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Full text of "Heraldry illustrated. Being a short account of the origin and history of heraldry and an explanation of its nature, with practical directions for drawing and painting coats of arms, to which is added a glossary of the terms used in the science of heraldry .."

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MAR 2 6 1926 


3 1833 01941 4090 



Arms of 

George Washington 

First President of the United States. 

1bcral6rp # 



:Bcim a 6bort account ot t\K 

®ri0in an& iHi9torv> of Mcralbr^ 

an& an explanation ot its nature, witb practical directions 

for Orawincj 

an^ painting (loate of Hnne 

to wbicb is aDDe^ a 


ot tbe terms use^ in tbe Science ot BeralOri^ witb over 

700 jeiplanatori? jEngravinoe. 

Cf^s.^ 36\) M. lb. abbott. 

Zbc Bureau of 1bcialMi\ 

17 anD 19 JBroaDwa^, ^ * * * IHew l!)orl? Citv. 

Entered, according- to act of Congress in the year 18^7. by 

Wm. Hv. ABBOTT. 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washinjrton, D C. 

^C: - 


Washington Arms Frontis])iece. 

Preface, , . . . 1 — :i 


OrtTxTN and History of Heraldry, Tournaments, . 5 — 11 


Divisions of Arms 12 — 10 

How TO Blazon a Coat of AR^[S, KJ — 21 

Cadency or Distinctions of Houses. Differencixo, 22- — 24 

Crowns and Helmets 25 — .*U 



').\i)(;i-:s. Ckksts, Mottoes axd Sl'pportkrs, 


:i5— 4ii 


l\iX(is. Heralds axd Plrsuivaxts of Arms, 

4:i— 46 


How TO Marshal Arms, . 



How 'I'o Draw axd Paixt a Coat of Arm: 





I^oixTS OF The Escttciieox, Partitiox Lixes, etc., 
RorxDrj-:s, Drops, r^rRS 

Till-: HoxoRAP.LE ()ri)IXaries and Drvisiox 
Shield ^ . . . 

Miscellancous Illustratioxs, 

Crowxs and Coronf:ts 

Hei^mets and Marks of Cadency, . 

Examples of Marshaling Arms, . 

vSketch I r.LrsTRATiVE OF Paixtixc, Arms, 

S OF Till- 





. 28 
. 29 
. 30 

"^ X eface 

HE success attending the lectures on Heraldry 
which the compiler has had the honor of de- 
livering before patriotic and other bodies in 
the United States, the evident interest dis- 
played, and the desire for a further acquaint- 
ance with the subject which was shown by the 
audiences, have led to the production of this 
unpretentious little volume. While he does not 
claim to give a complete treatise on Heraldry, 
which would be impossible within the limits of a work like the 
present, the writer has endeavoured to furnish a succint descrip- 
tion of t he science and so to condense definitions and illustrations 
that any one with ordinary intelligence would be able correctly to 
blazon a coat of arms, or paint one from a description. He has 
also at the same time studied to avoid useless repetition — thus 
for instance on Plate 1 of the drawings are shown the various 
partition lines, and on Plate '2 an honorable ordinar\- known as the 
bend. Now, suppose a bend is described in the blazon as "en- 
grailed" or "indented," or as of any of the other lines under the 
heading of "Partition lines," the student has only to form the 
bend with the partition line indicated instead of by right lines, 
and the correct result is attained. Tf an illustration of a bend 


formed by each of the partition lines, of which there are sixteen, 
were given, then seventeen pictures (including the one alreadv 
referred to on Plate 2) would be needed, and as there are nine 
honorable ordinaries one hundred and tifty-three illustrations 
would be necessary for these charges alone, and the same remark 
applies to borders, etc. 

In addition to chapters on the origin and history of Heraldry, 
Distinctions of Houses, Crests, Mottoes, Supporters, etc., etc.. 
there is a chapter on Marshalling Arms which will enable the 
reader to combine in correct heraldic fashion his or her ow^n coat 
with those of ancestors. 

There has also been added a chapter explanatory of drawing 
and painting coats of arms which, it is confidently hoped, will 
prove of great assistance to those unaccustomed to the work who 
wish to acquire a knowledge of this beautiful art, as it embodies 
as far as practicable the experience of the writer, whose sole oc- 
cupation for some years past has been the production of heraldic 
paintings. The Glossary contains al^out fifteen hundred defini- 
tions of heraldic terms, many of them in French and Latin; it is 
very fully illustrated; and wdienever a mere verbal description 
seems insufficient to convey the meaning, an engraving has been 
furnished in addition. 

In conclusion the compiler ventures to express a hope that 
Heraldry will shortly resume its position as part of a liberal educa- 
tion, and in this connection would wish to notice, though only to 
controvert, an absurd notion obtaining in some quarters that to 
use armorial bearings is in a manner to favor monarchy. A mo- 
ment's consideration will serve to show the follv of such an idea — 


a man's Coat of Arms being as much his personal property as his 
name, and it would be equally reasonable to discard the one as the 
other. And if further proof were needed that the use of Heraldry 
is not antagonistic to republican principles, it is afforded by the 
fact that ladies who are members of the most popular patriotic 
societies, — ladies, who are pre-eminently cultured and intellectual, 
and whose very existence as organized bodies is a proof of their 
love for the Republic — these ladies are found to be the most con- 
sistent and intelligent advocates of the proper use of true heraldry. 
In commending this little work to an enlightened, a liberal 
and indulgent public the compiler has nothing more to add than 
the hope that the study of Heraldry may confer as much pleasure 
on the reader as it has bestowed upon him. 

New York, December, 1897. 


Deral^rv irUustrate^. 


©rigin an^ Ibistor? of 1beral&r?. 

ERALDRY (heraiildrie, Fr., from 
hcrehault, Saxon) is a science which 
teaches how to blazon, that is, to describe 
in proper terms, and arrange in correct 
order, all that belongs to Coat Armour, or 
Coats of Arms, and is popularly so under- 
stood at the present day; but heraldry originally had a wider 
significance and also prescribed the marshalling of solemn 
cavalcades, installations, tournaments, nuptials, funerals, etc. 
Coats of Arms are hereditary marks of honor, consisting of cer- 
tain fixed figures and colors conferred by sovereign princes at 
first and generally as a reward for military achievements, but 
subsequently also in recognition of some signal public service 
not necessarily of a military nature. These marks serve to denote 
the descent and alliance of the bearer and are also used to dis- 


tingiiish states, cities and societies, civil, ecclesiastical and 

Many and diverse are the opinions of historians and anti- 
quarians as to the origin of heraldry. Some of the admirers of 
this once cultivated study not being able to prove for it so high 
an antiquity as they desire, have been carried away by the power 
of fancy to form some rather far-fetched conjectures as, for 
instance, one lover of heraldry has gravely asserted that our com- 
mon ancestor Adam bore a red shield with a silver inscutcheon 
charged upon it, thus showing that his wife was an heiress. Some 
again have asserted that heraldry w^as of Divine origin, and 
proceeded from the laws that rule in heaven. 

The only approach to a reason for such an opinion might be 
found in the fact that Moses commanded each of the twelve tribes 
and families to gather round their own particular standard and 
ensign, whereby they might be distinguished and separated in 
their ;^iarch through the wilderness. Symbols as distinguishing- 
marks also appear to have been referred to in the Book of Daniel, 
where it is stated that "the king sealed it with his own signet and 
with the signet of his Lords." And again in the Book of Kings 
that Jezebel "wrote letters in Ahab's name and sealed them with 
his seal." Many other quotations to the same purport might be 
given, but it is to the other symbols of the ancients that they bear 
analogy and not modern heraldry. One other instance of this 
may be referred to which is found in a Greek tragedy, written 
about 2500 years ago, where a soldier is described as bearing a 
shield on which was displayed a torch with the legend "I will fire 
the city," but this appears to apply to that occasion only and there 


is nothing to show that the same man may not have adopted a 
different device on another occasion, or tliat he transmitted any 
device to his posterity; now, it is the very essence of heraldry 
that a device or bearing- should be permanent and hereditary. 

Coming down to more modern times we will turn to a few 
well-known authorities on the subject. Sir John Feme is of opin- 
ion that we borrowed arms from the Egyptians, that is from their 
hieroglyphics. Sir Wm. Dugdale mentions that arms as marks 
of honor were first used by great commanders in war, necessity 
requiring that their persons should be known to their friends and 
followers. The learned Alexander Nisbet, in his system of 
Heraldry, says that arms owe their origin to the light of nature, 
and that signs and marks of honor were made use of in the first 
ages of the world and by all nations, however simple and illiter- 
ate, to distinguish the noble from the ignoble. We find in Homer, 
Virgil and Ovid, that their heroes had divers figures on their 
shields whereby their persons were distinctly know^n. Alexander 
the great, desirous to honor those of his captains and soldiers who 
had performed any glorious action, and also to excite emulation 
among the others, granted them certain badges to be borne on 
their armour, pennons and banners, ordering at the same time 
that no person other than himself throughout his empire should 
take or grant such signs, which prerogative has been claimed 
ever since by sovereign princes throughout their dominions. 
Certain customs of the Romans bear apparent similarity to the 
use of coat armour, so that several heraldic historians have con- 
nected the origin of hercildry with that nation. Their history af- 
fords sufficient evidence to conclude them to have been a people 


eminent for civil and military institutions. The spirit of partri- 
otism and emulation, the desire of acquiring honors, and their 
pride in displaying them were the traits which peculiarly dis- 
tinguished their character. 

The description of the emblems borne by particular families 
given bv many of their elegant writers, have afforded subject for 
remark, but these casual bearings prove only the propensity of 
mankind in general for decorative embellishment, in wdiich the 
Romans indulged by various modes to commemorate any 
particular action or achievement. On this subject (the origin of 
heraldry) all that can be said with certainty is that in all ages 
men have made use of the figures of living creatures, or of 
symbolical signs, to denote the courage or prowess of their chief or 
nation and even to disinguish themselves or families as names do 
individuals. C. Agrippa, in his treatise on sciences, has collected 
many instances of these marks of distinction anciently borne by 
kingdoms and states, viz., the Egyptians bore an ox, the Athenians 
an owl, the Goths a bear, the Romans an eagle and the letters S. 
P. O. R., the Franks a lion and the Saxons a horse. 

As to hereditary arms of families, William Cambden, Sir 
Henry Spelman and other judicious heralds agree that they did 
not begin till towards the end of the eleventh century. These 
marks of honor are called anus, from their being principally and 
first worn by military men in war and at tournaments, who had 
them depicted on shields or other martial instruments. They 
are also called coat of arms, from the custom of embroidering 
them on the coats worn over armour, as heralds do to this day. 
It seems pretty certain that the first nations to use Heraldry as 


a science, and as it is understood at the present time, were the 
Germans and French, from whom it reached England about the 
12th century, and Scotland somewhat earlier. The word blazon 
is of German origin, and means to blow with a trumpet, such 
being the method of proclaiming the title of each knight at a 
tournament, but the word is now used as meaning a description 
of a coat of arms. The performance of public tournaments or 
jousts, as they were sometimes called, undoubtedly did much to 
extend and encourage the science of heraldry, and a few words 
in passing explanatory of this chivalric pastime may not be out 
of place here. They were contests of strength and skill, and all 
men of gentle descent were entitled and invited to take part in 
them, but it was necessary that the candidates should be able 
to prove themselves of four descents at least, of gentle parentage 
on the side of father or mother. These contests took place on 
horseback by men in full armour. They were called tournaments 
when many took part in them, and jousts when two only were 
engaged. The lance was the usual weapon, but after that was 
broken, or lost, the contest was sometimes continued with sword, 
mace or battle-ax. If one knight were unhorsed, his adversary 
must dismount to continue the fight. A mounted man was not 
allowed to attack one on foot. In fact, one of the best points 
about these combats seems to have been the spirit of fair play 
which pervaded them. 

The persons who were desirous of taking part in the exercise 
visited the lists (a large enclosed space with scats round it for the 
acconmiodation of the king, nobles and ladies) some days 
previous to the tournament, completely armed and having their 



tti •■.■: ••'■-«av 

armorial bearings depicted on their shields. Each was preceded 
by his esquire, also mounted, who bore the knight's spear and 
helmet. The former had displayed on it a small flag, called a 
pennon, also bearing the arms. On the helmet was sometimes 
worn a handkerchief or scarf, ribbon or some other favor given 
to the knight by some fair lady, whose superior beauty he was 
supposed to champion against all comers. On arriving near the 
lists the knight's presence was made known by the sounding of 
a trumpet, when the judges who presided over the sports came 
forth and met him. To these were made known the rank or 
quality of the would-be contestant; if approved, his shield and 
helmet were hung above the tent which he occupied near the lists. 
This allowed of the mode of challenge which was as follows: 
The knight admitted to the tourney touched the shield of the one 
he wished to oppose either with the reverse of his lance or the 
sharp point; in the first case the arms of courtesy, as they were 
called, were used, that is, a small round board or ball was fixed 
over the spear point, and the other arms were blunt; but in the 
latter case the spear was left pointed and the other arms sharp, 
as in actual warfare. In either case, it was not at all uncommon 
for serious and fatal wounds to result, nor is this to be wondered 
at, when it is remembered that the knights rushed at each other 
with the full strength of horse and man. The victor was rewarded 
by a prize presented by some noble lady who prepared a chaplet, 
or some other ornament, to reward the most successful knight. 
Of course, it is obvious tliat the entire persons of the combatants 
being sheathed in armour, the only way of distinguishing them 
was by the arms they bore on shield or pennon. 


Heraldry would appear to have reached the zenith of its glory 
about the fourteenth century, and to have suffered no great 
decline until the disuse of personal armour rendered shields, 
helmets, etc., things of the past, and emblems or symbols were no 
longer necessary to distinguish a leader on the field of battle. 
Arms, however, continue to be used in all the leading nations of 
the world as evidence of alliance, or noble birth, although their 
place is now on sculpture, seals, or in the family album. Having 
thus glanced briefly at the origin and history of Heraldry, the 
following chapters will be devoted to an explanation of its nature. 




©ivielone of Hrme, 



RMS OF ADOPTION— are those which 
i have been bequeathed by will to one not 
a lineal descendant, the deceased having 
'■^. no children. These arms may be borne by 
the devisee quartered with his own, but it 
is usual for an adopted person to apply to 
the proper officer for power to carry out the will of the disposer. 
ARMS OF ALLIANCE — when the arms of an heiress or 
co-heiress (that is a lady having no brothers) are united to those 
of her husband, and then descend to and are borne by their issue; 
in this manner preserving the arms of many ancient families 
extinct in the male line which would otherwise be lost. 

ARMS OF ASSUMPTION— such as are assumed with the 
approbation of the sovereign or proper officer, and were frequent- 
ly those of a prisoner whose arms the victor bore until they were 
regained by their former owner by ransom or otherwise. 

ARMS OF AUGMENTATION— special marks of honor 
conferred by the sovereign for service in the field and generally 
borne upon a canton or chief. After the victory of Flodden, 
King Henry VHL granted to the Earl of Surrey to augment his 


arms a demi-lion gules, pierced through the month with an ar- 
row within a double tressure flowered of the same to be placed on 
the Howard bend. In later days augmentations of arms were 
granted to Nelson, Collingwood, and others. 

ARMS OF COMMUNITY— those of bishoprics, cities, 
universities, academies, societies, companies and other bodies 

ARMS OF CONCESSION— granted by the sovereign of 
some part of his arms or regalia to such persons as he was thus 
pleased to honor. Henry VIII. so granted to Ladv Jane Seymour 
"a pile gu with three lions passant guardant or," to be marshalled 
with her own paternal coat. AVe also read in history that Robert 
Bruce, King of Scotland, allowed the Earl of Wintown's ancestor 
to bear in his coat armour, a crown supported by a sword, to show 
that he and the clan Seaton of which he was the head, supported 
his tottering crown. 

ARMS DIMIDIATED— Dimidiated signifies something 
that has lost a part, and impalement by dimidiation means cutting 
off half a man's and half a woman's coat of arms paleways and 
then uniting the dexter half of the man's to the sinister half of the 
woman's arms. This method of impalement has long been laid 
aside in England, but is continued in France. It was liable to 
cause much confusion as it might in some instances materially 
alter the arms of both, man and wife, as for instance the cheverons 
on arms would by dimidiation become bends, and single coats 
when they happened to be divided per pale of different tinctures 
would appear of but one metal or color, and thus the coat of a 
brother and sister might have different fields. 


ARMS OF DOMINION — these are arms which belong to 
sovereigns, etc., in right of their sovereignty and might better 
perhaps be styled Ensigns; they are of mucli higher antiquity than 
arms as now understood, for anciently the Persian, Grecian, 
Roman and other empires had fixed signs of sovereignty, as others 
have since. If the person ascending the throne in legal succes- 
sion were already a sovereign he marshalled his arms with those 
of the dominion to which he succeeded, usually giving precedence 
to the more ancient arms, but if he were of the quality of a subject, 
he laid aside his own arms and bore only those of the kingdom, 
whose monarch he had become. Those who ascend a throne by 
election, carry their arms on an escutcheon placed on the centre 
of the arms of the dominion to which they are elected. Thus 
William, Prince of Orange, aftert\^ards William III. of England, 
placed his arms over those of England and Scotland as an elected 
king. Wlien a kingdom has been acquired by conquest the arms 
of the conquered kingdom are sometimes replaced by those of 
the conqueror. About the year A. D. 800, King Egbert first 
monarch of all England, painted on his standard, "azure a cross 
patonce or," but subsequent English monarchs bore different 

ARMS FEUDAL — those annexed to dignified fees, such as 
dukedoms, marquisates, etc., and which arms the possessors of 
such fees bear in order to show their dignities, in imitation of 
sovereigns displaying the ensigns of their dominions. There are 
few of these in England, but many in France and Spain. 

ARMS PARLANTES — (Fr.) — canting or allusive arms are 
those in which the name is pictorially expressed or indicated, 
such are the arms of Oxford. PI. 20, fig. 11. 


descending- from the original grantee to son, grandson, great- 
grandson, etc. Then they are arms of a perfect and complete 
nobihty, begnn in the grandfather (as heralds say) growing in the 
son, from which rises the distinction of gentlemen of blood, in the 
grandson or great-grandson. 

ARMS OF OFFICE— are those borne by archbishops, 
bishops, deans, heads of colleges, etc., who impale with their 
paternal coats the arms of their sees, deaneries, colleges, etc., in 
the same manner as the arms of man and wife, giving the dexter 
half of the escutcheon to the arms of dignity, and placing the 
personal coat on the sinister half. 

ARMS OF PATRONAC^E— part of the arms of those lords, 
of whom the persons bearing them held in fee, either added to the 
paternal arms of the persons assuming such addition, or liprne as 
feudal arms in order to show the dependance of the parties bear- 
ing them on their particular lords. Thus, as the Earls of Chester 
bore garbs, many gentlemen of the county bore garbs also. The 
Earls of Warwick bore chequy or and az. a chev. erm., and there- 
fore many gentlemen in Warwickshire bore chequy. Numerous 
instances of this sort of bearing occur in England, Scotland and 
other parts of Europe. 

ARMS OF PRETENSION— are those of such kingdoms, 
provinces or territories, to which a prince or lord has some claim, 
and which he adds to his own, although the said kingdoms or 
territories be actually possessed by a foreign prince or other lord. 




Ibow to Blason a Coat of Uvme. 

I LAZON (L. blasonia), as mentioned in 
p Chapter I, originally signified blowing 
with a horn or trumpet at tournaments 
(o and jousts, when the heralds proclaimed 
and recorded the achievements of the 
^^^^a combatants; but it is now taken to mean 
a knowledge and description of armorial bearings according to 
the rules of heraldry. The ancient exponents of the science have 
been very careful to lay down clear and precise rules whereby 
uniformity is asured among a mass of complex details. To at- 
tain to a knowledge of blazon, the following rules must be borne 
in mind. 

