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Ullip i. H. Bill iCtltrara 

5?artt| (Taroliua i^tate MiuuprBity 


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MAY 1 3 1987 

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-i. Pigment of Chc 
RoiD Coat and Pigmen 
OF Iris Absent. 1. Tlj 
A^LBixo eye. Red fror 
unobscured blood vessels 

B. Pigment of Chqi 
ROID Present. i 

a. Iris without Truj 
Pigment. 2. Blue. Dul 
to a purple layer on baclj 
af eve. 

p. iHI.-i ^\1TH TlU'Jj 


Lipochrome or yello; 
i"-yiiierd. 3. Green or c 
eye. Yellow pigment 
blue background. 

'' Mtianic or black pii 
" ' 4. Hazel or gnil 
?ye- Dilute brown pit 
inont around pupil only!] 

5. Brown eye. MelaniJ 
pigment; various shadel 
from varioiLs dilutions. 

6. Black eye. An 
abundance of melanic pig- 






fc i . « ■« • -^ 









Printed September, 1923 


' k)^ et n ■»•■' Hr 








Recent great advances in our knowledge of heredity 
lave revolutionized the methods of agriculturalists in im- 
)roving domesticated plants and animals. V^It was early 
■ecognized that this new knowledge would have a far- 
•eaching influence upon certain problems of human society 
—the problems of the unsocial classes, of immigration, of 
)opulation, of effectiveness, of health and vigorJ Now, 
;reat as are the potentialities of the new science of heredity 
n its application to man it must be confessed that they are 
lot yet realized. A vast amount of investigation into the 
aws of the inheritance of human traits will be required 
)efore it will be possible to give definite instruction as to fit 
narriage matings. Our social problems still remain prob- 
ems. For a long time yet our watchword must be investi- 
gation. The advance that has been made so far is chiefly 
n getting a better method of study. 

In this book I have sought to explain this new method. 
in application of this method to some specific problems, 
ispecially to the transmission of various human traits and 
usceptibilities to disease, has been attempted. The sug- 
;estions made are by no means final but are made to illus- 
rate the general method and give the most probable con- 
tusions. Only with much more accurate data can the 
aws of inheritance of family peculiarities be definitely de- 
er mined. 

Some general consequences of the new point of view for 
he American population have been set forth in Chap- 
ers IV to VI. Their essential truth will, I trust, be generally 

• • • 



recognized. In any case it will not be amiss to point out the 
fundamental difference between the modern eugenical and 
the contrasted or ''euthenical" standpoints. As a matter 
of fact the eugenic teachings that we think of as new are 
very old. Modern medicine is responsible for the loss of 
appreciation of the power of heredity. It has had its atten- 
tion too exclusively focussed on germs and conditions of 
life. It has neglected the personal element that helps 
determine the course of every disease. It has begotten a 
wholly impersonal hygiene whose teachings are false in so 
far as they are laid down as universally applicable, fit has 
forgotten the fundamental fact that all men are created 
hound by their protoplasmic makeup and unequal in their 
powers and responsibilities, j 

As indicated, it is the aim of this book to incite to further 
investigation. Some space is devoted to the eugenics move- 
ment — a movement which it is hoped will, in this country, 
for the present, take mainly the form of investigation. To 
this movement the Eugenics Record Office (a branch of the 
work of the American Breeders' Association) is dedicated. 
The Eugenics Record Office wishes to get in touch with all 
persons interested in the eugenics movement. It invites 
every person who is willing to do so to record his heritage 
and place the record on file at the Record Office. "Drop a 
postal card" at once to the Eugenics Record Office, Cold 
Spring Harbor, New York, and ask for the blank schedule 
they furnish. It is understood that all data deposited in 
this way will be held as confidential and be used only for 
scientific purposes. The data received are carefully pre- 
served in a fireproof vault and indexed so as to be avail- 
able to the student. Specifically, the Record Office seeks 
pedigrees of families in which one or more of the following 
traits appear: — short stature, tallness, corpulency, special 
talents in music, art, literature, mechanics, invention and 


mathematics, rheumatism, multiple sclerosis, hereditary- 
ataxy, M^ni^re's disease, chorea of all forms, eye defects 
of all forms, otosclerosis, peculiarities of hair, skin and nails 
(especially red hair), albinism, harelip and cleft palate, 
pecuharities of the teeth, cancer, Thomsen's disease, hemo- 
philia, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, alkaptonuria, gout, 
peculiarities of the hands and feet and of other parts of the 
skeleton. We do not appeal primarily to physicians for this 
information but to the thousands of intelligent Americans 
who love the truth and want to see its interests advanced. 
At the same time, physicians can aid in the work by in- 
ducing persons with bodily or mental peculiarities that run 
through their families to send to the Record Office for 
blank schedules on which to record the method of inherit- 
ance of the trait in question. Thus every one can share in 
the eugenics movement. 

The Eugenics Record Office will be glad to assist in the 
establishment of local eugenics societies which shall become 
centers for the study of local blood-lines and for local in- 
struction. The Office seeks to assist state officials in the 
study of the classes which are supported and protected by 
the State, and to assist the States to locate the centers in 
which their defectives and delinquents are being bred. It 
is believed that a Httle money spent in studying the sources 
of reproduction of persons who are destined to become state 
wards will prove a highly profitable investment, since it 
may lead to steps that will diminish such reproduction. 

In the preparation of the present volume the author has 
been aided by many hands. Professor James A. Field, of 
the University of Chicago, has kindly read the proof and 
made valuable suggestions. The bibliography and the pedi- 
gree charts were largely prepared by Miss Amey B. Eaton, 
of the Eugenics Record Office. Professor E. B. Wilson has 
generously granted me the use of Figures 1 to 6 from his 


invaluable book, "The Cell in Development and Inherit- 
ance." Hundreds of persons have voluntarily contributed 
the data upon which the conclusions that have been drawn i 
are based. My friend and colleague, Mr. H. H. Laughlin, 1 
Superintendent of the Eugenics Record Office, has assisted ' 
in many points and has contributed the frontispiece. My 
wife has, as usual, revised the manuscript and prepared it 
for the printer. The Trustees of the Carnegie Institution 
have granted me exceptional opportunities for the prosecu- 
tion of the work. Last, but by no means least, this work 
and the collection of data out of which it has grown have 
been made possible by the financial assistance and by the 
personal stimulus and advice given by the lady to whom, 
in insufficient recognition, this book is, with her permis- 
sion, dedicated. To all those who have so kindly assisted 
me I return thanks. I trust the book will be useful to hu- 
manity, so as to justify them for the pains they have taken 
to bring it to pass. 

C. B. D. 

Carnegie Institution of Washington 
Station for Experimental Evolution 
Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y. 




1. What Eugenics is 1 

2. The Need op Eugenics 2 

3. The General Procedure in Applied Eugenics 4 


1. Unit Characters and Their Combinations 6 

2. The Mechanism of the Inheritance of Characteristics . . 10 

3. The Laws of Heredity 16 

4. Inheritance of Multiple Characters 20 

5. Heredity op Sex and op "Sex-limited" Characters .... 21 

6. The Application op the Laws op Heredity to Eugenics . . 23 


1. Eye Color 27 

2. Hair Color 32 

3. Hair Form 34 

4. Skin Color 36 

5. Stature 38 

6. Total Body Weight 43 

7. Musical Ability 48 

8. Ability in Artistic Composition 51 

9. Ability in Literary Composition 54 

10. Mechanical Skill 55 

11. Calculating Ability 59 

12. Memory 59 

13. Combined Talents and Summary op Special Abilities ... 60 

14. Temperament 61 

15. Handwriting 63 





16. General Bodily Energy 63 

17. General Bodily Strength 65 

18. General Mental Ability 65 

19. Epilepsy 72 

20. Insanity 77 

21. Pauperism 80 

22. Narcotism 82 

23. Criminality 83 

24. Other Nervous Diseases 92 

a. The General Problem 92 

b. The Neuropathic Makeup 93 

c. Cerebral Hemorrhage 97 

d. Cerebral Palsy of Infancy 97 ^ 

e. Multiple or Disseminated Sclerosis 99 ( 

/. Hereditary Ataxy 99 

g. Meniere's Disease 101 

h. Chorea 101 

i. Huntington's Chorea 102 \ 

j. Hysteria 103 

25. Rheumatism 104 

26. Speech-Defects 105 

27. Defects of the Eye 107 

a. Anomalies of Iris 108 

h. Reduction in Size of the Eyeball 109 

c. Atrophy of the Optic Nerve 110 

d. Cataract HI 

e. Displaced Lens 112 

/. Degeneracy of the Cornea 112 

g. Glaucoma 113 

h. Megalophthalmus 115 

i. Nystagmus 115 

k. Paralysis or Imperfect Development of the Muscles of Eye 

and Lids 115 

I. Pigmentary Degeneration of the Retina 116 

m. Night blindness 118 

n. Color blindness 120 

0. Myopia 121 

p. Astigmatism 123 

28. Ear Defects 123 

a. Deaf Mutism 124 

h. Otosclerosis 129 

c. Catarrhal Affectionss 130 

29. Skin Diseases 131 

a. Congenital Traumatic Pemphigus 132 

b. Psoriasis 133 

c. Ichthyosis 134 



d. Thickening of the Outer Layer of the Skin 135 

Epidermal Organs 136 

a. The Skin Glands 136 

h. Hair 138 

c. Nails 139 

d. Teeth 139 

e. Harehp and Cleft Palate 144 

Cancer and Tumors 146 

Diseases of the Muscular System 149 

a. Thomsen's Disease 149 

b. Certain Muscular Atrophies 149 

c. Trembling 151 

d. Hernia 151 

Diseases of the Blood 152 

a. Chlorosis 152 

b. Progressive Pernicious Anemia 153 

c. Nosebleed 153 

d. Telangiectasis 153 

e. Hemophiha 153 

/. Splenic Anemia with Enlargement of the Spleen 157 

Diseases of the Thyroid Gland 158 

o. Cretinism * 158 

b. Goitre 158 

c. Exophthalmic Goitre 159 

Diseases of the Vascular System 159 

a. Heart 160 

b. Arteriosclerosis 162 

Diseases of the Respiratory System 163 

Diseases of the Alimentary System 166 

a. Diabetes Insipidis 167 

Diseases of Excretion 168 

a. Alkaptonuria 168 

b. Cystinuria and Cystin Infiltration 169 

e. Hematuria 169 

d. Urinary Calculi 169 

e. Gout 169 

Reproductive Organs 170 

a. Cryptorchism 170 

b. Hypospadias 170 

c. Prolapsus of the Uterus and Sterility 171 

Skeleton and Appendages 171 

a. Achondroplasy 172 

b. ScoUosis 172 

c. Exostoses 1"3 

d. Absence of clavicles 1 "<^ 

e. Congenital Dislocation of the Thigh Bone — Pelvis Joint . . 174 



/. Polydactylism 175 

g. Syndactylism 176 

h. Brachydactylism 177 

i. Other Deformities of the Hands 177 

41. Twins 180 


1. The Dispersion of Traits 181 

2. Consanguinity in Marriage 184 

3. Barriers to Marriage Selection 189 

A. physiographic barriers 189 

a. Barrier of Water 190 

b. Barrier of Topography 196 

B. social barriers 198 

c. The Barrier of the Social Status 199 

d. The Barrier of Language 200 

e. The Barrier of Race 202 

/. The Barrier of Religious Sect 202 


1. Primitive Migrations 204 

2. Early Immigration to America 205 

.3. Recent Immigration to America 212 

a. Irish 213 

b. Germans 214 

c. Scandinavians 214 

d. Austro-Hungarians 215 

e. Hebrews 215 

/. ItaUans 216 

g. Poles 218 

h. Portuguese 218 

4. Control of Immigration 220 


1. Elizabeth Tuttle 225 

2. The First Families of Virginia 228 



3. The Kentucky Aristocracy 230 

4. The Jukes 233 

5. The Ishmaelites 234 

6. The Banker Family 237 


1. The Study of Genealogy 239 

2. Family Traits 241 

3. The Integrity op Family Traits 249 


1. Heredity and Environment 252 

2. Eugenics and Uplift 254 

3. The Elimination of Undesirable Traits 255 

4. The Salvation op the Race Through Heredity 260 

5. The Sociological Aspect of Eugenics 261 

6. Freedom op the Will and Responsibility 264 


1. State Eugenic Surveys 267 

2. A Clearing House for Heredity Data 269 

Bibliography 273 

Append Lx: List of Places Referred to, Geographically Arranged 289 

Index 291 


I. Eye Colors in Man Fronlispiece 

II. Wave op Immigration into the United States, prom all 

Countries, 1820-1910 218 





1. What Eugenics Is 

Eugenics is the science of the improvement of the human 
race by better breeding or, as the late Sir Francis Galton 
expressed it: — ''The science which deals with all influences 
that improve the inborn qualities of a race." The eugenical 
standpoint is that of the agriculturalist who, while recog- 
nizing the value of culture, believes that permanent advance 
is to be made only by securing the best ''blood." ( Man is 
an organism — an animal; and the laws of improvement 
of corn and of race horses hold true for him also. Unless 
people accept this simple truth and let it influence marriage 
selection human progress will cease. \ 

Eugenics has reference to offspring. The success of a 
marriage from the standpoint of eugenics is measured by 
the number of disease-resistant, cultivable offspring that 
come from it. Happiness or unhappiness of the parents, 
the principal theme of many novels and the proceedings of 
divorce courts, has httle eugenic significance; for eugenics 
has to do with traits that are in the blood, the protoplasm. 
The superstition of prenatal influence and the real effects 



of venereal disease, dire as they are, lie outside the pale of 
eugenics in its strictest sense. But no lover of his race 
can view with complaisance the ravages of these diseases 
nor fail to raise his voice in warning against them. The 
parasite that induces syphilis is not only hard to kill but 
it frequently works extensive damage to heart, arteries and 
brain, and may be conveyed from the infected parent to 
the unborn child. Gonorrhea, like syphilis, is a parasitic 
disease that is commonly contracted during illicit sexual 
intercourse. Conveyed by an infected man to his wife it 
frequently causes her to become sterile. Venereal diseases 
are disgenic agents of the first magnitude and of growing 
importance. The danger of acquiring them should be known 
to all young men. Society might well demand that before 
a marriage license is issued the man should present a certi- 
ficate, from a reputable physician, of freedom from them. 
Fortunately, nature protects most of her best blood from 
these diseases; for the acts that lead to them are repugnant 
to strictly normal persons; and the sober-minded young 
women who have had a fair opportunity to make a selec- 
tion of a consort are not attracted by the kind of men who 
are most prone to sex-inmioraUty. 

2. The Need of Eugenics 

The human babies born each year constitute the world's 
most valuable crop. Taking the population of the globe 
to be one and one-half billion, probably about 50 milHon 
children are born each year. In the continental United 
States with over 90 million souls probably 23/^ milhon 
children are annually born. When we think of the influence 
of a single man in this country, of a Harriman, of an Edison, 
of a WilUam James, the potentiality of these 2}/^ milhon 
annually can be dimly conceived as beyond computation. 
But for better or worse this potentiaUty is far from being 


realized. Nearly half a million of these infants die before 
they attain the age of one year, and one-third of all are dead 
before they reach their 20th year — before they have had 
much chance to affect the world one way or another. How- 
ever, were only one and a quarter million of the children 
bom each year in the United States destined to play an 
important part for the nation and humanity we could look 
with equanimity on the result. But alas! only a small part 
of this army will be fully effective in rendering productive 
our three million square miles of territory, in otherwise 
utilizing the unparalleled natural resources of the country, 
and in forming a united, altruistic, God-serving, law-abiding, 
effective and productive nation, leading the remaining 93 
per cent of the globe's population to higher ideals. On 
the contrary, of the 1200 thousand who reach full maturity 
each year 40 thousand will be ineffective through temporary 
sickness, 4 to 5 thousand will be segregated in the care of 
institutions, unknown thousands will be kept in poverty 
through mental deficiency, other thousands will be the 
cause of social disorder and still other thousands will be 
required to tend and control the weak and unruly. We 
may estimate at not far from 100 thousand, or 8 per cent, 
the number of the non-productive or only slightly produc- 
tive, and probably this proportion would hold for the GOO 
thousand males considered by themselves. The great 
mass of the yearly increment, say 550 thousand males, 
constitute a body of solid, intelligent workers of one sort 
and another, engaged in occupations that require, in the 
different cases, various degrees of intelligence but are none 
the less valuable in the progress of humanity, Of course, 
in these gainful occupations the men are assisted by a large 
number of their sisters, but four-fifths of the women are 
still engaged in the no less useful work of home-making. 
The ineffectiveness of 6 to 8 per cent of the males and the 


probable slow tendency of this proportion to increase is 

^serving of serious attention. 

It is a reproach to our inteUigence that we as a people, 
proud in other respects of our control of nature, should 
have to support about half a million insane, feeble-minded, 
epileptic, bhnd and deaf, 80,000 prisoners and 100,000 
paupers at a cost of over 100 milHon dollars per year. A 
new plague that rendered four per cent of our population, 
chiefly at the most productive age, not merely incompetent 
but a burden costing 100 milHon dollars y^arjy to support, 
would instantly attract universal attention) f But we have 
become so used to crime, disease and degeneracy that we 
take them as necessary evils. That they were so in the 
world's ignorance is granted; that they must remain so is 
denied. \ 

,3. The General Procedure in Applied Eugenics 

\The general program of the eugenist is clear — it is to 
improve the race by inducing young people to make a more 
reasonable selection of marriage mates; to fall in love in- 
telligently. It also includes the control by the state of the 
propagation of the mentally incompetent. It does not 
imply destruction of the unfit either before or after birth.) 
It certainly has only disgust for the free love propaganda 
that some ill-balanced persons have sought to attach to 
the name. Rather it trusts to that good sense with which 
the majority of people are possessed and believes that in 
the life of such there comes a time when they realize that 
they are drifting toward marriage and stop to consider if 
the contemplated union will result in healthful, mentally 
well-endowed offspring. At present there are few facts so 
generally known that they will help such persons in their 
inquiry. It is the province of the new science of eugenics 
to study the laws of inheritance of human traits and, as 


these laws are ascertained, to make them known. There is 
no doubt that when such laws are clearly formulated many 
certainly unfit matings will be avoided and other fit matings 
that have been shunned through false scruples will be 
happily contracted. 



1. Unit Characters and their Combination 

When we look among our acquaintances we are struck by 
their diversity in physical, mental, and moral traits. Some 
of them have black hair, others brown, yellow, flaxen, or 
red. The eyes may be either blue, green, or brown; the 
hair straight or curly; noses long, short, narrow, broad, 
straight, aquiUne, or pug. They may be hable to colds or 
resistant; with weak digestion or strong. The hearing may 
be quick or dull, sight keen or poor, mathematical ability 
great or small. The disposition may be cheerful or mel- 
anchoHc; they may be selfish or altruistic, conscientious or 
liable to shirk. It is just the fact of diversity of character- 
istics of people that gives the basis for the belief in the 
practicabihty of improving the qualities of the "human 
harvest." For these characteristics are inheritable, they 
are independent of each other, and they may be combined 
in any desirable mosaic. 

The method of inheritance of these characteristics is 
not always so simple as might be anticipated. Extensive 
studies of heredity have, of late years, led to a more precise 
knowledge of the facts. The element of inheritance is not 
the individual as a whole nor even, in many cases, the 
traits as they are commonly recognized but, on the con- 
trary, certain unit characters. What are, indeed, units in 
inheritance and what are complexes it is not always easy 



to determine and it can be determined only by the results 
of breeding. To get at the facts it is necessary to study 
the progeny of human marriages. Now marriage can be 
and is looked at from many points of view. In novels, as 
the climax of human courtship; in law, largely as a union 
of two lines of property-descent; in society, as fixing a 
certain status ; but in eugenics, which considers its biological 
aspect, marriage is an experiment in breeding; and the 
children, in their varied combinations of characters, give 
the result of the experiment. ( That marriage should still 
be only an experiment in breeaing, while the breeding of 
many animals and plants has been reduced to a science, 
is ground for reproach. \ Surely the human product is su- 
perior to that of poultry; and as we may now predict with 
precision the characters of the offspring of a particular 
pair of pedigreed poultry so may it sometime be with man. 
As we now know how to make almost any desired combina- 
tion of the characters of guinea-pigs, chickens, wheats, and 
cottons so may we hope to do with man. 

At present, matings, even among cultured people, seem 
to be made at haphazard. Nevertheless there is some evi- 
dence of a crude selection in peoples of all stations. Even 
savages have a strong sense of personal beauty and a selec- 
tion of marriage mates is influenced by this fact, as Darwin 
has shown. It is, indeed, for the purpose of adding to their 
personal attractiveness that savage women or men tattoo 
the skin, bind up various parts of the body including the 
feet, and insert ornaments into lips, nose and ears. Among 
civiUzed peoples personal beauty still plays a part in selec- 
tive mating. If, as is sometimes alleged, large hips in the 
female are an attraction, then such a preference has the 
eugenic result that it tends to make easy the birth of large, 
well-developed babies, since there is probably a correlation 
between the spread of the iliac bones of the pelvis and the 


size of the space betw^n the pelvic bones through which 
the child must pass. (^Even a selection on the ground of 
social position and wealth has a rough eugenic value since 
success means the presence of certain effective traits in the 
stock. The general idea of marrving health, wealth, and 
wisdom is a rough eugenic ideal.) A curious antipathy is 
that of red haired persons of opposite sex for each other. 
Among thousands of matings that I have considered I have 
found only two cases where both husband and wife are 
red headed, and I am assured by red haired persons that 
the antipathy exists. If, as is sometimes alleged, red hair 
is frequently associated with a condition of nervous irri- 
tability this is an eugenic antipathy. 

In so far as young men and women are left free to select 
their own marriage mates the widest possible acquaintance 
with different sorts of people, to increase the amplitude of 
selection, is evidently desirable. This is the great argument 
for coeducation of the sexes both at school and college, 
that they may increase the range of their experience with 
people and gain more discrimination in selection. The 
custom that prevails in America and England of free selec- 
tion of mates makes the more necessary the proper in- 
struction of young people in the principles of eugenical 

The theory of independent unit characters has an im- 
portant bearing upon our classifications of human beings 
and shows how essentially vague and even false in con- 
ception these classifications are. A large part of the time 
and expense of maintaining the courts is due to this anti- 
quated classification with its tacit assumption that each 
class stands as a type of men. Note the extended discus- 
sions in courts as to whether A belongs to the white race 
or to the black race, or whether B is feeble-minded or not. 
Usually they avoid, as if by intention, the fundamental 


question of definition, and if experts be called in to give a 
definition the situation is rendered only worse. Thus one 
expert will define a feeble-minded person as one incapable 
of protecting his life against the ordinary hazards of civili- 
zation, but this is very vague and the test is constantly 
changing. For a person may be quick-witted enough to 
avoid being run over by a horse and carriage but not quick 
enough to escape an automobile. A second expert will 
define a feeble-minded person as one who cannot meet all 
(save two) of the Binet test for three years below his own; 
if he fail in one only he is no longer feeble-minded. But 
this definition seems to me socially insufiicient just because 
there are moral imbeciles who can answer all but the moral 
question for their proper age. Every attempt to classify 
persons into a limited number of mental categories ends 

The facts seem to be rather that no person possesses all 
of the thousands of unit traits that are possible and that 
are known in the species. Some of these traits we are better 
off without but the lack of others is a serious handicap. If 
we place in the feeble-minded class every person who lacks 
any known mental trait we extend it to include practically 
all persons. If we place there only those who lack some 
trait desirable in social life, again our class is too inclusive. 
Perhaps the best definition would be: "deficient in some 
socially important trait" and then the class would include 
(as perhaps it should) also the sexually immoral, the crim- 
inaUstic, those who cannot control their use of narcotics, 
those who habitually tell Ues by preference, and those who 
run away from school or home. If from the term ''feeble- 
minded" we exclude the sexually immoral, the criminal- 
istic, and the narcotics such a restriction carried out into 
practice would greatly reduce the population of institutions 
for that class. Thus one sees that a full and free recogni- 


tion of the theory of unit characters in its application to 
man opens up large social, legal and administrative ques- 
tions and leads us in the interests of truth, to avoid classify- 
ing persons and to consider rather their traits. 

2. The Mechanism of the Inheritance of 

That traits are inherited has been known since man be- 
came a sentient being. That children are dissimilar com- 
binations of characteristics has long been recognized. That 
characteristics have a development in the child is equally 
obvious; but the mechanism by which they are transmitted 
in the germ plasm has become known only in recent years. 

We know that the development of the child is started by 
the union of two small portions of the germ plasm — the egg 
from the mother's side of the house and the sperm from the 
father's. We know that the fertiUzed egg does not contain 
the organs of the adult and yet it is definitely destined to 
produce them as though they were there in miniature. The 
different unit characters, though absent, must be represented 
in some way; not necessarily each organ by a particle but, 
in general, the resulting characteristics are determined by 
chemical substances in the fertilized egg. It is because of 
certain chemical and physical differences in two fertilized 
eggs that one develops into an ox and the other into a man. 
The differences may be called determiners. 

Determiners are located, then, in the germ cells, and 
recent studies indicate a considerable probability that 
they are to be more precisely located in the nucleus and 
even in the chromatic material of the nucleus. To make 
this clear a series of diagrams will be necessary. 

Figure 1 is a diagram of a cell showing the central nucleus 
in which runs a deeply staining network — the chromatin. 
In the division of a cell into two similar daughter cells the 




most striking fact is the exact division of the chromatin 
(Fig. 2). We know enough to sa}^ that the nucleus is the 
center of the cell's activity and for reasons that we shall 
see immediately it is probable that the chromatin is the 
most active portion of the nucleus. 

Attraction-sphere enclosing 
two ct-ntrosomea 




some or 
true nucle- 
Chro matin- 
Linin-net- ■ 

net-knot, or' 






Plaatids lying in 
the cytoplasm 





^>-W'-V/>-V^ ; >• N-/ y ;- ; i^-ii ,'._/---;/ •.-'Ji' 

— Vacuole 

Passive bodies 
(metaplasm or 
paraplasm) sus- 
pended in the 

Fig. 1. — Diagram of a cell. Its basis consists of a meshwork containing 
numerous minute granules (microsomes) and traversing a transparent ground 
substance. From E. B. Wilson: "The Cell in Development and Inheritance." 

The fertilization of the egg (Fig. 3) brings together de- 
terminers from two germ plasms and we know that, on the 
whole, the two germ cells play an equal role in carrying 
determiners. Now the germ cells are of very different 
size in the female (egg) and the male (sperm). Even the 
nuclei are different; but the amount of chromatic substance 
is the same. Hence it seems probable that the chromatic 
substance is the carrier of the equal determiners. 

But if determiners from the male are added to those 
from the female in fertilization it would seem necessary 


Fig. 2. — Diagrams showing a series of stages in the process of division of 
the chromosomes during cell division. A. Resting cell in which the chromatic 
material lies (apparently) scattered through the nucleus: at c is a pair of 
recently divided central bodies (centrosomes) which come to be the centers of the 
forces that separate the chromosomes. B. The chromatin has fallen into the 
form of a thick ribbon or sausage-hke body, outside of which hes a dark body 
which is called the "nucleolus." The centrosomes are moving apart. C. The 
centrosomes now lie far apart and the thin membrane around the nucleus is 
beginning to disappear — a process completed in D, where a "spindle" is seen 
lying between the two centrosomes. The chromosomes are beginning to move 
under the influence of the new forces centered at the centrosomes. E. A later 
phase in which changes of two sorts are taking place in the chromosomes; 
first, they are moving to an equatorial position between the two poles, and, 
Secondly, they show their double nature by virtue of which the subsequent 


that the number of these determiners should double in 
every succeeding generation. There must be some special 
mechanism to prevent this result. An appropriate mechan- 
ism is, indeed, ready and had been seen and studied long 
before its significance was understood; this is the elimina- 

FiG. 3. — Three stages in the fertilization of the egg of a marine ringed 
worm (Tfialassema). As seen in thin dyed sections. A. At the top of the egg 
there is occurring a division of the chromosomes that constitutes the ripening 
or "maturation'' of the egg, illustrated in greater detail in Fig. 4. At the bot- 
tom a sperm cell (c^) has entered the egg and is penetrating through it toward 
its center. B. The nucleus of the egg is now returning toward the center to 
meet that of the sperm. C. The egg and sperm nuclei are now in contact; 
henceforth they work in unison; fertilization is completed. After Griffin 
from E. B. Wilson: "The Cell in Development and Inheritance." 

tion from both the immature egg and the immature sperm 
of half of the chromatic material (Fig. 4). Thus if the im- 
mature sex-cell contains four chromatic bodies (chrom- 
osomes) each mature sex-cell will contain only two chromo- 
somes. Moreover, each of the chromosomes in the im- 
mature sex-cell is double; one half having originated long 
before in its maternal germ plasm and the other half in its 
paternal germ plasm. The mechanism for maturation is 

process of splitting takes place. F. The processes just preceding chromosome 
division are now completed; the activity of the centers is at its height; the 
chromosomes now constitute an "equatorial plate," e. p. G. The chromosomes 
at the equatorial plate are now beginning to move apart. H. The separation 
of the chromosomes is continuing and in / is completed; meanwhile the ac- 
tivity at the centers has declined and division of the body of the cell is begin- 
ning. J. Division of the cell completed; the nuclei and centrosomes at the 
condition with which we started at A. From E. B. Wilson: "The Cell in 
Development and Inheritance." 



Fig. 4. — Diagrams illustrating the process of reduction of the chromosomes 
by which half of the chromatic material is eliminated from the sex-cell. A. The 
germ cell is beginning its penultimate division — there are four chromosomes 
but each of them has already begun to divide to go to their respective poles, 
as seen at B. C. The last division is taking place, but the four chromosomes 
do not he side by side in the equatorial plate as in A, but they unite in two 
pairs and, in the division, the elements of these pairs are sundered again. Thus 
out of the original cell four ripe sperm-cells (D) each with only two chromo- 
somes arise. From E. B. Wilson : "The Cell in Development and Inheritance." 

such that either the paternal or maternal component of 
any chromosome is eliminated in the process, but not 
both. (Fig. 5). Beyond the condition that one half of 
each kind of chromosome must go to each daughter cell it 
seems to be a matter of chance whether the portion that 
goes to a particular cell be of paternal or of maternal origin. 
It is even conceivable that one germ cell should have all 
of its chromosomes of maternal origin while the other cell 
has all of a paternal origin. 

The important point is that the number of chromosomes 
in the ripe germ cell has become reduced to half and so it is 


ready to receive an equal half number from the germ cell 
with which it unites in fertilization. 






Fig. 5. — Diagram illustrating the mechanism in the chromatic bodies 
that secures the segregation of determiners. The determiners are assumed to 
be packed away in the chromosomes. There are equivalent chromosomes 
(a' and a", h' and h", etc.) in the nuclei of the male (cf ) and female (9) germ 
cells that unite in the fertiUzed egg (Fig. 3) and these two sets of chromosomes 
pass into all the embryonic cells — whether of the soma or germ gland — that 
develop in the young individual. In the division of ordinary body-cells, as 
illustrated in Fig. 2, each rod a', a", h', h", etc., splits lengthwise and half 
of each goes to each daughter cell. But in a division just before the germ cells 
become ripe, as in Fig. 4C, the like chromosomes unite in pairs as at B. 
Thus a' unites with a" to form a; h' unites with h" to form b; etc. Conse- 
quently, the number of chromosomes is reduced to half the tyjiical number. 
When cell-division thereupon occurs (C) and the chromosomes si)lit, either the 
chromosomal element that was derived from the father (black) or that de- 
rived from the mother (white) goes, indifferently, to either daughter cell. 
Consequently, each germ cell contains some chromosomes of maternal and 
some of paternal origin but not two chromosomes of the same kind. Since, by 
hypothesis, each chromo.soino contains particular kinds of determiners it 
follows that the same germ cell does not contain the (sometimes contnisting) 
characters of both parents, but some have the paternal character and others 
the corresponding maternal character. 


3. The Laws of Heredity 

We are now in a position to understand the modern laws 
of heredity. First of all it will be recognized that nothing 
is inherited except the determiners in the germ cells; the 
characters themselves, on the contrary, are not directly 
inherited. A clear grasp of this fact gives the answer to 
many questions. Thus the possibility of the transmission 
of somatic mutilations is seen to depend upon the capacity 
of such mutilations to modify the determiners in the germ 
plasm, and such capacity has never been proved. On the 
other hand, the germ cells receive nutritive and other par- 
ticles from the blood and they may receive also poisons 
from it. Hence arises the possibility of depauperization 
of the germ plasm and of ''race poisons;" but these are 
exceptional and little known phenomena. 

To understand the way heredity acts, let us take the case 
where both germ cells that unite to produce the fertihzed 
egg carry the determiner for a unit character, A. Then 
in the child that develops out of that fertilized egg there 
is a double stimulus to the development of the unit char- 
acter A. We say the character is of duplex origin. If, on 
the other hand, only one germ cell, say the egg, has the 
determiner of a character while the other, the sperm, lacks 
it, then in the fertilized egg the determiner is simplex and 
the resulting character is of simplex origin. Such a char- 
acter is often less perfectly developed than the corresponding 
character of duplex origin (Fig. 6). Finally, if neither 
germ cell carries the determiner of the character A, it will 
be absent in the embryo and the developed child. A per- 
son who shows a character in his body (soma) may or may 
not have the determiner for that character in all of the ripe 
germ cells he carries, but a person who lacks a given unit 
character ordinarily lacks the corresponding determiner 



aiK«stnl ronn). 





(Second filial generation) ^^^m 

zyg 00 


(Third filial generation' 

Fig. 6. — Illustration of laws of inheritance drawn from the crossing of 
red (a) and white (6) flowered four-o'clocks {Mirabilis jalappa). The offspring 
of this cross, having the determiner for red from one side only, produced pink 
flowers only (c). But when these pink-flowered plants were bred together 
they produced plants of which one in four had red flowers (duplex, d), two in 
four had pink flowers (simplex, e. /.), while one in four had no red pigment 
(nulliplex, g). In the lower part of the chart is a diagram showing for each 
generation the sort of germ cells involved in the union (zygote), the color of 
the adult, and the nature of the germ-cells he produces; all carried out to the 
third generation of descendants. From V. Haeckek: "Wandtafeln zur all- 
gemeinen Biologic" (Nageli: Leipzig). 


in all of his germ cells; for, were the determiner present 
anywhere in his organization (including his germ cells) the 
corresponding character would ordinarily show in his soma. 

In connection with the so-called Mendelian analysis of 
heredity a nomenclature has grown up which is somewhat 
different from that here employed. Thus the absent char- 
acter is often called recessive, the present character domi- 
nant and the condition in the offspring resulting from a 
crossing of the two is called heterozygous, which is the 
equivalent of simplex. It is to be kept in mind that in 
this work " absence " does not always imply absolute but 
only relative absence. Thus the pigmentation of light brown 
hair is " absent " to " black," and " tow " is absent to light 
brown; but pigment is present in all these grades of hair. 
To avoid the confusion between relative and absolute ab- 
sence the terms recessive and dominant are often used to 
advantage, wherever a series of grades of a character is 
under consideration. 

These general principles may be rendered clearer by 
means of a Table of the different sorts of matings of germ 
cells. And, to focus attention, let us have in mind a con- 
crete example; that of pigment of the iris of the human 
eye. In the following table P stands for the determiner 
of brown pigment and p for its absence. Six sorts of unions 
are possible. See also Plate I, frontispiece. 

Table I 
Laws of inheritance of characters based on conditions of the deter- 


Case One parent Other parent Offspring Characteristics of offspring 

1 PP PP PP, PP All with pigmented iris 


2 PP Pp PP, Pp All pigmented, but haK sim- 




DETERMINERS — Continued 
Case One parent Other parent Offspring Characteristics of offspring 

3 PP pp Pp, Pp All pigmented and all simplex 

4 Pp I^ PP, Pp, pP, pp }4 duplex pigmented; }4 sim- 

plex; J^ unpigmented (blue- 

5 Pp pp Pp, PP 3^ simplex; 3^ unpigmented 


6 pp pp pp, pp All unpigmented (blue-eyed) 

In the case of an individual who has received the deter- 
miner for one of his unit characters from one side of the 
house only (say from mother), not only is the character 
simplex, but when the germ cells mature in that person they 
are of two types, namely, with the determiner and without 
the determiner; and these two types are equally numerous 
(Fig. 5). This is the phenomenon known as segregation of 
presence and absence in the germ cells. If both parents 
are simplex in a character, so that they produce an equal 
number of germ cells with and without the character then 
in a large number of offspring, 1 in 4 will have the char- 
acter duplex; 2 in 4 simplex, and 1 in 4 will not have the 
character at all (nulliplex). This gives in the offspring of 
such a pair the famous 3 to 1 ratio, sometimes called the 
Mendehan ratio. 

Table II 


One parent Other parent Cases Offspring 

brown brown 1, 2, 4 Either all of the children have brown 

eyes, or one fourth have blue eyes 
brown blue 3, 5 Either all children brown-eyed (though 

simplex) or half blue-eyed 
blue blue 6 All blue-eyed 

Now the foregoing rules, which we have illustrated by the 
case of eye-color, hold generally for any positive determiner 
or its unit character. 


4. Inheritance of Multiple Characters 
In the foregoing section we considered the simplest case, 
namely that in which a single character is taken at a time — 
I. e., one parent has some character that the other lacks. 
We have now to consider the cases which are still commoner 
in nature where the parents differ in respect to two independ- 
ent characters. Let, for example, the two characters be 
eye-pigment and hair curliness. Then each one of the six 
matings given in Table I for eye-color may occur com- 
bined with any one of the six matings for hair form; so that 
there would be a total of 6 times 6 or 36 possible combina- 
tions of matings. Similarly Table II would be replaced 
by one of 9 entries as follows. 

Table III 


One parent 
Brown eye, curly hair 

Other parent 
Brown eye, curly hair 

Brown eye, curly hair 


Either all browTi-eyed and 
curly-haired ; or one- 
fourth blue-eyed and also 
one-fourth of all straight- 
haired (with or without 
blue eyes) 
Brown eye, straight hair All (or all but one-fourth) 

brown-eyed, and either all 

or one-half straight-haired 

Brown eye, straight hair Brown eye, straight hair All (or all but one-fourth) 

brown-eyed; all straight- 

All (or one-half) brown-eyed; 
all (or three-fourths) curly- 

All (or one-half) brown- 
eyed; all (or one-half) 

All (or one-half) brown- 
eyed; all straight-haired 

All blue-eyed; all (or three- 
fourths) cm-ly-haired 

All blue-eyed; all (or one- 
half) curly-haired 

All blue-eyed; all straight- 

Brown eye, curly hair Blue eye, curly hair 

Brown eye, curly hair Blue eye, straight hair 

Brown eye, straight hair Blue eye, straight hair 
Blue eye, curly hair Blue eye, curly hair 
Blue eye, curly hair Blue eye, straight hair 
Blue eye, straight hair Blue eye, straight hair 


The lessons that this enforces are: first, that characters 
are often and, indeed, usually, inherited independently 
and, secondly, that the outcome of a particular mating 
may be predicted with some precision; indeed, in many 
matings with certainty. 

This study might be extended to cases of three or more 
independent characters but the tables in such cases become 
more complex and httle would be gained by making them 
as the principle has been learned by the cases already 
given. In view of the great diversity of parents in respect 
to their visible characters the variability of children is 
readily accounted for. 

5. Heredity of Sex and of '^Sex-limited" 


In most species, as in man, there are two sexes, and 
they are equally numerous. For a long time this equahty 
has been a mystery; but of late years, through the studies 
of McClung, Wilson, Stevens and Morgan, the mystery has 
been cleared up. For there has been discovered in the 
germ plasm a mechanism adequate for bringing about the 
observed results. We now know that sex is probably 
determined strictly by the laws of chance, like the turn of 
a penny. The cytological theory of the facts is as follows. 
One sex, usually (and herein taken as) the female, has all 
cells, even those of the young ovarj'-, with a pair of each 
kind of chromosome, of which one pair is usually smaller 
than the others and more centrally placed. The chromo- 
somes of this pair are called the X chromosomes. In the 
male, on the other hand, the forerunners of the sperm cells 
have one less chromosome, making the number odd. This 
odd chromosome [exceptionally paired] is usually of small 
size and is also known as an X chromosome. In the cell- 
division that leads to the formation of the mature sperm- 


atozoon, this odd chromosome goes in toio to one of the two ' 
daughter cells (Fig. 5). The X chromosomes are commonly ' 
regarded as the *' sex-chromosomes." With them are asso- | 
ciated various characters that are either secondary sex i 
characters or ''sex-limited" characters. Consequently in j 
respect to each and every such character the primordial 
egg cells are duplex and all the ripe eggs have one sex de- i 
terminer and its associated characters. The primordial \ 
male cells are simplex and consequently, after segregation ' 
has occurred, the spermatozoa are of two equally numerous . 
kinds — with and without the sex-determiner. The fertiU- 
zation of a number of eggs by a number of sperm will result 
in two equally common conditions — namely a fertilized , 
egg, called zygote, that contains two sex determiners — such i 
develops into a female; and a zygote that contains only one 
sex determiner — such develops into a male. The nature of 
the germ cells in the germ gland of the future child and of 
the associated secondary sex-characters thus depend on 
which of the two sorts of sperm cells go into the make-up 
of the zygote. | 

Whenever the male parent is characterized by the absence 
of some character of which the determiner is typically 
lodged in the sex chromosome a remarkable sort of inherit- 
ance is to be expected. This is called sex-limited inherit- 
ance. The striking feature of this sort of heredity is that 
the trait appears only in males of the family, is not trans- 
mitted by them, but is transmitted through normal females 
of the family. Striking examples of this sort of heredity 
are considered later in the cases of multiple sclerosis (Fig. 
64) ; atrophy of optic nerve (Fig. 77) ; color blindness (Fig. 
88); myopia (Figs. 90, 91); ichthyosis (Figs. 106, 108); 
muscular atrophy (Fig. 125); and haemophilia (Fig. 134). 

The explanation is the same in all cases. The abnormal 
condition is due to the absence of a determiner from the 


male X chromosome. Its inheritance can be followed from 
Figure 7, adapted from Wilson, 1911. 

If the trait be a positive sex-limited one, originating 
either on the father's or the mother's side, its inheritance 

gametes X 


zygotes XS 

1 2 

Fig. 7. — Diagram illustrating the method of inheritance in sex limited 
heredity. A', the sex chromosome, double in the female individual, single in 
the male. When ripe germ cells are formed in the female, each contains the sex 
determiner, but in the male half of the germ cells have and half lack the deter- 
miner (represented by the dash — ). Let X' represent the sex chromosome of 
the original male that showed the defect (absence of some unit character). 
Let such a male be mated with a female of an unaffected strain. Then all 
children will have the determiner for the positive condition (Gen. 2, zygotes, 
i. e., fertihzed eggs and the individuals that develop from them). In the third 
generation four kinds of zygotes will appear: 1, the normal female who is not 
capable of transmitting the defect; 2, the normal female who is capable of 
transmitting the defect; 3, the normal male who is incapable of transmitting 
the defect; 4, the defective male. Baaed on E. B. Wilson, IQIL 

will be more irregular; but it can be worked out by the aid 
of Figure 7. 

6. The Application of the Laws of Heredity to 


If one is provided with a knowledge of the methods of 
inheritance of unit characters it might seem to be an easy 
matter to state how each human trait is inherited and to 
show how any undesirable condition might be eliminated 
from the offspring and any wished for character introduced. 



Unfortunately, such a consummation cannot for some time 
be achieved. The reason for the delay is twofold. First, 
we do not yet know all of the unit characters in man; second, 
we can hardly know in advance which of them are due to 
positive determiners and which to the absence of such. 

Unit characters can rarely be recognized by inspection. 
For example the white coat color of a horse is apparently 
a simple character, but experimental breeding shows that 
it is really due to several independently inheritable factors. 
The popular classification of traits is often crude, lagging 
far behind scientific knowledge. Thus insanity is frequently 
referred to a single trait. It is clear, however, that insanity 
is a result merely and not a specific trait. Some cases of 
insanity indicate an innate weakness of the nervous system 
such ag leads it to break down under the incidence of heavy 
stress; other cases of insanity are due to a destruction of 
a part of the brain by a wound as, for instance, of a bullet. 
In some cases, through infection a wide-spread deteriora- 
tion of the brain occurs; in other cases a clot in a cerebral 
blood vessel may occlude it, cut off nutrition from a single 
locahty of the brain and interfere ^vith movements that 
have their centres at the affected point. Now these four 
results cannot be said to be due to the same unit defect; 
and they can hardly be compared in the study of heredity. 

On the other hand, the original expectation that progress 
must wait on a complete analysis of unit characters proves 
not to be correct. There are a number of forms of insanity 
that are sharply separable symptomatically and structurally 
which have a common basis in that they are due to a nervous 
weakness; and "nervous weakness" may behave in heredity 
with relation to "nervous strength" like a lower grade, or 
the absence, of a highly developed character. Even with- 
out a complete analysis of a trait into its units we may still 
make practically important studies by using the principle 


that when both parents have low grades of a trait-complex 
the children will have low grades of that complex. 

The matter of dependence of a character on a determiner 
or its absence is of great importance and is not easy to anti- 
cipate. For instance, long hair as in angora cats, sheep or 
guinea pigs is apparently not due to a factor added to short 
hair but rather to the absence of the determiner that stops 
growth in short-haired animals. One can only conclude 
whether a character is due to a determiner or to its absence 
by noting the effect of breeding likes in respect to the given 
trait. If all offspring are like the parents in respect to a trait, 
the trait (if simple) is probably a negative one. But if the 
offspring are very diverse, the trait (if simple) is probably 
due to a positive determiner and the germ cells of the parents 
are of two kinds; some with and some without the deter- 

The determination of unit characters is complicated by 
the fact that a character due to a simplex determiner often 
differs from one due to a duplex determiner. In the former 
case the character is slow in developing and frequently 
fails of reaching a stage of development found in the latter 
case. The offspring of red and black-eyed birds may have 
at first a Ught iris which gradually darkens. This fact is 
spoken of as the imperfection of dominance in the simplex 

Despite the difficulties in analysis of units of heredity and 
despite the compUcations in characters it is possible to see 
clearly the method of inheritance of a great number of 
human traits and to predict that many more will become 
analyzed in the near future. 


Before any advice can be given to young persons about 
the marriage that would secure to them the healthiest, 
strongest children it will be necessary to know not only 
the peculiarities of their germ plasms but also the way in 
which various characters are inherited. The work of the 
student of eugenics is, consequently, to discover the methods 
of inheritance of each characteristic or trait. After we get 
precise knowledge of the methods of inheritance of the 
conunoner important traits we shall be in a position to 
advise, at least in respect to these traits. It would seem a 
self evident proposition, but it is one too little regarded, 
that knowledge should precede teaching. In this chapter 
an attempt will be made to consider many of the traits that 
are known to run in families and to set forth, so far as known, 
the laws of their inheritance. We shall begin with some 
of the general characteristics of man that have been best 
studied and then pass to a consideration of some human 

In the study of many of these traits I have made use of 
data that have been furnished by numerous collaborators, 
chiefly on questionaires known as "Family Records." These 
are frequently referred to in the following pages, but always 
anonymously. The Family Records or " Records of Family 
Traits," as they are also called, are largely derived from 
professional circles, but not a few from farmers and business 



men. In respect of several of the special abilities the col- 
laborators have volunteered a numerical grading as follows : 
1, poor; 2, medium; 3, exceptionally good. These grades 
are frequently referred to below. 

1. Eye Color 

This depends upon the condition of pigmentation of the 
iris — the colored ring around the pupil. According to Mr. 
Charles Roberts (1878, p. 134) ^ the iris has on its inner surface 
"a layer of dark purple called the uvea . . . and in brown 
eyes there is an additional layer of yellow (and, perhaps, 
brown-red) pigment on its outer surface also, and in some 
instances there is a deposit of pigment amongst the fibrous 
structures. In the albino, where the pigment is entirely 
absent from both surfaces of the iris, the bright red blood 
is seen through the semi-transparent fibrous tissue of a pink 
color; and in blue eyes, where the outer layer of pigment 
is wanting, the various shades are due to the dark inner 
layer of pigment — the uvea — showing through fibrous 
structures of different densities or degrees of opacity. 

''The eyes of new born infants are dark blue, in conse- 
quence of the greater delicacy and transparency of the 
fibrous portion of the iris ; and as these tissues become thick- 
ened by use and by advancing age the lighter shades of blue 
and, finally, gray are produced, the gray, indeed, being 
chiefly due to the color of the fibrous tissues themselves." 
Yellow pigment is laid down upon the blue, forming yellow- 
blue or green eyes. " In the hazel and brown eyes the uvea 
and the fibrous tissues are hidden by increasing deposits 
of yellow and brown pigment on the anterior surface of the 
iris, and when this is very dense, black eyes are the result." 

While in most races of the globe brown pigment is heavily 

' For titles of works referred to in text, see Bibliography, at end of book. 




BRUNEI Traits. 

Fig. 8. — Map of southwestern Europe showing the relative frequency of 
"brunet traits," e. g., brown eye color. On the whole, the darker the shade 
the greater the proportion of brunet persons in the given area. The hghtest 
areas represent about 20 to 25 per cent brunetness; the darkest European 
areas over 90 per cent brunetness. At the northern limit of the map "about 
one third of the people are pure blonds, characterized by light hair and blue 
eyes;" on the other hand, in the south of Italy the pure blonds have almost 
entirely disappeared. From W. Z. Ripley: "The Races of Europe." 



Fig. 9. — Distribution of pure blue eyes among Scottish boys. About 15 
per cent of all boys have blue eyes. The relative density is indicated by depth 
jf shading as indicated in the key at the left. A very high density (21 to 24 
per cent) occurs in the lower Spey Valley in the northwest. This is the region 
)f the Norse invasion which brought in much protoplasm that was defective 
n pigmentation. The highest density (over 24 per cent) exists in the coal and 
ron districts of East Lanarkshire and "this is probably due to the Irish immi- 
jrants." J. Gray, 1907. 


secreted in the iris, in northwestern Europe blue, gray or 
yellow-bkie eyes are found. It seems probable that, once 
upon a time, or perhaps at many times, an individual was 
born without brown pigment in the iris. The offspring of 
such prospered and spread throughout northwestern Europe 
and migrated thence to America and Australia (Fig. 8). 
This defect, lack of eye pigment, has had a wonderful 
history. By noting its distribution the migrations of peoples 
can be traced. Thus Gray (1907) has shown that, in Scot- 
land, pure blue eyes are most abundant in the coal and 
iron districts. ''This is probably due to the Irish inami- 
grants, it being well known that blue eyes are very common 
among the Irish." In the Spey valley of Scotland the dens- 
ity of pure blue eyes is high — probably owing to the Norse 
invasion at that point. (Fig. 9). So in our country the 
pigmentation survey that will some day be made will show 
a high percentage of blue eyes where the Scandinavians 
and north Germans have settled. Thus eye color, just 
because it shows no tendency to blend in heredity, is a most 
valuable aid in history. 

Our loiowledge of heredity of eye color depends on studies made by 
Galton, 1899, who noted its alternative nature but otherwise overlooked 
the true method of its inheritance; more recently, by three studies car- 
ried on simultaneously and independently and pubUshed by G. C. and 
C. B. Davenport, in November, 1907; by C. C. Hurst in 1908; and by 
Holmes and Loomis in December, 1909. Since 1907 the present author has 
collected additional data. Hurst's data have the advantage of having 
been collected from personal observation, hence the chance of error due to 
a diversity of collaborators was eliminated. In the other studies the data 
were supplied by unprejudiced, if not always critical, recorders. 

Applying the test of the 6 (strictly 5) kinds of unions we 
get the results shown in Table IV. 


Table IV 



Holmes a 




One Parent 

Other Parent 





1 1 1 
Blue Pig't^Blue^.Pig'l Blue Pig't 

pure blue 
pigmented (Pp) 
pigmented (PP) 
pigmented (Pp) 
pigmented (PP) 

pure blue 

pigmented (Pp) 
pigmented (Pp) 


























Table IV supports the following conclusions: 

1. When both parents have pure blue eyes all of the chil- 
dren will have pure blue eyes (the discorciant case is prob- 
ably due to an error). 

2. When one parent has pigmented iris while the other 
has blue, either the fraternity of children will show no 
blue eyes or else half of them will be blue-eyed. The sura 
of the latter class, the second case, gives 654:712 or 48 per 
cent to 52 per cent. 

