban's; 
Canterbury Bosses; Seals, Duke Humphrey impales, for his 
first wife, Jaqueline of Holland, or, a lion ramj)t. gu. ; and, for 
his second wife, Eleanor de Cobham, Cohham, No. 377, PI. XXV. 
In his ''Pursuivant," (p. 150,) Mr. Planche blazons the bordure 
of Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, as componee argent and sable : 
perhaps he has done this on the authority of Upton, who says 
{De mili. off. p. 238), that the Duke bore such a bordure, which he 
might have assumed when the Earldom of Flanders was granted 
to him in the fourteenth year of Henry VI. The shield of the 
Duke in the cloisters at Canterbury has a plain bordure ; and in 
his Monument at St. Alban's his shield is repeated again and 
again, carved in relief, but the bordure is plain. Many of 
these shields at St. Alban's are in perfect preservation, and 
they are ensigned with a coronet decorated after a most singular 
manner. The Duke also differences his Lion Crest with a Collar 

Eichard, (41,) K.G., Earl of Cambridge and Eutland, third 
Duke of York in 1426, Eegent of France in 1435, only son of 
Earl Eichard of Coningsburg ; killed at Wakefield December 31, 
1460 : — France Modern and England qiharterly, ivith a label of York 
(nine torteaux) ; Garter-Plate ; Seals — see Vincent, MS. SS., in 
Coll. Arm. For his wife, Cecilia Neville, this Prince impales, 
gu., a saltire arg. 

Edward, (43,) Earl of March, fourth Duke of York (in 1460), 
afterwards King Edward IV., eldest surviving son of Eichard, 
third Duke of York : — after his father's death, France Modern and 
England quarterly, icith a label of Torh.. I have not been able to 
ascertain what label this Prince bore during the lifetime of his 

Edmond, (44,) Earl of Rutland, second son of Eichard, third 
Duke of York; killed at Wakefield, Dec. 31, 1460 :— France 



Modem and England mith a label of five points per pale of Leon and 
Torlc, No. 497, PI. XXXTII. 

George (45), K.G., Duke of Clarence, and jure uxoris Earl of 
Warwick and Salisbury, third son of Eichard, third Duke of 
York; murdered in 1477: — France Modern and England, tvith a 
label of Clarence, — a label arg,, charged on each point with a canton 
gu.. No. 473, PI. XXXI. Garter-Plate; Canterbury Bosses; 
Seals. For his wife, Isabelle Neville, he impales, gu., a saltire 
arg., with a label of three points componee arg. and az. 

Richard, (46,) K.G., Duke of Gloucester, afterwards King 
Eichard III., fourth son of Eichard, third Duke of York ; killed 
at Bosworth Field, August 23, 1485 : — France Modern and England 
quarterly, with a label erm., charged on each point with a canton gu.. 
No. 500, PI. XXXI. ; Garter-Plate ; Canterbury Bosses, &c. 

Eichard, (49,) K.G., fifth Duke of York, Norfolk and War- 
renne, Earl of Nottingham, second son of Edward IV : — France 
Modern and England, icith a label of three points arg., the first point 
charged with a canton gu., No. 464, PI. XXXI ; Garter-Plate ; 
Canterbury Bosses. 

Edward, (52,) Earl of Warwick, eftdest and only surviving son 
of George, Duke of Clarence, the last of the Plantagenets ; exe- 
cuted Nov. 28, 1499 : — France Modern and England, icith a label 
of Beaufort — a label componee arg. and az.. No. 601, PI. XXXI. 
This label Earl Edward derived, thiough his mother, from the 
Nevilles, Earls of Warwick, who in their turn had assumed 
it to denote their own alliance with the House of Beaufort, 

In their Seals, the Plantagenet Princes both impale the arms 
o^ their Consorts with their own, and they also marshal various 
quarterings. I have not considered it necessary to give quar- 
tered coats, my special object in the foregoing series of shields 
being to indicate the several Labels that were borne by different 
members of the Plantagenet family, as Marks of Cadency. I 
add, as an example of these Quarterings, the arms blazoned on 
one of the Seals of Eichard, third Duke of York : Quarterly, 1 




J \E 




(S)m J)B(i 

i rt'" 

: .--'■^ ^ A V 


and 4, York ; 2. Castile and Leon ; 3. Mortimer and De Bunjli quar- 
terly ; and, over all, Holland of Kent. 

II. Cadency of the De Hollands. 

In the time of Edward I., Eobert de Holland married Maud, 
daughter and co-heiress of Alan de la Zouche. Of their four 
sons, Thomas the second son, and Otho the youngest, were Knights 
Founders of the Garter. This Sir Thomas de Holland, K.G., 
married Joan Plantagenet (who afterwards was the wife of tho 
Black Pkince) ; and his two sons, accordingly, were half-bro- 
thers of KiCHARD II. In the Calais Eoll, Sir Thomas bears his 
paternal arms, az., fleurettee, a lion rampt. guard, arg., No. 637, 
PI. LXV., differenced with, a crescent gu. ; and Sir Otho differences 
with an annulet gu. 

Thomas de Holland, K.G., second Earl of Kent, and second 
Baron Wake jure matris, eldest son of Sir Thomas; died in 
1397, having married Alice de Fitz-Alan : England, within a 
hordure arg., No. 475, Pis. XXXII. and LXV. ; Eoll of E. II. ; 
Canterbury Bosses; King's Langley Monument; Seals, &c. 
Also, by a special grant from Eichard II., the same arms, im- 
paled hy the Confessor within a hordure erm. ; No. 342, PI. XXII. ; 

Thomas de Holland, third Earl of Kent, and Duke of Surrey, 
eldest son of Earl Thomas; executed in 1400: — England, loithin 
a hordure arg. ; No. 475, PI. LXV. 

Edmund de Holland, K.G., fourth and last Earl of Kent, 
second son of Earl Thomas: the same arms as his father and 

John de Holland, K.G., Earl of Huntingdon and Duke of 
Exeter, second son of Sir Thomas; executed in 1400, having 
married Elizabeth, daughter of John, " of Ghent :" England, 
within a hordure of France ; No. 447 A, Plates XL V. and LXV. ; 
Eoll E. II.; King's Langley Monument; Canterbury Bosses; 
Seals. Also, by special grant from Ejcuard II., the same arms 


impaled by the Confessor, differenced hy a label of three points org.; 

No. 631, PI. LXV. 
John de Holland, K.G., second Duke of Exeter and Earl of 

Huntingdon, second son of John, tlie first Duke : the same arms 

as his father, without the Confessor. 
^wvi y JoH^ DE Holland, third and last Duke of Exeteu, only son of 

Jw{ ■Siti'ii^i k ,*^® second Duke : the same aims as his father. 

III. Cadency of the De Beauforts. 

In the year 1397, the Act for the legitimation of the De Beau- 
forts, the sons of John of Ghent and Catherine Swynford, was 
passed and became law, 

John de Beaufort, K.G., Earl and Marquess of Somerset, and 
Marquess of Dorset, the eldest son : — before the year 1397, per 
pale arg. ami az., a lend of England ensigned ivith a label of France ; 
(see Chap. XXVIII., Section 2) ; after 1397, France and England, 
(at first, France Ancient), within a hordure componee arg. and az., 
(the Plantagenet colours), No. 479, PI. XXXII. 

Henry de Beaufort, Cardinal, Bishop of Winchester, and 
Lord Chancellor, the second son :^-before 1397, the same arms 
diflferenced with a crescent ; after 1397, France and England, within 
a hordure componee az. and arg., a crescent of the last for secondary 
Difference ; No. 480, PI. XXXII. Nicholas Cliarles gives a seal 
of the Cardinal (p. 127), in which his shield has the bordure 
componee arg. and az., the central az. square in chief being charged 
with a mitre of. 

Thomas de Beaufort, E.G., Duke of Exeter, Earl of Dorset 
and of Harcourt in Normandy, the third son : — before 1397, as 
his two brothers, for diflference a mullet ; after 1397, and until 
1417, France and England, within a bordure componee az. and erm.,or 
erm. and az. ; after 1417, the bordure componee arg. and of France, 
or of France and arg. (the fleurs de lys from the Hollands), No. 
484, PI. XXXII. 

John de Beaufort, K.G., and Edmond de Beaufort, sons of the 





first John de Beaufort, and both of tliem in succession Dukes of 
Somerset, and also Henry and Edmond de Beaufort, sons of the 
first Edmond, and Dukes of Somersi<;t, bear the same arras with 
the bordure componee either cmj. and az., or az. and arrj., with 
either a label or a mullet charged over all for secondary difference ; 
Garter-plates ; Seals ; Monuments at Canterbuiy, and at West- 
minster and Wimborne Minsters, &c. 

IV. Cadency of the Tudors. 

Edmund Tudor, "of Hadham," Earl of Eichmond in 1452, 
eldest son of Queen Catherine and Owen Tudor : France Modern 
and England, within a hordure az., charged alternately withfleurs de 
lys and martlets or; No, 482, PI. XXXII. He died, a.d. 1456, 
having married in the previous year Margaret, the only child 
of John de Beaufort, first Duke of Somerset, and his wife, Mar- 
garet Beauchamp of Bletsho, from whose arms (No. 3C9. PL 
XXV), he obtained the martlets of his bordure, as the fleiirs de 
lys were derived from the Hollands; Westminster Monu- 

Jaspar Tudor, K.G., Earl of Pembroke in 1452, and in 1485 
Duke of Bedford, second son of Queen Catherine and Owen 
Tudor : France Modern and England, witliin a hordure az., charged 
with martlets or ; No. 483, PI, XXXII. ; Garter-plate; Seals, &c. 
A grant of land in the county of Monmouth from Jaspar Tudor 
bears his seal, charged with his arms ; No. 683 ; see Chapter 
XXIV., Section 1. /> -•-■^^■ 

Henry Tudor, afterwards King Henry VII : — before his 
accession, Aug. 22, 1485, the same as his father, Edaiund Tudor, 
No. 482, PI. XXXII. ; Monument at Westminster ; Seals. 

Arthur Tudor, E.G., Prince of Wales, eldest son of Henry "\^I., 
died in 1502 : — France Modern and England, with a label of three 
points arg. ; Monument in Worcester Cathedi'al ; Seals. 

Henry Tudor, K.G., afterwards King Henry VIII. : — before 
1502, France Modern and England, with a label of three poinls erm. ; 



Stall-plate; after 1502 and until his accession in 1509, as 
Prince of Wales, the same arms with a silver label. 

Edward Tudor, afterwards King Edward VI. : — before his 
accession in 1207, France and England, mith a label org. As nomi- 
nally Prince of Wales also, on one of his seals ho bears, as the 
ifi'Ujutai-i^i arms of the Principality, TJiree lions coward in pale. No, 699, 
i/j/vKu.J Ph LX : and a similar shield is also blazoned upon a seal of k■'^^i 

Eda7Ard v., as Prince of Wales. See Chapter XXIY. 

The succession of the Princks of Wales from the last of the 
TuDORS is as follows ; they all difference the Eoyal Arms of their 
own period with a silver label of three points : — 

Henry Stuart, Prince of Wales in 1610; No. 537, PI. LVIII., 
with the silver label. 

Charles Stuart, afterwards Charles I., Prince of Wales in 
1612 ; the same arms and difference. 

Charles Stuart, afterwards Charles II., Prince of Wales in 
1639 ; the same arms and label. 

George II. ; Erederick Lewis ; and George III ; successively 
Princes of Wales : No, 542, PI. LIX., with the silver label. 

George IY., the same arms and difference till 1801 ; from 
1801 till 1816, No. 543, with the Electoral Bonnet of Hanover, 
No. 542 a, pi. LXXVI., instead of tbe Eoyal Crown, and the silver 
label; and from 1816 till his accession 1820, No. 543, and the 
same difference of a silver label. 

H.E.H., The Princess Charlotte Augusta of AVales, Daughter 
of Geo. IV. : On a lozenge the Moyal Arms (without the Crown of 
Charlemagne, and without the Electoral Bonnet) with a label of 
three points arg., on the central point a rose gu. The Coronet of 
crosses patte'es, fleurs de hjs and ducal leaves, (No. 565). Hie Boyal 
Supporters with the same label and coronet. These arms thus dif- 
ferenced were assigned to the Princess April 16, 1816: and in 
1818 a similar label, but of Jive points, was granted to the hus- 
band of lI.E.II., the Prince Leopold, now Kiug of the Belgians. 




VIT. James Stuart, (afterwards James II.,) K.G., as Duke of 
York : the Boyal Arms of the Stuarts, No. 537, PI. LXIII., with 
a label of three points erm. Garter-Plate, a.d. 1642. 

VIII. Prince George of Denmark, husband of Queen Anne : 
Denmarh, as borne by Anne, Queen of James I., with a label of 
three points erm. 

William Stuart, K.G., eon of Queen Anne, styled Duke of 
Gloucester : the Boyal Arms of the Stuarts, with a label of three 
points arg., charged on the central point with a cross gu. Supporters 
and Crest differenced with the same label, and both the lions en- 
signed with the Prince's own Coronet. Garter-Plate, a.d. 1695. 

IX. Cadency of the present Eoyal Family. 

1. The Family of George III. :— 

• H.K.H., The Prince of Wales, K.G. : No. 568, PI. XXXVI. 

H.E.H., Frederick, Duke of York : No. 485, PI. XXXI. 

H.K.H., William Henry, Duke of Clarence : No. 569. 

H.E.H., Edward, Duke of Kent : No. 570. 

H.E.H., Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland : on a label of 
three points arg,, afleur de lys az. between two crosses gu. 

H.E.H., Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex : on a label of 
three points arg., two hearts in pale between four crosses all gu. 

H.E.H., Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge : No. 577, 

I H.E.H., Charlotte Augusta Matilda, Princess Eoyal: No. 

H.E.H., The Princess Augusta : No. 573. 

H.E.H., The Princess Elizabeth : No. 574. 

H.E.H., The Princess Mary : No. 575. 

H.E.H., The Princess Sophia : No. 576. 

H.E.H., The Princess Amelia : a rose betioeen two hearts gu. 

2. H.E.H., William Henry, Duke of Gloucester, third son of 
Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales : on a label of five poiiUs org., a 
fleur de lys az. between four crosses gu. 


H.E.H., WiLTJAM Frederick, Duke of Gloucester : the same 
label as the last; and, during his father's lifetime, beneath it a 
second label of three points arg. 

3. The Family of Her Majesty, The Queen. 

H.E.H., The late Prince Consort : — a label of three points arg., 
charged on the central point with a cross gu. 

H.E.H., Albert Edward, K.G., Prince of Wales, K.S.I. : a 
label of three points arg. 

The Princes and Princesses, the younger Sons and all the 
Daughters of the Queen, difference the Moyal Arms of England 
with silver labels of three points, each of ■which is charged with its 
own Marks of Cadency in the order following : — 

H.E.H., The Prince Alfred : on the first and third points, an 
anchor az., on the central point a cross gu., No. 569. 

H.E.H., The Prince Arthur : a cross gu., between two fleurs de 
lys az.. No. 570, PI. XXXVI. 

H.E.H., The Prince Leopold : a cross between two hearts, all gu. , 
No. 571. 

H.E.H., The Princess Eoyal : a rose, between two aosses all gu.. 
No. 572. 

H.E.H. , The Princess Alice: a rose gu., between two ermine 
sjwts, No. 573. 

H.E.H., The Princess Helena : a cross, between two roses, all 
gu., No. 574. 

H.E.H., The Princess Louisa : a rose, between two cantons, all 
gu., No. 575. 

H.E.H., The Princess Beatrice : a heart, between two roses, all 
gu., No. 576. 

I presume that in due time his grandfather's label (No. 485, 
PI. XXXI.) will be assigned to the infant Prince, Albert Victor, 
the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, as that same label was 
borne by Eichard, afterwards Eichard II., when he was the eldest 
surviving son of Edward, the Black Prince, Prince of Wales. 

4. The label of Cambridge is charged on the central point with 





+ .,^ ^ 1+ 


♦i»| ^^ T kw 1^ 







I ^ I 






Plate XXXVi 


the Cross of St. George, and on each of the two other points with 
two hearts in pale gu. ; No. 577, PI. XXXVI. 

Marks of Cadency for Princesses were first introduced into 
England on the accession of the present Eoyal Family to tho 
Crown of these Eealms. Before this period, the Daughters and 
and Grand-Daughters of the Crown bore the Eoyal Arms without 
difference, in a lozenge if unmarried, (see Monuments to Daugh- 
ters of James I., at Westminster) ; or in impalement with the 
arms of their Husbands, as in the smaller shields upon the 
Monument of Edwaed III. 

It will be understood that the miscellaneous examples which 
I have selected to illustrate the principle and the usage of early 
Cadency, are to be regarded simply as typical specimens of their 
several classes. Students will find other examples in abundance, 
many of them as characteristic and interesting as those that have 
been blazoned in this Chapter and in Chapter XV. 

•No. 486. — Shield, from the Monument at King's Langley, to Edmont? 
Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of York, borne by Hexet Plaxtagexet of Boling- f ^^ 
broke, a.d, 1399 ; and, after his accession as Henry IV., by his third son, 
John Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of Bedford, who died a.d. 1435. 

No. 511. — De Bohun Badge, from the central Spandrel of the Canopj'^ of the 

Brass to Alunoke de Bohun, Duchess of Glovcester, a.d. 1;599, in 

"Westminster Abbey. 


badges; crests; surPORTERS; mottoes, and knots. 




A Badge is an heraldic figure or device, assumed for the pur- 
pose of being borne either absolutely alone, or in connection 
with a Motto, as the distinctive cognizance of an individual or a 
family of rank and importance. In the first inst ance. Badges in 
all proba bility were selected with a view to some significant 

allusion, which they might convey to the name, rank, office. 

property, personal appearance or character of the bearer; and 
thus, to a numerous class of Badges the term Behiis may be cor- 

jrectly applied. These Badges may also be considere d to have_ 
constituted in themselves an early Iloraldry, since they certainly 
were in use before the adoption and recognition of regular coats 
of arms; they continued, however, to be held in high favour 

i throughout the palmy days of mediaaval Heraldry. 

In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Badges were habi- 



tually used for the decoration of costume, militaiy equipments, v/ 
horse trappings, household furniture, and indeed for every 
variety of decorative purpose; pieces of plate also and other 
valuable objects were at once adorned and marked by them, and 
in seals they appear both as the accessoiies of shields, and some- 
times as diapers. 

The figur es and devices that were adopted as Badges in the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, like those of an earlier period, 
were ccimmuul^- Eeljuses, and they also occasionally had reference 
to som e feudal tenure or alliance. They were sometimes selected 
from the charges of coats of arms, sometimes they were identical 
with crests, but more generally they appear to have been alto- 
gether distinct from the other heraldic insignia that were borne 
"By tlie same~pefsbns. There is also a marked distinction in 
many instances to be observed between the Badges that were 
used, in connection with Livery Colours, to distinguish the armed 
followers and the retainers and attendants^ of^joyal^ noble, and 
knightly personages, and the Badge that any prince, noble, or 
knight might be pleased to assume, and to bear about his own 
person. The Badges of the former o f these two classes were 
alwa}-s well known^ and their presence was specially intended 
to declare a certain definite and intelligible fact: whereas, on 
the contrary, the use of the personal Badge was generally re- 
stricted to the individual by whom it had been assumed ; and, 
while it had some occult allusion to the history of the bearer, it 
was designed rather to disguise than to proclaim his identity — 
it might be suggestive of a certain individual, but the suggestion 
was made by means of some quaint or mystic rebus, which would 
suppress at least as much as it revealed. 

In the Second part of Hemy VI., (Act V., Scene 1, towards 
its close,) Shakespeare, with characteristic discrimination, has 
adverted to the use of Badges. He makes Clifford conclude his 
brief threatening address to Warwick with the words — 
" Might I but know thee by thy household Badge 1" 


To which appeal, returning defiance with defiance, Warwick 
replies — 

" Now, by my father's Badge, old Neville's Crest, 
The rampant bear chained to the ragged staff—." 

The epithet " household " here most clearly refers to the 
iTsage of distinguishing aU the followers of an eminent personage 
by his well-known Badge ; and the words of Warwick show 
that the same device was sometimes borne both as a Crest and a 
Badge. It is to be observed that a Crest always rises from 
either a crest- coronet, an orle, or a chapeau, while the Badge is 
never accompanied with either of those accessories. Thus, the 
famous Badge of Warwick, (lie hear chained to a ragged staff, 
,^e-~ Xo. 206, PI. -XXX., if borne as a Crest would be placed upon a 

/ ,", Q coi'onet, as in Xo. 512; or, it might rest upon either a chapeau 
' <: or an orle. I may here refer to the singularly fine Brass at 
Warwick to Thomas de Beauchamp, Earl of AVarwick, who died 
A.D. 1401, in which there is a chained bear at the feet of the 
efiSgy of the Earl : and the ragged staif appears decorating his 
- , basinet, his sword-scabbard and elbow-pieces, and it is also 
/ b**^w. ^charged upon a small shield upon the pommel of his sword-hilt. 
>|.u-,.rpj^'g i-eniarkable example of early engraving has been admirably 
rendered by the Messrs. Waller in their gi-eat work on Monu- 
mental Brasses, now happily completed — a work to which I refer 
all students of Historical Heraldry. 

The Ostrich Feather Badge. See Archa^oJogia, XXXI., 350. 
In his will, (a.d. 1376), the Black Prince speaks of " our Badges 
of Ostrich Feathers," " nos hages des plumes d'ostruce ;" and it is 
evident that these Feathers were held by the Prince in high 
esteem, and it would also seem that he regarded them in a 
peculiar light. Thus, the Prince gives directions that, on the 
occasion of his funeral, two distinct armorial compositions should 
be displayed in the procession, immediately before his remains; 
one, for war — " Vun pur la guare de nos armes entiers quartelles," 



Wli , . .f r^ /?,c !.'. % f ^r(. InU^c f " V. . n 7, 



?u\t lxay: 


of his quartered arms of Franco and England ; and the other, 
fm peace — " et I'autre pur la paix, de nos hages des plumes d'ostrvLce." 
Similar shields " for war," and " for peace " (No. 234, p. 70), 
alternate about the monument of the Prince at Canterbury. The 
well-known romantic legend which ascribes the origin of the 
famous Ostrich Feather Badge to a memorable incident at Cresci, 
(Aug. 25, 1346), requires more positive coiToboration before it 
can be accepted as genxiine History. I am not aware that the 
Ostrich Feathers have been in any way directly identified with 
John, King of Bohemia, who on his seal displays as his Crest 
two wings of a vulture of enormous size ; certainly, there is not 
known to exist any proof that the Black Prince himself asso- 
ciated his favourite Badge with his early exploit at Cresci. 
The first mention of this Badge that has been observed, occurs 
in the year 1370. Queen Philippa marked some of her plate 
with the Ostrich Feather shield. No. 234. Upon two of his 
seals, the quartered arms of the Black Prince appear between 
two Ostrich Feathers with scrolls. The same Badge was habi- 
tually used by the other Plantagenet Princes; so that, in the 
first instance, it was not held to be either a personal cognizance 
of the Black Prince, or an ensign of the Prince of Wales. John 
of Ghent bears the Ostrich Feather sometimes argent and some- 
times ermine ; thus, the idea of differencing this Badge appears to 
be contemporary with its fii-st adoption. In a remarkable boss at 
Canterbury, the feathers of Prince John have chains lying along 
their quills. Henry of Bolingbroke appears to have regarded the 
Ostrich Feather Badge with especial favour. In the seal which 
he used immediately before his accession, (see p. 164), his im- 
paled shield is placed between two Ostrich Feathers, each of 
which has the word Sovereigne, his favourite motto, charged 
upon a scroll entwined about it, No. 684 ; PI. LXXVI. 

The Ostrich Feather with a scroll entwined about it appears 
three times repeated upon a veiy remarkable heraldic slab, dis- 
covered some years ago under very singular circumstances at 



Venice, and whicli now is in this country. This slab, No. 684 a, 
PI. LXXIX. (the lithograph was drawn from a photograph of 
the original) was supposed, in the first instance, to be a me- 
morial of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Xorfolk, who died in exile 
at Venice, and under that erroneous impression it is described and 
figured in the ArcJiceologia, xxix, 387. The slab, however, 
evidently commemorates the visit to Venice of the exiled 
Duke's great antagonist, Henry of Bolingbroke, with whom 
after his accession to the crown of England the Venetian State 
was most desirous to maintain friendly relations. Upon this 
Slab appears the croicned and chained Swan of the Boiiuxs, with 
the Collar of SS, favourite ensigns of Hexry : the Eoyal Banner 
also without any Difference, the Eoyal Crest, and the Badge of 
Henry's Earldom of Derby, the hart lodged, complete this curious 
composition, the foreign treatment of which is so evident, par- 
ticularly in the crowned lions of the banner and the extra- 
ordinary idea of placing the helm upon the head of the swan. 
The first Secretum of Hexry, as King, displays his quartered 
shield of France Ancient and England between tico scrolled feathers 
held hy lions. A seal of Thomas, Duke of Gloucester, the youngest 
son of Edward III., No. 509, PI. LXX., has two large Ostrich 
Feathers similarly placed, and upon the quill of each feather is 
laid a Garter extended, the buckles being in base. The Great 
Seal of this same Prince has its field powdered with small swans 
and feathers, in lozenges, thus forming a diaper for the field of 
the seal ; No. 510, p. 38. To Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, 
as an augmentation of high honour, Eichard II. granted two 
Ostrich Feathers, to be borne erect, " in sigillo et vexillo suo " 
— ^in both his seal and his banner. Richard II. himself has the 
red barding of his charger sem^e of Ostrich Feathers, and an 
azure pennon similarly chaiged. This same Badge was adopted 
by the Beauforts; a fine example of it, the feathers having 
their quills componee arg, and az., appears in the Garter-Plate 
of John de Beaufort, K.G., first Duke of Somersei\ No. G85, 

HiLAFTEP ZYII Section 1 

Slab of Marble. . Leanti^ tiie _4rmanal Iiisi^iiia. cif 

_• T .. T7 




PI. LXXVI. All the sons of Henry IV. also bear the Ostrich 
Feathers as a Badge ; and it is retained in use until, with the 
close of the Plantagenet era, it gradually assumes a distinctive 
character as the peculiar ensign of the Princes of A Vales. Single 
Feathers with scrolls appear on either side of the shield in the 
singular seals of Edward V., and Arthur Tuijor, as Princes of 
Wales, (see Chap. XXIV., Section 1). Prince Edward's Feathers 
are held by two lions, Ko. 688, and Prince Arthur's by 
dragons. No. 689. On the obverse of the seals the field is 
diapered with feathers in lozenges, a rose being at each inter- 
section of the frette ; on the head of Prince Edward's charger is 
a single feather, but the charger of Prince Arthur has a Crest 
fonned of a plume of three feathers. As one of the devices that 
diaper the robe of AxxE of Bohemia, in her effigy, the figure of 
an ostrich is introduced. In Harl. MS., fol. 12, in the British 
Museum, it is recorded that the lohite Ostrich Feather with its pen 
golden is the King's : the feather entirely white, or silver, is the 

No. 688. 

No. 689. 

Prince's: the feather golden, with its pen er^nine, is the Duke of Lan- 
caster s : and the feather tchite, having its pen compony, is the DuJce of 
Sonmset's. It must be added, that the Ostrich Feathers fre- 
quently appear on Seals of an official or corporate character, 

s 2 


which were in some way connected either directly or indirectly 
with the Crown. 

The three Ostrich Feathers, now so happily familiar to xis, 
as they are grouped together within the circlet of a princely 
coronet, and borne by our own Prince of Wales, do not date 
back earlier than the era of the Stuarts. In the Monument 
of Abbot Eamrydge, at St. Alban's, three Ostrich Feathers 
appear iinited in a single scroll, ; and they arc also represented 
precisely after the same manner in the equally splendid monu- 
ment of Prince Arthur Tudor, in AVorcester Cathedral; Ko 
686, PI. LXXVI. Single scrolled feathers are also displayed 
upon the Worcester monument, and they give the first indication 
of their tips curling over instead of bending to the sinister. 
Arthur Tudor, Prince of Wales, the son of Henry VIII., first 
ensigned three Feathers with a Coronet, and he charged this 
group upon a rouudle. Henry Stuart, eldest son of James I., 
established the arrangement of the three feathers within a 
Prince's Coronet, in place of the scroll, as the Ensign of the 
Prince of Wales ; No. 235 a, PL XV. On a boss of the vaulting 
over the steps that lead to the noble hall of Christchurch, Ox- 
ford, the plume of three feathers ensigned with a coronet is sur- 
rounded by the Garter of tlie Order. 

Another renowned historical Badge is the Eose, tinctured either 
argent or gules, or having both the metal and the colour conjoined, 
and borne sometimes alone and sometimes in association with other 
devices : (see pages 75 and 76, and PI. XIII.). In addition to the 
examples of heraldic Roses that have been already specified, I 
must particularly invite attention to the splendid Rose that 
adorns the monument of Henry VII. ; and I may also refer to a 
cluster of five Roses grouped with singular skill, that were dis- 
covered a few years ago imbedded in the wall of the ruined 
chapel of Abbot Wallingford at St. Alban's, Xo. 690, PI. 

The Swan Badge of the De Bohuns appears upon the Sccretum 


of Thomas of Woodstock, No. 331, ]). 152, between the bases of 
two sliields ; and again, in a similar position, upon the seal of 
Pleshy College, founded by the same Thomas and his Duchess 
Alianoue. In another seal of this I'rince, No. 509, PI. LXX., a 
Swan appears acting as a Supporter to the shield ; and, once 
more, the Swan Badge is introduced into the central spandrel of 
the Canopy of the De Bohun Brass at Westminster, No. 511, 
p. 254. Henmy of Bolingbroke displays the Swan Badge upon 
his standard, No. 314, Chap. XVIII., and it also appears on what 
I may entitle his Venetian Slab, PL LXX IX. p. 258. Henky V., 
in like manner, held this same Badge in high esteem. Again, 
besides the Ostrich Feathers, the Black Prince in his Will 
speaks of several devices that he evidently used as Badges — 
these are " Swans, Ladies' Heads, and Mermaids of the sea." 
Mermaids also are Badges of the Berkeleys (see page 68) : 
good examples are charged upon the Seal of Maurice de Ber- 
keley, where they act as Supporters to the shield. 

The well-known seal of John of Ghent, in addition to his 
achievement of arms, is charged with his Badges — two Falcons 
Jiolding Fetterlocks in their beahs. The FetterlocJc Badge appears 
again in the Brass to Sir Simon de Felbryge, E.G., a.d. 1416, at 
Felbrigg ; and, with a Sheaf of Arrows and a Portcullis, in the 
monument to Prince Arthur Tudor ; also in the stained glass at 
Canterbury. In allusion to the office of Admiral held by their 
ancestors, the Btioy of a Ship is a Badge of the Nevilles ; and a 
Badge of the Lords Zouche is a Rudder sa., the tiller and stays or. ; 
of this heraldic Rudder there is a good example at Eddington in 

In Section 4 of Chapter XIX. I have given a series of English 
Royal Badges ; here, therefore, I may be content to adduce only 
a small number of additional examples. Mr. Planche, in his 
Pursuivant of Arms, has printed from a MS. (marked 2nd M. 16) 
of the time of Edward IV., presei-ved in the College of Arms, a 
list of the Badges borne by some of the principal nobility at the 


time this list was written. Several of the following examples 
have been selected from Mr. Planche's list. 

Arundel : — an acom. 

AsTLEY : — a cinquefoil ermine. 

Beaufort : — a portcullis, with the Motto, Altera- Securitas. 

Brajjdon : — a lion's head erased gold. 

Buckingham; — the Stafford Knot, No. 515, PI. XXX. 

Clinton : — a golden mullet. 

Cobham : — a Saracen's head sable. 

CoMPTON : — a fire-beacon. 

Dacre : — a silver escallop, attached by an intertwined cord to 
a ragged staff, No. 513, PL XXX. 

Douglas : — a human heart gules. 

Fitz-Waryn : — a Bourchier Knot, No. 516. 

Grey of Euthyn : — a ragged staff — staff ragulee sable. 

H.vsTiNGS : — a bull's head erased sable, about the neck a 
crown or. 

Howard : — a silver lion, charged on the shoulder with a 
crescent azure. 

HuNGERFORD : — a sicklc. The Hungerfords also unite their 
sickle to a garb by a cord. The Seal of Sir E. de Hungerford, 
a.d. 1445, bears, for the Crest, a garb between two sickles rising 
from a crest coronet; there is also a sickle on each side of the 

Mauleverer : — a white greyhound courant. At Allerton 
Mauleverer in Yorkshire, the Brass (a.d. 1400) to Sir John 
Mauleverer has the ai-pis — gu., three greyJwunds courant in pale 
arg., collared or, emblazoned upon the knight's jupon. 

Mowbray : — a mulberry tree. 

Neville : — a dun bull : also, two staples interlaced, one gold, 
the other silver; and a frette of gold. 

Norfolk : — a white lion. 

Pelham : — a buckle. 

Percy : — a silver crescent. 


Peverell : — a golden garb. 

Stanley: — a stag's head argent; alisu a griffin's leg erased 

Suffolk : — a golden lion queue fourch^e. 

A remarkable instance of the artistic ability and of the ver- 
satile resources of the early Heralds occurs in the interior of 
Westminster Hall. The string-moulding which is carried be- 
neath the windows throughout the building, is studded along 
its entire extent with the helm, crown and crest of Eichard II., 
alternating with his favourite Badge, the white hart lodged ; the 
figures are all boldly sculptured, and though all are most faith- 
fully rendered, eveiy individual white hart (and they are eighty- * 
three in number), is unlike every other, and each one has some 
distinct characteristic features of its own. It is the same with ' 
the lion crest and the helm, which are placed between tAvo 
ostrich^ feathers having scrolls attached to their quills. \ 

Mr. Seton (Scottish Heraldry, p. 259), states that " among the 
Highlanders a species of Badge has in recent times constituted a 
mark of clanship, in the shape of a leaf or sprig of a particular 
tree or shrub (usually an evergreen), which is carried in the 
bonnet or other portion of the costume — thus, the Badge of the 
Gordons is ivy ; of the Campbells, myrtle ; of the Buchanans, 
birch; of the Camerons, oak; of the Grahams, laurel; of the 
MuRRAYS, juniper ; of the Robertsons, fei-n or brachen ; of the 
Macdonalds, bell-heath; and of the Macgregors, lime." 





L No. 523. Aehievemeiit of Arms of Humphrey Staffouu, K.G., Earl 
Stafford, a.d. 1460. From his Garter-Plate at Windsor. 

A Crest is a figure or device which oi-iginally was actually 
worn upon a Basinet and a Helm, and now is represented above 
a Shield of Arms. From an early period in the era of true 
English Heraldry, the Crest was held to be an ensign of great 
dignity and honour. In the fii-st instance, the Crest was usually 
some figure or device that was also borne in the Arms ; but, in 
process of time. Crests were more generally altogether distinct 
from the Charges of the Shields, though it was common for them 
to assimilate to the Supporters. The Crest was worn supported 


by a Chapoau or a ^Vreath, or sometimes it rose above a Coronet. 
It also became a usage in the fifteenth century to have the I 
Crest rise from out of a Coronet, which was simply a decoration 1 ^ 

t o the helm, and supplied the place of the more pi-evalent| 

— — ^ I 

AVreath. This Crest-Coronet, No. 257 a, probably derived from 


Crest-Corouet.— No. 257 a. 1^.^^ i 

such a coronet- like enrichment of helms as appeal's in the efBgy 
of Sir Hugh Calvely at Bunbury, No. 257, is still retained in 
modern Heraldry. It is commonly blazoned as a Ducal-Coronet : 
it has no reference, however, to ducal or to any other rank, and it 
might with greater propriety be distinguished as simply a Crest- 
Coronet. In form it bears a close resemblance to the crowns of 
Heney III.77^o.~198V pr 61), and ATianore of CastHe. The 
basinet of Sir Hugh Calvely affords a rich example of the Orle 
or Wreath, No. 257, PI. XYI. : but this accessory was more gene- '^/'•"'^ 
rally worn projecting from the helm, as in the effigy of Ralph 
Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, at Staindrop, No. 258. See 
Wreath, p. 133. 

The Wreath (see Wreath in Chap. XIII.), is now represented 
having six folds, three of the principal metal and thi-ee of the 
principal coloiu- of the arms : and in the case of a quartered 
shield the tinctures of the W^reath are those of the first quarter. 
This Crest- Wreath first appears a little before the middle of the 
14th century : the Brass to Sir John Haesyck, No. 301 (a.d. 
1384), gives a good early example ; and other still earlier ex- 
amples occur in the seals of Sir John Wllloughby (1340), Sir 
Thomas Erskine (1364), and Sir Alexander and Sir David 
Lindsay (1371, 1389). The Effigy of Sir Humphrey Stafford at 
Bromsgrove, Worcestershire, has been noticed as displaying 




another early example of the Crest- Wreath ; this is an error, 
however, ,the date of that eflBgy being about 1450, and not 
about 1350. 

Crests are not borne in the armorial insignia of ladies, what- 
ever may be their rank or condition, with the sole exception of 
the Sovereign. It has long been the custom for Crests to be 
assigned to Corporate Bodies, but such an usage must be held to 
be totally at variance with true heraldic feeling. 

In his second Great Seal, a.d. 119^, Eichard I. wears a fan- SI 
like decoration surmounting his helm, having beneath it a lion, 
No. 259, PI. XXVI. In many instances the helms of the thir- 
teenth century have similar Crests, variously adorned. Hum- 
riiREY DE BoHUi^, fourth Earl of Hereford, bears the fan-like 
device both on his own helm and on the head of his charger. 
No. 2G0; Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln (a.d. 1272-1312) does , 
the same ; and, as late as about 1345, Sir Geoffrey Louterell's 
Crest retains its fan-like contour, but it is charged with his arms, 
as in No. 261, PI. XXVI. Edward III. upon his Great Seal for 
the fii'st time bears a true heraldic Crest — the Crowned Lion of 
England, standing upon a chapeati, No. 262. This Sovereign 
sometimes also bears an Eagle on his crest : but from this time 
the crowned lion has continued to be the Crest of England. It is 
to be obsei-ved, that the marks of Eoyal Cadency were displayed 
as well upon Crests as upon shields. The Eoyal Lion, for ex- 
ample, stands upon the helm of the Black Prince gorged Avith 
his silver label, No. 263, PI. XXAn. In like manner. Labels 
and other Marks of Cadency appear upon the Crests of personages 
of noble and knightly rank. Thus, the lion-crests of John Plan- 
tagenet, K.G., Duke of Bedford, of George Plantagenet, K.G., 
Duke of Clarence, and of John Mowbray, K.G., Duke of Norfolk 
(a.d. 1435, 1477 and 1475), as blazoned in their stall-plates, are 
<rorged with labels, the first having three, and the latter two five 
points; Nos. 520 and 521, Pis. XXX. and XLL These labels 
appear to be woni by the lions after the manner of bands or ,i 

C E £. S T S 



-A . 

Flate XTn 


frills. In No. 451, PL XLI., the lion-crest of Thomas de Beau- 
fort, K.G., Earl of Dorset, appears gorged with a collar com- 
pone'e arg. and az. 

In some few instances the devices assumed and worn as Crests, \/ 
are identical with those that appear in the shields of arms of the 
wearers ; but the prevailing usage was to assume for the Crest a 
figure altogether difterent from the charges of the shield ; and 
uncommonly strange, indeed, must have been the appearance of 
the figures that were frequently thus displayed by the early 
knights upon their helms. A Panache, or upright plume formed 
of a large cumber of feathers, generally the feathers of the cock 
or swan, was a favourite Crest. This is the Crest of the De 
Mortimers, and it is admirably blazoned on their seals. The 
effigies of Sir Eichard Pembridge, K.G., at Hereford, Sir Egbert 
DE Marmiox, at Tanfield, and of Sir Thomas Arderne, at Elford, 
all of them about a.d. 1400, are good examples. The panache of 
Sir Edmund de Thorpe, a.d, 1418, at Ashwelthorpe, is formed of 
peacock's feathers, Xo. 264, p. 110 ; and such is also the panache 
of Lord Ferrers of Chartley, a.d. 1425, at Merevale, Xo. 267 a, 
PL XXVI. The Garter-plates of Sir Thomas Erpes-gham, E.G., 
of Sir William Philip, E.G., of Sir Symon de Felbrtge, E.G., of 
Sir Thomas Feltox, E.G., and John, Lord Scrope, E.G. (Xo- 
522, Chap. XXV.,) all of the fifteenth century, display panache- 

The Contoise, a " lady's favour " or " token," X'o. 256, PL XV., f- } . 
is worn with the Crest until about the middle of the fourteenth 
century, after which time this accessoiy disappears, and the 
Crest is placed upon its Wreath (probably derived by the Cru- ^ 
saders from the turbans of the Saracens) Coronet or Chapeau '*'"*'■ 
rising above the Mantling. Thomas, Earl of LAXCASTERf a. 
1322, on his seal appears having a dragon with a contoise upon 
his helm, and a similar monster is upon the head of his charger, 
Xo. 524, PL XXXV. : and the seal of Ealph de Monthermer, 
Earl of Gloucester, a.d. 1323, has on his hebn an eagle-crest 

.D. V- 

C^.t^ ,ftw«^<4,^tatr.XVU A^, 



and a contoise. This eagle-crest was a special grant from 
Edward III. to William de Montacute. In Achievements of 
Arms, and particularly in such as are blazoned on Seals, the 
gi'oup is arranged in the manner represented in No. 301, PI. I., 
the Supporters being added on either side as in No. 707 A. The 
Crests in these compositions of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries are almost invariably very large in jiroportion to the 
Shields ; and the same remark is equally applicable to the Crests 
that are blazoned in the Windsor Garter-Plates. Thus, in 
No. 523, p. 264, the Svxtns head and wings bome by Hum- 
phrey, Earl of Stafford, K.G., are of truly imposing propor- 
tions : and of the same usage in Seals No. 707 a, the Seal of 
Richard, Earl of Arundel, a.d. 1330-1375, is an excellent early 

No. 707 A.— Seal of Eichard, Earl of Arundel. 

Another good example from the Garter-Plates I have already 
given in No. 626, PI. LXVI. : this commanding Crest forms a )> 


part of the Achievement of the matenial ancestor of the Earl of 
Stafford, Humphrey dk BonujsT, last Earl of Hereford, 

In militaiy monumental effigies, the helm of the deceased 
warrior very generally forms his becoming pillow ; and upon 
the helm so placed the Crest is constantly represented, with 
the orle or the coronet and the mantling. I may specify, as 
additional examples, the sculptured memorials of Ralph de 
Neville, Earl of Westmoreland, at Staindrop, a.d. 1420 ; of 
EiCHARD Beauchamp, E.G., Earl of AYarwick, a.d, 1439, at 
"Warwick ; the Crest, No. 265, PI. XLI., a swan's head and neck, 
is again represented in the Garter-Plate ; of the De la Poles, at 
Wingfield ; and of Sir Humphrey Stafford, at Bromsgrove : also 
the Brasses to Lord Stourtox, a.d. 1404, at Sawtry, Hunts, (the 
Crest is a demi-monk grasping a scourge of Jcnotted cords), No, 266, 
PL XXVI. ; of Lord William de Bryexne, Seal, Kent, No. 267, 
PL XXVL, (the Garter-Plate of Sir Guy de Bryexxe, K.G. 
a.d. 1370, bears the same Crest — a hunting-horn tipon a chapeau) ; 
and of Sir John de Brewys, a.d. 1426, at Wiston, in Sussex : 
Lord Stourton's demi-monk, derived from the family of Moyne, is 
a canting Crest. The Crest of Beckford is another most cha- 
racteristic example of the same usage, — it is a heron's head erased 
or, gorged icitJi a collar fleurie gu., in the heah a fish arg. ; the Eebus 
here is twofold, both the strong sharp beak — hec fort of the fisher 
bird, and the allusion conveyed by the captured fish to the ford 
of the hech or stream from whence the heron may be supposed to 
have secured his prey : this Crest is most beautifulh' engrav^ 
in the " Heraldry of Fish," p. 98. 

The helm of Sir Edmund de Thorpe, No. 264, p. 110, and that 
of Ralph, Lord Bassett, K.G., No. 612, PL XLV. (from his 
Garter-Plate), may be regarded as models for heraldic helms; 
and with them may be associated No. 611, PL XLV., from the n-^: 
monument to the Black Prince. Another fine example of the 
d'rest-Coronet occurs in the Brass to Sir_THOMAS Bromflete, ^ 
A.D. 1430, at Wimington, No. 268, PL XXVL, but the Crest y>r.- 



itself is lost : and equally fine examples are blazoned in the 
Garter-Plates of Sir Hugh de Courtenay, Lord Willoughby, and 
Sir Thomas Feltox, amongst the earliest of the existing series at 
Windsor. In his Brass at Ilarpham, a.d. 1420, Sir Thomas de 

No. G91.— Crest : Sir T. de Saint 


No. G92.— Crest-Wreath : Lord 


Saint Quintin is represented with a singular modification of the 
^Yf ^-77- 3^7 panache upon his basinet, No. 691; and in another Brass at 
Spilsby, a knight, probably William, Lord Willoughbv 
D'Eresby, a.d. 1409, has his basinet encircled with an orle of 
roses, No. 692. 

The Garter-Plate of John, Lord Lysle, K.G. (one of the 
Knights Founders of the Order), furnishes a sticking example 
of the extraordinary Crests that were worn even by men of most 
eminent distinction. Besting immediately upon his basinet, the 
Crest of Lord Lysle is a mill-stone arg., peeked sa., the inner circle 
and the rim of the second, the fer-de-moline or. No. 693, PI. LXIV. 
The Crest of the Bourchiers appears in several of the Garter- 
Plates, with some slight modifications for Difference : it is a 
Saracen's head in profile jpj)r., bearded sa., wearing a tall cap gu., 
which hends towards the dexter, and is tasselled or. This cap, in the 
Garter-Plate of Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, rises from a 
crest-coronet which is intei-posed between the head and the cap 
itself: this coronet is golden, and has on its circlet three water- 
hougets sa. In the remarkable monument of Ludovic Eobesart, 




K.G., Lord Bouhciiier, Standard-Bearer to Henry V., the cap or 
bonnet of the Saracon's-head Crest is surmounted by a Catherine- 
tclieel, derived from the arms of the Eoets, with whom he was 
connected ; this, accordingly', is an example of Marshalling in a 
Crest. The Crest of Sir John Daubygne, a mullet surrounded hy 
holly-leaves, has been already blazoned; (see pages 47 and 134, 
and Ko. 408) ; another curious crest of a somewhat similar cha- 
racter, borne by John de Wydevil, — appears on his monument 
at Grafton Eegis, Northants ; it is a hird sitting on a tuft of oak- 
leaves, a scroll (now without any legend) issuing from its hedk. 

Seals abound in admirable examples of Crests, and they 
illustrate many curious modifications of mediaeval heraldic usage. 
Thus, the Crest of the Mortimers, a lofty panache of many azure 
feathers rising from out of a crest-coronet, No. 269, PI. XXVI., is 
represented in various seals of members of the House of March : 
but Edmund Mortimer, a.d. 1372, has a seal charged with his 
paternal shield, suspended by its guige from a rose-tree, and 
having the inescutcheon diapered; and, in place of the helm 
and crest above the shield, on either side of the shield placed as 
a supporter is one of the white lions of the Earls of March helmed, 
the two helms almost enclosing the lions, and having mantling, 
coronet, and crest, and respecting each other; No. 270, Chap. 

No. 270 A. — Seal of Edjiuio) De Arundel. 

XXIV. Another seal, that of Edmund de Arundel, who was 
Earl from 1301 till 1326, has two crested helms similarly placed, 
but without any animals as supporters, Xo. 270 a. The 


Crest of Delabere, of Gloucestershire, is another interesting 
example of what originally was doribtless a paimche : this Crest, 
now borne as a plume of five ostrich feathers pe^- pale arg., and az., 
issuing from a crest-coronet, is said to have been given to Sir 
KiCHARD DE LA Bere by the Black Prince in acknowledgment of 
signal sei-Aace rendered to him at Cresci. Panache or Plume 
Crests sometimes are diflferenced ; as by the Tyndalls, with either 
a martlet or an ermine circlet. No. 267 B. It appears to have 


No. 267 B. — Crests of Ttxdaix. 

been a favourite custom to place the head and neck of a bird or 
of any imaginary winged creature between two lofty groups of 
upright feathers, and thus to form a Crest: the Seals of the 
Earls of Arundel provide good examples of this singular usage, 
as in No. 694, PI. LXIV., the Crest of Eiciiard Fitz Alan, a.d. 
1390. In No. 199 A, p. 62, an ermine, the Crest of Lord Dynham, 
K.G., stands between two tall spikes that issue from the Cap of 

Crests are now generally represented resting upon a wreath ; 
but the crest-coronet and also the chapeau are still retained in 
modem blazon : for example, the Crest of the Duke of Eutland 
is on a cJiapeau gu., lined erm., a peacoch in its pride, proper. The 
Duke of Newcastle bears the same crest upon a wreath. Walter 
Long, of Preshaw House, Hants, Esquire, bears as his Crest, aid 
of a crest-coronet or, a demi-lion rampt. arg. 

Crests, like shields of arms, being held to be hereditary, it 
necessarily follows that the same person may inherit and may 


rightly bear two or more crests, as he may quarter two or more I 
than two coats of arms : for example, the Earl Fitzwilliam bears 
these two crests; — 1st, out of a crest-coronet or, a plume of three 
ostrich feathers arg. ; and 2nd, on a wreath or and sa., a griffin 
passant ppr. It must be added, that in this country the strict ' 
rule is that only one Crest can be borne, except under the follow- 
ing conditions : — 1st, By a special grant from the Crown, as an 
augmentation; such are the Crests of Wellesley, Hardixgk, 
Cameron, Bart. : or, 2ndly, When any person may have obtained 
the Eoyal licence to bear and use the name and arms of another 
family in addition to his own, in any such case the Crests of both 
families are displayed above the quartered arms ; the Crests of 
the Dukes of Buckingham, Leeds, Eichmond, and Sutherland, the 
Marquess of Lansdowne, of Dalrymple-Hay, Bart., are examples. 

For further illustration, I add a few other examples of Crests. 

Percy, Duke of Northumbei'land : — On a chapeau, a lion statant, 
his tail extended or. In No, 185, p. 55, this lion is represented 
without the chapeau. 

Howard, representative of Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk : — On 
a chapeau, a lion statant guardant, his tail extended or, and ducally 
gorged arg. This lion of the Howards is represented in No. 186, 
p. 55, without either the chapeau or the coronet. It was 
originally granted by Eichard II. to Thomas Mowbray', Earl 

• Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel : — Out of a crest-coronet or, a griffin's 
head arg., heaJced gu., between a pair of icings erect ; No. 694, 

Neville, Earl of Westmoreland: — From^a wreath, a dun hull's 
head and nech erased ppr. (Monument and Seals.) 

Ealph, Lord Bassett, of Drayton, K.G. : — Out of of a a-est- 
coronet, a hoards head erased sa., armed or. (Garter-Plate.) 

Stanley, Earl of Derby : — On a chapeau, an eagle, icings ad- 
dorsed or, hovering over an infant in its nest ppr., sicaddled az., handed 
of the first. (Garter-Plate.) 


The Stanlej's have deiived this Crest from the Lathams, of 
whom it is recorded that one of the heads of their house adopted 
as his heir a child which had been exposed in an eagle's nest in 
Latham Park, but which the eagle had carefully nurtured, instead 
of destroying it. 

KiRKPATRicK, of Closebum : — On a wreath, a dexter hand, couped 
at the wrist, holding erect a dagger imhrued, all ppr., with the motto, 
" Fse mah sike)\" No. 525 a, PI. XXX. 

The historical origin of this Crest and its Motto is well known. 

Pole, Sir Eichard, K.G., father of the Cardinal : — On a icreaih, 
a cormorant trussing a fish, all ppr. (Garter-Plate.) 

WoDEHOUSE, Baron Wodehouse : — On a icreath, a dexter hand 
holding a club, all ppr. In chief, the words, " Frappez fort." In 
base, the word " Agincourt." 

Pelham-Clintox, Duke of Newcastle : For Clinton : — Out of a 
crest-coronet, a plume of five ostrich feathers arg., handed %cith a line 
set chevron-wise az. For Pelham : — On a wreath, a peacock in its 
pride ppr. 

An early crest of the Pelhams was a lantern. 

Drake : — Out of a xcreath, a ship, draicn round a globe with a 
cable-rope by a hand issuing out of clouds, all ppr. ; in chief, the 
motto, Divino Auxilio. No. 144 b, PI. XXVI. 

Hope : — Out of a xoreath, a broken globe, surmounted by a rainbow 
issuing out of a cloud at each end, all ppr. Xo. 144 a, PI. XXVI. 

Wellesley, Duke of Wellington : — Out of a ducal coronet or, a 
demi-lion rampt. gu., holding a swallow-tailed pennon of the last, 
the fly to the sinister, and at the head charged tcith the ensign of 
St. George. 

Douglas Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton ; — Out of a crest-coronet, 
an oak-tree J'ructed, penetrated transversely in the main stem by a 
frame-saw, all ppr., the saic-frame or. 

The old Earls of Dunbar and March, who were hereditary 
Wardens of the Marches of the Scottish border, bore for a Crest 
a horse's head bridled ; and the Marquess of Annandale, also a,'* 


Lord Marcher, had for his Crest a spur erect, between a pair of 
wings, both. Crests being designed to intimate prompt readiness 
and speed in pursuit. 

Crests may be considered to have been occasionally adopted 
with a view to a species of Marshalling. 



Supporters are figures, whether of human or imaginary creatures, ^h<^/t*^ 
or of living creatures of whatever kind which, as a general rule, "^'**^ ^ * •^■> ' 
stand on either side of a shield, as if in the act of holding it up 
(supporting it), or guarding it. Supporters, accordingly, in the 
great majority of instances, and more particularly in the Heraldry 
of England, appear in pairs, one on the Dexter and the other on 
the Sinister of the shield. The usage prevalent in early times, / 
with occasional exceptions, was that the two Supporters should 

be alike ; but in modem English Heraldry they very frequently 

are altogether distinct from one another, as in the instance of the 
Boyal Supporters of England, the Lion and the L'nicom. French 
Heralds distinguish Human Figures, when they appear supporting 
any Shield, by the title of " Tenants," while all Animals dis- 
charging a similar duty are styled " Supporters." 

Single Supporters, which are by no means uncommon in Con- 
tinental Heraldry, occasionally appear in the early Seals of both 
England and Scotland ; and in our own times some few relics of 
this original practice still survive ; thus, the Lord of the Manor 
of Stoke-Lyne, in Oxfordshire, charges his paternal Shield upon 
the breast of a hawk, by virtue of a special grant of Charles I. 

I have given examples of early English Single Supporters in 

No. 201, PL XX.; No. 212 c, PI. LXII. ; and Nos. 509, 525, 

PI. LXX. : and in his Scottish Heraldry (pp. 260-272), Mr. Setok 

has shown what Scottish Seals exemplify this usage in the most 

i| characteristic manner ; and to some of these I presently shall 

I more particularly refer. 

T 2 





These honourable accessories of the Heraldic Shield arc said 
to have been introduced, (like Quartering), by Et)WARD III,, but 
they are of uncertain authority until the reign of Henry VI. 
Supporters are now borne, by right, by all the Peers of the 
Realm, by Knights of the Garter, and Knights Grand Crosses of 
iRiiA j*\w*^ the Bath, also by the Nova Scotia Baronets, and the (^hiefs of the 
\iM,l4^i> Scottish Clans ; and they are conceded to those Sons of Peers 
who bear honorary titles of Nobility. Supporters are not granted 
in England witliout the express command of the Sovereign ; but 
in Scotland " Lord Lion " enjoys this privilege. Supporters are 
not borne by any Spiritual Peers/ They appear associated with 
the Arms of many persons of varioTis ranks, who have derived 
them from some distinguished ancestors. The actual origin of 
Supporters has been a subject of much speculation with writers 
on Heraldry. I am disposed to consider that they may be de- 
rived in part from a desire to combine personal Badges with 
hereditaiy heraldic compositions, while in part Supporters may 
have resulted from certain early forms of either IMarshalling or 
Differencing. It is highly probable, also, that the introduction 
of these accessories of Shields of Arms may have been greatly 
influenced by the grotesque lizards and other figures in such 
favour with illuminators, and which, with various animals, the 
early seal-engravers commonly introduced as ornaments — " not, 
however," as Mr. Planciie judiciously remarks, " without some 
heraldic intention." And again, the early habit of grouping two 
or more Shields with an Effigy, and more particularly the group- 
ing together a single Shield and Effigy, or the suspending a 
Shield from a tree upon a seal, might lead by an easy transition 
to the adoption, first, of a single figure, and afterwards of two 
figures to support a Shield. 

Animals, either the same as appear in the blazon of the 
shields which they " support," or obtained from some allied 
coat of arms, together with personal and family Badges, are 
common on Seals long before the regular appearance of true 

'" X U4u*tfH v4 vu (««VMftv. (y)\^hc^s^i^, ai]' 


Supporters, under the conditions that they still continue to 
assume ; and hence, from the introduction of these figures on 
each side of shields of arms upon seals may he directly derived 
the two figures, that in the fifteenth century become regular 
accessories of the heraldic Achievements of Eoyal and noble 
personages. From their first appearance, Supporters, like 
Crests, have been charged with Marks of Cadency. 

The figures of animals that were introduced into their com- 
positions, and charged by the early heraldic seal-engiavers with 
the duty of Supporters, are placed in vaiious positions, but they 
always lead more or less directly to the idea of the true Sup- 
porter, that afterwards was accepted with common consent. 
The earliest indication of the use of an heraldic Supporter to 




which I am able to refer, occurs in the seal of Eichart), second 
Earl of Cornwall, about a.d. 1290, (Xo. 212 c, PL LXIL), in. ]p-'^^'^ 
which. an imperial eagle holds in his beak the guige of the 
shield. The seal of Humphrey he Bohun, a.d. 1322, (Xo. 201, J^i-Sl 
n. XX.), is a second most interesting example of the early seal- 
engraver's feeling in the matter of a Supporter. The guige, or 
shield-belt, instead of being passed over a boss or some other 
architectural detail, in this shield is carried hy the swan, that was 1 
the Badge of the Earls of Hereford. Another seal, (Xo. 501^, PI.] jy 
LXX.), exhibits the De Bohun Swan in the same position above ' 
the shield ; but here the guige is omitted, and in its stead the 
chain that leads from the collar of the bird is fastened to the 
chief of the shield ; this is one of the seals of Thomas Plan- 
tagenet, Duke of Gloucester, the youngest son of Edward 
III., who married the elder of the two co-heiresses of the 
last Earl of Hereford. The impression of this seal from which 
the wood-cut has been drawn, is attached to a deed bearing the 
date 1395. The seal of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, half- 
brother of EiCHARD II., of a rather earlier date, represents the 
shield of arms of the Earl — England, within a hordure arg., 
having the guige buckled round the neck of a uhitc hind lodged, 


b.<^dj) (No. 525, PI. LXX.), an animal closely allied to the white hart 
which was King Richard's own favourite Badge. This singularly 
beautiful seal carries out the idea of a Supporter in a most 
agreeable manner. The seal of Edmund de Mortimer (seep. 271, 
and No. 270), is another example that is equall}'' curious, charac- 
teristic, and interesting. The Falcons of John of Ghent, the 
Ostrich Feathers of his son, the Angels that are grouped around 
the Shield of Richard II. at Westminster Hall, the Mermaids 
of the Berkeleys, with the quaint lizards of the early seal- 
engravers, all take a part in preparing the way for Supporters. 
The seal of Henry, first Duke of Lancaster, about a.d. 1350, has 
the shield placed between two lions sejant giuxrdant, addorsed, and 
above there is the demi- figure of an Angel with expanded wings. 
An Angel, again, is represented with singularly impressive effect, 
supporting the shield on the beautiful seal of Mary of Gueldres, 
Queen of James II. of Scotland, (a.d. 1459.) The seals of two of 
the Fitz-Alans, Earls of Arundel, severally a.d. 1375 and 1397, 
have as Supporters, the former two lions, and the latter two 
griflins ; and these animals regularly support — that is, they hold up 
the crested helms above the shield. No. 707 a, p. 271, and No. 707, 
Chap. XXIV. This series of progi'essive examples might easily be 
carried on, until it would merge into the illustration of the sys- 
tematic use of true Supporters in the middle of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The seals of George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence, of 
Edmund de Mortimer, Earl of March, and of the accomplished 
and unfortunate John Tiptoft, Earl of Worcester, all about a.d. 
1470, form a small gioup of admirable examples of Achievements 
■ of Anns having Supporters. 

The seal of Joh'es D'ns de Segrave — the Segrave of Caerla- 
verock — has his shield charged with a lion rampt. crowned, and on 
either side of the shield is a garb : thus a Badge is introduced into 
this composition in such a manner as to render it a prototype of 
Supporters. In the next century, Richard de Beauchamp (died 
in 1439) has his quartered shield of Beauchamp and Netoburgh 


(Nos. 367 and 368) supported by his famous Badges, two chained 
hears ivith ragged staves. At the close of this fifteenth century, the 
monumental chantry of Abbot Eamryge at St. Alban's abounds in 
admirable examples of Supporters, a truly characteristic speci- 
al men of which I have engraved in No. 6^3, Tl. LXfVII. : SeeH^ ^^^ 
Bebiis in Chap. XIII. and see also Chap. XXX. I may here 
refer to the singular inanimate canting Supporters which appear 
upon the Seal of William, Lord Bottreaux (a. d. 142G); the 
Shield couchee, charged with a Griffin segreant and surmounted 
by a helm and crest, is supported on either side by an architectural 
^ buttress, in evident allusion to the noble bearer's name. 

In Scottish Heraldry, Supporters, originally entitled " Bearers," 
appear at about the same period as may be assigned to their ap- 
pearance in England ; and they were developed for the most 
part under the same conditions, the almost only marked distinc- 
tion being a comparatively more frequent use of a single Sup- 
porter in the earliest examples. Thus, on several Scottish seals 
of the close of the thirteenth century, the shield of arms is dis- 
played upon the breast of an eagle ; as on the seal of Alexander 
Stuart, Earl of Menteith, a.d. 1296. David Lindsay, Earl of 
Crawford, a.d. 1345, has a similar seal; and in 1866, and 1394, 
the seals of Margaret Stoart, Countess of Angus, and of Euphe- 
MiA Leslie, Countess of Eoss, display three shields charged upon 
the breast and wings of an eagle displayed. Many other varieties of 
single Supporters were in use at the same period. A second seal 
of the Earl of Crawford, which is considered to bear the earliest 
known Scottish Crest — a swans head and neck issuing from between 
two tall wings, rising erect from a crest-coronet — also appears to fur- 
nish the earliest example of regular Supporters, two lions ; the 
shield itself bears two coats quarterly. Two grifiSns are the 
Supporters on the seal that takes rank as second in chronological 
succession — that of Sir Thomas Ecskine, a.d. 1364, Upon the 
seal of \\ M. RuiHVEX, a.d. 1396, a tree growing up from a mount 
appears on each side of the shield. Savage men frequently act as 


Supporters of Scottish shields, as do animals taken from the charges 
of the shields themselves ; and various human and allegorical 
figures discharge similar duties. A few Scottish Supporters are 
allusive after such a fashion as this — two Conies for Cuxnixgham, 
Earl of Glencairn, and for Lord Oliphant two elephants. The 
Secretum of King James I., a.d. 1429, is the earliest example of 
Supporters grouped with a Royal Scottish shield ; these Sup- 
porters are two lions, the unicorn, which now is held to be em- 
phatically the Eoyal Supporter of Scotland, not appearing, ex- 
cept in the coinage, before the time of Mary Stuart. 

In Chapter XIX., Section 3, I have described the changes 
that have taken place in the Eoyal Supporters of England ; this 
section of this present Chapter I conclude with a few examples, 
which will show of what character are the various figures 
that are still in use as Supporters to the Arms of British Peers. 

Somerset, Duke of Bi-aufort : — Dexter ; A panther arg., spotted 
of various colours, fire issuant from his mouth and ears ppr., gorged 
with a plain collar, and chained or : Sinister ; a loyvern, wings 
addorsed, vert, holding in the mouth a sinister hand couped at the 
icrist gu. 

Graham, Duke of Montrose: — Two storks arg., beaked and 
onemhered gu. 

Campbell, Duke of Argyll : — Two lions rampt. guard gu. 

Wellesley, Duke of Wellington : — Two lions gu., each gorged 
with an Eastern crown, and chained or. 

