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COUNTY FORMATION CHART: 

BATH -* ARC HDALE-* CRAVEN -►NEW HANOVER -♦ BLADEN -* ANSON 
1696 1705 coI7I2 1729 1734 1750 



ROWAN 
y 1753 



-♦BURKE 
1777 



MECKLEN BURG -*TRYON — RUTHERFORD 
1763 1769 1779 



BURKE 
1777 

BUNCOMBE 
1791 




-►HENDERSON 
1838 



CLAY 1861 

t-GRAHAM 1872 

SWAIN 1871 
TRANSYLVANIA 1861 



LEGEND: 

1791 Buncombe County eastern boundary line • • 

1981 boundary lines 

County Seat 

Stream 




ORIGINAL BUNCOMBE C 



G *x> NOLLICHUCKY 



^BUNCOMBE 1791 



36°00' 




)UNTY, NORTH CAROLINA 



G. P. Stout 



£l 



1981 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 



http://archive.org/details/heritageofoldbunOOward 



The Heritage Of Old Buncombe County 
Volume 1 — 1981 

Published By 
The Old Buncombe County Genealogical Society 
P.O. Box 2122, Asheville, North Carolina 28802 

Doris Cline Ward, Editor 
Charles D. Biddix, Associate Editor 



Published In Cooperation With 

Hunter Publishing Company 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27103 




Haywood County Public Library 
Waynesviite 



© Copyright 1981 

By 

The Old Buncombe County Genealogical Society 

Asheville, North Carolina 

All Rights Reserved 

ISBN 0-89459-159-2 

Printed In The 
United States Of America 

By 

Hunter Publishing Company 

Winston-Salem, North Carolina 27103 

Book Orders And Correspondence Should Be Addressed To 

Old Buncombe County Genealogical Society 

P.O. Box 2122, Room 321, Haywood Building 

46 Haywood Street, Asheville, N.C. 28802 

704-253-1894 




Hikers are pictured in this photograph made near Asheville in the 1920's. 



Table Of Contents 

FOREWORD, Dedication, The Staff VI 

The story of The Old Buncombe County Genealogical Society, this book, the staff and acknowledgements. 

PART I ~ People, Places, Events 1 

A series of selected articles designed to help the reader better understand the people, places, and the many events 
which have influenced the 12 counties which emerged from Buncombe County of 1791. Included are maps, old 
photographs, and sketches. 

PART II ~ People To Remember 132 

Family history sketches of almost 600 families and individuals having roots in the old Buncombe area. Each was 
written by a family member. 

PART III ~ Photographs Of Some People And Places 374 

These pages present a selected grouping of photographs recalling the past and helpful in understanding today. 

PART IV ~ Constrast Of Yesterdays 386 

These pages present three contrasting articles related to Canton, Hot Springs, and Pumpkin Town plus some 100 
outstanding photographs from the Ewart W. Ball Collection, all found in the Southern Highlands Research Center, 
UNC-Asheville. 

PART V ~ Index 481 

Entries are by article number — not page number. They include virtually every surname found in the book. 




This is a 1926 photo made in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 




The Ox And Mountain People 

The ox is perhaps one of the unsung heroes of pioneer mountain people and those who came after 
them. Their strength enabled them to pull carts and wagons as well as plow fields. This striking 
photo was made in the 1920's on a mountain farm thought to be near Brevard in Transylvania 
County. Photo courtesy Ball Collection, The Highland Research Center, UNC-A. 



IV 




The Old Buncombe County Genealogical Society 

Dedicates This Volume 

To The 

Families Of Old Buncombe 

— Those of yesterday 

— Those of today 

— Those of tomorrow 

In the Belief that A Strong Family Unit 
Is The Backbone Of A 
Free Country Whether it be in: 
The Traditional Style, 
The One Parent, 
or The Individual Form 



"Each family, however modest its origin, possesses its own particular tale of the past — a 
tale which can bewitch us with as great a sense of insistent romance as can ever the traditions 
of kings." 

— Llewlyn Powys 




This is a 1920 photo in the Land Of The Sky. 



Foreword 
THE SEARCH FOR ROOTS: HIGH ADVENTURE IN HIGH COUNTRY 



1 

How did this book come into being? What is 
its purpose? Will there be another? The 
answers to these questions are varied, for they 
encompass the leadership and personalities of 
professional and amateur historians and 
genealogists in the greater Asheville area. This 
foreword provides some clues to the answers. 

We believe this to be a unique book. Hence, 
this is perhaps a unique foreword. Read on. 
You'll learn much about the "roots" of this, 
the Heritage of Old Buncombe County! 

Life and society is ever changing. Old timers 
see through one set of eyes. Newcomers 
observe through a little different set of eyes. 
High school history students look from a dif- 
ferent angle. Yet, remarkable interest in family 
and regional history is present. 

The following editorial clearly supports this 
view: 

A Common Magnetism 

"Hearkening to a notice in the local news- 
paper as if to the call of the Pied Piper, they 
gathered, strangers all, in an Asheville night 
class: a surgeon, a banker, a school teacher, a 
paving contractor, a construction engineer, a 
lovely lady in the last stages of pregnancy, a 
gracious lady with a cane, plus others of simi- 

VI 



larly diverse age and vocation. What subject 
could possibly provide common magnetism 
sufficient to attract them? Believe it or not, the 
answer is history, grass roots history. 

"Each came with a special, personal topic, 
seeking instruction in 'how to be your own 
historian.' The banker found a new cause and 
wound up as president of the Western North 
Carolina Historical Society. The paving con- 
tractor traced his roots back to a soldier in 
Garibaldi's army and developed an interna- 
tional newsletter. 

"The teacher, intrigued with an old sor- 
ghum mill inherited from his grandfather, re- 
searched and rebuilt the mill, planted cane, 
and ended up publically demonstrating the art 
of making molasses. The gracious lady with 
the cane, in seeking her family lineage, trig- 
gered a heritage groundswell which set aside 
historic Smith-McDowell House as the West- 
ern North Carolina Heritage Center. They and 
their classmates discovered that there is, veri- 
ly, more to local history than begats and 
skeletons in the family closet. 

"Their interest is noteworthy because, tra- 
ditionally, history has been the exclusive do- 
main of professional historians, emphasizing 
big events and major personalities while ne- 
glecting the rich mother lode of local history. 
Professional 'history' became so lack-luster 



that a college freshman probably voiced a 
majority opinion when she recently said 'His- 
tory??? Yuck!' And a high schooler likely 
spoke for his peers when he informed the 
editor of a national magazine that 'Today's 
youth is interested in the living present, not the 
dead past.' 

"Thankfully, the magazine editor had a 
sense of history and replied, 'To be ignorant of 
your heritage is to be forever a child.' 

"To be ignorant of our rich heritage in West- 
ern North Carolina would constitute a cultural 
disaster. As a 'mother state' North Carolina 
established her own culture while providing 
migrants for westward expansion, from Ashe- 
ville to San Francisco. 

"And descendants from those wanderers 
are flocking back, tracing their origins, with 
Pack Library, Asheville, providing much aid. 
Their finds are intriguing: one Californian dis- 
covered that her ancestors had out-migrated 
from a Carolina mountain cove and had begat 
until they were in 40 of the 50 states plus 
Canada and Greece. 

"Moreover, gallant local efforts are being 
made to promote cultural awareness. The 
Western North Carolina Historical Associa- 
tion, the Appalachian Consortium, and numer- 
ous county historical societies are avidly culti- 
vating historical appreciation. And our region- 




Waiting for a meeting of The Old Buncombe Genealogical Society to begin at Pack Library. 



al education institutions, reassessing their 
missions, have developed Appalachian stud- 
ies and built new heritage centers. 

"Therefore, looking at our local history and 
its potential, the motto on the National Ar- 
chives Building seems appropriate. 'The past 
is but a prologue.' And may a tour guide's 
interpretation of that statement also apply to 
us: 'Brother, you ain't seen nothing yet!' 

— Dr. Harley Jolley, 

Professor of History 

Mars Hill College 

The above appeared as a guest editorial in 
the Asheville Citizen-Times on February 25, 
1979. Dr. Jolley, professor of history at Mars 
Hill College, is a leader in preserving family 
and local history. A teacher and writer, he 
received the 1969 Thomas Wolfe Literary 
Award for his widely recognized book, The 
Blue Ridge Parkway, and in 1970 received the 
'Outstanding Teacher Award' at Mars Hill. Dr. 
Jolley, a Caldwell County native, earned his 
Ph.D. at Florida State University. 

A Large Genealogical Collection 

Into this atmosphere of concern for cultivat- 
ing historical appreciation walked a tall, for- 
mer Captain of the U.S. Air Force with a gleam 
in his eye which bespoke a singlemindedness 
of purpose. Fresh from organizing a Genealog- 
ical Society in Nebraska, Cleo Hogan found 
this to be another area without such an orga- 
nization geared to picking family genealogical 
details out of the wealth of general historical 
events. 

He did find a library in the process of mov- 
ing to magnificent new quarters to offer much 
expanded service to the public in the future. 
Interest in genealogy was well-expressed by its 
having the largest collection of such material 
in this area, but, like every other specialty, 
requires constant monitoring and updating 
with current materials to keep it as helpful as 
possible, and genealogically oriented staff 
personnel was in short supply. 

About this time I arrived on the scene, hav- 
ing already organized a publishing company to 
handle my own genealogical writing, but still 



with time on my hands and a need to become 
acquainted with others working in the subject 
in the area. I innocently added my name to a 
list of persons interested in helping to organize 
a Genealogical Society that Betty Lawrence 
was gathering at Pack Memorial Library, and 
by December 1979 plans were completed to 
launch such a Society by January of 1980. 

A Genealogical Society Is Formed 

The minute the surface was scratched for 
supplying genealogical services in this area, 
memberships flooded in. They came not only 
from the surrounding area but from far-flung 
States along the west coast right up to Alaska, 
and from as far east as the Virgin Islands. Pack 
Library offered meeting facilities in their au- 
ditorium, and other local libraries and orga- 
nizations were relieved to be able to transfer to 
us, the genealogical queries that they re- 
ceived. 

Some people came with their ancestor 
charts well filled in and eager to tell what they 
already knew about their families. Others 
came with half-empty charts seeking help in 
deciphering the vaguest of clues. Small re- 
gional study groups sprang up, carloads of 
persons took off on field trips, workshops 
were organized here, and neighboring ones 
attended. Every meeting seemed to find 
cousins meeting for the first time, and our 
newsletter, A Lot Of Bunkum, soon grew to 
twenty pages a month. 

A Generous Response 

When the piles of books donated to the 
Society grew from the floor to the top of my 
piano, we took off on a hunt for office space. 
Without being sure that we could pay for it, we 
engaged a suite of three rooms in the Haywood 
Building across from Pack Memorial Library 
and proceeded to settle in with donations of 
furniture, equipment, and a flood of genealog- 
ical books and magazines. 

Now we had library space to organize and 
store the ancestor charts and other resource 
material that we had for researchers to use, a 
place for the various study groups or indi- 



viduals to meet and talk without disturbing 
other patrons at Pack Library or overburden- 
ing their staff, a place for the Board of Direc- 
tors to meet, and space to spread out and 
manufacture our Newsletter. It was an exciting 
time, we were accomplishing as much as any- 
one had time to keep up with, and yet there 
was a tiny hollow feeling that something more 
was needed in order to consolidate our efforts 
and make it all visible. 

About this time, two things happened. One 
was a letter that came from an aspiring young 
writer in Illinois saying that she was planning a 
romantic novel to be set in the Western Caroli- 
na mountains about the time of the Civil War 
but she did not know of any material that had 
been written about the area. She claimed there 
was nothing in her town library and asked if we 
could tell her what might be available. Know- 
ing there could be a list of written material as 
long as my arm could reach and my finger 
could point, I was non-plussed as to how to 
answer, but I did the best I could. 



Then, The Telephone Rang . . . 

And then the telephone rang. Mr. Stephan 
Hailey, representing the Historical Division of 
Hunter Publishing Company of Winston- 
Salem was on the line regarding the concept of 
publishing a Heritage Book about our area 
which would be a place to present helpful 
material to broaden readers' knowledge of and 
interest in regional history; to offer, via maps 
and background articles, aids to those doing 
genealogical research; a place to record for 
posterity family sketches of those with roots in 
the region; and to record any other material an 
editor might feel to be of interest. 

Here then, was a project that could fill our 
needs and give our new organization a solid 
foundation of accomplishment and make us 
more visible in the State. Serious considera- 
tion was given to it by the Board of Directors 
who made an affirmative decision based on the 
faithful promise of the Hunter Publishing Com- 
pany to provide the professional guidance we 
would need. 

The idea was presented to the membership 
who became enthusiastic about accepting the 



I 



W 

' Ww 


Mi 


'*-jm^ 




? V' : * >J 'M 




Jfrjl 






The Sorghum-Cutter (from an old print.) 

VII 



challenge. Via the newsmedia we invited 
everyone to submit articles, not confining it 
just to members of the Society. Over the 
months committments were honored, dead- 
lines met, and this book is the result. 

A Second Volume Is Needed 

You may wonder why some topics or places 
have not been included in this volume. It may 
be either because the editor felt that the sub- 
ject had been well covered in other places, or it 
may be that persons who were invited to sub- 
mit articles or pictures did not respond. Any 
deficiencies that someone feels exist may be 
easily rectified. We knew that the confines of 
one book would not do justice to the vast 
numbers of people living in these counties, so 
right from the start we designated this as 
"Volume I." 

For those with corrections to make or who 
never quite made the deadline to have their 
stories included, we say, "Volume II is in the 
planning." You may correct your material or 
add new stories then. We are accepting such 
material already, and will close the files once 
more when we have enough for a second 
book. 

Because the eastern part of the area was 
populated first, this volume is unavoidably 
heavy on material pertaining to Henderson, 
Buncombe, Haywood, Madison and Yancey 
counties. But it has as much as we could 
gather about the other counties for now, rec- 
ognizing our open-door policy to provide for 
future writing and publishing of the many addi- 
tional stories we know are out there some- 
where. 

What we receive from the members and 
friends of the Society is what we publish, 
hence the responsibility for visibility of a family 
rests with the families concerned. We hope 
they will accept our invitation to avail them- 
selves of our services and our 'showcase' for a 
representative collection of their findings. 

Why The Maps 

We hope that our services will encourage 
many people to develop more detailed books 
of their own families, and that this book will 
provide them with leads and suggestions for 
finding material to do it. To this end we are 
including many detailed maps for locating 
family settlement areas, and listing many 
books that have been written about a large 
variety of places that are available for more 
in-depth study. We have listed many of the 
historical markers that have been put in place 
over the years that might either tie in with 
individuals, or point up events of the times. 

The Plan 

We did not seek to do an original, scholarly 
history. Such is beyond our scope. Yet, a 
number of these articles are scholarly, well 
researched and documented. The maps and 
photographs speak for themselves. We did 
seek to bring together in one place, a digest of 
much that has already been written, in order to 
set the stage across which the ancestors in 
this region walked and played out their lives. 
The pictorial pages offer a special salute to 



those past and present. 

Even so, one book cannot cover everything. 
Other organizations have comparable goals 
but work in their own media, so we comment 
as follows: 

We point up the Southern Highlands Hand- 
icraft Guild in Asheville. Here you can see, 
learn about and/or buy actual samples of old- 
time arts and crafts in order to familiarize your 
contemporary or future families with them. 

There is much activity in the field of music of 
many flavors from the classics through a wide 
variety of folk and dance music, including the 
music for and the activity involved in mountain 
clogging, square dancing and older European, 
English and Scottish country dancing. For de- 
tails about what is available at any given time in 
the part of Old Buncombe that concerns any 
reader, the best suggestion is the purchase of 
a random copy of, or even a full year's sub- 
scription to any of the local area newspapers, 
and we provide you with a list of names and 
addresses. Some special editions are pro- 
duced several times each year detailing such 
activities, and you can write for information. 

If You Need Help 

The comments and features included in the 
book are not intended as promotion for tour- 
ism as such, but rather to be helpful to anyone 
planning to be in the area for genealogical 
research. Such individuals will of necessity 
need places to stay, food to eat, and an itiner- 
ary planned for maximum research benefit. 
Hopefully, this book will be of service, and our 
Society will gladly advise. If only one person in 
the family is interested in genealogy, it is nice 
to know what other activities might interest or 
entertain the others at the same time, and the 
Chamber of Commerce is strategically located 
at the Montford exit of Highways 70/240 in 
Asheville. 

Acknowledgements 

We wish to thank the many contributors of 
the family articles and beg their indulgence 
where we have condensed manuscripts to fit 
the constraints of space. We also did some 
rearranging to make events in some stories 
flow in more chronoligical order, and we did 
leave out quite a few full dates of months and 
days. In many stories where there were so 
many children in a family, the accounts were 
beginning to seem like nothing but a list of 
dates. Where further detail is needed, letters 
of inquiry, along with a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope, may be addressed to the 
authors of the articles, % Old Buncombe 
County Genealogical Society, P.O. Box 2122, 
Asheville, NC 28802. Write on the outside of 
the envelope, "Please Forward". 

We thank the many public-spirited leaders 
of the area who gave us their cooperation and 
encouragement, particularly the Editor of the 
Asheville Citizen-Times, Mr. Robert Satter- 
white, the University of North Carolina at 
Asheville through Dr. Milton Ready, and the 
Appalachian Center, Mars Hill College, 
through Dr. Harley Jolley, the Western North 
Carolina Historical Association, all the area 
libraries and the North Carolina State Genealog- 



ical Society in Raleigh. 

We thank the many members of the OBCGS 
who helped with the typing, logging, indexing, 
book-order taking and the telephoning re- 
quired in the manufacture and distribution of 
this book, and the Board of Directors who 
helped to steer the project. 

Special acknowledgement is extended to 
Mrs. Carolyn Anderson and Miss Anne Till- 
inghast, members, and Mrs. Marie Bartlett, 
professional writer, for their editorial assis- 
tance. A very large debt of gratitude is owed to 
Charles Biddix, able native son of Old Bun- 
combe, who set aside his own beginning per- 
sonal research for the time being to head up 
the entire project and be responsible for the 
meticulous recording of all the manuscripts, 
photos and finances involved. 

I am grateful for the patience extended to 
me by the personal clients of Ward Publishing 
Company who had to wait for their services, 
my colleagues at church who extended dead- 
lines for me, and to my own family who will- 
ingly and graciously placed their top priority 
needs at the bottom of the list of things to be 
done. 

About Our Publisher 

While we thoroughly appreciate the skill in 
book production exhibited by the staff mem- 
bers of Hunter Publishing Company as dem- 
onstrated by this handsome volume, 
perhaps most of all we would like to recognize 
how Mr. Stephen W. Hailey, Sales Manager, 
and Mr. William S. Reasonover, Historical 
Publications Co-ordinator, represented their 
Company up and beyond the call of duty. With- 
out their expertise, keen insights and sensitive 
responsiveness to our business and literary 
needs, this book could never have been 
written. 

By ordinary standards these past few 
months have been gruelling ones, but I have 
been buoyed up by the atmosphere of interest 
and helpfulness around me. Two pieces of 
writing that have crossed my desk are particu- 
larly worth sharing with you. One was prose, 
written for my own family newsletter, Pres- 
cotts Unlimited which was created here in 
Asheville in 1980. The other was a fragment of 
poetry written by Jim Wayne Miller whose 
book, The Mountains Have Come Closer re- 
ceived the Western North Carolina Historical 
Association Award for 1980. They speak for 
themselves, and follow this foreword as arti- 
cles one and two. 

Good ancestor hunting. Let us know if we 
can help. 

Doris Cline Ward, 

Editor and President, 

Old Buncombe County Genealogical Society. 

46 Haywood Bldg. Room 321. 

P.O. Box 2122 

Asheville, N.C. 28802 



VIII 





Doris Cline Ward 



Charles D. Biddix 



THE STAFF 
HERITAGE of OLD BUNCOMBE 



Editor Doris Cline Ward 

Associate Editor and 
Business Officer Charles D. Biddix 

Historical Advisor Dr. Milton Ready, Director 

Southern Highlands 
Research Center 
University of North 
Carolina at Asheville. 



Supporting Staff — Research and Clerical 

Col. Luther and Mrs. Caroline Anderson; Mrs. Helen Baldwin; Mrs. Marie Bartlett, Mrs. Violet Cook, 
Messrs Richard L. Davis, John Hall, Cleo G. Hogan, Mr. Albert and Mrs. Catherine (Starnes) McLean, 
Mrs. Mary C. Hyder, Mr. Daniel A. Packard, Mrs. Molly Skeen, Dr. Claude Steen, Miss Anne Tillinghast, 
Phillip Wilson and many other OBCGS members who staffed the office. 



1981 Officers 
OLD BUNCOMBE COUNTY GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY 



President Mrs. Doris Cline Ward 

1st V. Pres Mrs. Marie Towe McClure 

2nd V. Pres William B. Towne, Sr. 

Recording Secretary Phillip Wilson 

Corresp. Sec'y Mrs. Barbara 

Monteath Buchanan 



Treasurer Daniel A. Packard 

Parliamentarian Charles G. Lee III 

Genealogist John B. Gasperson 

Heritage Book Project Co-ordinator 

Charles D. Biddix 
Advisor Cleo G. Hogan, C.G.R.S. 



IX 







The Buncombe County Courthouse In 1920s 

This is one of seven courthouses which have served Buncomoe County citizens. The building was on College Street between the present 
Courthouse and Pack Square. Photo courtesy Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 




PART I ~ OUR HERITAGE; 
People, Places, Events 
In The 
Land Of The Sky . 



The building of roads, digging of tunnels, and the coming of railroads changed in a heroic way the economic and social 
fabric in the Old Buncombe area. Pictured here are workmen digging Beaucatcher Tunnel, Asheville. Photo from the Ewart 
W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research center, UNC-Asheville. 




WHY GENEALOGY IS 
IMPORTANT TO ME 

1-A 

It was the husband ot the lady who first 
introduced me to genealogy who commented 
to his wife, "You have ruined our preacher. If 
he gets into this he will not be much good to 
anybody!" 

Born out of his understanding of the value of 
time and his perception of the addictive and 
obsessive nature of family research, Doc was 
very serious about this matter. Anyone who 
has experienced the narcotic effects of geneal- 
ogy knows this, but a word of defense is in 
order. I think I ought to answer such a valid 
concern by saying why genealogy is impor- 
tant. 



Prescotts, or, at least she had heard this name 
mentioned as a possible relationship. Of 
course, she was correct. 

Interesting Kinship 

She did not know anything of our Huguenot 
Lineage, her kinship to governors and sena- 
tors (including Sam Ervin), the interesting 
stories of how the pioneers came from North 
and South Carolina. I regret that she could not 
share that with me now, but maybe she has 
much to share with me someday. 

Genealogy Important 

In the first place, genealogy has come to be 
important because it tells me much about who 
I am. I discover why I may feel or think a 




Did one of your family members sit here? The question of "Why it is important to know who sat by the hearth sides of 
yesterday in your family" is answered in Article 1 -A entitled "Why Genealogy Is Important To Me. " This old photograph of 
a mountain home fireplace, made in the early 1900s, is from the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research 
Center, UNC-Asheville. 



Compared to many who patiently work with 
me in this quest, I am a neophyte. I became 
interested about two years ago, soon after my 
mother died. It was her death that left me 
wishing I had asked dozens of questions that 
are no longer possible to answer. After 
months of research, the number grew to hun- 
dreds of questions. But nothing has given me 
more satisfaction and joy apart from that 
which I receive from my spiritual faith. Noth- 
ing has enabled me to place my few short 
years here in perspective more than this. Noth- 
ing has given me such confidence and pride 
in my heritage before this. 

I was thankful that I had asked my mother to 
write down what she knew about her family 
some ten years before her death . In addition to 
the obvious names and family connections, 
she wrote that somehow we were kin to the 



particular way. This does not mean I feel that I 
am a product of my past and nothing else, for I 
am an individual with my own perspective. I do 
understand something of my mother's piety 
and devotion. I likewise see some of my 
father's patience and dependability in his 
ancestors. Genealogy says to me, "This is 
your heritage." It also calls me to examine my 
faithfulness to what has been given to me. 

Then genealogy gives me a sense of pres- 
ervation of this marvelous heritage, the stories 
of the pioneers, and heightens my kinship 
with others of like mind. I am thankful for a 
Huguenot pastor who led his group of follow- 
ers first to Virginia, where there were disputes 
in the church, then to North Carolina where 
Indians killed nearly half of them, and finally to 
South Carolina where he almost starved to 
death — and all because of what he believed to 



be the truth. 

Quite a Character 

I am proud of a Methodist circuit rider by the 
name of Prescott. I am amused by a great- 
great-grandfather named Lindsey, who must 
have been quite a character. In doing this 
study, I realize just how many of us share 
ancestors, how many of us are kin! 

There is very little we can leave our children. 
Money and property can never be secure. 
Someone has said that education can never be 
taken away. Of course, I can only give that if 
my children are prepared to receive it. 

My faith means much to me, but God has no 
grandchildren. Yet I can leave them something 
I consider of value. 

Perhaps one day they will understand just 
how wealthy we are. We have a rich heritage, 
and if I have contributed to their possession of 
that heritage, it is worth my investment of 
time. 



A Dangerous Avocation 

Yes, Doc, I am fully aware of how danger- 
ous this avocation is. You and I both have 
professions which demand management and 
economy of time to be effective. I promise to 
be careful. But your wife has given me some- 
thing that will last as long as men remember, 
and things that last have a value which cannot 
be fully assessed. This compelling thing pos- 
sesses a worth that will persist even after you 
and I are gone. For that I am eternally grateful. 

From: "Prescotts Unlimited", Vol. II, #1 , March 1 981 . 
All rights reserved by Rev. Simpson. 

— Rev. William Carl Simpson, Jr. 

Pastor, 
Hamlet (N.C.) United Methodist Church 




In these chairs on Doris Ward's front porch in the summer 
of 1980 the plans for this book were developed in 
Asheville. 



WHY SHOULD WE CARE 
ABOUT GENEALOGY? 



From: THE BRIER SERMON .. . 

— you don't have to live in the past. 
You can't, even if you try. 

You don't have to talk old-fashioned, 

dress old-fashioned. 

You don't have to live the way your foreparents lived. 

But if you don't know about them 

if you don't love them 

if you don't respect them 

you're not going anywhere. 

You don't have to think ridge-to-ridge, 

the way they did. 

You can think ocean-to-ocean. 

You say, I'm not going to live in the past. 
And all the time the past is living in you. 
If you're lost, I say it's because 
you're not living in your father's house. 
It's the only house you've got 
the only shelter you've got. 
It may be just a mountain cabin, 
but it's shelter and it's yours. 

I left my father's house. Oh, I was moving. 

But I noticed I wasn't getting anywhere. 

I was living in somebody else's house. 

I kept stepping out somebody else's door 

and the roads I traveled kept winding, twisting, 

had no beginning, had no end. 

My own house, heired to me by my foreparents 

was right there all the time 

yours is too 

but I wasn't living in it. Well, I went home. 

And when I stepped out of my own front door 

when I knew where I was starting from 

I knew then where I was going. 

The only road I could go was the road 

that started from my own front door. 

— "In my father's house", that's what the Bible says. 

t t t 
You've heard it said you can't put new wine in old bottles. 
Well, I don't know. 
But don't be sure you're new wine. 
Maybe we're all old wine in new bottles . . . 




"Going Home!" a photo by Margaret W. Morley. (From: Morley, Margaret W. 
The Carolina Mountains, Houghton, Mifflin Company — Cambridge, 1913.) 



— Jim Wayne Miller By permission of the Appalachian Consortium Press. All rights reserved. 



HISTORIC TIME LINE OF 

ASHEVILLE 

AND 

OLD BUNCOMBE COUNTY 

3 

(For maps, see front end papers.) 

The Pre-Cambrian and Cambrian Ages 

The Appalachian mountains are some of the 
oldest mountains in the world. Their base rock 
was formed in the Pre-Cambrian Age before 
life appeared on earth and the area was cov- 
ered by a long, narrow sea. 

A shifting of the earth's crust in the Cam- 
brian Age when life forms appeared on earth 
caused the bedrock of the sea to be lifted up 
into high, jagged mountain peaks. These 
peaks gradually surrendered to the forces of 
erosion until they became the rounded forms 
of the Blue Ridge, Black Mountains, Unaka 
and Smoky Mountain ranges. 

The changing forces of Nature left behind 
deposits of a variety of minerals, including 
iron, lead, zinc, magnesium, nickel, titanium, 
and tungsten. Gold, silver, and copper also lay 
hidden in the mountains until man first discov- 
ered the skill of mining. 

The Ice Age 

The enormous variety of plant life in the 
mountains is another gift of ancient natural 
forces at work. The mountain region had 
already been populated by plant and animal life 
from the more southern regions when they 
were joined by many different species moving 
before huge masses of ice pushing down from 
the far north. The cool mountain climate pro- 
vided a new home for many of these foreign 
life forms which remained after the ice re- 
ceded. 

10,000-6,000 B.C. 

The first people to enter the mountain area 
were probably nomadic tribes, ancestors of 
the American Indian tribes. These first explor- 
ers were hunters and gatherers, moving from 
place to place as animals and vegetation be- 
came scarce. The first people to settle in the 
area were more advanced in the use of tools 
and built their villages within a compound pro- 
tected by a wooden fortress. They constructed 
mounds of earth, such as the one remaining at 
Franklin, for the foundation of their temples. 
From recent excavations in Swannanoa Valley, 
it seems likely that these mound builders were 
ancestors of the Cherokee. 

Pre-Columbian Age 

There are several theories of the origins of 
the Cherokee. Some historians believe the 
Cherokee to be related to the Iroquois nation; a 
part of a group driven southward by territorial 
disputes. Others maintain that both the Cher- 
okee and the Iroquois originated from a south- 
ern culture somewhere to the south of present 
United States' borders. We have only the con- 
tradictory reports of early French and Spanish 
explorers regarding Cherokee life and culture 
at the time of the first European explorations. 




This photograph shows interesting geological features 
found in the mountains of Western North Carolina. 



However, from these reports, the Cherokee 
people emerge as skilled hunters and warriors 
who lived simply, but well on mountain lands. 

Spring — April or May, 1540 

The Spanish explorer, Hernando Desoto, 
was the first European known to have entered 
Cherokee lands in Western North Carolina. 
Desoto explored the region in the Spring of 
1540, looking for deposits of gold and silver. 
Apparently, he met with little hostility, for he 
soon departed after successfully bargaining 
for mining rights to Cherokee lands. The Cher- 
okee had already developed mining and smelt- 
ing methods which the Spaniards may have 
borrowed in their own mining operations. 

May, 1673 

The next Europeans to explore Cherokee 
territory were the English. A small party from 




The trees of the mountains provided a major income for 
many mountain people in the 1880's. 



Virginia, headed by John Needham and Ga- 
briel Arthur made their way through the Swan- 
nanoa or Hickory Nut Gap in May of 1673. 
They were interested in setting up trade rela- 
tions with the Cherokee which they accom- 
plished successfully. This was the beginning 
of a century of trading between British agents 
and Cherokee villages. 

The British endeavored to win the friendship 
and support of the Cherokee as one way of 
consolidating their hold in the New World. In 
1730, Sir Alexander Cuming invited a group of 
Cherokee leaders to London where they met 
the King, exchanged gifts, and agreed to a 
trading contract successfully maintained for 
more than thirty years. 

Years 1760-1761 

By 1760 however, relations between the 
British and the Cherokee had deteriorated be- 



cause of tensions resulting from the French 
and Indian War, disputes over trading prac- 
tices, and the encroachment of settlers on 
Indian lands. A brief, but destructive war 
broke out in 1760, lasting until 1761 when the 
Cherokee were defeated. The British resumed 
their efforts to keep Cherokee support and by 
the Proclamation of 1763 forbade further set- 
tlement west of the Appalachians. However, 
tensions between Britain and her colonies ren- 
dered the Act useless and the Cherokee con- 
tinued to lose land to settlers. 

Spring, 1784 

Until the Revolutionary War ended, settle- 
ment west of the Blue Ridge Mountains had 
been prohibited. In 1783, after the War ended 
the state of North Carolina opened lands west 
of the Blue Ridge to veterans of the War. The 
first recorded white settlement was in 1784 
when Samuel Davidson and his family came 
through the Swannanoa Gap to settle along 
Christian Creek, a tributary of the Swannanoa 
River. 

Davidson himself was killed by the Cher- 
okee later that same year, while his wife man- 
aged to save herself, their child, and a slave 
woman by fleeing to Old Fort. Relatives of the 
slain man returned to the area for the body of 
Davidson and soon after established a settle- 
ment along Bee Tree Creek where it meets the 
Swannanoa River. 

Treaties of 1785 and 1791 

Not surprisingly, when the Revolutionary 
War broke out the Cherokee chose to support 



sovereign nation. The Treaty also allowed for 
future purchases of land by the states whose 
boundaries touched those of the Cherokee 
lands. 



veyor, ran the school under a subscription 
system of tuition often paid in farm products. 
Other small schools which sprang up were 
often held in the church buildings and sup- 




A Cherokee mother and child as photographed in the 
1920s. 



their old ally, Britain. This choice hastened the 
decline of the Cherokee and weakened their 
bargaining position with the new government. 
The Treaty of Hopewell in 1785 sought to 
establish normal relations with the Cherokee 
without any large concessions of land. Howev- 
er, this Treaty proved unsatisfactory to both 
the Indians and white settlers. 

The Treaty of Holston in 1791 did establish 
an official government policy toward the Cher- 
okee which would encourage the creation of a 
Cherokee society much like that of the newly 



penO^^ ^'" 



C 







The routes early settlers used to reach Western North Carolina. 



Settlements 1786-1791 

The tiny settlement was growing by the 
arrival of several families including the Pat- 
tons, Gudgers and Forsters. It was now known 
as the Swannanoa settlement. Some distance 
to the north, John Weaver settled on Reems 
Creek, while to the west, William Moore took 
up land on Hominy Creek. At the time, the 
settlements of Swannonoa and Hominy Creek 
were in Rutherford County, while those of 
Reems Creek and Beaverdam were in Burke 
County. 

Since both county seats were over the Blue 
Ridge to the east, the settlers were hard put to 
conduct business and to communicate within 
their respective counties. Accordingly, in 
1791, representatives of these first settle- 
ments asked the General Assembly to form a 
new county encompassing these settlements 
west of the Blue Ridge. 

First School, 1793; First Church, 1794 

With the early settlers came their religion. 
The first church in the area was a Presbyterian 
chapel built at the Bee Tree settlement in 1 794 . 
Only a year before the first school opened at 
Union Hill. Robert Henry, a lawyer and sur- 



ported by church members. The Baptist, 
Methodist, and Presbyterian denominations 
were the most common among Buncombe's 
pioneers. 

County of Buncombe January, 1792 

In January, 1792, the County of Buncombe 
was created and named for a Revolutionary 
War Hero, Colonel Edward Buncombe. The 
original area of the County was so large it was 
soon nicknamed "the State of Buncombe." 
Eventually, eleven counties would emerge 
from the original county. In July of 1793, the 
first county courthouse was built near the in- 
tersection of Patton Avenue and Pack Square. 
The county seat was named "Morristown" or 
"Moriston." Though the origin of this name is 
unclear, the village was renamed Asheville in 
1797 for Gov. Samuel Ashe, in office at the 
time of the renaming. 

1794 — North and South Main Streets 

The location of the courthouse was fortu- 
nate for John Burton, owner of the surrounding 
acres. In 1 794, he laid out a street along an old 
Indian trail which would be called North and 
South Main, later Biltmore Ave. and Broad- 



A 

I 



T'ZF 





Algonkin family 
Siouan family 
I Iroquoian family 



Indian paths 



This map indicates something of Indian towns and their location in the Carolinas, Tennessee and Georgia about 1700. The location of major Indian towns is keyed to the 
following numbers: 

1 Occaneechi Town 6 Haw Old Fields 1 1 Catawba Town 

2 Occaneechi 7 Cheraw 12 Waxhaw 

3 Eno 8 Peedee 13 New Echota 

4 Hancock's Town 9 Keyauwee 

5 Torhunta 10 Sapona 
(Taken from North Carolina History, Geography, Government, by Lefler.) 



way. Along this street, Burton measured off 
forty-two lots and quickly sold them to men 
and women who wished to locate near the new 
county courthouse. 

James Patton, Zebulon and Bedent Baird 
opened stores on this street, Silas McDowell 
put up a tailoring shop, while nearby grist 
mills, a forge and a shoemaker shop opened. 
Asheville opened its first post office in 1801 
where mail for much of the western region was 
sent. 

1800-1806: Roadbuilding 

One of the first acts of the Buncombe Coun- 
ty Court was to appoint people to lay out and 
build a main road. From the very beginning, 
roads were an important issue to Buncombe 
residents as they continue to be today. The 
roads were etched out of the mountainsides 
and valley floor by groups of men whose land 
the roads crossed or provided access to. 
Some of the most vivid descriptions of these 
roads come from the Journal of Bishop Francis 
Asbury who travelled the mountains from 
1800-1814 preaching to the people wherever 
they gathered. 

On November 3, 1802, he wrote: "We la- 
bored over the Ridge and the Paint Mountain; I 
held on awhile, but grew afraid and dis- 
mounted, and with the help of pine sapling, 
worked my way down the steepest and rough- 
est part." In coming through Mills Gap be- 
tween Buncombe, and Rutherford Counties in 
1806, the Bishop confesses, "I rode, I 
walked, I sweat (sic), I trembled, and my old 
knees failed ..." 

Early 1800s — The Drovers' Roads 

Many of the roads connecting Buncombe 
County to lands beyond the mountains were 
the old traders' routes and Indian trails leading 
from Virginia to South Carolina. By the early 



nineteenth century these roads were heavily 
travelled by drovers and their flocks of fowl 
and herds of pigs and cattle. While the traffic 
of animals kept the roads often impassable to 
wagons, it was a boon to the early economy of 
the area. 

"Stands" and inns grew up along these 
routes to accommodate both men and beasts, 
while farmers in the area profitted from the 
market for grain and feed products. Grist mills 
were kept busy with grain for home use as well 
as for market. 

The Eagle Hotel — 1814 

In 1814, the Eagle Hotel opened on the 
corner of Biltmore and Eagle streets. It be- 
came a well-known stop for settlers and 
travellers of all types. After the completion of 
the Buncombe County Turnpike in 1828, the 
Hotel offered stagecoach service west into 
Tennessee until the Civil War disrupted this 
service. The establishment of the Eagle was 
evidence of the growing number of people 
travelling to the mountain area. 

1815 — Mountain Herbs 

In the early days of settlement, most people 
were employed in a variety of occupations. For 
example, a man might cultivate the land as 
well as run a store or forge. His wife would 
take care of household chores, manufacture 
cloth for the family's apparel, tend a garden, 
and perhaps, act as nurse or midwife for the 
community. All members of the family partici- 
pated in the work of their home. Often, gather- 
ing mountain herbs provided additional in- 
come for a family. 

Some herbs were processed by women for 
medicinal uses and many were gathered for 
shipment to outside markets. Ginseng was 
one of the most valuable herbs and soon be- 
came an important part of the area's economy 
until the supply of this slow-growing plant was 
finally exhausted in the late 1860's. 



1815 — Discovery of Gold in Georgia 

In 1815, when gold was discovered in 
northern Georgia, South Carolina and Georgia 
immediately began exerting pressure on 
Washington for removal of the Cherokee and 
confiscation of their land. The protracted 
struggle ending in the "Trail of Tears" in 1838 
involved many prominent statesmen of the 
South and created bitter feelings on both 
sides. The Cherokee themselves had a written 
legal code by 1808, established a republic in 
1817, and wrote a national constitution in 
1827. 

Many of the leaders of the republican nation 
had been educated in missionary schools and 
Sequoyah's invention of a syllabry for the 
Cherokee encouraged a rising rate of literacy. 
The people who made the forced march to 
Oklahoma were well on their way to creating 
theirown uniquely American society within the 
Southern states. With their going, Western 
North Carolina lost a powerful influence in its 
history, but retained some of the legends, 
deeds, and myths of the Cherokee. 

1825 — David Lowery Swain 

In 1825, David Lowery Swain of Buncombe 
County was elected to a seat in the General 
Assembly. Swain, born in Beaverdam Valley in 
1801, enjoyed a long political career as the 
leader of the Western counties. His influence 
and popularity was a major factor in breaking 
the hold of the Eastern politicians on state 
government. The eastern section of the state, 
never very concerned with the developing 
Piedmont and Mountain regions, had estab- 
lished its dominance in the Constitution drawn 
up during the Revolutionary War. 

By the 1820s and 1830s, when the 
Jacksonian ideas of democracy swept the na- 
tion North Carolina lagged so far behind other 
states that it earned the nickname, the "Rip 
Van Winkle" state. David Lowery Swain and 



other reformers in the new Whig party suc- 
cessfully pushed for the establishment of pub- 
lic schools, the building of new roads, and 
constitutional reforms allowing a broader vot- 
ing base. The Buncombe Turnpike was one of 
Swain's achievements and had a tremendous 
impact on growth west of the Blue Ridge. 



years. In 1876, he was again elected governor Asheville suffered little damage though the 



on the revitalized Democratic ticket and in 
1879, was elected to the United States Senate 
where he served until his death in 1894. In 
1898, the Vance monument was erected in 
Asheville to this most popular and respected of 
all Western North Carolina's leaders. 



memory of Stoneman's Raid would be a bitter 
one. 

1867 — Voting In Asheville 

North Carolina's recovery from the Civil War 
would be slow, but the westward movement of 



ji 





There have been seven courthouses in Buncombe County 
to date. This is the earliest courthouse picture of record in 
Pack Memorial Library. 



1827 — Buncombe's First Summer 
Tourists 

Colonel Baring from Charleston, South 
Carolina, came to the mountains in 1827 in 
retreat from the oppressive summer heat. His 
wife, a native of Wales, was suffering from the 
heat and so the Barings journeyed to the 
mountains in search of a more healthful cli- 
mate. In the present town of Flat Rock (then in 
Buncombe County), where the Cherokee had 
once camped for summertime gatherings, the 
Barings found what they were looking for. 

They built a summer estate and soon be- 
came the local hosts of a growing number of 
wealthy South Carolinians who followed the 
Barings' example. The Barings were the first of 
Buncombe County's summer visitors and the 
initiators of an industry which would shape the 
future of both Asheville and Buncombe 
County. 

May 13, 1830 — Zebulon Baird Vance 

On May 13, 1830, Zebulon Baird Vance was 
born on Reems Creek. Vance, descendant of 
some of the first settlers in the area, was 
educated at Newton Academy (the old Union 
Hill school) and worked as a boy at a drovers' 
stand in Madison County. After completing his 
education at the University of North Carolina, 
Vance opened a law office in Asheville. With a 
winning personality and a sharp, intuitive 
mind, Vance soon entered on a long, highly- 
successful political career. It was one of his 
most admired characteristics that he never 
forgot the values, the humor, and the strug- 
gles of the mountain people. 

Vance was North Carolina's war-time gov- 
ernor, though initially he had been a strong 
opponent of secession. Choosing his home- 
land over his personal convictions, Vance led 
North Carolina through the debilitating war 













Pn-t> C.VtMR.lesT~c%, 



1861-1865: The Civil War Years 

The Civil War years were years of stagnation 
and deprivation in Asheville and Buncombe 
County. The destruction of rail lines severely 
limited commerce and border gangs of out- 
laws and deserters plagued the mountain 
counties where they had taken refuge. In the 
later years of the War, General George Stone- 
man sent a group of his "Raiders" through the 
mountain areas of North Carolina and Virginia 
where they were met by groups of volunteers. 
The "Thomas Legion" was an important part 
of the defense of the western counties and 
gained a reputation for successfully protecting 
the lives and properties of mountain families. 

The Legion, made up primarily of Cherokee 
Indians, was one of the units which prevented 
Stoneman's troops from approaching Ashe- 
ville through Swannanoa Gap. The troops were 
forced to march around to the Hickory Nut Gap 
where they broke through and reached Ashe- 
ville on April 25, 1863. The weak Confederate 
forces at Porter's Battery (afterwards called 
Battery Park Hill) were quickly overcome. 



people made homeless by the War swelled the 
number of travellers passing through the 
mountains, some of whom settled in the re- 
moter mountain regions. The emancipation of 
the slaves and subsequently, their enfran- 
chisement led to hostilities and suspicions on 
both sides. The tensions between the races 
resulted in secret societies such as the Red 
Strings and the Ku Klux Klan. 

However, since many mountaineers had 
never supported slavery and since the number 
of black people was relatively small, relations 
between black and white citizens never de- 
teriorated so completely as they did in other 
Southern states. The first black men to vote in 
Asheville went to the polls in 1867 and the 
event was recorded by an engraving in Har- 
per's weekly magazine. 

1870 — Bright Leaf 

The decade of the 70's was one of gradual 
growth and progress toward the economic and 
cultural boom which swept Asheville and Bun- 
combe County in the 1880s. One early entre- 




Gov. Zebulon Baird Vance: The only picture extant in his Confederate uniform. Made in 1861. Courtesy Citizen-Times. 



preneur was S.C. Shelton, a Virginia tobacco 
manufacturer who set up the first tobacco 
warehouse in the region. 

Shelton employed local people in the pro- 
duction of plug chewing tobacco in his ware- 
house on Valley Street. He was soon joined by 
two other manufacturers of "Bright Leaf" 
tobacco and Valley Street became the tobacco 
warehouse center of Western North Carolina. 
By the 1890's, competition from the larger 
tobacco companies in neighboring states had 
all but destroyed the market for Western North 
Carolina Bright Leaf. 

1870 — The Beginning Of "Sanitarium 
City" 

Other important developments of the 
1 870's were the Mica mining operations north 
of Asheville, making Asheville the mica mining 
center for the nation and the formation of a 
coalition of Asheville's leaders to promote the 
area as a health and tourist center. Frank 
Coxe, S.W. Battle, Thomas W. Patton 
joined with Dr. H.P. Gatchell to publicize the 
area's theraputic environment for respiratory 
diseases. Dr. Gatchell established one of the 
first tuberculosis sanitariums, called Forest 
Hill. By 1900, Asheville had gained the title of 
"Sanitarium City." 

1870 — A Library And A Newspaper 

In 1870, the first public library was begun 
by a group of Asheville women. The library 
was first housed in a small brick building on 
land donated by the Presbyterian Church and 
later moved to Public Square (later Pack 
Square) when George W. Pack donated money 
for the construction of a library in 1899. Also, 
the newspaper which was to become the Ashe- 
ville-Citizen Times began publication in 1870. 
From that time to the present, the paper has 
provided a record of events and a forum for 
public opinion. 

1876 — "Land of the Sky" 

In 1876, Frances Fisher Tiernan, under the 
pseudonym of Christian Reid, published a 
novel entitled "Land of the Sky." However 
uncertain the literary merits of the novel, its 
impact on the area was substantial. Southern 
Railroad picked up the apellation and used it in 
an advertising campaign designed to increase 
railroad traffic to the area after the railroads 
finally reached through the Blue Ridge in the 
1880s. 

Also, "Land of the Sky" was an early exam- 
ple of a literary genre romanticizing the moun- 
tain life and people. The caricatures of moun- 
taineers as quaint and picturesque, "contem- 
porary ancestors" drew curious travellers to 
the region. 

1880 — The Coming Of The Railroad 

Transportation was the key to Asheville and 
Buncombe County's development in 1 880 as it 
has been in the twentieth century. The charter 
for a Western North Carolina railroad was 
issued in 1855, but the War intervened. The 
railroad line was completed to Marion in 1870 
and to Old Fort in 1873. After splitting the 



hi n 




Mountain tobacco growing in a field in Madison County. 
UNC-Asheville. 



Note men in photograph. Courtesy of the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, 



proposed railroad into Eastern and Western 
divisions, funds for the completion of the road 
were to be raised through the sale of bonds, 
but this effort faltered because of a general 
skepticism about the state's ability to repay 
investors. 

At this point, George W. Swepson president 
of the Western Division, engaged Milton S. 
Littlefield, a Northern lobbyist, to "persuade" 
members of the General Assembly to vote for 
the bonds. Littlefield was apparently too lavish 
in his use of the railroad's funds to induce 
favorable votes and an investigation uncov- 
ered the bribery. Governor Holden, who had 
chosen Swepson for the position of president 
of the railroad, was badly hurt in the political 
uproar which followed and was eventually im- 
peached. The Western North Carolina Railroad 
was then taken over by the State after some 
political wheeling and dealing and construc- 
tion was resumed in 1877. 

Under the direction of Major James Wilson 
and with the labor of convicts, the railroad 
finally reached Asheville in 1880 and then was 
extended to Tennessee. It had been a costly 
process both financially and in the number of 
lives claimed in construction, but for Asheville 
and Buncombe County it was the beginning of 
a new era. 



1880s — Lumbering In The Mountains 

By the 1880s supplies of usable wood in 
the Northeast were nearly exhausted. Lumber 
companies then turned to the forests of the 
Southern Appalachians and bought large 
tracts of land and timber rights. The railroad 
provided both a market for crossties and 
transportation to outside markets. The con- 
struction boom of hotels and magnificent 
summer houses in the area made Asheville a 
center for wood products. 

Many mountain residents found work with 
the lumber companies, though the jobs were 
dangerous. The companies paid little heed to 
conservation, though by the turn of the cen- 
tury, conservation of natural resources had 
become a public concern. 



1886 — The Battery Park and Sulphur 
Springs Hotels 

In 1886, about 30,000 tourists visited the 
city of Asheville. The "town" had been in- 
corporated into a "city" in 1883. This stream 
of people which increased each year soon ex- 
ceeded the accommodations and in 1886, two 
of Asheville's grand hotels went up. Col. 
Franklin Coxe, a Pennsylvania oil magnate, 
chose a hilltop site overlooking Asheville near 
where Porter's Battery had stood during the 
Civil War. The Battery Park and grounds cov- 
ered twenty-five acres and could claim to 
have such up-to-date luxuries as a bowling 
alley and billiard rooms. The hotel soon be- 
came nationally known among the very 
wealthy. 

The Sulphur Springs Hotel, built in the un- 
developed area known as West Asheville, was 
owned by Edwin G. Carrier, a wealthy timber 
merchant. Mr. Carrier built the first hydroelec- 
tric plant in Asheville to supply lights to the 
Hotel and to the city. These hotels and others 
such as the Swannanoa on South Main were 
physical evidence of Asheville's change from a 
mountain town to a resort city. 

Mid 1880s-1890 s: First General Hospital 

Along with the new facilities for tourists and 
the clientele of the sanitariums came new 
ideas for community development. In the 
1880s, a local chapter of the Woman's Christ- 
ian Temperance Union realized the need for a 
medical facility to serve local people. From a 
small five-room cottage to a house on Char- 
lotte street to the founding of Mission Hospital, 
the women worked to arouse the community 
to an awareness of the needs of its local 
citizens. 

Women had previously gotten together in 
1884 to form the first woman's suffrage asso- 
ciation in North Carolina with Helen Morris 
Lewis, Florence Cunningham, and Mayor Thom- 
as Patton as its first members. 



Late 1880s and 1890s: A Time Of 
Improvements 

The late 1880s and 1890s was a time for 
many progressive measures. The founding of 
the Asheville Normal School for the training of 
teachers in rural areas, and the Allen Industrial 
Home and School for the education of young 
black women would have an important impact 
on future generations of Asheville and Bun- 
combe County residents. 

In 1887, Asheville Female College opened 
on the site where David Millard School later 
stood and the first Board of Education for 
Asheville met with one of its members a high- 
ly-respected member of the black community, 
Issac Dickson. Also, the building of a new Post 
Office and federal building, the construction of 
a city-wide water system, and the paving of 
many downtown streets indicated the city's 
movement toward rapid modernization. 

In the County, several small communities 
were incorporated after the railroads came 
through including: Black Mountain, 1893, 
Montreat, 1897, Biltmore, 1893, Arden, 
1895, Jupiter, 1895, and Alexander, 1905. 

1887: First Cotton Mill; 1889: First 
Streetcars 

The modernization of Asheville and Bun- 
combe was carefully directed by its officials 
and businessmen. Although C.E. Graham Cot- 
ton Mill became Asheville's first textile mill in 
1887, city leaders rejected the establishment 
of a larger mill along the Swannanoa River. 
They wanted to preserve the environment and 
the attraction of pure water and scenery un- 
blemished by mills and factories. 

The choice of electric streetcars in 1 889 was 
similarly based on the desire to maintain a 
pollution-free environment. Asheville was one 
of the first cities of the South to have a public 
transportation system using streetcars. 

1895 — Completion Of The Biltmore 
House 

By 1890, 37% of Asheville's citizens were 
from states north of Maryland and many of 



Ity 



Ai 












VY 



R 



**&* 



» ■*.-»• :' 



# 



is ,' 


L J2 IS 




■ . 












, * 




• • 


4 8 * 


•■ ■. - -•* 


" •■■■ * ■-* -• '*^\ 



The railroad came to old Buncombe County in 1 880 and the region began to be less isolated . It brought countless tourists also who enjoyed the view of the French Broad River. 
Courtesy of the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 




The Asheville Cotton Mill plant, as photographed in 1920. Courtesy of the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 




The Asheville Normal School (ca. 1928) for the training of teachers in rural areas. Courtesy of the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC- 
Asheville. 



10 



these came from New York and Ohio. One of 
the most influential of these Northern immi- 
grants was George W. Vanderbilt. Grandson of 
shipping tycoon, Cornelius Vanderbilt, George 
Vanderbilt chose Asheville for the site of a 
country estate that would be a model of mod- 
ern knowledge and traditional elegance. 

Vanderbilt chose a famous architect, 
Richard Morris Hunt, to design his country 
mansion and employed specialists, such as 
Frederick Law Olmstead, designer of Central 
Park, to landscape around 100,000 acres of 
forest and farmland. In addition, Vanderbilt 
began a dairy based on the latest scientific 
know-how. 

He transformed the little village of Best into 
a model village called Biltmore constructed in 
the English style. Vanderbilt even had a railway 
constructed to ease the transportation of 
materials for the house. 

1892-1893: Young Men's Institute 

Although Vanderbilt's impact on Asheville is 
hard to measure, his interest in improving 
opportunities for local people was not the least 
of his accomplishments. One example was his 
financial support of the building of the Young 
Men's Institute on a corner lot of Eagle and 
Market streets. The architect, Richard S. 
Smith, one of those originally employed by 
Vanderbilt for work on his estate, designed a 
multi-purpose building housing a drug stroe, 
meeting rooms, gymnasium and kinder- 
garten. 

The Institute became an important center of 
activity for Asheville's black community and 
along with the flourishing churches helped 
develop a sense of unity and common goals 
for the community. The Institute housed the 
Market St. Branch of the Public Library from 
1926-1966 and was bought by the YMCA in 
1946 which continued the community activi- 
ties until its closing in 1976. 

1900-1910: Religious Convention Centers 

A depression in 1893-1894 slowed con- 
struction and investment, but the first decade 
of the twentieth century found Asheville and 
Buncombe County once more growing and 
moving toward the creation of an interna- 
tionally known tourist and resort center. The 
Central Business District stretched from Pack 
Square along North Main, South Main, Patton 
Avenue and Haywood Street. The Square itself 
had a distinctly European feeling, reflecting 
the taste for Old World architecture which the 
varied population had brought to the city. 

Beginning in 1905 with the purchase of 
Montreat by the Presbyterian Church, a new 
group chose the mountain area for their con- 
vention center. The Presbyterians were fol- 
lowed in 1907 by the Southern Baptists' 
purchase of land at Ridgecrest and finally in 
Haywood County, the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, chose Junaluska for their 
mountain retreat. Over the years, these reli- 
gious convention centers brought many new 
visitors to Asheville and Buncombe County. 

1911 — The Weeks Act 

Some industry came to Asheville in the early 




An early photo of the Mission Hospital Building located on Woodfin Street, Asheville. It is now the Parkway Office 
Building. Courtesy of the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 



twentieth century. Many of the companies, 
such as the Hans Rees Tannery chose sites 
along the French Broad because of easy ac- 
cess to hydroelectric power. However, pres- 
ervation and conservation of mountain re- 
sources was also becoming a popular con- 
cern. With the passage of the Weeks Act of 
1911, efforts got under way to purchase land 
for a national forest. 

Mrs. George Vanderbilt, after her hus- 
band's death in 1914 carried out his wishes 
and sold the first acreage of what was to be 
known as the Pisgah National Forest. Frances 
Goodrich, who arrived in the Asheville area in 
the 1 890's, began the drive for preservation of 
another resource; the arts and crafts of the 
mountain people which were handed down 
through the generations. 

Frances Goodrich, Lucy Morgan, Mr. and 
Mrs. John Campbell, and others eventually 
pooled their efforts and in 1928 organized the 
Southern Highlands Handicraft Guild. 



1912: Langren Hotel; 1913: Grove Park Inn 

The grand hotels for the rich and famous 
continued to go up in the years before the first 
World War. E.E. Grove, a St. Louis tonic 
manufacturer, completed the luxurious Grove 
Park Inn in 1913. His son-in-law Fred Seely 
ran the Inn and built his own magnificent 
home, known as "Seely's Castle" in 1919. 

The Langren Hotel on the present Broadway 
was finished in 1912 and Kenilworth Inn, after 
its fiery destruction in 1909, was rebuilt. For 
travellers requiring less luxurious accom- 
modations, a number of boarding houses 
were opened. Life in the boarding houses was 
immortalized in Thomas Wolfe's Look Home- 
ward Angel which described the comings and 
goings of the boarding house guests a*nd the 
fever of real estate investments that captured 
the city in the 20's. 



1916 — The Great Flood 

The "great flood" of 1916 destroyed prop- 
erty all along the French Broad. Industries 
along the river, the Depot and village of Bilt- 
more sustained severe financial losses and 
before the waters receded twenty-nine per- 
sons had lost their lives. Another tragedy 
struck in 1917 when the Catholic Hill School 
(the first public school for black children) 
burned, killing seven children. The school was 
replaced in 1922 when the Stephens-Lee 
school was completed, becoming the first four 
year high school in Asheville. 

1917 _ Annexation Of West Asheville 

In 1917, when Asheville annexed West 
Asheville, the United States entered World 
War I. Many young men from the mountains 
joined the armed forces in the "Great War". 
The most famous of the young soldiers was 
Kiffin Rockwell, who with his brother Paul, 
sailed to Europe and joined the Foreign Legion 
well before the United States declared war. 

Kiffin Rockwell joined the famous Lafayette 
Escadrille and was the first American to shoot 
down an enemy plane. Rockwell was killed in 
September, 1916 when his plane was shot 
down over Alsace. Kenilworth Inn became a 
military hospital during the War and in 1918, 
the federal government purchased land at 
Oteen for the construction of a veterans' hos- 
pital. 

1920 — The Real Estate Boom 

Asheville's population in 1920 was about 
28,000; by 1930, the figure rose to over 
50,000. Buncombe County grew from about 
64,000 to almost 38,000 in the same decade. 
The foundation for this growth was real estate. 
Investors from a similar boom in Florida came 
to Asheville and Buncombe County when sales 
began dropping off in Florida. 

11 



Since the booming economy of Asheville 
and Buncombe County in the next decade was 
based largely on real estate, area industry and 
business tailored their production and ser- 
vices to this new market. Loans were relatively 
easy to obtain and the skyrocketing land prices 
encouraged local people to join in the general 
spirit of speculation. For a while, it looked like 
these times of easy money and quick riches 
had come to stay. 



Plaza and the Majestic. Though most of the 
sanitariums had closed their doors by the late 
20's, the city initiated programs such as the 
Rhododendron Festival and the Mountain 
Dance and Folk Festival to keep the flow of 
people steady. 

Work on Beaucatcher Tunnel was com- 
pleted in 1928 and opened a direct route from 
the by-now crowded business district to east 
Asheville. 




The old YMCA Building located on the corner of Eagle and Market Streets. Note man in the window. Courtesy of the Ewart 
W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 



1920s — The Building Boom 

The decade of the twenties was the greatest 
period of growth in the history of Asheville and 
Buncombe County. Most obvious were the 
construction of both private and public build- 
ings. Asheville claimed its first skyscraper 
when the Jackson Building was completed in 
1924. In the same year, the old Battery Park 
Hotel was razed and the new Battery Park was 
completed. The hill where the old hotel had 
stood watch over the city was removed and the 
earth taken to a nearby ravine to be used as a 
landfill for what is now Coxe Avenue. 

Pack Memorial Library was rebuilt on the 
old site and is a new fire station changed the 
look of the Square. In the late twenties a new 
City Building and Courthouse in the Art Deco 
style replaced the older structures. And the 
introduction of busses as the latest mode of 
public transportation reflected the alterations 
in the pace and the style of life. 

The Late 20's: Beaucatcher Tunnel, The 
Mountain Dance, & Folk Festival 

The Montford area became Asheville's most 
exclusive residential district, while develop- 
ment of the Beverly Hills project looked to 
future housing needs. The city could boast 
several motion picture theaters, including the 

12 



1920 — Lillian Exum Clement 

The prosperity of the time was a catalyst for 
social change also. With the passage of the 
19th Amendment, women won the right to 
hold office as well as the right to vote. In 1 920, 
Lillian Exum Clement was elected to the North 
Carolina General Assembly by a landslide vic- 
tory. "Brother Exum" as she was called by her 
male colleagues, was the first woman elected 
to the legislature in the South. 

She championed liberalization of divorce 
laws (cutting the time requirement for deser- 
tion from ten years to five) and the use of a 
voting booth to ensure secret ballots. She also 
introduced a "pure milk Bill" to protect 
against diseases, particularly tuberculosis, 
which could be passed on to humans. 

Miss Clement was a controversial figure 
because of her sex, though she never 
espoused a radically feminist doctrine. 

1927 — Asheville's First Junior College 

Along with a new Asheville High School 
completed in the late twenties, came the 
establishment of a Junior College in 1927. 
Public education had come a long way since 
the first schools opened in 1 888. Another kind 
of school, the Buncombe County Training 
School for Boys, indicated that with the 



growth of the city came the problems of an 
urban center. 

This school for "dependent and semi- 
delinquent" boys was complemented by the 
Lindley Home, a school for "delinquent girls 
and young women." The Lindley Training 
School for girls had been in existence since 
1890, but was bought by the City of Asheville 
in 1923. 

1927 — Enka 

In 1927, a Dutch company bought over 
2,000 acres in Hominy Valley. The purchase 
was the beginning of the American Enka Cor- 
poration which quickly became the largest in- 
dustrial employer in Buncombe County. The 
supply of pure water, the cheap labor avail- 
able, and the proximity to Southern textile 
plants where Enka's original product, rayon 
could be marketed made Buncombe County an 
ideal building site. 

November, 1930 — The Crash 

In November, 1930 Asheville and Bun- 
combe County's wave of prosperity came to an 
abrupt halt. There had been warning signs in 
the late twenties which led city officials to pour 
public funds into the area's largest financial 
institution, the Central Bank and Trust Com- 
pany. These efforts to prop up the Bank failed 
because of its heavy investments and loans in 
real estate ventures, with the result that the city 
government went bankrupt with the closing of 
Central Bank. 

City officials pledged to repay all of the lost 
funds, which they finally did over thirty years 
later. Central Bank's closing was only the final 
step which brought the Great Depression to 
Asheville. The real estate market had been 
unstable since the beginning and by 1928 was 
showing definite signs of rapid deterioration. 

Because Asheville's economy rested so 
heavily on this one market, its demise dragged 
many smaller businesses down with it in a sort 
of dominoe effect. 



1930, 1931: Burley Tobacco 

Though Asheville's growth had slowed to a 
standstill and in fact, would remain stagnant 
for the next thirty years, Buncombe County 
was in a somewhat better position. The intro- 
duction of Burley tobacco in the late twenties 
prompted a revival of the tobacco industry in 
the thirties. Also, Roosevelt's recovery pro- 




A P-40 Pursuit Plane used in World War II Pacific area 
during the early part of the war. Flown by Capt. Luther 
Anderson of Asheville. 



©:D&1>©Q©»S©©^2^S^S®?%C^C^^ 



f 

I 



X-i 







!Msili 



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I /> 

HAM IN BUGGY: Hello! Neighbor Smith, see you r back home again. I suppose yea 

bought a big supply of Everything while you were visiting those big towris. § 
NEIGHBOR SMITH: No, sir, you'r mistaken, i buy my goods right at home from & 

J. C. SMATHERS. I can do just as welL That's the store where 1 always trade beccuse 
I can save money. 



J. C. SMATHERS, 

Headquarters for 

DRY GOODS, NOTIONS, 

BOOTS, SHOES, HATS AND CAPS, 

CLOTHING, FURNISHING GOODS 

And a Complete Line of General Merchandise 
Proprietor TURNPIKE HOTEL 

Country Produce Bought: arid Sold 

TURNPIKE, N. C. 

A** ffjaapi- T *mbjj Company, Qrciaatri, OV 



An advertisement from a roll of wrapping paper used by J.C. Smathers, general merchant, Turnpike, N.C. The store was 
located in the Old Turnpike Inn close to the Buncombe-Haywood County line and operated in the late 19th century. Charles 
Biddix Collection. 



grams such as the Public Works Administration 
(PWA) and the Civilian Conservation Corps 
(CCC) provided temporary work for some 
people. 

For the farmers of Buncombe County, the 
Depression years precipitated a return to the 
barter system which had never completely 
died out in the mountains. Though cash was 
scarce, rural people in the mountains general- 
ly were better off than town people. 

1930-1931: Great Smoky Mountains 
National Park 

Perhaps the greatest boon to the area dur- 



ing the Thirties was the creation of the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park. The idea for 
the Park had originated around 1900, but it 
wasn't until 1925 that Congress moved to 
have the boundaries explored for a national 
park. After some neighborly squabbling be- 
tween the states of Tennessee and North Caro- 
lina over the exact boundaries for the Park, 
fund raising began in earnest. 

Though lumber companies in the area re- 
sisted the idea, and many mountain residents 
whose land was to be appropriated resented 
the intrusion of the State, North Carolina final- 
ly purchased over 150,000 acres and turned 



the land over to the federal government. Work 
began in 1931 and each year the Park draws 
tourists and sightseers from all over the United 
States, Canada, and other foreign countries. 




m NORTH CAROLINA 






GENERAL 
REFUNDING 8BND 







m i»inx< \v\h\nv: 

JJUUY/ISJ.I9ZB 

IpJ INTEREST PAYABLE 

M JANUARYI5TAND JULYIST 






PRINCIPAL ANO INTEREST PAYABLE 
t"? 1 '". AT THE PRINCIPALOFFICE OF THE 

§j f IR /ING TRUST COMPANY 

t'Sv BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN. 

K* CITY AND STATE OF NEWYORK 

J-*-. : , ti..:-:'s' i . i .. i -.., ":fjj.ijs-' .-... -:''- ; 






Copy of one of the City of Asheville $1000.00 "Great 
Depression" bonds purchased by Charles D. Biddix at the 
Refunding Bond Celebration, July 1 , 1976, Thomas Wolfe 
Auditorium. These bonds paid interest as follows: 1%: 
July 1 , 1 936 to 1 939; 1 Va%: to 1 941 ; 1 V 2 % to 1 946; 2% to 
1951 ; 2%% to 1956; 2 3 A% to 1961 ; 3 1 /4% to 1966; 4% to 
1976. 



1936: The Negro Welfare Council 

The Negro Welfare Council was organized in 
1936. The Council's purpose was to provide 
representation for Asheville's black commun- 
ity. The Black population composed about 
one-third of the total population which, until 
the organization of the Council, had relied 
upon an unwritten system in which city offi- 
cials called upon one man when matters con- 
cerning the black community arose. The 
Council was composed of seven outstanding 

13 




A World War II "Helldiver" A-25-A Dive Bomber photo- 
graphed over Robbins Air Force Base and being flown by 
Capt. Luther Anderson of Asheville. 



black citizens and was the forerunner of the 
Human Relations Council. 



1937 Thomas Wolfe Returns 

Thomas Wolfe returned to his home town in 
1937. The young author had stirred up a wall 
of hostility with the publication of Look Home- 
ward Angel in 1929. Wolfe, a native of Ashe- 
ville, wrote his novel on a subject he knew very 
well —the people and the town where he grew 
up. Some Asheville residents were outraged 
by the novel's description of a mountain health 
resort whose inhabitants were often involved 
in less-than-virtuous pursuits. 

However, as the shock wore off, the people 
of Asheville realized that in Thomas Wolfe they 
had a legitimate claim to immortality. When 
the author returned in 1937, he was welcomed 
handsomely. 

1941-1945: World War II 

World War II had a great impact on Asheville 





Southern Railway tracks under water near Biltmore, N.C. during the Great Flood of 1916. From The Floods of 1916, issued 
by Charles D. Biddix Collection. 



and Buncombe County's future. The Grove 
Arcade was taken over by the Weather and 
Communications section of the Army Air 
Corps. The Army still retains an office in the 
building for weather service. Some downtown 
hotels became distribution centers and the 
Grove Park Inn became first a retention center 
for enemy nationals, and then a rest station for 
naval officers. 

Rationing and scrap metal drives dominated 
the lives of those on the home front. And in a 
burst of wartime fervor, the old streetcar rails 
were pulled up and proudly added to the scrap 
metal collection. The local schools and col- 
leges emptied of young men as they went to 



join up and women took their places in 
businesses, factories and farms. 

1957: The Asheville-Hendersonville Airport 

Asheville's first airport was constructed 
south of the city because of wartime demands 
for rapid transportation of goods and people. 
The airport operated for a few years after the 
War, but was soon out of date by Post War 
standards. Asheville voters approved a bond 
issue for the construction of a modern facility 
on May 4, 1 957. The introduction of regular air 
travel into the area would alter the number and 
the type of visitors to the Asheville area. 




HAKI.OTTK 



MUKPHY 



Fort MiK. 



This Southern Railway map reflects the early 1920 routes into and over the Western North Carolina Mountains. The coming of the railroad changed the Old Buncombe area in 
that it made the movements of goods and people much easier. The payroll of Construction Companies building the railroads provided greatly needed cash income to many 
families of the area. 



14 




Central Bank & Trust Co., Pack Square, Asheville. 

This bank failed following the Crash of 1 929 inspite of the fact the City of Asheville poured thousands into the bank to keep it open. Then 
the city went bankrupt itself. Courtesy of the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 



15 




The U.S. General Hospital No. 12, Biltmore, N.C. in World War I. Pictured is the main hospital building (Kenilworth Inn) showing enclosed porches. Courtesy of the Ewart W. 
Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 



Late 1940s and 1950s 

By the end of the War, Asheville and Bun- 
combe County were showing the effects of a 
stagnant economy and industrial growth at the 
cost of the environment. Pollution had be- 
come a real and present problem. The tourist 
industry was also much changed. The wealthy 
summer visitors of the past, patrons of of the 
luxury hotels, had given way to a more modest 
visitor who preferred the convenient motels 
and stayed long enough to visit a few sights 
before taking off to another scenic spot. City 
planners returned to a program of improved 
transportation to attract a greater number of 
these transient guests. 

Late 1950s and Early 1960s: New Area 
Plans 

By the late 50's and early 60's Asheville and 
Buncombe County planners began to formu- 
late plans for drawing new industry to the area. 
They drew on the city plan written by John 
Nolen and adopted by the City in 1925. In it, 
Mr. Nolen pointed out the importance of a 
carefully planned growth which would mini- 
mize the sporadic, sometimes chaotic de- 
velopment in which business areas were 
mixed with residential properties and indus- 
trial interests might conflict with public recrea- 
tion areas. 

So from a plan worked out in Asheville and 
Buncombe County's golden age of progress, 
modern planners began to plot out the area's 
rebirth. The diversified economy would no 
longer be so dependent on any single industry, 
though tourism would remain an important 
part of the area economy. 

1968: Dedication Of The Blue Ridge 
Parkway 

Highways were again central to plans for a 
16 



revitalization of Western North Carolina. The 
dedication of the Blue Ridge Parkway in 1968 
represented the fruition of a twenty-two year 
plan for a scenic route, originally called the 
Appalachian Highway. Interstate highways 26 
and 40 also drew more people into the area. 
The construction of a crosstown expressway, 
and most recently the I-240 loop have relieved 
congestion and permit easier access to all 
parts of Asheville. 

1960s: Desegregation And A Technical 
College 

Schools in the area were affected by the 
climate of change in the 1960's. Desegrega- 
tion of the schools began in the 60's and 
resulted in a consolidation of existing schools. 
In 1963, the Asheville Buncombe Technical 
Institute (now A-B Tech College) was opened 
to provide industrial education for area stu- 
dents. Finally, in 1969 Asheville-Biltmore Col- 
lege became a part of the consolidated Uni- 
versity of North Carolina and changed its 
name to the University of North Carolina at 
Asheville. 



July, 1981: The Akzona Building 

Along with increasing numbers of industrial 
plants in the area have come a number of 
financial institutions so that Asheville is now a 
financial center for Western North Carolina. 
Also, Asheville was designated as a regional 
planning center for the Western North Carolina 
section of the Appalachian region. 

The downtown area reflects the combina- 
tion of remodeling the old and constructing the 
new. The latest addition to the Square is the 
Akzona Building (Akzona is a consolidation of 
the parent company in Holland, the American 
Enka Corporation, and other related com- 



panies) which was dedicated in July, 1981. 
— Charlene Plemmons, 

University of North Carolina 

at Asheville, under the direction of Dr. Milton Ready, 

Associate Professor of History, UNCA, and Director, 

Southern Highlands Research Center 



BUNCOMBE COUNTY, NORTH 
CAROLINA: WHAT WAS IT? 

4 

Buncombe County was formed from Burke 
and Rutherford Counties in 1791. It was 
named in honor of Colonel Edward Buncombe, 
a Revolutionary Soldier, who was wounded 
and captured at the Battle of Germantown, 
Pa. , October 4, 1 777, and in May of 1 778 died 
a paroled prisoner in Philadelphia. 

The Original Buncombe County when 
formed in 1791 included present day counties 
Buncombe, Cherokee, Clay, Graham, 
Haywood, Henderson, Jackson, Macon, 
Madison, Swain, Transylvania, and Yancey, 
with the exception of small eastern parts of 
Buncombe, Henderson, and Yancey. 

In 1794 an area east of the Blue Ridge 
Mountains was annexed to Buncombe which 
later in 1838 became part of the newly formed 
Henderson County. 

In 1833 Yancey County was formed from 
Burke and Buncombe, and the part from Bun- 
combe included present day townships Brush 
Creek, Bumsville, Cane River, Egypt, Green 
Mountain, Jacks Creek, Pensacola, Price 
Creek, Ramseytown, and that part of Crabtree 
Township west of the South Toe River. 

In 1925 Broad River Township was annexed 
to Buncombe from McDowell County. The 
1791 Buncombe County boundary description 
was: 

"... that all that part of the counties of 



Burke and Rutherford, circumscribed by the 
following lines, viz. Beginning on the extreme 
height of the Appalachian Mountain (also 
known as the Blue Ridge Mountains and the 
Continental Divide), where the southern 
boundary of this state crosses the same, 
thence along the extreme height of said moun- 
tain to where the road from the head of Cataw- 
ba River to Swannanoa crosses, then along 
the main ridge dividing the waters of South 
Toe from those of Swannanoa unto the great 
Black Mountain, then along said mountain to 
the north end, then along the main ridge be- 
tween South Toe and Little Crabtree Creek to 
the mouth of said Crabtree Creek, then down 
Toe River aforesaid to where the same empties 
into the Nollichucky River, then down said 
river to the extreme height of the Iron Moun- 
tain and in cession line, then along said ces- 
sion line to the southern boundary, then along 
the said boundary to the beginning, is hereby 
erected into a separate and distinct county by 
the name of Buncombe". {Laws, 1791. Ch. 
52). 

(Mr. Stout operates the respected Stout Historical Re- 
search Maps Service, 1209 Hill St., Greensboro, N.C., 
27408. He drew the copyrighted map found on the end 
sheets, one of the best of its kind ever published. Mr. 
Stout is active in state-wide historical circles.) 

— Garland P. Stout. 



BUNCOMBE COUNTY: HOW 
WAS IT CREATED? 

5 

The bill creating Buncombe County was in- 
troduced in the North Carolina General Assem- 
bly in 1791. The new county was formed by 
the western sections of Burke and Rutherford 
Counties. 

The assembly had opened its session De- 
cember 5, 1791 at New Bern. Listed as repre- 
senting Burke County in the House of Com- 
mons were David Vance and Joseph 
McDowell. William Davidson was representa- 
tive from Rutherford County. 

An entry date December 17, 1791 in the 
journal of the House of Commons reads: 
"Mr. Vance presented the petition 
of the inhabitants of that part of 
Burke County lying west of the 
Appalachian mountain, praying 
that a part of the said county, and 
part of Rutherford County, be 
made into a separate and distinct 
county. Mr. William Davidson 
presented a petition to the same 
effect; both of which being read, 
Mr. Vance moved for leave and 
presented a bill to answer the 
prayer of the said petitions; which 
was read the first time, passed 
and sent to the Senate." 



Name Change 

This original bill specified that the name 
Union be given to the new county. The bill, 
written in flowing longhand, was altered in its 
passage through the assembly and the word 
Union was struck out and the word Buncomb 
(without the final "e") was written in. A search 



of the records has failed to disclose why or by 
whom the bill was amended to change the 
county's name. It was ratified January 14, 
1792. That then, is Buncombe County's offi- 
cial birthday. 

This is recorded in Edward Buncombe and 
Buncombe County, by Paul A. Rockwell, 
Chairman, Buncombe County Bicentennial 
Committee, September 1, 1976, assisted by 
Dix Sarsfield of Black Mountain. This publica- 
tion was made possible by the Asheville 
Citizen-Times Publishing Company. 

The First Court 

By April 16, 1792, The Buncombe County 
Court began and was held at the home of Col. 
William Davidson, Esq. 

Justices were: James Davidson, David 
Vance, William Whitson, William Davidson, 
James Alexander, James Brittain, and Philip 
Hoodenpile. 

Justices of the Peace were Lambert 
Clayton, and William Brittain. Also present 
were David Vance, Clerk of Court, Thomas 
Davidson, entry officer of claims of land.; 
John Patton, surveyor; John Davidson, son of 
James, register; John Dillard, ranger; and 
Edmund Sams, coroner. 

— The Book Committee 



OLD BUNCOMBE: WHAT WAS 
IT LIKE IN 1743-1795? 

6 

Two sets of papers give a valued insight in 
the area in 1791-95: 

From The Blount Papers, State Department 
of Archieves and History, Raleigh, on page 
61 6, one finds the following letter from Robert 
Love to John Gray Blount (copied as written): 

(Buncombe County) 
16th Dec. 1795 
Dear Sir: 

You request me in a Letter of the first Inst, 
to Give a particular discription of the land I 
have Surveyed for you in Buncombe County, 
that would take much time, but I will give a 
General one in few words; The Land consists 
of Vallies and Mountains and not more than 
one fifth of which can be called poor Land & is 
all the best watered Country I ever saw. The 
General Growth of the Timber is walnuts black 
& white, Locusts, Sugar Trees, Buck Eyes, 
Lyms (lime or linden, sic) poplars & Oakes of 
every description; the black & white Hickory 
grows very plentifull — a Great Number of 
Wild Cherry & Cucumber Trees are to be found 
throughout our Lands. 

I have observations in my field Book of Buck 
Eyes measuring thirteen feet round the Body & 
black walnuts near the Same Size. These were 
found in plenty in running the line without 
searching out on Either side as well on the 
mountains as in the Vallies. 

From all I saw I am led to believe the whole 
[.] land would average fifteen bushells of 
Wheat to the Acre & Great part would produce 
Excellent Timothy Clover & Blue grass without 
manure as all of them are now found in wilder- 
ness. 



Perhaps the mountain call'd the Walnut 
mountain which is included in Your Survey is 
the richest in the world. 

The Great Bawld mountain is also rich to the 
top and even on the Top Timothy & Clover 
Grow amongst the Weeds to great per- 
fection — 

The Herbage which is Very plentiful [.] on 
the mountains is Ginseng, Spikenard, ries 
weeds white nettles Some of which Grow 
Eight or Ten feet High & as thick over the 
Ground as You will commonly See Hemp & 
etc. 

I am Sir with respect 
your most Obedient Serv' 
R° Love. 
Addressed: 

Mr. John Gray Blount, 
Beaufort County. 

The Brown Papers: 1794 

From the papers of John Brown, part of the Collection: 
Brown, and w. Vance Collection, Asheville, NC, (P.C. 
121.1-121.13), Division of Archives and Manuscripts, 
State Dept. Archives and History, Raleigh, NC. 

John Brown, native of Pennsylvania, was born in Kisha- 
coquillas Valley, August 12, 1772 but moved later to 
Lewistown, Mifflin County. In 1794 he made a trip to 
western North Carolina for the purpose of taking out land 
grants for himself and speculators William Cathcart and 
George and James Latimer. He returned north and en- 
gaged in a grist and saw mill business in Lewistown. From 
1809-1813 he served in the Pennsylvania House of Rep- 
resentatives and from 1821-1825 was a member of Con- 
gress from that State. 

He returned to North Carolina around 1827 and settled 
at Limestone (Skyland) in Buncombe County. From then 
until his death in 1845 he acted as the agent of Cathcart 
and the Latimers. 

The following material, courtesy of Carson Foard, is 
abstracted from the diary of his trip in 1794-1 795, concen- 
trating on his activities and experiences in the Buncombe 
County area and is presented with only very minor editing: 

... We got to a Mr. Kelton's and Staid all 
night I Bot a hoars and Paid him 65 Dollars in 
the morning of 22d 1 795 we Rode 1 miles to 
a Mr. Edmiston's and feed our hoarses at the 
foot of the Blew Mountain that divides the 
watters that Runs Easterly and Westerly and 
the lines of Buncomb & Burk County's Run on 
the Extream hight thereof we Came to flat 
Creek in the head of Swanano which Runs into 
Swanano & Swanano Emties into the French 
Broad River & we Rode 10 miles to a Mr. 
Dunsmore and feed our hoarses from thence 
we Rode 10 miles to a Mr. William's Deputy 
Surveyor in Buncomb County and we Staid all 
night it hail'd & snow'd all night and in the 
morning of Jay. 

"17 Mils" Trip 

23rd 1795 I went and got my hoarse shod 
and it Rain'd we Staid that night at Mr. Wil- 
liams in the morning on the 24th we set out 
and Rode 17 mils to the Entery Taker of Bun- 
comb County and we Try'd to Pawn our money 
with him but Cou'd not get him to take more 
than 36 Guineas he appear'd to Scruple the 
Money for Counterfit we Rode from his house 
10 miles after night and Cross'd the Swanano 
River at the mouth where it Emties into French 
Broad River supposed to be near a quarter 
wide and we Staid all night at Mr. Foster on the 
25th we Rode 2 miles to Buncomb Coart hous 
where there is a few Cabins we got Breckfast 
and I Parted with my Friend Taylor after 
agreeing with him to meet in Twenty Days at 

17 



Burk Coart hous I have six hundred miles to 
Travel by myself in a Strang Country Before we 
meet I Rode 15 miles to a Mr. Dunsmore's at 
the feet of the Blew mountain and 12 miles 
Through the mountain to a Mr. Wilson's where 
I staid. 

this Country is very mountainnous and 
abou'd with Grasey Barrens all the Land that is 
Cultivated is Pieces of Bottom for Coarn on the 
26th I set out after I Exchang'd hoarses and 
Rode 15 miles to a Mr. my Creature 

slip'd and Strain'd her hind pasten and got so 
lame she cou'd not set it to the Groun'd to Bare 
any weight thereon I stop'd a few minutes to 
Consider what I shoul'd do and a Gentleman 
appear'd going the same Rode that intend 
Traveling & he came forwar'd with two 
hoarses I immediately agreed with the Land- 
lord to Keep my mare and the Gentleman 
agreed to let me Ride one of his Creatures for 
near a hundred miles. 

"Burk Coart House" 

I Rode that day 1 8 miles to Burk Coart house 
and one mile to a Mr. Englands and Stai'd all 
night in the morning of 27th I got one of Mr. 
Ingland's Guirls to wash my shirts and Stock- 
ing the appear'd to be a Genteel famly the 
weather is very Pleasant; after Breackfast Mr. 
Davison and myself walk'd up to Town and it 
happen'd to be the week of the Coart there was 
a grate many County People Came in I hap- 
pen'd to see a hoarse that Pleased me and I 
purchas'd one at 68 dollars and Staid in Town 
to the Evening and then went to our Lodging 
on the 28th in the morning after Early Breck- 
fast we set out for Hillsboughrow where the 
Assembly sits in this State we rode 8 miles to 
the Line of Burk and lincoln County 2 mils to a 
Mr. Mehafy's and Staid all Night it is very 
moderate for the Season and lik for Rain the 
Rain com on in the night & in the morning my 
Comrade Mr. Davidson got up Befor me. 

"Cuttaby River" 

this is the 29th and the Rain Continu'd 
we Concluded when I got up to stay to 
Breckfast and the Rain Continu'd we ware 
foarc'd to set out being doubtfull the Cuttaby 
River wou'd be impassible we Rode 15 miles 
thoug a Very Constant Rain to a Mr. Wards 
where we fed our hoarses and set out again the 
Rain Continu'd faster than formerly and every 
Branch on the Rode was flowing we Continu'd 
8 miles to the River which had Rose Consider- 
ably. 

But we Ventur'd over and found it Very deep 
so that the water had like to Run over my 
hoarse we got thoug safe and Mr. Davidson 
Invited me home with him which was Seven 
miles from the River we arive'd in the evening 
to his house which is the most handsom seat 
that I have been at in this State his house is 
frame Built in good Stile and Well Calculated. 

The Rain abated and it Cleared with a high 
wind I was disagreeably wet from the middle 
down my Boots was full of water and my 
cloaths something damp'd in my saddle Bags 
— on the 30th in the morning when I got up 
Mr. Davidson inform'd me my hoarse had 
Broak out of the Stable and we hunted to 



Twelve Clock and got my hoarse and I sat out 
and Rode 15 miles to a Mr. Walkers and feed 
my hoarse. 

To Salisbury 

Rode 1 5 miles to Salsbury and put up at Mr. 
Troy's the weather is Remarkeably good I 
Rode near Six miles after night to get in to 
Town and I heard the kildee Burds sing the 
same as in summer in the Norred on the 31st 

I Rose a Pleasant morning and Burds 
singing . . . 

(After doing business in Salsbury, 
etc. he continued:) 

"Fed Our Hoars" 

... on the 1 0th Mr. Nunon came to Town to 
accompany me to Buncombe County on the 
11th. We staid in Town and I wrote a letter to 
Mr. Stedman and by Mr. Wm. Tate. We have 
had rain three days raining and thunder. I am 
obliged to pay every attention to get my busi- 
ness carried on the 12th it appeared like for 
rain and we staid in town on the 13th we set 
out for Buncombe County in Company with 
Mr. Wm. Walton & Rode 12 miles to Mr. 
Rotherfoards on Mudy Creek and fed our 
hoars and got some dinner we Rode 1 3 mils to 
Mr. Carsons on the Cuttaba River from there 
we Rode 5 Miles to a Mr. John Davisons we 
ware very wet as it had raind and hal'd Extrem- 
ly heavy on the Rode we staid all night on the 
14th May we started & Rode 7 miles to Mr. 
Edmiston at the foot of the Blew Mountain and 
got Breckfust we Continued over the Mountain 

II to a Mr. Davidsons and got Coarn for our 
hoarses from them. 

we Rode 7 mils to Mr. Joshua Williams 
Duputy Surveyor for Buncombe County we got 
some dinner and I agree'd with him make 
some surveys he mention'd that our Locations 
was interspers'd through Mr. Ragsdale entrys 
and it would be more Proper to wate to their 
surveys was made I was very uneasy to Know 
what to do. 

I Expected to Meet Mr. Taylor & we Rode 
down to the Seat of Justice for Said County 
which was 8 mils and Lodged at Mr. Streets 
we had very poor intertainment this Town is 
but two Days walk from the Cherokee Nation 
the keep a near Sixty men out about 7 miles 
distant from Town in small garisons to Prevent 
the Indians from coming in on them. 

"Settlement Very Thin" 

this Town stands a mile distant from French 
Broad and a mile Below where the Swanno 
River empties into French Broad the settle- 
ment is very thin and the live But very indif- 
ferently Mr. Newnon and myself said on the 
14th we ware foarced to Go out to the woods 
and lay by our hoarse to the feed a while on the 
Pasture on the 15th we set of for Morganton 
and Return'd by way of Mr. Williams he agre'd 
to make the survey for me I made Calculation I 
found that after Paying the mony for the lands 
in Burk I would not be Eable to pay for more 
than one hundred thousand Acs. when I calcu- 
lated the amount of land in Buncombe it 
amounted to 299 thousand Acs. 



I concluded to have what I Coud pay for don 
immediately at set out for home we Breck- 
fusted and Rode 8 mils to the mountain and 9 
mils to Mr. Edmistons & we got Dinner from 
them we Rode 8 mils to Mr. Davison we had a 
small Rain and a grate deal of litening on the 
15th we continued down to a Mr. Findleys 14 
mils and Breckfusted we Rode from there 18 
mils to Morganton on the 16th Mr. Cochran 
and myself Rode out to the Cutaby River and 
Crossed we Rode five mils to a Mr. Joseph 
McDowels a member of Congress for this dis- 
trict. 

"... Drank Some Whiskey" 

We dined & Return'd in the Evening by 
William Erwin Esq's and Drank some whiskey 
from there Rode & Crossed the Rockey foard 
of the River and came to Town the Weather has 
been very warm on the 1 7th we went out a mile 
to quarter Rase Paths and Run every turkey we 
Cou'd Raise & from there we crossed the River 
& went to a still house and Dranke Whiskey & 
got in to Town after Dark on the 18th I staid in 
Town. 

Mr. Newnon's hoarse got Lame and him & I 

swapt'd hoarses and Drank whiskey on the 

1 9th he Started home I staid in Town expecting 

some intillegence from Mr. Taylor on the 20th 

we made a Party and went to the Paths and 

Run every turkey in Company and then we 

swig'd a Gallin of Whiskey and Mr. Joseph 

McDowel & myself swap'd hoarses 

(After swapping horses, his horse 

strayed away and he was obliged 

to borrow another to trail it. It took 

days and many miles but finally, 

one mile out of Statesville he 

caught up with that horse. After 

some time spent on his business 

he set out again for Buncombe.) 

"Backon Poan and Greens" 

We rode 20 mils to a Mr. Burgans on the 
Cuttaby River and fed our hoarses and got 
some Backon poan and Greens it Come on 
Rain we set out & Rode 1 1 mils & Crossed the 
Blue Ridge or Blew mountain we cou'd get no 
feed for our hoarses we continu'd 6 miles to 
the Parting of our Rode. I went to Major 
McKinney's & I Continu'd 5 mils to Mr. Joshue 
Williams it Rain'd very heavy on my the hole 
afternoon & in the Night it Continu'd to Rain 
amazing hard on the 12th. 

I was detain'd by the Watters which was 
very full the Swanno River was at least 8 feet 
higher than it had ever been nown sinced inhab- 
ited by white people it don a very consider- 
able damage to the People who liv'd near the 
river it sweep whole Coarn fields off also all the 
fences we ware allarm'd in the morning by one 
of the People ... he lived on the River at Mr. 
Williams. 

"... Into Fork of Large Tree" 

He gave an act. of a man and his Wife Being 
distress'd the watter had surrounded their 
house in the night and in the Morning it Con- 
tinu'd Rising & got into the hous the man and 
Wife with a young woman who liv'd with him 
had to Wade out near hinch deed in watter to 



18 




• *' 




The Upper And Lower Linville Falls 

Settlers and travelers to "Old Buncombe" in the 1 8th and 19th centuries marveled at the beauty of 
the Blue Ridge. Pictured here is a photo from the 1 920's of Linville Falls. The adjacent story gives a 
quaint report on this part of Western North Carolina as seen by two different writers. 



19 



the highest part of their island & he help'd his 
wife up into the fork of a large Tree & the young 
woman also his wife's Infant of which she was 
deliv'd just two weeks since he was then 
Riduced to the necessity of take his shelter on 
a high stump where he stood and wated his 
fate the watter Continu'd Rising to near Elevin 
oclock at which time the watter was up Near 
the mans middle who stood on the stump the 
having got at the Hight fell very fast and in the 
affternoon the watter had fell so that he got 
Back to his house. 



(The diary continues about their 
experiences crossing the various 
swollen rivers that had to be 
crossed in the course of his jour- 
neys.) 

"Reeping Wheat" 

Major Cochran and myself Returned to 
Town and in the affternoon swig'd some Bran- 
dy the season is forwar'd in this Country Peo- 
ple is Reeping wheat ... on the 21st in the 
morning I borrow'd a hoars of Major Cochran 
and Hired a man to wride to the Sotherren 
Teritory for my Draughts and Cloths which Mr. 
Taylor was to forward on the same day made 
som surch for prior Entrys in the Books so that 
I cou'd ascertain the quanitity of my lands in 
this County. 

on 22nd I helped Mr. Smith write Warrants 
so that there cou'd be no detenure whin my 
Draughts wou'd Come on the 23rd I got a 
Certificate from Mr. Smith directed to the En- 
try taker of Buncombe County to inclose in to 
Mr. Williams by Lambert Clayton so that I 
cou'd get my warrants ishu'd for the lands in 
that County — and on the 23rd I wrote two 
Certificates of the qualitys of Samuel McMeker 
and Cochrane land and then got a Mr. Smith to 
erase the entrys in their feavor . . . 

rode out of Town on a Visit to Col William 
Irwins and Rode 3 miles to the Cuttaby River 
and crossed at Mr. Englunds ferry and from 
there we wrode four miles to Mr. Irwins and 
we dined with him and drank tea in the Evening 
the first time for me in six months, his wife is a 
well Bred Lady We ware Treated politely . . . 

on the 26th I agree with Mr. Hugh Tate to 
Make som Entery's of lands in Buncombe 
County and be equal partners with him and his 
Brother Samuel I taken in so that I cou'd make 
the Sale in the Citty and I paid him fifteen 
pounds Peaper mony on the 28th and got Mr. 
Cochran to assist me to make a power of 
atturny from Collins & Hurd for me to make 
sale of their Lands. 

"A Verry Correct Good Sermon" 

28th Being Sunday I wrode to Meeting 
about five miles from Town and Mr. Cochran 
Mrs. Spiers & Joseph Alexander wrode with 
me Mr. Wilson Preach a verry Correct good 
sermon . . . after sermon the most of the 
Congregation wrode to Mr. Perkin's funeral he 
had been taken on the 25th of this Month with 
what is Called the Milk sickness and departed 
Saterday Evening . . . 

It is something their Cows Eat that grows in 
the Low Lands — supposed to be a Weed but 



has never been authenticated, it was a large 
funeral People appear'd considerably 
allarm'd. .. . 



"A Fine Famly Of Children" 

(He conducted various land trans- 
actions and then . . .) 

on the 3rd I continu'd at my draughts and in 
the afternoon Col Avery an attorney at Law 
who liv'd four miles out of Town waited on me 
to wride home with him Mr. Avery has one of 
the finest Country seats I have ever seen in this 
State and live very well his wife is a very well 
bred woman and appear mutch like a Lade . . . 
they have a fine famly of Children and a daugh- 
ter well Bred with a handsom fortune. 

(there is a young man of the Name of Wilson 
who Preaches and Keeps his home at Mr. 
Avery's.) On the fifth I went to Meeting Mr. 
Wilson Preached and in the evening my friend 
Mr. Cochran and myself walk'd out to John 
Stivileys Esq. ... 



Move To Asheville 

As a result of his interest in the Buncombe 
County area, eventually his son William J. 
Brown moved to North Carolina with his fami- 



ly. William's son John Evans Brown, after 
emigrating to Australia finally returned to 
Asheville and made his home here until his 
death in 1894. Accordingly, the Brown family 
came to have quite an impact on the business 
and cultural climate of this area for about a 
century. 

This collection of papers in the Archives is 
interesting reading regarding their interests and 
activities. Their contacts with many of the 
other well-known families are mentioned in 
some detail, and thus we have a first hand 
glimpse of what it was like to live and do 
business from the beginning of the 19th cen- 
tury in the Old Buncombe area. 

— The Book Committee 



OUR MOUNTAIN HERITAGE 

7 

An interesting and relatively new book for 
use by those studying Western North Carolina 
is entitled, "Our Mountain Heritage, " which 
includes essays on the Natural and Cultural 
History of WNC, by James H. Horton, Theda 
Perdue, and James M. Gifford. It was edited 
and has an introduction written by Clifford R. 
Lovin, and was published by the North Caroli- 




A 1921 photo of Castle Fall, from the South. 



20 



na Humanities Committee and Mountain Heri- 
tage Center, Western Carolina University in 
1979. 

While Mr. Horton writes a large section on 
mountains, streams, animal and plant life 
starting back with early geological eras, Theda 
Perdue gives us a most enlightening descrip- 
tion of the Cherokee Indians, their belief sys- 
tem and their social organization. 

Of fascination to genealogists of today who 
are busy tracing their families through a series 
of surnames carried by men in the family, Ms. 
Perdue indicates that members of a Cherokee 
household were "usually a mother, her 
daughters, her daughters' children and her 
unmarried sons. 

The husbands of the women of the house- 
hold also lived with the family and contributed 
to its support; but since Cherokee marriages 
were frequently of short duration, their con- 
tinued presence was not assured. In the event 
of a marital separation, the husband returned 
to the household of his mother and sisters, 
while his children remained with his wife and 
her family." 

Indians Thought Otherwise 

While this pattern sounds reasonably famil- 
iar to us in the case of divorce in European- 
based families, the difference lies in the fact 
that with the Cherokee, "the person's only 
relatives were those who could be traced 
through women — mother's mother, 
mother's sisters, mother's sister's children, 
siblings, and the most important man in a 
child's life, mother's brother. In this kinship 



system, a child was not a blood relative of his 
father. 

"The responsibility for maintaining disci- 
pline and teaching the boys to hunt rested not 
with the father but with the maternal uncle. 
Although he might sleep in his wife's house- 
hold, mother's brother spent much of his time 
with his own lineage because these were his 
kinsmen while his wife's people, including his 
wife and his children, were not." 

The book goes on to describe the need for 
balancing deed for deed which led to much 
retribution needing to be undertaken in re- 
venge for happenings, which, if not done, 
could cause persons to be ostracized from 
their social scheme of things — an unbearable 
condition and not to be willingly endured. 
Thus, the reason for many attacks on the Euro- 
pean settlers becomes, much more under- 
standable, and the book is very enlightening 
reading. 

Spanish, English Explorers 

James Gifford has a chaper on the Spanish 
explorers and English explorers, followed by 
the arrival of settlers, and mid-eighteenth cen- 
tury conflicts. Pictures of individuals and 
groups in action and maps of early trails and 
movements of ethnic settlers help to illuminate 
the very easily-read text. 

He continues his narrative right on through 
the Revolution and the Civil War and then takes 
time out to describe the life of the early settlers 
and their descendants, and how they de- 
veloped their land and property, built schools 
and gradually raised their level of civilization. 



The book closes with a good list of sug- 
gested additional reading, many titles of which 
are the same as those included in this volume 
for your reference. 

— The Book Committee 



THE MINOR MOUNTAINS: 
MAYBE NOT SO MINOR 

8 

These lists and descriptions of mountains 
and valleys in this part, including information 
on how to reach them, are brought to you 
through articles by knowledgeable writers 
which have already been published in the 
Asheville Citizen-Times newspaper. This 
shows the geographical problems that faced 
anyone who ever lived here from Indians on 
through the early settlers to present times. 

The ease with which many parts may now 
be reached is a living monument to how suc- 
ceeding generations put education and de- 
veloping technology in many fields to good 
use to meet their needs. By including direc- 
tions and referrals to the road maps, we trust 
we are being helpful to those who may try to 
take a sentimental journey "back home". 

However, if 'back home' should prove to be 
a well-settled industrial area or manicured 
farm land, you may still have a personal ex- 
perience of the woods and mountains as they 
might have seemed to the early settlers by 
following any one of many "foot-tours" that 
have been designed for "Walking The Smokies 
The Quiet Way." There are places that allow 





A view of Mt. Mitchell, towering 6,711 feet above sea level, to be found in the Black Mountains, (from an old print.) 



21 



you to leave the main road, park your car and 
follow little trails that are safe but will still give 
you an intensely rewarding trip back through 
the 'time tunnel' to see for yourselves the way 
the routes were between neighbors' cabins. 

Take your children. Take your cameras so 
you can add personal pictures to your family 
history books. For information about these 
trails, write to The Superintendent, Great 
Smoky Mountain National Park, Gatlinburg, 
Tenn. 37738. 

For an in-depth home or school project, there is 
available for purchase, a plastic 3D relief 
map. The one for the Knoxville area includes 
Asheville, Mt. Mitchell and the Smokey Moun- 
tains. For information and prices, write to 
Crestwood, P.O. Box 8832, Asheville, NC, 
28814. 



The Great Balsams: Named for the trees 
which cover most of its peaks, this range 
starts in the Smokies and runs 45 miles before 
leading to the intersecting Plott Balsams and 
Pisgah Ledge, which includes Mt. Pisgah. The 
Plott range is named for a pioneering Haywood 
County family. Reach the Balsams by travell- 
ing U.S. 19 south from Asheville and U.S. 
23-19 A south from Waynesville or the Park- 
way between the two routes. 

The Cowee: This range begins at the Swain- 
Macon County lines and goes along the Little 
Tennessee River and reaches 5,058 feet at 
Cowee Bald. The peaks are steeped in Cher- 
okee Indian lore. Drive along US 23-441 south 
from Dillsboro and north from Franklin to see 
the Cowee peaks. Turning to the north- 
ern border of the area, visitors find these 




Through certain key mountain gaps moved hundreds upon hundreds of settlers. Many coming into Western North Carolina 
moved through Watauga, Swannanoa, and Butt Mountain Gaps. The map codes the major gaps as follows: 1 Rockfish Gap; 
2 White's Gap; 3, Mowbray Gap; 4, Fancy Gap; 5, Watauga Gap; 6, Swannanoa Gap; 7, Butt Mountain Gap; 8, Cooper's 
Gap; 9, Cumberland Gap. (After Lefler.) 



Minor Mountain Chains 
Have A Charm Of Their Own 

The great Smokies and the Blue Ridge 
Mountains are not alone in their natural 
glories. 

Although some of the most beautiful peaks 
in the Appalachian and Smokies mountain 
chains dominate the travel plans of many 
Western North Carolina visitors, the minor 
mountain chains, like the Craggies and Un- 
icois, have their own beauty. 

The Black Mountains may be among the 
oldest in eastern United States. Mountains in 
the U-shaped range rank among the highest in 
the area with Mount Mitchell (6,684) the 
crowning peak, just off the Blue Ridge Park- 
way east of Asheville. Also in the range are 
Celo Mountain (6,440) off the NC 80 at Burns- 
ville and Potato Knob (6,440) off the Park- 
way near Mount Mitchell. Mount Mitchell 
offers a state park. Deep forests cover the 
mountains. Reach the Blacks by the Parkway 
east of Asheville. 

22 



mountain ranges, starting from the west: 

Unicois: The dominating peak in the range is 
the little known Huckleberry Knob (alt. 5,580). 
More popular is the Joyce Kilmer Memorial 
Forest, which has been set aside forever as a 
natural area. Surrounding it are Hangover Lead 
and Hare Lead on the north, on the west by 
Stratton Bald and on the south by Horse Cove 
Ridge. Reach the range along U.S. 19-129 
west of Andrews or U.S. 64 north to Murphy 
through to Unaka and Violet. 

Smokies: Noted for its uniformity, this 
range runs for miles without dropping below 
6,000 feet. Among these peaks are Black 
Knob, Mt. Guyot, LeConte and the highest 
peak, Clingman's Dome (alt. 6,642). Recom- 
mended access points to see the peaks are 
Frye Mountain at Bryson City and Heintooga 
Overlook in the park itself. The Appalachian 
Trail follows most of the range. Motorists can 
reach the range and the national park by taking 
the Parkway to its western end or U.S. 441 
from Cherokee into Tennessee. 



Balds: Divided by the French Broad River, 
this range offers a mountain view to many 
visitors arriving from the north along U.S. 
25-70. Starting from their junction with the 
Newfounds in the west, they reach from Max 
Patch (alt. 4,660) in the west to Big Bald 
(5,51 6) in the east. Many side trips in the area 
are possible. Reach Max Patch off N.C. 209 
from Hot Springs. Big Bald can be seen off 
U.S. 23 north of Mars Hill, at Cowee Gap on 
N.C. 106 south of Cashiers. 

Nantahalas: The highest peak in the range 
may be Winspring Bald (5,445) but Wayah 
(5,335) may bring more spring visitors be- 
cause of its rhododendron and laurel. A rec- 
reation area is available in the area. The near- 
by river apparently gave the range its name 
and is now a popular route for rafting. Reach 
the mountains by travelling U.S. 64 south 
from Franklin. Forest roads go into the range. 
Reach the town of Nantahala and the gorge by 
taking U.S. 19 south from Cherokee. 

Snowbirds: These westward mountains 
mark the scenery in Graham and Cherokee 
counties. Cheoah Bald (5,026) is the tallest 
peak. Teyahlaee (4,71 6) plainly visible in Rob- 
binsville offers a good view of the area. To 
reach these peaks, travel along U.S. 19 from 
Cherokee to U.S. 129 at Robbinsville. 

Blue Ridge: These mountains, which run 
from Standing Indian Mountain in the west to 
Hawks Bill Mountain and beyond in the eastern 
part of the region, offer many views and are 
easily accessible because of the many usable 
gaps. The mountains, which include Table 
Rock, Hawks Bill and Grandfather Mountain 
(alt. 5,964) are not among the tallest but they 
may be among the easiest to reach. 

One spur off the ridge is the Craggies, which 
are reached by the Blue Ridge Parkway. From 
Craggy Dome (6,100) the Blacks, Smokies, 
and Blue Ridges are visible. Another promi- 
nent peak near Cashiers is Toxaway Mountain 
(alt. 4777). Other mountain ridges and nearby 
cities are visible from the peak. The Blue Ridge 
mountains can be reached at many points in- 
cluding U.S. 23 into Franklin, N.C. 106 into 
Highlands, NC 107 into Cashiers, US 276 into 
Brevard, US 178 into Rosman, US 226 be- 
tween Marion and Spruce Pine and NC 181 
from Morganton. 

— David Niven, Staff-writer, 

Asheville Citizen-Times 

June 28/81 . 

(by permission) 



VALLEYS, LAKES, RIVERS 
AND FIELDS 

9 

The Western North Carolina region of which 
Old Buncombe is a central part, offers lakes, 
rivers and meadows to match its mountains. 
Each range offers its lowlands. The Blue Ridge 
offers the valleys of the French Broad, Little 
Tennessee, Watauga and Toe. From west to 
east, the region presents these and other 
attractions: 

Santeetlah Lake: This lake catches the water 
of the Cheoah River in the Unicois, north of the 
Snowbirds. Travel there on U.S. 129. 




How early settlers crossed the mountain rivers and creeks, (from: Carolina Mountains by Margaret W. Worley.) 



Konnaheeta Valley: This area lies between 
the Snowbird and Valley River Mountains 
which rise up from the Hiawassee River. 
Travel along U.S. 64 west from Hayesville or 
U.S. 19-129 south from Andrews. 

Fontanna Lake: This man-made lake is sur- 
rounded by mountains and leads to the tallest 
dam east of the Rockies. A complete recre- 
ation center can entertain the entire family. 
Travel U.S. 19 to NC 28. 

Nantahala River and Lake: The river feeds 
the lake from the mountains. Water sports are 
available in addition to the scenic surround- 
ings. Travel N.C. 19 between Andrews and 
Bryson City. 

Lake Junaluska: The 250 acre lake is the 
center for the year-round Methodist Assem- 
bly. Take U.S. 19-23 off I-40. 

Graveyard Fields: Among the grasslands in 
the area west of Asheville are these fields (BRP 
418.8, alt. 4,900). The high valley and moun- 
tainside gained its name when a windstorm 
topped many trees. Eventually vegetation cov- 
ered the logs, creating the images of graves. A 
fire in 1925 destroyed surrounding forests. 
Down below is Yellowstone Prong, which 
passes through open glades of trees and grass 
and Yellowstone Falls. 

— David Nivens, Staff Writer, 

Asheville Citizen-Times. 

from June 28, 1981 edition. 

(By permission) 



FRENCH BROAD RIVER: 
LADY OF MANY MOODS 

10 

She is a lady of many moods, the French 
Broad. 

Long and winding, she snakes through the 
mountains like so much string thrown at ran- 
dom. She can be lovely, with dappled sunlight 
dancing on her waters. When she is calm, her 
glassy surface reflects the trees that bend 
along her banks to kiss the water. 

She is seductive, drawing those who want 
to claim her with an irresistable allure. Once in 
her power, they are at her mercy, for she can 



be as unpredictable as she is appealing. 

Pregnant with flooding headwaters, she can 
rage and roar, pushing mightily against her 
banks until she unleashes her ill-conceived 
load. 

"Head Of The River Clan" 

John Parris calls the French Broad River 
"long and tough, the head of the river clan in 
Western North Carolina." 

Her length runs nearly 217 miles, heading 
up above Rosman in Transylania County, then 
through Henderson, Buncombe, and Madi- 
son. She is fed by numerous rivers and 
creeks. 

In her book, The French Broad, Wilma 
Dykeman speaks of the river's "infinite vari- 
ety," with botanical treasures in its area that are 
probably among the richest in the United 
States. Dykeman writes eloquently of the 
"strange and beautiful land" surrounding the 
French Broad so named because it flowed to- 
wards the lands and rivers owned by France in 
the 1700s. 



Only a portion of its history has been cap- 
tured in words. To its first surveyors, the 
French Broad was a convenient boundary be- 
tween land grants, counties, and individual 
tracts. Later, it set a passage through the 
steep mountain ranges that divide North Caro- 
lina and Tennessee. A black child drowned in 
its waters as the mother, a run-away slave, 
tried to swim her infant to freedom. For 
others, the river served as transportation. 

Flatboating was common in the early 
1800s. Then came the embarrassing saga of 
the Mountain Lily, a steamboat that would 
have been more at home on the Mississippi 
that it was on the unpredictable French Broad. 
Shortly after its maiden launch, the Mountain 
Lily was deep in a sandbank, destined for ruin. 
It was dismantled several months later. 

1981 Opportunities 

Today, the French Broad offers modern 
man a variety of recreational opportunities. A 
recent increase in the muskie population has 
brought fisherman to her banks with renewed 
interest. Canoeists boat lazily on her calmer 
waters, occasionally fighting upstream winds. 

In rugged Madison County, where the low- 
ing river changes into swirling, pounding 
rapids, Whitewater enthusiasts find the French 
Broad exciting and challenging. 

Other self-proclaimed "river rats" prefer 
tubing. 

The Appalachian Trail crosses the French 
Broad in Hot Springs giving pause to foot- 
weary hikers. 

There are also places to swim, picnic, or sit 
on the banks of this unique and beautiful river. 
Buncombe County alone has a series of five 
park systems that border the river in various 
locations. (For more information on these 
locations, call Buncombe County Parks and 
Recreation.) 