3. WTien both parents have bro\Mi ms either all the 
children will have brown iris (last case in Table IV) or else 
about a quarter will lack brown pigment and so will be 

The eugenic value of the inheritance of eye color lies in 
the consideration, advanced by Major Woodruff, that pig- 
mentation of the eye, skin, etc., better fits a child for Hfe 
in the tropics or in a country, like the United States, of 
bright sunhght. Brown-eyed children can be secured from 
blue-eyed stock by mating with pure brown-eyed stock. 
We have heard of two blue-eyed parents regretting that 
they had no brown-eyed children. They wished for the 

1 Eight hundred and sixty-six additional cases collected subsequently are not included b«« 
cause unchecked. 

2 A number of these blues are doubtless destined to become pigmented in later life. 


2. Hair Color 

This character is due to the presence of brown granules 
in the hair and sometimes also to the presence of a diffuse 
reddish pigment. The study of heredity of hair color is 
complicated — more than that of eye color — by the fact i 
that the hair grows darker with age, at least until maturity 
is achieved. If you compare the light browns and the 
blacks in children under 16 and over 16 you will find twice 
as many light browns in the younger lot as in the older; 
but only half as many blacks. In other words, half of the 
persons who will eventually have black hair still have light 
to medium brown at 16 years of age.^ While this tends to| 
obscure the result yet the general fact of segregation in hair 
color cannot be gainsaid. Let us examine the results of 
various matings. (Table V). 

One parent 

Other parent 

Little brown 

Little brown 



Brown pig- 

Little or no 


brown pigment 

Brown pig- 

Brown pigment 


Table V 

The hair-color op the offspring of parents with different classes 

OF hair pigment. 

All with tow, yellow, golden or red hair. 

HaK with light hair, half with brown; in 
other families all children may eventually 
gain brown hair 

Most children have brown hair; some (about 
one-quarter) have light hair. In some 
families all children eventually gain brown 

The most striking result is that dark-haired children prob- 
ably never come from flaxen-haired parents. Indeed, a 
good practical rule is that the children will not acquire hair 
darker than that of the darker parent. 

The inheritance of red-hair color has a certain eugenic 
importance. There can be little doubt that a young person 

1 Holmes and Loomis, 1909, p. 55. 



Fig. 10. — Wavy hair; a Segumbar, female, Philippine Islands. (Lent by 
the American Museum of Natural History.) 

who has red hair has a strong antipathy to a red-haired 
person of the opposite sex. This testimony comes to me 
from the father of a red-haired daughter. It is confirmed 
by the fact that, despite prolonged inquiry among thousands 
of families I have succeeded in obtaining only two cases 
where both parents had red hair. Though the red was 
not a clear red in all parents all of the 8 children had red 
hair. If one parent only forms "red-hair" germ cells ex- 
clusively while the other forms exclusively germ cells con- 
taining the determiner for black pigment the offspring will 
show no red; still less will red-haired offspring appear if 
neither parent forms "red-hair" germ cells. Red-haired 
offspring may come from two brown or better from glossy 
black-haired parents provided both form red-hair germ 
cells. In that case both dark-haired parents will probably 


Pig. 11. — Frizzy or kinky hair; a Soudanese male. (Lent by the American 
Museum of Natural History from a photograph in the Philadelphia Museum.) 

have ancestors or other close relatives with red hair. Glossy 
black hair in the parents is especially apt to produce red 
hair in the children because the glossiness is usually due 
to red hidden by black pigment. 

3. Hair Form 

The form of the hair varies from straight through wavy 
and curly (Fig. 10) to kinky (Fig. 11) and woolly (Fig. 12), 
depending largely upon the closeness of the spiral. These 
different types of hair have a different form on cross-section ; 
i. e., the cut end of a straight hair is nearly circular while 


Fig. 12. — Woolly hair; a Congo negro. (Lent by American Museum Natural 


that of woolly hair is much flattened, being only half as 
thick as it is broad. Both the flattening and the curving 
of hair are due to a modification of the cup or "hair folUcle" 
in which the hair develops. Thus, while straight hair devel- 
ops in a plain, cylindrical foUicle that of the flattened types 
is curved and inclined in relation to the surface of the skin. 
Straight hair is the simple condition; curving is due to a 
special modification. What, now, is the method of inherit- 
ance of this special modification? 

First, if both parents have hair that from childhood up 
has been straight, without natural tendency toward curving, 
then all of the children will have straight hair. There are 
exceptional cases reported of wavy haired children from 
straight haired parents, but the exceptions constitute less 
than 2 per cent. 

36 hp:redity in relation to eugenics 

If one parent has wavy hair while the other has straight I 
hair then, since in wavy haired persons half the germ cells j 
are without the determiner for curved hair, half of the off- 
spring will have straight and half curved hair. If both 
parents have wavy (simplex) hair about 75 per cent of the 
children will have curved hair and the others straight hair. 
But two curly haired parents, both of curly haired stock 
on both sides, will probably have all curly or wavy haired 
children. In a word, when either of the germ cells that 
unite to form the fertilized egg contains the curly determiner 
the offspring will have curved hair. 

4. Skin Color ' 

The pigment of the skin is due to brown granules lying 
in the deep stratum of the skin. Such granules occur in 
most people, are common in brunets and still more abundant 
in negroes. Besides the brown granules a yellow-red pig- 
ment is present, but this has been little studied. 

Now when both parents are clearly blonds most, if not 
all, of their offspring are blonds. In 513 offspring reported 
as derived from this sort of mating 91.4 per cent are recorded 
as blonds and 6.8 per cent as intermediate, while only 1.8 
per cent are stated to be brunet — quite within the limit of 
error due to inaccuracy of the collaborators. If one person 
is blond and the other darker, about half of the children 
will, on the average, be blond and half pigmented but 
rarely darker than the darker parent. If both parents 
be dark the percentage of brunets ranges from about 25 
to zero. In general, whatever the mating, the children will 
not be darker than their darker parent. 

When one parent is white and the other as dark as a full- 
blooded negro the offspring are, as is well known, of an 
intermediate shade (mulatto, mezzotint). If two such 
mulattoes marry their offspring vary in color. In one fra- 



ternity derived from two such mulattoes having 45 poi- 
cent and 13 per cent respectively of black in the skin, the 
proportion of black in the 7 offspring whose color was 
measured ranged from 46 to 6 (Fig. 13). The lighter limit 
was as light as most Caucasian skins. In another fraternity 
whose parents had 29 per cent and 13 per cent of black 
respectively, the children ranged from 28 per cent to 8.5 
per cent of black in the skin color. ^ Here, again, the light- 

W. Family 
^(white)= 9 (negro) ,? (mulatto) = 9 (mulatto) 

I . I ' 

^ (mulatto ; = 9 (mulatto ; color $ (mulatto) = 9 (loulatto) 

*' color of I of 12-jear old grand- i 

8on") I daughter) I 

$ (mulatto ;= 9 (mulatto, "very dark": 
13-17-35-35) I 45-12-33-10) 

i I I ' 1 • i 1 1~ 

19yrs. 17yr8. 15 yrs. 13 yrs. 12yr8. 10 yrs. 8 yrs. 7 yrs. 5 yrs. 

absent; "color of N 25 32 46 31 6 23 83 

color of father" Y 20 14 7 15 4 17 16 

12-year absent R 30 37 40 30 30 35 28 

old 618- W25 17 7 24 60 25 33 

Fig. 13. — Pedigree chart of " W" family of mulattoes, showing the percent- 
ages of the four colors; black (A^), yellow (F), red {R) and white (W) that 
combined (as in the color wheel) will give the skin color. cf, male; 9, female. 
For fuller details see Davenport, G. C, and C. B., 1910. 

est child has practically a white skin. In the case of the 
two other families, in which the parents were dark mulat- 
toes (30 to 40 per cent black) none of the children were 
lighter than 27 per cent black. The germ cells of the parents 
probably lack the lower grades of pigmentation. fOn the 
other hand two very light '^ colored" parents will have 
(probably) only light children, some of whom "pass for 
whites" away from home. So far as skin color goes they 
are as truly white as their greatgrandparent and it is quite 

* All colors were determined by means of the Bradley color top. 


conceivable that they might have mental and moral qual- 
ities as good and typically Caucasian as he had. / Just as 
perfect white skin color can be extracted from the hybrid, 
so may other Caucasian physical and mental qualities be 
extracted and a typical Caucasian arise out of the mixture. 
However, this result will occur only in the third, or later, 
hybrid generation and the event will not be very common. 

Albinism. This is an extreme case of blondness — all 
pigment being lost from skin, hair and eyes. The method 
of inheritance resembles that of eye color. When both 
parents lack pigment all offspring are likewise devoid of 
pigment. \Mien one parent only is an albino and the other 
is um'elated the children are all pigmented. Whenever 
albinos occur from two normals the proportion of these 
albinos approaches the ideal and expected condition of 25 
per cent (Fig. 14). 

Albinism is not a desirable peculiarity, despite the beauty 
of complexion and hair, because the lack of pigment in the 
retina makes it hard to bear strong light. Albinos may 
avoid transmitting albinism by marrying unrelated, pig- 
mented persons. Pigmented persons belonging to albinic 
strains must avoid marrying cousins, even pigmented ones, 
because both parents might, in that case, have albinic germ 
cells and produce one child in four albinic. Albino com- 
munities, of which there are several in the United States 
are inbred communities; but not all inbred communities 
contain albinos.^ 

5. Stature 

The inheritance of stature has long been a subject of 
study. It has great interest both because it is easily deter- 
mined and because it has a great racial range, namely, j| 

1 This matter is discussed more fully in the "American Naturalist," Decem- 
ber, 1910. 

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from 138 centimeters (or 54 inches) in the negrilloes of 
Africa to 180 centimeters (or 71 inches) in the Scotch. 
Among European males, stature ranges from 150 centimeters 
(60 inches) to 190 centimeters (75 inches), while that of 
women rarely exceeds 180 centimeters (71 inches).^ 

The importance of stature as a definite character is seen 
in its distribution in Europe. Apart from the variations | 
ascribed to environment there are clear racial {i. e., inherit- 



FiQ. 15. — Two maps of Brittany, France. On the left is shown the dis- 
tribution of the various mean statures ranging from 1.62 meters to 1.64 meters. 
On the right is shown the distribution of rejection of recruits for constitutional 
defects. Ripley: "The Races of Europe." 


able) differences. The rugged hills of Scotland harbor a 
race that are, relatively, giants; the mild and productive 
shores of the Gulf of Tarent, Southern Italy, hardly more 
populous, are inhabited by a people that are, relatively, 
dwarfs. Conditions of life cannot account for the difference; 
there is a difference of blood. It is easy to go astray iu 
assigning environmental causes for stature. Thus Ripley 
(1900, p. 85) referring to a map of Brittany says: "In the 
interior cantons, shorter on the average by an inch than 
the population along the sea coast, there is a corresponding 
» Deniker, "Races of Man," p. 584. 


increase of defective or degenerate constitutional types. 
The character of the environment is largely responsible 
for this." (Fig. 15). Two maps are given of this territory 
showing the practical coincidence of the areas of shortest 
stature and greatest number of rejections of recruits for 
physical defects. Fifteen pages later, however, practically 
the same map is used (Fig. 16), the greater height of the 


or CELTIC Speech 



(5 Ft I^INSj 


■ 14^1 7 





Fig. 16. — Map of stature in Brittany showing smaller proportion of men 
whose stature is under 1.56 meters in the region subject to Teutonic invasions. 
Ripley: "The Races of Europe." 

coastal people referred to, and explained by Teutonic inva- 
sions. "The result has been to infuse a new racial element 
into all the border populations in Brittany, while the ori- 
ginal physical traits remain in undisturbed possession of 
the interior." It appears, then, probable that the greater 
rejection of recruits in the central country is due less to its 
unfavorable environment than to its i'nadequato blood. 
Recognizing the inheritable nature of stature it remains 


to inquire how it is inherited. First of all it must be con- 
ceded that stature is hardly a single unit. It is composed 
of three elements that would seem to be unrelated, namely, 
the height of the cranium, the length of the neck and trunk, 
and the length of the legs. Sitting height is a more signi- 
ficant measure from the standpoint of heredity; but, unfor- 
tunately, few persons know their sitting height. A second 
complication is dependence of stature on age. It increases 
up to 20 years in the male and about 19 years in the fe- 
male. Beyond these ages the increase may be neglected. 
A third complication is that stature is, to a certain degree, 
dependent on sex. To transmute female measurements to 
corresponding male measurements Galton (1889) used the 
method of multiplying them by 1.08 since the mean of 
male stature is that much greater than the mean of female 
stature. We can avoid this complication by using, in place 
of the absolute or transmuted measures, the deviation in 
each sex from its own mean. The mean stature for the 
adult males of the white population of the United States 
may be taken at 69 inches (175 cm); that of females at 64 
inches (163 cm). Despite all these complications, which 
tend to obscure the result, we can still seek an answer to 
the question: What general laws are there of inheritance of 

The first general law is that, in case the four grandparents 
are very unlike, the adult children will vary greatly in 
stature, whereas when the grandparental statures are 
closely alike those of the children will be also. This is shown 
in the following Table : 

Difference between the shortest and the tallest child : 3 4 5 6 7 8 
Difference between the shortest and the tallest 

grandparent: 4.6 5.0 6.0 6.5 6.9 7.2 

This law seems to indicate that the reason why in some 


families the children vary greatly in stature while in others 
they vary Httle is because more diverse elements have 
entered into the make-up of the children in the first case 
than in the second. In the first case long and short blood are 
commingled in the ancestry while in the second case exclu- 
sively long or exclusively short ancestry as the case may be. 
The second general law is that when both parents are 
tall all of the children tend to be tall; but, on the contrary, 
if both parents are short some of the children will be short 
and some tall in ratios varying from 1:1 up to 2:1. If all 
of the grandparents are short then there tend to be twice 
as many short children as tall; but if one grandparent on 
each side be tall there will tend to be an equahty of short 
and tall offspring. 

The evidence for the foregoing is found in the study of 104 families which 
furnished quantitative data as to stature for children, parents and grand- 

To illustrate the inheritance of extreme short stature in a 
family I may quote from C. F. Swift (1888) . He says (p. 473) 
*'I am unable to give a particular account of the Little 
Hatches of Falmouth. [Mass.] They were children of Barna- 
bas, who married in 1776 his relative Abigail Hatch and had 
two sons and seven daughters. Six daughters were less than 
4 feet in height. None married. The seventh daughter 
Rebecca was of common size and married Robert Hammond. 
The two sons, Barnabas, born in 1788, and Robinson, b. 1790, 
were both of low stature, one, scarce 4 feet in height, was a 
portly gentleman almost as broad as long." It may be pre- 
dicted that the tall daughter who married had only tall chil- 

6. Total Body Weight 

Adult weight (assuming density to be constant) depends 
upon stature and circumference. It is, therefore, still more 


complicated than stature and still further removed from any 
semblance of a unit character. Moreover, it is much more 
dependent upon conditions of life, for, as is well known, a 
sedentary life with overfeeding and drinking tends, in persons 
so disposed, to increase weight, even as strenuous activity and 
dieting favor the reduction, within certain limits, of weight. 
Despite this dependence of weight on environment we may 
attempt to learn if it shows any trace of heredity. First, it 
is necessary to avoid the use of absolute weights on account 
of sex differences. So we find the mean weight of American 
fathers and mothers and calculate our weights as deviations 
from these means. The mean weight of fathers in our data is 
162 pounds; of mothers 131 pounds. The range in weight of 
fathers is from 110 to 250 pounds. The range in weight of 
mothers is from 90 pounds to 360 pounds.^ In our study 
we are, however, concerned less with absolute deviations in 
weight from the average than in the deviations in corpulency 
and so we make our starting point the weight for a given 
stature and calculate in each case the deviation from the 
weight that is normal for the given stature. The table of 
normal weight that we employ is Table VI. 

Table VI 


Inches of stature 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 

Normal weight in i male 131 132 134 137 140 143 147 152 

pounds for | female 107 112 117 122 126 131 136 139 141 

Inches of stature 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 

Normal weight in j male 157 162 167 172 177 182 190 198 
pounds for ) female 144 150 155 160 165 170 

The first result is that when both parents are slender in 
build or of relatively light weight the children will tend all 
to be slender. 

' This maximum occurred in a single case of our records; the next lower 
weight is 225 pounds. 


The evidence for this has never been fully set forth. It rests on five 
fraternities in which the ten parents diverged (in pounds) from the nor- 
mal as follows: 1, 1, -2, -7, -7, -9, -11, -12, -33, -47. Every grand- 
parent was below normal in weight except one who was just normal. Of 
23 children only 3 are above normal. Their total excess weight amounts to 
25 pounds, while the total deficiency of the 20 remainmg children is 
374 pounds — an average deficiency for the 23 children of 15 pounds. 
Truly, a slender population. 

If both parents are heavy and of heavy ancestry their 
childi-en tend, on the whole, to be heavy (Fig. 17). 

QO qonp DO 


+ j5 o V. c orp. $t oMi 


t48 *5o 


FiQ. 17. — Pedigree of family with corpulency. Great -grandparents, 
grandparents and one of the parents are much above normal weight for their 
stature and the same tendency is found throughout the fraternities to which 
they belong. The father is slender. His daughter is, at an early age, inchned 
to stoutness. F. R.; Hal. 3. 

I have data on four families that meet these conditions and give in 
Table VII all the data concerning their deviations in weight from the nor- 

Table VII 



13 18 








C^ C2 



Ave.— 2 







—10 —6 


Gan.— 1 







— 6 8 



Eld.— 1 







—12 32 



Elt.— 1 







—22 —2 

C, child; F, father or father's; M, mother or mother's. 


It is to be kept in mind that the children are mostly young, 18 to 25, 
and consequently do not show their potentiahties in weight. Neverthe- 
less, while there are 6 children below the normal in weight, giving a de- 
ficiency of 58 pounds, there are 9 above the normal with an excess of 202 

When both parents are heavy (disregarding grandparents) 
the numbers of Ught and heavy children are practically equal 
(39 light to 34 heavy or 465 pounds total deficiency to 490 
pounds total excess). 

When one of the parents is heavy and the other slender 
both heavy and slight ofifspring occur and, in youth at least, 
the sHght are more numerous than the heavy. Table VIII 
gives the data on this mating. 

Table VIII 


In Table VIII are included 27 children, 7 above the normal 
stoutness and 20 below, or a total of 30 pounds excess to 324 
pounds deficiency. 

A pedigree of a family with hereditary obesity is described 
by Rose (1907). A girl of 15 with a stature of 145 centi- 
meters (57 inches) weighed 75 kilograms (165 pounds). The 
father and his parents were not obese, ^ The mother, on the 
other hand weighed 88 kilograms and her father 99 kilograms, 
while the mother's mother is slender. Of the four children 

* There is no evidence that they did not carry the factor that favors obesity 
or that they were wholly unrelated to the maternal side. 








Ci C2 C3 C* C^ 






29 10- 

- 7- 

-10 —6 23 

Bra.— 3 




44 —17 


- 8 —16 —16 —33 7 


Cro.— 2 




3 58- 


3—7 —17 —25 8 - 

-28 „, 

Elk.— 1 




2 33- 


-13 —26 —10 —13 


How.— 1 




78 —45 


-27 —26 —10 —12 19 


Ran.— 1 





13—17— 4 



two (including the girl of 15) are very obese, one normal and 
■one under weight. This result accords with the hypothesis 
that obesity is due to a defect. It is noted that the mother's 
mother had a goitre; and it is probable that in this family 
there is an hereditary deficiency in growth control. 

not obese — not obesecf 

cf wt. 275 lbs. 

not obese? 
has goitre 


wt. 180 to 240 lbs. 

cT, large 9 , large at 16 — c?" 
wt. 160 lbs. 

— r~ 

9 , slender 

9 , at 15 
75 kilos 

simple meningitis obese, at 15 months, 36 lbs. 


Longevity. When Dr. 0. W. Holmes was asked for specifi- 
cations for a long life he advised, in effect, first to select long- 
lived grandparents. This advice accords with a widespread 
opinion that longevity is inheritable. But length of life is not 
a unit character. It is a resultant of many factors ; especially 





r over IJ LJ I I 

tW +70 77 

bU but one lived to 70 or over 

Fig. 18. — A short pedigree (early 19th century in United States) illustrat- 
ing "inheritance" of longevity. F. R.; Att. 1. 

of those factors that resist causes of death. Such factors are 
absence of defects of bodily structure, resistance to the com- 
moner virulent germs of disease, and environmental conditions 
that maintain at its highest point internal resistance. The first 
two factors are ''inlieritable" and the last remains tolerably 


uniform for the people of a certain social class such as the 
members of one and the same family belong to; so it is not 
strange that some families with perfect structure and high 
resistance should be long lived (Fig. 18) and others, with 
organic defects and low resistance, should be short lived 

DtQ .^DtQ 


+50 t42 , 




heajrt disc&se 

dcfsciive h«art-valves 



6 6 6 6 6 6 


Fig. 19. — Fragment of pedigree of a high class f.amily with slight longevity 
due in part, to heart defects and non-resistance to tuberculosis. The latest 
generation comprises only young children. F. R.; Fyn. 1. 

(Fig. 19). Thus, while longevity is not a biological unit of 
inheritance a person belonging to a long lived family is a 
better ''risk" for a life insurance company than a person 
belonging to a short lived family. 

7. Musical Ability 

This quality is one that develops so early in the most 
marked cases that its innateness cannot be questioned. A 
Bach, matured at 22; a Beethoven, publishing his composi- 
tions at 13 and a Mendelssohn at 15; a Mozart, composing 
at 5 years, are the product of a peculiar protoplasm of whose 
tenacious qualities we get some notion when we learn that 
the Bach family comprised 20 eminent musicians and two 
score others less eixdnent. The exact method of inheritance 
of musical ability has not been sufficiently analyzed. Hurst 
(1908) suggests that it behaves as a recessive, as though it 
depended on the absence of something. The "Family 
Records" afford some data on this subject. A statement of 
the grade of musical ability of each person, whether poor, 


12 3 _4 

DrO PlO 

dhb h dn h 

3 3 3! 

2« Z 3 3 5 3 5 young 

Fig. 20. — Pedigree of an American family of singers. Numbers below 
symbols designate grades; thus: 1, little or no musical ability; 2, medium 
ability; 3, exceptionally high ability. Numbers above the individual symbols 
are for reference. 

I, 1. Extremely fond of music, had organ and piano in his home; a very 
c. tivated man of artistic tastes. Married I, 2, non-musical, belonging to an 
utterly non-musical family. Their son, II, 2, is not musical. 

I, 3. Fond of music, could "carry a tune" easily. A mathematician and 
astronomer. His wife, I, 4, was sufficiently musical to sing in such a simple 
church choir as was to be found in the State of Maine in the middle of the 
nineteenth century and her mother and mother's sisters were singers. All 
of their four children were musical. One son, II, 7, who died unmarried had a 
fine voice and was a good singer. The other son, II, 4, had a musical ear and a 
fine voice; he sang much without ha\nng taken lessons. His wife is non- 
musical and their 14-year old daughter is as non-musical as her mother. One 
of the daughters, II, 5, had a fine voice and still keeps up her music ; she mar- 
ried an utterly non-musical man and they have one son who cannot even "carry 
a tune" and one daughter who is a famous opera singer. The other daughter, 

II, 3,|is a fine singer, and plays the piano, organ and guitar. She married the 
above-mentioned non-musical man, II, 2. They had six children all of whom 
have fine voices; III, 1, has a fair baritone voice; III, 2, has an unusually deep 
bass voice; III, 3, died at 27 years. Her voice was said by good judges, such 
as the De Reszkes, Anton Seidl, etc., to be more beautiful even than that of 

III, 7. Ill, 4, is organist and choir master in a large church in New York 
City. Ill, 5, is very musical; III, 6, died young but had ah-eady developed 
much musical talent and could read music with wonderful ease. F. R.; H. 

medium or exceptionally good was asked for. Altogether 
data were obtained for 1008 children, their parents and most 
of their grandparents. The following rules are deduced from 
these data. 
When both parents are exceptionally good in music 


(whether vocal or instrumental) all the children are medium 
to exceptionally good. 

There were 48 cases where both parents showed exceptional musical 
ability. Of the 202 children 81 had exceptional ability and 120 fair musi- 
cal ability. Only one is returned as being poor in music; and this case 
may be cast aside as quite within the probabihty of an error due to care- 
lessness in making the returns or to bad classification. These results come 
out so smoothly as to indicate that high attainment in vocal and instru- 
mental music are due to the same defect in the protoplasm. 

I D|0 D]0 DrO (5b|0 




FiQ. 21. — Pedigree of singing ability and peculiar form of toes. I, 7. (X) 
has bones of both fifth toes cartilaginous and toe crossed over upon fourth 
toe; and her granddaughter III, 7, has exactly the same peculiarity; II, 12, has 
an exceptionally good bass voice; his daughter III, 6, cannot sing; but III, 7, has 
a beautiful soprano voice; III, 8, has an exceptionally good baiitone voice; 
III, 9, has a ' beautiful contralto voice' and III, 10, has great musical ability. 
On the other side of the house. III, 1, has good musical ability. But in the 
fourth generation there is no musical ability. F. R.; Ait. 1. 

To illustrate inheritance of musical ability by a concrete 
example the pedigree of a noted New England singer is ap- 
pended (Fig. 20). This particular example alone could not 
be used to demonstrate either the hypothesis that musical 
ability is due to a new unit or that it is due to a defect. 

When both parents are poor in musical abihty and come of 
ancestry that lacks on one or both sides such ability the 
children will all be non-musical. 

Four families of this sort are given in the Records. All 29 children are 
poor in music. Compare Fig. 21. 


When one parent has high musical ability and the other 
has Uttle the children will vary much in this respect. 

Thus of 257 offspring of such matings 45 are without musical ability, 
84 are exceptionally good at music while 128 are intermediate. T\\v. re- 
sult indicates a partial blend iii the musical ability of the offspring of 
mixed origin. 

As an example that illustrates the law approximately may 
be cited the Hutchinson family (Hutchinson, 1876). Ac- 
cording to the statement of Wm. Lloyd Garrison, Jesse 
and Mary L. Hutchinson, progenitors of the tribe, lived in 
Milford, N. H., 1777-1863. The father possessed a rare 
baritone, the mother a sweet and mellow contralto voice. 
Of the sixteen children, three died young. The remaining 
thirteen are described as follows: David, deep bass voice; 
Noah, tenor voice; Andrew, baritone and bass voice, deeply 
interested in music; Zephaniah, passionately fond of music; 
Cabel, baritone voice; Joshua, very musical, sang; Jesse, 
editorial work; Benjamin, also gifted musically; Judson, 
musical genius; Rhoda, high contralto; John, most conmiand- 
ing vocal talents of all ; Asa, inherited a large share of musi- 
cal gift; Abbe, contralto voice, one of quartette. Details are 
lacking concerning the voice of Jesse, and the description of 
Benjamin is all too vague, considering the importance of this 
case, and so too much emphasis cannot be laid on these two 
cases; but aside from them the uniformity of testimony as 
to vocal talent of the family is striking. 

8. Ability in Artistic Composition 

Like musical ability, artistic talent shows itself so early as 
to de'monstrate its innateness. Thus extraordinary talent 
was recognized in Francesco Mazzuoh (though ill taught) at 
16, in Paul Potter at 15, in Jacob Ruj^sdael at 14, in Titian 
Vecelli at 13. Galton gives the following pedigree of the 
Vecellis. All the persons named were painters. ''The con- 


necting links indicated by crosses are, singularly enough, 
every one of them lawyers" (Fig. 22). 


I 1 

X X 





I I 

Francisco Titian 



Fabricio Cesare 



Pomponio Horatio 

Tizianello Tomasco 

Fig. 22. — Pedigree of the painter family Vecelli.X, father (always a lawyer). — | 

Galton, 1869. » 

The data furnished by the Family Records seem to justify 
the following conclusions. 

When both parents have exceptional artistic abihty their 
children will, in most cases, all have high artistic ability 
(Fig. 23). 

The data for this generalization are sparse. Four matings of this sort 
furnished 13 children of whom 10 had a high grade, 1 is recorded as medium 
and two as poor; but both of the latter occur in one record that gives in- 
ternal evidence that the question was not clearly understood. 

When both parents are devoid of artistic talent and come 
from an unartistic ancestry none of the children show 
exceptional ability in art. 

From 103 such matings (grade 1) there were derived 391 children of 
whom 185 are given as of grade 1 and 206 as of grade 2, while to none was 
ascribed grade 3. 

When one parent is artistic and the other neither himself 
artistic nor of artistic ancestry then probably none of the 



O w 

studenli L&wycr nLiteikry N.YAcademy <''" 

Fig. 23. — Pedigree of artistic ability (solid black for high talent, oblique 
shading for talent of a less degree). The family shows also the traits of taste 
for history (dots), of mechanical talent (vertical Unes), and of wood carving 
(horizontal lines). II, 3, Nathan P, had son Wra. F. (Ill, 2) who was grand- 
father of an artist, V, 3; and a daughter Mary (III, 4) who was the great 
grandmother of artist J. W. F. (VI, 3). This brother and sister (III, 2, and 

III, 4) married a brother and sister, (III, 1 and III, 3) and it is in this stock 
that we first find the inheritance of artistic ability. IV, 4, married John E. F. 
(IV, 5) a man who through life had a love of historic research. This love of 
history appeared again in George E. F. (V, 6) who became a journalist and 
subsequently author of several valuable works on Indian history. In liis 
son (VI, 3) in turn this love of history cropped out, as shown both in his 
Art History researches and as a painter of Indian history scenes. On his 
father's side, the hneage of VI, 3, has been traced back to 1630. No art- 
istic genius was found in the male Hue except in V, 6 and VI, 3. His grand- 
mother (IV, 4) displayed artistic tendencies, painting notable pictures through- 
out life. 

We turn now to the mother of VI, 3, and her family. Her great-grandfather, 
Joel L., II, 5, married Jerusha, sister of Noah Webster, II, 7. Their son 
Chester's second son, Edward, IV, 15, a distinguished clergyman marri«'<l 
Mary J. S., IV, 16, an educated lady and groat lover of art. Their 8t)n, V, 1 1, 
was editor of the N. Y."Sun," educator. Regent of the State of New York and 
fond of drawing and painting in an amateurish way. Artistic gift exists in his 
sister Anna and his older son, Kenneth. 

Ill, 8, married Rev. S. P., graduate Andover Theological Seminary, first 
Presbyterian missionary to Oregon. Their first son, IV, 8, entered the min- 
istry and waa afterward a physician, also having marked artistic genius. His 
daughter Florence, V, 8, had marked artistic abiht}'. His sister, IV, 10, was 
also a natural artist and this talent developed in her children and grand- 
children to some extent. A brother, IV, 12, was clergyman, author-poet juid 
professor in art. His son, V, 9, was a lawyer. Of cliildren of III, 11-12, 

IV, 19, was gifted as a wood-carver, a trait which appeared in his great- 
nephew, VI, 3. IV, 17, married, and two children were proficient in the 
N. Y. Academy of Design. IV, 7, had an artistic turn of mind and her daugh- 


children will have high artistic talent. But if the unartistic 

parent have artistic ancestry there will be artistic children. 

From 15 such matin gs there were derived 37 children of whom 15 were 
poor in artistic ability and 22 medium. Among the 120 children derived 
from the mating: non-artistic parent having some artistic ancestors X 
artistic parent, there were 43 with exceptional artistic abiUty. 

9. Ability in Litekary Composition 

The inheritance of the abiUty to express oneself in hterary 
form is commonly recognized. ''Poets are born; not made." 
Many hterary men show their talent very early, before they 
had received much training in expression. Burns, the plow- 
boy, was celebrated as a poet at 16, Calderon at 14, Goldoni 
produced comedy at 8, Charlotte Bronte published ''Jane 
Eyre" at 22, Fenelon was known at 15, Sir Philip Sidney : 
was famous at 21. As illustrations of heredity we have 
two of Charlotte Bronte's sisters writing a famous book, 
besides a brother Patrick said to be the greatest genius of 
them all. The father and the father's father of T. B. Ma- 
caulay, two uncles, a cousin and a nephew were all writers 
of note. Four generations of Taylors in England were 
authors of an "evangelist disposition." 

The precise method of inheritance of literary ability has 
not hitherto been made clear; but a study of the Family 
Records seems to justify the following conclusions. 

\ATien both parents have high to good hterary ability 
all (or nearly all) of the children will have hkewise good 
literary abUity. 

There are 643 offspring of such matings in the Family Records and of 
them 93 per cent have medium to high literary capacity. No doubt these 
terms are used somewhat loosely and this may account for the exceptional 


ter, Mary L. B., had a decided artistic talent which she inherited from her 
father's family as well as her mother's. 

It may be of interest to state further that VI, 3, possessed a mechanical 
genius, as did his great-grandfather, Joseph B., Ill, 6, a skilled jeweler, many 
of whose descendants to the fourth generation were also skillful jewelerg. 


When both parents have poor Uterary ability and come 
from a strain devoid of it the children will, typically, have 
poor literary capacity. This generalization is based on the 
19 children, all non-literary, of four matings of this sort. 
But when literary ability appears in remoter ancestry it 
will occur in some of the children. Thus in 23 matings of 
this sort only 25 per cent of the children are without hterary 

10. Mechanical Skill 

1 There can be little doubt of the inheritance of some of 
the elements of mechanical ability. The case of John 
Roebling and his sons, builders of the first great suspension 
bridge over the East River, New York City, and of Charles 
Martin, long chief engineer of that bridge, and his son, 
Kingsley Martin, for some years chief engineer of the bridges 
of Nev York City, are examples famihar to modern Amer- 
icans. | Not less striking is the family of boat designers whose 
pedigree is shown in Fig. 24. Five of the seven sons of the 
illustrious head of the family were inventors and boat 
designers, and high technical abihty has appeared also in 
the third generation. 

The Pomeroys are another American family that illus- 
trates the inheritance of mechanical skill. The first of the 
family in America was Eltweed Pomeroy at Dorchester 
in 1630 and later at Windsor, Connecticut. He was by 
trade a blacksmith, which in those days comprehended prac- 
tically all mechanical trades. His sons and grandsons, 
with few exceptions, followed this trade. ''In the settle- 
ment of new towns in Massachusetts and Connecticut the 
Pomeroys were welcome artisans. Large grants of land 
were awarded to them to induce them to settle and carry 
on their business." "The pecuHar faculty of the Pomeroys 
is not the result of training and hardly of perceptible volun- 


t brb 

m bi 6ta 

6 6 6iJD ^^ytT^ 






Fig. 24. — Pedigree of family with mechanical and inventive abihty, par- 
ticularly in respect to boat-building. I, 2, a suicide: II, 1, a suicide. His 
brother, II, 5, a builder of swoft boats and yachts, II, 7, insane; II, 8, eccentric. 
The union of these two strains ^ith evidence of nervous instability resulted 
in a family of 9 children and 18 grandchildren. Four of the sons show a high 
degree of inventive abihty and 2 of these III, 8-12, developed the genius 
of their father in designing and building swift and beautiful boats. Three 
are musicians, III, 10, 11, 17, and one of them, III, 11, shows also mechanical 
abihty. In the next generation these traits reappear in the various frater- 
nities. IV, 1, is a musician; 2 has much mechanical skill and 3 is inventive; 
5, is a builder of fine boats; IV, 11-15 represent 5 boys, none over 22, but 
already designing boats; two other daughters of this generation show artistic 
and musicial talent and, finally, in the next generation we have a girl of 14, 
V, 3, designing boats. F. R.; H. 

tary effort in the individual. Their powers are due to an 
inherited capacity from ancestry more or less remote, devel- 
oped for generations under some unconscious cerebration." 
There was Seth Pomeroy (1706-1777) an ingenious and skill- 
ful mechanic who followed the trade of gunsmith. At the 
capture of Louisburg in 1745 he was a major and had charge 
of more than twenty smiths who were engaged in drilhng 
captured cannon. Other members of the family manu- 
factured guns which in the French and Indian wars were 
in great demand and in the Revolution, also, the Pomeroy 
guns were indispensable. '^Long before the United States 
had a national armory, the private armories of the Pomeroys 
were famous. There was Lemuel Pomeroy, the pioneer 
manufacturer of Pittsburg, stubborn but clear headed, of 
whom a friend said: There would at times be no living 


with him if he were not always right." There was also 
Elisha M. Pomeroy of Wallingford a tinner by trade. He 
invented the razor strop and profited much by its success. 
[C. H. S. Davis, 1870, History of WaUingford.] In the 
sixth generation we find Benjamin Pomeroy a successful 
lawyer entrusted with important public offices. "But he 
was conscious of powers for which his law practice gave 
him no scope. He had a taste for mechanical execution, 
and as a pastime between his professional duties under- 
took the construction of difficult public works — the more 
difficult the better he liked them. The chief of the United 
States Topographical Engineers was a friend of Mr. Pom- 
eroy and repeatedly consulted him in emergencies wherein 
his extraordinary capacity was made useful to the govern- 
ment. By him were constructed on the Atlantic coast 
beacons and various structures in circumstances that had 
baffled previous attempts." The value to this country of 
the mechanical trait in this one germ plasm can hardly be 
estimated. Especially is it to be noted that, despite con- 
stant out-marriages, it goes its course unreduced and un- 
modified through the generations. 

The Fairbanks family of St. Johnsbury, Vermont, illus- 
trates the inheritance of inventiveness combined with execu- 
tive ability, specialized in the iron trade. The inventor 
of the ''platform scales" belonged to a family not merely 
of iron workers but to one with imagination such as made 
other members literary men (Fig. 25). 

The Family Records give rather definite information as 
to the method of inheritance of mechanical skill. 

When both parents have good or exceptional mechanical 
skill all of their children will have it also. 

Out of 413 children of such maliugs (iiichidinK both sexes) all but 7 
show some mechanical ability, and 118 of them ability of an exceptional 
order. Indeed, most persons of exceptional skill come from this mating. 



n lib tbto tib 

mfibtibtro lite) 




Fig. 25. — Pedigree illustrating inheritance of special ability in the Fair- 
banks family of Vermont. I, James Fairbanks; I, 2, Phoebe Paddock. Her 
two brothers, I, 3 and 4, were iron workers, II, 1, Erastus Fairbanks moved at 
19 years to St. Johnsbury, Vermont and began to manufacture stoves, plows, 
etc.; II, 2, Lois Grossman; II, 3, Thaddeus, a natural mechanic, invented the 
platform scales; II, 4, Lucy Barker; II, 5, the third brother, Joseph P. Fair- 
banks was a lawyer, with literary tastes. 

Erastus and Lois had two sons of whom the elder. III, 1, went into the 
scale business, showed much inventive abihty and a strong taste for natural 
history. His brother Horace, III, 3, was an excellent administrator and 
became Governor of Vermont. Dr. Henry Fairbanks, III, 6, son of Thaddeus 
went into the ministry, but his love of invention drew him into the iron business. 
He combined mechanical and literary gifts. Ill, 8, was a minister and III, 9, 
a sagacious and exact man, was secretary and treasurer of the Fairbanks Com- 

If both parents lack mechanical skill and come from an 
ancestry that lacks it no offspring will have mechanical 
ability. Even if mechanical skill is found in the ancestry 
of one side, but not of the other, still there will be no marked 
mechanical abihty in the children. 

If one parent has mechanical ability and the other belongs 
to a strain that lacks it then exceptional mechanical ability 
will be absent or uncommon. But if the parent that 
lacks mechanical ability comes from an ancestry that pos- 
sessed it a large proportion of the children will have such 
ability. Also when both parents that have slight mechanical 
ability are descended, on one side, from persons with skill, 
such skill will reappear in approximately one child in four. 



11. Calculating Ability 

The inheritance of great mathematical ability cannot be 
denied and is well illustrated in the case of Bernoulh: Jac- 
ques, his nephews Nicholas and Jean, and three nephew's 
sons were mathematicians of high rank. 

Our Family Records afford a limited amount of data on 
the subject of inheritance of mathematical ability. They 
do give information concerning the inheritableness of the 
ability to calculate — a broader phenomenon. The follow- 
ing rule seems justified: When both parents are good at 
calculating all (or nearly all) of their children will be so 

Of 728 offspring of this class of matings all but 48 (or 8 per cent) were 
good at calculating. In no case were both parents returned as poor at 
calculating; but in 47 matings both parents were only medium and 13 
per cent of their children were poor at calculating. 

12. Memory 

There is no doubt that people vary in their ability to 
remember and there is no question that a good memory 
is an innate quality. Phenomenal memories are often asso- 
ciated with mental defect in which case it is clear they are 
independent of training. In other cases they are associated 
with high scholarship. Thus Galton cites the case of Rich- 
ard Porson, an eminent Greek scholar, whose memory 
became stupendous. His mother had a remarkable memory 
and so did his sister. 

The Family Records throw some hght on the inheritance 
of a good memory; although the term is a relative one and 
lacks in precision. Nevertheless for a preliminary study 
the data are not to be despised although there are not a 
few exceptions to any generalizations one may hazard. 

When both parents have an exceptionally good memory 


most, if not all, of the children have a memory that is 
medium to exceptional.^ 

When both parents have a poor memory and come from 
ancestry so characterized few if any of the children have 
an excellent memory. 

Two "poor" parents (with "poor" grandparents) have 10 children all 
with poor memory. 

When one parent has a memory that is either excellent 
or fair and the other has one that is "poor" all children 
have a medium memory; and, conversely, parents with 
medium memory may have 20 to 25 per cent of children 
with excellent and as many with poor memory. 

13. Combined Talents and Summary of Special 


While the separate talents may, for purposes of analysis, 
be considered separately they usually, as our illustrations 
suggest, occur in combination in a single family. And 
such talents are frequently enough associated with insanity 
or mental defect in some of its members as apparently to 
justify the poet's conclusion: ''Great wits are sure to mad- 
ness near allied" (Fig. 26). 

In many cases artistic, hterary and musical talent are 
found in the same family — two or all three of them are 
occasionally found in the same person (Fig. 27, Fig. 28). 
The conclusion seems justified that artistic, literary and 
musical skill are unit characters that may occur in any 
combinations — the common inherited factor may be only 
a highly developed imagination. 

In the foregoing cases the method of inheritance of many 
of the elements of the mental makeup have been considered 

' The Family Records give 4 per cent of children of such matings as having 
a poor memory. 


and the remarkable result has been deduced that the higher 
grades of all these qualities act, in inheritance, as though 
they were due to the absence of something that is present 

DiO no 

and banker 


USCrnnt -.le t81 Genwal oWe lumdsonK S^i'ljS?* 

.fine "«^{y 


fintintri. mnslcisnlmiTotk: aMe 4- yi resthw br&m 
dissoh]t« p»ini»r )(Knffit «iginter *ailtr tuaar 

Fig. 26. — Pedigree of brilliancy combined with defect and melancholia. 

F. R. 

in persons of poorer ability. It is as if the difference between 
a person of high abihty and one of low ability in respect 
to any mental trait is that the person of high abihty has 

Dr© mrO 



Fig. 27. — Pedigree of family with artistic (dark upper section), literary 
(right section) and musical (left section) abihty. 

got rid of a something possessed by the person of lower 
ability that prevents the latter from fully exercising his 
faculties; — he has sloughed off one or more inhibitors. 

14. Temperament 

Two contrasted temperaments are usually recognized. 
One phlegmatic, slow, rarely depressed; the opposite ner- 





Fig. 28. — Pedigree of a pedigree-complex (Abbott-Buck-Wolff) showing 
inheritance of musical (dots), literary (horizontal hnes) and inventive (vertical 
lines) ability. Variations in the area covered by each symbol indicate roughly 
a variation in degree of abiUty of the given kind. I, 1, a musician of the 
eighteenth century and I, 2, his wife, the daughter of a professor of music. 
One of his sons adopted a seafaring life and died in Mozambique. Two sons, 

II, 8, 11, were instructors in the Geneva Conservatory of Music. The son, 

III, 21, of one of these was a professor of music and a composer. The other 
married a woman, II, 7, with literary and musical ability and had four chil- 
dren of whom III, 19, was a hterary composer; III, 18, had good musical abihty; 
III, 20, was brilliant piano player with a fine baritone voice and hterary; and 
III, 17, both hterary and musical, married a man with inventive abihty whose 
first cousin, III, 9, was an organist and musical composer of high rank. Two 
of their children, IV, 14, 15, show hterary abihty and IV, 14, inventive ability 
also. He married into a family famous in American hterature and with much 
musical ability and the product was two children both hterary and one, V, 7, an 
inventor of high rank. Ill, 1 and 3, derived from a musical father, have hterary 
ability of a high order. One who has also some musical ability married a very 
musical wife and of the 4 sons at least 3 have musical abihty. One of 
these, IV, 3, combined with the musical also literary ability, married a woman 
with some literary ability and had 4 sons of whom 3 at least are littera- 
teurs and two have much musical abihty. V, 5, is a well-known authoress. 

vous, quick, often elated or alternately elated and depressed. 
Between the extremes lie, as is usually the case, many 
intermediates. While it is clear that there are no sharp 
lines to be drawn between these conditions, some insight 
into their hereditary behavior may be gained by an exami- 
nation of the opinions furnished by collaborators in the 
Family Records. 

When phlegmatic is assumed to be a condition recessive to the "inter- 
mediate" and nervous conditions we find that in three families with 13 
offspring, 10 or 77 per cent, are likewise phlegmatic. On the other hand, 
when nervous is assumed to be recessive to intermediate and phlegmatic 
in 130 offspring of nervous parents 64 or 49 per cent were nervous. 


So far as the data go they support the following conclu- 
sions. The offspring of two phlegmatic parents tend to be 
phlegmatic and the nervous parents of purely nervous 
origin have nervous children. But one phlegmatic parent 
mated to a nervous one will produce chiefly nervous chil- 
dren and many who are intermediate. When both parents 
are nervous with phlegmatic ancestry a fairly large pro- 
portion (up to about a quarter?) will be phlegmatic. 

15. Handwriting 

Inheritance of peculiarities of handwriting is often al- 
leged (Darwin, 1894, p. 449), but it is difficult to get 
satisfactory evidence about it. A correspondent (Hal-2) 
writes: — ''We belong to a family of penmen. My four 
brothers and myself inherited our handwriting (the Eng- 
lish legal copyist's handwriting) from my father. Two of 
our uncles and two cousins also wrote the family hand. I 
beheve it was asserted that our paternal grandfather wrote 
the same. We could distinguish the writing of each, but 
the general family resemblance was there, especially when 
we were all young men and my father was not old. . . . 
We descended from a family that included officemen, 
lawyers, recorders to whom expert penmanship was nec- 

16. General Bodily Energy 

Of the inheritance of this quality there can be no doubt. 
If we take the class of commanders as one characterized 
above all by bodily energy we see the intensity of its hered- 
ity. It is exemplified in the family of Alexander the Great 
from Phihp of Macedon down, the family of Charlemagne 
including Pepin le Gros and Charles Martel, of Gustavus 
Adolphus, and of Scipio Africanus. 


Can we discover how bodily energy, which reaches its 
highest degree in such commanders, is inherited? Here 
again I appeal to the Family Records in which energy is 
recorded in the three grades: below average, medium, de- 
cidedly above average. The following principles seem estab- 

When both parents have bodily energy that is regarded 
as "decidedly above average" all of their children will have 
either exceptional or at least medium energy. 

The mating of two energetic parents in 192 families produced 413 off- 
spring (or 2.2 children to the family). Of these 301 (73 per cent) are placed 
in the highest grade; 100 (24 percent) in the middle grade and only 12 
(3 per cent) in the low grade. Considering the probability of errors this 
lowest grade is negUgible. 

When both parents have medium to low energy and come 
from ancestry of this sort all offspring have medium to low 

There are 54 matings of this sort, with 219 children (or 4.1 children to 
the fraternity). All but 4 are in the medium class. 

When one parent has great bodily energy while the other 
has no great energy in himself or his ancestry all of the 
children (86) have medium (82) or low energy (4). But if 
there be energy in the grandparents on the low side about 
half of the children will have energy that is decidedly above 
the average. 

There are 105 matings of the latter sort, producing 456 children (or 4.3 
children to the fraternity) of whom 226 were classed as of great energy, 
208 of medium and only 22 as low. 

On the whole the facts support the hypothesis that ex- 
cessive bodily energy is due to a loss of sometliing — perhaps 
an inhibitor that prevents persons from achieving the best 
that is in them. However, the whole subject deserves a 
more thorough investigation. 


17. General Bodily Strength 

-- Like other bodily traits general stren^tli is clearly in- 
herited. This appears repeatedly in our records. An ex- 
ample is given in Fig. 29. 

■jO DtO 

Fig. 29. — Inheritance of muscular strength. I, 1, of great physical strength. 
His son II, 3, was likewise possessed of unusual strength. His elder son in 
turn was athletic but became dissipated. F. R.; St. L 

18. General Mental Ability 

The general mental ability of a person is a vague concept 
which is, however, in common use. We speak of a man as 
weak minded, as of mediocre ability, as exceptionally able 
without attempting a closer analysis of the subject. 

General mental ability, like stature and weight, under- 
goes a progressive development so that in studying its 
heredity we must compare it in adult persons or else measure 
it by the deviation the person shows from the normal of his 
age. Thus we may call "weak mindedness" such a defect 
as would keep a child of 10 in a school grade where the other 
children are 6 or 7; a child of ''mediocre" ability is not 
more than two years behind the average grade for his age; 
''exceptionally able" would imply, say, two years in advance 
of children of his age. A series of tests (the Binet-Simon 
tests) have been devised to gauge mental abiUty by gauging 
a variety of capacities such as general information, ability 
to count and to repeat phrases, to recognize names and 
describe common things and to make fine sense discrimina- 


tions. Such tests show that there are all grades of mental 
ability. At one extreme is the idiot, without language and 
incapable of attending to his bodily needs. He may retain 
to maturity the mentahty of a child of a few months. In a 
higher grade mentality of a child of 3 to 5 years is retained 
throughout life; such are the imbeciles; then come the 
merely backward children who make dull adults of all 

Fig. 30. — Family group from a long-settled valley where much consan- 
guineous marriage has taken place. 

grades to the normal condition (Fig. 30). Finally, there are 
the exceptionally bright, quick children some of whom at 
least, become superior adults. It is hard to recognize a 
unit character in such a series any more than in human hair 
color. Nevertheless there are laws of inheritance of general 
mental ability that can be sharply expressed. Low men- 
tality is due to the absence of some factor, and if this factor 
that determines normal development is lacking in both 
parents it will be lacking in all of their offspring. 

Two mentally defective parents will produce only mentally 
defective offspring. This is the first law of inheritance of 


mental ability. It has now been dcmonstratctl by the study 
of scores of families at the Vineland (N. J.) Training School 
for defectives by Dr. H. H. Goddard. Some pedigrees il- 
lustrating this law, and those that follow, are given in 
Figs. 31-35. 

[H-r-O tSISh-r-O 


-T-(^Oi^(^I^}-r®''H~^ f^ 


I I R 

(N)[N]^(i)[i][t] i^HhISh© b 

N • 

Fig. 31. — Pedigree chart illustrating the law that two defective parents 
have only defective children. A, Alcoholic; C, criminalistic; D, inf., died in 
infancy; F, feeble-minded; A'^, normal, T, tubercular. Goddakd, 1910. 

The second law of heredity of mentahty is that, aside 
from "mongolians," probably no imbecile is born except 
of parents who, if not mentally defective themselves, both 
carry mental defect in their germ plasm. Fig. 36 (left side 
of chart). Many a person of strong mentahty may carry 
defective germ cells and, whenever two such persons marry, 
expectation is that one-fourth of their offspring will be 
defective. If a person that belongs to a strain in which 
defect is present (and who, consequently, may be carr^-ing 
the defect in his germ plasm) marry a cousin or other near 
relative (in whom the chance is large that the same defective 
germ plasm is carried) the opportunity for two defective 
germ cells to unite is enhanced. Such consanguineous mar- 
riages are fraught with grave danger. 

In view of the certainty that all of the children of two 
feeble-minded parents will be defective how great is the 
folly, yes, the crime, of letting two such persons marry. It 



-© D-rO 

(n) [n] (i) (t) [a]-^^ 



7 K«S. 





2ii< WIFE 


Fig. 32. — Pedigree chart illustrating the inheritance of feeble-mindedness. 
In chart A, the central mating is of an alcoholic man with a normal woman 
who died of tuberculosis. Of their 11 children, 5 are known to be normal, 
the others died early. Then (B) this man married a feeble-minded woman 
and of 7 children 3 are certainly feeble-minded, and 2 were, as young 
children, killed at play, in a fashion indicating a lack of ability to avoid 
ordinary dangers. Goddard, 1910. 

®-h5WSei <^ <^ lii iihHiMB 

i^<^(N)(N)<^ liwrr^ios^ 

d d d 
mr iNf >Nr. 

MOS- wos. 

k k 

Fig, 33. — Here a feeble-minded woman (of the first generation) has married 
a normal man and has 4 normal children (except that 1 is alcoholic); then 
she marries an alcohohc sex-offender (who is probably also feeble-minded) and 
has 4 feeble-minded children. Here the mental strength of the first husband 
brought the required strength into the combination, so as to give good children. 
GODDAKD, 1910. 

THE INHP:RITANCE of family traits 6J) 




§m (N)i^ik o €m Bi^ 

k k k 


Fig. 34. — An alcoholic man of good family but probably simple.x in men- 
tality has by a normal woman 2 normal cbdldren and by a feeble-minded 
woman 2 normals and 1 feeble-minded. He has had 4 other children by 
I feeble-minded women, all feeble-minded. Sx, sex-offender. Goddakd, 1910. 