Chandos Grenville Nugent Temple, Duke of Buckingham : — 
Dexter ; a lion per fesse embattled or and gu. : Sinister ; a horse 
arg., seme'e of eaglets sa. 

Stafford Jermingham, Baron Stafford : — Dexter ; a lion rampt. 
or : Sinister ; a swan (from the De Bohuns) arg., beaked and legged 
sa., ducally gorged per pale gu. and of the second. 

Neville, Earl of Abergavenny : — Two bulls arg., pied sa., armed, 
unguled, collared and chained, and at the ends of the chains two 
staples oi'. 



Gascoyne Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury : — Two lions erm. The 
same Supporters are also borne by the Marquess of Exeteii. 

Stanley', Earl of Derby : — Dexter ; a griffin : Sinister ; a hart ; 
both or, and clucallij goi-ged and chained az., the hart attired of the last. 

CouRTENAY, Earl of Devon : — Two hoars arg., bristled, tusJced, 
and unguled or. 

Cavendish, Duke of Devonshire: — Two stags ppr., attired or, 
each gorged tcith a garland of roses arg. and az., barbed vert. 

GoRDO.v Lexnox, Duke of Eichmond : — Dexter ; an unicorn arg., 
armed, maned, and ungided or : Sinister ; an antelope arg., armed 
and hoofed or, each Supporter gorged tcith a collar compone'e arg. 
and gu. 

St. Maur, Duke of Somerset : — Dexter ; an unicorn arg., armed, 
maned and tufted or, gorged with a ducal collar per pale az. and gold, 
to lohich is affixed a chain of the last : Sinister ; a bull az., ducally 
gorged, chained, armed and hoofed or. 

Si'EXCER, Earl Spexcer : — Dexter ; a griffin per fesse erm. and 
erminois, gorged with a collar having its edges fleurie counter-fleurie 
sa., charged with three escallops arg., aad chained of the third : 
Sinister ; a wyvern, erect on his tail, erm., collared and chained as 
the griffin. 

Graxvjlle Leveson Gower, Duke of Sutherland: — Dexter; 
a wolf arg., collared and lined or : Sinister ; a savage man, wreathed 
aboid the temples and the icaist icith laurel, holding in his dexter hand 
a club, resting on his shoulder, all ppr., and icitli his sinister hand 
ttupporting an ancient shield of Sutherland, — that is, gu., three 
mullets or, within a bordure gold, charged with a tressure of Scotland. 


MOTTOES. 'VVi/jA^'/i 

The Motto, or Mot — the brief significant sa3-ing of a family, 
which in battle would be their war-cry, appears to have been 
habitually associated by the early Heralds with the Badge, and 
also sometimes with the Crest of its owner. 


The present usage is to place the Motto lapon a Scroll or 
ribbon, below the shield of aims ; and modem Heralds generally 
consider that the Motto-Scroll forms both a convenient and a 
sufficiently secure standing-place fur Supporters, when Sup- 
porters appear with any Achievement. The tincture of the Motto- 
/ Scroll has not been determined by any rule or prec edent : it is 
usually white, lined with pink or blue, but it might (at any rate 
in many instances) be advantageously assimilated to the tincture 
of the field of the shield. \Yhen the Motto has direct reference 
to the Crest, it ought always to be represented as placed either 
immediately above the Crest itself, or (which is the better arrange- 
ment) immediately below it. The Motto may be charged upon 
a garter, and this may be made to encircle a Shield of Arms or a 
Crest, or Badge, should either of these cognizances be blazoned 

In the middle ages. Mottoes associated with various heraldic 
devices were constantly employed for decoration. In those days, 
in addition to other uses of Mottoes, it was not uncommon for 
the blade of the knightly sword to be charged with some ex- 
pressive legend, motto-like in its character. Thus the famous 
weapon of the great Earl of Shrewsbury was taught to tell its 
own tale in the words — sufficiently good/Latin to make their 
meaning intelligible — 

Sum Talboti pro vincere inimicos meos : 
(I am Talbot's to conquer my enemies.) 

A somewhat similar, but a more loyal ]\lotto was adopted 
by the good knight, De Setvans, who bore winnowing fans as his 
armorial insignia : — 

Sic dissipaho inimicos Regis mei. — (So will I scatter — that is, 
like chaflf before the wind — the enemies of my king). 

As examples of Mottoes, I must be content to adduce the fol- 
lowing small group, which I have selected with a view to illus- 
trate Mottoes of difi'erent varieties. 

England : — Dieu d man Droit. (God and my right.) 


Order of the Gau rER : — Honi soil qui mal y pense. 

Order of the Bath -.—Triajunda in uno. (Three — naval, mili- 
tary and civil — united in one.) 

Order of the Thistle :— (The Badge is a Thistle), Nemo me 
impune lacessit. (No one injures me with impunity). 

Neville : — Ne vile Velis. (Form no mean wish ; or. Desire 

FoRTEscDE : — Forte scutum, salus ducum. (The safety of the 
chiefs is a strong shield ; or, Fortescue is the safeguard of the 

Cholmoxdeley : — (Two helms are borne on the shield) ; Cassis 
tuiissima virtus. (Valor is the safest helm.) 

Bietie : — (Three battering-rams are borne on the sshield, No. 
129 c); Virtus ariete fortior. (Valor is more powerful than a bat- 

Major Henniker : — (Three columns are l)orne in the arms) : 
Deus major Columna. (God the greater column, or support). 

Hepburn : — Keep Tryste. 

Scott of Thirlstane : — (With a Crest fonned of a gi'oup of 
lances) ; Beady, aye ready. No. 519 a, PI. XXXVI. 

Clifford: — Semper paratus. (Always prepared.) 

Stuart : — Avant. (Forward). 

Percy : — Espei-ance. 

Bruce : — Doe icell and douht not. 

Russell : — Che sara, sara. ( W hat will be, will be.) 

Grey, Earl of Stamford ; — A ma puissance. (By my might.) 

Temple : Templa quam dilecta ! (How beloved are the Tem- 
ples .') 

Hood : — Zealous. (Captain Hood commanded the " Zealous " 
at " the Nile.") 

Leslie : — Grip fast,— so said Bartholomew Leslie to Margaret 
of Scotland, as she clung to his girdle, when he saved her from 

Lindsay : — Astra Castra, Numen lumen. (The Stars my canupy, 


Providence my light. The Crest, a military tent, and mullets 

borne on the shield.) 

Spring Eici:, Baron Monteaqle : — Alte fert aquila. (The eagle 

soars aloft. Two eagles are the Supporters.) 

Cavendish : — Cavendo Mm. (Safe through Caution.) 
Home : — Vise a la fin. (Look to the end — to Home.) 



Amongst the devices that were used as Badges in early 
Heraldry, certain intertwined cords, distinguished by the title 
of Knots, may bo considered to form a small distinct class of 
heraldic figures. 
^^ ' A Knot, probably designed to convey the idea of a Mono- 
■ gram, appears amongst the various devices Avith which the robe 
of Anne of Bohemia in her effigy at Westminster is diapered : it 
is represented in No. 514, PI. XXX. 

The following are the other varieties of Knots that occur in 
blazon : — 

The Stafford Knot:— Xo. 515, PI. XXX. 
„ L, ThE Bourchier Knot : — No. 516 : also Xo. 695, p. 285. 

Ijurrn^il^iy^ The IIeneage Knot: — Xo. 517. 

The Wake and Ormond Knot: — Xo. 518, (fonued from tlio 
i initials W and intertwined). 

The BowEN Knot: — No. 519, (formed of /our bovvs). 

The Lacy Knot, which is a rather intricate but an elegant 
interlaced cord, that thus forms a Eebus of the name, Lacy. 

Knots sometimes form Badges in combination with other 
devices : thus, the Badge of the Dacres is foiined by a cord 
entwined about an escallo^i-shell and a ragged staff, Xo. 513, PI. 
XXXIX : in this manner, a compound Badge may significantly 
indicate the union of two families. Another example is the 
Badge of Edward, Lord Hastings, which is produced by a similar 
process for tying together a sickle and a garb. 




The Stafford Knot is repeated again and again, in association 
with no less than eighteen Badges of the House of Stafford 
(which descends by no less than ten different marriages from the 
Eoyal Blood of both England and France,) upon Ihe curious 
marble mural slab in the Chapel of St. Edmund in Westminster 
Abbey — the memorial of John Paul Howard, Earl of Stafford, 
who died in ihe year 1762. 

The Bourcliier Knot I have shown (p. 115,) to have been used 
to decorate the mantlings of one nobleman of the Bourchier 
family; upon the monument of another Bourchier at West- 
minster, this same Knot is several times repeated, engraved in 
brass, and attached to a coiidiere — the piece of armour that was 
used to protect the elbow joint, in the panoply of the second half 
of the thirteenth century. No. 095. 


No. 695. — Bourcbier-Knot and Coiidiere, or Elbow-guard : Brass in St. 
Edmund's Chapel, Westminster Abbey, to Sir HvMriiKEY BovRcmEn, killed 
at Barnet a.d. 1471. 

No. 314. — Standard of Henry Plantagexet, of Bolingbroke. 




«f»»*,iii,//', Tkom a very early period Heraldic Devices have been embla- 
''z "'^' zoned upon Flags of various kinds; and similar Devices have 
. ' ' also been frequently used without any Flag properly so called, to 

discbarge the duty of military and official standards. 
\m\x )\ /2- Symbolical Figures we know to have formed the Standards 

H. -,, of tbe Egyptians and Assyrians. Their own heraldic monster, 

the Dragon, has been the national Ensign of Cbina from time 

immemorial. The Eagle is identified with the very name of 

, ^ Rome. Of the Flags of our own countrj', the Bayeux Tapestry 
n \ ill* t w** 
fc> (itiiSjiiVlof the Conqueror's Consort has preserved for us some of the 

■'''" earliest authentic examples. These are for the most part small 

in size, and they generally terminate in three points. They 

bear simple and indeed rude Devices, such as a Pale, or a Pale 

and three Bars, or some form of Cross, with a group of Roundles, 

generally three in number; Xos. 526, 527, PI. XXIX. A figure 

of a Dragon was in use by the Saxons at the time of the Conquest, 

No. 223 A, PL XII., and it appears to have been retained amongst 

FLAGS. 287 

their Ensigns of War by the early Norman Princes. In the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries repeated mention is made of 
Car Standards, which were of such ample dimensions that they ^ji^j^. 
required to be displayed from a species of car, which also con- 
veyed them from place to place. 

I. With the Crusades, when Heraldiy began to assume a y 
definite form, Flags became subject to established rules. The 
earlier Saintly Ensigns, which were simply portraitures of such 
popular Personages as St. Cuthbert of Durham, St. Peter of 
York, and St. John of Beverley, still were displayed, as of yore ; 
but the regular Military and National Ensigns in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries were more strictly heraldic, and each 
had its own proper signification. The three principal varieties 
of these mediaeval Ensigns were the Pennon, the Banner, and 
the Standard. 

1. The Pennon was small in size, pointed or sw^allow-tailed at 
the Fly, and borne immediately below the Lance-head of the 
knight whose personal E)isign it was. It was charged with the 
Badge, or other armorial Device of the Bearer, and sometimes 
richly fringed with gold. The Devices were charged upon the 1/ 

_Pennon in such a manner, that they would appear in theij 
proper positions when the weapon was laid for the Charge. The 
Brass to Sir J. D'Aubernoun, a.d. 127it, affords a good example 
of this symbol of Knightly Eank; No. 310, PI. XXIX. Other 
early examples of Pennons occur in the Elsyng Brass to Sir 
Hugh de Hastings, and in the well-known illumination in the 
LouTERELL Psalter. 

2. The Banner was square in form, or nearly so, and was A>Vi<"«x ' 
charged with the Coat of Arms of the owner, and not with any ' *.^''' '^^ 
other Device. It was bome by Knights Bannerets, who ranked ., .,. jn^ 
higher than the Knights of the Mediaeval Chivaliy, and also by kh. f(n, 
Barons, Princes, and Sovereigns themselves. A Pennon with 

its points torn off would make, or at any rate would represent, 
a Banner ; and this was the form of ceremonial observed when a 

* U(s^, yji ,g(i}). ^v^rj \u, u w .j^UyHt^s It ,1, l^ . 


288 FLAGS. 

Knight, in reward for his gallantry, was advanced to the rank of 
of Banneret on the field of battle by the Sovereign himself, 
present in person, under his own Eoyal Banner displayed. 

The Koll of Caerlaverock gives the Blazon of the Banners of 
nearly one hundred of the Nobles and Bannerets who were 
present with Edward I. in his Campaign against Scotland in 1300. 
The first on the EoU is the Banner of Henry de Laci, who is 
thus introduced by the Chronicler : — 

" Henry, the good Earl of Lincolx, burning with valour, which 
is the prevailing sentiment of his heart, the Leader of the First 
Division, had a Banner of yellow silk with a purple Lion 
rampant;" No. 528, PI. XXXV. 

The Brass to Sir Symon de Felbryge, E.G., has preserved 
an example of a Koyal Banner. It is that of Richard II., to 
whom Sir Symon (as the inscription at his feet declares) was 
Banner-Bearer. It shows the Eoyal Arms quartering France 
and England, and impaled with the aims of the Confessor; 
No. 529, PI. XXXV. 

(For further notices of Eoj^al Banners, see Chap. XIX., Sec. 2.) 

The Banner, it will be observed, was the Ensign of both the 
Banneret himself, and of his own retainers and followers, and 
.H also of the D r vi e i oH of an army that was under his command. 
' In the early da3's of Heraldry, Bannerets of high rank appear 
occasionally to have borne Banners charged with insignia alto- 
gether different from their Shields of Arms. Thus Simon de 
MoNTFORT, Earl of Leicester (temp, Henry III.), whose shield 
is, gu., a lion rampt. arg., the tail fourchee, bears a J^anner per pale 
indented arg. and gu., the tinctures of his shield. This Banner is 
considered to refer to one of the great Baron's many lordships, 
the Honour of Hinkley in Leicestershire : (see Introduction to 
Sir Harris Nicholas' Roll of H. III., p. xiii.) 

Banners were in use in the middle ages at sea, as well as on 
land ; and in addition to these regular Ensigns, it was a pre- 
vailing custom to emblazon the sails of the shipping of those days 



Fiate XXI A 

FLAGS. 289 

with armorial insignia, and tlius the sails themselves became 
Flags, as in No. 530, PI. XXXV. Many equally curious and 
interesting illustrations of this practice occur in early seals. 

During the times of the Tudors, and indeed towards the close / 
of the Plantagenet era also, the Banners of Princes and Nobles 
disjDlayed many quart&rings, but they retained their distinctive 
character in being identical in their blazoning with shields of 
arms. Two remarkable examples of these Banners are carved 
in bold relief, as accessories of the monument of Ludovic Eobsart, 
K.G., in Westminster Abbey : these Banners wrought in stone 
have four quarterings, and their staves are so adjusted that they 
form mouldings of the canopy-shafts, while at the base of the 
monument they are held by a lion and a falcon. In the Heralds' 
College numerous curious drawings of Banners are preserved, 
all of them having their staves held by some Supporter, while the 
Banners of Nobles and Princes are represented as being ensigned 
with Coronets of ample size. 

3. The Standard, in use in the reign of Edward III., and in -'^^^ •■■••' 
especial favour in the times of the Tudors, was of large dimen- ' ' ■ ' ^' 
sions, and always of considerable length in proportion to its 
depth, and tapering towards the extremity ; and it was divided 
per fesse into two tinctures. (See p. 128, and Nos. 312, 315, 
316, PI. XXIX.) Standards were also generall}' divided bend- 
wise into compartments by Motto-Bands — that is, by Bands 
charged with some Motto of the owner: these Standards also 
varied in their size in accordance with the rank of the personage 
to whom they belonged. No. 313 in Plate XXXV. represents 
the ship standard of the Earl of Warwick, noticed at p. 129. 
And No. 314, p. 286, is one of the Standards of Henry Plan- 
tagenet, of Bolingbroke, (emblazoned in Ilarleian MS., 4632), 
which is a peculiarly characteristic example of the heraldic flags 
of the middle ages; it is per f esse arg. and az., the livery colours 
of the Lancastrians, having at the head the Cross of St. George, 
and semee of Badges of Prince Henry, red roses, the De Bohun 


290 FLAGS. 

lohite swan, golden wood-stocks (or roots of trees, ^ and fox^s tails 
proper. StandarJs appea r to have been used solely for the purpose^ 
of di s play, and to add to the splendour of military gatherings 
and royal pageants. 

In a " Book of Standards," (a.d. 1500, in Coll. Arm.), one 
example of Edward IV. is per fesse az. aud gu., fringed org. and 
vert ; it has at the head the Cross of St. George, followed by a 
white lion pass, guard, royally crowned, the motto — JDieu et mon 
Droyt, and twelve roses, six gules in chief, and six arg. in base, 
all of them irradiated. Another Standard of the same Prince, is 
semee of w^hite roses ; and a third has one very large white 
rose-en-soleil and eight smaller ones. Upon a field arg. and az., 
semee of red roses, Henry V. displays his chained antelope. 
Henry VII. has his banners arg. and vert, semee of red and ichite 
roses, icith a dragon gu. (See also Excerpta Historica.) 

II. The National Banners of England, Scotland, and Ireland 
are severally the Crosses of St. George, St. Andrew, and St, Patrich, 
Nos. 60, 61, 62, PI. III. From the Crosses of St. George and 
St. Andrew in combination, the First " Union Jack," No. 63, 
p. 26, was formed, and declared to be the National Ensign of 
Great Britain by James I., April 12, 1600. 

The era of the Second " Union JacJc," No. 64, p. 26, the glorious 
Flag that we now know as " the Flag of England," dates from 
the commencement of the present centur3^ It is a combination 
of the three Crosses, Nos. 60, 61, 62. 

The Standards of the ]\Iiddle Ages are evidently the proto- 
types of English Ensigns of later times. These Ensigns, three in 
number, their tinctures. Bed, Wliite, and Blue, were first can- 
toned with the Cross of St. George, No. 531, PI. XXXVI. ; then 
the "St. George" was superseded by the first Union Jack, 
No. 532 ; and finally, when the present " Jack " was adopted, 
it took the place of its predecessor in the National Ensigns, 
where it still remains. The " A\ hite Ensign," however, now is 
not a plain white Flag, but a " St. George" cantoned with the 

ban:ners, standard, belm & smn. 



Piat6 XXXY 

FLAGS. 291 

" Jack :" Nos. 533, 534, 535, PI. XXXVI. The " ^Vhite " and 
the " Blue Ensigns" are restricted to tlie Eoyal Navy and the 
Yacht Clubs, the " Red Ensign" being in universal use as the 
" Ensign of England." This same Eed Ensign has also been 
■worn by the Eed Squadion of the Eoyal Navy, as the White 
and the Blue Ensigns have severally been the distinctive insignia 
of the White and the Blue Squadrons. Early in the present 
year (1864), however, by the authority of the Lords of the 
Admiralty, and with the sanction of the Crown, a very impoi-tant 
and equally singular change has been made in the use and sig- 
nification of our national naval Ensigns. Hitherto the Xavy has 
been divided into three "Squadrons," the "Eed," the " White," 
and the " Blue," under the orders of Admirals, Vice-Admirals, 
and Eear- Admirals, also distinguished by the same three Colours : 
the Flags of all " Admirals of the Eed " have been plain red ; 
those of all " Admirals of the White " have been the St. George ; 
and the Flags of all Admirals of the Blue Squadron of the Eoyal 
Navy have been plain blue. The recent change has assigned the 
Blue Ensign to the "Xaval Eeserve;" and thus, the White 
Ensign has become the Ensign of the Eoyal . Xavy, and the Eed 
Ensign is now the Flag of the Mercantile Marine. This new 
arrangement virtually abolishes the long-established and well- 
known " Squadrons " of the Xavy and of the Admirals of England. 

The Flag of the Admiralty is red icith a yellow anchor and 
cable set fesse-wise, No. 128, p. 39. 

Pendants, long and very narrow streamers, either red, white, or 
blue, and charged at the head with a Cross of St. George, are the 
symbols of command in the Eoyal Navy, and indicate that a 
vessel is in commission, but commanded by an officer of lower 
rank than an Admiral. 

The Military Flags of England now in use may be grouped 
in the two gi'and Divisions of " Cavalry Banners;" (they are 
styled " Standards," but they are, and they ought to be entitled 
" Banners "), and " Infantry Colours." The Banners of the 

u 2 

292 FLAGS. 

Cavalry are small in size ; their colour is determined by the 
colour of the regimental Facings ; they are charged with the 
Cypher, Number, peculiar Heraldic Insignia, and the " Honours " 
(such significant words as " Waterloo," " Alma," " Sobraon," 
&c.) of each Eegiment. The Banners of the Household Cavalry, 
however, are all crimson, and are richly embroidered with the 
Eoyal Insignia of England. 

Every Infantry Eegiment or Battalion of the Line has its own 
" Pair of Colours." Of these, one is the " Queen's Colour " — a 
" Union Jack " charged with some of the regimental Devices 
the other is the " Eegimental Colour," and its Field is of th« 
same tincture as the Facings ; it is cantoned with a small 
"Jack," and bears the Cypher, Number, Device, Motto, and 
Honours of the Corps. At the first, each Infantry Eegiment had 
one " Colour " only ; then there were three to each Eegiment ; 
and in the Eeign of Queen Anne the " Colours " were reduced 
to their present number of a " Pair." The " Colours" of the 
Foot-Guards reverse the arrangement observed in the Line. 
Their " Queen's Colour" is crimson, either with or without a 
cantoned Jack, but, always charged with the Eoyal Cypher and 
Crown, and the Eegimental Devices. The " Eegimental 
Colour " of the Guards is the Union Jack, The Guards also 
have small " Company Colours." 

The Eoyal Artillery and the Eifles of the Line have no 

The Volunteer Eegiments have at present been left to deter- 
mine both whether they should carry " Colours," and also what 
should be the character of their " Colours" whenever they may 
decide to adopt them. What may be termed " Oie Volunteer 
Banner," is worthy of the Force. It is charged with the figures 
of an archer of the olden time and a rifleman of to-day, with the 
admirable motto, " Defence, not Defiance" 

The Flags of England, it will be understood, are the Flags of 
the entire British Empire. 

No. 242. No. 247. U 75- 

^^l^ Roses of York and Lancaster. (^-7-"" 







Definite Heraldic Insignia have been assigned by more than 
one writer on English Heraldry to those Saxon Princes who 
ruled in England before the Norman era ; the early shields, 
however, must be regarded simply as evidences of comparatively 
modern ingenuity, since the genuine Eoyal Heraldry of England 
unquestionably dates its origin from a period subsequent to 
the successful invasion of William of Normandy. Even the 
Heraldry of the Norman Sovereigns themselves can scarcely be 
accepted as altogether free from doubt or uncertaint3^ After 
the Conquest, William I. is said to have assumed the " Two 
golden Lions, or Leopards, of his Norman Duchy," as the Anns 
of his Kingdom of England; and these two lions (it does not 
seem necessary to retain their other probable title of " Leopards," 
see p. 57), are considered to have been borne by William's 
successors, until 1154; when, on his accession, Henry II. is 
supposed to have added the one golden Lion of Aquitaine, (in 
right of his Queen, Alianore of Aquitaine), to his own paternal 
and royal shield. Stephen is sometimes said to have borne on a 


red shield, three golden centaurs armed with bows and arrows, or 
" Sagittaries ;" it has been conjectured, however, that this idea 
may have arisen from the circumstance of the " Sagittary " 
having been Stephen's Badge, and that it was mistaken for his 

i arms. Since the time of Henrv IT ., the tliree golden lions upon a 
field of red have always been held to be the Eoyal Arms of 
England. They have been associated with other devices, as will 
presently be seen ; but still in a peculiar sense, the " three lions 
passant quardani or," have been, as they still are, the " three 
Lions of England." It must be added, that Eichard I, for some 
time after his accession retained the arms he had borne, as 
Count of Aquitaine, gules, two lions comhaitant or, as appears from 
his first Great Seal. After his return from the Crusade, Eichard 
adopted the three lions, as they probably were borne by his 

As the Kingly office exalts a Sovereign Prince above all other 
ranks of men, so are the Eoyal Arms of a Sovereign distinguished 
in a peculiar manner from all other heraldic insignia. This 
distinction is clearly conveyed by the temi Arms of Dominion. 
These arms thus symbolize the Royalty of a Prince Eegnant, as 
well as declare his personal individuality. Accordingly, these 
Eoyal Arms are inseparable from the rank and office of Eoyalty ; 
and they can be borne, without some Difference, by no person 
whatever except the Sovereign. In the case of the Daughters 
of the Sovereign, until a comparatively recent period, it was 
held to be a sufficient distinction that the Eoyal Arms shoiild be 
borne by them charged upon a lozenge, or impaled with the aims 
of their husbands. It must be distinctly understood, that 

V Heraldic Law forbids the Eoyal Arms to be quartered, without 
some Difference, under any circumstances whatever — unless, 
indeed, the person quartering the Eoyal Arms might be able to 
advance a title to the CrowTi itself, as in the instance of Eliza- 
bp:th Plantagenet, Queen of Henry VII. 
In the persons of Sovereigns, all minor ranks and titles are 

OF ENGLAND. ' 29.3 

merged in their Royalty; and, in like manner, whatever arms /^ 
tHey may have borne before their accession, are merged in their 
Eoyal Arms and absorbed by them ; and no other arms can be 
_guartered with the E oyal Arms. 

Eoyal Consorts may impale the arms of the Sovereigns to whom 
they may have been imited in maniage ; and a Sovereign may 
impale, on a separate shield, the arms of his or her Consort. 

The Modifications and Changes that have taken place, fiom 
time to time, in the blazonry of the Eoyal Shield of England, 
may be briefly described as follows : 

I. The Norman Princes, "AVilliam I., William II., Henry I.,! ^Q;^^; 
and Stephen, a.d. 10C6-1154: gules, two lions passant guardant, in fAr ;fe*Qi* 
:pale, or; No. 536, PI. LVIII. T 'i^j UaIUhu, 

II. Tlie Plantagenet Princes, Henry II.J Richard I., John, 

Henry III., Edward I., Edward II., and Edward III., till the 
thirteenth year of his reign, a.d. 1154-1340, gu., three lions pass, 
guard., in pale, or, No. 536 A, PL LvTlI. ; and No. 198, p. 61. '^\>'^ 

The three lions appear on the second Great Seal of Richard I. ; 
on the Great Seals of John, Henry III., Edward I., (on the ^<^'- 
bardings of the King's charger, as well as on his shield), and ^^3 

of Edward II. ; and on the first and second Great Seals of 
Edward III. It is a singxilar circumstance, that the legends 
on the Great Seals altogether omit any notice of England and 
of England's Eoj-al Estate, until the second Great Seal of 
Henry HI., which for the first time bears the words — dei : 


^ III. In consequence of the claim advanced by Edward III., 
in the tenth year of his reign, to the Crown of France, tlie Moyal 
Arms of the French Kings (No. 2, p. 12) were introduced, 
a.d. 1340, into the English shield, and (by what was then 
a new heraldic process) they were quartered iciih the Lions of 
England, and precedence in this heraldic arrangement icas given to 
the Fleurs de Lys, Avhich were charged iipon the first and fourth 
quarters of the English shield, semee over their azure field, exactly 



as they were borne by the Sovereigns of France ; Ko. 536 b, 
n. LVIII. 

The third Great Seal of Edward III., published in England, 
Feb. 21, 1340, and the noble Seal which superseded it in the 
following June, both bear shields charged with France and Eng- 
land quarterly, the France being semve de lys. It is to be observed 
that Edward III. had placed a fleur de lys on either side of his 
first Great Seal, a.d. 1327. 

IV. The Plantagenet Princes, Edward III., Eichard 11., 
and Henry IV. {Lancastrian Plantagenet) during the earlier 
years of his reign, a.d. 1340 to about 1405; Quarterly : — 1 and 4, 
France Ancient {semee de lys) ; 2 and 3, England ; No. 536 B, 

This quartered shield is blazoned in the Eoll of Anns of the 
20th Edward III. ; and it appears upon the person of the King 
in the Brass to Sir Hugh Hastings at Elsyng, Norfolk, in the 
same year 1347. This shield also appears upon the Burghersh 
monument in Lincoln Cathedral, and it remains upon the 
monument of Edavard III. himself at Westminster ; No. 536 b, 
PI. LVIII. ; and No. 286, Chap. XX. 

Upon his Great Seal, Richard II. retained the arms of his 
grandfather without any change ; but elsewhere he delighted 
to associate with this shield the armorial insignia (No. 78, PI. I.) 
attributed to Edward the Confessor. Over the entrance to 
Westminster Hall the two shields appear on either side, admir- 
ably sculptured in bold quatve-foiled circles. Each shield rests 
upon a white hart lodged, and is supported by figures of angels. 
Sometimes Richard II. impaled his hereditary quartered shield 
with the arms of the Confessor. An example occiirs in the 
Brass to Sir Symon de Felbryge, K.G., the King's Banner- 
Bearer, who is represented with the Royal Banner (impaled 
and quartered) resting or his arm; No. 529, PI. XXXV., and 
No. 536 c, PI. LVIII. 

About the year 1365, Charles V. of Franco, with a view 


apparently to distinguish between his own arms and the fletirs 
de lys borne by the English claimants of his crown, reduced the 
number of his fleurs de lys to three only. The same change was 
effected by Henry IV. in the 1st and 4th Quarters of the Arms 
of England; and impressions of his Great Seal, taken in the 
years 1406 and 1409 exist, which bear the quartered arms, (on 
banners instead of shields), charged ivith three fleurs de lys only. 
This modification of the French shield, which bears three fleurs 
de lys only, is styled in Heraldry, " France Modern," and thus is 
distinguished from the shield semee de lys, or " France Ancient." 
See Xos. 536 d, and 536 b, PI. LVIII. 

V. The Lancastrian Plantagenet Princes, Henry IV., after 
the first few years of his reign, Henry V., and Henry VI. ; the 
Yorkist Plantagenet Princes, Edward IV., Edward V., and 
KicHARD III. ; and the Tudor Sovereigns, Henry VII., Henry 
VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, about a.d. 1405 — 1603 ; 
Quarterly : — 1 and 4, France Modern ; 2 and 3, England ; No. 536 D, 

Queen Elizabeth also sometimes bore Ireland, Ko. 537 a, PI. 
XL VI. Thus, in her Funeral Procession the Banner of Ireland 
is associated with the Banners of Wales, Chester, and Cornwall ; 
{Yetust. Man. iii., 18, &c.) See also Section 7 of this Chapter. 

Edward IV. sometimes quartered the arms of the Confessor with 
France and England quarterly. Many fine original examples of 
the quartered shield of France Modern and England are still pre- 
served. Amongst the most characteristic, in addition to those 
upon seals, are the shields in King's College Chapel, Cambridge, 
upon the Percy shrine at Beverley Minster, and upon the monu- 
ments of Henry VII. and of his mother, in Westminster Abbey. 
In a very few instances this shield may be observed quartering 
England and France instead of France and England — haxing Eng- 
land, that is, in the 1st and 4th qviarters : such a shield is in the 
south porch of Gloucester Cathedral, which was built between 
the years 1420—1437. 


When James I. ascended the English throne, the arms of both 
Sc0TLA^'D and Ireland were incorporated into the Eo^-al Shield 
of England. The arrangement then adopted involved Quarterly 
quartering. The arms of Scotland are blazoned in No. 103, PI. V. ; 
and those of Ireland are, azure, a Harp or, stringed argent. No. 
537 A, PI. XLVI. For a Paper on the Origin of the Treasure of 
Scotland, see ArchcBologia, xxx., 388 ; and for a Paper on the 
Harp of Ireland, see Notes and Queries, Series 1, xii., pp. 328 — 
360 : also see Seton's Heraldry of Scotland, p. 425. Eine ex- 
amples of the Eoyal Shield of the Stuarts appear upon the plinth 
of the Statue of Charles I., at Charing Cross, and in the second 
quadrangle of St. John's College, Oxford. 

VI. The Stuart Princes, James L, Charles I., Charles II., 
and James II., a.d. 1603 — 1689, Quarterly: — 1 and 4 Grand 
Quarters, France Modern and England quarterly ; 2nd Grand Quarter, 
Scotland ; Zrd Grand Quarter, Ireland ; No 537, PI. LVIII., 
from the Stuart Monuments in Westminster Abbey. 

In Scotland precedence has frequently been given to the Scot- 
tish insignia in the National Arms, in Seals, Banners, &c. ; but 
certainly the same marshalling of the Koyal Arms and their 
accessories ought to obtain, without any modification or differ- 
ence whatever, as well in North and South Britain as through- 
out the British Colonial Empire. See Seton, pp. 425 — 446. 

VII. William III. retained the same shield, but, as an elected 
King, he placed upon it in pretence his paternal arms of Nassau, 
az., hilletee, a Lion rampant or. No. 538, PI. XLVII. Mary bore 
the Stuart shield ; and, during her lifetime, the Royal Arms 
appeared impaled, to denote the joint sovereignty of the King 
and Queen. The Royal Shield, accordingly, was charged on 
both the Dexter and the Sinister half with the same Stuart arms, 
those on the Dexter having Nassau in pretence ; No. 539, PI. 
LIX., from the Great Seal. 

William and Mary ascended the throne, Feb. 13, 1 689. Mary 
died, Dec. 28, 1694, when William bore No. 539 A. PI. LIX. 


On her accession, a.d. 1702, Anne bore the Stiiart arms 
No. 537, PI. LVIII., and retained them until the union with 
Scotland, May 1, 1707, when another change took place in the 
Eoyal blazonry. 

VIII. The Stuart Queen Anne, a.d. 1707 — 1714: Quarterly: 
— 1 and 4, England impaling Scotland ; 2, France Modern ; 3, 
Ireland. The shield upon the Great Seal adopted on the occa- 
sion of the Union with Scotland, bore only England impaling 
Scotland. In this impalement the Tressure of Scotland extends 
only to the chief, sinister side, and base of the field. The ex- 
ample, No. 540, PI. LIX., is from the shield upon the base of 
the statue of Queen Anne, before St. Paul's Cathedral ; other 
good examples are at Blenheim Palace. 

The Succession of the House of Hanover led to a place 
being assigned for the Arms of Hanover in the Royal Shield of 
England. The Arms of Hanover are thus blazoned : Per pale 
and per chevron : 1, gules, two lAons passant guardant, in pale, or, 
for Brunswick, (the same as the Norman Shield of England); 

2, or, seme'e of Hearts, a Lion rampant azure, for Lunenburgh ; 3, 
gules, a Horse courant argent, for Westphalia ; and, over all, an 
inescutcheon gules, charged with the golden Crown of Charlemagne ; 
No. 541, PI. XL VII. 

IX. The Sovereigns of the House of Hanover, George I., 
George II., and George III., from August 1, 1714, till January 
1, 1801, Quarterly: — 1, England impaling Scotland; 2, France; 

3, Ireland ; 4, Hanover ; No. 542, PI. LIX. ; from the tympanum 
of the portico of the Church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields, London. 
In this composition one half only of the 1st quarter is assigned 
to the Lions of England. 

Upon the first of January, 1801, by Eoyal Proclamation, the 
French fleurs de lys were removed from the Arms of England, 
and the Royal Shield of England assumed the general aspect 
with which we have long been familiar. 

X. The Sovereigns of the House of Hanover, George III., 


George IV., and William IV., from January 1, 1801, till June 
20, 1837 ; Quarterly : — 1 and 4, England ; 2, Scotland; 3, Ireland ; 
and over all in pretence, Hanover. From 1801 till 1816, the Ines- 
cutcheon of Pretence was ensigned by George III. with the 
Electoral Bonnet of Hanover, Ko, 542 A, PI. LXXVI. ; hnt from 
181G till June 20, 1837, the same shield was ensigned with a 
Boyal Crown ; No. 543, PI. LIX. 

XI. On the happy accession of Her Majesty, Queen Victoria, 
June 20, 1837, the Arms of Hanover were removed from the 
Eoyal Shield ; and thus the Royal Arms of England are now 
simply a combination of the insignia of the Three Realms of the 
United Kingdom, England, Scotland, and Ireland, as in Ko. 
543 A, PI. LIX. This noble shield, I venture to suggest, 
might assume a still more impressive aspect, were a sliip to 
appear in the fourth quarter, in place of the repeated lions, as the 
cognizance of the British Colonial Empire. From the time of 
Edward III., the shield charged with the Eoyal Arms of Eng- 
land has been encircled with the Garter, charged ivith the Motto of 
tie Order. See Nos. 286, 289. 

In Plates LVIII., and LIX., I have placed before students of 
Heraldry the entire series of the Eoyal Shields of England, with 
the sole exception of that modification of No. 543, which would 
be charged with the Electoral Bonnet of Hanover instead of an 
Imperial Crown. 



The Eoyal Banners of England have always bonie the same 
blazonry as the Eoyal Shields. The earliest blazon of a Eoyal 
Banner of which I am aware, aj^pears in the Eoll of Caeiiaverock, 
A.D. 1300. The Chronicler styles the animals '■'■Leopards," and 
not Lions, (see p. 57) ; and he uses the descriptive epithet 
" courant " instead of passant. The Eoyal Banner of Edward I. 
the Chronicler of Caerlaverock describes after this characteristic 

TIIK liO^Jili &RMS OF E^'GIjA:\.D. 



A.I). 1066 to 1154 

AD I\U to 1340 

fh f\t/1 ftf 

k 4tVtt fi 

fi? ^t/tVt/t 

\ "^^^^.--^ 

AD 1405 tol603 






VV Jlil.IAM m & MARY 

late LiX 


manner : " On his Banner wore three Leopards, courant, of fine 
gold, set on red ; fierce were they, haughty and cniel, thus 
placed to signify that, like them, the King is dreadful to his 
enemies. For his bite is slight to none who inflame his anger ; 
and yet, towards such as seek his friendship or submit to his 
power, his kindness is soon rekindled." 

Edward III. on his Standards placed his quartered shield at 
their head, and powdered them with Fleurs de lys and Lions, 
as in No. 312, PI. XXIX. Drawings of many curious examples 
of both these Banners and Standards are preserved amongst 
the collections at the Heralds' College ; see p. 290). Several 
of the Sovereigns, in addition to the Banner of their Koyal 
Anns, Tised other Banners and Standards charged with their 
Badges. It is to be observed that the Royal Banners of Arms 
charged their insignia upon their entire field, without any 
accessories, until the time of the Stuarts, when the Arms were 
sometimes either associated with other Devices, or the Flag 
bore the entire Royal Achievement charged upon the centre of its 
field. Curious examples of Eoyal Standards thus emblazoned 
appear in the pictures, now at Hampton Court, representing 
the embarkation of Charles II., in 1660, and of William HI., in 
1688. More recently the Eoyal Banner has always displayed 
the Arms of England, after the early habit, blazoned over its 
entire field, and without any accessory. See Chap. XVIII. 



"With the Blazonry of the Eoyal Shield itself, the Supporters, 
which appear on either side of it, as if discharging sentry- 
duty, are habitually associated by the students of liistorical 

Supporters are said to have been introduced by Edward IH. ; 
the fact, however, is doubtful. The Supporters that have been 


assigned to Edward III., are a Lion and a Falcon. Two tchite 
Harts (Vincent, 152, f. 51, m Coll. Arm.), have been assigned to 
Eichard II., if he can be considered to have borne them as true 
Supporters. A Lion and an Antelope, and also an Antelope and a 
Swan (f. 52), have been attributed to Henry IV., though with 
uncertain authority ; and there is some uncertainty about the 
Lion and Antelope, that are said to have been the Suppoileis of 
the Arms of Henry V. After this reign the Supporters are as 
follows : 

Henry VI. Two Antelopes argent; sometimes the Dexter, a 
Lion ; the Sinister, a Panther, Antelope, or Heraldic Tiger. 

Edward IV. Dext., a Lion or ; Sin., a Bull sa., (Vinct. 152, 
f. 53) : also a Lion arg., or two Lions arg., or a Hart arg. 

Edward V. Dext,, a Uon arg. ; Sin., a Hart arg., gorged and 
chained or. 

Eichard III. Dext., a Lion or ; Sin., a Boar arg.; but more 
generally, two Boars arg., (Vinct. 152, f. 54). 

Henry' VII. A Dragon gu. and a Greyhound arg., sometimes 
the one and sometimes the other being the Dexter ; also, occa- 
sionall}^ two Greyhounds arg., as at the Bishop's Palace, Exeter : 
also. Dexter, a Lion or. ; Sin., a Dragon gu., (Vinct. 152, f. 54). 
See the Achievements of Arms in King's College Chapel, Cam- 

Henry VIII. Generally, Dext., a Lion or ; Sin., a Dragon gu. 
Sometimes, Dext., a Dragon gu. ; and Sin., a Bull, a Greyhound, or 
a Cock, all argent. 
, Edward VI. A Lion or, and a Dragon gu. 

2fl ^^6) ^^'^'^ ^^^ Elizabeth. Dext., a Lion or ; Sin., a Dragon or, or 
'' ' a Greyhound arg. (Mary's shield when impaled is supported by 

an Eagle and a Lion.) 

^^>>^\ James I. A Lion or, and a Unico^'n arg. 
Two TJnicM-ns had succeeded to tico Lions as the Supporters of 
Scotland before Mary Stuart's son was bom ; and the first Stuart 
King of Great Britain assumed, as his Supporters, a golden Lion 


for England on the Dexter, and one of the silver Unicorns of Scotland 
on the (Sinister side of his Shield. Upon the ]\Ionument of 
Queen Elizabeth at Westminster this order is leversed, the 
Unicorn being to the Dexter. 

The Supporters of the Eoyal Shield of England have remained 
unchanged since the time of James I. They are now blazoned 
as follows : 

Dexter Eoyal Supporter : A Lion ramjpant guardant or, impe- 
rially croicned ppr. 

Sinister Eoyal Supporter : An Unicorn arg., armed, unguled and 
crined w, gorged ivith a coronet composed of crosses patte'es and fleurs 
de lys gold, a chain affixed thereto of the last, passing between the fore- 
legs, and reflexed over the hack. 



At the head of the Heraldic Devices and Figures, adopted and 
borne by the Sovereigns of England as Badges, stands the 
Planta Genista — that simple sprig of Broom-plant, which gave a 
name to one of the proudest and most powerful Families that 
ever rose to eminence amongst their fellow-men. The motive 
that induced Geoffrey of Anjou to assume as his cognizance the 
Sprig of Broom is uncertain, though very probably it had its 
origin in some religious sentiment ; the Device itself, however, 
its Latin name, and its associations, will live and be remem- 
bered so long as Heraldry exists, or History itself is held in 
esteem. The Effigy of Eichaed II. at Westminster, has the 
robes diapered with the Planta Genista, No. 210, PI. XII., and 
with other Badges of that unfortunate Prince. The Seal of 
Jaspar Tudor also has the field of the Seal itself diapered with 
the Planta Genista. 

Second only to the Planta Genista in interest are the White 
and Bed Boses of the rival Flantagenets of York and Lancaster, 
(See pp. 75, 293, and PL XIII.) and the famous Ostrich Feathers. 



jjtj Badges: Hexry II. 7'he Broom, slioicing the leaver and seed- 
pods of the plant : an Escarhuncle : a Sword : and an Olive- 

EiCHARD I. A Star issuing from a Crescent, No. 544, PI. XL VII.: 
a Star and Crescent separately : a mailed Arm, the hand grasping a 
broken lance : a Sun on two Anchors, with the motto, " CJiristo Duce." 

JoHX and He>«ry III. A Star issuing from a Crescent, No. 544, 

Edward I. A Bose or, stalked ppr. 

Edward II. A Castle of Castile. 

Edward III. Bays descending from a Cloud : the Stock or Stump 
of a Tree, couped : a Falcon : a Griffin : an Ostrich Feather : a 
Fleur de lys : a Sword. 

Eichard II. An Ostrich Feather: the Sun behind a Cloud: 
•^7 the Sun in splendour: a ichite Hart lodged, (from his mother, 
JoAX of Kent, see No. 525) : the Stump of a Tree : a white 
Vvj-*7,i^3 Falcon. (Examples on his EflBgy, and at Westminster Hall.) 

Henry IV. Tlie Monogram SS : a Crescent ; a Fox's Tail : a 
Stock or Stump of a Tree : an Ermine or Gennet : a crowned Eagle : 
a croumed Panther : an Ostrich Feather : an Eagle displayed : a 
Columbine Flower : the Lancastrian red Bose, and the white Swan of 
the De Bohuns. 

Henry V. An Ostrich Feather : a chained Antelope : a chained 
Swan : a Fire-Beacon. These Badges are sometimes grouped 
together, as in the Monumental Chantry of tlie King at West- 

Henry' VI. A chained Antelope : a spotted Panther : and two 
Ostrich Feathers in saltire. 

He first assumed as a regular Motto the ancient royal war 
cry of England, Dieu et mon Droit. 

Edward IV. A black Bull, (Clarence) : a black Dragon, 
(Ulster) : a white Wolf and a white Lion, (Mortimer) : a ichite 
Hart : a Falcon and Fetter-lock : the Sun in splendour : a white 
Bose with Bays. 



Richard III, A White Bose : the Sun in splendor : a White 
Boar : and a Falcon with a Virgin's Face, holding a Wliiie Base. 

Henry VII, A Portcullis : a White Greyhound courant : a 
Bed Dragon, (Cadwallader) : a Dun Cow, (W^arwick) : a Haic- 
thorn Bush royally crowned, xoitli Cypher, h,r., No. 545, PI. XLVII. : 
a Bose of Torh and Lancaster, No. 248, PI, XIII, : and a crowned 

Henry VIII. A Portcullis : a Fleur-de-lys : a Bose of York and 
Lancaster : a WJiite Coch : a White Greyhound courant. 

Catherine of Arragon had for Badges the Pomegranate, the 
Bose, and the Sheaf of Arrows; (See the Monument of Prince 
Arthur Tuix)r, at Worcester). Annk Boleyn had a Falcon 
crowned and holding a Sceptre ; Jane Seymour had a Phcenix rising 
from a Castle, between Tudor Bases ; and Kathereste Parr had a 
Maiden's Head croicned, rising from a large Tudor Bose. 

Edward VI. The Sun in splendor, and the Tudor Bose. J^a/Ou^rtt-y, 3Si 

Mary'. a Pomegranate : a Pomegranate and Bose conjoined : 
the Tudor Bose impaling a Sheaf of Arrows, ensigned with a Crown, 
and surrounded by Bays. She sometimes used as a Motto the 
words, " Veritas Temporis Filia." 

Elizabeth. 27*6 Crowned Falcon icith a Sceptre (of her mother), 
and the Tudor Bose, with the Motto, " Bosa sine spiiia." In addi- 
tion to the established Eoyal Motto, " Dieu et man Droit,'' she 
often used as her own Motto, " Semper Eadem." 

James I. The TJiidle, and the Bose and Thistle dimidiated and 
crowned, No. 546, PI. XLVII., with the Motto, " Beati Pacifici." 

Charles I,, Charles II., and James II. The same Badges as 
James I., without his Motto. 

Anne. A Bose-branch and a Thistle groimng from one stalk, and 
crowned; on the Great Seal of the year 1707. 

From this time personal Badges ceased to be adopted; but 
the Bose, Tliistle, and Shamrock, all of them imperially crowned, 
as the Badges of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and the Motto, 
" Dieu et mon Droit," have permanently taken their becoming 



parts in blazoning the Koyal Achievement of England. The 
Bed Dragon also, Avith his wings elevated, and passant upon a 
mount vert, is still the Eoyal Badge for the Principality of 



With the Koyal Arms of the Reigning Sovereigns of England, 
the student of Historical Heraldry will frequently desire to asso- 
ciate those that were borne by the Consorts of thesn Sovereigns. 
They constantly occur in connection with those records of 
English History, of which Heraldry is at once the Chronicler 
and niustrator. 

1. Matilda of Flanders : Gyronnee or and az., an inescuicheon gu. 

2. Matilda of Scotland : Scotland : No. 103, PI. V. 

3. Adelais of Louvain : Or, a Lion rampt. az., langued gu. 

4. Matilda of Bologne : Or, three torteaux. 

5. Eleanor of Aquitaine and Guyenne : Gu., a Lion passant guar- 
dant or. 

6. Berengaria of Navarre : Az., a Cross arg., afterwards super- 
seded by Navarre Modern : See " Arms of Navarre " in Chap. 

7. Isabel of Angouleme : Lozengy, or and gu. 

8. Alianore of Provence : Or, four Pallets gu. ; No. 7, PI. I. 

9. Alianore of Castile : Quarterly, Castile and Leon ; that is, 
1 and 4, gu., a Castle triple-towered or : 2 and 3, arg., a Lion rampt, 
gu., No. 135, PI. 1. She also bore Ponthieu, in i-ight of her 
mother, and this shield on her monument at Westminster alter- 
nates with England and Castile and Leon. Ponthieu is, or, three 
Bendlets az., within a Bordure gu., No. 547, PI. XLVIT. On her 
seal, her EflBgy stands between a Castle sunnounting a Lion on 
her Dexter side, and on her Sinister side a Lion surmounting a 
Castle; the reverse has a shield of England suspended by its 
guige from a Tree. 

OF ENGLAND. ' 307 

- 10. Margarp:t of France : France Ancient dimidiated by England, 
i^ No. 322, PI. XVIIT. ; also a shield of England upon a seal, the 
field of which is semee de li/s, No. 332 a, PI. LXXX. 

11. IsABELLE of France: France Ancient dimidiating Navarre, 
(in right of her mother) : See Navarre in Chap. XXXII. She 
bore England on one shield, and France with Navarre on another ; 
see No. 335 a, and p. 152. 

12. Philippa of Hainault : Quarterly, 1 and 4, or, a lAon rampt. 
sa., for Flanders ; 2 and 3, or, a Lion ramjpt. gu., for Holland : 
(See p. 159.) She bore these, her paternal arms, qimrtered with 
England only : No. 337, p. 159. Her arms were also impaled by 
England and by France and England quarterly. 

13. Anne of Bohemia: Quarterly; 1 and 4, Germany, arg., an A<t./i75#f>* 
Eagle displayed, with two heads, sa. ; 2 and 3, Bohemia, gu., a Lion ^ H*mA.i 
rampant, queue fourchee, arg., crowned or. She impaled these arms />' ^^ 
with the shield of Richard II., upon which the arms of the 
Confessor were marshalled per pale with France and England ; 
consequently the complete shield would be blazoned tiercee in 

pale, &c.; No. 349, PI. XXIII. 

14. Isabel of France : France Modern : impaled, A.n. 1397, by 
IviCHARD II. ; No. 350. This Impalement may be considered to 
have first suggested to Henry IV. the change in his own arms 
from France Ancient to France Modern. 

15. Joanne of Navarre: Quarterly; 1 and 4, Eureux, az., three 
fleurs de lys or ; over all, a Bendlet, compony arg. and gu. ; 2 and 3, 
Navarre ; see Navarre in Chap. XXXII. Impaled by Hknry IV. : 

1 See monument at Canterbury, and Chap. XXII. 

' 16. Catherine of France : France Modern. Impahd by 

Henry V. 
i"ll,^ji>ri7. Margaret of .47i/ott ; Quarterly of six : — 
)L 1 . Hungary : Barry of eight arg. and gu. 

2. Naples : France Ancient, with Label of three gu. 

3. Jerusalem ; Arg., a Cross potent betiveen four plain Crosses oi\ 

4. Anjou : France Ancient, within a Bar dure gv. 

X 2 


6. De Barre : Az., two Barbels Jmurient addorsed and cnmUy filchee 

or, all within a Bordure gu. 
G. Lorraine : Or, on a hend gu., three Eaglets displayed arg. 

Impaled by Henry VI. : No. 352, PI. XXIII. 

18. Elizabeth Widville, or Woodville : Quarterly of six : — 

1. Luxembourg : Arg., a lAon rampt. double tailed gu., crowned 
or ; for Peter, Count de Luxembourg, her maternal grand- 

2. De Baux : Quarterly ; 1 and 4, gu., an Estoile of 1 rays arg. ; 
2 and 3, az. ; semee de lys or ; for her gi-andmother, Margaret, 
daughter of Francis de Baux, Due d'Andree. • 

3. Cyprus : Barry of ten arg. and az., over all a lAon rampt. gu. 

4. Ursins: Gu., three Bendlets arg. ; a Chief per fesse of the second, 
and or, charged with a Rose of the first : for her great-grand- 
mother, Susan, daughter of the Count des Ursins. 

5. St. Paul : Chi., three Pallets variee ; on a Chief or a Label of five 
points, az. 

6. Widville: Arg., a Fesse and a Canton conjoined gu. 
Impaled by Edward IV. 

19. Anne Neville : Gu., a Saltire arg. ; differenced with a Lahel 
of three points company of the second and az. 

Impaled by Richard III. 

In the " Warwick Roll " she quarters, Beauchamp, Montagu, 
and Monthermer with Neville. 

20. Elizabei'h of Yoi-Jc: Quarterly; 1 and 4, Ulster, Or, a 
Cross gu. ; 2 and 3, Mortimer. 

Impaled by Henry VII. Emblazoned on the Monuments of 
the Countess of Richmond, and of Henry VII. and Elizabeth of 
York, Westminster Abbey, No. 351, PI. XXIII. 

21. Catherine of Arragon : Quarterly ; 1 and 4, G)-and Quarters, 
Castile and Leon, quarterly ; 2 and 3, Grand Quarters, Arragon, 
Or, four Pallets gu., impaling Sicily, per Saltire, 1 and 4, Arragon, 
2 and 3, arg.. Eagle displayed sa., beaked and membered gu. In the 
Base Point, the Badge of GHE^fADA, arg., a Pomegranate slipped ppr. 

OF KNGLANl). 309 

The Supporters of Queen Catherink of Arragon were a Lion and 
an Eagle. 

Impaled by Henry VIII. 

22. The Arms of Queen Anne Boleyn are the first which 
exemplify the usage, introduced by Henry VIII., of granting to 
his Consorts " Augmentations " to their paternal arms. It is a 
striking illustration of the degenerate condition of Heraldry 
under the second Tudor Sovereign. 

Anne Boleyn : Quarterly of six : — 

il. Lancaster. 
2. Engoulesme, or Naples. 
3. Guyenne. 

4. Quarterly, 1 and 4; or, a Chief indented az., /or Butler ; 2 and 3, 
arg.. Lion rampt. sa., crowned gu., for Roohfort. 

5. Brotherton. 

6. Warrenne. 

Impaled by Henry VIII. (See the choir-screen of King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge.) 

Supporters : a Leopard, and a male Griffin. 

23. Jane Seymour : Quarterly of six : — 

1. Or, on a Pile gu., between six Fleurs de hjs az., three Lions of 
England. An Augmentation. 

2. Seymour. 

3. Beauchamp of Hache : Vairee. 

4. Sturmy, or Esturmi : Arg., three demi-Lions rampt. gu. 

5. Mac Williams : Per bend arg. and gu., three Roses, bendmse, 
counter changed. 

0. CoKER : Arg., on a Bend gu., three Leopard's Heads o»\ 
Impaled by Henry VIII., and blazoned frequently at Windsor 

and Hampton Court. 

Supporters : A Lion and a Unicorn. 

24. Anne of Cleves : Gu., an Inescutcheon arg., over all, an Es- 
carbuncle of eight rays or. 

Impaled by Henry VIII. 


25. Catherine Howard : Quarterly :— 

1. Az., three Fleurs tie li/s, in pale, or, between two Flanches crm., each 
charged ic'iih a Mose gu. 

2. Broth ERtoN. 

3. Howard Modein. 

4. Az., two Lions of England ; tJie Verge of the Escutcheon charged 
with four half Fleurs de lys or. 

1 and 4 are Augmentations. 
Impaled by Henry VIII. 

26. Catherine Parr : Quarterly of six : — 

1. Arg., on a Pile gu., between six Roses of the 2nd, three other Roses 
of the 1st. (Augmentation.) 

2. Arg., two Bars az., toithin a Bordure engrailed sa. 

3. Boss of Kendall : Or, three Water-hougets sa. 

4. Marmion : Vairee, a fesse gu. 

5. FiTZ Hogh : Az., three Chevrons, interlaced in base; a Chief oi: 

6. Green : Vert, three Harts at gaze or. 
Impaled by Henry VIII. 

27. Philip, King of Spain. TJie sams arms as those o/ Catherine 
of Arragon. (See 21.) J»ipa7mr/ the arms of Mary. 

28. Anne of Denmark. The arms borne by Anne, daughter of 
Frederick II., King of Denmark and Norway, are a complicated 
example of the elaboration of details held in such high esteem 
amongst the continental Heralds of comparatively recent times. 
These arms may be described as follows : A Cross gu., surmounted 
of another arg. In the Dexter Canton, or, seme'e of hearts ppr., 
three lions pass, guard, in pale az., crowned or, for Denmark ; in the 
sinister canton, gu., a lion rampt., croicned oi; holding in his paws a 
battle-axe arg., for Norway ; in the dexter base quarter, az., three 
crowns ppr., for Sweden ; and in the sinister base quarter, or, ten 
hearts, 4, 3, 2, and 1, gu., in chief a lion pass, guard, az., for 
Jutland. In the base of the shield, beneath the Cross, the 
ancient ensign of the ^^AXDALS, gu., a wyvcrn, its tail nowed and 
wings expanded or. Upon the centre of the C'ross an escutcheon 



of pretence, charged with Quarterly, ] . Or, tico lions pass, guard, 
az., for Sleswick ; 2. Gu., an inescutcJieon, having a nail in every 
point tliereof, in triangle, between as many holly-leaves, all ppr., for 
HoLSTEiN ; 3. Chi., a swan arg., beaked sa., gorged with a coronet ppr., 
for Stormerk ; and 4, Az., a chevalier, armed at all points, brand- 
ishing his sword, his helm plumed, his charger arg., the trappings or, 
for DiTZMERS. Over the whole, on an inescutcheon, or, two bars 
gu., for Oldenburgh, impaling for Dalmenhurst, az., a cross patee 
fitchee or. 

Bome on a separate shield, and marshalled with the Royal 
shield of James I. 

This shield, with some modification of its marshalling, (see 
Section 7 of this Chapter), is alrea,dy well known and honoured 
in England, thi'ough the auspicious and happy alliance between 
our own Prlsce of Wales, and the Priscess Alexandra of Den- 

29. Henrietta Maria of France : France Modern. This shield 
was sometimes bome impaled by St. George. 

Impaled by Charles I. A very fine example of this impaled 
shield is carved above one of the archways in the inner 
quadrangle of St. John's College, Oxford. 

30. Catherine of Braganza : Arg., on each of five escutcheons, in 
cross, az., as many plates, in saltire, the ichole icithin a bordure gu., 
charged tcith eight castles or, for Portugal. 

Impaled by Charles II. 

31. Mary D'Este, of Modena: Quarterly: — 1 and 4, Este, arg., 
an eagle displayed sa., crowned or ; 2 and 3, Ferrara, az. three fleurs 
de lys or, icithin a bordure counterindented or and gu. 

Impaled by James II. 

32. Prince George of Denmark : The same as 28. 

33. The arms of the unhappy Consort of George I. do not 
appear ever to have been exhibited in England. As she was her 
husband's cousin, her arms were probably the same as those 
which he himself bore before his accession to the English crown. 


34. Caroline Wilhklmina of BranderAiirgh Anspach : The arms 
of his Consort, impaled by Gkorge IT., are quarterly of fifteen 
pieces ; the following blazon from German authorities differs 
in several particulars from that given, from a contemporary 
print, by Mr. Willement in his most excellent work on "Eegal 
Heraldry :" — 

Quarterly of fifteen : — 1. Magdebqrg, jjer fesse gti. and arg., each 
bordered : 2. Prussia : 3. Stettix, az., a griffin segreant gu., crowned 
or : 4. PoMERANiA, arg., a grffin segreant gu. : 5. Wenden, arg., a 
griffin segreant bendy gu. and vert : 6. Cassuben, or, a griffin segreant 
sa. : 7 and 9, Crossen, arg., an eagle disp. sa. : 8. Halberstadt, 
per pale arg, and gu., bordered : 10. Nuremberg, or, a lion rampt. 
sa., crowned, within a bordure c^mponee arg. and gu. : 11. Minden, 
gu., two keys in saltire arg. : 12. Hohenzollerx, quarterly arg. and 
sa., bordered : 13. IIalbeestadt, per pale arg. and gu. : 14. Star- 
GARD, per fesse gu. and or : 15. Gu., for right of Begalia : and, 
over all, on an inescutcheon, Brandenburgh, arg., an eagle disj). gu. 

Impaled by George II. 

35. Charlotte of MecMenburgh Strelitz: Quarterly of 6: — 1. 
Mecklenburgh, or, a buffalo's head cdbossed sa., armed arg., through 
the nostrils an annulet of the last, ducally croivned gu., the attire jvflss- 
ing through the croim : 2. Wenden, az., a griffin segreant or : 3. 
ScHWERiN Principality, per fesse az. and vert, in chief a griffin 
segreant or, the base bordered round the entire field arg. : 4. Eatz- 
BURGH, gu., a cross couped arg., ducally crowned or : 5. Schwerin 
County, gu., an arm embowed, in armour to the im-ist, issuing from 
clouds on the sin. side, and holding between the finger and thumb a gem 
ring, all pp'., round the arm a riband tied az. : 6. Eostock, or, a 
buffalo's head in profile sa., armed arg., ducally crouoned gu., over all 
an escutcheon of pretence, jjer/esse, gu. and or, for Stargard. 

Impaled by George III. 

36. Caroline, daughter of Charles Frederick William, Duke 
of Brunswick, K.G, The following blazon of the arms of 
Brunswick is from the German authorities, Spener, Liebmacher 


and Triers : in the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th quarters, this Shield ^ 
thus blazoned diflFers from the Shield of the Duke, which is 
displayed upon his Garter-Plate at Windsor. Quarterly of 

1. Ldnenburgh, or, semee of hearts gu., a lion rampt. az. : 2. Bruns- 
wick, gii., two lions pass, guard, in pale or : 3. Ebersteix, arg., a 
lion rampt. az., croioned gu. : 4. Hombekg, gu., tvithin a bordure com- 
ponee arg. and az., a lion rampt. or : o. Diephold, az., a lion rampt. 
arg., croioned or : 6. Lauterbergii, gu., a lion rampt. or : 7. Hoja 
and Bruckhausen, Quarterly, 1 and 4, or, ttco hearts paws couped 
and addorsed in pale sa. ; 2 and 3, gyronny of eight arg. and az., a 
chief harry of four gu. and of the first : 8. Diephold, az., an eagle 
disp. arg., (or, very commonly, arg., an eagle disp. az.) : 9. Honx- 
STEiN, or, two bars gu., a chief chequee arg. and gu. : 10. Eegen- 
STEiN, arg., a stag's attire gu. 11. Clettenberg, arg., a stag trip- 
ping sa. : 12. Blanckenberg, arg., a stag's attire sa. : the stag's 
attii'es in the 10th and 12th quarters are so disposed as to follow 
the contour of the escutcheon, and therefore they are either in 
fesse or in bend, as the case may be. 

Impaled by George IV. 

37. Adelaide of Saxe Meinengen. Quarterly of 9: — 1. Thu- 
ringia, az., a lion rampt. barry of eight arg. and gu., crowned or : 
2. Cleves, gu., an escarhuncle of eight rays or, the rays issuing from 
an inescutcheon arg. : 3. Juliers, or, a lion rampt. sa., crowned gu. : 
4. Meissex, or, a lion rampt. sa., croioned gu. : 5. SAX0^!Y : 6. Berg, 
arg., a lion rampt. gu. croioned or : 7. Westphalia, arg. an eagle 
displayed gu., crowned or : 8. Landesberg, or, two pales az. : 9. 
Thurixgia Pfalz, sa., an eagle displayed or : 10. Orlajiuxde, or, 
a lion rampt. sa., crowned gu. : 11. Eisexberg, arg., three bars az. : 
12. Pleissex, az., a lion rampt. or : 13. Altexberg, arg., a rose gu., 
seeded and barbed pp: : 14. CrM., for right of Eegalia : 15. Brehna, 
or Exgern, arg., three boterols (scabbard-tags) gu. : 16. Marck, or, 
a fesse chequee arg. and gu. : 17. Axhalt, gu., a column in pale arg., 
crowned or, the pedestal of the last : 18. Henxebergh, or, on a mound 



vert a cock sa., crested and tcattled <jn. : 19. Ravensbergh, ary., three 
chevroneh gu. 

Impaled by William IV. 

