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Full text of "Heraldry of the church: a handbook for decorators"

I 0^^ 



^rts of tfje (J^fjiircl) 

Edited by the 
REV. PERCY DEARMER, D.D. 



€i)c Hrts of tije OTJurrij 

Edited by the 
REV. PERCY DEARMER, D.D. 

i6mo. Profusely Illustrated. Cloth, i/6 net. 

1. THE ORNAMENTS OF THE 

MINISTERS. By the Rev. Percy 
Dearmer, D.D. 

2. CHURCH BELLS. By U. B. 

Walters, M.A., F.S.A. 

3. THE ARCHITECTURAL HIS= 

TORY OF THE CHRISTIAN 
CHURCH. By A. G. Hill, M.A., 
F.S.A. 

4. CHURCH MUSIC. By the Rev. 

Maurice F. Bell, M.A. 

5. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN 

ENGLAND. Bv the Rev. E. Her- 
mitage Day, D.D., F.S.A. 

6. RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 

IN ENGLAND. Bv the Rev. E. 
Hermitage Day, D.D., F.S.A. 

7. SYMBOLISM OF THE SAINTS. 

By the Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, 

M.A., F.S.A 
8 THE CHANCEL AND THE ALTAR. 

By Harold C. King, M.A. 
9. CHURCH EMBROIDERY. By 

Alice Drydkx. 
10. HERALDRY OF THE CHURCH. 

By the Rev. E. E. DoRLiN(;, M.A., 

F.S.A. 

OTHERS TO FOLLOW 



€fje ^rts of ti)t (t\)nvc\) 

HERALDRY OF 
THE CHURCH 

A HANDBOOK FOR DECORATORS 



BY THE 

Rev. E. E. DORLING, M.A., F.S.A. 



iriTH EIGHTr-THT{EE ILLUST'^iTIOC^ 



A. R. MOWBRAY & CO. Ltd. 

London : 28 Margaret Street, Oxford Circus, W. 

Oxford : 9 High Street 



First printed, 191 i 



EDITOR'S NOTE 



THE little volumes in the Arts of 
THE Church series are intended 
to provide information in an interesting 
as well as an accurate form about the 
various arts which have clustered round 
the public worship of God in the Church 
of Christ. Though few have the oppor- 
tunity of knowing much about them, 
there are many who would like to possess 
the main outlines about those arts whose 
productions are so familiar to the Chris- 
tian, and so dear. The authors will write 
for the average intelligent man who has 
not had the time to study all these matters 
for himself ; and they will therefore avoid 
technicalities, while endeavouring at the 
same time to present the facts with a 
fidelity which will not, it is hoped, be 
unacceptable to the specialist. 



2039287 



CONTENTS 



Arms of Sees in the Province of Canterbury i 5 

Arms of Sees in the Province of York - 71 

Shields specially associated v^mth the Holy 

Name - - - - - - 93 

The Four Evangelists - - - - 105 

Arms assigned to Saints - - - -115 

Arms suggested for Saints - - - '57 

Index . _ ^ - = - - 193 



Ei)t Hits of tljp (ttijiirrij 

Heraldry of the Church 

A Handbook for Decorators 

t^^ t^^ ^^ 

INTRODUCTION 

THIS little book is intended, as its 
sub-title implies, for the use of 
church decorators. It has been written, 
and illustrated by the writer, in the hope 
of inducing Church people of to-day to 
take a little more pains with the heraldry 
that is placed by them in painted windows 
and on carven stones, and of telling some- 
thing of what is implied by the use of 
heraldic ornament. 

With this aim, examples of the shields 
of arms that are most likely to be used 

B 



2 Heraldry of the Church 

in the decoration of churches are here 
described in simple intelligible terms. The 
first part of the book is occupied with the 
arms of the dioceses of the Church of 
England ; the remainder of it comprises 
the shields, some devised in mediaeval 
times to typify certain of the saints, some 
designed by the writer to serve the same 
purpose for those saints whom the armorial 
writers of the middle ages omitted from 
their lists. 

It is hoped that this selection will be 
found useful and reasonably comprehen- 
sive. Though exigencies of space forbid 
the inclusion of all coats of arms that have 
been assigned to saints, there is here a 
shield for each saint in whose honour 
twenty churches and upwards have been 
dedicated in England. Of these by far 
the largest number, considerably over 
2,000, have the Blessed Virgin as their 
patron saint. All Saints is the next most 
favoured dedication, more than 1,200 
churches having this title. Then follow 



Introduction 3 

S. Peter with over 900 ; and S. Andrew 
and S. Michael with more than 700 
churches. Holy Trinity is the invocation 
of between 600 and 700 ; S. James, S. John 
the Evangelist and S. John Baptist give 
their names to over 500 churches. S. Ni- 
cholas follows with close on 400 ; Christ 
Church and S. Paul are the titles of 
nearly as many. S. Laurence, S. Mar- 
garet and S. Mary Magdalene respectively 
are the patron saints of over 200 churches, 
and between 100 and 200 are dedicated 
in honour of S. Bartholomew, S. George, 
S. Giles, S. Helen, S. Leonard, S. Luke, 
S. Mark, S. Martin, S. Matthew, S. Stephen 
and S. Thomas the Apostle. Holy Cross 
is the name of close on 100 churches ; 
S. Catherine, S. Cuthbert, and S. Saviour 
of nearly as many. Between 50 and 80 
have the names of S. Augustine, S. Clement, 
S. Botolph, S. Oswald, S. Barnabas, 
S. Thomas of Canterbury and S. Anne. 
Ranging between 40 and 70 are the dedica- 
tions of churches in honour of Emmanuel, 



4 Heraldry of the Church 

S. Chad, S. Philip, and S. Wilfrid ; while 
from 20 to 40 churches have the titles 
of S. Bridget (or S. Bride), S. David, 
S. Faith, S. Gregory, S. Hilda, S. Alban, 
S. Denys and S. Jude. 

This book makes no claim to be a 
manual of heraldry. The mysterious 
jargon of the science is, as far as possible, 
replaced by straightforward English which 
may be easily understood by readers 
ignorant of heraldic technicalities. It has 
been, of course, impossible entirely to 
avoid the use of technical terms ; but 
these will explain themselves when the 
descriptions in which they occur are com- 
pared with the drawings placed opposite 
10 them. 

Heraldry is a matter which enters, and 
always has entered, very largely into the 
decoration of churches. Carvers in wood 
and stone, workers in metal and glass, 
painters, embroiderers and illuminators 
have all enriched our stores of heraldic 
art. But the heraldic art of the middle 



Introduction 5 

ages is a very different thing from that of 
the last three hundred years. Even when 
to modern eyes the old examples seem 
crude and harsh it is impossible to deny 
their vigour and power ; when, as is most 
often the case, they attain to beauty their 
beauty is of a quality that must appeal to 
the modern craftsman who is trying to 
import into his own work something of 
the dignity and charm that distinguish 
the old. 

But for the most part the modern 
craftsman is trying to do nothing of the 
kind. Oblivious to what almost every 
old church has to teach him, he is content 
to reproduce the mistakes and the feeble- 
ness of other moderns as ignorant as 
himself. If he can be persuaded to study 
the old examples he copies and traces and 
measures them, not because he is too 
humble to try to work as the men of old 
time worked, trusting to a keen eye and a 
sure hand to give life and proportion and 
stateliness to his work, but because he is 



6 Heraldry of the Church 

too idle to find out for himself the ways 
by which they reached to the success that 
is theirs. 

Let it be understood that I am speaking 
of heraldic work, and of that only. For 
the decorators of to-day can produce work 
that is every whit as fine in execution as 
that of the middle ages. It is their 
design that sadly needs improvement ; 
and the pity of it is that their patrons are 
satisfied with the poor stufF that issues 
every day from the workshops. When, 
as sometimes happens, the modern worker 
is neither humble nor idle, but merely a 
conceited and ignorant fellow who trusts 
to his own unaided genius to produce 
heraldic ornament, the result is usually 
ludicrous, and if it were not so fatuous 
would be distressing. 

What this little book aims at is to teach 
the decorator who is willing to learn that 
heraldry may be as beautiful to-day as 
ever it was ; that it may have distinction 
and grace and fitness akin to that of the 



Introduction 7 

Middle Ages ; that if his work is to 
possess those qualities he must first study 
the armorial glass and the seals, the monu- 
ments and the illuminations of the olden 
time. If he will not do that, let him at 
least be guided by those who have gone 
for their inspiration to the work of the 
great periods. 

The question arises then — What are 
the elements of the beauty of ancient 
heraldic design ? 1 think they are three ; 
first, cleanness and firmness of line ; 
secondly, balance and proportion ; and 
lastly, splendour of colour. If modern 
work is to have the same beauty it must 
conform to the same rules. 