^ Eh 

Si "o^ ' 



FFF G)-liVSn n"^ 


d 4 <i 


flS — I — Is INF. INF. mr. ■■ l3fl 

ind HUSaaNO 

odioi^o^n^ <^l^ 66 


» 6 

Tig. 35. — This chart shows several cases of entirely feeble-minded progeny 
from two defective parents. Guddard, 1910. 

las happened many times that keepers of poorhouses have 
et feeble-minded women in their charge go to marry a half- 
!«dtted farmer in order to reheve the town of the burden of 
naintaining her. Some years later both she and her hus- 
)and come to the poorhouse as permanent inhabitants and 




^(*)Cl)[T][N][Nl[i](N)(N)[N}-y<N^ ' 



Fig. 36. — Pedigree of a "mongolian" imbecile. Except for an insane 
uncle (1) there is no evidence of a psychopathic condition in the parental germ 
plasms. GoDDARD, 1910. 

bring half a dozen imbecile children to be a permanent 
charge on the community. Surely there is no economy in 

A still more appalling piece of testimony is given by a 
delegate from Alabama to the 26th National Conference 
of Charities and Correction. He said: ''In our poor institu- 
tions the males and the females are allowed to run together 
and, so long as that is allowed, you cannot cut off the in- 
crease. It is perfectly appalling how the children accumu- 
late in institutions." 

Anyone acquainted with rural poorhouses (Fig. 37), 
particularly in the South, will appreciate that the people 
housed in them are mostly mentally inferior. By bringing 
together defective men and women, without proper segrega- 
tion of the sexes, and by protecting and nursing the defective 
offspring of defective parents and then turning them out 
upon the community, the improperly conducted county 
poorhouses constitute one of the country's worst dangers. 
What is the state of your county poorhouse, reader? 

An apparent paradox may well have occurred to the 
reader, and that is that mental defect and the elements of 
exceptional ability are inherited in the same way. This 
certainly looks Uke a self-contradiction. Are not the feeble- 






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Fig. 37. — The "poorhouse" type of reproduction of the feeble-minded 
and epileptic. A lewd, feeble-minded and epileptic woman whose mother 
was certainly feeble-minded (but of whose father, brothers and sisters noth- 
ing is known) was the inmate of a county poorhouse. While there she had 
6 children, of whom 2 died in infancy, 1 died at 18 in the almshouse, 
2 were feeble-minded and are now living in the almshouse (1 the son of 
a negro) and 1 was epileptic, the son of a man with a criminal record. (*?, 
criminalistic; D, dead; E, epileptic; F, feeble-minded; S, syphihtic; Sx, sexO- 
ally immoral. 


minded and the talented at opposite extremes of the mental 
series? Why, then, this resemblance in the inheritance df 
their traits? Improbable as the result may appear it is 
precisely that to which students of hereditary genius have 
come. Says Havelock Ellis: ''We may regard it (genius) as 
a highly sensitive and complexly developed adjustment of 
the nervous system along special lines, with concomitant 
tendency to defect along other Unes. Its elaborate organiza- 
tion along special hues is often built up on a basis even less 
highly organized than that of the ordinary average man. 
It is no paradox to say that the real affinity of genius is with 
congenital imbecihty rather than insanity." Ellis notes 
that eminent men are more apt to be eldest or youngest 
sons. Now this fact is in agreement with the obser\'ation 
that feeble-minded persons of certain types ("mongoHans,") 
are more apt to be eldest or youngest children than inter- 
mediates. This type seems to be caused solely by the defects 


in development due to imperfect nutrition of the child bornj 
of parents (particularly mothers) that are immature or too 
old. The contention that geniuses and some defectives are 
born chiefly at the extremes of the reproductive period sup- 
ports the view of their relationship. 

19. Epilepsy 

This term is believed by many professional men to cover 
a number of distinct brain disorders that have in common 
the symptoms known as convulsions or ''fits." All too 
little is known about the physiology of the forced move- 
ments of convulsions, accompanied as they typically are by 
temporary loss of consciousness. It is known that convul- 
sions may sometimes be induced in guinea pigs by a heavy 
blow on the brain case, and similar injuries are stated to 
have produced epilepsy in man. In other cases the ''cause" 
is stated to be disturbance in the cerebral circulation due to 
a local stoppage in the blood vessels. However, it may well 
be questioned whether such causes are sufficient and not 
merely inciting, whether an inherent weakness did not first 
exist, which was only disclosed by the blow or disturbance 
in the circulation. A fall on the ice may result in a child's ''• 
first epileptic fit but thousands fall on the ice without more 
than temporary discomfort; it was not the fall merely but 
the fall plus the too delicate nervous organization. 

The hereditary basis of epilepsy has been studied and, 
rather remarkably, it follows the same laws as feeble- 
mindedness. Two epileptic parents probably produce only 
defective offspring, and the defect sometimes takes the | 
form of epilepsy, sometimes that of feeble-mindedness. It 
does not seem necessary to repeat the laws of heredity for 
epilepsy since in them the words epilepsy and feeble- 
mindedness are almost interchangeable (Figs. 38-43). 

The warning against the evils of poorhouses as breeding 


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Fig. 38. — The product of a feeble-minded man (who has an epileptic 
brother) and his epileptic wife (whose father was insane and uncle feeble- 
minded); the first child died in infancy, the next two were feeble-minded and 
died young, the next is an epileptic at the New Jersey State Village; the next 
is feeble-minded, haa a criminal record and is in the State Home for Boys; the 
last is feeble-minded and is in the Children's Industrial Home. Six in this 
family have been or are wards of the State. A, alcoholic; C, criminalistic; 
D, deaf; E, epileptic; F, feeble-minded; /, insane; A'', normal. SF in the £3^ 
means an inmate of a State Village for Epileptics. 




eHW2 I ^^ B ISM 

Fig. 39. — The central mating is that of a feeble-minded woman of an in- 
tensely neuropathic strain and an alcohoHc man, who haa 3 alcohoUc brothers, 
father and grandfather alcohoUc, an insane cousin and an epileptic nephew. 
The husband, though recorded as alcohohc, is probably also feeble-minded, 
at least all (6) of his children who survived were feeble-minded or epileptic. 
This chart shows 4 wards of the State and many others who should have 
been segregated. A, alcohohc; B, blind; B, (below), born; D, deaf; D, (be- 
low), died; E, epileptic; F, feeble-minded; Ht, heart-disease; /, insane; Far, 
paralysis, Sx, sex-offense; T, tubercular. 


places of feeble-mindedness needs to be repeated for epilepsy 
and the dangers of consanguineous marriage are equally 
great (Fig. 43). If these two sources of epileptics — namely 
the poorhouse and the hovel (Fig. 44) — were cut off the 
supply of epileptics would be markedly reduced. And it is 








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{t. Fig. 40. — This mating illustrates the principle that migraine (ilf) and 
paralysis frequently indicate the presence of defective germ cells, as well as 
normal. In the central mating the paralytic father has an insane brother, an 
insane niece and 3 feeble-minded grandnephewa, besides a grandniece, who 
died in convulsions. By his migrainous wife he had 12 children about 9 of 
whom something is known. One is epileptic, 3 "neurotic" or very nervous, 
1 "pecuUar" and alcoholic, while 3 are normal. The epileptic child has by 
an alcoholic husband 2 epileptic sons. Abbreviations as in Figs. 38, 39. 

to be observed that these two sources of supply are quite 
within the control of society. A little larger appropriation 
to provide for the complete segregation of the sexes and a 
b^etter superintendence will shut off the poorhouse supply 
and the inmates of the hovels should be brought under 
stirveillance, — if necessary under public care. 












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Fig. 41. — The central mating in this chart is that of an epileptic man, 
of a highly neuropathic strain, and a neurotic woman, whose sister and nephew 
have had chorea or St. Vitus' dance. The product is 1 normal child, 1 
ejiileptic, and 1 as j^et only 7 years old. Abbreviations as in Figs. 38, 39. 




Fig. 42. — The central mating is that of 2 normal parents, b(Uh of whom 
belong to stock that shows evidence of being neuropathic. Doubtless some 
of the germ cells of both parents are defective in mental strength, .\long with 
6 normal children appears 1 epileptic. Abbreviations as in Figs. 38, 39. 
Figs. 37-43, are contributed by Dr. David F. Weeks. 




W^ (§ 


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.u ^^^- 43.— The "Hovel" type of reproductions of defectives. In a hut in 
the woods there was brought up a family of defectives. One of the boys who 
IS a drunken, feeble-minded fellow with criminalistic tendencies, had by his 
own sister a daughter who is a drunken epileptic, who has been the inmate 
both of the county jail and the county poorhouse. By her father she had 
4 children of whom 1 is epileptic, 2 are feeble-minded (the girl has a 
very bad record of drunkenness, crime and immorahty) and the other one 
was an idiot monster who died directly after being born. Close inbreeding of 
such a strain results only in this imperfect fruit. Abbreviations as above: '^ 


Fig. 44.— a hovel in a rural district, removed from social influences and 
hable to become the scene of anti-social acts. F. W.; 5 191h 


20. Insanity 

If the word epilepsy is a wardrobe then the word insanity 
is a veritable lumber room, including a great variety of 
mental diseases which have this in common that they render 
their victim incompetent and irresponsible before the law. 
Two great classes of msanity are distinguished: the "or- 
ganic" and the "functional." The first group includes 
cases of mental deterioration associated with venereal dis- 
eases, alcohohsm, degeneration of the blood vessels and 
trauma; the second includes cases of distinct neuropathic 
taint which shows itself in the slighter forms as melancholia 
or manic depressive insanity and in the profounder forms 
as dementia precox. Concerning heredity in the functional 
forms there is no doubt. Berze (1910) gives a case of de- 
mentia precox in a father and three sons; another of two 
children, their mother and her father; and numerous other 
cases with two or three to the family — all with a more or 
less typical form of dementia precox. But the mental de- 
fect that is "inherited" is not always of the same type. 
Thus in the same family may be found cases of manic de- 
pressive insanity, of senile dementia, of alcohohsm and of 
feeble-mindedness. It would seem to be the neuropathic 
taint that is inherited. 

This is the conclusion to which Cannon and Rosanoff 
(1911) have come in their study based on house to houfee 
investigations of the families of patients at a State Hospital. 
They omit from consideration the "organic" class of cas^s 
as "probably purely exogenous in origin." Aside from these 
they find that when both parents have any form of insanity 
all of their children will "go insane." If one parent is iiji- 
sane and the other normal but of insane stock half of the 
children tend to become insane; when both parents, though 
normal, belong to an insane stock about one-fourth of the 




J_9 JlO I 11 I 12 Jj3 


Fio. 45. — The central mating, II, 7, II, 8, is that of a man, II, 7, who is 
subject to melancholia and has an insane brother and another who is neuro- 
pathic. His wife is normal but her mother was neuropathic. The product of 
this union is 11 children of whom 3 are neuropathic. One of these insane 
children marries a normal person (probably of neuropathic ancestry), and has 
2 neuropathic children besides 1 that is epileptic, IV, 1. E, epileptic; 
/, insane; N, normal; shaded symbols imply some neuropathic condition other 
than insanity. Cannon and Rosanoff, 1911. 





Fig. 46. — The central mating is that of a normal man of neuropathic 
stock with a neuropathic woman who has an insane sister. Since by hypothesis 
all of her germ cells and half of his are "neuropathic" it is to be expected that 
half of their offspring will be neuropathic in some degree. Actually, of 6 sur- 
viving children 2 are epileptic, 2 highly nervous and 2 normal so far as 
known. There is a slight, but not unreasonable deficiency of normals, 
namely, 1. The shaded symbols represent nervous subjects. Cannon and 
Rosanoff, 1911. 

children become insane. The typical laws of heredity are 
followed here (Figs. 45-47). 

But is it so certain that alcoholic, traumatic, even syphil- 
itic dementia have no hereditary basis? On the contrary 


Fia. 47. — The central mating is that of a pair who, though not insane, 
have pronounced neuropathic manifestations. The mother has an insane 
sister and the father comes of neuropathic stock. Of the 3 surviving 
children 1 is neurotic, 1 insane and 1 epileptic. A similar mating of 
2 neuropathic persons is seen in the parents of the father — all of their off- 
spring are neuropathic. The shaded symbols represent neuropathic in- 
dividuals. Cannon and Rosanoff, 1911. 



*inf I tinf iinf 


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Fig. 47a. — Inheritance of "insanity." From the central mating of 2 
normal persons there are derived 8 children, 3 insane. But there is the heredi- 
tary tendency in the germ plasm of both parents. Mott, 1905. 

it is fairly open to debate whether alcoholics are not usually 
mentally defective and the delirium tremens that develops 
is a symptom of their mental weakness. Similarly a blow 
is often just the stress that reveals the mental weakness; 


the syphilitic poison in some, if not most cases, hkewise acts 
most disastrously on the neuropathic constitution. Thus, 
probably an hereditary predisposition lies at the basis of 
most cases of insanity; and this predisposition behaves in 
heredity like a defect. 

21. Pauperism 

Pauperism is a result of a complex of causes. On one side 
it is mainly environmental in origin as, for instance, in the 
case when a sudden accident, like death of the father, leaves a 
widow and family of children mthout means of livelihood, 
or a prolonged disease of the wage earner exhausts savings. 
But it is easy to see that in these cases heredity also plays a 
part; for the effective worker will be able to save enough 
money to care for his family in case of accident ; and the man 
of strong stock will not suffer from prolonged disease. Bar- 
ring a few highly exceptional conditions poverty means rela- 
tive inefficiency and this in turn usually means mental inferi- 
ority. This is the conclusion that social workers in many 
places have reached. Thus from Harrisburg, Pa., come these 
cases: (a) Mr. and Mrs. R., applicants for relief and hving in 
a slum district, are parents of 14 children of whom 10 are 
hving. These parents are both epileptic and feeble-minded, 
(b) Mother and father are both feeble-minded. There are 6 
children, all of marriageable age, all unfit to earn in any case 
more than $1.50 per week, and all recipients of pubhc alms. 
Such cases might be multiplied indefinitely. 

In the larger pedigrees of the Jukes and Zero famihes more 
definite data as to inheritance of some of the elements of 
poverty can be gained. Let us take " shif tlessness " as an 
important element in poverty. Then classifying all persons 
in these two families as very shiftless, somewhat shiftless, and 
industrious the follo\ving conclusions are reached. When 














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both parents are very shiftless practically all children are 
''very shiftless" or ''somewhat shiftless." Out of 62 oflf- 
spring, 3 are given as "industrious" or about 5 per cent (Fig. 
48). When both parents are shiftless in some degree about 
15 per cent of the known offspring are recorded as industrious. 
When one parent is more or less shiftless while the other is 
industrious only about 10 per cent of the children are "very 
shiftless." It is probable that both shiftlessness and lack 
of physical energy are due to the absence of something which 
can be got back into the offspring only by mating with in- 

22. Narcotism 

The love of alcoholic drink, opium, etc., is commonly re- 
garded as due solely to its use. It has even been asserted that 
the "taste" is usually an acquired one; and we are assured 
that drunkenness results from bad associates and imitation of 
bad habits. Cases are cited of persons who, after an exem- 
plary youth, have suddenly through drink been started on 
the downward road. On the other hand there are those who 
maintain that the desire for narcotics is a symptom of a neur- 
asthenic tendency. "So long as there is a call for these 
narcotics must our race be stamped as degenerate" (Gaupp 
quoted by Mason, 1910). Says Lydston (1904, p. 200) 
"Practically, then, inebriety means degeneracy, the subject 
being usually primarily defective in nervous structure and 
will-power. It is a noteworthy fact that the family histories 
of dipsomaniacs are largely tinctured with nerve disorders. 
Hysteria, epilepsy, migraine and even insanity are found all 
along the line. In such cases inebriety is but one of the vary- 
ing manifestations of bad heredity." Each of these con- 
trasted views is partial. Whether a person who has taken a 
first glass of alcoholic liquor shall take another is determined 
largely by the effect upon him of the first. If the alcohol is 


very distasteful he will probably not continue to drink; if it 
wakens a strong desire for more he will probably become (or 
is) a dipsomaniac.^ The result in these extreme cases is deter- 
mined by innate tastes which are doubtless hereditary. But 
in most cases the person who takes a first glass finds it indiffer- 
ent. His subsequent relation to alcohol depends largely upon 
his associates; but his selection of associates again depends on 
innate tastes. Some like the steady, quiet, serious youth for 
their companions; others select the reckless, jolly fellows, 
careless of the proprieties and — "birds of a feather flock 
together." The influence of precept is not to be overlooked; 
this is, however, most important in determining the first 
drink. No doubt a strong susceptibihty to social sentiment 
restrains many of the border line cases. 

A strong hereditary bias toward alcohol runs through not a 
few famihes of the United States. A pedigree of one such is 
given in Fig. 49. The neighbors say: "It is a family of 
drunkards," yet some of the individuals never touch hquor. 
The bad environment has its result first and chiefly on those 
individuals with an hereditary predisposition toward nar- 
cotics and this hereditary bias is stronger in some famihes 
than others, depending on the nature of the family trait, and 
it occurs in a larger proportion of the cases in some families 
than others, depending on the nature of the matings that 
have occurred in that family. 

23. Criminality 

In connection with the subject of nervous defect and dis- 
ease the topic of an hereditary tendency to crime must be 

^ Dr. L. D. Mason, head of the Inebriates' Home for Kings County (N. Y.) 
tells this story from his experience. He knew of a young man of such ancestry 
that a dipsomaniac was predicted. For years the youth refrained from drink, 
and led an exemplary life. Finally, he was operated on for appendicitis and, 
to hasten recovery, the surgeon gave him some brandy. An uncontrollable 
appetite was awakened and the man soon died from alcoholism. 



alluded to. Despite the conservatism of the courts, despite 
the fact that scientifically ascertained general principles usu- 
ally weigh less than precedent, the treatment of the criminal 
has made progress during the past century. It is stated that 
"Mackintosh speaking in the English House of Commons so 
late as March 2, 1819 said 'I hold in my hand a list of those 
offenses which at this moment are capital, in number two 
hundred and twenty three' " (Johnston, 1887, p. 106). Phys- 
ical severity, frequent floggings, chaining to the floor, unsani- 
tary surroundings, insufficient and improper food were the 
elements of a treatment by a society that was exasperated 
into severity by the realization of its impotent ignorance. 
Only slowly has the idea of hospitals for insane criminals 
spread; but though several states maintain great institutions 
of this sort they still receive a quite insufficient proportion 
of those convicted of crime. 

A few pictures of the youth with hereditary criminal in- 
stincts may properly be quoted here. 

1. 0. L., female, father and jnother both intemperate 
and degenerate, and always on the verge of pauperism. The 
patient is cruel to animals and childi'en; thus, she put a cat 
on a red hot stove, threw knives and stones at playmates, 
wished to have a small baby to strike and kick; and helped 
drown a comrade in a bath tub. She is very untruthful and 
a chronic thief; has fits of temper when she screams, tears 
clothing, and pulls out her hair; is in a state of chronic re- 
bellion against the constituted authorities, a trouble maker 
and inciter of mischief. She talks fluently, is sly and cunning, 
vain as to her personal appearance and boastful to attract 
attention. Age 16. This person has committed the crimes 
of wanton cruelty to animals, petty larceny, truancy, assault 
and murder. She is a moral imbecile. 

2. 0. K., male, entered a school for feeble-minded at 9, at 
the time of the description is 11. He has a bright, knowing, 


intelligent manner, has a fund of general information and is 
very talkative. He is very cruel to younger children, has an 
ungovernable temper, is an inciter of discontent and rebellion 
among the other patients, lies maliciously, ingeniously and 
convincingly, and steals inveterately and without motive. 
This child, removed into an excellent school with the best 
of surroundings, at the tender age of nine reveals striking 
criminalistic traits which no care can correct. In this case 
the hereditary history is unknown. In those that follow it 
has been precisely ascertained. 


t *6 

Fig. 50 

3. Figure 50, III, 4 is an eleven year old boy who began to 
steal at 3 years; at 4 set fire to a pantry resulting in an explo- 
sion that caused his mother's death; and at 8 set fire to a 
mattress. He is physically sound, able and well informed, 
polite, gentlemanly and very smooth, but he is an inveterate 
thief and has a court record. His older brother, 14, has been 
full of deviltry, has stolen and set fires but is now settled 
down and is earning a living. Their father is an unusually 
fine, thoughtful intelligent man, a grocer, for a time sang on 
the vaudeville stage; his mother, who died at 32, is said to 
have been a normal woman of excellent character. There is 
however a taint on both sides. The father's father was wild 
and drank when young and had a brother who was an invet- 
erate thief. The mother's father was alcoholic and when 


drunk mean and vicious. Some of the mother's brothers 
stole or were sexually immoral. 

4. A healthy man (Fig. 51, 11,1) employed on a railroad as 
a fireman and using neither alcohol nor tobacco married a 
woman who was born in the mountains of West Virginia 
near the Kentucky line and who shows many symptoms of 
defectiveness. She has epileptic convulsions as often as 2 
or 3 times a week, has an ungovernable temper, smokes, 
chews and drinks, is illiterate and sexually immoral. There 


Sx Sx E tchorea 

Fig. 51 

are 10 children, of whom something is known about 7. One 
died early of chorea, one of the others (III, 8) seems normal; 
III, 1 has killed two men including a policeman; III, 4 had 
her husband killed and lives with his slayer; III, 6, an epi- 
leptic and cigarette fiend, convicted of assault; III, 12 has 
hysterical convulsions and is afraid in sleep; III, 15 has 
migraine. The combination in the fraternity of migraine, 
chorea, hysteria, epilepsy and sexual immorality and tend- 
ency to assault is striking and appalling. 

5. A 10 year old boy (Fig 52, IV, 4) who was precocious as 
a raconteur at 22 months, does well at school except for inat- 
tention; is fond of reading and athletics, cheerful, and polite. 
But he prefers the companionship of older, wild boys and 
cannot be weaned from them. He lies, runs up accounts in 
his parents' name, is acquiring bad sexual habits, and runs 


away from home. He has two fine, studious brothers. His 
father is a strong character and a successful lawyer, his 
mother an excellent woman, intelligent and firm. She has 
a brother who left home at 14 to seek a life of adventure. 
He finally settled down to a steady life. Their father's father 
was erratic. He loved Indian outdoor life, always used an 
Indian blanket and at over 70 years swam the Mississippi 
River. He traced back his ancestry to Pocahontas. He has 
another grandson, III, 2, who is an unruly character with a 








Fig. 52 

roving disposition; he joined the navy and his whereabouts 
are unknown; his father was a lawyer and a fine character. 

6. Another case of truancy (Fig. 53, III, 2) is a 7 year old 
boy whose home conditions are not favorable. His selfish 
father consorts with lewd women so that his mother has left 
her husband and now conducts an employment agency. She 
has hysterical attacks with blank periods during which she 
may wander. The boy is bright and able but is subject to 
hysterical attacks; he runs away from school and home and 
says he does not know why; goes for a long period without 
food or sleep. His father's father was erratic, a soldier, very 
superstitious, used to walk in a graveyard and perform in- 
cantations at Christmas time. The mother's father was also 


erratic and disappeared from home about the time his mother 
was born. Two of his sons have hysterical fuges and one of 
them served a term in prison; he is now quite lost to the fam- 
ily. This is a remarkable history of hysteria with a slight 
criminalistic tendency. 

7. An intelligent and esteemed physician (Fig. 54, II, 2) 
with training abroad as well as in this country and of a good 
family (his brother, II, 1, is a college professor and his father 
a methodist preacher) married a lady (II, 3) of good family, 

11 2l 3' 41 51 61 7 




Fig. 53 

with much musical talent, but subject to migraine and for- 
merly to chorea. They have two sons born in the best of en- 
vironments. The younger (III, 3) is still in the kindergarten, 
seems wholly normal, truth-telling and lovable; the other, 
(III, 2) now 13, developed normally, has had no convulsions, 
and has never been seriously sick and ordinarily sleeps well. 
He has regular, refined features and a normal alert attitude 
and is very industrious. He attends Sunday school regularly, 
has excellent talent for music. At 3 years of age he walked 
to a near by railroad, boarded a train and was carried 12 
miles before the conductor discovered him ; since then he has 
run away very many times. From an institution for difficult 
boys, where he was placed, he ran away 13 times. He es- 
capes from his home after dark and sleeps in neighboring door- 
ways. His mother used to make Saturday a treat day. She 


would take a violin lesson with him and spend the afternoon 
in the Public Library which he much enjoyed but he would 
slip away from her on the way home and be gone till mid- 
night. He is an unconscionable liar. He contracts debts, 
steals when he has no use for the articles stolen and has bieen i 
convicted for burglary. Much money and effort have been 
spent on him in vain. His mother's father, (I, 3) (of whom he 
has never heard) was a western desperado, drank hard and 
was involved in a murder, but finally married a very good 


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Fig. 54 

woman (I, 4) and has 2 normal daughters in addition to this 
boy's mother. 

The typical skipping of a generation, seen in these pedi- 
grees of the wandering instinct, suggests that it is a recessive, 
like most neuroses — and strengthens the probability that it 
is due to a real mental defect. 

The following case suggests the inheritance of an extremely 
erotic instinct also as a defect (Fig. 55). 

A large, healthy man (II, 4) engaged in an engineering pro- 
fession, has much ability in music and is an inventor. He 
drinks very little alcohol, has always been a good worker and 
is highly esteemed by those who employ him. But he is 


"crazy about women." He left his first wife and married 
another, was convicted of bigamy and served a term in prison; 
later he married a third wife without undergoing the formal- 
ity of a divorce from the others and was again imprisoned 
for bigamy. He has had also other, even looser, relations 
with women. His second wife (II, 5) was a healthy young 
girl who comes from a long lived family. Since her husband 
deserted her she has had to work very hard to support their 
children and is much broken down in consequence. She is 




n p^6^0% -r<)l!)D^ tt'tl 



Fio. 55 

not a strong character, she keeps boarders and is currently 
beUeved to be sexually immoral. Nothing is known about 
her parents nor those of her husband. The daughter of this 
pair (III, 1), is thirteen years old. She is wilful, refuses to 
study, runs on the streets, has stayed out all night on two 
occasions and has been in court as a delinquent. The son, 
(III, 2), eight and a half years old, has a fair physical develop- 
ment, but his face is unsymmetrical and his mouth open 
despite removal of adenoids when he was 5. His speech is 
thick and rough. He seems dull at times but can brighten 
up. He has had convulsions. Like his sister he is wilful, 
won't learn, and runs on the streets where he sells papers 
and where he has stolen many articles. He throws stones and 


garbage and despite his tender years he indulges in vile lan- 
guage, exposes his person to Uttle gu'ls, masturbates and is 
sexually misused by men. All attempts at reformation have 
failed, — orphan asylum, home for boys, life on a farm; from 
all these he runs away and returns to the life he loves. 

The foregoing cases are samples of scores that have been 
collected and serve as fair representations of the kind of 
blood that goes to the making of thousands of criminals in 
this country. It is just as sensible to imprison a person for 
feeble-mindedness or insanity as it is to imprison criminals 
belonging to such strains. The question whether a given 
person is a case for the penitentiary or the hospital is not 
primarily a legal question but one for a physician with the 
aid of a student of heredity and family histories. 

24. Other Nervous Diseases 

a. The General Problem. — The marvellous complex of 
neurones (nerve cells and fibres), sustentative tissue, and 
blood vessels that constitute the central nervous system 
forms, perhaps, the most wonderful mechanism in nature. 
Little wonder that it should vary greatly in different indi- 
viduals, or that it should become easily deranged. Such 
variations in structure and such derangement though 
ordinarily hidden from view can be inferred from the be- 
havior of the person. For the general principle holds that 
every psychosis (or peculiar mental manifestation) has its 
neurosis (or aberrent nervous basis). Peculiar or abnormal 
behavior, then, is an index of peculiar or abnormal brain 

That heredity plays a part in nervous disease is indicated 
by the famiUar fact of high incidence of some or otheT 
psychic disturbance in the members of a single family. 
We have already seen how incomplete mental development 
is a consequence of the absence of a definite inheritable 


defect in the germ plasm, such that when the factor that 
stimulates to complete mental development is absent from 
the gexm plasm of both parents it will be absent from all 
their offspring. Varied as are the mental conditions of the 
persons in a family containing feeble mindedness the chil- 
dren do not ordinarily surpass in mental development the 
better developed parent. 

In considering heredity of mental disease we must not 
forget that what is inherited is not, as in imbeciUty, a 
tendency to incomplete mental development, but rather 
a tendency such that a completely developed and apparently 
normal mentality is liable under ordinary, or still more 
under extraordinary, conditions to show disturbance of a 
temporary or permanent nature. The more intimate nature 
of this inherited tendency is probably varied. In some cases 
there is doubtless an idiosyncrasy in the neurones, in other 
cases there is a lack of resistance to infection or specific 
poisons, again the trouble may be outside the neurones in 
the supporting tissue or even in the blood vessels whose 
walls may be peculiarly liable to weaken and burst; to waste 
away; to thicken, occluding the lumen and shutting off 
nutrition to a part of the brain. 

Before considering the inheritance of specific nervous 
diseases it may be pointed out that what is inherited is often 
a general nervous weakness — a neuropathic taint — showing 
itself now in one form of psychosis and now in another. 
Especially the lower types of mental defect may be carried 
in the higher, i. e., departing least from the normal. 

b. The Neuropathic Makeup. — We have seen (page 77) 
that imbecility, epilepsy and many forms of insanity are 
due merely to the absence of some factor. It remains to 
be considered how they behave amongst each other in 
heredity. A pedigree worked out by Barr (1907) gives the 
desired information (Fig. 56). 


sffi 2 

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^ 2 J 3 « -oTI I ^ 3 ^ o a " 3 fe g ^-> -^ 53 

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I— I -r ►* -!e g i 
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This pedigree contains 22 significant matings (t. e., that 
yield more than one child). The products of these matings 
are summarized in Table IX. 

Table IX 


Neurotic X neurotic 
Neurotic X neurotic 

Neurotic X epileptic 
Neurotic X insane 
Insane X normal 

Neurotic X normal 

Neurotic X unknown 

Normal X normal 
































































14, 17, 19, 21 16 

E, epileptic; F, feeble-minded; I, insane; N, normal; Ne, neurotic; X, un- 

In Table IX there is no marriage of two insane persons. 
Where a nervous person marries a neuropath, of 11 known 
offspring 6 are normal and 5 neuropathic ; when two 
neurotic marry, 2 out of 6 children are normal and 1 insane; 
when an insane and a normal marry, of 13 children 4 are 
normal and 2 insane; when a neurotic and a normal marry, 
of 28 children 16 are normal, 9 nervous, 1 feeble-minded and 
2 insane. Even some normal parents (of this strain) have 



insane or epileptic children. One sees what a variety of 
gametic conditions may be carried by a "nervous" or 
even a "normal" person, just as blue eyes may be carried 
by brown eyed parents, or light 
brown hair by dark haired parents. 
A "nervous" person is thus fre- 
quently simplex in the factor that 
makes for mental strength and is 
apt to carry defective germ cells 
(Figs. 57-59). 

c. Cerebral Hemorrhage. — How- 
ever numerous the causes that 

Fig. 57. — Pedigree o f 
"nervous trouble." I, 2, was 
typically affected and I, 4 
weaken the walls of the cerebral suffered from migraine. II, 
. . , 111^' ^''^^ *h^ same nervous trou- 

arteries or raise abnormally the bie. Of three grandchildren 
pressure upon them, there can be ^^o survive, i already shows 

, at 6 years, a tendency to- 

httle doubt that hereditary predis- ward nervous weakness. F. 

position plays an important part. ' ^"^' ^' 

(Figs. 60 and 61). Cerebral hemorrhage is commonly 

found in the parentage or grandparentage of the mentally 

1 6SbSffl^iS5SfalS55te 


b it?)ffii?)6 i 'b 

Fig. 58. — Inheritance of nervousness and brilliancy. I, 4, is subject to 
headaches and nervousness. Her daughter, II, 7, is similarly affected. She 
married a man, II, 6, who has had temporary attacks of paralysis. One of 
their children, II, 2, has nervous prostration and one, III, 3, is subject to head- 
aches and nervousness. F. R.; Cla. 3. 

weak as well as brilHant. (Fig. 61). See also arteriosclero- 
sis, page 162. 

d. Cerebral Palsy of Infancy. — This disease, of obscure 
origin, affects infants within a few years of birth; it leads 







Fig. 59 

Fig. 60 

Fig. 59. — Pedigree of a family with nervous disease. I, 3, was a heavy 
drinker; I, 4, died of apoplexy after suffering from paresis. The father was 
normal, but he had a brother, II, 1, who was eccentric and committed suicide, 
and a sister, II, 2, who was a good Unguist but deteriorated mentally. The 
mother, II, 4, is normal but she had a brother who while a civil engineer and 
excellent draftsman was alcohoUc, and a sister who was a good musician. 
One child, III, 2, is suffering at 23 from dementia precox. F. R.; Coi. 1. 

Fig. 60. — Pedigree of a family with high incidence of cerebral apoplexy. The 
father and mother, I, 1 and 2, both have apparently a tendency toward cere- 
bral congestion. I, 2, had recently had an attack which was relieved by nasal 
hemorrhage. Two of the mother's brothers, I, 3 and 4, died after a brief attack 
of apoplexy. Three of the daughters have died of the same disease at 32, 30 
and 46 years respectively; the remaining suffers from cerebral congestion. 
Harrington, 1885. 

I '■ft ^ ib^TSib 

ijU ^666 n 

Fig. 61 

Fig. 62 

Fig. 61 . — Pedigree of a family with " nerve weakness." The father's father, 

I, 1, had a "nervous weakness," his wife died at 28 of encephahtis, the mother's 
father, I, 3, was subject to apoplexy and died of a stroke at 71. The father, 

II, 3, and all of his fraternity had encephalitis — the father three times — 
and one died of it, while the others were left wdth a nervous weakness. The 
children were not vigorous. Ill, 1, had always a low vitality and died at 8 
years; III, 3, had a low vitality and died at 14 of "congestion of the lungs"; 

III, 4, was feeble-minded; III, 5, a laborer, suffered much from "bowel trouble"; 
III, 6, has a nervous weakness; and III, 7, engaged in housework and, with 
III, 2, is the strongest of the family. 

Fig. 62. — Pedigree of a family with cerebral diplegia. The father in the 
central mating, II, 3, has been three times married. By two of the marriages 


to general paralysis of one or both sides and, in later develop- 
ment, is associated with feeble-mindedness. Pedigrees arc 

given by Dercum (1897) Fig. 62, Pelizaeus 

(1885) Fig. 63, Freud (1893) and others. l^ji ji 

Since the tendency is carried by normal ^^^"^^ ^ 

persons and since (as in Freud's case) it is r~^ 

apt to occur with consanguineous marriage it ]^ ^jm 

is probably due to a specific defect. To „ fiq_Tii 

avoid the reproduction of the disease, mar- trates the pedigree 

riage with unrelated blood is essential. ?! ^ ™''" J:^^* "T 

'^ has cerebral di- 

e. Multiple or Disseminated Sclerosis. — plegia who married 
This is a diffuse degenerative disease of the I "X" ^miia^ 
spinal cord. It leads to tremors in the arms affected. Both 

J , 1 T J. 1 c 1 1 children are af- 

and trunk, disturbance of speech and even- fected. Pelizaeus 
tual paralysis. It is usually not regarded as i^^- 
hereditary but an interesting pedigree showing its appear- 
ance in 3 generations has been investigated by Merzbacher 
(1909), Fig. 64. 

As the pedigi'ee table shows, the disease is transmitted 
through unaffected females. The eugenic conclusion is, 
consequently, that even unaffected females who have af- 
fected brothers should not have children. 

f. Hereditary Ataxy (Friedrich's disease). — This disease 
causes a slowly but surely progressive loss of directed move- 
ments, first of the legs and then of the arms; speech becomes 
elusive and indistinct; scoliosis (curvature of the spine) 
may appear and the feet become drawn up. These symp- 
toms accompany a degeneration in the upper part of the 
spinal cord. 

he had only normal children, but by the third (to a normal woman who had 
a first cousin, II, 5, with cerebral diplegia) he had 4 sons of whom 3 wore 
affected with this disease. The eldest, III, 3, was normal until 10 niontlis old, 
then had general convulsions, after which spastic symptoms gradually ap- 
peared, becoming pronounced later. Now he can walk only a few steps 
and is quite idiotic. The third son was normal until 2 years old, but is now 
deteriorating after an attack of measles and the youngest, only 2 years old, 
has just become diplegic and epileptic. Dercum, 1897. 


Some extensive pedigrees of ataxy have been published. 
One of the most extensive is by Mott (1905). It is repro- 
duced in Fig. 65. 


Fig. 64. — Part of Eichold-Fleming-Stossel-Herzer pedigree showing 
multiple sclerosis (black symbols). One notes the skipping of a generation 
(indicating a recessive trait). The trouble is usually carried by unaffected 
females (heavy circles) and appears in their sons. Interesting because same 
family was independently noted by two neurologists. Pelizaeus, 1885; Merz- 
BACHER, 1909. 

Since, as the pedigrees show, normals may have affected 
offspring the disease is probably dependent, as in insanity, 
on the lack of something necessary for normal development. 
The disease seems to be in no way sex-limited (Fig. 65). 

Fig. 65. — Pedigree of a family with 'hereditary ataxy (black symbols). 
Consorts not in direct hne mostly unknown. Note that affected persons have 
(for the most part) one affected parent; the trouble is due to the presence of 
some positive character. Mott, 1905. 

The eugenic teaching is that affected persons and also 
normals of the affected fraternities should marry only out- 
side the strain. Whether all cases of atactic offspring of 
one normal parent are derived from consanguineous mar- 
riage is still uncertain and warrants hesitation in advising 
the marriage of any atactic person. 


g. M^ni^re's Disease is apparently due to a disturbance 
in the auditory nerve or its centre. It is accompanied 
by dizziness and roaring in the ear, often so severe as to 
force the patient to fall to the ground. Sinion (1903) de- 
scribes a family with these sjonptoms, consisting of an af- 
fected father, son and two daughters. The onset of the 
attacks varied from the 25th to the 50th year. 

h. Chorea (St. Vitus's dance) is a disease of the cere- 




_ II 2l 3. 

jy «n t convulsions 

Fig. 66. — Pedigree of chorea (black symbols). II, 1, became affected with 
chorea at 8 years before his death; II, 2, has suffered many years; 4 other 
brothers and sisters are healthy. II, 3, became sick at 35 and suffered until 
her death at 46; she also had a marked loss of memory and died in a hospital. 

III, 1, is healthy; III, 2, suffers from severe sick headaches. Ill, 3, has chorea. 

IV, 4, is 11 years old and has been afflicted with chorea and epileptic fits for 
past 2 years. Her sister is still healthy at 10 years. Jolly, 1891. 

bral hemispheres characterized by involuntary, irregular 
movements of the limbs or other parts of the body. It 
commonly occurs in families with neuropathic make-up. 
Ordinarily the disease appears in the children and ends in 
recovery; occasionally it appears only later in life and runs 
various courses, sometimes ending in death through exhaus- 
tion. This disease is commonly sharply separated from 
Huntington's chorea, but transitional conditions occur. 
A case cited by Jolly is shown in Fig. 66. In this case noth- 
ing is known about the first generation; the second com- 
prises 4 normals and 3 affected persons, 2 males and 1 


female. II, 1 became affected with chorea ''8 years before 
his death"; II, 2 ''has been affected for many years"; II, 
3 became ill with chorea at 35 and suffered until her death 
at 46. These look like cases of Huntington's chorea. Ill, 2 
suffers from migraine; III, 3 has chorea, IV, 1-3 died at 
birth of convulsions; IV, 4 at 9 years began to show chorei- 
fonn movements. These have continued for two years 
until the present time. This girl also has epilepsy; but 
her chorea has appeared at the age for St. Vitus's dance. 

i. Huntington's Chorea. — This is said to be a "rare" 
disease in Europe, but not so in the United States. It is 
characterized by appearing typically first in middle hfe 
and progressing with ever increasing disorder of move- 
ments until dementia and death occur. It affects both sexes 
about equally. Two pedigrees are given in Figures 67 and 68. 

The method of the inheritance of this disease was recog- 
nized by its original describer. Dr. George Huntington. 
He states that those exempt from it cannot transmit it. 
An examination of the extensive pedigrees shows only one 
exception to his rule and this a doubtful case. Hunting- 
ton's chorea is, consequently, a typical dominant trait, the 
normal condition is recessive; or, the disease is due to some 
positive factor. The eugenic lesson is that persons with 
this dire disease should not have children. But the members 
of normal branches derived from the affected strain are 
immune from the disease. 

This disease forms a most striking illustration of the 
principle that many of the rarer diseases of this country 
can be traced back to a few foci, possibly even to a single 
focus; certainly in this case many of the older families | 
with Huntington's chorea trace back to the New Haven ^ 
Colony and its dependencies and subsequent offshoots. 
The subject of foci of origin of traits will be discussed more 
fully later (page 181) 


j. Hysteria. — This term is applied to a variety of symp- 
toms that indicate a functional disturbance of the psychic 
centres usually combined with a derangement of the lower 

I bjk ^ 

H anW allH (JIN 




all normal 


Fig. 67.— Pedigree of a family showing Huntington's chorea. Affected 
persons (indicated by black symbols) are always derived from affected parents. 
From original data furnished by Dr. S. E. Jelliffe; Smi-family. 

cerebral or spinal centres. The psychical symptoms ap- 
proach mania on the one hand and show a more or less 
complete loss of the moral sense on the other, so that many 





"SSffli'Jil wi'W) 

FiQ. 68. — Pedigree of a family with Huntington's chorea. All affected 
persons (black symbols) have at least one affected parent. Hamilton, 1908, 
p. 453. 

cases of larceny, assault, and sexual immorality are conse- 
quent upon this disease. The emotions usually are dis- 
turbed. The motor symptoms are frequently profound. 


Thus paralysis, or spasmodic contractions, or even convul- 
sions not unlike, if not identical with, those of epilepsy, 
make their appearance. 

The greatest social importance of hysteria lies in its re- 
lation to crime and responsibility. A large proportion of 
"criminals" doubtless are in need of hospital care. The 
family history of the offender will give the best possible 
clue to his probable mental condition and, where a "neuro- 
pathic blood" is evident, the patient should be segregated, 
not to punish him but to care for him at the expense of that 
"society" which still permits his kind to breed unrestricted; 
and to prevent, or at least to limit, the further spread of 
his tainted germ plasm. 

In studies made on 175 families containing epileptics 
which the author has had the privilege of making with the 
cooperation of Dr. David F. Weeks hysteria was frequently 
found associated with chorea, migraine and a "neurotic" 
condition in the parentage of epileptics and in the offspring 
of an epileptic or insane parent married to a normal. It 
acts like a condition induced by a simplex determiner such 
that the patient produces some defective germ cells. 

25. Rheumatism 

Rheumatism, as is well known, is often associated 
with chorea. An example of such association is given in 
Figure 69. 

A second instructive case is that cited by Cheadle (1900). 
A man who had subacute arthritis and muscular rheumatism 
and whose sister died at 8 years of heart disease following 
acute rheumatism and chorea married a woman who had 
suffered from acute rheumatism, heart disease and chorea 
and had had a nephew affected with rheumatic fever and 
heart disease and a niece with subacute rheumatism. The 
child of this pair at 9 years of age had chorea in a most 


severe form, repeated attacks of inflammation of the heart 
and pains in joints with formation of nodules beneath the 
skin. Finally the girl died a victim to extreme, uncontrol- 
lable rheumatism and chorea. 

The exact laws of inheritance in these cases are not clear 
and eugenic instruction cannot be drawn from them. 



51 6l 7| 81 
no chorea -^ 


Fig. 69. — Pedigree of family showing chorea and rheumatism. ~ I, choreic 
at 15 years; still has slight twitchings; II, 2, is not choreic but is subject to 
migraine and has had several attacks of rheumatism. He haa had 2 daugh- 
ters and 2 sons. Ill, 1, is 18 years old and since her eighth year hjis had 
chronic and severe chorea; at 12 she had an attack of rheumatism and since 
then attacks of rheumatism and chorea have alternated. Her elder brother, 
16 years of age, was attacked a year before by chorea which l:isted 2 months; 
recently has had another attack preceded by rheumatic pains. The third 
child, III, 3, now 13 years old, has had no rhematism but was first attacked 
by chorea at 12 and has had other attacks since. The youngest, III, 4, now 
11, had a first attack of chorea at 8 years, lasting 2 months; a second attack at 
10 and a third recently; in his eighth year he had articular rheumatism. 
Apert, 1907, p. 235. 

26. Speech-defects 

Wliile the minor speech defects of stammering, stuttering, 
lolling, lisping and poltering correspond to no yet recognized 
abnormality of the central nervous system or organs of 
articulation, nevertheless, aside from imitation, they clearly 
have an hereditary basis and while the slighter grades may 
be cured by practice the more profound disturbances remain 
a permanent affliction. Especially are these defects found 
in children of a neuropathic inheritance and, in such, yield 
the strongest evidence of inheritance. 

The exact method of inheritance of stuttering will not 


become known until more extensive pedigrees of stuttering 
families have been obtained. Two pedigrees have been 
obtained(Figs. 70, 71). 





Fig. 70. — Pedigree of a family that contains stutterers (black symbols); 
1, stutterer; 2, impediment in speech; 3, impediment, if excited. F. R.; Bar. 4. 

Stuttering is seen to affect both sexes. It can hardly be 
a dominant trait because it is found so often in children 
of unaffected parents. It might be due to the absence of ' 


Fig. 71 

Fig. 72 

Fig. 71. — Pedigree of a part of a family of stutterers (black symbols). 
Fig. 72. — Pedigree fragment of poltering family. Affected individuals in 
black. Berkan. 

some factor if consanguineous marriages were common in 
these pedigrees. 
The trick of repeating short words and syllables is some- 


times called poltering. A case of it occurs in three genera- 
tions and is given by Berkan (Fig. 72). The peculiarity is 
found in each of three generations; it may of course be as- 
sisted by imitation. 

Lolling is speech in which the articulatory mechanism is 
not used with precision, as in young children. There is 
some evidence that this defect may be a family one. Thus 
r^kloyer (1893) records a family in the first generation of 
which there were a normal sister and three brothers; one 
who was quite normal in speech, one who did not learn to 
speak until 6 years old, and one who lolled his life long. The 
latter had 6 children, all normal save one who lolled. The 
other affected brother had 12 children of whom, however, 
5 died in infancy, lea\ing 7. Of his four daughters one had 
^defective utterance, while all three boys were defective in 
speech, although after puberty the defect gradually dis- 
appeared. One of these boys has 3 sons, all normal. The 
case illustrates segregation but hardly suffices to demonstrate 
the law of inheritance of the pecuharity. 

27. Defects of the Eye 

Apart from albinism, the effects of which are most strongly 
felt in the increased sensitiveness of the retina to strong light, 
the chief optical defects whose inheritance has been studied 
are as follows; (a) absence of or defect in the iris and dis- 
placement of the pupil; (b) reduction in size of the whole eye- 
ball to complete absence; (c) atrophy of optic nerve; (d) 
cataract; (e) dislocation of the lens; (f) degeneracy of the 
cornea; (g) glaucoma or excessive production of fluids of the 
eye; (h) megalophthalmus, or big eye; (i) nystagmus or 
"swimming eye;" (k) paralysis or imperfect development of 
muscles of the eye and Hds; (1) pigmentary degeneration of 
the retina (retinitis pigmentosa) ; (m) night bhndness (hem- 
eralopia); (n) colorblindness; (o) astigmatism; (p) myopia. 


a. Anomalies of Iris. — Coloboma is a defect in the de- 
velopment of the optic cup such that it fails to close com- 
pletely and leaves an open suture running from the pupil 
to the optic nerve. The commonest external evidence of 




Fig. 73. — Ji pedigree of a family affected with coloboma. Black symbols 
stand for affected persons; all are males. A normal female in the second 
generation transmits the defect to about half of her children, but her sons 
alone show the defect. Streetfield, 1858. 

this defect is the incomplete iris; but the lens, retina, choroid 
coat, etc., may be involved. The cause of the defect is con- 
ceded to be an hereditary defect in the developmental im- 
pulse (Von Hippel, 1909). 

Fig. 74. — Pedigree of a family that shows absence of iridae (black symbols). 
Here, too, only males show the defect, except for III, 10 and 11. Hypothesis, in 
this case, requires that II, 4 and II, 6, shall be related to their consorts and 
carry germ cells with the inhibiting factor. Gutbier, 1834. 

The method of inheritance is shown by the pedigrees 
(Figs. 73, 74, 75). These lead to the conclusions that the 
defect is a positive character and is due to an inhibitor of 
development; the affected male is either simplex or duplex 


in this inhibitor; the affected female is typically duplex, 
rarely simplex; unaffected males are always nulliplex, and 
unaffected females are either nulliplex or simplex. 

The eugenic conclusion is: No female with the coloboma 
defect should have children since all sons will be defective 
in the structure of the pupil. For males with the defect the 
danger in marriage is also great, for either all or half of the 

I '©p) 

II qj] i|a ^ifu ^6^ ^^(^^i 

Iff ^,^^6feft^*^nE0.t^ 



Fig. 75. — This is the pedigree of a family (Payne) with coloboma of the 
iris. I, 1, and 2 are not definitely known; at least 1 of their sons and 4 daugh- 
ters are aflfected. As for the rest, two normal parents have normal ofifspring. 
The apparent exception, V, 2, may not be such as the mother, IV, 4, is wholly 
unknown. The number of affected females in this pedigree is extraordinary. 
Debeck, 18S6. 

sons of such a father, although married to a woman from a 
normal strain, will be defective, but the daughters will not 
be defective in this respect unless the wife belongs to a strain 
with this defect. Two normal persons may marry with 
impunity except that if the woman belongs to the abnormal 
strain it may be that half of her sons will be affected. 

b. Reduction in size of the Eyeball. — All grades in the 
size of the eyeball down to complete disappearance are 
known, but usually only the extremely reduced condition 
has been studied. Such a condition seems to be due to an 
inhibitor so that, when present in a marked degree, all off- 
spring shall have it. Both sexes seem to be equally affected. 


It is not particularly apt to occur in consanguineous marri- 
ages. An illustrative case is given by Martin, 1888 (Fig. 76). 

The two sexes are equally aflfected. A person with the defect in a 
marked degree will have at least half of the children similarly defective. 

It is not, at the moment, possible to say that, when both 
parents are unaffected the children will all be normal, but 
there is a strong presumption that such will be the case. 


DT#ai ipfooa 

w B9 ■ B ® u 2M 3N 

Fig. 76. — Pedigree of a family with small eyeball (microphthalmus). 
Every affected person (black symbol) that has married has affected offspring. 
Actually, there are 11 affected progeny to 7 normal; but as frequently happens 
in practitioner's records, some normal children are probably not recorded. 
Martin, 1888. ^ 

c. Atrophy of the Optic Nerve. — This disease usually j 
begins ''at about the 20th year with a rather sudden dis- 
turbance of the central sight of both eyes while the peripheral 
parts of the field of vision remain normal." "The course 
of the disease is generally the same in the same family, so | 
that the prognosis depends in the main upon the degree of 
malignancy which the malady exhibits in that particular 
family" (Senator-Kaminer, 1904). 

The method of inheritance in this case resembles that of 
coloboma (except that even duplex females rarely exhibit 
the trait) and is shown in the ideal scheme of Figure 77 in 
which the heavy ring means without somatic defect but 
with defective germ cells. 

The eugenic rule is: a normal son of an abnormal male 
may marry quite outside the family with impunity, but a 


normal daughter may transmit the defect to her sons. But 
such a woman may marry with impunity if all of her brothers 
are without defect and there are more than two of them. A 
defective male should abstain from having children, for 
some of his grandsons, at least, will probably be defective, 
d. Cataract. — This is an opacity of the lens which may 
result from abnormal conditions originating in other parts 
of the eye or body or they may seemingly originate inside 
the lens itself, in which case their heredity is marked. Prob- 

■p Sp UtO OO 

Fig. 77. — Ideal scheme showing inheritance of atrophy of the optic nerve. 
The soUd black squares indicate aflfected males; the heavy rings represent 
non-affected females with defective germ cells. 

ably more pedigrees of cataract have been published than of 
any other eye defect. Loeb (1909) refers to 304 famiUes of 
which accounts have been printed. Of the 1012 children 
in these pedigrees, 589 were affected, or 58 per cent.^ 

The usual method of inheritance is that of a positive 
character. Affected individuals have either half or all of 
their offspring affected, while two unaffected parents will 
probably not have defective offpsring. However, as cataract 
usually appears late in life it is not always possible to predict 
whether the parent will become affected or not (Fig. 78). 