Classified as a federal navigable waterway, 
the French Broad, like a true lady, extends her 
welcome to all. 

— Marie Barlett 

The French Broad River will be found men- 




Summer visitors generally think of the French Broad River as being a charming quiet stream except for the white water 
segments. Note the adjacent photograph which suggests the other face of the river. Citizen-Times Photo. 

23 



HP 



&**>& 




«*i*JW 




•iHpi 



Cold fronts leave their icy footprints on the French Broad River in the form of fiercesome ice flows caught by the 
photographer in this picture. Citizen-Times Photo. 



tioned in many, many family stories. How can 
a person describe it in full length — from an 
overall point of view when it has seemed so 
personal to so many different families who 
lived along its banks? 

Marie Bartlett, aspiring young writer of the 
Candler area, made a special study of it for 
publication in the Asheville Citizen-Times of 
June 28, 1981 and for those of you who 
missed seeing it, we brought it to you here. 
— The Book Committee 

INDIAN TRAILS 

11 

Our friends in Tennessee offer the fol- 
lowing: 

Some people seem to have a rather com- 
mon belief that . . . this was a trackless, un- 
known wilderness when their ancestors first 
crossed the mountains from Virginia . . . This 
is far from the truth, as in most cases they 
followed well-established Indian trails, buffalo 
paths and rivers. There was a comprehensive 
system of Indian trails or foot paths through- 
out the country. One hundred and twenty-five 
trails have been listed and described in the 
southeast portion of the United States. 

Nashville, on the Cumberland River, with its 
central location and great salt lick, was the hub 
of part of the system with a dozen or more 
trails radiating in every direction of the com- 
pass. Our present Highway System follows in 
general, old Indian trails. The buffalo paths 
from Nashville to Murfreesboro and to Franklin 
were ready-made roads for the first settlers 
coming into the western area of Old Buncombe 
from the north. 

(Indian trails lead down from the Asheville 
area to Charleston.) 

Indian trails were narrow, avoided stoney 
ground and heavy underbrush to save wear on 
clothing, and kept to high ground to avoid 
swamps, heavy cane-brake and brush, and 
where stream crossings were usually less dif- 
ficult. Paths established by buffalo and other 
animals were broad and the earth well packed. 

24 



They were ready-made roads for the early set- 
tlers. 

Indians were great travelers. It was not un- 
common for them to travel 1,000 miles or 
more to visit, trade with or make war against 
other tribes. 

Problem Roads 

As settlers decreed the making of new 
roads, and wider ones, they ran into difficulty 
with soft ground after or during rains, and the 
sinking of narrow wagon wheels into the 
ground ... The first roads made by Euro- 
peans were dirt or gravel, although a few were 
built with a stone base. 

Legislatures would not appropriate any 
money for the improvement of roads but did 
classify them as follows: 

First class roads were to be twelve feet 
wide, mile marked and bridged where neces- 
sary. Marginal trees were to bear notches so 
the traveller would know upon what type road 
he was travelling. 

Third class roads were to be of sufficient 
width for the passage of a single horse and 
rider, and forthe purpose of milling on a single 
horse 2 (presuming that "milling" meant a rid- 
er on horse-back with one or two bags of corn 
to be ground at the mill or with bags of ground 
meal.) These roads were indicated by one 
notch on marginal trees. 

In spite of the condition of the roads they 
were used extensively by travellers, new set- 
tlers, peddlers, the movement of freight, and 
mail routes and well before the 1 830's as stage 
coach routes. 

(Source: Our Ancestors Were Engineers, published by the 
Nashville Section, American Society of Civil Engineers 
May 1976). 

— The Book Committee 

TRAVEL BY STAGE COACH 

12 

In the 1 830's one could go from Asheville to 
Nashville by stage coach. 
Travel by stage coach prior to 1834 was 



uncomfortable and slow, about four miles per 
hour with stops every twenty miles to change 
horses. There were fourteen routes out of 
Nashville prior to the above date with connec- 
tions to New Orleans; Asheville, North Caroli- 
na; Athens and Calhoun, Georgia; and Blounts- 
ville . . . 

The arrival of the stage coach was viewed 
with alarm by many skeptics. Some argued 
that it would destroy a breed of horses and 
make men careless of good horsemanship. 
Horse-back riding would vanish, leaving the 
people impoverished, less virile, weak and 
deluded. 

It was suggested that riding in the saddle 
and exposure to the weather caused the 
clothes to wear out more quickly, thus stimu- 
lating the economy by helping tailors, sup- 
pliers of cloth, etc. But the coach came into 
wide-spread use, just as the automobile did a 
hundred years later. 
Source: Our Ancestors were Engineers (ibid.) 

\ Memories of the Old Stagecoach 

(From a letter written to the Editor of the 
Citizen-Times, in 1949. — Used with per- 
mission.) 

In 1878 a stagecoach ran from Old Fort, 
N.C. to Wolf Creek, Tenn. The stagecoach 
carried both passengers and mail. The road 
was literally rough mountains, hills, rocks and 
mud. It was long enough but not very wide. 
The stagecoach sat on large leather belts, 
rocking like a cradle when it ran over the rocks 
and hills. 

Oh how I loved to stand at my grandfather's 
gate and wait to hear the stage bugle blow and 
see the stage coming, drawn by six fine 
horses. I wanted to be old so I could hold six 
lines in my hands and see the horses go. There 
were some toll gates on the way, but when the 
gatekeeper heard the stage bugle blow he 
opened wide the gate to let the stage go by. 

Early in the morning one stage left Old Fort, 
and another left Wolf Creek to meet in Ashe- 
ville and spend the night. Leaving Old Fort, the 
Blue Ridge Mountains are steep. But the 
horses never failed to draw the stage to the top 
of the mountain, now Ridgecrest, and then 
down Swannanoa Valley to Swannanoa junc- 
tion, now Biltmore, then up the hill to Victoria 
Road. 

One mile away the stage bugle would blow 
to let the residents know passengers and mail 
were coming up South Main Street to the Eagle 
Hotel, where the passengers could get country 
ham and eggs and other nice things to eat and 
a place to sleep. The mail was taken to the 
Postoffice next door and the stage went down 
the street to Wedden and Bailey stable. There 
the horses were taken out and rubbed from 
head to foot and given food and rested until 
morning. Then they were ready to complete 
the trip to Wolf Creek. 

In Asheville 

The stage driver had the right of way 
through the streets of Asheville. He had no 
traffic laws or red lights to obey. He didn't 
have to hold out his hand to let the people 
know the way he was going. He turned to the 
right or left to suit himself. 




This old photo of an old Buncombe area mountain road suggest something of the difficulty of travel in the 18th and 19th 
centuries. 



The other stage from Wolf Creek came up 
the French Broad River to Cauble's Blacksmith 
Shop on North Main Street. A mile away this 
stage bugle blew to let the people know that 
passengers and mail were coming from Ten- 
nessee. They came up North Main Street to the 
Buck Hotel, now the Langren Hotel. 

There the passengers obtained good things 
to eat and a place to sleep. Mail was taken to 
the Postoffice and the stage went to Wedden 
and Bailey Stable on South Main Street. The 
horses were rubbed from head to foot and 
given plenty to eat. 

After a night's rest, the drivers and horses 
were ready to leave Asheville to complete the 
trip — one stage going down the French Broad 
River by way of Marshall, Hot Springs, Paint 
Rock and on to Wolf Creek, the other stage 
going down South Main Street to the Swanna- 
noa River, up the Swannanoa Valley to the top 
of the mountain, now Ridgecrest, down the 
steep Blue Ridge Mountain. 



LOG CABINS AND EARLY 
SETTLERS 

13 

The impact of early log cabin building in 
America is not that they were architecturally 
significant, or that they represented elaborate 
technique of design or construction, but rather 
that they were constructed rapidly and sub- 
stantially, under difficult circumstances, with 
minimum preparation and equipment and re- 
sulting in maximum security and durability. 

Such traits, with the passage time, provide 
their own sense of beauty and dignity. But log 
cabin building in America went far beyond its 
own physical attributes. It was so much a part 
of American life that mid-1 9th century politics 
capitalized on it as representing the lowly be- 
ginnings of frontier politicians. 

Log cabin life became an attribute of great- 
ness and a symbol of democracy, embodying 
grass roots origin, pioneer virtues, and the 
rags to riches concept that carried over well 
into the 20th century. Log cabins are truly the 
folk architecture of America. 

(From: Our Ancestors Were Engineers, published by the 
Nashville Section, American Society of Civil Engineers 



May 1976.) 



— The Book Committee 



jl^g 


^Higilllpsfir 


ZJEf 


* 




• 




f$ i 


HfiS*. 






An early settler's home near Asheville. Note heavy timbers used in the walls. 



This 1860 map shows roads, plank roads and railroads, 
towns and banks in North Carolina. Railroads ran out of 
Charlotte and Wilmington into South Carolina and North 
into Virginia. At the time of this map, plank roads were 
vital to the economy of many sections ofthe state. Moun- 
tain travel was most difficult in this period. The railroad 
reached Asheville in 1880. 



Careful Drivers 

The stagecoaches had good careful drivers, 
good brakes and six well-trained horses to 



take the stagecoach down safely to Old Fort. I 
never heard of a stagecoach having a wreck or 
anyone getting hurt. 

The stage transportation was owned and 
operated by E.T. Clemmons of Philadelphia. 
He was a very wealthy man who owned valu- 
able property in Asheville and Buncombe 
County. His estate went to the Moravian 
Church at Winston-Salem, N.C. 

Well, trains and automobiles and planes 
have put an end to the old stagecoach. I feel 
sure it would be a thrill to the young and old to 
see a stagecoach drawn by six fine horses go 
down the streets of Asheville today. It was my 
privilege to know Mr. Clemmons and several 
of the old stage drivers. 

— W.B. Frady 



BRICK MAKING IN THE LONG 
AGO 

14 

Brick making and brick laying is an ancient 
art handed down from generation to genera- 
tion, usually in the same families . . . includ- 
ing the Asheville area. 

In the early days all brick manufacturers 
made their brick, delivered them to the job and 
did the masonry work. They were first drayed 
on wagons with muie power, or later, shipped 
on railroad cars. Mules were used for almost 
all necessary power even after the first brick 
machine was made and patented about 1800. 
Every manufacturer had a farm in connection 
with his operation to grow feed for his mules. 

25 



. . . Bricks were made by hand and in the 
open, which made the industry primarily a 
summer business. However, with the installa- 
tion of brick making machines, sheds could be 
erected over the operation enabling the busi- 
ness to have brick for sale year round. Face 
brick were burned in down draft kilns . . . 

The first kilns used by all the brick makers 
were the updraft kilns with wood as fuel. Later, 
coal was used on all types of kilns until 1950 
when natural gas burners were installed. 

Digging of raw material was done by hand at 
first, then scrapers and mules; then a stream 
traction engine with elevating grade 
equipment; then steam shovel; then electric 
dragline; and finally with Caterpillar pans. 

(Excerpts from the article written by Mr. John S. Her- 
bert, published in Our Ancestors Were Engineers — the 
Nashville section, American Society of Civil Engineers. 
May 1976 issue.) 

— The Book Committee 



GOLD MINING IN WESTERN 
NORTH CAROLINA 

15 

About 1800, gold deposits were discovered 
in several areas of Western North Carolina, 



and for a quarter of a century this area was the 
chief source of this metal in the United States. 
Miners flocked into these hills from the four 
corners of the earth. 

Some of these prospectors and their fami- 
lies stayed on and settled here. Others came in 
to supply them with necessities, and thus new 
roads were needed and built, the population 
increased and barter and trade had rapid 
growth. 

The Coburn Mineral Museum, housed in the 
lower level of the Civic Center in Asheville, has 
fascinating displays of everything pertaining to 
gems and minerals found in the Western North 
Carolina area of the United States. 



PENLAND POTTERY: 
SIX GENERATIONS 

16 

Pottery was among the first of the great 
crafts, and one that persists today as an im- 
portant industry in Western North Carolina. 
The potter's wheel was the first machine that 
man invented and although a mold and a steel 
faced tool is used to help form the ware, it still 
requires a craftsman to operate the machine. 



Up to modern times the history of the hu- 
man race is written more fully in pottery than in 
any other material. Pottery as a material is 
interesting to most people because it more 
truly mirrors personality than do other 
mediums. 

In the year 1831 William Penland first saw 
the need of a pottery in North Carolina. He left 
his kiln in England to seek better opportunities 
in America. Wandering through America for 
months, he decided to start a pottery in the 
village of Candler, where clay would be 
molded by hand. 

The little pottery was handed down through 
six generations. 

— The Book Committee 



CHAMPION PAPER AND FIBRE 
COMPANY 

17 

One of the first outstanding industries in 
Western North Carolina was the Champion 
Paper and Fibre Company at Canton. It grew to 
be one of the largest of its kind in the country 
for the making of wood pulp as part of the 
paper-making industry. 




Another famous pottery business was that operated by the Brown Brothers in Arden. We see one of them here, hard at work, in this old photograph from the Ewart W. Ball 
Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 



26 




The Champion Paper and Fibre Company, Canton, N.C., as photographed in the 1920's. In recent years this firm has spent millions on air pollution control. 



The arrival of this company with its provi- 
sions for hundreds of jobs for men and women 
of the area was a large factor in the economic 
growth of the town and surrounding territory, 
adding materially to the increased standard of 
living of the mountain people. Many family 
history stories will have reference to employ- 
ment there. 

Many families also will have memories of 
parents or grandparents who "owed their 
soul to the Company Store! " 

A detailed study of the impact of this com- 
pany on the life of the region is to be found in 
Part IV. 

— The Book Committee 

SKILLS OF TIMES PAST 

PRESERVED AT FOLK ART 

CENTER 

18 

The Southern Highland Handicraft Guild 
grew from the needs and visions of the moun- 
tain people and the inspirations of leaders 
from beyond the region. 

Isolated for over 200 years by their rugged 
homeland, skilled craftsmen produced all the 
necessary clothing, furniture, cookware, bas- 
kets, tools and toys for their rural households. 
But as passable roads were finally carved 
through the wilderness, the fruits of the in- 
dustrial flatlands filtered through. 

The loom and spinning wheel lost their im- 
portance as yard goods and mass-produced 
clothing became available. The burden of 
mountain living was eased, but the heritage of 
working with the hands almost became lost. 



In the late 1 920s, certain individuals felt the 
need for a regional organization dedicated to 
preserving, improving and marketing moun- 
tain crafts. These people, representing several 
states, met many times to assess the needs of 
the mountain people and determine how the 
planned organization should function. 

With the cooperation of the Council of the 
Southern Mountains, and the Russell Sage 
Foundation, their visions finally became a real- 
ity — and in 1930, the Southern Highland 
Handicraft Guild was formally established with 
a membership of thirty craftsmen and craft 
centers. 

Today the Southern Highland Handicraft 
Guild can look back at many years of giving 
assistance to the craftsmen in the Southern 
Appalachians. Currently, the Guild has over 
600 individual and center members and pro- 
vides services to over 2,000 persons. Man- 
agement of Guild business is delegated to an 
administrative staff which directs an extensive 
educational and marketing program from the 
Guild's main offices at the Folk Art Center, 
Blue Ridge Parkway, North, Asheville. A board 
of trustees .elected from the membership, de- 
termines operational policies. 

A Cooperative Venture 

The Southern Highland Handicraft Guild 
seeks cooperation among all agencies and in- 
dividuals interested in conserving and de- 
veloping the handicrafts of the southern 
mountains. It strives to encourage a wider 
appreciation of mountain crafts, to raise and 
maintain standards of design and crafts- 
manship and to encourage individual ex- 



pression. 

The Guild conducts an ongoing study of 
costs of production, marketing and their prob- 
lems concerning crafts, and gives information 
and instruction on methods, sources of supply 
and management of individual or group pro- 
duction. 

Craft education is important to the Guild's 
continuing success. Guild-sponsored work- 
shops, seminars and conferences give crafts- 
men guidance in design and craftsmanship, 
and bring in leaders in crafts, business and 
other fields for exposure to new ideas and 
methods in production and marketing. These 
events often include craftsmen who are not 
members of the Guild, but who are interested 
in the Guild's work. Scholarships give crafts- 
men help in personal development and provide 
for new books and materials. 

The Guild's growing library of books, 
periodicals, pictures, movies and slides is 
housed in the Folk Art Center and is available 
for use by civic groups, schools, craftsmen, 
individuals and various organizations. Exhibits 
of members' finest work travel throughout the 
country, and members teach and demonstrate 
their crafts in many places. 

The annual Guild Fairs offer exhibits, dem- 
onstrations and lectures for the benefit of 
both craftsmen and the general public, visitors 
are encouraged to take part in the continuing 
program of demonstrations, workshops, craft 
exhibits and folk entertainment presented at 
the Folk Art Center. 

Publications List Where To Buy 

Guild publications are both educational and 

27 



ill M 







No retirement at age 65, no social security benefits ... no minimum working conditions . . . there was no question ... she knew she was needed! 



promotional and are designed to supplement 
the entire program. They include the follow- 
ing: Highland Highlights, a monthly newsletter 
for Guild members and a growing outside 
mailing list, containing general news about 
crafts and craftsmen, plus articles on educa- 
tion and marketing; the Folk Art Center 
Quarterly, devoted to special exhibits and edu- 
cational programs of interest to the public, for 
Guild members and outside readership, pub- 
lished four times yearly, Crafts in the Southern 
Highlands, condensed from Allan Eaton's 
book gives general history of southern high- 
land crafts; Hands, Appalachian Woodcutt- 
ers, if it Weren 't for the Guild, color and sound 
movies about Guild history and activities; and 
promotional brochures for fairs, workshops 
and retail stores. 

The Guild, through its merchandising sub- 
sidiary, Crafts of Nine States, Inc. operates 
five retail shops for the sale of members' work: 

Folk Art Center Shop, located on the Blue 
Ridge Parkway at Milepost 382, about Vz mile 
north of U.S. 70 just east of Asheville, P.O. 
Box 9545, Asheville, N.C. 28815; Guild 
Crafts, 930 Tunnel Road, Asheville, N.C. 
28805; Allanstand, 16 College Street, Ashe- 
ville, N.C. 28801; Guild Gallery, 501 State St, 
Bristol, Va. 24201; and Parkway Craft Center 

28 



Blowing Rock, N.C. 28605 (open May 1 — 
Oct. 31 ) . Though the individuality of craft work 
makes a catalog impossible, the shops do 
accept mail orders and offer a mailing service 
to customers. 



Guild Fairs 

The Guild holds several fairs each year in the 
southern Appalachian region. Each fair fea- 
tures over 100 Guild members selling and 
demonstrating crafts, special displays includ- 
ing a Members' Exhibit, a Members' Gallery 
(for members unable to attend the fair.) and 
folk entertainment. All exhibitors are members 
of the Guild whose work has been evaluated 
and approved for its high quality of workman- 
ship and design. 

A wholesale program provides members' 
work for nearly 100 shops in more than 30 
states. Shop owners and buyers may visit the 
wholesale warehouse by scheduling an 
appointment one day in advance (704-289- 
0589). 

Active Guild membership is open to crafts- 
men and craft centers located in the mountain 
counties of Kentucky, Tennessee, the Caroli- 
nas, the Virginias, Georgia, Alabama and 
Maryland. A detailed list of counties is avail- 



able for interested persons. 

Active Guild membership is divided into the 
following three categories: 

Individuals, for the individual craftsman 
working alone, minimum age is 18 years, 
annual dues are $10; Production Center, a 
group (two or more) of producing craftsmen 
working in one or more crafts within a com- 
munity (an area approximately forty miles or 
less in diameter), annual dues are $30; Educa- 
tional center, a recognized school, college, 
university or department thereof, teaching one 
or more crafts, annual dues are $30. (Educa- 
tional Centers do not participate in the sales 
programs; however, crafts are exhibited at 
Guild Fairs). 

The Standards Committee 

Individual and Production Center applicants 
submit five examples of recent work to the 
Guild's Standards Committee. This committee 
judges for quality of design and workmanship. 
Only the best work is accepted, and rejected 
applicants are offered suggestions for bring- 
ing their work up to Guild standards. Further 
information about membership is available by 
contacting the Guild office (704-298-7928). 
Educational Center applications are in the form 




Lee Edwards High School, Asheville, just after completion and before landscaping was done. 



of a letter indicating interest in membership 
and verifying that crafts are taught in the in- 
stitution. 

Individuals, institutions and organizations 
interested in the Guild's work are invited to 
become Folk Art Center Members, supporting 
the programs of the guild with a donation of 
$15 or more. Folk Art Center members receive 
most mailings and are entitled to special mem- 
bers rates and free admissions to Guild Fairs. 
All donations to the Southern Highland Hand- 
icraft Guild are tax deductible. 

(Reprinted from The Asheville Citizen-Times June 28, 
1981, by permission.) 

— The Book Committee 



EARLY AREA SCHOOLS FROM 
1794 ONWARD 

19 

Newton Academy 

The first school in the state west of the Blue 
Ridge to be dignified by the name "academy" 
and for many years the most widely known 
school was Union Hill Academy, the name of 
which was changed to Newton Academy in 
1809. 

Here the Reverend George Newton, a Pres- 
byterian minister, of whom Bishop Asbury 
writes most complimentarily in his journal as 
early as 1800, taught a classical school from 
1797 to 1814. This school stood on the hill 
on the east side of Biltmore Avenue in Ashe- 
ville opposite the Mission Memorial Hospital. 

The original log building was replaced in 
1809 by a one-story brick building. This build- 
ing was replaced in 1857 or 1858 by a two- 



story structure built by the contractors who 
erected the first building at Mars Hill College. 
For years, many of the leading citizens of 
Asheville and vicinity received their education 
at Newton Academy. 

(From: From These Stones: by John Angus 
McLeod, Mars Hill College, 1965.) 

For Young Ladies 

In 1835 Dr. Samuel Dickson, a Presbyterian 
minister, established a seminary for young 
ladies in the first brick house built in Asheville. 
Here the first woman ever to become a regular 
practitioner of medicine in America, Dr. Eliz- 
abeth Blackwell, was educated. About this 
time Colonel Stephen Lee, a West Point man 
and former teacher at Charleston College, for 
whom Stephen Lee High School (Negro) in 
Asheville was named, opened on the Swanna- 
noa a school which was later moved to 
Chunn's Cove. 

A Captain Charles Moore, who was in- 
strumental in the building of the first Presbyte- 
rian Church in Asheville, early in the 
nineteenth century built a frame schoolhouse 
on his farm, which was also used as a church 
for ministers of the Mecklenburg Presbytery. 
This school which became the Sand Hill 
School, was noted for its excellent teachers 
and exerted a wide influence west of the Blue 
Ridge. 

For Young Men 

The Asheville Male Academy, in which 
James N. Norwood taught at first and in which 
Colonel Stephen Lee taught for a while, was 
built by the citizens of Asheville in 1847-1848 
and stood until 1912. 



The Asheville Female College, which stood 
where the David Millard High School now 
stands and from which College Street in Ashe- 
ville takes its name, was established about 
1 850 or 1 851 and enjoyed a large patronage. It 
was first known as Holston Conference Female 
College, later as the Asheville Female College, 
and finally as the Asheville College for Women . 

Burnsville Academy, which indirectly influ- 
enced the founding of Mars Hill College, was 
established by the Reverend Stephen B. 
Adams of the Methodist Church in 1851. 
Meriwether Lewis, who later taught at Mars 
Hill, was on the faculty of this school for a 
time. 

Valle Crucis 

Another school of interest was that at Valle 
Crucis. This valley with its symbolic formation 
was called to the attention of Bishop Levi S. 
Ives of the Protestant Episcopal Church, who 
in 1843 purchased here 125 acres, later in- 
creased to 2,000 acres with the intention of 
making the valley an important center of work 
for the entire diocese, including a missionary 
station, a training school for the ministry, and 
a classical and agricultural school for boys. 

This school opened in 1845. It continued for 
several years with varying success. In June 
1847, Bishop Ives introduced at Valle Crucis 
the "Order of the Holy Cross," medieval in its 
character. It was believed that he intended to 
develop the community into a monastic in- 
stitution. At the conventions of the diocese in 
1849 and 1850 Valle Crucis was a subject of 
controversy. 

In 1852 Bishop Ives resigned as bishop and 
sailed for Europe, declaring, it is reported, his 
intention to make his submission to the church 

29 



of Rome. The title to the property at Valle 
Crucis was never in the Episcopal church and 
was subsequently sold by Dr. Irve's legal, 
representative, to Robert Miller, who worked 
the mission grounds as a farm. Recently the 
Episcopal Church renewed its interest in Valle 
Crucis, however, and has bought a portion of 
the old school farm and opened an industrial 
school there. 

The Public Schools 

Although there had been agitations for pub- 
lic schools since the colonial period , the title of 
"father of the common schools" in North 
Carolina has been given to Archibald D. Mur- 
phey. His report as a chairman of a committee 
on education in 1817, when he was senator 
from Orange County, according to the late 
Professor M.C.S. Noble, "for a full under- 
standing of public education in all its details, 
has never been surpassed in our state." 

John Angus McLeod covers the broad 
sweep of the controversy over public educa- 
tion in "From These Stones", the story of 
Mars Hill College, and I continue to quote a few 
excerpts: 

"The majority of the legislators were not 
ready to accept the principle that education 
was a function of the state rather than of the 
family ... it was not until 1825 that the legis- 
lature acknowledged its responsibility by creat- 
ing the "Literary Fund," a permanent public 
endowment for educational purposes ... The 
Supreme Court of North Carolina decided in 
1870 that the law providing local taxes for 
education was unconstitutional, holding that 
the public schools were not a necessity. The 
idea of a charity system was connected with 
the public schools. These schools were 
opposed by "old field schools" and by many 
private schools. 

Old Field Schools 

John Angus McLeod includes a description 
of the old field schools, given by Dr. Calvin H. 
Wiley first superintendent of Public Instruction 
for North Carolina, one time of Asheville: 

"(They were) taught by persons widely 
variant in character and qualification. Some of 
these were seminaries of learning of a high 
order, conducted by men o1 mark in their day, 
and whose labors have exerted a wide and 
lasting influence for good . . . but the majority 
of teachers instructed in only the elementary 
branches of spelling, reading, writing and 
arithmetic ... The textbooks in every branch 
were few, unattractive, and often very defec- 
tive; but one good result of the want of readers 
was the general use made of the holy scrip- 
tures, and especially of the New Testament. 

The teacher in most cases, a law unto him- 
self and a neighborhood oracle, knew little of 
the methods of his brethren in other places 
... and his progress was only in the mechan- 
ical art of writing, and from years of practice, 
many became masters in penmanship and 
naturally looked with contempt on their 
brethren of a new generation whose qualifica- 
tions were mental and who had not spent a 
lifetime in learning to make graceful curva- 
tures and flourishes with the quill. 

30 



"Colonel J.M. Ray, formerly of Asheville, 
gave this description of the "old field" 
schools: 

"They were attended by little and big, old 
and young, sometimes by as many as a hun- 
dred, and all jammed into one room — a 
log-cabin with a fireplace at each end — pun- 
cheon floor, slab benches, and no windows, 
except an opening made in the wall by cutting 
out a section of one of the logs here and there. 

Use of the Rod 

"The pedagogue in charge (and no matter 
how large the school there was but one) prided 
himself upon his knowledge of and efficiency in 
teaching the "three R's" ... and upon his 
ability to use effectively, the rod of which a 
good supply was always kept in stock. He 
must know too, how to make a quill pen from 
the wing-feather goose or turkey, steel and 
gold pens not having come into general use. 

"The ink used was made from "ink-balls" 
— sometimes from poke-berries — and was 
kept in little slim vials partly filled with cotton 
. . . Some of these old pedagogues were very 
rigid in discipline — almost tyrants — a day 
without several floggins being unusual. 

Such were educational conditions in West- 
ern North Carolina when Mars Hill College was 
founded and for many years thereafter." 

— The Book Committee 



IN THE YEAR 1795 THEY 
CAME TO BENT CREEK 

20 

The first white settlers began to settle Bent 
Creek as early as 1795, even though the water 
shed was still being used by the Cherokee 
Indians. A dense forest of oak, chestnut, 
spruce, walnut and yellow poplar provided 
shelter for them and their animals as well as 
food. 

There was a good supply of deer, bear, 
turkeys, squirrels, rabbits, ruffled grouse, 
quail and wild pigeons, as well as fish from 
Bent Creek and the French Broad River. Preda- 
tory animals such as fox, wolves and panthers 
roamed the forest. 

David Allison was granted a large track of 
land for speculation purposes in 1776. It ex- 
tended from Sandy Mush and Turkey Creek to 
Mills River. This track consisted of several 
thousand acres. It also included all of the 
upper part of Bent Creek and Boyds Creek. 

Abraham Rundals (Reynolds) was granted 
seven land grants from the state of North Caro- 
lina, beginning February 25, 1800 on both 
sides of Bent Creek, totaling 1,540 acres be- 
low the David Allison grant and near the mouth 
of Bent Creek. He built his log house on Bent 
Creek near the mouth of Boyds Creek and lived 
peaceably with the Indans who roamed over 
the country and at times encamped at their two 
camps on Bent Creek. 

200 Indians 

Some time 200 Indians lived at the camps 
above and below his home, till their forced 
removal in 1838. He was a farmer and Baptist 



Preacher. His wife Mary Leazer died in 1813 
and was burried on the farm in the family 
cemetery with a four year old son who died 
earlier. Abraham was buried beside her in 
1848. 

From 1800 to 1900 one hundred and four 
homes ranging from log cabins to comfortable 
two story buildings were constructed in the 
Bent Creek community. 

The Duke house was a four story frame 
structure put together with locust pins and 
fireplaces on each floor. They hunted and 
fished and cleared the land (often burning the 
woods to clear it) for them selves and their 
animals. They built grist mills and saw mills on 
the creeks. Owners of large tracks of land were 
generous to unfortunate fellows who had no 
land and allowed them to be tenants and build 
cabins and clear the land and farm for five 
years free. If he remained longer, he paid one 
third of what he made. 

Early Prices 

Many young couples got a start and were 
able to buy land there or elsewhere. Land went 
from fifty shillings per hundred acres to 
$10.00 per hundred acres in 1854. After the 
civil war land was $2.00 to $3.00 per acre then 
$10.00 per acre to 1900, The Vanderbilts 
purchased all the Bent Creek land between 
1 800 and 1809 from $2.50 per acre to $41 .00 
per acre averaging $10.00 per acre. 

Early settlers were strong, self reliant and 
independant. They had to build their houses 
and furniture, produce their own meat, dairy 
products, poultry and food from the soil. 
Sheep and flax furnished thread to be spun 
into cloth and made into clothes, socks, caps 
and mittens. Shoes and harnesses were made 
from their own leather, plows, hoes, axes, 
nails, horse shoes ect. had to be made on their 
own anvils, (as well as bullets and gun pow- 
der). Wood for heating and cooking was a 
daily chore. Trips by groups were made to 
Georgia and South Carolina to sell herbs, 
chestnuts, chinguapins, furs, meat, honey, 
fruits, butter, eggs, brandy whiskey, bees 
wax, forest products and stock to drovers who 
collected, cows, pigs, mules, sheep and tur- 
keys. 

Several grist mills and saw mills were built 
on Bent Creek, also a number of churches and 
schools. 



Land Holders 

Abraham Reynolds received land grants in 
1800, William Jones 1801, Jimmie Case 
1836, Edward Stewart 1821, Armstead Car- 
land 1835, James Case 1836, Watt J. Hoxed, 
Bill Berry 1816, William Case 1838, Russell 
Jones 1847, William Tate, Tom Creasman, 
Steve Jones, Dr. Burgin McByre, John Jones, 
George Cagle, James Binson, Col. L.M. 
Hatch, Pink Jones, Frank Hayes, Henry Cagle, 
Melvin Cochrane, Billy Ledford, Wilson 
Boyds, Andrew Johnson 1807, Joseph Alex- 
ander 1807, Clyde Case, Bill Penland, Bennie 
Lance, David Allison (for speculation pur- 
poses), William E. Pressley, Billie Russel, Bud 
Lance, Will Green, Doke Hall, Bud Jones, 
Harve Jones, Russel P. Lance, Will Jarrett, Ike 



Bishop, Bill Candler, Jesse Case, Will Lance, 
Bill Crockery, Merrett Cagle, George Jones, 
Dale Moore, Bobby Boyd, Sam Lance, Jim 
Spain, John Barber, Sam Brooks, Will Cagle, 
William Case, Russel Jones, William Warren 
and Henry Case. 

Many of these people are buried in the 
Sandy Bottom, Reynolds, and Sardis 
cemeteries. 

James Case had a grist and saw mill and 
blacksmith shop on Bent Creek in 1808. The 
family continued to operate it until 1880, Sam 
Brooks bought it and continued to operate it till 
1900. 

Wilson Boyd had a similar operation (near 
the lake and camp ground) in 1865 when Col- 
onel L.M. Hatch from Charleston South Caroli- 
na bought it and expanded the whole enter- 
prise. Col. Hatch sent lumber and lumber prod- 
ucts to South Carolina. He employed quite a 
few Bent Creek men in his business. Russel 
Lance constructed a blacksmith shop and grist 
mill at the mouth of Laurel Branch on Bent 
Creek. A flood washed his dam and mill away 
in 1910. 

Blacksmith Shop 

Bennie Lance built a blacksmith shop and 
grist mill on Boyd Branch in 1 81 0. The last mill 
to be built was John Powells grist mill on 
Rocky Cove Branch, 1880-1895. Maurice In- 
gle had a furniture factory and made furniture 
and chairs at the end of Boyd Branch Road. 
John Barber and Ike Bishop had a blacksmith 
shop and made plows, wagons, tools, nails, 
guns, horse shoes, and shoed horses. 

Community activities consisted of log roll- 
ings, house raisings, fences building, quilt- 
ings, molasses making, road building, church 
meetings, square dances, bean stringings, 
corn shuckings, shooting matches, ball 
games, wrestling, running games, as well as 
three months of school for the children. 

Vanderbilt Arrives 

In 1900 George Vanderbilt started buying 
the old homesteads from the old settler heirs. 
Many were reluctant to give up their farms, but 
some of them had borrowed money and could 
not repay it, so they became discouraged and 
sold their land. Others saw their neighbors 
leaving and every thing was changing so they 
sold too. Only seven far sighted settlers re- 
fused to sell. 

By 1909 Vanderbilt had bought most of the 
land. He tore down the old houses and barns 
so he could turn Bent Creek into a park like the 
large estates in Europe. 

Mrs. Edith Vanderbilt sold the Bent Creek 
land to the Federal Government in 1917. It is 
now called the Bent Creek Experimental 
Forest. 

Sources: Interviews with Sam Parker, Mrs. Chambers, 
Billy Joenes, William A. Nesbett (paper) Mrs. Cook, and 
others. 

— Sara Reynolds Beatty 



BEST — A GHOST TOWN 

21 

On March 29, 1880, W.J. Best and Associ- 
ates bought from the state of North Carolina its 



interest in the Western North Carolina Railroad 
Company. At that time, the railroad was under 
construction but had not quite reached the 
present site of Biltmore. Soon afterwards, the 
tracks were laid to a point just east of the 
Swannanoa Bridge. 



A brick depot built there was called Asheville 
Junction, or simply the Junction, and the post 
office was given the name of Best in honor of 
the owner of the railroad. However, local peo- 
ple continued, as they had for years, to refer to 
the place as Swannanoa Bridge. 




Map of Weaverville, Buncombe County. 



31 



In the 1883-84 Asheville City Directory, the 
following description is given of Best: 

"two miles south of Asheville Courthouse, 
it is the shipping point for a considerable re- 
gion to the south, southeast, and southwest. 
Extensive improvements in the shape of new 
buildings and the filling up of Blowgum Gulch, 
long a dangerous pitfall for the inebriated pil- 
grim, have lately been originated. The Swan- 
nanoa here runs through wide and fertile bot- 
toms upon which almost any crop can be 
grown with profit". 

Much of the land adjacent to the river was 
below water level, rough, and swampy. More 
than 40,000 cubic feet of earth was needed to 
fill in the area before Mr. George Vanderbilt 
could begin construction of his model village. 
There were only a few scattered dwellings and 
no schools or churches in Best. West Meeting 
House, the nearest school, was two and a half 
miles to the south. 

In 1889, Alexander West deeded one half 
acre of land to the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, and West Chapel Church was 
built near the school. These facilities served 
the people living at Best. 



The Joseph Reed Property 

All the property, now Biltmore Village, was 
a cleared field owned by Joseph Reed. The 
largest land owner in Best, he had bought 
1250 acres from the heirs of Thomas Foster. 
He operated a grist and flour mill, a general 
merchandise store, and an ice factory. 

At the Junction, there was another general 
merchandise store, owned by T.M. Porter, the 
blacksmith shop of James Pressley, and the 
boarding house of Mrs. A.M. Smith. 

The Turnpike, completed in 1827 from 
Greenville, Tennessee, to Greenville, South 
Carolina, ran north and south through Best 
and crossed the Swannanoa River at the Junc- 
tion. Although a dirt road and only wide 
enough for one-way traffic, it was the scene of 
much activity. 



"Farmer's Railroad" 

Known as the "farmer's railroad", it was a 
stage coach route and was widely used by 
farmers to drive their livestock to the markets 
of South Carolina and Georgia. 

In Best, below the Swannanoa Bridge near 
the present entrance to the Biltmore Estate, 
was the historic spot, Gum Spring . It was here 
in 1791 that Buncombe County was organized 
at the home of Colonel William Davidson. And 
the courthouse came very near being built a 
few miles south on the Turnpike. 

One version of the story by Mr. J. P. David- 
son was printed in the 1883-84 City Directory. 
The commissioners appointed to select the 
location for the county seat had agreed on the 
Biltmore site, but afterwards were so hospi- 
tably treated by a proprietor of a tavern which 
stood near the square "that mellowed by the 
soothing influence of the liquer, they unani- 
mously changed their minds, and bowing to 
the wishes of the tavern keeper, decided the 
best place for a town to be was where whiskey 
was plenty". 

32 



The Vanderbilt Purchase 

In 1889, Mr. George Vanderbilt bought 
130,000 acres of land south of the Swanna- 
noa, and construction of the village began. On 
March 4, 1 890, the name of Best was changed 
to Bilton. On March 20, 1890 it was changed 
to Biltmore-Bilt, or Bildt, for the town in Hol- 
land where the Vanderbilt family had lived, and 
more, or moor, an English word for rolling, 
upland country. 

Thus ended the brief existence of Best. 

— Dorothy Hyde 



WEAVERVILLE 

22 

The majority of those who first crossed the 
Blue Ridge Mountains through the Swannanoa 
gap were Scotch-Irish from Mecklenburg 
County, N.C., and were Presbyterian. Many 
do not know that after the Patton Meeting 
House was built, the second church was on 
Reems Creek, built by those who had come up 
Bull Creek through Bull gap and down thru Ox 
Creek Valley to Reems Creek to a settlement 
named Vanceville, now Hemphill. 

The pioneer John Weaver helped to build 
this church about 1805 and was a member. It 
became part of the Methodist connection be- 
cause of the work of the travelling Circuit Rid- 
ing Methodist Preachers under the leadership 
of Bishop Francis Asbury. 

In 1 81 the Reems Creek Camp Ground was 
organized. A building was erected and the 
Methodist Annual Conferences for the Holston 
District were held there in 1833, and 1844. 
This was quite an honor considering that their 
territory covered parts of North and South 
Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and part of Ken- 
tucky. 

The first school was held in the above build- 
ing, but in 1851 a deed of land from Devault 
Hunsucker to the Sons of Temperance con- 
veyed five acres for the purpose of erecting an 
academy to teach the children of the commun- 
ity. This evolved into Weaver College. 

When Buncombe County was organized, 



Weaverville, N. C. 

Weaverville College. 



the Weaverville area was well represented and 
was influencial in helping choose the site of the 
County Seat. 

Early Industry 

In the southern section of our village, there 
was an iron works, a hat factory, and a mill to 
make linseed oil. The iron works were of such 
need that the County Court authorized two 
roads to be built from it — one to cross the 
French Broad River at the John Davis ferry and 
go up along Newfound Creek, and the other to 
cross the River at Alexander and go up along 
Turkey Creek. 

— Stanley West 

METHODISM, BISHOP 

ASBURY, AND A BUNCOMBE 

REPORT 

23 

Bishop Francis Asbury, sent by John Wes- 
ley from England to America in 1771 was the 
historic promoter of the Methodist movement 
in America. 

Known as the ' ' Prophet of the Long Road , " 
he was a circuit-riding preacher who rode 
almost 300,000 miles in 45 years of ministry 
through the colonies from New England to 
South Carolina and back, traveling often on the 
back of a horse. 

Asbury confirmed this Buncombe County 
area's wilderness state when he wrote on a 
visit in 1806: 

"We came to Buncombe; we 
were lost within a mile of Mr. Kil- 
lon's (Killian's), and were happy 
to get a school house to shelter us 
for the night. I had no fire, but a 
bed wherever I could find a bench; 
my aid, Moses Lawrence, had a 
bear skin, and a dirt floor to 
spread it on." 
This particular visit was not his first one to 
the area for he had met the Killian family and 
neighbors and organized a Methodist Society 




A 1 91 postcard of Weaver College, — Weaverville, N.C , Courtesy of Mary B. Hyder. 




Weaverville Presbyterian Church. 



in 1801 which was the nucleus of the current 
Asbury Memorial United Methodist Church 
whose present building is located on Beaver- 
dam Rd and Kimberly Ave. This was land 
deeded to the use of "a church and burying 
ground forever" by Daniel Killian. 




Francis Asbury, Prophet of the Long Road. Portrait by 
Frank 0. Salisbury of London. This painting hangs in the 
World Methodist Building at Lake Junaluska, North Caroli- 
na. U.S.A. Bishop Asbury was a frequent visitor to "Old 
Buncombe." 



The first church was built of logs after 1 832, 
and was called Beaverdam Methodist Church. 
The log building was torn down in 1879 and a 
one-room frame building was dedicated in 
1881. It was called "Mt. Pleasant" church as 
the name of the mountain behind it was then 
known. 

The old frame building with its steeple was 
torn down in 1927 and the present brick build- 
ing erected on the same site. A new education- 
al building was added in 1961 . The name was 
changed to honor Bishop Asbury after the pres- 
ent building was completed. 

— Lucille Oates 



LAKE JUNALUSKA AND THE 
UNITED METHODISTS 

24 

Lake Junaluska is a lovely village, high in 
the mountains of North Carolina. Once it was 
the home of the noted Indian chief, Junaluska, 
It is now devoted to religion and is the South- 
ern capital of The United Methodist Church. 

Located twenty-eight miles west of Ashe- 
ville and three miles from Waynesville in 
Haywood County, the Methodist property in- 
cludes approximately 1200 acres of mountain 
land and a lake of 250 acres. Surrounded by 
mountains, over fifty of which have an eleva- 



tion of more than 5,000 feet, the Assembly 
grounds offer a combination of climate, a large 
lake, scenery and modern conveniences not to 
be surpassed anywhere for rest, recreation 
and study. 

Of great interest to genealogists has been 
the presence of the Archives of the United 
Methodist church, soon however, to be mov- 
ing to new quarters in Drew University in New 
Jersey. 

This headquarters of Methodist folk holds 
many memories for thousands of persons of 
this Christian denomination who have met here 
for conferences or in gatherings of United 
Methodist women, or for special retreats and 
study hours over the years. 

Older buildings are gradually being phased 
out and new modern structures being put in 
their places. For those with memories of the 
past, it would be well to secure the photo- 
graphs of old buildings that will be needed to 
go with family histories while they may still be 
available. 

— The Book Committee 




33 




The Methodist Assembly at Lake Junaluska, one of the centers of World Methodism. Complete conference facilities are available. 



METHODIST ARCHIVES AND 

HISTORY FOR WESTERN 

NORTH CAROLINA 

25 

Of great help and interest to people of West- 
ern North Carolina whose roots have been or 
are in Methodism is the material recently pub- 
lished in the North Carolina Christian Advo- 
cate, the church newspaper for United 
Methodists of this area. Information about the 
new arrangements for Archives and History 
appeared in the July 14 issue, 1981 and be- 
cause it is so informative we bring it in almost 
its entirety. It follows: 

The Western North Carolina United Method- 
ist Conference will now be housing its archival 
material in Memorial Center, Charlotte, NC. 
Dr. Bernard C. Russell, who taught at Pfeiffer 
College so long, is the new archivist, and Mrs. 
Nancy A. Spaine has been appointed assistant 
archivist. The Memorial Center is located at 
3400 Shamrock Drive and will be open for use 
Tuesdays and Wednesdays from 9 a.m. until 1 
p.m. 

To arrange to use the facility you will need 
either to visit the room on those two days 
during the mornings, or make special arrange- 
ments for another time with either the archivist 
himself, or his assistant. You may do this by 
telephoning Mrs. Spaine at (704) 535-2260 or 
write to Archives and History, P.O. Box 
18005, Charlotte, NC 28218. 

In visiting the Archives and History Room, 
you need to check with the receptionist for the 
Center, who will notify Mrs. Spaine of your 
presence. 

Now in the Archives and History Room you 
will find research resources giving information 
about ministers, churches and circuits which 
stretch back into the 19th Century, and in 
some cases from 1815. 

There are memoirs on most of the clergy 
members who died while members of the 
Western North Carolina Conference from 1890 
(when WNCC was formed) also appointments 
to charges, (stations and circuits), and these, 
with some gaps, go back as far as 1776. A 
vault contains rare and perishable materials. 

Generally the Archives and History Room 
does not contain birth and marriage records 
from local churches. 

Newspaper clippings, anniversary and 

34 



other celebration booklets and other bits of 
history are to be found on churches which 
have contributed these, as well as some 
charge records on microfilm. Available for 
your use is a microfilm reader and in Memorial 
Center, at minimal cost, is a photocopy 
machine. 

What You Can Contribute 

There are several things that congregations 
or individuals may contribute to the Archives 
Room to help perpetuate the history of 
methodism in this area of Western North Caro- 
lina. 

First there are old Quarterly Conference and 
Membership Records, especially those you 
have before 1939. 

Then, there is personal memorabilia or 
biographical sketches about ministers. 

And, you can send anniversary celebration 
booklets which contain a history of your 
Methodist church. 

— The Book Committee 



SADDLEBAGS: A MAJOR 
ARCHIVES ATTRACTION 

26 

When Thomas Bradley Johnson became a 
ministerial member of the new Western North 
Carolina Conference of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, in 1892, he bought a horse 
and saddlebags to take care of his appoint- 
ment to a circuit, covering portions of the Blue 
Ridge and Great Smokies. 




visitors to see in the Archives and History 
Room, Memorial Center, Charlotte — the 
Western N.C. Methodist Conference head- 
quarters on 3400 Shamrock Drive. 

The Rev. Mr. Johnson later switched from 
his horse to a "two-wheeled cart," and then 
about 1916 bought a Ford for his work. 

The pastor, who once had as one of his 
congregations a church whose foundation 
now rests at the bottom of the lake for the Lake 
Junaluska Assembly in Haywood County, 
served for 46 years, retiring in 1938. He died 
in 1943. 

The saddlebags were used for about ten 
years and went along with the minister as he 
had such narrow escapes as swimming with 
his horse a badly swollen river, to get home to 
his young wife late at night. 




Those saddlebags, covered with hair to pro- 
tect from the weather, are now located for 



The Rev. Thomas Bradley Johnson 



Bishop L. Scott Atten (center), who presides over the 
Western N.C. Conference, receives the saddlebags of the 
Rev. Thomas Johnson from his granddaughters while the 
Rev. Joseph W. Lasley (second from right) chairman of 
the Commission on Archives and History, watches. The 
granddaughters are Mrs. Tommye Wheeless (left) pic- 
tured with her husband Roscoe, of Rocky Mount, and 
Mrs. Mary Grace Hale (right) of Raleigh. Bishop Allen also 
is head of the national United Methodist Commission on 
Archives and History. 

Life for Methodist clergy on a circuit in the 
late 19th Century and early 20th Century was 
often difficult. Once the "cupboard was bare: 
— no money and no food — when a parishio- 



ner rode up unexpectedly with a wagon load of 
provisions from one of the other churches, 
along with money owed the preacher. 

During the financial panic of the late 1 890's 
salary often was food, and once the Rev. Mr. 
Johnson had as many as 1 1 big country hams 
on hand at one time. The granddaughters re- 
member their grandfather as "never losing his 
temper ..." and "how sweet he was ... he 
was one of the best men I knew — the other 
was his brother." 

"I loved to hear him laugh," said Mary 
Grace. The minister loved to do gardening and 
kept some chickens. 

The saddlebags were in the possession of 
the Rev. Mr. Johnson's daughter, the late Ms. 
Emma Johnson, who "intended giving the 
Conference the saddlebags and pictures of the 
minister and his wife," the former Mary Vir- 
ginia Conley. The framed pictures are placed 
next to the saddlebags in the Archives Room. 

The Rev. Mr. Johnson married Miss Conley 
in 1897 and their first home was at Clyde. He 
served churches in Macon, Haywood, Jack- 
son, Ashe, Guilford, Iredell, Alexander, Ran- 
dolph, Union, Davidson, Forsyth, Cleveland 
and Rockingham counties. He often had eight 
to ten congregations on his circuit. 

He completed and dedicated seven 
churches, remodeled three others, and 
erected new church buildings for 13 other 
congregations. 

— The N.C. Christian Advocate, 

July 14, 1981 



EARLY BAPTIST ACTIVITY 

27 

The first settlers of the Southern Appa- 
lachians were predominantly Presbyterian. 
They early built their churches and schools in 
the valleys of Virginia and East Tennessee and 
in the foothills of North Carolina. Their 
teachers and educated ministers, however, 
preferred working in the more populous cen- 
ters to enduring the hardships and privations 
of the more isolated regions. 

Thus the Methodists and Baptists got the 
start on them and the Presbyterians lost an 
opportunity in the Southern mountains which 
it took . . . until the last quarter of the 
nineteenth century to partly redeem. 

Edward's "Notebook" 

According to that valuable source of early 
Baptist history in America, Morgan Edwards' 
Notebook, "in the year of Braddock's defeat 
eight couples settled in the vicinity of Sandy 
Creek in the County of Guilford, N.C." This 
settlement, of which Shubal Stearns was the 
leading spirit, was the beginning of the famous 
Sandy Creek Association, organized in 1759, 
the center of the Separate Baptists. 

Shubal Stearns, a native of Boston, came 
under the influence of George Whitfield and 
other itinerant preachers, who were at that 
time a thorn in the flesh of the orthodox clergy 
of New England, and joined one of the New- 
Light or Separate societies. He later joined a 
Baptist group, known as the Separate Bap- 
tists. This group came to North Carolina about 







The log building shown in the upper picture, brought to the campus in 1939, was formerly the Frog Level Schoolhouse, 
typical of the "old field" schools common in the nineteenth century. It later served as a house of worship for the Arrington 
Branch Baptist Church. The lower picture shows the marker erected to Joe when his ashes were moved to the campus in 
1932, in all humility. He was a slave who was taken by the contractors of the first building of this college as a pledge for the 
debt due them. (Photo, courtesy, Mars Hill College) 



the time the Moravians, Quakers and other 
groups settled in the state. 

These Separate Baptists, characterized by 
almost fanatical zeal and evangelistic vigor, 
grew very rapidly until there were associations 
in three states. Governor Tryon specifically 
designated these Baptists along with the Quak- 
ers as being responsible for the Regulator 
uprisings. 

Early Activist 

The Presbyterians likewise, possibly in re- 
sentment of their aggressiveness, accused 
these Baptists of being the most involved; and 
of course the Established Church resented 
their protests against the privileges which it 
had arrogated unto itself. 

The fact is that other groups were about as 
much involved in the Regulator movement as 
these Baptists, whose ministers threatened to 
excommunicate any who joined the Regula- 
tors. Nevertheless they were identified with 
the Regulator rebellion, and after the Battle of 
Alamance, May 1 6, 1 771 , a general dispersion 
of Baptists began ..." 



Some moved . . . into South Carolina and 
on into Georgia; others to Virginia; and still 
others went westward in North Carolina and on 
into the new settlement in East Tennessee. 

To The Mountains 

A number of these liberty-loving Baptists 
who resented, to use Dr. George Paschal's 
words, "the supercilious annoyance of those 
who claimed pre-eminence above them," set- 
tled along the western frontier of North Caroli- 
na and were among the first to penetrate the 
mountains . . . where they had no small influ- 
ence. It is believed that a mode of preaching 
once prevalent in the area, characterized par- 
ticularly by a "holy tone," can be traced 
to them. 

It was possibly Virginia Baptists . . . who 
perhaps more than any other group were re- 
sponsible for the injection of the principle of 
the separation of church and state into the 
earlier laws and for the inclusion of the clause 
in Article VI of the Constitution that "no reli- 
gious test shall ever be required as a qualifica- 
tion for any office or public trust." 



35 




Mars Hill College — the first building completed in 1 856. The picture was taken shortly before the building was torn down 
in 1910. Upper left, Edward Carter; upper right, Rev. William Keith; lower left, Rev. J.W. Anderson; lower right, T.S. 
Deaver. (Photo: courtesy, Mars Hill College) 



Rifle, Axe, Saddlebag 

"It remained for the Baptists, the rifle, axe, 
and saddlebag men" to come in and possess 
the land, particularly the more remote areas. 
The autonomy of the Baptist Churches and the 
relative independence of the preachers who 
were of the people and who labored at secular 
pursuits during the week and preached on 
Sunday, were well suited to the rugged frontier 
conditions and to the individualistic character 
of the people. The members of these early 
Baptist churches combined many Calvinistic 
traits with the zeal of the Methodists, charac- 
teristics which persist until this day. 



The Oldest Congregation 

The oldest church of any faith in North Caro- 
lina west of the Blue Ridge is supposed to be 
the Three Forks Baptist Church, organized in 
what is now Watauga County on November 6, 
1790. From this church were established 
arms, one of which was Globe, the home 
church of Dr. R.L. Moore's family, the first 
family to settle in Globe Valley in Caldwell 
County. It was from the Three Forks Church 
that the oldest Baptist association in the west- 
ern part of the state took its name. 

The first Baptist association formed farther 
west in the state was the French Broad, the 



Association for which the French Broad Baptist 
Institute, later Mars Hill College, was named. 
This association was for a time the only one in 
the western part of the state lying within the 
territory when Buncombe County was formed. 

It was organized in 1807 and included six 
churches: Little Ivy, French Broad (in Hender- 
son County), New Found, Locust Old Fields 
(Canton), Cane River (in Yancey County), and 
Cane Creek. Either Little Ivy or French Broad is 
the oldest church in the association. 

Little Ivy, located about two miles from 
Mars Hill was organized in 1796, according to 
the Reverend John Ammons. By the time Mars 
Hill College was founded, however, the terri- 
tory of the French Broad Association had been 
greatly reduced by the formation of other 
associations, and the number of churches in 
the association had increased to twenty." 

The book by John Angus McLeod about 
Mars Hill College, entitled From These Stones, 
is the source of the above material on early 
Baptist activity in this area and contains many 
small biographical items about the settlers and 
their desire for educational opportunities for 
their children. It is a good source for anyone 
seeking material on very early families. Copy- 
righted by Mars Hill College in 1955 and revised 
in 1968, copies can be obtained by writing to 
Mars Hill College. A gift copy was presented to 
OBCGS Library and is also available here for 
research use. 

Mars Hill College 

Mars Hill College, the oldest college of con- 
tinuing existence in Western North Carolina 
and the first school established by Baptists in 
the state west of the Blue Ridge Mountains, 
has grown up with the region in which it has 
stood for one hundred and twelve years. 

One of the founding fathers was Edward 
Carter. The book states that "Mrs. John 
Smith, granddaughter of Edward Carter, says 
that the original suggestion for founding the 
school came from her grandmother. When 
Mr. Carter wished to send their son Melvin to 
Burnsville Academy, just opened by the 
Methodists, she was reluctant to let him go, 
since the boy was only twelve years old and 
small for his age; whereupon she asked Mr. 
Carter why they could not have a school nearer 
home to which they could send their chil- 
dren." 

The book goes on to describe in detail, the 
process of deciding upon a suitable site, (not 
an easy decision), and the work involved in 
raising the finances required. Important to 
genealogists, are descriptions of families in- 
volved with the college over the years, and the 
difficulties surmounted by innovative prac- 
tices shed much light on the characters of 
these early ancestors of many people from this 
area. 

There is an index of general names of per- 
sons and subjects mentioned in the text, plus a 
set of appendices which carry the names of 
those who have been trustees, faculty and 
members of the administrative staff since its 
inception to the date of writing the book. 

Thus, the Baptists have left a strong mark in 
the Old Buncombe area. 

— The Book Committee 



36 



NEWFOUND BAPTIST 
CHURCH: FROM 1802 ON 

28 

Newfound Baptist Church was organized in 
February of 1802, when a group of faithful 
Christians met and elected a committee to 
petition the Baptist Church on Big Pigeon to 
help organize a church near Turkey Creek, in 
Buncombe County. 

On February 22, 1802, this group met at 
John Biffle's Mill and established the Church 
of Christ; the name was later changed to the 
Missionary Baptist Church on Newfound. La- 
ter that March, the church selected a lot upon 
which to build a meeting house. This log-hewn 
building was constructed near the site of the 
present building. 

The church again met and elected the Rev- 
erend Thomas Snelson as its first pastor. The 
church grew rapidly and organized missions at 
French Broad, Cane Creek, and Little Ivy. By 
September of 1 832, the church had 302 mem- 
bers. 

In these early days the church was a strong 
force of law and order within the community. 
No one was allowed within the membership 
who did not live up to their creed. One of the 
first acts of the church was to elect a commit- 
tee of the most devoted members to settle 
disputes and arguments within the church and 
neighboring community. The members were 
bound to abide by these decisions. 

On February 18, 1815, Thomas Snelson 
resigned as pastor after serving for thirteen 
years. During the first fifty years of its exis- 
tence Newfound, had only six pastors. There is 
little history in the way of building church 
homes until June of 1836. The church col- 
lected $30.00 for repairing the meeting house 
and settled all debts. 

On March 18, 1871 a new frame structure 
was completed and dedicated by the Reverend 
Joseph Miller, its ninth, eleventh, sixteenth, 
and nineteenth pastor. The records state that 
another house was built in 1892 with the final 
service held on October 23, 1949. 

To Cuba With $2.50 

In February of 1898 the church endorsed 
Miss Jennie Edwards to go to Cuba to begin a 
mission and orphanage. However, the Span- 
ish-American War erupted and this ruined her 
plans. 

On August 19, 1898, the church gave her a 
collection of $2.50 and she left for Guanajay, 
Cuba to begin her work. 

The Greatest Revival 

In August of 1 922 Newfound Baptist Church 
joined The Buncombe Baptist Association. Ten 
years later on July 10, 1932 the greatest reviv- 
al in the church's history was held. This revival 
lasted for twenty-two days and produced 
seventy-four conversions. 

In October of 1941 the Reverend M.L. Kir- 
stein Presented the church a plan to raise the 
money to construct a new church building . His 
plan suceeded and ground was broken for the 
building in June of 1949. It was soon decided 
that the church needed a parsonage and a fund 



for its construction was begun in January of 
1955. Later on October 5, 1957 the parsonage 
was dedicated. 

On November 2, 1958 the church licensed 
Louie Carver to preach and later he and his 
family left for a mission field in Korea. In 
September of 1 964 plans for a new education- 
al building were approved and the ground was 
broken on July 25, 1965. The dedication for 
the new educational building was held on 
January 9, 1966. 

A Children's Church 

Late in 1972 a childrens' church was orga- 
nized with Johnny Herron as its pastor. After 
the death of James E. Swinson, the 43rd pas- 
tor, a memorial scholarship fund was estab- 
lished in his name in May of 1973. 

On the morning of Sunday, January 20, 
1974, Reverend Charles Phillips brought the 
morning message and was elected the 44th 
pastor by a unanimous vote. 

In early 1 975 many saw the need for a larger 
building and a building committee was orga- 
nized consisting of the following people: 
Harold Collins (Chm.), Frank Jarvis, Ann De- 
Sanzo, Dot Grindstaff , Frankie Ingle, Edwin C. 
Wilson, and Bob Reel. In November of 1975 a 
$45,000.00 parking lot expansion project was 
begun and by July of 1976 this five-year loan 
was repaid. 

Later on September 25, 1977, Gary North 
and his family came to Newfound where Gary 
was to serve as Minister of Music and Associ- 
ate Pastor. On March 25, 1979 as Herman 
Snelson, the great, great, great grandson of 
Thomas Snelson, the first pastor, broke the 
ground for the construction of the new sanc- 
tuary; a new chapter in the history of New- 
found was begun. 

On March 1 , 1980 the first service was held 
in the newly completed structure and it was 
dedicated on the first day of June of the same 
year. 

Surely Newfound, the oldest church in Bun- 
combe County, will stand as a beacon of hope 
and strength toward the surrounding com- 
munity. The cost of the New Sanctuary and 
offices was approximately $325,000.00. 

— Phil Wilson 



INMAN CHAPEL: A UNIQUE 
HISTORY 

29 

Inman Chapel is a bit of the family history of 
Joshua and James Anderson Inman families. 
It is located in Haywood County on Hwy. 215 
south, on Lake Logan Road about five miles 
from Hwy. 276. The church was built by 
Joshua's son, James Anderson in 1902. 

The Inman family reunion is held at the 
church the third Sunday in August with dinner 
at 1 2:30. Donations made at the reunion sup- 
port the maintenance of the church and 
cemetery. 

I have been told by one of the family that 
Anderson, when he was 16 or 17 years old, 
went to work for Jonathan Plott and that he 
was "close to Plott" until age 43. Then he 
preached for 43 years. (He married Plott's 



adopted daughter.) 

He was ordained a minister in the Universal- 
ist Church August 30, 1868, six months after 
his forty-second birthday, so I would interpret 
the above as meaning that he worked closely 
with Plott until he entered the ministry. He was 
a Confederate soldier when he was between 35 
and 40 years old. 

He was about 77 years old when he built 
Inman Chapel in 1902. He was 87 when he 
died in 1913 and it appears that he was active 
most all of his life. 

The church was built on land he owned and 
he planned for the Inman family cemetery next 
to it. The cemetery has been enlarged with 
privately owned lots adjoining the Inman orig- 
inal space. Most of the burials in the Inman 
section are Inmans, but at one time when the 
building was used by a congregation, its 
minister allowed the burial of others in the 
Inman plot. These graves were not properly 
identified and they are now marked by small 
pieces of plain marble. 

Rev. Inman left the ownership and manage- 
ment of the church building to trustees. The 
building was to be used by any denomination 
of similar religious beliefs. 




Inman Chapel, built by Rev. James Anderson Inman. 
Located on Hwy. 215, Lake Logan Rd. South — Haywood 
County. 



Chestnut Boards 

In recent vears a group that used the build- 
ing "modernized" it and covered all the origi- 
nal inside materials. The walls were built from 
wide chestnut boards, I am told by some of the 
family. The ceiling was painted sky blue, and 
Rev. Inman is reported to have said that "it 
reminded him of God's canopy over us." 

A lady from Jacksonville, N.C. spoke on the 
history of the Universalist Church in North 
Carolina at an Inman reunion I attended. She 
stated that in August 1 868 there was organized 
in Pigeon River Valley the first Universalist 
church in North Carolina. 

Papers related to the establishment of this 
church are in the possession of some of the 

37 



family. There is a Constitution of the First 
Universalist Church of Haywood County dated 
August 28, 1868 containing preamble, and 
everything! 

The Universalist Society 

A month earlier — dated July 23, 1868 — 
we have the Constitution of a Universalist 
Society. The first signer was Jonathan Plott, 
followed by T.N. Long, Andrew Wells, J.F. 
Long, James A. Inman, Joseph S. Davis, Fan- 
ny E. Inman, Mary E. Inman, Margaret Inman, 
Henry Gibson, July Ann Davis, Nancy Craw- 
ford, Marthy Inman, Stephens Nicholson, Bir- 
ditt Williams, Matilda Reece and James Sisk. 

I have a Xerox copy of Rev. Inman's ordina- 
tion paper dated August 30, 1868. It is signed 
by J.F. Long, Clerk. I could not read the signa- 
ture of the Moderator. 

Note the founding of the church in 1868 
before the building of Inman Chapel in 1902. 

I have a large picture of great grandfather 
Inman and wife with a note written by my 
father on the back of it — "... He was a 
choice citizen, a great believer in God and in 
the doing of His will." 

Ordination Paper 

The ordination paper reads: 

"Be it known unto all that the First Univer- 
salist Church of Haywood Co., N.C. a Society 
of Christians believing in the final purity and 
happiness of all mankind thro Jesus Christ, 
having thought fit for proper causes moving 
them thereunto and having great confidence in 
the Christian character of our beloved brother, 
J. A. Inman, and in his ability to give instruc- 
tions on the holy Scriptures; did on the 30th 
day of August in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty eight, ordain 
and setapartXo the work of the gospel ministry 
by the imposition of hands and solemn invoca- 
tion, our beloved brother J. A. Inman as an 
accredited minister of our order. 

Done by order of the Church this 30th day of 
August 1868." 

It is signed by J.F. Long, Clerk 
and (?) Moderator. 

An endorsement written at the top of the 
page is dated almost 13 years later: "Rev. J. A. 
Inman is in the fellowship of the Universalist 
Church as a minister of the Gospel. — Man- 
chester, N.H., April 1, 1881." Signed G.S. 
Demarest, Sec'y U. General Convention. 

It has been handed down in the family that 
the Inmans came South from Maine. I notice 
the probability of Universalist faith in that area 
coming with them as they moved. 

— Rose Pless Case 
(Mrs. W.W. Case) 



JESUS CHRIST BAPTIST 
CHURCH OF AVERY'S CREEK 

30 

Many of us have root connections with 
Jesus Christ Baptist Church that was orga- 
nized one hundred and fifty three years ago on 
June 6th, 1828, located south of Asheville, 
North Carolina in Buncombe County. 

38 



The first meeting was held at the home of 
Johnson Israel. They agreed to meet once a 
month. They also made arrangements to buy a 
book to keep their minutes. It was bought in 
Asheville, N.C. Edward Stuart was appointed 
the recording clerk. 

Their first deacons were Michael Israel, Ed- 
ward Stewart, Samuel Lance and Adam 
Creaseman. 

In 1829 at a union meeting house on 
Hominy Creek the deacons humbly petitioned 
to be dismissed from Hominey to become their 
own conference. The deacons also were dele- 
gates at Toe River, Liberty held at Big Ivy, 
Boiling Springs at Spartanburg, South Caroli- 
na, Caney River and New Farm (writer thinks 
this is Newfound.) 

Each year on Friday before the first Sabbath 
in June, they observed fasting and prayer and 
on Sabbath evening after Sacraments they had 
a foot washing. 

William Caffee Berry was accepted as a 
member in 1833. In just one year, he was 
appointed the new recording clerk. In the 
same year, he asked the members to exercise 
a public gift so that he could hold prayer and 
lecture from the Scripture, if at anytime the 
Lord called on him. 

In 1836 the conference reluctantly granted 
him license to go where the Lord might call on 
him to preach, that was if his ordinance was 
found ripe. He must have passed his ordina- 
tion. He went many places to preach and is 
buried in Jackson County, North Carolina. 

Officers: A Jury 

Evidently the officers were almost like a 
jury. The members were "churched" for many 
things, including missing a church service. 
But they were reinstated as often as dis- 
missed. Most of them were in good standing. 
The women were always getting their feelings 
hurt, even among themselves. They were us- 
ing names with the offenses. 

In 1833 they decided to have the minutes 
examined in presence of the members. If they 
found records that shouldn't be recorded, they 
might be left out and then the records were 
approved to be transcribed to a new book. 



A 1838 List of Gifts 

In 1 838 they asked for donations to help pay 
the balance on the printers bill. Two members 
gave 6 1 /4 cents, one gave 10 cents and two 
gave 50 cents. Total donated $1 .471/2. 

Donations for 1839 printers bill totaled 
$1 .36 1 /4. Three gave 25 cents, two 12Vfe cents, 
three gave ten cents and one gave 6 1 /4 cents. 

In 1841 they resolved that a copy of the 
deed made to the church from Edward Stuart 
(deceased) be written and kept with the church 
records. 

Adam Creaseman and Michael Israel ap- 
plied for their resignation as deacons in 1839 
but agreed to serve until new ones were 
appointed. They were still serving in 1842. 
Adam Creaseman moved to Tennessee right 
after the mid 1840s and is buried in McMinn 
County, Tennessee. 

A roster of early members is as follows: 



Names of Male Members 

Adam Creaseman, Michael Israel, Edward 
Stuart, William Gashey, Samuel Lance, 
Shered D. Mull, William C. Berry, William H. 
Milton, James T. Crook, William D. Crook, 
William Cockran, Larkin M. Berry, A.B. Car- 
land, William Edwards, Humphrey P. Lewis. 

Names of Female Members 

Jesten Cockerham, Elizabeth Cook, Polly 
Cozby, Reaner Taylor, Mary Lance, Clariza 
Rodgers, Elizabeth Stuart, Lettica Berry, 
Annes Cook, Mary Ann Hew, Polly Phillips, 
Sarah Israel, Elizabeth Israel, Nancy Israel, 
Matilda Ballard, Ritty Elvira Stuart, Elizabeth 
Redman, Susannah Gashey, Margaret Dover, 
M illy Sprinkle, Polly Creaseman, Harriett 
Cockerham, Martha Buchanan, Elizabeth P. 
Liner, Elizabeth Linzey, Patsy Lance, Polly 
Jameson, Lear Sharp, Nancy Hampton, Pollu 
Carlen, Sueline Sprinkle, Polly Berry and Re- 
beccy Steel. 

— John B. Gasperson 



OAK GROVE BAPTIST CHURCH 
OF QUEBEC 

31 

On Monday, July 27, 1981 , Oak Grove Bap- 
tist Church of Quebec in Transylvania County 
celebrated the 100th anniversary of its found- 
ing, with a day-long event. 

The six charter members were G.W. Hen- 
derson and wife, Millie Peek Henderson; John 
Jackson and wife, Martha Jackson; John 
Whitmire; and Henry Galloway. Assisting with 
the organization and serving as the first pastor 
was Andy Whitmire from Oolanoia, S.C. and 
for a number of years it met in a one-room log 
schoolhouse about one-fourth of a mile east of 
its present site. 





J-_ ^ 








■K&3 fissl^' 




"jJHE 




! ar^^tc- "■ - -C* 




-"m> ""' ' '_ 


■ /* m 




Wj ■. ^BM 







Oak Grove Baptist Church, Quebec. Transylvania Co. 



The week after the church was organized, a 
revival began, adding ten members: Four — 
Jane Dodson, Mary Boren, W.B. Henderson 
and Louisa Henderson — joined by letter. 
Baptismal services for the other six, John Kel- 
lar, Lovell Thomas, Marcus Whitmire, Vilanta 
Galloway, Arsula S. Banther and Elizabeth 
Henderson, were held August 8, 1880. 



The 1903 Church 

The first church was built in 1903 near the 
site of a cemetery which had been created. 
This building lasted until the middle or late 
1930's. When it became necessary to brace 
one side of the church with poles the con- 
gregation decided it was time to rebuild. 

The Rev. N.H. Chapman was pastor during 
this time of expansion. All of the work on the 
new building was donated with the exception 
of $3.50 paid to a rock mason for building 
foundation pillars. 




Oak Grove Baptist Church held early services in the Old 
Quebec School — photo, courtesy Transylvania Times, 
Brevard. 



Oak Grove has had 27 pastors to date. They 
are as follows: 

Andy S. Whitmire, E.P. Stone, J. A. Mar- 
shall, W.F. Lee, David Miller, J.A. Galloway, 
J.R. Owen, L.M. Lyda, F.M. Jordon, Z.I. Hen- 
derson, J.K. Henderson, A.J. Manly, W.H. 
Nicholason, E.R. Pendeleton, J.E. Bert, N.H. 
Chapman, H.A. Stanbury, A.B. Ledford, Gene 
Henson, Craig Dodson, Ben Cook, Ernest 
McFall, F.T. Rose, Kermit Reece, Bill Land- 
reth, Ron Bower and Gene Moore. 

Rev. A.J. Manly was pastor the longest 
period, serving for 14 years. Rev. Gene Hen- 
son was the youngest pastor at 19 years of 
age. 

Sunday School Superintendents since the 
organization of the church are as follows: 
G.W. Henderson, J.B. Galloway, A.J. Collins, 
C.W. Henderson, J.W. Jones, B.O. Thomas, 
Wilk Reid, Boling Henderson, Guy Whitmire, 
Johnnie Whitmire, Lee Miller, Ray Owen, 
Charles Owen, James Middleton, Bennie 
Fisher, Claxton Henderson and Danny Pat- 
terson. 

— The Book Committee 



EBENEZER METHODIST 
CHURCH 

32 

The earliest information available on 
Ebenezer Church was just prior to 1830 when 
the members of what are now Siloam and 
Ebenezer Churches both worshiped together 
in a little log building that stood close to the 
site of the present Ebenezer Church building. 



The first Ebenezer Church building for 
Methodists was a small log building which 
stood just south of where the Southern Rail- 
road is located. The railroad was built through 
this community in 1868. One of the corner 
stones of this building is still there to this day. 

In 1860 construction was started on a new 
building about 500 feet west of the old one by 
brothers Benjamin and Byrd Ricketts. Before 
the building was completed, the Rickett 
brothers were called away to serve in the War 
Between the States and nothing was done on 
the Church for four years. Benjamin died in the 
war, but Byrd came home and finished the 
church that was to be used for forty-five years. 

The framing of this building was hewed 
from pine poles. The lumber was sawed on a 
water mill and planed by hand. The framing 
was morticed and put together by wooden 
pegs and the nails were hand forged. 

In 1894 a parsonage to serve Old Fort, 
Ebenezer, Bethel, Bethlehem, Providence, 
and Carson's Chapel was built in Old Fort. This 
parsonage was constructed by Mr. Willis 
Bradley, his sons, Rev. J.W., L.D., and 
George F., and Mr. John W. Moffitt, and 
others. This parsonage stood directly behind 
the Old Fort Methodist Church which was then 
located on the corner of the present Thoma- 
son and Main Streets. 

Rev. J.H. West was the first pastor to 
occupy this parsonage. Other pastors serving 
the church which the Ricketts brothers built 
were Rev. Albert Sherrill, Rev. Ebenezer 
Myers, Rev. J.D. Carpenter, Rev. Brownlow 
Lyda, Rev. Greer, Rev. J.A. Fry, Rev. Meares, 
and Rev. W.G. Mallonee. 

In 1910 a one-room frame building was 
constructed on the site of the present building 
supervised by George F. Bradley, who later 
moved to Forest City, and assisted by John W. 
Moffitt, who still is active in the church. The 
labor was donated by the members, and the 
building, built at a very low cost was used 40 
years. 

The first pastor to serve this building was 
Rev. M.A. Osborne in 1911-1912. Other pas- 
tors serving this church were J.L. Smith, 
1913; R.L. Doggett, 1914-15; R.F. Mock, 
1916-1919; Rev. Christenbury, 1923-1924. 

It is interesting to note that Rev. Christen- 
bury was the first pastor of the church to travel 
by automobile. He had a new 1923 Model-T. 
The other pastors up to this time had traveled 
by horseback or buggy. 

In 1910 a new Methodist Church was orga- 
nized and a church built at Greenlee. It was 
called the Greenlee Methodist Church and 
stood on a hill east across the branch from Mr. 
Nelson's residence. This church was also a 
part of the Old Fort Circuit. However, the 
Church was abandoned about 1924 and the 
property was sold. 

In the fall of 1924, Old Fort was made a 
station church, Providence was put on the 
McDowell circuit, leaving Ebenezer, Bethel, 
Bethlehem, Carson's Chapel on the Old Fort 
Circuit. 

Rev. J.N. Wise was the first pastor of this 
Old Fort Circuit, serving during 1925-1926. 
Pastors following Rev. Wise were as follows: 
W.R. Masters, 1927-1928; R.T. Dixon, 1929- 



1930; R.L. Smith, 1931; Everette Wilson, 
1932; J.D. Pyatt, 1932-1935; Rev. Sisk, 
1936-1937; M.A. Edwards, 1938; R.E. Ward, 
1939-1941; C.R. Ross, 1942-1943; L.C. 
Stevens 1944-1946; J.R. Bowman, 1947- 
1948; A.L. Lytle, 1949-1951. 

In July, 1948 construction was started on 
the present building. It was first used in 
November 1950 and completed in 1957 at a 
cost of a little more than $24,000.00. Rev. 
A.L. Lytle was pastor when the Church was 
first used. Pastors serving this church up to 
the present time have been L.W. Hall, 1952- 
1955; M.T. Hinshaw, 1956-1957; and V.N. 
Allen, 1957. 

This information was related to John W. 
Moffitt by the late John C. McCoy, the late 
Charles E. Ricketts, and by his father, John W. 
Moffitt, Sr. 

Byrd Ricketts was the grandfather of Gor- 
don Ricketts and Mrs. Leah Burnette of this 
community. 

— John W. Moffitt 

From Leah Ricketts Burnett 
Collection, 10/14/79 

ST. MARY'S, ASHEVILLE 

33 

The founding of St. Mary's Episcopal 
(Anglican) Church is unique in that it was from 
the start a Parish within the geographical limits 
of another Parish. Usually, a Mission church is 
commenced under the care and guidance of a 
Parish, and only later reaches Parish status. 

It happened that the Rev. Charles Mercer 
Hall, retired Rector of Holy Cross Church, 
Kingston, New York had been a supply clergy- 
man in 1913 at Trinity Episcopal Church, 
Asheville; and from his teachings of Anglo- 
Catholic principles there were certain mem- 
bers of Trinity who desired an Anglican Church 
in Asheville. 

The persons interested in the venture held a 
meeting on 4 June 1914 at the home of Miss 
Annie C. Payne, 4 Von Ruck Terrace, at which 
a Vestry was elected for the management of 
the temporal affairs of the new St. Mary's 
Parish. The Vestry members were Thomas 
Settle, senior warden, Reginald Howland, 
junior warden, A.S. Guerard, H.C. Allen, and 
R.S. Smith. Three months later Robert Long 
was added to this list. The Vestry called 
"Father" Hall to be Rector of St. Mary's, and 
he accepted. 

Activities began promptly thereafter with 
services held in a club house on the grounds of 
the Manor Hotel, Charlotte St. four times each 
Sunday. By August, 1914, a small four-page 
leaflet with regard to the Parish was printed, 
later enlarged, and continues, somewhat 
altered, in unbroken succession to the present 
day. 

Lot Is Purchased 

A lot was purchased at the corner of Char- 
lotte St. and Macon Ave. for the sum of 
$5,500. on which to erect St. Mary's church 
building. The location met the stipulations of 
the Bishop of the Diocese and the Vestry of 
Trinity that the site be north of Hillside St. and 
east of Merrimon Ave. The lot was not the 

39 







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A page from the 1862 Accounting of the cost of building Ebenezer Methodist Church. (From the Leah Rickets Burnette Collection, October 14, 1979.) 



most choice as it is a ravine; but upon it has 
been located not only the lovely church build- 
ing but also a charming flower garden, which 
includes herbs. And through the years the site 
has become one of the most delightful in the 
entire city, and the scene of numerous wed- 
dings. 

The Architect for St. Mary's Church was 
Richard Sharp Smith of Asheville. At the time it 
was built, the building was valued at $1 0,000. 

A later Rector, The Rev. A.W. Farnum, 
states in an article in The Highland Churchman 
that "All the beautiful appointments were 
given by the faithful band who were numbered 
among the founders." It is interesting to note 
that each of the original fourteen families who 

40 



left Trinity at the founding of St. Mary's gave 
the fourteen Stations of the Cross located in 
the church. The building was completed in 
time for Midnight Mass on Christmas Eve. 
1914, with Bishop Junius Moore Horner, of 
the Diocese of Western North Carolina, offi- 
ciating. 

Petition Signers 

Other persons who signed the petition for 
the foundation of St. Mary's Parish were Har- 
riet A. Champion, George T. Belknap, Emma 
Hugger Stewart, J.B. Tate, M.E. Tate, Mary H. 
Howland, Rachel Howland, Isabel G. Smith, 
Carrie Carr Mitchell, Alice G. Allen, L.L. 



Cocke, Mrs. R.L. Cocke, Eliza P. Settle, 
Josephine M. Jones, and Elmer C. Randolph. 

Through the years the membership of St. 
Mary's enlarged so that in 1960 the church 
building was enlarged. Dedication ceremonies 
for the building as it is today were held August 
14 of that year. 

The lovely interior was the work of the 
American artist Leonard Craig. Included in this 
is his unusual and effectively beautiful painting 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which is en- 
sconced at the Altar. 

Following The Rev. Hall and Rev. Farnham, 
the succeeding Priests of St. Mary's to the 
present date have been Rudolph H. 
Schnowenberg, Gale Webbe, Eric Veal, and 



Paul Chaplin. 

Through the years St. Mary's has spon- 
sored many activities of interest to the com- 
munity. One of these popular events for many 
years has been their Annual Sidewalk Sale, 
which continue to offer the townspeople many 
a bargain. 

Atmosphere Of Peace 

As the Guest Register of the church bears 
evidence, persons who have travelled 
throughout the world express the hope that St. 
Mary's, Asheville, will remain forever just as it 
is because of its beauty and special atmos- 
phere of complete peace. St. Mary's is known 
throughout the United States, both by persons 
who have seen it and those who have not. Its 
fame is the result of the love of countless 
numbers of persons who have known St. 
Mary's either as residents of Asheville or just 
as visitors. 

St. Mary's Church, Asheville, has been 
unique frojn the beginning. 

— Margaret Poppel 



TRINITY EPISCOPAL CHURCH 
AT ASHEVILLE 

34 

Anglicans who came as colonists as early as 
1607, of necessity, put down shallow roots in 
American religious soil. Governed as missions 
under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of London 
for 177 years, they resolved to become auton- 
onomous after the Revolutionary War. 

In 1784, Samuel Seabury was consecrated 
Bishop for Connecticut in Aberdeen, Scotland 
— in Aberdeen instead of London because he 
refused to pledge fealty to King George III. 
Three years later Samuel Provost of New York, 
and William White of Pennsylvania, were con- 
secrated in England. A line of bishops for the 
Protestant Episcopal Church of America now 
was assured and gave basis for the ordination 
of priests. 

There was no Episcopal Diocese of North 
Carolina until 1817, when three clergymen and 
six laymen met to give the Right Reverend 



William Channing Moore, Bishop of Virginia, 
jurisdiction over the district until the election 
of John Stark Ravenscroft in 1823. Bishop 
Ravenscroft made three visits to Asheville to 
hold services for small groups in the court- 
house. 




Trinity Episcopal Church • 
ville. 



first building — 1850, Ashe- 



A 1832 Visit 

Levi Silliman Ives was consecrated Bishop 
in 1831 , and after a visit to Asheville on June 
6, 1832, wrote: 

"... The inquiries which a few hours en- 
abled me here to make, resulted in the convic- 
tion that strong as may have been the prej- 
udices of the people in this district of the 
Country against the Church, a way is fast 
opening to the cordial and general reception of 
its privileges." 

The Methodist Bishop, Francis Asbury 
(1745-1816) had earlier pled for tolerance: 
"... why might not the Protestant Episcopal 
Church have as much indulgence in America 
as any other society of people." 

Henrietta Kerr Patton, a South Carolinian 
was the only Episcopalian living in Asheville at 



that time. (The present Pritchard Park was 
outside the town limits.) Her husband, James 
W. Patton, the son of James Patton, a staunch 
Presbyterian who settled in Asheville in 1814, 
gave the land on which Trinity Church stands 
today. She was joined by Ann Evelina Baird 
Coleman (Mrs. William) of Weaverville, and 
Salena Corpening Roberts (Mrs. Philetus) 
who convinced Bishop Ives that an Episcopal 
Church should be established in the com- 
munity. 

He chose Jarvis Buxton, a native North 
Carolinian and graduate of Chapel Hill, as mis- 
sionary priest who, beginning in 1847, rode 
horseback from Rutherfordton to Asheville by 
way of Hickory Nut Gap, and held services in 
the Eagle Hotel owned by James W. Patton. 
Later a room at the Asheville Female College 
on Oak Street was used for services. 




Second building, Trinity Episcopal Church, 1881. 

Plans for "a church building in the Pointed 
Style," brick, that would seat about 200 were 
ordered from a New York architect, Frank 
Wills. The church was completed at the cost of 
approximately $1 700, and was consecrated by 
Bishop Ives, July 6, 1851, who wrote in his 
journal: "A neat Gothic edifice, highly credit- 
able to the zeal and taste of the few churchmen 
there." 

The church register listed seven communi- 
cants. Citizens of Asheville, visitors from other 
sections and many friends from Charleston, 
S.C. , contributed funds to help defray the cost 



./'■■' * \ 



o*,< 



r 
3 







> 

W" 



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' r 



Trinity Episcopal Church — 1981, Asheville. 



41 



of the building. The Reverend Jarvis Buxton 
was the first Rector. 

Civil War Period 

At the time of the Civil War the North Caroli- 
na Church joined those of the other southern 
states to form the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of the Confederacy. Although no delegates 
went to the General Convention of 1862, they 
were named in the roll call. However, before 
the Convention met in Philadelphia in 1865, 
the Presiding Bishop urged the southern 
bishops to attend and to send delegates to the 
House of Deputies. 

The Right Reverend Thomas Atkinson, 
Bishop of North Carolina, was agreeable to 
union "... but it would have to be union with 
honor." For his unifying influence, Bishop 
Atkinson received a letter of commendation 
from his friend General Robert E. Lee, himself 
a Low Church Anglican. 

First School 

It was with Bishop Atkinson's approval that 
Trinity Parish under the guidance of Dr. Bux- 
ton established the first school for blacks on 
Valley Street, in 1870. There were no public 
schools in Asheville until 1888. And General 
James G. Martin (1819-79), a retired Con- 
federate officer, and his wife met each Sunday 
afternoon at Trinity to instruct a group of 
blacks in the study of the Book of Common 
Prayer. 

By 1880, the hundred communicants of 
Trinity were again faced with the need of a new 
church building. The cornerstone was laid in 
1881 , for "an elegant and commodious struc- 
ture," according to the City Directory. 

The 1910 Fire 

Due to a faulty furnace the church was de- 
stroyed by fire on the night of November 15, 
1910. The Vestry, meeting the following night 
after Heywood Parker's convincing plea, re- 
solved "... that we rebuild Trinity Church at 
once." At that time the Episcopal Church in 
this area was under the jurisdiction of the 
Right Reverend Junius Moore Horner. 

Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, a noted 
architect from New York City, was called on to 
draw plans for Trinity's third church. He chose 
the Gothic revival style. The interior planned to 
allow a clear view of the chancel, a 72-foot 
nave and 440 pew seats. The carved altar is of 
Trani marble beneath a paneled stained glass 
window of floral and geometric design; the 
altar, in memory of the Reverend McNeely 
Dubose, Trinity's second Rector (1891- 
1903). 

Other windows of impressive beauty in col- 
or and design depict episodes in the life of 
Jesus; also figures of persons revered by all 
Christendom; as well as outstanding church- 
related Henry St. George Tucker, former Pre- 
siding Bishop, William Temple, Archbishop of 
Canterbury from 1942-44, and Phillips 
Brooks, an Episcopal bishop, the author of "0 
Little Town of Bethlehem. " 

Non-Anglicans are represented by Paul Til- 
lich, the theologian, John R. Mott, a Method- 

42 



ist layman and Pope John XXIII. 

Windows in the vestibules carry the 
theme of a workaday world to represent people 
in various occupations. They show that saints 
"... lived not only in ages past, /There are 
hundreds of thousands still." Hymn 243. 

1940 Consecration 

The church was consecrated on December 
29, 1940, the Right Reverend Robert Emmet 
Gribbin, diocesan Bishop, conducted the ser- 
vice; assisted by the Reverend George Floyd 
Rogers, Rector. An oak-paneled memorial 
chapel was completed in 1954, a gift from the 
Redwood family. Part of its furnishings were 
given by other parishioners. 

By 1 959, it was evident that more space was 
needed. The property line was extended and 
plans drawn for two new buildings. A dedica- 
tion service for the new parish hall was led by 
the Right Reverend M. George Henry, Bishop 
of the Diocese, September 9, 1962. The Rec- 
tor, the Reverend John Walter Tuton, on June 
2, 1963, held the service of dedication for the 
new parish house. T. Edmund Whitmire was 
the architect for the buildings; Philip H. Froh- 
man, architect for the Washington (D.C.) 
Cathedral, was the consultant. 

The following year a small garden enclosed 
by an open-brick wall and presided over by a 
statue of St. Fiacre, the patron saint of garden- 
ers, was established in memory of George 
Adams Shuford by his wife Daphne. And in 
1976, a new 35-rank Austin organ was in- 
stalled, also an elevator added for ease of 
access. 

Other Parishes 

Trinity is the largest of the 31 parishes in the 
Diocese of Western North Carolina. In addi- 
tion, there are 32 mission churches in the 
28-county area. The Right Reverend William 
Gillette Weinhauer is the fourth Bishop of the 
Diocese; the Reverend Grahame Butler-Nixon 
is the present Rector, assisted by the Rev- 
erend J. Barney Hawkins IV. The Reverend 
Mr. Tuton is now the Rector Emeritus. 

From its inception, Trinity Parish has al- 
ways set out to offer the best in Anglican 
worship, and has fostered education and 
Christian fellowship far beyond its borders. In 
1858, under its guidance the Ravenscroft 
School for Boys was opened; Dr. Buxton, the 
first headmaster. It established missions that 
are now consecrated churches: St. Luke's; St. 
Matthias; Grace Church; St. John's-in-Haw 
Creek and the Church of the Redeemer — a 
privately built chapel, later supported as a 
mission by priests and the Brotherhood of St. 
Andrew. 

And the flame of endeavor lighted in the 
early days is still carried by members of Trinity 
— expressed in their concern for the problems 
faced by the community, the nation and the 
world. 

— Wanda Engle Stanard 




CALVARY EPISCOPAL CHURCH 
Of FLETCHER 

35 

Mr. Daniel Blake, who was born in England, 
came to South Carolina as a young man mak- 
ing several pleasure trips through Fletcher, 
which he liked, and where he decided to live. 

It is said that he brought $10,000 in gold in 
saddlebags, and bought 1000 acres in Cane 
Creek Valley in 1 827. He built a home which he 
called "The Meadows" and employed an En- 
glish gardner to lay out and plant the beautiful 
lawns. It is reported that the boxwoods he 
planted are the largest of their kind in the 
United States. 

In 1857 Mr. and Mrs. Blake invited some 
twenty or more people to dinner at their home, 
all of them members of Episcopal families in 
the Fletcher-Arden area. Many of these fami- 
lies, southern gentlemen and their wives, rice 
planters, merchants, and professional people, 
were from the low-country of South Carolina, 
mostly from the City of Charleston. 

It is recorded that Mrs. Daniel Blake talked 
forcibly on the reasons for building a Church in 
this vicinity — speaking on the distance to the 
nearest Church (at Flat Rock, a round trip of 30 
miles), the condition of the roads and the 
services of the Church there available only part 
of the year. 

Before the dinner was over, a motion was 
made and passed that those present and any 
others who wished to join in this undertaking 
be organized into a congregation, that a 
Church be built as soon as possible near the 
Turnpike, and near the boundary between 
Buncombe and Henderson Counties. 

Contributions Sought 

Mr. Daniel Blake, the host, and Mr. Alexan- 
der Robertson were requested to act as a solic- 
iting committee to receive contributions for 
building the Church. The first donation was 
made by the host, consisting of four acres of 
land to be surveyed and a deed made to Mr. 
Alexander Robertson, Mr. Walter Blake, Mr. 
Joseph B. Pyatt and others as Vestrymen, so 
elected at this meeting and to their successors 
in office. This deed was duly signed and reg- 
istered in Hendersonville, N.C. When this was 
completed the Soliciting Committee pro- 
ceeded to accept sums of money. 

Mr. Edmund Molyneux, a British Consul to 
America, gave $1,000.00. Messrs Joseph B. 
Pyatt, Alexander Robertson, Arthur Blake, 
William Heyward, Daniel Blake Heyward, Wal- 
ter Blake Heyward, Walter Blake and Daniel 
Blake each gave $500.00. Smaller sums were 
contributed by others in the amount of 
$756.27; total $5,756.27. 

Mr. E.C. Jones, architect of Charleston, 
S.C. was employed to draw up plans. Mr. 
Ephriam Clayton, well known contractor of 
Asheville, was employed to erect the building. 
It was of modified Christopher Wren sixteenth 
century Gothic. 

Hand Made Bricks 

The bricks were hand made by slave labor in 
a field west of what is now Oak Park on the old 




Calvary Episcopal Church, Fletcher, N.C., "a beautiful country church." 



Tatum place. The clay was dug, the kilns built 
and the regular size bricks along with the spe- 
cial shapes to place around windows and 
doors were all fashioned here and carried to 
the building site by negro slave labor. 

Another moving spirit in these early opera- 
tions was Dr. George W. Fletcher. He and his 
bride settled on two acres of land given him by 
his father. There he built a log cabin and 
started his practice of medicine. His home site 
is now occupied by the new Post Office in 
Fletcher. He was the family doctor and advisor 
to all families for miles around and the present 
village of Fletcher takes its name from him and 
his ancestors. 

His home, which served as an overnight 
stop for many a weary traveller on the Turn- 
pike, was surrounded by large boxwood 
bushes. His office was his home. He also 
owned a store and blacksmith shop, shoe 
shop and tan-yard, and these buildings made 
up what was known as Fletcher. 

Shufordsville 

The postoffice at this time (1852) was Shu- 
fordsville, some three miles north on the Turn- 
pike and named for Mr. Jacob Rhyne Shuford, 
the postmaster. This post office and settle- 
ment was later renamed Arden in 1878 and is 
so named today. 

The Church was completed to the satisfac- 
tion of all concerned early in 1859. This same 
year Mr. Robertson and Mr. Blake contracted 
with Dr. 6.W. Fletcher to have a low stone wall 
and picket fence built around the front (west 
and south) sides of the Church grounds. A 



large carriage shed to accommodate ai least 
twenty carriages and teams was built in the 
rear or east of the Church and a well was dug 
some forty feet east of the Church Chancel. 
This well is about 65 feet deep and walled with 
stone but no longer used as a water supply. 
This was all completed before the Consecra- 
tion of the Church in August, 1859. 

A School Is Built 

That same year, 1859, Miss Frances Helen 
Blake, known as "Miss Fanny" to everyone, 
gave an additional thirteen acres of land, east 
of the original four acre grant, to the Vestry of 
Calvary Church and their successors in office. 
On this she built a one room school, the fram- 
ing was of hand hewn timbers and the roof of 
hand rived shakes or shingles. This building 
was completed shortly after the consecration 
of the Church, and Miss Fannie gave her time 
almost entirely to teaching in the school, week 
day and Sunday, until her death. The majority 
of the converts to the Episcopal Church among 
the natives and families settling in this area can 
be traced to her teaching and missionary 
fervor. 

Thus the Church was born. It was named 
"Calvary" after the Church of that name in 
New York City, of which a North Carolinian, 
the Rev. Dr. Hawkes, was one time Rector, 
and of which Mrs. Daniel Blake had been a 
member and in which she was married. 

Role Of Miss Fannie Blake 

For the first year or two the Church was kept 



open only part of the year, for the roads were 
nigh impassable for two or three months each 
year. Then too, many families went back to 
their winter homes in the south. Even though 
the Church had no Priest to officiate during the 
winter months, Miss Fannie Blake kept her 
school going and each Sunday had both 
Church and school room clean and open for 
worship and Sunday School. 

She, herself, would read Morning Prayer, 
all of that part which is allowed to a layman to 
read; the children and a few parents would 
worship with her. It is said she was a God- 
mother to most of the children baptized in 
Calvary. 

Civil War Years 

Many are the stories connected with Calvary 
Church during this period of the War between 
the States. Times were hard and difficult for 
every family, and their poverty was reflected in 
the activities of the Church, which by this time 
was known throughout the length and breadth 
of the mountains. When the Confederacy 
would need more Infantry or Cavalrymen, 
word would be sent out by word of mouth of 
this need. 

From the mountain sides and coves would 
come men with their rifles and horses to meet 
and organize companies of fighters. This 
meeting place was Calvary Church and from 
there would march forth men to defend what 
they felt to be right. 



43 




Ariel View of Calvary Church and Parish House. Highway 25 is in lower right — Outdoor Abbey between main entrance and highway. 



Stoneman's Raiders 

The story is told (and authenticated) that a 
band of Stoneman's raiders once camped for 
the night in the Church yard. Stoneman went 
inside the Church and was so impressed with 
its beauty and spirit that he ordered his men to 
take special care not to disturb or destroy 
anything in this House of God. The men slept 
inside but were careful of conduct and lan- 
guage. 

Next morning these men begged their Com- 
mander to allow them to use the red Church 
carpet for saddle blankets because their 
horses had saddle sores from so much hard 
riding. Finally consent was given and a few 
moments later these raiders were seen head- 
ing south on the turnpike — red carpet flutter- 
ing from horses' backs. 

But, back to the beginning: In spite of being 
open only part of the year at first, Clergy who 
did minister there when possible however, 
were the Rev. Mr. Howe, later Bishop of South 
Carolina; The Rev. Dr. Hanckle of St. Paul's 
Church, Charleston; The Rev. A. Toomer Por- 
ter, founder of Porter's Military Academy in 
Charleston; The Rev. Mr. Keith; and the Rev. 
Mr. Davis. These guest clergy and others, 
came by invitation and usually without com- 
pensation, officiated one to four Sundays, and 
while there, were entertained at Struan, the 
home of the Senior Warden, Mr. Alexander 
Robertson. 

The Rev. Nicholas Collin Hughes, great 

44 



grandfather of a later Bishop, the Rt. Rev. 
Matthew George Henry, was residing in Hen- 
dersonville, and was called upon to take 
charge of Calvary Parish. There was no Rec- 
tory at Calvary so the Rev. Mr. Hughes con- 
tinued to live in Hendersonville and officiated 
at the church two Sundays each month during 
the winters of 1860 and 1861 while visiting 
Clergy took most of the summer services. 

The First Rectory 

In the summer of 1866 the Rev. George M. 
Everhart bought the William Heyward place, 
the great house never having been completed. 
When he left in 1868 he advised the congrega- 
tion to build a Rectory on the Church grounds. 
Otherwise, he said, it would always be difficult 
to get any Priest to accept full time work here. 

This idea was seized upon by three earnest 
women of the congregation who after Services 
on Sundays and at other times, met in the 
Carriage Shed to exchange and sell books, 
baked goods, needlework and fruits to raise 
money to build a parsonage. They managed to 
raise enough money in a year to build a small 
house that was used for nearly 20 years, first 
as a rectory and then for a sexton's house. 

The first resident rector was the Rev. Thom- 
as A. Morris, and the bell in the Church 
tower is a memorial to him. 

The Rev. Dr. Wilmer of Virginia, who had 
charge of the Ravencroft Training School in 
Asheville served as interim rector, followed by 



the Rev. Dr. D.H. Buel. The Rev. Chandler, 
from Minnesota was called in 1 877 and served 
part of one year. 

The Rev. E.A. Osborne took charge in De- 
cember, 1877 and served for six years, and 
the Parish Register shows he baptised 1 60 and 
built up the Parish in every way. He was a great 
Missionary for he founded many Missions. 
One was started in Pinners Cove, (Mt. Calvary) 
and one in Edneyville, plus many small groups 
which met in people's homes. Several small 
churches of other denominations loaned their 
facilities to the Episcopal minister for Sunday 
School and preaching services on Sunday 
afternoons. 

These were Mount Zion, a small Baptist 
Church on Overlook Road; a small Methodist 
Church at "Possum Trot" later called Sharon 
Methodist Church; at Boiling Springs Baptist 
Church three miles west of Fletcher; and at Mt. 
Gilead, another Baptist Church across the 
French Broad River and seven miles west of 
Fletcher. 

Priest On Horseback 

The bad roads accounted for the difficulty 
people had in reaching Calvary Church, so the 
Priest would go on horseback to reach them. 
As the roads improved, and people could 
come to Fletcher these out-stations were 
gradually discontinued. 

The Rev. Mr. William Shipp Bynum was 
Rector from July 1 885 to March, 1 888. He had 



/^ 




A pen sketch of the old carriage shed which stood east of the Church. Here, the ladies of Calvary Church held sales to raise money. It was popularly known as the "Woman's Exchange. 



a very active time of service and retired in 
failing health. 

The Rev. Dr. George M. Everhart was re- 
called to Calvary to succeed Mr. Bynum, fol- 
lowed by Rev. M.C. Dolten, and then Rev. 
Alban Greaves. Rev. H.H. Phelps served for 
six years. 

The Rev. Henry Thomas became Rector in 
July 1901 and stayed three years, following 
which there was an interim period before the 
next Rector, during which Rev. Mr. Thomas 
Whetmore officiated at Calvary while con- 
tinuing to live and conduct his school near 
Arden. The Rev. Arthur B. Livermore became 
Rector for the next four years, leaving for work 
in West Virginia in 1912. The Rev. R.M.W. 
Black came for six months, followed by the 
Rev. James B. Sill. The highway was paved 
from Asheville to the Buncombe-Henderson 
County line while he was there. This meant 
increased travel and the beginning of new 
growth in homes and businesses between 
Asheville and Calvary Church, for the Church 
property corners on the highway and the coun- 
ty line. 

World War And Flu 

It was during his stay at Calvary that our 
Nation entered the European War of 1917 
which was followed by the terrible influenza 
epidemic, through which Father Sill minis- 
tered day and night, not only to those of the 
Church but to anyone and everyone who 
needed spiritual care in those trying years. 

The Rev. D.T. Johnson followed him, fol- 
lowed shortly after by Rev. H.D. Bull, and then 
a little later by the Rev. Clarence Stuart McClel- 
lan, Jr. The latter had been priest at St. 
Andrews, Canton, N.C. and a native of the 



State of New York. 



A Radio Ministry 

He began a colorful ministry in the pulpit 
and over the comparatively new invention, the 
radio. He also conceived the idea of having 
various patriotic and civic organizations erect 
native stone monuments with appropriate 
bronze tablets on them to many of the great 
men of the south, some of whom had some 
connection with Calvary Church. These stones 
were placed at various places in the old Cem- 
etery adjoining the church. 

One of the first to be erected and dedicated 
was to Edgar Wilson Nye, famous southern 
humorist, who had come to this area and 
bought land on the banks of the French Broad 
River directly west of the Church. He served on 
the Vestry for a number of years and is interred 
in the churchyard. 

List Of Memorials 

Others to whom Memorials were erected 
were Jefferson Davis, President of the Con- 
federacy; Georg Westfeldt, member of Calvary 
and host to Sidney Lanier; Francis Scott Key, 
composer of "The Star Spangled Banner", 
our National Anthem; Dan Emmett, com- 
poser of "Dixie"; Orren Randolph Smith, 
designer of the "Stars and Bars", first official 
Arkansas poet; Frances Fisher Tierman, 
"Christian Reid" who first gave this area the 
name "The Land of the Sky"; Stephen Collins 
Foster, composer of "Suwanee", Old Ken- 
tucky Home", "Old Black Joe" and others; 
Herman Fran Arnold, who orchestrated "Dix- 
ie"; Joel Chandler Harris, creator of "Uncle 
Remus"; John Fox, Jr., author of Little 



Shepherd of Kingdom Come, The Trail of the 
Lonesome Pine and others; Zebulon Baird 
Vance, native of and Senator from North Caro- 
lina; Henry Timrod, Laureate of the Confeder- 
acy; Sidney Lanier, poet and musician; Robert 
Loveman, southern poet; William Sydney Por- 
ter, "0. Henry"; and James Whitcombe Riley, 
Hoosier poet. 

These Memorials and the beauty of the 
whole Churchyard have attracted many 
thousands of visitors from all over the world. 

Thus we have an account of the beginnings 
of one of our fine area churches. For the years 
from 1 935 forward to the present, we refer you 
to the booklet from which this much informa- 
tion was gleaned, entitled: "Calvary Church, 
Episcopal. First 100 Years, "by the Rev. Mark 
Jenkins, Rector. It was written for and pub- 
lished by Calvary Parish, Fletcher, N.C. for its 
Centennial Celebration in August 1959. 

— The Book Committee 



UNITARIAN-UNIVERSALIST 
CHURCH OF ASHEVILLE 

36 

Unitarians regularly met in Asheville from at 
least 1 894 through 1 897, according to the city 
directories of 1894 and 1896. Services were 
held in Hilliard Hall, on South Main Street on 
Sundays at eleven. Rev. Henry Addison Wes- 
tall was the pastor of the congregation of 27 
members, with Capt. George T. Davis, James 
M. Westall, and John Law serving as Trust- 
ees. 

" Rev. Henry Addison Westall (1854-1947) 
was the eldest son of Thomas Casey Westall 
(1830-1902) and his wife. Martha Ann Pen- 

45 



land (1833-1899). Rev. Westall attended the 
Harvard University Divinity School for three 
years, 1878-1880, and was ordained 4 Sept 
1881. He served several churches, both Uni- 
tarian and Universalist in the Boston area, 
and came to Asheville in Apr 1894 from the 
Universalist Church at Jersey City, N.J., 
where he had been since 1891. 

He maintained a summer home in Asheville 
for some years after leaving the county of his 
birth, and retired in Winthrop, Mass. , and died 
there in 1947. James M. Westall (1861-1943) 
was his younger brother. Julia Westall (1860- 
1945), who became the mother of Asheville 
author Thomas Wolfe, was Rev. Westall's 
younger sister. 

This is an introduction to Unitarianism in 
Asheville, N.C. It gives an account of the be- 
ginnings and the growth of the movement, of 
its activities and present status. 



appeared in a brief history of the Unitarian 
movement in Asheville written shortly after his 
coming here in June, 1955. It seems fitting 
that this same foreword be used in an account 
of the Fellowship's beginnings and its growth 
into the Unitarian-Universalist Church of Ashe- 
ville, revised and brought up to date during the 
summer of 1972, by Mr. Haldee L. Reed, 
long-time member of the group. 

A Brief History Of Unitarianism In 
Asheville 

In the early 1930s the American Unitarian 
Association made significant effort to draw the 
religious liberals in the Asheville area into a 
Unitarian organization. But those were the 
days of the Great Depression, and this com- 
munity was in the midst of an economic and 
political crisis. Even so the ministers who were 




The Unitarian — Universalist Church in Asheville. 



A Non-Dogmatic View 

Ours is a non-dogmatic religious point of 
view. We feel deeply that there are many valid 
religious faiths, and that each of us should 
treat his neighbor's faith with respect even 
though we may disagree with him. 

The fact that we do not demand subscrip- 
tion to creedal statements as a condition of 
membership with us does not mean that we 
think beliefs to be unimportant. They are. But 
they are important only in so far as they influ- 
ence character and conduct. 

What is religion for, and what is the final test 
of it? The Unitarian answer has consistently 
been that the true test of religion is not ortho- 
doxy of belief, but that it is to be found in the 
kind of character it produces. 

To the Unitarian of today the marks of true 
religion are spiritual freedom, enlightened 
reason, broad and tolerant sympathy, upright 
character, and unselfish service. 

We invite to our membership and services 
those who are in general agreement with our 
aims and who, after getting acquainted, feel 
that they can happily belong with us. 

— Daniel M. Welch 

This foreword composed by the Rev. Daniel 
M. Welch, the first full-time minister of the 
Unitarian Fellowship of Asheville, N.C. 

46 



sent here on brief preaching missions aroused 
considerable interest among a small group, 
and the seeds of Unitarianism planted in those 
days are now bearing fruit. 

Among the men who pioneered in those 
early developments were Dr. Horace West- 
wood, the Rev. Owen Eames, and the Rev. 
Robert Shelander. Dr. Westwood especially 
gave a great deal of time and effort, and main- 
tained a deep personal interest in the Asheville 
Unitarian movement for the remainder of his 
life. 

It was in 1933 that Dr. Westwood and the 
Rev. Owen Eames gave a series of radio 
addresses to spread the Unitarian message in 
this region. The local chairman of that brief 
mission was Walter S. Adams, a Unitarian and 
an Asheville newspaper editor. After that cam- 
paign it was decided to postpone indefinitely 
any further efforts to establish an organized 
Unitarian beachhead in Asheville in view of the 
distressingly bad economic situation in the 
area. But the pioneering work of those early 
days undoubtedly contributed to the develop- 
ment and growth of the Unitarian Fellowship of 
Asheville in later years. 

1950 Organization 

On May 9, 1950, the Rev. Lon Ray Call of 



Boston, Massachusetts, Minister-at-large of 
the American Unitarian Association, ad- 
dressed a group of eleven people at the George 
Vanderbilt Hotel here in Asheville. At this time 
the Unitarian Fellowship of Asheville was orga- 
nized. 

For the first two years, meetings of the 
Fellowship were held on Sunday evenings at 
eight o'clock in the basement Sunday School 
room of the First Congregational Church, with 
occasional meetings in the members' homes. 
In the early days various members conducted 
the services, which consisted largely of the 
study of comparative religion and the discus- 
sion of such topics as "Are Unitarians Chris- 
tians?", "Prayer: To Whom and For What", 
"Jesus: God, Man, or Myth", "God: Person, 
Force, or Phantom?" and many others. Occa- 
sionally some member would read a sermon 
by an outstanding Unitarian minister. 

In March, 1952, a church school was orga- 
nized, which met at the George Cornell home 
on Sunday mornings. From this time on the 
church school has never ceased to function as 
an important part of the church program, and 
has had many devoted workers throughout the 
years. 

During the summer of 1952, Donald R. 
Stout, a student at the Harvard Divinity 
School, served as minister for a period of six 
weeks. He called on the religious liberals in the 
Asheville area in an effort to interest them in 
the Fellowship. Also he convinced the group 
that it was advisable to have the Fellowship 
services and the Church School program in the 
same building and at the same time. It was 
possible to secure one large room and four 
small ones in the YMCA Building, and the first 
services were held there on December 7, 
1952. (The final service held at the YMCA was 
on December 30, 1956.) 

The first copy of the "Newsletter" was 
printed in April, 1951. In this issue it was 
noted that the attendance for the last four 
meetings was as follows: 13, 13, 14, and 16. 
The treasurer reported $48.96 in the new bank 
account, and the secretary, that the mem- 
bership list had a total of twenty-two names. 
At the Annual Meeting on May 17, 1951, the 
Building Fund was created, and at first it grew 
very slowly. 

Many Visitors 

Among the outstanding Unitarians and Uni- 
versalists who met with the Fellowship during 
these early struggling years, for the purpose of 
giving instruction, consultation, and guid- 
ance, were the Rev. Raymond B. Bragg of the 
Unitarian Service Committee; J. Ray Shute 
and Monroe Husbands of the Unitarian Lay- 
men's League and the Department of Church 
Extension, respectively; the Rev. Edna P. 
Bruner, Miss Frances W. Wood, and the Rev. 
Alice M. Harrison, associate directors of 
Church Schools and Field Services; and the 
Rev. Clifton G. Hoffman, the Regional Director 
at that time. 