First acquire a perfect acquaintance with the points of the 
shield as shown on Plate 1; then of the ordinaries and other 
charges which go to make up the arms as each are explained 
under their respective headings in the Glossary, in the later 
portion of this book. This done, commence the blazoning by 
describing the field, whether only of one tincture or of several, 
describing the lines by which it is divided, whether per pale, per 
fessc, per bend, etc., and, if not right lines, then, whether indented. 


engrailed, etc., with the several metals, colors or furs of such divi- 
sions. The principal ordinary, if any, should then be named, if 
plain, the mere mention of it is sufficient, but if made up of any 
of the crooked lines, its form must be specified, as zcoz'y, invcctcd, 
etc., (see Plate 1) with its tincture and the charges around it, the 
chief, canton, or any charge or bearing in their particular places 
being generally blazoned last. In expressing the blazon, brevity 
must be studied, and while tautology is to be carefully avoided, 
yet a minute description of every bearing, its position, place on 
the shield, tincture, etc., nuist be given, so that mistakes cannot 
arise. When a principal figure possesses the centre of the field its 
position is not to be expressed, or (which amounts to the same 
thing) when a bearing is named, without specifying the point 
where it is placed, then it is understood to possess the middle of 
the shield. The words of, or, and ivith, should scarcely ever be 
repeated, nor the same metal or color, avoiding the latter by 
calling the charge, etc., borne of the tincture before mentioned, 
of the first, of the second, or of the third, as it may stand in rotation, 
counting from the tincture first named. If the field be wholly of 
one tincture it is usual to say of the field instead of of the first. 
If a coat consists of two colors only, as the arms of Elingham, it 
is blazoned Argent (the field) a fesse betiveen three eagles displayed 
sable, which means that both the fesse and the eagles are sable. 
When an ordinary is charged with three (suppose pellets) after 
mentioning those between, it is expressed by as many, thus zrrt 
(the field) on a chereron or (the principal ordinary, the word on 
being placed before it to describe its charge) betzvccn three fleurs- 
de-lis argent^ as many pellets, (the words as many being introduced 


to avoid repeating the number, and pellets being always sable, 
it is unnecessary to name the color) a ehicf of the third (the chief 
being argent like the Heiirs-de-Us, the third tincture named, of the 
third is used to avoid the repetition of argent). When none of the 
ordinaries are borne, the charges and their exact position in the 
field, whether paleways, hendzvays, etc., as well as the attitude of 
such charges and the tincture of them should be particularly 
named, but when borne of three, two in chief and one in base, it 
is unnecessary to say tzvo and one as that is the usual bearing. 
This rule also applies when the fcsse, chcz'eron, or bend is borne 
between such charges, and when crosses occur between four 
charges all alike, their position in the quarters is understood 
without naming it, as a cross or saltire between four crescents, 
and so on. 

A position is termed irregular, when three figures which are 
naturally placed two and one, are disposed one and two, etc. 
When the field, or charge is strewed with the same figure it is 
expressed by the word semcc, but if the figures strewed on the 
field are all whole ones, it nmst be denoted by the words sans 
nombre, whereas, if a part of them is cut off at the extremities of 
the escutcheon, or charge, the word scmce is to be used. To con- 
dense the above rules — begin with the field, then the principal 
bearing, or charge, borne in the centre of the field, and after such 
principal charge, the bearings around it, more remote from the 
centre or fesse point, then the chief, canton or bordure, as being 
at the greatest distance, must be mentioned last. It may be as 
well to state here that in the composition of arms it has always 
been a rule never to place metal upon metal, or color upon color. 


although there are some very well-known exceptions to this, 
notably that of the arms bestowed by the crusaders upon one of 
their number when he was made king of Jerusalem. These 
arms were argent a cross potent, bei7veen four erosses oil or, or in 
other words five gold crosses on a silver field. It is claimed, how- 
ever, that the rule was in this case purposely broken so that the 
arms of so revered and exalted a kingdom, as that of Jerusalem, 
should resemble none other upon earth. Notwithstanding this. 
and a few other exceptions, there is no doubt that the rule 
prohibiting the placing of metal upon metal, or color upon color, 
do€S form a fundamental part of heraldry and must be so regarded. 
Of course, the rule does not apply when the shield is divided per 
pale, per fesse, etc., where one-half may be blue and the other red, 
or one-half gold and the other silver, for then the metal or color 
is not laid upon another color or metal, but plaeed contiguous to it. 
As an example of blazon reference is here made to the Washing- 
ton Arms, forming the frontispiece to this book, which is blazoned 
as follows: Argent, tzvo bars gules, in chief tJiree mullets of the 
second Crest — out of a ducal coronet or, an eagle issuani, ivitJi -a'ings 
endorsed sable. Before dismissing the subject of blazon it might 
be well to recall some ancient methods of blazoning arms 
mentioned in most treatises on the subject (notwithstanding that 
they have long been laid aside) as instancing the high estimation 
and veneration in which the science was held in former days. 
The dialect used for the Gentry was borrowed from the P>ench. 
Noblemen's arms were blazoned by the corresponding names of 
precious stones, Princes and Kings by the planets. Others 
pressed into the service the bright constellations of the heavens, 


metaiS from the bosom of the earth, the unHmited course of time, 
man's complexion, temper, and age, and the principles and ele- 
ments of nature. In fine, the ingenuity of the adepts seems to 
have been exhausted in dignifying their favorite science. The 
table on page 21, will give a concise synopsis of these fanciful 
systems. In the present day, however, and for many years past, 
the tinctures are and were blazoned as on PL 1, and this applies 
to all ranks. 







Argent. . 


Gules. . . 


Azure . . . 









Celestial bi^rns 







Aries and 
and Libra 
and Virgo 

and Pisces 




Precious Stones 










March and 
April and 
May and 












Seasons and 
times of day 












rgent . . 







ules . . . 







zure . . . 














urpure . 



and Night 

Old Age 




able. . . 









Ca&cnc^ or Dietinctione of 1bou6e0* Differences, 

N the early days of Pleraldry, when the 
only means of recognizing an iron- 
sheathed warrior was by the device he 
^ bore on hehii, shield or pennon, the desire 
to distinguish between members and 
branches of the same family led to the 
introduction of marks by which they could be so distinguished. 
These figures were called Marks of Cadency, Dififerences and 
Brisures. The ancient mode of varying coats of arms between 
father and son, and between the several branches of a family, was 
by introducing an ordinary, or bordure, inserting a charge, or 
inverting the paternal tincture. But this was done without 
system and according to the fancy of the bearer; it failed to show 
the relationship to the head of the house, and was unsatisfactory 
in many ways. Heralds have therefore for some time past 
adopted a strictly uniform method which is constant and other- 
wise satisfactory. See PL 28, ''Distinction of Houses." The heir, 
or first son, during his father's life-time, bears a label; the second 


son, a crescent; the third, a mullet; the fourth, a martlet; the fifth, 
an annulet; the sixth, a Heur-de-lis ; the seventh, a rose; the eighth, 
a cross moline ; and the ninth, a double quatrefoil. 

For the second house, that is the house or family of the 
second son, the eldest wears a label on the paternal crescent, the 
second son a crescent on a crescent; and so on invariably. 

The third house, or house of the third son, wears for the 
eldest, a label on the paternal mullet, the second, a crescent on 
the mullet and so on. 

The daughters of each house should always bear the family 
distinction borne by their father; but not any to show them to be 
the first, second, third, etc. These differences may be of all 
tinctures, and ought to be made as distinct and conspicuous as 

The Label is generally borne with three points as in PI. 17, 
fig. 11, but not invariably so; it has sometimes four, and frequently 
five points; the number of points has, how^ever, no significance, 
the object of increasing the number of points being apparently 
to adapt the mark to the particular place which it has to occupy 
on the shield. Of course, it is understood that when an eldest 
son on the death of his father succeeds to the position in the 
family which his father previously held, he removes his Mark of 
Cadency as eldest son from his shield, assumes the unmarked 
shield as his father had borne it before him, and transfers to his 
own son the mark that previously had distinguished his shield 
from that of his father. There are, morever, permanent Marks of 
Cadency which distinguish some particular branch of the family; 
these marks become integral parts of the Arms, and are borne 


alike by all the members of that branch, and in that branch are 
transmitted from generation to generation. 

A few other methods of differencing may be noticed before 
closing this chapter. The bordure both plain and charged is 
frequent!}' borne as a difference, and although not met with so 
often as the Label, is found in many early examples. It is also 
met with charged with a variety of devices as a secondary Dif- 
ference. Bendlets are also found charged upon the paternal 
shield as a Difference, as are cantons plain, but more frequently 
charged. Another method of marking Cadency is by the addi- 
tion of secondary charges of small size, strewed all over the field. 

Differences of Illegitimacy do not appear to have assumed a 
definite or decided character, with the exception of the illegitimate 
issue of Kings, when the baton sinister must be borne from 
generation to generation, since the Royal Arms cannot be as 
sumed by any subject without ''due Difiference." 




drovons an& Kclmcte. 

ROWN — a circular ornament worn on 
the head. In modern times the word is 
applied only to the headdress worn by 
sovereigns as significant of their dignity, 
but formerly crowns were bestowed as a 

Jx^ -^n reward for feats of prowess or darins^, for 

services rendered to the commonwealth, and as badges of office. 
The first crowns appear to have been no more than a bandelet 
drawn around the head and tied behind, as we still see it repre- 
sented on medals around the heads of Jupiter, the Ptolemies and 
Kings of Syria; afterwards they consisted of two bandelets; by 
degrees they took sprigs of trees of divers kinds and at length 
added flowers, then these natural articles were replaced by imita- 
tions in metal and embellished with jewels. In Scripture there is 
frequent mention of crowns and the use of them seems to have 
been very common among the Hebrews. The high-priest wore 
a crown, which was a fillet of gold with a linen top, placed upon 
the forehead and tied with a blue ribbon. It would seem that 
private priests wore also a sort of crown, since Ezekiel was com- 


manded not to take off his crown nor assume the marks of one 
in mourning. This crown was only a ribbon or fillet with which 
the Jews and several Oriental people girt their heads. The 
Roman emperors had four kinds of crowns still seen on medals, 
viz., a crown of laurel, (PI. 10, fig. 19) a radial or antique crown, 
(PI. 20, fig. 13) a crown adorned with pearls and precious stones, 
and a kind of bonnet or cap. We read that the laurel crown above 
mentioned was granted to Julius Caesar for life by the Roman 
senate to conceal his baldness. Crowns among the Romans 
were ever waiting for him who performed a worthy action, no 
matter what his rank might be. 

THE CIVIC CROW^— corona civica—(Fl 28, fig. 2) made 
from the branches of the green oak, was bestowed on such as 
had saved the life of a citizen at great personal hazard. 

THE VALLARY CROWN (PL 27, fig. 7). In Caesar's 
Commentaries, and other classical works, we find the ancients 
used to intrench themselves behind earthworks which were called 
vallum. Whoever first entered these entrenchments was entitled 
to a crown called vallaris corona, which was made of pales or 
palisadoes, and is still in use among heralds. 

THE MURAL CROWN (PI. 28, fig. 3) was bestowed on 
those who had exhibited great courage or prowess in attacking 
a town, or who under a storm of darts and stones had suc- 
ceeded in first scaling the walls. It was a circle of gold on which 
were raised square projections in imitation of battlements. 

(PI. 20, fig. 13) is a gold rim adorned with eight rays, five of 
which show when represented. It has often been granted as a 


mark of distinction to British subjects who have deserved well of 
their country in the administration of affairs in India and the 

THE CELESTIAL CROWN (PI. 2(>, fig. 15) is very simi- 
lar to that last described, except that every ray is surmounted by 
a small star. It was bestowed on emperors, kings and princes 
when they were entitled to the honors of the apotheosis; and is 
still frequently painted on funeral achievements. 

THE NAVAL CROWN. The Phoenician spirit which 
animated the Carthaginians, the love of commerce and conquest, 
which for a term in the annals of history, busied the shores of 
Libya and the vales of Mount Atlas, created a naval force at the 
mouth of the Tiber, and hence a crown was fabricated of gold to 
deck the brows of a naval hero. It was made in imitation of the 
prow of a ship and called corona navalis, or naval crown. The 
naval crown, as now borne in British heraldry, is composed of a 
gold rim surmounted with three sterns of ships and two sails 
alternately. (PI. 27, fig. 8). 

THE OBSIDIONEL CROWN (PI. 27, fig. 2)— was a 
crown formed of grass or herbs, given to a general who had 
delivered a Roman army from blockade, the grass being plucked 
from the spot where such important service was rendered. 

longing to see of Rome (PI. 26, fig. 2). It was formerly an 
ancient ornament among the Persians and Parthians. wherewith 
th.eir kings and priests were crowned. 

MITRE — the cap of dignity borne over the arms of arch- 
bishops and bishops, but never actually worn by those of the 


Protestant Established Church of England, who merely depict 
them over the impalement of the arms of the see, and their own 
paternal coat as marks of distinction. (PL 26, fig. 3). A plain 
fillet of gold is the ordinary mitre belonging to archbishops and 
bishops, ( PL 26, fig. 1) is the mitre of the palatinate bishop of 

CARDINAL'S HAT, (PL 26, fig. 5)— always painted red 
and as drawn. The archbishops and bishops of France bear hats 
over their arms, like those of the cardinals; but with this dif- 
ference, that they are green and have only four rows of tassels. 
The abbots use the same, only black with three rows of tassels. 
Prothonotaries bear the same as abbes. 

THE ROYAL CROWN.— This distinctive mark of royalty 
was anciently made open, but is now generally closed at the top 
with arches, varying in number and is usually denominated an 
imperial crown. 

CROWN OF CHARLEMAGNE. (PL 26, fig. 11)— This 
very interesting relic of the past is still preserved at Nuremberg. 
It is of pure gold, weighing fourteen pounds, or one hundred and 
sixty-eight ounces, troy weight. It is divided into eight quarters. 
The foremost part is adorned with twelve jewels, all unpolished; 
that in the middle being larger than those on the side. On the 
second quarter is the figure of our Saviour sitting between two 
cherubs each of whom has four wings, and under them this motto 
Per me regcs regnant. The next quarter on the same side has 
only gems and pearls on it. The fourth quarter is a figure of 
King Hezekiah sitting, holding his head with his right hand, as 
though he were sick; and by his side Isaiah, the prophet, with a 


scroll whereon is the motto: Ecce adjiciam super dies tiios 
quindccwi amws. Over the heads of these figures, are the fol- 
lowing words: Isaias propheta, Ezeehias rex. The fifth quarter, 
which is behind, contains jewels only. The sixth quarter has 
the effigy of a king crowned, and a scroll in his hand with these 
words: Honor regis judieiinii d digit, over his head: Rex David. 
The seventh quarter has only gems. The eighth and last quarter 
has the figure of a king sitting with a crown on his head ; and on 
a scroll which he holds in both hands is this motto: Time Donunum 
et reginn aviato; over the head Rex Saloinon. On the top of the 
crown is a cross, the forepart of which contains seventeen jewels; 
and in the summit of the cross, are these words: /. H. S. 
Nazare^iiis Rex Judccorinn; and in the arch or semi-circle the 
words: CJiuonradus, Dei gratia, Romanoriim hnperator Aug: which 
indicates that the semi-circle was added after Charlemagne's 
time by the Emperor Conrade. 

THE BRITISH IMPERIAL CROWN— as at present used, 
was made for the coronation of Charles II., the previous one 
having been lost during the civil wars. The rim is adorned with 
four crosses pattee and as many deurs-de-Iis alternately. The cap 
within the crown is of purple velvet turned up with ermine. The 
jewels and precious stones wherewith it is embellished for the 
ceremony of a coronation are removed after that ceremony and 
replaced by fictitious gems in exact imitation of the real ones. 
(PI. 26, fig. 4). 

Note. — The Crowns of France, Spain, and other continental 
kingdoms, have no caps within them, nor have they any ermine 
under the rim or fillet, like that of England. 


THE CROWN OF FRANCE (PL 26, fig. 6)— was a circle 
of gold, ornamented with eight flcurs-dc-Iis till the time of Charles 
VIII., or, as some assert, until Francis I. added as many arches 
placing on the top a flcur-dc-Us. 

THE CROWN OF SPAIN (PL 20, fig. 7)— was a circle of 
gold adorned with jewels and precious stones, and ornamented 
with eight leaves, but not closed with arches until the marriage of 
Philip II. of Spain with Mary of England; since that time it has 
continued arched. 

THE CROWN OF RUSSIA— PL 26, fig. 8. 


THE CROWN OF PRUSSIA— PL 26, fig. 10. 

THE CROWN OF DENMARK— PL 26, fig. 12. 

THE CROWN OR CAP OF STATE worn by the Doge of 
Venice— PL 26, fig. 14. 

Before considering the coronets of the nobles, it might be as 
well to say a few words concerning the origin of their order. 
''Hugh Capet," says the celebrated civilian Francis Hotoman, 
"contrived a cunning device for establishing himself in his new 
dominions ; for whereas all the magistracies and honors of the 
kingdom, such as dukedoms, earldoms, etc., had been, from the 
most ancient times, conferred upon select and deserving persons 
in the general conventions of the people, and were not hereditary 
but held only during good behaviour, Hugh Capet in order to 
secure to himself the affection and interest of the great men, made 
those honors perpetual, and ordained that, whoever by their 
merits and loyalty obtained them, should have a hereditary right 
in their titles and might leave them to their posterity." Following 


the example of Hugh Capet, William the Conqueror thus 
rewarded those of his followers in whose fidelity he could confide 
by making their titles hereditary. The highest rank in the 
English peerage is the Duke. 

CORONET OF A DUKE (PI. 27, fig. 1)— is composed of 
a circle of gold having on the edge eight strawberry leaves, five 
of which appear in the representation. The cap closing at the 
top is of crimson turned up ermine, as is also that of all the peers, 
except, of course, the spiritual barons. The word duke is derived 
from the Latin du.v, and means a leader or captain of an army. 
A Duke is styled "His Grace" and "the Most Noble." His eldest 
son is styled, by courtesy, Marquess, and yoVmger sons Lords, 
with the addition of their Christian names, such as Lord Thomas, 
Lord William, etc. AH Dukes' daughters are styled Ladies. A 
ducal coronet is sometimes used in arms as a charge, or in the 
composition of crests; and then it ought to be drawn as in PI. 28, 
fig. L See also frontispiece. 

CORONET OE A MARQUESS (PI. 27, fig. 3)— is a circle 
of gold having on the edge four strawberry leaves and as many 
pearls, alternately, the latter set on short points. A Marquess, 
called by the Saxons Markenreve, signified a governor and ruler 
of marches, and was originally an ofilicer whose duty it was to 
srovern the frontiers of the kim^dom. His stvle is "Most Honor- 
able," his eldest son is styled Earl, by courtesy, his younger sons 
Lords, and daughters Ladies. 

CORONET OF AN EARL (PI. 27, fig. 4,)— is a circle of 
gold from which spring eight high pyramidal points, each sup- 
porting a large pearl at the top with strawberry leaves between 


The title of Earl is the most ancient of any at present in nse, 
and the only one which has descended from the Saxons. With 
them the Earldom was annexed to a- particular tract of land, and 
was not only a title of honor but an office of justice. An earl's 
style is Right Ht^norable and his wife is a Countess, his eldest 
son is by courtesy a Viscount, and his daughters ladies. 

fig. 5) — is a circle of gold supporting sixteen pearls, nine of which 
appear in the representation. The title of \ iscount was originally 
applied to the sheriff of a county, and was not used as a title of 
nobility until 1440. He is styled "Right Honorable," his lady is a 
\ iscountess, but his sons have no title of peerage, nor are his 
daughters styled Ladies. 

fife- 6) — ^ circle of gold supporting six pearls, four of which show 
in the representation. The etymology of the word Baron is un- 
certain. It is a very ancient title and was formerly applied to all 
the nobility. A Baron's style is "Right Honorable." 

fig. 10. Note. — The French coronets have no cap. 

fig. 11. 

FRANCE— PL 27, fig. 12. 


fig. 14. 



HELMETS — A helmet, as is generally known, is that part 
of the defensive armor intended for the protection of the head in 
battle. The helmet was originally made from the skin of a beast, 
sometimes tanned in the form of leather; later it was composed 
of metal of various forms and ornamented with flowing hair or 
feathers. On the top of the helmet was often formed a ridge, 
so increasing the apparent height of the wearer and rendering his 
appearance more formidable to his enemies. As time passed on 
the helmet was ornamented by figures chased or embossed on 
the metal, as the wolf and child on the head of the 
statue of Rome, and the owl which frequently appears on the 
helmet of the ancient statues of Minerva, as well as many others. 
According to antiquarians the helmet was generally sculptured 
over the shield of a dead hero, and it continues to be placed in that 
position on coats of arms. The helmets used in English coat 
armour vary in shape and material according to the rank of the 
wearer. They are four in* number. That of the sovereign and 
princes of the blood, is all of gold, full-faced, shows six bars, and 
is lined with crimson (T^l. 28, fig. 5). The helmet of the noble is 
shown in profile, it is of steel with five bars of gold, the visor down 
or closed. It is also lined crimson. It is placed above the arms 
of Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, Viscounts and Barons without any 
particular difiference, as this helmet with the five gold bars belongs 
to all peers. (PI. 28, fig. G). The helmet of the baronet or knight 
is of steel, full-faced with the visor up or open, lined with crimson 
but without bars. (PI. 28, fig. 4. ) The dignity of baronet is of com- 
paratively recent creation, it having been instituted by James I. of 
England in the year IGll. It is the lowest hereditary title. The 


helmet of the Esquire or Gentleman is in profile formed of steel 
with the visor down or closed, (PI. 28. fig. 7). In connection with 
the word Gentleman it may be mentioned that this term originally 
comprehended all above the rank of yeoman, whereby even noble- 
men are properly called gentlemen. Woodward says, "A gentle- 
man is not merely a nobleman, but something more. The sover- 
eign can ennoble a man, but descent alone can make him a gentle- 
man." Of course, this is intended in the heraldic and not the 
conventional sense. There are many of the old families of Great 
Britain who are far more proud of their long line of descent as 
plain gentry, than they would be of a recently conferred title of 
nobility. Gentlemen by blood were those who could prove 
descent from four -generations of gentlemen on both the paternal 
and maternal side. 