Let all your lines, then, be clean and 
firm and expressive. There must be no 
haziness or sketchiness of outline. You 
must get your effects with a strong sure 
stroke in which each touch of pen or 
chisel, needle or brush means something 
definite. Look at the leopards in the 
shield of Lincoln, page 43, or the cinqfoils 



8 Heraldry of the Church 

in the arms of S. Davids, page 59. In the 
one case the simple drawing of the beasts 
attempts to show how roundness and 
strength and " go " may be expressed 
with economy of line ; in the other the 
cinqfoils placed on the cross seem, with- 
out being exactly formal and regular, to 
have their due value in the little scheme 
of decoration. Everyday experience shows 
only too plainly how qualities of that 
kind, which are the essence of ancient 
heraldic art, are lacking in most of the 
heraldry of to-day. 

The mediaeval armorists attained in an 
apparently instinctive and effortless manner 
to a quality of proportion which we can 
only reach after long and careful study of 
their draughtsmanship. Their secret ap- 
pears to be this ; that they made the 
amount of space covered by the charges 
rather less than the area of the field left 
visible. We, on the other hand, are apt 
either to make our charges far too small, 
when the shield looks poor and weak, or 



Introduction 9 

too big, when it has a crowded and over- 
weighted appearance. Look at the Chester 
mitres, page 79, or at the birds in the 
shield of S. Thomas, page 153. In both 
instances there is some sort of balance 
between the charges and the held, and it 
may perhaps be claimed for each that the 
effect is lively and agreeable. 

The same sort of caution is necessary 
when dealing with large charges which have 
smaller objects upon them. S. George's 
cross, page 135, satisfies the eye, but it is 
considerably narrower than that of Carlisle, 
page 77, which must needs be wide be- 
cause of the mitre which it carries. Again, 
when a large charge is between smaller 
objects the same care must be exercised. 
Compare S. George's cross with that of 
Durham, page 75, and see how the latter 
is narrow to allow room for the four 
lions. Yet all three crosses are of sound 
heraldic type, the Carlisle cross being 
wide to allow the mitre to have its due 
effect in the scheme, that of Durham 



1 



lo Heraldry of the Church 

being narrow to let the four lions do 
their share. 

Or compare the fesse in the arms of 
Oxford, page 49, with that of S. Barnabas, 
page 163. Each is a good fesse ; but the 
one is narrow because it has other charges 
above and below it, the other is wide 
because it has charges upon it. 

Beware of what are called "art colours." 
If a thing is red, paint it red, a clear, 
bright, splendid scarlet. Do not use pink, 
or crimson, or terra-cotta. Hues such as 
those must be banished absolutely from 
the palette of the heraldic painter. For 
a blue thing use a clean and cool colour 
like Prussian blue. A hot, purply blue 
should be avoided. A vivid green of the 
colour of young spring grass is, in the 
same way, preferable to olive or emerald 
or bottle-green. 

The love of the mediaeval armorists for 
blue is noteworthy. The celestial colour 
is what we naturally expect to find in 
shields that typify the Blessed Virgin, 



Introduction 1 1 

such as the arms of Salisbury, of Lincoln, 
and the shield of Our Lady itself. But 
it appears also in the arms assigned to 
martyrs, such as S. Andrew, S. Clement, 
and S. Edmund ; in that of Edward the 
Confessor, of Hilda the abbess, of Guthlac 
the hermit. This fondness for blue is 
possibly a reflection of the devotion of the 
English Church for the Blessed Virgin, 
a devotion which is further exemplified in 
the enormous number of churches that 
are dedicated in honour of the Mother of 
our Lord. 

It remains to give some hints as to 
the drawing and placing of heraldic 
charges, and to explain a few technical 
terms. 

Swords should be so drawn as to look 
like real weapons, not like theatrical 
properties. 

Keys, when there is a pair of them 
(see Winchester, page 21) have a better 
appearance if their wards, which are always 
upwards, are of different patterns. When 



1 2 Heraldry of the Church 

they are crossed that which is placed 
diagonally from top left to bottom right 
should be above the other. (See Glou- 
cester, page 37, and compare the croziers 
of Llandaff, page 45.) 

"Leopards" are lions walking and full- 
faced; "lions" are sidefaced and rampant. 
(See Lincoln, page 43, and Durham, 
page 75.) ^ 

The chief is the upper part of the 
shield. A chief is that same part cut 
off by a horizontal line. 

The saltire is a difficult charge to draw 
satisfactorily, and it is well to get the four 
arms as nearly as possible of equal length 
and its upper and lower angles slightly 
less than right angles. 

Make your mitres of the simple early 
shape. Do not be lured into drawing the 
ugly bulbous objects which did duty for 
mitres in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. 

Keep the angles of chevrons (see 
S. Botolph, page 165) somewhat acute. 



Introduction 1 3 

A chevron with an obtuse angle is not 
a beautiful thing. 

All drapery should be expressed by 
simple lines. Shading by cross-hatching 
should not be attempted. (See Sodor and 
Man, page 89, and S. Matthew, page 107.) 

When a shield contains only three 
similar charges arranged two and one, the 
lowest of the three may be very slightly 
larger than the other two. (See S. Nicholas, 
page 183.) 

It is perhaps hardly necessary to explain 
that "gules" means red, " azure" is blue, 
" sable " stands for black, and " vert " is 
the heraldic name for green. 

It remains for me to express my great 
indebtedness to the monumental Ecclesias- 
tical Heraldry of the late Dr. Woodward, 
to Dr. Husenbeth's Emblems of Saints^ to 
Mrs. Jameson's valuable works. Sacred 
and Legendary Art and their companions. 
Legends of the Monastic Orders and Legends 
of the Madonna^ to the great Catalogue of 
Seals in the British Museum compiled by 



14 Heraldry of the Church 

Dr. Walter de Gray Birch, and last but 
not least to Frances Arnold -Forster's 
Studies in Church Dedications. Without 
the aid which these writers have afforded 
me I could hardly have produced this 
little piece of work. If those who use it 
find it of any value and interest 1 shall 
be more than happy. 

E. E. D. 



ARMS OF SEES IN THE 
PROVINCE OF CANTERBURY 



1 6 Heraldry of the Church 



Canterbury 

Azure an archbishop' s crozier with its 
staff silver and its cross gold surmounted by a 
pall in its proper colours. 

Simon Islip (1349-66) was the first 
Archbishop of Canterbury who had these 
arms engraved upon his seal ; all his 
successors have employed them as the 
arms of the metropolitan see of England. 

The pall is white, edged and fringed 
with gold, and the four crosses upon it, 
which must have the shape drawn in the 
illustration opposite, are black. The 
arms of the See of Armagh are the same 
as those of Canterbury ; those of the 
Archbishopric of Dublin have five crosses 
on the pall, otherwise they are like those 
of Canterbury and Armagh. 



The 'Province of Canterbury 



17 




CANTERBURY 



Heraldry of the Church 



London 

Gules t\^o swords gold of S. Paul crossed 
saltirewise with their points upwards. 

Ralph Stratford (1340-54) seems to 
have been the first Bishop of London to 
display these arms as those of the see, 
although several of his predecessors had 
introduced into their seals a figure of 
S. Paul, the patron saint of the cathedral 
and city, with his emblems of sword and 
book. After Bishop Stratford's time the 
use of the arms by Bishops of London 
became almost universal. 

The mediaeval heralds gave to S. Paul 
himself the same shield but with the 
swords silver. 



The Province of Canterbury 



19 




LONDON 



20 Heraldry of the Church 



Winchester 

Gules S. Peter s keys gold and silver mth 
S. PauFs sword thrust between them saltire- 
wise and having its blade silver and its hilt 
gold. 

This Is the most usual form of these 
ancient arms, borne in memory of the 
saints in whose honour the cathedral is 
dedicated. The manner in which the 
charges are arranged has varied from time 
to time ; but the field is consistently 
coloured red ; the keys set back to back 
with their bows interlinked are always 
gold and silver ; and it is always the 
golden key which lies over the blade of 
the sword. 



ne Trovince of Canterbury 21 




WINCHESTER 



2 2 Heraldry of the Church 



Bangor 

Gules a bend gold sprinkled mth drops 
sable between tvoo pierced molets silver. 

These are the colours used at present. 
In former days the bend was silver ; 
sometimes the drops were coloured 
blue. The red of the field is seen 
through the piercing of the molets. It 
is impossible to say what is the origin 
of these beautiful arms, or if they have 
any reference to the dedication of the 
cathedral or to a bishop of olden times. 
The seal of Bishop Roland Merrick 
(1559-66) is the earliest in the collection 
at the British Museum to show these 
arms impaling his own personal coat. 



T^he Trovince of Canterbury 23 




BANGOR 



24 Heraldry of the Church 



Bath and Wells 

Azure a saltire quartered saltiremse gold 
and silver. 

