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A.D. 1630 to 1644 




A.D. 1644 to 1651 
CIVIL WAR . . . . . . .23 


A.D. 1650 to 1659 


A.D. 1651 to 1657 


A.D. 1657 to 1661 






A.D. 1661 to 1668 




A.D. 1668 to 1673 



A.D. 1673 to 1683 





A.D. 1683 to 1688 




A.D. 1688 to 1696 



A.D. 1696 to 1702 




A.D. 1700 





A.D. 1702 to 1707 
THE UNION . . . . . . .200 


A.D. 1708 to 1715 
THE EISING OP 1715 . . . . . .213 


A.D. 1716 to 1725 
INNERMESSAN . . . . . . .234 


A.D. 1725 to 1734 
SIR STAIR , . . . . . . 255 


A.D. 1735 to 1744 



A.D. 1744 to 1745 


THE SCOTS FUSILIERS . .. . . . .284 


A.D. 1745 to 1746 
THE FORTY-FIVE . . . . . .301 


A.D. 1746 to 1748 


A.D. 1747 to 1760 


A.D. 1761 to 1771 


A.D. 1771 to 1792 







1. AGNEWS OP LOCHNAW . . . .429 


3. AGNEWS OP GALDENOCH . . . . 434 

4. AGNEWS OP WIGG . . . . . 434 
















TO THE UNION . . 447 

INDEX 451 





THE BRITISH MUSEUM, circa A.D. 1566 . facing page 69 

TABLET ...... page 88 

TABLET ...... 97 

GALDENOCH CASTLE . . . . . ,,167 

LOCH RYAN HOUSE . . . . . ,,210 



A.D. 1630 to 1644 

A canty chap a drap had gat, 

Gaed through Kirkdamnie fair, man ; 
And to face wi' twa three chiels 
He wadna muckle care, man. 
And then he loot a chiel a clout, 
While his companions sallied out. 
Soon they fell, wi' sic pell mell, 
Till some lay on the grun', man. 


IN 1633 Charles I. summoned a Parliament to meet in Edinburgh. 
Sir Patrick Agnew attended, as representing the Barons of 
Wigtownshire, and Sir Patrick M'Kie those of the Stewartry. 

In those days a long ride intervened between Edinburgh 
and the western shires. A Galloway baron had to look well to 
the priming of his pistols before he mounted, and had to count 
on several nights in hostelries before he reached his goal. In 
these days of comfortable unpicturesqueness, lords and knights 
of the shire roll up even to London from their country seats in 
a few hours time, where, whether in inn or mansion, they 
indulge in luxuries unknown to our hardier forbears. But what 
these may have lacked in comfort they made up for in style, 
and a Sheriff of Galloway would have thought it as unseemly to 
have walked unattended to a meeting of Parliament, as it would 
seem to a modern senator to ride through London streets to 
Old Palace Yard in a court suit. 

On the opening of the Scottish Parliament, all the members 



went in procession, the ceremony being styled "riding the 
Parliament." The whole of the three estates assembled on 
horseback before the Palace, their horses richly caparisoned, 
when they dismounted and entered. Having paid their respects 
to the king, they remounted, and were marshalled thus : First 
came two pursuivants, next two trumpeters, preceding the 
borough members two and two, each cloaked and attended by 
one lacquey. Four keepers of the Courts of Justice followed, 
and then came the barons, wearing their mantles, in double file, 
each attended by two lacqueys, wearing velvet coats over their 
liveries, upon which were embroidered their masters' badges. 
Next followed the principal officers of state, and after these the 
nobles two and two, lords and viscounts having each three 
lacqueys, earls four, marquisses six, and dukes eight. Four 
trumpeters, four pursuivants, and six heralds, and lastly the 
king, preceded by the lyon king of arms, and the bearers of 
the regalia, a corps of guards bringing up the rear. 

On arriving at the Parliament House, officers of state 
ushered the king to the throne, the nobles being arranged 
before him, the barons taking their places on the right side of 
the house, and the burgesses on the left. 

In celebration of this particular visit to Scotland in 1633 
the king dealt out honours with a lavish hand, creating among 
others Sir John Gordon, Viscount Kenmure and Lord of Lochin- 
var ; Sir Eobert M'Clellan, Lord Kirkcudbright ; and advancing 
Viscount Drumlanrig to the Earldom of Queensberry. 

Of the Gallovidians attending the Parliament were the Earls 
of Cassilis and Galloway, the Sheriff, and Sir Patrick M'Kie, as 
barons, and Thomas M'Kie and Eobert Gordon as burgesses for 
Wigtown and New Galloway. 

The most memorable act of this Parliament was a ratifi- 
cation of the statute of 1616 for the plantation of schools, 
decreeing the erection of a school in every parish, the basis of a 
system which long proved a boon to Scotland. 

A local act for the erection of " the Burgh of Stranraer with 
the haven thereof " as a free burgh was remitted to the Lords of 


Secret Council, and was on the point of ratification, when, for 
reasons unknown, it was opposed by the council of the town of 
Wigtown, who succeeded in delaying the representation of 
Stranraer in Parliament for several years. Parliament prorogued, 
the sheriff remained in Edinburgh for the marriage of Lord 
Garlies to Lady Margaret Graham, daughter of the Earl of Airth 
and Menteith, an eccentric nobleman, who at his decease left 
among other papers to be published one entitled " My Devilish 
Wyfe her Wyse Acts." Among numerous complaints he makes 
of this " woful wyfe of mine " he especially bewails this very 
match on the ground that he gained nothing by the connection, 
being already cousin-german of the bridegroom's father ; that 
for the tocher she had induced him to give on the occasion he 
might have married three daughters to three barons, any one of 
whom would have been more useful to him than the Earl of 
Galloway ; and concluding " so that this money was as much 
lost to me as if it had been casten into the sea." 

The High Commission Court, the creation of which was one 
of Charles's great mistakes, was established by a warrant 
"given at our Honnor of Hampton Court, 21 Oct. 1634." 
Its powers were very wide " to call before them or any seven of 
them, at whatsoever time or place they shall please to appoint, 
all that are either scandalous in life, doctrine, or religion, 
resetters of seminary priests, hearers of mass, adulterers, con- 
temners of church discipline, blasphemers, cursers, or swearers." 

Those named as commissioners in Galloway were the Earl, 
Sheriff, and Bishop of Galloway, Lord Kirkcudbright, Sir John 
M'Dowall of Garthland, the Provosts of Wigtown and Kirkcud- 
bright, Mr. Abraham Henderson, minister of Whithorn; Mr. 
Alexander Hamilton, minister at Minigaff; Mr. James Scott, 
minister of Tungland ; Mr. David Leitch at Dundrennan. The 
composition of the court was from the first too clerical, and 
Episcopalians being in power, Presbyterians might easily be 
made amenable to the charge of being contemners of church 
discipline. And so early was this bias shown, that soon 
after we find Lords Galloway and Kirkcudbright declining to 


mix themselves up with its arbitrary proceedings. But their 
abstention had the effect of giving the bishop and the clergy at 
his back their own way, which meant that all avowed Presby- 
terians were liable to be dragged before the court, and dealt 
with as recusants. 

Eutherford, minister of Anwoth, and Glendinning of Kirk- 
cudbright, men highly popular, were deposed from their charges, 
and Gordon of Earlston, a man of baronial rank, failing to obey 
a summons of the court, was fined heavily in absence and 
banished the province, to the disgust of his fellow proprietors. 

The unexpected result of the High Commission was to 
swell the ranks of the Solemn League and Covenant by scores 
of men otherwise of moderate opinions. 

The political prosecution of Lord Balmerino, for whose trial 
the sheriff was summoned to Edinburgh, to sit as an assizer, 1 
caused great excitement. Balmerino had been concerned in 
getting up a petition against Episcopacy, and stating various 
grievances the Presbyterians complained of. 

The charges against him were for concocting such a libel, or 
if he did not concoct, for concealing the fact of its existence and 
of not denouncing the author. In framing the charge, " libel " 
was substituted for " petition," and the complaints themselves 
strained into treason. That a legislator writing or showing to 
any one a respectfully worded remonstrance on any subject, 
should have been held by law officers of the Crown to amount 
to a capital crime, it is now difficult to understand. The Lords 
of Assize a strong panel found him unanimously not guilty 
of writing or divulging the libel. Seven were for clearing him 
altogether, eight convicted him of concealing his knowledge 
of it ; but conjoined with this, finding an opinion that the paper 
was not seditious, and that it could be hardly termed treason- 

1 The Lords of Assize were the Earls Marishal, Moray, Dumfries, Lauder- 
dale, Traquhair, Viscount Stormont, Lords Forrester and Johnstone, Sir Patrick 
Agnew of Lochnaw, Sir Alexander Strachan of Thornton, Knights Baronets ; 
Sir Robert Greer of Lagg, Sir John Charteris of Amisfield, Sir Alexander Nisbet 
of West Nisbet, Sir Alexander Baillie of Lochend, Knights ; and John Gordon of 


able not to have denounced the author. 1 Nevertheless on this 
modified finding, Balmerino was condemned by the judge to die, 
and the lords of assize with difficulty procured for him an un- 
gracious pardon, this after some delay being obviously granted 
rather from fear of popular indignation than from any sense of 
justice. The king's conduct, whether in instituting such pro- 
ceedings or the truculent severity with which he seemed disposed 
to close them, alienated from him the affections of many of the 
most loyally inclined in Scotland. 

Throughout the trial the sympathy of the populace was 
strongly in favour of the prisoner, and some wag wrote a squib 
vilifying each of the assizers who had given the mitigated 
verdict used against him somewhat hard, as it was simply 
telling the truth as they had been sworn to do that on the 
sheriff running as follows : 

Poore Galloway lads prepare you for a cord, 
Your Sheriff's grace can caist a saickless lord. 

Uchtred, son of Gilbert Agnew of Galdenoch, died about this 
time, leaving to the sheriff the guardianship of his four sons, 
Patrick, Hugh, Gilbert, and Uchtred. He had added to his hold- 
ings Cairnbrock and High Glengyre, in Kirkcolm, and Over Cul- 
reoch in the parish of Inch. Just before his death he had entered 
into a contract with Alexander Ozborne for establishing salt- 
works on the Galdenoch shore. This Ozborne paid him 240 as 
caution money that he would erect sufficient works, the laird 
stipulating when these were in operation to repay him this and 
240 more, and give him a twenty-one years lease of the premises, 
an acre of ground to build on, grass for four horses, with liberty 
to cut and carry peats for his pan, at a silver rent of 480 and 
sixteen barrels of salt delivered at his mansion yearly. Uchtred 

1 Seven did clear him absolutely, namely, Moray, Lauderdale, Forrester, 
Buckie, Luff, Amisfield with Sir James Baillie. Seven filed him Mareschal, 
Johnstone, Traquhair, West Nisbet, Thornton, Sheriff of Galloway, and Viscount 
Stormont. And that only for concealing of that supplication and no other- 
wise. Thus one half being against the other half, it behoved the Chancellor 
to clear it by his vote, and he filed him that he might put him in the king's 
will. Row's History of the Kirk of Scotland, p. 387. 


died while the work was in progress, and Sir Patrick as tutor 
paid the 480 stipulated for his ward. Then giving Alexander 
Ozborne a thousand marks for the renunciation of his lease, he 
relet the works to a certain Kalph Ozborne for 600 with the 
sixteen barrels of salt, the new tenant binding himself under 
penalty of 6000 not to dispose of his tack or rights to the Earl 
of Cassilis or his friends. 

The venture proved an unlucky one, Ozborne became bank- 
rupt, and it is doubtful if he ever paid the owner a single year's 
rent. The work seems to have been utilised for little more 
than home consumption ; its remains may, however, be traced 
upon the shore, and it gives the name of Salt Pans Bay to the 
creek where it was formed. 

A suggestive clause in the contract is the irritancy in respect 
to Cassilis, in retaliation doubtless for similar doings of the earl. 

As an example John Gairdner held the lands of Larbracks- 
Gressie under Lord Cassilis ; but whilst a minor, his feu-duties 
having fallen into arrear, the earl had him put to the horn, and 
recovered full possession of the land. This done, he redisposed 
the lands to Gairdner, under his own superiority, with this re- 
servation under penalty, " that the said Gairdner should not set 
the said lands to any of the name of Agnew, nor suffer them to 
possess the same." 

Shortly afterwards, however, Sir Andrew Agnew apparent of 
Lochnaw bought the lands from the said John Gairdner, entered 
into possession, tendering the dues owed to Lord Cassilis as 
superior. These the earl declined to accept, declaring the sale 
to be invalid. The young sheriff carried his case to the Court 
of Session, which confirmed his proprietorship. From this 
decision the earl appealed, declaring his disposition to Gairdner 
" was with the provision and clause irritant foresaid." To this 
the sheriff replied that he had comprysed the lands fairly from 
John Gairdner, and that he asks the Court to declare the reser- 
vation illegal "seeing that the foresaid clause irritant is most 

The record of the deliverance of the Court we cannot trace ; 


but that the young sheriff's plea held good may be assumed, as 
the lands remained ever after in the possession of the Agnews, 
subject to Earl Cassilis's superiority, which superiority was 
purchased from the seventh Earl of Cassilis by Sir James 
Agnew, the young sheriffs grandson. 

It is in connection doubtless with these disputes that the 
persons named in the following record of the proceedings of the 
Privy Council were bound over in such heavy sums to keep the 

"At Edinburgh the 21st day of March, ye year 1635, 
" The Quhilk day in presence of the Lords of Secret Counsell 
compeared personally Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw and became 
acted and obleist as cautioner and surety for Andrew, James, 
and Patrick Agnewis his sons, Alexander Agnew of Tung; 
Patrick Agnew of Barmeill; his brother Uchtred Agnew of 
Galdenoch, Patrick Agnew his brother; Alexander Agnew in 
Marslaugh ; JSTevin Agnew of Stranrawer ; Nevin Agnew in 
Fisheyard ; John and Martine Agnewis in Clenarie ; James 
Agnew in Stranrawer, Andrew Agnew of Salcharie ; Alexander 
M'Dowall of Logane, Uchtred M'Dowall his brother ; Uchtred 
M'Dowall, younger of Freuch; William Baillie of Garchlerie; 
and Alexander Yaus in Innermessan, and Alexander Gordoun, 
Brother to Parke; and siclyke compeared personally Uchtred 
M'Dowall, younger of Freuch, and became actit and obleist as 
cautioner and surety for the said Sir Patrick Agnew of Loch- 
naw, that, John Kennedy of Knockdaw, Fergus and David 
Kennedies his brethren, Fergus Lin of Larg, Adam Boyd of 
Larbraicks, Patrick M'Kie of Kairne, John Kennedy of Stran- 
rawer, John Kennedy of Knockibea, Uchtred Neilsone in Craig- 
caffie, Thomas Kennedy of Ariekmene, Hew Kennedy of Airds, 
Andrew M'Dowell in Stranrawer, Gilbert Mure messenger, 
Adam, James, and Gilchrist M'Kays in Larbraicks, and James 
Lairles in Challach their wyffis, bairnes, men, tenents, and 
servants shall be harmless and skaithless in their bodies, 
lands, rowmes, possessions, goods and geir, and in no ways to be 


troubled and molested therein by the said Sir Patrick Agnew nor 
themnant persons abovewritten, nor no others of their causing, 
sending, hunding out, command, ressett assistance, nor ratihabi- 
tion whom they may stop or lett directlie nor indirectlie in time 
coming, otherwayes than by order of Law and Justice under the 
pains following, viz. 

"The said Sir Patrick under the pain of three thousand 
merks, Andrew Agnew his son under the pain of two thousand 
merks, Uthred Agnew of Galdenoch, Alexander M'Dowell of 
Logan and Uthred M'Dowell younger of Freuche, ilk ane of them 
under the pain of one thousand pounds ; James and Patrick 
Agnew sons to the said Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw, Alex- 
ander Agnew of Tung, Alexander Agnew in Marslache, Nevin 
Agnew in Stranrawer, Nevin Agnew in Fisheyard, ilk ane of 
them under the pain of one thousand merks ; William Baillie 
of Garclerie, under the pain of five hundred pounds, and every 
one of the sonamed persons under the pain of five hundred 
merks. (Sic sulscribitur) PATRICK AGNEW, 

U. FRUECHE Younger." 

During the two following years three of Sir Patrick's 
daughters were married to neighbours. Elizabeth to John 
Baillie of Dunragit, son of a daughter of Lord Barnbarroch ; 
Marie to Hugh M'Dowall of Knockglass, a cadet of Garthland ; 
and Eosina to John Cathcart of Genoch, a branch of the Cath- 
carts of Carleton. His third son Patrick also married Elizabeth, 
daughter of William Gordon of Craighlaw. By a retour of this 
date we find Francis Hay of Arioland served heir to his father 
Alexander before " the honourable Andrew Agnew apparent of 
Lochnaw, as depute to his father." The witnesses being Hugh 
Gordon of Grange, Alexander Gordon of Auchland, James 
Agnew of Auchrochar, Henry Gordon of Kilsture, Eoger Gordon 
of Balmeg, William Henry Gordon of Lagg, Hugh Gordon, son 
of Grange, Archibald Dunbar of Baldoon, Uchtred M'Dowall of 
Freuch, John M'Dowall of Dreoches (?), Hugh Hathorn of 
Aires, John Dunbar of Archeortown (Orchardton). 


The Hays of Arioland disappeared during the "persecu- 
tions." Their Wigtownshire lands are owned by Sir Herbert 
Maxwell of Monreith, those in Kirkcudbright by Sir William 
Maxwell of Cardoness. 

An important service in 1636 was that of Viscount Mont- 
gomery of Ardes to the lands long owned by the Adairs of 
Portree, Pigmanoche, 1 Killantringan, Uchtred MacKayne, with 
the Castle of Dunskey, the port of Port Montgomery, and the 
patronage of the Church of Portpatrick, alias Port Montgomery. 2 

The viscount was the son of Sir Hugh Montgomery of Braid- 
stone, one of the undertakers for the Plantation of Ulster, created 
Viscount Ardes in County Down in 1622. 

This barony of Portree had been exchanged by the Adairs for 
Lord Ardes's lands of Bally mena in Antrim. Ecclesiastically the 
district was known up to this date as the Black quarter of the 
Inch. In 1628 it was erected into a separate parish, the Act 
constituting its church a rectory giving the advowson to Lord 
Ardes, by the name of Port Montgomery, alias Portpatrick. 
This Act was confirmed by the Parliament of 1633. 

Anxious as Viscount Ardes showed himself to impress his 
name upon his lands and seaport, neither his wealth and influ- 
ence, nor even an Act of the three Estates, could permanently 
efface the traditions of the tripartite saint. Among the cherished 
traditions of the place is the famous one of St. Patrick crossing 
the Irish Channel at a stride, his heel indenting the rocky inlet 
at Portree. The footprint was clearly to be seen within memory 
of man on a rock which was ruthlessly blasted in the attempted 
construction of a harbour. 

A chapel rose near the scene of his arrival, named of 
course Kilpatrick or Chapel Patrick, and a hamlet spread- 

1 Now Pinminnoch. The old retours point clearly to the true root of the 
first syllable, Peiglicun = penny, the monk's penny land. 

2 20th August 1635 Robert Adair of Kinhilt assigns to Hugh Viscount 
Montgomery of Airds the parsonage and vicarage teinds of the 25 mark land 
of the barony of Soulseat, and 6 mark land of the mains of Soulseat, and all 
tacks and securities he has as a son and heir of "William Adair of Kinhilt, from 
the Commendator of Soulseat. Before Sir John M'Dowall of Garthland, and 
James Blair, minister of Dunskey. 


ing round it, the name of Portpatrick superseded that of 

The saint proceeded northward on a missionary tour, passing 
up Glen App and far into the wilds of Carrick, erecting a chapel 
for the moor-men ; when, exciting the ill-will of the medicine 
men, or Druids, he was driven away, maltreated, his head stricken 
from his body, head and trunk being thrown into a quarry hole. 
The saint submitted unresistingly to the outrage ; but when his 
persecutors had worked their wicked will, to their astonishment 
he rose, tucked his head under his arm, and walked leisurely to 
Portpatrick. Eeturned there, finding no boat ready, he plunged 
into the breakers, and was seen swimming to the Irish shores 
holding his head between his teeth. 

Grotesque as is the form this tradition has taken, it is extra- 
ordinary how strongly topography retains evidence of the saint's 
actual presence on the scene of his legendary exploits, and these 
on spots suitable to an outline of the story, his route, his mission, 
his maltreatment, and return, the miraculous element being 
eliminated. The names having been preserved and repeated by 
those who have not the smallest idea of their force. 

The extreme point he reached is Kirkdomine, anciently 
Kildomine, near the head waters of the Stinchar, within two 
miles of the modern parish church of Barr. The name much 
puzzled early philologists, who supposed it to mean " The Church 
of the Holy Trinity." But the Dean of Armagh (now Bishop of 
Down), the highest authority on ecclesiastical history of the day, 
tells us that all churches named Gil Domnach were personally 
founded by St. Patrick, so called because he always marked out 
their foundations on a Sunday. That Cildamnoch was the true 
name seems sufficiently obvious, and what makes it a certainty 
is that the local form retained is Kirkedamnie, which is unmis- 

The most practicable route from Portpatrick to Kirkedamnie 
lay through Glen App, whence he would follow the valley of 
the Stinchar. A shorter cut for a return, more as the crow flies, 
would bring him to Lagapater (the suffix being Patrick), and 


thence by Cullurpattie, by Kinhilt, to Portpatrick. Whatever 
views may be taken of the tradition, this word can mean nothing 
but Patrick's Quarry. 

The extreme antiquity of the resort to Kildomine is further 
confirmed from its being the scene of well-known fairs, such 
meetings being usually held near shrines of peculiar sanctity. 
Kirkdamnie, or as it is now usually further corrupted Kirkdamdie, 
long had a celebrity in the western shires quite equal to that of 
Donnybrook in the sister isle, which up to comparatively recent 
times held in all its glory its famous fair on the last Saturday 
of May. On such occasions the precincts of the church re- 
sembled a camp of modern volunteers. Booths were raised, 
in which travelling merchants exposed their wares, or where 
boards groaned with tempting displays " of haggis, braxy hams, 
wi' rowth of bread and cheese, man." 

The elder moor-men were there to sell as well as to buy. 
Much business was transacted, whilst sports of all sorts were to 
be seen or taken part in, as well as dancing and love-making, 
diversified with a little pugilistic entertainment. The scene is 
thus graphically represented in more modern days as it then 
appeared to a local ballad-writer not more than a century ago : 

The tents in a' threescore and three 

Were planted up and doun, man, 
Whilst pipes and fiddles through the fair 

Gaed bummin' roun' and roun', man. 
Some did the thieving trade pursue, 

And ithers cam' to sell their 'oo, 
And mony cam' to weet their mou', 

And gang wi' lassies hame, man. 

The old church was entire in 1636, but a minute of the 
Presbytery of Ayr " thought it necessary and expedient that the 
materials of Kirkdomine as yet standing be taken down and 
transported to the place where the new kirk (of Ban) is to be 
builded." 1 

1 St. Patrick was certainly accompanied in Galloway by his favourite nephew 
Malidh or Mell, son of his sister Darerca. Kirkinner parish was originally 
Carnemal, Mell, or Malidh's Hill, and Culmalzie does not mean the back of the 
Malzie Water, which itself takes its name from the saint, but is the same word 


We have several Kilpatricks in Galloway, as well as Chapel 
Patrick just mentioned. 

Though Portpatrick was more frequented than ever in 1636 
from the extending Scotch plantations in Ireland, its harbour 
remained a mere inlet between two rocks, the vessels used for 
the passage being flat-bottomed and beached upon every arrival. 
Indeed, regular packets were not established till 1662, and it then 
became the custom for every man and woman in the place to 
watch anxiously for their arrival, and lend a hand in beaching 
the vessels, for which service they received enough to keep them 
in beer and tobacco. 

At the date of Lord Ardes's service the minister of Port- 
patrick was a Mr. James Blair, said to be a cadet of Blair in 
Ayrshire. His son John was appointed by the sheriff agent for 
his Irish estates, he being also factor for Lord Ardes. In 1638 
John Livingstone, a leading spirit in the Presbyterian Church, 
was by Lord Cassilis's influence introduced to Galloway, in the 
ministry of which he remained for ten years. In his Auto- 
biography he says he " found the people very tractable and 
respectful. Some of our friends came out of Ireland, and dwelt 
in Stranrawer, and at the Communions twice in the year great 
numbers used to come at one time 500 persons. At one time 
I baptised twenty-eight children brought out of Ireland. When 
I first came to Stranrawer some of the folks desired to come to 
one house to be present at one family exercise. Therefore I 
propounded that I would rather choose every morning to go to 
the Church, and so each morning, the bell was rung, and we 
convened ; and after two or three verses of a Psalm sung, and a 
short prayer, some portion of Scripture was read and explained, 
only so long as an half hour glass ran, and then closed with 

Livingstone was a man of address and talent, and as such 
was sent to London to endeavour to interest Scottish courtiers 
in the Presbyterian cause. The Marquis of Hamilton mentioned 

as Culmallie in Goldsmith's Sutherland, Kilmalie in Argyle, and the equivalent 
of Egilsmalie in Fife. 


this to the king. " Lo ! " said Charles, " perhaps we may put a 
pair of fetters on his feet." Whether out of good nature or to 
get him out of the way, Hamilton sent to tell him what he had 
heard the king say. Whereupon Livingstone took horse, and by 
unfrequented routes made the best of his way to Galloway. 

While Livingstone had been advocating the Covenant in 
England, Sydserff had been unwittingly paving the way for its 
reception in his diocese by enforced attendance on services that 
were disliked and the issue of a Service Book against which the 
populace ran wild. This Service Book, prepared by the Bishops 
of Galloway, Eoss, and Aberdeen, differed little really from the 
English Book of Common Prayer. But the endeavour to enforce 
uniformity in ritual by manacles and fines so embittered the 
discussion that even religious men denounced the "Scottish 
Mass Service Book," as they called the Bishops' compilation, in 
terms almost blasphemous, vilifying the very liturgy which good 
men of all creeds now so much admire as " an ill-said Mass, a 
Litany more like to conjuring nor Prayers " ; whilst numbers 
who, if unmolested, would have troubled themselves little about 
postures and forms, rushed off to the nearest towns to sign the 
League and Covenant as a protest against the tyranny of the 

The Solemn League and Covenant for the suppression of 
Popery and Prelacy was drawn up in Edinburgh the 28th of 
February 1638, whence sheets were sent to all parts of the 
realm, and nowhere more eagerly subscribed than in Galloway ; 
those signiog engaging to stand by each other in opposition to 
the innovations of the king, whence the term " Covenanters." 

Union giving strength, the deposed ministers of Galloway 
were recalled by their flocks, and many young men, who had 
recently taken service in foreign armies, snuffing the battle 
from afar, returned and placed their military skill at the service 
of the League. Money was freely subscribed to furnish arms. 
The leaders of the movement now demanded a General Assembly 
as an opportunity of stating their grievances. Hamilton, the 
viceroy, warned the king that compliance in this case was in- 


compatible with maintaining Episcopacy. But the king, who 
by this time had brought a hornets' nest about his own ears 
in England, was fain to tell his commissioner that he must 
grant anything rather than bring matters to a crisis with the 

A General Assembly was consequently summoned to meet in 
Glasgow on the 21st November. And of the many lords, barons, 
ministers, and burgesses, who rode thither from the west, were 
the Earls of Galloway, Dumfries, Eglinton, and Cassilis. Of the 
baronage, Andrew Agnew, younger of Lochnaw, Sir Kobert 
Adare, and Alexander Gordon of Earlston. Of burgesses, 
William Glendinning, Provost of Kirkcudbright ; Alexander 
M'Ghie, Wigtown ; James Glover, Stranraer ; Eobert Gordon, 
New Galloway. Of ministers, Livingstone, Stranraer; Blair, 
Portpatrick; Anderson, Kirkinner; Lauder, Whithorn; Turn- 
bull, Kirkmaiden ; M'Clellan, Kirkcudbright ; Kutherford, 

The Assembly constituted, the first motion made " That the 
pretended Archbishops and Bishops within the Kealm be called 
to the Bar to answer charges against them " fell like a bomb- 
shell on the table. 

The Bishops were astounded. The High Commissioner 
rightly remonstrated, as the expression "pretended" was un- 
justifiable, their titles and status having been given them by law. 

The Marquis having vainly endeavoured to avert the storm 
which he had foreseen, as a last resource declared the Assembly 
dissolved and left the chair. But it was now too late. His 
presence had given a legal sanction to constituting the meeting, 
which refused to disperse. The great majority of the nobility 
and baronage (prominent among whom was Montrose) and 
all the ministers and burgesses remained after Hamilton 

The Assembly then proceeded to legislate. Commissions 
were given for holding church courts at various points, and 
among other articles approven was one against "Mr. Thomas 
Sidserff, pretended Bishop of Galloway, deposed and excom- 


municated on charges of Popery and Armenianism," and many 
other gross personal faults. 

The die was cast, and the gentlemen of the western shires 
prepared to defend themselves in case of invasion by land or 
sea, the latter being no improbable contingency. 

A contemporary letter, 15th July 1638, gives the following 
as news : 

"Both Kirkcudbright and Lochryan are aimed at, besides 
other places on the west sea, for landing flatt-bottomed boats 
from Ireland." 

And the Marquis of Hamilton writing officially to the king 

" Those ships that lie in the Irish Sea will be sufficient to 
bar all trade from the west of Scotland. The fittingest places 
are between Arran and the coast of Galloway; when the 
weather is foul there is an excellent road in Galloway called 
Loch Eyan, where they may lie in safety. 27 Nov. 1638." 

The men of the western shires, however, were not to be 
caught napping. Lords Cassilis, Eglinton, Kirkcudbright, and 
Glencairn each raised regiments in which the younger members 
of the baronage eagerly enrolled themselves as captains ; 
thoroughly trained officers from foreign services accepted lieu- 
tenancies ; whilst the people flocked in hundreds to their 
standards. We find James and Alexander Agnew, younger 
sons of the sheriff, and James Dalrymple of Stair, among the 
first named as captains in these local corps. 

Having gone through a course of training, the whole Cove- 
nanting force assembled in 1639 on Dunse Law under Leslie, 
afterwards Earl of Leven. The great bulk of the proprietary of 
Galloway identified themselves with the movement, and the 
Galloway contingent did credit to the province by its good 
appearance and discipline. Principal Baillie, who was officially 
present, writes : 

" Our Crowners (colonels) for the most part are noblemen, 
our Captains Barrones, or gentlemen of good note, our lieutenants 
almost all soldiers who had served over sea at good charges." 


The formidable appearance of this force was a practical hint 
to the king of the necessity of yielding something to public 
opinion, and he condescended somewhat ungraciously to treat. 
Owing to the name of the spot where this treaty was extorted 
it became a joke that it was neither by civil law, nor yet by 
canon law, but only by Dunse Law, that the king had been 

Parliament met on the 12th August 1639. Lords Cassilis, 
Galloway, and Kirkcudbright, and the lairds of Larg and Kilhilt 
were present from Galloway, but as they immediately sanctioned 
the Solemn League and Covenant, Parliament was prorogued by 
the king's commissioner Traquhair. 

Charles gained little by this move, as on the return of their 
representatives the word went round in each locality to arm, the 
local regiments were re-embodied and again encamped upon 
Dunse Law. 

Determined to anticipate an attack, the Scottish force marched 
instantly southward. The Galloway contingent being com- 
manded by Sir Patrick M'Kie, son of Katherine Agnew of 
Lochnaw. Crossing the Borders, they took Newcastle-upon- 
Tyne, having had a sharp little brush by the way, where " they 
lost under a dozen, the most regretted gentleman being Sir 
Patrick M'Kie his only son." 1 

Complete success was, however, the result of this com- 
paratively small sacrifice, and from Newcastle the Scots were 
able to dictate terms, and, extracting a promise that Presby- 
terians were no more to be molested in Galloway, returned home. 

M'Clellan, a contemporary, writes : " In the late battle of 
Newburn on the Tyne, in England, a handful of Galloway 
Knights, under Patrick M'Kie, whose son was killed in the 
action, gave a splendid example of gallantry : for with their long 
spears they threw the dense body of the enemy into such con- 
fusion as to secure an easy victory." 2 

The young soldier's death is further deplored in a rhyming 
chronicle of the period : 

1 Baillie's Letters. 2 Blaeu's Atlas. M'Clellan. 


In this conflict which was great pitie 
We lost the son of Sir Patrick Maghie. 1 

At this date we find an acknowledgment by James Agnew 
of Auchrochar of 1400 marks received from his uncle Alexander 
Agnew of Tung. Witnesses Uchtred M'Dowall younger of 
Freuch ; Quentin Agnew, brother-german to the sheriff ; James 
Glover, notary public. 

James Agnew was colonel of Lord Kirkcudbright's regiment, 
and probably required this money in aid of its equipment. 

In 1640 Eobert, Lord Kirkcudbright, died ; leaving no heirs 
by his wife, a sister of Lord Ardes, he was succeeded by his 
nephew Thomas, son of Eosina, daughter of the seventh sheriff, 
who re-embodied the regiment raised by his uncle, which rose 
to great reputation under the command of his cousin James 
Agnew just named. 

This autumn Parliament reassembled. The only local busi- 
ness we can trace is a petition from John M'Caig, postmaster in 
Portpatrick, "supplicating to have a post bazk," which was 

A little joke of the king's during this short session fixed 
a nickname on a Gallovidian. 

Gordon of Earlston protested against Montrose being set free 
from arrest on suspicion of playing fast and loose, and observing 
the Lord Eegister affecting to misunderstand him, rose a second 
time, repeating his protest with warmth, and insisted that it 
should be entered on the proceedings, adding that as a member 
of a free Parliament he should take no denial. Whereupon the 
king, who was now playing the rdle of affability to the Scots, 
answered him himself blandly from the throne, assuring him 
that his protest should be registered as he wished. As the 
house broke up the king beckoned to Lord Galloway and asked, 
"Who was that man so bold in Parliament to-day?" "He 
is a neighbour and kinsman of my own, sir," replied the 
earl, "the Laird of Earlston." "Laird !" said the king smiling; 
" from his speech I should have thought that he must be Earl of 

1 Newburn Book, by Zachary Boyd. 


Earlston." The alliteration catching the fancy of the audience, 
the mock title clung to the bold baron for his life. 

In 1643 James Dalryrnple of Stair got a first footing in 
Galloway, where his descendants have struck so deep a root. 
He was born at Drummurchie in the parish of Barr in 1619. 
In 1638 he served, as stated, in Lord Glencairn's regiment ; and 
it is said that when marching at the head of his company past 
Glasgow College in 1641 he read a notice on the gates that a 
competitive examination for the professorship of logic was to be 
held that afternoon. There and then he presented himself in 
his buff and scarlet, and unacademical as was his appearance, 
distanced all competitors, won the place, and went into resi- 
dence. He had held his appointment for two years when he 
wooed and won Margaret Eoss, the heiress of Balneil, who also 
possessed a residence at Carscreugh, which in the vacations from 
college he much delighted to visit. 

From the Lochnaw charter chest we find that at this time 
John Koss, his wife's uncle, had mortgaged the lands of Cars- 
creugh to the sheriff; who, as appears from the records of the 
Consistory Court, was actually infeft in them. 

" The Sheriff of Galloway having lent certain sums of money 
to John Eoss of Cascreugh, quhilk haill sums will extend to 
5000 marks money, or thereby, therefore umquhile John Eoss 
for the Sheriff's relief did bind and oblige himself to sell and 
irredeemably dispose to the Sheriff the lands of Cascreugh, Barn- 
salzie, and Nether Sinnieness, whereof the Sheriff is now in 
peaceable possession. . . . 

" It has pleased God to call John Eoss, so that he departed 
this mortal life upon the 20th of this inst. May. And John 
D unbar younger compeered before the Consistorie Court of 
Wigtown, and having power of the Honourable Andrew Agnew 
apparent of Lochnaw in his name desires that the said Andrew 
may be declared Executor and Creditor to the said John Eoss, 
quhilk desyres and protestation the foresaid Court thocht reason- 
able, and therefore decerns and decrees the said Andrew Agnew 
executor- creditor to the goods and geir of umquhile John Eoss." 


The sheriff was thus in actual possession of John Eoss's 
lands with lien on his personalty also. But Major Eoss 
effected an arrangement with the sheriff, as we find the young 
couple in residence there for many a year. 1 

Parliament met again in 1643, Sir Patrick Agnew and the 
laird of Garthland representing the shire, but the sheriff appears 
to have retired in the course of the session in favour of his 
eldest son. 

The Galloway members complained that their county was 
overtaxed, 40 mark lands, retoured as such, being of less value 
than 10 mark lands elsewhere. A grievance they insisted " oft 
complained upon, but never remedied, the five or six poor 
shires of the west paying more taxation than all Scotland 

The Estates at first refused to entertain the question, but 
they were not to be so easily put off, and an eyewitness writes : 
" After long debate the matter was accomodat, and some reason 
is lyke to be done to the west." 2 

The all-engrossing subject of the moment, however, was a 
rebellion in Ireland, which not only threatened the safety of 
many Scots settled there, but might take the form of an Irish 
invasion of Scotland in favour of the Crown. A vote of 
1,200,000 marks was unanimously passed for the maintenance 
of a parliamentary army ; 10,000 men were ordered to be 
embodied at once, commissioners of supply being named for the 
respective counties, the "young Sheriff of Galloway and the 
Laird of Garthland " being the conveners of those for Wigtown- 
shire. This first committee of war was composed as follows : 
Sir Andrew Agnew apparent of Lochnaw, Sir Eobert Adair of 

1 In the Lochnaw charter chest is a bond in John Ross's writing: "We 
Alexander M 'Do wall of Logan, Andrew Agnew apparent of Lochnaw, Uchtred 
M'Dowall of French, Andrew M'Dowall of Killeser, John Gordon of Barskeoch, 
William Gordon of Grange, Patrick Agnew of Sheuchan, and John Ross of 
Cascreugh," become mutually responsible for 500 marks advanced by Sir 
Patrick Agnew to Logan, "to be repaid at Martinmas, without longer delay, 
fraud, or guyle. Written by John Ross at Stranrawer the 29th day of June. 
Before William Agnew of Croach, Patrick Agnew of Galdenoch, Godfrey 
M'Culloch in Balgreggan." 2 Baillie's Letters. 


Kilhilt, James M'Dowall of Garthland, Alexander M'Dowall of 
Logan, Gordon of Craighlaw, John Murray of Broughton, John 
Vans of Barnbarroch, Uchtred M'Dowall of French, James Eoss 
of Balneil, Thomas Hay of Park, Fergus Kennedy for Stran- 
rawer, Patrick Hannay for Wigtown, "with power to make 
special lists of fencible persons between 60 and 16, and 
to have special care that they are provided with arms." 

Thus the Estate carried out their resolution " that the king- 
dom be put in a posture of defence." 

The States further appointed Lord Kirkcudbright to command 
the horse of Kirkcudbright, the laird of Garthland to command 
the horse of Wigtown, the Earl of Cassilis and Lord Garlics to 
command the foot. 

Unwittingly the Estates had paved a new system for regu- 
lating local taxation, for although their Acts were rescinded 
after the Eestoration, the idea underlying this legislation was 
retained, and from this Parliament may be dated the institution 
of Commissioners of Supply. 

Previous to this, taxation had been levied in proportion as 
the words of old or new extent had been inserted in the con- 
firming charters of lay proprietors, while church property was 
assessed according to Bagimont's Eoll. But henceforward, by a 
law of the Estates, lay and clerical property was valued and 
assessed alike. 

In 1644 there was a general election. " Sir Andrew Agnew, 
Knight, younger of Lochnaw, and the Laird of Garthland " were 
returned for the shire, William Grierson of Bargatten for the 
stewartry, Patrick Hannay for Wigtown, John Crosbie for 

This third Parliament of Charles I. extended its sittings 
over six sessions, and lasted three years. 

Meeting on the 4th of June, they entered at once into cor- 
respondence with the English Parliamentary leaders, and on 
these promising to accept the Covenant, and pay the Scottish 
forces, they agreed to provide 20,000 men, of which 3000 were 
to be cavalry. In pursuance of this policy the Estates passed 


an act of agreement with commissioners from England on the 
23rd July, the third article of which stipulated that " two ships 
of war be presently sent by the Kingdom of England to Loch 
Kyan, Portpatrick, Lamlash, and Ayr, to guard and waught over 
the Scottish soldiers." Committees of war being simultaneously 
appointed, those for Wigtownshire including Lords Cassilis, 
Galloway, and Garlies, the sheriff and his son, with the Lairds 
of Garthland, Freuch, Logan, Kinhilt, Myrtoun, Barnbarroch, 
Mochrum, and Baldoon. At this crisis the General Assembly 
sought to assert itself as the concurrent authority with the 
Estates, passing some extraordinary and un- Protestant resolu- 
tions. Among others one desiring ministers, more especially at 
seaports, to search for and stop all books tending to separation. 
A second, forbidding all disputations in public or private, as to 
practices not determined on by the Presbyterian Church. A 
third, interfering with private family worship, strictly limiting 
this to members of one family, " and that none be permitted to 
explain the Scriptures but ministers and expectants," appoint- 
ing also a standing commission " to hunt out, apprehend, try, 
and execute justice against those guilty of witchcraft." 

These various committees, whether lay or clerical, worked 
too often with unfortunate zeal, as, for example, the War Com- 
mittee of Kirkcudbright, on the mere suspicion that Lord Niths- 
dale was playing fast and loose, ordained that the house of 
Threave be "flighted" forthwith by the Laird of Balmaghie, 
"that the sklait roof and battlement thereof be taken down, 
with the lofting thereof, doors and windows, and to tak out the 
haill iron work of the same, and to stop the vault of the said 
house, with power to the Laird of Balmaghie to use and dispose 
the timber, stanes, ironwork, to the use of the public, his 
necessar expences being deducted." And that a part of the 
order as to the dismantling of the house was actually carried 
out is proved too surely by a subsequent resolution of the Com- 
mittee (William M'Clellan of Barscob having petitioned to be 
allowed to buy "certain freestanes which he has use for"), 
which runs thus : " The quhilk supplication being heard, seen, 

22 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1630-1644 

and considered, the Committee of the Stewartry ordains the 
said Laird of Barscob to take as many of the aforesaid freestones 
of the said house as will serve for his use, and to be in the 
Committee's will for the pryce thairof." 1 By which we observe 
that the funds for the destruction of the old historical keep were 
provided by the sale of its ornamental stonework. 

1 Minute Boole of the War Committee of Kirkcudbright, p. 67. 



A.D. 1644 to 1651 

On Philiphaugh a fray began, 

At Hairhead Wood it ended ; 
The Scots out o'er the Graemes they ran, 

Sae merrily they bended. 

IN glancing at the events of these stirring times we shall 
restrict our view as far as possible to those that were reflected 
from a Galloway horizon, or in which members of the sheriffs 
family, friends, and neighbours bore a part. 

On the 5th of June a Committee was struck by Parliament, 
" for the expeditione of the army towards England," known as 
the " Committee for the Levee." Urgency was voted, and the 
members were required " to meet at four o'clock this night, and 
at seven o'clock to-morrow morning." Upon this sat Lord Kirk- 
cudbright, the young Sheriff of Galloway, the Laird of Garthland, 
and Sir William Scott of Harden. Lord Cassilis and the Laird 
of Lagg sat at the same time on a Committee struck for prepar- 
ing processes against those impeached. On the llth of June 
the Laird of Garthland was on another Committee " for consider- 
ing propositions of peace." 

The young sheriff and Sir William Scott, a Border baron, 
both sat together on a commission composed of four of each 
estate, to act along with the Justice Clerk as Judges Delegate. 

This Laird of Harden, whom we find much associated with 
the Sheriff of Galloway, was the son of a previous Sir William 


Scott by a daughter of Sir Gideon Murray, near of kin to the 
Laird of Broughton. 

The story of his mother's betrothal amusingly illustrates the 
humours of Border life. 

This senior Sir William, when himself the young laird, had 
made a foray one night on Sir Gideon's lands, and was caught 
in the act of driving off a rich booty, when he was captured, 
and made fast in the fetters to await Sir Gideon's judgment. 
He having been caught flagrante delicto, when Sir Gideon had 
him brought before him he asked few questions, made no 
reproaches, but simply condemned him to death, and then went 
about his ordinary business. Hanging a thief was such an 
everyday affair that the impending execution occasioned little 
talk ; but happily a hint of the matter reached my lady's ears, 
who soon made herself acquainted with all particulars. Bursting 
into her lord's apartment she indignantly exclaimed, " Hoot, Sir 
Gideon, what do I hear ? You tak' the life of the winsome 
young Laird of Harden wi' three ill-faured lasses in the house o' 
yer ain to marry !" 

" Ye're recht, Maggie, my dear," replied the baron, instantly 
grasping the situation, "Wullie shall tak' our muckle-mou'd 
Meg, or else he'll strech for it." 

The maternal instinct proved a happy one to both the 
parties. The mouth bringing a message of mercy was not the 
one from which a hopeless prisoner would avert his lips, and 
much to his father's surprise he returned with a bride from the 
neighbour's house he had ridden out to harry. And, what was 
satisfactory to all, he never rued that night's work. 

The inconveniences of civil war were now making them- 
selves felt. Pressure was put upon persons of all degrees to 
give a tenth of their property as an offering to the State. But 
not satisfied with this, all plate and jewellery was to be given 
up to the State, or else redeemed at full value, nominally as a 
loan, but with very doubtful security. 

" Sic like it is appointed that all the silver work and gold 
work in Scotland as weel to Burgh as landwart, as weel noble- 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 25 

men, Barons, Burgesses, as others of whatsoever degree or quality 
they be, be given in to the Committee at Edinburgh upon such 
security for repayment as the said Committee and they shall 

The orders to the Committee for the Stewartry (and doubt- 
less those for the shire, which have not been preserved, were 
similar) enjoined them to put persons upon oath, "gif they 
have any money to lend upon suretie to the use of the public," 
and in case of any backwardness ordains the said commissioners 
" to plunder any persone that shall happen no to mak thankful 
payment of the sogers pay, both for horss and foote." 

In the case of Lord Nithsdale, whose house of the Threave 
the Committee of Estates had already " flighted," on the 22nd of 
July the house, " in respect of his rebellion, makes and creates 
the Lord Kirkcudbright Steward of that Stewartry." And before 
separating, placed the Sheriff of Galloway 1 and the Laird of 
Garthland with full powers as to the conduct of the war in 

The young sheriff, who seems frequently to have been in 
Ireland himself on his own affairs, was aware of the woful 
state of the Scotch regiments in Ireland. He at once took 
active steps for their relief, and riding through the country, 
personally collected provisions, and freighting ships, despatched 
them to Carrickfergus. Among his papers we find many 
receipts, one, for example, docketed " Bargain of meal to be sent 
to Ireland to the sojers," 2 a receipt following from the Provost 
of Carrickfergus. 3 

1 In all records of Parliamentary proceedings during the next decade the 
Sheriff of Galloway means Sir Andrew Agnew, the apparent of Lochnaw, or 
otherwise the young sheriff. Sir Patrick seems to have withdrawn entirely 
from public life, and without further repetition, the sheriff henceforward means 
his son. 

2 "I John Carssane, Baillie in Kirkcubrie, grants me to have received from 
Patrick M'Kie, Notar, in name and behalf of Andro Agnew, apparent of Loch- 
naw, the sum of 3700 marks money of this Realm, in satisfaction of the greatest 
part of a greater sum promised by the said Andro Agnew to me, for ane Bargane 
of Meill to be sent to Ireland to the sogurs. This 26th day of February 1645 

' 3 " I Alexander Mure, in name of James Stewart, grants me to have received 
from Andrew Agnew, apparent of Lochnaw, the number of 250 of bollis of meal, 


Meanwhile the sheriff's brother James was serving in Eng- 
land in command of Lord Kirkcudbright's regiment. A corps 
which, though enrolled as " foot," it is evident, both from history 
and despatches, were mounted. 

News of Montrose's successes in Scotland having reached 
the Parliamentary camp of the Scots at Hereford, Leslie in- 
stantly started northward, and by forced marches in an 
incredibly short time surprised Montrose lying in fancied 
security in Ettrick Forest. 

Agnew's Galloway men, trained to mosstrooping exploits, 
were well used to night work in the saddle, and having arrived 
in the vicinity of Montrose after dark, taking little rest, long 
before daybreak had made the complete circuit of their slumber- 
ing foes, and taken up position in their rear. 

As the Border Minstrel has it, Leslie 

Had halved his men in equal parts 

His purpose to fulfil ; 
The one part kept the water side, 

The other gaed round the hill. 
A cloud of mist them weel concealed, 

As close as e'er might be, 

under cover of which mist Lord Kirkcudbright's regiment 
rushed with wild cries to the engagement. 

Completely taken by surprise, surrounded, bewildered, the 
whole Eoyalist band had nothing left for it but to surrender or 
fly. To quote Sir Walter Scott : 

" Leslie came down from England at the head of those iron 
squadrons whose force had been proved in the fatal battle of 
Marston Moor. How it is possible that Montrose received no 
notice of his coming is inconceivable ; still more extraordinary, 
that even with the advantage of a thick mist Leslie should have 
advanced next morning without being descried by a single 

part of the 500 bolls agreed upon by the said Andro Agnew of Lochnaw and 
James M 'Donald of Garfland ; as witness my hand at Craigfergus, 5 April 1645." 
On the 28th of January letters were read in Parliament from the army in 
Ireland dated from Craig Fergus, showing their great want and necessities of 
meal_and provisions. 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 27 

scout. Such, however, was the case. He beheld his army in 
irretrievable rout, and the gallant Montrose graced by his 
example the retreat of the fugitives." 

Colonel James Agnew received the thanks of Parliament 
" for the services of himself and his regiment at the Battle of 
Philiphaugh," and was voted the more substantial recognition 
of a sum of 15,000 marks. Unfortunately the victory was sullied 
by an act of treachery, the responsibility of which rests really 
with Leslie, whoever may have urged it upon him. 

A party of Irishmen, sent by McDonnell, Earl of Antrim, 
holding alone together of all Montrose's forces, Leslie himself 
promised them quarter through Stewart their adjutant, upon 
which they instantly laid down their arms ; " but then," when 
surely we have supposed it was too late, " did the Churchmen 
quarrel that quarter should be given to such wretches as they, 
and declared it an act of most sinful impiety, and found out a 
distinction whereby to bring David Leslie off; that was that 
quarter was only meant for Stewart the adjutant himself." 
Leslie was weak enough to yield to this Jesuitry, and the 
gallant Irishmen were instantly butchered, after having received 
a solemn promise of protection. 

It is sad to find in these troublous times the General Assembly 
of Divines, who should of all men have been advocates of 
mercy, hounding on commanders, already too willing, to give 
no quarter to prisoners whose only crime was differing in politics 
and religion from themselves. This example is far from a 
solitary one. The Synod of Galloway sent a petition to the 
Estates praying that the " sword of justice may be impartially 
drawn against those persons now in bonds who have lifted up 
their hands against the Lord, the sworn Covenant, and this 
afflicted Kirk." And that from Dumfries was equally truculent : 
" We need not lay before your Honours what the Lord calls for 
at your hands in the point of justice, nor what you owe unto 
the many thousands of His people." 

Thus urged, a bloody Act was passed at the instance of these 
reverend petitioners on the 23rd December, "that the House 


ordains the Irish prisoners taken at Philiphaugh to be executed 
without any assize or process." 

The only comfort for the humane being that few had been 
left for the hangman, the great bulk, as already said, having 
been murdered on the field. 

A new corps was now raised in the valley of the Nith (liter- 
ally Novantae), styled the South Eegiment, and another in the 
west, styled Lord Galloway's Eegiment, of whom the first colonel 
was Alexander Agnew, the sheriffs fourth son. 

And besides Lord Kirkcudbright's regiment, commanded by 
his third son, a second was raised in the Stewartry by Lord 
Kenmure, which he commanded in person, Alexander Agnew of 
Croach being one of his captains. As to this corps, we find it 
noted in the Parliamentary Journals, 15th December, " orders 
to Viscount Kenmure's Eegiment to march to Montrose," a 
service regarded as so serious that the Laird of Croach made his 
will before starting, and deposited it with the sheriff. It was 

"I Captain Alexander Agnew of Croach, being employed 
in the public service, and being compellit to the North in the 
expeditione yrof, and knowing nothing more certaine than daith, 
nothing mor uncertaine nor the tyme and place yrof, make my 
last will and Testament as follows : In the first I recommend 
my soul to God, hopeing the same to be saif, through the merits 
of Jesus Christ ; and as for my worldlie affairs, I be thir pre- 
sence nominats and constituts Andrew Agnew, appeirant of 
Lochnaw, in case of my decis before my return my only 
executor. At Edinburgh the 28th day of November 1646 

In 1646 the Earl of Eglinton and the Sheriff of Galloway 
were appointed on a Committee to investigate all claims for 
loss by land or sea by loyal subjects owing to the war. As 
these were to be made good by fines and confiscations on 
" malignants," they were easily arranged on paper, though this 
method proved rather an awkward precedent when " malignants" 
were in the ascendant. A renewal of a commission from Argyle 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 29 

to the young sheriff proves that the fishing industry was more 
diligently pursued in Galloway than now. 

" Me Archibald, Marquis of Argyle, by thir presents do give 
power and Commission to Andrew Agnew, apparent of Lochnaw, 
Sheriff of Galloway, to ask, crave, uplift, receive, mell and intro- 
mit with the assize duty of all ships, barks, boats, crearis, 1 and 
other vessels liable in payment thereof that are or shall be at 
the herring fishing in the seas, lochs, and bounds betwixt the 
Mule of Galloway and the march of Carrick. And that from 
the fishers and slayers of herring within the said bounds, and 
from the owners and merchants of the said ships, barks, boats, 
and others adepted in payment of the said assize duty of the 
year of God 1636 and 1637 and yearly in time coming during 
our will and pleasure. 

" And with power to him, his Deputies and Substitutes (for 
whom he shall be answerable) to hold Courts among the Fleet, 
fishers, and slayers of herring, salters, coopers and others intro- 
mitted with ; and to administer Justice to all complainers and 
to punish unlaw ; and to that effect to create Clerks, Officers, and 
other Members of Court needful, and if need be to pound and 
distrain for the said Assize duties and unlawes required ; and 
for better ingathering thereof to appoint Collectors and Factors 
under him. The said Andrew Agnew being comptable to us 

yearly for the of the said Assize duties, and having all the 

rest allowed to him for his pains and travel. It is always 
declared that these presents shall noways be extended to any 
parts of the bounds whereaiient we have formerly given warrants 
to the Lord Bargany concerning the Assize duty of the bounds 
therein named. 

" Subs, at Edin. the 18th day of December one thousand six 
hundred and forty-six years, before these witnesses, And. Camp- 
bell, Captn. of Dunstaffnage and the said George Campbell. 


It can hardly be supposed that the fleet, barks, boats, with 

1 Lighters. 


their fishers and crews, coopers and salters, were all in nulibus. 
That the coasting trade was carried 011 with energy is corro- 
borated by the Montgomery manuscript, stating that at that 
period, during the long summer days, traders from Stranraer 
frequently left their homes on horseback in the early morning, 
crossed the Channel from Portpatrick to Donaghadee, rode on 
to Belfast, and standing the market there, returned to Stranraer 
at night. 

A receipt among the sheriff's papers of the following year 
is suggestive of another forced loan. 

"Seeing Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw, Sheriff, at the 
desire of the Lords of the Committee of moneys for the north, 
has lent and advanced to us one thousand merks, we therefore 
in the said Committee of Parliament, bind and oblige the Estates 
of the kingdom to pay to the said Sir Patrick, his heirs, etc., the 
said principal sum with the annual rent thereof, out of the first 
and readiest moneys that shall arise out of the taxation, or any 
impositions hereafter laid upon this kingdom," etc. 

The receipt is signed by 




Towards the close of the year J there was another general 
election, when there were chosen " Sir Andrew Agnew, Knight, 
and Sir Eobert Adair, Knight, of Kinhilt, for Wigtownshire, 
William Grierson of Bargatten for the Stewartry, and William 
Glendinning for the Borough of Kirkcudbright." 

This Parliament sat continuously until 1651. 

When King Charles, after his defeat at Naseby, put himself 
into the hands of the Scots army, May 1646, the Earl of Cassilis 

1 A deed of this date is conclusive as to the root of Kirminnoch. " Assigna- 
tion by John Reed to the Sheriff younger, for a debt on the lands of Kirriemanoche, 
witnessed at Lochnaw, 9 Oct. 1647, by Andrew Agnew of Killumplea, Andrew 
Agnew his son, Mr. John Lawrie, Chaplain, Thomas Glover, Notary Public." 
Kirriemanoche, now Kirminnoch, the monks' quarter lands. 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 31 

and the Laird of Garthland were among the commissioners sent 
to treat with him. 

The new Parliament named War Committees on the 
18th April 1648. We quote that for Wigtownshire literally, 
with explanations in brackets, interesting as proving the una- 
nimity of the Galloway baronage at this period of the struggle. 

War Committee, 1648. Earl of Cassilis, Viscount Ardes, 
Lord Garlies, Sir Patrick Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway; Sir 
Andrew Agnew, younger of Lochnaw, Knight ; Sir Eobert Adair 
of Kinhilt; Lairds of Park (Hay), French (M'Dowall), Craig- 
came (Neilson), Balneill (Eoss), Ardwell (M'Culloch), Achrocher 
(Colonel Agnew), Synniness (Kennedy), Gillespie (Kennedy), 
Knockglass (M'Dowall), Killeser, elder and younger (M'Culloch), 
Andrew M'Dowall of Lefnoll, Patrick Agnew of Sheuchan, James 
Kerr, factor to the Earl of Cassilis ; Lairds of Dunragit (Baillie), 
Larg (Linne), Little Dunragit, Garnock (Cathcart), the Provost 
of Stranraer, the Lairds of Barnbarroch (Vaus), Craichlaw 
(Gordon), Mertoun (M'Culloch), Mochrum (Dunbar), Brochtoun 
(Murray), Kilcreache (Cascreugh, Dalryrnple), Baldoon (Dunbar), 
Grange (Gordon), Glasnock, Fontalloch (Stewart), Wig (Agnew), 
Dalregle (M'Dowall), Drummorell (M'Culloch), Monreith (Max- 
well), Drummastoun, elder and younger (Houstoun), Houstoun 
of Cutreoch, the Provost of Wigtoune, the Provost of Whithorne, 
Stewart of Tonderghie, Francis Hay of Ariolland, Dunbar, younger 
of Mochrum, Gordon of Balmeg, Hew Kennedy of Arieheming, 
Patrick M'Kie of Cairn, Agnew of Galdenoch, William Gordon 
of Penningham, the Laird of Garthland, and Mr. James Blair 
(minister of Portpatrick). 

Colonel James Agnew died in Edinburgh, probably there on 
duty with his regiment, having married Marian, daughter of 
Thomas Kennedy of Ardmillan, who had apparently predeceased 
him, as we find an "inventour of the clothes belonging to 
umquhile Col. James Agnew, delivered by the Lady of Ard- 
myllan to his brethren," this lady being his mother-in-law. 
Among the items under her charge was " ane buff coat with 
sleeves of flammerit with silver lace. Ane sad coloured doublet 


with silver and gold pearl on it, ane suit of light coloured clothes 
and cloak, various other suits, ane hat with ane gold hat band, 
ane pair of seals, and ane pair of Dutch pistols. All which 
items we, Andrew Agnew, apparent of Lochnaw, and Alexander 
Agnew, Lieutenant- Colonel to the Erie of Galloway's regiment, 
grants us by thir presence to have received fra the hands of 
Lady Ardmyllan at Ardmyllan, 28th day of July 1648." 

Within a few weeks of his death he had received a tack of 
the teinds of Kirkland of Inch from the Earl of Cassilis, " as 
possessed immediately before be Alexander Agnew of Tung, his 
uncle," dated 1st January 1648. 

His lands of Auchrochar reverted to his father. 

We find also a discharge " to Sir Patrick Agnew by James 
Kennedy in Chappell of Stranrawer for money advanced to 
Lieutenant John Agnew in my Lord of Ardes regiment." 

This John we trace no farther. 

After a stormy session, the Estates involved in constant 
disputes with the General Assembly, Parliament adjourned for 
the autumn, reassembling in Edinburgh the 4th of January 1649. 

The members for Galloway were all in their places, the first 
business in hand being drafting instructions to the Scottish 
Commissioners in London, of which the most notable was 

" That they should induce the Chiefs of the Army to delay 
to meddle with the King's person, and if they proceed to pro- 
nounce sentence against the King, that ye enter your dissent 
and protest ; that this Kingdom may be free from the desola- 
tion, misery, and bloodshed that will inevitably follow thereon." 

The protest was unavailing, and King Charles having been 
executed on the 30th January, the Estates caused his son to be 
proclaimed king at the Market Cross on the 5th of February 
following, an act which required no little nerve, as the Scots 
Parliamentary party, with but a few newly-raised regiments at 
their command, thus threw down the gauntlet to Cromwell and 
his veteran Ironsides. 

Gallant as was the impulse, there was infatuation in their 
counsels for having thus dared the stronger nation. They 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 33 

madly declined proffered assistance from political opponents, 
and passed an insulting Act disqualifying " malignants " from 
serving in defence of their country, the General Assembly 
highly approving, and urging them to have no communion with 
any who had not given evidence of repentance. 

Such were the unpractical counsels in the ascendant. 

The Estates, however, resolved " that this Kingdom be put 
in a posture of defence, and for the better and more speedy 
effectuating thereof" nominated Colonels and Commanders of 
horse and foot for the various counties. Those for the Shire of 
Wigtown being the Earl of Cassilis, the Sheriff of Galloway, Sir 
Eobert Adair, and William Stewart. 

The Estates then despatched commissioners, amongst whom 
were Lord Cassilis and John Livingstone, to treat with the 
young king at the Hague. They sailed from Kirkcaldy the 
17th of March, but returned the llth of June, having found the 
merrie monarch " very lothe to accept the covenant." On the 
14th of March the Estates nominated a Committee " for ordering 
all things relating either to peace or war, to appoint such general 
offices as they think fit, and generally with power to do all and 
sundry other things that shall be found necessary for the good 
of religion, the honour of the King, and the peace of the Eealm." 

On this grand committee, popularly styled " for governing 
the Kingdom," were the Earl of Cassilis, Lord Kirkcudbright, 
Sir Andrew Agnew, and Sir Eobert Adair. We find it noted 
on the " 2d Autf. 1649. The Committee of Bills having heard 
and considered the supplication of the Sheriff of Galloway, 
showing that he being nominat executor to umquhile LVColonel 
James Agnew his brother, quha was LVColonel to the umquhile 
Lord Kirkcudbright his regiment ; and quhilk Eegiment did for 
their good service at Philiphaugh get alloted and appointed to be 
payed fifteen thousand merks out of the Lord Herries his estate, 
for which sum the said Lord Herries being forfalt, before it was 
rescinded he paying the said sum to the officers of the said Eegi- 
ment, whereof neither the said supplicant nor his said umquhile 
Brother before his decease did get nor has gotten nothing thereof. 



" The Committee foresaid finds the said supplication in- 
structed by the production of the Act of Parliament granted in 
favors of the said umquhile Lord Kirkcudbright his regiment 
for the sume foresaid. 

" In regard whereof and of the supplicant's good deservings 
and constant affection to the cause now in hand, it is the 
humble opinion of the Committee that the said Lord Herries 
be ordained to pay to the supplicant the said sum of three thou- 
sand seven hundred and fifty merks (which is the just fourth 
part of the said sum, quhilk the said Lord is formerly ordained 
to pay by Act of Parliament, and is due to the supplicant and 
to his umquhile brother in manner foresaid). 

" And that the Parliament grant letters to charge the said 
Lord Herries to pay the same, and orders were given to the 
general officers of the Army to quarter on Lord Herries's lands 
till he made this payment." 

It is noted that the Sheriff of Galloway and the Laird of 
Bargatten " do nominate Sir Eobert Adair to have the fourscore 
horse to be levied out of Galloway." 

Commissioners were further appointed for plantation of kirks 
and valuation of teinds, among whom were the Earl of Cassilis, 
Sir Andrew Agnew, and Sir Eobert Adair. 

Previous to the close of the session, Parliament renominated 
the persons already named as commissioners for governing the 
kingdom, and adjourned till the autumn. This year the first 
Earl of Galloway died, and was succeeded by his only son, 
James, Lord Garlies, brother of Lady Agnes Agnew, who had 
married in 1642 a daughter of Sir Eobert Grierson of Lagg. 

Two years before this the second Lord Kirkcudbright had 
died, and was succeeded by his cousin, John M'Clellan of Borgue. 
He had bequeathed to his cousin the young sheriff the lands of 
Glenturk, Carslae, and Carsgown, as well as a mill in Kirkcud- 
bright, of which he was put in possession the following year by 
the third lord. 1 

1 "Me John Lord Kirkcudbright heir served and retourit to umquhile 
Thomas Lord Kirkcudbright, forsameikle as the said Thomas Lord K. by dis- 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 35 

The regiment which bore his name, shortly after Colonel 
James Agnew's death, had been almost completely annihilated 
in a fight with the English Parliamentary forces at Lisnegarvey, 1 
now Lisburn, in Ireland, but was actively recruited by his 

An amusing scene occurred in the General Assembly pre- 
vious to the adjournment of Parliament. In this my Lords 
Cassilis and Argyle sat as lay elders. One Mr. Naysmith 
"argued much that the haill teinds " should be recovered to the 
Church. Cassilis, who had the lion's share of the great tithes of 
Galloway, did not at all relish the proposal, and he and Argyle 
tried to put it down with a high hand as a proposition " much 
scandalizing the profession and their often promises." 

Mr. Naysmith was irrepressible, affirming that the whole 
were the actual property of the Church, and that by Divine law. 
To this Cassilis retorted, " The more ye gett, the worse contented 
ye are, but in this ye have neither Divinity under the Gospel 
for the same, nor reason, nor any point of human law." To this 
Argyle added, "The Church has already the tenth of all the 
rent of the land, yet it seems they are not content. They are 
not the thirtieth part of the inhabitants/ I may say not the 
hundredth part. ' It is not good to awalkin sleeping dogs.' " 

The Moderator getting alarmed, as Cassilis and Argyle were 
great pillars of the Church, interposed. " Our brother Mr. 

position subscribed with, his hand 2 N"ov. 1646, irredeemably disponed to Andrew 
Agnew, Apparent of Lochnaw knight, the lands of Glenturk, 1 Carslae, 2 and 
Carsgoune, 3 with their houses, biggings, haill parts, pendicles, and pertinents. 

' ' I being most willing to fulfil the same charge Wm. M'Kie notary-public 
(and others) to pass to the ground and there give heritable state and seizing and 
corporal possession to Andrew Agnew or his attorney, etc. ; and I have subscribed 
these presents before John M'Culloch of Wigtown, John Vaus of Barnbarroch, 
Thomas Stewart Provost of Wigtown, the 17 April 1650. 


1 Lios na gcearrbhach = the fort of the gamblers. Joyce, ii. 118. For this 
there is ancient authority, but it would be a great mistake to translate Belgarvie, 
Kirkcowan, the gambler's town, the root being probably either a proper name or 
garbh = rough. 

1 The Boars' Glen (tore). 2 The Calves' Carse ; Laigh. 

3 The Smiths' Carse. 


Nay smith spoke more rashly nor he was aware of, and he 
admired he was so impertinent, and therefore willed him to be 
quyet." Naysmith, notwithstanding, had the last word, inter- 
jecting that " he only spake out that which many of his profes- 
sion thought." Upon this " some lay elders that were Barons 
desired him to deny that, otherwise they would make the sword 
decide that question, and let him and such covetous persons see 
the teinds were not under the Gospel, juris divini, but juris 
humani" x 

The commissioners for the valuation of teinds, adding others 
to their numbers in each county, proceeded to make their rounds 
and to report. 

Those for Wigtownshire whom the sheriff associated with 
him were Patrick Agnew his brother, William Kennedy of 
Gillespie, Francis Hay of Airullane, Alexander M'Culloch of 
Ardwell, and David Dunbar of Baldoon. 

" Having given their oaths judiciallie to use their best 
endeavours for a right and true information," a leading heritor 
from every parish was required to make a statement on oath, 
which was taken down in writing. As an example we take the 
parish of Sorbie, entered thus : 

" James Earl of Galloway, for self and remanent heritors, 
feurs, live-renters, and proper wod-setters within this Parish 

Their money rent extends to . . 3020 09 04 

Pay it in victual, meal, and beer . . 1118 17 00 

4139 06 04 

Payit in feu-duty to the College of Glasgow 271 06 08 

Payit in mortified rent to Mr. Eobert Blair 10 13 04 
Payit in mortified rent to minister and 

schoolmaster . . . ... 733 06 08 

Payit victual to the minister and school- 
master (15 bolls) . . .. 72 00 00 

Payit to his Majesty's exchequer , . . 24 00 00" 

1 Balfour, iii. 417. Sir James Balfour here writes as an eye-witness. 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 37 

It is to be noted that all the parishes contributed largely to 
the parish of Glasgow. 

During the recess the sheriff's eldest daughter was married 
to Cathcart of Carleton, a direct descendent of 

The knight worthy and white, 
Courteous and fair and of good fame, 
Sir Allan Kattcart wes his name, 

mentioned by Barbour. 

The family seat was Killochan Castle ; the bridegroom was 
served heir to his grandfather in 1662. 

In March 1650 the Estates sent Lord Cassilis (who 
again took with him Livingstone) along with others to treat 
with Charles at Breda, where with whatever mental reserva- 
tion the king subscribed the Covenant, and on the 4th July 
the Estates proclaimed "that his Majesty enters to his govern- 
ment and exercise of Eoyal power." 

In the interval they had appointed a commission for the 
examination, " it is much to to be feared by torture," of fifty- 
four witches. 

Meanwhile the king arrived at his own house of Falkland, 
from whence he was feasted with all his train at Perth by the 
magistrates, and next day by General Leslie " in a garden house 
on the Eiver, where was a table covered with dessert of all 
kinds." "Next he was welcomed with a banquet by Lord 
Burleigh, and the morrow dyned at the Erie of Dunfermline's 

Had the dealings of the king been entrusted solely to the 
nobility and baronage much advantage might have accrued. 
Charles was now for the first time brought face to face with 
Presbyterianism, and ordinary common sense should have taught 
the leaders of the Church that religion should be presented to 
the king in the spirit of the Bible, breathing forbearance, gentle- 
ness, and love. 

That Charles was inclined to be dissolute was known, but he 
was young, and now on his best behaviour, and was much more 
likely to be influenced by kindness than abuse. 


The Presbyterian Churchmen had a great chance, and able 
men as many of them were threw it away with a perversity 
which is astounding. 

On every possible occasion long sermons were forced upon 
the king, his attendance being compulsory. Sundays were made 
to him positively days of penance ; his having formerly received 
the Episcopalian communion kneeling was explained to him to 
be a sin ; his father and mother were constantly and publicly 
reviled before his face, and, incredible as it may appear, the 
Fathers of the Church, posing as statesmen, forced him to sign 
a declaration that he was deeply affected before God for the 
idolatry of his mother, and for his father's opposition to the 
work of God and the Solemn League and Covenant. 

These particulars are not those of a sneering critic, but 
given with unction by a warm partisan of the Assembly. 1 

The Estates, declining the help of all old Eoyalists who were 
Eoman Catholics, or even Episcopalians, counting their levies 
on paper and parading Charles as a nominal Covenanter, though 
in reality their prisoner, were living in a fool's paradise, when 
Cromwell swooped down upon them with just 16,000 men, and 
scattered their levies to the wind. Thus on the fatal 3rd of 
September, with 3000 killed and 9000 prisoners, the reign of 
Charles II. and the Supremacy of the Estates and General 
Assembly came simultaneously to an ignominious end. Times 
now went hard with the Scottish Estates ; they had alienated an 
influential faction by corresponding with the English Parlia- 
mentary army ; that very army had now knocked at their doors 
as masters, and it became war to the knife between Presby- 
terians and Independents. The Scots almost to a man repudi- 
ated both the politics and form of religion of their conquerors, 
but so besotted and bigoted were the majority of the Estates, 
that they still refused to allow many of the king's most efficient 
partisans to fight under their banners. 

The result was deplorable. Men who should have stood 
shoulder to shoulder breathed mutual defiance, thus courting 

1 Balfour, iv. 92. 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 39 

defeat, whilst camps forming in every quarter brought agri- 
culture to a standstill, and trade was nil. 

The gentlemen of Galloway, Dumfries, and Ayr, however, 
with great energy brought into the field some 4000 horse, and 
Strachan and Kerr, who had developed military talent in foreign 
armies, were invited from the north to take the command. 
This forming a nucleus for other levies, they might have shown 
a good front had not the Estates, at the instance of the Assembly, 1 
again purged the army of some of its most efficient officers. At 
last awakening to their folly, they admitted all without any dis- 
tinction to fight against the common enemy. But no sooner 
had this one sensible act been done than the ministers who had 
been most active in assisting to raise the levies, protested with 
such vehemence against it, that a division took place among the 
commanders, extending to the rank and file, which was neces- 
sarily fatal to military success. 

These ultra - Presbyterians were called the Protesters, 
and had the support of Lord Kirkcudbright, Gordon of 
Knockgray, and Captain Andrew Arnot, besides Livingstone, 
Eutherford, and M'Clellan, the most popular preachers in 
the west. 

Whilst factions argued, Cromwell was acting. He marched 
on Glasgow, the levies of the west retiring on Dumfries, and 
having once and again made a dash at the English, they as often 
were defeated, and at last dispersed. 2 

Divided counsels prevailed in Galloway. Lords Cassilis and 
Kirkcudbright, the Laird of Garthland, and others declaring for 
the king against Cromwell, but siding with the "Protesters." 
Sir Andrew Agnew, Sir Eobert Adair, and other lairds 

1 " The Comittee of Parliament acted nothing against the enimey, hot purged 
out of the armey about 80 commanders. The ministers in all places preched 
incessantly for this purging." Balfour, iv. 89. 

2 It is not clear whether the older Galloway regiments kept distinct from the 
new levies and followed Charles in a body when he crossed the Borders, return- 
ing afterwards. In the Journals of Parliament, 2nd December 1650, it is " ordered 
by the House that the Western Forces with the three regiments of Kirkcud- 
bright, Galloway, and Dumfries, be joined with Robert Montgomery and be under 
his command." 


indignantly opposing the " Protesters," and declaring for 
king and the Estates. Whilst Sir Patrick Agnew, Lords 
Galloway and Kenmure, disgusted by the weakness of Parlia- 
ment, proposed to support the king independently of the Estates, 
and were termed " Cavaliers," which implied a suspicion of 
" malignity." 

Lord Kenmure was particularly active in enlisting, and to 
attract recruits carried a large cask of brandy at the head of 
his regiment, "which," says an eye-witness, "was known to 
the whole armie by the merrie appellation of ' Kenmure's 

It is in reference to the band here assembled that an officer 
of Cromwell's Ironsides, who were now in force upon the 
Borders, writes from Carlisle : " Divers Cavaliers, Lords, and 
gentlemen from Galloway" were hovering near Dumfries, but 
dispersed by a party of a thousand horse and foot sent from 
thence to take and garrison it. 

Kenmure Castle, which had risen from its ashes since the 
days of the Eegent Murray, was forthwith invested by the 
Cromwellian army, and they being apparently provided with 
artillery, the defenders had soon to come to terms. 

A note has been preserved " of the Articles concluded and 
agreed upon the 22 Dec. 1650 betwixt the Lord Kenmure, 
Governor of his Castle of Kenmure, on the one part, and Captain 
Dawson, Captain Crackenthorpe, and Captain Nary for the 
Parliament of England. 

" First, that the said Lord Kenmure shall forthwith deliver 
up his castle, with all the arms and ammunition, for the use of 
his Excellency the Lord General Cromwell. 

"Second, that Lord Kenmure shall have all his household 
stuffs of whatever sort secured to his proper use, either within 
the castle or by conveying them away, provided it be within 
fourteen days. 

" Third, that the Lord Kenmure, with such as are in arms 
with him, shall have liberty to repair to their own homes, acting 
nothing prejudicial to the army of England, or shall have seven 

to 1651] CIVIL WAR 41 

days to dispose of themselves, their horses, and arms without 
let or molestation. (Signed) KENMUEE. 




This arrangement concluded, Captain Dawson next reports a 
successful raid upon " Kilcobright," which he put under requisi- 
tion, and destroyed all the arms for which he had not convey- 
ance, taking at the same time "60 muskets and firelocks, 8 
great barrels of powder, each containing near three ordinary 
barrels, match and ball proportionable, and great store of meal 
and beef." He adds that on the march he had taken forty 
horses and some prisoners. 



A.D. 1650 to 1659 

Syne to the sea he tuk the way, 
And at Lochriane in Galloway 
He schippyt with all his menze ; 
To Cragfergus soree coming is he. 


CROMWELL, profiting by the wrangles which prevented Parlia- 
mentary " Protesters " from co-operating with " malignants," 
soon reduced the stern Presbyterians of Galloway to entire 
submission to the sterner Independents. 

As deaf to the remonstrances of presbyters as of prelates, he 
superseded their sheriff, established his own courts of justice 
and of supply, and imposed smart fines on any of the baronage 
who wagged their tongues against the conqueror. 

Arbitrary as this may sound, it was mildness itself compared 
with his dealings with Scotsmen across the Channel, where his 
system was more " thorough " than that of Wentworth himself. 

Mutterings of discontent by Galloway owners in Ulster 
were answered by confiscation, and resistance by deportation. 
Great was the alarm among Galloway undertakers, such as the 
sheriff, Sir Eobert Adair, Lord Ardes, Sir Eobert M'Clellan, and 
many others who had interest in the Plantation of Ulster, and 
now received notice to quit. 1 

Sir Patrick Agnew's estates were amongst the first seques- 
trated by Cromwell's Commissioners of Eevenue ; and Sir Kobert 

1 Hill's Plantation of Ulster, 498-510. 


Adair received a curt notice of their intention of appropriating 
Ballymena, accompanied by an order to select lands forth- 
with in Tipperary, to which they proposed to transport his 

The sheriffs, father and son, had been frequently called 
across the Channel in the previous years, both on public and 
private business. As before said, we are unable accurately to 
trace the exact nature and length of their tenures in Antrim, 
although their employment on missions by the Parliamentary 
Government, as well as earlier Scottish kings, seemed to imply 
local connection and influence. 

When Sorley Boye's son was confirmed in his seizure of the 
Eoute, one of his first acts had been to offer grants of land to the 
Agnews, apparently in recognition of prior claims. 

Sorley Boye was a contemporary of Sir Andrew, the seventh 
sheriff, and his son, Sir Eandall M'Donnell, had grown up on 
terms of intimacy with Sir Patrick, the eighth sheriff. 

In 1604 Sir Eandall married Alice, daughter of the Earl of 
Tyrone, lineal representative of the very " Eegulus Onele," to 
whose Court the second sheriff had been accredited by King 
James II. He had obtained from James VI. a grant of a 
territory, extending from Lame to Coleraine, 333,000 acres in 
extent ; in 1618 was created Viscount Dunluce, and advanced 
in 1620 to the Earldom of Antrim. 

On being installed as a petty king, he seems to have pressed 
his friend, Sir Patrick Agnew, to hold various estates in Larne, 
Glenarm, and Kilwaughter under him. The papers connected 
with these first dealings have been lost, but charters have been 
preserved dated as early as 1622, all in the form of renewals. 

Early in 1636 Sir Patrick and his son, Sir Andrew Agnew, 
were on a visit to Dunluce, and a letter of the former extant 
relative to that visit distinctly states that Lord Antrim, both 
then and previously, had pressed the occupation of these lands 
upon him. 

Sir Patrick's words to Lord Dunluce, afterwards second Lord 
Antrim, are that it was rather from the love he carried to his 


noble father than from any advantage he was likely to derive 
that he had entered upon the occupation. 

Of the lands so held the Agnews always claimed and exer- 
cised, and apparently without dispute, the right of subletting 
them at will. We extract a narrative of such doings from a 
lease executed during their visit to Ireland named, now in the 
Lochnaw Charter Chest, which abbreviated runs thus : 

" Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw, Scotland, Knycht, Sheriff 
of Galloway, by an instrument in wryting under his hand, bearing 
the date the 20th day of July 1622 years, did give and assign 
unto Patrick Agnew the Quarter land called Ballykeill in 
Learne, with all and singular its appurtenance, for the number 
of years unexpired and unspent of ane hundred years, for which 
the Earl of Antrim passed the said Quarter of Ballikeill and 
other lands to the said Sir Patrick. The said Patrick yearly 
paying to the said Sir Patrick the yearly dewtie of sax pounds 
one mark sterling. And whereas the said Patrick Agnew in 
Ballikeill in the County of Antrim in Learn, Gentleman, is 
lately deceased, his son Patrick being in real and actual posses- 
sion of the said Quarter, now know all men that the said Sir 
Patrick Agnew and Sir Andrew Agnew, his son, in considera- 
tion of the said yearly rent of six pounds one mark, do by 
these presents ratifie, confirm, and secure to the said Patrick 
Agnew and his assignees the right, title, and interest in the 
Quarter of Ballikeill, with the half of mure during the residew 
and remainder of ye number of years unexpired of the ane 
hundred years. 

" Signed in the year 1636. PATRICK AGNEW. 


" PATRICK AGNEW in Ballikeill in Learn, Gentleman." 

Simultaneously with this the new agreement with Lord 
Antrim was prepared and executed in these terms : 

" This Indentour made the 14 April 1636 between the E** 
Hon ble> Sir Bandall M'Donell Knight, Earl of Antrim on the 


one part, and Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw in the realm of 
Scotland, Knight and Baronet Sheriff of Galloway on the other 
part witnesseth, that the said Sir Kandall, etc., doth demise unto 
the said Sir Patrick all that his three tounland which is now in 
the possession of the said Sir Patrick Agnew and his Tenants in 
the Loch of Larne, viz. Lelies Druminidonachie, Drummiho with 
Beliaderdawn, etc., according to the ancient bounds and limits of 
the same, as the said Sir Patrick now enjoys the same. To have 
and to hold during the tyme and terme of threescore and seven- 
teen years from the feast of Philip and Jacob next, commonly 
called May day, he alway delivering therefore to the said Earl 
yearly the sum of twenty pounds sterling ; and as much good 
clear oats as any twenty acres within the Barony of Glenarm 
shall yield ; also upon demand the sum of three pound Stirling 
current and lawful money. . . . 

" And the said Earl shall and will warrant and defend the 
premises to the said Sir Patrick Agnew against all persons 

" In witness whereof both parties hereunto interchangeably 
put their hands and seals the day and year above written. 



" Signed, sealed and delivered in presence of James M'Don- 
nold, Da 1 ' M'Naghten, John Agnew." 

Patrick and John Agnew were kinsmen of the sheriff, 
although their pedigrees cannot be traced. John was married 
to a daughter of the well-known Mr. Shaw of Ballygally. 

On the 18th of December of the very year when this grant 
was signed, the sheriffs friend, the first Earl of Antrim, died (it 
is said of dropsy). He built the Castle of Glenarm, near the 
ancient strength of the Bysets, and was occupied in enlarging 
it at the moment of his death. 

On the lands held by the sheriff was the residential Castle 
of Kilwaughter (Cil-uachder, the upper chapel or wood), said to 
have been in the French style, and with very high thick and 


loopholed walls, with flanking towers, battlemented at top. A 
limpid spring bubbled in the outer wall, and was useful in case 
of siege. A large courtyard with various offices was also sur- 
rounded by a wall with loopholes. Within the demesne was a 
well of great celebrity, Tobber-moar, 1 and it was overlooked by 
Agnew's Hill, a prominent feature suggestive of the traditionary 
tenure of the lands by an Agneau in the days of Eichard Cceur 
de Lion. 

Among the principal permanent residents in the district 
was James Shaw, a cadet of the Shaws of Greenock (now repre- 
sented by Sir Michael Shaw Stewart). He had built himself 
the Castle of Ballygally, at the head of the bay of the same 
name, between Kilwaughter and Dunluce, the date fixed by 
an inscription still legible over the old doorway 

" 1625. God * is providens * is * my inheritans." 

The armorial escutcheon above bearing the initials I. S. and 
I. B., the second for Isabella Brisbane of Brisbane, who was his 

John Shaw's sister, Elizabeth, had early in the century 
married Sir Hugh Montgomery of Braidstone. This Sir Hugh 
had received from the king a grant of the lands of Newton- 
ards near Donaghadee ; and his son, John Shaw's nephew, 
was created Viscount Ardes, and at this moment owned 
Portpatrick and the Castle of Dunskey. 

Lord Dunluce, who had succeeded on his father's death in 
1636 as second Lord Antrim, had married the beautiful widow 
of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, reputed of great wealth ; but 
the young couple's power of expenditure proved greater, and 
being much pressed for money within two years of his father's 
death, the earl took the startling step of breaking all his father's 

1 Near one Mr. Patrick Agnew's, in the parish of Kilwaughter, is a well 
called Tobber-moar, i.e. the great well. This is raised with a breast of stones 
about 7 or 8 feet high, and is about 20 deep, and I judge about 30 yards in 
compass ; so very clear, as you ride above it, all the bottom exposes itself to 
your view, and rises out of limestone. Brief Description of Antrim,168S, and 
McDonnells of Antrim, p. 384. 


leases, and raising the dues at which his father had engaged that 
they should be held for a hundred years. 

Sir Patrick, among others, received due notice that his lord- 
ship repudiated his father's engagements, summoning all who 
held under him to attend his court, and accept such terms as he 
should propose. 

This attempt was illegal, as well as dishonourable, as these 
gentlemen were not mere copyholders, holding at the lord of 
the manor's will, but vassals with chartered rights, the dues 
irrevocably fixed for a hundred years. 

Sir Patrick's answer has happily been preserved, in which in 
courtly phrase he professes indifference as to what his lordship 
may determine, declines attendance, and with veiled sarcasm 
hints that he may find it his best policy to be guided by the 
example of his father. 

" Sir Patrick Agnew's letter submitting to my courtesie. 

" I ressaveit ane letter from your servant John Agnew show- 
ing me that your Lordship was appointit with your Tenants of 
the Barony of Glenarm upon Monday the seventh of this instant 
August . . which gladlie I wold have kept, gif it had been but to 
have come (according to my bounden deutie) to kiss your L 
hand ; but there is an appointment and reference betwixt the 
Erie of Cassilis and me at Mayboll the nynth of this month 
which I must keep, in regard the reference is in the friend's 
hands and the Erie will be there and gif I should not keep the 
day our reference will expire. . . I have been more considerate 
in your L good mind towards me, nor all my Les is worth, bott 
howsoever my Les is absoluttlie in your L power, doe as it shall 
please your lordship . . for it was mor out off the luff I caritt 
to your Lordship's nobill Father and his nation than for any gan 
I haiff. . . But as I have ever had that luff and respect to your 
Lordship and all yours, I am confident of your Lordship's good 
and generous dealing with me, as I shall ever prove a thankful 
and true servant to your L, and shall procure to your L thanks 
from some of your honourable friends at Court for your L fair 


dealing with me. So in this and all other things, being willing 
to obey your L to do quhat you command 
" I am, y r> Lordshippes m*' humble servant, 


We have reason to think that the sheriff's appeal to my 
lord's good and generous dealing was satisfactorily responded 
to ; at all events that the dues were not materially raised. 1 But 
civil war threw all proprietary rights, as well as over lords or 
vassals, into abeyance, and high and low had perforce to bow to 
the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth. 

To revert to earlier dealings of the sheriff with his property, 
on the 18th of May 1645 he sent his eldest son across the 
Channel to see how matters were; having signed a power of 
attorney in these terms : 

" I Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw, Knight, Baronet, gyfes 
and grants to Andrew Agnew, my lovit son and apparent heir, 
full power to possess, manure, set, and rents received from anie 
that labour the lands of Larne, possessed by the said Sir 
Patrick, quhilk he held be covenant of the Erie of Antrim, 
laitlie deceased ; with power to demand rents, or pursue anie 
that dwells therin, or has dwelt there ; with power to distress, 
uptake all bygone rents, give discharges, set, and all other 
things to do, as if I was thar myself. 

" Subscryvit with my hand at Lochnaw ye 18th of May 

Sir Andrew Agnew, as we have seen, had but a few weeks 
before been attending to the needs of the Scottish soldiers at 
Carrickfergus (April 5) ; but armed with this he recrossed the 
Channel with his brother, Colonel Alexander Agnew, and we 
have the following details of his management during this visit. 

The first is the leasing of a residential estate to a country- 

1 Lord Antrim's wife was Katherine Manners, daughter and sole heir of the 
sixth Earl of Rutland ; married 1620 George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ; 
married 1635 Viscount Dunluce, Earl of Antrim. 


" Sir Andrew Agnew, apparent of Lochnaw, doth lett unto 
Capt. Alexander Dundasse all and whole the 5 quarter land, 
with the half townland of Lestronbard, 1 for eleven years from 
All Saints next, he paying therefor at All Hallow Tyde next to 
cum the sum of 5 sterling, and 5 at the last day of May 
next following, and every half year thereafter. And in case 
there be anie cause of removing by the said Sir Andrew at the 
expiration of the lease, he is to give satisfaction for the half of 
the building of the house to the Captain. Witness our hands 
the 23rd of May 1645." 

The previous day he had been settling leases with a humbler 
class of tenants. As an example : 

"It is agreed between Sir Andrew Agnew and Andrew 
Blair, John Yunge, Alexander Dinlape, and Adam Boltoun, 
that the said persons are to take the 5 score acres of Drummie- 
how, the entry to be at All Hallow tyde next to come, paying 
for the first year's rent aucht pence at May Day 1646, and 
thereafter to bruik and possess the land for 5 years thereafter, 
paying at May-day 1647 two shillings and sixpence sterling, 
and so forth during the period of 5 years. 

" Given under my hand at the Learne. 

(Signed) " ANDKEW AGNEW. 
" Alexander Agnew, witness." 

From a mass of papers we extract two. The one curiously 
showing how Scotch names predominated in the sheriff's Irish 
lands ; the second as showing his minute attention to the 
management, as no such data exist as to the farming stock over 
any considerable area in Galloway at that date. The factor 
rendering them was John Blair, son of the minister of Port- 

1. " Eeceived since your worship left me in the Larne. 
Florence Lech, 30/. Thomas Sillimann, 16/. 

1 Lios sron baird, Ford of the Bard's point. O'Gneeves were the bards of 
the Clannaboy O'Neils, and afterwards as a clan changed their name to Agnew. 


Alexr. Dinlape, 301/. John Mure, 16/. 

John Cnockes (Knox), 20/. Adam Bowtoune, 27/6. 

John Mitchell, 14/8. Alex. Dinlape, 2/6. 

Thomas M'Cae, 30/. Gavin Mure, 8/6. 

William Con, 28/6. John Weir, 25/6. 

Hew Peebeles, 19/. John Wilson, 2/. 

Wm. Jamison, 69/6. William Allisone, 24/. 

John Lilbourne, 302/6. Wm. M'Auchie, 16/. 

Thomas Boyd, 306/. Eobert Montgomerie, 9/. 

John Trumbille, 4/. James Archibald, 4/3. 

Archibald Adam, 16/6. James Willie, 301/6. 

John Donaldson, 4/3. A few more territorially designed." 

(N.B. 301, 306, etc., evidently are meant to express thirty- 
one, thirty-six, etc.) The total sum remitted, 37:16:3. 

2. " The number of the goods belonging to Sir Andrew 
Agnew's men within the parish of Kilwaghter. 
Florence Leech possesses 30 acres land, whereof he hath sowne 
6 bolls corne and 6 ps. barley. 

3 knowes and one hyred kow from John Boltoun, 50/. 
And 6 sheep, and 2 plew horses worth 20/. 
Alexr. Dunlop possesses 33 acres of land, whereof he hath soune 
8 bolls corne, and barley 10 pecks. 

And of lytill kouis (little cows) 6 worth 4 pound ster- 
And 4 heaffers, and 2 bullocks, and 40 heed of sheep, and 

12 tups. 
And a horse and a mare for the plew, and 2 fillies, all 

worth 4 stg. 

John Knox possesses 20 acres of land, whereof he hath sowne 
5 bolls corne and 6 pecks of barley. 
And two lytill cowis and 3 hyred cows, one from Adam 
Boltoun in Drummallis, one from Thomas Knox in 
Kilwaghter worth 4 Ib. stg., and 4 stags worth 20/, and 
of sheep 10 heed. 
And a plew horse, 30/. 


John Mitchell possesses 16 ackers land, whereof he hath soune 
4 bolls corne and 4 pecks barley. 

2 kowse, 2 stirks, and a lytill heaffer, and 2 hyred kowis 

worth 50/. 

And of sheep 14 head, and two plew beasts. 
A horse and a mare worth 30/. 
Thomas Caye (M'Kay) possesses 7 acres land, whereof he has 

7 bolls corn and 4 pecks barley. 

3 kows worth 3 sterling, and 12 sheep, and 

2 plew horses, one worth 16/, the other worth 24/. 
William Carr possesses 15 acres of land, whereof he hath soun 

3 bolls of corn and 4 pecks barley. 

4 kows, of lytill beasts, 2 lytill heaffers, and a stirk bullock 

worth 4 pounds, and 6 sheep, 
And a plew horse 24 years of age worth 15/, and another 

plew horse worth 20/." 
And so on through a much longer list. 

Matters improved for the Scottish settlers, from the presence 
of the Scottish garrison under Munro at Carrickfergus, but a 
few years later the successors of Cromwell entirely altered the 
situation, and Monk was supreme in Antrim. 

Sir Eobert Adair, not daring to disobey this autocrat, per- 
sonally arrested General Munro at Carrickfergus, and Monk 
shipped him off as a prisoner to England. The Presbyterians 
complained bitterly of the conduct of the Independents, but 
Cromwell's only reply to the grumblers was by an order, 
startling in its audacity, "for the removal of all popular 
Scots out of Ulster;" the order accompanied by a nominal 
roll of Presbyterian landowners to be removed forthwith to 
Munster, further ordering Sir Eobert Adair, and Mr. Shaw of 
Ballygally, to proceed to Tipperary and there allocate lands for 
the exiles. 1 

1 They made a list of the persons to be transplanted, ministers and others, 
and caused divers gentlemen of the State to go to Tipperary and view it in 
order to this design. But this motion of the Governors had no bottom to rest 


Among those proscribed were the Lord Ardes, Sir Eobert 
Adair, Captain John Agnew, Patrick Agnew, William Agnew, 
Francis Agnew, James Shaw, John Blair, Andrew Adair, Alex- 
ander Adair, Alexander Stewart, James Stewart, John M'Dowall, 
John Dunbar, John Hannay, all having a Galloway connection. 

Lord Antrim found himself " out of the frying-pan into the 
fire " ; for having already been mulcted and imprisoned by the 
Scottish officers, the whole of his Ulster estates were now swept 
away by a stroke of the pen, to provide for the English Inde- 
pendents, 1 he himself being considerately assigned lands beyond 
the Shannon in exchange ! 

A sequestration was placed on the lands of all holding 
under him, and an immediate assessment imposed and collected 
from them. 

Moreover, Colonels Venables and Eawdoii (two of Crom- 
well's celebrated majors) arrived at Belfast as commissioners to 
administer to all Scotsmen, and Scots ministers more especially, 
a new test, styled " the Tender or Engagement ; " this being an 
oath of fidelity to the Commonwealth, with scant favour allowed 
to all who refused to accept it. 2 

Fortunately for the Scotsmen, Mr. Livingstone, minister of 
Stranraer, obtained access to Cromwell, and inclined him to do 
something to conciliate the Presbyterians, and though no grace 
was accorded to Lord Antrim a Papist and a malignant orders 
were at once despatched to Venables and Eawdon to initiate a 
more "live and let live" policy, and rather to prevail on the 
Ulster Scots to engage that they would make no aggression, and 
if possible to induce them to adhere to the Commonwealth. 

A better understanding was soon arrived at. Cromwell's 
commissioners, as advised, cultivated the acquaintance of resi- 

upon, and therefore their project of transplanting the Scotch to Tipperary 
did evanish within a little time. Adair's Narrative, p. 201. 

1 To Captain Franklin and his troop, ye Baronies of Glenarm and Antrim, 
with 20,250 acres. 

To Major Smith and his company in the Baronies of Glenarm and Antrim, 
6623 acres. M'Donnells of Antrim, 283, and Carte. MSS., Bodleian Library. 
50,000 acres were granted to other persons. 

2 Adair's Narrative, 192. 


dents of position, and Mr. Shaw formed a warm friendship for 
Eawdon personally, and was able to do a good turn to his 
neighbour the Sheriff of Galloway, whose rents had been im- 
pounded along with those of his neighbours. 

The following correspondence has been preserved : 

" Ballygelly ye 20th of Merch 1652. 

"Much Honerit Schir, According to your desire I haiff 
(sent) this bearer John Blair the Schireff off Galloway's man to 
follow yor ordurs for the getting an order for the off bringing 
off the Scheriff of Gallowayes sequestration. 

" I have sent the Collonell's (Hill's) letter to him and my 
sense of your respects to him, I wald have sein him my self at 
this tyme giff I had been abill. 

" So this being all for the present I rest and ame, Yor reall 
frend and servant to dispose off, JAMES SHAW. 

" For his much Honerit 
ffreind Major 
George Eoden. 
" 20 Merch 1652." 

In compliance with this Major Eawdon handed to Mr. Blair 
the following order to take to the Glenarm Commission : 

" Belfast, June the 4, 1652. 

" The Commissioners of Applotment in the Barony of Glen- 
arm are ordrit to send us an exact particular and certificate 
under the heads of the lands belonging to Sir Andrew Agnew 
now under sequestration, and of the rent thereof and the 
monthly contributions paid out to them. Without such infor- 
mation we cannot proceed according to the Commissioners of 
Parliament's order and the desire of this letter. 

(Signed) " GEO. EAWDON. JA. TRAILL." 

On receipt of this report, the Commissioners ordered the 
sequestration to be taken off, as before stated in the text. 

Upon inquiry the sequestration was removed by the Com- 
missioners from the Sheriff's lands ; but notwithstanding this, 


certain sub-officials, whether from excess of zeal or a simple 
embezzlement, kept back some of the rents due to him, as set 
forth in the following complaint : 

" The Humble Petition of Sir Andrew Agnew to the Honourable 
Commissioners of the Eevenues of the Province of Ulster ; 
humbly showeth, 

" That whereas your Petitioner obtained an order from your 
Honours for the getting down his sequestrated rents in July 
1652 and was in possession of and receiving the same. How 
soe it is, may it please your Honours, that the Collector of the 
Baronie of Glenarm hath taken upp a month's rent contrarye to 
your Honours' orders and keeps the same constantly from mee 
without any right or equity. 

" May it please your Honours, the premises taken into con- 
sideration and the wrong done unto your petitioner ; and be soe 
favourably pleased as to grant such orders that Major M'Callie 
who was then Collector may restore your Petitioners month's 
rent according to your Honours' orders granted unto him. 

" And hee shall ever pray," etc. 

The petition itself was returned to the sheriff, with this 
order endorsed on the back. 

" Belfast, this 28th of October 1653, 

"The Collector mentioned in the petition is required to 
restore the month's rent alledged to bee kept from Sir Andrew 
Agnew contrary to the intent of the orders of the Commissioners 
of the Commonwealth and of the Commissioners of the Eevenue, 
or to appear this day seventhnight to show cause to the contrary. 
(Signed) " EOG. WEST. 



This matter settled, the young sheriff recrossed the Channel, 
this letter soon after following him from his agent, dated Larne, 
27th January 1654 : 


"Eight Worschippful, When I wrote this first Collonell 
Venables was not come here, but I know hee is come, so what 
it pleaseth your worshipp to write to him anent your tenants 
here, ye may do it for their helpe. As for Mrs. Dundasse shee 
is very unwilling to leave the land, unless it pleases your wor- 
shipp to put her to it. Shee would be content to keep the 
half of what she possesses, and pay for it as it pleases your 
wor pp to impose. Bot for removall shee has not will, but 
desires to stay still this year. Neverthelesse shee must be at 
your worshipp's disposing, and if it be your worshipp's will yt 
shee removes, shee must have her money, and I must collect it 
off yr tenants. I believe yor worship hardlie knows what break 
there is in the Quarters, there be many removed, the fyve 
quarter land is lyk to be worst. As to the proportion belonging 
to your Worship of old it is lyk to be broken very sone. Bally- 
gelly desires to be your friend if he could to his power, in this 
thing. But what is imposed upon it alreddy, to wit two pence 
upon the shilling more than was before, is lyklie to continue 
till May, and whether or no it continueth longer I know not. 
I can say no more to your worschip for the tyme, for I hope yee 
know my mind. 

" Yor worshipp's servant to my power, JOHN BLAIK. 

" P.S. As for the packet of letters wherein that letter to 
Collonel Venables was, I saw that not. Bot I gott one from 
Eobert Somervall which I sent upe to Dublin to Collonell 
Venables quhen hee was heere, but whether or no hee got it I 
know not, for I have heard no answer of it. Howsoever write 
now to him, and I shall goe to him myself. 

" As for getting land plowing it will hardlie be gotten done, 
for there is not a pleuche yoked yet in all yor worship's land." 

" For the Eight Worrshippfull 
Sir Andrew Agnew, Knight, Shirreffe of Galloway." 

The young sheriff recrossed to Larne early the next summer, 
and his father wrote him the following instructions : 


"Lochnaw, the 19 May 1654. 

"Luffing son, I ressavit your letter, percaives the caus of 
your stay. As to your particulars with Johne Agnew, I per- 
ceive ye are in trysting, bot gife ye be advised be me, ye sail 
nevr tryt with him till he produces his lese ; and I assure 
myself thar is no indifferent friends that can think bott his 
lese or any other writs he has of me must be his ground, for 
otherwayes he has nothing to say, and quhen he produces his 
rycht your compt. is sone calculatt. 

" Concerning the moor, his Ballicoll has no part of the moor 
but cuts at the cross dyke abuve Toberhua, quhich is the 
march betwixt Ballicoll and Lagnegollen, and goes along to the 
round knoll at Knocketonall. Neither of them has to do with 
the top. As to the quarters of Mullochbuie and Stronsie, gif 
lie have gud rycht to them, he will get according to his rycht. 
Bot the toleration he had of me to the mure was in my tenants' 
own default, for they thocht nothing of it, and wont gife no 
rent, but they sent word after, and then gladlie gave payment. 
There is neither mure nor dark there that any man has them 
of me bot he has his writ for it. 

" These to you, that ye may eschew the experience I had 
with him, quhen I hed procedure in law against him, quhilk 
processe was sone endit, he keeping the ground. I, with his 
fare words, being content to refer to my son Seuchane and Mr. 
James Blair concerning the acht hundred marks and three 
terms payment that rested. They decerned me to quit the 
acht hundred merks, and for the land it was waste, quhile he 
had the profit of pasture and hey without tak or stroke of pen. 

" So, sone, lett my counsell, occasioned of experience, be an 
advertisement to you. Ye sail never have the make or good 
word behind your back, do quhat ye will to him or any of 

" Ye saw that old Achneil (Mure) has bene in Aresay till 
the 9th of May. I perceive his friend Auchindrain (Mure) 
[words illegible] desyres ye wald gar Andro or William get the 


band and put it in Caiiton (Cathcart) his hands till your home 

" I can wrett no more for the present ; but as ye have occa- 
sione be not slaw to writ. The Lord give you prosperity and 
happie success in all your endevours, Your luffing Father, 


" I entreat you bring me ane saddell, and let it be of the 
same lysene * of the last, bott not prodigall, nor so high of the 
ends before. 

" To His Luffing Sone 
Sir Andrew Agnew, off Lochnaw, younger, These." 

Later in the autumn a commission sat to inquire into the 
state of Ulster, and to verify the ownership of land. 

Several witnesses were brought before these commissioners 
by Sir Andrew Agnew, to prove the immemorial right which his 
family had in their estates there. 

These were each asked, among other questions (all num- 
bered) : 

"1. If he knew of his own knowledge the lands held by Sir 
Patrick Agnew from the Earl of Antrim ? " 

" 3. If he had any knowledge of a lease granted by the Earl 
to the said Sir Patrick?" 

" 4. If he did know of his own knowledge that Sir Patrick 
did possess the lands before the late Eebellion ? " 

To which these are some of the answers : 

" The Deposition of Captain John Agnew of the Barony of 
Glenarm, aged about 68 years, taken at Belfast in behalf of Sir 
Patrick Agnew (etc.), 30th Nov. 1654. Being duly sworn and 

"To the first interrogation states, that he did know Sir 
Patrick Agnew's lands. The cause of this deponent's knowledge 
being that deponent did receive the rents of the said lands for 
the use of the said Sir Patrick Agnew ; and did pay what was 

1 Lacing. Saddles were then often richly embroidered. The John Agnew 
mentioned in the letter is not the kinsman of the same name. 


due thereout to the said Earl of Antrim for about thirty years 
before the Eebellion. 

" To the third interrogation states, that he doth know the 
said Lease now presently showed unto him to be the same that 
he did see signed by the late Earl of Antrim and delivered to 
Sir Patrick Agnew. 

" The cause of this deponent's knowledge being that he was 
present at the sealing and, did witness the same, as also knoweth 
the handwriting of the late Earl, etc. 

" To the fourth interrogation states, that he doth know that 
Sir Patrick Agnew was in possession of the said lands for twenty- 
three years before the sealing of the said lease (in 1636) and 
since unto this day saving a few years that he was kept out by 
the Eebellion, and the Eebels being beaten out of the county 
of Antrim the said Sir Patrick possessed the same again. The 
cause of this deponent's knowledge being as in the first declara- 

"The deposition of James Shaw of Ballygelly, Barony of 
Glenarm and county of Antrim, Esquire, aged about sixty years. 

" Who being duly sworn and examined 

" To the first interrogation, answereth the same with the first 
(witness). The cause of this deponent's knowledge being for 
that he hath of a long time known the said lands. 

" To the third interrogation, sayeth, that he hath often seen 
the said lease now showed unto him and hath had the lease in 
his custody on behalf of the said Sir Patrick ; and knoweth the 
handwriting of the late Earl of Antrim (as also the hands of 
James M'Donell, Dan M'Naghten, and Captain John Agnew, 
witnessing the same to be their usual handwriting) signing the 

" The cause of this deponent's knowledge being for that he 
was well acquainted with the said persons, and upon many 
occasions had reason to know their handwritings. 

" To the fourth interrogation, answereth, that he knew (of 
his own knowledge) the said Sir Patrick to be in possession of 
the said lands for forty years past saving four and a half years 


in the time of the Kebellion ; and that now he is in possession 
again thereof and enjoys the rents and profits of the same." l 

Matters now progressed more satisfactorily. 

There were also intricate negotiations to conduct between 
the Scotch Parliamentary Commissioners (of whom the sheriff 
was one) and those of the English Parliament. In these, as in 
all his affairs both public and private, he received cordial 
assistance from his brother commissioner, Sir James M'Dowall 
of Garthland. 

Among leases which he granted, we find it agreed " between 
Andrew Agnew apparent of Lochnaw and William M'Cachie 
that the said William gets the threescore acres possessed last by 
Hew Crawford, he paying for the same yearly 2s. 6d. sterling. 
Signed at the Lame, 22d May 1645. ANDREW AGNEW. 

" ALEXANDER AGNEW (Colonel) ) _ 
. > Witnesses. 


Eents were now able to be paid, and, what was more im- 
portant in Ireland, recoverable. We find an order entrusted to 
the sheriff's agent by a resident magistrate to a tenant endea- 
vouring what in modern times is termed a plan of campaign. 
The tone is friendly but firm : 

" Glyn, 23d of June 1656. 

"John Turnbull, I pray you fail not to pay unto John 
Blair what rent you owe unto Sir Andrew Agnew, otherwise he 
is hereby authorized to distrayne for the same. 

" So I rest yor friend, EGBERT BRYER." 

Law thus asserting itself, there was a momentary lull, and, 
occasionally, more merriment in the " quarters " ; as we infer 
from an entry in the sheriff's factory accounts for 1656: "For 
drink last summer when your worshipp was heir." 

Three years later he leased a large tract to a kinsman before 
mentioned, from whom descended the branch of the Agnews of 
Kilwaughter ; the deed bearing that " Sir Andrew Agnew of 

1 Extract of Evidence before Commissioners of Applotment. 


60 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.U. 1650-1659 

Lochnaw Knycht, dewises and lets to Patrick Agnew of Balikell 
gentleman, the lands of Lelies, Drummidonachie, Drummiehow, 
and Beliaderdawne, with the appurtenances, Eoyalties only 
excepted, for the tyme and terme of eleven years from the 1st 
of November next ensuing ; he paying and delivering therefor 
yearly the rents and duties which the said Sir Andrew is lyable 
to pay unto the chief proprietor or lord of the fee. He also 
securing the said Sir Andrew harmless of all assessments im- 
posed, or to be imposed, by the state. As also he yielding and 
paying yearly to the said Sir Andrew, his heirs and assignees, 
the full sum of 40 sterling, current and lawful money of and 
in England. ANDREW AGNEW. 


"Signed, sealed, and delivered the 21st May 1659 in pre- 
sence of John Shaw and Patrick Agnew." 



A.D. 1651 to 1657 

Glide rewle is banist our the Border, 

And rangat rings but ony ordour ; 
With reid of rebaldis and of swane, 

Quhilk to consider is ane pane. 

DUNBAR Of the Warldis InstaMlitie. 

Two days before the complete disorganisation of the Galloway 
regiments at "Worcester, Monk had crushed the remaining 
Scottish army at Dundee ; so that Galloway, denuded of troops 
and deprived of all hope of succour from the north, had no 
choice but to submit to the Eepublicans. 

These were not slow in putting in an appearance. English 
commissioners, there as elsewhere, " discharged all jurisdictions, 
Lords of Session and Counsell, Shyra and Commissary Courts." 
And Colonel Matthew Alured producing a commission as Sheriff 
Principal of Galloway, Sir Andrew Agnew and Lord Kirkcud- 
bright were superseded in their offices. 

This may be accepted as quite a new page in Galloway 

No notice of the fact has been taken by any chronicler, 
general or local ; and Colonel Alured's presence had been 
entirely forgotten indeed unknown until papers proving it 
to be a certainty were found in the Lochnaw charter chest. 

We find actual record of a case decided by him at Wigtown, 
in which Sir Andrew Agnew, the ousted sheriff, appears before 
him as a pursuer ; which he adjudged on thus : 


" Colonell Matthew Alured Esquire, Sheriff Principal of the 
Sheriffdom of Wigtown, to the Offiissicirs and Sargants of the 
said Sheriffdom, forsamekle as it is meand and shewand to 
me by Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Knycht, that William 
Porterfield in Cultis be his band and obligation subscrivet the 
7th December 1643 years, obliged himself, his heirs and assignees, 
to have contentit, payit, and again deliverit to the said Sir 
Andrew the sum of three hundred and a score marks Scots 
money, betwixt the date thereof, and the first term of Candlemas 
next thereafter, therefore it is my will, and I charge you that 
ye pass in name and authoritie of the keeper of the liberties of 
England, by authority of Parliament, and charge William Porter- 
field to make payment to the said Sir Andrew the complainer 
of the soume of money principal and annual rent and expenses, 
within six days' time. 

" Given under the signet of office in the said Sheriffdom, and 
subscribed by my Clark yrof at Wigtown the 4th of October 1653, 
and incontinent yrafter ye pass arrest, apprize, and distrainzie 
alsmeikle of the said Porterfield his goods and geir, quhenever 
ye can apprehend the same, as will satisfy and pay the said 

Cromwell not only abolished heritable jurisdictions, but 
sent English judges to supersede the Lords of Session. Of 
Colonel Alured's rule in Galloway no tradition remains, good 
or bad ; but it is notorious that the English justices as a body 
acquitted themselves well, and by the fairness of their decisions 
greatly contributed to the acquiescence of the Scots in the 
Protector's government. 

Laudation of their successors was, however, little to the taste 
of the old senators of justice. Smith and Moseley were thus 
lampooned by them in an epigram more witty than just : 

Smith, Moseley, and necessitie, 

Are gey like ane anither ; 
Necessitie has gat nae la 3 , 

Nor Smith nor Moseley nather. 

A more significant and less creditable utterance is attributed to 


a judicial magnate, provoked beyond endurance by a remark 
that the decisions of Cromwell's justices were wonderfully in 
accordance with the spirit of Scotch law, and more uniformly 
good and fair than those of their predecessors : " Deil thank 
them," broke in this typical native judge; "a wheen kinless 
loons, wi' neither kith nor kin to bother them." 

Meanwhile the Galloway barons all bent to the storm, ex- 
cepting Lords Galloway and Kenmure and M'Dowall of Freuch. 
On such as refused to yield, Cromwell laid a heavy hand. 
Kenmure Castle and Castle M'Dowall were burned to the 
ground; Lord Galloway further was fined 4000, to meet 
which, he turned to his brother-in-law for aid, as shown by a 
registered obligation : 

"At Edinburgh the 15th Day of December the year of God 
1655. be it kenned till to all men be thir present letters, we, 
James, Erie of Galloway, Lord Stewart of Garlies and Glasserton, 
to have borrowed and actually received from the hands and 
deliverance of Sir Andrew Agnew apparent of Lochnaw, all and 
haile the soume of 10,000 marks money to the dooing of my 
necessar affairs, whereof we hold us well content, which sum 
of 10,000 marks money we faithfully bind us, our heirs, executors, 
and successors in our lands and heritages, thankfully to content, 
pay, and again deliver, to the said Sir Andrew Agnew." 

Livingstone, the minister of Stranraer, had been summoned 
to London by the Protector, and thus recounts his interview : 

"In the year 1654 I propounded to the Lord Protector in 
London that he would take off the heavy fines which he had 
laid on several in Scotland. Which neither they were able to 
pay, and the payment would alienate their minds the more. 
He seemed to like the overture, but when he had spoken with 
his Council, many of them being to have a share in these fines, 
they went on in their purpose." 

Livingstone was a " Protester," having accepted Charles as a 
covenanted king ; and it is a characteristic anecdote that when, 
during this visit, preaching before the Protector and his generals, 
he prayed for Charles by name as king, the officials were 


highly incensed, and would have arrested him on leaving the 
church. But Cromwell, equally characteristically, exclaimed : 
" Let him alone ! he is a good man, and what are we poor men 
in comparison with the kings of England ? " 

Lord Galloway, having paid his fine, remained in the country ; 
but Lord Kenmure, refilling his "Drum," was "on and awa" 
with such lads as he could induce to follow him to Glencairn's 
camp in the Highlands: a gathering of Royalists very in- 
efficiently commanded, who accomplished nothing, but made 
life intolerable to their neighbours by indiscriminate pillaging 
in the king's name, quite unable to show their faces in the 
open against Puritan warriors. As Burnet writes : " In the end 
of the year 1654 Morgan marched into the Highlands, and had 
a small engagement with Middleton, which broke the whole 
matter of which all people were grown weary, and the low 
countries were so overrun with robberies and pretence of going 
to assist them, that there was universal joy at the dispersion 
of that unruly army." l 

The irregularity and audacity of their doings, and their ex- 
tortions, are well illustrated by an adventure in which the sheriff 
was involved with them ; incredible in its impudence, were it 
not absolutely authenticated by a discharge which tells its own 
story : 

" Be it known to all men by thir presents, me Captain James 
Summervaill now Prisoner at Halyrudhous sumtyme Koodmaster 
in Sir Arthur Forbons his Eegiment of Horse ; forsameikell as 
I by virtue of the Commissione I had at that tyme, in the year 
1654 yeirs in the moneth of February, I having taken and 
apprehendit Sir Andrew Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway prisoner at 
his awine house in Galloway ; and after I had carried him sixtein 
myles from his awine house, the said Sir Andrew to procur his 
personall libertie did grant ane band to me the said Captane 
James Sommervaill for his personall appeirance prisoner to me 
at the Weime in Atholl in garrison to the Scotch partie, betwixt 

1 Burnet's History of his own Times. 

to 1657] 



and the twentie-fyft day of March next thereafter; and that 
under the paine of ten thousand merkes. . . . And now seeing 
that the said band is lost, so that I cannot delyver the same, 
quhilk I am willing to doe if I had the same ; therefore witt yee 
me Captain James Sommervaille to have exonered, quytclaimed 
and simplie discharged the said Sir Andrew Agnew of the said 
sum of ten thousand merks, etc. 

" At the Cannogait ye twentie-first day of June 1655 yeires 
before Sir George Maxwell of Nether Pollock, James Dennes- 
toune of Cowgrane, and (Signed) Js. SOMERVELLE. 

" Neather Pollok, witness." 

James Somerville of Drum, de jure tenth Lord Somerville, 1 
had served as a free-lance in foreign armies, where the recog- 
nised custom was to live upon the enemy. 

"Malignants" was certainly an appropriate term for this 
sorning band, who had lived for days at free quarters and by 
forced contributions on their long march, and had thus suddenly 
surprised the young sheriff and Lady Agnes, sleeping unsus- 
piciously in their house of Innermessan. There, having made 
free with the larder, but unable to extract as much coin as they 
had hoped for, they carried off the owner a prisoner under colour 
of a bogus commission (for it is utterly impossible that Glen- 
cairn, Middleton, and Kenmure would have countenanced doings 
as outrageous as impolitic). 

The brigand troops, however, did not find themselves in 
clover on the Galloway marches. The population everywhere 
showing active hostility, and their prisoner being well known, 
they feared a rescue. Consequently, before riding far, they 
were glad to set him free for a bond of 10,000 marks. It was 
truly a game of brag. The bill might have been at par if 
Glencairn could have conquered Monk. The hand, however, 

1 James Somerville of Drum, properly tenth Lord Somerville, was son of Hugh 
Somerville of Drum (second son of the seventh lord), who had become entitled 
to the honours of Somerville, but did not take them up. He served with re- 
putation in the French and Venetian service, and had the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel on his return home, dying 1677. Wood's edition of Douglas's Peerage, 
ii. 509. 



was soon played out : Sir Andrew Agnew returned, before the 
sun had set, to the bosom of his family. 

Captain James Somerville by circuitous paths reached the 
Highland camp, there to be surprised by Morgan, and, himself 
a captive, to be soon recognised in Edinburgh by his former 
prisoner, who obliged him to give the discharge which cancelled 
the debt. 