Ba^gc0, Crcete, fiDottoee, Supporters, 
fIDantUnge ant) Ibatcbmcnte, 

I ADGES — These, although often implying 
p the same as a crest, were never placed 
upon the helmet, but were displayed on 
^ banners, ensigns, comparisons, and on the 
breasts and shoulders of the retainers of 
'^NC^n great barons. They were much used from 
the reign of Edward I. until the time of Queen Elizabeth, when 
they grew into disuse, although still retained by some ancient 
families to illustrate some particular circumstance or occurrence 
in the family. The first badge upon record was that adopted by 
Henry TL, a carbuncle, the badge of the house of Anjou. from 
being the son of Maud, the empress, daughter to Henry I., and 
of Plantagenet, Earl of Anjou. The Badge of the Black Prince 
was a sun arising out of the clouds, also the three ostrich's 


BADGE OF ENGLAND— the red and white roses united, 
ensigned with the royal crown. 

BADGE OF SCOTLAND— a thistle ensigned with the 
royal crown. 

BADGE OF IRELAND — a harp or. stringed ar., ensigned 
with the royal crown. 

BADGE OF WALES — a dragon pass., wings elevated gu. 
upon a mount vert. 

BADGE OF ULSTER — on a shield ar., a sinister hand, 
open and erect gu. This is borne on the paternal coat of each 
English baronet. 

BADGE OF NOVA SCOTIA ar. a saltire az. thereon an 
escutcheon of the arms of Scotland, with an imperial crown above 
the escutcheon and encircled with the motto: Fax mentis honestcc 

The Scottish clans wore for their badges native plants: 
Chisholm, the alder; Menzies, the ash, etc. 

CRESTS (L. crista', Fr. cirnicr) — also called Cognizance 
because the wearers were by these prominent devices readily 
known. They were the ornaments worn on the top of the helmet. 
Although crests do not appear common in English heraldry be- 
fore the 14th century, there appears to be abundant evidence that 
crest-like ornaments were used by the ancients to render them- 
selves known to their friends in battle and perhaps to add to the 
protective power of the helmet. Alexander the Great is said to 
have adopted a lion for his crest, and Julius Csesar chose a star 
for the like purpose, to denote his supposed descent from Venus. 
These early crests were made either of stiffened leather, wood 


or iron and fastened to the helmet by thongs of leather. The 
most valuable heraldic remains of antiquity, the medals, intaglios 
and gems, furnish sufficient proofs that the helmet generally bore 
a crest, and it is probable that from them arose the modern crests, 
which are now placed over and decorate coat armour. The helmet 
of Richard I. is often represented with a fan-like ornament, 
but this was not properly a crest or cognizance as he wore 
that, a lion passant guardant, on the front of his helmet. 
Edward III. was the first English monarch who wore a regular 
crest and he used the lion which has since continued to be the 
crest of British sovereigns. Many French families, before the 
levelling revolution commenced, had neglected to use the crest. 
The Germans, on the contrary, crowd the top of their shields with 
as many crests as they can muster; and it is impossible to deny 
that it has a most conspicuous and consequential appearance. 
Every quartering in the achievement seems entitled to a crest, 
and each crest has a helmet for its support; but on consideration 
this seems inconsistent with the actual use of the crest in war 
where a man can only wear one crest, although he may have 
thirty-two or more quarterings on his shield. In English heraldry 
one crest only can be properly borne unless the bearer has from 
the crown a grant of name and arms in addition to his own, as 
Chetwynd-Talbot, etc. At first only persons of rank bore crests, 
but for a long time past it has been usual to include them with 
every grant of arms. Crests are sometimes blazoned as issuing 
from a coronet or on a cap of maintenance, but if these are not 
specified, then the crest must rest on a wreath, as shown in PI. 8, 
fig. 7. Beneath the crest and pendent from the helmet is frequently 


seen a flowing drapery known as a Lambrequin, see PI. 30. This rep- 
resented a covering which served to protect the hehnet from heat 
and dust, and being exposed in battle to cuts from the sword, 
curled and twisted itself in all sorts of ways; the more they were 
hacked and cut, the greater appeared the glory of the champion, 
since every slash was a proof of the peril and danger he had under- 
gone in the engagement. The Mantle is shown in the frontispiece. 
It is a sort of cloak or mantle of fur extending behind the coat of 
arms and sufficiently ample to include the whole achievement. 
The mantle of a sovereign is of gold, doubled with ermine. For 
a long time mantles (other than that of the sovereign) were 
painted gules and lined argent without any regard to the tinctures 
of the arms, but it has now been decided by the Heralds' College 
that mantlings should be in common with the wreath, illumined 
with the two first tinctures named in blazon, unless for some 
peculiar and well grounded reason. Therefore, if a coat of arms 
be described in the grant as a.curc a tcsse or, the mantling ought 
to be, the outside azure, and the inside or; if the coat be argent, 
three cheverons gules, the mantling ought to be, the outside gules, 
the inside argent; for it must be observed that the metals are al- 
ways in the inside of the mantling; why it is so, is difficult to ex- 
plain, but it appears probable that as leather, gilt, or silver would 
not stand the weather so well as common pigment, the ancient 
custom (on which the modern regulation is founded) was to place 
it on the inside for that reason. If the coat be blazoned'rn;n'/z<r 
a fesse sa, the mantling ought to be argent and sable, as the furs 
are never expressed on the wreath nor lambrequin. ^ 

MOTTOES (L. inscriptis) — according to Guillim, a word, 


saying or sentence which gentlemen carry in a scroll under the 
arms and sometimes over the crest. Mottoes occasionally allude 
to the name of the bearer, and often to the bearings. They, no 
doubt, owe their origin to cris dc guerre, as when each tenant 
under a feudal superior brought his own vassals into the field 
and had a separate war cry. The English Royal cry was "St. 
George for England"; the French cried "Montjoye St. Denis"; 
the cry of the Scotch clan of Seyton was "St. Bennet and Set on," 
a punning allusion to the name of the head of the clan, and so on. 
Mottoes, although perhaps more ancient than coat armour, are 
not considered so strictly hereditary, but may be taken, changed, 
varied, or relinquished at pleasure, and by the rules of heraldry 
are not permitted to be used at all by women. About the earliest 
motto recorded in English heraldry was that given to the Knights 
of the Garter by Edward III. when he founded that illustrious 
order, viz., Honi soit qui vial y pcusc, and which legend forms part 
of the British royal arms to this day. The subject of mottoes 
cannot be dismissed without notice of the high religious and 
moral tone of nearly all of them. Witness a few taken at random 
from the annals of heraldry; that of Bradshaw: We are not horn 
for ourselves alone; Guilford: Virtue is the only v.ohility; Gerard: In 
God is my hope; FoUett: / elinib zi'Jiere virtue leads; Clarke: God 
forbid that I should glory save in the Gross. And so on through 
numberless instances there shines out the sentiment of the highest 
virtue and religious feeling. That the bearers of these mottoes 
did not always act up to them must be admitted, but the very fact 
of their choosing such phrases showed their esteem for, and 
aspiration towards, high and holy things. 


SUPPORTERS — These are the figures placed on either 
side of the shield which they appear to support. Their origin is 
doubtful, but the practice of using them is unquestionably an an- 
cient one. It has been suggested that they were at first painted as 
if supporting the shield from behind, and that the head appearing 
above the shield gave rise to the crest. But there does not appear 
to be much ground for this opinion, and it is far more probable 
that the use of supporters on coats of arms arose from the practice 
of the knights at tournaments, having their shields held or sup- 
ported by two retainers disguised to represent lions, tigers, 
leopards, etc. Another suggestion has been made that supporters 
owe their existence on coats of arms as engraved on seals, etc., 
to the fact that the latter being circular and the artist who cut 
them finding a vacant space at either side filled it up out of his 
own exuberant fancy. But it is not probable that badges so 
highly honorable should owe their existence to a circumstance 
so insignificant, or that King Henry VIII., when he granted sup- 
porters to the peers of each degree, should allow them as an off- 
spring of so mean a parentage. Whatever may have been their 
origin, when once assumed and descended from father to son in 
succession, an absolute right is given to continue such supporters, 
and that no one of the descendants, of such families ought ever to 
alienate them, especially if such supporters have been assumed 
previous to the limitation and formal grant by the sovereign, 
commenced in England in the reign of Henry VIII., because such 
possessory right is far more desirable than any modern grant 
that can be obtained from an office of arms; nor has it been 
customary in former times to change or alter the family sup- 


porters, except in some peculiar instances sanctioned by royal 
authority. In England, in addition to the above custom, the 
right to bear supporters is confined to Peers of the Realm, 
Knights of the Garter and Bath, and to those who may have 
obtained them by Royal Grant. Garter King of Arms has not 
the power to grant them to any person below the degree of a 
Knight of the Bath, unless acting under special direction from the 
sovereign; but in Scotland Lord Lyon may, by virtue of his ofBce, 
do so without any such royal w^arrant. In Scotland the right to 
supporters is universally conceded to the Chiefs of the various 
clans ; and they were granted to the Nova Scotia baronets by their 
patents of creation. In Ireland they are borne by the heads of 
the different Septs; and in Wales, the Barons of Edeirnion in 
Merioneth (who enjoyed Baronial rights in their domains, and 
had those rights acknowledged and confirmed, after the subjuga- 
tion of their country, by special grants from the English mon- 
archs) enjoyed, for a long series of generations, the use of sup- 

square* piece of cloth, framed and surrounded by four boards 
covered with black baize, placed on the front of a house, generally 
over the entrance, at about the level of the second floor, where it 
remains from six to twelve months, when it is removed to the 
parish church. On this hatchment, as it is called, are painted the 
arms of the deceased person, whereby may be known the rank 
he or she held when living, the whole distinguished in such a man- 
ner that the beholder can decide whether the deceased was mar- 
ried or single, etc. The hatchment is suspended from one corner 


of the square, so that the diagonal Hne becomes the perpendicular. 
If the deceased be a bachelor his full coat of arms including crest, 
etc., is painted on a black ground. If a single woman her arms 
are painted on a lozenge, bordered with knotted ribbons, also on 
a black ground. If the deceased were a married man, his arms 
showing his wife's arms impaled (or if his wife were an heiress, 
then her arms would be placed upon an escutcheon of pretence), 
would be painted, the dexter half on a black and the sinister half 
on a white ground. For a woman whose husband is alive the 
same arrangement holds good, except that the sinister half of the 
hatchment is black, and the dexter half white. For a widower 
the same as for a married man, but the whole ground is black. 
For a widow the husband's arms are given with her own, but upon 
a lozenge with ribbons, and without crest or appendages, the 
whole ground being black. 

In Scottish hatchments, the arms of the father and mother of 
the deceased are sometimes placed in the two lateral angles of the 
lozenge, and occasionally the 4, 8 or 16 genealogical escutcheons 
are ranged along the margin. 




Ikinge of Hrme, Iberalbe an& ipurciuivante* 

ERALDS were originally the messengers 
employed between sovereigns or com- 
manders of armies. It was their province 
to challenge, denounce or proscribe, and 
)c the communications they bore, generally 
^i:^ verbal, were of great importance as result- 
ing in the blessings of peace or the horrors of war. Their persons 
were inviolable, and however distasteful the message, the mes- 
senger must be dismissed in safety and honor. Heralds as an 
order proljably arose as follows: Anciently it was the custom of 
sovereigns to take under their protection such of their most 
valued and experienced officers who had been disabled from 
active service in the field, in order that they might have the benefit 
of their advice in carrying out projected enterprises. They were 
also further employed to carry messages and negotiate or settle 
disputes with hostile parties. Acting in this character as con- 
fidential agents they were received and dismissed by kings and 


princes with honor and esteem. The institution of tournaments 
and jousts opened a new field for the employment of these 
veterans; for it became their business to regulate and conduct 
those exercises, which they were well enabled to do, not only from 
their militar}' experience, but being themselves of noble birth, 
they were well acquainted with the nobility and gentry, and there- 
fore well qualified to judge of an applicant's elegibility to enter 
the lists. The arms of those wishing to join in the tournament 
were displayed in or near the lists as a criterion of the gentility 
of the owner, and the veterans having to give a certificate to that 
effect, it was necessary that they should be acquainted with the 
devices each family had assumed, to prevent them being borne 
by those who were not entitled to them. The same officers were 
very useful during the crusades, being employed in keeping up a 
constant intercourse between the different armies. As it was 
necessary that those claiming to be the accredited messengers of 
a sovereign or prince, should bear some visible token showing 
them to be such, it is probable that about this time they were 
invested w^ith the coat of arms or badge of the potentate whose 
representative they vvxre, and that thus arose the tabard as at 
present worn by heralds. It is also probable that they would 
then be styled heralds; though how this term came to be used 
cannot now be discovered. Some probability is given to this 
view by the fact that soon after this tune, the word hcraldus occurs 
in the imperial constitutions of Frederick ^nobarbus, and that 
they provided for the safe conduct and inviolable security of such 
officers. After the return of the expeditions to the Holy Land, 
the benefits arising from such attendants would be so evident to 


the princes, that they would retain and extend this manner of 
intercourse. It is difficult to fix the precise time, at which the 
office of herald under that or any other appellation was introduced 
into England. The oldest public muniments, which have been 
discovered, wherein English heralds are mentioned, are some 
made in the reign of Edward III. Heralds from the time of their 
first introduction into England, were the immediate and sub- 
ordinate ministers of the marshal and constable, they had the 
cognizance, inspection, marshaling and regulation of coat armor 
and had the conduct of public ceremonies. 

For a great length of time these officers have been divided 
into three classes or degrees, viz. Kings, Heralds and Pursuivants 
of arms. It is supposed that the title of king of arms was given 
to that person wdio was the chief or principal officer presiding 
over the heralds of any kingdom, and that it owes its rise to the 
French. The present number of English kings of arms is three, 
the first and chief of them is entitled Garter, prineipal king of arms ; 
the second, Clareneieux, king of arms; and the third, Norroy, 
king of arms. Garter among other duties has the correction of 
arms, and all ensigns of honor usurped or borne unjustly, and 
also the granting of arms to deserving persons. The jurisdiction or 
province of Clareneieux comprehends the south, east and west 
parts of England, that of Norroy all northward of the river Trent. 
By charter, they have power to visit families, to set down their 
pedigrees, distinguish their arms, grant arms, and with Garter to 
direct the other heralds. 

The present number of Heralds is six; viz. Windsor, Chester, 
Lancaster, Richmond, Somerset and York. Although the titles 


of these officers are taken from separate places, it must not be 
supposed that their offices are local, or that they have any 
particular jurisdiction, the names are only nominal, they being all 
officers at large. Next follow the Pursuivants of Arms of whom 
there are four, viz. Rouge Croix, Blue Mantle, Rouge Dragon 
and Portcullis. The pursuivant is a novice, or in a state of proba- 
tion for future promotion. Anciently the term of noviciature was 
seven years, after the expiration of which the pursuivant was 
elegible to the office of herald; and this institution was then so 
carefully attended to, that the sovereign was allowed to dispense 
with one year only, and that but on extraordinary occasions ; but 
lately it has been determined by a judgment in Westminster 
Hall, that a person may lawfully be made a herald without ever 
having been a pursuivant. 

The kings, heralds and pursuivants of arms were first in- 
corporated by Richard III. who granted them a house called 
Colde Arbor in the parish of Allhallows the Less, in the city of 
London; this, however, was seized by Henry VH. as personal 
property, and the heralds were without an official residence until 
the reign of Mary, when Derby House was granted to them. 
This was destroyed by the great fire of 1666, but the books and 
nuuiiments were saved, and shortly afterwards the present college 
was built between St. Paul's Cathedral and the Thames, and forms 
one of the handsomest and best designed brick edifices in 
London, as well as the home of a most valuable genealogical 
library. The duties of heralds at the present day is more especi- 
ally the regulation of the proper bearing of arms, tracing out 
genealogies and making pedigrees. Besides the herald's college 
at London, there is the Lord Lyon, king of arms for Scotland, 
who is second king at arms for Great Britain, and also Ulster 
King at Arms for Ireland. 




Ibow to fIDarebal Enne. 


ARSHALING is the arranging on one 
shield of all the arms to which the bearer 
is entitled, whether by direct descent or 
by marriage. If the various arms do not 
make up an even number, then it is usual, 
yly'^^^^o although not necessary, to repeat the first 
in the last quarter; and when there are only two coats of arms to 
be marshalled, the paternal arms occupy the first and fourth 
quarters, and the maternal arms the second and third. A shield 
is said to be quartered when divided into four equal parts by a 
line in pale crossed by a line in fesse (see PI. 3) quarterly. Any 
of the quarters may again be divided in a similar manner, when 
they are said to be quarterly quartered; or the whole shield may be 
equally divided into as many divisions as may be required, by 
perpendicular and horizontal lines. A very early instance of 
preserving the heraldic insignia of a family extinct in the male 
line, occurs in the arms of Eleanor of Castile, the queen of 
Edward I., who has upon her tomb, a shield of four quarters, 


in the first and fourth of which are the arms of Castile, and in 
the second and third the arms of Leon. Another early 
instance is that of John Hastings, second earl of Pembroke, 
who died about 13TG, who seems to have been the first English 
subject who quartered arms. He bore, quarterly, first and fourth, 
or a luaunch gules for Hastings; second and third, barry of ten 
argent and azure, an orle of as many martlets gules for Valenee; the 
latter, in right of his great, grandmother Isabel. The art of 
quartering arms is undoubtedly an admirable means of showing 
at one view, the representation of several different families; it is 
not therefore surprising to find it resorted to, at so early a period 
as the fourteenth century, when armorial insignia were held in 
such high repute, and when no more striking means could be 
found to exhibit to a beholder the high connections of a warrior 
than by placing the arms of his ancestors on his own shield. 

A man may bear the arms of his wife with his own in one of 
two ways, viz. by impalement, or by an escutcheon of pretence, 
the latter only if she be an heiress, or co-heiress. 

In impaling arn:s (the shield being divided by a line in pale, 
see PI. 8, per pale) the following rules must h^ observed. The 
entire arms of the husband must be placed on the dexter side, and 
those of the wife on the sinister, except in cases where one or 
both of the coats are surrounded by bordures; in the event of 
which, the bordure goes no further than around the edge of the 
shield, stopping at the line of impalement, and if the bordure be 
charged, those bearings on that part of the bordure wdiich is 
omitted must also be left out. 

No husband can impale his wife's arms with his own on a 


surcoat of arms, ensign or banner; because when a commander 
displays his banner in the field, the lady's arms cannot have the 
least pretension to be there; his men are to fight under his banner, 
not under that of his wife. In like manner it would be incon- 
sistent to impale the arms of the wife with those of the husband 
upon any official seal, but they may be impaled on any instrument 
or article of domestic use, such as a piece of plate, the panels of a 
carriage, etc. No husband impaling his wife's arms with his' 
own, can surround the shield with the order of the Garter, or with 
any other order (except she be a sovereign of the order), because 
although the husband may give the half of his escutcheon, yet he 
cannot share his order of knighthood with his wife. 

Impaled arms are also borne by ecclesiastical as well as civil 
officers, such as archbishops, bishops, etc. The same principle of 
marshaling is here observed, with the exception, however, that 
the arms annexed to the office are placed on the dexter side of the 
shield; thus precluding the possibility of showing the armorial 
ensigns of the wife in the same shield with those appertaining to 
the office; in which case there must be an additional shield for the 

We now come to the alternative manner of uniting a man's 
arms with tho.^e of his wife, viz. by an escutcheon of pretence. 
If the lady be a representative, or co-heiress (after the decease of 
her father), the husband bears her paternal arms, with the quarter- 
ings belonging thereto, in an escutcheon of ])retence over his own 
(see PI. G, fig. 4). According to the rules of heraldry, a man 
cannot so place the arms of his wife during her father's life-time 
although she is heir expectant of him, nor can a lady in such case 


quarter the arms of her mother, aUhough an heiress, during her 
Hfe-time. It sometimes happens that a lady is heiress to her 
mother, without being so to her father, who marrying a second 
wife has male issue, which becomes the representative of the 
father. In order, therefore, to obtain for the lady what she is 
unquestionably entitled to, the inheritance of her mother, the 
heralds have adopted a method, which shows at once the rep- 
resentation, which is by placing the arms of her father in a canton 
on the maternal coat; thus enabling her to quarter all the arms to 
which her late mother became entitled. The son of an heiress 
quarters both the paternal and maternal arms which thenceforth 
become one coat. Thus it will be seen that where a man impales 
his wife's arms, they (the maternal arms) do not descend to his 
issue, his wife having brothers who transmit those arms to their 
children; but when a man places his wife's arms over his own in 
an escutcheon of pretence (she being an heiress and therefore 
having no brothers), his issue quarters the maternal arms with 
those of their father, so preserving that particular coat from 

The manner of disposing the several coats is illustrated in 
PI. 29. The central shield represents the arms of A whose 
daughter (fig. 3) is an heiress, she having no brothers, B (fig. 2) 
marries her, and places her arms over his own on an escutcheon 
of pretence (fig. 4), this couple have a daughter only, no sons, 
and this daughter quarters the arms of both parents (fig. 6); 
C (fig. 5) marries this lady and places her arms over his own, as in 
the last instance (fig. 7), they have several sons who quarter the 
arms of both parents, and one of whom (fig. 9) marries D (fig. 10), 


who is the daughter of D (fig-. 8), but this lady has brothers, so is 
not an heiress, her husband therefore impales her arms with his 
own (fig. 11), and their children use only the paternal arms 
(fig. 12). 