Newspaper Report 

During the summer of 1953, the Rev. 
Horace F. Westwood of Saluda, N.C. spoke to 



the Fellowship each Sunday for two months. A 
news item in the Asheville Citizen of August 6, 
1953, stated: "The Unitarian group meets at 
the YMCA every Sunday at 11:00 A.M. The 
children's meeting is at 10:30 A.M. The 
group, too small at present to undertake its 
own church and a full-time minister, is grow- 
ing, and members look forward to the day 
when they can organize their own church." 
The Fellowship had good publicity in the local 
papers during these early years because Mr. 
Walter Adams, as editor of "The Asheville 
Citizen" helped to make this publicity 
possible. 

Dr. Westwood also acted as pastor of the 
Fellowship for some time during the summer 
of 1954. The membership increased during 
that summer, but dwindled during the winter 
months. The group then really felt the need of 
a full-time minister; and on June 1 , 1955, the 
Rev. Daniel Welch of Fountain City, Tennes- 
see, came out of retirement and became pas- 
tor of the Fellowship. 

When the Fellowship realized it could no 
longer remain at the YMCA, a committee was 
appointed to find a new meeting place. Three 
churches and forty houses were looked at by 
the committee. Finally, on December 12, 
1956, the fourteen-room apartment building 
at 120 Vermont Avenue, West Asheville, was 
purchased (there being about $3000 in the 
building fund at that time). With some ingenu- 
ity on the part of the members the building was 
converted into an adequate (for the time) and 
not unattractive church home. The first church 
service held at 120 Vermont Avenue was on 
January 6, 1957, and dedication ceremonies 
were held on October first of that year. 

About the time of the move to the Vermont 
Avenue building, the Women's Alliance, the 
Laymen's League, and the Liberal Religious 
Youth Group were organized. Although both 
men and women have worked hard for the 
welfare of the group, attacking physical work 
(such as the renovation of the Vermont Avenue 
building or the Religious Education Building at 
the present location) or the responsibility of 
holding an office of the church with equal zest, 
the men have worked more as individuals and 
the women through their organization. 



Fund Raising 

By means of bazaars, rummage sales, and 
card parties, the Women's Alliance has contrib- 
uted substantially to the Building Fund. Their 
church suppers have done much to augment 
fellowship in the group. The L.R.Y. has been 
as active as the number of young people in the 
church and the leadership available permitted. 

Under Mr. Welch's leadership the Fel- 
lowship continued to grow. Finally, on May 
23, 1962, the Unitarian Fellowship of Ashe- 
ville, which was organized on May 9, 1950, 
with only ten members, was granted church 
status with a total of sixty-seven members. 
Official notice of this development on May 23, 
1962, was received from the secretary of the 
Unitarian-Universalist Association in Boston. 

In the June issue of the "Newsletter" the 
following statement appeared: "This great 
step into full church status is a fine tribute to 



the leadership of our minister, the Rev. Daniel 
M. Welch, and to the dedicated men and 
women in our small organization, who have 
worked so hard and faithfully over the years to 
promote the cause of liberal religion in this 
region." 

Throughout its years of growth the Uni- 
tarian-Universalist Church of Asheville has 
attracted members and friends from sur- 
rounding towns and counties, particularly 
from the Hendersonville area. Many of these 
members from other towns are most active 
contributors to the life of the church. 

On April 30, 1 963, eight years after coming 
to the fellowship, the Rev. Daniel Welch took a 
second retirement, and he and Mrs. Welch 
returned to Tennessee. The congregation then 
voted to extend a call to the Rev. Richard R. 
Gross of Keene, New Hampshire, to be minis- 
ter. Mr. Gross assumed his duties on July 1 , 
1963, and remained as minister until March 1 , 
1967, when he resigned to take a position with 
the North Carolina Heart Association. During 
his three and one-half years here the mem- 
bership grew from 1 1 3 to 1 40 members. Mrs. 
Gross had been active in the Women's 
Alliance, and the children had been a welcome 
addition to the church school. 

For one and one-half years following the 
resignation of Mr. Gross, the church was 
again without a minister. During this period 
speakers for the Sunday morning services 
were obtained by the pulpit committee. Again 
the membership and attendance dwindled. 

Detroit People 

In September, 1968, the church was most 
fortunate in having Dr. and Mrs. Tracy M. 
Pullman of the Unitarian-Universalist Church 
of Detroit, Michigan, come to Asheville. Dr. 
Pullman assumed his ministerial duties on 
September 1, 1968. In October of that year the 
name of the church was changed from the 
Unitarian Church of Asheville to the Unitarian- 
Universalist Church of Asheville, following the 
national merger of the two denominations. 

Marked Growth 

The growth of the church was marked under 
the leadership of Dr. Pullman. It became very 
evident in early 1969, that the capacity of the 
church was not sufficient to seat comfortably 
the members of the congregation and the visi- 
tors. A committee was appointed to find a site 
suitable for building a church, and a number of 
possibilities were investigated. Each time the 
site would be voted down for one reason or 
another. Time was passing, the committee 
was growing weary, and the congregation, 
continuing to grow, eagerly awaited a suitable 
place to build a new home. Then quite unex- 
pectedly, a desirable location was placed with- 
in the reach of the congregation. 

On a Sunday afternoon in June, 1969, the 
members of the church had gathered to dis- 
cuss a building site. The Reuben B. Robertson 
family, through Dr. and Mrs. Logan Robert- 
son, offered to the church the property at the 
corner of Charlotte Street and Edwin Place, 
consisting of three buildings and desirable 
vacant property. (The gift entailed the assum- 



ing of certain responsibilities.) In addition, 
Mr. Reuben Robertson later promised to don- 
ate to the church the sum of seven thousand 
dollars annually for three years, if this amount 
were matched by the church. 

The congregation met with members of the 
Robertson family at Lake Logan on August 9, 
1969. At this meeting it was voted unanimous- 
ly to accept the Robertson family's most 
generous offer. A follow-up letter and ques- 
tionnaire was mailed to all of the church mem- 
bers. Following the return of the question- 
naires, a letter was written to the Robertson 
family formally accepting their offer and ex- 
pressing the gratitude of the entire congregeF 
tion. The property was officially transferred to 
the Asheville-Unitarian-Universalist Church on 
April 1, 1970. 

Ground Breaking 

Ground was broken in a ceremony at the 
new site on Friday, July 2, 1971. Shortly 
thereafter came the announcement of a gift of 
$25,000 from Mrs. Carl Sandburg, who with 
her daughters, Miss Margaret Sandburg and 
Miss Janet Sandburg, made further gifts dur- 
ing the year. On July 1 1 , 1 971 , the outgrown 
Vermont Avenue building was transferred to 
the Hendrix family to be used as a residence. 
This transaction freed additional funds for the 
building of the church, and on July 13, the 
contract for the building was let to the John W. 
Abbott Construction Co. Inc. with Mr. William 
0. Moore, fellow church member, as 
architect. 

The building designed by Mr. Moore in- 
cluded sanctuary, activities hall, and religious 
education building, but the construction of the 
latter had to be postponed until some further 
time. In the meantime the two-story house to 
the west of the church and activities building 
was adapted for use as a religious education 
building. The last service held at 120 Vermont 
Avenue was on April 30, 1972, and the first at 
One Edwin Place was on May 7, 1972. Be- 
cause the sanctuary was as yet unfinished, the 
initial service at the new location was con- 
ducted in the activities hall, but for the 
September 5th service after the summer vaca- 
tion the sanctuary was in readiness. The ded- 
ication of the new church took place on the 
second weekend of October, 1972 and at this 
time the members and friends dedicated them- 
selves anew to the cause of liberal religion in 
Asheville. 

An educational annex designed by William 
0. Moore, architect, and church member, was 
completed and placed in use in 1981. 

— C.G. Hogan 



WARREN WILSON COLLEGE 

37 

At one time Warren Wilson College was 
known as the Asheville Farm School. In 1894 
the Presbyterian Church established the 
school to educate mountain boys in need of 
assistance. It still retains a small part of this 
tradition by maintaining a 300 acre farm where 
students can gain experience and education in 
farming skills. 

47 



Since 1 965 Warren Wilson College has been 
a four-year liberal arts institution offering de- 
grees ranging from art to music to physics. 
Today it has 500 students from 29 countries 
and 30 states. 

Much material of genealogical significance 
can be gleaned from the names of buildings, 
and this is true of Warren Wilson College 
buildings also. 

Bannerman Lecture Hall, built in 1968, was 
named for Dr. Arthur M. Bannerman who was 
the first President of the College (from 1 942 to 
1971). Prior to 1942 he was a teacher, and 
principal of the Asheville Farm School. 

The Bryson Gymnasium, built in 1920, was 
named for Holmes Bryson, who was a major 
contributor, a graduate of the Farm School and 
one-time mayor of Asheville. 

The Vining Center, dormitories for men, 
constructed in 1 968, was named for Dwight P. 
Vining, who for many years, served as a 
teacher at the Farm School and Business Man- 
ager for the College. 

The Williams Theatre Workshop was built 
by student labor from 1 934 to 1 937, dedicated 
in 1940. It was a chapel until its refurbishment 
in 1967 as a Theatre. It was named for Miss 
Elizabeth Williams, who was a Farm School 
teacher from 1895 to 1926. 

— The Book Committee 




Beth Ha-Tephila Temple was established in Asheville in 1891, and located on Spruce Street. 



ETHNIC GROUPS IN OLD 
BUNCOMBE COUNTY 

38 

The largest single ethnic group in Western 
North Carolina is considered to be the Scotch- 
Irish persons of Scottish descent who mi- 
grated first to Ulster Province in Northern Ire- 
land and then to America. A special study of 



their characteristics and general philosophy of 
life is being undertaken at this point in history 
by Western Carolina University with the goal in 
mind of being able to mount a permanent 
exhibit to memorialize their special achieve- 
ments and characteristics. The results of their 
research are bound to be of great help to 
genealogical progress in many families in the 
area. Conversely, many individuals posses- 




Solomon Lipinsky established Bon Marche in Asheville in 1889, using the "singleprice" merchandising concept whereby 
each item was tagged with its own unit price. In 1923, Lipinsky moved his store "downtown", to Haywood Street, thereby 
creating a new business district in Asheville. This old picture shows how the store looked in the 1920's. 

48 



sing personal family records may be of assis- 
tance to the researchers, resulting in a lively 
and exciting project for the area. 

Possibly the second largest group may 
prove to be those of German descent, and 
there is much genealogical interest in how to 
find their roots in Germany. Work is proceed- 
ing, and is bound to have publishable results 
in the coming years. 

Other persons came in great numbers 
directly from Scotland, England, Wales and the 
south of Ireland, along with French Huguenots 
who followed many a devious migration pat- 
tern to escape the persecution resulting from 
the repeal of the Edict of Nantes which had 
previously granted them religious toleration in 
Europe. 

Other groups are also present in our area, 
but time has not allowed us to gather data from 
their families for this volume. We invite any 
and all persons to put their families' and group 
histories on record with us in time for Volume 
II. 

We do have one article about the Jews in 
Western North Carolina, written by Dr. Milton 
Ready, Associate Professor of History at the 
University of North Carolina at Asheville, and 
originally published in the Citizen-Times 
Newspaper on Sunday, January 1 1 , 1 981 . We 
are glad to present an abstract of it here 
by special permission: 

The Jews In 
Western North Carolina 

The Jews who came to Western North Caro- 
lina in the early decades of the nineteenth 
century came as peddlers, quickly estab- 
lishing a reputation among the Indians for 
fairness and a refusal to trade in alcohol. 

As a walking department store, the Jewish 



peddler also was welcomed by farmers and 
pioneers throughout Western North Carolina. 
Carrying several hundred pounds of goods on 
pack horses, his wares included hardware, 
clothes such as socks; suspenders, needles, 
and also linens, curtains and taffetas for Sun- 
day dresses. For the youngster, the peddler 
brought geegaws and toys, for the farmer, 
precious news from the outside world. 

Still regarded as strangers and not as resi- 
dents, Jews in significant numbers finally set- 
tled in Asheville in the 1880's. They came, 
partly because of the booming economy of the 
region and, in some measure, because of the 
reputation of Zebulon Baird Vance. Beloved 
throughout the region for his fiery indepen- 
dance, and defense of Southern rights, he had, 
by the 1880's also established himself as a folk 
hero to Jews in the South, by declaring that 
(Jewish) ideas fill the world, and move the 
wheels of progress ..." 

The first wave of Jews who came to Ashe- 
ville contributed substantially to the city's 
economic and intellectual growth. One such 
merchant family was that of Solomon Lipinsky 
with his brothers-in-law, the Whitlocks, who 
opened a retail store at Eagle and Biltmore 
Street. Lipinsky introduced the large "single- 
price" store whereby the price of each unit 
independently was attached to each item. In 
1889 he established Bon Marche which he 
moved to Haywood Street in 1923, thereby 
creating a new business district. 

Discount Prices 

In 1908 Barney Pearlman inaugurated his 
system of bringing in factory close-outs and 
railroad salvage goods for resale at discount 
prices. In Asheville in 1915 as part of a cloth- 
ing chain Joseph Max Cooper later opened 
Fields Men's Corner which combined "chain 
store princes" with personalized service and 
tailoring in men's clothes. In similar fashion, 
Edward Fater opened a wholesale cigar and 
soda shop on Pack Square in 1922. 

While there are no Jewish neighborhoods in 
the traditional sense in Asheville, Jews have, 
for the most part, tended to settle in North 
Asheville and, in earlier days, in Kenilworth. 
There are currently from four to five hundred 
families who live in the Asheville area. 

They brought with them a high regard for 
education, a cosmopolitan view of the world 
outside Asheville, and lastly, a "fiddler on the 
roof" optimism that offset mountaineer 
fatalism. 

It was, for example, Louis Lipinsky who 
was instrumental in establishing a unit of the 
University of North Carolina system in Ashe- 
ville; Joseph Vanderwart who helped a cham- 
ber music series survive in a small urban en- 
vironment; and lastly, it was the Jewish com- 
munity that supported, in disporportionate 
numbers, public issues forums and discus- 
sions of world events. 

Calvinistic In Nature 

Calvinistic in nature, mountaineers in WNC 
tended to believe that man was born in sin. Yet 
Judaism taught that man was "just a little 
lower than the angels," and it is from this 



rather optimistic view of human nature that 
Jews stressed the importance of social justice. 
Thus, it was in the area of social justice and 
civic improvement that Asheville's Jews made 
their greatest contributions. 

Edna Lichtenfels was prominent in the city's 
garden clubs, PTA, League of Women Voters, 
Girl Scout Council, and Red Cross. Many of 
Asheville's greatest civic projects, the Civic 
Center, regional airport, Memorial Mission 
Hospital, Red Cross and the United Fund either 
originated in or were made successful in part 
by the support of Asheville's Jewish com- 
munity. 

Southern mountaineers and Jews both 
share a strong commitment to place, to reli- 
gion, to an ethical sense of values, to a long 
and tortured history, and to a loyalty to the 
land. 

(All rights reserved by Dr. Reedy.). 

— The Book Committee 



WOMEN IN THE MOUNTAINS: 
NEW DIRECTIONS 

39 

The OBCGS is pleased to draw to the atten- 
tion of WNC genealogists, the work of an orga- 
nization called The Council on Appalachian 
Women, Inc. Their work was funded by the 
North Carolina Humanities Committee — 
1978 through 1980. Our Book Committee felt 
that their social studies done on a scientific 
level of research and literary presentation 
would make for an interesting comparison to 
what is said by the lay persons writing about 
their own families from individual observa- 
tions and existing family records. 

We bring you here, notice of a booklet pub- 
lished by the above Council, which contains 
several interesting essays entitled: The Amer- 
ican Woman: Our Common Threads, by Alice 
Mathews of Western Carolina University; Is 




Washing the clothes — an outdoor laundry 



49 




Getting dinner ... in the old way. 



the Mountain Woman Unique? A Debate, by 
Jane S. Weeks, Carson-Newman College; The 
Mountain Family: Kinship and Society, by Pat- 
ricia D. Beaver, Appalachian State University; 
and Essence of Woman: A Faith that Makes 
One Whole, by Sue Fitzgerald of Mars Hill 
College. 

One other essay is included in the booklet, 
written by Cratis Williams of Appalachian State 
University, a foremost authority in the field, 
which we feel is particularly pertinent to the 
contents of this book. The Preface tells what 
The Council's work is all about, and the special 
article follows: 

What The Council Is About 

In order to carry out its purpose, "to inspire 
women and girls in Appalachia to develop and 
use their mental, physical, and spiritual re- 
sources," the Council on Appalachian Women 
seeks to promote research, education, service 
and support. As part of this effort the Council, 
in 1979 and again in 1980, sponsored a series 
of forums entitled "Images of the Appalachian 
Women: and "Essence of the Appalachian 
Woman: 'Makin' a Livin* — Makin' a Life'." 

Funded by the North Carolina Humanities 
Committee, these forums with at least one 
meeting in each of North Carolina's twenty- 
nine Appalachian counties, consisted of pre- 
sentations, individual or panel respondents, 
and general discussion. Objectives included 

50 



the following: 

1 . To examine the role, status, and image of 
women living in the Appalachian region 
of North Carolina; 

2. To explore the Appalachian woman's be- 
liefs about her influence and role in the 
family, the community, and the market 
place; 

3. To provide an opportunity for women to 
understand the past so as to plan and 
build more wisely and efficiently for the 
future; 

4. To establish some criteria for defining 
what is affirming and what is negative 
about the culture; 

5. To build a feeling of mutual respect and 
understanding among all women living in 
Appalachia so that they can work 
together more effectively. 

So enthusiastic was the reception of the 
forums that the Council decided to publish 
abstracts of the presentations. Although un- 
fortunately only a few manuscripts were avail- 
able, the papers printed in this booklet are 
representative of the insights and observa- 
tions brought to the forums. Despite the lack 
of concensus as to how "Appalachian 
woman" should be defined, whether she is 
unique, and, if she is, wherein this uniqueness 
lies, there was general unanimity regarding 
this thesis: women of this region are females 
and Americans before they are Appalachians. 



Great Diversity 

Their diversity is at least as apparent as their 
commonality. Nevertheless, geography and 
certain clusters of social phenomena provide 
them with values and cultural characteristics 
to which they adhere, either consciously or 
subconsciously, whether they live in Appa- 
lachia by birth or by choice. One of these 
phenomena is the family, which is under re- 
evaluation in Appalachia as throughout the 
world. 

Also in Appalachia, as elsewhere, changes 
in both the domestic and the public spheres of 
life are taking place, and problems are arising 
for which there are no clear guidelines or ready 
solutions. Historically, however, family and 
faith have helped enable the Appalachian wo- 
man to cope, and there is reason to believe 
that she will continue to do so. 

A major omission of this booklet is a tran- 
scription of the experiences and perspectives 
shared by the women of all ages who attended 
the forums. It is the hope of the editor that the 
women of Appalachia will continue to be tellers 
of tales. In the telling lie many patterns for the 
ordering of the future and much pleasure for 
the living of the present." 

— Pauline B. Cheek, Editor, 

Mars Hill, 

North Carolina, 

June 1980. 



An appreciation and overview follows: 

The Essence Of The Appalachian Woman 

The traditional Appalachian family was pa- 
triarchal in structure, but the mother more 
often than not made family decisions for the 
father, whose responsibility was to administer 
and execute and to represent the family in 
public. Family life in Appalachia was largely an 
extension of that of the predominantly Scotch- 
Irish pioneer settlers in the region. 

Old-time Calvinists in their theology and 
view of the world, the husband and the wife 
were one flesh and one spirit ruled by one 
head, the husband's, but the long, long old 
Celtic influence on the shaping of their lives left 
room for a high level of partnership and a 
sense of equality of the sexes. Historically, the 
woman had maintained the right to do things 
for herself and did not expect the man to 
behave toward her as if she were weak, physi- 
cally inadequate, defenseless, or inferior. 

Hats Not Removed 

Travelers through Appalachia following the 
Civil War did not understand why the mountain 
man did not remove his hat in the presence of a 
woman, rise when she came into a room, offer 
her his seat, assist her over a style or up the 
steps, relieve her of the load she was carrying , 
or offer to let her ride the horse while he 
walked. She did not expect nor want that, from 
her point of view, she considered deferential 
treatment. 

The division of labor in the mountain family 
had enabled the first settlers to survive, to 
cope in the struggle to wrest a living from a 
wilderness environment. The sense of part- 
nership and sexual equality that was a part of 
their heritage equipped the Scotch-Irish hus- 
band and wife admirably for establishing 
homes in the mountain environment. The hus- 
band attacked the wilderness with his axe, 
plowed the fields, built fences, hunted, fished. 

The Wife's Role 

The wife gave birth to children who were 
considered God's blessings, reared them, 
practiced such household crafts as preparing 
cloth from the fiber to the garment, planted 
and grew the garden, preserved and cooked 
the food, kept the premises, and cared for her 
family in sickness. She and her children 
helped the father with hoeing and with gather- 
ing corn and hay, the whole family working 
together at tasks that often seemed more like 
fun than work. 

Traditionally, the woman in Appalachia was 
busy most of her waking hours and alert dur- 
ing the night to signs of illness in her family. 
Before the coming of bit calico and gingham to 
crossroads stores, so much of her time in the 
early years of her life was required in master- 
ing skills needed by the housewife that she 
was not ready for marriage before the age of 
twenty-two. 

Role Of Young Wife 

As a young wife, she prepared for spinning 
flax and cotton, little patches of which she 



grew herself in her garden, and wool, which 
she sheared from the sheep herself. From the 
yarns she had spun and dyed herself, she 
wove beautiful and sturdy cloth, knitted, and 
sewed. She had developed before her mar- 
riage skills in drying beans, berries and fruits, 
pumpkin; in pickling sauerkraut, beans, corn, 
cucumbers, relishes; and in making jams, jel- 
lies, apple butter, peach butter. 

All the while her babies were arriving on an 
average of two every three years until she had 
been "blessed with her predestined number." 
She kept her cradle rocking closeby as she 
worked at the spinning wheel, or the loom, or 
bent over her cookpots and skillets in the fire- 
place. 

There is little evidence that the mountain 
wife and mother rebelled against what outsid- 
ers saw as a burden too heavy for the "weaker 
sex" to bear. Generally, she was happy with 
her busy life, according to reports. As she 
grew older, she became a revered matriarch 
and an influence that held the family together. 
A source of wisdom and practical knowledge, 
a healer and a nurse, she transmitted to her 
family traditions, local history, family tales, 
ballads and songs, and a body of medical lore. 
Her advice was sought by her daughters, 
daughters-in-law, sons and grandchildren. 

A Successful Diplomat 

Although her "old man" was nominally the 
legal head of the household, she was most 
often successful in developing a diplomacy by 
which she could get what she wanted without a 
confrontation, for Appalachian people con- 
ditioned by the Calvinistic position that the 
image of God is in the human face, male or 
female, and Satan lurks in the hearts of all, 
avoid confrontation when possible and tend to 
become violent when it occurs. 

But there was from the beginning another 
Appalachian woman, a strong, fearless, inde- 
pendent one who preferred to live her life in her 
own way and who did not marry. She worked 
her land herself, had children by men of her 
own choosing, and managed her own affairs. 
That such women lived throughout the region 
down to the beginning of World War I is fairly 
well known. 

Any mountain person who sets out to estab- 
lish a genealogy is likely to discover such a 
strong old Celtic type in at least one family line 
three or four generations back. A harbinger of 
those "alternate arrangements" that are fairly 
common nowadays, the free mountain woman 
of old appears to have maintained her self- 
respect, preserved her sense of worth, and 
enjoyed the tolerance and acceptance of her 
neighbors. 

Women Begin To Move 

Following World War II, the mountain 
woman began moving, along with her family, 
toward the "larger society." With a cook stove 
in her kitchen, electrical appliances and run- 
ning water in her home, ready-made clothing 
easily available, grocery stores closeby, she 
was relieved of most of the burden of work that 
had been hers in the older society. She was 
free to seek employment outside the home. 



Her growing economic independence cre- 
ated tensions at home. But she continued to 
hold older values regarding family. Accep- 
tance of divorce came slowly in the mountains. 
The old religious notions continued to shape 
her conscience. 

At present, the Appalachian woman is seek- 
ing acceptance as an individual in her own 
right without regard for her sex, but generally, 
it seems, also without wanting to castigate her 
husband or declare war against the male ani- 
mal whoever or wherever he might be. She 
seeks to enlighten her "men folks" within the 
framework of that sense of partnership and 
equality that has always been there. 

Cooperative Spirit 

Her skills in diplomacy and her willingness 
to cooperate with others in establishing and 
working toward the achievement of goals have 
led to the creation of organizations of vital, 
essentially happy, and creative leaders for 
promoting the understanding of both women 
and men of the changing roles of women in a 
new Appalachia, a region now enjoying eco- 
nomic prosperity, easy contact with the larger 
society, and more and better opportunities for 
educational advancement. 

There is little reason to think that through 
such organizations as the Council on Appa- 
lachian Women, comprised of women from all 
walks of life within the region, she will not 
succeed." 

— Cratis Williams, Dean, 
Appalachian State University 

INTEREST IN HERITAGE IS 
GROWING IN HAYWOOD 

40 

Haywood county folks are stepping up their 
interest in their heritage, and even as this is 
being written, Friends of the Haywood Public 
Library Organization is conducting a three-part 
series on "History Is People", according to a 
news item appearing in the Asheville Citizen- 
Times in June of 1981. 

The first session, held at Grace Episcopal 
Church in Waynesville, studied the topic of 
"Cataloochee". 

Future programs were planned to study 
Sunburst: what life was like in that early log- 
ging camp and village; and on Techniques for 
finding family trees and local family histories. 

The series, made possible in part by a grant 
from the North Carolina Humanities Commit- 
tee, were planned to feature discussions by 
university professors and "home-grown" 
historians, according to the article. 

The writer went on to say that the emphasis 
on local history in establishing thousands of 
projects during the Bicentennial made us real- 
ize that every community has singular charac- 
teristics in its heritage, and that many a local 
hero or event merits pride and remembrance. 

He commented that it is less than two de- 
cades now until a new century will be upon us, 
assuming, of course, that mankind does not 
destroy the human family and much of the 
planet by that time. Many things will be differ- 
ent. And because of this coming change, it is 

51 



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crucial that local historians do hard work now. 
If they fail to record histories in the closing 
years of the 20th century, it may be too late to 
fashion an accurate statement later. Death and 
loss of memory are the enemies of accurate 
history. So what is really involved here is a 
race against time. 

"Great national histories spring from deep 
awareness of purpose and destiny at the grass- 
roots. If you believe this, you'll really have 
fun at your next family reunion, one of those 
many and marvellous mountain events that 
spring up like mushrooms throughout the 
warm-weather months. But more important, 
record that history now — before it is too late, 
the writer urged. 

The same applies to genealogy. You will 
find quite a number of early Haywood family 
sketches included in Part Two of this book. 
They are not in any one place because of being 
arranged alphabetically, but the maps should 
help you identify their general settlements. 

Many more stories are just waiting to be 
written, and the Old Buncombe County 
Genealogical Society invites families to avail 
themselves of our services in getting them 
researched, written, and filed with us for fu- 
ture publication. 

Much has already been written describing 
this Haywood County area, and we include one 
sample from an older tourist publication. We 
hope this, and accompanying samples of 
photos of the area will be helpful. Also, see the 
Bibliography for other books that might be 
helpful. 

— The Book Committee 



WAYNESVILLE 

41 

It was soon after the Revolutionary War that 
pioneers from beyond the Blue Ridge came 
into the valley of Jonathan's Creek, built 
homes for themselves, and laid the founda- 
tions of Haywood County. They were bold and 
hardy frontiersmen, ready to endure the rigors 
of adventurous life. They came from the east- 
ern and central sections of the State, brought 
their families and settled down among the 
picturesque Balsam Mountains. 

Soon the tide of immigration to that portion 
of the county overflowed into Richland Valley, 
and in a few years quite a community had 
grown up in that section. Towards the close of 
the eighteenth century the nucleus of a village 
was formed on the ridge between the Junalus- 
ka range of mountains and Pigeon Gap. That 
was Waynesville in embryo. In the course of a 
few years an enterprising village in the midst of 
a wild and unknown country grew up. 

By 1808 several communities had been set- 
tled in different parts of the county. Besides 
Jonathan's Creek and Richland, there were 
settlements on Pigeon, Crabtree, Fine's 
Creek, and the Forks of Pigeon. In the same 
year Haywood County was formed by act of 
legislature, out of the western portion of Bun- 
combe and named in honor of John Haywood 
of Halifax County. 

At that time Haywood County embraced all 
the territory now included in the counties of 
Jackson, Macon, Swain, Graham, Clay and 

54 



Cherokee. One by one those mountains were 
formed until Haywood was reduced to its pres- 
ent boundaries. 

In 1808 the little village that had grown up 
on the ridge near the Richland Valley was 
chosen as the county seat and named Waynes- 
ville in honor of "Mad" Anthony Wayne, who 
won fame at Stony Point and other places in 
the Revolutionary War. In 1871 the town was 
incorporated and given the right of local self 
government. From that time, activity and civic 
spirit began to be displayed. Waynesville be- 
came known to the outside world, and tourists 
began to come in large numbers, attracted 
here by the beauties of the scenery and the 
fame of the Haywood White Sulphur Springs 
located on the outskirts of the town. 

Waynesville, a mecca for vacationists, is 
easily accessible by automobile or by train. 
Within a short distance from the town there are 
fully twenty mountain peaks 5000 to 6000 feet 
high. There are two golf courses, one in 
Waynesville and one at Lake Junaluska two 
and a half miles away. The Waynesville Coun- 
try Club Course is 6348 yards long and its 
eighteen holes have a par of 71 . 

The Junaluska course winds its way about 
one of the most beautiful bodies of water in 
this part of the country. The Pigeon and Cata- 
loochee Rivers and Lake Junaluska abound in 
bass and lake trout, and their tributaries are 
the habitat of speckled and rainbow trout, 
black rock bass and other species of game 
fish. Nearby is Pisgah National Forest and 
Game Preserve, where buffalo, elk and deer 
roam unmolested — a vast domain that enrap- 
tures lovers of nature and wild animal life. 

Hotels at Waynesville have entertained 
guests from over the country and from many 
foreign nations. Hotel Gordon, the Piedmont, 
and Hotel Le Faine are among the most popu- 
lar hostelries here, and have ample facilities 
for meeting the requirements of tourists and 
travelers and for entertaining guests who 
make more extended stays. 

Waynesville is the center of one of the 
South's outstanding fruit growing sections. 
Apples from orchards in the Waynesville terri- 
tory have won many blue ribbons at fairs and 
expositions in various parts of the country. 
The high altitude, the long days of sunshine 
and the cool nights during the growing season 
contribute to the color and flavor of the fruit, 
making it a great favorite in many markets of 
the country. Apples from Waynesville are also 
exported to England and other foreign coun- 
tries. 

The above is based on an article in the 1929 
Land Of The Sky. 

— The Book Committee 



THE MACON COUNTY 
LIBRARY: A HELPFUL REPORT 

42 

The Macon County Public Library in Franklin 
is located at 45 Wayah Street in Franklin, on 
Business 441 as it runs through town, next to 
the Chamber of Commerce. (Zip code 28734). 
It welcomes visitors. Hours are: Monday — 
10:00-5:30; Tuesday — 10:00-9:00; Wednes- 



day — 10:00-5:30; Thursday — 10:00-9:00; 
Friday — 10:00-5:30; Saturday — 10:00- 
5:30. 

We will lend to non-residents if they have an 
extended stay in the countv. 

We do not have a staff to assist in genealog- 
ical queries; however, we do try to supply 
some minimum assistance to all requests. 

Information pertaining to Macon County is 
found in the following books: Addington, 
Hugh M. Addington. Volume II. U.S.A. and 
England, Including a Multitude of Related 
Families. Kingsport, Tenn.: Franklin Printing 
Company, 1960. 

Ashe, John R. Ash-Ashe-Stillwell: a Geneal- 
ogy and History. The author, 1977. 

Browder, Blanche Penland. The Penland 
Family of North Carolina. Rev. ed. The author, 
1975. 

The Historical Records of North Carolina, 
prepared by the Historical Records Survey of 
the Works Progress Administration. Volume 
II, The County Records, Craven through 
Moore. The North Carolina Historical Commis- 
sion, 1938. 

— The Book Committee 

YANCEY COUNTY: FIRST 
COURT IN 1834 

43 

The first court in Yancey County was held at 
Caney River Church in 1834 under the provi- 
sion of an act which required that the county 
seat should be within five miles of the home of 
James Greenlee. The church was one mile 
from his home. 

When Burnsville became the county seat, a 
brick courthouse was built in the center of the 
Town Square in 1834. This courthouse served 
Yancey County for 74 years and was torn down 
in 1 908 to make room for the new courthouse 
built on the corner adjacent to the Town 
Square. 

This building was purchased by Judge Bill 
Anglin when the present courthouse was built 
on the opposite side of the Town Square in 
1965, and stood abandoned for many years. It 
was then purchased by the town of Burnsville 
and renovated to house town offices, police 
department and the Chamber of Commerce. 

From: Common Times: a Written and Pictorial History 
of Yancey County. Compiled by Jody Higgins. (with per- 
mission) 

GOOD HERITAGE SOURCE IN 
YANCEY COUNTY 

43-A 

A recent publication called, Common Times 
— has become an excellent source of histori- 
cal material for Yancey County, and in gathering 
stories about persons who have had an influ- 
ence in the county, they of course have pro- 
vided material that is of genealogical value as 
well. Published by Yancey Graphics of Burns- 
ville, copies may be obtained by writing to 
P.O. Box 146, Burnsville, NC 28714. 

The magazine contains some fascinating in- 
sights into events and personalities of the area 
and is well documented with old photos. The 




YANCEY COUNTY TOWNSHIPS 1970 



story about Lusk Edwards is a fine sample of 
the interesting reading. Among his "Stories of 
Old Timers" included in his Appalachian 
Mountain Log Book (1961) he tells this one 
about Dock Cooper, Sr.: 

Louse Treatment 

"Once Mr. Cooper told us how he treated a 
very lousy calf with complete elimination of the 
lice. 

'You have to use harsh treatment on calf lice 
and meal up puny calves, else they'll die in the 
March blizzards; but not too harsh,' he added 
as he noticed us looking at a fire scald near 
Obie Rock. The laurel, ivy and 'dog hobble' 
was nearly scorched out. What did it, we 
asked. 

'Yes, that fire was set by that lousy yearlin' 
bull. Awful dry, windy day. I'd tried about all 
the louse remedies I'd heard of on that calf 
with pore results. That day I mixed me up a 
gallon lard bucket full of lamp oil, sulphur 
and a bit of gunpowder. Then I split out to the 
cow lot to practis' medicine. I tied the bull 
yearlin' the first and used and spilled most of 
my remedy on him. 

"Well as I was untying the calf rope, I lit my 
pipe. From the match, the bull's hair caught 



fire and I had to jump back or lose every rag of 
clothes I had on. The bull, a flamin' ball of fire, 
rolled his tail and went a bellerin' into that 
laurel thicket. The woods flared up as the bull 
busted through and I never heard such a 
crackin' and poppin' in all my life." 

That killed the lice?, we ventured to ask. 

'Yes sir, when we found that bull where he 
fell dead a makin' for the river, there wasn't a 
damned louse nor a nit left.' 

Lusk Edwards 

"My father said he was sure I'd fail if I tried 
to be a printer. He'd 400 acres of land and it 
well timbered, I could plow and sow corn to 
suit him, but there was too many farmers — 
10 people to feed one family — and when a 
man's got printer'?, blood he's anyhow gone. I 
stuck to my fancy!" 

Lusk Edwards carved his first type out of 
wood. His ink he made by boiling dogwood 
bark and copper crystals. His first boughten 
press was an old Army job used by General 
Grant's headquarters to print field orders. 

"I never left the soil — sort of like that old 
Greek who had to keep in touch with it. But I 
never quit printing either. In the 1890s I dis- 
tilled oil of pennyroyal. It brought 75 cents a pint 



in Burnsville, money for books and rubber 
type. My first paper was the Echo. I wore bad 
clothes and studied. Told my wife to take over 
the cow and chickens and run the farm to suit 
herself. She doesn't know to this day how I 
once dropped and broke a press worth a hun- 
dred and fifty dollars while lettin' her kids run 
barefoot." 

The list of Edwards' papers from 1 900 on — 
Echo, Blue Ridge Rocket, Vim, Edwards Broad- 
casts, Appalachian Log — mark the periods 
when there was money enough to indulge in 
publishing. 

Job Printing 

Lusk built up his job printing by mailing out 
cut-rate price lists for legal blanks to justices 
of the peace all over North Carolina. The 50- 
cent orders piled in. One J. P. remained a 
customer for 40 years. But his widest, and 
rather mischievous grin he reserved for tales 
of how he bartered printing for anything any- 
body would swap. 

"I put an offer in the Rocket one time of a 
year's free subscription to the person bringing 
in the largest pumpkin. We had pie in our ears 
that fall. It gave me a further idea. In those 
days a postmaster had to have so much in 
mailings every quarter or he'd get docked. 
None of them was makin' it. Take Day Book 
over in the next valley — that town got named 
from the postmaster saying: 'I'll have to look 
in my daybook,' to check whether someone 
had gotten a letter in the last few months since 
his previous trip to town. 

"That daybook was scant on entries; so I 
dickered with the postmaster to mail me 2,000 
fliers free so's he could get up toward his 
quarterly mark. Those fliers offered printing in 
exchange for hats, shoes, underwear, carpen- 
ter tools, seedling plants, or whatever a body 
wanting printing had of value." 

"Did it work?" 

"My, yes. First thing, I got me a splendid 
hat. Man charged me $2 in printing. A $2 hat 
was a hat in those days. There'd come socks, 
shoes, and pants, and if they didn't fit my 
family I'd sell 'em to a neighbor. We even 
traded printing with a nursery fellow for sweet 
potato and cabbage seedlings." 

The above is from: a 25 page section on 
Yancey County which appeared in The National 
Geographic Magazine, June 1958, Vol. CXI II , 
No. 6. Written by Malcolm Ross, a summer 
resident, the article was titled, "My Neighbors 
Hold To Mountain Ways." — and reprinted 
with permission by Common Times. Brought 
here by permission of Yancey Graphics. 

A Dissident? 

Lusk Edwards was a printer for over 65 
years. He was also a newspaper man, a philos- 
opher, a dentist and a farmer ... but the 
newspapers he published were probably his 
greatest love, and in which he wrote his many 
stories about mountain people, their values 
and their way of life. As a newspaper man he 
was considered by many to be a rascal, a 
dissident, and just plain outrageous. 

The papers were published for his own plea- 
sure and as vehicles to fight for the preserva- 

55 



Macon County, N.C. 



Prepared By 
N.C. Department of Transportation 




.x ' 

MACON COUNTY TOWNSHIPS- 1970 



56 







C O U i N !• T 



57 



Henderson County, N.C. 

Prepared By The 
North Carolina Department of Transportation 



58 




HENDERSON COUNTY TOWNSHIPS 1970 




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59 



tion of the mountain way of life and spread his 
often controversial views and comments on 
anything that he felt stirred to comment on. 
... His personality profiles left no skeletons in 
the closet; what Lusk Edwards thought, he 
printed. His poignant comments covered just 
about everything — the government, politi- 
cians, hypocrisy in churches, racial prejudice 
and war. 

In spite of his strong opinions, his printing 
business and his newspaper publishing sur- 
vived several wars, the Depression and more 
advanced printing methods than the ones he 
continued to use. 

About Retirement 

In 1958 a Charlotte Observer reporter asked 
Edwards about retirement. 

Replied Edwards, "Well, I'll be 80 in 60 
days and I'm 25 percent retired, I say. 

"When I gotto be 70, 1 thought I'd ease out. 
I was feeling so good, though, I thought I'd 
just work on a bit. When 75 came, I couldn't 
retire because of inflation. Besides, I felt better 
than I did when I was 40. 

"I don't do as much as I did, don't look as 
hard for work to do, but in Asheville the other 
day I talked to a printer who is 82. The pep that 
man has convinced me that I wouldn't feel as 
well as I do now if I were to quit." 

Lusk Edwards died in 1 965 at the age of 86. 
In keeping with his character, he wrote his 
own obituary before he died. 

— Jody Higgins, 
in Common Times 
(with permission.) 



HENDERSON COUNTY 

44 

Henderson County was established by the 
General Assembly in 1838, and is divided into 
the various townships as indicated by the 
map. 

This is an area of intense interest to 
genealogical researchers as many of the fami- 
lies who later populated the western counties 
had a time of residence in the Henderson 
County area for one or more generations be- 
fore moving on. 

An excellent center for Genealogical Study 
is the local library in Hendersonville, which of 
course is adjacent to the Court House. It must 
be remembered that many early documents 
dating prior to 1838 are to be located in the 
Buncombe County Courthouse in Asheville. 

Quite a number of excellent books have 
been written on the Henderson County area, 
available for purchase, or possibly through 
inter-library loan, which will give you excellent 
pictures of the community development in 
many of its areas. An adjacent map will help 
you identify the parts you are most interested 
in researching. 



HENDERSON CURB MARKET 

44-A 

One of the many attractions for visitors in 
Hendersonville is the Henderson County Curb 



Market at Second Avenue and Church Street. 

Fifty-seven years old, the market began with 
a few benches on the side of the street, dis- 
plays protected by umbrellas. Today, the large 
modern building houses 137 tables filled with 
everything from fruits and vegetables to hand- 
woven rugs and crafted jewelry. 

The market restricts sales to homegrown 
and crafted items by the people of Henderson 
County, and has been called a "fair within 
itself. ' ' It stands in contrast to the descriptions 
you will read in some of the family histories of 
how people had to act as drovers to drive their 
cattle, other animals and turkeys, etc. for 
many miles through the woods to markets in 
the "Low Country." At the same time tried to 
keep their wagons, filled with garden produce, 
from sinking in the muddy tracks of the roads. 

"Market Day" then was a matter of a trip of 
several weeks. 

— The Book Committee 

HISTORIC AREAS OF 
HENDERSON COUNTY 

44-B 

All of Henderson County could be termed a 
very historic area, but some parts have 
attained more notice than others, perhaps. 
"East Flat Rock, Inc." is a small organization 
of persons interested in preserving and publi- 
cizing the beautiful old homes built in the early 
days of county settlement by wealthy planters 
from the coastal areas to the south who came 
to enjoy the cooler air near the mountains. 

Their coming was of benefit not only to 
themselves but to the local farmers and other 
merchants who thus had a new market for 
their goods and services nearer home. 

Accordingly, they brought a measure of 
new prosperity to the area. Surviving and re- 
stored homes are opened to the public about 



once a year at which time the calendar flips 
back to a older and more leisurely time in our 
history. Anyone following the local newspa- 
pers can become aware of when such events 
take place. 

The Book Committee offers the following as 
a sample of an interesting report on one aspect 
of historic Henderson County. 

Flat Rock: A Unique Place, A Special 
Feeling 

What is Flat Rock? 

Theater patrons will think of the Flat Rock 
Playhouse, where the great outcropping of flat 
rock is a historic site. 

Historians might think of the same place as 
the site of "the old Lowndes home" and the 
rock which gave the community of Flat Rock 
its name. 

Preserving what is left of old Flat Rock — a 
unique community in the mountains — is a 
way of life for members of Historic Flat Rock 
Inc. who have been so successful in their 
efforts that Flat Rock Historic District is now 
on the National Register of Historic Places. 

Each year the organization holds an Historic 
Flat Rock Tour, with proceeds to be used to 
benefit their preservation efforts. 

The tour brochure includes a summary of 
the history of Flat Rock and an explanation of 
the special feeling of the community which 
began to be built up in large summer estates a 
century and a half ago by affluent Charlesto- 
nians, Europeans and prominent plantation 
owners of the low country. 

"Many of these old dwellings still stand, 
surrounded by wide lawns, gardens and 
towering trees — the product of generations 
of loving care," the brochure reads. 

The cool beauty of the area and the social 
activity attracted many prominent people of 
antebellum days, including the families of four 




Called "the cottage" The Rutledge House is a glimpse into the past. Its builder was Dr. Mitchell King, who used it as a 
home while his big house was being built nearby, Rutledge House (1 840) . This home angles to the rear, stretching out with 
a kitchen, guest house and garage around a rear lawn. Its present owners, the Alexander Schencks, made a kitchen wing of 
Dr. King's apothecary shop and a guest house of an adjoining old kitchen. A covered brick passageway with comfortable 
seating and hanging baskets angles around the left side of the house beside an expertly planted small garden and tall 
rhododendrons. Malcolm Gamble Photo. 



60 



signers of the Declaration of Independence, 
Revolutionary War generals and later, gener- 
als of the American Civil War. 

Two Secretaries of the Treasury of the Con- 
federacy owned houses in Flat Rock, as did the 
grandson of General Thomas Pinckney 
(George Washington's ambassador to the 
Court of St. James.) 

Judge Mitchell King of Charleston, owner of 
Argyle, the second great house built in Flat 
Rock early in the 19th century, donated the 
land on which Henderson was built. 

Included in frequent tours of homes are: 
Rutledge Cottage (1840), the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. Alexander Schenck; Woodfield Inn 
(1853), which is now being restored by its new 
owners, Mr. and Mrs. David Levin; the Old 
Parsonage (1853), the summer home of Mrs. 
Robert E. Mason; the Lowndes House (1885) 
on the grounds of the Flat Rock Playhouse; 
and the contemporary home of Mr. and Mrs. 
Ray Moss in Tranquility. 

Guides also are available to show tour 
guests the church of St. John in the Wilder- 
ness (1836, 1852) and the Old Post Office 
(1847). 

— Mary Ellen Wolcott, 

Citizen-Times 

Sunday, August 2, 1981. 



THE CHEROKEE COUNTY 
HISTORICAL MUSEUM 

45 

The Cherokee County Historical Museum in 
Murphy, N.C. has a very fine collection of 
Indian artifacts, early American housewares, 
firearms, musical instruments and samples of 
many minerals native to the area. 

This is a delightful place to take the family 
to see and possibly to photograph samples of 
items one's ancestors might have owned and 
used, which could be included as illustrations 
in following biographical sketches. 

The museum has displays that illustrate 
how the Cherokee Indians lived before being 
disturbed by the coming of the Europeans. 

The museum is open Monday through Fri- 
day from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. and Saturday from 
10 a.m. until 2 p.m. 

— The Book Committee 



MURPHY — SOME EARLY 
HISTORICAL FACTS 

46 

A Post Office was established at the present 
site of Murphy under the name of Huntington, 
Macon County, on February 23, 1835, with 
Archibald R.S. Hunter as Postmaster. 

The name of this Post Office was changed to 
Murphy, Cherokee County, June 13, 1839, 
after the act of The Legislature on January 4, 
1839, had created Cherokee County and des- 
ignated Murphy as the County Seat. 

The new County Seat of Murphy was named 
in honor of Archibald Debow Murphey, a prom- 
inent lawyer and Father of Education of North 
Carolina from Raleigh, N.C. It was consid- 
ered fitting, therefore, that memory of him be 



perpetuated in the name of the County Seat of 
Cherokee County. 

Through an oversight, the letter E was 
dropped from the name Murphy when es- 
tablished the County Seat and the error was 
never corrected. 

Archibald Russell Spencer Hunter is said to 
have been the first white man to build a house 
in Cherokee County. 

— Louise Axley Bayless 

Mcdowell county and old 
buncombe 

47 

Only the extreme western section of McDowell 
County was originally part of Old Buncombe 
County — roughly, a line from Buck Greek Gap 
south through Old Fort down to what is now 
about the Rutherford County line. 

We bring you the adjacent map of the coun- 
ty in its entirety for your convenience, in the 
event that your ancestors gradually moved 
west across this territory. 

— The Book Committee 



"BLOUNT ONCE OWNED 
OVER HALF OF MADISON" 

48 

At one time, John Gray Blount owned more 
than half of Madison County. This resident of 
Beaufort County N.C. was the largest land 
owner in America at one time, and this particu- 
lar grant made November 29, 1796, gave him 
320,640 acres. 

It began in the Swannanoa Gap and ran to 
Flat Creek, thence to Swannanoa River and to 



its mouth, thence down the French Broad to 
Painted Rock, thence to Bald Mountain, which 
is on the boundary between Yancey and Madi- 
son, thence to Nollichucky River (or the Toe), 
thence to Crabtree Creek, and thence to the 
beginning. 

This huge tract of land was sold for taxes in 
1798 and purchased by John Strother of 
Beaufort for 115 pounds and 15 shillings. 

There has always been a mystery as to why 
Blount let this empire go for such a piddling 
sum for John Strother was his good friend and 
neighbor, as well as his agent. 

Nevertheless, Strother sold some of the 
land and upon his death left all of the property 
back to John Gray Blount, describing that 
gentleman as his "Beloved friend." 

This will was probated in 1816, but was 
challanged because one of two witnesses to it 
omitted to state he had subscribed his name in 
the presence of the other subscribing wit- 
nesses. 

However, a special act of the legislature 
validated this defective probate. The constitu- 
tionality of the act was questioned, neverthe- 
less, but was upheld by the Supreme Court on 
the grounds that only the heirs of Blount or 
Strother could object to the probate. 

What was left of the Blount land finally 
passed to the hands of Robert and James R. 
Love of Haywood County for the trifling sum of 
$3,000. Its value today is almost uncalculable. 

(Deed to Obed Cook from John Gray Blount, 
signed by his Agent, R. Love, dtd 24 Jul 1 81 6 
for 200A on Rich Mountain, red 24 Oct 1836, 
Bk 20, p 268, Buncombe Co NC). 

Extracted from the Bicentennial Edition of 
the News-Record, Marshall, North Carolina, 
July 1976 — page 16. 

— Mrs. C.T. Carmichael 




MADISON COUNTY TOWNSHIPS 1970 



61 



Cherokee County, N.C 

Prepared By The 
North Carolina Department Of Transportation 




62 



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Jackson County, N.C. 

Prepared By The 
North Carolina Department Of Transportation 




JACKSON COUNTY TOWNSHIPS 1970 



66 





67 



BACKGROUND ON NAMES OF 

COMMUNITIES OF MADISON 

COUNTY 

49 

Allenstand— on Little Laurel Creek in Madi- 
son County, was named tor James Allen who 
operated a livestock stand in the early 1800s. 
In the 1890's the Presbyterian Board ot Home 
Missions established a school at Allenstand 
which became an outstanding community 
center, noted tor handicrafts. 

Joe Post Office, on Meadow Fork Creek in 
Madison County, was named for Joe Balding. 
According to tradition, Joe Balding desired a 
post office on Meadow Fork. He was ac- 
quainted with some Senators who were in- 
strumental in granting his request. Joe was 
given the honor of naming the post office, 
which he named for himself. 

Luck and Trust— on upper Spring Creek in 
Madison County. According to a "Roaming The 
Mountains" segment by author John Parris on 
WLOS-TV program "Montage", broadcast in 
the late 1970's, in 1900 William Plemmons 
desired a post office on upper Spring Creek. 

In a letter to the Post Office Department, he 
concluded with the statement, "I trust that I 
will have the luck of becoming postmaster of 
this community." An investigating committee 
after studying the need, recommended that 
two post offices be established on upper 
Spring Creek. Taking its cue from Plemmons' 
letter, the Post Office Department named the 
post offices Luck and Trust, with Plemmons 
appointed as postmaster of Luck. 

Paint Rock — established as a depot for 
Southern Railway in 1882, located on the left 
bank of the French Broad River one mile above 
the Tennessee line. The community was 
named for the Paint Rock located on the right 
bank of the French Broad on the Tennessee 
line. 

Spillcom — a tributary of Big Laurel Creek 
in Madison County. According to tradition, 
when the early settlers of the area hauled their 
corn by horseback to a nearby mill, the only 
place to ford the creek had very steep banks on 
each side. Some of the corn "spilled" out of 
the sacks on the horses into the creek. 

— James Richard Gosnell 



MADISON: BUSHWHACKERS IN 
THE CIVIL WAR 

49-A 

"Madison Suffered From Bushwhackers In 
Civil War" is a paper prepared by Joanna Lee 
Clark: 

"Madison County suffered intensively dur- 
ing the Civil War due to the fact that it was an 
area contested by both Union and Confederate 
troops and also an area in which groups of 
bushwackers preyed upon the people. Even 
though the soil of Madison County never actual- 
ly witnessed an extensive military battle, the 
suffering that was inflicted upon the people by 
the outlaws, draft dodgers, and deserters was 
probably more severe than any actual military 
battle. 



"The people had to contend with troubles 
the marauders presented almost every day 
during and even after the war. Not only did the 
people of the county have to contend with the 
fear or murder, robbery and rape, but they 
were also confronted with deep wounds that 
were inflicted by the great political and moral 
division. 

Lincoln Elected 

"The election of Lincoln in 1 860 served as a 
signal for the secession of the cotton states, 
but for the border states, it became a hesitant 
period. North Carolina was no exception. . . . 
With the decision of secession came also great 
division in families ... one son joining the 
Union army and the other the Confederate 
Army . . . 

"... Madison County provided its full 
share of soldiers for the Confederate army as 
well as the Union army. The 60th Regt of the 
N.C. Infantry of the Confederate Army was 
from Asheville and Buncombe, but the author- 
ity over the battalion was placed in the hands 
of Dr. Joseph A. McDowell of Warm Springs in 
Madison County. 

Serving under him were Edward M. 
Clayton, Adjutant; Augustus W. Patton, quar- 
termaster; and Robert L. Coleman, commi- 
sary. 

"The 6th Battalion of the 16th Regt. was 
made up of six companies, as follows: Hardy's 
Light Artillery, McDowell's Madison County 
Company; Reynolds Asheville Company, 
McDowell's Buncombe Company, West's 
Company; and Steven's Company. The 64th 
Regt was also composed mostly of men from 
Madison. Lawrence M. Allen was commis- 
sioned as colonel on July 20, 1 862, and autho- 
rized to raise men for the regiment . . . 

Skirmishes 

"There were several skirmishes and con- 
tinued activity due to competition of the two 
armies and the desire of the Confederates to 
maintain order and security in the county . . . 
According to one version of the story, Col. Kirk 
of the Union army in Tennessee had been sent 
into Western North Carolina to recruit men and 
to block Confederate efforts in the area. Also 
according to stories handed down from father 
to son, Kirk and his men preyed on the people 
of the county . . . (The article speaks of "Kirk 
and his marauders".) 

"Finally troops under Confederate General 
Kirby Smith were sent into Madison to deal 
with the deserters in the area. Governor Vance 
estimated as many as 1200 were in the moun- 
tain areas of North Carolina . . . 

Pain and Hardship 

"Madison County was no exception to the 
rule of pain and hardship. As the war closed, 
houses had to be rebuilt, livestock replaced 
and wounds mended. The grudges and bitter- 
ness would hopefully find a way of healing but 
sons, brothers and children could not be re- 
placed. 

"The Bushwhackers were a problem and 
they, too, would have to be dealt with. The war 
was over, but the road of reconstruction that 



was ahead would be a long and rough one to 

travel." 

Extract from The Bicentennial Edition of the 

News-Record, Marshall, N.C, July 1976 — 

page 19. 

— Mrs. C.T. Carmichael 



JACKSON COUNTY: WHERE 
THE MOUNTAINS MEET 

50 

Jackson County is the meeting place for the 
Great Smokies, the Balsams, the Cowees and 
the Blue Ridge Mountains. As a whole, it con- 
tains many natural wonders of unusual charm 
and beauty. 

Of special interest to those interested in 
Appalachian History are many activities of 
Western Carolina University at Cullowhee 
which encompass those carried on by the 
Appalachian Heritage Center. Of current in- 
terest is the research now being conducted 
into the character and philosophy of the Scotch- 
Irish settler of early days — trying to analyze 
them and determine what were the strengths 
that helped them to survive in such a difficult 
terrain. 

Genealogical studies are being pursued to 
link them up with their earlier roots and histo- 
ries in Northern Ireland and Scotland, and is a 
subject with progress to monitor over the next 
few years. 

The Old Buncombe County Genealogical 
Society hopes to be a vehicle through which 
word of this study can be publicized and en- 
couraged. 

— The Book Committee 



CLUSTERS OF SHOPS ARE 

WAITING IN JACKSON 

COUNTY 

51 

Shoppers and browsers in Jackson County 
find shops with more than ordinary appeal 
clustered mainly around Dillsboro and 
Cashiers. 

Dillsboro was the county's thriving busi- 
ness center after the railroad reached it in 
1882. It suffered a decline later. In recent 
years many of its fine old buildings, some 100 
years old, were restored to use. New buildings 
are in keeping with the old-time charm of the 
small village. 

It is now a thriving center of shops and good 
places to eat, such as the family style meals of 
The Jarrett House, the food at the Stage Coach 
Stop, at Mr. K.' Fish and Shrimp, or the Well 
House-A-Sandwich Emporium at Riverwood. 

Crafts of high quality and moderate prices 
are at Dogwood Crafters. The Village Studio 
Art Gallery and Custom Framing in an old U.S. 
Post Office has varied exhibits. The Greystone 
Curio Shop also is an antiques and craft trader. 
The Country Shop, built around an old log 
cabin, features distinctive gifts and local craft 
and needlework. Natural foods, landscaping 
and plants are featured at other shops. 

Across the river, Riverwood, nestled 
around a 100 year old home, has eight shops 



68 



featuring handmade pewter, glass, pottery, 
weaving crafts, a Christmas shop, and a 
cheese and gourmet shop. Several demon- 
strating craftsmen may be seen. 

The Old School, four miles south on U.S. 
441-23, is a spacious old rock building with 14 
antique and craft shops and a barbeque res- 
taurant adjoining. Several craftsmen are work- 
ing there also. 

Granny Grunt's is a small pioneer home- 
stead just beyond. The emphasis is on primi- 
tives, with a few reproductions and some col- 
lectibles. 

The fine resorts and restaurants in Cashiers 
form the nucleus for an increasing number of 
interesting shops. The individuality of each 
shop is noteworthy. Each shop fits with spe- 
cial charm into this mountain resort. 

Two of the earliest are The Carolina Moun- 
tain Shop and the Valley Gift Shop, each 
featuring quite individual gifts and acces- 
sories. 

Lyn K. Holloway, and Ruth's Antiques and 
Martha Haynes for antiques; resort apparel at 
several good shops; needlework supplies, les- 
sons and gifts at Anne's Whimsey Shop, Sign 
of the Peacock, Ltd. , and The Old Home Place; 
these are just some of the really interesting 
places. 

— Asheville Citizen-Times 
(with permission) 



TRANSYLVANIA COUNTY: THE 
LAND OF THE WATERFALLS 

52 

Transylvania County is officially known as 
the "Land of Waterfalls'," but sometimes it is 
jokingly called the "Land Where Water Falls." 

The latter tag is true, because the western 
part of the county is in an area of the second 
highest average rainfall in the contiguous 
United States. Center of the area is in Macon 
County with more than 100 inches annually, 
but Rosman, in western Transylvania records 
over 80 inches with an increase westerly to- 
ward the county border. 

There are some 29 waterfalls in Transylva- 
nia listed as major attractions and literally 
scores more lesser known. 

The Falls have had numerous names during 
the 200 years since the area that is now Tran- 
sylvania was first settled. Some have been 
attractions since the area became a summer 
resort area more than a century ago. 

Some of the falls are easily approached 
while some are less accessible. Some are in 
the Pisgah Ranger District of the Pisgah 
National Forest while others are on privately 
owned land. 

The following are some of the Transylvania 
waterfalls with their best known names. Brief 
directions and notation as to whether they are 
in the Pisgah National Forest (PNF) are in- 
cluded. 

BEAR WALLOW FALLS: U.S. Highway 64, 
1 .5 miles southwest of Toxaway River Bridge, 
turn left 4.5 miles on Whitewater Road. 

CEDAR CREEK FALLS: In PNF, U.S. 64 
southwest from Brevard, right on State Road 
(SR) 1338 at Cathey's Creek. Short distance 




Looking Glass Falls, Transylvania County, N.C. — one of the many spectacular natural beauties of the area. 



from the road. 

CATHEY'S CREEK FALLS: In PNF, U.S. 64 
southwest from Brevard, right on SR 1338 at 
Cathey's Creek. Short distance from the road. 

COURTHOUSE FALLS: PNF, right on SR 
1367 in Pinhook Gap in Balsam Grove area. 
For avid hikers. 

RAINBOW FALLS: one-fourth mile from SR 
1 1 49 near Whitewater Road southwest of Lake 
Toxaway. Diftwood Falls are passed before 
reaching the 200 ft. falls. 

SLICK ROCK FALLS: In PNF on Headwater 
Road between National Fish Hatchery and Pink 
Beds. 

STAIRSTEP FALLS: Horsepasture River, 
reached by hike down river from Whitewater 
Road, SR 1 149. Several other falls on the way. 

STILL HOUSE FALLS: One of few falls with 
dry space behind. Trail from SR 1308. 

TOXAWAY FALLS: Seen from U.S. 64 at 
Lake Toxaway. Height 123 ft. 

TRIPPLE FALLS: Off SR 1 91 1 . Very difficult 
access. Many other falls in area. 

WHITEWATER FALLS: U.S. 64 southwest 
from Lake Toxaway, left on SR 1149. Height 
41 1 ft. said to be highest in eastern U.S. Seen 
from road or by steep trail to river. These falls 
are in the Nantahala National Forest. 

WHITE OWL FALLS: Boyhanee area east of 
SR 1149 between Rainbow and Whitewater 



Falls. 

WINDY FALLS: On Horsepasture River be- 
tween Rainbow and Stairstep Falls. 

WINTERGREEN FALLS: Toxaway River 
above entrance of Bearwallow Creek. Hike 
necessary. 

COVE CREEK FALLS: In PNF right on David- 
son River road three miles west of PNF Fish 
Rearing Station. Easily accessible. 

DISMAL FALLS: In PNF, left on Owens Gap 
Road, SR 1308 near Jackson County Line. 

DIAMOND CREEK FALLS: Near SR 1322 
between North Fork and West Fork of French 
Broad River near Rosman. 

FLAT CREEK FALLS: In Quebec Community 
off U.S. 64 southwest of Rosman; to right of 
SR 1 313. Other falls off SR 1 147 south of US 
64. 

FROZEN CREEK SHOALS: Near SR 1139. 
Old Toxaway area southwest of Rosman. 
Short hike. 

GLEN CANNON FALLS: Twin Falls in Glen 
Cannon residential-recreational area; off 
second hole of golf course. Hike to top falls. 

HIGH FALLS: In PNF South Fork mills River; 
several falls between Pink Beds and Hender- 
son County line. Hike necessary. 

KIESEE FALLS: In PNF, hidden cove under 
PISGAH Lodge near Pinhook Gap Road, SR 
1369. Area of Courthouse Falls. 

69 



Transylvania County, N.C. 

Prepared By The 
North Carolina Department Of Transportation 




70 




./ STAHONC STONI 
MTK 



71 



Clay County, N.C. 

Prepared By The 
North Carolina Department Of Transportation 




72 




TANDING INDIAN MOUNTAIN 
ELEV 5,49 



\ STANDING INDIAN WILDLIFE 
/ MANAGEMENT AREA 



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COUNTY 



73 



KATHEY FALLS: On Bearwallow Creek 
about one mile from Toxaway Falls Road. 

LAUGHING FALLS: In PNF, one-mile off 
U.S. 280 northeast of Brevard on Turkey 
Creek. Near SR 1360. 

LOOKING GLASS FALLS: In PNF, one of the 
most scenic and best known falls in eastern 
U.S. Close beside U.S. 276 north of Brevard. 

MILL SHOALS: Adjacent Owen Gap Road, 
SR 1308. 

MOORE COVE FALLS: In PNF, twin falls 
about one mile above Looking Glass Falls. 

POUNDING MILLS FALLS: On Middle Fork 
of French Broad River south of Rosman. Can 
be seen from U.S. 178. 



THE GRAND OPERA HOUSE IN 
ASHEVILLE 

53 

Our Grand Opera House was where scores 
of the very best of theatrical performances 
were seen by packed houses. Grand Opera like 
Faust; Comic or Musical Operas like the 
Wizard of Oz; Al G. Field's old-fashioned Min- 
strel; Light Opera like Martha and East Lynn — 
all of this in the 1888-1935 period. 




The Old Opera House, located on Patton Avenue adjacent 
to Pritchard Park where the present Merrill, Lynch, Pierce, 
Fenner and Smith investment firm now stands. 



It was a sight to see the fine carriages dis- 
charge their passengers in full evening dress 
and watch them ascend that wide stairway, 
and be shown to their seats in the Parquet. 

Many an area lad in the long ago had the 
time of his life watching at the rear of the 
building the hoisting of scenery and baggage, 
by horse power, up to the back door of the 
stage. This part of the show blocked traffic on 
College Street at the head of Rankin. 

The Interior 

The interior of this old Opera House, the 
paintings and frescoing, a real architectural 

74 



masterpiece, was one of the charms of Old 
Asheville. We might say it gave a most unusual 
impression to all who attended the various 
performances. 

The old chandelier was one of the beauties 
of this theatrical show house. After the house 
was comdemned in 1911 because of being a 
second story theatre, this chandelier hung in 
darkness and solitude for a number of years. 

The numerous questions that have been 
asked as to what became of this chandelier 
have never been answered. 

(From: Tips — published by The Inland Press, Ashevil- 
le, April 1954.) 

CLAY: SMALL BUT 
MAGNIFICENT 

54 

Clay County offers a haven for camping. It is 
one of the smallest counties in the state but 
has some of the most magnificent scenery in 
the world. 

Clay is surrounded by three mountains, 
forming an ampitheatre, overlooking a valley 
that is unexcelled in beauty. The climate is 
ideal — with warm sunny days and nights that 
are so cool it is necessary to pull up a blanket 
most of the time. 

Camping has become one of the most popu- 
lar vacations for all ages. It is one that families 
can afford with less expense than going to 
motels or lodges. 

There are at least 350 campsites in Clay. 
Among these are Jack Rabbit, Ho-Hum Camp- 
ground, Clay County Park, Tennessee Valley, 
Lake Shore, Tuni, and Davenport Camp- 
ground. 

The following are located on beautiful Lake 
Chatuge that has been dubbed the "Crown 
Jewel" of the entire TVA system. This pro- 
vides swimming, water skiing, fishing, boat- 
ing and all water sports. Here one finds Jack 
Rabbit, a Golden Eagle campground, owned 
by the U.S. Forest Service. It has 103 camp- 
sites, a boat launching area, an ampitheater 
where United Methodist ministers provide a 
Sunday morning worship service. There are 
2 1 /2 miles of hiking trails, a beach with life- 
guards, and amenities, along with two or three 
beautiful picnic areas with grills and fireplace 
for an open fire on chilly nights. 

The U.S. Forest Service also has a camp- 
ground located on Tuni, way back in the 
mountains. 

Clay County Park has 50 campsites on Lake 
Chatuge with plenty of picnic tables. There is 
also a nice pavillion area that is covered for 
large groups with electric lights. 

The Tennessee Valley Authority has a camp- 
ground next door to Clay County Park. It has 
about 50 campsites. It borders Lake Chatuge 
and has a paved boat dock and parking area. 

Ho-Hum Campground is owned by Herbert 
Booker and is just across the road from Lake 
Chatuge near Jack Rabbit. It is equipped with 
complete hook-up, with electricity, sewerage, 
hot and cold showers, laundramat, shuffle- 
board court, miniature golf course, boat dock 
and boat ramp and a swimming pool. 

Lake Shore Campground on Lake Chatuge 
is owned by Basil Owens. It has hot and cold 



showers, boat ramp, ping-pong tables, and 
cool breezes. 

Davenport Campground is located on the 
banks of Shooting Creek and has complete 
hook-ups with electricity and sewerage. 

One of the biggest attractions in Clay is the 
Chatuge Shore Recreational Complex. It has 
an excellent 18-hole golf course, swimming 
pools for all ages, tennis courts, and club- 
house. Here many campers go to spend the 
day and then back to the campsites for the 
nights. 

Hayesville, itself is a town done in Carpen- 
ters Gothic to match the old court house. The 
sidewalks are covered with board roofs. 

Hinton Rural Life Center is located near 
Hayesville. 

— Reprinted from The Asheville Citizen 
with permission 

SWAIN COUNTY 

55 

Among other attractions, Swain is the home 
county for the town of Cherokee. Cherokee 
houses the Qualla Boundary Public Library, 
located at the Qualla Civic Center on Acquoni 
Road, P.O. Box 242, Cherokee, N.C. 28719. 

This has much of general interest, plus 
being a rich source of special Indian Genealog- 
ical material that is often overlooked because it 
is not a part of the state, regional or munici- 
pal libraries of North Carolina. 

Winter Hours (Oct. 10 to May 1). 8:00 am- 
5:00 pm Weekdays; 8:00 am-9:00 pm Thurs- 
day evenings and 10:00 am-5:00 pm 
Saturday. 

Summer Hours (May 1 to Oct. 10) 8:00 
am-5:00 pm Weekdays; 8:00 am-9:00 pm 
Thursday evenings and closed on Saturday. 

This Tribal Enrollment Office (P.O. Box 455, 
Cherokee, N.C. 28719) will search the print- 
outs they have for $25.00 per name. Requests 
must include (if possible) 1. Complete name, 
2. Dates/birth and death, and 3. Place of resi- 
dence. The following is a source list: 

Microfilm Printouts, Cherokee Tribal 
Enrollment Office 

Printouts on the Eastern Band of Cherokee 
Indians, Cherokee, N.C. 28719, are available 
as follows: 

1835 — Census of Cherokees in the limits 
of Tennessee, Alabama, North Carolina, and 
Georgia in 1835, (Daniel Henderson). 1848— 
Census of North Carolina of Eastern Cherokees 
taken under an Act of Congress, July 29, 
1848, (John C. Mulloy). 1851 — Names of 
Cherokee Indians residing east of the Missis- 
sippi River with a report of special agent, D. W. 
Siler. 

1852 — Roll of the Cherokees residing east of 
the Mississippi who received per capita pay- 
ments from the moneys appropriated for the 
benefit of the Cherokees by the Act of Con- 
gress approved 30th September 1850 and the 
Act approved 27th February 1851 (Alfred 
Chapman). 1869 — Roll, Eastern Band of 
Cherokee Indians, 1869. (Swetland). 1883 — 
Census Roll of Cherokee Indians residing east 
of the Mississippi River made in compliance 
with Act of Congress approved August 7, 1 883 



(Joseph C. Hester). 1908 — Census Roll of 
the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North 
Carolina, 1908, (Frank C. Churchill). 1909 — 
Roll of Eastern Cherokees entitled to partici- 
pate in the fund arising from judgment of the 
Court of Claims of May 28, 1906 as reported 
by Guion Miller, Special Commissioner, May 
28, 1909. 1924 — Final Roll of the Eastern 
Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina 
under Act of June 4, 1924, (Fred A. Baker). 
Revised January 20, 1931. 
1940 — Census of the Eastern Cherokee 
Reservation of the Cherokee, N.C. jurisdiction 
as of January 1, 1940; taken by CM. Blair, 
Superintendent. 

List compiled at Qualla Boundary Public 
Library, Cherokee, N.C, summer, 1979. 

— The Book Committee 



HORACE KEPHART: HE TELLS 

MUCH ABOUT THE 

MOUNTAINS 

56 

For the person wanting to know about the 
area of Western North Carolina — approx- 
imately the area covered by Old Buncombe 
County of 1 791 creation — the classic study of 
it is to be found in Horace Kephart's book 
entitled Our Southern Highlanders. 

To understand something of how and why it 
came to be written requires knowing some- 
thing about the author himself and the intro- 
duction to the book includes a perspective and 
sensitive description of the underlying interest 
in history and yearning to recreate the past 
pioneer existence that literally consumed him. 

He states, himself, in the very first chapter 
that at the time of his writing about 1904, that 
"the Southern highlands are a mysterious 
realm ... I could find in no library a guide to 
that region. The most diligent research failed 
to discover so much as a magazine article 
written within this generation, that described 
the land and its people." 

He recognized that tourists flocked to 
"Asheville and Toxaway, Linville and High- 
lands, passing their time at modern hotels and 
motoring along a few macadamed roads, but 
what," he asked, "do they see of the billowy 
wilderness that conceals most of the native 
homes? Glimpses from afar. What do they 
learn of the real mountaineer? Hearsay. For 
mark you, nine-tenths of the Appalachian 
population are a sequestered folk . . . anyone 
from outside being considered a lurriner!' 
. . . those from overseas being considered 
'outlandish!'" 

Lived At Hazel Creek 

Although a well-educated man himself, and 
a writer for sophisticated newspapers and 
magazines, he left the world of city civilization 
of his day and went to live in an area of Hazel 
Creek in the general vicinity of Dillsboro and 
Bryson City, back in the mountains where he 
felt as if he "had been carried back, asleep, 
upon the wings of time, and had awakened in 
the 18th century . . . where he seemed to be 
actually living among the pioneer farms and 



herdsmen and hunters, the trappers and trad- 
ers, the teachers and preachers, the outlaws 
and the Indians of a hundred and fifty years 
ago." 

He entered into this style of life with zest, 
using the old techniques, but trying to improve 
on them himself, and then writing them up as 
informative and educational pieces of writing 
for scouting and camping magazines. In this 
way he earned enough money to keep himself 
going. 

A collection of this material was the basis 
for his book Camping and Woodcraft which 
became a standard in its field of writing, and 
so well known did his camping base become 
that even today there are nostalgic-type bum- 
per-stickers flashing along Asheville streets 
saying, "I'd rather be on Hazel Creek!" 

"People Back In Hills" 

The people he cared most about describing 
accurately and vividly were the people back in 
the hills, who were the models for his charac- 
ters. When he read to them what he had writ- 
ten they all seemed pleased with it, and found 
the descriptions pretty accurate. The criti- 
cism, he said, "came from town folks who 
thought it slurred the country," but he wasn't 
writing about them and to him, their opinions 
didn't matter. 

Anyone with "an inborn taste for the wild 
and romantic" like Kephart, who, "yearned 
for a strange land and a people that had the 
charm of originality ," coupled with "a passion 
for early American history," will be charmed 
with this book Our Southern Highlanders. 

It was published first in 1913 by The Mac- 
Millan Company, and again copyrighted in 
1976 by The University of Tennessee Press in 
Knoxville, by arrangement with Macmillan 
Publishing Company, Inc. 

It is doubtless found in bookstores and li- 
braries and is well worth adding to your collec- 
tion of Western North Carolina/Old Buncombe 
history in support of your own ancestral rec- 
ords. It will be of great help to you in interest- 
ing your young grandchildren in the history of 
the area and characterizations of some of their 
forebears in a way that you could probably 
never do. 

Many Photographs 

The book is liberally sprinkled with photos 
of primitive log cabins and activities of general 
daily living which he took himself, scenes 
which were probably no different than they 
would have been a hundred or so years earlier. 
Because of the vast- strides of progress in 
recent years in road building, opening up a 
relentless advance of more modern living back 
into these hitherto inaccessible regions, the 
coming of electricity and radio and television, 
plus the introduction of education and job 
opportunities to bring cash paychecks to the 
people, this way of life is fast disappearing 
even among the most remote settlements. 

As the townspeople say, his writing makes 
it seem as if everyone fit his descriptions of 
18th century life, but progress does make his 
writing and his photos all the more valuable for 
our history shelves because "the real thing" 



will soon be gone. This book gives a good 
"first-hand" view and should be in every "Old 
Buncombe" Collection. 

— The Book Committee 



GRAHAM COUNTY 
GENEALOGICAL SOURCES 

57 

For genealogical research in Graham Coun- 
ty, try the Bemis Memorial Library. It is a 
member of the Nathahala Regional Library in 
Murphy, NC which is the headquarters. 

Library hours are: 

Monday-closed; Tuesday 9-1 1 a.m. and 2-7 
p.m. Wednesday, 10 a.m. to 12 noon; Thurs- 
days, 9 to 11 a.m. and 12 noon to 5 p.m.; 
Fridays, 9 to 11 a.m. and 12 noon to 5 p.m.; 
Saturdays, 9 to 11 a.m. and 12 noon to 5 p.m. 

The library is located on Main Street in Rob- 
binsville. We lend our books to non-residents 
only on a reference basis — not to be taken 
from the library. However, if the patron is 
staying in town for a set number of days then 
he/she would be allowed to take the non- 
reference books out on the signed agreement 
to return them before leaving. Usually the pa- 
tron borrows the books to take out for Xeroxing 
as we do not have a copy machine available. 

We handle our genealogical books in the 
same manner, although we sometimes con- 
tact the State Library in Raleigh to ask for 
assistance in our attempt to help our patrons. 

We have a good source of information in our 
book The Cherokee Indians & Those Who 
Came After. This is great for reference. Can we 
help you? 

— Sue Phillips, 
Librarian 



DR. FOSTER A. SONDLEY 

59 

The adjacent portrait of Dr. Foster A. Sond- 
ley, distinguished lawyer and historian of Bun- 
combe County, is among a collection of oil 
paintings which hang in the Buncombe Court- 
house. 

Born at Alexander, August 13, 1857, Dr. 
Sondley died April 17, 1931, in his home, 




Dr. Foster A. Sondley. 



75 



Swain County, N.C. 

Prepared By The 
North Carolina Department Of Transportation 




76 



M 



s 


■< 
\ 

T* J 

O mi SEQUOYAH V.'-^ 

3i°<0' J 







/ 




77 



Graham County, N.C. 

Prepared By The 
North Carolina Department Of Transportation 




78 



MOUNTAINS 

I N 



NATIONAL 



PARK 




79 



~U-— 1 V->, 



Buncombe County, N.C. 

Prepared By The 
North Carolina Department Of Transportation 




80 




81 




This old photograph shows a portion of the private library of Dr. Foster A. Sondley , "Finis Viae, " in Haw Creek. Dr. Sondley, 1 857-1 931 , gave his library of 1 00,000 volumes to 
the City of Asheville and it became the Sondley Reference Library in Pack Memorial Library. 



"Finis Viae," in Haw Creek. 

He bequeathed his 100,000 volume private 
library to the City of Asheville, and it is now the 
Sondley Reference Library in Pack Memorial 
Library before the Pack Library moved to its 
new quarters. The books are now housed 
throughout the stacks where appropriate by 
subject or title, although some of the rarer 
volumes are stored in a special vault. These 
are identifiable by the index cards, and may be 
seen and read by special arrangement. You 
only need to ask. An adjacent photo is of 
interest. 

Dr. Sondley received his A.B. degree from 
Wofford College in 1876 and held law degrees 
from Wofford and the University of North 
Carolina. 

The portrait, hanging in the 5th floor Supe- 
rior Courtroom, was painted in 1934 by N. 
Brock of Asheville and Weaverville, equally 
famous in his own right as an internationally 
known photographer and artist. Brock, whose 
full name was Ignatius Watsworth Brock, died 
in 1950 at the age of 83. 

— Luther W. Shaw 



ALLEN TURNER DAVIDSON 

60 

Among the historic portraits in the Bun- 
combe County Courthouse is the adjacent one 
of Allen Turner Davidson, a nephew of Samuel 
Davidson, the first white settler in Western 
North Carolina (killed by Cherokees and buried 




Allen Turner Davidson 



on Jones Mountain.) 

A.T. Davidson was born May 9, 1819 on 
Jonathan's Creek in Haywood County. He be- 
gan his career as a clerk in his father's 
Waynesville store and in 1843 became clerk 
and master of equity of Haywood County. He 
began the practice of law in 1 845, later moving 
to Murphy where he served some 1 2 years as a 
criminal lawyer. For a time he was solicitor of 
Cherokee County and was later made presi- 
dent of the Miners and Planters Bank of 
Murphy. 

In 1861 , he became a member of the N.C. 
Secession Convention and was named a dele- 
gate to the Confederate Provincial Govern- 
ment. A year later he became a member of the 
House of Representatives of the Confederate 
States. 

After the Civil War, he moved to Franklin 
and in 1 869, to Ashevelle, where he died Janu- 
ary 24, 1905. When only 21 years old, David- 
son was elected a colonel in the militia of 
Haywood County and afterwards was always 
known as Colonel Davidson. 

There is no clue as to the identity of the 
artist. 

— Luther W. Shaw 



82 



NICHOLAS W. WOODFIN 

61 

Nicholas W. Woodfin, whose portrait hangs 
in the Buncombe County Courthouse, once 
was among Asheville's most distinguished 
lawyers. 

Born January 29, 1810 in what is now Hen- 
derson County, (then upper French Broad Riv- 
er in Buncombe), Woodfin represented Bun- 
combe in the State Senate in 1844, 1848 and 
1850. He was an extensive farmer and slave 
owner, but lost his property as a result of the 
Civil War. Although he had opposed secession 
in principle, he was loyal to the South and 
fought in the war. 




Nicholas W. Woodfin. 

After the conflict, he organized a cheese 
factory, but this failed and the business was 
finally abandoned. 

Woodfin erected the stately residence on 
Woodfin Street which was part of the YMCA 
here at one time. 

Woodfin Street and the Woodfin community 
were both named in his honor. Woodfin ac- 
quired a great reputation as a lawyer, particu- 
larly in the conduct of captial cases. In 1861 , 
he represented Buncombe County in the con- 
vention at which North Carolina seceded from 
the United States. 

He died on May 23, 1876. 

— Luther W. Shaw 



J.E. RANKIN 

62 

Among outstanding portraits in the Bun- 
combe County Courthouse is one of J.E. 
Rankin by artist Clarence Augustus Worrell. 
Born April 27, 1 845 in Newport, Tenn. , Rankin 
in 1 91 6 became the first mayor-commissioner 
of Asheville. Educated in private schools and a 
soldier for the Confederacy, Rankin and his 
father opened a mercantile business here in 
1867. 

Eighteen years later, in 1885, Rankin be- 
came vice president of the Bank of Asheville 
and was later named cashier of the Western 



North Carolina Bank which he helped organize. 

For two years he was part owner of The 
Asheville Citizen. He was cashier of the Battery 
Park Bank when he resigned to become the 
city's mayor-commissioner. He had previous- 
ly served as mayor and chairman of the Board 
of County Commissioners. He was city 
treasurer 15 years. 

Rankin died February 17, 1928 and was 
buried in Riverside Cemetery. 




J.E. Rankin 

Worrell, who painted Rankin in 1917, came 
to Asheville in 1902 for his health. Born in 
Pennsylvania in 1858 the artist founded the 
Asheville Academy of Fine Art and School of 
Manual Training. His masterpiece, a nine-by- 
eighteen foot canvas named, "Asheville From 
Sunset Mountain," was stolen after its unveil- 
ing. Worrell died in 1920 and was buried in 
Riverside Cemetery. 

Rankin's portrait, a copy of which is adja- 
cent, hangs in the Courthouse lobby over the 
entrance to the Register of Deeds office. 

— Luther B. Shaw 



AUGUSTUS SUMMERFIELD 
MERRIMON 

63 

Augustus Summerfield Merrimon, whose 
portrait hangs in the Superior Courtroom in 
the Buncombe County Courthouse, enjoyed a 
distinguished career as an attorney, U.S. 
senator and judge. 

Born September 1 5, 1 830 in what was then 
Buncombe County and is now Transylvania 
County, Merrimon began the practice of law in 
Asheville in 1855 and represented Buncombe 
in the North Carolina House of Commons. In 
1865 the Legislature elected him judge of Su- 
perior Court and in 1 872 he was nominated for 
governor, but was defeated by a small major- 
ity. He became a U.S. Senator in 1873. 

On Sept. 29, 1883 he was named an associ- 
ate justice of the N.C. Supreme Court and on 
November 14, 1889, became the court's chief 




Augustus Summerfield Merrimon 

justice. He remained in this judicial post until 
his death, November 14, 1892 at Raleigh. 

His parents were the Rev. Dr. Branch H. and 
Mary (Paxton) Merrimon, and he was a 
brother of James H. Merrimon. 

There is no indication of the name of the 
artist who painted the portrait. 

— Luther W. Shaw 

J.B. CAIN 

64 

A collection of portraits in the Buncombe 
County Courthouse includes this painting of 
J.B. Cain by Clarence R. Sumner. Clerk of 
Superior Court from April, 1923, until his 
death, July 13, 1934, Cain was a native of 
Charleston, S.C. 

Born there in 1849, he came to Buncombe 
County in 1 863 and was elected a justice of the 
peace, which post he held six years. In 1901 
he was appointed deputy clerk of Superior 
Court. 




J.B. Cain. 

Artist Sumner, who died December 17, 
1959, was a newspaperman and playwright. 
Once a student at the Art Students' League of 
New York City, Sumner was a member of the 

83 



Asheville Artists' Guild and was one of the 
founders and was a charter member of the 
Asheville Art Museum. 

Among his portraits of notables are those of 
Thomas Wolfe and Carl Sandburg. 

Cain's portrait hangs in the office of the 
Clerk of Superior Court. 

— Luther W. Shaw 



ZEBULON BAIRD VANCE 

65 

Zebulon Baird Vance, whose handsome 
portrait hangs in the Superior Courtroom of 
Buncombe County Courthouse, was North 
Carolina's Civil War governor. Born on Reems 
Creek May 13, 1830, Vance attended Newton 
Academy and the University of North Carolina. 

He began law practice in Asheville in May, 
1852. Two years later, he was named Bun- 
combe's representative to the N.C. House of 
Commons and during 1856-1860, served in 
the U.S. House of Representatives. 




Zebulon Baird Vance. 

A captain and colonel in the Confederate 
Army in 1861, Vance was governor of North 
Carolina from 1862-1865 and again in 1876. 

He was elected U.S. Senator from North 
Carolina on March 4, 1879 and served until 
April 14, 1894, when he died in Washington, 
D.C. 

He is buried in Asheville's Riverside Ceme- 
tery. The adjacent portrait was done in 1 884 by 
J. A. Janus. 

— Luther B. Shaw 



JUDGE JOHN BAXTER 

66 

The portrait of Judge John Baxter, judge of 
the Sixth U.S. Circuit Court from 1877 to 
1886, hangs in the Buncombe County law 
library on the sixth floor of the Courthouse. 

Judge Baxter, who was a great-uncle of 
Asheville attorney Julius S. Harrill Jr., was 
born in Rutherford County near Forest City on 
March 5, 1819, and died at Hot Springs, Ark. 
April 2, 1886. 

84 



In 1844 he represented North Carolina's 
47th District in the State House of Representa- 
tives. Later, after he had moved to Henderson 
County, he was named speaker of the same 
body (1852). He served as one of the Whig 
electors in the presidential campaign of 1844. 
Baxter moved to Knoxville in 1857 and soon 
succeeded in building up an extensive law 
practice. 




Judge John Baxter 



After the Civil War, in which he adhered to 
the Union, he represented Knox County 
(Tenn.) as a member of the Tennessee Consti- 
tutional Convention of 1870 and took a vital 
part in framing the state's constitution. In 
1877, he was appointed judge of the Sixth 
U.S. Circuit Court, which covered parts of 
Tennessee, North Carolina, Ohio and Ken- 
tucky. 

On November 24, 1934, the Knoxville Bar 
Association presented a portrait of Judge Bax- 
ter to the U.S. District Court at Knoxville. The 
painting was hung on the wall of the federal 
courtroom in the Post Office Building there. 

Whether the portrait in the law library here is 
the same painting is unknown, but the portrait 
appears identical to a photograph of the por- 
trait presented in Knoxville. Harrill has no in- 
formation on when the portrait was moved 
here, if it is the same one, or why it hangs in a 
law library instead of a federal building. 

The artist of the adjacent portrait here 

appears to have been W.G. Moss. There is 

little local information on Moss' background. 

— Luther W. Shaw 



JAMES H. MERRIMON 

67 

James H. Merrimon, whose portrait hangs 
in the Superior Courtroom of the Buncombe 
County Courthouse, was one of the state's 
foremost lawyers. Born in 1832 in Hooper's 
Creek Township in Henderson County, Merri- 
mon was a son of the Rev. Dr. Branch H. and 
Mary Paxton Merrimon. 

The family moved to Asheville from Transyl- 



vania County about 1 855, where young Merri- 
mon attended Col. Stephen Lee's Academy in 
Chunn's Cove. He later went to Emory-Henry 
College near Bristol, VA. 

When the Civil War broke out, Merrimon 
enlisted as an adjutant in a Confederate Army 
Cavalry brigade. 




James H. Merrimon 

Following the war, he studied law with Rich- 
mond Pearson and in 1886 was named Supe- 
rior Court judge for the 12th Judicial District. 
He died December 21 , 1 921 , and is buried in 
Riverside Cemetery in Asheville. 

He was a brother of Augustus Summerfield 
Merrimon, a U.S. senator and chief justice of 
the North Carolina Supreme Court. 

The adjacent portrait of Judge James H. 
Merrimon was painted from a photograph in 
1925 by a New York artist. Merrimon Avenue 
in Asheville was named for the Merrimon 
family. 

— Luther W. Shaw 

JAMES GIBBON MERRIMON 

68 

The portrait of James Gibbon Merrimon is 
among a collection of oil paintings in the Bun- 
combe County Courthouse. Son of Judge 
James H. Merrimon and a nephew of Chief 
Justice Augustus S. Merrimon of the State 
Supreme Court, James Merrimon died Janu- 
ary 20, 1948 at the age of 81 . 

He received his early education in the 
schools of Asheville and at Bingham Military 
School at Mebane. He studied law with Judge 
Bynum in Greensboro, and received his law 
license in 1888. He was a member of the law 
firm of Merrimon, Adams and Adams here for 
many years and was highly regarded as an 
attorney and counsellor at law. He once served 
as president of the Buncombe County Bar 
Association. 

A great deal of his time also was devoted to 
the Buncombe County law library, which he 
was instrumental in founding and developing. 
He was also an ardent gardener. 

The adjacent portrait, which hangs in the 
Law Library, was done in 1939 by Dorothy 




James Gibbon Merrimon 

Swain, daughter of J.E. Swain of Asheville 
who, at that time, taught art in an Arizona 
school. Miss Swain, who became Mrs. 
Dorothy Lewis, was a graduate of Randolph- 
Macon College and studied art and worked in 
various parts of the country, including Chica- 
go, California and New York. Her brother, 
Robert S. Swain, was the district solicitor here 
for a period. 

— Luther W. Shaw. 

GEN. ROBERT BRANK VANCE 

69 

General Robert Brank Vance, whose portrait 
hangs in the office of the Buncombe County 
Clerk of Superior Court, was born in Bun- 
combe County April 24, 1828. He was named 
for his uncle, Dr. Robert B. Vance, member of 
Congress from Bucombe in 1825, who was 
killed in a duel in 1827. 




He was a Union man and voted against 
secession, but went into the Confederate Army 
when war was declared. First a captain, he was 
soon named colonel of the 29th North Carolina 
Infantry, becoming brigadier general in 1863, 
after the battle of Murfreesboro. He was cap- 
tured at Crosby's Creek, Tenn., in January 
1864, and kept prisoner until the end of the 
war. 

In 1 872 he was elected to the 43rd Congress 
and served until 1885, when he was appointed 
commissioner of patents. In this post, he 
obtained an appropriation for dredging the 
French Broad River between Brevard and 
Asheville, a small steamer having been oper- 
ated there a short time in 1876. He was a 
member of the State Senate in 1893. 

A poet and strong prohibitionist, Vance died 
November 28, 1899 at Alexander. 

The adjacent portrait gives no clue to the 
artist. 

— Luther W. Shaw 



GEORGE WILLIS PACK 

70 

Pack Square and Pack Memorial Public Li- 
brary, Asheville, were named for George Willis 
Pack. He was born June 6, 1831 in Fenner, 
Madison County, New York and at the age of 
17 he moved with his father to Sanilac County, 
Michigan. 

There, in 1854 he entered the lumber busi- 
ness and became extremely successful. Some 
years later, because of his wife's health, he 
moved to Asheville and was immediately a 
concerned citizen. 




General Robert Brank Vance 

At the age of 21 , Vance was elected clerk of 
the county court, and was re-elected 1858, 
when he retired voluntarily. 



George Willis Pack. 

He showed his generosity here by five major 
public benefactions: 

1 . The building then known as First National 
Bank on Pack Square, donated for a library; 

2. A kindergarten — later abandoned; 

3. The property which is now known as 
Montford Park; 

4. The property of some 13 acres now 
known as Aston Park; 

5. The old Davidson property of about three 
acres on College Street on which the Bun- 



combe County Courthouse which served from 
1901 to 1928, was erected. 

Pack died on August 30, 1906, in South- 
ampton, Long Island, N.Y. 

His adjacent portrait, hanging in the Court- 
house lobby above the entrance to the Clerk of 
Superior Court office, was painted in 1 903 by a 
Mr. Burnham. 

— Luther W. Shaw 



WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA 
AREA NEWSPAPERS 

71 

Here is a listing of some current newspapers 
in the Old Buncombe area: 

Tryon Daily Bulletin, Box 790, Tryon, N.C. 
28782, Seth Vining, Editor. Phone: 852-1445 

Franklin Press, P.O. Box 350, Franklin, 
N.C. 28734, Robert Sloan, Editor. Phone: 
524-2010 

The Mountaineer, Drawer 129, Waynesvil- 
le, N.C. 28786, W.C. Russ, Editor, Adv. Mgr. 
Bob Winchester. Phone 456-5301 

The News-Record, P.O. Box 367, Marshal, 
NC 28753, James I. Story, Editor. Phone 649- 
2741 

Hendersonville Times-News, P.O. Box 490, 
Hendersonville, N.C, 28739, Sandy Blowers, 
Adv. Mgr. Phone 692-0505 

Smoky Mountain Times, P.O. Box 73, Bry- 
son City, N.C. 28713, Pete Lawson, Jean 
Trammel, Ethel Welch. Phone 488-2189. 

Transylvania Times, P.O. Box 32, Brevard, 
N.C. 28712; Bill Norris, Assoc. Ed. and Adv. 
Mgr.; Phone 884-4250. 

Sylva Herald, P.O. Box 307, Sylva, N.C. 
28779, Jim Gray, Business Mgr., Phone 586- 
2611. 

McDowell News, P.O. Box 610, Marion, 
N.C. 28752, David Setzer, Adv. Mgr., Jim 
Shepherd, Editor; Phone 652-3313. 

Asheville Citizen-Times, P.O. Box 2090, 
Asheville, N.C. 28802, (Mail News Releases to 
James Wilson); Bob Beard, Adv. Mgr. 

The Advocate (Native Stone), published 
weekly by Allied Publishers, Inc. 428 
Haywood Road, Asheville, N.C. 28806, 
Richard A. Gilbert, Mgr. Editor; Jim Gray. 

Black Mountain News, 206 Sutton Ave., 
P.O. Box 8, Black Mountain, N.C. 28711; 
Phone 669-2478 or 669-6848. 

The Enterprise, P.O. Box 72, Canton, N.C. 
28716, Mrs. Dickenson or Mr. Jim Wallace. 
Phone 648-2081 . 

Yancey Journal, P.O. Box 667, Burnsville, 
N.C. 28714, Edward A. Yuziuk, Editor; Phone 
682-2120. 

— The Book Committee 



NORTH CAROLINA SOCIETY 

OF COUNTY AND LOCAL 

HISTORIANS 

72 

Organized in 1941 , the North Carolina Soci- 
ety of County and Local Historians seeks to 
discover and perpetuate history on a "grass- 
roots" level. Membership inquiries are invited 
from Western N.C. area people. 

85 



The Society encourages the writing of North 
Carolina history by presenting annually the 
Smithwick Award for the best story published 
in a North Carolina newspaper or magazine on 
some phase of the history of North Carolina. 

The McDaniel Lewis Historian of the Year 
Award is presented annually to a person who is 
contributing in some unique manner to pre- 
serving for posterity the heritage of North 
Carolina. 

The Willie Parker Peace Award is given bien- 
nially for the best book written about a North 
Carolina county, institution, or individual. 

The Robert Cooke Award is presented 
biennially for the best in-depth story or history 
of a North Carolina family. 

The awards are presented at the annual 
meeting during Culture Week in Raleigh, N.C. 

Other activities include county tours, each 
usually hosted by a County Historical Society 
or other local cultural group. 

Benefit of membership include an increased 
knowledge and appreciation of county and lo- 
cal history through both written history and 
tours at which the local historical organization 
usually disseminates literature on that particu- 
lar area. Interest is thus stimulated for the 
restoration and preservation of historic sites 
and antiquities, as well as for the preservation 
and use of historical source materials. 

You are invited to join. 

Mail inquiries to Garland P. Stout. 1209 Hill 
St. Greensboro, N.C. 27408. 



HISTORIC MARKERS IN 
WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA 

73 

Here is a partial list of some interesting 
historical markers in Western North Carolina: 

CALVARY CHURCH EPISCOPAL: Built 
1859. Grave of "Bill" Nye. Memorials to many 
famous Southerners. On US 25 at Fletcher, 
Henderson County. 

ZEBULON B. VANCE: Governor, 1862- 
1865, 1877-1879; U.S. Senator, 1879-1894. 
Birthplace six miles northeast. On US 19 and 
23 north of Asheville, Buncombe Co. 

RIVERSIDE CEMETERY: Graves of 
"0. Henry," author — under name of William 
Sydney Porter; Z.B. Vance, Governor; and 
T.L. Clingman, U.S. Senator. One mile north- 
west. On US 19 and 23 in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County. 

C.G. MEMMINGER: Secretary of the Trea- 
sury of the Confederacy, from Charleston, Na- 
tive of Germany. Summer home and grave 
nearby. On US 25 at Flat Rock, Henderson 
County. 

DAVID L. SWAIN: Governor, political lead- 
er, and President of the University of North 
Carolina, 1835-1868, was born three miles 
east. On US 19, 23, and 70 in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County. 

EDGAR W. ("BILL") NYE: Journalist, 
humorist, 1850-1896. "Buck Shoals", his 
home, stands 3 1/2 miles west. Grave one mile 
north. On US 19 at Soco Gap, Haywood 
County. 

NEWTON ACADEMY: Established before 
1793 as Union Hill Academy. Named for Rev- 

86 



erend George Newton. Present Newton 
Academy School is fourth building on this site. 
On US 25 in Asheville, Buncombe County. 

MORNING STAR CHURCH: Organized by 
German Lutherans about 1825; Methodist 
since 1866. Is 2 1/2 miles south. On US 19 and 
23 in Canton, Haywood County. 

FRENCH BROAD BAPTIST CHURCH: Orga- 
nized before 1792. Present building is here. 
First building stood one mile south. On NC 191 
about six miles northwest of Hendersonville, 
Henderson County. 

ANDRE MICHAUX: French botanist, pioneer 
in studying flora of western North Carolina, 
visited Black Mountain, August, 1794. On US 
70 in Black Mountain, Buncombe County. 

LOCKE CRAIG: Governor, 1913-1937; 
teacher; lawyer; State Legislator. His home 
stands here. On US 74 south east of Asheville, 
Buncombe County. 

HOT SPRINGS: Health resort since 1800. 
Name changed from Warm Springs, 1886. 
Internment camp for Germans in World War I 
was here. On US 25 and 70 in Hot Springs 
Madison County. 

VANCE-CARSON DUEL: On November 5, 
1827, Robert B. Vance, former North Carolina 
Congressman, was mortally wounded by his 
successor, Samuel P. Carson, in a duel 1/2 
mile southeast. On US 25 about one mile north 
of North Carolina/South Carolina boundary, 
Henderson County. 

QUALLA BOUNDARY: Soco Gap, initial 
point of U.S. survey, 1876, of Cherokee Re- 
servation, created through earlier efforts of 
W.H. Thomas, white Cherokee chief. On US 
19 at Soco Gap, Haywood County. 

STONEMAN'S RAID: On a raid through 
western North Carolina General Stoneman's 
U.S. Calvary passed through Hendersonville, 
April 23, 1865, in Henderson County. 

MARTIN'S SURRENDER: General James G. 
Martin surrendered the army of Western North 
Carolina, the last Confederate force in the 
State, in Waynesville, May 6, 1865. In 
Waynesville, Haywood County. 

AUGUSTUS S. MERRIMON: U.S. Senator, 
1873-1879; Chief Justice of State Supreme 
Court, 1889-1892. Birthplace is one mile east. 
On US 64 in Cherryfield, Transylvania County. 

BINGHAM SCHOOL: A boy's military 
school, operated by Robert Bingham, 1891- 
1928. Moved from Mebane. Plant is one mile 
southwest. On NC 191 about two miles north 
of Asheville, Buncombe County. 

THOMAS WOLFE: Author of Look Home- 
ward, Angel (1 929) , Of Time and the River and 
other works. Home stands 200 yards north, 
birthplace 500 yards northeast. On US 70 and 
74 in Asheville, Buncombe County. 

FELIX WALKER: Revolutionary officer, 
member Congress, 1817-1823, where, in 
"talking of Buncombe" (County), he gave new 
meaning to the word. Home was 1/2 mile 
north. On US 19 about 1 1/2 miles west of 
Dellwood, Haywood County. 

PAINT ROCK: Early landmark. Site of block- 
house to protect settlers from Indians, 1793. 
Figures on rock resemble paintings. Is 5 1 /2 
miles northwest. On US 25 and 70 in Hot 
Springs, Madison County. 

GUN SHOP AND FORGE: A gunsmith shop 



and iron forge, set up four miles west about 
1804 by Philip Sitton and Philip Gillespie, 
operated until about 1861 . On NC 280 in Mills 
River Henderson County. 

LEE'S SCHOOL, 1846-1879: A school for 
boys, conducted by Stephen Lee, graduate of 
West Point, Confederate Colonel, stood Vz 
mile north. On US 70 east of Asheville, Bun- 
combe County. 

FOSTER A. SONDLEY, 1857-1931: histo- 
rian, lawyer, and bibliophile. Gave to Ashe- 
ville the Sondley Reference Library. His home is 
2.7 miles north. On US 70 east of Asheville, 
Buncombe County. 

ST. JOHN IN THE WILDERNESS: Episcopal 
Church, built 1833-1834 as a private chapel. 
Given to Diocese of North Carolina, 1836. 
Enlarged in 1852. On US 25 in Flat Rock, 
Henderson County. 

JETER C. PRITCHARD: United States Sena- 
tor, 1895-1903; Republican leader; news- 
paperman; Federal Judge. His home is 3/10 
mile east; grave is 1 .3 miles west. On US 19, 
23, 25, and 70 in Asheville, Buncombe 
County. 

FRANCIS ASBURY: Bishop of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, 1784-1816, often visited 
and preached at the home of Daniel Killian 
which was one mile east. On US 19, 23, 25, 
and 70 in Asheville, Buncombe County. 

MARS HILL COLLEGE: Baptist college, 
coeducational. Founded in 1856 as French 
Broad Baptist Institute. Name changed 1859. 
Two miles northwest. On US 19 and 23 at 
intersection with NC 36A, Madison County. 

DR. L.B. McBRAYER: Leader in fight 
against tuberculosis in North Carolina, Super- 
intendent of State Sanatorium in Hoke County, 
1 91 4-1 924. His birthplace is 400 feet west. On 
NC 191 about five miles south of Asheville 
Buncombe County. 

RICHMOND PEARSON: Congressman, 1895- 
1901 ; U.S. Ministerto Persia, 1902-1917; and 
to Greece and Montenegro, 1907-1909. His 
home, "Richmond Hill," is two miles north. 
On US 19 and 23 in Asheville, Buncombe 
County. 

RUTHERFORD TRACE: The expedition led 
by General Griffith Rutherford against the 
Cherokee, September, 1776, passed nearby 
on the banks of the Swannanoa River. On US 
25 in Asheville, Buncombe County. And also 
on NC 191 about one mile south of Asheville, 
Buncombe County. The expedition camped 
nearby along Hominy Creek on US 1 9 and 23 at 
Enka, Buncombe County. The same expedi- 
tion passed through Pigeon Gap on US 276 
between Woodrowand Waynesville, Haywood 
County. 

JUDSON COLLEGE: Baptist. Chartered in 
1861 as Judson Female College. Later became 
coeducational. Operated 1882-1892 in a build- 
ing standing three blocks southwest. On US 
64 in Hendersonville, Henderson County. 

KIFFIN Y. ROCKWELL: World War I soldier, 
aviator. First pilot of Escadrille Lafayette to 
shoot down enemy plane. Killed in action, 
September 23, 1916. Home 200 yards west. 
On US 19,23,25, and 70 in Asheville, Bun- 
combe County. 

FLAT ROCK: Landmark for Indians and the 
pioneer white settler of this area, lies nearby. 



Town of Flat Rock named for this natural 
formation. On US 25 in Flat Rock, Henderson 
County. 

SWANNANOA TUNNEL: Longest (1 ,800 ft.) 
of seven on railroad between Old Fort and 
Asheville. Constructed by convict labor 1877- 
1879. West entrance 300 yards southeast. On 
US 70 in Ridgecrest, Buncombe County. 

ESTATOE PATH: Trading route between 
mountain settlements of the Cherokee and 
their town Estatoe, in what is now South Caro- 
lina, passed nearby. On US 64 in Rosman, 
Transylvania County. Also on US 64 at David- 
son River, Transylvania County. 

JOSEPH LANE: Territorial Governor of Ore- 
gon, 1848-1850; Vice Presidential candidate, 
1860; U.S. Senator; Major General in Mexican 
War. Born three miles east. On US 70 north of 
Asheville, Buncombe County. 

"CATALOOCHEE TRAIL": An old Indian 
path across mountains used by early settlers 
and in 1810 by Bishop Asbury. Trail passed 
nearby. On US 19, 23 near Junaluska Assem- 
bly, Haywood County and on NC 284 at Cove 
Creek Post Office, Haywood County. 

GEORGE A. TRENHOLM: Confederate 
Secretary of Treasury, 1864-1865; South 
Carolina Legislator; cotton broker and finan- 
cier, Summer home "Solitude" stands 1/2 
mile east. On US 25 in Flat Rock, Henderson 
County. 

SULPHUR SPRINGS: Health and social re- 
sort during the nineteenth century; patronized 
by low-country planters. Springs are 600 
yards south. On US 19-23 west of Asheville, 
Buncombe County. 

WILLIAM MOORE: Captain of militia force 
which marched against the Cherokee in Nov- 
ermber, 1 776. A fort which he built stood near 
here. His home was 200 yards east. On Sand 
Hill Road east of Enka, Buncombe County. 

STONEMAN'S RAID: Southern troops 
turned backStoneman's U.S. Calvary, raiding 
through western North Carolina, at Swanna- 
noa Gap, near here, April 20, 1865. On US 70 
at Swannanoa Gap (Ridgecrest), Buncombe 
County. 

WADE HAMPTON: Confederate General; 
Governor of South Carolina, 1876-1879; U.S. 
Senator. His summer home, High Hampton 
stood 1 1/2 miles southeast. On US 64 near 
intersection with NC 107, Jackson County. . 

JUNALUSKA: Cherokee Indian chief. Brave 
warrior under Andrew Jackson at Horse Shoe 
Bend, in Creek War, 1814. Grave one mile 
southwest. On US 129 in Robbinsville, Gra- 
ham County. 

TSALI: Cherokee brave, surrendered to 
General Scott to be shot near here, 1838, that 
remnant of tribe might remain in North Caroli- 
na. On US 19 in Bryson City, Swain County. 

JUDACULLA ROCK Large rock covered with 
well preserved Indian picture writing of un- 
known origin. 3 1/2 miles southeast. On NC 
107 at East Laport, Jackson Co. 

CHEROKEE DEFEAT In the French and Indi- 
an War Colonel Grant's force of whites, Chick- 
asaws, and Catawbas defeated the Cherokee 
warriors near here, June, 1761. On NC 28 
about two miles north of Franklin, Macon 
County. 

CHEROKEE VICTORY: In the French and 



Indian War, the Cherokee defeated a colonial 
and British force from New York under Colonel 
Montgomery near here, June, 1 760. On NC 28 
about four miles north of Franklin, Macon 
County. 

CHEROKEE DEFEAT: During the American 
Revolution a South Carolina force under Col- 
onel Andrew Williamson defeated the Cher- 
okees near here, September, 1776. On NC 28 
near the North Carolina-South Carolina line, 
Macon County. 

CHEROKEE DEFEAT: In the American Rev- 
olution a North Carolina force under General 
Griffith Rutherford defeated the Cherokee at 
Wayah Gap, 10 miles west. On NC 28 about 
five miles north of Franklin, Macon County. 

NIKWASI: This mound marks site of old 
Cherokee Town, Nikwasi. A council of Sir Ale- 
xander Cuming with the Indians here led to a 
treaty, 1730. On US 64 in Franklin, Macon 
County. 

CHEROKEE WAR: Major George Chicken of 
South Carolina led first English military ex- 
pedition against the Cherokee in this area, 
1715. On US 19, 129 and 64 in Murphy, 
Cherokee County. 

FORT BUTLER: One of the forts in which 
General Winfield Scott gathered the Cherokee 
before moving them west in 1838. Stood 1/4 
mile southwest. On US 19, 129 and 64 at 
Hiawassee River in Murphy, Cherokee County. 

YONAGUSKA: Chief of East Cherokee, lived 
in this vicinity. Died, 1839, aged about 80. He 
adopted a white boy, W.H. Thomas, who be- 
came Cherokee chief. On US 19 about three 
miles northwest of Bryson City, Swain County. 

CHEROKEE INDIAN RESERVATION: Estab- 
lished by United States for the Eastern Band of 
Cherokee after the removal of 1838. On NC 
107E at entrance to Cherokee Indian Reserva- 
tion, Jackson County. 

FORT HEMBREE: One of the forts where 
General Winfield Scott's United States forces 
gathered the Cherokee before moving them 
west, stood 3/4 mile northwest. On US 64 in 
Hayesville, Clay County. 

DE SOTO: In 1540 an expedition of Span- 
iards led by DeSoto, first Europeans to ex- 
plore this area, entered North Carolina near 
here. On US 64 in Highlands, Macon Co. Cros- 
sed the Little Tennesse River, first. Mississipi 
tributary discovered by Europeans. On US 23 
and 441 in Franklin, Macon County. Also US 
64 in Shooting Creek, Clay County. Also US 64 
in Hayesville, Clay County. Also US 64 about 
five miles east of Murphy, Cherokee County. 
Marched out of North Carolina. NC 294 at NC 
— Tennessee boundary, Cherokee County. 

JUAN PARDO: in 1597 an expedition of 
Spaniards, sent out from Florida by Pedro 
Menendez de Aviles and led by Juan Pardo 
passed near here. On US 64 in Highlands, 
Macon County. 

POTTERY CLAY: The Wedgwood potteries 
of England used several tons of clay taken in 
1767 from a nearby pit by Thomas Griffiths, a 
South Carolina planter. On NC 28 north of 
Franklin, Macon County. 

GEORGE W. TRUETT: Pastor First Baptist 
Church of Dallas, Texas, 1897-1944; Presi- 
dent of Baptist World Alliance. His birthplace 
stands one mile northwest. On US 64 south- 



west of Hayesville, Clay County. 

WESTERN CAROLINA TEACHERS COL- 
LEGE: Established in 1889 as a private school. 
State supported since 1893. Now, Western 
Carolina University. On NC 107 in Cullowhee, 
Jackson County. 