Early in 1663 the Laird of Garthland had gone to London to 
make formal submission for the Galloway barons, " and advised 
with the Protector anent the settling of their affairs " ; Crom- 
well in the end promising that "their Sheriff should be re- 
instated in his jurisdiction, and that no fresh confiscations 
should be made except in cases of renewed resistance." l 

In accordance with this pledge, Colonel Alured was recalled, 
and duly rewarded for his services. 2 Sir Andrew Agnew was 
thereupon appointed Sheriff of Galloway in its fullest bounds. 
The tenor of the commission, omitting technicalities, being as 
follows : 

" Oliver, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, to all to whom these presents shall come, 
greeting. Be it known forasmuch as we understand that Sir 
Andrew Agnew younger of Lochnaw, Knight, is of sufficient 
judgement and experience to undergoe the office of Sheriff 
within the bounds of our Sheriff dome of Galloway, therefore 
we have made and constitute the said Sir Andrew Agnew 
Sheriff Principal of the said Sheriffdom, with all the duties, 
honours, dignities, privileges, prerogatives, and jurisdictions 
belonging thereto ; and because of the large vastness of your 
said Sheriffdome, through the falling in of that part which was 
formerly the Stewartrie of Kirkcudbright, whereby the people 
might sustain great prejudice through coming to seek justice 
from the bounds of the late Stewartrie to Wigtown : therefore we 

1 M'Dowall MSS. Crawford. 

2 Colonel Alured's name occurs in the index of vol. vi. part 2 of Scots Acts, 
where, between those of Lambert and Monk, it is resolved to confer upon all 
three, "Lambert, Alured, and Monk, lands of inheritance in Scotland of the 
yearly value of 200 sterling." 


give full power to Sir Andrew Agnew to hold courts for doing 
justice to those of the inhabitants of the late Stewartrie, within 
the Tolbooth of the Burgh of Kirkcudbright, and to the re- 
manent Shire of Galloway within the Tolbooth of our Borough 
of Wigtown. 

"With powers to the said Sir Andrew Agnew to demand, 
receive, intremit with, and levy our Castlewarden, Blenchfarme 
duties, and entries of free tenants. 

"We therefore require and command all and sundrie that 
they readily obey, honour, acknowledge, concur with, fortify, 
and assist our said Sheriff, provided always that neither the 
said Sir Andrew Agnew nor his deputies cause, levy, or array 
any forces upon pretence of suppressing any insurrection or 
seditions, without the warrant of our Commander-in-Chief in 

" Given under the hand of the Keeper of our Great Seal at 
Edinburgh the 12th day of March 1656 years." 

It had been the publicly expressed desire of the whole 
baronage that Sir Andrew Agnew should resume his duties as 
their sheriff; to meet which he had no choice but to accept the 
Protector's commission (which he dearly paid for afterwards), 
the only alternative being the continuance of Colonel Alured. 

Eesistance to the government was out of the question ; even 
Lord Galloway had concurred in the present state of things, and 
Kenmure had made his peace with the Protector. 

This same year the sheriffs eldest daughter Margaret 
married John, the eldest son of Maxwell of Monreith, who at 
the same time obtained a charter from the Protector, erecting 
Monreith into a barony. Hitherto these lands had been held 
by the Maxwells under the Earls of Nithsdale as superiors. 
But in 1655 Eobert, Lord Mthsdale, resigned his superiority in 
favour of William Maxwell, father of the bridegroom, who had 
married a daughter of John M'Culloch of Myrtoun, by whom he 
had two sons, John and William, and Mary, married to Vans 
of Barribarroch. 


The same year the sheriffs eldest son Andrew married Jane, 
daughter of Thomas Hay of Park (who was knighted after the 

The settlements on the young couple show the value of 
various farms at the period. 

" The particular Eental of the Lands underwritten, given 
down by Sir Andrew Agnew, Feur of Lochnaw, in relation to the 
matrimoniall contract made betwixt Andrew Agnew his son 
and Jean Hay, dochter of Thomas Hay of Park, this 24th 
of October 1656. 

"Kentall of the lands of Cruggleton Castle . 1000 marks. 

Cruggleton Caverns . 300 

Kirkcudbright teinds . . 100 

lands of Cults . . .600 marks, 

lands of Baltier . . .200 

lands of Polmallet . . ..-300 

House and yards in Wigtown . 40." l 

As compared with 800 marks Scots (about 42 sterling) and 
300 marks (less than 1.7), the present rents of Cults and Baltier 
are 700 ; of Polmallet, 420. 

About this time the young Sheriff acquired the full 
superiority of the castle and manor of Cruggleton; which, 
although in possession of his sister Jane as a dower house, had 
been held under Lord Castle Stewart as superior. 

The more modern history of the old strength appears to be 
this. Having been inhabited successively by Allan de Quincey, 
the Comyns, second and third Earls of Buchan, Lord Soulis, and 
Chapter of Whithorn ; in 1365, according to charters, it belonged 
to Sir Gilbert Kennedy of Dunure, and there can be no doubt 
he concurred in the Duchess of Touraine's arrangement, by 
which the castle and a part of the lands were given to her 

1 The matrimonial contract for John Maxwell had been previously signed at 
Lochnaw, 19th February 1656. 

There is a discharge to William Maxwell of Monreith by Sir Andrew Agnew 
for 6000 marks, in sums of 3000 marks at the feast and term of Candlemas 1657 
and 1658 each respectively, in name of tochergood paid with Margaret his 

Facsimile of a Drawing 


British Museum, circa A.D. 7566. 


scutifer William Douglas in exchange for Lochnaw, which was 
restored to the Agnews. 

When the Douglases disappeared from Galloway, we find 
Cruggleton again an appanage of Whithorn, and the castle in 
the occupation of its commendator. 

In the Eeformation struggle it frequently changed masters, 
not only according to the vicissitudes of the new or older faith, 
but according to the ascendency of the various political factions. 
But the most interesting fact connected with its mediaeval 
history is that it was considered a position of sufficient import- 
ance to be surreptitiously visited by an official spy of Queen 
Elizabeth, with a view to its being taken by a coup de main as 
a pied & terre for the English. It is thus described in the 
report rendered to her majesty (framed in the British Museum), 
docketed as between dates 1563-66. 

(Cruggleton) " Towre l standeth upon an hight bancke and 
rocke : there can noo ordinance nor gounes endomage yt of the 
sea, nor there can noo artyllarye be taken to it upon the lande, 
ones having the house, for straitnes of ground, and yf ye lande 
at Newton vp upoun nete watter, then ye must pass one myle 
strait ground and up rockes, wheare noo ordinance can be 
caryed but upoun mens backes. 

" Yt is nyne foote thick of the wall, withoute a bermeking, 
and withoute battaling. At the ground eb men may ryde under 
the place upon the sandes one myle : And at the full sea, 
boates of eight tonnes may come under the wall. It may be 
taken witht two hundreitht men, at the suddane. And being in 
Engliss possession, may be kepte witht one hundreit men in 
garrisone : It will annoye the inhabitantes betuix the watter of 
Cree aforesaid, and Kiyrkcowbright ; and be assistant to the same. 
Distant by see from Wirkington in Englonde tuenty tuo myles." 2 

1 In the report the expression " harde upon the watter Flete " occasioned some 
difficulty in its identification, which was at first supposed to point to Cardoness, 
and it was not until after the publication of his first volume that Mr. Armstrong 
satisfied himself that Cruggleton was and must be the place described. 

2 From The History of Liddesdale, Eskdale, etc., Part L, by R. B. Armstrong, 
Edinburgh, 1883, p. cvi. Appendix. 


Lord Eobert Stewart (afterwards Earl of Orkney) was here 
besieged " with footmen and horsemen " by Lord Fleming in 
1569, and there was as fierce a legal struggle for its possession 
between the said Lord Eobert and Margaret, daughter of Lord 
Methven, wife of the Master of Ochiltree. The lady carried the 
day, and on the 20th November 1579 Mr. John Douglas, 
Chamberlain of the Priory of Whithorn, was ordered by the 
Lords of the Council to give up the castle and lands of 
Cruggleton to the Mistress of Ochiltree under pain of 2000 marks. 

The penalty was incurred, and she got another decree to be 
put in instant possession by 31st August, under a further penalty 
of 1000. She entered accordingly, but within a few months 
Lord Eobert Stewart (in her absence), accompanied by the Laird 
of Garlies, ejected her servants forcibly from the castle. Of this 
she complained, and they were accordingly all put to the horn 
as rebels, the 9th of June 1589. 1 But Lord Eobert troubled 
himself little for the horning inside the thick walls of Cruggle- 
ton, and made his conditions with the lady at his leisure ; for on 
the 15th June 1582 she wrote to Lord Barnbarroch, " I have sent 
charges with Mr. Alexander Kinross for delivering the house of 
Cruggleton. I request you to speak to Mr. Eobert Stewart 
thereanent." Intimating that if he will give up possession 
quietly, she will not put in force the full rigour of the law. 
At the same time stating that the Lord Treasurer, the Earl of 
Gowrie, had sent letters to distrain on the estates of Whithorn; 
;f but, M she adds, "gif they make payment of that quhairof 
they are adebted to me, I will do guid will to cause my Lord to 
be favourable. Otherwise I will not stay his Lordschip to use 
na extremity against them. 

"Be you loving and assurit sister Margaret, Mestress 
Uwchiltree." 2 

Lord Barnbarroch's first wife's mother, Lady Janet Stewart, 
daughter of the Earl of Athol, had married Lord Methven, the 
Mistress of Ochiltree's father. 

1 Privy Council Register ; Correspondence of Lord Barribarroch, 215. 
2 Correspondence of Sir Patrick Waus, 249. 

to 1657] 



About 1578 the Church lands of Cruggleton were acquired 
by Sir Patrick Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway, and the castle and 
manor by Lord Barnbarroch, from whom they passed to his son 
Sir John Vaus. 

Sir John sold these to M'Dowall of Machermore, reserving 
the superiority; from whom it was acquired by Sir John 
Kennedy of Blairquhan, 1 who settled it on his second son James, 
by his wife Margaret, daughter of the fourth Earl Marischal. 

James Kennedy's sister Margaret married Andrew, third Lord 
Ochiltree, son of Margaret "the mistress," whose letters have 
just been quoted ; and James himself married Jane, eldest 
daughter of Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, the seventh sheriff. 

James Kennedy, having no children, mortgaged the property 
to his father-in-law : this not to be foreclosed during his wife's 
lifetime, who kept house there for many a day. Of the exact 
time of her death we have no record. 

The superiority having been detached, occasions difficulty in 
tracing the progress of the estate ; as Castle Stewart, son of the 
Lord Ochiltree just mentioned, was served heir to his father in 
this in 1648, the lands then actually belonging to the sheriff. 
This, however, was extinguished, and the latter, as already said, 
came into full possession shortly after 1650. 

Mr. Timothy Pont names " Crowgiltone seated on a rocke 
environed with the sea " as among " the castells of chieffe notte 
in Galloway." 

As late as 1662 it is mentioned as the fort the most strongly 
fortified on that seaboard. But when Symson wrote his Large 
Description he mentions " the Castle of Cruggleton, once a very 
strong house upon a high cliff by the seaside, but now wholly 
demolished and ruinous. It appertains to Sir Andrew Agnew 
of Lochnaw." 

A memorandum in the charter chest gives an example of the 
system known as " Steelbow " (German Eisern vich, literally 

1 The author of the History says : ' ' Sir John Kennedy had twa sons, the 
Lairds that succeedit him callit Johnne. His second son James was made Laird 
of Crocel tonne. " 


iron cattle, because immovable by the tenant) and in France 
as the " Metayer " system, then in force on the Lochnaw estate, 
by which the proprietor found the greatest proportion of the 
stock as well as of seed-corn for the tenant, which had to be 
returned when tenancies expired. 

Salcharie pays in stock and teind thretty bolls victual, 300 
marks money, set with the land, twenty audit oxen, seven 
horse, fourscore bolls corne, and nyneteen score ten threave 

Clendrie pays in stock and teind twenty-four bolls beire, set 
with the land, four oxen, twa nages, twenty-sixth bolls aits, and 
elleven score threave straw. 

Marslache pays in stock and teind five pound stack duty, 
three pecks multer meall, and fourteen bolls and a half of 

Kerronrae pays in stock and teind fourteen bolls victual, set 
with the land, four oxen, twa horses, twenty bolls corne, three- 
score ten threave straw. 

A seat in Parliament had now become more of an object of 
personal ambition than in days when debating was unknown, 
and bills could only be introduced by the Lords of the Articles, 
any show of opposition to acts so introduced being personally 

But the increased interest consequent on individual members 
of the estates asserting their independence led to more frequent 
meetings of the Parliament, and these again were expensive to 
the freeholders, who had to bear all the expense of their 

When Sir Andrew Agnew and the Laird of Garthland 
rendered their accounts in 1647, the freeholders declined to 
pay ; whereupon they raised an action in the king's name 
(though then in 1647 the royal authority was really in abey- 
ance), and gained their suit, effect to which was given under the 

The matter was appealed, and led to a series of actions, the 
record of which is interesting, not only as giving a nominal roll, 


but also the actual rentals of the majority of the baronage at 
this period. 

" Homings " and " poundings " as raised against neighbours 
may read harshly, but there seems to have been no personal 
soreness between the sheriff and his constituents ; indeed, the 
whole may rather be taken to have been a test case amicably 
conducted. The fact that Sir Andrew Agnew was re-elected by 
the gentlemen he was pursuing, in 1648, the year after the 
matter had been raised, that he sat in Parliament during its 
progress, and was re-elected unanimously three times (in 1665, 
1667, and 1669) after he had gained it against them, is conclusive 
that the lawsuit led to no unfriendliness between the pursuer 
and the majority of the defendants. 

Letters of " horning and poinding " were granted against 
those who refused to pay, "the debt to be levied off ilk ane 
of thair reddiest corns, cattell, horse, nolt, sheep, debts, soumes 
of money, insicht plenishing, and others quhatsoever pertaining 
to thame, wherever or in quhes hands the same may or can 
be apprehended." The letters duly sealed " under our signet at 
Edinburgh the seventh day of April and of our reign the 
twentie third yeir, 1647." But the royal authority was 
practically suspended, and for many years the parties evaded 
payment. Six years later, however, the matter was revived, 
and the following summonses issued against defaulters : 
" Upon the nynt, tent, and twelff dayes of December 1653 I 
Patrike M'Gilrey, messenger, commandet and chargit James, 
Earl of Galway, 1 Wm. Stewart of Castell Stewart, Alexr. 
M'Kie of Martoun, David Dunbar of Baldone, John Wauss of 
Barnbarroch, Johne Hathorne of Cairnefield, Johne Dunbar 
of Mochrum, John M'Crystein of Munkhill, John Murray of 
Brouchtaine, Alexr. Stewart of Fisgill, Wm. Maxwell of Mun- 
reith, John Fergussoune of Eamistoune, Frances Hay of Airi- 
holland, Alexr. Gordonn of Culvenane, Wm. Gordoune of 

1 It is noteworthy that the Earl of "Galvey" is among those charged. The 
nobility were not answerable for the charges of the representatives of the barons 
by the laws of the Kingdom ; but the Commonwealth ignored distinctions of 
ranks, or privileges of the peerage. 


Craichlawe, Alexr. M'Kie of Drumbuy, Thomas M'Kie of 
Barrawer, To compeir at Wigtoune ye Threttein day of 
December instant for setting doune ane stent 1 roll for pay- 
ment makying to Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw Kngt. and 
Sir James M'Dowell of Garland Kngt. of ther charges as 
commissioners for ye Scheir of Wigtoun conform to act of 
Parliament maid yranent and upon the nynt tent and twelff 
dayes of Dec. 1653 I Gilbert M'Kie, messenger, commandet 
and charget Uthred M'Dowell of French, Alexr. M'Culloch of 
Ardwell, Andro M'Dowall of Killeser, Alexr. M'Dowell of 
Logane, M'Dowell apperand yrof, John Gordoun of Clenzeard, 
Alexr. Agnewe of Croshe, Win. M'Culloch of Innshanks, Alexr. 
M'Culloch of Torhous, Patrick M'Dowell of Creichane, . . . 
. . Kinhelt . . . . , Alexr. Kennedy of Airies, Andro 
Agnew of Killumpha, Hew M'Dowell of Knockglass, Mr. James 
Blair, my*' on Portmongomerie, Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw, 
Patrick of Galdenok, Patrick Mure of Auchneill, Marioun Corrie 
gud wyfe of Gariehome, Andrew M'Dowall of Leffnoll, Gilbert 
Neilson of Craigcaffie, Adair of Gennok, Wm.Lin of Larg, Patrick 
Agnew of Shewchane, and Patrick M'Kie of Cairn, to compeer 
at Wygtoune the 13 day of December instant for setting doune 
ane taxt roll for payment making to Sir John M'Dowell of 
Garthland and Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw for expenses 
and charges as Commissioners of ye Shyre of Wigtoun conforme 
to the acts of Parliament maid yranent and soumes yrin 

The assizes thus summoned met and set down a statement 
of valued rents and proportional assessments ; and whether the 
sums ordained were paid in part or not, the subject came up 
again in 1656, and the following January a copy or new roll 
was made out, all the sums so apportioned being declared 
due to Sir Andrew Agnew (Sir James M'Dowall's name not 

"The stent Eoll sett downe in the tolbuith of Wigtoune, 
upon the twentie four day of Jany. 1657. By warrand and 

1 Extent. 

to 1657] 



according to Letters of Horning purchest and raised at the 
Instance of Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw Knt., Shereff of 
Galloway, against the heretors, liferenters, and freeholders of 
the Shereffdome of Wigtoune, for payment to the said Sir 
Andrew of the soume of 1500 punds Scotts money, and of 
the tent peny more of expenses for the charges and expenses 
in attending the Scotts Parliament the several sessiones dayes 
and dyotts yroff mentioned in the said letters. According to 

the Act of Parliament and yrin exprest 

the rents of nobillmen and yr vassalls being excepted It is 
fund that for payment of the said soume and tent peny more 
ilk hundreth pund of the rent of the said shyre excepting 
as said is, according to the valuation rolls yroff will be lyable 
and bear the sume of thrie punds thrietteine sh. 4d. money 
forsaid according to the particular taxt efter following : 

Thomas Hay off Park 

The Laird of Stair (James Dalrymple, 
afterwards Viscount Stair) 

Jon. Bailzie of Dunraggit . 

Ariemane (Airyhemmeng, Hew Kennedy) 

Airtfield (Boyd) 

Ardmillane (Kennedy of Ardmillan, Ayr- 
shire, for lands in Co. Wigtown) 

Kirkmichaell ..... 

Barnbarroche (Vans) .... 

Cayrnefeild (John Hathorn) . -^ 

Barzearrock ..... 

Baldone (Dunbar) .... 

Aries Halthorne .... 

Myrtoune (M'Culloch) 

Grange (Gordon) .... 

James Shaw ..... 

Aries (Kennedy) .... 

Kerriquherne ..... 

Kinhilt (Adair) .... 

Garthland (M'Dowall) 

Knockglas (M'Dowall) 

Mr. Ja. Blair 

Sir Patk. Agnew ' * . " ' 4 

Sewchane (Agnew of Lochnaw) 

Kirkland (Boyd) . 

Drumastoune (Houstoun) . * 

Wig (Agnew) . 



221 4 




taxt 3 13 9 

70 6 8 

66 13 7 


14 1 

3 10 5 


2 11 






















































w 1 









Wignecayrne (Agnew) 
Blaines Wig 
Shaddock (Martin) . 
Sir Andro Agnew 
Houstoun (of Drummastoune) 
Brochtoune (Murray) . 
Prestrie . '."'""." 
Tonderghie (Stewart) . 
Cottreoche elder (Houstoun) 
Cottreoche yor. (Houstoun) 
Lyndsayes wards * 
Hew Wallace .. . . 
Adam Ahannay . 
Hew Hannay 

Donald M'Me . . .- . 
Jon. M'llroy 

Drummorrell (M'Culloch) . 
Fisgill (Alex. Stewart) 
Craigdow (Vaus) 
Capt. Fergussone (Dowalton) 
Munreith (Maxwell) . . 
Freuch (M'Dowall) . 
Barnernie (M'Clellan) . 
Drumbuy (M'Kie) . . 
Culvennane (Gordon) . 
Barnaucht .... 
Craichlaw (Gordon) 
Girvanmaynes (Kennedy) 
Crosherie . . . ; . : 
Arnellane (Hay) 
Ardwall (M'Culloch) . 
Killaster, elder (M'Dowall) . 
Killaster yor. (M'Dowall) . 
Logane (M'Dowall) 
Torhous (M'Culloch) . 
Liferentar of Clonzeard .: 
Clonzeard (Gordon) . 
Inshanks (M'Culloch) . ' . ; 
Croach (Agnew) . ... 

Maryport (Adair) . ;; 
Corghie (Adair) t . \ ; 


Killumpha (Agnew) . 
Mochrum (Dunbar) 
Kilsture (Gordon) 
Monkhill (John M'Crystein) 
Whythills (Agnew) . 
Orchardtoune (Dunbar) . ; 
Marion Corrie . . ' ; 
Galdenoche (Agnew) . >* 













































































































































































J J 







































































to 1657] 



Auchneill (Mure) . .;' ' . f 
Craigcaffie (Neilson) . . $.., 
Clon . . . '". ' 

Druchtag (M'Culloch) . 

Boghous (Ramsay) .... 

Cliippermoor (M'Guffock) . . . 
Aldery, Altiery (M'Guffock) 
M'llroeyane . 

Castell Stewart (Col. Wm. Stewart) 
Glassnick ...... 

Carnestok (Stewart) .... 

Polquhillie (Stewart) .... 

Jon. M'Gill . . 

Larg (M'Kie) ..... 

Barnkirk (James Kennedy or Gordon) . 

Barrawer (Thomas M'Kie) . . . 

Penynghame (Gordon) 

Myrton (M'Kie) . . . 

Barvennane (Agnew) . 

Gartherow (Alexr. Crawfurd) 

Fyntalloche (Stewart) . 

Maidland (M'Kie) . . . 

Larg (Lin) . 

Ganoch (Adair) . . . . . 

Ganoch (Cathcart) . 
Balmeg (Gordon) . 
Leffnol (M'Dowall) . 
Auchleane (M'Kie) . 



Which abovewrytten taxt roll is sett doune be the sd. Sir 
Andro Agnew upon the valued rents abovewrytten for the 
cause abovespeicified. In absense of the heretors and frie- 
holders of the sd. shyres who being lawfully charget compeired 
not to yt effect. In witness qroff the sd. Sir Andrew hes 
subt. yir presents at Wigtoune the sd. 24th day of Jany. 1657. 


In this roll we find the united incomes of Sir Patrick 
Agnew and three of his sons amount to 3629 ; of the 
cadets of his house, Wigg is retoured for 562 ; Galde- 
noch, 173 ; Croach, 66 ; Barvennane, 140 ; and Killumpha, 

As before remarked, the Earl of Galloway, although a peer, 

























3 i 






















































































































78 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1651-1657 

is charged, which was unusual ; but we find the Lairds of 
Barnbarroch and Baldoon left blank, omissions we can only 
account for by supposing that they had paid their contributions 
when first asked for, and that they had not been included in the 


A.D. 1657 to 1661 

Their bowis they drew, their arrowis flew 

And pierced the ayr witli speede, 
Quhill purpil fell the mornyng dew 

With witch blude rank and reide. 


THE " Protesters " now got the upper hand in the counsels of the 
nation; enmity to Charles forming a bond of union between 
them and the English adherents of the Commonwealth. The 
result of this was that the General Assembly acquired an undue 
share of civil power ; and, however honest the intentions of the 
divines composing it, their proceedings were most intolerant. 
They lorded it over the " Engagers," as they termed the men of 
the moderate party ; they expressed most unchristian feelings 
towards " Whistle Kirk " ministers ; their punishments were out 
of all proportion for immorality, in which "malignity" was 
included, for Sabbath-breaking, and the " heinous and abomin- 
able sin of witchcraft." 

Under such influences we find the record of a justice aire at 
Wigtown, 13th May 1656, when a field-day was held against 
immorality. Thirty-six cases of adultery were proved in the 
sheriffs' courts, and penalties, varying from 250, against Sir 
John M'Kie of Balmaghie, to that of 12 on John Wilson, 
Miller of Penninghame, were imposed on the parties. 

By a kirk-session of the same time, two apprentices were 


ordered to be soundly whipped " as twa of the perversest knaves 
in breaking the Lord's Day." 

Theologians of the same school followed up this enforcement 
of Sabbath observance by the lash, by wholesale denunciations 
of foolish old women, which bear their own refutation in the 
very recital of the charges. 

Presbyteries entertained ridiculous accusations against 
numberless old crones ; having first egged on their kirk- 
sessions to ferret out witches, and then set the law in motion to 
bring them to the stake. The lists of these judicial murders 
are appalling ; and, long as they are, probably are far from being 
complete. It is pleasant to state that the Shire is almost 
entirely free from this scandal, which attaches largely to 
Carrick and the Stewartry. 

The presbytery records, which teem with evidence as to the 
virulence of the persecution, as conclusively prove the stupidity 
of the persecutors. 

For example, the parish records of Urr state " that Janet 
Thompson went to a witch wife in Dundrennan and got a salve 
for her mother, having told the witch that her mother got the 
sickness between the mill and her own house ; and the witch 
bade her take her mother to the place where she took it, and 
wash her with elder leaves. For her part in the matter, Janet 
was thereupon sentenced to be rebuked from the pillar in sack- 
cloth." As for the witch, she was further detained, the parish 
minister to announce from the pulpit that all who could were 
required to give evidence " of sic devilish practices." 

Certain members of the Presbytery of Dumfries were named 
to assist their brethren in Galloway, on the 5th April 1669, at 
an execution of nine witches. 

Evidence had been greedily received by the various sessions, 
extravagant statements sworn to and taken down, the nonsense 
repeated in the court, to which these poor women were dragged, 
and their doom given in these terms : 

"The Commissioners adjudges Agnes Comenes, Janet 
M'Gowan, Jean Tomson, Margaret Clark, Janet M'Kendrig, 

to 1661] 



Agnes Clark, Janet Corsane, Helen Moorhead, and Janet Gallon, 
as found guilty of the several articles of witchcraft, to be ta'en 
upon Wednesday come eight days to the ordinar place of 
execution in the Burgh of Dumfries, and there between the 
hours of two and four in the afternoon to be stranglit at stakes 
till they be dead, and thereafter their bodies to be burnt to ashes." 

It is a grave reproach to the Presbyterian clergy that, whilst 
they were considerably in advance of the English Voluntaries as 
to superstition, they were lamentably behind them in toleration. 

Principal Baillie, one of the most eminent of their body, 
held "toleration as a thing fatal to religion." He gravely 
endorses (indeed he is the only authority for) the absurd tradi- 
tion of the " de'il of Glenluce " ; and, mild as he may have been 
in private relations, he seriously declares hanging to be the 
punishment justly incurred by atheists as well as sorcerers, and 
taunts the English administration with their disinclination to 
bring women to the stake on evidence as to witchcraft, for 
which the presbyteries were so ready to punish them. 

" What you inquire of the apparation in Galloway is notourlie 
known. In Glenluss parish, in John Campbell a Webster's house, 
for two or three yeares a spirit did whiles cast stones, oft fire 
the house, and cut the webs in the looms, yet never did any con- 
siderable harme. The man was a good pious resolut man, and 
never left his house for all. Sundrie ministers of the Presbyterie 
did keep fasting and praying in the house without molestation ; 
sometyme it spoke, and the minister, Mr. John Scot, was so wise 
as to intertain large discourses with it. It were long to write 
all the passages; this twelvemonth it has been silent. Asturdie 
beggar who had been a most wicked and avowed atheist, for 
which he was hanged at Dumfries, did oft lodge in that house ; 
about his death it became more quiet, yet thereafter it became 
troublesome enough, but for the time is silent. 

"There is much witcherie up and downe our land, though 
the English be but too sparing to try it ; yet some they 
execute." J 

1 Baillie's Letters, iii. 436. 




Of the victims of such evidence too greedily accepted by the 
church courts, the only one prominently connected with 
Wigtownshire is Maggie Osborne. On the wild moorland 
between the marches of Carrick and the valley of the Luce, 
tracks are pointed out, on which even heather will not grow, as 
" Maggie's gate to Gallowa' " ; the soil having been so deeply 
burned by her tread, or that of her weird companion. Among 
the misdemeanours imputed to her, in aggravation of the charge 
for which she was cruelly condemned, was that of having 
impiously partaken of the Communion at the Moor Kirk of 
Luce. She had accepted the bread at the minister's hand, but 
a sharp-eyed office-bearer swore (long after!) that he had 
detected her spitting out the wafer at the church door, which 
he clearly saw swallowed by the devil, who had waited for her 
outside in the shape of a toad. Again it was asserted that, 
when passing from Barr to Glenluce by the "Nick o' the 
Balloch," she encountered a funeral procession, and, to pass 
unseen, changed herself into a beetle ; but before she could 
creep out of the way, a shepherd in the party unwittingly set 
his foot upon her, and would have crushed her outright had not 
a rut partly protected her. Much frightened and hurt, she vowed 
vengeance. But the moor-man being a pious man, for long her, arts 
were of no avail against him. One night, however, detained late 
by a storm, he sat down hurriedly to supper, having forgotten to 
say grace. Her incantations then had power : a wreath of snow 
was collected and hurled from the hill above on the devoted 
cabin, and the shepherd, his wife, and family of ten, were 
smothered in the avalanche. 

The indictment on which Maggie's career was brought to 
an end was this. She kept an inn at Ayr. A servant girl, 
who had been ordered to brew at night, was saucy. High 
words passed between them, and she left the girl alone at her 
task. Whilst thus engaged, about the witching hour, a number 
of cats burst into the brew-house, and one larger than the rest 
sprang on the saucy girl's neck, and all but forced her into the 
tub of boiling worts. Whereupon she seized a ladleful of the 

to l66l] WITCH-HUNTING 83 

liquor, and dosing the cats, and more especially the biggest, 
drove them off. Next morning her mistress remaining long 
in bed, she entered her room, dragged off the bedclothes, and 
found her back badly blistered. Maggie was delated before the 
session, on this evidence declared guilty by the presbytery, 
handed over to the civil power, and condemned to die. 

The neighbouring ministers assembled round the stake to 
assist at the edifying spectacle, and even here, as asserted, poor 
Maggie made a last and almost successful effort to escape. 

She offered to make startling revelations providing they 
complied literally with her desire to furnish her with two new 
pewter plates which never had been wet. They agreed, and 
despatched an officer to bring the plates as ordered. He having 
obtained them, whilst returning in haste stumbled, and let one 
fall into a puddle. Thinking this of little consequence, he 
wiped it and returned, saying nothing of his mishap. These 
joyfully received, Maggie by her arts instantly attached them to 
her shoulders, whence they expanded into wings. She rose, 
and in a few moments would have been safe ; but the compact 
with Satan had been broken, and the plate which had been wet 
flopped like a broken pinion, and so retarded her flight that the 
town sergeant was able to hook his halbert in her dress, and 
pull her down among the faggots. 

The true story of Maggie Osborne's life seems to be that, 
having long served as a comely barmaid with much acceptance, 
she finally became mistress of an inn famous for its good cheer ; 
her very success leading to ill-natured suggestions, which, often 
repeated, came to be held as facts, until at last a girl in spite 
was able to induce judges as superstitious as herself to accept 
as evidence such a story as the one we have given. 

To one of her judges a somewhat unfair scandal attaches in 
the matter. The minister at Ayr was William Adair, a scion 
of the house of Kinhilt. Tradition asserts that he had been an 
admirer of the pretty barmaid, and that in revenge for her 
refusal to give him her hand, he prompted the prosecution 
against her, sat himself as one of the judges at her trial, and 


then gloated on her sufferings. The only part of the charge for 
which there is the slightest foundation is that he, along with his 
fellow-presbyters, assisted at the auto-da-ft. 

William Adair, a half-brother of Sir Eobert Adair of Kin- 
hilt, his mother a daughter of Cathcart of Carleton, commenced 
life as a soldier, afterwards entered the Church, and was so 
much respected by all parties that, though he refused to con- 
form to Episcopacy at the Restoration, he was among the few 
who were never deprived of their charges. 

His first church was pulled down by Cromwell, who re- 
quired the site for a barrack ; and a new one, now known as 
the Old Church, was built under his superintendence. He 
married a Kennedy of the house of Kirkmichael, and survived 
until 1684; when a handsome monument was erected to his 
memory, which exists unharmed. 1 

A tragic tradition attaches to this date. M'Dowall of Logan, 
Sir Patrick's son-in-law, was guardian to a Gordon lassie, the 
heiress of Clanyard. A party of her own kin, Lord Kenmure 
at their head, made a descent on her home, and were in the act 
of carrying her off, when the Laird of Logan, whose house they 
had to pass, sallied out to intercept them. They encountered on 
the shore near Chapel-Rossan. The maiden was eventually 
rescued, but her guardian was killed, and forty of the com- 
batants fell in the fray. Tradition further has it that on the 
Gordons giving way, the son of the Laird of Logan pursued 
them, and never called a halt till, having run them to ground 
beyond the Dee, he hanged the leader of the raid over his own 
gateway. And having thus avenged his father, returned to bury 

Thirty or forty small mounds, still pointed out near Ardwell 
House as the graves of those then slain, are supposed to 
authenticate the story. 2 

1 The inscription is as follows: "Mr. Gul. Adair antiquissimse familise de 
Kinghilt frater legitimus. Ecclesise .ZErensis, per annos 44 pastor fidelissimus 
quod caducum habuit hie depositum reliquit. Feb. 12, 1684, set. 70." 

2 The local version is that Lord Kenmure was the victim of the infuriated 
Patrick ; but this is impossible. Robert, fourth Viscount Kenmure, succeeded 

to l66l] WITCH-HUNTING 85 

Cromwell had died in 1658, and by the end of the year 
1660 the Galloway baronage] had met to elect commissioners to 
represent them in the first Parliament of Charles II. 

All parties having concurred in the Eestoration, it had been 
generally hoped that no legislation as to religion, and especially 
that no confiscations, would mar the general satisfaction. But 
it soon leaked out that Charles had expressed himself as not 
being in any degree bound to keep promises made to the presby- 
terian clergy when he was rather their prisoner than their king ; 
and further, that rewards were expected to be given to those 
who had suffered in support of the royal cause, and that these 
must be extracted from the pockets of any who had recognised 
the Commonwealth. 

Sir Andrew Agnew was in an awkward position. The con- 
firmation of his hereditary sheriffship on his father's resignation 
by an act of the Scottish Parliament of 1649 was simply waste 
paper, and the further confirmation of a charter of Cromwell's of 
the Sheriffship of Galloway had become a possession dangerous 
to the owner. 

By advice of friends, he kept himself in the background; his 
brother-in-law M'Dowall of Freuch, and Murray of Broughton, 
becoming members for the shire, and M'Brair of Newark for the 

Among the first acts proposed by the Lords of the Articles 
was the " Eecissory Act," 1 which by a sweeping resolution 
annulled every act and ordinance of the Scottish Parliament 
from the commencement of the Civil War, thus throwing the 
whole legislation of the country into confusion. Well described 
by Bishop Burnet as " an extravagant Act, only fit to be con- 
cluded as it was after a drunken bout." 

The estates next proceeded to offer a benevolence of 40,000 
sterling to the king (of which the proportion of Wigtownshire 

1645, and lived to 1663. Patrick M'Dowall's service as his father's heir took 
place early in 1661. The leader of the raiders may have been William Gordon 
of Penninghame, who is said to have died 1660, leaving a son who became fifth 
Viscount Kenmure, but the whole story is of doubtful authenticity. 
1 1 Parlt. Charles II. Acts 9-15, repeated 2 Parlt. Charles II. c. 8. 



was 2455 pounds Scots), and the following were named com- 
missioners of supply to collect it. 


James, Earl of Galloway ) 
Alexander, Lord Garlies j 
Andrew Agnew apparent of Lochnaw 
Patrick M'Dowall of Logan 
Uchtred M'Dowall of French 
Sir James Dalrymple of Stair 
Alexander M'Culloch of Ardwell 
John Houston of Drummastoun 
George Stewart of Tonderghie 
Thomas Stewart of Glenturk 
John M'Culloch of Myrtoun 

and these for the Stewartry also 

Thomas Dunbar of Mochram 
William Stewart of Castle Stewart 
William Gordon of Craiglaw 
David Dunbar of Baldoon 
John Murray of Broughton 
William Stewart of Egerness 
William M'Guffoch of Alticry 
Richard Murray of Broughton, 


John, Lord Kirkcudbright 
John Herries of Maybie 
David M'Brair of Newark 
Mr. Alex. Spottiswoode of Sweet- 

James Maxwell of Brachenside 
William Gordon of Shirmers 
Robert Maxwell of Orchardton 
George Maxwell of Munches 
Alex. M'Ghie of Balmaghie 
John Carsane of Sannick 
John Dunbar of Machermore 
Patrick M'Kie of Larg 
John Newark of Mallack 

Robert, Earl of Nithsdale 
John, Lord Herries 
Robert, Master of Herries 
Sir James Murray of Baberton 
William Maxwell of Kirkhouse 
Mr. Thomas Hay of Lands 
Roger Gordon of Troquhan 
William Gordon of Earlston 
William M'Clellan of Collin 
Richard Murray of Broughton 
William Grierson of Bargalten 
George Brown of Kempiltown 
John Muir, Tutor of Cassancarry 
Andrew Heron of Kirroughtree 
Robert, Viscount Kenmure 

On the 3rd of April 1661 we find Sir Patrick Agnew at 
Lochnaw signing the contract of his grandson William with his 
cousin Elizabeth Agnew, the heiress of Wigg ; it being especially 
noted that "William M'Kie, notary's public, subscribed for 
Elizabeth, who could not write." Let us hope she could em- 
broider and make jams. 

A few days later the Synod of Galloway met to petition the 
king to ratify all Acts against popery and prelacy, praying that 
his majesty would be pleased to renew the Solemn League and 
Covenant as sworn to by himself. 

to 1661] 



Unfortunately the Presbyterians, when in possession of the 
king's person, had failed to impress him with agreeable recol- 
lections of their doctrines or their forms. Had they prayed for 
toleration they would at least have had the sympathy of later 
generations ; but far from this, not only did they ask that 
Episcopalians should be compelled to conform to Presby- 
terianism pure and simple, but they reviled all Episcopacy and 
the Episcopalian services, which not only the king, but most 
Englishmen, some Scotchmen, and the party in power preferred, 
" as polluted with a mixture of man's muddy inventions with 
mimic gesticulations and superstitious cantings." l 

Such injudicious language suggested the ready answer that 
they had better hold their tongues. The king commissioned 
Lord Galloway to dissolve the meeting in his name, which he 
accordingly did. Mr. Park, minister of Stranraer, as moderator, 
protested against this encroachment on the privileges of the 
Church; but as the royal command was peremptory, they deemed 
it prudent to disperse. 

In the course of this summer Sir Patrick passed away at a 
green old age, having been born circa 1578. He had been 
the best of fathers, leaving four sons besides his heir to take 
their position as county lairds, and five daughters well tochered. 
Playfair describing him as a man in high repute as a states- 
man ; 2 and Chalmers mentioning that he acted as sheriff for 
thirty- three years, during the turbulent period from 1616 to 
1649, when he resigned his heritable offices to his son, and 
lived to the happier times of 166 1. 3 

" Happier " was a most ill-chosen epithet for the period in 
question. If there were certain inconveniences during the Civil 
War and Commonwealth, they were as nothing to those occur- 
ring after the Eestoration, which heralded in a quarter of a 
century the most disastrous in the annals of the province. 

Of these ills in store, happily the good Sir Patrick died 
ignorant, and was laid to rest peacefully in the old church- 

1 Wodrow, i. 125. 2 British Family Antiquity, 874. 

3 Caledonia, iii. 362. 




SVE spovs A \6 4 4 

yard of Leswalt, where a tablet retains his armorial bearings, 
quartered with those of the Kennedys, and the legend in Latin 

still distinct : " Patrick Agnew 
of Lochnaw, Knight Baronet, 
Sheriff of Wigtown, and Dame 
Margaret Kennedy his spouse." 

The following pedigree, giving 
a double royal descent to Sir 
Patrick's heirs, through Dame 
Margaret Kennedy, is amongst 
his papers. We give it as we 
find it. He had of course an 
earlier single descent through the wife of the first sheriff. 

King James II. = 
of Scotland. 

= Mary of Gueldres. 

King Henry VII. = 
of England. 

= Princess Elizabeth, 
daughter of 

Robert Lord Boyd = 

= Princess Mary. 

Earl of Arran. 


David, * 
1st Earl of Cassilis. 

= Mary Boyd. 

6th Earl of Angus. 

relict of James IV. 



= Isabel da. ofArchd., 

Earl of Lennox. = 

= Margaret Douglas. 

2nd Earl of Cassilis. 

2nd Earl of Argyle. 

Sir Hew Campbell = 
of Loudoun. 

= Elizabeth Stewart. 

3rd Earl of Cassilis. 

Catherine, d. of 
Thomas Kennedy 
of Bargany. 

Thomas Kennedy = 
of Bargany. 

= Mary Campbell. 

Hon. Sir Thomas = 
Kennedy of Colzean. 

= Elizabeth, d. of 
David M'Gill of 

Gilbert, ' 
3rd Earl of Cassilis. 

= Catherine Kennedy. 

Sir Patrick Agnew = 

= Margaret Kennedy. 

Hon. Sir Thomas = 
Kennedy of Colzean. 

= Elizabeth M'Gill. 

of Lochnaw. 

Sir Patrick Agnew, = 
Sheriff of Galloway. 

= Margaret Kennedy. 

Sir ANDREW AGNEW of Lochnaw, Knight Baronet, 
Sheriff of Galloway 1661. 


A.D. 1661 to 1668 

laith laith were our gude Scots lords 

To weet their cork-heel'd shoon ; 
But lang or a' the play was played 

They wat their hats abune. 

THE Recissory Act, by which in one sweeping resolution the 
estates so lightly annulled all legislation, civil or ecclesiastical, 
of the past twenty years, virtually abolished the Presbyterian 
system which had been built up during that period, and 
rendered it necessary for all officials to renew their titles, thus 
bringing their conduct during the past crisis under review. 

A hitch seems to have occurred in obtaining a crown precept 
by the ninth sheriff for his infeftment in his lands and heredi- 
tary offices. 

Happily he had friends at court, where no one stood higher 
in favour than his brother-in-law Lord Galloway, and he 
succeeded in obtaining a Parliamentary absolution for his mis- 
demeanour in accepting a charter of office from Cromwell, in the 
shape of a short Act passed before Parliament rose, entitled 
" Ratification in favour of Sir Andrew Agnew, Knight and 
Baronet, of his office of Sheriff-Principal of Wigtown, his charters, 
rights, and infeftments of his lands and Barony of Lochnaw, etc., 
with the office of Heritable Constabulary and Baillerie of the 
same, the Heritable Bailleries of Lasswade, Munbrick, Soulseat, 
and Drummastoun, with emoluments, privileges, fees, casualties, 


profits, dignities, and other whatsoever, according as the same 
hath been granted by his Majesty's royal predecessors to the 
said Sir Andrew Agnew and his ancestors of one long descent, 
and according as they have been in use and possession past all 
memorie of man." 

The Crown precept followed for his infeftment in the lands 
of Lochnaw, with tower, fortalice, mansion, manor-place, build- 
ings, gardens, orchards, mills, and multures, and their perten- 
ance, etc., which took place in the usual form at Wigtown the 
29th of October 1661, before James Earl of Galloway, Hew 
Cathcart of Carleton, John Vaus of Barnbarroch, Uchtred 
M'Dowall of Freuch, John Dunbar of Machermore, William 
Maxwell of Monreith, Patrick Agnew of Galdenoch, Alexander 
Agnew of Croach, Patrick Agnew of Wigg, John Murray of 
Broughton, John Maxwell apparent of Monreith, George Stewart 
of Tonderghie, John Houston of Drummastoun, Hugh M'Dowall 
of Dalreagle, John and Alexander Stewart of Fisgill ; Kobert 
M'Culloch of Drummorell presiding as sheriff-depute. 

A letter, sharp but peremptory, from a Treasury official, 
shows that the sheriff had re-entered on the duties of his office : 

" Edinburgh, 22d Nov. 1661. 

"Eycht Honourable, Being informit by my Lord Staires 
and Freuch that your Brother Seuchan collected the month's 
maintenance of October from the whole Shyre (and a verie con- 
siderable sum from nine persons of your Shyre), I have ordered 
William MacgufToch to cause charge your Brother with horning 
for the said sums so collected by him, and have promised for- 
bearance to the Shyre for the same till it be cleared with your 
Brother whether he or they shall be my debtor. 

" But / doe expect payment from your Shyre with all dili- 
gence of what is utherwayes resting by you to me ; therefore I 
doe entreat the favour of your calling the Shyre to meet and 
order the present payment of what Freuch will make appear 
truly to be resting to you, for as I shall be unwilling to trouble 
any of your Shyre for the maintenance alledged to be payed, till 

to 1668] RULLION GREEN 91 

it be cleared whether your Brother has received it or not, soe I 
doe assure you, iff the Shyre does not presently meet and take 
cause for what is utherwayes dew by you, that then and in that 
case ye may expect all to be done against you which law will 
allow to me. 

" Freuch is to return hither againe at Christmas, at which 
tyme your Brother would come in and bring with him what 
maintenance he has received. Which is all at present, but that 
I continue, sir, your affectionit servant, J. W. BOYD. 

"The Ky*. Hon ble . the Shirreff of Galloway." 

In the sheriff's first accountings at Edinburgh, after his 
reinstatement, it is interesting to find the name of Loch 
Kindeloch (from the Pictish king Cendelaidh) still in 
general use ; the name being now entirely corrupted in Loch 
Kinder, and the parish only known as New Abbey. 1 

Parliament reassembled in September 1662, and passed 
an Act somewhat incorrectly headed "The King's free 
Pardon," setting forth that " His Majesty out of his tender love 
for his people, and his desire that all animosities and differ- 
ences be buried in oblivion, has resolved to grant a general act 
of indemnity and pardon " ; a " butt " greatly detracting from 
the graciousness of the preamble, as following there was read : 
" His Majesty has thought fit to burden this pardon to some 
whose guiltiness has rendered them obnoxious to the laws, 
and placed their lives and fortunes at His Majesty's disposal, 
with the payment of some small sums." 2 

The meaning of " some " and " small " was enigmatical, 
but was soon explained by a list of names, covering eight large 
folio pages, closely written in double column, whilst the figures 
attached to those thus individually excepted were for sums 

1 Compotum honorabilis viri Andrew Agnew de Lochnaw, Mil. Baronetti 
Vicecomitis de Wigtown redditum apud Edinburgum, 20 Julii 1661. 

Item, onerat se de Lxxxx. li. de firmis vigintis sol m . de Cullengath cum 
manerii loco, domibus, edificiis, jacens infra parochiam Lochkindeloch, Baroniam 
ejusdem et Senescallatum de Kirkcudbright. 

Cullengath is either a clerical error or older form of Cullendoch. 

2 2 Parlt. Charles II. chap. 10. 


which the richer found it difficult to raise, and which entailed 
absolute ruin on many of the smaller barons. 

The sheriff headed the Galloway list with a fine of 6000 ; 
his brother Sheuchan, 1200 ; Wigg, 200 ; Croach, 600 ; 
Andrew Agnew of Park, 360 ; Agnew of Killumpha, 240 ; 
Agnew of Galdenoch, 1000 ; Agnew in Cladahouse, 240 ; 
Cathcart of Genoch (a very small estate), 2000 ; Adair of 
Little Genoch, 600 ; Dunbar of Baldoon, 4800 ; Gordon of 
Earlston, 2400 ; and so on for six times that number. 

Moreover half the penalties were payable within six months 
" under pain of treason." The sheriff's receipt lies before 
us : 

" I, Sir William Bruce, Clark to the Bills, appointed 
Eeceiver of the fynes imposed by the Estates, grants me to 
have received from Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Baronet, 
Sheriff of Galloway, the sum of 3000 as the just and equal 
half of his fine laid on by the Estate. 2 Feb. 1663." 

The sheriff was well aware that his wisest course was to 
pay and look pleasant, as on this had depended the Act 
restoring him the sheriffship. 

The pretence of applying these fines to those who had 
suffered from their loyalty was notoriously a hollow one ; the 
bulk finding its way into the pockets of ministers of state. 
Lord Galloway, who with some reason asked for compensation 
for the fine of 4000 levied on him by Cromwell, instead of 
being relieved by the money overflowing into the coffers of 
those collecting these fines, had an Act passed in his favour 
imposing an additional assessment on the stewartry for his 

" The Estates of Parliament take into their consideration a 
supplication presented unto them by James Earl of Galloway, 
mentioning that he being employed in the engagement of 1648 
for his Majesty's relief out of prison and restitution to his Eoyal 
Government, was at his return most rigorously used by the pre- 
tended authority of some unnatural countrymen, who ruled for 
the time, and ordained him and other engagers within the 

to 1668] BULLION GREEN 93 

Stewartry of Kirkcudbright to put out an exorbitant number of 
horse and foot in levys of that year far amounting their propor- 
tions, and that by way of fine for their loyalty ; humbly 
desiring that the sums of money so exorbitantly enacted might 
be refunded unto him : They therefore ordain the Commis- 
sioners of Excise, within the Steuartry, to give intimation to 
the Heretors to meet, and that there they lay on the propor- 
tions of the Levy thus imposed, that the Petitioner may have 
repetition of what he has payed and given out more than his 
just proportion." 

This Lord Galloway has been thus favourably noticed by 
the accomplished John Evelyn and his son in his Diaries : 

" 19 May 1659. Came to dine with me my Lord Gallo- 
way and his son, a Scotch Lord and learned." l 

The sheriff, jogged on by the higher powers to raise the 
sums thus pressingly required, passed on the word to his 
officials, ordering his sergeants to proceed to distraint if 
necessary, without favour and affection. We quote from a 
long list docketed : 

" Note of these soumes that the Sheriff finds to be dew and 
resting of the taxation." 

As an example : 

" Patrick M'llroy you shall go on and poynd these lands 
and persons following for the taxation. 

" The Baronie of Corswall, 40 ; The Baronie of Glasser- 
ton, 38 mark land ; Eggerness, 10 mark land ; Lands of 
Sorbie, 10 pund land ; my Lord's proportion of Eavingstone, 
being 11 mark land ; my Lord's proportion of Clugston, being 
28 mark land ; Gotland, 4 pound land ; Glassoch, Glenhappel, 
and Glenluchac, 8 mark land (all the above the Earl of 

" To uplift from Monreith for his 40 mark land for the first 

twa termes fully, in respect nothing has been producit for the 

samin. As also to uplift fra him for 11 mark land and a 

half for the third proportion of that Barony not payit be 

1 Evelyn's Diaries, i. 317. 


Castle Stewart, and to uplift the quhole fourth proportion, no 
discharge being produced ; and 11 mark land and a half 
unpayit of his forty mark land for the fyfth and sext termes." 

With as minute directions for all the Baronage. 

In October Middleton made a progress in the west to 
enforce the late Acts, especially those obliging all ministers to 
obtain fresh presentations, as well as collation from the bishop 
of their dioceses. 

He passed by Glasgow to Ayr, thence to Wigtown, Kirk- 
cudbright, and Dumfries, the sheriff attending him in his 
progress. He found the people much exasperated ; so much 
so that he exchanged blandishments for his usual bluster, 
as is especially noted in the case of the minister of Kirk- 

" On the 21st October, the Earl Middleton came to Kirk- 
cudbright and Mr. Wylie waited upon him. Some conversation 
took place, and the Commissioner, as a friend, advised him 
to remove with his family. Later . . . the Commissioner 
dismissed him with the assurance of his good wishes." x 

It is usually said that the High Commissioner was hardly 
in a state of mind or body to act with judgment ; the riotous 
debauch of himself and his associates occasioning great scandal, 
the party never seeming to be thoroughly sober, and an 
irritated people were not to be reconciled by spasmodic sallies 
of drunken good-humour. 

As a result of this progress, Middleton succeeded in tempor- 
arily establishing Episcopacy ; but this he only effected by 
superseding the most popular ministers, and filling their places 
with inexperienced youths with whom the baronage were 
dissatisfied, whilst riotings ensued among the lower orders. 
In evidence of which, we find Lord Kirkcudbright refusing 
to assist in quelling a riot occasioned by the introduction of a 
curate into his borough town, and Gordon of Earlston declining 
to induct an Episcopalian as patron of Dairy. 

More ominous still, a field congregation assembled to hear 

1 Mackenzie's History of Galloway, ii. 132. 

to 1668] RULLION GREEN 95 

an ousted minister near Corsach, an example which spread like 
wildfire, whence may be dated the conventicles which, at first 
appearing to the rulers contemptible and to the military eye 
weak, developed a force which eventually foiled Council, 
Parliament, and generals, and helped to overturn the dynasty 

Middleton sent his Commissioners the Earls of Linlithgow, 
Galloway, and Annandale, Lord Drumlanrig, and Sir John 
Wauchope of Niddrie to settle matters in a conciliatory way 
if possible ; if not, by force. They sat at Kirkcudbright the 
26th of May 1663, and thence sent Lord Kirkcudbright a 
prisoner to Edinburgh under military guard ; obliging him, as 
well as the provost and bailies of the borough, to sign a heavy 
bond for their good behaviour. 

The following letter was addressed to Earlston : 

- "Sir, The Lords of H.M. Council have commissioned us 
to come to this country to do everything that may contribute 
to the settling of the peace. . . . And as you are a person of 
special interest there, we require you to induct Mr. George 
Henry and to countenance him, so as he be encouraged to 
prosecute his ministry in that place. In doing whereof, as you 
will witness your respect to authority, so oblige us to remain, 
Sir, your loving friends and servants, LINLITHGOW. 




He however proved contumacious, and was cited before the 

The exasperation rose to such a height that at last the 
government withdrew Middleton, sending him into a decent 
sort of exile as Governor of Tangiers, and replaced him by 

Lauderdale, who rose to power on Middleton's fall, had 
more the instincts of a statesman than the latter, was more 
decorous in life, and tried to gain his ends rather by tact than 


violence. The Galloway lieges, however, soon found that his 
grip was strong if his hand was gloved. He carried an Act by 
which every nobleman, gentleman, yeoman, and burgess was 
made liable to penalties if he withdrew from his Parish Church ; 
whilst on the humbler ranks corporal punishment might be 
inflicted in lieu of fine. Sir James Turner was placed at the 
disposition of the Bishop of Galloway to enforce church attend- 
ance at the sword's point ; the Privy Council giving him an 
order at starting that he should take " as many horsemen to 
Kirkcudbright as with the foot already there may make up the 
number of 8 score." 

The principal landowners seem to have been remarkably 
moderate in their views, and wonderfully free from sectarian 
animosities ; not personally indisposed to support the Church 
as by law established ; at the same time sympathising with the 
people who abstained from attendance from conscientious 
scruples. The older among them had had such sad experience 
of the disastrous effects of civil war that they most loyally tried 
to support the royal authority ; and it was not until enactments 
rendered nonconformity intolerable, that a few of the younger 
spirits sympathised actively with resistance. Of these the 
most conspicuous were the young Laird of Monreith, two 
Gordons of Barskeoch, M'Clellan of Barscob, and M'Culloch of 

As to the sheriff himself, he withdrew for a time from 
public life, occupying himself in certain alterations and 
additions to his Castle of Lochnaw. Some of this he rebuilt, 
as shown by fragments of older ornamentation to be found 
embedded in the newer walls. 

On a tablet over the doorway he carved shields bearing the 
arms of Stewart and Agnew, surmounted with a peculiar 
cipher, S.A.G. and D.A.S., the former supposed to stand for 
Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway. 

Under them is the legend, taken from an older translation 
than the authorised one of the Bible : " Except the Lord builde 
the house they labour in vaine that builde." 

to 1668] 



The moat and ditch, being now no defence against artillery, 
were levelled into terraces and a garden formed beyond them. 

An agricultural lease of the 
date 19th May 1664 assumes some- 
what the modern form : 

" It is finally agreed betwixt 
Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, 
Knight Baronet, and Finlay Blair : 
that is to say that Sir Andrew 
Agnew sets to Finlay Blair the 
lands of Auchneil for five years 
for the sum of four score pounds 
Scots money yearly ; together with 

the number of ten bolls of meal yearly, between Yule and 
Candlemas, together with ane wedder and ane lamb, and half a 
dozen of capons, and two dozen of chickens yearly." 

Here we find neither stock nor seed-corn found by the land- 

Notwithstanding his 6000 fine, the sheriff's purse was fresh 
enough to enable him to purchase a desirable small property 
still part of the Lochnaw estate ; though it is to be feared that 
arbitrary fines had obliged the owner to part with it. 

"Me, Archibald Stewart of Tyntalloch, for the soume of 
2500 marks, presently received from Sir Andrew Agnew of 
Lochnaw, Knight and Baronet,has disposed to the said Sir Andrew 
all and haill the five mark land of Polmallet, 1 of auld extent, 
with house, biggins, fishings, parts, pendicles, and purtenance 
thereof, lying within the Paroche of Cruggleton. At Wigtown, 
the 7th day of Nov. 1664, before David Dunbar of Baldoon, 
Thomas Dunbar of Mochrum, Thomas Stewart Commissar of 

1 Palmalot, Polmallet, Polmallacht, "the cursed pool " ; though mallacht may 
indicate strife, massacre, infertility, or even a want of fish. "We have a far 
greater number of names from cursings than from blessings. Owen-na-mallacht, 
' the cursed stream,' which flows into Tralee Bay, said to be so called because St. 
Patrick, passing that way, requested the fishermen to give him some fish they 
had just caught. They refused in a churlish manner, whereupon he pronounced 
a curse on the river, and predicted no fish should be found there for evermore." - 
Joyce, ii. 448. 



Wigtown, William Stewart of Eggerness, William M'Kie of 
Maidland, and John Stewart, notar, wryter hereof." 

The name is written in the Eagman Eoll Palmalot : it is 
now Polmallet. A small deep lake on the lands was once much 
larger ; the meaning seems to be " the cursed pool," whether 
from some misfortune, or a want of fish. 

In 1665 a Convention of Estates was summoned to meet, 
and Sir Andrew Agnew emerged from his retirement, and again 
represented the shire ; his colleague being Sir David Dunbar of 

The members for Galloway renewed the old complaint as to 
the western being rated higher than the eastern shires, and were 
so far successful that it was enacted that the " pound lands in 
the said shire shall hereafter be taxed as mark lands." 

In Galloway the Act of the Privy Council complained of as 
most tyrannical was the imposition of fines for non-attendance 
at church. No doubt the Presbyterians had set the precedent 
for this themselves during their short tenure of power, but there 
was this great political difference between the two cases, that 
in the one it was to enforce the regularity of attendance on 
services which the people generally approved, on the young and 
careless ; on the other, it was driving the adult population to 
take part in services they detested and thought wrong. 

The Privy Council, having taken in hand to fill the churches, 
selected Sir James Turner as a suitable person to collect their 
flocks, and shear them when required. A rough soldier, suffi- 
ciently able, unpityingly obeying orders, although evidently 
little relishing his mission, he writes : 

" It being my fate that nothing was intended to be done 
that was displeasing in that country, but wherein I was made 
instrumental." * 

Soon he himself became the hero of a misadventure. On 
the 13th November 1666, some of his troopers had confiscated a 
patch of corn belonging to an old man in the Glenkens ; and, 
with lighted matches between his fingers, were trying to extract 

1 Sir James Turner's Memoirs. 

to 1668] BULLION GREEN 99 

money to liquidate the fine he had incurred. M'Clellan of 
Barscob, with three followers, caught them in the act, attacked 
the soldiers, and wounding one with a pistol (loaded with pieces 
of a tobacco pipe), drove them away. 

The die was now cast. M'Clellan called for volunteers, 200 
men responded, seized and imprisoned a party of soldiers at 
Balmaclellan, and then pushed on boldly for Dumfries. Arriving 
there at night, they surprised Sir James Turner in his night- 
dress, who, seeing at a glance the hopelessness of resistance, 
threw up the window, shouting, " Quarters, gentlemen, quarters !" 
and gave up his sword. 

The party re-entered Dairy next day in triumph ; Mr. 
Henderson, the ousted minister of Dumfries, courteously enter- 
taining their distinguished prisoner at a capital dinner : a com- 
pliment Turner himself acknowledges in his Memoirs, writing : 
" Though he and I be of different persuasions, yet I will say he 
entertained me with real kindness." l 

Turner was a thorough soldier of the Dalgetty type. Quite 
at his ease in every case, if well fed. 

Though detained in durance vile, he impartially describes 
the appearance of his captors, among whom were the young 
Laird of Monreith, Lennox of Plunton, and several of the 
Gordon clan, besides M'Clellan. 

" I never saw lustier fellows," he writes, " than their footmen 
were, or better marchers. The horsemen were armed for the 
most part with sword and pistoll, and some with staves, great 
and long. I saw two of their troops skirmish against other 
two, for in four troops were their cavalry divided, which I 
confess they did handsomely, to my great admiration. I won- 
dered at the agility of both horse and rider, and to see them 
keep troops so well, and how they had cum'd to that in so short 
a time to drill." 2 

1 Sir James Turner's Memoirs. 

2 Sir James Turner's Memoirs, p. 167. The following is a narrative of one 
present at the previous melee: "They were offering to torture at the fire some 
honest man, when Barscobe said soberly, ' Why do you use the honest man so ? ' 
Whereupon some of the soldiers offered them violence. He drew a pistol, wherein 


Little time for feasting, or even for further drill, was now 
allowed ; and though few supporters could be induced to join 
them from the east, this little band, some 900 strong, prin- 
cipally Gallovidians, led by Colonel Wallace, sought for and 
encountered the royal troops in far greater strength among the 
Pentlands, and were totally defeated at Bullion Green. M'Culloch 
of Barholm, Neilson of Corsach, and the Gordons of Knock- 
brecks, being taken prisoners, perished upon the scaffold after 
torture by the abominable boot. John Maxwell and Lennox 
were driven as wanderers upon the world. 

According to family tradition, the young Laird of Monreith, 
when he saw the day was irretrievably lost, turned his horse's 
head for home, and rode without drawing bridle to the family 
mansion of the Mower. Great was the confusion his arrival 
occasioned. " Harbour of rebels " entailed the direst penalties, 
and this was the place where he could least hope to remain 
undiscovered. With the greatest haste and precaution he had 
to be sent away from weeping wife and anxious mother. Where 
he went to, it was desirable that none should know. The only 
mark of sympathy the father could show, without endangering 
the safety of all his family, was to exchange the horse to 
whose fleetness he owed his life for a fresh one ; and saying it 
had done its duty so well it should never carry saddle again, 
it was turned into a large paddock, and well cared for. 

The war-horse, unlike his unhappy master, lived to a green 
old age, and became the sire of a progeny long famous in the 
shire for their mettle. 

His master's fate is succinctly told in the session records of 
Glasserton Parish : 

" John Maxwell, brother to Sir William Maxwell of Mon- 
reith, was forfeit in his estate for going to Pentland, and not 

was only tobacco staples, and shot at them, on which one soldier fell. Monrieff 
and I were grieved at this accident, and knew not what advice to give. Some 
said it was best to march to Dumfries, and secure Sir James Turner. I told them 
if they were so resolved, I should go straight to the west, and acquaint friends 
there, which I did. They went for Dumfries." Colonel Wallace's narrative, 
p. 382. 

to 1668] BULLION GREEN 101 

joining with Prelacy. He was necessitated to hide himself many 
a night and day, and to turn his back upon all that he had, and 
to flee to Ireland for the preservation of his life from bloody 
persecutors, and died there." 

He only reached Ireland after many hairbreadth escapes, 
one of which is rather comic in its details. 

Being closely pursued by some soldiers in Edinburgh, he ran 
down a narrow close, and took refuge in a "change-house," 
where he begged the landlady to hide him. The only place of 
concealment available was a large new meal-chest, fastened 
with a padlock, in which he had hardly ensconced him- 
self and heard the key make all secure, when the house was 
filled and surrounded by his pursuers, who loudly exclaimed 
that they were certain he was there. " Seek the hoos an ye 
will," replied the gudewife ; " it's no sae muckle as '11 keep ye 

The soldiers did so, and without success, and next demanded 
liquor ; on sitting down to discuss which, seats being scarce, 
one of them jumped upon the meal store ; and all began ex- 
pressing their wonder at where the d d Whig could have got 
to, when the man on the chest suddenly exclaimed, " They hide 
ony gate, may be he's in this vera kist ; gudewife, gie's the key 
till we see ! " 

The remark was anything but pleasant to John Maxwell, 
who overheard all ; but the matron's nerves fortunately did not 
fail her. With great address, and without a moment's delay, 
she flung open the room door, and, curling her lip in scorn, she 
roared over the landing, " Lassie, rin awa' tae the gudeman for 
the key o' the girnal, till we see gin a Whig can lie in meal and 
no gie a hoast wi't." 

The ruse succeeded ; the soldiers laughed, and, asking no 
more about him, went off without waiting for the return of the 
landlord ; and John Maxwell, who had successfully struggled 
against the tickling sensations in his throat, came safely out, and 
made his escape. 

The gallant Eobert, Lord Kenmure, had died in 1663, 


and been succeeded as fifth Viscount by Alexander Gordon of 
Penny nghame, who about 1666 married as his third wife Lady 
Grizel Stewart, daughter of the second Earl of Galloway. 

This latter earl, as a commissioner for settling the Epis- 
copalian curates in their charges, had happily succeeded in 
retaining the regard of his neighbours, whilst performing an 
unpopular duty. He has been described as a proper stately 
person, most courteous and affable ; and although an Epis- 
copalian by choice, had, along with all his sons, the greatest 
sympathy with those who were harshly used for conscientious 
attachment to Presbyterianism. The whole country, both gentry 
and others, had an entire affection for him. 

A casual letter of his to the sheriff, besides gossip of the 
moment, shows Clarie to have been still inhabited as a family seat : 

"Clan, Oct. 17, 1666. Much honoured brother, Ye will 
percaue by this other, of the Lord Kenmor's desires to you, and 
the tyme he hes appointed for meeting, if yor other conveniences 
wold allow, ye may keep the meeting ; and if ye can not, send 
back yor returne with the bearer, whilk shall be immediately 
dispatched to him. 

" Let me know by a lyne from you lykways, what ye resolve 
to doe, and if ye come to thire parts I shall take yor luging for 
you. This is all at present from your verie affectionat Brother 
to serve you, GALLOWAY." 

"There is a Gentleman Kobert Fergussone, Uncle to the 
Laird of Craigdarroch, who is going to Ireland ; who informed 
me that John Gordon who leivies now at the port, took a hors 
of his, the tyme that the English spok of forays, worth ten 
pieces. He has deseired me that I wold wryt to you that ye 
wold show him all the lafull favour ye may, or at least he 
deseires that he may be made sensible of his unservilities. I 
know I need not use anie words with you on this, for yor respect 
to Craigdarroch will plead sufficiently. 

" For my much Honored Brother, 
" The Shereif of Galloway." 

to 1668] RULLION GREEN 103 

" By the " port," his lordship means Portpatrick, and by the 
person who "leivies," the principal custom-house officer. A 
weekly post had been established hence to Ireland in 1662, and 
it was a station of much importance, many Irish productions 
being absolutely contraband, others paying exorbitant duties, 
and persons going and coming were jealously watched. 

Viscount Montgomery of Airds having got into difficulties, 
and borrowed largely from his agent, the lands of Dunskey, 
along with the superiority of Portpatrick, were acquired by the 
latter by way of wadsett; and the name Port Montgomery 
henceforward fell into entire oblivion. 

In 1667 we find Mr. John Blair in full possession, and 
signing his own marriage contract with a niece of the sheriff, at 
Stranraer : Jean, daughter of Patrick Agnew, Laird of Sheuchan, 
whose tocher was 5000 marks. The witnesses are : " Sir Andrew 
Agnew of Lochnaw, Sheriff of Galloway; Hugh Cathcart of 
Castleton, George Stewart of Tonderghie, William Stewart of 
Eggerness, Patrick Agnew of Wigg, James and Hew Blair, 
brothers-german of John Blair ; Andrew Agnew younger of 
Sheuchan, and Patrick Kennedy, Provost of Stranraer." 

A few months previously there had been a general election, 
when it was not without significance that William Maxwell of 
Monreith had been specially chosen as the sheriff's colleague ; 
as, although of unimpeachable personal loyalty, his eldest son 
was still at large, and an undaunted protester against the tyranny 
of the Scottish Council. 

In 1668 William Maxwell, his next brother, eventually the 
heir of Monreith, married Joanna, daughter of the Laird of 
Logan by a sister of the sheriff. 


A.D. 1668 to 1673 

A virtuous lady not long since a bride, 
Was to an hopeful plant by marriage tied ; 
... we did all rejoice, 
E'en for her sake, but presently our voice 
Was turned to mourning. 


SIR JAMES DALRYMPLE of Stair was in the habit of spending his 
vacations on the moors of Galloway, and built at Carscreugh a new 
house, in adorning which he greatly delighted. To strangers 
the situation appeared bleak, there being little picturesqueness 
in its surroundings. Symson, in describing the house as "a 
stately mansion," drily adds : " It might have been more pleasant 
had it been in a more pleasant place." 

Here, however, the old lord happily whiled away his time, 
and wrote his famous Institutes, his lady superintending the 
household. She is credited with having had a strong will, along 
with a keen sense of humour ; in illustration of which it is 
told, that whilst Carscreugh was building the shells for lime 
having to be fetched from Baldoon, a good fourteen miles dis- 
tant, and this being performed as bailie work by the tenants 
one morning every available horse on the estate having been 
requisitioned for this service, and they having reached the shore 
and loaded up, were, on their return, halted at the dam of the 
Boreland, and the packhorses turned loose to graze whilst the 
drivers dined. 

A.D. 1668-1673] CONVENTICLE ACT 105 

The miller of the Boreland, Benjamin M'Kechney, a big 
burly man, and dour, was not a little moved to wrath when 
suddenly he saw a troop of hungry garrons revelling and rolling 
amongst a patch of his finest grasses which he had just set for 

Seizing a blackthorn stick, and with his dogs driving the 
horses before him, he fell furiously on the bailies, who, tired 
with their long march, lay napping after their meal ; breaking 
on their siesta so suddenly, and with such a storm of impreca- 
tions and blows, that they, thinking his name was legion, took 
their punishment meekly, collected their horses as best they 
could, and slank away. 

Arrived at home, they instantly waited on their mistress, 
and, whiningly complaining of their treatment, thought to rouse 
her to indignation. 

Lady Stair questioned the matter out, and taking in the 
situation, with a glance of scorn, smilingly said : " Just fetch 
me that man here ; the chiel has well earned the best bottle of 
brandy in the cellar. He has thrashed the whole bailies of 
Carscreugh with one hand." The story got wind, and for many 
a day, at fair or market, the laugh was turned against them for 
the drubbing they had all gotten from big Ben. 

During 1669 Lord Stair obtained a private Act in his favour 
for a weekly market at Glenluce, and two free fairs yearly 
one on the last Tuesday in May, the other the first Sunday in 
August. And on the 28th of April of this year the Bishop and 
Synod of Galloway desired the Presbyteries to take steps for 
"ingathering of voluntary contribution for building a stone 
bridge over the water of Luce," the fords of which were 

At the Carscreugh, on the 29th of May, a marriage contract 
was signed, destined to a posthumous interest little thought of 
by the parties concerned. It runs as follows : 

"David Dunbar, younger of Baldoon, with consent of Sir 
David Dunbar of Baldoon, my father, and the said father taking 
burden on himself for the said son ; and Janet Dalrymple, eldest 


daughter of James Dalrymple of Stair, and with advice and con- 
sent of Dame Margaret Eoss, her mother, obliges him to infeft 
the said sum in fee of his whole lands in the shire of Wigtown. 
And for his present provision in 3000 marks free rent and a 
convenient house to dwell in. And obliges himself to infeft the 
said Janet in her virginity in as much of the land and Barony 
of Compstone as presently pays 2000 marks free rent, and the 
said Sir James obliges himself to pay in name of tocher 9000. 
(Signed) DA. D UNBAR. 

JA. DALRYMPLE, Baldone. 

(Witnesses) William M'Guffoch of Alticraye, Hugh Gordon 
younger of Grange, Mr. James Dalrymple, 
sonne to the said Sir James, and Thomas 
M'Spennan, servitor to the said Sir James, 
and writer hereof." 

Some time previous to the signature of this contract, Janet 
Dalrymple had pledged her troth to a poor peer considerably 
her senior, Lord Eutherford (uncle, moreover, of the eventual 
bridegroom), whose suit had been discouraged by her parents 
and broken off. The sequence of events afterwards was this. 
She was married the 12th of August at the church of Glenluce, 
a large bridal party being entertained at Carscreugh till the 24th. 
They were then escorted to her father-in-law's house of Baldoon 
by a gay cavalcade, where she was cordially received with great 

A few weeks after she was taken ill, and died very suddenly 
on the 12th of September. The untimely death of the gentle 
lady at the most auspicious moment of her life startled the whole 
community. Much sympathy was excited for friends on both 
sides ; there was not a whisper of a tragedy, till, nearly a genera- 
tion after, local gossip suggested that the bridegroom in a fit of 
insanity had stabbed the bride. 

This ridiculous story, communicated by Mr. Train to Sir 
Walter Scott, formed the germ of the beautiful romance known 
as the Bride of Lammermoor, which while all admire, a local 

to 16/3] CONVENTICLE ACT 107 

chronicler is bound to protest against its being accepted as an 
" owre true tale." In all respects it gives a travesty of the facts. 

Eavenswood and Bucklaw have nothing in common with 
Eutherford and Baldoon, except that their names begin respect- 
ively with E. and B. Notwithstanding her breaking the 
engagement with the uncle, Baldoon was the popular and more 
interesting person. Ear from going mad on her wedding night, 
the bride lived happily through her honeymoon, as distinctly 
stated by Symson, a contemporary, one of the bridal party, and 
intimate friend of both parties. 

Moreover, the faint local tradition if such it can be called 
was that the bridegroom had stabbed his bride, not the bride 
her husband. To compare Lord Stair with Sir William Ashton 
is ridiculous, or the worthy Lady Stair with the bride's mother, 
as given by Scott. 

Of the rival suitors, young Baldoon afterwards married a 
daughter of the seventh Earl of Eglinton, and died in 1682 by a 
fall from his horse. His only child, by his second marriage, 
married Lord Basil Hamilton, ancestor of the late and last 
Earl of Selkirk. 

His uncle and rival, Lord Eutherford, obtained a commission 
in the Household Guards, and lived until 1685. 1 

In 1668 liberal counsels had seemed for a moment to be in 
the ascendant, the sheriff, Lords Galloway and Kenmure, uniting 
in making representations to government as to the extortions 
practised by the military. 

Strong impression was made on Lauderdale, who granted a 
commission to Lords Mthsdale and Kenmure and the Laird of 
Craigdarroch (Ferguson) to inquire into the conduct of Sir James 
Turner and Sir William Bannatyne ; and they, with the assist- 
ance of the sheriff and steward, brought so many excesses against 
them that Turner was dismissed the service, and Bannatyne fined. 

1 Andrew Symson thus dates the events : " Nupta, Aug. 12 ; Domum dncta, 
Aug. 24 ; Obiit, Sept. 12 ; Sepult., Sep. 30, 1669." He wrote an elegy minutely 
describing the home-coming and unexpected death, distinctly stating ' ' "We did 
enjoy great mirth"; and it is absolutely certain that her death at the time was 
never attributed to anything but natural causes. 


This inquiry was concluded the 17th February; and the 
Government, glad to have thus achieved a little popularity, 
further granted an indulgence to the more moderate of the 
ejected ministers, ordered the cessation of quartering upon 
private persons, and finally the withdrawal of the troops from 

It is a Presbyterian story that on their so deciding, the 
Archbishop of Glasgow exclaimed in dismay, " My Lords, if the 
army is disbanded, the Gospel will go clean out of the diocese." 

Following up these milder measures, Mr. Park was re- 
appointed to Stranraer, and John Cant to Kells ; and so sincere 
did Government for the moment seem to be in their wish for 
tolerance, that, finding the Archbishop of Glasgow, Burnet, 
acting in contravention of the indulgence, he was removed and 
replaced by the truly saint-like Leighton. 

Unfortunately, these honest attempts at conciliation failed 
through the folly of the more fanatical Presbyterians. 

Toleration was hardly as yet recognised as a virtue, even by 
the good men on either side. Middle counsels were thought 
mean, and the most influential of the ousted ministers were as 
inveterate against the gentle Leighton as the sterner, and really 
persecuting Sharpe. The acceptors of the indulgence were 
denounced as time-servers at the field conventicles, and at 
these, which increased in number and popularity, all means for 
accommodation, short of the absolute suppression of Episcopacy, 
were cried down ; and conventicles accordingly Government 
determined to suppress. 1 

Much was to be said for this from the political point of 
view. The churches of such able ministers as -Park and Mait- 
land were deserted, whilst the preachers at conventicles pandered 
to the bigotry and prejudices of their hearers. The rantings of 

1 A county historian, himself the minister of Kirkcudbright, thus frankly 
writes: "The Presbyterian ministers exhibited a melancholy want of candour 
and discretion. They plainly exhibited their decided enmity to toleration, and 
proved to the world that unless they got everything, they would have nothing. 
Hatred to Episcopacy kept pace with the increasing hostility to the Indulgence." 
Mackenzie's History of Galloway, ii. 14. 

to 1673] CONVENTICLE ACT 109 

men, earnest no doubt, but whose zeal sadly outran their dis- 
cretion, were accepted as gospel ; their utterances (even in the 
shape of the cursing in which they closely followed the saints of 
the early Scottish Church) were taken as inspired, and they were 
fully credited with the gift of prophecy. 

But on the other side Government seemed to forget that 
dragooning does not tend to make men milder, and that it was 
unstatesmanlike to drive thousands to desperation, who, however 
fanatical, were not ill -living ; and, except as regards church 
services, peacefully disposed. 

Popularity being now entirely with these " Irreconcilables," 
and their services being held in the open air, they were hence- 
forth known as the "hill folk"; and certainly their conduct 
savoured somewhat of brigands (brigantes), the true meaning of 
which is " mountain-men." 

Firmly persuaded that theirs was the only true religion, 
they proceeded, as religious acts, deliberately to insult and 
despoil the Episcopalian curates. Among many examples from 
the law-courts we find that a party of "Irreconcilables," dressed as 
females, broke at dead of night into Mr. Eowe's house at Balma- 
clellan, dragged him out of bed, administered certain stripes, and 
"ripped" his trunks and almories, appropriating what they 
fancied as lawful spoil. 

Again three men in disguise forced the house of Mr. Lyon of 
Urr, made equally free with his chattels, but failing to catch 
him, carried off his wife to the hills as a hostage. 

As these excesses were notoriously the outcome of the 
enthusiasm generated at camp meetings, we cannot blame the 
Government for determining to grapple with the danger. 

The grand mistake was the barbarous severity with which 
the Conventicle Act was worded, and the still more barbarous 
spirit with which it was enforced. 

This Act, which from its sinister consequences was known 
as the Black Act, passed the Estate the 13th of August 1670. 
The limited protest against its rigour passed unheeded. 

Divisions were as yet unknown in Parliamentary procedure, 


and would in any case have been useless against a Government 
with a large and exultant majority. The mouths of the sheriff 
and his colleague Monreith were sealed ; the son of the latter, 
and son-in-law of the former, being at the moment at the horn, 
and it being undesirable to provoke a taunt to that effect. 

Lord Cassilis shortly expressed an opinion of the impolicy 
of the Act ; and the only person who ventured to speak out 
strongly in deprecation of intolerance to Presbyterians, and who 
by his walk and position commanded respect, was Archbishop 
Leighton, who had been so unjustly maligned by the very party 
he proved generously eager to befriend. 

The Act was carried. Field-preaching was made a capital 
offence ; attendance at conventicles, treason. It being further 
enacted that those knowing of a conventicle having been held, 
or being about to be held, and not volunteering information, 
were to be equally guilty with those who had been present. 

Expounding the Scriptures to any persons not strictly 
members of a household brought the master within the Act, by 
which it was explained : 

" That any house where there be more persons than the 
house contains, so as some of them be without doors, is hereby 
declared a Field Conventicle ; and any who shall convocate any 
number of people to these meetings shall be punished with death 
and confiscation of goods." J 

Patrick Agnew of Galdenoch, who had married Anna Shaw 
of Ballygelly, notwithstanding the heavy fines imposed at the 
Eestoration, had continued to keep house at Galdenoch Tower ; 
and dying about this time, we find Alexander Agnew of Croach 
acting as his executor by the following deed, which we quote as 
showing the family connections : 

" Forsameikle as there was and is adebted be Patrick Muire 
of Auchneile to umquhile Patrick Agnew, father to the said 
Patrick Agnew of Galdanach, the sum of 4441 marks, the said 
Alexander obliges him for payment and outquything thereof, to 

1 Acts of Parliament to Charles II., Session 2, chap. 5, Acts against 

to 1673] CONVENTICLE ACT 111 

pay and deliver to Agnes Agnew the sum of 2500 marks, to 
Mr. James Agnew 1000 marks, and to Margaret Agnew the sum 
of 1000 marks." 

This sum the laird of Croach personally liquidated, in con- 
sideration of which Patrick Agnew undertook to make over to 
him " the said wadsett," along with " Anna Shaw my mother, 
Mr. James Agnew my brother, and Agnes Agnew my sister, as 
cautionners for and with me. 

"In witness whereof thir presence wrytten'by Mr. James 
Agnew are subscribed at the Galdanach the 21st day of April 
1669, before thir witnesses : Andrew Dunbar, Burgess of Stran- 
raer, and James Gib, Servitor to Patrick Agnew of Galdanach. 






In the year 1671 the sheriff died, leaving a will written 
three years previously in his own hand as follows : 

" Att Lochnaw the 15 Februar 1668 years, I Sir Andrew 
Agnew of Lochnaw Knyht Barronett, being, praised be God, in 
health and perfect memorie, declares my Will and Testament to 
be as after follows. 

" Having seriously considered the condition of my estait and 
of the many trubills cumin laitly upon me unexpected, quhairof 
my eldest sonne must beare ye burden as air to me : 

" Therefore and in consideration quhairof, and that my other 
children are sufficiently portioned with ane greater portion than 
otherways I would, yf I had known their troublesome burdens 
were to come upon me : 

" Upon this and other considerations I leave my eldest sonne 
Andrew Agnew full Executor, and Intromettor, with all and 
quhatsumever bonds, contracts, moveable goods, nolt, ship, and 
insicht plenishing both within the house and without, with all 
bygone rent that is upon the Tenants ; with all the victuall that 


is in the Garnall of Lochnaw received by James M'Kie, and in 
ane note in my Count-Buke. And in respect there are several 
bonds owing me, and that I am owing several bonds to others, I 
do refer my forhand to the bonds themselves and discharges 
both to me, and by me discharged. As to the victual it is 
in an Count-buke and so is the plenishing of nolt and ship 
particularly noted." 

(Here follow some provisions respecting Olbreck and Pol- 
mallet, and the reversion of the property failing heirs -male, 
which he settled on his second son William ; also a few smaller 
bequests, of which one only is inserted as a specimen.) 

" To Margaret M'Douall 1 my niece I do leave her 300 merks, 
to help her to ane fortune if she prove a honest woman which I 
pray the Lord she may. 

" This is all I have resolved for the present ; and to signify 
my will that no others may trouble my said sonne further in 
reason to what was or is myne at my death ; beseeching the 
Lord to bless you, and keep you stable in the truth, and never 
to lay my sins nor the sins of our predecessors to your charge. 

" Dated the foresaid day and place ; this is my will, and 
subscribed and written in my hand. AN. AGNEW." 

The ninth sheriff had lived through stirring times, in which 
he had played his part with general acceptance, acting with 
vigour in the conduct of the war, first with and then against the 
English Parliamentary party, during the interregnum being 
appointed a justice delegate and one of the commissioners for 
governing the kingdom, both before and after the Kestoration 
advocating without bigotry civil and religious liberty. He was 
elected successively by his neighbours as their representative for 
the Parliaments and Conventions summoned for 1643,1644, 1646- 
47, 1648-49, 1665, 1667, 1669-72. He left, moreover, a minute 
account of his sheriffdom, a copy of which has fortunately been 
preserved in the Advocates' Library (given in the Appendix). 

The tenth sheriff was now infefted in his father's estates and 

1 She was his grand-niece, daughter of his nephew Patrick M'Dowall of Logan. 

to 1673] CONVENTICLE ACT 113 

jurisdictions on the 2nd October 1671, the undermentioned 
gentlemen assisting at the service : 

"George Stewart (acting as Sheriff - depute) ; Alexander, 
Earl of Galloway ; Sir David Dunbar of Baldoon ; William 
Stewart of Castle-Stewart ; John Vaus of Barnbarroch ; Hew 
Cathcart of Caiiton ; Thomas Dunbar of Mochrum ; William 
Gordon of Craichlaw ; William Maxwell of Monreith ; Gilbert 
Neilson of Craigcaffie ; Patrick Agnew of Seuchane ; Patrick 
M'Dowall of Logan ; Alexander M'Culloch of Drummorell, Com- 
missary of Wigtown ; John Blair of Dunskey ; David Dunbar, 
younger of Baldoon ; and John Fergussone of Dowaltoun." 

The lands being thus entered in the Inquest : " Dominus 
Andreas Agnew de Lochnaw, miles baronettus, hseres masculus 
Domini Andrese Agnew de Lochnaw, Militis Bar. patris. 

" The 5 merk lands of Lochnaw, 2 J merk lands of Dun- 
dinnie, 5 merk lands of Salquharry, 5 merk lands of Craich- 
more, all of old extent. 

"The 2J merk lands of Olbrick, 5 merk lands of Caltis, 3J 
lands of Boltier, 5 pound lands of Glenturk, of Carslace, of 
Carsgown, and Chapeltoun ; 4 merk lands of Auchneill, 1 merk 
land of Galdanach, 4 merk land of Larbrax-Gressie, 32 shilling 
(solidatus) land of Auchnotteroch, 10 merk land of Cruggleton 
Castle, 10 merk land of Cruggleton Caverns (all of old extent), 
with the Mill of Partzeanoch, barns, tenements, woods, and 
acres, and Mill of Innermessean ; five pound land of Marslauch, 
of Kerronrae, and Glenmarie ; 5 merk land of Sheuchane and 
Garclerie ; salmon-fishing in the water of Luce (salmonum pisca- 
tione infra aquam de Luce) ; 5 merk land of Dalyerrane ; lands of 
Meikle Tung and Little Tung ; 40 shilling land of Auchrocher ; 
5 pound land of Calquhirk ; and various tenements in Stran- 

With respect to other possessions we find, under date 8th 
January 16*72 : 

" Ane accompt betwixt ye Sheriffes of Galloway and Kel- 



head : for the demes of the Milne of Kircudbright in ye tyme 
of rny Lady Kirkcudbright's life, according to ane tack granted 
by ye Sheriffe to her." 

This runs over many years, of which the following items 
are specimens : 

" Eeceived by Sir Andrew Agnew from my Lady, as appears 
from discharges be him to her . . 448 

" Eeceived be him from Sir Eobert Maxwell 

by bond . . . . 224 

" Eeceived be him from myself (Kelhead at 

Wigtoune) . . . . 200 

"Sum of the Sheriff's receipts . . 872 

" Summa of Kelhead's receipts . . 1457 0" 

The last entry being : 

"Eents to be divided betwixt the Sheriff 

and the Counter 2 B< . . 218 G 8 

"Of which the Sheriff's half is , . 109 3 4 

" I grant me to be restane to the said Sir Andrew the above 
wrytten balance. 

" Subscribed with my hand at Edinburgh before thir wit- 
nesses : Alexander M'Culloch of Drummorell ; Archibald 
Douglas, merchant in Edinburgh ; George Dickson, wrytter. 


Mills were in those days most valuable property. The dues 
payable to the proprietor in this instance were higher than the 
rental of very considerable estates. The proportionate fall in 
the receipts for mills, and the rents of neighbouring agricultural 
farms (or rather the rise in the latter), are very striking. 

1 "Kelhead" was Sir William Douglas, second son of the first Earl of 
Queen sberry. Lady Kirkcudbright (wife of Thomas, second Lord) was his 

2 The "Counter" was James, Sir William's son, who had married his cousin 
Lady Katherine Douglas, whose sister was wife of the third Earl of Galloway. 

to 16/3] CONVENTICLE ACT 115 

We also find him, as heir to his father, discharging the sum 
settled on his sister on her marriage with Cathcart of Carleton :' 

" I Hugh Cathcart of Carleton, grants me to have received 
from Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw Knyght and Baronet full 
and complete payment of the soume of 10,000 marks promised 
to me with Grizel Agnew, lawful eldest daughter of umquhile 
Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Sheriff of Galloway. 

" Signed at Stranrawer before Patrick Kennedy, Provost of 
Stranraar, and Andrew Baillie notary." 

We also find the following agreement : 

" At Stranraer the 1st of March 16*72, it is agreed betwixt 
Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Sheriff of Wigtown, and Mr. 
Alexander Adair son to umquhile Sir Eobert Adair of Kilhilt 
now donator of the ward and nonentries of the Baronie of Kil- 
hilt and Drumoure ; that forsameikle as there has been firme 
friendshipp in tymes bygane amongst their predecessors and for 
maintaining thereof they did accord, that what thieffs should be 
apprehendit within the said Barony of Kilhilt, whether be the 
Sheriff officer or Barronne officer, the goods of the condemned 
thief should be equallie devidit amongst them. . . . Whosoever 
shall be the first apprender or by whomsoever of the said parties 
he shall be judged, the goods of the said condemned shall be 
equallie divided betwixt Sir A w . A w . and Mr. A r . A r . and both 
parties oblige themselves to give faithful Inventar and Infor- 
mation to one another of the same." 

The party to this agreement was the second son of Sir 
Eobert Adair, who, dying in 1665, had been succeeded by his 
eldest son William, who resided at Ballymena, though still 
owning Kinhilt. On the 2nd of June 1673 this Adair of 
Dromore was contracted in marriage to Margaret, daughter of 
Agnew of Sheuchan ; Adair settling on his wife " TOO marks 
yearly of jointure, with the 2 J mark land of Cardrine, the 2 J 
mark land of Killiness, the 16/8 land of Killumpha Agnew, of 
old extent." 

This was ratified at Dromore in 1713 after Alexander's 
decease, by his grand-nephew Sir Eobert Adair ; he granting 

116 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1668-1673 

Margaret Agnew the use of the mansion-house of Dromore, " if 
he stand not in need of it, or 40 further in liew thereof." 

We also find at this date a curious memorandum between 
the sheriff and a glazier : 

"At Lochnaw the 28th day of February 1672, it is con- 
ditioned and agreed betwixt Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw 
Knyght Baronet on the one part, and Alexander Agnew Glassar 
in Cladderhouse on the other part, to wit : the said Alexander 
is to uphold the glasse windows of Lochnaw and the Castle of 
Indermessan, during his lifetime. And the said Sir Andrew is 
to give the said Alexander yearly six pounds Scots money for 
the above written cause. And the said Alexander obliges him- 
self to come to the fore said houses thrice in the year. To witt, 
Candlemas, Midsummer, and Martinmas. And the said Alex- 
ander is bound both to put up lessens and mend what is broken ; 
and if there be any new glass required, the said Sir Andrew is 
to give for the same 6 shillings Scots a foot, and the said Sir 
Andrew binds and obliges his heirs and executors to content and 
pay the said Alexander, beginning the first term's payment at 
Candlemasse next to come." 



A.D. 1673 to 1683 

But up spak cruel Claver'se then 
Wi' hastie wit an' wicked skill, 
" Gae fire on yon Weslan' men, 

I think it is my Sov'reign's will." 

Border Minstrelsy. 

ON the death of the ninth sheriff, Sir James Dalrymple (who 
had been made a Lord of Session in 1661, and President of that 
Court in 1671, with the courtesy title of Lord Stair) had been 
chosen to fill his place in Parliament, which in June 1672 
passed an Act in the most rampant spirit of protection, for- 
bidding the importation of " horses, victuals, and cows " from 
Ireland, ordering all heritors of the lands, and magistrates in 
the Galloway boroughs, to give bonds to a large amount " that 
neither they nor their tenants resett any sort of victual from 
Ireland," under a penalty of 1200, appointing commissioners 
to seize any vessels carrying the same " betwixt the head of 
Kintyre and Loch Ryan, or any port, loch, river, or creek, from 
Loch Ryan to Dumfries." 

Lord Stair's eldest son, Sir John Dalrymple, had in 1669 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir James Dundas of Newliston ; 
and whilst riding with her between Galloway and Edinburgh, 
they were obliged to call a halt at Drummachie, in the parish 
of Barr, where the lady gave birth, " 20 July 1673," to a boy, 
afterwards the celebrated Marshal Stair. 1 

1 In Douglas's Peerage it is stated he was born in Edinburgh, but we have 
been assured that the above is correct. 


For five or six years following matters went pretty smoothly 
in Galloway. Sheriffs, indeed, and lords of regality were 
strictly ordered to report and fine all who declined to have 
their children baptized by the parish ministers j 1 and sheriffs 
themselves were liable to be fined 500 marks if they failed to 
put in force the Act against keepers of conventicles and with- 
drawers from public worship. 2 

These Acts would seem to have been not very strictly 
administered, and it is a sign of a lull in the religious war that 
Parliament turned its attention from grievances of curates and 
complaints of bishops to those of the Heralds' College. 

The Lyon King-at-Arms had reported "that many had 
assumed arms who should bear none." Hence a house-to-house 
visitation was to be made by the heralds and pursuivants, whom 
the sheriffs were ordered to support, in order to matriculate 
the arms of those who might lawfully bear them, fine those 
who used them without right, and escheat all goods and gear 
on which unauthorised heraldic devices were engraved. 

In the Lochnaw charter chest is a certificate signed by Sir 
Charles Areskene of Cambo, certifying that the Eight Worship- 
ful Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, knight and baronet, for his 
achievement and ensign armorial, bears argent a chevron between 
two cinquefoils in chief, gules, a saltier couped in the base 
azure, etc. 

We find the sheriff jealously guarding the privileges of his 
courts, to which all barons, knights, and freeholders, provosts, 
bailies, and burgesses owed suit and service. The bailies of 
Stranraer had probably been rather indolent than contumacious. 
But we find him issuing a precept to the procurator-fiscal " that 
incontinent this my precept seen, ye pass, and in our Sovereign 
Lord's name and mine, command and charge the said provost 
and baillies to make payment of 50 money of fine within 14 
days, and gif need be, that ye pass, arrest, apprize, poind, and 
distrain as meikle of the said provost and baillies' goods and 

1 Third session, Second Parliament Charles II. chap. 11. 
2 Ibid. chap. 17. 

to 1683] THE HIGHLAND HOST 119 

gear, wherever ye can apprehend the same, as will extend to 
the worth of 50." 

The Lairds of Craighlaw and Culvenan were also fined 50 
each for failing to give suit and presence at the sheriff's court. 

We may give a few of the cases tried before it from the 

" 18 May 1675. Court halden by Sir Andrew Agnew of 
Lochnaw, Sheriff Principal, and his Deputes Captain Ferguson 
and the Laird of Dalregle. 

" The Sheriff having considered the dittay of theft proven 
against John Sempill in Drumnescat, and the verdict of the 
Assize finding him guilty ; the Sheriff being unwilling to take 
his life for the said crime, does ordain the said John to be 
stigmatised in the hand and thereafter that he go out of the 
country and never return during his lifetime upon pain of 

On the 3rd August 1675, John M'llroy was found guilty of 
stealing a cow and a calf ; but the animals having been re- 
covered by the owner, the deliverance was, " The Sheriff pardons 
him on condition of his banishing himself, there being no 
prejudice, and it being his first fault." 

On the 17th December 1675, three persons two men and a 
woman were brought before the sheriff at his head court, and 
there convicted of sheep-stealing. Of whom " William M'Kie, 
for stealing a sheep, slaying and selling it (it being his first 
fault)," was sentenced "to be burnt upon each hand with ane 
hot iron by the hangman at the mercat cross." " Bessie Bell, 
his accomplice, to be scourged by the hand of the said hang- 
man at the said place the 8th day of December instant." 

William Heuchan, an old offender, " to be hanged upon a 
gibbet at the Clay Pottie, by the Gallow-hill, by the hand of the 
hangman upon the ninth day of December instant, betwixt two 
and three hours of the afternoon. The Magistrates of Wigtown 
to put the sentence in execution, the PanelTs whole goods and 
geir to be escheat." 

This year the sheriff visited his Irish estates, and we have 


a note of his signing a lease of Kilwaughter, " appurtenances 
and regalities only excepted," to Patrick Agnew of Balikeill, 
" the said Patrick paying all dues payable to the Lord of the 
Fee, and bearing Sir Andrew harmless of all assessments im- 
posed by local authority or by the state. He also yearly 
paying to the said Sir Andrew 43 : 6s. be equal parts at May- 
day and Hallow-day, as also one barrel of beef and five firkins 
of butter/' 

For several years Government allowed religious matters to 
drift. Service on the hill-sides had become an institution, when 
the bulk of the people attended the preaching of their favourite 
ministers unmolested ; indeed it was the popular belief that 
Lauderdale winked at these proceedings. 

The bishops, however, grew more and more alarmed at this 
contempt of Episcopacy, and induced the Council to order the 
baronage to sign an obligation individually, that neither they 
themselves, nor their families, servants, or tenants, should attend 
conventicles, or harbour such as frequented them. 

Against so compromising a declaration the gentry of all ranks 
and persuasions remonstrated, prominently the Earls of Cassilis 
and Galloway, the latter's brothers the Lairds of Eavenstone and 
Castle Stewart, all the Gordons, M'Dowall of Freuch, and the 
sheriff himself. Lauderdale, however, far from entertaining 
their protest, actively resented it, and sent a special commission 
to Murray of Broughton to take " law burrows " from all who 
declined to sign the bond and to keep the peace ; breach of the 
peace being stretched to include the attendance of any relatives 
or dependants at conventicles. 

The sheriff, not having proved a sufficiently supple tool in 
the hands of the Council, was ordered to grant deputations of 
sheriffship to Grierson of Lagg, Claverhouse, and Earshall, 
as his colleagues, by whom he thus became practically superseded ; 
and as assistants to these new sheriffs 6000 Highlanders well 
armed, but with neither the habits nor manners of civilisation, 
were turned loose on the western shires, speaking a strange 
language, yet authorised to live at free quarters on the Whigs. 

to 1683] THE HIGHLAND HOST 121 

This Highland host made no distinction of persons ; whether 
hereditary officials, lairds, burgesses, or cottars, they construed 
their orders into a general license to carry off whatever struck 
their fancies, if only the owner was known to be a " Fig." 

It is a family tradition that these kilted crusaders were 
uninvited guests at the sheriffs castle of Lochnaw, and that he 
himself, having sent the ladies of his family away, occupied, 
along with his eldest son, unfurnished lodgings on the sea- 
shore, in a cave still pointed out under the Sea King's Camp at 
Larbrax Bay. 

Certain it is that all the pictures, furnishings, and various 
heirlooms accumulated during generations of occupation up to 
this date have entirely disappeared. 

These aggressive measures were followed by the citation of 
many of the Galloway baronage to appear before the Privy 
Council. Failing to appear, they were to be put to the horn, a 
penalty which most of them thought it the less of two 
evils to incur. It was immediately after a meeting of the 
Council, whence this order was sent forth (3rd May 16*79), that 
Bishop Sharpe, whilst returning home, was murdered by a band 
of gentlemen, outlawed indeed, but none of them connected with 
Galloway. So many Galloway gentlemen, however, had been 
driven from their homes by the insensate action of the Govern- 
ment, that for mutual protection they soon after forgathered 
with fellow Presbyterians elsewhere, equally compromised. 
Their whereabouts becoming known, the redoubtable Claverhouse 
fell upon the united band on the 1st of June at Drumclog, 
expecting an easy victory. But to his surprise and disgust he 
himself was driven from the field. So largely were the ranks 
of the victors immediately recruited, that their fortunes might 
have continued in the ascendant, had not discord broken out 
among them, owing chiefly to the impracticability of the severer 
Covenanters. Divided counsels rendered success impossible, and 
the victors of Drumclog were totally routed by the royal troops 
under the Duke of Monmouth at Bothwell Bridge on the 22nd 
of the month. 


The Galloway gentlemen concerned in the rising now turned 
towards home, followed closely by Claverhouse ; a royal proclama- 
tion dated 26th June forbidding all good subjects under the 
severest penalties " to harbour, resett, supply, correspond with, 
hide, or conceal," any who had joined in this rebellion. 

The Earl of Galloway's two brothers, Castle Stewart and 
Eavenstone, Gordons of Earlston and of Craighlaw, M'Clellan 
of Barscob, and M'Dowall of Freuch, were mentioned by name 
as rebels, as also Mr. John Welsh, Mr. Samuel Arnot, and Mr. 
Gabriel Semple, ministers. 

M'Dowall of Freuch was tried for treason before the High 
Court of Justiciary, convicted, attainted, his memory pronounced 
to be extinct, and his estate of Freuch granted by the king to 
John Graham of Claverhouse "in consideration of his good 
conduct and sufferings" 

The crisis was reached in August 1681, when the Test Act 
became law, by which all persons holding office were obliged 
to swear that they judged it unlawful to enter into any 
covenants or leagues without the king's command, and that 
they would never on any pretence decline his majesty's juris- 

The sting of the test lay in the latter clause, which at first 
sight not appearing unreasonable, was in its interpretation held 
by the law officers to include the king's jurisdiction as to forms 
of worship ; and its acceptance implied, and was intended to 
imply, entire withdrawal from Presbyterian communion. 

The sheriff, who had already incurred the royal displeasure 
for administering the conventicle acts too leniently, now filled 
the measure of his sins by declining to take this test, and was 
instantly superseded. On the 19th of January 1682, Graham 
of Claverhouse was gazetted sheriff in his room, held his first 
court at Wigtown the March following, appointing his brother 
David as his depute. 

Lord Stair had endeavoured to improve the Test Act by 
engrafting on it a rider that the recipient professed " the true 
Protestant religion as set forth in the Confession of Faith of 

to 1683] THE HIGHLAND HOST 123 

1567." But this was scouted, and he then felt himself unable 
to subscribe the oath, and was removed from his judgeship. He 
returned to Galloway, whence in October 1682 he passed 
privately to Ley den. 

Lord Nithsdale, the Steward of Kirkcudbright, also declining 
the test, was replaced by Lord Livingstone. Lord Kenmure, 
equally declining, was deposed from his Baillerie of Tungland, 
which was given to Claverhouse ; and Lord Galloway, also refus- 
ing the oath, was divested of the regality of Whithorn, which 
was given to Queensberry. 

Lady Dalrymple of Stair remained at Carscreugh, where she 
managed her lord's affairs. 

A good story is told, that meeting the new sheriff at a party, 
and becoming provoked at Claverhouse's abuse of everything 
Presbyterian, a system he declared to owe its existence to 
Knox's noisy cant, " Weel, weel," she exclaimed ; " if Knox 
only won his end by clavers, Claver'se won't win his without 
knocks." 1 

Though the story is current, it is hardly probable that there 
was any friendly intercourse between the pair. Her ladyship was 
not credited with the mildest of tempers, and was herself cited 
to appear before the Council " for absenting herself from church, 
and haunting conventicles," doubtless at the instance of her 
opponent, rather with a view of ruffling her haughty spirit, 
than from any hope of her amendment. 

A sad tragedy occurred at Carscreugh about this time. Her 
son John's two eldest boys were passing their vacation there, 
when a visitor arriving, his pistols, as was usual, were removed 
from the holsters, and placed on the hall table. The little 
fellows, who had been outside, came in, and seeing the pistols, 
presented them at one another in boyish play, and crying^" Fire ! " 
pulled the triggers ; James's missed fire, but John's exploded, 
killing the elder brother on the spot. The nerves of the younger 
Lady Dalrymple were so much shaken that for long she could 

1 It is to be understood that the pronunciation of Claverhouse was then 
always Claver'se. 


not bear the sight of her surviving boy, who was soon after sent 
to his grandfather to Leyden, the country to which he was 
destined to return as ambassador extraordinary. This was the 
embryo Field Marshal. 

Within an easy ride of Carscreugh was the old place of 
Mochrum, presided over by Christian, only sister of Lady 
Dalrymple ; the most direct approach to which was through a 
moss, once a waving forest of oak and birch, the swampy pass 
being well named Annaboglish (alta na boglaich), " the ford of 
the flow." 

Her husband Thomas Dunbar had died in 1671, leaving six 
daughters married respectively to Stewart of Tintalloch, Eamsay 
of Boghouse, Baillie of Dunragit, Hawthorne of Aries four 
Galloway lairds; a fifth to Campbell of Skeldon, a sixth to 
Sir James Stewart of Stewartfield ; and had been succeeded in 
his estates by an only son James, noted for his size and 
strength, whence his sobriquet " the Giant." He was popular, 
from his humour and convivial ways, though somewhat addicted 
to practical joking in his cups. 

James continued to live at the old family place ; but his 
fortunes were on the decline. He was hospitably inclined, and 
dearly loved a good drink of claret, in which his finances seldom 
allowed him to indulge, for he had been obliged to sell a large 
part of the paternal estates. These had been purchased by the 
second son of the Laird of Monreith ; and this proceeding on his 
part, notwithstanding the purchase-money had been duly paid, 
" the Giant," with true Scottish impulse, looked upon as little 
short of robbery. William Maxwell, after this transaction, was 
designated " of Mochrum Loch," or usually simply " Loch " ; he 
had previously acquired also the lands of Longcastle from Vaus 
of Barnbarroch. In the year 1680, on the death of his nephew, 
" Loch " became Laird of Monreith ; and in the course of the 
same year he, being then a widower, married a sister-in-law of 
the Sheriff's Elizabeth, daughter of Sir Thomas Hay of Park. 
The following year he was created a baronet of Scotland and 
Nova Scotia ; and in 1682 he further acquired Ardwell, Killeser, 

to 1683] THE HIGHLAND HOST 125 

and the lands and manor-place of Myrtoun, from Sir Godfrey 
M'Culloch, another of the old baronage, who now fell from the 
position so long occupied by his family. 

According to feudal custom, the principal landowners, not 
of the nobility, had taken rank among themselves according to 
the priority of their baronial tenures. In Galloway, the barons 
of old refused to yield any precedence to knighthood, and were 
not inclined to give way to baronets either, although to these 
last special precedence had been assigned by Act of Parliament. 
A good story is told illustrative of this : 

The Maxwells, although of an ancient and honourable house, 
had not the same standing as the Dunbars as Galloway pro- 
prietors. The Maxwell of the day a rare exception in these 
times was in flourishing circumstances ; Dunbar's affairs were 
in confusion the one was small of stature, the other so tall and 
powerful that his very name had become an adjective of size ; 
the one was rich, the other poor, but proud withal and being 
the oldest baron he refused to yield a single inch to the new- 
made baronet. 

Things being so, these two met at some county festivity. 
Maxwell was in the act of asserting his proper precedence, when 
Dunbar advanced, and interposing his stalwart form between the 
baronet and his intended partner, roughly exclaimed, " Mochrum 
before Monreith." Sir William, anxious to avoid a quarrel 
before the ladies, good-humouredly returned, " Yes ; but baronets 
before lawns ; and to refresh your memory upon that point, I 
must send you a hogshead of claret to drink my footing." " A 
bargain ! " cried the Giant eagerly, giving way at once, his eyes 
glistening at the proposal ; and a bargain it was. The good 
claret duly arrived at the old place of Mochrum, was duly 
appreciated, and when next the laird met his neighbour, not a 
word was said against a baronet's precedence, he walking 
amicably behind. Not very long afterwards, however, at a 
similar gathering, Sir William Maxwell was in the act of offering 
his hand to the lady whom his rank entitled him to escort, 
when he felt a huge paw fall heavily on his shoulder, and sure 


enough there he saw the big baron standing before him in no 
courteous mood, muttering in peremptory tones, " Mochrum before 
Mbnreith." Astounded at this breach of manners, Maxwell 
rejoined to the effect that the rules of honour as well as of 
decorum should have secured him from such unseemly treat- 
ment ; but the Giant was not to be stayed. Pushing past Sir 
William, he carried off his fair prize with an air of triumph, 
gruffly exclaiming by way of apology to the company, " Hout, 
man ! your claret's done!' 

Mochrum does duty in various forms in Galloway phraseology. 
" A Mochrum Laird " is still the local term for a cormorant, as 
these birds frequent the castle loch, and breed there in great 

When any one is hankering after something which he cannot 
by any possibility expect to get, a Galloway wag will say, " He 
is like the auld mill o' Mochrum, which aye wanted a back door," 
the mill having been said to have stood there abutting on the 
solid rock. This mill also sometimes plays its part in the sharp 
form of repartee. If any Gallovidian for instance questions 
another closer than he likes as to where he is going, he may expect 
to be answered by the " sell to the auld mill o' Mochrum, man." 

Conviviality was now effectively checked by the presence of 
Claverhouse, who although accustomed to shine in sympathetic 
society, was in Galloway somewhat of a bugbear. Many of the 
baronage were outlawed, and were wandering as fugitives at 
their wit's end to elude his troopers. The Lairds of Craighlaw, 
Freuch, Larg, Kavenstone, Castle Stewart, and Viscount 
Kenmure, being amongst the number, the last leaving his lady 
to live with what comfort she could with thirty dragoons at free 
quarters in his castle. 

We extract a few lines from his own correspondence : 


" Newton of Galloway, 16th Feb. 1682. 
" As I came from Stranraer about Glenluce I met with 
Castle- Stewart and his brother, to whom I gave all the assur- 

to 1683] THE HIGHLAND HOST 127 

ance imaginable of my care of their concerns, as I did to my 
Lord Galloway, whom I had the honour to see at his own house, 
and let him know it was particularly recommended to me by 
your Lordship. They seemed very sensible of your favour and 
satisfied with it. I had the good fortune to see Bructon, 
Baldon, and Ylle. 1 

" I was last night to wait on my Lady Kenmure, my Lord 
being from home. I told her what pains your Lordship had 
been to keep her house from being a garrison, and she seemed 
very sensible of it. I am sorry I must acquaint you, but I shall 
do it to nobody else, that I am certainly informed my Lord 
Kenmure has conversed frequently with rebels, particularly 
Barscob. 2 

" As to the treasury commisaion I fear I shall not be able to 
do what I would wish, because of the season. For of their corn 
and straw there is not much left, and their beasts this time of 
the year is not worth the driving." 

" Newton of Galloway, 1st March 1682. 

" I wish the Gordons here were transplanted to the North, 
and exchanged with any other branch of that family who are so 
very loyal there and disaffected here. 

" I desire leave to draw out of the two regiments one 
hundred of the best musketeers who had served abroad, and I 
should take the horses here amongst the suffering sinners." 

" Wigton, March the 5th, 1682. 

" Old Oaikley came in yesterday, and I got a safe pass for 
his son and another heritor called Magie 3 that has not yet been 
heard of. 

" Here in this shire I find the lairds all following the 
example of a late great man and considerable heritor among 
them, which is to live regularly themselves, but have their 
houses constant haunts of rebels and intercommuned persons, 

1 Thomas Lidderdale, Stewart-Depute of Kirkcudbright. 
2 M'Clellan of Barscob. 3 M'Kie of Larg. 

128 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1673-1683 

and have their children baptized by the same, and then lay the 
blame on their wives. 

" But I am resolved this jest shall pass no longer here for it 
(is) laughing and fooling the Government." 

An Act of Parliament, passed about this time, shows the easy 
mode in which sturdy beggars were then, at least in theory, 
disposed of. At the Eestoration the Earl of Eglinton obtained 
a grant of the fortification formed by Cromwell on the site of 
the old Church of St. John's at Ayr. Some time afterwards 
the earl, in concert with some other gentlemen, started a wool- 
len manufactory in this citadel, which thence took the designa- 
tion of Montgomeriston ; and, for their encouragement, obtained 
the Act in question, empowering them to bring into their 
employment " all idle persons or vagabonds within the several 
paroches of the Sheriffdomes of Galloway, Aire, and Eenfrew, 
as shall be found begging and hindersome to the country. 1 

1 This is mentioned in the Obit Book of the Church of St. John the Baptist 
at Ayr, with historical sketch and translation, by James Paterson. 



A.D. 1683 to 1688 

They shot him dead at the nine-stane rig, 

Beside the headless cross ; 
And they left him lying in his blood 

Upon the moor and moss. 

IN 1683 the young Laird of Lochnaw married Lady Mary 
Montgomerie, daughter of the eighth Earl of Eglinton by Lady 
Elizabeth Crichton, daughter of the Earl of Dumfries. The 
marriage -contract was signed at Ayr on the 22nd of June, and 
witnessed by Lord Montgomerie, the Earl of Dumfries, Lord 
Crichton, Sir William Maxwell of Monreith, Lord Bargany, 
Hugh Cathcart of Carleton, and Patrick M'Dowall of Logan ; 
and the young couple forthwith took up their residence at 

These were not halcyon days in Galloway. Neither the 
sheriff himself nor his son the bridegroom had taken the test. 
Entrance doors had to be locked, bolts drawn, and the keys laid 
in evidence on the hall table, before a family untested could sit 
down in comfort to their meals. 

It was not long before the sheriffs sergeants knocked per- 
emptorily at the doors of Innermessan and Lochnaw, demanding 
suit and presence of the ex-sheriff and his son at what was no 
longer his own court, where David Graham worthily repre- 
sented his brother. 

Before the wedding had taken place, a commission had been 



issued to David Graham, William Coltran, and Sir Godfrey 
M'Culloch, "for tendering the Test within the Shyre of Wigtown," 
and by the autumn they had reported " that the haill gentlemen 
and heritors " had taken the test in the way and manner ap- 
pointed, excepting Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, James 
Agnew his son, William M'Dowall of Garthland, William 
Gordon of Craighlaw, and William and David the said William's 
sons, Stewart of Tonderghie, Mr. Kennedy, minister in Ireland, 
Mr. James Laurie, who lives at Ayr." 

We are at a loss to understand how the sheriff and his son 
eluded the search of the commissioners for many months. They 
may probably have found it convenient to visit the family pro- 
perties across the Channel. However this may have been, it is 
certain that they lay close for at least a year, disregarding all 
summons to take the test ; but somehow remaining unmolested. 

Claverhouse had shown greater bitterness against Sir John 
Dalrymple, whom he forced to appear before the Council, and 
charged him " with weakening the hand of Government in the 
Shire of Galloway," with opposing the Commission, and with him- 
self adjudging on charges made against his own tenants, purposely 
to give them too low for their attendance at conventicles, also 
that he did " insolently laugh " at Claverhouse's proclamations. 

To this Sir John retorted " that he was the person aggrieved, 
and that he had occasion of complaint against both Claverhouse 
and his subordinates. That when he had presented himself at 
the Sheriffs Court, Claverhouse did cause his officers and 
soldiers to take the complainant by the shoulders and eject him, 
and that as to the fines, they had proved sufficient as the people 
in Galloway were becoming more orderly and regular." 
" Orderly!" ejaculated Claverhouse; "there are as many elephants 
and crocodiles in Galloway as orderly persons." l 

Dalrymple was fined 500 sterling, and committed a prisoner 
to the Castle of Edinburgh. 

Meanwhile the Duke of York had arrived at Holyrood as 

1 Fountainhall, who gives the anecdote, adds : "A bold accusation and 
reflection on a whole shire." Fountainhall's Historical Notices, i. 389. 

to 1688] THE KILLING-TIME 131 

Koyal Commissioner. Lauderdale had died in 1682, having 
previously fallen into disfavour ; and the Earl (afterwards Duke) 
of Queensberry had stepped into his shoes, Claverhouse being 
added to the Council. 

As we have just seen, the ex-sheriff, the Laird of Garthland, 
and a few others, still evaded taking the test. How long this 
game of hide and seek might have lasted under Lauderdale or 
Queensberry we cannot tell ; but there was now a stronger head 
in the Council, whose system was thorough. Under the inspira- 
tion of Claverhouse, a new departure was taken ; the test was no 
longer to be evaded by shutting the door in the face of those 
who came to tender it ; such child's play was to cease ; those 
authorised to receive it were authorised also to force the doors, 
and the houses of all "who remained untested, present or absent, 
were to be levelled to the ground. 

None of the baronage of much note, excepting the sheriff 
and the Laird of Garthland, remained to be dealt with. They 
had held out much longer than their neighbours, and by 
those very neighbours were pressed to conform, with the view of 
representing the shire in the ensuing Parliament, rather than 
exclude themselves permanently from public life. 

The royal commissioners, moreover, were already at Wig- 
town, and would not hesitate to apply the torch to their 
ancestral homes. The pressure was more than they could bear, 
so they presented themselves at Wigtown before the (now) 
Marquis of Queensberry, Lord Drumlanrig, and Claverhouse 
himself, who received them with great courtesy, and ad- 
ministered the oath. Elated with their success, they forthwith 
despatched the following report to head-quarters : 

" Now Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw and James Agnew 
his son, William M'Dowall of Garthland, Stewart of Ton- 
derghie, and William and David, sons to the Laird of Craighlaw, 
have compeared this day, and taken the Test. We do therefore 
declare that the haill gentry and heritors within the shyre have 
taken the test except Kennedy, minister in Ireland, and Mr. 
James Laurie ; and that all the Commons in the said Shyre who 


had not taken the Test, hes now done the same, except six or 
seven, qhoo are now prisoners. (g . gned) QuEENSBEKRY> 

Wigtown, 17 October 1684 " Jo. GRAHAM." 

Never was there a more flagrant example of the uselessness 
of basing a government on oaths forced at the sword's point 
on an unwilling population. 

The test, it was believed, could it be but administered, 
would prove a permanent bulwark to the throne. In 1684 " the 
haill heritors of Galloway " had taken the test. The oath was 
renewed on James II.'s accession, yet not one of these gentle- 
men was fettered by it in action when the Prince of Orange 
raised his standard in 1689. Those in the highest stations had 
already treated as solemn oaths with even greater levity. 
King Charles himself had sworn to the Covenant. Lauderdale 
had been a sworn and staunch Presbyterian, and Archbishop 
Sharpe, as is well known, had been a sworn opponent to Epis- 

Having now apparently carried it their own way, the High 
Court, for the further administration of the Test and Conven- 
ticle Acts, proceeded with its sittings at Wigtown. All the 
heritors of the shire had been summoned to attend, and the 
original record is in the Lochnaw charter chest, from which we 
extract as follows : 

" Wigtown, 16 October 1684. 

" William, Marquis of Queensberry, Lord High Treasurer, 

" James, Lord Dmmlanrig. 

" Colonel John Graham of Claverhouse. 

" List of heritors absent this day, summoned to give suit 
and presence, who were excused by the laws : 
" Sir John Dalrymple of Stairs. 
" Sir James Dalrymple of Stairs. 
" Richard Murray of Bruchton. 

to 1688] THE KILLING-TIME 133 

" List of heritors within the Sheriffdom of Wigtown, who 
were absent when called, and therefore ammerciat and un- 
lawed : 

" John Gordon of Craighlaw. 

" Patrick Agnew of Galdenoch. 

" John M'Culloch, liferenter of Grange. 

" John Boyd of Kirkland. 

" And eight others. 

" List of assizers absent at calling this day : 

" David Dinninwood of Achlean. 1 

" Patrick Agnew of Galdenoch. 