The arms are those of Wells, the seat 
of the bishop, the saltire being S. Andrew's 
cross in allusion to the dedication of the 
cathedral. The arms of Bath are not 
now used. 

The field is blue. Each arm of the 
saltire is divided lengthways into equal 
alternate strips of gold and silver, begin- 
ning with gold in the top left-hand corner. 
The gold is consequently above the divid- 
ing-line on the dexter side (that is the 
spectator's left), and below it on the 
sinister side of the saltire. 



Tlie Trovince of Canterbury 25 




BATH AND WELLS 



2 6 Heraldry of the Church 

Birmingham 

Party indented gold and gules five roundels 
with tvoo crosses formy in the chief all counter- 
coloured. 

The field of these arms, divided by the 
zigzag line into two halves (that to the 
spectator's left being gold and the other 
side red), is derived from the ancient 
shield of the Berminghams, a powerful 
feudal family holding in the Middle Ages 
broad domains where the city now stands. 
The two crosses and the five roundels are 
added in memory of S. Philip in whose 
honour the cathedral church is dedicated. 
As the blazon indicates, these charges are 
countercoloured, that is those that are on 
the gold are red, and vice versa, the 
roundel in the foot of the shield where 
the zigzag line passes through it being 
itself partly red and partly gold. 

The meaning of these charges is ex- 
plained later under S. Philip, page 184. 



ne Trovince of Canterbury 27 




BIRMINGHAM 



2 8 Heraldry of the Church 

Bristol 

Sable three crowns palewise gold. 

An early example of these arms has the 
field azure, and that is probably its 
original colour. When the field was blue 
there was a good reason fior setting the 
crowns one under the other, for thereby 
this shield was distinguished from one of 
the many shields assigned to S. Edmund 
in which the golden crowns were arranged 
two and one. The date of the change of 
the colour of the field from blue to black 
is lost. It has been suggested that the 
three crowns refer to the dedication of the 
cathedral in honour of the Holy Trinity. 



The Trovince of Canterbury 29 







BRISTOL 



30 Heraldry of the Church 

Chichester 
Azure our LORD chid in yvhite mth a 
golden girdle seated upon a throne gold and 
haYing a s'^ord coming out of His mouth with 
its blade silver and its hilt gold. 

This design, evidently suggested by S. 
John's vision of our Lord in glory, appears 
in the seals of Sigefrid who ruled the see 
from 1 1 80 to 1204, and of Richard de la 
Wich and John Chipping,thirteenth-century 
Bishops of Chichester. In these seals, how- 
ever, the sword is omitted, and the figure is 
set between two candlesticks. The fifteenth- 
century seal of the dean and chapter omits 
the candlesticks, but has the sword. John 
Arundel, bishop from 1459 to 1477 was 
the first bishop to place the figure upon 
a shield as the arms of the see. 

The face of our Lord should be painted 
in its natural colours ; so should the hands 
and feet which show the wounds. The 
halo is gold with a red cross upon it. The 
throne may have a red cushion, and the 
footstool may be of the same colour. 



The Trovince of Canterbury 3 i 




CHICHESTER 



32 Heraldry of the Church 



LY 



Gules three crowns gold. 

Bishop William de Luda is found using 
these arms as early as 1290. They are 
those assigned to S. Etheldreda, Queen of 
Northumbria and founder of the Abbey of 
Ely, in whose honour the cathedral church 
is dedicated. The reverse, Gold three 
crowns gules., are the arms of S. Osyth, 
Queen of the East Saxons and founder of 
a nunnery at Chick in Essex, who was 
murdered by the Danes about the year 676. 



The Province of Canterbu 



iry 1^1^ 




ELY 



34 Heraldry of the Church 



Ex 



ETER 



Gules a s^ord silver mth its hilt gold sur- 
mounted by tyvo keys gold crossed saltiremse. 

These arms assumed their present form 
in the episcopate of John Boothe, Bishop 
of Exeter from 1465 to 1478. Edmund 
Lacy (1420-55) took two keys and a 
sword in saltire for the arms of the see. 
Edmund Stafford, his predecessor, used 
two keys. The charges are borne in 
allusion to the ancient dedication of the 
cathedral to S. Peter and S. Paul. 



The Province of Canterbury 



35 




EXETER 



36 Heraldry of the Church 



Gloucester 
Azure two keys gold crossed saltiremse. 

The Abbey of Gloucester was under the 
protection of S. Peter, and the keys of the 
Apostle naturally appear in the blue shields 
of the monastic house and the see. When 
in later years the name of S. Paul was 
added to the dedication, S. Paul's sword 
was borne upright along with the keys, 
and is so engraved in the fifteenth-century 
seal of the abbey. The sword has, how- 
ever, been disused for a long time. 

The shield that the armorists of the 
Middle Ages assigned to S. Peter himself 
was Gules two crossed keys silver. 



The ProYince of Canterbury 37 




GLOUCESTER 



38 Heraldry of the Church 

Hereford 

Gules three fleurs-de-lis coming out of 
leopards' heads gold. 

This is the coat-armour of the powerful 
house of Cantilupe from which came 
Thomas de Cantilupe, Bishop of Hereford 
from 1275 to 1282. Adam Orlton, the 
next bishop but one after him, had two 
such fleurs-de-lis engraved in his seal, 
and after his time these arms came to be 
regarded as the arms of the see. 

The leopards' heads are usually drawn 
reversed, as in the illustration opposite, 
but there is good reason for believing that 
they are nothing more than a decorative 
elaboration of the ball or knop from which 
the leaves of the flowers spring. The 
earliest examples of the arms of Cantilupe 
show three golden fleurs-de-lis on red, 
and the seal of a flfteenth-century Bishop 
of Hereford gives them in the shield of 
the see with very large plain knops. But 
usage has decided that the knops shall be 
leopards' heads reversed, and it is as well, 
no doubt, to conform to the usual practice. 



The Prol^mce of Canterbury 



39 




HEREFORD 



40 Heraldry of the Church 

Lichfield 

Party gules and silver a cross quadrate 
and potent between four crosses formy all 
countercoloured. 

No satisfactory explanation is known of 
these ancient and remarkable arms, which 
in the Middle Ages were devised for 
S. Chad, Bishop of Mercia, and patron 
of the cathedral. 

The shield is equally divided by the 
perpendicular line and coloured red and 
silver, the red being on the spectator's 
left hand. The large cross, similarly 
divided, is coloured red where it rests 
on the silver, and silver in its other half. 
The four small crosses are treated in the 
same way, those in the red half being 
silver while the two in the silver are red. 
The central cross is of unusual form. Its 
arms issue from a square and end in 
crutch-shaped pieces, whence its name 
"potent," from the French potence = 2, 
crutch. 



The Pro'))ince of Canterbury 41 




LICHFIELD 



42 Heraldry of the Church 



Lincoln 

Gules two leopards gold and a chief azure 
mth Our Lady enthroned mth the Child all 
gold therein. 

These arms first appear in the seal of 
William Smith, Bishop of Lincoln from 
1495 ^o I5H- The lower part of the 
shield contains the traditional arms of the 
Dukes of Normandy in memory, it seems 
probable, of William the Conqueror, who 
in 1085 transferred the seat of the bishop 
of that vast diocese from Dorchester on 
the Thames to Lincoln. The figures in 
the chief refer to the dedication of the 
cathedral in honour of the Blessed Virgin. 



The FroVince of Canterbury 43 




LINCOLN 



44 Heraldry of the Church 

Llandaff 

S>ahle t\oo croziers crossed sa/tirevpise^ the 
one gold^ the other silver^ and a chief azure 
with three mitres gold therein. 

The golden crozier, laid diagonally with 
its head in the top left-hand corner of the 
black field, should pass over the other, 
which is all of silver. The three golden 
mitres in the blue chief should be so 
arranged that with their pendent labels 
they occupy about half of the area of that 
upper part. This is not an easy shield 
to draw so that it presents a quite satis- 
factory appearance. The croziers especially 
require very careful treatment. They 
must be drawn boldly, even at the ex- 
pense of proportion, otherwise they will 
look very thin and make no show on their 
black background. The charges them- 
selves seem to have no special reference 
to the history of the see or to the dedica- 
tion of the cathedral. 



The ProYince of Canterbury 45 




LLANDAFF 



46 Heraldry of the Church 



Norwich 

Azure three mitres with their labels gold. 

These arms are found as early as 1351 
in the second seal of William Bateman, 
Bishop of Norwich from 1344 to 1355. 
Dr. Woodward {^Ecclesiastical Heraldry^ 
p. 327) suggests that the three mitres 
" may possibly refer to the union in the 
See of Norwich of the Bishoprics of 
Thetford, Dunwich, and Elmham." 