COWEE: The council house of Cowee, chief 
town of the Middle Cherokees, stood on the 
mound 100 years west. Town destroyed dur- 
ing the Revolution. On NC 28 northwest of 
Franklin, Macon County. 

BAPTIST MISSION: For Cherokee Indians, 
established in 1817, consisting of a chapel, 
school, farm, and mills. Was 3 1/2 miles 
north. On US 64 about five miles east of Mur- 
phy, Cherokee County. 

HORACE KEPHART: Author of OUR SOUTH- 
ERN HIGHLANDERS (1913) and other 
works, naturalist, librarian. Grave 3/10 mile 
southwest. Mt. Kephart, 30 miles north is 
named for him. On US 19 in Bryson City, 
Swain County. 

RUTHERFORD TRACE: The expedition led 
by General Griffith Rutherford against the 
Cherokee, September 1776, passed nearby 
along Savannah Creek. On US 23 and 441 near 
intersection with NC 116, Jackson County. 

WILLIAM BARTRAM: Philadelphia natural- 
ist, author, exploring this area, met a Cher- 
okee band led by their chief, Atakullakulla in 
May 1776, near this spot. On US 19 near 
Swain County line, Graham County. 

ECHOTA MISSION: Methodist. Maintained 
by Holston Conference for Cherokee ca. 1840- 
1885. School established 1850. Missionary's 
house stands 1/2 mile south. On US 19 about 
two miles from Swain County line, Jackson 
County. 

WILLIAM H. THOMAS: White chief and 
agent of North Carolina Cherokee. Secured 
reservation for them. Confederate Colonel. 
State Senator. Home. "Stekoih Fields,: stood 
1/4 mile south. US 19Aat intersection with US 
441 near Whittier, Jackson County. 

— The Book Committee 



FEDERAL TROOPS IN 

ASHEVILLE IN 1865; CIVIL 

WAR REPORT 

74 

Federal troops came to Asheville in the 
spring of 1865 as the great war closed. This 
picture (obtained by the University of North 
Carolina library from the Library of Congress) 
had this penciled notation on the back: "Street 
View, Company F., 2nd Regt." 

Undated, this posed questions: What was 
Company F, Second Regiment? Exactly where 
and what is this encampment? 

A magnifying glass gives the clue. In the 
center of the distant line of men are the Stars 
and Stripes and guidon of a cavalry troop. The 
conclusion is that Company F, Second Regi- 
ment, refers to the Second North Carolina 
Mounted Infantry, made up of mountain men 
who fought for the Union. 

They were in command of Lt. Col. William 
C. Bartlett and were engaged by Confederate 
forces at Waynesville on May 9, 1865. Then, 
on orders, they moved to Asheville, remaining 

87 




This photo, Courtesy of the Asheville Citizen-Times, shows federal troops camping in Asheville in the spring of 1865. On the back of the photo is penciled "Street View, 
Company F, 2nd Regt." They are camped at Camp Jeter, near where Flint and Cherry Streets meet. In 1865 it was a land of rolling farmland. Today: the city. 



until the Third North Carolina Mounted Infan- 
try, under Col. George W. Kirk, arrived. 

Company F of the Second Regiment is pic- 
tured in an adjacent photograph at Camp Je- 
ter, Asheville, where, earlier in the war, Con- 
federates also camped. The site is just to the 
northwest and northeast of where Flint and 
Cherry Streets meet. Now a part of the city and 
lined with streets and houses, the area then 
was rolling farmland. 

Looking southeast, the picture shows the 
long ridge of Beaucatcher Mountain in the dis- 
tance. Stony Hill, which became Battery Porter 
Hill and then Battery Park Hill, is just out of 
range of the camera to the right. 

Asheville had already been occupied, after a 
fight, on April 25, 1865, by a cavalry brigade, 
under Brig. Gen. A.C. Gillem, part of the force 
of 7,000 cavalrymen under Maj. Gen. George 
Stoneman who raided Western North Carolina 
in late March, April and May, 1865. 

Bartlett's and Kirk's regiments were in Col. 
C.G. Hawley's First Brigade of Brig. Gen. 
Davis Tillson's Fourth Division, District of East 
Tennessee, Department of the Cumberland. 
This is Gen. Tillson's estimate of the Bartlett 
and Kirk regiments as expressed in a report: 

"I do not think it necessary to keep more 
than the two North Carolina regiments in that 
part of the country. One or both of them could 
be withdrawn very soon with advantage to the 
service of the country. I very much fear they 
will deteroriate into thieves and robbers." 

General Stoneman directed General Tillson 

to withdraw all his forces from the mountains 

as soon as the interest of the service allowed. 

Soon the two regiments of mounted infantry 

were back at their base in Greenville, Tenn. 

— The Citizen-Times, 

Asheville, NC. 

July 17, 1960 



88 



First At Bethel . . . Last At Appomattox 

These are familiar lines to Tar Heels who 
have a fair acquaintance with North Carolina 
History: First at Bethel, farthest to the front at 
Gettysburg and Chickamauga, last at Appo- 
mattox. 

Less familiar are the names of the regiments 
and companies who won the right for North 
Carolina to inscribe the lines, not in boast, 
"but in sober historic truth." 

Still less familiar now to the people of our 
own North Carolina mountains are the roles of 
mountain men in these four famous chapters 
of the war. 

First at Bethel 

The First North Carolina Volunteers regi- 
ment took part in their first battle of the war 
at Bethel, VA. on June 10, 1861. It became 
known as the Bethel Regiment. In this Con- 
federate victory, Pvt. Henry L. Wyatt of Co. A. 
(The Edgecombe Guards) was mortally 
wounded, the first Confederate soldier to die in 
action in the war. 

The participating North Carolina regiment 
included Co. E., known as the Buncombe 
Riflemen, under the command of Capt. W.W. 
McDowell, and Co. G., the Burke Rifles, under 
Capt. CM. Avery. 

Farthest At Gettysburg 

There were 15 regiments from North Caroli- 
na in the famed Pickett-Pettigrew charge up 
Cemetery Ridge at Gettysburg on July 3, 
1863. 

The honor of advancing to the farthest point 
in the great battle was earned by the 55th 
North Carolina Regiment. 

Commanding the regiment as the battle of 
Gettysburg opened was Col. John Kerr Con- 
nelly of Yadkin County (later of Asheville). He 
was severely wounded in the first day's fight- 



ing ... 

(Among scholarly works on the three-day 
struggle, the book, "High Tide at Gettys- 
burg," by Glenn Tucker of Flat Rock, presents 
North Carolina's part in the battle in a detailed 
and fair manner, much better than many other 
writer-historians who have published books 
about this great and decisive struggle between 
massive forces.) 

Farthest At Chickamauga 

It was at Chickamauga, one of the greatest 
battles of the war, that the 60th North Carolina 
Regiment of infantry charged its way to mili- 
tary immortality. 

Under the command of Lt. Col. James M. 
Ray of Asheville, the regiment forced its way 
into a gap in the Federal lines. Though receiv- 
ing enfilading fire, it drove the enemy back into 
its breastworks. 

The 60th Regiment won high praise . . . 
suffered heavy casualties. After Lt. Col. Ray 
was wounded during the charge, the com- 
mand devolved upon Capt. James Thomas 
Weaver of Buncombe County. 

Western North Carolina has a close interest 
in this famous regiment. It was more largely 
representative of Asheville and Buncombe 
County than any other regiment of the State. 
Organized in 1862 as a battalion and then 
enlarged into a regiment, it included at first 
these six companies: 

First, Hardy's Light Artillery, from Asheville 
and vicinity; Second, men from Madison 
County; Third, Asheville and vicinity; Fourth, 
Buncombe; Fifth, Haw Creek, and Swannanoa 
River in Buncombe; Sixth, Turkey Creek, Flat 
Creek and Reems Creek in Buncombe. 

When enlarged to a regiment, added were a 
company of Henderson County men; a com- 
pany from Polk County; a company of men 
from the vicinity of Big Creek, Cocke County, 
Tenn., and a company of volunteers and de- 



tails from companies unnecessarily large. 

Last at Appomattox 

North Carolina historians record that Gen. 
William R. Cox' Brigade at Appomattox fired 
the last shots of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
That was a North Carolina brigade — consist- 
ing of the First, Second, Third, Fourth, Four- 
teenth and 30th North Carolina regiments, all 
reduced greatly in numbers. 

The First Regiment included Co. B. from 
Wilkes County, The 14th Regiment included 
Co. B., the Rough and Ready Guards from 
Buncombe County who were organized and 
commanded by Zebulon Baird Vance until he 
became a colonel of the 26th Regiment. 

— The Book Committee 



THE MONTFORD HISTORIC 
DISTRICT 

75 

THE MONTFORD HISTORIC DISTRICT 
ASHEVILLE, was placed on the National Reg- 
ister of Historic Places in November, 1977. 
Over six hundred structures, most of them 
residential, are included in its boundaries, 
making it the largest in North Carolina to date. 

The broad avenue that gives the district its 
name joins Haywood Street west of the Cham- 
ber of Commerce building and runs north to 
Santee Street, the northern boundary line. 

Most of the structures in the district date 
from the late 19th and early 20th centuries, 
when Asheville changed in a few years from a 
village to a busy mountain city. There were 
very few homes in the area before 1 889, when 
a group of prominent businessmen formed the 
Asheville Loan, Construction and Improve- 
ment Company, mapped out a large area north 
of Academy Street (now the southern end of 
Montford Avenue) and began to sell lots. 

The company failed and was taken over by 
George Willis Pack, a wealthy lumberman 
from the midwest who gave the land for Mont- 
ford Park in the heart of the development. 

1893: A Village 

From 1893 to 1905, Montford was an in- 
corporated village, with James Edward Rum- 
baugh as its only mayor. 

Most of the houses date from Asheville's 
boom period in the early 1900's. They are the 
kinds of houses one might expect to find 
among conservative, successful people 
whose homes mirrored Asheville's remarkably 
cosmopolitan character. 

The merchants, doctors, lawyers and 
others who settled here came from other cities 
in NC, other states and countries, and their 
varied backgrounds are revealed in the homes 
they built. However, even though a journalist 
once described the area as the home of "Ashe- 
ville's aristocracy," all the homes were not 
built by the well-to-do. 



Architecture 

In General, the earliest buildings are Queen 
Anne. Related to these are a number of houses 



with small towers. With the exception of these 
and a few examples of Georgian design dating 
from the late 1920s and 1930s, the Montford 
houses of any pretension are blends of Queen 
Anne, Shingle, bungaloid, half-timbered, and 
especially Colonial Revival styles. 

The houses designed by Richard Sharp 
Smith (1852-1924) are among the most in- 
fluential in style. Smith, best known as the 
supervising architect of George Vanderbilt's 
Biltmore House, combined gambrel roofs, 
hipped gables, heavy porch brackets ("Mont- 
ford brackets"), pebbledash or stucco walls, 
shingled siding, bay windows and steeply 
pitched roofs. 

Several homes are documented as his, and 
numerous others can be attributed to him. In 
addition, other architects and builders copied 
his motifs and use of natural materials. 

Recent History 

The Montford area began to decline after the 
1930s. Newer residential neighborhoods were 
developed, attracting potential Montford 
home buyers and luring prosperous residents 
away. Property values declined and the area 
began to deteriorate. Now, however, young 
people are rediscovering the large, well-built 
houses with their individual characters and 
attractive prices. 

The Preservation Society of Asheville and 
Buncombe County, the Montford Hills Com- 
munity Club, and Historic Montford, Inc. have 
been instrumental in encouraging renovation 
and restoration within the Historic District 
since 1977. 

The information for this article has been 
adapted from the nomination to the National 
Register of Historic Places. The complete 
nomination and other information concerning 
the district and its early residents is available in 
the North Carolina Collection at Pack Memorial 
Library, Haywood Street, Asheville. 

Directions For A Guided Tour 

1 . Begin at Asheville Chamber of Commerce 
Welcome Center, proceed north on Montford 
Avenue. 

2. Former site of the Coleman House, 36 
Montford Ave., ca 1896, demolished 1979 
Residence of the John Kennedy Coleman fami- 
ly until 1977, and the scene of a two year 
struggle by the Preservation Society of Ashe- 
ville and Buncombe County to save the house. 
It was of Queen Anne style with Colonial Reviv- 
al details, rounded turret, Doric porch posts, 
extensive dentil trim, and shingle gables. Site 
now occupied by a modern restaurant. 

3. Hunter House, 51 Montford Ave., ca 
1880's. Probably the oldest house on Mont- 
ford Avenue. Residence of Thomas F. Hunter, 
sometime police captain and Sheriff until 
1911. 

4. Site of Asheville Male Academy, 90 
Montford Avenue, ca 1858. First building con- 
structed on land donated by N.W. Woodfin 
and James (Patton?). Professor S.F. Venable 
was the Principal, M.P. Mason, Assistant 
Principal. Venable sold the school to the City 
of Asheville in 1887, and the city opened its 
first public school here in January, 1888. The 



second building on this site was erected 1 892, 
with an addition in 1926. This was con- 
demned in 1949, and replaced with the pre- 
sent structure in 1952. Present elementary 
school is named for Montford resident William 
F. Randolph (1854-1935), Asheville alder- 
man, vice-mayor, fire chief and school board 
member. 

5. Gudger House, 89 Montford Avenue, ca 
1897. Steamboat Gothic dwelling, polygonal 
turret with pyramidal cap, slate roof. Resi- 
dence of Henry Lamar Gudger, postmaster of 
Asheville and alderman. Grandfather of some- 
time congressman Lamar Gudger of Asheville. 
Saved by the Preservation Society of Asheville 
and Buncombe County, which received the 
Stedman Incentive Grant of the Preservation 
Society of North Carolina for this project. 
Owned by the Legal Aid Society of Western 
North Carolina. 

6. Major Pearson House, 67 Cumberland 
Avenue, before 1907? Gambrel roof Colonial 
Revival dwelling, shingle over stucco, Doric 
porch posts. Residence of Major W.H. Pear- 
son from at least 1914 to 1926. 

7. Baird-Cecil House, 73 Cumberland Ave- 
nue, ca 1896. Queen Anne with Montford 
brackets. Built for Dr. Harrison L. Baird. The 
residence of R.T. Cecil and his daughter, Mrs. 
D. Lowery Lasher from 1924 until 1979. Cecil 
was the founder and president of Cecil's Busi- 
ness College in Asheville. 

8. Twin Houses, 79 and 83 Cumberland 
Avenue, before 1907. Shingle over stucco, 
large dormers with shingle detail, Montford 
brackets. R.S. Smith is thought to be the 
architect. 83 was renovated into a duplex in 
1981 after several years of neglect. 

9. Queen Anne Apartments, 80/82 Cumber- 
land Avenue, ca 1896. Queen Anne multi- 
family dwelling. One of the earliest extent 
apartment buildings in the city. 

10. Iverson House, 89 Cumberland Avenue, 
1925. Only example in the district of Frank 
Lloyd Wright's Prairie School design. Now the 
residence of C.G. and D.B. Hogan, charter 
officers of Historic Montford, Inc. 

11. Redwood House, 90 Cumberland Ave- 
nue, before 1907. Colonial Revival style. 
Shingle over stucco, Doric porch posts, 
turned balusters, clipped gable. Built for Hen- 
ry Redwood, Asheville merchant. 

12. Stevens-Green House, 95 Cumberland 
Avenue, 1908. Shingle over stucco, bay win- 
dow, period garage. Residence of S.M. 
Stevens, plumber, 1909-1914, and of Mrs. 
Laura L. Green from 1920, the mother of 
Asheville mayor Gay Green. 

13. Antebellum William D. Rankin House, 
38 Elizabeth Place (formerly 192 Rankin Ave.), 
circa 1846. Much altered triple-A dwelling with 
late 19th century Italianate detail. Unusual dec- 
orated porch, large Greek Revival entrance 
with transom and side lights, bracketed cor- 
nice, asbestos siding and weatherboards. The 
original property contained 75 acres fronting 
on North Main Street, (now Broadway), and 
included a dairy and a tannery. Built by Din- 
widdy Rankin. Now a private residence. 

14. Site of Camp Jeter, NE corner of Cherry 
and Flint streets, 1861 . A Confederate muster- 
ing ground, just outside the SE comer of the 

89 



(To Univ ot NC 
at Asheville 
and Botanical 
Gardens ) 




MoRtfopd 
Historic District 



historic district. 

15. Dr. Harry N. Austin House, 106 
Cumberland Avenue, ca 1906. Queen Anne 
with Colonial Revival detail, Doric porch 
posts, projecting bay. 

90 



Map of Montford Historic District, Asheville, N.C. 

16. M.V. Moore House, 110 Cumberland 
Avenue, before 1899. Queen Anne style, 
handsome asymmetrically placed three-story 
tower with ogee roof. Moore and O.L. 
Robards had a restaurant, bakery and confec- 



tionary at 29 S. Main Street in 1887. Moore 
later owned the M.V. Moore clothing store on 
Patton Avenue. 

17. Gray-Revell House, 118 Cumberland 
Avenue, 1896. Queen Anne Style built by O.D. 



Revell for John B. Gray, a Union Army officer 
who died during construction. The widow 
married Revell. The Asheville Seminary for 
Young Ladies operated here 1902-1903. Later 
the residence of Dr. J.F. Brewer. 

Fluted Ionic Columns 

18. Colonial Apartments, 111 Cumberland 
Avenue, early 20th century. Three-story brick 
apartment building. Four fluted Ionic columns 
support portico and intervening galleries. 

19. Cumberland Avenue Baptist Church, 
119 Cumberland Avenue, mid-20th century. 
Brick church building. 

20. Baird Grocery, 152 Montford Avenue, 
circa 1899. Mercantile building with false 
front. Occupied by Davis and Allison Meat 
Market 1899-1900, and became C.W. Baird 
Grocery in 1902. Now used by the Pentecos- 
tal Tabernacle Church. 

21. Cobb House, 133 Montford Avenue, 
circa 1895. Queen Anne style. Angled porch 
with turned posts, sawn brackets, bay win- 
dows, tower effect. Designed for US Navy Lt. 
Alphonso H. Cobb by A.J. Wills Brothers, 
Architects, of Asheville and Knoxville. 

22. Sturdevant House, 115 Montford Ave- 
nue, circa 1897. Built as residence for Miss 
Lucy Sturdevant. Brown shingle style, complex 
roof of sweeping slopes, clipped dormers and 



bays. 

23. Bosse-Bryan House, 27 Blake Street, 
1897. Shingle style, with shingled polygonal 
tower. Recessed porch, Montford brackets. 
Built for John H. Bosse of Ohio, who came to 
Asheville for his wife's health. Later the 
home of the L.M. Bryan family from about 
1922 to 1970. Since 1979, the residence of 
Ralph Kiser. 




Queen Anne Style of Architecture 1875-1900 

Characteristic Details: 

A picturesque massing of variety of shapes and textures 
in a non-symmetrical composition. Gables, dormers, 
chimneys, round turrets and oriel windows used freely. 
Porches feature delicately turned spindlework; horizontal 
decorative bands. Brick chimneys usually fluted, with 
large caps. In brick, terra cotta used for decoration. In 
wood, smooth boards are mixed with clapboards and 
shingles for variety. 



24. Dr. T.E. Linn House, 129 Cumberland 
Avenue, circa 1896-1900. 2 1/2 story Queen 
Anne dwelling. Irregular mass, shingle siding, 
stone foundation and chimney, with porte 
cocher. Dr. Linn and family lived here from at 
least 1899 to 1912. Jeter McKinley Pritchard 
lived here after 1923 for several years. 

25. Marvin B. Wilkinson House, 135 
Cumberland Avenue, before 1897. Polygonal 
tower with ogee roof. Wilkinson was President 
of a lumber company. 

26. Dr. J.F. Ramsay House, 144 Cumber- 
land Avenue, 1894 — Queen Anne style de- 
signed by architect James Albert Tennent. Dr. 
Ramsay, a dentist, lived here until after 1926. 

27. Cumberland Apartments, 141 Cumber- 
land Avenue, early 20th century. Three-story 
brick apartment building. One of three similar 
buildings in the district. 

28. William Randolph House, 153 Cumber- 
land Avenue, before 1917. Shingle style with 
prominent center gable. Randolph was an 
alderman, vice-mayor, fire chief, and school 
board member, for whom the neighborhood 
school is named. 

29. Solomon Lipinsky House, 156 Cumber- 
land Avenue, before 1917. Asymetrically 
placed curvilinear projecting tower with cone 
top. Aluminum siding has been added. Built 
for the founder of Asheville's Bon Marche 
Store. 



Ev^^r* 




The old Norburn Hospital, 346 Montford Ave., which operated in the 1929-1946 period. 



91 



Cape Cod Cottage 

30. Collins House, 170 Cumberland Ave- 
nue, circa 1892. Cape Cod cottage with gam- 
brel roof. Built for W.E. Collins from plans 
published in a magazine, according to family 
members. 

31 . T.D. Morrison House, 182 Cumberland 
Avenue, before 1917. Queen Anne with pro- 
jecting polygonal bay. Now the Flynn Home for 
Men. 

32. George A. Murray House, 191 Cumber- 
land Avenue, circa 1904. Queen Anne with 
Colonial Revival detail, unusual porch with 
Doric posts. 

33. Frederick Rutledge House, 209 
Cumberland Avenue, circa 1900. Two story 
stucco Colonial Revival style, with gambrel 
gable and Montford brackets supporting re- 
cessed porch. R.S. Smith, architect. 

Medieval Details 

34. Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church, 
227 Cumberland Avenue, mid 20th century. 
Brick church with vernacular medieval details. 

35. J. Hardy Lee House, 246 Cumberland 
Avenue, circa 1896. Residence of members of 
the Lee family until 1 934. Now the residence of 
the John Robinson family. Mrs. Hazel Robin- 
son is the founder and director of the Montford 
Park Players, a Shakespearean drama group. 

36. Frances Apartments, 333 Cumberland 
Avenue., early 20th century. Heavily rusti- 
cated brick walls with skew bricks and drip- 
ping masonry joints. Stone Tudor type door 
surround. Notable pattern tile walkway. 

Zillicoa Street 

Proceed ahead on Cumberland Avenue into 
Highland Hospital grounds and onto Zillicoa 
Street. 

37. Hopewell Hall, 49 Zillicoa Street, circa 
1893. Queen Anne style with colonial Revival 
and vernacular detail. Weatherboarded, with 
wide porch, stone chimneys, polygonal bays, 
and a variety of ornamental motifs. S.S. Got- 
ley, Cincinnati, Ohio, architect. Built by John 
Baker for his daughter, Martha Baker Rum- 
bough. Her husband, James Edward Rum- 
bough, was the first and only mayor of the 
Town of Montford, 1893-1905. He built Ashe- 
ville's first golf course, consisting of a few 
holes, near this house. 

Hopewell Hall, considered to be one of the 
finest old houses in Asheville today serves as 
the Administration Building of Highland Hos- 
pital, owned by Duke University. Of note is the 
tragedy which struck Highland Hospital, on 
the night of 10 March 1948, when the central 
building of the hospital, a handsome frame 
and stone structure begun in the late 1930's 
caught fire and burned. Nine women patients 
perished in the conflagration, among who was 
Zelda Sayre Fitzgerald, wife of F. Scott Fitz- 
gerald and author in her own right. 

38. Homewood, Zillicoa Street, early 20th 
century. Rubble masonry, asymmetrical 
facade with recessed entrance, polygonal tow- 
er with castellated roofline. Built for Dr. Robert 
Carroll, founder of Dr. Carroll's Sanitarium 
which became Highland Hospital in 1913. Dr. 
Carroll gave the hospital to Duke University in 

92 



1952. Homewood was built by Dr. Carroll for 
his wife, a concert pianist, and the house 
contains a large two-story music performance 
hall. Homewood is now utilized as a school by 
Highlands Hospital. 

Eyelid Windows 

40. William B. Williamson House, 301 
Pearson Drive, circa 1897. Shingle style 
dwelling. Irregular fenestration, clipped gable, 
recessed porch, eyelid windows, shed dor- 
mer, other notable details. 

41 . Dr. M.C. Millender House, 240 Pearson 
Drive, 1907. Shingle style dwelling, Stucco 
and Shingles over stucco, stone foundation 
and detail, bracketed detail, foliated detail, 
other notable elements. Now the Baptist Home 
for mothers. 

42. Osella B. Wright House, 235 Pearson 
Drive, circa 1902. Queen Anne style dwelling. 
Doric porch posts on paneled pedestals, mul- 
tiple gables, slate roof, weatherboarded, 
turned balusters, spindle frieze, brackets, bay 
windows, other typical details. Residence of 
the Wright family until 1946. Mr. Wright ran 
the Carolina Carriage Company. This house, a 
private residence, is sometimes called 
"Faded Glory". 

43. Robert W. Griffith House, 224 Pearson 
Drive, 1920. Picturesque vernacular dwelling. 
Tudor type half-timbering over brick, wide 
eaves, front terrace. Charles N. Parker, 
architect. Griffith, a native of Canaervon, 
Wales, graduate of University of Leeds, was a 
leather chemist at Champion Fiber Company, 
Canton, NC. Residence of the Griffiths and 
their daughter Mrs. Sarah Griffith Upchurch 
until 1977. Mrs. Upchurch has been a consis- 
tent advocate of preservation projects in 
Montford and Asheville. 

44. Dr. Justin Wohlfarth House, 216 Pear- 
son Drive, circa 1910. Brick Colonial Revival 
dwelling. Clipped gables, stone foundation, 
Doric porch posts, bracketed cornice, center 
bay window. The second of Dr. Wohlfarth's 
Montford homes. He left Asheville about 
1913. 

45. Brown-Hartshorne Hose, 167 Pearson 
Drive, circa 1898-1907. Queen Anne dwelling. 
Multiple gables, polygonal projections, wide 
porch, Built for J.V. Brown and the residence 
of Frank 0. Hartshorne 1907-1920. 

Georgian Revival Style 

46. Gay Green House, 152 Pearson Drive, 
circa 1930. Georgian Revival style dwelling, 
and the most academic in the neighborhood. 
Pedimented center pavilion of Doric pilasters, 
segmental arched entrance on Corinthian 
pilasters, slate roof, full entablature, Flemish 
bond brickwork with concrete details. Ronald 
Greene, architect. Built for Gay Green, one of 
Asheville's largest property owners and the 
residence of his widow, Effie Reeves Green 
until her death at the age of 1 00, in 1 969. Later 
the Asheville Art Museum, and now the private 
residence of Kenneth Richards and wife, Irene 
Dillingham Richards and family. 

47. Riverside Cemetery, 53 Birch Street, 
1885. Contains the graves of many of Ashevil- 
le's first families and luminaries, including 



Governor Zebulon Baird Vance (1830-1894); 
Governor Locke Craig (1860-1934); Author, 
William Sidney Porter (1862-1910); author 
Thomas Wolfe (1900-1939); and three Con- 
federate General officers: James G. Martin, 
Robert B. Vance, and Thomas L. Clingman, 
for whom Clingman's Dome is named. The 
earliest tombstone is that of John Lyon, En- 
glish botonist, who died in 1814 at the age of 
49, and was first buried at the cemetery east of 
Market Street, then reinterred at the Presbyte- 
rian churchyard, and finally here. 

48. Montford Community Center, 34 Pear- 
son Drive, 1979. 

Montford Avenue 

Proceed up to Montford Avenue on West 
Chestnut Street, and turn left (north). 

50. Dr. Stevens House, 155 Montford Ave- 
nue, circa 1917-25. Brick veneer with corner 
quoins, recessed entry with Doric columns in 
antis, bay window, front terrace. Built as 
home of Dr. Martin Luther Stevens. 

51. Canie M. Brown House, 165 Montford 
Ave., before 1917. Colonial Revival style 
dwelling. Brick veneer, slate gambrel roof. 

52. Locke Craig House, 169 Montford Ave- 
nue, 1901. Colonial Revival, weatherboarded. 
The last Montford residence built for Mr. 
Craig. This was his home when elected gov- 
ernor in 1912. Residence of M.J. Bresny, 
photographer, and board member of both His- 
toric Montford, Inc., and the Preservation 
Society of Asheville and Buncombe County. 

53. Cox House, 170 Montford Avenue, be- 
fore 1910. Queen Anne with Weatherboards. 
Irregular mass, half-timbering detail in asym- 
metrical gable, simple porch. Residence of 
Michael Cox, architect, and family. Cox res- 
cued this house at the courthouse steps and 
renovated it while supervising the renovation 
of the Gudger House at 89 Montford Avenue, 
during his term as president of the Preserva- 
tion Society of Asheville and Buncombe 
County. 

54. Dr. C.C. Orr House, 179 Montford Ave- 
nue, circa 1893. Shingle style with sweeping 
roof and highly unusual Romanesque type 
windows. Said to have been built to face a 
large lawn then reaching to Chestnut Street. 
Built by George T. Davis. Later residence of 
Dr. Orr. 

55. Sherrill-Rawls House, 208 Montford 
Avenue, circa 1910. Colonial Revival style with 
brackets, Doric posts, Palladian window and 
simple Adamesque detail. 

56. Jones-Whiting-Lipinsky House, 211 
Montford Avenue, circa 1900. Colonial Revival 
style dwelling, Gambrel projecting gable with 
stone trim, shingles in gable and dormers, 
shingles below, Doric porch posts. Sometime 
residence of Morris Lipinsky. 

Montford Park 

57. Montford Park, Montford Park Place, 
Land donated by George Pack. (Turn around 
here and return down Montford Avenue south 
toward the Chamber of Commerce and start- 
ing point.) 

58. George S. Powell House, 346 Montford 
Avenue, circa 1909-1920. William H. Lord, 



architect. Mr. Powell was Secretary-Treasurer 
of the W.T. Weaver Power Company, and 
Secretary of the Asheville Board of Trade. The 
Norburn Hospital was located here from 1929 
to 1946. 

59. Ottis Green House, 288 Montford Ave- 
nue, 1901. R.S. Smith, architect. Shingle 
style dwelling, shingles over stucco, irregular 
mass, recessed porch, stone foundation, 
gable, vernacular detail. Built for Mary Spear 
Wolcott of Chicago. 

60. Craig-Toms House, 276 Montford Ave- 
nue, early 20th century. Queen Anne and Colo- 
nial Revival style stucco dwelling. Double 
Doric posts on stone pedestals, stone founda- 
tion, high basement, elaborate center gable. 
Formerly a boarding house, now a private 
home. 

A Solar House 

61. Solar House, 271 Montford Avenue, 
circa 1910-20. Queen Anne dwelling, shingles 
over weatherboards. Rescued and renovated 
recently by a solar retrofit company which 
added passive solar heating equipment. Now a 
duplex rental property. 

62. Dr. John Hampton House, 230 Mont- 
ford Avenue, before 1917. Neoclassical Reviv- 
al dwelling with three Doric Columns. Shingle 
over stucco, bay windows. Built by Mildred 
Stearns, later occupied by Dr. John Hampton. 
May have been designed by O.D. Revell. Res- 
cued during a courtroom condemnation pro- 
ceeding by preservationists Robert F. Orr and 
Bruce Ramsay Roberts, who have restored the 
house after overcoming almost insurmount- 
able obstacles. This house and the following 
one, are those appearing on the logo of the 
Preservation Society of Asheville and Bun- 
combe County. 

63. Steams-Rector House, 228 Montford 
Avenue, circa 1901. Vernacular shingle style 
dwelling. Handsome, irregular massing, Doric 
posts, turned balusters, notable curvilinear 
dormer design. Built by Mildred Stearns, later 
bought by Bessie Rector. May have been de- 
signed by O.D. Revell. Accompanies the one 
listed above on the logo of the Preservation 
Society of Asheville and Buncombe County. 
(End of Driving Tour; proceed south on Mont- 
ford Avenue to Chamber of Commerce 
building.) 

— C.G. Hogan, 

and 

Sarah Griffith Upchurch 

HEREDITARY SOCIETIES IN 

THE OLD BUNCOMBE COUNTY 

AREA 

76 

There are active chapters of several hered- 
itary societies in this area of Western North 
Carolina. We are happy to bring you, in this 
section, short descriptions of their historical 
backgrounds and statements of their purpose 
and range of activities of a few of them. These 
are articles that have appeared in the OBCGS 
Newsletter — A Lot of Bunkum during this 
past year. 

— The Book Committee 



THE GENERAL SOCIETY OF 
MAYFLOWER DESCENDANTS 

76-A 

The General Society of Mayflower Descen- 
dants was founded at Plymouth, Mass. on 
January 12, 1897. The headquarters are at 4 
Winslow St. Plymouth, in the home that was 
originally built by Edward Winslow in 1754, 
great-grandson of Governor Edward Winslow 
of the ' ' Mayflower. ' ' The objects of the Society 
are: 

To perpetuate to remote posterity the mem- 
ory of our Pilgrim Fathers. 

To maintain and defend the principle of civil 
and religious liberty as set forth in the Com- 
pact of the "Mayflower," "For the glorie of 
God, and advancement of the Christian faith 
and honor our countrie." 

To cherish and maintain the ideals and in- 
stitutions of American Feedom, and to oppose 
any theory or actions that threaten their con- 
tinuity. 

To Transmit the spirit, the purity of purpose 
and steadfastness of will of the Pilgrim Fathers 
to those who shall come after us, an undimin- 
shed heritage of liberty and law. 

To promote the interests that are common 
to all of the State Societies of Mayflower De- 
scendants that can best be served by a federal 
body. 

All 50 States now have State Societies oper- 
ating under charter from the General Society. 
The North Carolina Society was organized in 
1924. Presently there are six colonies operat- 
ing under charter from the State Society: 

Western Colony in Asheville; Charlotte Col- 
ony, Charlotte; Piedmont Colony, Winston 
Salem; Central Colony, Raleigh; Southeast 
Colony, Wilmington; and the Northeast Col- 
ony, Elizabeth City. 

Among the officers of the State Society are: 
John Alden Williamson, Asheville, Governor; 
Dumont Clarke, Jr., Asheville, State Treasurer. 

Officers of the Western Colony are: Daniel 
A. Packard, Lt. Governor; Paul Amsbary, 
Assist. Lt. Governor; Helen Sheffield, 
Secretary-Treasurer. 

The Western Colony, the largest in the 
State, has 110 members residing in nearly all 
of the 17 Western counties served by this 
Colony. 

Applicants for Membership in the Society 
must be descended from one or more of the 
following "Mayflower" passengers: 



John Alden 
Isaac Allerton 
John Billington 
William Bradford 
William Brewster 
Peter Brown 
James Chilton 
Francis Cooke 
Edward Doty 
Francis Eaton 
Edward Fuller 
Dr. Samuel Fuller 



Stephan Hopkins 
John Howland 
Richard More 
Degory Priest 
Thomas Rogers 
Henry Samson 
George Sould 
Myles Standish 
Richard Warren 
William White 
Edward Winslow 



The fee for initial membership is $5.00. 
Annual Dues in the State Society are $10.00 
and in the Western Colony, $3.00. 

Anyone interest in seeing if they can develop 
a Mayflower line may receive assistance from 
Daniel A. Packard, #6 Fairways Villas, Arden, 
NC 28704. Phone: 704/684-9746. 



The Mayflower Compact 

In the Name of God, Amen. We whose 
names are underwritten, the loyal subjects 
of our dread sovereign Lord, King James, 
by the grace of God, of Great Britain, 
France and Ireland King, Defender of the 
Faith, etc. 

Having undertaken, for the glory of God, 
and advancement of the Christian faith and 
honor of our King and Country, a voyage to 
plant the first colony in the northern parts 
of Virginia, do by these present solemnly 
and mutually in the presence of God, and 
one of another, covenant and combine 
ourselves together into a civil body politic, 
for our better ordering and preservation 
and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and 
by virture hereof to enact, constitute and 
frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, 
acts, constitutions and offices, from time 
to time as shall be thought most meet and 
convenient for the general good of the 
Colony: unto which we promise all due 
submission and obedience. In witness 
whereof we have here under subscribed 
our names at Cape Cod the 11 of Novem- 
ber, in the year of the reign of our 
sovereign Lord, King James of England, 
France and Ireland the eighteenth, and of 
Scotland the fifty-fourth Ano. Dom. 1620. 

The compact which was signed in the cabin 
of the "Mayflower" November 11 (O.S.), 
November 21 (N.S.) 1620, has been called the 
cornerstone of the civil and religious liberities 
of the United States. 

— Daniel A. Packard 



SONS OF THE AMERICAN 
REVOLUTION (SAR) 

77 

The Sons of the American Revolution (SAR) 
is one of several patriotic societies with roots 
in the Centennial of American Independence. 
By July 4, 1876, the "Sons of Revolutionary 
Sires" of San Francisco, California had enrol- 
led over eighty sons and grandsons of Revolu- 
tionary soldiers, and many of these marched 
in the gala Centennial Independence Day Pa- 
rade in San Francisco that year. 

The movement spread Eastward. The 
"Sons of the Revolution" was organized in 
New York City in 1883, and at a meeting held 
on 30 April, 1889 in New York, at Fraunces 
Tavern, in the same room in which General 
Washington met the officers of his army and 
bade them farewell on Dec. 3, 1783. Repre- 
sentatives of eighteen of the twenty state 
societies then in existence, voted to organize 
as the "National Society, Sons of the Amer- 
ican Revolution." 

The First National Congress of the Society 
was held in Louisville, KY at the Gait House, on 
30 April 1890. It was at this Congress that 
action was taken to limit the membership to 
males exclusively. Within the year, the 
"National Society, Daughters of the American 
Revolution (DAR)" was inaugurated, with the 
First Lady, Mrs. Caroline Scott Harrison, as 
the First President General. But that is another 
story. 

The National Society was incorporated by 
an Act of Congress and signed into public law 
by President Theordore Roosevelt on June 9, 
1906. Elihu Root, Secretary of State, signed 
the Certification of the Act on May 10, 1907. 

The National Society today consists of forty- 
eight State Societies, and the Dakota Society 

93 




This 1920's powerful and dramatic photograph captures the interesting lines of All Souls Episcopal Church in Asheville. 



(1980 merger of 1899 and 1911 State 
Societies), the DC Society (1890) the Society 
in France (1897), and the Society in Switzer- 
land (1973), with a total of nearly twenty 
thousand members. The North Carolina Soci- 
ety was organized on March 31, 1911, and 
today consists of over four hundred members 
and five chapters. 

The Blue Ridge Chapter, North Carolina 
Society meets quarterly for lunch and a prog- 
ram in Asheville or Hendersonville, and has 22 
members. The 1981 Blue Ridge Chapter offic- 
ers are J. Bolard More, President; C.G. 
Hogan, First Vice President; Elmer Dorsey, 
Second Vice President; Carson C. Foard, 
Secretary/Registrar; and William E. Bryson, 
Genealogist. 

The Society maintains an extensive and 
growing genealogical research library at the 
Louisville headquarters, and publishes a 
quarterly "SAR Magazine" at an annual sub- 
scription rate of four dollars per year to non- 
members. 

Membership is open to any male citizen of 
age eighteen and over, of good repute in the 
community who is the lineal descendant of an 
ancestor who was at all times unfailing in 
loyalty to, and rendered active service in the 
cause of, American Independence. Applica- 
tion for membership is made on standard 
forms published by the Society. Those in- 
terested in further information should contact 
any local officer or write the National Society, 
Sons of the American Revolution, 1000 South 
Fourth Street, Louisville, Kentucky. 40203. 
— Cleo G. Hogan 




THE DAUGHTERS OF THE 

AMERICAN REVOLUTION 

(DAR) 

78 

The Society of the Daughters of the Amer- 
ican Revolution strives to perpetuate the mem- 
ory and spirit of the men and women who 
achieved American Independence by acquisi- 
tion and protection of historical spots and the 
erection of monuments; by the encourage- 
ment of historical research in relation to the 
American Revolution and the publication of its 
results; by the preservation of documents and 
relics, and of the records of the individual 
services of Revolutionary soldiers and pat- 
riots; and by the promotion of celebrations of 
all patriotic anniversaries. 

The organization endeavors to carry out the 
injunction of Washington in his farewell 
address to the American people; to promote, 
as an object of primary importance, institu- 
tions for the diffusion of knowledge; to cher- 
ish, maintain, and extend the institutions of 
American freedom, to foster true patriotism 
and love of country; and to aid in securing fo r 
mankind all the blessings of liberty. 

An applicant for membership must be at 
least 18 years of age. She must be a lineal 
descendant through a valid marriage of an 
ancestor who aided in achieving American In- 
dependence; in addition, documental proof 
must be submitted for each generation of the 
paper whereby each generation can be verified 
as eligible for membership. Separate sets of 
papers must be submitted for each Revolu- 
tionary ancestor. 

Application for membership through a 
Chapter requires endorsement by two Chapter 
members who are in good standing and to 
whom the applicant is personally known. 

To secure additional information, contact 
Mrs. Viola Stevens, Regent of the Edward 



Buncombe Chapter, 83 Forest Road, Ashevil- 
le, NC. 28803 (phone: 704-274-1364; or Mrs. 
Stanley Masters, Regent of the Ruth Davidson 
Chapter, 44 Killian Road, Asheville, NC 28804 
(704-253-4677). 

— Jo M. Graybeal. 

THE UNITED DAUGHTERS OF 
THE CONFEDERACY 

79 

The General Organization of the United 
Daughters of the Confederacy was founded in 
Nashville, Tennessee, September 10, 1894 by 
Mrs. Caroline Meriweather Goodlet, founder, 
and Mrs. L.H. Raines, co-founder. Asheville 
Chapter No. 104 was organized in 1897. 

There are two United Daughters of the Con- 
federacy Chapters in the Asheville area. The 
Asheville Chapter and the Fannie Patton 
Chapter. 

According to the by-laws of the North Caro- 
lina Division of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy, their object shall be Historical, 
Benevolent, Memorial, Educaticnal and Pat- 
riotic. 

Those eligible for Active Membership are 
women over 16 years of age who are lineal or 
collateral descendants of men and women 
who served honorably in the Army, Navy, or 
Civil Service of the Confederate States of 
America or gave material aid to the cause, 
provided authentic proof can be furnished, 
and women who are descendants of members 
or former members of the organization pro- 
vided the applicant is personally acceptable to 
the organization. 

Each applicant must provide historical proof 
of the applicant's eligibility as defined by the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy. 

Membership in a Chapter is by invitation. An 
applicant becomes a member of her Chapter 
when her papers have been accepted by the 
General Organization. 

For further information or application 
forms: contact Mrs. Albert McLean, Presi- 
dent, Asheville Chapter, 206 Aurora Drive, 
Asheville, NC 28805, phone (704) 252-4815; 
or Mrs. R.J. Craddock, President, Fannie Pat- 
ton Chapter, 6 Imperial Court, Asheville, NC 
28803, phone (704) 274-4911. 

— The Book Committee 



THE MILITARY ORDER OF THE 
STARS AND BARS (MOSB) 

80 

The Military Order of the Stars and Bars 
(MOSB) of the Sons of Confederate Veterans is 
an association of male relatives of commis- 
sioned officers who served in the military ser- 
vices of the Confederate States of America, 
1861-1865. Continuing membership in the 
Society depends upon continuing mem- 
bership in the Sons of Confederate Veterans 
(SCV). 

The MOSB was formally organized on 30 
Aug 1938 in Columbia, SC at a meeting of 17 
former Confederate officers and 47 sons and 



94 



grandsons of Confederate officers. The char- 
ter officers were: 

Gen Homer Atkinson, Commander-in- 
Chief; Dr. George Boiling Lee, Capt Samuel A. 
Ashe, and Lt. Benjamin M. Robinson, Vice- 
Commanders-in-Chief; General William M. 
Wood, Adjutant-General; Walter L. Hopkins, 
Assistant Adjutant-General; Col William Beat- 
ty, Quartermaster-General; Lt James A. Low- 
ery, Judge Advocate-General; Lt WyattT. Hill, 
Surgeon-General, Capt J. Andrew Jackson 
Dowdy, Historian-General; Lt J. Peter Keyser, 
Registrar-General; and Cadet Carter R. 
Bishop, Chaplain-General. 

MOSB headquarters is jointly situated with 
the SCV headquarters in the offices of Gen 
(Ret) William D. McCain in Hattiesburg, Mis- 
sissippi, who serves as Adjutant-in-Chief of 
both organizations. There are three Depart- 
ments consisting of the several state societies, 
known as the Department of the Army of 
Northern Virginia; the Department of the Army 
of Tennessee; and the Department of the Army 
of the Trans-Mississippi. Chapters exist from 
Washington, DC to Oklahoma City, and all 
over the Confederacy, as well as one chapter in 
New York City. 

The Asheville Chapter, MOSB was orga- 
nized during the 8-11 Aug 1979 General Con- 
vention of the SCV and MOSB at Asheville, 
with C.G. Hogan, Commander (protem) and 
Carson C. Foard, Adjutant (pro-tern, later res- 
igned for health reasons). The Asheville Chap- 
ter consists of fewer than a dozen members, 
and meets monthly jointly with Asheville Camp 
15, Sons of Confederate Veterans on the 
fourth Wednesday at 6:30 pm for dinner and a 
talk on a subject of interest to Confederate 
historians, at the Hallmark Cafeteria. 

The Chapter participates in the activities of 
the Asheville Camp 15, SCV, and assists the 
United Daughters of the Confederacy in the 
annual celebration of Confederate Memorial 
Day on 10 May. The North Carolina Society, 
MOSB, consisting of some five chapters, 
meets annually in June. 

The SCV/MOSB, annual General Convention 
is usually held in August in a large southern 
city, and is scheduled for 13-16 August 1981 
at Richmond, VA. A quarterly newsletter, 
"The Southern Advance" is published and 
sent to all chapters and other officers, and 
contains historical articles, book reviews, and 
items of interest pertaining to the Confederate 
period. 

Membership in the Society is restricted to 
male lineal descendants and collateral rela- 



tives of commissioned officers of the armed 
forces of the Confederacy, and who are of 
good character and have attained the age of 
sixteen years. Annual membership dues are 
five dollars (1 981 ) , and an initial admission fee 
of five dollars is required. 

Application forms for membership require 
proof of relationship to a Confederate commis- 
sioned officer, and the signature of a sponsor- 
ing member. Applications for membership 
may be obtained from any local chapter offic- 
ers, or by writing: Dr. William D. McCain Ad- 
jutant-General, MOSB, Box 5165, Southern 
Station, Hattiesburg, Mississippi 39401. 

— C.G. Hogan 



THE BLUE RIDGE PARKWAY 

81 

One map that does a great service to the 
outsider trying to become oriented to the be- 
wildering number of interesting names and 
unusual sights to see in this mountainous area 
is the Souvenir Pictorial Map of the Blue Ridge 
Parkway. It has value also to lifelong area 



citizens and may be purchased from the 
Chamber of Commerce in Asheville, and prob- 
ably from most of the motels along the way. 

One of these maps is a must for putting with 
your mountain heritage material because it 
gives a fast bird's eye view of the entire route 
of the Blue Ridge Parkway along the tops of 
many mountains from Boone on the east to 
Sylva in Jackson County on the west. 

Looking north and south on the map, it 
shows the line of mountains from the Tennes- 
see border along the north to the South Caroli- 
na along the south, with major roads leading 
through Hendersonville, Flat Rock, Saluda, 
and Tryon to the direction of Spartanburg. 

Because it also covers a large area east of 
the Blue Ridge, it shows very graphically the 
problems facing the early settlers coming up 
the rivers from the south and east only to be 
confronted suddenly with a high range of 
mountains. It took some doing to find their 
way through the gaps at Old Fort, Bat Cave and 
Saluda. 

The many good roads now laid out so clear- 
ly on this map are a monument to industry and 




N.C. Hwy. 128 leads from the Blue Ridge Parkway to Mt. Mitchell, the highest peak in North America. One of the most 
popular side trips for parkway travelers. This 1920 photograph recalls the life of Professor Elisha Mitchell for whom the 
mountain is named. 




The southern portion of the Blue Ridge Parkway. 



95 




Visitors to the Old Buncombe County area in the 1980s may view from the Blue Ridge Parkway, scenes of the Smoky Mountains such as this one captured in an early 20th 
century photograph. 



perseverance over the last 200 years. The 
crowning achievement to all this hard work 
and vision was the fantastic concept of putting 
a beautiful paved highway all along the very 
tops of the Blue Ridge mountain ranges. To- 
day, millions of vacationers are driving, 
camping, picnicking, and visiting museums 
along just such a route. 

The story of how this was accomplished 
was enough to fill a book and such was written 
by Dr. Harley Jolley of Mars Hill College, enti- 
tled, of course, The Blue Ridge Parkway! Pub- 
lished in Knoxville by the University of Tennes- 
see Press in 1969, by 1977 it was in its fourth 
printing, so well worth reading has the tale 
been found. 

Conceived as a make-work road project in 
1933, construction was started in 1935. The 
parkway is operated under the jurisdiction of 
the Department of the Interior. 

Controversy Parkway? 

It was not built without plenty of twentieth- 
century discord however, according to Dr. 
Jolley's findings, and had the highway been 
named Controversy Parkway' there would 
have been ample justification because from 
the very beginning disputes have been associ- 
ated with it, involving people at every level in 
the country from the President down to 
obscure dwellers of the mountains."" 

96 



"But that", he says, "wasinthe1930'sand 
in the years since, the conflict has almost been 
forgotten and what remains is a magnificent 
highway on top of a range of mountains that 
effortlessly wipes out the turmoil of the past. " 

Summing up its delightful features of cli- 
mate in the high mountains, the scenery, and 
the flora and fauna to be seen and enjoyed, Dr. 
Jolley ends his introductory remarks by 
saying: "the Blue Ridge Parkway of today 
might rightly be called nature's department 
store, offering exciting variety to a broad spec- 
trum of persons. 

"Campers, bird watchers, rock hounds, 
botanists, picnickers, or those who simply 
wish to escape the polluted air of cities for a 
refreshing drive in the mountains — all may 
find much of what they seek on the pleasant 
miles of the Parkway. Most of all, however, 
the Parkway is American history, past, pre- 
sent, and future, waiting to be enjoyed. 

469 Mile Length 

It runs for 469 miles from Waynesboro, 
Virginia at the west end of the Shenadoah 
National Park to Highway 469 just north of the 
town of Cherokee in North Carolina. From 
roughly the Black Mountain area on west, it 
services the Old Buncombe Co. area. 

What is a Parkway and what is the difference 
between it and an ordinary expressway or a 



highway?" 

The National Park Service, which is charged 
with the administration of the Blue Ridge Park- 
way, has defined this type of road as a de- 
velopment of the highway but differing from 
the usual highway in that it: 

(1) is designated for noncommercial, re- 
creational use; 

(2) seeks to avoid unsightly buildings and 
other roadside developments that mar the 
ordinary highway; 

(3) is built within a much wider right-of-way 
in order to provide an insulating strip of park 
land between the roadway and the abutting 
private property; 

(4) eliminates frontage and access rights 
and preserves the natural scenic values; 

(5) preferably takes a new location, bypas- 
sing built up communities and avoiding con- 
gestion; 

(6) aims to make accessible the best scen- 
ery in the country it traverses; hence the short- 
est or most direct route is not necessarily a 
primary consideration; 

(7) eliminates major grade crossings; and 

(8) has entrance and exit points spaced at 
distant intervals to reduce interruptions to the 
main traffic stream. The ordinary road is built 
primarily to be commerically useful, and the 
pleasure of the traveler is secondary. A park- 
way however, is a special kind of road de- 
signed and constructed primarily for the plea- 



sure of the people who use it." 

Sensitive Photographs 

While the text of the book records in fasci- 
nating detail the many political struggles to get 
the route and the financial problems resolved, 
the author has interspersed it with photos of 
the astounding scenery spread out for viewing 
along the route. Sensitive photos give in- 
sight into the primitive living conditions that 
had been prevalent among the mountain fami- 
lies living so far from the main stream of 
civilization. 

Other pictures show the almost impossible 
task that was accomplished of putting such a 
road through such seemingly impassable ter- 
rain, from the drilling of the first holes for 
inserting blasting powder, through the pro- 
cess of crushing the rock thus loosened and 
turning it into building and paving material 
right there on the spot. 

A chance to work on this project, brought 
prosperity and not charity to the men and their 
families who lived in the area. This made it 
possible for others to move in, once it became 
accessible. 

It is good to take time to read a book such as 
this to get a real feeling of the details involved 
in such an undertaking. It goes a long way to 
counteract a jaded tourist feeling of "so what 
— just another great view!" 

— The Book Committee 

ANTIQUES 

82 

Old Buncombe County is a treasure house 
of antiques if you are looking for the original 
article and not a reproduction of today from 
the Handicraft Guild. 

Throughout the mountains, shops offer a 
variety of periods and styles unlike anywhere 
else. The heritage of the South is mixed with 
the influences of the Far East, European Kings 
and "carpetbagging" Northerners. And an- 
tique shows bring the wares of dealers from 
throughout the country to the mountains, giv- 
ing the antique buff choices far and wide. 

The WNC traveler can find antique shops in 
the towns and on the back roads, in formal 
settings and on front porches. Plates, pouches, 
portraits, and piggy banks join with sofas, 
silver and soup bowls to suit the taste of just 
about anyone. 

The telephone book and the different cham- 
bers of commerce can give the antique collec- 
tor help in locating the various shops. 
Announcement of antique shows can be found 
in the newspapers. Estate auctions are held 
almost weekly through WNC. 

And there is always that little shop by the 
side of the road. So, start hunting. You just 
might find the teacup missing from grandma's 
china! 

— Becky Boyd, June 28, 1981, 

Asheville Citizen-Times, 

By Permission. 




THE VETUST STUDY CLUB 

82-A 

The Vetust Study Club sponsors an annual 
Antiques Fair in Asheville which has now 
grown in size to encompass exhibits by up to 
57 antique dealers. During the periods of ex- 
hibitions, additional attractions are lectures 
and services relating to antique collecting and 
ownership. 

Such topics as appraisals, history and 
methods of printmaking, the care of works of 
art on paper, and other related topics are 
offered from year to year. 

The Fair is held in Asheville Civic Center and 
is usually scheduled for the beginning ot Au- 
gust. It draws thousands of persons each year 
from many states. 

— The Book Committee 



MUSIC OF THE MOUNTAINS 

83 

When the mountain frontier land was youn- 
ger and more innocent, families sat on the 
porch of an evening to catch the breeze, telling 
their stories in song. They accompanied the 
songs on simple instruments, some fashioned 
by hand. 

The land lost its innocence about a half 
century ago, but it is remembered locally in the 
form of the Byard Ray Festival, an annual 
musical gathering at the Asheville Civic Center 
each Summer. Only traditional folk music is 
performed at this festival, nobluegrass, popu- 
lar or country. 

"We want to keep the traditional music 
alive," declares producer Betty Sue Johnson," 
a retired University of North Carolina at Chapel 
Hill professor, "by sticking to the tunes and 
ballads loved by mountain people of long 
ago." 

— The Book Committee 



THE PEN AND PLATE CLUB: A 
50 YEAR REPORT 

84 

One of the interesting intellectual societies 
in the Asheville area has been The Pen And 
Plate Club. We bring you the text of a speech 
given in this club and reported in the Sunday 
edition of the Asheville Citizen-Times on Octo- 
ber 24, 1954, commemorating the 50th 
Anniversary of its organization. 

From The Asheville Citizen-Times, October 24, 1954 

Members and former members of the Pen 
and Plate Club met last Thursday evening at 
the George Vanderbilt Hotel in Asheville to 
celebrate the 50th Anniversary of the club's 
founding. Kingsland Van Winkle, president of 
the Club, opened the session after dinner with 
a brief address, reviewing the history and 
traditions of the club. 

The excellence of this sketch of the club's 
life and particularly its understanding and life- 
like characterization of the founders, make this 
speech in a real sense an interesting chapter in 
Asheville's history. 

The address is therefore published in full as 
follows: 



Members of the Pen and Plate Club and 
guests: 

You are more than guests. You are or once 
were ourselves. If you became expatriated or 
disgruntled or for whatever reason you left us 
it was of your own choice, not ours. We de- 
sired none of you to leave and most heartily 
welcome your return. 

Fifty years this month in 1904 the club was 
conceived and we cherish the memory of its 
founders for the instruction it has given us — 
the friendships it has created and cemented 
and the hope it has inspired that the same 
fruits may be enjoyed by those who come after 
us. 

On such an occasion we recall most readily 
the former members for the man is behind 
every paper and we will remember him after 
we have forgotten what he told us. 

We are here to consider these men — their 
personalities and characters, the satisfaction 
we obtained from our association with them 
and in some measure inform our later associ- 
ates about the founders and former members. 

The Black Horse 

This will be the last reunion for some of us. 
We are all riders through the years and slowly, 
almost insensibly our steed becomes weary and 
his pace slackens; but the riderthat pursues us 
never tires, never falters, and some of us can 
perhaps now hear the sound of his approach 
behind us. 

On this occasion then, it is our proper plea- 
sure to stop our journey for this evening. 

"This is the place. Stand still my steed, 
Let me review the scene. 
And summon from the Shadowy past 
The forms that once have been." 

I have been requested to give some brief 
sketches of our founding fathers, all of whom I 
had the privilege of knowing — some better 
than others — some not so well as men in this 
audience — but as the oldest member in active 
service I feel, not without some hesitation, I 
ought to make the effort. 

The Two Co-Founders 

The Rev. Dr. Rodney Rush Swope came to 
Asheville from Wheeling, West Virginia in 
1 897 upon a call to the position of Rector of All 
Souls Church in Biltmore. He had been a mem- 
ber of a club in Wheeling very similar in char- 
acter to the Pen and Plate. In the course of a 
conversation with Dr. Minor, the subject of the 
clubs which existed in London in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century arose. 

The idea of organizing some such club in 
Asheville appealed to these gentlemen and 
accordingly a call to a few others went forth, 
culminating in the meeting in October of 1904 
where the decision was made that such a club 
should be organized. 

Dr. Swope was a native of Philadelphia and 
connected with the Rodney and Rush families 
of Pennsylvania and Delaware. He was well 
educated in the classics and theology. His 
Wheeling Church was the leading one in the 
city of his denomination. Dr. Swope was an 
orator of the order of Phillips Brooks. He never 
had a note of any kind when he entered the 
pulpit. 

97 




The 50th Anniversary of the Asheville Pen and Plate Club was celebrated at a meeting held in the George Vanderbilt Hotel in 1 954 . Members and former members present for the 
observance are shown here. From L to R, they are: Front row, Lawrence S. Holt, Burnham S. Colburn, the Rev. A.W. Farnum, Robertson Wall, Dr. Marion C. Milender, 
Kingsland Van Winkle (president), Sheldon Leavitt, Harvey M. Heywood, Don C. Shoemaker, David P. Harris; Second row: William C. Meekins, Col. Thomas D. Osborne, 
Waiter R. Johnson, Charles K. Robinson, Cuthbert Lee, Philip Woollcott, Charles E. Waddell, George M. Stephens, Dr. Thomas R. Huffines, Curtis Bynum, Dr. Eugene M. 
Carr; 7/?/>tf row: Junius G. Adams, Jr., William Beekman Huger, Gaylord Davis, Dr. James P. Parker, Gen. Albert E. Brown, Frank M. Parker, Dr. F. Irby Stephens, Anthony 
Lord, Samuel A. Bingham Jr., Dr. William S. Justice, E. Lyndon McKee. Asheville residents, members or former members not present were: James McC. Clarke, Walter J. 
Damtoft, C. Vanderhooven, Dr. W.P. Herbert, Junius G. Adams, Sr., D. Hiden Ramsey and James G.K. McClure. Citizens-Times Photo. 



Never at a loss for a word and seldom at a 
loss for the right one, he talked, not de- 
claimed. He possessed a wide knowledge of 
history and literature — to hear him was intel- 
lectual inspiration and so well was he known 
throughout the country he was seriously con- 
sidered at one time for St. Thomas Church in 
New York. He was urged for the bishopric 
when the District was formed , but another was 
chosen. Detail did not interest Dr. Swope; his 
forte was the pulpit. 

Tall in stature, he stooped slightly and like 
most of the men of his time and all save two of 
the founders, he wore a mustache. 

Reserved in manner, he was kind, dignified 
and courteous — this reserve, perhaps diffi- 
dence, extended to ordinary conversation — 
he seldom expressed an opinion on public 
affairs and preferred to listen to those of others 
than to give expression to his own. 

Dr. Swope was a 32nd degree Mason and 
made the principal address at the dedication of 
the Vance Monument on Pack Square. Besides 
the Pen and Plate Club, Dr. Swope was the real 
originator of what afterwards became Biltmore 
Hospital. 

About 54 years of age when the Pen and 
Plate Club was formed, Dr. Swope retired 
from the ministry in 1914 and died in 1917. A 
wife and son and daughter survived him. He 
lived in the Rectory of the Church in Biltmore 
during his ministry. 

Among the papers he read to the Club were 
those entitled "Herbert Spencer, an Appre- 
ciation; Christian Science; The Philosophy of the 
Novel; Christian Federation; and The Revolt of 
Women. 

Dr. Minor. 

Dr. Charles L. Minor was a physician. He 
studied at the University of Virginia and was an 
intern at hospitals in New York and Vienna. 

98 



Beginning the practice of medicine in 
Washington, he moved to Asheville in 1895. 
At that time Asheville was the resort of many 
people from all over the country who suffered 
from tuberculosis. While I do not know it to be 
a fact, I think it probable Dr. Minor himself 
came here for that reason. 

Possessed of an agressive and outstanding 
personality, he was a man who attracted many 
persons and perhaps repelled others who had 
not learned to know and appreciate him. He 
was very tall and thin, his neck was long and 
his voice was strong and not always controlled 
when he was interested in a subject. 

Dr. Minor enjoyed expressing his opinion 
on all subjects; his eccentricities were well 
known. On one occasion he insisted that his 
patient keep the window open and after finding 
it closed on two or three visits he took a chair 
and knocked the glass out. 

Billy Bourne was the cartoonist on The 
Asheville Citizen and his cartoon of Dr. Minor 
sitting and driving a Ford car too small for him 
afforded public amusement — other motorists 
took to the side ot the street when they saw Dr. 
Minor coming, honoring him as they did 
ambulances and fire engines. 

Dr. Minor came in time to consider the Pen 
and Plate Club his own child, and he did not 
hesitate to correct his pupils when they were in 
the wrong. 

Dr. Minor was a Virginian by birth and 
education, and the brother-in-law of Dr. F.P. 
Venable, President of the University of North 
Carolina. 

Despite all I have said, Dr. Minor was loved 
and respected by all privileged to know him. 
He was, until his death, the most outstanding 
member of the club. A faithful adherent of 
Trinity Episcopal Church, he was always a kind 
man, especially to Virginians. 

He was nationally known in his profession 
and was associated for many years with Dr. 



PaulH. Ringer. He died in 1928, survived by a 
wife and three children. 

Dr. Minor lived most of his time in Ashe- 
ville, on North French Broad Avenue opposite 
the Christian Science Church. Before his death 
he removed to Vanderbilt Road in Biltmore 
Forest. He was about 39 years of age when the 
Pen and Plate Club was founded. 

Among his papers were: "On the General 
Antagonism of the Esthetic and Moral Sense in 
Man; The Limit of Ascertainable Truth; The 
Liberty and License of the Press; The White 
Man's Responsibility to the Negro; and Tuber- 
culosis as an Opportunity for Character 
Building. 

Edward Harding 

Edward J. Harding was the least known of 
ourfounder, no photograph of him is known to 
exist in Asheville, yet he read the first paper of 
the club — the subject, "Some Results of 
Psychical Research, ' ' It was also the only pap- 
er he ever delivered as he left the city shortly 
thereafter and removed to Seattle where he 
subsequently died. He was about 58 years of 
age in 1904. 

Mr. Harding was an Englishman born in that 
country and while living in Asheville had a 
brother practicing law in New York City. Of his 
educational advantages and his family back- 
ground I am ignorant. 

He came to Asheville about 1 893 and served 
as auditor for the Biltmore Estate. There had 
previously been a very large defalcation in the 
management of the brick plant in Biltmore 
which was located between the present 
viaduct and the street leading to the entrance 
lodge, and to avoid a repetition of that, Mr. 
Harding was engaged. 

He served for several years prior to his 
coming as bookkeeper to the well known New 
York law firm of Davies, McNamee, Work and 



McNamee. The Junior member of the firm was 
the manager of the estate from its inception 
until Mr. Harding left. 

Mr. Harding was a very short man, stout, 
and was remarkable for the very short steps he 
took when walking. He lived with his wife, he 
had no children, on the Biltmore Estate in the 
old west house on the hill to the left as one 
enters the Estate — the house for many years 
occupied by the late Charles E. Waddell. 



on Biltmore Avenue between the river and the 
entrance to Kenilworth and read stories to Mr. 
Penniman's girls and their friends. But, he 
would never permit any boys to attend the 
reading. 

He kept a horse and a surrey with a fringe on 
top and his wife or his man would take him 
around the Estate and to Asheville (there were 
no street cars) and sometimes as far as Blow- 
ing Rock for a two weeks' vacation. 




The Biltmore House in Asheville was completed in 1895 and is now a busy tourist site. 



Positive Pedantic 

A positive man inclined to the pedantic, he 
undoubtedly had read a great amount of En- 
glish literature and that was his sole interest 
for he had no hobbies. Mr. Harding was a 
Unitarian in religion and, unlike most of those 
men who came from the North during the 
building of Biltmore, Democrat in politics. 
However, he opposed Bryan and free silver 
and made a campaign speech for McKinley. 

His wife was a Christian Scientist and I think 
the only practitioner in Asheville in her day. 
Her great interest in her church and Mr. Hard- 
ing's interest in reading accounts in a large 
measure for the little interest either had in 
social life. This coupled with the fact that Mr. 
Harding worked in Biltmore resulted in a rather 
narrow circle of friends and acquaintances 
within the city. 

Mr. Harding was very fond of little girls and 
on Sunday nights we would go over to Swan- 
nanoa Hill, the residence of W.T. Penniman, 



In 1897 Mr. Vanderbilt and a party of 
friends, including Charles McNamee his man- 
ager, went to the North Cape leaving Mr. Hard- 
ing in charge of the Estate with instructions no 
outsider was to be permitted to enter Biltmore 
House without Mr. Vanderbilt's permission. 
There was no way for Mr. Harding to get in 
touch with the party. 

President McKinley's Visit 

One day in June or July word was received 
that President McKinley, John Sherman, his 
Secretary of State, and a large party were 
coming in from the West to Asheville to see the 
Biltmore Estate and wished to go through the 
house. Mr. Harding was on a spot. He decided 
to advise John A. Porter, the President's 
Secretary, that the President and Cabinet 
would be allowed to go through the house but 
not the large crowd of newspapermen. 

Mr. Porter replied that if all the party were 
not allowed through the house none would go 



even through the Estate. Mr. Porter was a 
former newspaperman himself. Mr. Harding 
yielded and permitted all the party to go 
through the house. 

He nearly suffered a nervous breakbown 
over this matter as all the newspapers of the 
nation criticized and denounced him. The arti- 
cle in Brann's Iconoclast was headed, "Ed- 
ward J. Harding and who the Hell are you?" 
Mr. Vanderbilt's only comment on his return 
was "He was in a difficult position." 

Dr. Campbell 

Dr. Robert F. Campbell was for forty-five 
years a pastor of the First Presbyterian Church 
of Asheville. He was born in Lexington, Virg- 
nina, graduated from Washington and Lee 
University and the Union Theological Semi- 
nary at Hampton-Sidney, Virginia. After being 
ordained to the ministry he served several 
Virginia Churches before coming to Asheville 
in 1892. 

About 46 years of age when the club was 
formed, Dr. Campbell was short in stature, 
clean shaven, spare in build, deliberate in de- 
portment. A man of strong convictions he 
could not be hurried or intimidated. His church 
and his friends were devoted to him. His cour- 
age and his rugged Scottish Presbyterian phi- 
losophy commanded respect from those who 
differed with him. 

In this day the views which Dr. Campbell 
held, or at least held in 1904 would not meet 
with general acceptance. He held to a very 
strict observance of Sunday. He stood by the 
Old Testament and he insisted the women 
keep silent in churches. 

On the other hand he believed that it was the 
duty of man to develop all his possibilities, he 
hailed new inventions and discoveries, he re- 
jected in his heart prohibition, and he told me 
that the claim that unfermented grape juice 
was served at the Last Supper was without any 
foundation. He possessed an extremely logical 
mind. If you admitted his premises you would 
be sure to reach his conclusion. He was the 
founder of the Good Samarian Mission in 
Asheville. 

Among the papers he read to the club 
were: "The Dog in Literature and Life;" 
"Harmful Child Labor,;" "The Children's 
Court;" "Sunday Laws and Liberty;"" and 
"Spiritualism. " 

He was twice married and his two sons now 
live in Asheville. During his later years Dr. 
Campbell resided at 6 Pearson Drive. 

Dr. Moale 

Philip R. Moale came to Asheville in Febru- 
ary 1896 from Baltimore. His wife was ill at the 
time and died a few years thereafter. As Dr. 
Moale lived until 1 932, he was for many years 
a widower and most fond of people. He went 
frequently in society where his genial disposi- 
tion, his love of people and conversational 
ability insured his popularity. 

Originally a chemist, his papers reflect his 
education and early life; among those he read 
to the club were: "The Development of Mod- 
ern Industrial Progress in Relation to Recent 
Advancement in Chemical Science;" "Fire 

99 



Waste and National Resources;" "Scientific 
Management;" "Science in the Present War;" 
"Chemistry;" "Mother of Industry, Brother of 
Medicine and Helpmate of All;" and "Business 
and Farm." 

Dr. Moale did not practice chemistry in 
Asheville, but entered active business life in 
this community very shortly after he arrived. 
He was with Moale and Childs, a real estate 
and insurance firm afterwards Moale and Mer- 
riwether, Hackney and Moale, a printing firm, 
McEwen Lumber Company; Piedmont Director 
Company; Blue Ridge Lime Company; Clinch- 
field Line Company; The Beaver Lake De- 
velopment Company; and Central Bank and 
Trust Company of which I think he was a 
director. 

He served on the vestry of Trinity Church 
and took a great personal interest in the Chapel 
at Grace to which he gave of his time and 
money. 

Dr. Moale was medium in stature, medium 
in build, a quick and nervous walker and tal- 
ker. He gave the impression of great energy 
and vitality. He was optimistic in his view of 
business and trusting in his nature. He once 
told me his income but I suspect he died poor. 

I had the pleasure of taking several motor 
trips with him and in Savannah we called on 
his uncle, a very fine old Jewish gentleman of 
one of the best families in the city. A more 
enjoyable visit I do not recall. 

Dr. Moale's residence was at 28 Washing- 
ton Road. He was a truly lovable man. The 
last years of his life were clouded with illness 
and worry. 



Colonel Bingham 

Col. Robert Bingham was born at Hillsboro, 
North Carolina in 1 838 and was 66 years old in 
1904. He was the oldest in years of the found- 
ers. His father was head of Bingham School, 
founded in 1793, and there the subject of this 
sketch received his early education. 

The youth entered the University of N.C. at 
Chapel Hill and received his A.B. Degree with 
the Class of 1857. He early entered the Con- 
federate Army and attained the rank of Captain 
in the Forty-Fourth N.C. Regiment and he was 
among those who served with General Lee to 
the last when he too surrendered at Appa- 
matox. 

Colonel Bingham, as soon as he could, be- 
gan to engage in the education of boys and 
was superintendent of Bingham School from 
1873 to his death in 1937. 

Col. Bingham was a tall, broad man who 
have have weighed close to 200 pounds and 
his whole bearing was that of a soldier. He was 
the father of the late Robert Worth Bingham, 
Mayor of Louisville, Ambassador to Great 
Britain and publisher of the Louisville Courier- 
Journal and Louisville Times. His grandson is 
now publisher of these papers. 

Colonel Bingham was a valued member of 
Dr. Campbell's Church, a Mason, a director of 
the Wachovia Bank, and President of the North 
Carolina Literary and Historical Association. 
He lived at the school on the West side of the 
French Broad River adjoining the Richmond 
Hill property. 



Among his papers were; "The Status of the 
South in the Past," the "Decadence of that 
Status, its Restoration;" "Co-Education in the 
United States;" "Secession in Theory and 
Practice;" and, "Arbitration." 

Richard Tighe 

Richard J. Tighe was born in Newburgh, 
New York and was educated in its public 
schools and completed his education in Col- 
umbia University, New York City. Very shortly 
after his graduation he was invited to come to 
Asheville, upon whose suggestion or recom- 
mendation I do not know, to accept the posi- 
tion of Principal of the Orange Street School. 

Thereafter he became City Superintendent 
of Schools, a position he held until 1913. Mr. 
Tighe was not only a successful teacher but 
possessed unusual executive ability and a can- 
ny insight in the selection of teachers. 

The reputation he made in Asheville caused 
him to be called to manage the public schools 
in El Paso, Texas, where he remained about 
eight years. Then he returned to this city and to 
the Pen and Plate Club. His second removal 
from Asheville in 1926 was due to his selection 
as Treasurer of the Federal Land Bank at Col- 
umbia, South Carolina, a position he filled 
until 1932 when he returned to this city. He 
died in 1937. 

Mr. Tighe was 35 years old when our club 
was born and some of our records show his 
admission in 1904 and his removal from the 
city in 1 926 — an indicated membership of 22 
years. Plainly that counts his years in El Paso 
as if he were still a member; however, it is 
significant that all told, Mr. Tighe read only 
four papers to the club. 

His subjects were "Compulsory School 
Attendance;" "Modern Educational Tenden- 
cies;" and "The Passion Play" during his first 
period of membership. His only paper read 
during his second term of membership was 
"What the Jew Has Contributed to Civiliza- 



tion" read in 1925. 

I first met Mr. Tighe when he had a class in 
history which I attended at the home of a 
member of his class. He was a trim, well 
dressed, agreeable man — he spoke clearly, 
his diction was good and he held the interest 
and attention of all who attended his classes. I 
did not live in that part of the city and so I recall 
the street was not paved and we crossed it on 
stepping stones sunk in the mud. 

Mr. Tighe had no hobbies and his interests 
were few outside of this profession. About 
1900 he married Miss Emma Rollins, a sister 
of a former member of this club and she still 
lives at their old home, No. 62 Orange Street. 

These sketches are of course desultroy 
though I have striven to make them accurate. 
They are read in the hope that others may be 
stimulated to give us anecdotes and recollec- 
tions connected with the members of the club 
and the papers they have written. 

Thus ends an account of the Pen and Plate 
Club. In 1981 it is still active and important in 
the intellectual, Social and Cultural life of the 



area. 



— The Book Committee 



THE GREAT FLOODS OF JULY 
1916 

85 

"On July 5th and 6th a tropical cyclone 
swept over the Gulf Coast of Alabama, accom- 
panied by high winds, reaching a maximum of 
107 miles per hour at Mobile on the fifth, and 
followed by torrential rains over a large part of 
the State with somewhat lighter rains in east- 
ern Tennessee and the Carolinas, greatly 
damaging Southern Railway waterfront prop- 
erty in Alabama. 

"A second tropical cyclone passed over 
Charleston, S.C. during the morning of July 
14th, causing some local damage, and mov- 




The French Broad River at Asheville in the height of the July 1 91 6 flood . Shortly after this was taken , the remaining spans of 
Smith's Bridge, in the foreground, went down. 



100 




The power of the 1 91 6 flood wafer is suggested in this photo of a well near Chimney Rock, N.C. Note the erosion of the soil 
about the Rubble Wall and then, near the top, the original soil level. This and other flood pictures from The Flood Of July 
1916, the Charles Biddix Collection. 



ing northwestward, expended its full force on 
the watersheds in western North Carolina 
where the rain from the first storm had already 
saturated the soil and filled the streams bank- 
full. 

"All previous 24-hour records of rainfall in 
this section of the United States were ex- 
ceeded. The run-off from the saturated soil 
was very rapid, streams rose high above all 
previous flood records. 

"All this resulting in the death of about 
eighty persons and in property damage esti- 
mated by the United States Weather Bureau at 
about Twenty-two million dollars. 

"The greatest single loss of property was 
that of Southern Railway Company, as, with- 
out taking into account the loss of traffic and 
the cost of detouring trains, the total loss to 



the Company on account of storm damage 
during the month of July is estimated at ap- 
proximately $1,250,000." 

This account is taken from a book published 
in 1 91 7 by the Southern Railway Company and 
dedicated to the "Man on the Job by one who 
admires him." Surely a book of genealogical 
memories could not be written without includ- 
ing an account of a major traumatic experience 
that took place in a community, and a few 
accounts of how the people affected met and 
overcame such a disaster. 

You may be sure it was the topic of con- 
versation around the dinner table in a lot of 
homes for a lot of days before life returned to 
normal. Let us quote a little from this 1917 
book that you might not otherwise have a 
chance to see: 



Asheville Rainfall Damage 

"The rainfall at Asheville was not excessive, 
but early Sunday morning the rushing waters 
of the French Broad and the Swannanoa 
flooded the entire lower part of the city of 
Asheville and all of the neighboring model 
village of Biltmore." 

"Here the lower part of beautiful All Souls' 
Church, built by George W. Vanderbilt, and 
the Vanderbilt Hospital were flooded, houses 
in the village were swept away, and despite 
heroic efforts at rescue, several persons were 
drowned." 

"At Asheville the water rose so rapidly that 
automobiles and street cars were abandoned 
in the streets near the Southern Railway Pas- 
senger Station. Two men who were trying to 
carry food to guests marooned in the Glen 
Rock Hotel nearby were drowned. The water in 
the station was several feet deep and reached 
nearly to the roofs of the umbrella shed, all of 
the tracks through Asheville and in the yards 
being under water and, in some places, co- 
vered with masses of drift of all kinds." 

"Engines under steam in the adjacent 
freight yards were hastily abandoned, and a 
round-house employee was drowned in an 
attempt to seek safety." 

The Rebuilding Begins 

The book goes on to describe steps taken to 
organize the necessary groups of laborers re- 
quired to repair the damage to roads, bridges 
and hundreds of miles of railroad tracks and 
tressles, mentioning in one place that between 
Old Fort and Ridgecrest the destruction was so 
great as to require relocation of railroad lines. 

In all, there were about twenty-five hundred 
men engaged in the reconstruction work in 
this section alone. If any readers had grand- 
fathers or other family members involved in all 
of this flood clean-up task, the book would be 
a gold mine of resource material for use in 
family sketches. 

Owned by Charles Biddix, it could be avail- 
able for study at the library of the Old Bun- 
combe County Genealogical Society. 

A Sampling of reports from the book fol- 
lows: 

Ridgecrest To Asheville 

From Ridgecrest to Asheville, the recon- 
struction work, under the general supervision 
of General Superintendent Loyall, was under 
the immediate direction of Engineer of Mainte- 
nance of Way Akers. The first work was done 
by Track Supervisor J. C. Townsend, who was 
at Ridgecrest with an extra gang and Ditching 
Machine No. 8 when the flood occurred and 
was cut off from communication in either 
direction. 

He immediately began the work of taking 
out slides and ditching cuts. At Mile Post S- 
1 23.8 a wash-out thirty feet deep and forty feet 
long was cribbed up on logs cut in the neigh- 
boring woods and filled with the ditching 
machine. 

On the night of July 19th, a Cincinnati, New 
Orleans & Texas Pacific Railway force under 
Building Supervisor Burns, with a bridge der- 
rick, arrived at Asheville and was immediately 

101 



was done by the regular force. 




The famous old Southern Railway station in Asheville under flood waters in 1916. 




This is near mile-post S-120 between Ridgecrest and Old Fort as it appeared following the July 1916 flood. Repair crews 
from many parts of the USA worked around the clock to repair damages. 



started out in the direction of Ridgecrest. On 
the following night Bridge Supervisor R.E. 
Price from the Coster Division, arrived at 
Asheville and went out on this work, the details 
of which included clearing out of cuts, the 
filling in of washes and the construction of 
temporary bridges and trestles. 

Among the most serious breaks was one at 
Mile Post S-125, where the creek had washed 
out an old stone abutment and allowed the 
girder bridge to fall. A thirty-five-foot fill at the 
west end of the girder had also washed out for 
a length of about sixty feet. 

Another serious break was at Mile Post S- 
124, where there was a wash-out thirty-five 
feet deep and sixty-five feet long, and another 
was at Azalea station, where the Swannanoa 

102 



River Changed its course and washed out half 
of the fill in front of the station for a distance of 
about five hundred feet. 

The 8th Day: Train Service 

By means of temporary trestles and crib- 
bing, these breaks and others of smaller 
dimensions were rapidly closed, and, on July 
24th, eight days after the flood the first 
passenger train was run from Asheville to 
Black Mountain, and three days later the first 
train was operated to Ridgecrest. 

Bridge Supervisor Price and the Cincinnati, 
New Orleans & Texas Pacific forces were then 
moved to the Asheville-Morristown line and 
further work between Ridgecrest and Asheville 



Asheville-Morristown Damage 

From the west end of the reinforced con- 
crete bridge across the French Broad River at 
Asheville westward for a distance of about 
sixty miles, the Asheville-Morristown line of 
the Knoxville Divison was practically a wreck. 
With the exception of a wash-out about eigh- 
teen hundred feet long at Rankin, the damage 
between Bridgeport, Tenn., and Knoxville was 
light. 

Conditions on this line were different from 
those on the Asheville-Salisbury and the Ashe- 
ville-Spartanburg lines in that the rains were 
not severe enough to cause slides. The damage 
was caused by the high water in the French 
Broad River, resulting in wash-outs of the line 
which follows the river bank. 

In places the road-bed, whether on fills or 
benches, was washed away entirely, and in 
others it was under-washed on the river side. 
In many places rails and ties had been washed 
into the river, and the rails were twisted so that 
they could not be relaid. 

The Marshall Area 

The situation at Marshall, N.C. was excep- 
tionally bad because of the location of the town 
in the narrow lowland between the river and 
the mountain. The railroad at this place is 
protected by a masonry wall along the edge of 
the river, and is paralleled by the main street of 
the town about one hundred feet away, the 
railroad and the street being about fifteen feet 
above the normal level of the river. 

The crest of the flood was about seven feet 
above the track. As at Biltmore, the waters 
rose very rapidly and, but for advance tele- 
graphic warning, many lives might have been 
lost. Even with this warning, two residents of 
the town were drowned, and the loss of prop- 
erty was great. 

— The Book Committee 

DOUGLAS D. ELLINGTON, AN 
ARCHITECT OF NOTE 

86 

Much interesting material written about per- 
sons and places only appears in the daily or 
weekly area newspapers. These of course are 
in fragile and transitory form and unless spe- 
cially indexed, the material is difficult to re- 
trieve. 

But people do save many articles which 
show up when such projects as this Heritage 
book are under way. Such an article was this 
one written about Douglas D. Ellington and his 
architectural contribution to the City of Ashe- 
ville. 

Written by Bill Moore, it was published in 
the Citizen-Times. 

Since it was too interesting to condense, we 
bring it to you here in its entirety, with permis- 
sion. 

He Gave Beauty 

Douglas D. Ellington gave beauty to a boom 
town. 




This 1920 skyline view of downtown Asheville shows The Asheville City Hall designed by Architect Douglas D. Ellington. He had a major influence on Asheville in his day. Photo 
from the Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 



In doing so he, perhaps more than any other 
individual, shaped the physical appearace of 
Asheville. 

Ellington was an architect, in his time one of 
the best in the nation. He also was an artist and 
a man who loved work, loved his profession 
and loved beauty. 

During his years as an architect practicing in 
Asheville, Ellington designed and supervised 
the construction of the First Baptist Church, 
Asheville City Hall, the S & W Cafeteria Build- 
ing, the Merrimon Avenue Fire Station, the 
main building at Lee Edwards (later Asheville) 
High School, Biltmore Hospital (now a nursing 
home) and dozens of private residences. 

Later he was to design notable buildings in 
Charleston, S.C., and a whole town in Mary- 
land, but it is doubtful if he left as much of 
himself anywhere else as he did in Asheville. 

Ellington arrived in Asheville sometime ear- 
ly in the 1920s. He found himself in a com- 
munity gripped by the excitement of what later 
became known as the "Florida land boom." 

Real estate promoters who had made for- 
tunes in Florida had turned to Western North 
Carolina. They produced plans that would 
have made Asheville the Miami Beach of the 
mountains. 

And Asheville went along with the action. 

The place was in turmoil. The value of real 
estate in and around Asheville multiplied over- 
night. 

The city and county were almost frantically 
building facilities intended to keep up with the 
boom. 

The result was an atmosphere made to 
order for an architect with vision and the right 
credentials. 

Douglas Ellington had the vision and his 



credentials were impressive. 

He was born in Clayton, N.C., on June 26, 
1886. 

Clayton is a small town about 15 miles 
southeast of Raleigh. Ellington's father was a 
farmer and a veteran of the War Between the 
States. 

The Ellington Family had land, but in com- 
mon with other families that had weathered the 
bad years after the war, little money. 

Neverthelss, Douglas Ellington got a superb 
education. 

A Rich Education 

He was a graduate of Randolph-Macon Col- 
lege and studied architecture at the Drexel 
Institute in Philadelphia and at the Ecole de 
Beaux Arts in Paris. 

While in Paris he became the first American 
to win the Prix Rougevin for architecture and 
the first Southerner to win the Prix de Paris. 
Later he was to be one of 10 finalists in a 
competition among 1 ,000 American architects 
for the Christopher Columbus Award. 

After Paris he taught architecture at the 
Drexel Institute and was professor of 
architecture at Columbia University and at the 
Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pitt- 
sburgh. 

He also designed and supervised the con- 
struction of some outstanding buildings in 
Pennsylvania and on the East Coast. 

So in the 1920s, probably looking for a 
place where he could practice his profession at 
its fullest, he came to Asheville. Asheville gave 
him pretty much what he wanted. 

He must have been an unusual man in the 
Asheville of the wheeling-dealing, boom town 
20s. 



A Sharp Dresser 

One of his architecture students at that time 
described him thus: 

He always wore a hat. 

It was pulled over mahogany curls, that 
some of us thought were really a wig. (He did 
not wear a wig.) 

He invariably wore long-sleeved shirts with 
French cuffs. 

"He also wore high-waisted trousers. 
French trousers, really, held up by suspen- 
ders." 

"And of course, he always wore a vest." 

Ellington's niece, Mrs. Sallie Middleton, a 
resident of Biltmore Forest and a talented artist 
herself, said recently, "I supposed his style of 
dress then was a reflection of the years he 
spent as a student in Paris. 

"But by the time I got old enough to notice 
what he was wearing, he had gotten consider- 
ably tweedier." 

"He still however, always wore a hat." 

Ellington had the training, the talent, and 
the artistry to have become as well-known an 
architect as Frank Lloyd Wright or Le Corbu- 
sier. 

But Ellington was content to concentrate on 
his architecture. 

By the time he got to Asheville, Ellington 
had developed a style in his work that was 
uniquely his own. 

A Style Of His Own 

Asked to categorized Ellington's style, an 
Asheville architect of the present said, "It is 
impossible to classify Ellington's style as art 
deco, or art nouveau or anything else. 

"Douglas Ellington's style was simply 

103 



Douglas Ellington. That's all it had to be. 

Each of Ellington's building had the Elling- 
ton touch, an extra fillip that marked the build- 
ing as unmistakeably Ellington. 

His use of a feather motif on the exterior of 
Asheville City Hall has been cited many times 
as an example of architectural creativity. 

The First Baptist Church 

The cupola and domed roof of the First 
Baptist Church is another example of Elling- 
ton's flair for the distinctive. 

A copper-sheathed cupola crowns the 
domed roof of the church. 

The copper is green with corrosion, called 
verdigris. 

The tiles in their roof immediately under the 
cupola also appear to be stained. It seems as 
though the verdigris on the cupola has washed 
down and stained the roof. 

But, according to Mrs. Middleton, this is 
not the case at all. 

"The stained roof is simply an effect that 
Uncle Douglas wanted to achieve. 

"The green color on the roof appears be- 
cause Uncle Douglas painstakingly hand- 
picked tiles of varying shades of green. 

"Then he had the roofers insert these into 
the roof under the cupola according to a pat- 
tern he had worked out beforehand. 

"It was all artfully calculated to give the 
appearance of the green of the cupola washing 
into the otherwise red tile roof." 

The roof is an illusion, something an artist 
might call a "trompe L'oeil," a style of paint- 
ing in which the artist deceives the eye. 

Painted Watercolors 

It was characteristic of Ellington. He was a 
first-rate architect, but he also was a talented 
artist. 

He painted in watercolors. 

His paintings were exhibited in the Pitts- 
burgh Academy of Fine Arts, in Grand Central 
Palace in New York City, the Arts Club in 
Washington, D.C., and Gibbes Art Gallery in 
Charleston. 

In 1932, some 30 of his paintings were 
exhibited at the Three Mountaineers Gallery 
here in Asheville. In another showing in 1949, 
Ellington exhibited 50 paintings at the Grove 
Park Inn. 

Where are his paintings now? 

"He gave a lot of them away," said Mrs. 
Middleton. "He gave them to friends, rela- 
tives. Some still are in the house in Chunn's 
Cove and I have a few." 

The house in Chunn's Cove added an ele- 
ment of whimsy to Ellington's character. 

It started when he acquired an old cabin on 
the banks of a creek in Chunn's Cove and 
decided to make it into a house. 

"In spite of the fact that he was a fine 
architect." Mrs. Middleton said, "He refused 
to draw any plans for the place." 

"Instead he sort of made the place us as he 
went along. He used whatever native materials 
that came to hand and he had a marvelous time 
doing it." 



104 



Wins Aclain 

Despite its informal origins, the house in 
Chunn's Cove once was listed by House 
Beautiful magazine as one of the most creative 
homes in the United States. 

It still is standing and is presently occupied 
by relatives of Ellington. 

Ellington had two brothers. 

One, Eric, joined the U.S. Army Air Service 
during World War I and was killed in an aircraft 
accident. 

Ellington Air Force Base near Houston, 
Texas, is named for him. 

The older brother, Kenneth, was trained as 
an attorney: He never, however, practiced law 
but made a career of being his brother's busi- 
ness manager. 

There is in existence a letter that demons- 
trates the relationship between the brothers. 

Douglas Ellington had hired a New York City 
artist to paint some murals in Asheville City 
Hall while the building was being constructed. 

The letter, written on gray stationary headed 
by the legend. "Douglas D. Ellington, Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects," directed J.E. Gib- 
son, secretary-treasurer of the city of Ashevil- 
le, to pay the artist $500 due him. 

It was signed "Douglas D. Ellington," but 
under the signature are the tell-tale initials 
K.R.E. 

Douglas Ellington dreamed the dreams and 
drew the plans: Kenneth Ellington handled the 
details and paid the bills. 

Each man, in his own field, complimented 
the other. 

The Asheville City Hall 

Ellington's plan for Asheville City Hall is 
probably the best work he did in Asheville. The 
building has been cited in architectural pub- 
lications and otherwise praised many times. 

The original plan called for Ellington to de- 
sign a companion building that would become 
a new Buncombe County Court House. 

That aspect of the plan, however, became 
snarled in local politics. Ellington was not 
commissioned to design the court house; the 
job went to other architects. 

The decision may have made sense politi- 
cally: it was a grave mistake artistically. 

The struggle over who was going to design 
the court house however, soon became 
academic. 

First the land speculation bubble in Ashevil- 
le burst and stark tragedy overtook the city. 

Then came the disaster on Wall Street and 
grinding poverty settled over the entire nation. 

There was little work to be had and even less 
for architects. 

Restored Dock Street Theater 

In 1937 Douglas Ellington moved to Char- 
leston where he had a commission to restore 
the famed Dock Street Theater. 

"Practically the whole family moved to 
Charleston," said Mrs. Middleton. "We came 
back to Asheville to spend the summers in the 
house in Chunn's Cove." 

Later, as part of a Works Project Adminis- 
tration project, Ellington designed the entire 
town of Greenbelt, MD. 



He also designed and built St. Andrews 
Presbyterian Church and many private resi- 
dences in Charleston. 

During World War II, Ellington retired and 
the family came back to live in the house in 
Chunn's Cove. 

"His retirement was not an easy one." Mrs. 
Middleton said. "He resembled a caged anim- 
al. He literally stalked through the house, look- 
ing for odd jobs, anything to keep him occu- 
pied." 

— The Book Committee 



OAK HALL: A TRYON 
LANDMARK OF NOSTALGIA 

87 

Among his collection of valued newspaper 
clippings, Charles Biddix of Asheville considers 
this article worthy of preserving in the Heritage 
Book tor future generations to read. 

The article was written by Clyde Osborne 
and appeared in the Citizen-Times October 14, 
1979. Some small parts have been omitted. It 
is as follows: 

Hosted The Nations Great 

One can forgive this thriving resort and re- 
tirement community for the nostalgic sadness 
which is gripping it during this Indian summer 
season. 

Oak Hall Hotel for 97 years has hosted the 
nation's greats in finance, military, literature, 
science and other fields for the brilliant fall 
parade of colors. 

It will host no more fall entourages, nor 
winter, spring, or summer groups. Its era is 
ending. 

Oak Hall has numbered F. Scott Fitzgerald, 
Henry Ford, Mrs. George C. Marshall and 
many other famous names as guests over the 
years. It was a center for horse enthusiasts, 
hikers, naturalists, honeymooners, vacation- 
ers and others who delighted in the quaint 
hospitality of the Thermal Belt inn. 

It closes Oct. 31 , 1 979. On November 2 and 
3 its furnishings, many of them valuable anti- 
ques, will be auctioned to the highest bidders. 

End of An ERA 

It will mark the end of an era in Tryon, 
Western North Carolina and North Carolina. 
Brewster Cornwell, a developer in Polk Coun- 
ty, and his brother, Lynn, have bought the 
property and will begin demolition right after 
the auction. 

In place of the hotel on the tree-covered hill 
overlooking downtown Tryon there will be 
condominiums. 

News of the upcoming auction of the inn's 
furnishings has also spread coast to coast. 

There are some beautiful and rare things 
here. For instance in the ballroom-dining room 
is a bar back, a giant piece filled with mirrors, 
hand made and hand carved from black wal- 
nut. The bar back, originally made for a bar in 
Columbia, S.C., was built about 1870. 

Oak Hall has a china pattern unlike any other 
in the world. It was made by the Syracuse 
China Company. 




Once host to the nation's great, Oak Hall, Tryon, N.C. closed its doors in Oct. 1979 after 97 years of hosting people in 
finance, military, literature, science and all other walks of life. It has been since torn down. 



Poems Written 

Poems have been written about Oak Hall. 
The tirst verse of "Ye Olde Tavern," by 
Harry Russell Wilkins of South Carolina reads: 

Folk loved to stop at this quaint, famous inn, 
Where 'Mine Host' hailed them with cordial smiles. 
His honest face beamed when he said, 'Come In.' 
For that pleasure, some rode many miles. 

Not even Miss Edwards (the owner) knows 
the treasures she has in the hotel, said King. 
Rummaging around in a storeroom he ran 
across a Chinese urn of brass with hand-tooled 
birds on the sides and beautiful ornamenta- 
tion. 

"You go into places and find all kinds of 
treasures." There are dozens of signed pic- 
tures, prints and charcoals on the walls. 

In the lobby are large, wagon wheel-type 
candle holders which came from a church in 
the Netherlands in the 1800s. 

A Broad Veranda 

Thousands of guests have rocked on the 
broad veranda to enjoy the mountain air and 
the scenery. Half-way down the entrance 
steps, the steps divide with one set continuing 
on down and the other running straight as a 
platform. This was the place that carriage- 
born guests unloaded without stepping down. 

Cornwell, the new property owner, has ex- 
pressed regret at having to tear the old wooden 
structure down. He said, however that renova- 



F. Scott Fitzgerald 

F. Scott Fitzgerald resided there for an ex- 
tended period of time while writing. He occu- 
pied a corner room looking down on Tryon and 
up to the beautiful surrounding mountains. 

Among things to be sold from this room are 
a magnificant Victorian bed with a high head- 
board, a Victorian dresser with a marble top, 
plus some wicker pieces. 

The hotel was opened in 1882 by Theodore 
Thomas Ballinger. It has always exuded 
Southern charm, and no two rooms of the 54 
available are alike in looks or in furnishings. 

This may explain why the guests always 
considered their rooms "my own." 

Tryon City Hotel 

Oak Hall was known in the beginning as the 
Tryon City Hotel. Among other famous guests 
who enjoyed its hospitality were Andrew Turn- 
bull, who wrote two books about Fitzgerald; 
Brig. Gen. Frank McCarthy, who produced the 
movie, "Patton" which won a number of 
Academy Awards; Lady Nancy Astor of En- 
gland; Mrs. Calvin Coolidge, wife of the pres- 
ident; movie actor David Niven; and others 
known around the world. 

Some of the rooms have pineapple beds, 
which are symbols of good will. All of them 
have desks or writing tables of some kind. 
Some have pull-down tops and are called sec- 
retaries. 

There are oak, walnut and mahogany furni- 
ture pieces of the Empire era; Windsor chairs, 
ornate and intricate lamps in many types and 
patterns. 




This magnificient "Bar Back" graced the ballroom-dining room of Oak Hall. A giant piece filled with mirrors, hand made 
and hand carved from black walnut, it was originally made for a bar in Columbia, S.C about 1870. 



Each roon has its own personality. Perhaps 
the only thing common to all is the bathtub 
standing up on legs. Each bathrrom has one. 
All will be sold. 



tion is impossible. 

There is no way to renovate it and continue 
to operate it as a hotel. 

No one is going to argue with him about 

105 



that. From a practical point of view, the hotel 
has done its duty in serving for almost a cen- 
tury. 

A Slower-Moving Time 

It is linked to a slower-moving way of life 
which is difficult to find these days. It lacks a 
swimming pool, a means to drive up to the 
door of one's room and many of the other 
lures of modern motels. 

It offered a restful atmosphere, the finest 
food, good company for chats, privacy for 
those who wanted it, climate and scenery, and 
hosts who acted as if they were glad to see 
their guests. 

Tryon has a right to be sad. 

— The Book Committee 

GUASTAVINOS' SAGA ENDED 
BUT MONUMENTS REMAIN 

88 

In an article written by J.S. Coleman, Jr., 
which appeared in the Asheville Citizen-Times 
on March 31, 1946, a very sad and poignant 
account of Raphael and Frances Guastavino 
appeared. 

Mr. Guastavino leaves succeeding genera- 
tions a living monument in his magnificent St. 
Lawrence Catholic Church, and the work he 
contributed to the Biltmore House, an archi- 
tectural gem. 

The story of the Guastavinos and their Black 
Mountain estate is fast drawing to a conclu- 
sion. 




Mrs. Frances Guastavino 

The tumbeldown dwelling, locally called 
"The Castle" and once the scene of a gay 
social life, and the 1,000 acres which sur- 
rounded it soon will go to a new owner at a 
court sale. 

The Guastavinos — that is, the Spanish 
couple which Black Mountain folk respected 
and loved — are dead. 

Raphael Guastavino, the noted architect, 
who designed St. Lawrence Roman Catholic 
church here, died in 1908. 

106 




The Spanish Castle: The so-called dream castle which Raphael Guastavino built for his wife many years ago near Black 
Mountain. This picture shows the state of dilapidation to which the once fine residence descended . Note the bell tower with 
the old clock face. It was torn down in 1946. 



A 1946 Auction 

Frances Guastavino, his widow, who be- 
came a recluse after the death of her husband, 
died on January 28, 1946. She had spent 
nearly three years in a nursing home in Kenil- 
worth after she had been severely burned at 
her home. 

Her effects were sold under court order at a 
public auction last summer, It wasn't that she 
needed the money — the court ordered the 
sale to prevent the frequent looting of her 
household property for which she was unable 
to care. 

There's little left in the house now to attract 
a looter but recently someone broke open two 
small caskets containing the bones of Mrs. 
Guastavino's ancestors and made away with 
two skulls. Other bones have been scattered 
carelessly around an upstairs room by 
thoughtless persons who have visited the 
place. Two marble tables, inscribed with the 
names of the dead, remain in the house. 

The house still stands intact, but it is in an 
advanced state of disrepair. Shutters sag, win- 
dows have been knocked out, doors pulled 
from their frames, and the house is deep in 
litter — old correspondence, old periodicals, 
pieces of bedding, old clothes, broken glass, 
rusty stoves, and pieces of old-fashioned 
machinery. 

"The Dream Castle" 

Yet there lingers in the house, the dream 
castle which the architect built for his young 
wife, something of the charm it must have had 
in the brighter days around the turn of the 
century. It is an interesting place with many 
small rooms, a chapel, a clock tower, a billiard 
room, and a wine cellar. The house is built 
against a steep slope so that three stories are 
accessible from the ground. 

It is difficult for the visitor to figure to what 
uses the various rooms may have been put. 
There are more than a dozen small rooms, 
connected with narrow hallways, and, of 
course, there are larger rooms which probably 
served as drawing or dining rooms. There's 
nothing left to identify them now for everything 



of any value was sold at the auction. Only the 
litter remains. 

The chapel occupies the left side of the 
building and was constructed in the form of a 
cupola. The alter with its cross has not been 
touched and there is a lectern in another room 
which probably was carried out of the chapel. 
It is about this chapel that residents of the area 
have told many stories — stories which now 
cannot be confirmed. It was said that the 
Guastavinos were deeply, religiously in love 
with each other, and that at intervals they 
replighted their troths at ceremonies in this 
chapel. 

Near Black Mountain 

The Guastavino estate is located on the 
Lakey Gap road, about a mile and a half south 
of Black Mountain. The property is almost 
entirely surrounded by a rim of mountains. At 
the road is a lodge house, and leading to the 
main house is a lane, covered by arched 
shrubs. East of the house is a pool and still 
farther east, a cleared space — a sort of espla- 
nade. 

There are many outbuildings, servants' 
homes, a carriage house, a goat house, a 
picnic house, a variety of sheds and the old 
wine house, where Mr. Guastavino pressed 
the grapes he grew and made them into a 
champagne. Not far from the house is a semi- 
spherical tile kiln. The architect was als.o an 
expert tile maker and he baked tile there which 
were used in Biltmore House. 

Strange to say, the entire place is con- 
structed of wood, with the exception, of 
course, of foundations and terraces. Mr. 
Guastavino was a great advocate of fireproof 
construction and he once delivered a long 
essay before the Society of Arts, Mas- 
sachusetts Institute of Technology, on The 
Theory And History Of Cohesive Construction, 
in which he deplored the fact that most of New 
England's industrial buildings were not firep- 
roof. 

Some persons say that they think Mr. Guas- 
tavino later planned to build a permanent 
home of stone and tile but that death inter- 



vened. In fact, the wooden castle was never 
entirely finished. 

A Story Of Romance 

The tale told around Black Mountain about 
the Guastavinos' romance has almost become 
legend, but members of the family (a grand- 
nephew of Mrs. Guastavino resides in Ashevil- 
le) say that it is not true. 

The story was the Mr. Guastavino was of a 
noble family and that he fell in love with a 
person of much lower social station — some 
said she was a servant girl — and that they 
married and came to America to escape family 
criticism. 

The true story, according to members of the 
family, is that the fiancee was very young, that 
she was supposed to come to America to 
complete her education. Instead she married 
and incurred family disapproval because of her 
youth. 

At any rate, Mr. and Mrs. Guastavino came 
to America, spent some time in New England, 
and then came to Black Mountain, where the 




The cript of Architect Raphael Guastavino is in the Chapel 
of St. Lawrence Church and was designed by his son . The 
church is regarded as one of the most beautiful in all 
America. 



architect built his "castle." 

The date of their arrival in Black Mountain is 
not accurately recalled but it was probably in 
the 1890s. Correspondence about the house 
bears dates of all of the years of the new 
century through 1908. One letter, written by a 
machinery dealer in Charlotte in 1904, sought 
to explain what was wrong with a gasoline 
engine Mr. Guastavino has purchased and had 
complained about. 

It was in 1905 that Mr. Guastavino came to 
ctiurch services in Asheville. He found the 
church overcrowded and later he persuaded 




Raphael Guastavino, the celebrated Spanish Architect who lived at Black Mountain, began construction of St. Lawrence 
Catholic Church on Haywood St. in Asheville in 1 905. He used Italian Masons in the church which is of the Spanish Baroque 
style. It is listed in the National Register of Historic Places. 




St. Lawrence Catholic Church is constructed entirely of tiles and masonry — no beams of wood or Steele. When completed 
in 1908, it was the largest elliptical church dome in America. Raphael Guastavino was the Architect. 



Father Peter Marion, the pastor, to let him 
draw plans for a new church. The present St. 
Lawrence church resulted. It was dedicated in 
1909, after Mr. Guastavino's death, and it is 
still considered one of the most beautiful 
pieces of church architecture of its size in the 
country. Mr. Guastavino's last remains lie in 
the church. See adjacent photographs. 

Days Of Partiies, Activities 

The days were gay for the Guastavinos at 
Black Mountain. They were days of parties, of 
fine horses, fine carriages, and glistening har- 
ness. Mr. Guastavino kept at his work. He 
wrote scientific treatises on architecture, like 
the essay he read in Boston. His motto was 
"Labor Prim Virtus" or "Work is the first 
virtue," and he carved it into a slab which 



decorates the house and which still can be 
read. 

Sheriff Laurence E. Brown of Buncombe 
county was just a youngster then, but he has a 
keen recollection of the Guastavinos, particu- 
larly of the wife. 

"She was a handsome woman, " Mr. Brown 
recalled, "and she was a good woman." 

"She spent must of her time paying visits to 
the sick and the unfortunate. She had a house 
full of servants and if any one was ill and 
needed help she would drive over with the 
servant and leave her as long as her services 
were needed. 

"I recall that once my father was away 
from home on a contracting job and my 
mother became ill. Mrs. Guastavino arrived as 
soon as she heard of it and brought a servant 
to help out. Then she went and brought a 

107 



doctor." 

Mr. Brown said he retained a vivid picture of 
Mrs. Guastavino riding side saddle on a fine 
horse, with voluminous skirt. He recalled how 
the harness shone. 

The World Crashed 

After Mr. Guastavino's death, the world 
crashed for the widow. She became a recluse. 
She never again made any public appear- 
ances. She shut herself in the home and rarely 
went out of it, though she occasionally 
appeared to chat with the tenants who lived 
near by and who called her "Mrs. Gus." She 
allowed the house to deteriorate and confined 
her living to one rocm. 

She kept the billiard room exactly as her 
husband had left it, nailing up the door, and 
she stopped the big clock in the tower at the 
minute he had died — shortly before 8 
o'clock. Until recently, the clock has indicated 
that time. Now, the face has been pushed back 
and the hand removed, probably by some 
souvenir hunter. 

It was in 1 943 that some neighbor, wonder- 
ing why Mrs. Guastavino had been so quiet, 
peered through a window and saw her lying on 
the floor. She had been badly burned, 
apparently while cooking or tending a fire. She 
was taken to a hospital and then to a nursing 
home, where she died January 28, 1946. 

Those who saw her during her illness said 
that she had changed. She looked forward to 
getting well and even at the age of 87, was 
making plans for the future. 

The Saga Ends 

Now, the Gustavino saga is about ended. 
One bid for the property amounting to $30,000 
has already been received by D.J. Weaver, of 
Asheville, appointed commissioner to wind up 
the estate by the court. Others may be submit- 
ted before April 8. Then the case will be taken 
before a judge and the sale will be ordered. 

A commissioner in the settlement of the 
estate was appointed because of the lack of 
information about possible heirs. Mr. Guasta- 
vino left his wife a life interest in the estate 
under the provision that it go to his son, 
Raphael Guastavino, Jr. of New York, a son by 
a former marriage at the widow's death. At his 
son's death, the estate was to go to his son's 
children. But the chance that the children 
might predecease the son complicated the in- 
heritance line and it was decided the settle- 
ment of the estate should be handled by the 
court. 

The sale will probably be the last act 
touching upon the affairs of the Guastavinos 
here. 

— From a historical collection of 
Charles D. Biddix 



CUPID HAD ALWAYS HAD 
WAYS OF COMMUNICATING! 

89 

Some people will collect anything and ev- 
erything. Among the prize possessions of 
Charles Biddix is the well worn key to decoding 

108 



messages carried furtively by means of special 
placing of postage stamps on a letter. 

This handwritten explanation was found be- 
tween the pages of an old book found in an old 
barn somewhere in Western North Carolina: 

Maybe this kind of variation in placement of 
the stamps were what led to the need for 
stricter postal regulations of today! 

Perhaps the Romantic Spirits of 1981 who 
write rather than telephone will find this a 
challenge as well as exciting! 

The Language Of Stamps 

— Right hand corner up side down: Wright no 
more. 

— Same corner horizontally: Do you love me? 

— At the bottom right hand corner: You are 
very cruel. 

— Same Corner horizontally: You are 
changed. 

— In the middle at right side: Wright soon. 

— Same place upside down: I am sorry. 

— Same place horizontally: I am married. 

— Same place horizontally: Are you jealous? 

— In the middle at the bottom: No. 

— Same place upside down: You are too 
loving! 

— Same place horizontally: My parents 
object! 

— The Book Committee 



20th CENTURY MEMORIES 

90 

Here is a collection of memories from some 
members of the Old Buncombe County 
Genealogical Society: 

From The 1940's 

My earliest recollection of Asheville goes 
back to my childhood days in the early fortiies 
when my parents brought my sisters and me 
to Asheville to buy clothing and shoes for 
school. 

The thing that stands out most were the 
hours it took us to make the trip from Franklin 
— three or more hours, as compared to the 
hour and a half trip now. 

Ivey's and Bon Marche were so beautiful, 
particularly when decorated for Christmas. 

We always ate at the S.&W. Cafeteria and it 
was fun to have our trays carried upstairs and 
to look down and see the people come and go. 
I remember the man who sold the Asheville 
Citizen-Times peddling the paper in front of the 
S.&W. in the 1940*s. 

— Roberta Hall. 

Street Cars And Library 

Trolley cars were an important part of Ashe- 
ville. Most of the tracks have now been re- 
moved although some were originally 
covered by asphalt. 

Community meetings were held in Pack 
Square and afterwards the children would con- 
gregate at the old Pack Square Library. The old 
library was located where the educational 
building was where the First Presbyterian 
Church on Church Street is now located. It was 
called the Asheville Public Library then. It 



moved to Pack Square, then later, the old 
building (formerly a bank building) was taken 
down and a new building put up. The name 
was changed to Pack Square Memorial Lib- 
rary. Now the library is housed in its new 
building on Haywood Street. 

— Unsigned 

The "Monster" 

When I was a young girl (about 1932) my 
parents lived in Yancey County in the Pensaco- 
la section. My father was Clarence B. Ray and 
my mother, Grace Alene Ray. 

I had very straight hair and kept begging for 
one of the new "permanent waves" some of 
my friends had gotten in Asheville in Bun- 
combe County. 

My parents finally gave in and we made the 
trip to Asheville and I went to the old Fox 
Beauty Shop. I believe it was located on Pack 
Square at that time. The place fascinated me 
but the "monster" they hooked up to my hair 
frightened me. When the time was up I will 
never forget how fuzzy my hair was, but I was 
so proud of my first permanent. 