The above is the English mode of quartering; in Scotland 
and on the Continent the arms of all ancestors are admitted 
whether the wives were heiresses or not. 

The reader is referred to figs. 13, 14, 15 and IG on PL 29 for 
methods of uniting the arms of husband and wife where a man 
marries more than once. 

If a man marries a widow, he marshals her maiden arms 

A widow bears on a lozenge the arms of her late husband 
and herself, but if she marries again she ceases to bear the arms of 
her former husband, unless lie had been a peer, when she would 
continue to bear his and her arms, as before, on a lozenge, and her 
present husband would marshal her arms with his own on a 
shield, and the shield ar.d lozer^ge would be grouped, the shield 
having precedence. 

A Peeress in her own right, if married to a Peer, has her own 
arms and those of her husband fully blazoned, and the lozenge 
and the shield with all their accessories are marshaled to form 
one group, the arms of the higher in rank having precedence. 

If a maiden or dowager lady of quality marry a commoner, 
or a nobleman inferior to her in rank, their coats of arms may be 
set beside one another in two separate escutcheons, upon one 
mantle or drapery; on the one the husband impales her arms in 
the ordinary way, and on the other are the lady's arms alone in a 


lozenge. Should, however, the lady be an heiress there are still 
two escutcheons used, that on the dexter side bearing the arms 
of the husband with those of his wife on an escutcheon of pretence 
ensigned with her coronet, and that on the sinister having the 
arms of the lady alone on a lozenge with supporters and coronet. 

The Herald kings, in like manner, bear two shields, forming 
a single group, on the dexter shield are their official, impaled 
with their personal arms, and on the sinister shield their personal 
arms are marshaled with the arms of their wives. 

An unmarried lady bears her paternal arms on a lozenge, 
without anv crest. 




Ibovv to &ra\\) an& paint a doat of Hrms. 

his chapter being intended more especially 
for the assistance of amateurs, is neces- 
sarily somewhat elementary in its nature. 
And first as to the material on which it 
is proposed to paint the coat of arms. 
^i.v£Xe; s^i; ^ ^'^-ts^'gq)'^ We have found the most suitable for the 
purpose to be Whatman's drawing paper, moderately rough, a 
large sheet of which can be obtained for 25 cents, and cut up as 
needed; or if it be desired to paint on card, the best is London 
Ixjard. Be careful that neither paper, nor card has a glazed sur- 
face, or you will find that the colors will not lie evenly on it. 

The brushes needed are about six in number, ranging from 
the finest to medium size; the small ones had better be of sable; 
for the larger size, camel's hair will answer the purpose. The 
colors required are as follows: orange vermilion, h^rench blue, 
emerald green, Prussian blue, gamboge, crimson lake, madder, 
brown, burnt sienna, yellow ochre, neutral tint, sepia, Chinese 
white, slab of gold, ditto of silver (or, if preferred aluminium), 


bottle of waterproof ink, a piece of India rubber and one of ink 
eraser, two yards of tracing paper, one hard and one soft pencil, 
a pointed agate burnisher. A drawing board about 17 inches by 
21 inches will be needed, costing about a dollar, also a T square, 
long enough to reach across the board, one or two set squares, 
a few drawing pins, a draughting pen, and a pair of compasses 
with adjustment for pen and pencil. All these articles can be 
procured of the best quality of Kolesch & Co., 155 Fulton Street, 
New York City. (:::ee advt.) 

Many prefer the moist colors in pans to the cakes, as the 
former can be used to the last of the pigment and thus waste is 
avoided. Being now ready to commence operations, cut a piece 
of drawing paper about 14 inches by 12 inches and pin same on 
board, or better still, slightly dampen the paper with clean water, 
gum the edges, and so fasten on board, this properly done ensures 
an even surface. Now, as to size of shield, unless there is some 
reason to the contrary, such as fitting a frame, etc., a good size 
will be found to be about double the length and breadth of the 
sketch given on PL 30. It may here be mentioned that these 
arms are quite supposititious, and the name "Taylor" is merely 
put to show where the name should go. Your paper being ready, 
pencil a perpendicular line down the centre, and leaving the crest 
and helmet for the time being, draw in pencil on the right hand 
side of the line, the right half of the shield, lambrequin, scroll and 
ribbon, double the size of copy, and as nearly like it as possible by 
the eye; now, take a piece of tracing paper a little more than half 
the size of the drawing paper, pin it down at the four corners, so 
that it projects over the centre line towards the left about half-an- 
inch ; with the soft pencil trace the lines already drawn, clearly and 


firmly, then unpin the tracing paper, turn it over, so that the 
pencil lines are now next the drawing paper, and so that it oc- 
cupies precisely the same position on the left side of the centre 
line, as it formerly held on the right, pin it down in this position, 
and then with some hard, smooth substance, such as the end of a 
paper-knife, rub carefully over the traced lines, tolerably hard, 
but not sufficiently so to disturb or tear the tracing; when all the 
lines have been gone over, unpin one side of the tracing and 
see if the lines are perfect on the drawing paper, if not, replace 
tracing and again rub over the defective parts. By this means 
you will get on the left hand side of the centre line, a perfect - 
counterpart of the right hand side, which it is very difficult to 
obtain in any other way. Now, draw in the helmet and crest. 
Following the sketch as an example, we find the field is argent 
(silver) and the cheveron gules (red), this being so, the lambre- 
quin must be silver and red. A word as to silver: there is no 
denying that silver is apt to tarnish in course of time, so some 
heraldic artists leave what should be silver, a plain white, others 
use a preparation of aluminium which is more lasting than silver 
but not so brilliant. The writer, however, prefers to use silver, 
as the aluminium looks dull, and the plain white unfinished, and, 
after all, if silver does in time tarnish, it is easily renewed. The 
silver and gold are sold in small slabs; the silver at 50 cents and 
the gold at $1.75; they are specially prepared, and are used just 
as water colors are used, and although they appear rather ex- 
pensive at first, they will be found in practice cheaper than any 
other good preparation. Gold and silver leaf might be used, but 
it requires considerable practice to lay these on satisfactorily. 


To return to our drawing, both silver and gold will need two 
coats, but take care that the first coat is thoroughly dry before 
laying on the second, and this applies to all tinctures. Paint with 
vermilion the parts of the lambrequin marked with vertical lines. 
Do not attempt to lay the colors on too thick, it is better to give 
an additional coat; depth of tone is best obtained by repeated 
washes. Shade the silver with neutral tint or sepia, and the 
vermilion with crimson lake. 

The Crest. Paint the hand with a very faint wash of 
crimson lake and shade with burnt sienna or madder brown; stafY 
of spear, burnt sienna; head of spear, silver; wreath, silver and 
vermilion alternately, shade silver with neutral tint or sepia, and 
vermilion with crimson lake. 

Helmet. The face and front portion as lined off from the 
rest, gold; and the remainder, silver. Scroll around shield, and 
that under it, yellow ochre or gold shaded with burnt sienna or 
madder brown to taste. The ribbon for Motto, vermilion, shaded 
crimson lake; the letters on the ribbon, gold, shaded India ink, 
and laid on with the finest brush. ^ 

The Che\'eron. First lightly pencil outline, then put some 
vermilion paint in draughting pen, and draw over pencil, heavy 
lines with the paint ; it is then easy to fill in the intervening space 
with the brush ; by this means a bold and sharp outline is ensured. 
Pursue the same plan in shading with burnt sienna or madder 
brown. The name below the arms can be rendered very effective 
by making the capital letter gold and the remainder red. 
Flourishes are best avoided unless the artist is very proficient in 
that method of ornamentation. This finishes the example we 


have selected with the exception of the burnishing. Do not 
attempt to burnish gold or silver until at least three hours after 
it has been laid on, then place painting upon a piece of glass, and 
with the pointed agate burnisher trace figures upon it. The 
shape of these figures must be left to the taste of the artist, but an 
example is given in the initial letter of the preface to this book, 
and in the small scrolls upon the helmet in the sketch, and that 
in the frontispiece. If it is desired to avoid the expense of gold, 
cadmium yellow makes a good substitute. 

For azure, mix French blue freely with Chinese white; this 
will admit of a number of coats being laid on, without the color 
becoming too dark. Shade blue with neutral tint. Shade emerald 
green with a darker green, made by mixing gamboge with Prus- 
sian blue. For purple, mix crimson lake and Prussian blue, and 
shade with a darker tint of the same. For sable, neutral tint, as 
many coats as may be needed, generally about three. Should a 
mantle be preferred as an embellishment, the frontispiece will fur- 
nish an example. 

It frequently happens that there are one or more metal 
charges imposed on a colored ground. As it is difficult to work 
the color in and out the intricate outlines of some of these, and 
still preserve an even coat, the following plan will be found of 
service. Trace the charges first in pencil, then with a fine pen 
go over the pencil lines with waterproof India ink, allow about 
half-an-hour for the ink to get thoroughly hard; you can then go 
over the whole surface with the color, and the ink lines will show 
faintly through, on which can be laid the gold or silver, as the case 
may be. This method cannot, however, be employed in the 


reverse case; that is with a colored charge on a metal ground, as 
the latter obscures the lines. 

In the above hints the writer has given the results of his own 
practical experience, and although instructions are very neces- 
sary to start with, yet a great deal must necessarily be left to the 
taste of the artist, who will, doubtless, benefit far more by 
systematic perseverance and conscientious practice than by a 
whole volume of printed directions. In taking leave of his 
readers the compiler begs to wish them every success in what 
cannot fail to be at least a beautiful pastime, and may be some- 
thing much more useful and permanent. 






ABAISSfi (Fr.) — used when a figure is depressed or lowered. 

ABATEMENT (L. dwiinuationcs anuoniui, Fr. brisurc) — a mark- 
used to denote some dishonorable action. 

ABISME (Fr.) — a bearing placed in the centre and surrounded 
by others. 

ABOUTfi (Fr.) — conjoining at the ends. 

ACCOLLfi (Fr.) — collared, also enwrapped or twisted. 

ACCOMPAGNfiE ^Fr.;— between, 

ACCORNfi rFr.;— horned. 

-A-CCROCHE (Fr.) — one bearing liooked into another. 

ACCROUPI (Fr.) — meaning couchant when applied to hares, 

ACCRUED— a tree full-grown. 

ACORN — the fruit of the oak. 

ACORN — slipped and leaved. PI. 7, fig. 0. 

ACORNED — the oak tree with acorns on it said to be acorned 
or fructed. PI. 11), fig. 22. 

ADDER — nowed or twisted as a knot. PI. 7, fig. 7.. 

ADEXTR£ (Fr.) — anything placed on the dexter side. 

ADDITIONS OE HONOR— see Arms of Augmentation in 
first part of book. 



DORSED — when bearings are placed back to back as the 
eagle's wings in the crest of the A¥ashington arms. See 

ACCRUED— a tree full-grown. 

ADUMBRATED (Fr. omhrc) — shadow only of a bearing. 

conf route)— iuW-iSiC^A. PI. 18, f^g. 10. 

AIGLETTE or AIGLON (Fr.)—2i small eagle. 

AIGUISfi (L. cuspidata) — pointed. 

AISL£ — winged or having wings. 

AJOURfi (Fr.) — same as voided, applied to ordinaries. 

ALANT — a mastiff dog. PI. 7, fig. S. 

A LA QUISE or CUISSE r/^r.j— eagle's leg erased at thigh. 
PI. 12, fig. 22. 

ALIECfi or ALAIZE (Ft.) — couped or cut off from side of 
shield. PL 5, fig. 7. 

ALLERION (L. aquikr mntilcc) — an eagle without beak or feet. 

ALLUMEE (Fr.) — eyes of boar, etc., painted red. 

ALMOND— slip fructed. PI. 7, fig. \). 

ALTAR — Roman, drawn in heraldry as inflamed. PI. 7, lig. 10. 

ALTERNATE (Fr. alfcnic) — by turns, one after another. 

AMBULANT — walking or passant. 

AMPHISBENE or AMPHISTER— a flying serpent. PI. 7, 

fig. 11- 
ANANAS— a pine-apple. PI. 7, fig. 12. 
ANCHOR— as usually drawn. PL 7, fig. 13. 



ANCHOR CABLED — cable is always entwined 'ronnd anchor. 

PI. 7, fig. 14. 
ANGEL — with w'ing-s expanded. PI. 7, fig. 1-"). 
ANGEL — kneeling with wings expanded. PI. 14, fig. 23. 
ANGEMM, ANGENNE or ANGENIN (]'r.)—2. six leaved 

flower, pierced. PI. 7, fig. 16. 
ANGLED — acute or beviled, see PI. 1, Partition lines. 
ANGLED-RECT— see Angled, PL 1, Partition lines. 
ANGLED QUARTER — sometimes called nowy scjiiare or nowy 

quadrat, as a pale nowy quadrat or quarterly. PI. 25, fig. 13. 
ANILLE (Fr.) — a mill-rind or fcr-dc-vwUnc. 
ANIME ("Fr.;— see Incensed. 
ANNODATED — enwrapped or bowed, embowed, bent in the 

form of an S. PI. 10, fig. 8. 
ANNULET (L. annulus, Fr. aiuidct) — a ring. PI. 7, fig. 17. 
ANNULETS — conjoined in fesse. PI. 7, fig. IS. 
ANNULETY or ANNULATED— a cross with rings at the 

ANTE or ENTE (Fr.) — pieces engrafted into each other. 
ANTELOPE — a small animal somewhat like a deer with straight 

horns. PI. 7, fig. 19. 
ANTIQUE TEMPLE— PI. 7, fig. 20. 
ANVIL — heraldically dra\\n as in PI. 7, fig. 2L 
APAUMEE (Fr.) — an open hand with palm shown. PI. 7, fig. 22. 
APE — usually drawn with a collar. PI. 7, fig. 23. 
APPLE— PI. 7, fig. 24. 
AQUILATED — adorned with eagles' heads. 



ARBALESTE— a cross-bow. PL 8, fi,^. 1. 

ARCH— double and single. PI. 8, fig. 2. 

ARCHED, ARCHY.or ENARCHED— when both sides of an 

ordinary are bowed alike, in the form of an arch. 

PL 25, fio-. 11. 
ARGENT — silver or white, when engraved, left plain. PI. 1. 
ARM — erect, coiiped at the elbow ppr. holding a spear. 

PI. 8, fig. 3. 
ARM — -in bend, in the hand a club ppr. PI. 8, fig. 4. 
ARM — embowed in mail armour, hand grasping staff. PI. 8, fig.5. 
ARM- — erect, couped at elbow, vested gu, cuffed ar. holding in 

hand ppr. a baton sa tipped of the second. PI. 8, fig. 6. 
ARM — dexter in armour embowed, in hand a spear all ppr. — 

(common as a crest). PI. 8, fig. 7. 
ARMED (L. arrnatus, Fr. armcj — when the horns, claws or teeth 

of any beast, or the beak, or talons of any bird are in color 

different from the body, it is said to be armed of that color. 
ARONDIA (Fi'.J — anything circular. 
ARRACHE (Fr.) — same as Erased. 

ARRASWAYS— placed with corner in front. PL 8, fig. 8. 
ARROW— barbed and flighted or feathered. PL 8, fig. 9, dexter 

ARROWS — usually consist of three, unless otherwise stated 

drawn as in PL 8, fig. 9, Sinister side. 
ARROWS — when more than three, number must be stated as 

five arrows banded. PL 8, fig. 10. 
ASCENDANT — issuing upwards. 



ASEARE or ASEWRE— old English for azure. 

ASPECT — full faced or guardant. 

ASS'S HEAD— erased. PI. S. fig. 11. 

ASSURGENT — man or beast rising from the sea. 

ASTROID— same as Mullet. 

ASTROLABE — an instrument for taking the altitude of the 

sun. PI. 8, fig. 12. 
AT P).\Y — position of stag, standing on defence. PI. 23, fig. 17. 
ATHELSTAN'S CROSS— on a mound. PI. S, fig. 13. 
ATTIRED or HORNED — used when speaking of the horns of 

a stag, hart or buck. 
ATTIRES — both horns of a stag, when borne af^xed to scalp. 

PI. 8, fig. 14. 
x^ULNED — the aulnes or awnes, the beards of barley, etc. 
AURE — same as Guttee d'or, drops of gold. PI. 2. 
AVANT MUR (Fr.)—a wall attached to a tower. PI. 25, fig. 14. 
AVERLYE — semee or powdered. 
AVERSANT or DORSED— turned to show back part. 

PI. 8, fig. 15. 
AX or HATCHET- often borne in coat armor. PI. 8, fig. 16. 
AYLETS or SEA-SWALLOWS— generally painted sa beaked 

and legged gu., son.ictimcs called Cornish choughs. 

PI. 11, fig. 13. 
AZURE (Fr. azur) — blue color, indicated in engraving by hori- 
zontal lines. PI. 1. 




BADGER or BROCK— generally borne passant. PI. 8, fig. 17. 

BAILLONE (Fr.) — a lion ramp, in month a baton. 

BALL OE EIRE— or fired. PI. 8, fig. 18. 

BAND — the fillet or bandage by which a garb, arrows, etc., arc 

bound together. PL 8, fig. 10. 
BANDfi (Fr.) — same as bend. 
BANDED (Fr. empoigne lie) — as a garb, etc., when the band is 

of a different tincture. 
BANDEROLE— a streamer affixed to a crosier. PI. 8, fig. 10. 
BANNER or ELAG— displayed or disveloped. PI. 8, fig. 20. 
BAR (L. --c'cctis or fasciola ; Fr. fascc alizcc or fascc cndevise) — an 

ordinary in the form of, but less than the fess, and may be 

placed in any part of the field, but the fess cannot. PL 3 and 

BAR GEMELLE — a double bar, or two bars, placed near and 

parallel to each other. 
BAR PER AND PILE— a term anciently used, but should 

rather be called per fesse and pile. PL 3. 
BARBED (Fr. barhc) — the five green leaves on the out-side of 

a full-blown rose. PL 8, fig. 21. 
BARBED HORSE (Fr. chcval barbc)—^ horse barbed at all 

points is a war-horse completely armed. 
BARBEL (Fr. bars) — a fresh-water fish generally drawn em- 



BARNACLE (L. baniila) — a large water-fowl resembling a 

goose, belly white and brown, back black and brown, legs 

brown. PI. 8, fig. 22. 
BARON and FEMME — heraldic ternis'for husband and wife. 
BARRE or BARRE UNE (Fr.)—:\ bend sinister. 
BARRULET ( L. barrula; Fr. biircUc)— one fourth part of the bar 

BARRULY — a division of the shield into several equal parts 

of which it is a diminutive. 
BARRY (L. harrafiis; Fr. burcUc) — a transverse division of the 

shield into several equal partitions of two or more tinctures, 

interchangeably disposed termed barry of six, eight, ten or 

twelve pieces, the number must be specified and even. PL 3. 
BARRY BENDY — when the partition lines barways are crossed 

by others bendways. 
BAS£ (Fr. Jc bas dc ran) — the lower part of the shield, see PI. 1, 

points of the escutcheon. 
liAR-SHOT— a bar of iron having a ball at each end. PI. 8, 

fig. 23. 
r>ASTLISK— an imaginary animal represented like a wivern or 

cockatrice, with the head of a dragcMi at the end of its tail. 

PI. 8, fig. 24. 
PjASKET — usually drawn as in 1*1. 1), fig. 1. 
BASKET or SHRUTTLE — for winntnving corn, sometimes 

called a fan. PI. 2:{. fig. 1. 
BASSINET fF'r.) — ancient name of armour for the head. 
BAT or RERE-MOUSE— always borne displ. PI. 9, fig. 2. 