" John Makkanless (M'Candlish), late Baillie of Whithorn. 

" David Gordon in Barnairnie. 2 

" Andrew M'Kie in Culbrattoun." 3 

The following are specimens of the proceedings copied from 
the Eecord : 

" John Stewart in Glenlukok, adhering to his deposition, 
re-examined, and refusing to take the test is committed to the 

" Eemanded ; committed to the irons." 

" Andrew Slowan in Glenlukok, solemnly sworn and inter- 
rogat, confessed accidental converse with William Kennedy, 
rebel. Swears never to harbour, reset, etc., in common form, 
and is content to take the test ; and this is true, as he shall 
answer to God, and cannot wryte. 

" Tested. (Signed) QUEENSBERRY." 

" Walter Hunter in Linglosan, 4 solemnly sworn and interro- 
gat, confessed that Kennedy, rebel, was at his house, and drank 
there, within these last twelve months ; swears never to har- 
bour, reset, etc., and is content to take the test. 

" Tested. (Signed) QUEENSBERRY." 

1 Auchleand. Aihadh leathan. Broad field. 

2 Bar n'airme. Hill top of the sloe bushes. 

3 Cuil Breatan, the (Strath clyde) Briton's corner. 

4 Lingluskene, Kirkcolm. Lin losgaun. Pool of the frogs. 


" John M'Ghie in Barnkirk, solemnly sworn and interrogat, 
confesses his indictment in omnibus, and is content to take the 

" Committed to prison. (Signed) QUEENSBERRY." 

" William M'Camon in Culbrattoun, examined, confesses his 
indictment, and refuses the test ; and being sworn whether he 
had taken the Covenant or not, confesses he took the Covenant 
at the place of the Eisk about five years since, when Mr John 
Welsh preachit, and that he had a chyld baptised by the said 
Mr. John Welsh at the same tyme. 

" Committed to the irons. (Signed) QUEENSBERRY." 

" Alexander Carson, servitor to Sir Godfrey M'Culloch, 
solemnly sworn and interrogat, depones, that he met with 
Gilbert M'Ghie, rebel, and had drunken with him, and that the 
rebel had called him ' Cussin Carson/ and that he knew the 
said rebel to have been at the rebellion at Bothwell, but that 
he considered the said rebel to be a free man in respect he was 
Broughton's gunner ; and this all was within these five or six 
weeks bypast. 

" Committed to prison. (Signed) QUEENSBERRY." 

" John Kincaid in Chalcarroch confesses that he heard Mr. 
Samuel Arnot and Mr. George Barclay preach in the house of 
Arioland and little Aries, and that he had a chyld baptized with 
Mr. Thomas Kennedy, minister in Ireland. Confesses he was at 
the communion in Penninghame about the time of the rebellion 
or thereby, where Mr. John Welsh preached : And being inter- 
rogat if he counterfeited a testimonial for one Sprot, confesses 
he did the same, and does not deny but he received the Cove- 
nant at the communion where Mr. John Welsh preached : And 
being interrogat if Bothwell Bridge was rebellion, was not clear 
to give his judgement thereanent ; and further the pass being 
produced judicially, he not only owned the same, but also signed 
it that it was the same testificat that he forged, and this he con- 
fesses judicially by his own declaration : And further confesses 

to 1688] THE KILLING-TIME 135 

that he was at the breaking of Mr. James Couper, minister at 
Methven-Mochrum his house, immeadiately before the rebellion 

" Committed to the irons. (Signed) JOHN KINCAID." 

" John Henderson, being examined whether rebellion at 
Bothwell was a sin against God, answered he could not tell. 

" Confesses he heard a conventikle at Edinburgh in the head 
of the (Stewart bow ?) in the west syde of the street, a year and 
a half since or thereby, but refuses to depone thereupon, or in 
whose house it was in. And being examined if he thought 
the Covenant was a good cause, he answered, ' Yes, my Lord ; ' 
and that it was lawful to rise in arms against the King for that 
cause; and declared that he heard not a preaching in the church 
these two years ; and judicially confesses a letter now produced 
which was written by him to Enterkin (indistinct) ; and being 
examined whether it was lawful to kill a bishop or a minister, 
refuses to declare thereanent, or to declare that the Bishop of 
St. Andrews' murder was a murder ; and being examined if he 
knew anything anent Enterkin business, or if they had resceued 
the prisoners, declares he knew nothing thereof, but that he 
wold have been glad they wold have resceued himself, and if 
he had been there he wold have done the same ; and being 
sworn and interrogat anent the setting fyre to the thief 's-hole 
door at Wigtown, depones that that night the prison was burnt 
he met Margaret Doual at Bladnoch water, who told him that 
the prisoner expected furth that night, and that he spoke with 
the prisoner that night before the escape. And this to be of 
verity he declares judicially 

(And signs) " JOHNE HENDERSONE. 

" Committed to the irons." 

" William Sprot in Clutach confesses judicially that he ad- 
vised John Kincaid to counterfeit a pass to him when he was 
going to Ireland ; and being solemnly sworn and interrogat if he 
converst with rebells, depones he converst with no rebels from 
the last circuit at Dumfries in anno 83 : and being interrogat 


how old his last chyld was, and who baptized it, he depones that 
his last child is about 3 years old, and that Mr. Ross baptized it. 
Owns the king's authority, and disowns rebellious principles, 
and says he knows not what the test or oath of allegiance is. 
" Committed to prison. (Signed) QUEENSBERRY." 

"Margaret Milligan spouse to James Martison, and Sara 
Stewart spouse to William Kennedy, and Margaret M'Lurg 
spouse to Alexander M'Clingan, rebells, Margaret Milligan 
and Margaret M'Lurg confesses the harbour of their husbands 
within this year and this half, but refuses to depone if they 
were there sensyne ; the said Sara Stewart confesses harbour of 
her husband within this quarter of a year, and that she has a 
chyld of a year old unbaptized, and is content that Mr. James 
Cahoun baptize her chyld, and she will hold the chyld up her- 
self ; and is ordered to enact herself in common form, and find 
caution that the chyld shall be baptized. 

" Milligan and M'Lurg committed to prison. 

" (Sara Stewart) enacted." 

(Signed) " QUEENSBERRY." 

Fifty-three similar cases were disposed of at the sitting. 

The following day the Court resumed, and the following 
judgments were pronounced : 

"John Stewart in Glenluckok, William M'Camon in Cul- 
brattoun, William Sprot in Clontarf, John M'Caffie in Gargrie, 
to be banished to the plantations, and to remain in prison till 
a fit occasion be for transporting them. 

" John M'Kie in Burnkirk found egregiously guilty of con- 
verse, yet willing to take the test, to remain prisoner in the 

" John Kincaid in Chalcarroch, and John Henderson, whose 
crymes are extraordinary, sent for trial before the Justice- 
General and Lords of Justiciary at Edinburgh." 

And next follow : 

" List of Woman Panells whoe refuse to depone anent har- 

to 1688] THE KILLING-TIME 137 

bouring, resetting, conversing, and entertaining of rebells, and 
are secured : 

" Margaret Gordon, goodwife of Arioland elder. 

"Margaret Milligan, spouse to James Morrison, rebell. 

" Margaret M'Lurg, spouse to Alex. M'Clengan, rebell. 

" The Lords Commissioners having considered the confessions 
of the above named Margaret Gordon, Margaret Milligan, and 
Margaret M'Lurg, and they refusing to depone anent harbour, 
converse, etc., decerns, adjudges, and ordains them to be banished 
to the plantations, and to remain prisoners in the meintyme 
till a fitt occasion offer for that effect. 

"Wigtown, 17 Oct. 1784 QUEENSBERRY, LP.D" 

Thus the Commissioners showed the Agnews how to execute 
the office of sheriff. 1 

The last list occasions sad reflections. To be banished to 
the plantations meant not only to be transported across sea in 
a convict ship, but there to be sold as slaves. 2 

The goodwife of Arioland was a dame of gentle blood, a 
Gordon of Craichlaw, and the crime of herself and fellow-con- 
victs was " converse" with their own husbands and sons. 

Doubts have recently been cast on the fact that penalties 
were incurred by simple nonconformity. A very slight acquaint- 
ance with the family papers of that date will entirely dispel such 

Andrew Adair of Genoch a laird of old descent but very 
moderate fortune declined to attend the Episcopal service. 
The curate of Inch bided his time and informed against him, 
for having had a child baptized by a Presbyterian minister. 
The fact was admitted : " For this and for Genoch's other non- 
conformity he was fined by Sheriff Graham fifteen thousand 

1 The Scottish Privy Council in January 1682 sent down the well-known 
John Grahame of Claverhouse to show the Agnews at the end of 230 years how to 
execute the office of Sheriff. Chalmers's Caledonia, iii. 363. 

2 Gilbert Milroy, a tenant on the Castle Stewart estate, was one of 190 
Scottish prisoners given by James II. to Sir Philip Howard. A right royal gift ! 
He sold them for what they would fetch. 


merks." Adair's inability to meet such a sum was so notorious, 
that, on the Bishop of Galloway's representation, it was reduced 
to five thousand merles ; but this sum the laird was obliged to 
pay. 1 

John M'Neal, a member of kirk-session in Glasserton parish, 
paid " forty dollars to Mr. David Graham for baptizing a child 
with a Presbyterian minister ; " and Michael Hannay, another 
member, probably as in the former case a farmer, paid " forty 
pound to Claverhouse his brother, because he had a child 
baptized by Mr. Alexander Ferguson, a Presbyterian minister, 
and got a receipt for it. 2 

" Wigtoune, Aug. 19, 1684. 

" The which day Katherine Lauder spouse to Patrick M'Kie 
of Auchlean confest that she had withdrawn from the church 
these two years lygone, therefore the Judge fines the said Auch- 
lean in two hundred and fifty pounds Scots. 

(Signed) "DAVID GRAHAM." 

In this case the husband on oath deponed " that for the space 
of three years she was soe unwell she was not able to go abroad." 
Sheriff Graham, however, was not satisfied. 

"Wigtoun, 20 August 1684. 

"The which day John M'Gachie in Bordland upon oath 
deponed that he had been but seldom in ye church these two 
years bygone, pretending want of health; however, he ac- 
knowledged that he made a journey to Edinburgh and went up 
and down ye countrey about his affaires which his son upon 
oath also declaired ; therefore the Judge fynes him in ane 
hundred pounds Scottsfor his withdrawing. 

(Signed) "DAVID GRAHAM." 

Surely we shall not now be told that " simple nonconformity " 
entailed no penalties. 

It cannot be denied that the Government were not without 
excuse for very considerable severity. Cameron, Cargill, and 

1 Adair MSS. 2 Kirk-Session Records, Glasserton. 

to 1688] THE KILLING-TIME 139 

Renwick, avowed leaders of the hill-men, had openly renounced 
their allegiance. Eebellion was actually rampant; soldiers 
caught straggling were assassinated ; a sentry was shot dead 
at the door of the Tolbooth of Kirkcudbright ; l and the Episco- 
palian curates, even when anxious to live perfectly quietly, were 
subjected to gross outrage. 

The Privy Council, however, endeavoured to assert the law 
with such a total disregard of humanity, and scandalous cruelty, 
that they alienated the affections of all right-thinking persons. 
Prisoners, male and female, of all ranks, were herded together 
for days in the open air, with no provision either for shelter or 
for decency. Persons who had confessed to what constituted a 
capital offence were needlessly put to the torture of the boot. 
Wholesale transportation was carried out without providing 
proper ships or accommodation, and ladies of gentle blood were 
not only so deported, but sold as slaves. 

Nothing could have been more preposterous than obliging 
old women, mere lassies, or moor-men, to declare upon oath 
whether they considered Sharpe's assassination murder, or the 
rising at Bothwell Brig rebellion, when it was notorious that 
they had never heard of either of these at all, except as the 
most righteous acts, and that they would have perjured them- 
selves had they sworn that they thought otherwise. 

Amongst other expedients for enforcing conformity, the 
curates were ordered to furnish rolls of their parishioners, stating 
(on oath) whether each person was or was not irregular. 

The whole of these lists are among the sheriff's papers under 
date 1684 ; and it is only fair to these much-maligned gentlemen 
to say that they must have much stretched their consciences on the 
side of mercy, it being notorious that their services were gener- 
ally ill attended, yet so few abstainers are noted in their reports. 

1 The followers of Mr. Cargill made choice of Mr. Renwick for their minister, 
who composed a declaration that "they abjured Charles Stewart, and were 
determined to treat as enemies to God all who shed their blood or endeavoured 
by secret information to promote their extirpation." The assassination of two 
soldiers of the guards called forth an order of Council which virtually enjoined a 
massacre of the party to whom their death was attributed. 


As an example, in the parish of Leswalt, every dwelling, 
from the castle of Lochnaw to the humblest cot-house, was 
named in order and the inmates catalogued; the report is as 
follows : 

" These are the names of the Parishioners of Leswalt taken 
up on the 21st day of September 1684. 
" I declare this is a true list as required. 

" M. W. SOMERVELL, Minister. 

" These to be excepted : Mr. William Cleveland in Challoch, 
an excommunicate person. 

" Jane Brisbane, spouse to Patrick Agnew of Galdenoch, who 
is paralytic. 

" As witness my subscription at Wigtown the 15th day of 
October 1684." 

A justiciary commission, with summary powers as to humbler 
offenders (for heritors were exempted from their jurisdiction), 
was issued to David Graham, Lidderdale, Steward-Depute of 
Kirkcudbright, Captains Strachan, Bruce, and William Grahame, 
dragoon officers, with power to use both boot and thumbscrew 
for extracting information. 

Numerous military executions, some closely verging on 
judicial murders, consequently occurred within the years 1684- 
1686, the unhappy period still remembered as the "Killing 

Charles II. died in February 1685, and on his brother's 
accession a general election took place. Great as were the 
exertions of Sheriff Graham to secure the return of candidates 
acceptable to Government, when on the appointed day he pro- 
ceeded to the Market Cross at Wigtown, and there having made 
due proclamation, adjourned to the Court-house to take the 
freeholders' votes, much to his mortification he had to declare 
that Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, and Colonel the Honour- 
able William Stewart of Castle Stewart, were duly and unani- 
mously elected. 

In the Stewartrv the Council were more fortunate, securing 

to 1688] THE KILLING-TIME 141 

the return of Hugh Wallace of Inglestown, described as " His 
Majesty's Cashkeeper," and heritor of the Barony of Larg. 
(M'Kie for the moment being forfeited.) 

In the very month of King Charles's death occurred the 
arrest of the unfortunate women, the victims locally known as 
the " Wigtown Martyrs." The story, shortly told, is this : 

Margaret M'Lauchlane, a woman 63 years of age, from 
Kirkinner, and two daughters of a certain Gilbert Wilson, on 
the lands of Castle Stewart, Sir Andrew's colleague, having fled 
to avoid taking the test, or hearing the curates, " respectively 
of 18 and 13 years of age, were tracked, taken prisoners, arid 
tried before Sheriff Graham, the Laird of Lagg, Major Winram, 
and Captain Strachan. They were indicted as being guilty of the 
Eebellion of Bothwell Bridge, Aird's Moss, 20 Field Conventicles 
and 20 House Conventicles ; (yet it was well known that none 
of these women were ever within 20 miles of Bothwell or Aird's 
Moss) ; the Assize did sit, and brought them in guilty, and the 
Judges sentenced them to be tied to palisadoes fixed in the 
sand, within the floodmark of the sea, and there to stand till 
the flood o'erflowed them." 1 

The youngest was released on her father paying a fine ; great 
interest was made no doubt by the members for the shire, and 
it is generally understood a reprieve was granted for the other 
two. Notwithstanding which they were brought out by the 
judges named, taken to the sands in Wigtown Bay, and on refusing 
to take the test, or oath of abjuration, drowned. 

Mr. Napier, having, it is believed, discovered this reprieve, 
raised doubts as to whether these women were drowned or not, 
and argued the case with much legal ingenuity. He has been, 
however, authoritatively answered in Dr. Archibald Stewart's 
History Vindicated? and it is absurd to doubt the authenticity 
of the Session Eecords, written in the lifetime of those implicated, 
or the rude monuments raised in Wigtown churchyard. 

1 Session Records of the Parish of Penninghame. 

2 The Rev. Archibald Stewart, minister of Glasserton. This work, published by 
Edmonston and Douglas in 1867, went through two editions, and is unanswerable. 


Sheriff Napier seems to have been quite unaware that the 
very backbone of the charge against the women's executioners 
was their having done them both to death, when they must 
have been aware that the reprieve had actually been granted. 

Local traditions traceable to almost contemporaneous times, 
even if they seem childish, stand in corroboration of the deed, 
in so far as they show that the reality of the tragedy was never 
for a moment doubted in the district. 

A minister long resident in the district told the author that 
the name of the man by whose information the women were 
arrested is well known, and his memory execrated still. One 
of his descendants, getting into an altercation with a person in 
the borough, was thus taunted the other day : " I wadna like to 
have had a forebear who betrayed the martyrs; I wadna be 
coomed o' sic folk." 

Another informant had communed with a person (Miss 
Suzan Heron) whose grandfather had seen the execution ; whose 
words were : " The sands were covered wi' cluds o' folk, a' 
gathered into clusters, many offering up prayers for the women 
while they were being put down." 

A town sergeant, who had been officiously active when the 
women finally refused Lagg to take the test pressed down 
their heads with his halbert, and cried with savage glee : " Tak' 
another drink o't, my hearties ! " Hardly had he returned home 
when he was troubled by an extraordinary thirst : it continued. 
No amount of drink he could take could allay it. His unnatural 
craving forced him, when obliged to go abroad, to carry a pitcher 
on his back. If crossing a stream he was irresistibly impelled 
to kneel down and lap water like a dog. Medical skill was of 
no avail : as the wretch wandered about the country, now turn- 
ing to curse a group of urchins who followed to mock his 
sufferings, now sprawling to moisten his tongue in the gutter, 
even his ribald companions shrank from him with horror, and 
the people, whose sympathies were with his victims, pointed to 
him as a man whose eternal sufferings had begun. 

Still more grotesque is the tradition of the " Cleppie Bells." 

to 1688] THE KILLING-TIME 143 

A constable who was held to have carried out his orders 
unfeelingly, as he fastened the women to the stakes, was asked 
how the poor creatures behaved when the cold wave roared and 
foamed about their heads. " Oo," he replied jocularly, "they 
just clepped roun' the stobs like partons, and prayed." Soon 
after, Bell's wife was brought to bed. when the howdie exclaimed 
in horror : " The bairn is clepped 1 " (i.e. the fingers grew firmly 
together). Another child was born, and yet another, and as 
each little wretch in turn was seen to be " clepped," the most 
incredulous were convinced it was a judgment of Providence. 
We have been gravely assured that within the memory of man 
a female descendant of the bad constable, on giving birth to a 
child, was horrified by the exclamation, " The bairn is clepped ! " 

An old elder in the parish, on being told that historical 
doubts had been started as to whether the said women had 
been drowned at all, answered with much simplicity : " Weel, 
weel, they that doots the droonin' o' the women, wad maybe 
doot the deein' o' the Lord Jesus Christ." 

Other genuine traditions are interesting as illustrating the 
full belief of the peasantry of these days in the powers of 
prophecy of their favourite preachers. 

Several of these cluster round the old Muirkirk of Luce. 

When Peden, ejected from his cure for being present at the 
Pentlands in 1663, preached his farewell sermon here before a 
sorrowing congregation, he knocked three times upon the pulpit 
with his Bible, exclaiming, " I arrest thee in my Master's name ; 
let none ever enter thee, but such as come in at the door as I 
have done." 

It so happened that as New Luce was for a time formally 
united to Old Luce on Peden's departure, none of the Episco- 
palian curates ever preached there, and this was accepted as a 
fulfilment of his prophecy. Again, on his deathbed, he remarked 
that he foresaw his enemies would not let him lie in peace even 
in the grave. He died at Auchenleck in 1686, and was buried 
in the family tomb of the Boswells. But with a brutality too 
common, soldiers were ordered to snatch his body from the 


grave, and bury it at the gallows-foot in New Cumnock. Here 
again he had spoken as a prophet. 

Again, John Welsh (a grandson of John Knox), the ejected 
minister of Irongray, held a conventicle on a whinny bank in 
Larg. As the congregation were assembling, the Laird o' Larg 
set the brushwood in a blaze, tauntingly exclaiming : " The old 
fox is burnt out." " You have grudged God's minister a whinny 
corner of your land," Welsh solemnly replied ; " perhaps He may 
not leave your children enough land to spread a tent on." 

The disappearance of the Lynnes from the roll of proprietors 
was felt to be a fulfilment of this prophecy, the more so as the 
man of God had added : " You have burnt the bramble to the 
roots on the hillside, beware that they do not rise again from 
the foundations of the Larg." 

The Laird's mansion-house has totally disappeared. 

The lands of the Lynnes have passed to the Dalrymples, and 
along with them some of the best salmon pools of the Luce. 
The old Muirkirk of Luce was served many years ago by a 
minister of a very different stamp indeed from Peden, but 
whose early experiences had been quite as rough, and almost as 
dangerous, as he had served as a surgeon in a whaler in the 
first decade of the century. 

Shrewd, rough, but genial, he was a noted character in the 

Of the many stories current about him, it was not only 
asserted that salmon appeared somewhat frequently upon his 
table, but that an especially fine fish always graced the board on 
the Mondays following the Communion Sunday, when his 
dinners to those who had assisted were quite an institution. It 
was even declared that a day or two previous to such occasions, 
he was to be seen in consultation with certain suspicious charac- 
ters as to which pool held the fish most suitable. New Luce 
was then believed to be a nest of salmon-poachers ; and much 
urged by a nephew, a late Earl of Stair was induced to call on 
the good man with a request that he would be very careful in 
buying salmon, not to give any encouragement to bad charac- 

to 1688] THE KILLING-TIME 145 

ters ; especially suggesting certain notorious poachers who were 
his parishioners. 

A request thus mildly and courteously put it seemed impos- 
sible to refuse. The divine heard out his lordship respectfully, 
and looking him full in the face with an air of the greatest 
simplicity thus delivered himself : " My Lord, since I have been 
settled in New Luce, I have always guided myself by the 
precept of the Apostle Paul, * Whatsoever is sold in the sham- 
bles, that (buy and) eat, asking no questions for conscience 
sake.' " 

The Peer was checkmated ; he felt farther appeal was hope- 
less, and drove off, having at least by his visit got a good joke, 
which no one was better able to relish. 

Being somewhat rallied on his return at his total defeat, 
" What could I do," he said laughing, " when the fellow turned 
my flank with the Apostle Paul ? " 

To turn to family matters, we find that on the shortest day, 
1687, Lady Mary Agnew gave birth at Innermessan to a son 
and heir, a child destined to be the hero of innumerable local 
stories, as " old Sir Andrew." We find a memorandum also as 
to the widow of the young Laird of Monreith. 

"Killochan, 2 Nov. 1687. Margaret Agnew, relict of 
umquhile John Maxwell of Monreith, lets intact during all the 
days of her life for 800 marks yearly to Sir William Maxwell 
of Monreith, the 8 markland of Balcraig, and the 2 mark- 
land of Barnhannock, and 5 markland of Drummodie of old 
extent, within the Barony of Monreith, to which she had a life- 
rent, by virtue of a covenant of marriage between her and Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, her father, on the one part, and 
John Maxwell and his father, W T illiam Maxwell of Monreith, 
on the other part." 

We find Sir Andrew visiting his Irish estates this year, his 
arrival preceded by the following peremptory letter to his agent. 

" Patrike, I wrott to you ye last weeke with Agnes M'Cul- 
loch which I am confident cam to your hand. And having ye 


146 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1683-1688 

opportunity of yis bearer I thought fit to put you in mynd that 
you would be careful y t my paines in coming to your countrie 
may not be in vaine. 

"I purpose to be over about the beginning of ye next 
month. If I find ye people hath made any provision for me, 
they may expect what courtesie I can give them. If my jour- 
ney be in vaine through their negligence, I must take some 
other course. 

" I shall not speake of any oyr thing till I cum, but bid you 
farewell, quho am, your loving friend, 

(Signed) "ANDREW AGNEW. 
"For Patrick M'Charlie, 

Killwaghter." 4th September 1688. 

Sir John Dalrymple had been arrested a second time at 
Newliston in 1684, led like a malefactor through the streets of 
Edinburgh, lodged in the Tolbooth, kept a prisoner there for three 
months, and liberated only on Lords Lauderdale and Crichton 
becoming bail for him to the amount of 5000. No crime was 
alleged as a reason for the outrage, and when Sir John was asked 
by such visitors as were allowed access to him why he had 
been so used, he would wittily reply, " I suffer for the original 
sin of a Presbyterian father." He had now been reinstated in 
the Eoyal favour, and named King's Advocate. He had lately 
purchased the Cassilis lands in Leswalt and Inch, including 
Castle Kennedy, where, from a paper in the Lochnaw charter 
chest, we find him now in residence. 

" I, Sir John Dalrymple, younger of Stair, grants me hereby 
to have received from William Cleilland in Shalloch (Challoch) 
all and haill the sum of 130 marks, for which Sir Andrew 
Agnew of Lochnaw, Knyght Barronett, is cautioner. I have 
subscrivit these presents with my hand, at Castle Kenedie, the 
27th day of September 1688 years, before these witnesses 

" Mr. Hugh Dalrymple, advocate, and Alexander Steven- 
sone, wryter hereof." 1 

1 Mr. William Cleveland was one of those delated as irregular by the curate 
at Leswalt. 



A.D. 1688 to 1696 

There's timmer that's red at the heart, 

There's fruit that is sound at the core ; 
May he that would turn the buff and blue coat, 

Be turned to the back o' the door. 

To Claverhouse, as well as the Laird of Lagg, his most active 
lieutenant, conventicle-hunting was a congenial occupation, and 
between the hill-men (or the Whigs as they chose to call them) 
on the one side, and the dragoons on the other, taking their 
pleasures sadly, it was a continual game of hide and seek. 

Most of their victims were of the humbler classes ; but 
parties of higher social position were treated with little cere- 
mony if caught. 

Lagg, with a party of dragoons, surprised Bell of White- 
side, a small proprietor, and some companions, fresh from a 
Cameronian service on Kirkconnel Hill. Grierson had often 
met Bell in society on equal terms, and had apparently been 
friendly with him. Yet when he was brought before him as a 
haunter of conventicles, he not only ordered him to be shot 
forthwith, but refused his modest request of a quarter of an 
hour for preparation. 

One of his own officers, Douglas of Morton, interceded for 
the short delay, suggesting that a man naturally wished to pray. 

" Pray ! " Lagg rudely replied with oaths ; " what the devil ! 
has he not had time enough to prepare since Bothwell Brig ? " 


And giving the word himself to fire, rode off, leaving Bell's body, 
and those of four others, on the heath, peremptorily refusing to 
allow them for the present to be buried. 

Shortly after this, Lagg, with Claverhouse, met Lord Ken- 
mure face to face in the streets of Kirkcudbright. Bell was 
related to Kenmure, who bitterly reproached Lagg for his 
especial barbarity to his kinsman in even refusing him decent 
burial. "Oh, take him yourself if you please," Lagg brutally 
retorted, " and salt him in your beef barrel." 

Kenmure's blade flashed from its scabbard, and he would 
undoubtedly have run Lagg there and then through the body 
had not the sharp eye of Claverhouse detected him in the act, 
and drawing his own sword, he spurred in, and parted the 
opponents. 1 

But whilst Sheriff Claverhouse was thus lording it in Gallo- 
way, and by systematic decimation thinning the ranks of the 
Covenanters, and enforcing the test at the sword's point, his 
astonishment was hardly equalled by his disgust, and that of 
Lagg and his fellows, on hearing of the King's intention of 
dispensing with the test oath and the penal laws. 

And worse news still, Mackenzie, who had ventured to 
remonstrate, was superseded, and (Dec. 1686) Sir John 
Dalrymple named King's Advocate. 

Immediately following upon this, Eoyal Proclamations sus- 
pended the penal laws against nonconformity, and free exercise 
of worship of every sort was permitted in private houses and 
chapels ; 2 field conventicles alone being prohibited. A contem- 
porary thus describes the situation : " Sir John Dalrymple, now 
King's Advocate, arrives. Lately twice in prison as a malefac- 

1 The place where Kenmure, Claverhouse, and Lagg met was on the street at 
the door of an inn, the walls of which are still (1841) standing, the house having 
been lately unroofed. Mackenzie's History of Galloway, ii. 269. 

In the churchyard of Anwoth is this inscription : 
This monument shall tell posterity 
That blessed Bell of Whiteside here doth lie. 
Douglas of Morton did him quarter give, 
Yet cruel Lagg would not let him survive. 

2 Stair, Annals,' 124. 

to 1696] THE REVOLUTION 149 

tor, and in very bad circumstances with the Government. Now 
he has got a Precept from the King for 1200, whereof 500 
was his fine which Queensberry and Claverhouse exacted from 
him three years ago. The other 700 for his charges in this 
last journey to and from London, and for loss of his employ- 
ment during that time. He has brought with him also an 
ample remission of all crimes to his father Lord Stair, to his 
mother, his brothers and sisters, particularly for their resett and 
converse with traitors, and to his little son, who accidentally 
shot his brother." l 

What could all this mean ? No one suspected James of 
over-tenderness for his Presbyterian lieges ; yet a change had 
come over the spirit of his dream. Claverhouse stood aghast. 
And, whatever was in the wind, here was Dalrymple, with whom 
they were at daggers- drawn, the leader of the Court, before 
which Lagg, any of his lieutenants, or even he himself, might be 

Further still, in January 1688 Sir John Dalrymple was 
made Lord Justice-Clerk ; and he must have felt himself in 
somewhat an awkward position when, a few months later, he 
learned that his father, taking little notice of the pardon he had 
been at pains to procure him, had actually landed at Torbay, in 
the suite of the Prince of Orange. The position was a peculiar 
one. As Macaulay maliciously puts it : 

"During some months Sir John Dalrymple at Edinburgh 
affected to condemn the disloyalty of his unhappy parent Sir 
James, whilst Sir James at Leyden told his Puritan friends how 
deeply he lamented the wicked compliances of his unhappy 
child Sir John." 2 

In the result Sir John was easily brought by the counsels of 
the parent to confess the error of his ways. 

Meanwhile the winter of 1688-89 was a season of no little 
anxiety in Galloway. Eumours of all sorts were in the air. 
The Whigs considered that James by his tyrannies had forfeited 

1 Fountainhall's Historical Notices, ii. 783. 
2 History of England, iii. 266. 


the right to their allegiance. His new-fangled indulgences were 
looked on with suspicion ; and even Tories in the west country, 
and many of the king's staunchest supporters elsewhere, refused 
to be parties to the re-establishment of the Popish Church. 
Moreover, when it was openly declared that the quarrel was a 
religious one, fears arose that the Irish might intervene for a 
Eoman Catholic king, especially as there were many of that 
religion in the eastern marches of the province. 

That these fears were not groundless appears from a contem- 
porary letter, preserved in an Ayrshire charter chest : 

" For the Laird of Jordan Hill. In haist, haist. 

" Paisley, 21st December 1688. 

" Sir, this night yr came to this place ane express signifying 
that some Irishes have landed at Kirkcudbright, and burnt the 
Toune. Wherefore ... ye are desired by all in this place 
to be here to-morrow, where ye shall be attended by your most 
humble servant, Jo. IRVING. 

" Thir news are just now confirmed, wherefore fail not, for 
they are burning and destroying as they come along." * 

Among other signs of the times, Sheriff David Graham 
disappeared. Whither he went, no one seems to have cared to 

The baronage met to consider and consult, and Sir Andrew 
Agnew seems to have been called by acclamation to reassume 
his old position, presiding at the meeting. 

How far there may have been any communications between 
the Prince of Orange, through Lord Stair, and the Galloway 
baronage, we have no means of determining. These were not 
days of correspondence, and he was rash indeed who committed 
such secrets of the State to writing. 

But it seems to have been assumed that allegiance to 
James II. had been ended. 

The only step this meeting took was to call out the yeomanry 

1 Letter to Crawford at Jordan Hill. 

to 1696] 



to rendezvous instantly at Glenluce ; the Laird of Logan captain, 
and the young Laird of Lochnaw lieutenant. 

Within a few weeks the successes of the Prince of Orange 
enabled him to name a provisional government ; and in February 
1689 writs were issued to the Scottish counties, ordering the 
election of a Convention of Estates. 

On the 5th of March the Prince's letter, dating from St. 
James s, was read at Wigtown by the town clerk at the 
market cross. The barons, who had already assembled in 
force, then repaired to the court-house, where, Sir Andrew 
Agnew being chosen preses, the roll of electors was called 
over, to which almost the whole responded. 

We give the roll, copied exactly from the Sheriffs Court 
book : 

Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Shyreff-PrincipalL 

Earle of Galloway 

Laird of Garthland 

Sir Andrew Agnew 

Magistrate of Stranraer 

Laird of Dunskey 

Laird of Garthland 

Laird of French . 

Laird of Mochrum . . 

Laird of Logan . 

The Laird of Kinhilt . 

Laird of Logan yor. 

Laird of Craigcaffie . . . 

Croach (Agnew) . . 

Ard. M'Kie of Drumbuy 

Earle of Galloway 

Laird of Castel Stewart 

Ard. M'Kie of Myrtoun , 

Laird of Craichlaw 

Sir William Maxwell . 

William Agnew of Wig 

Sir Godfrey M'Culloch ' , 

John Gordoune of Grange 

Laird of Torhous 

[No name] . . . , 

Patrick M'Kie of Auchleand 

Thomas M'Kie of Barrawer , 

Sir William Maxwell . 

Laird of Mochrum 










Lesmurie, ab. 



Croach, ab. 

Craichlaw M'Kie 


Castel Stewart 

Myrtoun M'Kie 

Craichlaw Gordoune 



Myrtoun M'Culloch 

Torhous Muir 

Torhous M'Culloch 

Torhous M'Kie 



Mochrum Loch 

Mochrum Park 


Sir William Maxwell . 
John Gordoune of Cairnfield 
Sir William Maxwell . 
[No name] (John M'Chrysten) 

Earle of Galloway 

Laird of Barnbarroch . 

John Stewart of Feisgall 

John Stewart of Feisgall 

Earle of Galloway 

The airs of Sir David Dunbar 

Laird of Castel Stewart 

Sir William Maxwell . 

The Shiref yor. . 

Earle of Galloway 

The airs of Sir David Dunbar 

Laird of Dunskey 

James M'Culloch . . . 

Laird of French . 

Sir William Maxwell . 

Laird of Bronghtoune . 

Sir William Maxwell . 

William Gordoune of Cullvennan 

Laird of Sheuchane (Agnew) . 

Sir James Dalrymple of Stair 

David Chalmers . 



Borland of Longcastle 

Clonsh, ab. 
( Sorbie 
\ Eggernes 





Lybreik, ab. 





Kirkinder, ab. 









Galdinoch, ab. 

Eldrick and Garwachie 

A discussion arose as to whether the members elected should 
go to the Convention entirely unfettered, or have definite in- 
structions ; the last being carried in a division put as " limit " 
or " no limit," by twenty votes to six, and instructions were 
accordingly drawn up, sufficiently general in their character, 
"that they should act or do nothing prejudicial to moderate 
Presbyterian government," and that they should be "forward 
to procure that the whole grievances of the kingdom be 

The record continues : " The whole electors proceed in 
election, who by the plurality of voices did elect Sir Andrew 
Agnew of Lochnaw and William M'Dowall of Garthland, to be 
Commissioners of the said Convention of Estates, and judicially 
did subscribe a commission for them to that effect at the court 
table in the Tolbooth of Wigtown." 1 

Whilst, however, the majority were subscribing this, a band 

1 Sheriff Court Records at Wigtown. 

to 1696] THE REVOLUTION 153 

of dissentients proposed "that a Commission be drawn to Sir 
Andrew Agnew and Sir John Dalrymple" j 1 which after some 
discussion, notwithstanding a strong protest from the Laird of 
Garthland, it was agreed should be put to the meeting. 

Before the vote was taken, an injudicious friend named the 
Laird of Castle Stewart as another candidate, and the sheriff- 
clerk proceeded to take the poll with the result as follows : 

Sir Andrew Agnew . . .27 

Garthland . . . .21 

Sir John Dalrymple . . .13 

Castle Stewart . . . .1 

Sir John Dalrymple 2 was subsequently proposed and 
returned as a member for Stranraer: a fact notable as the 
first instance in Galloway of a baron sitting as a burgess. 

At the election simultaneously held in the Stewartry, Hugh 
M'Guffoch of Euscoe and Patrick Dunbar of Machermore were 
chosen for the barons ; John Ewart representing the borough 
of Kirkcudbright, William Coltran that of "Wigtown, Patrick 
Murdoch Whithorn, and Sir John Dalrymple, as beforesaid, 

This famous Convention of Estates met at Edinburgh the 
16th of March 1689 ; Lords Cassilis, Galloway, and Kenmure 
representing the Galloway nobility. Strange to say, Claver- 
house, Viscount Dundee, took his seat, but withdrew upon the 
Assembly declaring that the throne was vacant. 

Their next measure was to put the kingdom in a posture of 
defence. " Sir Andrew Agnew, Sir John Dalrymple, Sir William 
Maxwell, Sir James Dunbar, Sir Charles Hay, the Lairds of 
Garthland, Barnbarroch, Castle Stewart, Sheuchan, Dunskey, 
and Dunragit " being named Commissioners for organising and 
officering the militia of the Shire of Galloway. 

1 Sheriff Court Records at Wigtown. 

2 When William III.'s Government was formed, he as his Lord Advocate had 
an ex officio seat in Parliament, and Sir Patrick Murray was then elected for 
Stranraer. In 1691 Sir John Dalrymple was appointed Secretary of State for 


And in view of an Irish invasion, which was believed to 
be imminent, "James Agnew, young Laird of Lochnaw, was 
empowered to lay an embargo on all Irish vessels found in 
Galloway ports, to impress any vessels he might require, and 
prevent any Scotch vessels sailing to Ireland ; Blair of Dunskey 
and M'Dowall younger of Logan to act as his assistants." 
And an Act was passed restoring Sir Andrew to his juris- 

"The Estates of the Kingdom having taken into their 
consideration that Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, being 
Heritable Sheriff of the Shyre of Wigtown, was wrongouslie 
and summarily and without order of law removed from being 
Sheriff of that shire in the year 1682, and John Graham of 
Claverhouse now Viscount Dundee nominat in his place and 
David Graham his brother: Therefore the Estates do hereby 
repare and restore the said Sir Andrew Agnew in his said 
office of Sheriffship as fully and freely as he and his predicessors 
Sheriffs of Wigtown did formerly enjoy the same." 1 April 
25, 1689. 

The same day the Estates nominated commissioners of 
supply. They were the same as those already named for 
regulating the militia, with the addition of Lord Garlies, 
Patrick Heron, John Stewart of Physgill, M'Culloch of Grange, 
the Laird of Craichlaw, and John Vallange of Fossils. 

On the llth of April, William and Mary were publicly 
declared King and Queen of England, Scotland, Erance, and 
Ireland ; and the sheriff hurried back to Galloway to administer 
the oaths in the various districts. As an example we find in 
the minute-book of the burgh of Stranraer that (10th May), 
" Conform to the Act made by the Convention of Estates for 
electing of the Magistrates and Counsellors of Stranrawer, Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw and William M'Dowall of Garth- 
land met for seeing the said Election orderly proceeded with ; 

1 In his commission "the Estates hereby give James Agnew younger of 
Lochnaw full power, warrant, and commission to seize any ship, birlings, barks, 
or boats, on the coasts of Wigtown." Acts of Parliament. 

to 1696] THE REVOLUTION 155 

and ordaynes the whole habile burgesses to meitt at ten o'clock 
on Monday next being the 13th May, each person to give in his 
vote for Magistrates and Counsellors in wryt and subscribed 
with his awen hand." On which day they accordingly all were 
sworn, and gave their allegiance to the Government of the 

The Earl of Argyle, Sir John Dalrymple, and Sir James 
Montgomery had been deputed to make the offer of the crown 
to William and Mary at Whitehall, their acceptance of which, 
followed by the death of Dundee at Killiecrankie (19th July), 
closed all serious opposition in Britain to the great Eevolution. 

But though freed from uneasiness at home, alarm was 
renewed as to invasion from Ireland, where James II. had 
landed, and had been received with acclamation. 

Great was the satisfaction of all Gallovidians when King 
William's pennants were seen flying in the roads of the Dee l 
and of Loch Eyan, parties of horse making their way from the 
Borders to Portpatrick. 2 

An unfortunate epidemic broke out among the soldiers in 
his fleet in Loch Eyan, and so numerous were the deaths, that 
the oldest inhabitants used to declare that at the beginning of 
the century a man might have passed from Cairn Eyan to 
Stranraer, stepping from grave to grave of King William's 
soldiers. However this may have been, we know that the 
survivors marched from victory to victory up to the crowning 
Battle of the Boyne, 1st July 1690. 

Local tradition asserts William himself to have visited and 
slept a night at Castle Kennedy, but tradition rarely quite 
coincides with history. Obviously one of his generals was 
mistaken for the king. A more authentic recollection was 
retained by Mr. Mbloe, a farmer in Kirkcolm, alive in 1860, 
whose own great - grandmother had been then " lifting fauld 

1 In the farm of Tors, Kirkcudbright, are vestiges of a battery erected by 
William III., when his fleet was wind-bound in the Bay as he was going to 
raise the siege of Londonderry. Old Stat. Ace. ii. 25. 

2 Some troops were conveyed from Chester to Kirkcudbright. The cavalry 
came principally by Dumfries. 


dyke in South Cairn " the day that William's fleet stood across 
the Channel, and always declared " it was the bravest sight " 
she ever saw. 

Honourable mention is made of Adair of Kinhilt at the 
Battle of the Boyne. Sir Robert Adair, grandson of the Parlia- 
mentary colleague to the ninth sheriff, raised a regiment of 
horse and commanded it with such effect that he was knighted 
by the Stadtholder on the field of battle. 

Shortly before this, Sir Robert had disposed of what re- 
mained of his Galloway estates to Lord Stair, reserving only 
for her life interest in her jointure to Margaret Agnew, his 
uncle's widow, over the baronies of Kinhilt and Drommore. 

His home was Ballymena, where a local distich still runs : 

Sir Robert Adair, the Laird of Kinhilt, 
Murdered his wife and married a jilt ; 

which his lineal descendant, the late Lord Waveney, explained 
thus to the author : 

Sir Robert Adair had four wives : Penelope, daughter of Sir 
Robert Colville ; second, a Martha, whose family name has not 
been preserved, but who died at the end of a certain August ; 
third, Anne Macauley, married 3rd October following ; fourth, 
Arabella Ricketts. 

Much scandal was occasioned by his third marriage within 
a few weeks of the death of the second wife ; the more so that 
the lady was engaged to a neighbouring gentleman before Lady 
Adair died, but jilted her suitor when courted by Sir Robert, 
openly keeping company with him before his wife was buried. 

A tradition as to this unseemly wooing is very amusing. 
One morning, taking this damsel by the hand, he led her from 
the town of Ballymena, pointing out by the way that the whole 
district was his property, over which he proposed that she 
should rule as mistress. The offer was a tempting one ; the 
couple strolled on till they reached a wooded dingle through 
which a stream murmured pleasantly, and here the enamoured 
knight broke out with, "*0nly be mine, and all you see shall be 

to 1696] THE REVOLUTION 157 

your dower." The old love was mentally discarded, the 
maiden sighed consent, well satisfied with the settlement pro- 
posed, and a few days afterwards the marriage contract was 
signed, couched in the identical terms used at the moment of 
their betrothal. 

But inconstancy met its due reward. The honeymoon 
over, the lady found that the old bluebeard had only " kept the 
word of promise to the ear, to break it to the hope." His 
engagement was fulfilled to the letter, but the life-interest had 
been secured to her over such lands only as could be seen from 
the deep dell where the proposal had been made ; the range of 
smiling fields they had gazed on before they had reached it 
was there invisible ; her domain was confined to a few acres 
of rocky ground in the deep hollow. Her dowry was a dream ! 

A bridge adjacent to the spot is called " The Dowry 
Bridge " to the present day, and Ballymena itself is still often 
spoken of in Antrim as " Kinhilt's Town." 

Whilst the sheriff and his eldest son were busying them- 
selves with militia and shipping, his younger son, Thomas, had 
girt on his sword, and was actively engaged in the north, under 
General M'Kay, as a cornet in the Eoyal Scots Dragoons. 

The Highlands had been quieted, when, to his grief, the 
sheriff received a letter from a Galloway cousin and brother 
officer, Lieutenant Stewart, with the news " that his son had 
died in Inverness on the 14th of June, and that he had been 
carried to the grave by the soldiers of Major Paltoun's 
troop," enclosing various accounts which he had settled for 
his friend, among which we find the items : 

" To Mr. M' Clean, Inverness, for ale and aqua vitce, 
16 : 13 : 4. 

"To Jane Fowler, spouse to John Eraser, merchant, for 
sack, 14 : 8s." 

Among other kinsmen of young Agnew in the regiment 
were Andrew and Thomas Agnew of Croach, or Loch Eyan, as 
they now were styled. 


The Eoyal Scots, or North British Dragoons, were early 
popularly known as the Scots Greys. No regimental record 
exists of their being mounted on grey horses prior to 1700. 
Two letters, however, at Lochnaw, prove that already a captain 
in the regiment rode a grey horse as his charger, and that 
he purchased a second of the same colour. 

Captain Agnew of Loch Kyan thus writes to the sheriff : 

" 28 Aug*. 1693. 

Sir, I send you with the bearer the hors I told you of 
at Edinburgh who trulie is ane extraordinar well going pad. 
If you think fit you may send me your large gray hors who 
I suppose will make a better dragoune, and as for boot I am 
satisfied to refer it to any you pleas att meating. 

" I intreat you would be pleased 'to give my humble service 
to your Ladie, and believe me to be, Cusin, your sincere friend 
and servant, A. AGNEW. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, Baronet of Lochnaw." 

Filed along with this letter is the decision of a veterinary 
surgeon, who arbitrated between the parties as to the relative 

" Stranrawer 2 Sep r . 1693. Gilbert Crawford having seen 
ane gray pad horse belonging to Captain Agnew, and ane gray 
gelding belonging to the Sheriff, finds the Sheriffs gelding 
worth ane hundred merks more of value than Captain Agnew's 

A few weeks later there is this entry in the sheriff's record- 
book : 

" Michaelmas Head Court of the Shyre of Wigtown, holden 
by Sir Andrew Agnew, Sheriff Principall, 26 Sep. 1693. 

"On the which day the Sheriff of Wigtown, the Earl of 
Galloway and the remanent Barons under-subscribing, taking 
to their consideration how the county is abused, terrified, and 
affrighted by vagabond thiefs and robbers, as under cloud of 
night enters the people's houses and ties the inhabitants, and 

to 1696] THE REVOLUTION 159 

robs what they think fit; for prevention and punishment 
whereof in time to come the under-subscribers allow the 
heritors of each parish to raise as many men within the parish 
as may search for and apprehend the said vagabond thiefs and 
robbers, or any that is suspect to be of that sort ; or any 
persons that are strangers and cannot give account of them- 
selves ; or any who pass under the name of beggars who can 
work and do for themselves. And the said persons being so 
apprehended to be brought to the Tolbooth of Wigtown, there 
to be incarcerat till they underly the law (or to the next 
adjacent prison to where the crime is committed). 







On the 23rd November 1695, the first Viscount Stair died 
in the 77th year of his age : unequalled in his day in practical 
knowledge of jurisprudence ; a strong Protestant, but free from 
the narrow-mindedness too usual in his time ; having appro- 
priately employed the evening of his days in composing a 
treatise In Vindication of the Divine Perfections, " of which," 
in the words of his biographer, 1 " a spirit of piety is the 
prevailing characteristic." 

He left, besides his heir, Sir Hew Dalrymple, President of 
the Court of Session ; Sir David Dalrymple of Hailes, after- 
wards Lord Advocate ; the Hon. Thomas, Physician in Ordinary 
to the King; Elizabeth, Lady Cathcart; Sarah, wife of Lord 
Crichton, eldest son of the Earl of Dumfries ; Margaret, 
married to Sir David Cunningharne of Milncraig. 

After the old peer's death, the house of Carscreugh was 
allowed to fall into decay. 

The Master of Stair, Sir John, now second Viscount, was 
under a cloud at the moment, owing to his share in the horrors 

1 Stair, Annals, i. 107. 

160 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1688-1696 

of Glencoe. During his temporary retirement from public life, he 
lived closely at Newliston, rarely visiting his Galloway estates. 
Municipal honours were still generally accepted by the 
county proprietors, as evidenced in the borough records of 
Wigtown : " Elected a Town Councillor, James Earl of 
Galloway " ; and afterwards an entry, " The Earl elected Provost 
in his absence," an intimation sent to him ; and further on, 
19th October 1696, " convened ane noble Erie, James Earl of 
Galloway, Lord Provost, who took and signed the oaths of 
office," and in this form : " We, James Earl of Galloway, 
Lord Stewart of Garlies and Glasserton, Lord Provost of Wig- 


A.D. 1696 to 1702 

The tide is now turned, let us drink t'other pot, 
And merrily sing grammercy good Scot. 

THE settlement of 1689 came too late to save many Galloway 
owners from the ruin entailed by the quarterings and fines of 
the last two reigns. Money to meet the latter had to be bor- 
rowed on the securities of lands which husbandmen too often 
were afraid to till. 

Among those who thus succumbed were the Agnews of 
Galdenoch, cadets who had been efficient part-takers of the 
sheriff's in gatherings offensive and defensive for many generations. 

As we have seen, Agnew of Galdenoch was entered at the 
Eestoration for a fine of 1000 : a sum only to be met by 
borrowing " by way of wadsett," and few such mortgages were 
not eventually foreclosed. 

Notwithstanding this strain on his resources, Patrick Agnew 
was able to leave his family moderately well provided for ; and 
he dying about 1667, we find the family inhabiting the old place 
in tolerable comfort. His wife Anna Shaw was his executrix 
along with Patrick his heir. This second Patrick married his 
cousin Marian Brisbane, whose family were in peculiar disfavour 
with the Government. 

In the curates list for Leswalt, she herself 1 is among the 

1 In an Act anent Commissioners of Excise in the Shire of Ayr we find 
John Brisbane of Brisbane, along with the Earl of Cassilis, Lord Cathcart, Lord 


few delated as " irregular," implying frequent and accumulative 
fines for nonconformity. 

The Highland host had previously run riot upon the property, 
and their depredations absorbed any little provision he might 
have made to meet his liabilities. Hence we find Agnew of 
Galdenoch delated as a heritor failing to give suit and service at 
the High Commission Court at Wigtown, presided over by 
Queensberry ; not presumably from contumacy, but that he was 
in hiding from debt. 

A younger brother, having been successful in business in 
Ireland, joined him in an attempt to retrieve his affairs, in which 
apparently the sheriff assisted ; as is to be gathered from the 
subjoined discharge : 

" I Andrew Agnew, merchant in Belfast, grants me to have 
received from Andrew Eoss servitor, in name and on behalf of 
Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, the sum of 25, being the equal 
half of 50 laid out by me on repairs for the miln of Galdenoch. 
On account of the said Sir Andrew Agnew and Patrick 
Agnew of Galdenoch my brother. The last of February 1688 

This Andrew Agnew was also a sea captain and shipowner, 
and did good service to his coreligionists in Ulster. When 
James II.'s army under Buchan were driving the flying Pro- 
testants before them with great slaughter, Agnew bore down 
upon them, brought his ship's guns to bear on the dragoons, and 
rescued a host of fugitives, who had been literally driven into 
the sea. Taking them on board his ship, he disembarked them 
in Loch Eyan. 1 

Whether he was continuously successful in business we 

Bargany, Sir "William Muir of Rowallan, and other Commissioners of Supply, 
called to answer for not compearing to execute the orders of the Council, 1678. 

John Brisbane of Freeland fined exorbitantly 3900 for withdrawal from 
public worship and attending conventicles. "Wodrow, ii. 226. 

1 Captain Andrew Agnew, sea captain and merchant in Belfast, in his 
vessel brought four guns to play on Lord Duleek's horse, and took 78 Protestant 
refugees on board his boat, 1689. Memoirs of Ireland (London, 1716), p. 216. 

Lord Duleek's horse chased the Protestants into the sea at Donaghadee ; 
but one Captain Agnew riding at anchor took 68 on board, and conveyed them 
gratis to Scotland." Reed's Presbyterian Church in Ireland, ii. 463. 


cannot trace : he was not sufficiently so to be able to avert the 
ruin which had long threatened his home. 

A mass of dreary law processes relative to Galdenoch is in the 
Lochnaw charter chest, showing too plainly that wadsetts multi- 
plied and creditors grew impatient. We even find him once lodged 
in the debtors' side of Wigtown gaol. The action which precipi- 
tated his ruin is in the records of the Wigtown Borough Court. 

"15 October 1696 the Earl of Galloway appeared before the 
Town Council with reference to a process against Patrick Agnew 
of Galdenoch for 468 : 11 : 8, principal sum, and 100 interest. 
A decree being made in his Lordship's favour." 

This was but a fraction of his liabilities. His land had been 
taken by a previous mortgage, and at last, through intricate law 
processes, the lands reverted by purchase to the family of Loch- 
naw, in the form of "a grant of the Crown of the escheat of Patrick 
Agnew of Galdenoch " : bought, in short, from his creditors. 

Leaving Galdenoch, Patrick Agnew retired to Stranraer, where 
he lived until 1705, his wife surviving him. In the Commissariat 
Eecords of Wigtown there is the inventory of the " insicht plen- 
ishing of his house/' rendered by his widow and executrix Jean 
Brisbane. 1 

Among the accounts is one for articles furnished for his 
funeral by Andrew M'Credy, Provost of Stranraer, which, 
unless these items were further supplemented from his own 
larder and cellar, seem frugal in the extreme : 

" 8 gallons of ale. 

" 4 pynts brandy. 

" 8 pund sweet milk cheese. 

" 1 stone 1 pound skim milk cheese. 

" Twa dozen biscuits. 

" A boll of meal. 

" Twa pund of cut tobacco. 

" 2 pund rolled tobacco." 

1 Whether he married two cousins or the above is a clerical error of the com- 
missary we cannot tell. Marian Brisbane was his wife in 1684 ; Jean Brisbane 
is described as such in these records of 1705. 


This is the only notice of the use of tobacco we have found 
in any of the family papers. 

The name of Agnew of Galdenoch disappeared from the roll 
of proprietors, and their old battlemented tower was occupied 
as a farm-house. 

Superior as the edifice must have been to any of the houses 
occupied by the tenants of the period, it was allowed to go to 
decay; the reason popularly assigned, and we believe the 
genuine one, for its desertion is that it was believed to be 
haunted. The story of the ghost of the Galdenoch, if some- 
what extravagant, is a well-known tradition of the parish of 

It is as follows : 

A scion of the house had fought in one of the battles for the 
Covenant, and after a defeat had craved food and shelter at a 
house near the scene of the disaster. He was admitted by the 
owner, a rough blustering fellow of Eoyalist leanings, who 
allowed him to share in the family supper; and after a long 
crack over the incidents of the day, let him make up a bed by 
the ingleside fire. The young soldier rose early, and was in the 
act of leaving when his host barred his access to the door, 
grumbling that he doubted whether he had been on the right 
side the day before. Convinced that he meant to detain him, 
the youth produced his pistol, and shot his entertainer dead. 
Then rushing to the stables, saddled up, and made his way to 
the west. 

Arrived safely at the Galdenoch, the fatted calf was killed ; 
and having fought all his battles o'er again round the family 
board, he went to bed. But hardly had the lights been ex- 
tinguished in the tower than strange sounds announced a new 
arrival, which proved to be the ghost of the slain malignant, 
who not only disturbed the repose of his slayer, but made life 
unendurable to all within. 

Nightly his pranks continued, and even after a change of 
owners the annoyance was continued to the new tenant and his 
family. One cold winter's night they sat round the kitchen fire 


playing a well-known game. A burning stick passed merrily 
from hand to hand. 

About wi' that ! about wi' that ! 
Keep alive the priest-cat ! 

The spark was extinguished, and the forfeit was about to be 
declared, when one of the party, looking at the hearth, which 
was now one brilliant mass of transparent red, observed, " It 
wadna be hannie to steal a coal the noo " ; but hardly were the 
words out of his mouth, when a glowing peat disappeared as if 
by magic, leaving as clear a vacuum in the fire as when a brick 
is displaced from a solid archway. "That beats a'," was re- 
echoed through the wondering group ; and but a few moments 
elapsed before there was a cry of fire, and the farm-steading was 
in flames. In the thatch of the barn that identical " cube of 
fire " was inserted, and no one doubted that it had been done by 
the ghost ; the range of buildings was preserved with difficulty 
by the united exertions of the party. 

The tenant's mother sat one morning at her spinning-wheel ; 
an invisible power bore her along, and plunged her in the Mill- 
Isle burn, a voice mumbling the while, " I'll dip thee, I'll draw 
thee," till the old dame became unconscious. Great was the sur- 
prise of the family at dinner-time when grandmamma was missed. 
Every corner of the buildings was searched ; the goodman and 
his wife became alarmed, while the lads and lassies ran madly 
about interrogating one another with, " Where's granny 1 " At 
last a well-known voice was heard, " I've washed grannie in the 
burn, and laid her on the dyke to dry ! " Away the whole party 
ran; and sure enough the poor old woman lay naked on the 
dyke, half dead with cold and fright. 

Several of the neighbouring clergymen tried to lay this ghost, 
but all in vain. If they sang, the ghost drowned the united 
efforts of the company. At last, a minister of great experience, 
supposed to be able to lay any ghost that ever walked the earth, 
came prepared expressly for the encounter ; but to his dismay, 
his singing was overpowered, and all his adjurations answered 


by such smart retorts that his congregation, in spite of efforts to 
look serious, laughed outright. Nettled at this, the minister 
rose angrily, declaring he never would come lack. The yard-gate 
had closed behind him, when the well-known voice begged him 
to return, and promised if he did so to tell him something which 
he had never heard before. The minister's curiosity was excited ; 
he re-entered the house, but only to hear the laugh against him- 
self redoubled, as the ghost maliciously exclaimed, " Ha ! ha ! I 
hae gotten the minister to tell a lee ! " 

The farmer's family were now worse off than ever. The 
spinner's threads were broken short off ; peat clots fell into the 
porridge ; unsavoury materials were thrown into the kail-pot ; 
when, after many years of trouble, a young man named 
Marshall, gifted with confidence and a stentorian voice, was 
ordained to the parish of Kirkcolm. He volunteered to try 
a bout with the Galdenoch ghost, and a large company 
assembled to assist. The minister hung up his hat, gave out a 
psalm, and led off the tune. The ghost sang too ; the company 
endeavoured to drown his voice, but failed ; the fiend sang 
long and loud, and all had ceased but the minister, whose voice 
rose to a louder and louder pitch as he kept up the strains 
'alone until the " witching hour." He called upon the wearied 
congregation to join once more. A burst of psalmody was the 
response ; and " Bangor," loud if not melodious, resounded 
through the castle-walls. Again all ceased exhausted, but 
Marshall undauntedly held on. Faint gleams of light streaked 
the eastern horizon, when an unearthly voice, husky and weak, 
whined, " Eoar awa, Marshall, I can roar nae mair ! " Marshall 
still continued, determined to make assurance doubly sure ; 
but the ghost kept his word, and was never heard again. 

On this story Mr. Marshall has risen to fame ; few of his 
predecessors are remembered, but his name survives deathless 
in Gallovidian lore. And we have been assured that when he 
preached on the Green at the Stewarton of Kirkcolm, he 
could, on a calm day, be heard distinctly across Lochryan at ' 
the Cairn. 



Whether the ghost was thus really laid or not, the 
persecuted tenant had not nerves strong enough to try. A 
smaller house was reared for his accommodation, and the tower 
fell into decay. Few traces of its former policy remain, 

excepting two old pollarded sycamores, one close to the castle 
and another near the adjacent mill, the bolls of a few elders of 
unusual size, with some traces of box in the old garden. 1 

1 Galdenoch Castle stands secluded in a hollow dell through which a 
winding burn hurries on to the not far distant sea. It has the door in the 
re-entering angle, a vaulted ground floor, and a main stair in the wing to the 


About the same time a Galloway laird disappeared in a 
more tragic manner from the scene. 

Sir Godfrey M'Culloch having squandered his patrimony 
and sold his estates in Mochrum to the Maxwells of Monreith, 
took up house at Cardoness. Here a neighbour, Willam Gordon, 
having poinded some cattle straying on his lands, Sir Godfrey 
joined a party illegally convened to release them. A fray was 
the result, in which M'Culloch, in the words of his indictment, 
" did shoot at the said Gordon with a gun charged, and by the 
shot broke his thigh bone and leg, so that he immediately fell 
to the ground, and within a few hours thereafter died of the 
same shot wound." Sir Godfrey fled the country, and some 
years after ventured on a Sunday to attend a church in 
Edinburgh. A Galloway man was among the congregation, 
who, recognising him, jumped up and cried : " Pit to the 
door, there's a murderer in the kirk ! " This was done, 
M'Culloch arrested, tried, condemned, and his head "stricken 
fra his body" the 5th of March 1697. So say the Crimi- 
nal Eecords : there is a very different local version of the 

Long long before the fatal encounter, and before he had 
entered on the evil courses which led to his ruin, Sir Godfrey, 
young and curly, sat at a window in the Tower of Myrtoun 
watching the operations of a gang of workmen forming a new 
sewer from his house to the White Loch below it. Suddenly 
he was startled by the apparition close beside him of a very 
little old man whose hair and beard were snowy white, whose 
strangely-cut costume was green, and who seemed in a state 
of furious wrath. Sir Godfrey received him, notwithstanding, 
with the greatest urbanity, and begged to be told in what 
way he could serve him. The answer was a startling one ; 
" M'Culloch," said the visitor, " I am the king of the brownies ! 
my palace has been for ages in the mound on which your tower 

first and second floors, with a corbelled turret stair leading to the upper floor and 
attics. The castle is valuable as exhibiting an unaltered example of a style of 
crow -steps peculiar to Galloway. Castellated and Domestic Architecture of 
Scotland, iii. 506. 


stands, and you are driving your common sewer right through 
my chalmer of dais." 

Sir Godfrey, confounded, threw up the window and ordered 
the workmen to stop at once, professing his perfect readiness to 
make the drain in any such direction as might least incommode 
his majesty, if he would graciously indicate the same. His 
courtesy was accepted, and Sir Godfrey received a promise in 
return from the now mollified potentate, that he, the said king, 
would stand by and help him in the time of his greatest need. 
It was long after this that the knight of Myrtoun disposed of 
his enemy in the summary way we have already mentioned, 
and for which he was condemned to die. The procession had 
started for the place of execution ; a crowd was collected to 
see the awful sight ; when the spectators were surprised by 
seeing a very little man with white hair and beard, dressed 
too in an antique suit of green, and mounted on a white horse. 
He issued from the castle-rock, crossed the loch without a 
moment's hesitation, and rode straight up to the cart on which 
Sir Godfrey, accompanied by the executioner and a minister, 
was standing. They plainly saw Sir Godfrey get on the horse 
behind the little man, who was no other than the king of the 
brownies (and thus fulfilled his promise by arriving in his 
hour of need) : the two recrossed the loch, and mounting the 
castle-rock they disappeared. When the astonished crowd 
again turned their eyes to the cart a figure was still there, and 
wondrous like Sir Godfrey ; it was, therefore, generally 
believed that he had met a felon's doom, and most people 
thought no more about it. A few only knew better, but these 
cared little to speak about the matter. At rare intervals, 
however, one of the initiated would impart the story to a friend, 
and tell how a head had rolled upon the ground, leaving a 
bleeding trunk upon the scaffold : then adding in a confidential 
whisper, " It was no' him ava, it was just a kin' o' glamour." 

Whichever version of the catastrophe is accepted, the last 
representative of the ancient House of Myrtoun then passed 
from the earthly scene. 


Much exultation had been expressed in Galloway when the 
well-abused Episcopalian curates were replaced by Presby- 
terians ; but the following extracts from the proceedings of the 
church courts suggest that certain of the parishes were not 
greatly gainers by the exchange. 

On the 22nd of April 1697, the Synod of Galloway " con- 
sidering that flagrant reports and surmises do continue to 
increase against a plurality of the Presbyterie of Wigtown/' and 
that, " not so much as a quorum is left to cognosce upon them 
that are accused," appointed " the Eev d . Masters Andrew 
Cameron, William Boyd, John Murdoch, and Samuel Spalding 
of the Pres rie . of Kirkcudbright; Alex r . Dunlop and Kobert 
Kowan of the Pres rie . of Wigtown ; Ptobert Campbell and 
William Wilson of the Pres rie . of Stranraer; the Lairds of 
Barmagachin, Cutreoch, and Garthland, Euling Elders, to be a 
Committee to visit several Parishes, and bear the authority of 
the Synod in their reproofs and censures." 

" At the Kirk of Sorbie, June 9, 1697, all Members of the 
Committee present ut supra, 

" Mr. John Wilson, minister of the Paroch being called and 
compearing, answers, 'He hath been four years Minister and 
hath not as yet celebrated the Lord's Supper.' " 

The Sheriff of Wigtown here entered, and stated that " this 
day Lord Basil Hamilton had complained to him upon 
Mr. John Wilson that he had beaten one of his tenants upon 
occassion of a difference about a tithe lamb, and thrust him so 
violently with a cane staff that he did spit blood for two 
months." Secondly, " the Sheriff objected against him," that he 
uttered obscene discourse at " table, some officers of the army 
being present " ; and he further charged him with an act of 
very gross indelicacy committed when visiting at a country 
house. The sheriff also produced a letter written by Mr. 
Wilson to himself, and another addressed to a third party, " in 
both of which he (the Sheriff) is much abused." 

" The Committee, thereupon considering Mr. Wilson's two 
letters, unanimously judged them to be intolerable, scandalous, 


and abusive . . . and the Moderator inquiring at Mr. Wilson 
what he had to say for himself ; he answered, ' that the letters 
were written by him in great haste and no less passion, for 
which he declared himself heartily sorry and craved the 
Sheriff's pardon for what offence he had justly taken at 
him.' . . . The Committee seeing Mr. Wilson sensible of his 
wrong then appointed some of their number to deal with the 
Sheriff and interpose for a reconcilation. . . . The Sheriff 
condescending to this, the Moderator did rebuke Mr. Wilson in 
name of the Committee before the Heritors and Heads of 
Families in the Church publickly, and admonished him to 
carry dutifully towards the Sheriff in all tyme coming. And 
the Sheriff having condescended to accept of this rebuke, and 
thereupon to take Mr. Wilson by the hand, the Committee 
ordered that in order to the reparation of the Sheriff's honour, 
that this rebuke of Mr. Wilson be publickly read in the Church 
of Wigtown after forenoon sermon by Mr. John Murdoch the 
next Lord's day, and by Mr. Walter Lawrie at the Kirk of 
Stranraer likewise the same day." 

At the era of the Eevolution, agriculture had reached its 
lowest ebb. There were now some signs of improvement ; and 
especially more attention was paid to the breeding of cattle, 
and meeting the requirements of the English market. This 
required fencing, road-making, and the removal of the many 
Parliamentary restrictions which stood in the way of all trade. 

Among the foremost in developing the resources of the 
province was Lord Basil Hamilton, now Laird of Baldoon (son 
of Anne, Duchess of Hamilton in her own right), he having 
married Mary, great-granddaughter and heiress of Sir David 

He, along with the sheriff and his Parliamentary colleagues, 
obtained special permission to import six score cows from 
Ireland ; thus securing fresh blood for their stock. 

Lord Basil's name was soon famous across the Borders, his 
neighbours closely following in his wake, as we gather from the 
Domestic Annals of Scotland, where the subject is thus referred 


to : " The example of Baldoon Park was followed by the Laird 
of Lochnaw, and other great proprietors ; and the growing 
importance of the cattle-rearing trade in Galloway is soon after 
marked by a demand for a road whereby the stock might be 
driven to the English market. 

" In June 1697, the matter came before the Privy Council 
on a petition from the great landlords of the district James, 
Earl of Galloway ; Lord Basil Hamilton ; Alexander, Viscount 
Kenmure ; John, Viscount Stair ; Sir Andrew Agnew of 
Lochnaw ; Sir Charles Hay of Park ; and a commission was 
appointed by the Privy Council to make and mark a road and 
highway for droves from ISTew Galloway to Dumfries, holding 
the high and accustomed travelling way betwixt the two said 
burghs." This commission was necessitated by a serious 
grievance attending the increased movement of animals. For 
not only were the roads unfenced, and these little more than 
horse-tracks, but the highway itself was not clearly defined, and 
perpetually deviated from, by which the small patches of 
grain of the tenants and crofters were threatened with whole- 
sale destruction. Large droves of cattle obviously could not 
cross the country at all seasons without endangering the crops. 
Causes of complaint accumulating, the peasantry had banded 
together and extorted money from the drovers in compensation 
for damage done, or poinded the cattle in default. Serious 
trouble would soon have arisen, had not the commissioners, 
hastening to the spot, defined the main routes, and ordered 
them to be fenced. Fencing, thus systematically begun, soon 
became more general, both to protect crops and for cattle- 
breeding. But so complicated are the wants and customs of 
communities that this loudly-called-for fencing, when executed, 
was in itself held to be a grievance, and for a long period, as 
we shall presently see, was the ostensible cause of serious 

The barony of Lochnaw had varied much since its erection ; 
partly from the earlier custom of endowing younger sons out 
of the estate, partly from new lands acquired from time to time. 


In 1699 Sir Andrew Agnew resigned all his lands to the 
Crown, which were then regranted to James his son, and " to 
the heirs male procreated between himself and Lady Mary 
Montgomerie his spouse." l 

The barony in its re-erection now included the lands actually 
enjoyed by the family. 

The young sheriff also acquired in fee-simple various lands 
purchased by his ancestor from Earls of Cassilis, but over 
which these lords had retained a superiority. 

After various negotiations, the young sheriff met Lord 
Cassilis by appointment on the 6th of October 1699, accom- 
panied by his relatives the Lairds of Park and Monreith, when 
deeds were drawn up and signed to this effect : 

"At Balantrae, the 6th day of October 1699, It is agreed 
between ane noble Earl, John, Earl of Cassilis, and James 
Agnew younger of Lochnaw, as follows : the said noble Earl 
bonds and obliges him and his to make ane sufficient resignation 
of the Superiortie of the lands of Balgressie and Auchnotroch in 
the Parish of Leswalt holden of him in favour of the said 
James in the King's hands, whereby the said James may 
become the King's feudal vassal and hold the same of his 
Majestie in few ferme, for which the said James obliges him 
and his to pay to the said noble Earl the sum of 2700 

"And further the said Earl obliges him to make over to 
the said James the superiority of the Lands of Cardryne and 
Ain 2 in the parish of Kirkmaiden, for which the said James 

1 Charter reprinted at length in foreshore case Queen v. Agnew, decided in 
Second Division Court of Session, 21st January 1873. It was put in proof for 
parties in action of declarator, Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw against the Right 
Hon. George Young, Her Majesty's Advocate. 

2 Ain or Ayne, a Celtic proper name, Aoibhne. Joyce. Now mapped Cairn 

Cardryne, " the hill (cor), or quarter land of the thorns (draighem) ; Thorn- 

Clenrie, Claonrach, "sloping ground." A d is now corruptly introduced. 
Balgressie, " the shoemaker's or embroiderer's townland." 
Auchnotroch, "the upper field." 
Ballantrae, traigh, "the town on the sea-shore." 


obliges him and his to pay twenty-five years purchase for the 
feudality and one year and a half rent for the right of 

" And further the said noble Earl binds and obliges him to 
make over to the said James the superiority of the seven mark 
land of the two Clenries lying within the Parish of Inch, for 
which the said James Agnew obliges him to pay the noble 
Earl one and a half years free rent. In witness whereof these 
presents written by John Dunbar, wryter in Stranrr., are 
subscribed before these witnesses : Sir Charles Hay of Park, Sir 
"William Maxwell of Murriett, and the said John Dunbar. 

(Signed) " CASSILIS. 

" J. AGNEW." 

James and Lady Mary Agnew still occupied Innermessan 
Castle; the young sheriff, as well as experimenting in agri- 
culture, usually presiding at his father's court, from the books 
of which we insert a specimen of a trial for sheep-stealing of 
that date : 

" Indictment at the instance of Alexr. Patterson in Tung, 
contrair John M'Cracken in Acanabainie. 

" Ye are indicted and accused for the thievetous stealing, art, 
part concealing, resetting and away taking frae the said 
Alexander ane yew (ewe) and a lamb upon the 24th of May 

"For evidencing whereof upon the same day there was 7 
yewes and 7 lambs that strayed from the said Alexander off the 
Lands of Tung ; and he having made search for them found six 
of the yewes and lambs at Quhitehill beyond the Haugh upon 
the lands of Acanabanie possessed by the said panell notwith- 
standing his being denyed that they did see them ; whereupon 
the said Alexander Paterson required Gilbert Meine in Car- 
nearzand as having an order fra the Sheriff to require make 
search for the yew and lamb he wanted. 

" Accordingly the said Gilbert Meine took along with him 
James M'Mllie in Quhitehill-Larg, Thomas Eglesham in ... 


and James and Gilbert Neilson in Deerpark, Alexr. and John 
Meines in Carnearzand upon the 25th of May instant, and made 
curie and search through the panell's house and byres, and found 
the stolen goods underwritten, viz. 

"They found a green lamb skin and head, stuffed in the 
easing of his dwelling-house, which was in a great way from 
the fire, at the back of the door in the darkest place of the 
house, the skin being in one part and the head in another part. 

" Item, they found the haill buck of the yew being green 
mutton stopped in a sack-pock put in the easing of his byre in 
the darkest place. 

" Item, they found within the waistband of his breeks and 
his shirt, the udder of the yew with the skins and paps at the 
instant of time when they were apprehending him to come 

" Item, they found 4 fleeces of wool in his house, bound to- 
gether ; some of it lug-keilled and some of it back-keilled ; 
and in the meantime the complainer owned the lug-keilled wool 
belonged to him. 

" All of which may testify the panell to be a notorious thief ; 
in respect the panell was taken with the red hand ; and the 
red-hand here to produce ; and therefore ought to be punished 
with confiscation of effects and goods. 

"26th May 1699. The indictment being read to the panell, 
he affirms the yew was his own and had drowned in water. 

Eoll of Assize called 

" Alexander Agnew in Knockcoyd. John Ross in Glenstokadaile. 

Andrew Clelland in Larbrax. John Wither in Dinvin. 

John Boyd of Kirkland. William M'Whinny in Salchary. 

John Stevenson. John Campbell in Airies (absent} 

Robt. Campbell in Cladahous. Alexr. M'Culliam (M'William) in 
James M'Culliam in Drumbuy. Craichmore. 

Laird M'Meikan. Robert Gray in Stranrawer. 

James M'Master in Stranrawer. Thomas Wallace in Stranrawer. 
Pat. M'Master in Corsallhouse." 

(John Campbell was fined "in one hundred merks-of fyne 
because of his contumacy") 


Witnesses called 

" Gilbert Heine in Carnearzand of the age of 40 years 
unmarried, depones conform to the articles of the libel in 

"James M'Neillie in Whitehill-Larg, of the age of 36 years, 
depones conform to the articles of the libel. 

" James Neilson in Deerpark depones the same. 

" Thomas Eaglesliam, of the age of 30 years, married, depones 
conform to the libel except he did not see the udder of the yew 
until it was in the witness's hands. And all of them depone 
that they required the panell to produce the skin, lug, and head 
of the yew, who replied that he desired them to go fetch them 
since they wanted them. 

" Alexr. Mure, of the age of 24 years, unmarried, depones 
conform to the former in omnibus. 

" The Assize chose Eobert Campbell Chancellor, and all of 
them having considered the indictment and haill articles there- 
of, with the probation in addition ; and being therewith well 
ripely advised, after mature deliberation finds and declares 
all in one voice without variance the panell guilty of the in- 
dictment of the stealing of the yew and lamb : the Eed-hand was 
produced for instruction ; and find that the yew was not drowned 
but killed. 

" The quhilk day, in respect the Assizers found the panell 
guilty of the theft libelled, conform to their verdict above 
written : Therefore the Sheriff adjudges and decerns the said John 
M'Crakan to be taken to the ordinar place of execution at 
Stranrawer upon Wednesday come 8 days, being the seventh of 
June next ; and there betwixt 3 and 4 hours in the afternoon 
to be hanged upon a gibet until he be dead ; and his whole 
moveables to be confiscated to the procurator's use. 

(Signed) " J. AGNEW. 

" The which day the Sheriff by written instructions delivers 
the panel to Sam. Laird, and desires him to be comptable for 
him until the day of execution. This done in the Tolbooth 


about 3 hours of the afternoon in presence of Andrew Clelland, 
James M'Master, John Boyd of Kirkland, and Wm. Kirk- 

A characteristic note to his Edinburgh agent proves that he 
was equally attentive to the duties of hospitality. 

" 10 April 1*700. Cusing, just now as I begane to writ this, 
Sir William Maxwell lighted at this place with a design to try 
our wine which is extraordinarie good. So ye may consider if 
I have much tyme to spare. 

"However I returned you the oath of allegiance and assurance, 
signed according to your orders, and as for the account of the 
valuatione or rent of the Kirklands, I cannot give you at this 
time. Which is al only the companie drinks your health. 
From Sir, your most affectionate cus. to serve you, 


" For Mr. Houstone, 

Writer, Edinburgh. These." 

And on the 22nd May 1700, on the opening of the session, 
the following members of the three Estates represented 
Galloway : 

Of the Nobility 

The Earl of Galloway and Viscount Stair. 
Of ike Barons 

Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, ] 

William M'Dowall of Garthland, \ r lg Wn ' 

Patrick Dunbar of Machermore, ) _ 

<n w ^T> V For Kirkcudbright. 

M'Guffoc of Eusco, ) 

Commissioners for the Boroughs 
William Coltran, for Wigtown. 
Patrick Murdoch, for Whithorn. 
Sir Patrick Murray, for Stranraer. 
Sir Andrew Hume, for Kirkcudbright. 
Sir Hew Dalrymple, for New Galloway. 



Before which Parliament a petition was presented by the father 
from the son, which is embodied in the records of the session. 

" Stranrawer the 15th day of May 1700. 

" Sheriff-Court holden by James Agnew, younger of Loch- 
naw, Sheriff of Wigtown. The whilk day, anent the abuses 
committed by Captain Bartier of the Prohibition Sloop, and 
Captain Caiieton of the Shark, upon the houses and boats of 
inhabitants in Lochryan, 

" Compeared in presence of the said James Agnew 

" 1st, Kobert Campbell in Cladahous of the age of fourty 
years or thereby who being solemly sworn and interrogat, 

" That there came ashore in the month of January last from 
aboard the said Captain Bartier's ship to the number of fourteen 
men, accompanied by one M'Gregor whom they termed 
Lieutenant, and having taken a turn ashore they thereafter 
came and invaded the deponent's house, and abused some 
companies that were in his house, and knocked a part of them 
down with their boathooks and cudgells ; and ran in a manner 
mad through the whole houses, and threatened to burn the 
house, and endeavoured the same had they not been hindered 
by a soldier who was accidentally in the house. 

" They drank a great deal of ale and beer, and would not pay 
a farthing. Captain Bartier did sieze upon a boat belonging to 
the Laird of Dunskey, going with a let-pass from Glasgow to 
Portpatrick with furniture and provisions for Dunskey's use, 
and did detain the boat above a fortnight, notwithstanding the 
let-pass, till James Dalrymple, Dunskey's son-in-law, carried 
aboard a present of brandy. 

"Likewise depones that Captain Carleton of the Shark 
sloop did search all boats, barks, and ships that came to Loch- 
ryan ; particularly Mr. Watson's, who came straight from the 
Canaries without touching at Ireland ; and took two hundred 
ells Scots cloth which the waiter did attest did need no coquet 
(he being aboard). The said Captain Carleton did detain 


Watson and his ship till he gave him a compliment of two or three 
dozen Canary bottles and some lemons. And also deponent 
declares that Captain Carleton did stay some nights ashore and 
gave command to his men to search all ships that came to 
anchor in Lochryan. 

" 2dly, John Hannay, solemnly sworn, corroborates every 
word and circumstance as stated by the first deponent. 

" Sdly, John Campbell, one of Captain Agnew's troop of the 
Eoyal Eegiment of Dragoons, corroborates (at length) the 
evidence of the first deponent, and adds that the said Captain 
Bartier fell upon him and very near murdered him. 

" kthly, William Wilson, Merchant in Stranraer, depones that 
the number of men alledged came from the said Captain Bartier's 
sloop in January last and were in Cladahous within clouds of 
night, very abusive to the house and some civil companies that 
were in the house at the time, and did hear one of Captain 
Bartier's men to call upon the others to fell or knock them down 
to the ground, ' for they are none of our men, and come and let 
us set fire to the house.' 

" Signed before me this 15th day of May. 


On the 27th of August of the same year the Laird of 
Garthland died. A keenly contested election ensued, the 
candidates being Lord Basil Hamilton and Stewart of Castle 
Stewart ; the young Laird of Lochnaw acting as sheriff, and at 
the hustings of Wigtown, amidst a scene of much excitement, 
having to declare the result of the poll to be a tie, and making 
accordingly a double return. 

An election petition was a necessary result, the first of 
which we read (certainly in Galloway), and before a committee 
of the House the candidates for Parliamentary honours each 
succeeded in unseating his opponent the house suspending the 
writ altogether for a while, leaving the sheriff without a colleague; 
the lawyers employed in the case being the only parties satisfied 
with the result. 


William M'Dowall of Garthland had had fourteen children 
by his wife Grizel Beatoune, the eldest of whom, Alexander, 
married a daughter of Sir James Fergusson of Kilkerran. This 
old Galloway family had suffered severely from the disorders of 
the preceding reigns. As Chalmers puts it : " The M 'Do walls 
have had their elevations and depressions. We have seen how 
the Edwards stooped from their high estates to court their 
support. They afterwards descended voluntarily from folly to 
fanaticism, from fanaticism to fatuity." l 

This, though somewhat overdrawn, was too true as to the 
result. The estate passed away from the direct line. William, 
the fifth son of the laird just deceased, going as a colonel to the 
West Indies in their palmy days, and there marrying an heiress, 
soon after purchased the estate from his cousin, as well as 
Castle Semple in Eenfrewshire. His descendants have since 
parted with their Galloway estates, but have transferred the 
name to Eenfrewshire, where they still carry on the line. 2 

During the course of the debates arising upon the disputed 
Wigtownshire election, there appears this entry upon the votes : 

"December 2, 1700. Prayers read. Bolls called. Sir 
Andrew of Lochnaw excused by his Grace, H.M. High 
Commissioner, in respect of indisposition." 

An indication of failing health, he having been regular in his 
attendance in this long Parliament, which, elected as a conven- 
tion of estates, sat on continuously from 1689 to over the close 
of the century. 

On the 23rd July 1700, John, seventh Earl of Cassilis, died, 
and was succeeded by a son John, eighth earl, with whom the 
direct line from the first lord (brother-in-law to the first, uncle 
and guardian to the second sheriff) began and ended. 

The funeral was attended by the young sheriff ; his father 
being too unwell to travel, but sending a letter by his son to his 
granddaughter, who was on a visit to Eglinton, expressed more 

1 Chalmers's Caledonia, iii. 379. 

2 Now represented by Henry Macdowall of Garthland, Lochwinnoch. Married 
Elanora Louisa, daughter of Sir William Maxwell, sixth baronet of Monreith, 
by Helenora, daughter of Sir Michael Shaw Stewart of Greenock. 


simply and affectionately than was usual in the correspondence 
of his day. 

" For Mrs. Jean Agnew [afterwards married to Chancellor of 

" I had ane letter wrytten to you with Morison [his servant], 
but being informed yt you wer to be in ye countrie with my 
Lord Montgomery [her uncle] at Cassilis buriall, but then know- 
ing you would have missed ye letter, I did not send it ; and 
now I find ye reason that ye did not come along with my Lord 
was that your father knew not to send horses for you in tyrne. 

" I find you have beene angrie with me yt ye wrott not to me 
with some of my Lord Montgomerie's servants. However I am 
glad you keepe your health. 

Lett me know with ye first occasion when you expect to 
cum to Galloway. I would have sent you something, but having 
none to carry ye letter but my Lord Montgomerie's servants, I 
could not doe it. I'll wrytt to you with occasion. Lett me 
heare of you with the first. 

" God guide you. From your loving god-father, 


Shortly after this the good old gentleman visited his daughter 
Lady Hay at Park, where he seems to have been taken ill and 
died ; there being a holograph will in the Commissariat of 
Wigtown beginning " I, Sir Andrew Agnew, being desyrous 
yt my honorablis be settled," and ending " wrytten and sub- 
scrivit with my oune hande at ye Parke ye 4th of April 1702." 
Lady Hay also gives in a formal inventory to the executors of 
the property of the " said defunct's " left at the House of Park 
" at the tyme foresaid." 

" Ane horse with saddle and bridle and oyr furniture valued 
at threescore pounds. Ane silver handled sword, with oyr 
abulziements, estimate to ane hundred and eight pounds." 



A.D. 1700 

Kyle for a man, 

Carrick for a coo, 

Cunninghame for butter and cheese, 

And Gallowa' for 'oo. 

THE distich pleasantly recalls Coel or Coyle Hen, the old King 
Cole of early romance. Carrich, Carawg, a Cymric Prince, son 
of Llyr of the line of Coel, the Latin Caractacus. Cunning- 
hame, 1 Canawan, the churn country, from Cuinneag, plural 
Cuinnigan. Whilst the Galloway staple appears in such place- 
names as Arioland, anciently Aryoullen, the shieling of the 
wool. And the district named from Coel or Caradoc, as well as 
that famed for butter and cheese, all belonged to the race aptly 
named Damnii, the cattle-breeders. 

As the names of the tenth and eleventh sheriffs are honour- 
ably connected with the revival of agriculture in Galloway, 
which had reached its lowest ebb at the date of the Eevolution, 
let us try to arrive at the true state of matters by calling the 
evidence of witnesses actually on the scene. 

1 He will merit Carawg 
Of the many-citied Cymry. 
"Who will pay the precious reward ? 
Shall it come from Coel or Canawon ? 

Mr. Skene identifies these place-names in the lines of Taliessin : 

" With Carrick, Cyle, and Cuningham." 

Four Ancient Books of Wales. 


Not long before this period, Sir Eobert Sibbald, geographer- 
royal to Charles II., had addressed statistical queries to those 
deemed qualified to answer them in the various shires ; those 
as to Galloway being happily referred to Andrew Symson, 
curate of Kirkinner, by whom they were intelligently dealt 
with, and replies returned in the year 1684. 

A manuscript account of the habits and manners of the 
Galloway peasantry was communicated to Sir John Sinclair by 
Mr. Eobb, minister of Tungland, and is printed in the Old 
Statistical Account of Scotland. 

The superior resources of the province in the days of De- 
vorgille and the Balliols, when 

Of all corn there was copy x grate, 
Pese and atys, bere and qhwet, ' 

is matter of history, abundantly verified by English state papers 
of Edward I. ; from the date of whose invasions, and the wars of 
the succession, is to be dated the decline in the amount and 
variety of produce. For whereas in these palmy days there 
was abundance, as just quoted, of wheat and peas, as well as of 
oats and barley, in Symson's time we find that peas, beans, and 
wheat were all but unknown, field crops being confined to oats 
and bere, a little rye upon the moorland, and patches of flax and 
hemp. He tells us, moreover, that the oats of "the shire " 
compared with oats of other shires were very bad, as followed 
of necessity from their mode of management, which he thus 
describes : " To crop four years in succession and then let the 
land lie fallow (i.e. run to weeds) for four years more. They 
begin to plough their oat land in October, and to sow in 
February ; dividing their land into eight parts, which they 
call cropts, four yrof they till yearly. Their first cropt they 
call their lay, and this is that on which the bestial and sheep 
were folded the summer before. The second cropt they call 
their awell, and this is that which was the lay cropt the year 

1 "Wyntoun. Copy from Latin copia, abundance. 


before. 1 The third they call only the third cropt ; the fourth 
is that which was their third cropt the foregoing year. And 
then these cropts or parts remain four years at least untilled 
after this. 

" In the shire they till not ordinarily with horses, but with 
oxen ; some only with eight, but usually they have ten, which 
ten oxen are not so expensive by far in keeping as four horses, 
besides the oxen yield much more dung, as also when they grow 
old and unserviceable, they get a good price for them from the 

"In the stewartry they till with four horses all abreast," 
but in either case two persons were employed at each plough, 
which was very large and clumsy, a man holding the plough, a 
boy or a woman leading the team and walking backwards. 

In return for their labour, the return of corn was but three 
seeds for one, and "had long beards and awnds," and was so 
poor in quality " that three bolls of corn will not yield more 
than one boll of good and sufficient meal " ; he adds also " that 
the weakest and worst of their oats they reserve for their 
horses and seed ! " He admits, however, that notwithstanding 
the bad oats " the countrie people have the dexterity of making 
excellent and very hearty meal." As if they courted deteriora- 
tion, they thus deliberately sorted out the poorest grain to re- 
sow. Yet, with all their mismanagement, so considerable a 
breadth was under cultivation, that he further states "that 
except a year of great scarcity, they abundantly satisfy them- 
selves, and furnish the moor-men plentifully with victual ; yea, 
and oftentimes send and transport much to other countries." 

The routine for barley (bigg or bere) was different. Instead 
of four consecutive crops, with a regular four years fallow, it 
was grown perpetually on the same spot, the " bere fey." The 
word " fey," which is peculiar to Galloway, seems evidently the 
" feitche," pronounced " faha," the level green spot before ancient 
Irish residences, used for games and exercises, specially quali- 

1 The " awell crop" is still a living phrase in Galloway, meaning the second 
crop from grass. 


fied by the word "bere." "Eight or ten days after sowing," 
Symson further remarks, " I have observed them to harrow their 
bere lands lightly all over, which plucks up and destroys the 
young weeds which wither and decay. But the bere presently 
takes rooting again without any prejudice, unless a great drouth 
doth immediately follow. Contrary to their sowing of oats, 
they sow of bere the best seed they can get." The return con- 
sequently was four or five to one. " They deliver to the malt- 
man 9 measures of bere, and he delivers back 8 measures 
of made malt." He further adds, "they have always at the 
end of their bere fey an hemp rig, on which they sow hemp 
yearly, which supplies them with sacks, cords, and other 
domestic uses. This hemp rig is very rich land, where they 
put all their dung, which in the winter and spring their byres 
and stables will furnish them with." 

They also grew small patches of flax, from which they made 
linen, which, as shown by place-names, was a very early industry. 

Symson, in his answers, expresses his surprise that the 
Gallovidians neglected peas, stating that by personal experience 
he could attest the advantage of growing them, " the increase 
being ordinarily 16 and more to one, and the quality good." 
He suggests, however, " that their sheep, which are many, might 
eat them np, peas having to be sown sooner than the ordinary 
time when sheep and cattle were folded at night, and men lay 
out to watch them." 

The staple of the province, however, was wool, and of wool 
Galloway still commanded the market, and had a good repu- 
tation for its homespun clothes. Their wool, Symson tells us, 
" is of three sorts ; laid wool, so called because about Martinmas 
they melt butter and tar together, and therewith lay their 
sheep, by parting the wool, and with their fingers straking in 
the mixed butter and tar. This makes the wool grow longer, and 
fortifies the sheep against frost and snow ; but this wool though 
longer will not give so much per stone as the other two, by 
reason that when the wool is scoured and the butter and tar 
washed out it will not hold out weight. 


" The next sort, moor wool, is the best of the three, being 
very clean, because not tarred, and consequently much whiter. 
The best moor wool is said to be in Penygham, Kirkcowan, 
Niochmen, Glenluce, and upon the Water of Fleet. 

"The third sort, dale wool, is not usually so good as the 
moor wool, being fouller in regard of toft-dykes which enclose 
the sheepfolds, whereas on the moors their folds are surrounded 
with dykes of stones." 

The farm stock, whether horses, cattle, or sheep, had been 
sorely thinned by the Highland host and Turner's and Claver- 
house's bands. But shortly before the Eevolution, the baronage 
having relieved themselves from quarterings by sullenly accept- 
ing the test, in 1684 they were still able to send large droves 
of sheep and cattle to English and northern markets, and horses 
in considerable numbers were offered for sale at the local 

For other rural industries, the wool, white and black, as it 
came off the sheep's back, was made up into men's clothing by 
itinerant tailors. Their shirts were also woollen, whilst women 
wore plaiding gowns made of wool, and when at home " toys " 
(head-dresses) of coarse plaiding ; young girls, we are told, 
when at home went bareheaded, the hair snooded back with a 
string. But the women, young and old, at kirk or market, 
wore linen mutches and head-dresses. 

All ranks below the baronage wore Kilmarnock caps of 
the form now known as Tarn o' Shanter ; and country shoe- 
makers, coming round, made up shoes for the family with 
hides of their own tanning. Here also Symson gives as 
peculiar "their custom of tanning cow hides with heather 
instead of bark. Having lined the hides, and the hair taken off, 
they take the bark and crops of sauch, which they boil very 
well, with the decoction whereof they cover the hide in a tub. 
This they call a 'washing woose.' Thereafter they take the 
short tops of young green heather, and put a layer thereof in 
the bottom of a large tub, upon which they spread the hide, 
and put another layer of heather upon it, and then fold 


another ply of the hide, and so on, always putting green 
heather betwixt every fold. Then they put heather above all, 
and then make a strong decoction of heather which they pour 
on the hides, and then put broad stones above all, to keep the 
hides from swimming. When they find the hides have 
drawn out the strength of the woose, they repeat the operation 
several times, till their hides be thoroughly tanned." 

They were also experts at making ropes of hemp, " which 
they twine 20 or 30 threeds together, according to the 
greatness of the cords they design to make, and then they twist 
three ply of this together very hard." This accomplishment is 
alluded to in the " auld say " preserved by M'Taggart : 

They wha canna make a thoum-rape, 
0' thralty thraws and three, 
Isna worth their mett I wot 
Nor yet their penny fee. 

Linen had from time immemorial been made in the 
province, and along the seaboard were numerous salt pans 
worked generally with peats. 

Fairs played a leading part in the rural economies of the 
period. Here the housewife bought, the husband sold or 
bartered, the young folks courted, and the people at large took 
their pleasures usually sadly, if sometimes uproariously. Of 
these were St. John's Fair at Stranraer, the last Friday in 
August, and another the first Friday in May. 

At Wigtown there were four, the Palm Fair the first 
Monday in Lent, at midsummer St. Alban's Fair, "a great 
market for horses and young fillies, much frequented by 
merchants from Edinburgh, Glasgow, Ayr, and other places, 
who here buy great quantities of raw broadcloth, and transport 
part of it over seas." The third and greatest, Lammas Fair, 
six weeks distant from the former, " more frequented than the 
midsummer fair, because the country people have had a longer 
time to work and make their webs ready." The fourth is their 
" Martinmas Fair, the first Monday of November, and lasts two 
days. The next Thursday after this first Monday, and so every 


Thursday thereafter till Christmas, they have a market for fat 
kine, much frequented by butchers from Dumfries and other 

At Minigaff there were Saturday markets for the supply of 
the moor-men, and "great quantities of malt and meal were 
brought there from Wigtownshire. 

" On the Friday after the first Thursday, which is after the 
first Monday of November, and so every Friday thereafter till 
Christmas," there was a market almost equivalent to a fair, 
this market being ruled by the dyets of the Kbit market at 
Wigtown." Large droves of fat kine here changed hands. 

We have already described the humours of Kirkdamnie 
Fair on the Stincher the last Saturday of May, where St. 
Patrick was supposed to smile sympathetically at fun some- 
what fast and furious ; but the humours of Donnybrook had 
also their reflection at Kelton Hill the first Tuesday after 
the 17th June, old style, a horse fair of European celebrity. 
Though it has since been removed to Castle-Douglas and there 
much shorn of its prestige, up to nearly the end of last century 
we find it thus described : " The horse fair at Eohu House or 
Kelton Hill is perhaps the largest of any in Scotland. Vast 
numbers of horse dealers resort here from England, Ireland, the 
east and south of Scotland. Many chapmen and hawkers 
frequent Kelton Hill Fair, and large and well covered tents are 
erected by people from a distance, stored with provisions and 
all sorts of liquors. 1 And owing to the vast concourse of 
people generally, disposed of their articles to an advantage." 

Another observer writes : " At Kelton Hill Fair may be 
lifted a tolerable idea of the Donnybrook of Erin ; at one time 
in danger of having a skull bared with a cudgel, at other times 
hemmed in with rowly-powly men flinging sticks, and sweetie- 

There was St. Lawrence Fair in the parish of Borgue, of 
which Symson's notice is not complimentary. " In the kirk- 
yard of Kirkanders upon the 9th day of August there is kept 
1 Old Statistical Account, viii. 30. 


St. Lawrence Fair, where all sorts of merchant wares are to be 
sold. But the fair only lasts three or four hours, and then the 
people who flock hither in great companies drink and debauch, 
and commonly great lewdness is committed." 

If we were to judge by the returns of the Exchequer, we 
should suppose that few intoxicating liquors beyond home- 
brewed ale were much partaken of by the commonalty or even 
well-to-do burgesses, except at these fairs. 

From a report made to Commissioners of Convention of 
Eoyal Boroughs in 1692, we find that Stranrawer had only 
vented about half a tun of wine, claret, in the five years bygone ; 
and ordinarily vented half a hogshead of claret and a butt of 
brandy yearly. That Wigtown had not vented above fyve tonn 
of French wyne these fyve years bygone ; with a hogshead of 
sack and butt of brandy yearly. That Kirkcudbright consumed 
no Bordeaux, one hogshead of sack, and a hogshead of brandy 

These statements may be perfectly accurate as regards 
Custom House returns, but we suspect, impoverished as the 
country was, that more than twice as much again found its 
way in, with no payment to the Exchequer. 

There are no data to show how far distillation of grain for 
whisky had as yet come into vogue : but these three Eoyal 
Boroughs consumed respectively 520, 462, 728 Lithgow 
bolls of malt. 

As the total result of cultivation and stock-rearing, 1 the 
valued rent for " the Shire " was 5634 (67,607 Scots) ; and 
for the Stewartry, 9549 (114,597 Scots). That of 1888 
stands at over 207,000 for the Shire, 347,000 for the Stew- 
artry, roughly as 15 to 554. 

As to mansion-houses, Symson tells us "there are few 
parishes in the shire of Wigtown but have one or two stone houses 
very well built, wherein a gentleman of good quality and estate 
may conveniently build. Though in the shire we have neither 

1 Symson sums tip thus : "Query. What are the chief products ? Answer. 
Neat, small horses, sheep, goats, wool, white woollen cloth, here, oats, hay." 


coal nor limestone, nor freestone, nor any wood considerable 
except planting about gentlemen's houses ; when they build 
they furnish themselves with freestone from England, and as for 
lime they are supplied from the shell bank * of Kirkinner, and 
with timber from the wood of Cree, which yields abundance of 

As for the peasantry, their hovels were built of stone and 
turf, without mortar, and stopped with fog and straw. One 
glassless window on either side was opened or shut as the wind 
blew, to give them light, and let the smoke escape. Their cattle 
occupied an end of the house, where they were tied to stakes, 
with no partition between them and the family ; in which dirty 
association the latter lived in an atmosphere of smoke, which 
would have suffocated any not habituated to it from infancy. 

Their fare, however, was better than their lodgings, though 
probably not always served up in a very appetising way. It 
also seems to have differed in the Shire and the Stewartry. 
Symson accounts for the neglect of sea-fishing by the peasantry 
in Wigtownshire as due to the abundance of beef and mutton. 
He writes : " Our sea is better stored with good fish than our 
shores with fishers, for having such plenty of flesh on shore, 
they take little pains to seek the sea for fish." However, he 
tells us that in the sands of Kirkinner are " great multitudes of 
cockles, which, in the year 1674, preserved many poor people 
from starving." And again he mentions that " at the head of 
the Water of Malzie are many eels taken about Martinmas, 
which they salt with their skins on in barrels, and then in the 
winter time eat them roasted on the coals." 

Eastward of the Dee, however, especially in Tungland, a 
writer of the period, quoted in the Old Statistical, suggests no 
such plenty for the cottar. He says : " Their food consisted of 

1 2 June 1699. Ye whilk day the Provost signifiid] to the Council yt he 
had got liberty from my Lord Basil (Hamilton) for shells for repairing of the 
Cross, the Tolbooth stairs and walls, which is in ane ruinous condition ; for which 
the Magistrates and Council appoints twelve horses for leading the said shells, 
and in respect of foord is to be doubled, yet my Lord of Galloway bespoke for the 
loan of his boat. Wigtown Borough Records. 


brose, pottage, greens boiled in water with salt, and oatmeal 
flummery. At Martinmas they killed an old ewe or two, and 
salted them for winter provision, and used the sheep that died 
of the braxy in the latter end of autumn. They eat little meat 
at that time, except the off-falls of their flocks ; they had no 
knives and forks, but lifted the butcher meat they eat with their 
fingers." l 

M'Taggart, who was a Stewartry man, speaks of a braxy ham 
as a treat, especially if washed down with a glass of bragwort, a 
rural luxury he thus describes : " After the bees are smuiked 
out in hin harvest time, the guidwife takes the kaimes out of a 
skip, and lets the hinny drop out. This done, she steeps the 
kaimes in water, and this quickened with barm composes brag- 
wort ; 2 a sweet and pleasant drink, but apt to break the 

His description of the ham is not so appetising. " When the 
herd finds any of his flock dead of the braxy, if they can be 
shaken thrice by the neck without falling to pieces, he bears 
them in on the braxy shelty. The hams are cut out, and hung 
up in the smuity brace until quite dry. A meal of sic food, 
washed down by tumblers of bragwort, please a hungry kite 
very much." 3 

Black puddings, of which blood was the foundation, mixed 
with a little suet, meal, and onions, were a favourite dish in 
Scotland generally, of which the careful housewife made good 
provision when a sheep, goat, pig, or mart was slaughtered. 
But in Galloway whether elsewhere or not we cannot tell 
the most unfitting mode of procuring the necessary compound 
the taking a little blood from time to time from the wretched 
underfed animals confined in byres whenever they required this 
to kitchen their oatmeal was customary. And this, having 
from time immemorial been systematically done, it was 
ignorantly believed to be good for the poor beasts. And, 
though in a more exceptional way, the custom was prevalent up 

1 Old Statistical Account, ix. 325. 
2 Gallovidian Encyclopedia, 88 and 91. 3 Ibid. 


to recent times. Whence the story generally fathered on Kirk- 
cowan of a sonsy dame, somewhat behindhand in her preparations 
for a ministerial visit, who, anxious to provide a special treat 
for her pastor, was heard by her neighbours excitedly exclaim- 
ing, " Ein, John, rin, and bleed the soo ; there's the minister 
getting owre the stile ! " 

On the subject of food, Symson tells us at this date that for 
the tables of the rich there was abundance of salmon, herrings, 
mackerel, codling, skate, whiting, sea carp, and lobsters in- 
credibly great, and mentions that " Sir Charles Hay hath a fish- 
yard, wherein he gets salmon, herring, and mackerel ; " interest- 
ing as evidencing the antiquity of the said yard, Balcarry, the 
name of the spot, meaning the "town of the fish weir" 
(Coradh). He further mentions that he had seen a sturgeon as 
well as a young whale taken in the nets at Wigtown, and that 
in 1675 a pretty large whale passed up the Bladenoch, and was 
killed upon the sands, adding " the oyel was very good and 
clear, and burnt very well in my lamp." 

Oil, however, or even the commonest candles, were rare 
luxuries for the poor. They had no candles to sit up by in the 
winter nights ; a rushlight, which burnt but a few minutes, was 
all that could be generally afforded. After talking till tired in 
the dark, a contemporary states that when the goodman of the 
house made family worship, they lighted a ruffy to enable him 
to read the Psalm and a portion of Scripture before he prayed. 
The prayer required no light, and the family had little difficulty 
in feeling their way to their beds. It was not every head of a 
family, however, who could read the service at all. Education 
was at as low an ebb as rents, and in the closing years of the 
seventeenth century, so many of the farm workers could not 
read, that it was a Galloway custom for the precentor to read 
passages of the Scriptures in church before the minister arrived. 

Hence the people were credulous and superstitious to the 
last degree, believing in ghosts, witches, warlocks, wraiths, and 
apparitions, in malevolent spirits, against whom they used 
charms and incantations, and in kindly ones who befriended 


them ; in the " little folk," harmless if undisturbed, who danced 
by night on green knolls ; in the brownie or " lubber fiend," 
Kobin Goodfellow across the Border, who did family jobs, 
ordinary and supernatural ; 

Would bury their crop by the light of the moon, 
Would baa their bairns wi' an unkenn'd tune, 
Tame the wildest filly that ever ran rede ; 

as also the kelpie and shellycoat, who were water sprites ; and 
the bogie, who frightened lovers in the solitary glen. 

They believed their favourite ministers to have the gift of 
prophecy, the faculty of laying ghosts, and of a cursing power 
wielded at will as efficaciously as that of any of the saints of the 
Scoto-Irish Church. And they also believed in wicked women 
holding noisy revels in barns with Satan himself, by direct com- 
pact with whom they had powers of doing mischief untold. 
We might smile at many of these beliefs, but sad were the 
results of superstition as to witchcraft. Woe to the elderly 
dame denounced by ignorant elders before stern divines. An 
old wife circumstantially accused of witchcraft at a Galloway 
kirk-session had as little chance of mercy as a Jew before the 
Spanish Inquisition. 

We referred to this a hundred years before, but sad to say, 
the kirk-session records of Kirkcudbright and Dairy, as late as 
1698, incriminate that court by ghastly details of what can 
only be called judicial murder. About two years before Elspeth 
M'Ewen was brought before the Session of Dairy on a charge of 
having a pin in her kipple foot (i.e. at the bottom of the rafters 
of her house), by which she could at pleasure draw milk from 
her neighbour's cows. The minister's horse was sent to bring 
her before the session ; the horse showed signs of terror when 
she mounted, and in crossing a ridge near the manse (hence 
they say called the " Bloody Brae ") it sweated drops of blood. 
Being examined on these charges, as well as on others that she 
had increased or diminished the fertility of her neighbours' 
fowls her guilt being evidently confirmed by the bloody sweat 
of the minister's mare the charges were declared proved, and 



she was sent to prison at Kirkcudbright, where she was so 
barbarously treated that she implored her persecutors to put 
her out of pain ; and at last a commission was granted which 
sat at Kirkcudbright in March 1698, and on her confession the 
only means by which she could accomplish her object the 
wretched woman was burnt to death. There are several stories 
as tragic recorded in the Stewartry, but we will not dwell on 
such revolting details ; let us pass to a custom peculiar it is 
said to Galloway, which, if savouring of superstition, was harm- 
less and amusing. 

" Kirn " is a word peculiar to the Province in the sense of a 
dance at a harvest home. The primary meaning of the word in 
lowland Scotch being the last handful of grain cut in the 
harvest field. "To win the kirn" being to have the honour of 
cutting this last bunch; "to cry the kirn" being the cheers 
given by the harvesters in rejoicing that it is over. It is then 
the way to collect all the reaping hooks and fling them high in 
air. If any of them break, those owning them will die before 
next harvest. If the points of any stick in the ground in falling, 
their owners will be married. 

The kirn itself was a three-plaited bunch of corn : this was 
hung up and the reapers stepped back to fling at it with 
their hooks. Whoever cut it down, male or female, was 
entitled to wear it busked with ribbons in their hats or bonnets 
the whole night. Then ensued the dance, after which the said 
kirn was fastened up in a conspicuous place in the farm kitchen, 
until Auld Candlemas Day, when it was formally hung round 
the neck of the bull, thus ensuring fertility for the whole 
herd. 1 

Of games, whether outdoor or in, many were played, simple 
enough in themselves, but their names are amusing and 
genuine. " Priest-cat " has been already described, and " Kobin 
aree " was an ingle-nuik game of much the same character ; a 

1 This is confirmed by MTaggart, who adds : " The kirn beautifully busked 
with ribbons of various hues, having hung in a conspicuous part of the house, is 
given to Bill Jock the king of the byre on Auld Candlemas Day, so that none of 
the kye the incoming year may be guilty of picking-cauve." 


burnt stick was passed round with somewhat different cere- 
monies, and a rhyme of which the burden was 

Robin aree, ye'll no dee wi' me. 

Another game was played with pins, and called " Headim and 
Corsim." Pins were hid in the palms of the hands of some of 
the players, others were placed beside them, the persons doing 
so calling " Headim or Corsim " indicating which way the pins 
lay when the palms were thrown open ; either party won 
according to the way the pins were lying. This sounds uninter- 
esting enough, but a Gallovidian authority waxes enthusiastic 
in describing it. " This," he says, " is the king of all the games 
at the preens ; and let it not be thought a bairn's play. It is 
played by lads and lasses as big as ever they will be. The 
peasant is as anxious about gaining a preen as my lord duke 
would be 10,000. When the stakes run high, barnmen and 
ploughmen get noisy over them, taking such hearty laughs that 
sparrows who have taken up lodgings in the thacked easings 
flutter frightened from their holes. Cheating is sometimes 
heard of, then is the saying sounded ' they wha begin to steal 
needles and pins end wi' stealing horned kye ! ' ' 

"Dish a loof " was a pastime of country lads, which tender 
hands could not stand for a moment. " One dash " we are told 
" of a Galloway hind's loof would make blood spurt from every 

Of outdoor sports "Loup the bullocks" was a sort of 
roughly played " leap frog." 

" Burly- whush " was a game with ball somewhat allied to 
" Fives." 

A more comically named one being "Kirk the Gussie," 
Gussie, be it understood, being the Galloway vernacular for a 
lusty woman, represented by a large ball, which one party 
endeavoured to prevent another party from driving into a hole. 
If the latter succeeded, the " Gussie " was said to be " kirked." 

Wedding customs were the same as elsewhere in the low- 
lands, but Symson mentions a prejudice peculiar to Galloway, 


that marriages should be celebrated while the moon is waxing, 
not waning, and then only upon Tuesdays and Thursdays. " I 
have married myself," he says, "near 450 of the inhabitants of 
the country, all of which except seven were married on a 
Tuesday or a Thursday. It is looked upon as a strange thing 
to see a marriage upon other days." 

M'Taggart gives a curious Galloway expression for irregular 
marriages, " owre boggie weddings," adding, " those who plot in 
secret are called ' auld boggie folk,' and displaced priests, who 
bind people contrary to the Canon laws, are designated ' auld 
boggies.' " 

Funeral customs were practically the same for all ranks, the 
Lairds setting the worst possible example, and the humbler 
orders following them as far as pocket would permit. 

Mr. Boyd of Myrtoun Hall, describing the funeral of his 
grandfather, says that the minister of the kirk of Scotland fell 
off his horse in the avenue quite fou', the horse running away, 
and the reverend gentleman, unable to move himself, was 
dragged to one side of the road, where he lay speechless and 
insensible while the long funeral procession was passing. His 
informant, a neighbouring Laird, with some sense of propriety 
adding, " Was it not a mercy he did not belong to Galloway ? " 

The entertainments were conducted on a fixed system. 
There were long religious services in the house, and fixed 
services of refreshment ; of these at a first-class funeral the 
first was port wine, accompanied by scotch bun and short- 
bread and other eatables. Next the tray went round with 
sherry, of which all invariably partook. Then after an 
interval came glasses of brandy, especially popular with the 
bulk of the company, when such remarks were heard as " Here's 
something that will haud the grip." Next followed a round of 
fine old whisky, then a service of rum, sometimes further 
followed with a round of shrub. At the house of any man of 
position, there was invariably a dinner on return from the 
churchyard, the disreputable part of which was, that while 
almost all deliberately drank much more than was good for 


them, an affected gravity was kept up, and anything verging on 
the amusing was considered in the worst possible taste. 

A Galloway laird thus described his experiences when 
having charge of the funeral arrangements at the mansion of a 
friend; and a " collieshangie " which he averted by his tact. 
His words are : 

"We gied a gude wheen o' his friends a dinner after we 
returned frae the kirkyard. I had the key of the cellar, and 
there was naething wanting in the way o' drink. Everything 
was ganging on discreetly when a whulk o' a chap began and 
finished a gude amusing sang. I was forfoughtened wi' a' the 
arrangements, and very foolishly didna stap him at first. But 
the song was owre, and there was nae use looking back ; but it 
was a vera improper proceeding in the house o' mourning. The 
de'il was in them that afternoon, for they actually ca'ed on him 
for anither. Then I spoke out, and I tauld them distinctly that 
if there was anither sang, or anither verse o' a sang, in that room 
that nicht, not anither bottle o' drink should they hae. That 
was the only threet that would stap it, for they liked the drink 
owre weel, and we had nae mair singing." 

We may conclude these jottings of Galloway customs two 
hundred years ago, by quoting a few of the proverbial expressions, 
"freets" (Anglice, superstitious notions) as they called them, 
which if not all peculiar to the province, can be traced back as 
in use there at the period, and long before. 

As to weather, M'Taggart gives us an old freet, "Gin the 
laverock sings afore Caunelmas, she'll mourn as lang after it." 
And Symson gives as in general use, " Winter never comes till 

" Ware," for spring, is set down by Jamieson as Galloway, 
Ayrshire, and Clydesdale dialect. 

Another was 

A warm May and a weeping June 
Brings in harvest full and soon. 
As also 

If grass does grow in Janiveer, 
'Twill be the worse for't all the year. 


A "pet," as a brilliant day intervening between many 
gloomy ones, is certainly a Galloway expression, taking the 
usual form, " I'm afraid it's a pet." M'Taggart explains it : " As 
a pet is always dangerous : a child petted plays the devil some 
day in the world, a sheep petted is apt to turn a duncher." 

We also have 

An auld moon mist 
Ne'er dees o' thrist 

To a query of Sir Eobert Sibbald, "What moon causeth 
high water ? " Symson answers by a local proverb : " I conceive 
that a south moon maketh high water, about Wigtown and 
Whithorn, for I've observed them frequently saying 

< Full moon through light, 
Full sea at midnight." 

Others allude to local industries as : " 'Oo sellers aye ken 
'oo buyers." 

" Ne'er jump out of a cheesle ye hae been chirted in." 

" The eel-backit din 
Ne'er leaves Ms master far ahin'." 

There is a traditionary notion that Galloways were dun- 
coloured with a black stripe along the back. 

The following are suggestive, as : 

" Guid be hangit for a sheep as a lamm," " Tuilzieing dogs 
come halting harne," " Ireland will be your hinner end." 

M'Taggart has a freet as to magpies, which though well 
known in part, goes to a higher figure than we have seen 

elsewhere : 

Ane's sorrow, 
Twa's mirth, 
Three a burial, 
Four a birth, 
Five's a wedding, 
Six brings scaith, 
Seven's siller, 
Aucht's death. 

We have already alluded to some founded on local events ; 
as " Skairsburne warning," an expression for trouble coming 


when least expected. "To the auld mill of Mochrum" as a 
repartee, for which M'Taggart gives as an equivalent a more 
vulgar one, "To the cock fair o' Drummaddie." A Cowend 
elder and a Mochrum laird were both local terms for cor- 
morants on the Colvend shore; a rock to which they resort 
having the singular name of "The Dowker's Byng." "Ken- 
mure's Drum " meant a barrel of brandy ; and from a Kenmure 
lord is derived a peculiar Gallovidian phrase 

" Ye're but a bou o' meal Gordon." 

This was a telling sarcasm against untenable pretensions to 
pedigree, based on a tradition that a Gordon of Lochinvar, 
anxious to increase his vassalage, gave any likely-looking young 
fellow claiming or willing to take his name, at least three acres 
and a cow, and a boll of meal yearly. 



A.D. 1702 to 1707 

Now, fy ! let us a' to the treaty, 

For there will be wonders there, 
And Scotland be busked as a bride, sir, 

To be wed to the Yerl o' Stair. 

"THE testament testamentar and inventar of goods, gear 
debts and soumes of money which pertained to ye defunct Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw " was proved at Wigtown the 28th 
October 1*702 by " Mr. Andrew Eoss in Balkaile, acting for Sir 
Charles Hay of Park, in presence of David Stewart younger of 
Physgill, Commissar prinll. of the Commissariat of Wigtown ; 
Alexander Agnew of Dalreagle, natural son of the deceased 
baronet; and John M'Culloch his servant witnesses; and 
among his assets were the following : 

" There was justly owing be James, Earl of Galloway, to the 
said umquhile Sir Andrew Agnew, the sum of fourteen hundred 
and twenty pounds Scots money of principal, with two hundred 
pound of penalty and annual rent, of ye said sum from the term 
of Whitsunday 1701, contained in a bond granted be the said 
Earl to the said Sir Andrew 24 May 1701. 

" Item, ye said Earle was dew the said Sir Andrew ye sum 
of seven hundred merks principal and one hundred merks 
penalty and annual rent contained in a bond same date. 

" Item, the said Earle was dew the said Sir Andrew Agnew 
ane hundred and twenty pound fifteen shillings contained in 

A.D. 1702-1707] THE UNION 201 

ane ticket granted by the said Earle to the said Sir Andrew 
same date. 

"Item, there was due to the said Sir Andrew by James 
Agnew, his son, the sum of three hundred merks for the Sheriff- 
shyrie of Wigtown conform to ane agreement past between 
them the 11 May 1694 years. 

" And further, at the term of Whitsunday last bygane, there 
became a sum of 1200 merks dew to him by his son in con- 
formity to an arrangement on his resigning the Sheriffship 
14 Jan. 1695." 

There were many other items, and Sir Charles Hay became 
bound that the money should be forthcoming to all parties 
having interest in it. 

The following year, a mutual discharge signed at Lochnaw 
concludes the settlement of his affairs. 

" I, Sir Charles Hay of Park, with speciall consent of Dame 
Grissell Agnew my spouse, executrix confirmed to the deceased 
Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw her father, and I the said Dame 
Grissel Agnew, by thir presents exoners and discharges Sir 
James Agnew of Lochnaw, Sheriff of Galloway, lawful eldest 
son and heir of the said umquhile Sir Andrew Agnew his 
father, of all debt and sums of money, and ... at Lochnaw 4th 
Deer. 1703, before Mr. Andrew Boss, Clerk to the Eegality of 
Glenluce, and Mr. James Eraser, chaplain at Lochnaw." 1 

In 1700 Sir James's second daughter Margaret married 
Andrew Agnew of Lochryan, Major and Brevet Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the Scots Greys; and Lady Mary Agnew's niece, 
Lady Katherine Montgornerie, married the fifth Earl of 

1 There is no note among the family papers as to the eleventh sheriff having 
received knighthood in his father's lifetime, yet this would seem to have been 
so, as enclosed is a discharge to him by Elizabeth Cathcart, his cousin, 
relict of Mr. John Cockburn, Sheriff-Depute of Ayr, of a payment of 2500 merks 
due by him, in which he wrote himself down so with his own hand : 

"I, Sir James Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway, grants me to have actually borrowed 
and received from Major John Cockburn, Sheriff-Clerk of Ayr, the sum of two 
thousand five hundred merks. ... I heve subscryvit thir presents with my 
hand at Ayr the 9th day of March 1699 years. J. AGNEW." 