The eugenic rule is this: — If either parent has cataract 
at least half of the offspring will have it also. If a person 
belongs to a strain that has cataract but is free from it, 
advice must depend on the nature of the cataract. If in 

* The report of the medical officer (education) to the London County Coun- 
cil, 1909, contains 9 additional cases. 


the family strain cataract appears early, before the age of 
the person who contemplates marriage, then such marriage 
may be advised; but if in the given family the cataract occurs 
late in Ufe it is not possible to predict as to the immunity 
of the parent, but in that case also, since the potential defect 
will not greatly interfere with the effectiveness of the chil- 
dren, fertile marriage may not be gainsaid. 

e. Displaced Lens (ectopia lentis). — This malposition of 
the lens always causes distorted vision. Fortunately it is 
not so common as cataract, for Loeb found only 42 famihes 

I ^9 


Fig. 78. — Pedigree of "corallifonn" cataract. Affected persona repre- 
sented by black symbols; cf, male; 9, female; numbers in circles indicate 
number of individuals. From Nettleship, 1910. 

described, with 150 children, of whom 70 per cent were 
affected. The details of the condition and the degree of 
injury to sight vary from strain to strain (Fig. 79). 

In this case, also, it appears that the defect is due to some 
positive factor and that when present in either parent it 
will be present in about half the offspring; but if present in 
neither parent it will be absent from all descendants. 

The eugenic teaching is clear; persons with displaced lens 
should have no children; but normal persons of the same 
strain will not reproduce it in their offspring. 

f. Degeneracy of the Cornea. — While several causes of 
corneal opacity are known that seem not to be hereditary, 


18 cases of hereditary degeneration of the cornea are re- 
corded. So far as the studies that have been made go they 
indicate that persons with such hereditary corneal opacity 
should not have children but that normal members of such 
a strain will have normal offspring. 

g. Glaucoma. — This is a swelling of the eyeball due to 
excess fluid in the chambers of the eye. It appears to de- 
pend upon the presence of something that prevents the 
escape of the fluids of the eyeball. In the study of the in- 
heritance of this disease we meet with the difficulty that, 
like cancer and many forms of cataract, its outset is late in 



Fig. 79. — Pedigree of a family with dislocation of leas, resulting in imper- 
fect vision, vertigo, flashes of light, etc. The amount of displacement varies 
in the different individuals. In the third generation 2 individuals are af- 
fected in one eye only but in all other cases both eyes are affected. Lewis, 

life — so that many persons with potential glaucoma die 
before reaUzing it. However, the age at onset is variable, 
in some families high and others low; but in the children the 
onset is frequently earher than in the parents; thus, in one 
family the father shows the disease at 70, his daughters at 45, 
and 40; in another case father is attacked at 49 and his sons 
at 18 and 16; again, a father has glaucoma at 60, his 4 cliil- 


dren at from 55 to 40; and a mother is affected in one eye at 
60 and the other eye at 81, while her 3 children are affected at 
60. In one family strain, Von Graef e noticed an unusually long 


Fig. 80. — Pedigree of family with glaucoma, showing simple dominance 
of the trait. In I, 4, the disease appeared at 40 years of age; in II, 2, at 28; 
in II, 4, at 25; in generation III, at 28 to 17 years — an extraordinarily early 
age. Howe, 1887. 

prodromal stage (10 to 15 yrs.), before the fully developed 
attack. This is one of the special family strains. 

Glaucoma is said to have various inciting causes. The 
tjT^e that follows a characteristic inflammation shows the 



a 9 6 

Fig. 81. — Pedigree of family with glaucoma, percentage of incidence of 
disease small, owing perhaps to early deaths (?). In the first generation the 
disease began at 71 years, in the second at 40; in the third at between 25 and 
30 years. Nettleship. 

best evidence of heredity. A pedigree or two will illustrate 
the method of its inheritance (Figs. 80, 81). 

The eugenic teaching is rendered more difficult by the 
fact that glaucoma usually first appears toward the end of 
the reproductive period. But certainly affected persons 


should avoid having children, while non-affected may nnarry 
if the disease first appeared in the grandparents at 50 or 
after. If it appeared earlier it would seem to be prudent 
for the normal persons to delay reproduction until within 
ten years of the time that the defect appeared in their parents. 
Then if no trace of the disease has occurred they may have 
children with impunity. 

h. Megalophthalmus or protruding eye. A rather rare 
disease of whose inheritance there can be no doubt, although 
the exact method of that inheritance is uncertain. Persons 
with a well marked case had best avoid reproduction. 

i. Nystagmus, or "swimming eyes." This is due to 
spasmodic contractions of the eye muscles and may or may 
not be associated with other defects of the eye. The dis- 
orders with which it is most apt to be associated are : strabis- 
mus, retinitis pigmentosa, coloboma, albinism, microphthal- 
mus and cataract. 

In some of the pedigrees that have been pubHshed 
(Clarke's, 1903), nystagmus, Uke optic nerve atrophy, is not 
expressed in the (simplex) females ' but is expressed in all 
males capable of transmitting it. When it is unexpressed 
in the males of the strain, it will probably not (in non- 
consanguineous marriages) appear in the offspring. But mar- 
riages of even non-affected females (unless from large fami- 
lies of non-affected brothers) and of all affected males are 
pretty certain to yield offspring with nystagmus. 

k. Paralysis or imperfect development of the muscles of eye 
and lids. — This includes ptosis, or drop of the upper eye- 
hd; epicanthus, a fold of skin passing from nose to eyebrow 
over the inner corner of the eye ; blepharophimosis, or small- 
ness of opening of eyelids; ophthalmoplegia, or paralysis of 
eye muscles; strabismus or squinting. Every one of these 
peculiarities shows clear evidence of heredity. 

1 In other families nystagmus appears also in the females. 


Fig. 82. — Pedigree of a family, every affected member of which (black 
symbols) has drooping eyelids, a fold over the inner corner of the eye, and nar- 
row eye opening. Vignes, 1889. 

One family pedigree is reproduced in Fig. 82. This is 
remarkable because every affected person showed the same 
combination of characters, namely, drop of upper eyelid, 
epicanthus, and ophthalmoplegia. 

In Cutler's case (Fig. 83) the parents are first cousins; all 
affected persons have strabismus. Expectation in this group 
of cases is that an affected person will have affected off- 
spring but that two normal parents will rarely have off- 
spring with the defect, even though one 
belongs to the defective strain. 


1. Pigmentary degeneration of the ret- 
ina (retinitis pigmentosa). — This degen- 
erative process is accompanied by an 
Fig. 83.— Pedigree atrophy of the optic nerve and leads to 
1%S te"S eventual blindness. It is frequently as- 
cousins and both have sociated with consanguineous marriage, 
TS^'TtheirTcbil- 27 per cent of the marriages which yield 
dren are similarly af- jt being (according to Feer's list, 1907, 

fected. CuTLEn. . . -i. j r 

p. 14} consangumeous. The method of 
inheritance is well illustrated by Fig. 84 which is a portion 
of a chart prepared by Nettleship. This figure illustrates 
the general law of this disease; namely, that two normal 










GO Ol 


C 00 

o q 



a C 
— a 




.2- > 

IS ^ 


-O 35 

o g 


eg I^ 

a 3 


I - 

. ^ 
o ~ 





parents produce no abnormal children. The condition that 
makes for retinitis is something added to the normal con- 

The extent of the degeneration varies with the family. 
In a pedigree recorded by Leber (Fig. 85) the characteristic, 

throughout the family, was an increasing 
dimness of vision accompanied by night 
bhndness; but later the degeneration was 

The eugenic instruction is clear. An 
affected man or woman should not marry 
even into stock without taint of retini- 
tis. Above all, in retinitis stock, cousins, 
1 I especially if affected should by no means 

■■ " marry. 

Fig. 85.— Pedigree m. Night BUndness (hemeralopia) . — 

of retinitis pigmentosa ^m • t • 

in a family in which This disease IS accompamed by no loss of 
the disease becomes perception of form, but at sunset the af- 

checked before bhnd- ^ ^ ' 

ness becomes com- fccted persous must cease working. Ar- 

plete. Leber, 1871. ^-g^-^j j-gj^^ j^^jp^ j^^^j^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^ -^^_ 

tense. The lamps of the street are of no assistance in guid- 
ing these people at night. Eventually, in most strains, the 
affected persons become totally bUnd often with a retinitis. 
This disease is probably due to a defect in the brain and not 
as has been suggested merely to lack of the visual purple of 
the retina (Bordley, 1908). 

Through the researches of Cunier (1838) and Nettleship 
(1907) we have a pedigree of a night blind strain that is the 
most extensive that has yet been compiled for any disease. 
It includes 2,116 persons. A part of it is reproduced in 
Fig. 86. Fig. 87 is a pedigree of an American (colored) 
family furnished by Dr. Bordley. 

The disease is due to a positive factor. The normals lack 
this factor. Usually, however, the factor must be duplex 


1 44 44 On i 

so 5! 

Fig. 86. — Pedigree of chart of an European strain with night blindness 
(black symbols). The rectangles indicate numerous normal individuals. 
Two normal parents have only normal children. Nettleship, 1907, from 
Gbuber and Rudin, 1911. 






, , , ^ , 

6 ^ b,^ "^ 

Fig. 87. — Pedigree of night blindness in a negro family, many of whom 
were personally examined by Dr. Bordley. IV, 18, 19, are doubtful. All 
solid block symbols stand for affected persons; clear symbols unaffected. The 
blindness is progressive and ends in death within 16 months after blindness 
becomes complete. All affected persons have an affected parent. Night 
blindness is a positive trait. Bordley, 1908. 

in females in order to develop; but in both Nettleship's and 
Bordley's families even simplex females have night blind- 
ness. Ordinarily, consequently^, while night blind people 
should not reproduce, normal males from such stock may do 
so with impunity, but normal females may have children 
only when all their brothers (more than two) are without 
the defect; for normal females, in most night blind families, 
may carry the disease. 

n. Color Blindness. — The inability to distinguish certain 
colors, notably red and green, is not a rare condition but 
much less common in women than men (in Europe, 4 per 
cent males, 0.5 per cent females) . The method of inheritance 
of the condition is much the same as that of atrophy of the 
optic nerve and night blindness; namely, that color blind 
males do not have color blind sons but that females free 
from color blindness may have sons with it (Fig. 88). 

The eugenic conclusion is that while color blind males 
will have no color blind sons and, typically, no color blind 
offspring of either sex yet their daughters, married to men 
of normal stock, will have color blind sons. 

To the ordinary rule there are various exceptions. Daugh- 





K30 BoJiiiSoi 

Fig. 88. — Ideal scheme, showing method of inheritance of color blindness. 
Typically it appears in sons only of simplex females, represented by a heavy 
ring. The third mating in second generation is illustrated in Fig. 89, II, 6. 

I iBitD bjb 



more thanl 



"ill lit!) 

Fig. 89. — A remarkable and exceptional pedigree of color blindness. The 
fraternity, II, 1-5 (which comprises the grandfather, his brothers, and his 
3 sisters), were said all to be color blind. The grandmother, II, 6, had the 
normal color sense but had an afifected brother. The entire fraternity, III, 1-5, 
including 4 females, has impaired color perception. Details are given about 
III, 5, as follows: She is about 50 years old, a physician's wife, and a test 
shows complete confusion of dark green, dark red and brown. While lighter 
tints are better distinguished, rose and blue arc confounded. The sons show 
exactly the same conditions. Reber, 1895. 

ters may inherit color blindness from fathers. At least such 
is the history given by Reber (1895), Fig. 89; an exceptional 
history that is not entirely without precedent. In the case 
of these exceptional families a color blind parent may have 
color blind offspring of either sex. 
o. Myopia. — That the shape of the eyeball is largely 


I too 




Fig. 90. — Pedigree of a family with myopia. In the first generation the 
man had myopia and strabismus while his wife was normal. Their son, II, 1, 
had myopia and died unmarried. His normal sister married a normal man 
and had 7 children. Ill, 1 and 2, had both myopia and strabismus; the eyesight 
of III, 3 and 4, was defective but in what waj'^ is unknown. A normal sister, 
III, 7, had a son with defective sight — probably myopia. From Oswald, 
1911. Note that males only are affected and are derived only from 2 normal 
parents. Simplex mothers indicated by heavy circles. 




Fig. 91. — Pedigree of myopia. Members of the 3 youngest generar 
tions were personally examined. Nearly all males of the family are myopic, 
and none of the females, but myopia is transmitted through the female line. 
Myopia is about the same in all cases, 10 or 12 D, with some astigmatism. 
From Worth. The defect shows in males only and these are always descend- 
ants of normal females. Their simplex mothers are represented by heavy 


controlled by heredity has been shown by Hertel (1903), 
as a result of measuring the refraction in children and their 

That myopia, or near sightedness, is inheritable has long 
been known. A typical case has been recorded by Oswald 
(1911), Fig. 90, and a second pedigree is given by Worth 
(Fig. 91). In both pedigrees inheritance is sex-limited as in 
color blindness. A normal female has some, at least, of her 



• ■ □ O 

Fig. 92. — Pedigree of astigmatism, afifected persons represented by black 
symbols. F. R. 

ons myopic, but all daughters are normal. In such a family, 
then, normal daughters in a myopic fraternity may expect 
nyopic sons. 

p. Astigmatism. — This condition of improper curvature 
of the lens belongs to the Hst of family traits. A corre- 
spondent submits the pedigree of his family shown in Fig. 92. 

From this pedigree it appears that, in this family, astigma- 
tism is a recessive trait, since normal persons may transmit 
it and since it is equally apt to appear in either sex. It would 
3e desirable, other things being equal, for a person belonging 
;o an affected strain to seek a partner from a strain that 
las normal eyes. 

28. Ear Defects 

The ear is the most complicated of the sense organs and 
;hough its important elements are deeply hidden in the 
lead yet the lining of the middle ear is continuous with the 


mucous membrane of the throat — in some respects the most 
vulnerable portion of the human body. Hence it is subject 
to the weaknesses of that membrane. On account of its 
very complexity it is especially liable to exhibit deformations 
or deficiencies.^ In view of the great variety of changes any 
one of which may result in deafness it is clear that deafness 
can hardly be a unit defect. Consequently it will not be 
inherited as a simple character. 

The facts justify the a priori conclusions. Deafness of 
certain sorts is clearly hereditary but it is not possible to 
predict certainly the outcome of a particular mating. Never- 
theless something can be done; and it will be worth while 
to learn what is known of the actual incidence of deafness in 
the offspring of deaf parents. 

Inheritable deafness is of three general types, (a) That 
due to defects or changes before birth or shortly after, giving 
rise to deaf mutism; (b) otosclerosis, or hardness of hearing, 
with usually progressive symptoms; (c) catarrhal weakness 
of the mucous membranes, rendering them Hable to infection 
with inflanmiation and suppuration. 

a. Deaf Mutism. — This kind of deafness is characterized 
by its early appearance in life, before speech has been ac- 
quired. It is the less likely, consequently, to be due to dis- 
ease and, as a matter of fact, it is that form which shows 
clearest evidence of pure inheritance. So clear is the evi- 
dence of inheritance of congenital deafness that some coun- 

1 Politzer (1807) gives among others the following anatomical causes of con- 
genital deafness: impaired development or absence of middle ear, defects and 
rachitic deformities of the labyrinthine windows; narrowing of the recess of 
the round window to a cleft with connective tissue; atresia of the same; atrophy 
of the cochlear nerve and spinal ganglion in the first turn of the cochlea; ab- 
normahties of the membranes^of the otoliths, organ of Corti and ductus coch- 
learis; faulty development of the sensory epithelium; defects of the crista and 
sulcus spiralis; lack of development of the labyrinth and of the auditory nerve; 
malformations of the central nervous system. In addition there are numerous 
changes in structure due to inflammations. 


tries have forbidden the marriage of persons of this class. 
Yet the inheritance of deaf mutism has been disputed and, 
indeed, without careful consideration of the separate family 
histories the method of inheritance seems truly obscure. 
I The most extensive data on the marriage of deaf are those 
collected by Fay (1898). He finds that, when both parents 
are congenitally deaf (Figs. 93, 94), of the 335 matings 25 

Fig. 93 Fig. 94 

Fig. 93. — Pedigree of deaf mutism. Parents both deaf; the father at 3 
years; the mother before birth. The first two children died shortly after birth; 
the other two are deaf mutes — one born so; the other following a slight blow 
on the head. Saint Hilaire, 1900, p. 31. 

Fig. 94. — Pedigree of deaf mutism. Father mother, and 3 children, 
all deaf mutes from birth. Saint Hilaire, 1900, p. 31. 

per cent yield some deaf offspring; and of the total of 77D 
offspring 26 per cent are deaf. It is clear that such marriages 
are, in the long run, dangerous. That all children of such 
marriages are not deaf is doubtless due to the fact that the 
parents are not deaf in the same way and that one parent 
brings into the combination what the other lacks. The 
contrast between the result of marriages of two congenitally 
deaf parents and two who are adventitiously deaf is shown 
by the fact that the latter yield only 2.3 per cent deaf chil- 

If, on the other hand, the partners belong to the same 
deaf mute strain, i. e., are related, the percentage of mar- 
riages yielding some deaf mute offspring rises to 45, and the 
proportion of deaf offspring to 30 per cent (Fig. 95). But 
that is not the whole story, for the closer the relation.^hip 


of the parents the larger the proportion of deaf children as 
the following table shows : — 

Per cent deaf offtpring 
Partners "cousins," degree unreported 19.4 

" first or second cousins 34.6 

" nephew and aunt (1 family) 75.0 

The interpretation of this fact would seem to be that the 
nearer the relationship the greater the chance that both 
parents lack the same element and so all of their children 



D D D D HtW D D 



Fig. 95. — Pedigree of deaf mutes. Two deaf mute cousins each belonging 
to fraternities having several deaf mutes marry one another. Both of their 
children (II) are deaf. Each child marries a hearing wife and of 4 children 
aU hear. Fay, 1898, No. 2621. 

tend to lack it. In Figs. 96 to 100 are given some pedigrees 
of deaf mute families. They show that, under certain cir- 
cumstances, probably identity of defect in parents, the 
children will all be similarly defective. 

The studies of Bell (1906) based on the census returns of a 
large proportion of the deaf population of the United States 
show the importance of consanguineous marriages in favoring 
the production of deaf mute offspring. He finds (p. 17) ''of 
the 2,527 deaf whose parents were cousins, 632, or 25 per 
cent, are congenitally deaf, of whom 350, or 55.4 also have 
deaf relatives of the classes specified; while among the 
53,980 whose parents were not so related the number of 
congenitally deaf is 3,666 or but 6.8 per cent, of whom only 
1,023 or 27.9 per cent have deaf relatives." 




N N N ^ 
No deaf descendants 



N N 

I Deaf Mute* 





Fig. 96. — Three sisters (Gen. Ill), deaf mute from birth, had several per- 
fectly normal brothers and sisters. Their mother's uncle had been a con- 
genital deaf mute. The first sister married a hearing man and had 3 children, 
i hearing son and 2 mute daughters, who married hearing men and had 
only hearing children. The second sister was educated and married an edu- 
cated mute but died soon after the birth of her normal child. The third sister 
married, first a hearing man and had a normal daughter whose children were 
in turn normal. But she married for a second husband a deaf mute belonging 
to a fraternity with 2 other deaf mutes and all 4 children who survived 
infancy were deaf mutes. Report, N. Y. School for Deaf and Dumb, 1853, 
p. 96. 



1111111 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 

mn IN t I J J J I . 


¥D »T#D i^i D mf 
ri m rrr 





Fig. 97. — Pedigree of deaf mutes — black symbols or D. Note the fraternity 
of deaf mutes derived from the central mating of cousins. Most of those who 
outmarried, even though their consorts were deaf, had hearing children. 
Fat, 1898, No. 810. 

In view of the foregoing data the first eugenic recommen- 
dation clearly is that two deaf mutes should not have chil- 
dren, especially if they come from the same long-settled 
community or are known to be blood relatives. 


If one partner be congenitally deaf and the other have 
no ear defect and knows of none in his family the chances 
for deaf offspring are small. In 72 such marriages considered 







Fig. 98. — Pedigree of deaf mutism. In the first generation 2 hearing 
cousins marry. They have 14 children of whom 7 are dead. Two of these 
marry deaf wives belonging to fraternities with other cases of deafness. Of 
9 children, altogether, all are deaf. Fay, 1898, No. 7. 

by Fay only 5 resulted in deaf offspring. It is quite likely 
that in some even of these five matings the normal parent 
had unknown deaf relatives. 






N N. 

Fig. 99. — Pedigree of deaf mutism. Two deaf mutes, first cousins, marry 
and have 4 children, all deaf mutes. One of these marries a wife whose 
father, an uncle and two nephews or nieces were deaf mutes, and two out of 
three children were deaf mutes. Another child of the original pair married a 
deaf mute and had two hearing children. Fat, 1898. Nos. 3292, 2260, 442, 
3290, 3291, 3234. 

But if the hearing partner have deaf relatives then the 
proportion of resulting fraternities containing deaf mutes 
increases to 35 per cent. 


Even though both partners hear, if they belong to the 
same strain with a tendency to deafness the hability to deaf 
offspring is so high as to warrant warning strongly against 
such a marriage (Fig. 99). 

Finally if one or both partners are adventitiously deaf 
and have no deaf relatives then there is no eugenic obstacle 
to marriage, for such marriages result in a negligible propor- 
tion of deaf offspring — in Fay's statistics only 2 out of 552. 

b. Otosclerosis. — This disease consists of a progressive 
rigidity of the mucous coat of the tympanic membrane: 

Fig. 100. — Pedigree of "fistula auris congenita." Both of the original 
pair were affected with a congenital aural fistula, with a fistulous canal anterior 
and close to the ear; all persons represented by black symbols had a similar 
fistula. Hartman, p. 56. 

usually associated with adhesions in the inner ear and altera- 
tions of the windows (fenestra). It shows itself in an ever 
increasing difficulty in hearing conversation. 

The inheritance of otosclerosis is a familiar fact. Most 
persons know families many of whose members become 
''hard of hearing" as they grow older. The deafness is fre- 
quently attributed to climatic causes and this belief is in- 
creased by the presence of many cases in the same locahty. 
But it will be found on inquiry that the afifected persons 
are relatives and that their unrelated neighboi-s are not 
affected by the same climate. This makes it clear that a 
severe climate merely brings out the latent weakness of the 



mucous lining of the ear. Some examples of strains showing 
otosclerosis are given in Figm-es 101-104. 

An examination of the available pedigrees indicates that 
otosclerosis is due to a defect — perhaps to the absence of a 

resistance to infection and in- 
flammation of the lining mem- 
brane of the inner ear. Like 
I — -. other defects it is relatively com- 

j— . X fJ-i/->^ nion in the progeny of cousin 

" — "l^ I— nvy marriages. 

The eugenic indications then 
are, two persons with a tend- 
ency towards otosclerosis should 

Fig. 101. — Pedigree of oto- << • r • i 

sclerosis. In this pedigree all refrain from marrying, as prob- 
affected individuals, so far as ably all of their children will he 

known, are females. Luc^, 1907. , , - , . -r, , 

hard of hearing. But a person 
with otosclerosis and an unaffected person of an untainted 
strain may marry with impunity as their children will prob- 
ably all have strong hearing. 



DiOD aoo 


Fig. 102. — Pedigree of a family with otosclerosis. Two deaf brothers 
marry; one has a single son, who is deaf; the other has four unaffected chil- 
dren. Of these latter two marry consorts who are, so far as known, normal. 
From one pair three out of nine children are affected; from the other only 
one child is known and he is hard of hearing. Hammerschlag, 1906. 

c. Catarrhal affections. — That a weakness of the mucous 
membranes permitting catarrh is hereditary, we shall see 
in speaking of the weakness of mucous membranes in general, 




and it cannot be doubted that such a weakness plays a role 

in deafness. Thus Bell (1906) has shown that, in the census 

returns, over 55 per cent of the deaf 

children in the country come from 

parents who became deaf in adult 

life and he states that this "confirms 

the conclusion reached upon other 

grounds that heredity sometimes 

plays a part in the production of 

catarrh of the middle ear — the chief 

cause of deafness occurring in middle 


Fig. 103.— Pedigree of 
rtrw o T^ otosclerosis. Affected per- 

29. Skin Diseases ^ons (black symbols) for 

the most part, but by no 

The skin is an admirable organ for means always, have an af- 
the protection of the delicate in- ^^^^^^ p"^^"*" l^^*' ^^'^' 
ternal parts not only from desiccation but also from the 
entrance of the numerous parasites that thrive on manmial- 







iJStiffl 'Sbi 

Fig. 104 — Pedigree of otosclerosis. The condition of hearing in the first 
generation is unknown and some of the children in the fourth generation have 
not reached the age of incidence; thus, IV, 4-C. are 22 to 18 years old and 
IV, 7-9, are 20 to 14 years. 

ian blood and tissues. Nevertheless, its exposed position 
renders it liable to attack by the various genns that are 


ubiquitous. Abrasions and the openings of the sebaceous 
glands and the hair folhcles offer vulnerable points. The 
main reliance of the organism must be its internal means of 
defense. The efficiency of specific means of resistance is 
undoubtedly an inherited quality. We find families charac- 
terized by low resistance to specific germs of particular dis- 

Thus liability to boils and eczema appears as a family 
trait in the Dow-1 family. One of the parents is subject 
to boils and the other to eczema. Of five children three are 
subject to eczema and one to boils. It seems probable that 
we are here dealing with a lack of resistance to infection 
through the skin in both parents, leading to a non-resistance 
in all of the children. A few cases of inheritance of more 
specific types of skin diseases are cited below. 

a. Congenital Traumatic Pemphigus (epidermolysis bul- 
losa). — The children are born with a liability to form 
fluid filled vesicles after the smallest physical provocation. 
The excessive vulnerability shows itself in the first month 
of life and is said to diminish from 40 to 50 years of age and 
to cease altogether in old age. It is strongly hereditary, 
often through several generations (5 in Bonajuti's case); 
it shows also a prevalence in particular families and is rather 
more frequent in males than females. The sHghtest injury, 
blow, pressure, friction or scratching is followed by the 
formation of a bulla. The bullae are often full of blood and 
of large size, 5 centimeters or more across and their shape 
may be irregular instead of round or oval depending upon 
the nature of the injury. Fingers and nails are often de- 
formed or altogether destroyed. The pathology of the dis- 
ease is obscure; it seems to be influenced by arsenic (Rad- 
cliffe-Crocker, 1903, p. 293). 

The case described by Bonajuti is given in Fig. 105. Of 
an affected parent about half the offspring are affected. Two 


normal parents usually produce only normal offspring. In 
case the single known parent is normal and has affected off- 
spring it is presumed that the unknown spouse was affected. 
On the whole, epidermolysis seems to be due to the presence 
of a distinct factor, absence of which results in normality. 

The eugenic teaching is then that two normals belonging 
to such a family as that of Fig. 105 may marry with impunity 

i A Mi 

Fig. 105. — Pedigree of a family showing epidermolysis bullosa, behaving 
like a dominant trait — appearing in each generation. Only in two instances, 
at the right of the chart, does a case arise from a parent not known to have 
the trait. Gossage, after Bonajuti. 

but that in the case of parents who have, or had in childhood, 
epidermolysis probably at least half of the children will be 
similarly affected. 

b. Psoriasis (itch). — The question of the inherit ability of 
this disease has been much discussed. Some declare it is due 
to infection, others deny it. Various experiments have been 
tried. Schamberg (1908) performed auto-inoculation in 
23 cases and got a positive result in only 3. Inoculation into 
normal human subjects — usually the experunenter's own 
body — have produced the disease in only one case (that of 
Dr. Destot). On the other hand in about a third of the 
cases observed by various physicians psoriasis was recog- 
nized as a family disease. The most reasonable explana- 
tion is that the disease is due to a parasite to which most 


persons are immune; and that lack of immunity is an in- 
heritable trait. 

Besides skin diseases due to infection there are other ab- 
normal conditions consisting of irregularities or exaggera- 


1 Atd A AiQ 

I other Females I 

I AIJ no rmal I 

Fig. 106. — Pedigree of ichthyosis. All affected persons are from non- 
affected females. Bramwell, 1903, p. 77. 

tions of the process of rendering the outer layer of the skin 
horny. The liability to these diseases is usually recognized 
to be hereditary. 
c. Ichthyosis or xerosis (xeroderma). — This is a dryness 
^1 — I of the skin in which plates are formed 

^ like the scales of a fish. The dis- 

ease is remarkable because, appar- 

heredity by sex and sometimes not, 

— in different families. At least, in 

BjO two of the pedigrees (Figs. 106, 108) 

I males only are affected and inherit- 

6X J_^ X ance is through a normal female. 
• Q • But in other cases (Figs. 107, 109) 
■ Ju""- ^^'^uZ^^-^^'rl ""^ the females seem to be affected 

ichthyosis, behaving like a 

positive trait. Bbamwell, equally with the males and the pe- 
^^^^' culiar skin condition is transmitted 

either by normal or by affected females. Ichthyosis is es- 
pecially apt to be found in families in which consanguineous 
marriages occur and this fact, together with the pedigrees, 


suggests that it is due to the absence of some factor that con- 
trols the process of cornification of the skin. On this hypoth- 
esis a normal person who belongs to an afifected family 

Fig. 108.— Pedigree of a family with ichthyosis. Note that only males are 

affected. Bond, 190.5. 

may marry into a normal family with impunity, but cousin 
marriages are to be avoided. 

d. Thickening of the outer layer of the skin is a disease 
that is closely related to the foregoing. In the generaUzed 




Fig. 109. — Pedigree of a family showing general ichthyosis, giving evidence 
that it is a positive trait. Gossage, 1907, p. 342. 

forms (called hyperkeratosis) infection has been alleged as 
a cause; but if infection plays a part it seems to be effective 
only where there is a susceptibility. Evidence for contagion 
is said to be given by the case where the only two affected 
children were those who, alone, were nursed by their mother, 
an affected woman. But, on the other hand, the fact that 
the mother had the disease proves her susceptibihty. 


Finally, the peculiar thickening of the palm of the hand 
and the plantar surface of the foot known as Tylosis seems 
to follow the same rule as keratosis of which it is only a 
special case. Both males and females are affected and two 
normal parents, even of an affected family, rarely transmit 
the defect (Figs. 110, 111). 

The records of 45 families with this abnormality have 
been studied by Gossage. In the 39 that can be used, it 
appears that males and females are equally affected (166 
to 140) and transmit equally. As affected persons always 
mate with normals, affected offspring are always simplex 
and expectation is that half of their offspring shall be ab- 
normal. In 28 famihes 222 children are abnormal and 184 
normal. Only one exception appears to the rule that two 
normal parents have only normal children. 

30. Epidermal Organs 

Heredity in these organs may be considered under the 
four heads of glands, hair, nails and teeth. The inclusion 
of teeth is justified since their true epidermal origin is now 
recognized; they are equivalent to the scales of fishes, but, 
in the higher animals, including man, they are confined to 
the mouth and jaws. On account of the close interrelation- 
ship of these four types of organs a modification of one may 
mean a change in all, and so it is not possible in discussing 
one of them always to avoid a consideration of another. 

a. The Skin Glands are principally the sebaceous and 
sweat glands, associated functionally with the hair and 
morphologically with the milk glands. The latter are usually 
reduced to two in man but cases of supernumerary mam- 
mae are not exceedingly rare. This condition is doubtless 
hereditary for Leichtenstern (1878) refers to the case of a 
woman with three mammae on the chest who bore a daughter 
who in turn also had three mammae (though the additional 





Fig. 110. — Pedigree of a family with tylosis (black symbols). Note that 
all affected persons have at least one parent affected — showing that tylosis 
is due to a positive determiner. Unna, 1883. 





Fig. 111. — Pedigree of a family with tylosis palmae plantaris (black sym- 
bols) — proof of its positive nature. 4iV, four normals. Gossage, after Riz- 
ZOLI, 1907. 

one was on the thigh), and Iwai (1904) cites many cases of 
a mother and five to one of several children who possessed 
supernumerary pectoral nipples. 


b. Hair. — Peculiarities of hair, apart from pigmentation, 
are not infrequent as family traits. Thus a family with 
curled, woolly hair is described by Gossage, the curly condi- 
tion being clearly dominant over its absence. Hair may be 
entirely absent even from birth. Such a case is described by 
Molenes (1890). There was brought to him a girl of 4 years 
who was hairless from birth until 19 months old. She had 
a brother who was bald at six and the mother lost her hair 
at 19. Another case, described in the Medi-chirurgical Trans- 
actions, is that of a boy of three who was nearly bald. His 
sisters had normal hair but his mother had complete 
alopecia areata from the age of six. 

A third case is that described by White who knew a family that came 
from France to Canada. One grandfather was nearly hairless and the 
nails were faulty; the parents were normal; but in the next generation of 
6 sons and 2 daughters one daughter was almost hairless and the nails 
abnormal in her and in two sons. This daughter married (presumably a 
normal man) and had a son who at 19 retains on his scalp the nearly invis- 
ible downy coat with which he was born. His only sister has a thick, 
downy scalp-covermg quite different from normal hair. One of the uncles 
of these children has a son of 9 and a daughter of 4; the latter was 
born entirely without hair or nails. The data are not very full but the 
fact that normals carry the trait indicates that it may be accompanied by 
a definite defect in the germ plasm. Baer describes a family of ten chil- 
dren of two normal parents of which one was born hairless and has con- 
tinued so while three were bom with heavy hair but lost it; in two cases 
at 14 days and in one at 9 months. 

The form of the hair may show family peculiarities. Thus, 
in some cases, it is thickened at intervals resembhng a string 
of beads — hence called ''monihthrix." A pedigree of a 
family of this sort has been recorded by Anderson (Fig. 
112). Unaffected parents apparently yield only normals 
and abnormal parents are usually simplex, so that about half 
of the offspring have the new character. 

The facts of inheritance of curhness have been considered 
on page 35. 


Hair-coat CoZor.— Ordinarily the hair of the scalp is of 
uniform color but in man, no less than in horses, a piebald 
condition is possible. This shows itself in locks of white 
hair in the midst of a prevaihng brown or red. This spotted 
condition is due to a definite positive factor, even as in the 
coat of mice, and two parents who lack spotted hair-coat 
will have only uniform-coated children. This is illustrated 

FiQ. 112. — Inheritance of monilithrix — a positive character. Black symbols 
represent affected individuals. Anderson. 

in the pedigree (Fig. 113) from Gossage. The hair-coat also 
varies in thickness and that this quality runs in famiUes 
can hardly be doubted (Fig. 114). 

c. Nails. — Hereditary nail defects are almost always as- 
sociated with hair defects, as in the cases of hair peculiari- 
ties already described. One family pedigree must suffice 
for nail and hair defect (Fig. 115). 

d. Teeth. — As is well known each half of either jaw has 
typically 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 bicuspids and 3 molars. 
To this formula there are, however, exceptions and these 
exceptional conditions may run in families. Thus McQuillcn 
records a family in which father, son and grandson lacked 


the lateral incisors of the upper jaw, a second son had them 
exceedingly dwarfed and some of his children had them so 
stunted that they were unsightly. The absence of the last 



nr9 D D]6 

iplipOjAoiioji 'ip 

2S 4N 3N 3N 2N N ;5 N S N S N. 

Fig. 113. — Pedigree chart, showing inheritance of spottedness in human 
hair covering — "congenital lock of white hair." Affected persons in black 
symbols. S, spot in hair-coat, sex unknown. Gossage, after Rizzoli. 

molar is perhaps the commonest variation but no good 
evidence of its extended occurrence in families is at hand. 


Fig. 114. — Pedigree of heavy hair-coat. I, 3, heavy growth of hair on 
head and face; I, 4, heavy growth of hair on head; II, 7, 8, heavy growth of 
hair on head and face; II, 9, 10, heavy growth of hair on head. F. R.; Tin. 1. 

Entire absence of teeth is occasionally found as a family 
trait — there are said to be several such families in America 
but they have not yet been studied in detail. Guilford 


(1883) records the case of a woman who never had teeth 
nor hair. Her sister was normal but her son was edentulous, 
and hairless. The sister (by an undescribed consort) had 
18 children who grew up. Of these, one is edentulous while 
some of the others have failed to erupt all of their teeth. 



4 8 


131 U 
IN 4unK. 


Fig. 115. — Pedigree of a family with peculiarities of hair and naila. I, 2, 
wife of PiROUT, poorly nourished nails and hair; II, 1 wife of Quimbel, bom 
Rouen, 1775, poorly nourished nails and hair; III, 2, mar. Delaf, bald with 
bad nails; III, 4, bald, bad nails; III, 5, Dei-au, bald, bad nails; III, 7, bald, 
bad nails; III, 9, bald, bad nails; IV, 1, bad nails; IV, 3, bald and bad nails; 
IV, 4, chestnut hair, bad nails; IV, 5, bald and bad nails; IV, 7, stands for 
5 boys who were bald and had bad nails; IV, 8, a girl who is bald and has 
bad nails; IV, 9, rachitic in childhood, bad hair and nails; IV, 11, bad naila 
and hair; IV, 15, bad nails and hair; V, 1, had bad nails and hair, he died in- 
sane but his brother was normal. Of the children of IV, 5, 6, three had bad 
nails and hair, four (V, 7) were bald as well and nine others were normal. Of 
the children of IV, 11, 12, two had bad nails and hair. Of the children of 
IV, 15, 16, two had bad nails and hair and there were three granddaughten? 
similarly affected. Nicolle et Halipke, 1895. 

The edentulous son married a normal (?) woman and had 
eight children. One, 14 years of age, who was examined, 
had many teeth undeveloped; another, at 16 years of age, 
had only 14 teeth when 28 were to be expected. Further 
data are necessary to determine whether or not imperfect 
development of the dental arcade is due to a genuine defect 
in the germ plasm. 


Abnormalities in excess number of teeth are also found. 
Tomes refers to the occurrence of ''well defined additional 
Ungual cusps in the upper molar" in both ''father and his 


Dt4 (!)Tci]D[4iD|4iD|(:! 

2 3 2 5 



Fig. 116. — Pedigree of family with faulty enamel of the teeth — "brown 
teeth." Numbers below, or inside of, symbols indicate the number of individ- 
uals of the sex and condition of teeth. With one possible exception affected 
persons have at least one affected parent. Spokes, 1889. 

children." An American family with whom the writer has 
corresponded has a double set of permanent teeth as a 
family trait. 


Fia. 117. — Pedigree of hypoplasia of enamel in Thrower-Walsingham- 
Chessum family of Ware, England. I, 2, original parents of strain; II, 1, at the 
age of 84 two stunted teeth in the upper jaw; III, 6, two stunted upper teeth; 
III, 7, at 51 years has the fourth upper right and fifth lower teeth broken 
down; IV, 6, some teeth never erupted; some broken down; IV, 9, at 30 some 
teeth small, some never erupted. This dental peculiarity appears only in the 
offspring of an affected parent, consequently it is a positive trait. Turner, 

More complete are the studies made on famihes with 
faulty enamel of the teeth. In Fig. IIG is given the case of 
"brown teeth" due to faulty enamel. In Fig. 117 is given 



Fig. 118. — A case of reappearance of peculiarities in the features of three 
generations; namely, upturned and receding lower jaw. .1, the grand- 
father; B, his daughter; C, his graudduughler. V. II. J.\cksox, Urthodoutiu, 


Fig. 119. — Case of harelip at one year of age. R. W. Murray, "Harelip 

and Cleft Palate," 1902. 

a second case of insufficient enamel together with failure 
of some teeth to erupt. In these cases the abnormal con- 
dition seems to be due to some additional factor, inhibiting, 
as it were, the normal development of the enamel. 

There is a close relation between the form of the jaw and 
peculiarities of dentition. That the form of the jaw is in- 
heritable is nicely shown in figure 118. 

e. Harelip and Cleft Palate. — These are intimately asso- 
ciated deformities, due to a more or less complete failure 
of the foundations of the upper jaw, which are paired, to 
grow completely to the middle line of the roof of the mouth. 
If the failure to close is in front harelip results, if behind 
cleft palate or merely cleft uvula. Occasionally both cleft 
palate and harelip may be present (Fig. 119). 

A number of fairly extended pedigrees have been pub- 



lished (Rischbieth, 1909) yet they are not as critical as one 
would like (Figs. 120, 121), particularly, the consorts are 






Fig. 120. — Pedigree of a family with harelip (right half of symbol dark) 
and cleft palate (left half dark). Frequently the affected persons descend from 
affected parents. Apert, 1907, after Schmitz. 

rarely given. One can say, however, that the defect seems 
not to be sex-limited. So often are some of the children 







Fig. 121. — Pedigree of harelip (sohd black symbol) and cleft palate (half 
black symbol). The type of defect is not constant. I, 2, simple fissure; II, 3, 
bilateral fissure; III, 1, palatine fissure; III, 3-7, lip fissures; IV', 4, harelip 
with cleft palate; IV, 6, 7, palate cleft without harelip. This particular 
pedigree is interesting because of an alternation of the affected sex in successive 
generations. Schmitz, 1904. 

of one affected parent defective that the first impression is 
that the trait is dominant. But, if so, two normals should 


not have affected offspring — but this is just what is alleged 
commonly to happen. These cases, however, deserve care- 
ful study. Frequently when both parents of the defective 
child are normal one of them will belong to a fraternity 
with the defect; occasionally, however, one must go back 
to the second ancestral generation to find an affected rela- 
tive. No eugenic instruction is, as yet possible. Corre- 
spondence from affected persons, or their relatives, who will 
volunteer to cooperate in studying the method of inherit- 
ance of this trait is solicited. 

31. Cancer and Tumor 

The question of ''inheritance of cancer" has been much 
discussed and nothing but difference of opinion has resulted. 
This is largely due to the bad formulation of the problem. 
In the first place, if, as seems probable, the stimulus to 
cancer growth is an inoculable something — germ or fer- 
ment — it does not follow that the consequence of stimulus 
is not determined by an inheritable factor. It is known 
that certain strains or families of mice are uninoculable 
while others will acquire cancer upon inoculation. The 
question is, are there human strains that are easily and 
others with difficulty inoculable? The whole question is 
complicated by the fact that cancer is a disease of middle 
or later Ufe. Thus in the census for 1900 we find that the 
heavy incidence of deaths from cancer occurs between 40 
and 80 years (84.4%). The detailed distribution is shown 
in Table X. Here we see that the death rate of cancer 
(as compared with deaths from all causes) reaches its high- 
est point at between 50 and 60 years, but that absolutely 
more deaths occur from that disease between 60 and 70 
years. On account of this heavy mortality late in life many 
who are inoculable never reveal the fact, owing to their 
death before the cancer age. If cancer is communicable, 


Table X 


At death period 40-49 50-59 60-69 70-80 

Per cent of all deaths 

from cancer 17.1 24.4 25.8 17.1 

Proportion of cancer 

deaths to all deaths 

at that age period 8.3 11.2 10.1 7.0 

like typhoid fever, still not all who are non-resistant will 
die from cancer because some will not become inoculated. 
The answer to the question of the "heredity of cancer" 
is not to be sought in mass statistics — in the correlation of 


44 ii A trO 


Fig. 122.— Pedigree of cancer. In the first generation cancer is admitted. 
In the second it is not known to have occurred, but the father died at 71 of a 
somewhat mysterious disease. In the third generation were two cases of 
cancer (one "bone cancer"). The fourth generation contains persons who 
are still young. 

deaths from cancer between parents and children, but only 
by a careful analysis and comparison of individual famihes. 
One then sees in many famihes no deaths from cancer 
among 10 to 20 persons dying at cancer age, while in other 
famihes there will be 2 or 3 or even 4 deaths from cancer 
among those dying at the cancer age (Fig. 122). Thus in 
a pedigree that hes before me, half of those who have died 



at 35 years or over have died of cancer or tumor or have 
been operated on for cancer (4 cases in all) and two others 
have been operated on by a cancer surgeon, but details 
were not furnished. Two others in the family are suspected 
of having died of the disease. Now such families as these 
are by no means rare and this is the basis for the conclu- 
sion that there is a family UabiUty to cancer. 

Moreover, there is a specificity of the disease in each par- 
ticular family. In one family non-resistance shows itself in 

the females in cancer of the breast, 
in another, in cancer of the uterus, 
in another in cancer of the intes- 
I I "I I tine. Silcox (1892, Fig. 123) gives 
J XDnV w w w ^ fragment of a pedigree showing 

that a father, four daughters and 
a granddaughter all probably have 
sarcoma of the eyeball; and Broca 
Fig. 123.— Fragment of a records the case of a woman and 
pedigree Bhowing a specific in- three daughters who, at about the 

heritance of sarcoma of the 

eyeball. All persons indicated Same age, possessed librous forma- 
by black symbols are similarly ^^^^ ^^ ^he breast. Considering 

the few pedigrees of cancer families 
extant and the large number of organs subject to cancer 
these cases of cancer in the same organ strengthen mater- 
ially the view of specific inheritability. 

That certain "benign" tumors are hereditary is indicated 
by various records in the literature. Thus Atkinson cites 
the case of a man whose body was covered with countless 
tumors varying in size from that of a canary seed to that of a 
pullet's egg. His sister and their father were similarly af- 
fected. The disease is not a common one in this form and 
this fact gives its high incidence in this family the greater 
weight as evidence that internal conditions have at least 
molded the form taken by the disease. 



32. Diseases of the Muscular System 

Since most muscular response is controlled by the nervous 
system it is frequently difficult to determine whether a 
peculiarity of muscular response is due chiefly to the one 
organ or the other. The classification of these diseases is 
therefore somewhat arbitrary. 

a. Thomsen's Disease is a rather rare one in most local- 
ities. It is characterized by lack of tone and prompt re- 



tor^Tit) tab 

j coiisins I 1 





71 8 I 
I nerve and 
lung trouble' 


Fig. 124. — Pedigree of Thomsen's disease. Appears in cousin marriages 
even from unaffected parents; hence due to a defect. Bernhardt, 18S5. 

sponsiveness in the voluntary muscles. A striking pedigree 
has been recorded by Thomsen (Fig. 124). It shows a re- 
markable reappearance of the disease in the offspring of 
cousin marriages and this indicates that the disease is due 
to some sort of a defect whose nature has yet to be elucidated. 
The clear eugenic advice is outmarriage. 

b. Certain Muscular Atrophies appear to be secondary to 
diseases of the nervous system while others seem to originate 
in the muscles themselves, without corresponding defects in 
the nervous centers. In a family described by Herringhara 
(1885) sometimes all appendages, sometimes the arms only, 



- nD 



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i a; - 05 O^ CO ^ 

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O ^ ^ 03 -d Q 

P Oj 00 bJD 

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fe a^ 1= -e 03 C3 

r, ^ ? OJ a; c tl 


underwent a slow atrophy starting as early even as the 
twelfth year. The method of inheritance in this family is 
striking. Only males are affected and they, as well as the 
unaffected females, may transmit the defect; but unaffected 
males have no affected children. Femaleness in this family 
is incompatible with atrophy. (Fig. 125). 



•[■ op qA 

ij > a ■ Dii D]# [Dp N li an 

N N N N 


Fig. 126. — Pedigree of a family of tremblers. Affected persons (black 
eymbols) are derived from at least 1 affected parent, and 2 normal parenta 
have only normal offspring. Trembling is thus due to the presence of a spe- 
cial character. From Deborb and Renault, 1891. 

c. A family of tremblers has been recorded by Debore 
and Renault. In this family all normals produce only normal 
offspring while two affected parents may have a normal 
child. The pedigree deserves no great stress since details 
are lacking (Fig. 126). 

d. Hernia. — Man's erect position is accompanied by 
physical dangers from which his quadruped ancestors were 
free, for in man the weight of the viscera has largely to be 
borne by the pelvis and lower abdominal wall. The erect 
position has subjected the muscles of the inguinal region to 
a peculiarly rigorous test. They often fail and an inguinal 
hernia is the result. Such hernias usually are consequent to 


a strain but the strain merely reveals, and does not cause, 
the weakness. 

That such weakness or liability to hernia is inherited ad- 
mits of little doubt. Just how, there is hardly suJQScient data 

Fig. 127 Fig. 128 

Fig. 127. — Pedigree of inguinal heniia. Probably only affected persona 
(black) are shown. All males have a right handed scrotal hernia and both 
affected females have a femoral hernia. Couch, 1895. 

Fig. 128. — Pedigree of inguinal hernia (black symbols). F. R.; Rei. 3. 

to determine with certainty. It is probable that a weakness 
from both sides of the house will yield only weak offspring. 
This is indicated in Figs. 127, 128; all males have a right 
handed scrotal hernia and both affected females have a 
femoral hernia. 

33. Diseases of the Blood 

These are generally classified into two groups; the anemic 
and the hemorrhagic ; in both, the evidence of an inheritable 
tendency is clear. 

a. Of the Anemic Diseases, chlorosis is the commonest, is 
found almost exclusively in females, and occurs frequently 
enough in many or all of the females of one family to render 
it probable that eventually it will be found to accompany a 
distinct inheritable weakness.^ A careful study of pedigrees 
is highly desirable. 

* Potain (Article, Anemia, Diet, encycl. des sci. med.) says "The children 
of a chlorotic woman are often all chlorotic — and in certain caeca even the 
male children do not escape." 


b. Progressive pernicious anemia. This is a relatively rare 
disease which has been little stutlied from the standpoint 
of heredity. A case described -_ _______,_^ 

by Bramwell (1876) is suggest- ^ VlJ^ ^ iJL ^^1 
ive (Fig. 129). ■*■ LsjU • D ■ ■ 

c. Nosebleed (epistaxis) — 
This representative of t h e -n- 
hemorrhagic diseases of the 

blood may be a family disease, .iI^,^-^SZ:l:JZ!l 
characterized by its frequency I'he mother, I, 2, died of cardiac 

J ., 1 • 11 weakness and chronic diarrhea; it ia 

and severity and occasionally uncertain in how far a tendency to 

by its fatalneSS. In some of the anemia was responsible for the result. 
. . . . «■ i 1 ^' ■*' ^ie*^ of ^ heart trouble which 

Iraternities trom an aftected was not further dijignosed. The 

parent all, in others about other three members of the fraternity 

died of anemia. Both children, II, 
half, of the children are af- l, 2, were aflfectcd with progressive 

fected. An example is the ^""""='- R^^'^^^^- 
family described by Babington (1865). Unfortunately no 
facts are given about consorts (Fig. 130). In this case most 
of the persons were violently affected. The fact that no cases 
are recorded from normal persons in so far raises the sus- 
picion that the disease is due to the presence of a positive 
trait, which should tend to make persons having a violent 
form of the trait hesitate about having children. 

d. Telangiectasis. — Nosebleed is often associated with red 
spots in the skin from which bleeding may occur. This con- 
dition is called telangiectasis; its behavior is well illustrated 
in Figs. 131, 132. Like epistaxis it seems to be a dominant 
trait, so that normal children who outmarry will probably 
have no affected offspring. 

e. Hemophilia. — This remarkable condition is character- 
ized by a proneness to hemorrhage and by difficulty in 
blood-clotting, so that a hemorrhage once started is stopped 
with difficulty. Families with this peculiarity (fortunately 
not very frequent) are known as "bleeders." In such fan} 




Dt(j □SooqJ^ 






Fig. 130. — Pedigree of a family showing epistaxis or nosebleed. Affected 
persons indicated by half shaded symbols. All affected persons arise from 
an affected ancestor. N, normal. Consorts unknown. Babington, 1865. 

I t^OTM^ 




liffl] A 

t early 

Fig. 131. — Pedigree of family showing multiple telangiectasis. Affected 
persons (solid black) from affected parent only. I, 6, had "spots" on face, 
subject to vomiting and to nosebleed, from which latter he died. II, 5, spots 
appeared at between 38 and 48 years, epistaxis increased and led to her death. 
Her daughter. III, 1, is gaining telangiectasis but the younger son at 20 years 
shows no sign of trouble; II, 6, has red spots that first appeared in her 27th 
year and are extending. 

ilies there are more than fifty times as many affected males 
as females. In general as age advances, the severity of the 
hemorrhages diminishes and finally they cease altogether. 

As in other diseases so in hemophilia special variants ap- 
pear in particular families. Thus among some of the de- 


I Wfcl 


t> t] t) 

Fig. 132. — Pedigree of multiple telangiectasis. I, 1, is an English woman 
who was subject to epistaxis (nosebleed) and had rod spots on her face; her 
daughter, II, 2, 60 years old, has a number of bright red angiomata distributed 
over face, ears, lips, tongue, mucous membrane of mouth, and imicr surface of 
all 4 eyelids. During last 6 years has had recurrent attacks of epistaxis. 
By her first husband she had a son and 8 grandchildren of whom 1 
suffers from epistaxis. By her second husband she had 8 children of whom 
III, 3, has had epistaxis since 8 years and 2 small "spider naevi" on left 
cheek and has a child of 11 who suffers from epistaxis; III, 5, has nose- 
bleed and 3 small spots on cheek; his son is normal as yet; III, 11, has epis- 
taxis; III, 16, has slight attacks of epistaxis but no spots visible. Weber, 1907. 

scendants of the early settlers of Sullivan Co., Pennsylvania, 
occur ''nine-day bleeders." ''After the wound is received, 
instead of healing a sort of core, of very dark color, composed 
mostly of coagulated blood forms in the wound, which in 
about nine days opens, and the blood begins to flow as if 
from a freshly severed artery. It usually continues to bleed 
about two weeks, or until the patient is thoroughly ex- 
hausted, when the "core" falls out and the wound heals. 
Binding up the wound does no good. The only death known 
to have occurred through bleeding is supposed to have been 
caused by binding the wound hghtly to stay the flow of 

That hemophiha has an hereditary basis is generally con- 
ceded and the conclusion would not be weakened were a 
specific hemophilia germ some day demonstrated. The par- 
ticular method of inheritance is well illustrated by Fig. 133 
of the Sullivan County strain. The males alone are af- 


m IV 









Mothers N. 
■O «aN. 