Bx\TON (Fr.) — a staff or truncheon, and is borne as a mark of 
illigetimacy, it is drawn couped from the sinister chief to 
the dexter base. PI. 5, fig. 17. 

BATTLE- AX — a weapon used in war. PI. 9, iig. 3. 

BATTLED ARRONDEE— means that the tops of the battle- 
ments should be circular. See PI. L 

BATTLED, EMBATTLED— one battlement upon another. 
See PL 1. 

BAUDRICK — a broad belt worn over right shoulder and under 
left arm, from which to suspend the sword. 

BEACON — see Fire-beacon. 

BEAKED (L. rostratus ct tibiatiis; Fr. bcqiie) — when the beak or 
claws of a bird are of different tinctures, they are blazoned, 
beaked and clawed, or membered, of that tincture, but the 
beak and claws of all birds of prey are termed armed, thus an 
eagle ppr. armed or, that is, of its natural color, beak and 
claws gold. 

BEAR — a beast of prey, a bear passant muzzled. PI. 9, fig. 4. 

BEAR RAMPANT— muzzled. PI. 9, fig. 5. 

BEAR'S HEAD and neck erased and muzzled. PL 9, fig. (I 

BEARDED or BLAZING- tail of a comet or star. PL 9, fig. 14. 

BEARING — any single charge. 

BEAVER or VIZOR — that part of the helmet which defends 
the face and is movable up and down. 

BEAVER — an amphibious PL 9, fig. 7. 

BEE-HIVE — beset with bees promiscuously volant. PL 9, fig. 8. 

BELLED — when a falcon or hawk has bells affixed to its legs. 



BELLS — affixed to legs of hawks are represented 'round. PL 9, 

fig. 9. Church bells. PL 9, fig. 13. 
BEND (L. toaiia; Fr. bandc) — one of the honorable ordinaries 

formed by two diagonal lines, drawn from the dexter chief 

to the sinister base. See plate 2. The word "bend" always 

means drawn as above; wlien the sinister is meant it must be 

so expressed. 
BEND SINISTER (Fr. nn barrc, or contraband) — every way 

similar to the bend, but drawn diagonally from the sinister 

chief to the dexter base. See PL 2. 
BEND ARCHY— or bowed. PL 25, fig. 11. 
BEND COMPONfiE or GOBONY— divided into chequers. 

PL 5, fig. 24. 


two rows of chequers. 
BEND COTTISED— means between cottises. PL 5, fig. 21. 

The cost is the uppermost figure. 
BEND FLORY — a bend with flciirs-dc-Us issuing from the 

sides. PL 6, fig. 7. 
BEND INDENTED EMBOWED or hacked and hewed on the 

side. PL 15, fig. 2(1. 
BEND NOWY — with semi-circular projection on each side. 

PL 25, fig. 15. 
BEND PER (Fr. tranchcc) — when the field is divided by a 

diagonal line from the dexter chief to the sinister base. 

See PL 3. 



BENDLET— a diminutive of the bend lialf its breadth. PL 5, 

fig. 21. The lowermost figure. 
BENDWAYS, or in bend — terms used to point out the position 

when charges are placed so as to occupy that part of the 

escutcheon to which the bend is allotted. 
BENDY — a division of the field into foiu-, six, eight, or more 

diagonal parts, bendways preserving an even number. See 

PI. 3. 
BESOM or BROOM. PI. 9, fig. 10. 
BE\ IL (Fr. cclopcj — a line cut off by another forming an acute 

angle. See PI. 1. 
BEZANT (Fr. hczans d'or) — a round fiat piece of gold, being, it 

is said, the current coin of -Byzantium. Its introduction 

into coat armour is supposed to have taken place at the time 

of the first crusade and since borne by the descendants of the 

champions of Christianity engaged in that and subsequent 

BEZANTfiE — when the field or charge is indiscriminately 

strewed over with bezants. 
BICAPITATED— with two heads. 
BICORPORATED— with two bodies. 
BILLET (L. latcrciiH; Fr. billcttcs) — oblong square figures. PI. 9, 

fig. IL 
BILLETTY (Fr. billcttcc)—stvt\xed with billets. PI. 22, fig. 22. 
BIRD-BOLT — a small arrow with a blunt head. 
BITTERN— a bird with long legs. PL 9, fig. 12. 



BLADED (Fr. tige) — when the stalk or blade of grain is borne 
of a different tincture from the ear or fruit. 

BLAZING STAR or COMET. PL 9, fig. 14. 

BLOOD-HOUND, always drawn on scent. PI. 9, fig. 15. 

BLUE — see Azure. 

BOAR— that is wild boar. PI. 9, fig. IG. 

BOAR'S HEAD— erased. PI. 9, fig. 17. 

BOATS — generally of the shape in PI. 9, fig. 18. 

BOOK or BIBLE— PI. 9, fig. 19. 

BORDER (L. bordura; Fr. hordure) — The border is looked upon 
by French heralds as an honorable ordinary and possesses 
one third part of the shield. English heralds, however, con- 
sider it as a mark of difference, to distinguish one part of the 
family from another and make it one fifth part of the shield 
in width. PI. 4, fig. 1. It should have no shadow and be 
parted from the field by a fine line only, except when there 
is a chief in the coat in which case the border runs under the 
chief. When any other ordinary as a fess, pale, bend, etc., 
forms the coat, the bordure passes over it. PI. 4, fig. -. 
If a coat be impaled with another, and either of them has a 
border, it nuist not m that case surround the coat it belongs 
to, but cease where the two coats unite and extend only to 
the line of impafement. PI. 4, fig. 3. 

BORDER BENDY— either dexter or sinister, divides it bend- 
ways into the number of pieces expressed. PI. 4, fig. 4. 


BOR ,... BRE 

BORDERS — when cliarged with bends, bars, chevrons, etc., 

show only the parts of such charges as would fall upon the 

border were they continued across the shield. 
BORDERS CHARGED — are very conniion in coat armour and, 

unkss the number is particularly expressed, always implies 

BORDER CHEQUY — three rows of chequers connterchanged. 

PI. 4, fig. 8. 
BORDER COMPONEE— PI. 4, fig. fj. 
BORDER OF THE FIELD— this border is never used in 

English armory though common in French and German. 
BOTEROLL fFr.j— tag of a broad-sword scabbard. PL 9, 

fig. 20. 
BOWED or EMBOWED— termed also fleeted or reflected, as 

an arm embowed, that is bent at the elbow. PI. 8, fig. 7. 

terms applied to a serpent when turned twice or thrice 'round 

the neck. 
BRACED (Fr. agraffe) — folded or interlaced. 
BRANCH — if fructed should show four leaves, if unfructed nine 

leaves, the sprig five leaves, and the slip three leaves. 
BRASSARTS— armour for the elbow. 
BRASSETS — armour for the arms. 
BRETESSED (Fr.) — embattled on both sides, opposite to each 

other. PI. 25, fig. 16. 



BRIDGES — number of arches should be specified. PI. 9, fig. '22. 
BRIGANDINE — a jacket, or coat of mail. 
BRISK or BRISEE (Fr.)same as Couped. 
BRISTLED- — hair on neck and back of a boar. 
BROAD-ARROW — differs from the pheon by having the in- 
side of the barbs plain. 
BROOM-PLANT— PI. J), fig. 23. 
BUCKLES — are of various shapes which should be expressed 

in the blazon. PI. 0, fig. 24. 
BUGLE-HORN — generally borne stringed and garnished. 

PI. 10, fig. 1. 
BULLFINCH— PL 10, fig. 2. 

BULL — common in coat armour, passant. PI. 10, fig. 3. 
BULL'S HEAD— cabossed, showing only full face. PL 10, 

fig. 4. 
BULL'S HEAD— erased. PL 10, fig. 5. 
BULLETS — generally termed pellets and ogresses, are roundles 

painted black and represent cannon balls. PL 2. 
BURGANET fFr. bourguignotc) — a steel cap worn by foot 

soldiers. PL 10, fig. (3. 
BUSH or BRUSH— of a fox, the tail. 
BUSTARD— a kind of wild turkey of a brownish color. PL 10. 

fig. 7. 



CABOSSED — head of a bull or other animal placed full faced, 

no part of the neck being shown. PL 10, fig. 4. 
CADENCY — see Distinctions of Houses in former part of work. 
CADUCCUS or MERCURY'S MACE. PI. 10, fig. 8. 
CALTRAPS — made with four points, and used to wound an 

enemy's cavalry. PI. 10, fig. 9. 
CAMEL— PI. 10, fig. 10. 

CAMELEON— drawn in armory as in PI. 10, fig. 11. 
CAMELOPARD — said to be a beast between a camel and a 

leopard. PI. 10, fig. 12. 
CANDLESTICK— PI. 10, fig. 13. 
CANELLE (Fr.) — same as Invected. 
CANNET (Fr.)—3. duck without feet or beak. 
CANNON — always mounted unless otherwise expressed. PI. 10, 

fig. 17. ■ 
CANTON — a diminutive of the quarter usually placed in the 

dexter chief, but may be in any of the other corners of the 

shield. PL 5, fig. 18. 
CANTONNEE — a Erench term to express a bearing placed in 

the midst of four bearings or groups of bearings. 
CAP CORNERED— used by deans, doctors, etc. PL 10, fig. 14. 

velvet, turned up ermine, with two points turned to the back, 



and was formerly a badge of higlj dignity, is borne by some 
families under the crest instead of the wreath. PL 10, fig. 15. 

CARTOUCHE — an oval shield in which the popes and church- 
men of noble descent in Italy place their armorial bearings. 

CART-\\^HEEL— PI. 10, fig. 1(». 

CASQUE (Fr.) — same as Helmet. 

CASTLE — a port between two towers. PI. 10, fig. 18. 



Note. — When the cement of the building is of another color 
from the stones, it is said to be masoned of that particular 

CAT (Fr. chat) — when borne as a charge, it is called cat-a- 
mountain and is always drawn guardant. PI. 10, fig. 22. 

CATHARINE WHEEL — an instrument of torture representing 
that on which St. Catharine suffered martyrdom. PI. 11, 
fig. L 

CKNTAUR — a fabulous beast, half man and half horse, called 
also Sagittarius the archer, the ninth sign in the Zodiac. 
PI. 10, fig. 23. 

CHALICE — a communion cup. PI. 11, fig. 20. 

CHAPLET — a garland or wreath of fiowers, laurel, oak, etc. 
PI. 10, fig. 19. 

CHAPOURNET— a chief divided by a curved line. PI. 25. 

fig. 17. 
CHAPPE — a term used when the field is divided bv two curved 



lines, issuing from the middle point in chief to the two base 

angles of the shield. PL 5, fig. 19. 
CHARGE — any figure depicted on the escutcheon. 
CHARGED — a shield is said to be charged with the bearing 

drawn upon it; and the term is applicable to any of the 

ordinaries or charges bearing any other device upon them, 

which are then said to be charged with such minor device. 
CHAUSSfi — signifying shod, in blazon denotes a section in base. 

PL 21, fig. 11. 
CHEQUfi or CHEQUY (Fr. eschcqucttc) —sl field or charge 

divided into equal squares of different tinctures. PL 5, fig. 22, 
CPIERUB — a child's head between two wings. PL 10, fig. 24. 
CPIESS-ROOK— used in the game of chess. PL 11, fig. 2. 
CHEVERON — a figure resembling two rafters meeting at top. 

See PL 3. 
CHEVERON PER — a division of the field or any charge by 

two pyramidical lines meeting at a point. See PL 3. 
CHEVERONEL — a diminutive of the cheveron, being half its 

breadth. PL 5, fig. 23. 
CHEVERONNY — when the field is divided into equal parts by 

lines in form of cheverons, it is termed cheveronny of the 

number of pieces. 
CHEVERONWAYS — in the position of the cheveron. 
CHIEF (Fr. nn chef) — the upper third part of the shield. PL 2. 
CHIEF — charged with chapournet. PL 25, fig. 17. 
CHIEF COUVERT — shadowed or partly covered by hangings, 

it is a rare bearing. 



CHIMERA — a fictitious beast, said to have tlie liead of a lion 

breathing flames, the body of a goat and tlie tail of a dragon. 
CFfURCH — as a bearing or crest. PI. 11, fig. o. 
CINQFOIL or CINQUEFOIL— the five leaved grass, drawn 

as in PL 11, fig. 4. 
CIRCULAR WREATH — all wreaths are circular, being formed 

for the head, but are usually drawn in profile, when blazoned 

"a circular wreath," they must be drawn as in PI. 25, fig. 0. 
CITA.DEI. — a fortress raised within a town or citv for its 

defence. PI. 11, fig. 5, a citadel with two towers 
CEECHE— -a French term signifying any ordinary, pierced 

throughout, leaving on^y the outside lines. 
CLOSE — said of a bird, when the wings are folded close to the 

body; also of a helmet with the vizor down. 
CLOSET (Fr.) — a diminutive, or one half of the bar. 
CLUB — often borne in the hands of savages. PI. 8, fig. 4. 
COCK — termed in blazon a dunghill cock. PI. 11, fig. 6. 
COCKATRICE — differs from the wivern by being combed. 

wattled and spurred, like the dungliill cock. PI. 11, fig. H. 
COGNIZANCE — a term signifying the crest. 
COLLARED or Gorged — when a collar or coronet is 'round the 

neck of any animal. 
COLLATERALLY DISPOSED— set side by side. 
COLUMBINE — a flower drawn in heraldry as in PI. 11, fig. 7. 
COLUMN— generally of the Doric order. PI. 11, fig. 0. 
COMBATANT — two lions ramp, facing each other. PI. 18, 

fig. 12. 



COMPASSES— PI. 11, fig. 10. 

COMPONfiE or Gobony — composed of two colors in equal 

divisions or squares. 
CONEY or RABBIT (Fr. un lapin)— PL 11, fig. 11. 
CONFRONTE— same as Combatant. 
CONJOINED— linked together. PI. 7, fig. 18. 
COOTE— a water-fowl. PI. 11, fig. 12. 
CORBIE — a term for crow or raven. 

CORMORANT — a sharp-billed bird, in shape much like a goose. 
CORNISH CHOUGH — a species of crow or raven, bJack, with 

legs and beak red, common in Cornwall, Eng. PI. 11, fig. 13. 
CORNUCOPIA or HORN of PLENTY— represented as filled 

^\ith fruit, corn, etc. PI. 11, fig. 14. 
CORONATED — adorned with a coronet. 
CORONET — see former part of book. 
COST — a diminutive of the bend, containing in breadth one half 

of the bendlet, wdien borne alone is always termed a cost, 

but when borne in pairs are termed cottises. 
COTOY£ (Fr.) — same as Cottised. 
COTTISE or COST — a diminutive of the bend, containing one 

fourth of its breadth and generally borne in couples with a 

bend or charges between them. 
COUCHANT (Fr. coiichc )~\ymg on the ground. PI. 18, fig.8. 
COUNTER-CHANGED (Fr. dc I'liii cu autre)— mi alternate 

changing of the colors. PI. H, fig. 1. 
COUNTER-FLORY — when the edges of any ordinary or tres- 



sure are charged with flatr-dc-lis. PL 4. fig. 7, and PI. 6, 

COUNTER-RAGULY— raguled on botli sides. 

COUPLE-CLOSE — a diminutive of, and often borne with the 
cheveron in the same way as the cottise accompanies the 
bend, it should contain one fourth part of the cheveron. 

COUTEAU — a knife or sword. 

CRAB— a shell-f^sh drawn as in PL 2i, fig. 2L 

CRANE — a bird with long neck and legs. IM. 11, fig. 15. 

CRENELLfiE rFr.j— embattled. 

CRESCENT (Fr. croissant) — a half moon witli the horns turneci 
upwards. PL 11, fig. 16. 

CREST — see former part of book. 

CRINED (Fr. chcvcle) — denoting that the hair of a man or 
woman, the mane of a horse, etc., is of a different tincture. 

CROCODILE— PL 11, f^g. 17. 

CROISSANT CONTOURNfi— the decrescent or hah moon, 
the horns towards the sinister. Pi. 11*, fig. 5. 

CROIX RECROISfi rFr.J— same as Cross crosslet. 

CRONEL — the iron at the end of tlic tilting spear. PL 11. fig. IS. 

CROSIER or bishop's staff — generally depicted of gold. PL 11, 
fig. 19. 

CROSS — an honorable ordinary occupying one-fifth of the sur- 
face of the shield, if plain; but more, if charged with a bear- 
ing. See PL 3. 

CROSS AIOUISfiE or URDEE— cnupcd and pointed. PL 4, 
fig. 9. 



CROSS ALISfiE PATT£E— PL 4, t^,^. 10. 

CROSS-ANCHORED (Fr. micrce : L. {urcata)—P\. 4, fig. 11. 
CROSS of St. ANTHONY— is a cross taii. PL 7, fig. 4. 
CROSS-ADORNED— PL 4, fig. 12. 
CROSS AVELANE (L. mix ai'cUaua ; Fr. croix aTcUnc)—?\. 4, 

fig. 13. 
CROSS BARBED— PL 25, fig. 10. 
CROSS BORDERED or EIMBRIATED— that is edged with 

another tincture. PL 5, fig. 1. 
CROSS BOTONNEE (Fr. croix trcmcc)—V\. 4. fig. 14. 
CROSS CAL\\'\RY — or Cross of the Passion mounted on three 

steps. PL 4, fig. 15. 
CROSS CAPITAL— corniced at each extremity. PL 4, fig. 17. 
CROSS CHEOL'Y — the whole surface covered chequy and must 

ccnsist of three rows at least. 1^1. 4, fig. 18. 
CROSS CLECHEE— PL 25, fig. 20. 
CROSS COMMISSE— the cross taw mentioned by the 

Prophet Ezekiel chap. 9, v. 4. PL 7, fig. 4. 
CROSS CROSSLET— PL 4, fig. 16. 
CROSS CROSSLET EITCHEE— when the under limb of the 

cress is sharp. PL 4, fig. 10. ; 

CROSS DEGRADED — the extremities of which are each fixed 

in a step. I'l. 25, fig. 21. 
CROSS DEMI SARCELLED-^Pl. 25, fig. 28. 
CROSS DOUBLE — the cross double portant was anciently only 

called a cross double. PL 25, fig. 22. 



CROSS ETOILE— consists of four straight rays. PL 13, fig. 28. 

CROSS ENGRAILED- -PI. 4, fig. 1>(). 

CROSS FLEUR-DE-LIS£E— PI. 5, fig. 2. 

CROSS FORMfiE— same as Cross pattee. 

CROSS GRINGOLfiE — tlie extremities terminating in snakes' 

heads. PI. 15, fig. 18. 
CROSS PIUMETTfiE or COUPED— PI. 5, fig. 7. 
CROSS LONG or Cross of the Passion— PI. 5, f^g. 8. 
CROSS of MALTA— PI. 5, fig. 6. 
CROSS MILL-RIND — takes its name from the resemblance it 

bears to the mill-rind, the iron placed in the centre of the 

mill-stone. 1*1. 5, fig. 4. 

—PI. 25, fig. 24. 
CROSS PATERNOSTER— formed of beads. PI. 20, fig. 21. 
CROSS PATONCE— PI. 5, fig. 8. 

CROSS PATRIARCHAL— or double cross. PI. 5, fig. 9. 
CROSS POMELLfi- PI. 5, fig. 10. 

called a cross double. PI. 25, fig. 22. 
CROSS POTENT— PI. 5, fig. 11. 
CROSS RAGULED or RAGULY— PL 5. fig. 14. 

fig. 15. 
CROSS SALTIER— called St. Andrew's cross. See PL 3. 



CROSS TAU or Cross of St. Anthony— PL 7, fig. 4. 

CROSS URDfiE — also called a cross champain. PI. 4., fig. 9. 

CROSS WAVY— PI. 5, fig. 16. 

CROWN — see former part of work. 

CRUSILY (fr. scincc de croix) — strewed with cross crosslets. 

CUBIT AR]\I — hand and arm couped at elbow. PI. 8, fig. 3. 

CUIRASS — the breast-plate. 

CUP— PL 11, fig. 20. 

CUP COVERED— PL 11, fig. 21. 

CURLEW— a water-fowl. PL 11, fig. 22. 

CURRENT or COURANT— running at full speed. PL 15, 

fig. 13. 
CURVED— bowed. 

CUSHION— lozengy and tasselled. PL 11, fig. 23. 
CYGNET— a yonng swan. PL 11, fig. 24. 


DAISY — a perennial flower. PL 12. fig. 1. 

DAMASK ROSE— PL 12, IV^. 2. 

DANCETTfiE— see PL 1, Partition lines. 

DANISH AX— PL 12, fig. 3. 

DATE— slipped. PL 12, fig. 4. 

DEBASED, REVERSED or SUBA'ERTED— turned over or 
downward from its usual or proper position, or use. 