— Kirby Ray Whitaker 

Childhood Memories 

Some of my favorite childhood memories 
are riding on the street cars to Aston Park, 
where there were all kinds of games to play 
and swimming in the pool. 

Another favorite was the band stand there 
and in other parts of town where every sum- 
mer German bands would play. My mom and 
dad, Florence and Furman Duckettand Grand- 
parents, Mr. & Mrs. R.L. (Bob) Duckett would 
take us to these places. 

— Mary D. Self 



To Weaverville 

I remember, as a small child, riding on the 
street car from West Asheville to Weaverville 
to visit my Aunt Jessie and Uncle Rupert Smith 
who lived just outside the town. They met me 
at a type of depot at the end of the line. Uncle 
Rupert had a "T" model Ford in which we rode 
to the farm. 

— Margaret Smith Parker 

The Arrival of "The" Motocar 

I best recall a story told me by my grand- 
mother with reference to my grandfather. He 
never would " have told," except for the incon- 
venience of the moment. 

You'd have to know my Grandfather Jor- 
dan, staid as they made them in that age long 
past. It seems that when the "motor car" came 
to town he felt the day might be upon him to 
hang up the harness. Upon that conviction he 
delivered himself to town "sans" horse and 
carriage. 

An unseemly time later, as the sun slipped 
behind the barn, Grandfather arrived some- 
what "discoombooberated", retrieved the 
horse and as he passed the house told my 
grandmother "The Dang thing run up the per- 
simmon!" 

It came to the surface then. Being of a 



stubborn, self-taught nature, he had refused 
instruction in the operation of his newly- 
acquired horsepower. It had taken the upper 
hand as he rounded the drive in sight of the 
house, in the area of the persimmon tree, after 
having, through some miracle, answered to 
his command for three miles of rough country 
road! 

Re: Grandfather Herman Sedgewick Jordan 
and wife, Bessie Sexton Jordan of Brevard, NC 
in the 1880-1940's period. 

— Carol Cotter (Mrs. Adrian) 

Coconut Pies 

I remember Jake Weaver's coconut pies. 
Jake had a restaurant near the municipal golf 
course at the intersection of highways 74 and 
70. These pies were a special treat on a date. 
My husband whom I was dating in 1936, men- 
tioned these pies just last week. He said he 
would like to have another piece of that pie. 
— Ruth Nanney Davis 

Our Mountain Women 

Mountain women are very unusual and stor- 
ies handed down in our family about them are 
colorful and varied. Many of the people here 
are of Scotch-Irish, English, German and 
French Descent which gave them qualities that 
were needed for life on the frontier. 



My great (?) grandmother was one of these 
women with a background as above. She 
made such a journey with her husband and 
three small children, of whom the youngest 
one died. She bore twelve children in seven- 
teen years and died in her mid-thirties at the 
birth of her 12th child, and is buried in the 
family cemetery on Bent Creek. 

Her husband never married again. With the 
help of the older children he raised all the 
eleven children. Her children grew up and 
were strong fine men and women who took 
their place in the community. 

Her daughters and granddaughters could do 
anything a man could do and more. They 
worked in the fields with their husbands and 
children, took care of the animals, milked the 
cow, cut wood, fought the Indians, drove off 
wild animals, butchered tame and wild anim- 
als for food, sheared sheep, carded and spun 
wool and flax, grew a garden, picked and dried 
food they grew and wild berries and nuts. 

They sewed bed clothing, sheets and blank- 
ets and quilts and feather beds and straw ticks 
or leaves for the bed. They wove and spun and 
made clothes for the family 

They cleaned and washed, made soap, 
picked feathers from the chickens and geese 
for beds and pillows. They gathered herbs to 
doctor their families as well as the neighbors. 
They taught their children the Bible and taught 



ly history on all sides go back to the early 
1800s. 

Most of my life has been spent in these 
beautiful hills and there is no other place I 
would care to live. We were brought to Bun- 
combe County by the opportunity to be em- 
ployed within the bounds of Montreat. 

The years of living and working there have 
been rewarding and enriching to my family. 
We have had opportunities to meet people 
from all over the world, but the people with 
roots in Western North Carolina continue to be 
the most thoughtful and considerate of any we 
meet. 

— Walter Hall 

The Ice Cream Stand 

I remember the Blue Bird Ice Cream stand 
on the Square that sold a cone of ice cream for 
a nickle; the underground restrooms on the 
Square; stores on the square were Quality 
Bakery, Johnson's Drug Store and an open-air 
produce stand. Busses going to Oteen Hospit- 
al, The Rec. Park, and Beverly Hills left from 
the front of the fruit stand. 

The Y. W.C. A. on Grove Street offered much 
to the business girls during the late 1 940-1 950 
period. Three Clubs, F.F.F., Business Girls' 
League: and "Wise and Otherwise" met week- 
ly for dinner, meeting and a program, headed 
by Miss Eunice Adams. It is all memorable. 
— Ruth Stroud Ford 




Cecil Business College — Asheville. 



They were independent and firey like the 
Irish, thrifty and good managers like the 
Scotch, stubborn and determined like the Ger- 
mans, fun-loving and playful like the Irish and 
French. Family devotion and love of family and 
the land from the Irish and English. 

The women felt equal with their husbands. 
They walked or rode a horse from Pennsylva- 
nia, Virginia, South Carolina, Eastern North 
Carolina, Tennessee, etc. with their hus- 
bands. The cooked, washed carried loads, 
bore children and took care of their husbands 
and children on the long journey. Many died 
on the way or died young, soon after settling in 
the wilderness, often leaving a large family of 
children. 



them to pray. They took them to church and 
disciplined them. Their children grew up to be 
strong and self-reliant. 

The women died young, or lived to be very 
old and very tough and alert. Their "children 
rose up to call them blessed." 

Many women ran the farms and finished 
rearing the children in cases where the hus- 
bands died. They always pitched in and did 
whatever was necessary to do to survive. 

— Sara Reynolds Beatty 

These Beautiful Hills 

I never really "came" to Western North 
Carolina — I have just always been here. Fami- 



Bonfires And Sleighs 

I remember the bonfires and the blocked 
streets for those riding sleighs down Flint 
Street all the way to Magnolia and Broadway! 
Also the fun we had renting bicycles at the lot 
across the street from Battery Park Hotel and 
riding all over what is now called the "Historic 
District." 

What fun we had sneaking into the old City 
Auditorium across from the St. Lawrence 
Catholic Church on Haywood and sliding down 
the winding fire chute (escape). 

— Sarah Cecil Lasher 

Summer Trip Remembrances 

When I was a child we used to come to 
Asheville on our way to Waynesville every 
summer. When we were on our way back 
home to Henderson, north of Raleigh, Mother 
always spent the night and we did some shop- 
ping. 

I remember so well, the street cars which 
we rode from the train station to the hotel. I 
remember shopping at Bon Marche when it 
was where "Moneytree" is now. Once I was 
so impressed with a pair of sandals Mother 
bought for me. 

I remember M.V. Moore's, but more, the 
smell of it. The air of elegance, I suppose, it 
being a store of quality. 

I came to live in Asheville in 1948. Many of 
the old landmarks were still here and it broke 
my heart to see many of them disappear. 

The fountain on Pack Square, — The 
George Vanderbilt — I danced on the Roof 
Garden to a live orchestra, also at Battery 
Park. The grandure of Grove Park Inn — the 
polished apples in the elevators for the guests 

109 



... the food was superb ... The old auditor- 
ium .. . Saw some good entertainment there 
... And some great conventions. 

Am so glad Mr. Fortune has preserved the 
past, at least in pictures. 

— Mrs. John M. Hall 



Hendersonville's Main Street 

Hendersonville's Main Street was a beauti- 
ful, wide street with two lanes of traffic each 
way. A wide sidewalk with benches on which 
to sit and watch the people go by. 

You knew everyone, so there was always 

someone to talk to. A visit to one of the corner 

drug stores for an ice-cream cone or a Coke 

was a good climax for a summer afternoon. 

— Eugenia Bridgeman 

Hendersonville's Confederate Monument 

The monument to the Confederate soldiers 
stood in the middle of Main Street at First 
Avenue. This was the Hendersonville of my 
early childhood. The monument was protected 
by a small iron fence and children loved to 
stand by the fence and admire the granite that 
honored the old soldiers. 

On Memorial Day the memorial column was 
decorated with flowers by the members of the 
U.D.C. 

Then "progress" came and Main Street had 
to be paved to make way for the automobiles. 
The poor monument was moved to the lawn of 
the county court house and now it stands as a 
lonely sentinel noticed by no one — not even 
the small children. 

— Cecil S. Kessler 




College currency. 



forming animals, etc. The entire park was 
washed away in the 1916 flood. 

When I was in my teens, on Sunday after- 
noons we went up town and window shopped. 
There were lots of people in the streets, stroll- 
ing along, looking in the windows, maybe 
stopping at the Candy Kitchen for ice cream. 
— Hortense Robinson 

Mount Mitchell 

As we drove up the black top in Mount 
Mitchell State Park, I found myself dreaming 
of the long ago ... of a narrow dirt road with 
the vegetation so near that my little arms were 
long enough to reach out of the car window 
and snatch leaves, much to my mother's 
dismay. 

This was not my first experience at "leaf 
snatching" on this road which led to Camp 
Alice. It was always a part of our visit to 




This balcony view of the interior of the S & W Cafeteria, Asheville, shows why its architect, Douglas D. Ellington, 
considered one of the best during the 1 920s. The cafeteria was designed and the construction was supervised by Ellington 
himself. In 1981 it is vacant. Please see the first Remembrance in the Article entitled "20th Century Memories" as well as 
Article No. 86 on Douglas D. Ellington. 



Riverside Park 

I remember going to Riverside Park when I 
was a little girl. We rode on the street car down 
Montford Avenue. There were all kinds of 
amusement booths — a penny arcade, per- 

110 



Asheville to climb to the top of Mt. Mitchell. 
Camp Alice was a major milestone in that 
accomplishment. My main remembrance of 
the camp was that it was where we left the car 
and took to the trail, not to mention the food 



and drink that was available there. To a child, 
food eaten in the wilderness was something 
special. 

Then came the climb along logging trails. 
The last time my parents and I enjoyed this trek 
together, I had an additional thrill — totally 
unexpected. A logger was coming down the 
trail with an ox, a beautiful animal. He asked 
my dad if he could give me a short ride. His 
strong arms lifted me onto the animal's back 
and I sat there proudly while my mom took my 
picture. Then it was on to the top, and the 
breathtaking view with dad holding me on his 
shoulders. 

What? — oh yes, I'm going to walk to the 
tower with you. After all, it's only a hop, skip 
and a jump from the parking lot. I wonder who 
it was that decided to take the thrill out of 
climbing Mt. Mitchell. On second thought I 
probably wouldn't be able to make it from 
Camp Alice today, so thank you, whoever you 
were. 

— Joyce Hall 

Rhodondendron Parade 

As a child I remember coming up to Ashevil- 
le for the annual Rhododendron Parade. This 
was the great parade on Main Street in Ashevil- 
le. I came from Canton and stayed all day. We 
ate at the old S. & W. Cafeteria. The main 
parade was on Haywood St. to Patton Avenue. 

It was a great day and the parade was 
beautiful. Sometimes we made a picnic of it. 
There was lots of color in the parade. 

— June Scroggs 

A Personal Reflection 

Having been thrust into life without adequ- 
ate resources for a life of ease, it became 
necessary to work. I delayed this through 
school, college and law school, but finally the 
inevitable day came. Through circuitous and 
devious means of employment and re- 
employment, Asheville became my home in 
1960. 

My father, having been a man of the cloth, 
led me to many a household, but now the 
mountains became my home. I came to be a 
banker in the trust department and stayed to 
dabble in others' troubles, thus now I practice 
law and repeat the lawyers' prayer: 

"Oh Lord, let there be strife among thy 
people so that thy servants may live!" 

— George H. Johnson, Jr. 



A 1971 Trip 

In 1971 , while stationed at Seymour John- 
son Air Force Base at Goldsboro, N.C. I often 
travelled through Asheville enroute to my 
ancestral home in Clarksville, Tenn. I well re- 
member the ice storm of that winter which 
slowed my progress through the mountains. 

The spring and fall treks through Buncombe 
introduced me to the mild climate and heavily 
forested scenery. 

In 1 978 when I was offered a job in Asheville 
I lost no time accepting that offer, knowing 
that many spend their lives trying to earn 
enough money to be able to live in such a 
place. 

Being interested in the preservation of old 
homes, we chose to purchase a home on 
Cumberland Avenue in the near-town Mont- 
ford Historic District, which allows us to view 
the oldest Asheville residences every day. 

— Cleo Hogan 



first employment agency in Asheville in 1925 
and was self-employed for ten years until she 
got married. 

During the early 1940's she helped compile 
some of the very records that we research 
today. Later she worked for Postal Accounts at 
the Arcade Building. For many years she lived 
on College Street just above the court house. 

In later years she lived in several old houses 
in the Montford area; then moved to the Van- 
derbilt Apts. where she lived until she had to 
go to a rest home. "Auntie" loved Asheville, 
and through her I learned to love it also. 

— Billie Ledbetter 

Brick Sidewalks 

For those of us who were not early residents 
or who do not remember the many brick side- 
walks and also brick streets, that used to exist 
in Asheville, I would like to describe the pro- 
cess. 



- 




Some ministers and lay leaders in Central United Methodist Church, Asheville, ot the 1920-1930 period are remembered in 
the Article "20th Century Memories" in that portion sub-headed "Schools and Church Remembered . " An old photo of the 
Church appears here. 



An Aunt Remembered 

Asheville reminds me of "Aunt Ted" — 
Thelma Ledbetter Ingle. She was born in 1889 
and was really a liberated woman way before 
that became fashionable. 

She went to Averys Creek School, then to 
Christ School, when it was coed, and then on 
to Asheville Business School. She started the 



The area to be bricked was first levelled — 
filled in if necessary — then packed with heavy 
hand tampers. Then a layer of sand was placed 
and the bricks were laid on top of the sand. 
Then a layer of sand was spread on top of the 
bricks and this was broomed into the spaces 
between the bricks, and watered to settle it. 
Even on streets which were not brick paved, 



the space between the street car tracks was 
paved with bricks. 

The areas in front of the old fire station and 
city market were paved with granite cobble 
stones in a beautiful fan-shaped pattern. There 
were also some areas near the old depot paved 
in this manner. 

As a young boy, one of my favorite enter- 
tainments was watching this type of work in 
progress. 

— Duncan Murrow 

A 1920s Cattle Drive 

One of the most exciting things to me as a 
youngster was the arrival of Franklin D. 
Roosevelt in town. He was driven out Charlotte 
Street in a big black limousine. We children 
were allowed to go up to the corner to wave 
our flags and get a real close-up view of FDR. 

Another thing that really impressed me hap- 
pened in the late 1920s. We had moved to 
Tampa Avenue in West Asheville and always 
had to run inside when blasting was to take 
place in Lucerne Park. We were always noti- 
fied ahead because on occasion stones of va- 
rious sizes would plummet to the ground. 

One day a real rumbling started but we had 
not been notified of blasting. Soon we heard 
shouts and the lowing and bawling of cattle. 
Our street was soon filled with cattle of various 
sizes and men running wildly about trying to 
control them. Our new grass and shrubbery 
were soon demolished. This was possibly the 
last cattle drive through West Asheville. 

One of the very earliest memories was of 
visiting "Aunt Sarah" — not my aunt, but, 
that of my friends. I was only a very little girl 
but felt embarrassed when she pinched my 
cheeks and said, "Ah, the bloom of youth!" 
When I grew older and realized who "Aunt 
Sarah" was, I was no longer embarrassed. 

She was Sarah Coleman Porter — wife of 
our famous "0. Henry!" 

— Sarah Glasgow 

Map Needed 

Since I didn't live in Asheville when I was 
young, I have no early memories of the place. I 
have now lived here twenty-four years and am 
convinced Asheville is a wonderful place in 
which to live. However, this is the most diffi- 
cult place I have ever seen for finding one's 
way around. Like many many people I have 
talked with, I carry a map wherever I go and 
have done so ever since I have been a resident. 

— Rowena Cassat 

Schools And Church Remembered 

I was born on Ora Street, but later Father 
built a three story frame house on French 
Broad. It was torn down while it was still in 
sound condition to make room for a city ex- 
pansion project. 

I attended Murray Hill Elementary School — 
built on a promintory that had a fine view of the 
French Broad River and mountain scenery in 
all directions. The staff was excellent. The 
principal had travelled in Europe and we had 
separate instructors who came in once a week 
to give classes in music, art and sewing. 

111 



For cooking we went to Park Avenue 
School. This Murray Hill School only went as 
far as 6th grade, but it did have an obligatory 
kindergarten so I started when I was very 
young. 

For 7th grade I went to Newton Elementary 
School which had previously been Newton 
Academy. I will always remember Mrs. Snow- 
den, the 7th grade teacher, who really drilled 
us in grammar and sentence structure. 

For the 8th grade some went to the old 
Asheville High School on Woodfin Street half 
days. There was a split-shift arrangement. 

I was in the first class in Hall Fletcher High 
School. In my senior year I transferred to the 
current high school and was in the first gra- 
duating class — the class of 1929. 

Then the stock market crash came, and 
because so many students who had expected 
to go on to college were not able to make such 
plans, financially, the College of the City of 
Asheville was created. It met in one wing of the 
high school. It was staffed by teachers who 
had not been able to find permanent teaching 
jobs elsewhere. One was a West Point man, 
and one was Virginia Bryan. No tuition was 
charged, and the superintendent of the public 
schools was superintendent of the College as 
well. 

This school merged with the Biltmore 
Junior College and became the Asheville/Bilt- 
more College which later became the founda- 
tion of the University of North Carolina at 
Asheville with its own beautiful campus off 
Weaver Boulevard. 

My grandmother was Sally Brown, later 
Mrs. Albert Gallatin Tate. I have her autograph 
book and many pictures from the era of the Old 
Asheville Female College. She lived in Muddy 
Creek in McDowell County and came over here 
to school. 

We grew up in Central Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. I remember Ashley Chappell, 
one of the ministers who was a real evangelist. 
He preached hell-fire and damnation, and they 
had to enlarge the building to hold the crowds. 

Another minister I recall with great affection 
was Hugh Burton Trimble. He was particularly 
concerned for us young people and every 
weekend he would take us on a hike some- 
where. At times he took us as far as the Indian 
Reservation and then on into the Smokies on 
pack horses. He was a very learned man, his 
sermons were more mind-stretching and less 
emotional. He eventually went on to become 
Dean of the Candler School of Theology at 
Emory University in Atlanta. 



Sunday School 

The Sunday School teacher I remember 
most was Mrs. William Devendorf. Her hus- 
band was manager of the Asheville Biltmore 
Hotel, and she would have our S.S. class over 
to the hotel for dinner once in a while. Mother 
always made me a new dress for such an 
elegant occasion — I remember one brown 
silk one. Mrs. Devendorf could make fancy 
candies on special order for many elaborate 
social occasions which intrigued us, of 
course. 

I remember two ladies from Boston, the 



Misses Lillian (I think) and Laura Plonk who 
taught a School of Expression here. The Ashe- 
ville High School also would give medals to the 
winners of various competitions. One girl had 
a bracelet made of the medals she won. 

One year they put on the operetta In Lilac 
Time ' ' at the Civic Auditorium . The stars of the 
operetta were imported from New York City, 
and we girls were in the supporting cast . . . 
Eileen Stikeleather (daughter of Gillian) and 
one of the Devendorf girls, and I, and a lot of 
others. . . . They taught us ballet out at this 
special building — I think the Junior League 
building. We had blue and silver accordian 
pleated costumes — cost a fortune! 

"Uncle Bob" 

One of the men who had great influence on 
the young people at the Central Methodist 
Church was Robert Guthrie who owned a bar- 
ber shop at the intersection of Haywood and 
College — about where Pritchard Park is to- 
day. He was a graduate of Columbia University 
but came to Asheville because his aunt, Mrs. 
Wood, lived here. He stayed with her. Every- 
one called him Uncle Bob. 

Uncle Bob was the one who introduced me 
to my future husband — by telephone. My 
mother insisted on proper introductions but 
because of a schedule conflict Uncle Bob 
couldn't come in person so the introduction 
was made by telephone. Leon Meeks was 
visiting here from Florida, and had a rented 
car. Mother wouldn't let me go with him by 
myself to the dance at the big hotel. So, we 
went with a group of people in another car. 

I was with Taylor Bledsoe — a brilliant 
young lawyer — who had asked me to go 
electioneering with him. That day we called on 
Thomas Wolfe out in a remote cabin where 
Wolfe was hidden out trying to get some writ- 
ing done. He wasn't very pleased to have the 
interruption. 

My high school class is the only one which 
hasn't had a 50th Anniversary Reunion. Char- 
lie Dermid is the permanent president. He 
couldn't get it organized himself and couldn't 
get anyone else to take it on, so we didn't have 
a 50th reunion. 

— Mrs. Maymee Tate Meeks, 

Bellaire, Texas, 

Librarian, Rice University 

Old Swimming Holes 

The things I most enjoyed as a teen-ager in 
Buncombe County was the old swimming 
holes. We would take sandwiches or a water- 
melon and go to North Fork or the mouth of 
Bull Creek and the water was so clear and 
clean, and it was so much fun to get out with 
friends. We would spend a whole afternoon in 
the water and then build up a fire and eat our 
supper, perhaps roast hotdogs and 
marshmallows. 

The fellowship was meaningful, but as in- 
dustry moved out into the area and the rivers 
became contaminated we not only lost a lot of 
beauty but also a way of life. 

— Wilma Dennis Glass 



Horrors: Green Then Red 

During the Roosevelt years (1 930's on) and 
the era of the WPA, craft classes had been 
started by that organization at the old Orange 
Street School, located on the spot the North 
Carolina Highway Commission now occupies. 
My mother was much involved (since we've 
always been a "crafty" family) in the weaving, 
woodworking and copper work. Copper was 
supplied free by the Sheriff's Department from 
old moonshine stills! 

On a hot summer day several of my friends 
and myself decided to fix a snack and eat out 
under a shade tree. Someone made a pitcher 
of lemonade and I prepared sandwiches. My 
aunt had just made mayonaise so I spread that 
very lavisly on the bread, then added cucum- 
bers and tomatoes. I carefully arranged the 
sandwiches on one of the copper trays my 
mother had made, covered them with a napkin 
and carried them outside. When our lemonade 
was poured, we uncovered the sandwiches. 
HORRORS! 

They had turned GREEN!! In my haste I had 
picked up an unfinished tray. It looked beauti- 
ful but had not been coated with shellac and as 
a result the high acid content in the sand- 
wiches had set up a violent reaction. 

I, too, had a violent reaction, only I turned 
RED when everyone roared with laughter. 

The tray hangs on my wall today and when 
we are together, one of the friends will invari- 
ably remember that long ago incident. 

— Sarah Glasgow 

Cecil Business College 

Here is a sample of "College Currency" 
used years ago by the Cecil Business College 
in Asheville. The students handled such cur- 
rency as they practiced learning to be bank 
tellers, and accountants, and executive secre- 
taries. 

This building was especially designed and 
built for Robert Cecil, by Archie Nichols. It 
contained one part set aside as a replica of a 
bank for the students to practice daily banking 
business. 

— Sarah Cecil Lasher 



BARNARDSVILLE: STUDENTS 

WRITE COMMUNITY, FAMILY 

HISTORY 

91 

Want to interest your children in your family 
history? 

Perhaps you need some water "to prime the 
pump!" as the old custom was when the well 
ran dry temporarily. Here is an idea that may 
have a lasting effect not only on your child's 
interest in family, and in history in general, but 
may also have rippling effects on a whole 
community of people. 

Meet quietly with the social studies teacher 
at your child's school and ask about the possi- 
bilities of a classroom project to study family 
or community history. If "everyone's doing 
it!" and it will result in a school grade for 
them, it will assume importance and take 
priority over other activities. 



112 



Since it is easier to show the results of such 
a project than to try to explain it in detail, we 
bring you, in the following pages, a selection 
of research material gathered together with 
zest by the students of Barnardsville 
Elementary School during the class year of 
1980-81. 

They were members of the social studies 
class under the leadership of Mrs. Violet M. 
Cook, teacher. They became involved in re- 
searching, writing, showing, telling, demon- 
strating, interviewing, listening, analyzing and 
competing with each other for what they could 
find. 

The activity released endless energy and 
interest needed for the writing of their intended 
book entitled Echoes of Big Ivy, and although 
the hoped-for funds for publishing did not 
materialize, we are delighted to be able to 
include selected portions of their manuscript 
in this part of our Heritage of Old Buncombe. 

Maybe their accomplishment will give you 
some ideas. 

Other classes could do the same sort of 
thing, and much material could be stored on 
personal family history shelves as a result. 
What an individual has been personally in- 
volved with, he/she will keep and pass along. 
That's what family history is all about! 

HISTORY OF BIG IVY 
TOWNSHIP: 1790-1933 

91 -A 

(This was compiled by Harris Dillingham. 
No bibliography of his research material 
was included. For our purposes, it is 
enough that he did the reading. — Editors) 

"Although settled more than a decade later 
than the Swannanoa River Valley, the present 



Ivy Township, embracing more than 40,000 
acres of fertile farm and virgin timber lands 
lying in the basin and on the watershed of Big 
Ivy Creek in the shadow of the Black Moun- 
tains in the northwestern corner of Buncombe 
County has made such rapid strides that it 
takes its place alongside of the most progres- 
sive sections of the county. 

Upon the acquisition of the rich territory, 
through treaty with the Cherokee Indians, the 
commonwealth of North Carolina issued ex- 
tensive land grants in the Big Ivy basin and 
surrounding county to speculators with the 
idea of encouraging settlement. John Gray 
Blount, an early speculator bought a large tract 
of the land and resold part of it to Zacharia 
Candler. 

In keeping with the pioneering spirit of the 
day Absalom Dillingham, a stalwart youth of 
26 and his wife, the fair Rebeccah, pushed up 
the Big Ivy Creek to a rich flat known as Moun- 
tain Valley, about two and a half miles south- 
east of the present town of Barnardsville, and 
built there, in 1796, a log cabin, thus becom- 
ing the first permanent settlers. Soon after- 
wards, however, came the Carters, Roberts, 
Andersons, Barnards, Whittemores, McKin- 
neys, Greenwoods, Hursts, Coles, Wilsons, 
Carsons, Burlisons, Edwards and other fami- 
lies to carve a new domain from this virginal 
wilderness for their posterity. 

As communitites sprang up in the isolated 
sections of Big Ivy, the people established 
churches and schools. The first church estab- 
lished in Big Ivy was a very rude affair built in 
1821 on land donated by Billy Anderson at the 
Whittemore road fork. The first pastor was 
Uncle Bobbie Patterson and after his death, 
the church was served by Rev. J.W. Anderson 
and then, in turn, by the Reverends James, 



BIG IVY 



1810-1880 




Carter & Garrison Cemetery - 
Thomas Dillingham Cemetery- 
Maney Cemetery _ __ — — 
Absolom Dillingham Cemetery - 



William Dillingham Cemetery 5 

Thorns F. Dillingham Cemetery 6 

Church of God _ — _ _ _ - 7 
Paint Fork Cemetery — — — 8 



Hooker, Hail, Allison, Jordan, Cordell, Blythe, 
Morgan, Bradley, Ammons, and Riddle. 

As the congregation grew stronger, other 
churches were built in Big Ivy and among 
these now active are: Black Mountain Baptist, 
the Church of God, Freewill Baptist, the Bar- 
nardsville Methodist, the Mountain Valley 
Methodist, Protestant, and the Dillingham 
Baptist and the Dillingham Presbyterian. 

The first schools of the valley were sub- 
scription schools. Among the first teachers 
were Robert Wood, Watson Holmes, William 
Bradley, and Jack Greenwood. Other early 
teachers were Miss Dorcas Anderson, Romu- 
las Anderson, Miss Lily Roberts, James and 
Thomas Gibson. 

The first doctors in Big Ivy were: Dr. John 
Weaver, Dr. Mathew Greenwood, (son of Jud- 
son) Dr. Donald Baird, Dr. John H. Baird and 
Dr. Natt McLean, who served the numerous 
families until recent years. Then there were Dr. 
J.C. Jay, Dr. I.N. McLean, Dr. William Green- 
wood and Dr. Donald Baird. 

During the Civil War, Capt. Charles Roberts 
enlisted 107 recruits from the community for 
the company that was designated as Company 
K. 25th Regiment. This regiment gave a good 
account of itself, and was with General Lee at 
the surrender. 

Today, Big Ivy is much different than it was 
in our grandparents' day. Our schools are no 
longer one-room buildings, but have a diffe- 
rent classroom for each grade. We also have 
high schools for grades nine through twelve. 
There are churches for each faith to attend. 
Almost every family owns two cars so that 
their transportation is very easy. Except for 
one or two homes in my area, inside plumbing 
has replaced all of the out-buildings. Water is 
no longer carried from springs in buckets. 

The young people in our area have it much 
easier than they did in even my parents' day. 
When they are old enough to drive, most own 
their own cars which are usually provided by 
their parents. We have the recreation center on 
Dillingham Road which has the only public 
swimming pool in Barnardsville. We also have 
two fast-food restaurants. Going out to eat and 
to a movie is a very common thing. At first, 
only a few people owned a television set. Now, 
most families have at least two sets, usually 
color. Roller skating is the most popular past- 
time in Barnardsville and surrounding towns 
today. Every weekend, most of the young peo- 
ple can be found at Bank's Recreation Center on 
North Fork Road. Here we can roller skate and 
play the pin-ball machines or just listen to the 
music and have fun with our friends. 

Nearly all the roads in our area are paved 
and state maintained. Therefore we have no 
trouble in getting to school and work. The jobs 
are very much improved and are usually plenti- 
ful. The wages are set to meet the skills of the 
people and to meet the high cost of living. 
However, since we no longer farm the way our 
grandparents did, our crops are not our main 
source of food. 

In the past, only a very few were able to buy 
ready-made clothes. Most of the women did 
their own sewing and quilting. Today, most 
families buy clothing every week to keep up 
with the changing fashions. 



113 



Today there is no excuse for anyone not to 
get a good education. We also have the oppor- 
tunity to get the kind of jobs we want and to 
make enough money to meet our needs and to 
provide the luxuries to which we are accus- 
tomed . I doubt if many of us would be satisfied 
if we had to go back to the way of life that our 
grandfathers had. 



Joseph L. Ray, June 20, 1881 
James H. Roberts, December 12, 1881 
Albert G. Anderson, November 27, 1882 
James M. Whittemore, June 25, 1884 
William R. Maney, April 26, 1890 
James M. Greenwood, May 29, 1890 
Reuben P. Whitt, March 24, 1893 
John M. Burleson, May 18, 1898 




A Family Tree Chart designed by the students for their Big Ivy Township Family History Project. 



POSTAL SERVICE 

91 -B 

The United States mail, until 35 or 40 years 
ago was received at Stocksville and brought 
into Big Ivy Valley to Barnardsville. Deliveries 
to Dillingham were made every Thursday. Sam 
Griffen, then a barefoot school boy, was one of 
the first postmen, trudging daily from Stocks- 
ville to Barnardsville with his little leather 
pouch, containing a very few letters. On some 
days it took him all day to complete his de- 
liveries. 

The first post office in old Democrat (Anti- 
och), about one mile northwest of the present 
Democrat, was kept by John A. Carter, Frank 
Roberts and Job Barnard who served as the 
first postmasters at Barnardsville, distributing 
the mail from their general store there. The 
Dillingham Post Office was at first three miles 
southeast of Barnardsville, and directed by 
Clingman Dillingham. Later it was moved one 
mile farther up, to the place now known as 
Dillingham. Manon Whitaker was postmaster 
when this change was made, followed by 
James W. Dillingham. 

Some years later, Rockview Post Office, on 
North Fork was established with Joe Ray in 
charge. This office was discontinued. 
Barnardsville Postmasters 
Established on February 26, 1875 
Postmasters 

Frank F. Roberts, February 26, 1875 
Hezekiah E. Barnard, January 17, 1876 



John W. Carson, December 22, 1903 
Matt Burleson, January 27, 1909 
William L. Dillingham, February 20, 1913 
Flem L. Whitaker, August 21, 1924 
Mrs. Stella M. Ledford, November 30, 1928 

(successor appointed after 1929) 
Mrs. Stella M. Ledford, December 31, 1928 
Mrs. Bettie Dillingham, April 2, 1934 
Mrs. Sallie M. Brigmon, April 1, 1936 
Maragaret L. Dillingham, March 31, 1952 
Judson G. Burrell, May 3, 1957 
Mary Alice Maney, December 10, 1971 

BUILDINGS IN 
BARNARDSVILLE 

91-C 

1. Stores — Anderson's Grocery, Hwy, 
197, Barnardsville; Wheeler's Grocery, Bar- 
nardsville; Buckner's Union 76, Barnardsville; 
North Buncombe Fuel & Oil Co., Haw Branch; 
Carson's Store, Dillingham Rd.; D. & M. Auto- 
motives, Dillingham Rd.; Carson's Gulf & 
Grocery, Haw Branch. 

2. Churches — Antioch, Barnardsville Bap- 
tist, Barnardsville Freewill, Barnardsville 
Methodist, Carson's Chapel, Chestnut Grove, 
Church of God, Dillingham Presbyterian, Ivy 
Park, Mountain Valley, North Black Nountain, 
Paint Fork Freewill, Pleasant Gap, Souls 
Harbor. 

3. Banks Recreation Center — North Fork 
Rd. 



4. Restaurants — D. & D. Restaurant — 
Democrat, Sheena's Restaurant — Barnard- 
sville Hwy. 

5. Beauty Salons — Jolene's Beauty Shop 

— Dillingham Rd. , Hazel's Kut & Kurl — Bar- 
nardsville Hwy. , Beauty Nook — Haw Branch. 

6. Tomato Packing Plant — North Fork Rd. 

7. Big Ivy Community Center — Dillingham 
Rd. 

8. Barnardsville Elementary School — Bar- 
nardsville. 

9. Factory — Magnetics International — 
Paint Fork Rd. 

10. U.S. Post Office — Barnardsville Hwy. 

11. Barnardsville Fire Department — Bar- 
nardsville Hwy. 

12. Barnardsville Telephone — 

13. Mountain Valley Retirement Home Inc. 

— Dillingham Rd. 



A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE 
BARNARDSVILLE SCHOOLS 

91 -D 

The first school of our community was sup- 
ported for a few months in the year — prob- 
ably three months or less — by contributions 
made by families who wished to send their 
children. These schools were generally known 
as "Subscription Schools." Money being a 
scare commodity, the teacher was sometimes 
and perhaps too often, paid in whatever pro- 
duce the parents had to spare. 

Perhaps the most important progressive 
step was the establishment of the Free School 
System. The first school building of our com- 
munity was at Carter's Hill, some two and 
one-half miles southeast of Barnardsville. 

The subscription schools and the early free 
schools furnished most of the educational 
opportunities for the Barnardsville area and 
adjoining communities. 

With the election of Charles B. Aycock in 
1900, an educational revival began. Closely 
associated and working with the governor in 
his program for education throughout the 
state were such men as Professor B.A. Alder- 
man and State Superintendent of the Schools, 
James V. Royner. Under the leadership of 
these men, our people began to think of 
education in broader and more progressive 
terms. More, larger, better-equipped, and 
more accessible school buildings were con- 
structed. 

At this time Barnardsville had no high 
school, and the school had never had more 
than two teachers. Under the leadership of 
Buncombe County Superintendent A.C. 
Reynolds, assisted by many public spirited 
citizens, in 1906 the Barnardsville School Dis- 
trict voted a special tax to lengthen the school 
term and provide better educational advan- 
tages for their children. In 1907 Barnardsville 
High School was established with Z.A. 
Rochelle of Durham, N.C. as its first principal. 
Mr. Rochelle was an alumnus of Trinity Col- 
lege, now Duke University. He was the only 
high school teacher, and there were two 
teachers in the elementary department. 

At the time that our high school at Barnard- 
sville was established, Ivy Township in which 



114 



Ech 



oes 



of 



X 



J 







Dianne Maney designed this cover for the Big Ivy History book project. 



miles above Barnardsville. Rev. E. Mac Davis 
was the organizing pastor. He served there 
until 1904. Several Pastors have served the 
church. The present church was built between 
1934 and 1936 and is made from native rock. 
Many additions and improvements have been 
made — including adding a fellowship hall, 
and remodeling the manse. 

— Jim Saye 

Barnardsville Freewill Baptist Church 

The first preacher at Barnardsville Freewill 
Baptist Church was Preacher Ballard. Some of 
the other Preachers at my church have been 
Preachers Poland, Edwards, Maynorand Met- 
calf. It is one of the oldest churches in Bar- 
nardsville. An old member in my church is Roy 
Mundy. 

— Melanie Harris 

The Church Of God 

The Church of God was established in the 
early 1900s on Whittemore Branch Road in 
Barnardsville, and is presently located at the 
intersection of the two roads. The property for 
the present church was deeded for church 
purposes back in the 1800's, and was ac- 
quired for the present church by permission of 
the trustees of the following churches: Bar- 
nardsville Baptist, Presbyterian, Methodist 
and Freewill Baptist. The Church of God has its 
headquarters in Cleveland, Tennessee. 

Some of the first members were Habe 
Atkins, Mrs. Lillie Harris, Spurgeon McKin- 
ney, Rev. Jim McKinney, Mrs. Iddy Anders. 
The trustees were Rev. Talmadge Whittemore, 
Rev. Ray , Rev. Max Atkins; the preachers: 
Rev. Mrs. Lindsey, Rev. Mrs. Dixi Chambers, 
and the Reverends Stone, Isaac Satter, D.B. 
Yow, Jim McKinney, M.H. Lamb, D.H. Delk, 
Moody, Lowry, Roy Ray, F.R. Layell, John 
Ash, Sam Craft, Romy Dyson and Carnes. 

— Kelly Rice 



Barnardsville is located, had some eight or 
nine small, mostly one-teacher schools. One 
or more of these had two teachers and later 
one had three teachers. Gradually as the years 
went by, the patrons of the small schools 
became convinced that their children could 
receive better educational advantages in the 
Barnardsville System than they could in the 
small schools. During the first half of the 20th 
century nine elementary schools were estab- 
lished in the Barnardsville area. These were 
the Carson, Dillingham, Paint Fork, North 
Fork, Poverty Branch, Democrat, Morgan Hill, 
etc. A plant including a staff of about fifteen 
teachers, high school and elementary was 
formed. 

The buildings have kept pace with con- 
solidation. The first brick structure, composed 
of six class rooms and auditorium, was com- 
pleted in 1917, enlarged by four additional 
class rooms in 1923. In 1927 a modern high 
school building was constructed on a side 
about one quarter of a mile from the old build- 
ing. The old building housed the elementary 
school in charge of a building principal. About 
1951 a new elementary building, modern in 
every respect, was joined to the high school 



building. 

At first, the curriculum of the high school 
was designed to prepare a small group of 
graduates for college entrance. Soon, howev- 
er, courses were added in vocational, agricul- 
ture and home economics to meet the needs of 
a community devoted largely to farming. Later 
the curriculum was expanded to include com- 
mercial education. 

— The school class 



SOME AREA CHURCHES AND 
HISTORY 



91-E 



Here is a portion of the school students' 
view of the church history of their area. 
Although simple in format, it is a start at 
becoming aware of the longer view of 
Church History which lies ahead of them. 
— The Book Committee 



Dillingham Presbyterian Church 

The Dillingham Presbyterian Church was 
organized on August 21, 1898. The Church, 
first named the Upper Ivy Presbyterian 
Church, was built on the Big Ivy Creek three 



Barnardsville Baptist 

The Barnardsville Baptist Church was first 
organized in 1821 as Big Ivy Baptist Church. It 
was located at the intersection of Whittemore 
Branch where the Church of God is now. Some 
of the first preachers were Robert Pattisore 
(Patterson ?), J.W. Anderson, Leroy Sams, 
Jimmy Hooker, S.W. Hall, Elijah Allison, F.M. 
Jordon, J.C. Cordwell, Jimmy Blythe, John 
Morgan, Alfred Bradley, John Ammons, 01. 
Springfield, W.A. Robinson, J. Brendle, P. 
Robinson, Columbus Cole, W. Bradley. 

The church was destroyed by fire, with all 
records, in 1900. It was rebuilt and burned 
down again in 1915. The congregation used 
the Methodist Church until 1921 , when it was 
rebuilt in its present location for $11,000. 

James Robinson and Henry Ledford went to 
Texas to Baylor University and brought back 
Rev. Robert Parsons and his wife Maxine, who 
served from April 1, 1970 until October 5, 
1980. The Rev. Mac Honeycutt came on Jan. 
11, 1981. This is the oldest known church in 
Barnardsville. 



115 




The keeping of sheep was important to many families who settled the Old Buncombe area. Pictured here is a 19th Century 
photo of a sheep pasture in the Black Mountain area. Photo by Margaret W. Morley. 



to 1884, only one — a cigarette company 
owned by Fred Hull on Valley Street — still 
operated in the 1890s. 

Describing Asheville in 1870, Gatchell 
found only "ten stores with general assort- 
ments, one drugstore, one drug and book 
store, one family grocery, two jewelers' 
shops, one tailor's shop . . . with two bakeries 
and one small brewery. It has three hotels, two 
tanneries, and near it is a foundry." There 
were no large mills or factories. 

In 1890. a total of 1 ,41 5 out of a population 
of 11,913 were employed in manufacturing. 
Still, in 1890, Asheville was not fixed in its past 
or in its future to be a city of health and 



pleasure seekers. 



Industrialization Pushed 

The literature that promoted health and 
tourism also encouraged industrialization. 
Gatchell, the physician who celebrated Ashe- 
ville's climate, additionally saw it as the center 
of a great manufacturing region. Water power 
from the French Broad River was sufficient ' 'to 
drive all the machinery in the United States," 
he asserted. The countryside contained "tim- 
ber, both hard and soft — oak, hickory, wal- 
nut, chestnut, maple, birch, beech, pine and 
hemlock. These all await the hands of the 



mechanic to fashion them into useful or 
ornamental forms." 

Gatchell looked forward to a future where 
Asheville and Western North Carolina would 
"be musical with the hum of scores of 
thousands of spindles, as well as with the buzz 
of innumerable saws; the time when it shall 
become the great manufacturing center of the 
South, unsurpassed in the world." 

Tobacco Factory 

The events of the next two decades almost 
made Gatchell's vision a reality. In 1870, S.C. 
Shelton, a Virginian, set up a plug chewing 
tobacco factory on Valley Street. Utilizing the 
skills and resources of natives who produced 
"smokes" from locally grown tobacco, Shel- 
ton employed seventy Ashevillians. 

One year later Captain W. Fagg opened 
another tobacco factory on Valley Street. 
Joined by Fred Hull in 1884, Valley Street 
became the warehouse and factory center for 
tobacco in Western North Carolina. Gradually, 
the American Tobacco Company drove Ashevil- 
le's smaller factories out of business until, by 
1894, only warehouses were left. 

Mica Mining Center 

By 1870 Asheville was also the mica mining 
center of the nation. Found locally north of the 
city, mica was used in assorted patterns as 
liners for stoves, electrical insulation, 
washers, and for pieces exposed to extreme 
heat. Set up in 1899 as the Asheville Mica 
Company, the firm produced goods totaling 
one half million dollars. By 1900 Asheville 
Mica operated branches in Cleveland and Chi- 
cago. 

With the coming of the railroad, J.H. 
Woody's Blacksmith shop on Lexington Ave- 



<\x3QJ<>RKIsT>)WN 



jj* Jefferson 

City 



k.NoWII.fK 




IRPHY 



The coming of the railroads to Western N.C in the 1880's brought new life, new opportunity, and the chance for industrial growth. This is a 1924 Southern Railway map 
which carried the title "Vacation Land Of The World." For many years the Southern ran a crack passenger train from Charleston, S.C through Asheville and on to Cincinnati, 
Ohio, and Chicago. Another crack passenger train ran between Asheville, Greensboro, and New York. Deluxe Pullman Sleeping Coach service was very popular. 



118 



-* *-f 



I'll 



rr rr rr 
rr rr rr ■ 



GROVE PARK INN 





This 1920's photograph of a sign on the highway advertising the Grove Park Inn was near Beaucatcher Tunnel. Note the advertised rate. In 1981 the Inn is still in operation in 
Asheville. Photo Courtesy the Southern Highlands Appalachian Research Center, UNC-Asheville. 



nue converted to machinery and became the 
Asheville Supply and Foundry Company. Sell- 
ing over twelve hundred patterns to railroads, 
private contractors and builders, the company 
literally produced the machinery for Western 
North Carolina's expansion beyond Asheville. 
Employing over one hundred and twenty work- 
ers, the foundry;s equipment and holdings 
were valued at over $400,000 in 1897. 

While tobacco, mica, machine works, and 
additionally, tanneries and lumber yards 
hinted at an industrial future for Asheville, one 
key element was missing. The city did not have 
a "great mill", no Burlington or J. P. Stevens 
that dominated its economy. 

In Victorian America, the "great mill" 
meant a textile mill. To the city's fathers, the 
establishment of Asheville as both a manufac- 
turing and a resort center called for a "Great 



A Cotton Mill 

The textile industry had already come to 
Asheville in 1 887 with the erection of the Ashe- 
ville Cotton Mill. Owned by C.E. Graham, the 
mill produced plaids and chambrays used in 
making shirts. As late as 1900, Asheville Cot- 
ton employed over three hundred workers, 
making it the city's largest manufacturing con- 
cern. 

Lured to Asheville in 1890 largely by the 
success of the cotton mill, backers of a Virgi- 
nia-based company proposed that a knitting 
mill be built on the Swannanoa River in east 
Asheville. The mill would employ over five 
thousand workers, erect a company store, and 
lay a truck line to the railroad at Best, now 
Biltmore Village. 

As inducements, backers of the knitting mill 
asked the city for a water works to be built on 
the Swannanoa, for a large portion of the city's 
current water supply, for construction of a 



FORMAL OPENING 

BANQUET 

JULY 4th 1912 




**?S/ 



The Langren Hotel had its formal opening on July 4,1912 
in Asheville. Reproduced are several pages from an attrac- 
tive souvenir booklet. The hotel was on Broadway and 
operated into the 1 960's . The program booklet is from the 
Charles Biddix Collection. 



sewer and drainage system in the low-lying 
land along the river, and for permission to 
dump dyes and chemicals in the Swannanoa 
River. 

The City Balked 

The city of Asheville balked. While many 
real estate agents and promoters genuinely 



desired to see Asheville become an industrial 
city, the price seemed high. The city refused, 
the knitting mill moved instead to Roanoke 
Rapids, Virginia, and Asheville became not an 
industrial city like Gastonia, High Point, or 
Burlington, but more properly, a tourist and 
health center in "the land of the sky." 

In truth, Asheville's subsequent history as 
an urban center in the mountains reflects that 
1890 decision to reject an industrial future for 
the city. The mills, machine works, tanneries, 
and factories either remained small, died out, 
or were replaced by construction and light 
industry. Echoing the move toward light in- 
dustry, an 1894 brochure insisted that "there 
is a fortune in bicycles." 



Railroad Brought Tourists 

Instead of bringing machines and commod- 
ities into Asheville, the railroad brought 
tourists; 30,00 of them in 1886, 40,00 in 
1899. After 1891, two trains daily came to 
Asheville with visitors from all parts of the 
country. 

Between 1890 and 1910 Thomas Wolfe's 
Asheville of Look Homeward Angel was born. 
It was a city of eight magnificent hotels, more 
than thirty boarding houses and twenty eight 
health resorts. During the expansive decade of 
the 1890s, Asheville took on all the airs of a 
larger city. High gossip became fashionable. 
Parties, clubs, the theatre, socials — all the 
heady social scene of Victorian Asheville — 
made some physicians and city fathers ner- 
vous. 

Key Questions 

Were pleasure seekers crowding out those 
who came to Asheville for their health? Would 
the health resorters move to the "thermal 
belt" around Tryon, N.C., to escape Ashevil- 

119 



le's giddy social scene? How best, they won- 
dered, could the city's reputation as a health 
resort and tourist center be preserved? 

Since the 1880's, city government in Ashe- 
ville has helped to maintain the image of "re- 
sort Asheville" where local natives function in 
service capactities. When, in 1889, the city 
decided upon a street car system, they chose 
electricity over steam because they feared 
pollution. 

The city's civic improvements — paving 
streets, building parks, planting trees, con- 
structing magnificent opera houses and city 
halls — reflect efforts at beautification and 
progress designed to impress summer people 
more than natives. 



M 



U 



M 



N 



U 





DANCE PROGRAM 


1 M»|;'H GUANO Off NINO 


LAM 


/. WALT7 LANO 


LANGFL 


3. TWO STEP QUICK SERVICE 




4. WALT/ THAT WINNING ^-VIILE 




' p on 'H> inn 


•»«•« 


'■ WAl W 


1 M \jM 


INTERMISSION 




7 TWOSirP Gl NUISE KESSEL 


HAFSTei 'EB 


■ WAl 1/ I E I IUCE DANCE 


"LCTOF1 


>. I v. "-I CUT UP 


GLASS 


10. WAITZ HAND ECOHES 


KM 


II. TWO STEP HOQ AND HOMINY 


flTANDHAROT 


12. WALTZ KFST EVER 


CAULK 


SIX EXTRAS 





Do you recognize any of the dance tunes listed for the 
formal opening ball of the Langren Hotel on July 4, 1 91 2 in 
Asheville? 



Who Was Welcomed 

Natives of Western North Carolina were 
never welcomed at Asheville's famous health 
resorts and princely hotels. Poorer patients 
from the mountains could not afford treat- 
ments at J.W. Gleitzman's "Mountain Sani- 
tarium for Pulmonary Diseases" nor did they 
have the means to stay at the Battery Park 
Hotel. 

A partial guest list in the 1890s included 
George Vanderbilt, William McKinley, William 
Henry Harrison, Theodore Roosevelt, and 
Mark Hanna — hardly the club set of 
moutaineers from surrounding counties. 

In like fashion, if natives went on binges and 
drunks, they did not "dry out" or "take the 
cure" at Highland Hospital as F. Scott Fitz- 
gerald's Zelda did, but, more properly, they 
stayed with their own families in the county. 

120 






n't mug /.. ».. rfono 



APPETIZERS 



CONSOMME 



\/l Gl I AMI I 



N SEI • HON 



„„„„„ 


„, II,,. ,,., 


,.!,, 


id lliimi'!" 

HRQDMS 

in iitttiimt." , 


him ..« ■< m 


Z!;::' 1 ' 


</<»/> 


. ,,„/ i„„- Mm n i 

JHNIA AflTICNO 


M,l tppettti e 


i„„, 


n-li r 


I ,'ilimi." 



U ANO 






I it, 



AfHINlMI 
MADAMl t 

uvi m 1 1 



■t'rnti ,!•«. nniihixli, fun huh rhmtA / mould >>, nlml ■•! « '"'«' 

i-AMI Wi; TOAMi B v - - ' ■' rRACKE 

"Far Col lln- liimril with ritlii, mul upturn* in rrniirii'il.' 

■ii than m-i,l wl„, nrl m ImiIii l"i' raid «m»Bwf -'• WW*." 
r-.irfArtW CKJAffEl 

'•Tii nil, tu iwh n fair iimnl ititiltl, 
.[ml lifn.int, ilroo/B', and nlinantri bright. 



This is the menu for the banquet and ball marking the formal opening of The Langren Hotel in Asheville. Note "the humor" 
in the music program as well as the clever quotes preceeding the offerings of the dinner menu. From the Charles Biddix 
Collection. 



The "Great Men" 

Not surprisingly, the "great men" found in 
Asheville's history mirrored the city's decision 
to remain a "Garden of Eden." Certainly, 
George Vanderbilt occupied a commanding 
position among the city's celebrities. 

Vanderbilt was a scholar, a "gentlemen 
archtiect" who spoke eight languages fluently 
and who read and traveled widely, the perfect 
model for a future Asheville comprised of great 
homes and gardens for a non-residential elite. 

Vanderbilt chose Richard Morris Hunt as 
the builder of a "chateau" not on the Loire 
River in France but rather on the French Broad 
in a setting worthy of the greatest country seat 
in America. Already noted as the first Amer- 
ican to graduate from the Ecole de Beaux Arts 
in Paris and as the designer of the central 
administration building of the World's Col- 
umbian Exposition at Chicago in 1893, Hunt 
gave Asheville the pretension it needed in the 
1890's. 

Biltmore House 

George Vanderbilt and the Biltmore House 
became the vanguard of "good taste" in the 
1890's. Indeed, Vanderbilt was used as an 
example in pamphelts speaking for Asheville's 
future as a tourist center. As for his part, 
Vanderbilt never wanted industrial expansion in 
Western North Carolina. 

He opposed the move of the large mill to 
Asheville in 1890 and instead depicted the 
city's future growth in terms of model villages 
such as Biltmore, Victoria, and Kenilworth. 
Indeed, the very names of the model develop- 
ments smacked of English manors and 
estates. 



The Grand Hotels 

The old Battery Park Hotel, owned and de- 
veloped by Col. Frank Coxe, occupied twenty- 
five acres near the present site of the freeway 
in downtown Asheville near the visitor's cen- 
ter. Described as "Tudor- Victorian Chateau," 
the Battery Park boasted grand ballrooms, 
wide porches, pleasantly landscaped 
grounds, bowling and billards, game rooms, 
an elevator, hot and cold running water, and 
steam heat — all luxuries of that era. 

E.W. Grove came from St. Louis, made a 
fortune by selling chill tonic and bromo 
quinine, and staked his money on Grove Park 
Inn, built in 1913, the Grove Arcade, begun in 
1926, and, lastly, in a new Battery Park Hotel. 
Grove's son-in-law, Fred Sealy, Jr., managed 
the hotel and built a magnificent castle for 
himself atop Beaucatcher Mountain. 

William Green Raoul of Savannah, presi- 
dent of Georgia's Central Railroad, developed 
"an English inn in America, " the Manor Inn on 
Charlotte Street in an area called Albemarle 
Park. Eventually, the Manor would be sur- 
rounded by a complex of cottages and gardens 
all designed to give "an air of refinement 
essential to the comfort of cultivated people." 
Of course, that excluded mountaineers. 

"Boomer and Sooner" Cycle 

Since the 1890's, Asheville's economy has 
fluctuated according to a "boomer and soon- 
er" cycle. The "booms" of the 1880's, 
1920's, and 1960s were followed by "busts" 
in 1893, 1929, and 1975, always with devas- 
tating social consequences. 

Unemployment is lowest during the tourist 
months of May through October, population 







-aJJ MUSICALE ft.-*.. 



ORCHESTRA 



MR. CHAS GLASS OiatcToe 

CHRISTMAS— DECEMBER 25, 1913 



Oropr Jfriui eotktml 

iu Madrira Coniomme a In dr Stod 



Puree o( Gamr , 



Filial df Sole, Sh, 



i.ork Butter 
n Hbttn 



) Mvck-'AUtt" .... 

2 Ov«rtui«, "11>» Four Af«* of Man" 

S Idyl*, ••M.lody at Pm»" 

4 Conf.rt WbIimi, "lOOf Nkghli" 

5 Grind S*lfKt.on, "Li Toim" 
S Corn*. Soto, "The Holy City" 
7 EirvrpM from "Ad*U" 



VwfAi 
l^chnor 
Mirllr. 
StnuM 
PuMln. 
Adtmt 
BrtQuat 



INTERMISSION 



1 Prelude ... 

2 Intermeiie. "MiM Meiiee*' 

S Scan* da Ballrl, "Dec Scharientenr" 

4 Cemi (ram "The Flrady" 

ft March, "S4aft and Slope* Fetaver" 



C. Chernunede 
Frlml 
Seuaa 




Krai PhiUdclpUa I upon. Oyatei Snuce 

Aepnratfua Tcpft Sftuea Hnllnndaiae 

Beef lenderlom, Urdod, aul Inilfle. 

New Potatoes in Cram 

Brni.rd StJU«h .. la Rordrlaiae 
New C nuMlowr, „, C, 

Diamond Rack Irmipin a la Maryland 
Nrw C.ardrn IV.. 

Rrignrlla Snuffl. . Napolltalna 

Rom Prima Rika ..I Hrrl. a 1 'AngUn 

Roaar Vrimonl Turkey. Sinfl,,), ( ,a-it„ rr y Sauce 

Suckling Pig, Apple Sauce 

Rom.iii pnuti 

Braiaed O'Poanim. Swrel Polal. 

ITiickrn Salad ru Muyonnaiee 

♦triimrb .fruit Diibbinj, Oi.iib ant, a-pici •ami 

Vaadle Cuter* Craaa luaa 

Hot Mince Pir Pumpkin Pi. Grrman Apple Pi, 



Fruit Cake 



iloiiflar jlrr Crrjlm 
Pound Cak 



Almond Sponge Cake 
Vanilla Water* Anee! Food 

Cream Pu«. Chailc.Ha Ruaee 

Drang** Appl.. Malafa Ciapaa Fie* Dataa La/ar Ralcini Mlt*d Nun 



Ro«|urlnrt Chrcee 



Black Colin 
arttr JDinntr *Hlnt( 



Toaeted Crackeri 



For $1 .00 in 191 3 one could enjoy the Christmas dinner Proi 
menu and the "musical" program. This is from the Char 



the greatest when the "summer people" re- 
turn to "cool, green Asheville." Not surpri- 
singly, Asheville's population has flattened out 
since the 1920's. The city's population in 1980 
— 53,708 — is almost the same as it was in 
1930. 

Garden of Eden Concept 

Indeed, the static image of Asheville was 
necessary if the city was to be perceived as a 
resort town for outsiders. It was designed to 
appeal to a jaded New York or Miami resident 
who saw mountaineers as a quaint and curious 
people; exotic primitives who were "our con- 
temporary ancestors." 

In part, the passive picture of Asheville as a 
"Garden of Eden" was part of the rhetorical 
appeal to outsiders, terribly romanticized for 
the summer people. One advertisement prom- 
oting an Asheville development called it an 
"Un-City; un-crowded, un-hurried, un- 
polluted," a modern day Green Acres awaiting 
the Eddie Alberts and Zsa Zsa Gabors from 
New York City. 

Lastly, Asheville's determination to remain 
a resort town has mortgaged its future as well 
as its past. Its decision to build a regional 



3 ram of The Langren Hotel in Asheville. Reproduced here is the 
es Biddix Collection. 



airport and civic center, for example, pointed 
to a concern for tourism as the answer to 
future economic development. Both are enor- 
mous expenses for a small city that still has an 
antiquated water system and a dying down- 
town. 



City-County Differences 

Asheville's resolve to remain a resort town 
has served to alienate the natives of surround- 
ing Buncombe County. Indeed, the tension 
between the city and county seems to be grow- 
ing as we enter the 1980's. Since the Appa- 
lachian Regional Development Act of 1965, 
much of Asheville's progress has come 
through its designation as a "growth center" 
for Western North Carolina. 

Improvements in the Appalachian interstate 
highway system, the location of federal and 
state agencies in Asheville, the millions of 
dollars in grants for urban development and 
improved health care delivery systems — all 
were designed to encourage the movement of 
natives from outlying areas into the city and 
county. The net effect has been to intensify the 
mistrust between the two. 

"Strip Developments" 

Instead of moving into the city itself, moun- 
taineers settled in "strip developments" along 
the new highways south, west, and east of the 
city. Discouraged by restrictive housing codes 
aimed at protecting older "summer homes," 
by higher taxes and by a city government they 
perceived as "illegitimate" and "alien," na- 
tives from surrounding counties preferred to 
live in older mill towns such as Swannanoa 
and Enka which clustered around Asheville. 

Growing tension between the natives and 
the summer people, between city and county, 
made any point in question, whether down- 
town parking meters or support for Pack 
Memorial Library, a major issue of public im- 
portance. 

Indeed, the continuing failure of city and 
county governments to agree on water ser- 
vices and educational needs of their con- 
stituents, the stubbornness of the Western 
North Carolina legislative delegation in locat- 
ing a new state office building some few miles 
south of the city near the farmers' market 
instead of in downtown Asheville — all point to 
the fact that Asheville is still not perceived as 
sympathetic to the needs of "natives" in the 
region. 

— Milton Ready 

Associate Professor of History; 

Director, Southern Highlands 

Research Center; 

UNC — Asheville 




A meeting of the Old Buncombe Genealogical Society. 



121 



THE 1800 FEDERAL CENSUS OF BUNCOMBE 
COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA 

93 

To the Reader: The Book Committee believes that the following 
"Old Buncombe" Census Report will be of interest to many. The 
area covered list those living in the areas known as these counties: 
Buncombe Swain Transylvania 

Yancey Jackson Madison 

Henderson Macon Clay 

Cherokee Haywood Graham 

This is taken from the pages of microfilm as indicated. 

"The Aggregate of Each description of Persons resident in the 
County of Buncombe Amounts to Five Thousand Eight hundred & 
Twelve Souls." 

[signed] 
John Strother, Asst. 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

cc 

LU 

1— 
o 


CO 

UJ 

> 

5 

eo 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

cc 

UJ 

X 

1— 
o 


CO 
UJ 

3 

CO 



[Page #158 of microfilm] 
ASHEVILLE TOWN 

Alexander FERGUSON 1 1 

Jeremiah CLEVELAND 2 

Charles LANE 4 10 10 

JohnTURKE 10 

Robert HAMILTON 2 10 

Samuel CHUNN 1 1 

"This line must be deducted 

from the County Total" 7 1 4 4 

[Page #158, continued] 

James ANDERSON S [Sr.] 2 3 1 

John ALLIS 10 10 

Robert ANDERSON 3 10 

John ACTON 2 10 

Henry ADKINS 3 1 1 1 

Robert AUSTON 2 10 

William ALLIN 1 1 

Thomas AUSTON 3 10 

William ANGEL 10 10 

NanceyANGLIN 2 10 

Nicholas ANGEL 10 1 

John AM0N 3 1 

James ALEXANDER 2 1110 

Thomas ALEXANDER 10 

John ASHWORTH J [Jr.] 10 10 

JohnASHWORTH 1 

Robert ANDERSON 2 3 1 

Lewis ALLEN 3 1 

Aron ASHWORTH 10 

Levi ANDERSON 10 1 

[Page#159] 

Eli C. ANDERSON 10 10 

Thomas ABEL 110 

John ABEL 3 10 10 

George ABBET 2 1 1 

William ALLEN 10 10 

Joseph AUSTON 10 10 

Abel ANDERSON 1 3 1 1 

Jesse ANDERSON 3 1 1 

George ARMSTRONG 10 2 

John ALEXANDER 1 

Reuben ALLEN 3 1 1 

William ALLEN 2 10 

Samuel ALLEN 1 

Thomas AUSTON 1 

James ANDERSON 2 10 

James ARRINGTON 2 1 

William BARRETT 1 1 

William BEAN 1 

James BARRETT 4 1 

William BENNET 1 

JohnBENNET 10 



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William BIRD 1 

Sally BIRD 1 

James BROWN 

JohnBUTTLER 

[Page #160] 

William BRYLEY 3 

Stephen BAILES 

James BLYTHE 

John BEAN 

George BLACK 

Robert BLACK 

Zebulon BAIRD 

Bedent BAIRD 1 

James BLAKELEY 1 

Robert BRANK 

JobBROUGHTON 

James BOYER 1 

Jesse BELEW 

John BIFFLE 2 

William ELEVENS 2 

Lewis BALL 2 

Job BARNARD 2 

Edward BLURTON 2 

Levi BAILEY 1 

Solomon BRIGGMAN 2 

Stephen BAILY 

William BAILY 

George BIRD 

John BALLARD 2 

LukeBARNETT 1 

[Page #161] 

Benjn. BRYAN 3 

Charles BAILY 

John BARRETT 

Patrick BIRD 1 

JohnBENNET 

Richd. BENNET 

Stephen BENNET 2 

William BENNET 

James BOBBITT 

William BAILY 3 

Harmon BANKS 

Agga BURLINSON 

Robert BAKER 

Andrew BURNS 3 

Woodward BROUGHTON 1 

Jesse BROUGHTON 

Jacob BOILER J [Jr.] 1 

Isaac BURLINSON 

William BRIDGES Sr 

James BRIDGES 2 

William BRIDGES 

Meshack BREADING 2 

Samuel BREADING 

James BENSON 

John BARTLETT 2 

David BRANDON 2 

[Page #162] 

John BLACK 

Thomas BURTON 1 

William BRYSON 

James BLYTHE 

William BRITTAIN 2 

Adam BIFFLE 

Jacob BALLINGER 2 

Josiah BALLENGER 2 

John BURTON 1 

George BROWN 

James BRITTAIN 2 

Thomas BLYTHE 2 

John BLYTHE 3 

Robert BROWN 1 

Hugh BROWN 1 

John BANKS 

Richard BOND 2 

Joseph BLACK 

Benjamin BROWN 

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122 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

oc 

LU 

X 

1— 
o 


eo 

LU 

> 

3 

CO 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

oc 

LU 

X 

t- 
o 


CO 

LU 

> 

3 

CO 



Fredrick BRALEY 

JohnBEDSALT 1 

John BARNETT 

Martin BUFF 1 

John BRADBORN 3 

John BRYSON 2 

[Page #163] 

James BRYSON 2 

Benjn. BROOKSHIRE 2 

George BAKER 2 

Jacob BIFFLE 1 

Isaac BEATY 3 

Samuel BRYSON 1 

John BEARD 

Ann BULLIN 1 

Joseph BESSLEY 2 

Walter BALEY 2 

Samuel BALLARD 2 

John BRISTOL 2 

Stephen BABB 1 

James BOUNDS 2 

Jacob BOILER, S. [Sr.] 

Thomas CASE 3 

John CHAMLESS 3 

William CROSS 1 

John CASE 

John CASE, J. [Jr.] 1 

Rueben CHAMLESS 1 

Jn. COKER 1 

Richd. CHANDLER 1 

Jesse CORNWELL 2 

John CROOK 1 

[page #164] 

John CHAMBERS 2 

Edward CRAIG 1 

John CARSIE 1 

George CROSSNORE 

John CROSSNORE 2 

Elijah CROSS 

John CROSS 

Mosses CROSS 2 

William CRUMPTON 

Charles CALLOWAY 1 

John CARREL 4 

James CARTER 1 

David CONKLIN 

William CIRBEY 4 

Amos COX 2 

Godfrey CODEY 

JohnCASEBOLT 1 

Philip CHURCH 1 

Elizabeth CRAYTON 

John CUNNINGHAM 

Humphrey CUNNINGHAM 

James CRAIG 2 

Adam COOPER 

[Page #165] 

James CHESSURE 3 

William COX 

Thomas CODEY 

MathewCOLE 4 

Solomon CROSS 

John CRAIG 1 

Jonas CAVE 

Lambert CLAYTON 

Stephen CROWDER 

Thomas CROSSMORE 

David COLE 

Samuel COLE 

Benjamin CLARK 3 

William CHAMBERS 2 

William CABE 

James CHAMBERS 3 

Elihu CHAMBERS 3 

Geo. CATHEY, S. [Sr.] 3 

Joseph CHAMBERS 

John COLBERT 1 

William CATHEY 3 









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2 









George CUNNINGHAM 2 2 1 

John CABE 1 1 

William CATHEY, J. [Jr.] 10 

Geo. CATHEY 10 

[Page #166] 

Peirce CODEY 10 10 

AdamCOUNTZ 10 10 

James CR0SBEY 1 1 

David CARSON 110 10 

James CHASTAIN 12 12 1 

Mosses CROSS 2 1 

William CANE 2 2 1 

John CLARK 2 10 

Simcock CANNON 1 1 

John DUNCAN 1 

Bailey DUVALL 10 10 

George DAVIDSON 10 10 

William DAVIS 2 2 1 

William DEVER, Jr 3 1 

John DAVIS 1 

John DURHAM 10 10 

Elizabeth DUNN 1 

John DILLARD 1 3 1 

Jordon DELK 2 1 1 

Nathan DAYTON 2 1 

Thomas DAVIS 10 10 

Isham DAVIS 2 1 

Thomas DILLARD 10 10 

Hugh DAVIDSON 1 1 

William DAVIDSON 2 1 

[Page #167] 

John DAVIDSON 10 10 

James DUNSEMORE 1 

AdamDUNSMORE 110 1 

Baxter DAVIS 10 10 

Hugh DONALDSON 1 

John DOVER 2 1 

James DICKSON 4 3 10 

Richd. DEVER 1 

Nathan DEVER 1 

William DEVER 11 

John DAVIDSON 4 1 

Samuel DAVIS 2 1 

Isaac DAVIS 2 10 

Benjn. DAVIDSON 1 1 

Joseph D0UTHET 1 

Joseph DENNIS 2 1 

John DAVIS 3 1 1 

John DAVIS 1 1 

Simeon DUN 3 2 110 

Joseph DENNIS 1 

Samuel EDNA 3 10 

EssaEDNA 2 10 1 

Moses EDMINSON 10 11 

John EDWARDS Jr 10 

Jesse ELKINS 10 1 

John EDWARDS 2 1 

James EDWARDS 10 10 

[Page #168] 

Meredith EDWARDS 10 10 

William EDWARDS 10 10 

Ruth EDWARDS 1 

Gabrile ELKINS 110 10 

Charles EADS 110 10 

William ELMORE 1 1 

Samuel EDMINSON 1 

Moses EDMINSON 1 

Robert EDMINSON 10 1 

Bazel B. EDMINSON 3 10 10 

Jacob ELLOR 2 10 1 

Nelly EDMONS 10 2 

David ELMORE 110 10 

Isaac EATON 14 11 

William EVANS 1 

William ERWIN 2 2 1 

Meriman FETHERSTON 1 

William FORRESTER, S. [Sr.]* 10 1 

Jonathan FARE 1 1 1 



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123 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

ec 

LU 

X 

t— 
o 


CO 
LU 

> 

3 

CO 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

ec 

LU 

X 

1— 
o 


CO 

LU 

=» 

3 

CO 



Charles FARRIS 2 

Mark FORSTER 

Mark FORSTER 1 

Jeremiah FERGUSON 1 

Mary FRANKLIN 1 

Benjn. FORSTER 3 

*The 1 blurred or erased 

[Page #169] 

John FARR 2 

John FERGUSON 1 

Lewis FEILDS 1 

William FLETCHER 2 

Demsey FEILDS 1 

Thomas FORSTER, SR 

Thomas FORSTER 

Bosten FENDER 

John FERGUS 

Randol FUGET . . .' 

James FRAZER 

Reubin FUGET 

William FRAZER 2 

Benja. FOX 2 

Philip GUISE 3 

George GREER 3 

Mary GOOCHE 

Joseph D. GASH 3 

William GUDGER 1 

Martha GASH 2 

John GASH 1 

Martin GASH, Sr 1 

Silas GILLASPIE 

John GRIGORY 2 

Absalom GARRISON 

John GARRET 2 

[Page #170] 

Benjamin GRIGORY 3 

William GRANTHAM 1 

John GRANTHAM 2 

James GALBREATH 1 

John GILLASPIE 2 

Jarret GLADDEN .'.. 4 

Thomas GABLE 3 

Gilbert GUILDER 3 

William GRIGORY 3 

Thomas GRIGORY 

Meadow GILES 1 

David GREER 

William GILES 

Ephroditus GILLIAM 3 

William GRAHAM 

Henry GRIGGS 3 

Mathias GREENFIELD 3 

William GARRISON 

Benjamin GUDGER 1 

Robert GILLASPIE 

John GOOCHE 

William GRAY 

Comfort GARRISON 

Widow GILLASPIE 3 

John GRAHAM 3 

Frances GOFF 2 

[Page #171] 

Jeremiah GREEN 2 

Hugh GARMANY 1 

George GLASSNORE 

John GILLASPIE 1 

Nathaniel GREENFIELD 3 

William GARRETT 2 

John GILES 2 

William GRIGORY 

William HICKS 2 

Jacob HOLUNSWORTH 

Benjamin HAWKINS 3 

James HUGHEY 

Stephen HANDLIN 2 

Jameston HATCHER 

Joseph HUGHEY 1 

John HUDSON 2 

124 



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Masheck HIGHETT 10 

Ahab HAMPTON 2 10 

Micajah HAMPTON 10 1 

Henry HOLBROOKS 10 

John HAYS 3 11 

Samuel HALL 1 

Thomas HARRISON 3 112 1 

John HARRISON 2 1 

William HUGHS 3 1 

James HAWKINS 2 1 

Leonard HORNSBY 4 2 1 

[Page #172] 

Timothy HARRINGTON 10 

Thomas HOPPER 10 

Philip HOODENPYLE 2 1 

JohnHOLCOMB 2 1 

Peter HAGIN 3 2 10 

May HOLCOMB 1 1 

William R. HINTON 1 

John HAGINS? 2 

Colbret HENSLEY 4 10 

Henry HENSLEY 4 2 2 1 

Holland HIGGINS 1 

John HENSLEY 2 10 

Washington HENSLEY 10 10 

James HENSLEY 1 1 

Jesse HARRIS 2 1 

Josuah HUGHS 1 

Hickman HENSLEY 2 2 110 

John HAMMONS 1 1 1 

John HUGHS 2 1 1 1 

Sephen HALL 

Zipheniah HORTON 1 1 1 

William HIGGINS 1 1 

David HINTON 1 1 

Joseph HOLTON 10 10 

Samuel HARRIS 10 10 

Saml. HOLUNSWORTH 1 1 

[Page #173] 

John HILL 4 10 

Richd. HILL 1 1 1 

Joseph HENRY 2 1 

Shaderack HYETT 2 10 

William HUNTER 3 1 1 

Francis HUNTER 10 10 

James HARRIS 10 

Arthur HUNT 2 1,0 

Thomas HUSTON 10 10 

John HUNTER 1 1 

Sally HARGET 2 

William HOLBROOKS 10 1 

Thomas HUGHS 110 10 

John HYDE 10 

Edward HIGHETT 2 1 1 1 

Thomas HAMBEY 2 10 

William HAMBEY 1 1 

William HARP 1 

Abraham HOLLINSWORTH .... 20010 

John HOLUNSWORTH 2 10 

George HALL 3 1 

Oldham HIGHTOWER 10 1 

Auston HIGHTOWER 2 1 1 

Kinchen HOLCOMB 3 2 1 

Mary HARRIS 2 

Philip MUGGINS 2 10 

Philip MUGGINS 1 

[Page #174] 

Luke HUGGINS 11110 

John HEFNER 2 110 

Nathan HUDLIN 1 

Robert HAMMON 3 110 1 

Samuel HOGSHEAD 1 1 1 

Walter HOGSHEAD 2 10 

William HAYS 1 1 1 

William HODGE 1 1 1 1 

James HENDERSON 10 1 

Elizabeth HAMILTON 1 2 

John JONES 10 110 









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1 



HEAD OF FAMILY 



MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 



FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

cc 

X 

o 


UJ 

> 

5 

CO 



Jacob JOHNSON, Sr 

Jacob JOHNSON 2 

Robert JONES 

John JOHNSON 

John JUSTICE 2 

John JONES 1 

John JARRETT 2 

Daniel JARRETT 1 

John ISRAEL 2 

Jabez JARVIS 4 

William [RONS] 2 

Darkes JAMES 

Joshua JONES 1 

Jesse ISRAEL 1 

[Page #175] 

Abel JONES 

Noblet JOHNSON 

Amos JUSTICE 3 

William JINKINS 2 

Ganer JEFFREYS 

John JEFFREYS 2 

William INGRAM 

Goldman INGRAM 1 

Ezekiel JONES 3 

Edward JOHNSON 1 

William JAMES 

James JOHNSON 2 

Brittain JORDON 2 

Thomas JORDON 1 

Nathaniel JOHNSON 2 

John IRELAND 

Thomas JUSTICE 2 

Simeon JUSTICE 2 

Ann KINDOL 

John KUYKINDOLL 1 

James KUYKINDOLL 2 

Peter KUYKINDOLL 1 

Abraham KUYKINDOLL 

Thomas KELLEY 1 

Jacob KAYLOR 1 

Solomon KNIGHT 2 

[Page #176] 

Gabrile KEITH 

Reubin KEITH 2 

William KYLE 

Hamilton KYLE 

John KYLE 

Benjamin KIMSEY 2 

Charles KEGLE 

Jacob KEAGLE 

David KIMSEY 4 

Benja. KIMSEY 

Samuel KING 1 

Benjamin KING 

Valentine KEAGLE 1 

Jacob KESEY 

Daniel KILLIAN 3 

Joseph KIRKPATRICK 3 

Stephen KITCHEN 3 

Samuel KING 1 

Andrew KIRKPATRICK '.'. 

Simon KUYKENDOLL 4 

Jesse LAXTON 2 

Henry LEWIS 3 

William LAX 2 

Elijah LEE 1 

Peter LANCE 

[Page #177] 

William LYN 

John LYN 3 

Edla LYN 

James LYN 2 

Joseph LUSK 1 

James LANKFORD 4 

Barna LANDERS 

Thomas LOVE, Esqr 3 

William LAWSON 6 

George LEE 












1 














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1 





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1 





3 





1 

















1 














1 




















1 














1 








1 





2 





1 


3 


1 


1 


1 

















2 





2 





1 











7 











1 


2 


1 


1 


1 

















1 





2 


2 





1 











1 


1 





1 








1 





1 











1 














1 





1 














1 





1 





1 

















1 








1 





1 




















1 











1 











1 


1 


1 





1 


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1 


1 


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1 








1 





1 














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1 





2 





1 








1 








7 


1 








1 





2 





1 














1 














1 















William LUSK 

John LACKEY 2 

Henry LANCE 1 

John LANCE 5 

James LACKEY 

Hugh LACKEY 

Samuel LANCE 2 

John LANNIN 3 

John LANE 1 

Isaac LAND 1 

Edward LEATHERWOOD 1 

John LYDA 

Andrew LYDA 1 

Daniel LAKE 4 

Robert LEE 2 

John LUKEROY 2 

Jacob McFARLAND 

[Page #178] 

JohnMcMINN 1 

William MILLS 

David McBRIDE 1 

Randol MCDONALD 3 

JaneMcMINN 2 

James MITCALF 

William MIDCALF 2 

Edmund McGUFFY 3 

Samuel McKINNY 3 

David McCARSON 2 

James McMAHAN 

Moses MARTIN 2 

John McNEIL 2 

James McCARTEY 2 

William MOORE 1 

Thomas MOORE 

Abner MULLINS 4 

John Miller 3 

George McDONALD 2 

William MOORE 2 

James McMAHAN 

Malcom McCURRY 2 

George MORRIS 2 

William MULLINS 1 

[Page #179] 

Redman McMAHAN 1 

Johnson MURRY 1 

John MILENDER 1 

Edmund McMAHAN 1 

Martin MAINEY(?) 1 

James MIDCALF 1 

Absolam MIDCALF 

Samuel MANNIN 1 

Samuel McGAHA 2 

Joseph MOODY 

William MOODY 1 

Wilson McKINNY 4 

John MAY 4 

Elizabeth McDONALD 

James McFEE 3 

John MOORE 2 

William MAY 2 

Joseph MOORE 1 

William MURPHEY 4 

Benjn. MERRIL 1 

Thomas MAY 3 

James McBRAYER 3 

John MERRIL 1 

William McCRAREY? 1 

James MAY 

John MORROW 1 

[Page #180] 

Boyd McRAREY 2 

Isaac MOODY 1 

John McFARLAND 

Samuel MURRY, S. [Sr.] 

David MARLOW 1 

Archibald MORRISON 

William MORROW 1 

Andrew MILLER .. 






1 














2 











8 








1 





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1 














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1 


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1 











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1 





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1 


1 














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3 








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1 


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1 








1 




















1 



125 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

oc 

LU 

X 

1— 
o 


CO 

LU 

5 

CO 



HEAD OF FAMILY 




MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

cc 

LU 

X 

t— 
o 


CO 

LU 

3 

CO 



John McLEAN 3 

Samuel McBRAYER 

Icabud McBRAYER 

William MURRY 3 

Joseph MAXWELL 3 

James MAY, Sr 

JohnMcKINLAY 

Polly MORGAN 

William MORTON 1 

John MORRISON 

David McPETERS ' 2 

William MAHAFFY 1 

RoberMAN 1 

Joseph McLURE 1 

John MCDOWELL 

Richard MORROW 1 

[Page #181] 

Levi MELVIN 1 

Jonathan McPETERS 

John M0NG0MERY 2 

Sithe MOORE 

George McFARLAND 2 

Reuben McFARLAND 1 

James McFARLAND 3 

William McFARLAND 1 

John McFARLAND 2 

James McDOWELL 1 

William MCDOWELL 

Daniel McDOWELL 2 

James MERIDETH 1 

Isaac MILLER 

Andrew MITCHEL 2 

Thomas McLURE 2 

James McCALL 3 

James MARTIN 1 

John MORROW 

Charles McLURE 2 

Charles MORGON 2 

Thomas McLURE 

John McLURE 1 

Robert McLURE 

John McLUSKEY 2 

David McBRAYER 

Samuel MURRY, J. [Jr.] 1 

[Page #182] 

James McDONALD 1 

John MORROW 

Robert NEWTON 2 

Jonathan NIGHT 

William NEILSON 1 

George NEWTON 2 

John NICHOLS 1 

John NICHOLSON 4 

Bashaba OXFORD 

JohnODELL 3 

Benjamin ODELL 

Jeremiah OSBORN 

Owen OWENS 

Reuben OSBORN 1 

Jeremiah OSBORN 1 

John OSBORN 1 

Mosbey OWENS 2 

Jesse OWENS 

Samuel OXFORD 1 

John ORR 

Robert ORR 

Peter OWENS 1 

Ruth OLIFANT 2 

James OWENS 1 

[Page #183] 

Benjamin OLIVER 

Benjamin ODELL 

Isaac PERKINS 

Joshua PERKINS 

William PILGRIM 1 

Michael PILGRIM 

Lazarus PHILIPS 

John PATTON 3 



1 





1 





2 


1 





1 








1 


1 





2 


1 


3 


1 








1 











1 














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1 


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1 





2 








1 




















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1 














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1 





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3 





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1 








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1 

















1 





1 


1 


2 


2 


1 

















1 





2 





1 

















1 


2 














1 








6 








1 





1 





1 











1 





1 





1 








1 





1 





6 








1 





1 


1 


1 














1 


1 











1 


1 





1 














1 





3 





1 




















1 





1 








1 




















1 














1 














1 





2 





1 

















1 














1 




















1 





3 





1 


1 

















1 





4 








1 














2 





1 





1 


2 





1 











1 








1 





1 














1 





1 





4 


1 





1 














1 














1 














1 


1 





1 


2 


2 


2 


1 








1 


1 





1 





2 


1 





1 























1 





1 




















1 





3 








1 











2 





1 





1 


1 





1 








1 





1 





1 














1 



































12 
































7 





1 


1 





1 


2 





2 




















1 











1 

















1 














1 




















3 





3 


2 





1 








15 



Robert PATTON 1 

Mathew PATTON J. [Jr.] 3 

Huston PATTON 1 

Mathew PATTON 1 

George PATTON 

Aaron PATTON 1 1 

James PATTON 1 

Thomas PATTON, Sr 1 

Thomas PATTON 2 

James POWERS 

Parsons POE 

Joshua PERKINS 2 

Isiah PALMER 

Isiah PHIPS 

George PARKS 2 1 

Samuel PARKS 2 

John P0TEET 1 

James POTEET 2 

[Page #184] 

James POTEET, Sr 

Roberts PHILIPS 

Edmund PALMER 1 

Jacob PYBURN 

Christopher PYBURN 3 

Samuel PETERS 

Charles PHILIPS 1 

Robert PATTERSON 2 

James PATTERSON 1 1 

Alexander PATTERSON 

William PORTER 

John PURDIN 4 

Peter PERRY 2 

John PAIN 1 

Archibald PRATER 2 

George PENLAND 1 

Christopher PORTER 2 2 

Robert PORTER 

William PINNER 1 

David PRESLEY 1 

Francis POSEY 

Andrew PRESLEY 

John PAGE 1 

John PATTERSON 1 1 

[Page #185] 

Thomas PATTERSON 

Charles POWEL 1 

Mathew PATTERSON 

John PENDERGRASS 2 

Peter PERRY 2 1 

Daniel PONDER 2 1 

Samuel PARKS 3 

William RAMSEY 

Mathew RUSSEL 1 

John RUNIAN 2 

Mary RAGSDALE 2 1 

Robert ROBERTS 3 1 

Gideon ROBERTS 1 

Benjamin ROSE 2 

Zachariah ROSE 

William ROBERTS 2 

James RUTHERFORD 2 1 

Alexander RAMSEY 1 

Robert ROGERS 1 

George REVES 

Henry ROBERTS 2 

John ROBERTS 2 1 

William ROGERS 

[Page #186] 

John RADFORD 2 2 

Charles ROLAND 

Henry ROLAND 

John ROSE 1 

John RENTFROE 1 1 

Thomas RAY 1 

John RATHBONE 1 

William ROBERTSON 

Joseph RUNIAN 

Julius ROBINSON 3 1 



1 





1 


4 


1 


1 





1 





6 





1 





1 








1 














1 





1 





1 

















1 


1 














1 





2 


1 














1 

















1 





2 


1 





1 














1 





4 


3 





1 








2 


1 





1 











1 








1 


1 














1 

















1 





























7 





3 








3 


1 








1 








2 





1 














1 














1 




















1 














1 








1 


1 


1 





1 








1 











1 





3 





1 





1 











1 





4 


1 


1 

















1 





1 





1 











2 








1 














1 








1 





1 


1 


2 


1 





1 








1 





1 


1 


1 








1 








1 





1 








1 





1 











1 





2 





1 


1 











1 








1 





1 

















1 





2 





1 

















1 





3 








1 











1 





1 


2 


1 





1 














1 
































1 














1 











2 





1 





1 














1 





1 





1 





1 














1 














1 














1 





3 








1 











2 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 





1 





1 








1 


1 


1 








1 








1 














1 














1 


1 





1 








1 











1 














1 














1 





1 





1 





1 











1 





1 














1 











1 





2 





1 





1 











1 





3 








1 








1 








1 








1 





1 








1 








2 








1 

















1 














1 








1 














1 




















1 


1 





1 


1 











1 





1 





1 








1 


1 


2 





1 





3 





1 

















1 











1 

















1 





1 





1 




















1 


3 


1 


1 





1 








1 








1 








1 








1 





1 





1 








1 











1 














1 














1 














1 





1 








1 


1 





1 





1 





1 











1 





2 





1 














1 


1 





2 


1 





1 








4 





1 





3 








1 











1 














1 














1 





1 








2 





1 











1 


1 


3 





1 














2 


1 





2 


2 





1 














1 





1 





1 

















1 














1 

















1 








1 





1 








1 








1 





1 





1 








1 





1 














1 








1 





1 


2 


1 








1 








2 





1 








1 





1 








1 





1 





1 


1 





1 








1 








2 





1 














1 








1 





1 




















1 


2 


1 








1 









126 



HEAD OF FAMILY 



MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 



FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

cc 

IU 

X 

►— 
o 


CO 
LU 

> 

3 

CO 



Simon RAMSEY 

Thomas RAY, Jr 3 

Bartlett ROGERS 1 

Mark ROBERTS 3 

Thomas ROBERTS 1 

William RAMSEY 

William RICE 2 

George ROGERS 1 

Thomas RIGSBEY 3 

James RITCHIE 1 

John RAMSEY 4 

William RAMSEY 

[Page #187] 

James RAMSEY 2 

Abraham REYNOLDS 1 

Robert RAY 4 

Joseph RICE 2 

Thomas ROGERS 2 

Hugh ROGERS 6 

Andrew RHODES 2 

John ROBERTS 3 

Thomas REVES 

Volentine R0BIS0N 3 

Robert ROGERS 

David RUSSEL 2 

Samuel R0BIS0N 2 

Thomas RHODES 

John RAMSEY 2 

David ROGERS 3 

John RUSSEL 2 

Robert REED 

James ROSS 2 

Spencer RICE 2 

William REIGNS 1 

Prissilla ROBINSON 

Samuel ROSE 

[Page #188] 

Francis ROSE 2 

Archibald REED ,3 

Lewis STOVER * 

James STEP 1 

William STEP 2 

John SMITH 1 

Elizabeth SHELTON 

Rebecka STEP 3 

Daniel SMITH 2 

Edmund SAMS 1 

Zachariah SMITH 1 

Edward SHIPMAN 3 

John STANTON 

Joseph SMITH 

Anthony STREET 

Alexander ST(E?)RETT 3 

[STREET?] 

Enos SHEILDS 1 

Chaney SPROUSE 1 

Thomas SHEPPARD 4 

Martin SHELTON 

Lazarus STILLEY 3 

Charles SEVERE 1 

Allen SUMMERS 1 

John STANTON 

[Page #189] 

Roderick SHELTON 2 

John SAMS 1 

William SAMS 1 

John SHOAT 

Nathaniel STAFFORD 

James SAMS 1 

John SAMS 2 

Johnston SUMMERS 

Albert SMITHSON 1 

Joseph SCOTT 

Philip SUTTON 4 

Samuel SMITH 2 

John SUMNER 4 

George SHELTON 2 

Samuel SAMPLE 



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John SMITH 1 

George SWAIN 1 

Philip SMITH 2 

Edward STONE 

Jacob SHOOK 2 

Joseph SORRELS 1 

Nathan SMITH 1 

John STILES 2 

[Page #190] 

JohnSTANSEL 2 

Polly SULLIVAN 

John SWAINEY 1 

Joel STARKEY 1 

James SCOTT 

George SHUFFORD 

Alexander St. CLAIR 3 

William STROUD 2 

John STREET 

Richard SUMNER 2 

Thomas St. CLAIR 2 

John THOMAS, Jr 2 

John THOMAS 

William THOMAS 1 

William TREDWAY 

Jesse TURNER 1 

John TURNER 1 

Sarah TURNER 

James TAYLOR 

Joseph TURNER 

Nathaiel THOMPSON 3 

Thos. TETHAM 1 

Bartholomew TURNER 

[Page #191] 

Mary THACKER 

Jacob TENNESSEE 1 

Nathan THACKER 2 

Volentine THRASH 

Robert TURNER 

Corbin THOMPSON 2 

George THOMPSON 

Samuel TAYLOR 1 

Jeremiah TAYLOR 1 

Joseph UNDERWOOD 

JohnVANN 1 

Marmaduke VICKOREY 4 

William VENABLE 1 

David VANCE 2 

George WILSON 

William WILLIAMS 

Sutherlin WHITTWORTH 3 

William WELCH 2 

John WEAVER 1 

James WHITE 2 

Jacob WAGGONER 1 

Robert WILLIAMSON 

Joshua WILLIAMS 

Francis WORDLEY 

[Page #192] 

John WELLS 1 

John WALKER 1 

Samuel WILLIAMS 

William WILLIAMS 2 

Samuel WILSON 5 

John WYATTE 3 

Joseph WARREN 2 

John WEBB 

Thomas WILLIAMS 

William WOODWARD 

Henry WEST 

John WHITTSON 

James WALLACE 

Elias WILDMAN 1 

William WILDMAN 1 

Thomas WELLS 2 

Andrew WELCH 1 

Thomas WILLIAMS 1 

John WILLIAMS 

John WOOD 6 









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127 



HEAD OF FAMILY 


MALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


FEMALES — 

Age Groups 

10 16 26 45 

10 16 26 45 + 


CO 

cc 

LU 

z 

O 


CO 

LU 

> 

3 

CO 



Henry WASSEN 3 1 2 2 1 

Elijah WILLIAMSON 00001 22010 3 

Thomas W00DFIN 31010 21010 

[Page #193] 

John WOOD 3 1 1 3 1 1 

Nicholas W00DFIN 30010 32010 

John WHITTEKER 00010 10010 

William -WHITTEKER 10010 20100 

Benjn. WOOTEN 00100 00100 

John WEBSTER 2 1 3 1 

Michael WOLF 2 1 1 2 1 1 

Moses WEBSTER 00201 00101 

Abraham WAGLEY 20010 00100 

William WELCH 000 10 10100 1 

John WELCH 1 1 1 1 1 

Thomas WELCH 12010 30010 

James J. WARD 10010 10100 

John WEBB 1 1 1 3 

David WEBB 10010 20200 

John WEST 51010 10010 

Charles WILLIAMSON 00010 10010 

Richd. WILLIAMSON 00301 10001 

AdamWEASE 00210 22100 

William WOODY 43001 30010 

Henry WOOD 2 1 3 1 

Richd. WILLIAMS 10010 31010 

William WILSON 00201 00200 5 

Stephen WILLIAMS 10010 10010 

[Page #194] 

John WILLIAMS 00200 10100 

Robert WALKER 10011 10100 

John WILSON 11100 00100 

Jesse WILLIAMS 20110 10010 

Smith WILLIAMS 10010 10010 

James WITHEROW 10011 00031 

William WHITTSON 222 10 20010 3 

John WILSON 00001 00001 

Joseph WALKER 01101 01101 

Isaac WILLIAMS 00001 41000 

William YOUNG 3 1001 20010 1 

William YOUNG 2 1 2 1 

Samuel YOUNG 1 3 1 

[END] 
[Page #194] 
TOTAL — [Their tabulation] 

White Males 1099 under the age of ten years 

416 between the ages of ten and sixteen years 
479 between sixteen and twenty-six years old 

489 between the ages of twenty-six and forty-five years 

289 age forty-five years and over 
2,775 

White Females 1 1 37 under the age of ten years 

368 between the ages of ten and sixteen years 
507 between sixteen and twenty-six years old 

422 between the ages of twenty-six and forty-five years 

225 age forty-five years and over 
2,659 

Others 34 

Slaves 347 

Grand Total 5,815 



The 1800 Federal Census of Buncombe County is reprinted with special permission 
of the compiler, Dorothy Williams Potter, 804 Westwood Drive, Tullahoma, Tennes- 
see, 37388. 

— The Book Committee 



USEFUL REFERENCE BOOKS 

CONCERNED WITH THE OLD 

BUNCOMBE COUNTY AREA 

94 

To the reader concerned with the history 
covered by the "Old Buncombe" area, these 
books may be of interest: 
Allen, W.C., Annals of Haywood County 

(Waynesville): 1935 628 p. 
Allen, W.C., Centennial of Haywood County 

and its County Seat, Waynesville, N.C. 

1808-1908. Waynesville, Courier, 1908 184 

P- 

Anderson: Robert.: The Story of Montreat 
from Its Beginning, 1897-1947, Montreat. 
1949. 237 p. 

The Asheville, NC City Hall: Dedication of The 
City Building, Asheville, N.C. No imprint. 
illus. ports. 

Bauer, Fred B.: Land of the North Carolina 
Cherokees. Brevard, NC. George E. Bucha- 
nan, Printer, 1970. 

Bell, George Morrison Sr.: Genealogy of "Old 
and New Cherokee Indian Families. " Bart- 
lesville, OK. The Author, 1972. 

Billings, Henry : All Down the Valley. New 
York, Viking Press, 1952. 208 p. 

Blackmun, Ora: A Spire on the Mountains: The 
Story of 176 years of a Church and a Town 
Growing Together, 1794-1969. Asheville, 
First Presbyterian Church, 1970. 387 p. 
illus. map. biblio. 

Blankenship, Bob: Cherokee Roots. Cherokee, 
NC. The Author, 1978 

Bledsoe, Jerry: "Just Folks: Visiting with 
Carolina People". 

Blythe, Legette: Mountain Doctory. New York, 
1964. 221 p. illus. 

Bon Marche Diary: 1924-25 (no imprint) 306 
p. illus. 

Boyden, Lucile K.: The Village of Five Lives: 
The Fontana of the Great Smoky Mountains. 
Fontana Dam: Government Services, 
(C1964). 72 p. 

Boyer, Marie L: Early Days: All Souls' Church 
andBiltmore Village. Biltmore, 1933. 22 p. 

Browder, Nathaniel C: The Cherokee Indians 
and Those Who Came After. Notes for a 
History of Cherokee County, NC 1835-1860 
(Draft Copy) Hayesville, Author, 1973 408 
p. limited to 500 copies. 

Bryson, Mrs. Vernon: Macon County, A/C1972 

Buncombe County Confederate Centennial 
Committee: Battle of Asheville, 1964. 

Carter, Ted: Vest Pocket History of Asheville 
and Western North Carolina, Part I, 1978; 
Part 2: 1978 

Cherokee Indian Records: See list of Microfilm 
Printouts in the Swain County section. Addi- 
tional sources: Cherokee National Historical 
Society, Tsa-la-gi, P.O. Box 515, Tahle- 
quah, OK. 74464. Georgia Dept. Archives & 
History, Central Research Section Library, 
330 Capitol Avenue, SE, Atlanta, GA 30334. 
Genealogy Branch, NC Div. State Library, 
109 East Jones St., Raleigh, N.C. 27611. 
Bemis Memorial Library, Robbinsville, NC 
(Graham County). 

Clay County, N.C. Historical Committee: Clay 
County, 1860-1961: Commemorating the 



128 



one hundredth anniversary of the Creating 
of Clay County, NC by the General Assem- 
bly, (n.p. 1961). 46 p. illus. 
Crouch, Arthur Wier, and Hary Dixon Clay- 
brook: Our Ancestors Were Engineers, 1946. 
Published by the Nashville Section, Amer- 
ican Society of Civil Engineers. 
DAR Historical Collections: List of Revolution- 
ary Soldiers in Buncombe County. Georgia, 
p. 361-362. 1926 
Davidson, J. P.: Historical Sketch of Bun- 
combe County, NC. (In: Asheville, NC. 
Directories. Asheville, NC Directory, p. 01- 
118. 1883) 

Davidson, T.F.: Genesis of the County of Bun- 
combe. (In: Sondley, F.A. Asheville and 
Buncombe County, p. 193-200. 1922). 

Devereux, R.E. and others, Soil Survey of 
Macon County. Washington. Govt. Printing 
Office. 1929 21. map. 

Dickens, RoyS.: "The Pisgah Culture and Its 
Place in the Pre-history of the Southern 
Appalachians:Jhes\s (PhD) — UNC, Chapel 
Hill, 1970. 309 p. illus. maps, bibliography. 

Digges, George A.: Historical Facts Concern- 
ing Buncombe County Government. Ashe- 
ville: Biltmore, 1935. 328 p. 

Digges, George A., comp.: Buncombe Coun- 
ty, N.C. Grantee Deed Index. Asheville: Mil- 
ler (c 1927). 2 volumes. 

Digges, George A.: Buncombe County, N.C. 
Grantor Deed Index. Asheville: Miller (c 
1926). 3 volumes. 

Edwards, Lusk: Stories of Old Timers: The 
Appalachian Mountain Log book, published 
by Lusk Edwards, 1961 

Fain, James T. Jr.: A Partial History of Hender- 
son County. Arno Press, a New York Times 
Company, New York, 1980. 

Federal Writers' Project: North Carolina: Ashe- 
ville: A guide to the City in the Mountains, 
1941. Manuscript, iv. 236 p. 

Fitzsimons, Frank L: From the Banks of the 
Oklawaha, Golden Glow Publishing Co., 
Hendersonville, NC. Vol. I, 1976; Vol. II, 
1977; Vol. Ill 1979. 

Franklin Press, 1946 to present (bound 
copies) 

Freel, Margaret W.: Our Heritage: The People 
of Cherokee County, N.C. 1540-1955. 
Asheville, Miller, 1956. 407 p. 

Gilbert, John F. and Grady Jefferys: Crossties 
over Saluda. Raleigh, Crossties Press, 
1971. 36 p. illus. 

Goldston, Eugene F. and William Gettys: Soil 
Survey, Macon County, N.C. Washington: 
Government Printing Office, 1956 124 p. 
illus. maps. 

Goldston, Eugene F. and others: Soil Survey of 
Jackson County, Washington. Government 
Printing Office, 1948 87 p. map. 

Goldston, E.F. and others: Soil Survey of 
Madison County. Washington. Govt. Print- 
ing Office. 1942. 60 p fold. maps. 

Goldston, E.F. and William Gettys,: Soil Sur- 
vey of Graham County, Washington. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, 1953. 81 p. fold, 
maps. 

Goldston, E.F. and others: Soil Survey of 
Haywood County, NC, Washington, US 
Dept. of Agriculture, 1954, 112 p maps. 

Goldston, E.F. and others: Soil Survey of Bun- 




This 1920s photo of the Bon Marche' Store in Asheville was located on Haywood Street in the 1920's. Later, Ivey's took 
the location. Such stores as these along with other shops drew many shoppers to downtown Asheville. They were also 
popular with tourists. Photo from the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research Center, UNC-Asheville 



combe Co. Washington, U.S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture, 1954. 122 p 6 folded maps. 

Graham County Centennial, 1872-1972. Rob- 
binsville: Hilton Business Equipment Co. 
1972. 152 p. illus. maps. 

Gray, Idyl Dial, Editor: Azure-Lure, A Ro- 
mance of the Mountains, 1924. 

Great Smoky Mountains Publishing Company 
Inc.: The Land of the Sky and the Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park. 1929. 

Gulick, John: Cherokees at the Crossroads. 
Chapel Hill, NC Institute for Research in 
Social Science, University of N.C. 1960. 

Harshaw, Lou: Asheville: Places of Discovery. 
Lakemont, Copple House Books, 1980. 199 

p. 

Hearn, W. Edward and G.M. MacNider: Soil 
Survey of Transylvania County. Washing- 
ton. US Government Printing Office. 1907. 
25 p. map. 

Henry, Homer: The Development of Public 
Education in Madison County. Thesis (MA) 
UNC-Chapel Hill. 1927. 75 p. 

Hoyle, Columbus A: comp; Panorama of 
Progress: Jackson County Centennial. (Syl- 
va: Jackson Co. Centennial Celebration Ex- 
ecutive Committee, 1951) 

Jolley, Harley: The Blue Ridge Parkway, 1969. 
Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. 

Jurney, Robert C. and others: Soil Survey of 
Haywood County. Washington. US Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 1925 

Kephart, Horace: The Cherokees of the Smoky 
Mountains. Ithaca, NY. The Author, 1936. 

King, Duane H., Editor: The Cherokee Indian 
Nation, A Troubled History. Knoxville, The 
University of Tennessee Press, 1979. 

Kephart, Horace: Our Southern Highlanders, 
1913. University of Tennessee Press and 
Macmillan Publishing Company. 

Lambert, Robert S.: The Oconaluftee Valley, 



1800-1860: A Study of the Sources for 
Mountain History, (In North Carolina Histor- 
ical Review, XXXV, 4 Oct. 1958), p. 415- 
426. 

Langley, Joan: Yesterday's Asheville, Miami, 
Seeman Publishing Co. 1975. 128 p. 

Mead, Martha N., Asheville in the Land of 
the sky. Richmond, Dietz, 1942. 188 p. 

Medford, W. Clark,: The Early History of 
Haywood County. Waynesville, 1968 165 p. 
illus. 

Medford, W. Clark,: The Middle History of 
Haywoood County. Waynesville, 1968. 165 
p. illus. 

Medford, W. Clark: Finis and Farewell, 
Waynesville, 1969 162 p. illus. 

Medford, W. Clark: The Long Hard Road, 
1973. 

Medford W. Clark Haywood's Heritage and 
Finest Hour, 1971. 

Medford, W. Clark: Great Smoky Mountain 
Stories, and Sun Over 01' Starlin' 1966. 

Medford, W. Clark: Land O' The Sky, 1965. 

Medford, W. Clark: Mountain People, Moun- 
tain Times, 1963. 

Medford, W. Clark: The Biography of R.A. 
Sentelle, 1959. 

Miller, Jim Wayne: The Mountains Have Come 
Closer, Appalachian Consortium Press, 
1980. 

Miller, Leonard P.: Education in Buncombe 
County, 1793-1965. Asheville, 1965 137 p. 
illus. 

Mooney, James: Myths of the Cherokees and 
Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees. (From 
the 19th and 17th Annual Reports of the 
Bureau of American Ethnology) Nashville, 
Tenn. Charles Elder, Publisher, 1972. 

Moss, Paul: Little Church of the Valley (Moss 
Baptist Church) in the Shadow of the Pot- 
rock. Dallas, Tex. Mathis Van Nort. c. 1949. 

129 




In spite of the economic hardships of 1933, the Rhododendron Festival Parade went on in Asheville in 1933. Pictured here is a float promoting the repeal of the 18th 
Amendment. The float was sponsored by "Women's Organization For National Prohibition Reform." Photo from the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research 
Center, UNC-Asheville. 



23 p. illus. 

McCoy, George W.: The First Presbyterian 
Church, Asheville, 1951. 67 p. illus. 

McCoy, George W.: Battle of Asheville, (Ashe- 
ville: Buncombe Co. Confederate Centennial 
Committee, 1964). 14 p. 

McCrary, Jary J.: The Goodly Heritage: A His- 
tory of St. Philips Church of Brevard, N.C. 
and of St. Paul's in the Valley, in the Diocese 
of Western North Carolina, c 1959. 71 p. 
illus. 

McLeod, John A.: From These Stones: Mars 
Hill College, the First Hundred Years. Mars 
Hill, 1955, 291 p. 

North Carolina Federal Census Records on 
Microfilm. Ask the Librarian for County and 
year. Pack Memorial Library, and others. 

Newspapers: Franklin Press: Sept. 20, 1888 
(microf.); March 25, 1891(micrf) June 28, 
1893 (micrf.) Western Reporter: July 2, 
1881 (microfilm) Franklin Observer, 1860 
(microfilm.) 

N.C. Genealogical Society: Marriage and 
Death Notices from extant Asheville N.C. 
Newspapers, 1840-1870. An index. 1977 
139 p. 

N.C. Buncombe County Board of County Com- 
missioners, 1928: Buncombe County Court 
House Dedication, Dec. 1, 1928. Asheville 
N.C. Jarrett Press, 1928. illus. 

Padgett, J. Guy: A History of Clay County, 
N.C. Hayesville, NC: Bicentennial Commit- 
tee of Clay County, NC 1976 128 p. illus. 

Parris, John A.: The Cherokee Story, 



Stephens Press, Asheville, 1950. 

Parris, John A.: Mountain Bred, Citizen Times 
Publishing Co. Asheville, 1967. 

Parris, John A.: Mountain Cooking, Citizen 
Times Publishing Co., Asheville, 1978. 

Parris, John A.: My Mountains, My people, 
Citizen Times Publishing Company, 1957 

Parris, John A.: Roaming The Mountains with 
John Parris, The Citizen Times Publishing 
Company, 1955 

Parris, John A.: These Storied Mountains 
Citizen Times Publishing Company, 1972. 

Patton, Sadie S.: The Story of Henderson 
County. Asheville, Miller, 1947 290 p. 

Patton, Sadie S.: St. James Episcopal Church, 
Hendersonville, N.C, 1843-1950 34 p. 

Perkins, Samuel 0. and William Gettys: Soil 
Survey of Swain County. Washington. Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, 1947. 65. map. 

Perkins, Samuel 0. and others: Soil Survey of 
Clay County: Washington. Government 
Printing Office. 1941. 52 p map. 

Perkins, Samuel 0. and others: Soil Survey of 
Henderson County. Washington. Govern- 
ment Printing Office. 1943. 68 p map. 

Perkins, Samuel 0. and others: Soil Survey of 
Buncombe Co. Washington. Government 
Printing Office, 1923. 31 p. map. 

Pickens, Nell: Dry Ridge: Some of Its History, 
Some of Its People. Weaverville, 1962. 113 
p. illus. map. 

Plemmons, W.H.: The City of Asheville: His- 
torical and Institutional, 1935 

Potter, Dorothy Williams: 1800 Federal Cen- 



sus of NC, Buncombe County, 1975. 60 p. 
(Reprinted in this volume by permission.) 

Johnson, William Perry; Potter. Dorothy 
Williams: 1820 Federal Census of NC, Bun- 
combe County, 1971, 95 p. 

Porter, Leona Bryson: The Family of Weimar 
Siler, 1755-1831. Published by the Com- 
mittee Appointed at the 100th Meeting, 
Franklin, NC 1951. 

Ray, J.M: Asheville in 1865 (In: The Lyceum, 
v.1, page 5-7, Sept. 1890.) 

Ray, Lenoir: Postmarks: A History of Hender- 
son County, N.C. 1787-1968. Chicago. 
Adams, 1970. 412 p illus. 

Reeves, William T.: A History of Haywood 
County. Thesis (MA) Duke University, 
Durham, 1937. 121 p. 

Roberson , Zera H . : Public School Education in 
Buncombe County. 1935-1969. Candler, 
1969. 136 p. 

Robertson, George F.: A Small Boy's Recol- 
lections of the Civil War (War between the 
States). Clover, S.C., Robertson, 1932. 
116 p. 

Rulfs, Donald J.: 777e Theater in Asheville from 
1879 to 1931. (In; North Carolina Historical 
Review, XXXVI, 4 October, 1959), p. 429- 
441. 

Sharpe, Bill: A New Geography of North Caroli- 
na, Vol. Ill, Raleigh, NC Sharp Publishing 
Company, 1961 

Siler, Margaret R.: Cherokee Indian Lore and 
Smoky Mountain Stories. Terasita Press, 
1980. First published, 1938. 



130 



Smith, Dr. CD.: A Brief History of Macon 
County, NC. Franklin Press, 1955. 

Smith, James F.: The Cherokee Land Lottery. 
Baltimore, Genealogical Publishing Com- 
pany, 1969 (originally pub. 1838) 

Sondley, F. A.: Asheville and Buncombe Coun- 
ty. 1857. 

Sondley, F.A.: Early settlement of Western 
Carolina. 139 p. 

Sondley, F.A.: History of Buncombe County, 
NC. Asheville. Advocate, 1930. 2 volumes. 
illus. 

Sondley, F.A., Asheville and Buncombe Coun- 
ty. Asheville Citizen, 1922. 200. 

Sondley, F.A.: A History of Buncombe County. 
Spartanburg SC. Reprint Co. 1977. 

St. Agnes Church, Franklin, NC. The First Fifty 
Years. (1888-1938). Franklin, 1938. 16 p. 
illus. 

St. James Episcopal Church, Hendersonville, 
N.C., 75^5-7955: Hendersonville, 1963. 14 
p. illus. 

Starr, Emmet: Old Cherokee Families: Nor- 
man, Oklahoma, University of Oklahoma 
Foundation, 1968. (Paperback) (Reprinted 
from History of the Cherokee Indians and 
their Legends and Folklore.). 

Swaim, Douglas: (edited by). Cabins and Cas- 
tles, essays by Talmage Powell and John 
Ager. 1981 225 p. 

Terrell, Bob: Grandpa's Town, Asheville, N.C. 
1978. 204 p. (Partly Fiction). 

Thomasson, Lillian F.: Swain County: Early 
History and Educational Development. Bry- 
son City: 1965. 144 p illus. maps, biblio. 

Transylvania Historical Commission, 1861- 
1961: Transylvania County Centennial. His- 
torical Souvenir Program. 40 p. illus. 1961 . 

Tyner, James W. (Ed.) Those Who Cried: The 
16,000 — A record of the individual Cher- 
okees listed in the United States Official Cen- 
sus of the Cherokee Nation conducted in 
1835. Chi-ga-u Unc. 1974. 

United Daughters of the Confederacy, NC Div. 
Fanny Patton Chapter, Asheville: History 
and Directory of the Fanny Patton Chapter, 
No. 1699UDC2p. 