38. His late Royal Highness, Albert, the Prince Consort, 
bore the Arms of Saxoxy, quai'terly, with the Royal Arms of 
England dififerenced with his own Label — a Label of three points 
arg., charged on the central point with a cross gu, ; (See p. 167). It 
is customary in England to blazon the foliated bend of Saxony, 
as a head trefiee vert, or as a hend archee coronettee, or a coronet ex- 
tended in hend; this very beautiful Charge, however, which 
admits of rich and varied ornamentation, is a Chaplet or Wreath 

No. 353. — Shield of Arras of H.K.H. the late Puince Consori. 


of Bue, and on the Continent it is blazoned a Grancelin, from the 
German Kranzlein, ' a small garland.' The ancient Arms of 
Saxony were harry of ten or and sa. : as an Augmentation to these 


Anns, when he conferred the Dukedom of Saxony upon Bern- 
hard, Count of AscANiA, the Emperor Barbarossa took oflF the 
Crown of Rue which he wore upon his head, and threw it ob- 
liquely across the shield of the newly-created Duke. (See Notes 
and Queries, 3rd Series, Ko. 130, p. 522.) 

The Shield of His late Eoyal Highness, No. 353, is encircled 
with the Garter of the Order, and ensigned with his own Coronet 
(No. 623) ; it is also supported by the Lion and Unicorn Siippoi-teis 
of England, both of them differenced xoith the same Label as the Arms, 
and the Lion crowned with the Prince's own Coronet ; the Crest is 
the Crest of England, but the Lion is differenced toith the same Label 
and ensigned with the same Coronet ; the Achievement may be 
further augmented with the insignia of the various Ordeis of 
which the Prince was a Knight. The Motto is, Tkeu und Fest,' 
Xo. 353. 



r<, d^yv^ — ' 


The Emblem and Ensign of Sovereignty, the Imperial Crown 
of Great Britain, has undergone several very decided changes in 
its form and enrichments, all of which come under the direct 
cognizance of the historical Herald. Many original authorities 
exist, which in this matter naturally illustrate and corroborate 
each other's contribution to heraldic History. These authorities 
are the Great Seals, the Coinage, Monumental Effigies, and mis- 
cellaneous Illuminations, Paintings, and Sculptures. 

The earliest form of the Crown worn by the English Kings 
after the Conquest, (which appears from various Illuminations 
closely to resemble the Crowns of the Anglo-Saxon Princes), is 
exemplified in the effigies of Henry" II., and his Queen Alia- 
NORE; of EicHARD I., and Isabella of Angouleme, at Fontevraud • 
of Berengaria, at I'Espan, near Mans, and of John, at Worcester. 
This Crown is a richly jewelled Circlet of gold, heightened with 


UurtM^lc what may be entitled heraldic Strawberry Leaves. These 
sculptured Crowns are all much mutilated, but still they plainly 
declare their original character. The Crowns of Richard and 
Berengaria have four large leaves only. Those of Hexuy, 
Alianore, and Isabella have four smaller leaves alternating 
with the four larger ones. The Crown of Jorix has also eight 
leaves, alternating large and small, and iu foi-m they are 
almost ti-ue trefoils. Of this group of examples, the most perfect 
are the Crowns of Kichard I. and Berengaria, Nob. 548, 549, 
ri. XLIL 

The Effigies of Henry III. and Aliaxore of Castile have 
Crowns of trefoil-leaves of two sizes, a slightly raised point 
intervening between each pair of the leaves. These Crowns 
doubtless were once enriched with real or imitative jewels and 
other adornments, which now leave no other traces of their 
former existence than tlie small holes for attaching them to 
the Crowns themselves; No. 198, p. 61. 

The Coins of Edward I. show that his Crown was similar 
in character to those of his Consort and his Father. 

The Effigy of Edward II., at Gloucester, still retains, almost 
luiinjured, its sculptured enrichments. The Crown is formed 
of four large, and four small Strawberry Leaves, rising with 
graceful cui-ves from the jewelled Circlet, and having eight 
small flowers alternating with the leaves ; No 550. 

The Crown appears to have remained the same as that which 
I have last described, until the accession of the first Lancastrian 
Sovereign, Henry IV. The elaborately sculptured Effigies of 
this Prince and of his Queen, Joanna, at Canterbury, wear 
magnificent Crowns, No. 551. Both have the same general 
character, the Crown of the Queen being distinguished by its 
smaller size and more delicate workmanship. In each, the 
jewelled Circlet is heightened by eight Strawberry Leaves, and 
as many Fleurs de lys, the whole alternating with sixteen small 
groups of pearls, three in each. These sculptured images of 



that " golden care," which was the one aim of Henry of Lan- 
caster, may be supposed to be faithful representations of the 
splendid " Harry Crown," broken up and employed as security 

No. 550. — Crown, Edwakd II. 

No. 551. — CroNvn, Henry IV, 

for the loan required by Henry V., when about to embark on 
his expedition to France. Eymer records that the costly 
fragments were redeemed in the eight and ninth years of 
Henry VI. 

The next change in the Crown of England is one which com- 
pletely alters its general aspect. This new feature consists in 
arcliing over the enriched Circlet with jewelled Bands of gold, 
and surmounting the enclosed Diadem with a Mound and Cross. 
The enrichments of the Circlet itself at the same time are so 
far changed, that Crosses patces occixpy the positions before 
filled by the Strawbeny Leaves, and Bases, or Fleurs de lys ap- 
pear instead of the small clusters of Pearls. The arched Crown 
at first has the arches elevated almost to a point; after a 
while, the arches are somewhat depressed at their intersection ; 
then this depression is considerably increased ; and at length, 
in the Crown of Her Majesty, Queen YicroRiA, the arches, 
which bend over almost at right angles, ai'e flattened above at 
the intersection where the mound rests upon them. At first, 
also, the arches recede inwards from their spring from the 
Circlet ; then they slightly project beyond the Circlet ; and now 
they rise almost vertically. The arches, in the first instance, 
are numerous, but in the Great Seal of Eicharp III. there are 


four arches only. Their number in the Crown that ensigns 
the Hawthorn Bush Badge of Henry VII., is six, No. 545, 
PI. XLVII. ; but by Henry VIII. they arc reduced to four. The 
Crown remained without any change during the Eeigns of 
Edwaed VI., Mary, and Elizabeth; except that in the Great 
Seal of Elizabkih she appears wearing a small Diadem having 
eight arches. The Crown of the Stuart Sovereigns, James T. 
and Charles I., has eight arches. On the Great Seals of 
Charles II., James II., and Anne, the Crown has four arches; 
and that nuniber has since remained unchanged. 

The arched Crown was introduced by Henry V., probably 
when a simpler emblem of Eoyalty was constiiicted on the 
breaking up of the more costly and precious Crown of his 
Father. It will bo understood that until the close of the 
Eeign of Edward IV., arched and unarched Crowns are both 
represented in sculpture, illuminations, and other works. The 
arched Crown, the arches having an ogee curvature, appears 
for the first time upon the Great Seal of Edward V.I., and we 
learn from illuminations that a Crown similar to his own was 
worn by his Queen. 

The arches of the Crown always spring from behind the 
crosses patees that heighten the circlet. The crosses on the 
Great Seal of Henry VIII. appear to be only four in number ; 
but the Tudor Crown generally is represented with eight crosses 
and as many fleuris de lys. Upon the monument of the Countess 
of EiCHMONi), the mother of Henry VII., there are seven shields 
and one lozenge of arms ; of the former, three are ensigned 
with large crowns heightened with eight crosses, as manj- 
fleurs de lys, and sixteen small roses, and the crowns are arched 
with two depressed arches which support a mound and cross 
pat^e ; three more of these shields have similar crowns without 
the arches ; and one shield and the lozenge are without crowns, 
No. 557, Chap. XXIIl. At the head and feet of the monument 
of Henry VII. there are crowns of four arches .splendidly en- 

(' HOWJ^S. 






0% ^ 


Plate XUl 



riclied. The Crown of James I., represented on his Great 
Seal, retains eight crosses and eight fleurs do lys, without any 
roses ; and Charles II. reduces both crosses and fleurs de lys 
to four, the same number as the arches. The velvet cap, worn 
within the Crown, appears for the first time upon the Great 
Seal of Hexry VIII. 

The successive changes in the Crown of England are ex- 
emplified in No. 552, PI. XLII,, Henry V., from Westminster 
Abbey ; No. 553, Henry VI. ; No. 554, Edward IV., and No. 
555, from the Great Seal of the same king; No. 556, Chap. 
XXII., Henry VII., from King's College Chapel, Cambridge ; 
it will be observed that the Eoyal Motto in this splendid Crown 
is charged upon the circlet of the diadem; No. 557, Chap. 
XXIII., Crown from the monument of Margaret, Countess of 
Richmond, in Westminster ; No. 558, PI. XLIL, Henry VIII. ; 
at Norwich on a building, a shield of Henry VIII. is ensigned 
with a Crown of the simple form shown in No. 558 a ; Nos. 
559, and 560, PI. XLII., Charles I., and Charle.s II., both from 
their Great Seals. Thus the Crown is brought to assume the 
character sho^^oi in No. 562, which has four crosses patees, and 

No. 562. — The Imperial Crown. 

four fleurs de lys, set alternately on the circlet, and four pearl- 
studded arches which rise from within the crosses, and caiTv at 
their intersection the Mound and Cross. The arches in this 



example are depressed, and their sweep projects somewhat be- 
yond the circlet. 

The Crown of Hrcu Majesty's immediate predecessors, No. 562, 
has ab-eady become historical, having been superseded by the 
new State Crown, No. 624, made for the Coronation of the Queen, 
and in use on those occasions of high state ceremonial which 
require the presence of this emblem of Roj'al Dignity. This 
Crown differs from No. 562 rather in enrichment than in its 

No. G24. — The State Crown of Her Majesty the Qceen. 

arrangement. There is, indeed, a decided difference in the 
contour of the arches, which rise almost perpendicularly from 
within the crosses patees, and are somewhat elevated (instead of 
being depressed) at their intersection. The Crown is completely 
covered with diamonds, and is also richly studded with various 
other costly gems. The arches assume the form of wreaths of 
the rose, thistle, and shamrock formed of brilliants. The cap is 
of purple velvet, lined with ermine. 

The Heraldic Crown which enjoys the Eoyal favour, differs 
from both No. 562, and the State Crown, No. 624, and inclines 
to the type of an earlier time ; this Heraldic Crown of our Most 



Gracious Sovereign is represented in No. 334, page 332, ensigning 
the Eoyal Shield of Ai-ms. 

The Coronet of II.R.IL, Albert, the late Prince Consort, 
differs from the Imperial Crown in having eight instead of four 
arches ; these arches rise from strawberry leaves and are curved. 
The details of the enrichments are also peculiar: No. 562 a. 

No. 562 A. — Coronet of the late Prince Consort, 

The Coronet of H.R.H., Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, has 
two arches only, which rise from a jewelled circlet, heightened 
as the Imperial Crown. The arches are surmounted by a mound 
and cross. The cap is of crimson velvet : No. 563. 

No. 5G3.— Coronet of H.E.H., the Prince of Wales. 

The Prince of Wales also bears, as the ensign of that Prin- 
cipality, a jewelled circlet heightened with four crosses patees 
and as many fleurs de lys, which encloses a plume of three ostrich 
feathers rising above the circlet itself. Below, on a ribbon, the 
motto, " Ich Dien" No. 235 a, PI. XV. See also pages 256 and 
328, and Chap. XXIV., Sect 1. 



The Coronets of the other Princes, the Sons of the Queen, and 
of the Princesses, the Daughters of Her Majesty, have the circlet 
heightened with fonr crosses patees, and four fleurs de lys. The 
cap, of crimson velvet, is lined with ermine, and is surmounted 
by a golden tassel ; No. 564, PI. XLI. 

The Coronets of the Princes and Princesses, the Grandsons and 
Granddaughters of the Queen, differ from those of their Eojal 
Uncles and Aunts, only in haying the circlet heightened with 
two crosses patees, as many strawberry leaves, and four fleurs de 
lys; No. 565. 

The Coronets of the Koyal Cousins of the Queen have the 
circlet heightened with crosses patees and strawberry leaves only ; 
No. 566, PL XLI. 



I. Arms of T.R.TL, The Prince and Princess of Wales. 

1. H.R.H., Albert Edward, K.G.,Ti.S.I., The Prince of Wales, 
is also Duke of Cornwall and of Eothsay, Earl of Chester, of 
Dublin, and of Carrick, Baron Eenfrew and Lord of the Isles ; 
also, in right of his lamented Father, the Prince is Duke of 
Saxony. The Armorial Insignia of Ilis Eoyal Highness, ac- 
cordingly, assume a threefold division, and they are blazoned 
with an aggroupment wliich exemplifies three distinct yet united 
orders of ]Mar6halling. The happy alliance formed by the 
Prince of Wales with the Princess Alexandra of Denmark, 
now Princess of Wales, adds a fourth to these three orders of 

The Arms usually borne by the PitiNCE of W'alps are thus 
blazoned : — The Royal Arms of England, differenced witli the Label 
of the Heir Apparent— a Label of three points arg. ; over all. Saxony : 
Supporters, — Tlie Lion and Unicorn of England, differenced with the 


Label and ensigned with the Coronet of the Prince ; Crest, — The Crest 
of England, hid the Lion differenced and crovmed as the dexter Sujp- 
porter : in association with the Crest, above the Arms, is placed 
the Feather Badge of the Prince ; Motto, — Ich Dien : the shiekl is 
encircled with the Garter of the Order, and ensigned with the 
Prince's oicu Coronet. 

The early usage of Heraldry would require that the dexter 
Supporter and the Crest should he ensigned with the Imperial Crown, 
tchile differenced with the Label of the Heir Apparent. It also ap- 
pears to be at variance with both the spirit and the practical 
usage of the tnie Historical Heraldry of England, that the Arms 
of Saxony, the paternal and hereditary Insignia of his Eoyal 
Father, should be marshalled upon an escutcheon of pretence 
with the shield of the Prince of Wales, w^hen that Shield does 
not display the Ensigns of the Prince's Dignities of the second 
order. The Arms of the Peixce of Wales as Heir Apparent have 
a distinct individuality of their own, with which nothing, except 
the Arms of the Eoyal Consort of the Prince, ought to be directly 
associated. It would, however, be both strictly coiTect and 
much to be desired that the Prince should bear a Second Shield, 
charged in the first gi-and quarter Avith his own quartered Arms 
duly differenced as Heir Apparent, and having in the other 
grand quarters the Arms of all the other Dignities enjoyed by 
His Eoyal Highness marshalled in becoming order. Or, what on 
the whole would seem to be still more desirable, the Prince 
might bear upon a single shield, (with a quartered inescutcheon 
itself charged with a Shield of pretence,) all his aimorial in- 
signia duly marshalled in conformity with their historical sig- 

The Arms of the Second Order borne by the Princk of Wales 
are these : — 

1. Cornwall :—sa., ten bezants, four, three, tico, and one. 

2. EOTHSAY : — Scotland, differenced xcith a label of three points arg. 

3. Chester : — at., three garbs or. 



4. Dublin : — Ireland, differenced with, a label of three points arg. 

5. Lord of tiik Isles : — arg., on imves of the sea ppr, a lymphad 

6. For the feudal Earldom of Carrick, and Barony of Renfrew, 
ancient dignities of the Pleir Apparent to the Scottish Crown, — 
or, a chevron gu. 

7. To this group I add the Arms of the Principality of Wales, 
— quarterly, 1 and 4, gu., a lion 2^(1^8. guard, or ; 2 and 3, or, a lion 
pass, guard, gu., Xo, G97, PI. LX. 

The Arms of the Prince's Dukedom of Saxe Cobdrg Goth a con- 
stitute a distinct Order in themselves : see p. 314. 

In No. 720, PI. LIII., I have marshalled the Anns of the 
Prince, the three Orders of the Arms being displayed upon a 
single Shield, with an Inescutcheon bearing a Shield of Pretence. 
This shield — that is, the jji-mar?/ shield in this composition — bears 
the Arms of the Prince as Heir Apparent : these are the Eoyal Aims 
of the reigning Sovereigii differenced with a silver label, — as the 
Eoyal Aims for the time being, thus differenced, have been always 
borne by the Heirs Apparent of England, the Princes of Wales, 
since the time of the Black Prince, tlpon the Secondary Shield — 
the Inescutcheon in No. 720— are marshalled all the armorial 
Insignia of the second order borne by the Prince of Wales, 
including the Arms of the Principality, to which in deference to 
their rank I have yielded the first quarter : thus this Ines- 
cutcheon bears, 1 . Wales ; 2. Cornwall ; 3. Rothsay ; 4. Gliestm ; 
5. Carrick; 6. The Isles ; 7. Dublin. The third Shield, marshalled 
in pretence over all, is charged with Saxony, the foreign Duke- 
dom of the Prince of Wales. 

It is a very singular circumstance that the Arms of the Prin- 
cipality of Wales should heretofoi'e have been omitted, as if by univeisal 
consent, from the Qimrtered Shield of the Prince of Wales. The 
ancient Arms of Wales are not marshalled upon the Royal 
Shield with England, Scotland, and Ireland; but, I presume, 
Wales is held to be included within the realm of England, and 




CHAPTER.' V]:: o .:::. 

Plate jjs. 


therefore it is considered to be represented" heraldically by the 
Lions of England. Accordingly, when he differences the Royal 
Shield with his own silver label, the Prince of Wales would 
bear the Arms of Wales as Prince — precisely as his Royal Mo- 
ther bears the Arms of Wales expressed with those of England, 
as the Sovereign, in Her own Royal Arms. At the same time, 
it appears altogether to be desired that the distinct Arms of the 
Principality of Wales should be marshalled in the first quarter of 
the Quartered Arms of the Prince of Wales. Upon the base- 
ment of the monument of Queen Elizabeth, as I have shown, 
(Chap. XXIII.) are four Shields of Arms; one of this group is 
Wales ; the three other Shields of the group are Ireland, Corn- 
wall, and Chester : thus the Arms of the Principality have a 
recognized place with the separate Shields of Cornwall and 
Chester and also of Ireland. The Arms which I have just 
blazoned for the Prindjyality of Wales, No. 697, PI. LX., are taken ^rtnterCiY' 
from an Achievement of Queen Elizabeth which is engraved ' ' ^v~ 
in " Regal Heraldry:" I am bound, however, to add that Owen 
Glendwyr, as Prince of Wales, a.d. 1404, blazons the Lions on 
his Secretum as rampant. No. 698, PI. LX., (see also Archceologia, 
XXV., 619, and xxix., 407.) As Princes of Wales also, Edw. Plan- 
TA6ENET, SOU of Edward IV. , and Arthur Tudor, son of Henry VII., 
bore separately for the Principality, arg., three lions coward in pale 
giL, No. 699, PL LX. : this coat is said sometimes to have been 
assigned specifically to North Wales, while the Arms of Soutli 
Wales would be No. 698. 

2. H.R.H., Alexandra, Princess of Wales, as Daughter of the 
King of Denmark, bears the Boyal Arms of Denmark without any 

The Arms of Denmark proper are, or, semee of human hearts gu., 
three lions pass, guard, in pale az., crowned gold : but the Shield of 
the Princess, after the manner of Continental Heraldry, is one 
of many Quarterings ; and it is very remarkable that this Shield,* 
when blazoned with all its various Bearings, in its Marshalling 



exhibits precisely the same order of arrangement as distinguishes 
the Shield, No. 720, PI. LIIL, of the Prince of Wales himself. 

The Quartered Shield of the Prixcess of Wales will he readily 
understood by the aid of the annexed diagram, No. 687. Several 
of these quarterings have been blazoned in Section 5 of this 

No. 687. 

Diagram, Xo. 687 : — a, a, a, a, the ichite Cross o/ Denmark ?<po?t 
red: 1. Denmark: 2. ScHLESWia: 3. Sweden Modern : 4. Iceland, 
gu., a stockfish arg., crowned or, (See Heraldry of Fish, p. 174): 
5. Faroe Islands, az., a coch passant arg. : 6. Greenland, az., 
a polar hear rampt. arg. : 7. Jutland : 8. Ensign of the Vandals. 
On the secondary Shield, or Inescutcheon, — 9. Holstein : 10. Stor- 
merk: 11. DiETMARSCHEN (DiTZMERs) : 12. Lanenbdrg, gu., a 
horse's head couped arg. On the third Shield, in pretence over all, 
— 13. Oldenburg: 14. Delmknuurst. These Ai-ms are blazoned 
in Plate LXXV., No. 710. The two shields in this Plate show, 
(No. 709) the quartered shield of Denmark from a Garter-Plate 
of the year 1581, and (No. 710) the quartered shield of the Den- 
"mark of to-day ; thus the changes which have taken place iu the 
course of nearlv three centuries are evident at a glance. These 



■©"„ ' 


Fron-. -^Iie G.u --: 

Plate LXXV 



Dexter of the composition ; to the Sinister the quartered Shield of 
the Princess encircled by a Garland ; these two Shields supported 
by the Supporters of the Prince, ensigned by his Coronet, his 
Crest, and his Badge, and with his Motto in base. The Impaled 
Shield, No. 568, marshalled in exact accordance with early prin- 
ciples and early practical usage also, appears in every respect to 
be preferable to the present system of two distinct Shields. 

No. 568. 

The Garter-Plate of Prince Williaji, the son of Queen Anxe and 
Prince George of Denmark, marshals in pretence a Shield of 
Denmark proper only, without any quarterings : and, accordingly, 
this Garter-Plate, as far as it may be accepted as an authority, 
.sanctions the presence of the Shield of Denmark as I have mar- 
shalled it, without the other quarterings borne on his Royal 
Shield by the King of Denmark himself; it must be admitted, at 



the same time, that this Garter-Plate in like manner affords a 
precedent for charging Saxony in pretence upon the Arms of the 
Prince, as in No. 568. 

4. To the great interest naturally felt in the annorial insignia 
of the Prince and Princess of Wales, I am indebted for many 
valuable and gratifying communications having reference to the 
Arms of their Koyal Highnesses ; but I am not able to adduce 
any example of a Shield of the Prince of Wales, marshalled hij 

No. 718. — Design for Marshalling the Anns of the Prince of Wales, K.G. 

authority with all its quarterings. My otvti quartered Shields, I 
need scarcely add, are merely suggestions — suggestions, however, 
based upon early precedent, and aspiring to be faithful expres- 
sions of Historical Heraldry. In order more fiilly to exemplify 
to Students of Heraldry the suggestive as well as the directly 
historical character of the Armorial Ensigns of the Prince of 
Wales, I now add one or two other compositions as heraldic 
studies. No. 718 marshals the Arms of the Prince of Wales 


differenced with his own Label quarterly with Saxony. That is, 
it represents the Prince as the Eldest Son and Heir of the Queen 
and of the late Prince Consort. In this Shield, Saxony appears 
alone in the 2nd and 3rd quarters, because the differenced 
Arms borne by the late Prince Consort in the 1st and 4th 
quarters of his own Shield may claim to have been in a peculiar 
sense personal to himself alone. The Escutcheon of Pretence 
in Ko. 718 quarters Cornwall, Chester, Bothsay, and Dublin (the 
label improperly omitted) only, and it bears the feudal Shield 
of the Isles in pretence. Again, in No. G96, PI. LX., the Shield, 
which is quarterly of five, bears Cormvall, Bothsay, the two Duke- 
doms, in chief; Chester, the Isles, and Diiblin, the three Coats in 
base, being marshalled in their order of heraldic seniority; 
Carriclc, as the Shield of a feudal Earldom, is in pretence. In 
this composition, which is merely a study for marshalling the 
British and Irish Arms of the Prince of AVales, Saxony is not 

In Plate LIII., the Shield which con-esponds with the No. 696 
of Plate LX. appears in its proper position, in pretence upon the 
Boyal Shield duly differenced with the silver Label of the Princk 
OF Wales. The Shield of Pretence in No. 720, PI. LIIL, differs 
from No. 696, only in these three respects : it bears Wales in the 
first quarter ; it marshals Carriclc in the fifth quarter ; and it 
displays Saxony over all upon a second Inescutcheon. 

The Arms of Carrick I have given upon official authority, as 
being, gu., a chevron or. The Bruges, Earls of Carrick, before 
their family attained to the Eoyal Dignity, bore, arg., a saltire and 
a chief az., (Poll Henry III.); and Mr. Setox (pp. 191, 195), 
with a reference to Laing's Catalogue (Nos. 164 and 783), gives 
the Seals of Duncan, Earl of Carrick, a.d. 1180, charged with 
a dragon; and that of John, Earl of Carrick, a.d. 1380, after- 
wards Egbert IIL, bearing Scotland icith a Label. I obsei-vc that 
Mr. Skton, at the end of his Preface has a Shield of Scotland 
thus differenced with a silcer Label of three points, impaling Den- 





rldle XLj. 


mark prober alone, the wliole being charged upon the Plume of 
the Prince of Wales. A Scottish ITerald might also marshal for 
the Prince a Shield quarterly of Mothsay, CanicJc, and the Isles. 

II. Their Eoyal Highnesses, the Princes Alfred, Arthur, and 
Leopold : — the Boyal Arms differenced with their ovm Labels, 
Nos. 569, 570, 571, PL XXXVI. ; the Crest and Supporters being 
diffei'enced in like manner, and the Shield ensigned loith the Coronet ; 
No. 564, PI. LXI. 

Their Eoyal Highnesses, the Princess Poyal, and the Prin- 
cesses Alice, Helena, Louisa, and Beatrice: — the Boyal Arms 
differenced icith their aion Labels, and impaled by Prussia and Hesse 
for the Princess Eoyal and the Princess Alice ; Ko. 572 and 573, 
PI. XXXVI. ; see also Chapter XXXII. TJie Boyal Arms upon 
Lozenges, differenced with their men Labels, Xos. 574, 575, and 576, 
and the Supporters differenced with the same Labels, by the younger 
Princesses. Their Eoyal Highnesses all ensign their AnAs with 
their own Coronet, No. 564, but they do not bear any Crest. 

H.E.H., the Duke of Cambridge, K.G., differences the Eoyal 
Arms, Supporters, and Crest, with his own Label, No. 577, 
PI. XXXVI. ; and he ensigns his Shield with his own Coronet, 
No. 566, PI. XLI. The Princess Mary of Cambridge charges 
the same Label upon her Lozenge of Arms. 


The Eoyal Achievement of Arms of Her Majesty the Queen 
is composed of 

The Eoyal Shield, bearing England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
quarterly ; the Shield being encircled with the Garter, charged 
with the Motto of the Order : 

The Supporters, the Lion and Unicom : 

The Helm, with its Mantling, ensigned with the Crown, and 
thereon the Crest of England, a Lion statant guardant or, im- 
perially crowned : 

The Motto being the words, DiEu et mon Droit, upon a ribbon 
beneath the shield, from which issue 



The Badges, tlie Rose, Hustle, and Shamrock, all of them en- 
grafted on the same stem. 

It wonld be strictl}- coiTect to add other Badges, for England, 
a red and a white Base ; for Scotland, a Thistle ppr. ; for Ireland, 
a Shamrock-leaf vert, and a Harp or, stringed arg. ; for Wales, a 
Dragon, icings addorsed, gu., jyassant on a mount vert. 

All these Badges to be ensigned with the Imperial Crown. 

Also, the Crest for Scotland, on an Imperial Crown, a Lion, 
sejant affronte gu., imperially crowned, holding in the dexter paw a 
sword, and in the sinister paio a sceptre, both erect and ppr. ; No. 567, 
riate XL VI. : and 

The Crest for Ireland, on a wreaih or and az., a Castle triple- 
towered of the first, a Hart arg., attired or, springing from the gate. 

The Badges of the several Orders of Knighthood might also be 
introduced into this composition. 

No. 334. — Uer Most Gracious Majesty, VicroiuA, the Qi een. 

No. 286. — Shield of Edwakd III., from his Mouument in Westminster 
Abbey, the Garter being added, (See pp. 1 07 and 295.) 




Early in the middle ages, the Insignia of knightly rank, worn 
alike by eveiy member of the chivalry of those days, were the 
Knight's own Sword and Lance — the latter with its Pennon, — his 
Shield of Arms, and his golden Spurs. Then the Crusades led 
to the formation of the Oi'ders of priestly soldiers, so well known 
as the Hospitallers, or Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, and -^ 
the Knights Templars. These Orders possessed distinctive In- j . . 

signia peculiar to themselves. 

1. The Hospitallers, instituted about a.d. 1092, and intro- 
duced into England about the year 1100, wore over their 
armour a black habit, charged Avith a silver cross of eight points, 
No. 578, PI. XXXV.; but between the years 1278 and 1280, 




when engaged in military duties, they assumed a red surcoat 
bearing a silver cross straight. 

2. The Templars, instituted a.d. 1118, were introduced into 
England during the reign of Stephen, about the year 1140. 
Their habit was ivhite, with a red cross of eight points, the form 
of this cross being identical with the white cross of the Hos- 
pitallers, No. 578, PL XXXV. The Cross of the Templars was 
worn on the left shoulder. Their war-cry was " Beau Scant !" 
Their Banner, which bore the same name, was per f esse sa. and 
arg. It is represented in the Temple Church, London, as in 
No. 579. They also displayed above their formidable lance a 
second Banner of their own colours, ivhite, charged with the Cross 
of the Order, No. 580. As Badges, the Templars bore the 
Agnus Dei ; and a device representing two knights mounted on 
a single horse, to denote the original poverty of the Order. The 
present Arms of the Ban-ister Templars of the Inner Temple, 
which are derived from the Badge last named, are, az., a pegasus 
salient, winged arg., (some say or), the two horsemen of the 
early device having in later times been mistaken for ivings. 
In the year 1309 the Knights Templars were suppressed, and, 
by a papal bull dated April 3, 1312, their Order was abolished. 
It is remarkable that amongst the numerous knightly eflSgies 

that are in existence, and of which many &ie examples belong 
to the Templar era, not a single individual commemoiates any 
brother of the chivalry of the Temple. It i.s hiL;,lily pr^lialilr. 
that some now forgotten rule prohibited monumental < (j mmem o- 
ration amo ngs t tho se priest-soldiers^ or else their i]l repute^ 
led to the comjplej;^"' destruction of every personal me morial^ 
them. The idea that crossed-legged military eflSgies represent 
and commemorate Templars, though still retained by many per- 
sons who prefer fanciful theories to more sober facts, has long 
been proved to be without any foundation. 


3. The peculiar form of Cross, entitled, from its resemblance 
to the Greek T, the Tau Cross, No. 57, PI. III., appears worn as 
a knightly ensign upon a small number of monumental effigies. 
This is the symbol of an Order established on the Continent, 
and styled the ORDiiR of St. Anthony. At Ingham, in Nor- 
folk, the curious effigies (now sadly mutilated) of Sir Koger de 
Bois and his Lady, wear mantles charged with the Tau Cross 
within a circle, and having the word anthon in chief. No. 481, 
PI. XXXIX. ; the date is about 1360. In the sixteenth century, 
this same cross is occasionally found attached to a chain that is 
Avorn about the neck, as in the brass to Henry Stanley, a.d. 
1528, at Hillingdon, Middlesex. The Tau Cross is borne by 
the family of Drury between two mullets on a chief. 

4. Collars, composed of various heraldic devices, and worn fi^^oCTtt ^i. 
about the neck, were in use in the time of Richard II. These 

Collars, however, were not regarded as insignia of any Order of 
Knighthood, as that expression is now understood by ourselves, 
and as the Order 6f the Garter was understood at that period. 
They were decorations of honour, and they also very generally 
denoted political partizanship. The rival Houses of Lancaster 
and York had their Collars, of which many characteristic 
examples yet remain. Private Collars were also worn, as a 
species of Badge, at the same i>eriod ; they were charged with 
the personal devices of the wearers. Thus, in his Brass at 
Wootton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire, a.d. 1392, Thomas, fourth 
Baron Berkeley, wears, over his camail, a collar comi^osed of 
Mermaids — a Badge of his Iioi:se, which maj possibly have been 
derived from the " Mermaids of the Sea " of the Black Prince, 
and so may indicate attachment to that illustrious personage; 
No. 225 a, p. 68. 

5. The Lancastrian Collar of SS is composed of a series 
of the letter S in gold, the letters being either linked together. 


or set in close order upon a blue and white ribbon. The ends 
are always connected by two buckles and a trefoil-shaped link, 
from which a jewel depends. This Collar was worn by persons 
of both sexes, and of various ranks. It appears, amongst many 
others, in the sculptured effigies of Queen Joaxxa, at Canter- 
bury; of Ealph Neville, Earl of Westmorland, and his two 
Countesses, at Staindrop, Durham ; of Thomas and John Fitz- 
Alan, Earls of Arundel, at Arundel ; of Egbert, Lord Huxge:r- 
FORD, at Salisbury Cathedral ; of Kobert de Marmion, at Tanfield, 
Yorkshire ;" of Sir Hu.mphrey Stafford, at Bromsgrove, \Vorces- 
tershire ; of Sir Edmund and Lady De Thorpe, at Ashwell- 
Thorpe, Norfolk; and of Sir William Phillip, K.G., styled 
Lord Bardolf, and his Lady, at Hoveringham, Notts ; also in 
the Brasses to Lord Camoys, K.G., at Trotton, Sussex ; to Sir 
Thomas and Lady Massyngeberde, at Gunby, Lincolnshire ; and 
Sir William and Lady Bagot, at Baginton, Warwickshire. An 
early example of this Collar occurs in the Brass to Sir Thomas 
Burton, at Little Casterton, Eutland : it is certain, however, 
that this Brass is several years later than th(^ date usuall}' given 
to it — A.D. 1382, the fifth of Eichard II. Another early example, 
in the sculptured effigy of John Gower, the poet, at St. Saviour's 
Church, Southwark, has the De Bohun Swan, the favourite 
Badge of Henry of Bolingbroke, attached as a pendant to the 
Collar; No. 585 a, PI. XLIII. The SS Collar of Queen Joanna, 
No. 583, has been slightly injured, but it still very clearly shows 
the character of this decoration. The Collars of Lord IIunoer- 
FORD, A.D, 1455, No. 582, and of Sir Egbert de Marmion, about 
A.D. 1400, No. 584, both of which have received some injuries, 
and that of Sir William Phillip, (whose effigy is also deco- 
rated with the Garter of the Order), which is very perfect and of 
elaborate richness, No. 585, PI. XLIII., are all eminently charac- 
teristic examples. The SS Collar was assumed by Henry IV., 
probably many years before his accession, and by him it cer- 
tainly was distinguished as a Lancastrian ensign. 


::eaf Ti.RS xiv & xx. 

Plate XL I 


In the centre of the Canopy above his monument at Canter- 
bury, the Shield of Henry IV. is encircled with a Collar of SS, 
after the manner of the Garter of the Order. This shield 
bears France Modern and England, impaling Navarre and Eureux, 
No. 348, PI. XXIII. ; upon the Collar the S is repeated twenty- 
three times, and the customary trefoil clasp is charged with a 
small Eagle displayed, apparently a subsequent addition. The 
letters SS are richly ornamented and linked together. Two 
other larger Shields, one of France and England, and the other of 
Navarre, are also encircled with similar Collars of SS ; and the 
field of the Canopy is semee of the same Collars, small and on 
ribbons, on a ground azure powdered with golden cinquefoils. 
Eagles, Greyhounds and Gennets, with the Mottoes Soverayne and 
Atemperance, also take a prominent part in the heraldic decora- 
tion of this remarkable Canopy. The monument of Catherine 
SwYNFORDE, the third wife of Johx of Ghent, mother of the Beau- 
forts, was originally adorned with shields of arms encircled by 
Collars of S. When I last examined the original in Lincoln 
Cathedral, the panels of the monument, which are deeply scored 
with the matrices of the lost Brasses, were standing reversed, so 
that the pendants of the Collars of S were in chief. In the 
church of St. Mary, at Bury St. Edmunds, the ceiling of the 
eastern compartment of the south aisle, once the Chantry of 
John Baret, is richly painted and diapered with beautifullj- 
dra-wn Collars of SS, each Collar enclosing the Monogram of this 
zealous Lancastrian, LB. 

The origin of the device itself still remains uncertain. It is ^ / 7 
generally supposed to have been intended to represent Hknry's . " 

favourite motto, Soveraygne, by repeating the initial letter of S^ 
the word. ]\Ir. John Gough Nichols, however, has suggested \? pF s jhn^ 
the word Seneschal, (John of Ghent'^was Seneschal, or High ^>'f<'( /t»h/ d 
Steward of England), to be substituted for Sorerayg7ie ; and ^ ^ ,' 
Mr. Blanche hints that the Swan Badge ma}' have had something ' 

to do with the SS of the Collar. Possibly, after all, the repeti- — 


tiou of the letter IS may denote rather tlie initials of several 
words, than the initial of any single word, though I myself 
incline to the opinion that the S is the initial of Soverayrjne. 

IIen'ry VII., under whom the SS Collar had by no means alto- 
gether lost its Lancastrian character, introduced his Tudor 
Badge, the Portcullis, alternating with each S ; and ho further 
added either a Tudor Kose or a Portcullis, as a Pendant to the 
Collar thus modified. A good example occurs in the effig)- 
of Sir Joiix Cheyxey, K.G., a.d. 1489, in Salisbury Cathedral. 
At Coleshill, in the very perfect alabaster eflSgy of a knight, 
A.D. 1519, the Collar of SS has a George depending from it. 
Other late examples of this Collar occur at Elford in Stafford- 
shire ; the latest there appears upon the effigy of Sir William 
Smyth E, a.d. 1526 ; the pendant is a cross patee. A still later 
example, a.d. 1548, at Sefton, in Lancashire, is the Collar repre- 
sented on the Brass to Sir William Molineux, who at Flodden 
" duo armorum vexilla Scotis strenue resistentibus sua manu coepit.^' 
By Henry VI T I. the wearing the Collar SS was restricted to the 
degree of a Knight. This Collar with certain modifications, is 
still worn b}' the Heralds, by the Lord Mayor of London, and 
by the Lords Chief Justices, and some others of the Judges. 

6. The Yorkist Collar of Suns and Eoses, significant!}' 
characteristic of the rival House of the Plantagenets, has not 
left so many examples as there exist of the Collar of SS. In 
the chancel of Aston Church, near Birmingham, are two 
Effigies, both 'finely sculptured in alabaster, and resting within 
a 3-ard or two of each other upon raised tombs. The figures 
are those of knights, and their armour is such as two brothers 
might have worn when Edward IV. fought his way to the 
throne. In life, these knights were certainly contemporaries; 
probably they were near neighbours, and possibly near kinsmen 
also : but that thej^ wore mortal enemies is clearly indicated 
by the circumstance that one wears the Collar of SS, while the 




('ollar of the other is charged with tho Suns and Roses of York. 
Long have these 

" Kniglit8 been dust, 

And their good sworda rust :" 

their effigies, however, silently though they repose beneath 
the same consecrated roof that has sheltered them both for four 
centuries, have a tale of English History which they tell 
eloquently enough to every observant student of historical 

The Yorkist Collar is formed of suns and rosex, which are 
set, like the SS letters, upon a ribbon, or sometimes they are 
either linked together with chains, or placed in immediate con- 
tact. The white lion Badge is generally attached to the Collar, 
and forms a pendant from it. The Collar of the Yorkist Knight 
at Aston is represented in No. 586, PI. XLIV. From amongst 
other examples in scidptured effigies I select for particular notice 
the Collars of Sir Egbert Harcourt, K.G., a.d. 1471, at Stanton 
Harcourt, Oxfordshire, No. 291 ; of one of the Nevilles and his 
Lad}^ — probably Ralph Neville, second Earl of Westmorland, 
who died in 1484, and one of his two Countesses, at Branspeth, 
Durham, No. 587 ; of the Countess of William Fitz-Alan, Earl 
of Arundel, a.d. 1487, at Arundel, No. 588, PI. XLIV.; and of 
Sir John and Lady Crosby, a.d. 1475, at Great St. Helen's 
Church, London. In the Collar of the Countess of Arundel, the 
Suns and Roses are linked together with clusfei-s of oaJc-leaves — a 
Badge of the Fitz-Alans. Ralph Neville has his Collar fonned 
of Bases en Soleil, with a toMte hoar, the Badge of Richard III., 
as the pendant ; and his Countess has both the suns and roses, 
with a pendent jewel. The Yorkist Collar is also introduced 
into the Brasses to Henry Bourchier, K.G., Earl of Essex, and his 
Countess, a.d. 1483, at Little Easton, Essex, No. 589, PI. XLIV. ; 
to Sir Anthony Grey, at St. Alban's ; and to Roger Del Bothe, 
Esquire, a.d. 1407, at Sawley, in Dei'byshire. 

z 2 


7. The Most Noble Order of the Garter, tlie first, the 
most renowned, and the most honoured of the Orders of Euro- 
pean Knighthood, was instituted by Edward III. about the 
year 1350. The exact occasion and period of its institution, 
and the actual circumstances that attended the foundation of 
the Order cannot now be traced out with precision and certainty. 
That the Order was in existence in the middle of the fourteenth 
century, cannot be questioned. It is equally be^'ond dispute, 
that the Order from the first has borne the same title, has 
numbered twenty-five Knights, including the Prixce of Wales, 
the Sovereign being the twenty-sixth, and that it has ever re- 
tained its illustrious reputation. Whatever else might be wanted 
to complete the details of the early History of the Order of the 
Garter, has been provided by such Legends as are certain to be- 
come popular Traditions. See Archceologia, xxxi., 104. 

The original statutes of the Order have undergone continual 
changes; but none of these changes have affected the funda- 
mental character of the Institution itself. By a Statute of 
Jan. 17th, 18D5, it was ordained that the Order should consist 
of the SovKREiGX, and twenty-five Kxights Companions, always 
including in their number the Prince of Walfj?, together also 
with such lineal descendants of GfiORfiE III. as might be elected 
from time to time. Special Statutes have since been adopted for 
the admission of Sovereigns and extra Knights, the latter of 
whom have, however, always been incorporated into the number 
of the " Companions " on the occasion of vacancies. 

The Stalls of the Knights of the Garter are in the Chapel of 
St. George, at Windsor. There their Stall-Plates are charged 
with their arms, and overhead are displayed their Banners. The 
Stall-Plates (369 in number in the year 1757) now at Windsor, 
were evidently emblazoned and fixed in the time of Henry VI. ; 
their Helms alone would determine the period; and they are 
amongst the most valuable and interesting of our national 
heraldic records. See Chap. XXX III. 

I'LATJ-: lilV. CiiAi'TKii XX., p :hi. 

Inaiguiti of tlie Okder of thk Gautku. 

Nn.s :)'M\., b'Mu., iV.»Oi!., 51)0c'., and 51)0. — The Slur, the Lefeer Geuiyr, the Collar 

iiiiiJ llti; <leonii\ (iml Ihr Hurler of tlio Older. 


These most valuable and interesting Garter-Plates are offi- 
cially under the guardianship and care of Garter King of Arms ; 
and all that can be desired on their behalf is, that they always 
may find such a guardian and protector as they now possess in 
Sir Charles George Young, See ArchoBologia, xxxi., 164. 

The Insignia of the Order are the Garter and Motto, the Star, 
the Bihhon and Badge, and the Collar with the George ; and the 
costume consists of the Surcoat, Hat, and Mantle. See Plato 

The Garter, No. 590, PI. LIV., charged with the 3Iotto " Honi 
soiT QUI MAL Y PENSE," in letters of gold, with golden borders, 
buckle and pendant, was originally of light blue, but noM^ (as 
it has been since the commencement of the reign of George I.) 
it is dark blue. It is worn on the left leg below the knee, 
Nos. 288 A, and 591 a, PI. XLIII., and No. 290, PI. XLIV. ; but 
by Her Majesty the Queen, the Sovereign of the Order, the 
Garter is worn on the left arm above the elbow, as in No. 292, }^Ty 

The Mantle is of blue velvet, lined with white taffeta. It has 
the Badge upon the left shoulder, and is fastened with a rich 
cordon and tassels. 

The Hood and the Surcoat are of crimson velvet, the latter 
being lined like the Mantle. 

The Hat is of black velvet, lined with white taffeta. It is 
decorated with a lofty plume of white Ostrich Feathers, in the 
centre of which is a tuft of black Heron's Feathers, the whole 
being attached to the Hat by a clasp of Diamonds. 

The Badge is circular, and is foi-med of a buckled Garter, with 
the Motto, enclosing the Cross of St. George on white enamel ; 
Nos. 591, 592, PI. XLIII. 

The Star is the Badge irradiated with eight rays, first ordered 
by Charles I. The rays are of silver, or diamonds. The Star 
is worn on the left breast ; No. 590 a, PL XLHI. 

The Collar and the George were added to the Insignia by 



Henry VII. The Collar is of gold, weigliing thirty-six ounces, 
and consists of twenty-six pieces, alternately buckled garters, 
and interlaced knots of cords. The garters encircle alternately 
a red rose charged with a white one, and a white rose charged 
with a red one ; No. 590 b, VI. XLI V. 

The George, executed in coloured enamel, is a figure of St. 
George on his charger, in the act of piercing the dragon with 
his lance. It forms a Pendant to the Collar; No. 590 c A 
second George, distinguished as the " Lesser George," has the same 
device of gold, charged upon an enamelled ground, and encircled 
by a buckled Garter, the whole forming an oval ; No. 590 D. 
This George is worn depending from the Bibhon of the Order. 
It appears originally to have been black, but Queen Elizabeth 
changed the Eibbon to a light blue, and by George I. it was 
again changed to the dark blue, of which hue it still continues. 
The Eibbon passes over the left shoulder, and crosses the figure 
both in front and behind. 

The Eibbon with its George are now commonly worn by 
Knights of the Garter as accessories of their ordinary costume ; 
the Star and the Garter are also added in evening dress. 

The Officers of the Order are 

The Prelate, always the Bishop of Winchester. 

The Chancellor, now the Bishop of Oxford. 

(The First Chancellor of the Order was Eichard Beauchamp, 
Bishop of Salisbury, to whom and to his successors in that See 
the Chancellorship was granted by a Charter of Edward IV. 
From the year 1534 till 1G71, the dignity was in the hands of 
laymen ; but it was recovered from Charles II. for the See of 
Salisbury by Bishop Ward. In 183G, Berkshire, in which St. 
George's Chapel is situated, was attached to the Diocese of 
Oxford, when the Chancellorship of the Garter passed to the 
Bishojjs of that See.) 

Both the Prelate and the Chancellor weai- their own proper 
Badge of the Older attached to a blue Eibbon, with their epis- 


copal robes : the Badge of the Prelate is St. George on horse- 
back killing the dragon, of gold enamelled, encompassed by the 
Garter, and ensigued by an episcopal mitre : and the Badge of 
the Chancellor is a red rose enamelled in gold, having on the 
reverse the Arms of St. George, and on both sides encircled by 
the Garter, In the time of Edward VI. the Badge of tho Chan- 
cellor was a Cross of the Order, with a red rose charged upon 
a white one of gold, and encompassed with a garland of red and 
white roses. 

The other Officers of the Order are. 

The Begistrar : the Dean of Windsor, His Badge is of gold, 
with a representation of the Register of the Order enamelled in 
crimson, relieved with gold, charged with two gold pens in Sal- 
tire enamelled proper, the whole surmounted with a Crown, over 
a small compartment with the letters G. E. III. 

The Herald : Garter King of Arms. His Badge is of gold, 
having on both sides the Arms of St. George impaled with those 
of the Sovereign, encircled with the Garter, the whole en- 
amelled, and ensigned with the Imperial Crown. 

And, the Usher of the Black Bod. 

Knights of the Garter place after their names the Initials 
K. G., which take precedence of all other titles. On the death 
of any Knight, the Insignia which he had worn are returned by 
his nearest representative to the Sovereign ; a usage which has 
prevailed since the time of Charles II. 

Several fine examples of the monumental Effigies of Knights 
of the Garter have been preserved ; but it is singular that the 
Effigies of Edward III. himself, and his eldest Son, the Black 
Prince, are without any of the Insignia of their famous Order ; 
in his Will also the Black Prince takes no notice whatever of 
the Order of the Garter. The effigies of Sir "William Fitz- 
Waren, K.G., A.D. 1363, at Wantage, and of Sir Eichard Pe.m- 
bridge, K.G., about 1380, in the nave of Hereford Cathedral, are 
memorials of Knights Founders of the Order. Other fine sculp- 


tured Effigies are those of Richard Beauchamp, K.G., Earl of 
Warwick, 1439, at Warwick; of Sir Wir.LiAM Phillip, K.G., 
styled Lord Bardolf, 1441, at Hoveringham, Notts ; of John 
Beaufort, K.G., 1444, at Wimbome Minster, Dorsetshire ; of 
John Talbot, K.G., the great Earl of Shrewsbury, 1453, at 
Whitchurch, Salop ; of Sir Egbert Harcourt, E.G. (who also 
wears the Yorkist Collar,) 1471, at Stanton Harcourt; of John 
De la Pole, K.G., Duke of Suffolk, 1491, at Wingfield; and of 
Sir Giles Daubeney, E.G., in Westminster Abbey, a.d. 1507. 
The Enight last named is represented, sculptured in alabaster, 
(the alabaster still retains much of its original colouring,) with 
the Garter, Collar, George, Mantle and Badge of the Order, worn 
over his armour ; and on the pommel of his sword-hilt he has a 
small shield of Dauheney — gu., four fusils conjoined in /esse arg. 
The Effigy of Sir William Phillip also is a very noble work, and 
1 must particularly notice the adjustment of the Garter about the 
leg, which is admirably shown : this Enight shews his alliance 
with the House of Lancaster by wearing the Collar of SS- 
There also are Brasses to Sir S. de Felbryge, E.G., a.d. 1416 ; to 
Lord Camoys, E.G., {" Sirenuus miles de gartero") a.d. 1424; to 
the Earl of Essex, E.G., 1483, No. 591 a, PL XLIII. ; and to 
Sir T. Bqleyn, E.G., a.d. 1538, at Ilever, who is habited over his 
armour in the full insignia of the Order. No. 290, PI. XLIV., 
represents the adjustment of the Garter about the leg of the 
effigy of the Duko of Suffolk ; and No. 288 a, PI. XLIIL, is 
the Garter of Lord Camoys. 

In the middle ages, the Ladies of Enights were occasionally 
associated with the Order of the Garter, but before the close of 
the sixteenth century, this singular association fell into disuse. 
The effigies of Lady Harcourt, the wife of Sir Robert Har- 
court, E.G., and of the Duchess of Suffolk, at Euelme in 
Oxfordshire, have the Garter; the fonner lady wears it upon 
her left arm, No. 292, PI. XLIV., and the latter adjusts it about 
her wrist after the manner of a bracelet. 

I'LATE LV. Chaitku xx., p. M5. 

Ilksiglliu Oftliu OliDEI! OF TllK TllISTLE. 

No.s. o'.K!, h[K',v. , .V,»:Ja., ami 593c.— 77/e Shu; the ]Ui(hj<,lhv Colhu'iu,! the Jeael 

of the Oi-.U-r. 

orders of knighthood. 345 

8. Thk Most Noble and Most Ancient Order of the Thistle, 
of Scotland. 

This Order is supposed to have been originally instituted at 
an early period of Scottish Histoiy. It now exists in conformity 
with the Statutes of James II, and Queen Anne, the latter dated 
1703. By a subsequent statute of the year 1827, the order con- 
sists of the Sovereign and sixteen Knights. 

The Star of this Order, worn on the left side, is formed of a 
St. Andrew's Cross of silver, with rays isstiing from between 
the points so as to form a lozenge ; in the centre, upon a field of 
gold, is a Thistle proper, surrounded by a circle of green enamel, 
charged with the Motto in golden letters ; No. 593, PI. LV. 

The Collar, of gold, consists of sixteen Thistles, alternating 
with as many sprigs of Rue, four in each group, interlaced, all 
enamelled proper ; No. 593 A, PI. LV. 

The Jewel or Badge, attached to the Collar, or worn depending 
from a broad dark green Eibbon which crosses the left shoulder, 
is formed of a Figure of St. Andrew of gold enamelled, liis sur- 
coat purpure, and bis mantle vert, bearing before him his own 
Cross Saltire, the whole being irradiated with golden rays, and 
surrounded by an oval bearing the Motto, " Nemo me impune 
lacessit ;" No. 593 b, PI. LV. The Jewel is also worn as in 
No. 593 c. 

The Order is indicated by the Initials K.T. The Insignia are 
returned to the Sovereign on the decease of a Knight. 

The Officers of the Order are the Dean, the Lord Lion King of 
Arms, and the Gentleman Usher of the Green Bod. 

9. The Most Illustrious Order of St. Patrick, of Ireland, 
instituted by George III., Feb. 5, 1783, now consists of the 
Sovereign, the Grand Master, and twenty-two Knights. By the original 
Statutes the number of Knights ■was fifteen, and the Lord-Lieu- 
tenant was Grand Master. See Chap. XXXIII. 

The Insignia are, 

The Mantle, made of rich sky-blue tabinet, lined with white 


(silk, and fastened by a cordon of blue silk and gold with tassels. 
On the right shoulder is the Hood, of the same materials as the 
Mantle, and on the left side is the Star. 

The Bibbon, of sky-blue, four inches in width, is worn over 
the right shoulder, and sustains the Badge when the Collar is 
not worn. 

The Collar, of gold, is composed of Eoses alternating with 
Harps, tied together with knots of gold, the Koses being en- 
amelled alternately white within red, and red within white, and 
in the centre is an Imperial Crown surmounting a Harp of gold, 
fiom which the Badge is suspended ; No. 594, PI. LYI. 

The Badge or Jeicel, of gold, is oval in form. It is surrounded 
with a Wreath of Shamrock, proper, on a gold field; within 
this is a band of sky-blue enamel, charged with the Motto in 
golden letters ; and within this band the Cross of St. Patrick, 
No. 61, surmounted by a Trefoil or Shamrock vert, having 
upon each of its Leaves an Imperial Crown. The field of the 
Cross is either argent, or pierced and left open ; No. 59-i b, 

The Motto is " Quis Separabit, mdcci^xxiii." 

The Star, worn on the left side, difiers from the Padgo only 
in being circular in form instead of oval, and in substituting for 
the exterior wreath of Shamrocks, eight rays of silver, four of 
which are larger than the other four ; No. 594 a, PI. LVI. 

The Order is indicated by the initials, K.P. 

The Officers of the Order are, 

The Prelate, the Archbishop of Armagh. 

The Chancellor, the Archbishop of Dublin. 

The Begistrar, the Dean of St. Patrick's. 

The Genealogist. The Usher of the Black Bod. 

The Ulster King of Arms. Two Heralds, and Four Pursuivauls. 

10. The Most Honouraijle Order of the Bath. 

Amongst the various Pites and Ceremonies attending the 

PLATE LVI. CiiAi-iii: xx., p. :U{i. 

Insignia of tlic OuPER oi' St. Pathick. 
Nos. 594a., 594b., and 594.— T/ie Star, the Badge.and the Colhir uml the Bath,e 

(if tln' Onlir.^ 


ancient admission of Aspirants to the Order of Knighthuod, 
one of tho most important was the symbolical act of Bathimj. 
The memory of this usage is still preserved in the title of the 
renowned Order of the Bath, though the rite itself has long ' ^^|- jj^ 
ceased to be administered. The last lingering instances of 
conformity with the primitive observances are recorded to have 
taken place on the occasion of the Coronation of Charles II,, 
April 23, 1061. From that period till the year 1725, the old 
Institution had fallen into total oblivion ; and accordingly, the 
Order as it now exists, may be said to have been founded by 
George I., May 25, 1725. 

In 1815 the Order was completely remodelled, and it was 
decreed that it should consist of Three Classes ; and in 1847 it 
was further extended, and new statutes for the government of 
the Order were promulgated. The Order was again enlarged on 
the 31st of January, 1859, when it was ordained that the mem- 
bers should be 985 in number. 

The name of Sir Thomas Esturmy, who was created July 17th, 
1204, stands at the head of the chronological Eoll of the Knights. 
The earliest notice of the Badge of the Order being worn is in 
1614: and the present Motto of the Order first occurs upon the 
Badge of Sir Edward Walpole, created a Knight of the Bath, 
April 23rd, 1661. 

The Order of the Bath is now composed of, 

I. Krihjhts Grand Gross, (G.C.B.), who form the "First Class," 
for both naval, military, and diplomatic service. In their 
number, tho Sovereign, the Eoyal Princes, and certain dis- 
tinguished Foreigners are included ; the Knights themselves are 
50 Naval and Military, and 25 Civil. 

II. Knights Commanders, (K.C.B.), also for civil as well as mili- 
tary and naval service. Foreign oflBcers may be admitted as 
honorary K.C.B. All Knights of this " Second Class " have 
the distinctive appellation of Knighthood, and they wear the 
Insignia of the Order ; their numbers are 102 Kaval and Military, 



and 50 Civil ; and it is provided that these numbers may be in- 

III. Companions of the Order (C.B.), both civil, naval, and 
military, constitute the " Third Class," and take precedence of 
Esquires, but are not entitled to the style and title of Knight- 
hood ; their numbers are 525 Naval and Military, and 200 

The Naval and Military Insignia are, 

The Collar, of gold, in weight thirty ounces, No. 595, PI. L VII. ; 
it is composed of nine Imperial Crowns, and eight Koses, Thistles, 
and Shamrocks, issuing from a Sceptre, and enamelled proper, 
all linked together with seventeen knots enamelled argent, and 
having the Badge as a Pendant. 

The Star, worn by the G.C.B., is formed of Rays of Silver, or 

No. 595 A.— Star of Kuigbts G.C.B. 

Jewels, thereon a golden Maltese Cross, charged with the same 
Device as the 15adge ; No. 595a. The K.C.B Star omits the Mal- 
tese Cross, and is itself in its form a Cross Patee ; No. 595 a. 

PLATE LVII. Chaitki! xx . p. MS. 

Insignia of tlic Okder of the Bath. 

Nos. 59oi)., 595, and 595c. — Th^: Diplomatic and Civil Badge, and the Collar 

and the Naval and Military Badge of tlie Order. 



The Badge is a gold Cross of eight points, enamelled argent. 
In each of the four angles, a Lion of England. In the centre, 
within a circle, gules, charged with the Motto, the Rose, Thistle, 
and Shamrock, issuing from a Sceptre, and alternating with three 

No. 595 B.— Star of the Knip-hts K.C.B. 

Imperial Crowns ; the circle is encompassed with two branches 
of Laurel, which issue from an azure scroll in base, bearing in 
golden letters the words, " Ich Lien ;" No. 595 c, Plate LVII. 

This Badge is worn by the G.C.B. pendent from a broad 
red Bibhon across the left shoulder, and by the K.C.B. from a 
narrower red Hibhon from the neck ; and by a still narrower 
red Bibbon from the button-hole. The Cross engraved in PI- 
LVII. is worn by the C.B. as their Badge. 

The Diplomatic and Civil Insignia are, 

The Badge, of gold, an oval, having the external fillet charged 
with the Motto and encircling the central Device of the Order. 
It is worn by the Three Classes with the same distinctions as 
the Military Badge ; but the C.B. Civil Badge is smaller than 
the Badges of the two higher Classes ; No. 595 d, PI. LYII. 

The Star of the G.C.B., of silver, has eight rays, and in its 
centre is the red circle with the Motto, enclosing three Imperial 

Jt'itl*'***^'^ ' 


Crowns upon a Glory of silver rays. The Star of the K.C.B. 
is the same in form and size witli that of the military K.C.B., 
only omitting the Laurel-Wreath round the circle with the 
IMotto, and the small Scroll with the Legend, " Icii Dien." 

The Motto of the Order is " Tria Junxpa in Uno,"— " Three 
united in one,'" and refers as well to the union of the three realms 
the United Kingdom, as to the three branches of the National 
Service, namely, Naval, Military, and Diplomatic or Civil. 

'juitiftc The Companions of the Order, (C.B.) do not wear any other 

?*♦',/¥< /M"^ Insignia than tjieir Badge with its Ribbon. 

The Stalls of the early G.C.B. are in Henry Tilth's chapel, 
Westminster, with the Stall-Plates and the Banners of the 
Knights, and the Stall-Plates of the Esquires; but since 1815 
there has not been any installation of the Knights, who have be- 
come too numerous a body to be accommodated in the Stalls at 

11. The Most Distinguished Order of St, Michael and St. 

This Order was founded in the year 1S1<S. for the purpose of 
bestowing honourable Distinctions upon the Natives of ]\Lalta and 
the Ionian Islands. The members of the Order enjoy Rank and 
Precedence immediately after the corresponding Classes of the 
Bath, for this Order, like the Bath, is divided into Knights Gi-and 
Cross, Knights Commanders, and Companions. 

The Star of the Knights Grand Cross is formed of seven rays 
of silver, alternating with as many small rays of gold, and 
having over all the Cross of St. George. In the centre, within 
an azure circle inscribed with the Motto, is a Figure of St. 
Michael encountering Satan. 

The Collar of the same Class of Knights is composed of Lions 
of England and Maltese Crosses alternating, and of the Mono- 
grams S.M. and S.G. ; in the centre it has the Imperial Crown, 
over two winged Lions, counter-passant guardant, each holding 


a Book and seven Arrows. Opposite to these .are two similar 
Lions. The whole is of gold, except the Crosses, which are 
enamelled argent ; and the several pieces are linked together 
with small gold chains. 

The Badge is a Cross of fourteen points, of white enamel 
edged with gold, having in the centre on either side an azure 
circle with the Motto. On one side, this circle encloses a " St. 
Michael," and on the other side a " St. George." The Badge 
is ensigned by an Imperial Crown, and it is worn by Grand 
Crosses attached to the Collar, or from a broad dark blue Eibbon 
with a scarlet stripe, passing from the right shoulder to the 
left side. 

The Mantle is of dark blue satin, lined with scarlet silk, fastened 
with cordons of blue, scarlet and gold, and on the left side it 
has the Star. 

The Clmpeau is of blue satin, lined with scarlet, and surmounted 
by a plume of white and black Ostrich Feathers. 

The Star of the Knights Commanders is silver of four raj'S, having 
a Cross of eight points set sal tire- wise, and surmounted by a Cross 
of St. George, and having the same centre as the other Star. 

The Badge is the same, and is worn suspended to a narrow 
Eibbon, of the same colours, from the neck. 

The Companions wear the same Badge, of smaller size, from 
a still narrower Eibbon at the button-hole. 

The Motto of the Order is, "Auspicium Melioris Mvi." 

In addition to the Sovereign and the Grand Master, the 
Officers of the Order are the Prelate, Chancellor, Secretary, and 
King of Arms. 

12. The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. 

In the month of June of the year 1861, The Queen instituted 
the new " Order of the Star of India," for the express purpose of 
rendering high Honour to conspicuous Loyalt}' and Merit in the 
Princes, Chiefs and People of Her Indian Empire. The Order 


consists of tlie Sovereign, a Giand Master, always to be tlie 
Governor-General of India, and twenty-five Knights with such 
Honorary Knights as the Crown may appoint. The Knights are 
to include both military, naval, and civil officers, and natives of 
India. See Chap. XXXIII. 

The Insignia are, 

The Collar, No. 596, PI. LIX., which is composed of the 
heraldic Eose of England, and the Lotus Flower, and two Palm- 
Branches in saltire tied with a Eibbon, alternately, all of gold 
enamelled proper, and connected by a double golden chain. In 
the centre is the Imperial Crown, from either side of which the 
senes of Devices commences with a Lotus. From the Crown 
depends the Badge, consisting of a brilliant Mullet, or Star of 
five Points, to which is suspended an oval Medallion containing 
an onyx cameo profi.le Bust of the Queen, encircled by the Motto 
in letters of gold on an enriched Border of light blue enamel ; 
No. 596 A, PI. LIX. 

The Investment Badge, to be worn pendent from a Ribbon of 
pale blue with white borders, is the same in design as the Collar 


Badge, but the Star, the setting of the Cameo, and the Motto are 
all of diamonds. 

The Star, of diamonds, is also a mullet, on an irradiated field 
of gold. It is surrounded by an azure fillet, bordered with gold, 
and charged with the Motto in diamonds. The whole is encircled 
by wavy Kays of gold; No. 596 b, PI. LIX. 

The Motto is, " Heaven's Light our Guide." 

13. Decorations of Honour. 

Crosses, Medals, and Clasps, with Bibbons to which they should 
be attached, have been conferred for signal services, both naval 
and military. These Medals commemorate the services and the 
gallant actions of the Xavy and Anny of England in all parts of 
the world. Clasps, or small Bars, are attached to the Medal- 
Ribbons, each bearing the name of some paiiicular action. 

PLATE LXI. Chaitek xx., p. 352. 

Insignia of the Okdek of the Stau of Ixhia. 

Nos. 596b., 596, 59Ga.— r/ie Star, the CuUur aud the Badfie of the Oi-der. 


The Waterloo Medal, now rarely to be seen, is of silver, with 
the Head of the Prince Regent, and a winged Victory, and the 
words, " Waterloo," " Wellington." The Ribbon is crimson, 
with a naiTow stripe of blue near each edge. 