The ProYince of Canterbury 47 




NORWICH 



1 



48 Heraldry of the Church 



Oxford 

^able a fesse silver between three ladies' 
heads in the chief mth their clothing silver 
and their crowns gold and an ox silver passing 
a ford in the foot. 

The lower portion of the shield contains 
the canting arms of the city ; the ford 
being represented by waved bars alter- 
nately silver and blue. The ladies' heads 
above the fess perhaps refer to S. Frides- 
wide, Abbess of Oxford and her two patron 
saints, S. Cecilia and S. Catherine. Dr. 
Woodward put forward the suggestion 
that the heads may be those of kings, 
referring to the tradition of the royal 
foundation of the University. 



The ProVince of Canterbury 49 




OXFORD 



^ 



50 Heraldry of the Church 



Peterborough 

Gules S. Peter s keys crossed saltirewnse 
between four cross lets fitchy gold. 

Both the keys are gold in spite of the 
convention that one of S. Peter's keys 
should be silver. The arms are those 
of the Abbey of Peterborough (in which 
only the keys appeared), differenced by 
the addition of four golden crosslets, 
having their lower arms ending in spikes. 
The other arms of the crosslets are made 
in the fashion of the Middle Ages with 
trefoil ends. 



The Pro^nnce of Canterbury 5 




PETERBOROUGH 



52 Heraldry of the Church 



Rochester 

Silver a saltire gules with a scallop gold 
thereon. 

The earliest Rochester seal in the 
British Museum collection that displays 
these arms is that of John Scory, bishop 
from 1 55 1 to 1554. 

The red saltire is in allusion to S. An- 
drew in whose honour the cathedral was 
originally dedicated. The reason for the 
golden scallop is lost. 



The Pro'))ince of Canterbury ^i^ 




ROCHESTER 



54 Heraldry of the Church 



St. Albans 

Azure a saltire gold and over all a sword 
set upright mth its blade silver and its hilt 
gold and haVing o'))er its point a celestial 
crown gold. 

Here the ancient arms of the abbey, 
which bore S. Alban's golden saltire on 
blue, are differenced by the martyr's sword 
and crown to form the arms of the see. 



The Pro'))ince of Canterbury 55 




ST. ALBANS 



^6 Heraldry of the Church 



St. Asaph 

Sable iwo keys siher crossed salttrew^se. 

This is the usual form of these arms, 
and they are so engraved in the seal of 
Robert Lancaster, Bishop of S. Asaph 
from 141 1 to 1433. But in one earlier 
and some later examples a crozier appears 
instead of one of the keys. There is no 
obvious reason for the reference of the 
keys to this saint or to the see that bears 
his name. 



The Prolpince of Canterbury 57 




ST. ASAPH 



Heraldry of the Church 



St. Davids 

Sable a cross gold mth five cinqfoils sable 
thereon. 

These arms have the appearance of a 
personal coat. It is impossible to say how 
or when they came to be assigned to the 
see. In our drawing the cinqfoils are 
pierced in accordance with ancient prac- 
tice. The gold of the cross shows through 
the holes. 



The Pro')>ince of Canterbury 59 




ST. DAVIDS 



6o Heraldry of the Church 



Salisbury 

Azure the Blessed Virgin Mary mth the 
Child gold. 

The arms of the see are suggested by 
the dedication of the cathedral church in 
honour of Our Lady. In all examples of 
these arms the Child is carried on the 
right arm of His Mother, who is standing. 
Both before and since the Reformation 
the almost universal practice has been to 
represent the Virgin crowned and holding 
a sceptre in her left hand. 



The Pro)>mce of Canterbury 6 1 




SALISBURY 



62 Heraldry of the Church 



South WARK 

Silver a cross indented gules yvith a mitre 
gules in the quarter. 

These arms are a differenced version of 
the armorial bearings of the Priory of 
S. Mary Overie in Southwark whose 
church is now the cathedral of the dio- 
cese. The shield of the priory was silver 
with the same red cross of lozenges and a 
lozenge gules in the quarter. The modern 
substitution of the mitre for the old lozenge 
is a very happy and expressive example of 
heraldic differencing. 

Great care is needed in the drawing of 
this cross. It is easy to make this beautiful 
charge quite ugly and ridiculous ; but there 
is no need to do so. 



The Province of Canterbury 63 




SOUTHWARK 



64 Heraldry of the Church 



Southwell 

Stable three fountains and a chief gold with 
a pale azure bet^^een a deer in its proper 
colours lying doyvn and two ragged stages ^ert 
crossed with Our Lady and the Qhild gold in 
the pale. 

The " fountains," which are coloured 
with six waved bars alternately blue and 
silver to represent water, refer to the 
second syllable of the name. The deer 
which is part of the arms of the town of 
Derby, and the green cross which appears 
in those of Nottingham, refer to the two 
counties which comprise the diocese ; while 
the blue pale with its golden figures is a 
reminder of the See of Lincoln of which 
the County of Nottingham was formerly a 
part. There is no reference to the See of 
Lichfield to which Derbyshire used to 
belong. 



The Pro^nnce of Canterbury 6^ 




SOUTHWELL 



66 Heraldry of the Church 



Truro 

Siher a saltire gules with a fleur-de-lis 
sable in the foot and upon the saltire a l^ey 
gold surmounted by a sVQord gold having its 
hilt upward all mthin a border sable charged 
"ivith fifteen bezants. 

Dr. Woodward (Ecclesiastical Heraldry^ 
p. 189) explains these arms as follows : — 
The red saltire^ the cross of S. Patrick, is 
taken as the heraldic symbol (in modern 
times only) of the ancient Celtic Church. 
The sword and key in saltire are taken 
from a shield in the Church of S. Germans, 
the old Episcopal seat. Th& fleur-de-lis is 
assumed to denote the transference of the 
see to the Church of S. Mary at Truro. 
The bordure is composed from the arms 
of the Duchy of Cornwall. 



The Pro^bice of Canterbury 67 




TRURO 



68 Heraldry of the Church 

Worcester 

Silver ten roundels gules. 

These arms are not, as is sometimes 
said, those of Godfrey Giffard, Bishop of 
Worcester from 1268 to 1302 ; the charges 
in his paternal coat were three passant 
lions. This shield with the red roundels 
is found in a fourteenth-century seal of 
the Hospital of S. W^ulstan at Worcester. 
He was made Bishop of Worcester in the 
time of Edward the Confessor and lived 
into the reign of William Rufus. In the 
Middle Ao^es his name is found amona 
those of the saints in whose honour the 
cathedral was dedicated, and the memory 
of this great-hearted and patriotic bishop 
was greatly cherished there. The shield 
was perhaps devised to commemorate some 
forgotten deed of his. 

Thomas Peverell (1407-19) is the first 
Bishop of Worcester whose seal is known 
to have contained these arms as represent- 
ing the see. 



The ProVince of Canterbury 69 



OOOQ 



WORCESTER 



ARMS OF SEES IN 
THE PROVINCE OF YORK 



72 Heraldry of the Church 



York 

Gules the keys silver of S. Teter crossed 
saltirewise and in the chief a crown gold 
haVing a tall cap rising oUt of it. 

The drawino: is from the seal of Arch- 
bishop Robert Waldby (1397-98) who 
appears to have been the first prelate to 
assume these arms. In modern times the 
crown is made like the crown of the King 
of England, but from its form as Arch- 
bishop Waldby assumed it it is evidently, 
when taken in conjunction with the crossed 
keys, intended to represent S, Peter's tiara. 
More anciently still the archbishops used 
as their official arms a shield identical with 
that of the See of Canterbury. 



The Pro'\)ince of York 73 




YORK 



74 Heralchj of the Church 

Durham 
Azure a cross gold beween four lions siher. 

This magnificent coat of arms appears 
first on the seal of Robert Nevill, Bishop 
of Durham from 1438 to 1457. The lions 
are possibly derived from the arms of the 
great Thomas Hatfield, bishop from 1345 
to 138 1, whose seal contains his arms, a 
cheveron between three lions. 

This shield, with the field red and the 
cross and lions silver, has been found, it 
is said, as the ensign of S. Denys, bishop 
and martyr. 

It is worthy of note that the Bishop of 
Durham is the only prelate in England 
who should use a mitre having a coronet 
about its rim. This distinction belongs to 
him, and to him alone, a sign of the 
palatinate authority which until 1835 was 
exercised by the occupants of the see. 



The Province of J^ork 



IS 




DURHAM 



76 Heraldry of the Church 



Carlisle 

Silver a cross sable with a mitre gola 
thereon. 

It is difficult to trace any special heraldic 
significance in these arms which as late as 
the reign of Edward VI had not definitely 
assumed their present form. The cathedral 
is dedicated to the Holy Trinity. 