Ward, Doris Cline: Ancestry of Mary Boulter 
Prescott, Ward Pub. Co. Asheville, 1981 

Ward, Doris Cline: European Ancestry of the 
Prescott Family. Ward Publishing Com- 
pany, Allegan, Mich. 1977 (2nd edition). 

Webb, C.A.: Asheville, N.C, Forty Six Years 
in Asheville, N.C. Asheville Citizen, 1935. 
19 p. 

Webb, Charles A.: Fifty-eight Years in Ashe- 
ville. (Asheville Citizen Times, 1948. 17 p. 

Weeks, Charles J.: The Eastern Cherokee and 
the New Deal: (In: The North Carolina His- 
torical Review, Volume 53, No. 3, July 
1976, pp 303-319. 

Weir, Sally R.: Hot Springs, Past and Present. 
Knoxville, Tenn. Newman, 1906. 25 p. illus. 

Wellman, Manly Wade,: The Kingdom of 
Madison: A Southern Mountain Fastness 
and Its People. With drawings by Frank 
Holyfield. Chapel Hill, UNC Press (1973). 
222 p. illus. 

Wood, Lawrence E.: Mountain Memories. 
Franklin. 1972. 75 p. 

Yancey Graphics: Common Times, A Written 
and Pictorial History of Yancey County. Yan- 



cey Graphics, P.O. Box 146 — Burnsville, 
NC 28714 Telephone 704-682-6818. 
Yancey Graphics: Flood Disaster, Yancey 
County, NC 1977. 

— The Book Committee 



SOME FAMILY HISTORIES 

AND GENEALOGIES IN THE 

LIBRARY OF OLD BUNCOMBE 

COUNTY GENEALOGICAL 

SOCIETY 

95 

The Old Buncombe County Genealogical 

Society maintains an office and library in the 

Haywood Building, Haywood St., Asheville. 

The following is a partial listing of holdings in 

1981: 

Anthony, Margaret Hemphill and Mary Sue 
Hemphill Hendrix: Hemphills in North Caro- 
lina. College Press, 1981. Collegedale, 
Tenn. 

Bailey, Levi: Bailey Mitchell Family Records 

Berry, Lloyd E.: Hudson Berry and His De- 
scendants. 

Cable, Maurice L. & Sue G.: William Gudger, 
Soldier and Pioneer. 

Clark, Walter: Histories of the Several Reg- 
iments from North Carolina in the Great 
War, 1861-65. 1901. published by The 
State of North Carolina. 

Davis, Evelyn Redmon: The Redmon Family, 
1976. 

Demmon, Elwood Leonard: Genealogy of A 
Demmon and Allied Families. 

Eaves, Mrs. J.B.: Sketch of Lineal Descen- 
dants of Samuel Wilson, Sr. 

Fobes, Lawrence: Arrington Family, Madison 
County. 

Fobes, Lawrence: Burlison-Coates. Desc. of 
Margaret Burlison and Gabriel Coates. 

Fobes, Lawrence: North Carolina Mountain 
Peek's and Their Descendants. 1976. 

Fobes, Lawrence G.: The Hensely Family. 
Desc. of Henry Hensley of Henry County, 
Virginia, b. before 1755, and Yancey Coun- 
ty, NC. 

Fobes, Lawrence G.: The Lewis Family. 

Fobes, Lawrence G.: The Moore Family. Wil- 
liam Moore, New Jersey and Madison Coun- 
ty, NCb. ca 1767 

Fobes, Lawrence G.: The Young Family of 
WNC (Macon, Henderson, Buncombe and 
Madison). Atlantic Highlands, NJ. 1976 

Fobes, Lawrence G.: Edmund Palmer of Beth- 
lehem, N.J. William Sprinkle and Isabella 
Palmer Sprinkle. 

Fobes, Lawrence G.: The Redmon Family. 

Fobes, Lawrence G. The Family of Robert 
Sams of Cardiff Wales, and Port Royal, S.C. 

Fobes, Lawrence G.: The Stewart Family. 

Fobes, Lawrence G.: The Wilde Family. 

Fulcher, Richard Carlton: Owen Family His- 
tory, c. 1976. Brentwood Historical Society. 

Haynes, Mrs. Grover C. Sr., Raleigh Ruther- 
ford Haynes. A History of His Life and 
Achievements, c. 1954 

Helmbold, F. Wilbur: Baptist Records for 
Genealogy and History. 

Hutchinson, Robert W.: Perminter Morgan, 



1755-1824. Graham, N.C. 

Linn, Jo White for Gordon Gray: The Gray 
Family and Allied Lines, (Bowman, Lindsay, 
Millis, Dick, Peebles, Wiley, Shannon, 
Lamar, McGee.) Salisbury, NC 1976. 

MacDowell, Dorothy Kelly: Descendants of 
Williams Capers and Richard Capers. 1 973. 

National Archives Trust Fund Board: Federal 
Population Censuses 1790-1890. A Catalog 
of microfilm copies of the schedules. 1979. 

National Archives Trust Fund Board: 1900 
Federal Population Census, Washington, 
D.C 1978. 

National Genealogical Society: Surname Index 
to 65 volumes of Colonial and Revolutionary 
Pedigrees, Washington, DC 1964. 

Owenby, Evelyn: What Does America Mean to 
You? 2 Vol. 1942-1962. Blue Island, ILL. 
(Woodson, Overton, Butle-Moore, Boone, 
Bryan, Bryant, Miller, Huckstep, Brady, 
Hecox, Lawrence, Ranvenscroft). 

Reece, David H. The Rees Family. 

Riley, Mary R.: A Compilation of the Berry, 
Gaines and Harrison Families. Pelzer, S.C. 
1956. 

Seaver, J. Montgomery and Ella L. Davis: The 
Davis Family History. American Historical 
Genealogical Society, Philadelphia, PA 1929. 

Shope, Ina: A History of the Shope, Gregg and 
Burnette Families, c 1980. Asheville, NC. 

Taylor, Noma McMinn: The Jessie Albert 
McMinn Family History of Old Buncombe 
County, b. 1903. Hendersonville, NC. 

Vinton, John Adams: The Giles Memorial. 
(Giles, Gould, Holmes, Jennison, Leonard, 
Lindall, Curwen, Marshall, Robinson, 
Sampson, Webb.) Henry W. Dutton & Son, 
Boston, 1864. 

Wood, Lawrence E.: Setzer and Allied Fami- 
lies. Gateway Press, Inc. Baltimore, 1980. 

Whitaker, Kirby Ray: They Were Trailblazers, 
Those Rays. The Author, Asheville, 1981 



131 




PART II - OUR HERITAGE 

People To Remember 

In The 

Land Of The Sky . . 



In the 1920's, a 10 year old mountain boy 
kept a notebook entitled "Open This And 
Remember Me!" The following sketches 
recall the memory and names of many Old 
Buncombe area people. 



Early mountain people were highly self-sufficient. Their activities centered around the home and "hand work," hunting, 
field work, and frequently the church. This old photo is from the Ewart W. Ball Collection, Southern Highlands Research 
Center, UNC-Asheville. 




132 



ALBERTUS AND MARY A. 
(DAVIDSON) ALEXANDER 

201 

Albertus Newton Alexander was born De- 
cember 20, 1835, the son of William Davidson 
and Leah (Burgin) Alexander. 

He married Mary Adaline Davidson, and 
they built their home on part of the original 685 
acre tract of Alexander property inherited from 
his father on Bee Tree Creek. It was an in- 
teresting plantation and held many fond 
memories for later generations who were for- 
tunate enough to have lived or visited there. 

The house had walls of solid brick, made 
from clay from their own land by an itinerant 
negro brickmaker who was paid the value of a 
mule and his food and lodging for making 
them. The solid black walnut timber also came 
from their land and was prepared for building 
in the family sawmill. Slate was shipped in 
from Vermont, and each of the nine rooms in 
the house had its own fireplace for heating. 

Running water from an ever-flowing spring 
gushing from the side of a mountain was piped 
to a spring house through logs hollowed out 
for a pipeline. 

A smokehouse for curing meat was built on 
a rock foundation which became the undis- 
turbed home of a six-foot black snake who 
guarded the smokehouse contents from ro- 
dents, thereby getting a good living for himself 
in the process. Behind that was a woodshed 
that sheltered a season's supply of wood and 
pine knots needed for kindling. A blacksmith 
shop was included among the outbuildings, 
and an itinerant blacksmith used to come 
along who, for food and lodging and some 
further consideration, would repair all the farm 
equipment and do what blacksmithing was 
necessary. 

There were two barns, a granary for storing 
grain, and a separate building of logs contain- 
ing bins where apples could be stored under 
layers of straw, while another house stored ice 
cut from the creeks in winter and held over for 




Pictured here is the home of Albertus Newton Alexander. Standing before the home, left to right, is their daughter Leah, 
Albertus and his wife Mary Adaline Davidson Alexander. 



use in the summer. Another building stored 
their corn until needed. Stables for horses, 
and a carriage house for their coaches and 
buggies were established. 

A huge cauldron was part of their equipment 
in which clothes could be boiled, or which 
could be used for making hominy and lye soap 
by turn. A kitchen garden that was boarded up 
all the way around for protection from the 
chickens provided a place for growing the 
many spices and special vegetables needed for 
the family. Grapes grew up the board fence, 
adding an extra crop. 

Lightning rods and furniture were shipped 
in from Charlotte to equip the house for safety 
and living. 

Albertus and Mary Adaline raised a family of 
eight children: Sarah who married Edward C. 
Dewey; Charles H; Rufus D; Samuel; Leona 



who married Oliver Mims; Hester who married 
Dr. O.F. Eckel; Leah who married John Haun; 
Martha (Mattie) who married Luther Hitt. 

— William E. Bryson 

THE JAMES AND RHODA 

(CUNNINGHAM) ALEXANDER 

FAMILY 

202 

James Alexander was born in what is now 
Rutherford County, (then Mecklenburg) on 
Buffalo Creek, December 23, 1756, the son of 
John and Rachel (Davidson) Alexander. 

He moved with his father to Lincoln County 
and settled on Crowder's Creek near King's 
Mountain, While living there he fought on the 
American side in the Revolution at Musgrove's 



About The Index 

Please Remember Entries Are Indexed by Article Numbers, Not Page Numbers. 




133 



Mill, King's Mountain, Cowpens and other 
places in northern South Carolina. A camp 
chest said to have belonged to Lord Cornwallis 
(but probably Colonel Ferguson) was captured 
by him at the King's Mountain battle. 

On March 19, 1782, he married on Allison 
Creek, York District, S.C., a niece of General 
William Davidson, Rhoda Cunningham, 
daughter of Humphrey and Rhoda (Summer- 
ville) Cunningham. 

Somewhile after their marriage, James and 
his family joined in crossing the Blue Ridge to 
make that first settlement in Bee Tree Creek. 
They came from York District, SC and went 
across a gap a half mile or more south of the 
present Long Tunnel. Leaving Old Fort and 
crossing the creek they went for about a mile 
west before entering among the mountains, 
turning to the right and ascending to the gap. 
From there they went down to the creek above 
the modern Town of Black Mountain. 

The place where he settled became known 
as "The old Alexander Place" which land was 
kept in the family for well over one hundred 
and forty-five years. James was one of the 
Justices of the Peace who organized Bun- 
combe County in April, 1792. The United 
States paid him a pension for Revolutionary 
services. 

James and Rhoda Alexander had ten chil- 
dren: John C. (b. 1783); Rhoda (b. 1785) 
William Davidson (b. 1788-died young) 
George C. (b. 1790); James Mitchell (b 
1792); Roberts, (b. 1795); Rachel (b. 1797) 
William Davidson (again — b. 1800); Hum- 
phrey Newton (b. 1803); Elizabeth (b. 1806). 

James Alexander died at his residence on 
Bee Tree Creek on June 28, 1844 and was 
buried two miles away at the old Robert Patton 
burying ground. His widow died on January 
29, 1848. On her death, his body was re- 
moved and buried with her body in the same 
grave at Piney Grove Presbyterian Church 
about three-fourths of a mile from the Robert 
Patton burying ground. 

— W.E. Bryson 

JOHN ALEXANDER 

203 

John Alexander was one of the party that 
formed the first Bee Tree Settlement in Swan- 
nanoa in the Fall of 1784 and Spring of 1785. 
This settlement included the Alexanders, Pat- 
tons, Davidson and Cunningham families. 

John was a descendant of a family who lived 
first in Glasgow, Scotland but emigrated to 
Armagh in Ireland and a few years later con- 
tinued their migration to Chester County, 
Pennsylvania. Head of the household was an 
older John Alexander who had not only his 
wife and children with him but two nephews as 
well. Various members of this family scattered 
to various counties in Pennsylvania, Virginia 
and North Carolina, but the research required 
to draw these people all together has not been 
completed. 

The John of the Bee Tree Settlement had 
previously lived in Pennsylvania, then Rowan 
County and latterly Lincoln County, North 
Carolina where he served as a soldier in the 
Revolution. 

134 




James Alexander, husband of Rhoda Cunningham. 



He acquired land and was in Buncombe 
County for probably ten or fifteen years before 
he and his son Thomas relocated again, this 
time to a land grant on the Harpeth River near 
Nashville, Tennessee. This was their last rest- 
ing place, but not before they had added fur- 
ther successful chapters to their life stories. 
This area is now known as Davidson County, 
Tennessee. 

John married Rachel Davidson, daughter of 
General John Davidson and they had two sons 
— Thomas mentioned above, and James. 

— W.E. Bryson 



HENRY ALLISON AND MARY 
"POLLY" ALLISON 

204 

"Polly" Allison b. ca. 1800-02 was a 
daughter of Richard Allison who married Hen- 
ry Allison my maternal Great Grandfather, b. 
ca. 1790. His parents and possible rela- 
tionship unknown at this point. They settled in 
the Swannanoa Gap of Buncombe County, NC. 
It is believed they raised the following twelve 



children: Thomas; Ephiram Noah; Jefferson 
W.; Elizabeth who married a York; Casandra 
"Cassie" marrying William Padgett; John 
Henry, first married Elizabeth Rebecca Glen- 
down, second Sarah Jane Freeman; Benjamin 
married Rebecca Biddix sister to my paternal 
Grandmother Safronia Biddix. (John Henry 
and Benjamin were twins) Richard; Riley; Re- 
becca who married a Baker; Virginia "Jennie" 
married Bryson McGlamory; Lydia married 
James "Jim" Cheesman who is said to have 
owned the property where the present Ridge- 
crest Baptist Assembly is located. (Virginia 
and Lydia were also twins.) In my ancestral 
research nothing more at this time is known. 
— Charles David Biddix 



JOHN HENRY ALLISON AND 

ELIZABETH REBECCA 

GLENDOWN 

205 

It is believed my maternal Grandfather John 
Henry Allison was born circa 1835 in 
McDowell County, North Carolina. He was the 




Rhoda Cunningham Alexander, wife of James Alexander. 




John Henry Allison (ca. 1835-1900) 



son of Henry and Mary "Polly" Allison. 

At the approximate age of 26-30 he fought 
in the Civil War before entering the first state of 
matrimony, having enlisted December 4, 
1861, McDowell County, Company B, 35th 
Regiment, North Carolina State Troops. On 
December 13, 1862 at Fredrickesburg, Virgin- 
ia he was wounded. His activities as a young 
soldier are unknown. On May 22, 1865 he 
received his discharge in Greensboro, North 
Carolina after serving a tour of three and one- 
half years. 

On a visit to California I was given two 
priceless keepsakes, his discharge and 
straight razor by his daughter Hester Leahana 
Willit. 

His twin brother Benjamin also enlisted 
March 1 5, 1 862 from McDowell County, Com- 
pany K, 22nd Regiment, North Carolina State 
Troops. He was captured and held prisoner at 
Gettysburg, Pa. July I, 1863. One of his sur- 
viving granddaughters, Naomi Lucille (Rat- 
field) Quinn related to this writer that he was 
away during the war for approximately five 
years and when he was released (or escaped) 
from Gettysburg he walked home to the Old 



Fort-Marion, North Carolina area, a distance of 
approximately six hundred miles. This im- 
presses me that the man possessed amazing 
determination. His young wife Rebecca Biddix 
was in the yard cutting kindling and upon 
being approached by her husband who asked 
her for some food. . .she did not recognize 
him. Her reply was, "Sit down and I'll bring 
you something to eat." 

John Henry Allison first married Elizabeth 
Rebecca Glendown and sired four children. 
The first child a daughter, Sarah Elizabeth Alli- 
son (Aunt Bell) was born December 9, 1866. 
She died May 13, 1942 in Richmond, Virginia. 

She attended the old Peace Industrial 
School in Asheville and eventually married 
Thomas C. Burgess November 4, 1883 in the 
presence of Mrs. Al Page and Henry Vinegum. 
He was born in Burke County, North Carolina 
April 1 , 1859 and died May 24, 1951 in Rich- 
mond. 

Around 1907 they moved to Richmond, Vir- 
ginia and began to rear their family of eleven 
children — eight boys and three girls. They 
lived in Richmond thirty-five years until their 
deaths and both are buried in Oakwood Ceme- 
tery, Richmond. 




Irvin Allison 




Coleman N. Allison & Sarah Elizabeth Blalock 



The second child, a son Irvin Allison was 
born June 18, 1868, died March 7, 1927. He 
married CallieM. Francis December 25, 1893. 
She was born May 8, 1870 in Haywood Coun- 
ty, (Waynesville) North Carolina and was a 
daughter of W.C. Francis and Mary Poindex- 

135 



ter. Her father was a master carpenter and 
joiner who did much of the fine finish work on 
several houses located on Montford Ave., 
Asheville. She died February 12, 1935 and 
both are buried in Riverside Cemetery in Ashe- 
ville. 

Irvin Allison spent his working life with the 
Southern Railway (Asheville Division). In an 
article"Da/e Was Fireman For 61 Years", by 
Bob Terrell, which appeared in the Asheville 
Citizen-Times April 9, 1961. Mr. Terrell was 
honoring Jones F. Dale, eighty-two of 37 Ora 
Street who had spent his working life of 61 
years as a fireman for Southern Railway. 




Julia Ada Allison 



Mr. Dale was reminiscing about his narrow 
escapes he had experienced during his career. 
He related about the worst one which occured 
on the other side of Murphy, N.C. in 1909 or 
1910. "A little boy had put a steel bolt on the 
track and climbed the bank to watch what 
happened. Mr. Irvin Allison was the engineer. 
When we hit the bolt, we were movin' right 
along and it flipped that engine right over. I 
was back on the tank and the engine ripped 
loose from it and I didn't overturn. A tool box 
fell off the rack when the engine wrecked and 
hit Mr. Allison on the head. At the same time 
the firebox flew open and Mr. Allison was 
covered with hot coals. He was out of his head 
and when he caught fire he began to run. I 
jumped off the tank car and ran him down and 
put out the fire. He lived and went back to work 
later, but he was a lucky man." 

A third son Coleman N. Allison was born 
August 14, 1872 and died June 3, 1929. He 
married Sarah Elizabeth Blalock who was born 
February 14, 1883. She died April 9, 1949. 
They had no children and both are buried in 
Riverside Cemetery, Asheville. I have been 
told by several relatives that he was an early 
real estate developer and built several of the 



old houses located on Montford Avenue. 

The fourth child, a daughter, Julia Ada Alli- 
son was born August 5, 1876 and died 
November 24, 1942. She also attended The 
Normal and Collegiate Institute for Young 
Women in Asheville. She first married Thomas 
"Tom" Davis and had three children; Bonnie 
who first married Gordon Smith, and second a 
Melton; Florence who died in infancy; and 
Connie Lee who married Charles "Charley" 
Stephenson. 




Sarah Elizabeth (Belle) Allison Burgess (Mrs. Thomas C.) 

Julia Ada Allison married a second time to 
Lonnie "Lon" E. Rhymer, and had eight more 
children. 

— Charles David Biddix 

JOHN HENRY ALLISON AND 
SARAH JANE FREEMAN 

206 

John Henry Allison son of Henry and Mary 
"Polly" Allison took a second wife Sarah Jane 
Freeman b. April 16, 1852 — d. June 4, 1939. 
They were married by Justice of the Peace 
John Step(p) in Black Mountain, NC January 
17, 1880. They settled on Mill Creek, 
McDowell County on a mountain farm and 
began to raise a family of eight more children. 

They were Porter and Walter (no informa- 
tion on these two) except, Walter was killed as 
a very young man, along with his brother-in- 
law Tom Davis in a rock quarry explosion on 
the west side of the French Broad River in 
Asheville, NC. The quarry was owned by his 
half-brother Coleman N. Allison. Thomas Hill- 
iard being the third born son married Lilly 
Wood, possibly of Denver, Colorado or Port- 
land, Oregon. A daughter Maggie Lucilla b. 
December 21, 1886— d. February 24, 1965 
married David Haywood Biddix b. April 7, 
1876 — d. August 3, 1950. This couple are 
the parents of this writer. Next came Ellen 
Victoria b. April 5, 1888 — d. September 24, 
1965. She married Spurgeon Haney of Bun- 
combe County, NC. (See Haney sketch) 

Next came Cheesmanb. July 11, 1890 — d. 
December 20, 1962 in Sun Valley, California. 



After living in Denver and working for the rail- 
road as a machinist, he retired and moved to 
southern California. It is believed he first mar- 
ried a girl by the surname of Brew and had a 
son, however no other information is known. 
His second marriage perhaps in Denver, Col- 
orado, was to Lettie Wood. As far as I know 
the two Wood girls Lillie and Lettie were not 
related. An only son Albert was born of this 
union, and if still living, is somewhere in Cali- 
fornia. 

Hester Leahana the seventh child b. May 7, 
1892 — d. December 18, 1979. (See Willit 
sketch) Georgia Mae b. October 5, 1894 — d. 
1932? St. Louis, Missouri. She was the last 
child born to John Henry and Sarah Jane 
Allison. 

Life was hard in those early days, however 
my Mother related to me that they were reared 
in a fashion that each had his share of work to 
contribute to the upbringing of the family. 
She, at an early age had to wash dishes while 
standing on a stool in order to reach the table. 

When Grandmother Sarah Jane assigned a 
task to be done it had better be done correctly, 
because after her inspection, if it was not done 
to her satisfaction they were told to do it over 
until it met her approval. The family raised all 
their food with the exception of sugar, coffee 
and possibly flour. The smokehouse was al- 
ways filled with hams and bacon, and fruits 
and berries were dried for the long winter 
months, as well as potatoes, onions, turnips 
and other vegetables which could be stored. 
There was always fresh milk, and after churn- 
ing an abundance of butter and buttermilk 
they were kept cold in the springhouse. 

Grandmother was a very strong individual, 
stern and erect in stature even at the age of 
eighty-seven. She was an excellent cook and 
housekeeper, and I was told by a cousin, Lon- 
nie Rhymer Sams, who as a little girl, was 
fortunate enough to taste her cooking, and 
that her bread making was excellent. Even 
though her floors were probably wide plank 
boards they were always scrubbed spotlessly 
clean. Grandmother instilled this trait of 
cleanliness and tidiness in her family, and in 
turn my Mother instilled these traits into her 
family, her boys included. The Allison descen- 
dants which I have come in contact with all 
seem to possess this quality, not only in their 
houses but in their manner of dress and per- 
sonal grooming. This obviously is a character- 
istic of the English-Irish ancestry. 

On the other hand Grandfather Allison was a 
very quiet, gentle, loving man, who when 
necessary, disciplined his flock by placing his 
hands on their heads and gently shaking it, 
saying, "I'll shake the top of your head off." 
They understood perfectly clear what he 
meant, and that was the extent of the punish- 
ment. 

Grandfather died circa 1898-1900 and was 
put on the train and taken down the mountain- 
side to be buried beside his twin brother Ben- 
jamin, who preceded him in death December 
23, 1 890. They were both buried in the original 
Ebenezer Methodist Church Cemetery which is 
now abandoned and in a disgraceful condition. 
(See "History of Ebenezer Church" by John 
W. Moffitt) 



136 




Sarah Jane (Freeman) Allison (1852-1939) 



Sometime after Grandfather Allison died, 
around 1905-06 his family moved to Black 
Mountain, NC and was living in a small modest 
house on the Montreat Road. His son Thomas 
(Tom), a young man of about twenty-two 
years of age decided he would take Horace 
Greely's advice and "Go West Young Man." 
He traveled to Oklahoma City, Ok. and 
obviously found a job, returned sometime lat- 
er and told Grandmother Allison they were 
moving west. This was quite a responsibility 
for a young man to take on. 

Grandmother sold her house and posses- 
sions and the family, consisting of Thomas, 
Ellen (Aunt Dude), and her husband Spurgeon 
Haney, and two small babies, Claude (Clyde) 




All 

ARTICLES 
ARE 
Indexed 

By 

ARTICLE 

NUMBERS 

Not By Page Numbers 




and Francis (Frank), Cheesman, Hester Leaha- 
na, Georgia Mae and a very young cousin 
Albert Lee Biddix boarded the train in Black 
Mountain, NC and headed west. This left be- 
hind my Mother and Father who were expect- 
ing my oldest brother Raymond Ray Biddix. 
My Father could not be talked into leaving 
since he already had a job with Southern Rail- 
road. Mother never saw her brother Tom and 
sister Georgia again. 

After a few trips my Grandmother made 
back for the birth of my next brothers Flemon 
Winston and James Willie and sister Ethel 
Mae, they again picked-up and all moved to 
Denver, Colorado. By this time they were all 
old enough to marry and spread out in dif- 
ferent directions. Young Tom went to Port- 
land, Oregon and married Lilly Wood and died 
there. I have no information that they had any 
children. 

Before leaving Oklahoma City, Georgia mar- 
ried a young man by the name of Muncie Davis 
and had two children: Margie Louise b. August 
24, 1910 — d. January 14, 1971 in Long 
Beach, Ca., and Everett W., who if still living is 
somewhere in Wisconsin. Georgia married a 
second time in St. Louis, Mo. to a J.J. Talley. 
She died there somewhere around 1932. 

My Mother did not see her Mother for the 
next thirty years until at the age of eighty-five 
after leaving Denver and moving to Holly- 
wood, California with Aunt Hester and Aunt 
Ellen (Dude) and her family which had in- 
creased by two more sons . . . Howard William 
and Ralph Hilliard, Grandmother returned 
alone by train for a visit with us. Being very 
young boys of about five years of age we were 
so excited to see a Grandmother, the only 
grandparent we ever saw. After a two month 
visit she returned home to California and died 
at the age of eighty-seven on June 4, 1939. 
She is buried at Valhalla Memorial Park, North 
Hollywood, California. 

— Charles David Biddix 

RICHARD ALLISON 

207 

At this point, as far as can be determined, 
the Allisons came from England and Ireland 
during the Colonial Period and settled in 
Maryland, the Virginias and the Carolinas. 

Richard Allison settled in the Swannanoa 
Gap of the Blue Ridge Mountains. It is said the 
Allisons, Birds, and Ricketts were among the 
earliest settlers of this area shortly after the 
Revolutionary War. 

GreatGreatGrandfatherAllisonb.ca. 1780- 
83? probably in Maryland married Margaret 
Matilda Bird his first wife and had three boys 
and four girls. The boys were John, Noah and 
Billy (William?). The girls were Virginia who 
married Fletcher Fortune of the North Fork area 
of Buncombe County; Polly who married an 
Allison, believed to be my Great Grandfather 
Henry Allison; Lydia married Hiram Kelley and 
settled near Old Fort, NC and Susannah mar- 
ried Moses Allison of Old Fort, NC, who was 
probably a cousin. 

Great Great Grandfather Richard Allison's 
second wife was Mary "Polly" Lindly Ricketts 
which produced four heirs; Thomas, James 



(Jimmy), Lucy and Rebecca (Becky). James 
and Rebecca were both born blind but were 
educated at the Blind Institute in Raleigh, NC. 
James became a preacher and settled in Black 
Mountain, NC and lived there until he died. His 
grave marker was found in the old abandoned 
Ebenezer Church Cemetery near Old Fort. I 
wish to thank a loving ancestor who cared 
enough to see that his resting place was pre- 
served and plainly identified. 

— Charles D. Biddix 

THE ROBERT (BOB) ALLMAN 
FAMILY 

207-A 

Bob was born in 1852. He married Harriet 
Burnette. Harriet was born in 1864 and her 
family was originally from South Carolina. 

Harriet and Bob's children were: 

Grace Dean married Robert Leatherwood. 

Mary Frankie married Walter Sheppard. 

Sallie married Herman Tomberlin. 

Sadie married Bascombe Shepherd. 

Bonnie married Clay Black. 

Ether married Clyde Carson. 

Horace married Delia Myers. 

Henry married Eliza Clay Madison. 

Harriet died at childbirth. The baby, Harriet 
B. was stillborn. This was in 1904. Bob died in 
1929. 

— Marsha McFarland Boone 



DR. ARTHUR CHASE AMBLER 

208 

Dr. Arthur Chase Ambler was born in Can- 
ton, Ohio in 1895 and moved to Asheville the 
following year with his family. His father, Dr. 
Chase P. Ambler was a prominent tuberculo- 
sis specialist in Asheville. 

Arthur Ambler was educated at the old 
Orange St. School, Winn's School for Boys 
and the Asheville School for Boys from which 
he graduated in 1913. His chief athletic sport 
as a student was rowing. He pulled an oar on 
crews of Asheville School and the Universities 
of Pennsylvania and Wisconsin. 

Dr. Ambler entered the practice of medicine 
with his father here in 1921 and was associ- 
ated with him until the latter's death in 1932. 
At that time Dr. Ambler took a post-graduate 
course in anesthesia at New York University 
Post-Graduate Hospital, returning to Asheville 
in 1933. He is credited with bringing modern 
anesthesia to North Carolina, and during his 
years of practice, administered to at least 
35,000 persons. 

Ambler presented papers on anesthesia be- 
fore county, state, regional and national 
societies. In 1941 he was elected President of 
the Buncombe County Medical Society, and in 
that position was innovative and far-sighted. 
He urged consolidation of Asheville's several 
small hospitals into one large one. It was his 
leadership that eventually led to the consolida- 
tion of the old Victoria, Biltmore, Mission, and 
Asheville Colored Hospitals into Memorial 
Mission Hospital. Dr. Ambler fought for more 
beds and better care for black persons. 

In 1950 Dr. John Hoskins joined Dr. 

137 



Ambler, and the two of them organized the 
Anesthesia Department at Memorial Mission 
Hospital. 

A former member of Kiffin Rockwell Amer- 
ican Legion Post, Ambler organized the 
group's prize-winning Drum and Bugle Corps. 

He was a 32nd degree Mason and Shriner, a 
member of Trinity Episcopal Church, and 
numerous professional organizations. He re- 
tired in 1966 after forty-five years of practice. 

He was noted for many hobbies, and had a 
fine collection of model railroads, stamps, 
gems and coins. He enjoyed fishing, hunting, 
woodcarving, golf, oil painting, photography, 
etc. He was a most colorful personality in 
Asheville's medical and social circles, and is 
often credited with having been the model for 
Esquire Magazine's "Esky." 

Dr. Ambler was married to Mary Barber of 
New York and they had two daughters, Judy, 
(Mrs. Alexander Russell) of Baltimore; Mrs. 
Mimi Sagar of Asheville, and a son Mr. Chase 
Ambler, a teacher at Asheville School for 
Boys. There are several grandchildren. 

Dr. Ambler died in 1968. 

— Mrs. Mimi Ambler Sagar 



DR. CHASE P. AMBLER 

209 

Dr. Chase P. Ambler was born in Salem, 
Ohio, in 1865. He graduated from Western 
Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, in 
1889. He then came to Asheville and was 
associated with Dr. Karl Von Ruck at the old 
Winyah Sanitarium. In 1893 he returned to 
Canton, Ohio for three years, and then came 
back to Asheville to a private practice in dis- 
eases of the chest. In 1921 he opened his 
private hospital (Ambler Heights Sanitar- 
ium) for treatment of tuberulosis, which he 
operated until his death in 1932. 

He was a member of the County and State 
Medical Societies and many of the National 
Medical Societies. He served a term as Presi- 
dent of the Buncombe County Medical 
Society. 

Dr. Ambler loved the mountains of North 
Carolina and always worked in the interest of 
conservation and related associations. He 
worked for years with the U.S. Forest Service 
on natural resources. It was due to his help 
and interest that the Smoky Mountains Nation- 
al Park was formed and a 6,000 foot peak in 
the Park was named in his honor. 

Dr. Ambler's other interest was the 
Masons. He was made a 33rd degree Mason in 
1914 and in 1915 served as Potentate 
A. O.N. M.S. of the Oasis Temple, and held the 
office of High Priest for ten years. 

In 1891 he married Harriet B. Vernon, and 
they had five children: Mrs. Walter B. Carpen- 
ter (died 1926); Dr. Arthur C. Ambler (died 
1968); Mrs. Terry Manusell (died 1974); Dr. 
John V. Ambler, Denver, Colorado; and Mrs. 
Walter H. Thome of Asheville. 

His first wife died in 1918, and in 1926 he 
married Mrs. Daisy D. Chambers who died in 
1964. There are eleven grandchildren, and 
sixteen great grandchildren. 

— Barbara Ambler Thome 

138 



COL. ALBERT GALLITON 
ANDERSON 

210 

Colonel Albert Galliton Anderson was born 
June 3, 1817 and died December 28, 1889 at 
Barnardsville on Big Ivy River, Buncombe 
County, N.C. He was a colonel in the state 
militia, deputy sheriff, Justice of the Peace, 
and served as Postmaster of Barnardsville. 

When the Civil War became evident, Col. 
Anderson campaigned for recruits for the Con- 
federate Army and through his efforts many 
men of Buncombe and Madison counties 
joined the army, among whom was his own 
son William Anderson, who was one of the 
first men to be killed in battle from this section. 
After his son's death Colonel Anderson volun- 
teered for active service and though a father of 
ten children, served from July 23, 1861 until 
July 16, 1862 in Company K, 25th North Caro- 
lina Regiment. 

He was very fond of fine horses and it is 
said that he traded 1 500 acres of his mountain 
lands which is now included in the Asheville 
watershed, for an especially fine horse that 
had struck his fancy. 

Colonel Anderson was married three times: 
first, on March 1 2, 1 837 to Fanny Wilson who 
was born March 18, 1817 and died in July, 
1860; secondly, on August 31, 1860 to Mrs. 
Margaret Ann Matilda (Dillingham) Kerr, who 
was born on September 3, 1 832 and died April 
19, 1880, a daughter of Alfred Burton and 
Delilah Caroline (Stevens) Dillingham; thirdly, 
to Mrs. Wheeler Creasman, no issue. 

In 1852 he was appointed patrol of Big Ivy 
and in 1855 tax assessor. He was required to 
drill the men of his company the 1 st Thursday 
in August of each year. 

It is said that Col. Anderson, while recruit- 
ing men for the Confederate Army, said that 
the South would win the war in a very short 
time and that all Southern blood spilled could 



be wiped up with his handkerchief. 

Colonel Anderson died December 28, 1889 
at his home at Barnardsville, N.C. This old 
home stood immediately behind the present 
Barnardsville High School building and he and 
his second wife, Peggy Ann, are buried in the 
old cemetery on a hill about 300 yards north- 
west of his homeplace. 

By his first wife, Fanny (Wilson) Anderson, 
he was the father of: 

Lucious Gaither Anderson b. January 22, 
1838 m. November 16, 1860 to Margaret E. 
Garrison b. 1839. They moved to Texas. 

William Wilson Anderson b. January 29, 
1840. Killed July 1, 1862 in the battle of Get- 
tysburg, Penn.: 

Marceny Jane Anderson b. January 20, 
1842 m. October 1858 to John F. Dillingham; 

Martha Elizabeth Anderson b. February 16, 
1844 m. August 27, 1855 to John H. Garrison, 
brother of Margaret (Garrison) Anderson, wife 
of her brother Lucious; 

Robert Barnard Anderson b. May 29, 1846, 
died young; 

Sarah Catherine Anderson b. May 15, 1848 
m. Reubin Whitt; 

Albert Galliton Anderson, Jr., b. March 3, 
1850 m. Mary Caroline Richardson, he died 
August 5, 1929 in Jordan, Texas; 

Mary Ann Matilda Anderson b. July 25, 
1852 m. Milton Proffitt of Bald Creek, Yancey 
County, N.C. she m. 2ndly Elbert Ray of Yancey 
County, N,C. and died in June, 1953, a short 
while before her 101st birthday; 

Romulas Hicks Anderson b. November 12, 
1854, m. Harriet S. Ingle. He died July 12, 
1936 in Stevensville, Texas; 

Creed Fulton Anderson b. April 1 7, 1 860 m. 
Winnie Bradley and moved to Detroit, Texas 
where he died. 

By his second wife, Margaret Ann (Dilling- 
ham) Kerr, he was the father of: 

Fanny Josephine Anderson b. May 4, 1861 
m. July 18, 1880 to Francis Marion Stevens, 




Col. Albert Galliton Anderson and Margaret Ann Matilda (Dillingham). 



d. November 31 , 1931 in Asheville, N.C. They 
were the grandparents of this writer; 

Thomas Ervin Lee Anderson b. November 
11 , 1864 m. Estella Harwell and lived in Com- 
merce, Texas; 

Aveline Forest Anderson b. October 6, 
1866, d. April 13, 1941 m. December 20, 
1885 to Joseph Harwell Brittain; 

James Seamore Regan Anderson b. 
September 18, 1868 d. 1948 m. Mattie Hud- 
son, lived in Commerce, Texas; 

Adelia Victoria Anderson b. July 20, 1870, 
d. March 28, 1933, m. James Cole and 2ndly 
her cousin Robert Stevens, son of Henry and 
Nancy (Foster) Stevens; 

John Boring Anderson b. July 4, 1873 d. 
May 16, 1929 m. Laura Clifton and lived in 
Commerce, Texas. 

— Albert Stevens McLean 



THE JAMES AND LYDIA 
(MALLET) ANDERSON FAMILY 

211 

James Anderson of Scotch ancestry, was 
born about 1740 in the North of Ireland from 
whence he came to America sometime before 
the beginning of the Revolutionary War. Dur- 
ing that conflict for freedom , James served his 
adopted country with the Virginians. 

In 1 782 he and his family were living in New 
Jersey, but two years later were living in Dela- 
ware. By the year 1790 he had moved his 
family to Surry County, North Carolina, where 
he was listed in the first Federal Census re- 
ports for that county as being the head of a 
family of nine males and three females. Here 
the family lived until 1 795 when they moved to 
Buncombe (now Madison) County and setled 
on a nice farm on the Paint Fork of Little Ivy 
River to become one of the pioneers to settle in 
this area. 

His home was built of strong and sturdy 
hand-hewn logs built to withstand the ravages 
of time and the elements, and as a protective 




refuge against the possible attack of the Cher- 
okee Indians who were not entirely subdued at 
the time and whose well-worn path into their 
nation ran nearby. This old home was one and 
a half stories high with gun slots cut through 
the logs at intervals along the walls of the 
upperfloor as a protection against the Indians. 

James Anderson was said to have been one 
of the first Methodists to settle west of the Blue 
Ridge. He was a successful farmer and stock 
raiser and by the time of his death which 
occured sometime between 1810 and 1814, 
owned 700 acres of land. 

The known children of James and his good 
wife Pattie or Lydia Mallett Anderson were: 

George Washington Anderson who moved 
away sometime after 1817; 

Captain Robert Anderson, officer in the 
State militia, constable, and member of the 
House of Representatives from Buncombe 
County in 1821 . He died in 1843 in Yancey (now 
Madison) County, N.C. and in October of that 
year his sons William G. and James M. Ander- 
son of Cherokee County, Georgia, were admi- 
nistrators of his estate. 

James Anderson Jr. was born in New 
Jersey. His will dated April 6, 1834 was the 
first will recorded in Yancy County, NC. He 
married Elizabeth Frances Summers (Sum- 
merline/Sumner) of South Carolina and left a 
large family in Madison County, NC. 

Nathan Anderson was born April 19, 1782 
in New Jersey. He married in Surry County, 
NC on November 3, 1807 to Sarah Burch. He 
was a Justice of the Peace, Constable and 
deputy sheriff of Buncombe County. He died 
sometime after 1870 in Madison County, NC. 
His will dated March 1 5, 1 853, is on file in that 
county. He left a large family among whom 
was Rev. Woodson Anderson, one of the 
founders of Mars Hill College. 

— Albert Stevens McLean 



COL. ROBERT ANDERSON 

211 -A 

Col. Robert Anderson (1770 — ?), son of 
James and Patty Mallet Anderson was born in 
New Jersey and removed with his father to 
Surry County, N.C, where he was married in 
April, 1792, to Elizabeth Jarvis (Jervis), 
daughter of Jabez and Kiziah Ridge Jarvis (Jer- 
vis), Sr. 

Robert Anderson was a colonel in the North 
Carolina State Militia. He removed with his 
father to Buncombe County, N.C, circa 1794. 
In 1817, he sold his properties on Big and 
Little Ivy Rivers and removed to Tennessee. 

His only child indentified thus far is a daugh- 
ter, Nancy Elizabeth Anderson, born 1796 and 
died 1885. On Oct. 20, 1814, she married 
Nimrod Buckner I, born 1795 and died 1879, 
son of Jesse and Mary Tatum Buckner. 

— David H. Reece 



THE WILLIAM (MALLET) AND 

MARTHA (ELKINS) ANDERSON 

FAMILY 

212 

William Mallett Anderson was born March 
1, 1784 in Delaware, the son of James and 
Lydia Mallett Anderson. He was about thirteen 
years old when his family moved to the Paint 
Fork of Little Ivy River. 

Here William or "Billy" grew into manhood 
and in 1806 married Martha Elkins, born 
September8, 1787 in Washington County, NC 
(now Unicoi Co. Tenn.) daughter of Gabriel 
and Stacy (Dillard) Elkins. 




Martha Mallet Anderson (Mrs. James) 




Martha (Patty) Elkins Anderson (Mrs. William M) 



William Anderson inherited his father's 
place on Paint Fork and lived there until 1817 
when he purchased his brother George's lands 
on Big Ivy River. This farm was adjoining 
present-day Barnardsville, NC. to the west and 
extending to the west of Whittemore Branch 
and to the north of Big Ivy River. His home, a 
large two-story log house, stood 300 yards 
northeast of the confluence of Whittemore 
Branch and Big Ivy, upon a rise overlooking 
the present Town of Barnardsville, not then in 
existence. 

In 1852 "Billy" Anderson donated the land 
and other advancements for the erection of a 
church — "for the purpose and no other, for a 
place of public worship for all Christian de- 
nominations of people with the conditions that 
the Baptists have the preference of their set or 
monthly days of worship and also that the 
Protestants of the Methodists denomination 
have their set days of worship without 
molestation." 

This old church, now gone, stood at the 
mouth of Whittemore Branch. The Church of 
God denomination has, in recent years, built a 
church upon the site and is quite active at the 
present time. 

William Anderson was a successful farmer 



139 



and stock raiser and his home was always 
open to his friends. Many religious, social and 
civic meetings were held there. 

He died in July 1856 and his wife, Martha, 
died in 1877. They are buried in a small family 
cemetery on the southwest corner of his home 
farm, about fifty yards east of the old church 
property on the Whittemore Branch. 

William and Martha (Elkins) were the 
parents of: 

Stacy Eliza Anderson, b. 1808, married 
Edmund Deweese and moved to Cherokee 
County, NC; 

William Anderson Jr., drowned in Big Ivy; 

Mary Pauline Anderson, b. 1813, married 
Thomas Foster Dillingham; 

Nancy Anderson, born January 15, 1813, 
married William Gardner of Yancey Co. NC on 
March 22, 1832. 




Nancy Anderson Gardner (Mrs. William) 

Colonel Albert Galliton Anderson, born June 
3, 1817; 

Darkus (Dorcas) Anderson, born February 
15, 1820, died May 11 , 1898, married George 
E. Wilson (September 7, 1807— February 6, 
1887). 

Martha Anderson, born 1825, married Ben- 
jamin F. West, (b. 1820); 

Catherine Eliza Anderson, born November 
24, 1829, married April 21, 1853 to Garrett 
Deweese Carter. He was born March 9, 1823, 
and killed in the Battle of Petersburg, VA on 
September 29, 1864. She married secondly, 
Benjamin F. West, widower of her sister 
Martha. 

Sarah Anderson married John Ramsey, and 
secondly on October 25, 1852, Major John 
Daugherty, and thirdly, Thomas F. Dillingham; 

Susan Anderson married Rev. Joseph Eller. 
— Albert Stevens McLean 




THE DANIEL ANGEL, SR. 
FAMILY 

212-A 

In the early 1800s Daniel Angel, Sr. and his 
wife, Clarisa Briggs Angel, left their home in 
Virginia and came to North Carolina settling in 
the River Side section of Yancey County. 
Daniel was considered an outstanding citizen, 
and to him goes the honor of being the first 
sheriff of Yancey County. 

To this couple were born several sons and 
daughters. 

One night three of the sons: John, Jim, and 
Daniel, Jr. attended a party. A drink was 
served which was supposed to be non- 
alcholic. According to family tradition a 
prankster secretly spiked the drink. Daniel, Jr. 
partook of the drink. 

As the party progressed, a man whose last 
name was Ray made a profane remark to a girl 
concerning Daniel, Jr. Afight ensued. Daniel's 
brother John sat on the sideline and yelled, 
"Get him, Dan!" Ray was fatally stabbed. 

Both John and Daniel, Jr. were tried for 
murderand sentenced to be hanged. John was 
pardoned by the Governor of North Carolina, 
but Daniel, Jr. went to the gallows. 

In recent years, amateur historians of Yan- 
cey County have maliciously or ignorantly 
made the statement that the first sheriff of 
Yancey County was hanged. 

My grandfather, William Baccus Angel 
(1 846-1 937) , son of John Angel and grandson 
of Sheriff Daniel Angel, Sr., remembered the 
traumatic incident well. He was a young man 
at the time. 

The 1880 census of Yancey County shows 
Daniel Angel, Sr. who was 78 years old to be 
living in Egypt Township in the home of Mar- 
garet King, presumably his daughter. 

— Bonnie Angel 



JOHN CARAWAY 
ARROWSMITH 

213 

Brigadier General John Caraway Arrow- 
smith, upon retirement from the United States 
Army in 1953, came with his wife, the former 
Nell M. Brown, to live in Asheville, North Caro- 
lina. 

He was born June 4, 1 894 in Reno, Nevada, 
the son of Dick Evans and Gertrude (Rhodes) 
Arrowsmith. In his early years he lived in 
Nevada and California. In California he 
attended a one-room school, going to and 
from on horse-back. 

In 1904 the Arrowsmith family moved to a 
480 acre family farm in Ohio. There John 
finished grammar school and was graduated 
from High School in 1913. Four years later, he 
graduated from Case Institute of Technology 
with a B.S. degree in Civil Engineering. 

In 1918 he was commissioned as a second 
lieutenant in the Corps of Engineers, U.S. 
Army. He retired in 1953 after nearly thirty-five 
years of service in all grades from second 
lieutenant to brigadier general. He and his wife 
to whom he was married in 1919 at Schofield 
Barracks, Oahu, chose Asheville as an ideal 



place to retire. 

During his active service he was graduated 
from three service schools: the Engineer 
School at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; the Army In- 
dustrial College in Washington, D.C.; and the 
Command and General Staff College at Fort 
Leavenworth, Kansas. Following World War II 
he was given constructive credit for gradua- 
tion from the Army War College. 

When World War I ended he was stationed 
at Camp Fremont, California, not far from Palo 
Alto. This was followed by peace-time assign- 
ments which included duty with troops in the 
Hawaiian Islands and Fort Belvoir, Virginia, 
being a student at service schools, Assistant 
Professor of Military Science and Tactics at 
Carnegie Institute of Technology, being in- 
volved in civil works of the Corps of Engineers 
in Cincinnati, San Francisco and the Missouri 
Division with headquarters in Kansas City, and 
staff duty in the Office of the Chief of En- 
gineers, U.S. Army, Washington, D.C. 

Early during World War II he joined the 45th 
Engineer General Service Regiment at Camp 
Blanding, Florida, as Regimental Commander. 
The following month, May 1 942, the regiment 
was deployed overseas to India — a 56 day 
war-time journey across the Atlantic and Indi- 
an Oceans. Upon arrival, the Regiment was 
stationed at Camp Malir in the vicinity of 
Karachi but was soon engaged in widely dis- 
persed projects throughout India and else- 
where in the Theater. 

Soon Arrowsmith was called to New Delhi 
and was designated Chief Engineer, Service of 
Supply, China-Burma-India Theater. He par- 
ticipated in the British-American planning of 
the Ledo Road Project and upon approval of 
the project by British authorities in London and 
American authorities in Washington, he was 
placed in charge. 

In general, his responsibilities included the 
location and construction of a 500 mile road 
from Ledo in Assam, a political entity in north- 
east India, across northern Burma and into 
China together with the establishment of a 
Base of Operations made up of all facilities and 
operating personnel to render logistical sup- 
port to the forces constructing the Ledo Road 
and to the tactical troops destined to use the 
road. The project started with a hand-full of 
troops and equipment but gradually grew to 
many thousands of people and large quantities 
of equipment. 

Returning to the United States, he joined the 
XXI Corps in January, 1944 stationed at Camp 
Polk, Louisiana. The Corps was deployed to 
the European Theater in late 1944 and partici- 
pated in the fighting against Germany. There 
he was responsible for the operation of En- 
gineer troops of the Corps, and for Engineer 
support of the Divisions within the Corps. 

In October 1 945, he became Engineer of the 
Berlin District and was responsible for all En- 
gineer construction, re-construction, and op- 
erations there. He concluded his Berlin service 
in the American Headquarters in Berlin, name- 
ly, Office of Military Government U.S. 
(OMGUS) and returned to the United States 
late in 1947. 

Following World War II he was in charge of 
the Engineer Research and Development 



140 



Laboratories at Fort Belvoir, Virginia — fol- 
lowed by a four year tour of duty with the Army 
Security Agency, Arlington Hall Station, Vir- 
ginia, as Comptroller, as Chief of Staff, as 
Deputy Chief of the Agency and for a short time 
as Chief of the Agency. This agency had 
world-wide responsibilities. 

General Arrowsmith's campaign medals 
and awards include: The Great War of Civiliza- 
tion (WW I), American Defense, Asiatic Paci- 
fic, European African Middle Eastern, Amer- 
ican Campaign, Army of Occupation Germany, 
World War II, French Croix-de-guerre with 
Palm, Army Commendation, Bronze Star, Le- 
gion of Merit. 

In Asheville, he has been active in civic and 
church affairs. He served two years as a mem- 
ber and later two years more as Chairman of 
the Lakeview Park Commission, was Civil De- 
fense Director for Asheville and Buncombe 
County, took a leading part in establishing the 
Blue Ridge Chapter of the Easter Seal Society 
for Crippled Children and Adults, served on the 
Buncombe County Committee for Better 
Schools and served on two other committees 
appointed by the Mayor of Asheville. 

One of these dealt with friendship relations 
with a South American city corresponding in 
size with Asheville, — a 'People to People' 
program encouraged by the President of the 
United States. The other was concerned with 
the removal of architectural barriers encoun- 
tered by handicapped people. 

He served as Deacon and several terms as 
Ruling Elder in the First Presbyterian Church in 
Asheville. He has also served as Chairman of 
the Christian Education Committee, Superin- 
tendant of the Church School, and as a mem- 
ber or Chairman of numerous other commit- 
tees of the Church. At one time he was Presi- 
dent of the Kupples Klub, President of the Men 
of the Church, and participated in the program 
of the Churchmen of Church Street. 

He was Chairman of the Committee which 
was responsible for overseeing the planning, 
design and construction of the Campbell 
Memorial Chapel and the new Education Build- 
ing and related features. As a special feature to 
provide access by handicapped persons the 
Committee specified that the Architect's de- 
sign include no architectural barriers in the 
new buildings and elsewhere where modifica- 
tion of existing facilities were to be made. 

General Arrowsmith's memberships in pro- 
fessional and social organizations include Tau 
Beta Pi, an honorary engineering fraternity, Pi 
Kappa Alpha, Civitan International, Downtown 
Club, Asheville Downtown City Club, Society 
of American Military Engineers, several ser- 
vice-connected associations, Case Alumni 
Association, Masonic Lodge. He moved his 
membership from the National Presbyterian 
Church in Washington, D.C. to the First 
Presbyterian Church in Asheville when he and 
Mrs. Arrowsmith came to Asheville to live. 
— John C. Arrowsmith 




THE ANDREW J. AND 

LETTICIA L. (BRYSON) ASH 

FAMILY 

214 

Andrew Jackson Ash was born April 23, 
1835 in Jackson County, N.C., the seventh 
child of Isaac Ash and his wife Catherine 
whose maiden name has not yet been indenti- 
fied. Isaac was born about 1786 in Virginia, 
and died about 1863 at Savannah Creek in 
Jackson County. His wife Catherine was born 
about 1792 in Lincoln County, N.C. 

Andrew entered the Civil War on July 14, 
1862 from Jackson County and served in 
Company H., 62nd Regiment, Infantry (State 
Troops) and attained the rank of 3rd Sergeant. 

He married Letticia Louise Bryson, bom 
October 1 , 1 839, the daughter of Daniel J . and 
Lucinda (Jones) Bryson. Daniel Bryson was 
the son of John W. Bryson and his second wife 
Jane Poston, and his wife Lucinda Jones was 
the daughter of Edward Jones. Both Daniel 
and Lucinda are buried in the Cullowhee Bap- 
tist Church Cemetery. 

A daughter of Andrew and Letticia was Artie 

Catherine who married John Marion Hooper. 

— Dixie Oleta Hooper Shaw 

FELIX AND MARTHA TEMPLE 
PORTER AXLEY 

214-A 

Felix Axley was born September 12, 1811 in 
Tennessee and married Martha Temple Porter 
in 1830. She was born May 20, 1811 at Sevier- 
ville, Tenn, the daughter of James P.H. Por- 
ter, Lawyer, who had come there from Vir- 
ginia. 

Felix and Martha Axley moved to Murphy, 
NC in 1836. According to a ledger of the Hunt- 
er Trading Post, Felix Axley's name was the 
first entry on their Account Books in the year 
1836. They built their home where the Valley 
and Hiwassee Rivers join, and it was known in 
Murphy as the "Three Acre Six Acre." 

He was Murphy's first lawyer and rode the 
circuit from Murphy to Asheville. He loved his 
profession, and left his love of the law to his 
children. He was "The Father of the Bar" in 
Cherokee County and Western North Carolina, 
according to Arthur's History, serving as 
County Attorney. He held Court in Fort Butler, 
Courts of Common Pleas and Sessions, before 
the Courthouse was built in Murphy. Fort But- 
ler is the Fort from which the "Trail of Tears" 
to Oklahoma was started by the Cherokee Indi- 
ans. All legal documents found in this county 
before 1858 have his name on them, even 
marriage certificates. 

Felix was also a Methodist minister, and as 
such was active in Methodist circles in the area. 
In addition, he served as Postmaster, and 
formed the first Masonic Lodge in Cherokee 
County. 

He and Martha Porter had eight children, 
the oldest of whom was James Campbell Ax- 
ley. Other sons were Abraham W., known as 
Bud; and Felix Porter who married Margaret 
Johnston. 

— Louise Axley Bayless 



JAMES CAMPBELL AND 
HARRIETT E. DICKEY AXLEY 

214-B 

James Cambell Axley, born December 24, 
1831 , was the son of Felix and Martha Temple 
Porter Axley. His place of birth was Sevier 
County, Tennessee but he moved as a child 
with the family to Murphy, N.C. in 1836. 

James was a man of many interests, own- 
ing a Farm and Mill about one mile out of 
Murphy as well as having a mercantile busi- 
ness with his brother Abraham on Tennessee 
Street in the town where the Henn Theater is 
now located. He was active in legal matters 
and was Clerk of the Superior Court for Cher- 
okee County for twenty one years. He was a 
Lieutenant in the Civil War. 

The story is told that he first saw Harriett E. 
Dickey in the town of Murphy one morning as 
she and her father were about to leave for 
Raleigh on horseback. Her father was George 
W. Dickey, Representative from Cherokee 
County to the N.C. State Legislature and mem- 
ber of the first Constitutional Convention 
which framed the Constitution of North Caroli- 
na after the Civil War. James told someone 
that morning that he was going to marry Har- 
riett Dickey when she came back from Raleigh, 
and he did. Eventually they had five children 
among whom was Luther Dickey Axley. 

— Louise Axley Bayless 

JAMES GRAHAM AND MARION 
SWAIN AXLEY 

214-C 

James Graham Axley was born on August 6, 
1910 in Murphy, NC, son of Luther Dickey 
and Jeanette Graham Axley. He attended Bre- 
vard College. 

On September 8, 1935, he married Marion 
Swain of Murphy. They have lived in Newport 
News, Virginia, since 1940 where he retired 
from Newport News Shipbuilding Company. 

They have two children: James Frederick 
Axley who was born in 1936 in Murphy, NC. 
and moved away with the family. He attended 
William and Mary University in Virginia, and 
became employed by NASA, Johnson Space 
Center as Electrical Engineer. Married Mary 
Blount, dau of George Blount, and they cur- 
rently live at the Johnson Space Center (NASA) 
in Houston, Texas. 

William Graham Axley, born 6-20-1950 in 
Newport News, Virginia, married Kathy Hester 
of that city and they reside in Hampton, Vir- 
ginia. He is in the contracting business there 
and they have one child, Amy. 

— Louise Axley Bayless 

LUTHER DICKEY AXLEY 

214-D 

Luther Dickey Axley, born April 23, 1873, 
was the son of James C. and Harriett E. Dickey 
Axley, of Murphy, N.C. 

Luther attended Young Harris College in 
Georgia, and returned to live on Hiwassee 
Street in Murphy. He owned and operated a 
general merchandise store on Tennessee St. 

141 



and also dealt in timber and stock. He owned 
the Axley Homestead about one mile up 
Hiwassee River where the Axley Mill was lo- 
cated. 

He married Jeanette Frances Graham on 
September 11, 1907, the daughter of Dr. Wil- 
liam Alexander and Annie L. Noland Graham of 
Waynesville. Mrs. Graham was the daughter 
of James Hardy and Sarah Owen Noland of 
Waynesville. Jeanette died in 1931. 

Luther died on March 2, 1926. He and his 
wife had three children, James, Luther and 
Harriett, (Known as Louise). 

— Louise Axley Bayless 



LUTHER FRANCIS AND BETTY 
JEAN COOK AXLEY 

214-E 

Luther F. Axley was born May 26, 1 91 4, son 
of Luther Dickey Axley, in Murphy, NC. He 
became a Civil Engineer, employed by the Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority (TVA), Maps and Sur- 
vey Division, Chattanooga, Tenn from 1935 
until his retirement. He served in the Pacific 
Theater during World War II. 

He married, first, Betty Jean Cook, born 
June 20, 1923, daughter of Harbert and Le- 
nore Long Cooke of Chattanooga, Tenn. 

Children of Luther and Betty are: Diane, 
born 3/16/1950, married Martin Arnold of 
Memphis, Tenn, and they have one child Amy, 
born 5-30-1980. She and her husband both 
hold Masters' Degrees. 

Jean Axley, born 4-7-1952, married Keith 
Sherman of Ohio. She attended the University 
of Tennessee in Knoxville and majored in Art. 
She is now also a graduate Nurse and living in 
Chattanooga, Tenn. 

— Louise Axley Bayless 

LOWERY AXLEY 

214-F 

Lowery Axley (1890-1960) was a native of 
Murphy, NC and a graduate of the University of 
North Carolina. He studied law after gradua- 
tion and was admitted to the bar. Later he went 
into the field of education and received the 
degree of Ed. M. from Harvard University, and 
was elected to Phi Delta Kappa. He attended 
the "Sorbonne" in Paris, France. 

He became a prominent educator in Savan- 
nah, Georgia, and retired from the head of the 
English Department of the Savannah High 
School after serving in the school system for 
27 years. 

He was a member of the session of the 
Independent Presbyterian Church, past mas- 
ter of Landrum Lodge F & AM, 32 degree 
KCCH Scottish Rite Mason, Past commander 
of the Savannah Chapter, Military Order of 
World Wars, past commander of the Army and 
Navy Club, past president of the Georgia Poet- 
ry Society, past president of the Camera Club, 
past president of the Chatham County 
Teachers Association, member of the 
Chatham Post of the American Legion and 
member of the Savannah Historical Research 
Association. He was the author of a book that 
was published on the history of the Indepen- 

142 



dent Church. 

Lowery Axley was the son of Abraham (Bud) 

Axley of Murphy, and he married Nina Shaw. 

— Louise Axley Bayless 



LEVI BAILEY AND 
DESCENDANTS 

215 

Levi Bailey, b. ca 1776 in Virginia, was 
probably son of William Bailey who on January 
23, 1797 in Buncombe Co., N.C. (Deed Book 
4, p. 101) for $100.00 gave Levi Bailey "6 
cows and calves, 5-2 year old steers, 7 -3 year 
old Heffers, and 1-3 year old bull, one mare 
and colt, 2 feather beads and a quantity of 
puter." 

Levi had at least two dozen land transac- 
tions in Buncombe Co., N.C. from 1797 
through 1825. He appears on each Federal 
census for Buncombe Co., N.C. from 1800 
through 1830. The 1820 census (p. 94) shows 
him with six slaves. The 1 830 census (p. 295) 
shows him with ten slaves. I've been unable to 
locate him in 1840 but the 1850 Yancey Co., 
N.C. census shows him with wife Mary, b. ca 
1782 in Virginia. 

The minutes of Spring 1818 for Bull Creek 
Baptist Church also indicate his wife was prob- 
ably a "Mary Baley" but that Mary is probably 
not the wife Mary that he had in 1850. It 
appears that in October 1835 he married Mary 
Peek, widow of James Peek. 

Levi Bailey was Captain of The Buncombe 
County Third Regiment of the Detached Mili- 
tia, organized in August 1814 (Re: Muster 
Rolls of the War of 1812, published under the 
direction of the Adjutant General). His 1st 
Lieutenant was Joseph Shepard. David 
Hughey was the Ensign. 

Levi's will was dated March 31, 1851 in 
Madison Co. N.C. 

Among his children were: Allen Bailey, b. ca 
1796; Sarah Bailey, b. ca 1798, m. Rev. 
James B. McMahan, Methodist Minister, and 
lived in Yancey Co., N.C. 

Elizabeth Bailey, b.ca 1800, m. IraCrowder 
and lived in Madison Co., N.C. 

Nancy Bailey, b. ca 1802, m. Abner Jervis 
and lived in Yancey Co., N.C. 

Levi Bailey, b. ca 1800-10; Polly Bailey, m. 
Henry S. Holcombe; 

Wiley C. Bailey, b. ca 1 809; Joyce Bailey, b. 
September 1 1 , 1 809, m. Abner Holcombe and 
lived in Jackson Co., Ky. in 1860; 

Dorcas Bailey, m. John Anderson. 

My lineage is as follows: Allen Bailey (ca 
1796 — 1829) — Matilda Bailey (ca 1827/29 
— ca 1905) m. Rev. Stephen Wallin — 
Loutisha Ellen Wallin (1858-1941) m. Richard 
Franklin — Emaline Franklin (1882-1923) m. 
Stephen Alexander Lewis — Carrie Emaline 
Lewis (1907-) m. Geo. Wilson Wilde — Ken- 
neth Charles Wilde (1932-). 

— Kenneth C. Wilde 




ADOLPHUS ERWIN BAIRD 
FAMILY 

216 

Adolphus Erwin Baird was born in 1819, the 
son of Zebulon and Hannah (Erwin) Baird. He 
became the first merchant in the town of Mar- 
shall (Lapland) as well as the owner of several 
hundred acres along the French Broad River. 
He also owned the island where the high 
school now stands. 

He had an Inn or "Drover's Stand" where 
drovers stopped for the night to rest and get 
feed for their hogs, cattle, turkeys, or other 
livestock they were driving to southern mar- 
kets. 

Adolphus and two of his slaves made trips 
to Augusta, Ga. and Charleston, SC to trade 
for supplies for his store and Inn since they 
were hard to come by in this area. He loaded 
his wagon pulled by mules, with hams, bacon, 
corn, flour, molasses, and sometimes feath- 
ers that were in demand for making feather 
beds. 

In turn, he needed percale cloth, silk, 
thread, needles, buttons, shoes, and sugar. 

They would pull off the road at night to make 
camp and cook their food over an open fire. 
Adolphus carried a small iron pot and dutch 
oven to bake bread. It sometimes took two or 
three weeks to make the round trip and it was 
very dangerous. 

Adolphus married Loretta Hunter, daughter 
of John and Eliza Gwynn Hunter, and they 
raised a large family. 

The children were: James, who went to 
Texas, Alfred who went to Arkansas, Zebulon 
who married and went to North Carolina, 
Susan who married James Howell and lived in 
Asheville, Kate who married Bascom Carter 
and lived in Asheville, Molly who married 
George Ward and lived in Asheville, Sally who 
married Governor Bob Taylor of Tennessee, 
and Hannah Jane who married Capt. William 
Elbert Weaver. They lived in Weaverville. 

— Mary Cook Hyder 

BEDENT BAIRD 

217 

Bedent Baird descended from the Immi- 
grant John Baird of Aberdeenshire, Scotland 
who came to Monmouth County, New Jersey 
after landing at Staten Island on December 19, 
1683. John's second wife and mother of his 
children was Mary Bedent. 

Three generations later Bedent and his 
brother Zebulon established themselves in 
Buncombe County, bringing the first wagon 
up Saluda Mountain, and following the early 
road roughly laid out by David McCarson and 
others. This road in essence is now Highway 
25 to Asheville. 

Bedent and his brother joined with Daniel 
Reynolds in buying land and selling lots which 
helped the little town of Morristown (later, 
Asheville) to get started, and also with his 
brother, operated the first store, and worked 
in town affairs. 

Bedent married Jane Welch, daughter of 
William and Mary Ann (Thompson) Welch, 
and they had four children: Elijah, born 1769; 



William born 1772; Elisha, born 1774 and 
Jane Eliza, born 1779. 

Jane Eliza Baird married Montraville Weaver 
and they lived in Weaverville. 

— Mrs. Mary Cook Hyder 

THE ZEBULON BAIRD FAMILY 

218 

Zebulon Baird, son of William Baird and 
Margaret O'Riley' was born in New Jersey in 
1764. After the death of his father, he, his 
sister, and all of his brothers except John, 
went south with their widowed mother. They 
settled near Morganton, in Burke Co. They 
brought the first wagon up Saluda Mountain. 

Zebulon and his brother joined Daniel 
Reynolds in buying land and selling lots which 
helped to create the town of Morristown, now 
known as Asheville. They donated land for the 
first courthouse in the center of the town called 
"the Square." It was built near the site of the 
present courthouse. 

They also purchased a grist mill on a branch 
of the French Broad River, below the mouth of 
the Swannanoa River. This was probably the 
first grist mill in Buncombe Co. 

The Baird brothers were the first merchants 
in town. They had a store near the present 
Northwestern Bank building. They made trips 
to the coastal towns with furs, meat, flour, 
molasses, and other goods, trading for dry 
goods, cookware, shoes, etc. to sell in their 
store. 

The Bairds were noted for their ready wit, 
dynamic personalities, and good business 
sense. 

Zebulon served as a Captain in the Army 
during the Revolution. Later he served in the 
House of Commons (1 800-1 803). He was also 
in the Senate between 1806 and 1822. 

Zebulon married Hannah Erwin, daughter of 
Alexander and Sara (Robinson) Erwin. They 
had seven children: John, who married Laney 
Wilson; James, who married IsabeHa Walker; 
Andrew and Joseph, who both lived in Ashe- 
ville; Adolphus Erwin who married Lorretta 
Hunter; Myra Margaret who married David 
Vance and became the parents of Zebulon 
Baird Vance; Sara Ann, who married Bacchus 
J. Smith; and Mary Adelaide, born 1826. 

Zebulon lived until his death on the eastern 
side of the French Broad River about two and a 
half miles north of Asheville. He bacame ill 
while riding the road between Reems Creek 
and his house and died March 9, 1824. 

— J. Douglas Robinson 
and Mary Cook Hyder 

THE CURTIS WOODBURY 
BALDWIN FAMILY 

219 

Curtis Woodbury Baldwin had forebearers 
with a mixture of Pilgrim and Puritan begin- 
nings but his tendency toward unbending pre- 
cepts was lightened by a youth spent in happy 
summers on a Montana ranch. 

He was born in a sod shack on May 4, 1892 
in Glendive, Montana. His father, Edward 
Payson Baldwin, a native of Antrim, New 



Hampshire, came to Montana via Iowa in 1 883 
and engaged in the cattle business. On De- 
cember 28, 1888, he married Theoda Boylan, 
a school teacher who was born in Wolcott, 
N.Y. but came west to live with her brother. 
Curtis graduated from Dawson Co. High 
School in 1 91 then attended Purdue Universi- 
ty for three years. For nine years he worked for 
the Montana Highway Commission and the 
Northern Pacific Railroad. He served during 
World War I in Battery F, 13th Field Artillery 
Brigrade, a horse drawn outfit. 

For two years he attended Montana State 
University, graduating with honors. He was a 
member of the honor fraternity, Phi Kappa 
Phi, and president of the Masonic fraternity. A 
degree in electrical engineering led to a job with 
the General Electric Co. at its Fort Wayne, 
Indiana plant. 

There he met a college student, Helen 
Robinson. They were married the following 
June. 

Shortly after, while visiting North Carolina, 
Curtis was persuaded that it was the place to 
live. For three years he served with the N.C. 
State Highway Commission. He was transfer- 
red to Asheville in 1928. 

Two children were born: Curtis Payson and 
Martha Gail. 

Curtis Sr. worked for the Ferguson Con- 
struction Co. for the entire period when Amer- 
ican Enka Corp. was being built. He was then 
employed by Enka. He retired in 1957. 

During his Asheville years, he served as a 
Deacon at Calvary Baptist Church, a Sunday 
school teacher, and a Scout Master of Troop 
Two. He assisted in the early formation of Cub 
Scout troops in Asheville. Boys flocked around 
him like bees, intrigued with his tales of cow- 
boy and ranch life. 

During World War II he was an air raid 
warden, spending many hours in a glassed-in 
cabin on top of the Buncombe County Court 
House spotting planes. 

Currently, he belongs to Beverly Hills Bap- 
tist Church and Mt. Hermon Masonic Lodge. 
All his years, he camped and hunted. At one 
time he belonged to the Big Tom Wilson Bear 
Hunting Club and regularly took part in all avail- 
able bear and deer hunts. His zeal for hunting 
was so great that at age 76, recovering from a 
broken ankle, he said that he would continue 
to hunt if he had to crawl. 

He had a talent for making and retaining 
friendships. In 1960 a class mate from Purdue 
University visited him. They had been friends 
since 1910. 

His interests include Will Roger memora- 
bilia and a collection of copies of Charles M. 
Russell paintings. 

He always had a talent for letter writing. He 
kept his unique western expressions and used 
them along with his sharp sense of humor to 
create entertaining letters. 

Curtis was a descendant of Henry Baldwin, 
who settled in Woburn, Mass about 1640. 
Two other ancestors were John White and Col . 
Nahum Baldwin, both Revolutionary soldiers. 
Another relative, Jeduthan Baldwin, was on 
Gen. George Washington's staff, and was one 
of the founders of the Society of Cinncinati. 
— Helen Robinson Baldwin 



REV. GEORGE HAMILTON 
BELL 

220 

George Hamilton Bell, son of James and 
Catherine (Parks) Bell, was born in Buncombe 
County, North Carolina in 1845. He received 
his education in Asheville Public Schools and 
was well known for his remarkable memory 
and insatiable love of books. 

He was first an instructor in the public 
schools before becoming an Episcopal Rector 
which had been his lifetime goal. 

George married 1st, Martha Gregg, on 
March 1 , 1 865 in Asheville. They were parents 
of nine children before Martha died in 1904, all 
born in Buncombe County. They have many 
descendants living in the area today. 

George married secondly, Helen Ozane after 
the death of Martha, but they had no children. 

After Helen's death, he married thirdly, 
Penelope White Neil (1866-1956) and there 
were no children by this marriage. 

The children of George and Martha (Gregg) 
Bell were: 

1. May E. Bell (d.1942) married Robert 
Carter. Their children were Mona, Robbie, 
Reba, Douglas, Lida, Nick, Vera, Blanche and 
Harold Carter. 

2. Minnie Bell (1870-1949) married William 
Henry Clark on February 3, 1892. Their chil- 
dren were Earl Raymond, Eva Bell, Edna 
Louise and Clark. 

3. Lawrence M. Bell married Mattie Roberts 
and their children were Marghretta, Mildred, 
Reginald and Lawrence Bell. 

4. Ida Bell (b. 1869) married W.F. Lindsey 
on December 27, 1893. Their children were 
Roy, Mamie and Gladys Lindsey. 

5. Alma Leona Bell (1876-1946) married 
George Marion Pressley on April 15, 1896. 
Children were Gardner, Harry Glen, Robert 
Inman, Delma, Ralph Lexton, George, and 
Jack Phillips Pressley. 

6. James Edward Bell (1878-1948) married 
Kelly M. Capps (date unknown). Their children 
were Thomas Edward, May, Lillie, Remus, 
George Romulos. Robert, Helen, Paul, James 
Russell, Jesse, Hillaed, and John Wallace 
Bell. 

7. George Folk Bell, married Jessie Myers, 
and had Agnes and Phillip Bell. 

8. Herbert Ashton Bell. 

9. Lillias Gertrude Bell (1886-1928) mar- 
ried, 1st, Henry Burton Miller; married 2nd, 
Charles Webb. Children of first marriage were 
Malcolm, Ida Ruth and George Hamilton 
Miller. 

George Hamilton Bell's parents, James and 
Catherine, owned rather large tracts of land in 
old Haw Creek in the Swannanoa Valley, and 
since there was no house of worship there, 
they decided to contribute fifty acres of land 
for a church. In 1870 the building of a chapel 
was begun, and Trinity Episcopal Church 
started out with eleven communicants, with 
the first Rector being Dr. Buxton. 

In 1873 George was ordained a deacon, 
continuing as such for the next ten years, at 
which time he was ordained to be the Rector. 
In 1877 he was appointed in charge of Mis- 
sions in Watauga County. By 1885 the church 



143 



was "flourishing" and the grounds had school 
buildings as well as residences for the 
teachers. The name was later changed to Saint 
John's Episcopal Church, and is still in opera- 
tion with many of Rev. Bell's descendants as 
active members. 

Rev. Bell retired in 1 91 8 at the age of seven- 
ty-three, and spent the next five years of his 
life enjoying his extensive library and his many 
grandchildren. He died in 1923 and is buried in 
old Haw Creek Cemetery. 

Source: St. John's Episcopal Chruch Records; Clerk of 
Court, Buncombe County, NC; (deeds, marriage records); 
Bible records of James Edward Bell; Asheville Citizen 
Times; Records of Robert H. Reese, Eva Bell Clark and 
descendants. 

— G.G. Bell 



DR. ARTHUR M. BANNERMAN 
FAMILY 

221 

Arthur M. Bannerman was born in Juneau, 
Alaska in 1 900 where his father was a mission- 
ary under the United Presbyterian Board of 
Missions. He was graduated from Lafayette 
College in Easton, Pa. and studied law briefly 
in Trenton, N.J. 

He came to Swannanoa in 1928 to fill a 
temporary position at the old Asheville Farm 
School but stayed to guide the institution to its 
role as a coeducational junior college and later 
as Warren Wilson College a four-year liberal 
arts college. 

Under Dr. Bannerman's leadership, Warren 
Wilson College received national recognition 
for its work program. In this all students, 
regardless of their financial status, work 15 
hours each week at a necessary job on the 
campus. 

In 1952 Warren Wilson pioneered by be- 
coming the first formerly all-white college in 
North Carolina to accept black students. Dur- 
ing Dr. Bannerman's presidency, the school 
also began to accept an increasing number of 
international students. 

When Warren Wilson College awarded him 
an honorary doctorate of laws in 1971, the 
citation said in part: "From that day in 1928 
when you joined your life to the living mission 
of the United Presbyterian Church on this cam- 
pus, your every talent and resource have been 
devoted to the enhancement of opportunity for 
people who sought it." 

In addition to his college duties, Dr. Banner- 
man took an active part in the community. He 
served as president of the Swannanoa Com- 
munity Council, president of the United Fund of 
Asheville and Buncombe County, president of 
the Asheville Civitan Club, the N.C. Council of 
Church-Related Colleges, the Council of 
Southern Mountains, and president of the 
National Council of United Presbyterian Men. 

For many years Dr. Bannerman was a mem- 
ber of the Asheville Library Board. He served 
as trustee of the James 6.K. McClure Educa- 
tional and Development Fund, director of the 
Upper French Broad Economic Development 
Commission, and member of the Buncombe 
County Hospital Board. 

He was awarded his M.A. from the Universi- 
ty of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and he 



recieved the honorary degree of LL.D. from 
Berea College, Johnson C. Smith University, 
and Warren Wilson. Lafayette College 
awarded him an honorary L.H.D. in 1945. The 
Asheville School presented its Award of Merit 
to Dr. Bannerman in 1971. 

After his formal retirement from Warren 
Wilson College in 1971, Dr. Bannerman de- 
voted a large part of his time to assisting the 
college as director of Church Relations. 

According to an editorial in the Asheville 
Citizen in 1976, "Dr. Bannerman was too 
modest to take credit for the college's achieve- 
ments, but those who followed the growth of 
the institution knew that his wise head and 
gentle hand shaped every achievement of the 
institution from its founding in 1942 until its 
accreditation as a four-year liberal arts college 
in 1969." 

During his spare time he was an enthusias- 
tic golfer and enjoyed relaxing with friends on 
the links. He continued to play an excellent 
game right up to the time of his death. 

He died Friday, January 16, 1976 after a 
brief illness. 

He was married to Lucille Patton Banner- 
man and had two daughters: Janet Bannerman 
and Mary Bannerman Wheeler (Mrs. Billy 
Edd). Two grandchildren, Lucy and Travis 
Wheeler, live in Swannanoa. 

— Mary Wheeler 

JOB AND POLLY (INMAN) 
BARNARD 

222 

Sometime after 1790, Job Barnard came 
into Buncombe County and received a grant of 
land on Brush Creek in 1794. By 1799, he had 
established a station or stock stand on the 
French Broad River near what is now the Town 
of Marshall, and Barnard's Station, or Inn, 
was referred to in Bishop Asbury's Travel 
Journal as early as 1804. 

Job Barnard and his wife, Polly (Inman), 
had several sons and daughters, and many 
descendants are found throughout Western 
North Carolina. A community in Madison 
County is still called Barnard. 

— Margaret Wallis Haile 

THE JOSEPH S. & POLLY 

(DILLINGHAM) BARNARD 

FAMILY 

223 

Barnardsville in the Big Ivy Section of Bun- 
combe County took its name from the family of 
Job Barnard's son, Joseph Swain Barnard 
who was born June 9, 1803. 

Joseph married Mary (called Polly) Dilling- 
ham on April 11, 1826. Polly was the 
youngest daughter of Absalom and Rebecca 
(Foster) Dillingham of Big Ivy, and was born 
September 24, 1809. The young couple first 
set up housekeeping on Dillingham land on 
Haw Branch, about a mile from Polly's 
parents' home. 

After her father's death and the settling of 
his estate, Joseph and Polly bought a large 



tract of land on the North Fork of Ivy Creek and 
built their permanent home about a half mile 
from the location of what was to become the 
village of Barnardsville. Joseph farmed, but 
was primarily a cattle buyer and trader at 
which he prospered. He was one of the few 
slave owners at Big Ivy. 

Polly died on October 29, 1881 and Joseph 
died on July 8, 1884. They are buried in their 
family cemetery at Barnardsville. They had a 
large family and left many descendants 
throughout Buncombe County but there are 
currently none surnamed Barnard in Bar- 
nardsville. 

The children of Joseph S. and Polly (Dilling- 
ham) Barnard were: 

William T., (1827-1898) married Aveline E. 
Lynch, daughter of Norman and Mary J.L. 
(Kerr) Lynch of Rutherford Co. NC. 

Rebecca Jane (1828-1908), married first, 
Charles M. Roberts, son of Pierce and Mary 
Caroline (McKinney) Roberts of Big Ivy; 
second, Samuel Franklin Williams, son of 
Jeremiah and Olivia (Hill) Williams. 

Margaret Ann, born 1830, married William 
D. Hyder, son of Benjamin Jr, and Isabella 
(Metcalf) Hyder of Rutherford Co. 

James F., born 1833. Died in infancy. 

Job D., (1835-1905) married his cousin, 
Rebecca M. (Dillingham) Peek. 

Mary L. born 1837. Assumed died young, 
unmarried. 

Harriet A. (1840-1931) married her cousin 
Albert G. Dillingham. 

Hezekiah E., (1843-1913), married first, 
Sally Kilpatrick of Rutherford Co., second, 
Pallie Jane Hurst, daughter of William H. and 
Juda A. (Morrow) Hurst of Big Ivy. 

Joseph Hicks Barnard, (1852-1927) mar- 
ried first, Nancy Jane Burlison, daughter of 
Washington and Cecilia Burlison of Big Ivy, 
second, Martha Beacham, daughter of Frank 
Beacham. 

During the Civil War, Job D. Barnard was 
Lieutenant in Company "K", 25th North Caro- 
lina Regiment, C.S.A. 

Major Charles M. Roberts, C.S.A. , hus- 
band of Rebecca Barnard, was killed while 
commanding a company on patrol in Madison 
County in 1864. 

Margaret Ann Barnard's husband, William 
D. Hyder, served as a Private in Company 
"G", 14th Battalion, North Carolina Cavalry, 
C.S.A. 

Hezekiah Barnard was a Lieutenant in the 
Cavalry, C.S.A. 

At the close of the war, Job D. Barnard 
returned home to Big Ivy and built and oper- 
ated the first general store in the community. 
Later, when the United States Government 
decided to establish a Post Office in the area in 
1872, Barnard's store was selected as the 
location and the name Barnardsville, adopted 
for the community. Job D. Barnard and his 
nephew, Frank Roberts, became the first Post- 
masters. 

— Margaret Wallis Haile 




144 



ALBERT NUNNALLY BARNETT 
FAMILY 

224 

Albert Nunnally Barnett was born in Ripley, 
Mississippi on February 26, 1887. His par- 
ents, Henry William and Dolly Nunnally Bar- 
nett, were descendants of Huguenot, Revolu- 
tionary and Civil War families. 




Albert Nunnally Barnett 



The Barnetts operated a dry goods store in 
Ripley for over a hundred years. By the time 
Albert and his brother Ernest finished their 
schooling in Ripley, the family business had 
burned, never to re-open. The two brothers 
made their way in the world with no further 
education. However, they would eventually 
wind up as hotel men. 

With relatives in Decatur, Alabama, Albert 
entered the grocery business there. Each sum- 
mer, beginning in 1908, he traveled to Glen- 
wood Springs, Colorado where he served as 
summer season clerk for the Hotel Colorado. 
He also went to Quebec, where he was assis- 
tant manager of the Manor Richelieu of Murray 
Bay. This period of summer service in the 
hotels determined his future career. 

In 1910 he became assistant manager of 
Atlanta's Georgian Terrace Hotel. Three years 
later he was asked to become the first assis- 
tant manager at the new Grove Park Inn in 
Asheville. 

That summer the Hallman family were 
spending time in Flat Rock, N.C. Young Har- 
ry Hallman told his mother, brother, and sis- 
ters that he had met Albert Barnett at the 
fabulous new Inn in Asheville. They decided to 
ride the train into town, look up Albert, and 
have him show them the much talked about 
hotel. 

With enthusiasm and cordiality, Albert took 
them on the tour, pointing out unique features 
of the massive stone structure. Harry Hall- 
man's lovely brunette sister, Marcellus, would 
not have believed it then , but in a few years she 



would marry Albert and the Grove Park Inn 
would be "home." 

Marcellus went home to continue her 
schooling. Albert returned to Atlanta to enlist 
in Officer's Training for World War I . Unable to 
pass the physical exam, he went back to man- 
aging the Georgian Terrace Hotel. A short time 
later, Marcellus and Albert met again in Atlan- 
ta. They were married March 23, 1920. 

Two children were born while they lived at 
the big city hotel, Dorothy Adelene Barnett, on 
February 15, 1921 , and Albert Nunnally Jr, on 
April 16, 1922. 

In 1923 Albert Barnett was asked to come 
back to the Grove Park Inn on a permanent 
basis. He served as assistant manager and 
manager until the Inn changed hands in 1940. 
He then became manager of the Battery Park 
Hotel, owned by Mrs. Fred Seely. In 1950, he 
retired due to poor health. 

During Albert's leadership at the Grove Park 
Inn, the hotel played host to a number of 
famous Americans — Herbert and Grace 
Hoover, Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, Hen- 
ry Ford, Thomas Edison, Scott and Zelda Fitz- 
gerald, columnist Dorothy Dix, and other 
celebrities. 

Albert Barnett was the perfect host for the 
homey atmosphere at the Inn. He knew and 
greeted each guest by name, extending to 
each sincere warmth, interest, and hospitality. 
His gentle firmness and empathy endeared 
him to his many employees, who served with 
loyalty throughout the years. 

Albert also took an active role in civic and 
church affairs. He served as president of the 
Asheville Hotelmen's Assn, was a member of 
Family and Children's Service, the Chamber of 
Commerce, Community Chest, United Fund, 
and Red Cross. He served on the Board of 
Deacons and as an elder of the First Presbyte- 
rian Church. 

He died December 7, 1954, but is warmly 
remembered by all who knew him. His son and 
family live in Marietta, Georgia. His wife, and 
daughter, Mrs. Walter Watts, live in Asheville. 
He has seven grandchildren, among them Dr. 
Nelson Barnett Watts of Asheville, and eight 
great-grandchildren. 

— Adeline Watts 



THE HENRY BAUMBERGER 
FAMILY 

225 

Most of the future Baumberger families in 
western North Carolina will be descended from 
Henry Edmond Baumberger, Senior, who was 
born February 27, 1902 in Saluda, N.C. Henry 
was the youngest son of Julius (Jules) Hein- 
rich Baumberger (1862-1906) of Zurich, 
Switzerland and Margaret (Laughter) 
Baumberger (1865-1957) of Saluda, N.C. He 
was educated in the Saluda public school and 
at Bailey Military Academy in Greenwood, 
S.C., where he was a classmate of young 
Strom Thurmond, who later became a United 
States Senator from South Carolina. 

Having been born late in a large family of 
children, he often tried to take part in the 
activities of the older folks even though at age 




5 he was "sat upon" by a fat lady as they 
played a game of musical chairs. At the age of 
13 he suffered a broken arm as he fought the 
fire that destroyed their home in 1915. 

His parents' children were: John, 1888; 
Una, 1890; Peter, 1891; Elsa, 1892; Kitty, 
1894; Edith, 1897; Henry, 1902; and Julia, 
1906. 

He farmed in eastern and western North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Florida before he 
married and settled at East Flat Rock to a life as 
a farmer and housepainter. 

In 1939 he married Lois Evelyn Pace who 
was born March 6, 1915 at Zirconia, N.C. to 
Benjamin Luther and Cora Edith Ward Pace. 
(After Mr. Pace's death, Mrs. Pace married 
Lenard Bush Metcalf, a widower). 

Henry and Lois had a family of five children, 
all born in Henderson County. All of them were 
devout Christians and centered their way of life 
around their beliefs. 

Their first child, a daughter, Margaret 
Elfreida, was born September 26, 1940. She 
was educated in Henderson County schools 
and has worked as a bookeeper for several 
nearby businesses. 

Henry Edmond Baumberger, Jr., was born 
May 23, 1942. He was educated in Henderson 
County and served in the U.S. Navy. He is now 
with DuPont Chemical Co., at Brevard. He 
married Elizabeth Ann Wareing, the daughter of 
John and Muriel Elizabeth Ferguson Wareing 
of Providence, Rhode Island. Their four chil- 
dren are Robert Scott, born September 6, 
1964 at Providence, R.I.; Stephen Michael, 
November 10, 1965, at Hendersonville; Eliz- 
abeth Ann, March 20, 1967, at Henderson- 
ville; and Lina Diane, June 22, 1971 at Hender- 
sonville. 

Julius ("Jay") Luther was born July 6, 
1944. After finishing public school and serving 
in the U.S. Navy, he married Sandra Carolyn 
Foxworth, born October 2, 1946 at Greenville, 
S.C., the daughter of Rufus Foy and Mildred 



145 



Ruth Brooks Foxworth. Their children, all born 
in Henderson County, are Julius Daniel, July 
9, 1968; Jerry Alan, September 19, 1969; 
Debra Jean, July 26, 1971; and Cathy Carolyn, 
October 11, 1976. 

Una Barbara was born February 18, 1946. 
After becoming a registered nurse, she mar- 
ried Marshall Ralph McAbee, born February 8, 
1944 at Spartanburg, S.C., the son of Loyd 
Lee and Annie Hester Edwards McAbee. Their 
children, all born at Spartanburg, S.C., are 
Rita Margaret, June 9, 1969; Jeffrey Marshall, 
February 13, 1971; and Laura Michelle 
McAbee, December 25, 1976. 

Philip Samuel was born October 3, 1948. 
He, too, served in the U.S. Navy, as his 
brothers had done, after he finished high 
school. Philip married Sandra Summers, born 
August 28, 1949 atTryon, N.C., the daughter 
of John Willis and Sophie Pearson Summers. 
Their children, both born at Hendersonville, 
are Tracy Lynn, September 9, 1972, and Eric 
Philip, March 6, 1977. 

The Henry Baumberger Family descendants 
will have a real legacy of high moral integrity 
and industriousness. They should be a credit 
to any community wherein they should happen 
to live. May their tribe increase. . 

— Jean Baumberger Jones 

JOHN ERNEST BAUMBERGER 

226 

John Ernest Baumberger was a true son of 
the mountains. He was a scrupulously honest, 
determined, hard-working man through 
whose sacrifices the lives of his fellow citizens 
of Western North Carolina were improved. He 
was a rugged individualist, and throughout his 
life fought inequity in taxes, bureaucratic 
tyranny, and monopolistic practices. He was 
one of the principal early labor leaders in North 
Carolina, and he helped to achieve the eight- 
hour working day. 




John Ernest Baumberger 



He was born April 10, 1888 in the home of 
his grandparents, William "Buck" and Mary 
Jackson Laughter at Persimmon Flat, Tryon 
Mountain, Polk County, N.C. He was the first 
child of Swiss immigrant Julius "Jules" Hein- 
rich Baumberger and his wife Margaret "Mag- 
gie" Laughter who married May 17, 1887 in 
Asheville. 

Jules and Maggie moved to Saluda where 
they brought up a large family. The other chil- 
dren who survived to adulthood were Lina, 
Peter, Elsa, Kitty, Edith, Henry and Julia. 

John received his early education at the 
Saluda Seminary. 

He went to Asheville in 1905, entered the 
employ of the Southern Railway as messenger 
boy, and later was promoted to clerk. In 1906 
he became a fireman and in due time a locomo- 
tive engineer. In 1912 he patented a device to 
prevent clogging of the locomotive sanding 
apparatus which improved the safety of the 
locomotives. 

Never content with the status quo, he stud- 
ied law from 1922 until 1925 under James J. 
Britt and later F.W. Thomas. He completed 
the course at Asheville University and received 
his attorney's license to practice law August 
24, 1925. When he was in Asheville, he spent 
his mornings in his law office, and, from 3:00 
P.M. until 11:00 P.M., he was a locomotive 
engineer for Southern Railway. 

From 1911 until 1950 he represented the 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen and En- 
ginemen at the State Legislature in Raleigh. As 
a leader in the union, he was outspokenly 
opposed to strikes as a method of arbitration 
because he abhorred violence. He would vote 
to strike only as a last resort and called it "the 
lesser of two evils." 

His great concern for victims of economic 
hardship at the time of the Great Depression 
prompted him to serve on the Asheville City 
Council for the term 1933-35. The main banks 
in Asheville had failed, taking with them mil- 
lions of dollars in city funds as well as the life 
savings of most of the people in Asheville. 
People could not pay their taxes as, indeed, 
they could hardly eat. The city foreclosed for 
nonpayment of taxes and took people's 
homes. Minutes of the City Council meetings 
December 1 0, 1 934 reveal how he stood alone 
against the other councilmen as he fought a 
battle on behalf of the hungry. 

Asheville defaulted on its bonded indebted- 
ness and was desperate for funds to pay for 
needed services to continue in its operation. 
Every city employee's pay was drastically cut 
and everyone was fired that could possibly be 
eliminated. In an effort to raise emergency 
money and to distribute that burden evenly 
upon everyone, Asheville raised the water 
rates as a source of revenue. Mr. Baumberger 
felt that this was a form of taxation without 
anyone's having received credit for having 
paid taxes. 

The courts ordered the City of Asheville to 
give the people some relief from their situa- 
tion, but Council meeting minutes on Decem- 
ber 20, 1934, show that Councilman 
Baumberger again stood alone against the 
other City Councilmen as he tried to force them 
to acknowledge and implement the court 



order. 

On October 21, 1914, John married Lucy 
Elva Cowan, the daughter of John Canada and 
Jane Graham Cowan of West Asheville. Their 
five children were all born in Asheville. 

John "Jack" Cowan Baumberger (1916- 
1963) married first, Virginia Morrow of Ashe- 
ville, and second, Marjorie Jones Fripp of 
Tampa, Florida. He worked first at American 
Enka at Asheville, and later he worked as a air 
traffic controller in Tampa where he is buried 
with his wife. He had no children. 

Robert Jules (1918-1967) married Louise 
Gloria Ovitt of Asheville. He worked in record 
keeping with IBM computers at American Enka 
near Asheville and for Electro-Mechanical Re- 
search in Sarasota, Florida where he and his 
wife are buried. Their four children, all born in 
Asheville, were Robert Willis, Beverly Jean, 
Carole Suzette and John "Jack" Ernest II. 

Margaret Jean (1919- ) married Ken- 
dall Reece "Casey" Jones of Florida. They 
have one daughter, Dianne Elizabeth. Jean 
graduated from Asheville High School ('36) 
and from St. Genevieve of the Pines Junior 
College ('38). She worked for the Metropolitan 
Life Insurance Company in Asheville until 
1940 and for the U.S. Government at Fort 
Bragg, N.C. during World War II. After her 
marriage she resided in Lake County, Florida. 

Harold Eckel (1921- ) married Myrtle 
Evelyn Walker of Mobile, Alabama. He gradu- 
ated from the U.S. Naval Academy at Annapo- 
lis, Maryland and served in the Pacific during 
World War II. After Commander Baumberger 
retired from the navy he became associated 
with both Minneapolis-Honeywell and Litton 
as an engineer in the building of ships. Their 
six children are Harold Eckel, Jr., Celia Anne, 
Susan Lucinda, Evan Graham, Brett Sherwood 
and Jon Wray. 

Lina Elizabeth "Betty" (1924- ) was the 
youngest child. By her first husband, John 
Henry Palmer, Jr., of Plant City, Florida, who 
died in World War II, she had a son, John 
Henry Palmer, III. By her second husband, 
James Thomas Hudson of Columbia, S.C., 
she had a son, James Thomas Hudson, Jr. 
She was only 15 when she graduated from 
Asheville High School in 1940. She earned her 
college degree from Queens College, Char- 
lotte, N.C. in 1960. In 1980 she has nearly 
completed her work for a law degree from 
Emory University at Atlanta, Georgia. In the 
years in between she taught science, sold real 
estate, was a stock broker, and now holds a 
position with the U.S. Government in the De- 
partment of Housing and Urban Development. 

John was a member of the Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen and the 
Biltmore Masonic Lodge. He and Lucy were 
members of Trinity Methodist Church in West 
Asheville and Asheville Chapter No. 191, 
Order of the Eastern Star. John died April 23, 
1 956 in Asheville and his wife, Lucy, died June 
2, 1968 in Mount Dora, Florida where their 
daughter, Jean, lived. Both are buried at Green 
Hills Cemetery in West Asheville. 

— Jean Baumberger Jones 




146 



THE JULES BAUMBERGER 
FAMILY 

227 

Jules Baumberger was one of our eager 
immigrants who came to America about 1883 
as a young man. He established himself, mar- 
ried a girl from the western North Carolina 
mountains and produced a large and lively 
family of children. 

He was born Julius Heinrich Baumberger on 
April 25, 1862 at Schaffhausen, Switzerland. 
His parents, Johannes and Johanna Graf 
Baumberger, resided in Zurich. 

Jules studied in Paris to be a chef, then he 
and his brother Richard, came to America to 
seek their fortune. 




Julius "Jules" Heinrich Baumberger 



Jules worked in New York City and Rich- 
mond, Virginia before coming to Asheville to 
be the chef at the first Battery Park Hotel. In his 
new position he met and married on May 17, 
1887 Margaret ("Maggy") Laughter (1865- 
1957), daughter of William ("Buck") and 
Mary Jackson Laughter of Polk County. They 
went to Hot Springs by buggy on their honey- 
moon. 

A couple of years later they moved to the 
thriving tourist town of Saluda. He operated 
butcher shops in Saluda, Tryon and Hender- 
sonville until his death August 24, 1906. His 
family continued to live in a lovely big home in 
Saluda which they ran as a boarding house 
until it burned in 1915. After the fire they 
moved out to their farm located at the edge of 
Saluda on the Polk-Henderson County line. 

Jules went back to Switzerland for a visit 
taking his five year old son John with him. This 
undisciplined American child opened the 
irrigation valves in Alvenu, Switzerland flood- 
ing the fields and ruining the hay needed to 
feed the cattle over the coming winter. This 
was an expensive experiment. Young John 
was known as the "Little American Devil." 



Later, this same John became an attorney-at- 
law, a City Councilman of Asheville, and also 
worked as a railroad engineer for Southern 
Railway. 

Jules and Maggy had twelve children, eight 
of whom survived to adulthood. Of their many 
descendants, the first two generations are 
listed here. 

John Ernest (1888-1956) married Lucy Elva 
Cowan (1886-1968) daughter of John and 
Jane Graham Cowan of Asheville. Their chil- 
dren are John Cowan, 1914; Robert Jules, 
1918; Margaret Jean, 1919; Harold Eckel, 
1921; Una Elizabeth, 1924. 

Lina Elizabeth (1 890- ) lived in Switzer- 
land for a while studying music. She studied 
nursing in Philadelphia, served as an Army 
Nurse during the first World War, then lived in 
Jacksonville, Texas where she pursued a 
career in nursing and hospital management. 
She married George McMahon. 

Peter Julius (1891-1979) married first 
Pauline Whitman of Umatilla, Florida. Their 
two children were Elsa Mae and Dr. Peter 
Julius, Jr. He married second Evelyn Jackson 
of Michigan and had one son, Charles Henry, 
1941 , an attorney in Miami, Florida. Pete was 
a railroad conductor and lived in Miami, Fla. 

Elsa Lessie (1892-1935) was a nurse and 
lived in Duplin County, N.C. She first married 
Lewis Houston and had two children, Mar- 
garet Elsa and Lewis, Jr. By her second hus- 
band, a Mr. Farrior from that area, she had one 
son, Abraham. Abe was reared by his aunt, 
Lina McMahon in Jacksonville, Texas after the 
death of both of his parents in 1935. 

Valerie Katie (1894-1979), known as "Kit- 
ty," divided her adult life between Switzerland 
and Miami, Florida where she helped her 
brother Pete raise his first two children after 
their mother died. She never married. Kitty 
died at the home of her sister, Lina McMahon , 
in Jacksonville, Texas. 

Mary "Edith" (1897- ) grew up and 
resided in Saluda. Her first husband was Alon- 
zo Pace, son of Ransom Taylor "Uncle Bud" 
and Mary Wagner Pace. He was the oldest of 
"Uncle Bud's" twenty-nine children. After his 
death she married Charles Gallagher. Her third 
husband was Boyce Brian. 

Henry Edmond (1902- ) was a house 
painter and farmer. He married Lois Evelyn 
Pace, daughter of Luther and Cora Edith Ward 
Pace. Their five children are Margaret Elfreida 
1940, Henry Edmond, Jr. 1942, Julius Luther 
1944, Lina Barbara 1946 and Philip Samuel 
1948. Most of the future Baumberger families 
in Old Buncombe will be descended from this 
group. 

Julia (1906- ) married Horace Alexan- 
der "Cotton" Nabers of Saluda, N.C, son of 
James Alexander and Mary Elizabeth Shields 
Nabers of Fingerville, S.C. They lived in New 
Orleans where he worked for the U.S. Govern- 
ment in the Customs and Immigration Depart- 
ment. Their three children are Barbara, 
Horace, Jr. and Beverly. 

— Jean Baumberger Jones 



PETER JULIUS BAUMBERGER 

228 

Peter Julius Baumberger was born on Au- 
gust 30, 1891, the third of twelve children, 
eight of whom survived the arduous mountain 
life to become adults. His father was Julius 
Heinrich Baumberger (1862-1906), a Swiss 
immigrant who initially worked as a Vanderbilt 
Hotel chef at Biltmore and the then-new Bat- 
tery Park Hotel in Asheville. Julius married 
Margaret Laughter (1865-1957) of Saluda, 
North Carolina. 

As a child, Pete Baumberger worked in his 
father's butcher shops located in Saluda, 
Tryon and Hendersonville, North Carolina. 
Although the family lived in Saluda, the family 
would have to commute by train to handle the 
business in the butcher shops. 





Peter Julius Baumberger 

The Baumbergers, with Pete and his seven 
brothers and sisters, lived in a large house in 
downtown Saluda near not only the family 
butcher shop, but also the railroad which 
would later become his life's work. His older 
sister, Lina, noted the early family interest in 
railroading which was, after all, the equivalent 
of being an astronaut several generations 
later. 

Lina noted: "One of the most interesting 
things we children did was to build our own 
railroad. We used scraps of timber and wood 
to build the track and we even had a 'safety' 
track as was used by the Southern Railway on 
the Saluda Mountain. Our 'railroad tracks' 
were located on a long hill near our home. 
Finally we built a car and made a good brake 
for it. We used axle grease to grease our tracks 
so that the car would run down the track. The 
railroad worked beautifully but I guess we 
used too much grease because father became 
furious when he had to buy a big can of axle 
grease two days in succession. 

When he found out that we were using it on 
our 'railroad' he was horrified as he hardly 
could believe that the children were riding on 
the 'railroad' and not maiming themselves. 
Right then he saw to it that our 'railroad' was 



147 



destroyed." Although Pete worked hard as a 
child, he did not let hard work get in the way of 
being a typical boy. He recounted in later years 
how he used to get spankings because he 
would ride the family milk cows back from the 
farm at the edge of town to their house and, as 
a result of his riding them.they lost their milk. 
His sisters also ruefully recounted how he 
would stick burrs in their hair on an all-too- 
frequent basis. 

The education that Pete was supposed to 
receive was high school at Saluda Seminary 
and college in Switzerland. These plans were 
interrupted when his father died suddenly in 
August of 1906. This ended Pete's chance of 
getting a college education either in Switzer- 
land or in the U.S. 

Pete was 15 years old when he started to 
work on the Southern Railway as a telegraph 
operator in Melrose, North Carolina, in order 
to support the family. He worked from 12:00 
midnight until 7:00 or 8:00 a.m. at which time 
he would come home, clean up and go to 
school. His teacher allowed him to go home 
early so he could get some sleep before he had 
to report back to work. After graduation, he 
continued to work on the Southern Railway 
giving his entire paycheck to his mother as he 
was the main support for his mother and six of 
his brothers and sisters. 

In December of 1 91 2, Pete left the Southern 
Railway and went to Miami, Florida where he 
hired out on "Mr. Flagler's Railroad" as a 
trainman. For many years he worked Flagler's 
famous "Overseas Railroad," an extension of 
the Florida East Coast Railway that went from 
Miami to Key West. Pete's many recollections 
of those days included watching rattlesnakes, 
illuminated at night by spotlight, swimming 
between the islands holding their rattles out of 
the water. 

While in Miami, he met and married Pauline 
Whitman who was the daughter of W. P. Whit- 
man, who served at that time as the Miami 
Chief of Police. They had two children, Elsa 
Mae, born in 1918, and Peter J. Baumberger, 
Jr., born in 1920. In 1928, Pauline died. Pete 
was determined to keep his family together 
and asked his sister Kitty to keep house for 
them until they finished high school. In 1937 
Pete married Evelyn Margaret Jackson of Port 
Huron, Michigan and they had one son, 
Charles Henry, born in 1941. 

Pete's life work was railroading and working 
through the Brotherhood of Railroad Trainmen 
to make the railroad employees' lives safer and 
more economically rewarding. His leadership 
and organizational abilities were recognized 
early when he was elected to the position of 
local chairman. In the mid-1920s, he was 
elected General Chairman for the entire Florida 
East Coast Railway System, a position which 
he, for all intents and purposes, held from 
then until his retirement in 1963. 

After his retirement in 1963, Pete and 
Evelyn spent half of the year in Miami and the 
other half in Saluda, North Carolina where they 
lived on the family farm in the house that was 
built in 1917 for his mother when her home in 
town burned. Throughout their lives, Pete and 
Evelyn kept in close contact with their friends 
in Miami, Port Huron, and Saluda as well as 



their family; Pete and Evelyn had a great 
capacity to love and be loved. 

Pete was active in the Masonic Lodge in 
Miami, Florida and Saluda, North Carolina. He 
and his wife were members of the Westmins- 
ter Presbyterian Church in Miami, Florida and 
were also active in the Saluda Presbyterian 
Church. 

At his death on October 17, 1978, Pete was 
survived by his wife, Evelyn, who passed away 
in January of 1979; his daughter, Elsa Mae, 
who resides in Beaumont, Texas with her hus- 
band, Dr. John Travis; his son, Dr. Peter J. 
Baumberger, Jr., an optometrist, who resides 
in Lincolnton, North Carolina with his wife, 
Mary Berniece Haskin Baumberger; and his 
youngest son, Charles Henry, an attorney who 
resides in Miami, Florida with his wife, Molly 
Megathlin. 

He left six grandchildren: Pauline June Tra- 
vis Westbrook, John Mastin Travis, III, 
Michael Peter Baumberger, Celia Anne 
Baumberger Gettings, Peter Scott Baumber- 
ger and Charles Henry Baumberger, Jr., as 
well as three great-grandchildren: Joel Mastin 
Westbrook, Mary Susanne Baumberger, and 
Krista Leigh Gettings. 

— Chas. H. Baumberger, Jr. 



JOHN HENRY AND H.A. 
LOUISE AXLEY BAYLESS 

228-A 

John Henry Bayless, born August 26, 1910 
in Murphy, N.C., son of Luke E. and Pearl 
Brown Bayless, graduated from the University 
of North Carolina, State College, Raleigh. He 
was employed by the Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority for 13 years at their headquarters in 
Knoxville, Tenn. in the Engineering Depart- 
ment. He was manager of the Murphy Power 
Board, TVA Power, for thirty years before re- 
tiring. During World War II he served in the 
European Theater, from 1943 to 1945. He is a 
member of the Oasis Shrine of Charlotte, NC; 
Treasurer of the Western Carolina Shrine Club; 
Past president, American Legion; Member of 
the Cherokee Hills Golf Club in Murphy, mem- 
ber of the United Methodist Church of Murphy. 

On January 1st, 1937 he married Harriet 
Anne Louise Axley at McCayesville, Tenn, 
daughter of Luther Dickey and Jenette Francis 
Graham Axley of Murphy, NC. Known as 
Louise, whe took a business education and 
was employed by the Tennessee Valley Au- 
thority as a secretary from 1937 to 1941; 
secretary to Dr. Miles Leverett, Director, Clin- 
ton Laboratories, Atomic Energy Commis- 
sion, Oak Ridge, Tenn. 1943-1947; Removed 
to Murphy in 1948 after birth of first son, Luke 
Edward Bayless. Was a Service Officer, Em- 
ployment Security Commission form 1953- 
1955; Service Officer, N.C. Veterans Commis- 
sion, 1948-1951 ; Secy-treasurer, Murphy City 
Schools, 1955 for the past 26 years; Corres- 
pondent, Asheville-Citizen Times Newspaper; 
Member of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, Past Regant, DAR, 1970-1973; 
Past President of Cherokee County Historical 
Society; Past Director, Cherokee Hills Golf 
Course; Director of Brasstown Concert Asso- 



ciation; Director of Cherokee County Arts 
Council and Historical Society; Past president 
United Methodist Church Women Guild; Poli- 
tical Affiliation: Democrat. 

John and Louise Axley Bayless have two 
sons: 

Luke Edward Bayless, b. 12-3-1947 in 
Knoxville, Tennessee; Graduated Murphy High 
School; Attended Western Carolina University; 
Veteran of Viet Nam War; Attended Tri-County 
Community College, Murphy, N.C; Contrac- 
tor in Construction Business; Unmarried. Now 
living in Brasstown Community of Cherokee 
County; Member of United Methodist Church. 

John Graham Bayless b. 2-27-1951 at Mur- 
phy, N.C, Cherokee County — A graduate of 
Murphy High School — Graduated from North 
Carolina State University in Raleigh, NC 1975; 
Veteran of Viet Nam War; Making a career of 
The U.S. Army with the rank of Captain 1981 , 
Officer Candidate School at Fort Benning, Ga. 
and now residing at Fort Gordon, Augusta, 
Ga.; Married to Sheila Snipes Bayless 6-25- 
1974 in Raleigh, N.C, daughter of Lula and 
Alvin Jones Snipes of Raleigh, N.C; They 
have two sons: 

Jeremy Graham Bayless, b. 9-23-1977 at 
Fort Benning, Columbus, Ga.; and Eric 
Jonathan Bayless, b. 4-23-1981 at Fort Gor- 
don, Augusta, Ga. 

— Louise Axley Bayless 



LUKE EDWARD BAYLESS 

228-B 

Luke Edward Bayless (B. 12-13-1869 — D. 
2-18-1953) was Executive Vice-President of 
the Bank of Murphy, established Jan. 16, 
1899, one of the sound and reliable banking 
houses of Cherokee County. L.E. Bayless was 
a man whose faithful devotion to duty, broad 
outlook on life and conservative character 
admirably fit him for his position of grave 
responsibility. He was president of the North 
Carolina Bankers Association. 

Luke Edward Bayless I, attended the public 
schools of Washington County at Limestone, 
Tennessee and was graduated from the Jones- 
boro Academy in1889. For four years he was 
Postmaster of Jonesboro, Tennessee, during 
the second administration of President Grover 
Cleveland. On September 10, 1900 he began 
his long connection with Murphy and Cher- 
okee County, when he entered the Bank of 
Murphy as Executive Vice President. This 
financial institution opened its doors for busi- 
ness Jan. 16, 1899, and its officers were: A. 
Bascomb Dickey, President; John A. Corn and 
Abe H. Brown, Vice-Presidents; and W.W. 
Hyde, Cashier. The Bank had deposits of 
$400,000. In political faith he was a Demo- 
crat, and enthusiastic in his support of party 
principles and measures. 