The Crimean Medal is silver, and is worn fi'om a blue Ribbon 
with yellow edges for the Crimea itself, and from a yellow 
Ribbon with blue edges for the Baltic. There are separate Clasps 
for Sevastopol, Balaclava, InJcerman, and Alma. 

In 1830 and 1831, " Good Service Medals" of silver were 
instituted, and Rules were framed for their distribution to 
meritorious soldiers, seamen, and marines. The Naval Medal 
is worn from a blue, and the Military from a crimson Ribbon. 

There are many other Medals for various services in the 
Peninsula, in India, &c. &c. 

The Name, Rank, and Regiment or Ship, of every recipient of 
a Medal is engraven upon it. 

14. The VicroKFA Cross, instituted by Her Majesty the Queen 
in 1856, is the decoration of eminent personal valour in actual 
conflict with the enemy. It is a Maltese Cross of bronze, charged 
with the Imperial Crown and Crest, and has the words " for 
valour" upon a scroll, No. 597, PI, XLVI. This Cross is worn 
on the left breast attached to a blue Ribbon for the Navj', and to 
a red Ribbon for the Anny. A Bar is attached to the libbon 
for every act of such gallantry as would have won the Cross. 
This noble decoration is given only for " conspicuous bravery," 
without any distinction whatever of rank or other circum- 
stances. In the collection of Pictures entitled the " Victoria 
Cross Gallery," painted by Mr. Desanges, the incidents — 
memorable in English History, which have been rewarded 
with Victoria Crosses, are set forth with vivid and graphic 

15. Foreign Orders and Medals. 

The Insignia of Foreign Orders of Knighthood and Medals of 
Honour, the gift of Foreign Sovereigns, cannot be accepted and 

2 A 


worn by any British subject, witbout the express and especial 
sanction and authority of the Queen. 

The Foreign Insignia and Medals that of late years have been 
bestowed in considerable numbers upon British officers, soldiers, 
seamen, and marines, are those of the Legion of ffonoiir of France, 
and the French Military Medal ; the Sardinian War Medal, and 
the Order of the Medjidie of TurTcey. 

16. The Legion of Honour comprehends " Grand Crosses," 
" Grand Officers," " Commanders," " Officers," and " Knights." 

The Decoration is a Cross of ten Points of white enamel edged 
with gold; the Points are connected by a Wreath of Laurel 
proper, and in the centre, within an azure circle chai'ged with 
the words, " Napoleon IIL, Emp. des Franqais," is a Head of 
the Emperor. The Cross is ensigned by the Imperial Crown of 
France, and is worn attached to a red Eibbon. Tbe Grand 
Officers also wear upon the right breast a silver Star, charged 
with the Imperial Eagle. The same Star is worn on the left 
breast by the Knights Grand Cross, and their Cross is at- 
tached to a broad red Eibbon which passes over their right 

The French Military Medal is worn from a yellow Eibbon with 
green Borders. 

17. The Sardinian War Medal is charged with the Cross of 
Savoy, and is suspended from a sky-blue Eibbon, 

18. The Turkish Order of the Medjidie has five Classes. The 
Badge is a silver Sun of seven triple Eays, th§ Device of the 
Crescent and Star alternating with the Eays. In the centre, 
upon a circle of red enamel, is the Legend, (in the vernacular), 
" Zeal, Honour, Loyalty," and the date 1852, (Turkish, 1268); 
within this, on a golden field, the name of the Sultan. This 
Decoration varies in size for the various " Classes " of the Order. 
The First three Classes suspend the Badge round the neck from 
a red Kibbon having green Borders ; and the Fourth and Fifth 
Classes wear it upon the left Breast by a similar Eibbon. 


A Star, close] y resembling the Badge, is also worn hy the 
First Class on the left, and by the Second Class on the right 
• 19. The Austrian and Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece, 
haying numbered many Englishmen amongst its Members, 
claims a brief notice in this place. Established in the year 1429 
by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, the Order received its 
statutes in 1431 ; and on the marriage of Mary, daughter of 
Charles the Bold of Burgundy, with Maximilian of Austria, it 
became an Austrian in place of a Burgundian Order. Since the 
year 1748, this celebrated Order has been claimed, and its pri- 
vileges have been exercised by both Austria and Spain. The 
original motto, " Autre n'auray," declaring that a Knight of 
the Golden Fleece would accept no other knightly distinction, 
shows the high estimation in which this Order was held from 
the time of its foundation. The decoration of the Golden Fleece 
itself is worn suspended from a red rihhon, or from a splendid 
collar composed of steels and flints represented as in the act of 
emitting sparks of fire. 

20. The Banish Orders of the Dannebrog and the "White 
Elephant, the latter eminently distinguished throughout Europe, 
are now regarded with peculiar interest in England. 

The Order of the Dannebrog, or " the Banner of the Banes" 
was originally founded, a.d. 1219, by Waldemar II., to comme- 
morate his having received from heaven a red banner charged 
with a white cross, while fighting with the pagans of Esthonia. 
The Cross of this Order is imtee, enamelled white with red edges, 
surmounted by the King's cypher crowned, and having within 
each angle a Eoyal Crown. In front of the Cross, at the centre, 
is a crowned W, the initial of Waldemar ; and at its extremities 
the words, Gud og Kongen, " God and the King.'^ On the re- 
verse are the three dates of the foundation of the Order, its re- 
newal and reform, 1219, 1671, 1808. The Collar is formed of 
the letter W and the Cross alternately, linked together with 

2 A 2 


chains of gold. This Order has four Classes : — Grand Com- 
manders, Chrand Crosses, Cominanders, and Knights. 

The Order of the White Elephant, said to have been founded 
early in the fifteenth century, was renewed in 1458 by Chris- 
tian I., and by him ordained to consist of thirty knights in 
addition to the Princes of the Eoyal Family. The Badge is an 
Elephant of white enamel with golden tusks, having a castle on 
its back. It is worn from a broad shy-hlue watered ribbon, pass- 
ing over the right shoulder, or from a collar foimed of white 
elephants and castles. The Star, of eight points of brilliants, 
has its centre charged with the Danish Cross within a wreath of 
laurel in enamel. 

No. G27. — White Hart lodged. Badge of Richard II., from liis Effigy 
at Westminster. See page 2G3. 


No. 298. — Crown of Herald Kus-gs-of-Arms. b- /I V 




At an early period in the History of Heraldiy, Shields of Arms 
were assigned to certain Officers, and also to Corporate Bodies 
whether Civil or Ecclesiastical. Armorial Insignia of this Class 
possess many qualities and associations, which render them 
peculiarly attractive to students of Heraldiy. So numerous are 
the Arms that would be comprehended under this Class, that 
within the limits of a general Handbook it is not possible to 
describe and blazon more than a very few illustrative examples. 
A tolerably complete Manual of Official and Corporate Heraldry 
would form a goodly volume in itself. 

1. Arms of the Archbishops and Bishops, and of their several 
Sees. The Arms are the Insignia of the Sees, and each Prelate 
impales the arms of his own See on the dexter side, with his 
own paternal arms on the sinister side. 

1. Archbishops. 

Canterbury : Az., an archiepiscopal staff, In pale, or, ensigned 
with a cross patee arg., surmounted hy a pall of the last, fimbriated 
and fringed gold, and charged with four crosses formees fitchees sa. 
No. 255, PL XIV. 


Fine examples exist at Canterbury, Croydon, Guilford, and 
All Souls College, Oxford. 

York : Gu., two keys in salfire arg., in chief an Imperial Croicn 
of England. The arms of the See of York were originally the 
same as those of Canterbury. The change was made about 
A.D. 1540. 

AuMAGH : Az., an archiepiscojjal staff, in pale, arg., ensigned with 
a cross patee or, surmounted by a pall of the second, fimbriated and 
fringed gold, and charged ivith four crosses forme'es fiiche'es sa. 

Dublin : The same as Armagh. The student will observe the 
difference between the arms of the See of Canterbury and those 
of Armagh and Dublin. 

2. Bisiioi's. 

London, Durham, Winchester; see p. 96. 

Bangou : Gu., a bend or, guttee-de-poix, between tioo mullets arg., 
pierced of the field. 

Bath and Wells : Az., a salt ire quarterly quartefred or and arg. 

Carlisle : Arg., on a cross sa., a mitre labelled or. ' 

Chester: Gu., three mitres, two and one, labelled or. 

Chichester : upon a shield azure a seated Figure, represented 
as in the act of benediction, and having a sword proceeding out 
of his mouth. This Figure without doubt is that of the Saviour, 
and the sword has direct reference to the passages in the Book 
of Eevelation, Chap, i., 16, and xix., 15 and 21. The blazon 
given in the Peerages, which 1 do not profess to comprehend , is 
as follows : az., a Presfer John sitting upon a tombstone, in his left 
hand a mound, his right extended, all or ; on his Jicad a linen mitre 
and in his mouth a sword pp\ This mysterious sentence must 
have been the result of a strange misapprehension ; possibly the 
figure may have been considered to be that of St. John the 
Evangelist, " the Elder." See Notes and Queries, 2nd Series, 
iv., 376, for a notice of a Prester John, who certainly has no con- 
nection with the See of Chichester. 


Ely : Gu., three crowns, two and one, or. 

ExETiat : Gu., a sword, in pale, ppr., hilt or, surmounting two 
keys, in saltire, gold. 

Gloucester and Bristol: Az., two keys, in saltire, or, for Glou- 
cester; impaling, Sa., three open crowns, in pale, or, for Bristol. 

Hereford : Gu., three leopard's faces reversed, jessant de-lys, or. 

Lichfield : Per pale gu. and arg., a cross potent and quadrate, 
(No. 91), between four crosses patees, all counterchanged. 

Lincoln : Gu., two lions of England ; on a chief az., the Blessed 
Virgin, sitting, crowned and sceptred, and holding the Holy CJiild, or. 

Llandaff : Sa., two pastoral staves, in saltire, or and arg. ; on a 
chief az., three mitres labelled gold. 

Manchester : Or, on a pale engrailed gu., three mitres labelled 
gold ; on a canton of the second, three hendlets enlianced arg. 

Norwich : Az., three mitres labelled, two and one, or. 

Oxford : Sa., a fesse arg. ; in chief, three lady's heads, issuant 
arrayed and veiled, arg., croivned or ; in base, an ox of the second, 
passant over a ford ppr. 

Peterborough : Gu., between four crosslets fitchees, two keys, in 
saltire, or. 

Eii'ON : Arg., on a saltire gu., two keys, in saltire, wards totcards the 
base, or ; on a chief of the second, an Agnus Dei. 

EocHESTER : Arg., on a saltire gu., an escallop-shell or. 

St. Asaph : Sa., two keys, in saltire, addorsed arg. 

Sr. David's : Sa., on a cross or, five cinquefoils of the first. 

Salisbury : Az., the Blessed Virgin and Child, in her left hand a 
sceptre, or. 

Worcester: Ar;g., ten torteaux, 4, 3, 2, 1. 

For the arms of the Sees of Ireland and of the Colonies, I must 
refer to the Peerages. / 

3. Deans and Chapters. 

Of this group of arms I must be content to give four examples 
as specimens of their class. 


Deanery of Canterbury : Az., on a cross arg. the letter X sa., 
surmounted by the letter I of the last. 

Deanery of York : Gu., two keys, in salt ire addorsed, arg., between 
three plates, two in f esse and one in base, in chief a Itoyal crown or. 

Deanery of Westminster : Tlie arms of the Confessor, No. 78, 
PI. I. ; on a chief or., between two roses gu., a pale chargedwith France 
Modern and England quarterly ; No. 598, PI. XLVII. 

Deanery of St. Paul's : the arms of the See, having in chief 
the letter D gold. 

4. Monasteries of the Middle Ages. 

Of the Arms of these Institutions, often of great interest to the 
student of historical Heraldry, I have space for three examples 

The Abbey of St. Albax : Az., asaltireor, Xo. 633, PI. LXXVII. 
and No. 466, PI. LI. 

Westminster Abbey : Az., on a chief indented or, to the dexter 
a pastoral staff in pale, and to the sinister- a mitre gu.; No. 599, 

Castle-Acre Priory, Norfolk : Arg., a cross chequee or and az., 
between twelve crosslets fitchees sa. This cross chequee indicates 
the close connection that existed between Castle-Acre Priory and 
the family of the De Warrennes. 

5. Universities and Colleges. 

University of Oxford : Az., on a book open pp\, garnished 
or, having on the dexter side seven seals gold, the words DoMiNUS 
Illuminatio Mea, between three crowns of the last ; No. 600, PI. 

University College, Oxford, (a. d. 872 and 1219): Az., a cross 
patonce between four martlets or. 

Balliol College, (a.d. 1263 and 1284): Gu., an orle arg. 

Merton College, (a.d. 1274): Or, three chev7'on)gh, per pale, the 


C ?:^?TEHS . MX X7J 

a ^^5 

rlare XlT/i: 


Jird and the third az. and <ju., the second counter chanr/ing the same 

WoRCESTEK College, (A.D. 1283 and 1713) : ^, two chevrons fju., 
between six martlets so, 3, 2, and 1. -(..'-.- 

Exeter College, (a.d, 1.*>16 and 1404): Arg., two bends nebulee 
sa., loithin a bordure of the second, charged with eight pairs of keys, 
addorsed and interlaced in the rings, the wards in chief, or. 

Oriel College, (a.d. 1323) : England, mthin a hoi-dure engrailed 

QuEEJj's College, (a.d. 1340) : w, three eagles displayed gu. ^ ^y. 

New College, (a.d. 1379) : Arg., two chevrons sa., between three 
roses gu., impaling the aims of the See of Winchester, the whole 
within a Garter of the Order ensigned with a Mitre. 

Lincoln College, (a.d. 1429 and 1479): Per pale of three ; 
1. barry of six arg. and az., in chief three lozenges gu., for Hugh 
FLiiiiiNG, Bishop of Lincoln, first Founder; 2. onajield arg., the 
arms of the See of Lincoln, ensigned with a mitre ; 3. vert, three stags 
3^-'. tripping -m'^ atiired or, for Thomas Scott, Archbishop of York, 
second Founder. 

All Souls College, (a.d. 1437) : Or, a chevron between three 
cinquefoils gu. 

Magdalen College, (a.d. 1456) : Lozengee erm. and sa., on a chief 
of the last three lilies slipped org. 

Brazen-Nose College, (a.d. 1515): Per pale of three; 1. arg., 
a chevron sa., between three roses gu., barbed vert, seeded or, for 
William Smith, Bishop of Lincoln, Founder; 2. See of Lincoln ; 
3. quarterly, 1 and 4, arg., a chevron between three bugle-horns stringed 
sa. ; 2 and 3, arg., a chevron between three crosses-crossletf sa. 

Corpus Christi College, (a.d. 1516) : Per pale of three ; 1. az., 
a pelican in its piety or, for Richard Fox, Bishop of Winchester, 
Founder ; 2. See of Winchester ; 3. sa., a chevron or, between three 
owls arg., on a chief or as many roses gu., for Bishop Oldham. 

Christ Church College, (a.d. 1532 and 1546) : Sa., on a cross 
engrailed arg., a lion pass, gu., between four Icojyard's faces az. : on 


a chief or, a rose of the third, barbed vert, seeded of the fifth, between 
two Cornish choughs ppr. 

Trinity College: (Founded— the first after the Reformation -- 
by Sir Thomas Pope, in 155G) ; 

Arms : Per pale or and az., on a chevron between three griffins 
heads erased, four fleurs de lys, all counterchanged. 

Crest : Tico griffin's heads addorsed, issuing from a crest-coronet, 
per pale or and az., counterchanged. 

St. John's College, (a.d. 1557): Gu., on a canton erm. a lioncel 
rampt. sa. ; a bordure of the last, charged with eighty estoiles or ; on the 
»j.. f esse point an annulet gold, for difference. 

Jesus College, (a.d. 1571) : Az., three stags tripping arg. n]-*- 

Wadham College, (a.d. 1613): Gu., a chevron between three roses 
arg., for Wadham ; impaling, gu., a bend or,beticeen three escallops 
arg., for Petri:, 

Pembroke College, (a.d. 1620) : Per pale az. and gu., three lions 
rampt. arg. ; a chief per pale or and arg., charged with a rose gu. to 
the dexter, and to the sinister a thistle vert. 

^^^^^^,^ University of Cambriige: Gu., on a cross erm., between four 
►Y** ' ^ '"^ lions of England, a Bible lying fesse-wise of the field, clawed and 
Cu 7 '/ garnished gold, the clasps in base ; No. 601, PL XL VII. 
5^<in*t St. Peter's College, Cambridge, (a.d. 1256) : Or, three 

y*ii^i J pallets gu., within a bordure of the last, charged icith eight ducal 
1 i«j|- cwonets or. 

Clare Hall, (a.d. 1326 ; Foundress, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Earl Gilbert de Clare, and wife of John de Burgh, Earl of 
Ulster) : De Glare impaling Ulster, the whole within a bordure sa., 
guttee d'or. 

Pembroke Hall, (a.d. 1343); Foundress, Mary de Chastillon, 
wife of Earl Aymer de Valence) : De Valence dimidiating Clias- 
tillon, — vair, three pallets gu., on a chief or a lahel of three points az. 

CoRF'Us Christi College, (a.d. 135p : Quarterly, 1 aTid 4, gu., a 
pelican in its piety ppr. ; 2 and 3, az., three lilies arg. 


Trinity Hall, (a.d. 1351) : Sa., within a hordure engrailed, a 
crescent erm. 

Queen's College, (a.d. 1441) : The Arms of the Foundress, 
Queen Margaret of Anjou, No. 352, PI. XXIII. : see p. 307. 

King's College, (a.d. 1441 ; the Grant of Anns direct from 
King Henry VI., by patent under the Great Seal, a.d. 1449), — 
Sa., three roses arg., barbed vert, seeded or ; on a chief per pale az. and 
gu., a fieurde-hjs and a lion or. 

Catherine Hall, (a.d. 1497) : Gu., a Catherine-wTieel or. 
Jesus College, (a.d. 1597) : Arg., on a fesse between three cock's 
heads erased sa., crested and wattled gu., amilre or, allicithin a bordure 
of the third, charged with eight ducal coronets gold. 

Christ's College, (a.d. 1505): France Modem and England, 
ivithin a bordure componee arg. and az. ; No. 479, PI. XXXII. 
St. John's College, (a.d. 1508) : No. 479, PI. XXXII. 
Magdalen College, (a.d. 1541): Quarterly, per pale indented or 
and az. : in the ^st and -ith quarters, a bend of the second, frettee, 
between two martlets, gold ; in the 2nd and ord quarters, an eagle dis- 
played of the first. 

Trinity College, (a.d. 1546 :) Arg., a chevron between three roses 
gu., barbed vert, seeded or ; on a chief of the second, a Lion of England 
between two Bibles pale-ivise gold, clasped and garnished of the last, 
clasps to the dexter. 

GoN\aLLE and Caius College, (a.d. 1548) : Arg., on a chevron 
between two couple-closes sa., three escallops or, for Gonville ; impaling 
the anns of Caius, of which the original gTant from Dalton, 
Norroj of Arms, runs thus — " Golde, semyed with flowre gentle, in 
the myddle of the cheyfe sengrene, resting upon the heads of ij serpentes 
in pale, their tayles Icnytte together, alle in proper color, restinge upon 
a square marble stone vert, betwene their brestes a book sable, garnished 
gewles, buckles or : betokening by the book Learning ; by the ij 
sei'pentes uppon the square marble stone Wisdom and Grace, 
founded and stayed upon Vertue's stable stone ; by sengi-ene 
and flowre gentle Inimurtalitie that never shall fade, as thuugh 


thus I shulde say, Ex prudentia et Uteris, virtutis petra firmatis, 
immortalitas ; that is to say, By "wisdome and learning, graffted 
in grace and vertue, men come to immortal itie." The impaled 
arms are within a Bordure componee arg. and sa. 

Emmanuel College, (a.d. 1584): Arg., a lion rampt. az., holding 
in his dexter paw a chaplet of laurel vert, in chief the icord Emmanuel 
gold charged upon a scroll sa. 

Sidney Sussex College (a.d. 1695): Arg., a hend engrailed sa., 
for Badcliffe ; impaling, or, a pheon az., for Sidney. 

Downing College, (a.d. 1800) : Barry of eight arg. and vert, a 
griffin segreant or, loithin a bordure az., charged loith eight roses of the 
first, barbed and seeded p)pr. 

6. Public Schools. 

Eton College, (a.d. 1440) : Az., three lilies, slipped and leaved, 
2 and 1, arg. ; on a chief per pale az. and gii., a fieur-de-lys of 
France, and a lion of England. 

Amongst the Archives of Eton is the original Grant of Arms 
by Hen'ky' VI'. It is one of the most beautiful examples of 
Blazonry that I have ever seen, and it remains in pei-fect pre- 
servation. The Seals appended to this and to other documents 
at Eton are of the highest interest. 

Winchester School : The same arms as Nkw College, Oxford. 

7. The College of Arms, or Herald's College, London ; and 
the Lyon Office of Arms, Edinburgh. 

^ f / The College of Arms: — Arms: Arg., a cross of St. George, 
j(iM, ilji/l cantoning four doves, their dexter icings elevated and inverted az. 
7 47. J No. 602, Chap. XXVILf])'</iL,U'^ 

Crest : From a crest-coronet or, a dove rising az. 

SuPPORi'ERS : Two lions rampt. guard, arg., ducally crowned or. 

These insignia are derived from Wriothsley, one of the early 


• ■RKsr OK 






> XI.VT. 


The Ukralus' Office, or Lyon Office, of Scotland : Arg., a 
lion sejant affronte gu,, holding in his dexter paw a thistle slipped 
vert, and in the sinister an escutcheon of the second ; on a chief az., 
the cross saltire of St. Andrew. These arms date from the j'ear 

8. The Herald Kings-of-Arms. 

Garter : Arg., the cross of St. George ; on a chief az., a ducal 
cm-onet encircled idtli a garter of the Order, between a lion of Eng- 
land and a fleur-de-lys, all or. No. 603, PL XL VI. 

NoEROY : Arg., the Cross of St. George ; on a chief per pale az. 
and gu., between a fleur-de-lys and a key, the latter pcde-icise, a lion 
of England croivned, all or. No. 604, PL XLVI. 

Clarencieux : Arg., the cross of St. George ; on a chief gu., a 
lion of England, croivned or. No. 606, PI. XLVI. 

Lyon : The Arms of the Lyon Office of Arms. 

Ulster : Arg., the cross of St. George ; on a chief az., between a 
harp and a portcullis, a lion of England, all or, the harp stringed of 
the first. No. 606, PL XLVI. 

9. Public Ixstitutions. 

The Eoyal Society of London: a.d. 1663. Arg., a quarter of 

The Society of Antiquaries of London : Arg., on a cross of 
St. George a Boyal Crown or. Crest : An antique Boman lamp 
or, inflamed ppr. ; with the Motto, above the Crest, " Non Ex- 

10. Municipal and other Corporations. 

London. Arms, No. 139, p. 54 : Arg., the cross of St. George 
cantoning in the first quarter a sicord erect gu. See Swcu-d in 
Chap. IX. 

Crest : A dragon's toing, expanded to the sinister, arg., ensigned 
with a cross of St. George. 


Supporters: Two dragons vert, their icings expanded arg., and 
each charged %mth a cross gu. 

Motto : Domine, Dirigr Nos. 

Examples: Brasses at Standon, a.d. 1477; Walthamstow, 
A.D. 1545; and Much Iladham, a.d. 1582: The Guildhall, 
London, &c. 

Westminster : Az., a portcullis or ; on a chief of the second, the 
arms of the Confessor blazoned on a pale, between two roses gu. No. 
607, PI. XL VII. 

Canterbury : Arg., on a chevron gu.,hetween three Cornish choughs 
pp>:, a lion of England. 

York : Ai-g., on a cross of St. George, Jive lioncels of England, 
(See a Brass in St. Cross Church, York). The Great Seal 
of the City has this Seal between *two Ostrich Feathers 

Oxford : Pei' fesse arg. and barry icavy az. and of the first, an 
ox passant gu., armed and unguled or. Or thus, Arg., in base a 
ford of waier ppr., through which an ox gu., armed and unguled or, 
is passing. 

Norwich : Gm., a castle triple toioered arg., and in base a lion of 

Bristol : Gu., a castle on a mount by the sea-side, a ship under full 
sail passing by, all ppr. See the Brass to John Cutte, Mayor of 
Bristol, A.D. 1575, at Burnet, Somersetshire. 

The Crests, Supporters, and Mottoes, except in the instance 
of London, are omitted, and it must be understood that the 
examples blazoned are simply specimens of their several 

The Fraternity of the Trinity House, London ; Incorporated 
by Henry VIIL, a.d. 1515. 

Arms : Arg., a cross of St. George, beticeen four ships of three 
masts under full sail, upon waves of the sea ppr., each bearing an 
ensign and pendant gu. 

Crest : A demi-lion rampt. guard, regally crowned or, holding in 


his dexter paio a sword erect gu., kilted and pomelled or: Xo. 168, 

11. Commercial Companies and GVi-i>s. 

These important Institutions, the sources from which the 
great stream of English Commerce has flowed onwards with 
ever-increasing strength, take ils back to the grand heraldic 
era of King Edward III., by whom regular Armorial Bearings 
were assigned both to the Associations of Merchants, and to the 
Fraternities of Craftsmen and Traders. And these Coats of 
Ai-ms of the Companies to which they belonged, were qiiartoredi 
in many instances, with their Merchants' Maries, by enterprising 
individuals, a practice that was regarded with much jealousy by 
the Heralds, inasmuch as thus iNferchants' Marks indirectly vin- 
dicated their claim to be regarded as a species of heraldic Bla- 
zonry, and Heraldry itself was constrained to extend its range 
beyond the exclusive limits of Chivalry. 

Many examples of the Arms of the Early Companies or Guilds 
exist, particularly in Brasses, to which I refer the student. I 
proceed to blazon the arms of the more important of these insti- 

1. The Merchants of the Staple of Calais, incorporated by 
Edward III. : Barry undee of six arg. and az., on a chief gu., a 
lion of England. Example : Standon, Herts, a.d. 1477. No. 304, 

2. The Merchants Adventurers, or Ha^iburgh Merchants, 
received their original Charter from Edward I. : Barry undee of 
six arg. and az., a chief qimrtered gu. and or ; in the \st and 4th 
quarters a lion of England, and in the 2nd and 3rd quarters two 
Lancastrian roses. Example : The Brass to John Terri, a.d. 1524, 
St. John's, Maddermarket, Xorwich, which has the arms of the 
Company quartered with the " Mark " of John Terri himself : 
No. 305, PI. XIII. 

3. The East India Merchants, incorporated by Queen Eliza- 


BKTH : Az., three Ships under full sail on the sea ppr., their sails, 
ensigns, and pendants all charged toith the cross of St. George; on 
a chief arg., between two Lancastrian roses, a pale quarterly of the 
first and gu., hearing a fleur-de-lys of France and a lion of England. 
Example : The Brass to the Navigator, Johx Eldred, a.d. 1632, 
at Great Saxham, Suffolk. Upon this same Brass are the Anus 
of the Levant and Itussia Merchants' Companies. 

4. The Levant, or Turkey Merchants : Az., heticeen two rocks, 
a ship under fidl sail on the sea pp^\, the sails, ensign, and pen- 
dants charged loith the cross of St. George ; a chief engrailed or ; in 
base, a sea-horse. 

5. The Eussia Merchants : Barry wavy of six arg. and az. ; 
over all a ship under full sail ppr., the sails, dc, charged icith 
the cross of St. George, all between three bezants; on a chief or 
between two Lancastrian roses, a pale gu., bearing a lion of 

6. The Merchants Adventurers of Bristol : Barry icavy of 
eight arg. and az., over all a bend or, charged with a dragon passant, 
icith wings addorsed and tail extended, vert ; on a chief gu., between 
two bezants, a lion of England. 

The Arms of the Twelve Great London Companies or Guilds, 
are as follow : 

1. The Mercers' Company, incorporated a.d. 1394: Gu., a 
demi virgin, couped beloio the shoulders, ppr., vested or, crowned 
with an eastern crown, her hair dishevelled, and vrreathed about 
her temples with roses of the second, issuing'^ from clouds, and all 
within an orle of the same, ppr. Example : Iligham Ferrei"s, 
Northants, a'.d. 1o04. 

2. The Grocers, (a.d. 1346) : Arg., a chevron gu., between nine 
cloves sa. Example: Finchley, Middlesex, a.d. 1610. 

3. The Drapers, (a.d. 1332 and 1364; Arms 1439) : Az., three 
clouds, radiated, ppr., each adorned xcith a triple croum or, cap gu. 
Example: Walthamstow, Essex, a.d. 1543. 

(aC. 4. The Fishmongers. (The Stoch and Salt Fishmongers' ancient 


Companies combined, and their separate Arms united on a single 
Shield, A.D. 1534) : Az., three dolphins naiant, in pale, arg., finned 
and ducally crowned or, between two pairs of lucies in saltire, (the sin. 
surmounting the dext.), over the nose of each lucy a ducal coronet gold. : 
on a chief gu., three pairs of keys, endorsed in saltire, of the last. 
Example : Woburn, Bucks, a.d. 1520, 

5. The Goldsmiths, (a.d, 1327): Quarterly; 1 and 4 gu., n ^^/iM*^^/ 
leopard's face or ; 2 and 3, az., a covered cup, and in chief two X^^i"* 
hucMes, their tongues fesse-wise, points to the dext, all of the second. 

Example : Datchet, Bucks, a.d. 1593, 

6. The Merchant Tailors, (a.d. 1466 and 1508) : Arg., a royal 
tent, between two parliament robes, gu., lined erm., the tent garnished 
and the tent-staff and pennon all or ; on a chief az., a lion of England. 
Example : St. Martin Outwich, London, a.d, 1500. 

7. The Skinners, (a,d. 1327 and 1395) : Erm., on a chief 

gu., three Prince's coronets, composed of crosses patees and fleurs de lys, « 
or, with caps of the first, and tasselled of the last. Example : 
Skinners' Hall. 

8. The Haberdashers, (a,d, 1447, Arms in 1571): Barry 
nebidee of six arg. and az., over all a bend gu., charged with a lion 
of England. Example : St. Andrew Undershaft, London, a.d. 

9. The Salters, (a.d. 1364 and 1530, Arms in 1530): Per 
chev. az. and gu., three covered cups, or salt-sprinlders, arg. Example : 
All Hallows, Barking, London, c. 1535. 

10. The Ironmongers, (a.d, 1462) : Arg., on a cheiron gu., 
three swivels or, (the central one pale-icise, the other two in the line of 
the ordinary,) between as many steel gads az. Example : Iron ■ 
mongers' Hall. 

11. The Vintners, (a.d, 1365 and 1437): Sa., a chevi-on between 
three tuns arg. Example : Vintners' Hall. 

12. The Clothworkers, (a.d. 1482 and 1528, Arms in 1530): 
Sa., a chevron erm., betiveen two habiclcs in chief arg., and a tezel 
slipped in base or. Example : Clothworkers' Hall, 

2 B 


To these, as examples of the other Companies of London, 
I add the Blazon of three other Shields of the same class. 

1. The rAiXTEES-STAixEKS, or Painters : Quarterly; 1 and 4, az., 
three shields, 2 and 1, arg.; 2 aiid S, az., a chevron, between three 
phoenix heads erased, or. Example : Painters' Hall. 

2. The Stationers, (a.d. 1556) : Az., on a chevron or, hettceen 
three Bibles lying fesse-tcise gu., garnished, leaved, and clasped gold, 
(clasps to the base), an eagle rising ppr., enclosed by tico Lancastrian 
roses ; from the chief of the shield, a demi-circle of glory edged with 
clouds pjpr., therein a Dove displayed, about its head a circle arg. 
Example : Brass to Johx Day, printer, a.d. 1564, Little Bradley, 

3. The Brewers ; Gu., on a chevron arg., beticeen three pairs of 
barley garbs, in salt ire, or, three tuns sa., hooped of the third. Ex- 
ample : at All Hallows Barking, London, a.d. 1592. 

Arms were also granted, at the following periods, to several 
other Civic Companies ; as, to the Tallow Chandlers, a.d. 1456 ; 
to the Upholders, in 1465 ; to the Carpenters, in 1466 ; to the 
Wax-Chandlep.s, in 1484 ; to the Weavers, in 1490 ; to the 
Coopers, in 1509 ; to the Plasterers, in 1546 ; to the Armourers, 
in 1556 ; and to the Apothecaries, in 1617. 

Shields of Arms are considered to belong to the different 
Counties of the United Kingdom, and they are habitually used 
in documents and publications having a direct reference to the 
several Counties. It is difficult, however, to understand how a 
County can be supposed either to have a corporate existence, 
or to be able to bear anns. Accordingly, I do not include in 
this chapter the so-called Arms of the Counties— arms which 
appear to have been adapted from the heraldic insignia of the 
early Earls or Counts. 

In this Chapter, had I been enabled to have extended it as 
fully as I should have desired, I should have included a com- 
plete series of those arms of which I have given only a few 



selected examples ; and I should also have added several other 
groups, that would have comprehended the heraldic insignia of 
the Eegiments of the British Army, of our various National 
and Public Institutions and Associations, and of the most im- 
portant of the incorporated Companies of our own times. I 
cannot resist adding the Mottoes of the Royal Artillery and the 
EoYAL Marines — the former, with the Eoyal Arms and a gun, 
have the words Ubique, and Quo Fas et Gloria Dtjcunt ; and, 
with a representation of the terrestrial globe, the latter have 
these words — Per Mare, per Terras. 

No. 723. — Mrxc.rLDASs Nuthoobhoy, of Bombay. 
(See the end of Chap. XXIX.) 

No. 55G. — Crown of Henry VII., King's College Chapel, Cambridge. 
Bee p. 319. 



English Heraldry and the Gothic Architecture of England arose 
and flourished together, From the first they acted in concert, 
and their allied action has always been productive of the hap- 
piest results. From the edifices that the Gothic of the middle 
ages has left, as its own most fitting memorial, we learn many 
of not the least valuable of our lessons in early Heraldry. And 
it is from a thoughtful study of the manner in which the old 
alliance between Heraldry and Gothic Architecture expi-essed 
itself in the Architectural Heraldry of the Plantagenet and 
Tudor eras, that we determine both the character and the range 
of our own Architectural Heraldry, in the revived Gothic Archi- 
tecture of the present day. 

Itself essentially an historical Art, Architecture, through the 
agency of other Arts working in close association with it, aspires 
to become a stone-inscribed History. Such co-operation neces- 
sarily implies that eveiy historical accessory should be in con- 


sistent harmony with the style of Architecture with which it 
would be associated. Classic Architecture, accordingly, requires 
that every historical allusion should be made through its own 
medium. Whatever Heraldry it may recognize, must be a 
Heraldry that derives its imagery from classic sources, and em- 
bodies its symbolism in classic guise. Alike in sentiment, in 
feeling, and in expression, the historical element of Classic 
Architecture must be thoroughly classic, and consequently it is 
impossible that any edifices erected in this style should be ren- 
dered historical of England. At any rate, it is not possible to 
wi'ite English History upon a classic edifice, with a free and a 
legible hand, or even in English characters, and in keeping with 
English traditions and associations. The style peremptorily 
refuses to concede to English History more than a paraphrase 
and a translation after the classic manner. 

On the other hand that Architectural Heraldry which re- 
cords English History with the most consistent and emphatic 
expressiveness, is an element of Gothic Architecture. Without 
it the style is imperfect. It carries out its ideas. It is the 
inexhaustible source of its happiest decorations. By it the 
Gothic realizes the peculiarly historical attributes of its own 
character. And, as the style is itself of universal applicability, 
free in action, and elastic in the development of its principles — 
so also Heraldry provides for the Gothic Architect, (and par- 
ticularly when employed upon public and national works,) the 
most comprehensive and the most plastic of symbolism. Such 
being the case, it is a matter for equal surprise and regret that 
Architectural Heraldry should hitherto have been so generally 
neglected, even by some of our Gothic Architects. It is to be 
hoped that the time at length has come, in which both Archi- 
tects themselves, and all who feel a real interest in their great 
Art, will bestow at least a portion of their regard upon Heraldry 
in its special relation to Architecture. From medi£eval Heraldry 
they will find that the Heraldry, which it is for them to intro- 


duce and to incorporate into their Gothic Architecture, must be 
derived. But here, as in the instance of the Architecture itself, 
it is not a blind following, and much less is it a mere inanimate 
reproduction of medieval Heraldry, and a reiteration of its forms 
and usages, that will enable our Architects to render their 
Architecture historical through a Heraldry of its own. What 
they have to do is to study the old Heraldry, to familiarise them- 
selves with its working, to read its records with ease and fluency, 
and to investigate the pi-inciples upon which it was carried out 
into action. And having thus become Heralds through having 
attained to a mastery over mediaeval Heraldry, our Architects 
will devote themselves to the development of a fresh application 
of Heraldry in their own Architecture. The mediasval autho- 
rities will have taught our Architects both what Heraldry is 
able to accomplish, and the right system for its operation ; and 
then with themselves will rest the obligation to produce a 
Heraldiy that shall be truly their own, and to associate it with 
the Gothic Architecture of to-day. 

In their treatment of heraldic devices and compositions, I 
assume that our Architects would avoid every early convention- 
alism, which could detract from the artistic excellence of their 
works. Good drawing and truthful expression are in perfect 
keeping with the best and purest Heraldry, as an absolute 
harmony necessarily exists between the noblest of Architecture 
and of Sculpture and Painting. What I venture to designate 
an archaic system of rendering their figures, certainly does not 
vitiate the Heraldry of the early Heralds : but then their 
Heraldry would have been equally good, had their figures been 
faultless as works of Art. And though we may produce good 
Heraldiy without good Art, still our Heraldry will never lose 
anything through an alliance with the most perfect Art; and 
in the instance of our Architectural Heraldry, the very highest 
artistic merit is a positive" condition of excellence. I am aware 
that there exist individuals prepared to maintain that good 


Heraldry implies bad Art To such persons I cannot concede 
any authority to pronounce an opinion even upon good Heraldry ; 
but, in illustration of my own sentiments, I refer them to the 
Supporters of the Eoyal Shield of England, as they appear at 
the entrance to Buckingham Palace ; and I ask whether in their 
opinion that Lion and that Unicom would discharge their 
heraldic duties with less complete heraldic efficiency, had they 
been sculptured after drawings by Sir Edwin Landseer, (sup- 
posing that great artist sometimes to be in an heraldic mood,) 
instead of being such outrageous burlesques upon both Art and 
Heraldry as have been permitted to intrude themselves under 
the very ej'es of their Sovereign ? 

It is a singular circumstance, the causes of which it is by no 
means necessary now to investigate, that Heraldry is invariably 
felt to be one of the most interesting of studies by those who 
have bestowed some thought upon it, while by almost all who 
are absolutely unacquainted with it it is held to be dry and 
uninviting, if not actually repulsive. Whatever the feeling 
generally entertained for them, the peculiar value of heraldic 
devices for purposes of decoration in Gothic Architecture, and 
their happy facility for adaptation to almost every possible 
condition, may justly claim for Architectural Heraldry the 
studious, and therefore the cordial regard of every Gothic 
Architect. Without Heraldry, historical sculpture in Architec- 
ture must ever act at disadvantage. The two in union enable 
the Architect to work with full powers. For Heraldiy comes 
in readily on innumerable occasions when sculpture, jDroperly so 
called, would be inadmissible. It enriches subordinate archi- 
tectural details with characteristic decoration, by the very 
process which gives to them a meaning ; and thus it inscribes 
those details with axL historical record. In the more important 
members of an edifice, also, Heraldry is equally ready to exert 
faculties fully adequate to all that they can require. If it be 
desired to identify an architectui-al work with a single person or 


with a particular family, Heraldry knows well how to symbolize 
with distinctness and precision the solitary impersonation, or 
the kindred group. Or should the edifice be one directly con- 
nected with the nation, cither in some department of the 
Government, or in the administration of some far-off colony or 
dependency — Heraldry here is not found wanting; but, in 
union with sculpture, it carries around the entire buUding its 
historical series of much-conveying s^nnbols; and from base- 
ment to parapet the Architectui'e is eloquent of the men who 
have taken a part in rendering their country the great and 
honoured England that she is. 

Amongst the practical lessons that Architects will learn from 
the early Heralds, when they worked with the Architects of 
their own day, are those that will impress upon their minds the 
mle that shields and niches are never to be introduced into 
architectural compositions for their own sake alone, but that 
every shield is to be charged with its proper bearings, and 
every niche is to contain a becoming statue. They will also 
learn that heraldic insignia are always to be introduced with a 
definite purpose ; that each class of devices has certain functions 
peculiar to itself, and that the skilful architectural Herald 
will always be able to adapt the devices and compositions of 
Heraldry to every condition and circumstance of each particular 
edifice. In the accessories of buildings also, as well as in their 
structural decorations, Heraldiy is ever ready to provide the 
most felicitous of ornamentation. In Stained Glass, heraldic 
designs, and the heraldic treatment of all designs are of the 
utmost value and the greatest interest. In Tile Pavements, 

I Heraldiy is equally efficient. The Heraldry of the early tiles 
jat^ Malvern, Gloucester, Worcester, Westminster, and many 

1 other places, abounds alike in historical information, and in 
practical suggestions. And again, the engraven and inlaid 
stone pavements that have just been revived by Clayton and 
Bell with such happy effect, may derive from Heraldry an 



infinite series of always appropriate and graphic designs. Archi- 
tectural Wood-carvers, in like manner, will find similar advan- 
tages in a close alliance with Heraldry. It is the same with 
architectural Metal-workers, and with every artist and crafts- 
man that the Architect summons to work with him in the 
realization of his compositions : Architectural Heraldry abounds 
with direct teaching and indirect suggestions available alike by 
them all. 

Throughout the Gothic era, the custom'' prevailed to intro- 
duce shields of aims of the Sovereign and the several members, 
of his family into the architectural decorations of the more 
important edifices, and in many instances also the armorial 
insignia of benefactors and persons of eminence at the time 
in the realm. Some relics of this usage remain in all our 
cathedrals, and in almost every early building that still exists. 
The shields were generally placed in the spandrels of some of 
the arcades and arches, in bosses of the vaulting or of the 
timber roofs, or in the stained glass of the windows ; some- 
times they occur below niches, as on the altar-screen at St. 
Alban's ; and in other instances in various other positions. 

Amongst the most interesting and valuable of the collections 
of early Architectural Heraldry to which I am able to direct 
the attention of the student, are those in the Cathedrals, and 
especially in the Cloisters of Canterbury Cat hedral, in West- 
MiNSTER Abbey and Hall, St. Alban's Abbey, King's College 
Chapel, Cambridge, and St. George's Chapel, Windsor, and also 
many of the Collegiate Buildings at both Oxford and Cam- 
bridge ; and with them I may associate, as examples of parish 
churches rich in Heraldry, the churches of Great Yarmouth and 


The Architectural Heraldry of Westminster Abbey* commences 
with the series of shields that were eculptured by Edward I., or 
perhaps by Henry III., in the spandrels of the wall arcades of 
the choir aisles. These noble shields have suffered grievously 




U-j,2^~f from the barbarous mutilations that, from time to time, have 
been permitted to outrage the Church, which stands at the head 
of the ecclesiastical edifices of England. Of the original series 
there still remain, on the south side, the shields of the Confessor, 
Provence, Winchester (De Quincy), Lincoln {De Lacy), Corn- 
WAI.L and Essex {Fitz Piers) ; and on the north side, those of 
the Empeuor, France, Gloucester {De Clare), Kent (De Burgh), 
De Montfort, and De Warrenne. More towards the west, in 
Henry V.'s work, there are remains of some other shields 
that are painted (and not sculptured in relief) in the aisle- 
arcades of that portion of the Abbey. There is also a fine early 
shield of the Confessor in the south-west window. Of the rest of 
the Architectural Heraldry of Westminster Abbey, it will be 
sufficient for me to specify the Badges of Henry V. in his monu- 
ment ; the Stall-Plates of the Knights and Esquires of the Bath 
in Henry VII. 's Chapel, and various Boyal Badges scattered in 
rich profusion throughout both the exterior and the interior of 
that chapel, together with two fine shields of France Modem and 
England, one without, and the other with a Label, carved beneath 
the dark vaulting that covers the approach to it. In West- 
minster Hall, in addition to the remarkable series of Boyal 
Crests and Badges, and to the fine Shields at the entrance, shields 
charged with the arms of Eichard II. and of the Confessor alter- 
nate upon the corbels, that carry the principal trusses of the 
noble roof. The Boyal Shield of Henry VII. with its Supporters, 
and the Crown, and also with the Badges of that Prince, are 
sculptured at King's Chapel in a truly splendid style, notwith- 
standing the decided decline of heraldic art that prevails during 
the period of the Tudors : and the entrance gateway to St. John's 
College in the same University, displays another admirable 
example of Tudor Architectural Heraldiy. In concluding this 
chapter, I again refer students to that treasuiy of historical 
Heraldry, the collection of Stall-Plates of the Garter at 
Windsor : and I must suggest a visit to the chantries of Abbots 



Wheathamstede and Ramrydge in St. Alban's Abbey, to stu- 
dents who would desire to see with their own ejxs how admi- 
rably the Heralds and the Architects of the olden time worked 
together. The remains of the gate-house also of Kirkham 
Priory in Yorkshire, and the architectural monument of Bishop 
Hadfield at Durham, must be added to the series of structures 
that are specially rich in the Heraldry of Gothic Architecture 
before its fall. 

No. 657.— Shield of Effigy' of a Knight of the tune of Edward II., at 

Clehongre, Herefordshire. See Chapter XXX. (j b . a il., 4JI 

^kv)itlUs, KtvVft*ia«iA4>i^«<^'^/^- r^' tO^tfiJ 

No. 557. — Crown from the Monument of Maegabet, Countess of Richmond, 
A.D. 1509, Westminster Abbey. See pp. 318 and 392. 



As a general rule, the Monuments of the middle ages are 
appropriate, characteristic, and deeply interesting, both as works 
of Art, and as commemorative memorials. In the degree also 
that these early monuments increase in their importance, in that 
same degree do they claim an increased measure of admiring 
approval. On the other hand, in our modern monuments the 
converse of this rule obtains ; and particularly in the circum- 
stance that the more important the monument, the more de- 
plorably unworthy it is almost certain to be. The earlier and 
the more recent monuments in Westminster Abbey exemplify 
the two eras in a significant manner. The competitions that 
within the last few years have brought together collections of 
designs for certain public memorials, have been no less conclu- 
sive in demonstrating the fact, that the nobler the required 
monument, the more ignoble is the prevailing character of the 
compositions that are submitted for it. The evidence of the 
Abbey and of the competitions is corroborated in every direc- 
tion by the innumerable objects that act as monuments in our 


cemeteries, and by their contemporaries, the marble pyramids, 
and mural tablets, and tall white monotonous slabs of our 
churches and churchyards. 

Upon consideration, the early monuments are found to be 
thoroughly heraldic, while it is evident that Heraldry knows 
nothing of those that so clearly indicate the lapse of intervening 
centuries. I believe that to this presence of Monumental 
Heraldry with the memorials of the one era, and to its absence 
from those of the other, may be attributed the painful contrast 
that exists between them ; and I am persuaded that true 
Monumental Heraldry alone is competent to render the com- 
memorative memorials of our own times worthy to take rank 
with such monuments, as our predecessors of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries were in the habit of erecting. It must be 
added that, as a matter of course, a preliminary step to the 
adoption of a genuine and really effective Monumental Heraldry 
must be the absolute exclusion of the pagan element from our 
Monuments — the exclusion of all mythological allegories and 
emblems, from inverted torches to the semi-nude figures whose 
identity has to be determined by their names being inscribed 
beneath their feet. 

The study of Monumental and of Architectural Heraldry may 
be most advantageously pursued together. Indeed, the one 
study may be said to imply the other ; so that what has been 
said in the preceding chapter upon Architectural Heraldry, is 
equally applicable to the Heraldry of Monuments. The old 
monuments are to be studied as authorities for their Heraldry ; 
but they are not to be copied, neither is their Heraldry to be 
reproduced once more in fac-simile. There is much, for ex- 
ample, that the modern designer of engraven monumental slabs 
may learn from the Brasses of the reign of Eichard II. ; and 
yet who can forbear to smile when he finds a figure of a knight, 
armed and appointed as Bolixgbroke and Mowbray were when 
they met for their famous combat, laid down in the year 1861, 


to commemorate a veteran officer, who had for some time been 
a metropolitan member of Parliament since the passing of the 
Eeform Bill ? This is a companion work to the Dr. Johnson in 
a Roman toga. 

Very small is the number of the early monuments that are 
altogether unable to repay the inquiries of the student of 
Heraldry, while fine and eminently instructive examples exist 
in very considerable numbers. The cathedi'als and both the 
greater and lesser churches are alike celebrated for their ad- 
mirable monuments. None surpass those of Edmund of Lan- 
caster and his Countess, of the De Valences, of Alianore of 
Castile, of John of Eltham, and of Edward III. and his Queen 
Philippa, in "Westminster Abbey. The monuments also of the 
Black Prince, of Henry IV. and his Queen Joanna, and of 
Archbishop Arundel, at Canterbury; of the Beauciiamps, at 
Warwick ; of the Nevilles, at Staindrop ; of Bishop Bctrghersii 
and his brother, at Lincoln; of Edward II., at Gloucester; of 
the Countess of Eichjiond and her son, Henry VII., at West- 
minster ; of the two Abbots and Duke Humphrey Plantagenet, 
at St. Alban's, and of Prince Arthur Tudor, at Worcester, are 
I inferior to none in heraldic interest. From a long series of 
other examples, which invite the special attention of the student 
' of Monumental Heraldry, I may specify those that are at 
i Beverley, Tewkesbury, St. Alban's, Christchurch, Arundel, Win- 
chelsea, Trotton in Sussex, Elsyng in Norfolk, and Cobham in 

Whatsoever especial points the student may desire to investi- 
gate, he will find examples that will place before him the 
information that he requires. The earliest known quartering 
of arms appears upon the monument of Alianore of Castile ; and 
very early quartering bj' a subject is shown in the shield of the 
Earl of Pembroke on the monument of his royal mother-in-law, 
Queen Philippa, and also upon the surcoat of the Earl himself 
in the Elsyng Brass, a.d. 1347. The shields of arms with 


their accessories upon the Kamryclgc monumental chantry at / 
St. Alban's, arc exquisite examples of pure taste, exuberant 
fancy, and delicate treatment. The shields of the Percy Shrine 
at Beverley exemplify the most effective drawing, the boldest 
sculpture, and diapering equally simple and beautiful. The 
monument to a priest of the same family, also in Beverley 
Minster, illustrates in a remarkable manner the usage of em- 
broidering a series of shields of arms upon ecclesiastical vest- 
ments. The effigy at Worcester, and the Brass at Trotton, are 
examples of a similar application of shields of arms to the deco- 
ration of female costume. And, again, the Heraldry of dress is 
shown in all its curious and sometimes fantastic varieties in 
almost innumerable brasses and scialptured effigies. A profusion 
of heraldic insignia adorns the monument of Ludovic Eobsart, 
Lord BouRCHiER, Standard, Bearer of Henry V., at Westminster 
Abbey. On either side of this last monument two large banners 
are cai-ved in stone, with quartered arms in relief, their staves 
forming mouldings of the canopy, and being held severally by a 
lion and a falcon, or perhaps an eagle. Other examples might 
be adduced in vast numbers of monuments of every class, 
the simplest as well as the most elaborate and costly, all 
of them competent to bear witness to the justice of the highest 
encomiums that may be bestowed upon early Monumental 

II. The Eoyal Monuments of England. 

At Fontevratid, in Normandy, there are original monumental 
effigies of Henry II., Alianore of Guienne, Eichard I., and 
Is A BELLE of Angoulemc. 

At Bouen is a second monumental effigy of Eichard I. 

At the Abbey of L'Espan, near Mans, is a monumental effigy 
of Berexgaria of Navarre. 

At Mans is a curious enamelled tablet, supposed to be monu- 
mental, to Geoffrey of Anjou, the Founder of the House of 


Plantagenet. Engi-aved by Stothard, and again in Labarte's 

The following are in England : — 

1. William KuFus, died 1100. Winchester Cathedral. Stone 

2. John, died 12 IG. Worcester Cathedral. Effigy and coffin- 
lid of the period of his death, now on an altar-tomb of about 
A.D. 1500. This is the earliest Eoyal Effigy in England. 

3. Henry III., died 1272. Westminster Abbey. Tomb and 
Effigy, with mosaic work. 

4. Edward I., died 1307. Westminster Abbey. Plain Tomb. 

5. Alianore of Castile, died 1290. Westminster Abbey. 
Tomb, Effigy, and Canopy. 

6. Edward II., died 1327. Gloucester Cathedral. Tomb, 
Effigy, and Canopy. 

7. Edward III., died 1377. Westminster Abbey. Tomb, 
Effigy, and Canopy. 

8. Philippa of Hainault, died 1309. Westminster Abbey. 
Tomb, Effigy, and Canopy. 

9 and 10. Eichard II., deposed 1399 ; and Anne of Bohemia, 
died 1394. Westminster Abbey. Tomb, two Effigies, and 

11 and 12. Henry IV., died 1413 ; and Joanna of XavaiTe, died 
1437. Canterbury Cathedral. Tomb, two Effigies, and Canopy. 

13. Henry V., died 1422. Westminster Abbey. Tomb and 
mutilated Effigy. 

14 and 15. Henry VII., died 1509; and Elizabeth of York, 
died 1503. Westminster Abbey. Tomb, two Effigies and En- 

16. Elizabeth, died 1G03. Westminster Abbey. Renaissance 
Monument and Effigy. 

To the foregoing the following monuments of Eoyal Personages 
may be added : — 


1. William LoNGEsi'KE, Earl of Salisbury, died 1220. Salisbury 
Cathedral. Tomb and EfiBgy. 

2. Edmond Plantagenkt, First Earl of Lancaster, (second son 
of Henry III.), died 1290. Westminster Abbey. Tomb, Effigy, 
and Canopy. 

3. AvELiNE, Countess of Lancaster, died 1209. Westminster 
Abbey. Tomb, Effigy, and Canopy. 

4. William de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, (son of Isabelle 
of Angouleme), died 1290. Westminster Abbey. Tomb and 
Effigy, witb rich Enamels. 

5. Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, (son of Earl Wil- 
liam), died about 1320. Westminster Abbey. Tomb, Effigy, 
and Canopy. 

0, John Plantagenet, of Eltham, Earl of Cornwall, (second 
son of Edward II.), died 1334. Westminster Abbey. Tomb and 
Effigy ; Canopy destroyed. 

7. WiLLiAiM Plantagenet, of Hatfield, (second son of Edward 
III.), died about 1340. York Cathedral. Tomb and Effigy. 

8. Edward Plantagenet, K.G., the Black Prince, died 1370. 
Canterbury Cathedral. Tomb, Effigy and Canopy ; also a Shield, 
Helm, &c. 

9. Alianore de Bohun, (widow of Thomas Plantagenet, Duke 
of Gloucester, youngest son of Edward III.), died 1399. West- 
minster Abbey. Tomb and Brass. 

10. Edmond Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of York, (fifth son of 
Edward III.), died 1402. King's Langley, Herts. Tomb and 
Shields of Arms. 

11. IIuMrnR*;y Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of Gloucester, (fourth 
son of Henry IV.), died 1447. St. Alban's Abbey. Ai-chitectural 
and Heraldic Monument. 

12. Catherine, (third wife of Prince John I'lantagenet of 
Ghent), died 1403. Lincoln Cathedral. Tomb, now despoiled 
of its Brasses. 

13. Isabelle Plantagenet, (onlj- daughter of Eichard Plan- 

2 c 


tagenet, of Coniugsbnrgh) , and her husband, Henry Bourchier, 
K.G., Earl of Essex and Eu, died 1400. Little Easton, Essex. 
Brass with two EflSgies. 

14. Elizabeth Plantagenet, (sister of Edward IV.), and her 
husband, John de la Pole, E.G., Duke of Suffolk, died, 1400. 
Wingfield, Suffolk. Tomb, with two Effigies. 

15. Arthur Tudor, K.G., Prince of Wales, (eldest son of 
Henry VII.), died 1502. Worcester Cathedral. Architectural 
and Heraldic Monument. 

16. Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, (mother of Lord 
Darnley, and grand-daughter of Henry VII.), died 1577. West- 
minster Abbey. Tomb and Effigy. 

17. Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Eichmond, (mother of 
Henry VII.), died 1509. Westminster Abbey. Tomb and 

18. Margaret Plantagenet, Countess of Salisbury, (daughter 
of George Plantagenet, Duke of Clarence), died 1541. Christ 
Church, Hampshire. Architectural Monument. 

19. Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, died 1587. AVestminster 
Abbey. Eenaissance Monument and Effigy. 

Amongst the Crystal Palace Collections there are casts of all 
the Eoyal effigies, including those at Fontevraud, Eouen and 
Mans, except the mutilated No. 13 of the former of the fore- 
going lists; and also casts of Kos. 1, 6, 8, 17, and 19, in the 
second list. 

The early usage of placing various shields of arms upon monu- 
ments leads naturally to inquiries into the rules, if any ever 
existed, by which the selection of such shields might have been 
determined. So far as my own observation has extended, I have 
not yet been able to detect any rule that was generally recognized 
upon this subject, except the simple and obvious one of placing 
aboTit a monument the shields of the persons who were nearest 


of kin to the individual commemorated. In the monuments of 
Royal personages, considerations of state policy might often 
influence this selection ; and it is evident that the propriety of 
placing about certain other monuments the shields of the Sove- 
reign and of the Princes of the blood royal, was regarded as 
beyond all question. The monuments of Bishop Burghersh 
and his brother at Lincoln exemplify this practice ; as do the 
Brasses to Archbishop De Waldeby at Westminster, to Sir 
Symon de Felbry'ge, K.G., to Canon Sleford at Balsham, and to 
Thomas Leventhorpe at Sawbridge worth. "When statuettes, or 
" weepers," as they were called, were placed about monuments 
in niches or beneath canopies, the shields associated with the 
figures would naturally be identified with the personages repre- 
sented. This is the case in the Beauchajip Monument at 
Warwick ; and, so far as there exist remains of the original 
memorials, it is the same in the two fine monuments of King 
Edward III. and his Queen Philippa, in Westminster Abbey. 
The statuettes and shields upon the magnificent monument of 
Edmoxd of Lancaster and Aymer de Valence now are by no 
means easily identified; but they are second to none in either 
artistic excellence or heraldic interest. In very many instances 
_ the a rms were orig inally blazoned in colour only, without any 
carving in relief, or any inc ised outlines ; and in such shields 
the blazon is commo nly lost, or perhaps it h as bee n repainted , 
and so all traces of the original Heraldry in all probability have 
bee n destroyed. 

It was customary to repeat the same shield, or the same group 
of shields, upon early monuments ; and it is foimd that prece- 
dence in arrangement was secured for the most important shield, 
which same shield was sometimes the only one in a series that 
was repeated; an example occurs in the monument to Earl 
William de Valence, where the shield of England is the one 
that has precedence and is repeated. Upon the Monument of 
Alianore of Castile, the shields of England, Castile and Leon, and 

2 c 2 




Ponthieu, (her husband, her father, and her mother,) alternate, 
and all arc repeated. And again, upon the basement of the 
monument of Edward III., a shield oi France Ancient and England 
is repeated, alternating with one now charged with the red cross 
upon a golden field ; and, in like manner, his shields of aims 
" for war and for peace " in alternation surround the monument 
of the Black Prince, See p. 256. 

Without attempting any further to suggest what usages may 
have been recognized and adopted in the aiTanging and placing 
of heraldic insignia upon mediaeval monuments, I will now 
briefly describe the airangement of the shields that are still in 
existence upon a few remarkable early examples. 

The monument to King Edward III. Upon the south side, 
each placed beneath a bronze statuette, and all fixed to the body 
of the monument itself, there remain four shields enamelled 
upon copper in their proper blazonry ; two other shields are 
lost from the series, but the group of six statuettes is complete. 

1. France Ancient and England, with a silver label of three points. 

2. Castile and Leon impaling France Ancient and England. 3. 
France Ancient and England, with the Label represented in fac- 
simile in No. 489, PI. XXXI. 4. Lost, (the statuette represents 
a bearded man). 5. Brittany, (ei-mine), impaling France Ancient 
and England. 6. Lost, (the statuette a youth). The shields yet 
existing are for the Black Prince, the Princesses Joan and Mary, 
and apparently for Edmond, the first Duke of York. As I have 
already stated, upon the basement of this monument there are 
two large enamelled shields of France Ancient and England, and 
two others bearing, or, a cross gu. ; probably these last were 
originally shields of St. George. 

The Brass to Sir IIugh Hastings, a.d. 1347, Elsyng, Norfolk. 
The principal effigy has both a surcoat and a shield of Hastings, 
the mauncho being beautifully diapered, with a label of three 
points. The shafts of the canopy are formed of eight compart- 
ments, each of them having a canopied effigy, or " weeper ;" 


these figures, of which three are now lost, have their armorial 
insignia upon their surcoats. The figures that remain represent 
Edward III., Henry, Earl of Lancaster, No. 488 a, PI. LXIII. ; 
Thomas Beauciiamp, Earl of Warwick; Ralph, Lord Stafford; 
and Lord St. Am and : the eflfigies that are lost are those of Law- 
rence Hastings, Earl of Pembroke, No. 338, PI. XXI; a Le 
Despencer ; and Eoger, Lord Grey of Kuthyn. In the central 
spandrel of the canopy is a mounted St, Gkorge, his shield 
(No. 311, PI. XXIX.) and surcoat and the barding of his charger 
being charged with his cross ; and above all are the helm, mant- 
ling and crest of Sir Hugh Hastings. The entire remains of 
this tine Brass have just been engraved by Mr. Utting for the 
Norfolk Archaeological Society. 

The Brass to xIlianore de Bohun, Duchess of Gloucester, a.d. 
1399, Westminster Abbey. Six shields of arms, suspended from 
the shafts of the canopy. On the dexter side ; 1 . Her husband, 
Thomas Plantagenet, Duke of Gloucester ; 2. Her father, Hum- 
phrey DE Bohun, last Earl of Hereford; 3. Milo of Hereford. 
On the sinister side : 1. Her husband, impaling De Bohun and 
MiLO, quarterly ; 2. De Bohun impaling Fitz-Alan and War- 
RENNE, quarterly : the third shield on this side is lost. In the 
central spandrel of the canopy, the Swan Badge of the De Bohuns. 
See PI. XX., and No. oil, p. 254. 

The Brass to Joice, Lady Tiptoft, a.d. 144G, Enfield Church> 
Middlesex. There are six shields in this Brass, and they are 
arranged precisely in the same manner as in the last example, 
the De Bohun Brass. On the dexter side : 1 . Her father, Edward 
Charlton, Baron Charlton de Powys ; 2. Her husband, Sir John 
Tiptoft, impaling the impaled shield of her father and mother, 
in which impalement her mother's arms appear to the dexter : 
she was Alianore, daughter of Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, 
and widow of Eoger Mortimer, fourth Earl of March, and pre- 
cedence was evidently given to her aims in the marshalling of 
this shield in consideration of her exalted rank ; 3. Tiptoft, her 


husband. On the sinister side : 1. Tiptoft impaling Powys, her 
husband and herself; 2. Powys and Holland quarterly, her 
father and mother; 3. Poavys, her father and herself. See PI. 
XVII., and No. 364 a, PI. XXIII. 

Edmond Plantagenet, K.G., Duke of York, a.d. 1402, at 
King's Langley, Herts. An elaborate altar-tomb, supporting a 
massive plain slab of black marble, which evidently does not 
belong to the monument. On the destmction of the monastic 
church at Langley, this tomb was placed in its present position 
in the north-east angle of the parish church. 

The monument is panelled, and in each foliated panel is a 
shield of arms cai-ved in relief upon the alabaster. At the 
head are, St. Edmond, France ancient and England, and Edward 
THE Confessor. At the feet the only remaining shield is Hol- 
land of Kent, the bordure plain. On the north side, com- 
mencing from the west end, Leon, (a lion rampant) and Holland 
of Exeter, the bordure semee de lys. On the south side, com- 
mencing from the west end, the Emperor, the eagle having two 
heads, but not crowned ; then two shields of France ancient 
AND England, each with a Label of three points ; then the same 
impaling Castile and Leon; again, France ancient and Eng-J 
LAND, with a Label of three points ; and the same shield, without j 
any Label, but within a bordure; and the series is completed ^ 
with the same quartered shield, with a Label of five points of] 
Lancaster and France. The charges on the other Labels are no 
longer to be distinguished ; all that may be cei-tainly affirmed isJ 
that, with the exception of the second shield of the series, these] 
Labels have all borne charges. See Nos. 477 a, PI. XLV., 486, 
p. 253, and 678 A, Chap. XXXII. 