The Proliy^ice of l^ork 77 




CARLISLE 



Heraldry of the Church 



Chester 

Gules three mitres with their labels gold. 

It is said that these are the arms of the 
abbey of Benedictine nuns which was sup- 
pressed in Henry VIIl's time, when the 
church of the nunnery became the cathedral 
of the new see. 



The Pro'))ince of York 79 




CHESTER 



Heraldry of the Church 



Liverpool 

Stiver the eagle of S. John the Evangelist 
holding an inkhorn sable and a chief parted 
azure and gules with an open hook gold in the 
azure having on its leaves the words " Thy 
vpord is Truth " and in the gules a three-masted 
ship gold. 

The eap^le is taken from the ancient seal 
of the borough ; the book with its legend 
was placed in the chief at the request of 
John Charles Ryle, first bishop (1880- 
1900) of Liverpool, and the ship refers to 
the port and commerce of the city. 



The ProYince of Tork 8 




LIVERPOOL 



Heraldry of the Church 



Manchester 

Or a pale engrailed gules ^\nth three mitres 
or thereon and a quarter gules with three bends 
or therein. 

Dr. Woodward {Ecclesiastical Heraldry^ 
p. 195) suggests that the engrailure of the 
pale is in allusion to the name of the 
Grelleys, feudal barons of Manchester. 
The red quarter with its three golden 
bends contains the arms of Grelley, which 
also appear in the shield of the city. The 
bends should be drawn as in the illustra- 
tion, not equally disposed in the quarter 
but with all three in its upper part, in 
accordance with the custom which in 
heraldic fanguage blazons them as " en- 
hanced." 



The ProYince of York 83 




MANCHESTER 



Heraldry of the Church 



Newcastle 

Gules three castles silver and a chief azure 
yvith the golden cross of S. Cutbbert therein. 

These arms are composed of the arms 
of the City of Newcastle, red with three 
silver castles, differenced by the blue chief 
with its golden cross. This representation 
of the cross found in S. Cuthbert's grave 
at Durham is a reminder that the juris- 
diction of the bishop extends over territory 
which was formerly part of the palatinate. 



The ProYince of York 




NEWCASTLE 



86 Heraldry of the Church 



RiPON 

Silver a saltire gules with two crossed keys 
thereon and a chief gules with a holy lamb 
therein in its proper colours. 

The cathedral, formerly the church of 
the College of S. Wilfrid, is dedicated in 
honour of that saint and S. Peter, which 
facts are happily indicated in the arms of 
the see. The keys upon the red saltire 
plainly refer to S. Peter, while the white 
lamb with his silver flag having a red cross 
upon it, and his golden cruciform nimbus, 
seems to have been taken from the twelfth- 
century seal of the College of S. Wilfrid. 



The Province of York 87 




RIPON 



88 Heraldry of the Church 

SoDOR AND Man 

Gules a crowned lady with a halo holding a 
church all in their proper colours and standing 
mth outstretched arms between t^^o pillars silver 
and in the foot of the shield three bent legs in 
steel armour coming from a common point. 

The figure between the pillars is in 
modern times described as the Blessed 
Virgin ; but there can be no doubt that 
originally it was a representation of S. Ger- 
man, the Bishop of Auxerre in France, 
who, coming to this land in a time of 
trouble, wrought against the heresy ot 
Pelagius and was a chief supporter of the 
British Church. The pillars have all the 
appearance of having been once part of an 
architectural canopy such as is commonly 
found in mediaeval seals. The whole coat 
in fact has a seal-like appearance. 

Below the figure are set the three steel- 
clad legs which are the armorial bearings 
of the island, and gave rise to the old 
jest that " the arms of Man are legs." 



The Pro'))ince of York 




SODOR AND MAN 



90 Heraldry of the Church 



Wakefield 

Gold a fleur-de-lis azure and a chief azure 
with three celestial crowns gold therein. 

The lower part of these arms is suggested 
by the arms of the City of Wakefield which 
are the reverse, a gold fleur-de-lis on blue. 
The golden crowns in the blue chief speak 
of the dedication of the cathedral in honour 
of All Saints. 



The Province of Tork 9 




WAKEFIELD 



SHIELDS SPECIALLY 

ASSOCIATED WITH THE 

HOLY NAME 



93 



94 Heraldry of the Church 



Christ Church 

Azure a cross gold charged voith the sacred 
monogram x sable. 

So many churches are dedicated to our 
Blessed Lord under this name that a 
special coat of arms may well be appro- 
priated to them. This shield is designed 
on the model of that of the great Benedic- 
tine Priory of Christ Church at Canterbury, 
whose armorial bearings were identical with 
these but with different colours, the Can- 
terbury shield being silver, with the cross 
sable and the monogram gold. 



Shields associated ivith the Holy Name 95 




CHRIST CHURCH 



Heraldry of the Church 



Holy Cross or Holy Rood 
September 14 

Azure our Lord upon the Cross gold. 

Churches of this dedication have a clear 
right to this shield. The arms of the 
cross may extend to the edge of the shield 
or banner, if it is preferred. The figure 
of the Crucified might well be represented 
crowned, and clothed to the feet, with His 
arms laid horizontally along the beam of 
the cross, and with eyes open, in the 
ancient fashion which regarded Him as 



" reigning from the tree.' 



Shields associated with the Holy Ni 



ame 97 




HOLY CROSS OR HOLY ROOD 



98 Heraldry of the Church 



Emmanuel 

■ Siher the fi^e wounds of our Lord repre- 
sented by two handSj a heart and two feet in 
their proper colours all pierced and bleeding. 

This ancient device is proposed as a 
suitable shield for churches of this dedica- 
tion. The shield here drawn shows these 
arms in their most usual form. There is a 
shield of old stained-glass in the vestry of 
S. Nicholas' Church at Sidmouth in Devon 
in which a little golden crown is placed 
above each of the five wounds, with these 
inscriptions — under the hands " Wei of 
wisdom" and "Wei of mercy"; under 
the heart "Wei of everlasting life" ; under 
thei feet " Wei of grace " and " Wei of 
gostly CO fort." 



Shields associated with the Holy Ni 



ame 99 




EMMANUEL 



lOO Heraldry of the Church 



S. Saviour 

Silver three Passion-nails sable in a crown 
of thorns '\>ert. 

The shield ot the Passion, as it was 
called in mediaeval England, may perhaps 
be regarded as appropriate to churches 
having this dedication. It seems some- 
how reminiscent of the prayer beginning 
" O Saviour of the world " in the office 
of the Visitation of the Sick. 



Shields associated with the Holy Name i o i 




S. SAVIOUR 



02 Heraldry of the Church 



Holy Trinity 

Gules the emblem of the Trinity silver with 
the legends sable. 

The ingenuity of the old armorists never 
devised anything happier than this famous 
emblem, and none is better fitted to be 
borne on shield or banner by churches 
of this dedication. Its complete heraldic 
blazon is too long for the pages of a book 
which avoids technicalities, but a glance at 
the device will show how completely and 
happily it expresses the great dogma of 
the Godhead of the Three Persons of the 
Blessed Trinity, " neither confounding the 
Persons nor dividing the substance." 

Azure a Trinity gold ViVQ the arms assigned 
to S. Faith, virgin and martyr. 



Shields associated with the Holy Name 1 03 




HOLY TRINITY 



THE FOUR EVANGELISTS 



105 



io6 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Matthew. September 21 

Gules an angel standing gold. 

The' tamiliar emblem ot the Divine 
Man, appropriated to S. Matthew since 
very early times because in his Gospel 
the human nature ot our Lord is the 
burden of his teaching, is here placed 
upon a red shield in token ot the martyr- 
dom of the evangelist. 



The Four E^ningelists 



107 




AND MARTYR 



io8 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Mark. April 25 

Gules a \91nged lion standing ^ith his 
nimbus gold. 

A wino^ed lion is S. Mark's ancient 
symbol, because his Gospel sets forth the 
royal dignity of Christ. Placed upon a 
red shield it will serve as the heraldic 
emblem of the evangelist and martyr. 



The Four E^nuigelists 



109 




S. MARK, EVANGELIST AND MARTYR 



1 1 o Heraldry of the Church 



S. Luke. October i8 

Gules a winged ox with a nimbus gold. 

The ox, the emblem assigned to S. 
Luke, whose Gospel dwells on the sacri- 
ficial aspect of the life of our Blessed 
Lord, is here placed on red to serve as 
arms for churches dedicated in honour of 
the evangelist and martyr. 



The Four Evangelists 



1 1 1 




S. LUKE, EVANGELIST AND MARTYR 



1 1 2 Heraldry of the Church 



S. John. December 27 

Gules an eagle rising vcith a nimbus gold. 