DEBRUISED — a term peculiar to English armory, denoting 
any living creature represented as debarred of its natural 
freedom by any of the ordinaries i^eing laid over it. PL 18. 



fig. 11. The term is also applied to serpents in the folding 

whether the head or tail is overlaid by other parts. 
DECAP1T1& (Fr.) — same as Coiiped. 
DECHAUSSE (Fr.) — parts cut from the body of a lion, but not 

removed from their places. 
DECOLLATED— the head cut off. 
DECRESCENT (Fr. dccoiirs) — half moon looking to sinister 

side of shield. PI. 12, fig. 5. 
DEGRADED — a cross degraded, lias steps or degress at each 

extremity or at the foot; they are sometimes termed grieces. 
DEMI — one half, dem.i-lion rampant. PI. 18, fig. 17. 
DENTICLES— PL 12, fig. 0. 
DESCENDING — a term u.^ed for a lion with its head towards 

the base of the shield. 
DEVOURING — all fish, borne in armory, feeding, are termed 

in blazon devouring. 
DEXTER— right hand side. See PI. J. 
DL-VDEM — -the fillets, or circles nf gold which close on the tops 

of the crowns of sovereigns and support the mound or globe. 
DIAPRE or DIAPERING— covering the field with little 

s(|uares or other figures as (jrnanunt. See first letter of 

preface to this book. 
DIDAPPER-a water-fowl. V\. PJ. fig. 7. 
DIEEAME (Fr.) — an animal without a tail. 
DIEEERENCES — certain additions or alterations to a coat of 

arms in order to distinguish the younger families from the 




DIMIDIATED — meaning that a part has been lost. 
DISPLAYED — wings when expanded. PL 12, fig. 15. 
DISPLAYED RECURSANT— wings crossing each other. 

PI. 12, fig. 16. 
DISTINCTION or HOUSES— see first part of book. 
DIVING or URINANT— said of the dolphin or any other fish 

when borne head downwards. 
DOLPHIN — a sea-fish generally borne embowed. PI. 12, fig. 8. 
DORMANT — sleeping with head on forepaw^s. PL 18, fig. 9. 
DOUBLE QUEUED — said of lions and other animals borne 

with two tails. 
DOVE — holding a sprig of laurel. PL 12, fig. 9. 
DRAGON— a fabulous animal. PL 12, fig. 10. 
DRAGON'S HEAD— erased. PL 12, fig. 11. 
DRAGON'S WINGS— displayed. PL 12, fig. 12. 
DROPS— see Guttee. 
DUCK— PL 12, fig. 13. 
DUFOIL or TWYFOIL— having only two leaves. 

EAGLE— a bird of prey. P1.12, fig. 14. 

EAGLE displayed — with two heads, a spread eagle. PL 12, 

fig. 15. 
EAGLE displayed — recursant. PL 12, fig. 10. 
EAGLE with wings — expanded and inverted. PL 12, fig. 17. 
EAGLE displayed erased. PL 12, fig. 1.8. 
EAGLE'S HEAD— erased. PL 12, fig. 19. 



EAGLE'S WINGS— conjoined in base. PL 12, fig. 20. 
EAGLE'S WENGS— conjoined in leiire. PI. 12, fig. 21. 
EAGLE'S LEG — erased at thigh, termed a la qnise. PI. 12, 

fig. 22. 
EAGLE rising— or rousant. PI. 12, fig. 23. 
EARED — when the ears are in color different from the body, they 

are eared of such color. 
ECARTELE (Fr.) — same as Quartering. 
ECUSSON (Fr.) — same as Inescutcheon. 
EEL— a species of fish. PI. 13, fig. 18. 
EFFEARfi (Fr.) — same as Salient or springing. 
EFFRAYfi fFr.;— rampant. 
EIGHT-FOIL— PI. 12, fig. 24. 
ELEPHANT— with castle. PI. 3 3, fig. L 
ELEPHANT'S HEAD— erased. PI. 13, fig. 2. 
EMBATTLED (Fr. crcncUcc)—Stii PI. 1. 
EMBORDURED — when the border is of the same color as the 

EMBOWED— bent or bowed. 

E:MBRUED— dipt in blood, bloody. PI. 23, fig. 5. 
EMMANCHE rFr.j— same as Dancettee. 
ENDORSE — a diminutive of the pale, of which it is one eighth 

part. PI. 20, fig. 13. 
ENDORSED— placed back to back. 
EN FILED — when the head or any charge is placed upon the 

blade of a sword, it is enfiled with whatever is borne upon it. 

PL 13, fig. 3. 



ENGLANTE (Fr.)—an oak tree friicted. 

ENGOULED- — swallowing or devouring anything. PI. 13, fig. 4. 

ENGRAILED— when the i^dge is composed of semi-circular 
indents. See PI. 1. 

ENPIANCED — any ordinary removed above its proper situation. 

EN PIED (Fr.) — a bear erect. 

ENSIGNED — crowns, coronets and other things borne on and 
over charges. PL 13, fig. 5. 

ENVELOPED— entwined. PI. 13, fig. 6. 

EPAULIER — the shoulder-plate of the armour. 

ERADICATED— torn up by the roots. 

ERASED — forcibly torn ofT, leaving the separated parts jagged 
and uneven. PI. 18, fig. 23. 

F.RMINE— white with black spots. See PI. 2. 

ERMINES— black with white spots. See PL 2. 

ERMINOIS— gold with black spots. See PL 2. 

ESCALLC)P SHELL — said to be the proper bearing for those 
who have gone long voyages, or who have had naval com- 
mands and gained victories. It was a badge much used by 
pilgrims. PL 13, fig. 7. 

ESCARBUNCLE — a gem heraldically represented, as in PL 13, 
fig. 8. 

ESCARRONED— the same as Chequy. 

ESCARTELLED — cut or notched in a square form. 

ESCROL — a slip on which crests were formerly placed, now 
used to receive mottoes. 

ESCUTCHEON — the original shield used in war, and on which 



arms were borne, the surface is termed "the field." The 
shape varies among different nations and in tlie same nation 
at different times. The lozenge shape is the form to which 
women are limited in blazoning their arms. 

ESTOILE — the same as Etoile. 

ETOILE — a star with six waved rays or points. PI. 13, fig. 9. 

ETOILE of eight points, four straight and four waved. PI. 13, 
fig. 15. 

ETOILE of sixteen points, eight straight, and eight waved. 
PL 13, fig. 17. 

EAGGOT— a bundle of small wood. PI. 13, fig. 10. 

EALCHION— a kind of broad sword. PL 13, t^g. 11. 

EALCON — a large species of sporting hawk. PL 13, fig. 12. 

FALCON'S HEAD— erased. PL 13, fig. 13. 

FALCON'S LEG— erased at thigh, jessed and belled, or PL 13, 
fig. 14. 

FALSE HERALDRY— anything contrary to the established 
rules of the science. 

FEATHERS— always of the ostrich. See Plume. 

FER DE MOLINE— a mill-rind. PL 13. fig. 1(5. 

I'ESSE (Fr. fascc) — one of the ordinaries formed by two hori- 
zontal lines drawn across the field. See PL 2. 

I'ESSWAYS — in fcss, in a horizontal line. 

FESSE PER— see Plate 3. 


FET - - FLE 

FETLOCK or FETTERLOCK— a horse fetlock. PL 13, fig. 19. 
I'lGLEAF— PL 13, fig. 21. 
riLLET — an ordinary, containing one fourth part of the chief. 

PL G, fig. 5. 
FIMBRIATED— edged or bordered all 'round. PL 5, fig. 1. 
IT N NED — when the fins of fishes are of a different color to their 

FIR-BRANCH— PL 13, fig. 22. 
FIRE-BALL— PL 8, fig. 18. 
FIRE-BEACON— PL 13, fig. 20. 
FIRE-BRAND— two in saltire. PL 13, fig. 24. 
FISSURE — the fourth part of the bend sinister. 
FITCHEE or PITCHED — a corruption of the French word 

fiche, from the Latin verb figo, to fix or fasten. The term 

is generally applied to crosses when the lower limb is 

sharpened to a point so as to fix in the ground. Crosses thus 

formed were carried by the primitive Christians on their 

pilgrimages. PL 4, fig. 10. 
riXED — crosses when reaching to the sides of the shield are so 

FLAMMANT— flaming. 
FLANCH or FLASQUE — formed on each side of the shield by 

the segment of a circle. PL G, fig. G. 
ELECTED and REFLECTED— bowed or bent in contrary 

PLEECE — skin of a sheep, conuiionly called the golden fleece. 

PL 14, fig. 1. 



FLESH-HOOK- -PI. 14, fig. 2, in chief. 
FLESH POT— PI. 14, fig. 2, m base. 
I'LEUR-DE-LFS— flower of the hly. Pi. 14, fig. 3. 
I'LEUR-DE-LIS— as drawn by the Dutch. PI. 14, fig. 4. 
FLEURY CONTRE FLEURY— fleiiry at both sides as if the 

fleur had grown through. ' PI. G, fig. 7. 
FLOTANT — flying or swimming. 
FLY — a winged insect. PI. 14, fig. 5. 
FLYING-FISH— PL 14, fig. G. 
FOLIATED— leaved. 

FOREST-BILL— for lopping trees. PI. 14, fig. 7. 
FORMfiE— same as Pattee. 

FOUNTAIN — a roundle barry wavy of six ar. and az. PI. 2. 
FOX — an animal of the dog kind. PI. 14, fig. 8. 
FOX'S HEAD— erased. PL 14, fig. 9. 
FOX SEJANT— PL 14, fig. 10. 
FRET — two long pieces in saltire extending to the extremity 

of the field and interlaced with a mascle in the centre. PL G, 

fig. 8. 
FRETTED — charges or ordinaries interlaced one with the other, 

are so termed. PL 6, fig. 9. 
l-'RETTY — eight, ten, or more pieces interlacing each other. 

PL 6, fig. 10. 
FRUCTED— bearing fruit. PL 14, fig. li. 
I'ULGENT — having rays. 
I'UMENT — emitting vapour or smoke. 
FURS—see PL 2. 



FURCHE or FOURCHEE— forked or fitched. 

FURNISHED — when a horse is borne bridled, saddled and 
completely comparisoned. It is likewise applied to other 
things, as the attire of a stag furnished with six antlers, etc. 

FUSIL (Fr. fuscc) — a kind of spindle used in spinning. PI. 14„ 
fig. 12. 

FUSILY — covered or strev/n with fusils. 


GALLEY — a vessel with oars. PL 14, fig. 13. 

GAMB — the foreleg of a lion, or other beast. If couped or erased 

near the middle joint, it is called a paw. PI. 14, figs. 14 

and 17. 
GARB (L. fasciculus; Fr. gcrbe) — a sheaf of corn or wheat. 

PL 14, fig. 15. 
GARNISFIED— ornamented. 
GARTER— PL 14, tig. IG. 
GARTER, DEMI— PL 14, fig. 18. 
GATE— as of a field, etc. PL 14, fig. 19. 
GAUNTLET— an iron glove. PL 14, fig. 20. 
GAZE AT — the hart, stag, buck or hind when borne looking 

afYrontee or full-faced is said to be at gaze. PL 23, fig. 15. 

All other beasts in this position are guardant. 
GEM-RING — ring set with precious stone. PL 14, fig. 21. 
GENET — a small animal of the species of the fox. PL 14, fig. 22. 
GENOVILLIER — a piece of armour that covers the knees. 



GENUANT— in a kneeling posture. PL 14, fig. 23. 
GILLY-FLOWER — a species of aromatic carnation. PI. 14, 

fig. 24. 
GLAIVE — same as Javelin. 

GLIDING — serpents, etc., moving forward in fesse. 
GOAT— PI. 15, fig. 3. 

GOBONE or GOBONY — same as componee. 
GOLDEN FLEECE— see Fleece. PI. 14, fig.-L 
GOLPES — roundles of a purple color. See PI. 2. 
GONFALON — the banner of the Roman Catholic Church. 

PI. 15, fig. 4. 
GORDIAN KNOT— a double orle of annulets linked to each 

other, and to one in the centre gyronways. PL 15, fig. 5. 
GORE or GUSSET — an abatement of honor consisting of two 

curved lines, one from the sinister chief point, and the other 

from the base middle point meeting in an acute angle at the 

fesse point. PL 6, fig. 12. 
GORED or GOR£E — cut into large arched indents. PL 15, 

figs. 6 and 7. 
GORGED (L. cymbalatus, Fr. cJarinc) — encircled 'round the 

throat. PL 15, fig. 11. 
GORGET — armour for the breast. 
GOS-HAWK — a species of hawk used in falconry. 
GRADY— steps or degrees. PL 4, fig. 15. 
GRAPPLING IRON— instrument used on a fire-ship. PL 15, 

fig. 9. 



GRASSHOPPER— PL 15, fig. 10. 

GREAVE — armour for the leg. 

GREYHOUND'S HEAD— erased. PI. 15, fig. 11. 

GREYHOUND SEJANT—Pl. 15, fig. 12. 

GREYHOUND CURRENT— PI. 15, fig. 13. 

GRICEvS — young wild boars. 

GRIDIRON— PI. 15, fig. U. 

GRISCES — see Grady. 

GRIFFIN — an imaginary animal, part eagle, part lion. PI. 15, 

fig. 15. 
GRIFFIN MALE — without wings, but having rays of gold issu- 
ing from various parts of the body. PI. 15, fig. 16. 
GUARDANT — looking out from the field towards the spectator 

full-faced. PI. 18, fig. 3. 
GUIDON — a small banner bearing the arms of Ulster, used at 

a baronet's funeral. PI. 15, fig. 17. 
GUIVRE or GRINGOLE — from guivris, a serpent. Figures 

with their extremities ending in the heads of serpents are 

said to be gringole. PI. 15, fig. 18. 
GULES (L. ruber; Fr. giiculcs) — the color red indicated by 

vertical lines. See PI. 1. 
GUN SHOT or GUN-STONP2 — ancient name for ogress or 

pellet, and always painted sable. See PI. 2. 
GURGES or WHIRLPOOL— PI. 15, fig. 19. 
GUTTfiE sprinkled with liquid drops, termed guttes, as follows: 
GUTTfiE D'OR— drops of gold. See PI. 2. 

GUTT£E D'EAU— drops of water. See Pi. 2. 



GUTTliE DE POIX— drops of pitch. See PL 2. 

GUTTfiE DE SANG— drops of blood. Sec PL 2. 
GUTTEE DE LARMES— tear-drops. See PL 2. 
GUTTfiE HUILE— drops of oiL See PL 2. 

Note — French Heralds do not make these distinctions, but 

say guttee of such a colour. 
GUZES — roundles of a sanoruine or murrev color. See PL 2. 
GYRON — two straight lines from the dexter fesse and chief 

points meeting in an acute angle in the fess point. PL 6, 

fig. 13. 
GYRONNfi — when the field is divided into several gyrons. 

See PL 3. 
GYRON WAYS — disposed in the form of a gyron. PL 15, fig. 5. 


HABERGEON — a small coat of mail without sleeves. 

HABITED— clothed or vested. PL 8, fig. 0. 

HACKED or HEWED — when the indents are embowed. 

PL 15, fig. 20. 
HAIR — as borne in arms. PL 15, fig. 21. 
HALF-SPEAR — a spear with a short handle. 
HAMMER— a tool used by plasterers. PL 15, fig. 22. 
HAMMER — as used in other armorial bearings. PL 15, fig. 23. 
HAND— couped, in fesse. PL 1(1, fig. 2. 
HAND — couped at wrist, showing palm. PL 7, fig. 22. 
HAND — couped at wrist, showing back. PL 8, fig. 15. 
HAND IN HAND— PL 15, fig. 24. 



HARBOURED— same as Lodged. 

HARE COURRANT— PI. W, fig. 3. 

HARE DEMI— PL IG, fig. 1. 

HARP — sometimes called a Welsh harp. PL 16, fig. 4. 

HARPY — fabled, head and breasts of a woman and body of a 

vulture. PL 16, fig. 5. 
HARROW — instrument used in husbandry. PL 16, fig^s. 6 

and 7. 
HxART — a stag in its sixth year. 
HAZEL SPRIG— fructed. PL 16, fig. 8. 
HAT — as placed over the arms of the State's General. PL 16, 

fig. 9. 

piece of cloth framed and surrounded by four boards covered 

with black baize, placed on the front of a house whereon are 

painted the armorial bearings of a deceased person. The 

hatchment is suspended by one corner. 
HAUBERK — a twisted coat of mail. 

HAURIENT (Fr.) — fishes, when placed paleways or erect. 
HAWK— PL 13, fig. 12. 

HAWK'S LEURE— a decoy used by falconers. PL 16, fig. 10. 
HEAMES— part of the collar of a harness. PL 16, fig. 11. 
HEART— PL 16, fig. 12. 
HEATH-COCK— PL 16, fig. 13. 
HEDGEHOG or Urchin— PL 16, fig. 14. 
HELMET — see former part of work. 
HILT — the handle of a sword. 



HIND — the female of the stag, generally blazoned trippant. 

PL K), fig. 15. 
HONOR POINT— see PI. 1. 
HOOFED — is said of animals wlien tlie hoofs are of a different 

tincture to the animal itself. 
PIORSE PASSANT— PI. 16, fig. 17. 
HORSE'S HEAD— in armour. PI. W, fig. 18. 
HORSE-SHOE— PI. IG, fig. 19. 
HUMET or HUMETTfiE— an ordinary which is cut of¥ so that 

the extremities do not touch the sides of the shield. PI. 5, 

fig. 7 and PI. 6, fig. 14. 
HURST— a group of trees. PI. 25, fig. 4. 
HURTS — azure or blue roundles. See PI. 2. 
HURTY— strewed with hurts. 
HYDRA — a fabulous monster, represented as a dragon with 

seven heads. PI. 16, fig. 20. 


IMBATTLED— See EMBATTLED. Vl 1, Partition lines. 
IN BEND, IN FESSE, IN PALE, etc.,— same as Bendways, 

Fesseways, Paleways, etc. 
INCENSED {Fr. alliimc) — a term for panthers, etc., when borne 

with fire issuing from their mouths, ears and eyes. PI. 20. 

fig. 17. Also when the eyes are of a different tincture from 

the body. 
INCRESENT— the moon with horns towards dexter. PL 16. 

fig. 21. 



IXDENTED — notched like a saw. See PL 1, Partition lines. 
INDENTED EMBOWED— having- the indents embowed. 

PL 15, fig. 20. 
INDENTED POINT IN POINT— a chief thus parted. PL 21, 

fig. 12. 
INDIAN GOAT — resembles an English goat, except that its 

horns are more bent, and that it has ears like a talbot. PL IG, 

fig. 22. 
INESCUTCPIEON — a small escutcheon borne in the middle of 

a shield. PL 16, fig. 23. 
INTERCHANGEABLY-POSED— as fishes lying across each 

other, the head of each appearing between the tails of the 

others. PL 16, fig. 24. 
INV^ECTED (Fr. canclc) — the reverse of engrailed. PL 1, 

Partition lines. 
ISSLTANT — issuing or coming up which the French term 


terms used to express a lion, etc., as if he were issuing or 

coming into the field in base and going out again in chief. 

JAGGED — said of a division of a field or ordinary, which appears 

rough by being forcibly torn asunder. 
JAMBE— see Gamb. 
JANUS HEAD— erased at neck. PL 17, fig. 1. 



JAVELIN — a short spear with a barbed point. PL 17, fig. 2. 
JESSANT — shooting forth, as vegetables spring forth, half the 

charge only is depicted when blazoned jessant. 
JELLOP or JOVVLOP — the comb of a cock, cockatrice, etc. 
JESSANT-DF.-LIS — said of a tlcur-dc-Iis passing through a 

leopard's face, through the mouth. 
JESSES — leather thongs to tie the bells on the legs of hawks. 
JOINANT — the same as conjoined. 


KEY— a key in pale. PI. 17, fig. 3. 

KEY — in bend surmounted of a baton. PI. 17, fig. 5. 

KID — the young of a goat, or a roe in its first year. 

KING-FISHER — a rapacious little bird that feeds on 

PI. 17, f^g. 0. 
KITE — a bird-of-prey. PI. 17, fig. 4. 
KNOTS — of silk-cord tied in various modes are borne by sundry 

families, as POUCHIER'S KNOT, PL. 17, fig. 7; 


PI. 17, fig. 1); HENEAGE'S KNOT, PI. 17, fig. 10. 

LABEL, LAMBEAUX or i'lLF— a figure of three or more 
points, which is used as a difference or distinction of the first 
son. PI. 17. fig. 11. 



LAMBREQUIN — a mantel or hood which is placed on the head 
between the helmet and crest, see also Mantling. 

LAMP— burning. PI. 17, fig. 20. 

LANCE — a spear to thrust or tilt with. 

LANGUED — used when the tongues of animals are to be de- 
scribed as of different tinctures to their bodies. 