The Brass to Sir Simon de Felbryge, K.G., a.d. 141G. Two 
"achievements of arms are lost. There remain, the Banner of 
IiiCHARD IL, No. o27, PI. XXXV. ; the same arms blazoned 
upon a shield ; the same arms impaling those of Anne of 
Bohemia ; and Felbryge, {or, a lion ranipt. gu.), impaling Teschen, 


(a German coat, arg., an eagle displayed sa.) : also on two shields 
a fettcrlocJc. 

The cresting of the monument of Henry IV. and his Queen at 
Canterbury, formed of delicately-carved Tudor flowers, originally 
had a small shield of Arms blazoned in colour between each pair 
of the flowers ; of these shields 16, with two half-shields at the 
extremities, yet remain on the south side ; from which side 18 
other shields have been lost. On the north side 1 shields only, 
with one half-shield remain, and 24 are lost : and all are lost at 
the head and the foot of the monument. Figures of angels also 
once held larger shields, one at each angle, and one in the 
centre of each side : of this series one mutilated shield only, 
that of Scotland, yet remains. The flat canopy itself which 
covers the effigies has evidently been twice painted, the decora- 
tion in both paintings having been heraldic. I commend this 
very interesting monument to the careful consideration of stu- 
dents of Historical Heraldry : and, at the same time, I am 
unable to resist a suggestion, which I would gladly have reach 
those who are in high authority, to the eff'ect that this Eoyal 
monument, like its fellows at Westminster, is not quite in such 
a condition as will be satisfactory to those w:ho know the value 
of our national historical monuments of the highest rank. Let 
no one presume to " restore " these precious relics of departed 
centuries, since "restoration" and " destruction " are in reality 
interchangeable terms : but, without any destructive restoring, 
our Royal (and other national) monuments might be kept with 
reverent and vigilant care, and they might be empowered to 
proclaim, even to casual obsei'vers, that their worth is under- 
stood by those, who, beyond all others, are bound to understand 
and to appreciate it. 

Margaret Beaufort, Countess of Richmond, a.d. 1509, West- 
minster Abbey. An altar-tomb in the early Renaissance style, 
with an effigy, the work of Torregiano. The Heraldiy is sin 
gularly interesting, and the whole is boldly executed'in relief in 


bronze. At the head, Edmond Tudor impaling Beaufort, her 
first husband and herself, the shield surmounted by a crown not 
arched. On the south side : 1. Her son and his consort, Henry 
VII. and Elizabeth of York ; the shield ensigned with an arched 
crown ; 2. Her husband's mother, and her first husband, Henry 
v., and Katharine of France, the crown arched ; 3. Her grandson, 
Arthur Plant agexet, Prince of Wales, the crown not arched. On 
the north side : 1. The shield lost, but the arched crown remains ; 
2. Her father and mother, John Beaufort, K.G., Duke of Somerset, 
and Margaret Beauchamp of Bletsho, the crown not arched ; 3. 
Her paternal grandfather and grandmother, John Beaufort, 
K.G., (son of John Plantagenet of Ghent), and Margaret Hol- 
land; this shield is without any coronet. At the feet, her 
third husband and herself, Stanley impaling Beaufort, without 
any coronet. In this shield, Stanley is quarterly, 1 and 4 grand 
quarters, Stanley, Lathom, and Warrenne, quarterly ; 2 and 3, Isle 
of Man ; in pretence, Montault. See Plates XXII. and XXXII., 
and No. 557, p. 380. 

The monument erected by James I. to the memory of Queen 
Elizabeth, in Westminster Abbey, is in itself a complete chapter 
of Koyal Heraldry, as such a chapter would be written by the 
Heralds of the first Stuart who wore the crown of Great Britain. 
About the cornice of the architectural canopy of the monument 
is placed a series of thirty -two shields, the shields themselves 
being carved in relief, but their charges are blazoned in gold 
and colours only on flat sui-faces ; and as some, if not all of these 
shields have been painted again at no distant period, there is 
consequently a degree of uncertainty as to their exact fidelity. 
As they now appear these shields, with two exceptions, are 
severally charged with two impaled coats of arms, and they are 
arranged in the order following. 1. The Confessor : 2. William I., 
England (two lions), and Flanders : 3. Henry I., Em/land and 
Scotland : 4. Geoffrey Plantagenet, Anjon and Emjland : 5. 
Henry II., England and Aquiiaine : <>. John, England, (three 


lions), and Angouleme, (lozengy or, and gu) : 7. Henry III., Eng- 
land and Provence : 8, Edward I., England, and Castile and Leon : 
9. Edward II., England and France Ancient: 10. Edward III., 
France Ancient and HainauU : 11, LiONEt, Duke of Clarence, 
{label with three cantons), and De Burgh : 12. Mortimer and Cla- 
rence : 13. Mortimer and Holland, (plain hordure) : 14. Edmond, 
Duke of York, {label with nine torteaux), and Castile and Leon : 15. 
Richard Plantagenet, " of Coningsburgli," (bordure of Leon), and 
Mortimer and Be Burgh quarterly : 16. Eichard, Duke of York, 
{label ivith nine torteaux), and Neville: 17. Edward lY., France 
Modern and England, and Widville : 18. Henry VII. and Eliza- 
beth of York: 19. Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn : 20. John 
Plantagenet "of Ghent," (label, loith nine ermine spots): 21. John 
" of Ghent " and Boett — (gu., three Catherine icheels or) : 22. 
Beaufort and Holland : 23. Beaufort and Beauchamp : 24. Edmond 
Tudor, and Margaret Beaufort : 25, 26, 27, three impaled 
shields of Boleyn : -28, 29, two impaled shields of Howard ; the 
bend is.plain, but the Scottish shield was probably painted out 
when the last re-blazoning took place : 30. Douglas of Angus, 
and Margaret Tudor: 31. Stuart of Lennox and Margaret 
Douglas, (the father and mother of Lord Darnley) : 32. Henry 
Stuart, Lord Darnley, and Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland. 

Upon the canopy, at its four angles, four small shields, held 
by two dragons and two crowned lions, are charged with a rose, 
a fleur de lys, a portcullis, and a harp, all crowned. On the 
basement are four other shields severally bearing, az., three 
garbs or, (Chester :) az, a harp or, stringed arg., (Ireland) : sable, /*«^h^A 
ten bezants in pile, (Cornwall) : and Wales. Also, on either side 
of the canopy there is an achievement of arms ; that to the 
south has France Modern and England upon a large shield, with a 
golden lion and dragon as supporters, and the motto, Dieu. et. 
mon. droit, but without any crown ; and on the north side, upon 
another large shield, Scotland impaling France Modern and Eng- 
land, with a unicorn and lion crouiicd as supporters, the arms of 


Scotland and the unicorn being on the dexter side ; the motto is 
King James's own, " Beati Pacifici." There is no crown above 
the shield. 

The monument of LuDOVic Egbsart, K.G., Lord Bodrchier, 
Standard-Bearer to Henry V., at Westminster, has shields 
surrounded with the Garter of the Order. Several slabs, now 
despoiled of their Brasses, in Winchester Cathedral, to Prelates 
of the order, show traces of having once been enriched with 
gartered shields of arms. And in Lincoln Cathedral, upon the 
monument of Catherine, the last wife of John Plantagenet 
of Ghent, the shields of arms were originallj'^ surrounded with 
the collar of SS. 

The i;se of Badges in the heraldic decoration of monuments 
is exemplified at Westminster in the sculptured figures in the 
chantry of Henry V. : and again, upon the slab that covers 
the tomb of Sir Humphrey Bourchier, a.d. 1471, which bears 
four richly-quartered shields with labels, and six Bourchier-lcnots, 
each one of them surmounting a piece of armour for guarding 
the elbow. No. 695, p. 285 ; these knots are formed of straps, 
one of them distinguished from the other by being studded, and 
both ending in buckles ; the slab also, which still retains the 
brass effigies of Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex, and Isabella 
his Countess, at Little Easton, was originally powdered with 
Bourchier-hwts and fetterlocks. In Brasses at Tong, Salop, ayi 
elephant appears as a Badge, and an elephant and castle at Wiven- 
hoe in Essex ; the Beauchamp hear is introduced into the Brass 
of the Earl of Warwick ; a slab at Biggleswade is semee of cres- 
cents and escallops ; at Digswell, Herts, Lady Perient has her 
swan Badge embroidered upon her collar ; and at Bumhamthorpe, 
in Norfolk, in the spandrels of the canopy of the Brass to Sir 
William Caltiiori'E, is the Knight's Badge, a liaich helled and 
jessed, on a mount, having a scroll in his beak with the motto, 
Penser defyner. 

Examples of arms emblazoned on Lozenges occur in the monu- 


ments to Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, a.d, 1577 ; to 
the Duchess of Suffolk, a.i>. 1563 ; and to Mary Stuart, the 
infant daughter of James I,, all of them in Westminster Abbey. 

There is another class of early monuments of a simple 
character, which will always be regarded with much interest 
by the Herald. I refer to the monumental slabs, either incised 
or sculptured in relief, that bear certain significant symbols to 
denote the rank, profession, or occupation of the persons com- 
memorated. In almost every instance, the Christian symbol, 
the Cross, appears with the other devices, and occasionally there 
is also a shield of arms. Memorials of this description are 
charged with the mitre, staff, chalice, and book of ecclesiastics ; 
with the warrior's sword, and the pilgrim's staff; with keys, 
bows and arrows, axes, ships, fish, penners and ink-homs, 
trumpets, implements for bell-founding, horse-shoes, hammers, 
nails and anvils, shears, scissors, gloves, shoemakers' imple- 
ments, (these last at Kilkenny) and various other devices of a 
similar character. I have engraved a numerous series of these 
slabs in my " Christian Monuments.^' 

There still remains a group of symbolical devices, that appear 
in early monuments, and sometimes in both architecture and 
seals, which may be appropriately noticed at the conclusion of 
this chapter. These are what may be entitled devices of a 
sacred character, and tliey comprise : 1. The Emblems of the four 
Evangelists : the angel of St. Matthew, the winged lion of St. Mark, 
the ivinged ox of St. Luke, and the eagle of St. John ; these figures 
were constantly placed at the four angles of Brasses, and other 
commemorative memorials. 2. Tlie emblems of our Lord's Passion : 
the cross, nails, scourges, crown of thorns, reed with hyssop, the 
dice of the soldiers, and some others, which are arranged in 
groups and charged upon shields. And, 3. The singular shield 
designed to symbolize the Holy Trinity', which is represented 
in No. 608 ; the example is drawn from the Brass at St. Cross, 
near Winchester, a.d. 1382, to John de Campeden. In the same 



Brass there is also a striking example of the shield of the Passion ; 
and other good examples occur in the inlaid pavement tiles at 
Great Malvern. Amongst many others, I may specify some 

No. 608. 

beautiful small shields of the Passion that are sculptured upon 
the Kamrydge monument at St. Alban's. 

No. GIO. — Sccrctuni of Henry Plantagenet, second son of Edward 
first Earl of Lancaster. 





The Art of Seal Engraving, in the first instance singularly rude, 'f ,Hi^>)^j" 
but from the first giving promise of future excellence, attained-^ ^ 
to its highest perfection in England during the reign of Edward q„;iy^^!^ 
III., when it was very extensively practised, and enjoyed the '^_/ •* 
greatest popularity. /<*^m Ui 

Figures of every kind, architecture, heraldic and other de- X, '^ 
vices, with every conceivable variety both of accessor)- and of 
legend, were introduced into these early Seals. Hence they 
afibrd such varied illustrations of the taste, feelings, fancy and 
humour, of the religion also, and of the superstitions of their 
times. History, Genealogy and Biography derive from them 
both evidence and facts of peciiliar importance ; and, above all. 
Heraldry might be content to rely upon Seals alone to exemplify 
its principles and to illustrate its practice. 

Seals were not introduced into England until the rci£m of 


Edward the Confkssor, from whose time the Boyal Seals of Eng- 
land form an uninterrupted series of surpassing interest and 
valiie. AVithin a few j-ears after the Norman Conquest, the 
use of Seals became generally established; and early in the 
twelfth century they wei*e universally adopted for authenticating 
all written documents. On June 15, 1215, Magna Charta was 
sealed b}^ King John ; nor is a royal signature known to have 
confirmed a document until the time of Eiciiard II., at the 
close of the fourteenth century. Perhaps the earliest approxi- 
mation to the signature of a ro^'al personage appears upon a 
•warrant of the Black Prixce, a.d. 1370, under his privy-seal, 
which is subscribed by the Prince himself with the words, 
Houmout, Ich Dien. 

Signet-rings were made either by engraving the required 
designs upon gems, agates, and other hard stones, or by cutting 
the devices and legends on the metal of the rings themselves. 
The larger Seals (and many of the early Seals are of very con- 
siderable size) were engraven on suitable pieces of gold, silver, 
latten or brass, or steel. Jet is found to have been sometimes 
employed, with some other materials. In form the Seals are 
either circular or pointed ovals, the latter shape being that 
generally adopted by Ecclesiastics, though not by any means 
restricted to them. The Royal Seals are circular. In rare 
instances Seals are found lozenge-shaped, triangular, or cut to 
the form of an heraldic shield. The impressions were taken in 
wax of various colours, green, red, difierent shades of brown, a 
dull yellow, and white. Like Coins, the more important Seals 
were very commonly impressed on both sides. Such impressions 
were appended to documents, and not stamped upon them. In 
taking these impressions, consequently, two dies or matrices, 
each having its own device and legend, were employed ; these 
were severally called the Seal and Counter-Seal ; but the douhle 
impression constituted a single Seal, its two sides being distinguished 
as its obverse and reverse. In the fifteenth century, it became 

SEALS. 399 

customary to cover the wax for the sake of preserving it with a 
wrapper of paper ; or various ingenious devices were employed 
for securing the wax from injury, by encircling the impression 
with"! " fenders " formed of rushes, leaves, or plaited paper. 
" Fenders " of this kind have been found attached to Seals as 

early as 1380. Sovereigns and persons of high rank, in addi- 
tion to their official Seal, had a personal or private Seal, desig- jycln6t)M>f4'ci 
nated a Secretum. The same individual also occasionally pos- ^^ , . /.- ,. 
sessed and sealed with more than one Secretum, and whore 
several offices were held by one person, he would use a separate 
Seal for each office. 

A very superficial classification of Seals is sufficient to convey 
a correct idea of the comprehensive range of Seal Heraldry. 
Thus, Seals may be classified as, 

I. Ecclesiastical, and 11. Lay or Secular. Each of these primaiy 
groups is divisible into (1). Official, and (2). Personal Seals. 
The Personal Seals necessarily comprise unlimited varieties; 
and the Official Seals, both Ecclesiastical and Secular, may be 
sub-divided into those Seals of individuals which make a refer- 
ence to the dignities, offices, or preferments that may be held by 
them ; Common Seals of bodies corporate, and the like ; and 
Seals of office, that are not identified with any individual officer. 
Thus almost every possible application and expression of Heraldry 
appears in association with Seals. 

The student of Heraldry will do well to take up Seals with , 
the intention to deal with them upon some definite system. 
His study, to prove really satisfactory to him, had better be 
devoted, first, to one class of Seals, and then to other classes, 
in such order of succession as he may find to be most desirable. 
For example, the Great Seals of England, Scotland, and France 
foim three kindred groups for separate and yet connected study. 
Other gToups may be formed somewhat after the following 
manner: — The Seals of the Archiepiscopal and Episcopal Sees, 
with the Arms of the Archbishops and Bishops : Monastic 

400 rnK hkkaldky of 

Seals : Royal Secreta : tlio Seals and Secreta of certain noble 
families, as the De Bohuns, the Fit7.-Alans, the Mortimers, and 
others : the Seals of knights and esquires : the several classes of 
Seals of a particular period : or miscellaneous Seals of any 
period. Or again, Seals may be selected for study with reference 
to certain special heraldic qualities in the Seals themselves — 
such Seals, for example, as illustrate MarshaUing Arms, or Cadency, 
or Military Heraldry, or Supporters, or Crests, or Badges in associa- 
tion with shields, or varied forms of Shields, or Legends, or 
Architectural and other Accessoiies. In every instance Seals will 
more than satisfy the student's highest expectations. Seals were 
evidently the delight of the early Heralds ; and Seal-Heraldry, 
accordingly, is Heraldry thoroughly in earnest. Such Achieve- 
ments of Arms as abound in Seals, so complete, so spirited, so 
full of heraldic life and energj'-, rarely occur elsewhere. The 
History of Heraldry also is written in Seals wuth a compre- 
hensiveness, an accuracy, and a copious richness of illustration, 
that leave very little to be desired. I have already shown, 
(Chap. XIV.), in what manner the aggroupment of several dis- 
tinct shields of arms iipon a single Seal led to Marshalling ; and 
Marshalling, in its most expressive historical forms, is exempli- 
fied in multitudes of Seals. 

The Ch-eat Seals constitute a truly important chapter in 

Historical Heraldry. Every Seal has two distinct designs. In 

one the Sovereign is represented on horseback, and in the 

V [ other as enthroned. The mounted figures appear always to 

have been regarded as the Ohvcrsc, or Seal, and those enthroned 

as the Heversc, ar Countn--S(ah I iitil the time of John, the 
throne in these iSeals is u meio stool, with certain ornamental 
accessories. In the second Seal of Henry III., the royal seat 
assumes a more dignified character, Edward I. copied his 
father's Seal, but the design is better executed. The same 
Seal was used by Edward II., with a Castle of Castile added 
on each side of the throne. Great improvements in design, 

SEALS. 401 

including elaborate architectural enrichments, with peculiarly- 
interesting Heraldry, were introduced into the different mem- 
bers of the series of Great Seals made by Edwakd III. lie 
commenced by placing twofleurs de lys (his mother, it will be 
remembered, was Isabella, of France) above the castles in the 
Seal of his father and grandfather ; then he substituted for the 
old Seal (in the year of his accession, in the October of 1327) 
a new one, of improved general design, with the fleurs de lys 
much more emphatic. In 1340, a Seal appeared charged with 
two shields of France Ancient and England quarterly. After this, 
two Gre^ Seals of Edward III. were in use, sometimes concur- 
rently — one by the King himself, in which the legend runs Eex 
Fkancie et Anglie ; and the other, used in England when the 
King was absent in France, with the legend Eex Anglie et 
Feancie. Another Seal, made in accordance with the peace of 
Bretigny, a.d. 13C0, omits the " Fkancie " altogether from the 
legend, but retains the quartered fleurs de lys in the shield as before. 
The " Francie," however, resumes its original place before the 
close of the reign. Kichard II. and Henry IV. merely sub- 
stituted their own names for the " Edvardus," and they used 
the same Seal as Edward III. In or about 1408 Henry IV. 
added another Seal, the largest and richest of all the mediasval 
Seals of England, in which the fleurs de lys are reduced to three 
in each quarter of the shield. Edward IV. placed a Bose of 
Ym'h in alternation with each word of the leg-€nd of his Seal, and 
afterwards a Fleiir de lys, the whole being encircled with a 
hordiire of Bases. Henry VII. introduced a Bose on a Branch : 
and Henry VIII. separated the words of his legend by alternate 
Boses and Fleurs de lys ; he added a Fleur de lys and a Lion to the 
obverse of his Seal, and eventually he adopted a Seal designed 
after the manner of the Eenaissance. 

The equestrian figures of the obverse of the Great Seals afford 
characteristic illustrations of arms and armoiir, and also of horse 
equipments. In the second Seal of Richard I., the three lions 

2 D 


of England for the first time make their appearance on the royal 
shield. Edward I. places them on the bardings of his chargei', 
as well as upon his shield, but not upon his surcoat; and 
Edward III. appears with a full display of royal blazonry upon 
the appointments as well of his horse as of his own person. The 
succeeding heraldic changes in the Great Seal of England 1 leave 
to the researches of students, The Great Seal of the Common- 
wealth, however, I may describe, as a curious example of Puritan 
Heraldry. This Seal, which was voted by the Commons, 
January th, 1649, was adopted on the 8th of the following 
month, when it was formally declared to be " the Great Seal of 
England." Two years later this same Seal appears in such a 
form as this : Obverse, — A Map of England and Ireland ; in the 
Channel a Fleet ; in chief a Shield of St. George ; in base a Shield of 
Ireland : Legend, — " TJie Great Seale of England, 1G51 :" Eeverse, 
— The House of Commons sitting : Legend, — " In the third Yeare of 
Freedome by God's Blessing restored, 1651." Upon his own Seal 
Oliver Cromwell bore, quarterly, 1 and 4, the Cross of St. Geoi-ge ; 
2, the Cross of St. Andreiv ; 3, Ireland, {az., a harp or); over all in 
pretencef for Cromwell, sa., a lion rampt. guard, arg. : with these 
arms the Protector assumed as Supporters the Croicned Lion of 
England with a Sea-horse; and he also borrowed the Helm, 
Crown, Crest, and Mantling, from the Eoyal Seals. Below his 
Shield is the motto, Pax. Qu.EnixuR. bello. ; and the circum- 
scribing Legend is, Olivarius : Dei : gra : Beipiib : Anglice : Scotice : 
et : HiberncB : d;c. : Protector. This Seal was engraved with much 
delicacy, in the heraldic feeling of his time, by Thomas Simox. 

The Great Seals of several other personages of importance in 
the mediaeval history of England abound in heraldic accessories 
and devices ; amongst them, as an example of the greatest in- 
terest, I may specify the Great Seal of John of Ghent, as King 
of Castile. The Great Seal of Thomas, second Earl of Lancaster, 
is a very noble work. On his own helm and on the head of his 
charger, the Prince displays a dragon as his crest, No. 524, 

,v XXIV 


EARL OK LINCOliN ll'JS ^.l^\> 


SEALS. 403 

PI. XXXV. The Counter-Seal is also large and very fine. The 
shield is differenced with a label of five points " of France," 
and on either side of it there is a dragon. The Great Seal of 
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, is another fine ex- 
ample of its class. 

The practice prevalent with the early seal-engi'avers to intro- 
duce some figure or figures of animals, all of them withoxit doubt 
Badges, on each side of either the Shield or the Crest, I have 
already stated to be in all probability instmmental in intro- 
ducing regular Supporters as accessories of Achievements of Arms 
(see p. 277) ; and I have also referred to many fine and interest- 
ing examples of early Seals. It will be necessaiy for me here 
to adduce only a few other examples in further illustration of 
the " Heraldry of Seals." No. 009, PI. XLV., is copied from 
Mr. Planche's enlarged representation of the shield of William 
DE RoMARE III., Earl of LiNCOLJf, who died as early as 1198. 
This shield is held by the Earl, armed in mail, with a cylindrical 
helm, and on horseback. The original appears to have been 
lost, but a drawing of this very curious Seal is preserved in an 
heraldic MS. in the City Library at Chester. The crosslets are 
undoubtedly very early " diflerences." A Seci-etum of "William 
LoxGESPEE, Earl of Salisbury, (" Fair Eosamond's " son), who 
died A.D. 1226, is simple and significant; it is charged with his 
long sword and its helt : the Seal bears the mounted figure of the 
Earl, with his shield of six lioncels, and with two similar lioncels 
on the barding of his charger ; his Countess, Ela, is represented 
on her Seal standing between two lions, the Counter-Seal being 
charged with the six lioncels of her husband. These Seals are 
engraved in the Salishiiry Volume of the " Archfeological Institute," 
where they illustrate an admirable paper (one of an equally 
admirable series of papers of the same class) on " Tlie Earldom 
of Salisbury," by Mr. JoHX Gough Nichols, F.S.A. Eaxulph 
DE Blondeville, Earl of Lincoln and Chester, a. p. 1217-1232, 
on his Seal carries a shield charged with three garbs, and the 

2 n 2 



same bearings appear upon the barding of his charger; the 
Counter-Seal has a similar shield. The Seal of Roger de Quenci, 
Earl of Winchester, a.d. 1220-1264, displays his shield masculee. 
And Hexry de Lacf, Earl of Lincoln, a.d. 1272, on both his 
Seal and his Secretum has his shield charged with his rampant 
lion. ^,_ 

Two early Seals of the Nevilles exemplify both the forms of 
the shields that were represented by the Heralds of Henry III. 
and Edward I., and their treatment of the Label as a mark of 
Cadency; Nos. 667 and 668, Chap. XXXI. Another Seal of the 

No. 703. — Seal of Mavgei! le Vavassovk. 

No. T6S A.— Sciil uf tlu' Diuiiiliiii Loiis. No. 7U2.— Seal of Tir-kstan. 

SEALS. 406 

same early period is charged with a similar shield of Sr, John, 
No. 700, Chap. XXXI. ; and in the corresponding Seal, Xo. 701, jo-^iz 
of a Sr. John of Sussex, the shield has its own cliief loith its six- 
pointed mullets charged icpon a field of Warrenne, a remarkable in- 
stance of heraldic combination. The shield in this interesting 
Seal is supported, after a very nide fashion, by three dragon-like 
monsters. Again : the heraldic Seal of Thurstax, " Dispensatoris 
Begis," Xo, 702, is another early example, with which may be 
associated the Seal of Mauger le Vavassour, Xo. 703 : this last 
shield bears the letter M, the initial of the owner's name ; or, 
possibly the device, which afterwards was modified into the well 
known fesse dancette of the Vavassours, was originally designed 
to be a monogi-am of the two initials, M V. ^\'ith this early 
group may be associated the Seal of the Dauphin Loms, A.r>. 1216, 
which bears a shield semee de ly$, Xo. 238 a, p. 404; (See also 
p. 73.) 

About the same period, Alice, Countess of Eu, the wife of 
Ealph, brother of Hugh de Lusignan (father of Earl William de 
Valence, see p. 188,) on her Counter-Seal bears a shield of 
Lusignan — harruly arg. and az. — differenced with a label of seven 
points: she died in 1227, her daughter Maude having mariied 
the Humphbey de Bohun of that time, and thus the two families 
of the powerful Earls of Hereford and Pembroke were connected. 
Xearly a century later, the Seal of John de "Warrenne, Earl of 
Surrey, bears his shield— c^ejuee or and az. — surmounted by a 
lion of England, and between the two barbels and tlie crosslets 
fitchees of the house of De Barr, Xo. 329 c, PI. LXXXI. This 
great Earl had married Joan, daughter of Henry, Count De 
Barr and his Countess Alianore, eldest daughter of Edward I., 
and he was himself the lineal descendant of Geoffrey of Anjou. 
The Seal of the Countess Joan I have described, with a diagram, 
Xo. 320, at page 150. Sandford has engraved this Seal (p. 122, 
2nd edition), and it is also represented with its Charges in 
Heraldry of Fish, p. 70. 



JoAif, the second daughter of Edward If. was married to 
Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Hertford, and their 
j^onngest daughter, Elizabeth de Clare, became the wife, first, 
of Joiix DE BuuGH, eldest son of Eichard, Eai-l of Ulster; 
secondly, of Theobald de Verddx ; and thirdly, of Eoger d'Amorl 
Her Seal, No. 705 a, PI. LXXXI., is another interesting and 
characteristic example of the aggi'onpment of several distinct 
Coats, so as to form a single compound composition, (see p. 1 50) : 
thus, in the central compartment of the Seal is the shield of 
Eoger d'Amori — harry nebulee of six arg. and gii., a lend sa. (EoU 
of E. II.) — environed by the three lions of England ; in chief is 
Ulster, differenced hy a label : in base is Verdun — or, frettee gu., 
(Eolls of H. III. and of E. II., and Seal to the Barons' Letter) ; 
to the dexter and sinister are Clare ; and at the four angles the 
casUe and lion of Castile and Leon appear alternately. The 
Seal of Elizabeth, daughter of the J^csr last named by her last C^ 
marriage with Eoger d'Amori, bears a close resemblance to the 
Seal of her mother, and may very advantageously be compared 
with it as an illustration of the heraldic feeling and usage of the 
first half of the fourteenth century. This Seal, Xo, 705, which, 


No. 700.— Seal of 
Matilda de Filliol. 

No. 704.— Seal of John, 
Lord Bakdolf. 

No. 70.5. — Seal of Eliza- 
beth, Lady Bardolf. 

with the Seal of the husband of Elizabeth d'Amori, Johx, Lord 

Baudolf, is attached to a deed, dated 1340, has a central circular 

compartment surrounded by eight otheis, the whole being on a 

S K A 1/ 8. 




Plate L XXXI. 

SKALS. 407 

field of what I maj' describe a8 Gothic architectural diaper: in 
the centre is a shield of Bap.dolf, (No. .'iSS n, Ph XXVll. — az., 
three cinquefoils or.), with Ulster (without any label) in chief and 
base, to the dexter Clare, to the sinister d'Amori, and CastiJe and 
Leon as before in the compartments of the angles. The Seal of 
.loHN, Lord Barcolf himself (he married Eliz. d'Amori in 1337) 
is remarkable for its elaborate traceries, No. 704, and the 
exquisite skill with which the seal-engraver has executed his 
rich design : the impression of this beautiful Seal which lies 
before me also shows that, without considerably enlarging the 
scale of the original, it is not possible to give a perfectly satis- 
factory engraving of it. The Seal of Elizabktii de Bury, 
figiired in Norfolk ArchmoL, (v., 301,) is another good specimen 
of a compound heraldic Seal. The small Seal of Matilda, 
daughter of Roger de Lascelles, No. 706, is another graceful ^U-liV7 
variety of this same interesting class : in the years 1 288 and 
1293 she was married, first to Sir W. De Hiltox, and secondly 
to Sir E. De Filliol; accordingly, her Seal has the shield of 
Lmcelles — arg., three chaplets gu. ; Hilton — cirg., iivo bars az. ; and 
Filliol — gu., a lion rampt. arg., 'over all a hcndlet az. (Another 
shield of Filliol is vairee, a canton gu.) Two other equally cha- 
racteristic examples of Seals of this class, Nos, 329 b, and 331, 
are described at page 1 52. 

The dimidiated Seal of Margaret, second Queen of Edward I., 
for the first time exhibits a shield charged with the arms of 
England and Franck united in a single composition, No. 322, 
PI. XVIII. ; and the second Seal of this same Royal T-adj-, No. 
332 A. PI. LXXXL, shows the Boyal Shield o/Englaxd environed 
with the fleurs de lys of France on the field of the Seal itself, after 
the manner of a bordure; (See p. 152.) The Seal of William de 
Clintox, Lord of Alleslev, who in 1337 w^as created Earl of 
Huntingdon, exemplifies precisely the same usage at a somewhat 
later period — ^a.p. 1333. This William de Clinton was the 
second of the two sons of Sir John de Clinton and Ida his wife, 


one of the co-heiresses of William de Odixosells, of Maxworth 
Castle, and he married Juliana, sole heiress of Sir Thomas de 
Leybourne. His Seal is charged with a shield of Clinton, (as it 
is blazoned for him in the Calais Eoll) — arg., six crosslets fitchees 
sa., and on a chief az. two mullets or., within an octoftnl ; and the 
field of the Seal itself displays eight lioncels, which form a bordiire 
about the shield, No. 332 B., PI. LXXXI. ; see also No. 400, 
PI. XXXVII. The Arms of Leybourne are, az., si.v lioncels arg., 
Eoll of H. III.; (See Archceol. Cantiana, 1., 1, and v., 192.) A 
deed, dated June 13th, 1350, executed by this same Earl of 
Huntingdon, has the same shield, with the six lioncels of Ley- 
bourne upon the field of the Seal, and in base two small slij^s 
of oak ; (Archceologia, xxxviii., 272.) In the Poll of E. III., 
three midlets are charged on the chief of William Clinton, and 
also on the chief of his elder brother John, Lord Clinton, whose 
shield is without the crosslets : and in the Poll of P. II., John 
DE Clynton bears, arg., on a chief az., two midlets or, pierced gu. ; 
(See p. 183). The Secretum of Henry, second son of Edmond, 
the first Earl of Lancaster, who afterwards succeeded his father 
and his elder brother in that Earldom, claims particular atten- 
tion, Ko. 610, p. 397 ; (see also p. 235). It bears the shield of 
the Earl — England differenced with an azure hendlet, as he displayed 
the same composition upon his banner at Caerlaverock. This 
adoption of a bendlet " for Difference " by a younger son, in the 
early days of Cadency, shows a disinclination at that time to 
multiply the difi'erencing charges upon labels. IIenry', first 
Duke of Lancaster, the only son of Earl Henry, also differenced 
during his father's lifetime with a hendlet, as appears from his 
Seal, with the legend, s : henrici : lancastrie: comitis: derbeye, 
engraved in the Archceol. Journal, vol. x. p. 329. In the Poll 
of E. Ill,, the Arms of this Prince are thus blazoned, " Le Count 
de Darby port les armes d'Engleterre a une baston d' assure : he was 
created Earl of Derby in 1337, succeeded to the Earldom of 
Lancaster on the death of his father in 1345, and became Duke 

I'LATK LXX. CiiAiTKi; xxiv. Si;ai.s. 

No. soil. 1.,— Sfill of TlIOJIAS rLANTAGKMCr, K.(i., Dllkc (if (Jl.dirKSTKU ; 

A.i>. 13:»:): i)iij,n> 241. 2:)8, 217, 4(H). 
No. i5l)7A. (?. — Seal of William vk Boiun, K.O., Karl of Nokthamitox ; 

A.n. KJ.jO: i):i<;os 18(J, 40',). 
No. H.tXA. ':!)— Seal of HiMriiuKY de 1$i)i;vn Karl of lli:i!i:i\)iii) ; a.d. I'.VH) : 

l)ago 4(l'.t. 

No. .^'J.'). 4.)— Seal of TiU'Mas Hojj.and, K(i., Karl of Ki;nt; a.d. l.'JSO : 

|.a.L;f.s 247, '-'78. 4(.:i. 

SEALS. 409 

in 1352. The Seal of Queen's College, Oxford, one of the most 
beautiful heraldic Seals in existence, is charged with three 
shields ; to the dexter a shield of France Ancient and England ; 
to the sinister a shield of Queen Piiilippa, of Ilainault, bearing 
England quartering Hainault, as in No. 337, p. 159; and in base 
the Arms of the College, or, three eagles disp. gu. Again, the fine 
Seal of Thomas Arundel, Archbishop of Caxterbuuy, a.d. 139G- 
1414, in the base of the composition is charged with the 
Eoyal Shield of Richard II,, France Ancient and England impaled 
by the Confessor, No. 536 c, PI. LVIII., and with the shield of 
the Archbishop himself; ArcJiceologia, xxvi., 297. The beau- 
tiful Seals of Thomas of AV^oodstock, Duke of Gloucester, and of 
Thomas Holland, K.G., Nos. 509, 525, PI. LXX., I have already 
described ; see pp. 241, 258, 277. In Nos. 397 A, 398 A, also in 
PL LXX., two Seals of the De Bohuns, Earls of Hereford and 
Northampton, are represented ; the mullets of Northampton here 
have six points, and the Earl of Hereford shows his close alliance 
with the Crown of England by introducing three lions passant 
guardant into the composition of his Seal. Again, at p. 271, I 
have described the remarkable Seal of the Mortimers, No. 270, 
which appears at the end of this Chapter, together with the 
curious Seal of Edmund de Arundel, No. 270 a, which I am 
enabled to show side by side with No. 270. About a.d. 1400, the 
Seal of Sir William de Braose displays in the centre of the com- 
position his own achievement of arms, with the separate shields 
of Andeville, St. Leger, St, Omer and Malmains on either side. 
In his excellent and judicious *' Guide to the Study of Heraldry " 
(page 38), Mr. Montagu refers to' another most interesting Seal 
of the same family of De Braose or De Brewys, which bears on 
a shield, az., crusilee, a lion rampt. or, (See p. 175 and No. 390 a, 
PI. XXXVIL), dimidiating Mortimer (No. 99, p. 31), and hating 
in chief charged on a rotindle, the Arms of England. This Seal, 
attached to a deed dated 1373, (Harl. MS. 5805,) was adopted 
by Beatrice, youngest daughter of Roger Mortimer, first Earl of 


March, who was married, first to Edward, only son of Thomas 
DE Brotherton, son of Edward I., and secondly to Sir Thomas de 
Braose. The son of Earl Thomas de BROTHERTO>f died, without 
issue, in his father's lifetime, and I know no evidence to show 
in what manner he may have dift'erenced the arms of his grand- 
father; Thomas de Brotherton himself, however, differenced 
England with a label of three points arg. In his notice of this Seal 
Mr. Montagu omits the very important label from the arms 
wliich he assigns to this Earl and also to his son, the youthful 
fi.rst husband of Beatrice de Mortimer : in the KoU of E. III. 
the arms of Braose are blazoned with crosslets fitchees. 

Some few of the most effective heraldic Seals display the 

Vi , 'aiinorial insignia charged upon Banners instead of shields. 

fiV tiL. Thus, the Seal of Sir Henry Percy, eldest son of Henry, Earl of 
Northumberland, a.d. 1445, bears a lion holding a quartered Bannei- 
of Percy and Lucy, (see Chap. XXXI., Examples from Rolls of 
H. III. and Caerlaverock,) differenced icith a label of three points : 
this Seal is executed in the most spirited manner, in unusually 
bold relief; see Surtei:s' '^Durham," Vol. I., Part 1, p. 158. One 
of the Seals of Walter, Lord Hungerford, K.G., attached to a 
deed dated 1432, bears a noble helm and crest-coronet with a 
garb between two sicJcles for the crest, and below the helm the 
shield couchee is charged with, sa., 2 bars arg., in chief 3 plates, 
for Hungerford ; on either side of this shield is a large sicMe, 
the well-known Hungerford badge ; and above these sickles there 
rise two Banners, like the badges respecting each other, the one 
on the dexter bearing Heytesbury, per paZe indented gu. and vert., 
a chevron or, and that on the sinister bearing Hussey, harry of six 
erm. and gu. Another Seal of Lord Hungerford (a.d. 1418) bears 
Hungerford and Heytesbury quarterly, with two sioans having their 
wings addorsed as supporters, and the crest a talboCs head issuing 
from a crest-cwonet. The same quartered shield of Hungerford and 
Heytesbury appears in the vaulting of the Canterbury cloisters, on 
a square panel, which is charged at each of its angles with a 

SEAF.S. 411 

sickle. Lord Hungerford mairied Catiierink, daughter and even- 
tually sole lieir of Thomas Peverel, and thus he assumed the Peve- 
rcl badge, the golden garh, and he also bore their garb as his crest ; 
and this garb he associated with a most appropriate companion 
— the silver siclde, already his hereditary badge from the House 
of Heytesbury. Lord Hungerford derived the second Banner of 
his Seal from his own mother, Joan, co-heiress of Sir Edmund 
Hussey, which lady died in 1412, having survived her husband. 
Sir Thomas de Hungerford, the first " Speaker " of the Commons 
of England, since 1 398. The Seal of Sir Egbert, second, but then 
(a.d. 1445) eldest surviving son of Lord Hungerford, is smaller 
than his father's, but the heraldic composition is precisely the 
same, with the addition of a lahel to the shield and to each of the 
Banners, while the hlade of each of Ms sickles is charged with an 
ermine spot, for difference — a remarkable example of cadency 
marked upon badges. This Sir Eobkrt died in 1 459, ten years 
only after his father, leaving his widow, Margaret, only child 
and sole heiress of Lord Bottreaux and of Margaret de Beau- 
mont, to foimd in Salisbury Cathedral the " Hungerford Chan- 
trey." On her Seal (a.d. 1465) this lad}^ styles herself " Lady of 
Hungerford and Bottreaux," and she displays, as if they were 
forming a canopy over her own kneeling figure, two Banners, 
the one on the dexter supported by a lion, and bearing Hunger- 
ford impaling Bottreaux, for her husband and herself; and the 
one on the sinister supported by a griffin and charged with 
Bottreaux impaling Beaumont, for her father and mother : see 
Xo. 427, PI. XXVIII., and p. 279, for Bottreaux . The Seal of 
Roger de Leyburn, as early as the time of Henry III., with his 
shield of arms, az., six lioncels arg., (Roll H. III.,) has on the 
dexter side a small Banner charged with a cross : (Archceol. Can- 
tiana, v., 192. 

Mounted Effigies of the Princes, Nobles, and Knights of the 
middle ages, with their surcoats, ju]^ ons and tabards of anus, 
their carefully-blazoned shields and their crested helms, and the 


bardings of their chargers also rich with heraldic devices, abound 
in the Seals to which the student of Heraldry will be certain to 
assign a place of honour in his collection. As typical examples 
of this most interesting class, in addition to the Great Seals, I 
have selected the Seals of William Longespee, Earl of Salisbury, 
(died 1226) ; of Hexry de Laci, Earl of Lincoln and Salisbury, 
(died 1272); of Egbert de Yere, Earl of Oxford, Xo. 728, 
PL LXXXII., (died 1290) ; of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of 
Hereford, (killed 1322); of William Montacute, Earl of Salis- 
bury, No. 729, (died 1343) ; and of Jaspar Tudor, K.G., Earl of 
EiCHMOND and Duke of Bedford, (died 1497). 

Eej)resentations of the sliipinng of the olden time, which were 
taught to share in the heraldic sentiment of their era, are not un- 
common in media3val Seals. In many of these Seals the drawing 
is curiously imperfect in the proportions of the crews and of the 
ships that carry them, and also in the comparative sizes of these 
ships and the fish that are represented as swimming in their own 
proper element beneath the keels. The special characteristic of 
these vessels when they carry sail is the heraldic blazonry, 
which is displayed upon the sails themselves ; see p. 288, and 
No. 530, PI. XXXV. The armorial compositions cover the entire 
\j I area of the sails, making them sails of arms, until in the six- 
1 teenth century shields of ample dimensions were charged upon 
' the sails, as in the Seal of Charles, Lord Howard of Effingham, 
the Lord High Admiral of England who encountered and, aided 
by the winds, gave so good an account of the Armada. In the 
Seal of Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, an earlier " High 
Admiral," (about 1416,) the sail of his ship is charged over its 
entire surface with the Arms of Beaufort, No. 479, PI. XXXII. : 
at the stem of the vessel also there is a banner of France and 
England, and forward another banner bearing a simple cross. John 
Holland, Earl of TTuNTiNCiDON, (a.d. 1436,) upon his Seal as 
^^ Admiral of England, Ireland, and Aquitaine," displays a much 
nobler looking sliip, with a splendid sail of Holland of Exeter ; 

S E A IrS. 


»TL.LLAJVt MO^T.\<jr\rrK . EARL OF SATilSBt'RY. 




No. 477 A, Plates XLV. and LXV. Another Seal of the same 
order, thirty years later, is charged with the splendid ship of 
Louis of Bourbox, Admiral of Franco : (See Archceologia, xxvi., 479 ; 
also xiv., and xviii,, 434.) The Seals of the Cinque Ports of Kent 
and Sussex exhibit several curious ships, which disi:)lay their 
own proper banner, the lions and ships dimidiated, as in Xo. 32G a, 
PI. LXXX., with the Banner and the Shield of England; (see 
Sussex ArchcBoL, 1. 14, and Heraldry of Fish, 178). The original 
Seal of Great Yarmouth in Norfolk, again, with its three very- 
fine herrings iij. base, is charged with a fishing-vessel of the 
middle of the 14th century; (Heraldry of Fish, 150). 

The Counter-Seal of Jaspar Tudor, K.G., uncle of Henry VII., 

No. 683. — Arras of Jaspar Tudor, K.G., from his Seal. (See p. 249.) 

an impression of which is attached to a grant of land in the 
county of Monmouth, bears his shield of arms, supported by a 
dragon and a wolf, and ensigned by a cap of estate of ver}* large 
dimensions, closely resembling the caps that are sculptured upon 
the Monuments of Duke Humphrey Plantagenet and Abbot 


Ramrydge, at St. Alban's. It is remarkable that in this shield 
the quarters of France Modern have the fleurs de lys arranged 
one and two, instead of two and one; (^Arclmol. xviii., 429,) Xo. 
683. In a Seal of the " WJiite Carmelites of Eitchin" Hertford- 
shire, a quartered shield of England and France Modern, England 
being in the 1st and 4:th quarters, is introduced, with another shield 
of England only ; (Ai-chceol. xviii., 447.) The Seal of Edward IV. 
for his Chancery of Monmouth bears England mith a label of 
France, and is a fine example of Seal Heraldry ; (Archceol. Journal, 
xiv., 55.) The two curious Seals of Edward Uj^antagexet and 
Arthur Tddor, as Princes of Wales, already described, (see 
pp. 259 and 325, and PI. LX., Xo. 699), must be here specified 
as A-aluable examples of their class ; and with them may be 
associated the judicial Seal — " s. ivdiciale" — of Queen Elizabeth, 
for the Counties of Caermarthen, Glamorgan, and Pembroke, on 
the reverse of which, beneath the quartered shield of France 
Modern and England, (the fleur de lys tico and one), supported by 
a dragon and- an heraldic antelope, is a scroll with the motto 
ic : DEN, and the badge of three feathers grouped together, and 
having their tips bending over ; (Archmol. xxxi., 495.) 

At page 279, I have referred to a few early Scottish Heraldic 
Seals of great interest, and amongst others to the Secretum of 
James I., a.d. 1429, which bears the Royal Shield of Scotland 
ensigned with a crown of beautiful design, atid regularly sup- 
ported by two lions rampant guardant. These, the earliest Ro^'al 
Scottish Supporters, continued in use until James V. substituted 
two unicorns for the two lions their predecessors. In the Garter- 
Plate of James V. of Scotland, who was elected a Knight of the 
Garter in 1533, the shield is supported by two unicorns argent, 
royally gorged and chained or. In this achievement the crest is a 
lion passant gu., upon a coronet or, holding in his dextei- paw a naked 
sword erect ppr., with the motto, " in my defence." Upon the 
Great Seal of this Prince the lion of the crest is passant guardant ; 
and it was so borne by James IV., and his three immediate pre- 

SEALS. 415 

decessors. The present Crest of Scotland, No. 567, PI. XLVI., 
was first adopted by James VI. of Scotland, the first King of 
Great Britain. 

I must be content here to adduce only three other examples 
of early Scottish Seals ; the first of these, the Seal of Walter 
Leslie, Lord of Eoss, a.d. 13G7, is perhaps the earliest compo- 
sition in which quartering arms is known to have been intro- 
duced into Scottish Heraldry ; it bears, first and fourth, a hend 
charged with three hucMes, for Leslie, and second and third, tliree 
lions ram;pt., for Moss. The next Seal, that of William, first Earl 
of Douglas and Earl of Mar, bears, 1 and 4, for Douglas, a human 
heart, and on a chief three mullets ; 2 and 3, for Mar, a hend hetiveen 
six crosslets fitchees. And lastly, the Seal of Joan, daughter of 
John de Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, the widow of James I. of 
Scotland, which bears the arms of Scotland impaling those of 
Beaufort upon a lozenge. The first and the last of these three 
Seals are engraved in Mr. Seton's '•'■Law and Practice of Heraldry 
in Scotland," a work which was published early in the last year, 
and shortly after the appearance of the first edition of my own 
volume. I gladly avail myself of this opportunity for recording 
my admiration of Mr. Seton's most excellent w^ork, which cannot 
fail to command the cordial sympathy of every true lover of 
Heraldry, on whichever side of the Tweed he may have his 
home. Mr. Seton has the true feeling of a Herald, coupled with 
the resources of a sound and learned lawyer and an accomplished 
scholar, and he writes with an earnestness and also with such 
a thorough mastery of his subject, that his book at once takes 
rank as a standard authority. 

The woodcut which follows, No. 707, drawn from the Seal of 
John, Earl of Arundel, exemplifies the spirited manner in which 
the heraldic artists of the fifteenth century introduced Supporters 
into their compositions. The shield quarters 'Fitz-Alan and 3Ial- 
tracers — gu., a lion rampt. arg., and or,fretfce sa. (See p. 278.) I 
may hero refer students to the learned paper by Sir Harris 



Nicholas on the Seals affixed to the Barons' Letter to the Pope in 
1301, printed in the Archoiologia, vol. xxi., pp. 192-231 ; to some 
" Observations on the use of Seals in England," in ArcJmoL, xviii., 
pp. 12-20, and 47; to various curious and valuable papers on 

No. 707. — Seal of John, Earl of AnrxDEL. 

Ok Seals in the publications of the Archceological Institute and the 

Lfrv> »/ Arcliceological Association ; and to the numerous and varied en- 
• Aa/M6*" gravings of Seals that illustrate Surtees' History of Durham. 



wUa(u The Heraldry' of the Coinage in its general capacity may be 

/ Ui6/i.fl said to be identical with other expressions of the Ro3'al Heraldry 
of England. The Shield of Arras of the reigning Sovereign, with 
certain significant Devices as accessories, would naturally be 
expected to appear on English Coins ; and such an expectation 
in many instances would be realized. In such Coins the Herald 
finds authoritative examples both of the Eoyal Shield and the 
favourite Eoyal Badges of each successive period. The Heads of 
the Sovereigns also place before him the changes in the form of 


COINS. 417 

the Royal Crown which took place from time to time. But our 
Coins have other types, also heraldic, which possess great his- 
torical interest. 

The Noble, (introduced by Edward III.), the Bose-Nohle or 
Rial, (Edward IV.), the Angel, (Hendry VI.), the Sovereign, 
(Hexry VII.), the George Noble, (Hexry VII.), all in gold, and 
the Croivn in both gold and silver, (Henry VIII.), stand fore- 
most amongst those English Coins which do not bear the Eoyal 
Shield of Arms. The Noble of Edward III. is charged with a 
figure of the King, crowned, in armour, and with his sword, his 
shield bearing France Ancient and England quarterly, standing 
in a ship which carries at its mast-head a pennon of St. George. 
This type is found to have been slightly modified under the 
succeeding princes. Thus, Queen Elizabeth is seated in her 
ship, and holds a sceptre ; and the shij) itself is charged with a 
Tudor Rose, and carries at the bow a banner bearing the 
initial, a Gothic E, The Bose-Noble has one or more Roses 
added to the type of the Noble itself. Both these Coins 
have on their ■ reverse a group of Royal Devices with Crowns. 
The type of the obverse of the Nobles gave rise to the following 
couplet, the significance of which will be felt by every student 
of English Heraldry : 

" Fom' things our Noble showetli unto me, — 
King, Sliip, and Sword, and Power of the Sea." 

The Angel, on the obverse, bears a figure of the Archangel 
St. Michael thrusting down the Serpent ; on the reverse is a ship 
with a Cross for a mast, with the Royal Shield, a rose, and an 
initial. The George Noble has St. George mounted, and the 
Dragon. The Sovereign has a figure of the reigning Prince, 
generally enthroned, the reverse bearing the Royal Shield, with 
various accessories. The Crown in gold of Henry VIII. has a 
crowned rose, and a crowned shield of arms, with the royal 
cypher. The silver Croivn of Edward VI. has the King on 
horseback, and the Royal Shield ; but that of Elizabeth sub- 
stitutes a crowned bust for the equestrian figure. In both of 

2 K 



these silver coins the Eoyal Shield is charged in pretence with 
a floriated Cross, which extends beyond the shield, and divides 
the legend into four parts. This arrangement of the Cross was 
a prevailing type of the earlier Coins ; it first appears with the 
shield of arms upon the shilling of Henry VII., and it was dis- 
continued by Jamcs I. The Fifteen-Shilling piece of that 
King is charged with the Eoyal Arms as borne by the Stuarts. 
The Crown of Charles II. has four crowned shields of England, 
Scotland, France, and Ireland in cross, the shields in the earlier 
examples alternating with the Eoyal C^'pher. Four shields 
placed in the same manner also appear on the CrowTis and 
Shillings of William III. and Anne, and they are reproduced 
upon Queen Victoria's Florins. 

It is remarkable that, until a comparatively recent period, 
the types of all the Coins, whatever their size or value, are of 
equal artistic excellence ; nor is it less worthy of remark, that 
in our own times the tj-pes of the Coinage should be distin- 
guished by such excessive degradation. "With the sole exceptions 
of the Sovereign and Croion that bear the St. George upon their 
Eeverses, and the recent bronze coinage, our modem Coins appear 
in most unfavourable contrast with the Angels and Nobles that 
have long ceased to be current in this country'. I still retain, 
however, a long-cherished hope that the Art of the^;Numismatist 
may at length revive, and again demonstrate its ability to execute 
truly noble Coins in the Eoyal Mint of England. 

No. 270.— Ecmains of tlie Seal of Ed- No. 270 a. — Seal of Edmund de Ahun- 
MTND MoRTiMEn, A.D. 1372. Sep p. 271. DEL, afterward Earl, 1301-1326. 

No. 522 — Pauache-Crest of John, Lord Schope, K.G., from liis 
Stall-Plate. See pp. 121 and 267. 



The Illuminations which at once illustrate mediaeval Manu- 
scripts, and take so important a part in conveying the historical 
information that we derive from them, abound both in direct 
heraldic records, and in those practical suggestions which are of 
such great utility to modern Heralds. Authorities for a very 
considerable number of early shields and badges are supplied 
by these Illuminations, and, at the same time, they are rich in 
diapers, and other heraldic accessories. So that the student of 
Heraldiy may always look to these early works, as to treasuries 
well stored with objects of value and interest. In like manner. 
Heraldry provides for the Illuminators of our own times abimdant 
materials exactly adapted to their use. 

The revival of the early Art of Illumination, and the degree 
of popularity which it now enjoys, naturally lead to inquiries 
relative to the means that may be best calculated to render the 


revived Art permanently popular. I believe that this can be 
accomplished onl}- by rendering it an Art really our own. The 
mere copying/ early Illuminations, however attractive in itself ^'j 
and really useful as a system of study, will not suffice to produce 
a school of modem Illuminators. Neither will the Art of Illu- 
mination rise even to be recognized as an universally desirable 
accomplishment, unless it be made to lead beyond the most 
careful colouring of certain sentences and words more vetusto. 
Our Illuminators must embody some thought of their own in 
their works ; they must make their works vehicles for recording 
something and conveying something, that they have themiselves 
imagined and devised ; and their illuminated details and acces- 
sories must have a genuine art-character, and a true feeling for 
the particular art of Illuminating as it is practised by themselves. 
I do not desire to suggest that all modem Illuminators should 
aspire to becoming independent designers of whatever they may 
illuminate. But while the great majority of them freely avail 
themselves of the aid that lithography is always ready to render, 
(an aid which their mcdiseval predecessors would have been but 
too thankful to have secured, had it been placed within their 
reach), it is most important that modern Illuminators should 
seek, not only for those printed outlines that are complete in 
themselves and require only the application of gold and colour, 
but such others also as may be of a suggestive character, and 
which the Illuminators may apply in carrying out certain ideas 
of their own. 

There appear to be four distinct classes of modern Illumina- 
tions. The first consists of Texts from the Holy Scriptures, or 
other brief passages of a directly religious character. The 
second class comprises choice brief extracts from various authors, 
both poets and prose writers. To the third class belong complete 
illuminated metrical works. And in the fourth class I would 
comprehend every such extract, version, copy, or composition 
as may be directly either historical, or biographical, and which 


consequently may obtain from Hkraldry its happiest and most 
appropriate illustrations. Heraldry, it is true, will provide 
much that will prove to bo eminently attractive, and truly con- 
sistent also, in Illuminations of every class ; for, if it does not 
always offer Shields of Arms, or Banners, or Badges, it is certain 
to suggest treatment and to supply accessories. But in all 
historical subjects, Heraldry is the Illuminator's most valuable 
ally. And these are subjects that are certain to be held in 
esteem. Passages from the old chroniclers, brief but emphatic 
summaries of great historical perio'ds, graphic records of cele- 
bi'ated historical incidents, or similar biographical sketches of 
the representative Personages of History ; historical charts and 
genealogies of every kind, and, in many instances, family gene- 
alogies, records and traditions, are all equally well suited to 
form materials for Illumination ; and, in every case, Heraldry is 
replete with exactly what the Hluminator will find to be best 
qualified to illustrate his work, and also to impart to it the most 
brilliant of decoration. 

Groups of historical shields, derivable from early Polls of 
Anns, with appropriate borders and brief legends, form beautiful 
pages for Illumination. Groups of such shields and borders, 
with certain other compositions of a somewhat similar class, 
amateurs may desire to obtain in outline, and also various acces- 
sories and illustrations which are well adapted to be made 
popular through the agency of lithography. I venture to pro- 
mise to Heraldic Illuminators that trustworthy outlines of this 
description shall be provided for their use. The promise con- 
tained in the last sentence yet remains, while the third Edition 
of this Volume is in the press, to be fulfilled : it has not been 
forgotten, however, and I trust that it will be speedily realized. 

No. 602. — Arms of tlie Heralds' College, from tlie ShieUl blazoned in 
the College. See p. 364. p \ ^ 




Amoxgst tlie mo.'^f important of the professional duties of the 
Herald who holds Uflice in the College of Arms, are the investi- 
gation, the display, and ihe faithful enrolment of Genealogies. 
And in tracing out and arranging Historical Genealogies, the 
Amateur Herald will find that he is enabled to elucidate and to 
illustrate History in the clearest and most impressive manner. 
In the History of England, indeed, there occur many important 
chapters and no less numerous episodes, all of which absolutely 
rely iipon genealogical illustration to render them clearly intel- 
ligible. And the genealogical form of tabular arrangement is 
peculiarly adapted to convey historical teaching with emphatic 
distinctness, while it is always available for prompt reference. 
I much question whether the History of the " Wars of the 
Eoses" can be either written or read >ati>1actorily without his- 
torical Genealogies. Similar Geiualo^irs are most valuable 
allies to the Student of History, when his attention is directed to 


the claim of Euwakd III. to the Crown of France; or when he 
is reading the record of the straggles between Stephen and 
Matilda ; or when he desires to see very clearly what was the 
relationship between Mary Stuart and Lord Darnley ; or how 
far Elizabeth of York had in her own person a title to the 
Crown ; or the relative positions of Mary and Jane Grey, and 
those of James I. and his unhappy kinswoman, Arabella Stuart. 
Various other examples will readily occur to the student of 
English History. 

The heraldic laws of exact definition, simple statement, and 
rigid conciseness, have full force in the arrangement and diawing 
up of Genealogies. The system which the student may adopt 
with advantage may be briefly explained. The materials which 
are to be used for the formation of any historical Genealogy 
consist, first, of notes of the facts that are to be set forth in it, 
and secondly, of a recognized series of abbreviations and signs. 
The notes will always comprise the names of every person who 
is to take a part in the Genealogy, with all dates and every 
circumstance that it may be desirable to record. 

The following abbreviations and signs have been found to 
work well: Son, son of: dm., daughter of: S. and H., son and 
heir of: daii. and H., or colt., daughter and heiress, or co- 
heiress : W., wife of: M., was married : =, placed between their 
names, signifies that the two persons specified were husband and 

wife : 4/ signifies that such persons had children : under 

any name, signifies that the person had children : S. P., (sine 
prole), without children : V.P. (vitdpatris), in his, or her father's 
lifetime; d., died, at and on: hn., was buried at: mon., has a 
monument still existing : eff., has a monumental eflSgy : h., killed 
in battle: ex., executed: murd., murdered: han., banished: ac, 
accession, or came to the crown : cr., coronation, or crowned : 
dep., deposed: K., King: Q., Queen: P. and Pss., Prince and 
Princess : Arclihp. and Bp., Archbishop and Bishop : D. and Bss 


Duke and Duchess : E., Ct., Ctss., Earl, Count, and Countess : 
Ba., Bnss., Baron, Baroness : Ld., Lord : Ly., Lady : Kt., Knight : 
PL, Plantagenet : Tu., Tudor : Stu., Stuart : La., Lancastrian : 
Yk., Yorkist : W. A., Westminster Abbey : Cath., Cathedral : Ch., 
Church : Ah., Abbey. 

In arranging a Genealogy, the main line of descent is to be 
indicated by keeping the successive names in a vertical column. 
All persons of the same generation are to have their names in 
the same horizontal line. Spaces of equal depth are to be allotted 
to each generation. The members of the same family are to be 
arianged in their order of birth in two groups, the sons first, then the 
daughters, each series commencing from the heraldic dextei' side 
of the paper. Should it be necessary especially to denote that 
any individual is the eldest, or the second, or an}" other son, 
this may be done hy inlacing the heraldic mark of Cadency over the 

name. Continuous Lines carry on and denote the descent, and the 
formation, and the connection of the families ; and, in placing 
these Lines, great care must be taken, lest a connecting line 
should point to any name not included in the order of blood - 
relationship. In extended Genealogies, distinct groups, (as 
Lancastrians and Yorkists) , may be indicated by inks of different 
colours ; Eoyal personages may have their names in peculiar 

letters ; and the direct line of descent and succession may also 
be indicated by capital letters, with initials in red. Badges may 

advantageously be placed with the names, as may; shi elds of arms 
in some instances ; other shields and heraldic insignia, with 
r eferences, &c., may bo placed in the margin. The figures 1 and 
2 may be introduced to denote first and second marriages : and, in 
like manner, any simple expedient may be adopted that may 
express a circumstance necessary to be indicated and obsei-ved. 
Ft will be noted, that the rule for arranging the names o- 
brothers and sisters does not exclude the heir from occujiying a 
central position in the vertical column of succession ; also, that 
where the same father or mother may have families by more 

GENEAL0G1E.S. 425 

than one marriage, the children of each marriage are to form distinct 
groups. I must add, that the actual arrangement of any historical 
Genealogy must be determined in a great measure by the leading 
object which it is intended to illustrate. Thus, I have arranged 
the accompanying brief example upon two different plans, each 
of them having its own especial aim. This example is a portion 
of the Eoyal Genealogy of England. It traces the descent of 
James I. upwards for four generations; and it indicates the 
blood-relationship that existed between the parents of that 
prince, and shows his own relative position with reference to 
both his predecessor on the English throne, and his kinswoman, 
Arabella Stuart. My Genealogy, No. 1, treats of the ^st 
Stuart Sovereign of Great Britain as the descendant of the 
TuDORS, and as their heir and representative ; but in No. 2, he 
appears as the representative of the Stuarts who, happening also 
to represent the Tudors, became the heir of both those Eoyal 
Houses. The same historical teaching is convoyed by both 
Genealogies, of which No. 1 takes the English view, while in 
No. 2 the Scottish aspect of the subject is taken. In No. 1 the 
relationship between Elizabeth and Mary Queen of Scots is 
shown, and also that between Elizabeth (and therefore between 
her sister, Mary,) and Lady Jane Grey. The space at my 
disposal has compelled me to omit many details, and in No. 2 
I have given the names only : still these genealogical sketches 
may serve to exemplify the system for forming historical Gene- 
alogies. Of course, these sketches might be rendered more 
graphic by the use of coloured inks, and by the addition of 
Shields of Arms and Badges. See pages 426, 427. 





See page 425. 



•a -3 
s o 

>< . 

'-^ s 
& ^ i at;' 

O ScoJ -si W 

^ ■a ^w IJ — 

b ""^5 i-sS|-s-s; SS 

g ^M H— -I 11-1 Ss 

H si 3p> || -d ^.- 

M 3 



See page 425. 

No. 299. — Arms of the Duke of Norfolk, the Eakl BIarshal, from tlie 
Shield blazoned in the Heralds' College. Seebp. 168, 1 12-. 



The Order of Precedence, a matter of no inconsiderable im- 
portance in a tighly civilized and equally complicated condition 
of society, was first established upon a definite system by a 
statute of Henry VIII., in 1539. Various subsequent regula- 
tions have taken efiect, and have contributed, in connection with 
Eoyal Letters Patent, to produce the Precedence now regarded 
as established and practically^ in force amongst us. 

This order of Precedence may be considered to be based upon 
the following fouifold principle; first, that persons of every 
degree of rank, except descendants of the blood royal, who 
always have precedence, should take place according to the 
seniority of the creation of such rank ; secondly, that the 


younger sons of each preceding degree of rank should take place 
immediately after the eldest son of the next succeeding rank ; 
thirdly, that in certain cases the tenure of office should con- 
stitute actual rank so long as such tenure should continue ; and, 
lastly, that while a married woman participates in her husband's 
rank, (though not always in his official rank), the same pre- 
cedence is due to all the daughters of a family that is enjoyed by 
the eldest son of that family. 

The Order of Precedence. 

The Sovereign. 

The Prince of Wales. 

The Sovereign's Younger Sons. 

The Sovereign's Grandsons. 

The Sovereign's Uncles. 

The Sovereign's Cousins. 

The Archbishop of Canterbury. 

The Lord Chancellor. 

The Archbishop of York. 

The Archbishop of Armagh. 

The Archbishop of Dublin. 

The Lord High Treasitrer, (now represented by the " Lords 
of the Treasury," of whom the " First Lord" is popularly 
entitled the " Prime Minister.") 

The Lord President of the Council. 

The Lord Privy Seal. 