The ancient symbol of the eagle, assigned 
from very early days to S. John because 
his gaze pierced further into the mysteries 
of heaven than that of any man, is here 
placed all gold on a red field as the most 
appropriate heraldic emblem for the son 
ot thunder. 



The Four Kyangelists 




S. JOHN, APOSTLE, EVANGELIST, 
AND MARTYR 



ARMS ASSIGNED TO SAINTS 



1 1 6 Heraldry of the Church 

S. Andrew. November 30 
Azure a saltire siher. 

The saltire is from time immemorial the 
symbol of S. Andrew in memory of the 
cross on which he suffered martyrdom. 

This shield with the field silver and the 
saltire gules is that of S. Patrick, patron 
of Ireland, and, as is well known, these two 
saltires quarterly quartered on S. Andrew's 
blue field form the ground of the Union 
Jack. 

A black saltire on gold is traditionally 
assigned to S. Osmund, Bishop of Salis- 
bury. Azure a saltire gold are the arms of 
S. Alban, the first martyr of Britain, and 
of the great abbey in Hertfordshire dedi- 
cated in honour of him. 



Arms assigned to Saints 1 1 7 




S. ANDREW, APOSTLE AND MARTYR, 
PATRON OF SCOTLAND 



1 1 8 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Augustine. May 26 

Sable a cross silver yvith the cross of an 
archbishop surmounted by a pall gold in the 
first quarter and a lily ypith its leaves silver in 
the second quarter. 

In this ancient shield, attributed in 
mediaeval days to the Apostle of the 
English, the black field perhaps suggests 
the Benedictine order of which S. Augus- 
tine was a monk. The cross and the pall 
commemorate his archiepiscopal rank. A 
reason for the inclusion of the lily is less 
obvious ; but he died in the month of 
Mary, and perhaps the flower of Madonna 
may have been placed there in memory of 
May 26th, the day of his death. 



Arms assigned to Saints 



119 




S. AUGUSTINE 
ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 



I20 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Bartholomew. August 24 

Gules three flaying-knives silver vcith their 
handles gold. 

A large knife, which is the emblem of 
S. Bartholomew, refers to the legend that 
he suffered death by being flayed alive 
and then crucified. But three objects 
make a better pattern in a shield than 
one, wherefore three knives are placed 
here. (Compare S. Thomas, page 190.) 



Arms assigned to Saints 1 2 i 




APOSTLE AND MARTYR 



1 2 2 Heraldry of the Church 

S. Catherine of Alexandria 
November 25 

Azure a spiked wheel silver. 

This favourite saint, who is said to have 
been the only child of a King of Egypt, 
was, after S. Mary Magdalene, the most 
highly venerated of all women saints. She 
was universally reverenced as the patroness 
of learning and as the noblest type of 
chastity. According to the well-known 
legend her persecutors strove to put her 
to death by breaking her upon a wheel set 
with spikes, which by divine interposition 
was broken. In Christian art the wheel 
of S. Catherine is thus commonly repre- 
sented as broken ; in the shield of arms 
devised for her it is invariably shown 
whole. 



Arms assigned to Saints 123 




S. CATHERINE OF ALEXANDRIA 



24 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Clement. November 23 

Azure an anchor gohi set upright. 

The blue shield is charged with the very 
ancient symbol of this eminent Bishop of 
Rome, which was assigned to him in 
memory of the legend that during Trajan's 
persecution he was bound to an anchor 
and cast into the sea. 



Arms assigned to Saints 125 




S. CLEMENT 



126 Heraldry of the Church 



S. CuTHBERT. March 20 

Azure a cross paty gohi between four lions 
silver. 

It is not easy to imagine what was in 
the minds of the heralds of the Middle 
Ages who gave this beautiful shield to 
the Hermit-Bishop of Lindisfarne, unless 
we may suppose that it was suggested by 
the somewhat similar arms of the See of 
Durham, in whose cathedral the saint's 
body rests. It will be observed that the 
cross in this shield is of different form 
from that of Durham, and that the colours 
of the chargfes are reversed. 



Arms assigned to Sain is 127 




S. CUTHBERT 



128 Heraldry of the Church 



S. DuNSTAN. May 19 

iAzure a cohered cup gold. 

Dunstan, the great Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, artist and musician, scholar and 
reformer, statesman and preacher, was an 
expert worker in metals. He was rever- 
enced as the patron saint of goldsmiths, 
and the golden cup in the arms devised 
for him is a symbol of one side of his 
complex personality. 



Arms assigned to Saints 



129 




S. DUNSTAN, ARCHBISHOP OF CANTERBURY 



130 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Edmund, King and Martyr 
November 20 

Azure a crown gold with two arrows gold 
passed through it saltirewise. 

Edmund, the last King of East Anglia, 
was murdered by the heathen Danes in 
the year 870, who scourged him and shot 
him to death with arrows when at a parley 
with the invaders, he refused to share his 
kingdom with their chief. 

The charges in the arms, which are blue 
and gold like those of other Saxon kings, 
refer to his kingship and his martyrdom. 
The great abbey at Bury which grew up 
round S. Edmund's shrine had for its arms 
three like crowns and pairs of arrows on 
a blue field. 



^-Irms assigned to Saints 1 3 i 




S. EDMUND, KING AND MARTYR 



132 Heraldry of the Church 

S. Edward the Confessor 
October 13 

Azure a cross paty heWeen five martlets 
gold. 

There is scarcely a shield in English 
armory more famous and better known 
than this of the saint who founded West- 
minster Abbey and shared with S. George 
and S. Thomas of Canterbury the devotion 
of the English folk. Not, of course, that 
King Edward himself ever displayed these 
arms which were invented for him long 
after his death. It is thought by some 
that the martlets in these arms were sug- 
gested by the birds which King Edward 
placed on his coins, and that these were 
doves like that which stood at the top of 
his sceptre. 



Arms assigned to Saints 133 




S. EDWARD THE CONFESSOR 



134 Heraldry of the Church 

S. George. April 23 

Sill?er a cross gules. 

These famous arms have been a part of 
the armory of England for many centuries. 
The red cross of the warrior-saint was the 
badge of English fighting men throughout 
the Middle Ages ; and it was blazoned on 
the standards of all English kings and 
nobles. S. George's shield are the arms 

o 

of the order of the Garter, the most 
ancient and eminent order of knighthood 
in the world, and his cross is to-day, as it 
has been for centuries, the most prominent 
device in the national flag. 

This shield, with its field of the imperial 
purple and its plain cross gold, is suggested 
as arms for S. Helen, the mother of the 
Emperor Constantine, who, as tradition 
relates, was the discoverer of the Cross of 
our Lord. 



Irms assigned to Saints 



135 




S. GEORGE, PATRON OF ENGLAND 



136 Heraldry oj the Church 



S. Gregory. March 12 

Gold three bends gules and a chief gold 
with a roundel ^ules therein harping the Holy 
Name inscribed upon it and supported by two 
lions gules. 

The red roundel with the Holy Name in 
gold is a representation of the host, placed 
here in memory of the legend of S. Gre- 
gory's mass. It is said that on a day 
when he was celebrating the Sacrament a 
vision of the crucified Lord descending 
upon the altar was revealed, in answer to 
the prayer of the bishop, to one who 
doubted the Real Presence. 



Arms assigned to Saints 137 




138 Heraldry of the Church 

S. Hilda. November 17 

Azure three serpents coiled gold. 

Hilda, the great-niece of King Edwin 
ot Northumbria, was abbess first of Hartle- 
pool and afterwards of the famous house 
at Whitby which she herself founded. 
" She taught," says Bede, " the strict 
observance of justice, piety, chastity, and 
other virtues, and especially peace and 
charity . . . and so great was her pru- 
dence that not only all common folk but 
sometimes even kings and princes sought 
counsel of her and found it." It is related 
that the people adored her, and certain 
stones which are found there having the 
form of snakes coiled up were commonly 
believed to be venomous reptiles, thus 
changed by the prayers of S. Hilda. It is 
this tradition that is commemorated by 
the golden charges in her blue shield. 



4rms (issi^^ned to Saints 139 




S. HILDA, ABBESS OF WHITBY 



140 Heraldry of the Church 

S. James. July 25 

z^zure three scallops gold. 

The scallop shell, the ancient emblem 
of S. James, seems to have been assigned 
to him by the Spaniards who reverenced 
him as their patron and protector. A 
scallop was worn as a sign by all pilgrims 
who had been to Compostela in Galicia 
where the shrine of the saint was. The 
Spanish knightly order of S. James was 
founded in memory of the battle of Clavijo, 
where, it is said, the patron of Spain 
appeared, sword in hand, to fight against 
the Moors with the trappers of his war- 
horse powdered with scallops. The badge 
of that famous order is a red sword with a 
silver scallop upon the hilt. It is thought 
that the scallop may have been chosen as 
S. James's emblem in memory of his 
having been a fisherman. 