In 1701 Lord Basil Hamilton was unfortunately drowned, a 
loss to the community at large. Eiding with his brother Lord 
Selkirk by the rough road from the Nick o' the Balloch, they 
came upon the Minnoch, an affluent of the Cree, in full flood. 
His servant went forward to try the water, and was instantane- 
ously unhorsed, and carried off by the current. Lord Basil 
dashed after him, seized him by the arm, and was bringing him 
out safely, when his own horse fell, and the two were borne 
away by the torrent, his brother looking on unable to render any 
help. Lord Basil was succeeded by his eldest son William, 
who died two years later, and Baldoon passed to his next 
brother Basil. 

On the 27th October 1702 the sheriff presided over a meet- 
ing of the baronage called to consider an address from the Synod 
of Galloway, praying that contributions might be asked for " to 
build a bridge on the most convenient place at the Black Ford 
of Cree," to which they unanimously consented. Its site is at the 
present borough of Newton Stewart. 

On the 9th May 1704 Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw, Sheriff 
of Galloway, grants a deputation to Andrew Eoss of Balsarroch 
as his depute, to infeft John, Earl of Stair, heir male served and 
retoured to umquhile James, Viscount Stair, on the lands of 
Bargany and Galdanach ; of Threave (in the parish of Penning- 
hame) in the barony of Ardwell, comprehending the lands of 
Einguinea, Auquhirk, Kirkmabreck, Cairnweil, Auchleach ; the 
lands and mill of Killeser ; the lands of Drumtroddan, Leffnoll, 
Mark, and Ashandaroch, parish of Inch ; and of Torhouse, alias 
Balmeg, in the parish of Wigtown. 1 

Why the service was so long delayed we cannot say. 

Andrew Eoss was probably a cadet of the Eosses of Balneil. 
Three branches of the family acquired the small lordships of 
Cairnbrock, Balsarroch, and Balkail. From the first descended 

1 Balsarroch, Baile-searrach, "Colt's town," Ardwall ; Auquhirk, achadh- 
cheone, "oat-field"; Einguinea, Roin-gaine, Sand-head ; Auchleach, "stone- 
field"; Drumtroddan, "ridge of the tuilzie"; Leffnoll, ancient Leffnolle, 
"halfpenny land of the wool"; Killeser, "St. Lassair's cell"; Ashandaroeh, 
"old field of the oaks " ; Balmeg, meg, " Whey-toun." 

to 1707] THE UNION 203 

Admirals Sir John 1 and Sir James Clark Eoss ; 2 from the third 
Field-Marshal Sir Hew Dalrymple Eoss, 3 distinguished in the 
Horse Artillery in the Peninsula and at Waterloo. 

Sir James Agnew energetically followed his father's lead in 
the improvement of his estates. The direction which this took 
was primarily attention to the breeding and rearing of cattle ; 
and secondly, improving the quality of the pastures by break- 
ing up the land, claying and liming, and sowing new grasses : 
processes which may sound sufficiently rudimentary, but it 
must be remembered that up to the last century cattle had been 
led to breed in and in, and that sowing grass seed was unknown. 
Fields apparently laid down in grass had been cropped for years 
in succession, till the return was nil ; they were then left fallow 
to recoup as best they might, the indigenous grass plant strug- 
gling with various weeds. Clover, and even rye-grass, were then 
a novelty ; and in old times hardly any provision was made for 
winter keep, or even for the shelter of a great portion of the 

Besides introducing fresh blood among his herds and fresh 
seeds for his fields, to the surprise of his neighbours, who had 
been satisfied to gather rare basketfuls of shells from the sea- 
shore, which they burnt as an apology for lime, Sir James 
imported ship-loads of lime from Ireland for top-dressing, as to 
which we quote a note, amusing as showing that the depreciated 
coins of Scotland were not allowed currency in Ireland : 

1 Sir John Ross was son of the Rev. Andrew Ross, minister of Inch, born 
1777. Explored Baffin's Bay, 1818 ; continued search for North- West Passage, 
1830-34 ; Knight Bachelor, 1834. 

2 Sir James Clark Ross, his nephew, born at Balsarroch 1800. An Arctic and 
Antarctic explorer ; Knight Bachelor, 1844. 

3 Sir Hew Ross was son of Major John Ross of Balkail, by Jane, daughter of 
George Buchan of Leatham ; born 1779, died 10th December 1868. Nominated a 
Knight of the Tower and Sword, 1815 ; G.C.B., 1855 ; dangerously wounded at 
the siege of Badajos ; four a horses killed under him at Waterloo. Date of com- 
missions : 2nd Lieutenant 1795, 1st Lieutenant 1796, 2nd Captain 1804, Captain 
R.H.A. 1806, Major 1811, Brevet Lieutenant- Colonel 1813, Brevet Colonel 1830, 
Colonel R.H.A. 1834, Major-General 1841, Lieuten ant-General 1851, General 
1854, Field-Marshal 1868. Married, 1816, Elizabeth Margaret, only daughter 
of Richard Graham, Stonehouse, Cumberland. General Sir John Ross, G.C.B., 
late Colonel Rifle Brigade, commanding the Forces in Canada, is his son. 


" Lochnaw, 3 June 1*704. 

" Dear cus, Since my last James Guillies came over with a 
boat full of lime stones, and would not take money heir. There- 
fore be pleased to pay to him 3 : 1 shilling. With my duty 
and service to yourself and lady, is all, from your most affec- 
tionate cousin and humble servant, JAMES AGNEW. 

" For Mr. Agnew of Kilwaughter." 

As the result of his attention, the herd of Lochnaw soon 
commanded the highest price in the market, of which we have 
conclusive evidence a few years later under the hand of the 
second Earl of Stair, who following in the sheriffs wake with 
equal zeal and larger resources, thus writes to his factor when 
improving his own stock at Castle Kennedy : 

" If there are no large oxen in the Parks, the best will be to 
buy them of the Sheriff's breed (or Logan's) which are the largest. 

" To Messrs. James Dalrymple of Dunraggate, and Mr. 
Andrew Eoss." 

The new school of cattle-breeders set great store by hay, 
which had been strangely neglected by their predecessors. 
Winter feeding was an essential part of the new system, and as 
turnips had not even been seen if ever heard of beyond the 
garden fence, meadow hay was greatly in request. The herbage 
so called was that which grew spontaneously in wet bottoms, 
the most luxuriant yielding three or four cuttings in the season. 

Full of plans for his farm, an unfortunate idea occurred to 
the sheriff that if he drained his White Loch of Lochnaw, its 
bed might yield him an unlimited supply of the very herbage 
that he wanted ; and no sooner thought of than the experiment 
was tried. By deepening the artificial channel to the Mill-Isle, 
which dated from Pictish times, he easily effected his purpose, 
utterly effacing the great ornament of his ancestral home, but 
gaining in return some 50 acres of swamp, from which he could 
cut in any quantity the coveted hay. Picturesqueness had 
hardly any place in the views of his generation, and it is doubt- 

to 1707] THE UNION 205 

ful whether as a matter of individual taste Sir James would not 
have absolutely preferred the sight of his polled Galloways and 
brindled Ayrshires moving in the marsh under his windows to 
the still beauty of his lake rippling noiselessly below the terraces. 
Spade and pick temporarily transformed the loch into a hay-field ; 
but so well defined were its natural bounds, and so lake-like its 
habits, that it was a task of no small difficulty to keep it decently 
dry, and it was the simplest matter for his great-grandson just a 
century later to restore it to its watery honours. Unfortunately, 
however, the taste for antiquity was even less developed in 1700 
than that for landscape-gardening ; and having gained access to 
the island on which stood the King's Castle, Sir James proceeded 
to utilise the old keep for his improvements with a hand as 
unsparing as he had used on the loch. Kequiring some little 
freestone for an addition to his Castle, with as little qualm of 
conscience as the Black Douglas, he rent it to pieces, spoiling 
rybats, window-sills, and door-jambs, and blowing up the rubble- 
work to provide stones for fencing for his cattle. The mischief 
thus done was irreparable, and the old fortalice, which might 
have been an object so interesting to his heirs, can now only be 
traced by its foundations, and a shapeless block of one of its 
once massive walls. 

Unconscious of how his successors would regard his doings, he 
was careful to record their date. On a part of the Castle rebuilt 
with its materials he has engraved in large character S. G. A. 
and L. M. M., his own and his lady's initials, with the date 1704. 

It was, however, well for the family fortunes that he greatly 
added to the real paying capabilities of his Scottish estates, for 
the wide Irish acres whence his grandfather and great-grand- 
father had drawn rents with greater certainty than in Galloway 
had either deteriorated in value, or their cultivators had become 
more unmanageable, as the following letter from his Irish 
agent suggests : 

" Kilwaghter, 17th August 1704. 

"Honoured Sir, I thought to have done that with your 
people which now I dare not, for though I should distrain them, 


I can make no money of their goods. I believe your servant 
can tell the state of our country. 

" I dare not advise you to any sett time for either drawing a 
bill or sending over again, but let Michaelmass be the soonest. 

" I cannot mention here the exact sum of money sent you, 
for the discharge cannot be filled up till the butter be weighed 
at Belfast ; but I will send an account by the next of the sum. 
Which with my humble service to your lady and children is the 
needful at present, from Your Honour's servant att command, 

" To the E*. Hon ble . PATRICK AGNEW. 

" Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw, in Scotland." 

The following month his daughter Jean was married to 
John Chancellor of Shieldhill. The contract was written at 
" Eglingtoune Castle by Alexander Patersone, wryter in 
Stranrawer," and signed "21st December 1704. Alexander, 
Erie of Eglingtoune, and George Monroe and John Hamilton, 
Baillies of Irvine, witnesses." 

The sheriff had named his cousin, William Agnew of Wigg, 
his bailie-depute for the barony of Drummastoune. 

Among entries in the court-book we find : 

"Court holden be Wig upon the 8 Augt. 1705 at the 
ordinary place. 

"Patrick M'Credie in Drumastone is charged for strikinge 
of John M'Guffock in Dunance. 

" The said day the said Patrick compeared and being referred 
to his oath deposed yt he did not strike the said John, but 
confesses yt he gripped the said John with his hand by the 
collar of his neck in anger. The Judge finds him guiltie of a 
batterie, and fyns him in ten pounds Scots, and ordains poynd- 
ing after a charge of 15 days ; and sicklyke the said Patrick 
acts [binds] himself that he and his shall doe no hurt or pre- 
judice to his neighbours under pains contained in a former act 
made thereanent. W. AGNEW." 

Again on the llth December at a court held at the hall of the 
Skeoch, we have this singular direction " for preventing the great 

to 1707] THE UNION 207 

corruption and abuse yt is committed both by the millers and 
tenants within the barony. It is statute and acted that the 
said millers and tenants make the ferme meal sufficient, and 
that they shell their oats sufficientlie for the first time, and 
winnow the shelling, and mix noe first dust among the said 
meall, but only a full of the mill-dish of the second cardings 
among ilk full of shelling, under pain of ten groats of fyne to 
be paid by the person contraveening this act." 

There are usually prefixed the terms " suits called," 
"absents amerciat." The absentees seem to have increased, 
emboldened by example, until the sheriff himself came to the 
assistance of his depute. 

We find this entry : 

"Court of the Barony of Drumastoune, holden at New- 
house of Skeoch, by the Eight Honourable Sir James Agnew 
of Lochnaw, Baronett, Heritable Baron of the Barony of 
Drumastoune, and William Agnew of Wig, his Depute, upon 
the 6th of December 1706. 

" This day the Sheriff having heard, seen, and considered a 
complaint given in by the Clerk of Court mentioning that the 
dues and casualties of Court are in disuetude the said several 
years, and having considered the said complaint ; therefore, for 
remeid whereof, it is statute and enacted that each tenant 
within the said Baronie pay to the Clerk two shillings Scots at 
the two head courts, in all time coming, yearly, and ilk cottar 
one shilling Scots ; with certification that if they faillie to pay 
the samen yearlie, they and every one shall be poinded for their 
amerciament and unlaw, altho' they be present at the nexte 
head court. J. AGNEW." 

Meanwhile Sir James and Lady Mary Agnew anxiously 
awaited the arrival of the slow posts of the period from the 
Low Countries, where their eldest son, the young Laird of 
Lochnaw, was winning his spurs in the campaigns of Marl- 

Immediately after his sister's marriage, he had started for 


the British headquarters in Flanders, and soon found himself 
at home at the mess of the Grey Dragoons, in which his 
brother-in-law, Agnew of Loch Kyan, was major; Thomas 
Agnew, the major's brother, and James Campbell (son of the 
Earl of Loudoun, brother to Lady Stair), were captains ; and the 
young Laird of Mochrum and John Dunbar lieutenants. 

Attached to this distinguished corps as a volunteer, in a few 
weeks he received a commission as a cornet (still carefully 
treasured), signed by Marlborough himself, dated " in Camp at 
Easted, 11 May 1705," appointing "Andrew Agnew, gentleman, 
to be cornet of that troop in Her Majesty's Eoyal Eegiment of 
Scots Dragoons, commanded by the Eight Honourable Lord 
John Hay, whereof Major Andrew Agnew is captain." 

After much marching during the summer, and winter 
quarters in Dutch Brabant, orders reached the Greys in their 
bivouac late in the evening of the 22nd of May to mount and 
feel their way cautiously to their front. With patrols in 
extended order they advanced silently during the whole night ; 
the main body of the army following. Before daybreak the 
dragoons had gained the heights of Miersdorf, and as the morn- 
ing mist rose they discovered the whole French army almost 
within gunshot in position at Eamillies. Orders instantly carried 
the intelligence to the rear, Marlborough hastened his march, 
and at half-past one a volley of artillery roared along the whole 
line, and the action became general. 

A deep swamp intervened between the British horse and 
the Frenchmen, who considered themselves protected by their 
position from any cavalry attack. But an order came to Lord 
John Hay to advance, and his regiment was at once in motion. 
To a Galloway man a " quaw " was of little account ; the 
Agnews and Dunbars showed the way through the morass, 
and the Grey squadrons struggling through it were soon in 
contact with the enemy, who, taken by surprise, were driven 
back in confusion. On went the Greys, when, whilst charging 
madly through the village of Outreglize, they suddenly came on 
the famous corps known as the "Eegiment du Eoi," who 

to I/O/] THE UNION 209 

surrendered en masse and gave up their colours to the Scots- 
men. 1 The victory was everywhere complete, and all the 
Galloway comrades escaped unscathed. 

Soon after the battle of Kamillies, Lord John Hay died 
of fever, and was succeeded in his command by the gallant 
Gallovidian, Lord Dalrymple, eldest son of the Earl of Stair. 

The colonelcy of the Greys had long been the object of his 
ambition, and proud of his corps, and pleased with his luck, he 
thus wrote from camp to the Earl of Mar : 

" Camp at Ghihaughici. 

" Governour, I have got the Eegiment. His Grace will 
write to your Lordship to-night ; he told me I had no need of 
letters, but I am very well satisfied they did me good. His 
Grace does it in the most obliging manner in the world ; it is 
true indeed in his delays he had the kindest air could be to 
me, but I found few people but are of Sancho Panza's opinion, 
' Un tien vaux deux tu aura/ 

" I have sent to Liege for some drink to you. I am sorry 
for the ill-luck you last had, but champagne and Burgundy 
will play the devil with those thin bottles in the summer time. 
Of one parcel I lost 113 bottles this year." 

The laurels won at Blenheim and Kamillies having satisfied 
Colonel Agnew's military yearnings, he exchanged his sword 
for a pruning-hook, and retired to his Galloway estate, where, 
leaving the old hall of Croach, he built himself a quaint little 
box, from a design of a chateau in French Flanders, which he 
called Loch Kyan House. 

At this moment public attention in Scotland was entirely 
diverted from Flemish battles by the war of words which 
resounded through every part of the kingdom at the proposition 
for the legislative union of the two kingdoms. 

Nowhere did the current run stronger against this proposal 

1 Our dragoons, pushing into the village of Outreglize, made a terrible 
slaughter. The French king's own regiment of foot, called the "Regiment du 
Roi," begged for quarter, and delivered up their arms and colours to Lord John 
Hay's Dragoons. London Gazette, 1705. 



than in Galloway ; peers, barons, freeholders, bailies, presby- 
terian ministers petitioning almost unanimously against it. 
A small knot of sagacious statesmen felt that this union alone 
could ensure the Protestant succession; whilst civil war and 
possible separation of the kingdom might result if this measure 
were not carried. One Galloway proprietor alone favoured 
the idea. That man was Lord Stair. 


Parliament was flooded with petitions from the west from 
Shire and Stewartry, and every guild and borough, not except- 
ing the little village of New Galloway ; the tenor of all being 
to the same effect : " We humbly beseech your Grace and 
honourable Estates that you will not allow of any such incor- 
porating union, but will support and preserve the independency 
of this independent kingdom, which has been so valiantly main- 
tained by our heroic ancestors for the space of near 2000 
years " ! ! 

to I/O/] THE UNION 211 

Thirty-one commissioners for each nation were appointed 
to fight the matter out; their place of meeting being appro- 
priately " the cockpit." The brunt of the battle was borne by 
Lord Stair, supported by his brothers Sir Hew and Sir David 
Dalrymple. Their first meeting was on the 16th of April ; on 
the 23rd of July the articles were presented to the queen, and 
in October were discussed in Parliament. 

With so much tact did Stair introduce the subject that the 
first article of union was approved and voted for by Lord 
Galloway and all the members for Wigtown and Kirkcudbright, 
William Stewart of Castle Stewart, John Stewart of Sorbie, 
William Maxwell of Cardoness, Sir David and Sir Hew 
Dalrymple, and William Coltran, there being only one dis- 
sentient, M'Kie of Palgown. 

Much excitement, however, prevailed, and an alarming riot 
was with difficulty quelled at Kirkcudbright, as well as in 
Dumfries, where mobs burnt the commissioners in effigy. 
Matters looked so serious, that Government sent 20,000 from 
the English Exchequer to help to smooth the passage of the Bill. 
Certainly the gold seemed to act like oil on the stormy waters. 
Much recrimination took place during subsequent debates in 
regard to the lubricating process. On a change of ministry, the 
names of those bribed at last were published ; and local 
quidnuncs enjoyed the discovery that Castle Stewart was 300 
richer for his vote, and that Provost Coltran of Wigtown had 
bartered his country's independence for 25. 

Meanwhile the various articles of the Bill were carried one 
by one. Of these No. 20 was satisfactory for the sheriff: " All 
heritable offices, heritable jurisdictions, be reserved for the 
owners thereof as rights of property." 

On the 22nd January 1707 the twenty-second article, the last 
of any importance (regulating the proportional representation 
of Scotland in the Imperial Parliament), gave rise to a 
heated discussion, of which Stair bore the brunt, speaking 
frequently, with his usual vigour and address. His motion was 
carried, and he retired, pleased but much exhausted. The next 

212 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1702-1707 

morning the House and the country were startled to learn that 
the gifted, if unpopular, statesman had passed away in the 
night, and did not live to see the actual passage of the measure 
he had done so much to forward. 

Justice is done to him by a political and personal adversary, 
George Lockhart of Carnwath, who, whilst making the most of 
his faults, yet adds : " He was so great a master of eloquence 
that there were none in Parliament capable of taking up the 
cudgels with him ; he was extremely facetious and diverting 
company in common conversation, and, setting aside his politics, 

He left, among other children, William Dalrymple of 
Glenmuir, who in 1698 had married his cousin Penelope, in her 
own right Countess of Dumfries. 

The Union question was now practically settled ; the last 
stages were hurried through. Though in the last division Lord 
Galloway, Maxwell of Cardoness, and M'Kie of Balgown 
recorded their votes against it as a protest, nevertheless the Act 
of Union happily became law the 21st of January following. 



A.D. 1708 to 1715 

Oh Kenmure's on and awa', Willie, 

Kenmure's on and awa' ; 
And Kenmure's lord is the bonniest lord 

That ever Galloway saw. 

IN the summer of 1708 the sheriff visited Lord Massereene 1 at 
Antrim Castle, with whose son-in-law he had important business 
to transact. His host was Clotworthy Skeffington, third viscount, 
who by his wife Eachel, daughter of Sir Edward Hungerford of 
Farley Castle, Somerset, had a daughter married to Eandall, 
fourth Earl of Antrim. 

The earl was overlord of the sheriff's lands in Ulster, and 
the result of their conference was that Sir James, finding his 
rents ill paid and his tenants discontented, was indisposed to 
pay Lord Antrim the large fine he asked for the renewal of his 
lease for another hundred years. He consequently transferred 
his interest to his kinsman and agent, Agnew of Kilwaughter, 
who acquired the lands as vassal to the earl. 

After-generations of the Lochnaw family were greatly dis- 
satisfied at this alienation of the estates which had been so 
long held by their ancestors. The only authentic particulars 
to be gathered of the transaction are in a letter from a 
granddaughter of Sir James, a resident in Belfast, who thus 

1 Mas-a-rioglma, "The Queen's Hill." Reeves's Ecclesiastical Antiquities. 
Mas, " the thigh," applied to a long low hill. Joyce, i. 525. 


answered inquiries addressed to her by the late Sir Andrew 
Agnew : 

" Great Edward Street, Belfast, 
"April 29, 1818. 

" Sir Stair Agnew conversed with me more than once 
respecting the sale of Kilwater. It was disposed of by Sir 
James Agnew to Mr. Agnew for comparatively a mere trifle. 
Sir Stair was told the reasons for this singular transaction were 
that Ireland was in such a lawless and turbulent state, that his 
factor had great difficulty and personal danger to encounter 
amongst the tenants, and also that Sir James and Lady Mary 
Agnew were more splendid and expensive than suited their 
income, and had a large family, no fewer than nineteen children, 
and were glad to get the money. Whether Sir James had a 
right to dispose of the property without the concurrence of his 
lawful heir is to me a doubtful matter, but it is near a century 
since the estate was sold, and the laws respecting such affairs 
were then perhaps different. 

" Sir Stair said Sir Andrew (Sir James's son, Sir Stair's 
father) could not bear to hear Kilwater mentioned, which was 
very natural. . . . 

" My father was son of Sir James Agnew, his name George ; 
he was many years a captain in the 1st or Eoyal Scotch 
Eegiment, prior to which he served as a cavalry officer. Miss 
Dunbar was my father's first wife, after her decease he married 
my mother ; she was an Irish woman, daughter of a physician, 
who was respectably connected. I remain, dear Sir Andrew, 
with infinite regard and respect, your affectionate cousin, 


Two letters of the period remind us that crossing to Ireland 
was not always the simple matter it is now, when winds or 
even calms might delay vessels indefinitely, which were unfit 
to contend with storms in the strong tideway of the Channel. 
It seems also that then as now Galloway lairds were no match 
for Irishmen in horse-dealing. 

to I/IS] THE RISING OF 1715 215 

" Donachadee, 24 July 1708. 

"Dear Sir, I am come here I bless God safe, but am mightily 
dissapoynted of my passadge, there being nae boats on this syde, 
so that I expect to lay here a considerable tyme before I get 

" I was necessitate to pairt with the mear I got from you, 
being both leasie and much given to stumbling, and all I could 
get for her was four punds. Your affect, and humble servant, 


" For Captane James Stewart of Killimane." 1 

The other to an Antrim gentleman apparently agent to 
Lord Massereene. 

"Antrim, Oct. 27, 1708. 

" Honble. Sir, I return you my most humble thanks for the 
honour of yor. letter. I doe oune that my inclinations to pay 
Sir James Agnew all imaginable respects were and are still 
very full and good. Though the crowd and hurry he was in at 
Antrim would not allow me to doe it in any way worth his 
remembering, much less acknowledging. 

" My Lord Massereene is concerned to heare yt. the mare 
you carry ed from hence inclines to be vitious, and sayes yt. he 
never discovered any such temper in her, and therefore is afraid 
she hes been mismanaged by yr. grooms. 

" I sincerely pray for all prosperity and happiness to you, 
and with all respect and deference, Honble. Sir, yr. very 
obedient and most humble servant, 


" For the Honble. 
" Sir James Agnew, Barrt., Lochnaw." 

The Christmas party at Lochnaw this year was enlivened 
by the return of the young laird ; his regiment having gone 
into winter quarters, he had obtained a few weeks' leave, and 
previous to rejoining, he secured two recruits for the Greys in a 

1 Captain Stewart of Killymoon was brother-in-law of Agnew of Kilwaughter. 


manner very suggestive of how the energies of a poacher, if 
young and muscular, might be turned into a useful direction. 
We give the record, also noting that it is the first time in 
Galloway that we find the sheriff officially associating other 
gentlemen with himself under the term "justices of the peace." 

"Stranraer, 1st of February 1709. Convened of the Justices 
of Peace within the shire of Wigtown 

" Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw, Sheriff of Wigtown ; 

" Patrick M'Dowall of Freuch ; 

" Robert Agnew of Seuchane ; 

" Andrew Fordyce, Provost of Stranraer ; 

" Who elected the Laird of Freuch preces. 

" The whilk day Cornett Andrew Agnew, in Her Majesties 
Eoyal Regiment of Dragoons, commanded by the Erie of Stair 
as Collonell, having seized the persons of John and James Devie- 
sones, brother germans, and this day conveined them before the 
above-named justices of peace in ordour to serve Her Majesty 
as soldiers, being idle vagrant persons : And the justices 
required the said John and James Deviesones to propose and 
give in their reasons why they shall not serve Her Majesty in 
the army, and for that effect granted them a competent tyme ; 
yett, notwithstanding they proposed not nor give in no reasons 
to the end foresaid : 

" Therefore the above-designed preses and justices having 
considered the same, doe approve seizing the said John and 
James Deviesones as vagrant idle men ; and ordayne them to 
serve the said Cornett Agnew in the foresaid Eoyale Regiment 
or otherwise. 

" And both of them to be secured for that effect, the articles 
of war being read to them. (Signed) JAMES AGNEW." 

This feat accomplished in his peace campaign, the cornet 
hastened back to the field, pleased to be able to present Lord 
Stair with two stalwart, likely-looking countrymen, to swell the 
ranks of the Scots Greys. 

to 1715] 



The desertion of a more desperate character, however, of 
whom both the sheriff and the cornet were destined to hear 
again, was the subject of much joking and speculation in Marl- 
borough's camp in the early summer. Those discussing it, little 
knew who had thus slipped through their fingers, and his 
stranger destinies, as to which we may anticipate. The hero 
was Billy Marshall, of the blood royal of the gipsies, who sub- 
sisted in the Border counties ostensibly as tinkers and makers 
of horn spoons, but in reality by fortune-telling and theft. 
Billy, having killed his chief in a quarrel about a sweetheart, 
fled the country and enlisted in a Scottish regiment (he always 
asserted he had been present at the battle of the Boyne, but 
this is highly improbable), and it is certain he served under 
Marlborough in Flanders. 

One morning he looked in on several Galloway officers in 
their tents the one a M'Culloch of Ardwell, the other M'Guffock 
of Eusco l politely asking each of them " if they had ony word 
to send to freends in Galloway." " How so ? " was the natural 
answer. When Billy coolly replied : " Kelton Hill fair is just 
at han' ; I have never been absent from it since my leg-shanks 
were able to carry me there, and I don't mean to miss it now." 

The officers laughed, but none of them took any steps for 
his immediate arrest, and at the next roll-call it was found the 
bird had flown. 

Whether helped by foreign Egyptians, or relying on his own 
native cleverness, certain it is that, eluding provost-marshals 
and police, he found his way back to Galloway and could never 
be caught. Here high destinies awaited him. He was elected 
soon after King of the Gipsies, and over them he reigned no 
nominal rule some seventy or eighty years. 

His experiences enabled him to give an almost military 
organisation to bands of which we shall hear more, known as 
the "Levellers" and " Houghers," which carried terror to the 

1 This is a tradition in both families, each claiming for their forebear the 
honour of having been Billy's commanding officer. Both were doubtless officers 
of the brigade. 


country-side. He eluded all attempts at capture and punish- 
ment, and growing more staid in his advancing years, lived to 
be looked up to with feelings of interest, indeed almost of 
respect. He died at Kirkcudbright in 1792, and his funeral 
was attended by a vast assemblage of all ranks ; Dunbar, Earl 
of Selkirk, 1 acting as chief mourner, who with his own hand 
placed the gipsy's head in his grave, and had a monument 
erected over him bearing this inscription : " The remains of 
Wm. Marshall, Tinkler, who died 28th Novr. 1792, at the age 
of 120 years." 2 And on a scutcheon two tup's horns and two 
spoons crossed. 

The spring and summer of 1709 having been spent in the siege 
and capture of Tournay, on the llth September the sheriff's son 
bore his part in the battle of Malplaquet, an incident of which 
fight was as gallant and more successful than the death ride of 
Balaclava. The Greys (led by Sir James Campbell) and Eoyal 
Irish Dragoons (now the 5th Lancers) having charged and 
routed a line of French cavalry, and following in somewhat 
broken formation, unexpectedly found themselves face to face 
with the French Household Brigade, picked men magnificently 
mounted, as brave and much fresher than themselves. The 
French bore down furiously upon them ; there was an awful 
crash ; each opposing squadron charged through the other's 
ranks, each instantly wheeling about, re-forming, and returning 
to the encounter. It is asserted that the two lines thus charged 
eight times through and through the other, 3 a feat unparalleled. 
Lord Stair escaped un wounded after mingling in the thickest 

1 Mackenzie's History of Galloway, ii. 403. There is a full account of him in 
the Scots Magazine, 1792. He is the subject of an article in Blackwood's Magazine. 

2 His own account of himself was that he was born in 1666, and fought at 
the battle of the Boyne. It is more probable that the age of a soldier at Malpla- 
quet should have been nearer twenty-four than forty-four years of age. It has 
been generally accepted that he was over 120, but our forefathers of a hundred 
years ago were credulous and uncritical in such matters. 

3 " It was in these campaigns," writes Chambers, " and under such training, 
that besides being a skilful and successful officer, Sir Andrew Agnew became 
distinguished by those deeds of personal daring as well as eccentric peculiarities 
of manner that long made him a favourite in the fireside legends of the Scottish 
peasantry. Lives of Eminent Scotsmen. 

to I/IS] THE RISING OF 1715 219 

of the fray. The Greys' loss was thirty-one officers and men, 
among the former being young Dunbar. 

The famous Lowland corps of Scotland, the Scots Fusiliers 
(Mar's Greybreeks), bore the palm among the infantry, having 
stormed the entrenchments and broken through a formidable 
abattis impervious to horsemen. 

The young Laird of Lochnaw was already " a character" in 
the camp ; cool in action, full of fun and humour in quarters, 
and eccentric withal, he early attracted the favourable notice of 
his superior officers. 1 

One day he was detailed in orders to command a burial party, 
which with others from various corps marched to the scene of an 
engagement of the day before, and commenced their melancholy 
operations. As he strolled over the battle-field, his orderly came 
up to him in great perplexity. " Sir," said he, " there is a heap 
of fellows lying yonder who say they are only wounded, and 
won't let us bury them like the rest, what shall we do ? " " Bury 
them at once," replied young Agnew, without moving a muscle of 
his countenance ; " for, my fine fellow, if you take their own word 
for it, they won't be dead for a hundred years to come." The man 
saluted, and as his notion of military discipline centred in the 
one idea of implicit obedience, off he started in all simple- 
mindedness to obey the order to the letter; indeed, he was 
actually proceeding to do so when the eccentric cornet, who, with 
his apparent impassibility, had his eyes in all directions, de- 
spatched a counter-order just as his joke was on the point of 
being carried further than he intended. 

This incident recalls an " owre true " story of Border life, 
which proved anything but a joke to certain Galloway troopers 
just a century before. When Lord William Howard, best 
known as " Belted Will," was warden of the Western Marches, 
certain Galloway mosstroopers, " bodin' in feir of war," were 
made prisoners by the English, hard by the Lochmaben Stane, 
and hurried off to JSTaworth Castle. 

Their guilt lay rather in their intentions than their deeds. 

1 Cannon's Official Records of the British Army. 


" Belted Will," who was far from cruel, was an enthusiastic 
mathematician, and was deep in his studies in the oratory of 
Naworth when the captives were marched into his courtyard. 
A lieutenant ran up to get my Lord's orders as to their disposal. 
The warden, enraged at the interruption, roared " Hang the 
prisoners ! " and the subordinate disappeared. Having solved 
his problem, he came downstairs, calling cheerfully for the 
captives to be brought before him for examination, when to his 
horror he found that his rash expression had been misconstrued, 
and the order literally obeyed. 

In the autumn the Duke of Marlborough returned home. 
Though feted and much made of, "Corporal John," like a 
true general, had the interests of his officers at heart, and one 
lucky morning Cornet Agnew, now in winter quarters, had a 
packet put into his hand, which, on opening, he found to be a 

" Cornet Agnew of the Eoyal Scots Dragoons to be Captain 
in the regiment of foot commanded by the Et. Honble. Lord 
Strathnaver. 1 (Signed) MARLBOROUGH. 

"Dated 10 Deer. 1709." 

In virtue of this little bit of parchment, he passed at a bound 
over the whole intermediate grade of lieutenant to the com- 
mand of a company. Quitting the lines of his old corps, the 
cornet at once reported himself as a captain at the headquarters 
of his new regiment, with which he was actively engaged until 
the peace of Utrecht in 1*711. 

A letter to the sheriff from another Galloway soldier, in the 
stilted style of the day, gives some gossip, and tells of his 

" Courtray, 22 March 1711. 

" Sir, The high respect which I can witness were mutually 
shown betwixt your father and my grandfather obliges me in 
point of gratitude to continue the same to his inemorie and to 
yrself, as a person of high note, distinction, and merit in the 

1 Lord Strathnaver, 2nd Battalion of the 10th Regiment. 

to I/IS] THE RISING OF 1715 221 

shyre, whereupon I presume to rank you in the catalogue of my 
best friends. 

" Be pleased, sir, therefore to accept this as a small token of 
my particular regard to your family till I shall be capable to 
show the same after another manner, which I both wish and 
pray for. Words are but words, yet writing and returning 
missives are all the offices of civility that are iisual among 
friends when separated. 

" If you will be pleased to honour me with a lyne, when 
you have nothing to do, direct to Lieutenant James Gordon of the 
Welsh Fuziliers, commanded by Major-Genl. Saben at Courtray, 
or to the English camp in Flanders. 

" Your son the Captain and I are now in garrison, both well, 
thanks to God, though I have not had so good luck ; but no 
wonder, for there is a difference betwixt both our interest, our 
qualities, and our standing. 

" I have no news to tell but what your weekly prints carrie. 
Be pleased to let this transmit my most humble duty to your 
noble lady, and pray do me the honour to believe that I will, 
with abundance of complaisance, take hold of all possible 
occasions to testifie how much I am, Sir, your most humble and 
obedient servant, JAMES GOKDON. 

" Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw, Barronett, 

" Sheriff of Wigtown. 

" To the care of the postmasters of Edinburgh, Irvin, Stran- 
rawer, North Brittain." 

This youth, the Honourable James Gordon, was son of 
Alexander Gordon of Penningham by Lady Grizel Stewart, 
daughter of the second Earl of Galloway (his uncles being the 
Stewarts of Eavenstone and Castle Stewart). His father had 
succeeded collaterally as fifth Viscount Kenmure, and his half- 
brother William was then sixth Viscount (having succeeded in 
1698). The writer of the letter married the heiress of Gordon of 
Grange, and thus became a Wigtownshire laird. 

Ajnong the last capital sentences entered in the sheriff's 


court-book is that of Patrick Clanachan for horse-stealing, the 
3rd August 1709. "And he being personally present, and the 
horse stolen being also produced as red hand, and the said 
Patrick confessing the crime, the Assize with one consent found 
him guilty." And his doom was thus pronounced by the 
Sheriff-Depute that the " said Clanachan is remitted to the 
Magistrates of Wigtown, to be taken on the 31st August, be- 
twixt the hours of 12 and 2 in the afternoon, to the gyppet of 
Wigtown, and there to hang till he be dead." 

The grim humour of the culprit as he was being carried, as 
was usual, on a hurdle to the gallows, is still traditionally re- 
membered. People in crowds were hurrying past the procession 
to see the execution, when Patrick is said to have coolly and 
quietly exclaimed, " Tak yer time, boys, tak yer time, there'll be 
no fun for you till I come ! " 

In 1*709 the sheriff's intimate friend, Sir William Maxwell, 
died, and on the 29th December 1711 Sir Alexander, his suc- 
cessor, married Lady Mary's niece, Lady Jane Montgomerie. 

The sheriff's brother-in-law, the ninth Lord Eglinton, had, 
two years before, married as his third wife, the beautiful daughter 
of Sir Archibald Kennedy of Culzean. This lady, long known 
in the west as Suzanna, Countess of Eglinton, and who survived 
her husband fifty-one years, entertained Dr. Johnson with 
Boswell on his tour in Scotland, and died in 1780, at the age of 
ninety-one. Her picture is still in the drawing-room at 

A year or two later Lord Galloway's daughter by Lady 
Katherine Montgomery married the sixth Earl of Southesk. 

An entry in the sheriff's record-book of 1711 gives a com- 
plete list of the freeholders of the county at that date in 
number only twenty-nine. 

"Wigtown, 9 October 1711. 

" The which day and place, by order and warrant from Sir 
James Agnew of Lochnaw, heretable sheriff of the said shire, 
intimations were made at the mercat cross of the head burgh of 
the shire and at the respective parish kirks within the same, 

to I/IS] THE RISING OF 1715 223 

to the whole barons and freeholders having right to vote in 
the election of a Member of Parliament, to compear to make up 
a roll of electors conform to Act of Parliament. 

" In obedience whereto the said sheriff, barons, freeholders, 
and others having right to vote, this day convened and did make 
up the Eoll of the Electors in manner underwritten, viz. 

" Mr. William Stewart of Castle-Stewart, Mr. John Stewart 
of Sorbie, Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw, Sir Charles Hay of 
Park, Sir Alexander Maxwell of Monreith, Sir James Dunbar of 
Mochrum Baronets. Alexr. M'Dowall of Garthland, Eobert 
M'Dowall of Logan, Pat. M'Dowall of French, Andrew Agnew 
of Sheuchan, Mr. Alexr. Adair of Drumore, John Blair of Dun- 
skey, Colonel Andrew Agnew of Lochryan, Alexr. Murray of 
Broughton, John Cathcart of Gainoch, William Agnew of Wig, 
John Stewart of Fisgall, William Stewart of Castlestewart 
younger, William Gordon of Grange, Alexr. Agnew of Myrtoun, 
George M'Culloch of Torhouse, Pat. Coltrain of Drumorell, Gil- 
bert Neilson of Craigcaffie, Alexr. M'Dowall of Corochtrie, John 
Crookshanks of Craiglaw, Alexr. Houstoun of Cutreoch, John 
M'Kie of Barrawer, John M'Culloch of Torhouse-M'Kie younger. 

"And this we find to be the Eoll of uncontroverted Electors. 
In testimony whereof this is signed, day, year, and place foresaid, 
by J. AGNEW." 

We miss the Baillies of Dunragit from the Eoll. Their 
lands had passed to Thomas Dalrymple, fourth son of the first 
Viscount Stair, honorary physician to the King ; married to 
Jean Agnew, 1 who acquired Dunragit, which was inherited by 
their son James. It will be remembered that at least eighty 
years before one of Sir Patrick Agnew's daughters married John 
Baillie of Dunragit, and another a son of M'Dowall of Garth - 

We cannot trace the intermediate links, but an interesting 
letter addressed to the sheriff concerns one of the Baillies living 

1 She is styled "of Cairn." This is Cairn, a land in Kirkcolm, which then 
belonged to the Agnews of Croach. Jean Agnew's father had probably not 
succeeded to the latter at the date of his daughter's marriage. 


in honest poverty in the West Indies, a great-grandson of both 
these ladies, and tells its own tale. 

" Barbadoes, Augt. ye 26, 1711. 

" Honourable Sir, I don't doubt but this may be amusing 
enough to receive an epistle from one so much unacquainted 
with you, or the manner of scraping a correspondence with one 
of such distinction as yourself; however, if you'll take it as 
it is, rude and unpolished, the sequel accounts for the reason, 
which is 

"A gentleman honoured with a ministerial dignity, and 
qualified accordingly, came lately very largely recommended to 
this island by my Lord of Loudoun, and in very short time 
came in a rector to a country parish wherein I have some 
interest ; and because he was not born to cringe and bow, there 
are some colonels in his parish that have become his enemies ; 
and he not being a proper object to be imposed upon (so that 
they are not able to quarrel with his parts), they have forged a 
childish story of him ; yt he was born in Ireland and that his 
father was a pedlar there. The design whereof is to make the 
world believe that a man who will deny his country will be 
guilty of anything. 

" The young gentleman's name is Mr. Andrew Baillie, Jr. I 
must in a few words tell you what I think of the young gentle- 

" I look upon him to be of a good life, and severely temperate, 
for which these two gentlemen hate him. He is modest and 
diligent in his duty, and, in a word, wonderfully capable to 
account for his religion to the convincing of gainsayers, and 
preaches as well in conversation as in the pulpit; so that if 
there be truth in what he advances, which I am ready to believe, 
you and we both may be proud of him, having few sent us that 
are gentlemen and scholars too. 

" He tells me as a secret that his two grandmothers were 
daughters of your family, and his grandfather by the mother's 
side was a son of the house of Garthland, two very ancient 

to I/IS] THE RISING OF 1715 225 

houses, and which reflect honour upon the generality of familys 
in ye shire. This he told me as a secret, because he does not 
value himself upon that score, being of late more of Juvenal's 
opinion, ' Virtus est sola nobilitas.' When they ask him in 
banter if he is a gentleman (because Scotchmen are always 
proud), he modestly declines the name, by telling them ' he was 
never rich, and therefore could not be a gentleman till he had 
the gown ; ' and then he believed none that were civil would 
renew the question. This is a taste of his conversation, and it 
is all so at occasion (or more agreeable) but charming to me. 

" What you'll please to write me in return with respect to 
his parentage and place of his nativity, I will justify in opposi- 
tion to all who dare advance the contrary ; for I have embarked 
myself in his interest, and will follow my own inclination when 
I stand his friend. 

"This your return will be but common justice to your 
deserving kinsman, but will (also) singularly oblige, honourable 

" Your most humble and obedt. sert. 


" Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw, Knight 
and Baronet, near Stranrauer in 
North Brittain." 

To this letter the sheriff replied as follows : 

" Lochnaw, 19th Nov. 1711. 

"Worthie Sir, I was favoured with yours of the 26th of 
August, and am most sensible and thankful for the friendship ye 
have showin to my kinsman ; and ye have acted a more generous 
part and more becoming your character than those oyr gentlemen 
who make it their endeavour to traduce and maligne him. If 
he were of a meaner birth, and less eminent in his oyr good 
qualifications, perhaps he would be more agreeable and accept- 
able to them. 

"Believe me, that what he has suggested to you is verie 



treu ; for his grandmothers were both daughters of my family, 
and his grandfather by his mother's side was a son of the family 
of Garthland, who are not the meanest families in this kingdom. 
And that his father is a pedlar, and he himself born in Ireland, 
is both fictitious and false, (he) being born and educat in his more 
younger years within three miles of my house. 

" It's most pleasing to me to have a confirmation from you 
of his virtuous and pious lyfe ; and that he is progressive in oyr 
good qualities in relation to his ministerial functions, I heartily 
wish for, as I doubt not of the continuance of it. 

" I cannot express or make language of the sense of the 
obligation I am under to you (as all his oyr friends heir are) for 
the respect and justice ye have done to my cusin Mr. Andrew 
Baillie. I should be proud of an opportunity to do you service ; 
and in the meantyme accept of the dutiful respects of, Sir, your 
most humble and obliged servant, J. AGNEW. 

" Mr. Daniel Hooper, per Mr. Shielding, 
at the signe of the Dyall, at ye 
upper end of Drurye Lane, London." 

Shortly after the peace of Utrecht, Lord Strathnaver's 
regiment was disbanded. His kinsman, Captain Thomas 
Agnew, had retired from the Greys, and purchased an estate at 
Eichmond Hill, where he built a villa and laid out gardens 
pleasantly overlooking the Thames. 

Young Agnew's occupation gone, much of his time was spent 
with his old brother officer in these agreeable surroundings, and 
having nothing else to do, he fell violently in love with his 
daughter, who reciprocated his affection. There is no reason to 
suppose that the older captain would not have smiled on the 
younger one's suit, but for the tender age of his daughter, which 
was just fifteen. Hence, as the parents hesitated to give their 
consent, the young couple simplified matters by an elopement. 
Slight effort, if any, was made by Captain Thomas to overtake 
the runaways, who were duly married by licence at the church 
of St. Benedict near St. Paul's wharf. 


to I/IS] THE RISING OF 1715 227 

The sheriff was furious at the utter contempt thus shown 
for parental authority. He refused to receive the young couple 
or to assist in any way in making a settlement, a serious 
matter, as his lands were unentailed. It is probable also that 
her father made some show of displeasure, and his doors also 
were shut against the runaways. 

In his dilemma the younger captain bethought him of Lord 
Stair, who was happily in town ; he at once kindly undertook to 
bring about a reconciliation with both the angry parents. "With 
Captain Thomas, who had long served in his own regiment, he 
had little difficulty, but Sir James was not so easily softened, 
and several letters passed before his. worship relaxed, and at 
last gracefully consented to give the paternal benediction at the 
intercession of an advocate so powerful and so kind. 

"We quote the last letter from the unpublished Stair papers 
at Oxenford : 

" Lochnaw, 7 August 1714. 

" My Lord, I was honoured with your Lordship last post. 
I shall not trouble your Lordship with the details of my son's 
unaccountable management, that though he had not judged me 
worthy to give him an advice in that matter, yet never 
acquainted your Lordship, who being in the place, I do persuade 
myself would have advised him to that which would have tended 
to his honour, and the advantage of the family. And though I 
was firmly resolved never to have seen him, yet seeing your 
Lordship is pleased to put your commands on me to forgive him 
which nothing else could have done it I shall, when Captain 
Agnew comes to treat with me, and makes such offers as he 
ought and can do, make such a settlement as may make them 
live easie at home. 

"I was and am still very sensible of Captain Agnew's 
civilities to my children when abroad, though I think he has 
been very indifferently used by my son. 

" I am overjoyed with the account of your Lordship being 
soon in Scotland. My wife begs that her most humble duty 
may b'e acceptable to my Lady Stair and your Lordship, as I do 


who am, with great respect and esteem, your Lordship's most 
faithful and devoted servant, J. AGNEW. 

" We are just now in a great consternation with the account 
of the Queen's death." 

It is pleasant to be able to add that of this union, entered 
upon so rashly, neither party had ever any reason to repent. 
As Dame Eleanor, the bride, during a long life, was remarkable 
for every matronly virtue, for prudent management, and good 

Post-nuptial settlements were duly executed, though not till 
four years later, when by a Crown Charter of George I. various 
lands were confirmed to the bridegroom on the father's 
resignation. 1 

The death of Queen Anne, alluded to by Sir James, had 
taken place August 1, and the proclamation of the Elector of 
Hanover was duly made at Stranraer, as early as the llth. A 
letter to Lord Stair from the magistrates says 

" We did proclaim his Majesty heir on the llth inst. with 
all the solemnity and demonstrations of joy we were capable of, 
eight days before the solicitor did send us the order for doing it, 
taking for our pattern therein, the towns of Glasgow and Ayr, 
and being asisted by the sheriff, Sir James Agnew, and other 

The whole country was in a state of ferment, " Whig and 

1 The Precept infefting him in his father's lands and offices, specified with 
other rights " the salmon fishing in the water of Luce, by net and coble for the 
said salmon fishing, and by deliverance of earth and stone of the said lands, and 
one penny upon the pound as use as." 

The Charter Latin is somewhat peculiar " Capitano Andreas Agnew Regalii 
Regimenti de Fuzeliers Britanniae Borealis filio natu maximo Domini Jacobi 
Agnew de Lochnaw Rasmeth Hereditariae Vicecomiti Yicecomutis de Wigtown, et 
Dominae Eleanorae Agnew filiae Capitani Thomas Agnew, Regalii Regimenti 
Draconiarum de Britanniae Borealis. Testibus predilecto nostro consanguineo 
Alexandro domino de Polwarth d n Adamo Cockburn de Arnistoun et Dom. 
Carolo Rem." 

The witnesses to the marriage contracts are "Alex. Murray of Broughton, 
Colonel Patrick Agnew of Barnbarroch, Andrew Agnew of Lochryan, Robert 
Agnew younger of Sheuchan, written in London (22 April 1719) by William 
Reid, servitour, at the direction of Patrick M'Dowall of Crichen, Writer to his 
Majesty's Signet. 

to I/IS] THE RISING OF 1715 229 

Tory having now a serious significance. Several anxious letters 
are preserved from the sheriff to Lord Stair, giving details of 
meetings of such of the baronage as favoured the Protestant 
succession, and of the steps they were taking to ensure a Whig 
candidate at the coming elections, begging him also to come at 
once to the country, " as I said in my last, that if your Lordship 
would but come here and stay a very short time, I am convinced 
your presence would solve all our difficulties ; " and again on the 
14th September, " if your Lordship come down the west road 
let me know and I will meet your Lordship a day's journey or 
two from Castle Kennedy, and give you particular account of 
some things, and what may happen." l 

The fact was that civil war seemed imminent, and to their 
horror the Galloway Whigs found that it had been seriously 
proposed to send a French expedition to Kirkcudbright in aid 
of the Pretender; and that that port had been deliberately 
chosen for five reasons. First, That the passage from Brest was 
easy, and the least guarded. Second, That it lay close to the 
country of the Maxwells and the Gordons, the Chevalier's 
warmest partisans. Third, That it would be an especially con- 
venient rendezvous for North of England Jacobites and hordes 
of Irish Catholics. Fourth, That local levies would be easily 
mounted from the number of horses bred within range of 
Kelton Hill ; and Fifth, That it would be peculiarly gratifying 
to the Presbyterians, hill-men, and Cameronians to see this con- 
fidence reposed in them by their lawful king. It seems curious 
that the last named could have had weight with astute politi- 
cians, and cause them to expect such assistance in opposing the 
Protestant succession. 

It appears, however, that it had leaked out that Presby- 
terians generally were indignant with the united Parliament for 
having restored patronage, and that the Cameronians suspected 
King George's covert intention of restoring Episcopacy. But 
above all these rankling discontents, the Union itself was an 

1 Letter from Sir James Agnew to Lord Stair in unpublished correspondence 
at Oxenford. 


open sore : the benefits which were to flow from it were as yet 
unrealised, Scotch money was drafted to England rather than 
English gold circulated in Scotland ; Peers and Members of 
Parliament, subsisting at home mainly on their victual rent, 
spent the hard cash drawn from their Scottish estates in the 
English capital. 

French wines and brandies, a source of some little commerce 
to Wigtown and Kirkcudbright, were arbitrarily prohibited, and 
barons and burgesses had alike to fill their cellars with worse 
and dearer wine than they had had before, whilst the very 
change in their currency though a sound one financially 
made them feel poorer, and, like all such changes, was unpopu- 
lar. Besides there was no enthusiasm for George I. ; his single 
claim to the Throne, that of being a Protestant, was neutralised 
by Presbyterian jealousy. 

Had a landing in force immediately taken place, the Jaco- 
bite cause might probably have triumphed. 

As respects Galloway, the Shire was pitted against the 
Stewartry Lords Galloway and Stair, the sheriff, with the 
cadets of his house, Wigg, Sheuchan, Lochryan, and Dalreagle 
Sir Alexander Maxwell, Sir James Dunbar, the Lairds of Barn- 
barroch, Garthland, Freuch, Eavenstone, and Castle Stewart, 
one and all, were Whigs for the nonce staunch for the 
Protestant succession; Hamilton of Baldoon being the only 
Wigtownshire baron of importance who donned the white 
cockade. The Jacobites, however, mustered strong east of the 
Dee, including Lords Mthsdale and Kenmure, the Gordons of 
Earlston and Lagmore, Maxwells of Cardoness, Munches, and 
Carnsalloch, Fergusson of Craigdarroch, and many more. 

For a year, however, the peace was kept, and though George 
I. had been everywhere proclaimed as King, the disaffected had 
been preparing for a rising. On the morning of the eleventh of 
October, William, sixth Viscount Kenmure, was " on and awa' " 
at the head of a goodly following in the cause of James VIII. 
Tradition has it that his horse, usually gentle and tractable, 
violently resisted his mounting it that morning ; this was felt 

to 1715] 



to be a bad omen, but he was encouraged by his wife (Mary 
Dalziel, sister of Lord Carnwath) to disregard it, and unfolding 
his standard of blue silk wrought by her hands with gold, bear- 
ing beneath the Thistle and St. Andrew the motto " No Union," 
he rode off, though somewhat discouraged. 

Among the baits to attract recruits in Galloway were 
banners engraved with such mottoes as these; "Keligious 
liberty ! " " Tuns of French wine ! " "A Scottish Parliament ! " 
" No exportation of Scotch gold ! " which took so readily, that 
had there been brains to direct the movement, the rising might 
have been successful. Lord Mar, the acknowledged leader, was 
quite unequal to the occasion, and his other lieutenants mostly 
resembled Kenmure, a middle-aged and deservedly popular 
country gentleman, without the slightest military knowledge or 
organising powers. But whilst one gallant Galloway peer thus 
headed a large contingent for the rebellion, another Galloway 
lord proved more than a match not for him and Mar alone, 
but for all the intriguers at the French and English Courts. 
That man was Lord Stair; appointed Ambassador to Paris in 
the nick of time, he kept his Government thoroughly informed 
of what was going on, and thus enabled them to baffle plans 
which might have succeeded if undetected. 

In addition to diplomatic and military talent, Lord Stair 
developed social qualities of a brilliant order. As an example : 
Louis XIV. being dead, he knew the Duchess of Maine to be 
cognisant of various intrigues in favour of the Pretender ; a 
meddler in all such matters, yet remarkably circumspect, and 
known to possess unlimited influence over the Kegent. Stair 
felt she must be gained ; but how to do it ? 

She was fond of his society, enjoyed his conversation, but 
was quite a match for himself in the use of words for concealing 
thoughts. Her one weakness was gaming. Stair watched his 
opportunity, and purposely lost a large sum to her at play. He 
was thus for the night installed in her good graces. He sat by 
her side, and they became confidential ; he ceased to play ; soon 
all her winnings from him had gone to others. He kept her 


supplied ; a bad run of luck dissipated rouleaux of gold, which 
one after another he slipped into her hand, and still she asked 
for more. The evening closed. Stair chuckled as he thought 
he had a score against her it was impossible for her to pay. 
Early next morning Stair received a message from the Duchess 
to come to her at once. He obeyed, and was somewhat startled 
at finding himself ushered in alone to the bedroom of a Princess 
of the Blood. " My Lord," said she sobbing, " let me entreat 
you to keep my debt to you a profound secret. It may be long 
before I can repay it, but I would not have it known for all the 

"Madam," replied Stair smilingly, "let me entreat you not thus 
to put my memory on the rack. It is a disagreeable recollec- 
tion. I had already forgotten it myself. The secret rests with 
your Royal Highness, pray do me the favour never to allude to 
it again." 

The humbled intriguante knew too well what was expected. 
The price for information had been paid, and by her code of 
honour she must impart it. 

In blushing confidence she revealed to the Ambassador plots 
of the Swedish Court in concert with France in favour of the 
Pretender; and within a few hours full details of these were 
already on their way by special messenger to London. 

When the rising had actually taken place, Lord Stair wisely 
wrote to the Duke of Montrose, urging him to impress upon the 
Government " not to be in too great a hurry to run their heads 
against the rebels when they had their bellies filled with beef 
and their heads with beer. Rather let them give them time, 
for they would feel strong at setting out, but when they had 
lain a week or two under a hedge on November nights, it would 
be easy dealing with them, and their army would melt away in 
a fortnight." 

Lord Stair had, by intelligence sent from Paris, enabled the 
Government to frustrate all attempts at reinforcements by way 
of Galloway. Admiral Sir George Byng effectually barred the 
way between both Havre and Brest and Kirkcudbright. Mean- 

to I/IS] THE RISING OF 1715 233 

while the sheriff, supported by Lords Galloway and Cassilis, 
and Eglinton in Ayrshire, organised measures for the defence of 
the western shires, and brought the Presbyterian ministers to 
see the folly of allowing themselves to be duped by Jacobite 
promises, and throwing their influence into the scale against the 
Protestant succession. The surrender at Preston almost simul- 
taneously with the battle of Sheriffmuir (17th Nov. 1715) 
occasioned the total collapse of the Jacobite cause. Order was 
restored in Galloway, the general satisfaction only being marred 
by the bloodthirstiness of the ministry in bringing Lord Ken- 
mure to the scaffold. All cause for alarm was at an end ; and 
in a manly letter to the Government, he stated that he had 
honestly thought that the feeling of the country was with the 
Pretender ; that being convinced of his mistake, he was ready to 
take an oath of allegiance to a king chosen by the nation, which 
there can be no doubt he would as honestly have kept. His 
execution was not only an act of cold-blooded cruelty, but a 
political blunder. 

Basil Hamilton of Baldoon was also sentenced to death, but 
he was reprieved, and his estates restored. In 1744, his son 
succeeded as fourth Lord Selkirk. Much local sympathy was 
felt for Lady Margaret Stewart, wife of the fifth Earl of South- 
esk, who was attainted, and only saved his life by flight. His 
Countess was received by her father at Glasserton, and eventu- 
ally got leave to join her husband in France. 

A memorandum among the Monreith papers shows the 
state of uneasiness in which society had been. Travelling even 
for a gentleman armed and well attended was unsafe. Sir 
"William Maxwell makes this entry in a house-book : " Mon- 
reith, 27 Oct. 1715. Eeturned from my intended journey to 
Edinburgh, being stopped by the Highlanders coming to Leith. 1 
My expences on that fruitlesse journey, 11 : 5s. lid." 

1 The return as to the value of forfeited estates was : Lord Ken mure, 
538 : 8s. 4d. sterling per annum in money ; in kind, 62. 

Of Baldoon, 1225 : 15s. 8d. sterling money rent per annum ; in kind, 
269 : 18s. 6d. After his condemnation a portrait of Lord Kenmure was 
painted in the Tower of London. An interesting legacy to his heirs. 



A.D. 1716 to 1725 

And he might dream 
As it micht seem 

But 'twas but Galloway ; 
The Nith, the Oee, the darling Dee, 

Was seen a-rowing sweet, 
And just below each wamplin' flow 
The Minnoch and the Fleet. M'TAGGART. 

THE alarm of rebellion iii 1715 occasioned an augmentation of 
the army, and the young Laird of Lochnaw, who was on half- 
pay, received a company in Colonel Pococke's regiment. 1 He did 
not, however, much fancy the corps, and effected an exchange 
into the Scots Fusiliers, with which he had been long brigaded 
under Marlborough. His commission, signed by Mr. Secretary 
Craggs, bears that he is appointed to command " that company 
of one Eoyal regiment of North British Fusiliers, whereof John 
Douglas, Esq., had been captain." This famous corps had borne 
the brunt of the action at Sheriffmuir, having had four officers 
and 88 sergeants and rank and file killed, besides many 
wounded. Their colonel was Charles, 4th Earl of Orrery, dis- 
tinguished as well in the scientific as the military field. It was 
a curious coincidence that this corps, which owed its origin to 
the 10th Earl of Mar, should have assisted so effectually in 

1 Whether this were the 2nd battallion of the 2nd Queen's Royal, or the 8th 
King's Regiment (with both of which General Pococke was connected) we cannot 

A.D. 1716-1725] INNERMESSAN 235 

quelling the rising of which his son the llth Earl was the 

Lord Stair, according to the habits of the times, had been 
removed from the command of the Scots Greys by the Tory 
Government of Queen Anne. But on his friends returning to 
power, he at once received the colonelcy of the Inniskillen 
Dragoons, and we find the sheriff requesting him to notice a 
son for a cornetcy by purchase in his corps. 


" Lochnaw, Jan. 31, 1718. 

"I presume to give your Lordship the trouble of this in behalf 
of my second son Patrick, 1 who hath studied the law for some 
time, and hath got a very liberal education for fitting him for 
that business, having studied the law for some years at home, 
and went thereafter to Poictou, in France, where he plyed the 
law pretty close for two years. Since his coming home he had 
still inclination to prosecute that business, and to enter advo- 
cate, but is very much discouraged from that by reason that 
there are already too many of that profession ; for there is not 
one-third of that employment that are able to gain their bread 
by it, and even of that number the most part are such as have 
good estates, and are able to live upon their own till such time 
as they come into business ; and indeed they cannot propose to 
come into business for a good many years after their entering. 
Your Lordship knows very well my circumstances ; I having a 
numerous family cannot now, after so expensive an education 
given to my son Patrick, though I were never so much inclined, 
provide him suitably as he ought till such time as he may 
reasonably propose to come into business, and for that reason, 
my son hath, with my approbation, turned his thoughts towards 
the following of the military. I should be very glad to have 
your Lordship's approbation of this design ; and as it is my son's 

1 As a witness to a deed a year after, he is described as "Coronet Patrick 
Agnew, second lawful son to Sir James Agnew, in the regiment the Right Honour- 
able the Earl of Stair his regiment of dragoons." 


inclination to serve in your Lordship's regiment, so I persuade 
myself he will be acceptable to your Lordship. I earnestly beg 
that your Lordship would add this obligation to the many 
favours you have honoured me with, of letting my son have the 
offer of purchasing the first cornetcy that falls in your Lordship's 
regiment, at the price you may have from any other. My wife 
and I beg that our most humble service may be acceptable to 
the Countess of Stair and your Lordship." 

This letter was presented to Lord Stair at Paris under 
cover of his relation, Mr. Eobert Dalrymple, who writes as 
follows : 

" My Lord, the enclosed comes from Sir James Agnew of 
Lochnaw, he tells me he thereby desires of your Lordship that 
his second son, Mr. Patrick, may have the offer of the first 
cornetcy that falls vacant in your regiment. I need not use 
arguments to persuade your Lordship to doe a thing which I 
persuade myself will be otherwise very agreeable to your own 
inclinations. Sir James Agnew hath been ever very ready to 
serve your Lordship or any that you were concerned in ... 
his son Mr. Patrick is my very good acquaintance. Sir James 
hath given him a very liberal education, which I hope will fit 
him very well for the business and the conversation of the best 
folks . . . 

" Edinburgh, 4 Feb. 1718." 

Sir James further writes two months later : 

" Lochnaw, 14 April 1718. 

"My Lord ... I am informed that Captain Sergeant 
designs to sell, and that one of the officers in your Lordship's 
regiment is to be the buyer, so that there will be a cornetcy 
vacant, and if your Lordship would allow me to be the purchaser 
for my son I would take it as a very great proof of the continua- 
tion of your Lordship's goodness and friendship to me. My 
wife and I begs that our most humble service may be accept- 
able to my Lady Stair and your Lordship. 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 237 

" I entreat your Lordship to be so good as to honour me with 
an answer, who am, your Lordship, etc. J. AGNEW." 

The request, a sufficiently modest one, was granted. The 
sheriff also purchased cavalry commissions for his sons George 
and James; the latter in Kerr's dragoons (afterwards Cope's) 
and now known as the 7th Hussars. Also an ensigncy in the 
Eoyal Scots for his 6th son, Alexander, and later a cornetcy for 
his youngest son in Cadogan's dragoons. 

During the absence of its noble owners, Castle Kennedy was 
this winter totally destroyed by fire. The Countess-Dowager 
of Stair thus narrates the misfortune to a friend : 

" 3 Nov. 1716. 

" Upon Saturday last Castle Kennedy was burnt. I have 
no account of the way it was done, but only the maid had put a 
fire in the drawing-room for airing the room, and went to bed 
after she had put out the fire. However, in the night it broke 
out and burnt all, so as they had much difficulty to make their 
own escape, and could save nothing except my son's picture, 
and two more. I know he will be concerned, because Castle 
Kennedy was his favourite house he had in the country ; but 
we must all submit to the Providence of God." 

In 1718 Sir James Dunbar died, "the Big Baron of Mochrum." 
There is a whimsical tradition that when the countryside had 
gathered for the funeral it was found impossible to remove the 
coffin by the staircase, or even through the window. And in 
the dilemma that a hole was broken out in the wall, in con- 
firmation of which an aperture is pointed out in the ruined 
gable. The question, however, naturally suggests itself, How 
was it got in ? 

Sir James was succeeded by his son, Sir George, the young 
sheriff's comrade in the Greys, on whose gold watch a French 
bullet had struck and flattened at the battle of Blenheim, a relic 
still preserved by his descendants. Sir George Dunbar dis- 
posed of the remainder of the Mochrum estates, partly to Sir 


Alexander Maxwell, and partly and this including the old 
place to Colonel Dalrymple of Glenmuir, through whom it 
passed to the Earls of Dumfries, now represented by the 
Marquis of Bute. 

The marshy ground round Mochrum Loch is called Gargrie 
Moor. The island opposite Scart Island. The propriety of the 
name is vindicated by the great resort of cormorants to the 
spot, " gairg " or " gairgrie " being the Celtic for a cormorant or 

A sister of Sir George was married to James Agnew the 
sheriff's son. On the 19th of October 1718 the sheriff, adjusting 
the Koll of Electors, added the name of Colonel William Dal- 
rymple of Glenmuyre, he producing a charter and sasine of 
the lands and barony of Slewdaech. 1 His eldest son event- 
ually succeeded as Earl of Stair as well as of Dumfries. 

At the next adjudgment of the roll at the Michaelmas 
Headquarter Court, 13th October 1719, is the entry : " the said 
day there is produced charter and seizine of the lands of 
Baltier in favour of Captain Andrew Agnew, younger of Loch- 
naw, whereupon the said Sir James desyres his said son to be 
added to suit roll of the Barons of the Shyre." 

Whilst Sir James vigorously pursued agricultural improve- 
ments, his kinsman William Agnew developed a taste for 
landscape gardening at Castle Wigg, the first movement in that 
direction of which, however humble, there is any record in the 
shire. It is thus reported on by an eye-witness : 

"About the year 1722 William Agnew of Castle Wigg 
began to plant upon his estate, and may be considered the 
father of this important species of improvement in this neigh- 
bourhood. Here an attention to the beautiful and useful appears 
to great advantage in the spring and early summer, when the 
larches and cherry trees adorn the verges. The venerable old 
Castle exhibits a view of the state and hospitality of the Scottish 

1 Slewdaech, now Bardeoch, New Luce. Slibh and Bar being nearly 
synonymous. Slibh, or Barr da each = " the hill top of the two horses." So 
Aghadaugh, "West Meath, and Clondelara, "the field and meadow of the two 
horses" and "the two mares." Joyce, i. 258. 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 239 

barons. The lodging rooms are numerous, and large for the 
time in which they are built. The garden is large and in the 
ancient style; well provided with fruit; the box hedges and 
yews remarkable for their beauty, and several curious plants 
nourish here." 1 

Lord Stair had meanwhile married Lady Eleanor Campbell, 
daughter of Lord Loudoun by Lady Margaret Montgomerie, 
aunt of Lady Mary Agnew, and widow of Lord Primrose. 

The Earl carried himself with much magnificence as British 
Ambassador at Paris, and, what gave great satisfaction to many 
in Galloway, brought his influence effectually to bear in favour 
of the Huguenots, who had lately been persecuted with fiendish 

The chapel of the English embassy was recognised as an 
asylum for Protestant worshippers, and Lord Stair, finding 
that, notwithstanding, persons had been arrested for attending 
there, protested with such vigour that .he not only obtained 
their release but an official promise that no one in future 
should be molested for resorting there. 

Whilst at Paris, Lord Stair lost a favourite dog, which large 
offers of reward failed to recover. Some time after, whilst 
travelling in the provinces, he arrived at night at a solitary 
inn. The house was large and rambling, and his attendants' 
apartments at some distance from his own. Whilst being 
served with supper, a dog rushed in, which, to his surprise, he 
recognised as his long-lost favourite. Proceeding presently to 
undress, whenever he approached the bed the dog showed great 
uneasiness : grumbling and even struggling to keep him off it. 
His suspicions aroused, he looked well to the priming of his 
pistols, flung his portmanteau upon the bed, and retiring to an 
easy chair dozed by the fire, the dog lying contentedly at his 
feet. Presently he was roused by the dog jumping on his lap 
and growling, and, looking up, he saw the bed sink silently and 
slowly into the floor. With great presence of mind, he rushed 
out of the room before it had disappeared, procured assistance, 

1 Old Statistical Account, vol. xvi. 279. 


and searched the premises, which were found empty. Next 
morning the police were put upon the scent, and it was 
discovered that a system of robbery and murder had long been 
carried on here undetected ; and had not the brigands happily 
taken a fancy to his dog, his Excellency might have met with a 
fate which would have remained a mystery. 

This strange story is supposed to have some confirmation 
from the fact that, in a picture of the Earl, by Kneller, at 
Lochnaw (and of which there are several replicas in the 
country), a dog said to be this very dog figures prominently 
in the foreground. 

In the year 1720, Lord Stair was superseded by Stanhope, 
owing to a quarrel with Law, a Scotch charlatan, for the 
moment all-powerful with the French ministry. Lord Mahon 
puts it rather unfairly as to his ancestor : 

" Stanhope's journey was to re-establish harmony, but 
finding the two Scotchmen irreconcilable, and one supreme in 
France, he recalled Lord Stair.* 1 As if the two antagonists 
had been on a level. 

Stair, in a manly way, writes to Mr. Secretary Craggs, " I 
don't regret being relieved from a post which was becoming 
difficult and delicate, though the manner of it has not been too 
gracious." 2 

Stair's reputation as a statesman was soon amply vindi- 
cated ; the failure of Law's celebrated Mississippi scheme, 
which at first had enriched many of the French ministry, 
utterly ruined thousands of families and brought the Govern- 
ment of France itself to the verge of bankruptcy. 

For nearly twenty years after this, Lord and Lady Stair 
lived in comparative retirement between Newliston and Castle 
Kennedy, where he energetically devoted himself to planting 
and estate improvements. 

The grounds of Castle Kennedy were laid out on a formal 
design almost unique in extent : a surface of 70 acres of kept 
grass being cut into every conceivable form of buttress, bastion, 

1 Lord Mahon's (Earl Stanhope) History of England. ' 2 Stair's Annals, 244. 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 241 

amphitheatre, and slope. The design is original, and we are 
glad to have recovered the name of the gardener, Thomas 
M'Call, who superintended its arrangement. In an instrument 
of seizure, in which the young sheriff is put in possession of 
certain lands for his wife's dower, signed at " the Manor Place 
of Innermessan," the 13th February 1720, is : " Thomas M'Call, 
Hortario apud Castle Kennedy." 

This quotation from an unimportant deed has incidentally 
a double interest, as the first time we find mention of a 
professional gardener in Galloway, and as the last in which the 
Agnews were owners of the old Keep. 

According to the habit of the day, Lord Stair, as colonel, 
provided quarters and maintenance v for his regiment, where, 
whenever the exigencies of the service rendered it possible, the 
horses were turned out to grass and fatigue parties of the 
troopers were made generally useful, whether in the garden or 

Castle Kennedy, his favourite residence, being now roofless, 
the only neighbouring buildings offering sufficient accommo- 
dation for Lady Stair were the barracks at Culhorn ; to utilise 
which he entered into treaty with the sheriff, with a view of 
acquiring his Castle of Innermessan for the dragoons. A 
bargain was presently concluded, by which the castle and 
lands contiguous to Innermessan were exchanged for others in 
possession of Lord Stair. The first proposal was that these 
latter should be Balquherry and Berbeth, but this fell through 
in a somewhat comical way. The tenant of Balquherry, a 
noted character, highly resented the idea of being thus trans- 
ferred from one owner to another, without having his say in 
the matter. Hurrying to Castle Kennedy, he waylaid my 
lord, who was starting for a walk with an English friend, and 
at once opened fire ; in his excitement flinging his plaid over 
the stranger's shoulder, saying : " There, man, haud my plaid 
and staff whilst I speak to milord." Upon the Earl he 
turned with the bitterest sarcasm, commencing, " A wise man 
abroad, a fule at hame ! " " Why ? " said Lord Stair, who 



delighted in a character, " What's the matter now ? " Again 
the old man repeated, even more emphatically, " A wise man 
abroad, a Me at name ! Ye'd gie the broad bogs o' Berbeth, 
that would carry leek and onion, for the stunted knowes o' 
Innermessan ! Ye'd swap away the howes o' Balquherry for 
the scabbit braes of Inch. Fye, milord, fye ! " The Earl, 
accustomed to take the measures of men, took the rebuke 
meekly, telling old Balquherry, laughingly, that he should 
inquire further about the matter. His mission accomplished, 
Balquherry turned to claim his property from the stranger, 
who handed it back to him with an affectedly low bow. 
The old man saw he was being laughed at, but was quite a 
match for the courtier. " Be cautious, sir ; be cautious. 
Maybe yell have less manners when ye've more need for 

This visit, we are traditionally assured, achieved its purpose. 
Lord Stair determined not to part with Balquherry, proposing 
to Sir James Agnew that he should take Larbrax in its place. 
Sir James made no difficulties, simply conditioning that there 
should be acre for acre : with the result that the family are now 
in possession of a favourite grouse moor and a picturesque range 
of coast scenery, but of a very inferior market value from the 
lands of Auchrochar and Innermessan. 

A collision of " Old Balquherry " with the minister of 
Leswalt is the subject of another story. The latter, during 
many consecutive Sundays in a very dry summer, had been 
praying earnestly for refreshing showers. But one morning, as 
he was entering the door to conduct the service, he was 
stopped by Balquherry, who excitedly exclaimed before all the 
congregation : " At your leisure, sir, wi' your refreshing 
showers ; the hay o' Balquherry 's no a' gathered in yet." 

Whatever part Balquherry really had in the transaction, 
the Earl was much delighted with his bargain. His military 
eye had taken in the capabilities of the manor house, and he at 
once set about fitting it up for his dragoons ; and both men 
and officers were well pleased with their new quarters. His 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 243 

major, Lord Balcarres, writing officially, says : " The troops are 
very well lodged at Innermessan ; it will make a very good 
barrack, and is a very proper place for it." 

Sir James and Lady Mary being the last of the Agnews 
who kept house at this classic spot, we may endeavour to 
preserve the few historic notices and traditions attaching to 
the strength possessed by the sheriffs for so many genera- 

The Moat Hill evidently was the construction in connec- 
tion with the Caer-Kheon or Eerigonium of the Novantse : the 
only town and port of note in the Ehynns as known to 
Agricola. The said Moat, which could have been of no 
possible use as a defence, yet carefully shaped and constructed, 
was doubtless a place for the administration of justice. In 
1426, we have seen it designated " A Borough," with Sir 
Alexander Campbell as its provost ; about which there is a 
certain mystery, but that it is so stated, is indisputable. In 
that year we find the first hereditary sheriff acquiring a mill, 
with various adjuncts to a baronial residence, from burgesses 
of the Borough of Innermessan. 

Symson, writing in 1684, says : " Near Lochryan, two miles 
distant from the kirk of Inch, is the house of Indermassan, 
belonging to Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw. Here," he adds, 
" was a little hamlet or village, which of old was a most 
considerable place in the Einds of Galloway, and the greatest 
town thereabout till Stranrawer was built." 

An old man, alive in 1862, and then in his 96th year, 
distinctly remembered the ruins of the feudal keep, after 
having served as a cavalry barrack, which, though falling into 
decay, extended over a considerable surface. 

Several Earls of Stair in succession being non-resident, the 
materials were freely used as a quarry by the whole country- 
side ; the entire steading of Ballyett having within his recollec- 
tion been reared at the expense of the " auld wa's." 

This statement was taken down on the spot, he adding : 
" That there were fourscore houses of the better sort having 


brewing kettles within that time, and that the boatbuilders at 
Innermessan were famous." 

It is thus noted in the Statistical Account of Scotland : " At 
Innermessan is a large circular mound called the Moat, its 
circumference at the base is 336 feet, and from the foundation 
to the top is 78 feet. The name Moat, a Saxon word, would 
seem to indicate that it was a place of judicial assembly. The 
Toss would lead us to believe that it had been used as a forta- 
lice, or place of defence. This Innermessan was the site of the 
ancient Eerigonium, a town of the Novantse. It was situated 
on the Eerigonius Sinus, the modern Loch Eyan. In subse- 
quent times there was a town and castle of Innermessan, the 
castle belonging to Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw. The town 
of Innermessan seems to have been the most considerable place 
in the Ehynns of Galloway. Every vestige of the town and 
castle is now obliterated." 

Caer Eyan or Eerigonium lay within a mile of the Deil's 
Dyke, whence the allusion in Taliessin : 

The funeral pile of Run is between Caer Reon and Caer Ry wg, 

the latter meaning the fort on the Crawick, i.e. Sanquhar, the 
eastern fort, as Eerigonium was the western of that singular 

It is mentioned in a rhapsodical passage in the Hoiannan, 
in connection with an attack of Ehyderch Hael upon the Gallo- 
way Picts. 

Listen, little pig, hear them the melody, 
And the chirping of the birds by Caer Rheon. 1 

Eheon or Eioghan, names not only the lake but a ford. 
" Ehyd Eheon," several times mentioned by the bards, which 
we imagine to be connected with the Scar, whence some legend 
of his fording the loch. 2 

1 Black Book of Caermarthen, 18. (Four Ancient Books, i. 482.) 

2 Until Cadwallader comes from the conference of Rhyd Rheon. 

Avettanow, Merlin. 
Mr. Skene identifies this with Loch Ryan. 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 245 

In connection with a former quotation, we have the line in 

" The Verses of Graves/' 

Run his name, a Chief was he, Riogan pierced him. 1 

Early in mediaeval times, the Marches of the Galloway 
Picts were extended northward; and the old Fort, in the 
days of the early sheriffs, was an important position as com- 
manding the road through Ayrshire to the north, and was often 
the rallying point whence issued skirmishers, 

In jacks and scyppis and bonnets of steel, 

eager for the fray. 2 

Almost within gunshot of Innermessan stood Craigcaffie, 
unlike its more pretentious neighbour, which stood out as a 
landmark from Loch Eyan, courting security by nestling in a 
hollow. A curious story connected with the two houses turns 
on the beauty of the daughter of a sheriff's clerk, said to have 
been resident there in its later days. 

Great was the fame of this fair maid; and such was the 
influence of her charms that lovers of all ranks were at her 
feet; all the unmarried lairds in the countryside were her 
wooers, and even the married, it would seem, could not always 
escape the spell. ^ 

Amongst these suitors were JSTeilson of Craigcaffie, and a 
young Ayrshire laird, who often met within the castle walls. 
The ardent Ayrshire man deemed himself the favoured lover, 
and not without cause ; for Neilson was not only far his senior, 
but already had a wife. Hence hope beamed brightly on his 
path, and he felt little uneasiness at the presence of his rival. 

But one morning the startling news came to this enamoured 
youth that Neilson's wife was dead ; and the man of Carrick 

1 "Verses of Graves," 61. Black Book of Caermarthen, 19. 

We also have : "The grave of Cynon is on Bhyd Rheon." 

2 Cairn Ryan has no further connection with Caer Rheon than that which it 
has in common with Loch Ryan. The fort and loch are both named from 
Rheon or Rioghan, a mythic chief ; the Cairn sprang up as a village in modern 
times, from having a good anchorage and deep water, and as more distinctive 
came to be called Cairn Ryan, from standing on the loch so called. 


bethought him that he ought not to feel too secure against the 
widower's rivalry. 

At least he was safe, however, for the week before the 
funeral ! and hurrying to Innermessan, he pressed his suit so 
vigorously that the maiden consented. Overjoyed at his good 
fortune, he strolled musingly on the beach, when his day- 
dreams were disturbed by the sound of horses' hoofs ; then, to 
his dismay, he saw the crafty laird (who had made a sudden 
sally from his den), before his very eyes, bear off the " clerk's 
daughter " in triumph to Craigcaffie, where the former mistress 
still lay unburied in her coffin. 

The disconsolate wooer rode home at full speed, and collect- 
ing a band of friends, galloped back madly with them to Craig- 
caffie, where he imperatively demanded the surrender of his 
affianced bride. But he was too late. Old Neilson was a 
widower no longer, having solemnised his wedding before the 
funeral day came round. Addressing the party from a pepper- 
box turret, he sarcastically begged them not to disturb his 
honeymoon ; regretted his inability to offer them a dram, but 
hinting that if they meant fighting, there were as good men 
within the castle as there were without. 

The band of volunteers felt the full force of the bridegroom's 
logic, and, unlike the jilted lover, rather inclined to treat the 
matter as a joke. He too at length was perforce obliged to 
move off, muttering threats to which the bluff laird paid little 
heed, being thus left in undisturbed possession of the bodies 
of both his wives. 

Of the boat -builders for whom Innermessan was famous 
was one well known as Peter, who to knowledge of his craft 
added the gift of second sight, and was reputed to have an evil 
eye in short, a warlock. Once upon a time the said Peter was 
employed to build a boat at Ballantrae. As he busily shaped 
the timbers, surrounded by many lookers-on, a rider was seen 
descending Drumconal at a tremendous pace, and approaching 
the ford of the Stinchar. (This was many a day before the 
bridge was built.) " The laddie goes hot-foot," remarked one of 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 247 

the idlers. " Does he ? " rejoined the seer ; " he'll just bide 
there a bit." Peter then laid his enchantments upon him so 
effectually, that the man's horse was arrested in his stride ; his 
hind hoofs fixed in the ground ; his forelegs curved in a semi- 
circle ; rider and steed were rooted to the spot in such an 
attitude as we have been accustomed to associate with another 
great Peter's statue on the Neva. Then Peter of Inner- 
messan, having gratified his audience with this interesting 
tableau, coolly proceeded with his work, until presently it 
pleased him, with a muttered " Gang yer gate ! " to allow the 
rider to proceed upon his journey. 

The fishermen of Ballantrae, superstitious like others of 
their calling, chuckled at the idea of the luck that must attend 
the boat built by so powerful an enchanter ; but their hopes 
were short-lived ; for as the wizard received the stipulated sum 
into his palm, and turned to trudge homewards, he vouchsafed 
the unwelcome hint as to the future " That boat will droon 
her fu' " ; and so it occurred in due course. One calm evening, 
the vessel, with an unusually large crew, was nearing the shore, 
when a sudden squall drove the party out to sea. Night coming 
on, no assistance could be given ; and neither boat nor fishermen 
were ever heard of after. 

Peter's doings were well known nearer home. As he was 
riding once into Stranraer, he pulled up at the Sandmill, to ask 
two women thrashing in a barn to give his horse a sheaf of 
corn ; they turned a deaf ear to his request, upon which Peter 
stuck, unobserved, a little pin into the thatch above the door, 
and entered a neighbouring house, where, being better known, 
he was well cared for, and propitiated by a jug of home-brewed 
ale. As he sat in the doorway with his hosts enjoying the 
treat, he looked maliciously towards the barn where he had been 
rebuffed ; and there the poor women toiled on, belabouring the 
sheaves with might and main, but not a single grain of corn 
could they extract from the straw ; and thus perspiringly they 
laboured to no purpose, till the terrible man, mollified by his 
potations, chose at last to rise and extract the mysterious pin, 


muttering perhaps, " Patience, good ladies, wizards know their 
times ! " 

Thus the sheriff surrendered the lands " lying between the 
torrents," as acquired by his ancestors as early as 1426. 
Quitting "all and haill the principal place of Innermessan, 
Tower and Fortalice, with the office houses and yards thereto 

The contract of excambion, as registered, bears that, "At 
Stranrawer and Lochnaw, the fourteen and fifteen days of Octo- 
ber 1723, it is contracted, agreed and ended betwixt the parties 
following, to wit the E*. Hon ble . John Earl of Stair (etc.), on 
the one part, and Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw (etc.), with 
advice and consent of Lady Mary Agnew, for all rent and 
annuity, and Captain Andrew Agnew younger of Lochnaw, with 
special advice and consent of Mrs. Eleanor Agnew his spouse, on 
the other part, viz. 

"Lord Stair receiving from Sir James the lands of Gar- 
chlery, the Castle of Innermessan, roods and yards thereof, with 
the lands of Carnerzan, Auchrocher, and Kirkland, and the mill 
called the Sand Mill (besides various other house properties) at 
Innermessan ; and the superiorities of the lands of Ayne and 
Cardryne, in the parish of Kirkmaiden ; with towers, fortalices, 
manor-places, biggings, yards, and orchards, etc. ; the Sheriff of 
Galloway receiving from Lord Stair the lands of Craigoch, of 
Meikle and Little Larbrax, and a part of the Galdenoch, with 
salt for moor." 

Garchlery is now mapped Garthlery, an instance of how 
easily corruptions slip in when in a language not understood. 
Garthlery would mean " The Mare's Paddock," whereas the real 
name, as shown by many charters at Lochnaw, is " The Cleric's 
Enclosure" (Cleirech); the authenticity of the name further 
vindicated by the clerical name Culcaldy (Cuil Celedie, Cella 
Colidei), " the angle or church of the Culdee." 

About this time the sheriff was much gratified by his son 
James's marriage with Margaret, daughter of Mr. Thomas 
Wilkinson of Kirkbrig by Mary, daughter of William Eamsden 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 249 

Byrom, both in Yorkshire ; the lady eventually becoming a co- 
heiress, and bringing her husband a good estate at Bishop 
Auckland, County Durham. 

This, however, was followed by a serious affliction in 1*724, 
the death of his son Alexander in a duel, followed by a 
sensational trial, rendered if possible more distressing by the 
fact of the antagonists being intimate friends, and the cause of 
the quarrel ridiculously petty. We copy an account of the 
unfortunate affair from The Daily Journal, Thursday, 6th 
August 1724 : 

" On Tuesday night Major Harrison and Captain Alexander 
Agnew, half-pay officers, drinking at Lubeck's Head Tavern in 
Maiden Lane, near Covent Garden, quarrelled and fought about 
a dispute upon Bishop Burnet's History of his Own Times. 

" The Captain was run in six inches deep near the left pap, 
and died as he was carrying home to his lodgings in Pail-Mall, 
having before generously forgiven the Major, and declared that 
the misfortune was of his own seeking. The deceased was 
formerly in the Earl of Orkney's regiment, and is a son of Sir 
James Agnew, Baronet, now Sheriff of the County of Galloway. 
Major Harrison wa^ committed to the care of a constable." 

Parker's London News, of 7th August, further adds : " Major 
Harrison is brother to the Lord Viscount Townshend. Mr. 
Alexander Agnew and he had always been reckoned intimate 
friends, and we hear that the former was to go to Vienna as 
Pcesident and the latter as his Secretary." And further, 14th 
August : " Yesterday came on the tryal of Major Harrison for 
killing Mr. Agnew in a duel. Great numbers of the nobility 
and gentry appeared in Court. It appeared that the Major 
was forced in his own defence to commit the act, and the jury 
brought in their verdict accordingly." "It appearing," says 
the Weekly Journal, "that the deceased gave the affront, and 
first drew his sword." 

The same year the sheriff signed a deed of assignation of 
"all and sundry his lands, Hereditary Office of Sheriff, and 
other offices and professions, to his eldest son ; reserving to 


himself liferent of the lands, and to Lady Mary Agnew, his 
lady, her liferent of such of the said lands as she was provided 
in conform to her contract of marriage." 

And the following year his will was thus drawn : 
" I, Sir James Agnew of Lochnaw, being somewhat infirm of 
body but perfect in memory and judgment, doeth resolve for 
settling of my worldly affairs to make my latter will and 
testament, and I appoint Patrick, James, George, and John 
Agnew, my lawful sons, and James Agnew, son to Captain James 
Agnew, in Collonel Kerr's regiment of dragoons, my grand- 
child, my full and only executors and full intromettars with 
all and haill my goods, gear, horses, mares, nolt, sheep, corns, 
cattell, insicht plenishing, gold, silver, debts, and soumes of 
money, bonds, bills, and all other goods and gear whatsoever 
presently belonging to me." 

The deeds are witnessed by " Colonel Andrew Agnew of 
Lochryan and Mr. Andrew Eoss of Balsarroch [his factor], 
James Eoss, my servant, and Alexander . . . ., Stranrawer, 
26 Feb. 1725." 

He however survived a good ten years after signing his 
will, though he gave up the enjoyment of his house, as well as 
his offices, to his eldest son and his family ; he himself hence- 
forward residing principally in Edinburgh. 

On assuming the sheriffship, Captain Agnew was assiduous 
in discharging the duties entailed thereby, involving no small 
amount of locomotion, as he himself spent the greater part of 
the year with his regiment, whilst his wife, from family circum- 
stances, had to be much at Eichmond. In the one year 1724 
we find the young sheriff holding his courts in person at 
Wigtown no less than four times : namely, January, July, 
November, and December. 

These attendances must have entailed many long hours in 
the saddle from distant quarters, riding being the only means 
of locomotion. What specially occasioned his summons to 
Galloway at the two dates so closely following in the depth of 
winter, was the information of outrages of a very daring 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 251 

character perpetrated in the Stewartry by two secret societies 
ominously named the " Levellers " and " Houghers " whose 
organisation was spreading in the " shire " and occasioned 
general alarm. 

The discontent which led to the movement arose strangely 
as formerly suggested from the spirit with which improv- 
ing proprietors were pushing forward the enclosure of their 

Just as in later times it was the instinct of weavers to burn 
the spinning-jennies which rendered the production of their 
staple the easier, so the Galloway hinds, whose bread had been 
earned for many months in the year by " wearing the corn " 
and herding in general, saw with consternation dyke after dyke 
rendering such labour unnecessary, and vowed they should 
come down. 

Their worst passions played upon by "changehouse 
orators," the wilder spirits of the district enrolled themselves 
in bands, and were regularly drilled by men who had served as 
soldiers. Among the most notorious of these was Billy 
Marshall, the gipsy king already mentioned, who could claim 
to have been a comrade of the sheriff under Marlborough. 

When fit for service each man paraded with a staff eight feet 
long, fell into ranks like soldiers, then marched silently towards 
the fated dyke. The captain placed them carefully at regular 
distances, making each " fix his kent " well under the founda- 
tions. Then the word of command rang out, "Owre wi' it, 
boys!" and over it went, a cheer accompanying its fall that 
might be heard for miles. 

Unpleasant to landowners' ears as were such sounds which 
woke the echoes of the night, they carried less dismay than the 
dismal apprehension of the silent nocturnal butcheries of the 

Hurtful passions are generated by illegal combination, and 
the men who had graduated in the school of the " Levellers " 
connected with which was a certain wild good -humour, 
developed into full-blown ruffians when they turned into 


" Houghers " and wantonly mutilated the very beasts they 
claimed the privilege of tending. 

Mr. Maxwell of Munches writes : " I saw with my own 
eyes a mob with pitchforks, gavelocks, and spades level the 
park dykes abune Calzie and Munches. They passed by Dal- 
beattie, and did the same at ISTetherlaw and Dunrod. The pro- 
prietors rose with their servants and dependents to quell the 
mob, but were not of sufficient force to do it, and were obliged 
to send for two troops of dragoons from Edinburgh." 

Lady Jane Maxwell writes from Monreith to her husband, 
then attending Parliament in London, that the tenants on the 
estate, arranged in parties to relieve one another, patrolled the 
grounds of Monreith every night; but that, notwithstanding 
all precautions, seven of their cattle had been already found 
" houghed " in their enclosures without their being able to 
prevent it, or even to get a clue to the culprit. 

In Sir Alexander Maxwell's account-book is an entry : 
" 6 Dec. 1724. To my expences at Wigtown, about the Levellers' 
doing, 2." And again : " 4 June 1725. My wife's account of 
expences to discover those who hacked and destroyed the 
cattle, 11s." 

As bards of old had braced up Pict or Scot to the tug of 
war, so the fancied grievances of the rioters were sung or 
recited in the ale-house ; and though the productions of these 
poetasters might seem miserable doggerel to a sober man, they 
lashed the passion of a " Rougher " in his cups into fury. 

Against the poor the Lairds prevail 

With all their wicked works, 
Who will enclose both moor and dale 

And turn cornfield to parks. 
The Lords and Lairds they drive us out 

From mailings where we dwell, 
The poor man cries, " Where shall we go 1 " 

The rich say, " Go to hell." 

In Wigtownshire the sheriff, with the officials at his 
command, was able to cope with the rising without even 
asking for the assistance of Stair's dragoons, who lay at Inner- 

to 1725] INNERMESSAN 253 

messan. But in the Stewartry the authorities were obliged to 
call in the aid of large parties of the military, both horse and 

At Cukjuha 1 in Tungland a party of rioters made a 
stand against the troops. As a matter of humanity, the major 
commanding encouraged a deputation of gentlemen to meet 
them with a flag of truce, which resulted in many of the men 
disbanding. Some of the more desperate characters, however, 
at last joined issue with the soldiers at Duchrae, near the 
Blackwater of Dee. There they were totally routed; some 
killed, 200 taken , prisoners, of whom some suffered longer or 
shorter confinement, and some were banished to the Plantations. 

Following these unhappy tumults engendered by ignorant 
impatience of improvements, it is pleasant to be able to 
mention a new departure in agriculture which brought no 
heart-burnings in its train : the planting of the potato. The 
enterprising person who naturalised this esculent in Galloway 
was William Hyland of Kirkcudbright; and so much prized 
were the tubers even on their first appearance, that for several 
years his whole crop was bought eagerly up for Edinburgh, 
where it was retailed by weight, calculated in ounces ! 

It is difficult now to realise how the poor existed at all 
without the potato. 

In 1725 Captain Thomas Agnew died, affectionately nursed 
by his daughter Eleanor. He had had a son, Thomas, who, had 
he lived, would have inherited the Loch Eyan estate ; but he 
died before his father, from the effects of a fall from his horse. 
Captain Agnew had amassed a considerable fortune, when in an 
evil hour he was induced to become a shareholder in the South 
Sea Company of melancholy celebrity, " The Bubble " which 
in 1721 burst, and brought disaster to all connected with it. 
Harassed by untoward circumstances, soon after this mis- 
fortune he died, leaving his daughter sole heiress to his belong- 
ings, which included little besides his Eichmond villa, with its 

1 Cul Caedh, " back of the quagmire." Caedh, qwaw (d being silent) is a 
living word in the Galloway vernacular. 

254 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1/16-1725 

grounds and furnishings. Among his few assets we find 
inventoried : 

" 200 stock of the late Co-partnery of Freeman Burgesses 
of the Koyal Boroughs for carrying a Fishery. 

"111 contained in a bill drawn by the deceased Archibald, 
last Earl of Forfar. 

" 337 : 8 : 7 drawn by Sir Eobert Montgomery of Skel- 
morlie." l 

His soldier son-in-law marked his respect for the good old 
gentleman by burying him with great funeral pomp, by torch- 
light, on the night of the 4th December 1725. 

1 The greenhouse stock, which it would have been impossible in those days to 
transport to Galloway, was sold in lots. The account preserved is delightfully 
phonetic. Among other items : 

' 2 Alloways (aloes) in potts. 
2 Jesemin trees in ditto. 
' 2 Honny Sucells, ditto. 
' 7 Orring Stocks (orange) in potts. 
' 12 Small orring buiss (bushes). 
; Gereanums. 
: 2 Mertells. 

' 4 Small orring trees, 1. 
' 2 Large orring trees in tubbs, 1 : 5s." 

In a large picture of Eleanor Lady Agnew at Lochnaw, she is painted with 
a favourite Blenheim spaniel, with a bunch of orange blossoms from her father's 
garden in her hand, behind her an avenue of poplars, probably sketched from 
life from the road to the villa from the side of Kew. 


A.D. 1725 to 1734 

Paint Scotland greeting owre her thrissle ; 
Her mutchkin-stoup as toom's a whussle ; 
An' daran'd excisemen in a bussle 

Seizin' a stell ! BURNS. 

IF the young sheriff inherited none of his father's zeal for 
cropping, drainage, and rearing polled cattle, his wife had 
happily much more advanced views than his mother, Lady 
Mary, in the matter of " policie." 

No sooner was Dame Eleanor established at Lochnaw 
over the hospitalities of which she presided with great 
acceptance for five-and-forty years than she summoned a 
" capability " man from the south to take counsel as to laying 
out the grounds. His eye, like hers, had been educated in the 
Dutch school, then developing with much effect at Kew and 
Hampton Court; and the said landscape-gardener proposed a 
sufficiently ingenious plan, comprising flower-garden, terraces, 
bowling-alleys, " wilderness of evergreens " in fantastic shapes, 
backed by plantations in which avenues converged on summer- 
houses and spots commanding views. 

To modern taste the first suggestion would have been to 
restore the lake ; but for his school so large an expanse of water 
and rocks was too wildly natural, and he gladly availed himself 
of the accomplished draining by introducing a canal in the 
marshy bed of the old loch, which, when lined with poplars, he 
no doubt thought preferable. 


The plan was executed to the letter : some of his avenues 
are still to be traced, and though Dame Eleanor's garden has in 
its turn been improved off the scene, some of the identical 
terraces still remain sharply cut, overlooking many of her 
garden flowers growing wild. 1 

The very indifferent highway dignified by the name of the 
military road, from Dumfries by the Bridge of Cree, Glenluce, 
Stranraer, thence by Knockglass to Portpatrick, was the route 
by which troops marched when bound for Ireland to take 
advantage of the short sea passage ; and there were permanent 
barracks at Portpatrick, as well as at Innermessan. 

In connection with this, there is a curious story of the day. 
The minister of Portpatrick having seen fit to reprove the 
Laird of Dunskey from the pulpit, the latter in revenge incited 
some of his people to interfere with the celebration of the 
communion by abstracting the necessary plate. The feud was 
at its height, the sacrament day announced, the minister 
having determined to proceed, even if obliged to beg or borrow 
the vessels required, and a disturbance was apprehended, when 
unexpectedly on the Sabbath eve a squadron of Lord Harring- 
ton's dragoons marched in, and took up their quarters at the 
port, awaiting embarkation. 

The minister waited on the commanding officer, who proved 
to be no less than Major (afterwards the well-known Colonel) 
Gardiner, late of Lord Stair's dragoons, who entirely sym- 
pathised with him, and sent a party to compel the restoration 
of the communion plate. Early next morning patrols checked 
any attempts at disturbance ; at noon the whole squadron 
attended divine service, the Major remaining to communicate. 
The tradition seems wonderfully verified by the published Life 
and Correspondence of Colonel Gardiner, in which, under date 
" 25 May 1*725," he mentions the pleasurable train of reflections 
into which he fell the day before " as he took a walk upon the 

1 We find a Walter Smith gardener at Lochnaw at this date ; the only 
instance we find of a person so described, excepting Thomas M'Call, gardener 
at Castle Kennedy. 

to 1734] SIR STATE 257 

mountains that are over against Ireland," after enjoying the 
communion services, adding " I had much better reason to 
remember my God from the hills of Portpatrick, than David 
from the land of the Hermonites and the Hill Mizar." 1 

In 1725 also, John M'Dowall, apparent of French, married 
Lady Elizabeth Crichton Dalrymple, daughter of Lord Stair's 
brother William, thus bringing almost all the principal pro- 
prietors into a blood-relationship hinging on the Montgomeries 
of Eglinton. 

Lady Stair was a daughter of Lady Margaret Montgomerie, 
Lady Mary Agnew's aunt. Lady Mary's nieces again were 
married respectively to Lord Galloway and Maxwell of Mon- 
reith ; Lady Eglinton, Lady Mary's mother, being aunt to Lord 
Crichton, father of Penelope, the mother of the lady married 
to Freuch. 

The house of Freuch now eclipsed that of the once more 
powerful Garthland. Having recovered from the forfeitures 
of the previous century, they owned the Barony of Loch 
Eonald, Urrell, 2 Ardnamord, as well as Freuch, Clayshant, 
and Castle M'Dowall, now known as Balgreggan. French's 
marriage brought to the next generation wide lands and the 
Earldom of Dumfries ; but such is the uncertainty of the fate 
of families that, with the one following, the very name of 
M'Dowall disappeared ; name, lands, and titles merging in the 
Earldom (now the Marquisate) of Bute. 

Eobert M'Dowall of Logan had some time previously married 
Sarah, daughter of Sir John Shaw of Greenock, a niece or cousin 
of Anna, wife of Patrick Agnew of Galdenoch, and by her had 
two sons : John, his heir, and Andrew, a successful advocate, 
raised to the bench as Lord Bankton. 

Though the Castle of Innermessan had descended in the 

1 Doddridge's Life of Colonel Gardiner, page 76. ] The minister was the 
Rev. Robert Boyd, who held the living 1704 to 1727. 

2 "Urral, anciently Urle. Urla, 'the front hair,' 'a lock of hair,' applied 
in topography to hairlike grass growing in sedgy places. Whence Urlee and 
Oorla, Limerick." Joyce, ii. 321. Ardnamord, Arynamont (Pont) airidh na 
mairt, "shieling of the oxen." 



scale from a baronial keep to a barrack, there was no lack of 
good society within the ancient walls, and the claret still flowed 
freely in its hall. Many of Lord Stair's connections and neigh- 
bours naturally obtained commissions in his regiment, and 
amongst those quartered at Innermessan, were his nephew Lord 
Crichton, the Earl of Balcarres, John, fourth Lord Loudoun, 
three of the young Agnews of Lochnaw, and the earl's favourite 
nephew John, son of his brother William and Lady Dumfries. 
Charles, afterwards ninth Lord Cathcart, succeeded Agnew of 
Lochryan as major of the Greys. The military element, where 
cousinship was amongst the strongest claims for a commission, 
must have added much to the liveliness of the county society 
during the latter years that Lady Mary Agnew presided at 
Lochnaw, and accounts for the preference, frequently expressed 
in both Lord and Lady Stair's correspondence, for Galloway life. 

Although indifferently housed at Culhorn, yet the earl and 
countess were within easy walk of the grounds and gardens of 
Castle Kennedy; and for years their habit was to pass the 
spring at Newliston, my lady taking the waters of Moffat, or 
goats' whey on the Cheviot Hills in the early summer, thence 
gladly returning to enjoy the autumn and superintend their 
works at Castle Kennedy. 

The earl and Sir James had many congenial tastes, and 
the sheriff, as the older residenter, had been able to advise 
the earl as to the rural economy of the district ; the earl on 
his part being able to explain to the sheriff the working of new 
machinery and implements brought from England, and both were 
equally interested in experimenting in new grasses and cabbages. 
Among Lord Stair's introductions before Sir James had left the 
country was a mill, by which the finishing processes of working 
the fleeces of sheep into cloth were carried out more expedi- 
tiously than by hand ; and when Lady Mary was succeeded by 
Dame Eleanor at Lochnaw, she and the countess had much in 
common with their mutual interest in gardening. 

At the court hill of Skeog, the 24th August 1725, the Laird 
of Wigg produced a commission from " Captain Andrew Agnew, 

to 1734] SIR STAIR 259 

Sheriff and Heritable Baillie of the Barony of Drummastoun, 
constituting the said William Agnew of Wigg his Baillie Depute, 
and Antony Houston his Procurator Fiscal." 

Among cases disposed of there from time to time, we find 
one illustrating the local superstition that the flint arrowheads 
frequently picked up near old camps, were weapons shot by ill- 
natured fairies or witches at their cattle. The wretched old 
woman whose complaint is noticed below, happening to suggest 
that a neighbour's " stot " which had been taken ill was probably 
elf-shot, was herself accused and maltreated as the author of 
the mischief. 

" The claim and complaint of Elizabeth Baillie in Skeog against 
John Donnan. and Elizabeth Donnan his daughter Skeog, 
8th June 1727 

" Sheweth, That some one or other of the days of May last, 
John Donnan came to the Hall of Skeog where there was a stot 
standing, which I thought was elf-shot, and I would have helped 
to riib and find the hole, and desired to help and assist what I 
was able. At which time, without any provocation, the said 
John gripped me by the shoulders, and did violently shake and 
push me and swore he would be upsides with me, and abused 

and reviled me and called me w , thief, bitch, and many 

other ill names not worth putting in writ, and threatened me 
with his staff. 

" Elizabeth Donnan came another day in May to the yard 
where I was weeding my lint, and beat and abused me with 
both her feet and hands and threatened to take my life, had I 
not been red out of her hands. And also reviled and called me 

both w and thief, glengoured bitch, and old withered devil. 

Whereupon I crave they may be bound to keep the peace and 
fined for abusing and striking me." 

Half a century earlier, had she applied to the magistrates 
they would probably have subjected her to an ordeal which, 
though it might have cleared her character, would have infallibly 
sent her out of reach of the further injustice of this wicked 


world. In 1727 also we find Colonel Dalrymple of Glenmure 
representing the shire, and his son John Dalrymple the Wigtown 

The same year at the head court of Wigtown " Captain 
Andrew Agnew, Sheriff Principal, Alexander Campbell, Sheriff 
Depute, Mrs. Agnes Stewart was served heiress of Talzie to the 
deceased Captain Stewart of Physgill, her brother german (8th 
August 1727). Assizers ; Brigadier Stewart of Sorbie, Mr. James 
Gordon of Grange, J. Stewart of Castle Stewart, Patrick Agnew 
of Dalreagle, and William Gordon of Balmeg." 

The heiress married John Hawthorne of Aries. 

After the suppression of the " Levellers," the offences with 
which the sheriff and authorities had principally to deal were 
connected with a thoroughly organised system of smuggling. 
The smuggler had friends secret or open in all ranks : they were 
the heroes of rural life, systematically assisted by the whole class 
of farmers, who placed their horses at their disposal ; encouraged 
by mercantile men, who were often in copartnery with them ; 
connived at frequently by the Eevenue officers ; and dealt with 
secretly by not a few Justices of the Peace. 

Whilst the exciseman, if conscientious, was the most un- 
popular member of the community, the smuggler, however 
audacious, was held to be its benefactor. Bale-fires by night 
advertised the approach of the contraband lugger ; summoning 
the lieges, not to repel the invaders, but if necessary to drive off 
the coastguardsmen. Signals by day, known only to the initi- 
ated, invited lads and lasses literally to " dance awa' wi' the 
exciseman." This was carried out in a frolicsome, even a deli- 
cate manner. Force was not used unless absolutely necessary, 
and the tide-waiter proved generally too ready to fall in with 
the humours of his captors. 

The long line of deeply-indented shores offered natural 
cellarage in caves innumerable, where cargoes could be stowed 
till it was safe to remove them. 

The normal form of proceeding was this A fast-sailing craft 
fully expected, and guided by signals from shore, made good its 

to 1734] SIR STAIR 261 

landing by moonlight. Horses by the hundred mustered on the 
beach, their drivers supplied with blackthorn cudgels, heavy in 
the handle. Crowds of volunteers unloaded the vessel, and in 
an incredibly short space of time from its touching the shore 
strings of packhorses were far on their way inland, ankers of 
spirits balanced on either side, packs of tea and tobacco, and 
certain parcels of finery for ladies. So well guarded were these 
convoys desperadoes armed to the teeth, not to speak of the 
country lads and their shillelaghs that they laughed in the 
face of any single officer, and were even at little pains to avoid 
the soldiers if not in overwhelming numbers. 

If on such an occasion an exciseman ventured to intrude, the 
reception he might expect was to be surrounded by lasses 
masked, who having playfully mobbed him, secured and blind- 
folded him, next led him off to a lock-up as secure as any pro- 
vided by the authorities, but differing in this,- that every comfort 
was provided for their prisoner : good fare, good liquor, and 
plenty of it. After a short period of detention, he would awake 
one morning to find the doors unlocked, no one about, and, 
stranger still, a few pieces of yellow gold jingling in his pockets. 
He had had little to complain of, and as a fact seldom did com- 
plain, thinking it better not to report the circumstance at all. 

A funny story of these days connects itself with such doings 
on the back shore a few miles from Lochnaw. 

Dally Bay (where a beacon now warns the coasting craft of 
a sunken rock, beyond the Laggan, a natural pillar-stone) had 
been chosen as a rendezvous for a smuggler's landing, and a large 
cargo of the usual wares was lying in profusion on the beach. 
The custom-house officer at Stranraer had received information 
of their coming, and hurrying to the spot with a stalwart 
comrade, effected a seizure of the whole. 

The smugglers offered no resistance, but skulked off, and the 
tide-waiter, pluming himself not a little on his alacrity, seated 
himself on the confiscated goods, and sent off his A.D.C. to 
press men and horses in King George's name to remove them. 

His eyes gloated on the prey piled before him, wines, 


brandies, silks, tea from the East, tobacco from the "West, Hol- 
lands from Schiedam. A gold-belted sabre hung to his belt, 
and he looked carefully at the priming of his pistols. 

Presently a weel-faured dame sauntered up, no less than 
Maggie M'Connell (who, as a girl, had seen King William's fleets 
stand out of Lochryan), still fair though forty, and he, in the 
highest good humour, pleased at the chance of so pleasant a 
companion, proffered her the right hand of fellowship. 

How delusive are human hopes of happiness ! Maggie's 
sonsy face gave no idea of the strength of her well -formed 
arms, which had the muscle of a prize-fighter, and, as locally 
expressed, " could hauld up a two-year-old stirk like a wean." 

Hardly had Maggie's right hand received the responsive 
squeeze of the exciseman, than her left flew round his waist, 
and in a moment he measured his length upon the ground. 

Vainly he struggled in her embrace. She sat down coolly 
on her victim. Her next move was to tie her apron over his 
eyes, then to seize one of his pistols and cock it. In this 
ignominious position he coaxed and threatened by turns. Maggie 
was inexorable. He shouted for help in the king's name, and 
his hopes ran high as sounds of footsteps and horses drew near. 
Still she held him firmly, but by and by her grasp relaxed. 
Kindly kissing him, she undid the apron, and he looked up. 
Bales, boxes, casks, had disappeared. Not a man was visible. 
A few cows, grazing quietly, were the only living creatures 
within the line of sight, excepting Maggie, who then slipped 
away also. Crestfallen and somewhat ashamed of having been 
vanquished and disarmed by an unarmed woman, it is believed 
he said very little about his deforcement, and it is probable that 
in due course some little reward was conveyed to his quarters 
by an unknown hand in acknowledgment of his silence. 

Although Captain Agnew was rarely far from the colours of 
his regiment, the Scots Fusiliers, quartered in Ireland continu- 
ously from 1728 to 1*737, he was always ready to make flying 
visits to Galloway when his duties as sheriff required it. 

As he advanced in years, he became more markedly what is 

to 1734] SIR STAIR 263 

called a " character," and many are the stories still rife of his 
dry humour and droll ways. 

A venerable gentleman, before the writing of the first edi- 
tion of this book, was able to communicate numberless anec- 
dotes, which he had himself received at first hand from his father, 
of " old Sir Andrew," as he invariably called him (though rather 
oddly " the young Shirra " is the name he is best known by in 

When presiding at court he maintained strict military dis- 
cipline, would not be answered, and was not accustomed to 
mince his words if put out. Nevertheless, he was more than 
popular, and extraordinarily beloved in all the countryside. 

Among characteristic incidents, he would mention that on a 
court day Sir Andrew was to be seen riding booted and spurred 
into the county town, the practitioners from Stranraer follow- 
ing in his train. Entering the court-house and ordering suits 
to be called, he always laid a large hunting-whip on the table 
before him, and, business begun, whenever as was frequently 
the case the lawyers fell into wrangling colloquies, the young 
sheriff would strike the board vigorously with the crop of his 
whip, angrily vociferating, " Schoondrels ! blethering loons ! " and 
other synonyms which proved equally effective in silencing the 
combatants, the storm as if by magic producing a calm. 

It was an invariable matter of etiquette that the clerks and 
notaries of Wigtown should one and all mount and reinforce 
his escort on the return march, as far as the ford of Bladenoch. 
Having seen the sheriff safe across, the low country contin- 
gent adjourned to Sanders M'Clurg's, a well-known change- 
house overlooking the stream, and there drank largely in honour 
of the expedition. The movements of this escort were observed 
to be always somewhat tortuous upon their return. 

The sheriff meanwhile was riding homewards followed by 
the learned phalanx from Stranraer. The habit of these prac- 
titioners being to dine at Glenluce, and refresh again at the 
halfway house a few miles beyond it. 

On one occasion the dinner at Glenluce having been followed 


by an unusual quantity of punch, it was agreed they should 
refresh no further by the way. Firm in their resolve, each and 
all endeavoured to sustain one another in keeping of their vow, 
by quickening the pace as they neared the accustomed halting- 
place, and this to the no small astonishment of mine host, who 
was standing in his doorway waiting to receive them. On 
came the men of the gown without slackening rein, the senior 
counsel leading at a gallop. But just as they were abreast of the 
signboard his horse, long trained to stop there, bolted at lightning 
pace to one side, and coming to a standstill suddenly on the 
threshold, sent his rider sprawling into the passage. Boniface, 
who was a wag, gravely raised the fallen " fore speaker," and 
with a sly glance at the group, drily said, " What kin' o' a rider 
ye may be, I dinna ken ; but oh, man, ye hae a maist expedeetious 
way o' comin' aff ! " 

In 1 730 Sir James's friend, Sir Alexander Maxwell, died, and 
was succeeded by a son William, who married Madeline, a 
daughter of Blair of Blair. 

A discharge, registered in the Court of Session, llth Nov. 
1*731, is witnessed by Mr. Eobert Menzies, chaplain at Lochnaw, 
and Walter Smith, gardener there. This raises the question 
as to whether the baronage generally as has been stated of the 
English squire thought it belonged to the dignity of their 
order that grace should be said every day at their table by an 
ecclesiastic in full canonicals, or whether it was merely in the case 
of a sheriff that a chaplain was suitable. We read indeed that 
the fourth Earl of Cassilis had his chaplain beside him when he 
roasted the Commendator of Crossraguel in the vault of Dunure, 
and that he also employed another ecclesiastic to forge titles to 
lands he coveted ; but he was hardly an example. A later earl 
also had his chaplain with him in his house of the Inch ; but, 
excepting such rare instances, having had access to very many 
old writs, we have never lighted upon such a signature except 
in the case of chaplains of the sheriffs, and these may be said 
to be continuous. 

The second hereditary sheriff (1455-1484) had Sir Henry 

to 1734] SIR STAIR 265 

Mundel as a chaplain. Quentin Agnew, third sheriff (1484- 
1498) had many deeds witnessed by " Sir Finlay M'Bryde, 
chaplain of Lochnaw." Sir Andrew Agnew, tenth sheriff (1671- 
1703), had testamentary papers witnessed by "Mr. James 
Eraser, chaplain at Lochnaw." 

A Mr. William Kilpatrick signs himself " chaplain to Sir 
James Agnew of Lochnaw," and in the deed just mentioned, Mr. 
Eobert Menzies was chaplain resident there : this Mr. Menzies 
being, on the young sheriff's recommendation, appointed parish 
minister of Leswalt in 1734, after which we find no mention of 
a domestic chaplain at Lochnaw. 

In 1731 Glasserton, the principal residence of the Earls of 
Galloway, was totally destroyed by fire, a general as well as a 
family misfortune, numerous family papers relating to Gallo- 
way continuously from the fourteenth century being irrecover- 
ably lost. The old mansion was not on the site of the present 
Glasserton House, this having been built by Admiral Keith 
Stewart, youngest son of Alexander the sixth earl, which sixth 
earl transferred the family residence to a beautiful landlocked 
bay between Cruggleton and Eggerness. 

Whilst the young sheriff was soldiering in Ireland, his lady 
found a congenial occupation in completing her gardens and 
planting the Drummullin wood, and the banks of the canal 
which now flowed through the bed of the White Loch ; and in 
sympathy with her tastes, we find that Lady Stair was at the 
same time forming a circular piece of water artificially, still a 
feature in the terrace slopes below Castle Kennedy. 

A letter from Lord Balcarras, then a major in command of 
the dragoons at Innermessan, to Lord Stair, who happened to 
be at Newliston, affords us a peep at the operations in progress. 

" Stranrawer, 14 March 1732. 

"My dear Lord, Your Lordship's troops I have had out 
several times. They do their business very well, and the 
horses are in a thriving way. The troops are well lodged at 
Innermessan. I have been at Castle Kennedy, which looks 


charmingly. The new work that has been done since the 
summer I was there has a wonderful effect ; so has the basin, 
now that it is formed and the walk made round. Thomas 
M'Call has been unwell, but as he sees his plants begin to 
spring it sets him right again. There are horse-chesnuts fully 
blown. I have been through the farm with Mr. Ainslie. I 
have been several hours in the factory. I compared what is 
made here with what has come from Carlisle, and, in my 
opinion, it is vastly preferable. Lady Betty 1 and Mr. M'Dowall 
have their humble respects to you." 

Galloway politics in 1733 took the form of a personal 
struggle between the Earls of Stair and Galloway. In the 
election of 1727, Dalrymples gained both county and boroughs. 
Both families were for the Protestant succession, thence both 
really Whig, but Lord Stair had joined the Opposition against 
Walpole, and Lord Galloway supported him. 

Lord Stair was Vice- Admiral for Scotland, besides having 
a position in the army and in the House of Lords. Walpole 
had a heavy hand upon opponents, and in April 1733, Stair 
received a letter from Newcastle, intimating that the king had 
no further occasion for his services ; the following April he was 
deprived of his regiment, and hardest hit of all the Govern- 
ment, interfering in the election of Scottish peers, carried their 
own list, and thus Lord Stair was excluded from Parliament also. 

Among Lord Stair's unpardonable offences was his opposi- 
tion to Walpole's Excise Bill, which was extremely unpopular 
in Scotland. 

Lord Galloway, who had been appointed a lord of police, 
finding a majority of the justices siding with Stair, conciliated 
some of the smaller proprietors by including them in the com- 
mission of the peace, and Government, as in duty bound, 
supported him in the appointment ; at which we find Stewart 
of Physgill, one of the older race of magistracy, thus grumblingly 
writing to Lord Stair : 

1 This was Lady Elizabeth Crichton Dalrymple. Stair's Annals, 292. 

to 1734] SIR STAIR 267 

" Physgill, 29 Septr. 1733. 

" No doubt your Lordship knows we are threatened with a 
new set of justices of the peace from Lord Garlies's recom- 
mendation. It gives most of your Lordship's well-wishers un- 
easiness in having the power of the country vested in a minor 
set of people. This with no other intent than to give others 

Lord Stair, on his side, did not fail sedulously to cultivate 
the borough constituencies. The mode that went surest to the 
heart of the civic freeholder, was the setting before him a good 
haggis and the best of Galloway mutton, washed down with 
ale and claret, "the braw drink," as they called it. And as 
bottle after bottle circulated among the bailies (to whom the 
Franchise was then confined), patriotic fervour was roused to 
the utmost as the sentiment was proposed : " Confusion to the 
Excise Act." 

The purveyor's account for such an entertainment to the 
magistracy of Stranraer, approved by the earl himself, is now 
before us. 