These great Officers of State precede all Peers of their own 
Degree, (that is, if Dukes, they rank above all other Dukes ; if 
Earls, in like manner, &c.), in the following order : — 

The Lord Great Chamberlain. (When in the actual per- 
formance of official duty.) 

The Lord High Constable. 

The Earl Marshal. 


The Lord Steward of the Queen's Household. 
The Lord Chamberlain of the Queen's Household. 
The Secretaries of State. 

Then the Peers according to their Patents of Creation : — 
The Dukes. 
The Marquesses. 
The eldest Sons of Dukes. 
The Earls. 

The eldest Sons of Marquesses. 
The younger Sons of Dukes. 
The Viscounts. 
The eldest Sons of Earls. 
The younger Sons of Marquesses. 
The Bishops of London, Durham, and Winchester. 
The Bishops according to seniority of Consecration. 
The Barons. 

The Speaker of the House of Commons. 
The Treasurer and the Comptroller of the Royal Household. 
The Master of the Horse. 

The Secretaries of State, being under-the degree of Barons. 
The eldest Sons of Vi.scounts. 
The younger Sons of Earls. 
The eldest Sons of Barons. 

The Knights of the Garter, the Thistle, and St. Patrick, (not 
being Peers). 

The Privy Counsellors. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer. 

The Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster. 

The Lord Chief Justice of the Queen's Bench. 

The Master of the Rolls. 

The Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. 

The Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 

The jTulgo Ordinary. 

The Lords Justices of Chancery. 



The Vice Chancellors. 

The Judges of the Queen's Bench and Common Pleas. 

The Barons of the Exchequer. 

The younger Sons of Viscounts. • 

The younger Sons of Barons, 

The Baronets. 

The Knights Grand Crosses of the Bath. 

The Knights of the Star of India. 

The Knights Grand Crosses of St. Michael and St. George. 

Knights Commanders of the Bath and other Orders. 


Serjeant s-at-Law. 

Masters in Chancery and in Lunacy. 

Companions of the Bath and other Orders. 

Eldest Sons of the younger Sons of Peers. 

Eldest Sons of Baronets. 

Eldest Sons of Knights. 

Esquires : including 

Esquires to Knights of Orders of Knighthood ; the eldest 
Sons of all the Sons of Viscounts and Barons, and the eldest 
Sons of all the younger Sons of Peers, and their eldest Sons in 
pei"petual succession : 

The Sons of Baronets : 

Persons holding the Queen's Commission, whether in a civil, 
naval, or military capacity : 

]\Iembers of the Eojal Academy of Arts : 

Barristers : 

Masters of Arts, and Bachelors of Law : 

Clergymen : 


Before man-iage, Women take Precedence by the rank of their 
father, and all the sisters of any family have the same degree. 
By marriage, women participate in the dignities of their bus- 



bands, except in the case of certain dignities that are strictly- 
official ; but the dignities of wives are not imparted by marriage 
to their husbands. 

Marriage with an inferior does not affect the Precedence that 
any woman may enjoy by birth or creation ; but the wife of any 
Peer always takes her rank from her husband. Women ennobled 
by marriage, retain their rank as widows ; but, should they 
contract second marriages, that rank ceases, and their Precedence 
is thenceforward determined absolutely either by the rank of their 
second husbands, or by their own personal dignity of birth. 

The wife of the eldest son of any degTee precedes the sisters 
of her husband, and also all other ladies of the same degree with 
them, such ladies having place immediately after the wives of 
their eldest brothers. This principle of Precedence obtains in 
all families of the same degree amongst themselves. 

No. 627 A.— Badge of Eichaed II. 
From his Effigy at "Westminster. (See p. 304.) 


No. 61 3.— HowAKD Modern. See p. 434. j |>.i 83 , 




An " Augmentation" I have defined to be " an honourable 
addition to an heraldic composition, which is complete and dis- 
tinct in itself, and conveys emphatically a definite signification 
of its own ;" (p. 93). In the olden time these Augmentations 
were gi'anted, Camden tells us, " some of mere grace and some of 
merit ;" and he instances the grant of the Arms of the Confessor 
to the Hollands and to Thomas Mowbray, (see pp. 126, 153, and 
247), as examples of Augmentation by the " mere grace " of King 
Richard II. ; but, on the contrary, Henry VIII., " for merit," 
gr%pted to Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, and his posterity, for his 
victory at Flodden Field, wherein King James IV. of Scotland 
was slain," September 9, 1513, as a commemorative Augmenta- 
tion, the Royal Shield of Scotland, having a demi-Uon only, which ^ft«-t*^'^ 
is pierced through the mouth with an arroio, to be charged upon the JT * ^^ 
silver bend of Howard. The two shields of this noble House, 

2 F 



the one without, and the other with the Flodden Augmentation, 
may be severally distinguished as Howard Ancient, No. 394, 
PI. XXX VIT., and Howard Modern, No. G13, p. 433. 

Ujfferkncing by Augmentation, even when the fresh acces- 
sions to a Shield have resulted from " mere grace," is eminently 
historical in its character : and this association between Coat- 
armour and History thus affected in augmented Arms, neces- 
sarily becomes peculiarly interesting as well as decided and 
emphatic in the case of every Augmentation which refers to some 
well-known event, or which arose out of some memorable 

The Augmentations granted out of his " mere grace " by 

Henry VIII. to some of his Consorts are blazoned in pp. 309-10. 

Another most remarkable example, of an earlier period, is the 

Augmentation gi-anted by Eichard II. to his favourite, Egbert 

DE ViiRE, K.G., ninth Earl of Oxford, Marquess of Dublin and 

Duke of Ireland: az., three crowns or, within a hordure arg., being 

a differenced Coat of St. Edmund, to be borne quarterly with the 

Arms of de Yere. This Augmentation appears to have been 

Lu regarded as the Arms of Ireland; (See Mr. J. Gough Nichol's 

'^fi^it^x. Paper on the Earldom of Oxford in vol. ix. of Archoeol. Journal.') 

,^; IT fi. Again, to Thomas Manners, K.G., first Earl of Eutland (grand- 

y,iv). son of Anne Plantagenet, sister of Edward IV.), Henry Vlll. 

♦/lAJ granted a chief of France and England, — that is, quarterly 1 and 4, 

j^ az., two fleurs de lys or ; 2 and 3, fjxL, a lion of England. I add a 

3 ; "^^ small group of examples of augmented shields of Camden's second 

•^,,',1 division — that "of merit:" — 

^. 1. Pelham, an Augmentation quarterly, in commemoration of 

t J^ > the capture of John, King of France, at Poicticrs, by Sir W1L14AM 

..( f^.U Pelham : — gu., two demi-helts palewise, in f esse, their hucldes in chief, 

arg., in the 2 and 3 quarters with Pelham — az., three pelicans arg., 

vulning themselves ppr., No. 132 C, p. 436. 

2. Wodehouse, Baron Wodehouse, in Memory' of Agincourt: — 
sa., a chevron or gontte'e dti sang, between three cinqnefoils erm. : 


Crest, a dexter hand issuing from clouds, holding a chdj, all pjyr., en- 
signed with the Motto, " Frappez fort ;" below the shield the word, 
" ^^incourtr ^fl*^ 

3. Scott of Thirlstane (a.d. 1542 :) the Boyal tressure of Scot- H^rM^ 
land, charged upon afield or ; on a hend az., heticeen two crescents ^^^y^,\ 
a midlet gold ; Crest, " a bundle of lances, icith the words, * Beady, yj, i.* 
aye Beady.' " 

Many other Scottish shields, in like manner, are augmented 
with the Eojal tressure : as those of Gordon, Fleming, Living- 
stone, Maitland, Montgomery, Charteris, Primrose, Bellenden, 
and others: (See Seton, p. 451). 

4. Sir John Clarke, on his taking the Duke of Longueville 
at the " Battle of Spurs," near Theronenne, (24 days befoi'e 
Flodden, Aug. 16, 1513) : the arms of the captured Duke, to be 
charged on a sinister canton upon the paternal shield of Sir 'T^ 
John, — on a sin. canton az., a demi-ram salient arg., armed or ; in tf^^^**/* 
chief, tico fieurs de lys gold, over all a baton dexfenrandi for Clarke, *Ii-i-^ ^ 
arg., on a bend gu., between three pellets, as many swans, ppr. 

5. Lane of Bently, Staflbrdshire, in memory of the escape of 
Charles II., after Worcester, through the devoted courage of 
Jane Lane : on the shield of Lane, per fesse or and az., a chevron 
gu., between three mullets counter clianged, a canton of England : Crest, 
a strawberry-roan horse salient, couped at the fianhs, bridled sa., bitted 
and garnished or, supporting between his feet a regal crown. 

6. Keith, Earl of Kintore, (a.d. 1677), in remembrance of the 
safe keeping and restoration of the Scottish Eegalia : — quarterly, 
1 and 4, gu., a sceptre and sword in saltire, icith an imperial craian 
in chief, tcitJiin an orle of thistles or ; with 2 and 3, arg., a chief 
paly of six or and gu. 

7. Sir Cloudesley Shovel, (a.d. 1692,) to commemorate two 
naval victories over the Turks and one over the French;— <;»., a 
chevron erm., augmented with, in chief two crescents, and, in base, a 
fleur-de-lys or, 

8. John Churchill, K.G., first Duke of Marlborough : — an 

2 F 2 



inesciitcheon of Si. George, charged loith another of France Modern ; 
No. G15, p. 439, and Chap. XXXI. 

9. Richard, Marquess Wellesley, K.G., K.P. : — an inescutcheon 
of Mysore, that is, piirpure, an estoile vert, hordered and radiated or, 
between eight stripes of the royal tiger of Tippoo Sidtaun, saltire-wise, 
gold ; with other appropriate Augmentations to his Crests and 

10. Arthur Wellesley, K.G., first Duke of Wellington : An 
inescutcheon of England ; No. 614, p. 439, and Chap. XXXI. 

11. William Carnegie, seventh Earl of North esk : In chief, 
tlie word Trafalgar, and tipon the breast of the Carnegie eagle a 
naval crown. 

Amongst the noblest Augmentations " for merit," may be 
numbered accessions of fresh " Honours," to the Colours of our 
Eegiments, and eveiy " C-lasp " that is added to the IMedals of 
our sailors and soldiers; (See pp. 291 and 3o2). 

No. 132 c— Peliiam. See p. 434. 



The teim Abatement first appears in the heraldic writings of 
the sixteenth century, and it is then assigned to certain marks 
said to be designed to indicate the reverse of honourable Aug- 
pi 2. iiisntations. In practice any such thing as an heraldic Abate- 
ment is unknown, with the sole exception of the distinctions 
adopted for the purpose of indicating illegitimate descent. 

In modern Heraldry, the Abatement of Illegitimacythat has 


rt»K fx U^t'K'w %^i\. 3 H^CL . J, i,^ 

W ' V. - • 

/^tv* w 1(WvX3Jv\ AT. J 


been generally recognized, is a bendlet or baton sinister : and this 'f***'''^'^'^ 
bendlet is represented as couped at its extremities, so that it does 
not extend across the entire field of any shield. But the early -"*<'**^ 
Heralds, whatever their feelings may have been upon this jioint, 
certainly never promulgated as a law of heraldic usage any par- 
ticular difference that should distinguish the arms of persons 
not of legitimate birth, or those of the descendants of such 
persons, it would appear, indeed, that this Abatement was 
generally if not always determined in accordance with the 
wishes of different individuals. Some Abatement of illegitimacy 
was held and admitted to be necessary ; and provided that the 
Abatement appeared on the shield, it might assume whatever 
form might be considered best suited to each particular occa- 
sion. Two or three early examples will illustrate the practice of 
the old Heralds with sufScient clearness. 

Sir KoGER DE Clarendon, son of the Black Prince, bore, or, on . . 7^ 
a bend sa., three ostrich feathers, labelled, arg. His near kinsman, 
the son of John of Ghent, John de Beaufort, before the Act of 
Legitimation in 1397, bore a somewhat similar parody of the 
arms of his father — a similar parody, at any rate, of the second 
and third quarters of his father's shield, retaining his label : per 
pale arg. and az., on a bend gu., three lions of England, ensigned with 
a label of France. The tinctures of the field, argent and azure, 
were the Livery Colours of the Lancastrian Plantagenets. John 
DE Beaufort afterwards retained these same tinctures in his 
bordure compony : see p. 248. Sir John de Clarence, son of 
Thomas, Duke of CLARfeNCE, (himself the son of Henry IV.), 
bore, per chevron gu. and az., in chief two lions counter-rampant, and 
in base a fieur-de-lys, all or. Glover gives as the arms of a 
natiu-al son of one of the Fitz-Alans, Ealph de Arundel, a shield 
of Fitz-Alan, flanched arg. : that is, a shield arg., having fianchcs of 
Fitz-Alan and Warreune quarterly, as they were quartered by the 
Earls ; No. 622, p. 438. 

The baton sinister was borne by Arthur, Viscount Lisle, son of 
Edward IV. : by Henry, Duke of Richmond, son of Henry VIII. : 



and by Charles Somerset, Earl of Worcester, son of Henry 
Beaufort, third Duke of Somerset. The seal of this Charles 
Somerset shows that his baton crossed his quartered aixas, but 
was couped by his bordure : the baton itself is plain and very 
narrow. The eldest son of this Earl removed his father's baton 
from his arms, and charged Beaufort upon a fesse on a silver 
shield, thus recognizing the heraldic propriety of retaining an 
Abatement, though rejecting the baton. The artus of the 
natural sons of Charles II. were all abated with the baton 
sinister, which was differenced after the manner of a label ; 
excej^t in the case of the Duke of Eichmond, who differenced with 
a bordure. At the present day, the haton of the Duke of St. 
Alban's is, gu., charged with three rosea arg. ; that of the Duke of 
Cleveland is, ermine ; and the haton of the Duke of Grafton is, 
compony arg. and az. The Duke of Eichmord bears the arms of 
Charles II., (Ko. 537, PI. LVIII.), within a bordure componee arg. 
and gu., charged with eight roses of the last, harhed and seeded ppr. 
Except in instances such as these, in which the Abatement is 
charged upon the Eoyal Arms, there appears no reason for trans- 
,-^ mitting the baton sinister with its peculiar signification ; in all 

f^^^'^- less exceptional cases some mai;k_of cadency might very pro- 
wvl>itUi. perly be substituted in its stead, or all traces of Abatement 
•/•//** '^' might be removed from their shields of arms by the descendants 
of persons, to whom arms had been granted abated with a sinister 

KftVft«J, W^ No. 022.— Sir Ralph de Arvndel, p. 437. 

No. 614. — Arthur Wellesley, No. 615. — Spencer CnrRCHiLL, 

Duke of Wellington. Diike of Marlbokocgh. 

See pp. 435, 436 aud 443. 



When not historical of the past, it is the office of all tiue 
Heraldry to be historical for the future. Our Modem Heraldrj^ 
accordingly, if it would be consistent Avith both its character 
and its traditions, must take a becoming part in producing that 
Chapter of English History which we shall hand down to 
succeeding generations. It is indeed true that the state of 
things has undergone a marvellous change since Heraldry 
reigned in its full glory under the Plantagenets, and also since 
Henry VIII. held the assumption of the Arms of the Confessor 
by a Duke to be an overt act of high treason ; and yet the office 
of the Herald has by no means fallen into abeyance amongst 
ourselves. Our Heralds have still to record and to preserve the 
memory of both public and private Genealogies. They have to 
take note of the Succession of the Inheritors of old Titles, and 
of the creation of new ones. They have to preside over and to 
confirm the Assumption and the Bearing of Armorial Insignia 


of whatever kind : and all new Grants of Arms come under their 
cognizance, and are enrolled in their College. They also direct 
all royal and national Solemnities and Pageants ; and they are at 
once the guardians and the exponents of the heraldic Eecords of 
their predecessors. 

In some particulars our Heraldry must inevitably suffer, when 
it is brought closely into contiast with the Heraldry of the 
olden time. For example, when Helms were really worn, and 
when Shields were in actual use, a Shield of Anns and a Crest 
had a significancy which now it is not possible for them to 
I'etain. We must be content to accept Shields and Crests as 
heraldic accessories, the bequest of the early Heralds, which we 
can only employ in reference to Heraldry itself. Shields and 
Crests, however, come to us possessing hereditary claims to 
recognition and acceptance in their heraldic capacity ; and so 
we recognize and accept them. And, at the same time, we cer- 
tainly have it in our power to render our Heraldry both dignified 
and useful. We can adjust our Heraldry to early usage, as we 
must build it up upon early princijiles. We can reject any 
Heraldry that is not true as Heraldry, that does not accord with 
early precedent, and that is not also consistent with existing 
circumstances and associations. We are able to follow the ex- 
ample of the early Heralds, in adhering to sound heraldic rule ; 
in preserving the simplicity which distinguished the best 
Heraldry of the past ; in jealously maintaining the rule of 
Marshalling ; in adopting a judicious system of Cadenc}' ; and 
in drawing a broad line of distinction between Arms that are 
borne by right, and therefore have authority, and those which are 
either copied, or parodied, or improvised in accordance with the 
fancy or the capiice of unauthorized individuals. 

In blazoning heraldic devices which in a peculiar sense are 
of an historical character, it is important that tme Coats of Arms 
should be clearly distinguished from Badges ; and, except under 
very special circumstances, it would be well to avoid charging 


Badges upon shields. The general adoption and use of Badges, 
however, as Badges, would be altogether consistent and right; 
and particularly whenever it now is customary to use a Crest 
for heraldic decoration, a Badge (which might be the same 
Charge or Device as the Crest) might be adopted in Modem 
Heraldry with good eifect. I may adduce the heraldic jewellery, 
now much and deservedly in favour, as an illustration of the 
class of objects in which Badges might supersede Crests, The 
simplicity of the early compositions and their heraldic con- 
sistency ought always to be kept in remembrance. These are 
points that may be strongly urged upon all who are desirous to 
advocate the worthiness of Modern Heraldry. All indorial 
Heraldry, with the whole order of compositions that aspire to 
comprise within the limits of a single Shield both the greatest 
possible variety and the greatest possible number of Charges, 
must be resolutely excluded from our Heraldry. The historical 
value of the Heraldry of the new Palace at "Westminster is most 
seriously prejudiced by the injudicioiis association of true 
Shields of Arms with other Shields charged with devices, the 
aim and purpose of which I am not able to conjecture, but which 
certainly have no title to appear where they have been dis- 
played. The Peerage will supply illustrations of the style of 
composition that happily is passing away, but which must still 
be regarded as in some degree illustrative of modern Heraldry ; 
two examples of this class will be sufficient to act as warnings. 
The Arms granted to Horatio, Viscount Xelsox, are blazoned 
in Sir Bernard Burke's Peerage after the following fashion : Or, 
a cross fleurie sa. a bend gu., surmounted by another engrailed of the 
field, charged with three bombs, fired, ppr. ; on a chief, (of honourable 
augmentation), undulated arg., leaves of ihe sea, from which a palm- 
tree issuant, between a disabled ship on the dexter, and a battery in 
ruins on the sinister, all ppr. Crests : on the dexter, (as a Crest of 
Honourable Augmentation), or, the chelengJc, or plume of triumph, 
presented to Horatio, Viscount Nelson, by the Grand Signior or Saltan, 


Selim III. ; and on the sinister, (the family Crest), on a wreath of 
the colours, upon waves of the sea the stern of a Spanish man-oficar, 
all ppr., thereon inscribed, " San Joseff." The sailor and the lion 
which form the Supporters are not so bad ; but what ideas of 
Heraldry could have been entertained by those who devised the 
Nelson Crest, and placed " waves of the sea " and the stern of a 
Spanish line-of-battle ship upon a Helm ? The Arms granted to 
General, Sir Edward Kerrisox, which are thus blazoned, require 
no comment whatever: Or., a pile az., charged with three galtraps 
of the field : the augmentation following, on a chief embattled erm., 
a wreath of laurel, encircling a sword erect ppr., pommel and hilt 
gold, hetioeen on the dexter, pendent from a ribbon gu., fimbriated of 
the second, a representation of the gold medal presented to Sir Edward 
for his services at the battle of Orthes, beneath it the word " Orthes," 
in letters sa. ; and on the sinister, pendent from a like ribbon, a repre- 
sentation of the silver medal presented to him in commemoration of his 
services at the battle of Waterloo, beneath it the loord " Waterloo," in 
letters also sa. 

Mr. Setox (Scottish Mei-aldry, p. 134), has treated the " Heraldic 
Debasement " of modern times after a fashion which must lejoice 
the heart of every true Herald. Had my space permitted, I 
would gladly have quoted from his pages at considerable length 
upon this matter, so cordially do I sympathize with his indig- 
nant vindication of the " noble science :" T must be content, 
however, to borrow from him a single specimen of the "fright- 
ful perversions " which he lashes with just severity. " The 
following Arms, granted in 1760, to the family of Tetlow, 
seated at Haughton in Lancashire," says Mr. Seton, " are as- 
suredly a delightful specimen : Azure, on a fess argent, five 
musical lines sable, thereon a rose gules, between two escallops 
of the last ; in chief, a nag's head erased of the second, between 
two crosslets or ; in base a harp of the last. Crest : on a wTeath, 
a book erect gules, clasped and ornamented or, thereon a silver 
penny, on which is written the Lord's Prayer ; on the top of the 


book a dove proper, in its beak a crow-quill sable. Motto : 
" Prcemimn viriutis Honor /" It appears that tlie hero 2^(^^' excel- 
lence of the family once accomplished some such an achievement 
in penmanship, as is indicated in this Tetlow Crest. 

The Augmentations of Honour that grace the Shields of the 
two great military Dukes, Wellington and Marlborough, are 
such as the old Heralds would have devised. The Insignia of 
the United Kingdom, and a Shield of France charged upon 
another bearing the Cross of St. George, when blazoned in 
pretence on the honour point by the two Dukes, are as signifi- 
cant and expressive as the Howard Shield of the days of Flodden, 
or as the quartered Shield of Edward III. himself; see Nos. 
613, 614, 615, and also 286. In the first and fourth quarters 
the Duke of Marlborough marshals the Arms granted to the 
first Duke of his name, Churchill, and here the Cross of St. 
George appears on a canton ; see pages 435 and 439. 

In modem Heraldry Cadency is but little used, since its 
operation is almost superseded by the simple process of assuming- 
arms without any shadow of claim to them, beyond such claim 
as is supposed to exist through the fact of bearing a particular 
name. In early Heraldry distinctions were carefully marked in 
the arms borne by members of the same family, who had in 
common the same name. Now, on the contrary, when a person 
deteimines to have " anns," he looks out his own name in an 
armory, and the arms he chances to find assigned to some one 
having the same name he forthwith assumes and uses as his own. 
Or he may obtain assistance, and his own - consciousness of 
heraldic inexperience may be satisfactorily set at rest by gentle- 
men who, for a consideration, and a very trifling consideration 
too, find arms for hesitating aspirants to heraldic honours. The 
value of " arms " that are " found " on payment of certain 
shillings, under the guidance of a surname correctly spelt and 
legibly written, is precisely the same as the value of those which 
Messrs. A, B, and C may so easily find for themselves ; or, if 


they should happen to be of an imaginative turn of mind, which 
they may amuse their leisure by devising on their own account. 

It is indeed true that ever}' one is at liberty to call anything 
whatever his " ai'ms," as he may detennine either the colour and 
fashion of his costume, or the shape of his house ; but, neverthe- 
less, the Heralds' College still exists, and is the fountain head of 
true Heraldry ; and, until it is true to itself, Modern Heraldry 
must continue to bo but a degenerate representative of what 
Heraldry was about half a thousand years ago, when the mar- 
riage of a Prince of Wales was an event that for the first time 
took place in England. 

There is one occasion on which in our own times a public 
display of heraldic blazonry is expected, and when accordingly 
such a display is regularly made. I refer to the practice of 
placing Hatchments upon the residences that had been occupied 
by personages of eminence and distinction, at the time of their 
decease. The rules that have been adopted for the composition 
of these Hatchments 1 have described at page 108. I now 
advert to these funereal displays, because so very generally they 
are both conceived and executed in the worst possible taste, 
and in a style that might be supposed to aim at demonstrating 
the impossibility of any alliance between Art and Heraldry. 
Probably the actual shield that is charged upon any hatch- 
ment may be heraldically correct in its marshalling, and also 
in its blazonry ; the favourite accessories, however, of these 
shields, with rare exceptions, are such as the early Heralds 
would have regarded with indignant sui-prise. Shields hideous 
in outline, and rendered still more offensive by what I suppose 
is intended to be accepted as ornamentation, the most execrable 
scroll-work, with ribbons as bad in their own way and, to crown 
the whole, those painful winged infantine heads that are at once 
so absurd and so oifensive, but too commonly are the charac- 
teristics of modern hatchment-painting. I have engraved an 
avei'age specimen, No. 61(3, because I have felt unable in un- 


assisted words to do full justice to these outrages upon Heraldry. 
May I venture to hope for support from all who love the Herald's 
Art, when I claim for Modern Heraldry immunity from such 
systematic efforts to render it contemptible? Dignified hatch- 

No. 616.— Hatchment. 
The Middle of the Nineteenth Century. — Abatement of Heraldry, 

ments may he produced with ease by any true Herald ; and 
without doubt the services of a true Herald may always be 
secured, when the production of a really dignified composition 
of this class may be required. 

And so also in all other matters connected with the practical 
working of Heraldry in our own times, we now are fully com- 
petent to emulate the example bequeathed to us from "the 
brave days of old." "We have already learned to form a just 
estimate of both heraldic debasement and heraldic dignity, and 
a better feeling for a true and a noble Heraldry is beginning 


to prevail. Heraldry is popular too ; and, accordingly, I am 
sufficiently sanguine to look for such an heraldic revival, as will 
cause Modem Heraldiy and good Heraldry to become inter- 
changeable terms. (See Chap. XXX.) 

As examples of very recent Grants of Arms, which have 
passed through my own hands from the Heralds' College on their 
way eastwards, I have added to my Illustrations the Armorial 
Insignia now borne by authority by two subjects of Her Majesty, 
who are natives of India, both of them men of wealth and 
influence and also of munificent liberality, magistrates, and 
fellows of the University of Bombay. These arms, with those 
of a third native gentleman of India, in every respect equally 
worthy, as a British subject, to bear Armorial Insignia, I 
now describe. I must add that in their religion these gen- 
tlemen, to use the expression used by themselves, are Zoroas- 

Mr. MuxGULDAss NurnooBHOY, of Girgaum House, Bombay, is a 
banker in that city : he bears, — arg., environed by two sicMes inter- 
laced, a garh of ripe rice all ppr. ; on a chief indented az., between two 
bezants, a mullet or : Crest, — on a moultd vert an elephant statant, 
holding in his trunk a palm-hranch all ppr., charged on his side with 
two mullets in f esse or : Motto, — " Wisdom above Miches •" No. 723, 
p. 432. 

Mr. CowASJEE Jehanghier, of Bombay, bears, — az., icithin an 
orle of eight mullets, the sun in splendour or ; on a canton arg., the 
rose of England and the lotus of India in saltire ppr.: Crest, — on a 
mound vert., a low pnllar, ths base and capital masoned, flames of fire 
issuing therefrom : Mottoes, — " My Life is His who gave it," and 
above the Crest, "Burning I shine ;" No. 724. 


Mr. Cdrzetjee FuKDOONM^aeR Paruk, of Bombay, bears, — arg., 
a chevron gu., between three ancient galleys sa. ; on a chief az., between 
tico estoiles, the sun in splendour or : Crest, — on a mound vert, a winged 
lion passant or, charged on the shoulder with an estoile az., and behind 
him apalm-tree ppr. : Motto, — " A good Conscience is a sure Defence 1!^^^!}^ 



These ancient galleys and the winged lion refer to the early 
migration of the Parsees of India from Persia, as the rice-garb 
and sickles may be supposed to denote the former agricultural 
avocations of the family of the Bombay banker. 

No. 724. — CowASJEE Jehanghiek, of Bombay. 


No. 617. — Pommel ot the Swoid-hilt of the Black Prince : I). Ay) 
Canterbury Cathedral. 



I BELIEVE it to be a prevalent inisapprehensiou, either that 
no early Heraldry has any title to be regarded as an Art, or 
that in its artistic capacity all early' Heraldry- is alike. The 
student who desires thoroughly to understand the Heraldry of 
the olden time, will speedily discover that very many of the 
Heralds who flourished some centuries ago were time Artists ; 
nor will he be long before his attention is attracted to the 
marked differences in heraldic Style and Treatment which dis- 
tinguish the armorial insignia of different periods. In fact, the 
Art of Mediaeval Heraldry attained to its highest excellence, and 
it declined and sunk down to a condition of lowly humility, con. 
temporaneously with the Art of Architecture, an^ with the 
other Arts of the middle ages. A series of heraldic Seals, 
ranging in their dates from 1300 to 1550, will very clearly 
elucidate this statement. Or an heraldic monument of the time 
of Edward I., compared with others severally of the eras of 
Edward III., Henry VI., Henry YIII., and James I., will be 

HERALDIC treatmp:n"t. 449 

equally explicit in illustrating the progress of Heraldic Art. 
And, again, much may be learned through a comparison con- 
ducted within much narrower limits. Thus, the Brasses to 
Aliaxore de Bohux, a.d. 1399, at "Westminster, and to Lady 
TiPTOFT, A.D. 1446, at Enfield, show how striking is the difference 
in heraldic Art that at that period was produced by the lapse of 
half a century. The two memonals resemble each other very 
closely even in minute particulars of composition and aiTange- 
ment ; and yet in treatment and in Art-feeling it is scarcely 
possible that any two works of the same order should exhibit 
more decidedly marked differences. These differences extend to 
the forms of the shields, and their adjustment to the canopies of 
the two Brasses. In PI. XVII. I have given faithful represen- 
tations of the Tiptoft shields and lions, which may be compared 
with those in PI. XX., and at page 253 ; and the effect of this 
comparison will be confii-med by extending it to the earlier 
shields engi-aved at pages 61 and 89. 

The study of early Heraldry will enable the student, perhaps 
to his surprise, but certainly to his gratification, to determine 
at least the approximate period of any Shield of Arms, with 
almost as certain accuracy as an archteological architect is able 
to read dates in chisel-cut mouldings. The conventional system 
of treatment adopted by the early heraldic Artists, when care- 
fully considered under the different aspects which it assumed at 
different periods, will also enable us to develop for ourselves 
such a style of heraldic Art as may be consistent with the 
geneial condition of Art in our own era, while at the same 
time it harmonizes with the best and most artistic Heraldiy of 
the past. 

The really important consideration for us is, that our Style 
should be at once our own, mid also in itself equally true to Art and 
to Heraldry. If we assign a due measure of our regard, on the 
one hand to the requirements of modern Art, and on the other 
hand to the authority of early Heraldry, we may confidently 

2 G 


J anticipate complete success. Rejecting the idea that the Art of 
all early Heraldry is of equal authority, we must take as our 
guide only the early Heraldry of the best and most artistic 
period — that is, Ixfoie ]4.:)(>; and having thus determined what 
early Heraldry we may most advantageously study, we shall 
conduct our inquiries in the spirit of Artists, and not as 
imitators merely and copyists. We must aspire higher than 
to succeed in reproducing even the best early heraldic composi- 

A certain degree of Conventionalism will be necessary in our 
treatment of all heraldic figures and objects ; but this conven- 
tionalism imposes no restrictions upon our freedom of design, 
and much less does it require a monotonous adherence to any 
particular type. Our Heraldry must repudiate intenuinable 
repetitions of the same composition or the same device, all 
exactly alike, as if they were cast from a single mould. Nor, 
because our designs must be conventional in some degree, is it 
at all requisite that they should be unnatural. Good drawing 
also must be a condition of our Heraldry ; so that our Lions may 
be well and artistically drawn, both thoroughly lionish and tho- 
roughly heraldic, and 3-et they may decidedly diifer from such 
figures of lions as we should expect to find in an illustrated 
treatise on mammalia. The heraldic Lion is certainly the 
sovereign of the animals who take a part in the Herald's compo- 
/ sitions ; and he is also the most difficult to treat. I know no 

early examples superior to those that appear ready to spring out 

of their Shield at Beverley. The Lions of the monuments of 

John of Ei iham also, of the r>LA(K 1'rixce, and of Edward IIL, 

are excellent heraldic lions ; their conventional treatment, how- 
ever, is somewhat exaggerated. We may avoid such exaggeration, 
without either drawing lions as the Heralds of James I. would 
have drawn them, or reproducing the grotesque water-spouting 
felince of the majolica fountain in the 1862 Great Exhibition. 
Those lions dnnsant disposed of strict naturalism in heraldic 

No. 663 

No. 711. 

No. 712. 

PLATE LXXVir. CuAi'iEU xxx., p. 451. 

No. 033.— Shield of Anus of tlie Abbey of St. Alb.\x, witli the SiipiX)rtcT.s of 

Abbot Thomas Kamryge. 

No. 711.— Collar of one of the Ram Supportoiti. 

No. 712.— Head of one of the Ram Supporters. 

From the I\Ionumental Chantry of Abbot Ramhyge, in the Abbey Churcli, at 

St. Alban's ; about a.d. 1500. Sec also p. 123. 


animals. The Powys lion s, Xos. 300 b, 300 c, PI. XVII., and f 
364 A, n. XXIII., dispose in no less peremptory a manner of 
pure conventionalism. 

At the head of this Chapter I have placed a small cut, No. ^ 
617, representing the pom mel of the sword-hilt that is sculp- 
tured with the E ffiyy of the B l ack Prince at Canterbu ry, and 
which is charged with a most spirited representation of a lion's 
face, the fa ce of a true heral dic Lion ; and at p. 340.there is a 
much earlier group of lions' faces, charged upon the shield of an 
effigy of a Knight, atClehongre in Herefordshire. This is a 
splendid example of the monumental sculpture of the time of 
Edward II., about a.d. 1320 ; the Shield is bariy of six, the 
bars being alternately carved in relief, and over all on a bend 
are the three lion's faces; No. 657, p. 379. 

The Bams that Abbot Ramrydge of St. Alban's assumed and 
bore as his Supporters, and which are sculptured again and 
again upon his monumental chantry in his Abbey Church, with 
a freedom and boldness that cannot be described in terms of 
too decided admiration, may be accepted by modem Heralds as 
examples of heraldic animals, to be studied ^\dth thoughtful 
care, and followed with implicit reliance. The originals have 
all suffered in a greater or a lesser degi'ce, some few of them 
having almost escaped the injuries that have very nearly 
destroyed others. In Plate LXXYII. I have represented one 
of the Shields supported by two rams, and ensigned with a rich 
coronet-like cap, No. 633. The anus are those of the Abbey of 
St. Alban, az., a saltire or. It will be observed that the sculptor 
has couped the extremities of the ordinary within the shield, 
and this he has done in every shield upon the monument. Some 
of these shields are ensigned with rich mitres, all of them now 
grievously mutilated ; and in many instances two beautiful 
pastoral staves cross behind the shields in saltire, their shafts 
interpenetrating the mouldings of the panels and tracery. In 
addition to the ram-supporters, rams' heads are several times 

2 G 2 



sculptured amongst the smaller decorations of this beautiful 
memorial. No. 711,, like the rest of the examples from St. Albans, 
carefully sketched from the original by the engraver himself, 
represents one of these heads; and in No. 712, PI. LXXVIT., 
the collar, with the letters ryge, to complete the Abbot's charac- 
teristic rebus, is shown at length. In his great delight in this 
rebus of his, the Abbot appears to have charged a ram rampant 
upon his paternal shield of arms, as in No. 715, PL LXXVIII. : 
this same shield is more than once repeated, and sometimes it is 
impaled by the saltire of the Abbey. 

Amongst heraldic birds, the Eagle holds the same rank that 
the Lion maintains amongst beasts ; and the early Heralds evi- 
dently delighted to make their Eagles thoroughly heraldic. AVe 
may accept their style of Eagle drawing, while svibjecting it 
to some little modification after what Nature has to teach us. 
Nos. 677, 678, PL LXXVL, shields severally charged with an 

eagle having a single head and a double-headed eagle, are 
taken from drawings of the period of Edward I. The Eagle of 
the Emperor, charged in relief upon the early shield in the 
north choir aisle of Westminster Abbey, is cast in the same 
mould ; it has a single head, and is not crowned : but at Great 
YaiTaouth there is a similar eagle having two heads. One of 
the shields that were originally blazoned on the monument of 

No. 677 A. 
Earl William he Valence, No 077 a, places before us an excel- 

No. 7 1:1 

Xo. Tin. Xo. 714. 

PLATE LXXVIII. CiiAiTiiu xxx., p. 4.-)l. 

SiiiKi.ns OF AiiJis.— 'I'm; AitBiiv Chii!i;ii uf St. Ai.bax. 

No. 714. - From tlic Monumoiital Cluuitiy of John de WHKATii.\MSTiii)i:, 

i53nl Ablx)t of St. Albiin'.s, a.d. 1421— 14G0. 

Nos. 71:3, 71.5.— Fioiu thu MonumeuUil Clmntry of Thoma.s Ii'ajiuyck, 

;-;7tli Aljl)ot uf St. Alban"s, a.d. 1484—1524. 

S.o pp. 12:^451—453. 


lent example of the Imperial Eagle having one head onlj. 
Another example, exaggerated in the drawing, but admirably 
sculptured in alabaster, appears iipon the monument of Prince 
Edmoxd of La ngley, at King's Langley; Np^ G78 a, Chap. |?-^t'f({^*^ 
XXXII. Again I refer to the monumental chantry of Abbot t'^J 

Ramrydge, at St. Alban's, for a model specimen of both heraldic 
design and heraldic sculpture. The shield bearing the eagle 
displayed. No. 713, PI. LXXVIII., will bo sufficient to show 
the artistic feeling of the Heralds who flourished late in the 
Gothic era ; nothing can exceed the combined spirit and delicacy 
with which this sovereign of heraldic birds is executed. There 
are several other shields charged with eagles upon this monu- 
ment, in addition to this No. 713 ; one of them bears three eagles 
displayed, two and one. The date of Abbot Eamrydge's monument 
is 1524; it is an exception, therefore, and a truly noble one, to 
the style of Heraldry prevalent at its own era. 

Fleurs de lys of elegant form abound ; I know no better 
examples than those upon the monument of Edward III. It is 
always desirable to seek for well drawn and carefully executed 
examj)les of every Charge, and I commend this matter of 
heraldic Drawing to the careful consideration of students of 
Heraldry. As an illustration of the care bestowed by the early 
Heralds upon the treatment of every Charge, I adduce one of 
the clusters of loheat-ears that he appears to have used as a Badge, 
from the monument of Abbot John of Wheathamstede, a.d. 1460, 
No. 717, p. 457. Upon a frieze of the chantry of this emiment 
ecclesiastic in St. Alban's Abbey, his Motto, (a rebus, like his 
badge,) is repeated, the Badge alternating with the words, valles 
ABOVNDABUNT. One of the shields upon the soutli side of this 
very interesting piece of monumental architecture is charged 
with three crowns, two and one; I engrave this Shield, No. 714, 
PI. LXXVIII., as a very beautiful early example of crowns 
having their circlets heightened with alternate crosses patees and 
flmrs de lys. Having mentioned Abbot John, I may add that in 




the Church of Wheathamstead, near St. Alban's, the Brass to the 
father and mother of the Abbot is preserved ; it has their anns, 
those of his mother, who was a Heywouth, being arg., three hats 
with wings extended sa. 

I must again refer to the white harts of Richard II., in West- 
minster Hall, as models for the treatment of animals of every 
kind in Heraldry (see p. 263) ; and, with them, to the admirably 
sculptured Supporters of the Shields in King's College Chapel, 

The practice of the early heraldic artists even in representing 
ermine-spots we may study with decided 
advantage : in No. 721, I give two exam- 
ples of ermine-spots from early shields ; 
A, from one of the smaller enamelled 
shields on the Monument of Edward III., 
and B, from the efiSgy of Sir Egbert du 
Bois, temp. Edw. I, at Fersfield, Norfolk. 

In our drawing of Helms and Shields, 
since we no longer derive our ideas of 
such objects from examples of them that 
arc in actual use by ourselves, we are at liberty to select such 
varieties as may be most appropriate to the pui-poses for which 
we require them, and also those that are most pleasing in their 
forms. I have engraved several good and effective varieties of 
shields at pp. 13, 15, 61, and 230; the example which follows. 
No. 716, charged with the saltire of Sr. Alb an, is from the 
interior of the chantry chapel of Abbot Kamrydge, A somewhat 
similar Shield has been engraved at p. 230 : and I may refer to 
another of the same class above the monument to Sir John 
Spenckr at Great Bry^ton. The unsightly and inconvenient 
Lozenge, I think, might be superseded in our Heraldry. Sim- 
plicity in Helms and Mantlings appears to be most desirable ; and 
Helms ceiiainly may always bo advantageously set in profile. 
Two fiiie examples of early Helms a re represented in PI. XLV |., 

No. 721. 
Early Eruiiue-spots. 




Nos. 611, 612, the former from the monument of the Black 
Prince, and the latter from the Stall-Plate of Ralph, Lord 

No. 716. 

Basset ; and with them may be associated, as a model heraldic 
helm, No. 264 , p. 110. 

The Label that has its points formed after the early manner, 
as I have invariably drawn it, appears to be preferable to the 
later form in which the ends of the points or pendants are made 
to expand ; it is also always productive of a good effect that the 
Label itself should traverse the entire field of the shield from 
dexter to sinister. Modern Labels are generally couped at both 
extremities, and t heir points ar e dis torted into a species of 
dove-tailing. In No. 618 I give three varieties 
of the points of Labels : the first. A, is the 
early type ; the second, B, represents the torm 
of the label introduced in the beginning of the 
sixteenth century ; and the third, C, is the 
more modern form, which is altogether objec- 


In many early quartered shields the Quarter- 


No. 618. 

ings are not indicated by any dividing lines, 

as in No. 486^ p. 263 ; this is certainly an error, which we shall 

do well to avoid. 


I here refer with cordial satisfaction to two works, both of 
them rich in illustrations, which exemplify in a truly happy 
manner such Treatment and Dra-wing as students of Heraldry 
may accept with confidence. Again I direct attention to a 
volume, already more than once quoted — Mr. Moule's Heraldry 
of Fish, published in 1842 by Van Voorst. The wood-cuts, 205 
in number, are engraved with singular feeling and effectiveness, 
the drawings themselves having all been made on the wood, as 
he tells us, " under the Author's own inspection, by his daughter, 
Sophia Barbara Moule;" and of these drawings it may be 
affirmed that they possess every quality of genuine excellence 
and appropriate beauty. The other AVork, which also is illus- 
trated in the true heraldic spirit, is Mr. Setqn's Heraldry of Scot- 
land. By way of contrast, Students may turn from the illustra- 
tions of MouLE and Seton to those that have just appeared with 
Anecdotes of Heraldry, a little volume that would have been 
really useful, had it not been as destitute of arrangement as it 
is of indexes, while it contains a numerous collection of engraved 
examples, all of them treated and drawn in exact confoimity 
with the heraldic feeling and spirit that I have endeavoured to 
illustrate in the Hatchment, No. 616, p. 445. 

In the disposition and arrangement of Charges, and in the 
laws of Tincturing, the usage of the early Heralds may be accepted 
as our best guide. Perhaps we may enrich our compositions 
with less cautious and sparing hands than they did ; and cer- 
tainly we may emulate tneir system of Diapering both in surface- 
carving and in colour. Colours have been produced for us by 
the chemical science and the mechanical skill of our times, far 
superior both in hue and in variety of tint to anything that was 
known to the Heralds of the middle ages. It will be well for 
us to avail ourselves of our advantages, and to introduce into our 
blazon the most brilliant and lustrous colours. 

With the special view to provide for students of Heraldry 
and amateur heraldic artists the very best matSriehfor their use, 
I have siiggested the preparation of a box of heraldic gold and 



colours, with drawing implements, that may satisfy their most 
fastidious requirements ; and my suggestions have been carried 
into effect by Messrs. Winsor and Newton, of Bathbone Place, my 
original publishers, in a manner that leaves nothing to be 
desired. I may add that the same materials are equally adapted 
for the use of professional Heralds, and of the artists who work 
under their immediate direction. 

No. 717. — Badge of Abbot John de Wheathamstede, St. Alban's 
Abbey, a.d. 1440. See p. 453. h,7> 

No. 6G7. 

No. 668. 

Shields from early Seals of Ue Nevilles. Sec p. 404. FL**^^ , ^"j 



In this Chapter I place before students of Heraldry the blazon 
of a series of Shields of Arms, the gi-eater number of them in 
addition to those that have been already described. The series 
comprehends the Arms of various historical Personages, together 
with those of several Families of eminence amongst ourselves at 
the present day. 

From the Eoll of Henry III. : 

BiGOD, Earl of Norfolk : or, a cross gu. ; No. G;59, PI. LXXI. 

FiTZ Geoffrey : within a hordure vair, quarterly or and gu. 

De L'Isle : or, a lion rampt. gu. 

De Lucy : gu., three lucies haurient in /esse arg. 

De Mandeville and De Say : quarterly or and gu. 

Le Mareschal : per pale or and vert, a lion rampt. gu. 

De Montfichet : gu., three chevronels or, a label az. 

De Segrave (Ancient) : sa., three garbs or. 


From the Koll of Edward 1. : 
Arrago.v : or, three pallets gu. 
Chester : az., three garbs or. 

L'EsTRANGE : gu., Iwo lions pass, in pale arg., within a hordurc 
engrailed or ; Ko. 660, PI. LXII. 

From the Koll of Caerlavei:ock : 
D'AuBiGNY : </w., a f esse eng. arg. 
Anthony Beg : gu., a cross moline (or recercelee) erm. 
De Carew : or, three lions pass, in pale sa. 
L'Estrange; gu., two lions pass, in pale arg. 
De Leyburne : az., six lioncels, 3, 2, 1, arg. 
De Mohun : or, a cross eng. sa. 
De Montault : az., a lion rampt. or. 
De Multon : arg., three bars gu. 
De Percy : or, a lion rampt. az. 
FiTZ KoGER : quarterly or and gu., a bend sa. 
De Toni : arg., a maunche gu. 
Lk Vavasour : or, a fesse dancette sa. 
FiTZ ^V ALTER : or, a fesse between two chevrons gu. 
De Willoughby : or, frettee sa. 

From the Koll of Edward II. : 
Blount : gu., a fesse betioeen six martlets arg. 
Fauconberg : arg., a lion rampt. az. 
De la Mere; arg., on a bend sa., three eaglets vert. 
De Montfort : arg., crusilee gu., a lion rampt. az. 
De Montgomerie : or, an eagle disp. az. 
Kauf de Mortimer : or, an eagle disp. vert. 

From the Calais Koll of Edward III. : 
Burwash : or, a lion rampt. queue fourchee gu. 
De Couci : barry of six vair and gu. 

De Holland (Ancient) : az., fleurette'e, a lion rampt. guard, arg. ; 
No. 637, PI. LXV. 

Maltraveus: sa., frettee oi\ 


PovNiNGS : harry of six or and vert, over all a hend gu, 

Eadcliffe : arg., a bend eng. sa. 

Talbot: gu., a lion rampt or : No. 602, PI. LXII. 

D'Ufford : sa., a cross eng. or. 

FiTZ Waryn : quarterly per f esse indented arg. and gu. 

From the Koll of Eichard II. : 

AsTELEY : az., a cinque/oil erm. pierced. 

Bagot : arg., a chevron gu., between three martlets sa. 

Blount : barry nebulee of eight or and sa. 

BoTELER : az., a bend arg., between six covered cups or : and, gu., a 
fesse counter-componee or and sa., between six crosslets arg. : also, az., 
a chevron between six covered cups or. 

Braybrok: arg., seven mascles, 3, 3, and 1, gu. 

Charleton : or, a lion rampt. sa. 

Manners : or, two bars az., a chief gu. 

EoKEBY : arg., a chevron sa., between three rooTcs ppr. 

Saint Amand : or, frettee sa., on a chief of the last three bezants. 

De la Warre : gu., crusilee fiichee, a lion rampt. or, armed az. 

De Wyloughby : quarterly, 1 and 4, sa., a cross eng. or : 2 and 3, 
gu., a cross moline arg. 

Brandon : harry of ten arg. and gu., a lion rampt or, crowned per 
pale gold and of the second. 

De CREVECCEaR : or, a cross gu., voided of the field. 

Devereux : arg., a fesse gu, in chief three torteaux. 

DoBELL, of Sussex : sa., a doe tripping, between three bells arg. 

Dudley : or, a lion rampt. queue fourchee vert. 

Glendour : paly of eight arg. and gu., over all a lion rampt. sa. 

AsTLEY, Baron Hastings: az., a cinquefoil erm., within a bordiire 
eng. or : No. 726. p. 229. 

Hari'UR Crewe, Bart. : arg., a lion rampt, within a bordure eng. 
sa : No. 727, p. 229. 

Moles WORTH, Bart. : vair, a hordure gu., charged loith crosslets or: 
No. 725, p. 229. 


CHAPTERS v:, :x jr.' axxxi 



FPv£KE H T J\ S T HE L\ K 





Henlington, of Gloucestershire : arg., a label of five points az. 

Heron : az., three herons, two and one, arg. ; and " the reverse," 

De Heriz, (afterwards Harris) ; az., three hedgehogs (French, 
"he^rison") arg.; blazoned on the Shield of an EflSgy of the 
period of Edward I. at Gonaldston, Notts. 

Neville (Ancient) : or, frettee gu., on a canton sa. an ancient ship 
gold, — 'in remembrance, of Gilbert de Neville, William the 
Conqueror's Admiral, No. 7^^, p. 481. -^y 

Sergeaux, of Cornwall : arg., a saltire between four (or twelve) 
cherries (" cerises ") gu., slipped vert. 

Sydney : or, a pheon az, 

De Toplyffe : (Brass, a.d. 1391, at Topcliff, in Yorkshire,) arg., 
a chevron between three peg-tops sa. ; No 682, PI. LXIX. 

Vernon : arg., frettee sa. 
y- Chaucer : per pale arg. and gu., a bend counterchanged ; No. 680, 
PI. LXIX. * ' ■ . ; / ■ ,^ ■ur^'A , 3^» '^J' 

GowER : (monument at St. Saviour's, Southwark, a.d. 1408), 
arg., on a chevron az., three leopard's faces or ; No. 681, PI. LXIX. 

Shakespeare, (granted ]546 :) Arms, — or, on a bend sa. a spear 
gold : Crest, — a falcon displayed arg., holding in its beak a spear in 
pale or; No. 679, PI. LXIX. 

Milton : arg., an eagle displayed ivith'two heads gu., beaked and 
membered sa. 

Scott : quarterly, 1 and 4, or, two mullets in chief, and a cres- 
cent in base, az., icithin an orle of the last, for Scott : 2 and 3, or, on 
a bend az., three mascles gold, in the sinister chief point an oval buckle 
erect of the second, for Haliburton. 

Macaulay, Baron Mac aula y : gu., icithin Ot^bwdtire eng. or, a 
pair of arrows saltire-wise, their points to the base, arg., surmounted by 
two ban-ulets componee gold and az., between as many buckles in pale 
of the second. 

Wellesley, Duke of Wellington: quarterly, 1 and 4, gu., a 
cross arg., between five plates in saltire in each quarter, for Wellesley ; 
2 and 3, or, a lion rampt. gu., ducally gorged for Colley : as an aug- 
mentation, on the honour-point an inescutclieon charged with the Union 

^NocLiJ^t^^'H^ tf^^.(aiv<r<^uAncw. HuYA>ivj8.^-!ir,<?i,/^i, ^v»*Mr«ttt.) 


Device of Great Britain and Ireland; No. 614, Chap. XXIX. 

Spkxcer CHURcrriLL, Duke of Marlborough: quarterly, 1 and 4, 
Churchill, sa., a lion rampt. arg., on a canton of the second, a cross 
gu. ; 2 and 3, Spencer, (No. 107): as an augmentation, on the 
Jionoiir-point an inescutcheon of Si. George, charged in pretence with 
another of France Modern ; No. 615, Chap. XXIX. 

Pelham Clinton, Duke of Newcastle: quarterly, 1 and 4, 
CLiNT0>f, (No. 400, PI. XXXVII) ; 2 and 3, quarterly, 1 and 4, 
az., three pelicans arg., vulned ppr. ; 2 and 3, gu., two demi-belts with 
hiicMes erect arg., all for Pelham, No. 132 c., p. 436. 

Manners, Duke of Eutland : or, two bars az. ; a chief, quarterly 
of the second and gu., charged in the alternate quarters with tico fleurs 
de lys of France, and a lion of England. 

Eussell, Duke of Bedford : arg., a lion rampt. gu. ; on a chief sa., 
three escallops of the first. 

Graham, Duke of Montrose: quarterly, 1 and 4, Graham, 
(No. 409, PI. XXVIII); 2 and 3, for the title, Montrose, arg., 
three roses gu., harhed and seeded ppr. 

Campbell, Duke of Argyll: quarterly, 1 and 4, Campbell, 
(No 356, PI. XXTV.) ; 2 and 3, for the lordship of Lorn, arg., a 
lymphad sa., sails furled up, flag and pendants flying gu. 

Granville Lkveson Gower, Duke of Suthkrland: quarterly, 
1 and 4, Gower, harry of eight arg. and gu., over all a cross patonce 
sa. : 2 and 3, Leve:^on, No. 239, p. 70 : in pretence, the shield of the 
ancient Earls of Sutherland, ensigned with the EarVs Coronet, 
hearing gu., loithin a hordure or charged with a tressure of Scotland, 
three midlets gold. The Duke of Sutherland also quarters Gran- 
viLLK, gu., three clarions or : Egerton, arg., a lion rampt. gu., hetween 
three pheons sa : Stanley, No. 205 a, PI. XIV. : Brandon : Clif- 
ford, No. 373, PL XXV. : Strange or L'Estrange, without the 
bordure, and the Eoyal Arms of the Tudors. 

Fitz-Gerald, Duke of Leinster : arg., a saltire gu., being the 
armorial insignia of St. Patrick. 

Scott, Earl of Eldon : arg., hetween two lion's heads erased gu,, 



an anchor erect sa. ; on a chief wavy az., a portcullis or, a mullet for 

Erskine : arg., a pale sa. 

Stuart : or, within a tressure of Scotland, a f esse chequee arg. and 
az. ; No. 620, Tl. LIT. 

Stuart of Bonhill : Stuart, the fesse surmounted by a bend gu., 
cJiarged with three bucldes gold. 

Stuart of Davingstone : or, ivithin a bordure eng. gu., a fesse 
chequee arg. and az. 

Lindsay : gu., a fesse chequee arg. and az. 

Pitt : sa., a fesse chequee arg. and az., between three bezants. 
This shield alludes to the official connection of the Pitt family 
with the Exchequer, as the same fesse was home by the Stuarts 
in allusion to the chequered board of the High Stewards of 

Seton : or, within a tressure of Scotland, three crescents gu. ; No. 
625, PI. LIT. 

Hepburn : gu., on a chevron arg. a rose between two lioncels rampt. 
of the field. 

No. 700.— Shield from an 

early Seal of St. John ; 

see p. 405. 

No. 701.— Shield from au early 

Seal of St. John, of Sussex ; 

see p. 405. 



No. 678 A.— The Emperor : Monument at King's Langley, a.d. 1402. Vi- Lc-i 
See pages 390 and 453. 



Foreign Heraldiy differs chiefly from the Heraldry of our 
A eud ^^^'^^ Country in being' less severe in its prevailing style, and 
fn/*^v/ less exact in its details and usages, but more elaborate and 
gorgeous in both the character and the treatment of its compo- 
gitions. The Heraldry of Germany, in particular, is very 
splendid ; and, in accordance with the German sentiment of 
modern times, it indulges in an almost infinite variety of subor- 
dinate details, elaborate combinations, and subtle distinctions. 
The Heraldry of France also is rich, and often fanciful, and yet 
almost always eminently artistic. I have already given, in 
the preceding chapters, the blazon of a numerous scries of foreign 
Shields, all of them in some degree associated with the Armory 
of England ; so that in this present Chapter it remains for me to 
do little more than briefly to notice some characteristic usages of 


Foreign Ilerakliy, and to blazon a few other examples to wbicli 
reference has not jet been made. 

In Foreign Heraldry a free use is made of Shields of Arras for 
the purpose of decoration, whereas this use of heraldic decorative 
accessories is rare in England. Thus, there are small Shields of 
his Arms semee over the bardings of the charger of John, King 
of Bohemia, who fell at Cresci (in his Seal) ; and the King him- 
self has as his Crest the two wings of a vulture, spread and of 
very large dimensions. The Effigy of Earl Wm. de Valenx'E is 
an example of this method of decoration, but it is the work of a 
foreign artist. 

The Shield which is represented in foreign Militaiy Effigies, 
is almost invariably placed in front of the figure, and in such a 
position that its base is raised but little above the ground ; with 
one hand the Knight supports the Shield, while with his other 
hand he generally either grasps his Sword or holds his crested 

Foreign Heralds regard with comparative indifference the 
number of the repetitions of any repeated Charge ; and they also 
are generally content to adjust the arrangement of their Charges, 
except in the case of the Ordinaries and other principal Charges, to 
the form of their Shield and the space at their disposal. In 
foreign Shields of Arms metal is occasionally found charged on 
metal, and colour upon colour : thus the Arms of the Spanish 
Inqiiisition are, sa., a cross vert. The French Heralds indicate 
any such blazon by the term coitsu or cousue : and such anus are 
distinguished as " armes pour enqiierir," such, that is, as will ex- 
cite inquiry into the causes which led to this deviation from the 
prevailing rule. In French Heraldiy, the Saltier is often couped, 
and it sometimes has its ends floriated. The Cross is sometimes 
couped, and the other Ordinaries also. \N'hen one Charge rests 
upon any others, as in the instance of a Shield paly of six or and 
az. charged over all with a hend gu., or in any similar case, 
the French Heralds use the phrase hrochant sur le tout ; they also 

2 H 


apply the tenn Brisiire to any mark of Cadency, and a shield that 
is in any way differenced is said to be hrise. 

Two lions (or other animals) rampant are placed face to face 
by continental Heralds, when two Shields bearing snch Charges 
are impaled; as in No. 722, PI. LII., the Shield of Gueldres. 
In this example the crowned lion faces to the Sinister because 
of the impalement; had he been borne alone, this lion would 
have faced to the Dexter, as a matter of course. This same 
usage is also extended to quartered Shields, in which lions (or 
other animals) rampant appear in the repeated quarters : thus, 
had the two coats that are impaled in No. 722, been quartered, 
the quarterly Shield would have borne the crowned lion facing 
to the Sinister in the 1st quarter and to the Dexter in the 4th, 
and the other lion would have faced to the Dexter and to the 
Sinister in the 2nd and 3rd quarters respectively. In like 
manner, the Arms of Queen PniLirrA of Hainault, No. 337, 
p. 159, in foreign blazon would have the 1st and the 3rd lions 
facing to the Sinister. The Arms of Wallenstein, Due de Fkied- 
LANn,&c., a characteristic example of the usage under consideration, 
are thus blazoned : quarterly, 1 and 4, or, a lion rampt. crowned az. ; 
2 and 8, az., a lion rampt. or. ; over all, on an escutcheon of pretence 
(or, sometimes, in an oval encircled hy a icreath of laurel), the Arms 
of the Empire : the Crest is, out of a crest-cwonet a vol az. and or : 
the Lambrequins are or and az. M. Bouton gives (page 300), 
with a woodciit, an example of two lions passant upon a chief, 
which are face to face : the Shield is that of " Le Sieur de Dam- 
PiERRE," who bears, " de gueules a trois pals de vair, au chef d^or a 
deux IJons affrontes de sable sur le chef." The same feeling, which 
thus expresses itself in the disposition of lions, &c., is apparent 
in the desire generally to have the quarters of a Shield corie- 
spond with one another, and also in a prevailing use of counter- 
changing in the tinctures of Foreign Heraldry ; and it extends, 
in the Heraldry of Germany, to what may be designated counter- 
charging — the blazoning the same Charge under reversed condi- 


tions, when it is repeated in Quartering : thus, the German Coat 
of Dii-: ScHROTENEGGER is, quarterly, 1 and 4, oi\ an eagle disp. having 
two heads sa. ; 2 and 3, arg., a bend sinister embattled sa. ; this 
bend is counter-charged, — that is, the under side of this bend is 
embattled in one quarter, and the upper side in the other 
quarter. It is also a custom prevalent with the Heralds of Ger- 
many to devote the Shield itself to the quartered insignia of the 
lordships or territorial possessions of any noble House, while 
they charge upon an inescutcheou, in pretence over these insignia, 
the arms of the Family. 

The old practice of Dimidiation, which appears to have pre- 
vailed much more generally at an early period in the Heraldry 
of the Continent than it ever did in England, is still retained by 
modern Foreign Heralds; so that Dimidiated Shields, and par- 
ticularly such as bear an Eagle, are of common occurrence. In 
many instances, the effects of the dimidiating process are very 
singular and curious. I must be content to adduce a very few 
examples : — 1. Die Brodsorg, az., a fleur de lys arg., dimidiated 
by a Shield arg. : this appears as a Shield per pale az. and arg., 
in the dexter half a fleur de lys of the last dimidiated per pale. 2. 
Die Eustochex of Pomerania, the Shield pefr pale arg. and sa., 
charged with an Imperial Eagle and a fleur de lys counter-changed in 
their tinctures, dimidiated per pale and conjoined. 3. Morglin, per 
pale arg. and gu., in the dexter half a dimidiated eagle of the second. 
4. Die Tappen, or, a dimidiated eagle to the sinister sa. 5. Yox 
Meggenheim, barry of si.x sa. and or, dimidiating or, an eagle dis}). 
sa. 6. SiRADiA, a Province of Poland, or, an eagle disj). and a 
bear rampt., both dimidiated and conjoined in pale, sa., under the same 
Crown gold; (See also Nos. 327, 328, PI. XVIII.) In the stained 
glass of the Church of St. Etienne du Mont, at Paris, are these two 
remarkable examples of Dimidiation ; — or, a tree eradicated, having 
a serpent entwined about its stem, all ppr., dimidiating gu., two bar- 
bels embowed and addorsed, — the tree is dimidiated per pale down 
the stem, and one barbel only is seen : again (in a window of a 

2 ,H 2 


cliapel of the south aisle), az., a lion rampt. or, a chief gu., dimi- 
diating, or, three hedges in pale vert, out of each as many trees jypr. 
And, once more, in a miniature in the Imperial Library at Paris, 
the Lozenge of Arms of Louise d' Savoie, Duchess d'ANGOULfeME, 
Eegent, and mother of Frixcis L, is dimidiated thus, the two 
Coats being misplaced, — to the Dexter, Savoy, the Cross being 
couped ; to the Sinister, France Modern : one half of the Cross, 
which is dimidiated per pale, is shown, with one fleur de Ijs in 
the sinister chief and one half of the fleur de lys in the base. 
Instances of dimidiated Arms occur on some of the Continental 
postage-stamps ; as in the stamp of Bergedorft, Avhich bears an 
Imperial Eagle and a Castle, both dimidiated and conjoined in 
pale, with a Bugle-horn in base. 

Suppo^'ters generally appear in Foreign Heraldry in pairs, both 
figures being alike : a single ^Hj^porier also frequently occurs. The 
Heralds of France distinguish between the figures of human 
beings, when they act as Supporters, as also those of beings in 
human form, and the figures of animals of every kind, the former 
being entitled " les tenants," and the latter " les supports ;" and 
further, to trees and other objects from which Shields may be 
suspended, they have given the name of " les soutiens." 

The Mantlings or Lambrequins of the Foreign Heralds, as a 
general rule, follow the tinctures (the principal metal and colour) 
of the Arms ; and in the case of an impaled or quartered Coat, 
the Lambrequins would vary as the Arms : thus, for the Coat, 
a7-g., a cross sa., impaling, gu., a f esse or, the dexter Lambrequins 
would be sa., doubled arg., and the sinister gu., doubled or. ; but if 
two Helms were placed above this Shield, the dexter Helm 
would have Lambrequins of the first Coat, and the Sinister of the 
second. Lambrequins armoyees, or charged with the Arms of 
the Shield, are also in use. In the Heraldry of Fish (p. 72), the 
Achievement of Lorraine is engiaved with the Lambrequins 
thus armoyees. 

Collars of Knighthood encircle impaled Shields in Foreign 


Heraldry ; and, when there arc two shields accolces, a Collar 
may encircle them Loth, and a single Coronet may ensign them 
both. See p. 1G8. 