Early in life he united with the Baptist 
church. His fraternal connections were with 
the Asheville Lodge No. 608 B.P.O. Elks. Dur- 
ing World War I Luke Bayless served as Chair- 
man of the Liberty Loan Committee for Cher- 
okee County, and helped to fill every quota. 
L.E. Bayless retired from the Bank of Murphy 
in 1934. 



148 



During the long period he resided at Murphy 
Luke Bayless became thoroughly identified 
with this Cherokee County community, and his 
work of building up the Bank of Murphy added 
in a very material way to its prosperity, for no 
section can be stronger financially than its 
banks. At the same time he has not shirked his 
civic responsibilities but has lived up to them 
in the same upright and effective manner that 
he followed in the transaction of this banking 
business, and no man in this locality stands 
any higher in public confidence than L.E. Bay- 
less. After retirement from banking he was in 
the Insurance business. 

Luke Edward Bayless was not a North 
Carolinian by birth, although he was devoted 
to the State of his adoption, for he was born at 
Limestone, Tennessee, Washington County. 
He was born in a big brick house with twin 
chimneys on each end, porticos and columns. 
There were about 473 acres of land included in 
the purchase which lay between the Big Lime- 
stone Creek and the Nolichucky River. 

He was the son of John Alexander and Seli- 
na Jane Collette Bayless, of Limestone, Tenn. 

He married, first, Nellie Clairs Smith who 
was born August 21, 1872 in Jonesboro, 
Tenn, daughter of Rosswell and Carolina V. 
Patterson Smith. They had two daughters, 
Kathryne Deadrick Bayless (1895-1947) and 
Virginia Patterson Bayless (1 897-1 978) . Nellie 
died May 23, 1908. 

He married secondly, Pearl Brown, b. Janu- 
ary 8, 1882. They were married in September 
1909, in Buckhead, Georgia. She was the 
daughter of Abram Henry and Laura Ketron 
Brown of Murphy. They had two children: 
John Henry Bayless and William Edward Bay- 
less. 

The ancestry of the Bayless family has been 
well researched and this family of Luke Edward 
Bayless descends from the colonial immigrant 
John Bayless and his wife Rebecca Stillwell 
who were in Jamaica, Long Island, New York 
by 1658. The line continues through their 
son John, then to Daniel Sr., Daniel Jr., 
Samuel, John, Luke Sylvester, and finally 
John Alexander Bayless. The intervening bio- 
graphical detail is available. 

— Louise Axley Bayless 

THE FAMILY OF 

MONTGOMERY AND COMFORT 

(BRITTIAN) BELL 

229 

Montgomery Bell, was born in Burke (or 
Rowan) County on September 21, 1787, the 
son of Thomas and Jane Montgomery Bell. His 
mother died at his birth, and his father mar- 
ried, secondly, Sarah Eve of Wilkes County. In 
1796 Thomas brought his family to Buncombe 
County. Here Montgomery spent his entire 
youth on the west side of the French Broad 
River. 

He met and married Comfort Brittian, 
daughter of James Brittian Jr. whose family 
came to Buncombe from Virginia. She was 
born April 24, 1796. The date of their marriage 
is unknown, but they moved to Habersham 
County Georgia by 1830. What he did for a 



living while in Buncombe County is not known, 
but his main activities appear to have been 
buying and selling land in all the surrounding 
counties of North Carolina as well as Georgia 
and Tennessee. 

Montgomery was a gentleman of virtue, 
faithful and just in his many land dealings with 
men, an indulgent husband, and an affection- 
ate parent. His wife Comfort, was the sunshine 
of his life. She died on May 3, 1873, and is 
buried in Chamblee, Georgia, but his death 
date and place of burial are not known. 

They were the parents of eight children 
whose descendants live in Texas, Georgia, 
South Carolina and Tennessee: 

Louisa (1827-1880) married Judge H.H. 
Walker and had son William and daughter Vic- 
toria (1861-1866). 

Susan (d. 1896) born in Haywood Co. NC 
and died in Bartow Co. Georgia married Mr. 
Posey. 

Carolina Bell (no further information). 

Montgomery Bell Jr. (1832-1897). 

Adaline Bell (no information). 

Eliza Bell married Samuel G. Castleberry 
and had one daughter and six sons. 

James Cicero Bell (1834-1908) married 
Mary Ann Ledford (1841-1935) who was a 
daughter of Buncombe County Ledfords. They 
had eleven children: Louisa Jane, Marcilla 
Adaline, Harriett Ellen, Albert Allison, William 
Rufus, Mildred Caroline, Thomas Boulden, 
Birdie Brittian, John Cicero, Frank Montgom- 
ery, and Marion Claude Bell. All born in White 
County, Georgia. 

William Brown Bell (June 28, 1 838 — April 
2, 1899) married Bashaba Katherine McAfee 
(1835-1903) dau. of Thomas V. and Eliza 
(Findley) McAfee in White County, Georgia, in 
1857. William was a traveling salesman and 
kept, an accurate diary of his life. They had 
twelve children: Marcus (1859-1911); Thom- 
as Montgomery (1861-1941); Carrie (1863- 
1922) (Mrs. Henry J. Jarrard); Emma (Mrs. 
Millard Hunt) b. 1864; Frank M. (1868-1915); 
William W. (1867-1867); Oliver Cicero (1868- 
1947); Mary (Mrs. Alf Gilmer); Augustus, b. 
1872; Kate (1874-1960) Mrs. E.H. Kenimer; 
Lillie (Mrs. E.P. Weatherly) twin to Kate; P. 
Lester Bell (1877-1909); and Maud m. 1st 
George Kytle, and 2nd, Edward Norton. 

— G.G. Bell 

RALPH RUDOLPH BELL 

230 

A member of the last generation to be born 
in the home, Ralph Rudolph Bell, son of 
Buford and Clara, marks the end of an era and 
the beginning of a new one in which modern 
scientific and technological advancement 
would pull at the spirit of Appalachian youth. 
As a young boy, Rudolph worked first as a 
paper boy, already earning the coins that his 
parents and grandparents saw so seldom. His 
only attachment to the land came in the sum- 
mer of 1943 when he worked as a laborer in 
the gladiola fields. His generation was also the 
first given the opportunity to complete twelve 
years of schooling which in itself, opened 
doors of choice concerning occupation and 
residence, options unknown just a few short 



years before. 

In many ways Rudolph chose to follow the 
family heritage of the Heatherlys and Guices, 
and his attachment to Clinton and Catherine's 
old home place is readily apparent even to a 
stranger. Born into the Baptist denomination 
of his parents, Rudolph remains today a good 
example of the mountain-bred variety, cling- 
ing to the simple, small and "shoutin' and 
singin'" version of worship. 

Educated at Flat Rock High School, Rudolph 
was forced to complete his senior year by 
testing, since the advent of World War II inter- 
rupted his studies. Clearly recognizing the im- 
portance of an education, only the lack of 
funds prevented the pursuit of a college de- 
gree. 

Drafted into the Army December 19, 1944, 
young Rudolph was inducted at Camp Croft in 
Spartanburg, South Carolina, and completed 
basic training at Camp Blanding, Florida. Ft. 
Lewis, Washington, as port of embarkation, 
led him to Hawaii and Okinawa. Upon arrival 
there and learning that the war was officially 
over, it was on to South Korea and liberation 
from Japanese control. He still has in his pos- 
session a bayonet and rifle removed from a 
group of Japanese he helped capture while on 
patrol duty. 

While on active duty overseas Rudolph, as a 
Technician 3rd grade, spent most of his time 
as a "dog robber." A dog robber served 
meals, made beds, swept quarters, shined 
shoes and performed various other chores for 
the high-ranking officers of the outfit. A job 
well done often merited a small tip. 

Actively patriotic and determined to serve 
his country, Rudolph chose to remain in the 
Army Reserve Unit stationed at Asheville, NC. 
Entering as a Staff Sergeant in 1946, he retired 
from the infantry company a First Sergeant in 
1970. 

Too young to remember the Great Depres- 
sion, he vividly recalls the hardships wrought 
by World War II. The war bond drives were a 
major and important part of school life at Flat 
Rock. Everyone was encouraged to save the 
stamps, acquired for 10C each. Once the 
coupon book was filled, the holder could bring 
the book to the Post Office and cash it in for a 
bond. Rudolph was one of the students 
selected for the cash-in errands. The students 
advertised their efforts through wall posters 
and in assembly meetings; soldiers home on 
point service would present lectures to sup- 
port the purchase of war bonds. 

Rationing is another word associated with 
World War II. Coupons were issued for such 
products as sugar and gasoline, with farmers 
receiving the most. The stickers displayed on 
the car windshield read A, B, or C, and indi- 
cated the amount category. Many coupons 
were bought and sold on the black market. 

Obviously much has occurred over the gen- 
erations, but basically this family remains 
mountain, independent, individual, loyal to 
kin, courageous and honorable, the character- 
istics attributed to the social heritage of the 
Southern Appalachian. Hopefully, the winds of 
change will never completely erase these fea- 
tures of mountain life. 

— Pamela Bell Tankersley 



149 



THE ROBERT AND SARAH 
BELL FAMILY 

231 

Robert Bell, born June 11, 1785, was the 
son of Thomas and Jane Montgomery Bell. He 
must have been born in Rowan (Burke) Coun- 
ty, NC because his parents had left Virginia 
sometime after 1780, and did not arrive in 
Buncombe County until sometime between 
1796 and 1800. 

Records show Robert buying land on Sandy 
Mush Creek as early as 1824. He lived in the 
Big Ivey area most of his life, where he was a 
landowner, a builder and served as Justice of 
the Peace beginning in 1835. He married 
Sarah, whose surname has not been identi- 
fied, and all of their children are not known to 
the writer, but in the 1820 census of Bun- 
combe Robert is shown as having three sons 
and two daughters. The known children are: 

1. Lydia Bell, born 1809 in Buncombe 
County, married Joseph McKinney (1802- 
1880) son of Charles and Rachel (Inman) 
McKinney. They were the parents of 13 chil- 
dren, all born here. They were: 

Robert Henry McKinney, b. 1827; Sally C. 
McKinney, b. 1828; Charles W. McKinney 
(1831-1904); William A. McKinney (Oct. 12, 
1832 — Spet. 16, 1899); Flora A. C. McKinney 
(April 19, 1835 — July 27, 1916); Matilda 
Elvira McKinney (Feb. 23, 1837 — Mar. 1, 
1920); Eliza P. McKinney (1838- ); Miner- 
va J. McKinney (b. 1842); Catherine McKin- 
ney (b. 1844); John M. McKinney, b. 1845; 
Thomas McKinney; James Lafayette McKin- 
ney (1 849-1 899). Their thirteenth child died in 
infancy. 

2. Andrew Jackson Bell, born 1814 in Bun- 
combe Co. but moved to Cherokee County, NC 
about 1832 with his wife Sarah. Their eight 
daughters and seven sons were born there. 
Andrew and Sarah are buried in Ducktown, 
Tenn. in Macadona Cemetery three miles from 
the N.C. line. 

Their children were: Joseph (1832); Abram 
(1834); Rachel M. (1836) Mary Ann, (1837); 
John Harvey (1838); Robert A. (1840); James 
W. (1844); Martha C. (1846); Hanna (1848); 
Andrew Jackson Jr., (1849); Sarah J. (1850); 
Harriet D. (1852); Benjamin H. (1835?) Virgin- 
ia (1854); and Samantha M. (1857). 

3. John Bell (1813-1863) was born in Bun- 
combe County where he lived and raised his 
family. He married Elizabeth McDarris, born 
1815, daughter of Oliver and Rebecca (Lov- 
ing) McDarris. They lived in Big Ivey where 
they were landowners, and many of their de- 
scendants live in Buncombe County today. 
John's will was probated in the county, nam- 
ing James A. Buckner an administrator, and 
heirs as John G. Bell, Nancy Bell, Polly (Mary) 
McDarris, Oliver Taylor Bell, D.W. McGalliaan 
and wife Elvira, and A. McGalliaan. (Book 89, 
p. 450, Buncombe County.) 

Robert and Sarah are buried in the Old 
McKinney Cemetery in Big Ivey, Buncombe 
County, N.C. 

— Getha Gina Bell 



THE SAMUEL AND SARAH 
(PARKS) BELL FAMILY 

232 

Samuel Bell , born 1 780, son of Thomas and 
Jane Bell, married Sarah Parks in 1800 in 
Burke County, North Carolina, even though 
they were both living in Buncombe County. 
Sara was born in 1782. 

Samuel was a builder and brick mason. 
According to records it appears that he was 
instrumental in building the first courthouse in 
Asheville as well as many other old buildings in 
the city. His signature is found on many, many 
of the old deeds in the court house, as he 
bought and sold with some of the early set- 
tlers: N.W. Woodfin, William Williams, 
George Miller, The Brittians, John Willice, The 
Roberts, James Lusk, The Smiths, Joseph 
Dobson and others. 

So much of his pioneer day activities are 
unknown, that it is regrettable that he did not 
leave a diary for his descendants to learn about 
his accomplishments. We know he was dedi- 
cated to his family and his religion, and was 
motivated to help build "old Asheville." 

Samuel and Sarah (Parks) Bell had nine 
children, all born in Buncombe County, whose 
descendants scattered throughout the United 
States and came to represent such profes- 
sions as law, medicine, education, the build- 
ing industry and military service: 

1. Daughter— unknown. 

2. George W.R.Bell (May 8, 1807 — Jan. 
2, 1879) married Lydia Killian (1806-1887) 
daughter of Daniel Killian, another early settler 
of the county. They married May 26, 1831 in 
Asheville and had six children: Daniel Blucher 
Bell (1832-1894) never married, died in Cher- 
okee Co, Ala., William Thomas Bell (1835- 
1916) married a first cousin Mary Gertrude 
Lavenia Bell (1852-1937) no children; Rachel 
M. Bell (1833-1916) married Frank Ringer 
(1828-1902) and had three children, William 
E., Fannie B., and George B.; George W.R. 
Bell Jr. (1843-1914); Shirley Henderson Bell 
(1881-1967) married William R. Westbrook; 
and Buford Mary Bell (1 882-1 920's) never 
married. 

3. Appears to be a daughter but there is no 
information. She was born in Buncombe 
County according to the Census. 

4. Thomas Montgomery Bell moved to 
Cherokee County, Alabama, (see separate 
sketch) 

5. James F. Bell (1814-ca 1860) born and 
lived in Buncombe County, married Catherine 
Parks in 1 844. One son, George Hamilton Bell, 
(see separate sketch) 

6. Andrew Jackson Bell (1817 - ?) married 
Parthena Comer. Their children were Jesse, 
Laura, Missouri, Samuel, Daniel and Gib (?) 
Bell. (Andrew possibly had subsequent mar- 
riages — details unknown.) 

7. Robert G. Bell (1820 - ?) born and lived in 
Buncombe Co. Married Catherine Phillips in 
Asheville. Children unknown. 

8. Jasper N. Bell (1825 — ?) born in 
Buncombe Co. where he married first, Sarah 
Woodfin (1825-1889) daughter of John and 
Polly Salmons (Grady) Woodfin. After Sarah's 
death in 1889 he married Mary Grahl of Bun- 



combe. They were married by his cousin Rev. 
George Hamilton Bell, Rector of Trinity Epis- 
copal Church in Haw Creek. Information on 
children not available. In 1889 Jasper sold a 
large portion of his land to Charles McNamee 
who was the purchasing agent for the Biltmore 
Estate. 
9. Child unknown. 

— Getha Gina Bell 



THOMAS MONTGOMERY AND 

HANNAH ANN (HENDERSON) 

BELL 

233 

Thomas Montgomery Bell, son of Samuel 
and Sarah (Parks) Bell, was born June 1 , 1 81 1 
in Buncombe County on the west bank of the 
French Broad River where he lived until 1840. 
At that time he removed to Cherokee County, 
Alabama. 

There he purchased large tracts of land 
along the Coosa River, and having learned 
furniture-making before he left Buncombe, he 
built and furnished his home there, which still 
stands bearing an Alabama Historical marker. 
He met and married Hannah Ann Henderson, 
daughter of David and Athia (Chandler) Hen- 
derson from Jackson County, Georgia. Han- 
nah was born in 1819. 

During the Civil War he served as Colonel in 
the 74th Regiment Infantry of Alabama State 
Militia. 

Thomas was instrumental in establishing 
the first church (Methodist) in the area by 
giving the land and helping with the construc- 
tion. It is known today as the Oak Bowery 
Methodist Church. Here in its cemetery, he 
and his family are buried. He died Nov. 4, 
1864 and Hannah died in 1865. Their nine 
children were: 

1 . Charles Moore Bell (July 7, 1 843 — Nov. 
3, 1904). Married Cornelia Bell, daughter of 
William and Dorcas (Carter) Bell who had 
moved to Cherokee County from Virginia. 
Their children were: William Thomas, 
Claudey, d.y., David S. d.y., Blondie Blucher; 
Charles Russell; Everett Robert. 

2. Sarah Bell (1845-1937) unmarried. 

3. Samuel David Newton Bell (1848-1875) 
unmarried. 

4. George J. Bell (1850-1903) unmarried. 

5. Mary Gertrude Bell (1852-1937) married 
William Thomas Bell, a cousin. 

6. Lydia Ann Bell (1855-1900) married Wil- 
liam Lewis Medlock. 

7. John, d.y. 

8. Thomas, d.y. 

9. Robert Neely Bell (1862-1919). 

Many descendants of Thomas and Hannah 
(Ann) have been meticulously documented, 
Records of many descendants of Thomas and 
Hannah (Ann) Bell have been carefully pre- 
served, and are available from persons in the 
clan, including a great granddaughter, the 
submitter of this article. 

— Getha Gina Bell 



C^CJ£3^0 



150 



THE THOMAS AND JANE 
(MONTGOMERY) BELL FAMILY 

234 

The direct heritage of "The Bells" is traced 
to the border country of Scotland known as 
Dumfriesshire. Civil war raged and thousands 
of Scottish families were offered land grants in 
Ulster Province, Ireland, and this family was 
part of the migration. Failing to find the peace 
and individual security they sought, they mi- 
grated further to America about 1740. 

The earliest immigrant was James Bell, 
born about 1710 who came with his wife 
Agnes (Hogshead). They landed in Cumber- 
land County, Pennsylvania later moving to the 
Shanandoah Valley of Virginia in the part 
known today as Augusta County. Here they 
hoped to live in peace, and were known as The 
Long Glade Bells of Virginia. 

They were instrumental in helping organize 
the first Presbyterian Church there, known as 
Tinkling Spring, and here James died, as indi- 
cated by the probating of his will in 1782 in 
which we find his wife Agnes and eldest son 
John as administrator of his estate. Another 
son Thomas has been identified as being of 
this family, and this story continues with his 
biography. 

Thomas Bell was born April 28, 1748 and 
according to Bible records owned by him, he 
married Jane Montgomery in Virginia, but the 
records do not show it as necessarily being in 
Augusta County. He and his family were 
among the early pioneers to reach Buncombe 
County in between 1796 and 1800. They set- 
tled with many of their friends and owned large 
tracts of land along the west of the French 
Broad River near the origin of Swannanoa. 
Some of their deeds show purchases where 
the Biltmore Estates are located today. Sur- 
rounding land owners in 1800 were: Burnetts, 
John and David Miller, John Jarrett, The Smith 
family, William Luske, the Brittians and the 
Dobsons. 

In later years members of the family were 
landowners in Big Ivey, Weaverville, Bar- 
nardsville, Hendersonville, Waynesville, Mars 
Hill, Arden and Old Haw Creek. 

They staked out their lands, cleared it and 
began to build log cabins as well as religious 
meeting houses. They were primarily builders 
and brick masons by trade, but some of the 
grandchildren became furniture makers. 

They were a profoundly religious family, 
being Presbyterians for generations, but after 
Bishop Asbury brought Methodism to the area 
in 1800 many became members of this de- 
nomination. Some were Episcopalians too 
and worked to develop this field of work (see 
separate sketch of George Hamilton Bell.) 

The children of Thomas and Jane (Mont- 
gomery) Bell were: 1. James Bell (Sept. 20, 
1774 — Oct. 6, 1842) married Jane (?) and 
moved to Iredell County. 

2. Mary Bell (b. Mar. 12, 1776, married 
John Jarret. 

3. Thomas Bell, b. Jan. 13, 1779. No fur- 
ther information. 

4. Jane, born Jan. 13, 1779 — twin to 
Thomas. No further information. 

5. Samuel Bell, b. Nov. 24, 1780, died after 



1860. Married Sarah Parks (see separate 
sketch.) 

6. Frances Bell, born Nov. 25, 1782. Mar- 
ried Swan P. Burnett, (see separate sketch) 

7. Robert Bell, b. June 11,1 785. (See sepa- 
rate sketch.) 

8. Montgomery Bell, b. Sept. 21, 1787. 
(See separate sketch.) 

— Getha Gina Bell 



CHARLES DAVID BIDDIX 

235 

Charles David was the son of David H. and 
Maggie L. Allison Biddix, born in Black Moun- 
tain, NC. He entered school at William Ran- 
dolph Elementery in Asheville, and was among 
the first class to graduate from the newly in- 
stalled 12th grade at Black Mountain High 
School. 

After a two-year business course in 
Accounting and Traffic Management he went 
to work for a brief period with the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Commerce, National Climatic Center, 
Asheville and has been with the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Forest Service since then. 

Having been bitten by the genealogy "bug," 
Charles joined the Old Buncombe County 
Genealogical Society as a Charter Member, 
and was invited to be Project Co-ordinator of 
the task of producing The Heritage of Old Bun- 
combe. His profound interest in genealogy 
increases daily, and as a member of "The 
National Trust For Historic Preservation," he 
is very much interested in preserving and re- 
storing our past heritage. 

With a keen awareness of our surrounding 
environment and the fact that mankind is guilty 
of mass pollution, he is also a member of "The 
Cousteau Society." A fascination with early 
American cut crystal led him to joining "The 
American Cut Glass Association," and being a 
dedicated opera buff, he joined "The Metropo- 
litan Opera Guild." 

He has travelled coast to coast fourteen 
times, visiting all the major cities of the United 
States, and has, on several occasions visited 
England, Switzerland, France, Brazil, Mexico, 
The Bahamas, and most recently, Monte Carlo 
and Italy. 

Being a bachelor he enjoys his home which 
contains an acre of yard work and gardening, 
classical music, antique collection and re- 
finishing and Educational Television. He's also 
an avid collector of Margaret Mitchell's "Gone 
With The Wind" memorabilia. 

— Charles D. Biddix 

DAVID "DAVE" HAYWOOD 

BIDDIX AND MAGGIE LUCILLA 

ALLISON 

235-A 

David Haywood Biddix was born in 
McDowell County, North Carolina April 7, 
1876. He was the third of three children born 
to Safronia Biddix. At this point, no record of 
his father has been located. 

About 1894 when my Father was approx- 
imately eighteen years of age he went to work 
for the Southern Railway. He probably decided 



after working for six or seven years that he had 
a permanent job with this up and coming 
young company, having retired in 1941 with 
44 years service. This is the only job he ever 
held. He died August 3, 1950 and is buried at 
Mountain View. 

Maggie Lucilla Allison was a daughter of 
John Henry and Sarah Jane (Freeman) Allison 
who was born December 21, 1886 in 
McDowell County. Thoughts of taking a wife 
must surely have been upper-most in his 
mind. He married my Mother May 22, 1902, 
with her Mother's nephew Willie Freeman as a 
witness. 




Maggie Lucilla (Allison) and David Haywood Biddix 



My Father was a hard worker and was al- 
ways on the job punctually come rain or shine, 
sleet, hail or snow. During his life, times were 
very hard and wages were extremly low. 
However low the wages, he was fortunate to 
have a permanent job with which to raise his 
brood of ten children. Even during the lean 
depression years of the 1930's he managed to 
feed, clothe and provide the necessities in 
order for his family to survive. It's very sad to 
come to the realization that my parents and 
earlier ancestors were denied even the 
smallest luxury, things today which we take 
for granted. 

My Mother was a dedicated housewife and a 
devoted Mother to each of her children. 
Among her many beautiful qualities she pos- 
sessed unlimited patience, never becoming 
upset over any circumstance. She never spoke 
an unkind word about another person. As far 
back as I can remember she was loved and 
respected by all who knew her. Not once do I 
remember her losing her temper ... if she 
had one. 

Her house was always spotless, even with 
ten children underfoot. She related to us in 
later years that even though she was sick and 
did not feel well, she had to keep going with 

151 



a baby on one hip while cooking or cleaning 
with the other free hand. She nursed her chil- 
dren through many illnesses and was con- 
stantly busy administering to the numerous 
endless needs of her family. My Mother died 
February 24, 1965 in Asheville and is buried at 
Mountain View Cemetery, Black Mountain, 
N.C. 

Their first child Raymond Ray b. January 8, 
1905 — d. August 10, 1906 of pneumonia at 
the age of nineteen months. He is buried at 
Piney Grove Church Cemetery, Old Fort, N.C. 

There were to be nine more children born to 
my parents beginning with Flemon Winston b. 
July 12, 1908. His ambition was to become an 
engineer because railroading was in his blood 
as well as my father's. He married Athleen 
Melton in 1932 and had two sons, Donald 
Eugene b. August 14, 1932 and David Boyce 
b. November 6, 1942. Shortly after achieving 
his ambition to become an engineer, he died at 
the age of forty-seven February 23, 1955. 

My third brother was James Willie, known 
as "Bill," he was born December 11, 1910. 
Upon reaching the age of fourteen he started 
driving a truck and trucking became his ambi- 
tion. Bill was an extremly handsome man, tall, 
black wavy hair, blue eyes, and an excellent 
physique. All the girls thought he looked like 
Clark Gable (the movie star) and were always 
on the chase for him. A petite five foot redhead 
by the name of Rubena Winifred Brandon b. 
December 30, 1917 caught him and took him 
to the altar October 12, 1930. They had four 
children: Gary Lee b. March 9, 1932 (Mrs. 
Willie Albert Bridges, known as "Bill"); Wil- 
liam Larry b. May 26, 1935 (always known as 
"Buddy"); Joann b. February 14, 1938 (Mrs. 
William Plemmons, also called "Bill" and 
Sarah Judith b. August 19, 1940 — d. June 
25, 1941. 

Bill also died an untimely death at the age 
of fifty on his birthday December 11, 1960. 

My sister Ethel Mae was born September 
21, 1913. She was voted the prettiest girl in 
her class at Black Mountain High School and 
obviously Forrest Bedford Austin of Burke 
County (Morganton, NC) thought the same. 
They were married June 1 1 , 1 932 in Morgan- 
ton. Their only child Betty Caroline was born 
September 30, 1934 in the old Mission Hospi- 
tal, Asheville. She graduated from Berea Col- 
lege School of Nursing, Berea, Kentucky Au- 
gust 21 , 1 956. After a few years working as a 
Registered Nurse, she decided to become an 
anesthetist March 15, 1968 in the new Memo- 
rial Hospital in Asheville. 

Pauline Victoria was born July 21, 1916. 
She eloped at the age of twenty-three and 
married John Frank Loveless of South Caroli- 
na. A few years after her husband died she left 
Asheville and moved to California. 

Joe Henry (named after our maternal Grand- 
father John Henry Allison) was born Septem- 
ber 10, 1918. He served his country and is a 
veteian of World War II, U.S. Army Medical 
Corps in the states, and with the 9th Air Force 
serving in the European theater of operations 
until the close of the war. He married Edith Lee 
October 15, 1955 and they reside in Asheville. 

Bessie Marjorie was the seventh, born 
November 26, 1920. She also attended school 



in Black Mountain. She was the only member 
of the family who never failed to be punctual to 
work or for any other event she was attending . 
She died (unmarried) at the early age of forty- 
three on June 1 , 1963 and is buried in Moun- 
tain View Cemetery, Black Mountain. 

Frances Lucille was born in Black Mountain 
October 23, 1923. She attended William Ran- 
dolph School in Asheville and graduated from 
Black Mountain High School May 1, 1942. 
World War II was raging and she went to 
Washington, D.C. to work for the War Depart- 
ment. After a short stay in Washington she 
returned to Asheville and worked with Postal 
Accounts Division until this agency was re- 
moved from Asheville. She then went with the 
Department of Commerce, National Climatic 
Center and worked with this agency until her 
death on December 11, 1977. She was never 
married and is buried in Mountain View 
Cemetery. 

Evelyn Sophronia was the ninth child born 
to Dave and Maggie Biddix. She was bom 
January 13, 1926 in Black Mountain and was 
named after our paternal Grandmother "Saf- 
ronia" Biddix. Evelyn was the only child with 
blond hair and the only one to remain so. She 
entered school at the old William Randolph 
building in Asheville and graduated from Black 
Mountain High School. On December 24, 
1949 she married James Holly Ledbetter who 
was born January 7, 1920. They were married 
in the parsonage of First Baptist Church, Ashe- 
ville with this writer in attendance. Their only 
child, a son James Richard was born August 
4, 1 955. He lives in Atlanta and is employed by 
the U.S. Forest Service. 

The tenth and last child was Charles David. 
(See separate sketch.) 

— Charles David Biddix 

EMBREE HOSS BLACKARD 

236 

Rev. Embree Hoss Blackard, D.D. came to 
Buncombe County, North Carolina in 1949 by 
way of Tennessee. His father's forebears mi- 
grated from the Buffalo section of Guilford 
County, N.C. to West Tennessee after that 
section was opened to settlers following the 
treaty between the United States Government 
and the Chichasaw Nation of Indians in 1819. 

His great-great-grandfather, James Doak, 
who married Mary Paisley in 1775, was an 
officer in the War of Independence and partici- 
pated in the Battle of Guilford Courthouse, 
N.C. Both of Dr. Blackard's grandparents were 
soldiers in the War Between the States. 

Dr. Blackard's father was the late Rev. 
James W. Blackard, D.D., a Methodist minis- 
ter in West Tennessee for over fifty years. His 
mother was the late Louisa White Blackard 
whose forebears came from Virginia. 

Dr. Blackard came to Asheville in 1949 as 
the pastor of the Central Methodist Church. 
After a twelve year pastorate, he was 
appointed Superintendent of the Charlotte Dis- 
trict for two years before returning to Asheville 
as Superintendent of the Asheville District, 
supervising the work of a hundred Methodist 
churches in Buncombe, Madison, Henderson 
and Polk Counties. 




Dr. Embree H. Blackard 

After his retirement in 1967 he was elected 
Pastor Emeritus of Central Church, but con- 
tinued a ministry as Councellor and Spiritual 
Advisor at the Penland and Sons Funeral 
Home. 

Dr. Blackard was born November 18, 1900 
at the Methodist parsonage in Trenton, Tenn. 
At the age of 16 he was licensed to preach. He 
graduated from Emory University with the 
A.B. and Bachelor of Divinity degrees, after 
which he went to Yale University where he 
received the degrees of Bachelor of Sacred 
Theology and Master of Arts, and completed 
the examinations and residence work for the 
Ph.D. degree. Some years later he studied at 
the Phipps Psychiatric Clinic of Johns Hopkins 
Medical School and attended the Yale Uni- 
versity School of Alchoholic Studies in order to 
be more proficient in pastoral counseling. In 
1934 Emory University conferred the honorary 
degree of Doctor of Divinity upon him, next to 
the youngest man Emory University has ever 
so honored. 

He held pastorates in Cheshire, Conn. , Kan- 
sas City, Mo., Baltimore, Md., and High 
Point, Charlotte, Gastonia and Asheville, N.C. 

Dr. Blackard was elected a delegate to the 
General and Jurisdictional Conferences of the 
Methodist Church from 1944 to 1966, and 
served as a member of the Coordinating Coun- 
cil and the Joint Radio Committee. He 
attended the World Council of Churches in 
Amsterdam in 1948 and in Evanston, III. in 
1954. 

Dr. Blackard used his vacation periods for 
travel, serving as lecturer and chaplain on 
numerous cruise ships and participating in 
study groups to many parts of the world. 

He has served as a trustee of Emory Uni- 
versity, Brevard College, The Methodist Home 
in Charlotte, and the Lake Junaluska Assem- 
bly. He was elected an Honorary Life Member 
of the Board of Managers of the Givens Estate 
Retirement Home, Asheville, in recognition of 
his pioneering work in establishing that in- 
stitution. He is a member of the Rotary Club, 



152 



the Downtown Club, the Biltmore Forest Coun- 
try Club, and the Methodist Church. 

Dr. Blackard was married to Margaret 
Lounsbury Griffith of Bridgeport, Conn, on 
June 16, 1925. Margaret was a descendant of 
the Revolutionary War soldier, Enos Louns- 
bury, and a great niece of two Governors of 
Connecticut, George and Phineas Lounsbury. 
Dr. and Mrs. Blackard celebrated their fiftieth 
wedding anniversery before she died on De- 
cember 1, 1975. To them were born three 
children: Mrs. Margaret Lee B. Inman (a mem- 
ber of the Alexandria, Va. City Council), Dr. 
Embree H. Blackard, Jr. a cardiologist and 
President of the San Francisco Council of 
Churches; and Dr. William G. Blackard, head 
of the department of Endocrinology and 
Medical Research at the Medical College in 
Richmond. 

On February 12, 1977 Dr. Blackard married 
Mary Frances Blair Blackard, the widow of his 
brother, Judge Charles G. Blackard, of Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Mrs. Blackard has two children: 
Charles G. Blackard, Jr. of Nashville and Mrs. 
Elizabeth B. Hoffman of Evansville, Ind. 

At the conclusion of the biographical sketch 
of Dr. Blackard in Who's Who In America 
these words of his are quoted: 

"I love people. I like to help those with problems. My 
work has not Been a burden but a joy. I feel that in every 
step of the way there has been a gracious Providence 
which has directed my course. If I had to live my life over, I 
could not ask for more." 

— Embree H. Blackard 



ORA BLACKMUN 

237 

Born on September 13, 1892, Ora Black- 
mun was the fourth child and the second 
daughter of Frank Wilbur and Alice Luther 
Blackmun. Her childhood was spent in a small 
village in southern Minnesota. From her 
grandfather, Silas Blackmun, who had 
pioneered in the prairie section of that state, 
she heard with fascination his tales of pioneer 
life, of the Sioux uprising against the early 
settlers, and his accounts of prairie fires and 
invasions of clouds of grasshoppers that 
destroyed spring crops. 

With her family she went, during her teens, 
to Fayetteville, Arkansas, near which her 
father purchased a small fruit farm. From the 
University of Arkansas she received an A.B. 
degree and later on a scholarship, earned a 
M.A. degree. She did further graduate work at 
the University of Chicago and at the University 
of Southern California. For nearly twenty-one 
years she held the position of Associate Pro- 
fessor of English at the University of Central 
Arkansas at Conway. 

After coming to North Carolina in 1944, she 
spent one year as Head of the English Depart- 
ment at Flora McDonald College at Red 
Springs. Then for two years she served as 
Director of Religious Education at the First 
Presbyterian Church of Asheville. Later she 
taught Bible courses in the adult department of 
the Church School. The most popular of these 
was Studying the Bible With a Spade, a study 
of the Old Testament in the light of modern 
excavations. For this course she wrote the 
textbook. 



In 1963 she was elected by the congrega- 
tion as an Elder in the First Presbyterian 
Church and served a six-year term on the 
Session. She was commissioned by that body 
to write a history of the Asheville church. 

The result was A Spire In The Mountains, in 
which she traced the events taking place in the 
church and the city from 1 794 to 1 970, show- 
ing the interaction of each upon the other. This 
book, published in December 1970, won for 
the author the Francis McKemie Award given 
annually by the Presbyterian Church, U.S. for 
the best published work of the year dealing 
with the heritage of the Presbyterian Church, 
U.S. 

Deeply interested in the mountains and their 
early settlers, she visited the counties making 
up Western North Carolina and for ten years 
did research work on their early history. The 
result was the publication in 1 977 of her West- 
ern North Carolina: Its Mountains and Its 
People. 

In honor of the book's publication, the 
Asheville City Council and the Buncombe 
County Board of Commissioners declared its 
publication date, May 1 — 7 as Ora Blackmun 
Week and the Citizen-Times carried a special 
section devoted to the book and its author. On 
May 7, Miss Blackmun was honored at a re- 
ception held at the Asheville Community 
Theatre. Among the congratulatory letters 
later received was one from the Honorable 
James B. Hunt, Governor of North Carolina, 
and one signed by Jimmy Carter, President of 
the United States. 

Miss Blackmun is also co-author of The 
Language We Speak, a college textbook. 
Among her short stories one entitled Prairie 
Grass won an award given by the North Caroli- 
na Federation of Women's Clubs. Two of her 
Christmas stories were published in booklet 
form and have had wide distribution. 

Popular as a speaker, she has appeared 
before church groups and before women's 
and men's organizations, speaking on a vari- 
ety of subjects, ranging from religious topics 
and Palestinian excavations to interestinq 
events and personalities connected with the 
complicated history of the mountain region 
she calls home. 

— Ora Blackmun 



NEHEMIAH BLACKSTOCK 

August 30, 1794 — August 6, 

1880 

238 

Born in Spartanburg County, South Caroli- 
na, Nehemiah came to Buncombe County on 
July 6, 1814, as a surveyor. It is unclear just 
when he met and married Hammoleketh Ball 
who was born in Iredell County, North Caroli- 
na. "Leeky" (April 2, 1794 — July 15, 1874) 
was the daughter of Daniel Ball whose grave 
(marked by the Daughters of the American 
Revolution) is in the family cemetery in Dilling- 
ham, North Carolina. 

Nehemiah and Hammoleketh had five chil- 
dren: Priscilla Adeline (July 6, 1819 — April 
19, 1846) who married John W. Wells; Claris- 
sa (December 27, 1820 — March 29, 1853) 



who married a man whose surname was 
Israel; Harriet J. (no dates available) who mar- 
ried the Reverend J.D. Baldwin of the Holston 
Conference on September 16, 1856; Robert 
Vance (February 4, 1824 — August 26, 1906) 
who married Mary Weaver; and Emily E. (April 
13, 1826 — June 30, 1860) who married 
Captain William T. Dickenson (February 6, 
1825 — March 7, 1889). 

Miss Kitty Sue McElroy, a great- 
granddaughter of Nehemiah's tells that Priscil- 
la and Clarissa played under a cedar tree in the 
family yard when little. When they both died at 
a young age, Nehemiah insisted they be buried 
where they played so often as children. This 
location is where all but Harriet are buried. The 
Blackstock Cemetery is all that remains of the 
original property (near Flat Creek). The rest of 
the "home place" was claimed by the state for 
an interstate highway. 

It is unclear just how the Blackstocks came 
to know Zebulon Vance's family, but it is be- 
lieved the acquaintance came about because 
Vance's grandfather was a surveyor as was 
Nehemiah. Several references are made to the 
family in the book A Man To Match The Moun- 
tains by Ruth 0. Szittya. Zeb Vance was sent to 
live with the Blackstocks when he was old 
enough to attend school because the Vance 
family home was too far from the school at Flat 
Creek. 

Miss McElroy says that Nehemiah was a 
"staunch Presbyterian" and a strict discipli- 
narian. He kept a black book where he recorded 
the misbehavior of his children. After a num- 
ber of offenses he then set their punishments. 
She also tells that Nehemiah took an interest in 
a young man by the name of Buckner who 
wanted to be a minister. The young man came 
around wearing a beard one time and Nehe- 
miah, himself clean-shaven, told him, "Look 
here, you can't preach the gospel through that 
beard!" 

In addition to being a surveyor, Nehemiah 
was also a justice of the peace. It is reported 
that he presided over a murder trial held in his 
front yard. Once he was to go to court in 
Burnsville and his housekeeper, "Aunt 
Louizy" was to get his wardrobe ready for the 
trip. She forgot to iron his linen pants and 
proceeded to do so, unfortunately it was on a 
Sunday that she remembered. Nehemiah 
caught her in the process. When questioned, 
she explained what she was doing, but to no 
avail. He refused to wear the pants because 
she had broken the Sabbath. 

Miss Kitty Sue McElroy and her sister Mary 
lived in Nehemiah's home until the state forced 
them to move. The original logs in the struc- 
ture were purchased by a builder in Wolf 
Laurel and used to construct a new log home 
near there. As Nehemiah's property was par- 
celed out, it was resurveyed and one of the 
surveyors told the McElroy sisters that the 
original survey by Nehemiah was "perfect" 
which pleased the ladies very much. 

— Grace Duckett Greene 




153 



DAVID AND ELIZABETH 
BLAYLOCK 

239 

Among the earliest of the settlers to the 
Pigeon section of what is now Haywood Coun- 
ty was a man named David Blaylock. It is not 
certain which David Blaylock came to 
Haywood as there were four David Blalocks in 
Eastern North Carolina prior to his arrival. 
David brought with him his young wife Eliz- 
abeth, and became a farmer as did many of 
the first settlers. It is my belief that he came 
from Orange County and prior to that from 
Virginia 

David had five sons and two daughters. 
Among them was Eldred H. Blaylock born July 
12, 1817. E.H. was a carpenter and owned a 
farm in the upper pigeon section of Haywood. 
He married Mary Anderson on September 8, 
1838. She was the daughter of John and Eliz- 
abeth Dier Anderson of North Carolina. She 
was born December 24, 1 820 and they had ten 
children before she died on December 1, 
1849. 

They were Eliza Jane, Sarah A, Joseph M. , 
Nancy B., Mary C, Margaret, Matilda, 
Thomas L. and William Baxter. 

He and his sons served in the Civil War in 
the 25th Regiment, Compnay F and was a First 
Lieutenant. Mary died unexpectedly, leaving 
E.H. with several small children. 

He remarried to Mary Campbell on June 18, 
1850. Later they had their first and only son by 
this second marriage. He was born in April of 
1 856 and was named John Campbell Blaylock. 
By now, most of the other children were mar- 
ried and having their own families so there was 
plenty of money left for John's education. 
John was well educated as he continued his 
education past the age of 22. 

John married Amelia E. Singleton on 
September 3, 1888. She was the daughter of 
William and Sarah Singleton from South Caro- 
lina. They lived in South Carolina for a short 
while and were previously from North Caroli- 
na. Amelia was born January of 1852 and only 
lived for 38 years. 

After E.H. died, Mary went to live with her 
son John. John was an affluent man of his 
time and provided a good life for his wife and 
sons: Benjamin "Nick" H., Joseph W., Robert 
6. and Richmond Pearson, who was renamed 
later to John Pearson. John's interests were 
spread out as he was a farmer, merchant, and 
raised cattle. Nick was born April 26, 1887. He 
married Mary E. Revis, who was born June 7, 
1891. They lived on Pigeon where his family 
still lives. Nick died April 3, 1953 and is buried 
in the Bethel Cemetery. 

John Pearson was born December 10, 
1895. He married January 10, 1915 to Mary 
Naoma Burnette who was born December 8, 
1898. Her parents were Robert Lee and De- 
vonia Catherine Burnette, also of Pigeon. John 
Pearson worked for a while at the Suncrest 
Lumber Co. and was well known for his size 
and strength. He later went to work for the 
Champion Paper Co. until his retirement. 

John and Mary lived in a small house on Dix 
Creek and raised a total of fifteen children: 

Their first son, Thomas Glenn, was born 



August 24, 1915; Amelia Catherine Annette 
was born August 24, 1917; Jennie Mae, 
March 2, 1919; Mable Lee, June 27, 1921; 
Lillian Ethel, May 9, 1923; Bonnie Thelma, 
June 28, 1925; John Pearson Jr., May 26, 
1927; Bernice Ruth, April 7, 1929; Rebecca 
Christine, June 21 , 1931 ; Billie Marie, May 21 , 
1933; the twins, Joyce and Joann, September 
10, 1935; Margaret Gail, July 19, 1937; 
Judith Lanola, May9, 1939; and Cheryl Elaine, 
August 2, 1944. 

Thomas Glenn married Lillian Mae Smith. 
He was a career soldier in the US Army in Fort 
Bragg, and is retired now. They reside in Lake- 
view, NC. They have five children: 

Brenda Mae, born July 4, 1946, has three 
children: Terry Lane Page, Thomas Dale Page 
and Andrea Zettler. 

Thomas Glenn Jr. was born March 2, 1948. 
He is married to Gladys Smith, and they have 
one daughter, Malinda. 

Wanda Jean was born February 5, 1951 and 
is married to Kenneth Hawkins. They have two 
children: Kenneth and Kimberly. 

Dennis Wayne was born June 5, 1 953 and is 
married to Pat Cox. 

James Edward was born November 12, 
1954. 

Amelia Catherine Annette married Lloyd 
William Games on July 2, 1936. They live on 
Dix Creek and have no children. 

Jennie Mae married Earl Pickney Thompson 
and they live in Lakeview, NC. They had five 
children: Joel Malcolm born November 16, 
1941; Derrick Lane, November 21, 1943; 
Marion Louise March 27, 1948; Kathy Rae, 
September 21, 1949; and David Lewis, June 
9, 1959. 

Joel married Helen Bartell and had two chil- 
dren: Joy and Julie. His second wife is Edith 
Spiney. 

Derrick Lane married Doris Garcia and they 
have two children: Cary Jo and Toby. He later 
married Linda and had one child, Jeffery 
Glenn. 

Marion Louise married Richard Wilson, and 
they have three children: Philip, Francis, and 
Richard Tracy. 

Kathy married Thomas McBride and they 
have two children: Tara and Katie. David is not 
married. 

Mabel Lee married Howard Dennis Cochran 
and live in Pigeon. They have five children: 
Michael Anthony, born September 5, 1946, 
married Martha Marie Free, and they have one 
son, Cameron Michael; Sharon Elaine, born 
September 4, 1948, married Frank Dietah; 
Jimmie Leigh, born November 12, 1951 , and 
married Eddie Braswell; Robin Denise, born 
March 17, 1962; and Patrick Shane born 
March 7, 1964. 

Lillian Ethel married Eldon Dean Houey and 
they live in California. They have three chil- 
dren: Sandra Kay, born March 1947, married 
Donald Menson, and they have two children, 
Donny and Mark; Sandra later married Gene 
Fenwell and they have a daughter, Beck 
Kimmer; Victor Dean married Nina and has 
two children, Pamela and David; The youngest 
son, James Eldon, married Loretta Marie 
Gaiba. 

Bonnie Thelma married Jackson Columbus 



Thompson and had two children: Jackie Hope, 
born February 15, 1947, married James Loner 
Deaver; Barry Lynn, born April 28, 1953. 

John Pearson Jr. was married to Lorean 
Catherine Overman and they had four children: 
Kenneth Edward, born October 21, 1951; Nan- 
cy Ann, born January 10, 1952, married Sam 
Underwood and they have one daughter, 
Makenzie Adair; Timothy Wayne, born May 3, 
1953, married Cathy Doreen Warren; Lesa 
Adair born February 11, 1960 but was killed 
January 9, 1977 in an automobile accident. 

Bernice Ruth married Carroll Cecil Smith 
and had two daughters, Reginia Carol and 
Donna Kay. Reginia, born February 12, 1953, 
married Danny Jones, and they have two sons: 
Christopher Daniel and Jason Eugene. Donna 
Kay was born December 10, 1962. Bernice is 
now married to Joyce Stamey and lives in 
Candler, NC. 

Rebecca Christine married Fletcher Games 
and lives in Lakeview, NC. They have three 
children: Patricia Ann born 23, 1950 is mar- 
ried to Harrison McRae and they have one 
daughter, Shelia Ann. Mary Louise married 
Ray Bowman and they have a son Philip Ray. 
Rebecca Christine married John Oldham and 
they have a son, Johnie Dewayne. 

Billie Marie married Norman William 
Thompson. Before she died November 7, 
1957 she had two children: Gregory Martin, 
born June 10, 1951, is married to Kathrine 
Dillard and they have two children, Tad Nor- 
man and Tomi Nicole; Gloria Jane born July 2, 
1955 married Arnold Brackett and they have 
two children, Toni Marie and Tiffany Michelle. 

Joyce and Joann were the twins. When they 
were born, the oldest son Tommy, was so 
frustrated at all of the sisters and only one 
brother that he went off and joined the Army. 

Joyce married Roy Clinton Frizzell and lived 
on Dix Creek until her death on October 8, 
1974. She is buried in the Dix Creek Cemetery. 
She had three daughters and one son: Donna 
Lynn born April 1 , 1956, married Ricky Burrell 
and they have two daughters, Brandy Joy and 
Misty Lynn; Susan Gail born December 8, 
1957 married to Boyd Edwards and they have 
three daughters; Nicki, Wendy Jo and Amanda 
Suzanne; Larry Dwayne born April 26, 1 959, is 
now serving in the US Army; Sherri Renee 
born July 21, 1963. 

Joann married Joseph Howard Sales and 
they have two children: John Daryl, born Octo- 
ber 29, 1953 married Cheryl Ann Hightower 
and they have two children, Nakia Dawn and 
John Kevin; Carol Elaine, born September 6, 
1955 married Charles Walter Taylor Jr. and 
they have two children, Charles III and Kellie 
Leigh. 

Judith Lanola married Junius McKinley 
Mashburn. They live in Brevard and have two 
children: Mark Edward, born July 11, 1965 
and Julia Lanola, born December 3,1968. 

Cheryl Elaine married Max Garland Sanford 
and resides in Maggie Valley. They have three 
children: Lana Lauree born August 2, 1967; 
Aaron Lee born August 5, 1972; and Jennifer 
Ryan born October 8, 1978. 

Margaret Gail never married, choosing to 
stay at home and take care of her parents. 

— John D. Sales 



154 



KEDAR (CADER, KADER) 
BOONE 

240 

Kedar Boone was born 20 Nov. 1790 in the 
Pendleton District, now Pickens County of 
South Carolina. At age twenty in 1 81 he came 
north to the Cherokee Indian country of North 
Carolina where he settled in what is now 
Haywood County. He was one of eleven 
brothers and sisters. 

Kedar's father was named Ratliff Boone, 
born 1755 in North Carolina, died ca March 
1815 in Anderson District of South Carolina. 
Kedar's mother was named Nancy Harris, they 
were married in Surry County, N.C. 1782 

Kedar's grandfather was also named Ratlin 
Boone born 1715 in Bertie County, N.C. died 
in Surry County, N.C. His will was made 10 
July 1787. His wife's name was Ruth. 

Kedar's Great-grandfather was named 
Joseph Boone, born 1685 in Isle-of-Wight 
County, Virginia. He died 19 Feb. 1728 in the 
same county, his wife's name was 
Elizabeth ?. She died in 1713. 

Kedar's Great-Great-Grandfather was 
Thomas Boone born 1645 in England. He 
immigrated to America ca 1663 and settled in 
Isle-of-Wight County, Virginia. He married 
Elizabeth Ratliff ? before 1675. Thomas Boone 
died 1723 in same county. 

Kedar Boone married Mary Moody daughter 
of Reuben Moody who lived on Hemphill 
Creek, in Haywood County. Kedar settled near 
his father-in-law, and here eleven children 
were born: 

(1). Joseph Jackson, born 2 June 1821, 
died Haywood Co. 1846, married Nancy A. ? 
(2). Sarah Elizabeth, bom 6, Nov. 1822. 
(3). Reuben Hollingsworth, born 1 Nov 
1824, married Artemesia Selman died 18 Nov. 
1862. Reuben was murdered and is buried in 
New Orleans, La. 

(4). Marcus Lafayette, born 10 June 1827 
married Nancy Miranda Rogers 1 1 June 1849, 
died 22 April 1855 and is buried in Hominy 
Creek Baptist Church Cemetery in Candler, 

N.C. 

(5). Nancy Alkamena, born 14 March 1829, 
married Isaac Thomas Bean, Rusk, Texas 4 
Aug. 1847, died 23 Oct. 1893 and is buried at 
Moffett, Texas. 

(6). Lucinda Amanda, born 14 June 1831. 

(7). Jane Elvira, born 20 Aug. 1832. 

(8). Harlan Aurelius, born 10 May 1834, 
was a captain in Confederate Army. After the 
war he was a lawyer at Webster, County seat of 
Jackson County. Never married. Was mur- 
dered 10 Sept. 1866; buried in Brown Ceme- 
tery on campus of Western Carolina University 
at Cullowhee. 

(9). James Ratliff, born 23 July 1836, mar- 
ried Emma Roarkat Alto, Texas, 6 Dec. 1865, 
died 1875 and is buried in Cherokee County, 

TfiX3S 

(10). Elizabeth Eugenia, born 8 May 1838, 
married Elijah Cowart (d) Chastain 1 Dec. 
1858, died 19 Feb. 1928, buried Ardmore, 
Oklahoma. 

(11). Mary Alcena, born 2 Sept. 1839. 

Information for the Boone Family was obtained from 
the following sources: The Chastain Family Bible; 



Boone Family Bible possessed by Robert H. Boone, 
Waynesville N.C; Several volumes of books by John 
Bennett Boddie; Colonial Surry, (County); Southside Vir- 
ginia Families; Grimes Book of Wills; and North Carolina 
Archives Dozens of documents such as wills, Property 
Settlements, Marriage Bonds and Licenses Land Deeds 
and Grants from courthouse in counties of North Carolina, 
South Carolina and Texas. 

— John Boone Chastain 



THE BOYDSTON FAMILY 

241 

In 1786 James Boydston Sr., his wife 
Tabitha Smith Boydston, and eleven of his 
twelve children moved from what is now 
Cocke County, Tenn. to Rutherford Co. (later 
to become Buncombe Co. and still later to 
become Henderson Co.) 

James Sr. and four of his sons (James, Jr. , 
Samuel, William, and John) had served in the 
Revolutionary War. They obtained several 
acres in the Mills River section using their 
Military Land grants. 

The Boydstons were among the earliest set- 
tlers in that area. A road, a creek, and a ridge 
bear their name. (Boydston Mountain was 
later called Forge Mountain). They mined gold 
in the mountains and farmed their land until 
about 1795 when they moved to Logan Co., 
Ky. and sold their land to Col. James Brittain. 
James Boydston, Sr. was married twice. He 
and his first wife, Mary Pruitt, had five chil- 
dren; Mahulda who married Thomas Hill, 
James Jr. who married Sarah Alvis, Samuel 
who married Sarah Reed, John who married 
Nancy Ann Gardner, and William. 

James Sr. and his second wife, Tabitha, 
had seven children: Sarah, who married John 
Stringfiled, Thomas who married Elizabeth 
Newport, Tabitha who married Harmon Reed, 
Mahala who married Thomas Arnold, Ben- 
jamin who married Mary Gardner, Sabra who 
married Samuel Lusk, and Malinda who mar- 
ried William Adams. 

In 1921, James (Birch) Boydston and 
brother Lemuel Denton Boydston (descen- 
dants of James Sr.'s son Thomas) came to 
Haywood County from Dade Co., Ga. to work 
at Champion Paper Co. Lemuel stayed in 
Haywood Co. James B. moved to Georges 
Branch Rd. in Buncombe Co. where he lived 
most of his life. He died in 1971. 

James Birch Boydston (1892-1971) and wife 
Verda Burkhart (1895-1961) are buried in 
Pleasant Hill Church Cemetery in the Candler 

area. 

Their children were: James Birch, Jr. who 
married Betty Crisp, Arthur William who died 
during World War II, Lloyd Cecil who married 
Hilda Reed, Dorothy Vera who married David 
Thompson, Claude Clayton who married 
Louise Cannon, Roberta Jean, who married 
Charles Clark, Carlos Labron who married 
Shirley Wise; and Ruby who died in 1934. 
— Carlos L. Boydston 

EITHEL BAKER BRINDLE 

242 

I am a descendant of Jesse Powers (b. 
1810, S.C.), John Taylor (b., 1841 , N.C.) and 



John Powers (b. 1818, S.C.). My grand- 
mother Ella Powers (b. 1872, Asheville, North 
Carolina) was a daughter of Jesse Powers and 
a grand-daughter of John Taylor, and I am 
proud of my mountain heritage even though 
part of the family migrated from Asheville, 
North Carolina to Nebraska City, Nebraska in 
1878, and later into Fremont County, Iowa. 
Ella Powers married Wm. Baker at Sidney, 
Iowa. Grandpa Baker's people were from 
Michigan and New York. Their children were 
Pansie, Ethel, Leonard, Marie, Jesse, 
Ambrose and Hugh. 

I am Eithel Baker Brindle, born April 4, 1922 
on a farm in Atchinson County, Missouri. Part 
of my growing up years were also spent in 
Fremont County, Iowa. My mother Marie Bak- 
er (b. 1903, Fremont County, Iowa) raised 
me in my grandparents' home. My grand- 
parents were also parents to me and my four 
uncles were the same as brothers. 

It was a privilege to be a member of that 
family and a wonderful home. What a great 
influence they had on my life, "Walk in a 
manner worthy of the Lord," says Colossians 
1:10, "to please him in all respects bearing 
fruit in every good work." That was what we 
were taught. I feel the same as Abraham Lin- 
coln, "All that I am I owe to my Mother." 
Mother was a great and courageous lady. 

Those growing up years on the farm molded 
my life. We were all taught to work and any- 
thing worth doing was worth doing well. My 
people were not interested in public affairs, 
but were interested in agriculture. They liked 
working with the land which was freedom and 
independence. Farming was a good life and 
they raised most all of their food. There was a 
line of good cooks in our family, and we sat at 
the first table. City cousins ate many a meal at 
our house on Sundays. 

I remember the work on the farm . We loved 
the kitchen, it was the center of everything, 
from cooking, eating, canning, washing and 
ironing and bathing. Also a lot of visiting was 
done there. We studied and read at the kitchen 
table from a kerosene lamp. Heat was from the 
big black cook stove. All this was family unity 
— it was security and happiness. 

The Holidays were special but very few 
bought gifts (they were all made). Grandpa 
handled the pocket book and did most all the 
buying. Our clothes were made at home, only 
what couldn't be made were purchased. Our 
family adjusted according to progress, from 
the horse and buggy days, into the mechanical 
era and into the space age. The men of our 
family served their country in time of war. The 
depression years were difficult but we always 
had plenty to eat and never went to bed hungry 
or cold . No one was ever turned away from the 
door of that home. The folks were compas- 
sionate people. 

After attending North Polk Country School 
and Rock Port High School, I worked in the 
offices of the War Department, Veterans 
Administration and Agriculture Department. 

Lewis Brindle (b. 1918, Rock Port, Mis- 
souri) and I were married July 3, 1941 while he 
was in service during World War II. 

Our son Stephen Lewis Brindle was born 
October 18, 1955 and daughter Susan Mane 

155 



Brindle was born March 8, 1961. 

After the war years we purchased a farm 
south east of Rock Port, Missouri and farmed 
for years. We also lived at Riverside, Califor- 
nia; Springfield, Missouri and Hamburg, 
Iowa while the children were growing up. 

Our life was devoted to ourfamily. Our other 
interests were our business, church and 
school activities, boy scouts, girl scouts, 
music lessons and little league. We had joys 
and sorrows but our happiest times besides 
our home life was traveling, camping and 
fishing as a family; experiences we will never 
forget. We raised our children by the same 
rules that we were taught at home when we 
were growing up. 

I love the Lord Jesus Christ and America. I 
have tried to live and teach that man can do 
nothing, but with God all things are possible. 
We are the total sum of our experiences. 

— Eithel Baker Brindle 



THE BENJAMIN BROOKSHIRE 
FAMILY 

243 

Benjamin Brookshire was born March 9, 1771 
in the section of Rowan County, N.C. which is 
now Randolph County. He was the tenth child 
of William I and Honour Mary Sarah Brook- 
shire. 

Benjamin married Amelia Bingham on July 
18, 1796. In 1798 they moved to Dutch Cove 
in Haywood County which was Old Buncombe 
County at the time. On October 28, 1798, 
before they had time to build a home, their 
second son, Henry, was born in a hollow 
chestnut tree. Henry was the first white child 
born in Haywood County. 

The family lived there for several years and 
had a number of children. The known children 
were: Joel, Henry, Elizabeth, William, Ben- 
jamin, Joseph, and Posey. 

Benjamin and Amelia moved into the pre- 
sent Buncombe County in their later years. He 
died in the 1840,s and she died during the 
1850s. 

— Maxine Brookshire 

HENRY BROOKSHIRE 

244 

On January 11, 1820, Henry Brookshire 
married Clarissa Parks, the daughter of 
Samuel and Rachel Parks. They moved into 
Buncombe County where Henry bought land 
from Henry Dryman, at the foot of Dryman's 
Mountain on Lee's Mill Creek. They built a 
home near the present Erwin High School. 

Henry was a farmer and Clarissa, who had 
been a teacher, was a good housewife and 
mother. She was very skillful at various 
types of needlework. 

To them were bom five sons and five daugh- 
ters. They were: Manerva who married Igna- 
tious Plemmons, Rachel who married ? Mor- 
gan, Emaline who married Joseph Miller, and 
Mary who married Thomas Ingle. Ben married 
Matilda Plemmons, Larkin married Clarissa 
Plemmons, and Adeline married Levi Sluder. 
Twins, Thomas and John, were born July 27, 



1839. Thomas married Manerva Plemmons, 
and John was killed in battle during the Civil 
War. James, the youngest, was killed in 1861 
during a storm when a rail fence fell on him. 

Henry and Clarissa were quite active in 
Bethel Baptist Chruch. The 1850 census 
shows that Henry's mother, Amelia, and also 
Clarissa's mother, Rachel, were living with 
them at that time. 

Clarissa died November 26, 1 879, and Hen- 
ry died May 13, 1889. They were buried in 
Bethel Baptist Church Cemetery. 

— Maxine Brookshire 

ROBERT NELSON 
BROOKSHIRE 

245 

On December 29, 1909, Robert "Bob" Nel- 
son Brookshire married Maggie Helen Smith, 
the daughter of Marcus Simpson Smith and 
Marcella Anne Cowan Smith. They moved to 
their home on a farm given to them by his 
parents, Thomas Patterson and Manerva 
Plemmons Brookshire. This was a part of the 
original John H. Plemmons Estate. 

To them were born one son and five daugh- 
ters. They are Bron Patterson Brookshire, 
Reva Brookshire Murray, Clara Brookshire 
Doll, Christine, June, and Maxine Brookshire. 
They have one granddaughter, Eleanor 
Murray. 

Robert, a farmer, was an active member of 
Mount Carmel Baptist Church. For many years 
he served as a trustee for the church. He 
always helped in community endeavors to 
build a better Buncombe County. He was born 
July 5, 1873, and died September 27, 1957, 
and is buried in Green Hill Cemetery. 

Maggie Helen, a very loving wife and 
mother, often helped neighbors in sickness 
and with necessities when needed. Her con- 
tributions of many beautiful floral arrange- 
ments to her church reflected her love of God 
through nature. She was born March 8, 1 885, 
and at the present time is the oldest living 
member of Mount Carmel Baptist Church. She 
lives on the farm on New Leicester Highway 
and Brookshire Road. 

— Christine and Maxine Brookshire 

THOMAS PATTERSON 
BROOKSHIRE 

246 

On February 2, 1861, Thomas Patterson 
Brookshire was married to Manerva Plem- 
mons, the daughter of John H. and Nancy 
Sluder Plemmons. The wedding took place at 
the Plemmons home, (located on the present 
New Leicester Highway between Cole Road 
and Brookshire Road). A big snow had fallen 
the night before. Manerva's uncle kidded her 
and asked if she wasn't afraid that Thomas 
would not come for the wedding. She laughed 
and said, "Thomas will be here." 

After the wedding, they went to live with 
Thomas's parents, Henry and Clarissa Brook- 
shire. Manerva stayed with them throughout 
the Civil War. 

On May 1 7, 1862, Thomas enlisted at Camp 



Smith in Asheville. He was in Company E of the 
60th Regiment. February 25, 1864, he was 
slightly wounded near Dalton, Georgia. He 
was discharged at Greensboro, North Caroli- 
na, May 1, 1865. 

After the war, Thomas and Manerva built a 
home on their farm on Lee's Mill Creek (at the 
present time part of the Erwin School Proper- 
ty), and installed running water from a moun- 
tain above their home to the house through 
small hollow logs. Thomas was known as a 
country gentleman farmer. 

To them was born five sons and two daugh- 
ters: 

LeRoy Decator, who married Julina Justice; 
Eleatha Texana, who married Dock S. Sluder; 
Lonnie Lee, who married Tennie White; Robert 
Nelson, who married Maggie Helen Smith; 
Allie Galana, born on Christmas Day 1875, 
died at eight and one-half years of age; Harley 
Gaskill married Julia Courtney Collins; and 
Charlie Euransia married Ethel Clontz. 

Thomas and Manerva were very active in the 
Bethel Baptist Church and later in Mount Car- 
mel Baptist Church, when it was formed from 
Bethel April 5, 1885. They were charter mem- 
bers of Mount Carmel. 

Thomas died June 5, 1915. Soon after his 
death, Manerva moved into West Asheville 
where she lived until her death on November 
15, 1928. They were both buried in Bethel 
Church Cemetery. 

— Maxine Brookshire 

GEORGE ANDREW AND NANCY 
CLARK BROWN 

246-A 

George Andrew Brown was the son of 
Robert G. Brown and Elizabeth Williamson 
Brown born December 15, 1870. He married 
Nancy C. Clark October 30, 1892, daughter of 
Alfred S. and Frances Rogers Clark. 

They lived in the Fines Creek Community 
where George was a farmer, Justice of the 
Peace and ran a country store. He bought and 
sold everything from herbs to ladies clothing. 

He died July 3, 1957 and he and his wife are 
buried in the Hillcrest Memorial Gardens, 
Waynesville. 

His children are: Maude Elizabeth Brown, 
Mary (Mollie) Gordon Brown Teague, George 
Andrew, Jr., Thomas Weir, David Clark (Pete) 
and Anna Jane Brown Allen. 

— Jane Brown Allen 

THE BROWNSBERGER FAMILY 

247 

Professor Sidney Brownsberger was an 
1869 graduate of Ann Arbor, Michigan Col- 
lege. He was the first president of Battle Creek 
College in Berrien Springs, Mich, (now 
Andrews University.) He later became presi- 
dent of Healdsburg College in California. In 
1896 he came to the south and traveled 
throughout Tennessee holding meetings for 
the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. In 1900, 
he moved to Graysville, Tenn. 

In the summer of 1901 he left Graysville to 
come to Asheville, making the hazardous trip 



156 



across the mountains in an open, two-wheeled 
sulky. At the time, Asheville was an active 
health resort, with many sanitoriums for the 
treatment of lung disease. 

Sidney bought a 30 acre farm four miles 
west of Asheville and built a house on it. In the 
fall he sent for his wife, Edith, and his two 
children, John, 8, and Ethel, 12. 

The farm was near Emma, not far from the 
Asheville-Murphy railroad. There was a ridge 
across the farm and the house was built on its 
highest point. It provided a lovely view of the 
Vanderbilt mansion close by, "gleaming like a 
gem in the morning sun," recalls John. 

The farm was the family's only source of 
income. It was not fertile land and required 
hard work to make a living. A stand of pine was 
sold for timber and there were a few cows 
which provided dairy products to sell. 

Sidney and Ethel's third child, Sidney Bur- 
ton, was bom the year after they moved to 
Asheville. To help the family financially Ethel 
worked as a nurse companion and stayed with 
Colonel Bingham who was quite elderly. She 
also stayed with Mrs. Ed Rumbough, the 
daughter of a wealthy Philadelphian named 
Baker, a manufacturer of instruments. Mrs. 
Rumbough furnished the money to buy a farm 
south of Asheville which is now known as 
Fletcher Hospital and Fletcher Academy. The 
original farm was 500 acres. In 1910, the 
Brownsberger family moved to Fletcher so that 
Prof. Brownsberger could teach in the school 
there. He rented the farm. 

The Brownsbergers lived at Fletcher until 
1920. Then they moved to West Asheville 
where they lived for two years. They moved to 
Madison, Tenn. where all the children 
attended school. Each one of them became 
physicians. Ethel returned to Asheville where 
she established a practice in Biltmore. John 
returned to Asheville in 1928 and joined Ethel 
in her practice. In 1929 he moved to Fletcher 
and helped to build up the small hospital there. 
His wife, Elsie, started the school of nursing at 
the Mountain Sanitarium Hospital in Fletcher. 

Sidney Brownsberger spent five years as a 
missionary in India, then established a prac- 
tice as an opthalmologist in Glendale, Calif. 

John now lives with his daughter, Barbara, 
in Silver Spring, Maryland He remembers the 
years on the farm in Asheville as very hard. 

"We had to work hard for everything," he 
said. "We raised what we ate. There was no 
time for idleness. I would recommend farm 
work for any young person today." 

— Barbara Casteen 

JOHN AND JANE ANN ROGERS 
BRYSON 

248 

The following account of John Bryson's life 
was found on a hand-written paper in the Bry- 
son Family Bible: 

"John Bryson was born of Rich Land Creek, 
Haywood County, N.C. on the 8th day of Nov. 
1800 and in his youthful days moved with his 
Father to Cullowhee N.C. and at the age of 22 
years was married (near Loves Store by Mr. 
John Love Esq.) to Jane Rogers, 17th Dec. 
1822. 



"Moved to Brasstown 9th July, 1835. 
Joined the Baptist Church and was baptised 
near this place and was one of the 17 members 
that constituted this Church (Aug . 5th 1 843) in 
which he was a pious, orderly walking Mem- 
ber during his Membership. Called for letter of 
Dimmission from the Church which was 
granted July 22nd, 1851 Which Letter he kept 
during his life. 

Died June 29th 1874 Aged of 73 years, 7 
months and 21 days. Leaving a loving com- 
panion and six children to mourn this sad and 
irreparable loss — He was a friend of the 
poor, never turning a deaf Ear to Their Many 
petitions — his House was the Ministers wel- 
come retreat, he lived an honest upright life 
and died in the full triumph of a living Faith." 

On October 10, 1800 a John Bryson pur- 
chased 100 Acres of land on Richland Creek, 
Haywood Co., N.C. from Joseph Dobson. 
This must have been the father of John Bryson 
b. 1 800. Jane Ann Rogers was the daughter of 
Thomas Rogers and Jane Young. 

John Bryson was one of the first white men 
to settle in Brasstown Valley. It is said he came 
to Brasstown with Alfred E. Corn and George 
Plott. According to the people of Young Har- 
ris, John did not take Indian land. He pur- 
chased his property from a Lumpkin County 
man. 

John built the first house in the valley. It was 
14x16 and 16x18 with a porch in between. He 
later built an L-shaped part on the back for the 
dining room and kitchen. George Plott built his 
house about half a mile away. 

John Bryson gave the property for the Old 
Union Cemetery where he, his wife Jane and 
many of their descendants are buried, and 
folks around there speak of Johnny Bryson as 
if he were still alive. 

The children of John and Jane Bryson were: 

1. Jane Ann, b. 24 March, 1825, Macon Co. 
N.C, married James W. Carson on October 
30, 1845. 

2. Sarah M., b. ca 1827, Macon Co. N.C; 
died Sept. 25, 1898. Unmarried to writer's 
knowledge. 

3. Tilman H. b. 15 Aug. 1829, Macon Co. 
Fought in the Civil War. Died 22 July, 1893; 
married Mary E. Kirby on 10 Feb. 1848. 

4. Racheal C b. ca 1832, Macon Co. NC 
married Stephen Souther, Feb. 28, 1851. 

5. Martha M., b. 29 March 1835, Macon 
Co. NC or Union Co. Ga., married Isaac Swan- 
son, 25 March 1856; died 1 Nov. 1903. 

6. Mangum H., b. 19 Dec. 1837, Union Co. 
Ga. m. Arminta J. Corn, August 19, 1860; 
died Sept. 9, 1913. 

7. William Y., b. 25 Jan. 1842, Union Co., 
Ga. Fought in the Civil War, was captured near 
Atlanta and taken prisioner to Camp Morton, 
Indiana where he died on July 31, 1864. 

Documentation for the above is available. 
— Donna Gertrude Morton Morgan 



ONE LINE OF DESCENT FROM 
WILLIAM BRYSON 

249 

The Brysons, who were among the Danish 
invaders of Northern Europe between 700 and 



1 000 AD. , eventually put down roots in Ireland 
and there, with the Norsemen, formed a com- 
monwealth. These Vikings in their early ex- 
peditions were on the mainland of North Amer- 
ica centuries before Columbus stumbled on 
the West Indies. 

Bricius le Daneys (Brice, the Dane), pro- 
claimed the nationality of the name, but typical 
of Danish names with Christian roots, Brice 
became Briceson with variations, depending 
on whether they settled on the European Conti- 
nent or the British Isles. Eventually it became 
the patronymic English surname of Bryson as 
recorded in the "Placita de Quo Warranto: 
and "The Hundred Rolls" in the Tower of 
London. 

During the great migration of the "Scotch 
Irish" to America in the early 1700s, several 
Bryson brothers came from Antrim County, 
Northern Ireland. One of these men was Wil- 
liam, but he may have had brothers James and 
Robert, and sisters Martha, Mary Margaret 
Agnes and Jane. (From the will of James Bry- 
son, Old Ninety-six District, Abbeville, S.C. 
1784) 

William came first to Lancaster County, 
Pennsylvania where he met and married 
Isabelle Holmes (kin to the Oliver Wendell 
Holmes family) but they moved on later to 
Rowan County, North Carolina and then to the 
Pendleton District of South Carolina. They 
raised six sons, all of whom were Revolution- 
ary soldiers: John, Samuel, Daniel, James 
Holmes, Andrew and William. 

Of these six sons, James Holmes Bryson 
was born November 28, 1745 in Mount Joy, 
Pennsylvania, and married Isabella Coun- 
tryman. 

She was born in 1751 , and was the daugh- 
ter of Frantz Andreas and Elizabeth Sibylla 
(Scharrmann) Countryman, who were living at 
the time at West Camp, Albany County, N.Y. 
Her mother, Elizabeth (Scharrmann) Country- 
man lived to be 1 1 8 years old, and at one point 
was the unsung heroine of the Battle of Cow- 
pens where she administered to and carried 
water to the wounded soldiers all day. 

James and Isabella Countryman Bryson 
lived in what is now Macon County. Although 
the "Early History of Haywood County" by 
Medford says that the first entry for land was by 
Amos Brown in 1809, it makes reference to 
James Bryson's lands on Scotts Creek, in- 
dicating that James was already there by 
1809. 

James died Sept. 3, 1833, and he and his 
wife are buried in Sugar Fork Cemetery, 
Macon County. They had a large family. 

John W. Bryson, first son, was born in 
1769. He married first, Ann Land, daughter of 
Isaac Land, also an early settler recorded on 
the Buncombe Co. census of 1800. John and 
Ann had four children before Ann died. By a 
second marriage to Jane Poston, John had 
fourteen additional children. 

John was involved in getting Haywood 
County formed in 1808 and was one of the 
Commissioners named to select the site of the 
County Seat. In 1810 he was one of the per- 
sons appointed to lay out a road. John and an 
Andrew Bryson served in the War of 1 81 2 from 
Haywood County. 



157 



In the Land Grant Records of Macon County 
there is a Land Grant to John W. Bryson for 
700 acres on Cullowhee Creek, designated as 
Grant No. 1, Tract No. VII, and it included 
almost all of the present site of Cullowhee on 
the west side of the River, being just across 
the present Ashe Bridge that joins Sylva and 
Cullowhee. John paid 25 cents per acre for this 
property which is now the site of Western 
Carolina University. 

Major William Holmes Bryson, son of John 
and Ann (Land) was born October 8, 1798, 
fought in the War of 1 81 2, and was married to 
Magdalene Cunningham (1799-1866), a 
daughter of Geo. Cunningham, a Revolution- 
ary Pensioner. 

Their son Andrew W. Bryson, born Decem- 
ber 18, 1840, fought in the Civil War as a 
Captain in the Confederate Army, married 
Dorothula Elizabeth Miller of Wytheville, Vir- 
ginia (1845-1918) and died on June 10, 1907. 

Their first child was William Clarence Bry- 
son, born November 29, 1867, married to 
Loduska Veronica Robinson (July 1 9, 1 870 — 
Oct. 26, 1963) and died on January 3, 1932. 

He was associated with the Southern Rail- 
way thru the pioneer days of its existence. He 
and his wife had 13 children of whom twelve 
survived to maturity: 

Theodore; Clarence William; Richard E.; 
Wendell Holmes; Joseph Manning; Wilbur V.; 
Philip Robinson; Glen; Grace who m. William 
Jones; Dorothy who m. Herbert Henderson; 
Hattie who m. Bob McCombs; and Elizabeth 
who m. James Campbell. 

Their son Clarence William Bryson was born 
August 6, 1 892 in Sylva. He and his wife Sarah 
(Dewey) (June 6, 1890 to March 13, 1966) 
lived in Asheville at 3 Buncombe St. where the 
Bank of Asheville now has a parking lot. Later 
they moved to Biltmore Village near All Souls 
Church and the Railroad Station. 

He was in business as a heating and plumb- 
ing contractor, and during this time he served 
as Township Commissioner for Biltmore. Bry- 
son Street was named for him and his family. 
He was one of the organizing officers of the 
Biltmore Masonic Lodge. 

He later became the engineer for the Bun- 
combe County Board of Education and served 
in this capacity for 26 years. 

William E. Bryson was born in Asheville, the 
son of Clarence W. and Sarah (Dewey) Bry- 
son. He attended Orange St. School and the 
Biltmore Elementary and High School. He also 
attended Asheville City College, later Ashe- 
ville-Buncombe College which became the 
basis for what is now the University of North 
Carolina at Asheville. He eventually graduated 
from the University of Florida with a Bachelor 
of Science in Business Administration. 

His first jobs were in advertising, sales and 
insurance, but by then the war was on and he 
entered as a volunteer officer candidate in 
1942. He entered combat duty July, 1942 as a 
Second Lieutenant, Tank Unit Commander in 
the 6th Armored Division, 69th Tank Battalion 
in Patton's Third U.S. Army. 

In 1945 he was evacuated from the Battle of 
the Bulge and retired on a service-connected 
disability. His unit received a Presidential Cita- 
tion, and he, himself, received the Silver Star 



and Purple Heart, along with the usual 
campaign medals. 

Back in civilian life, he resumed his busi- 
ness career in real estate which he pursued in 
association with the Gray Gorham Company. 
On Mr. Gorham's death, William took over the 
ownership of the Company and ran it for ten 
years under the name of the Bryson-Gorham 
Company. William retired in 1971. 

He married Elizabeth Wakefield and they 
have two sons and a daughter: David Edward 
and William Wakefield Bryson, and Elizabeth 
Fleming who married James Scarborough. 
Both sons are professional engineers. 

David is head of the Testing Department of 
Stencel Aeronautics Company, and William is a 
Project Engineer in the Corporate Headquar- 
ters of Sunstrand Corporation in Rockford, 
Illinois. He designed three of the component 
parts in the auxiliary power unit of the Co- 
lumbia Spacecraft that was successfully 
launched and returned to earth in 1981. 

— W.E. Bryson 



THE BUCKINGHAM FAMILY 

250 

The name of Buckingham dates back to 91 5 
A.D. to what is now known as Buckingham- 
shire, England. The designation of Earls, Mar- 
quesses and Dukes of Buckingham was begun 
at least as early as 1097 A.D. The family mi- 
grated throughout England but largely concen- 
trated in Norfork County and the London area. 

Thomas Buckingham came to Boston, from 
England in 1638. In 1639 he and six other 
families including Mr. Peter Prudden as pastor 
founded the settlement of Milford, Con- 
necticut. 

Samuel Buckingham settled in Saybrook, 
Conn, in the 1730 to 1740 period and estab- 
lished a school. Elihu Yale was one of the 
teachers. Yale later moved to New Haven and 
with the help of Samuel Buckingham and 
others established what is now Yale Uni- 
versity. 

During all this time the family was migrating 
to Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia and probably 
to many other states. 

William A. Buckingham served as governor 
of Connecticut from 1 859 to 1 867. In 1 868 he 
was elected to the U.S. Senate where he 
served until his death in 1875. 

Donald Y. Buckingham moved from Jewett 
City, Conn, to Raleigh, N.C. in 1936 where he 
attended N.C. State College. Upon graduation 
in 1940 he married Miss Billie M. Jones of 
Raleigh, N.C. Their daughter Sarah Adelaide 
was born in Raleigh. 

In 1947 they moved to Asheville, N.C. 

where their daughter Susan Adele was born. 

— Mrs. D.Y. Buckingham 



THE JAMES ROBERT AND 

SUSAN CHAMBERS BUCKNER 

FAMILY 

251 

James Robert Buckner was born in the Flat 
Creek Section of Buncombe County in 1824, 



the third son of Nimrod and Nancy Anderson 
Buckner. 

James Robert Buckner married Susan Anna 
Chambers in 1 848. Susan was the daughter of 
William Chambers, born April 18, 1791, and 
Mary McMurtrie, born October 20, 1797. Wil- 
liam Chambers was the son of Jane Clemmons 
and John Chambers, who came to Weaverville 
from Iredell County with a land grant in 1789. 
They both died in 1820 and are buried in Flat 
Creek Cemetery. 

William Chambers died at his home at Flat 
Creek on November 10, 1877 and is buried in 
the Flat Creek Cemetery. 

Mary McMurtree Chambers died July 6, 
1875, and is buried in the Flat Creek Cemetery. 
According to the 1 850 census, she was born in 
Tennessee and "couldn't read or write." 

James Robert and Susan Buckner lived in 
the Flat Creek section of Buncombe County. 
He was a farmer and , evidently, a trader in real 
estate. He died at Alexander in 1 894 and Susan 
died at Alexander in 1898. They are buried at 
Jupiter. They were both members of The 
Methodist Church. 

James Robert and Susan Buckner had nine 
children, as follows. 

1 . Dr. Albert G. Buckner, January 17, 1850, 
was a Presbyterian minister. He married Mary 
McRae of Clio, S.C. They had three sons and 
three daughters. 

2. Mary, 1851, married Jacob R. Roberts 
and had three sons. 

3. James McMurtree, March 28, 1853, 
married Sarah Ramsey. They lived at Alexan- 
der, N.C. and had eleven children. 

4. Rena, 1855, married Barnett Eller, lived 
in Texas and had five children. 

5. Laura, 1857, married the Reverend 
Samuel Coe of Baltimore, Maryland and had 
five sons and one daughter. 

6. Lula Montalvin, 1859, married William 
Harlan White, a descendent of John and 
Rachel (Davidson) Alexander, who came into 
the Bee Tree Creek section in 1785. Lula and 
W.H. White had four boys and four girls. 

7. Lydia Jennie, 1865, never married. 

8 & 9. Marion, 1868, and Lillian, 1871, of 
whom there is no record. 

All of these children attended school 
according to the census records of 1870 and 
1880. 

Lula and William Harlan White were the 
parents of Dr. Robert Alexander White, a 
pioneer in obstetrics in Western North Caroli- 
na. He was educated at Red Oak and Jupiter in 
north Buncombe County, Princeton, N.J. High 
School; and the University of Cincinnati Medi- 
cal School. He practiced medicine in Asheville. 

Dr. Robert Alexander White married, first, 
in 1919, Elizabeth Walker of Cincinnati, who 
died in 1937. Robert A. and Elizabeth had two 
daughters, Elizabeth Ann Watson of McLean, 
Va. and Margaret Alison Arthur of Asheville. 
There are eight grandchildren and six great 
grandchildren. 

He married secondly, in 1939, Mildred Alex- 
ander Baird of Asheville. 

R.A. White was born at Flat Creek, April 7, 
1891, and died in Asheville, December 30, 
1972. He is buried in Green Hill Cemetery, 
Asheville, as well as his mother, Lula Buck- 



158 



ner, his first wife, his brother, Albert G. and 
two sisters, Lois and Susie White. 

— Mrs. William H. Arthur 

ALLEN BUCKNER 

251 -A 

Allen Buckner was the son of John, Jr. and 
Nancy Delitha Metcalf Buckner. He was born 
Oct. 8, 1827, and died Aug. 4, 1930. He 
married first; Delitha Ponder (1829-1885), 
daughter of Robert, Sr. and Elizabeth Hol- 
combe Ponder. He married second: Nancy 
Ramsey Buckner, daughter of Thomas and 
Elizabeth Ponder Ramsey, and his brother 
Jake's widow. 

His obituary read as follows: 

Allen Buckner, Sr. was born in Yancey 
County at Bald Creek Oct. 8, 1827. He moved 
to the little Ivy section in Madison Co. when a 
young man and joined the Little Ivy Baptist 
Church when about 21 years of age. He moved 
to his house on Upper Laurel about 1856. At 
the beginning of the Civil War, he answered 
the call of his country by enlisting for service. 
At first he hired a substitute, but for three 
years, he served in the Confederate Army in 
person. 

Sometime near the close of the Civil War, he 
moved his church membership to Upper 
Laurel where he remained a faithful member 
till his death. 

For many years, he was considered one of 
the spiritual and financial leaders of the 
church, he being one of the four men who 
chiefly built the present church house — the 
other three being Levi Ponder, F.M. Marsh- 
banks, and Nathan Shelton. 

Bro. Buckner was faithful to attend his regu- 
lar church meetings as long as he was able to 
go and loved to read the Bible often reading for 
hours in the day aloud so distinctly that he 
could be understood anywhere near the 
house, and then at night, he would sit up and 
read. When near ninety years old, his eye sight 
failed, and for some years he was blind. 

On Aug. 4, 1930, he was called to the Great 
Beyond being 102 years, 9 months, and 26 
days old. He was a member of the church for a 
greater length of time perhaps than any other 
has ever been. 

Of four sons and four daughters raised by 
him, three sons and one daughter are still 
living. He also leaves 33 grandchildren and 
about 110 great grandchildren and 10 great 
great grandchildren and also one brother. 

He had strong religious convictions and re- 
mained faithful through all the years of his life 
leaving evidence that he has fought a good 
fight and has gone to receive the reward for a 
life's work well done. 

Respectfully submitted; J.W. Willis, E.E. 
Bryan, C.R. Pender. The foregoing obituary 
read and approved by the church Sept. 28, 
1930. (signed) J.D. KING, MOD. J.W. WIL- 
LIS, CHURCH CLERK. 

Allen and Delitha Ponder Buckner had nine 
children: Jane (died young); John H. Buckner 
married first: Loretta Ramsey and second: 
Julia Briggs; Robert married Nigeria Gentry; 
Elizabeth married Tom McPeters; George mar- 
ried Rosanna Scronce; Julia married Dudley 



Clark Marshbanks; Lovada (died at age 21); 
Sylvania married Francis Marion Beauregard 
(Buncombe) Marshbanks; Jake married first: 
Mollie Whitaker and second: Ella 
Gentry. 

— Violet Marshbanks Cook 

ANDERSON TATUM BUCKNER 

251 -B 

Anderson Tatum Buckner was born in 1820, 
the son of Nimrod and Nancy Anderson Buck- 
ner, in Forks of Ivy, Buncombe County. 

He married first, Malinda McDarris, and 
secondly Mary Bradley Harrowood. 

His home was located on Panhandle Road in 
the Red Oak Community, and he was a black- 
smith by trade. In his old age he is remem- 
bered as living on Hobson Branch Road, and is 
believed to have been buried in the Buckner 
Family Cemetery in Forks of Ivy Community. 
Known children by his first marriage were: 

Nimrod II, (separate sketch); Polly; 
Nannie, who married Bryan Fisher; Sallie 
Melinda, born April 7, 1860 and died April 6, 
1941 , married Lewis Allman. Lived in Marshall 
and is buried in Flint Hill Cemetery near Grand- 
view; Eliza, who married a Shroat. She had a 
daughter who married John Riley Bryant. 

— Billie R.D. Stanton. 



BENJAMIN BUCKNER 

251 -C 

Benjamin Jamis Buckner was born in 1794 
and died April 18, 1845. He was the son of 
John Buckner, Sr. and Elizabeth Lucretia 
Tatum. He married Rebecca Arrowood. They 
lived in the Ivy Hill Community at Weaverville 
and are buried in the Ivy Hill Cemetery. They 
had four children: 

Drucilla Buckner, born 1841. She never 
married; Matilda Buckner, who married Henry 
Robert Buckner, an orphan; Benjamin Frank 
Buckner, who married Sarah Ann Drake; and 
Nellie Buckner, who had a son named Nimrod 
Buckner. 

— Violet M. Cook 

JAMES J. BUCKNER 

251-D 

James J. Buckner was the son of John 
Buckner, Sr. and Elizabeth Lucretia Tatum. He 
was born in Rowan Co., NC and in 1817, he 
married Mary Roberts (Robards). They later 
moved to Buncombe Co. 

James was a miller and may have run a mill 
at the mouth of Atkins Branch. He and Mary 
had nine children: 

Lawrence Buckner, who was an unordained 
minister and lived in Rice Cove, Madison Co.; 
Nimrod Buckner (b. 1824 d. April 6, 1891); 
James J. Buckner, Jr.; Hailey Buckner, who 
lived in Rice Cove; George Buckner, who mar- 
ried Melinda Thompson. He was a Union sol- 
dier, and died of a fever during the Civil War; 
Rebecca Buckner; Sally Buckner; William Hen- 
ry Buckner, who lived at Sandy Mush; and 
Hannah Buckner, born about 1822, and mar- 
ried James J. White. They lived near Marshall, 



NC. Their son, Jeff White, was once the Madi- 
son Co. Clerk of Court. He weighed 350 
pounds. Another son, James J. White, Jr. 
once picked up a street car in Asheville with his 
bare hands and set it back on the track. 

— Violet M. Cook 

JOHN BUCKNER, SR. 

251-E 

John Buckner, Sr., bom and died ca. 1765- 
1854, the son of Henry Buckner and Mary 
Foster was born in Charlotte Co., Va., later 
living in Rowan Co., N.C. He married first: 
Elizabeth Lucretia Tatum and second: Nancy 

? . Later he lived in Madison Co., N.C. 
and is said to have been the father of 21 
children. 

The following is an excerpt from a letter 
written by John, Sr.'s half brother, Daniel 
Cooke Buckner, to a nephew who was the son 
of Burrow Buckner, another half brother of 
John. 

Known children of John and his two wives: 
Mealey; Benjamin Jamis married Rebecca 
Arrowood; James J. married Mary Roberts 
(Robards); Philip; John, Jr. married Nancy 
Delitha Metcalf; Absalom married Betsy Gentry; 
Daniel married Sarah (Sally Buckner); Lucre- 
tia; Elizabeth (Betsy) married Rev. Jacob 
Metcalf; Tatum married Martha ? ; Levi; 
Jim; Millie was the second wife of Obidiah 
Holcombe; Haley married first; Mary Jane 
Metcalf and second: Ruth Briggs Chandler; 
William (Bill); Kate married John Holcombe 
who fought in the Civil War. Was shot on Big 
Ivy, N.C. 

— Violet M. Cook 

THE FAMILY OF JOHN JR. 

AND NANCY D. METCALF 

BUCKNER 

251-F 

John Buckner Jr., son of John Sr. and his 
first wife Elizabeth L. Tatum Buckner, married 
Nancy Delitha Metcalf. They made their home 
in the Laurel section of Madison County and 
raised a family of ten children. 

James Riley Buckner, born 1825, married 
Johannah Ray, daughter of Solomon and Rosse 
McMahan Ray, and had a family of eight 
children. 

Allen Buckner, born 1827, married first, 
Delitha Ponder; 2ndly, Nancy Ramsey Buck- 
ner, his brother Jake's widow. 

Levi Buckner, who married 1st, Margaret 
Ray, Second, Alice Roberts, and 3rd, Celia 
Wilson, became the father of thirteen children . 

Lydia Buckner married Levi Ponder, son of 
Robert and Elizabeth Holcombe Ponder, and 
they had eight children. 

Albert Buckner married first, wife unidenti- 
fied; secondly Elizabeth Ponder Dodd, daugh- 
ter of Abner and Ruth Black Ponder, widow of 
John Dodd. He was the father of six children. 

Lucinda Buckner married Wesley Robinson 
and they had three children. 

Cecelia Buckner married first Levi Hamlin, 
and secondly his brother John David Hamlin. 
She had a total of four children. 



159 



Matilda Buckner. No further information 
available. 

The following story has been handed down 
through the generations: 

On an early autumn morning, November 
20, 1880, the weather was unseasonably 
warm. The mother of all the above children 
was hastily preparing breakfast on a huge 
stone fireplace. She had early put out her 
washing and despite her eighty years, the 
widowed Nancy was still a dynamo of energy. 
She was looking forward to pulling fodder 
from a small patch of corn that was still stand- 
ing in the field. There were cattle to be fed, and 
the fodder must not be wasted. Before she 
went outside, however, she had household 
chores to be done. 

First she made her bed, removing every- 
thing from it except an overstuffed straw tick. 
Next she smoothed down the straw. She then 
put the feather tick back on the bed, fluffed and 
patted the feathers until the bed was perfectly 
level, and then put on the sheets, a handwoven 
blanket, and a couple of patchwork quilts. Last 
of all, she stood two big pillows at the head of 
the bed. Then, passing by the fireplace on her 
way outside, she paused to cover the fire with 
hot ashes, a chore not to be neglected. When a 
fire was carelessly allowed to die, it meant a 
walk to a neighbor's house to borrow this 
valuable commodity. 

She worked late outside, and finally fixed a 
quick lunch of fried cabbage. While she was 
eating, Nancy's daughter Cinde and her hus- 
band, Wesley Robinson came, and as they 
talked Nancy became nauseated and then 
violently ill. Cinde watched in tears as her 
mother sank lower and lower. Finally when she 
could stand it no longer, Cinde went outside 
and sat down in the grass and prayed to God to 
spare her mother's life. Suddenly two white 
sheets appeared before her, lingered in the air, 
then went together, merging into one big 
sheet. At the same time Cinde's husband came 
to the door and said, 

"Cinde, come quickly! Mother is dead! 

The family always considered that the phe- 
nomenon was explained this way. One sheet 
represented Nancy. The other one represented 
Nancy's deceased husband, John Buckner Jr. 
When the sheets merged, Nancy was again 
with her beloved husband. 

— Bonnie Angel 



NEPTUNE AND LENA M. 
NORTHERN BUCKNER 

251 -G 

Neptune Buckner was born February 8, 
1874, the son of Nimrod and Julia Freeman 
Buckner, was a productive citizen of the Ashe- 
ville area. An editorial written in the Asheville 
Newspaper at the time of his death, best ex- 
presses his contribution to both economic and 
cultural growth of this area: 

If N. Buckner was not the first Ashe- 
villian to recognize the value of municipal 
advertising, the first to understand how 
much of balanced development for urban 
and rural territory depends on good roads 
and agriculture suited to the soil, he was 
the first to carry such ideas on comprehen- 
sive scale into action, and fruitful action. 



The 12 years during which Mr. Buckner 
was Secretary of the old Asheville Board of 
Trade were years of astonishing growth in 
the city. It was a period of looking and 
going ahead for the whole state, but Mr. 
Buckner deserves to be remembered with 
pride and gratitude because in all the fields 
of effort for municipal and regional ad- 
vancement he was a pioneer. 

A man of many talents, Mr. Buckner 
was at home in a newspaper office where 
he not only manifested what the reporters 
call "a nose for news,: but also often dem- 
onstrated his ability to write a good news 
story. It was the beginning of the period for 
city advertising and Mr. Buckner in this 
field became a recognized expert. 

Every good cause for the promotion of 
the welfare of Asheville and this whole 
region enlisted Mr. Buckner's astonishing 
energy and his enthusiasm. The philos- 
ophers say that without enthusiasm no 
accomplishment was ever scored, and for 
long sustained. That was one explanation 
of Mr. Buckner's success in the years 
when he was a salesman of Asheville and 
Western North Carolina: his store of enthu- 
siasm was inexhaustible. 

Loyalty to Asheville and to his friends 
marked Mr. Buckner in all his civic and 
personal relationships. He leaves a name 
and a record in the story of Asheville that 
will long be remembered with affection and 
esteem. 

Neptune Buckner married Lena Mary North- 
ern of Lexington, Virginia. She was born on 
August 6, 1873. They were married on July 
19, 1898 and they had one daughter, Gwen- 
dolyne Ewing Buckner. 



tary of the N.C. Baraca-Philathea Association 
and had served as vice-president of the 
National Baraca-Philathea group, which was a 
Sunday School organization for adults. 




Neptune Buckner 

Lena Northern Buckner figured prominently 
in social service, civic and church activities in 
Asheville. She pioneered in Social Service activ- 
ities among veterans at the U.S. Veterans 
Hospital at Oteen, and a poem was dedicated 
to her by one of the patients in appreciation of 
her work. At the time of World War I, Mrs. 
Buckner presented Bibles to each soldier sent 
from Buncombe County. 

She served as secretary of the Asheville 
Club for Women for seventeen years. She 
taught Sunday School in the Haywood 
Methodist Church for many years and took an 
active interest in social work among children 
of the Caswell Training School at Kinston, 
N.C. For sixteen years she was general secre- 




Lena Northern Buckner (Mrs. Neptune Buckner) 

Lena died in Asheville on December 6, 1 939 
and is buried in Riverside Cemetery. Neptune 
died on October 26, 1944 in Tampa, Florida 
where he was living at the time. He is buried in 
Myrtle Hill Cemetery there. 

Their daughter Gwendolyne Ewing Buckner 
married Edward Ray DeVault on June 25, 
1918. They had two children: 

Lena Northern (Nancy), born January 20, 
1920, married Edwin Grady Sinclair Jr. of 
Raleigh, N.C. They lived in Asheville at first, 
later moving to Greenville, S.C. They had one 
son Edwin Grady Sinclair III. 

Billie Ray, born August 13, 1928, married 
Charles Henry Stanton Jr. ofSwannanoa, N.C. 
They had four children: Laura Lee, Cathy 
Marie, Linda Moore and Charles Ray. They 
lived in Asheville. 

— Bille Ray DeVault Stanton 



THE NIMROD AND JULIA 
FREEMAN BUCKNER FAMILY 

251 -H 

Nimrod Buckner was born February 14, 
1840, son of Anderson and Malinda McDarris 
Buckner. He was a cabinet maker by trade and 
a member of the Masons. 

On December 4, 1860 he married Julia Free- 
man who was born May 5, 1 842. They lived in 
the Morgan Hill Community of Buncombe 
County and later settled in Hendersonville. She 
died on March 9, 1911, and he died on Sept. 
8, 1916, both of them buried in the 
Oakdale Cemetery. They had the following 
children: 

Margaret Elizabeth Alice May (known as 
Alice), born July 7, 1861, married Jacob C. 
Clouse and they lived in Hendersonville. She 



160 



diedJan. 10, 1931 , and hedied May 11 , 1944. 

Both are buried in the Oakdale Cemetery. 

Nancy Sophronia Sarah Elizabeth (known as 
Sophronia, born October 23, 1864, married 
James Fisher, born December 29, 1868, from 
Madison County. They had nine children and 
she died on November 28, 1926. James died 
June 22, 1938. 

Texas A., born April 4, 1866, married 
Joseph P. Embler. They had four children and 
she died November 7, 1896, and is buried in 
Oakdale Cemetery. He died Nov. 7, 1896. 

Rufus Gaston Buckner, born May 21, 1868, 
married Mary Elizabeth Porter of Swannanoa, 
N.C. They had two children, and he was a 
Medical Doctor, specializing in Ear, Nose and 
Throat cases in Asheville before moving to 
Florida. Both are buried in Tampa, Florida. 

Clemtine, born December 11, 1872 in the 
Morgan Hill Community, became well known 
for her work in the Eastern Star. She joined the 
Esther Chapter in 1908 and was worthy ma- 
tron in 1913-14 and grand matron in 1919-20. 
She never married, and instead, had an out- 
standing career as the first clerk of the City 
Health Department, having joined the staff in 
1911 at which time the nursing program was 
launched here. She was secretary to Dr. E.W. 
Grove and Fred L. Seely when the capitalists 
were building the Grove Park Inn. She died 
October 20, 1954, and was buried in the East- 
ern Star Home in Greensboro, N.C. 

Neptune Buckner, born February 8, 1874, 
married Lena Mary Northern of Lexington, Vir- 
ginia. 

Corlell Vashte, born 1883, married William 
Otis Reeves on January 12, 1904. They had 
three children and she died June 11, 1970, 
having been a widow since his death in May, 
1937. 

— Billie R. Stanton 

THE HENRY BUCKNER FAMILY 

251-1 

Henry Buckner, son of Edward and Isabella 
Buckner, was born 173? in Caroline County, 
Va. Henry Buckner was married twice. This is 
evident from a fragment of a letter written by 
his youngest son, Daniel Cooke Buckner, that 
has been preserved down thru the years. This 
letter, dated March 7, 1879, was written to a 
son of Burrow Buckner from his uncle, Daniel 
Cooke Buckner. The fragment preserved 
reads: 

"My father Henry Buckner was born and 
raised in Virginia more than a hundred 
years ago, had a numerous family when he 
moved to Rowan County, N.C. There his 
wife died and he married my mother, after 
which he moved to Laurens County, So. 
Car. There brother George was born, and 
then my sister Mary was born and died 
when about four years old. Then your 
father was born, five years after this I was 
born. So I was the youngest of the family. 

I have seen of my half brothers, Jesse, 
Phillip, and James, and my half sister 
Lucy. They all had families before I was 
born. There are two or three others that I 
have never seen. I believe that since your 
father's death I am the only remaining 
member of the family. I now think of 
another half brother John. I went once to 
see him in Buncombe Co., N.C. 

They had 19 children and when I was at 
his house there was twelve of them living 
at home and the youngest was grown, the 



other 7 had set up for themselves. This 
was the most romantick family I have ever 
seen." 

It appears that Henry Buckner was living in 
Randolph County, N.C, in 1779. He had re- 
moved to Rowan County in the same state by 
1790. He removed thence to Laurens County, 
S.C. He died intestate in Cocke Co., Tenn., 
about 1815. His first wife was Mary Foster. By 
her he had the following known children: 

1. David Buckner. 

2. John Buckner (1765-185?) m.(1)Lucre- 
tia Tatum; (2) Nancy 

3. Jesse Buckner (1769-185?) m. (1) Mary 
Tatum; (2) Mary Sams. 

4. Nancy Buckner married Thomas Haney 
June 4, 1789. 

5. Henry Buckner married Elizabeth 
Womack July 30, 1792. His second wife 
appears to have been Catherine Leagle. He 
may have divorced Mary Foster. Known chil- 
dren by Catherine Leagle: 

1. Phillip Buckner. 

2. James Buckner married Judith Womack. 

3. Lucy Buckner married Daniel Moore. 

4. George Buckner. 

5. Mary Buckner. 

6. Burrow Buckner (1796-1861) married 
Matilda Maddox. 

7. Daniel Cooke Buckner (1801- ? ) mar- 
ried Mary Hampton. 

Of the children of Henry Buckner, John and 
Jesse lived their lives in Buncombe Co., N.C. 
Henry lived in Fayette Co., Kentucky. James 
and Lucy lived in Cocke County, Tennessee. 
Burrow Buckner lived in Dade County, Mis- 
souri. Daniel Cooke Buckner lived in Texas. 
— David H. Reece 

THE JEREMIAH R. BUCKNER 
FAMILY 

251 -J 

JEREMIAH R. BUCKNER, son of Nimrod 
and Nancy Anderson Buckner, was born in 
1822 in Buncombe County, N.C. He was a 
prosperous farmer and lived in the Red Oak 
section of that county. He is remembered as 
having a mischevious personality. He loved 
scaring children and grownups alike. 

During the Civil War he refused to join the 
Confederate forces and once was captured by 
the guerrillas who were rampaging at the time. 
(Some of these renegades captured Levi 
Reece and probably killed Thomas and Moses 
Reece). They threatened to hang him and 
actually lifted him from the ground by a noose. 
It was said that he was never the same after 
this incident. 

He was married twice, first to Rachel Telitha 
Hughey, daughter of Peter Hughey and Rachel 
Ryker. Rachel Telitha Hughey Buckner was 
dark complexioned with black eyes and hair. It 
is said that she very much resembled her 
Dutch ancestors, the Rykers who settled Ryk- 
ers Island (now a part of New York City and site 
of an infamous prison.) This author has rec- 
ords on her ancestors beginning with Geis- 
bert or Gysbert Ryker who came from Holland 
to New Amsterdam, now New York City, in 
1630. 

Her paternal grandfather, Joseph Hughey, 



was the first Sheriff of Buncombe Co., N.C, 
being elected to that office when the County 
was formed in 1792. He later removed to Jef- 
ferson Co., Indiana, where he was a prosper- 
ous and noted citizen there. Rachel Hughey 
Buckner was born in Jefferson County, Indi- 
ana in 1822. She died in Buncombe County, 
N.C. in 1862. 

Following the death of his first wife, Rachel 
Hughey Buckner, Jeremiah Buckner married 
Loretta Clark May 3, 1863. It is not known 
when Jeremiah R. Buckner died. It is believed 
that he is buried in an unmarked grave beside 
his father, Nimrod Buckner, in the Buckner 
Family Cemetery near what is now the Forks of 
Ivy. He had the following children by Rachel 
Hughey: 

1 . Rachel Elizabeth Buckner (Oct. 17, 1847 

— Jan. 3, 1932) m. Patterson Reese on De- 
cember 24, 1867. 

2. Joseph A. Buckner (1850-?). 

3. Robert Buckner (1851-?). 

4. Miller Buckner. 

5. Nancy Buckner (Apr. 9, 1 859 — Apr. 9, 
1913) m. J.N. Andrews. 

Children by Loretta Clark: 

1 . Elizabeth Buckner (July 1 9, 1 864 — Jan. 
27, 1904) m. J.B. Martin. 

2. Mary Buckner. 

3. Bartlett Taylor Buckner (Aug. 22, 1868 

— Apr. 1, 1943) m. Emma Jane Lanning. 
Of this family, a few remembrances have 

been handed down. Jeremiah was nicknamed 
"Myrd." His brother, Anderson Tatum, was 
tempermental, a great story-teller. His son 
Robert was dark-complexioned, like an Indi- 
an, lived on Panhandle Branch. Nannie (Mary) 
was good company, lots of personality. 

— David H. Reece 

THE JESSE BUCKNER FAMILY 

251-K 

Jesse Buckner, son of Henry and Mary Fos- 
ter Buckner, was born in Sussex County, Va. 
in 1769. Like his father, he too was married 
twice, the first time to Mary Tatum. He was a 
"Cooper," or barrel maker, by trade. He also 
was a farmer. He was in Buncombe County, 
N.C. by 1810. He lived until his death in the Big 
Ivy Community of that county. 

Two children by Mary Tatum have been 
identified. Rebecca, a daughter, married John 
Harwood, and both are buried in the church 
cemetery at Gabriel's Creek Baptist Church. 
Nimrod, a son, married Nancy Anderson. 

It is believed that Jesse Buckner married 
Mary Sams following the death of Mary 
Tatum. By her he had one son, John, and four 
daughters: Mary, who married William Gold- 
smith, Telitha, Nancy and Eliza. He died post 
1850. 

— David H. Reece 



NIMROD AND NANCY 
(ANDERSON) BUCKNER 

251-L 

Nimrod Buckner, son of Jesse and Mary 
Tatum Buckner, was born in 1795 in Rowan 
County, N.C. He removed to Buncombe Coun- 



161 



ty in the same state with his parents while a 
child. He married Nancy Anderson, daughter 
of Col. Robert and Elizabeth Jarvis Anderson, 
October 20, 1814. 

He was drafted during the War of 181 2, and 
served about three months as a Private in the 
N.C. 3rd Regiment. He was a highly respected 
resident of the Big Ivy Community in Bun- 
combe County, being elected Election Inspec- 
tor there in 1838, a post he held for many 
years. 

His home was located in the no longer exis- 
tent Grantville Township. He died there Octo- 
ber 29, 1879, of cancer. 

Nancy Anderson Buckner, his wife, was 
born in 1796 in Buncombe Co. She is remem- 
bered as being of noble and virtuous charac- 
ter, and a devout Christian. She lived a widow 
for six years following his death. She was a 
granddaughter of James and Patty Malet 
Anderson, immigrants from Ireland. 

This author has in his possession a full 
history of this Anderson family, and also the 
Jarvis family, Nancy Anderson Buckner's 
maternal forebears. She died in 1885. She had 
applied for a pension based on her husband's 
service in the War of 1812. It was rejected. 

Children of Nimrod and Nancy Anderson 
Buckner: 

1. Anderson Tatum Buckner (1820-? ) m. 
(1) Malinda McDaris; (2) Mary Bradley Har- 
wood. 

2. Jeremiah R. Buckner (1822- ? ) m. (1) 
Rachel Hughey; (2) Loretta Clark. 

3. Robert Buckner (1824-1894) m. Susan 
A. Chambers. 

4. Rebecca Buckner (1825- ? ) m. Miller 
Hughey. 

5. Mary Buckner (Nov. 2, 1826 — Nov. 2, 
1911) m. Thomas Cole (?). 

6. Marion L. Buckner (1827-1865) m. Dor- 
cas Ramsey. 

7. Elizabeth Buckner married Berry Runnion 
Feb. 1, 1855. 

8. Lydia Buckner (1835- ? ) m. Albert G. 
Ramsey, Nov. 17, 1854. 

9. Sarah Buckner (Aug. 24, 1837 — June 
14, 1916), M. Robinson Gaston Freeman 
(Mar. 2, 1836 — 4-22-1 863) from Rutherford 
Co. They were m. July 14, 1859). 

— David H. Reece 

ROBERT E. BUNNELLE 

252 

Robert E. Bunnelle (born August 21, 1903 
in Urbana, Ohio) is a former foreign corre- 
spondent and executive with the Associated 
Press who returned to Asheville in 1954 as 
president and publisher of the Asheville 
Citizen-Times Publishing Co. 

He retired in 1974 and became chairman of 
the newspaper company's Board of Directors. 
He is a member of the Board of Directors of 
Multimedia, Inc. (1981). 

Bunnelle attended Wittenberg College in 
Springfield, Ohio and Northwestern University. 
He worked as a reporter for the Asheville 
Times before leaving to join the Associated 
Press. He served as Managing Executive of the 
AP in the United Kingdom during World War II 
and as president of the American Correspon- 



dents Association in London. He was head of 
AP operations in Canada after the war and later 
was general executive of the AP in New York. 

In Asheville, Bunnelle was president of the 
Asheville Area Chamber of Commerce, vice 
president of the Greater Asheville Council, 
director of First Union National Bank, presi- 
dent of the United Fund, president of the North 
Carolina Press Association and the North 
Carolina AP Club, member of the North Caroli- 
na State Highway Commission, a member of 
the Advisory Council on Naval Affairs, Sixth 
Naval District, and of the National Press Club. 

Bunnelle married the late Margaret Harrison 
Bunnelle of Asheville in 1 926 (died 1 959) , and 
Frances P. Bunnelle of Greenville, S.C. in 
1962. He resides at Lower Waverly Plantation, 
Pawleys Island, S.C. He is an Episcopalian. 

— Bill Moore 



THE AARON AND SARAH 
BURLESON FAMILY 

252-A 

Aaron Burleson settled in North Carolina in 
1726, traditionally said to have been from 
Durham, England, and the younger brother of 
Sir Edward Burleson who had settled in Jewett 
City, Connecticut in 1716. Aaron searched in 
vain for his older brother, and finally settled in 
the part of Burke County that later became 
Buncombe and eventually Mitchell County. It 
took over a hundred years for an incident to 
occur during the Civil War which brought de- 
scendants of the two branches of the family 
back in touch with each other again. 