LATTICE — formed by perpendicular and horizontal bars. 

LAUREL — the emblem of victory, two in saltire. PI. 9, fig. 21. 

LEG ERASED— at the thigh. PI. 17, fig. 12. 

LEG — in armour couped at the thigh. PI. 17, fig. 13. 

LEG, BULL'S — couped at thigh, hoof upward. PI. 17, fig. 14. 

LEOPARD— demi-rampant. Pi. 18, fig. 20. 

LAMPASSE fFr.j- same as Langued. 

LEOPARD — passant guardant. PI. 18, fig. 22. 

LEOPARD'S HEAD— erased. PI. 18, fig. 23. 

LEOPARD'S FACE— PI. 18, fig. 24. 

LEOPARDE — a French term for a lion passant. 

LEVEL — an instrument used by masons. 

LINED- — the inside lining of a mantel, garment, cap, etc., borne 
of a different tincture. It is also applied to chains as well as 
lines afifixed to the collars of animals. 


LINX— passant. PI. 17, fig. 15. 

LION of ENGLAND— a lion passant guardant. PI. 18, fig. 3. 

LION STATANT— PI. 18, fig. 1. 

LION PASSANT— PL 18, fig. 2. 





LION RAMPANT— PI. 18, fig. 5. 

LION SALIENT— PI. 18, fig. (>. 

LION SEJANT— PI. 18, fig. 7. 

LION CO UGH A NT— PI. IS, fig. 8. 

LION DORMANT— PI. 18, fig. 9. 

LION SEJANT, GUARDANT, affrontee--Pl. 18, fig. 10. 

LION RAMPANT— debruised by a fesse. PI. 18, fig. 11. 

LIONS COMBATANT— PI. 18, fig. 12. 

LION'S HEAD— erased and collared. PI. 18, fig. 13. 

LION'S HEAD— erased and ducally crowned. PI. 18, fig. 14. 

LION NAISS ANT— from a fess. PI. 18. fig. 15. 

LION ISSUANT— from a chief. PI. 18, fig. 10. 

LION, DEMI-RAMPANT— PI. 18, fig. 17. 

LION, SEA (Fr. lion poissou )'-V\. 18, fig. 18. 

LION'S HEAD--erased guardant ducally crowned. PL 18, 

fig. 19. 
LION'S GAMES— in saltier. ' i^. 18, fig. 21. 
LIZARD — a small animal of the crocodile species. PL 17, 

fig. K). 
LOBSTER— PL 20, fig. (>. 
LOCHABER AX— PL 17, fig. 17. 
LODGED — applied to the buck, hart, hind, etc., when at rest, or 

lying on the ground. PL 23, fig. 14. 
LOZENGE — a four cornered figure differing from the fusil, 

being shorter and broader. 
LOZENGfi — when the whole field or charge is covered witli 



lozenges, which nmst be aheniately of different tinctures. 

PL 17, fig. 18. 
LOZENGY BARRY — formed by bend Hnes, dexter and sinister, 

and again crossed by Hnes barways. 
LUCY— a fish, cahed a pike. PI. IT, fig. 19. 
L'UN EN L' AUTRE fFr.J— same as Counter-changed. 
LURE or LEURE— a decoy, used by falconers. PI. 16, fig. 10. 
LYMPHAD — an old fashioned ship with one mast and rowed 

with oars. PI. 14, fig. 18. 
LYRE — a musical instrument. PI. 17, fig. 21. 


MACE — formerly an offensive weapon resembling a club, and 
now carried before sovereigns, official dignitaries, etc., as a 
symbol of power. 

MAIDEN'S HEAU — head and neck of a woman couped below 
the breast, the head wreathed witli a garland of roses and 
crowned with antique crown. PI. 17, fig. 22. 

MAIL — defensive armour wrought in small close rings. PI. 17, 
fig. 23. 

MALLET — a tool used by masons, carpenters, etc. PI. 17, fig. 24. 

MANACLES or HANDCUFFS— single and double. PI. 19, 
fig. L 

MANCHE or MAUNCH— an old fashioned sleeve. PI. 19, fig. 2. 

MANDRAKE— a vegetable root. PI. 19, fig. 3. 



MANED — when the mane is of a different tincture to the body. 
MAN'S HEAD— in profile, couped at the neck. PI. 19, fig. 4. 
MAN'S HEAD— affrontee, erased at the neck. PI. 19, fig. 5. 
MAN'S HEAD — in profile with small dragon's wings at side 

called a satan's or fiend's head. PI. 19, fig. G. 
MANTELLfi— see Chappe. 

MANTLING— see first part of book, chapters VI and IX. 
MARTLET — a fabulous bird shaped like a Martin and always 

drawn without legs, with short tuffs of feathers in the stead, 

divided somewhat like an erasure and forming, as it were, 

thighs. It is the distinctive mark of the fourth son. PL 19, 

fig. 7. 
MASCLE — of lozenge form, but always perforated, or voided. 

PI. 19, fig. 8. 
MASCLE-HEAD— cheveronel with top fretted over. PI. 19, 

fig. 9. 
MASCLE- CROSS — cross, formed of mascles. 
MASCULY COUNTER-CHANGED— argent and gules. 

PI. 19, fig. 10. 
.Mx\S(3NED — plain strokes representing the cement in stone 

MEMBERED — the beak and legs of a bird when of a different 

tincture to the body. 
MERLETTE or MERLION— a French term for martlet, but 

which they represent without beak, legs or thighs. 
MERMAID — a fabulous animal, half woman and half fish, 



generally represented with a comb in one hand and a mirror 

in the other. PI. 19. fig. 11. 
MESLE— mingled. 

METALS — used in heraldry, gold and silver only. See PI. 1. 

See PI. 1. 
MILL-PICK — a tool used in dressing mill-stones. 
MILL-RIND — the iron affixed to the centre of the mill-stone, 

See Fer de moline. 
MINERVAS' HEAD— PI. 19, fig. 12. 
MIRROR— a looking-glass. PL 19, fig. 13. 
MITRE — see Crowns. Chapter V. 
MOOR-COCK — the male of the large black grouse. 
MOOR'S HEAD— the head of a negro. PI. 19, fig. 14. 
MORION— a steel cap. PI. 10, fig. 6. 
MOTTO — see first part of work. Chapter VI. 
MOUND — a conception of the French word mondc, or Latin 

viundiis, the world, a name given in heraldry to a ball or 

globe encircled with a horizontal band enriched with gems 

from the upper edge whereof springs a semi-circular band, 

having on its top a cross. PI. 19, fig. 23. 
MOUNT — when the base of the shield is represented green as 

a field and somewhat arched, it is then called a MOUNT 

VERT. PI. 19, fig. 22. 
MOUNTAIN— inflamed. PI. 19, fig. IG. 
MULE PASSANT— PI. 19, fig. IT. 



MULLET (L. rotiila calcaris; Fr. uiolctte) — the rowel of a spur. 
English heralds make it of five straight points, French 
heralds of six. When borne of six, eight or more points, the 
number should be expressed in the blazon. When it has 
more than five points it becomes a star. PL 111, fig. 18. 

MULLET PIERCED— PL 19, fig. 19. 

MURAL CROWN— see Crowns. Chapter V. 

MURREY COLOR — a dark red or brown color, same as 
sanguine. PL 1. 

MUSCHETORS — the black spots resembling the end of the 
ermine's tail which are painted without the three specks over 
them, used in depicting ermine. 

MUZZLED — said of a bear, dog or other animal, whose mouth 
is banded to prevent it biting. PL 9, fig. 6. 


NAIAXT — the position of swimming. 

NAISSANT (Fr.) — coming out. and said of a lion or other 
creature that seems to be coming out of an ordinarv. or 
charge. PL 18, fig. 15. 

NARCISSUS— a flower consisting of six petals. PL 19, fig. 20. 

NAVAL CROWN— see Crowns. Chapter V. 

NEBULfiE — a term applied to the outside line of any ordinary, 
when drawn waved so as to represent clouds. PL 1, Parti- 
tion lines. 



NEGRESS'S HEAD — conped at breast affrontee ppr. with ear- 
rings. PI. 19, fig. 15. 

NEPTUNE — generally drawn with a trident in his hand. 
PI. 19, fig. 21. 

NEWT — a small water-animal of the lizard kind. 

NISLfiE — slender, narrow, reduced almost to nothing. 


NOWED (L. ligatus; Fr. none) — tied in a knot, and is said of 
serpents, wiverns, lions, etc., whose bodies or tails are 
twisted like a knot. 

NUANCfi (Fr.) — same as Nebulee. 


OAK-TREE FRUCTED— PI. 19, fig. 22. 

OGRESSES— see Pellets. 

OMBRE (L. inumbratiis) — a French term for shadowed. 

OND£ or UND£ (^Fr.j— wavy. 

OPINICUS — a fictitious heraldic animal, with a lion's body and 

an eagle's head and neck, to the body are affixed wings like 

a griffin's and a tail like a camel's 
OPPRESSED — the same as Debruised. 
OR (L. aiinini) — gold or yellow color. PL 1. 
ORANGE — signifies teune or tawny. PL 1. 
ORB, GOLDEN — put into a king's right hand before he is 

crowned. PL 19, fig. 23. 
ORDINARIES — the principal bearings in coat armour. 


ORE ox 

ORElLLfi (L. auritus) — eared. 

ORGAN PIPES— two in saltier. PI. 19, fig. 24. 

ORIFLAM — a name given to the ancient standard of France. 

It is a blue banner charged with golden flciir-dc-lis. 
ORLE (L. Iwibiis; Fr. cnz'irou) — one of the ordinaries composed 

of one or two lines passing 'round the shield. PI. G, fig. 18. 
ORLE — fretted with a palet and barrulet. PL 20. fig. 1. 
ORLE IN — as when charges are placed 'round the escutcheon. 
OSTRICH— PI. 20, fig. 2. 
OSTRICH HEAD — erased, in mouth a horse-shoe. PI. 20, 

fig. 7. 
OSTRICH FEATHER— PI. 20, fig. 3. 
OSTRICH FEATHERS — in a plume, which always means 

three. PI. 20, fig. 4. 
OSTRICH FEATHERS— a plume of twelve in three heights, 

five, four, and three. PL 20, fig. 5. 
OTTER — an amphibious animal somewhat like a dog. PL 20, 

fig. 8. 
OUNCE — the upper part of this animal is of a tawny white, the 

lower part of an ash color, and he is sprinkled all over with 

numerous irregular black marks. PL 20, fig. IL 
OVER ALL — same as Debruised and Surmounted. 
OVERT — applied to the wings of birds when open for taking 

OWL— this bird is always drawn full-faced. PL 20, fig. 10. 
OX — as borne in the arms of the City of Oxford. PL 20, fig. 11. 



PADLOCK — two — the one in chief is the most ancient of any 

form borne in armory. PI. 20, fig. 12. 
PALE — one of the ordinaries. PL 2. 

PALE — between two endorses, or a pale endorsed. PI. 20, fig. 13. 
PALE IN — any charge borne upright in the centre of the field. 
PALE PER — the field divided from top to bottom by a centre 

line. PI. 3. 
PALET — a diminutive of the pale, containing only one-half of 

the latter. 
PALISADO CORONET— see Crowns. Chapter V. 
PALL — an archepiscopal vestment made of white lamb's wool, 

and sent by the Church of Rome to her metropolitans. 

PL 20, fig. 15. 
PALL PER — is a division of a field by a single line in the form 

of a pall. 
PALM-BRANCH— PL 20, fig. 14. 
PALY PER FESSE — divides the field into an equal number of 

pieces paleways, crossed by a line fesseways. 
PALY — when the field is divided into any number of equal pieces 

by perpendicular lines, as paly of six ar. and az. PL 6, fig. 21. 
PALMER'S STAFF and SCRIP. PL 20, fig. 10. 
PANTHER — a wild beast, whose fierceness heralds were wont 

to express by depicting the animal with fire issuing from its 

mouth and ears, its position in heraldry is always guardant. 

PL 20, fig. 17. 



PAPAL TIARA— see Crowns. Chapter V. 

PAPILONE — is a field covered with a figure like the scales of 

a fish. 
PARK-PALES — palings depicted close to one another. PI. 20. 

fig. 18. 
PARROT or POPIRYAY— a green bird with red feet. PI. 20, 

fig. 19. 
PARTY — a term used before per bend, per pale, etc., to denote 

that the field is divided by those particular lines of partition, 

but the word party being superfluous, would be better 

PASHAL LAMB or Holy Lamb— PI. 20, fig. 20. 
PASSANT — a lion or other beast in a walking position. PI. 18, 

fig. 2. 
PATERNAL — the original arms of a family. 
PATER-NOSTER— a cross composed of beads. PI. 20, fig. 21. 
PATONCE— flory at the ends. 
PATTES — the paws of any beast. 
PAVILION — an oblong tent with a projecting entrance, but 

pavilions are now generally drawn round at the top. PI. 20, 

fig. 23. 
PAW — the foot of a lion bear, etc., when cut off or erased at the 

first joint. PI. 18, fig. 21. 
PEACOCK IN PRIDE— PI. 20, fig. 23. 
PEAN — one of the furs, black with ermine spots of gold. See 

Furs. PI. 2. 



PEx\R — generally borne as in PI. 20, tig. 24. 
PEAR— slipped and leaved. PL 21, fig. 1. 
PEAR-TREE FRUCTED— PI. 11, fig. 11. 
PEGASUS — a fabulous horse with wings. PI. 21, fig. 2. 
PELICAN — in her nest feeding her young by picking her breast, 

termed a pelican in her piety. PI. 21, fig. 3. 
PELLETS also called ogresses and by some gun-stones — fhe 

name given to roundles painted sable. See PL 2. 
PENDAL or SPINDLE— a cross so termed. PL 21, fig. 4. 
PENNER and INK-HORN — a case for holding pens and ink. 
PENNON — a flag of an oblong form, ending sometimes in one 

and sometimes in two sharp points. 
PENNONCLES or PENCILS— small streamers or flags. 
PENNY- YARD-PENCE— small coin. 
PER — signifies by or with, as per pale, per fesse, etc. 
PERFORATED— same as Cleche. 

PERPENDICULUM— an angle and plumb line. PL 21, fig. 5. 
PEWIT— a bird. 

PHEON — the barbed head of a dart or arrow. PL 21, fig. 6. 
PHOENIX — an imaginary bird, always drawn in flames. PL 21, 

fig. 7. 
PIERCED — when any ordinary or charge is perforated and 

showing the field under it. PL 19, fig. 19. 
PIKE-STAVES — weapons of war. 
PILE — one of the ordinaries, a pile between two piles reversed. 

PL 21, fig. 8. 
PINE-APPLE— see Ananas. 



PLATE — a round flat piece of silver without any impression. 
See PI. 2. 

PLAYING TABLES— drawn like back gammon tables. PI. 21, 
fig. 9. 

PLIE (Fr.) — same as Close, applied to wings of birds. 

PLOUGH— an instrument of husbandry. PL 21, fig. 10. 

PLOYE ^Fr.;- bowed or bent. 

PLUME— see Ostrich's Feathers. 

POING (Fr.)—i\\Q hand closed. 

POINT — an ordinary somewhat resembling the pile, issuing 
from the base. PI. 6, fig. 23. 

POINT IN POINT— PI. 21, fig. 11. 

POINTS OF THE ESCUTCHEON— the several parts of the 
shield. See PI. 1. 

POMEIS — a term for roundles when painted green. PI. 2. 

POMEGRANATE— PI. 21, fig. 13. 

POMMEL — the rounded knob at the extremity of the handle of 
a sword. 

PORCUPINE— PI. 21, fig. 14. 

PORTCULLIS — an engine formerly used in fortifying the gate- 
way of a city, etc. PI. 21, fig. 15. 

POS£ (Fr.) — same as Statant. 

POTENT — resembles the head of a crutch. 

POTENT, counter-potent — one of the furs. See PI. 2. 

POULDRON — armour for the shoulders. 

POL'^NCE — the talons of a h\v(\ of prey. 



POWDERED (Fr. scincc)-—\\\\Qn the field crest or supporter is 
promiscuously strewed all over with minor charges such as 
mullets, crescents, flciir-dc-Us, etc. 

PPR — a contraction of proper. 

as a bishop, sitting on a tomb-stone, with a mitre on his head, 
the dexter hand extended, a mound in the sinister, and in his 
mouth a sword fesseways with the point to the dexter. PL 21, 
fig. 16. 

PRETENCE — see Escutcheon of Pretence in. chapter VIII. 
Marshalling Arms. 

PREYING — any ravenous beast or bird standing on, and in a 
proper position for devouring its prey. PI. 22, fig. 21. 

PRIDE — applicable to the peacock, turkey-cock, etc., which 
spread their tails in a circular form. PI. 20, fig. 23. 

PROBOCIS— the trunk of an elephant. 1^1. 21 , fig. 17. 

PROPER — applicable to every animal, vegetable, etc., when 
borne of their natural color. 

PURFLE or PURFLEW — embroidery made of gold thread, etc. 

PURFLED — the studs and rims of armour being gold. 

PURFLEW — signifies a border or embroidery of fur, shaped 
exactly like vair, when of one row it is termed purfiewed, 
when of two counter-purfiewed, and when of three vair. 

PURPURE— the color purple. See PI. 1. 


PYRAMID— PI. 21, fig. 19. 



PYRAMID WAYS — of a pyramid form or rising like a pyramid. 

PL 21, fig. 20. 
PYTHON — a winged serpent or dragon. 


QUADRANS fL.J— a canton. 

QUARTER — an ordinary of a quadrangular form. PI. G, fig. 24. 


PI. 21, fig. 21. 
QUARTERINGS— see Marshaling in chapter VHI. 
QUARTERLY — when the field is divided into four equal parts. 

PI. 3. 
QUATERFOIL or QUATREFOIL— the four leaved grass. 

PI. 21, fig. 22. 
QUEUE (Fr.) — tail of an animal. 
QLTINTAIN — an ancient tilting block. 
QUISE A LA— erased at the thigh. PI. 12, fig. 22. 
QUIVER of ARROWS— a case filled with arrows. PI. 21, 

fig. 23. 


RABBIT— PI. 11, fig. 11. 


express any ordinary or charge edged with glittering rays. 

PI. 5, fig. 13 and PI. 23, fig. 8. 



RAGULY or RAGULED — jagged in an irregular manner. 

PI. 23, fig. 12. 
RAINBOW — a semi-circle of various colors rising from clouds. 

PI. 21, fig. 24. 
RAM'S HEAD— erased. PI. 22, fig. 1. 
RAMPANT — applicable to lions, bears, etc., when standing erect 

on their hind legs. PI. 18, fig. 5. 
KA'NG'k (Fr.) — mullets or other charges placed in bend fesse,etc. 
RAVEN— a carnivorous bird. PI. 22, fig. 2. 
RAYS — when depicted 'round the sun, should be sixteen in num- 
ber. PI. 23, fig. S. 
REBATED — when the top or point of a weapon is broken off, 

or part of a cross cut off. 
REBUS — See Arms Parlantes in former part of work. 
RECERCELLj^E — see Cross so termed. PI. 5, fig. 15. 
RECLINANT — bending backwards. 
REFLECTED or REFLEXED — curved or turned 'round as 

the chain or line from the collar of a beast, thrown over the 

back. Fleeted and reflected are curvings contrary-ways 

bending first one way and then the other. 
REGUARDANT (Fr. touriic) — looking behind or backwards. 

PI. 18, fig. 4. 
REGUARDANT REVERSED— applied to serpents when in 

the position shown in PI. 22, fig. 3. 
REIN-DEER — a stag with double attires, two of them turning 

down. PI. 22, fig. 4. 
REMORA — in heraldry denotes a serpent. 



REMPLI — when a chief is filled with any other metal or colot, 

leaving only bordure 'round the chief of the first. PI. 7, fig. 1. 
RENCONTRE (Fr.)— same as Cabossed. 
RENVERSfi — same as Reversed. 
RERE-MOUSE— a bat. PI. 9, fig. 2. 
RESPECTANT — applied to animals when face to face. 
RETAILLfi ffy.) — an escutcheon divided into three parts by 

two lines in bend sinister. 
RETORTED — serpents Avreathed one in another or as a fret. 
RETRACTED — charges, one shorter than another. 
RIBBON or RIBAND — an eighth part of a bend, of which it is 

a diminutive. 
RISING — birds when in the position of preparing to fly. PI. 12, 

fig. 23. 
ROCK~Pl. 22, fig. 5. 
ROMPE or ROMPU fFr.;— broken. 
ROOT OF A TREE COUPED— PI. 22, fig. 8. 
ROSE — a well known flower, but not very accurately depicted 

in heraldry, it being ever represented full-blown with the 

pelata, or flower leaves expanded, seeded in the middle, and 

backed by five green barbs. PI. 8, fig. 21. 
ROSE-BRANCH— is drawn more natural. PL 12, fig. 2. 
ROUNDLES— round figures. See PI. 2. 
ROUSANT — same as Rising, applied to a bird. 
RUDDER OF A SHIP— PI. 22, fig. (]. 