The Label, which occurs in Foreign Shields, in several in- 
stances as a sole Charge, varies, in the number of its points, from 
a single point to six ; and it constantly appears in blazon as a 
Charge with other Charges. Thns, the Spanish family of 
Berenguer bears, quarterly, 1 and 4 ,or, a label of one point az. : 
2 and 3, arg., a tower gii., the port or : the family of Chignin, of 
Savoy, bears, gu., a chevron arg., charged with six ermine spots sa., in 
chief a label of as many points of the last. The Arms of Die 
Westphalex, of Saxony, are, arg., a fesse gu., in chief a label of 
five points sa. ; and a similar label ensigns the Crest, The Arms 
of Die Brambach are, arg., a bend sin. gu., in chief a label of three 
points az. in bend: and those of VoN Moxdet, of Burgundy, are, 
az., an ostrich-feather erect arg., in chief two labels of three points in 
pale or. And again, the Arms of Maussabre, of Touraine, are 
az., a label in chief or : and those of Du EozoXj of Bretagne, gu., a 
label arg. 

FRANCE. France Ancient, — az., semee de lys or : France 
Modern, — az., three fleurs de lys, two and one, or. 

In our own times the Arms of France have undergone a 
complete change ; so that the well-known heraldic term France 
Modern has become as completely historical as France Ancient, 
having, in its turn, been superseded by France Present. The 
Golden Eagle of the Emperor Napoleon, sitting calmly vigilant 
in an azure field, has succeeded to the Fleurs de Lys of gold that 
for so manj^ centuries were identified with the Heraldry of 
France. The English Lions, accordingly, have survived their 
French, rivals and associates, unchanged in their blazonry ; and, 
still as of old, representing the Eoyal Dignity and the Eealm of 
England, they are passant guardant in the front of the Heraldry 
of Europe. 


The Shield of the French Empire is thus blazoned — az., an 
eagle rising and respecting to the sinister, grasping in botJi his claws a 
thunder-holt, all or ; or, in the words of M. Victor Boiitox, " Les 
Napoleons portent : de L'Empire Franjais, qui est d'azur, k 
I'aigle a la tete contoum^e d'or, tenant un foudre de meme." I 
quote from " Nouveau Traite de Blazon,'^ by M. Bouton, published 
last year by the Brothers Garnier of Paris, — a work of singular 
interest and value, clear, explicit, comprehensive, and profusely 
illustrated, which may claim to be popular with the Heralds as 
well of England as of France. 

The National Flag of France, " the Tricolour," has its colours 
arranged vertically, the blue being next to the staff, and the 
white in the centre. The Imperial Standard is semee of golden 
hees, and it charges the Eagle of the Empire upon the central 
white division of the field. Before the Great Eevolution, the 
French Flag was white, and it was charged with the national 
Achievement of Arms. Under the First Empire the Great Dig- 
nitaries received as a special augmentation of honour, to be borne 
by them all, a chief az., semee of golden bees ; and, in like manner, 
the Dukes of the Empire all bear a chief of their ducal rank — that 
is, a chief gu., semee of mullets arg. 

French Royal Cadency. — Unlike our own Princes of AVales, 
the Dauphin of France did not difference his arms with a Label ; 
but he bore France in the 1st and 4th quarters of his Shield, 
quarterly with Dauphiny, or, a dolphin embowed az. The circlet of 
his Coronet was heightened with fleurs de lys, and arched with 
four (or sometimes eight) dolphins. 

The Due d'Orleans : France, a Label of three points arg. 

The Due d'Anjou : France, a Boi-dure gu. 

The Due d'Alen^'ON: France, a Bordure gu., charged with eight plates. 

The Due de Berri : France, a Bordure eng. gu. 

The CoMTE d' Artois : France, a Label of Castile. 

The Due D'ANGOULiME : France, a Label arg., on each point a 
crescent gu. 



The Dukes ok Burgundy : France, a Bordiire componce arg. and 
gu. (Coll. Arm., MS. L. xiv.) 

The Crown of Henry II., King of France, K.G., on his Garter- 
Plate at Windsor, has eight fleurs de lys upon the circlet, and 
another large fleur de lys rises from the intersection of its eight 

AUSTEIA. Arms, — Or, an Eagle ivith two heads di^p. sa., crowned 
armed and member ed gu., "having an Imperial Crown placed above it in 
the Shield, holding in its dexter claw a Sceptre and a Sword, and in 
the sinister a Mound ; charged on the breast with a Shield, tiercee in 
pale: 1. Hapsburgh, or, a lion rampt. gu. : 2. Austria, gu.,afesse 
arg. : 3. Lorraine, or, on a hend gu., three eaglets (or allerions) 

Supporters, — Two Griffins or, winged sa. 

The Shield of Austria is surrounded with the Collars of the 
Austrian Orders of Knighthood, and ensigned with the Imperial 
Crown, No. 620, which is very singular in its form, being cleft 
somewhat after the manner of a mitre. The Arms of the Em- 
peror Francis of Austria, K.G., are blazoned at Windsor, on his 

No. 620.— Imperial Crown of Austria. 

The Imperial Eagle of Austria claims to be the successor to 
the eagle of the German Emperors, which, in its turn, succeeded 


to the eagle of Ancient Rome ; and it still bears the two 
heads, which were significantly symbolical of the Eastern and 
Western Eoman Empires, but are not i^articulavly happy in their 
symbolism when associated with the Aiistrian Kaiser. The 
Imperial shield, as I have shown, was commonly blazoned in 
England ; a characteristic example I have placed at the head 
of this Chapter, No. 678 a, from the Plantagenet Monument at 
King's Langley. 

The field of the Imperial Standard of Austria is yellow, with 
an indented border of gold, silver, blue and black, and it dis- 
play's the Eagle of the Empire. The National Flag is formed of 
three equally jvide horizontal divisions, the central one white, 
and the two others red ; on the central division, towards the 
dexter, is a Shield charged as the Flag itself, having also the Im- 
perial Cypher within a narrow golden border, and ensigned with 
the Imperial Crown. The Flag of the Merchant Service omits 
the Shield and Crown. 

HUNGAEY. Amas, — Gn.,four bars arg., impaling, gu., on a mount 
vei't, issuing from a ducal Coronet or, a patriarchal Cross arg. The 
Hungarian Cro^vn, or St. Stephen's Ci'own, is very peculiar in its 
form. Supporters, — Two Angels holding the croivn of St. Stephen 
over the shield. The National Colours are red, white and green, 
arranged horizontally, the green in chief, and the red in base. , 

PEUSSIA. Arms, — Arg., an Eagle disp. sa., croumed, armed, mem- 
hered, and having on each wing a trefoil slipped, all or, charged on the 
breast with the Boyal Cypher '\/ crowned, and holding in the dexter 
claw a sceptre gold ensigned with a similar Eagle, and in the sinister 
cla/» a mound az. the circle and cross of the third. This sliield is 
occasionally charged upon an Eagle of Prussia, after the manner 
of the Seal of Eiciiard, Earl of Cornwall, No. 212 c, PI. LXII, 
Supporters, — Two savage Men, wreathed, and holding clubs, all ppr. 

The Prussian Crown, No. 621, has eight arches, and after the 
custom prevalent on the Continent it does not enclose any caji. 

The Prussian Eagle is displayed in the National Flag, the 

fokp:ion hekaldky. 473 

naval Ensign having in the dexter chief angle a cross patee sa., 
voided of the field. The Royal Standard has tlie field semee of 
Prussian Eayles. 

No. G21.— The Prussian Crown. 

The Arms of the Princely House of Hohenzolleen, are, quar- 
■ terly arg. and sa. John George, Prince of Hohexzollerx, Knight 
of the Golden Fleece, in the reign of Philip III., bore, quarterly, 
1 and 4, Hohenzolleen ; 2 and 4, Sigmakingen, on a mount ve^-t, 
a stag tripping or; and, over all, as Hereditary Chamberlain of 
the Empire, gu., two Sceptres in saltire or. 

EUSSIA. The Russian Arms differ frdin the Austrian in the 
Eagle holding only a Sceptre in its dexter claw, and being 
charged with a shield gu., bearing a figure of St. George 
mounted, and piercing the Dragon. This Shield is encircled 
with the Collar of the Russian Order of St. Andrew ; and the 
wings of the Eagle are also charged with two groups of small 
Shields repiesenting the Provinces of the Empire. The Czar of 
" all the Eussias " considers himself entitled to bear the double- 
headed Eagle, as an imaginary successor to the Roman Cajsars, 
(see Triers, Einleitung zu der Wapen Kunst, p. 312) ; the two heads 
of his Eagle, however, might denote European and Asiatic 
Russia — his AVestern and Eastern Empires. The Garter-Plates 
of the Czars Alexander I., K.G., and Nicholas, K.G., are at 
Windsor. The Russian Flag has three horizontal divisions, the 
uppermost while, the central blue, and the lowermost red. The 


Naval Flag is white, with a blue diagonal cross ; and this Flag 
is charged in the dexter chief quarter of larger Flags of red, 
white, and blue, for the three Squadrons of the Russian Navy. 

POLAND, Anns, — Gu., an eagle disp. arg., crmcned or., quar- 
tefting Lithuania, — gu., a Jcnight armed cap-a-pie, mounted upon a 
horse arg., caparisoned az., holding in his right hand a sword 
proper, and in the left a shield of the third charged xcith a cross 
of Lorraine or. Upon this the national Shield, when Poland had 
Kings of her own, the Family Arms of the reigning Sovereign, 
being the arms of an elected King, were charged on an In- 
escutcheon in pretence. The German Emperors, when there 
were Emperors of GeiTQany, bore their own Arms after the same 

BADEN. Arms, — Or, a lend gu. Supporters, — Two griffins 
regiuirdant sa., croivned or. 

BAVARIA. Arms, — Paly bendy arg. and az. Supporters, — 
Two lions reguardant queue fourchee ppr., crowned or. 

BELGIUM. Arms, — Sa., a lion rampt. or, armed and langued gu. 
Supporters, — Two lions or. The Standard is black, yellow, 
and red ; the colours' arranged vertically, the red to the tly, 
and the Arms with the Supporters and Crown are charged on 
the central yellow division. The Ensign is the same without 
the Arms. 

The Garter-Plate of King Leopold, K.G., bears, sa., a lion 
ramp, facing to the sinister or, charged on his shoulder with a shield, 
quartei-ly, 1 and 4, England (as borne by George IV., No. 543, 
PI. LIX.), differenced tcith a label of five points arg., on the central 
point a cross gu. ; 2 and 3, Saxony. Each Supporter, a golden 
lion, holds a fringed Banner of Belgium. The motto is '' L" Union 
fait la force." 

BRUNSWICK. Arms,— Gh., two lions of England in pale, with 
sixteen qnarterings. (See p. 313 ; also the Garter-Plate of 
Christian, Duke of Brunswick, K.G., a.d. 1624, which quarters, 
I . Brunsicick ; 2. Lunenburgh ; 3. Eberstein ; 4. Homberg ; 5. Hoja ; 


G. Lauterherg and Bruchhausen quarterly.) Supporters, — Two 
savages, wreathed, and holding clubs, ppr. 

DENMAliK. Arms, — Or, semee of hearts gu., three lions pass, 
guard, in pale az. These are the Arms of Denmark proper, as the 
Arms of England are the three golden lions on a field gules. 
The national Shield of the Kingdom of Denmark has numerous 
quarterings, and it is a characteristic illustration of Foreign 
Heraldry. As it was borne in the time of James I., it has been 
blazoned in Chap. XIX., at p. 310. Frederick II., King of 
Denmark and Norway, the Father of the Queen-Consort of our 
James I., was elected a Knight of the Garter in 1578, and his 
Stall-Plate is at Windsor. Its blazonry is exactly the same as 
that given at p. 310, except that it has nine in place of ten hearts 
in the fourth quarter; No. 709, PI. LXXV. The Garter-Plate of 
Prince George, K.G., the Husband of Queen Anxe, (a.d. 1684), 
is charged with the same Arms, the hearts being ten in number. 
In both these Shields the cross is straight, and it is a cross arg. 
fimhriated gu., and not a white cross charged upon a red one ; 
this, accordingly, is tbe cross of the Danish Standard, with a red 
fimbriation to represent the red field of the National Flag itself. 
It will be observed that the Cross of the Order of the Dannebrog is 
now charged upon the Shield of Denmark ; this is a cross patee, 
and the red fimbriation is carried round the ends of the cross. 
Ulrick, Duke of Holstein, brother of Anne, the Queen of 
James I., was elected K.G. in 1605; his Garter-Plate displa3-s a 
shield having five quarterings, two in chief, and three in base ; 
they are, 1. Norivay ; 2, Schleswig ; 3. Hoist ein ; 4. Ditzmers ; 
5. Stormerh ; and, in pretence, Delmenhurst and Oldenhurgh quar- 
terly ; tbis shield has no cross charged upon it. 

Several changes are apparent in the Shield of DEN]\rARK, as it is 
now borne by the Princess of Wales, and as it is marshalled upon 
the Garter-Plate of King Frederick VI., K.G., (a.d. 1822), the 
nephew of our George III. These changes have been minutely 
described, and the full blazon of the present Arms given at page 325. 


The Supporters of Denmark were originally two lions ; but at 
no distant period they have been superseded by two savage men, 
wreathed with leaves about their heads and loins, and bearing clubs, 
all ppr. 

The Danish Ensign is red, charged with a white cross, and 
the flag itself is swallow-tailed. In the Standard the cross is 
quadrate, and charged with the complete Eoyal Achievement, 
the shield being encircled with the Collars of the Orders of the 
Elephant and the Dannebrog. (See " Tlie Family Alliances of 
Denmark and Great Britain," by John Gougii Nichols, F.S.A. ; 
also, the same excellent Essay in the first volume of the " Herald 
and Genealogist." 

GREECE. Arms, — Az., a cross couped arg. Supporters, — Two 
figures of Hercules. Motto,— AfAnH AAOY ISXIS MOY. The 
Flag is blue with a white cross, and this is cantoned on the 
Ensign, which is white with four blue bars. 

HANOVEE. Arms,— See page 299, and No. 541, PI. XLVII. 
The Hanoverian Ensign resembles tlie red Ensign of England, 
but the Jack is charged with a tchite horse courant on the cross, 
which is quadrate. The national colours are j'ellow and wliite 
per fesse, the yellow in chief. 

No. G19. — Hesse-Darmstadt. 

HESSE-DARMSTADT. Arms,— ^z., a lion queue fourchee 
rampt. barry of ten arg. and gu., crotoned m-, and holding in his dexter 
paw a sioord ppr.,hilt and pommel gold; No. 019. Supporters, — 


Tloo lions queue foiircliee croioned oi\ The Flag is, per fesse gu. and 

HOLLAND. Arms, — Az., billettee, a lion ram/pt., holding in 
his paws a naked sword and a sheaf of arrows, all or. Supporters, — 
Two lions crowned or. The Flag is of red, white, and blue, ai-- 
ranged horizontally, the red in chief and the white in the centre. 
The Standard has the Royal Achievement of Arms charged upon 
the white. 

ITALY. Arms, — Gu., a cross arg., within a hordure az. The 
Standard of green, white, and red, arranged vertically, has the 
Arms ensigned with the Crown on the central white division ; 
the red is to the fly. 

The Arms of the House of Savoy are, gu., a cross arg. ; but 
]\L BouTON gives, for the Counts of Savoy, gii., a cross arg., loithin 
a hordure componee or and az. 

PORTUGAL. Kxxas,— Arg., five escutcheons in cross az., each 
charged icith as many plates in saltire ; the whole within a hordure 
gu., upon which seven castles or. Supporters, — Two dragons ppr., 
loinged vert, each holding a Banner of the Arms. (See Garter-Plates 
at Windsor ; also Shield at St. Alban's and Seal at the end of 
this Chapter, Xo. 708.) The Standard is red, charged with the 
Arms and Crown ; but the Ensign is per pale blue and white, 
similarly' charged, the blue being next the staflf. 

The CouxTS Palatixk of the RHINE. Arms, — Sa., a lion 
rampt. or, crowned gu. 

SAXONY. Arms,— See p. 1G8, and No. 353, p. 314. In the MS. 
Collection of Arms presented to the College of Arms b}' Sir 
William Dugdale (MS. LXIV.), the Shield of Saxoxy is blazoned, 
harry of six or and sa. M. BouTOX gives the blazon of Saxoxy 
thus : — " Les dues de Saxe, portent : fasce d'or et de sable de huit 
pieces, clu crancelin de sinople mis en hende sur le tout." The Aims 
are quartered in the second quarter {Tliuringia is in the first 
quarter) by Johx George, second Duke of Saxony, KG. (a.p. 
1668,) upon his Garter-Plate. In the German-Gothic Court at 


the Crystal Palace there are some good casts of early Shields of 
the Arms of Saxoxy. The Supporters of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha are 
ftco lions reguardant ppr., croicned or. 

SPAIN. Arms, — the same as are blazoned for Catherine of 
Arragon, with France Modern (or Anjon) in pretence. See p. 308. 
Supporters, — Two lions or, each holding a Banner quarterly of 
Castile and Leon, with, over all, Anjou. But these are seldom used, 
the rule being that no Supporters should be employed when a 
shield is ensigned with the collar of the Order of the Golden 
Fleece. The Standard bears the Arms displayed over its whole 
area. The Ensign is yellow, intei-posed between two horizontal 
bars (each of them half its own depth) of red, and it is charged 
towards the dexter with Castile and Leon impaled within a red 
circular bordure, and ensigned with the Spanish Crown. For 
the blazon of the Anns of Castile and Leon, see page 306 ; see 
also Xo. 135, PI. I. ; and " Castile and Leon " in Chap. XXXIII. 

SWEDEN and NORWAY. Aims : Sweden Axcient,— J.^., three 
hends sinister wavy arg., over all a lion rampt. or, crowned gu. : SwE- 
DE.v Modern', — Az., three open crowns, two and one, or : Norway, — 
Gu., a lion rampt. or, crowned gold, JMding in his paws a Danish 
battle axe ppr., the blade in chief. The present King, as the heir 
and successor of an elected King, charges in pretence upon the 
National Shield the Arms of Vasa, — Tierce in bend az. arg. and gu., 
over all a vase or. : impaling his own paternal arms of Bernadotte, 
— Az., over a river in base proper, a bridge, thereon two towers arg., 
in chief an eagle crowned, and accosted by seven estoiles or. A Shield 
of Norway appears upon the ceiling of the nave at St. Alban's : 
and the Shield of Anns of Christian XI., King of Sweden, K.G. 
(a.d. 1668), is blazoned upon his Garter-Plate at Windsor. 
Supporters, — Two lions rampt. reguardant crowned or. The 
Flag of Sweden is blue, with a yellow cross ; and that of 
Norway is red with a blue cross having a white fimbriation. 
These two Flags are combined to form a United Ensign, after 
the manner of our Union Jack; and the United Flag is can- 


toned in the National Ensigns, the Standard being also charged 
with the lioyal Arms, Crown, and Supporters. 

SWITZERLAND. Arms, — Gu., a Cross humettee arg. Each of 
the Cantons has also its own armorial insignia. 

TURKEY. Arms and Flag, — Gii., a Moon decrescent or, and an 
Estoile arg., in f esse. 

WURTEMBURG. Arms, — Or, three Stag's attires in 'pale sa., 
impaling, for Hohenstaufer, or, three Lions pass, in pale sa., the right 
paw gu. Supporters, — A Lion as in the arms, crowned or; and a 
Stag ppr. The Flag is crimson and black divided per fesse, the 
crimson in chief. 

The range of this Treatise does not admit of my extending the 
present Chapter so far, as to comprehend the armorial in.signia 
and the flags of the Free Cities and of all the minor States of 
Germany, with those of the several States of both North and 
South America ; nor can I here even advert to the barbaric 
Heraldry of the East. 

The few Foreign Titles of Nobility that are held, either by 
grant or inheritance, by British Subjects, do not convey any 
privilege or precedence in this country. However real in them- 
selves, and whatever the degree of rank they might confer in 
the dominions of the Sovereigns from whom they have been 
derived, they are purely honorary distinctions here, and they 
can be recognized in England only through a special Royal 
Licence from our own Sovereign to that efi'ect. The Arms of 
these Personages, as would be expected, have certain Augmenta- 
tions granted by Foreign Heralds, or their entire blazonry par- 
takes more of Foreign than of English heraldic feeling and usage. 
These Arms are appended to our Peerages ; so that it will be 
sufficient for me to remark that the Coronets, with which these 
Shields of Arms are ensigned, differ from the Coronets of our 
own Peei's in having no caps, nor is their rank determined 



in accordance with English rule. The Coronet of a DuTce of 
France is ensigned with parsley leaves — " feuilles d'ache;" that of 
a Marquis, with three parsley leaves alternating with as many ele- 
vated pearls ; and that of a Count, with 7iine pearls, while a 
Baron has a " bonnet gresle de perles." The German Dulces arch 
their Coronets, and the Counts sometimes slightly elevate their 
numerous pearls. 

Foreign Nobility, while resident in England, as a matter of 
course, enjoy every privilege of their rank, and each individual 
bears his own heraldic insignia here as he would in his native 

No. 70S.— St'al of Eeatkice of Poutigal, Countess of Arunpel and 

SuuuEY, Icmp. IIenky V : Fitzalan and Warrcnne quarterli/, inij)aliiig 

Porlugal, See p. 477. 

Neville Ancient. 
No. l/p.—See page 461. 





I. Heraldic Authorities and Treatises on Heraldry. 

Copies only of the earliest Rolls of Arms are known now to 
be in existence. These Rolls contain the armorial bearings 
with the titles of the Sovereign and his Family, and also those 
of the Princes and principal Nobles, Bannerets and Knights 
of his time. 

1. Roll of Henry III. Date, between a.d., 1240 — 1245. 
The original lost. A copy by Glover, Somerset Herald, with 
the Arms blazoned but not drawn, dated 1586, and presented 
by him to the College of Arms, where it is preserved, bound 
up with other heraldic MSS. in a volume entitled Miscellanea 
Curiosa, L. 14 : this volume was presented to the College by 
Sir William Dugdale, Garter, in 1676, The Roll edited, with 
highly interesting and valuable remarks and an Ordinary of the 
Arms, by Sir Harris Nicholas, in 1829. 

2. Second Roll of Henry III. Probable date, about 1270. 

2 I 



The original lost. A copy, with arms (about seven hundred 
in number) tricked by Charles, Lancaster Herald, in 1607, 
in the British Museum, Harl. MSS., 6589 : about to be published 
in the Archceologia. iuCi4i^^nw«jt^«.,./ff^. 
V 3. Roll of Caerlaverock. Date, 1300. Contemporary copies 
in the British Museum, Cotton MSS., Caligula, A. XVIII; and in 
the College of Arms, MS., No. 27. Copies by Glover in the 
College of Arms, and in Ulster's Office, Dublin. Translated and 
published with the original text, with copious and most valuable 
notes, and with wood-cuts of the banners and shields of arms, by 
Sir Harris Nicholas, in 1828 : also, " edited from the MS. in 
the British Museum, with a translation and notes, by Thomas 
Wright, Esq., with the coat-armours emblazoned in gold and 
colours," in 186-i. 

4. Falkirk Roll of Edward I., a.d. 1298. Copy in the British 
Museum, Barl MSS., 6589. 

5. Roll of Edward II. Date between 1308 and 1314. Original 
in the British Museum, Cotton MSS., Caligula, A. XVIII. Pub- 
lished by Sir Harris Nicholas, with a veiy valuable Ordinary 
of the Roll by Joseph Gwilt, Esq., in 1828. 

6. Dunstable Roll of Edward II., a.d. 1309. Copy in the 
British Museum, Earl. MSS., 1309. 

7. Boroughbridge Roll of Edward II., a.d. 1322. Original at 
Oxford. Ashnolean MSS., No. 731. 

\^ 8. Roll of Edward III. Date, between 1337 and 1350. Copy 
in the College of Aims, written in 1562, with some of the coats 
tricked, by Cotghavk, Richmond Herald. Edited by Sir Harris 
Nicholas, in 1828. 

9. Calais Roll of Edward III., a.d. 1347. Copy, a.d. 1607, in 
the College of Arms. Edited by Mr. Mores. 

10. Roll of Richard II. Date, 1392—1397. Original in 
private possession. Edited, with a Preface, bj' Mr. Willement, 
in 1834. 

In addition to these, several other early Rolls of Arms arc in 


existence, and some of theni are in the possession of private 
individuals. It is to be hoped that these valuable records will 
be published. 

In these Eolls, the heraldic formula, to " bear arms," occurs : 
they also contain the titles of the tinctures, and various heraldic 
terms and expressions now in use. Thus, in a Roll of the time of 
Edward III., probably a.d. 1337, there are the following entries :— 
" Brian Fitz-Alan de Bedcde parte, harre de goules ct d'or de 
viij peces ;" 

" Bauf de Camays parte, d'ar ave chief de qaides et fraia tur- 
teaux d'argenl en le chief : 

*^' Piers de Bouthe part, d'argent ave un chewan de sable et trais 
testes de lou de gaides racer." 

The various MSS. Collections preserved at the College of Arms, 
with other similar collections in the British Museum, the 
Bodleian Library at Oxford, and elsewhere, are Heraldic Autho- 
rities of the highest order. Heraldic Authorities of equal rank, 
and possessing the strongest claims upon the attention of all 
students of Heraldry, are the monumental and architectural col- 
lections in "Westminster Abbey, St. George's Chapel, and in the 
cathedrals, churches, and collegiate chapels throughout the realm. 

The earliest writer on Heraldry, whose works are of any ^ riL<i£u^ 
real value to the student, is William Camden, Clarencieux, bom 
in 1551, and died in 1623. 

In 1822 was published Moule's Bibliatheca Heraldica, being 
a catalogue of all the works on Heraldry and heraldic subjects 
that had at that time appeared in this country. 

Pvhlished icorks an Heraldry : 

1. ViNCEXT on Brooke's Catalogue of Nobility, 1622, 

2. Dugdale's Baronage, 1675. 

3. SASDVomy's Genealogical History af England, 1707, 
' 4. Nksbit's System of Heraldry, 1722. 

y/ 5. Gvilum's Display of Hei-aldry, 1724. 

2 1 2 


6. Anstis' Begister of the Garter, 1724. 

7. Histoire Genealogtque et Chronologique de la Maison Roynlc de 
France, 1726. 

8. Armorial Geniral de France, 1768. 

9. Ashmole's Order of the Garter, 111 2. 

\ 10. Edmondson's Complete Body of Heraldry, 1780. 
And more recently published, 

11. Eev. Mark Noble's Hhtory of the College of Arms. 

1 2. Bank's Dormant and Extinct Peerages. 

13. Sir Harris Nicholas' Synopsis of the Peerage. 

14. The Historic Peerage of England, by Sir Harris Nicholas, 
edited by Wm. Courthope, Esq., Somerset Herald. • 

15. Vicomte De Magny's Nohiliaire Universel. 

16. Planche's Pursuivant at Arms. 

17. Montagu's Guide to the Study of Heraldry. * 

18. MovLE^s Heraldry of Fish. 

19. 'Lower's Curiosities of Heraldry. 
V,- 20. Willement's Begal Heraldry. 

21. Willement's Heraldic Notices of Canterbury Cathedral. 

22. Shirley's NoUe and Gentle Men of England. 

23. Seton's Law and Practice of Heraldry in Scotland. 

24. Boutox's Noveau Traitede JJlason. 

^ 25. Papworth's Ordinary of Arms, (in the course of publica- 
tion in Parts, by subscription). 
-^ 26. Parker's Dictionary of Heraldry. 

27. Thom's Boole of the Court. 

28. Laing's Catalogue of Ancient Scottish Seals. 

29. Burke's Peerage. 

30. Burke's Dormant and Extinct Peerages and Baronetcies ; 
Commoners, and Landed Gentry. 

31. Burke's Armory. 

32. TTie Herald and Genealogist, (serial), edited by John Gough 
Nichols, F.S.A. 

These works form a selected series, and with them may be 


associated the Archceologia ; the Journals of the Archceological 
Institute and Association, particularly the papers on Heraldic 
subjects in the latter publication by Mr. Planche, and those 
on Seals in the former ; Siotiiard's Effigies ; Waller's Brasses ; 
the Gentleman's Magazine, and the County Histories, and the 
^V ills of Eoyal and other important personages ; and also that 
most useful of periodicals, Notes and Queries. 

I must add, that the well-known introductory little volume, 
" Clarke's Heraldry," is about to reappear, edited by Mr. Planch^ : 
and, that a well executed ^^ Practical Manual," specially designed 
for the use of heraldic Illuminators, has been very recently pub- 
lished ; it is the conjoint production of Mr. B. F. J. Baigent, and 
Mr. C. J. Eu-fSELL. 


II. Miscellaneous Addenda. 

1. Tinctures, p. 19. The dots and lines by which the Tinc- 
tures of Heraldry are now commonly indicated, are attributed to 
an Italian, Silvestre de Petrasancta, who describes them in his 
''De Symholis Heroicis," lib. vij., p. 313, Antverpiae, 1634. This 
Symbolization, however, did not come into general use until the 
18th century. Some such Symbolization may occasionally be 
observed in the engraved shields of Brasses, in anticipation of 
Petrasancta. The colour Purpura appears only on rare occasions 
in early English blazon. In the Caerlaverock EoU, the very 
first Banner, that of Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, bears 
a lion lampant pui-piire on a golden field : — 

" Baner out do un feudal safrin, 
uu liouu rampaut purprin." 

In the Roll of Edw. II., the arms of Sir Felip de Lynesheye 
are, w, an eagle displayed purpure ; and those of Sir Johax de 
Dexe, arg., a lion rampt. purpure. In the Poll of Edw. III., 
" Malemaynes port d'argent, a une bend engrele de purpure " — 
a bend engrailed purpure. In these same Polls Sir Henry le 


ScROPE and Sir \\'m. le Scrope both bear their golden bend 
charged with a lion rampt. purpure. 

2. The Shield of Earl William de Valence: pages 38 and 186. 
The careful and excellent fac-simile drawing of this beautiful 
example of heraldic champleve enamel, executed by Mr. Ber- 
rington, one of the vergers of Westminster Abbey, the full size 
of the original shield 20J inches in height, has just been pub- 
lished in chromo-lithography : and the large engraving has been 
produced by Mr. Durlacher, by whom all my own lithographs, 
including the reduced representation of this same shield (Plate 
VII.), have been engraved. I am glad to be enabled thus to 
invite attention to Mr. Berrington's very fine and valuable work. 

3. The arms of Navarre : pages 41 and 306. The true blazon 
of these aims is, gules, a cross, saltire and double orle of cJiains, all 
linked together, or. The chains are sometimes represented as 
formed of fiat solid pieces, (No. 134 a, PI. VIII.,) and sometimes 
of open links of rings (Favyne, ii., 1874) : in the arms of Navarre 
blazoned upon the monument of Henry IV. at Canterbury, the 
chains are of fiat solid pieces. This singular device is said to 
have been assumed by Sancho " the' Strong," in memory of his 
successful attack upon a Moorish prince, whose army was in 
part defended by a barricade of chains : and, say the Spanish 
Historians, " because in this battle he burst in the palisade of 
chains, the King of Navarre took for his arms the chains of gold 
trellised — atravasata — in a blood-red field." 

4. The Fylfot : p. 44. See Notes and Queries, 3rd series, 
v., 458, 524; and vi., 51, 96, 135. This figure ajipears upon 
the shield-belt of Sir John D'Aubernoun, a.d. 1277 ; and in the 
Brass to Egbert Arthur, at Chartham, a.d. 1454. 

5. The Mullet: pp. 47 and 52. The Mullet not pierced 
certainly appears as a charge before the introduction of spurs 
having rouelles, as in the noble shield of Egbert de Verb at 
Hatfield Broadoak; so that the statement in p. 47 requires, at 
any rate, to be modified. 


6. Arms of the Isle of Man : p. 5(3. In exami:)les blazoned at 
different periods, the armour of the three conjoined limbs is 
represented in accordance with the prevalent fashion of the 
defensive equipment: thus in No. 176a, PI. XIV., the annour 
is banded mail ; but in the transcript of the EoU of Eich. II., 
written and having the aims blazoned about 1515, the armour 
is plate. The Arms of the Island of Sicily resemble those of the 
Isle of Man, but the limbs are not in armour, and at their point 
of junction there is a human face : these arms appeared on the 
postage-stamps of Sicily, before that island became a part of the 
kingdom of Italy. The device itself, probably having reference 
to the name of the island, Trinacria, is displayed on the ancient 
coins of Sicily. 

7. Blazon of the Lion : p. 57. The early blazon of the Lion 
rampant and the Lion passant guardant is still retained by the 
modern Heralds of France. See Bouton's Nouveau Traite de 
Blason, p. 305, " JDu Lion et du Leopard." 

8. The Lions of England : p. 58. The English Lion passant 
guardant has his head to the dexter. Occasionally upon heraldic 
inlaid paving-tiles, the three Lions of England face to the 
sinister: this is simply the error of the tile-producer, who had 
neglected to reverse the shield on his engraved stamp. Examples 
occur at King's Langley in Hertfordshire, Horsted Keynes in 
Sussex, and elsewhere ; the King's Langley tiles include the 
shield of Henry the third Earl, and Henry the first Duke of 
Lancaster — England differenced ivitli a hendlet. 

9. Descriptive Terms : p. 77. The heraldic teims and forms of 
expression that occur in the early Eolls of Arms will be found 
to abound in valuable information to the student of Heraldry. 

10. Knights Bannerets and the Caerlaverock Eoll : pp. 93, 
and 287. I gladly refer students to a most interesting notice of 
Mr. Wright's new edition of the Caerlaverock Eoll, in the 
Herald and Genealogist, vol, ii., p. 377 ; (the Part published in 
September, 1864). Amongst other corrections in the now Trans- 



lation, the expression in the original, " hanerez" is rendered by 
the new editor " Bannerets" instead of " Banners," and thus the 
true heraklic import of the Poem, as a Eoll of the Bannerets 
only (and not of the whole even of them), is established. Be- 
sides King Ei)Wai;d himself, the Eoll gives the arms of eighty-six 
Bannerets; the shields of arms also of seventeen Knights are 

11. Coronets : pp. 94, 101, 104, and 133. The circlets of the 
Coronets of the Peers are incorrectly described as " jewelled :" 
Mr. CouRTHOPE has kindly corrected this error, and enabled me 
to record that " no coronets are jewelled, there being a special 
order against any such decoration." I have not been able to 
coiTect my engraved examples, Nos. 254, 276, 281, 302, 317, 
281 A, and 302 a. It is remarkable that all early examples of 
Coronets have the circlet enriched with jewels; and modem 
Coronets are almost invariably represented in the same 

12. EoBES of the Peers: pp. 94, 103, 104, 117, and 133. The 
" Mantles " of the Peers described in the text, are the Parlia- 
mentary Bobes of those noble Lords : the Peers have also crimson 
velvet Eobes of Estate, not Parliamentary. 

13. " Compartmext :" p. 97. In this page, after the para- 
graph on " Coins," there should have followed a notice of an 
heraldic " Compartment," a term peculiar to Scottish Heraldry, 
which denotes a " kind of carved panel, of no fixed form, placed 
below the escutcheon, bearing the supporters, and usually in- 
scribed with a motto or the name and designation of the owner." 
— Seton, p. 275. 

14. The Eldest Sons of Dukes : p. 103. Whatever the title 
borne by the eldest son of any Duke, his rank is always the 

15. Page 103. A Duke is " Most Noble" and not " Most 
Honourable :" a Duchess also is " Most Noble." 

16. Esquires: p. 106. There are no Esquires of the Order of 


tho Garter, nor has the Order ever associated any Esquires with 
the Knights. 

17. The Earl Marshal: pp. 112, 132 and 108. The title 
Earl Marshal is strictly heraldic, and altogether distinct 
from the title of that high oflScer as a Peer of the Kealm : 
thus, as stated in the text, the Duhe of Norfolk is the Earl 

18. Ordinary of Arms: p. 121. I desire to direct the atten- 
tion of Students of Heraldry to an heraldic publication which 
possesses peculiar claims on them : tliis is Mr. Papworth's 
" Ordinary of Arms," a work which is not known as it ought to 
be, and the value and utilit}^ of which it would be difficult to 
estimate too highl}'. 

19. Marshalling: p. 135. In the seventeenth century the 
marshalling of quartered shields of anus was frequently con- 
ducted on principles that are most difficult to understand : and 
subsequently there are strong reasons for supposing that many 
shields rich in elaborate quarterings, which ought to be copious 
chapters of heraldic History, are in reality worse than worthless 
through the uncertainty or the absolute want of tme heraldic 
accuracy in their marshalling. At what period true heraldic 
accuracy ceased to be understood, even by many of those very 
persons who would never hesitate to blazon and carve and 
display shields distinguished only by their false marshalling, 
I am not able to determine : 1 do know, however, that at the 
present time true marshalling, even in its simplest expressions, 
is altogether disregarded b^' persons who, while ignoring the 
College of Arms, take it for granted that ignorance of Heraldry 
does not disqualify themselves from marshalling shields of arms. 
While these sheets were passing through the press, I myself 
saved a Minister of the Crown from quartering the arms of his otcn 
icife upon a sculptured shield, in his own mansion : it is un- 
necessary for me to suggest what kind of an heraldic chronicle 
would have been recorded by the designer of this shield, had ho 


been required to marshal on it ten or twelve or more distinct 
yet allied coats of aims. 

20. Arms of Queen Philippa of Haixault: p, 159. In the 
wood-cut of this shield of arms, the second and fourth quarters 
ought to have been divided quarterly. 

21. Arms of the Beauciiamps : p. 179. The ' Eous Eoll," pre- 
served in the College of Arms, contains a series of very curious 
differenced shields of the Beadchamps, 

22. Crest-Coronet : p. 265. I observe that this term has been 
introduced into their " Practical Manual of Heraldry " by Mr. 
Baigent and Mr. Eussell, from my o^vn Volume, but without any 
reference or acknowledgment. 

23. Supporters: pp. 130, 275, 378. The principal Hammer- 
beams of the grand trussed roof of Westminster Hall, as is well 
known, are carved to represent figures of Angels. Each of these 
figures carries — supports — a large shield of the Eoyal Arms of 
EiCHARD II. ; and a very recent visit to Westminster Hall con- 
vinces me, that I have not duly estimated the influence exercised 
by these Angel-figures with their supported shields in leading to 
the adoption of regular heraldic "Supporters." 

24. Arms of Leon : p. 306 ; also pp. 42, 157, and 388. I have 
hlazoned the Lion o/Leon gides, because the balance of authority 
so decidedly inclines to gules in preference to purpure. The 
Spaniards themselves also blazon this shield, — " En Escudo plata. 
Icon rojo," or, . . . " un leon rampante rojo," — a lion gules. " The 
uncertainty as to the proper tincture of the lion in the Arms of 
Leon has doubtless arisen from the vagueness attending the use 
of the word purpureus or molochinus in the Latin blazon of those 
arms :" See an able paper by the Eev. John Woodward in Notes 
and Queries, third Series, i., 471. It is singular that in the 
quartered shield of Castile and Leon, on the monument of 
Edward III. at Westminster, the lion of Leon is unquestionably 
tinctured purpiire. 

25. The Order of St. Patrick : p. 346. With the restoration 


of St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin, a work so happily accom- 
plished through the princely munificence of Mr. GuiNNiiss, is to 
be associated a restoration of the Lady Chapel of that Cathedral, 
with the special view of adapting it to the occupation and use of 
the Knights of the Order of St. I'atrick. This most interesting 
work is under the direction of the Cathedral architect, Mr. Slater, 
who proposes to carry out his plan in the most complete and 
consistent manner. 

26. Early Scottish Seals : p. 414. All Students of Heraldry 
will be gratified by learning that a Second Series of illustrated 
descriptions of Early Scottish Seals is in the course of preparation 
by Mr. Hexry Laing. The historical and heraldic value of 
Mr. Laing 's First Series of Scottish Seals, and the beauty and 
fidelity of the engraved examples give the best possible assurance 
of the high character which wall distinguish a second volume 
by the same learned and accomplished gentleman. The work 
will be published, by subscription, by Edmonston and Douglas, 
of 88, Princes Street, Edinburgh. 

27. Fictitious Heraldry: p. 443. " 27?e Herald and Genea- 
logist" (vol. ii. pp. 262 and 471,) is doing good service in 
exposing the proceedings of " Vendors of Fictitious Heraldry." 
Let it not be forgotten that the purchasers are far more deserving 
of reprehension than the vendors of this " imitative jewelry :" 
would it not be possible to distinguish their purchases by sub- 
jecting them to at least a fourfold tax ? 

28. Page 456. To the Examples of satisfactory heraldic en- 
gravings specified in this page, I desire here to add those con- 
tained in Mr. Laing's " Descriiitive Catalogue of Ancient Scottish 
Seals" with the small Shields of Arms that so freely illustrate 
the pages of Mr. Shirley's " Noble and Gentle Men of England." 

29. I have not yet been able to discover for whom the follow- 
ing shield of arms may have been designed, — France Modern and 
England quarterly, icithin a bordure of Frame — the same bordure 
that was borne by Prince John of Eltham with England onh" : this 



shield occurs amongst a series of shields blazoned in colour in 
the MS. collection, to which I have several times referred, . 
(Collect. Curiosa L. xiv.,) and which is preserved in the College of ^ 

No. 682 A.— Mouogiani and Collar of SS of John Baret, Bury St. Ediiiuiur.s. 

See page 337. 


Platk Page 

I. Shields and Achievement of Arms . . .16 

n. Ordinaries — Eoundles 

III. Heraldry of the Cross 

IV. Subordinaries — Varied Fields 
V. Shields of Arms 

VI. Shields of Arms 

VII. Enamelled Shield of Earl William de Valence Frontispiece 

VIII. Charges — Inanimate Objects 

IX. Charges — Inanimate Objects 

X. Heraldry of the Lion . . . 

XI. Charges — Animate Beings 

XII. Charges — Animate Beings and Natural Objects 

XIII. Charges — Natural Objects, &c. 

XIV. Shields of Arms .... 
XV. Charges — Inanimate Objects, &c. 

XVI. Ducal Coronets, Basinets, and Crest-Wreaths 

XVII. Effigy of Lady Tiptoft, and Shields of Arms 

XVIII. Marshalling — Dimidiation 

XIX. Marshalling 

XX. Marshalling and Cadency — Arms of De Bohuns 

XXI. Effigy of Earl John de Hastings 

XXII. Marshalling and Cadency — Impalements 

XXIII. Marshalling — Impalements and Quarterings 

XXIV. Marshalling 

XXV. Cadency— Crosslets, Martlets, &c. 
























XXVI. Crests . . . 

XX"\r[I. Cadency — Crosslets, Escallops, Cinquefoils, &c. 

XXVIII. Cadency— Mullets, Fleiirs-de-lys, &c. 

XXIX. Pennons, Standards, &c. , 

XXX. Crests and Eiiots 

XXXI. Cadency — Labels of the Plantagenets 

XXXII. Cadency — Bordures 

XXXIII. Cadency— Labels 

XXXIV. Cadency— Plantagenet Shields and Labels 
XXXV. Banners, Standard, Helm, and Sail 

XXXVI. Eoyal Cadency, and British Ensigns . 

XXXVII. Cadency— Crosslets, Mullets, &c. 
XXXVIII. Cadency — Arms of the De Valences, &c. 

XXXIX. Cadency and Badges — Fleurs-de-Iys . 

XL. Cadency — Annulets, Eoundles, Cantons, &c. 

XLI. Coronets, and Crests 

XLII. Crowns .... 

XLIII. Lancastrian Collars, and Insignia of the Garter 

XLIV. Yorkist Collars, and Insignia of the Garter 

XLV. Cadency, and Helms 

XLVI. Shields of Arms, Crest, and Victoria Cross 

XLVII. Shields of Arms, and Eoyal Badges . 

XLVIII. Cadency— Crosslets, Billets, Martlets, &c. 

XLIX. Cadency .... 

L. Cadency— Eoundles, &c. 

LI. Cadency — Bordures, and Mantlings 

LII. Lozenge and Sliields of Arms . . 

LIII. Quartered Arms of the Prince of Wales 

LIV. Insignia of the Garter 

LV. Insignia of the Thistle 

LVI. Insignia of St. Patrick 

LVII. Insignia of the Bath 

LVIII. Eoyal Arms of England 

LIX. Eoyal Arms of England 

LX. Anns of the Prince of Wales 

LXI. Insignia of Star of India 







Cadency— Bordures . 

. 216 


Effigy of Henry, Duke of Lancaster . 

. 235 


Coronets, Crests, and Mantlings 

. 270 


Arms of the Confessor, and the Hollands 

. 247 


Garter-Plate— Humphrey de Bohun, K.G. 

. 116 


Shields of Arms . . . . 

. 175 


Shields of Anns 

. 192 


Shields of Arms 

. 461 


Seals . 

. 409 


Shields of Arms 

. 209 


Shields of Arms 

. 202 


Shields of Arms 

. 212 


Shields of Arms 

. 222 


Arms of Denmark 

. 326 


Badges, &c. 


. 257 


Arms of Abbot Kamryge, St. Alban's 

. 451 


Shields of Arms, St. Alban's 

. 453 


Slab of Heney IV., from Venice 

. 258 


Marshalling and Cadency 

. 149 


Seals ..... 

. 407 


Seals . 



. 412 




I A 

. "i Jerusalem, p. 8. 
. / Jerusalem, p. 8. 


A Pile, plate ii. 



T\Yo Bars, plate ii. 


France Ancient, p. 12. 


A Fesse Cotised, plate ii. 




Bars Gemelles, plate ii. 


Heraldic Shields, p. 13. 


A Pale endorsed, plate ii. 
On a Bend, plate ii. 



A Bend Cotised, plate ii. 


Heraldic Shields, p. 15. 


A Kibbon, plate ii. 


Provence, plate i. 


On a Saltire, plate ii. 


Points of the Shield, p. 17. 

49 a 

In Chief, plate ii. 


Per Pale, p. 17. 

49 b 

In Fesse, plate ii. 


Per Fesse, p. 17. 

49 c 

In Pale, plate ii. 


Per Cross, or Quarterly, p. 17. 

49 D 

In Cross, plate ii. 


Per Bend, p. 17. 

49 E 

In Bend, plate ii. 


Per Saltire, p. 17. 

49 F 

In Saltire, plate ii. 


Per Chevron, p. 17. 

49 G 

In Chevron, plate ii. 


Quarterly of eight, p. 17. 

49 H 

In Pale, plate ii. 


Quarterly Quartered, p. 17. 


A Bezant, plate ii. 


Dividing and Border Lines, p. 18. 

51 • 

A Plate, plate ii. 


Or, p. 19. 


A Hurte, plate ii. 


Argent, p. 19. 


A Torteau, plate ii. 


Azure, p. 19. 


A Pellet, plate ii. 


Gules, p. 10. 


A Pom me, plate ii. 


Sable, p. 19. 


A Fountain, plate ii. 


Vert, p. 19. 


A Greek Cross, plate iii. 


Purpure, p. 19. 


A Latin Cross, plate iii. 


Ermine, p. 20. 


A Tau Cross, plate iii. 


Ermines, i). 20. 


St. Andrew, plate iii. 


Ermiuois, p. 20. 


St, Patrick, plate iii. 


Vair, p. 20. 


St. George, plate iii. 


Vair, p. 20. 


The First Union Jack, p. 26. 


Counter Vair, p. 20. 


The Second Union Jack, p. 26. 


Potent, p. 20. 


A Cross Fimbriated, plate iii. 


Counter Potent, p. 20. 


A Cross surmounted by a Cross, 


A Chief, plate ii. 

plate iii. 

33 a 

De Neville, p. 25. 

66 a 

A Cross voided, plate iii. 

33 b 

De Lacy, p. 25. 


A Cross pointed, plate iii. 


A Fesse, plate ii. 


A Cross patriarchal, plate iii. 


A Bar, plate ii. 


A Cross on Degrees, plate iii. 


A Pale, plate ii. 


A Cross couped, plate iii. 


A Cross, plate ii. 


A Maltese Cross, plate iii. 


A Bend, plate ii. 


A Cross quadi-ate, plate iii. 


A Saltire, plate ii. 


A Cross quarter pierced, plate iii. 


A Chevron, plate ii. 


A Cross quarterly pierced, jilato 

40 a 

De Clare, p. 21. 







A Cross Molinc, plate lii. 



A Cross Reoereclec, pltito iii. 



A Cross ratoncc, plate iii. 


The Confessor — St. Edward, 


plati; i. 



A Cross Flourio, plate iii. 

127 A 


A Cross Fhnirette'e, phitn iii. 

127 B. 


A Cross rominee, j)]ate iii. 


A Cross Fourche'e, plate iii. 

127 c. 

82 A 

. A Cross Urdee, p. 30. 


A Cro^s Crosslet, plate iii. 



A Cross Crosslet Fitchc'o, plate iii. 



A Cross Patt'o, plate iii. 

129 A. 


A Cross Pate'e Fitche'e, plate iii. 

129 B. 


A Cross Botonee, plate iii. 

129 c. 


A Cross Botone'e Fitche'e, plate 





A Cross Potent, plate iii. 

131 A. 


A Cross Potent Fitehee. plate iii. 



A Cross Potent Quadrate, plate 

132 A. 


132 B. 


A Cross Engrailetl, plate iii. 

132 c. 


A Cross Unde'e, plate iii. 



A, Cross Ragule'e, plate iii. 

133 A. 


Five Fusils in Cross, plate iii. 



A Canton, plate iv. 

134 a. 


A Gyron, plate iv. 



An Inescutcheon, plate iv. 


Mortimer, p. 31. 

135 a. 

99 a 

. Mortimer, p. 31. 



An Orle, plate iv. 

136 A. 


De Valence, plates v., vii., and 

136 B. 


136 c. 


A Tressme, plate iv. 



Scotland, plate v. 

137 a. 


A Lozenge, plate iv. 



A Fusil, plate iv. 

138 A. 


A Frette, plate iv. 

106 A 

Frette'e, plate iv. 



Le De Spencer, plate v. 



Flanches, plate iv. 


108 A 

Flasques, plate iv. 



A Mascle, plate iv. 



A Eustre, plate iv. 



A Billet, plate iv. 

/144 A. 


A Label, plate iv. 

144 B. 


A Bordure, plate iv. 



A Bordm-e engrailed, plate iv. 



A Bordure indented, plate iv. 

146 A. 

115 a 

Shield— Whitworth Effigy, p. 34. 

146 B. 


Brittany — De Dreux, plate v. 



Gyi-onny, plate iv. 



Cyronny of six, plate iv. 


Lozengy, plate iv. 



Fusilly, plate iv. 



De Grey, p. 35. 


121 A 

Paly of 8, plate iv. 


121 B 

Bendy of 8, plate iv. 

152 a. 


Barry Bendy, plate iv. 



Paly Bendy, plate iv. 

153 a. 

A FJordure Conipony, plate iv. 

Bordure Cutuitcr Compony, plate 

Chcque'e, plate iv. 

Sir liol)ert de Ciiandos. plate vi. 
. Percy — Beverley, plate vi. 
. De Warrenne — Castle Acre, plate 

. De Warrenne — Bever.'ey, ])late 

Flag of the Admiralty, p. 39. 

Six Aimulets, plate viii. 
. Arrows, plate viii. 

Bamierinan, plat<; viii. 

Three Battering Bams, plate viii 

A Fire Beacon, plate viii. 

Breys, plate viii. 

De Geneville. p!:^' > xiv. 

A Buckle, plate viii. 

A Buckle and Strap, plate viii 

Thomas Rocelyn, plate Ixix. 

Pclham, p. 436. 

A Caitrap, plate viii. 

A Chapeau, plate viii. 

An Escarbuncle, plate viii. 
. An Escarbuncle, plate viii. 

Castile and Leon^Queen Alia- 
nore, plate i. 

A Castle, plate viii. 

A Cliess-Rook, plate viii. 

A Cinquefoil, plate viii. 

A Clarion, plate viii. 

Fitz Simou, plate Ixix. 

A Clarion, plate viii. 

Cups, plate viii. 

Cushions, plate viii. 

Cushions — De Bohun Brass, plate 


City of London, p. 54. 

An Estoile, plate viii. 

A Winnowing Fan, plate viii. 

A Fetter-Lock, plate viii. 

A Fylfot Cross, plate viii. 

D'Aubeny, plate Ixix. 

Crest of Hope, plate xxvi. 

Crest of Drake, plate xxvi. 

Gauntlets, plate viii. 

Gurges, plate viii. 

John 3Iartell, plate Ixix. 

De Hursthelve, plate Ixtx. 

A Hawk's Lure, plate ix. 

A Hawk's Bell and Jesses, plate 

A Hemp-Brake, plate ix. 
A Hunting Horn, plate ix. 
A Lymphad, plate ix. 
A Maunche, plate ix. 
A Maunche. plate ix. 
A Mill-Rind, plate ix. 
A Guy Ferre, plate Ixix. 
2 K 




154 A Mullet, plate ix. 

155 A Mullet of six points, plate ix. 

156 De Vere, plate vi. 

157 A Mullet pierced, plate ix. 

158 A Pall, plate ix. 

158 A. John Bourdon, plate Ixix. 

159 A Pastoral Staff, plate xv. 

160 A Crozier, plate xv. 

161 A Penner and Inkhorn, plate ix. 

162 A Pheon, plate ix. 

163 A Portcullis, plate ix. 

164 A Qua trefoil and Shield, plate 


164 A. A Scaling-Ladder, p. 51. 

164 B. A Lozenge-Panel and Shield, 

plate XV. 

165 A Seax, plate ix. 

166 A Shakefork, plate ix. 

167 Hav, p. 54. 

168 The Trinity House, plate xiv. 

169 A Pryck-Spur, plate ix. 

170 A Wheel-Spur, plate ix. 

171 A Rouelle-Spur, plate ix. 

172 A Guarded-Sprn-, plate ix. 
17;-} The Earl Poulett, plate xiv. 
17:S A. A Tower, plate ix. 

174 A, plate ix. 

175 A Trmupet, plate ix. 

176 Water Bougets, plate ix. 

176 A. Isle of Man, plate xiv. 

177 The Badge of Ulster, plate ix. 

177 A. Douglas, plate xiv. 

178 A Lion Passant, plate x. 

179 A Lion Passant Guardant, plate 


179 A. A Lion Passant Eeguardant, 
plate X. 

179 B. A Lion Passant Guardant, plate 


180 A Lion Rampant, plate x. 

180 A. A Lion Rampant, plate x. 

181 A Lion Rampant Guardant, plate 


182 A Lion Rampant Reguardant, 

plate X. 

183 A Lion Salient, plate x. 

184 Two Lions Comhatant, plate x. 

185 The Percy Lion, p. 55. 

186 The Howard Lion, p. 55. 

187 A Lion Sejant, plate x. 

187 A. A Lion Sejant Rampant, plate x. 
187 B. A Lion Couchant, plate x. 

187 c. A Lion Coward, p. 59. 

188 A Demi-Lion Rampant, plate x. 

189 A Lions Face, plate x. 

190 A Lion's Head, couped, plate x. 

191 A Lion's Head, erased, plate x. 

192 A Lion's Jamhe, plate x. 

19H Two Lions Rampant, addorsed, 
plale x. 


i Cornwall, plate v. 
A Lion Rampant, crowned, 
plate X. 
195 A Lion Rampant, holding a 

Spear, plate x. 
186 A Lion gorged with a Coronet, 
plate X. 

197 A Lion queue fourchee, plate x. 

198 England, p. 61. 

199 The Earl of Pembroke, plate x. 

199 A. An Ermine, p. V>2. 

200 Longespe'e. p. 89. 

201 De Bohun, plate xx. 

201 A. De Wlieathamstede, plate xv. 

202 A Stag at gaze, plate xi. 

203 A Stag tripping, plate xi. 

203 A. A Stag at speed, plate xi. 

204 A Stag lodged, plate xi. 

205 A Stag's Head cabosscd, plate xi. 
205 A. Stanley, plate xiv. 

205 B. Cavendish, plate xiv. 

206 A Bear and Ragged Staff, plate 


207 A Talbot Dog, plate xi. 

208 Jessant-de-lys, plate xi. 

208 A. Jessant-dc-lys reversed, plate xi. 

209 A Bird soaring, plate xi. 

210 Wings in lure, plate xi. 

211 Wings erect, jilate xi. 

212 A Bird trussing another, plate xi. 
212 A. An eagle displayed, i)lat<^ xi. 
212 B. An Eagle with two heads, plate 


212 c. Richard, Earl of Cornwall, plate 


213 A Pelican in its Piety, plate xi. 

214 A Swan chained, plate xi. 

215 A Bird closed, plate xi. 

216 A Martlet, plate xi. 

216 A. A Martlet, plate xi. 

217 A Fish naiant, plate xi. 

218 A Fish huuriant, plate xi. 

218 A. A Fish miant, plate xi. 

219 A Dolphin embowed, plate xi. 

219 A. A Dolphin, p. 66. 

220 An Escallop Shell, plate xi. 

221 A Cockatrice, plate xii. 

222 Crest — Dagworth, plate xii. 

222 A. Crest — Elmebrigge, plate xii. 

223 A Dragon, plate xii. 

223 A. A Dragon Standard, plate xii. 

224 A Griffin, plate xii. 

225 A Mermaid, plate xii. 

225 A. A Collar of Mermaids, p. 68. 

226 A Merman, plate xii. 

227 A Wyvern, plate xii. 
227 A. A Unicom, plate xii. 
227 B. A Pegasus, plate xii. 
227 c. A Phcenix, plate xii. 
227 n. A Snlanmnder, p. 69. 




228 The Sun in splendour, jilate xii. 

229 Rays of the Sun, plate xii. 

230 Crescent, [fate xii. 

231 Decrescent, plate xii. 

232 Increscent, plato xii. 

233 A Cinquetbil, plato xii. 

234 Black Prince— Shield of Peace, 

p. 70. 
234 A. A Feather Badge — Black Prince, 
plate xii. 

234 B. Swan and Feather — Do Bohun, 

plate xii. 

235 Feather and Scroll — Worcester, 

plate xii. 

235 A. Prince of Wales' Plume— Mo- 

dern, plate XV. 

236 A Fleui--de-lys, from tiles, plate 

236 A. A Fleur-de-lys, from tiles, jjlate 

236 B. A Fleur-de-lys, from tiles, plate 


237 A Flem--de-lys — Windsor, j^late 


237 A. A Fleurde-lys— Monument of 

Edward III., plate xv. 

238 A Fleur-de-lys, on Sword and 

Sceptic, plate xiii. 

238 A. A Seal of Louis VIII., p. 404. 

239 Leveson, p. 70. 
239 A. Chester, p. 70. 
239 B. A Garbe, plate xii. 

239 c. A Slip of Oak, plate xii. 

240 Planta Genista, jjlate xii. 

241 A Rose, plato xiii. 

241 A. A Rose, Pulham Church, p. 76. 

242 A Rose— Worcester, p. 293. 

242 A. A White Rose of York, plate xiii. 

243 A Rose-en-Soleil — Worcester, p. 


244 A Sixfoil, plate xiii. 

245 The Stock of a Tree, plate xiii. 

246 A Trefoil slipped, plate xiii. 

247 A Tudor Rose — Worcestei-, p. 


248 A York and Lancastrian Rose 

crowned, plate xiii. 

248 A. A White Rose-en-Soleil, plate xiii. 

249 Byron, p. 77. 

250 Gouttee, p. 77. 

251 Gouttee, p. 77. 

252 Mantele'e, plate xiii. 

253 A Saltire trononee, plate xiii. 

254 The Coronet of a Baron, p. 94. 

255 Canterbury impaling Kempe, 

plate xiv. 

256 Contoise — Aymer de Valence, 

plate XV. 

257 Basinet— Sir H. Calveley, plate 


257 A. A Crest Coronet, p. 265. 

258 Basinet- Ralph de Neville, plate 


259 Hchn and Crest— Ricliard I., 

plate xxvi. 

260 Helm and Crest — H. do Boliun, 

plate xxvi. 

261 Helm and Crest — Sir J. Loutrell 

plate xxvi. 
202 Helm and Crest— Edward III., 
plate xxvi. 

263 Helm and Crest — Black Prince, 

plate xxvi. 

264 Helm and Crest — Edward do 

Thorpe, p. 110. 
205 Helm and Crest — R. de Beau- 
champ, plate xii. 

266 Crest — Lord Stourton, lAntc 


267 Helm and Crest— Sir William de 

Bryenne, plate xxvi. 
267 A. Crest — Lord Ferrers of Chartley, 

plate xxvi. 
267 B. Two Crests of Tyndall, p. 272. 
2G8 Crest Coronet— Sir T. Bromflete, 

plate xx^^. 
2G9 Crest of Mortimer, plate xxvi. 
270 Seal- Mortimer, p. 418. 

270 A. Seal — -Edm. de Arundel, p. 271, 


271 St. Edmond, plate xiv. 

272 A Mural Crown, p. 99. 

273 A Naval Crown, p. 99. 

274 A Vallary Crown, p. 99. 

275 An Eastern Crown, p. 99. 

276 The Coronet of a Duke, p. 101. 

277 Basinet — John of Eltham, i)latc 


277 A. Basinet — John of Eltham, plate 


278 Fillet— William of Hatfield, plate 


279 Basinet — Black Prince, plate 

279 A. Basinet — Black Prince, plate 

279 B. Basinet— Black Prince, p. 102. 

280 Coronet — John de la Pole, plate 


281 The Coronet of an Earl, p. 104. 

281 A. Coronet of an Earl, plate Ixiv. 

282 Coronet— Earl of Arundel, p. 1 05. 

283 Coronet— Earl of Arundel, p. 105. 

283 A. Coronet — Countess of Arundel. 

plate xii. 

284 Coronet — Countess of Essex, 

plate xii. 

285 Coronet— Sir T. Boleyn, plate 


286 Edward III., p. 333. 

2 K 2 



No. I X"- 

287 Canioys — with Harter, plate xiv. 320 

288 Camovs and Mortimer, plate 

xiv." 3-20 A. 

288 A. Garter — Lord Camoys, plate 

xliii. 321 

289 Henry V., plate xiv. 

290 Garter— Jolin dc la Pole, plate 322 


291 Yorkist Collar — Lord Harcourt, 323 

plate xliv. 

292 Garter— Lady Harcourt, plate 324 


293 A Gonfannon, plate xxix. 325 

294 Modem Helm — Sovereign, p. 

110. 325 a. 

295 Modern Helm — Princes, p. 110. 326 
29(J Modern Helm— Knights, p. 111. 326 a. 

297 Modern Helm— Esquires, p. 111. 326 b. 

298 Crown of Herald King-of-Arms, 327 

p. 357. 

299 The Duke of Norfolk, p. 428. 328 

300 Effigy of Lady Tiptoft, plate xvii. 
300 A. Tiptoft, plate xvii. 329 
300 B. Powys, plate xvii. 329 a. 

300 c. Tiptoft and Powys, plate xvii. 329 B. 

301 Harsyck, plate i. 

302 The Coronet of a Manpiess.p. 117. 329 c. 

303 A Merchant's Mark, plate xiii. 

304 The Merciiants of the Staple, 330 

plate xiii. 

305 The Merchants Adventurers, 331 

plate xiii. 

306 A Mitre, p. 119. 332 

307 A Mitre, p. 119. 332 aT 

308 Tiie Mitre of the Bishop of Dur- 

ham, p. 119. 332 B. 

309 Three Mitres, p. 90. 

310 Pennon— Sir J. DAubernoun, 333 

plate xxix. 334 

311 Shield of St. George, Elsyng 335 

Brass, plate xxix. 335 a, 

312 Standard— Edward HI., plate 

xxix. 335 B. 

313 Standard — Earl of Warwick, 335 c. 

plate XXXV. 330 

31 4 Sttmdard — Henry of Bolingbroke, 

p. 286. 337 

315 Standard — Henry VIII., plate 338 


316 Standard— Henry VIII., plate 338 a 


317 The Coronet of a \'iscount, p. 339 


318 A Crest Wreath, plate xv. 340 

318 A. A Crest Wreath in perspective, 

plate XV. 341 

319 Stafford impaling Butler, plate 342 

319 A. Stafford, plate xxiv. 343 

319 B. Butler, plate xxiv. 

Cornwall dimidiates Clare, plate 

Clare dimidiates Fitzgerald, plate 

Cornwall impales Clare, pla'e 

England dimidiates France, plate 

France Ancient and Navarre, 

plate xviii. 
Dimidiated Shield — Ciiessman, 

plate xviii. 
De Valence dimidiates Clarc- 

monte, plate xviii. 
Alianorc! Ferre, plate Ixxx. 
Great Yarmouth, plate xviii. 
The Cinque Ports, jtlate Ixxx. 
Chester City, plate Ixxx. 
Seal — Alice d'Avesncs, plate 

Seal — Peter Tederade, plate 

Seal — Joan de Barre, p. 150. 
De Barre, plate xix. 
Diagram of Seal of Robt. de 

St. Quiutin, p. 152. 
Seal — John de Warrenne, plate 

Two Small Shields of Essex, plate 


Secretum — Thos. Duke of Glou- 
cester, p. 152. 
John of Eltham, plate xix. 
Seal — Queen RIargaret, plate 

Seal — Wm. de Clinton, plate 

Milo of Hereford, plate xx. 
Her Majesty the Queen, p. 332. 
Arnold de Gaveston, plate xix. 
. Isabelle, Queen of Edward II. 

p. 135. 
Piers de Gaveston, plate xix. 
Champagne, p. 170. 
Edward III. — Lincoln, plate 

England and Hainault, p. 159. 
Effigy of John de Hastings, plate 

Shield of John de Hastings, p. 