»tj uUN. 







.ScMMrmNSOetiildraiK WdiildRnNUdiadnoN 


OO BKDzchiMrtali 
\ rjHiSopw sons Uxicn, rttonli not eompklc 

^ 4 sons N. 

Fig. 133. — Pedigree of the Sullivan Co., Pa., bleeders. Roman numerals 
at top of columns indicate generations. Of the two symbols connected by a 
horizontal line that at the left is the direct descendant, that at the right the 
consort; the bracket includes their children. Only males are bleeders, and 
bleeding children are derived always from non-bleeding females of the family. 
Pardoe, 1904. 

fected. No male of the family, whether affected or not has 
affected offspring so long as he marries outside of the family. 
Hence, all "bleeding" children are derived from the females 
of the family. 

Fig. 134 gives the pedigree of the family Mampel from 
Kirchheim near Heidelberg (Lossen, 1905), and Fig. 135 is 
the pedigree of a family that settled in Carroll Co., Maryland, 


and has since spread over the country. It is remarkable be- 
cause it contains records of female bleeders, whose occurrence 
has been doubted by Bulloch (1911). 

The eugenic teaching that holds for practically all families 
is clear. Sisters of bleeders should not have children. Males 
if not actual bleeders may, so far as this trait goes, marry 
and reproduce with impunity — their germ plasm is free of 
taint of hemophilia. 

HemopliiHa is a particularly difficult disease to control 
in descent because it is disseminated by normal females. 
On this account it is Uable to produce a community of 
bleeders as it formerly did at Tenna, Canton Graubunden, 
Switzerland. Even normal females from the old world 
famihes of bleeders may well be prevented from landing in 

f . Splenic Anemia with enlargement of the Spleen. — This con- 
dition, usually recognized as hereditary, not infrequently 
appears in the offspring of two unaffected parents. In such 
a family reported by Bovaird (1900) 2 children out of a 
fraternity of 10 were affected. In a family reported by Brill 
there were affected 3 out of 6 (Fig. 136). In both famihes to- 
gether there were, then, 5 out of 16. In another family, when 
one parent is affected, of 15 children of whom details are 
known, 5 were certainly affected, two doubtful and 8 were 
normal. Of the two matings involved one is consanguineous 
(Wilson, 1869, Fig. 137). Though the data are still meager 
the result favors the view that the liability to splenic anemia 
is due to the absence of some factor that usually gives 
strength. A person having or fearing such a defect should 
marry into a normal strain. It may be added that Gossage 
(1908, p. 321) suggests that splenic anemia is due to the 
presence of some dominant factor so the matter must be 
regarded as still unsettled. 


Fig. 134. — Pedigree of hemophilia in the Mampel family, originally of 
Kirchheim near Heidelberg, Germany. Black symbols indicate bleeders; 
it is seen that they are males only, but they, in turn, have no bleeding sons. 

34. Disease of the Thyroid Gland 

This may lead to a variety of effects, cretinism, goitre, 
myxedema, exophthalmic goitre, etc. Many of these show 
evidence of an inheritance of the liability to thyroid de- 

a. Cretinism. — This is characterized by arrest of growth, 
by large pendulous abdomen, poor teeth, coarse, scanty 
scalp hair, mongolian face, feebly developed genitalia, and 
marked impairment of intelligence. The thyroid gland is 
often absent and a goitre frequently present. The distri- 
bution of the disease is interesting. It appears chiefly in 
mountainous countries where close intermarriage is more 
likely to occur than on the plains. Thus it abounds in Swit- 
zerland and is said to occur in some parts of Scotland. It is 
a cause of deportation when it occurs in immigrants to this 
country. That it is hereditary admits of no doubt. Aosta, 
at the southern base of Mount St. Bernard, was once a great 
breeding place of cretins, since their marriage there was per- 
mitted. For some years they have been segregated and kept 
from marrying and now, we are told, they are nearly all 
gone (Jordan, 1910). j| 

b. Goitre. — That goitre frequently occurs repeatedly in 
families is well known ; but in how far this is due to common 
sources of infection is still disputed. Buschan states that 




Heavy ringed circles are normal females who transmit the trait. Lobsen, 
1905. The details of Lossen's paper are translated in the "Treasury of Human 
Inheritance," Parts V and VI, pp. 267-271. 

family histories of goitrous patients usually show a neuro- 
pathic ancestry. A pedigree from Buschan is given in Fig. 

c. Exophthalmic Goitre. — This peculiar condition is char- 
acterized by an enlargement of the thyroid gland, protrusion 
of the eyeballs, and extreme nervousness. It more commonly 
affects women than men. Although, in the country as a 
whole, it is not common yet it is more prevalent in some 
districts than in others, doubtless owing to the interrelation- 
ship of the members of the district with heavy incidence of 
the disease. 

The disease is common in females; yet it is not inherited 
strictly in sex-Hmited fashion. It is, however, clearly in- 
herited; as certainly as epilepsy, with which it is not infre- 
quently associated. Not many family pedigrees seem, how- 
ever, to have been studied (Fig. 139). 

35. Diseases of the Vascular System 

This system consists, in the narrow sense, of the heart, 
arteries and veins. Less is known about heredity of defects 
and diseases of such an internal system because it is so in- 
accessible to observation and study in the living person. 
Nevertheless we shall see that "blood tells" in respect to 
the traits of this set of organs. 


1 fafP 

l1 aX 3 4' sit-, xl&«Li 





61 7 , 
tearly 12N 


Fig. 135, — Pedigree of a family of "bleeders" — the K. family, located in 
and about Carroll Co., Maryland. Their son, II, 2, was a bleeder but died 
without issue. The eldest son, III, 1, of the daughter was a bleeder from 18 
up to 45 years, "often bled till he fainted." He had 2 imaffected brothers 
and 3 normal sisters but 1 sister, III, 10, was "a bleeder until 40." 
He had a son, IV, 1, who was a very bad bleeder from 18 until toward middle 
hfe and a daughter, IV, 2, who often "bled until she fainted" and eventually 
died of dysentery. All 19 children of the 2 normal brothers were normal and 
9 children of the normal sister, III, 7. The affected sister, III, 10, had 3 
sons and 2 daughters who were affected. IV, 5, is stated to be "a bleeder" 
and had by an unaffected husband 2 bleeding sons and 1 bleeding daughter 
besides 4 others who died of scarlatina. Her brother, IV, 8, had a daughter, 
V, 5, who was a bleeder until 15, and then died of a hemorrhage of the lunga 
consequent upon tuberculosis. There were other children all of whom died 
young of scarlatina. The normal brother, IV, 10, had 12 normal children. 
The next 2 had no offspring. The youngest son, IV, 14, began to bleed 
while an infant, grew worse until he was 25 and has since improved. He mar- 
ried a cousin who is also a bleeder and they have 6 children. Three of the 
daughters have not bled as yet. V, 9, has been a bleeder since he was 8 months 
old and bleeds until he faints; V, 10, has been a bleeder since she was 8 months 
old and V, 11, bleeds occasionally but not very severely. Original data, con- 
tributed by Dr. J. H. Stick. 

a. Heart — That congenital heart defects are hereditary 
has long been known and the striking evidence for it has 
been brought together by Vierordt (1901). His summary 
deserves translating entire: "Friedberg mentions 3 sons 
suffering from cyanosis (due to imperfect structure of heart) 
from one father, 2 from his first, 1 from his second mar- 
riage; Ukewise Foot records 3 cases in one family; Haillet re- 
ports on 4 children with open foetal canals (in the heart) 


Fig. 136. — Pedigree of a family with splenic anemia. I, 1, died at 73 of 
gall stones; I, 2, died at 94 from a fall; I, 3, died at 72 of pneumonia; I, 4 
died at 38 from childbirth; II, 1, died of pneumonia and II, 2, i3 in perfect 
health at 62 years. In the third generation all are well e.\cept that III, 3, 
died in infancy of diarrhea; III, 4, was well until an enlargement of the spleen 
occurred, which has continued; III, 6, 30 years old, suffers a continued enlarge- 
ment of the spleen; and III, 7, died at 9 years of an enlargement of the spleen. 
Brill, 1901. 




Fig. 137. — Pedigree of splenic anemia. A. P., I, 2, has a form of nervoua 
deafness but otherwise healthy until attacked by diabetis mellitus. His wife 
gained sallow complexion and enlarged spleen at 33 years. Of their children 
one, II, 2, had enlarged spleen, at 7; she married a cousin and had 2 boys with 
projecting spleen. A son, II, 4, is subject to epistaxis and fainting spelJ.s; 
since 35 years old his spleen has been enlarged; he has 2 affected girls; II, 5, 
became deaf at 4; she is becoming sallow, but the spleen is not palpable. II, 6, 
is sUghtly deaf. Wilson, 1869. 

from one marriage; Strehler of a rachitic woman who bore 
5 cyanotic children, 3 boys and 2 girls; the father (who later 
died of phthisis) has by a second wife a normal daughter. 
In Kelly's case of transposition the mother had borne 11 


children of whom one died at 5 months from congenital 
heart disease. In the case of Schmaltz, that of a seven year 
old boy, the father and father's mother had heart defect, 
^r— 1 The patient of Potocki who, 29 years old, 

died of brain abscess and had a pulmo- 
I T I nary stenosis with closed septum and 

w w BtO ^^^^^^ 0^ th^ interauricular septum, de- 
scended from a mother with a congenital 
heart disease. Rezek observed 8 cases of 
heart disease in 4 generations of one fam- 
FiG. 138.— Pedigree ily, including 2 congenital defects; the 
of goitre. Affected per- ^lother probably having got her heart 

sons come from at least ^ ^ "^ o o 

one affected parent, disease from the grandmother (Fig. 140). 

Two sisters afflicted with ichthyosis con- 
genita, descended, according to Leuch's report, from a mother 
who suffered from a defect of the bicuspid valve; the oldest 

I ^B 


m i i 21 31 i 

Fig, 139. — Pedigree of a family showing heavy incidence of exophthaknic 
goitre. Ill, 1, 2, 3, also affected; sex unknown. 

child, the son, had also congenital heart disease. . . . Eger 
found in 12 cases of congenital heart disease, three times 
lues patris as well as consanguinity of the parents." To 
these cases it would be possible to add almost indefinitely. 
"Heart disease" is very common, but it does not fall upon 
individuals at random, but prevailingly upon strains with an 
inherent liability or weakness (Figs. 140-143). 

b. Arteriosclerosis. — While degeneration of the wall of the 


arteries is ascribed to numerous inciting causes, there can 
be no doubt that the cerebral hemorrhages, even of old age, 



mAIJ descendants' 


Both have heart 

t Congenital heart 

P^G 140. — Pedigree of heart disease. I, 2, probably had heart disease, 
II, 2, 3, and 5 had heart disease. The descendants of II, 1, 2, are normal for 
two generations. Those of II, 3, 4, are healthy but 1 of them has 2 chil- 
dren with heart disease. II, 5, has a daughter and a grandson who died of 
congenital heart defect. Rezek from Vierordt, 1901. 

are dependent in large part upon an inherited strength or 
resistance. Cases of arteriosclerosis have been reported in 
infants and here heredity must play an important role. 

hasM. +h.d+h.dthxl 

^ — ^ 

FiQ. 141.— Pedigree of "heart disease." 

36. Diseases of the Respiratory vSystem 

The respiratory organs, including the passages to it that 
are lined by mucous membranes, are the weakest part of our 
body. This is probably because our remote ancestors, at the 
beginning of the vertebrate series, were aquatic animals and 
we land animals have not yet become fully adjusted to life in 


the air. The dry, dusty and often germ laden air is a diffi- 
culty with which our mucous membranes can hardly grapple; 

little wonder that they, and the 
whole body, so often succumb. 

Of the diseases of the lungs the 
most fatal is tuberculosis. We 
know that it is induced by a germ 
and that if there is no germ there 
will be no tuberculosis of the 

Fig. 142.-Pe(ligree of heart ^^^gS. The first impulse of the 

trouble. The father's father, I, modem Sanitarian is to eliminate 

1, died of anguina pectoris at 69 , , -r-» , , i • • 

years; and the mother's father, I, the germ. But thlS IS a SUpra- 

3, died of ossification of the valves herculean task; for germs of tu- 

of the heart at 59. Father and . n • • 

mother are living and said to be berculosiS are found m all Clties 

well Of their children III 3, and in the country amongst most 

died of heart disease at 9 months ^ ■ 

and another, III, 2, had tempo- domesticated animals. The 
rary heart trouble. F. R.; All. 1. germs are ubiquitous; how then 

shall any escape? Why do only 10 per cent die from the 
attacks of this parasite? 

I b|% bjt> 



Fig. 143. — Pedigree of family with heart disease and migraine, I, 2, died 
of heart disease at 72 years; II, 2, 4, 7, died of "heart disease;" II, 9, died of 
"heart failure" at 59 years, hardworking physician; III, 1, sufJers from mi- 
graine; her mother is a semi-invahd from migraine. F. R.; Bra. 1. 

The answer is given by autopsies and the experiences of 
many physicians. Autopsies show that nearly all mature per- 
sons have the germs of tuberculosis in their lungs, but, for 
most part encysted and, perhaps, even completely destroyed. 


Those who die of tuberculosis are those whose bodies have 
not been able successfully to combat the germs— their bodies 
have lost in the battle. Family physicians know cases where 
under bad conditions, overwork, depression of mind and 
body their patient will begin to dechne and, then, under 
more favorable conditions begin to build up again. The bat- 
tle wages now in favor of the one side, now of the other. 
The result depends quite as much on internal resistance as 
virulence of the germ. 

That families vary in their internal resistance is well 
known. Dr. Coohdge of the Lakeville Sanitarium, Massa- 
chusetts, tells me that he classifies his patients on the basis 
of their resistance as measured by their response to good treat- 
ment in the first few days; and he states that the old New 
England families now show a relatively high resistance to 
tuberculosis as compared with recent immigrants. 

The Family Histories that have been placed in my hands 
show the same thing. Though one in ten die of tuberculosis 
it was not difficult to pick out ten families in each of wliich 
about ten persons had died of whom not one had died of 
tuberculosis. On the other hand there are famihes with an 
incidence of consumption of 75 or 80 per cent. That this is 
not merely communication of the disease in the families with 
high death rate follows, of course, when we grant that practi- 
cally all grown persons are infected anyway. It seems per- 
fectly plain that death from tuberculosis is the resultant of 
infection added to natural and acquired non-resistance. It 
is, then, highly undesirable that two persons with weak re- 
sistance should marry, lest their children all carry this weak- 

Pneumonia. — Since the germ of pneumonia is a normal resi- 
dent of our throats, the disease is not due merely to infection ; 
but to a weakening of a natural or acquired resistance. Our 
Family Records show again and again the heavy incidence of 


pneumonia in certain families causing the death even of 
infants (Fig. 144). 

Likewise a general weakness of the mucous membranes, 

IDtO Dt« 

iin£. tin£ 

Fia. 144. — Pedigree of a family with tendency toward lung disease. I, 4, 
died of pneumonia at 82 years. II, 1, had an attack of pneumonia which ter- 
minated in tuberculosis from which he died at 43 years. His wife, II, 2, died 
at 62 years of tuberculosis. Of their 6 children 3 are still living; the others 
all died of pneumonia, 2 in early childhood. F. R.; Mor. 1. 

leading to catarrh, adenoids, tonsilitis, deafness, bronchitis, j 
etc., seems clearly to run in families. Such a case is illustrated 
in Fig. 145. 

bfc) bto 



adenoids, adenolds-ttronchbronfirear, adenoids adenoWs 
pneu. tmiDle. tonsunu 

Fig. 145. — Showing "inheritance" of throat and ear weakness in a family. 

F. R.; New. 1. 


The diseases of the alimentary tract are so largely due to 
bad habits in eating, exercising and attending to the demands 
of nature that most physicians consider a possible hereditary 
basis relatively unimportant. It is, to be sure, recognized 


that the "nervous temperament" may be largely responsi- 
ble for disordered digestion by disturbing the ordinary secre- 
tory functions. So, Ukewise, it is probable that there are 
family characteristics which favor peculiarities of the liver 
resulting in its abnormal functioning. Especially jaundice 
and gout may have hereditary basis. An example of family 
pedigrees with high incidence of dyspepsia and more specific 
alimentary troubles is given in Fig. 146. 

T dysentery 


't75. cancer 
indiqesUpn O'lJ^er 

titiiiit 11 till 

digestion stomach LJ ^ ■ LJ LJ ^ 

Fig. 146 Fig. 147 

Fig. 146. — Pedigree of digestive weakness. F. R.; She. 1. 

Fig. 147.— Pedigree of diabetes mellitus (black symbols). In this caae 
the parents of affected offspring are not themselves affected; the trait is due 
to the absence of something that is present in normal persons. Bramwell, 
1908, p. 265. 

a. Diabetes Insipidus.^ — This term has been applied to 
the symptoms of passing large amounts of greatly diluted 
urine. The affected persons have to drink much water to 
meet the rapid drainage through the kidneys. Numerous 
families are known that show this peculiarity in several close 
blood relatives. The typical condition is that two unaffected 
parents, even of diabetic strains, will have only nonnal chil- 
dren; diabetic offspring have at least one diabetic parent. 
This would indicate that diabetes is due to a positive factor 
(Fig. 148). Nettleship (1910) points out that age of incidence 
tends to diminish in successive generations. 

'The hereditary behavior of diabetes mellitua or "sugar in urine" has 
been less studied. (Fig. 147). 


The eugenic teaching is that persons with diabetes insip- 
idus will probably have some diseased children, but un- 
affected persons, even of diabetic origin, will probably have 
only normal children. 


jko o^ if2 op »iO 


ION 4N Oi «m®9 4N fiN 3K(|)M O ■•^N 5 

Fig. 148. — Pedigree of a family with diabetes insipidus. Affected persons 
(black symbols) are derived only from affected parents — thus diabetes is a 
positive trait. Gossage, 1907. 

38. Diseases of Excretion 

Since the urine is the main stream carrying waste products 
of metabolism from the body it gives the best evidence of 
disorders of metabolism, hence much attention has been di- 
rected toward its study. Some of its peculiarities are known 
to be family traits. 

a. Alkaptonuria. — This condition is marked by the con- 
stant excretion of homogentisic acid which darkens upon 
oxydation so that the urine darkens after passage; it is not 
injurious to the individual and has no special eugenic interest 
except as it illustrates the law of heredity. The transmission 
of this trait has been studied by Garrod (1902). The disease 
is a rare one and, apparently, occurs only in the offspring of 
two persons belonging to alkaptonuric strains. This condition 
is most easily met in cousin marriages and, as a matter of 
fact of the 17 alkaptonuric fraternities studied 8 were offspring 
of first cousins. When neither parent of an alkaptonuric 
fraternity is alkaptonuric about 1 in 4 of the children have 
the pecuHarity. It appears then that alkaptonuria is due to 
the absence of a condition found in other (normal or ordinary) 


persons; and it is lost in the product of marriage of an alkapto- 
nuria and a normal person. 

b. Cystinuria and Cystin Infiltration are both family diseases 
though so rare that the method of inheritance has not been 
precisely determined. 

Fig. 149. — Pedigree of a family showing hematuria (red urine). AfTected 
persons (black symbols) are descended from an affected parent, evidence that 
hematuria is a positive trait. Guthrie. 

c. Hemattiria, or red urine, may also be a family char- 
acteristic as the pedigree chart worked out by Guthrie shows 
(Fig. 149). 

d. Urinary Calculi. — This is frequently hereditary. A ped- 
igree recorded by Cluble (1872) illustrates this fact, though 
it does not give sufficient data to determine the law of 
inheritance. He says: — ''During the last four or five years 
I have cut three of liis sons [i. e., of the Lowestoft fisherman] 
at the respective ages of 2, 3, and 8. Two of the stones were 
Hthic acid, one apparently lithate of ammonia. The father 
and mother of the lads always have lithic acid sediment, often 
gravel, deposited from urine. Their grandfather passed one 
stone, their grandmother seven. A great uncle was cut for 
stone. There are six uncles and four aunts who suffer from 
fits of gravel or from gravelly or sedimentary lithic acid 
deposits; and a cousin, an uncle's child, gets rid of urinary 

e. Gout. — The hereditary tendency to gout is generally 


recognized — a pedigree recorded by Garrod illustrates the 
fact. A man who has very severe gout is married to a woman 
who when 70 years old began to suffer from it. They had 
7 children; all have suffered from gout, 5 have died from 
gout and its various complications; the other two are still 

39. Reproductive Organs 

a. Cryptorchism, or retention and atrophy of testicles. 

This condition, a semi-' 'hermaphroditic" one, is character- 

I I ized by the fact that the normal 

QyQ ^ descent of the testis into the 

scrotum fails to occur. A pedi- 

J I gree of a family exhibiting this 

LJtCJ H condition is given, in Fig. 150. 

1 1 J I In the third generation one boy 

^-*Nr— . ^ ^ ^ JLj out of four is normal. This trait 
^^^—^ ■* ™ ™ '— ' is probably inherited just hke 

r^ b. Hypospadias. — Like the last 

Fig. 150.-Pedigree of cryp- ^^'^ ^^ evidence of an imperfect 

torchism, Afifected persons rep- development of the external sec- 
resented by black symbols. On j i, x j • 

account of the sterility of the males ^^dary sex characters and possi- 
all affected persons are derived bly indicates an imperfect stim- 

from sisters of affected persons. , , ,. , . ^m 

All affected persons are natural ^luS tO Sex dimorphism. The 

eunuchs. Bronardel, p. 169. defect is characterized by the 
more or less complete failure of the male genital papilla to 
close along the median raphe up to the apex of the glans. An 
affected man may have by a wife who belongs to a normal 
strain some or all of his sons affected. His normal daughters 
may have abnormal sons even when the father belongs to a 
normal strain. It seems that there is an inhibitor to com- 
plete sex-differentiation in the males. Usually .males who 
show no trace of the inhibitor when married into a normal 


strain have normal sons. But occasionally apparently nor- 
mal fathers in whom the ''inhibitor" is inactive may have 
abnormal sons (Fig. 151.) The eugenical conclusion is that 
females belonging to hermaphroditic (hypospadic or cryp- 
torchitic) strains, if married, will probably have at least half 
of their sons defective, particularly if they have defective 
brothers; but normal males of such strains may marry fe- 
males from unaffected strains with impunity. 




Fig. 151. — Pedigree of hypospadias (black symbols). Inheritance from 
affected males and unaffected females, III, 2. Linqard, 1884. 

c. Prolapsus of the Uterus and Sterility. — Corresponding in 
a way with incomplete development of the male reproduc- 
tive organs is the prolapsus of the uterus in the female. This 
is also definitely inherited but the trait is never transmitted 
by affected females since they are sterile (Fig. 152). 

40. Skeleton and Appendages 
Since the size and form of the bodily frame are greatly 
influenced by the skeleton the heredity of these features is 



All daugl)ttrs 
normal. TJumerous 

4 sons 


Fig. 152. — Pedigree of a family showing prolapsus of the uterus (females) 
and sterility. Inherited like the absence of a character, with probable consan- 
guinity in marriage. Bronardel, 1900. 

usually due to an inheritance in the processes that go to 

determine the form and size of the skeleton. 
a. Achondroplasy is characterized by relatively short 
limbs, a condition in man like that in 
the Ancon sheep, dachshund and some 
bull-dogs. The condition is rare and so 
we have few if any full pedigrees but 
enough is known to indicate that it is 
inherited, as in the case cited by Pouchet 
and Leriche (1903), Fig. 153, and it is 
probably due to an abnormal positive 



Fig. 153.— Pedigree 
of achondroplasy (black f actoi. 

Sd lSiche ^Zr^"" ^' ScoUosis.— The dissymmetry of the 

trunk accompanied by a curved ' ' spine ' ' 
is a fairly common condition. That there is an hereditary 
tendency to it cannot be doubted in view of its frequent 


occurrence two or more times in one family. Either father 
or mother of an affected child may be affected; or they 
may have symmetrical spines themselves but have an af- 
fected brother or sister. The offspring are born with an 
hereditary laxness and weakness of the constituent parts 
of the spinal column and its ligaments, so that the column 
easily falls into lateral curves under the influence of second- 
ary causes. 

c. Exostoses — Upon the long bones there occasionally 
develop osseous outgrowths known as exostoses. The method 



q6 BiO 

N 9 SCO. Ex,l4yr5. 
Fig. 154 

some affected Ex.lZurj. 

Fig. 155 

Fig. 154. — Pedigrees of exostoses on the long bones. Affected individuals 
represented by black symbols. Ex, exostoses, sex unknown; sco, scoliosis or 
spinal curvature. Teissier and Denecham, 1905. 

Fig. 155. — Part of a pedigree of exostoses on the long bones that have been 
traced through 6 generations. Ex, exostoses, sex unknown. Mery and 
Metayer, 1905. 

of inheritance of the tendency to produce such growths is 
indicated by pedigrees given in Figs. 154, 155. 

d. Absence of Clavicles. — The collar bones, or clavicles, 
are occasionally imperfectly developed and the tendency to 
this result shows itself in several members of one family. 
This is well illustrated by a case described by Carpenter 
(1899) Fig. 156. The high incidence of the abnormal condi- 
tion in this family suggests that the defect is due to a positive 


e. Congenital dislocation at the thigh bone — pelvis joint. — 
This is a peculiarity that usually runs in families. It is 
doubtless due to a laxness in the ligaments by which attach- 

Fig. 156. — Pedigree of absence of clavicles. The father, 1, 1, has deformed 
clavicles. By a normal wife he has 7 children affected as follows: II, 1, has a 
slightly deformed clavicle; II, 2, has a deformed right clavicle; II, 3, has nor- 
mal clavicles but a prominent transverse process of the last cervical vertebra; 
II, 4, has clavicles nearly absent and also the clavicular portion of the great 
chest muscle; II, 5, has a peculiar kink in the clavicles; II, 6, is normal; 11, 7, 
has a deformed right clavicle. Carpenter, 1899. 

ment is made. Several pedigrees have been worked out by 
Nareth (1903) of which one is reproduced here (Fig. 157). 

No evidence appears as to the amount of consanguineous 
marriage except in one case. The pedigree looks like one 



8 N children 


Fig. 157. — Pedigree of a family showing congenital dislocation of the hip. 
Affected persons (black symbols) descend from unaffected, suggesting that 
the condition is due to a defect. Senator and Kaminer, 1904. 

of albinism and suggests that congenital dislocation is a 
defect. In that case the marriage of related persons, even 
though normal, is to be discouraged, but an affected person 
by marrying into new blood may expect normal offspring. 


f. Polydactylism. — The peculiarity of supernumerary fin- 
gers and toes is one that is inherited in nearly typical 
fashion. I have worked extensively on polydactylism in 
fowls and there can be little doubt that the character behaves 
in the same way in man. The extra toe is due to an addi- 





_- 11 21 31 4l 
IV 3P 6N 3P 4N 

3N 3N 

Fig. 158. — Pedigree of polydactylism. Affected persons reiircsentcd by 
black symbols. Ill, 3, has six toes on each foot; III, 8, has six toes on each 
foot; III, 10, extra fingers on each hand; III, 12, extra fingers on each hand; 
V, 1, five fingers and thumb on each hand; V, 2, supernumerary digits on both 
hands and feet; V, 5, extra toes, both feet; V, 7, harelip, cleft palate, web be- 
tween each big toe; V, 10, 5 fingers and thumb on each hand, 6 toes on each 
foot, web between all toes. Lucas, 1880. 

tional unit so that when one parent has the extra toe the 
children will also have it. However, it sometimes happens 
that the offspring fail to produce the extra toe; but such 
persons, becoming in turn parents, may produce the poly- 
dactyl condition again (Fig. 158). 

The method of inheritance of polydactyUsm is well repre- 
sented by Lucas' case, given in Fig. 158. Here only when 
one parent was polydactyl were there polydactyl offspring, 
excepting in the progeny of the oldest son of the third genera- 
tion. This son is said not to be polydactyl and is recorded 
as normal. If the record is correct his case is one of failure 
to dominate of the polydactyl determiner. 

The eugenical conclusion is: polydactyl persons will have 
at least half of their children polydactyl. Those quite free 


Fig. 159. — A case of polydactylism. The boy's father has 12 fingers 
and 12 toes, but the e.xtra fingers are boneless. Besides the boy figured, 
who is like his father, there is 1 son with extra toes, 1 with extra toes and 
an extra finger on the left hand only. One sister has extra toes only. The 
other 5 children were normal in respect to the number of toes and fingers 
they bear. Through the kindness of Professor C. A. Scott. 

from the trait, though of the polydactyl strain, will probably 
have only normal children. 

g. Syndactylism. — ^The union of the bones and tissues 
of two or more digits into one mass is found in many animals 
including man. I have studied it in hundreds of fowl. It is 
inherited there, as no doubt also in man, in such fashion as 
to permit the conclusion that syndactylism is due to a factor 
that extends the web paripassu with the development of the 
digits. On this hypothesis the normal hand or foot lacks 
the factor and two normal persons (even of a syndactyUc 


strain) will not show the abnormality in their offspring. 
This expectation is indeed realized in most of the pedigrees 
pubHshed; as for instance in that of Parker and Robinson 
(1887, Clin. Soc. Trans., Vol. XX., p. 181), Fig. IGO. 

r QO 

Fig. 160. — A pedigree of syndactylism, or "split foot." All affected per- 
.sons are from an affected parent; hence the trait is a positive one. Little is 
known about the condition of the digits in the first generation. Parker and 
Robinson, 1887. 

The general conclusion is that, while a syndactyl individual 
will transmit his trait, normals from a syndactyl strain have 
Httle chance of doing so. 

h. Brachydactylism. — This is a condition of shortened 
digits due to the presence of only two segments to the digit — 
so that all fingers are like thumbs. The middle phalanx is 
usually a more or less rudimentary bone attached to the 
base of the distal phalanx. Inheritance follows the laws of 
syndactylism. Two normal parents produce only the normal 
condition; no generation is skipped. 

i. Other deformities of the hands. — From time to time 
other digital pecuharities have been recorded and these are 
usually strongly inherited. Thus Dobell has described a 
family in which the hands are double jointed, all joints 
thick, ring and little finger crooked from the last joint. The 
peculiarity is distinguishable at birth. The law of inheritance 
is the same as for syndactyhsm; viz., normal parents have 
no offspring with the defect; but one affected parent tends 
to transmit the defect to half (rarely all) of his offspring 
(Fig. IGl). The tendency of the great toe to grow under 
the others occurs in at least one family strain (Fig. 102) and 


is apparently inherited like double jointedness. Another 
case of family deformity of the digits is given by Carson 
(Keating's Ency. Ill, 935). Here there is an absence of the 


iqioiJi 4ia IjO 




Fig. 161. — Pedigree of family with double jointed hands, all joints thick, 
ring and little fingers crooked from the distal joint. Affected persons marked 
by black symbols. Dobell. 

distal phalanx and part of the median phalanx from all 
fingers of both hands, the thumbs being normal. Here 
again the defect had not skipped a generation, i. e., was not 
transmitted by normals. It has been known in the family 




Fig. 162. — Pedigree of tendency of great toe to grow under others (black 
symbols represent affected persons). F. R.; Ov. 

for over a century. Foot (Difformites des Doigts, p. 80) tells 
of a famil}^ in which for three generations the peculiarity has 
appeared of possessing only the fifth finger. The second and 
third fingers are represented in these individuals by the 


metacarpal bone only and the other two fingers are entirely 
missing. This is, of com-se, a case of syndactylism, with 
inheritance of a specific type. In a case cited by Marshall 
(Trans. Soc. Stud. Disease in Children, III) in which for 


Fig. 163. — Fragment of a pedigree of a family showing hereditary club- 
foot in 3 generations. So far as it goes this pedigree suggests that the 
condition is due to a positive character. Drew, 1905. 

five generations this peculiarity appeared, each finger stopped 
short at the proximal phalanx and the thumb was ill de- 
veloped. Drew has recorded a case of club-foot in three 



Fig. 164. — Pedigree of a family of twins. Two twin brothers married. The 
first had 10 children, all born as twins; 4 pair were daughters and 1 pair were 
eons. Seven of the daughters are married and 4 have produced twins at 
the first birth, nothing is known of the others. One of the sons is married 
and has 3 single children. The second brother (first generation) had 8 
children born as twins and 3 bom singly. Stocks, 1861. 

generations (Fig. 163). It is astonishing what a variety of 
inheritable variations, that are often minute, are shown by 
the hand and foot. The data are too limited to give assur- 
ance as to the law of inheritance in each case. 


41. Twins 

It is well known that twin production may be an hereditary 
quality. Thus the Dorset race of sheep is characterized by 
the tendency to bear twins. In man, too, strains are known 
where plural births are the rule. Remarkable cases are re- 

66 Ap[!]p6ibo[^ 

>■;- ' 

Fig. 165. — Of 2 twin sons one has a pair of twin sons and 5 single born 
children; the other had 1 son. The former has, through his sons, 3 pair of 
grandchildren; the latter 1 pair. Wakley, 1895. 

corded by Stocks (1861, p. 78), see Fig. 164, and by Wakley 
(1895, p. 1289). See Fig. 165. 

In the foregoing cases inheritance of the twinning capacity 
is through the males only, and this is true in some strains of 
sheep. However, other human strains are known with the 
tendency to twin-production passing along the female line. 



1. The Dispersion of Traits 

Traits occur in individuals and the same traits in related 
individuals. Individuals occupy at any one moment a par- 
ticular place. Could we take a sort of bird's eye view of the 
continent and were each individual that bears a given trait 
conspicuously marked, we should have a perfect picture of 
the geographic distribution of the trait. Had we such a 
picture for each day of the hundred thousand odd days since 
America began to be settled and were they to pass in review 
as in a cinematograph, then we should see the reproduction 
and dissemination of the family trait in question. Such a 
view would show us the traits coming across the ocean from 
European centres, settling in a place or flitting from point 
to point, reproducing themselves at a place and continuing to 
increase there for generations while throwing off individuals 
to move far athwart the face of the country and to settle 
down as new proUferating centres. We should see two per- 
sons with the same defect coming together as a married 
couple and proliferating in a few years a number of new in- 
dividuals with the same negative characters. Or we should 
see an individual with the defect uniting with a person with- 
out it and ending there the trail of the defect. Or, on the 
other hand, a positive trait, like cataract, hemophilia, or 
Huntington's chorea, would move about, settle in a spot, 



multiply itself into many individuals either all of one sex 
or of both sexes, as the ease may be; and these individuals, 
moving apart, would form new prohferating centres. In 
the multipUcation of negative and positive traits we would 
see this plain difference — that negative traits multiply most 
in long established and stable communities where much 
inbreeding occurs, while positive traits are increased by 
emigration, as a fire is spread by the wind that scatters fire- 
brands. If, on the other hand, the negative traits be scat- 
tered the chance of mating with the same defect is diminished 
and the trait is not reproduced. Conversely, a country 
characterized by much inbreeding will have a population 
that is affected prevailingly by negative traits with a slight 
tendency for positive traits to increase; while a country that 
is settled by a restless people will show a small percentage 
of negative traits and a high percentage of positive ones. 

That the picture of the dissemination of traits that I 
have drawn is not exaggerated but corresponds to the em- 
pirical facts is proved by the evidence of many studies. 
Thus Alexander Graham Bell (1889) finds that not only 
the deaf mutes of Martha's Vineyard but ''groups of deaf 
mutes who have never been near Martha's Vineyard, trace 
up to " the blood of James Skiff. A genealogist with un- 
usual inteUigence and breadth of interest has traced a 
"bleeding" tendency from a Hannant who came from 
Norfolk, England, and whose progeny settled in Sullivan 
County, Pennsylvania, and created there a colony of 
bleeders; and by emigration has started new colonies in 
Minnesota, South Dakota, and California. Students of 
Huntington's chorea find many of their widely scattered 
cases tracing back through Delaware County, New York, 
to the sources of its early population at East Hampton, 
Long Island, or to that sister settlement of the New Haven 
Colony, Fairfield County, Connecticut. Even students of 


crime have traced the disturbing element of a large area 
to a single focal point; "the Jukes" were traced back to 
Max living in a lonely mountain valley and the "Ishmael- 
ites" of Indiana were traced back through Kentucky to 
Virginia and probably to the cutthroats and prostitutes 
which England spewed out upon, and against the pro- 
tests of, the Virginia colony in the latter half of the seven- 
teenth century (Butler, 1896). So too a family in New 
Jersey of over 600 persons, more than three-fourths of them 
defectives have been derived, by Goddard and his field- 
workers, from a single pair. These are examples, merely, 
of a universal fact, that the more strikingly inheritable 
traits may be followed back generation after generation to a 
few focal points. 

And the focal points of this country have been transported 
here from abroad. A settlement worker in New York City 
inquired into the meaning of a particularly unruly and 
criminalistic section of his territory and found that the 
offenders came from one village in Calabria — known as the 
"home of brigands." Of the weary but hopeful thousands 
of immigrants who weekly (almost daily) enter the port of 
New York how many are destined to bring in traits for good 
or evil, that are to proliferate and to affect the future of this 
country for better or worse! For we must not forget the 
good. The germ plasm of an Austrian who migrated to the 
United States three generations ago has produced a race 
of yacht builders who enable this country to maintain its 
supremacy in the sport of yachting. From the germ plasm 
(in part) of an extraordinarily talented but erotic woman 
who migrated to America in the early part of the seven- 
teenth century have arisen statesmen, college presidents, 
men of science, great philanthropists from New England to 
California in extraordinary numbers. From an Irisli pair 
who came to the wilderness of Virginia nearly two centuries 


ago have descended vice presidents, cabinet officers, ad- 
mirals, generals, governors, senators and congressmen in 
great numbers. In these cases the good was not "interred [ 
with their bones." 

2. Consanguinity in Marriage 

The customs of civilized nations oppose certain limits 
to marriage, almost universally bar the marriage of nearest 
kin, and have given to the word incest a connotation so 
loathsome and so emphatic that it is appreciated by prac- 
tically every normal civilized person. It will be interesting 
to consider for a moment how wide-spread is this taboo. 

First of all it must be said that the union of brother and 
sister or of parent and child as recognized spouses is not un- 
known. Various reputable observers report that among 
the Weddas of Ceylon, probably on account of the sparsity 
of the population and the isolation of families, the marriage 
of brother and younger sister is permitted by local custom 
(Virchow, 1881). In ancient times the marriage of parent 
and child was not opposed by custom in Persia (Heath, 1887, 
p. 65) and perhaps in other Eastern countries. 

Such customs are to-day, however, highly exceptional 
and against social ideals. But the hne between permissible 
and non-permissible unions is variously drawn. Thus we 
are told (Nelson, 1899) that the Eskimos of Behring Strait 
favor the union of first cousins or even closer relatives on 
the general ground that in time of stress and hunger the 
blood tie will be found stronger than the marriage tie to 
hold the family together. Among other natives of North 
America a paternal uncle and niece might marry but not a 
maternal aunt and nephew. However, the North American 
Indian, on the whole, has strong sentiments against close 
intermarriage. Also among Africans and the South Sea 
Islanders cousin marriages are, in general, taboo; and among 


the Malays "consanguinity, even the remotest, constitutes 
an important obstacle to marriage." We read of the Is- 
landers making voyages to other islands and carrying off 
maidens for wives. In India and China marriage of persons 
within the patronymic is against social ideals.^ European 
ideals are largely a legacy of Roman law. Here the purely 
formal and legal relations constituted as much of an obstacle 
as blood relationship. A stepchild should not marry his 
mother nor a father-in-law his daughter-in-law. Only re- 
cently has a relic of these legal and non-biological interdic- 
tions been removed in England by the repeal of the law pro- 
hibiting a man from marrying his deceased wife's sister. 

Such wide-spread social barriers to close intermarriage, 
even among the children of nature — one might almost say 
especially among them — indicates if not an instinctive re- 
pugnance to, at least an apprehensiveness toward, such 
marriages. We have still to inquire if there is any biological 
basis for such apprehensiveness. The answer to this ques- 
tion has been furnished in many places in the earlier part of 
the book. Defects in the germ plasm tend to reveal them- 
selves in the offspring of cousin marriages but tend to dis- 
appear entirely in the children that are derived from out- 
matings. On the other hand, undesirable positive traits 
that are absent from both parents will not reappear in the 
offspring even though the parents be cousins. One can easily 
imagine a strain without any important defect, so that a 
consanguineous marriage would, for generations, be unin- 
jurious to the offspring; but such strains are doubtless rare. 
We are told that in the family of the Ptolemies and in the 
royal family of the Incas the marriage of brother and sister 
repeatedly occurred but, as a friend of mine says, "Where 
are the Ptolemies and Incas now?" The conclusion seema 

1 The foregoing summary of marriage limitations is based chiefly upon the 
compiled data of Ploss-Bartels : Das Weib. 


Fig. 166. — Rows of maize, each from a single ear of corn. The central 
row (labeled) is from a 16 row-to-ear race self-fertilized for five years. Row to 
left of center, self-fertilization prevented for six successive years. Row to 
right, a first cross between long self-fertilized strains. 

clear that, while in certain strains consanguineous marriage 
may not lead to defective offspring, in most families it will, 
at least after a few generations. This is well illustrated in 
corn-breeding where self-fertilization leads to rapid loss of 
productivity and vegetative vigor (Figs. 166, 167). 

Let us now consider some of the statistical results gained 
from a study of consanguineous marriages in a large popula- 
tion. In 1858 Dr. Bemiss reported to the American Medical 
Association on a collection of 833 consanguineous marriages 
producing 3,942 children or an average of 4.6 children per 
marriage. Of these children 28.7 per cent are said to be de- 
fective, 3.6 per cent are deaf mutes, 2.1 per cent blind, 7 per 
cent idiots, 1 per cent insane, 1.5 per cent epileptic, 2.4 per 
cent deformed, 7.6 per cent "scrofulous" (i. e., probably 


Fig. 167. — The piles of ears of corn on the right and left are from seed 
ears which had been self-fertihzed; the pile in the middle from a seed ear in 
which self-fertilization had been prevented. This figure and the preceding 
were contributed by Dr. G. H. Shull. 

tubercular) and 22 per cent are said to have "died young." 
In some data gathered by Dr. Howe (1853) 17 consanguin- 
eous marriages produced 50 per cent idiots; in the data of 
Dr. Mitchell (1866) 7.5 per cent were insane, and 1.4 per cent 
deaf mutes. Other observers record consanguineous mar- 
riages without deaf mutism, others without idiocy, others 
with less than 1 per cent of insanity. Voisin (1865) tells of 
the isolated community of Batz where 5 marriages of first 
cousins and 31 of second cousins has occurred without a case 
of mental disease, deaf mutism, albinism, retinitis pigmentosa 
or malformation appearing. These varied results are to be 
expected. Consanguineous marriage per se does not create 
traits; it permits the defects of the germ plasm, that may not 
appear in the parents, to reveal themselves in the offspring. 


If there is no insanity or albinism in the stock consanguineous 
marriage -wdll not bring it out; and, strictly, it is not at all 
consanguinity that brings the trait out but the increasing 
liabiUty that consanguinity affords to the mating of two 
similarly defective germ cells. 

The variety of the product of consanguineous marriage is 
well brought out when we compare localities. Thus con- 
sanguinity on Martha's Vineyard results in 11 per cent 
deaf mutes and a number of hermaphrodites; in Point 
Judith in 13 per cent idiocy and 7 per cent insanity; in an 
island off the Maine coast the consequence is "intellectual 
dullness"; in Block Island loss of fecundity; in some of the 
''Banks" off the coast of North Carolina, suspiciousness, 
and an inability to pass beyond the third or fourth grade 
of school; in a peninsula on the east coast of Chesapeake 
Bay the defect is dwarfness of stature: in George Island 
and Abaco (Bahama Islands) it is idiocy and blindness (G. 
A. Penrose, 1905). There is thus no one trait that results 
from the marriage of kin; the result is determined by the 
specific defect in the germ plasm of the common ancestor. 

The question is often asked, How common are consan- 
guineous marriages? What proportion of marriages are 
between kin? This question is so ill-defined that a reply 
is hardly possible. When we recall the enormous number 
of our ancestors resulting from the fact that the number 
(theoretically) doubles in each earlier generation, so that 
there are more than a million in the twentieth ascending 
generation, and more than a billion in the thirtieth, then we 
see that some degree of consanguinity in the parents is to 
be expected. There are hardly two persons of European 
origin who are more distantly related than thirtieth cousin 
— or who do not have a common ancestor of the time of 
King William I of England. Indeed, how improbable it is 
that there are many persons of ''pure" European stock 


whose line of descent has not received contributions from 
Ethiopia within the last millenium — when we stop to con- 
sider the slaves, not only white and yellow but also brown 
and black, that were brought to Rome, became free there 
and contributed elements to the population of Italy and to 
all Europe. 

Returning from this digression, we may recognize that, 
however vague scientifically the term consanguineous may 
be, popularly, it means related as first or possibly as second 
cousin. This is, of course, from the standpoint of modern 
heredity, an absurd limitation of the term since fifth or 
tenth cousins may carry the same ancestral traits. Our 
question may then be transformed in this fashion: What 
proportion of the population marries within the grade of 
fifth (or tenth) cousin? The answer to this question for 
the United States as a whole would require a special census, 
and the proportion, expressed in a single figure would have 
little significance. Much more important is it to know for 
each of several small communities the grades of relationship 
of consorts; and the association of degree of consanguinity 
with physiographic and other barriers. 

3. Barriers to Marriage Selection 
Barriers, indeed, to free and wide marriage selection 
favor consanguineous marriages, and for the same reason 
they favor the formation of races of men with peculiar 
traits, even as it has long been recognized that they facili- 
tate the formation of races of plants and animals, by per- 
mittmg newly-arisen traits to infect, as it were, the entire 
population and thus to form a new species. The barriers 
may be classified as physiographic and social. 
A. Physiographic Barriers 
Physiographic barriers are for man, a land animal, stretches 
of water, such as parts of the ocean, sounds and bays that 


separate from the mainland, and even broad rivers; also 
mountain ridges or heights of land. All such barriers re- 
strain exogamy, or marriage outside the family, and favor 
consanguineous marriage or endogamy. 

a. Barrier of Water. — Of oceanic islands the Canaries, 
Azores, Bermuda, the Bahamas and the Lesser Antilles are 
examples. In the case of the South Sea Islands the half 
aquatic nature of the inhabitants has reversed the usual 
order and made the sea a means of intercommunication. 
On our own coast we have striking examples of semi-oceanic 
islands with evidence of consanguineous marriage (Fig. 168). 

At Miscou Island on the Northeast coast of New Bruns- 
wick there is said to be much intermarriage. The popula- 
tion "is partly English and partly Arcadian French and 
each race has kept pretty much to itself so they are closely 
intermarried within the same race." 

The islands off the Maine coast show much consanguineous 
marriage. Thus in Small's (1898) History of Swan's Is- 
land it is stated that the amount of intermarriage of per- 
sons of the same name in Mount Desert Island, Gott's 
Island and Swan's and Deer Islands makes genealogy con- 
fusing. For example, take the Gott family as shown in 
Fig. 169; or a family from Swan's Island (Fig. 170). Even 
more marked examples are furnished by outer Long Island 
and the islands opposite Jonesport, Maine. 

One sees how little opportunity is afforded in such pedi- 
grees for the coming in of new blood. Little wonder that 
among these descendants of some ancestor who probably 
carried inferior mentality are some intellectually dull ones. 

At western Martha's Vineyard Dr. Alexander Graham 
Bell (1889, p. 53) has made a careful genealogical study of 
the inhabitants. "I found," he says "a great deal of inter- 
marrying and a great many consanguineous marriages." 
Concerning this locaUty Dr. Withington (1885, p. 26) says: 


Fig. 168. — Coast of eastern North America, showing the broken coast line, 
with islands and peninsulas, each of which is, more or less, a center of consan- 
guineous marriages. Such centers can be picked out by looking at the map. 


"The inhabitants are farmers and fishermen of average 
intelligence and good character, not addicted to drunken- 
ness. A lack of enterprise, associated doubtless with the 


DiO c1m5050& [DiOp 6ph\ OiD 

couilns lion Grt/i ^-^ - ^-^ - .. 

God Golt 

Fig. 169. — Pedigree of a portion of the Gott family of the Maine Islands, 
illustrating frequency of couain marriages in an isolated community. 

nature of their occupations, seems to be the cause of their 
intermarrying." In this locality deaf mutism is the striking 
trait. In 1880 there was a proportion of 1 to 25 of the whole 


So DrODjO 

61 i h inS) Op 



Fig. 170. — Pedigree of a family inhabiting Swan's Island, Maine, illustrat- 
ing frequency of consanguineous marriage in a restricted and isolated com- 
munity. The dotted Unes connect cousins who have married each other. 

population affected (Bell, 1889). Dr. Withiiigton and 
Dr. Bell report cases of hennaphroditism also from this 
same locality. 


Block Island, comprising about 10 square miles, lies 
about 40 miles both from Newport, Rhode Island, and from 
Montauk Point. There are some fine old family names 
including Ball, Cobb, Dodge, Hall and Littlefield, which 
constitute a large part of the population of 1,500 souls. 
The limited area has, however, led those branches of the 
family who remain on the island to intennarry closely, as 






DO q6 


j DoUqc 

oSiODi [Hooii""6a 00 

Dodqr Bodqe Dodqe 

"io ODTO on 


/tail fiaU 

Dodqc DoageBSIl BaU 

Fig. 171. — Portion of pedigree of the Ball family of Block Island showing 
frequency of marriage with Dodge and with Ball; a consequence of limited 
marriage selection in a small island. 

illustrated in Fig. 171 based on Ball (1891). The result 
has not been good. There are families in which all the 
children are mentally deficient and many marriages that 
are childless. 

As we go south along the Atlantic coast, beaches or 
"banks" replace offshore islands. \Mien they are so far 
from the mainland, as at Pamhco Sound, as to make inter- 
communication difficult, consanguineous marriages occur in 
extraordinary frequency. A wide-spread trait that may 
be ascribed to such inbreeding is suspicion and mental 
dullness; and a relative high frequency of insanity. Even 


some of the islands of Chesapeake Bay show numerous 
marriages of kin. Thus Arner (1908, p. 16) states that in 
Smith's Island, separated from the peninsula of Maryland 
by twelve miles of water "consanguineous marriages have 
been very frequent until now nearly all are more or less 
interrelated. Out of a hundred or more families of which 
I obtained some record, at least five marriages were be- 
tween cousins." Over 30 per cent of the inhabitants bear 
one surname (Evans) and they with Bradshaw, Marsh and 
Tyler comprise about 59 per cent of the population. The 
resident physician, here, had noted in 3 years in the com- 
munity of 700 persons no case of idiocy, insanity, epilepsy 
or deaf mutism. At the tropics, islands appear again. In 
some parts of the Bahamas there is a record of consanguin- 
eous marriages. C. A. Penrose (1905, pp. 409-414) has de- 
scribed the condition at George Island near Eleuthera Is- 
land and at Hopetown, Abaco Island. In George Island 
close intermarriage occurs, and there is a large proportion 
of eye diseases, including cataract, and dwarfs with low 
mental acumen. At Hopetown there are about 1,000 whites. 
In 1785 a woman, Wyanne Malone, came from Charlestown, 
South Carolina, with her four children to Hopetown. Three 
of them married and settled there, a granddaughter marry- 
ing a Russell. "From this stock most of the present inhabit- 
ants of Hopetown have descended and the names of Malone 
and Russell are constantly met with throughout the settle- 
ment." At Hopetown consanguineous marriage is accom- 
panied by deaf mutism, idiocy, insanity (melancholia) and 
abnormal appendages. 

The island of Bermuda shows the usual consequence of 
island hfe. A correspondent writes: "In some of the Par- 
ishes (Somerset and Paget chiefly) there has been much 
intermarriage, not only with cousins but with double first 
cousins in several cases. Intermarriage has chiefly caused 


weakness of character leading to drink, not lack of brains 
or a certain amount of physical strength, but very inert 
and lazy disposition." 

The foregoing studies will suffice to demonstrate, first, 
the importance of the barrier of water in tending to increase 
consanguineous marriage and second, the consequences of 
such consanguineous marriages. 

In addition to islands, peninsulas also are more or less 
isolated and might be expected to yield the same results 
as islands. There is much evidence that this is so. Cape 
Cod is a good illustration of a peninsula. Thus Twining 
(1905, p. 12, note) after giving the pedigree of the descendants 
of Isabel Twining of Yarmouth who married Francis Baker 
says, "The frequency of intermarriage between Baker, 
Chase and Kelly in these records is distinctly observable; 
it is especially true of the first four generations, confined 
to the narrow limits of the Cape." Other data proving 
consanguinity in parentage of Cape families are not diffi- 
cult to find. Thus Rich (1883, p. 525) tells of William 
and Mary Dyer, first cousins and Quaker immigrants from 
England and married. William Dyer (their son?), bom 
1653 came to Barnstable and married, in 1686, Mary Taj'lor. 
Their offspring all married and settled around him and soon 
became among the most influential people of the town — 
a position they maintain to this day. *'At a recent visit to 
the Congregational Sunday School, I noticed," says the au- 
thor, "all officers, many teachers, organist, ex-superintendent, 
and pastor's wife all Dyers. A lady at Truro united in her- 
self 4 quarters Dyer; father, mother and both grandmothers 
Dyers." Whether consanguineous marriages at Cape Cod 
have led to an unusual frequency of any "defects" I can- 
not say. 