Arms assigned to Saints 



141 




s. 



JAM 



ES, APOSTLE AND MARTYR 



142 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Laurence. Auo^ust 10 



to 



Siher a gridiron sable. 

Laurence, the deacon of Rome, who 
suffered for the Faith during Valerian's 
persecution in the year 258 was so highly 
honoured in this, as in every other country 
of Christendom, that churches dedicated in 
his honour are to be found in all but four 
counties in England. His emblem, the 
instrument of his martyrdom, is the charge 
in the silver shield that the piety of me- 
diaeval armorists devised for him. 



Arms assigned to Saints i 43 




S. LAURENCE 



144 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Margaret of Antioch 
July 2c 

Azure a dragon s head torn off at the neck 
and pierced ^ith a cross gold. 

These arms are suggested by the legend 
that when S. Margaret, the noble virgin- 
martyr of Antioch, was imprisoned by 
her persecutors Satan in the form of a 
dragon appeared and devoured her. But 
the power of the cross which she wore 
grew in the mouth of the dragon and tore 
him in pieces, so that Margaret came forth 
unhurt. 



Arms assigned to Saints 145 




S. -MARGARET OF ANTIOCH 



146 Heraldry of til e Church 

S. Martin. November 1 1 
Azure a charhocle gold. 

It is not easy to see why this device 
should have been attributed to S. Martin. 
The charbocle or escarbuncle is a heraldic 
figure which originated in the central boss 
with its radiatino- ribs, used in ancient 
times to strengthen the knightly shield. 

These arms were borne by the family 
of St. Martial of Auvergne in France, and 
it is possible that English armorists may 
have been misled by the similarity of the 
name into assigning them to the famous 
French bishop whose memory was so 
greatly revered in our own country. 



1 



Arms assigned to Saints 147 




^ 



148 Heraldry of the Church 



The Blessed VirCxIn Mary 

Azure a heart in its proper colour haVing 
wings gold and pierced by a sword silver with 
its hilt gold. 

This very ancient shield for Our Lady 
is a reference to Simeon's words, " Yea, a 
sword shall pass through thine own soul 
also." Its blue field is the Virgin's colour, 
and the charges are suggestive of Mater 
dolorosa. Another shield frequently found, 
which symbolizes the Virgin of the An- 
nunciation, is Silver a group of lilies in their 
proper colours standing in a golden vase. 



Arms assigned to Saints 149 




THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY 



I 50 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Michael the Archangel 
September 29 

Silver a cross pommy gules. 

The reason is lost for the choice of a 
red cross of this peculiar form, with its 
arms ending in balls or apples, as the 
emblem of the Archangel Michael, but it 
is so assigned in Harl. MS. 5852 in the 
British Museum. Sometimes the cross is 
found with trefoiled ends. 



Arms assigned to Saints i 5 i 




S. MICHAEL THE ARCHANGEL 



152 Heraldry of tlie Church 



S. Thomas of Canterbury 
December 29 

Silver three Cornish choughs in their proper 
colours. 

The birds are black with red legs and 
beaks. The arms of the city, three choughs 
and a chief with a leopard of England, are 
engraved in its fifteenth-century seal. It 
is hardly likely that Archbishop Thomas 
himself actually bore arms ; but the 
choughs, as Mr. W. H. St. John Hope 
has remarked, were certainly regarded as 
S. Thomas's birds in the Middle Ages. 
If there is any legend to account for this 
it is no longer remembered. 



Arms assigned to S din is 153 




S. THOMAS OF CANTERBURY 



154 Heraldry of the Church 

S. Wilfrid. October 12 

Gohi seven voided lozenges gules. 

This shield has been regarded as S. Wil- 
frid's since the fifteenth century at least. 
It is not easy to say why it was assigned 
to him, or wherein is its appropriateness. 
Perhaps, however, it is more than fancy 
which sees in this reticulated charge some 
suggestion of a fishing-net. For Wilfrid 
was not only a great fisher of men. The 
tale of how in the days of his banishment 
he showed the starving Sussex folk the 
plenteous store of food that the sea held 
for them is well known. Perhaps too in 
the seven sharp summits of the lozenges 
of his shield there may be a hint of Wil- 
frid's devotion to the See of Rome, as if 
those points referred to the seven hills of 
the eternal city. 



Arms assigned to Saints 1 5 5 




S. WILFRID, BISHOP OF YORK 



ARMS SUGGESTED FOR SAINTS 



57 



158 Heraldry of til e Church 



All Saints. November r 

Party silver and sable a cro'Von gold betvoeen 
three scrolls gold having the word ^^ Sanctus " 
gules upon each. 

This shield is offered as a heraldic 
emblem for churches dedicated in honour 
of All Saints. 

The field divided perpendicularly into 
two equal halves, silver to the dexter, 
sable to the sinister, is intended to sym- 
bolize the brightness and the trials of the 
heavenly and the earthly life. A gold 
crown has ever been the emblem of sanc- 
tity ; and the scrolls with their red words 
are suggested as typifying the hymn of 
the redeemed. 



Arms suggested for Saints 159 




ALL SAINTS 



1 60 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Anne. July 26 

<iAzure a lily silver groy\nng mthin a border 
silver masoned sable. 

The blue field with the silver lily grow- 
ing in it is intended to represent the 
girlhood of the Blessed Virgin ; the 
masoned border is for the protecting care 
of the mother of Our Lady. 



Arms suggested for Saints 1 6 1 




S. ANNE 



M 



J 62 Heraldry of the Church 

S. Barnabas. June 1 1 

Qiiles a fesse siher and six roses counter- 
coloured. 

So little is told of this saint in history 
and in legend that it is not easy to devise 
a coat of arms containing any allusion to 
his personality. But his festival falls in 
June, the month of roses, and, in default 
of a better, perhaps the shield illustrated 
opposite will serve as a heraldic design 
suitable for churches with this designation. 

If the silver fesse is drawn so that it 
occupies about a third of the shield the 
roses (four of them silver on the red of 
the field, the other two red upon the silver 
fesse) can be disposed in a regular and 
agreeable pattern somewhat after the man- 
ner of a wreath. The shield then serves 
to remind us of a pretty custom that ob- 
tained in old days in at least one parish, 
where on S. Barnabas' day the clerks and 
singing boys were wont to crown them- 
selves with wreaths of roses. 



Arms suggested for Saints \ 6 3 




S. BARNABAS 



164 Heraldry of the Church 



S. BoTOLPH. June 17 

Barry yoavy silver and azure a chevron 
sable with its point ending in a cross. 

Botolph, the hermit-abbot of the fen 
country, is famous as the pioneer of the 
Benedictine order in England. At some 
time in the seventh century he, with the 
goodwill of the king of the East Angles, 
founded a monastery on a lonely piece of 
land surrounded by water. This shield 
with its six waved divisions of white and 
blue may be taken to represent the water 
that was about his dwelling, and the 
chevron is the old heraldic charge by 
which the mediaeval armorists symbolized 
a builder. The cross at the top of the 
chevron is introduced to. indicate that 
S. Botolph's building was sacred. 



Arms suggested for Saints 165 




S. BOTOLPH 



1 66 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Bridget. February i 

Siher a himp gules aflame in a vpreath of 
oak vert. 

The white field may be regarded as 
symbolical of the virgin Abbess of Kildare, 
'' the Mary of the Irish," and suggests the 
white garments which she always wore. 
The oak wreath is emblematical ot Kildare, 
the greatest of her foundations, whose 
name means " the cell of the oak," while 
the red lamp with its flame is a reminder 
of the sacred fire which the nuns of Kildare 
kept ever burning in memory of her. 



Arms suggested for Saints 167 




S. BRIDGET 



1 68 Heraldry of the Church 



S. David. March i 

Silver a mount '\>ert and a pile azure with 
a holy dove in his proper colours descending 
therein. 

It is told of S. David, the chief of the 
builders of the Church in Wales, that 
when he was a young bishop and known 
for a very eloquent preacher men besought 
him to speak to a great multitude when 
other speakers had tried in vain to make 
themselves heard. Whereupon the ground 
rose as a high mount under his feet, says 
the legend, so that David was clearly heard 
by all, both far and near, while a white 
dove sat upon his shoulder and stayed so 
long as he was speaking. 

It is this legend which the shield here 
devised for him records in heraldic lan- 
guage. 



Arms suggested for Saints 169 




S. DAVID, PATRON OF WALES 



170 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Giles. September i 

Vert a leaping hind gold shot through with 
an arrow silver. 

This shield is designed in reference to 
the favourite legend of the hermit-saint 
who is said to have lived in a forest by the 
Rhone. There he was discovered, so it is 
related, by the King of France while hunt- 
ing, who having tracked a wounded hind 
found that she had taken refuge in the 
hermit's cell. 