"Bill for the Town Council's dinner charged to the Et. 
Honble. the Earl of Stair, by Anthony Armstrong, Stranrawer, 
3 Octr. 1733 : 

" Imprimus for dinner . . . .1150 

for 2 doz. and a half of wine . 2 10 

foraile . . . .019 

for 3 gils of cherub. . .009 


" Pay the above to the account of 

(Signed) " STAIR. 

" Culhorn, 4 Octr. 1733." 
" Cherub," we may presume, was rum shrub. 
Lord Galloway on his part did not neglect the sources of 
influence to which he had fallen heir. Members of his family 


acted as Provosts of Wigtown during the greatest part of the 
century. The fifth Earl we find Provost in 1*730 ; his son, Lord 
Garlies, in 1735 ; the Earl again in 1738 ; and Garlies in 1740. 

In Whithorn his influence was even more supreme. A 
good story is told there of an earl who had taken a leaf out of 
Lord Stair's book, and had been regaling the Town Council of 
Whithorn ; and so assiduously, that he was detained much 
longer than he had told a visitor he had left behind. On his 
return late to Galloway House, his friend exclaimed " What in 
the world have you been about all this time ? " " Oh ! " 
replied Lord John, " I have been watering my asses." 

In 1734, the young sheriff, whose relations at this time 
were equally cordial with both families, had to declare Colonel 
Dalrymple again duly elected for the county, but his relative, 
James Stewart, Lord Galloway's second son (an officer in the 
Guards), replaced John Dalrymple in the boroughs. 1 

In the autumn of this year the sheriff's fifth son was born ; 
but not being able to arrive for the christening, he had noted 
his wish that he should be named after his old colonel and 
neighbour, Lord Stair ; and his wife and chaplain, taking his 
words literally, named the child " Stair." 

On arriving, when he found out the mistake, he is said to 
have burst out in wrath : " When ye christen a bairn ye should 
ken what to call it. It's well the wean's no likely to be the 
heir. Stair ! Sir Stair ! Sir Deevil ! " 

Sir Stair, however, the child became, and the name so dis- 
liked by the father has met with great acceptance in the 

The above is the unvarnished tale, but time improves such 
stories ; and Dr. M'Crie picked up a much livelier version of this 
little anecdote, which he tells so well that we must repeat it. 

1 Shortly before, Lord Dromore had written to Lord Stair confidently 
expecting both boroughs and county to be secured for their party. He says : 
"I have just seen a letter saying for certain that Basil Hamilton is able to 
count noses with Garlies in Wigtown. Would it be proper to deal with Basil to 
look after the Stewartry, and after he has secured Wigtown, to let it come your 
lordship's way ? " Stair's Annals, 432. 

to 1734] SIR STAIR 269 

" Lieutenant-General Agnew returning home from foreign 
service found his fifth son, who was born during his absence, 
sitting on his mother's knee. This, in those days of rare and 
difficult communication, was the first intelligence he had 
received of this addition to his family. ' What's this you hae 
got, Nellie ? ' was his first salutation. ' Another son to you, 
Sir Andrew.' ' And what do you call the boy ? ' 'I have 
called him Stair after your marshal/ she replied. ' Stair ! Sir 
Stair ! ' cried Sir Andrew after a few minutes' silence, ' Sir 
Deevil ! it disna clink weel, Nellie ! ' So it was, however, 
though fifth son he did become Sir Stair/' 

Certain anachronisms, however, prevent a family biographer 
from adopting this capital story ; for example, the sheriff was 
then a captain in Ireland, not a general in Germany, nor were 
posts quite so rare as would thus appear, in the eighteenth 
century : the captain, moreover, was not yet a baronet, nor 
Lord Stair a field-marshal ! 



A.D. 1735 to 1744 

John, Duke of Argyle, we admired for a while, 

Whose titles fell short of his merit ; 
His loss to repair, we took John, Earl of Stair, 

Who, like him, had both virtue and spirit. 

IN 1735 Sir James Agnew, the eleventh sheriff, died at 
Edinburgh, and was interred there in the Abbey Church of 
Holyrood on the 13th of March. 1 

By his will, as proved before the commissary, Major James 
Agnew of Colonel Kerr's regiment of dragoons, Quarter- 
masters George and John Agnew of Lord Cadogan's dragoons, 
Major James Agnew, acting as tutor for his own eldest son 
James (afterwards a brigadier-general in the American war), 
are named executors. 2 

Sir James's life had not been a useless one : from the date 
of his succession to the Lochnaw estates, he had been inde- 
fatigable in introducing varieties of crops as well as of stock, in 

1 March 13, 1735. Interred in the Abbey Church, Sir James Agnew of 
Lochnaw, lying on the south side of the Countess of Dunmore, betwixt the 

March 27, 1742. Interred in the Abbey Church, Lady Mary Agnew, on 
the left hand of her husband, and betwixt the two pillars in the north side of 
the church. Extracted by Mrs. Petrie, No. 1 Abbey of Holyrood, 1st March 

2 We notice as an asset, a sum of 630 due to Sir James by Alexander, Lord 
Garlies, " acrueing in a contract between the said Lord Garlies and Sir James 
and Lady Mary Agnew, or the longest liver of them, that he would pay 120 
yearly, beginning at Martinmas 1729, for certain crops on the lands of Cults, 
Cruggleton, and others in the Parish of Sorbie. " 

A.D. I 73 5- x 744] DETTINGEN 271 

sowing grasses, and in importing lime. Whereas, before he 
ruled there, we have it from a contemporary authority that 
" the traveller might ride for miles, see nothing in the way of 
crop but gray oats, whilst not an ounce of lime was used for 
improving land." 1 

When he retired from active farming, his cattle were 
famous for their size, and in his rentals we find barley figuring 
largely, indeed more so than oats. 2 

On succeeding his father, Sir Andrew Agnew, the twelfth 
and last hereditary sheriff, still continued his connection with 
the Scots Fusiliers; and, necessarily, most of his time was 
spent at the headquarters of his regiment. But when on leave 
at Lochnaw, although no agriculturist, his military habits 
"would not let him rest satisfied without endeavouring to master 
the routine of farm labour, so that he might feel assured that 
all whom he employed had properly fulfilled their tasks before 
being dismissed ; and many were the droll mistakes he fell into, 
when he assumed the control of operations he could not under- 

" Ye see," as was gravely remarked by an old residenter, 
" although Sir Andro was a gran' warrior, he didna ken the lee 
side of a rick." 

One of his first performances in this line was thus given 
viva voce by an old retainer who could remember him as a girl. 
To enter into the humour of the incident, it must be under- 
stood that in those days of small money rents, every farm, in 
proportion to its size, furnished a definite number of men and 
horses, for labour and leading for the laird. Besides cartages 
and " carriages " of various sorts, this was styled " baillie 

1 Letter from John Maxwell of Munches to "W. H. Herries of Spotter. 
Literary History of Galloway. 

Muncheiss, 1527. Munochies, 1604, pointing to Moinechies, Bog of the 
Kish, or wickerwork causeway. 

2 In a rental of Sir James Agnew we find, under head of kain and presents, 
24 bolls barley from Clendrie, 4 from Kirkland of Kirkcolm, 3 from Kirmin- 
noch, whilst from the same lands only 6 bolls of oats. The total rent in kind 
from the Kirkcolm portion of the Lochnaw estate is 38 bolls barley, 77 bolls 
oatmeal, 44 capons, 69 hens, 294 chickens, 20 wethers, 28 lambs, 3 stone 2 qrs. 
butter, 2 stone tallow, 120 eggs. 


work " ; and besides these services due from his own lands, the 
sheriff was entitled to others in right of his heritable juris- 
diction : such as the Baillierie of Leswalt, Moneybrick, Soulseat, 
and Drummastoun. 1 

The story proceeded thus : 

" Sir Andrew, though a braw soldier, was nae farmer ava ; he 
kent naething aboot it. A' the Castle work, farm work in his 
days, and long afore and after, was done by baillie work, baillie 
pleuching, baillie harrowing, baillie shearing, baillie corn- 
leading, ay and peat-leading too. The tenants were a' warned 
in their turn to do as they were bun' in their tacks. 

" Sir Andrew was new come hame ; they had been a' 
warned in, and were shearing ower in the Beef- Park, an' as was 
aye the case when a wheen o' farmers met, they had great 
strivings wha wad be first out at the lan's end. Horrid bad 
wark they made it, and whiles left as muckle as they took. 

" Just as the sheriff came out to see, they were kemping 2 a* 
they could ; and the grieve, afeared the sheriff wad be angry, 
began and trod down the lang stubbles wi' his feet, and made a 
show o' gathering as muckle o' the left corn as he could. 

" ' What's that ye're doing there ? ' says Sir Andrew, 
sharply. ' Oh, please your honour/ answers the grieve, terribly 
frightened ; ' oh, I'm just tramping doon a lot o' the o'erplus. 
There's plenty to tak and plenty to leave here, please your 

1 From the Baillierie of Drummastoun alone the sheriff claimed, "from Skeog 
2 plough gangs, 4 couple of horses, 1 day's ploughing, the same for harrowing, 
6 shearers and 8 horses for peat-leading. From Dunance the same. 

From Balnab, Drummastoun, and Chapel Barren, each, 1 plough gang, 
2 couple of horses, 2 of harrowers, 3 shearers, and 4 horses for peat-leading. 

Hence the number of men and horses which he was entitled to " wane " over 
the various baronies was very considerable. The grieve is Scotch for overseer, 
but its use as a verb is a Galloway idiom, where ' ' to grieve the men " is a phrase 
in everyday use, meaning not to distress but to superintend them. 

2 Kemping is an expression commonly applied to reapers trying who will 
beat the others in cutting each their share of corn upon the harvest-field. The 
derivation is the same as in " kemp's walks," from kemp, a champion. Signify- 
ing rivalry, it implies that the work is hurriedly and badly done. 

Auld Nick and Scott yence kempt they say, 
Wha best a reape fra saun cud tweyne. 

Old Cumberland Ballad. 

to 1744] DETTINGEN 273 

honour. It's just to keep the grun' warm, your honour, for I 
expect a right guid awal crap here next year ; ' and so he ran 
on, scarce knowing what he said." 

Greatly astonished was the grieve to find his ridiculous 
invention accepted in good faith ; but the very success of his 
imposture carried with it a retribution as sharp as unexpected, 
for the sheriff, greatly pleased with the theory of keeping the 
ground warm, " keepit him there a' the morning aye treading 
down the stubble, and whiles he wad begin and tread down the 
corn himsel' ; " so that the unjust steward cut a very sorry 
figure in the eyes of his own men. 1 

On the 6th of January 1736 the sheriff obtained his 
majority, and about the same time his eldest son was gazetted 
to a commission in Paget's shortly after Descurry's regiment, 
now the 32nd Light Infantry, On the 1st of February Thomas 
Agnew of Lochryan, his wife's nephew, died (Colonel Agnew 
having died in 1730), leaving his sister Eleanor, wife of Sir 
Thomas Wallace of Craigie, as his heir. The estate passed 
through her to her only daughter Frances Anne, who married 
John Dunlop of Dunlop, and thus the oldest of the cadets of 
Lochnaw disappeared from the roll of the baronage. 

Two years later William Agnew of Castle Wigg also died 
unmarried, his sister having had, by Charles Stewart of Tonder- 
ghie, an only daughter Elizabeth, who married Hugh Hawthorne 
of the old stock of Aries, a merchant in Edinburgh. Her son 
by him, Hugh, inherited the estate of Castle Wigg ; the lands of 
Auldbreck and Polmallet reverting to the family of Lochnaw 
by virtue of the disposition of the ninth sheriff, whose younger 
son was the first Laird of Wigg. 

Having visited Lochnaw in 1738 to be present at the mar- 
riage of his eldest daughter, Mary, with Sir Michael Bruce of 
Stenhouse, the sheriff gave a commission, dated 23rd October 

1 The old retainer was Jennie Kie, a henwife of unknown age ; a great 
character at Lochnaw in the author's younger days. 

A henwife was a much more important personage then than now, when 
capons, fowls and chickens innumerable came in as kain and presents, besides 
turkeys, geese, ducks, and poultry of all sorts reared upon the place. 



1738, to John Hawthorne of Over Aries as Bailie-Depute of 

A case in his court was tried at this time, concerning a daring 
attempt by a scamp named M'Cleary, to carry off Miss Yaus of 
Barnbarroch. The deposition of one of the witnesses, as taken 
down the 29th of November, sufficiently describes the casev 

" John Stewart of Phisgill, aged about 33 years, and married, 
declares as follows : 

" I came to the house of Barnbarroch upon a Sabbath day, 
the 13th of August last. 

" About two hours after daylight was gone, I was sitting 
in a chamber with Lady Barnbarroch and John Dun, tutor on 
the estate. A noise was heard, and presently a servant came 
and told that a great number of men with arms had broke into 
the house and were then in the kitchen. 

" I, John Dun, and Lady Barnbarroch ran immediately 
downstairs, and there I saw Thomas M' Alexander, a soldier, 
holding a cocked pistol in his hands, swearing he would shoot 
some one if they did not show him the way upstairs. I also 
saw Andrew Mitchell, servant to John M'Clery, holding a 
pistol, with a drawn hanger in his hand, Eobert Dinnan with a 
pistol, and one Hannay with a rusty sabre, and several other 
armed men. 

" On it being demanded what they wanted, they replied, 
' Miss Vaus' : and on being told they could not get her, they 
swore they would go upstairs, upon which they forced by me 
and broke open the lady's chamber door, and broke it in pieces. 

" A scuffle ensued, and I, John Stewart, seed M'Alexander 
and the lady in grips with one another, the lady's head-cloathes 
torn off her head, and her hair hanging round her face and 
shoulders. After M'Alexander was disengaged from the lady, 
he snapped a pistol twice, which was some time afterwards 
taken from him and a shot found in it. 

" Meanwhile I saw Hannay seize Miss Elizabeth M'Dowall, 
the lady's sister, and saw several of the servants wounded to 
the effusion of blood. 

to 1744] DETTINGEN 275 

" Before this, Miss Vans had asked me to lock her into a 
private cellar, which I did. 

" M'Clery was now told he could not see her that night, upon 
which he searched the lady's room, and her bed, and the presses. 
He then called up his men and placed them sentry over the 
room, and searched the dining-room and other rooms of the 

" I at the same time saw William M'Beatt in Drumbuie 
standing on the stairhead with a sabre in his hand, also Simon 
Guthrie, apprentice to John M'Cailie, wright in Wigtown. 

" After some communing M f Alexander fired a pistol and they 
all went off, and the party were lurking about the house. I 
went out and told them their stay was not agreeable, and they 
answered they would not go till M'Clery had seen Miss Vaus. 

" A short time after assistance arrived, which had been sent 
for, and on this all sallied out to apprehend the party ; but they 
now ran off, and they could take none but M'Clery, who was 
brought into Barnbarroch house, and by a warrant of Mr. Heron 
of that ilk, sent to the Tolbooth of Wigtown." 

It is to be regretted that the result of the trial, whether 
adjudicated on by the sheriff or remitted by him to a superior 
court, is not forthcoming. 

About a year before this, we find the sheriff attending the 
General Assembly at Edinburgh, along with Colonel Dalrymple, 
representing the Presbytery at Ayr, and Gordon of Earlston that 
of Kirkcudbright. On such journeys he had a pleasant halting- 
place at the house of his aunt, the Dowager Lady.Eglinton, who, 
as the still beautiful widow, kept house in Ayrshire with much 
acceptance ; the sons of his brother, James, and Montgomerie, 
named after herself being among her especial favourites. 

Having returned to Ireland, the sheriff disembarked with 
his regiment at Liverpool from Dublin early in 1739, marching 
thence to Andover ; and a few months later he obtained the 
prize for which he had so perseveringly waited, the command 
" of the Eoyal regiment of North British Fusiliers." 

After Lord Stair's removal from his regiment, dragoons no 


longer occupied Innermessan; but we find the sheriff's younger 
brothers George, John, and Peter, in Lord Stair's old corps, now 
called Lord Cadogan's, quartered at the time in the Melton 
country, the horses as usual being mostly at grass for the profit 
of their colonel, though, perhaps, not quite equally to the advan- 
tage of the country, as we gather from a letter from Lord 
Crichton, the major in command, to Lord Stair, his uncle. 

" Loughborough, Leicestershire, 
20 Sept. 1739. 

" I hope this shall find you in perfect health at Culhorn. 
Lord Cadogan says in his last letter to me that we shall be 
reviewed before the end of the month, but the horses are still 
at grass, and no order for their taking them up ; so I wish we 
are not catched napping like the foolish virgins, with no oil in 
their lamps. 

" I hope, my dear Lord, all your affairs in Galloway go to 
your mind. One may travel over the world and see nothing 
like Castle Kennedy." 

In 1741 the sheriff was called home for a general election, 
when it became his pleasing duty to declare his kinsmen James 
(a colonel in the Guards) and William (Eose's dragoons, now 
12th Lancers) Stewart, members for the county and borough. 

On returning to Andover, the sheriff received orders to 
join an army corps on Lexton Heath. On 1st of February 1742 
Walpole resigned, and within a month Lord Stair was called 
from his retirement, nominated a field-marshal, and appointed 

The new ministry determined to send a force to Flanders, 
the Scots Fusiliers forming a part of the expedition, of which 
Lord Stair was in supreme command. 

The sheriff's papers show that he mustered his regiment at 
Bruges, 10th January 1743, and in March moved on to Aix-la- 

Marshal Stair combined with his military appointment that 
of Ambassador Extraordinary to the Dutch Court, and had 

to 1744] DETTINGEN 277 

preceded the troops on his mission to the Hague. Whilst there, 
he is reported to have obtained a social success over the minister 
of France, auguring well for the future. At a grand diplomatic 
banquet, according to the fashion of the day, toasts in the form 
of sentiments made their round, and the solar system had been 
selected as the field on which the envoys were to prove their wit. 
The French minister, jumping to his feet, beamingly proposed 
his master as " the sun." Lord Stair cordially accepted it. The 
glasses were drained, when the Austrian Ambassador gave the 
beautiful and chaste Empress Queen Maria Theresa as " the 
moon." Lord Stair drank that too. All eyes were turned upon 
him, as he seemed to have been checkmated. After a short pause 
he rose smilingly and said, " A bumper, gentlemen ; you shall 
drink to my master as Joshua, who bid the sun and moon stand 
still." The Galloway field-marshal had outflanked the veteran 

Meanwhile the sheriff had marched on with his fusiliers 
across the Ehine, and in May found himself encamped upon the 
Maine, where, to the dismay of the graver old soldiers, George 
II. appeared in camp ; for, though a gallant dragoon, his 
Majesty was not born a general. 

The French, with greatly superior forces, advancing suddenly, 
very nearly surrounded the allies. Indeed, they would have been 
caught in a trap had it not been for the wariness and skill of 
Lord Stair, who had difficulties to contend with at the council 
board, greater than those in the field, as the king would con- 
stantly interfere. 

The French marshal had taken pretty accurately the measure 
of King George's generalship, and on one occasion, vexed at the 
movements of the allies not agreeing with his calculations, and 
his plans being foiled, he is said to have philosophically re- 
marked, " Well, I ought not to be annoyed at this unfortunate 
prudence, for sometimes Lord Stair must get his way." 

Councils of war, however, continued to be held in the King's 
tent, with little purpose but to mar the plans of the veteran 
marshal ; and by the 27th June the king and his friends had 


managed to get the whole allied army into the very worst 
position that ingenuity could have devised. 

On their right the main body of the French lay in position 
at Dettingen ; another corps in their rear ; a third held in 
force the left bank of the Maine ; whilst in front of the allies a 
fourth and very strong division was so posted that it could only 
be approached through a narrow defile, and any attempt to 
attack it be conducted at a disadvantage. Near this defile 
on the 27th the sheriff was stationed with his regiment. As 
the dinner-hour approached it was reported to him that large 
bodies of the enemy were to be seen upon the move. The 
sheriff is described " as sauntering about as cool as if he had 
been on the boundary of one of his farms in Wigtownshire" ; 1 
and his only reply to the staff officer who had addressed him 
was, "Sir, the scoondrels will never have the impudence to 
attack the Scots Fusiliers." He ordered the dinner - call to 
sound ; the rations were served out ; and the eccentric baronet 
set the example of making good use of a knife and fork. The 
fact was, he himself had already foreseen the certainty of a 
serious engagement, and had despatched a messenger to Lord 
Stair to warn him ; and as an old soldier, he now encouraged 
his men to dine, as the best preparation for going into battle. 

As the advancing columns became plainly visible, Sir Andrew 
still continued eating, till a bullet struck out of his hand a 
chicken bone which he was in the act of picking. 

" They're in earnest now ! " he cried, and waving his hand 
the drums beat to quarters, and the Fusiliers fell into line. 
Mounting his charger, he then called them to attention, and 
delivered himself of a short speech which has since become pro- 
verbial : " My lads, ye see these loons on yon hill there ; if ye 
dinna kill them they'll kill you." As he spoke, the French horse 
came on at a charging pace. " Dinna fire till ye see the whites 
of their een " ; and his Fusiliers reserved their fire to a man. As 
the mail-clad dragoons were close upon his line, he gave the 
word to fall back from the centre by right and left ; and in an 

1 Chambers. 

to 1744] DETTINGEN 279 

instant the cuirassiers dashed madly down the line thus 
formed, receiving a terrific volley as they passed. Then that 
thin red line reformed, but this time facing to the rear. The 
impetuous Frenchmen, finding the main body of the allied 
army in their front, turned to retreat ; but there was now no 
opening in the ranks of the Scots Fusiliers, which they fondly 
fancied they had broken. The sheriff moved slowly along his 
ranks, exhorting the young soldiers to reserve their fire, to aim 
low, and then to rush with the bayonet upon the horses. 
Again the cuirassiers charged the line; a leaden shower de- 
livered at almost musket length brought them to a standstill ; 
their horses rolled thickly on the ground, and the Fusiliers 
attacked the encumbered horsemen with such success that the 
whole party were destroyed or captured, and not a single 
mousquetaire returned to the French camp to tell the tale. 1 

The battle raged fiercely ; everywhere Lord Stair was to be 
seen at the right moment, riding a dapple gray charger of his 
own breeding from the park of Culhorn. At last the French 
gave way, leaving 5000 men upon the field of Dettingen. 
Lord Stair ordered all the cavalry forward instantly in pursuit, 
and the defeat was becoming a total rout, when the meddling 
of courtiers disarranged his combinations, and he was peremp- 
torily ordered to countermand the movement. 

The battle over, George II. was told of the Sheriff of Gallo- 
way's picnic in presence of the enemy; an anecdote which greatly 
tickled the royal fancy, and in great good humour he rode off to 
rally the Baronet on his adventure. " So, Sir Andrew," he began, 
as the sheriff sat stoically at his parade, " I hear the cuiras- 

1 The hero of Quebec, then a young ensign in Du Roure's (now the 12th) regi- 
ment, writing to his father his own reminiscences of the battle immediately after, 
though belonging to another division, had heard something of the sheriffs morn- 
ing's work ; he commences thus " The gens d'armes or Mousquetaires Gris 
attacked the first line . . . they broke through the Scotch Fusiliers . . . 
but before they got to the second line, out of two hundred there were not forty 
living, so they wheeled and came (back) between the first and second line," when 
all were slain, ' ' except an officer with a standard, and four or five men who 
broke through the second line, and were taken by some of Hawley's regiment of 
dragoons. These unhappy men were of the first families in France." Life of 
General James Wolfe. 


siers rode through your regiment to-day ! " " Ay, please your 
Majesty," the other drily replied, " but they didna gang back 

As the days shortened, the army went into winter quarters at 
Ghent, where a large Galloway party often met of an evening 
round the camp fires ; of whom were the sheriff, his brother the 
major, three younger brothers in Cadogan's dragoons, his 
nephew James, Colonel James Stewart the member for Wig- 
townshire, Sir Thomas Hay, and Captain M'Dowall in the 
Greys, and Lord Cathcart, lately aide-de-camp to Lord Stair, a 
captain in the 20th Eegiment. 

A letter from the sheriff (from Lochnaw) to Lord Stair, 
sympathising with, yet commending, his lordship's resignation, 
gives some Galloway news. 

He writes : 

" 13th October 1743. 

" The garden of Castle Kennedy is in high splendour and 
glory; Thomas [the gardener] in very good health. The 
Galloway tenants are such lazy hounds as deserve no pity. 
Whether corn is cheap or dear, the rent is alike ill paid ; they 
trust to favours that have been done, and expect when they 
have eaten and drunk their rents there will be a repetition 
of it. There is no such thing as buying or selling grain in 
Galloway." * 

There was a new cause of alarm in Galloway as to a Jaco- 
bite rising. It was known that Murray of Broughton was in 
actual communication with Prince Charles Edward, and several 
of the Maxwells in the Stewartry were believed to be disaffected. 
So serious was the danger, that the sheriff, having ascertained 
that the enemy were likely to be quiescent during the winter, 
applied for and obtained a few months' leave. 

Arrived at Lochnaw, he found that Dame Eleanor had pre- 
pared a surprise for him, having had the slopes of a hill (to climb 
which had been a favourite walk) elaborately planted with 

1 Stair's Annals, ii. 305. 

to 1744] DETTINGEN 281 

beeches, firs, and oaks. It is said, however, that as he trudged 
up the hillside to enjoy the familiar view, and then saw what 
had been done, he expressed some contempt for the carefully 
planned operations, suggesting that the trees would never grow. 
Happily his usual sagacity was at fault ; the Craighead Wood 
did grow, and flourished, in defiance of the fiercest blasts from 
the Atlantic, for 150 years. And indeed it may be said to 
flourish still, though the fearful hurricane of January 1884 laid 
low most of the giants of the forest as planted by Dame Eleanor. 
The sheriff, however, had graver subjects for his thoughts during 
this brief visit. A storm was brewing on the political horizon, 
the country denuded of troops, whilst the shores of Galloway 
were peculiarly accessible to naval attack. Indeed some 
privateers had actually been sighted in the Channel ; and, with 
alarms of French invasion rife, the means of resistance were 
almost nil. 

The sheriff had anxious conferences with the borough 
officials of Wigtown and Stranraer, and made formal application 
to the Commander-in- Chief in Scotland for assistance, which 
met with the discouraging reply that "there were no troops 
to spare, not even arms, of which his own provision was so 
scanty, and his applications for them so many, that if he 
attempted to comply with them he would have none left for 

At this juncture Lord Stair, ill used as he considered him- 
self to have been, patriotically tendered his services, which 
were gladly accepted ; and by warrant dated " 24 Eeby. 
1*744," he was appointed to the supreme command of the forces 
in South Britain. 

The sheriff now repeated his application for troops for 
Galloway through Lord Stair ; who, thoroughly understanding 
the force of his representations, and more sympathetic, wrote to 
his kinsman Lord Dromore, entreating him to impress upon the 
Edinburgh authorities the absolute necessity of giving adequate 
protection to Galloway; which resulted in the despatch of a 
company of regular soldiers to Stranraer, forming a nucleus for 


such forces as the sheriff and magistrates could raise in the 
district. 1 

The sheriff had been obliged to hasten his return to camp ; 
but Colonel James Stewart, the member for the county, who 
had come on leave with him, having a few days to spare, kindly 
took charge of Sir Andrew's third son, accompanying him from 
Lochnaw to London, superintending his outfit as a midshipman, 
thence taking him to Portsmouth, and putting him on board his 
ship. In a letter in which he mentions the performance of 
these good offices, enclosing a note of his disbursements, one 
item strikes the eye as a strange necessary in a midshipman's 
kit : " For two bobwigs and dressing, 2 : Is." 

It is to be remarked that when the two friends met in camp 
on their return from Galloway, all fears of a hostile landing on 
its shores had been allayed, by the collapse of the schemes for 
the landing of the Pretender, escorted by the combined armies 
and fleets of France. Late in the following year the landing 
was actually effected, but far from Galloway ; and the military 
support given by France was on a very much smaller scale than 
had originally been intended; the naval diversion on the 
western shores, which had also been planned, being omitted 
altogether from the programme. 

We trace the arrival of both the sheriff and Colonel Stewart 
by an I.O.U. to his brother for a sum of money which he 
required. 2 

During the summer the Scots Fusiliers formed part of a 

1 { ' I had an application from the Magistrates of Stranraer to obtain some 
forces for them to repress the depredations of the Privateers in Lochryan and the 
vicinage. I applied to the General, who said that anything he could do to oblige 
Lord Stair must be very acceptable to him, but the provision of arms was so 
scanty in this country that he could not possibly part with any. But he has 
fallen upon a device which is more effectual for the security of the country, to 
wit, to send a company to Stranraer to receive such recruits as shall be raised 
upon the Act of Parliament. I have this day wrote to the Magistrates to take 
particular care to use the officers and soldiers well." 

From Lord Dromore, 24th April ] 744. 

The sheriff had returned to Flanders, and from this it would appear that 
there had been some actual attacks by privateers upon the coast. 

2 "We, Sir Andrew Agnew, Baronet, Lieutenant-Colonel of H.M. Regiment 
of North British Fusiliers and Captain Andrew Agnew of Brigadier Skelton's 

to 1744] 



force which, under Marshal Wade, penetrated French territory 
as far as Lisle. We trace them by papers, encamped at Asche, 
Alost, on the banks of the Scheld, and again in winter at 
Ghent, whence the colonel paid another flying visit to the 

regiment, bind ourselves to pay Major James Agnew of Lieutenant- General 
Cope's Regiment of Dragoons 200 sterling. 

' ' Signed, sealed, and delivered, no stamp paper being to be had at Berleg- 
ham Camp, 29th May 1744. 

"Colonel James Stewart of the 3d Regiment of Guards, Witness." 


A.D. 1744 to 1745 

Aye always true are those who bear the number twenty-one ; 

It was when in the days of old they served in Germanic 

Against the power and pride of France and all her chivalrie ; 

Sir Andrew Agnew at their head, they feared no foreign foe, 

But sharp and sure the Frenchmen met, and dealt them blow for blow. 

Camp Song, 2Ist Fusiliers. 

THE business which brought the sheriff home in the winter of 
1744 was happily peaceful, and one of the first matters minuted 
at his court was as to bridging the Cree at the ford opposite the 
Kirktown of Minigaff, at the point where the roads branched off 
to Edinburgh and Dumfries eastward, and Portpatrick to the 

The nucleus of the pleasant town of Newton-Stewart had 
already been formed by the Laird of Castle Stewart, whence 
its name, but the only access to the important market of Mini- 
gaff was by ferry-boat or fording, often dangerous in floods. 

In 1728 the Synod of Galloway had laudably collected con- 
tributions towards the erection of a bridge ; but it was only in 
the winter of 1744-45 that at a meeting, the combined baronage 
of the Shire and Stewartry raised a sufficient sum for its 
completion. "Whether through faulty building, or from causes 
beyond known control, the bridge then built, succumbed to a 
flood in the year 1810, and in 1813 it was replaced by that 
which now stands. 

Hearing that the Duke of Cumberland had started unex- 


pectedly to his command in Flanders, the sheriff hurried back 
after him before the expiration of his leave. But with all 
his haste, much to his mortification, he arrived too late to take 
part in the sanguinary battle of Fontenoy, 1 in which his regi- 
ment lost nine officers and 279 men. His eldest son and all his 
brothers had been engaged with their respective corps ; Major 
James Agnew having brought his regiment 2 out of action, 
which at the final charge had lost thirty-five troop horses and 
fifty-six men. On landing in Flanders, Sir Andrew found 
orders awaiting him, to take up command of the garrison at 
Bruges, of which his shattered regiment was sent to form a 
part. Here he received letters from his son and brother, 
informing him that they had already relieved the anxiety of 
Lady Agnew and Lord Galloway as to the safety of their mutual 
relatives ; though they, and indeed the whole army, had to 
mourn the death of the gallant Lawers, 3 mortally wounded at 
the head of the horse on that unlucky day. 
The following is from his son : 

" Camp, near Lessines, May 19, 1745. 

" Dear Sir, It gave me great pleasure to hear of your safe 
arrival at Bruges. I return you a great many thanks for the 
mare ; you may depend upon it that care shall be taken of her. 

" I wrote to my mother the very night of the battle, and 
two days after, for fear my first letter should have miscarried. 
I acquainted her in those letters you was not yet arrived. I 
also wrote to my Lord Galloway. 

" The reinforcement of the Dutch troops are coming every 

1 30th April old style (llth May new style) 1745. 

2 Sir John Cope's dragoons, known also as the Marquis of Lothian's, Lord 
Polwarth's, and Kerr's, now the 7th Hussars, were originally raised as Scots 
Dragoons in 1690, disbanded about 1713, reformed in 1715 by three troops from 
the Greys, two from the Eoyal Dragoons, one newly enlisted. Their uniform 
was scarlet, white facings, and white horse furniture. There is a portrait of 
Major Agnew at Lochnaw in a red velvet coat open, red waistcoat laced with 
silver buttoning to the throat. 

3 Sir James Campbell of Lawers, third son of second Earl of Loudoun, had a 
leg carried off by a cannon ball, died, and was buried at Brussels. His son 
eventually succeeded as fifth Earl of Loudoun. 


day into camp, and it is expected by everybody that we shall 
soon have another battle. For my part, I don't care how many 
we have, if I have the same good luck in them all I had in the 
last. You may depend I shall let you know when anything 
extraordinary happens. You have no doubt heard by this time 
of our cousin William Lockhart's being broke for cowardice. 

" Major Agnew is very well ; he had his horse shot under 
him the day of the battle. I am, etc. A. AGNEW. 

" To the Honble. 

Sir Andrew Agnew, Baronet, of the Eoyal North 
British Fusiliers, at Bruges." 

A few days after, his brother wrote to him : 

" Lessines Camp, May 30 (O.S.) 

" Does my dear Sir Andrew expect that I, who command a 
regiment in the field, can have so much spare time as to answer 
letters of so small consequence ? However, if I had not received 
your letter to-day I had intended to have wrote to you 

" When our affair was over at Tournay I was ordered on the 
rear-guard, but my anxiety was so great to know how the young 
laird was, that I sent my Drum, who brought me the agreeable 
news that he was very well. I had my horse shot, and a ball 
went through my belt, which resistance prevented its wounding 
me in the thigh. I was glad when we were marching to the 
attack that you was not there. My little Mun (Montgomery) 
is at the Academic School at Breda, where he learns French, 
Dutch, mathematics, etc. . . . 

" I shall take great care of your horse, but if you had kept 
him at Bruges it would have cost you nothing, for whoever 
draws forage from the magazine is not to pay for it. 

" I had a letter the other day from Auckland . . . they are 
much rejoiced to hear that the blood of the Agnews escaped so 
well. I am ever, dear Brother, etc. JAS. AGNEW. 

" Sir Andw. Agnew." 


A day or two after this, his son again writes : 

" Camp, near Lessines, 3rd June. 

" Yesterday morning a courier arrived from Hanover with 
the field-officers' commissions signed ; and they were in evening 
orders. I send you a copy. . . . 

" There is no news in the camp, nor any word of marching. 
There are more Dutch battalions joining us every day ; but if 
they don't do better than the others, they may as well stay at 

Among the promotions in the list enclosed in this letter, 
are : 

" 3rd Regiment of Guards. 

"Col. Jas. Stewart, Major, first Major in room of Colonel 
Carpenter, killed ; Earl of Panmure, second Major, in room of 
Colonel Stewart." 

" Earl of Stair, Colonel of the Gray Dragoons." 

The sheriff now proceeded to make arrangements to take the 
field. His batman's memorandum as to his camp equipage is 
quite a curiosity. 1 

The sheriff was immediately under the command of 
General John Campbell of Mamore, afterwards Duke of Argyle, 
full colonel of his regiment, a groom in waiting to the king. 

1 Brudges, May 15, 1745. 

"En Inventar of the Honourable Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart., of his camp 
ecopage for this campyne what was new ore repaired : 
" One new markie with walls and pins and nabs. 
" The ould tent repaired and ould pouls (poles). 
' ' Six new pequets for the horses, with the ould pequet rops. 
" Six new nose bags. Three new settes of forage rops, and two ould sets. 
" One new hatchat, two pair tunks (trunks), one single. 
"Four new tresses (traces), four eys for the tresses. 
' ' The harnice repaired. 

" One new cover for the cart, the wheel, and other things repaired. 
" One new horse cloth and wither rops. 
' ' One new whipe. Smal rops for bridle rains. 

" Two sayths (scythes), one hamer, one sharping stone for ye sayths. 
"One ould tar box, one spead (spade), one fork. 
' ' Two curie combs, two brushes, one mean comb. 
" One spunge, one lether bucat, three bridels." 


He had married a court beauty, Mary Bellenden, 1 maid of 
honour to Caroline, Princess of Wales (George II.'s queen). On 
the whole, cordial relations existed between the lieutenant-colonel 
and colonel ; but the sheriff, though a strict disciplinarian and a 
rigid observer of military etiquette, was no courtier, and cared 
not a straw for any pretension on the score of staff position, rank, 
or fashion, and it is amusing to follow the little tiffs arising 
between the two. The sheriff resented the brigadier's inter- 
ference in details, the general complaining that due deference 
had not been always shown him. Unfortunately, of their 
correspondence, we only have the letters of the general, and can 
only guess at the replies, which would be no doubt quite as 
racy. The stilted language then used conventionally as we 
have seen, even by a son to his father makes it difficult to 
judge how far good fellowship was really interrupted, as the 
future duke signs himself "Your obedient humble servant" 
when writing to the sheriff in a very peremptory way, whilst 
the said sheriff and lieutenant-colonel expresses himself most 
submissively even when most refractory. The correspondence 
commences by a letter from the general, who, like the sheriff 
himself, was hurrying back on learning that the Duke of 
Cumberland was in the field ; who writes from London to 
him at Edinburgh, supposing it probable that he may embark 
from Leith on the same errand. The address of the letter as 
given shows the old form of franking. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, Baronet, 
Lt.- Colonel to the Eoyal North British Fusiliers 

at Edinburg. 
" Frae 

John Campbell, 
(So franked) as Member for Dumbartonshire." 

1 Third daughter of John, second Lord Bellenden. Of her Horace Walpole 
writes : ' ' Above all for universal admiration was Miss Bellenden. Her face and 
person were charming, and so agreeable was she that I never heard her mentioned 
afterwards by any of her contemporaries who did not prefer her as the most perfect 
creature they ever knew. She rejected the amorous advances of the Prince of 
Wales with scorn." 


" London, 17 April 1745. 

" Dear Sir, As I'me in hopes this wont reach you I shall 
only tell you that Major Colvill writes me that four of the 
recruits from Newcastle are so bad that he would have dis- 
charged them if they had not been cloathed. 

" I wish it were possible (for you) to bring over 4 more than 
I wrote for, so as I might have an opportunity to punish the 
officer who recruited them ; I shall never forgive him. But this 
I leave to your own discration, and wish you a good voige. 

" The wind still east at 11 this evening, made me write 
these few lines whilst the Bellman stay'd at the door. The 
Transports are still at Gravesend, your horses on board ever 
since Saturday. I have been very ill else I was to goe by the way 
of Dover to-morrow ; but on Wenesd. I'me resolv'd to sett out." 

The general arrived in time for Fontenoy, and the following 
letters from him awaited the sheriff on his arrival at Bruges : 

" 24 May 1745. 

"Dear Sir, It is not necessary for me to give you any 
particulars of our loss in the late Bloudy Action, as you can 
have it from those that were present. Stewart the Adjutant is 
dead of his wounds . . . you will order that all the Trunks and 
effects of the officers killed or wounded may be put up in the 
stores and sealed, till it is thought proper they should be 
opened. . . . Dear Sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


On the 31st May he writes from " Lessines Camp " enclosing 
a list of commissions approved by H.E.H. the Duke to the 
Eoyal North British Fusiliers, among which were to be first 
lieutenants Honble. Charles Colville, and James Bellenden (a 
nephew of his wife's, afterwards of Bigods, Essex), who had been 
wounded at Fontenoy ; to be second lieutenants, among others, 
James Kennedy of the Cassilis stock, and Duncan Campbell, a 
relation of his own. He writes : 



" Dear Sir, You have as above the preferments, and I desire 
you will order that they take rank as above set down. Duncan 
Campbell goes from hence to-morrow by way of Brussels to 
joyne you, and Mr. Koger Moriss shall set out in about a week 
to put himself under your command. He is one I have a 
particular concerne in, so I desire you will be so good as to take 
care of him as my friend, and order him to set about learning 
the manual exercise, etc., by which you will singularly oblige 
me. He is a very pretty boy, has had a very liberal education, 
and writes and speaks French, so that I can recommend him to 
you for an aid-de-camp. You'll find him vastly useful. 

" I have a letter from Lieut. Eobert Buchanan " (the sheriff's 
adjutant), " wherein he advises the disposing of the horses of the 
dead officers, or turning them out to grass. There is one thing 
which you are not informed of, and makes it not necessary, 
which is, that no officers are to pay for their forrage since we 
took the field. . . . 

" You will take care that none of the officers dispose of their 
horses, as they may be very soon called into the field. 

" The surgeon will, in a week's time, be able to joyne you. 
I should not have allowed him to be so long absent, were it not 
for the number of our officers who lay wounded at Ath ; and 
who, thank God, are likely to doe well. I am, etc. 


" Sir Andrew Agnew, Baronet, at Bruges." 

Again, on the 4th of June, General Campbell writes : 

" I forgot to acquaint you that the Duke of Cumberland has 
pardoned all the deserters who have returned to their colours, 
so you may order one of the officers to examine Eobert Semple 
very strictly as to the particulars of his desertion . . . but to 
tell him, that if he discovers honestly what he knows, you have 
my orders to pardon him. There would be no harm in desiring 
some of the company to look sharply after him, to see what 
company he keeps; for he may possibly be sent to give in- 
telligence to the enemy, or to debauch some of our men. I 


mention these particulars as hints. Your own prudent manage- 
ment will direct you what is to be done towards having some 
intelligence of what passes secretly in your garrison. 

"Let me advise you to take care that the officers don't 
presume to dispose of their horses, or any part of their field 

" I am surprised to hear that you have ordered the stores 
of General Ponsonby's regiment to be taken into my house 
without asking my leave. I had much rather pay for the hire 
of a store-roome than admit of any things coming into my house 
which must breed confusion. ... I have only time to add that 
I am yours, JOHN CAMPBELL." 

"With respect to the last rather angry remark, the general 
writes on the 14th in a mollified tone : 

" As to my house, or anything else in my (possession), you 
know is much at your service, all I meant or expected was to be 

" Duncan Campbell writes me of your goodness to him. I 
have lent him ten pounds, and have given him an order for 
clothes to make up his regimentals ; so that you will soon have 
him fit for duty. Adieu." 

A few days previous to this the sheriff had received his 
" route," and the command of the garrison at Ghent. 

Sir, It is his Eoyal Highness the Duke's orders, that on 
the arrival of Handasyde's regiment at your garrison of Bruges, 
you immediately march with the regiments under your command 
into the Citadel of Ghent, and remain there till further orders. 
You will please to send constantly a report of anything extra- 
ordinary that happens to the head-quarters. . . . The artillery 
stores which are ready at Bruges you are to take under your 
convoy, and lodge them with the other artillery stores at Ghent. 

" Aide-de-Camp to HM.H. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart." 


Again : 

" Lessines, June 16, 1745. 

" Sir, Handasydes having orders to escort the powder and 
artillery stores from Ostend to Bruges, it is His Eoyal Highness' 
orders that you take the said powder and stores, with what others 
there are at Bruges destined for the army, and bring them under 
your escort from Bruges to Ghent. The dragoons which are at 
Bruges are to make part of the said escort, and you are to acquaint 
the commanding officer at Ghent what day you set out, that he 
may send the dragoons that are there to meet you half-way. 
. . . You will let me know when the said stores will be at 
Ghent, that a detachment may be made from hence to bring 
them to the army. Yours, EOB. NAPIER, 


" Sir Andrew Agnew." 

"Lessines, Head Quarters, June 19, 1745. 

" Sir, Lt.-Col. Peachell has received H.E.H.'s orders to 
march to Ostend with the drafts of the foot-guards, and all 
the recruits that are there, with the cannon, ammunition, and 
all the artillery stores lately come from England, all which he is 
to deliver to your charge, and H.R. Highness orders you to 
march with the Scotch Fusiliers, the said drafts, recruits, cannon, 
and stores, with all the dragoons in Bruges, to Ghent, where you 
are to remain in garrison till further orders, and you are from 
Bruges to acquaint the Earl of Dunmore with the day you are 
to arrive at Ghent. 

" If you should hear of any French detachments along the 
canal, you are to demand 200 men of Lt.-Col. Peachell to rein- 
force your command. 

" And in case the stores or any part of them should come 
by water in bilanders, you are to march your command on the 
enemy's side of the canal, which is the right side. I am, Sir, 
yr. most obt. humble servant, BURY, 

" H.R.H. 

" To Sir Andrew Agnew, Bt." 


As he was on the point of marching for Ghent, on the 20th, 
the sheriff received a countermand, also signed by Lord Bury 
(afterwards third Earl of Albemarle), desiring him to remain in 
Bruges with the Scotch Fusiliers, draughts of the Guards, and 
recruits, until further orders, and the following day he received 
a letter from General Campbell at greater length. " I write this 
at a venture, hoping it will find you at Bruges, as it is possible 
that the express sent off yesterday in the afternoon may have 
reached you so as to prevent your march, . . . The Citadel 
of Tournay, reported yesterday to be surrendered, holds out still, 
so that I imagine we shall continue here till the fate of that 
important place is determined ; this is all the news I have to 
send you." 

On the 23rd the General writes from Lessines : 

" My dear Sir, I give poor Houston up for lost." (Then 
follow directions as to holding a court of inquiry to ascertain 
when he was last seen alive, previous to filling his vacancy.) 
" You'll no doubt hear that the citadel of Tournay was sur- 
rendered last Saturday, most people think scandalously. I am, 
your most obedient humble servant, JOHN CAMPBELL. 

" To Sir Andrew Agnew, Baronet, 

commanding the Koyal Fusiliers." 

The sheriff now received official orders to consider 
himself under General Bland's orders, whether at Bruges, 
Ghent, or Ostend, from whom he received the following in 
course : 

" Ghent, 29th June 1745. 

" Sir, Not being certain whether Colonel Powell is now at 
Bruges or still at Ostend, I am obliged to trouble you with the 
enclosed letter to him, which contains certain orders he is to 
execute. . . . You must give whatever detachment Colonel 
Powell desires to escort him half-way to this town ; though I 
am in hopes he will require no more than what he brings with 


him and the 180 Foot Guards now at Bruges. I presume you 
will remain all this summer in Bruges. I am, etc. 

" A Monsieur, HUMPHRY BLAND. 

Mons. le Chevalier Agnew, 
Commandant en Bruges." 

On the 5th of July came a despatch from headquarters at 
Grammont : 

" Sir, It is His Eoyal Highness's orders that if you find any 
large detachment of the enemy making movements towards 
Ostend so as to endanger that place, you are immediately to 
march with your regiment and throw it into Ostend. 

" EOBT. NAPIER, A.D.C. to H.RH. 

" To Sir Andrew Agnew, 

commanding the Eoyal Scots Fusiliers. 
" Per Estafett." 

And on the 14th the final order came : 

" It is his Eoyal Highness's orders that you are without 
further loss of time to throw the regiment under your command 
into Ostend, taking care at the same time to remove all the 
military stores, particularly 118 barrels of powder, with all the 
spare arms, clothing, and accoutrements left by any of the regi- 
ments in Bruges, and all private effects. But if you should not 
have time, you are to save the battalion and go directly to Ostend, 
which is to be the first consideration. EOB. NAPIER, 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, Bruges." 

Followed by an especial caution : 

" From Dieghem Camp, 20th July 1745. 

"Sir, His E. Highness commanded me to let you know 
that he takes for granted you are sufficiently apprized of the 
consequence of the town of Ostend, and that he doubts not but 
that from that consideration, as well as for your own honour, 


you will do everything in your power to defend it, in case of an 
attack, to the utmost. 

" The Duke likewise expects that you give a regular and par- 
ticular account as well to himself as to the Lords of the Eegency, 
of the state and condition of the town and garrison of Ostend, 
and also of whatever is done or may be necessary to be done for 
its defence ; and particularly what may be done with the greatest 
appearance of success for providing against an exigency. And 
it will be necessary that you should be particularly exact in 
your notices of what is done or doing with regard to inundations. 

" It will likewise be very well approved that you give an 
account of all you can learn relating to all the motions of the 
enemy, whether in large or small bodies, and likewise of all 
naval armaments you may hear of, especially from Dunkirk, or 
of any ships of war that appear in these waters. 

" In the course of such a correspondence it will be necessary 
to guard against letters falling into the enemy's hands. I am 
with truth, Sir, yours, etc. EVERARD FAWKENER. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew." 

The return of ammunition received by the sheriff out of the 
magazine at Bruges on his expedition is in very different form 
from that which would be made in these days of cartridges and 
breechloaders. Among the items being : 

" 276 barrels of powder. 
3 small barrels of powder. 
375 boxes with ball. 
8 barrels with flints. 
2 boxes with flints," etc. 

At Ostend there was warm work, for which he was very ill 
prepared, the fortifications being out of order, the stores in- 
sufficient, and the number of men far too few for lining the 

A gallant defence was nevertheless made; but the works 
proved so thoroughly untenable, that the capitulation was agreed 


on, and the garrison marched out with the honours of war, not 
without much grumbling, on the part of the young officers 
especially, that they had not been allowed to have a fight 
for it. 

From various returns, whether for losses, or deficiencies, or 
requirements, of the different companies, during the siege, we are 
enabled to put together a complete list of the senior officers of 
the Scots Fusiliers at this date, army lists having not yet been 
published : 

Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Andrew Agnew, Knight, Baronet. 
Major the Honble. Charles Colville. 
Captain John Crosbie. 

Honble. William Leslie. 

Thomas Olliphant. 

Honble. Andrew Sandilands. 

Norton Knatchbull. 

George Monk. 

Sir James Carnegie, Bart., M.P. 
Lieutenant George Hay. 

Campbell Edmonstone. 

Honble. Charles Colville. 
Eoger Morris. 

James Kennedy. 
John Maxwell. 
John Lindsay. 

Edward Maxwell. 
James Bellenden. 
Duncan Campbell. 1 

1 Major Colville was son of the sixth Lord Colville ; commission as major 
1741 ; had a horse shot under him at Dettingen ; commanded the regiment at 

Captain Leslie was son of the seventh Earl of Rothes by Lady Jane Hay, 
daughter of the second Marquis of Tweeddale. 

Captain Knatchbull was son of Sir Norton Knatchbull of Mersham Hatch, 
Kent, and married the daughter and heiress of Thomas Knight of Godmersham. 

Captain Sandilands was son of the seventh Lord Torphichen. 

Sir James Carnegie of Pitarrow and Southesk represented the attainted Earls 
of Southesk, to whom on the death of the fifth earl in 1730 he became heir male. 


The Scots Fusiliers were next stationed at Mons. A long 
correspondence took place between the sheriff and General 
Campbell, as to the losses of arms and accoutrements, which it 
was the place of the latter, as honorary colonel, to supply. 
They were certainly considerable, amounting by one return 
before us, to 216 firelocks, 255 bayonets, 22 swords, 221 pouches, 
216 cartridge-boxes, 383 capes, 8 halberts, 8 drums. 

The general certainly seems to have acted generously 
towards his corps, and writes thus : " The return of our losses 
is very distinct. What reparation is to be made I really can't 
tell, but I am resolved my Eegiment shall want for nothing in 
my power. I leave you and the Major to lay your heads 
together, and furnish the Battalion with what is necessary for 
the service." 

Again he writes : " Send an officer to Ghent to bespeak the 
things wanted for the Eegiment; the halberts, drums, and 
spontoons are absolutely wanted immediately. I leave all these 
things to your judgement." 

But though General Campbell's behaviour was handsome 
and liberal, he appears to have lost his temper most unneces- 
sarily as to a captain of the Scots Fusiliers being permitted to 
go with a message (which it would have been strange if the 
sheriff had delayed by corresponding with the general, who 
was not on the spot) from another general to the Duke of 
Cumberland, and writes as follows : 

" Vilvorden, 17 Sept. 1745. 

" Capt. Noble has taken upon him to doe a thing which I 
disapprove extremely, for which I shall confine him whenever I 
see him with the Eegiment. We arrived at Vilvorden about 9 
in the morning, where I met him. He told me he had a message 
from the Major-General who commands at Mons to his Eoyal 

He represented Kincardineshire in Parliament. His great-granddaughter 
Madeline was married in 1816 to Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, seventh baronet, 
great-grandson of the twelfth sheriff. 

Sir James Carnegie fought in the ranks of the Scots Fusiliers at Culloden ; 
his brother George in those of the Pretender. 


Highness : and there he was kept till 2 of the clock. He called 
at my Quarters when I was at dinner, and only stayed about an 
hour; having received orders to push on and to overtake Sir 
John Ligonier, I did not think it proper to ask him what he 
brought, or what he carried. And so we parted after a little 
public conversation at table before the servants. I designed to 
have read you a lecture upon this occasion ; but as the post goes 
out early, I have not time. I am, your most obedient humble 
servant, JOHN CAMPBELL. 

" P.S. I desire you will observe that for the future you give 
no officer leave to be absent from the regiment without first 
acquainting me with it, and receiving my answer." 

A wigging had little more effect on the sheriff than a splash 
of water on a duck's back. Indeed he was soon even with his 
commanding officer, who himself committed a breach of military 
etiquette by desiring one of the sheriff's officers to come to him 
without communicating it through the commanding officer. 
Consequently when this officer reported the general's command, 
the sheriff told him he did not take verbal messages, and refused 
to let him go. An explosion followed : 

" Vilvorden, 19 Sept. 1745. 

" What occasions my giving you this trouble is a letter 
received from Mr. Noble, wherein he seems to doubt of your 
allowing him to leave the Regiment. His words are as follows : 
' Sir Andrew told me last night that if I had a passport he 
would not allow of my going to your Quarters, notwithstanding 
your orders which I told him I had for that purpose.' 

" I desire to know from yourself if you said any such thing, 
because I apprehend it contrary to military discipline. 

" But towards preventing any mistakes I doe by this give you 
my positive orders to allow the following officers to joyne me at 
Vilvorden: Captain John Noble, 1st Lieut. M'Gachen, 2d 
Lieuts. Duncan Campbell and John Lindsay. I am, Sir, your 
most obedient humble servant, JOHN CAMPBELL. 

" To Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart., Mons." 


Within a few weeks of the date of this letter, Sir Andrew 
Agnew was no longer under General John Campbell's command, 
his regiment being recalled to England on the landing of the 
Pretender. We may feel very certain that, notwithstanding 
certain sharp passages, they did not part without taking "a 
richt gude willywaucht for Auld Langsyne." 

A letter received from his brother keeps us au fait of the 
family news : 

" Vilvorden Camp, 18th Sept. 1745. 

" Dear Brother, Your son marched last Thursday, it seems 
the orders did not come to the regiment till late at night, and 
we were encamped at some distance from them, so that I had 
not the pleasure to see him, nor did I know of their march till 
a soldier brought the mare. She is in good order, as likewise 
your other horse, and shall take care of them both till I have 
the happiness of seeing you, which I'm afraid won't be till 

" As to yor son's horses, I don't know how he has disposed 
of them, but I know the Guards have orders to leave all theirs 
at Antwerp, and probably they will do the same, for everybody 
agrees they will be with us in the spring, if not sooner, and we 
are lately joined by 6000 Hessians. 

" My son James is now at Louisbourgh (Cape Breton) and 
was at the siege of it, which lasted longer than yours, for it took 
them six weeks ; he was slightly wounded in the left knee, but 
is now quite recovered ; he was also at taking the man-of-war 
of sixty-four guns, which proves a very rich prize, and I hope 
his share will turn out 1000. 

" Since the affair of Melle, Handasyde's (16th) has been at 
Antwerp, and is now in a very sickly condition, one half of 
them in the hospital. Poor Willy has had a fever and ague, as 
indeed many of their officers, but is now quite recovered. 

" I heard lately from Auckland and York, when all friends 
there were very well, as likewise from my little Mun at Breda. 

" It was no doubt great joy to Lady Agnew to hear you got 


well from Ostend, and I wish you was here, for we have our 
own fears about you, though I think it too late in the year ; and 
ever am sincerely, dear brother, 

" Your ever affectionate brother and humble servant, 


" Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart., at Mons." 


A.D. 1745 to 1746 

Cock up your beaver, and cock it fu' sprush, 
We'll over the Border, and gie them a brush ; 
There's somebody there we'll teach better behaviour, 
Hey, brave Johnnie lad, cock up your beaver. 

MEANWHILE the Pretender had landed quietly at Moidart the 
25th of July. The word had been passed to such few friends as 
he had in Galloway. The standard of rebellion was openly 
raised in the North on the 19th October following, but none in 
the Stewartry or Shire ventured publicly to don the white 
cockade. Vague rumours, however, were in the wind, and 
much uneasiness felt in the boroughs on the seaboard. 

The Edinburgh Evening Courant of the 18th September has 
the following : 

" There are letters from Dumfries yesterday morning, advis- 
ing that there is not the least stir there, everything as quiet as 
usual, though the Eskenites 1 have got a standard made for 
them, and have been stocking themselves with arms. As these 
letters mention nothing of any cannonading being heard on the 
coasts there, 'tis believed the story with respect thereto is 

By the 16th of September Prince Charlie had occupied 
Edinburgh, and on the 21st had totally defeated the royal 

1 Adherents of the Earl of Mar. 


army at Prestonpans, in which battle the gallant Colonel 
Gardiner and John Stewart of Physgill (a captain in Lascelle's, 
now 37th Eegiment) were killed ; and Sir Thomas Hay of Park, 
serving with the Galloway Militia, lost an arm and was maimed 
for life by a Highlander's broadsword, having declined to 
imitate his commander Cope and run away. The rebels in 
high feather marched for the Borders, where they picked up 
sundry Galloway recruits the most notable Maxwell of Kirk- 
connell. But the baronage generally stood firmly by King 
George ; John Gordon of Kenmure, whose father had been 
beheaded in 1715 for attachment to the Stuarts, and whose 
wife was a daughter of the attainted Earl of Seaforth, 
declining the command of one of the two troops of guards 
pressed upon him by Prince Charles (Lord Elcho having the 

So strongly loyal was Galloway, that a raid was made in 
the rear of the rebel army, and at Lockerbie much of their 
baggage carried off. 

Orders had been meanwhile sent to the Duke of Cumber- 
land to bring back his best regiments from Flanders, and the 
Scots Fusiliers amongst others were embarked forthwith, and 
on the 4th November anchored in the Thames. 

On landing, the sheriff's corps was inspected by Lord Stair, 
the last time the two Galloway neighbours were to meet, 
and he received his route as follows : 

"Sir, It is His Majesty's pleasure that you cause the 
Eegiment under your command, when disembarked, to march 
by such routes and in such manner as you shall think most fit 
to the several places as per margin, 

" Five companies to Ailesbury, 

" Two companies to Thame, 

" Three companies to Buckingham, 

"there to remain till further orders, where the civil magis- 
trates and all concerned are to be assisting and providing 

to 1746] THE FORTY-FIVE 303 

quarters, impressing carriages, and otherwise as there may be 

" Given at the War Office the 4th Nov. 1*745. 

In the absence of the Secretary at War, 

" The Officer commanding 

Eoyal North British Fusiliers." 

Within a few days the Duke of Cumberland gave the 
word, and the Scots Fusiliers marched northward in Lord 
Sempill's brigade. 

Arrived at Preston, the Sheriff met his young brother John, 
who, with St. George's dragoons, through deep snow and ice, 
had forced their way from Doncaster. Whence the united 
forces marched on to Penrith, issuing thence in order of battle 
at 4 A.M. on the shortest day, the dragoons in the advance, the 
Fusiliers with the main body of the army, skirmishing by 
the way. By that evening the investment of Carlisle was 
complete, 1 and Prince Charles had recrossed the Scottish 

Within ten days the town and castle had surrendered, and 
the Scots Fusiliers were on the rebels' track. 

The Pretender had in the interim taken up his quarters at 
the Blue Bell in Dumfries (now known as the Commercial, and 
his room is still pointed out as No. 6); there he eased the 
burgesses of the better part of 2000 in cash, and 1000 pair of 
shoes. A Galloway minister's journal gives a graphic notice of 
the terror inspired by the Highland host : 

" Sabbath, 22 Dec. Melancholy day rebels in Dumfries 
with Pretender's son at their head they were most rude in 
the town pillaged some shops pulled shoes off gentlemen's 
feet in the streets. In most of the churches for some miles 
round no sermon. God be blessed, we had public worship 
much confusion in the neighbouring parishes rebels robbing 

1 On the 21st the Duke of Cumberland invested Carlisle and stationed the 
heroic Sir Andrew Agnew at the sally port with 300 men to prevent any of the 
garrison escaping by that outlet. Mackenzie's History of Galloway, ii. 417. 


people stables pillaging houses. They came to the border of 
our parish, but God be thanked ! came no further." * 

Within a week after this the Scots Fusiliers were inter- 
posed between the rebels' rear-guard and the marches of 

The sheriff, having despatched a messenger to Dame 
Eleanor and the anxious family at Lochnaw, actively continued 
the pursuit. A large body of the royal troops who were 
in advance under General Hawley were somewhat igno- 
miniously defeated on the 17th February at Falkirk (when 
Captain Dalrymple of Dunragit was killed) ; but happily 
the veterans of Dettingen were at hand, and on their 
approach the Pretender hastily retreated, the duke follow- 
ing hard after him; and we find the Scots Fusiliers cantoned 
on the 4th February about Dunblane, and two days later at 

Here the sheriff was selected for special service, receiving 
his orders in the following stringent tenor from the duke : 

"Perth, February ye 7th, 1745-6. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, You will possess yourself of the 
Duke of Athol's house at Dunkeld, and from thence send out 
such parties as you shall judge proper to annoy the rebels. 

"You will get the best intelligence you can possibly, for 
which you are not to spare any money, of which you shall 
make an account, and it shall be repaid you. 

" You will drive cattle into your inclosures for the support 
of your detachment, giving receipts for those which do not 
belong to rebel subjects. You will constantly send reports 
to me, and all the intelligence you can have. 

" If you are attacked, you will defend yourself to the 
utmost, as the rebels have no artillery but 3 -pounders to 
annoy you, and as succour will be sent to you. 

" If any officer or soldier should refuse to defend the house 

1 Journal kept by E.ev. George Duncan. M'Dowall's History of Dumfries, 
p. 642. 

to 1/46] THE FORTY-FIVE 305 

to the utmost, you will let them know you have my orders 
and power from me to inflict punishment, even death, for such 
disobedience, without a court-martial. (Signed) WILLIAM. 
" Lt.-Colonel Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart., 
Commanding at Blair in Athol." 

The sheriff accordingly left Perth forthwith, and, marching 
through the Pass of Killiecrankie (coille criothnachadh, 1 " the 
wood of trembling "), pounced upon Blair Castle and occupied it 
without opposition. 

The Pretender had only left it on the 18th, so that the 
sheriff found his bed still warm ; his rear-guard only evacuat- 
ing the house as the sheriff's troops came in sight, leaving 
some of their arms behind them 2 in their hurry. 

A detachment of the 27th Eegiment occupied Castle 
Menzies ; and a body of Argyleshire Highlanders under 
Colonel John Campbell, son of the sheriff's former general, 
were sent to Blarefeitty, Kerechan, Glendullen (Glendonlardie), 
and Cosville (Coshieville), all desired to report themselves to 
the sheriff, 3 who, having established his headquarters at Blair, 
proceeded, according to his instructions, to reduce the neigh- 
bouring country. 

The people generally were disaffected. James, Duke of 
Athole, 4 professed loyalty to the reigning house, but his vassals 
had generally followed the Jacobite standard under his two 

1 Pronounced Creeonachie. 

2 Not extremely valuable, however. Amongst " Duke James's " papers is the 
''Return of arms and accoutrements taken by the Honble. Col. Sir Andrew 
Agnew at Blair Castle, belonging to the rebels : 9 firelocks, 161 bayonets, 
80 shoulder belts, 100 pouches, 291 cartridge boxes, 6 ditto." Siege of Blair, 
Duke of Athole, p. 4. 

3 " Orders for Captain Campbell of Knockbuy. You are to march directly 
hence with your own company, Carsarig's, Raxchelly's, and Ardneinshes, as 
follows (as above). You are to have the command of the several companies 
above mentioned . . . such of the rebels as are found in arms to take prisoners 

... to seize upon all sorts of provisions designed for their use ... to report 
yourself three times a week to the commanding ofiicer at Blair of Athol. 

4 Third son of John, first duke, had succeeded to the title in consequence of 
the attainder of his eldest brother William. 



brothers William, Marquis of Tullibardine, 1 and Lord George 
Murray, the latter one of the Pretender's most efficient 

The able - bodied men had mostly left the country, whilst 
the old men, and the ladies of the lairds who were out, kept 
the rebels informed of all the movements of the royal troops. 
To intercept this correspondence, the sheriff established a chain 
of posts commanding the whole communications of the district, 
thus very considerably reducing his force at Blair Athole. A 
few days after his arrival, he was much embarrassed by hearing 
that the duke himself proposed returning to his own house. 

This was announced to him by His Koyal Highness. 

" Perth, February 13, 1745-6. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, The Duke of Athole coming down 
to Blair to take possession of his estate, I desire that you 
would have all the regard and civilities pay'd to him that are 
possible. The Duke of Athole will give you the names of such 
of his vassals as are within eight miles of Blair that joined in 
this unnatural rebellion. You are to seize their persons, if 
possible, and keep them in safe custody till further orders. 
You may seize their effects for the use of His Majesty's troops 
employed by you on such occasions ; and whatever stacks of 
corn or hay they may be possessed of, you are to cause them 
to be conveyed to Blair for the use of His Majesty's forces ; 
and you are to burn and entirely demolish their houses and 

" You are further to assist the Duke of Athole in collecting 
and seizing all the arms which may be found in the country, 
for His Majesty's service. (Signed) WILLIAM. 

" To Sir Andrew Agnew, 
Commanding the King's Forces at Blair." 

The sheriff had now a very ungracious duty to perform in 
still holding the duke's own castle after the arrival of its noble 
owner ; the more awkward as the duke, after his professions of 

1 Which eldest brother was always styled by the Jacobites Duke of Athole. 

to 1/46] THE FORTY-FIVE 307 

loyalty, which were not openly questioned, had fully expected 
that his mansion would be handed over to him unconditionally. 
This the sheriff declined to do, insisting upon keeping a party 
of soldiers in it ; upon which his Grace, highly dissatisfied, thus 
officially addressed him : 

" Dunkeld, 14 Feb. 1746. 

" Sir, I am sorry to understand that the men under your 
command are committing so many disorders at my house ; are 
within my enclosures with the pretence of wanting provisions, 
firing, etc., when there are so much of all kinds of provisions 
necessary for the king's troops in the neighbourhood, belonging 
to the rebells. I believe you have H.K.H. command in respect 
to this, and conform to his orders I send you a list of my 
vassals and other gentlemen that are in rebellion 8 miles round 

" I came here on my way to Blair, and shall be there as 
soon as I know from you that I can have my accommodation 
for myself in my own house. 

" I am, Sir, your humble servant, 

(Signed) " ATHOLL. 

" To the Honble. Sir Andrew Agnew, Knt. Baronet." 

As a further proof of his loyalty, the duke enclosed a long 
list of those of his vassals within eight miles of Blair Athole 
who were out with the rebels. 

To this the sheriff replied that he was bound to guarantee 
the castle against a coup-de-main of the rebels at all hazards, 
which, if the troops were withdrawn, his Grace could not do, 
and hence that he must maintain a garrison there for the 

On receipt of this letter the Duke of Athole left the country 
in high dudgeon ; previous to starting he wrote to the sheriff 
as follows by way of protest : 

" Dunkeld, 16 Feb. 1746. 

" Sir, I have this moment received yours in answer to 
mine of the 14th. As my house is filled with the troops under 


your command, so that I can have no room in it for myself, 
will make my being in the country both disagreeable and 
inconvenient for me ; there are houses belonging to the rebells 
in the neighbourhood of Blair sufficient and large enough to 
contain all the troops under your command, both officers and 
private men, and that perhaps would be making a better use of 
them at present than burning. I cannot presume to give any 
opinion relative to his Eoyal Highness's orders to you; 
Quartering in my house only I find is very punctually obeyed, this 
certainly, whatever room there was for it at first, is now removed, 
my last intelligence being that the rebels are marched from 
Euthven and are at a much greater distance from Atholl. 
The bearer, Commissary Bissat, will give you all necessary 
assistance in getting provisions for the troops, and what else is 

" I am, Sir, your most humble servant, 

(Signed) " ATHOLL. 

" To the Honble. Sir Andrew Agnew, Knt. Baronet." 

The value of the duke's information we shall presently see. 
Meanwhile the Duke of Cumberland prepared to leave Perth, 
and sent these further orders to the sheriff : 

" Perth, Feb. 19, 1745-6. 

" Sir, As the army is on its march, his Eoyal Highness has 
ordered me to acquaint you of the disposition of posts here, 
which you will please to reinforce if there should be occasion, 
and support in case they are pressed. Biscuit' and cheese for 
20 days has been sent to you as a store, which you will keep ; 
as bread will every four days be sent from hence, where the 
North British Fusiliers and a squadron of St. George's 
Dragoons remain in gai-rison. The posts above mentioned 
are : 

" At Blair under your command 500 Eegular Troops. 
Castle Menzie 200 


to I74 6 ] THE FORTY-FIVE 309 

" At Blarhatie 60 Argyleshiremen. 

Kenny chan House 100 

end of Loch Eannoch 100 

Gleiigoulin and Cushavik 60 
the Clachan of Balquidder ") 
and west end of Lochearn y 
, Dunkeld 50 

420 Argyleshiremen. 

In the House of Leny 70 Perth Company. 


" The posts nearest Blair, in case they should be forced to 
retire, will come to Blair, and those nearest Castle Menzie, 
should they be obliged to retire, will go to Menzie. 

" The posts are to report to you, and you will constantly 
send reports to his Boyal Highness at Montrose or Aberdeen. 

" If the Argyleshiremen or the Perth Company should want 
any assistance to annoy the rebels, you will give it them from 
the regular troops. BOB. NAPIER, 

" Aide-de-Camp to H.R.H. the Duke. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, at Blair." 

The sheriff, a precise old soldier, scrupulously carried out 
his instructions. He could depend little on local intelligence, 
the gentry being all anxious to deceive him with regard to the 
enemy's movements. 

One lady only in the neighbourhood, who was styled Lady 
Faskally, showed any signs of loyalty, and she exerted herself 
to procure provisions for the king's troops, and was occasionally 
a guest of the sheriff's at the inn at Blair, where she was treated 
with high consideration. Not that she was the only lady whom 
he entertained during his stay there. One morning a party 
marched in, conveying a distinguished prisoner, the lady of 
Eobertson of Lude, a sister of Lord Nairn, who had been arrested 
by one of Sir Andrew's officers on a charge of high treason. 

The sheriff, however stern to clansmen in arms, was not 
accustomed to make war upon women, and although he knew 


that her husband was notoriously a rebel, affected to allow him- 
self to be talked over; and receiving her superabundant pro- 
fessions of loyalty as perfectly sincere, he released her with 
many apologies for the inconvenience which she had sustained, 
at the same time proffering her such hospitality as he could 
afford. The lady, whose appetite had been sharpened by her 
morning's excursion, all her anxieties well over, thankfully 
accepted Sir Andrew's offer, and a merry party sat down at the 
inn at Blair, the worthy commandant presiding. The best claret 
was produced, the fair guest was fascinating as well as comely, 
and after a very hilarious afternoon the sheriff had the lady 
escorted to her own residence by one of his own officers, to 
which she returned well enough pleased with her adventure, 
and entertaining far less bitter feelings to the reigning house 
than if she had paid a more rigorous penalty for her Jacobitism. 

The Duke of Cumberland had so fully calculated upon his 
ability to keep open his communications with the sheriff, that 
he had undertaken to supply him with provisions from Perth ; 
and so little did his Eoyal Highness anticipate his being 
besieged, that he declined to furnish him with either artillery or 
any considerable supply of military stores, having no super- 
abundance of either himself. Of all this Lord George Murray 
was perfectly well informed, and knowing every inch of ground 
in the whole neighbourhood, he formed the bold plan of cutting 
off the sheriffs posts by a well-concerted movement, and then 
starving him out of his brother's castle. 

The rebels held all the passes between Blair and Inverness, 
and no certain intelligence could be procured of their move- 
ments, but it was generally believed they were retiring. Lord 
George, in order more completely to deceive the sheriff, with- 
drew the post nearest to him at Dalnaspidal, ordering a large 
body of picked men to rendezvous at a retired spot very near it 
the following evening. 

Here he arrived himself at the appointed hour, mustered his 
force, told off a detachment for every post of the sheriff's, each 
party superior in numbers to the one it was to attack ; and with 

to 1746] THE FORTY-FIVE 311 

such secrecy was the affair conducted, that it was not till mid- 
night that the men themselves knew how they were to be 
employed. He then marched them off with orders to steal 
cautiously up to the several royal stations, the garrisons of 
which they were to disarm and secure, stabbing every man who 
made the slightest resistance. This done, they were to re- 
assemble with their prisoners at the Bridge of Bruar before day- 
break; and hither Lord George, with Macpherson of Cluny, 
escorted by twenty-five men and all the pipers and standard- 
bearers of the division, repaired, to await the result of the expe- 

Blair Castle alone, where the sheriff himself was quartered, 
was ordered to be left unmolested, it being proposed to invest it 
with the whole of the forces the following day. 

The Highlanders, admirably fitted for the service they were 
employed in, sped well upon their mission. Nearly thirty of 
the sheriff's posts were surprised, and their defenders either 
killed or taken. The inn at Blair was also attacked, but here 
most of the officers being billeted, they offered a more vigorous 
resistance than was expected, and all succeeded in fighting their 
way into Blair Castle. Within its walls the sheriff was sleep- 
ing soundly, when he was woke up by the startling intelligence 
that all his posts were cut off, and that the whole countryside 
seemed alive with rebels. 

Springing from his couch, he ordered every man to turn out, 
and mustering his forces, he found exactly two hundred and 
seventy fit for service, with whom, leaving but a small guard be- 
hind, he sallied out, and marched straight for the Bridge of Bruar. 

Here, but for an unfortunate mistake, he would soon have 
been even with the rebel commander. A Highland spy hover- 
ing near in the darkness, outran the royal troops, and arriving 
breathlessly a few minutes before them, warned Lord George 
Murray of their approach. My lord was sorely puzzled ; to 
fight was out of the question, to retire was to sacrifice all the 
fruits of his well-planned raid ; a bold stratagem luckily sug- 
gested itself to his mind. 


Near the bridge extended a long turf dyke, and along this, 
at intervals, he placed his standard-bearers and his pipers, his 
five-and-twenty men were ordered each to personate field- 
officers at the head of regiments in contiguous close columns. 
Hardly had they settled into their allotted positions when the 
regular tread of troops could be heard advancing from the west- 
ward ; to these, on the other hand, the first rays of the rising 
sun, as they streaked the horizon, discovered the numerous 
standards of the enemy. A moment after, the gleam of clay- 
mores caught the eyes of the royal officers, hoarse-toned words 
of command rang along the opposing line, whilst the deafening 
noise of twenty pibrochs woke the echoes of the glen. To the 
sheriff it appeared that the whole rebel force now confronted 
his little party, and though, had he been ordered, he would have 
dashed at their army without a moment's hesitation, it was very 
different now that he had himself the responsibility of com- 
mand. Far from assistance, with no artillery, and defeat appar- 
ently inevitable, prudence imperatively dictated a retreat, and 
to the no small joy of the rebels, old Sir Andrew faced his men 
about and returned to Blair. 

Hardly an hour had elapsed after his disappearance, ere the 
rebel detachments returned to their chief, having been almost 
uniformly successful. 

Lord George now proceeded to carry out the other part of 
his programme, which was with his greatly superior forces to 
invest the castle of Blair. But here the sheriff was too much 
for him : on his return, with great alertness, he instantly col- 
lected all the fuel and forage within reach, stored it in the 
castle, and calmly awaited the attack. The rebels soon ap- 
proached in high spirits, numbering three or four to one of the 
royal troops, and furnished with two small field-pieces ; whilst 
Sir Andrew drew his men inside the castle, and made prepara- 
tions for a siege. Upon this, the Highlanders closed in after 
him, up to the very doors, and so closely was the place invested 
that the picket-guard, in charge of an officer, was cut off from 
the garrison, and had to fight their way in, bringing in with 

to 1746] THE FORTY-FIVE 313 

them all the officers' horses from a contiguous stable, with the 
exception of one, which was pushed into a cellar, and there shut 
in without forage or water. 

The sheriff's first act as an old soldier was to take a survey 
of his resources, and the result was not cheering ; proving that 
for ammunition he had barely nineteen rounds per man, and as 
for provisions (excepting a very small stock in the larder), 
nothing but a very moderate quantity of biscuit and cheese. 
Even water was not abundant. Inside the castle there was 
certainly a deep well, but this required much labour to draw 
from, and yielded a supply quite inadequate to the wants of the 
whole party, which, including the Duke of Athole's servants, 
consisted of upwards of three hundred persons. The sheriff 
upon this settled that the daily rations for each person should 
not exceed a pound of biscuit, a quarter of a pound of cheese, 
and a quart bottle of water ; and a guard was posted at the well 
to enforce this order, and regulate the supply. He moreover 
was obliged to issue an order, which occasioned far greater 
mortification, that no soldier should under any provocation 
whatever discharge his firelock without leave. 

Having allotted his men their stations in the various apart- 
ments, he intimated his intention of defending the castle to the 
utmost extremity. 

" Blair Castle was then irregular and very high, with walls 
of great thickness, having what was called Cumming's Tower 
projecting from the west end of the front of the house, which 
faces to the north. The entrance into the ground story of that 
tower was by a door in the centre of its east side without the 
house, but it might be defended by musket-fire from some of the 
windows. The great entrance into the house itself was by a 
large door on the east side of the staircase projecting from the 
front to the north, and adjoining to the east gavel of the old 
house a square new building had been begun, but only carried 
up to a few feet above some joists fixed for the first floor. 

"There was at four or five yards' distance eastward from 
that new building a strong wall running north and south for 


forty or fifty yards, and fifteen or sixteen feet in height, forming 
the end of a sunk bowling-green, and serving as a strong retain- 
ing wall to the above ; above the centre of this wall was a 
pretty large recess for holding the bowls, and into which 
persons might occasionally retire. 1 Along the north side of 
this bowling-green ran a range of office-houses." 

Lord George Murray, knowing well the poverty of the garri- 
son, secreted marksmen amongst the enclosures, expecting them 
to sally out, hoping still further to reduce their numbers ; and 
tried hard to make them squander their ammunition, calculating 
confidently on starvation soon enforcing their surrender. And, 
wishing to irritate the sheriff to the utmost, he wrote a sum- 
mons on a shabby piece of paper, couched as follows : 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, baronet, commanding the troops of the 
Elector of Hanover, is hereby required to surrender forthwith 
the Castle of Blair, its garrison, military stores, and provisions, 
into the hands of Lieutenant -General Lord George Murray, 
commanding the forces there of His Koyal Highness the Prince 

" As the said Sir Andrew Agnew shall answer to the con- 
trary at his peril." 

And ordered this to be delivered at once to his worship. This 
was, however, easier said than done. The Highlanders had such 
ideas as to how terrible a personage the sheriff was, that not a 
man of them could be induced to go on such an errand. 

In this dilemma, it was suggested to Lord George that a 
comely young barmaid, between whom and the royal officers 
much flirtation had been carried on, could easily be induced to 
carry a message, as she had no reason to fear any personal mal- 
treatment ; and as Lord George assured her, the object of his 
message was to save her friends' lives. 

She agreed to warn them of their danger, my lord and his 

1 An Original and Genuine Narrative of the remarkable blockade and attack 
of Blair Castle by the, forces of the rebels in the spring of 1746 : by a Subaltern 
Officer of H.M. Garrison, published 1808. By General Melville, then an ensign. 
The inverted commas, when not otherwise explained, denote quotations from 
this work. 

to 1746] THE FORTY-FIVE 315 

staff meanwhile taking a post of observation to witness the 

Arriving at a window, several of her friends appeared, to 
whom she confided her errand, entreating them, with tears in 
her eyes, to surrender at once ; consoling them with a promise 
of good treatment from the Highlanders. 

One of these merry youths was Ensign Melville, who, when 
an old general, thus penned his reminiscences of the scene : 

" She pressed them that the summons should be received 
from her and carried to Sir Andrew, but that was positively 
refused by all, excepting a lieutenant, who, being of a timid 
temper, with a constitution impaired by drinking, did receive 
the summons ; and after its being read, carried it up to deliver 
it to Sir Andrew, with some hopes, doubtless, of its having suc- 
cess. But no sooner did the peerless knight hear something of 
it read, than he furiously drove the lieutenant from his presence, 
and ' to return the paper,' vociferating after him so loudly on the 
stairs strong epithets against Lord George Murray, with threat- 
enings to shoot through the head any other messenger whom 
he should send, that the girl (as he had intended) perfectly over- 
heard him, and was glad to take back the summons and to re- 
turn with her life to Lord George." 

Lord George next got his two guns into position, and com- 
menced cannonading, but with no other effect than eliciting certain 
dry remarks from the sheriff, such as, " My lord is playing ball 
against the walls of Blair- Athol" ; or, " Is the loon clean daft, 
knocking down his ain brother's house ?" Lord George, growing 
impatient, erected furnaces and threw red-hot balls in at the 
windows ; but the sheriff ordered a tub to be placed in every 
room, and supplying his men with some of the duke's ladles, 
the balls were so sharply watched for and picked up that they 
did little damage beyond charring the spots where they fell. 

Time wore on, and still no relief approached, and even the 
daily quarter of a pound of cheese had become but a recollec- 
tion of the past ! The soldiers, however, never despaired, and 
felt assured " that Sir Andrew's good luck would certainly help 


them out in some way or other, for they had heard strange 
stories of their commandant, as of his never having been sick 
or wounded, nor in any battle that the English did not win." 

Lord George Murray redoubled his provocations ; his men, 
becoming bolder on finding that they ran little risk of being 
shot at, hurled stones against the castle accompanied by many 
coarse jokes directed against the commandant, greeting any 
head that might be protruded from any window with a regular 
volley, which the garrison were absolutely forbidden to 

For a fortnight this continued, during which the sheriff 
showed himself too good a soldier to abandon his post, and too 
old a one to be provoked into a sally. He knew that every 
day he could detain so large a force before Blair was of the 
greatest advantage to the king, and he determined to stay as 
long as a single mouthful of biscuit remained in store. 

Time, however, hung heavily the while on the hands of the 
younger officers, who, in default of other sources of diversion, 
bethought them of a joke at the expense of their commander. 
As a part of the plot they had to purloin a portion of his ward- 
robe, an act sufficiently easy to effect, as the good sheriff was 
constantly going his rounds from room to room. Taking advan- 
tage, therefore, of his zeal, these frolicsome youths possessed 
themselves of a full suit of the brigadier's uniform, with which, 
with the assistance of some straw, they soon produced an excel- 
lent imitation of his figure. They then placed the stuffed 
sheriff at a window of the tower, with a spy-glass in his hand, 
in the attitude of reconnoitring the rebels. 

" This apparition," says Sir Walter Scott, " did not escape the 
hawks' eyes of the Highlanders, who continued to pour their fire 
upon the turret window without producing any adequate result. 
The best deer-stalkers of Athole and Badenoch persevered, never- 
theless, and wasted, as will be easily believed, their ammunition 
in vain on this impassible commander. At length Sir Andrew 
himself became curious to know what could possibly induce so 
constant a fire upon that particular point, and ascending the 

to 1746] THE FORTY-FIVE 317 

turret himself, there he saw his other identity standing under 
fire as stiff, as fearless, and as imperturbable as himself." 1 The 
sheriff instituting inquiries, the author of the plot was induced 
to confess his guilt ; upon which, with awful gravity, he de- 
livered sentence upon the culprit to this effect : " Let the loon 
that set it up just go up himself and take it doon again !" 2 The 
retributive justice of the penalty no one could deny ; and the 
whole garrison laughed heartily at their chiefs award, with the 
exception of the practical joker, who much misliked his errand. 
This prank is said not to have been without a salutary effect ; 
the clansmen, already predisposed to regard the sheriff with a 
superstitious awe, now found their surmises as to his invulner- 
ability so thoroughly confirmed, that henceforth they became 
hopeless of success. 

His biscuit being all but exhausted, the sheriff determined 
to make an effort to communicate with Lord Crawford. The 
Duke of Athole's gardener, Wilson, volunteered for the service ; 
and having promised to destroy the sheriff's despatch if in 
danger of being taken, he was given his choice of the officers' 
horses. At one o'clock in the morning, a soldier was placed 
at each window with his firelock primed ; the great door was 
quietly unbolted and Wilson issued out, apparently unper- 
ceived, and rode off over the bridge and along the avenue. 
As he reached the public road, he was fired at by pickets of 
the enemy, after which nothing more could be heard of him. 
But next morning, to the mortification of the garrison, a 
Highlander was seen near the village riding the identical 
horse which had carried their messenger. 

It was now announced that the provisions were really 
done ; but the indomitable sheriff simply gave an order in reply 
that a horse should be killed, and to pick out the fattest of 
the stud. The soldiers, without a murmur, did as they were 
bid, and having had their untempting rations duly allotted, they 

1 Scott's History of Scotland. Chambers's Eminent Scotsmen. 

2 Sir Andrew's high sense of discipline rendered him, though fond of a jest, 
intolerant of all frolic, even at the expense of the enemy, while engaged in the 
serious business of war. M'Crie. 


proceeded to cook them, as they best might, to the music of 
Lord George Murray's artillery. 

" By the 1st of April," says General Melville, " the rebels 
had thrown two hundred and seven cannon bullets, of which 
one hundred and eighty-five were red-hot, which became a very 
serious annoyance after they had taken to pointing at the roof; 
but such was the alertness of the garrison, that their carpenters 
were always ready to cut out the bullets wherever they struck, 
and quench them in water." 1 

The 1st of April dawned on a rather gloomy state of matters, 
but as the day wore on it was suddenly observed that there was 
not a Highlander in sight ; and presently " M'Glashan's maid, 
Molly," was seen tripping o'er the green, bringing the welcome 
intelligence that the rebels, in fear of being surrounded by the 
king's Black Horse, had suddenly decamped. Notwithstanding 
this news, the sheriff desired that no one should leave the castle 
on any pretence ; for his garrison had their last charges in their 
guns, and it was very possible that the Highlanders were play- 
ing them a trick. The next morning, however, the minds of all 
were happily set at ease by the arrival of an officer, sent for- 
ward by Lord Crawford to announce his coming within an 

In a few minutes afterwards the drums sounded cheerily 
through the long passages beating the turn-out; and as the 
sheriff paraded his men in front of the castle, Lord Crawford's 
trumpets were heard sounding in the avenue. Salutes were 
regularly exchanged; upon which the sheriff, in his peculiar 
style, thus addressed the general : 

" My Lord, I am very glad to see you ; but, by all that's good, 
you have been very dilatory, and we can give you nothing to eat !" 

To which his lordship good-humouredly answered : 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, I can assure you I made all the haste 

1 Scots Magazine, 1755. Beyond all military calculations, Sir Andrew 
Agnew, with miserably scanty means, had made good his position from the 17th 
of March to the end of the month. Longer than this, however, it was impossible 
to hold out, as the provisions of the garrison were exhausted, so that nothing 
seemed to be left them but a desperate sally or immediate surrender." Chambers. 

to 1746] THE FORTY-FIVE 319 

I possibly could. But now, I hope that you and your officers 
will do me the honour to partake with me of such fare as I can 
give you." 1 

Lord Crawford had very thoughtfully made preparation to 
supply their wants. 

Provisions for the men were instantly issued, arid as the 
officers superintended their distribution, Lord Crawford's ser- 
vants turned the summer-house in the garden into a dining- 
room, and hither the earl conducted the sheriff and his officers, 
where a welcome sight presented itself a table groaning under 
substantial dishes, well flanked by bottles of good wine. 

Their appetites appeased, some of the officers bethought 
them of Captain Wentworth's horse in Cumming's Tower, which 
had been abandoned to starvation on the commencement of 
the siege. " These gentlemen again," says General Melville, 
" hastening to see the poor dead horse of Captain Wentworth, it 
being the seventeenth day of its confinement, they had no sooner 
opened the door and entered, than they were precipitately driven 
out laughing, to avoid the animal, who was wildly staggering 
about. That fine stout animal having received the most proper 
care and best treatment by order of his master, soon became in 
excellent condition, and, as it is believed, was sent to England 
by Captain "Wentworth as a present to one of his sisters." 2 

The sheriff, meanwhile, learned that the Duke's gardener, on 
leaving the castle in the dark, was thrown from his horse, and 
left lying stunned upon the ground. His horse galloping off' 
alone, the rebels followed the sound of its hoofs, and were soon 
led far away. Wilson then crept to a hiding-place, from whence 
he emerged next evening, and then proceeding on his way reached 
Dunkeld. It was not Lord Crawford's fault that relief had 
been so long delayed. Long before the arrival of the messenger 

1 Original and Genuine Narrative. 

His lordship did accordingly entertain afterwards, in the summer-house of 
the garden, Sir Andrew and his officers with a plentiful dinner and very good 
wines. Chambers. 

2 Original and Genuine Narrative. 

Peregrine Wentworth of Toulston Lodge, near Tadcaster in Yorkshire, a very 
respectable gentleman, still living (1808). Ib. 


he had sent forward two battalions of Hessians and a regiment 
of German hussars towards Blair, but the division were awed 
at the sight of the pass of Killiecrankie ; and neither threats 
nor blandishments could induce them to enter it. 1 

The Duke of Cumberland was highly delighted at the 
report sent him by Lord Crawford of the conduct of his old 
friend the sheriff; and he not only thanked him and his 
garrison in general orders, but sent him a private letter under 
his own hand, as follows : 

" Aberdeen, the 7th April 1746. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, I return you my hearty thanks for 
your defence of the Castle of Blair ; and I desire you would 
also acquaint the officers and soldiers, who have done their 
duty, that I am very much obliged to them for the same not 
doubting but that they have all done it. 

" I have ordered Lord Crawford to give you thirty or forty 
dragoons if you should want them, which you will demand of 

" I desire you will send out sufficient partys, though none 
further than six miles, to destroy and burn the habitations and 
effects of all those who may be found to have arms contrary 
to law, or who are out in the present rebellion. If they should 
attempt to oppose this, or you should find any partys of them 
armed, you will order your detachment to destroy them ; and 
for this you will demand the dragoons if you need them. 

" Lord Crawford has orders to keep you constantly supplied 
with a month's provisions ; and the Hessians are ordered to your 
relief should the rebels venture to attack you again. I am, your 
affectionate friend, (Signed) WILLIAM. 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, Comg. 
at Blair." 

1 As a specimen of the inaccuracy of many historical authorities, we quote 
Smollett's account of the relief : 

Lord George Murray invested the Castle of Blair, which was defended by 
Sir Andrew Agnew, until a body of Hessians marched to its relief and obliged the 
rebels to retire. History of England. 

to 1746] THE FORTY-FIVE 321 

The sheriff was engaged in carrying out these instructions 
when the Duke, on the 16th of April, gained the decisive battle 
of Culloden ; in which his own regiment bore a prominent part. 1 

He himself, according to his Boyal Highness's orders, sent 
an official report of the siege of Blair, to which he received the 
following reply, by command, from the military secretary : 2 

" Inverness, the 29th April 1746. 

" Sir, I had some time since the favour of your letter, which 
I immediately laid before his Eoyal Highness, and I with plea- 
sure make use of this opportunity of letting you know how much 
his Royal Highness is pleased with your behaviour in the defence 
of the place trusted to your care ; and to obey his orders of 
giving his Eoyal Highness s thanks to you and all the officers, as well 
as the garrison, for the steady resolution shown by you and them 
upon this occasion, so much to your and their honour, and the 
good of his Majesty's service. 

" My Lord Crawford has had all the proper directions for 
what was necessary with regard to the castle, and whatever 
else was wanting for the service within the limits of your com- 
mand. So I have now only to rejoice with you on the honour 
you have acquired in the defence of the place, and on the 
success of his Eoyal Highness in the total defeat of the rebels, 
and to assure you that I am, with the truest respect, Sir, your 
most obedient humble servant, EVERARD FAWKENER. 

" The Honble. Sir Andrew Agnew, 
Knight Baronet," etc. 

1 "Sir Andrew Agnew's regiment composed a part of the first line of the royal 
army. " (Mackenzie. ) 

"A body of the rebels threw away their muskets and engaged Barrel's men 
sword in hand. ... At this instant four companies of the brave Campbells had 
broke down the walls of a park-dike at which place we lost two captains and 
five private men of the party through which our dragoons passed." (Ray.) 
The Fusiliers were called Campbells from General Campbell, afterwards fourth 
Duke of Argyle, for many years their colonel. 

2 The following is the account of the affair by Ray, the historian of the rebellion, 
who was present at headquarters during the whole time of which he treats : 

"Sir Andrew Agnew, who defended Blair Castle, although he was distressed 
for want of provisions, bravely held out until the 3rd of April at five o'clock in the 
morning. " 



For some time after the siege the sheriff continued to hold 
the castle of Blair, and was actively engaged in pacifying the 
extensive district of which he had the command. The Duke of 
Athol now returned, and in a much better humour; and 
although the relative prerogatives of owner and commandant 
may not have been very distinctly defined, yet his Grace appears 
to have kept up a perfectly amicable intercourse with the 
sheriff and seems to have seen the necessity for at once setting 
about compliance with the following formal requisition from 
the commandant as an immediate consequence of his brother's 

" To James, Duke of Athol. 

" Blair Castle, 7 Ap. 1746. 

"As the whole roof of the house of Blair Castle is much 
broke and damaged by the rebels, it requires immediate repara- 
tion ; as also almost all windows, for the warmth and health of 
the garrison. (Signed) ANDREW AGNEW." J 

It redounds much to Sir Andrew's credit that while the 
sternest severity as well as repression was constantly being 
enjoined upon him, he performed his disagreeable task without 
incurring any ill-will from the clansmen, whilst the Duke of 
Cumberland was more than satisfied with him. He suffered 
none of the troops under his immediate command to commit 
any of those lamentable excesses with which the Duke himself 
and many of his officers were too justly charged. 

And though he came into the Athole country as an enemy to 
the cause which its people had generally at heart, it is grati- 
fying to find that even to this day, whilst his name is a house- 
hold word at Dunkeld and Blair, he is still pleasantly remem- 

One of these local reminiscences is of an inspection of his 

1 Charter chest at Blair Athole, docketed Duke James's papers. The marks 
of a red-hot cannon-shot were visible on the floor of one of the attics in Cum- 
ming's Tower till 1870, when, the floor being relaid, that portion was preserved 
and framed with a note of the date of Sir Andrew Agnew's occupation and 
defence, end is now to be seen in Blair Castle. 

to 1746] 



garrison by the Duke of Cumberland, as his Koyal Highness was 
returning to the South. The troops were assembling for parade, 
when from the highly situated drawing-room of Blair, he 
caught sight of the Duke's party in the distance. The soldiers 
were lounging in groups, not yet fallen in ; the piper chatting 
unconcerned all unconscious of the near approach of Eoyalty. 
Suddenly the window sash was flung up, and Sir Andrew's head 
obtruded, as he bellowed in a voice of thunder " Blaw ! blaw ! 
ye scoondrel ! dinna ye see the king's ain bairn ? " 

The Duke having heard from the commandant's lips all 
the details of the siege, went round the ranks, commended all 
for their conduct in it, publicly thanked their veteran com- 
mander, and in high good humour promised to recommend him 
specially for promotion. When, greatly to the amusement of 
the spectators, as the Duke and his staff were riding off, the 
sheriff, who though punctilious as to military etiquette, was 
little of the courtier, shouted after him as a farewell, " Dinna 
forget, Sir, dinna forget ! " 


A.D. 1746 to 1748 

The whisky-pig well filled, man, the best things in the house 
I' faith we'll set afore ye, we'll craw, man, and be crouse. 
Ye drave the French and Spaniards as rain drives aff the snaw, 
Ah ! but ye're welcome back again to bonny Gallowa'. 


HAVING handed back the keys of his own house to the Duke of 
Athole, the sheriff again took up the command of his old corps, 
which was lying encamped at Inverness. 

The rebellion having now collapsed, we find his distinguished 
neighbour, Lord Stair, pressing on the Government the necessity 
of constructing a chain of forts for securing the quiet of the 
Highlands, suggesting the line from the Firth of Lome to the 
Moray Firth, which resulted in the building of Fort William, 
Fort Augustus, and Fort George. 1 

Previous to this, his kinsman, the fifth Earl of Galloway, had 
died the 16th February 1746 ; he was succeeded by his eldest 
son, Alexander, whose Countess (his second wife) was Katherine, 
one of the three daughters of the fourth Earl of Dundonald, all 
famed for their beauty ; the other two sisters being Duchess of 
Hamilton and Countess of Strathmore. His sister, the fifth 
earl's daughter, Lady Southesk, died the year following, she 
having remarried the Master of Sinclair. 

Early in the summer the sheriff was ordered to march from 
Inverness to Glasgow, there to be quartered. The last time he 

1 Stair Papers, vol. 27. 


was destined to ride at the head of the Scots Fusiliers ; l and 
hardly had he arrived at the commercial capital (very different 
however in its proportions from its present size) than he had the 
agreeable surprise of finding that the "king's ain bairn's" 
memory had been even better than he could have expected, and 
that a commission of full colonel of a battalion of marines was 
enclosed to him with the acknowledgment of his "loyalty, 
courage, and good conduct." 

The marine service seems to have been on a different foot- 
ing then than now, officers exchanging to it freely from the 
line, and vice versd. Eegiments of the line, moreover, being 
sometimes employed as marines on ship-board. Many men of 
rank were in the service, and among the sheriffs brother 
colonels of the embodied battalions were General George 
Paulett, Lieutenant - General Cornwall, Viscount Torrington 
and Lord George Churchill. 2 

Blunt and outspoken as the sheriff was, and at times some- 
what choleric, he was nevertheless beloved by all ranks of the 
Scots Fusiliers, in which gallant corps after the lapse of 150 
years his memory is still fragrant, and his name held in affec- 
tionate remembrance. He was succeeded in its command by 
the Honourable Charles Colville, who had gone through all its 
ranks, who led the regiment back to Flanders the following year, 
and commanded it at the battle of Laffeldt. 

A droll story is told of the last days of the sheriffs regi- 
mental life when settling his affairs in Glasgow before retiring 
to Galloway. Accompanied by some of his brother officers he 
went to the house of a wealthy merchant, with whom he had 
some business, who, being engaged at the moment, showed them 
into his drawing-room, asking them to wait there a few minutes, 
while he returned to his office. Looking about him, the sheriff 

1 The Scots Fusiliers were in the front line at the battle of Culloden, com- 
manded by Major the Hon. Charles Colville. Their loss in the battle was only 
seven wounded. 

2 Of Scotsmen of position in other ranks of the Koyal Marines, we find Sir 
James Bruce a lieutenant - colonel, the Earl of Glencairn, Sir Robert Aber- 
crombie, and Sir Patrick Murray, majors ; and Lord Saltoun a lieutenant. 


much admired some chairs, and, as if an excellent idea, ex- 
claimed, " Nice chairs these ! I'll buy a few of them, and take 
them back to my Lady in Galloway." " Surely, sir," remon- 
strated his companions, " you wouldn't offend a gentleman by 
asking him to sell the actual furniture of his house ? " " Toot ! " 
replied the sheriff, "a scoondrel of a merchant refuse to sell 
anything ! " 

The point of this somewhat mythical anecdote being that the 
sheriff, like many of his class at the period, considered the 
army the only fit profession for a gentleman. 

Concurrently with the sheriff's return to Lochnaw, Lord 
Stair had left London, and having visited Newliston, had gone 
to Edinburgh for medical advice before also returning to 
Galloway. He suddenly became too seriously ill to be able to 
travel, and on the 19th of December writes to his kinsman, Lord 
Cathcart, that he is sick of Edinburgh, sick of eating and 
drinking without his usual exercise, and longing to get back to 
his rural pursuits. But this was not to be ; and the good old 
lord died at Queensberry House in the Canongate the 9th of 
May 1747. A sad blank was thus made in Galloway society, 
as for years Lord and Lady Stair had spent their autumns at 

By the death of the second earl, the direct line of Viscount 
Stair came to an end. By special patent the title now passed 
to James, third son of Colonel William Dalrymple and Lady 
Dumfries. We give below inventories of the earl's stock and 
cellar, as dated at Culhorn, 9th May 1745. The prices are in 
sterling money, and the contents of his cellar, though not large, 
we may assume to have been at least as good in quality as 
those of the neighbouring lairds, and are interesting as showing 
the prices of the times in the west country. 1 

1 51 cows with 43 calves ..... 165 15 

1 bull .... ..550 

17 plough-oxen at 4 apiece . . . 68 
20 stotts and 34 speyed queys of 5 years old, at 3 : 10s. 

apiece . . . . . . . 189 

42 stotts, 19 speyed queys, and 15 open queys of 2 years 

old, at 1 : 10s. . . . . . 114 


The third Earl of Stair resided little on his Galloway 
estates. We find a letter of his among the sheriff's papers, 
dated from Edinburgh within a few weeks after his succession, 
having reference to an impending election. 

" Nothing," he writes to Sir Andrew, " is so natural as that 
you should have the concerting of the measures to be taken by 
us at the general election. You may therefore be assured that 
whoever is pitched upon by you and my other friends I shall 
do my best to make the choice effectual. Give me leave to add 
that without there should appear some probability of success I 
should think it better to make no struggle. 

" At all events I flatter myself I shall have your friendship 
as long as by my attention to serve you I shall endeavour to 
deserve it. I am, Sir, your most obedient and most humble 
servant, STAIR. 

" The Hon. Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Barronet, 
By Stranrawr " (sic). 

57 small fat stotts at 3 . . . . 171 

2 horses, Dettingen and Marlborough . . 20 

1 English mare and foal . . . . .600 

4 cart-mares and foals . . . . 20 

5 workhorses and 1 mare . . . . 32 

3 English mares . . . . . . 18 

3 small bay mares and 3 do. black . . 18 
5 two-year-old colts and 1 filly . . . . 18 
A small gray horse for going errands ^ . .200 
9 mules .... 

4 colts and 3 fillies, one year old . . . 14 
12 she-asses (some old) and 3 he-asses . . . 12 12 
1409 sheep at 5s. 6d. . . . . 387 9 6 
27 goats at 2s. 6d. with 9 kids 

15 swine at 7s. . . . .550 

The valuation of the stock amounted in all to . 2394 8 

In cellar : 

16 dozen of claret at 1 per dozen . . . 16 < 

5 dozen do 500 

2 dozen small white wine . 

5 dozen Canary wine at 1 . . 5 < 

3 hhds. strong ale . . . . . 4 10 < 
H hhds. small beer .... 

A service of plate . . . . 635 

The value of the inventory of the furniture, plate, etc., amounting 
in all to 995 : 2 : 8. 


At the election which ensued, John Stewart was returned 
for the county, and the Hon. Colonel James Stewart for the 
boroughs, both unopposed. 

The third Earl of Stair died without issue in 1760, when 
the title went, in accordance with the patent, to his elder brother, 
William, Earl of Dumfries. 

In 1*747 John Vaus of Barnbarroch, son of Patrick Vaus by 
a sister of M'Dowall of Freuch, married Margaret, only daughter 
of Kobert Agnew of Sheuchan,' who occupied Park House, 
described by Symson a century before as " a new house, lately 
built of brick there, the marke it stands about a bowdraft from 
the town of Stranrawer." 

The same year Sir Thomas Wallace of Craigie had sasine 
of the lands of Lochryan in right of Eleanor Agnew, his wife. 

The name of Dunskey was now transferred to the mansion 
house previously named Killantringan and Blairbowey. 1 

John Blair, the laird, had married in 1738 Anne, daughter 
of Sir John Kennedy of Culzean, whose son Thomas established 
in 1762 his claim to the earldom of Cassilis. 

Mrs. Blair's daughter, Jane, surviving her brothers John 
and David (who died unmarried), carried Dunskey to the 
Hunters of Abbotshill ; her husband, James Hunter, was created 
a baronet, and is the direct ancestor of Sir Edward Hunter- 

Of the M'Dowalls at this date, the Laird of Freuch and his 
wife, Lady Betty, lived in high style at Castle M'Dowall. 

The sheriff's contemporary at Logan, John, had married 
Anna, daughter of Johnston of Kelton, and his brother Andrew, 

1 Blairbowey is a name which, if unexplained, would set any philologists at 
fault. The prefix is not blair = " a green field, ' ' but the proper name. ' ' Bowey, " 
again, does not indicate that the said proprietor was yellow-haired, but remains 
as a euphonious fancy. Killantringan (St. Ninian's Chapel), afterwards the 
name of the mansion-house, was built on Craigbowey (meaning the yellow rock), 
the name often applied to the mansion-house itself. On Mr. John Blair getting 
possession, quite indifferent as to its force, he engrafted his own name upon the 
Celtic suffix, apparently thinking the words clinked well. By a curious coinci- 
dence his descendants became possessed of Blairquhan, a genuine name, the 
blair here meaning "a green field," but doubtless the public generally suppose 
it when following his surname to have much the force of " that ilk." 


a lord of session, as Lord Bankton, was now no mean authority 
on Scottish law. M/Dowall of Logan's daughter, Isabel, was 
married to Andrew Adair of Little Genoch, and we find from 
letters at Lochnaw that intimacy existed between Lady Agnew 
and ladies of Adair families styled "of Genoch, Maryport, 
Alton, and Curghie," all still resident ; but Kinhilt had passed 
to the Stairs, as also Dromore, from which at the moment the 
title was taken of Hew, third son of Sir Hew Dalrymple of 
North Berwick, now a judge styled Lord Dromore. 

The M'Cullochs had disappeared from Ardwell, being 
succeeded there, as also at Wigtown, by the Maxwells, the laird 
then in possession being closely related to the baronet of 

Sir Thomas Hay, who had now entirely recovered from his 
serious wounds at Prestonpans, still lived and kept house at 
Park, and had married a daughter of Blair of Dunskey. 

Monreith could now boast of greater attractions than its 
cellar, which had long been famous, in the presence of Sir 
William's two daughters by Madeline, daughter of Blair of 
Dunskey Eglantine and Jane among the greatest beauties of 
the day. 

The Hawthornes had acquired by marriage the estates of 
Castle Wigg and Physgill, John Hawthorne of Aries taking the 
name of Stewart on his marriage with Agnes, heiress of the 
latter property. 

An illegitimate son of the tenth sheriff, Alexander, founded 
the house of Agnews of Dalreagle, having gradually acquired 
Ballaird and Crows, in the parish of Kirkinner ; Challoch, 
Corsbie, Fyntalloch, Knowe or the Snap, and Ochiltree, in 
the parish of Penninghame ; Barledziew, Calnoag, and the mill 
of Eavenstone, in Sorbie. 

In 1731 Alexander Agnew was succeeded by his son Patrick, 
who acquired the barony of Myrtoun M'Kie, and changed its 
name to Myrtoun Agnew. 1 

1 Ballaird, ard, "high-house," or "townland." Crows, Gal. cro ; Norse 
kro, with English plural, "cattle pens." Corsbie, Norse, "dwelling at the 


Meanwhile the Government, alarmed by the dimensions of 
the late rebellion, anxious to increase the influence of the Crown 
in Scotland, bethought them how they might diminish the 
prestige of barons and chieftains, whose hereditary rights inter- 
fered with the centralisation of authority. 

Accordingly, in August 1746, on the motion of Lord- 
Chancellor Hardwick, the House of Lords assented to resolu- 
tions to the effect that " the lords of session be desired to inquire 
what heritable sheriffships and regalities are subsisting within 
Scotland, what persons are now in possession thereof, and which 
of such regalities were granted before the act of the tenth 
Parliament of King James II. of Scotland, and which since." 

The report being made a bill was brought into the House of 
Peers in February 1747, "for taking away and abolishing Herit- 
able Jurisdictions " in Scotland. This measure was favourably 
received, but it was fully admitted that it was but bare justice 
to give a reasonable equivalent to the holders of such jurisdic- 
tions, whose tenures by royal charters were as valid and positive 
as any property held by patent in the realm. An amendment 
to this effect rendered the measure a money bill, and hence it 
had necessarily to be dropped in the Upper House, and in its 
amended form it was reintroduced in the House of Commons 
on the 20th February 1747. 

On the 7th of April it was debated, and then the Govern- 
ment were reminded that these hereditary rights were ex- 
pressly reserved by the Union, it being further contended that 
so flagrant a breach of faith would unsettle all men's minds, 
and, causing a spirit of distrust in the most solemn promises 
made by Government, would breed fresh disaffection and do 
more harm than could be balanced by any expected advantage 
in the results. These were thrusts not easily parried. Logic, 

cross." Barledziew, pronounced Barladey, Bar leadach, " wide or spreading 
top. " Knowe and Snap are synonyms, Norse cnaep, Celtic cnap : so the 
Knab, Cumberland ; the Knapp, Perthshire ; Snape, Yorkshire. Culnoag, cuil, 
more probably cil n'og, "the corner or grave of the youths." The " Clies of 
Culnoag " are, or were, a circle of standing-stones, indicative of graves, close to 
the site, as is said, of the parish church of Great Sorbie in the twelfth century. 


however, being at fault, the welfare of the State was pleaded as 
a consideration which must override all arguments founded on 
hardship to individuals. The English members generally 
allowed themselves to be convinced, and the Scotsmen, tenacious 
as they were, were of course outnumbered. They fought, 
however, a hard battle, and on the division seventy-four opposed 
the motion, and only ninety-nine voted with the Government. 
Opposition, however, was useless, and at the next stage 
Government obtained so large a majority that the measure 
was safe. 

Horace Walpole gives a lively account of the debate, in a 
letter to Seymour Conway. 

"Arlington Street, 16th April 1747. 

" We have had a great and fine day in the House, on the 
second reading of the bill for taking away heritable jurisdictions 
in Scotland. Lyttleton 1 made the finest oration imaginable. 
The solicitor-general, 2 the new advocate, 3 and Hume Campbell, 4 
particularly the last, spoke excessively well for it, and Oswald 
against it. 

"The majority was 233 against 102. Pitt was not there, 
the Duchess of Queensberry had ordered him to have the 

On the bill reaching the Upper House the dissentient peers, 
finding resistance hopeless, recorded their protests against the 
measure, and allowed it to pass without a division. 

The holders of all the dignities in question were then called 
upon to enter their demands. Their claims were accordingly 
made out and referred to the judges of the Court of Session. In 
April 1748 an abstract resolution of the Court of Session was 
officially published, by which it appeared that the total amount 
claimed was 602,127 : 16 : 8, and the total sum allowed by 
the judges 152,237 : 15 : 4. The Court of Session further 
finding that the only family who could produce proof of having 

1 Afterwards Lord Lyttleton. 2 Afterwards Earl of Mansfield. 

3 William Grant. 4 Brother to the Earl of Marchmont. 


held an hereditary sheriffship from the time of James II. was 
that of Agnew of Lochnaw, whose charter as verified was dated 
1451, the next in antiquity being that of the Earl of Argyle, 
dated 1473. 

In only sixteen cases were the claims to be " hereditary " 
sheriffs held to be proved: namely, in the shires of Argyle, Bute, 
Caithness, Clackmannan, Cromarty, Dumfries, Dumbarton, 
Elgin, Fife, Kinross, Kirkcudbright, Nairn, Orkney and Zetland, 
Peebles, Selkirk, and Wigtown. 

In four families only had hereditary sheriffships been con- 
tinuous since 1567, viz. Earls of Argyle, Earls of Kothes, Hurrays 
of Philiphaugh, and Agnew of Lochnaw. 

In some instances the representatives of the same families 
held the same sheriffships in 1567 and 1747, but their heredi- 
tary claims were not held to be proved by the Lords of Session. 
Of these were the Duke of Gordon in Aberdeen and Inverness, 
Lord Grey in Forfar, Lord Hume in Berwick, Duke of Hamilton 
in Lanark, Lord Lothian in Ayr. 1 Nothing could be more pre- 



Campbell of London 
Lord Home 


Argyle (Tarbert) 


Urquhart of Cromartie Cromarty 

Earl of Lennox 
Lord Sanquhar 
Dunbar of Cumnoch 
Lord Gray 
Earl of Huntlie 
Lochleven (?) 
Stewart of Doun 
Hamilton of Kynneill 
Earl of Arran 
Campbell of Lorn 
Earl of Orkney 







Inverness and Aberdeen 


Kirkcudbright (Steward) 




Orkney and Zetland 


Earl of Loudon 
Earl of Hume 

Earl of Bute 

"\ *& 
George Sinclair of I 43 

Ulbster V |< 

Earl of Caithness J 

Roderick M'Leod of Cat- 

Earl of Dumfries 

Duke of Montrose 

Duke of Queensberry 

Earl of Moray 


Lord Gray 

Duke of Gordon 

Charles Bruce 

Marquis of Annandale 

Earl of Hopetoun 

Duke of Hamilton 

Campbell of Calder 

Earl of Morton 



posterous than many of the claims. Those for the gentlemen 
connected with Galloway were as follows : 

Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw claimed for the 
sheriffship of Wigtown . . . 5000 

Constabulary of Lochnaw . . . 1000 

Bailliary of Leswalt . . . .1000 

He entered no claims for the bailliaries of 
regality of Soulseat, Monybrig, and Drammastoun. 

Total . . 7000 

He was allowed 4000 for the sheriffship. 

The Marquis of Annandale claimed as 

For the Stewarty of Kirkcudbright . 5000 

Allowed and made with consent of her father by Henrietta, 
Countess of Hopetoun. 

The Earl of Galloway claimed as 

Baillie of Eegality of Whithorn . . 3000 

Stewart of Garlies .... 2000 

Baillie of Barray .... 1000 

His claims were reduced to 321 : 6s. 
The Earl of Stair claimed as 

Baillie of Eegality of Glenluce . 
Baillie of the Inch . 
Kegality of Philipston 
Eegality of Brestmill 

He was allowed 450. 

1567. Counties. 

Lord Yester Peebles 

Lord Ruthven Perth 

Lord Semphill Renfrew 

Douglas of Cavers Roxburgh 











Earl of March 
Duke of Athol 
Earl of Eglintoun 
Douglas of Deanbrae 
Earl of Sutherland 


The Earl of Cassilis claimed 

For the Bailliary of Carrick (Ayrshire) . 8000 
For the Bailliary of Monkland and 

Melrose (do.) . . .' 1000 

For the Eegality of Crossraguel (do.) V 1000 

For the keeping of the Castle of Loch 

Boon (do.) . . . ' .; 100 

As Baillie of Eegality of Glenluce 

(Galloway) . . . . 2000 

As Baillie of the Bishop of Galloway's 

lands on the Cree . . . 1000 


He was allowed 1800 for the bailliary of Carrick ; his claim 
for 3000 for his Galloway jurisdictions was totally disallowed. 

Maxwell of Nithsdale claimed as 

Baillie of Hollywood . ,' . 1300 

Lord of Kegality of Terregless . . 1200 

Baillie of Dundrennan . . . 1200 

Baillie of Sweetheart . . . 800 

Baillie of Tungland . ... 500 

Provost of Lincluden . . . 1400 

Total V 6600 
Eeduced to 523 : 4 : 1. 

Hawthorne of Castle Wigg claimed as 

Baillie of the Barony of Busby . . 1000 
His claim was rejected. 

The Earl of Selkirk claimed as 

Baillie of Eegality of Crawfordjohn . 2000 

Baillie of Crawford Douglas . . 1500 

Total : ; . 3500 
And was awarded nothing. 


The Sheriff of Galloway received proportionally very much 
more of the amount he applied for, than did any other of the 
claimants, excepting indeed the Steward of Kirkcudbright ; but 
that compensation being awarded to a lady who never acted, 
and into whose family the office had very recently come, seems 
to savour of a job. 

The first sheriff under the new regime was Alexander 
Boswell of Auchinleck, afterwards known as Lord Auchinleck, 
father of Dr. Johnson's biographer. 

The first steward-depute was Sir Thomas Miller of Glenlee, 
afterwards President of the Court of Session as Lord Glenlee, 
and created a baronet. 

Thus ended the days of heritable jurisdiction in Scotland. 
Eesponsible judicial offices were no longer to be handed down 
irresponsibly from father to son; and no rational person can 
now doubt that the change was a wise one. 

But this conviction only grew gradually upon the nation. 
The very classes who might have been thought to be aggrieved 
at the action of feudal courts, which were notoriously often 
partial and unfair, were by no means delighted at the 

They "aye preferred gentlemen's law" was the style by 
which they expressed a preference for seeing the magisterial 
bench presided over by those to whom they yielded an in- 
stinctive deference, rather than by more learned strangers. 
Ignoring the fact that heritable functionaries also derived 
emoluments from their offices, a Galloway proverb hurls 
contempt at the stipendiaries with fixed incomes for their 
services in the disdainful phrase : " It's no' for nought the gled 
whistles." l 

The providential government of the human race in its 
various onward stages of civilisation is by a system of compen- 

The hereditary sheriffs, bailiffs, and lords of regality, 

1 Gallovidian Encyclopedia. M'Taggart adding in further explanation : "It 
is the good fee makes the lawyer whistle." 


favoured their friends at the expense of justice, were sometimes 
oppressive, and frequently law-breakers; but in the fifteenth, 
sixteenth, and seventeenth centuries, the highest courts were 
notoriously as partial, as unjust, and more severe than the local 
ones, and kings and their councils were more wantonly 
tyrannical than the resident owners of the soil. 

In such days as those of the Test and Conventicle Act, mere 
government officials would have hunted out and shot down the 
poor Covenanters like so many vermin. Not so the feudal 
magistrates. In almost every instance, save in the case of two 
or three, such as Lagg, whose names became a byword, the 
hereditary officials, even at the risk of incurring penalties them- 
selves, exerted themselves to mitigate the rigours of the law, 
and minimise the sentences against the proscribed. And this, 
be it remarked, quite apart from any approval of the principles 
of those condemned. 

In the hour of need the heritable magistrate was often able 
as well as willing to assist a dependant in an effectual way, 
taking upon himself a responsibility which a stipendiary would 
not have dared, and probably cared as little, to incur. 

And so it happened not unnaturally that the west country 
Whigs the wild Scots of Galloway had little of the feeling of 
Levellers in the matter of feudal privilege, and grieved to see 
the old baronial edifice tottering to its fall. 