The Black Prince, Lincoln, plat^ 

Woodstock and De Bohun, plate 


De Bohun and FitzAlan, plate xx. 
Thomas de Holland of Kent, 

plate xxii. 
Tiptoft, Holland, and Powys, 

plate xxii. 




344 Impaled Shield of James 11. of 

8ci)t.s, plate xxii. 

345 Tlio Countess of Lennox, plate 


346 Tile Countess of Kichmond, plate 

34G A. Edmond Tudor impaling Beau- 
fort, plate xxii. 

347 Seal — Heniy of Bolingbroke, p. 


348 Henry FV. and Navarre, plate 


349 Eicliard 11. and Boliemia, plate 


350 Richard II. and Franee, plate 


351 Henry VII. and Elizabeth of 

York, plate xxiii. 

352 Henry VI. and Margaret of 

Anjon, plate xxiii. 

353 H.H.K. the late Prince Consort, 

p. 314. 

354 Stafford and Butler, plate xxiv. 

355 Stafford and Butler, plate xxiv. 

356 Campbell, plate xxiv. 

357 Stafford, Butler, and Campbell, 

plate xxiv. 

358 Stafford, Butler, and Campbell, 

plate xxiv. 

359 Stafford, Butler, and Campbell. 

plate xxiv. 

360 Bentinck, plate xxiv. 

361 Stafford, 13utler, Campbell, and 

Bentinck, plate xxiv. 

362 Bentinck impaling Stafford, But- 

ler, and Cam]>bell, plate xxiv. 

362 A. Coronet of a Marquess, j^late 


363 Bentinck mth Stafford, Butler 

and Campbell in pretence, plate 

364 Bentinck quartering Stafford, 

Butler and Campbell, plate 

364 A. Powys and Holland, plate xxiii. 

365 Furnival, plate xxv. 

366 De la Zouche, plate xxv. 
366 A. De la Zouche, plate Ixvii. 

366 B. De la Zouche, plate IxNdi. 

367 Newbm-gli, plate xxv. 

368 De Beauchamp, plate xxv. 

369 De Beauchamp, plate xxv. 

370 Do Beauchamp, plate xxv. 

371 De Beauchamp, jilate xxv. 

372 De Clifford, plate xxv. 

373 De Clifford, plate xxv. 

374 De Eos, plate xxvii. 

375 De Trumpingdon, plate xlviii. 

376 De Balliol, plate xxvii. 

377 De Cobham, plate xxv. 

379 a. 




I )e Cobham, i)lato xxv. 
D(^ Cobham, plate xxv. 
A Label of Modem Cadency, 

plate xiii. 
Crescent of Modem Cadency, 

plate xiii. 
Mullet of Modem Cadency, plate 

Martlet of Modem Cadency, plate 

Annulet of Modern Cadency, 

plate xiii. 
Fleur-de-lys of Modem Cadency, 

plate xiii. 
Eose of Jlodern Cadency, plate 

Cross Moline of Modem Cadency, 

plate xiii. 
Octo-foil of Modem Cadency, 
plate xiii. 
388 Fitz Nichol, plates xxvii and 

388 A. De Umjihraville, plate xxvii. 
388 B. W. Bardolph, plate xxvii. 
388 c. T. Bardolph, plate xxvii. 
388 D. Cross - Crosslet fleurie, plate 

388 E. Cross - Crosslet botonee, plate 

388 F. D'Arcy. plate xxvii. 
388 G. D'Arcy, plate xxvii. 
388 H. DArcj', plate xxvii. 
388 I. D'Arcy, plate xxvii. 
388 K. D'Arcy, plate Ixxi. 

388 L. DArcy, plate Ixxi. 

389 De Saltmarsh, plate xxxvii. 

390 De Brewys, plate xxxvii. 
390 A. De Brewys, plate Ixvii. 

390 B. De Faucombe, plate Ixvii. 

391 De Swvnborne, plate xxxvii. 
391 A. Su- T. balton, plate Ixvii. 

391 B. John de Warre, plate Ixvii. 

392 De Berkeley, plate xxxvii. 

393 De Berkeley, plate xxxvii. 

394 Howard Ancient, plate xxxvii. 

395 Grimstone, plate xxxvii. 

396 (Jreville, plate xxxvii. 

397 De Bohun of Hereford, plate 


397 A. De Bohun Seal, plate Ixx. 

398 De Bohmi of Northampton, plate 


398 A. De Bohun Seal, plate Lxx. 

399 De Montfort. plate xlix. 

400 Clynton, plate xxxvii. 

400 A. Cl,vnton, plate Ixvii. 

401 Ughtred, plate xxx\ii. 
401 A. Ouchtied, plate Ixvii. 

401 B. Oittrieh, plate Ixvii. 

402 Basset, plate xxxvii. 




403 Bassett, plate xxxvii. 

404 St. John, plate xxviii. 

404 A. St. Joliu, plate xxviii. 

405 Daubygne, plate xxviii. 

406 Daubygne', plate xxviii. 

407 Daubygne', plate xxviii. 

408 Daubygue', p. 134. 

408 A. Daubygne, i)late Ixxiii. 

409 Graliaui, plate xxviii. 

410 Deincourt, plate xlviii. 

411 Haydou, plate xlviii. 

41 2 De Merley, plate xlviii. 

412 A. De Paynell, plate Ixvii. 

413 De Bonn, plate xhiii. 
413 A. De Vnus, plate Ixviii. 

413 c. Sir John Mouuteney, plate Ixviii. 

414 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 

415 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 

416 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 

417 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 

418 De Valence, plate xxxviii. 

419 De Ciiaworth, xxxviii. 

420 De Chaworth, xxxviii. 

421 De Chaworth, xxxviii. 

422 Fitz Ralph, plate xxxix. 

423 De Peyver, plate xxviii. 

424 De Deyville, plate xxviii. 
424 A. De Deyville, plate Ixviii. 

424 B. John Neville, plate Ixviii. 

425 Shield at Selby, plate xxviii. 
425 A. Shield at Abergavenny, plate 


425 B. Giffard, plate xxxix. 

426 De Rachecoui'te, plate xxviii. 
426 A. Hakebut, plate Ixviii. 

426 B. Bromllete, plate xxxix. 

426 c. De Cantelupe, plate xxxix. 

427 De Beaumonte, plate xxviii.- 
427 A. De Ryther, plate xxxviii. 

427 B. Parys, plate xxxviii. 

428 De Potenhall, plate xxviii. 

429 Lothian, plate xxxii. 

429 A. Lothian, plate Ixxi. 

430 Edward II., as Prince Eoyal, plate 


431 De Tressell, plate xxxviii. 

432 De Fitz William, plate xlix. 

432 A. Elmebrigge, plate xlix. 

433 Su- John de Cornwall, K.G., plate 


434 Estofford, plate 1. 

435 De Welle, plate 1. 

435 A. De Trussell, plate 1. 

436 St. Amand, plate 1. 

437 Wake, plate 1. 

438 De Courtcnay, plate 1. 

439 De Ba.-^cr.villf, jilate 1. 

440 De Vipout, plate 1. 

440 A. Avenel, plate Ixix. 

441 De Quincey, plate xlix. 

442 Le Blond, plate 1. 

443 De Burgh, plate 1. 

444 De Vaux, plate I. 

445 De Creke, plate xlviii. 

446 De Fortibus, plate 1. 

447 De Mounchesncy, plate xlviii. 

448 Shield from Arderne Brass, plate 


449 De Verdon, plate xl. 

450 Mantling — Earl of Essex, plate 

450 A. Mantling — Lord Berners, plate 

450 B. Mantling— Earl Rivers, plate 


450 c. Lord Beaumont, plate Ixiv. 

451 Mantling -George of Clarence, 

plate li. 
451 A. Crest — John Beaufort, K.G., plate 

451 B. Sir Thomas Lancaster, plate 


452 Fyndeme, plate xl. 
452 A. De la Pole, plate xl. 

452 B. De Neville, of Salisbury, plate 

452 c. De Neville, plate xl. 

452 D. Eleven differenced Shields of 

Neville of Raby, p. 203. 

453 Wm. de Lanaister, plate xl. 

454 De Cauteville, plate xl. 

455 Bassett, plate xl. 

456 Ralph, Lord Bassett, K.G., plate 


457 De Kendall, plate xl. 

458 Fitz Jlaniiaduke, plate xl. 

459 Grandisou, plate xlix. 

460 Grandison, plate xlix. 

460 A. Bishoj] de Grandison, plate 


461 St. Quintin, plate xxvii. 

462 St. Quintin, plate xxvii. 

463 De Ferrers, plate li. 

464 Montbum-chier, plate li. 

465 Le Despeneer, plate li. 

466 John de "Wlieathamstede, plate li. 

467 De Lacy, plate xlix. 

468 Ermine Label — St. Alban's, plate 


469 Ermine Label — Gt. Yarmouth, 

])late xxxi. 

470 Edward I, as Prince Royal, p. 


471 Henry of Lancaster, p. 173. 

472 Label of York, Great Yannouth, 

plate xxxi. 

473 Label of George, Diike of Cla- 

rence, plate xxxi. 

474 Label of Richard of York, plate 







Holland of Kent, plates xxxii. 
and Ixv. 



Humphrey of Glo'stcr, plate 





De Vere, with Borduie, plate 


477 a 

Holland of Exeter, plates xlv. and 





Eichiird of Coningsburgh, plate 





Beaufort, plate xxxii. 


Cardinal Beaufort, plate xxxii. 



Thomas Beaufort, K.G., plate 

519 a. 


Etlmund Tudor, plate xxxii. 



Jaspar Tudor, plate xxxii. 


Thomas Beaufort, K.G., plate 





Label of Richard II., plate xxxi. 


Henry of Bolingbroke, p. 253. 



Henry V. as Prince of Wales, p. 




Edmond of Lancaster, plate xlv. 

488 a 

Henry, Duke of Lancaster, plate 



525 a. 


Label — Monument of Edward 
III., plate xxxi. 



Lionel of Antwerp, plate xxxiv. 



John of Ghent, plate xxxiv. 


Edmond of Langley, plate xxxiv. 



Henry of BoUngbroke, plate 




Ermine Label, plate xxxi. 


Label of Lancaster, plate xxxiii. 



Label of York, plate xxxi. 



Label of Leon and York, plate 





Label of Castile, plate xxxiii. 



Label of Castile and Leon, plate 




499 a 

. Label of York and Castile, plate 

536 a. 


536 b. 


Label of Eichard III.,- plate xxxi. 


Label — "Last of the Plantage- 

536 c. 

nets," plate xxxi. 

536 D. 


John Level, plate xxxiii. 


Sir Edward Montague, p. 225. 


503 a 

. Su- Alexander Giffard, plate Ixxx. 


Label — Sir H. Courtenay, plate 

537 a. 




Label— Sir P. Courtenay, K.G., 


plate xxxiii. 

439 a 


Label — Sir G. Courtenay, plate 





Label of Latymer, p. 228. 



Label of Latymer, p. 228. 

542 a. 


Seal — Thomas of Glo'stw, plate 




Diaper — Seal of Thomas of Glo's- 

543 A. 

ter, p. 38. 


Swan Badge — De Bohuii Brass, 
p. 254. 

Bear and Staff Crest, plate xxx. 

Dacre Badge, plate xxxix. 

Knot — Anne of Bohemia, plate 

Stafford Knot, plate xxx. 

Bourchier Knot, plate xxx. 

Heneage Knot, plate xxx. 

Wake and Ormonde Knot, plate 

Bowen Knot, plate xxx. 

Crest — Scott of Thirlstane, plate 

Crest — John Duke of Bedford, 
plate xxx. 

Crest — John Mowbray, plate xli. 

Panache- Crest of John Lord 
Scrope, p. 419. 

Achievement of the Earl of Staf- 
ford, K.G., p. 264. 

Dragon Crest, Thomas of Lan- 
caster, plate XXXV. 

Seal of Thomas Holland, platelxx. 

Ku-kpatrick Crest, plate xxx. 

Lance Flag, Bayeux Tapestry, 
plate xxix. 

Lance Flag, Bayeux Tapestiy, 
plate xxix. 

Banner — Henry De Lacy, plate 


Banner — Sir Symon de Fel- 
bryge, plate xxxv. 

Heraldic Sail, plate xxxv. 

First Red Ensign, plate xxxvi. 

Second Red Ensign, plate xxxvi. 

Present Red Ensign, plate xxxvi. 

St. George's Ensign, plate xxxvi. 

Present Blue Ensign, plate xxxvi. 

England — (two lions j, plate Iviii. 
, England, i^late Irai. 

France Ancient and England, 
plate Iviii. 

Richard II.. plate Iviii. 
, France Modem and England, 
plate Iviii. 

Royal Shield of the Stuarts, plate 
. Ireland, plate xlvi. 

Nassau, plate, xlvii. 

William III. and Mhjt, plate lix. 
. William III., plate lix. 

Arms of Queen Anne, plate lix. 

Hanover, plate xlvii. 

George I., plate hx. 
. Electoral Bonnet of Hanover, 
plate Ixxvi. 

George III., plate lix. 
, Her Majesty the Queen, plate lix. 

Badge of Richard I., plate xlvii. 




545 Badge of Henry VII.. plate. 

54(5 Badi^e of James 1., plate xhii. 

547 ronthieii, iilute xhii. 

548 Crown of Richard I., plate xlii. 

549 Crown of Berengaria, plate xlii. 

550 Crown of Edward II., p. .'tlT. 

551 Crown of Henry IV., p. :il7. 

552 Crown of Henry V., plate xlii. 

553 Crown — Henry VI.. plate xlii. 

554 Crown — Edward IV.. plate xlii. 

555 Crown— Edward IV., (Great 

Seal), plate xlii. 
55G Crown — Henry VII. (King's 
Chapel), p. 372. 

557 Crown — Blargaret Tudor, p. 380. 

558 Crown — Henry VIII., jilatexlii. 

559 Crown — Henry VIII. (Norwich), 

plate xlii. 

560 Crown — Charles I., xlii. 

501 Crown — Charles II., jdate xlii. 

502 Crown of England, p. 319. 

502 A. Crown— H.R.H. the late Prince 

Consort, p. 321. 

503 Coronet— H.R.H. the Prince of 

Wales, p. 321. 

504 Coronet — Royal Princes, plate 


505 Coronet — Ro3'al Princesses, plate 

500 Coronet — Royal Kinsmen, plate 

567 Crest — Scotland, plate xlvi. 

568 Arms of H.R.H. the Prince of 

Wales, p. 328. 

508 A. Label of H.R.H. the Prince of 

AVales. plate xxxvi. 

509 Label— H.R.II. the Prince Al- 

fred, i)late xxxvi. 

570 Label— H.R.II. the Prince Ar- 

thur, plate xxxvi. 

571 Labil— H.R.H. the Prince Leo- 

pold, plate xxxvi. 

572 Label — H.R.II. the Princess 

Royal, plate xxxvi. 

573 Label — H.R.H. the Princess 

Alice, plate xxxvi. 

574 Label — H.R H. the Princess 

Helena, ]date xxxvi. 

575 Label — H.R.H. the Princess 

Louisa, plate xxx\ i. 
570 Label — H.R.H. the Princess 
Beatrice, jtlate xxxvi. 

577 Label of Cambridge, plate xxxvi. 

578 Banner — Knights Hospitallers, 

plate XXXV. 

579 Banner — Knights Temjilars, 

(, Beau-Sea nt., plate xxxv. 

580 Banner — Knights Templars, 

plate xxxv. 


Tan J$adge— Sir R. de Bois, plate 
582 SS. Collar — Queen Joanna, plate 

582 A. Monogram and Collar of SS.— 

John 15aret. p. 492. 

583 SS. Collar— Lord Hungerford, 

plate xliii. 

584 SS. Collar— Sir R. de Marmion, 

plate xliii. 

585 SS. Collar— Sir W. Philip, K.G., 

plate xliii. 
585 A. SS. Collar— Jolm Gower, plate 

580 Yorkist Collar — Knight at Aston, 

I)late xliv. 

587 Yorkist Collar— De Nevilles, plate 


588 Yorkist Collar — Countess of 

Arundel, jilate xliv. 

589 Y'orkist Collar — Countess of Es- 

sex, jdate xliv. 

590 Garter of the Order, plate liv. 
590 A. Star of the Garter, plate liv. 
590 B. Collar of the CJarter, plate liv. 
590 c. The George, plate liv. 

590 D. The oval George, plate liv. 

591 Garter — Earl of Essex, plate 


591 A. Gaiier — Earl of Essex, plate 


592 Garter— Sir T. Boleyu, plate 
_ xliii. 

593 Star of the Thistle, plate Iv. 
593 A. Collar of the Thistle, plate Iv. 
593 B. Jewel of the Thistle, plate Iv. 

593 c. Jewel of the Thistle, plate Iv. 

594 Collar of St. Patrick, plate Ivi. 
594 A. Star of St. Patrick, plate Ivi. 

594 B. Jewel of St. Patrick, jilate Ivi. 

595 Collar of tlie Bath, plate Ivii. 
595 A. Star of Knights, G.C.B . p. 348. 
595 B. Star of Knights. K.C.B., p. 349. 
595 c. Badge of the Bath, plate Ivii. 
595 D. Civil Badge of the Bath, plate 

Ivii. . 
590 Collar of St^ir'of India, plate lix. 
590 A. Badge of Star of India, plate lix. 
590 B. Star of Star of India, plate ILx. 

597 Cross of Victoria Cross, plate 


598 Westminster Deanery and School, 

plate xlvii. 

599 Westminster Abbey, plate xlvii. 
000 Oxford University, plat^ xlvii. 
(!01 Candtridge University, plate 


602 The Heralds' College, p. 422. 

603 Garter, plate xlvi. 

604 Norroy, plate xlvi. 






Clurencioux, plate xlvi. 



UlsttT, plate xlvi. 



Westniiuster City, plate xlvii. 



Sacred Symbolical Shiukl, p. 





Seal — William de Eoumare, plate 





Sccretum — Henry of Lancaster, 

p. 397. 



Helm — Black Prince, jilate xlv. 


Helm — Lord Bassett, jilate xlv. 



Howard IModern, p. 433. 



Duke of Wellington, p. 439. 


Duke of Marlborough, p. 439. 



Jlodem Hatclmient, p. 445. 


(J 17 

S\^'ord Pommel — Black Prince, 


p. 448. 



Examples of Labels, p. 455. 



Hesse, p. 476. 



The Austrian Crown, p. 471 . 



The Prussian Crown, p. 473. 



Sir Rtiuf de Aruudel, p. 438. 



'Jlie Stuart, plate Ixii. 



The Coronation Crown, p. 320. 



The Seton, plate Ixii. 

677 A. 


(or 627 A.) Badge of Eichard II., 


p. 432. 

678 A. 


White Hart Badge, p. 356. 



Rebus— Bishop Oldham, p. 124. 



De Bohun Garter-plate, plate 





Tabard, John Feld, p. 131. 



John de Holland, plate Ixv. 



Thomas de IMowbray, plate Ixv. 

684 A. 


Ramiyge — plate Ixxvii. 


Hameldene, plate Ixviii. 



Symon de Montngu, plate xix. 



William de IMontagu, plate xix. 


636 A. Simon de Montagu, plate xix. 



Holland Ancient, plate Ixv. 



Beaumonte, plate Ixviii. 



Bigot, plate Ixxi. 



Plompton, plate Ixxi. 



Hemeuhale, plate Ixxi. 



Acres, plate Ixxi. 



De Erpingham, plate Ixviii. 



Wassingstone, plate Ixxi. 



Balliol, plate Ixvii. 



Segrave, plate Ixxii. 



D'Estle'e, plate Ixxii. 



Mountp5Tizou, plate Ixxii. 



Do Peche, plate Ixxii. 



Sir W. Philip, K.G., plate Ixxii. 



De Wellyngtone, plate Ixxi. 



Sir J. de Harpendon, plate Ixxii. 



Sir W. de Warren, plate Ixxi. 



De Bassett, plate Ixxi. 

705 A 


De Segrave, plate Ixvii. 



Fragment of Shield, Whattun, p. 

707 . 

. 213. 

' 707 a 

Shield, Clehongre, p. 379. 

Shield — Gorleston, i)late l.xxiii. 

De Badlesmere, jilato Ixxiii. 

I/J''strangc, plate Ixii. 

De Hasting.s, j)lat(; Ixii. 

Talbot, plate Ixii. 

Courtenay, Earl of Devon, plate 

Ixii. f 

Arclibisliop Courtenay, plate 

Bishop Stapledon, plate Ixxiii. 
Bishop Le Despencer, plate 

Seal— Neville, p. 458. 
Seal— Neville, p. 458. 
Audele, plate Ixxiv. 
Lovel, plate Ixxiv. 
De la Vache, plate Ixxiv. 
Trudinge, plate Ixxiv. 
Bourchier, plate Ixxiv. 
Courtenay, plate Ixxiv. 
Courtenay, plate Ixxiv. 
Captal de Buch, plate Ixxiv. 
The Emperor, plate Ixxvi. 
The Emperor, p. 452. 
The Emperor, plate Ixxvi. 
Tiie Emperor, p. 464. 
Shakspeare, plate Ixis. 
Chaucer, plate Ixix. 
Gower, plate Ixix. 
De TopcliJie, plate Ixix. 
Seal — Jaspar Tudor, p. 413. 
Feather Badge, plate Ixxvi. 
Slab of Henry IV. — Venice, plate 

Feather Badge, plate Ixxvi. 
Feather Badge, plate Ixxvi. 
Diagram — Denmark, p. 326. 
Feather Badge, p. 259. 
Feather Badge, p. 259. 
Heraldic Koses, plate Ixxvi. 
Crest — St. Quintin, p. 270. 
Crest— D'Eresby, p. 270. 
Crest — Lysle, plate Ixiv. 
Crest — Arundel, plate Ixiv. 
Bonrchier-Knot, p. 285. 
The Prince of Wales, jilate Ix. 
Arms of Wales, plate Ix. 
Anns of Wales, plate Ix. 
Arms of Wales, plate Ix. 
St. John— Seal, p. 463. 
St. John— Seal, p. 463. 
Thurston— Seal. p. 404. 
Le Vavasour — Seal, p. 404. 
Sir J. Bardolf— Seal, p. 406. 
Lady Bardolf— Seal, p. 406. 
. Eliz. D'Amori — Seal, plate Ixxxi. 
Lady Filliol— Sc;d, p. 406. 
Eari of Arundel— Seal, p. 416. 
. Kichai-d, Earl of Aruudel, p. 26S. 




708 Beatrice, Countess Arundel, p. 


709 Denmark — Frederick II., plate 


710 Denmark — Princess of Wales, 

plate Ixxv. 

711 Eam's Head — St. Alban's, plate 


712 Eam's Collar — St. Alban's, plate 


713 Shield with Eagle— St. Alban's, 

plate Ixxviii. 

714 Shield with 3 Crowns, plate 


715 Shield — Kamryge, plate Ixxviii. 

716 Shield — St. Alban's, p. 455. 

717 Wheat-ear Badge, p. 457. 

718 The Prince of Wales, p. 329. 


719 Lozenge of Scotland and Den- 

mark, plate Ixii. 

720 The Prince of Wales, plate Ixiii. 

721 Two Ermine-spots, p. 454. 

722 Gueldrcs, plate Ixii. 

723 Jlungiildas Nuthoobhoy, of Bom- 

bay, p. 371. 

724 Cowasjee Jehanghier, of Bombay, 

p. 447. 

725 Molesworth, p. 229. 

726 Astley, Baron Hastings, p. 229. 

727 Harpur Crewe, p. 229. 

728 Seal — Robert de Vere, plate 


729 Seal — William de Montacute, 

plate Ixxxii. 

730 Neville Ancient, p. 481. 

731 Cursetjee Furdoonjee Paruk, of 

Bombay, p. 506. 



No. 731. — CvRSETJEE Fi'RDOONJEE Paiu'k, of Bombay. 
See p. 446. 


Abatement, 77, 90, 436 ; of Illegitimacy, 

Abbot, George, Arcbbishop of Canter- 
bury, 76. 
Abbot's Staff, 48. 
Abbreviations, 19, 423. 
Abercom, the Marquis of, 46. 
Abergavenny, the Earl of, 207, 280. 
Abergavenny, Slab at, 189. 
Abeyance, 90. 

Abingdon, the Earl of, 40, 207. 
Abinger, the Baron, 66. 
\ bouche, 14. 
Accessories of Shields of Arms, 170 ; 

differenced, 198. 
Accole'e, 469. 
Accosted, 77. 
Accrued, 77. 
Achievement of Arms, 91, 115; on 

Seals, 268 ; the Koyal, 331. 
Acorn, 76. 262. 
Acre, Su- Wm. d', 192. 
Acre, Sir Simon d, 192. 
Addorsed, 77. 

Adelaide, of Saxe-Meineugen, 313. 
Admirals, their Flags, 291 ; Early Seals 

of, 412. 
Admiralty Flag, 39. 
Adveutxirers, Merchants, 367 ; of Bris- 
tol, 368. 
^schylus ; his Theban Heraldiy, 13. 
Affrontee, 77, 82. 
Agulon, Kobert, 189. 
Aiant, 63. 

Albany Herald, 112. 
Albemarle, D'Aumale, William de 

Fortibus, Earl of, 198. 
Albemarle, Edward Plantagenet. Duke 

of, 243. 
Albert. H.K.H., the late Prince Consort ; 

his Arms, 162, 252, 314 ; Crest, 315 ; 

SupiDorters, 315 ; Motto, 31 5; Coronet, 

All.ert Edward. H.E.H.. the Prince of 

Wales, K.G., K.S.I. ; his Label. 252 ; 

Arms, 322 ; Arms of the Second 

Order, 323 ; Arms marshalled and 

blazoned in full, 324 ; Arms mar- 
shalled " by Autliority," 327 ; De- 
signs for marshalling his Arms, 329, 
330 ; Arms marshalled by Scottish 
Heralds, 331 ; his Supporters, 323 ' 
Ids Crest, 323; his Motto, 321. 323; 
his Coronet, 321, 323 ; his Badge of 
Wales, 260, 321, 323; his Arms, im- 
palmg Denmark Proper, 327. 

Albert Victor, H.R.H., of Wales, 252. 

Alen9on, John Plantagenet, Duke of, 

Alengon, Due d', 470. 

Alexander I.,Czar of Russia, K.G., 473. 

Alexander III., of Scotland, 32. 

Alexandra, H.R.H. , of Denmark, the 
Princess of Wales, 311 ; her Arms, 
325, 326, 327. 

Alfred, H.R.H. the Prince, 252,331. 

Alianore, of Aquitaine, 293, 306 ; her 
Crown, 315. 

Alianore de Bohun. See Bohun. 

Alianore, of Castile and Leon ; her Arms, 
38, 42, 306 ; the first m England to 
quarter Arms, 157 ; her Seals, 157 ; 
her Crown, 265, 316 ; her Monument, 
382, 384. 387. 

Alianore Holland, 114, 389. 

Alianore, of Lorraine, 226. 

Alianore Plantagenet, 408 

Alianore, of Provence. 306. 

Alice, H.R.H., tlie Princess, 252, 331 . 

Alice, Countess of Eu, 405. 

AUerion, 67. 

AUerton Mauleverer, Brass at, 262. 

AU Souls" College, Oxford, 358, 361. 

Altenberg, Arms of, 313. 

Amelia, the Princess, 251. 

Amori, Roger d', 406. 

Anachronisms in Modern Monuments, 

Anchor, 39. 

Ancient Rome, the Eagle of. 3, 472. 

" Ancient Scottish Seals." Mr. Laing's 
excellent Work on, 456. 

Andeville, Arms of, 409. 

■ Anecdotes of Heraldry,' 456. 



Angol (tlic coin), 417. 

Angels, as Hupportens, 06, 490. 

Angennc, o'J, 75. 

Angoulcme, Arms of, 300, 393. 

Angoulcnic, Isabel of, 300. 

Angouleme, Louise, Ducliess of, 408. 

Angoulcme, Due d', 470. 

Angus. William, Earl of, 184. 

Aniialt, Arms of, 313. 

Animals, Heraldic, 01 ; as Accessories 

of Sliields of Arms on Seals, 270. 
Animate Beings, 55. 
Anjou, Arms of. 307. 
Anjou, Jolm Plautagenet, Duke of, 

Anjou, Margaret of, 165, 363 ; her quar- 
tered Anns, 307. 
Anlaby, Alliaek d', I'M). 
Annandale, the Marquis of, 51 ; Crest 

oi 274. 
I r Anne, of Bohemia, 166 ; her Arms, 307 ; 

lier Effigy, 38, 259, 284. 
Anne Boleyn, her Badges, 305; her 

augmented and quartered Arms, 309. 
Anne, of Burgundy, 244. 
Anne, of Cleves, 309. 
Anne, of Denmark, 251 ; lier Arms, 310. 
Anne Neville, 100 ; lier Arms. 308. 
Anne Plantagenet, of Woodstock, 226. 
Anne Plantagenet, of York, 434. 
Anne Stuart — Queen Anne, 251 ; her 

Arms, 299 ; Badge, 305 ; Crown, 318 ; 

Coins, 418. 
Animlet, 39 ; for Ditferencing, 190 ; in 

Modern Cadency, 200 ; Aimnlets 

blazoned as " faux Koundlets," 196. 
Antelope, 51, 08. 

Antiquaries, Anns of the Society of, 365. 
Antlers, 77. 

Apothecaries Company, 370. 
Ajipaumee, 77. 

Aquitaine, 300. See Alianore. 
Arcidiisiiops, tiie, 91,90; their Rank, 

Style, and Titles, 91,429; Anns, 109, 

3.57, 358. 
Arclied Crown, 318. 
Arcliee Coroncttee 313. 
Arciiiepiscopal Staff, 357. See Crozicr. 
Architectural Heraldry, 372. 
Ardenie, Sir Thomas, 121, 207. 
Arderne. Sir Peter, 197. 
Argent, 19, 91. 
Argyll, the Duke of, 46 ; his Anns, 402 ; 

Supporters, 280. 
Arm, 50, 304. 
Armagh, Archbishop of, 91 ; iiis Anns, 

Armed, 12, 40, 62, 77. 
•' Armes Parlantes." 92, 125. 
'■ Armes poiu' Enquirer," 405. 
Armoiu-crs' Company, 370. 

ArmouiT, 91. 

Armoyec, 77. 403. 

Arms, Heraldic, 91 ; of Archbishops, 
357; of Bi.shojis, 358: of Colleges, 
300 ; of Companies and Guilds, 307 ; 
Corporate, 145 : of Deans and Chap- 
ters, 359; of Dominion, 91, 294; of 
Heir, 137; of Heiress and Co-Heiress, 
140 ; of Son of Heiress, 140 ; of 
Dau'^hter of Heiress, 143 ; of Heralds' 
College, 304 ; of Husband and Wife, 
139 ; of Kings of Ai-ms, 305 ; of Lyon 
Office, 305; of Monasteries, 300; of 
]\Iunicipal and other CoiiJorations, 
305 ; of Peeress in her own right, 
109; of Peers' Daughters, 144; of 
Pidihc Institutions, 305 ; of Public 
Schools, 304 ; of Prince and Princess 
of Wales, 322 ; Eoyal, 295 ; of Royal 
Consorts, 300 ; of unmarried Ladies, 
145 ; of Widowers, 144 : of Widows, 

Aims " brought in," 141 ; Compounding, 
1.53 ; Dimi(hating,14G : Impaling, 139 ; 
Inheritance of, 135, 137; Mar.-halling, 
136, 138; Official, 144; pennanent 
Combination of, 140 ; Property in, 
130 ; Quartering, 156, 157 ; temporary 
Combination of, 138. 

Arms, Shields of, " for Peace," 23«, 257, 
388 ; " for War," 230, 256, 388. 

"Arms found," 443. 

" Arms," a.ssumcd, 443. 

Arms of Knights of Orders, Marshalling 
of, 108, 408. 

Arragon, Arms of, 308, 451 . 

Arragon, Catlierine of ; her Badges, 305 ; 
Quartered Arms, 308 ; Sujiporters, 309. 

Arrondie, 77. 

Arrow, 40 ; Arrows, Slieaf of, 40, 201. 

Art, Heraldic, 448. 

Arthur, H.R.H., The Prince, 252, 331. 

Arthur Tiidor, 40, 59, 200 : his Arms. 
325; Badges, 72; Seal. 414; Monu- 
ment at Worcester, 75, 380. 

Arthur, Roliert, 480. 

Artois, Blanche d", 235. 

Artoi.s, Comte d', 470. 

Arundel, Monuments of the Fitz-Alans 
at, 132, 339. 

Aiundel, The Fitz-Alans, Earls and 
Countesses of; Crest, 07: Coronets, 
105. ,sVe Fitz-Al;in. 

Arundel, iMhimnd d , 271. 409, 418. 

Arundel, John, l-^arl of; his Seal, 415. 

Arundel, lialph d', 437. 

Arundel, Richard, i:arl of ; his Seal, 208. 

Arundel, Tliomas, Archbishop of Canter- 
biny, 217; his Seal, 409. 

Arundel, The Banm : Arms, 65. 

Ascania, Bernharil, Count of, 415. 



Ashchiirsto, Sir Adiun, 202. 

Ashton, Kebns of, 54, 123. 

A.sii~troG 1*^3 

Ashwellthorpe, 267, 330. 

Assyrian Sculptures, 67. 

Asteley, Thoma.s, 225. 

Astley : Arms, 460 ; Bad^e, 262. 

Astley, Baron Hastings, 229. 

Actou, interesting Effigies at, 339. 

At Gaze, 62, 82. 

At Speed, 62. 

Athol, the Duke of, 56. 

Attainder, 92. 

Aubeny, D' : Arms, 214. See Daubeny, 

Audele, Sir Hugh, 224. 

Audele, Sir James, 224. 

Augmentation of Honour, 78, 93, 143, 
433 : Difference by, 229, 434 ; " of 
Merit," 433; "of mere Grace," 433; 
early Examples of, 433 ; granted by 
Richard, II., 126, 434 ; granted bv I 
Henry VITI., 309, 310, 434 ; hue and j 
truly " honourable,'" 443 ; Scottish, 
435 ; of Foreign Heraldry, 470. j 

Augmented, 78. 

Augusta, The Princess, 251. 

Aumberdene, Nicholas, 66. 

Austria Proper, Arms of, 471. 

Austria, The Empire of : Arms, 471 ; 
Supporters, 471 ; Crown, 471 ; Im- 
perial Eagle, 471 ; Imperial Standard, 
472 ; National Flag.s, 472. 

Austria, Francis, Emperor of, K.G. ; his 
Garter-Plate, 471. 

Aveline de Fortibus, Countess of Lan- 
caster, 198, 385. 

AVenel, William d\ 196. 

Avesnes, Alice d' ; her Seal, 150. 

Axe, 40. 

Aylesbui-y, John d', 225. 

Aylesbury, Thomas d', 225. 
Azure, 93. 

Bacinet, Basinet, 95, 102. 

Bacon : Arms, 212. 

Bacoun, Sir Edm. de, 184. 

Baden : Arms, 474 ; Supporters, 474. 

Badges, 93, 254, 394 ; mentioned by 
Shakespeare, 255; marshalled with 
Achievements of Arms, 171 ; Dilier- 
eneed, 199, 256, 411 ; two Classes of, 
255 ; Series of, 261 ; Royal, of Eng- 
land, 74, 75, 303, 306. 332, 378 ; of 
Ostrich Feathers, 72, 256, 323 ; Swan, 
260 ; ^Vhite Hart, 263, 454 ; Ears of 
Wlieat, 453 ; of Scotland, 132, 305 ; 
of Ireland, 45, 128, 305 ; of Princi- 
pality of Wales, 332 ; of Fitz- Alans, 
339 ; of Nevilles, 339 ; on Monuments, 
394 ; in modem Heraldry, 441. 

Badge, or Jewel, of Knights of the 
Order of the Garter, 341 ; of Offi- 
cers of the Order of the Gai-ter. 343 ; 
of the Order of the Thistle, 345 ; of 
the Order of St. Patrick, 346 ; of the 
Order of the Bath, 349 ; of the Order 
of St. Michael and St. George, 351 ; 
of the Order of the Star of India, 3.52 ; 
of the Legion of Honour of France, 
354 ; of the Order of the Jledjidie of 
Turkey, 354; of the Orders of the 
Danuebrog and the Wliite Elephant 
of Denmark, 355, 356 ; of Ulster, 56, 
94 ; of Nova Scotia, 95. 

Badlesmere, Bartholemew de, 213. 

Baginton, 336. 

Bagot : Arms, 460. 

Bagot, Sir William and Lady, 204. 336. 

Bagot. John, 187. 

Ball, 40. 

Balliol : Arras, 181. 

Bulliol, Eustace, 210. 

Balliol, Hugh de, 210. 

Balliol, John de, 210. 

Balliol, Richard de, 215. 

Balliol College, Oxford, 360. 

Balsam, Brass at, 160, 387. 

Bangor : Arms of the See, 358. 

Banded. 78. 

Banner, 40, 93, 287: at Sea, 288; on 
Seals, 410; at Caerlaverock, 288, 485. 

Banneret, Knight Banneret, 93, 287 ; 
at Caerlaverock, 487. 

Bannerman, Sir R., 40. 

Bar, 22, 40. 

Barbarossa, The Emperor, 315. 

Barbed, m, 126, 

Barded. 78 ; Bardings. 78. 

Bardolf, Eliz., Ladv, her Seal, 406, 407. 

Bardolf, John, Lord, his Seal, 406. 

Bardolf, John, 176. 

Bardolf, Thomas, 176, 181. 

Bardolf, Wilham. 176, 181. 

Baret, John, his Monogram and Collar 
of SS., 337, 492. 

Barington, Sir Philip de, 201. 

Barkele, Morris de, 183. 

Barley-Garbe, 74. 

Barlow, Sir M., 66. 

Barnacles, 40. 

Raron, 94. 

Barons, their Style and Coronets, 94. 

Baronets, their Order, Rank and Badges, 

56. 94. 
Barre, De, Arms of, 125, 148, 308, 405. 
Barre, De, Henry, 151. 
Barre, De Joan, her Seal, 405. 
Barrington. Sir M., 100. 
Bars Gemelles, 22, 40 ; for Differencing. 

207 ; Examples of, 213. 
Barrule'e, Baruly, Bur" lee, 36, 78. 



Rirrulet, 22, 40. 

Barry, 35, 78. 

Barry Bendy, 36, 78. 

Bar-wise, 36, 78. 

Bascreville, Walter de, 195. 

Bascreville, William de, 195. 

Base, 16. 

Basinet, Bacinet, 95, 102. 

Bassett, the Brothers, 184. 

Basst'tt, Sir John, 209. 

Bassett, Rnlph, Lord, 109, 208, 273 ; his 
Helm, 269, 455. 

Bassett, Rauf, 208. 

Bassett, Richard de, 215. 

Bassett, Sir Symon de, 208. 

Bassett, William, 194. 

Bat, 454. 

Bath Herald, 95, 111. 

Bath, Order of the ; instituted, re- 
modelled, and. in its present Consti- 
tution, 347 ; Knif^hts Grand Cross, 
347 ; Knights Commanders, 347 ; the 
earliest enrolled Knight, 347 ; Compa- 
nions. 348—350 ; Badges, 349 ; Naval 
and Jlilitary Insignia, 348; Diplo- 
matic and Civil Insignia, 349 ; Motto, 
283, 350, and its first Occurrence, 347 ; 
Stall-Plates and Banners, 378. 

Bath and Wells, Arms of the See, 358. 

Baton, 40 ; Baton Sinister, 437. 

Battering-Ram, 40. 

Battle-Axe, 310. 

" Battle of Spurs," 435. 

Battletl, 78. 

Battled, Emhattled, 78. 

Baud, Sir Walter, 64. 

Baux. Francis de. 308. 

Bavaria ; Anus, Supporters and IMotto, 

Bayeux Tapestry, 3. 

Beacon, 40. 

Beakeil, 78. 

Bear and Ragged Staff, Badge, G3, 256. 

Bearers, 279. 

Bearing, Bearings, 95. 

Beiitrice, H.B.H., the Princess, 252, 311. 

Beatrice, of Portugal, her Seal, 480. 

Beauchamj)s, tlieir Differences, 179, 180, 
202, in the Rous Roll, 490; early 
Shields of, 179, 198; later Shields of, 
179 ; their Muimments, 179, 256, 387. 

Beauchamp, Guy, Earl of Warwick, 179. 

Btaucliamp, Richard, K.G., Earl of 
Warwick, 104, 108, 167 ; his Effigy, 
344 ; Crest, 269 ; Seal, 278. 

Beauchamp, Richard, Bishop of Salis- 
bury, 342. 

Beauchamp, Sir John, K.G., 179. 

Beauchamp, Thomas, K.G., Earl of 
Warwick, 1 13, 389 ; his fine Brass, 256. 

Beauchamp, Roger, 179. 

Beauchamp, Sir Giles, 179. 

Beauchamp, Sir Walter, 179. 

Beauchamp, Sir John de, 202. 

Beauchamp, Sir AVilliam, 179. 

Beauchamp, William de, 162, 215. 

Beauchamp, Margaret, of Bletso, 249, 

Beauchamp, of Hache, 309. 

Beauchamp. Shield of, charged with 
aiartlets, 179, 187. 

Beauchamp Chapel, at Warwick, 179, 
186. See Warwick. 

Beauforts, their Cadency, 204, 248 ; their 
Legitimation. 248; Badges, 50, 258, 
262; Crest, 199, 267; Label,>246. 

Beaufort, John, K.G., Earl and IMar- 
quess of Somerset and Dorset, 248 ; 
his Arms before a.d. 1397, 437. 

Beaufort, Henry, Cardinal, 204, 248. 

Beaufort, Thomas, K.6., Duke of Exeter, 
&c., 199, 248, 267; Seal as High 
Admiral, 412. 

Beaufort. John. K.G., Duke of Somerset, 
199, 248, 249; hia Badge, 258; 
Mouimient, 344. 

Beaufort, Edmond, Second Duke of 
Somerset, 248. 

Beaufort, Edmond, Foiuth Duke of 
Somerset, 249. 

Beaufort, Henry, Third Duke of Somer- 
set, 249. 

Beaufort, Joan, Queen of Scotland, her 
Lozenge of Arms, 415. 

Betuifort, Margaret, Countess of Rich- 
mond, 228, 249, 318, 319; her Monu- 
ment described, 391. 

Beaufort, Slargaret de, 228. 

Beaufort, Fitz-Roy Somerset, Duke t)f, 
36, 280. 

Beaumont, Lewis de. Bishop of Durham, 

Bciiumont, John, K.G., 191 ; his Mant- 
ling, 116. 

Beaumont, Margaret de, 411. 

Beaumonte, Sir John, 191. 

Beaumonte, Sir Thomas, 191. 

Bee, Anthony, Bishop of Durham, 218, 

Beche, Sir John de, 202. 

Beckford, Crest of. 269. 

Bcddington. Brasses at, 67, 194. 

Bedford, John Plantagenet, K.G., Duke 
of. &c., 244, 266. 

Bedford, Jaspar Tudor, K.G., Duke of, 
Earl of Bedford, 74, 249 ; his Seals, 
303, 412, 413. 

Bedford, Russell, Duke of, 63, 462. 

Bees, 66 ; of France, 470. 

Belgium. Anns of, 474 ; Supporters, 
474 ; Standard and En.sign, 474. 

Belgium. Leopold. King of, K.G.. 2.50. 



Bell, 40 ; Belled, 78. 

Bend, 23, 40; for Diflferencing, 207 ; 

Examples of, 210. 
Bendlet, 23, 40 ; for Differencing, 207 ; 

Examples of, 210, 
Bend-Sinister, 24, 40, 437. 
Bend-Wise, 23, 3G, 78. 
Bendy, 3G, 78. 
Bentinck, Anns of, 142, 
Bere, Richard de la, 272. 
Bereogaria, of NavaiTC, The Queen, 306, 

Bereuguer, of Spain : Arras, 469. 
Beresforde, B., 182. 
Berg, 313. 

Bergavenny. See Neville. 
Bergedorft, 468. 

Berkeleys. their Arms, 75, 183 ; Differ- 
ences, 175, 193 ; Badge, 68 ; Crest, 47. 
Berkeley, Mamice de, 223. 
Berkeley, Thomas, Lord, 68, 335. 
Bernadotte, Arms of, 478. 
Beruers, John, Lord, K.G., 226. 
Bemers, The Lady Margery, 226. 
Berries, 76. 
Ben-ington, Mr. ; his lithograph of the 

De Valence Shield, 486. 
Berri, Due de, 470. 
Bertie, Motto of, 283. 
Berwick, The Baron, 68. 
Beulee, Richard de, 194. 
Beverley Minster, 38, 48; Effigy of 
Priest at, 383; Percy Shrine at, 382, 
383; Lions at, 450. 
Bezant, 25, 40 ; Bezante'e, Bezanty, 78. 
Bible, The Holy, borne as a Charge, 362. 
Biggleswade, Brass at, 394. 
Bigod, Earl of Norfolk : Ai-ms, 458. 
Bigot, De : Arms, 192. 
BUlet, 33. 40 ; for Differencing. 194. 
Billette'e, Billetty, 33, 78. 
Bird-Bolt, 40, 

Bu-ds, Heraldic, 63 ; of Prey, 64. 
Bishops, their Style, Rank, and Anns, 
95, 96. 169 ; their Sees and Arms, 357. 
358, 3.59. 
Bishops of London, Durham, and Win- 

cliester. 95, 119. 
Bisse, or Snake, 66. 

Black Prince, Edward Plantagenet, 
K.G., The; the first Prince of Wales, 
by Creation, 236, 237 ; Eaid of Ches- 
ter and Duke of Cornwall, 236 ; his 
Arms, 70, 239 ; Shields " of War," 
and " of Peace," 236, 256 ; Signature, 
398; Badge, 256; Ci-est, 114, 266; 
Label, 236 ; Basinet, Hehn and Coro- 
net. 109, 269.455 ; Pommel of Sword- 
Hilt. 448, 451 ; Will. 236 ; Gauntlets. 
44; Monument. 385, 388; Effigy, 
102, 113, 343, 

Black Prince, his Wife, 23G. 

Blackwood, 74. 

Blanckcnbcrg, 313. 

Blayney, The Baron, 63. 

Blazon, Blazoning, 8, 96. 

Blickling, Brasses at, 67. 

Blondeville, Ranulpli, Earl of Lincoln 

and Chester, 403. 
Blonde, William le, 197. 
Blount : Arms, 459, 460. 
Blount. Sir Thomas, 187. 
Blue-Mantle, Pursuivant, 111. See 

Boar's-Head, 125. 
Bohemia : Arms, 259, 307. 
Bohemia, Anne of. See Anne, 
Bohemia, John, King of, 257, 465. 
Bohun, De : Arms, 61 ; Differences, 205 ; 
Badge, 65, 254, 258, 261 ; Shields and 
Seals, 154, 186, 409, 
Bohun, Alianore de. Duchess of Glou- 
cester, 241 ; her Brass, 43, 155, 162, 
385, 449 ; fully described, 389. 
Bohun, Humphrey de, the first of that 

name, 154. 
Bohun, Heiu-y de, First Earl of Hereford. 

Bohun, Humphrey de, Third Earl of 
Hereford ; his Seal and Secretum, 151 , 
412 ; Crest, 266 ; Supporter, 277 ; In- 
ventoiy, 127, 160. 
Bohun, Humplirev de, K.G , last Earl of 

Hereford; his Stall-Plate, 116, 186. 
Bohim, William de, K,G,, Earl of Nor- 
thampton, 186, 409. 
Bohun, Margaret de, 227. 
Bohun, Mary de, 164. 
Bohun, Edward de, 265. 
Bohun, John de, 151. 
Bois, Sir Roger de and Lady, 335. 
Boleyn, Anne, The Queen, 309. 
Boleyn, Sir Thomas, K,G,. Eari of Wilt- 
shire and Ormonde, 105, 108, 344. 
Bolingbroke. See Henry Plantagenet. 
Bologue : Arms, 306. 
Bologne. Matilda of. The Queen, 306. 
Bolton, Rebus of. 54. ^ 

Booth, 40, 360, 362. 
Border-Lines, 18. 

Bordure, 33 ; for Cadency, 214, 241 ; for 
Difference, 207 ; impaled, 33, 163 ; 
quartered, 33, 144 ; Examples of, 214. 
248, 249; in the Arms of Prelates, 
217 ; of England, 242 ; of France, 242 ; 
in Scottish Heraldry, 217. 
Bordured, Bordered, 78, 
Boroughbridge, Battle of, 160. 
Boston, Brass at, 75, 122. 
Boterols. 313. 
Bothe, Roger del, 339. 
Botiler, Boteler, John le, 43, 214, 



Botiler. Three Coats of, 4G(>. 

Botiler, of Wem. 18:^. 

Botonee, Botony, Gobony. 40. 

Botonee Fitchce, 41. 

Botfreiiux, William, Lord. 279, 411. 

Bottrcaux. IMargaret, Lady of. 411. 

Boun, Do. 71, 72. 

Boun. Franc de, 187, 103. 

Boun, Sir Gilbert le, llt2. 

Bourchier, Henry. K.G., Earl of Essex 

and En. 226, 831t. :i44; his Mantling. 

115; Crest, 270; Label, 226 ; Bras.s 

386, 394. 
Bnurehier, Sir Humphrey, 285 ; his 

Monument, 394. 
Bourchier, John, K.G., Lord Bemers : 

Mantling, 115. 
Bounhier, Ludovie Iiobsart, K.G., Lord, 

44; Arms, .54, 226, !;is Cr&st, 270; 

Monument, 271, 3'.)4. 
Bourchier, William, Lord Fitz-Waryn, 

Bourehier-Knot, 284, 285, 394. 
Bourdon, 41. 
Bourdon, John, 48. 
Bouton, 31. Victor ; his " Treatise on 

Heraldry," 163, 470. 
Bowed, 17. 
Bowen-Knot, 284. 
Bowers Gifford, Brass at, 190. 
Boyne, The Viscount, 68. 
Boys, Edw. de, 208. 
Boys, Sir Robert de, 454. 
Bovton, Etfigy of Crossed-legged Knight 

at, 225. 
Brabazon, Sir Roger, 187. 
Braced, Brazeil, 78. 
Brad.ston : Arm.--, 167. 
Bradstr)n, Sir Thomas, 202. 
Braganza, Catherine of. The Queen, 311. 
Brandenburgh Anspacli, 312. 
Brandon : Arms, 460 ; Bad^e, 262. 
Brandsburton, Brasses at, 214. 
Branspeth, Effigies at, 339. 
Braose. See Biewys. 
Brayhroke, the Bafon, 58, 460. 
Braye, the Baroness, 60. 
Brazen-Nose College, Oxford : Arms, 

Brehna, or Engern, 313. 
Brett, Sir Amyas, 213. 
Brettepiie, 78. 

Brewers' Company, 373. ' 

Brewys De, or De Braose, Sir Giles, 

175", 201. 
Brewys, Sir Jul in, 176, 269 ; Crest, 269. 
Brewys, John, 176. 
Brewys, Piers, 181. 
Brewj's, Richard, 175. 
Brewys, Sir Thomas, 410. 
Brewy.s, Sir William, 175 ; Seal, 409. 

Brewys, William, 181. 

Breys, 41. 

Bridport, The Baron, (;5. 

Brise'e, 466. 

Bristol Cathedral, 54. 183. 

Bristol : Arms of City, 366. 

Bristol : Arms of Ste, 359. 

Bristol, ^lerchants Adventiu-ers, of, 36S. 

Brisure, Brizure, 41, 466. 

Britannia, 27. 

Britchebury, Ayery, 210. 

Brittany, John, Count of, .34, 208. 

Brittany, Canton of, 34, 154; Label of. 

" Brochant sur lo tout,' 465. 
Biodsorg, Die, 467. * 

Broke, Robert, Lord, 205. 
Bmmfiete, Sir Thomas, 191 ; his Helm, 

Bromsgroye, 264, 269, 336. 
Brotherton, Thomas de : Arms, 112, 153, 

235, 410. 
BrotliL-rton, Edward de, 410. 
Brotherton, Marijaret de, 153. 
" Brought in," 141. 
Browulow, The J^arl, 49, 58. 
Broxbourne, Brass at, 132. 
Bruce. Rolxrt the, 56 ; his Motto, 283 ; 

Earl of Carrick, 330. 
Bruckhausen, 313. 

Brunswick : Arms, 312, 474 ; Sup- 
porters, 475. 
Brunswick, Caroline of. The Queen, 

Bruhswick, Charles William, Duke of, 

Brus, Robert le, 212. 
Br\ai), Bryenne, Sir William de, 46, 269 ; 

iiis Crest. 209. 
Bryan, Sir Guy de ; his Crest, 269. 
Bryan, Elizabeth de, 227. 
Buchanan : Badge, 263. 
Buch, The Captal de, K.G., 228, 229. 
Buckingham, Thomas Plantagenet, 

Duke of. See Thomas Plantagenet. 
Buckingham, Alianore, Duchess of. See 

liohun. Alianore de. 
Buckingham, .The Dukes of, of the 15th 

Century. See Staffiird. 
Buckingham. Badge of, 262. 
Buckingham, Chandos Grenville Nu- 
gent Temple, Duke of; his Crest, 

273 ; Supporters, 280. 
Buckingham Palace, Royal Heraldry 

at, 375. 
Buckle, 41 ; of Pelliam, 262. 434. 
Bufialo's-Head, 312. 
Buhner, Rauf de, 194. 
Bunbury, Etfigy at, 265. 
Buoy of a Ship, 262. 
Burdett, John 187. 



Burgh, Huljert de, Earl of Kent, 197. 

Burgh, John de, Earl of Ulster : Arms, 
166, 239, 247. 

Burgli, Ehzabeth de, her Seal, 151, 238. 

Burghorsli Mouuraeiits in Lincoln Ca- 
thedral, 162, 222, 237, 240, 296, 387. 

Burgonet, 41. ^^ 

Burgundy : Arms of Dukes, 471^*j>3' 

Burgundy, Charles " the Bold," DuMj 
of, 355. 

Burgundy, Anne of, 244. 

Burgundy, Philip of, 244. 

Burke, Sir Bernard, his Peerage, 121. 

Burnet, Brass at, 366. 

Burnhamtliorpe, 394. 

Burton, Rebus of, 54 : Sir Thomas, 336. 

Burwash : Arms, 459. 

Bury St. Edmunds, Church of St. Mary 
at, 337. 

Bury, Elizabeth de, 407. 

Butler : Arms, 139, 309. 

Butterflies, 66. 

Byllynge, Nlchol, 216. 

Byron, The Baron : Arms, 77, 81, 224. 

Cabossed, 63, 78. 

Cadency, Definition of, 96, 173, 178; 
various Forms of, 177 ; Early Usage, 
174 ; Single Marks, 200, 204 ; Modern 
Usage of, 206 ; in Modern Heraldry, 
441; Royal, 206, 251, 253; of Plan- 
tagenets, 231, 234. ; of Hollands. 247 ; 
of Beauforts, 248 ; of Tudors, 249 ; of 
Nevilles, 203 ; not affected by Quar- 
tering, 144. 

Cadet, 96, 137. 

Calthorpe, Su- William, 394. 

Caltrap, 41. 

Calveley, Sir Hugh, 134 ; his Crest, 264. 

Camail, 107. 

Cambridge : Arms of University, 362. 

Cambridge, Edmond Plantagenet, " of 
Langley," K.G., Earl of, 241. 

Cambridge, Richard Plantagenet, " of 
Cooingsburgh," K.G., Earl of, 243. 

Cambridge, Richard Plantagenet, Earl 
of, 245. 

Cambridge, Adolphus Frederick, K.G., 
Duke of, 251. 

Cambridge, George William Frederick 
Charles, K.G., Duke of, 331. 

Cambridge, H. R. H., The Princess Mary 
of, 331. 

Cambridge, Label of, 252. 

Camden, William, Clarencieux King of 
Ai-ms, 100. 

Camden, The Marquess, 63. 

Cameron : Badge. 263 ; Crest, 273. 

Camoys, Lord, K.G.. 107, 336, 344, 483. 

Camoys, Margaret de, 52, 227. 

Camoys, Rauf de, 195. 

Campbell : Arms, 141 ; Badge, 263. 

Campbell, Duke of Argyll, 462. 

Campden, John de, 395. 

Canning, The Earl, .06. 

Cantelu, William de, 192. 

Cqntelupe, William, de, 63, 192. 

Canterbuiy : Arms of the See, 96, 357. 

Canterbury Cathedral, Monument of the 
Black Prince in, 385, 388 ; Monu- 
jnent of Henry IV. in, 337 ; Cloisters, 
43, 52, 149, 180, 218, 377, 410 ; Stained 
Glass in, 44. 

Canterbury : Arms of the Deanery, 360. 

Canterbury : Arms of the City, 366. 

Canting Heraldry, 96, 124. 

Canton, 31 ; Use in Marshalling, 143 ; 
for Differencing, 207; f]xamples of, 
208 ; of Paternal Arms, 143 ; with a 
Bordure, 33. 

Cantoned, 79. ^ 

Carbuncle, Escarbuncle, 41. 

Cardigan, The Earl of, 45, 207. 

Cardinal's Hat, 96. 

Carew : Arms, 57, 459. 

Carew, Piers de, 214. 

Carlaverock, Karlavcrock, Caerlaverock, 
Roll of, 237, 288 ; New Version of, 487 ; 
Siege of, 154 ; Banners and Bannerets 
at, 288, 487. -* 

Carlisle ; Arms of the See, 358. 

Cariisle, The Earl of, 207. 

Carnegie, William, Earl of Northesk, 

Caroline, of Brunswick, The Queen, 312. 

Caroline Willjelmina, The Queen, 312. 

Carpenters' Company, 370. 

Carrick, Feudal Earldom of, 324, 330. 

Carrick, The Bruce, Earl of, 330. 

Carrick, Duncan, Earl of 330. 

Carrick, John, Earl of, 330. 

Carrick. Albert Edward. Prince of Wales, 
Earl of, 322, 324. 330, 331. 

Car-Standard, 237. 

Carysforr, The Eari of, 57. 

Casket, Heraldic, at Goodrich Court, 147. 

Cassuben : Arms, 312. 

Castile and Leon, Alianore of. See 

Castile and Leon, Constance of, 239. 

Castile and Leon, Ferdinand III., King 
of, 157. 

Castile and Leon, Isabella of, 241, 243. 

Castile and Leon, John '• of Giient," 
Kingof, 239, 402. 

Castile and Leon : Aims, 42, 306 ; Quar- 
tered Shield of, 157 ; Label, 243, 246 ; 
Bordiu-e, 243, 480 ; Tincture of the 
Lion of Leon, 490. 

Castle, 42 ; of Castile, 400. 

Castle Acre Priory, 38 ; Arms. 360. 

Oat-a-Mountain, 62. 

2 L 




Cathedral 8, Heruklry of the, 377. 
Catherine of Arragon, The Queen, 308 ; 

Badges, 305. 
Catherine of Braganza, The Queen, 311. 
Catherine of France, The Queen, 307. 
Catherine Howard, The Queen, 310. 
Catherine Parr.The Queen, 310; Badges, 

Catherine Plan tagenet. 216. 
Catherine Swyneford, 337 ; Monument 

in Lincoln Cathedral, 385, 39-4. 
Catherine Hall. Cambridge. 363. 
Catherine-^\lieel, 271. 
Cauteville, De, 196. 
Cavendi.-h ; Anns, 62 ; Motto, 284. 
Cecil, 207, 210, 
Centam-, 67. 
Cercelee, 79. 
Cerise, 51. See Seruse. 
Chains in the Arms of Navarre, 486. 
Chamberlain, The Hereditary, of the 

German Empire, 473. 
Chamfron, 42. 

Champagne : Arms, 158, 170. 
Chandos, Sir Robert de, 37. 
Chandos, Edward de, 224. 
Chandos Arms, 183. 
Chapeau of Estate, 114. 
Chaplet, 42 ; of Roses, 75, 194. 
Charge, Charges, 8 ; Charged, 79. 
Charles I., as Prince of Wales, 250 ; 

Arms, 298; Supporters, 303 ; Crown, 

318 ; Badges, 305 ; liis Grant to 

Banmets, 95. 
Charles II., as Prince of Wales. 250 ; 

Arms, 298 ; Supporters, 303 ; Crown, 

318; Badges, 305; his Grants to 

Barons, 94 ; Arms of his Natural 

Sons, 438. 
Charles II., King of Navarre, 16G. 
Charles V., of France, 73. 
Charles " the Bold," of Burgimdy, 355. 
Charles William, of Brunswick, .312. 
Charlotte, of Mecklenburgh-Strelitz.The 

Queen, 312. 
Charlotte Augusta, Princess of Wales, 

Charlotte Augusta Matilda, 251. 
Charlton, Cherlton, Edward Baron, of 

Powys, 114, 389. 
Charlton : Arms, 460. 
Chartham, Brasses at, 43, 131,486. 
Chastilon, The Viscount, 229. 
Chastilon, Mary de, 362. 
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 461. 
Chausse'e, 79. 
Chaworths: Arms, 189. 
Cha worth. Sir Patrick, 189. 
Checkenden, 183. 
Cheeky, Cheque'e, 36, 79. 
Cheshire, Nobilitv and GentiT of. 74. 

Chess-Rook, 42 ; Chess-Knight, He- 
raldic, 148. 

Chester, the Earls of, 70, 74 ; Edward 
III., as Earl of, 234; Albert Edward, 
Prince of Wales. Earl of, 322, 323. 

Chester : Arms, 393, 459. 

Chester : Arms of the See, 358. 

Chester : Arms of the Citv, 149. 

Chester Herald. 111. 

Chester-le-Street, Effigy at, 211. 

Clievalier. as a Cliarge, 311. 

Chevron. 24, 42 ; for Diflferencing, 207 ; 
Examples of, 213. 

Chevronel, 24,42; for Differencing, 207. 

Cheyne, Thomas, 193. 

Cheyne, Rauff, 216. 

Cheney, Sir John, K.G., 338. 

Chichester : Arms of the See, 55, 358. 

Chief, 16, 22, 42; for Differencing, 207 ; 
Examples of, 212. 

Chigni, of Savoy : Arms, 469. 

Chigwell, Brass at, 120. 

Childrey, Brass at. 204. 

Chipping Camden, Brass at, 118. 

Cholmoudeley, The Marquess, 45. 

Cholmondeley : Motto, 283. 

Christ College, Cambridge : Arms, 363. 

Ciiristchnrcli Cathedral, Oxford, 227, 260. 

Clmstchurch College, Oxford : Arms,3Gl. 

Christchiu-ch, Hampshire. 382. 

Chrishall, Brass at, 180. 

ChristiernXI., King of Sweden.K G.,478. 

Christiern, Duke of Brunswick,K.G.,474. n. 

Churchill, John, K.G., Duke of Marl- ^Mj 
borough, 435, 462. JK 

CinquefoU, 42, 71. 

Cinque Ports: Arms, 149; Seals, 413. 

Civic Crown, 42. 

Clare, De, Ancient Device of, 238 ; Arms, 
21, 24 ; Seal, 146 ; Badge, 42 ; dimi- 
diating Fitzgerald, 147 ; dimidiated 
by Cornwall, 146; and impaled by 
Cornwall, 147, 234. 

Clare, Earl Richard de, 147, 234. 

Clare, William de, 223. 

Clare, Sir Thomas de, 147. 

Clare, Elizabeth de, 362; her Seal, 406. 

Clare, Margaret de, 146. 

Clare, Differenced Shield of, 191. 

Clare Hall, Cambridge, 362. 

Claremonte Nesle, 148. 

Clarence, George Plantagenet, K.G., 
Duke of, 246 ; his Crest, 266. 

Clarence, Lionel, K.G., Duke of, 237. 

Clarence, Thomas Plantagenet, K.G., 
Duke of, 243. 

Clarence, William Henry, Duke of, after- 
wards King Wilham IV., 251. 

Clarence, Sir John de, 437. 

Clarencieux, King of Arms, 96, 111