Another peninsula of whose marriages there is a record 
is that of Point Judith. Withington (1885, pp. 14, 15) men- 


tions five marriages of first cousins and two of second 
cousins. In these marriages insanity (manic-depressive?) and 
apoplexy were common. 

Passing south the peninsulas projecting into Chesapeake 
Bay often offer extremely isolated situations. A physician 
of one of the extreme points of Dorchester County, seven- 
teen miles from the railroad, writes me that most of the 
marriages of that locality — "in fact I may say all, were 
between relatives and usually of the same name, and with 
the usual result, dwarfed stature or born crippled, blunted 
intellect or born idiots." This statement seems to me 
probably exaggerated — what is meant doubtless is that an 
exceptional proportion were thus affected. 

Finally at Carteret County, North Carolina, we have 
another example of peninsular conditions which have led 
to an extreme frequency of consanguineous marriages. Per- 
haps three-fourths of the inhabitants of the county bear one 
of four names, and mental deficiency is found in many of 
the children. 

There are other points on our coast which I have not had 
time to inquire into. It is safe to assume that, in the absence 
of peculiar, disturbing conditions, all small, inhabited is- 
lands off the coast and most of the more isolated peninsulas 
will show numerous consanguineous marriages and a large 
proportion of some one of a variety of defects. You can 
pick out such localities by looking on the map. 

b. Barrier of Topography. — A most important barrier 
is a height of land. How important it is is clear to 
anyone who has lived in a valley and noted the free- 
dom with which movements of the population take place 
along the valley as contrasted with movements up the 
hills to an elevation of even 200 to 500 feet. The valley 
forms a social center and acquaintances are made and 
marriages arranged there. Hemmed in by the barriers 


of the hills and a human inertia that objects to raising the 
weight of the body, the valley becomes an endogamous 
center. Such a tendenvy is much exaggerated in the great 
valleys of the Appalachian chain. The cradle of the Jukes, 
however, was in a small valley hemmed in by steep hills 
only 300 feet high. The valleys of the Taconic Range, of 
the Catskills, of the Ramapo Mountains of New York are, 
or have been, regions of much 
inbreeding and not a little in- | 
cest, and the product has been 
much feeble-mindedness, crimi- 
nality and albinism (Fig. 172). 
As the mountains rise to the 
southwestward so do inbreed- 
ing, pauperism, and defect, 
reaching their fullest fruition 
in the mountain fastnesses of 
western Virginia and eastern 
Kentucky and Tennessee. But 

,, , - ,, PC ■ J. ,1 . FiG- 172. — A portion of the U. 

the story of the effect of this s. Geological Survey topographic 

mountain range and its valleys °^^p ^^ the region on the border 

of the center of the home of the 
upon COnsangumeoUS matmgS, Jukes, showing long, well watered 

defect, and crime in America ^^"^^f ^ji^,5^^'^ti:^«'>; «^^^P f"f^«' 

scale 1: 62,500. Contour interval, 

has still to be written. 20 feet. 

In other countries, longer settled, the influence of moun- 
tain barriers is better appreciated. Very famous are the 
cretins and the imbeciles of the Alps. And from the Chin 
Hills of Burmah, the Rev. H. East writes about that place as 
follows (American Naturalist, 1909): "Rau Vau village has 
been isolated for about seven generations. It contains about 
sixty houses and possibly two hundred inhabitants. Of 
these, ten are idiots, many are dwarfs and some hydroce- 
phalic. A number of cases of syndactyUsm and brachy- 
dactylism occur." 


B. Social Barriers 

The second set of barriers is social. These barriers are 
extremely numerous and complex. There is the barrier of 



Fig. 173. — Inheritance of a neuropathic taint in a highly inbred family, 

1, 1, 2, Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. II, 2, 4, two daughters, Joanna who 
was insane and Mary; II, 1, 3, their respective consorts, PhiHp, a weak man 
and Emanuel also weak; III, 1, is Charles V a great ruler but eccentric, cruel, 
and subject to melanchoha; III, 2, is Isabel; III, 3, is John III of Portugal, 
a weak man; III, 4, Catherine; IV, 1, is Philip II, morose, sluggish, cruel; IV, 

2, is Mary; V, 1, is Don Carlos, "one of the most despicable and unfortunate 
specimens of humanity in modem history." I (within the symbols) insane. 
Woods, 1906, pp. 145, 146. 

the clan and pride of blood, the barrier of language, the 
barrier of race, and the barrier of religious sect, 

a. The Barrier of the Clan with its pride of blood leads to 
self-satisfaction and not infrequently to a desire to concen- 
trate wealth and power. This is the barrier that has led 
the royal families of Europe to inbreed with such disastrous 
effect, as illustrated by the house of Spain (Woods, 1902, 
p, 3), Fig, 173. The barrier of the clan is causing the down- 
fall of more than one of America's grand families. The 


words of Mr. Francis N. Balch are apt here: "I tell you 
signs are not wanting that if the fine old New England 
blood despises the ignorant foreigner and stands aloof from 
him, there will soon be another interesting example of a 
fine old stock — and our Planters' stock 2^5 a fine old stock, 
and a sturdy stock, — making a pathetic and unedifying 
end" (Balch, 1905, p. 22). 

b. The Barrier of the Social Status.— This is important 
where one social class forms a small portion of the commu- 
nity, represented by only a few families. I have in mind a 
group of persons in a small section of Massachusetts afTected 
by albinism. Probably on this account, together with a 
mental inferiority, they seem to have been socially ostra- 
cized by their neighbors and so were obliged to marry each 
other. In another instance two families standing above the 
others in the community in progressiveness and wealth have 
intermarried extensively; almost exclusively. The effect 
on consanguineous marriage of an isolated position is well 
shown by the community of Fort Mardick concerning 
which a valuable monograph has been written by L. and 
G. Lancry. They say: ''Four families constitute the origin 
(167C) of the population of Fort Mardick." "This small 
nucleus was implanted alongside of a population speaking 
another tongue, having other customs and other occupa- 
tions than its own, being even more or less hostile to it." 
To-day, of 300 families 38 bear the name of Everard, of 
which 9 are Everard-Everard, 36 Hars, 27 Zoonekindt, 24 
Benard, and so with the other surnames. To avoid inevi- 
table confusion sobriquets are frequently applied, such as 
Gros-os, Gros-dos, Bosco, etc. In this community the 
striking character is sterility. Thus, consanguineous mar- 
riages are more than twice as apt to be sterile as non- 
consanguineous (7.5% : 16%); a single child is 2)^ times as 
common with consanguineous as non-consanguineous mar- 


riages and the closer the relationship of the couple the 
greater the chance of sterile marriage. 

In this category may be placed the barrier of Hfe in an 
institution. A pubUc institution brings together men and 
women so intimately that marriage frequently occurs after 
leaving the institution. Thus two persons with the same 
trait become parents. This is not, strictly, consanguineous 
marriage but it has much of the essential element of such 
marriage — viz., the marriage of persons with the same de- 
fects. Certainly almshouses in which segregation of the 
sexes is imperfect jdeld numerous depauperate and imbecile 
offspring and there is reason for suspecting that sanatoria 
and hospitals for the "curable" insane do likewise. That 
institutions for the deaf mutes lead to intermarriage of per- 
sons of this class is notorious. Thus Bell (1884, p. 4) says: 
"I desire to direct attention to the fact that in this country 
deaf mutes marry deaf ynutes. An examination of the records 
of some of our institutions for the deaf and dumb reveals 
the fact that such marriages are not the exception but the 
rule," and later (p. 46) he cites as a cause for this preference 
"segregation for the purposes of education." 

c. The Barrier of Language is extremely important in pro- 
moting consanguineous marriages or the matings of persons 
with the same defect. Thus with regard to deaf mutes Bell 
(1884,p. 44) says: "The practice of the sign language hinders 
the acquisition of the EngHsh language ; it makes deaf mutes 
associate together in adult life, and avoid the society of 
hearing people; it thus causes the intermarriage of deaf 
mutes and the propagation of their physical defect." The 
importance of this barrier is seen among recent immigrants. 
These tend to herd together largely because of desire to be 
with people who speak the same language. Thus immigra- 
tion instead of directly tending to promote matings of dis- 
similar and unrelated blood, under modern conditions at 





Qeorg<> Dohertr. 40, of 2521 AJb«marl« road, 
tna Martha Carberry, 36. of 2521 Albemarle 

Owen J. McGowan, -46, of 618 Flfty-flf th 8tre«t, 
tai Theresa A. Kane, 40^ of 61 Bainbrldgo 

Peter Hart, S7. of IT ColleM place, and Jo- 
sephine "Eobinson, 37, of 646 Fifty-sixth strwt. 

Hjman Bchler. 25, of 88 Ames street, aad 
Sadie Potakoff, 21, of 93 Ame« street. 

Otto W. Sartorlns, 25, of 184 Washln^n 
Park, and Adelaide Schlerenbeck, 25, of 6S 
Willow street. 

Cornelius Brassll, 86, of 642 Hicks strest. and 
Mary E. O'Hara, 28, of 475 Sixteenth street. 

Albert Fink, 26, of 1118 Oreeoe avenue, and 
May M. Gardner, 25, of 667 Putnam avenue. 

Isaac Cohen, 21, of 886 Williams avenue, and 
Ida Gershenoff, 19, of 847 Alabama aveuue. 

Michael Malo. 28. of 10S6 DeKalb avenue, 
and E^lth -Gralnke, 23, of 1086 DeKalb avenue. 

Ernest Hickman, 21, of 788' Madlion str««t, 
and Gela A. Wenzel, 20, of 788 Madison street. 

Benedict F. Gleason, 28. of Manhattan, and 
Mary Skelly, 38, of 233 Fifth aveuue. 

Francesca Parasandola, 32, of 111 Carroll 
street, and Concettlna Assanta, 22, of 111 Carroll 

Joseph PUler, Jr., 26, of 441 Seventy-thlrd 
street, and Nellie B. Smith. 22, of 441 Seventy ' 
third street. 


Fig. 174. — Clipping from a Brooklyn (N. Y.) newspaper, spring of 1911, 
showing frequency of marriages between persons from the same address. 
In the case of recent immigrants this frequently impUes that the pair have 
come from the same home village and are, very likely, somewhat closely re- 

first has an exactly opposite effect. The marriage Hcenses 
of a large city frequently show bride and groom from the 
same house — this means frequently, if not usually, that 
they speak the same dialect, come, very likely, from the 
same town in the old country, and are probably cousins of 
some degree (Fig. 174). Even in the well-established popu- 
lations a barrier of language may cause segregative mar- 
riage selection and, if the population is small, lead to con- 
sanguinity. Thus at Miscou Island part of the population 
speaks French and part English and this intensifies the 
liability to consanguineous marriage. 


d. The Barrier of Race is of the very greatest, importance 
in promoting marriage of kin — especially if one race be in 
a marked minority as the negroes are in New Hampshire 
and the whites are in the Mississippi River bottom around 
Vicksburg or in parts of the West Indies. A\i a striking in- 
stance of consanguinity in a colored population in the north 
may be cited the " Jackson- White " clan of the Ramapo 
mountain region. 

e. Finally, the barrier of religious sect has been erected 
again and again to insure the intermarriage of the faithful 
only. This is illustrated by the teachings of the Society of 
Friends and smaller sects such as the Bunkers, Shakers 
and Amish. Of the Dunkers, Gillen (1906) states: ''In 
their early history marriage out of the church was punish- 
able by expulsion (Chronicon Ephraterise, pp. 96, 346f). It 
is still frowned upon, but the process of liberalization now 
in progress has modified the attitude of the Church. In 
some congregations families intermarry generation after 
generation. But the degree of kinship is not so close that 
any evil results appear in the offspring." Nevertheless one 
sees the danger that any small sect with such tenets runs. 
A critical study of the Amish of southeastern Pennsylvania 
with much marriage of kin shows a sufficient frequency of 
epilepsy and crippled children to serve as a warning that a 
defect is in the blood of some of the strain that in time will 
affect the entire sect who remain in that part of the country. 
It is difficult to see how any religious sect would have a 
tenet so opposed to the laws of Nature and God as practi- 
cally to compel consanguineous marriage. 

Many other sects are in a worse condition biologically 
than the Amish. Indeed, the smaller the sect the more apt 
are its adherents to be thrown closely together and so to 
become intimately acquainted with one another exclusively; 
and it is easy to see that in a few generations cousin mar- 


riage will be the rule in such sects. From this point of view 
the Special Report of the Census upon Religious Bodies 
(1906) becomes of great biological interest. In this report 
we read of the Duck River Baptists, one-third of whom 
(2,181) are in the Duck River Association; of the Gen- 
eral Six Principle Baptists with 90 per cent of its membership 
in Rhode Island; of the Amana Society, all (about 1,700) 
located in Iowa County, Iowa; of the Braederhocf Men- 
nonite Church of Bonhomme County, South Dakota, with 
275 members, of the Reformed Presbyterian Church (cov- 
enanted) with 17 members, all at North Union, Pa.; and 
of the 725 Schwenkfelders of Eastern Pennsylvania. In 
some of these sects it is probable that the tenet of marriage 
inside the sect does not obtain, but without such a tenet 
the result tends to follow and we can but regard such small 
sects as eugenically unfortunate. 



1. Primitive Migrations 

The human species has come to occupy the entire habitable 
globe. This fact is mute testimony of man's migratory ca- 
pacity and tendencies. Just as the Norwegian lemming has 
been observed, in consequence of several years of favorable 
conditions for breeding in its mountain home, to spread over 
the surrounding territory in great bands seeking less crowded 
breeding-grounds; even as the army worm and the grass- 
hopper swarm from their native territory; so man, also, under 
the pressure of crowded conditions, poverty and oppression 
or lured by brighter prospects elsewhere, may move in hordes 
to other lands that seem to offer better opportunities. Thus 
Asia seems to have debouched her surplus population upon 
Europe in the shape of the Huns during the fourth and fifth 
centuries of our era and the Turks during the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries. So the Anglo-Saxons and the Normans 
successively swarmed upon England. So, among savages, 
the Masai of Africa moved upon the neighboring tribes and 
established themselves over much of southeastern Africa. 
So in the last three centuries the Americas and Australia 
have witnessed the greatest migrations that the world has 
ever seen, hundreds of thousands annually coming from over- 
crowded Europe and Asia to the "New World." 



2. Early Immigration to America 
For us in America the phenomena of migration should 
have a special interest. Excepting for the few scores of 
thousands of Indians, there was a continent devoid of a 
population — a clean slate upon which history was to be 
written and where the effect of "blood" in determining that 
history might be traced. Fortunately, almost from the be- 
ginning, records were made and many have been preserved, 
despite fire, energetic housecleaners and rats, so that many 
materials for such a study are still available. It would be a 
grand contribution to scientific, biological history to show 
how traits of the individual immigrants, no less than condi- 
tions, poHtical and other, determined the deeds of commu- 
nities. For a community is the sum of its constituent in- 
dividuals, and what each individual does depends on his 
innate sensitiveness and the vigor and kind of his reactions 
to the stimuli of conditions. With a given set of conditions 
the idiosyncrasies of response of the constituent individuals 
determine the details of history; and these idiosyncrasies 
depend quite as much on inheritable traits as on training 
and experience; for just what effect training and experience 
shall have on the individual depend upon the nature of his 
protoplasm. Into this grand but unworked historical field 
we cannot hope to enter here, but a hasty survey of the sub- 
ject will be attempted. 

It would be very difficult now to construct the wave of im- 
migration to the territory of the present United States from 
1607 to 1776. The census of 1790 gave a population of nearly 
4,000,000; and making every allowance for the high net 
fecundity of the early inmaigrants, it is clear that at least 
a hundred thousand persons must have come in ships from 
Europe to North America during those 170 years. A con- 
crete idea of the numbers may be gained by the statement 
(Fiske, 1905, pp. 77, 155, 197) that starting about 1615 \'ir- 


ginia had acquired in 4 years a population of 4,000 souls; 
between 1630 and 1640, 20,000 persons came to New Eng- 
land ^ but during the following century immigration practi- 
cally ceased, having been discouraged; and from 1681 to 
1684 Pennsylvania gained 8,000 inhabitants. The estimated 
arrivals from 1776 to 1820 number 250,000 and about 
28,000,000 more to 1910. 

Since the first few scores of thousands of immigrants had 
the greatest influence on the ideals of the colonies they estab- 
lished and since their blood has had the longer time to show 
its effects, and since their traits have had the greatest chance 
to disseminate widely, they deserve special consideration. 
The great interest taken in these "forefathers" by their de- 
scendants is justified even from the biologic-historic point 
of view, for their families were large, the pedigrees of then* 
famihes were often carefully kept and are, for the most part, 
rehable, and we know much about the characteristics of 
many of the males who reached maturity. We observe, also, 
in the colonies the same tendency of persons similar in origin 
and tastes to segregate that is observed among modern immi- 

On the James River the first settlers consisted chiefly of 
"discredited idlers and would-be adventurers," ^ niore than 
half of them "gentlemen" of good family but untrained in 
labor, trusting for a change of fortune in the new land. Later, 
men, women and children were sent by the London Company 
to colonize the new land and that company was not particular 
as to quality. Even felons, murderers and women of the 

' "It is positively known that early in the spring of 1630, eleven vessels left 
England for New England with 1700 passengers, arriving at the port of Salem, 
Mass. in June of that year. Fifty of these families settled in Lynn. In the 
same year the Massachusetts Bay Co. sent over 16 ships — all arrived safe in 
New England at the port of Salem." Harriet R. Cooks, The Driver Family, 
N. Y. 1889, p. 26. 

^ Wilson, History of the American People, I., p. 45. 


streets were at times sent over from London to relieve the 
city of them; and the governor, who was a pure euthenist, 
and seemed to think the better environment would cure 
their evil ways, welcomed all. However, in the middle of the 
seventeenth century, protests went out from the colony 
against being made a penal settlement, and in 1670 the 
House of Burgesses passed an act prohibiting the importa- 
tion of convicts, but such importations did not wholly cease 
until declared illegal in Virginia in 1788. Perhaps 20,000 
"convicts" altogether, by no means all immoral when 
judged by our present standards, were imported into the 
Virginia Colony (Butler, 1896). 

But a better blood soon crowded into Virginia to redeem 
the colony. Upon the execution of Charles I (1649) a host of 
royalist refugees sought an asylum here, and the immigration 
of this class continued even after the Restoration. By this 
means was enriched a germ plasm which easily developed 
such traits as good manners, high culture, and the abiUty 
to lead in all social affairs, — traits combined in remarkable 
degree in the ''first families of Virginia." From this complex 
and the similar complex of Maryland has come much of the 
bad blood that found the retreats of the mountain valleys 
toward Kentucky and Tennessee to its liking, and that spread 
later into Indiana and Illinois and gave rise, in all probabil- 
ity, to the Ishmaelites, a family of which hundreds have been 
supported in the almshouses and jails of Indiana. From 
this complex came also some of America's greatest statesmen 
and military leaders; the Randolphs, the Marshalls, the 
Madisons, the Curtises, the Lees, the Fitzhughs, the Wash- 
ingtons and many others born with the instinct to command. 
Such are the descendants of the high-spirited cavaliers. It 
might have been predicted that the future state would be 
the Mother of Presidents and that in a civil war the hardest 
fought battles should be fought on her soil. 


Further north, at Manhattan Island, a settlement was 
being made by another sort of people; a band of Dutch 
traders. The fur trade with the Indians waxed profitable. 
They maintained friendly relations with the Indians, as the 
main source of their wealth, and under their protection es- 
tabhshed trading posts up the North River even as far as 
the present site of Albany and along the valley of the Mo- 
hawk; while others went east as far as the Connecticut 
River. Little wonder that such blood, under the favorable 
environment of an admirable location, has created the com- 
mercial center of the western world. 

On the bleak coasts of New England were being founded 
settlements of idealists, men who were willing to undergo I 
exile for conscience' sake. They included many scholars 
like the pastor Robinson, Brewster who, while self-exiled at 
Leyden, instructed students at the University, John Win- 
throp ''of gentle breeding and education," John Davenport 
whom the Indians named ''So-big-study-man." ^ Little 
wonder that the germ plasm of these colonies of men of deep 
convictions and scholarship should show its traits in the 
great network of its descendants and establish New Eng- 
land's reputation for conscientiousness and love of learning 
and culture. As it was almost the first business of the 
founders of the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and New 
Haven to found a college, so their descendants — the families 
of Edwards, Whitney, D wight, Eliot, Lowell, Woolsey and 
the rest have not only led in literature, philosophy and 
science but have carried the lamps of learning across the 
continent, lighting educational beacons from Boston to San 
Francisco. Nor is it an accident that on the soil tilled by 
these dissenters from the Established Church of England 
should be spilled the fii-st blood of the iVmerican Revolution. 

Later, to the shores of the Delaware, Penn led his band of 

1 Cotton Mather, Magnolia III, 56, 


followers, consisting of men and women whose natures were 
attracted to his principles of thrift, absence of show, and non- 
resistance. The germ plasm of his followers soon peopled 
Penn's woods and it is not due solely to chance that Penn- 
sylvania has the largest number of homes owned and free 
from debt of any state and that the "powers that prey" 
prowl here so unmolested. 

Thus the characteristics of each conmionwealth were 
early determined by the traits of the persons who were at- 
tracted toward it. These traits still persist in their dwin- 
dling descendants who strive to secure the preservation in 
the state of the ideals inculcated by their forefathers. 

One common characteristic these early immigrants had, 
which led them to leave family and friends, to undergo the 
trials of the long sea voyage in small ships and to settle in a 
rigorous climate among unreliable savages, and that was a 
willingness to break with tradition, to exchange the old for 
the new and better. This trait, that amounts in extreme 
cases to a ''Wanderlust," is illustrated by the history of 
many a pioneer. For example, Simon Hoyt landed in Salem, 
Mass., in 1628, went in the first company of settlers to Charles- 
ton (1629); went to Dorchester (1630) with the first com- 
pany of settlers there; joined the church at Scituate (1635) 
and built a house there; then, probably in the spring of 1636, 
migrated to Windsor, Connecticut colony, which he helped 
found. In 1649 he was granted land at Fairfield and in 1657 
he died at Stamford. Thus in the space of thii-ty years 
Simon Hoyt lived in seven villages in America and was a 
founder of at least three of them — a truly restless spirit like 
many another settler, and the parent of a restless progeny. 

Still another example is that of Hans Jorst Heydt of 
Strasburg. He fled to Holland when his native town was 
seized by Louis XIV, married there Anna Maria DuBois, a 
French Huguenot refugee from Wicres; came with her to 


America and settled at New Paltz on the Hudson about 
1710. Schismatic dissensions having broken out in the new 
colony, Heydt, with others, left and settled about 1717 in 
Philadelphia County not far from Germantown where he 
acquired several hundred acres of land, established a colony, 
built mills and entered upon various commercial enterprises. 
In 1731, having acquired a grant of 40,000 acres of land in the 
Shenandoah Valley, he migrated thither, became known as 
Baron Hite, and died there in 1760. One of his friends, 
Van Metre, who originally settled at New Paltz, had moved 
first to Somerset Co., New Jersey, then to Salem County in 
the same colony, later to Prince George's County, Maryland, 
and, finally, to Orange County, Virginia (Smyth, 1909). 
These are examples, merely, of the restlessness, — of the en- 
terprising restlessness — of the early settlers. 

This trait of restlessness and ambitious search for better 
conditions shows itself in the frequent migrations of the de- 
scendants of the early settlers. The abandoned farms of 
New England point to the trait in our blood that entices us 
to move on to reap a possible advantage elsewhere. "I don't 
know a farmer in Illinois," said a friend that has traveled 
over the state extensively, ''who wouldn't sell his farm to- 
morrow and go to a distant state if he could be sure of bet- 
tering himself financially by doing so." This restlessness 
affects whole states. Thus from 1900 to 1910 the population 
of Iowa decreased because so many thousands of her people 
moved to the newly opened lands of Canada, Washington 
and Oklahoma. There was an ambitious tendency in the 
germ plasm out of which the forefathers developed that 
lured them from Europe and it is in the same germ plasm 
yet and shows itself in these later generations. 

A shorter but not less pregnant migration is that to the 
metropolis from the surrounding rural districts. One after 
another, as they grow up, many or most of the young men 


and many of the young women also leave the farm for the 
office, shop and factory. 

Now all of these migrations have a prof ound eugenic signifi- 
cance. The most active, ambitious and courageous blood 
migrates. It migrated to America and has made her what 
she has become; in America another selection took place in 
the western migrations and what this best blood — this creme 
de la creme — did in the west all the world knows. Great 
cities like Chicago, with its motto "I will," arose in a genera- 
tion or two to the front rank of world metropolises, and New 
England, the early home of the sewing machine and the cot- 
ton gin, has yielded the palm to the central west, the home of 
the harvesting machine and the aeroplane. 

And when the best and strongest migrated, the weaker 
minds were left behind to breed in the old homestead. A 
recent British Committee on Physical Deterioration^ contains 
the testimony of Dr. C. R. Browne about conditions in the 
west of Ireland. He says: "The sound and the healthy — the 
young men and young women — from the rural districts emi- 
grate to America in tremendous numbers, and it is only the 
more enterprising and the more active that go, as a rule." 
And Dr. Kelly, the Roman CathoHc Bishop of Ross testified : 
''For a considerable number of years it has been only the 
strong and vigorous that go — the old people and the weak- 
lings remain behind in Ireland." And even in New England 
we see signs of decadence of the old stock and men speak of 
racial deterioration. But the race as a whole has not deteri- 
orated but only the New England representatives — the 
"left-behinds" of the grand old families, whose stronger 
members went west. Likewise in the rural and semi-rural 
population within a hundred miles of our great cities we find 
a disproportion of the indolent, the alcoholic, the feeble- 

^ Inter-departmental Committee on Physical Deterioration, Vol. I, p. 37, 



minded, the ne'er-do-weel. I know intimately several such 
localities and have seen in one family after another, how 
the ambitious youth leave the parental roof-tree to try their 
fortunes in the city while the weakest young men stay be- 
hind, supported by their parents, or earning only enough to 
buy the liquor their defective natures crave, and are finally 
often forced to marry a weak girl and father her imbecile off- 
spring. Such villages, depleted of the best, tend to become 
cradles of degeneracy and crime. Thus our great cities lure 
to themselves the best of the rural protoplasm, surround it 
with conditions that discourage reproduction, either by 
creating a disinclination to marriage or making it incon- 
venient and expensive to have children. So our great cities 
act anti-eugenically, sterilizing the best and leaving the 
worst to reproduce their like. 

3. Recent Immigration to America 

f We have seen that the early immigrants to America were 
men of courage, independence, and love of liberty; and many 
of them were scholars or social leaders. Are these the charac- 
teristics of the immigrants at this later day?) Let us examine 
the matter of immigration to America during the past hun- 
i dred years. We shall find great differences from the immigra- 
tion of the 17th and 18th centuries. Thus where the annual 
immigration was formerly a few thousand it is now hundreds 
of thousands. The wave of immigration is shown in Plate 
II. From 1820 to 1824, inclusive, the annual immigration 
was less than 10,000 but it has never fallen below that limit- 
since. From 1825 to 1844 (with one exception) it has re- 
mained below 100,000, but in 1845 it passed that number and 
(excepting for 1862, in the depth of our Civil War) it has 
not since fallen below that limit. In 1905 it passed the 
1,000,000 mark. The general population meanwhile rose 
from over 9,000,000 to 90,000,000, or only one-tenth as fast. 


The wave of immigration shows great fluctuations in height. 
Referring to this the Commissioner General of Immigration 
(Keefe, 1910, p. 10) says: "This periodical rise and fall well 
represents the relative prosperity of the country, while the 
gradual increase from decade to decade may be taken as a 
fairly accurate index of the country's development and 
growth and its capacity to employ larger numbers of alien 

It may be added that, on account of the departure of aliens, 
the net increase is less than the totals shown on the chart. 
Thus there were over 200,000 emigrants in the year ending 
June 30, 1910, leaving a net increase of something over 
800,000. (Even that is enormous, and no patriotic American 
can contemplate this vast annual addition to our kinds of 
germ plasm without inquiring as to the sort of potential traits 
they carry and the probable eugenic effect on our nation of 
this constant influx of new blood. ) 

a. The Irish. — The consequences of the immigration of 
the earlier half of the period of 91 years are already seen. In 
1846 there was a severe famine in Ireland and during the 
next five years over a million souls, or one-eighth of her pop- 
ulation, emigrated thence to the United States, and Ireland 
has remained one of the most persistent sources of our foreign 
population. The traits that the great immigration from the 
south of Ireland brought were, on the one hand, alcoholism, 
considerable mental defectiveness and a tendency to tubercu- 
losis; on the other, sympathy, chastity and leadership of 
men. The Irish tend to aggregate in cities and soon con- 
trol their governments, frequently exercising favoritism and 
often graft. The young women were formeriy much em- 
ployed as household servants, but more recently have be- 
come shop gbls and factory hands. Many of the Irish, 
most strikingly those of the northern part of that island, 
were among the nation's most intrepid frontiersmen and 


their descendants have served the nation in many impor- 
tant positions. 

b. The Germans. — The year 1845 marked the rapid rise of 
the Uberal spirit in Germany and a revolt against the at- 
tempt of the ruHng class to weaken representative govern- 
ment. Then followed a great increase in immigration to 
America, advancing to over 140,000 a year for the three years 
1852-54. The German immigrants of this period were lovers 
of freedom, full of courage and daring, and furnished the 
Union Army during the Civil War with many of its best 
officers. More recently the Protestant Germans have come 
to us as unskilled laborers and, after working for a time as 
farm hands, save enough to buy a place of their own. Great 
numbers, however, settle in the cities, make useful clerks 
and often rise to positions of trust. Germans are, as a rule, 
thrifty, intelligent and honest. They have a love of art and 
music, including that of song birds, and they have formed one 
of the most desirable classes of our immigrants. 

c. The Scandinavian immigration first assumed consid- 
erable proportions in 1866 at the close of our Civil War, 
reached a maximum (105,000) in the prosperous year 1881, 
and has since declined somewhat, being now about 50,000 a 
year. Our Scandinavian population is found chiefly in the 
central west and northwest, above all in Minnesota, Wis- 
consin and Iowa. It tends to group itself into colonies; for 
example, 32 per cent of the entire population of Chisago Co., 
Minnesota, consisted, in 1900, of immigrants from Sweden; 
similarly, 26.5 per cent of the population of Traill Co. con- 
sists of persons who sailed to this country from Norway. 
In this tendency to form colonies the Scandinavian immigra- 
tion of a decade ago shows much resemblance to that of the 
early English of the 17th century. Such colonization is 
bound to stamp the impress of the "national traits" upon the 
community. These national traits include a love of inde- 


pendence in thought and action, chastity, self-control of 
other sorts, and a love of agricultural pursuits. The latter is 
less marked in the Swedes than the Norwegians, for of the 
former only one-third, while of the later more than half, are 
engaged in farming. 

d. Austria-Hungary. — The immigration from Austria- 
Hungary was the next to assume large proportions. It 
first became considerable with 17,000 in 1880; rose to 
77,000 in 1892, and to 338,000 in 1907. It now consists of 
diverse races; Germans, Slavonians, Croatians and Dal- 
matians, Bohemians, Magyars, Slovaks, Ruthenians, Rou- 
manians. The latter races are brunet in skin, hair and eye 
color and of average to short stature. The Bohemians that 
have migrated to the United States are engaged prevail- 
ingly in agriculture. Colonies are found in the prairie 
states of the upper Mississippi Valley, and in Nebraska and 
Texas. The Report of the Commissioner-General of Im- 
migration gives Illinois as the intended home of 2G per cent 
of the immigrant Bohemians and Moravians, New York 
of 19 per cent, Ohio of 9 per cent and Texas and Pennsyl- 
vania each of 7 per cent. In both rural and urban condi- 
tions they show prevailing traits of self-respect and per- 
tinacity. The Slovaks in America (to whom nearly 8,000 
were added in 1910) are agricultural laborers, not farm 
owners, but they have founded a few colonies, like that at 
Slovaktown, near Stuttgard, Ark. Most of those in the 
East become miners, especially of bituminous coal, and have 
settled largely in Pennsylvania. 

e. Hebrews have formed a marked proportion of the 
population of North America from an early period; even 
in prerevolutionary times they penetrated to the frontier 
as peddlers. But the great immigration began with that 
from Germany and has continued from that country, from 

Austria-Hungary and Russia in ever increasing nmnbers. 


For the most part they have settled in our large cities, and 
their frequency is roughly proportional to the size of the 
city, yet with a preponderance in the East. Though it is 
superficial to attempt to name the traits of even so rela- 
tively homogeneous a company as the Hebrews, yet a sort 
of average or prevailing condition may be recognized. As 
the Abstract of the Report of the Immigration Commis- 
sion on Recent Immigration in Agriculture says, p. 41, 
"The Hebrew on the land is peaceable and law abiding, 
but he does not tamely submit to what he believes to be 
oppression and he has a highly developed sense of personal 
rights, civil and economic." Probably with few changes 
this statement would stand for the Hebrews of the cities 
where the mass of recent Hebrew immigrants occupy a 
position intermediate between the slovenly Servians and 
Greeks and the tidy Swedes, Germans and Bohemians. 
In earning capacity both male and female Hebrew immi- 
grants rank high and the literacy is above the mean of all 
immigrants. Statistics indicate that the crimes of Hebrews 
are chiefly "gainful offenses," especially thieving and re- 
ceiving stolen goods, while they rarely commit offenses of 
personal violence. lOn the other hand, they show the 
greatest proportion of offenses against chastity and in con- 
nection with prostitution, the lowest of crimes. iThere is 
no question that, taken as a whole, the hordes of Jews that 
are now coming to us 'from Russia and the extreme south- 
east of Europe, with their intense individualism and ideals 
of gain at the cost of any interest, (represent the opposite 
extreme from the early English and the more recent Scandi- 
navian immigration with their ideals of community life 
in the open country, advancement by the sweat of the brow, 
and the uprearing of families in the fear of God and the 
love of country. ] 
f. The Italian immigration first passed the 10,000 mark 


in 1881. That from Southern Italy has always been five 
or six times as great as from Northern Italy. Immigrants 
from the former country are darker and doubtless have 
derived part of their blood from Greece and Northern 
Africa. It is these South Italians that we generally have 
in mind when we speak of Italians. Eighty per cent of those 
who come are males and a quarter of them return each year 
to their homes. In America they become, prevailingly, 
general laborers, relatively few specifically farm laborers; 
yet they are going into agriculture to a considerable extent 
and buying land as they save the money. Of the agricul- 
tural Italians many are truck farmers near large cities, and 
a few isolated settlements have been made like that at 
Hammonton or at Vineland, New Jersey. Others are found 
in central New York State, and a few colonies have been 
estabhshed in the South where they compete with negro 
labor. Apparently North Italians are to a certain extent 
influenced in locating in this country by topography like 
that of their homes. ''While sentiment often has much 
to do with the choice of a location," says Cance (1911, p. 
23) "it can not be said that the success of the settlement 
at Genoa, Wis., is due to the Alpine aspect of the topography 
rather than to the excellence of the soil and the favorable 
markets; nor that the fine North Italian settlers of Valdese, 
N. C, would not have made more progress every way had 
they settled nearer markets and on level land where there 
was more fertility and less Swiss scenery." The traits of 
the Southern Italians are thus expressed: "The Italian has 
not the self-reliance, initiative resourcefulness nor self- 
sufiicing individualism that necessarily marks the pioneer 
farmer." "On the whole the Italian farmer compares 
well with other foreign farmers in his neighborhood in in- 
dustry, thrift, careful attention to details, crop yields and 
surplus returns from his farm. His strength lies in his 


patience, unflagging industry and capacity for hard, monot- 
onous labor." Aside from his tendency to crimes of per- 
sonal violence the average Italian has many excellent 
characteristics, not one of the least of which is his interest 
in his work, even as a day laborer. He assimilates fairly 
rapidly, especially in rural districts; not a few Irish girls 
marry Italian husbands when both are CathoUcs; and this 
assimilation will add many desirable elements to the .\mer- 
ican complex. 

g. The Poles are distributed under their political affilia- 
tions as German, Austrian, Russian and so on. The race 
constitutes one of the largest contributors to the American 
population. The cause of this emigration of a large pro- 
portion of the European Poles is doubtless the pohtical 
disabihties under which they have labored. Poles first 
began to form colonies in the United States in 1885 (in 
Texas), from 1895 they came in numbers to Wisconsin 
and Michigan, and later to Indiana and Illinois. More 
than any other recent immigrants, except the Itahans, 
they become general laborers, largely in rural districts, 
and as they save money they buy farms. The Poles are 
independent and self-reliant though clannish. They love 
the land and work hard to gain a piece of it. They are able 
to make pay the farms of New England which the sons of 
the early settlers have abandoned. We may welcome this 
freedom-loving people whose blood is bound largely to 
replace that of the old New England stock. 

h. The Portuguese are among our more recent immi- 
grants, since their numbers did not exceed 2,000 per year 
until 1889 and first reached 5,000 in 1902. They are classi- 
fied either as white (largely from the Azores) or dark, from 
the Cape Verde Islands. The former become farm laborers, 
general laborers, mill hands, and farmers, and are steady, 
reliable, and efficient. In Rhode Island they form a notable 


colony of potato planters; in Massachusetts their head- 
quarters are at New Bedford and from this city they have 
spread through the "Old Colony" region and into Cape 
Cod. The Black Portuguese are the principal cranberry 
pickers employed on the Massachusetts bogs. "They are 
largely recruited from the ranks of dock laborers near New 
Bedford and neighboring cities. Five-sixths of them are 
men or boys, many of them single or without families in 
the United States." The cranberry pickers of Massachu- 
setts are illiterate and neither resourceful nor intelligent; 
but this has the less eugenic significance since few settle 
permanently in this country. 

^Summarizing this review of recent conditions of immi 
gration it appears certain that, unless conditions change of 
themselves or are radically changed, the population of the 
United States will, on account of the great influx of blood 
from South-eastern Europe, rapidly become darker in pig- 
mentation, smaller in stature, more mercurial, more at- 
tached to music and art, more given to crimes of larceny, 
kidnapping, assault, murder, rape and sex-immorality and 
less given to burglary, drunkeniiess and vagrancy than i 
were the original English settlers.) Since of the insane in I 
hospitals there are relatively more foreign-born than native 1 
it seems probable that, under present conditions, the ratio J 
of insanity in the population will rapidly increase. 

As to the question of increasing dependence and credulity 
amon^ recent immigrants it appears that "the immigrant 
to the United States in a large measure assists as well as 
advises his friends in the Old World to emigrate." Next 
to this "the propaganda conducted by steamship agents is 
undoubtedly the most important immediate cause of emi- 
gration from Europe to the United States," especially in 
Austria, Hungary, Greece and Russia. While America will 
be slow to relinquish her position as the home of the op- 


pressed of all nations, she may well oppose any practice 
that tends to lure persons here by raising false hopes of an 
easy acquisition of riches. 

4. Control op Immigration 

It has long been recognized in this country that it is a 
national duty to regulate immigration. Our present immi- 
J gration laws recognize this right and duty. Section 2 of 
\i/ the Immigration Act has the following eugenic provisions: 

"That the following classes of aliens shall be excluded from admis- 
sion into the United States: All idiots, imbeciles, feeble-minded persons, 
epileptics, insane persons, and persons who have been insane within five 
years previous; persons who have had two or more attacks of insanity at 
any time previously; paupers; persons likely to become a public charge; 
professional beggars; persons afflicted with tuberculosis or with a loath- 
some or dangerous contagious disease ; persons not comprehended within 
any of the foregoing excluded classes who are found to be and are certified 
by the examining surgeon as being mentally or physically defective, such 
mental or physical defect being of a nature which may affect the ability of 
such ahen to earn a living; persons who have been convicted of or admit 
having committed a felony or other crime or misdemeanor involving moral 
turpitude; polygamists, or persons who admit their belief in the practice of 
polygamy, anarchists, or persons who believe in or advocate the over- 
throw by force or violence of the Government of the United States, or of 
all government, or of all forms of law, or the assassination of public offi- 
cials; prostitutes, or women or girls coming into the United States for the 
purpose of prostitution or for any other immoral purpose; persons who 
procure or attempt to bring in prostitutes or women or girls for the pur- 
pose of prostitution or for any other inmaoral purpose." 

Now while few dispute the right and the duty of this 
country to control immigration there is a difference of opin- 
ion as to the degree and nature of that control. There are 
those who think that the present restrictions are sufficient 
and beyond them immigration should be encouraged; there 
are others who believe that immigration should be much 
further restricted by requiring educational, property and 
other qualifications. This difference of opinion is based 


partly on differences of needs and ideals. Those who would 
keep the door open are largely employees of labor who need 
most of it to ''develop" or exploit the resources of the coun- 
try. Those who wish to restrict belong partly to the class of 
laborers and low-grade artisans who desire to keep wages 
high and partly to the old families who fear the consequences 
of this copious infusion of South-eastern European blood. 
This difference of opinion must, as is generally the case, be 
ascribed to ignorance. If we knew the probable consequences 
upon our national life we would probably be agreed what 
to do. 

To a biologist it seems that the economic aspects of the im- 
migration problem will take care of themselves, just because 
immigration is, from this side, self-regulatory. When wages 
fall immigration diminishes to a third or a quarter of the 
volume that it has in times of prosperity and high wages. 
(Moreover, it is (isn't it?) a rather selfish policy to keep out 
those who are qualified to become good citizens that we may 
fatten the faster on their destitution .\ But on its biologic 
side the problem is real and urgent. How can we keep out 
defective germ plasm while we admit that which is strong? 
The attempt to do this by examination of the immigrant is 
as unscientific as it is inadequate. A person who by all 
physical and mental examinations is normal may lack in 
half of hio germ cells the determiner for complete mental 
development. In some respects such a person is more un- 
desirable in the community than the idiot (who will prob- 
ably not reproduce) or the low-grade imbecile, who will be 
recognized as such and be selected against in marriage, or be 
sent by his neighbors to an institution where he may be 
kept from reproducing. N or can the immigration 2 robl£m 
be sol ved by exclu din£_on _the ground of race or jiative_ 
country^ No one has suggested excluding the natives of 
Switzerland, yet a normal woman from the neighborhood of 


Tenna, Canton Graubunden, may become a focus of hemo- 
philia in this country. On the other hand, the exclusion of 
one Hungarian family of my acquaintance would have de- 
prived American Universities of three of their best scientific 
professors. I The fact is that no race per se, whether Slovak, 
Ruthenian, Turk or Chinese, is dangerous and none undesir- 
able; but only those individuals whose somatic traits or ger- 
minal determiners are, from the standpoint of our social life, 
bad. While all somatically defective may well be excluded 
at once, it is, within limits, hazardous to admit any person 
permanently to this country because he has no undesirable 
somatic trait — for no one transmits to his progeny his somatic 
traits but rather the determiners in his germ plasm. The 
proper way to classify immigrants for admission or rejection 
is on the basis of the probable performance of their germ 
plasm. I In other words, immigrants are desirable who are of 
'goodblood"; undesirable who are of "bad blood." 

Since "blood" cannot be judged by inspection of the in- 
dividual what practicable method remains for separating the 
sheep from the goats? Experience indicates the one best 
way. Before any one person is admitted to citizenship let 
something be learned concerning his family history and his 
personal history on the other side of the ocean, f How can 
this be done? By means of field workers performing a serv- 
ice similar to that which they are doing in this country, 
visiting the relatives of the person in question and learning 
his personal and family history. y Is this feasible? Govern- 
ments might interpose an objection, but it seems probable 
that the matter could be put before them so that they would 
not. Experience indicates that few families approached in 
the proper spirit would decline to give information. It is 
then only a matter of money to pay for the required studies. 
How much money? It appears that about 200,000 declara- 
tions of intention to become naturalized are filed annually in 


the United States. It seems probable that field workers by 
properly sorting their families geographically could each 
report on the average on ten persons a week or, say, 500 a 
year. This average is the more reasonable since brothers 
sometimes make declaration simultaneously so that the his- 
tory of two persons can be got in one visit. x\t this rate 400 
field workers would be required. At the low price of living 
abroad the cost of each field worker's salary and traveling 
expenses would not exceed $1,200, or S480,000 for all. With 
10 district inspectors at $2,000, including traveling expenses, 
and a central office at $10,000, the total cost would be 
$510,000 a year, and this amount should furnish our govern- 
ment with a report on practically every applicant for natural- 
ization, which would serve as a proper basis for judging of 
his desirability. Compared with the annual expenditure of 
over $100,000,000 in this country to take care of our de- 
fectives this amount seems small and would be well invested, 
for, within a decade, the annual saving to our institutions 
would pay for the work. Moreover, an increase of 50 cents 
in the head-tax of immigrants would supply funds enough 
for the entire undertaking. 

With a control such as is outlined above we may, it seems 
to me, face the addition annually of 200,000 Europeans to our 
citizenship with equanimity. Despite the tendency of en- 
couraged immigration to bring in a less independent and self- 
reliant class, a significant selection is still exercised. This is 
clearly expressed in the Report on Emigration Conditions 
in Europe, published by the Immigration Commission, p. 11. 

The present-day emigration from Europe to tlie United States is for the 
most part drawn from country districts and smaller cities or villages and 
is composed largely of the peasantry and unskilled laboring classes. This 
is particularly true of the races or peoples from countries furnishing the 
newer immigration, with the conspicuous exception of Russian Hebrews, 
who are city dwellers by compulsion. Emigration being mainly a result of 
economic conditions, it is natural that the emigrating spirit should be 


strongest among those most seriously afifected, but notwithstanding this 
the present movement is not recruited in the main from the lowest eco- 
nomic and social strata of the population. In European countries, as in 
the United States, the poorest and least desirable element in the popula- 
tion, from an economic as well as a social standpoint, is found in the 
larger cities, and as a rule such cities furnish comparatively few emigrants. 
Neither do the average or typical emigrants of to-day represent the low- 
est in the economic and social scale even among the classes from which 
they come, a circumstance attributable to both natural and artificial 
causes. In the first place, emigrating to a strange and distant country, al- 
though less of an imdertaking than formerly, is still a serious and relatively 
difficult matter, requu-ing a degree of courage and resourcefulness not 
possessed by weaklings of any class. This natural law in the main regu- 
lated the earlier European emigi'ation to the United States, and under its 
influence the present emigration represents the stronger and better ele- 
ment of the particular class from which it is drawn. 

A most potent adjunct to the natural law of selection, however, is the 
United States immigration act, the effect of which in preventing the 
emigration, or even attempted emigration, of at least phj'-sical and mental 
defectives is probably not generally realized. The provisions of the United 
States immigration law are well known among the emigrating classes of 
Europe, and the large number rejected at European ports, or refused ad- 
mission after reaching the United States, has a decided influence in re- 
tarding emigration, and naturally that influence is most potent among 
those who doubt their abiUty to meet the law's requirements. 

V If increasing attention is paid to the selective elimination 
at our ports of entry of the actually undesirable (those with 
a germ plasm that has imbecile, epileptic, insane, criminal- 
istic, alcoholic, and sexually immoral tendencies); if agents 
in Europe learn the family history of all applicants for natu- 
ralization; if the luring of the credulous and suggestible by 
steamship agents abroad and especially in the south-east of 
Europe be reduced to its lowest limits, then we may expect to 
see our population not harmed but improved by this mixture 
with a more mercurial people.) 




As one stands at Ellis Island and sees pass the stream of 
persons, sometimes 5,000 in a day, who go through that portal 
to enter the United States and, for the most part, to become 
incorporated into it, one is apt to lose sight of the potential 
importance to this nation of the individual, or, more strictly, 
the germ plasm that he or she carries. Yet the study of ex- 
tensive pedigrees warns us of the fact. Every one of those 
peasants, each item of that ''riff-raff " of Europe, as it is some- 
times carelessly called, will, if fecund, play a role for better 
or worse in the future history of this nation. Formerly, 
when we believed that factors blend, a characteristic in the 
germ plasm of a single individual among thousands seemed 
not worth considering: it would soon be lost in the melting 
pot. But now we know that unit characters do not blend; 
that after a score of generations the given characteristic may 
still appear unaffected by the repeated unions with foreign 
germ plasm. So the individual, as the bearer of a potentially 
immortal germ plasm with innumerable traits becomes of 
the greatest interest. A few examples will illustrate this law 
and its practical importance. 

1. Elizabeth Tuttle 

From two English parents, sire at least remotely descended 
from royalty, was born in Massachusetts Elizabeth Tuttle. 
She developed into a woman of great beauty, of tall and com- 



manding appearance, striking carriage, "of strong will, ex- 
treme intellectual vigor, of mental grasp akin to rapacity, 
attracting not by a few magnetic traits but repelling" when 
she evinced an extraordinary deficiency of moral sense. 

"On November 19, 1667, she married Richard Edwards of 
Hartford, Connecticut, a lawyer of high repute and great 
erudition. Like his wife he was very tall and as they both 
walked the Hartford streets their appearance invited the 
eyes and the admiration of all." In 1691, Mr. Edwards was 
divorced from his wife on the ground of her adultery and 
other immoralities. The evil trait was in the blood, for one 
of her sisters murdered her own son and a brother murdered 
his own sister. After his divorce Mr. Edwards remarried 
and had five sons and a daughter by Mary Talcott, a medio- 
cre woman, average in talent and character and ordinary in 
appearance. " None of Mary Talcott's progeny rose above 
mediocrity and their descendants gained no abiding reputa- 

Of Elizabeth Tuttle and Richard Edwards the only son 
was Timothy Edwards, who graduated from Harvard Col- 
lege in 1691, gaining simultaneously the two degrees of 
bachelor of arts and master of arts — a very exceptional feat. 
He was pastor of the church in East Windsor, Connecticut, 
for fifty-nine years. Of eleven children the only son was 
Jonathan Edwards, one of the world's great intellects, pre- 
eminent as a divine and theologian, president of Princeton 
College. Of the descendants of Jonathan Edwards much has 
been written; a brief catalogue must suffice: Jonathan Ed- 
wards, Jr., president of Union College; Timothy Dwight, 
president of Yale; Sereno Edwards Dwight, president of 
Hamilton College; Theodore Dwight Woolsey, for twenty- 
five years president of Yale College ; Sarah, wife of Tapping 
Reeve, founder of Litchfield Law School, herself no mean 
lawyer; Daniel Tyler, a general of the Civil War and founder 


of the iron industries of north Alabama; Tijnothy Dwif^ht, 
the second, president of Yale University from 188G to 1898; 
Theodore William Dwight, founder and for thirty-three years 
warden of Columbia Law School; "Henrietta Frances, wife 
of EH Whitney, inventor of the cotton gin, who, burning the 
midnight oil by the side of her ingenious husband, helped 
him to his enduring fame; Merrill Edwards Gates, president 
of Amherst College; Catherine Maria Sedgwick of graceful 
pen; Charles Sedgwick Minot, authority on biology and em- 
bryology in the Harvard Medical School, and Winston 
Churchill, the author of Coniston." ^ These constitute a 
glorious galaxy of America's great educators, students and 
moral leaders of the Republic. 

Two other of the descendants of Elizabeth Tuttle through 
her son Timothy, have been purposely omitted from the fore- 
going catalogue since they belong in a class by themselves, 
because they inherited also the defects of Elizabeth's char- 
acter. These two were Pierrepont Edwards, who is said to 
have been a tall, brilliant, acute jurist, eccentric and licen- 
tious; and Aaron Burr, Vice-President of the United States, 
in whom flowered the good and the evil of Elizabeth Tuttle's 
blood. Here the lack of control of the sex-impulse in the 
germ plasm of this wonderful woman has reappeared with 
imagination and other talents in certain of her descendants. 

The remarkable qualities of Elizabeth Tuttle were in the 
germ plasm of her four daughters also: Abigail Stoughton, 
EHzabeth Deming, Ann Richardson and Mabel Bigelow. 
All of these have had distinguished descendants of whom 
only a few can be mentioned here. Robert Treat Paine, 
signer of the Declaration of Independence, descended from 
Abigail, the Fairbanks Brothers, manufacturers of scales 
and hardware at St. Johnsbury, Vt., and the Marchioness of 

> From a manuscript furnished by a reliable genealogist. The etatenicntJ 
have not all been checked. 