This feeling is well illustrated by a story told of an old 
retainer of the house of Garlies, who, having lived through four 
successive generations of the Stewarts, and remembering the days 
when barons could protect their vassals from the blackmailer or 
aristocratic cattle-lifter, or rid them effectually of the sheep- 
stealer taken red-hand, would deprecatingly exclaim : " Hech ! 
Yerl John was nae yerl, and Yerl Alexander was nae yerl 
ava ! " 

Feeling, as his memory glanced backwards through the long 
vista of years, that his own status was lowered by the little 
power his present lord could wield in comparison of his ances- 
tors, again he would repeat : " Yerl John was nae yerl, and Yerl 



Alexander was nae yerl ava. Yerl James was the man ! He'd 
hang them up just o' his ain word. None of yer law ! " the last 
sentence uttered with withering contempt, law being used as 
the antithesis of equity and justice. 1 

1 This story was communicated to the author by the late Randolph, ninth 
Earl of Galloway. 




A.D. 1747 to 1760 

But wad ye see him in his glee 
For meikle glee and fun had he 
Then set him doun and twa or three 

Guid fellows wi' him, 
And port port shine thou a wee, 

And then ye'll see him. 

IN a cabinet at Lochnaw, a parchment having a seal attached 
to it by a blue and buff ribbon, on which is the device 
of two swords crossed over a heart, with the legend " Mente 
manuque " and " Tandem bona causa triumphat " is endorsed 
as a diploma "in favour of Sir Andrew Agnew," and reads 
thus : 

"Att Edinburgh, the 2d day of November 1747, at a 
meeting of the Revolution Club, compeered Sir Andrew Agnew, 
Barronett, Colonel, and humbly desired to be admitted a 
member of the old Revolution Club ; and having declared 
the gratefull sense he has of the delyverance of the Kingdom 
of Great Britain and Ireland from Popery and slavery by 
King "William and Queen Mary of glorious and immortall 
memory, and of the security of our religion and liberties by 
the settlement of the Crown upon the Illustrious House of 
Hanover ; and his zealous attachment to his Majesty King 
George II. and our present happy constitution in Church and 


State, we do admit the said Sir Andrew Agnew a member of 
the Club. 

" Signed by our clerk, and our seal appended. 

"DAVID FORBES, Clerk." 1 

Among Sir Andrew's associates on his visits to Edinburgh, 
all probably members of this Whig club, where they sealed 
their loyalty by deep draughts to the "glorious, pious, and 
immortal memory," were a large knot of friends and kinsmen 
hailing from the western shires. Among these were David 
Dalrymple, known afterwards as Lord Hailes; Sir James 
Fergusson, Lord Kilkerran, whose younger son George rose to 
convivial fame as Lord Hermand ; Boswell, now Sheriff of Wig- 
town, afterwards Lord Auchinleck ; Fergusson of Craigdarroch, 
grandfather of Burns's " Hero of the Whistle ; " Gillan of Wai- 
house, and Eobert M'Queen, just rising into fame, known later 
as Lord Braxfield. 

In his journeying from the shire to the capital, his favourite 
resting-places were at Eglinton or Sorn, Stenhouse, already pre- 
sided over by his eldest daughter, or Walhouse, of which a 
younger one was destined to be mistress. 

The late General Sir Thomas M'Dougall Brisbane, whose 
mother was Sir Andrew's granddaughter, used to tell with great 
gusto a story of his great-grandfather's behaviour in the parish 
church of Stenhouse, where he had halted over a Sunday on 
one of these peregrinations. 

The parish minister, having given out his text, disputed the 
correctness of the authorised translation, and in enforcing his 
argument, repeated it in Hebrew ; and apparently the words 
were, " Comment vous portez-vous ? " Sir Andrew, who had 
much of the British prejudice against everything French, 
although often thrown in the society of Frenchmen, plumed 
himself on thorough ignorance of their language. Not only had 

1 Lord Mahon (Earl Stanhope) suggests that blue and buff were adopted as 
Whig colours out of compliment to Fox, whose liveries were such. But here we 
have the colours used by a Whig club, obviously as representative, before Fox 
was born. 


these prejudices been grated against, but a direct insult seemed 
to have been offered to the understanding of those present. He 
writhed in his seat, and gesticulated, and with the greatest 
difficulty his daughter Lady Bruce kept him still. But no 
sooner was the blessing pronounced than his wrath exploded, 
and he roared out, much to the amusement of the congregation, 
" The scoondrel ! " adding in self-defence, " Yet I might ha* 
forgi'en him had he not used the only French words I ever 
knew." l 

This tone of thought, opposed as it was to much earlier 
Scottish tradition, obtained more generally after the French had 
thrown their influence into the scale against us in the American 
"War, and is reflected in a local story which has become classic. 

Two maiden ladies of Stranraer were one day returning 
from church, when they found the town-hall placarded with 
news of victories in Spain. Says the younger of the two : " Is 
it no surpreesin', Kirstie, that the Breetish aye beat the French in 
battle ? " " No' in the least, Maggie," replies the elder ; " dinna 
ye ken that the Breetish aye pray before gaun into battle ? " 
" But canna the French pray too ? " inquired the other. " And 
wha'd understand them if they did ? " retorted Miss Christina, 
contemptuously ejaculating " Jabbering bodies ! " An explana- 
tion given and received as self-evident. 

Sir Andrew, it need hardly be said, was impatient of impos- 
ture, and to give "one of Sir Andrew Agnew's broad hints" 
became so proverbial as to find its way into an English book of 
facetise published last century, which thus explains its origin : 

"Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, a well-known Scotch 
baronet, having been long pestered by an impudent intruder, 
who tried to force his company upon him, was one day con- 
gratulated by his friends on having got rid of him, and asked 
how he contrived it. ' Oh/ replied the baronet, ' I was obliged 
to give him a broad hint.' ' A hint ? ' repeated the inquirer ; 

1 The explanation of the story probably is that as knowledge of Hebrew was 
not an accomplishment of the gentry, the words used by the minister were mis- 
understood in the heritor's seat. 


' I surely thought he was one of those that never could be got 
to take one.' ' But by my saul,' exclaimed Sir Andrew, ' he was 
obleeged to take it ! for as the chiel wadna gang oot at the 
door, I just threw him out of the window.' " 

The scene of the story is laid in London ; but we strongly 
suspect it had travelled from Edinburgh. 

Sir Andrew's position as colonel of marines was not a 
sinecure ; his battalion consisted of nearly 1000 men, and his 
lieutenant-colonel not only forwarded to him monthly statements, 
but applied for instructions in the minutest particulars. He 
profited by his new position by nominating his son William to 
a lieutenancy, and on the 14th August 1748 we find his 
lieutenant - colonel, Charles Paulett, reporting his arrival, 
adding, "I should take all the care of him that lies in my 
power." A report from another officer a few days later is : 
" His appearance and manner promise much in his favour, and 
he seems to have a disposition that will engage the regard of 
all who know him." On the 25th October his colonel again 
writes : 

" Lieutenant Agnew stayed here a month according to your 
directions. He behaved very well, and I am acquainted by 
Mr. Winter (his army agent) of his safe arrival in London. 

" To the Hon. Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart." 1 

William Agnew having been thus initiated into his military 

1 The subjoined is one of the many returns of the officers of the Hon. 
Sir Andrew Agnew his regiment of Marines. Dated Southampton, 4th May 

Lieutenant- Colonel Charles Paulett. 
Major Charles Durand. 
Captain Grylls. First Lieutenant Cranstoun. 

Richard Lyttleton ,, Hughes. 

(Bt. Lt. -Col. and Adjutant General). Second Lieutenant Noke. 

Captain Thicknesse. ,, ,, Brockell. 

Robinson. ,, ,, Buckley. 

,, Lucas. ,, ,, Smyth. 

Imber. William Agnew. 

More. Adjutant George Stukey. 

First Lieutenant Tyrrel. Quartermaster Turnhill. 

,, Denett. Surgeon Gardiner. 

,, ,, Stukeley. Chaplain Francis Forth. 

,, ,, Scattergood. Paymaster William Davidson. 


duties, soon after exchanged into the Scots Fusiliers (who 
returned home after the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle), and with 
his regiment embarked for Gibraltar in 1751. 

Although the Act of 1747 deprived baron courts of 
criminal jurisdiction, the larger estates were still legally 
styled baronies ; and the owners of these often formally con- 
stituted their factors bailies, a style which although no longer 
enabling them to act in cases of theft or riot, gave them 
greater prestige in land management. 

In addition to his bailie, a baron always had his baron- 
officer, the recognised channel of communication between 
himself and his tenants, whose duty it was to carry messages 
of any sort, and especially to summon the vassalage to courts. 
The baron-officer was a mounted official, and among the most 
constant of his duties was announcing the rent-day. This in 
old times, and even now by old residenters, is always talked of 
as Rent Court ; the day being fixed, and notice given thereof by 
the baron-officer, attendance was compulsory, absence being 
punishable by a fine. The not having the wherewithal to meet 
the rent, was an excuse utterly inadmissible for absence, as it 
was all the more expected that those unable to pay should 
explain why, and ask for indulgence. 

On large estates the business of the Kent Court was often 
protracted over two or three days, and as proprietors insisted 
on attendance, they equally recognised their duty to provide 

In the best haddin' houses, great preparations were made 
for such occasions; the tables groaned under viands hot and 
cold, flanked by barrels of ale, the whisky-pig and tobacco 
being brought into requisition. 

When evening came, it was not unusual for the ladies of 
the house to grace the regale with their presence ; when, in 
these better-mannered times, pipes were instantly flung aside, 
a fiddler appeared, and a dance followed. 

That the appointment of a bailie was still a regular matter, 
appears from the following paper in the charter chest : 


" Baron Court of Lochnaw, holden att Lochnaw the second 
day of May 1749 years. 

" The which day John Gray, Surgeon in Stranrawer, com- 
peared in open Court, and gave in a commission from Sir 
Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Bart., of the day, constituting him 
Barron-Baillie of the said Sir Andrew's barony of Lochnaw, 
and qualified himself as such by taking the oaths and abjura- 
tion of alleadgiance, who subscribed the same, and thereafter the 
said Barron-Baillie nominated and appointed Thomas Naismith, 
writer in Stranrawer, to be Clerk, and Quentin Shennan, Glen 
Head, Barren-Officer. Eodem die, the Barron-Baillie statutes 
and ordains that the Tenants neglect not when they are legally 
summoned to attend the Barren Court, so that they may 
answer their names when called. Certifying that those that 
neglect to compear at least by twelve of the clock said Court- 
day shall be fined each one so absenting himself in the sum of 
five shillings stirline. 

" And certifies all those that was cited to pay their rents, 
and neglect to attend at least before noon shall be found in the 
same sum. . 

" The whilk day the milners of the Milns of Galdenoch and 
Soleburn severally upon their solemn oaths engages that they 
will honestly and truly make the meals committed to their 
charge, and will enjoyri the Tenants to carry any meals payable 
to the Heretor straight from the mill to the house of Lochnaw." 

Even in the present century, the status of such a bailie of 
barony was tacitly admitted in the higher courts. Colonel 
Andrew M'Dowall of Logan was defended in an action raised 
by certain shipowners in a case of " jetsam and flotsam." A 
vessel had been wrecked on the Logan shores, and among 
the cargo was some wine, which the colonel appropriated. For 
this he was required to account. He pleaded (and no objection 
was taken by the court to the form), "I sold the wreck at 
Dromore, and I drank the wine at Logan, my baron-bailie 
having decided that they were mine." 


Of the universality of the baron-officer, we have topo- 
graphical confirmation, by " Officer's Croft " occurring as a place- 
name in all directions. A place so called near Glenluce was 
occupied by a baron-bailie to Lord Stair, a noted character 
of whom many stories are told in the countryside, among 
which is one of his adventures preserved nearly in his own 
words, when requiring a remount himself for the performance 
of his duties : 

"Being in need o' a bit horse beast, I dannert doun to 
Kelton Hill fair, and soon fell in with a decent -looking 
countryman, who had just the sort of thing I wanted. I asked 
the man into a tent ; we called for a bottle o' yill, and I handed 
him a tumblerful; but he threw aff his bonnet; 'Forbid it,' 
says he, c we should taste the mercies till I ask a blessing/ He 
made a grace as long as ony prayer, and I thought to myself, 
' Well, if there be an honest body on earth, this is the man.' 
I bought the beast on the man tellin' me it was a' richt, and 
brought him hame, but soon found out that the chiel, with a' 
his lang grace, had selt me a glandered horse ! And what 
could I do ? Well, the disease just came and went, and just 
afore the next Kelton Hill fair happened to be the time when 
the running was dried up. I led the beast cannily down to the 
fair ; I met a customer ; said a lang lang grace o'er the yill ; 
selt the beast, got the money in o' my pouch, and hame as fast 
as my feet could carry me. For the next seven years there 
was naebody saw me again at Kelton Hill fair." 

This worthy and his wife used frequently to quarrel. After 
one of these domestic brawls, the wife ran out of the house 
declaring she would drown herself, and made for the Water of 
Luce. She leapt at once into a deep pool, yet instinctively 
grasped a willow which grew upon the bank. Her husband 
had followed close behind unperceived by her; and, as she 
struggled, he quietly cut away the branch by which she held, 
exclaiming, as his helpmate floated down the stream, "I aye 
let gang wi' thee, Mary, and I'll let gang wi' thee yet ! ! " 
Mary, not appreciating this delicate attention, screamed loud 


and angrily for assistance, upon which the good baron-officer 
gravely threw her the end of his plaid and drew her out 
nothing the worse of her ducking. The two then walked 
home silently together, quarrelled more rarely, and she never 
threatened suicide again. 

In 1748 the Duke of Somerset dying, Sir Andrew was 
named his successor as Governor of Teignmouth Castle, a 
garrison near North Shields. 1 The appointment, for which he 
qualified at Newcastle the 18th day of June 1749, was 
virtually a sinecure with a salary of 300 a year attached, 
which he had well earned, these being the only rewards in 
after life for long service, as when a colonel rose by seniority 
to a general officer's rank he received no pay as such. 

In this summer also his daughter Katherine was married 
to John Gillon of Walhouse, County Linlithgow. She carried 
with her a pretty picture of herself as a girl balancing a gold- 
finch on her finger, standing beside her brother Thomas in the 
garden of her mother's villa at Kichmond. It is still in the 
drawing-room at Wallhouse. 

The year following, Captain Agnew, the young laird, 
married Elizabeth Dunbar, a marriage which gave great 
satisfaction to his parents. We are unable to trace her con- 
nection with the Baronet of Mochrum (which probably existed), 
she being simply described in a family memoir as " an English 
heiress." We gather from the settlements that their sailor son 
James had previously died ; these being in the form of a 
resignation by Sir Andrew of his estates to his sons in order, 
who are named as follows : " Forasmuch as Capt. Andrew 
Agnew, my eldest son, has made proposals of marriage to Miss 

1 The commission signed a year later bears: "George II., etc., to our 
trusty and well-beloved Sir Andrew Agnew, Baronet, greeting. We, reposing 
especial confidence in your loyalty, courage, and fidelity, do hereby appoint you 
to be Governor of our Castle at Teignmouth in the County of Northumberland, 
and of the forts and fortifications thereto belonging. To have, hold, and 
exercise the said place in as ample manner as Algernon, Duke of Somerset, or 
any other hath formerly enjoyed the same. 

" Given at our Court of St. James's the 13th day of Feb. 1749-50, and the 
23rd year of our reign." 


Elizabeth Dunbar, daughter of William Dunbar of London, 
merchant : I, from the special regard and confidence I have in 
my said son, do under the reservations aftermentioned dispone 
heritably in his favour whom failing, to William Agnew, my 
second son whom failing, to Stair Agnew, my third son all 
and haill the Barony of Lochnaw ; conform to a Charter under 
the Great Seal, in favour of the deceased Sir James Agnew, 
Baronet of Lochnaw, my father. Signed at Edinburgh, the 9th 
day of January 1750, before Mr. Andrew M'Dowall of King's 
Seat, Mr. Alexander Bos well of Auchinleck, Mr. John Gillon 
of Walhouse." 

The marriage was solemnised the 29th of August following. 
Sad to say, Captain Agnew died prematurely the 1st of May 
1751, leaving an infant daughter who died young. 

An immediate effect of the abolition of heritable juris- 
dictions was to transfer much county business from the 
Sheriffs' Courts to that of the Justices of the Peace. 

Justices had still strongly the hereditary element, as the 
baronage were invariably included in the roll ; but in these 
primitive times this was far from being objected to, the country 
folk usually preferring to lay their complaints and claims 
before the gentry constantly resident among them, rather than 
apply to a non-resident sheriff; considering acquaintance " with 
use and wont," knowledge more essential than that of the 
technicalities of law. 

Justices of the Peace had been constituted as a body in 
1609 ; the Act enjoining them to keep quarter sessions, enforce 
the law against vagabonds, egyptians, destroyers of planting, 
setters of nets illegally, users of setting dogs ; to take charge 
of highways, regulate fees of servants, weights and measures, 
execute against immorality and drunkenness, and appoint 
overseers to provide for the poor. 1 But this and later ratifying 
Acts were allowed to remain dead letters in remote shires; 
the authority of the old resident sheriffs superseding all others. 
Henceforward, however, Justices of the Peace Courts were 

1 28th Parliament James VI. 


regularly held at Kirkcudbright, Wigtown, and Stranraer. 
At the two latter Sir Andrew Agnew regularly attended, 
and from his prestige and experience as sheriff, his age, and 
standing, he always presided ; arriving booted and spurred in 
semi-military costume, and placing his large hunting-whip on 
the table before him as formerly. 

A class of cases which at this time much occupied the 
attention of the justices, were those relating to poor -relief. 
These were still regulated by the old Statute of 1579, which set 
forth " that inasmuch as charity requires that poor, aged, and 
impotent persons should be as necessarily provided for as that 
vagabonds and sturdy beggars should be repressed, it is allowed 
to all the authorities in town and country to tax and stent 
the haill inhabitants within each parish without exception of 
persons to sic contribution as shall be expedient and sufficient 
to sustain their own poor people." l 

This Act was originally referred to Sheriffs and Bailies of 
Eegality to put into execution, but the duty now devolved on 
the Justices of the Peace. 

In practice it was generally met by licensing persons really 
unable to work to beg as king's bedesmen, bluegown men, or 
wearing a token from the sheriff. 2 

And what money was required beyond the church collec- 
tions, was made up by voluntary contributions of the proprie- 
tors. At the date we write of, we believe no poor assessment 
was enforced in any parish in Galloway. 3 

Privileged begging being thus an institution, a wide door 
was open to imposture ; and the cases most frequently before 
the justices were bluegown men, charged with feigning to be 

1 6th Parliament James VI. chap. 74. 

2 2nd Parliament James I. chap. 24 : "They that shall bethoiledto beg, 
sail have a certain taken on them of the Sheriff." This token was ordinarily a 
pewter badge. 

3 Sir Henry Moncreiff says : "Collections and voluntary contributions were 
considered sufficient in all parishes till at least 1755." Dr. Chalmers in his evi- 
dence before the House of Commons in 1840 : "Not more than eight parishes 
were assessed before 1740. Even in 1818 only 207 parishes in Scotland were 
assessed; 654 were certainly not ; from 20 there are no returns." Monypenny, 
Poor-law of Scotland, p. 16. Of the 207 we believe none were in Galloway. 


cripples, the delinquents being in reality sorners and sturdy 

As a large portion of the privileged fraternity were lame, 
"lamiter" became a recognised term for the class, and synony- 
mous with a " bluegown " or " gaberlunzie man." 

Moreover, it had become a usage in Galloway for the lads 
to push such cripples from house to house. The "lamiter" 
being deposited at any door, and having received his contribu- 
tion of food or meal, a son of the house was expected to push 
him on another stage. The following anecdotes, communicated 
by an old retainer, who had received them at first hand from 
a contemporary, amusingly illustrate these habits. 

" Old Sir Andrew," it was said, " aye walked wi' a muckle 
cane staff, and used it gey and freely when onybody fashed him. 
One day a lamiter was wheeled into the courtyard of the Castle, 
asking charity. Presently sounds of altercation were heard 
coming from the kitchen. Up went the sash of the window 
behind which Sir Andrew was sitting, and he called across the 
court to know what was the matter. ' Yer honour,' cried the 
cook, ' a rascal of a lame beggar is giein' me his impudence. 
I've gi'en him a bannock, and a whang o' flesh forbye, and he'll 
no' gang, but maun ha'e a bicker o' yill.' ' I'll yill-bicker the 
loon !' roared the general ; and in a twinkling was in the 
courtyard cane in hand. The cripple got yae blink o' the laird, 
and springing from his barrow, stick and staff' in one hand, 
made off as fast as the soundest legs could carry a man, easily 
distancing his Worship, for he was a supple rascal. Returning 
from the chase, his wife, espying him breathless and excited, 
asked what he had been about. ' Ah, Nellie,' he answered 
laughingly, c my good cane has cured a cripple.' " 

As beggars claiming to be privileged swarmed like locusts 
in the shire, the sheriffs cook found many listeners when he 
related far and wide the story of his master's new-found specific 
for the plague. Not long after, one of the "lamiter" fraternity 
having been set down at a remote farm on the Lochnaw estate, 
after refreshing to his heart's content claimed his privilege 


of being taken on a stage, and two sturdy sons of the tenant 
started to push his barrow by turns. The way was long and 
rough, their attentions not acknowledged as a favour, it was 
even hinted they were lazy, and they got both tired and cross. 
At last, setting down the barrow in a lonely place, the elder 
proceeded to cut a stiff sloe stick, and, winking to the other, 
said, " Pat, suppose we try the sheriff's cure for cripples ?" The 
victim too well understood the drift of the remark, and pleaded 
whiningly for mercy on the score of his helplessness. The elder 
lad vouchsafed no reply, but edged a little distance from the 
barrow, and then called out, " Is there any one in sight, Pat ?" 
" Never a soul, " was the reply. Then, addressing the beggar, 
he continued, " Now, you hallanshaker, ye've given us both a 
warm skin to-day, but, roar as ye please, see if I don't give 
you such a skinful of sore bones as yell remember to your dying 
day." Looking terribly in earnest, he dashed at him, his cudgel 
in the air, when, availing himself of the few seconds' law that 
had been purposely given him, the rascal was out of his cart in 
a moment, the two lads at his heels, he easily giving them 
legbail ; and although he had left both his bags and his crutches 
behind him, he never reappeared to claim them. 1 

" Ah," said the operator, as they trundled back their empty 
barrow, well pleased with their experiment, " but our laird 
weel deserves a bailie-day from every tenant in the parish. 
He has fund a cure will soon rid us o' a' the cripples in the 

In 1752 Sir Andrew's daughter Elizabeth was married to 
Charles Innes of Urrell, and was infefted for her dower in the 
lands of Kilquhokadale, Carsriggan, Ardnamord, and Urrell. 2 

1 Lamiter, a cripple. The dialogue of two beggars who met on a country 
road ran thus : "What's come o' daughter Mary now?" quoth the one to the 
other. " Mary ? she's married," was the reply. "And wha's Mary gotten ?" 
added the inquirer. "Abraw horse cripple," answered the mither. "Weel 
done Mary, " said the man ; " we maun hae a blaw o' the pipe o'er that thegither. " 
M'Taggart's Gallovidian Encyclopaedia. 

2 Kilquhokadale, Torquil or Torketyl, "grave or cell." 
Carsriggan, probably Norse rhyggan, "the rye carse." 

Urrell or Urle, as before said urla, " the hair," i.e. sedgy, hair-like grass. 
Ardnamord, previously given " sheiling of the oxen." 


Meanwhile his youngest son Stair notwithstanding his 
supposed prejudices against trade had been trained in Glas- 
gow for a " scoondrel of a merchant," and sailed to America as a 
member of a firm dealing in cotton and tobacco. 

A letter from Lady Agnew to a sister of Mr. Adair of Bally- 
mena, a member of Parliament and representative of the old 
house of Kilhilt, mentions the two younger sons : 

" I have got no account about Willie since I wrote you last ; 
but Stair I had a letter from ten days ago. Dated (from Vir- 
ginia) 3 September, he was then in perfect health, and agrees 
with and likes Virginia ; and his master writes that as far as he 
understands the business, he doth everything very well, and is 
exceedingly tractable and willing to learn. You may believe 
this good news gives me infinite satisfaction. Pray mind me to 
my dear Bell and Jean ; and wishing them many happy new 
years, believe me, my dear madam, your most obliged friend 
and humble servant, E. AGNEW. 

" Lochnaw, 22 January 1754. 

" To Mrs. Anderson, at her house, Belfast, Ireland." 

William, the young soldier son there mentioned, died in 
garrison at Gibraltar in 1756, on which his brother Stair, now 
sole surviving son, was recalled home; and in 1758 Sir Andrew's 
daughter Wilhelmina married John Campbell of Skerrington ; 
an offshoot of the Campbells of Loudoun, and a descendant of 
the old Lairds of Corswall. 

The sheriff himself, who had become a major-general in 
1756, was gazetted a lieutenant-general in 1759. 

One February morning in 1760, distant cannonading was 
distinctly heard at Lochnaw. Great was the excitement of the 
general, when the news came that, as he had almost instinct- 
ively recognised, the sound was that of French guns across the 
water ; further, that contributions were being levied from the 
loyal across the Channel, whilst the disloyal were wild with 
excitement, the chorus ringing along the shores : 


The French are in the Bay, 
Says the Shan Van Vocht," 1 

with the disagreeable intimation that an early visit to Galloway 
was intended. Apprehensions were increased by the total want 
of means there to offer any effectual resistance. Happily Sir 
Andrew's anxiety was soon set at rest by a messenger bringing 
the welcome intelligence that the British flag was in the offing, 
and floating triumphantly in Galloway waters. 

The circumstances he now learned were as follows : Thurot, 2 
a dashing young French naval commander, boldly entered the 
Channel with three men-of-war, crept undetected along the 
Galloway seaboard, then bearing up for Belfast Lough, suddenly 
brought his guns to bear on Carrickfergus Castle; well garrisoned, 
but at once surprised and overmatched by the weight of the 
Frenchman's gunmetal, it surrendered at discretion, yielding 
him a rich booty in stores, arms, and ammunition. 

Thurot then marched instantly on Belfast, a wealthy and 
open town, and, under threat of bombardment, requisitioned and 
obtained thirty pipes of brandy, fifty hogsheads of claret, various 
linen manufactures, and two tons of onions. His prey secured, 
he stood across the Channel. Happily not thinking it worth 
while to enter Loch Eyan, he steered southward, rounded the 
Mull, and anchored in the Bay of Luce. Meanwhile, however, 
Commodore Elliot was on his track, and had made Belfast 
Lough, to find its castle gutted and its captor off; but followed 
after him so quickly, that he nearly caught him napping on a 
dark night, and all but succeeded in embaying the French 

Thurot, now in turn surprised, managed to weigh anchor 
and make sail ; but at dawn of day on the 28th Elliot engaged 
him in the Bay of Luce, and during a short but severe action 

1 Sean bhan bhoght, " the poor old woman," i.e. Ireland. The chorus of a 
famous rebel song. 

2 Thurot's real name was O'Farrel ; his father having followed James II. into 
exile after the battle of the Boyne. He married a Mademoiselle Thurot, and 
had by her a son, who assumed his mother's name, received French naturalisa- 
tion, and entered the French navy. This expedition consisted of Le Martchal 
Bellisle, 44 guns ; La Blonde, 32 ; Le Terpsichore, 26. 

352 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1747-1760 

the commander was killed, and the French ships, disabled, 
struck their colours. 1 

The greatest excitement prevailed on the Galloway shores 
during the fight and for some days following. The combatants 
could almost be seen with the naked eye, the guns resounding 
across the peninsula ; and from the great loss of life (that of 
the French alone being estimated at 300 men) fresh bodies were 
strewn on the beach by each returning tide. That of Thurot 
himself was early found and easily recognised, his remains hav- 
ing been committed to the deep in a velvet pall, dressed in his 
uniform with orders attached, and in his pocket a silver snuff- 
box bearing his rank and name. 

Being found near Monreith Bay, by a happy thought Sir 
William Maxwell invited the baronage to the funeral, who 
chivalrously responded, and respectfully accorded to a gallant 
foeman who had lately caused them such well-grounded alarm, 
a funeral befitting his rank and bravery, laying him to rest 
within a stone's-throw of Medana's Well, in the lovely church- 
yard of Kirkmaiden in Femes. 

1 Captain John Elliot, the commodore, was fourth son of Sir Gilbert Elliot, 
second Baronet of Minto, and brother of the first Lord Minto, and Andrew 
Elliot, last British Governor of New York. 

His despatch as to the action is dated Ramsey Bay, 29th February 1760 : 
' c On the 24th I received information at Kingsale that there were three ships of 
the enemy at Carrickfergus. I sailed with H.M. ships dEolus, the Pallas, 
and Brilliant, in quest of them. I made the entrance of Carrickfergus on the 
26th, but could not get in. On the 28th, at 4 in the morning, we got sight of 
them, and gave chase. About 9 I got alongside and the action became general, 
and lasted about an hour and a half, when all three struck their colours. I find 
it impossible to ascertain the number of the enemy killed, but by the best 
accounts I can get to about 300." 


A.D. 1761 to 1771 

The cantie auld folks crackin' crouse, 

The young ones ranting through the house. 

WHILST not inheriting his father's real love for practical farm- 
ing, the last sheriff after his return home lived as it were in 
an agricultural atmosphere, farming being the hobby of almost 
all those with whom he was intimate and thrown in contact. 

Though the fourth Earl of Stair, being also Earl of Dumfries, 
rarely lived in Galloway, yet the fields and breeding lairs of 
Castle Kennedy were not unworthy of the traditions of the 

Alexander, sixth Earl of Galloway, M'Dowall of Freuch, 
afterwards himself fifth Earl of Dumfries, and M'Dowall of 
Logan, were all famed as cattle-breeders. 

The beautiful Janet Dalrymple of Sir Andrew's dancing 
days, now Countess Dowager of Loudoun, kept house at Sorn 
in a green old age, where she barely yielded to his cousin Lord 
Eglinton the first place in Ayrshire in the race towards perma- 
nent improvement. 1 

Besides these owners of large estates, among the old sheriff's 

1 Lady Janet Dalrymple, born 4th September 1677, married 1700 the third 
Earl of Loudoun. She was left a widow in 1731, and settled at Sorn. 

As Chalmers writes : "She who in her younger days had adorned courts by 
her elegance, in her widowhood sat down in a solitary castle amidst rudeness and 
ignorance, and lived there upwards of 70 years, improving her demesne and bene- 
fiting the neighbourhood." Chalmers's Caledonia, iii. 476. 



most intimate friends were a knot of law lords Hailes, Bank- 
ton, Braxfield, Auchinleck whose greatest pleasure and relax- 
ation it was to cultivate their own lands. And these friends 
were particularly well qualified to advise, and had a professional 
aptitude in framing such conditions of lease as should at once 
define the tenant's obligations as regarded not only the mere 
rent, but for preserving and increasing the fertility of his farm. 

A lease of this transition period is interesting, as evidencing 
the great advance of the land's value to the owners, as well as 
in the position of the cultivators themselves ; marking also the 
entire termination of the steelbow system, under which the 
beasts of labour, as well as much of the seed-corn, were found 
by the proprietor, and under which the tenant on removal left 
the farm penniless as he had come in. 

Offerers for farms were now able to find both their seed- 
corn and farm horses, and also their stock, for themselves. 

A much more formal lease of the twelfth sheriff runs as 
follows : 

" At Lochnaw, 10 April 1762. 

" The Honble. Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, Barronett, 
Lt.-General of his Majesty's forces, and Governor of Tinmouth 
Castle, letts to Patrick M'Neily in Meikle Galdenoch, the whole 
lands of Meikle Galdenoch and Salt-pan Croft thereof, with 
liberty to repair, rebuild, and keep going the Salt-pan, and to 
cut turf and peats on the lands of Galdenoch for the said pan, for 
the space of 19 years. Keserving as much of the outfield ground 
of the said lands lying contiguous to the miln as will answer 
to keep two cows and their followers in reasonable grass summer 
and winter to the milner of the said miln ; as also one boll 
sowing of cornland for said milner, both which being estimated 
at 1 : 14 : 4 sterling yearly. And burdening this tack with 
liberty to the milner of the miln of Galdenoch annually to cut 
divot in the most convenient places for the keeping up of the 
miln-dams, conform to use and wont, but also to cast his peats 
moss meal free in the said lands, under which reservation 


Patrick M'Neily binds himself to pay the sum of 23 : 14 : 8 
and two thirds of a penny sterling in full silver rent. Further 
to supply Schoolmaster's Salary and other public burdens im- 
posed or to be imposed on said lands of Meikle Galdenoch, at 
the rate of 138 Scots of valuation. 

" Further, yearly two good and sufficient fastern-even hens 
out of every reek house in the subjects. 

" Further, to perform, at the usual seasons of each year, the 
Baillie-work following : To cast and lead to the house of Loch- 
naw ten score and sixteen loads of good and sufficient black 
well-made peats, or otherwise, at the option of the master, to 
pay one shilling Scots for each load. To give seven sufficient 
shearers with hooks for one day to cut down any grain belong- 
ing to Sir Andrew Agnew, and one day's shearing more of every 
cottar in his possession. Item, To furnish three horses and 
men, with proper greathing and other necessary implements, for 
two days, to the leading of hay and corn, dung, sand, or any 
other particular, to or from the house of Lochnaw, as he 
shall receive instructions ; Item, To furnish three couple of 
horse, with proper greathing, for one day's harrowing of corn, 
bear, or other grain, as and when required. Lastly, to furnish 
one of his cottars to the footing of peats in the moss, or the 
cloding of them at the peat stack. 

" Moreover, the said Patrick shall, at all times when salt is 
made, provide the family of Lochnaw with what salt shall be 
required at the rate of eight pounds Scots per Boll and Auchlett 
Wigton measure, the price whereof to be allowed out of the 
silver rent. 

" Also in case any of the neighbouring Tennants shall incline 
to have march dikes and ditches made, the said Patrick is 
hereby bound to be at the expense of masons building one half 
of said march dykes, for which an allowance to be made by the 
said Sir Andrew Agnew at the issue of these presents. 

" Further, the said Patrick is at no time to labour above one 
third part of the corn ground of said lands ; to have every 
break three years under labour and no longer ; and regularly to 


go about with the tillage, except as to any proper ground he 
shall bring in by burning. 

" Further, the said Patrick shall cause to be eat the whole 
fodder of hay or straw growing upon the lands, and lay the 
dung arising therefrom upon the said lands. 

"Further, the said Patrick during the currency of his 
lease to grind his grain which shall grow upon the subjects 
hereby sett at the rniln of Galdenoch, and to pay the multures 
and mill dues and services conform to use and wont ; and yearly 
to pay three stocks of Sergeant corn to the Barron Officer." 
(Clauses follow as to keeping premises in repair and removing 
without warning at end of lease.) " In witness whereof, these 
presents, written on stamped paper by John Telfair, apprenticed 
to David Agnew, Sheriff-Clerk of Wigtown, are subscribed at 
Lochnaw before these witnesses : John Eoss of Cairnbrock, 
factor on the estate, and the above David Agnew. 

" A. AGNEW. 


Here we find definitely the customs, not of Lochnaw merely, 
but of Galloway estates of the period ; and in estimating the 
value of landed property to the proprietor, it is to be observed 
that all public burdens were paid by the tenants that is really 
that their amount formed a part of the rent. Bailie-work was 
an important item, as the baron had thus his fuel supplied gratis, 
besides labour on the home farm (which was always large), as 
well as cartages free that is again the tenant rendered these 
in lieu of money, and as every farm found bailie-work as to 
men and horses proportionally the value was considerable ; and 
although the silver rent of this one farm sounds small, only 
sterling money 23 : 14 : 6, yet this represented 285 Scots, 
and a pound Scots probably went as far in Galloway then as a 
pound sterling of to-day, and the victual rent must also be 
taken into calculation, which (as the bailie-work greatly 
lessened the cost of out-door labour) went far to reduce the 
expenses of the household. 


The victual rent was very considerable; from a part of 
the barony of Lochnaw alone (we can find no note of what 
there was due from the sheriffs-lands estate, including all that 
part which lies in the parishes of Whithorn and Sorbie), viz. 
that lying in the parishes of Leswalt and Kirkcolm, there were 
paid annually into the offices at Lochnaw : 

Nineteen wethers, forty -eight lambs, two swine, thirty - 
seven capons, forty-seven reek hens, four hundred and fifty-six 
chickens, ten dozen eggs, two and a half stones tallow, three 
stone and three quarters butter, two thousand oysters, six cod- 
fish, one hundred and five bolls meal, thirty-five bolls barley, 
three thousand five hundred and forty loads of peat. 

The term " reek hens " is clearly explained by the context 
in the lease itself, " out of every reek house " that is, for every 
fire lighted, practically for every inhabited house. 

In the Highland Society's journal we find a somewhat 
different explanation of the term, which, being from the pen of 
a practical and accomplished Galloway agriculturist (Mr. 
Thomas M'Clellan in Balfern), is sufficiently amusing to 
quote, though it can hardly be held to be of universal 
application : 

" A peculiar institution in most leases of last century was 
the payment to the landlord of ' reek hens.' At that period the 
architects of the farm-houses never seem to have made pro- 
vision for the smoke or ' reek ' to escape. A hole was made in 
the roof where it might find its way out, but without any 
chimney to conduct it upwards. On the rafters of the house 
the poultry always lodged, and the best hen roosted most 
directly over the fire, hence the name ' reek hen.' These hens 
were esteemed great delicacies, and were continued as payment 
in kind in some leases as late as 1800." * 

As a tangible result of the general spirit of improvement 
now evoked, the Province, once most generally unfenced, and 
where early efforts at enclosure had been balked by the 

1 Transactions of the Highland Society, 4th series, vol. vii. p. 13, article 
Wigtown. In fact they were continued on the Lochnaw estate till 1820. 


Levellers, now was famous for its dykes. 1 There was a con- 
siderable export of grain ; and Galloway cattle, better cared for 
and better fed, which had always been somewhat in demand, 
now commanded the southern markets at greatly increased 

The old sheriff, as said before, took much greater interest in 
his live-stock than in cropping, and a story is still current 
of his summary despatch of a dangerous bull, which is told 
thus : " One day, whilst visiting his breeding lairs, a mad bull 
suddenly attacked him, and the general, not accustomed to run 
away, made such a bad double of it, that he narrowly escaped 
ending his career there and then, and only clambered his 
garden-wall in time to avoid the blow of the battering-ram 
launched against his posteriors. Much nettled, and using 
strong language, he entered the house, and soon reappeared 
armed cap-ct-pie and gun in hand. 2 Ee-entering the park, he 
grunted out, ' Ye had me at a disadvantage, ye Tory, but 111 
fight ye fairly now.' The servants, who followed at a safe 
distance, begged him to stay within the wall ; but he, disdaining 
to take a pot-shot at the brute, which was roaring prodigiously, 
drily said, c Hoot ! Ill fight the loon fairly the mair noise 
the less fear but stay ye there if ye please.' Closing with the 
bull in the act of making an ugly rush, his gun was coolly 
levelled, the bullet did its duty, and as the attendants crowded 
round the animal now made safe, he improved the occasion 
with the remark, ' The loon that brags owre mickle is never a 
good fighter.'" 

James M'Queen of Braxfield was brought into closer con- 
nection with the family at Lochnaw by his marriage with Mary 
Agnew, the sheriff's niece, daughter of his brother James of 

1 The " Galloway dyke," the most approved form of the dry stone wall, owes 
its name to the circumstance of its having been originally introduced into use in 
Galloway. Old Stat. Ace. i. 362, date 1791. 

2 The ingleside version is, "Auld Sir Annra put on his armour and cam' 
oot." This, of course, could not be accepted literally, as being simply ridiculous ; 
it merely suggests that he affected a semi-military costume common in those 
days, and the favourite recollection of him being "a gran' warrior, "the tradition 
thus takes its martial colouring. 


Bishop Auckland. M'Queen, then a rising advocate, afterwards 
better known as Lord Braxfield, was a remarkable man, who 
under much roughness of speech carried a warm heart, and 
whose careless and often coarse expressions were always 
seasoned with wit. Stern at times, and having no patience 
with any leaning towards Jacobinism, under which he classed 
all expression of liberal opinions, yet so strong in his individu- 
ality, that even Lord Cockburn, with whom he was no favourite > 
yet admits that he was " the giant of the Bench," adding, " His 
very name makes people start yet." 

His telling rejoinders and incisive remarks have been most 
unfairly exaggerated and distorted ; * and incontrovertible 
evidence has only lately come to light by the publication of 
the contemporary manuscript of Eamsay of Ochtertyre, whose 
shrewd opinion is the more impartial, as he states that he 
knew him little personally ; and he draws his character thus : 
" When called to the Bench he was one of the most popular 
characters at the Bar, and, which was rare indeed, seemed to 
have no enemies. In the Court of Session he fully justified the 
sanguine expectations of his friends, and after the death of 
some great judges he was listened to as an oracle who often 
struck light out of darkness. 

" If his wit and humour would have revolted Lord Chester- 
field as coarse, yet in his highest glee he was always pleasant 
and good-natured. When, at an advanced age, he breathed 
his last, one of his brethren, who had long been one of his 
ablest political rivals, said, ' He has carried away more sound 
law with him than he has left on the Bench.' " 2 

1 A brutal saying of Lord Kames has been most unfairly attributed to 
Braxfield. Lord Kames had had many a battle at chess with a certain Matthew 
Hay. Hay was tried by Kames at Ayr for forgery ; and on the jury finding 
him guilty, Kames passed sentence of death, coolly adding, "And there's a 
checkmate to you, Matthew." Sir "Walter Scott told the story at the Prince 
Regent's table ; a person present confused the matter, and told it as of Braxfield 
to Lockhart, who published it in his Life of Scott, which had general circulation. 
Braxfield had no connection whatever with the matter. 

2 Ramsay's Scotland and Scotsmen. Ochtertyre MSS. i. 380-393. In this his 
career is traced, commencing thus: " Robert M 'Queen put on his gown a little 
before the Rebellion of '45. His father had purchased the lands of Braxfield 


It need hardly be said that he was a man after the sheriff's 
own heart, and for two generations was the closest friend of his 
family a prized companion to himself, and the kindest of 
advisers to his son. 

Long before his connection with Galloway, when making 
his way at the Bar, he had fixed on the great Gallovidian 
jurist, Lord Stair, as his model. When conducting one of his 
earliest cases, the presiding judge advanced what M' Queen felt 
sure was bad law. " May I respectfully ask," he said, " where 
your Lordship got that ? " 

" From Stair," confidently returned the judge. 

" Na, na ! " exclaimed M'Queen, in a tone and voice which 
showed he had momentarily forgotten the difference in their 
position; "na, my Lord, that can never be, for there's nae 
nonsense to be found in Stair ! " 

Dean Kamsay connects Braxfield's name with that of a 
minister in a convivial story, which has a distinctly Gallovidian 

Going circuit in the west, he was invited to a nobleman's 
table, and, when the cloth was removed, was surprised at 
seeing only port and Madeira upon the mahogany. With his 
usual directness, he turned to his host and asked if there were 
" nae claret in his fine castle ? " " Oh yes," said my lord, " but 
my butler tells me it isn't good." "Let's pree it," said the 
judge patronisingly. A bottle was brought, and on trial the 
verdict was that it was particularly good. 

Grace had been said by the Eeverend Mr. M'Cubbin, and 
Braxfield, slyly addressing him across the table, playing on the 
terms usual in Scottish Church courts, said, "Noo, minister, ye see 

near Lanark. In his prime and decline he spent every hour he could command 
at this country seat, which he loved the more that he had gathered birds' nests 
there in his boyish days. Educated for the law, by degrees people began to 
discover his merits ; and he was not inaptly compared to a rough diamond. The 
best lawyers were fond of having Mr. M 'Queen as an adjunct; his frankness 
and honesty recommended him to the more sensible practitioners, and whilst 
they admired an uncommon mixture of shrewdness and application, his social 
hours delighted them beyond measure, for he could be serious or frolicsome 
as the case required." 


a ' fawma clamosa ' hath gone forth against this wine ; I propose 
you should absolve it." " My Lord/' replied M'Cubbin, with a 
responsive twinkle in his eye, "you'll observe the practice 
in our courts is not exactly the same as that your Lordship is 
accustomed to. We never absolve under three several appear- 
ances ! " 

Uproarious was the delight of Braxfield at the answer, 
which was less to their host's humour, who had the name of 
being somewhat stingy. 1 

As Braxfield has been the subject of misrepresentation, so 
also we feel we owe an apology to Mary Agnew for an uninten- 
tional imputation of bad temper, conveyed in an often-repeated 
exclamation of the old Justice- Clerk, as told by Lord Cockburn. 
His butler one morning burst into his study excitedly, and 
threw up his place. The judge asked why in the world he 
should wish to go, as he was perfectly satisfied with him. He 
answered that he knew that, but his lady was always scolding 
him. " Man," replied Braxfield, " ye've little to complain of ! 
Be thankful you're no' married upon her!" The fact being 
that before the time Lord Cockburn spoke of, his first wife had 
died, and he had married, secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of 
Chief-Baron Ord. 

About the same time Penelope, the youngest daughter of 
Lochnaw, married her kinsman Alexander Agnew of Dalreagle, 
and had settled upon her for her dower the lands of Dal- 
reagle, Fintalloch, Glenruther, Glenluchart and Myrtoun- Agnew 

1 Dean Rarnsay prefaces the story thus: "Lord Braxfield was one of the 
judges of the old school, and might be said to possess all the qualities united for 
which they were remarkable. He spoke the broadest Scotch, was a sound and 
laborious lawyer ; he was fond of a good glass of claret, and had a great fund of 
good Scotch humour. He presided at many important political trials, and 
conducted them with much ability and firmness ; occasionally, no doubt, with 
more appearance of severity than is usual in later times. The disturbed 
temper of his times and the daring spirit of political offenders, seemed, he 
thought, to call for a bold and fearless front on the part of the judge, and 
Braxfield was the man to show it." Scottish Life and Character. 

The Reverend Andrew M'Cubbin, minister of Leswalt, died 1851, aged 
ninety, having personally known five generations of the House of Lochnaw. 
We do not know whether he was connected with the minister mentioned by the 


(formerly Myrtoun-M'Kie). 1 She had a son Patrick, who rose 
to be a general in the East India Company's service, under 
whom the Duke of Wellington (then Colonel Wellesley of the 
33rd Eegiment) was initiated in the art of war. 

Stair Agnew, now the young laird, on the 23rd of June 
1*763 married Mary, daughter of Thomas Baillie of Pol- 
kemmet : a house having a common origin with that of Laming- 
ton and Dunragit. There is a dry notice about this date 
(1761) of the seventh Earl of Galloway in the diary of Mary 
Grenville, afterwards Mrs. Delaney. He had long been an 
invalid, and had to make frequent journeys to Aix in Provence 
for his health. He had doubtless then arrived in town to 
support Lord Bute against the Duke of Newcastle. She 
notices him thus : " Lord Galloway of Scotland is a thin, 
dismal-looking man. He was presented not long ago at Court ; 
a person asked who he was, a gentleman replied, 'A Scotch 
undertaker come to bury the English ministry.' " 2 The 
merry maid of honour, however, was unaware that the dismal 
look was due, not to any want of geniality, but to pain. 

In 1*764 Sir David Carnegie, who had long been one of the 
sheriff's captains in the Scots Fusiliers, who also represented 
Kincardineshire as representative of the attainted earls, obtained 
leave to repurchase the Southesk estates from the York Build- 
ing Company for what, even then, was represented to be a mere 
song ; though the sum was 36,8*70. He did not live, as it were, 
to inherit, dying at Stamford in 1765 on his way to take pos- 

About a year later Eleanor, the sheriff's granddaughter, 
daughter of Sir Michael Bruce, married Thomas, second son of 
Brisbane of Brisbane (by Isabele, daughter of Sir Thomas 
Nicholson of Ladykirk), whose elder brother James dying three 

1 Dalreagle, Ac. And. Dereagle, as also Symson. Derivation doubtful, probably 
from deerg, red, i.e. reddish land : as Derrigal, Waterford ; Darrigle, Mayo ; 
the Dargle, Wicklow (Joyce, ii. 39). Glenruther, Klonridder, Pont, riderch, 
"glen or slope on the knight's riddery." Glenluchart, "the mouse's glen." 
Fintalloch, "white hill." Myrtoun (Saxon), "dwelling by the mere." 

2 Autobiography of Mary Grenville (Mrs. Delaney), iii. 627. Lord Galloway 
died at the baths of Aix, 24th September 1773. 


years later, the bridegroom became himself the heir. There 
had been an older connection between the Brisbanes and the 
Agnews of Galdenoch. A son of this marriage General Sir 
Thomas M'Dougall Brisbane rose to considerable eminence as 
a soldier, a man of science, and a successful colonial governor. 

In 1764 the only daughter of the sheriff's eldest son died 
in London, aged thirteen. 1 Her mother, who was a person of 
some fortune, lived in Marlborough Street, now best known from 
its heading for police intelligence ; then, however, a fashionable 
quarter, the Duke of Argyle's residence being adjacent. 

The general had been much attached to his granddaughter, 
having had a picture taken of her not many months before her 
death, which is still at Lochnaw. 

Among the sheriff's few surviving contemporaries as a laird 
was Sir William Maxwell, who, although his junior in age, had 
succeeded his father Sir Alexander in 1730. 

Monreith, always a centre of hospitality, was soon after 
doubly en fite on the occasion of the marriage of Jane, the 
elder daughter of the house, to Alexander, fourth Duke of 
Gordon. The marriage itself was celebrated at Ayton, in Ber- 
wickshire, her sister's house ; her younger sister Eglantine after- 
wards marrying Sir Thomas Wallace of Craigie. 

The duchess, to no small share of beauty, added a ready wit 
and great strength of character, and soon became a power in 
the State as well as in society. The haughty Pitt had to 
acknowledge the value of her assistance in support of his ad- 
ministration ; and the position she had made for herself doubt- 
less assisted in the extraordinarily successful connections she 
effected for her daughters, marrying three to dukes, the fourth 
to a marquis. It is pleasant, moreover, to be able to add that, 
amidst all the distractions, feted, flattered, sought after in the 
highest circles, 2 her heart always beat warm towards Gallo- 

1 Died 16th June 1764 Miss Elizabeth Agnew, daughter of Mrs. Agnew 
of Marlborough Street, and granddaughter of Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart. 
Lloyd's Evening Post. 

2 Sir William Wraxhall, a contemporary authority, thus writes: "I shall 
speak of her with great impartiality, from long personal acquaintance. She was 


way ; and when queen of fashion, she had not unlearned her 
mastery of the Galloway vernacular. 

She dumfoundered a dandy at a supper-party at Carleton 
House, who to gain her good graces affected a great liking for 
the Scottish tongue, declaring that there was not a Scottish 
phrase he did not perfectly understand. " Eax me a spawl o' that 
bubbly jock/' 1 replied the duchess, without changing a muscle 
of her face ; and the exquisite, having first looked blank, slunk 
away in confusion, as the commission was performed to her 
satisfaction by a cavalier hailing from the north of the Tweed. 

Although the sheriff was doubtless pleased at the social 
success of the fair girl he had watched with interest from early 
womanhood, he himself now seldom if ever visited the metro- 
polis. But in his old age he had exertions imposed upon him 
in his magisterial capacity, in which also the Laird of Monreith 
was equally concerned, requiring nothing short of military 
experience to carry out. They were called upon to cope with 
an outbreak of smuggling renewed and carried on on a scale 
and with an audacity hitherto unknown. 

The older race of smugglers, though often desperate charac- 
ters individually, relied principally on the secret sympathy and 
assistance of the farmers and their workers, who for obvious 
reasons, except in the very last extremity, were anxious to avoid 

one of the three daughters of Sir William Maxwell of Monteath (sic), a Scotch 
baronet ; and the song, ' Jeanie of Monreith,' which I have heard the Duke of 
Gordon sing, was composed to celebrate her charms. 

" She might aptly have represented the Juno of Homer ; her features how- 
ever, noble, pleasing, and regular, always animated, constantly in play, yet dis- 
played no timidity. They were sometimes overclouded by occasional frowns of 
anger or vexation, much more frequently lighted up with smiles. The admini- 
stration did not possess a more active partisan ; confiding in her rank, her sex, 
and personal attractions, she ventured to send for members of Parliament to 
question, to remonstrate, to use every means for confirming their adherence to 
the government. ... In her daughters centred her ambitious cares ; for their 
elevation no exertions seemed too laborious. It would be vain to seek for 
any other instance in one history of a woman who has allied three of her five 
daughters in marriage to English dukes, and a fourth to a marquis." Wrax- 
hall, Posthumous Memoirs, ii. 313, iii. 266. 

1 Equivalent to "Reach me a wing of that turkey." Spawl, strictly the 
shoulder (6paule, French) ; spule-bone, shoulder-blade. 


The new phase in the offence was that men of substance, 
business training, and apparent respectability, 1 not mere trucu- 
lent Dirk Hatteraicks, built large and well-appointed vessels for 
the trade. Not content with the secret assistance of tenants 
and their men, they themselves took leases of farms at high 
rents, cultivation being a secondary matter carried on mainly 
as a scheme to enable them to keep a large staff of men and 
horses without incurring suspicion. All classes were more or 
less demoralised ; proprietors asking no questions as long as they 
paid their rents; the real farmers sympathising actively as 
before, their hinds delighting in the new service, which had just 
enough danger about it to make them the heroes of the ale- 
house. In short, there was a general conspiracy in favour of 
the contrabandists ; and many of the justices themselves were 
wilfully blind as to what was going on under their very noses. 

Money placing brains, as well as brawny arms, at the service 
of the smuggling companies, the most ingenious plans were 
carried into effect for baffling the preventive officers. 

Caches were contrived which remained long undiscovered ; 
three of the most typical of which were at Clone and Drum- 
troddan on Sir William Maxwell's property, the third at Drum- 
mahowan on the sheriff's. At the latter the cliff is pierced by 
a long cave, apparently ending in deep water ; but the rocky 
roof, seeming to descend, does not touch the dark pool, which 
only divides the cavern, but expands beyond it, a dry bottom 
here affording a retreat not readily detected. How far its 
dimensions have been enlarged by art we cannot say ; but as a 
place of refuge almost undiscoverable, it was doubtless known 
to the natives centuries before their acquaintance with tariffs or 
custom-house officers. 

At Drumtroddan, almost within sight of Monreith House, 
the smuggler tenant outwitted the exciseman by a very simple 
stratagem. A fire-proof chamber was constructed under the 

1 Not only did merchants embark capital in smuggling ventures, but 
ministers and many of the smaller lairds connived at it. The minister of 
Anwoth, Rev. Robert Carson, was deposed from his office because he not only 
smuggled himself, but encouraged others to do so. Scots Magazine, 1767. 


kiln. Over and over again the place was searched by coast- 
guardsmen on certain information, but for long in vain. A 
watch was kept on the officers, and the instant they hove in 
sight the kiln fire was lighted, and the stone by which alone the 
store could be entered was inaccessible. At Clone, also on the 
Bay of Luce, a more elaborate arrangement was made, by which 
the excisemen may be said to have been doubly tricked. One 
chamber was formed under ground, which was useful for ordi- 
nary operations ; but below this again was formed a larger one, 
strongly arched over, and only accessible from below it. In this 
the more valuable contraband goods, or those they were not 
prepared to run, were placed ; and if perchance the revenue men 
discovered the upper of the two chambers, they got but a small 
portion of the booty, never thought of burrowing below it, 
and thus were tricked at the moment they plumed themselves 
on complete success. 

Although now verging on fourscore, old Sir Andrew was 
constantly in the saddle in this active campaign against the 
contrabandists; now presiding at meetings of justices, now 
receiving reports, now encouraging the coastguardsmen, or en- 
deavouring so to dispose the troops sent to assist the magistrates 
as to defeat the deeply-laid plans of the scoundrels. Much of 
the lawlessness now rampant was doubtless due to the stupid 
fiscal policy of the government, which made smuggling so 
profitable that those engaged in it, what between the means of 
pay and popular sympathy on their side, could oppose force to 

In one of the many collisions which ensued, these desper- 
adoes daringly turned the tables on their assailants at the 
moment they themselves appeared to have fallen into a trap. 
The justices learned that on a given night three vessels would 
discharge valuable cargoes at the Crow's Nest in Luce Bay ; this 
consequently brought strategy into play. The coastguardsmen 
were to muster in force and watch, but not interfere with the 
disembarkation. A large party of soldiers were marched from 
Stranraer after dark and placed in ambush near the Luce. The 


smuggling caravan was made up, put in motion, the coastguards- 
men laughing in their sleeves, meaning to take them in the rear. 
The plan as arranged by the authorities seemed all but carried 
out ; but somehow a little bird had carried intelligence of it to the 
smugglers, who prepared accordingly. The loaded horses were 
passing in long files towards the interior, the jubilant excisemen 
followed, and in due time the expected discharge of muskets 
told them that the smugglers had stumbled into the ambush 
laid for them. On they rushed with a cheer, but what was 
their mortification and surprise to find that they had scattered 
the regular troops like chaff before the wind, and were marching 
on as if nothing had happened, showing much too strong a 
rear-guard for them to venture to attack ! l 

A sad catastrophe closed the portals of Eglinton Castle to 
Sir Andrew, where the beautiful Suzanna still kept house for 
her unmarried son. This son, a man of varied accomplishments, 
of much ability, and one of the greatest agricultural improvers 
of the day, riding (24th October 1769) in his own grounds, 
interfered personally, somewhat imprudently, with a poacher, 
whose offence was aggravated by the fact of his having been 
previously caught and forgiven ; 2 and the earl insisting that he 
should give up his gun, in the struggle he was shot, and died 
the same night, sincerely lamented by a wide circle of acquaint- 
ances, a warm friend, exemplary in his public and private 
conduct. The shock to his mother was so great that she left 
Eglinton, never to return. 

1 There were upwards of 200 of them when they left Glenluce in Galloway ; 
they had all been loaded at Glenluce Bay from three smuggling vessels. The 
band was attacked near Glenluce by a party of the military, and some excise 
officers of the neighbourhood. But the military, consisting of a sergeant and 
sixteen men, were defeated, got their firelocks broke, and many of themselves much 
hurt. Edinburgh Weekly Magazine, 1771. 

2 Mungo Campbell, officer of excise at Saltcoats, had been detected poaching 
upon his estate, but passed from prosecution on his promising not to repeat the 
offence. The earl insisted on having his gun ; he said he would sooner part with 
his life, desiring his lordship to keep off if he valued his own. Lord Eglinton 
still pressed forward, and Campbell fired at him within three or four yards. 
Campbell was convicted at Edinburgh, but escaped a public execution by hang- 
ing himself in jail. 


Her only surviving son, Archibald, succeeded as eleventh earl: 
an active soldier, who gained his lieutenant-colonelcy by raising 
the 77th Eegiment, then Highlanders. 

Owing to his connection with the sheriff, he had been 
nominated an elected member for the boroughs of Wigtown, 
Whithorn, and Stranraer ; but being simultaneously chosen for 
the shire of Ayr, he had naturally preferred to represent his 
native county. 

The circle that had lived through the '45 was rapidly break- 
ing up. His brother James of Bishop Auckland died in 1776. 
But of all the friends of Sir Andrew's early youth, none were 
more remarkable than Lady Loudoun, already mentioned, who, 
though now a nonagenarian, still lived in cheerful intimacy 
with her early friends, and eventually outlived them all : the 
wonder of her age, she died in the full possession of her faculties, 
within a few months of her hundredth year. 1 

On the 22nd August 1771, Sir William Maxwell, a younger 
man than the sheriff, passed from the scene. Sir Andrew did 
not, however, long survive him. Though in his eighty-fourth 
year, he still seemed hale and hearty, taking horse exercise daily; 
but within a few months after this, riding to the Scar, which 
projects into Loch Ryan, a favourite haunt, his horse stumbled 
on the shingle, and he had a heavy fall, from the effects of 
which he succumbed, and died before the close of the year; 
the long evening of his days having been passed among his 
own people, by whom he was universally loved, long regretted, 
and among whom his memory is still green. 

Eccentric, and perhaps a little irascible, he won and retained 
the regard and respect of all orders, his heart being known to 
be in the right place. He has been favourably and kindly 
noticed by authors of the most opposite schools, religious and 
secular, Jacobite, Whig, and high Tory. All have a good word 

1 She was bom 4th September 1677, died 3rd April 1777. 

Wight, who made an agricultural tour shortly before her death, visited the 
countess, and records: "She surprised me with her knowledge of husbandry, 
discoursed on the qualities of various grasses, etc. In a word, her farm graces 
the county of Ayr, and might grace the richest county in Britain." 


to say for the Whig colonel, the last of the long line of the 
Hereditary Sheriffs of Galloway. 

Mackenzie, with pardonable partiality for a Gallovidian, writes 
of him as " the heroic Sir Andrew Agnew," quoting with pride 
another author's expression, " Sir Andrew Agnew was accounted 
one of the bravest men that ever entered the British Army " ; 
adding, "He was never present at any action in which the 
English were defeated, though he fought in many battles." l 

Chambers, whose leanings were Jacobite, writes of him 
as " a skilful and successful officer, distinguished by deeds of 
personal daring, as well as eccentric peculiarities of manner, 
which made him a favourite in the fireside legends of the 
Scottish peasantry." 2 

M'Crie, an elegant writer and well-known church historian 
whose sympathies are entirely with Covenanters and Cameronians > 
whereas the sheriff was a firm adherent of the Established Church, 
relates as the result of his own personal inquiries : " Many are 
the traditional anecdotes related of Sir Andrew Agnew, the 
famous lieutenant-general, and it deserves to be added that this 
distinguished officer, with all his eccentricities, was a good man. 
And that in consequence of his strict attention to religious 
duties in which he met little sympathy, he exposed himself 
to trials of moral courage hardly less severe than those which 
had tested his military prowess." 3 

The last we shall quote is Sir Walter Scott, whose likings 
were not with the Whigs, and whose historical sketches are apt 
to take colour from his Tory politics ; yet he characterises Sir 
Andrew Agnew as "famous in Scottish tradition, a soldier of 
the old military school, severe in discipline, stiff" and formal 
in manners, brave to the last degree, and somewhat of a 
humourist/' 4 

1 Mackenzie's History of Galloway, ii. 417, and Appendix 46. 

2 Chambers's Eminent Scotsmen, vol. v. p. 4. 

3 Rev. Thomas M'Crie, D.D., Memoirs of Sir Andrew Agnew, Seventh JBaroneL 

4 Scott's Tales of a Grandfather. 

VOL. II 2 B 


A.D. 1771 to 1792 

Though the Brownie of Bladnoch lang be gane, 
The mark o' his feet's left on mony a stane. 

IN parting with the last hereditary sheriff, we may add a few 
notices of the family and friends that survived him; and of 
country life a century ago. 

Sir Stair Agnew, who had become a widower shortly before 
1771, settled then at Lochnaw, and for over thirty-five years 
carried on the even tenor of his way, receiving a few friends 
very quietly in his old-fashioned house, and superintending the 
improvements carried on at the leisurely pace in keeping with 
the locomotion of his day. 

Nothing could have been more opposite than the general 
characteristics of the father and the son ; the son rarely going 
from home, the father riding from Eichmond to the Borders, or 
from Connemara to Donaghadee, to hold his courts at Wigtown, 
or hurrying hence from the Low Countries on so short a leave, if 
business called him, that a great part of his time must have 
been expended upon these journeyings. 

Local tradition is very suggestive as to their different 
characters : The father, bluff and hearty, pictured (even when 
over fourscore) as riding booted and spurred wherever duty 
called him ; the son, even early in middle life, as taking the air 
in his chariot drawn by four black long-tailed horses. The 
son, however, although he lived perhaps more quietly than 

A.D. 1771-1792] COUNTRY LIFE IN 18TH CENTURY 371 

many of his neighbours, kept accounts minutely accurate, which 
enable us to give trusty details of the supply of a country 
household 120 years ago. They are kept so clearly that on the 
first ten years' accounts we are able to strike an average of 
what was annually used. 

From the home farm there were yearly delivered at the 
kitchen 54 wedders, 6 ewes, 13 lambs, 3 bullocks, 2 heifers (as 
to the beef the numbers are always identically the same, there 
being some variation in those of the ewes and lambs). 

And from the barns, with entries distinguished as what are 
delivered " to the housekeeper " and " to the cook " : 26 bolls 7 
stone of meal, 26 stone of groats, a few stones and auchletts of 
barley meal, and 16 bushels 8 auchletts of malt. 

Suggestive of less butcher meat in the servants' hall then 
than now, but much more good " porridge and milk," and no 
stint of ale. 

Poultry figures largely in the domestic economy. There are 
frequent entries of receipts from, or allowances to, "the egg 
wife " and " the hen wife," evidently different officials ; there 
being even a separate establishment for turkeys, for which, in 
the breeding month, " auchletts " l of groats and meal were liber- 
ally apportioned as well as corn. The number of geese, ducks, 
and hens and turkeys reared for the table was very considerable. 

Coal was but sparingly used ; for several consecutive years 
we find three tons and a half twice entered within ten days in 
November, seven tons in all, and these brought free to the 
castle by the tenants under the name of " carriages " ; these 
seven tons representing the entire annual consumption. But 
immense stacks of peat were yearly reared, 3540 loads being due 
by the leases, cut, wined, carried, and stacked as bailie- work. 

Leith or Edinburgh wine-merchants then kept cellars in the 
country.^ Good wine was procurable at Stranraer, Wigtown, 
and Glenluce. We find a running account of the year 1773-74 

1 Auchlett = two stone weight, or a peck measure. "A measure of meal, 
Wigtownshire; half of the firlot or the auchlett, or portion of the boll." 


"of Sir Stair Agnew of Lochnaw, Baronet, in account with 
Oliphant and Co. for sundry wines got from their cellar in 
Stranraer in the care of John Bowie." The detail includes : 

5*78 bottles Port No. 1, at 18s. a dozen 
218 Sherry 19s. 

18 Madeira 18s. 
3 of Lisbon 18s. 

48 Claret Nos. 1 and 4, at 42s. and 32s. respectively. 1 

A year or two later there are entries of 24 dozen and 16 dozen 
of port respectively from John M'Cracken, Glenluce, and 24 
dozen port, 4 dozen cherry (sic), 18 bottles claret, from Eobert 
Murray, Wigtown. Prices not stated. 

In subsequent years, port figures largely in the account- 
book, but hardly any claret; clearly showing that, whether from 
increased taxation of French wines or change of taste, port was 
taking the place in a country gentleman's cellar filled by claret 
a generation earlier. No memorandum as to spirits can be 
found, though it is notorious that brandies, whiskies, Hollands, 
and rum were all in frequent requisition ; this suggesting the 
suspicion that Sir Stair, like other justices, having paid value 
for such commodities to the parties supplying them, asked no 
questions for conscience sake, and asked for no receipt. Custom, 
stronger than law, sanctioned such doings, not only with the 
easy-going lairds of Galloway, but with many English magnates 
of much higher pretensions. 2 

1 "We have previously noted that claret and sack (sherry) were delivered for 
Marshal Stair thirty years previously at Culhorn, both at 20s. the dozen. 

2 Lord Malmesbury gives an instance of more glaring complicity in the shape 
of a county magnate actually at the moment Chairman of the Board of Customs : 
' ' Mr. Hooper of Heron Court had married Lady Dorothy Ashley, and was Chair- 
man of Customs. Lord Shafteshury, father of the noble philanthropist, told me 
that about 1780 he was sitting at dinner in the hall at Heron Court with his 
relative, the latter with his back to the window. Suddenly an immense clatter of 
waggons and horses disturbed the meal, and six or seven of these, heavily loaded 
with kegs, rushed past at full gallop. Lord Shaftesbury jumped up to look at the 
sight, but the old squire sat still, refusing to turn round, and eating his dinner 
complacently. Soon after a detachment of cavalry arrived with their horses 
blown, and asking which way the smugglers had gone. Nobody would tell them. 
The smugglers had dashed through two deep fords close by, which the soldiers 
had refused, and so lost their prey." Memoirs of an Ex-minister, p. 5. 


A popular baronet, always resident in Galloway, regular in 
his attendance at the Justice of Peace Court, and very consider- 
ably Sir Stair's junior, thus humorously described to the author 
"the usages" which obtained in those days and for some 
time after. By chance (!) the laird would happen to find 
himself sitting in a ground-floor room just after dark, the 
shutters all shut but one. Presently a well -understood tap 
was heard on the casement, the candle was instantly blown 
out, the window opened, and with mysterious whispers a cask 
was passed in by unseen hands. The bringers disappearing, 
the light was restruck, and the barrel carried by the initiated to 
the cellar. No one in the house except those concerned knew 
anything of what had been done ; no invoice was given, but 
shortly after he would be met casually near his house by a 
person who, exchanging a masonic sign, stated the sum required, 
which was honourably paid, a bill or written receipt being the 
last thing either party was likely to preserve. 

At Sir Stair's accession, the fifth Earl of Stair returned 
to Culhorn, from which he had been ousted in 1748. His story 
was a singular one. The marshal's favourite nephew, on his 
uncle's death he had taken possession, and assumed the title as 
third earl, and had also taken part in Parliamentary proceedings ; 
but by a decision of the House of Lords the honours were 
adjudged to his cousin James. He dying without issue in 1760, 
in pursuance of the remainders in the patent the title went to 
William, Earl of Dumfries, who thus became also fourth Earl 
of Stair. But he also dying in 1768 with no surviving son, John 
Dalrymple, as above, then succeeded without dispute as fifth 
earl, and on a vacancy arising in 1771 was chosen one of the 
sixteen representatives of the Scottish Peers, and took an active 
part in Parliamentary life, especially deprecating every measure 
calculated to provoke hostilities with America. He married a 
daughter of George Middleton, a London banker (a cousin of 
Sir Charles Middleton, created Lord Barham). In him Sir 
Stair found a kindly neighbour. In a letter to his son he ex- 
presses the hope that he will always show himself grateful for 


the kind interest Lord Stair had always taken in their welfare. 
Lord and Lady Stair were constantly in Galloway. He died at 
Culhorn the 13th of October 1*789 (leaving a son John, the 
sixth earl), she surviving him and dying, also at Culhorn, the 
3rd of February 1798. 1 

Sir William Maxwell, who had succeeded to his estates a 
few months earlier than Sir Stair, and married Katherine, 
daughter of Blair of Adamton, was a good type of the Galloway 
baron, dispensing the hospitalities of Monreith " at a bountiful 
old rate " ; with somewhat of a warm temper, but quite as warm 
a heart. 

The sixth Earl of Galloway had died at the baths of Aix in 
1773, and had been then succeeded by his son John, married to 
Anne, daughter of Sir James Dashwood of Kirklington Park, 
Oxfordshire. The seventh earl vigorously followed in his 
father's footsteps as a planter and improver, and took great 
interest in beautifying the paternal seat. 2 Though studiously 
courteous in his intercourse with his neighbours, his somewhat 
distant manners were by a more free and easy set easily 
ascribed to pomposity, the more readily believed from the 
fact of his holding a variety of high appointments. He was a 
Lord of the Bedchamber and a Lord of the Police, and imme- 
diately after his accession gazetted Lord-Lieutenant of the 
county. A funny story connects itself with this latter dignity. 
Sir William Maxwell had been told that he ought to pay his 
respects to his lordship on the occasion. The two were very 
different in manner : the peer dignified, even formal ; the baronet 
outspoken and blunt, apt also to express himself very plainly 
if anything put him out. 

Sir William long hesitated before waiting on the new lord- 
lieutenant. He could have cordially entertained my lord, or 

1 His father, Hon. George Dalrymple, was fifth son of the first earl. He 
purchased Dalmahoy, county Edinburgh, was an advocate, and appointed a 
Baron of Exchequer. 

2 His parish minister writes : "His Lordship's designs are great, and he is 
accomplishing them by planting at the rate of 200,000 plants every year." Old 
Statistical Account, i. 244. 


have accepted an invitation from him ; but it went somewhat 
against his grain to volunteer to make the kotoo. 

However, being at last over-persuaded, he ordered his 
horses and went. He was of course received with the greatest 
affability, the morning wore pleasantly away, and he rose to take 
his leave, when, thanking Sir William for the honour he had done 
him by his visit, Lord Galloway unfortunately and tactlessly 
added, "Possibly you are not aware that I have a day for receiving 
friends, and any Friday that it suits you in future to come here, 
I shall be too happy to receive you." Before the sentence was 
half finished, the baronet's blood was at boiling heat. This was 
not a Friday ! his visit had been a mistake ! ! he had been thought 
a bore ! ! ! Sir William's eyes flashed fire ; refusing any explana- 
tion, declining in any way to be patronised, he said plainly and 
proudly : " A day of your ain ! I know but ae Lord who has 
a day of His ain " (then piano and feelingly), " God forgive me 
if I do not always rightly keep His day ! " (then the voice 
rising fortissimo'), " De'il tak me if I'll keep yours ! " He flung 
himself into the saddle and was off. 

The lands of Freuch were at this moment in occupation of 
Margaret, 1 Countess Dowager of Dumfries, on whom they had 
been settled as her dower ; but by her consent, about 17 7 5, they 
were disposed of by the trustees to the Honourable Patrick 
Maitland, seventh son of the sixth Earl of Lauderdale, who 
married the Dowager Countess of Eothes, 2 and settled at Castle 
M'Dowall, henceforward called Balgreggan. 

This year also Sir Stair unadvisedly made a second mar- 
riage, of which, long before the honeymoon was over, he took 
the rue. He seems, however, to have been little inconvenienced 
by this, except in pocket, as, within a few days of the wedding, 
a virtual separation was arranged, perfectly to the satisfaction 

1 Margaret, daughter of Ronald Crawford of Restalrig, married 1771 
Patrick M'Dowall, fifth Earl of Diimfries, by whom she had a daughter Pene- 
lope, who married John Lord Mount Stewart, eldest son of the fourth Earl of 

2 Jane, daughter of Captain Maitland of Soutra, married 1768 ninth Earl of 
Rothes; secondly, 1774, the Hon. Patrick Maitland of Balgreggan. 


of the lady's friends. She had already been well dowered, and 
Sir Stair agreed to pay a liberal allowance. 

This fact, not very generally known, was the occasion of an 
amusing county incident a year or two later. 

At Stranraer there was a gathering of the neighbouring 
gentry, who afterwards sat down to dinner at the George Hotel. 
Dinner over, and just as the punch-bowl had been carried in, a 
tremendous clatter was heard in the street outside. Sir William 
Maxwell (who was at the bottom of the plot) called loudly to 
the waiter to go and see what it was all about. The man went 
out, and returning exclaimed excitedly (as he had been coached 
to do), " It's Lady Agnew, gentlemen, gone up in a carriage 
and four to Lochnaw." Significant glances were exchanged, the 
punch silently sipped, till presently Sir Stair slipped quietly 
out, and uproarious merriment ensued as within a few moments 
his carriage wheels were heard roaring loudly on the track. 

According to the habits of the day such practical joking 
was rarely allowed to pass as child's play ; but Sir Stair was too 
pleased to find that this was really a hoax to quarrel with any 
of his merry friends about the matter. 

At the end of 1777, General James Agnew, eldest son of 
Sir Stair's uncle, Major James of Bishop Auckland, was killed 
in the American war, after an eventful military career com- 
menced at the siege of Louisberg in 1745, followed by much 
service in the Low Countries ; and he then had taken a dis- 
tinguished part in the earlier actions of the War of American 
Independence, having commanded successively the 44th and 
64th Kegiments, and led a division at the battle of Brandy- 
wine, llth June 1777, one of the few successes of the royal 
troops, in which, though severely wounded early in the day, he 
continued at the head of his brigade until the battle resulted 
in victory, and gave the English possession of Philadelphia. 
General Agnew was there given a distinct military command, 
and took up his quarters in a country house in the village of 
Germantown, now actually forming a part of the " Quaker 
City." Although he was killed at this place, whence the battle 


had its name, he had within a few weeks, already endeared 
himself to all classes in the locality. His death at the time 
seems to have been lamented by honourable foes ; and so fra- 
grant is his memory still, that on the centenary of the battle, 
4th October 1877, an interesting and feeling article recalls 
lany particulars of the fight, with kindly notices of the 
jneral, which was courteously sent to the author by an 
unknown hand from Philadelphia. 

There is considerable discrepancy as to details between the 
English official account, accepted as historical, and that partly 
traditional, in Philadelphia. The former, abbreviated, is as 
follows : 

" Musgrove was almost overpowered by Washington, when 
Brigadier-General Agnew came to his assistance, and attacked 
the Americans with great spirit. In a short time Washington's 
columns were either foiled or repulsed, and he then retreated, 
leaving 800 killed and wounded and 400 prisoners. The British 
loss was 500 killed and wounded. Among the former was 
Brigadier Agnew." 1 

The American account is as follows : 

" We never recollect a 4th of October to have passed with- 
out the announcement, ' This is the anniversary of the Battle 
of Germantown.' There is nothing in the fact that the Battle 
of Germantown was not a success to the American arms that 
need cause us to hesitate in its celebration. Our former foes 
assist us in honouring victories over their very selves. We are 
all brothers again, with one ancestry and one mother-tongue. 
The buildings and localities most intimately associated with 
the events of the Battle of Germantown are Chew's House, or 
the ' Battle-ground' ; the Concord School-house, the scene of the 
ambush ; Morrishouse, the headquarters of General Howe ; 
and the Wister homestead, the headquarters of General 
Agnew. ... On the eventful morning of the 4th of October 
100 years ago, General Agnew mounted his charger, and set 
out from the old mansion to take his part in the impending 

1 Holmes, Annals of America ; almost verbatim, Pictorial History of England. 


battle. When he was about leaving the house, he observed the 
housekeeper Justinia hoeing in the garden, and being a man 
of amiable and kindly disposition, though trained from his 
youth to war, he advised her to leave such occupation for the 
present and take up her quarters in the cellar as the only 
place of safety. Agnew never achieved his purpose of leading 
his command at the Battle of Germantown ; for, on approaching 
the rising ground on the main street, near Washington Lane, 
he fell a victim to an ambuscade, and was shot by a party con- 
cealed behind the wall of the Concord School-house. The in- 
dividual to whom tradition has ascribed the credit (if credit 
there be in shooting a defenceless man from behind a stone 
wall) of having fired the fatal bullet that deprived the general 
of his life was one Boyer, who subsequently died we believe 
in the poorhouse. General Agnew was carried bleeding to his 
headquarters, which he had recently left so full of life and 
health, and laid upon the floor of the west parlour, the boards 
of which his blood still stains, the scrubbings of a hundred 
years having failed to erase it. General Agnew was of a dis- 
tinguished Scottish family ; the head of his house being Agnew 
of Lochnaw. He was son of James, xv. (sic) Hereditary Sheriff 
and Knight, and 4th Baronet of his name, and of the Lady 
Mary Montgomerie, daughter of the Earl of Eglinton. He was 
a veteran in arms, having taken part in the French and English 
wars in the Canadas and elsewhere, was present at the capture 
of Louisberg, and at the siege of Quebec in 1*759. His letters 
and bearing prove him to have been a determined and gallant 
foe, a gentle and tender-hearted knight. Our feelings cannot 
fail to warm towards such an enemy, nor need we hesitate to 
do him honour." x 

A letter docketed " To Mrs. Agnew, from Gen. Agnew's 
Orderly, Alexander Andrew," inclines rather to the American 
version of the story. It seems a genuine production, but being 
somewhat long and involved in style, we omit much that 
is irrelevant : 

1 Germantown Telegraph, Germantown, Philadelphia, 3rd October 1877. 


" Philadelphia, 8 March 1778. 

" Dear Madam, When the Eegiment [the 44th] embarked 
at Cork, Col. Agnew took me to be his servant, with whom 
I had the honour to live very comfortably' and happy until 
the day of his death, being his principal servant. 

" In all places wherever his person was exposed, I was there 
by his side, an eye-witness to all his sufferings: in Boston, 
Halifax, Statue Island, on the expedition to Danbury, in the 
Jerseys, Maryland, Pensylvania, in three pitched battles, 
namely, 27 Aug. /76, 11 Sep. and 4 Oct. /77. On the expedition 
to Danbury, the General was knocked down by a ball which 
left its mark for about a month. At the Battle of Brandy- 
wine, the General had the misfortune to be wounded by a 
cannon ball, but continued to lead his Brigade ; and, though he 
was very much indisposed, yet he commanded his gallant troops 
until they beat off and remained masters of the field. During 
this action the General remained at the head of the 64th, which 
suffered more than any of the Brigade. 

" The army then proceeded to that unfortunate place called 
Germantown, the 4th of October being the particular and fatal 
day which your Ladyship has cause to remember, and I have 
much reason to regret. 

" To let you know the particulars of that day : between the 
hours of 9 and 12, as the Brigade was following in an oblique 
advancing line, the General, with the pickets at their head, 
entered the town, turned down the street to the left, but had 
not rode twenty or thirty yards when a party of the enemy, 
about a hundred, rushed out from behind a house about 500 
yards in front of the General, then in the middle of the street ; 
and he, all alone, only me, received a whole volley. The fatal 
ball entered the small of his back near the back seam of his 
coat, and came out a little below his left breast ; another ball 
went through and through his right hand. I at the same time 
received a slight wound in the side, but just got off time 
enough to prevent his falling. 


" The doctor and Major Leslie just came in time to see him ; 
he could only turn his eyes and look steadfastly on me with 
seeming affection ; he departed this life without the least 
struggle and with great composure, about ten or fifteen minutes 
after he received the ball. I then had his body brought to his 
former quarters, took his gold watch and purse, which I 
delivered to Major Leslie. I then had him genteelly laid out, 
had a coffin made the best the place could produce ; his corpse 
was decently interred the next day in the churchyard, attended 
by a minister and the officers of the 44th Eegiment. 

"Dear madam, I beg you will excuse this liberty, and if 
your Ladyship please to send me a few lines I will be under 
great obligations. And believe me to be, with sincerity and 
due respect, madam, your most obedient and humble servant, 


Two years before, as a reward for his services, James 
Agnew had been appointed an aide-de-camp to the king. By 
his wife, Elizabeth Sanders, he had a son Kobert, who at the 
time of his father's death was a captain in the 58th Eegiment. 
He married Katherine, daughter of Conway Blennerhasset of 
Castle Conway, County Kerry, and had a son James, a military 
officer, and afterwards Colonial Secretary at Dominica, who 
squandered the property at Bishop Auckland ; and a daughter 
Margaret, who married Harman Blennerhasset, who accepted 
American naturalisation. 1 

Montgomerie Agnew, " the little man " of whom his father 
writes as being in 1745 at the school at Breda, had consider- 

1 He became somewhat notorious as an early coloniser of the western banks 
of the Ohio, where an island still bears his name. He engaged later (circa 
1812) with ex-Vice-President Aaron Burr in filibustering attacks on Mexico. 

Margaret Agnew, his wife, was also his cousin. In a published memoir of 
Harman Blennerhasset, it is stated that " while on a visit to his sister, Lady 
Kingsale, Harman Blennerhasset became engaged to a Miss Agnew, daughter of 
the Governor of the Isle of Man. The lady in question had more than her share 
of accomplishments and good qualities," etc. 

The connection with the Kingsales is correct, but we can discover no memor- 
andum as to James Agnew ever having been Governor of the Isle of Man, and 
doubt the fact. 


able professional success. In 1759 the nucleus of the 17th 
Eegiment of Light Dragoons was a squadron : Lord Aberdour 
being squadron officer ; Montgomerie Agnew, captain ; the 
Hon. Eobert Sandilands and Thomas Maitland, lieutenants; 
besides two cornets. He saw much service, principally on the 
staff; his commissions being dated: Lieutenant-Colonel, 1777; 
Colonel, 1782 ; Major-General, 1793 ; Lieutenant-General, 1798 ; 
General, 1803. 

By the curious custom of the day, having never served as a 
regimental field officer, his name, after he became a colonel, was 
retained until his death as captain of the 1st Dragoon Guards, 
as which he drew pay. He was the last titular Governor of 
Carlisle, no successor to the keeping of that old Border fortalice 
being named after his death in 1808. 

He is supposed to have been taken prisoner by the French 
during the American War. But all papers relating to his 
private life or military adventures, if ever written, have been 
lost. The late Marquis d'Aigneaux mentioned to the author, 
as an early recollection, that his grandfather had discovered 
two of the Scotch Agnews among Trench prisoners from 
America, and on becoming answerable for their custody, was 
allowed to entertain them at his chateau near Bayeux until 
regularly exchanged. He always insisted that one was styled 
" Colonel," and was an officer of the " Eegiment du Eoi, ou de 
la Eeine " : a description tallying with his rank as colonel, 
as also the title of his regiment, the King's Dragoon Guards. 

Another son, Alexander, entered the navy, became a post- 
captain, and had a son, Thomas Eamsden, gazetted to the 82nd 
Eegiment, who served the campaigns of '8, '9, '12, and '13 in 
the Peninsula, was present at the capture of Oporto, battles 
of Talavera and others, up to Vittoria, in which battle his thigh 
was fractured ; he was promoted to a veteran battalion, and 
afterwards appointed Governor of Tipner Fort, near Portsmouth, 1 

1 Captain Thomas Ramsden Agnew died 8th June 1874, aged eighty-four. 
By his wife, Anna Drury, he had Edward Frederick, captain 34th Regiment, 
and adjutant Durham Militia ; and James, captain 39th Regiment. 


where the old gentleman, easily recognisable with his 
wooden leg, was equally appreciated for his good stories and 
hospitality. He had also a daughter, Mary Montgomerie, 
married to George Patrick, a merchant at Durham. 

Major James had several daughters, of whom the eldest, 
already mentioned, had married Lord Braxfield ; Katherine, the 
second, married Sir Eichard Van den Bempte Johnstone, of 
Hackness Hall, Yorkshire, M.P. ; and Lucy, Lady Lockhart 
in a family tree, whose husband we have not traced. 

As to Mary, the eldest, almost simultaneously with her 
brother General Agnew's death her daughter (also Mary) was 
married to Mr., afterwards Sir John Ord Honey man, raised to 
the Bench as Lord Armadale ; thus adding a third law lord to 
the small circle of connections with whom Sir Stair kept up 
intimate relations. Lady Armadale is said to have shone as at 
once a wit and a belle in the Augustan age of Edinburgh 
society. An impromptu of hers has become classic. 

At a large dinner-party at her Edinburgh house, the famous 
Henry Erskine was among the guests. After dinner, port wine 
was by mistake put upon the table labelled "claret." The 
butler was desired to change it, but, somewhat suspiciously, the 
so-called claret on trial again proved to be port. Upon this, 
Erskine broke out in rhyme, and amusingly parodying a song 
then in vogue, exclaimed : 

Kind sir, it's for your courtesie 
When I come here to dine, sir ; 
Oh, for the love ye bear to me, 
Gie me the claret wine, sir. 

Without a pause, Lady Armadale followed on : 

Drink the port, the claret's dear, 

Areskine, Areskine ; 
Ye'll get fou on't, never fear, 

My joe Areskine. 1 

1 Dean Ramsay's Reminiscences of Scottish Life. "Areskine," as the name 
was anciently written and usually pronounced in Scotland. Henry Erskine was 
fourth son of the tenth Earl of Buchan, by Anne, daughter of Sir Hew Dalrymple 
of North Berwick : King's Advocate 1785, Dean of Faculty 1786. 


Braxfield's second daughter married a Clanronald Mac- 
donald ; and his eldest son, Eobert Dundas, married Lady Lilias 
Montgomerie, 1 daughter of the twelfth Earl of Eglinton. 

The third law lord alluded to was Sir Stair's brother-in-law, 
Sir William Baillie, Lord Polkemmet. Most of his colleagues 
would have agreed with him that punch was the best remedy 
for almost all ills that flesh is heir to; but the good Lord 
Polkemmet went further and asserted it to be an actual 
requisite for judicial reflection. He confided to a friend that, 
when sorely puzzled by the conflicting speeches of counsel, his 
rule was to go home, carefully read all the pleadings, " let them 
wamble," as he was wont to say, " in his wame for twa or three 
days wi' the toddy, and then gie my ain interlocutor." 

This year also died Sir Thomas Hay of Park. Notwith- 
standing the loss of a leg at Prestonpans, he lived hale and 
hearty to a good old age. He left a son and daughter: the 
latter, Suzanna, married to John Dalrymple of Dunragit ; the 
former dying without issue in 1794, when the estate passed to 
his sister, whose husband assumed the name of Hay and was 
created a baronet in 1798 with the designation of Park Place ; 
the older baronetcy of Park passing collaterally to a cousin 
tracing his pedigree to the second son of the second baronet. 

The justices seem not to have been as active in cam- 
paigning against smuggling as in the days of the last hereditary 
sheriff; the local magnates being lukewarm in the matter, and 
the tide-waiters often not unwilling to connive, so that at last the 
chiefs of the exchequer hit upon the idea of giving the military 
a personal interest in their captures. This new move the 
smugglers at first met with boldness, and " an affair " of the 
sort in the Bay of Luce has a place in the annals of the year, 
as if a record of warfare. 

Two rakish-looking luggers, mounting respectively twenty- 
two and fourteen guns, stood boldly in for Luce Bay, and bring- 
ing up near Philip and Mary Point, made preparations for 

1 By whom he had two sons : John, captain 3rd Light Dragoons, and James, 
major 15th Hussars. 


discharging their cargoes ; Clone being adjacent, one of their as 
yet undiscovered depots. Troops at the time were stationed 
at various points along the seaboard, and the supervisor, with 
five-and- twenty regular soldiers and a stalwart band of coast- 
guardsmen, promptly made for the Mochrum shore, and draw- 
ing up his forces in line upon the beach in sight of the 
luggers, supposed he had checkmated them. But he reckoned 
without his hosts. A boat put off from the ships, and a 
cool and well-mannered desperado addressed the party to 
this effect: That he begged they would kindly retire a little 
way, as it did not suit them to be watched too closely, pro- 
mising that if they would remain out of sight for a few 
hours, they should receive ample refreshment and compensa- 
tion for their trouble ; but that if they preferred to try 
conclusions, he must warn them that his guns were trained 
upon their columns, ready at the first signal he should give 
to fire a broadside right among them, followed by the landing 
of a hundred men better armed than themselves, who would 
simply sweep the whole party from the ground. The douce 
supervisor found himself placed in a dilemma. Cannon-balls 
would render futile any discharges of the muskets of the 
period; the skipper's address had unhinged the nerves of 
both blue jackets and red. He himself felt little stomach 
for a fight with odds against him. The word was given to 
retreat. Hardly were the soldiers out of sight than strings 
of pack-horses, emerging unmolested from the hill-side, were 
rapidly loaded and driven inland; and when the last blue 
bonnet had disappeared, the prudence of the exciseman was 
rewarded, and the watchers gratified by finding six-and-thirty 
ankers of good spirits left for them on the beach. 

This too easy success in their "affair" strangely proved 
to the smugglers the ruin of their trade. Stung to the 
quick by the ridicule, not to say the scandal, which the 
incident brought down upon those concerned, the authorities 
set to work in earnest to regain their laurels. 

An active inspector-general brought experts to bear upon 


the smugglers' labyrinths ; and with picks and spades prose- 
cuted his underground researches with such effect that, before 
the winter had set in, the famous cellars at Clone and its 
neighbourhood (including the second tier hitherto undiscovered) 
had yielded 80 chests of tea, 140 ankers of brandy, 200 
bales of tobacco, and very many other commodities of a value 
so great that even the private soldiers of the escort got for 
the job sums such as few of them had ever handled before, in 
many cases the prize-money being more than equivalent to a 
year's pay. 1 

One fine April day in 1778, the good folks at Lochnaw 
being quite unaware of the impending danger, the redoubtable 
Paul Jones was creeping along their back shores, and making 
for Loch Kyan. Acting on information, he deemed himself 
certain of destroying shipping, plundering at pleasure, and 
especially capturing a Government tender, and recruiting his 
ranks with the seamen he had heard they had impressed. 
No adequate resistance could have been offered. There were no 
artillery volunteers in those days. Happily for Stranraer, 
when almost at the mouth of the loch, a shift of wind and a 
storm brewing on the horizon obliged him to relinquish the 
prize which seemed almost within his grasp. 2 

Putting about, he ran before the wind to Whitehaven, 
where, taking the garrison by surprise, he spiked the cannon, 
and applied a torch to the crowded shipping in the harbour. 
Then, crossing the Sol way, he paid his famous visit to St. Mary's 

1 The exact sums were: Lieutenant, 269: 14s.; sergeant, 42:16:10; 
corporals, 28 : 14 : 4 ; privates, 14 : 5 : 8. Much larger shares being given 
to the Preventive Service men, skilled excavators and officers of excise. Scots 
Magazine, 1778, p. 329. 

2 "We quote from his log : " The next morning (19th April), off the Mull of 
Galloway I found myself so near a Scotch coasting schooner loaded with barley, 
that I could not avoid sinking her. Understanding that there were ten or twelve 
sail of merchant ships, besides a tender brigantine with a number of impressed 
men on board, at anchor in Loch Ryan, I thought this an enterprise worthy my 
attention. But the wind, which at first would have served equally well to have 
sailed in or out of the loch, shifted in a hard squall, so as to blow almost directly 
in, with an appearance of bad weather. I was therefore obliged to abandon my 

VOL II. 2 C 


Isle ; his intention being to make Lord Selkirk a prisoner, and 
to retain him as a hostage until the Government agreed to a 
general exchange of prisoners with the Americans. His Lord- 
ship was fortunately away from home ; but Paul sent a party to 
his house, where they were received by Lady Selkirk with great 
presence of mind, and, speaking them fairly, she escaped with 
the loss of a portion of the family plate. 1 To do him justice, 
Paul Jones repurchased the plate from his own men, and 
returned it some time after, with a polite letter to her ladyship. 
He stood out again up the Irish Channel, evidently having a 
hankering after Loch Ryan. But when just abreast of Belfast 
Lough, he encountered the English war - vessel Drake, of 
20 guns, just coming out. Paul Jones at once ran up the 
Stars and Stripes, ordered his helm up, and gave the first 
broadside. The action was warm and obstinate ; but though the 
Ranger only mounted 18 guns, they unfortunately worked 
the best, and in an hour the enemy called for quarter, having 
her fore and main topsail yards both cut away, the fore-top- 
gallant yard and mizzen-gaff both hanging up and down the 
mast, the jib shot away, her sails and rigging cut to pieces, 
the captain and first lieutenant mortally wounded, and 42 
men Tiors de combat out of 160. Having received considerable 
damage himself, he returned to Brest, and was heard of no more 
in the Irish Channel. 

Jones was a nom de guerre, his real name being John Paul ; 
his father having been gardener at Arbigland in Kirkbean. 
He was not without a certain amount of good feeling and 
generosity, and was of undoubted courage and ability; but a 
man who adopts the questionable calling of a privateer, preys 
upon peaceful traders of his native land, and sinks vessels that 
have struck their colours, because he cannot burden himself 
with prisoners, seems very closely allied to a pirate. 

In 1784, by the kind assistance of Lord Stair, Sir Stair's 

1 It so happened that all the more valuable plate was in Edinburgh for repair ; 
what was taken was inconsiderable in quantity, and very old. Paul Jones, in 
returning it, asked the countess how his men had behaved, saying he was deter- 
mined to punish any who had misconducted themselves. 


son Andrew procured a commission in the 12th Eegiment, 
which he joined on appointment at Stranraer, the headquarters 
being at Ayr; and after some service in the district, he was 
sent to the Channel Islands. In 1785 Sir Stair's mother, 
Dame Eleanor, died in her 87th year. By her will, dated 21st 
August 1783, she "bequeaths to her dear Andrew Agnew, my 
grandson, and son to Sir Stair Agnew of Lochnaw, my diamond 
earrings and drops, diamond buckles, and pearl necklace with 
two strings of pearls and gold clasps, and also my deceased son 
Andrew's picture and miniature, set in gold, with case." * 

The only surviving member of Sir Stair's family now at 
home, was his daughter Isabella, who in 1789 married Mr. 
Hawthorne Stewart of Physgill. 

All arrangements as to settlements he placed in the hands 
of Lords Armadade and Braxfield ; and as both, especially the 
latter, were men much distinguished in their profession, we may 
insert a letter from each of those that passed on the occasion. 

" Edinburgh, 4 August 1789. 

" Dear Sir, I had the honour of receiving your letter of the 
1st August. You may be well assured that business interesting 

1 She leaves what money she has resting pertaining and belonging to her, or 
sums of money that may be owing to her, equally and proportionally among her 
seven surviving daughters, appointing ' ' Dame Mary Agnew, otherwise Bruce, " 
wife of Sir Michael Bruce of Stenhouse, sole executrix. And among other bequests, 
"To Eleanora my daughter, her. said father's field-bed with blue stuff curtains, 
feather bed, bolster, and pillow and mattrass ; and the green and red silk curtains 
of another field -bed and a calicoe quilt ; and my gold watch and seal. To my 
daughter Anne the furniture appertaining to her bedroom. To my daughter 
Grizel the furniture appertaining to her bedroom, with 60 yards of printed cotton. 
To my daughters May (Lady Bruce), Katherine (Mrs. Gillon), Wilhelmina (Mrs. 
Campbell), and Grizel Agnew, all my household linens, including bed, table, and 
tea linens, to be equally divided among them. And further to my said daughter 
Grizel the furniture of my drawing-room, new and old, and all the looking-glasses 
and pair of candlesticks, which commonly stand in the drawing-room. One 
silver teapot, two silver milk-dishes, two small silver plates, one silver basin, 
and one pair of silver candlesticks, a large silver tureen spoon, and four salts 
with two saltspoons ; my plated silver sugar-dish and bread-holder, 12 silver 
tablespoons, and 12 teaspoons, my plated castor frame, two glass cruets with 
silver tops, my large clock, and all my table and tea china, 18 green-handled 
table knives and forks, one carving knife and fork, six tea knives, etc. , and my 
best set of white stone plates and dishes. (Signed) E. AGNEW. 

" Vans Hawthorne, Writer, Witness, and Robert Lumsdaine, my Servant." 


to your family will be attended to by me, and particularly any- 
thing relating to your daughter, whom Mrs. Honyman and I 
have been so happy in having with us. 

" I have considered the articles proposed by Mr. Hawthorne 
Stewart, and laid them before Lord Justice Clerk ; and as you 
desire our opinion, I take the liberty of suggesting that con- 
sidering her rank, situation, youth, and merit, we humbly think 
that the jointure should be larger than proposed. [Here follow 
criticisms of other details.] 

" I beg leave to assure you for myself and Mrs. Honyman, 
that whatever tends to your daughter's happiness and comfort 
will be particularly agreeable to us. 

"Lord Justice Clerk, with whom she is a great favourite, 
desires me to express the same sentiments, and that we wish her 
much happiness in her married state. I will be in particular 
surety for her making a good wife. 

" I shall have occasion to be in Galloway about the 20th 
September, when I mean to have the honour of waiting upon 
you at Lochnaw. Lord Justice Clerk, and Mrs. Honyman, join 
in offering best compliments to you, Mr. and Miss Agnew. 
And I am, dear Sir, your most obedient servant, 


" Sir Stair Agnew of Lochnaw, Bart." 

That from the Lord Justice-Clerk is most genial and charac- 
teristic, written in a clear almost feminine hand. 

" Stirling, 10 Sept. 1789. 

" Dear Sir, Yours I received this morning. I have perused 
the scroll with attention, and in general think it well drawn. 
However, in order to prevent any dispute " (he offers various per- 
tinent suggestions, concluding thus :) "And now permit me to wish 
you and your daughter much joy and happiness in the intended 
marriage. She is an amiable young person, and possessed of 
the sweetest temper and disposition, which bids fair for making 
a happy marriage. Indeed she is so much possessed of my good 


opinion that if it should prove otherwise, which God forbid ! 
I should pronounce it not the fault of her. So there is no 
reason to be apprehensive of any such event. 

" Mrs. M'Queen, who is with me here, desires to join with 
me in love and best wishes to you and the bride. And I am, 
clear Sir, your most obedient humble servant, 


" Sir Stair Agnew of Lochnaw, Bart." 

Two remarkable west country men were now in their prime. 

The one, Burns, the subscription edition of whose poems was 
published in 1787 ; the Duchess of Gordon munificently sub- 
scribing for twenty-one copies, and the names of several of the 
young laird's brother officers of the 12th appearing on the list, 
attesting their presence in the country. 

The other, Macadam, whose family was from Galloway, but 
who was now a small proprietor in Ayrshire ; where, as a road- 
trustee, he was already experimenting on that system, which, 
bearing his name, has revolutionised the art of road-making in 

Great was the need of better roads in Galloway. We 
can at least approximate a date at which any spring carriage 
could first have been driven to Lochnaw. A bridge (at a much 
lower level than that of the present roadway) spans the 
Aldouran burn ; on the old arch is carved 1787 ; before this the 
deep stream course was unbridged. 

The late Sir William Maxwell used funnily to tell how 
expensive it was to his grandfather if his lady took a fancy 
to drive to Wigtown ; for " there were five march dykes in the 
10 miles, in each of which a slap had to be redd for my Lady's 
coach, and rebuilt afterwards." 

Sir Stair dabbled a little in road-making ; forming a new 
approach, considered doubtless a great work in its day, a smooth 
surface of adequate width extending for what was thought far 
then, about a mile and a half both ways. This led him into an 
act of vandalism, as, sad to say, he ruthlessly sacrificed the Court 


knowe, or moat, one of those artificial mounds so dear to the eye 
of the antiquary. The maker's contract is before us, dated 
Lochnaw, 1791 : "I will engage to make the new road with the 
Court hill." 

Sir Stair continuously occupied himself in improvements, 
not great in their scale, but, with the one exception of the 
" Court Hill," carried out with taste and judgment. He planted 
a little, drained a little, imported a little lime, and was quite 
extravagant in his fences. Indeed in this he unnecessarily 
multiplied, as not only were sums expended on them out of 
proportion to the rental, but a great number have had since to 
be pulled down, to admit of breaks sufficiently large for modern 
cropping. Two improvers of the date went far before him in 
energy and skill. Lord Stair, as reported by his minister in 
1791, "had divided and enclosed his lands, drained swamps and 
marshes, made excellent roads, imported lime in great quantities, 
planted on an average annually at least 20,000 trees, and states 
that, as a result of his Lordship's improvement, a farm which 
preceding 1790 was let for the sum of 7:2:6 was relet at 
195, and another previously 48 : 4 : 8 had just been let for 
245." l 

Much attention was called to the management of Basil 
William, Lord Daer, to whom his father had made over the 
lands of Baldoon. These in 1783 were sold to Lord Galloway 
at a price founded on a rental of 5000 a year; with this 
curious stipulation, that Lord Daer should retain a lease of the 
whole estate for ten years, paying Lord Galloway 70,000 a 
year, that at the end of that time the land should be revalued, 
and that Lord Galloway should pay twenty-five years' purchase 
of the full valued rent above 5000 a year. So judicious had 
been Lord Daer's farming that on the termination of this lease 
the value of the property was ascertained to have been so per- 
manently enhanced, that with mutual satisfaction there was 
adjudged and paid 125,000 over the previous purchase-money 
by Lord Galloway to Lord Selkirk. "We say Lord Selkirk, for 

1 Old Statistical Account, 335. 


unfortunately Lord Daer, a young man of no common acquire- 
ments and popularity, had predeceased his father. Lord Selkirk 
himself lived till 1799, when he was succeeded by his seventh and 
only surviving son, Thomas, as fifth earl ; known rather for his 
energy in another hemisphere, being the founder of the Red River 
colony, now absorbed in Manitoba with its great city of Winnipeg. 

Young Agnew was on a flying visit to Lochnaw from the 
Channel Islands, at his sister's marriage. The young Laird of 
Monreith was then a brother soldier, but we almost doubt 
whether he attended in his uniform, as although gazetted as a 
cornet to the 23rd Light Dragoons, according to the curious 
abuse of the period, he was just ten years old ! He early, how- 
ever, showed himself an energetic soldier. At fifteen he was a 
captain ; when he got his majority we do not know, but when 
only twenty-five or twenty-six, he raised a battalion of the 26th, 
which he commanded at the battle of Corunna, where he lost a 
leg. Previous to this he had been chosen member for the 
county, which he represented from 1805 to 1812, and afterwards 
from 1822 to 1830. Few men were better known in Scottish 
convivial and sporting circles, in the early part of the present 
century. He was decidedly a character, and a story, once well 
known, deserves repetition. 

We must premise that above Monreith is a conspicuous hill, 
much like the Maiden Pass in Colvend, called Barhullion. 1 
Colonel Maxwell lost a bet for a considerable sum, but under 
circumstances sufficiently suspicious to warrant him to decline 
payment, until the matter was referred to arbitration. The case 
was considered by a committee of the Caledonian Hunt, 2 and 
given against him, he considering himself the victim of sharp 
practice, and vowing revenge. In pursuance of this plan, the 
person to whom he had lost, was invited to Monreith, he having 

1 The present accomplished proprietor translates Barhullion " hill-top of the 
hollies." The late William Maxwell, father of the Colonel, always considered it 
to mean " the hill of the pass." Schiehallion in Perthshire is usually anglicised 
" the maiden's point," and "bar " might equally so be rendered. 

2 These are supposed to have been the Marquis of Queensberry and William 
Maule, afterwards Lord Panmure. 


the unenviable reputation, rightly or wrongly, of systematically 
keeping his head cool, and profiting at high play by the signs of 
companions more careless than himself. 

The roof-tree of Monreith rang with merriment ; the wine 
passed freely, and the colonel indulged in tall talk, and seemed 
playing into the hands of his guest, who was on the watch to 
get him to back his reckless assertions. The opportunity offered. 
The colonel asserted that from a hill close by, we could any 
clear day see five kingdoms. The gambler betted him 100 that 
we could not. The colonel closed, making the reservation that 
the old kingdom of Man was one of these. To this, after a rapid 
mental calculation, the guest agreed ; his great anxiety being to 
have the bet booked forthwith, and the company present named 
the judges. On a fine clear morning, Colonel Maxwell led the 
party to the top of Barhullion, and proceeded to business ; 
" Here " he said, pointing below, " is the kingdom of Scotland." 
" Good " said his friends. " To the west is Ireland." " Good 
again." " Eastward you see St. Bees Head, there's England." 
" Eight." " And south there's the Isle of Man." " Agreed." 
A long pause ensued, the wagerer mentally discounting his 
cheque. At last, chuckling, he said, " Well, my friend, and how 
about the fifth ? " The colonel looked him steadily in the face, 
then slowly and solemnly raising his hand, said, " Look aboon 
ye, man ; there's the kingdom of Heaven, and maybe ye'll never 
be nearer it." 

The laugh that followed was not shared by the wagerer. 
He refused to see it, and formally declined to accept the unani- 
mous verdict of the company. At last it was agreed to refer 
the matter to a committee constituted as before, whose decision 
this time was in the colonel's favour. The biter was bit. 

The young Laird of Lochnaw was now serving in garrisons 
in the south of England, and in 1*791 J his regiment was ordered 

1 Forty years later the young soldier's son, the late Sir Andrew Agnew, seventh 
baronet, was much gratified by receiving a letter to the following effect : 

"Dalkeith, 29 March 1833. 

"Honourable Sir, Having had the pleasure of being well acquainted with 
your most worthy father whilst in the army, I venture to address you. 


to Cork, he himself going on detachment to Kingsale. Here the 
local magnate was Lord Kingsale, whose family residence over- 
looked the town : a resident landlord of the best Irish type of 
the period, adored by his dependants, profusely hospitable to 
strangers, seldom going far from home, except in coast trips in 
his yacht, in which he greatly delighted. Early invitations to 
young Agnew and his brother officers, gratefully accepted, led 
to dinners and dances, drives to Dune-Patrick and Eingrone, or 
yachting expeditions to Courtmacherry and Glandore. Like 
most soldier officers, the young lieutenant immensely enjoyed 
the easy gaiety of Irish life. The usual result followed, and he 
soon fell deeply in love with the peer's eldest daughter. 

Lord Kingsale's consent was naturally made dependent on 
the approval of Sir Stair, who was immediately communicated 
with. But he, whilst in no way disapproving the connection, 
for prudential reasons very strongly counselled delay. 

This advice was most unacceptable to the lovers. Letters of 
entreaty were allowed to remain unanswered. Lord Kingsale 
felt himself unable to encourage them ; when young Agnew 
persuaded the fair lady to solve all difficulties by elopement. 
A neighbouring clergyman consented to marry them, and in a 
few days they reappeared at Kingsale, with a duly attested 
copy of the register of their marriage. 1 This was enclosed to 
Sir Stair by Lord Kingsale, who felt some delicacy in breaking 
the news, and anxiously waited the reply. 

This was unexpectedly satisfactory, and the letter which 
follows gives a pleasant peep behind the scenes : 

" My acquaintance with your truly respected father began at Chatham. We 
were 12 months in garrison there. He was indeed beloved by all who knew him. 
When they went to Ireland, the regiment I belonged to went to Windsor. I 
never knew any officer more beloved. He was a very handsome man. With 
sincere esteem, I have the honour to be your most obedient servant, 

" Sir Andrew Agnew, Bart., M.P., House of Commons, London." 

1 Andrew Agnew, Esq., Lieutenant in H.M.'s 12th Eegiment, and the Hon. 
Martha de Courcy, daughter of John, Lord Baron of Kingsale and Ringrone, were 
joined together in holy wedlock in the Parish Church of St. Multose, the 21st 
day of May 1792. Signed by the Rev. John Stewart, officiating clergyman, 
witnessed by the churchwardens. 


" Lochnaw, 6th June 1792. 

" My Lord, I had the honour of receiving your Lordship's 
letter of the 31st of last month, acquainting me of my son's 
marriage with your daughter. I beg to assure your Lordship 
that I am very happy my son has had the good fortune to match 
with so noble and ancient a family. 

" I acknowledged the first letter from my son, dated 1st 
November, informing me that it was his intention to pay his 
addresses to Miss de Courcy, and hoping to obtain my consent. 
I wrote him that I thought he was too young to go into the 
married state, that there were some incumbrances on the Estate, 
and advised him most strongly to delay the marriage till these 
were paid off, which would be in a few years. 

" He afterwards wrote me two letters on the same subject, 
which I never answered, and was greatly surprised to receive a 
fourth from my son informing me of his marriage, and begging 
my forgiveness and blessing ; and hoping I would give him an 
opportunity of presenting his wife. 

" I immediately wrote that I freely granted his first request, 
and that I should be very happy to see my daughter Mrs. 
Agnew and himself as soon as they pleased, and that I would do 
everything in my power to make the place agreeable. 

" I have wrote to my agent, Mr. Hawthorne at Edinburgh, to 
be here next month, as by that time I expect they will be here, 
when I intend a contract shall be made ; and before it is ex- 
tended on stamp paper, I will cause my agent to send you a 

" The young people must learn to be economists ; for if a 
gentleman once runs into debt upon the head of an entailed 
Estate, it puts it out of its power to recover. Your Lordship 
may be assured that I shall do all manner of justice to Mr. 
Agnew's settlements according to the entail. 

" I am much obliged to your Lordship for your good opinion 
of my son. I beg respectful compliments to all your Lordship's 
family, and particularly my blessing to my daughter. I have 


the honour to be your Lordship's most obedient humble 
servant, STAIR AGNEW. 

" To the Lord Kingsale." 

To his son he had already written : 

" Lochnaw, 3 June. 

" Dear Andrew, I just now received yours informing me of 
your marriage with Lord Kingsale's daughter, asking my for- 
giveness and blessing. I freely grant you both, and pray the 
Almighty to guide and watch over you. I shall be happy to 
see my daughter and you here ; I hope she will find this an 
agreeable place. You wrote me you intended leaving the army. 
The sooner you dispose of your commission and come here, the 
better. And we shall converse between ourselves of family 
matters. Compliments and blessing to my daughter. Dear 
Andrew, your affectionate father, STAIR AGNEW." 

And a fortnight later : 

" Lochnaw, 18 June. 

" Dear Andrew, I received yours of the 24th. I thought 
Mrs. Agnew had been at Kingsale ; I am happy you are both 
well. Enclosed I send a bill on the Paisley Bank for 20. It 
will defray your expences to this place : the sooner you come it 
will be the more agreeable. 

" I am happy my letter to Lord Kingsale is so satisfactory 
to him. Compliments and blessing to my daughter. Write me 
when this comes to hand. Dear Andrew, your affectionate 
father, STAIR AGNEW. 

" To Lieut. Andrew Agnew, 12th Eegiment, Dublin." 

The visit of which there had been such happy anticipations 
was destined to a speedy and sad termination. Within two 
short months of the reception of the young couple by the 
tenantry and neighbours, the same party reassembled at Loch- 
naw in sombre garb, to follow the bridegroom to an early 


Lord Kingsale, who was on his way to pay his first visit at 
Lochnaw, was met at Donaghadee by the news that his daughter 
was a widow, and only arrived to reconvey her in deep mourn- 
ing to her old home. However cordially Sir Stair may have 
pressed her to remain at her new one, utterly disconsolate in the 
first moments of her grief, she naturally preferred returning with 
her father to her own family. Here some months after (21st 
March 1793) she gave birth to a posthumous son, Andrew, 1 who 
in 1809 succeeded his grandfather as seventh baronet, the 
eighteenth in direct descent from the first owner of Lochnaw, 
and the twenty-second from Sir John Aignell, Knight of the 
Shire for Hertford, who had been present at the signature of 
the Eagman Eoll by the Galloway Barons in 1296. 

Having thus traced the family fortunes from the Norse 
adventurer who made himself a home in France, up to the death 
of the grandson of the last Hereditary Sheriff of the Galloway 
branch, we let the curtain fall in 1792. 

It is desirable that a full century should elapse before local 
stories are published, which especially true of queer ones lose 
half their point if names are suppressed. 

Sayings and doings which have made sufficient impression 
to be retained by tradition for more than a hundred years, may 
fairly be considered the property of the public. 

Antiquity makes all the difference in the world as to the 
view taken by descendants of the merit or demerit of question- 
able deeds. 

1 The birth of the late Sir Andrew took place under circumstances which im- 
part to it a melancholy interest. His father, Lieutenant Agnew, during a visit 
which he paid, with his bride, to the paternal home at Lochnaw, was seized with 
sudden illness, the result, it is said, of over-exertion in hunting, and died on the 
llth of September 1792, in the twenty-sixth year of his age. The disconsolate 
young widow, stunned by the sudden blow, returned to Ireland in a very weak 
state of health, and suffered so much and so long before her delivery that the 
medical men announced to her mother, Lady Kingsale, their fears that it would 
be impossible to save both mother and child. It was a painful moment, but 
Lady Kingsale entreated for a delay of five minutes ; this was allowed, and the 
birth was safely accomplished. The posthumous child spent his early youth in 
Ireland under the care of his mother and the guardianship of his maternal grand- 
father till he succeeded to his property. D. M'Crie, Life of Sir Andrew Agnew, 
Seventh Baronet of Lochnaw, p. 17. 


Tell a man publicly that his father or his grandfather was a 
sheep-stealer or a burglar, and, however notoriously true the 
charge, he will certainly resent it. But place an indefinite number 
of " great-greats " before the term grandfather, and prove from 
unimpeachable record that the said ancestor was an incorrigible 
cattle-lifter, and habitually when on moonlight forays made free 
with the insicht plenishing of the best houses lying in his way, 
in other words, stole whatever he could lay his hands on, far 
from being offended at his forefather being written down a 
thief, he will infallibly be amused, and more likely than not be 
really pleased that so remote an ancestor has been authentically 

It only remains to say a few words as to the county circle 
with whom we have become familiar. 

At Culhorn the sixth Earl of Stair had succeeded his father in 
1789. He was born in 1749, served as a Captain in the 
American War, and was sent home with despatches by Sir 
Henry Clinton, after one of the few successes there of the British 
army. In 1782 he was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to 
the King and Eepublic of Poland, and in 1785 Envoy Extraordi- 
nary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of Berlin. In 
1790 he was chosen a Eepresentative Peer. He never married, 
but his mother, Lady Stair, kept house for him till her death, 
which took place at Culhorn, the 3rd of February 1798. 

The sixth earl lived much in Galloway, and was the best of 
neighbours, dying deeply regretted at a good old age in the year 

The member for the Shire was Colonel Andrew M'Douall 
of Logan, first returned in 1785, and sitting continuously until 
1796 (and afterwards from 1802 to 1805). 

In Parliament he strenuously advocated the adoption of 
Portnessoch rather than Portpatrick, as the harbour most suit- 
able for the short sea passage. 

He probably was not master of the antiquarian argument, 
that when the Macuddican or saintly little Cuthbert was with 
his mother miraculously floated in a stone currach from the 


Irish shores to Britain, the ocean currents wafted him straight 
to Portnessoch (Khinsnoc, as the Saxon cleric wrote it) the 
elements themselves thus evidencing Portnessoch as the proper 
port for communication with Ireland. 

In default of being up in this legendary lore, he paid large 
sums out of his own pocket for the creation of a quay, which, 
through lack of a breakwater and continual dredging, has now 
almost silted up. 

He also raised a body of volunteer horse, which he com- 
manded in person in England, thus freeing regular troops for 
service in the Peninsular War. 

Sir William Maxwell, whose little tiff with Lord Galloway 
has now become classic, was still to the fore, happy in having 
transmitted to another generation the helpful gifts of a good 
presence and popularity. His son, as well as himself, was now 
a visitor at Lochnaw, as we find from entries in Sir Stair's cellar- 

His brother Hamilton, a veteran in the field, colonel of the 
74th Highlanders, had the year before (15th May 1791) gained 
fresh laurels under Lord Cornwallis, at the first battle of 
Seringapatam, where he acted as brigadier. So complete was 
this victory, that Tippoo Saib signed a surrender of one half 
of Mysore, and paid down 33,000,000 rupees as the ransom of 
the other half. 

A bevy of fair daughters again made Monreith a point of 
attraction ; of whom the eldest married Murray of Polmaise, a 
second Mr. Du Pre of Wilton Park, Buckinghamshire, and a 
third, " Wee Jean," under the auspices of her aunt, the Duchess 
of Gordon, made quite a sensation at her ddbut in London, her 
beauty rivalling that of her relative, though rather of the type 
of the " Pocket Venus " than of Juno. 

Brilliant prospects seemed before her in the gay capital, and 
at the Prince Kegent's court ; but when these were discussed, 
her aunt, somewhat to her disappointment, found her heart had 
been left behind in Galloway, to which she was always true. In 
due course she married the young Laird of French, and presided 


for more than forty years, with great acceptance, over the hospi- 
talities of Balgreggan. 

There the Hon. Patrick Maitland, and Lady Eothes his wife, 
were constantly resident till 1797, when he was succeeded by 
his son John, the fortunate husband of Jane Maxwell. 

A certain coolness at this time had unfortunately arisen be- 
tween Lord Galloway and Sir Stair, a protracted lawsuit loosening 
the ties of cousinship, already very remote. 

Certain lands in Sorbie parish had been held in " runrig " 
between the Stewarts and Agnews from time immemorial. 
Lord Galloway naturally wished to have them divided, and 
being unable to come to terms with Sir Stair himself, applied to 
the Court of Session to appoint an arbitrator. This they did, but 
Sir Stair, being dissatisfied with the award, appealed the case 
over and over again ; the rights of the matter we cannot pretend 
to determine, but the verdict going finally against him, he had 
perforce to submit, though certainly not satisfied. 