S. Giles is the patron saint of the wood- 
land, hence the shield is coloured green. 



Arms suggested for Saints i 7 i 




S. GILES 



172 Heraldry of tlie Church 

S. John Baptist. June 24 

Gules a cross silver with eight points. 

There is no need to seek far for a 
heraldic symbol of S. John Baptist when 
we have the beautiful cross which, under 
its name of the Maltese cross, was the 
badge of the famous military order of the 
Knights Hospitallers. The order was 
instituted early in the eleventh century 
under the patronage of this saint for the 
protection and support of pilgrims going 
to the sepulchre of our Lord. After the 
loss of the Holy Land the order had 
its home at Rhodes, but being driven 
trom thence it was transferred to Malta 
whence the cross gained its familiar name. 



Arms suggested for Saints 173 




S. JOHN BAPTIST 



I 74 Heraldry of the Church 



S. JuDE. October 28 

Gules a ship gold yvitb its sails and cordage 
silver. 

Of the several emblems appropriated 
to S. Jude the ship, as that which appears 
most often in English representations of 
him, has been chosen as the charge for a 
shield of arms to symbolize him. The 
field is gules in reference to the legend 
that he suffered a martyr's death. 



Arms suggested for Saints 1 7 5 




S. JUDE, APOSTLE AND MARTYR 



176 H €7' ill dry of the Church 



S. Leonard. November 6 

Sable a saltire of cJiains gold ending in 
broken fetters, 

Leonard, the patron saint ot prisoners 
and slaves, was a hermit of France who 
lived in the sixth century. He founded 
an abbey near Limoges and spent his long 
life in works of pity, being specially tender 
towards those who had lost their liberty. 
The Benedictines claimed him as one of 
their order, and the black field of these 
arms is a reminder of the colour of their 
habit. The golden chain with its broken 
fetters is intended to typify the freeing of 
captives which was S. Leonard's dearest 
form of charity. 



Arms suggested for Saints 177 




S. LEONARD 



1 78 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Mary Magdalene. July 22 

Party purple and sable strewn yvith drops 
silver an alabaster ointment-pot in its proper 

colours embellished with gold. 

The field is divided perpendicularly and 
coloured purple and black, the colours of 
penitence and mourning. The principal 
charge is the symbol of the saint, and 
the silver drops with which the field is 
bestrewn may be taken to represent 
S. Mary's tears. 



Arms suggested for Saints 179 




S. MARY MAGDALENE 



I 80 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Matthias. February 24 

Six pieces gules and gold with three dice in 
their proper colours in the gules. 

This shield is intended to symbolize by 
its charges him who was chosen by lot into 
the number of the Apostles, and by its 
colours his martyrdom and renown. It is 
suggested as an alternative to the usual 
method of representing a saint by the 
emblem which is used to distinguish him 
in Christian art. A precedent for intro- 
ducing dice into a shield is to be found in 
the arms of the English family of Mathias 
who bore Gules three dice silver^ as well as 
in mediaeval shields in Winchester Cathe- 
dral and elsewhere in which they are 
pictured among the instruments ot our 
Lord's Passion. 



Arms suggested for Saints 1 8 i 




S. MATTHIAS, APOSTLE AND MARTYR 



1 82 Heraldry of the Church 

S. Nicholas. December 6 
Azure three bezants. 

Nicholas, Bishop of Myra, the patron 
saint of children, has as his emblem three 
golden balls in reference to the legend 
which tells how he saved three sisters 
from poverty and shame by throwing 
secretly three purses of gold into their 
house. These gifts are represented heral- 
dically by golden roundels in the shield 
opposite, where the blue field may be 
allowed to typify the sea, for S. Nicholas 
is the patron too of seafaring men. 

The arms of the Kentish family of 
St. Nicholas who bore Ermine a chief 
quarterly gold and gules are sometimes 
improperly ascribed to the Bishop of 
Myra. 



Arms suggested for Saints i 8 3 




84 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Philip. May i 

Gules a staff set upright haVing a cross at 
its head between two fishes lying fessewise mth 
two roundels in the chief and three in the foot 
all gold. 

The red field is symbolical of martyr- 
dom ; the golden fishes and the five 
roundels are for a reminder of the miracle 
of the feeding of the five thousand ; the 
long cross is that which is seen in so 
many devotional pictures of S. Philip. 



Arms suggested for Saints 1 8 5 




S. PHILIP, APOSTLE AND MARTYR 



I 86 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Stephen. December 26 

Gules a palm-branch gold set upright 
between three flint-stones siber. 

These are the arms of the Abbey of 
S. Stephen at Dijon in France. English 
heraldry seems to have failed to devise a 
shield for the first martyr, and English 
churches of this dedication would find it 
hard to design anything better than these 
expressive arms of the emblems of his 
martyrdom. 



Arms suggested for Sainis 187 




S. STEPHEN THE FIRST MARTYR 



1 88 Heraldry of the Church 



S. SwiTHUN. July 15 

^ih)er three apples with their lea))es li^ert 
and a chief azure sprinkled with drops siher. 

The charges in the shield are suggested 
by the popular weather legend regarding 
the festival of the translation of the famous 
bishop. The silver drops in the blue chief 
refer to the rain which so often falls against 
our hopes on S. Swithun's day, while the 
green apples allude to the old legend that 
if S. Swithun wets the orchards there will 
be a plentiful harvest. 



Arms suggested for Saints 189 







S. SWITHUN, BISHOP OF WINCHESTER 



1 90 Heraldry of the Church 



S. Thomas. December 21 

Gules three spears in their proper colours. 

The field is red, the martyr's colour ; a 
spear is his well-known emblem in allusion 
to the instrument of his martyrdom. Three 
spears are placed in this shielci, in accord- 
ance with mediaeval heraldic practice, tor 
artistic reasons ; for three charges have a 
better appearance than one. A single 
spear would occupy too small a space to 
make an effective design. 



Arms suggested for Saints 



191 




S. THOMAS, APOSTLE AND MARTYR 



INDEX 



Alban. S., ii6. 
All Saints, 158. 
Andrew, S., 116. 
Anne, S. , 160. 
Armagh, 16. 
Augustine, S., 1 18. 

IJangor, 22. 
Barna])as, S., 162. 
Bartholomew, S., 120. 
Bath and Wells, 24. 
Birmingham, 26. 
Botolph, S., 164. 
Bridget, S., 166. 
Bristol, 28. 

Canterbury, 16. 
Carlisle, 76. 
Catherine, S., 122. 
Chad, S., 40. 
Chester, 78. 
Chichester, 30. 
Christ Church, 94. 
Clement, S., 124. 
Cross, Holy, 96. 
Cuthbert, S., 126. 

David, S., 168. 



193 



Denys, S., 74. 
Dublin, 16. 
Dunstan, S., 128. 
Durham, 74. 

Edmund, S., 130. 
Edward the Confessor, 132. 
Ely, 32. 
Emmanuel, 98. 
Etheldreda, S., 32. 
Exeter, 34. 

Eaith, S., 102. 

Five Wounds, The, 98. 

George, S., 134. 
Giles, S., 170. 
Gloucester, 36. 
Gregory, S., 136. 

Helen, S., 134. 
Hereford, 38. 
Hilda, S.,'138. 

James, S., 140. 
John Baptist, S., 172. 
John the Evangelist, S. , 112. 
Jude, S., 174. 

O 



194 



Index 



Laurence, S., 142. 
Leonard, S. , 176. 
Lichfield, 40, 
Lincoln, 42. 
Liverpool, 80. 
Llandaff, 44. 
London, 18. 
Luke, S., no. 

Manchester, 82. 

Margaret, S., 144. 

Mark, S., 108. 

Martin, S., 146. 

Mary Magdalene, S., 178. 

Mary, the Blessed Virgin, 

148. 
Matthew, S., 106. 
Matthias, S., 180. 
Michael, S., 150. 

Newcastle, 84. 
Nicholas, S., 182. 
Norwich, 46. 

Osmund, S., 116. 
Osyth, S., 32. 
Oxford, 48. 

Patrick, S., 116. 
Paul, S., 18. 



Peter, S., 36. 
Peterborough, 50. 
Philip, S. , 184. 

Ripon, 86. 
Rochester, 52. 

St. Albans, 54. 
St. Asaph, 56. 
St. Davids, 58. 
Salisbury, 60. 
Saviour, S., lOO. 
Sodor and Man, 88. 
Southwark, 62. 
Southwell, 64. 
Stephen, S., 186. 
Swithun, S., 188. 

Thomas, S., 190. 
Thomas of Canterl)ury, S. 

152. 
Trinity, Holy, 102. 
Truro, 66. 

Wakefield, 90. 
Wilfrid, S., 154. 
Winchester, 20. 
Worcester, 68. 

York, 72. 



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