RUSTRE — a lozenge pieced round in the centre. PI. 22, fig. 7. 
RYE, EAR OF— drawn bent downwards. PI. 22, fig. 9. 



SA — a contraction of the word Sable. 

SABLE — the heraldric term for black, and in engraving is re- 
presented by perpendicular and horizontal lines crossing 
each other. PL 1. 

SAGITTARIUS or SAGITTARY. the archer— ninth sign in the 
Zodiac. PL 10, fig. 23. 

SAIL OF A SHIP — a small portion of mast and yard-arm 
should be shown. PL 22. fig. 10. 

SALAMANDER, fabled — represented green and surrounded by 
flames ppr. PL 22, fig. 11. 

SALIENT — the position of all beasts of prey when leaping or 
springing. PL 18, fig. 6. 

SALTANT — applicable to the squirrel, weasel, rat and all 
vermin, also to the cat, greyhound and ape, when in a posi- 
tion of springing forward. 

SALTIER or SALTIRE— one of the ordinaries. PL 3. 


SALTIERWAYS — oblong figures in the position of the saltier, 
but small round figures are said to be in saltier. 

SANG GUTTEE DE— drops of blood. PL 2. 

SANGLANT bloody— torn of¥ or erased. 

SANGLIER (Fr.)—R wild boar. 

SANGUINE — murrey color, expressed in engraving by diagonal 
lines crossing each other. PL 1. 

SANS r^r.j— without. 



SARACEN — see Savage. 

SARCELLED— cut throiig-li the middle. 

SATYR, fabled — with the body of a lion, the tail and horns of 

an antelope and the face of an old man. 
SxWAGE — Wild-man or Wood-man, generally drawn with 

wreath of leaves round temples and waist and holding in 

hand a club. PI. 22, fig. i:^ and PI. 25, fig. 8. 
SAVAGE'S HEAD— couped at neck. PI. 22, fig. 12. 
SCALED — covered over like the scales of a fish. 
SCALP — the skin of the forehead. 

SCARPE — a diminutive of the bend sinister, one half its breadth. 
SCEPTRE — a royal staf¥ used at coronations, etc. 
SCINTILLANT— sparkling. 
SCORPION — somewhat resembling a cray-fish and usually 

placed erect. PI. 22, fig. 14. 
SCROLL — whereon the motto is placed. 
SCYTHE — an instrument of husbandry. PI. 22, fig. 15. 
SEA-DOG — like a talbot, tail like a beaver, scallop fin down 

back, body, legs and tail scaled and feet webbed. PI. 22, 

fig. 16. 
SEA-GULL— PI. 22, fig. 17. 
SEA-HORSE — upper part formed like the horse, webbed feet, 

hinder part without legs and tail like fish. PI. 22, fig. 18. 
SEA-LION — upper part like a lion, lower part like fish. PI. 22, 

fig. 20. 
SEA-PIE — a water-fowl of a dark brown color, with a red head 

and neck, and wings white. 



SEA-MEW— a sort of sea-gull. 

SEAX— a scimitar. PL 22, fig. 11). 

SEEDED — applied to the seeds of roses, lilies, etc., when borne 

of a different tincture to the flower itself. 
SEGREANT — applied to the griffin, when standing upon its 

hind leg \vith wings elevated and endorsed. PL 23, fig. 3. 
SEIZING — applied to birds of prey, when lolling and feeding 

on their prey. PL 22, fig. 21. 
SEJANT RAMPANT— sitting with the two fore-feet lifted up. 
SEJANT, GUARDANT IN ASPECT— with the fore-feet 

standing, the head, breast, etc., fronting. PL 18, fig. 10. 
SEM£E— strewed over. PL 22, fig. 22. 
SEMI— one-half. 
SERRATED— cut as a saw. 
SERGENT — the same as Sergeant. 
SERPENT DEBRUISED, and counter-embowed debruised. — 

PL 25, fig. 12. 

infant ppr. PL 13, fig. 4. 
SHAKE-BOLT— see Manacles. PL 10, fig. 1. 
SHAKE-EORK — in form like the cross pall, but does not touch 

the edges of the shield and is pointed at each end. PL 22, 

fig. 24. 
SHIPS — were originally drawn Hke PL 14, fig. 13, but in modern 

arms they are fashioned to the times. PL 23, fig. 2. 
SHOVELLER— a species of water-fowl. PL 23, fig. 6. 



SHUTTLE — an instrument used by weavers. 
SINISTER — the left hand side of the escutcheon, or anything 

that is used in heraldry. PI. 1. 
SINOPLE (Fr.)— green. 
SIREN — a mermaid. 

SKEAN or SKEIN — a short sword or dagger. 
SLASHED — sleeves of garments cut open lengthways and the 

gashing filled with a puffing of another color. 
SLIPPED — applied to trefoils, flowers, sprigs, etc., to express the 

stalk as if torn from the stem or original plant. PI. 7, fig. 9. 
SNAIL— PI. 23, fig. 4. 
SOARANT or SOARING— fiving aloft. 
SOMMfi (Ff-) — signifying horned. 
SPANCELLED or FETTERED— applied to horse that has 

legs fettered. 
SPEAR — a weapon. PI. 23, fig. 5, dexter. 
SPEAR HEAD imbrued— the point bloody. PI. 23, fig. 5, 

SPERVERS— a kind of tent. 
SPHINX, fabled — having the body of a lion, the wings of an 

eagle, and the breasts of a woman. PI. 23, fig. 9. 
SPLENDOUR — the sun with a human face and environed witli 

rays. PI. 23, fig. 8. 
SPREAD EAGLE— see .Eagle displayed. 
SPUR and SPUR LEATHER— the rowel in base. PI. 23, fig. 10. 



SQUIRREL— PL 23, fig. 11. 

STAFF RAGULY— couped at each tnd. PL 23, fig. 12. 

STAGG — a general name for all kind of deer. 


STAGG CURRENT— PL 23, fig. 20. 

STAGG AT BAY— PL 23, fig. IT. 

STAGG AT GAZE— PL 23, fig. 15. 

STAGG LODGED— PL 23, fig. 14. 

STAGG RISING— PL 23, fig. 16. 

STAGG SPRINGING— PL 23, fig. 13. 


STAGG'S HEAD ERASED— PL 23, fig. 18. 

STANDARD — an ensign of square form. 

STAPLE— an iron fastening to a door. 

STAR— see Etoile. . : 

STARVED — denoting the branch of a tree when stripped of its 

ST ATANT— standing. PL 18, fig. 1. 
STEEPLE OF A CHURCH — when borne in arms is drawn 

with a part of the tower or belfry. PL 23, fig. 21. 
STERN — the hinder part of a ship. 

STILL or ALEMBIC— a utensil of the distillery. PL 23, fig. 22. 
STOCK — the stump or trunk of a tree. 
STOLE — part of the vestment of a priest. 
STUDDED— adorned with studs. 
SUB-ORDINARIES— certain figures borne as charges in coat 



armour, which are not considered to be so honorable as what 
are termed ordinaries, and to which the sub-ordinaries give 
place and cede the principal points of the shield. 

SURGIANT — same as Rising. 

SUBVERTANT — turned upside down, reversed. 

SUN IN SPLENDOUR— PI. 23, fig. 8. 

SUPPORTERS— see Chapter VL 

SURMOUNTED — when one charge is placed over another. 

SURTOUT or SUR LE TOUT (Fr.)—an escutcheon placed 
upon the centre of a shield is said to be surtout. 

SWALLOW — when represented flying is termed volant. PI. 23, 
fig. 24. 

SWAN CLOSE— PI. 24, fig. 1. 


SWAN'S NECK erased and ducally gorged.— PI. 24, fig. 3. 


SWEEP, the balisla — an instrument anciently used for throwing 
stones into fortresses. 

SWIVEL — two iron links which turn on a boU. 

SWORD ERECT— PL 21, fig. 5. 

TARBARD — surcoats embroidered with the sovereign's arms, 
and worn by the sovereign's heralds and pursuivants of arm> 
upon great festivals and other public occasions. 

TAIL — the tails of lions are sometimes borne in arms as rep- 
resented in PL 24, fig. 7. 

TAILLfi (Fr.) — same as Party per bend sinister. 

TALBOT— a species of hound. PL 24, fig. G. 



TALBOT'S HEAD ERASED— PI. 24, fig. 8. 

TAR£ or TARRE (^Fr.j— affrontee or ftill-faccd. 

TASCES — armour for the thighs. 

TASSELLED — adorned with tassels. 

TAU — cross of that name. PI. 7, fig. -t. 

TAWNY — same as Tenne. 

TEAL — a water-fowl. 

TEAZEL — the head or seed-vessel of a species of thistle. 

TENANS fFr.) — supporters when inanimate and not touching 

the escutcheon. 
TENNfi — a color composed of red, yellow and brown, and 

indicated by diagonal sinister lines, crossed by horizontal 

lines. See PL 1. 
TERRAS — the representation of a piece of ground at the base 

of the shield, generally colored green. PI. 19, fig. 22. 
TERRESTRL\L GLOBE— PI. 23, fig. 7. 
THISTLE— the emblematic plant of Scotland. PI. 24, fig. 9. 
THUNDERBOLT as depicted in heraldry.— PL 24, fig. 10. 
TIERCE fFr.) — implying the shield is divided into three equal 

parts of different colors. 
TIGER — heraldic, a fictitious beast represented with a hooked 

talon at the nose and ^ mane formed of tufts. PL 24, fig. 11. 
TILTING SPEAR BROKEN— the bottom part is implied as 

shown in PL 24, fig. 12. 
TIMBRE — signifies the helmet when placed over the arms in a 

complete achievement. 
TINCTURE — the color of anything including the two metals. 



TOISON D'OR— the golden fleece. 

TORCHES— two in saltier. PL 13, fig. 24. 

TORQUED — means wreathed. 

TORTEAUX— a roundle painted red. PI. 2. 

TORTILLfi (Fr.)—no\vec\, twdsted, or wreathed. 

TOURNAMENT— see Chapter I. 

TOURNfi ("Fr.J- reguardant. 

TOWER— PI. 24, fig. 13. 

TRANCHE (Fr.) — same as per bend. 

TRANGLE (Fr.) — a diminution of the fesse. 

TRANSFIXED— pierced through. 

TRANSFLUENT — a term applied to water as if running 
through a bridge. PL 9, fig. 22. 

TRANSPOSED — reversed or turned contraryways. 

TREE, STUMP OF— couped. PL 22, fig. 8. 

TREFOIL or three leaved grass — PL 24, fig. 14. 

TRESSURE — a diminutive of the orle, usually borne double 
and flory counter-flory. PL 4, fig. 7. 

TRESTLE— a three-legged stool. PL 24, fig. 18. 

TRICORPORATE — when the bodies of three beasts are rep- 
resented issuing from the dexter, sinister and base points, 
and meeting conjoined in one head in the centre point. 

TRIDENT — a three pronged, barbed fork or spear. PL 24, 
fig. 15. 

TRINITY — heraldic device for the representation thereof. 
PL 24, fig. 16. 

TRI PARTED — parted into three pieces. 



TRIPPANT — applied to beasts of chase, as passant is to beasts 

of prey. PI. 16, fig. 15. 
TRIPPING, counter — passing in opposite directions. 
TROUT— a fish. PI. 24, fig. 17. 

black, the ends tipped silver or gold. 
TRUNK OF A TREE — when the root is torn up and the top 

cut off. 
TUBERATED, gibbous — knotted or swelled out as the middle 

part of the serpent. 
TUN — generally borne in arms in a lying position. PI. 24, fig. 19. 
TURNED UP — as a chapeau gu turned up erm.ine. PI. 10, 

fig. 15. 
TURRETTED (Fr. donjonne) — a tower or w^all having small 

towers upon it. 
TUSKED (Fr. dente) — when the tusks are borne of a different 

tincture to the body. 
TWYFOIL or DUFOIL — formed of only two leaves shaped 

like those of the trefoil. 
TYNES — branches of the horns of stags, bucks, rein-deer and 
beasts of venery. 


UMBRACED — same as Vambraced. 
UNDfi, UND£E or UNDY— same as Wavy. 



UNGULED — a term applied to the hoof of the horse, stag, bull, 

etc., to express that they are of a different tincture from that 

of the body of the animal. 
UNICORN — an imaginary animal with a long twisted horn out 

of its forehead, head and body like a horse, cloven feet, hair 

under chin like a goat, tail like a lion, and of a bay color. 

PI. 24, fig. 20. 
UNIFOIL — a single leaved grass. 
URCHIN— a hedgehog. 
URDE— the singular of URDfiE. 
URD£E — same as Clechee, see Cross urdee. PI. 4, fig. 9, also 

partition lines PI. 1. 
URINANT — applicable to the dolphin or other fish when borne 

with the head downwards and the tail erect, exactly contrary 

to haurient. 

VAIR — one of the furs used in heraldry. See PI. 2. 

VAIR COUNTER — like Vair in its formation, but the escutch- 
eons are of like tinctures immediately under each other. See 
PL 2. 

VAIR IN POINT— like Vair, but with the bottom points of the 
little shields of which it is composed, faUing on the centre 
of the flat tops of those immediately beneath. See PI. 2. 

VALLARY CROWN— see Crowns. 

VAM BR ACE — armour for the arm. 


VAM vol 

VAMBRACED — the arm wholly covered with armour. 
VAM PL ATE — a gauntlet or iron glove. 

VAMPLET of a tilting spear, the broad piece of funnel shaped 
steel, placed at the lower part of the staff of the spear to 
protect the hand. 
VARRIATED or WARRIATED— cut in the form of vair. 
VELLOPED — a cock is said to be armed, crested and velloped, 
when his spurs, comb and wattles are borne of a different 
tincture from the body. 
VERGETTE (Fr.) — a palet or small pale. 

VERT — the color green, expressed in engraving by diagonal 
lines drawn from the dexter chief to the sinister base. See 
PI. 1. 
VERVELLED — when the leather thongs which tie on the bells 
to the legs of hawks are borne flotant with rings at the ends, 
it is termed jessed, belled and vervelled. 
VERULED — the rings 'round hunting horns. 
VESTED— habited or clothed. PI. 8, fig. 6. 
VIGILANT — an animal watching for prey. 
VIxNE-BRANCH— fructed ppr. PI. 24, fig. 22. 
VIROLfi — the hoop- ring or mouth-piece of the bugle or hunting 

VIZOR — that part of the helmet which protects the face, and 

which can be raised and lowered at pleasure. 
VOIDED — an ordinary pierced through, so that the field appears 
and nothing remains of the charge, but the outer edges. 
PI. 7, fig. 5. 



VOL (Fr.) — implies two wings conjoined, a single wing is 

termed a demi-vol. 
VOLANT— a bird depicted flying. PI. 23, fig. 24. 
VULNED — anything that is wounded and bleeding so that 

blood appears dropping. 
VULNING — that is wounding; particularly applied to the 

pelican wdiich is always depicted wounding her breast. 

PI. 21, fig. 3. 


WALLET — a scrip or pilgrim's pouch. PI. 20, fig. IG. 

WASTEL CAKES— round cakes of bread. 

WATER — when borne in armory should be painted to imitate 

WATER-BOUGET — a vessel anciently used by soldiers for 
carrying water in long marches, the form most generally 
used is that shown in PI. 24, fig. 23. 

WAVY or WAVfiE, also called Undee — like waves. See Parti- 
tion lines. PI. 1. 

WEARE, WEIR or DAM in fesse, sometimes called a haie — 
PI. 24, fig. 24. 

WELT or EDGE — a narrow border to an ordinary or charge, 
but which is not shown wdiere the ordinary touches or is 
attached to the outer part of the escutcheon. 

WERVELS— see Vervelled. 

WHALE'S HEAD— erased. PI. 25, fig. 1. 


WHE woo 

WHEAT, AN EAR OF— PL 25, fig. 2. 

WHEEL CATHARINE— see Catharine Wheel. 

WHIRLPOOL — a gulph where the water is constantly run- 
ning 'round in a rapid motion, drawing every thing that ap- 
proaches into the eddy or vortex, and in blazon it is unneces- 
sary to name the field, the whole being unvariably az. and ar., 
and taking up the whole escutcheon. See Gurges. 

WING OF AN IMPERIAL EAGLE— the French and Ger- 
mans ever draw^ the wings of their eagles v^ith a small feather 
between the pinion feathers. PI. 25, fig. 3. 

WINGED — having wings, or adorned with wings. 

WINGS — conjoined in base. PI. 12, fig. 20. 

WINGS — conjoined in leure. PI. 12, fig. 21. 

WINNOWING BASKET— PI. 23, fig. 1. 

WIURE, WYER, VIURE and VIURIE— a narrow band, not 
thicker than the stroke of a pen. 

WIVERN — an imaginary animal, said to be a kind of flying 
serpent, the upper part resembling a dragon w^ith two legs 
and the lower an adder or snake. PI. 25, fig. 5. 

WOLF PASSANT— PL 25, fig. 6. 

WOLF'S HEAD ERASED— PL 25, fig. 7. 

WOOD — a small group of trees growing on a mount, sometimes 
called a hurst. PL 25, fig. 4. 

WOOD-BILL— see Forest-bill. 

WOODMAN — a name given to a wild man or savage. PL 25, 
fig. 8. 

WOODMAN DEMI— with his club. PI. 22, fig. VX 



WOOL-CARD — an instrument for carding wool. 

WREATH — a garland, chaplet or attire for tlie head. The 
wreath upon which the crest is usually borne is composed of 
tw^o bands of silk, interwoven or twisted together, the one 
tinctured of the principal metal, and the other of the principal 
color in the arms, but if there happen to be no metal in the 
coat armor, then the bands which compose the wreath must 
be of the two principal colors in the arms. The wreath is 
placed between the crest and the helmet. It is circular as in 
PI. 25, fig. 9, but wdien depicted in paintings is shown in 
profile or side view as in PI. 8, fig. 7. Crests are ever implied 
to be placed upon wreaths, when not particularly expressed 
to be borne upon a cap or chapeau, or issuant out of a 
coronet. All wreaths upon which crests are placed should 
show only six folds, three of metal and three of color altern- 
ately, invariably beginning with metal. 

WREATH — sometimes applied to the tail of a boar. 

WREATHED — having a wreath 'round the head, or anything 
twisted in the form of a wreath. 


YOKE— an ox-yoke— PI. 25, fig. 10. 


ZODIAC — in bend sinister with three of the signs on it. PI. 25, 
fig. 11. 


referreD to in tSlos^arv?. 

Points of the Escutcheon. 


Dexter Chief PT 







Middle Chief PT 

< . 



Sinister Chief PT 


*- s 



Honor PT 





Fesse PT 






Dexter Base PTC 
Middle Brse PT H 
Sin IS TER Brse PT I 

Partitioi^ Lines. 


Nebule ^_^^5■7.^^57_57^7, 


Embattled aronde 

Battled Embattledy^^_r'\^' 

Reguly riJlJlJ-lJ^lJ-Lnj-lJ-L 

/V\^V\AAAAA/WV Indented 


_5'ESZ5nESZ5"2.5"E!_5~c Poten ce 
Aj\j\AAAArvAAA/^. U r d ee 





Or = Gold . 

Gules . 

Azure. A rgent« Silver. 



Vert . 



Sable . 



D/1RH Red. 


Plute 2. 


Bezant . Plate . Torteaux . Hurt . Pomme. Colpe. 

Pellet . Orange Cuze. Fountain. 


Gutted o r. Gutted eau . Cutte depoix . Cuttedesang . Cutte cJe larmes . CutLedblive . 
Solo. Silver. Blrck . Red. Bun. Green. 


ermine. Ermines . Pean . Erminois. Pote 


\ ,-a- ^ 7^^ 

Potent Counter ,, _ 

Potent. Vair. Counter Vair. Vair en Point. 

The Honorable Ordinaries. 


Bend Sinister. Fess. 

v \ 


Cheveron. Cross. 


OF THE Shield. 

Per Beno SiNis^T Per Pale ifP^CHEv? Per Srlticr. 
\ Mlllllilll!iil!!llilil^ / V 



BaRRY PiLY. Per BRRifPiLE. BffRRY Inoenteo. 

Pliit£ ■? 


Pl/jte 5. 


p' \ 







Plate 7. 

Plate 8, 

Plate S. 

Pl/jte II. 

l-'L/fTE IZ 

PL/tTE /3. 

Plate /4 

Pl/jte /Z 

Plate 18. 

PL/tTE 19. 

Pljitb 21. 

PuaTE 26. 

Plate 24. 

Plate 25. 


"^^ ( 






V f 

^ J 

Plrte 26. 



PLflTE 21. 
























































Plktz 29 

Marshalling Arms