This, however, did not affect his interest or his friendliness 
for the younger members of the family, the Stewarts of Garlies, 
which generation were adding effectually to the Galloway roll 
of naval and military heroes. 

Lord Garlies (eighth Earl of Galloway on his father's death 
in 1806) had entered the navy in 1*780. He served with his 
uncle in the action with the Dutch on the Doggerbank, and was 
promoted to be lieutenant in 1789. 

He served under Lord Hood in the Mediterranean as 
master and commander, and obtained post rank in 1793. He 
commanded the Winchelsea at the reduction of Martinique, of 
Guadaloupe, and of St. Lucia ; being thus mentioned in Sir John 
Jervis's despatches : " Captain Lord Garlies acquitted himself 
with great address and spirit on the occasion, although he received 
a bad contusion from the fire of a battery against which he had 
placed his ships in the good old way within half musket shot." 

He again commanded the Lively frigate at the famous 
victory off Cape St. Vincent, 1797, from which Sir John Jervis 
(his old commander) took his title as an earl. 


In 1805 he was appointed a Lord of the Admiralty, which, 
though intended to be complimentary, he doubtless deeply re- 
gretted, as preventing his being present at Trafalgar; l the 
more so, as he was a great admirer and intimate friend of Lord 
Nelson, by whom he was much esteemed. 

His next brother, William, in 1792 a captain in the 22nd 
Eegiment, passed through the higher ranks of the famous 95th, 
now the Rifle Brigade, distinguishing himself at Ferrol, Copen- 
hagen, Egypt, and almost every action in the Peninsula; as 
colonel-in-chief of the Eifle Brigade, and brigadier, Wellington 
had no more efficient aid. From early youth he was excessively 
popular, and when the wars were over, he returned to Galloway, 
and as a Lieutenant-General and G.C.B. settled at Cumloden, 
where he delighted to fight his battles over again. 

Though fortunate in securing well-earned military rewards 
in fame and popularity, he was unlucky in receiving wounds in 
almost every one of the numerous engagements in which he 
took part ; oftener, it is believed, than any officer in the British 
army. From these he often suffered much, especially from a 
musket-ball at Ferrol, by which splinters of a flask were forced 
into his breast, and which doubtless shortened his life. 

Among the privileged retainers who had a billet at Cumloden 
was his soldier-servant's wife, one of the extraordinary products 
of unlimited service in older days of the British army, who, 
having for years marched, bivouacked, and hung about the 
battlefields of the corps they belonged to, could go anywhere, do 
anything ; full of resource, nurse, doctor, cook, tailor, and who, 
if true-hearted, were invaluable and such, the General asserted, 
was Mrs. Bryce. 

Pointing to her as she came in sight, he was fond of telling 
that once, having gone into action and been severely wounded, 
he galloped back to his tent, and was soon attended to and 
bandaged by his servant's wife. After a little rest, he bade his 

1 He married 1797 Lady Jane Paget, second daughter of the Earl of Uxbridge, 
afterwards Marquis of Anglesea. Same year he was appointed Lord-Lieutenant 
of Wigtownshire. He became a rear-admiral 1810. 


servant bring round his charger, who telling his wife as he went 
out, she flew in, and implored him to remain quiet. The good 
advice was unheeded. In a few minutes the Brigadier was in 
the front, and again, in an inconceivably short time, was carried 
back worse wounded than before. Mrs. Bryce was summoned, 
but just anger got the better of softer feeling ; and with tears 
of laughter the General was wont to relate that as he lay suffer- 
ing in his tent, he heard her break out in a voice of passion to 
her husband, " It serves him right ; as he would go, after all I 
had told him." 

A third brother, Montgomerie, was thrown into nearer con- 
nection with Sir Stair, by marrying a sister to Sir William 
Honeyman, the husband of his favourite cousin, Mary M'Queen. 
He also stayed more at home, representing the Stewartry in 
Parliament for many years (1803-1812), and took an active 
management of the family estates. 1 

In 1792, Lord Galloway's two elder daughters were already 
married: Lady Katherine (in 1785) to Sir James Grahame 
of Netherby, the well-known minister of state; Lady Susan 
(1791) to the Marquis of Blandford, eldest son of the Duke of 
Marlborough. Shortly afterwards Lady Harriet married Lord 
Spencer Chichester, second son of the Marquis of Donegal, after- 
wards created Lord Templemore ; and Lady Charlotte, Sir 
Edward (afterwards third Lord) Crofton. 

At this date we find a Colonel Msbet Balfour (a general, and 
colonel of the 39th Eegiment) Member for the Boroughs, as later, 
James Graham of Kirkstall, one of the Lowthers, and others 
entirely unconnected with Galloway, the explanation of which 
is, that the representation of these boroughs being entirely in 
the hands of the Earls of Galloway, and yet, their elder sons 
not being eligible to be members for Scotch constituencies, they 
were obliged to come to terms with persons who could command 
an English Close or Eotten Borough, and exchanged seats. At 

1 Sir William Stewart's son Horatio married his cousin Sophia, daughter of 
the Hon. Montgomerie Stewart, whose son has succeeded as heir of entail to the 
estates of Broughton and Kellie Horatio Granville Murray Stewart. 

VOL. II 2 D 


this moment, whilst Colonel Balfour was representing the 
Wigtown Boroughs, Lord Garlies was sitting for Saltash. 

Sir Thomas Hay of Park had succeeded his father in 1777. 
His sister Suzanna married John Dalrymple of Dunragit. He died 
unmarried in 1794, when the baronetcy went collaterally to a dis- 
tant relative, his estates devolving on his sister. Mr. Dalrymple 
thereupon assumed the name of Hay, and was created a baronet 
in 1798, by the style of Sir John Dalrymple Hay of Park Place. 

After the death of his only son, Sir Stair's life was much that 
of a recluse. He took little part in public business, rarely going 
from home, though always pleased to entertain old friends and 
neighbours, including the rising generation ; his daughter, Mrs. 
Stewart of Physgill, assisting him to do the honours. 

He, however, always took a special interest in all that con- 
cerned his tenants ; his land-management was considered a model 
in the Shire. Scrupulous that rents should be fair, " live and let 
live " being always his maxim, he insisted on punctuality of pay- 
ments; whilst his was probably the only estate within a long range, 
on which there was not a farthing of arrears, there was none on 
which the relations between landlord and tenant were more 
cordial. 1 

Year after year his estate register, which shows the state 
of his stock, the amount of produce, and details of every sort, 
records such triumphs as : 

117 cheeses made from the summer's grass. 2 
20 July. Eye grass cut. 

1 Thirty years later, the good management of the Lochnaw estate was still 
proverbial. His grandson, the late Sir Andrew Agnew, seventh baronet, thus 
writes to his mother : 

"July 1821. 

"When I told Sir William Maxwell the other day that my tenants could not 
pay, he thought it the worst news he had heard yet, so noted were they for 
punctuality." M'CRIE, Life of Sir Andrew Agnew, p. 64. 

This was when the depression, consequent on the fall in value of agricultural 
produce, at the close of the long war, was at its height. 

2 These must have been very small, even assuming them to be the Galloway 
met, double the Imperial. 

117 cheeses 39 stone 5 Ibs. nett. 

113 cheeses 36 stone 7 Ibs. nett. 

107 cheeses . 35 stone 1 Ib. nett. 


3 Aug. Meadow begun to cut. 
14 Oct. Horses all put into stable. 
12 Nov. Ploughing begun eighteen yokings. 

The estate-improvement most in vogue the last decade of the 
century, was building dykes ; these, having been few and far 
apart, were now unduly multiplied, and having been reared 
at a cost out of proportion to the rental, have almost all had to 
be removed, and to be rebuilt in shape and size consistent with 
the modern system of cropping. 

The old gentleman's cellar-book partly serves the purpose of 
a diary, as : 

" Physgill here. 6 bottles port. 

" 15 July, ditto. 12 bottles port. 

" At different times up to 29th Aug. (Physgill left) 42 bottles 
port. 1 

" Captain Maxwell. 6 bottles port." 
(this being the young laird of Monreith just come of age). 

Among innumerable anecdotes preserved by those who had 
known him, one is especially characteristic. 

During his enjoyment of the property, with rising rents, land- 
valuing had become a profession. Many of those practising it 
were doubtless superior men ; some were charlatans, who, on very 
insufficient examination, affected to pronounce offhand what 
land could grow, and what it should be worth per acre. 

A certain valuator having persuaded Sir Stair to give him a 
commission, and having executed it, brought his report to 
Lochnaw Castle in high feather, handing it in for the baronet's- 
perusal in the morning, with the understanding that they would 
discuss it further after dinner. 

Sir Stair, taking up the papers, hastily glanced at the sum 
total, which astounded him ; then looked at the values placed to 

1 Physgill, Mr. Hathorne Stewart, his son-in-law. The 54 bottles of port 
wine were not drunk at a bout, but in the course of a visit extending over some 
weeks, during which we find entries in the farm-book for "Corn for Physgill's 
horses," and "meal for Physgill's dogs." In 1798 is an entry, "12 bottles port 
for the Rev. Andrew M'Cubbin's ordination." Mr. M'Cubbin was parish minister 
for 53 years. 

404 SHERIFFS OF GALLOWAY [A.D. 1/71-1792 

the farms one by one, his anger rising as he read. Few were 
not doubled at least ; when at last, noting a rent which was 
actually trebled, he threw down the report in a rage, and violently 
rang the bell, abruptly asking the servant who answered it, 
" Is that fellow gone yet ? " " Oh no," was the surprised reply ; 
" he expects he is to have the honour of dining at the Castle 
to-day." " I canna see him, send him away," Sir Stair peremp- 
torily cried ; " he'd ruin me and my tenants too out of hoose and 
ha'. He canna stay here." 

Sir Stair's own people long cherished his memory with 
affectionate regard, knowing well that a spirit of genuine 
kindliness underlay a certain testiness of expression. They took 
no exception to his stay-at-home habits. As he drove leisurely 
about in his carriage-and-four, now exchanging a dry joke with 
a dependant, now welcoming a neighbour to share his bottle of 
port, to them he was the very model of the good country gentle- 
man. His indifference to the gay world of fashion was with 
them a merit ; to them he seemed one of the few who came up 
to their idyllic standard, whose habits of life gave point to the 
poet's appeal to landowners in general : 

wad they keep aback frae courts 
And please themselves wi' countra sports. 
It wad for every ane o 3 them be better, 
The laird, the tenant, and the cottar. 

Sir Stair lived for 17 years after 1792, dying 28th January 
1809, in his seventy-fifth year. 



There is a history in all men's lives, 
Figuring the nature of the times deceased : 
The which observed, a man may prophesy, 
With a near aim, of the main chance of things 
As yet not come to life. 2 Henry IV. 

OUR task is done ! We have recovered tolerably continuous 
notices of the Sheriffs of Galloway and their neighbours during 
the period of their enjoyment of hereditary office; and, to 
gratify family curiosity, have traced the footprints of their fore- 
fathers backwards to the fief in the Bocages of Normandy, 
where they first found a local habitation and a name. "We offer 
the results of our researches as a very humble contribution to 
Galloway history. 

The style of the work, from its very nature, is desultory, the 
material heterogeneous, and thrown together with little artistic 
skill ; the only merit we venture to claim for it, being accuracy. 
For every statement made there is reference to authority. In 
the case of private writs, the charter chest is indicated from 
whence they are quoted ; and of public ones, the locality of the 
archives in which they are to be found, or the title of the volume 
in which they have been published, is given in full, so that 
verification is simple. 

We have endeavoured to bring the light of modern inquiry 
to bear on the mists of fable which have so long obscured the 
early history of Galloway ; venturing also to suggest the inter- 
pretation of various place-names in the province as we came 


across them. In this we have been assisted both by the works, 
and by direct communications from, such masters in this branch 
of philology, as Dr. Eeeves, the Bishop of Down and Connor, 
Dr. Joyce, and Dr. M'Lauchlan. 

That the reign of error as to matters lying at the root of 
Galloway history should have continued almost until yesterday 
is surprising, justifying Lord Hailes's bitter remark (made a 
century ago), that " Scotland has been reformed from Popery, but 
not from Boece." 

It seems passing strange that a Galloway minister of culture 
should, in the year 1840, adopt such a statement as that " fifty- 
five years before the Christian era, 10,000 men marched under 
Cadallane, Governor of Galloway ... to oppose the landing 
of Julius Caesar." 1 And it seems yet more unaccountable 
(Novius having always been known to be classic Latin for Mdh 
or Mth) that it should have been left for Mr. Skene, after the 
middle of the nineteenth century, to demonstrate that the 
terms Novantae and Niduari were synonymous. 

Our historical sketch, imperfect as it is, may encourage 
others, better qualified for such a task, to pursue the subject, 
and to realise that the history of the province, even when 
entirely stripped of fable, abounds in incident, which by abler 
pens might be expanded into a narrative of thrilling interest. 

A marked feature in the character of Galloway Picts was their 
susceptibility in its best sense to female influence. Five such 
recurrent episodes in as many following centuries we throw to- 
gether in conclusion, so as to bring this chivalrous trait into relief. 

First of the dames in question is Ingibiorg, her name happily 
suggestive of divine protection and peace, 2 whose marriage with 

1 Mackenzie's History of Galloway, i. 45. 

2 Ingibiorg translated by the French Ingeberga, by the English Ingoberga 
is still a common name in Norway. 

Ingebjorg in old sagas is a demi-goddess directing wind and rain. Root 
ing, "a Teutonic divinity." Ing, "the son of Tuisco " held to be the ancestor 
of Swedish kings, is doubtless the name-father of the Anglic or English race. As 
a prefix, ing conveys the sense of the clearness and the brightness of the divinity. 
But at the end of a man's name it indicates his son ; at the end of a place-name, 
it means an inhabitant ; in the middle of a place-name, a meadow. In later times 
the idea of divinity merged in that of an angel, from the Greek "angelos," and 


Malcolm Canmore, c. 1067, cemented the union of Galloway with 
the rest of Scotland. 

Of her private life, her appearance, or even her pedigree, we 
know little; but history attests her influence over the Galwegians 
to have been far-reaching, leaving it to be inferred that, with 
whatever admixture of Norse blood, Galloway Pictish blood 
royal ran in her veins. We read of her first as wife of Thorfinn, 
the mighty jarl who, whether by inheritance or conquest, ruled 
nine Scottish earldoms (rikis), Caithness, also the Orkneys, many 
Western Isles, and Galloway. On Thorfinn's death, c. 1066- 
1067, the young widow was wooed and won by Malcolm Camnore, 
who, with her hand, claimed peaceable possession of Galloway. 1 

On Thorfinn's death, moreover, four earldoms lying between 
the Spey and the Firth of Tay, had thrown off the Norwegian 
yoke, and submitted to Malcolm, not as husband of Ingibiorg, 
but as heir by Celtic law to his father Duncan ; Malcolm him- 
self having already conquered Moray with his own sword from 
the Shakesperian Macbeth. 2 That Malcolm himself had some 
shadowy claims on Galwegian allegiance, through Kenneth, 
whom the Galwegians had assisted in uniting the Pictish and 
Scottish crowns, can hardly be doubted. But these did not 
become paramount until united to those of Ingibiorg. 

The exact nature of Ingibiorg's rights cannot now be ex- 
plained; we only know that they were recognised both as 
regards her husband, herself, and their issue, reappearing in the 
case of her great-grandson. 

" Ingoberga passed into Engelberga, an angel in connection with peace, splendour, 
and protection." Yonge's History of Christian Names, ii. 245-290. 

1 On Thorfinn's ^death, Malcolm appears to have endeavoured to conciliate 
the Norwegian element in the country by making Ingibiorg, the widow of 
Thorfinn, his wife ; by whom he had a son, Duncan. She did not, however, 
survive the birth of her son many years. Celtic Scotland, i. 414. 

2 Malcolm attacked Macbeth at Lunfannan, and slew him 5th December 1058. 
Hailes, Annals, i. 3. 

Mr. Skene, however, says "that Thorfinn died in 1057, appears to afford 
the most plausible explanation of the sudden termination of Macbeth's kingdom. 
Macbeth, finding himself isolated, with the forces of Cumbria and Lothian in front 
of him, and a hostile population behind him, in place of the support of the 
Norwegian earl, would fall back upon his own hereditary province of Moray." 
Celtic Scotland, i. 412. 


The marriage consummated, the Galwegians submitted 
peacefully to Malcolm's rule ; and all that we know about its 
nature, or the circumstances attending it, is of itself a proof 
that it was a period of peculiar calm. 

Happy is the country that has no history. 

Ingibiorg left two sons, Duncan and Donald: the former, 
Duncan, given up to William the Conqueror as a hostage, in 
1072, and brought up by him at the Anglo-Norman court ; the 
latter predeceasing his father in 1085. 

On Malcolm's death in 1093, his brother, Donald Bain, 
promptly seized the throne. But Duncan was as promptly re- 
leased by William Rufus, and, assisted by a band of Anglo- 
Norman adventurers, won back his crown, and was cordially 
acknowledged by the Galwegians. Soon after he was assassi- 
nated at the instance of his uncle and half-brother Edward, 
who reigned conjointly for three years, when (c. 1097) they 
were themselves dispossessed by Edgar, Duncan's half-brother. 
In this settlement the Galwegians entirely concurred ; and so 
strong was Edgar's hold upon the province, that he was able to 
will it away to a younger brother, disintegrating for a time the 
kingdom of Scotland. 

Having in this the concurrence of Ingibiorg's grandson, Dun- 
can's son, Galloway, as is well known, accepted David, first as 
earl, and next as king ; and even when Fergus was suspected of 
favouring a rising by Angus, Earl of Moray, in 1130, the people 
held aloof ; as also when Malcolm M'Heth or Wymond appealed 
to them on Pictish principles, they rose en masse in support of 
David, which is greatly to be attributed to the example of loyalty 
set them by William, son of Duncan. 

King Duncan had married Ethreda, daughter of Gos- 
patrick, Earl of Northumberland, and by her left a son, 
William above named, who married Alice de Eomellie, heiress 
of Skipton and Craven. When the Galwegians mutinied 
against David, near Durham, in 1138, and the king's life 
was actually in danger, William the son of Duncan was alone 
able to control them. Yielding him implicit obedience, they 


suffered themselves to be led off on a long detour through 
Craven, and thence to Lancashire, where, recovering their dis- 
cipline, they distinguished themselves by defeating a large body 
of English men-at-arms at Clitheroe, and were led back per- 
fectly amenable to his control. William Fitz-Duncan died in 
1151, leaving a son, also William, historically known as the 
"Boy of Egremont." 1 

In 1160, Malcolm the Maiden having tried the patience of his 
subjects by dancing attendance on the English king, a rising of 
the earls of Scotland was planned, in favour of the youth variously 
styled " William the Noble " and the " Boy of Egremont." On 
Malcolm's return, the rebellion collapsed, the Galwegians 
only remained in arms ; and this is easily to be accounted for 
when it is remembered that William the Noble was the great- 
grandson of their favourite Ingibiorg, whose direct influence 
over them we thus see extended to the third generation. 
Happily for Malcolm, the premature death of the Boy of Egre- 
mont removed this formidable competitor from his path. 2 

Whilst the influence of Ingibiorg decided the Galwegians to- 
wards the close of the eleventh century to accept the sovereign 
of Scotland as their ard-righ or head-king, an entire change 
in their political constitution, early in the following century 
Elizabeth, daughter of the English king, by marrying Fergus, 
overlord or Eegulus of Galloway, accelerated changes as radical 
in the laws and language of the province. 

1 A charter of Bolton granted just after her husband's death is worded : 
' ' Adeliza de Rumelli consensu et assensu Willelmi filii et hseredis mei et filiarum 
mearum," and among the witnesses is " Willelmo filio meo de Egremont." Celtic 
Scotland, i. 473. 

Mr. Skene points out that 

"Wyth Gyllandrys Ergemawche" 

may mean Gillandres, Celtic Earl of Ross, and Ergemawche may be a clerical 
error for Egremont. 

2 William Fitz-Duncan, usually called the Boy of Egremont, as grandson 
of King Duncan, eldest son of Malcolm III. by Ingibiorg, had a direct claim to 
the throne. Celtic Scotland, iii. 66. 

"Ingibiorg, the mother of the Earls," married Melkoff (Malcolm), King of 
Scotland, who was called Langhals. Their son was Dungad, King of Scotland, 
the father of William, who was a good man. His son was William the Noble, 
whom all the Scots wished to take for their king. Col. de Eeb. Alb. 40, p. 346. 


The name of the young bride on the lips of her new subjects, 
Ealasaidh (Ailsa), conveyed an idea of dignity and grace, ex- 
pressed poetically " breasted like a swan." l 

Her Palace Isle not only had special attractions for Anglo- 
Norman adventurers, but here young Celtic chiefs had opportuni- 
ties of meeting and courting Anglo-Norman damsels, to qualify 
themselves for which it was de rigueur to converse in French. 

By his marriage with Elizabeth, Fergus became son-in-law 
of the English, and brother-in-law of the Scottish king, 2 securing 
him a place beyond the bounds of Galloway, among the highest 
magnates of the land ; and her connections enabled her to secure 
for their son Uchtred an alliance with Guynolda, 3 daughter of 
Waldeve, granddaughter of the Northumbrian Earl Cospatrick, 
richly dowered with English lands and gold. 

Such influences, extending far beyond her lifetime, enabled 
her grandson Eoland to secure by marriage the office of Con- 
stable of Scotland, with vast estates, and these again were 
further increased in the person of her great-grandson Alan, 
a magnate so powerful as to be considered a fitting match for 
a daughter of the princely houses of Huntingdon and Chester, 
having the full blood-royal of Scotland in her veins. 

That the personal influence of the Lady Elizabeth was a 
civilising one, is indirectly proved by the great change for the 

1 Elizabeth ; as a Hebraic name means "God's oath." In Gaelic Eala is the 
wild swan ; Seidh, the prow of a vessel. 

2 Ruddiman, in his notes to Buchanan, speaks of King Alexander's marriage 
with Sibylla, Elizabeth's sister, as "an unequal alliance" : a remark thus criti- 
cised by Lord Hailes : 

"Mr. Ruddiman's notions are altogether modern. He forgot that Ermin- 
garde, the wife of William the Lion, and Jane, the wife of James I., were de- 
scended from bastards of the royal family of England. Such an alliance was not 
held dishonourable in these days." Hailes, Annals, i. 56. 

He had previously stated that, "it being the policy of Henry to cultivate 
amity with Scotland, he bestowed Sibylla on Alexander " ; so far from being con- 
sidered dishonourable, the gift of her hand was supposed sufficient to reconcile 
Alexander to the loss of Galloway and the Lothians. If we are to believe 
William of Malmesbury, Sibylla was the plainer of the two sisters. 

3 More properly Gunhilda, variously written Gunnhildur, as in the case of the 
queen of Eric Broadaxe,and Gunhild,the Danish princess, whose murder in England 
was avenged by her brother Sweyne ; also Gunnilder. Root, gunnr, Norse, ' ' war 
or battle," "war battle maid." Yonge's History of Christian Names, ii. 316. 


worse in the progress of the province, which took place the 
moment that influence was withdrawn. 

Fergus remarried, and, as is usually supposed, a Celt ; but 
whatever the nationality of his second wife, after his union with 
her " he failed in his duty to his royal master," and brought 
upon himself and his province the penalties of rebellion. More- 
over, the future conduct of Fergus's two sons indirectly testifies 
to the difference of their upbringing, and that entirely in favour 
of Elizabeth. 

Uchtred, her son, followed the enlightened course of his 
father's early days, in the lifetime of his mother ; whilst Gilbert, 
the son of her successor, headed a rebellion against this brother 
in the name of nationality, but really in opposition to any pro- 
gress and improvement. Having defeated his brother, he killed 
him under circumstances of terrible barbarity, massacred all 
Anglo-Normans he could catch, and threw back the civilisation 
of the province for half a century ; but all his professions of 
psuedo-nationality were seen through, and he dying, execrated 
by all good men, 1 Koland, Elizabeth's grandson, was recalled to 
his rights by the general voice of the people. 

The date of Elizabeth's coming to Galloway was much 
earlier than is to be inferred from the usual slipshod way of 
writing Galloway history, in which Fergus is held to be the 
successor of Ulgric and Dovenald, military leaders much 
younger than himself, never lords of Galloway at all. The 
slightest allusion to dates proves Uchtred, Elizabeth's son, to 
have been of man's estate before 1139 (and her grandson Eoland 
before 1175), whilst her daughter Africa was married to Olave, 
a king of Man, who succeeded in 1102, and whom, although he 
reigned forty years, we may fairly suppose to have been married 
before 1130. Her marriage is probably to be dated soon after 
the settlement of David as Earl of Galloway in 1107, in which 

1 In the year 1185 died that lover and wager of civil war, Gilbert . . . and 
other Galwegians who in Gilbert's time had been the instigators and whole 
cause of hostile feeling and war, in which struggle the aforesaid fosterers 
of wickedness and their abettors perished by the avenger's sword. Fordun, 
Annals, 17. 


Fergus both acquiesced and assisted. Fergus's death, as an old 
man, is chronicled at Holyrood in 1161, pointing to the prob- 
able date of his birth as between 1080 and 1084. 

The feudal system, with its salient feature of primogeniture 
and indivisible succession of the heir-male, of which Fergus's 
marriage with Elizabeth implied the recognition, though rudely 
overturned by Gilbert, was amply revindicated by Elizabeth's 
grandson Poland ; and its practice was firmly and finally estab- 
lished in its application to heirs-female, in the case of her great- 
grandson Alan's heirs. 

Of these, by far the most admirable was the Lady Dervor- 
gille, whose memory survives, redolent of the " wyne and wax, 
of game and glee, the sons of ale and bread," emblematising the 
happiest half-century of Galloway history. 

Of her name (Dearbhforgail), 1 the rendering given by the 
Four Masters " purely fair daughter " tallies with the his- 
torian's description of the lady : 

Scho wes rycht plesand off bewte. 2 

Greatly gifted by Providence, with a fine presence, and vast 
wealth, as gracious as she was fair, munificent as she was rich, 
she was a daughter of whom Galloway may well be proud. 
Her mother, Margaret, was daughter of David, Earl of Hunting- 
don, by Maud or Matilda, daughter of Hugh Kevelioc, Earl of 
Chester ; her grandfather David being youngest son of Prince 
Henry, 3 son of David I. (who predeceased his father), his two 
other brothers being Kings Malcolm and William the Lion. 

1 "Later critics," says Miss Yonge, "make it 'the true oath,' from derbh, 
' an oath,' and fior-glan, ' true.' " 

On her seal to the charter of Balliol College it is Devorgulla. Fordun writes 
it Darworgilla. 

Edward III. summons her as his vassal to the Welsh wars as Dervorgoyle. 

2 Wyntoun, bk. viii. chap. ix. 

3 The children of Prince Henry (who had had the honour of Huntingdon con- 
ferred on him by Stephen in 1136) by his wife Ada, daughter of William, Earl 
of Warrenne, were King Malcolm, born 1142 ; King William, born 1143 ; David, 
Earl of Huntingdon (as above), born 1144 ; Ada, m. 1161 to Florence, Count of 
Holland ; Margaret, m. 1160 to the Duke of Brittany, and secondly to Bohun, 
Earl of Hereford. 


Prince Henry had a son John, known as "John the Scot"; he 
dying without issue, his two daughters Margaret, Dervorgille's 
mother, married to Alan of Galloway, and Isabella, married to 
Eobert de Bruce became his co-heirs. 1 

Dervorgille was born in 1213, and in 1233 married John 
Balliol of Barnard Castle, curtly described as " Dives et potens," 
who owned wide lands in France and England, the united 
wealth of the pair being very considerable indeed. In 1239 Alan 
of Galloway died, when the western half of Galloway fell to 
Eoger de Quincey, who had married her elder (and half) sister 
Helena, the lands east of the Cree being divided between her- 
self and her sister Christian, married to the Earl of Albemarle. 
In 1246 this sister died, and Dervorgille, becoming her sole heir, 
inherited the undivided rule of eastern Galloway. 

Meanwhile John, Earl of Huntingdon, her uncle, had died 
in 1237 without issue, his lands passing to the king (Edward 
III.), and these in 1257 the king divided, giving a moiety to 
Isabel John's sister, and her husband, Eobert de Bruce, the 
other to Dervorgille, as heir of her mother Margaret ; Dervor- 
gille's share including with the honour of Huntingdon the 
manors of Luddington and Tokesay, County Lincoln, Duffield 
in Yorkshire, the manor, with the town and castle of Fotherin- 
gay, in Northampton. i 

In 1249 she gave birth to a fourth but the only son who 
survived her John Balliol, the future king. 

In 1268 her husband, who seems in every way to have been 
worthy of her, died, lamented by gentle and simple, and his 
loving wife reared two noble monuments to his memory : the 
one the Abbey of Dulce-cor or Sweetheart in Galloway a very 
model of the most pleasing development of architecture, where 
the flowery tracing of the decorated Gothic enriched the severer 
dignity of the Early English ; the other in England, no less 

1 Earl David begat of his wife Matilda one son, John, who succeeded him, 
and three daughters. Margaret he gave in wedlock to Alan of Galloway, who 
of her begat a daughter, Darworgilla ; his second daughter, Isabella, he gave to 
Robert de Bruce, who of her had a son, Robert ; and a third, Ada, he joined in 
matrimony to Henry of Hastings. Fordun, Annals, 30. 


than that college at Oxford, which, still standing pre-eminent in 
learning, immortalises the name of her highly cultured lord. 

The statutes were signed at her Castle of Botel in 1282. 1 
The incorporating charter is preserved as the most highly prized 
relic of the college : the seal entire, representing on one side a 
female figure, an effigy of herself, holding a shield in each 
hand, bearing respectively the arms of Galloway and of Balliol ; 
two shields underneath showing the achievements of Chester 
and Huntingdon. On the reverse side the arms of Balliol 
gules, an orle argent are impaled with her own (those of 
Galloway) azure, a lion rampant, argent. Above them, under 
cornucopia, the devices of Huntingdon and Chester are re- 
peated, the three garbs of the former being especially distinct. 2 

Some, and some only, of her many magnificent and bene- 
ficent works are thus chronicled in quaint doggerel by 
Andrew of Wyntoun, 3 who stands higher as a historian than 
as a poet. 

Now to rehers it is my will 
Sum wertws dedis off Derworgill. 

Scho fowndyt in to Gallway 

Off Cystews ordyre ane Abbay ; 

Dulce-Cor scho gert thaim all, 

That is Swet-Hart, that Abbay call j 

And now the men off Gallway 

Callys that sted the New Abbay. 

Howssys off Freris scho fowndyt tway 

Wygtowne, and Dunde [war] thai. 

In ekyng als off Goddis serwyce 

Scho fowndyt in Glasw twa chapellawyis. 

1 Datum apud Botel in octavo assumptions gloriosae Virginis Marise anno 
gracie MCC. octogesimo secundo. 

2 The repetition of the three garhs suggests reference to the Comyns, whose 
arms were azure, three garbs or with which great house she was doubly con- 
nected ; Alexander, Earl of Buchan, being Lord of western Galloway, and John 
Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, her son-in-law. 

3 Andro of Wyntoun was a canon regular of St. Andrews before 1395, and 
was elected, by favour of his brother canons, prior of the monastery of St. Serfs, 
in Lochleven, in that year, when we may suppose him to have been at least forty 
years of age, as he himself complains of feeling the infirmities of old age in 1425. 
M'Pherson's Preface to Wyntoun's Chronicle. 


And in the Unyversyte 

Off Oxynfurde scho gert be 

A College fowndyt. This lady 

Dyd all thir dedis devotly. 

A better lady than scho wes nane 

In all the yle off Mare Bretane. 

And, long as the list is, it is far from being complete ; 
among many omissions being those of her famous bridge over 
the Mth, with its nine arches, a marvel of its time, having, 
when first built, no equal in Scotland ; as also the Franciscan or 
Greyfriars Abbey of Dumfries, before the high altar of which 
Kobert Bruce, her cousin, stabbed her grandson, the Eed Comyn, 
10th February 1306. 

There is a tradition, probable enough, that Kenmure Castle 
was planned and inhabited by her husband; its fine site, a 
large mound, commanding picturesque views over the Glenkens, 
the remains of a fosse easily defensible, which can still be traced, 
recommending it as suitable for a chieftain's residence. The 
present castle, however, though parts of it are sufficiently old, 
dates from after the Brucian settlement, and in its present form 
was reared by the Gordons of Lochinvar. 

In England, Fotheringay Castle, with its well-timbered 
chase, 1 was her favourite residence, where she was often styled 
" the Lady of Fotheringay." 

She died, however, at Barnard Castle, the princely seat of 
her deceased husband, in 1289 ; but, by her express desire, her 
remains were conveyed to her native Galloway, where they still 
lie in the beautiful Chapel of Sweetheart, her husband's heart 
embalmed in spices, in an ivory box, having been laid reverently 
upon her breast. 2 Truly never a lady was more worthily loved 
and lamented. 

Her only daughter, Marjory, married the Black Comyn of 

1 Her uncle, John the Scot, obtained a grant from the king often bucks and 
ten does out of the Forest of Rokingham to store his park at Fotheringay. 
Dugdale's Baronage, i. 610. 

2 The abbey, when built, was known as New Abbey, afterwards Dulce-Cor, or 
Suave-Cordium, from the embalmed heart. The parish was known as Lach- 
Kendelach, from Cendelaidh, a Pictish king ; changed about two centuries ago to 
New Abbey. 


Badenoch, by whom she had a son, also John, distinguished as 
the Ked. 

A tombstone, which has disappeared, bore this tribute and 
a most inadequate one to her memory, written by Hugh de 
Burgh, Prior of Lanereost : 

In Devorgilla moritur sensata Sibilla 
Cum Marthaque pia, contemplativa Maria ; 
Da Devorgillam requie, Rex Summe, potiri, 
Quam tegit iste lapis cor pariterque viri. 1 

To her gentle memory, rather than to any merit of their 
own, was due the hold which her descendants had on the affections 
of the Galwegians ; love to herself intensifying the abhorrence 
in which they held the murderer of her grandson, a hate which 
no blandishments could modify, nor repeated decimations and 
forfeitures subdue. 

Even when the Bruces had for twenty years been acknow- 
ledged as conquerors, and recalcitrants held down by the firm 
hands of King Eobert himself, and his able lieutenant the 
Earl of Moray, the Brucian party were in such a hopeless 
minority among the masses, that the mere appearance of Der- 
vorgille's grandson, almost unattended, on the scene, roused 
such enthusiasm that the royal officers felt resistance to be hope- 
less. And it was the over-security engendered by this easy 
triumph in Galloway that led to his allowing himself to be sur- 
prised at Annan, at Christmastide 1332. And although he 
eventually retired discredited to France, yet had he or his brother 
left any direct issue traceable from their favourite Dervorgille, 
the Galwegians at least would hardly have allowed the suc- 
cession of Eobert the Steward to the throne to have been 

Just a century after the death of Dervorgille, the Princess 
Egidia, wife of the young and redoubtable William Douglas, 

1 Which may be translated : 

In Dervorgille dies a sage Sibyl, 

Pious as Martha, contemplative as Mary ; 

Deign, Supreme Ruler, to grant Dervorgille rest, 

She whom this stone covers holding her husband's heart. 


reigned for a time supreme in the hearts of the Galwegians. 
Beauty, if combined with grace, seldom fails to rouse the spirit of 
chivalry latent among men of every rank ; and the presence of 
the fair Egidia at the court of her grimmer father-in-law, tended 
at once to stabilitate and popularise the power of the Douglases, 
then rising to its zenith, and which remained paramount for four 
generations following; thus proving herself a power in the 
province of her adoption. The rhyming Wyntoun recognises the 
Dame Gyles 

that then was 

The fairest of fassoun and of face 
That men mycht find that day lywancl 
Though they had sought owre all Scotland. 

The description of all historians may be summarised in the 
words, " The loveliest woman of her age." 

The King of France is said to have become enamoured of 
her by a mere description, and sent an embassage a painter 
in the suite to solicit her hand. But Egidia refused to sit for 
her portrait, or to renounce her troth pledged to her Galloway 

If it was her rare loveliness that chiefly attracted the 
golden youth of the province to her husband's standard, her 
qualities of heart retained them in his service ; and we have 
already pictured her watching from the Tor of Craigoch the 
triumphant return of his flotilla from Carlingford and the Isle 
of Man ; as also how her husband, impatient of peace, unad- 
visedly quitting home duties and his exemplary wife, fell, whilst 
in search of adventure in foreign lands, by the assassin's 
dagger. 1 

The Lady Egidia had, with other provisions for her dowry, 
a sum from the customs of the wool of Galloway. This she did 
not long enjoy, 2 however, but died in the land where she was so 

1 Europe acknowledged William Douglas her bravest and most gallant knight ; 
England, Ireland, Man, and several parts of the Continent witnessed his prowess ; 
the success of his arms procured him many foreign titles. Noble's Genealogy of 
the Stewarts, 32. 

2 There is a charter under the Great Seal, " dilecto et fideli nostro Willelmo 
VOL. II 2 E 


much loved, comparatively young, leaving a daughter almost as 
lovely as herself. This second Egidia, known as the " Fair Maid 
of Nithsdale," married Henry Sinclair, Earl of Orkney, and had 
by him a son, William, who in her right became Lord of 
Nithsdale and Sheriff of Dumfries. 

A fifth lady, who, while firmly wielding feudal power, 
yet owed the ready acquiescence in her rule to her virtues and 
ability, was the Princess Margaret, Countess of Douglas, 
Duchess of Touraine, the eldest daughter of Eobert III. Her 
mother, Annabella, daughter of Sir John Drummond of Stob 
Hall, the common ancestor of the Earls of Perth, Viscount 
Strathallau, and the Drummonds of Hawthornden, was famed 
" for her beauty, sense, spirit, and generosity." Although 
married as early as 1357, she had no children till 1378, after 
which she bore David, Duke of Ptothesay (starved to death in 
Falkland Castle), King James I., Margaret, Mary, and 

Margaret was married early in the century, and the 
superiority of Galloway, settled upon her by her husband as 
a life estate, was confirmed to her by her brother, King 
James, on his return from captivity. She ruled the province 
from her husband's death in 1424 to 1440, a veritable queen ; 
her rule characterised, as universally allowed, by benignity and 

Instances are not wanting in which female influence as 
strong, if more ephemeral, was exerted over the Galwegians by 
the call of mere beauty in distress, when, reckless of con- 
sequences, the word of the fair one whom they had allowed 
to cast the glamour o'er them became temporarily their law. 

Thus in 1494 we find them prepared to risk a war with 
England, daring almost certain defeat, in the cause of the fair 

de Douglas, militis, et Egidise carissimse filise nostrse," of 300 sterling annually out 
of the customs of Edinburgh and other towns, dated 26th December 1386. 

In Noble's Genealogy of the Stewarts she is called Giles or Agide ; who adds : 
"This daughter of King Robert II. is by Dr. Abercrombie thought to have been 
legitimate, but other historians say otherwise" (p. 33). Her legitimacy certainly 
seems probable. 


Catherine Gordon, the White Eose of the Borders. And in 
1568, ardent Presbyterians as they were, they for once were 
deaf to the warnings of their ministers, and rode forth en masse 
to retrieve the fortunes of their beautiful Queen Mary, although 
their gaining victory for her, would have restored Roman 
Catholic supremacy. 

These are softer passages in the history of rough times. 

Of the names thus recalled, that of Dervorgille stands out 
with the greatest lustre, as under her, Galloway reached an 
acme of prosperity, to which it did not for centuries reattain. 

The establishment of the Agnews at Lochnaw, with which 
properly our story commences, was on the contrary the period 
of the lowest depression, resulting from the disastrous wars of 
succession; room being made for them there, by the forfeitures 
attendant on the final expulsion of Dervorgille' s grandson, Edward 
Balliol. The people were pauperised, their lands lay untilled, 
their herds thinned by merciless requisitions, the native forest 
wantonly wasted by the axe and firebrand, whilst the old ties 
were broken which had previously subsisted between peasant 
and proprietor. 

War had, however, worn itself out, and the very fact of the 
newly appointed Constable being able to maintain himself, with 
such small resources a.s were at his disposal, amongst a popula- 
tion to which, if not absolutely hostile, he was a stranger, proves 
this to have been a moment of tranquillity, which, although 
enforced only by circumstances, yet had in it the elements 
of revival from the long depression. 

Taking, therefore, this as a starting-point, we may glance at 
the progress and fluctuations of the slow return to prosperity. 

Improvement has advanced with such electric speed during 
the present century, that we are apt to forget how slow was the 
progress of civilisation during those preceding it ; and it is start- 
ling to find how little the conditions of social life had improved 
between the death of Dervorgille and that of the last hereditary 
sheriff 500 years later, also how much the habits of his days 
differed from those of ours. 


We may class our points of comparison under the heads 
of Order, Agriculture, Locomotion, Domestic Comforts, and 

1. Dervorgille's was a time of peace, whence progress and 
content. And when, a century later, the reign of law revived 
under Archibald the Grim, heavy as his hand fell latterly on 
the Constable of Lochnaw, his undisputed power, with capacity 
for government, revivified the slowly returning prosperity. 
And the reins of power being as ably handled by the Duchess 
of Touraine, this progress was continuous until 1440. At her 
death, the brutal and impolitic murder of her grandsons shook all 
confidence in the Government, and predisposed the Galwegians 
to side with the Douglases against the Crown. Hence, again, 
war and waste. The Crown was victorious in the end, but it 
was a far cry from Holyrood to Galloway ; feudality ran riot, 
and the power of the king, as then only represented by his 
sheriff, was insufficient to control it. Matters got worse ; the 
defeats of Flodden and of Pinkie following on the Solway 
Eout. The minority of Mary, and the religious struggle of the 
later years of her reign, still further weakened the hand of 
Government during the times of the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth 
sheriffs ; and it was only when James VI., indifferent king as 
he was, found himself strong enough to cQnfer justiciary powers 
on the seventh sheriff, and to support him in their exercise, that 
order partially reigned in Galloway. The union of the crowns 
further strengthening the executive, a contemporary authority 
thus writes of the times of the eighth sheriff: " Certainly Galloway 
has become more civil of late than any country bordering on 
the Western Sea." 1 But these halcyon days were brief. Civil 
war broke out, followed by long struggles for religious liberty, 
which, if somewhat fanatically conducted, were resisted with 
scandalous barbarity; the fortunes of the country falling to 
their lowest ebb in the days of the tenth sheriff. All classes 
were dissatisfied and disaffected. The Ee volution of 1688 
brought a turn for the better. Confidence in Government 

1 Lithgow, Nineteen Years Travayle, 1632. 


soon became general. Galloway was but slightly disturbed by 
the risings of '15 and '45, and after the latter date the reign of 
law was permanently assured. In short, in the days of the 
twelfth and last hereditary sheriff the province was as tranquil 
hardly more so as in those of Dervorgille. 

2. As to agriculture, it was not till the latter years of the 
tenth sheriff, and after the succession of the eleventh, that any 
real improvements, or system, were introduced. The yield in 
1700 was less than in 1300 ; but intelligent attention was thence- 
forward given to the breeding of cattle and cultivation of 
grasses. Turnips and potatoes were introduced in the time of the 
eleventh sheriff (the latter not till 1725) ; but the amount of either 
of these crops, for many years after, was insignificant. 

Thorough drainage was not understood ; drainage with tiles 
had not been thought of; equally unknown were guano or phos- 
phates as manures. A little lime imported from Ireland, 
carried in creels slung over horses' backs, and a little marl 
when it could be found, were the only aids to the midden, as 
revivifiers to the surface of the soil, already exhausted by in- 
judicious and indiscriminate turning. 

3. As to locomotion, the twelfth hereditary sheriff would 
certainly have been as incredulous as Dervorgille had he been 
told that the century following his decease would see railway 
trains rushing from end to end of the province, telegraphs bear- 
ing messages at lightning speed ; he would even have smiled 
at the idea that steam could drive vessels in and out of his 
ports against wind and tide ; his wildest dream as to what 
a following generation might witness, barely extending to the 
establishment of a coach between Dumfries and Portpatrick. 

What are now popularly called the good old coaching times 
(though they really hardly lasted twenty years) had not dawned 
till long after the birth of the last sheriffs great-grandson. 

Journeys in Galloway had to be performed at the date of 
the abolition of heritable jurisdictions, exactly in the same way 
as in the days of the Balliols, all alike riding on horseback. 

The bridge built by Dervorgille over the Mth was not 


supplemented by similar works on the Dee, Cree, Bladenoch, 
and Luce, until the times of the tenth and eleventh sheriffs ; 
and as many considerable burns remained still unbridged, no 
spring carriages could attempt their passage. 

In four centuries nothing had been gained in luxury or 
speed, and something lost in picturesqueness. The thatched 
wayside inn offered the twelfth sheriff a less luxurious resting- 
place than the cloistered abbeys where Dervorgille would have 
been entertained ; and the homespun suits of his gillies, and 
train of baggage-ponies, would have contrasted ill with her 
cavalcade, the gay pennons of her lancers fluttering before and 
behind, hawk and hound following in her retinue. 

4. As to domestic comforts, the houses of the baronage had 
more comfort and better fittings than in the days of the heirs 
of Alan, though far from luxurious according to ideas of modern 
times. Handsome furniture was scanty, as bringing it from a 
distance entailed expense and risk, and what was made at home 
was clumsy. The castles were somewhat better glazed than 
the old strengths, but plate-glass was unknown in Galloway 
except for small mirrors. 1 

Gas was absolutely unknown, as well as electric light, the 
usual candles during all the period being tallow for the house- 
hold generally ; wax being sparingly used, as an expensive 
luxury. A lucifer match would have been as great a wonder 
to the last sheriff as to Dervorgille, their retainers alike know- 
ing no easier process of fire-raising than by flint and steel. 

The last sheriff, like his forebears, was content to draw his 
water from the well. We doubt whether in his time there was 
a single cistern in the province furnished with pipes for supply- 
ing a kitchen boiler ; such a thing as hot and cold water laid on 
to the upper stories was unheard of; no manse in a teind- 
exhausted parish would now be built without conveniences then 
unknown in the mansions of the wealthiest of the province. 

As to the table, there were by the seventeenth century vege- 

1 Plate-glass was used elsewhere for coach windows, but no coaches traversed 
Galloway roads previous to 1747. 


tables and many garden fruits unknown at the date of the Brucian 
settlement. But the sources of supply of meats, wild and tame, 
were much the same, though so little advance had been made 
in providing cattle with winter keep, that the Galloway house- 
wife up to the close of the last century, still as in the middle 
ages, salted down her mutton largely in autumn. Little fresh 
meat was served at table in winter ; until the other day old 
residenters always called ham, as we now know it, a " bacon 
ham," in contradistinction to the "mutton ham." which had 
been as common in their youth. 

The sheriffs claret was probably better than the "vinum 
clarum " and wines of Gascony and Poitou stored in hogsheads 
in the cellars of Botel and Cruggleton, as were perhaps his port 
and Canary sack. He also had his square bottles of Hollands, 
his cognac and whisky, not known in the days of Dervorgille ; 
as also, in token of advancing civilisation, clocks and watches 
supplemented the dial and the hour-glass, 1 and family pictures 
were interspersed with the tapestry hangings on the walls. 

But whilst baronial houses thus slightly profited by the 
civilising influences of the hand of time, there was no such 
change for the better in any accessories to the comfort of the 
dwellings of the poor. Of the cot-houses of the last sheriff's 
day, it may shortly be said that those of the hinds and herds- 
men of Dervorgille could not possibly have been worse. If 
a little more substantial in construction, hers are said to have 
been of wattle and mud, the durability was positively a dis- 
advantage ; as, one-roomed, with no flooring, no grate, no opening 
window, the longer such hovels stood the greater the accumula- 
tion of soot, dust, and smells, in the reeking, unventilated cell, 
which the pig and poultry shared with the family. 

5. But the real coign of vantage from which the twelfth 
sheriff's insicht plenishing compared favourably with Dervor- 
gille's was his library. He had well-filled bookshelves, tomes in 

1 It has been affirmed that King Robert Bruce had a watch, c. 1310 ; but this 
is doubtful, and we may safely conclude that Dervorgille had none. A hand- 
some watch of the last sheriffs is in possession of the author, said to have been 
worn at the battle of Dettingen, and still going well. 


the clear print of the Clarendon Press ; whilst if she had any 
except missals or costly illuminated copies of the Gospel, they 
were ponderous volumes in MS., as difficult to handle as to 

Not that there were not scholars in her days, the priors 
and canons of her religious houses were quite as familiar with 
the classics, and could handle Latin conversationally, with an 
ease unknown to the members of the Presbyterian Synod of 
Galloway, but the learned were a caste, the upper classes thought 
school learning an unnecessary part of the education of any, 
excepting those who aspired to Church preferment, and the 
point in which the progress of civilisation was most apparent in 
the days of the latter sheriffs was a general diffusion of know- 
ledge among all classes. 

This was greatly accelerated by the invention of printing, 
introduced into Galloway early in the sixteenth century. 

Previous to this, educational progress had been slow. Der- 
vorgille had munificently endowed the College at Oxford, 
which still leads in learning, nearly 200 years before Bishop 
Turnbull founded the University of Glasgow (1451), henceforth 
to be the Alma Mater of Galloway students. 

In the days of the earlier sheriffs, no gentleman of rank 
could in general either read or write (though it is said that a 
few ladies possibly Dervorgille's daughter among the number 
had mastered the former accomplishment) ; and it was not 
until 1494, in the tune of the third sheriff, that an act was passed 
subjecting any man of substance to a fine of 20 who failed to 
put his eldest son to school in order, as it is expressly stated, 
that " they who are to be sheriffs may have perfect Latin and 
understanding of the laws, and thus have knowledge to do 
justice in the realm." It naturally required a generation for 
this to take effect. 

In the times of the fourth sheriff printed books got into 
circulation. Whether his son, the fifth sheriff, could read 
or not, is doubtful ; he almost certainly could not write. 

But in his time it is on record that many of the baronage 


had secret meetings to read Wycliffe's Testament. As also 
(c. 1542) we have read of Patrick Vans buying and reading " a 
Sallust and a Silva " (he, however, was being educated for the 

The sixth sheriff, born about 1530, is the first whose name 
we find signed to documents. He doubtless could read, but such 
of his letters as are preserved, are not holograph, the writing 
of his signature being execrable. In his time parish schools 
were put much on the footing on which they afterwads re- 
mained (1567). 

The seventh sheriff, born about 1552, who was also justiciary, 
was the first who could both write well and read ; thence- 
forward not to be able to do so was amongst gentlemen the 
exception, not the rule. 

This glance at the phases of Galloway life respectively at 
one hundred, and six hundred years ago, reminds us also that a 
greater change has come over the habits of all classes in the one 
century intervening, than in the five which preceded it. And 
this naturally suggests a further question, Are these changes for 
the better ? 

The " good old times " is a favourite phrase, but it is usually 
difficult to justify its application to any particular date. 

Within the present century, a cultured and kindly Galloway 
earl objected to the weekly service of a Liverpool steamship to a 
port on his property, on the ground that too much gadding about 
was destructive to the purity and honest simplicity of rural life. 

Tor long the same nobleman successfully resisted the build- 
ing of a bridge across the Dee, really preferring the primitive 
mode of access by ferry-boat to the royal burgh, exactly as it 
had been in the happier days of King Alexander. And so 
matters might have remained until now, had not the unlucky 
drowning of a sheriff placed a knock-down argument in the 
hands of the innovators. 1 

1 In 1848, William Ireland, Stewart -Substitute of Kirkcudbright, was drowned 
whilst crossing this ferry in his carriage. The bridge was not finished until 
1874. Its length is 500 feet, by 23 broad. 


Consistent to the last, far from rejoicing that steam on land 
as well as on sea had come in aid of the development of agricul- 
tural resources, he viewed the building of a railway station near 
his gateway much as the Celtic chief who had ruled there 
before him, had eyed the construction of a Eoman camp ; griev- 
ing that the echoes of his isle should be rendered hideous by the 
steam whistle. 

As orthodox an opponent of "Keform," but of a coarser type, 
was old Armstrong of Sorbie,a famous toper, who openly avowed 
his regret at the banishment of drunkenness from polite society. 
He had often assisted at bouts, at which, whilst bottles were un- 
limited, glasses were but few (sometimes indeed one wine-glass 
did duty for all the company). Despising the new-fangled talk 
of temperance from the bottom of his heart, bitterly contemptu- 
ous of well-ornamented sideboards whence liquor was not pressed 
upon the guests beyond the bounds of reasonable sobriety ; 
" Ah, boys ! " he would sadly exclaim, as a party rose where all 
were decently sober, " it was a better world when there were 
more bottles and fewer glasses." 

Such individual objectors, whilst proving valuable witnesses 
as to the measure of our changes in habits of travel and manners, 
in their estimate of their advantages, may be held to be the ex- 
ceptions proving the general rule. 

Change is not necessarily improvement. But, in every point 
with which we have dealt, security of life and property, farm- 
ing skill, facilities of carriage, the comfort of all classes, the 
general diffusion of education, the Galloway of to-day has as 
greatly improved on that of the last hereditary sheriff, and at a 
greater rate, than had his tunes on those of the Balliols. 

The present century has had its ups and downs, its times of 
depression, and difficulties may still lie before us. Still, from 
the Eevolution Settlement of 1688 to the present date, the pro- 
gress of the province has been always onwards, and all classes 
and all the conditions of life are happier now than they have 
ever been before. 

In short, to any sufficiently interested in the Province to 


have followed these rambling notices of the past, the moral 
which our pages point should surely be Content. 

Few, we suspect, will not concur with the remark, that how- 
ever amusing it may be to inquire into the ways of the olden 
times, it is pleasanter to walk in those of the present. And on 
Galloway ears, the words of the Preacher fall with peculiar 
significance, " Say not thou, What is the cause that the former 
days were better than these ? For thou dost not inquire wisely 
concerning this." 




A PEDIGREE dating from before the Conquest can at best be only 
accepted as approximately correct. With whatever confidence old 
pedigrees are given in genealogical works, these are not to be 
taken as equivalent to legal evidence ; they merely convey some idea 
of the general belief, and the inquirer must judge for himself as to 
the bona fides of the writer. 

French writs very definitely connect Herbert d'Agneaux, Lord of 
Agneaux, before the accession of William the Conqueror, with Henry 
de Agneux or de Agnes of Eedenhall Manor in Norfolk. The 
said Henry also retaining properties in France. 

We cannot trace the rise of the Aygnells of Aignell and Pentlai 
in Hertfordshire; but in 1264 we find John de Agynell of this 
branch suing Bartholomew de Yatingdon for the restitution of 
Redenhall as heir of line of the Agnews of that branch. 

The last possessor of Aignell and Pentlai was John (his father, 
William) ; his son, whom we believe to have been the first Constable 
of Lochnaw, left behind him a half brother, Andrew ; and the 
names Andrew, John, and William reappear as the Christian names 
of the first Sheriff of Galloway, of whose family we have authentic 

We read of a son of the " Lord Agneaux " getting the keeping 
of the Castle of Lochnaw from David II., but there is a hiatus in 
the pedigree, his grandson being " oppressed by the Earl of 
Douglas," his castle blown up, and all papers disappearing. 

The names of two generations are thus entirely lost ; after 
which the direct succession in the male line is a matter of certainty. 

Up to this point, the pedigree must be accepted as tentative. 


Herbert d'Agneaux, 

I 1056 and before 

Herbert, 1086, Agneli of the Doomsday 

I I ! 

Corbin, eldest son Henry Robert, 

inherited fief of Agnew, | ancestor of Marqius d'Aigneaux 

represented by the Marquis Walter of 1'Isle Marie and 

St. Marie d'Agneaux | Les Deux Jumeaux 


Henry, 1196, wife Mabel 


Robert Aignell, 1217 
(Aignell and Pentlai) 

John de Aignell, 1264, probably grandson of above, 
sued as heir of line to Henry 
Agnew for Redenhall 

Sir John de Aignell, 1296, M.P. 1298-1309 

Peter Aignell William Aignell John Aignell 

John Aignell, M.P. 1339-1361 dau. m Sir John de la Haye 
m Catherine de Chilterne | 

| dau. m William Verney 1367 

John Andrew Her great-grandson, 

supposed Constable of Lochnaw circa 1361, Sir Ralph Verney, 

grandson or great-grandson Mayor of London 1466 

4. Andrew, First Hereditary Sheriff of Galloway, m 1426 
dau. of Sir James Kennedy of Dunure ; had issue : Andrew ; 
Gilbert; and Patrick the last written films naturalis. Died 1455. 

5. Andrew, wife supposed to be a M'Douall, had : Quentin ; 
William of CROACH ; John; Nevin. Died 1484. 

6. Quentin, s 1484. m 1470, Marietta, dau. of Eobert Vaus of 
Barnbarroch byLadyEuphemia Grahame(who remarried Sir William 
Stewart of Garlies), and had : Patrick ; Michael ; Marietta ; m 
John de Murehead of Bulleis and Lauchop. 

7. Patrick, s 1498. m Katherine, dau. of Sir Robert Gordon of 
Lochinvar by heiress of John Accarson of Rusco, and had by her : 
Andrew ; Katherine, m Ninian Adair of Kinhilt ; Margaret, 
m William Cairns of Orchardtown ; Christina, m Blaize M'Ghie 
(probably of Balmaghie). 

8. Andrew, s 1514. m Agnes, dau. of Sir Alexander Stewart 
of Garlies by Elizabeth, dau. of Alexander Kennedy of Blairquhan, 
and had : Patrick ; Gilbert of GALDENOCH; Alexander of ARDOCH, 
Helen, m John M'Culloch of Torhouse. This Sheriff was killed at 
the battle of Pinkie. 

9. Sir Patrick Agnew, I 1529. s 1547. m 1550 Jane, dau. of 
Sir James Gordon of Lochinvar, and had Andrew; Patrick 
(called of Sheuchan, 1596), m Agnes, dau. of John Stewart, Parson 
of Kirkmahoe ; William of BARMEILL ; Thomas, whose son Patrick 
m Helen, dau. of Sir Antony Dunbar of Machermore, and succeeded 
his uncle, William ; Quentin; Katherine, m first, 1575, M'Kie of 


Larg, secondly, 1593, Alexander Gordon of Clanyard; Helen, m John 
M'Dowall of Curghie. 

10. Sir Andrew Agnew, Justiciar as well as Sheriff, s 1591, 
having m 1577 Agnes, dau. of Sir Alexander Stewart of Garlies by 
Katherine, dau. of Lord Herries of Terregles, and had by her Patrick ; 
Andrew, in Knocktym, m Mary M'Dowell ; Alexander of BARVEN- 
NAN ; Quentin ; Jean, m James Kennedy of Cruggleton, son of Sir 
John Kennedy of Blairquhan by Margaret, dau. of the 4th Earl 
Marischal ; Rosin a, m William M'Clellan of Glen Shannoch, by 
whom she had Thomas, 2nd Lord Kirkcudbright. 

11. Sir Patrick, s 1616. m Margaret, dau. of the Hon. Sir 
Thomas Kennedy of Culzean by Elizabeth, dau. of David M'Gill of 
Cranstoun-Biddell, M.P. 1628-43. He left Sir Andrew, knighted 
in his father's lifetime ; Col. James of AUCHROCHAR, m Marian, 
dau. of Kennedy of Ardmillan ; Patrick of SHEUCHAN, m Elizabeth, 
dau. of William Gordon of Craighlaw ; Col. Alexander of Whitehills 
(had issue, Andrew, his heir); Jane, m 1621 Alexander M'Douall 
of Logan ; Agnes, m 1622 Uchtred M'Douall of Freuch. Eliza- 
beth, m J. Baillie of Dunragit ; Marie, m Hew M'Dowall of Knock- 
glass ; Rosina, m 1632 John Cathcart of Genoch. 

12. Sir Andrew Agnew, s 1661, having m 1626 Lady Agnes 
Stewart, only daughter of Alexander, 1st Earl of Galloway, by 
Grizel, dau. of Sir John Gordon of Lochinvar, M.P. 1644-51 and 
1665-71. He left Andrew; William, m Elizabeth, daughter 
and heiress of Patrick Agnew of Castle Wigg ; Grizel, m 1650 
Hugh Cathcart of Carlton ; Margaret m 1656 John Maxwell 
younger of Monreith, and secondly, the Rev. Walter Laurie. 

13. Sir Andrew Agnew, s 1671. He married 1656 Jane, dau. 
of Sir Thomas Hay of Park, M.P. 1685-1701. Had James ; Andrew, 
d young; Thomas, cornet in Royal Scots Dragoons, d 1690; 
Grizel, m Sir Charles Hay of Park. 

14. Sir James Agnew, s 1701. m 1684 Lady Mary Mont- 
gomerie, dau. of Alexander, 8th Earl of Eglington, by Lady Eliza- 
beth Crichtori, dau. of William, 2nd Earl of Dumfries, and had : 

I. Andrew, b 1687. 2. Patrick, an officer in Enniskillen 
Dragoons, d young. 3. Charles, a cavalry officer, d young. 
4. James, major, Kerr's Dragoons (now 7th Hussars), of Bishop 
Auckland, m Margaret, dau. of Thomas Wilkinson of Kirkbrigg 
(see below). 5. Alexander, Lieut. Earl of Orkney's regiment 
(Royal Scots). 6. George, a cavalry officer, m Elizabeth, dau. of 
Sir James Dunbar of Mochrum, afterwards Capt. Royal Scots. 
7. Peter, Lieut. Cadogan's Dragoons, now 6th. 8. John, Lieut. 
Earl of Cadogan's Dragoons, aftarwards Capt. 8th Dragoons, now 
Royal Irish Hussars. 9. Jane, m 1705 John Chancellor of Shield- 
hill. 10. Margaret, m 1700 Col. Andrew Agnew of Lochryan. 

II. Anne, m James Nisbet (in Orkney). 


15. Sir Andrew Agnew, eventually Lieut. -General, Governor of 
Teignmouth Castle, b 1687, s 1735, having married 1714 
Eleanor, dau. of Thomas Agnew, son of Alexander Agnew of Loch- 
ryan, and had : 1. Mary, b 21 April 1715, m 1738 Sir Michael 
Bruce of Stenhouse, d 1775. 2. Elizabeth, b 24 April 1716, m 
1752 Charles Innes of Urrell. 3. Eleanora, b 5 Sept. 1717, 
d 1795. 4. Andrew, b 7 Sept. 1718, m 29 August 1750 Eliza- 
beth Dunbar, d 1751. 5. Thomas, b 10 July 1720. 6. Katherine, 
b 3 Aug. 1722, m 1749 John Gillon of Wallhouse. 7. Jean, b 6 
Sept. 1723. 8. Anne, b 28 Dec. 1724, d 1799. 9. Grizel, b 19 
Feb. 1726, d 1806. 10. Wilhelmina, 6 Sept. 1727, m 1758 
John Campbell of Skerrington. 11. James, in the Royal Navy, 
b I Jan. 1729, d at sea c. 1749. 12. Margaret, b 7 May 1730. 
13. Suzanna, b 6 July 1731. 14. William, b 1733, d in garrison 
at Gibraltar 1756. 15. Stair, eventually his successor, b 9 Oct. 
1734. 16. Penelope, b 12 Jan. 1736, m Alexander Agnew of 
Dalreagle, and had by him Patrick, afterwards a general. 18. 
Patrick, b June 1739, d young. 

16. Sir Stair Agnew, s 1771, m 23 June 1763 Marie, dau. of 
Thomas Baillie of Polkemmet, sister of William Baillie, a Lord of 
Session by the style of Lord Polkemmet, had issue : 1. Andrew, b 
26 May 1766, d 1 Sept. 1792. 2. Eleanora, b 26 March 1764, d 
5 June 1777. 3. Isabella, b 20 June 1765, m Robert Hathorne 
Stewart of Physgill. 4. James, b 4 Aug. 1767, d 1 April 1772. 
5. Mary M'Queen, b 21 Dec. 1768, d 14 Jan. 1775. 

Sir Stair Agnew died 28 June 1809. 

17. Andrew Agnew, as above, predeceased his father. He 
married 21 May 1792 the Hon. Martha de Courcy, dau. of John, 
26th Lord Kingsale, by Susan, dau. of Conway Blennerhasset of 
Castle Conway. He died as beforesaid, 5 Sept. 1792. His posthu- 
mous son, Andrew, being born 21 March 1793. 

18. Sir Andrew Agnew, 6 1793, s his grandfather 1809. He 
married 1816 Madeline, youngest daughter of Sir David Carnegie 
of Southesk, representing the forfeited Earls of Southesk, by Agnes, 
dau. of Andrew Elliot, last English Governor of New York, M.P. 
for Wigtownshire 1830-37, left issue : 1. Andrew, his successor, 
b 2 Jan. 1818. 2. John de Courcy Andrew, b 1819, Capt. R.N., 
Flag-Lieut, to Sir Charles Napier in operations in the Baltic 1854, 
m first, Anne, dau. of the Rev. David Wauchope, second, Patricia 
Elizabeth, dau. of William Henry Dowbiggin, third, Patricia, dau. of 
Sir Alexander Ramsay of Balmain, and has issue. 3. David Car- 
negie Andrew, b 1821, in Holy Orders, m Eleanora, dau. of George 
Bell, F.RS.K, d 1887, and left issue. 4. James Andrew, C.E., 
b 1823. 5. Agnes, b 1825, m Rev. T. B. Bell. 6. Martha, b 1826, 
m Fredk. L. Maitland Heriot of Ramornie, Sheriff of Forfar. 
7. Elizabeth, b 1829, d 1830. 8. Madeline Elizabeth, b 30 Jan., 


d 8 Nov. 1830. 9. Stair Agnew, C.B., b 1831, Lieut. 9th Eegt., 
Passed Advocate 1860, Registrar-General for Scotland, m Georgina, 
dau. of George More Nisbet of Cairnhill, and has issue. lo! 
Thomas Frederick Andrew, b 1834, m Julia, dau. of Charles Pelly, 
M.C.S., is an agent for the Bank of England, and has issue. 11. 
Gerald Andrew, Lieut. -Col. retired, b 1835, served with 9 Oth Light 
Infantry at the relief of Lucknow, m Margaret, dau. and heiress of the 
late William Bonar, and has issue one daughter. 12. Michael 
Andrew, b 1837, d 1839. 13. Mary Graham, b 1838, m James 
Douglas of Cavers, d 1885. 

19. Sir Andrew Agnew, 8th Baronet, b 1818, served with 93rd 
Highlanders in Rebellion in Canada 1838, afterwards Capt. 4th 
Light Dragoons, m 1846 Lady Mary Arabella Lousia Noel, dau. of 
Charles, Earl of Gainsborough, by Arabella, dau. of Sir James 
Hamlyn Williams, Vice-Lieut, for Wigtownshire, and M.P. 1856- 
68, and has issue : 1. Madeline Diana Elizabeth, b 1847, m first, 
Thomas Henry Cifton, Esq., of Lytham, M.P. for North Lancashire j 
second, Sir James Williams Drummond, of Edwinsford and Hawthorn- 
den. 2 and 3. Arabella Frances and Caroline Charlotte, b 1848, 
twins. 4. Andrew Noel, Barrister Inner Temple, 614 Aug. 1850, 
m 1889 Gertrude, dau. of the late Hon. Gowran Charles Vernon, 
2nd son of 1st Baron Lyvedon. 5. Henry de Courcy, merchant 
in Calcutta, b 1851, m 1885 Ethel Anne, dau. of Capt. Thomas 
William GofF, and has issue Dorothea Alma. 6. Louisa Lucia, b 

1853, m 1877 Duncan Macneill, Esq. 7. Mary Alma Victoria, b 

1854, m 1875 the llth Lord Kinnaird. 8. Charles Hamlyn, b 
1859, Capt. 7th Hussars, served Burmah Campaign in the Royal 
Scots Fusiliers. 9. Quentin Graham Kinnaird, b 1861, Lieut. Royal 
Scots Fusiliers, has been A.D.C. to the Governor of Madras, and to 
the General Commanding in Burmese Campaign 1885-86. 10. 
Gerard Dairy mple, b 1862, Lieut. The Buffs. 11. Rosina Constance, 
& 1863. 12. Marguerite Violet Maud, b 1866, m!890 Francis 
Dudley, 3rd son of Sir James Williams Drummond. 


1. William, son of Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw, second heredi- 
tary sheriff, received from his father, c. 1460, a part of the Barony 
of Innermessan, known as the Lands of Croach. 

2. Nevin Agnew, his son, named in a deed of 1498. 

3. Gilbert Agnew of Croach, and Margaret Mure, his spouse,, 
named in 1528. 

4. Nevin Agnew, in possession of Croach 1534. 

5. Gilbert Agnew of Croach, named in deeds of 1547 and 
1550; in 1566 had possession of Culmalzie. 

6. Alexander Agnew of Croach, and Jane Macnaughten, his- 
wife, in possession 1575. 

VOL. II 2 F 


7. Gilbert Agnew is named as apparent of Croach 1618. 
Whether he succeeded is doubtful. 

8. William Agnew, 8th Feb. 1620, served heir to his father to 
Kairne (in Kirkcolm). In a return of 1620 described as "heir of 
Nevin Agnew, his great-grandfather," m Mary, dau. of John 
M'Douall of Logan. 

9. Alexander Agnew, m Sarah Elizabeth, dau. of John Dunbar 
of Mochrum, by whom he had Andrew, his heir, and Thomas, 
Captain in Royal Grey Dragoons, whose daughter Eleanora m 
Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw. It is to be noted that in the 
curate's lists his wife is named Florence Stewart. 

10. Andrew Agnew, a colonel in the army, served in the Greys 
in Marlborough's campaigns, m first, 1700, Margaret, dau. of Sir 
James Agnew of Lochnaw, by whom he had a son, Thomas ; second, 
Margaret, dau. of Kennedy of Dunure, by whom he had a daughter, 

11. Thomas Agnew, an officer of the Guards, d unmarried 
1736. His sister, Eleanor, m Sir Thomas Wallace of Craigie, by 
whom she had an only daughter, Frances Anne, m to John Dunlop 
of Dunlop, to whom she carried the property of Croach. 


1. Gilbert, 1 in possession 1574, m Margaret M'Douall, coheiress 
of Uchtred M'Douall of Barjarg, who died 1610. 

2. Uchtred, son of the above. We find him in possession 3rd 
July 1523, and died 1635, leaving four sons :. Patrick, Hugh, Gil- 
bert, Uchtred, to whom Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw was 

3. Patrick m Anna Shaw of Ballygelly, an offshoot of the 
Shaws of Greenock, and had Patrick, Agnes, Mr. James, and 
Margaret, who married Hugh Adair, by whom she had a daughter, 
Isabella, m William M'Kie of Maidland. 

4. Patrick, succeeded 1669, m Marian Brisbane of the house of 
Brisbane. On the 24th March 1670 "was served heir to Gilbert 
Agnew of Galdenoch, his great-grandfather, of the lands of Bruch- 

5. Patrick Agnew, parted with Galdenoch, d 1705. He had a 
brother, Andrew, merchant at Belfast, whom we cannot trace 


1. Sir Patrick Agnew, sixth sheriff, had by Janet, dau. 
of Sir James Gordon of Lochinvar, a third son, William, first 

1 We find a discharge by ' ' Gilbert Agnew of Galdenoche to Thomas Kennedy 
in Barzarac (Baryerroch) of 100 and 4d. on behalf of Mr Patrick Wause of 
Barnbarroch, quho wass adetit to me for the same." Dated 22nd April 1858. 


of Barmeil and Wigg, and a fourth, Thomas, who had a son, 

2. William Agnew, dying without issue in 1625, left his estates 
to his nephew, Patrick, as above, who m Helen, dau. of Antony 
Dunbar of Machermore, and had a daughter and heiress Elizabeth. 

3. Elizabeth Agnew, m William, second son of Sir Andrew 
Agnew of Lochnaw, ninth sheriff, and by him had issue. 

4. William, also Agnes, m Charles Stewart of Tonderghie, and 
had a daughter, Elizabeth. 

5. William Agnew, dying unmarried in 1738, Hugh Hawthorne, 
son of his niece Elizabeth (who had married Hugh Hawthorne, a 
merchant in Edinburgh), became heir to Castle Wigg, and m Anne, 
dau. of Colonel Patrick Vaus of Barnbarroch. 


1. Patrick, third son of Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw, eighth 
sheriff, received Sheuchan from his father, and m Elizabeth, dau. of 
William Gordon of Craighlaw, by whom he had issue : 1, Andrew ; 
2, Jean, m 1667 John Blair of Dunskey; 3, Margaret, m 1673 
Alexander Adair of Dromore. 

2. Andrew, m dau. of M'Douall of Logan. 

3. Eobert, m Margaret, dau. of M'Douall of Freuch. 

4. Margaret, who carried the lands to John Vaus of Barn- 

6. ISSUE of Major JAMES AGNEW, fourth son of Sir James, eleventh 
sheriff, and Lady Mary Agnew, by ELIZABETH WILKINSON 
of Kirkbrig. 

1. James, a general officer, killed at Germanstown, America, 

2. Montgomerie, b 1730. Served in the 17th Light Dragoons 
and 1st Dragoon Guards. Died a general, and Governor of Carlisle, 

3. Alexander, Captain E.R, and had a son, Thomas Eamsden 
Agnew, long Governor of Tipner Fort. 

4. Mary, m to Eobert M'Queen, Lord Braxfield, by whom she 
had several sons and a daughter, Mary, m to Sir John Ord Honey- 

5. Katherine, m to Sir Eichard Bempde Johnston, M.P., of 
Hackness Hall, Yorkshire. 

6. Philadelphia, in a family tree called Lady Lockhart. Her 
husband we have not traced. 



1452. 1 

JACOBUS Dei gracia Rex Scottorum omnibus probis hominibus 
tocius terre sue Clericis et laicis Salutem Sciatis quod pro Singulari 
favore zelo et dilectione quos gerimus erga dilectum familiarem 
nostrumque Scutiferum Andream Agnew, et pro suis suorum fili- 
orum gratuitis serviciis nobis multipliciter impensis et impendendis 
Dictum Andream Agnew Fecimus Constituimus et ordinavimus et 
per presentes Facimus Constituimus et ordinamus vicecomitem 
nostrum de Wigtoune Tenendum et habendum dictum officium 
vicecomitis de Wigtoune cum pertinentiis dicto Andree Agnew pro 
toto tempore vite sue et post ipsius decessum Andree Agnew filio 
et heredi apparenti dicti Andree et heredibus masculis de corpore 
suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis Quibus forte deficientibus 
Patricio Agnew filio naturali dicti Andree patris et heredibus 
masculis de corpore suo legitime procreatis seu procreandis Quibus 
forte deficientibus Gilberto Agnew filio etiam naturali predicti 
Andree Agnew Senioris et heredibus masculis de corpore suo 
legitime procreatis seu procreandis in feodo et hereditate imper- 
petuum Quibus personis supra dictis deficientibus Nobis et 
successoribus nostris libere revertend. de nobis et heredibus nostris 
cum feodis proficuis emolumentis libertatibus commoditatibus et 
asiamentis ac justis pertinenciis suis quibuscunque tarn non 
nominatis quam nominatis ad ipsum officium spectan. seu quovis- 
modo juste spectare valeii. in futurum libere quiete plenarie integre 
honorifice bene et in pace sine aliquo retinemento seu obstaculo 
quocunque Cum plena et libera potestate curias vicecomit. ordinand. 
inchoand. affirmand. tenend. finiend. et quociens opus fuerit con- 
tinuand. Sectas convocand. et convocari faciend. amerciamenta exitus 
curiarum et eschseta levand. ac pro eisdem si necesse fuerit dis- 
tringendi transgressores et delinquentes puniend. plegia recipiend. et 
convocand., brevia de capella nostra sibi Andree presentata seu sibi 
aut dictis personis post sui decessum in dicto officio ministrantibus 
presentand. ad officium vicecomitis spectafi. recipiend. aperiend. et eis 
debite deserviri faciend., lites et questiones in dicta curia motas seu 
movendas ad ipsas curias spectantes audiend. decidend. et debito fine 
terminand. Maros et Serjandos de suis officiis removend., et alios 
eorum loco tociens quociens eis expedire videtur imponend. unum 
vel plures sub ipsis deputatum seu deputatos in dicto officio quando 
et quociens eis placuerit substituend. vel deputand., pro quo seu 
quibus respondere tenebuntur, qui similem et eandem in premissis 
habeat seu habeant potestatem Et cum potestate sciam armorum 

1 29th July 1452, viz. a few months after the assassination of William, eighth 
Earl of Douglas, by the king, James II. 


demonstrationes faciend. et vicinarios patrie ad summonend. 
aggregand. suscitand. et excitand. omnes et singulos inhabitantes 
dictum vicecomitatum pro defensione patrie ac si necesse fuerit 
ipsos inhabitantes pro resistentia nostrorum rebelliura et ligiorum 
nostrorum defensione ad nos vel ad nostrum locum tenentem con- 
ducend. absentes remissos et inobedientes pro eorum defectibus 
prout decet corrigend. et puniend. Et generaliter universa alia et 
singula que ad officium vicecomitis de jure vel de consuetudine per- 
tinere dinoscuntur faciend. exercend. et perimplend. et exequend. 
stat. et grat. habentes et habituri totum et quicquid dictus Andreas 
aut persone prescripte substituti vel deputati ab eis vel eorum 
aliquo in dicto officio juste seu rite duxerit seu duxerint faciend. 
Faciendo dictus Andreas et prefate persone onera et servicia ad 
dictum officium vicecomitis pertinen. debita et consueta. Quare 
universis et singulis quorum interest vel interesse poterit stricte 
precipiendo mandamus quatenus dicto Andree et post sui decessum 
prefatis personis aut eorum substitutis seu deputatis in omnibus et 
singulis dictum officium concernentibus prompte respondeant, 
pareant et intendant sub omni pena que competere poterit in hac 
parte, In cujus rei testimonium present! carte nostre magnum sigil- 
lum nostrum apponi precepimus Testibus reverendis in Christo 
patribus Jacobo Willelmo Johanne et Thoma l Sancti 'Andree 2 Glas- 
guen. Moravien. et Candide Case Ecclesiarum Episcopis Carissimo 
consanguineo nostro Georgeo Comite Angusie Willmo Domino 
Creichtoune nostro Cancellario et consanguineo predilecto, Dilectis 
consanguineis nostris Patricio Domino le Grahame 3 Thoma Domino 
Erskin 4 Willmo Domino Somyrvile 5 Johanne Domino le Lindesay de 
Biris Andrea Domino le Gray Magistro hospicii nostri Magistris 
Johanne Arous Archidiacono Glasguen. et Georgeo de Schoriswod 
rectore de Cultre clerico nostro Apud Edinburgh vicesimo nono 
die mensis Julij anno domini Millesimo quadringentesimo quin- 
quagesimo Secundo Et regni nostri decnno sexto. 

The Seal lost marked on the back "5 Aug. 1729 f Bruce." 
Presented by Mr Eobert Dalrymple, Writer to the Signet, and 
regrata as a probative writ. 

1 Thomas Spence, Bishop of Galloway, on resignation of Bishop Vans, who 
was still living. 

2 James Kennedy, Archbishop of St Andrews, half-brother of Angus ; William 
Turnbull, Archbishop of Glasgow, founder of the college there ; John Win- 
chester, Bishop of Murray, an Englishman who came to Scotland with James I. ; 
George, fourth Earl of Angus, nephew of James I. 

8 The grandfather of Lord Graham had married for his second wife Angus's 
mother, the Princess Mary Stewart, also mother to Kennedy. 

4 Erskine was connected with Angus through the House of Mar, and had a 
daughter married to Douglas of Lochleven. 

5 Lord Somerville was probably nephew to Bishop Vans, his mother being of 
that name. 




THE Roll of the Rent of the Shreffdome of Wigtoune made and 
sett down be the Commissioners undersubscryvand appoynted for 
that effect by act of the estates of Parliament of the kingdome 
haldin at Edinburgh the furth day of August 1649, which Com- 
missioners having mett upon the furth day of September last, and 
having judiciallie given their oaths to use their best endevours for 
a right and true information e of the rents of the haill shire, and to 
proceed faithfullie and impartiallie in prosecuting their commissione 
and instructionnes relating thereunto, which they have carefullie 
performed in every poynt : After serious and mature deliberatione 
they gave, made, and sett down the Roll following in articles 
according to the number of the severall parosches in the said shire, 
and have cast up the summs according to the directione of the 


James Erie of Galloway for self and remanent heritours, fuers, 
lyverenters, and proper wodsetters within the said paroschine. Thair 
money rent extends to l 1566 13 4 

Payit in meill and beir in the said paroschine sex 
bolls pryce and measure aforsesaid. Which being con- 
verted into money . . . _ . . . 29 00 00 

Suma, etc. 2 .... 1595 13 4 

Payit in casualities and customes in the said 
paroschin 9 11 4 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister schoole mr. 
of the said parosch . . . 576 :: 06 :: 00 

Payit to His Matis. Excheqr. . 40 :: 00 :: 00 


John Vause of Barnbaroch for self, etc. . 3321 :: 17 :: 04 

Payit in victual, meill, and beir, etc. * 818 :: 02 :: 00 

Suma, etc. 4139 :: 19 :: 04 

1 The sums of money are expressed in words before the figures. 

2 Sums of the whole money rent and payments by and attour the deductions 


Payit in casualties and customes 

28 :: 15 :: 00 

Payit in few dewtie to the Colledge of 

Glasgow . . . . 34 :: 13 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 

schoole mr 964 :: 17 :: 00 

Payit in victuall to His Matis. Excheqr. 

114 :: 16 :: 00 
Payit to His Matis. Excheqr. in money 

136 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit of mortified rent to Mr Andrew 
Eamsay . . . . 164:: 00:: 00 


James Erie of Galloway for self, etc. . 3020 :: 09 ::X)4 
Payit in victuall, meill, and beir, etc. .. 1118 :: 17 :: 00 

4139 :: 06 :: 04 
Payit in customes and casualities 


Payit in few dewtie to the Colledge of 

Glascow . . . . 271 :: 06 :: 08 

Payit in mortified rent to Mr Eobert 

Blair 10 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 

schoole mr 733 :: 06 :: 08 

Payit of victuall to the minister ffyfteen 

bolls 72:: 00:: 00 

Payit to his Matis. Excheqr. . 24 :: 00 :: 00 


James Erie of Galloway for self, etc. . . 3876 :: 13 :: 04 
Payit in meill and beir, etc. . . . 1643 :: 06 :; 08 

5520 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in feu dewtie to the Colledge of 
Glascow .... 551 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit in mortified rent to Mr Eobert 
Blair . . . . 42 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister of Port- 
mongomerie . . . . 60 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 
schoole-maister 1000 :: 00 :: 00 



James Erie of Galloway for self, etc. . . 2528::13::04 
Payit, etc. . . 1928:: 10:: 08 

4457 :: 04 :: 00 

Payit in casualities or customes . 29 :: 06 :: 08~ 
Payit in few dewtie to the Colledge of 
Glasgow . . . . 305 :: 06 :: 08 
Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 
schoole mr ..... 893 :: 06 :: 08 
Payit to His Majesties Exchequer 

41 :: 06 :: 00 


John Dunbar of Mochrum for self, etc. . 3897 :: 13 :: 04 
Payit, etc ....... 239 :: 05 :: 00 

4136 :: 18 ::~Q4 
Payit in customes and casualities 

102 :: 03 :: 08 

Payit in tale dewtie to the Colledge of 

Glasgow . . . 100 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister, schoole 

mr., and poore . . . 1000 :: 00 :: 00 


William Gordon of Craighlaw, etc. . 4363::17::04 

Payit, etc. . . . . 91 :: 16 ii 08 

4455 :: 14 :: 00 
Payit in customes and casualities 

256 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to Mr Andrew Ramsay 

110 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 

schoole mr. . . . 844 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit to his Matis. Excheqr. 25 :: 00 :: 00 


James Ross of Balneill, etc. . . . 4095::13::04 
Payit, etc. . . . '. 2005 :: 16 :: 08 

6101 :: 10 :: 00 


Payit in customes and casualities 

188 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit in few and tale dewtie to the Colledge 
of Glascow .... 890 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 
schoole mr. 866 :: 13 :: 04 


James Eoss of Balneill for self, etc. . 2360 :: 11 :: 04 

Payit, etc 207 :: 17 :: 00 

2568 :: 08 :: 04 

Payit in customes and casualities 

118 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in few and tale dewtie to the Colledge 
of Glascow . . . . 205 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 
schoole mr. 613 :: 06 :: 08 


John Erie of Cassiles for self, etc. . 5450 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit, etc. 741 :; 11 :: 04 

6191 :: 11 :: 04 

Payit in customes and casualities 

161 :: 06 :: 08 

Payit in few and tale dewtie to the Colledge 
of Glasgow .... 195 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister of 
Portmongomerie . . . Ill :: 13 :: 04 

Payit of victuall twantie five bolls 

116 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister of 
Stranraver of vll. fyftein bolls 72 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit of victual twantie eight bolls 

135 :: 06 :: 08 

Payit to his Matis. Excheqr. 153 :: 03 :: 04 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 
schoole mr. of the said paroschin 652 :: 13 :: 04 


John Erie of Cassiles for self, etc. . 4015 :: 05 :: 04 

Payit, etc 708 :: 02 ;: 00 

4723 :: 07 :: 04 


Payit in customes and casualties 

Payit of few dewtie to the Colledge of Glas- 
gow 130 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to minister and 
schoole mr. . . .' . 1000 :: 00 :: 00 


Sir Patrik Agnew of Lochnaw, Knt. Barronet, 
etc. ........ 1600 .: 00 :: 00 

Payit, etc. . . . .. . . 884 :: 08 :: 00 

2484 :: 08 :: 00 

Payit in casualties and customes 

30 :: 05 :: 03 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 
schoole mr. ... 366 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit of meill and beir to the minister 
twantie sex bolls . 125 :: 13 :: 04 


Sir Kobert Adair of Kinhilt, Knt., for self, etc. 1672 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister of 
Stranraver . . . . 66 :: 13 :: 04 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 
schoole mr. of ye said paroschine 470 :: 13 : : 04 


James M'Dowell of Garffland for self, etc. 3468 :: 06 :: 08 
Payit . . . . . . . . . 1918 :: 16 :: 08 

5387 :: 03 :: 04 

Payit in casualities and customes 

130 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit of few and tale dewtie to the Colledge 

of Glasgow . . . . 103 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 

schoole mr. . , . 560 :: 06 :: 08 

Payit of victuall twantie fyve bolls 

120 :: 16 :: 08 
Payit to his Matis. Excheqr. 57 : : 13 :: 04 



Sir Eobert Adair of Kinhilt, Knt., for self, etc. 3100 :: 00 :: 00 
Payit, etc 1674 :: 15 :: 00 

4774 :: 15 :: 00 

Payit in casualities and customes 

20 :: 16 :: 00 

Payit in mortified rent to the minister and 

schoole mr. . . . 733 :: 06 :: 08 

Payit of victuall threttie bolls 145 :: 00 :: 00 

Payit to his Matis. Excheqr. 14 :: 06 :. 08 

The totall of the present valuationne of the shyre, besyde the 
mortified rent and what is payed to the Excheqr., extends to the 
sowme of threescore eight thousand sevin hundreth twantie ane 
punds five shillings 68721 :: 05 :: 00 

The mortified rent and what is payed to the Excheqr., 
ministers, and schoole mrs. of the said paroschins by and attour the 
said sowme extends to the sowme of eightene thousand fyve 
hundreth threttie six punds 19 . . . 18536 :: 19 :: 00 


A. HAY of Ariullane. ALEX. M'CuLLOCH of Ardwell. 

P. AGNEW of Shechane. BALDONE. 1 

Some counties are endorsed " producit before the Committee " ; 

"producit in the Committee;" 

" produced befor the Committee of Estates." 

Some valuationes were not producit till February or March 

The Wigtownshire valuation is peculiar, in giving a separate leaf 
to each parish. [I see a very few others do the same.] 

The valuation of the Shreffdome of Wigtoune 1649, producit 5 
Dec. 1649. 

This is called The New Valuation. In some counties this 
valuation is compared with the. former valuation (no date is given). 
I observe that Perthshire and Kincardine had increased ; Stirling- 
shire and Kirkcudbright had decreased. [No comparison is given 
for Wigtownshire.] 

1 Each page of the original is signed as above. 


[The following items conclude the STEWARTRIE OF KIRKCUD- 

Present valuation . . . . 115875 :: 19 :: 07 
Mortified rent . . . . 2745 :: 05 :: 10 

Former valuation .... 165090 :: 15 :: 05 
"Restis to balance the present valuation 
with the former" 50067 :: 15 :: 10 


THE SherifFdom of Wigtoun has upon the east and south ye 
Stewartrie of Kirkcudbright, and is divided therefra by a ferry of 
4 miles of breadth called ye Water of Cree, being of that breadth 
12 miles up, and from that ferry northward up the said Water of 

The Baillerie of Carrick within ye Sheriffdom of Air bounds ye 
said sheriffdom of Wigtoun on ye north, and bounds upon the 
south by ye sea qlk is betwixt Scotland and the Isle of Man. 

The length of this shire is from the Mule of Galloway to ye 
Water of Cree 30 miles, and fra the Isle of Quhithorn to the 
Eounetree 30 miles, being the breadth of the same. 

The principal rivers within this shire are first ye Eiver of Cree, 
qlk borders or divides ye Shire from ye Stewartry, and hath its 
source from Carrick, qlk river abounds with salmons and spurlings, 
and falls in the sea at ye sands at Wigtoun. 

The next river is Blaidzenoch, flowing from Loch Maban and 
mountanous parts of Penninghame, abounding with salmon, and 
goes ye length of 20 miles ere it fall in ye sea at ye sands at 

Into we. river runs ye Water of Tarff, flowing from Airtfeild in 
the moors of Luce, and falls in ye river under Cracchlie. 

The Water of Malzie, flowing from ye Loch of Mochrome, 
runs by Creloch and falls in ye said river at Dalrygle. 

The Water of Luce, flowing from ye Carrick March, goes 12 
miles ere it fall in ye sea at ye sands of Luce. 

In this water there runs in ye Crore Water, flowing from Airt- 
field, and runs 6 miles ere it fall in Luce at ye Moor-kirk. 

The Water of Solburn, flowing fra Lochconnall, runs 4 miles 
ere it fall in Loch-ryane. 

Poltantoun flowing from Auchnatroch runs 8 miles ere it fall 
in the sea at Luce. 

Abbacies are Glenluce and Saltside. 


Priories, Quhithorn. 

In it there are two Presbyteries, Wigtoun and Stranraar. 

In Wigtoun Presbytery there are 9 kirks, viz. Wigtoun, Mony- 
goof, Penninghame, Kirkowane, Mochrome, Glasertoun, Quhithorn, 
Sorbie, Kirkineir. 

In Stranraar there are 9 kirks, viz. Stranraar, Staniekirk, 
Kirkrovenant, Glenluce, Inch, Leswead, Kirkbrunie, Port-Mont- 
gomerie, and the Moor-Kirk of Luce. 

Names of the salt-water lochs that run in the land are Loch- 
ryan and Luce, qlk environs the Presbytery of Stranraar so near 
yt it makes a peninsula, seeing there the two lochs, the one upon 
the south and the other upon the north, are only 3 or 4 miles 

Loch-Eyan runs in the land 10 miles from the North Sea and 
stoppeth betwixt Innermessan and Stranraar. 

Luce Loch runs fra tha Mule of Galloway to ye Craigs of 
Craignangatt 1 6 miles, where it ceaseth upon the Mochrome shore, 
in ye mouth whereof there ly three rocks called Bigistarrs. 

Fresh-water lochs in Stranraar Presbytery are the Loch of 
Dalskilpin, being half a mile of breadth and a mile of length. 

The lochs of Inchcrynnell and Inche, wherein stands a tower 
called Castle Kennedy belonging to ye E. of Cassils, with sundry 
other lochs, with the Loch of Saltside whereupon the old abbacy 

Lochnair Loch belonging to the Sheriff of Wigtoun, wherein 
ye kings of old had an house, beside qlk stands the House of 

Principal houses in this shire are Drumoir, Logan, Ardwall, 
Killesser, Balgregan, Clonyeart, Garffland, Dunskey, Lochnair, 
Corswall, Gladienoche, Chappel, Castle Kennedy, Innermessan, 
Craigcaffie, Park, Synenes, and Carstreoche. 

Salt-water lochs within the Presbytery of Wigtoun are the 
Loch of Wigtoun, 4 miles broad and 8 in length, on qlk loch there 
is a bank of shells that furnishes ye countrey wt. lime and never 
diminishes, the samin being burnt wt. peats. 

Fresh-water lochs in that Presbytery are Applebee, one mile of 
breadth and half a mile of length, Kavenstoun of ye like quantity, 
the Quhite Loch of Mairtoun, qlk never freezes, whereon the Laird 
of Mairtoun's house stands. 

In the Loch of Mochrome there are bred a number of herons 
and wild geese wt. other fowls, qron stands ye Laird of Mochrome's 

The lochs of Ochiltrie, Loghmaberie and Lochconall. 

The castles of lyll, Glasertoun, Feisgill, Wig, Eavenstoun, 
Crugiltoun, Barmbaro, Brughtoun, Baldoon, Torhouse, Grange, 
Craiglaw, Mochrome, Castle Stewart, and Cleray. 


Burghs royal in this shire are Wigtoune, being ye head burgh 
of the shire, having a good harbour, beside qlk stands ye ancient 
monument of King Galdus, from whence ye shire has its name 
called Gallovidia. The other burgh is Quhithorn qrin the Priorie 

Burghs of barony Stranraar and Innermessan. 

Harbours Loch Eyan, Port Montgomerie, the Isle of Quhithorn, 
and Wigtoun. 


I have quoted the above entire from a MS. volume 4to in the 
Advocates' Library, titled Sibbald's Collections. The handwriting is 
of Sir Robert's amanuensis a very neat ancient hand, and the 
spelling almost like the modern. 

Sir Andrew Agnew's portion seems to end after the " Principal 
Houses." In Dunbar's portion the houses are all castles. He 
spells the lake Lochmaberry, Lochmaberie ; Sir Andrew spells it 
Loch Maban, which is a mistake ; perhaps he wrote it Loch 
Mabarie, and the mistake then lies with Sibbald's amanuensis, who 
has twice put a dot above the first stroke of the w of the name 
Lochnaw, thus making it appear " Lochnair." Twice he seems to 
have put t for c, which in the old alphabet is a common mistake, 
c being formed F, and t, 6. The two mistakes of this kind are 
Bigistarrs and Carstreoche, which should be Bigiscarrs and 

The castle spelt lyll is the Isle of Whithorn Castle. 

The monument to King Galdus is on the farm of Torhousekie, 
three miles from Wigtown, on the field beside the road to Kirkcowan, 
and is now called the Standing-Stones of Torhouse, or the Druidical 

With regard to heritable jurisdictions, I observe that William 
Houston of Cutreoch was Heritable Bailie of Busby in the parish 
of Whithorn. 


1455-62. William, Abbot at Dundranane. 
1462-85. Adam Mure. 

i xn* a* f James Lyndsaye of Fairgarth. 
i95-96. | Edward SpittalL 

1498-99. M. Cuthbert Bailye. 
1499-1506. John Dunbar of Mochrum. 

i KAT i n / The same ' alon S with 
007-1U. ^ M < ClelIan of Bomby. 

1512-16. Thomas Forestare. 



1517-27. Gilbert, Earl of Cassilis. 

1527-28. John Campbell. 

1529-30. Gordonne of Lochinver. 
1530-32. Kardlus Campbell. 
1533-35. Vaus of Barnbarroch. 
1535-43. David Crauford of Park. 
1564-66. Sir John Stewart of Mynto. 
1563-74. William Ewart (receptor). 
1574-77. John Adie (receptor). 
1577-82. Allan Cathcart (chamberlain). 
1582-85. George Gordoun. 
1588-97. Geddes of Barnebauchill. 
1595-1609. Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw. 



Alexander Vaus . . 1420 

Thomas Spence . . 1451 

Ninian Spot . . . 1459 

George Vaus . . 1489 

James Bethune . . 1508 

David Arnot . . 1509 

Henry Weems . . 1526 

Andrew Durie . . 1540 

Alexander Gordon 1558 

Gavin Hamilton 
William Coupar 
Andrew Lamb 
Thomas Sydserf 
James Hamilton 
John Paterson 
Arthur Eoss . 
James Atkins 
John Gordon 





1617. Laird of Barnbarroch. 

1621. Laird of Bomby. 

1628. Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw. 

1633. Sir Patrick Agnew of Lochnaw. 

1639. Laird of Kinhilt. 

1641. Laird of Kinhilt and Laird of Myrtoun. 

( Sir Andrew Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway. 

I James M'Dowall of Garthland. 
1644 (January). Sir Andrew Agnew, younger of Lochnaw. 
1644 (June). Sir Andrew Agnew and Laird of Garthland. 



i a A K A n J Sir Andrew Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway. 
* 7 ' 1 Laird of Garthland. 

J Sir Andrew Agnew, Sheriff of Galloway. 
iy ' \ Sir Eobert Adair of Kinhilt. 

(Sir Eobert Adair. 

( Colonel William Stewart of Castle Stewart. 
1654. Sir James M'Dowall of Garthland 

1656-58-9. (this commonly called the English Parliament). 
1661 i Uchtred M'Dowall of French. 

\ Eichard Murray of Broughton. 
1665 $ ^ r Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw. 

( Sir David Dunbar of Baldoon. 
1667 $ ^ r Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw and 

( William Maxwell of Monreith. 

1669 -f ^ r Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw and 
1 William Maxwell of Monreith. 

1670 J ^ r Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw and 
( William Maxwell of Monreith. 

1672 $ ^ r ^ ames Dalrymple of Stair and 

( William Maxwell of Monreith. 
1673. Sir James Dalrymple of Stair. 

1 67ft 1 ^ r ^ ames Dalrymple of Stair and 

( Sir Godfrey M'Culloch of Myrtoun. 
1681 (Sir James Dalrymple of Stair and 

\ Sir David Dunbar of Baldoon. 

(Sir Andrew Agnew of Lochnaw and 

\ William Stewart of Castle Stewart. 

-f (Grand Convention of Estates) Sir Andrew Agnew 

\ of Lochnaw and William M'Dowall of Garthland. 
1690. Same continued as Parliament. Sessions 1690, 

1693, 1695, 1696, 1698, 1700. 
(Laird of Garthland died). 
1700 / Sir Andrew Agnew and 

( William Stewart of Castle Stewart. 
1702 I William Stewart of Castle Stewart and 

( John Stewart of Sorbie. 


i fi i 9 J ^ r Rb er t Gordon of Lochinvar and 

1 *' I William M'Culloch of Myrtoun. 
1617. M'Culloch of Myrtoun. 
1628-33. Sir Patrick M'Kie of Larg. 
1639. Sir Patrick M'Kie of Larg. 
1641. Laird of Earlston. 

1643. John Gordon of Cardoness. 

1644. William Grierson of Bargattoun. 


1 /. J_E f Laird of Cardoness and 

( Laird of Bargattoun. 
1645. Laird of Carsleuthe. 
1646-49. William Grierson of Bargattoun. 
1661. David M'Brair of Newark and Almagill. 
1663. David M'Brair. 
1665-67. George Maxwell of Munches. 
1669. Sir Robert Maxwell of Orchardton. 
1670-72. Sir Robert Maxwell of Orchardton. 
1678. Richard Murray of Broughton. 
1681. Sir Robert Maxwell of Orchardton. 
1685. Hugh Wallace of Inglistoun. 
1689. (Convention), 
and to J Hugh M'Guffoch of Rusco and 
1700. \ Patrick Dimbar of Machermore. 
.. ,_Q 9 J James Murray of Broughton and 

( William Maxwell of Cardoness. 
1 70 fi / William Maxwell of Cardoness and 

( Alexander M'Kie of Palgown. 

VOL. II 2 G 


AARNMACNILLIE (Macnillie's portion), i. 


"Abbot of Unreason," i. 377 
Abercrombie, Sir Eobert, ii. 325 n 
Aberdeen, Bishop of, ii. 13 
Aberdour, Lord, ii. 381 
Acca, Bishop, i. 18 
Accarson, John, i. 301 ; ii. 430 
Accarsons, the, i. 222 
Ada Auditorium, i. 242 n, 282, 283, 

284, 295, 301 
Dom. Condlii, i. 283, 293, 297, 298, 


Adair, origin of the name, i. 220 
Alexander, ii. 52, 115, 223, 435 
Andrew, ii. 74, 77, 92, 137, 329 
Bishop, i. 289 
Euphemia, i. 336 
Hugh, ii. 434 
Isabella, ii. 434 
John, i. 323 n, 454 
Nigel, i. 244, 281 
Ninian, of Dunskey, i. 219, 304 
= Edzear, Ninian, of Creaken, i. 323 n, 

324, 379 

= Edzear, Ninian, of Kinhilt, i. 220 
n, 289, 314, 335, 336, 379, 406 
n, 425, 431, 450 
= Edzear, Janet, i. 379 
= Edzear, Lauchlan, i, 106 
= Edzear, Margaret, i. 379 
= Edyare, Patrick, i. 285, 306 n 
= Edzear, Quinten, i. 379 
= Edyare, Eichard, i. 306 n 
= Adare, Sir Robert, ii. 9 n, 14, 
19, 30, 31, 33, 34, 39, 51, 52, 
75, 84, 115, 151, 156, 423, 442, 

Thomas, i. 281, 285 
= Edyare, Uchtred, i. 306 
Eev. William, i. 450 ; ii. 83, 84 
= Adare, William, Kinhilt, i. 295, 
364, 385, 450; ii. 9 n, 115, 

Adair's Narrative, ii. 52 n 
Adairs, the, i. 225, 285, 289 

Adam, Archibald, ii. 50 

Adam's Chair, Berwick, i. 172 

Adamnan, i. 17, 18 n 

Adamson, Eev. James, i. 462 

Adderhall, Penninghame, i. 161 

Adie, John, ii. 447 

Aed, i. 30 

Aedh Buidhe, King of Ulster, i. 276 

Aedh Finnliath, King of Ireland, i. 28 n, 

29 n 

Aeron, battle in, i. 11 
Agathes, battle in, i. 11 
Aggiston, i. 22 
Agholy, i. 138 

Agneaux = Agnew, family, i. 180-212; 
ii. 429-430 

Andrew d', Archbishop of Eavenna, 
i. 182 

Baron Athanase, i. 185 

Charles d', i. 192 

Christophe d', i. 193 

Corbin d', i. 186, 187 ; ii. 430 

Baron Frederick, i. 185 

Gilles d', i. 192 

Guillaume Jean, i. 193 

Henry d' (first), i. 185, 186, 187, 194, 
195, 197, 211 

Henry d' (second), i. 195, 197 

Henry d' (third), i. 189, 196 

Herbert d' (first), i. 183 n, 184, 
185 ; ii. 429, 430 

Herbert d' (second), i. 185, 186, 194, 
195 ; ii. 430 

Herbert d' (third), i. 87 

Herbert d' (fourth), i. 189 

Helie d', i. 186, 187, 197 

Jacob d', i. 193 

Jean d', i. 189 

Jean, i. 193 

Jean Philippe, i. 192 

John d', i. 196, 197 ; ii. 430 

Mabel d', i. 196, 197 

Michel d', i. 192 

Philip d', i. 188 

Pierre d', i. 185, 189, 190, 194, 



Agneaux, Radulphus d', i. 197, 200 
Robert d' (first), i. 185, 186, 195; 

ii. 430 
Robert d' (second), i. 192, 193, 198, 

Theobald St. Marie (Marquis), i. 180, 

185, 189, 193 ; ii. 381, 430 
Thomas d', i. 197 

Walter d', i. 188, 194, 197 ; ii. 430 
William d', i. 192 n 
Agnew, transition forms of the name, i. 

206 n 

barony of, i. 473-74 
Agnes, i. 460 ; ii. 431 
Agnes, of Galdenoch, ii. Ill, 434 
Agnes, m Rev. P. B. Bell, ii. 432 
Agnes, m Charles Stewart of Tonder- 

ghie, ii. 435 
Alexander, of Ardoch, Sheriff-depute, 

i. 367, 427 ; ii. 430 
Alexander, of Barvennan, i. 441, 450, 

452; ii. 77, 431 

Alexander, of Cladahouse, ii. 92, 116 
Alexander, of Croach, i. 402, 423, 

427, 428 ; ii. 15, 23, 48, 59, 74, 76, 

90, 110, 151, 433 

Alexander, second of Croach, ii. 434 
Alexander, of Dalreagle, ii. 200, 230, 

329, 361, 432 

Alexander, of Kerronrae, i. 453 
Alexander, of Knockcoyd, ii. 175 
Alexander, of Lochryan, ii. 432 
Alexander, of Marslache, i. 461 ; 

ii. 78 

Alexander, of Myrtoun, ii. 223 
Alexander, of Tung, ii. 17, 32, 78 
Captain Alexander, ii. 381, 435 
Colonel Alexander, of Whitehills, ii. 

76, 431 
Lieutenant Alexander, ii. 237, 249, 

Andrew, first Sheriff, i. 241-244, 257, 

260, 261, 262, 265, 271, 287, 288 ; 

ii. 430, 436 
Andrew, second Sheriff, i. 241, 253, 

257, 260, 270, 271, 274, 279, 281, 

282, 284, 285, 287, 306 ; ii. 43, 430 
Andrew, fifth Sheriff, i. 335, 337, 338- 

340, 342, 348, 350, 360, 364; 

ii. 430 
Sir Andrew, seventh Sheriff, i. 402- 

408, 415-416, 418, 423, 428, 430- 

431, 439, 440, 441, 442, 450, 451, 

452, 453, 470 ; ii. 43, 71, 430, 

447, 452 
Sir Andrew, ninth Sheriff, i. 76, 462 ; 

ii. 6, 7, 8, 14, 18, 19, 20, 25, 29, 

31, 33, 39, 44, 48, 49, 50, 53, 54, 

55, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 66, 72, 

74, 75, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91, 92, 97, 

111, 113, 431, 435, 443, 444, 447, 


Agnew, Sir Andrew, tenth Sheriff, ii. 66- 

68, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 

129-131, 140, 146, 151, 152, 153, 

158, 159, 162, 172, 173, 177, 180, 

181, 200, 201, 265, 431, 446, 448 
Andrew, son of tenth Sheriff, ii. 

Sir Andrew, twelfth Sheriff, ii. 145, 

214, 216, 218, 219, 220, 228, 238, 

248, 258, 260, 262, 263, 271, 272, 

278, 285, 286, 300, 305, 306, 307, 

312, 314, 318, 320, 321, 327, 333, 

338-369, 421, 431, 432 
Captain Andrew, son of twelfth 

Sheriff, ii. 345, 432 
Lieutenant Andrew, son of Sir Stair, 

ii. 387, 391, 392, 393, 395, 396, 

Sir Andrew, seventh baronet, i. 209, 

374 ; ii. 214, 296, 297, 392, 396, 

402, 432 
Sir Andrew, eighth baronet, i. 203 n, 

206 n ; ii. 432, 433 
Sir Andrew Noel, ninth baronet, ii. 


Andrew, merchant, Belfast, ii. 162 
Colonel Andrew, of Loch Ryan, ii. 

157, 158, 201, 208, 223, 228, 230, 

250, 258, 273, 282, 431, 434 
Andrew, of Killumpha, ii. 30, 74, 76, 


Andrew, junior, of Killumpha, ii. 30 
Andrew, of Kylstay, i. 361 
Andrew, of Park, ii. 92 
Andrew, of Salcharrie, ii. 7 
Andrew, of Sheuchan, ii. 223, 230, 


Andrew, of Whitehills, ii. 431 
Anne, ii. 387 n, 432 
Anne, m James Nisbet, ii. 431 
Arabella Frances, ii. 433 
Caroline C., ii. 433 
Christian, i. 336 ; ii. 430 
Charles, ii. 431 
Charles Hamlyn, ii. 433 
David, Sheriff-Clerk, ii. 356 
David Carnegie Andrew, ii. 432 
Dorothea Alma, ii. 433 
Edward Frederick, ii. 381 n 
Eleanor, first, ii. 228, 248, 254, 255, 

258, 280, 285, 304, 350, 387, 432, 


Eleanor, second, ii. 387, 432 
Eleanor, third, ii. 273, 328, 432 
Eleanor, fourth, ii. 434 
Elizabeth, ii. 435 
Elizabeth, m William Agnew, ii. 86, 

Elizabeth, m John Baillie of Dunragit, 

ii. 8, 431 
Elizabeth, m Charles Innes of Urrell, 

ii. 349, 435 



Agnew, Elizabeth, of Marlborough Street, 

London, ii. 363 n 
Florence, ii. 369 
Francis, ii. 52 
George, ii. 214, 237, 250, 270, 276, 


Gerald Andrew, ii. 433 
Gerard Dalrymple, ii. 433 
Gilbert, first, of Croach, i. 349 ; ii. 

Gilbert, second, of Croach, i. 367, 

371 ; ii. 433 

Gilbert, third, of Croach, ii. 5-9, 434 
Gilbert, of Galdenoch, i. 367, 402, 403, 

424, 460 ; ii. 5, 430, 434 
Gilbert, son of first Sheriff, i. 257, 

266 ; ii. 430, 436 

Gilbert, merchant, Stranraer, i. 452 
Gordon, Jane, Lady, i. 419 
Grizel, m Hugh Cathcart, ii. 431 
Grizel, m Sir Charles Hay, ii. 201, 


Grizel, ii. 387 n 
Helen, m John M'Culloch of Torhouse, 

i. 367 ; ii. 430 
Helen, m John M'Dowall, i. 427 ; ii. 


Henry de, i. 210 
Hugh, of Galdenoch, ii. 5, 434 
Isabella, ii. 387, 432 
Sir James, eleventh Sheriff, i. 193 ; 

ii. 7, 130, 131, 154, 173, 174, 176, 

177, 178, 179, 201, 203, 204, 205, 

213, 214, 215, 216, 222, 223, 225, 

226, 228, 229, 235, 243, 248, 250, 

258, 270, 271, 345, 346, 431, 435 
Colonel James, of Auchrochar, ii. 8, 

15, 17, 27, 31, 33, 431 
General James, ii. 270, 275, 280, 299, 

376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 435 
Major James, of Bishop Auckland, 

ii. 237, 238, 248, 249, 250, 270, 282, 

283, 285, 286, 300, 358, 368, 376, 

380, 431, 435 

James, son of Sir Stair, ii. 432 
James, son of Thomas Ramsden 

Agnew, ii. 381 n 
James, of Galdenoch, ii. Ill, 434 
James, Stranraer, ii. 7 
James Andrew, ii. 432 
James, R.N., ii. 432 
Jane, m James Kennedy of Blairquhan, 

i. 435 
Jane, m James Kennedy of Cruggleton, 

i. 450 ; ii. 71, 431 
Jane, m Alexander M'Douall, i. 461 ; 

ii. 431 

Jean, m John Blair, ii. 103, 435 
Jean, " of Cairn," m Thomas Dal- 
rymple, ii. 223 and n 
Jean, m John Chancellor, ii. 181, 

206, 431 

Agnew, John, son of second Sheriff, 

i. 281 ; ii. 430 
Captain John, son of eleventh Sheriff, 

ii. 45, 47, 52, 57, 58, 270, 276, 

303, 431 

John de Courcy Andrew, ii. 432 
Katharine, of Larg, i. 404, 427, 446 ; 

ii. 16, 430 
Katharine, m John Gillon, ii. 345, 

387, 432 
Katherine, m Ninian Adair, i. 336; 

ii. 430 
Katherine, m Sir R. B. Jolmstone, 

ii. 382, 435 
Louisa Lucia, ii. 433 
Lucy (Lady Lockhart), ii. 382 
Madeline Diana Elizabeth, ii. 433 
Madeline Elizabeth, ii. 432 
Margaret, m Alex. Adair, ii. 115, 435 
Margaret, m Hugh Adair, ii. Ill, 434 
Margaret, m Andrew Agnew of Loch- 

ryan, ii. 201, 431 
Margaret, m Sir James Agnew of 

Lochryan, ii. 434 
Margaret, m Harman Blennerhasset, 

ii. 380 n 

Margaret, m William Cairns, ii. 430 
Margaret, m John Maxwell, ii. 145, 

Margaret, m John Vaus of Barn- 

barroch, ii. 435 
Margaret, of Sheuchan, ii. 328 
Margaret, ii. 432 
Marguerite Violet Maud, ii. 433 
Marie, m Hugh M'Dowall of Knock - 

glass, ii. 8, 431 
Marietta, i. 306 ; ii. 430 
Mary, m Lord Braxfield, ii. 358, 382, 

Mary, m Sir Michael Bruce of Sten- 

iouse, ii. 273, 387, 432 
Lady Mary, wife of eleventh Sheriff, 

ii. 145, 174, 207, 214, 239, 248, 

250, 255, 257, 258, 270 
Mary Alma Victoria, ii. 433 
Mary Graham, ii. 433 
Mary Montgomerie, m George Patrick, 

merchant, Durham, ii. 382 
Mary M 'Queen, ii. 432 
Martha, ii. 432 
Michael, i. 306, 337 ; ii. 430 
Michael Andrew, ii. 433 
Montgomery, Colonel, i. 193 ; ii. 275, 

286, 299, 380, 381, 435 
Nevin, son of second Sheriff, i. 285, 

294, 322, 323, 430 
Nevin, of Craloch, i. 403 
Nevin, son of Gilbert, of Croach, 

i. 325, 334, 337, 338, 339, 348, 

349 ; ii. 433, 434 
Nevin, son of William, of Croach, 

i. 305, 306 ; ii. 433 



Agnew, Nevin, in Mais, i. 427 
Niiiian, of Craigauch, i. 453 
Sir Patrick, fourth Sheriff, i. 142, 260, 

266, 294, 301, 304, 322, 323, 332, 

334 ; ii. 430 
Sir Patrick, sixth Sheriff, i. 338, 360, 

367, 369-381, 383, 385, 386-388, 

391, 394, 406, 408, 427 ; ii. 430, 434 
Sir Patrick, eighth Sheriff, i. 402, 404, 

415, 416, 423, 424, 425, 433, 441, 

447, 449, 453, 462, 463-471, 473, 

474 ; ii. 1, 3, 4, 6-8, 25, 30-32, 40- 

48, 58, 71, 75, 86, 88, 110, 223, 

431, 435 
Patrick, 15th century, son of first 

Sheriff, ii, 430, 436 
Patrick, son of eleventh Sheriff, ii. 

235, 236, 249 
Patrick, son of twelfth Sheriff, ii. 431, 


General Patrick, ii. 362, 432 
Patrick, of Ballikeill, ii. 44, 45, 60 
Patrick, of Barmeill, ii. 7 
Colonel Patrick, of Barnbarroch, ii. 


Patrick, of Dalreagle, ii. 260, 329 
Patrick, first of Galdenoch, ii. 5, 7, 

19, 31, 76, 90, 110, 111, 133, 161, 

257, 434 
Patrick, second of Galdenoch, ii. 140, 

161, 434 
Patrick, third of Galdenoch, ii. 162, 

163, 434 
Patrick, of Kilwaughter, ii. 46, 204, 

206, 213-215 
Patrick, first of Sheuchan, i. 424, 427, 

Patrick, second of Sheuchan, ii. 7, 8, 

9, 31, 36, 74, 92, 113, 152, 153, 

431, 435, 443 

Patrick, of Wigg, ii. 31, 75, 90, 103, 


Penelope, ii. 361, 432 
Lieutenant Peter, ii. 276, 435 
Philadelphia (called Lady Lockhart), 

ii. 435 
Quentin, third Sheriff, i. 281, 283, 

284, 287, 288, 293, 294, 295, 

298-301, 304, 307, 312 ; ii. 265, 

Quentin, son of sixth Sheriff, i. 402, 

427, 430 
Quentin, son of seventh Sheriff, i. 430- 

432, 451, 461 ; ii. 17 
Quentin Graham Kinnaird, ii. 433 
Robert, of Sheuchan, ii. 216, 228, 328, 

380, 435 
Rosina, m John Cathcart of Genoch, 

ii. 8, 431 
Rosina, m William M'Clellan, i. 442 ; 

ii. 17, 431 
Rosina Constance, ii. 433 

Agnew, Sir Stair, ii. 214, 255, 269, 346, 

350, 362, 370, 372, 375, 383, 386, 

389, 393, 399, 402, 404, 432 
Stair, C.B., ii. 433 
Stewart, Agnes, Lady, i. 419 ; ii. 34, 


Suzanna, ii. 432 
Thomas, of Croach, ii. 157 
Captain Thomas, first of Lochryan, 

ii. 208, 226-228, 253, 432, 434 
Thomas, second of Lochryan, ii. 273, 

Thomas, son of sixth Sheriff, ii. 430, 

Thomas, son of tenth Sheriff, ii. 157, 

Thomas, son of twelfth Sheriff, ii. 345, 


Thomas, of Barmeill, i. 427 
Thomas, of Clone, i. 337 
Thomas Frederick, ii. 433 
Thomas Ramsden, ii. 381, 435 
Thomas, bailie, i. 439 
Uchtred, of Galdenoch, ii. 5, 7, 8, 434 
Uchtred, junior, of Galdenoch, ii. 5, 


Vans, i. 390 n, 429 
Wilhelmina, m John Campbell, ii. 

350, 382, 432 
William, first of Croach, i. 241, 284, 

286, 288, 294, 306, 337, 433 
William, second of Croach, i. 452, 453, 

460 ; ii. 19 n, 434 
William, of Barmeill, i. 427, 453, 462; 

ii. 430, 435 
William, son of ninth Sheriff, ii. 52, 

86, 431, 435 
William, of Wigg, ii. 151, 206, 223, 

230, 238, 258, 273, 435 
William, Lieut., son of twelfth Sheriff, 

ii. 341, 346, 350, 432 
Agnews of Lochnaw, i. 180, 185, 202, 

213, 225, 234, 260, 423 424 ; ii. 