Donegal were descended from Elizabeth Deming; from 
Mabel Bigelow came Morrison R. Waite, Chief Justice of 
the United States, and the law author, Melville M. Bigelow; 
from Ann Richardson proceeded Marvin Richardson Vin- 
cent, professor of Sacred Literature at Columbia University, 
and also the Marchioness of Apesteguia of Cuba.^ Thus 
social and legal capacity of the very highest order may be 
traced back in origin to the germ plasm from which (in 
part) Ehzabeth Tuttle was also derived, but of which, it 
must never be forgotten, she was not the author. Neverthe- 
less, had Elizabeth Tuttle not been this nation would not 
occupy the position in culture and learning that it now 

2. The First Families of Virginia 

This remarkable galaxy arose by the intermarriage of 
representatives of various English aristocratic families. The 
story of these early matings is briefly as follows : Richard Lee, 
of a Shropshire family that held much land and many of 
whose members had been knighted, went, during the reign 
of Charles I, to the Colony of Virginia as Secretary and one 
of the King's Privy Council. ''He was a man of good 
stature, comely visage, enterprising genius, sound head, 
vigorous spirit and generous nature." He gained large 
grants of land in Virginia. His son Richard married, in 
1674, Laetitia, daughter of Henry Corbin and Alice Elton- 
head. The Corbins were wealthy and extensive landowners 
in England for 14 generations, and the Eltonheads were also 
an aristocratic family and extensive landowners of Virginia, 
holding high oflfices in the colony. Richard and Laetitia had 
six sons and one daughter (Fig. 175). Their daughter Ann 
married Colonel William Fitzhugh, a descendant of the 
English barons of that name who took prominent parts in 

'From the genealogist's manuscript, deposited at the Eugenics Record Office. 


political and military movements of the day and occupied 
seats in parliament generation after generation. Their 
eldest son, Henry Fitzhugh, married Lucy Carter. One of 
their granddaughters married a Randolph; one of their sons, 
William Fitzhugh, a near neighbor and trusted friend of 
Washington, married Anne Randolph. Their daughter Anne 
married Judge William Craik; their daughter Mary married 
George Washington Parke Custis and became the mother 
of Mary Anne Randolph Custis and the grandmother of 
Gen. Robert E. Lee's children; and their son William Henry 
Fitzhugh married Aimsi Goldsborough. 

Richard Lee, son of Richard and Laetitia (Corbin) Lee, 
married an English heiress, Martha Silk, and had several 
children of whom one married a Fairfax, another a Colonel 
Corbin and a third Major George Tuberville of an ancient 
English family, himself Justice, Sherifif and Clerk. 

Philip Lee, another son of Richard, married a daughter of 
Hon. Thomas Brooke and Barbara Addison and their chil- 
dren married well. Thomas, brother of Philip, was a member 
of the House of Burgesses, member, and later president of 
the Council and later Acting Governor of the Colony. He 
married Hannah, daughter of Colonel Philip Ludwell, a 
descendant of a brother of Lord Cattington, a prominent 
statesman and diplomat of the reign of Charles II. One of 
the sons of Thomas and Hannah was Richard Henry Lee, 
a representative to the Continental Congress, who prepared 
the resolutions for independence ; and another son was Fran- 
cis Lightfoot Lee, a member of Congress; still another, 
Thomas, was a judge of the General Court. 

Finally there was Henry Lee, son of Richard and Laetitia, 
who lived quietly at the ancestral Lee Hall. He married 
Mary, daughter of Colonel Richard Bland, descendant of 
Sir Thomas Bland, of ancient and honorable family, created 
baronet by Charles I. Mary Bland's grandfather, Theod- 





UtiitJal JRichard 

h """^6^ 


m& Ap off'^tj^*' oho 5p 


Corbin Randolph iMeodtCialh. |Cuiti» OoM 


Fig. 175. — Portion of the Lee family 

rick Bland, was speaker of the House of Burgesses, a mem- 
ber of the Council, inferior to none in his time. Of the 
three sons of Henry Lee and Mary Bland, John was a clerk 
of courts and a member of the House of Burgesses; Richard, 
was in the house of Burgesses and the House of Delegates; 
Henry, in the House of Burgesses, Conventions, and the 
State Senate. Such is a sample, merely, of the intermarriages 
of the first families of Virginia and their product — statesmen 
and military men, the necessary consequence of the deter- 
miners in their germ plasm. 

3. The Kentucky Aristocracy 
Nearly two centuries ago John Preston of Londonderry, 
Irish born though English bred, married the Irish girl Eliza- 
beth Patton, of Donegal, and to the wilderness of Virginia 
took his wife and built their home, Spring Hill. "Of this 
union there were five children, Letitia, who married Colonel 
Robert Breckinridge; Margaret, who married the Rev. John 
Brown; William, whose wife was Susannah Smith; Anne, 
who married Colonel John Smith; and Mary, who married 
Benjamin Howard." From them have come the most con- 
spicuous of those who bear the name of Preston, Brown, 



5o 5o6aa~ oJSo ip n 


qo DDoaqo sip 

Blixnd I Tir> 

IC«/W tousiru cummt 


60 yr' 

oaaaru TayUjt 

of Virginia, showing intermarriages. 

Smith, Carrington, Venable, Payne, Wickcliffe, Wooley, 
Breckinridge, Benton, Porter and many other names WTitten 
high in history. 

"They were generally persons of great talent and thor- 
oughly educated; of large brain and magnificent physique. 
The men were brave and gallant, the women accomplished 
and fascinating and incomparably beautiful. There was 
no aristocracy in America that did not eagerly open its 
veins for the infusion of this Irish blood; and the families of 
Washington and Randolph and Patrick Henry and Henry 
Clay and the Hamptons, Wickliffes, Marshalls, Peytons, 
Cabells, Crittendens, and Ingersolls felt proud of their 
alliances with this noble Irish family. 

"They were governors and senators and members of Con- 
gress, and presidents of colleges and eminent divines, and 
brave generals from Virginia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mis- 
souri, California, Ohio, New York, Indiana, and South Caro- 
lina. There were four governors of old Virginia. They were 
members of the cabinets of Jefferson and Taylor and Bu- 
chanan and Lincoln. They had major-generals and brigadier- 
generals by the dozen; members of the Senate and House 
of Representatives by the score; and gallant officers in the 


army and navy by the hundred. They furnished three of 
the recent Democratic candidates for Vice-president of the 
United States. They furnished the Union Army General 

B. Gratz Brown, General Francis P. Blair, General Andrew 
J. Alexander, General Edwin C. Carrington, General Thomas 

C. Crittenden, Colonel Peter A. Porter, Colonel John M. 
Brown, and other gallant officers. To the southern army 
they gave Major-General John C. Breckinridge, Major- 
General William Preston, General Randall Lee Gibson, 
General John B. Floyd, General John B. Grayson, Colonel 
Robert J. Breckinridge, Colonel W. C. P. Breckinridge, 
Colonel William Watts, Colonel Gary Breckinridge, Colonel 
William Preston Johnson, aide to Jefferson Davis, with 
other colonels, majors, chaplains, surgeons, fifty of them at 
least the bravest of the brave, sixteen of them dying on the 
field of battle, and all of them, and more than I can enumer- 
ate, children of this one Irish emigrant from the county of 
Derry, whose relatives are still prominent in that part of 
Ireland, one of whom was recently mayor of Belfast." 

Overlooking the pardonable rhetoric and family pride in 
the last sentence, that neglects the hundreds of other an- 
cestors of these famous men, the quotation has a scientific 
value in comparison with the product of Elizabeth Tuttle. 
The New England family glows with scholars and inventors, 
the Virginia and Kentucky families with statesmen and 
military men. The result is not due to the differences in 
the characteristics of Elizabeth Tuttle and Richard Edwards, 
Richard and Laetitia Lee, John and Elizabeth Preston, 
respectively, but to the different traits of the New England 
settlers as a whole and Virginia cavalier-colonists as a body. 
The initial person becomes a great progenitor largely because 
of some fortunate circumstance of personal gift or excellent 
reputation that enables his offspring to marry into the ''best 


4. The "Jukes" 

On the other hand, we have the striking cases of families 
of defectives and criminals that can be traced back to a sin- 
gle ancestor. The case of the "Jukes" is well known. We 
are first introduced to a man known in literature as Max, liv- 
ing as a backwoodsman in New York State and a descendant 
of the early Dutch settlers; a good-natured, lazy sot, with- 
out doubt of defective mentality. He has two sons who 
marry two of six sisters whose ancestry is uncertain but of 
such a nature as to lead to the suspicion that they are not 
full sisters. One of these sisters is known as "Ada Juke," 
-also as "Margaret, the mother of criminals." She was in- 
dolent and a harlot before marriage. Besides an illegitimate 
son she had four legitimate children. The first, a son, was 
indolent, licentious and syphilitic; he married a cousin and 
had eight children all syphilitic from birth. Of the 7 daugh- 
ters 5 were harlots and of the others one was an idiot and 
one of good reputation. Their descendants show a pre- 
ponderance of harlotry in the females and much consan- 
guineous marriage. The second son was a farm laborer, was 
industrious and saved enough to buy 14 acres of land. He 
married a cousin and the product was 3 stillborn children, a 
harlot, an insane daughter who committed suicide, an indus- 
trious son, who, however, was licentious, and a pauper son. 
The first daughter of "Ada" was an indolent harlot who 
later married a lazy mulatto and produced 9 children, harlots 
and paupers, who produced in turn a licentious progenj\ 

Ada had an illegitimate son who was an industrious and 
honest laborer and married a cousin. Two of the three sons 
were licentious and criminalistic in tendency and the third, 
while capable, drank and received out-door relief. All of 
the three daughters were harlots or prostitutes and two 
married criminals. The third generation shows the eruption 
of criminality. Excepting the children of the third son, 


none of whom were criminalistic, we find among the males 
12 criminals, 1 licentious, 5 paupers, 1 alcohohc and 1 un- 
known; none were normal citizens. Among the females 3 
were harlots, 1 pauper, 1 a vagrant and 2 unknown; none 
were known to be reputable. Thus it appears that crimi- 
nality lies in the illegitimate line from Ada and not at all in 
the legitimate — doubtless because of a difference in germ 
plasm of the fathers. 

The progeny of the harlot Bell Juke is a dreary monotony 
of harlotry and licentiousness to the fifth generation. Two 
in the fourth generation there are and two in the fifth against 
whom there is nothing and their progeny mostly moved to 
another neighborhood and are lost sight of. Very likely 
they have married into stronger strains and are founders of 
reputable families. 

The progeny of Effie Juke and the son of Max (a thief) 
show to the fifth generation a different aspect. Some larceny 
and assault there is and not a little sexual immorality, but 
pauperism is the prevailing trait. 

Thus, in the same environment, the descendants of the 
illegitimate son of Ada are prevailingly criminal; the progeny 
of Bell are sexually immoral; and the offspring of EflSe are 
paupers. The difference in the germ plasm determines the 
difference in the prevailing trait. But however varied the 
forms of non-social behavior of the progeny of the mother 
of the Juke girls the result was calculated to cost the State 
of New York over a million and a quarter of dollars in 75 
years — up to 1877, .and their protoplasm has been multiplied 
and dispersed during the subsequent 34 years and is still 
marching on. 

5. The Ishmaelites 

Another example of a great family tracing back to a single 
man may be taken from "the Tribe of Ishmael" of Central 


Indiana, as worked out under the direction of the Rev. Oscar 
C. McCuUoch of the Charity Organization Society, Indian- 
apolis. The progenitor of this tribe, Ben Ishmael, was in 
Kentucky as far back as 1790, having come from Maryland 
through Kentucky. One of his sons, John, married a half- 
breed woman and came into Marion County, Indiana, about 
1840. His three sons who figure in this history married three 
sisters from a pauper family named Smith. They had alto- 
gether 14 children that survived, 60 grandchildren and 30 
great-grandchildren living in 1888. "Since 1840 this family 
has had a pauper record. They have been in the almshouse, 
the House of Refuge, the Woman's Reformatory, the peni- 
tentiaries and have received continuous aid from the town- 
ships. They are intermarried with the other members of 
this group, — and with over two hundred other families. In 
this family history are murderers, a large number of illegiti- 
macies and of prostitutes. They are generally diseased. 
The children die young. They live by petty stealing, begging 
and ash-gathering. In summer they "Gipsy" or travel in 
wagons, east or west. We hear of them in Illinois about 
Decatur and in Ohio about Columbus. In the fall they re- 
turn. They have been known to live in hollow trees on the 
river bottoms or in empty houses. Strangely enough, they 
are not intemperate to excess." 

"A second tj^^ical case is that of the Owens family, also 
from Kentucky. There were originally four children, of 
whom two have been traced, William and Brook. William 
had three children, who raised pauper famihes. One son 
of the third generation died in the penitentiary; his two sons 
in the fourth generation have been in the penitentiary; a 
daughter in the fourth generation was a prostitute with two 
illegitimate children. Another son in the third generation 
had a penitentiary record and died of delirium tremens." 
An illegitimate half-breed Canadian woman enters this 


family. There have been several murders and a continuous 
pauper and criminal record. There is much prostitution, 
but Httle intemperance. 

*' Brook had a son John, who was a Presbyterian minister. 
He raised a family of 14 illegitimate children. Ten of these 
came to Indiana, and their pauper record begins about 1850. 
Of the ten, tliree raised illegitimate children in the fifth 

The families with which the Ishmaelites intermarried 
(30 in number) came mostly from Kentucky, Tennessee, 
and North Carolina. ''Of the first generation — of 62 indi- 
viduals — we know certainly of only three. In the second 
generation we have the history of 94. In the third genera- 
tion, we have the history of 283. In the fourth generation 
(1840-1860) we have the history of 644. In the fifth genera- 
tion (1860-1880) we have the history of 57. Here is a total 
of 1,750 individuals. Before the fourth generation (from 
1840-1860), we have but scant records. Our more complete 
data begin with the fourth generation, and the following are 
valuable. We know of 121 prostitutes. The criminal record 
is very large, — ^petty thieving, larcenies, chiefly. There has 
been a number of murders. The first murder committed 
in the city was in this family. A long and celebrated murder 
case known as the 'Clem' murder, costing the State im- 
mense sums of money, is located here, nearly every crime 
of any note belongs here." What a vivid picture has Mc- 
Culloch drawn of the influence on a community of its "bad 
blood," forming an intergenerating, self-perpetuating, anti- 
social class — anti-social because possessed of such traits as 
feeble-mindedness, wandering mania, eroticism, and "moral 
imbecihty." How slow the community is to protect itself 
by adopting some method of preventing their reproduction ! 


6. The Banker Family 

The examples given above are extreme, to be sure; they 
were selected just because they are extreme. But it is just 
as true that every family whose early ancestors showed some 
striking trait reveals that trait now and again in the offspring. 
One can find evidence of this in almost any inteUigently 
compiled genealogical history. Take, for example, the 
Banker family. There were two Dutchmen who were early 
settlers in New York State: Gerrit, who settled about 1654 
in Albany, and Laurens, who settled some years later in 
Tarrytown. They were, apparently, not related and their 
descendants have not intermarried. The two lines present 
some striking contrasts. 

''Gerrit appears to have been well educated for that time 
and was a very successful merchant and Indian trader, 
accumulating a considerable property. His descendants 
were largely merchants, although many become farmers." 
In general they maintained a high degree of culture and 
social rank. Several of them attained to positions of promi- 
nence in the affairs of the Colony before and during the 
Revolution. For example, the first Treasurer of the State 
and the first Speaker of the Assembly were both from this 
family, while several held commissions in the Revolutionary 
Army. Since that period they have been less prominent in 
public affairs, although maintaining a position of high social 
standing and respectabihty." 

Laurens, on the other hand, had no education, could not 
write his name, at least when a young man, and was a laborer 
and farmer. His descendants ''may be said in some ways 
to have started at the bottom. The family prior to the 
Revolution was obscure, its members were chiefly laborers, 
farmers, and artisans with only limited opportunities for 
education and acquiring but little of this world's goods. In 


the Revolution they actually furnished more soldiers than 
the Gerrit Banker family, but none of them held rank above 
a corporal. They were, in fact, as often described in legal 
documents, yeomen, and yeomen under a semi-feudal sys- 
tem. With the organization of the new nation a larger op- 
portunity opened. To-day many of this family have reached 
places of high social standing while a few have been brought 
into a considerable degree of public prominence." ^ In this 
instructive example we see the persistence of an initial 
difference with a final tendency to approach a common leveL 
Because in the absence of caste, and the desire to marry as 
well as possible, new and strong characters are introduced 
into the germ plasm. 

' Compare Banker, 1909. 



Nowhere else is a genealogical interest keener than in 
America. The possibility of tracing one's pedigree back to 
the first ancestor of the name in the country has inspired 
thousands of genealogical researches, and the demand for 
assistance in working out pedigrees has created the pro- 
fessional genealogist. Still the amateur's work, like most 
labors of love, is usually to be preferred because of the per- 
sonal element involved. 

1. The Study of Genealogy 

The study of genealogy, under the stimulus of our modern 
insight into heredity, is destined to become the most 
important handmaid of eugenics. The conscientious and 
scientific genealogist records a brief biography of each person 
of the pedigree and such a biography should be an analysis 
of the person's traits; an inventory of his physical and 
mental characteristics; his special tastes and gifts as shown 
by his occupation and especially his avocations. It would 
be well, so far as possible, to go further than that, if not for 
publication at least for record. ^ It will be desirable to get a 
statement of physical weaknesses, diseases to which there 
was liability and causes of death. There are none of these 
classes of data that are not included in some genealogies; it 

» The Eugenics Record Office has an isolated fire proof vault at Cold Spring 
Harbor, N. Y., in which it will receive and keep safe and confidential any rec- 
ords that genealogists will deposit there. All genealogical data is indexed on 
cards so as to be made accessible to properly qualified persons who wish to use 
it for justifiable purposes. 



would be well if all were included in all genealogies. Another 
desideratum is abundant photographs of the persons whose 
biographies are given ; especially, strictly full-face and profile, 
to facilitate comparisons; and two or three photographs at 
successive ages would be still better than one. 

Attention should be paid to the form of the pedigree. The 
commonest form is that which begins with the first known 
male ancestor bearing the surname. His children are given, 
but in the later generations only the offspring of males are 
named. Few genealogies attempt either to trace the lines 
going through females or to give the ancestry of the consorts. 
A second form of pedigree begins with the author or some 
other one person and gives an account of all of his direct 
ancestors in ever expanding number toward the earlier 
generations. This method is scarcely more valuable than 
the other from a scientific point of view, based as it is upon 
the exploded idea that inheritance is from parents, grand- 
parents, etc. 

The ideal genealogy, it seems to me, starts with a (pref- 
erably large) fraternity. It describes fully each member 
of it. It then describes each member of the fraternity to 
which the father belongs and gives some account of their 
consorts (if married) and their children. It does the same 
for the maternal fraternity. Next, it considers the fraternity 
to which the father's father belongs, considers their consorts, 
their children and their grandchildren and it does the same 
for the fraternities to which the father's mother belongs. 
If possible, earlier generations are to be similarly treated. 
It were more significant thus to study in detail the behavior 
of all the available product of the germ plasms involved in 
the makeup of the first fraternity than to weld a chain or 
two of links through six or seven generations. A genealogy 
constructed on such a plan would give a clear picture of 
heredity, would be useful for the prediction of the charac- 


teristics of the generations yet unborn, and would, indeed, 
aid in bringing about better matings. It is to be hoped 
that the time will come when each person will regard it as 
a patriotic duty to cooperate in the compilation of such 
genealogical records even to the statement of facts which 
are, according to the (often false) conventions of tin; day, 
not considered ''creditable." 

2. Family Traits 

The results of such genealogical studies will be striking. 
Each "family" will be seen to be stamped with a peculiar 
set of traits depending upon the nature of its germ plasm. 
One family will be characterized by political activity, an- 
other by scholarship, another by financial success, another 
by professional success, another by insanity in some members 
with or without brilliancy in others, another by imbecility 
and epilepsy, another by larceny and sexual immorality, 
another by suicide, another by mechanical ability, or vocal 
talent, or ability in literary expression. In some families 
the members are prevailingly slender, in others stout; in 
some tall, others short; some blue-eyed, others dark-eyed; 
some with flaxen hair, others with black hair; some have 
diseases of the ear, others of the eye, or throat or circulation. 
In some nearly all die of consumption; in others there is no 
weakness of the mucous membranes but a tendency to 
apoplexy; others die prevailingly of Bright's disease or valv- 
ular disease of the heart, or of pneumonia. In some families 
nearly all die at over 80, in others all die under 40 years 
of age. Stammering, hirsuteness, extra dentition, aquiline 
nose, lobeless-ears, crooked digits, extra digits, short digits, 
broad thumbs, ridged nails, — there is hardly an organ or the 
smallest part of an organ that has not its peculiar condition 
that stamps a family. 

Said a lady to me, "I was traveling in Egypt and met a 


man who was introduced to me as Mr. Osborn. I said 
to him 'My mother was an Osborn. I wonder if we are 
related.' He replied, 'Let me see if you have the Osborn 
thumb,' " and she was able to show the family trade-mark. 
How often a peculiar laugh, a trick of speech or gesture will 
serve to identify the family of a stranger. Once in a city 
where my family was well known but where I was a stranger 
I needed to get a check cashed and went to an office where 
my father and brother had done business. On explaining 
my need to the head of the firm he supphed it without 
hesitation, saying: "Though I have never seen you before 
I would know anywhere that you were a Davenport." So 
wonderfully are details of facial muscles, form of skull bones 
and nose cartilage stamped in the family blood. Such 
features as these deserve full treatment in the philosophical 
family history. 

Many works on genealogy, as I have said, give a httle 
account of family traits. A few of those have been ex- 
cerpted from the pubhshed works and are reproduced here 
chiefly to illustrate the specificity of human families. Of 
course, except where there is much consanguineous marriage, 
not all traits will appear in all or even most individuals of 
the family, and new traits are being introduced by marriage. 
But certain characteristics because of their special nature 
or the frequency with which they occur in certain branches 
of the family will come to be known as ''family traits." 

Allerton (Allerton, 1888). The great majority of the 
family to-day, as always, are farmers; have never showed 
a tendency to city Hfe. Next to farming, machinist is the 
most favored occupation. Mostly large framed, few 
blondes, slender and lithe in youth; fleshy in old age. A 
quick-tempered race; decided, uncommunicative, reserved. 

Balch (MSS.). " Balch spelling " said to be a recognizable 


Bascom (Harris, 1870). Stout, compact form, head weU 
set back upon the shoulders, dark skin, dark gray eye, 
massive head and round, high, full forehead. 

Banning (Banning, 1908). Determination and will-power 
almost to point of stubbornness; faithful to friends and 
famiUes, fairness to enemies; clannishness, ability for hard, 
reliable work, firmness of mouth. 

Breed (Breed, 1892). As a rule, positive, determined, 
industrious and persevering in business and careful of their 

Brinckerhoff (Brinckerhoff, 1887). Blue eyes, Roman 
features, magnetic and generous; ofttimes impulsive, some- 
times absolutely wrong in actions and convictions but true 
and steadfast in the wrong. Usually can whistle a tune or 
sing a song without any apparent effort. 

Buck (Buck, 1893). Quickness and activity in move- 
ment; fast walkers. One could seize with his right hand the 
toe of his left boot and whilst so holding it and standing 
erect jump with his right foot backwards and forwards over 
his left leg. Fluency in conversation and aptness for ac- 
quiring languages. 

Cole (Cole, 1887). Asa Cole was a man of immense 
physical strength and endurance; he suffered a paralytic 
stroke. His son, John Cole, was a man of fine physique, 
and died from a stroke of apoplexy; a second cousin, Sahnon 
Cole, was almost a giant in strength. 

Colegrove (Colegrove, 1894). Strong individuality of 
character, often called peculiar or secretive, very self-reliant. 

Doolittle (Doolittle, 1901). Large, robust physique, 
florid complexion, high spirit, jovial disposition. 

Dwight (Dwight, 1874). Moderate sized families; lon- 
gevity not high, commonly well-to-do and inclined to hberal 
culture; much mihtary talent. 

Humphreys (Humphreys, 1883). Self-reliance, readiness 


of acquisition ; professional men, few tradesmen and mechan- 
ics; artistic temperament, good talkers and eloquent speak- 
ers; benignity and quietness. 

Johnsons of Harpswell, Maine (Sinnett, 1907). Hospi- 
tality, story-telling. 

Kimball (Morrison, 1897). Powerful memory; few poli- 

Lemen (Lemen, 1898). Strongly accentuated mental and 
moral traits; a ''family habit" of sUght despondency; some 
gift for poetry. 

Lindsay (Lindsay, 1889). Cheerfulness, hospitality. 

Mell (Mell, 1897). Social, genial, fun-loving tempera- 

Mickley (Mickley, 1893). No lawyers, but other profes- 
sions; nearly all in comfortable circumstances. 

Neighbor or Nachbar (Neighbor, 1906). Not restive; 
neighborly, temperate. 

Reed of Massachusetts (Reed, 1861). Few die of pul- 
monary complaints. Generally live to old age, 85 or 90 or 
even 100 years being nothing unusual. Capable of great 
endurance. Taller than average. One custom has pre- 
vailed among them to some extent; that of marrying rela- 
tives. ''Consequences have been injurious; many of the 
offspring of such marriages dying in infancy, early youth 
or middle age, few living to advanced years, to say nothing 
of cases where effect has been still more melancholy." 

Riggs (Wallace, 1901). A large proportion are governed 
by strong religious convictions and are active in religious 
thought and work. Many daughters of the family have 
married Presbyterian ministers and in due time became 
mothers of Presbyterian ministers themselves. 

Root (Root, 1870). Eight sons of Samuel were tall (with 
two exceptions), quick, subject to frequent attacks of head- 
ache; general family trait a prominent (frequently aquiline) 


nose, light complexion, blue eyes, somewhat commanding 
presence and vivacity of manner. 

Sinclair (Morrison, 1896). Fond of athletic sports and 
feats of strength and skill, much mechanical knowledge, 
practical, loving activities and experiences of frontiersman 
better than books or studies of scholars and of professional 
life. Love of military life. 

Slay ton (Slayton, 1898). Musical, especially vocally. 
Large famihes, twenty pairs of twins and one set of triplets 

Tapley (Tapley, 1900). Quick and nervous movements, 
fondness for music, short stature, genial disposition. Men 
of affairs rather than of professions. 

Tiffany (Tiffany, 1903). Complexion dark, eye bright 
with expression changing rapidly with mood indicating 
health, sympathy, grief, determination or anger with quick- 
ness and unerring certainty; "a Tiffany mark." 

Twining (Twining, 1905). Broad-shouldered, dark hair, 
prominent nose, nervous temperament, temper usually quick, 
not revengeful. Heavy eyebrows, humorous vein and sense 
of ludicrous; lovers of music and horses. 

Varick (Wheeler, 1906). A colored family, very light in 
complexion, some members pass for white. 

Zahniser (Zahniser, 1906). Tall, many 6 feet or over, 
heavy black hair, rarely falling out, face broad, cheek-bones 
prominent, eyebrows protruding. Type becoming rarer in 
recent generations. 

The traits named in the foregoing hst have a very dis- 
similar value and significance as inheritable characters. But 
some, at least, have the same value as the famous "Haps- 
burg lip." Were our population so closely inbred as Euro- 
pean royalty it would show hundreds of characteristics with 
the same family value. But our families are constantly out- 
marrying and a definite trait becomes disseminated into 


scores of family names so that its family signification be- 
comes lost. 

The facts that we have been considering above lead to 
a conclusion quite in line with modern experimental work 
in heredity and with the interpretation of varieties. The 
white race as seen in America to-day is made up of thou- 
sands, yes, hundreds of thousands of kinds of protoplasm 
which differ by the possession of at least one determiner 
for a peculiar, differentiating trait. The potential strains 
that are constituted by these different kinds are not, how- 
ever, real strains because they are constantly crossed into 
other strains. Only when there is a high degree of con- 
sanguineous marriage, as in small islands, or mountain val- 
leys, is this potentiahty reahzed. Otherwise the traits soon 
become dissociated from the family names of those who 
brought them to this country and they become dissemi- 
nated into many related families. But the potentiality for 
the production of a strain or race remains. 

Now the fact of the existence of such strains in this 
country has an important bearing upon studies made on 
man. For example, our text-books on anatomy give an 
account of structure that is based on the finding of numerous 
autopsies. The original author of such a work records for 
each organ and part the condition in which he has found 
it in the material that he has dissected. If he goes into 
enough detail he has to state in connection with each de- 
scription that it does not hold universally but that, on the 
contrary, in one cadaver or another this and that modi- 
fication has been found. The name of the family to which 
the cadaver belongs, its ancestral history, is usually not 
given (and indeed it frequently cannot be obtained), but it 
is important that it should be ascertained, if possible, for 
the same reason that it is important to know if the cadaver 
were of a Caucasian or a Chinaman. Indeed, as a text- 


book of Human Anatomy must be rewritten for the Chi- 
nese, for the Ethiopians, and for the Eskijnos, so must it 
be rewritten for the Rumanian, for the North Italian, for 
the Norwegian and for the Spaniard. Nor will the same 
description of structure of the human body serve, in all 
details, for the Lees of Virginia, the Ishmaelites of Indiana 
and the Edwards family of New England. Siniihirly the 
text-books of pathology are not universally applicable. 
There are hundreds of diseases listed that you and I could 
no more have than we could have extra fingers or a retina 
without pigment. Even the symptoms of a disease will 
differ in different strains; for the symptoms of a disease 
like typhoid fever are not due only to the typhoid germ 
but to the reaction of the particular living body to those 
germs. In not a few cases the prognosis, or prospect of the 
course of the disease, should read : The prognosis can be got 
by asking the head of the family " What is the usual course 
of the disease in this family?" Indeed, the classification 
and diagnosis of a disease is often got better by a com- 
parison of the brother and sister of the patient than by 
reference to a book of symptoms. "I knew a family of 
four sisters," said Dr. E. E. Southard to me, "three of 
whom had manic-depressive insanity; the fourth had a 
mental disorder that had been classified quite otherwise 
by another physician. But a comparison of the sisters 
showed that the mental disorder was of the same type in 
all." Bleeders in different families differ in the ease with 
which hemorrhage is induced and the difficulty in stopping 
it; and in the SuUivan County bleeders the disorder runs 
a peculiar course so that they are called "nine-day bleed- 
ers." Of imbecility there are, as we have seen, all grades 
and all usually incurable; but the great "moron" or simple- 
ton family of New Jersey is peculiar in that mental develop- 
ment is not permanently arrested but only much retarded. 


So albinism varies much in degree and certain families are 
recognized as containing partial albinos; others, neai'ly com- 
plete albinos; still others, complete albinos. 

Pathologies describe some diseases as common, others 
as rare; yet, within limits, this must depend on the geo- 
graphical location of the author. At the east end of Long 
Island Huntington's chorea is not a rare disease as it seems 
to be in Eastern Massachusetts. Deaf mutism was found 
in 4 per cent of the population of Chilmark, in 1880, and 
the practitioner of that place would gain an impression of 
its frequency which would differ from that of a hospital 
surgeon in New York City. Hospital surgeons in great 
cities believe they get a better average view because they 
get random samples out of a great mixture; but in just so^ 
far they lose sight of the essential feature of the specificity 
of the different strains of human germ plasm and too often 
gain the impression that the sporadic examples of a disease 
that come to their hands prove the purely accidental nature 
of its incidence. The metropolitan hospital with its random 
sampling is the last place to get a proper idea of the relation 
of disease to germ plasm. It is the venerable country doc- 
tor in a long settled and stable community who can tell 
tales of hereditary tendencies. 

It was stated above that cooperation in putting on 
record one's family history should be regarded as a patriotic 
duty. I might go further and say that, just as the traits 
of criminals and defectives go on pubhc or semi-public rec- 
ords, with even more reason a record should be kept of 
our best families and of their traits. Enlightened com- 
munities preserve records of births, marriages and deaths 
and of various business transactions, especially in land. 
It is not less important to keep a record of innate capacities 
and valuable traits. For it is not too much to say that the 
future of our nation depends on the perpetuation by repro- 


duction of our best protoplasm in proper matings and we 
cannot have proper matings unless our best protoplasm is 
located and known. The day may come when in intelli- 
gent circles a woman will accept a man without knowing 
his biologico-genealogical history with as much hesitation 
as a stock-breeder will accept as a sire for his colts or calves 
an animal without a pedigree. Since restriction of the num- 
ber of children seems, for better or worse, to be the fashion 
with our older families, let every effort be put forth to secure 
that each child shall be of the best quality in respect to 
inborn capacities.^ 

3. The Integrity of Family Traits 

We often hear persons who are impressed by the multi- 
pHcity of one's ancestors make light of family pride in some 
preeminent forbear. They ask of what significance can 
such an ancestor be whose blood is diluted to one part in 
a thousand? This way of looking at heredity is a relic of 
a former view that a trait when mated to its absence pro- 
duced a half trait in the progeny as skin color was consid- 
ered to do, and which gave rise to the conception of quad- 
roons, octaroons, etc., with successive lightening of the skin 
io %, % and so on. Now that we know that even skin 
color may segregate out in the ancestral full grades we are 
ready to accept as practically universal the rule that unit 
characters do not blend; that apparent blends in a trait 
are a consequence of its composition out of many units. 
Since this is so, a unit character (especially a negative char- 
acter) which a remote ancestor possessed may reappear, 
after many generations have passed, in its pristine purity. 
A germ plasm that produced a mathematical genius only 

1 The need for a full Family Record is, we may hope, about to be 611ed by 
Dr. J. Madison Taylor of Philadelphia. Moanwhilo those who wish a wpy of 
the Family Records of the Eugenics Record Ofline may obtain it on applica- 


once, a century ago, may produce another not less note- 
worthy again. 

A feature of positive unit characters, which from their 
very nature tend to reappear in each generation is that of 
anticipation. This means that the trait appears at an earlier 
age in each generation. Nettleship (1910, pp. 23-25) has re- 
ferred to some striking cases of this. Thus he gives three 
pedigrees of hereditary glaucoma and diabetes illustrating 
this law. In one case the average known age in successive 
generations for the incidence of glaucoma is 66 and 48 years; 
in another family 71, 45, and 23 years; in still another, 47 
and 20. In the case of diabetes deaths occurred, on the 
average, at 69, 35 and 26 years. Nettleship explains this 
result ''by assuming that certain defects, taints or vices of 
the system, say of the blood, are not only hereditary in the 
true or germinal sense, but able to produce toxic agents in 
the embryo which have an evil influence upon all its cells, 
and thus so lower their power of resistance that the innate 
hereditary factor has freer play and is likely to manifest 
itself earlier." 

The law of segregation of traits, the disproof of the blend- 
ing hjTDothesis, is of the utmost importance since it shows 
how a strain may get completely rid of an undesirable trait. 
If the undesirable character is a positive one, like polydac- 
tylism, it will disappear if the normal children alone have 
offspring. If it is a negative character its complete and 
certain elimination is not so easy to be assured of, but off- 
spring without the undesirable trait are easily secured if 
marriage be always with germ plasm that is without the 
defect. Thus a simpleton married into a mentally strong 
strain will probably have mentally well endowed offspring. 
Here is where the beneficence of heredity clearly appears. 

But do traits never arise de novo is often asked. If you 
deny it, how do you account for the presence of great men 


from obscure origin? For example, Mohanmied, Napoleon, 
Lincoln. First of all, in seeking for an explanation of the 
origin of such "sports" of which history is full, we must 
inquire if the putative paternity is the real one. Not infre- 
quently a weak woman has had illegitimate children by the 
wayward scion of a great family. The oft repeated story 
that Abraham Lincoln was descended on his mother's side 
from Chief Justice John Marshall of Virginia, whether it 
has any basis or not, illustrates the possibility of the origin 
of great traits through two obscure parents. In the second 
place we have seen that many elements of genius are nega- 
tive characters and, as such, they may be transmitted with- 
out influencing the soma of the transmitter. 

Thus two parents without mathematical genius might 
bring together germ cells whose union would favor a mathe- 
matical prodigy; and the same is true of many other traits. 
Indeed, as many of our pedigrees show, genius frequently, 
if not usually, appears in families with mental defects, in- 
sanity, or at least neurotic tendencies. It is just these sturdy, 
stohd communities of which not a few are found in Eastern 
Pennsylvania that, I am informed, produce few insane per- 
sons as well as few geniuses. The connection between genius 
and mental defect or aberration has been often referred to, 
especially by Lombroso and his followers, and as often scoffed 
at. But, apart from the significant association of the two 
conditions in pedigrees, there is no a 'priori objection to the 
view that the flights of the imagination, one of the most con- 
stant features of genius, should be associated with, that 
flightiness that is a symptom of insanity, or that the absence 
of complete mental development should be associated with 
the absence of one or more of these inhibitors that marks the 
man or woman of great talent. 


1. Heredity and Environment 

Admitting, as we must, the importance of hereditary 
tendencies in determining man's physical traits, his behavior 
and his diseases, we cannot overlook the question that must 
occur to all — What relation have the facts of heredity to 
those of environmental influence, to the known facts of in- 
fection and bad conditions of life? Indeed, were we to 
accept the teachings of some, environment alone is impor- 
tant, good training, exercise, food, and sunUght can put 
\r anybody in a "normal" condition. 

So long as we regard heredity and environment as opposed 
so long will we experience endless contradictions in interpret- 
ing any trait, behavior or disease. The truth seems to be that 
for human phenomena there is not only the external or en- 
vironmental cause but also an internal or personal cause. 
The result is, in most cases, the reaction of a specific sort of 
protoplasm to a specific stimulus. For example, the contro- 
versy as to the inheritableness versus the communicableness 
of 'Hhe itch" receives a simple solution if we recognize that 
there is an external agent, probably a parasite, that can, 
however, develop only in persons who are non-immune. 
Since such persons are rather uncommon and the absence of 
immunity is inheritable, the disease tends to run in f amiUes 
and can rarely be caught even through inoculation, by per- 
sons outside such families. Even in cases where the heredi- 
tary factor is universally admitted as in manic-depressive 



insanity, the onset of the symptoms may be delayed by very 
favorable conditions of hfe. But though such symptoms 
may be diminished and the patient be discharged from the 
hospital as ''cured," yet the weakness in his germ plasm Is 
not removed and it will, unless he be fitly mated, show itself 
in his children when they, in turn, experience an unusual 
stress. Even the fugue tendency of the child of three years 
(page 89) might not have expressed itself so acutely had 
he lived in the country with freedom to wander widely at 
will instead of being restrained within the confines of city 
houses and narrow streets, In extreme cases, however, of 
which complete albinism is an example, the trait seems to be 
due to the entire absence in both of the united germ cells of 
any determiner for the character. Under these circumstan- 
ces not even the best of environmental conditions can bring 
about pigmentation. Albinism is a protoplasmic ' ' accident " 
as independent of environment as drowning by the over- 
turning of an ocean steamship is independent of heredity. 
With few exceptions, the principle that the biological and 
pathological history of a child is determined both by the 
nature of the environment and the nature of the protoplasm 
may be applied generally. It is an incomplete statement 
that the tubercle bacillus is the cause of tuberculosis or al- 
cohol the cause of delirium tremens or syphilis the cause of 
paresis. Experience proves it, for not all that harbor the 
tubercle bacillus show the dread symptoms of tuberculosis 
(else there were little hope of escape for any of us) ; nor do all 
drimkards have deUrium tremens, nor are all who are infected 
by syphiHs paretic, else our hospitals for the insane would be 
fuller than they are. Rather, each of these diseases is the 
specific reaction of the organism to the specific poison. In 
general, the causes of disease as given in the pathologies are 
not the real causes. They are due to inciting conditions act- 
ing on a susceptible protoplasm. The real cause of death of 


any person is his inability to cope with the disease genn or 
other untoward conditions. 

How prone we are to neglect the personal side of the result! 
We explain that Mr. A. has gone insane from business losses 
or overwork. Yet hundreds suffer great losses and work hard 
and show no signs of nervous breakdown. It would be more 
accurate to say A. went insane because his nervous mechan- 
ism was not strong enough to stand the stresses to which it 
was put. As a matter of fact insanity rarely occurs except 
where the protoplasm is defective. Also epilepsy, which is 
so often ascribed to external conditions, is, like imbecility, 
determined chiefly by the conditions of the germ plasm; and 
the trivial circumstance that first reveals the defect is as 
little the true cause as the touching the electric button that 
opens an exposition is the motive power of its vast engines. 
"Father," says the young hopeful, "may I go skating?" 
"So far as I am concerned; but you had better ask your 
mother," replies the father. "No, indeed," puts in the 
mother, " for I read in the paper the other day of a boy who 
fell on the ice and had an epileptic fit." Thus does the un- 
trained mind confuse contributing and essential causes. 


2. Eugenics and Uplift 

The relation of eugenics to the vast efforts put forth to 
ameliorate the condition of our people, especially in crowded 
cities, should not be forgotten. 

Education is a fine thing and the hundreds of millions an- 
nually spent upon it in our country are an excellent invest- 
ment. But every teacher knows that the part he plays in 
education is after all a small one. In the same class will be 
two boys who have had the same school training. One 
catches ideas almost before they are expressed, makes knowl- 
edge his own as soon as it is acquired, and passes with swift- 
ness and thoroughness to the limit of the teacher's capacity to 


impart. Another comprehends slowly, advances only by 
constant drill and hammering, and seems as little plastic 
as a piece of wood. Another may be slow in most work but 
rapid in mathematics, and still another may be first in English 
composition and incapable of acquiring algebra. The expert 
teacher can do much with good material; but his work is 
closely limited by the protoplasmic makeup — the inherent 
traits — of his pupils. 

Religious teachers do a grand work and the value to the 
state of properly developed and controlled emotions is in- 
calculable. Yet how dependent, after all, arc religious or 
moral teachings upon the nature of those who receive them. 
I have heard ministers express regret that they preached only 
to those who least needed their ministrations, but they for- 
got that to others their ministrations would be of little avail. 
Religion would be a more effective thing if everybody had a 
healthy emotional nature: and it can do nothing at all with 
natm-es that have not the elements of love, loyalty and de- 

Of the importance of fresh air, good food, and rest in curing 
tuberculosis I have no doubt, yet how often have I seen per- 
sons brought up in the best of hygienic conditions, with every 
need supplied, forced to live in a camp in the Adirondacks or 
in Southern Arizona and, despite the best of trained nursing, 
gradually fade away. That cleaner milk, more air and sun- 
light will still further reduce the death rate of infants in New 
York city cannot be denied; yet there are infants who do not 
succumb to infantile diarrhea even in the slums. The per- 
sonal side must not be overlooked in properly estimating the 
value of prophylaxis. 

3. The Elimination of Undesirable Traits 

The practical question in eugenics is this: What can be 
doiie to reduce the frequency of the undesirable mental and 


bodily traits which are so large a burden to our population? 
This question has often been asked. It has been answered 
in diverse ways, and, indeed, there are several methods of 
stopping the reproduction of undesirable traits. 

There is, first, the method of surgical operation. This 
prevents reproduction by either destroying or locking up 
germ cells. (There are two principal methods of surgical 
interference. One is castration, which removes the repro- 
^ductive gland and destroj^s sexual desire. The other is 
vasectomy which prevents the escape of the germ cells to 
the exterior but does not lessen desire.j Neither of these 
operations is necessarily painful or liable to cause death or 
much inconvenience to the males. Corresponding opera- 
tions can be performed on the female but they are more 
serious in this sex since they involve opening the abdominal 

Concerning the power of the state to operate on selected 
persons there can be little doubt, not only since the right 
to the greater deprivation — that of life — includes the right 
to the lesser deprivation — that of reproduction — but also 
since these operations are actually made to-day and that 
of sterilization is legalized, under certain precautions, in 
six states of the union. There is no question that if every 
feeble-minded, epileptic, insane, or criminalistic person now 
in the United States were operated on this year there would 
be an enormous reduction of the population of our institu- 
tions 25 or 30 years hence; but is it certain that such asex- 
ualization or sterilization is, on the whole, the best treat- 
ment? Is there any other method which will interfere less 
with natural conditions and bring about the same or per- 
haps better results? One js_struckj)y th e contrast betw een 
the hastesh mvn in legislating on so serious a matter com- 
pare d with the hesitation in .appropria ting even a small sum 
oFmoney to study the subject. 


First, it may be pointed out that such legislation as is 
enacted does not square with what we know about heredity. 
It is based on the old notions that parents transmit their 
traits to their children. Now we know that traits are trans- 
mitted by means of the germ cells and by them alone, and 
the resemblance of children to parents is due to the fact 
that both arise from the same material — the father is half- 
brother to his child. While a feeble-minded person lacks, 
ipso facto, the determiner for normal development in his 
germ cells, still we do not know that his children will be de- 
fective. Such evidence as we have goes rather to show that 
if, for example, a man whose germ cells have the determiner 
for normal mentality marry a feeble-minded woman all of 
the children will be mentally normal or practically so. I 
can well imagine the marrying of a well-to-do, mentally 
strong man and a high-grade feeble-minded woman with 
beauty and social graces which should not only be pro- 
ductive of perfect domestic happiness but also of a large 
family of normal happy children. Half of the germ cells of 
such children would, indeed, be defective, but as long as the 
children married into normal strains the offspring, through 
an indefinite number of generations, would continue to be 
normal. Yet in many states of the Union such a marriage 
cannot be legalized; and, in others, the potential mother 
might be sterilized. 

Secondly, the laws against the marriage of the feeble- 
minded are unscientific because they attempt no definition 
of the class. If feeble-mindedness were always as clearly 
distinct from normality as polydactylism then there would 
be no objection to the law on this score. But this is by no 
means the case. If we measure the mentality of 10,000 in- 
dividuals by a quantitative test, such as that of Binet and 
Simon, then we shall find that the retardation in mental 
development for 1 year, 2 years, 3 years, etc., shows no- 


where a sharp change indicating where the normal ceases 
and the abnormal begins. Shall we sterilize or forbid mar- 
riage to all children whose mental development is retarded 
as much as one year? That would include 38 per cent of all 
children, and one of yours, legislator! Shall the limit be 
two years of retardation? That would include 18 per cent 
of the children. Shall the limit be three years? That will 
still be over 8 per cent — full one-twelfth of the population 
to be sterile. Is it not reckless to pass such serious legis- 
lation in such loose terms? 

Third, have we good ground for denying marriage, gener- 
ally and under all circumstances, to persons who as school 
children were even four years behind their fellows? Is it 
certain that the progeny of such a person will be four years 
older than their classmates at school, or three years, or two 
years or even one year? Is it desirable to encourage non-legal 
and irregular unions to sustain a law passed without inquiry 
and based on no certain knowledge? Oh, fie, on legislators 
who spend thousands of dollars on drastic action and refuse 
a dollar for an inquiry as to the desirability of such action! 

Fourth, even if it were desirable to prevent procreation of 
feeble-minded males of a certain grade, is it certain that 
vasectomy is to be preferred to castration? It is urged as 
one of the advantages of vasectomy that it does not inter- 
fere with desire nor its gratification but only with paternity. 
But is it a good thing to relieve the sexual act of that respon- 
sibility that it ought to carry and of which it has hitherto 
not been entirely free? Is not many a man restrained from 
licentiousness by recognizing the responsibility of possible 
parentage? Is not the shame of illicit parentage the fortress 
of female chastity? Is there any danger that the persons 
operated upon shall become a peculiar menace to the com- 
munity through unrestrained dissemination of venereal 
disease? Will the frequency of the crime of rape be dimin- 


ished by vasectomy? To many it would seem that to secure 
to a rapist his eroticism and uninhibited lust while he is re- 
leased from anj^ responsibility for offspring is not the way 
to safeguard female honor. Castration for rapists would 
seem preferable to vasectomy. Perhaps Indiana's experi- 
ment will give an answer to these questions. 

Fifth. Is there any alternative besides sterilization or 
asexualization? There doubtless is, though it may at first 
be more expensive. This method is the segregation through- 
out the reproductive period of the feeble-minded below a 
certain grade. If, under the good environment of institu- 
tional life, they show that their retarded development is a 
result merely of bad conditions they may be released and 
permitted to marry. But such as show a protoplasmic de- 
fect should be kept in the institution, the sexes separated, 
until the reproductive period is passed. I If this segregation 
were carried out thoroughly there is rekson to anticipate 
such a reduction in defectiveness in 15 or 20 years as to 
relieve the state of the burden of further increasing its in- 
stitutions, and in 30 years most of its properties, especially 
acquired to acconomodate all the seriously defective, could be 
sold.^ We have the testimony of Dr. D. S. Jordan (1910) 
that the cretins who formerly abounded at Aosta in Northern 
Italy were segregated in 1890 and by 1910 only a single 
cretin of 60 years and 3 demi-cretins remained in the com- 
munity. "Soeur Lucie, at the head of the work of the 
Little Sisters of the Poor, summed up the position in these 
words 'II n'y en a plus'"— there are no more. 'Such then, 
would seem to be the proper program for the elimination 
of the unfit— segregation of the feeble-minded, epileptic, in- 
sane, hereditary criminals and prostitutes throughout the 
reproductive period and the education of the more normal 
people as to fit and unfit matings. \ 


4. The Salvation of the Race thkough Heredity 

Heredity is often regarded as a terrible fact; that we suffer 
limitations because of the composition of our germ plasm is 
a blow to pride and ambition. But, on the other hand, 
with Umitation in capacity goes Umitation in responsibility. 
Those who held the hazy doctrine of freedom of the mil must 
have postulated uniformity of capacity for discriminating 
between right and wrong and uniformity in responsiveness to 
similar stimuli. Of course such an assumption is false. How 
we respond to any stimulus depends on the nature of our 
protoplasm.V The nature of the respo^emay be modifie d by 
training, by the formation of habits; but the result of train- 
ing is, wiHun Umlts, determined by the impressibili ty of the 
protoplasm. So I do not condemn my neighbor however 
"regrettable or dangerous he may be.^ 

And while heredity limits capacity in one point it ex- 
tends it in others. If I have mental limitations, I have also 
gifts of natural health, of physical vigor, of persistence, and 
so on. Thus, as there is hardly a strain of human germ 
plasm that is without some defect or Umitation so there is 
hardly a strain without the determiner of some admirable 
characteristic. While education and moral and religious in- 
struction may do much to develop one's native traits, he- 
redity can introduce the desirable determiner that will make 
such training more useful or less necessary. Indeed, while 
by good conditions we help the individual to make the most 
of himself, by good breeding we establish a permanent strain 
that is strong in its very constitution. The experience of 
animal and plant breeders who have been able by appro- 
priate crosses to increase the vigor and productivity of their 
stock and crops should lead us to see that proper matings are 
the greatest means of permanently improving the human 
race — of saving it from imbecihty, poverty, disease and im- 


5. The Sociological Aspect of Eugenics 

Human society, as its exists in these United States in this 
twentieth century, is complex. How complex it is, is in- 
dicated in some degree by the vast number of laws that have 
been passed and represent the rules of that society. These 
rules apply generally to all people alike. They tacitly assume 
that all people are alike ; while admitting that there are some 
who are difTerent and who constitute special classes that 
must be specially provided for. These special classes are of 
eugenic interest. Although well defined at one extreme, at 
the other they merge with the great mass of the population. 
The individuals composing these special classes are not in all 
respects distinct, but rather they are more or less peculiar 
in one or more respects. In fact the special classes which 
are the concern of the boards and associations of charities 
and correction consist of individuals with one or more traits 
that are more or less disturbing to the social organization. 
These individuals, or rather their traits — cause a disturbance 
and an expense of time and money quite out of proportion 
to their numbers in the community — they seem to be the 
main hindrance to our social progress. Moreover, their 
numbers seem to be increasing, hence it is a pressing need 
of the day to find out what is the cause and cure of defect- 
iveness and delinquency. 

The diversity of answers to such inquiry shows the depth of 
our helplessness. ^IentaLMectivenessJs_^^ 
n utrition of the fetus, to asphy xiatio n of the child durin g 
the labor of birth, to ad enoids, to in fection with venereal 
disease^espite jth e facTThat (excepting m ongolism)_ it 
usiiaTly occurs "onlyln f amiliesjvitji^ the Jefect oiTboth 
side's'onTieliousT."TIkewisrcTT^^ is ascribed to pov- 
erty, to bad example, to bad or inadequate education, despite 
the fact of incorrigibility. Even when there is some relation 
between the alleged cause and the result one feels that all 


these explanations are based on the logical error: post hoc 
ergo propter hoc: and that the cart is often put before the 
mule. The very multiplicity of explanations shows their in- 
adequacy. There is a more fundamental explanation for 
these non-social traits than any of those that are usually 

First of all we can see clearly that the traits that cause so 
much trouble are ''unfortunate" or "bad" only in relation 
to our society, i. e., relatively, not absolutely. Lack of 
speech, inability to care for the person or to respond in the 
conventional fashion to the calls of nature, failure to learn 
the art of dressing and undressing, inability to count, en- 
tire lack of ambition beyond getting a meal, abject slothful- 
ness, love of sitting by the hour picking at a piece of cloth — 
these are unfortunate traits for a twentieth-century citizen 
but they constitute a first-rate mental equipment for our re- 
mote ape-like ancestors, nor do we pity infants, who in- 
variably have them. So likewise with crimes: — the acts of 
taking and keeping loose articles, of tearing away obstruc- 
tions to get at something desired, of picking valuables out of 
holes and pockets, of assaulting a neighbor who has some- 
thing desirable or who has caused pain or who is in the 
way, of deserting family and other relatives, of promiscuous 
sexual relations — these are crimes for a twentieth-century 
citizen but they are the normal acts of our remote, ape-hke 
ancestors and (excepting the last) they are so coimnon with 
infants that we laugh when they do such things. In a word 
the traits of thjjFegblejninded and the criminalistic are nor- 
mal traits for infants and f or an ear lier stage i n rnfl.n'i=! pvq Iji- 
tion. There is an aphorism that biologists use which is apt 
here — ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny. This means that 
the individual (ontos) in its development passes through 
stages like those the race (phylum) has traversed in its evolu- 
tion. The infant represents the ape-like stage. 


Just as certain adult persons show ancestral organs that 
most of us have lost — such as a heavy coat of hair, an elon- 
gated coccyx (tail), an unusually large appendix, a third set 
of teeth,— so sonie_aduIt^p£rSQns^ retain certain ancestral 
mental traits that thejrest of_us have go t ri(f ofr~And just 
as thelieavycoat of body hair can be traced back generation 
after generation until we cannot avoid the conclusion that 
these hairy people represent a human strain that has never 
gained the naked skin of most people, so imbecility and 
" criminaHstic " tendency can be traced back to the dark- 
ness of remote generations in a way that forces us to con- 
clude that these traits have come to us directly . from our 
anim^al ancestry and have never been got rid of. 

The question how these traits ever came to be so rare in 
mankind is one with the question of human evolution and on 
this subject there is no historical evidence. It is clear, how- 
ever, that after the new traits became established and con- 
stituted the basis for the new society, those persons who had 
the old traits stood a good chance of being killed off and 
many a defective line was ended by their death. We are 
horrified by the 223 capital offenses in England less than a 
century ago, but though capital punishment is a crude 
method of grappling with the difficulty it is infinitely superior 
to that of trainiixg the feeble-minded and criminalistic and 
then letting them loose upon society and permitting them to 
perpetuate in their offspring these animal traits. Our present 
practices are said to be dictated by emotion untempered by 
reason; if this is so, then emotion untempered by reason is 
social suicide. If we are to build up in America a society" 
worthy of the species man then we must take such steps as 
will prevent the increase or even the perpetuation of animal- \ 
istic strains. 


6. Freedom of the Will and Responsibility 

The consideration of the facts of heredity inevitably raises 
the ancient question of the freedom of the will, and throws a 
new light upon it. What is this free will? As I sit here in 
my study I will that to-morrow I shoot my dog. But when, 
to-morrow, I approach the dog to carry out my resolution his 
signs of fondness for me, the abandon with which he throws 
himself in the most helpless position at my feet, make the 
act impossible for me. I go to a neighbor and say, "My dog 
is decrepit and enjoys life no longer. I cannot kill him, will 
you do me the favor of shooting him?" He says, "I will" 
and does. We both had the will, why the difference in execu- 
tion? Was he more resolute, more indomitable than I? It 
does not follow; simply his reaction to the sight of the dog 
did not overcome his resolution; mine did. There are va- 
rious ways in which I might bring myself to do such an act. 
I might shut out the stimulus of the sight of the dog by cover- 
ing him, or I might train myself to view him with indifference 
by associating him with some wrong, or I might picture more 
vividly my duty so that it would be a stronger motive 
than my affection or sympathy. By these means I might 
strengthen my "will." But except in some such indirect 
way my conduct is unmodifiable. Given such and such con- 
ditions I am bound to react in such and such ways. 

A man of indomitable will is one who pictures so vividly the 
work he plans to do that other, minor, stimuh are relatively 
ineffective in opposition to the major stimulus. The man of 
weak will has usually a less vivid and powerful imagination 
and hence his actions are more determined by numerous 
incidental stimuli. "Free will" is predicated in matters of 
small consequence or concern to the person so that his ac- 
tion is determined by habit or sUght stimuli whose source 
is unperceived. Though a man pride himself on the freedom 


of his will his every action is determined by his proto- 
plasmic makeup, plus the modification it has received 
through experience, plus the relative vigor and quality of the 
stimulus he receives. 

Is a man on this view less of a responsible agent? It de- 
pends on what is meant by responsible. I am responsible 
in the sense of answerable to society if I kill a man. If I kill 
him without intention or knowledge — if, for instance, my 
foot sets a stone rolhng that starts an avalanche — then 
society decides that there is no evidence that my freedom 
imperils it and nothing is done. If I kill in self-defense society 
decides that my reaction is, on the whole, not prejudicial or 
disadvantageous to it and I am set free. If I kill on sudden 
anger society decides, whether rightly or wrongly, that my 
action does not prove that I may not, by training, gain in- 
hibitions such that I shall thereafter react more slowly, giv- 
ing time for other stimuli to play their part. But if I kill 
after prolonged premeditation, so that there is no question of 
merely temporary absence of inhibitions or of chance for 
numerous other stimuli to act, then society decides that my 
makeup is fundamentally bad and that the acquisition of a 
new method of reacting is not to be expected and so, prop- 
erly enough, cuts me off. My name may indeed become a 
by-word, since society, rather unreasonably, takes that 
method of designating the combinations of characteristics 
that are antisocial. But I am not responsible in the sense of 
"deserving" pain because of the inadequacy of the deter- 
miners in my protoplasm. I am what the determiners in 
my two fused germplasms have developed into under the 
culture which they have experienced during their develop- 
ment. I am not responsible for my early culture nor for the 
reactions determined by it; but that culture is partly de- 
termined by my makeup, as when I find pleasure in the 
society of bad companions, and partly is imposed by the 


formal ''good influences" that society has organized. Now, 
what I do depends on what I am, on the one hand, and the 
nature of the stimuh I receive, on the other, and neither what 
I am nor the nature of the stimuh I receive can be an excuse 
for adding more than is necessary to society's welfare to the 
sum of the world's pain. But organized society, on the con- 
trary, has a responsibility towards its members in the sense 
of a duty to perform under penalty of dire consequences that 
will follow automatically. That responsibiUty involves, first, 
preventing the mating that brings together the antisocial 
traits of the criminal; second, after this damage is done, in 
securing the highest development of the good traits and the 
inhibition of the bad, surrounding the weak protoplasm with 
the best stimuli and protecting it from harmful stimuli. Here 
is where society must act to cut off the evil suggestions of 
immoral theaters, yellow journals and other bad literature. 
These stimulate those who react violently to this kind of 
suggestion. "The prisoner was a paranoiac and had a de- 
lusion of persecution; but had the play at the theater not 
been what it was he would not have murdered that night." 



1. State Eugenic Surveys 

The commonwealth is greater than any individual in it. 
Hence the rights of society over the life, the reproduction, 
the behavior and the traits of the individuals that compose 
it are, in all matters that concern the hfe and proper prog- 
ress of society, limitless, and society may take life, may 
sterilize, may segregate so as to prevent marriage, may re- 
strict liberty in a hundred ways. 

Society has not only the right, but upon it devolves the 
profound duty, to know the nature of the germ plasm upon 
which, in last analysis, the life and progress of the state de- 
pend. It has not only the right, but the duty, to make a 
thorough study of all of the families in the state and to 
know their good and bad traits. It may and should locate 
traits of especial value such as clear-headedness, grasp of 
details, insight into intricate matters, organizing ability, 
manual dexterity, inventiveness, mechanical abiUty and ar- 
tistic abihty. It may and should locate antisocial traits 
such as feeble-mindedness, epilepsy, delusions, melancholia, 
mental deterioration, craving for narcotics, lack of moral 
sense and self-control, tendency to wander, to steal, to assault 
and to commit wanton cruelties upon children and animals. 
It may and should locate strains with an inherent tendency 
to certain diseases such as tuberculosis, rickets, cancer, 
chronic rheumatism, gout, diabetes insipidus, goitre, leu- 
chemia, chlorosis, hemophilia, eye and ear defects and the 
scores of other diseases that have an hereditary factor. It 



should know where the traits are, how they are being re- 
produced, and how to eliminate them. It should locate in 
each country the centers of feeble-mindedness and crime 
and know what each hovel is bringing forth. In fact it 
should let the bright lightof knowledge into all matters of the 
reproduction of human traits, as the most dangerous of its 
enemies or the most valuable of its natural resources. 

We take our census decennially or at more frequent in- 
tervals. We learn how many persons there are of military 
age, their race, birthplace and occupation, and we learn how 
many are bUnd and deaf, and it is well. But by a very 
little additional labor we could gain many not less signif- 
icant facts, such as how each of oiu* blind and deaf and 
feeble-minded came to be, so that the laws of their origin 
can be studied and the defective germ plasm located. It 
would seem worth while to use the census as a means of 
securing data on human blood lines and tracing the descent 
of defects. 

A state eugenic survey should be taken in at least the 
older states. The organization of the survey could be rel- 
atively simple; the 630,000 teachers of state and city schools 
might be used to secure the census of the 24,000,000 chil- 
dren of "school age" and their parents. Through a series 
of visits on Saturday afternoons or during vacations the 
parents could be interested to furnish the desired data. The 
teachers could be instructed how to fill out the schedules 
by superintendents or at teachers' institutes. They should, 
of course, receive special compensation, but it would be 
difficult to think of any other method of making a census 
so cheaply and effectively; the more so since the teacher 
through her pupil has ready access to most homes. The 
schedules of questions should be prepared so as to avoid 
giving any offense, to secure the required data as to phys- 
ical and mental family traits, and to get such names and 


places of birth and residence as would serve to tie faniiliet; 
together. After study the data might be used to give partic- 
ular families advice as to how their children should marry 
to avoid the recurrence of undesirable traits in the chil- 
dren's children. 

Objection will probably be offered to any such survey 
on the ground that inheritable traits are private and per- 
sonal matters; but this is surely a narrow and false view. 
The collective traits of any person constitute a mosaic 
whose elements have been derived from thousands of 
germ plasms and parts of which may be passed on to thou- 
sands of the persons who will constitute the social fabric of 
a few generations hereafter. What justification have I, 
whose elements are derived from the society of the past 
and will pass into the society of the future, to maintain 
that the society of to-day has no right to question me — who 
am merely a sample of this universal germ plasm. No one 
who looks broadly at the relation his family bears to the 
commonwealth will hesitate to put on record an account 
of his family traits. 

The objection that such a survey is impracticable can 
be met by the assertion that in the State of New Jersey 
such a survey is already well advanced, largely through 
private initiative. The work has been done by means of 
field workers attached to various institutions for defectives. 
Massachusetts, also, has made a good beginning in this 
direction. The suggestion as to a state survey is merely 
an extension of such work as is being carried on in a more 
limited fashion to-day. 

2. A Clearing House for Heredity Data 

While states should undertake eugenic sur^^ys, it is clear 
that, in a country like ours where extensive intermigralion 
takes place between States, "blood lines" are not hniited 


by state boundaries. There is need, consequently, of a 
central clearing house for data concerning family traits in 
America. This will serve not only as a headquarters for 
investigation but also for education. 

It will be interesting to trace the history of institutions 
of this sort in America. One was planned in 1881 or 1882 
by Mr. Loring Moody of Boston. In his booklet entitled 
"Heredity: its relations to human development. Corre- 
spondence between Elizabeth Thompson and Loring Moody," 
he tells how he had hoped for aid from a philanthropist. 
He adds "in the earnest hope and expectation that such 
persons will soon appear ready for their work, as a colaborer 
therein and as preliminary steps toward the formation of an 

Institute of Heredity 
which shall found a hbrary, establish lectureships with 
schools of instruction and take in hand the diffusion of 
knowledge on the subject of improving our race by the laws 
of physiology, I propose, with the aid of such as may volun- 
teer their patronage and support, to open a school and lec- 
ture room in Boston with the nucleus of a library for such 
conversations, consultations and illustrated lectures as may 
awaken interest and lead toward a realization of these 
great and beneficent ends." This plan failed because of 
the early death of its projector. 

About 1887 or 1888 Dr. Alexander Graham Bell founded 
at Washington, D. C, the Volta Fund which has grown to 
over $100,000. Out of this was established the Volta Bureau, 
which collects all valuable information that can be obtained 
with reference not only to deaf mutes as a class but to deaf 
mutes individually. In this bureau can be found the names 
of over twenty thousand deaf and the particulars respecting 
their history. They are so systematically arranged that 
without a moment's delay the facts with reference to any 
of them can be turned to. These valuable manuscripts 


and indices are placed in a perfectly fire-proof section of 
the building of the Bureau. The hbrary is rich in New Eng- 
land town histories and genealogies, in addition to works 
on the deaf. 

About 1905 the late Sir Francis Galton contributed to 
the support of a Eugenics Laboratory at University Col- 
lege, London, under the direction of Professor Karl Pearson, 
and at his death in 1911 Galton made it his residuary 
legatee. This laboratory is pubhshing an important ' ' Treas- 
ury of Human Inheritance." 

In October, 1910, The Eugenics Record Office was started 
at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, N. Y., in connection 
with the Eugenics Section of the American Breeders' Asso- 
ciation in a tract of 80 acres, with a good house to which 
has been added a fii'e-proof vault for the preservation of 
records. Mr. H. H. Laughlin is its superintendent. At 
this place the collecting and cataloguing of records goes on 
apace. It is hoped to establish here a very completely in- 
dexed collection of published genealogical and town his- 
tories for the United States as well as the manuscript 
reports of the field investigators. The main work of the 
office is investigation into the laws of inheritance of traits 
in human beings and their application to eugenics. Two 
series of pubUcations are contemplated, an octavo series of 
Bulletins and a quarto series of Memoirs. Several numbers of 
the Bulletin are issued or in press. The Eugenics Record Of- 
fice wishes to cooperate with Institutions and State Boards of 
Control in organizing the study of defectives and criminal- 
istic strains in each State. It will ofi'er suggestions as to 
the organization of local societies devoted to the study of 
Eugenics. It proffers its services free of charge to persons 
seeking advice as to the consequences of proposed marriage 
matings. In a word it is devoted to the advancement of 
the science and practice of Eugenics. 


The following method of citation is adopted. 1. Name of author, in 
capital letters. 2. Date of pubhcation, used, with the author's name, for 
reference (in the body of the work) to the publication. 3. Title of the 
publication. 4. If pubhshed in a periodical, name of periodical, in idilics, 
followed by volume number and page. If published as a separate l>ook, the 
place of pubhcation is given, and sometimes the name of the pubUslier. p. 
stands for page; pi for plate; v for volume. 

Allerton, Walter S., 1888. A History of the Allerton Family in the 

United States, 1585 to 1885, and a genealogy of the descendanta 

of Isaac Allerton. N. Y., 166 pp. 
Anderson, T. McCall, 1863. Hereditary Deaf-mutism, Med. Times 

and Gazette, London, II, 247. 
Apert, E., 1907. Traits des maladies familiales ct des maladies con- 

genitales. Paris, Libraire J. B. Baiiliere et fils. 
Arner, G. B. L., 1909. Consanguineous Marriage in the American 

Population. Studies in Hist., Economics and Public Lau\ Co- 
lumbia Univ., XXXI, No. 3. 
Atkinson, J. E., 1875. Observations upon Two Cases of Fibroma Mol- 

luscum. New York Medical Journal, XXII, 601 -GIG. 
Babington, B. G., 1865. Hereditary Epistaxis. Lancet, Ix)ndon, Sept., 

1865, II, 362-363. 
Baer, Th., 1907. Zuer Kasuistik der Hypotrichosis Congenita Fami- 

liaris. Arch. f. Dermatologie und Syphilis, LXXXI\', 1 Th., 

pp. 15-18. 
Balch, W. L. (Secretary), [1905]. First Reunion and organization of 

the Balch Family Association by the descendants of John Balch 

one of the "Old Planters" of Naumkoag, now Salem, Beverly 

and North Beverly, Massachusetts, 52 pp. 
Ball, Nicholas, 1891. Edward Ball and some of his Descendants. 

Newport, R. I., Mercury Print, pp. 1-15. 
Banker, H. J., 1909. A partial history and genealogical record of the 

Bancker or Banker families of America and in particular the 

descendants of Laurens Mattipe Bancker. Rutland, Vt., The 

Tuttle Co., 458 pp. 



Banning, Pierson W., 1908. The First Banning Genealogy. Chicago. 

Bare, Martin W., 1897. Some Studies in Heredity. Jour. Nerv. and 
Mental Diseases, N. Y., XXIV, 155-162. 

— , 1904. Mental Defectives: their History, Treatment and Training. 
Phila., P. Blakiston's Son, 368 pp. 

Bateson, W., 1906. Address on Mendclian Heredity and its Apphca- 
tion to Man. Brain, V. 29, p. 157. 

— , 1900. Progress of Genetics since the Rediscovery of Mendel's Pa- 
pers. Progr. Rei Bot., 1, p. 368. 

— , 1908. Methods and scope of genetics. Cambridge, Eng., Univ. 


— , 1909. Mendel's Principles of Heredity. Cambridge, Univ. Press. 

Bell, Alexander Graham, 1884. Memoir upon the Formation of a 
Deaf Variety of the Human Race. Mem. of National Acad, of 
Sciences, 86 pp. 

— , 1889. Royal Commission on the Blind, the Deaf and Dumb, etc.: 
Minutes of Evidence taken by the Royal Commission. Lon- 
don, Eyre & Spottiswoode. 

— , 1906. The Blind and the Deaf, 1900. Special Report to Bureau of 
the Census. Washington, Gov't Printing Office, ix-f 264 pp. 

Bemiss, S. M., 1858. Report on Influence of Marriages of Consanguin- 
ity upon Offspring. Trans. Am. Med. Ass'n, Phila., XI, 321- 

Bentley, Madison, 1909. Mental Inheritance. Pop. Sci. Mo., v. 75, 
p. 458. 

Bernhardt, M., 1885. Beitrag zur Pathologic der sogenannten "Thom- 
sen'schen Krankheit." Centralb. f. Nervenh., Leipzig, VIII, 

Berze, J., 1910. Die hereditaren Beziehungen der Dementia Praecox. 
Beitrag zur Hereditatslehre. Leipzig a. Main. 

Bonajuti, F., 1890. Contributo alio studio della epidermolysis bul- 
losa hereditaria di Kbbner. II Morgagni, Milano, I, 770-780. 

Bond, C. J., 1905. The Correlation of Sex and Disease. British Med. 
Jour., Lond., II, Oct., 1094-1095. 

BoRDLEY, J., Jr., 1908. A Family of Hemeralopes. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 
Bull, XIX, 278-280, 1 pi. 

BovAiRD, D., 1900. Primary Splenomegaly; EndotheHal Hyperplasia of 
the Spleen; 2 cases in children, autopsy and morphological 
examination in one. Am. Jour. Med. Science, Phila., CXX 

Eramwell, Byrom, 1876. Progressive Pernicious Anemia. Rep. Proc. 
Northumb. & Durham M. Soc, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 1876- 
7, pp. 151-167. 


— , 1901. Wednesday Cliniques. Case VIII. of Hereditary Ich- 
thyosis of the Pahiis and Soles. Clinicai Uludies, EdinfjurKli I 
1903, pp. 77-80. 

— , 1903. Wednesday Cliniques. Case IV. Hereditary Optic Atrophy. 
Clinical Studies, Edinburgh, II, 1901, pp. 44-55. 

— -, 1906. Wednesday Cliniques. Case XLV. Haenioijhilia. Clinical 
Studies, Edinburgh, V, 1907, 308-370. 

— , 1907. Wednesday Chniques. Hereditary Webbing of Second and 
Third Toes of the Left Foot. Clinical Studies, Edinburgh, \-, 
1907, pp. 373. 

— , 1907. Wednesday Cliniques. Case XXXVIII. Diabetes MellitUH: 
strong hereditary history; differential diagnosis of glyco.suria 
and diabetes mellitus. Clinical Studies, Edinburgh, VI, 190S, 
pp. 263-266. 

Breed, J. Howard, 1892. A Record of the Descendants of Allen Breed. 
Phila., Hathaway & Bros. 

Brill, N. E., 1901. Primary splenomegaly. Am. Jour. Med. Sci., 
Phila. and N. Y., April, 1901, CXXI, 377-392. 

Brinckerhoff, R., 1887. The Family of Joris Dircksen Brmckerhoff. 
New York, pp. 1-188. 

Broca, Paul, 1866-9. Traits de Tumeurs, Vols. I and II. Paris, 
P. Asselin. 

Bronardel, p., 1900. Le Mariage, Nullity, Divorce, Grossesse, Accouche- 
ment. Paris, Libraire J. B. Bailliere et fils, pp. 1-452. 

Buck, Wm. J., 1893. Account of the Bucks Family of Bucks Co., Pa. 
Philadelphia, pp. 1-142. 

Bulloch, W. and P. Fildes, 1911. Haemophilia. Treasury of Human 
Inheritance, Parts V and VI. London. 

Bureau of the Census (Department of Commerce and Labor), Special 
Reports, 1910. Religious Bodies: 1906, Part I, 576 pp. Sum- 
mary and General Tables, Part II, 670 pp. Separate Denomi- 
nations: History, Description, and Statistics. Washington, 
Gov't Prmting Office. 

Burger, Eugen, 1900. Ueber Haemophilie mit Gcschichto einer Bluter- 
familie. Inaugural Diss., Freiburg, pp. 1-30. 

BuscHAN, G., 1894. Die Basedow'sche ICranklieit. Eine Monographie. 
Leipzig u. Wien. 

Butler, James D., 1896. British Convicts Shipped to American Colonies. 
Am. Hist. Review, II, 1, Oct., pp. 12-33. 

Cance, Alex. E., 1911. Abstract of the Report on Recent Inmiigrants 
in Agriculture. Reports of the Immigration Conmii.s.sion. 
Washington, Gov't Printing Office, 75 pp. 

Cannon, G. and A. J. Rosanoff, 1911. Preliminary Report of a Study 


of Heredity in Insanity in the Light of the Mendelian Laws. 
Bull. Eugenics Record Office, No. 3, 11 pp. 

Cabpenteb, G., 1899. A case of absence of the clavicles, with an account 
of various deformities of the clavicles in 5 other members of 
the same family. Lancet, London, Jan., 1899, I, 13-17. 

Carson, W., 1890. Congenital Abnormalities of the Extremities. In 
Neilson, H. R, : Keating's Encyclopedia of the Diseases of Chil- 
dren, III, p. 935. Philadelphia, 1890. 

Castle, W. E., 1903. Heredity of Sex. Bull. Mtis. Comp. Zool. Har- 
vard, V. 40, No. 4. 

— , 1903. Laws of Heredity of Gal ton and Mendel and Some Laws 
Governing Race-improvement by Selection. Proc. Amer. Acad. 
Arts and Sci., v. 39, p. 223. 

— , 1903. Mendel's Law of Heredity. Science, N. S., 24, p. 396. 

— and others, 1906. Effects of Inbreeding, Cross-breeding and Selection 

upon the Fertility and Variability of Drosophila. Amer. Acad. 
Arts and Sci. Proceed., v. 41, No. 33. 

— and Forbes, Alexander, 1906. Heredity of Hair-length in Guinea- 

pigs and its Bearing on the Theory of Pure Gametes. Wash., 
Carnegie Inst., Wash., Pub. No. 49. 

— , 1906. Origin of a Polydactylous Race of Guinea-pigs. Wash., Car- 
negie Inst. Wash., Pub. No. 49. 

— , 1909. Studies of Inheritance in Rabbits. Wash., Carnegie Inst. 
Wash., Pub. No. 114. 

— , 1911. Heredity, N. Y. 

Cheadle, W. B., 1900, Occasional Lectures on the Practice of Medicine, 
London, 324 pp. 

Church, Sir William S., and others, 1909. Influence of Heredity on 
Disease, with Special Reference to Tuberculosis, Cancer and 
Diseases of the Nervous System: a discussion by Sir W. S. 
Church, Sir W. R. Cowers and others. London : Longmans, 1909. 

Clarke, Ernest, 1903. Hereditary Nystagmus. Ophthalmoscope, London, 
I, 86-87. 

Cluble, W. H., 1872. Hereditariness of Stone. Lancet, London, Feb. 
1872, 204. 

Cole, Frank T., 1887. Early Genealogies of the Cole Families in Amer- 
ica. Columbus, Ohio, Hann & Adair, pp. 1-308. 

CoLEGROVE, William, 1894. History and Genealogy of the Colegrove 
Family in America with Biographical Sketches, Portraits, etc. 
Chicago, III, pp. 1-792. 

Cooke, Harriet R., 1889. The Driver Family. A Genealogical Mem- 
oir of the Descendants of Robert and Phebe Driver, of Lynn, 
Mass. New York. John Wilson & Son, pp. 1-531. 


Couch, J. Kynaston, 1895. A Family History of Hernia. Lancet, Ix)n- 
don, October 1895, II, pp. 1043. 

CuNiEK, 1838. Annales Soc. M^d. dc Gaud. 

Cutler, C. W., 1895. Ueber angeborene Nachtblindlieit und Pigment- 
Degeneration. Arch. f. Augenheilk, XXX, p. 92. 

Darwin, C, 1894. The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domesti- 
cation, 2d Ed. N. Y., D. Apploton. 

Davenport, C. B., 1906. Inheritance in Poultry. Carnegie Inst. Wash., 
Pub., No. 52. 

— , 1908. Degeneration, Albinism and Inbreeding. Sci., N. S. 28, p. 

— , 1908. Heredity of Some Human Physical Characteristics. Proc. 
Soc. Exper. Biol, and Med., V, pp. 101-2. 

— , 1909. Influence of Heredity on Human Society. Annals Amer. 
Acad. Polit. and Soc. Sci., v. 34, p. 16 (Race improvement in 
the United States). 

— , 1909. Heredity in Man. Mar. 6. Harvey Lectures, 1908-09, pp. 

— , 1910. The Imperfection of Dominance and Some of its Consequences. 
Amer. Nat., v. 44, Mar. 

— , G. C. and C. B., 1907. Heredity of Eye Color in Man. Science, 
N. S., pp. 589-592, Nov. 

— , 1908. Heredity of Hair Form in Man. Amer. Nat., v. 42, p. 341. 

— , 1909. Heredity of Hair Color in Man. Amer. Nat., v. 43, No. 508, 

— , 1910. Heredity of Skin-Pigment in Man. American Naturalist, 
XLIV, Nov. and Dec, pp. 642-672, 705-731. 

Davis, C. H. S., 1870. History of Wallingford, Conn., Mcriden, 956 pp. 

De Beck, D., 1886. A Rare Family History of Congenital Coloboma 
of the Iris. Arch, of Ophthal., XV, p. 8, and ibid., 1894, 
XXIII, p. 264. 

Debore, M. and Renault, Jules, 1891. Du tremblement hereditaire. 
Bull, et Mem. Soc. Med. des Hopitaux de Paris, Paris, \'III, 
3d series, July, 1891, pp. 355-361. 

Deniker, J., 1906. The Races of Man. London and N. Y., pp. xxiii -f- 

Department of Commerce and Labor, 1911. Immigration, Laws and 
Regulations of July 1, 1907. Washington, Gov't Printing Of- 
fice, 97 pp. 

Dercum, F. X., 1897. Three Cases of the Family TvT>e of Cerebral Dip- 
legia. Jour. Nerv. and MerU. Dis., New York, 24, 396-399. 

DeVries, Hugo, 1906. Species and Varieties, their Origin by Mutation, 
ed. by D. T. MacDougal. Chicago, Open Court Pub. Co. 


DoBELL, Horace, 1863. A Contribution to the Natural History of 

Hereditary Transmission. Med.-Chir. Trans., London, XLVI, 

pp. 25-28. 
DooLiTTLE, Wm. F., 1901. The DooUttle Family in America. Parts 

I-VII. Cleveland, Acme Printing Co., pp. 1-730, 1901-8. 
Drew, Douglas, 1905. Acquired Club Foot with Marked Hereditary 

History. Reports of the Soc. for the Study of Dis. in Childrenf 

London, V, 1904-05, 172-3. 
Drinkwater, H., 1908. An account of a Brachydactylous Family, 

Proc. Roy. Soc, Edinburgh, 28, p. 35. 
Dugdale, R. L., 1902. The Jukes; a study in crime, pauperism, disease 

and heredity. 7th edition. N. Y., G. P. Putnam's, viii + 120 pp. 
DwiGHT, Benj. W., 1874. History and Descendants of John Dwight of 

Dedham, Mass. Vol. I and IL New York, John F. Trow & 

Ellis, H., 1904. A Study of British Genius. London, Hurst, 300 pp. 
E\jGENics Review. Vol. — date. Apr. 1909 — date. 
Farrabee, W. C, 1905. Inheritance of Digital Mialformations in Man. 

Papers of Peabody Mtts. of Am. Arch, and Ethn., Harvard Univ., 

HI, 3, p. 69. 
Fay, Edward Allen, 1898. Marriages of the Deaf in America. Wash. 

D. C, vii+ 527 pp., Volta Bureau. 
Feer, E., 1907. Der Einfluss der Blutesverwandschaft der Eltern auf die 

Kinder. Jahrb. f. Kinderh. Berlin, LXVI, 188-219. 
Fernald, Walter E., 1909. The Imbecile with Criminal Instincts. 

Am. Jour, of Insanity, LXV, pp. 731-749, April. 
FiSKE, John, 1905. The Discovery and Colonization of North America. 

Boston, xiv+224 pp. 
Foot, A. J. A., 1869. Des difformit^s cong^nitale et acquise dea 

doigts. Paris. 
Freud, Sigm., 1893. Ueber familiare Formen von cerebralen Diplegien. 

Neurol. Centralblatt., Leipzig, XII, 512-515; 542. 
Galton, Francis, 1869. Hereditary Genius : an Inquiry into its Laws and 

Consequences. London. Macmillan. 
— , 1889. Natural Inheritance. N. Y., Macmillan, ix+259 pp. 
— , 1892. Finger Prints. London. Macmillan. 
— , 1895. English Men of Science; their Nature and Nurture. N. Y., 

Appleton & Co. 
— , and Schuster, Edgar, 1906. Noteworthy Families (Modern Science) ; 

an index to kinships in near degrees between persons whose 

achievements are honorable, and have been publicly recorded. 

London, J. Murray. 
Gakkod, Archibald E., 1902. The Incidence of Alkaptonuria; a Study 


in Chemical Individuality. Lancet, London, Dec 13 190*> 

— , 1908. Inborn Errors of Metabolism (Croonian lectures). Lancet 

1908, II, pp. 1, 73, 142, 214. 
GiLLiN, J. L., 1906. The Dunkers, N. Y. (pp. 221, 222). 
GoDDABD, H. H., 1911. Heredity of Feeblemindedness. Bidl. No. 1, 

Eugenics Record Office. Cold Spring Harbor, N. Y. pp 1- 


— , and Helen F. Hill. 1911. Feeblemindedness and Criminality. 
The Training School, VIII, pp. 3-6, March. 

GossAGE, A. M., 1907. The Inheritance of Certain Human Abnormali- 
ties. Quarterly Jour. Med., Oxford, I, 331-347. 

VON Graefe, 1869. Beitriigc zur Pathologic uud Therapie des Glaucoms. 
Arch. f. Ophth., Bd. XV, p. 228. 

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United States, 30, 31 

Maine: Washington Co., Jonesport, 190 

Hancock Co., Mt. Desert Is., 190 
Swans Is., 190 
Deer Is., 190 
Long Is., 190 
New Hampshire: Hillsboro Co., Miiford, 51 
Vermont: Caledonia Co., St. Johnsbury, 57 
Massachusetts, 208 

Berkshire Co., 197 

Bristol Co., New Bedford, 219 

Barnstable Co., Cape Cod, 195, 219 
Falmouth, 43 

Dukes Co., Martha's Vineyard, 182, 188, 190, 192 
Rhode Island, 218 

Newport Co., Block Is., 188, 192 

Washington Co., Point Judith, 195 
Connecticut: Hartford Co., Windsor, 55 

New Haven Co., New Haven, 102, 182 
Wallingford, 57 

Fairfield Co., 182 
New York, 208 

Catskill Mountains, 197 

Ramapo Mountains, 197 

Albany Co., Albany, 237 

Delaware Co., 182 

Westchester Co., Tarrytown, 237 

Kings Co., 83 

Suffolk Co., East Hampton, 182 
New Jersey, Atlantic Co., Hammonton, 217 

Cumberland Co., Vineland, 217 
Pennsylvania, 208, 209, 251 

Allegheny Co., Pittsburgh, 56 

Dauphin Co., Harrisburg, 80 

Sullivan Co., 155, 182 
Maryland, 235 



Carroll Co., 156, 160 

Dorchester Co., 196 

Somerset Co., Smith's Island, 194 

Virginia, 183, 228 

West Virginia, 87 

North Carolina, Carteret Co., 196 
Valdese, 217 

Ohio, Franklin Co., Columbus, 235 

Indiana, Marion Co., Indianapolis, 235 

Kentucky, 230 

Wisconsin, Genoa, 217 

Minnesota, Chisago Co., 214 

Arkansas, Slovaktown, 215 
Canada, 138 

New Brunswick, Miscou Island, 190, 201 
Bering Straits, 184 
Bermuda, 194 
Bahama Islands: George Is., 194 

Abaco Is., 194 
Europe, 28, 29 
England, 85, 150 
Scotland, 29, 40 

Spey Valley, 29 

East Lanarkshire, 29 
Ireland, 211, 213 

Londonderry, 230 

Donegal, 230 
France: Batz, 187 

Brittany, 40 

Fort Mardick, 199 
Portugal, 218, 219 
Germany, Kirchheim, 156 
Norway, 214 
Scandinavia, 214 
Switzerland, Alps, 197 

Aosta, 158, 259 

Graubunden, Jenna, 157, 222 
Austro-Hungary, 215 
Italy, 40, 216-218 

Calabria, 183 
Soudan, 34 
Congo, 35 

Burmah, Chin Hills, 197 
Ceylon, 184 
Austraha, 30 
Philippine Islands, 33 



Abbott, 62 

Achondroplasy, 172 

Acquisitiveness, 244 

Adenoids, 166 

Albinism, 38, 115 

Alcoholism, 9, 82, 84, 86, 87, 98 

Alertness, 243 

Alexander, 232 

Alexander the Great, 63 

Alimentary system, 166-168 

Alkaptonuria, 168 

Allerton, 242 

Amish (sect), 202 

Anderson, T. M., 138 

Anemia, 152; progressive pernicious, 

Anticipation in heredity, 250 
Apoplexy, 97, 98, 196 • 
Appendages, abnormal, 174-179 
Arner, G. B. L., 194 
Arson, 86 

Arteriosclerosis, 162 
Arthritis, 104 

Artistic talent, 51-54, 61, 244 
Assault, 85, 87, 103 
Astigmatism, 123 
Ataxy, hereditary, 99, 100 
Atkinson, J. E., 148 
Atrophy of the optic nerve, 110 
Attention, 87 
Austrians as immigrants, 215 

Babington, B. G., 153 
Bach, 48 
Baker, 195 

Balch, 242 

Ball, 193 

Banker, 237 

Banning, 243 

Barr, M. W., 93, 96 

Barriers to marriage splection: physi- 
ographic, IS'J; social, 198; lin- 
guistic, 200, 201; racial, 202; re- 
ligious, 202, 203 

Bascom, 243 

Beethoven, 48 

Bell, A. G., 126, 130, 182, 192, 270 

Bemiss, S. M., 186 

Benard, 199 

Benton, 231 

Berze, J., 77 

BiGELOw, 228 

Binet test, 9, 65, 257 

Blair, 232 

Bland, 229 

Bleeders, 153-160, 182 

Blepharophimosis, 115 

BUndness, 4, ISG, 188. See also Eye 

Blondness, 28, 29, 36 

Blood, 152-158 

Bohemians, 215 

Boils, 132 

Bonajuti, F., 132 

Bordley, J., Jr., 118 

Bovaird, D., 157 

Brachycephaly, 243, 245 

Brachydactyliam, 177, 197 

Bradshaw, 194 

Breckinridge, 230 

Breed, 243 




Brewster, 208 

Brill, N. E., 157 

Brinckerhoff, 243 

Bronchitis, 166 

Bronte, 54 

Brooke, 229 

Brown, 230 

Browne, C. R., 211 

Brunetnesa, 28, 36, 242, 243 

Buck, 62, 243 

Bullock, W., 157 

Burglary, 90 

Burns, 54 

Burr, 227 

Butl&r, J. D., 183 

Calculating ability, 59 

Calderon, 54 

Cancer, 146-148 

Cannon, G., 77 

Carrington, 231 

Carter, 229 

Castration, 256 

Cataract, 111, 115 

Catarrh, 166 

Catarrhal affection of the ear, 124, 
130, 131 

Cell division, 11, 12 

Cerebral diplegia, 98, 99; hemorrhage, 
97, 98, 243; palsy of infancy, 97, 99 

Characters, unit, 6, 24, 25; complex, 
24; multiple, 20, 21 

Charlemagne, 63 

Chase, 195 

Cheadle, 104 

Cheerfulness, 87, 244, 245 

Chirography, 63 

Chlorosis, 152 

Chorea, 87, 101, 104, 105; Hunting- 
ton's, 101-103 

Chromatin, 10-13 

Chromosomes, 12-15 

Churchill, 227 

Clannishness, 243 

Clavicles, absence, 173 

Clay, 231 

Clearing house for eugenics, 269-271 

Cleft palate, 144-146 

Club-foot, 179 

Cluble, W. H., 169 

Cobb, 193 

Cole, 243 

Colegrove, 243 

Coloboma, 108, 115 

Color blindness, 120, 121 

Combativeness, 85, 86 

Commanders, 63 

Congenital traumatic pemphigus, 132 

Consanguineous marriage, 67, 77, 99, 

100, 116, 126, 129, 134, 149, 184r- 

189, 202, 203, 245 
Constancy, 243 

Consumption, 163, 164, 244, 253 
Contagion, 135, 147, 252 
Convulsions, 72-77, 104 
Coolidge, 165 

CORBIN, 228 

Cornea, degeneration of, 112 

Craik, 229 

Cretinism, 158 

Criminality, 4, 9, 85-92, 104 

Crittenden, 231 

Croatians, 215 

Cruelty, 85, 86 

Cryptorchism, 170 

Cunier, 118 

Curly hair, 34-36 

Curtis, 207 

Curvature of the spine, 99, 172, 17J 

CusTis, 229 

Cystinuria, 169 

Dalmatians, 215 

Darrvin, C, 63 

Davenport, 208 

Deaf mutes, 186, 187, 194 

Deaf mutism, 124-129 

Deafness, 4, 166. See Ear. 

Debore, M., 151 

Decision, 242 

Defectiveness, control of, 4, 255-259; 

pedigrees of, 67-76; its source, 261- 




Defectives, number, 3; cost of main- 
taining, 4 

Dentition, 139-144 

Deterioration, 198, 211, 212 

Determiners, 10, 16 

Diabetes insipidus, 167; mcllitus, 167 

Digits: broad-nailed, 242; twisted, 
177, 178 

Dispersion of traits, 181-184 

Dodge, 193 

Dominance, 18 


Double-join tedness, 177 
Dunker (sect), 202 
Duplex characters, 16, 17 
Dwarfness, 39, 43, 188, 196, 197. 

See Stature 
DwiGHT, 208, 226, 227, 243 
Dyer, 195 

Ear, 123-131 
East, 197 

Ectopia lentis, 112 
Eczema, 132 
Edison, 2 
Education, 254 
Edwards, 208, 226 

ElCHOLT, 100 

Elimination of the unfit, 255 

Eliot, 208 

Eltonhead, 228 

Enamel, faulty, 142, 144 

Encephalitis, 98 

Energy: bodily, 63; physical, 243, 244 

Epicanthus, 115 

Epidermal organs, 136-146 

Epidermolysis bullosa, 132 

Epilepsy, 4, 72, 77, 86, 95, 96, 104, 

186, 254 
Epistaxis, 153 
Eugenic surveys, 267 
Eugenics, defined, 1, 4, 26 
Eugenics Record Office, 239, 270 
Euthenics, 252 


Excretory system, 168-170 
Exostoses, 173 

Eye, 107-123 

Eyeball, 109, 110 

Eyebrows, 245 

Eye color, 18-20, 27-31; blue. 245 

Eye, expression of, 245 

Eyelids, 115, 116 

Eye muHclcs, 115, 122 

Face, 143 

Facer, 150 

Fairbanks, 57, 227 

Fairfax, 229 

Fay, E. A., 125-129 

Fecundity, 243. See Sterility 

Feeble-mindedness, 4, 9, 65-72, 257- 

259; claasificatjo n of, 9, 257 -259 
Peer, E., 116 " 

FfeNfcLON, 54 

Fertilization of the egg, 10-15 

Firmness, 243 

First families of Virginia, 228-230 

Fistula aura congenita, 129 

FiTZHUGH, 207, 228 

Fleming, 100 

Floyd, 232 

Freud, S., 99 

Friedrich's disease, 99 

Friends (sect), 202 

Gallon, F., 1, 30, 42, 59, 271 
Garrod, A. E., 168 
Gates, 227 
Genealogy, 239-251 
Generosity, 243, 244 
Geniality, 244, 245 
Genius, 60, 61, 71 
Germans as immigrants, 214 
Germ cell, 10 
Germ plasm, 10 
Gibson, 232 
Glands, skin, 136 
Glaucoma, 113-115 
Goitre, 47, 158, 159, 162; exophthal- 
mic, 158, 159, 162 
GoLDSBonoron, 229 
Gonorrhea, 2 
Gossage, A. M., 136, 139, 141, 157 



GoTT, 192 
Gout, 167, 169, 170 
Grayson, 232 
Gregariousness, 87, 244 
GusTAVus Adolphus, 63 

Hair, 138, 139; color, 32; form of, 20, 
34; length, 25; red, 8, 33; thick- 
ness, 140 

Hair-coat color, 139 

Hairiness, 245 

Hairlessness, 138 

Hall, 193 

Hammond, 43 

Hampton, 231 

Handwriting, 63 

Hannant, 182 

HareUp, 144-146 

Harriman, 2 

Ears, 199 

Hatch, 43 

Heart, 160-163 

Hebrews as immigrants, 215, 216 

Hematuria, 169 

Hemeralopia, 118 

Hemophilia, 153-155 

Henry, 231 

Heredity, 4, 5, 10, 16-23 

Hermaphroditism, 170, 188, 192 

Hernia, 151, 152 

Herringham, 149 

Hertel, E., 123 

Herzer, 100 

Heterozygous, 18 

Heydt, 209 

Holmes, 0. W., 47 

Holmes, S. J., 30, 32 

Hospitableness, 244 

Hovel, 76, 77 

Howe, L., 187 

HoYT, 209 

Humphreys, 243 

Huntington, G., 102 

Huntington's chorea, 101, 181, 182 

Hurst, C, C, 30 


Hydrocephaly, 197 
Hyperkeratosis, 135 
Hypospadias, 170 
Hysteria, 87-89, 103, 104 

Ichthyosis, 134, 135 

Idiot, 66, 196, 197 

Immigration to America, early, 205- 

212; recent, 212-220; control of, 

Incest, 69, 76 
Industriousness, 243 
Infant mortality, 3 
Insanity, 4, 24, 73, 74, 77-80, 85, 95, 

96, 104, 186-188, 194, 254, 257- 

259; manic-depressive, 196, 247 
Invention, 57, 62 
IrascibiUty, 85-87, 242, 245 
Iris, defects of, 108, 109 
Irish, as immigrants, 213, 214 
ISHMAEL, 183, 235 
"IshmaeUtes," 183, 234-236 
Islands, 194 

Italians, as immigrants, 216-218 
Itch, 133, 252 

"Jackson-whites," 202 

James, William, 2 

Jaundice, 167 

Jaw, 143, 144 

Johnson, 232, 244 

Jolly, F., 101 

Jordan, D. S., 158 

Joviality, 243-245 

"JuKES," 80, 82, 197, 232-234 

Justice, 243 

Kelly, 195 

Kentucky aristocracy, 230 

Keratosis, 136 

Kimball, 244 

Kinky hair, 34 

Lancry, L. and G., 199 
Larceny, 85-87, 90, 103 
Laughlin, H. H., 271 



Leber, T., 118 

Lee, 207, 229, 232 

Leman, F. B., 244 

Lens, displaced, 112; opaque, 111 

Lincoln, 251 

Lindsay, M. T., 244 

Linguistic ability, 243 

Lisping, 105 

Literary composition, 54, 55, 62 


Loeh, J., Ill, 112 

LoUing, 105-107 

Lonibroso, 251 

Longevity, 47, 243, 244 

Loomis, H. M., 30, 32 

Lossen, 158, 159 

Love, of athletics, 245; of excitement, 

86; of horses, 245; of rural life, 

Lowell, 208 
Lucas, R. C, 175 
LtJDWELL, 229 

Lydslon, G. F., 82 

Macaulat, 54 

Macintosh, 85 

Madison, 207 

Magyars, as immigrants, 215 

Malone, 194 

Mammary glands, 136, 137 

Mampel, 156 

Marriage, 7; selection, 7, 8, 201. See 

Consanguineous Marriage. 
Marsh, 194 

Marshall, 207, 231, 251 
Martel, Charles, 63 
Martin, 55, 110 
Mason, L. D., 83 
Mathematical ability, 59. 
Maturation of the germ cells, 13 
Mazzuoli, 51 
McClung, 21 
McQuillen, J. H., 139 
Mechanical skill, 55-58 
Mechanical tastes, 242, 244 
Megalophthalmus, 115 
Melancholia, 78, 244 

Mell, 244 
Memory, 59, 60, 244 
Mendelism, 18 

MeNDEL880UN, 48 

M6ni6re'8 Disease, 101 

Mental ability, 65 

Mcrzbaclicr, L., 99 

Mickley, 244 

Microphthalmus, 109, 110 

Migraine, 87, 97, 104, 244 

Migrations, 204-224 

MiNOT, 227 

Mitchell, A.,IS7 

Mohammed, 251 

Molenes, P., 138 

Mongolian imbeciles, 67, 71 

Monilithrix, 138, 139 

Moody, L., 270 

Morgan, T. //., 21 

Moti, F. W., 100 

Moyer, 107 

Mozart, 48 

Mucous membranes, 163 

Mulatto, 36 

Murder, 85, 87, 90 

Muscular atrophy, 149 

Muscular system, 149-152 

Musical ability, 48-51, 61, 62, 98 

Myopia, 121-123 

Myxederaia, 158 

Nachbar, 244 
Nails, 139-141 
Napoleon, 251 
Narcotism, 82, 83, 87 
Nareth, 174 
Negro, 36 
Neighbok, 244 
Nervous disease, 92-104 
Nervous wcakneas, 24 
Nelllcship, E., 112, 110. 118. 250 
Neuropathic condition, 77-79, 93, 95 
Neurotic condition. 96, 104 
Night blindness. 1 18-120 
Non-productive population, 3 
Nose, 143; aquiline, 243, 244; promi- 
nent, 245 



Nosebleed, 153 
Nucleus of cell, 10-15 
Nulliplex characters, 16, 17 
Nystagmus, 115 

Obesity, 242, 243; heredity, 47 
Ophthalmoplegia, 115 
Optic nerve atrophy, 110 
Originality, 243 
Otosclerosis, 124, 129, 131 

Paine, 227 

Painting, 51-54 

Palate, cleft, 144 

Paralysis of eye muscles, 115 

Pardoe, 156 

Parker, R. TF., 177 

Patton, 230 

Pauperism, 4, 80, 82, 85 

Patne, 251 

Pearson, K., 271 

Peninsulas, 195 

Penn, 208 

Pepin Le Grob, 63 

Pertinacity, 243 

Peyton, 231 

Philip of Macedon, 63 

Pigmentary degeneration of retina, 

Pigmentation and sunhght, 31 
Placidity, 244 
Pneumonia, 165, 166 
Poetic talent, 51, 244 
Poles, as immigrants, 218 
Politzer, A., 124 
Poltering, 105-107 
Polydactylism, 175, 176 
Polymastism, 136, 137 
Pomeroy, 55 
Poorhouse, 69-71 


Porter, 231, 232 

Potter, Paul, 51 

Portuguese, as immigrants, 218, 219 

Pouchet, M. A., 172 

Precipitousness, 243 

Preston, 230, 232 

Progressive pernicious anemia, 153 
Prolapsus of uterus, 171, 172 
Psoriasis, 133, 252 
Ptosis, 115 
Punishment, 92, 265, 266 

Quickness, 243, 245 

Randolph, 207, 229, 231 
Reher, W., 121 
Recessive, 18 
Records, 239, 249 
Records of family traits, 26 
Reed, J. W., 244 
Religion, 255 
Religiousness, 244 
Religious sects, 202, 203 
Renault, J., 151 
Reproductive system, 170, 171 
Resistance to disease, 48 
Respiratory system, 163-166 
Responsibihty, 85, 92, 265 
Restlessness, 244 
Reticence, 242 

Retinitis pigmentosa, 115-118 
Rheumatism, 104, 105 
RiGGS, 244 
Robinson, 208 
Robinson, H. B., 177 
roebling, 55 
Root, 244 
Rosanoff, A. J., 77 
Roumanians, 215 
Royal famiUes of Europe, 198 
Russell, 194 
Ruthenians, 215 


Sarcoma of eyeball, 148 

Scandinavians, as immigrants, 214 

SciPio Africanus, 63 

Schamberg, J, F., 133 

Sclerosis, multiple, or disseminated, 

Scoliosis, 99, 172 
Sear, 150 
Secretiveness, 243 



Sedgwick, 227 

Segregation of defectives, 259; of de- 
terminers, 15; of traits, 19 

Selection in marriage, 7, 8, 189-202 

Sex, 21; -cliromosome, 21, 22; -im- 
morality, 9, 87, 88, 90, 103, 233- 
236; -limited inheritance, 21, 22 

Shaker (sect), 202 

Shiftlessness, 80-84 

Shall, G. H., 187 

Sidney, Philip, 54 

Silcox, A. G., 148 

Silk, 229 

Simon, C. E., 101 

Simplex characters, 16, 17, 25 

Sinclair, 245 

Singing ability, 50 

Skeleton, 171-174 

Skiff, 182 

Skin, 131-136; color, 36; glands, 136; 
thickening of, 135 

Slavonians, 215 

Slayton, 245 

Slovaks, 215 

Slyness, 85 

Smith, 230 

Society and eugenics, 261 

Southard, E. E., 247 

Speech, 105-107 

Spelling ability, 242 

Splenic-anemia, 157, 161; -enlarge- 
ment, 157 

Squinting, 115, 116 

Stammering, 105 

Stature, 38, 188, 244, 245 

Sterility, 171, 188, 199 

Sterilization, 255 

Stevens, N. M., 21 

Story-telling, love of, 244 

Stossel, 100 

Strabismus, 115, 116, 122 

Strength, physical, 65, 243, 244 

Stubbornness, 243 

Stuttering, 104, 106 

St. Vitus's dance, 101, 102 

Suicide, 56, 61, 98 

Superstitiousness, 88 

Susceptibility to dieeaae, 135, 147 
Suspiciousness, 188 
Syndactylism, 176, 197 
Syphilis, 2 

Taciturnity, 242 

Talcott, 226 

Talkativeness, 85-87, 243, 244 

Tapley, 245 

Taste for military life, 243, 245; for 

study, 243 
Taylor, 54 
Taylor, J. M., 249 
Teeth, 139-144; absence of, 140, 141; 

excess number, 142 
Telangiectasis, 153, 155 
Temperament, 61-63 
Thigh bone, congenital dielocatioi^ 

Thompson, 270 
Thomsen, A., 149 
Thomsen's disease, 149 
Thyroid gland, 158 
Tiffany, 245 
Titian, 51 
Tonsilitis, 166 
Traits, 10 
Trembling, 151 
Tuberculosis, 164, 165, 255 
Tuberville, 229 
Tumor, 148 
TuTTLE, 225, 232 
Twining, 195, 245 
Twins, 179, 180, 245 
Tyler, 194, 226 
Tylosis, 136, 137 

Untruthfulness, 8, 85-87, 90 
Urinar\' calculi, 169 
Uvula, cleft, 144 

Van Metre, 210 
Varick, 245 

Vascular system, 15^163 
Vecelli, 51 
Venable, 231 
Venereal disease, 2 

298 INDEX 

Vierordt, K. H., 160 Wickcliffe, 231 

Vincent, 228 Will, freedom of, 264-266 

Vocal music, 243, 245 Wilson, E. B., 11, 14, 21, 23 

Voisin, A., 187 Winthrop, 208 

von Grafe, 113 Withington, C. F., 190, 192, 195 

Wolff, 62 

Waite, 228 Woodruff, C. E., 31 

Wandering, 9, 85, 87, 89, 209, 210, Wooley, 231 

253 Woolly hair, 34, 35 

Washington, 207, 231 Woolsey, 208, 226 
Watts, 232 

Wavy hair, 34, 35 Xeroderma, 134 

Webster, Noah, 51 Xerosis, 134 
Weeks, D. F., 104 

Weight of body, 43-46; in relation to Zahniser, 245 

stature, 44 "Zero," 80 

White, C. J., 138 ZooNEKiNDT, 199 

Whitney, 208 Zygote, 17, 22 


N. C. SUAe t 



^■~-y INDIANA 46962