419, 429, 433 
of Lochryan, ii. 433-434. 
in England, i. 194-206 
in Ireland, i. 207-212 
Agnew's Hill, i. 196, 207, 210 
Agricola, i. 1, 3, 5, 43, 224, 247 ; ii. 243 
Agricultural processes, i. 130 
Ahannay, Sir Robert, of Mochrum, i. 464 
Aignell, Aygnell, Adam, i. 202 
George, i. 206 

Sir John de, i. 89, 200-204 ; ii. 396-430 
John, son of Sir John, ii. 429, 430 
John, of Herts, i. 195, 198, 202, 204, 

205 ; ii. 402, 430 
John, Constable of Lochnaw, c. 1361, 

ii. 429, 430 
John de, of Redenhall, i. 200, 202 ; 

ii. 429, 430 
John de, son of Adam, i. 202, 205 



Aignell, Katherine de, i. 205 

Peter, i. 202 ; ii. 430 

Ralph, i. 206 

Robert, i. 200, 202 

William, i. 202, 204 ; ii. 429, 430 
Aikenhead, Richard, i. 333 
Aileach (Ailthach), i. 121 
Ailred, i. 6, 41, 46, 49, 50, 52, 53, 54, 

55, 59, 63, 68, 69, 156, 157 
Ailsa Craig, i. 36 
Ailsa, Marquis of, i. 399, 446 
Aird, Inch, i. 242, 300 
Aird's Moss, ii. 141 
Airie Hemming, Old Luce, i. 426, 436 
Airieolland, i. 125 
Airiequhillart, Mochrum, i. 134 
Airies, i. 425 

Airiewiggle, Old Luce, i. 125, 136 
Airless, Kirkinner, i. 121 
Airlour, Mochrum, i. 131 
Airtfeild, ii. 444 
Airth, Earl of, ii. 3 
Akersane or Accarson (Carson), i. 118 
Akinzean (M'Kinnon), John, i. 373 
Alan of Galloway (first), i. 76-77 

of Galloway (second), i. 67, 74 
Alba (Whithorn), i. 6 
Alban, i. 27, 30, 31 
" Albanaid," i. 54 n 
Albany, Duke of, i. 337, 338 
Albemarle, first Earl of, i. 186 ; ii. 413 

second Earl of, i. 80 

third Earl of, ii. 293 
Alberic, Bishop of Ostia, i. 55 
Alcherry, Kells, i. 129 
Alchred, King, i. 21 
Alclyde (Dumbarton Castle), i. 14, 30 
Alcuin, i. 21 

Aldermanseat, Gretna, i. 36, 122 
Aldermary, i. 206 
Aldfred, King, i. 17, 18 
Aldinna, Barr, i. 137 
Aldouran, Leswalt, i. 146, 216, 322 ; ii. 

Alexander I., i. 40-43 ; ii. 410, 425 

II., i. 76, 77, 81, 84 

III., death of, i. 87 
Allanbey, Kells, i. 135 
Allandoo, Leswalt, i. 135 
Allanfaichie, Kirkmaiden, i. 149 
Allanfedder, Kells, i. 137, 159 
Allwhat, i. 146, 159 
Almorness, i. 37 
Alnwick Castle, i. 39, 40 
Alpyn, son of Echach, i. 20 
Altaggart, New Luce, i. 138, 402 n 
Altibrair, New Luce, i. 138, 402 n 
Altibreck, Kells, i. 151 
Alticane, i. 161 
Alticry, Mochrum, i. 125 
Altigober, Ballantrae, i. 128 
Altigonskie, i. 402 

Altigowkie, New Luce, i. 150 
Altigunnoch (Altygunnoch), i. 117, 126 
Altimeg, Ballantrae, i. 128 
Altivolie, Stoneykirk, i. 126 
Altoun (Alton), i. 282 n, 289 ; ii. 329 
Altryoch, i. 402 n 
Alured, Colonel, ii. 61, 62, 66, 67 
Alwhenny, Carsphairn, i. 156 
American War, i. 193 ; ii. 270, 340, 

373, 376, 378, 381, 397 
Amulligan (Milligan), i. 118 
Anderson, Sir Herbert, i. 402 
, Maurice, i. 284 n 

Rev. Kirkinner, ii. 14 

Andover, ii. 275, 276 

Andrew, Alexander, ii. 378, 380 

Anesy's Recherches sur le Domesday, 

i. 180, 183, 194 
Aneurin, i. 10 n 
Angles, i. 19, 30 
Anglesea, i. 14, 22, 40, 79 
Anglo-Normans, i. 39, 41, 46, 53, 54, 
70, 80, 99, 106, 107, 115, 116, 
164, 187, 198, 206, 207, 208, 
210, 218, 223, 246, 311 ; ii. 410, 
Angus, first Earl, i. 67, 232, 236, 

fourth Earl, i. 260, 267, 278, 293, 

366 ; ii. 437 
fifth Earl (Bell the Cat), i. 335, 


sixth Earl, i. 337, 339 ; ii. 88 
Master of, i. 367 

Animals, and Place Names, i. 119 et seq 
Anlaf the White, i. 31, 35 

Cuaran, i. 31, 32 
Annabel, Hostess of the Bruce, i. 95 n, 

Annaboglish, Mochrum, i. 171, 248 ; ii. 


Annacarry, i. 248 
Annan, i. 100, 105 n 
Annandale, i. 53, 255, 269, 293 n, 350 
Earl of, i. 360 ; ii. 95 
Lord of, i. 87 

Marquis of (1747), ii. 332, 333 
Annan, Water of, i. 375 
Annat, Kirkinner, i. 124 
Annatland, New Abbey, i. 124 
Anne, Princess of Denmark, i. 422 

Queen, ii. 228 

" Ant-'saoir " (free bay), i. 9 n 
Antony, Bishop, i. 90 n 
Antrim, i. 75 n, 209, 212, 426 n ; ii. 9, 

43, 46 n, 51, 157, 215 
Barony of, ii. 52 n 
Castle, i. 77 ; ii. 213 
first Earl, i. 209, 426, 451 ; ii. 27, 45 
second Earl, ii. 46, 48, 52, 57, 58 
fourth Earl, ii. 213 
Antwerp, ii. 299 



Anwoth, i. 9, 127, 129, 131, 138, 139, 

160, 164, 166, 171 ; ii. 4, 148 n 
Appleby, i. 36, 123, 134 

Loch, ii. 445 
Applegarth, i. 36, 130 
Arbigland, ii. 386 

Arbrack (Arbharack), Whithorn, i. 133 
Ardcroquhart, i. 142 n, 464 n 
Ardes, Viscount, ii. 12, 31, 42, 46, 52 
Ardmillan, Kennedy of, i. 444, 449 ; 
ii. 32. 

Lady, ii. 32 

Ardnamord, i. 281 n ; ii. 257, 349 
Ardneinshes, ii. 305 n 
Ardoch, i. 143, 160, 367 
Avdrie and Airdrie, i. 160 
Ardrigh (head kings of Galloway), i. 21 n 
Ardstinchar, i. 251, 272, 280, 437, 444 
Ardwell, i. 131, 295, 304, 334, 420; 

ii. 84, 124, 202, 329, 445 
Aresay, ii. 56 

Areskene, Sir Charles, ii. 118 
Argrennan, Tongland, i. 122 
Argyle, fourth Duke, ii. 270, 287 

first Earl, i. 407 

second Earl, i. 339, 342 ; ii. 88 

third Earl, ii. 155 

Marquis of, ii. 29, 35 
Aries, i. 429 

Arioland, i. 128, 435 ; ii. 8, 9, 182 
Arkenholme, battle of, i. 269, 271 
Armada, the, i. 22 n, 418-434 
Armadale, Lord and Lady, ii. 382, 387 
Armagh, Dean of, i. 209 n; ii. 10 
Armoric language, i. 113 n 
Armstrong, Anthony, ii. 267 

John, i. 347 

of Sorbie, ii. 426 
Armstrong's History of Liddesdale, i. 

127 ; ii. 69 n 
Arndarroch, i. 142 
Arnot, Bishop, i. 326, 334, 337 ; ii. 447 

Captain Andrew, ii. 39 

Kev. Samuel, ii. 122, 134 
Arnsheen, Ballantrae, i. 172, 284 n 
Arnsow, Kirkmichael, i. 156 
Arons, John, i. 267 
Arran, i. 36 n, 119, 348 ; ii. 15 

Eegent, i. 339, 354, 357, 358, 359, 

416 ; ii. 332 

Arriegilshie, Kirkinner, i. 164 
Arrow, Glasserton, i. 133, 327 n 
Arrowheads, flint, i. 17 n 
Arthur, King, i. 9 
Arvie, Parton, i. 133 
Ashandaroch, Inch, ii. 202 
Ashendram, i. 136, 248 
Ashley, Lady Dorothy, ii. 372 n 
Athelstane, i. 32 

Athol, Thomas, Earl of, i. 77, 78 n, 79, 
318, 319 

Isabele, Countess of, i. 97 

Athole, Duke of, m "Fair Maid" of 

Galloway, i. 274 

James, Duke of, ii. 305-307, 313, 
322, 324 

Atkins, Bishop, ii. 447 

Attiquin, i. 130 

Auchanbainzie, Penpont, i. 127 

Auchansheen, Col vend, i. 172 

Auchencleish, Kirkmaiden, i. 134 

Auchendraue, i. 155 

Laird of, i. 433, 434, 443-446 

Auchen franco, Lochrutton, i. 135 

Auchengashel, Twynham, i. 120 

Auchengool, Rerwick, i. 140 

Auchenhay, Borgue> etc., i. 132, 159 

Auchenlary, Anwoth, i. 129 

Auchenmanister, i. 73 

Auchenquill, Rerwick, i. 155, 159 

Auchenree, Portpatrick, i. 156 

Auchenreoch, i. 346 

Auchenshinnoch, i. 7 n, 146 

Auchensough, Sanquhar, i. 156 

Auchensbul, Barr, i. 131, 447 

Auchinlech, i. 7 n 

Auchinleck, Lord, ii. 335, 354 

Auchlane, Kelton, i. 126 

Auchlannochy, Minigaff, i. 12 n, 126 

Auchleach, ii. 202 

Auchleand (Auchland), (Auchlawn), Wig- 
town, i. 126 n, 160, 174, 282 n 

Auchlewan, Barr, i. 154 

Auchmanister, i. 116 

Auchnabony, Rerwick, i. 144 

Auchneight (Auchnaught), Kirkmaiden, 
i. 160, 166, 221 

Auchneil (Auchneel), i. 408, 462 ; ii. 97 

Auchness (Auchiness), i. 27, 37 n, 129, 
158, 300, 301 n 

Auchnotteroch (Auchnotroch), i. 173, 
280 n, 434 ; ii. 113 

Auchrocher, Inch, i. 142, 460, 464 ; ii. 
113, 248 

Auchten (Uchtdan), Portpatrick, i. 166 

Auchteralinachin, Leswalt, i. 133 

Auchterlony, i. 374 

Auld, Alexander, i. 471 

Auldbreck (Auldbrick), i. 74, 106, 122, 
402 ; ii. 273 

"Auld Kilns," i. 132 

Awhirk (Auquhirk), Stoneykirk, i. 133 ; 
ii. 202 

Aylesby, Philip de, i. 203 n 

Ayne (Ain), ii. 173, 248 

Ayr, i. 5, 93, 102, 127, 309, 321, 347, 
356, 398, 471 ; ii. 21, 39, 82-83, 
94, 187, 228, 359 n, 387 
Bridge of, i. 282 
Ragman Roll, i. Ill, 112 
Sheriffs, i. 227, 391 
and Galloway Archaeological Collec- 
tions, i. 66 n, 291 n 

Ayrshire, Celtic place names, i. 114 



BADENOCH, Lord of, i. 84, 85 
"Bagimont's Roll," i. 89, 107 n; ii. 

Baillie, Sir Alexander, ii. 4 n 

Andrew, notary, ii. 115 

Andrew, junior, ii. 224 

Cuthbert, i. 307 ; ii. 446 

Elizabeth, ii. 259 

John, of Dunragit, i. 387, 429 ; ii. 
31, 75, 124, 153, 223, 431 

Mary, m Stair Agnew, ii. 362, 432 

Thomas, of Little Duiiragit, i. 388 

Thomas, of Polkemmet, ii. 362, 432 

Sir William (Lord Polkemmet), ii. 383, 

William, of Garchlerie, ii. 7 

Principal, ii. 15, 81; Letters, ii. 16 n, 

19 n, 81 

Bain's Calendars, i. 66 n, 71 n 
Balaclava, i. 347 ; ii. 218 
Balcarres, Earl of, ii. 243, 258, 265 
Balcarry, ii. 192 
Balcraig, ii. 145, 151 
Baldoon, i. 119, 308, 423 ; ii. 106, 233, 

Castle, ii. 445 

Laird of, ii. 21, 171 

Park, ii. 172 
Bale fires, i. 119 

Balfern, Kirkinner, i. 154 ; ii. 357 
Balfour, Colonel Nisbet, ii. 401, 402 
Balfour's Genealogical Collections, i. 79 n, 

et seq 

Balgarron, Crossmichael, i. 129 
Balgoun (Balgown), i. 139, 142, 461 
Balgracie, i. 139, 159 ; ii. 173 
Balgreddan, Kirkcudbright, i. 142 
Balgreggan, ii. 19 n, 257, 375 n, 399, 


Balingair, Dairy, i. 130 
Baliol, Alexander, i. 86 n 

Bernard, i. 70, 198 

Edward, i. 97 n, 99, 100, 102, 105, 
199 n; ii. 419 

Henry, i. 100 

Hugh, i. 86 

Isabel, i. 87 

John, of Barnard Castle, i. 80 ; ii. 

John, the Competitor, i. 64, 83, 85, 
86, 88, 115, 199 

Marjory, i. 85 

Baliol College, Oxford, i. 86 ; ii. 412 
Balkissoch, i. 248 
Ballaird, ii. 329 

Ballantrae, i. 13, 126, 128, 134, 138, 
144, 150, 154, 156, 161, 170, 172, 
176 ; ii. 173, 246 
Ballicoll, ii. 56 

Ballochadee, Kirkcowan, i. 163 
Ballochalee, Stoneykirk, i. 127, 248 
Ballochanamour, Kirkmabreck, i. 169 

Ballochanure, Kirkmabreck, i. 154 

Ballochbeathes, i. 248 

Ballochjargon, i. 140, 248 

Balloch o'Kip (Ballochakip), i. 153, 248 

Ballochrae, Kirkcowan, i. 161, 248 

Ballochrush, i. 248 

Ballyett, Inch, i. 133 ; ii. 243 

Bally ferry, i. 136 

Ballygelly, i. 212 ; ii. 46, 51, 53, 110 

Ballymellan, Mochrum, i. 133 

Ballymena, ii. 9, 43, 156 

Balmaclellan, i. 125 n, 126, 144, 151, 

154, 161, 163, 168, 222; ii. 99, 

Balmaghie, i. 121, 122, 125, 137, 154, 

167, 171, 178, 223, 336, 342 ; ii. 21 
Balmangan, i. 166 
Balmeg, Wigtown, i. 128 ; ii. 8, 202 
Balmerino, Lord, ii. 4-5 
Balmesh, i. 73, 134 
Balminnoch, Kirkcowan, i. 161 
Balnab, i. 138 ; ii. 272 
Balneil, i. 440, 458 ; ii. 18 
Balquhirry, i. 142, 243 n, 280 n; ii. 

241, 242 
Balsalloch, i. 154 
Balsarroch, Kirkcolm, i. 129 ; ii. 202 n, 


Balscalloch, Kirkcolm, i. 138 
Balshaig, Mochrum, i. 147 
Balshere, Kirkmaiden, i. 165 
Balsier, Sorbie, i. 139 
Baltier, Sorbie, i. 117, 139, 435; ii. 

68, 113, 152, 238 
Balvany, Lord, i. 254, 258, 269 
Bamborough, i. 17, 31, 39 n, 120 n 
Bamcorkrae, i. 430 n 
Bangor, i. 58, 59, 75, 157, 218, 413 
Bannister's Cornish Names, i. 123 n, et seq 
Bannatyne Memorials, i. 397 n, 399 n 
Miscellany, i. 57 n 
Sir William, ii. 107 
Bannockburn, i. 97, 178 
Barbeg, Portpatrick, i. 160 
Barbeth, i. 252 

Barbour, John, i. 95 ; ii. 37, 42 
Barbuchany, Penninghame, i. 160 
Barbunny, Kirkcowan, i. 148 
Barcaple, Tougland, i. 129 
Barclay, Rev. George, ii. 134 
Barely, i. 248 
Bardeoch, i. 402 
Bardouran, Stair, i. 146 
Bardrochwood, Minigaff, i. 249 
Barfreggan, Kelton, i. 156 
Bargany, i. 162, 251, 280, 321, 397, 

437, 443-445, 447 ; ii. 202 
Lord, ii. 129 

Barglas, Kirkinner, i. 163 
Bargrennan, Penninghame, i. 122 
Barhapple, Leswalt, i. 129 
Barharrow, Borgue, i. 127 



Barhoise, Minigaff, i. 138 

Barhullion, ii. 391-392 

Barjarg, i, 163, 424 ; ii. 151 

Barlae, Old Luce, i. 127 

Barledziew, Sorbie, ii. 329, 330 n 

"Barley Hill," Mochrum, i. 133 

Barlochart (Lucairt), i. 137 

Barlockhart, Old Luce, i. 122 

Barluell, Old Luce, i. 154 

Barlure, New Luce, i. 124, 410 

Earmark, i. 129 

Barmeil, Glasserton, i. 168, 424, 453 

Barmore, i. 160 

Barmullins, i. 133 

Barnamachan, Penninghame, i. 134 

Barnamon, Stoneykirk,i. 172, 421 

Barnard Castle, i. 80, 86, 87 ; ii. 415 

Barnarnie, Kirkcowan, i. 155 ; ii. 

Barnbarroch. See Vaus. 

Lord, i. 361, 378, 379, 389, 399, 401, 

405, 406, 409, 422, 424, 425, 430 ; 

ii. 8, 70, 71, 159, 230 
Correspondence of, i. 383, 390, 394, 

399, 411, 418, 421 ; ii. 70 
Barnbauchlie, Loch Button, i. 136, 169 
Barncalzie, Loch Button, i. 169 
Barnchalloch, Stoueykirk, i. 135, 169, 


Barncorkrie, i. 164 
Barnean, Penninghame, i. 148 
Barneboard, Balmaghie, i. 137 
Barneconachie, Old Luce, i. 139 
Barnecullach, Kirkcowan, i. 148 
Barnegowk, Kirkcowan, i. 150 
Barneycleary, Penninghame, i. 138 
Barnhourie. i. 18, 127, 163 
Barnkirk, Penninghame, i. 148 
Barnkirky, Girthon, i. 148 
Barnsallie, Old Luce, i. 154 
Barnshangan, Stoneykirk, i. 152 
Barnshannon, New Luce, i. 152 
Barnshean, Kirkmichael, i. 172 
Barnsladie, Kirkinner, i. 141 
Barnvannoch, Ballantrae, i. 150 
Barnywater, Girthon, i. 160 
Barquhanny, Kirkinner, i. 136 
Barr, i. 118, 124, 125 et seq 
Barrachan, i. 168 
Barsalloch, Wigtown, i. 161 
Barsolas, i. 249 
Bartier, Captain, ii. 178, 179 
Bartyke, Kirkcowan, i. 147 
Barwhanny, Kirkinner, i. 156, 280 n 
Barwhill, i. 155 

Barwhinnoch, Glasserton, i. 150 
Barwhirren, Penninghame, i. 155 
Baryerroch, Kirkinner, i. 163; ii. 75, 

434 n 

Beaton, Archbishop, i. 326, 343, 356, 362 
Bedford, Duke of. i. 240 
Beggars, Acts concerning, i. 276 

Belcrosh, Sorbie, i. 142 
Belfast, ii. 30, 52, 54, et seq 
Belgarvie, on the Tarf, i. 175 
Bell of Whiteside, ii. 147, 148 

George, ii. 432 

Rev. T. B., ii. 432 
Bellenden, Lieut. James, ii. 289, 296 

Sir John, i. 391 

Mary, ii. 288 

Bellgavery, Kirkmaiden, i . 165 
Bellowe, Portpatrick, i. 127 
Bellsavery, Inch, i. 125, 159, 165 
Ben Ailsa, i. 64 
Benaveoch, Kirkmaiden, i. 148 
Benbrack, Carsphairn, i. 162 
Benbrake, Kirkcowan, i. 158, 162 
Benghie, Girthon, i. 165 
Benjarg, Girthon, i. 163 
Benlochan, Kirkmaiden, i. 149 
Bennane, i. 168, 321 n, 367 
Bennour, Girthon, i. 163 
Benny low, Kirkcowan, i. 127 
Benshhmy, Parton, i. 146 
Bentudor, Berwick, i. 139, 173 
Benyellary, Minigaff, i. 147, 159, 327 
Beoch, Inch, i. 6, 154, 272 
Berefrey, i. 133 
Bereholm, i. 133 
Berehill, i. 133 
Bethune, Bishop, ii. 447 
Bigiscarrs, ii. 445, 446 
Billyshill, Portpatrick, i. 153 
Bilnavoe, Kirkmaiden, i. 126, 159 
Bine, Kirkcolm, etc., i. 168 
Bishop's Burn, i. 49 
Bisset, Thomas, i. 100, 103 n 

Sir Walter, i. 74 
Black Act, 1670, ii. 109 
Blackadder, Bishop, i. 297 
Blackspots Hill, Leswalt, i. 158 
" Black Voute," i. 396, 399 
Blair, ii. 306-309, 312, 316, 320 

Sir Edward Hunter, ii. 328. See also 
Hunter, Sir James 

Hew, ii. 103 

Eev. James, Portpatrick, ii. 9, 12, 14, 
31, 49 

John, first of Dunskey, ii. 103, 113, 
151, 178, 435 

John, second of Dunskey, ii. 256, 328, 

Katherine, of Adamton, ii. 374 
Blair Athole, i. 136 ; ii. 305, 306, 310, 
311, 315, 322 

Castle, ii. 305, 311, 313, 314, 319- 


Blairbowey, ii. 328 
Blairbuie, Glasserton, i. 163 
Blairmakin, Kirkcowan, i. 134 
Blairquhan, i. 251, 280, 303, 321, 326, 

337 ; ii. 328 
Bland, General Humphry, ii. 293, 294 



Blandford, Marquis of, ii. 401 
Blanivaird, i. 35, 137, 167 
Blantyre, Lord, i. 67 
Blennerhasset, Conway, ii. 380, 432 
" Bloody Brae," Dairy, ii. 193 
"Bloody Wheel," i. 17, 458 
Blue Hill, Berwick, etc., i. 159, 163 
Boece, Hector, i. 11, 15, 16, 17, 368 ; ii. 


Boggrie, Girthon, i. 171 
Boglach, i. 248 
Bogue, Minigaff, i. 171 
Bomby, i. 36, 222, 260, 263, 274, 305, 

309, 331, 332, 339-341, 371 
Boreland, i. 301 ; ii. 104, 152 
Borgue, i. 26, 37, 106, 121, 122 a seq 
Borness, i. 37, 122 

Boswell, Alexander (Lord Auchinleck), 
ii. 335, 339 

Earl of, i. 138 

Botel, i. 45, 86, 87, 96, 97 ; ii. 423 
Bothwell, first Earl, i. 287, 293 

second Earl, i, 347, 348, 387 
Boyd, Gilbert, i. 424 

J. W., ii. 30, 91 

John, of Kirkland, ii. 75, 133, 175 

Lord Eobert, i. 277, 278, 280, 284 ; 
ii. 88 

William, of Auchrochar, i. 460, 464 
Brackenicallie, New Luce, i. 171 
"Bradach," i. 140 
"Braddoch," i. 140 
Braiden Knowe, i. 141 
Braidenoch, i. 141 
Braidport, i. 140 
Braxfield, Lord, ii. 354, 359, 382, 383, 

387, 389, 435 
" Breddoch Cave," i. 141 
Brisbane, General Sir Thomas M'Dougall, 

ii. 339, 363 

Brishie, Minigaff, i. 172 
Broadsea Bay, i. 140, 141 
Brochdoo, Leswalt, i. 158 
Brockennie Braes, Parton, i. 145 
Brocklan Braes, Kirkmaiden, i. 145 
Brockloch, i. 145, 260, 349 
Brodick Castle, burned, i. 348 
Broughton, i. 22, 27 n, 123, 224, 245 n, 
253, 324, 363, 451 ; ii. 24, 401 

Castle, ii. 445 
Brown, Sir Antony, i. 352 

George, of Kempiltown, ii. 86 
" Brownie's Well," Dairy, i. 414 
Bruce, Alexander, i. 94, 98, 100, 101 

Captain, ii. 140 

Charles, Sheriff, ii. 332 

Edward, i. 96, 97 

Sir Michael, of Stenhouse, ii. 273, 387, 


Bruce, King Eobert the, i. 94, 116, 220, 
353 ; ii. 415 

Thomas, i. 94 

Bruce, Sir William, ii. 92 
Brucian settlement, i. 142 ; ii. 415 
Buchan, Countess of, i. 94 

first Earl, i. 84, 85, 86 ; ii. 414 n 

second Earl, i. 94 n ; ii. 68 

third Earl, i. 93, 96, 97, 99 ; ii. 68 
Buchanan, George, i. 232 et seq 
Buckingham, Duke of, ii. 46, 48 
Bucksloup, Minigaff, i. 145 
Buittle, i. 120, 121, 136 et seq 
Burdigans, Oliver de, i. 201 
Bures, Sir Andrew de, i. 202, 203, 205 
Burleigh, Lord, ii. 37 
Burnet, Bishop, ii. 64, 85, 108, 249 
Burns, Robert, ii. 339, 389 
Burnswark, i. 122 

Burrow Head, i. 26, 33, 37, 122, 249 
Bury, Lord, ii. 292, 293 
Busby, i. 36, 123 ; ii. 334, 446 
Bute, Earl of, ii. 332, 362 

Marquis of, ii. 238, 257 
Butterburn, Miuigaff, i. 148 
Buttercairn, Penninghame, i. 148 
Butterhole, Dairy, etc., i. 148 
Buyoch, Whithorn, i. 125 
Byng, Admiral Sir George, ii. 232 

" CADGER'S LOUP," Kells, i. 139 
Cadallane, Governor of Galloway, ii. 406 
Caerlaverock, i. 92, 237 

Castle, i. 359, 419 
Caer Ochtree, i. 59 

Kheon = Eyan, i. 7, 8, 116 
Caimwanie, Kirkmaiden, i. 163 
Caird, Sir James, i. 174 
Cairn, Kirkcolm, ii. 223 n 
Cairnbrock, i. 145 ; ii. 202 
Cairnfore, Balmaclellan, i. 161 
Cairngarroch, Leswalt, i. 58, 59, 161 
Cairnhandy, Stoneykirk, i. 139 
Cairnhapple, Leswalt, i. 129 
Cairn harrow, Anwoth, i. 127 
Cairnkennagh, Minigaff, i. 139 
Cairnkenny, Inch and New Luce, i. 139 
Cairnkinna, Minigaff, i. 139 
Cairnmon (Witch's Cairn), i. 172, 421 
Cairn Ryan, ii. 155, 166, 245 n 
Cairns, Alexander, of Lincluden, i. 238, 

William, of Orchardtown, i. 336, 339, 
340 ; ii. 430 

Earl, Lord Chancellor, i. 239 
Cairnsmore of Cree, i. 256, 301 
Cairntooter, Old Luce, i. 139 
Cairntosh, Girthon, i. 138 
Cairnweil, ii. 202 

Caldons, Stoneykirk, i. 155, 280, 294 
Calgow, Minigaff, i. 139 
Cally, i. 93, 171, 238, 250, 455 
Cameronians, ii. 147, 229 
Campbell, Sir Alexander, ii. 243 

Alexander, Sheriff- Depute, ii. 260 



Campbell, Alexander, of Corswall, i. 218 

Andrew, Sheriff, i. 218 

Sir Duncan, of Loudoun, i. Ill, 218 

Lady Eleanor, ii. 239 

Sir Hugh, of Loudoun, i. 341 ; ii. 88, 

Hume, ii. 331 

Sir James, of Lawers, ii. 208, 218, 

General John, of Mamore, ii. 287-288 
Candida Casa, i. 6, 8, 18, 21, 22, 24, 98, 

114, 132 

Cantyre, i. 80, 421 
Capenach, Kirkinner, i. 130, 323 
Carbantium, Kirkbean, i. 5, 120, 217 
Carcow, Cum nock, i. 171 
Cardoness, i. 37, 120, 172, 222 et seq 
Cardryne, Kirkmaiden, i. 120, 155, 425 ; 

ii. 115, 173, 248 

Carhowe, Twynholm, etc., i. 142 
Carleton, Captain, ii. 178-179 

House, ii. 364 

Sir Thomas, i. 369, 370 
Carlingford, i. 231, 387 ; ii. 417 
Carlingwark, Leswalt, i. 37, 122 
Carlisle, i. 39, 41, 72 et seq 

Castle, i. 70, 77, 90 n 
Carlyle, Lord, i. 353, 386 

Sir John, i. 269, 270 
Carnegie, Alexander, of Balnamoon, 
i. 374 

Sir David, Earl of Southesk, ii. 362, 

Sir James, i. 374 

Captain Sir James, ii. 296 

John, Earl of Northesk, i. 374 

Sir Robert, of Dunnichen, etc., i. 

Sir Robert, of Kinnaird, i. 374 
Carnywillan, Kirkmaiden, i. 133 
Carrick (Caradawg), i. 10, 21, 23 et seq 

Earl of, i. 87, 111 
Carrickcundie, i. 130 
Carrickcune, Kirkmaiden, i. 130, 149 n 
Carrickkee, Kirkmaiden, i. 166 
Carron (prefix), i. 142 n 
Carscreugh, i. 390, 393 ; ii. 18, 104, 106, 

123, 124, 159, 446 
Carseriggan, Penninghame, i. 133 
Carsewalloch, Kirkmabreck, i. 178 
Carsgown, ii. 34, 113 
Carslace, ii. 113 

Carslae, Wigtown, i. 127 ; ii. 34 
Carsluith, i. 250 
Carsnabrock, i. 145 
Carsphairn, i. 121, 126, 128 et seq 
Cassandeoch, i. 129, 248 
Cassannaw, i. 248 

Cassanvey, Balmaclellan, i. 154, 248 
Cassencarry, i. 151, 167, 250, 308 
Cassilis, first Earl, i. 135, 314, 326, 328, 
335 ; ii. 88 

Cassilis, second Earl, i. 326, 337, 339, 

341 ; ii. 88, 447 

third Earl, i. 342, 343, 344, 351, 
354, 355, 364, 375, 378-379, 394, 
401 ; ii. 88 

fourth Earl, i. 379, 380, 382, 385, 
389, 395, 399, 400, 402, 406, 436, 
438, 443, 444 ; ii. 264 
fifth Earl, i. 398, 432, 440, 441, 446, 

448, 449 

sixth Earl, i. 328, 449, 465, 468, 

469 ; ii. 6, 12, 14, 15, 16, 21, 23, 

30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 37, 39, 47, 441, 


seventh Earl, ii. 7, 110, 120, 153, 

161, 173, 180 

eighth Earl, ii. 180, 233, 334 
ninth Earl, i. 446 
Master of, brother of fifth Earl, i. 416, 

434, 447, 449 
Castle Ayne, i. 120 

Bann, Kirkcolm, i. 120, 217 
Craivie, Rerwick, i. 120, 153 
Donnell, Penninghame, i. 120, 137 
Douglas, ii. 188 

Feather, Glasserton, i. 26, 120, 137 
Gower, Buittle, i. 120, 128 
Kennedy, i. 448, 449, 472 ; ii. 155, 
204, 229, burnt, 237 ; 240, 241, 
258, 265, 280, 353, 445 
Larrick, Inch, i. 120 
M'Dowall (Balgreggan), ii. 257, 375 
Maddy, i. 120, 145, 327 
Menzies, ii. 305, 308-309 
Naught, Kirkmaiden, i. 120 
Shell, Kirkmaiden, i. 135 
Stewart, ii. 71, 94, 137, 141, 151,445 
Wigg, i. 22 ; ii. 238, 329, 334 
Cathcart, ninth Lord, ii. 258, 280, 

Hugh, of Carleton, ii. 37, 57, 90, 103, 

113, 115, 129, 431 

John, of Genoch, ii. 8, 77, 92, 223, 431 
Cattar, Kirkmaiden, i. 157 
Challoch, i. 168, 280 n ; ii. 329 
Challochglass, Mochrum, i. 163, 168 
Challochmunn, Old Luce, i. 168 
Chalmers's Caledonia, i. 2, 40, 43 et seq 
Chalmers of Gadgirth, i. 375 
Chamberlain, Sir Richard, i. 201, 202 n 
Chapeldonan, Kirkcolm, i. 124, 177 
Chapel Finian, Mochrum, i. 124, 176 

Patrick, i. 413 ; ii. 9, 12 
Chapelrossan, Kirkmaiden, i. 124, 461 ; 

ii. 84 

Chapelshot, Buittle, i. 23, 153 
Chapman's Cleugh Craig Lees Stone, 

i. 139 
Charles Edward, Prince, ii. 280, 299, 


Chateau d'Agneaux, i. 180, 184, 185, 
189, 193, 195 



Chester, Earl of, ii. 412 
Chincough Well, i. 414 
Churchill, Lord George, ii. 325 
Civil War (1642-1651), i. 464 ; ii. 23-41 
Clachanarnie, Mochrum, i. 155, 165 
Cladiochdow, Kirkcolm, i. 170 
Cladyhouse, i. 170 ; ii. 175 
Clantibuies, Kirkcowan, i. 135 
Clanyard, i. 345 ; ii. 84 
Clashgulloch, Barr, i. 148 
Clashmahew, Inch, i. 124, 176 
Clashuarroch, Leswalt, i. 125, 165 
Clashneach, Kirkmaiden, i. 129 
Claverhouse, ii. 120, 126, 130-132, 137 TO, 

147-149, 153, 154, 186 
Claymoddie, Glasserton, i. 145, 247 n 
Clayshant, Stoneykirk, i. 123, 172, 349 ; 

ii. 257 
Clendrie (Clendry), Inch, i. 161, 301, 

423 ; ii. 174, 271 
Clennoch, Carsphairn, etc., i. 161 
" Cleppie Bells," Tradition of, ii. 142-143 
Cleray Castle, ii. 445 
Clifton, Thomas Henry, of Lytham, ii. 

" Clints of the Bus," " Clendrie," " Dro- 

more," i. 173 
Cloncaird, Penninghame, i. 139, 169, 

322, 445 
Clone, Mochrum, i. 150, 169, 337 ; ii. 

77, 365, 366 

Clonidder, Penninghame, i. 135, 161 
Clover and Rye, a novelty, ii. 203 

Clugstone, i. 350, 405 ; ii. 93, 151 

Clutag, Mochrum, i. 144 

Clyde = Clota, the, i. 5, 41, 213 

Cnockanicken, Kirkcowan, i. 168 

Cnockynocking, Stoneykirk, i. 168 

Cochlick, Kirkgunzeon, i. 164 

Cockburn, Lord, ii. 359, 361 

" Cock Hill," in Kirkmaiden, i. 148 

Cockleath, i. 142 

Cock's Comb rock, i. 160 

Cogarth, i. 36, 130 

Coiff, The, i. 280, 321 n, 440 

Colfin, i. 290 

Collin, Rerwick, i. 154 

Colmonell, i. 121, 130, 136 et seq 

Coltran, William, ii. 130, 153, 159, 177, 

Colvend, i. 119, 130, 136 et seq 

Colville, Major Hon. Charles, ii. 289, 

296, 325 
Sir Robert, ii. 156 

Comyn, Alexander, i. 84, 85, 89, 199 n 
John, of Badenoch, i. 84, 86 n, 89, 
93, 108, 199 n; ii. 414 n 

Comyn, the Red, i. 89, 93, 100 ; ii. 415 

Conventicle Act, ii. 104-116 

Conyers, Lord, i. 353 

Cooranlane, Minigaff, i. 155, 327 

Copinknowes, Minigaff, i. 139 

Corncraivie, Stoneykirk, i. 153, 160 
Cornhulloch, Mochrum, i. 148 
Cornwall, Lieut. -General, ii. 325 
Cornwallis, Lord, ii. 398 
Corrochtrie, Kirkmaiden, i. 160 
Corsbie, i. 36, 123, 404 ; ii. 329 
Corsglass, Dairy, i. 171 
Corsmalzie, Mochrum, i. 171 
Corsoch, Parton, i. 171 ; ii. 95 
Corswall, i. 97, 218, 242 et seq 
Castle, i. 218 
Point, i. 35, 140, 232, 249 
Corvisel, Penniughame, i. 160 
Cotreoch (Rioco), Whithorn, i. 153 
Cottach, Troqueer, i. 157 
Courcy, Henry de, ii. 433 

Sir John de, i. 207, 208, 210, 212 
William de, i. 195, 196 
Cowper, Bishop, i. 450, 454, 455 ; ii. 447 
Cradock, Sir Matthew, i. 303 
Craichmore (Craighmore), i. 124, 168, 

224, 281, 288, 462 
Craiganie, New Luce, i. 144 
Craigbernoch, New Luce, i. 170, 326 
Craigbonny, Balmaclellau, i. 144 
Craigburnoch, Old Luce, i. 402, 440, 

Craigcaffie, i. 120, 272, 300, 301, 437 ; 

ii. 151, 245, 246 
Castle, ii. 445 

Craigdhu, Glasserton, i. 162 
Craigeach, Mochrum, i. 129 
Craigeazle, Inch, i. 160 
Craigenally, Mochrum, i. 121, 149 
Craigencally, i. 6, 95, 116 
Craigencorr, Leswalt, etc., i. 147 
Craigencross, Kockincross, i. 228 
Craigencroy, Stoneykirk, i. 125, 159 
Craigenellie (Craiganelly), Crossmichael, 

etc., i. 121, 149 
Craigengashel, Minigaff, i. 120 
Craigengearoch, Kirkcolm, i. 145, 159 
Craigengeary, Carsphairn, i. 145 
Craigenskulk, Minigaff, i. 138 
Craigentarsie, New Luce, i. 161 
Craigenveoch, Old Luce, i. 148, 159 
Craigenvolie, Balmaclellan and Cars- 
phairn, i. 126 
Craigfolly, i. 17, 140, 159 
Craighet, New Luce, i. 146 
Craighorn, Carsphairn, i. 163 
Craiglarie, Mochrum, i. 129 
Craiglauchie, Kirkmaiden, i. 149 
Craiglaw (Craigley), Kirkcowan, i. 163, 

250, 279, 325, 339, 386, ii. 445 
Craiglewhan, i. 130 
Craiglochan, Inch, i. 149 
Craiglure, Straiten, i. 124 
Craignabronchie, Penninghame, i. 132 
Craignagapple, Mochrum, i. 129 
" Craignair," i. 130 
Craignallie, Kirkcolm, i. 149 



Craignaltie, Inch and Minigaff, i. 144 
Craignaquarroch, Portpatrick, i. 128, 


Craignarbie, Kirkcowan, i. 145 
Craignaw, i. 248 
Craigneil Castle, i. 444, 448 
Craignell, Minigaff, i. 149 
Craigneltoch, Kells, i. 144 
Craigoch (Craigauch), Tower of, i. 12, 

121, 216 ; ii. 248, 417 
Craigork, New Luce, i. 144 
Craigshinny, Kells, i. 146 
Craigsloan, New Luce, i. 154 
Craigwhinny, Girthon and Kirkmaiden, 

i. 136 

Crailloch, Portpatrick, i. 171, 294, 463 n 
Cramuhill, Tongueland, i. 156 
Crancree, Inch, i. 153 
Crauford, David, of Park, i. 367 ; ii. 


Craugie, Penninghame, i. 149 
Crawford, Lord, ii. 317-321 

Konald, of Kestalrig, ii. 375 
Creachan (Crichane), i. 289, 324, 342, 

379, 453 

Cree Eiver, i. 5, 6 n, et seq 
Creloch, Mochrum, i. 171 ; ii. 444 
Crichton, Sir James, i. 350 

Lord Charles, ii. 129, 146, 159, 257 
Lord William, fourth Earl of Dum- 
fries ; ii. 258, 276 
Sir William, Lord Chancellor, i. 252, 

253, 260, 267 
Criffel, i. 256, 366 
Croach (Craig), i. 168, 229, 241, 286, 

288, 294, 305, 349, 464 ; ii. 77, 434 
Cromoch, Kirkmaiden, i. 161 
Crosbie, John, M.P., i. 20 

Captain John, ii. 296 
Crossmichael, i. 121, 129, 130, 149, 176 
Crossraguel Abbey, i. 13 n, 83, 91 n, 

342, 384, 395, 399 ; ii. 264, 334 
Crotteach, Kirkcowan, i. 166 
" Crowarhill," Kirkmaiden, i. 148 
"Crowarstone," Kirkmaiden, i. 148 
Crow Hill, Parton and Old Luce, i. 156 
Crows, Kirkinner, i. 329 
Cruggleton, i. 45, 58, 86, 94 et seq 

Castle, i. 27, 79, 89 et seq 
Cruikshanks (Crookshanks), John, of 

Craiglaw, ii. 223 

Culbee, Kirkcolm and Kirkinner, i. 177 
Culcaldie (Kilcaldie), Inch, i. 123, 138, 

ii. 248 

Culchintie, Kirkcolm, i. 13, 137 
Culcruchie, Penninghame, i. 142 
Culdoch, Twynholm, i. 143 
Culgarie, Glasserton, i. 128 
Culgroat, Stoneykirk, i. 166 
Culgruff, Crossmichael, i. 131 
Culhorn, Inch, i. 133, 242, ii. 258, 267, 

276, 279, 301, 326, 372-374, 397 

Culindoch, Girthon, i. 154 
Culkae, Sorbie, i. 171 
Cullenpattie, Inch, i. 176 
Cullindeugh, New Abbey, i. 154 
Culmalzie (Kilmalzie), i. 123, 176, 424, 

427, 429 ; ii. 12, 433 
Culmore, Stoneykirk, i. 123, 296 
Culquha, Twynham, i. 171 
Culreoch, Inch, i. 163 ; ii. 5 
Culscadden, Glasserton, i. 151 
Culshabbin, Mochrum, i. 177 
Cultiemore, Minigaff, i. 152, 153 
Cults, Inch, etc., i. 152, 239, 243, 435, 

449, 451 ; ii. 68, 113, 270 
Sorbie, i. 152 

Culvennane, i. 168 ; ii. 119, 152 
Culzean, i. 272 n, 342, 379, 384, 386, 

389, 434, 436, 440 
Cumloden, Minigaff, i. 114, 160, 400 
Cumlongan, Holy wood, i. 156 
Cumnock, i. 146, 151, 159, 171, 230 
Cumston, i. 250, 287 ; Castle i. 144 
Cunninghame, Ayr, i. 23, 58, 67, 126, 

179, 261 ; ii. 182 
Sir David, of Milncraig, ii. 159 
Cunnoch, Whithorn, i. 172 
Curghie, Kirkmaiden, i. 159, 165, 289, 

425 ; ii. 329 

Cusacke, Sir Thomas, i. 387 
Cushiemay, Buittle, i. 167 
Cussencorry (Castle Gary), i. 174 
Cutbraid, Portpatrick, i. 158 
Cutcloy, Whithorn, i. 153, 158 
Cutfad, Kirkpatrick-Durham, i. 153 

DAER, Lord, ii. 390-391 

Daffin, Berwick, i. 127 

Dailly, i. 121, 131, 147, 149 

Dalhabboch, Inch, i. 147 

Dalhet, Kirkcowan, i. 146 

Dalhousie, Lord, i. 430 

Daljarroch, Colmonell, i. 163, 322 

Dalmannoch, Inch, i. 138, 280 n 

Dalmellington, i. 38 n, 327 

Dalmoney, Urr, i. 155 

Dalnagap, Inch, i. 153 

Dalreagle, i. 300, 411 ; ii. 329, 361, 362, 


Dairy (Galloway), i. 125 n, 128 et seq 
Dalrymple, Christian, of Mochrum, 

ii. 124 
Sir David, of Hailes, Lord Advocate, 

ii. 159, 211 

Lady Elizabeth Crichton, ii. 257, 266 
Hon. George, advocate, ii. 374 n 
Sir Hew, President of the Court of 

Session, ii. 159, 177, 211, 329, 

382 n 

Dalrymple, Hew, advocate, ii. 329 
Sir James, first Lord Stair, ii. 15, 18, 

75, 86, 104, 106, 117, 122, 132, 149, 

152, 159, 448 



Dalrymple, James, son of second Lord 

Stair, shot, ii. 123 
Lady Janet, ii. 353 
Sir John, second Lord Stair, ii. 117, 

130, 132, 146, 148, 149, 153, 155, 

John, nephew of Marshal Stair, ii. 

Captain John, of Dunragit, ii. 304. 

See also Hay, Sir John Dalrymple 
Lady, of Stair, ii. 123 ; younger, 123 
Robert, W.S., ii. 236, 437 
Hon. Thomas, physician, ii. 159, 

; William, of Stair, i. 297 

Colonel William, of Glenmuir, ii. 211, 

238, 257, 260, 268, 275, 326 
Dalshangan, Carsphairn, etc., i. 152 
Dalsharroch, Kirkcolm, i. 129 
Dalshinnie, Troqueer, i. 146 
Dalvaird, Minigaff, i. 137 
Dal what, Kirkoswald, i. 146 
Dalzerran, i. 129, 288, 402 
Damlach, New Luce, i. 127 
Damnaholly, Kirkmaiden, i. 140 
Darachans, Minigaff, i. 154 
Dargoals, Old Luce, i. 140, 250 
Darnarble, Minigaff, i. 167 
Darnemow, New Luce, i. 126 
Darngarroch, Carsphairn, i. 128 
Dashwood, Sir James, ii. 374 
Deerhow, Ballantrae, i. 145 
Deer's Den, Minigaff, etc., i. 145 
Deil's Dyke, i. 6, 11, 72, 114, 141 ; ii. 244 
Derby, Earl of, i. 319, 320 
Derhagie, Old Luce, i. 149 
Derlongan, Old Lnce, i. 156 
Dernoconner, Colmonell, i. 130 
Dervaird, Old Luce, i. 137 
Dervananie, New Luce, i. 144 
Dindinnie, Leswalt, i. 119, 137, 234, 

294, 408 
Dinduff, Leswalt, i. 119, 126, 127, 216, 


Dinmurchie, Barr, i. 118 
Dinniehinney, Kirkmaiden, i. 119, 137 
Dinveoch, Kells, i. 119, 148 
Dinvin, Portpatrick, i. 119 ; ii. 175 
Dirnow, Kirkcowan, i. 151, 154 
Dochroyle, Barr, i. 143 
Dodd, Troquhair, etc., i. 168 
Docker's Byng, Colvend and Mochrum, 

i. 129, 172 ; ii. 199 
Doon, Glasserton, etc., i. 119 
Dornal, Lakes, Penninghame and Bal- 

maghie, i. 167 
Dougaries, Old Luce, i. 173, 326, 402, 

Douglas, Archibald, first Earl, i. 100, 

101, 255 
Archibald, second Earl, i. 237, 240, 

251, 252 

Douglas, Archibald (the grim), i. 226- 

236, 260, 320 n; ii. 420, 429 
David, sixth Earl, i. 253 
George, i. 108, 251, 271, 273, 279 
Sir James, i. 97, 228, 230, 232 
Sir James, of Drumlanrig, i. 340, 365 
John, Whithorn Priory, ii. 70 
Margaret (Fair Maid of Galloway), 

i. 254, 273, 274 

Lady Margaret, of Drumlanrig, i. 371 
Eobert, Provost of Lincluden, i. 442 
William, eighth Earl, i. 254, 255, 256- 
259, 260-262, 263, 264, 265, ii. 
William, Keeper of Lochnaw, i. 229, 

232, 233, 236 et seq 
Sir William, brother of James the 

Good, i. 104, 106 
Sir William, of Drumlanrig, i. 335 
Sir William, of Eskford, i. 239 
The Black, i. 245, 255 n, 264, 387 ; 

ii. 205 

Drannigower, New Luce, i. 155 
Drennandow Moor, i. 142 
Drochdhuil, Old Luce, i. 172, 249 
Dromore, i. 219, 220, 285 ; ii. 281, 329, 


Lord, ii. 268, 282, 329 
Dronnan, Penninghame, i. 155 
Drumacarie, Kirkcowan, i. 128 
Drumadryland, Inch, i. 150 
Drumahowan, i. 147 
Drumalone, Dairy, i. 128 
Drumanairy, Portpatrick, i. 136 
Drumanelly, Kirkcolm, i. 121 
Drumanmoan, Ballantrae, i. 170 
Drumannee, New Luce and Kirkinner, 

i. 144 

Drumanoon, Penninghame, i. 128, 159 
Drumargus (Fheargus), Minigaff, i. 64 
Drumashure, Colmonell, i. 165 
Drumasor, Kirkcowan, i. 139 
Drumataggart, Minigaff, i. 138 
Drumatier, Penninghame, i. 139 
Drumatoo, Barr, i. 165 
Drumatye, Glasserton, i. 131 
Drumavaird, Colmonell, i. 137 
Drumawa, New Luce, i. 126 
Drumawan, Kirkcowan, i. 126 
Drumbreddan, Stoneykirk, i. 151, 349 n 
Drambuie, Kirkcolm and Kells, i. 163, 

423, 428 n 

Drumcarrick, Inch, i. 161 
Drumconran, Kirgunzeon, i. 155 
Drumcuunoch, Minigaff, i. 126 
Drumfad, Minigaff and Terregles, i. 160 
Drumfarnachan, Kirkcolm, i. 154 
Drumferry, Parton, i. 136 
Drumfluich, Penninghame, i. 161 
Drumgorman, Dairy, i. 163 
Drumhinnie, Old Luce, i. 137 
Drumhoney, Old Luce, i. 156 



Drumicarty, Old Luce, i. 139 
Drumierand, New Luce, i. 164 
Drumjargon, Kirkinner, i. 163 
Drumlamford, Colrnonell, i. 121 
Drumlanrig, i. 335, 340, 359, 388 

Lord, ii. 95, 131 
Drumlass, Berwick, i. 121 
Drumlawhinnie, Miuigaff, i. 155 
Drumloccart, Leswalt, i. 122, 215-216 
Drummastoun, i. 360 ; ii. 89, 206-207, 

259, 272 

Drummatrane, Kirkcowan, i. 150 
Drummienarble, Kirkcowan, i. 167 
Drummond, Sir James W., of Hawthorn- 
den, ii. 433 

Sir John, of Stob Hall, ii. 418 
Drummuckloch, Inch, i. 144 
Drummullin, i. 133, 218, 265 
Drumnaminshog, Minigaff, i. 154 
Drumnarbuck, New Luce, i. 145 
Drumpail, Old Luce, i. 129 
Drumquhan, Penninghame, i. 130 
Drumrash, Parton, i. 153 
Drumsoul, Old Luce, i. 131 
Drumstable, Penninghame, i. 126 
Drumtarlie, Penninghame, i. 171 
Drumteacher, Old Luce, i. 140 
Drumtooter, Dairy, i. 139 
Drumtroddan, Mochrum, i. 140 ; ii. 202, 


Drumvogal, New Luce, i. 146 
Drumwhat, Mochrum and Minigaff, i. 

Drumwhillan (Mhuilinn), Kirkcowan, i. 


Drungan, Kelton, i. 155 
Duchrae (Dochray Pont), i. 143 
Dugdale's Baronage, i. 52 n, et seq 
Dumchinnie, Inch, 137 
Dumfries, i. 88, 92, 119, 153, 219 et seq 
first Earl, ii. 4 n, 14 
second Earl, ii. 129, 159, 431 
fourth Earl, 328, 332, 353, 373 
fifth Earl, ii. 373 
sixth Earl, ii. 374 
Penelope, Countess of, ii. 212, 326 
Dunagarroch, Stoneykirk, i. 119 
Dunahaskel, Kirkmaiden, i. 119 
Dunannane, Kirkmaiden, i. 119, 148 
Dunanrae, Stoneykirk, i. 119, 128 
Dunanskail, Kirkmaiden, i. 119 
Dunbar, Alexander, Egerness, i. 451 
Anthony, Machermore, ii. 430, 435 
Archbishop, i. 351, 354, 356 
Sir David, of Baldoon, i. 386 ; ii. 31, 
36, 73, 75, 86, 92, 97, 98, 105, 113, 
127, 152, 444, 446, 448 
David, younger, of Baldoon, ii. 105, 

107, 113 

Gavin, Prior of Whithorn, i. 337-338 
Sir George, of Mochrum, ii. 208, 219, 

Dunbar, Sir James, of Mochrum, ii. 153 

159, 223, 230, 237, 431 
Sir John, first, of Mochrum, i. 305, 

308 n, 331, 371 n ; ii. 446 
Sir John, second, of Mochrum, i. 373, 

374, 375, 386, 458 
Sir John, third, of Mochrum, ii. 18, 

21, 31, 52, 73, 76, 125, 151, 434, 


Margaret, of Clugston, i. 350, 405 
Patrick, of Machermore, ii. 153, 177, 

Thomas, of Mochrum, ii. 86, 97, 113, 


Duucow (Duncol), Kirkmahoe, i. 119 
Dundasse, Captain Alexander, ii. 49 
Dundonald, Girvan, i. 83, 119, 409 
Dundrennan Abbey, i. 45, 59 et seq 
Dunerrun, Inch, i. 119 
Dunharberry, Girthou, i. 119 
Dunikellie, Kirkmaiden, i. 118 
Dunimuck, Girvan, i. 119 
Dunkirk, Kells, i. 119, 148 
Dunlop, John, of Dunlop, ii. 273, 434 
Dunman, Kirkmaiden, i. 119, 132 
Dunmuck, Kirkmaiden, i. 119 
Dunnance, Minigaff, i. 119 
Dunniechinie (Dunteine), Inch, i. 119 
Duuorrock, Kirkmaiden, i. 119 
Dunottrie, Minigaff, i. 119 
Dunower, Balmaclellan, i. 163 
Dunragit, Old Luce, i. 119 (Drumregget), 

301 n, 307, 387-388, 429; ii. 8, 

223, 362 

Dunrod, Borgue, i. 66, 119, 164 
Dunscore, i. 7, 109, 138 
Dunskey, i. 218, 219, 220 n, 304, 312, 

413 ; ii. 328, 445 
Castle, i. 15-16 ; ii. 9, 46 
Dunskirloch, Kirkcolm, i. 161 
Dunsour, Kirkcolm, i. 139 
Dunure, i. 226, 236, 237, 238, 244,260 n, 

321, 395, 397, 398 ; ii. 68, 264 
Dupen, Ballantrae, i. 143 
Duplin, Lord Viscount, i. 468 
Durie (Dury), Bishop, i. 356, 375, 377, 

380 ; ii. 447 

EAGLE'S Cairn, Kirkmaiden, i. 38 
Earlston, Dairy, i. 138, 346, 347; ii. 


" Earnscraig," New Abbey, i. 147, 159 
Eccles, Alexander, i. 396 
Edinburgh, i. 77, 229 n, et seq 

Advocates' Library, i. 208 n, 235 n, 

326 n; ii. 112, 446 
Canongate, ii. 65 
Castle, i. 254, 386 ; ii. 130 
Holyrood, i. 14, 47, 56 et seq 
Market Cross, i. 332 ; ii. 32 
Queensberry House, ii. 326 
Tolbooth, i. 340 n, 441 ; ii. 146 



Edmonstone, Lieutenant Campbell, ii. 

Sir William, of Kincardine, i. 244 
Edward the Confessor, i. 194 
Eggerness, i. 37, 451 ; ii. 93, 152, 265 
Egilsmalzie (Egsmalee), i. 176 ; ii. 12 n 
Eglaismahew, Inch, i. 176 
Eglinton Castle, ii. 206, 339, 367 
Eglinton, sixth Earl, ii. 15, 28, 128 

seventh Earl, ii. 107 

eighth Earl, ii. 129, 378, 431 

ninth Earl, ii. 206, 222 

tenth Earl, ii. 333, 353, 367 

eleventh Earl, ii. 368 

twelfth Earl, ii. 383 

Lady Elizabeth, ii. 257 

Suzanna, Countess of, ii. 222, 275, 


Eilah Hill, New Luce, i. 121 
Elcho, Lord, ii. 302 

Elliot, Commodore John, ii. 351, 352 n 
Elrich (Elrig, Eldrig), i. 173 
Ernanity, Crossmichael, i. 131 
Ernfettan (St. Fillan's portion), i. 142 
Ernmannoch, Parton, i. 138 
Ernmenzie (Menzies's portion), i. 142 
Errol, Earls of, i. 67, 385 
Erskine, Henry, i. 333 n ; ii. 382 

Thomas, Lord, i. 267 ; ii. 437 
Ervie, Kirkcolm, i. 133 
Estates of Parliament, ii. 19, 20, etc. 

Convention of 
1560, i. 380 
1665, ii. 98 
1689, ii. 151-153 
Ethelwald, Bishop, i. 18 
Eure, Sir William, i. 365 
Ewart, John, M.P., ii. 153 

William, ii. 447 
Exchequer Rolls, i. 73 n, 188, 233 n, 

et seq 
" Eyes, the," i. 37 

FAIRGIRTH (Fairgarth), i. 36, 128, 130, 

307 ; ii. 446 

Faldoo, Kirkmaiden, i. 162 
Falincherry, Kells, i. 129, 131 
Falkeown, Kirkmaiden, i. 131 
Fal whistle, Kirkinner, i. 160 
Fannygapple, Kirkinner, i. 129 
Farrach Bay, Minigaff, i. 136 
Farrenlure, Inch, i. 124, 159 
Faskally, Lady, ii. 309 
Fauna and Flora in Place Names, i. 144 
Fawkener, Everard, ii. 295, 321 
Fellsavery, Inch, i. 125 n, 165 
Fellyennan, Mochrum, i. 178 
Fennart (white height), i. 118 
Fergus, Lord of Galloway, i. 6, 38, 41, 

42, Met seq., 319; ii. 408, 410 
Fergusson, George (Lord Hermand), ii. 



Fergusson, Sir James (Lord Kilkerran), 

ii. 180, 339 

of Craigdarroch, ii. 107, 230 
Fergussone, Captain John, of Dowalton, 

ii. 76, 113, 119 
Eobert, ii. 102 

Fergussoune, John, of Ramistoune, ii. 73 
" Fiddler's Bog," Kells, i. 159 
Finloch, Stoneykirk, i. 162 
Finnart, i. 162 
Fintalloch (Fyntalloch), Penninghame, 

i. 162, 169 ; ii. 329, 362 n 
Fintloch, Kells, i. 162 
Fleet (float), the, i. 22, 93, 222, 250, 

308 ; ii. 186 
Fleming, Sir Malcolm (Earl of Wigtown), 

i. 102, 106, 224 n, 226-227 
Malcolm, commendator of Whithorn, 

i. 386, 393-394 n ' 
Lord, Chamberlain of Scotland, i. 387, 

393-394, 432 ; ii. 70 
Fleuchlarg, Penninghame, i. 161 
Float Bay, i. 420-421 
Flodden, i. 331-342 ; ii. 420 
Forbes Bishop, i. 9, 58 TO, 59 TO 
Life of St. Ninian, i. 18 n, et seq 
Calendars of Scottish Saints, i. 176 TO, 

177 n, 221 TO 
David, ii. 339 
John, sixth Lord, i. 274 
Forbons, Sir Arthur, ii. 64 
Fordun's Annals, i. 48 TO, 61 TO, et seq 
Fordyce, Andrew, Provost of Stranraer, 

ii. 216 

Forrester, Lord, ii. 4 TO, 5 TO 
Fortifications, i. 118 
Fotheringay Castle, i. 86 ; ii. 413, 415 
Fountainhall's Historical Notices, ii. 

130 TO, 149 TO 

"Fox's Rattle," Kirkmaiden, i. 146 
Fraser, James, chaplain at Lochnaw, ii. 

201, 265 
Freuch (Freugh), i. 156, 335, 339, 342, 

348, 351 ; ii. 257 
Froissart, i. 229 TO, 236, 420 
Fumart Glen, Kells, i. 146, 159 
Furness Abbey, i. 47, 99 

GADDGEDLAB (Galloway), i. 33 
Gadgirth (Gadgarth), i. 36, 130, 297, 


Gainoch (Genoch), i. 161 
Gairgrie (Gargrie), Mochrum, i. 149 
Gairloch, Kells, i. 160 
Gairy of Pulnee, Minigaff, i. 144 
Galdenoch, i. 218, 367 ; ii. 5, 113, 343, 

Castle, ii. 167, 445 

Ghost of the, ii. 161-181 

Tower, ii. 110-164 
Galdia (Galloway), i. 11 
Galgacus (hawk of battle), i. 178 

2 H 



Galloway, Alexander, first Earl, i. 419 n, 
442, 453 n, 474 ; ii. 3, 14, 16, 
17, 21, 28, 32, 34, 47, 431 
James, second Earl, ii. 34, 63-64, 77, 

87, 89, 95, 102, 107, 221 
Alexander, third Earl, ii. 114 n, 120, 

Alexander fourth Earl, ii. 122, 151, 

152, 153 

James, fifth Earl, ii. 36, 73, 86, 90, 

92, 93, 160, 163, 177, 200, 201, 

211, 212, 230, 233, 257, 266, 267, 

268, 285, 324, 438, 440 

Alexander, sixth Earl, i. 462, 463; 

ii. 113, 265 324, 333, 362, 374 
John, seventh Earl, ii. 374, 390, 398 
George, eighth Earl, ii. 399 
Randolph, ninth Earl, ii. 337 n 
Acts of Parliament referring to, i. 275 
Ballads of, i. 254, 393 n 
Bishops of, i. 142 n, 225 et seq 
Chamberlains of, i. 274, 279, 307, 

407 n, 428 ; ii. (list) 446-447 
Fair Maid of, i. 254 n, 255 n, 268, 

273, 274 

Habits and customs of, ii. 182-199 
Horses, i. 282, 420 
Ancient language of, i. 113 
Legends of, i. 91 n 
Members for, ii. 177 
Picts of, i. 2, 30 TO, 113 ; ii. 245, 406, 


Politics in 1773, ii. 266 
Ports of, i. 295, 317 ; ii. 154 
Proverbs, i. 301 ; ii. 182, 197-199 
Style of living in, i. 315, 317 
Travelling, etc., ii. 421-422 
Witchcraft in, ii. 193 
Wool, i. 472 ; ii. 182 
Gallow-hill, i. 142 ; ii. 119 -1 
Galls, the, i. 24, 25 n, 29, 32, 33 
Garasladoch, Penninghame, i. 141 
Garchlerie. i. 402-423 ; ii. 113, 248 
Gardiner, Colonel, ii. 256, 302 
Garleffin, Barr and Dairy, i. 144, 161 
Garlics, Lord. See Galloway 
Garlies, Minigaff, i. 121, 223, 274, 342, 

350, 352 ; ii. 333 
Garnshog, Mochrum, i. 147 
Garrahaspin, Stoneykirk, i. 128 
Garranton, Carsphairn, i. 129 
Garrarie, Kells and Mochrum, i. 161, 457 
Garry (Gairy), Kells, etc., i. 173 
Garryharry, Stoneykirk, i. 130 
Garryhorn, Colvend, i. 130, 321, 444 
Garthland, i. 37 TO, 169, 218, 238, 272, 
281, 287, 304, 322, 324, 330, 335, 
337, 339 ; ii. 23, 25, 151, 226, 257, 
436-38, 445 

Garthleary (Garclearie), Inch, i. 138 
Garthrie, i. 168, 216 
Garvallock, Inch, i. 161 248 

Garvey, Rev. Thomas, i. 452 

Gass, New Luce and Kirkinner, i. 153 

Gategill, Borgue, i. 37, 38 

Gayfield, Leswalt i. 149 

Gellstone (Gyles), i. 22, 37, 38, 331, 


Genoch, ii. 8, 137, 329 
George L, ii. 228, 229, 230, 261 
George II., ii. 277, 279, 338, 345 
Gillfoot, Troqueer, i. 27, 37 
Gill's Loch, Kells, i. 151 
Gillespie (Killespie), Old Luce, i. 123, 

321 n, 436 

Gillon, John, of Wallhouse, ii. 345, 432 
Gilshi Feys, Kirkcolm, i. 164 
Girthon, i. 119, 136, 138 et seq 
Girvan, i. 13, 119, 127, 129, 162, 177 


Glaik, Leswalt, i. 167, 280 TO 
Glammis, Lord, i. 385, 405 
Glasgow, ii. 39, 94, 178, 187, 228, 324, 

Archbishop of, i. 338, 343 TO; ii. 108 

Bishop of, i. 38 TO, 260 TO, 267, 278, 

College, ii. 18, 36, 424, 439-442 
Glashverains, Carrick, i. 154 
Glasserton, i. 119, 121, 122 et seq 

Castle, ii. 265, 445 
Glaster, the, New Luce, i. 163 
Gledstanes, Archbishop, i. 455 

Herbert, i. 278 

Glenapp, i. 20, 175, 284, 309 ; ii. 10 
Glenarm, ii. 43 

Castle, ii. 45, 47, 52 TO, 54 
Glencaird, Penninghame, i. 139 
Glencairn, first Earl, i. 355, 375, 380 

second, ii. 15, 18, 64, 65 

third, ii. 325 TO 
Glencairn, Penninghame, i. 7 
Glencurroch, Kirkcolm, i. 157 
Glendinning, Provost, Kirkcudbright, 

ii. 14, 30 

Glendullen (Glendonlardie), ii. 305 
Glengap, Barr and Twynham, i. 153 
Glengappach, Crossmichael, i. 130 
Glengarron, Minigaff, i. 129 
Glenghie, Dailly, i. 149 
Gleugroosy, Stoneykirk, i. 139 
Glengrubboch, Minigaff, i. 131 
Glengruff, Whithorn, i. 131 
Glengunnoch, Parton, i. 126 
Glengyre, Leswalt, i. 130 

Kirkcolm, ii. 5 
Glenhapple (Glenhappel), Inch, i. 129, 

242, 301 TO; ii. 93 
Glenhowl, Glenluce, etc., i. 134 
Glenjorie, Old Luce, i. 138 
Glenkens, the, i. 223, 230, 256 ; ii. 415 
Glenkitten, New Luce, i. 125 TO, 165 
Glenlair, Parton, i. 129 
Glenling, Mochrum, i. 133 



Glenluce (Glenlus), i. 73, 108 M, 309 

et seq 

Abbey, i. 73, 82, 134, 138, 224, 
282, 365, 375, 399 n, 444, 458, 
Abbot of, i. 309 n, 310, 364, 385, 

387, 395 

Glenluchoch, Penninghame, i. 147 
Glen Orchy, Mochrum, i. 144 
Glenour, Ballantrae, i. 154 
Glenowrie, Minigaff, i. 127, 154 
Glenrazie, Penninghame, i. 153 
Glenruther, Penninghame, i. 139 ; ii. 

361, 362 

Glenselly, Old Luce, i. 154 
Glenterra, Inch, i. 121 
Glenturk, Wigtown, i. 144, 282 n; 

ii. 34, 113, 152 

Glenvernoch, Penninghame, i. 7 n, 170 
Glenvogie, Penninghame, i. 171 
Glenwhan, Old Luce, i. 130 
Glenwhilly, New Luce, i. 152 
Glenzerroch, Kelton, i. 164 
Glover, James, i. 449, 450 ; ii. 14, 17 

Thomas, ii. 30 n 

Gobaronuing, Kirkmaiden, i. 145, 167 
Gobawhilkiu, Kirkmaiden, i. 160 
Goolhill, Kirkcowan, i. 140 
Goose Isles, Crossmichael, i. 149 
Gordon of Lochinvar, Chamberlain of 

Galloway, ii. 447 
Alexander, of Airds, i. 272 
Alexander, of Clanyard, i. 430 n, 

442 ; ii. 431 

Alexander, of Earlston, ii. 14 
Sir Alexander, of Kenmure, i. 239 
Alexander, of Lochinvar, i. 238, 

273 n, 301, 308 n, 331, 335 
Alexander, of Penninghame, ii. 102, 


Alexander, of Troqueer, i. 386 
Sir Archibald, of Kenmure, i. 238 
Duchess of, ii. 389, 398 
third Duke of, ii. 332 
fourth Duke of, ii. 363 
Grizel, of Lochinvar, i. 442, 462 ; ii. 


Hugh, of Grange, ii. 8, 31, 75, 106, 221 
James, of Barskeoch, i. 411 
Sir James, of Lochinvar, i. 340, 341, 
352, 360, 364, 365, 367, 371 ; ii. 
. 430, 434, 447 
Janet, m Sir Patrick Agnew, i. 371 n ; 

ii. 430, 434 

John, of Airds, i. 345, 386 
John, of Barskeoch, i. 385, 411 n ; 

ii. 19 n, 96 

John, of Cardoness, ii. 448, 449 
Sir John, of Lochinvar, i. 328, 346 n, 
371 n, 372, 373, 379, 380, 381, 
385, 386-88, 410 n, 411, 416, 419, 
427, 430, 440, 441, 442 

Gordon, Katherine, m. Patrick Agnew, 

i. 303, 324 ; ii. 430 
Sir Robert, first of Lochinvar, i. 301 ; 

ii. 430 
Sir Robert, second of Lochiuvar, i. 

441 ; ii. 448 

Roger, of Lochinvar, i. 237 
Roger, of Troquhan, ii. 86 
William, first of Craighlaw, i. 339, 

340, 381, 386, 387 
William, second of Craighlaw, ii. 
8, 20, 31, 73, 76, 86, 113, 119, 122, 
William, third of Craighlaw, ii. 130, 

151, 154, 159, 431, 435, 440 
William, of Earlston, ii. 4, 17, 86, 92, 

94, 95, ii. 448 

William, of Grange, ii. 19 n, 223 
William, of Penuinghame, ii. 31, 77, 


Gormal (Gormaill), Girthon and Mini- 
gaff, i. 163 

Gout Well, Minigaff, i. 414 
Gowrie, Earl of, i. 416 ; ii. 70 
Graham, David, ii. 129, 130, 138, 140, 

150, 154 

John. See Claverhouse. 
Lady Margaret, ii. 3 
Patrick, Lord, i. 265, 267, 277, 

278 n ; ii. 437 
Sir Robert, i, 251 
Grahame, Sir James, of Netherby, ii. 


Gray, Andrew, Lord, i. 267 
"Grayhen Bay," Stoueykirk, i. 148 
Green Saddle, Kirkmaiden, i. 172 
"Grennan," Stoneykirk, etc., i. 122, 

436, 445, 461 

Grenville, Mary (Mrs. Delaney), ii. 362 
Gretna, i. 122, 393 
Grey, Adam, Lord, i. 263, 265 

Sir Patrick, i. 263, 264 
Grierson, Sir Robert, of Lagg, ii. 34, 120, 

William, M.P., of Bargatten, ii. 20, 30, 

86, 448, 449 

Gurliehawes, Kirkcolm, i. 173 
Gwydr (Guaire), i. 120 
Gyles, Dame (Egidia), ii. 417 

HAILES, Lord, i. 65 n ; ii. 354, 406 
Haggamalag, Howe Hill of, i. 36, 178 
Hamilton, Rev. Alexander, Minigaff, ii. 3 

Lord Basil, ii. 107, 170, 172, 179, 
190, 202, 230, 233, 268 n 

Bishop Gavin, i. 454 ; ii. 447 

Bishop James, ii. 447 

John, Bishop of St. Andrews, i. 375-376 

first Lord, i. 280 

second Lord, i. 341 

Marquis of, ii. 12, 15 

Patrick, 343, i. 



Hannay, Sir Samuel, of Kirkdale, i. 


Hardwick, Lord Chancellor, ii. 330 
" Harecleuch," Carspliairn, i. 145, 159 
"Haremoss," Berwick, i. 145 
Harry's Hill, Inch, i. 136 
Hart Burn, Kirkcudbright, i. 145 
Hartthorn, Terregles, i. 145 
Hathorne, John, of Cairnefield, ii. 73, 


Hauga (Howe), i. 36 
Hawley, General, ii. 279 n, 304 
Hawthorne (Hathorn), Hugh, of Airies, 

ii. 8, 124, 273 

Hugh, of Castle Wigg, ii. 334, 435 
John, of Airies, i. 426 ; ii. 260, 274, 

Hay of Park (Jock o' the horn), i., 458, 


Alexander, of Arioland ; ii. 8, 443 
Sir Charles, of Park, ii. 153, 173, 

174, 192, 201, 431 
Francis, of Arioland, ii. 8, 31, 36, 


Lieutenant George, ii. 296 
Jane, of Park, ii. 68, 431 
Sir John Dalrymple, of Park Place, 

ii. 383, 402 

Lord John, ii. 208, 209 
Lady, of Park, ii. 181 
Suzanna, m John Dalrymple, ii. 383, 

Thomas, Abbot of Glenluce, i. 385, 

388, 422, 423 

Sir Thomas, of Park, M.P., ii. 20, 
31, 68, 75, 280, 302, 329, 383, 
402, 431 

Thomas, of Lands, ii. 86 
Thomas, Pastor of Spynie, i. 384 
Haye, Sir John de la, i. 205 ; ii. 430 

Henderson, Rev. , Dumfries, ii. 99 

Hepburn, Adam, i. 287 

Lord, of Hailes, i. 281 
Hermand, Lord. See Fergusson 
Hermon Hill (Tearmann), i. 124 
Heron, Andrew, of Kirroughtree, ii. 86 

Patrick, ii. 154 
Herries, Sir John, of Terregles, i. 237- 

239, 262, 269, 270 
first Lord, i. 335 
second Lord, i. 387 ; ii. 431 
third Lord, ii. 33, 34, 86 
John, of Barclay, i. 305 
John, of Maybie, ii. 86 
Lady Katherine, i. 408, 409; ii. 


Herts, Thomas, Steward of Kirkcud- 
bright, i. 238 

Hind Hill, Leswalt, i. 144, 159, 247 
Holywood, i. 7, 125 n, 156, 247 n 
Home, Lord George, fourth Baron, i. 
348 ; ii. 332 

Home, Lord William, eighth Earl, ii. 332 
Honeyman, Sir John Ord. See Armadale. 

Sir William, ii. 401 
Hood, Lord, ii. 399 
Hopetoun, Earl of, ii. 332 
Horney, Stoneykirk, i. 133 
" Horning and Pounding," ii. 73-75 
Hound Hill, Carsphairn, i. 130 
Hound's Loup, Portpatrick, i. 130 
Houston, John, of Drummastoun, ii. 

31, 75, 86, 90 
Howard, Lord William (Belted Will), 

ii. 219, 220 
Howth, Earl of, i. 212 
Hume, Sir Andrew, of Kirkcudbright, 

ii. 177 
Hunter, Sir James, ii. 328 

Walter, of Lingluskene, ii. 133 
Huntingdon, Earl of, i. 60 n, 74, 88 ; 

ii. 410, 412, 414 
Huntly, first Earl, i. 260, 264 
third Earl, i. 274, 284, 302 
fourth Earl, i. 380 
fifth Earl, ii. 332 
Hylaud, William, of Kirkcudbright, ii. 


ILAN-NA-GUY, Kirkcolm, i. 149 
Inch, i. 11 n, 96, 120, 122 et seq 

Manor-place of, i. 296, 322, 436 
Inchbane, Kirkcolm, i. 162 
Inchdow, Kirkcolm, i. 162 
Inchnagower, Kirkmaiden, i. 128 
Inchshaennoch, Kirkmaiden, i. 146 
Inchslidderry, Kirkmaiden, i. 141 
Innermessan, i. 7 n, 241, 242, 284 et 

Castle, ii. 116, 174, 248, 257, 445 

Moat, i. 116 ; ii. 243, 244 
Innes, Charles, of Urrell, ii. 349, 435 

Cosmo, 38 n, 43, 268 n 
Innishowan (Inisowen), i. 75 
Inshanks, Kirkmaiden, i. 154 
Inshaw Ford, i. 248 
Invergavane (Girvan), i. 177 
lona, i. 14, 17, 19, 21, 44 
Ireland, Agnews in, i. 207-212 ; ii. 42- 

Place Names in, i. 108 n, 146, 151, 

155, 156, 165 n, 168 
Irish Picts, i. 3, 12 
Irongrey (Grey's portion), i. 142 
Ironlost, i. 142 

Iromnacannie (M'Kenna's portion), i. 142 
Isabel of Athol, i. 74, 78 n 
"Island Buoy," Stoneykirk, i. 131 
Ituna (the Solway), i. 5, 17 
lyll Castle (Isle of Whithorn), ii. 445, 

JERVIS, Sir John, ii. 399 
"John the Scot," ii. 413, 415 n 



Johnson, Dr. Samuel, ii. 222, 335 
Johnston, Rev. James, of Soulseat, i. 


Eev. Sir John of Soulseat, i. 402, 450 
Johnstone, Lord, ii. 4 n, 5 n 

Sir Richard van den Bempde, ii. 382, 


Jones, Paul (John Paul), ii. 385, 386 
Joyce's "Irish Place Names," i. 18 n 

et seq. 

"Justice Aire," i. 200, 292, 323, 329, 
333, 372, 411 

KAMES, Lord, ii. 359 n 

Karlo, William, i. 97 

Keith's Scotch Bishops, i. 21 n, et seq 

Keith, Lady Margaret, i. 435 

Kells, i. 119, 127, 135, 137 et seq 

Kelton, i. 35, 38, 126 et seq 

Hill, i. 129 ; ii. 188, 217, 229, 344 
Kelton on the Dee, i. 20 
"Kemping," ii. 272 n 
Kemp's Graves, Leswalt, i. 216 

Wark (Walks), Leswalt, i. 37, 122, 

140, 217 

Ken, the, i. 119, 224, 282, 309 
Kenlum, Anwoth, i. 160, 166 
Kenmure, i. 101, 160, 238, 239 

Castle, i. 301 n, 388, 390 ; ii. 63, 

Alexander (fifth Viscount), ii. 85 n, 

107, 126, 148, 153, 172, 221 
Robert (fourth Viscount), ii. 28, 40, 
41, 63, 64, 65, 84, 86, 101, 102 
William (sixth Viscount), ii. 221, 230, 

231, 233 
Lady, ii. 127 

"Kemnure's Drum," ii. 199 
Kennedy, Bishop, of St. Andrews, i. 264 
Agnes, of Ardmillan, i. 449 
Alexander, of Ardstinchar, i. 251, 272 
Alexander, of Bargany, i. 375, 379, 


Alexander, of Culzean, i. 446, 449 
Alexander, of Dunure, i. 226 
Sir Archibald, of Culzean, ii. 222 
David, of Culzean, i. 342, 384 
Sir David, i. 321-326 
Elizabeth, of Blairquhan, i. 337 ; ii. 


Gilbert, first Lord, i. 272 n 
Sir Gilbert, of Dunure, i. 106, 224, 

227, 238, 245, 272 ; ii. 68 
Hew, of Airieheming, ii. 31, 75 
Hugh, of Auchterlour, i. 405, 406 
Hugh, of Garriehorn, i. 444 
James, Bishop of Dunkeld, etc., i. 251, 
253, 257, 259, 264, 267, 269 ; ii. 
James, of Cruggleton, i. 450, 451, 458 ; 

ii. 71, 431 
James, of Culzean, i. 441, 449 

Kennedy, Sir James, of Dunure, i. 236- 

238, 244 ; ii. 430 
Lieutenant James, i. 289, 296 
Lord John, i. 284, 296 
Sir John, of Blairquhan, i. 238, 251, 

326, 427, 435 ; ii. 71, 431 
Sir John, of Dunure, i. 237, 238, 251 
Margaret, m Patrick Agnew, i. 433, 

446, 474 ; ii. 88, 431 
Quentin, Abbot of Crossraguel, i. 342, 

384, 395 
Thomas, of Ardmillan, i. 449 ; ii. 31, 

75, 431 

Thomas, of Bargany, ii. 88 
Sir Thomas, of Culzean, i. 379, 398, 

407 n, 417, 432, 433-4, 439-441, 

443-5, 449 ; ii. 88, 431 
Kennedys, cadets of the, i. 272 

Feuds of the, i. 321 et seq 
Kerrone, Minigaff, i. 142 
Kerronrae, Kirkcolm, i. 142, 423; 72, 


Kerroughtry (Kerrouchtree), i. 68, 96 
Kibbertie Kite, Kirkmaiden, i. 177, 414 
Kidsdale (Kittisdale), i. 38 
Kilbreen, Stoneykirk, i. 172 
Kil bride, Kirkcolm and Kirkmaiden, i. 176 
Kilbrock, i. 145 
Kilbrocks, Inch, i. 176 
Kilbuie, Kirkmaiden, i. 163 
Kildarroch, i. 154 
Kildomine (Kirkdamnie), Ballantrae, i. 

123 ; ii. 10, 11, 188 
Kildonan, Kirkmaiden, etc., i. 124, 177, 

219, 220, 224, 285 
Kildrochat, i. 249 
Kilfillan, Old Luce and Sorbie, i. 123, 


Killanringan, Colmonell, i. 176 
Killantrae, Mochrum, i. 170 
Killantringan, Portpatrick, &c., i. 123, 

176, 328 ; ii. 9 
Killeser, 9, 124, 177, 218, 323, 324 : ii. 

124, 202, 445 

Killiegown, Anwoth, i. 139 
Killiemacuddican, Leswalt, i. 13, 177, 


Killiemore, Penninghame, i. 152 
Killiness, Kirkmaiden, i. 160 ; ii. 115 
Killing-Time, the, ii. 129-146 
Killochan Castle, ii. 37, 145 
Killymuck, Kirkcowan, i. 144 
Kilmalloch, New Luce, i. 178, 402 n 
Kilmaurs, Lord, i. 355 
Kilpatrick, i. 123, 176 ; ii. 9 
Kilrhiny, Ballantrae, i. 138 
Kilroy, Dunscore, i. 138 
Kiltersan, Kirkcowan, i. 161 
Kilwaughter, ii. 43-60, 120, 146, 205, 


Castle, ii. 45 
Kindee, Mochrum, i. 166 



Kingsale, Lord, ii. 393, 395, 396, 432 
Kinhilt, Portpatrick, i. 144, 159, 219, 
220, 281, 289, 314, 322, 334, 336, 
342, 379 ; ii. 11 21, 83, 115, 157, 

Kinilaer, Barr, i. 166 
Kipple, Urr, i. 153 
Kirkbean, i. 5, 120, 121 ; ii. 386 
Kirbrean, Kirkinner, i. 172 
Kirkcalla, Penninghame, i. 7 n, 35 
Kirkcolm, i. 118, 124, 130 et seq 
Kirkcowan, i. 118, 124, 126 et seq 
Kirkcudbright, i. 19, 22, 77, 88, 92, 
142 et seq 

Castle, i. 472. 

Stewartry, i. 7, 101, 106 et seq. 

first Lord, i. 222, 442 ; ii. 3, 15, 
17, 23, 25, 26, 28, 33-35, 94 

second Lord, ii. 34, 39, 61, 114 n ; 

third Lord, ii. 34, 86 

-Innergarvane (Girvan), i. 13 

-Innertig (Ballantrae), i. 13, 177 
Kirkdale (Cyric-doel), i. 22, 223, 424 
Kirkennans, Buittle and Parton, i. 178 
Kirkgunzeon i. 66, 148, 155, 163, 176 
Kirkinner, i. 119, 121, 124 et seq 
Kirklauchlane, Stoneykirk, i. 120 
Kirklebride, Kirkpatriek-Durham, i. 123, 

Kirkmabreck, i. 124, 154, 159, 169, 

173, 178, 414 ; ii. 202 
Kirkmadrine, Stoneykirk, i. 177, 295, 

Kirkmahoe (Kirkmacho), i. 176, 350 ; 

ii. 430 
Kirkmaiden, i. 38, 66, 118 et seq 

in Ferness, i. 121, 291, 414 ; ii. 352 
Kirkmichael, i, 156, 172, 272, 321 ; ii. 

75, 84 

Kirkmirren, Kelton, i. 177 
Kirkoswald, i. 83, 146, 164, 386 
Kirkpatrick-Durham, i. 33, 127, 148, 
155, 176, 178 

-Irongray, i. 124, 135, 159 
Kirminnoch, Inch, i. 138, 142 ; 30, 271 n 
Kirrereoch, Minigaff, i. 163 
Kirshinnoch, Minigaff, i. 146 
Kirvenie, Wigtown, i. 127 
Kittyshalloch, Minigaff, i. 168 
Knock of Luce, i. 256, 366 
Knockagawny, Kirkmaiden, i. 126 
Knockalanny, Kirkcowan, i. 131, 159 
Knockaldy, Leswalt, i. 138 
Knockamairly, Stoneykirk, i. 141 
Knockanarroch, Stoneykirk, i. 125, 165 
Knock aneed, Stoneykirk, i. 151 
Knockantomachie, Kirkmaiden, i. 160 
Knockarod, Leswalt, i. 164 
Knockatonal, Kirkcowan, etc., i. 172 
Knockatonl, Portpatrick, i. 131 
Knpckbawn, Stoneykirk, i. 126 
Knockcaars, Kirkmaiden, i. 148 

Knockcannon, Balmaghie, i. 162 
Knockcappy, Kirkmaiden, i. 130 
Knockcore, Stoneykirk, i. 147 
Knockcorr, Kirkcudbright, i, 147 
Knockdaw, Girvan, i. 127, 280, 471-2 ; 

ii. 7 

Knockdeen, Kirkcolm, i. 159 
Knockdown, frequent, i. 163 
Knockdronnan, Parton, i. 155 
Knockeffrick, Kirkinner, i. 64, 319 
Knockenausk, Stoneykirk, i. 149 
Knockenfinnoch, Ballantrae, i. 150 
Knockengearoch, Carsphairn, i. 145 
Knockenharry, Whithorn, &c. i. 136 
Knockenhay, Old Luce, i. 132 
Knockenquill, Kirkmaiden, i. 155 
Knockenree, Kirkmaiden, i. 156 
Knock etie, New Luce, i. 131 
Knockgarron, Girvan, i. 129 
Knockgilsie, Kirkcolm, i. 164 
Knockglass, i. 163, 294 ; ii. 8, 256 
Knockgower, Leswalt, i. 128 
Knockhooly, Kelton, &c., i. 134 
Knockiefountain, New Luce, i. 177 
Knockincurr, Kirkinner, i. 147 
Knockingarroch, Carsphairn, i. 128 
" Knocking-stone Hill," Kirkmaiden, i. 


Knockmassan, Leswalt, i. 167 
Knockmullen, Stoneykirk, i. 133 
Knockmult, Berwick, i. 128, 159 
Knocknamuck, Barr, i. 144 
Knocknaskrie, Portpatrick, i. 149 
Knockneen, Kirkcolm, i. 148, 460 
Knocknidi, Cumnock, i. 151 
Knockninshock, Kirkmabreck, i. 154 
Knocknishy, Whithorn, i. 172 
Knocknossan Kock, Kirkmaiden, i. 145 
Knockodher, Barr, i. 163 
Knockormal, Colmonell, i. 159, 163 
Knockravie, Kirkcowan, i. 153 
Knockricaw, Colmonell, i. 131 
Knockrocher, Dailly, i. 142 
Knockscadan, Stoneykirk, i. 151 
Knockshinnoch, Kirkcowan, &c., i. 146 
Knocksting, Whithorn, i. 161 
Knocktammoch, Stoneykirk, i. 153 
Knocktim (Knocktym)," Kirkcolm, i. 153, 


Knockvenie, Parton, &c., i. 127 
Knockville, Penninghame, i. 7 n, 153 
Kuockwalloch, Kirkpatrick-Durham, i. 

Knockwhasen, Portpatrick, i. 159, 234, 

248, 294 
Knockybay (Knockibay), New Luce, i. 

154, 435 ; ii. 7 

Knockytinnie, Kirkcowan, i. 137 
Knowlys (Knolys), Sir William, i. 224 n, 

Knox, John, i. 342, 345, 375, 384 ; ii. 

123, 144, 



Knox's History of the Reformation, i. 

355, n 

Kyle, i. 10, 21, 58, 67, 133, 324, 341, n 
Kylfeather (Kylfeddar), New Luce, i. 7n, 

37, 137, 326, 402, 440 

"LADY BAY," Kirkcolm, i. 138 
Lagabaine, New Luce, i. 127 
Laganamour, New Luce, i. 169 
Lagatie, Dailly, i. 131 
Lagganausk, Kirkmaiden, i. 149 
Laggansarroch, Colmonell, i. 129 
Laggantalloch, Kirkmaiden, i. 169 
Lagnagatchie, Kirkmaiden, i. 146 
Lagwine, Carsphairn, i. 128 
Laight Alpyn, i. 175, 229, 241, 286, 

308 n 

Laindriggan, Leswalt, i. 170 
Lamb, Bishop, i. 454, 455 ; ii. 447 
Lamford, Carsphairn, i. 121 
Landberrick, Mochrum, i. 123, 177 
Lanebreddan, Minigaff, i. 151 
Lanedriggane, Leswalt, i. 155 
Laniwee, Minigaff, i. 117, 135, 163, 


Lannigore, Old Luce, i. 128, 135, 170 
Larbrax, Leswalt, i. 26, 59, 162, 217, 

280, 427 ; ii. 67, 113, 121, 242 
Larochanea, New Luce, i. 144 
Lauderdale, Earl of, i. 433 n ; ii. 4 n, 

5 n, 95, 107, 120, 131, 132, 146 
Leffnoll (Leffindlea), Inch, i. 7, 144, 272, 

280, 308 n, 435 ; 202 
Leffinolla, Ballantrae, i. 144 
Lennox, Earl of, i. 339, 341, 351-3, 

385, 388, 395, 416 ; ii. 88, 332 
Leslie, General (Earl of Leven), ii. 15, 

26, 37 

Major William, ii. 296, 380 
Leswalt, i. 119, 124 et seq 
Lignabrawn, Kirkmaiden, i. 132 
Lincluden Abbey, i. 68, 238, 252, 256, 

278, 419, 442 
Lindsay, John, Lord, of the Byres, i. 265, 


Lieutenant John, ii. 296-7 
Linnielow, Kirkmaiden, i. 127 
Lisnegarvie (Lisburne), i. 175 
Livingstone, Sir Alexander, i. 252, 254 
Eev. John, ii. 12, 13, 14, 33, 37, 39, 


Lochanghie, Girthon, i. 149 
Lochanscaddan, Glasserton, i. 151 
Lochbrack, Balmaclellan, i. 151, 158 
Loch Bradan, Straiton, i. 151 
Loch Braen, Mochrum, i. 172 
Lochbreckbowie, Straiton, i. 151 
Lochcranochy, Mochrum, i. 153 
LochEldrig, i. 173 
Loch Enoch, Minigaff, i. 136 n, 171 
Loch Farroch, Colmonell, i. 136 
Loch Fergus, i. 45, 64, 305 

Loch Gill, Penninghame, i. 151 
Lochgoosy, Kells, i. 155 
Loch-harrow, Kells, i. 127 
Lochinbreck, Balmaghie, i. 151, 158 
Lochinch, i. 440 
Lochintyre, Anwoth, i. 139 
Loch Ken, i. 145, 162 
Loch Kendelach, i. 9, 12, 74 
Lochkirky, Colmonell, i. 148 
Lochmaben, i. 92, 365 

Castle, i. 229, 259, 270, 419, 420 

Stane, i. 256, 375 ; ii. 219 
Lochmaddy, Carrick, i. 145 
Loch Moan, Minigaff, i. 170 
Lochmuick, Carsphairn, i. 144 
Loch-na-folie, Leswalt, i. 140, 234 
Lochnahinnie, Colmonell, i. 137 
Lochnarroch, Minigaff, i. 125, 165 
Lochnatammoch, Penninghame, i. 153 
Lochnaw, i. 180, 185, 193 et seq 

Castle, i. 106, 213-224 ; ii. 96, 204, 

Derivation, i. 12, 215, 248 
Lochnisky, Colmonell, i. 149 
Lochquie, Penninghame, i. 171 
Lochree, Inch, i. 163 
Lochrutton, i. 135, 136, 169 
Loch Eyan, i. 7, 26, 94 et seq 
Lochwhinny, Dairy, i. 136 
Loch Whinzean, Girthon, i. 176 
Lochwood, the, i. 360, 371, 392, 393 
Loddanrae, Old Luce, i. 128 
Loddenlaw, Portpatrick, i. 127 
Lodnagapple, Old Luce, i. 129 
Longford, New Luce, i. 122 
Longthang, Kirkcowan, i. 166 
Lossit, Kirkcolm, i. 130 
Lothian, Marquis of, ii. 332 
Lot's Wife, Colvend, i. 172 
Loudoun, second Earl, ii. 239, 285 

third, ii. 208, 224, 353 

fourth, ii. 258, 332 

fifth, ii. 285 
Lowran, Kells, i. 154 
Lumagarie, Glasserton, i. 128 
Lyndsay, Sir David of the Mount, i. 267, 

313, 318, 343-345 
Lyttleton, Lord, ii. 331 

MACALPINE, Kenneth, i. 27-28 

Macaulay, Lord, ii. 149 

M'Brair, David, of Newark, ii. 85, 86, 

Canon, Glenluce, i. 375-6 

M'Bryde, Finlay, Chaplain, i. 294 ; ii. 

M'Call, Thomas, ii. 241, 256, 266 

M 'Gallic, Major, ii. 54 

M'Camon, William, of Culbrattoun, ii. 
134, 136 

M'Clellan, Patrick, Sheriff of Kirkcud- 
bright, i. 260-263 



M'Clellan, Patrick, of Gelston, i. 331-2 
Sir Thomas, first, of Bomby, i. 

274, 305, 309, 320, 331, 339, 340, 

341 ; ii. 446 
Sir Thomas, second, of Bomby, i. 341, 

352, 353, 371, 373, 386, 419 ; ii. 


Thomas, of Balfern, ii. 357 
William, of Barscob, ii. 21, 96, 99, 

122, 127 
Sir William, of Bomby, i. 331, 333, 

M'Crie, Dr. Thomas, ii. 268, 317, 

Memoirs of Sir Andrew Agnew, ii. 

369, 396, 402 
M'Culloch, Alexander, of Ardwell, ii. 

31, 36, 74, 76, 86, 217, 443 
Alexander, of Killeser, i. 388, 392, 425 
Sir Alexander, of Myrtoun, i. 298, 303, 

304, 307, 335 

Finlay, of Torhouse, i. 272, 282, 367 
George, of Torhouse, i. 339, 340, 367, 

368, 429 

Sir Godfrey, of Myrtoun, it. 125, 130, 

134, 151, 168, 169 

Sir James, of Ardwell, i. 373, 387, 388 
John, of Myrtoun, ii. 31, 67, 75, 86 
John, of Torhouse, i. 424 ; ii. 430 
Sir Patrick, i. 100, 103, 105 
Patrick, of Larg, i. 288, 304 
Eobert, of Drummorell, ii. 31, 76, 90 
Sir Simon, i. 361, 392, 425 
William, of Myrtoun, i. 416 ; 448 
M'Dowall, Alexander, of Logan, i. 461 ; 

ii. 7, 8, 19, 30, 74, 431 
Andrew, of Eldrig, i. 281, 287 
Colonel Andrew, of Logan, ii. 280, 343, 


Fergus, of Borgue, i. 106, 108 
Fergus, of Freuch, i. 339, 351, 364 
Fergus, of Garthland, i. 234, 237-9 
Hugh, of Knockglass, ii. 8, 31, 74, 75, 

Sir James, of Garthland, ii. 20, 21, 

39, 58, 66, 72, 74, 75, 131, 151, 

230, 442, 447-8 
Sir John, of Garthland, i. 364, 367, 

369, 427, 450, 464-5 ; ii. 3, 9 
John, of Logan, ii. 76, 84, 151, 154, 

257, 328. 353, 434 
Patrick, of Freuch, ii. 216, 223, 230, 

328, 353, 375 
Patrick, of Logan, i. 272 ; ii. 85, 86, 

112, 113, 129 

Thomas, of Garthland, i. 272, 281 
Uchtred, of Dalreagle, i. 288, 300; ii. 31 
Uchtred, of Freuch, i. 367, 461 ; ii. 7, 

8, 17, 19, 20, 21, 31, 63, 74, 76, 

85, 86, 90, 120, 122, 126, 151, 

152, 431, 448 
Uchtred, first of Garthland, i. 282, 

287, 369, 372, 392, 399 

M'Dowall, Uchtred, second of Garthland, 
i. 404, 408, 411, 416, 431, 442, 448 
Uchtred, of Mindork, i. 409 
William, of Garthland, ii. 130, 152, 

154, 170, 177, 180 
M'Gill, David, of Cranstoun Riddell, i. 

441 ; 88, 431 
M'Guffoch, Hugh, of Rusco, ii. 153, 177, 

217, 449 

Macherquhat, Colmonell, i. 146 
Mackenzie's History of Gallcnvay, i. 49 n, 

65 n, et seq 
M'Kie, Sir Alexander, of Myrtoun, i. 339, 

389, 390, 393 ; ii. 21, 73, 77 
Alexander, of Larg, i. 404 
Alexander, of Palgown, ii. 211,212, 449 
John, of Myrtoun, i. 288, 333 ; ii. 77 
Patrick, of Auchleand, ii. 138, 151 
Patrick, of Cairn, ii. 7, 31, 74 
Patrick, of Drumbuie, i. 423 
Sir Patrick, first of Larg, i. 372, 391, 

404, 423, 427, 446, 457 ; ii. 431 
Sir Patrick, second of Larg, i. 430, 

ii. 1, 2, 16, 77, 86, 448 
Thomas, of Barrawer, ii. 74, 77, 151 
William, of Maidland, ii. 77, 98, 434 
M'Lauchlan, Dr. Thomas, i. 36 n, 178 ; 

ii. 406 

Macpherson of Cluny, ii. 311 
M'Taggart's Gcdlomdian Encyclopaedia, 

i. 150 n, 151 n, et seq 
Magherawhat, Old Luce, i. 146 
Mahoul, Glasserton, i. 170 
Maiden Pap, Colvend, i. 166 

Pass, ii. 391 

Mailsechnall;(Malachy), i. 36 
Maitland, John, of Balgreggan, ii. 399 
Hon. Patrick, of Balgreggan, ii. 375, 


Maize, the, Leswalt, i. 169, 280, 427 
Malie's Well, Kirkinner, i. 414 
Malzie Well, Crossmichael, i. 176 
Man, Isle of, i. 14, 22 n, et seq 
Mar, tenth Earl of, ii. 234 

eleventh Earl of, ii. 209, 231, 301 
Mark, Inch, i. 430 ; ii. 202 
Markbain, Kirkcowan, i. 129, 162 n 
Markdow, New Luce, i. 129, 162 
Marklach, New Luce, i. 129 
Marlborough, Duke of, ii. 207, 208, 217, 

220, 234. 401, 434 
Manhoul, Parton, i. 134 
Marshall, William, ii. 217-218 
Marslaugh (Marschlach), i. 300, 402, 

423 ; ii. 7, 8, 72 
Masmore, Leswalt, i. 167 
Maurs Cairn, Kirkcowan, i. 179 
Maurs Craig, New Luce, i. 179 
Mawkenhole, Loch Ken, i. 145 
Maxwell, Sir Alexander, of Monreith, 
ii. 222 223, 230, 238, 252, 264, 363 
Edward, of Monreith, i. 284 



Maxwell, George, of Munches, ii. 86, 449 
Colonel Hamilton, ii. 391, 392, 398 
Herbert, first Lord, i. 256, 265, 280, 

284, 335 
Sir Herbert Eustace, i. 145 n, 146 n, 

326 n, 414 n 
John, of Monreith, ii. 67, 68, 90, 100, 

101, 145, 431 

John, of Munches, ii. 252, 271 
Sir Kobert, of Orchardton, ii. 86, 114, 


Kobert, fourth Lord, i. 339, 347, 
348, 351, 352, 353, 354, 357, 359, 
Eobert, fifth Lord, i. 360, 366, 369, 


Master of, i. 380, 388 
Sir William, of Cardoness, ii. 9, 211, 

212, 230, 449 

William, of Monreith, ii. 31, 67, 68, 
73, 76, 90, 96, 99, 100, 103, 113, 

Sir William, of Monreith, first 
Baronet, i. 121 n, 291 ; ii. 67, 103, 
124, 125, 126, 129, 145, 151, 152, 
153, 174, 177, 222 
Sir William, of Monreith, third 
Baronet, ii. 233, 264, 352, 363, 
365, 369, 374, 376 
Sir William, of Monreith, fourth 

Baronet, ii. 398 
Sir William, of Monreith, fifth 

Baronet, ii. 391, 402 
Sir William, sixth Baronet, 180, 389 
Meehools, Old Luce, i. 170 
Menloch, Penninghame, i. 170 
Meowl, i. 170 
Merrick, Minigaff, i. 167 
Middleton, Earl of, ii. 64/65, 94, 95 
Milfore, Minigaff, i. 161 
Milgrane, Penninghame, i. 161 
Millbawn, Portpatrick, i. 126 
Millcroon, Ballantrae, 161 
Milleur, Kirkcolm, etc., i. 163 
Millgrane, Penninghame, i. 168 
Millrow, Kirkoswald, i. 164 
Milltim, New Luce, i. 153 
Millwhirk, Inch, i. 148 
Miltonise, New Luce, i. 172, 222 
Milvaird, Leswalt, i. 137, 217 
Mindork, Kirkcowan, i. 144, 301, 323, 

324, 348, 409 

Minigaff, i. 13 n, 64, 114, 116 et seq 
Minnywick, Minigaff, i. 148 
Mochrum, i. 119, 121, 123 et seq 
Monreith, i. 121, 122, 163 et seq 
Montgomeriston, Ayr, ii. 128 
Montgomery, Lord, i. 260, 280, 284 ; ii. 

Montgomery, Sir Hugh, of Broadstone, 

i. 450 ; ii. 9, 46 
Sir James, ii. 155 

Montrose, Marquis of, ii. 14, 17, 26, 27, 

Moray, Angus, Earl of, i. 47, 48 n 

Archibald Douglas, Earl of, i. 269, ; 270 
Morrach, Whithorn, i. 170 
Morroch, Stoneykirk, i. 170 
Mountsallie, Kirkmaiden, i. 154 
Muirglas, New Luce, i. 163 
Mullachgany, Minigaff, i. 162 
Mulwharker, Minigaff, i. 135 
Muntloch, Kirkmaiden, i. 170, 414 n 
Murdonachie, New Luce, i. 8 n, 12 n, 

Mure, Patrick, of Auchneill, ii. 56, 74, 

77, 110 
Murray, Alexander, of Broughton, ii. 223, 

228 n, 280 
Lord George, ii. 306, 310, 311, 314, 

315, 316, 318, 320 
John, of Broughton, i. 455 ; ii. 20, 31, 

73, 76, 85, 90 

Sir Patrick, of Stranraer, ii. 153 n, 177 
Richard, of Broughton, ii. 86, 120, 
132, 152, 448, 449 

Mustardgarth, i. 36 

Mye, Stoneykirk, i. 169 

Myroch, Kirkmaiden, i. 170 

Myrtoun, i. 22, 123, 238 et seq 

NAPIER, Robert, ii. 291-294, 309 

Sheriff, ii. 141-2 
Neilson, Gilbert, first, of Craigcaffie, ii. 

74, 77, 113 

Gilbert, second of Craigcaffie, ii. 151, 

223, 245, 246 

Uchtred, of Craigcaffie, ii. 7, 31 
Nelson, Lord, ii. 400 
New Abbey, i. 9, 74, 124 et seq 
New Galloway, ii. 2, 14, 172, 177, 210 
New Luce, i. 121, 124, 126 et seq 
Newton Stewart, ii. 202, 284 
Nicolson's Proverbs, i. 141 n, 150 
Niduari Picts, i. 1, 5, 19, 25, 132 ; ii. 


Nith (Nydd), River, i. 1, 3, 5, 24, et seq 
Nithsdale, Lord Robert, ii. 21, 25, 67, 

86, 107, 123 
Lord William, ii. 418 
Norham Castle, i. 51 n, 75 
Novantse, i. 2, 5, 7, 10, 24, 41, 43, 114, 

224 ; ii. 28, 243, 406 

OCHILTREE, Penninghame, i. 7 n, 109 w, 
114, 122, 123 n, 160, 451 ; ii, 329 
Loch, ii. 445 

Lord, i. 375, 435, 443, 448 ; ii. 71 
Ochtralure, Stranraer, i. 124, 411 
Ochtree Cave, i. 218 
Ochtriemakain, i. 413 
Olbrick (Auldbreck), i. 360, 361 ; ii. 
112, 113 



Old Hall, Dunragit, i. 307 
Luce, i. 116, 122, 127 et seq 
Man, Berwick, i. 173 
Statistical Account, i. 14 n, 144 n, 

O'Neill, Shane, i. 276, 277, 382 
Orchard, Dunragit, i. 134, 307 
Orchardton, i. 22, 134, 329, 336, 341, 

353 ; ii. 8 

Ord, Chief Baron, ii. 361 
Ordnance Survey Map, i. 132, 140, 141, 

158, 173, 174, 248 
Orkney, Earl of (Chancellor), i. 258, 

259, 278 

Kobert, Earl of, i. 379 ; ii. 332 
Ormonde, Earl of, i. 257, 269, 270 
Orrery, Charles, fourth Earl, ii. 234 
Otters' Cave, Galdenoch, i. 146 
Oxenford, ii. 229 n 
Ozborne, Alexander, ii. 5, 6 
Ralph, ii. 6 

PALNURE, Kirkmabreck, i. 145 

Park, Old Luce, i. 385, 422, 423, 459 ; 

ii. 328, 383, 445 

Parton, i. 120, 123, 126, 133 et seq 
Pasperrie Hock, Leswalt, i. 173 
Paterson, Bishop John, i. 447 
Peachell, Lieut. -Colonel, ii. 292 
Pembroke, Countess of, i. 83 n 
Penhannat, Barr, i. 124 
Penkiln, Sorbie, i. 143 
Penninghame, i. 23, 114, 119, 122 

et seq 

Pennymuir, Borgue, i. 143 
Penpont, i. 7, 127 
Petillery, Carsphairn, i. 147 
Pharaoh's Throne, Twynham, i. 173 
Philip and Mary Point, Luce Bay, i. 

420 ; ii. 383 
Physgill (Fischegill), i. 37, 350, 426; 

ii. 152, 329, 403 
Castle, ii. 445 
Picts of Galloway, i. 14-16, 19, 35, 81, 

82, 115, 140 ; ii. 244 
of Lothian and Fife, i. 15 
Northern, i. 16, 20 n, 27, 28 
Picts' Knoll (Knockencrunze) i. 17 
Piltanton Burn, i. 15, 137, 151, 234, 


Pinderry, Ballantrae, i. 154 
Pinkey Cleugh, i. 357-368 ; ii. 420 
Pinmiunoch, Portpatrick, i. 136, 143, 

166, 248 ; ii. 9 

Pinwherry, Inch, etc., i. 166 ; ii. 321 n 
Pipe Rolls, i. 201 
Piper's Cove, Colvend, i. 137 

Hill, Inch, i. 137 
Pitcairn's Criminal Trials, i. 304 n, 

305 n, et seq 
History of the Kennedys, i. 227 n, 

238 n, et seq 

Place Names in Galloway, 11-13, 22, 

23, 113-179 

Polcardoch, Ballantrae, i. 139 
Polkemmet, Lord. See Baillie, Sir 

Polmallet, Sorbie, i. 172, 429 ; ii. 68, 

97, 112, 151, 273 

Pont, Timothy, i. 126 n, 143, 152 et seq 
Poolzerroch, Anwoth, i. 164 
Poomaddygarry, Kells, i. 173 
Portacleary, Kirkcolm, i. 138 
Portavaddie, Kirkmaiden, &c., i. 157 
Portbraiar, Whithorn, i. 138 
Portencailzie, Kirkcolm, i. 13, 138 
Portencorkrie, i. 412 n, 430 ; ii. 151 
" Porteous Rolls," i. 292 
Portesspittal, Stoneykirk, i. 124, 224, 

289 ; ii. 152 

Port Gill, Kirkmaiden, i. 162 
Portkale, Portpatrick, i. 160 
Portleen, Kirkcolra, i. 133 
Portlochan, Kirkinner, i. 149 
Port Long, Kirkcolm, i. 156 
Portlung, Inch, i. 156 
Portmark, i. 129, 327 
Portmona, Kirkmaiden, i. 170 
Port-Montgomery, ii. 9, 103, 439, 442, 

445, 446 

Portnessoch, ii. 397, 398, 427 n 
Portobeagle, Colvend, i. 136 
Portpatrick, i. 58 n, 127, 130 et seq 
Portvad, Ballantrae, i. 157 
Portwhapple, Mochrum and Sorbie, i. 


Portwilliam, i. 292, 420 
Poulhabbock, Stoneykirk, i. 147 
Powbrade, Colvend, i. 166 
Powell, Colonel, ii. 293 
Primrose, Lord, ii. 239 
Privy Council Records, i. 365 n, 386 n, 

399 n, et seq 

Puldouran, Glasserton, i. 146 
Pulgap, Minigaff, i. 153 
Pulgawny, Kirkcowan, i. 126 
Pulharrow, Kells, i. 127 
Pulhatchie, New Luce, i. 146 
Pulmaddie Gairy, Kells, i. 145 
Pulnasky, Mochrum, i. 149 
Pulnee, Minigaff, i. 144 
Pulsack, Balmaghie, i. 147 
Pulsow, Carsphairn, i. 156 

QUARRELEND, Carsphairn, i. 140 
Quarrel Knowe, Balmaclellan, i. 140 
Queensberry, William, first Earl, i. 371 ; 

ii. 2, 114 
third Earl and first Duke, ii. 123, 

131, 133, 134, 136 
Quhitehill, i. 174 

RAEBERRT, Kirkcudbright, i. 145 
Castle, i. 222, 261 



Ra'ennest Haugh, Minigaff, i. 148 

Eaeford, Dairy, i. 145 

Rae Hill, Parton, i. 145 

Ragman Roll, i. 89, 90, 107-112, 118, 
201 ; ii. 98, 396 

Rashnoch, Mochrum, i. 153, 161 

Rasnagulloch, Colmonell, i. 148, 153 

Rattra, Borgue, i. 121 

Ravencrags, Kirkpatrick-Durham, i. 148 

Ravenshall, Kirkmabreck, i. 148 

Ravenstone, Glasserton, i. 37, 38, 148, 

458 ; ii. 152 
Castle, ii. 445 

Rephad Inch, i. 169 

Rerigonium, i. 5, 7, 116, 136, 242 ; ii. 

Rerwick, i. 121, 127, 139, et seq 

Riddersknowe, Carsphairn, i. 138 

Ringdoss, Inch, i. 165 

Ringheal, Mochrum, i. 162 

Ringielawn, Mochrum, i. 154 

Ringimow, Kirkmabreck, i. 126 

Ringuinea, Stoneykirk, i. 162 

Ringvinaghan, Stoneykirk, i. 150 

Risk, Minigaff, i. 171 

Rosnat, i. 6, 8, 22, 25, 45, 114, 133, 
157, 160 

Ross, Earl of, i. 82, 97 

Andrew, of Balsarroch, ii. 202, 204 
Bishop Arthur, ii. 447 
Sir Hew Dalrymple, ii. 203 
Admiral, Sir James Clark, ii. 203 
James, of Balneil, ii. 20, 31, 440 
Major John, of Balkail, ii. 203 1 
John, of Cascreugh, i. 18, 19 
Admiral Sir John, ii. 203 

Rouchan, Glasserton, i. 164 

Rowantree Burn, Barr, i. 155 ; ii. 444 

Ruddoch Hill, Leswalt, i. 164 

Rusco, Anwoth, i. 171, 223, 301 n ; ii. 
153, 430 

Rutherford, Lord, ii. 106, 107 

Rev. Samuel, Auwoth, ii. 4, 14, 39 

Rydale, Torqueer, i. 133 

ST. MARY'S Isle, Kirkcudbright, i. 45, 
57, 114 n, 123, 358 ; ii. 385 

St. Ninian, i. 6, 118, 133, 134, 157, 
281, 326, 412, 435 

Salchrie (Salachquharry), Lochryan, i. 
151, 272 ; 7, 72 

Salt Pans Bay, ii. 6 

Sandilands, Captain Andrew, ii. 296 
Hon. Robert, ii. 381 

Sanquhar, i. 5, 7, 126, 128, 156 

Savery, Inch, i, 125, 165 

Saxons, i. 7, 19, 20, 24, 115 

Scaith, Penninghame, i. 155 

Scart Island, Mochrum. i. 149 

Scots Fusiliers (Mar's Greybreeks), ii. 
219, 234, 262, 271, 276, 278, 282, 
284, 300, 303, 325, 342, 362 

Scots Greys, ii. 158, 208, 218, 237 
Scott, Sir Alexander, i. 293 

Rev. James, Tungland, ii. 3 

Michael, of Glenluce, i. 459 

Sir Walter, i. 321 n ; ii. 26, 106, 369 

Sir William, of Harden, ii. 23, 24 
Scrope, Lord, i. 353 
Scutching Stock, Kirkmaiden, i. 173 
Sea King's Camp, Larbrax, 1. 217 ; ii. 


Selkirk, Dunbar, fourth Earl, ii. 218, 
233, 334, 386, 390 

Thomas, fifth Earl, ii. 202, 391. 
Semple, William, Lord, i. 339 
Shalloch o' Minnoch, i. 169 

o' Tig, i. 169 

Shalloch wrack, Ballantrae, i. 169 
Shancastle, Parton, i. 120 
Shanks, Sir William, i. 332 
Shannarie, Urr, i. 125 
Shanvoley, Kirkcowan, i. 126 
Sharpe, Archbishop, ii. 108, 121, 132, 

Shaw, James, of Ballygally, ii. 46, 51, 


Shawn, Stoneykirk, i. 172 
Sheddoch, Whithorn, i. 161 
Sheuchan, i. 122, 301 w, 402, 423 
Sheuchanowre, MinigafF, i. 122 
Shinriggie, Lochryan, i. 141 
Shinvolley, Kirkcowan, i. 118 
Sibbald, Sir Robert, ii. 183, 198 
Sinclair, Sir John, ii. 183 

Master of, ii. 324 

Skene's Celtic Scotland, i. 2, 3, 5 et seq 
Skeock, Kirkpatrick-Durham, i. 155 
Skeog, Whithorn, i. 155 
Slannievannach, Minigaff, i. 150 
Slewcreen, Kirkmaiden, i. 153 
Slewcroan, Leswalt, i. 161 
Slowdown, Leswalt, i. 163 
Slewfad, Leswalt, i. 168 
Slewgulie, Kirkmaiden, i. 166 
Slewintoo, Leswalt, i. 164 
Slewkennan, Kirkcolm, i. 162 
Slewmeg, Kirkmaiden, i. 128 
Slewmuck, Kirkcolm, i. 144 
Slewnain, Leswalt, i. 148 
Slewsack, Kirkcolra, i. 147 
Slewsmirroch, Stoneykirk, i. 150 
Slidderich, Kirkmaiden, i. 141 
Sliddery, Sorbie, i. 141 
Slocamaddy, Kirkcolm, i. 158 
Slocanamar, Kirkmaiden, i. 169 
Slocklaw, Old Luce, i. 127 
Slocklawrie, Kirkmaiden, i. 129 
Sloclomairt, Kirkmaiden, i. 128 
Slocnagarry, Kirkcolm, i. 128 
Smeurach, Ballantrae, i. 156 
Smirle, Glasserton, i. 156 
Smyrton, Ballantrae, i. 156 
Solway, i. 3, 17, 35, 66 et seq. 



Somerville, James, of Drum, tenth 

Lord, ii. 65, 66 

Sorbie, I. 36, 123, 129, 139 et seq. 
Soulis, Lord, i. 91, 97, 98 ; ii. 68 
Soulseat, i. 36, 38, 45, 122 et seq. 
Southesk, fifth Earl, ii. 233 
Sowiehill, Minigaff, i. 156 
Spence, Bishop, i. 267, 282 ; ii. 437, 447 
Spot, Bishop, i. 282-283 ; ii. 447 
Stair, James, Viscount, ii. 202. See also 


James, third Earl, ii. 326-328, 373 
John, first Earl, ii. 172, 177, 202. 

See also Dalrymple 

John, second Earl, (Marshal,) ii. 117, 
124, 284, 209, 210, 211, 216, 218 
et seq 

fourth Earl, ii. 353, 373 
fifth Earl, ii. 373, 374 
John, sixth Earl, ii. 374, 386, 390, 397 
Stanhope, Earl of, ii. 240 
Stenoch, Whithorn, i. 161 
Stewart, Alan, of Crossraguel, i. 91 n, 

395, 398 

Alexander, of Clary, i. 442 
Sir Alexander, first of Garlies, i. 335, 

337 ; ii. 430 
Sir Alexander, second of Garlies, i. 

337, 350, 395, 408 ; ii. 431 
Sir Alexander, third of Garlies, i. 
350, 355, 357, 364, 372, 374, 380, 
385, 405 ; ii. 70 
Dr. Archibald, i. 9 ; ii. 141 
Archibald, of Baldoon, i. 308 
Archibald, of Tyntalloch, ii. 97 
Charles, of Tonderghie, ii. 273 
George, of Tonderghie, ii. 31, 76, 86, 

90, 103, 130 
Hawthorne, of Physgill, ii. 266, 387, 

388, 403 n 
Colonel James, of the Guards, ii. 268, 

276, 280, 382, 287 
Sir James, of Stewartfield, ii. 124 
Sir John, of Cally, i. 238 
Sir John, of Dalswinton, i. 223 
Captain John, of Physgill, ii. 90, 152, 

154, 223, 302 

John, of Sorbie, ii. 211, 223, 448 
John, M.P. for Wigtown, ii. 328 
Sir Michael Shaw, ii. 46, 180 n 
Kobert, of Durisdeer, i. 237 
Colonel William, of Castle Stewart, 
ii. 33, 73, 77, 86, 113, 120, 122, 
126, 440, 151, 152, 153, 159, 211, 
221, 223, 230, 284, 448 
Sir William, of Garlies, i. 257, 274, 

285; ii. 430 

William, of Eggerness, ii. 86, 98, 103 
Lieutenant William (Rose's Dragoons), 

ii. 157, 276 

Stoneykirk, i. 119, 120, 122 et seq 
Stranraer, i. 97, 117, 224 et seq 

Strathmaddie, Minigaff, i. 145 
Strone, Kirkmaiden, i. 166 
Stronfreggan, Dairy i. 156, 166 
Sweetheart Abbey, i. 86, 87, 93 ; ii. 

413, 415 

Sydserf, Bishop, ii. 447 
Sykes, Sir Mark, i. 463 
Symson, Eev. Andrew, Kirkinner, i. 

121 n, 176, 291 n, et seq 
Synniness, Old Luce, i. 33 n, 36, 37 

TACHEB BURN, Berwick, i. 140 

Hill, Sorbie, i. 140 
Tallowhorn, Kirkbean, i. 133 
Tandoo, Portpatrick, i. 167 
Tandragee, Stoneykirk, i. 165 
Tannul Pen, New Abbey, i. 135 
Tannymaws, Borgue, i. 134 
Taphmalloch, Leswalt, i. 167, 178, 218, 


Terregles, i. 123, 145 et seq 
Threave, i. 114, 122, 214, 228, 234 

et seq 

Tintoch, Kirkinner, i, 137 
Tonderghie, Whithorn, i. 165, 167 
Tonerahie, Minigaff, i. 165 
Tongue (Tung), i. 166, 241, 288 ; ii. 17 
Tongueland, i. 45, 156, 454 ; ii. 3 
Torbain, Parton and Minigaff, i. 162 
Torindoos, Leswalt, i. 165 
Torrington, Viscount, ii. 325 
Toskerton, Stoneykirk, i. 118, 165, 295,