Aaron and his wife, Sarah, had fifteen chil- 
dren: Aaron, Jr., John, James, Daniel, 
Jonathan, Thomas, Jesse, Edward, Sarah, 
Elizabeth, Nancy, Rachel, Mary, Rhoda, and 
Abigail. 

John, James, Daniel and Jonathan were 
killed in the Revolutionary War. Edward was a 
Captain and on his way to be married when he 
was caught and killed by the British and Tory 
sympathizers. 

Aaron Jr. born about 1727, married Rachel 
(?) and had thirteen children who left descen- 
dants. 

Thomas married and lived in North Caroli- 
na, and there are persons by this name in the 
1790 census list. 

Jesse went to the French settlement at 
Mobile and married. He fought in the Revolu- 
tion and is recorded in the NSDAR lineage 
book, vol. 49, page 447, application 48979. 
He left many descendants in South Alabama, 
Mississippi and Georgia. 

I have no record of the family of Thomas 
Burleson who settled in North Carolina, but the 
1790 census lists these under Burlison: David 
and Isaac in the Salisbury District, and John, 
Thomas and Agnes in the Morgan District. 

An Isaac Burlison was granted land prior to 
1796 on the North east side of the French 
Broad River. He was listed in 1800 and 1810 
census of Buncombe County, and may pos- 
sibly be the father of Edward Burlison. Edward 
was listed in 1810 through 1840 as head of a 
household in Buncombe County. 

Edward Burlison's Will, dated January 16, 



1841 and recorded in Buncombe County in 
Will Book "A", page 72, mentions his first 
wife and her children and spouses, but does 
not give the first wife's name. If the family 
tradition is true, she may be at least part Cher- 
okee Indian. Edward's Will does mention his 
second wife Polly by name. He also gives a 
clue to when his son Isaac may have removed 
to Gilmer County, Georgia, for he states: 
"2ndly I give and bequeath unto my present 
and beloved wife Polly Burlison and her heirs 
all of the old McKissic tract of land from John 
Greenwood's land up to the tract of land that 
my son Isaac Burlison lately lived on." We 
know that Isaac was definitely in Gilmer Coun- 
ty, Georgia by or before 1842 for his fourth 
child, Rebecca, was born there in January 
1843. 

Edward's children by first wife: Margaret 
who married Gabriel Coats; Mary, who mar- 
ried William Dillingham; Isaac, born Sept. 10, 
1816, married Hannah Carter, daughter of 
Solomon and Elvira (Hopper) Carter; Rebecca, 
who married Edward S. Carter of Yancy County; 
D.W. who married Nancy ? ; Jane, who 
married a Williams; Jackson, who married 
Caroline Carter; A. Washington, who married 
Cecilia ?; Andrew, who married Matilda ?; 
Anderson, who married Gracy Carter; and 
Elizabeth. 

Children of Edward Burlison and second 
wife Mary, called Polly, maiden name un- 
known: 

James R . , born ca 1 829; Nancy, b. ca 1 831 ; 
Marion, b. ca 1834 and married Elizabeth L. 
Davis; Lucinda L., b. ca 1838, married Martin 
Whittemore; Jesse M., b. ca 1840, married 
Mary M. McKinney; and Sophronia, born ca 
1841. 

— Mrs. Roy Cutler 



THE SWAN P. AND FRANCES 
(BELL) BURNETT FAMILY 

253 

Swan P. Burnett was born October 24, 
1779, and married Frances Bell, daughter of 
Thomas and Jane (Montgomery) Bell. 

They immediately bought land west of the 
French Broad River where their large family of 
eleven children were born. In 1835 the family 
moved to Cocke County, Tennessee. Their 
children were: 

1. William Claddius Burnett, b. May 26, 
1802. 

2. Littleberry Burnett, b. Aug. 31, 1804, 
married Maria L. Hamilton. 

3. Thomas Montgomery Burnett, b. Jan 13, 
1807. Moved to Cherokee County, Alabama. 
Died 1840. 

4. Swan P. Burnett Jr. b. 1809. 

5. John Monroe Burnett, b. Feb. 3, 1811, 
married Lydia Peck. Became a medical Doctor 
and eventually practiced in Tennessee. 

6. James Madison Burnett, b. Nov. 20, 
1813. 

7. Cynthia C. Burnett, b. Sept. 19, 1815, 
married Rev. Daniel Carter. 

8. Elizabeth M. Burnett, b. Nov. 12, 1817, 
married William P. Hawkins in 1839 in Knox 
County, Tennessee. 



162 



9. Jane Adeline Burnett, b. Feb. 14, 1829, 
married Jehu Stokley of Bridgeport, Ten- 
nessee. 

10. NarcissaT. Burnett, b. Dec. 17, 1821, 
married Andrew Huff. 

11. Joseph Jefferson Burnett, b. Feb. 7, 
1824, married 1st, (?) Huff, 2nd, Esther Lea 
Carter. 

12. Benjamin Franklin Burnett, b. April 14, 
1826. 

13. Jesse Montreville Burnett, b. Sept. 14, 
1829, married 1st, Evaline Huff, 2nd, Henriet- 
ta Cody. Died Aug. 1, 1883. 

14. Perhaps one more child — details, if 
any, unknown. 

— G.G. Bell 

BURRELL FAMILY OF NORTH 
CAROLINA 

253-A 

Just what year our Burrell ancestors arrived 
in North Carolina is not certain. There are none 
of this name listed in the 1790 Census, 
although a James Burrell is located in South 
Carolina (Dist. 96) in 1790. 

Our Jesse Burrell's father is not known, but 
a Walter Burrell, listed in the 1810 census of 
Buncombe County, N.C. may be his father, as 
the name Walter is passed down in some of the 
families. However, this Walter does not 
appear again in other NC censuses and may 
indicate he died young or removed from this 
area. 

Jesse seems to have had an older brother, 
Bright Burrell, who first appears as head of a 
household in the 1820 census of Buncombe 
Co. His household shows one teen-age boy 
too old to be his son, and this could have been 
Jesse if their father had died . No proof. Bright 
appears again as head of a household in 1830 
in Macon County, NC and Jesse appears as 
head of a household for the first time in the 
same year, same locality. A Mark Burrell listed 
in the same locality may also be related. This 
name also appears in some of the families. 

Sometime prior to 1840 Bright Burrell and 
family removed to Union County, Georgia. I 
believe Jesse and family followed, as both 
families are listed there in 1850, but Jesse and 
his son Simpson's family were gone again by 
the 1860 census, leaving no clue as to where 
they went. Simpson was married in Union 
County in 1853 to a Nancy Coward, and he is 
said to have been a Union soldier, but no proof 
has been found, nor any record of any of their 
children except possibly Jane, born ca 1861 , 
and Jacob, b. ca 1863 who are believed to be 
two of them. 

By 1866 Simpson was back in Gilmer Coun- 
ty, Georgia, for he married Rebecca Matilda 
Burlison Kimmons on July 28 that year. They 
had two children, Lucinda, and Angeline who 
married Rufus V. McArthur, son of Leander 
and Mary T. Dorsey McArthur about 1887 at 
Burnt Mountain Church in Pickens Co. Geor- 
gia. They moved to Canton, Georgia. 

— Mrs. Roy C. Cutler 




THE HARRY EDWARD BURRIS 
FAMILY 

254 

Harry and Shirley Burris arrived in Bun- 
combe County in 1973. Both are Registered 
Nurses, employed at the Veteran's Adminis- 
tration Medical Center. Harry is the Oncology 
Nurse, giving Chemotherapy to cancer pa- 
tients. Shirley is the Head Nurse on the In- 
termediate Care Rehabilitation Unit. Harry is 
also a non-Parochial Priest in The Episcopal 
Church. 

Harry was born July 12, 1921 in Richmond, 
Indiana. He is of the fourth generation of his 
family in that area. The first of the family to 
settle there was John Burris, who it is said, 
"Came from the Carolinas." 

Shirley Eva Tefft Burris was born December 
30, 1924 in Norwich, Connecticut. She is of 
the Rhode Island Tefft family, and had counted 
fourteen generations in that area. Family 
legend has it that she is of the John and Priscil- 
la Mullens Alden family. Legend also says that 
Massasoit, Sachem of the Wampanoags, who 
brought his people to the first Thanksgiving, 
was an antecedent. Her mother's parents were 
both from Vienna, Austria. 

Their first child was Randall David Burris 
who was born July 27, 1944 in New York City. 
He is a Computer Specialist at Oak Ridge, 
Tennessee. He has a lively interest in carpentry 
as a hobby. 

Randall married Martha Jane Howell in 
Lenoir City, Tennessee on September 23, 
1 967. She is known as Jane and was a Compu- 
ter Systems Analyst before the children started 
arriving. She was born August 9, 1944 in 
Graham County, North Carolina. Jane's roots 
are deeply imbedded in the history of North 
Carolina, through the Howell family and her 
mother's Oates family. She is very talented in 
needlework and painting. 

Their children are; Jacob Howell adopted in 
Texas, Benjamin Thomas, David Jordan, and 
Martha Elizabeth, all born in the Knoxville, 
Tennessee area. 

Harry and Shirley's second child was John 
Alan Burris who was born in Oakland, Califor- 
nia on July 28, 1945. He is now residing in 
Streamwood, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. He 
also works with Computers, employed by the 
Honeywell Corporation. He is an expert on 
Philately and has an enormous collection of 
stamps. 

John married Anne Carole Greenbaum in 
Fort Walton Beach, Florida on August 11, 
1974, when they were both Captains in the 
U.S.A.F. 

Anne was born March 2, 1946 in White 
Plains, New York. She is a Registered Nurse, 
with a Master's Degree. Her great Aunt and 
great-grandmother Goldsteinas, who lived in 
Mariampole, Lithuania, were victims of the 
Holocaust. 

John and Anne's children are Deborah Eliz- 
abeth, born in Syracuse, New York; and Re- 
becca Heather, born in Arlington Heights, Illi- 
nois. 

The youngest child of Harry and Shirley was 
Donna Lee Burris La Vere. She was born 
November 20, 1946 in Des Moines, Iowa. She 



married Gordon Owen La Vere on March 31 , 
1967 in Swartz Creek, Michigan. They now 
reside in Flint, Michigan. Donna is a home- 
maker and a very talented artist. 

Gordon is a hospital photographer. He also 
does commercial photography and is an active 
member of the Flint Ham Radio Group. His 
family has been Michigan people for several 
generations and include the Griffin, Petersen 
and Doyle families. Both Donna and Gordon 
are active with the Amway Corporation. 

Their children are Aaron Gordon and Garth 
Evan both of whom were born in Flint. 

— Shirley Tefft Burris 



JOHN BURTON — FATHER OF 
ASHEVILLE 

255 

Destiny chose John Burton to be the Father 
of Asheville. He received several tracts on July 
7, 1 794 to be the holder of the one upon which 
the future city would be built. In all, Burton's 
land covered 203 acres. 

The boundaries of the "Town Tract" ran 
roughly from Orange and Clayton Streets on 
the north , Charlotte and Valley Streets through 
the old David Millard property on the east, 
Carroll Avenue to the intersection of Coxe and 
Banks Avenues to the south, and Coxe Avenue 
through Pritchard Park to the intersection of 
Orange and Merrimon Avenue on the west. 

January 1792 saw the creation of the new 
county of Buncombe named after Colonel Ed- 
ward Buncombe. When the first courthouse 
was built on the high plateau that seemed to be 
in a central position of the new county, it put 
Burton in a most advantageous position. 
According to Ora Blackmun, in Western North 
Carolina to 1880, "The new structure faced 
east approximately where today Patton Ave- 
nue enters Pack Square in Asheville. John 
Burton laid out a north-south street in front of 
it to be known as North Main and South Main. 
Those streets are still in use as Broadway and 
Biltmore." 

Along those streets Burton laid out forty- 
two lots and began to sell them off as the new 
county seat began to draw the usual number of 
lawmakers and others ordinarily connected 
with a new county government. These people 
required goods and services, places of trade. 
The first lot, No. 4, was sold to Thomas Burton 
for "twenty shillings". This lot was on Bilt- 
more Avenue and was later occupied by the 
Earle Hotel. 

Burton's other real estate "deals" went to 
some well known pioneer families such as 
Thomas Foster, Zebulon and Bendent Baird, 
Samuel Luck, Colonel William Davidson, Pat- 
ton and Erwin. James Patton who had sold 
merchandise from a pack horse, was one of 
the first to build a permanent store building. 

Zebulon and Bedent Baird opened one with 
goods from the first wagon to reach Asheville. 
The wagon had been brought up over Saluda 
Mountain in 1793 and had to be taken apart 
and carried piece by piece over some of the 
most rugged parts of the trail. A tailoring shop 
was opened by Silas McDowell and then a 
forge. 



163 



John Burton enterprising and hard working, 
owned a grist mill on Glenn's Creek, a short 
distance above where the mouth of the creek 
emptied into the French Broad River. Burton's 
was the first grist mill in Buncombe County. 

Later, Burton sold the mill to Zebulon and 
Bedent Baird. These two brothers were Scots- 
men. Zebulon Baird was the grandfather of 
Zebulon Baird Vance. 

The end of Burton's life is somewhat 
shrouded in mysteries, lost in time. After the 
sale of his grist mill, he moved from Asheville 
to Fairview and met with misfortunes in busi- 
ness and property losses. The date of his 
death is unknown. 

Other material on John Burton may be 
found in Asheville — Place of Discovery, pub- 
lished by Copple House Books, Lakemont, Ga. 

— Lou Harshaw 



SAMUEL GEROME AND 
ELIZABETH JACKSON BYERS 

256 

Samuel Gerome Byers was born near 
Edneyville on April 11, 1850, son of William 
and Sarah Russell Byers. 

On October 22, 1876 he married Elizabeth 
Jackson, daughter of William and Martha 
Owenby Jackson, and they took up farming 
near what is now the Union Hill and Lamb 
Mountain Roads in Edneyville Township, Hen- 
derson County, N.C. They lived the same rural 
life of other early settlers, attending church 
and helping their neighbors, as the need 
arose. Samuel died April 14, 1922 and Eliz- 
abeth died March 20, 1939. Both are buried 
in the cemetery of Mt. Moriah Baptist Church 
on Gilliam Mountain Rd., near Edneyville. 

They had eight children: 

Sallie B.M. Byers, born 1878, married 
Meredith Justus on Jan. 18, 1914. She died 
April 17, 1967. 

William Simeon Byers, born 1879/80, mar- 
ried Pearl Case. Died July 5, 1965. (See sepa- 
rate sketch) 

Vernon Augustua Byers, married Mary 
Summers, then Sophie Jones. He died August 




28, 1962. 

Minnie Byers, married Harley Lively. Died 
1949. 

Tretus Singleton Byers, born March 10, 
1885. Died March 20, 1887. 

Dova Tisha Byers, married James Hyder. 
Died March 6, 1926. 

Theodocia Byers, born Dec. 12, 1890, mar- 
ried James L. Ward. He died March, 1943. 
She died June 5, 1958. 

Mandia Nora Byers, born March 5, 1893, 
died Sept. 14, 1895. 

Arrena, born Feb. 5, 1910. 

— Doris A. Ward 



THE FAMILY OF WILLIAM SIM 
AND PEARL (CASE) BYERS 

257 

William Simeon Byers was born in Hender- 
son County in 1879, the son of Samuel 
Gerome and Elizabeth (Jackson) Byers. 
Samuel was the son of William Byers, who 
came to the Edneyville area very early in the 
1800s and married Sarah Russell, grand- 
daughter of David McCarson, linking this fami- 
ly to the beginnings of Buncombe County. 

On October 24, 1897 William "Sim" mar- 
ried Pearl Case, daughter of John M. and 
Nancy (Hyder) Case, at Scottsburg, NC, Pas- 
tor Brookshire officiating. Pearl was a descen- 
dant of the John Case present in the county on 
the 1800 census, through his son Daniel and 
grandson Thomas B. Case. Thomas's wife 
was "Winnie" Justice, daughter of James 
Dyer and Anthroit (Thomas) Justice. 

William and Pearl lived at Dana on a small 
farm and were active in local church and com- 
munity affairs. Sim was not only a farmer, but 
a fine carpenter and house builder, and even- 
tually worked a great deal as a building con- 
tractor. 

There were six children born to this couple, 
all of whom survived to help their parents 
celebrate their Golden Wedding Anniversary in 
1947 when the adjacent picture was taken. 



Dennis moved to Jacksonville, Florida; Nel- 
lie, as Mrs. William Henry Ward, and later as 
Mrs. Charles Shroeder eventually lived in 
Asheville; Katherine became Mrs. Al Morris 
and lived her adult life in Washington, DC. 
Irene became Mrs. Charles Painter and both 
they and Paul Byers lived in Hendersonville. 
Ruth became Mrs. Wade Franklin, and they 
were living in Denver, Colorado, at the time of 
her death. 

Pearl died in 1964 and William Sim died the 
following year, 1965. They are buried in 
Refuge Baptist Church Cemetery in Dana. 

— Doris Cline Ward 



GRADY GIDEON BYRD 

258 

Grady Gideon Byrd was born on January 21 , 
1889 in Randolph County where he attended 
public schools and Shiloh Academy Boarding 
School. He was the son of Eliot M. and Caro- 
line Coble Byrd. 

He was manager of Efird's Department 
Store in Asheville from its opening in 1927 
until his retirement on February 1, 1965. He 
joined Efird's in 1916, working in Durham 
before he left to serve in the 81st Army Divi- 
sion in World War I. 

In Asheville he served as president of Ashe- 
ville Lions' Club, president of Asheville Mer- 
chants' Association, Vice chairman of the ex- 
ecutive board of the Rhododendron Festival, 
vice-president of Asheville Area Chamber of 
Commerce and a steward of Central United 
Methodist Church. 

During World War II, Mr. Byrd served on 
the Retail Price Council and was credited with 
selling $250,000. in War Bonds to Imperial 
Life Insurance Company of Asheville, believed 
to be, at that time, the largest bond sale in the 
United States. 

He was a 33rd degree Mason, a member of 
the Oasis Temple, AA OMS and the Kiffin 
Rockwell Post, American Legion. 

Mr. Byrd also served as director of Carolina 




Samuel G. and Elizabeth Jackson Byers 



The 50th Wedding Anniversary Photo of William S. and Pearl Case Byers. Left to right are: Dennis Byers, Pearl Case Byers, 
William Sim Byers, Nellie Ward. Back row: Paul Byers, Irene Painter, Ruth Franklin and Katherine Morris. 



164 



Tobacco Warehouse and director of the In- 
dustrial Council, and was chairman of the 
largest jubilee and tobacco trade events. 

Grady Byrd married Edna York, July 17, 
1921. They had three children: Doris, born 
October 12, 1925; Carolyn, born July 18, 
1929; Grady Gideon Jr., born November 25, 
1938. 

Mr. Byrd died Aug. 19, 1972, with burial 
at Beaverdam. 

— Grady G. Byrd Jr. 

CHARLIE W. CALDWELL 

258-A 

Charlie W. Caldwell, my grandfather, was 
born November 8, 1866 in Haywood County. 
He married Hasque Robinson, December 15, 
1889 at the home of her parents, William 
Pierce and Mahala Medford Robinson at 
Clyde, North Carolina. They had four children: 
William Manson born October 15, 1890, Leon 
Lynnwood born March 5, 1894, Matt Roe born 
September 22, 1898, and Nora born March 
19, 1896. These dates recorded in the family 
bible, an original Greek translation dated 
1893. 




I I 

Charlie W. Caldwell, 1866-1939 



Charlie and Hasque bought several tracts of 
land in the Clyde township — deeds dated and 
recorded from 1 896 to 1 928. He was a farmer, 
and operated a general store in Clyde, North 
Carolina on the banks of the Pigeon River. He 
attended Fincher's Chapel Methodist Church 
in Hyder Mountain section of Haywood Coun- 
ty, where he was Sunday School Superinten- 
dent for many years. 

Hasque died April 19, 1929 and was buried 
in the family plot in Fincher's Chapel Method- 
ist Church Cemetery. Charlie made his home 
with his son, Matt and family at the old home 
place until his death April 7, 1939. He was 
buried beside his wife. 

William Manson married Inez Dotson April 
23, 1909 in Crabtree section of Haywood 
County. Their children were Ernest Francis, 
James Moore, and Robert Lawson. 

Matt Roe married Macy Milner in 1918. 



Their children were Vivian and Fosteen. He 
later married Margie McClure, their children 
were Bobbie and Earl. 

Nora married Walt Mooney. Their children 
were Pearl, Harry and Charlie. 

All of Charlie's sons and daughter, Nora, 

are buried in the family plot with their parents. 

— Phyllis C. Whitman 

JAMES CALDWELL 

258-B 

In the early North Carolina census records, 
there have been a number of James Caldwells 
listed in the counties of Guilford, Lincoln, 
Iredell and Buncombe. I have found one who I 
believe is my ancestor (great-great grand- 
father) in the 1 830 and 1 840 census records of 
Haywood County. In the 1850 census records 
of that county, James Caldwell is listed as 40 
years old and having four sons: Eric age 14, 
John W. age 12, Hamilton age 9 and Joseph 
age 6. It is not known when he was born or 
which county he came from and no record of 
who was the mother of these children. 

James Caldwell married Minervia Beach on 
March 16, 1845. They had three children: 
Nancy born 1847, Jaspera born 1849, and 
William born 1852. Census records list North 
Carolina as birth place of James and all his 
children. 

On January 27, 1853, James Caldwell mar- 
ried Martha Jane Byers. No record of what 
happened to previous wife. According to the 
1860 Haywood County census, they had six 
children: Violett age 7, Laura age 5, and 
Frances M. age 2. The 1870 census gives 
Martha age 12, Margaret age 8, and Dacks age 
11 or 12 months. 

He settled in the Jonathan Creek section of 
Haywood County according to land records, 
bought 100 acres of land from James R. Love 
on the west side of Jonathan Creek — deed 
dated October, 1863. This property was sold 
by the Sheriff of Haywood County (Andrew J. 
Murray) to Isaac H. Coldwell — deed dated 
November, 1868. 



Martha Jane Byers Caldwell was granted a 
divorce from James Caldwell in Haywood Coun- 
ty court records of 1 869 for abandonment. No 
further knowledge of him available. Martha J. 
Caldwell appears in 1870 census records as 
head of the family. She is buried in the Matt 
Cemetery on Jonathan Creek. Tombstone lists 
her as being born in 1 832 and died 1 873. She 
was born in Alabama. Her mother was Polly 
Byers. 

— Phyllis C. Whitman 

LAWSON C. CALDWELL 

258-C 

Lawson C. Caldwell, my great-grandfather, 
was son of James Caldwell. He was born Octo- 
ber 7, 1816. Census records list North Caroli- 
na as place of birth — no county given. 

Lawson does not appear in any census rec- 
ords that I have searched until 1850 census 
of Haywood County. His age at this time was 
37 years old and he had a daughter, Martha 
age 11. No record of who her mother was. 
Martha married Jacob Cagle on August 29, 
1854. 

On March 20, 1846 Lawson married Adde- 
line Owen. She was my great-grandmother 
and the daughter of Peter and Mary Ann Mor- 
row Owen. They had seven children: Myra 
bom 1848; Maggie or Margaret born May 11, 
1856; Robert H. born March 29, 1859; Loura 
bom March 6, 1863; Lorena born February 14, 
1865; Charlie W. born November 8, 1866; and 
Manson D. born about 1872. Addeline died 
sometime after 1872. 

Myra married Charlie L. Smathers— time of 
death unknown. Maggie married Charlie L. 
Smathers, died February 7, 1940, buried in 
Pleasant Hill Cemetery. Robert married Molly 
Moody — date of death unknown. He later 
married Sally Haynes. He died September 9, 
1939 and is buried in Fincher's Chapel Ceme- 
tery. Loura married Mack Shook. She died 
February 12, 1926 and is buried in Pleasant 
Hill Cemetery. Lorena married Jasper Morgan. 
She died December 12, 1914 and is buried in 




Lawson C. and Addeline 0. Caldwell 



165 



Pleasant Hill Cemetery. Manson D. married 
Sarepta Haynes, who was the daughter of 
Humphrey Posey Haynes. He was a long-time 
merchant in Clyde, later moved to Columbia 
SC. He purchased a wholesale grocery there. 
He was Past Master of Clyde Masonic Lodge. 

Lawson married Easter Owen Caldwell, who 
was a sister of Addeline and a widowed sister- 
in-law of his. She was married to his brother 
James Hamilton who died sometime between 
1875-1877. Lawson and Easter were married 
March 18, 1877. They had two children, Eddie 
R. born 1879. He married Sally Brown first, 
then later married her sister. The second child, 
Jennie, was born around 1881. She married 
Manson Brown. 

Lawson died November 26, 1883. He is 
buried in a small hillside cemetery, known as 
Matt Cemetery in Jonathan Creek in a marked 
grave. He was referred to as "Pete" by old 
members of Jonathan Creek. 

Land records of Haywood County record 
land transactions as early as 1843 and show 
that Lawson Caldwell bought and sold many 
different tracts of land in the Jonathan Creek 
section of Haywood County. He is listed as a 
farmer and grist mill owner-operator. At his 
death in 1883, E.H. Howell was appointed 
administrator of his estate by Superior Court 
February 23, 1884. 

Lawson C. Caldwell or L.C. was listed as a 
member of the jury of Haywood County ses- 
sions of court on many occasions. He is listed 
as a member of the Jonathan Creek School 
district on an old school contract dated July 
26, 1859. 

In land records of Haywood County one 
Nelson Ward bonded himself as a personal 
servant to Lawson Caldwell because he had 
found him to be a gentleman — dated June 15, 
1861. He is listed as one of the prominent 
citizens who assisted in the development of 
the Jonathan Creek precinct in 1886 and the 
township in 1889. While living, he was prom- 
inent in the affairs of the county and left de- 
scendants who stand high in public matters. 
— Phyllis C. Whitman 

LEON LYNNWOOD CALDWELL 

258-D 

Leon Caldwell, my father, was born March 
5, 1894 in Haywood County. He married Lelia 
Chambers on June 24, 1911 at Clyde, North 
Carolina. They had one child, Thomas 
Raymond, born April 10, 1913. He served in 
the United States Army in World War I. Leon 
and Lelia were divorced in 1913. 

He married, my mother, Mazie McCracken 
on May 23, 1920. She was the daughter of 
Virgil Pal and Alice Leatherwood McCracken. 
Their children were: Mary Addeline born 
March 1, 1921, Janice born June 5, 1922, 
Phyllis Marie born June 27, 1926, Jack Ed- 
ward born April 29, 1928 and Doris Lee born 
May 3, 1932. 

Pvt. Leon Caldwell served in the 306 
Ammunition Train Company "C" the 81 st Wild 
Cat Division, United States Army in France in 
World War I. He often related his experiences 
to us. The time was short, but memorable. 

He bought a farm in Clyde township in 

166 



1928. This is where we were all born and grew 
up. We all attended Clyde School. 

The farm was sold in 1948. My parents 
bought a small apartment building in Clyde 
and operated a restaurant there for many 
years. In 1955 they sold the Clyde property 
and built a new home outside of Clyde off the 
Hyder Mountain Road. They lived there until 
Daddy died December 15, 1962. He was 
buried in the family plot at Fincher's Chapel 
Cemetery. 

My mother lived at the home for several 
years after his death. She sold the property 
and made her home with a daughter, Mary, 
until her death in January 17, 1977. She was 
buried beside Daddy. 

Leon Caldwell was a man of small stature, 
probably never weighing much more than 1 50 
pounds. He was a man of diversified abilities. 
He was an all around handy man. He worked 
very hard as a farmer producing much of what 
we ate. Some of his varied jobs during his life 
time were family barber and cobbler, a fair 
carpenter and house painter, a veterinarian to 
his and the neighbors' live stock, a meat cutter 
and a short order cook at several eating places 
in Waynesville. He worked for W.P.A. during 
the depression building roads. He taught us to 
work hard and he instilled in us that if we could 
not afford anything — just do without it. He 
did not recommend buying on credit. 

My sister, Mary, married Lloyd Seay. They 
had one son, Harold. Janice, married Joseph 
Killian, one son Shirley Gene. Phyllis married 
Charles D. Whitman, one daughter Charlene 
Denise. Jack married Rhonda Doke, their chil- 
dren were Barbara Ann, Charles Edward, and 
Michael Leon. Jack later married Joan Cercillo 
and their children were Debra Lee, Dale Lynn- 
wood and Angelia Dawn. Jack served in the 
United States Navy in World War II. Doris, 
married Andrew Lindsey, their children were 
Alicia Kay and Leslie Yvonne. Raymond mar- 
ried Lavada Franklin, their children were Lin- 
da, Margaret and Jimmie. 

Jack lived in Atlanta, Georgia. He died 
November 2, 1977 and was buried in the fami- 
ly plot. 

Raymond lived in Haywood County. He died 



June 4, 1965 and was buried in Pleasant Hill 
Cemetery. 
All my sisters live in Haywood County. 

— Phyllis C. Whitman 



McGINNIS CALDWELL 



259 



McGinnis Caldwell was born April 24, 1 834, 
in Yancy County, North Carolina. He was the 
oldest child of Martha — known as Patty — 
and William Caldwell. 

In 1841 , McGinnis' family moved to Union 
County, Georgia. The 1 850 Union County cen- 
sus indicates that William was born in Tennes- 
see and that Martha was born in North Caroli- 
na. The children — other than McGinnis listed 
on the census record are: Thomas, Harriet, 
both born in North Carolina, Amanda and 
Rachel, born in Georgia. 

When his father died — on or near August 
31, 1858 — , McGinnis was appointed as 
administrator of William's estate. It is not 
known where William is buried. 

Martha Caldwell lived to be 1 03 years of age 
according to a great-grandson who remem- 
bers her funeral. She is buried in an un- 
marked grave in Zebulon Cemetery, Union 
County. 

On January 10, 1954, McGinnis married 
Penelope (Nellie) Colwell (Caldwell) in Union 
County. It can be determined from the 1850 
census of Union County that she and her par- 
ents, Thomas and Sara, lived next door to 
McGinnis and his family. It is speculated that 
they were cousins. 

They became the parents of three children: . 

1. Martha b. June 7, 1856; m. Grayson 
Stephens; d. July 31 , 1941 ; burial in Old Union 
Baptist Church Cemetery, Towns County, 
Georgia. 

2. William b. May 1, 1858 m. Narcissa 
Burdette Vasquez d. May 8, 1905 burial in i 
Aguilar, Las Animas County, Colorado. 

3. Louvanie m. Augustus Haynes. 

In March 1861, McGinnis enlisted in Com- • 
pany E, 1st Georgia Regulators of the Con- 
federate Army. His rank was sergeant. He re- 
mained with this company until August of 




1862 when he transferred to Provo Guard, 
C.H. Gilbert's Company. He was discharged in 
May 1865 in Gainesville, Alabama. 

Around the mid 1860s McGinnis and Nellie 
Caldwell were divorced. Each later remarried 
— she to John Daniels and he to Eliza Jane 
Poteet on December 1 6, 1 865 in Clay County, 
North Carolina. 

Eliza Jane was the daughter of Thomas and 
Virginia Peck Poteet who were married in 
Lumpkin County, Georgia on June 29, 1 835. It 
is known that Eliza was born in Georgia but the 
county is not proven. Her birthdate was June 
24, 1838. 

Children born to Eliza and McGinnis were: 

1 . California (Callie) b. October 1 8, 1 866 m. 
Thomas Covington Moore February 16, 1882; 
d. November 4, 1954; burial Baptist- 
Presbyterian Cemetery, Clay County, N.C. 

2. Thomas Forest b. May 20, 1868 m. Sallie 
Allison; d. May 29, 1960; burial Zion Ceme- 
tery, Union County, Georgia. 

3. Virginia (Jennie) b. February 1870; m. 
Peter Green May 6, 1888. 

4. Harve Jackson b. November 13, 1873; 
m. 1st Margaret Crawford December 21, 
1893; 2nd Minnie Jarrett d. July 19, 1942; 
burial Zion Cemetery, Union County, Georgia. 

5. Julia b. November 1874 m. Thomas J. 
Haralson October 21, 1894; d. June 10, 1924; 
burial in Copperhill, Tennessee. 

McGinnis Caldwell was active in the political 
affairs of Union County. He represented the 
40th district in the Georgia Senate in 1884- 
1885 session. 

He was a charter member of Stephens 
Lodge #414 of Young Harris, Georgia which 
was organized in 1867. He served as the 
treasurer from its beginning until his health 
began to decline. He also belonged to the 
Order of Odd Fellows in Young Harris. 

McGinnis took into his home children who 
needed a place to live. A granddaughter re- 
members two such children: a Mary Woody 
and a Claud Thomas. 

On August 29, 1910, McGinnis Caldwell 
made application for the Confederate pension. 
Five months later he died — January 1 , 191 1 . 
His burial was in Zion Cemetery, Union Coun- 
ty, located within sight of his house. (He made 
generous contributions of building materials 
for the erection of Zion Church 1909-1910.) 

His widow, Eliza, applied for the Confeder- 
ate widow's pension on October 3, 1 91 1 . The 
pension was granted. After a short illness, she 
died August 6, 1928, and burial was in Zion 
Cemetery. 

— Elizabeth Jarrett Walton 



WALLACE AND IRENE MESSER 
CALDWELL 

260 

My grandparents, Wallace and Irene Mes- 
ser Caldwell, were married by Vance Ledford 
on January 5, 1 91 9 at Spring Creek in Madison 
County. They have made their home for 62 
years near the top of Caldwell Mountain, off 
Highway 209, overlooking the flats of Spring 
Creek section of Madison County. 

Wallace and Irene raised a family of eight 



children: Clyde (born 1919), Mildred Fowler 
(1921-1967), Billy (born 1924), Weaver (born 
1926), Juanita Waldroup (born 1928), Betty 
Stradley Kepper (born 1931), Georgia Faye 
Sharpe (born 1935) and Lillian Viola Buress 
(born 1937). 

Wallace's parents Reuben and Nannie 
Woody Caldwell, raised their family in the 
Catalooche section of Haywood County in 
what is now part of the Great Smokey Moun- 
tains National Park. His brothers, Robert, 
Lon, Homer, Burn, George and Will settled in 
Haywood and Madison County. His three sis- 
ters, Carrie Balding, Lizzie Brown Waddell, 
and Maggie Chambers also settled in these 
counties. 

Irene's family of 20 some children were 
raised by Bill and Joeanna Cox Messer and her 
sister Martha. They lived in Buncombe 
County. 

My grandparents are exceptional people 
and I am extremely lucky to live with them and 
be able to record their memories. 

— Brenda Gail Sharpe 



ROBERT FISHBURNE 
CAMPBELL 

261 

Robert Fishburne Campbell was born on 
December 12, 1858, the son of John Lyle and 
Harriet Hatch Bailey Campbell. He grew to 
manhood in Lexington, Virginia, where his 
father was on the faculty of Washington Col- 
lege, later Washington and Lee University. 
After 1866 General Robert E. Lee, a neighbor 
of the Campbells, was President of that Col- 
lege. Young Campbell received both his 
Bachelor of Arts (1878) and his Masters 
(1879) degrees from this college. 

Following three years of teaching, he en- 
tered Union Theological Seminary at Hamp- 
den-Sidney, Virginia, and on May 18, 1885, 
he was ordained as a Presbyterian minister. 
On October 8, 1885, he and Sarah Montgom- 
ery Ruffner were married. From 1885 to 1892 
he served consecutively as pastor of three 
churches. In 1892 he arrived in Asheville, at 
that time the health center of the nation. He 
came, as he later said, "with one lung and, at 
best, four months to live." Although always 
frail, he regained his health and called Ashe- 
ville home for fifty-five years, serving Asheville's 
First Presbyterian Church as Pastor from 1 893 
to 1938, when at his request, the congregation 
reluctantly accepted his resignation and con- 
ferred upon him the title of Pastor Emeritus. 

During his Asheville days, Dr. Campbell's 
personal life had both sunshine and shadow. 
He rejoiced at the birth of his son, Ruffner, 
who grew to manhood in the pre-war years. 
During these years, Mrs. Campbell's health 
failed and she died on August 20, 1917, while 
Ruffner was serving as an Ensign in the Navy. 
In his loneliness and grief, Dr. Campbell re- 
signed as pastor of Asheville's First Presbyte- 
rian Church. Tne congregation refused to 
accept the resignation and Dr. Campbell 
agreed to continue as the Church's pastor. 
Two years later, on June 18, 1919, he was 
married to Miss Julia Berryman, of this union a 



son, Robert Fishburne Campbell, Jr. was born 
on January 10, 1921. 

When Dr. Campbell assumed his duties as 
pastor of Asheville's Presbyterian Church, it 
had a membership of 333, far too small for a 
growing town of 12,000. During his ministry 
the membership rose to 1,650 members. In 
addition, through dismissing members to 
serve as a nucleus for establishing a new 
church, the West Asheville Presbyterian 
Church was organized in 1916. In 1934 the 
Kenilworth Presbyterian Church was formed. 
Thus Asheville's Presbyterian Churches then 
had a total membership of 2,670. 

Dr. Campbell's ministerial efforts reached 
far beyond the local churches. Through his 
influence the General Assembly in 1915 
formed the Synod of Appalachia that covered 
the mountain counties of the state. As a result 
Presbyterian congregations and Presbyterian 
churches increased significantly in those 
counties. Earlier Asheville Presbytery had 
been formed with Dr. Campbell serving as 
Moderator. In that capacity, he, together with 
Dr. R.P. Smith, founded the Mountain 
Orphanage, which opened its doors for chil- 
dren on January 19, 1904. 

In May, 1927, Dr. Campbell was elected 
Moderator of the General Assembly, a position 
he held with distinction. Over the years he 
served as chairman of such important com- 
mittees as the Historical Foundation at Mon- 
treal and the Home Mission Committee. He 
served as a Trustee of the Union Theological 
Seminary for 49 years and on the Synod level, 
he was a member of the Board of Trustees of 
King College at Bristol, Tennessee from 1931 
until his death. He served as Chairman of the 
Board of Trustees of Montreat College for Girls 
from 1916 to 1947. He also served on the 
Board of Directors of the Mountain Retreat 
Association of Montreat. 

As a citizen he was ever alert to the needs of 
the community in which he lived. Thus he led 
the ministers of the city in forming the Mission 
of the Good Samaritan to serve those coming 
to Asheville in search of health. At his sugges- 
tion a Home Department was set up in the 
Church's Sunday School. Through it church 
members conducted especially organized Bi- 
ble Classes in the homes of shut-ins and in the 
many sanitariums in the city. By 1924 the 
enrollment in these classes justified the article 
appearing in the Presbyterian Survey stating 
that "The Home Department at Asheville's 
Presbyterian Churches is perhaps the largest 
Home Department in the World." 

Dr. Campbell was a charter member of the 
Pen and Plate Club of Asheville. At its meeting 
on June 17, 1918, he read a paper on "The 
Children's Court." This resulted in the estab- 
lishment of the Asheville Juvenile Court that 
developed into the present Domestic Relations 
Court of Buncombe County. He served as vice- 
president of the Lord's Day Alliance, and for 
more than 25 years he served as chairman of 
Asheville's Interracial Committee. He also 
served as a member of the North Carolina 
Child Labor Committee. During the years of 
war he worked with the Red Cross as chairman 
of the Relief Department of the Buncombe 
Chapter. 



167 



Among the many honors that came to Dr. 
Campbell through the long years of his minis- 
try was the high privilege of delivering the 
1930 Sprunt Lectures at Union Theological 
Seminary. The eight lectures, given daily be- 
fore the faculty and student body of the Semi- 
nary, were unified by a theme he called "Free- 
dom and Restraint." That theme was the title 
given to the published series. 

After serving the Asheville Church for 45 
years, Dr. Campbell submitted his resignation 
as pastor to become effective on his birthday, 
October 20, 1937. In view of his long and 
fruitful service to the Church, the officers re- 
luctantly accepted the resignation. On April 3, 
1947, after a lingering illness Dr. Campbell, in 
the 89th year of his life and the 63rd year of his 
ministry, entered his Eternal Home. 

On the double anniversary of his birthday 
and his Asheville pastorate, the Church and 
city yearly paid tribute to both. The Asheville 
Citizen in an editorial on December 12, 1942, 
closed its summary of his life and work by 
calling him "the unofficial shepherd without 
regard to creed or color." On his eightieth 
birthday he received from Clyde R. Hoey, then 
Governor of North Carolina, this message: 
"Your life has been a benediction to your city 
and State, and you have given us all an exam- 
ple of how to live simply and grandly." 

— Rev. Alan Gardiner 

THE ANCESTRY AND FAMILY 

OF ZACHARIA AND MARY 

(BOONE) CANDLER 

262 

The original home of the Candlers in En- 
gland was at Colchester, the place where Wil- 
liam the Conqueror landed in England. They 
were prominent in educational circles as a long 
list of Candler names are connected with Ox- 
ford. The name was originally spelled Kaend- 
ler, and changed to Candler, not Chandler, as 
far back as 200 years with no connection being 
found. 

Daniel Candler was the first of the name to 
come to America, in about 1735. He came 
from Ireland with his wife Hannah from Callan 
Castle, County of Kilkenny Ireland. He was the 
son of Thomas Candler and the grandson of 
Lt. Col. William Candler who was an officer 
under Cromwell. Lt. Col. William Candler be- 
longed to the Royal Family both through birth 
and marriage. His wife was Annie Villiers. 
They had sons Thomas, Henry, and William. 
Though he was a British officer in the Army, he 
took sides with Cromwell, and in the Confisca- 
tion of Ireland, he was given the Callan Castle, 
and a large body of land for his services. The 
family is still in possession of this property. 

With Royal family connections, as well as 
being prominent they were prohibited from 
marrying into any Irish family. However, 
Daniel married an Irish woman, and was thus 
disowned by the family. He decided to come to 
America, landing first in Charleston, S.C. and 
then moving to Virginia where he had connec- 
tions, and settled in New London in what is 
now called Bedford County. He was evidently 
an educated man as he brought more than 200 

168 



books with him. The old deeds show that 
immediately upon his arrival in Virginia he 
bought several large bodies of land and many 
slaves. His relations in Virginia were the Moor- 
mans, Clarks, Terrells, Lynchs, and Anthony 
families. 

Daniel Candler had five sons and several 
daughters: William, Zedakiah, John, Henry, 
other names unknown. William moved to 
Georgia and is founder of the family there. 
Henry died, and the descendents of John still 
live in and around Lynchburg. 

Zedakiah was a noted Indian fighter in Vir- 
ginia and received several thousand acres for 
services. He named his home Callan, after his 
father's home in Ireland. Zedakiah married 
Annie Moorman and they had several children, 
but not much is known about them except 
John Candler who settled on the Duck River in 
Tenn., owning a large tract of land there and 
dying without children. 

Records show that Zachariah first married 
Rachel Thornhill of a prominent family in Vir- 
ginia, but she evidently died soon after mar- 
riage. Record of this marriage is in Bedford 
County, Virginia. He then served in the Rev- 
olutionary War battle of Kings Mountain, 
along with his father Zedakiah and his uncle 
William who was a Col. Later Zachariah was 
stationed at old Fort Prince George in S.C, 
near what is now Pickens, as an officer and 
surveyor. He was sent into W.N.C. with a 
squad of men, by Gen. Andrew Pickens to 
survey the boundry line between the whites 
and the Cherokees. He started about the head 
of the Tuckaseegee River and followed the 
stream to the mouth of "a creek called the 
Scots Creek where we layed by for three days 
near a large cane break" near Sylva, N.C., 
waiting for other surveyors and Indians to 
come up. As they did not come to that point, 
Zachariah and his men went back across Bal- 
sam, down the Pigeon River, down Hominy to 
the French Broad , and back up to the top of the 
Blue Ridge and down to Fort Prince George. 
This line is known as the Butler line. 

At Fort Prince George, Zachariah married 
the daughter of Ratliff Boone, the son of 
Joseph Boone, who was the brother of Daniel 
Boone. This was Mary (Polly) Boone, grand- 
niece of Daniel. (This is the opinion of Geo. W. 
Candler of Murphy, a great-grandson of 
Zachariah, after making a full and complete 
investigation.) Records show that Ratliff 
Boone Sr. was a large landholder, by old 
deeds and a will now on file in Walhalla, S.C. 
Old deeds of the Candlers are on file at 
Pickens. 

Zachariah and his wife first settled near 
what is now Brevard, later moving on to 
Hominy Valley. Their oldest son was George 
Washington, then Thomas Jefferson and 
James Madison. There were said to be three 
daughters, one marrying a Courtney, one a 
Netherton, and the other unmarried. However, 
the record of the will with its divisions names 
only two, Elizabeth and Lucinda. 

George Washington Candler became a large 
landholder and a prominent attorney. He was 
a representative from Buncombe County to the 
House of Commons in 1 842 and again in 1 850 
as a Whig. He married Rachel Evaline Moore, 



the daughter of Captain Charles Moore (See 
Sketch of Capt. William Moore for details). 
They had four sons and three daughters. The 
sons: William Gaston, Thomas Jefferson, 
Charles Zachariah, and James M. Candler. 
Charles and James were progenitors of the 
Jackson County Candlers. The daughters 
were: Margarette who married Thomas Jeffer- 
son Harkins (see Sketch of H.S. Harkins); 
Mary married Col. Virgil S. Lusk, and Rachel 
Elizabeth married Merideth Owenby. 

The Candlers in Leicester and Madison 
County are believed to be the descendents of 
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Cand- 
ler, the other 2 sons of Zachariah. Records 
show that Thomas Jefferson was an officer in 
the Seminole Indian War, and died there. His 
children were named as devisees in the 
Zachariah Candler will. 

When Zachariah died in 1845 it is said that 
he owned nearly 200 thousand acres of land in 
W.N.C. It is not known when his wife Polly 
died. 

— Martha June Lamb 



THE COKE CANDLER FAMILY 

263 

Coke Candler was born June 1, 1907 at 
Candler, NC. He was the son of Edgar 
Washington Candler (b. 1857 d. 1936) and 
Maybre Morgan (b. 1883 d. 1911). There were 
four children: Edgar Washington Candler, Jr. 
(b. 1906 d. 1930); Coke; Lucinda (b. 1909 d. 
1962);and Maybre Candler Brenton(b. 1911). 

Coke married a widow, Catherine Haynes 
West, on Oct. 20, 1940 in Greenville, SC. 
There were two step-daughters, Norine West 
Moore and Miriam West Cole. Coke and 
Catherine had two children: Mary Catherine 
Swayngim (b. July 25, 1941) and Edgar 
Washington Candler II! (b. March 1, 1946). 

He graduated from Old Candler High School 
in 1925, and Duke University in 1929 with a 
degree in Math and History. He was selected 
as winner of the Robert E. Lee prize in his 
senior year by the faculty and students as best 
all round student. He attended Duke Law 
School in 1929-1939 but due to the Depress- 
ion, had to quit and take a job. 

Coke taught school at Danville Military 
Academy in Danville, Va. in 1930, then later at 
Old Sand Hill School in Buncombe County. 

From 1934 until 1942 he worked at Amer- 
ican Enka Corp. as athletic director. He en- 
tered the Navy in April, 1942 and was commis- 
sioned an officer, assigned to Occidental 
College in Los Angeles. 

He served as Chairman of the Buncombe 
Co. Board of Commissioners from 1946- 
1968. Under his leadership, Buncombe Coun- 
ty was awarded the Ail-American City award in 
1951 for progress in schools. Other chal- 
lenges met were a juvenile receiving home for 
the first time in Buncombe Co., a rabies and 
animal control program, rural garbage pick-up 
and landfills, rural fire districts, ambulance 
service, extended sewer and water facilities, 
and the encouragement of new industries into 
the area. 

Coke served with Gov. Luther Hodges and 
others on the Advisory Committee which 



established the Asheville-Buncombe County 
Industrial Education Center. He also served on 
the Board of Directors for UNC-Asheville from 
1948 - 1958 when it was known as Asheville- 
Biltmore Junior College. 

In addition, he has served as Rural Chair- 
man of Community Chest and Chairman of 
Asheville-Buncombe March of Dimes. 

He is a member of Hominy Baptist Church in 
Candler. 

Coke Candler's forebearers were descen- 
dants of early settlers in Western NC, includ- 
ing Capt. William Moore (b. 1726 in Ireland) 
who was the first white settler of the French 
Broad River. Most of Coke's ancestors came 
from England, Scotland, Ireland, or Wales. 

Coke has four grandchildren: Steven 
Swayngim; Douglas Swayngim; Jeffrey Scott 
Candler; and Lucinda Michelle Candler. 

— Coke Candler 



THE WILLIAM F. CANNON 
FAMILY 

264 

William moved into McDowell Co. in 1871 
with his second wife, Rachel Julia Parks from 
Linville, NC. 

They moved with the five children from Wil- 
liam's first marriage and six children from his 
second marriage. His first wife was Elizabeth 
Schull from Schull's Mill in Wautauga Co. 

Peter Cannon was nine years old when his 
father moved to the Glades section of 
McDowell Co. , now called the Providence sec- 
tion* 

Peter inherited the property from his father 
and raised two children, Julius and Effie. 
Julius will be 89 years old on June 1 , 1 981 . He 
still lives in the house where he was born on 
Nix Creek near Marion. Julius has one daugh- 
ter, Louise, by his first wife, Sallie Young. 

Effie married Woodfin McCurry from 
McDowell Co. They had two children, Ralph, 
who lives in Marion, and Hazel McCurry Fox, 
who lived in Frankfort, Ky. 

Julius inherited the same property his father 
did. He has passed it on to his daughter, 
Louise Cannon Boydston, who was also born 
on the old homestead which her great- 
grandfather built. 

To date, the property has been in the family 
for 110 years. 

— Carlos L. Boydston 



THE ALBERT HEATH CARRIER 
FAMILY 

264-A 

Albert Heath Carrier, the son of Edwin 
George Carrier and Catherine Elizabeth Robin- 
son, was born in Bay City, Michigan on April 
10, 1878. In 1885 he moved with his family to 
Asheville, NC. 

He attended Davis Military School in Win- 
ston-Salem and Ravenscroft School for Boys 
in Asheville. He worked for a time at Brown 
and Northuo's Hardware Store, then as a part- 
ner with his brother Ralph in the lumber busi- 
ness in Duplin Co. 



Returning to Asheville, he became a partner 
with R.S. Smith, who had been supervising 
architect for the Biltmore House. Among the 
buildings designed by Smith and Carrier were 
the old Auditorium, the old Langren Hotel, the 
Technical Building, the Tench Francis Coxe 
Building, the old Majestic Theater, the original 
St. Joseph's Hospital, the Administration 
building at St. Genevieve's School, most of 
the buildings at Asheville School, Montreat, 
Junaluska, and Kanuga Lake, many of the 
buildings in Biltmore Village, and all the coun- 
ty schools. 

He was an inveterate inventor. Three of his 
patents were for a pivoted casement window 
adjuster used for years by General Motors, a 
palmetto wall board, and a cultivator used by 
International Harvester Co. 

Albert married on December 30, 1 903, Sara 
Ann Robertson. 

He died in Asheville on May 19, 1961 and is 
buried in Riverside Cemetery. 

The children of Albert Heath Carrier and 
Sara Ann Robertson were: Catherine Elva Car- 
rier (b. Oct. 7, 1904); Sara Virginia Carrier (b. 
June 14, 1907); and Albert Heath Carrie, Jr. 
(b. Dec. 17, 1910 d. March 31, 1967). 

— J. Douglas Robinson 

THE ANCESTRY OF 

CATHERINE ELIZABETH 

ROBINSON CARRIER 

264-B 

Catherine Elizabeth Robinson was born 
September 22, 1840, the daughter of James 
Armstrong and Maria C. Stear Robinson. That 
family lived first in Pennsylvania and later in 
Kansas. James' father Irvin Robinson had 
brought his wife Catherine Elliott and family to 
America from Enniskillen, County Fermanagh, 
Northern Ireland to America, first to Balti- 
more, and later to Indiana. 

Catherine married Edwin George Carrier, on 
May 15, 1861, and they raised a family of nine 
children. 

Catherine died in Asheville, on February 28, 
1924 and is buried in Riverside Cemetery. 

— J. Douglas Robinson 

THE EDWIN GEORGE 
CARRIER FAMILY 

264-C 

Edwin George Carrier, an Asheville de- 
veloper and the son of Darius Carrier and Eliza 
Hetrick, was born in Summerville, Jefferson 
Co., Penn. on Feb. 14, 1839. On May 15, 
1861 he married Catherine Elizabeth Robin- 
son, daughter of James Armstrong Robinson 
and Maria Christine Stear. 

Edwin George was educated in the county 
schools and while still a young boy, was em- 
ployed in his father's lumber and farming busi- 
ness. At 21, he became a partner with his 
father in the lumber trade. He established his 
own business after four years, cutting timber 
in the forests and rafting it down the Allegheny 
River. In 1874, after five successful years, he 
sold his interest and moved to Bay City, 



Michigan. 

He retired in 1885 and moved his family to 
Asheville, NC. They stayed first at the Grand 
Central Hotel on Patton Ave., then rented a 
house on Grove St. (it was later the 
Meriwether Hospital). 

Edwin George purchased the old Deaver 
Sulphur Springs property and approximately 
1200 acres of land west of the French Broad 
River (the present location of West Asheville). 
He laid out and named many of the streets, 
including State St. and others bearing the 
names of states. 

In 1886, he built the Sulphur Springs Hotel, 
a three story brick building which accommo- 
dated 200 guests and which was well known 
for its comforts and conveniences. 

In 1890 he built an electric railway from 
Sulphur Springs to Asheville, a distance of 
several miles. To supply electricity for his 
hotel and electric railway, he built a hydro- 
electric plant on Hominy Creek (one of the first 
in the country), which also provided electricity 
for Asheville. 

Edwin George was one of the first repre- 
sentatives of northern capital to come to the 
mountains and put his talents and industry to 
work. Besides providing Asheville with its first 
electric lights, he also introduced the first 
thoroughbred cattle in Western NC. 

He had a great love for horses and hunting 
dogs, and always kept a large kennel and a fine 
stable. About 1 890 he built a race course (later 
used as an airport called Carrier Field), a half 
mile track for training his horses and entertain- 
ing guests of his hotel. There he also raced his 
favorite fast trotter, "Rosie." 

In Sept. 1891, the Sulphur Springs Hotel 
was completely destroyed by fire. In addition, 
a freeze killed Edwin's orange grove at San- 
ford, Florida and he abandonea tne property. 
The dam burst at his hydro-electric plant on 
Hominy Creek, and the claims for damages 
resulted in the loss of both the plant and the 
electric railway. 

Discouraged, Edwin returned to lumbering, 
his first profession. He organized a lumber 
company at Wallace, near Wilmington, later 
giving it to his sons, Albert Heath, and Ralph, 
who operated it as Carrier Brothers Co. 

In 1907, Edwin's oldest son, James Darius, 
was killed while hunting near Newton, NC. 

In 1910 he bought property in Fort Myers, 
Fla. Together with Thomas A. Edison and Hen- 
ry Ford, Edwin became one of the principal 
developers of that resort. During the last 20 
years of his life he was very active as a finan- 
cier and business consultant throughout NC, 
Florida, and Ga. 

He died in Albany, Ga. on March 13, 1927 
and is buried in Riverside Cemetery in Ashe- 
ville beside his wife, who had died three years 
earlier. 

The children of Edwin George Carrier and 
Catherine Elizabeth Robinson were: Clara 
Estelle (b. Oct. 26, 1862 d. 1878); Elva Elzada 
(b. Feb. 17, 1863 d. Sept. 2, 1953), married 
Burt Denison); James Darius (b. March 25, 
1865 d. Nov. 16, 1907); Catherine (b. Feb. 16, 
1867 d. Oct. 27, 1938, married Frank Tryon 
Meriwether); Martha Mary (b. June 23, 1870 
d. 1876); Edwin Grant (b. Feb. 25, 1872 d. 



169 



Aug. 1926); Anna Elizabeth (b. March 31, 
1875); Albert Heath (b. April 10, 1878 d. May 
2, 1964); and Ralph Adelbert (b. Aug. 22, 
1880, married Francis Wheeler, d. March 11, 
1973). 

— J. Douglas Robinson 



THE WILLIAM CARSON 
FAMILY 

265 

The earliest known ancestor of the Carson 
family of Big Ivy, was James Carson, who was 
in Rowan County, North Carolina, as early as 
1770. Family papers indicate that he removed 
from Virginia to the part of Rowan which later 
became Burke County, and as western lands 
were opened for settlement, he entered tracts 
in what is now Yancey County by 1793. The 
earliest deed to James Carson in the Big Ivy 
area, was registered in 1808. When he died 
between 1824 and 1830, his son John had 
already removed to Rabun County, Georgia, 
leaving only his two younger sons, James Jr. 
and William, in Buncombe County. James 
Carson, Jr. died unmarried, by 1843, thus 
William Carson became the progenitor of the 
large Carson family of Big Ivy. 

William Carson was born August 1 1 , 1 793, 
and married Margaret, called Peggy, Dilling- 
ham in Buncombe County, February 3, 
1820. Margaret was born February 28, 
1799, the daughter of Absalom and Rebecca 
(Foster) Dillingham of Big Ivy. Wil- 
liam and Margaret Carson were the parents of 
nine sons and one daughter, as follows: M. 
Henderson, 1820-1894, married Joice Louisa 
Bailey, daughter of Allen and Nancy (Baker) 
Bailey of Madison County; Elizabeth, 1822- 
1890, married Jackson Maney, son of John J. 
and Polly (Metcalf) Maney; William R., born 
1824, and Alfred B., born 1826, died in child- 
hood; John M., 1829-1864, married Cather- 
ine E. (Stevens) Hudspeth, daughter of Thom- 
as and Margaret (Sellers) Stevens of 
Washington County, Tennessee; Henry S., 
1831-1920, married Ellen Matilda "Nelly" 
Hurst, daughter of John M. and Martha 
(Young) Hurst of Big Ivy; Hiram B., 1834- 
1912, married Mary E. Hurst, daughter of 
John M. and Martha (Young) Hurst; Thomas 
D., born 1836, married Caroline E. Hyder, 
daughter of Benjamin and Jane (Walton) Hyd- 
er of Rutherford County, North Carolina and 
Big Ivy; Newton F., 1837-1911, married Cler- 
cie L. Banks of Big Ivy; and Andrew P. Carson, 
1841-1923, married Margaret L. Whitaker, 
daughter of John and Sarah (Stroupe) Whit- 
aker of Big Ivy. 

When William and Margaret Carson were 
married, her father provided a parcel of land 
for the young couple, later bequeathing it to 
her in his will. William farmed, was a Deputy 
County Surveyor, and a school teacher at Big 
Ivy. An interesting document which survived 
fires, floods, and the ravages of time, is a 
contract between William Carson and the 
parents of twenty-three children in the 
community, dated August 8, 1839. William 
agreed to teach "English School" — Spelling, 
Reading, Writing and Arithmetic — for a 

170 



three-month term for two dollars per scholar, 
to be paid in produce from the local farms, or 
in money, "... at one-third reduction." 

William Carson died August 11, 1846, and 
Margaret (Dillingham) Carson died in late 
1857. They are buried in the Absalom Dilling- 
ham Cemetery near Barnardsville. 

Of the children of William and Margaret 
Carson, their seven sons who lived to matur- 
ity, all served in the Confederate States Army, 
and saw action in Virginia. John M. Carson 
was a casualty of the War. Henry was wound- 
ed; Hiram, Thomas, and Andrew were also 
hospitalized at various times, but all recovered 
to go back into battle. In letters written during 
their military service, the most poignant were 
revelations of intense homesickness, and 
pathetic pleas for mail from loved ones with 
news of home. At the close of the War, the 
surviving brothers returned to Big Ivy, and as 
far as is known, never ventured out of their 
native mountains again. 

William and Margaret (Dillingham) Carson 
had fifty-three grandchildren, and two hun- 
dred and two great-grandchildren. Descen- 
dants have married into families of other early 
Buncombe County settlers. Large numbers 
live in adjoining counties, and some live on 
land at Big Ivy, handed down from generation 
to generation. 

— Margaret Wallis Haile 

EDWARD CARTER 

266 

Edward Carter was born on May 29, 1761 , 
in Bucks County, Pennsylvania. He married 
Mary Brown, daughter of Daniel Brown and 
Grace Craven of Randolph County, North 
Carolina. 

Edward's family moved to Chatham County, 
North Carolina in 1764, then moved to what is 
now Yancey County, North Carolina, prior to 
1796 when he sold his gristmill on Price's 
Creek to Blake Piercy. Edward then moved to 
what is now Democrat in Buncombe County 
and built a gristmill there, which remained in 
and was operated by the family until about 
1940. In 1816, Edward, his wife, and some of 
his family moved from Buncombe County to 
Rabun County, Georgia, where he received a 
grant of land for his services as a sergeant in 
the Revolutionary War. 

Edward had nine children: 

1 . Jesse born on January 4, 1784. He mar- 
ried Lavinah Sams. Jesse and his family and 
other of Edward's children moved to Georgia, 
where many of his descendants now live. 

2. Josiah Henry who married Jane Pinson in 
1825. 

3. Gracie who married Ambrose Sutton. 

4. Samuel who married Nancy Ramsey. 

5. Daniel who married Margaret Jennings, 
who was the daughter of James Jennings, 
who fought in the Revolutionary War and 
crossed the Delaware with George Wash- 
ington. Daniel and Margaret were the parents 
of Edward Carter, who gave the first land for 
the establishment of Mars Hill College. 

6. Solomon born on February 16, 1791 . He 
married Alvira Hooper on March 6, 1817. 
7. Polly who married James Hurst. 



8. Elizabeth who married John Roberts. 

9. John who married Elizabeth Lovell in 
1858. 

Solomon Carter lived at Democrat in Bun- 
combe County and operated (until his death in 
1873) the gristmill which his father, Edward, 
had built circa 1800. Solomon and Alvira were 
the parents of fourteen children, thirteen of 
whom lived to marry and raise families. The 
oldest child was born in the home which Solo- 
mon started in 1816 and completed in 1818. 
This was a large two-story house which still 
stands and is in the possession of the family of 
Dr. I.N. McLean, who purchased the property 
from the family of Daniel Carter, the youngest 
son of Solomon. 

Solomon was a very good business man 
and at the time of his death was one of the 
largest land owners in Buncombe County, 
owning more than 5000 acres. Before the War 
Between the States, he was the owner of about 
twenty slaves. In addition to the gristmill, he 
operated a sawmill, a blacksmith's shop, and 
other enterprises. 

John A. Carter, son of Solomon, was born 
in 1818, the first child born in the home at 
Democrat. John was the grandfather of The 
Honorable Ed Swain and the great grandfather 
of Robert S. Swain, at present a State Senator 
representing Buncombe County. 

Garrett DeWeese Carter, son of Solomon, 
was born on March 9, 1823. On April 21, 
1853, he married Catherine Eliza Anderson 
(who was born on November 24, 1829 and 
died on February 2, 1894), the youngest 
daughter of William Anderson and Martha 
Elkins. Martha Elkins was the great grand- 
daughter of Col. Thomas Dillard, Jr. , who was 
a commander of Virginia troops during the 
Revolutionary War. After the war, Thomas 
moved to what is now Erwin, Tennessee, 
where he and his wife, Martha Webb, were the 
parents of ten children. One daughter was the 
wife of Col. Robert Love, the founder of 
Waynesville, North Carolina. 

Garrett DeWeese Carter and Catherine were 
the parents of six children: 

1. Samuel who died young. 

2. William Anderson Carter who married 
Slaina McLean (see Daniel McLean in this 
volume). 

3. Dorcas Alvira who married James H. 
Woodward. They were the parents of nine 
children among whom were Dr. W.T. Wood- 
ward and Dr. Jake Garrett Woodward. 

4. Martha who married Vol Edwards and 
had six children. Among their descendants are 
Mrs. Charles I. Carter, who lives in Beaverdam 
in Asheville, and Robert V. Carter, now retired 
from Wachovia Bank in Asheville. 

5. Atlas Victoria who married Thomas Til- 
son of Mars Hill. 

6. Garrett Daniel Carter born on December 
14, 1863. See Garrett Daniel Carter in this 
volume. 

— Sallie Carter Thomason 



GARRETT DANIEL CARTER 

267 

Garrett Daniel Carter was born on December 
14, 1863, and died on May 21, 1932, (see 



Edward Carter in this volume). On August 4, 
1892, he married Sarah (Sallie) Lockey Piercy, 
who was born on December 8, 1 871 , and died 
on August 5, 1919. Sallie was the daughter of 
Robert Henry Piercy and Margaret Louisa 
Matilda Anderson. 

Garrett grew up on Sugar Creek in Democrat 
in Buncombe County, North Carolina. He 
attended Mars Hill College. He was a farmer, 
merchant, dairyman, real estate broker, and 
banker — President of the Bank of West 
Asheville. He was prominent in Baptist chur- 
ches in Asheville: charter member of Calvary 
Baptist Church and chairman of the Board of 
Deacons; Deacon of First Baptist Church; 
organizer and chairman of the Board of 
Deacons of French Broad Avenue Baptist 
Church; treasurer of the Buncombe County 
Baptist Association and chairman of the ex- 
ecutive committee. Also he was a member of 
the Board of Education of Buncombe County 
and a trustee of Mars Hill College. 

Garrett and Sallie had four children: 

1 . Amy Lee was born on December 3 , 1 893 
at Democrat. She graduated from Meredith 
College and did graduate work at the Universi- 
ty of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. For twenty 
years, Amy was a social worker in the Bun- 
combe County Department of Public Welfare. 

2. May Bryan was born on March 21 , 1896 
at Democrat. She graduated from Meredith 
College and received an M.A. from Brown 
University. For approximately thirty years, she 
was math professor at: Western College (Ox- 
ford, Ohio), Asheville-Biltmore College, Uni- 
versity of Tennessee, Shorter College (Rome, 
Georgia), and Union College (Barberville, 
Kentucky). May was president of both the 
Asheville chapter and the North Carolina divi- 
sion of AAUW. She married Clarence Ernest 
Blackstock, an attorney, who represented 
Buncombe County in the State Senate and was 
a Superior Court Judge. They had one son, 
Clarence Jr., born on January 23, 1927. He 
graduated from NC State and received his M . F. 
from Duke University. He is currently Chief of 
the Environmental Branch of the Federal Ener- 
gy Regulatory Commission. In 1962, Clarence 
married Joanne Reitz. They had two sons: 
Kent Carter born on September 12, 1963, and 
Dean Joseph born on February 1, 1966. 

3. Foster Piercy was born on October 21 , 
1900 in Democrat. He graduated from Wake 
Forest College with B.A., LL.B., and J.D. de- 
grees. Piercy married Marguerite Kimberly 
(see David and John Kimberly in this volume) 
on February 14, 1931. 

Piercy has practiced law in Asheville since 
1925. In 1933, he was appointed to the State 
Board of Conservation and Development, 
serving for six years. He served as Public 
Administrator of Buncombe County, as substi- 
tute judge of Domestic Relations Court, as 
Deputy Clerk and Assistant Clerk of Superior 
Court, and is serving as Administrative Assis- 
tant to the Clerk of Superior Court. He has 
served as Precinct Chairman of #6 and #4; as 
Third Vice-Chairman, Second Vice-Chairman, 
and Chairman of the Buncombe County Demo- 
cratic Executive Committee; as a member of 
the State Democratic Executive Committee 
from 1972 to the present; as a delegate to the 



Democratic National Convention in 1976; and 
as a delegate to the Democratic Mini- 
Convention in Memphis in 1978. He is a mem- 
ber of The Carolina Mountain Club (president 
for three terms). 

Piercy and Marguerite had two children: 
Sarah (Sallie) Elizabeth born on February 24, 
1936, and Garrett Kimberly born on January 
26, 1945. Sallie graduated from Woman's 
College of the University of North Carolina at 
Greensboro in 1958, and from Asheville- 
Buncombe Technical College in 1979. In 
1958, Sallie married George Turner Johnson 
and they had two sons: Stewart Turner born on 
September 16, 1959, and Kimberly Carter 
born on March 13, 1962. After a divorce, 
Sallie married Charles W. Thomason, Jr. in 
1979. Garrett Kimberly Carter graduated from 
Mars Hill College. He served in the U.S. Army 
in Vietnam in 1969-70. 

4. Andrew Carnegie was born on April 21, 
1905 in Asheville. He graduated from Wake 
Forest College in 1928 and did graduate work 
at UNC-Chapel Hill in 1928-29, serving as 
assistant to Dr. Frank Graham. He served in 
the Employment Security Commission until 
his retirement in 1970. Carnegie married Flor- 
ence Lee Kincaid, daughter of James Greer 
Kincaid and Mary Olie Brigman. Carnegie and 
Florence had one son, James Garrett, who 
was born on January 1 1 , 1 943. Garrett gradu- 
ated from Mars Hill College. He served in the 
U.S. Army in Vietnam in 1967-68-69 — 
awarded the Bronze Star Medal. 

— Sallie Carter Thomason 

AUGUSTA EDNA DUBOSE 

CECIL 

(Mrs. Robert Talmage Cecil) 

268 

Mrs. Augusta Edna DuBose Cecil (Gussie) 
was a civic and cultural leader of Asheville, 
N.C. She resided at 73 Cumberland Avenue, 
Asheville, N.C. from 1922 until her death in 
1964. 

Gussie was born July 7, 1885 in Darlington 
County, S.C. to Oscar Beverly and Janie 
Catherine (Josey) DuBose of French, English 
and Scotch descent. Gussie was the ninth of 
eleven children. They were: Gertrude DuBose 
Dowling (1872-1952), Josey Beverly (1874- 
1954), Pauline Gandy (1875-1965), Alger 
MacDonald (1876-1942), Clifton Dudley 
(1878-1961), Belva Jane (1879-1964), Bessie 
DuBose Burgess (1881-1970), Ryan William 
King (1883-1967), Augusta Edna (1885- 
1964), Maine Law (1888-1973), and Roger 
Harold DuBose, M.D. (1896-1956). 

The DuBose plantation was in Syracuse, 
outside of Darlington, S.C. Gussie's father, 
Oscar Beverly (1849-1907), was the son of 
Jeremiah (1829-1865) and Mary Rosanna 
(Rosena) Stokes DuBose (1827- ) of 
Sumter, S.C. Jeremiah DuBose died fighting 
in the Civil War in North Carolina. His lineage 
goes back to Isaac DuBose (1660-1714/21) 
and Susanne Couillandeau DuBose (1663- 
1742), French Huguenots, from Dieppe, Nor- 
mandy (France) and documented by the 
Huguenot Society of South Carolina. 




Mrs. Augusta Edna Dubose Cecil 

Mrs. Cecil's mother, Janie was the daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Sydney Josey of Society Hill, 
S.C. and Sarah McDonald (MacDonald) of 
Scotland. She came to America with her 
widowed mother, Flora MacLeod MacDonald, 
and landed in Charleston, S.C. ca. 1834. Ben- 
jamin Josey had a brother, Joe, and they were 
the sons of Willis Josey (Jossey) whose father 
was William Josey. William Josey was before 
his death one of the largest land-owners in the 
state of South Carolina. His father was from 
Nansemond County, Virginia. 

It was Gussie's grandparents — Benjamin 
and Sarah Josey — who raised Simon Baruch, 
the father of the famed financier and states- 
man, Bernard Mannes Baruch, on their planta- 
tion at Society Hill, S.C. Simon had been 
accompanying his widowed father traveling 
around the countryside when Benjamin Josey 
told him that "that was no life for a young boy" 
and asked Mr. Baruch to leave Simon with 
him. The Joseys raised Simon along with their 
son, James McDonald Josey, sending them 
both to school and college where each became 
a physician. 

Prior to the death of her mother Gussie 
attended the Asheville Normal College in Ashe- 
ville, N.C. On December 22, 1909 Gussie mar- 
ried Robert Talmage Cecil (Bob) of Thomas- 
ville, N.C. in Darlington, S.C. They moved to 
Spartanburg, S.C. where R.T. Cecil estab- 
lished his second business college, Cecil's 
Business College. 

While living in Spartanburg, three daugh- 
ters were born to Gussie and Bob. They were: 
Augusta DuBose (Mrs. William Lesesne Fras- 
er) 1913, Sarah Elizabeth (Mrs. David Lowrey 
Lasher, Jr.) 1916, and Martha (Mrs. Malcolm 
Giles Little, Jr.) 1919. Mrs. Fraser had a 
daughter, Peggy, who died at 14 and a son, 
Robert Benjamin Fraser. Mrs. Lasher had 
Robert Cecil, Sarah (Betsy) Lasher Mayes and 
a step-son, David Lowrey Lasher, III. Mrs. 
Little had Greta, Dianne Little Kramer, and 
Charles Erwin Little. 

In 1922 R.T. Cecil established another 



171 



Cecil's Business College and moved his family 
to Asheville, N.C. Mrs. Cecil became active in 
church, civic and social organizations. She 
served in many organizations in which she 
held many offices. Mrs. Cecil served as presi- 
dent of the Y. W.C. A. in 1 933 and it was during 
her term of office that the Moorehead Building 
was begun. She was president of the Asheville 
Garden Club and helped form the first Council 
of Garden Clubs and served as president 
(1941-1943). In 1943 she was elected presi- 
dent of the Garden Club of North Carolina and 
served on the National Council of Garden 
Clubs. Active in the United Daughters of Con- 
federacy she helped organize the Junior Chap- 
ter in 1941 . She served a period as president 
of the UDC around 1945. In 1949 she served 
as Vice President for the Twelfth Congression- 
al District of North Carolina for the Preserva- 
tion of Antiquities, Inc. 

It was while she was State President of the 
Garden Clubs of North Carolina that the first 
$100,000 was given for the restoration of 
Tryon Palace in New Bern, N.C. A plaque was 
placed in the President's Walk in the Eliz- 
abethan Gardens, Manteo, N.C. in her honor. 
Also a plaque was placed in the National Gar- 
den Club's Permanent Home (headquarters of 
the National Council of Garden Clubs in St. 
Louis, Mo.) honoring Mrs. Cecil. 

Gussie was active in the First Presbyterian 
Church, where she served as a teacher and 
later as Superintendent of the Primary Depart- 
ment for many years. Mrs. Cecil is buried 
beside her husband in Riverside Cemetery, 
Asheville, N.C. Her hobby was gardening. 

Mrs. Robert T. Cecil was truly a gracious 
southern lady — one loved and well remem- 
bered by all who knew her. 

— Mrs. Sarah C. Lasher 



ROBERT TALMAGE CECIL 

269 

Robert Talmage Cecil (Bob), the founder of 
Cecil's Business College, was born July 29, 
1876 in Thomasville, N.C. He was one of the 
pioneers of business education in the South. 

Bob was the son of the Rev. Jesse Wilson 
Cecil (1836-1899) and Lydia Elizabeth (Betsy) 
Moffett Cecil (1838-1883), a Quaker from 
Moffitt (Moffett) Hill, near Asheboro, N.C. 
Their children were: Mary Eugenia Rothrock 
(1865-1922); David Oliver (1866-1941); 
Martha Thames (1868-1962); Phillip Schyler 
(1870-1951); Robert Talmage (1876-1956); 
and Levi Moffitt Cecil (1880-1947). 

When Bob was six his mother died and his 
father remarried in 1889 to Isabelle Thames. 
There were three daughters by this marriage 
— Ruth, Carlette, and Isabelle. The Cecil 
lineage has been documented by the National 
Society of Colonial Dames of the XVII Century 
to William Cecil of Maryland. The Cecils were 
one of the First Families of Maryland. 

The widow of William Cecil, Jr. (1728- 
1807), Rachel Ball Cecil migrated to North 
Carolina in 1810. Her mother was a first 
cousin to George Washington's mother, Mary 
Ball. The Balls and the Cecils settled between 
Lexington and Thomasville, N.C. The ancestry 
has been traced back beyond Roderick the 




Robert Talmage Cecil 

Great, King of Wales ca 844 to King Ethil. 
Robert T. Cecil is a direct descendent of Wil- 
liam, Lord Burghley (1520-1598), Prime 
Minister of England in the reign of Elizabeth I. 

On Bob's mother's side the Moffett's de- 
scend from Robert Moffett, Lord Mayor of 
Dublin of Ireland and his wife, Marguerite 
Stewart (Stuart). 

From the time he was a young boy, Bob was 
very close to his father and sought to follow in 
his footsteps. In 1894 Bob entered Catawba 
College, he studied for the ministry, but his 
desire to become a teacher in the field of 
business was much stronger. He remained at 
Catawba College (where he earned his college 
degree) studying and teaching until 1 901 . Pro- 
fessor Robert T. Cecil was offered a position at 
Converse College in Spartanburg, S.C. , where 
he became Head of the Department of Com- 
merce. Upon leaving Converse he con- 
ducted twenty-nine term business schools. 
Later, his brother, Levi M. Cecil, joined in 
assisting him. In 1905 Professor Robert T. 
Cecil founded, owned, and operated his first 
permanent school, Cecil's Business College in 
Anderson, S.C. Bob met his wife, Augusta 
(Gussie) Edna DuBose Cecil (1885-1964) of 
Darlington, S.C. and married her on Decem- 
ber 22, 1909. In the meantime he left his 
brother, L.M. Cecil, in charge of his Anderson 
School which later closed. 

Bob and Gussie moved to Spartanburg, 
S.C. in 1910 where Professor R.T. Cecil 
opened another Cecil's Business College. Dur- 
ing the First World War he trained soldiers for 
office positions and later rehabilitated them. 
Three girls, Augusta DuBose Cecil (1913), 
Sarah Elizabeth (1916), and Martha (1919) 
were born to the Cecils. 

In 1919 Professor Cecil turned his direction 
toward yet another school. Cecil's Business 
College was opened in 1922. Bob moved his 
family to 73 Cumberland Avenue where he 
converted a boarding house into his residence 
(a historic site). Arch Nichols designed and 
built the building (a historic site) for Mr. 



Cecil's School, Cecil's Business College, at 66 
Haywood Street in 1925. Bob personally oper- 
ated the Asheville School which was one of the 
largest in the South (his pride and joy). 

Cecil's Business College became nationally 
and internationally known. Failing health 
forced him to sell his schools. Cecil's Busi- 
ness College was such a part of Professor 
Cecil that it was hard to separate the two. It 
was his life, his hobby as well as his monu- 
ment. When Bob died on May 9, 1956, it was 
said "to see his monument, just look around 
— at his students and his schools." 

Bob was a true educator and when he died 
the Charlotte TV station ran a five-minute 
program on his life and accomplishments. 
Bob was written up in Who's Who in the 
Southeast. He was a Kiwanian, Mason, and a 
member of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Asheville. During his lifetime Professor R.T. 
Cecil inspired others to follow in his profes- 
sion. I. P. Blanton, Milo Kirpatrick, John 
Aiken, etc. were among his employees who 
opened schools of their own. 

Robert T. Cecil had a winning personality, 
was generous, and had a great sense of humor 
that endeared him to all who knew him. He 
gave away more than some people make in a 
lifetime. 

— Sarah C. Lasher 



THE JAMES E. AND VALRIA 
(FOWLER) CHAMBERS FAMILY 

269-A 

James E. Chambers was a descendant of 
James Chambers who was one of the first 
settlers in Haywood County in 1790. The ear- 
lier Chambers was granted 640 acres just 
above Canton, N.C, and one of his sons; 
Joseph Chambers, was State Representative 
from 1812 to 1820. 

James E. Chambers married Valria Fowler, 
daughter of Jesse M. and Zallia M. (Rogers) 
Fowler. Zallia M. Rogers was the oldest 
daughter of the second marriage of James 
Baxter Rogers, grandson of Elizabeth Mingus 
Stillwell. James was a farmer who lived in the 
Stamey Cove Section of Haywood and gave 
land forthe cemetery in this community. Even- 
tually he and his second wife were buried 
there. He was married first to Amand(a) L. 
Green, who is buried in Pleasant Hill Cemetery 
in Clyde. 

Zallia Rogers married Jesse M. Fowler, son 
of John G. and Margaret Jane (Henry) Fowler. 
Jesse was a farmer who also worked for the 
Asheville Paving Company and helped pave 
the first old 19-23 Highway, as well as the 
streets of Clyde. He was employed at Amer- 
ican Enka Corporation at the time of his death, 
and is buried in the Pleasant Hill Cemetery in 
Clyde. 

Valria Fowler Chambers received her educa- 
tion at Clyde High School, finishing her 
nurse's training at the City Hospital in Balti- 
more, MD. She retired from St. Joseph's Hos- 
pital in Asheville. 

Their son, Harold Edward Chambers 
attended Clyde High School, Warren Wilson 
College, and Clemson University. He served 



172 



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JpK0 V >r> 


In 


WmW* 





Five living generations: Zellie M. Rogers Fowler (seated); 
Valria Fowler Chambers, standing; Harold E. Chambers, 
standing; Sharon K. Chambers Faulkner, front; and Bran- 
don Lee Faulkner. 

four years in the Air Force and now works for 
Champion Paper Company in Canton, N.C. He 
has three children: 

Sharon Kay Chambers attended Pisgah 
High School and then entered Greensboro Col- 
lege as a nurse major. She lives in Asheville, 
the wife of Kenneth Marshall Faulkner, and 
they had one son, Brandon Lee Faulkner. 

Another daughter, Elizabeth Ann Cham- 
bers, attended Pisgah High School and Kings 
College, Charlotte, NC, and lives in Charlotte. 

The youngest son is Harold Edward Cham- 
bers Jr., a junior at Pisgah High School, ex- 
celling in track. 

— Valria Fowler Chambers 



THE ANCESTORS OF LIZZIE 
MAE CHAPMAN 

270 

Lizzie Mae Chapman was born March 7, 
1912 in Manchester, Ga. to James Souther 
and Ollie Mae Burrell Chapman. After her birth 
the family moved to Henderson County, North 
Carolina to live. Here in Henderson County she 
grew into a lovely young lady who was very 
active in church and social functions in the 
area. On September 30, 1933 she married 
Robert Ransom Phillips in Campobello, South 
Carolina. On their return to Henderson Co. 
they started to raise a family. Lizzie lived the 
rest of her life in that county up to 1 976, when 
she moved to Buncombe County to live. On 
February 16, 1979 she died in Buncombe Co. 

James Souther Chapman was the son of 
John Simon and Mary Elizabeth Holsenbach 
Chapman. He was born May 4, 1880 in Tolber- 
ton, Ga., died June 9, 1967 in Henderson 
County, North Carolina. Ollie Mae Burrell was 
the daughter of Willis and Farry Genett Pruitt 
Burrell. She was born May 29, 1893 in Green- 
ville County, South Carolina, died July 15, 
1962 in Henderson County, North Carolina. 
James during his life time had many different 
occupations. They were everything from a 



farmer to an undertaker to a textile worker. 

John Simon Chapman was born on the 
family plantation in Ala. He married Mary Eliz- 
abeth Holsenbach in Ala. after meeting her on 
one of his trips to the mountains of the Caroli- 
nas. John died in August of the year of 1 896 in 
St. Clair County, Ala. and was buried in the 
Cox Church Cem. On December 18, 1895 he 
recorded a will in the above named county. 
Mary remarried after the death of her husband 
John to a Mr. Ben Knew. She died on February 
15, 1955 in Lynett, Ala., and was the daughter 
of Wiley and Ellizah Catherine Holsenbach. 
The family plantation was located near the 
town of Ragland, Ala. It was however sold after 
the Civil War to keep the family up. The old 
plantation house is still standing to this day. 

Farry Genett Pruitt was born August 9, 1 870 
in South Carolina. She died April 6, 1926 in 
Henderson County, North Carolina. Farry was 
the daughter of Joshua, born 1 844 in S.C. and 
Lisa Ann Lee Pruitt Jr., born 1844 in Hender- 
son County. Joshua Jr. was in the Civil War in 
Capt. Moores Co. "G" N.C. In 1896 he remar- 
ried Moriah Sentell in Henderson County. He 
died October in the year of 1897 and is buried 
in the old Sentell Cem. in Henderson Co. 
Joshua's father fought in the Rev. war and was 
given a mountain called Pruitt Mountain in 
South Carolina for his service to his country. 
This mountain is where the Greenville Water 
Works are now located. 

Willis Burrell was killed in 1903 in South 
Carolina in a boating accident. He was the son 
of Ira (Dick) and Mary Pace Burrell. They are 
buried in Anderson County, South Carolina at 
a place called Silome. 

— B.L. Phillips 



ELIJAH COWART CHASTAIN 
FAMILY 

271 

Elijah C. Chastain was born Nov. 1 , 1825, in 
Haywood Co., N.C. He married Elizabeth E. 
Boone, daughter of Kedar Boone and Mary 
Moody, also of Haywood Co. The marriage 
took place Dec. 1 , 1858 at Webster, Jackson 
Co., and the couple lived on Elijah's plantation 
located at the present site of Western Carolina 
University in Cullowhee. 

Six children were born: Oscar Marcus 
Valentine (b. Sept. 17, 1859 d. Oct. 19, 
1862); John Aurelius Boone (b. March 8, 
1851 , d. Feb. 2, 1927); Cassius E. (b. Jan. 16, 
1863 d. March 6, 1864); Callie Eugenia b. May 
13, 1865 d. Jan. 22, 1940); Mary (b. Feb. 9, 
1871 d. Dec. 6, 1947); Jessie Alice (b. Nov. 9, 
1875 d. July 4, 1959). 

Elijah C. was a surveyor and acquired sever- 
al hundreds of acres of land along the Tuck- 
aseegee River and in the Caney Fork section. 
He owned a copper mine located at Gunstock 
Cove, as well as a saw mill and a large grist 
mill, located at the falls on the river. 

The Chastain home was located where the 
Bird Administration building now stands. In 
later years it was known as the town house. It 
burned during the 1940's. 

Crippled, Elijah C. could not serve in the 
Regular Army during the Civil War. However, 



Gov. Vance commissioned him to supply food 
for the troops stationed in that region . He also 
used wagon trains to haul salt from Saltville, 
Va. until the route through Tennessee became 
too dangerous to travel due to the Union troop 
activity. Gov. Vance then made Elijah captain 
of the Home Guards, a position he held until 
the end of the war. 

Elizabeth, his wife, taught school for several 
years in Cullowhee. 

About 1 885 Elijah decided to sell most of his 
property in Jackson Co. to Dave Rogers, a 
friend of the family. The Chastain family then 
moved to Waynesville in Haywood Co. Both 
Elijah and Elizabeth had bought lots and 
acreage there. They moved into a large home 
located on Main St. in the middle of town 
where the children could attend school. John 
B., the only surviving son, left the family be- 
fore the move to Waynesville was complete. 
He moved into the Chickasaw Nation of the 
Indian Territory. 

Eldest daughter Callie married fellow stu- 
dent Beelie Robert Cox, while attending the 
Academy in Waynesville. His family lived in 
S.C. 

Some years later Elijah and Elizabeth moved 
to Gainsville, Ga. Here, Elijah did survey work 
for a large marble quarry owned by some of his 
in-laws. 

During December 1898 son John visited his 
family in Gainsville and persuaded Elijah and 
Elizabeth to join him in the Indian Territory. 
Upon their arrival, they bought a home in 
Ardmore, the capital of the Choctaw Nation, 
and Elijah helped his son survey several hun- 
dred acres of land which had been granted him 
by the Tribal Elders. 

John married a Chickasaw maid and was 
taken into the tribe as an inter-married white. 
They had two children: Alex McGee and Jessie 
Pearl. The marriage failed when the children 
were in their early teens. John later married 
Effie Marcella Allison. They had two children: 
John Boone Chastain, Jr. and Ruth Lea Chas- 
tain. 

Of the Elijah C. Chastain family, only four 
grandchildren with their descendants are alive 
today. 

Elijah C. returned to the east during the early 
summer of 1902 to transact sales of land he 
still held in Haywood Co. On the way, he 
stopped by Travelers Rest, SC to visit his 
eldest daughter, Callie, who had lost her hus- 
band. Elijah wanted to convince her to join the 
rest of the family in the Indian territory. 
However, Elijah was stricken with cholera and 
died June 19, 1902. He was buried at Travel- 
ers Rest, SC. 

— John B. Chastain 



MRS. ANNIE LAURA MARSH 
CHEDESTER 

271 -A 

Mrs. Chedester, the former Miss Annie 
Laura Marsh was born in Salisbury, April 14, 
1866. She was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
E.H. Marsh of Salisbury. Her father was fore- 
man of railroad machine shops during the Civil 
War and drove the first railroad engine into 



173 



Salisbury after the war. 

She was the widow of Samuel Hall Chedes- 
ter who brought her to Asheville as a bride in 
1893. Mr. Chedester was operator of the 
Grand Central Hotel where the S.H. Kress 
store now stands. Patton avenue was unpaved 
at the time. The Chedesters first resided on 
upper Asheland Avenue, and the house still 
stands. 




Annie Marsh Chedester (Mrs. S.H.) 

Mrs. Chedester was the last of the Marsh 
family of eight at the time of her death, and the 
oldest member of St. Paul's Methodist 
Church. Her hobby was crocheting bed- 
spreads and table spreads. 

In advanced years Mrs. Chedester rode 
horseback to the top of Mt. Pisgah and when 
she was 84 she walked to the top of Mt. 
Mitchell. She saw the Biltmore House built, 
watched most of the improvements of Ashe- 
ville, saw the first street car here and rode the 
last one to the barns in 1932. 

Mrs. Chedester loved to travel. In February 
and March of 1960 she visited Washington, 
DC and went to the top of the Washington 
Monument. She had made many long trips 
after she had passed middle age. 

She retained a keen interest in the news — 
local, national and international. She had a 
number of programs she preferred to watch on 
television. She also liked to fly and once said 
plane travel was like sitting still and holding 
hands. At home, or wherever she happened to 
be, she was always busy. She was the one 
member of the family who kept in constant 
touch with the others, and they with her. 

She died at the age of 94 on May 28, 1960. 
She had two sons, Marsh and Frank, and one 
daughter, Ruth (Mrs. Charles D. Parker) 
Marsh died in 1918. Frank married Elizabeth 
Boyce. 

— Ruth Chedester Parker 



SAMUEL HALL CHEDESTER 

271 -B 

Samuel Hall Chedester, came to Asheville 
from Tennessee at the age of 8, abut 1870, in a 




Samuel Hall Chedester 

covered wagon driven by horses. He hauled 
stones in his billy-goat wagon for the First 
Court House of Asheville. 

Being the oldest of eight children he helped 
his Mother, Sarah Ruth Chedester, with the 
operation of Grand Central Hotel and annex, 
while his father and uncles were in Civil War 
service. He drove the coach from the train 
station to the hotel bringing guests to the 
hotel. Also he helped educate his younger 
brothers. 




Grand Central Hotel 

S. R CHEOESTFR & SON, Prop'n. 

\%Ut>\ ill. . >. «'. 

Grand Central Hotel 



The Hotel was later closed, and a Dry Goods 
Store occupied the space. Still later S.H. Kress 
opened a remodeled store on the sight on 
Patton Avenue, and the Man Store where the 
annex was. Mr. Chedester was credited with 
bringing business to Haywood Street. 

A beautiful stained glass window in Central 

Methodist Church is erected in memory of 

Sarah Ruth Chedester, mother of the family. 

— Ruth Chedester Parker 

(Mrs. Charles D. Parker) 



JAMES PRESTON CHERRY 

272 

James Preston Cherry was born September 
9, 1837 in Rutherford County, North Carolina. 
He was the first child of Sara (Sallie) Goforth 



and John Tucker Cherry. 

When James Preston was ten years old, he 
moved with his family to Cherokee County, 
North Carolina. The area to which his folks 
moved became a part of Clay County in 1861 . 

In 1862, James Preston Cherry joined the 
Confederate Army. After serving for three 
years in the Confederacy under Captain Wil- 
liam Patton Moore of Hayesville, he resigned 
as a sergeant in Company F, 6th Cavalry (65th 
State Troops). 

He was elected sheriff of Clay County in 
1874. He remained sheriff for the next twenty 
years. 

James P. Cherry married Mary Elizabeth 
Curtis, daughter of Wesley Curtis of Clay 
County on December 20, 1866. She was born 
December 23, 1847. 




James Preston Cherry 



Mary Elizabeth and James Preston Cherry 
became the parents of seven children. They 
were: 

1. Robert Turner b. September 16, 1867; d. 
August 9, 1 885; burial in Methodist Cemetery, 
Clay County. 

2. William Hix. b. February 26, 1869; d. in 
Idaho. 

3. Sara Dora b. December 2, 1870; m. 
William Harrison Jarrett November 22, 1900; 
d. November 12, 1963; burial in Oak Forest 
Cemetery, Clay County. 

4. John W. b. February 17, 1873; d. July 
1920 in Texas. 

5. Anner Belle b. January 22, 1876; d. May 
13, 1878; burial in Baptist-Presbyterian 
Cemetery, Clay County. 

6. George W. b. April 5, 1878; m. Myrt 
Hunt; d. May 30, 1946; burial in Methodist 
Cemetery, Clay County. 

7. Mark Killian b. March 21, 1881; d. April 
1974 in Idaho. 

When she was thirty-five years of age, Mary 
Elizabeth Cherry died. The death date was 
June 22, 1883. Her pastor, W.A. Thomas, 
eulogized her as an excellent homemaker and 



174 




Mary Elizabeth Curtis Cherry with infant son George 

mother and a fine Christian lady. She was 
buried in Methodist Cemetery, Hayesville, 
North Carolina. 

James married, secondly, Mary S. Marr, 
daughter of H.M. Penland, on February 14, 
1884. She died June 30, 1886. 

His third wife was Lenora McClure, daugh- 
ter of R.G. Ketron. They were married Febru- 
ary 17, 1887. She died February 24, 1914. 

After serving as sheriff, James Cherry was 
elected in 1898 to serve one term as county 
commissioner of Clay County. 

He also taught school for two years some- 
time prior to his 22 years in public office. 

Nine years prior to his death, James be- 
came totally blind. He made his home with his 
son George until he died on December 8, 
1927. He, too, was buried in Methodist 
Cemetery beside Mary Elizabeth. 

His grandson, Neal Jarrett, described him 
as "one of the best and kindest old men I ever 
knew." 

— Elizabeth Jarrett Walton 

JOHN TUCKER CHERRY 

273 

John Tucker Cherry recorded in his Bible on 
March 16, 1846 that he was born April 9, 
1806. He also recorded that his father and 
mother were Robert Cherry, born October 10, 
1764, and Rebecca Cherry, born March 4, 
1770. Their death dates were October 27, 
1844 and September 29, 1842, respectively. 
John Cherry did not record his birthplace nor 
that of his parents. 

John Tucker Cherry married first Sara Nix 
Flack on April 8, 1829 in Rutherford County, 
North Carolina. She was born October 3, 1811 
and died January 20, 1835. She was the 
daughter of William and Jane Nix Flack. 

Children born to John and Sara Flack Cherry 
were: 

1 . Jane Elizabeth b. May 29, 1830 d. Febru- 
ary 1920; burial in Baptist-Presbyterian 
Cemetery, Clay County, North Carolina. 



2. Rebecca Armina b. September 29, 1832 
m. James Jasper Scroggs January 25, 1855; 
d. December 10, 1911; burial in Baptist- 
Presbyterian Cemetery. 

3. William J. b. January 2, 1835; d. October 
31, 1854 in Rutherford County. 

After Sara's death, John Tucker Cherry 
married Sara (Sallie) Goforth in Rutherford 
County on May 16, 1836. The bondsman was 
William Flack and the witness was Edmund 
Bryan. 




Sallie Goforth Cherry 




John Tucker Cherry 

Sallie Goforth Cherry, born February 15, 
1807, was the daughter of John Preston and 
Isabella Smart Goforth of Rutherford County 
who were married September 22, 1803. 

Sallie Goforth Cherry's grandfather John 
Preston Goforth, Sr. and his brother, Preston 
Goforth are cited by historians as probably 
being the brothers who were expert riflemen 
and shot and killed each other at the Battle of 
King's Mountain on October 7, 1780. John 
Preston was a Tory; his brother a Whig. 



Sallies father, John Preston Goforth, Jr. 
was born April 9, 1778 in Rutherford County 
(then Tryon County) and died there June 16, 
1855. Her mother, Isabella, also a Rutherford 
County native, was born in 1783 and died 
December 9, 1826. Both are buried at Camp 
Creek Cemetery in Rutherford County. 

John Tucker and Sallie Cherry had five chil- 
dren. They were: 

1 . James Preston b. September 9, 1837; m. 
Mary Elizabeth Curtis December 20, 1866; d. 
December 8, 1927; burial in Methodist 
Cemetery, Clay County. 

2. A son (never named) b. August 17,1 839; 
d. August 23, 1839 in Rutherford County. 

3. Twins, Isabella and Sara b. May 9, 1841; 
Sara d. October 10, 1943 in Rutherford Coun- 
ty; Isabella m. George McConnell December 
27, 1866; d. near Clarksville, Georgia. 

4. Robert C. b. November 4, 1844; m. 
Victoria Kimsey October 30, 1873; d. April 24, 
1924 in Clay County. 

In 1847, John Tucker and Sallie Cherry and 
all the children except William, who was 
reared by Sara Flack Cherry's mother, moved 
and settled in an area of Cherokee County, 
North Carolina now known as Clay County 
where John farmed. He reported in the 1850 
and 1860 Agriculture Schedule of North Caro- 
lina that he owned 50 acres. His main crop was 
corn. 

John Tucker Cherry died September 10, 
1891 and his wife Sallie died July 7, 1894. 
They are buried in the Baptist-Presbyterian 
Cemetery in Clay County. 

— Elizabeth Jarrett Walton 



SAMUEL CHUNN 

274 

Samuel Chunn was a native of Wilkes Coun- 
ty, N.C. who came early to Buncombe County. 
He came into the area of Asheville, keeping a 
hotel at the southwestern corner of the Public 
Square, where afterwards, stood the First 
National Bank of Asheville. This building was 
removed by Captain Thomas D. Johnston in 
1885 and substituted by the brick house that 
for a long time contained the T.C. Smith Drug 
Store. 

Samuel Chunn for years conducted a 
tanyard in Asheville near the beginning of Mer- 
rimon Avenue, once called Beaverdam Road 
and the Beaverdam Street. 

In October 1806 Col. Samuel Chunn was 
chairman of the Buncombe County Court and 
in January 1807 he was the jailer at Asheville. 
At one time he was a commissioner of Ashe- 
ville. 

North Carolina granted to him a large part of 
Sunset Mountain or Town Mountain on both 
sides of which he owned land. From him, as 
owner of the upper part of Ross Creek Valley, 
the first valley east of Asheville, Chunn's Cove 
took its name. In later life he lived at the Chunn 
Place on French Broad River below Marshall in 
Madison County, N.C. where he died in 
November 1855, leaving a large estate. 

His wife's name was Hannah, and one son 
was Alfred B. Chunn. The latter lived for many 
years in Asheville, and in 1846 represented 
Buncombe County in the North Carolina House 

175 



of Commons. 

Taken from the writings of Foster Sondley: History of 
Buncombe County, Privately published 1930 by The In- 
land Press, written by Foster Sondley. ., ,. „ 

— W.E. Bryson 

ALFRED SPEIGHT CLARK 
FAMILY 

274-A 

Alfred Speight Clark, the son of Richard and 
Frances Rogers Clark, was born in the Beaver- 
dam section of Haywood County April 9, 1 830. 
He married L. Jane Russell daughter of Mat- 
thew Russell May 3, 1855. 

He served in the Confederate States Army 
from 1 862 to 1 865, under the following gener- 
als at one time or another: A.S. Johnston, 
Bragg, J.E. Johnston, Hood and Beauregard, 
fighting in the main battles of Shilo, Murfrees- 
boro, Vicksburg (where he was wounded), 
Chickamauga, New Orleans, Atlanta, Cumber- 
land Gap and Allatona Pass. He belonged to 
Company E, 16th Regiment. 




Alfred Speight Clark: 1830-1915 

He lived and reared his family in the Fines 
Creek Township of Haywood County where he 
died May 6, 1 91 5. He and his wife are buried in 
the Cemetery of Lower Fines Creek Methodist 
Church. 

His children were Sarah Clark Grindstaff, 
Frances Clark Williamson, Nancy C. Brown, 
Blandy Clark Russell, William, John R.L., 
Almeda Clark Bolin (Bolden), Tapley, and Rixie 
Gordon Clark Beasley. 

— Jane Brown Allen 



THE FAMILY OF BENJAMIN 
CLARK 

274-B 

Benjamin Clark Sr., born about 1760, came 
to Buncombe County c 1790. He purchased 
400 acres of land from John Strothers H-16- 
1800 on the Pigeon River. This land was near 
Canton known then as the Flowery Gardens 

176 



and now as the Osborne Farm in the Bethel 
Community. He purchased 262 acres in the 
Beaverdam section from John Strothers 1-11- 
1802. This land is known as the Drayton Hen- 
derson Farm. He died about 1814. 

His son Benjamin, Jr. married Lucy Dalton 
and was very active in politics in the county. 
He represented the county in the State Legisla- 
ture in 1822. 

Richard Clark was the youngest son of Ben- 
jamin Clark, Sr. and married Francis Rogers, 
daughter of Robert Rogers. 

Their sons were: Carson who married Hulda 
Noland, daughter of Peter Noland; Alfred 
Speight Clark who married Jane Russell, 
daughter of Matthew and Nancy Noland Rus- 
sell; John who married Mattie Spoons of Mor- 
ristown, Tennessee; and Arch and William 
who were not married. 

His daughters were: Sallie who married Wil- 
liam Green, Jane who married Nathan 
Roberts, and Martha who married LaFayette 
Early. 

— Jane Brown Allen 



THE LAMBERT CLINGMAN 
CLAYTON FAMILY 

275 

Lambert Clingman Clayton, son of George 
Clayton, was born August 24, 1807. He be- 
came an orphan early in life and perhaps lived 
with a brother. He was employed by Benjamin 
Burgin, a tanner of Old Fort, NC, whose wife 
was Leah Mann. 

Lambert married one of Benjamin and 
Leah's daughters, Eliza, born Sept. 3, 1817 
and died March 15, 1909. They were married 
October 30, 1834. 

The young couple was given $1 000 and they 
went to Henderson Co. for a time. Later they 
settled on a farm in Buncombe Co. near Fair- 
view, NC in the Cane Creek Valley. The house, 
built with pegs, still stands. 

Lambert and Eliza had four sons: John, G. 
Marion, William Benjamin, and Robert Cling- 
man, and three daughters: Elizabeth Ann who 
married Dr. George W. Fletcher, Leah Malinda 
who married Joseph R. Garren, and Sarah 
who married John Williams. 

The three oldest sons served in the Con- 
federate Army but Bob was too young. 

Lambert died in 1866 at age 59. His wife, 
who had only one hand, carried on during the 
hard reconstruction days. 

The sons married: John to Lou E. Wilson. 
They moved to McDowell Co. G. Marion mar- 
ried Lyda Lusk and went to Oklahoma to live. 
William Benjamin married Ellen Davidson and 
lived in Asheville. Robert Clingman married 
first Nancy Elizabeth Young and later Elizabeth 
Cornelia Young, a cousin to his first wife. 

Eliza Clayton was a remarkable woman. 
With only one hand, she could knit, sew, spin, 
and keep a fine house. She had a little bird 
clasp that fastened to a small table that held 
her needlework as she worked. 

Eliza told her grandchildren about riding to 
Old Fort to have shoes made. She had one 
child on the horse, one in her lap, and another 
behind her. 



Dr. George Fletcher called for her when his 
one child was sick. Eliza used herbs, cultivat- 
ing them in her own garden. 

Only one of Lambert and Eliza Clayton's 
grandchildren is alive today, Mrs. Nelle 
Clayton Boyette of Goldsboro, N.C. There are 
many descendants of this family in and around 
Buncombe Co. 

Lambert Clingman Clayton and Elizabeth 
Burgin Clayton are buried in the Sharon 
Methodist Church Cemetery in Fairview, NC. 

Lambert and Eliza also had twin daughters 
that died, one three days after birth and one six 
days after. They were the first ones buried in 
Sharon Cemetery. 

— Lillian Clayton Baldwin 

ROBERT CLINGMAN CLAYTON 

276 

Robert Clingman Clayton, sixth child of 
Lambert Clingman and Elizabeth (Eliza) Burgin 
Clayton, was born 13 April 1850 and died 30 
August 1931. He grew up in the Cane Creek 
Valley near Fairview, N.C, Buncombe County, 
on the farm of his father. 

Robert C. Clayton married Nancy Elizabeth 
Young, daughter of John Edmondson Young 
and Hannah Garren Young. Nancy was born 
29 April 1 855 and married 1 8 November 1 875. 

The children of Robert and Nancy were 
Annie Victoria who married Arthur G. 
McDowell; Helen L. married Dr. Cicero M. 
McCracken, a well known physician in the 
Fairview section of Buncombe County; Law- 
rence Cuthbert, a farmer of the Cane Creek 
Valley married Elizabeth Jane Tweed; Gordon 
R. , an orchardist and ferry boat purser on Lake 
Washington, married Jennie Wood and lived 
in Bellevue, Washington; Howard Pearson, a 
building contractor, married Edith Carlisle Wil- 
lis and lived in Asheville. 

When Bob's first wife died, 14 August 
1887, the children were school age and their 
teacher was Elizabeth Cornelia Young, a 
cousin of Nancy's and had attended their wed- 
ding. She never dreamed that sometime she 
would be Bob's wife too. 

R.C. Clayton married the second time to 
Elizabeth (Lillie) Cornelia Young, daughter of 
William Riley and Sarah Elizabeth Sherrill 
Young. Lillie was born 9 July 1 866 and died 28 
January 1931. Bob sold the farm to his 
nephew, Dr. Hall Fletcher, and moved to 
another farm just two and a half miles from 
Fletcher on the Cane Creek road, this had been 
the ancestrial home of his wife Nancy. The 
house was struck with lightning, was remod- 
eled, then the house burned but was rebuilt. 

The family of Bob and Lillie were: Irene 
Elizabeth, a teacher and U.S. Government 
Post Office employee. She married Hinton J. 
Best of Goldsboro, N.C; William Robert 
served in the Navy, later residing in Los 
Angeles, California, married Mary Wilson; 
Nelle L., a teacher and farm wife married R.L. 
Boyette of Goldsboro, N.C; Cecil V. was a 
wood crafter and continued his skill with The 
Three Mountaineers of Asheville; Alene M. a 
teacher with Buncombe County schools for 41 
years, retiring in 1968, married Pryor R. Hol- 
derby. 






R.C. Clayton was a farmer for many years, 
was a great believer in better education for all 
children, was interested in all local affairs and 
was a County Commissioner in Buncombe 
County for twenty years, retiring in the late 
1900's. He was a dedicated Democrat and a 
Master Mason, was influential in getting the 
first bridge across the French Broad River into 
West Asheville. 

When all of his children except one were 
gone from home, he sold the farm to Dr. E.W. 
Grove, who planned to make of it a western 
type ranch, and the family moved to Asheville. 

Robert and Nancy are buried in the Sharon 
Methodist Church Cemetery, Fairview, N.C. 
Buncombe County, and Lillie is buried in 
Swannanoa, N.C. 

Mrs. R.L. Boyette, a daughter of Robert and 
Lillie's lives in Goldsboro, N.C. 

— Lillian Clayton Baldwin 

COGBURN — DAVIS 

277 

Chester Amberg Cogburn and Ruby Davis 
Cogburn, his wife, operated Pisgah View 
Ranch, near the foot of Mount Pisgah in Bun- 
combe County from 1941 until his death on 
April 7, 1978. Ruby Davis Cogburn still oper- 
ates Pisgah View Ranch. 

The Ranch is located upon land which has 
been owned by the family of Ruby Davis Cog- 
burn since it was obtained by State Grant in 
1790. These grants were to Uriah Davis who 
came from Wales, the great great grandfather 
of Ruby Davis Cogburn. The land which is the 
Ranch was inherited by Benjamin Davis, her 
great grandfather, then by Henry Allen Davis, 
her grandfather, and finally by Allen Turner 
Davis, her father. 

Allen Turner Davis married Ella Davis and 
they had six children: Bonnie who married 
Rhett Smathers, Myrtle who married Jim Cole, 
Nell who married William Cowan, Lillian who 
married J. Fred Carter, Tennyson who married 
Dolores Hazelwood, and Ruby who married 
Chester Amberg Cogburn. 

Over the years, Allen Turner Davis and his 
wife Ella Davis farmed the land which now 
comprises Pisgah View Ranch and, for a 
period of about fifty years prior to 1940, Ella 
Davis kept and boarded a few guests from time 
to time in their house which she named "Pis- 
gah View House". 

Allen Turner Davis died on February 7, 
1934, and Ella Davis died on July 7, 1942, 
where she had made her home with Ruby and 
Chester Cogburn after they moved there. 

Chester Amberg Cogburn was born in 
Haywood County, North Carolina on August 
22, 1902, the oldest child of Lou Moore Cog- 
burn and Posey Cogburn. Their other children 
were Bonnie who married Earnest Owenby, 
Louis who married Lucille Gambrell, and Myr- 
tle who married Milton Wesley Vrabel. 

Chester Amberg Cogburn attended the 
Haywood Institute in Clyde and studied law at 
Cumberland University in Lebanon, Tennes- 
see from which he received his LL.B. degree in 
1924. He passed the North Carolina Bar ex- 
amination and was admitted to practice law in 
North Carolina in 1924. 



He began the practice of law in Waynesville 
in 1924 and, on March 20, 1926, he and Ruby 
Davis were married. He moved his law practice 
to Canton and he served there as Judge of the 
Police Court for several years. He was elected 
to serve and did serve in the North Carolina 
Senate in 1939 and 1940 representing the 
senatorial district comprised of Haywood, 
Jackson, and Transylvania Counties. After the 
move to the Ranch in 1941 , he continued his 
law practice in Haywood County for approx- 
imately five years, and then he continued law 
practice on a more limited scale from the 
Ranch. 

Lou Moore Cogburn was the grand- 
daughter of Sam Moore who lived upon and 
owned the property in Upper Hominy 
Township in Buncombe County off of Davis 
Creek Road known as "Sam's Branch". Her 
father was Joe Moore, the son of Sam Moore. 
The Moores were Irish people who lived just 
over a small mountain a distance of about two 
miles from the Ranch. In fact, Lou Moore, 
before her marriage to Posey Cogburn, made 
the dress in which Ella Davis was married to 
Allen Turner Davis. She died in Buncombe 
County on December 25, 1954. 

Posey Cogburn was the son of John Jeffer- 
son Cogburn and was the youngest of ten 
children. The father of John Jefferson Cog- 
burn was Reuben Cogburn who went to Arkan- 
sas and remained there until his death. John 
Jefferson Cogburn and his family lived in the 
East Fork section of Haywood County. The 
Cogburn family came from the Town of Cock- 
burnspath in Scotland which is located on the 
North Sea 29 miles South of Edinburgh. Posey 
Cogburn died in Buncombe County in Novem- 
ber, 1976 at the age of 97 years. 

Chester Amberg Cogburn and Ruby Davis 
Cogburn have two children, Phyllis Ann Cog- 
burn, who was born in Buncombe County on 
September 26, 1934, and Max Oliver Cog- 
burn, who was born in Haywood County on 
March 21, 1927. 

Phyllis Ann Cogburn attended public 
schools in Buncombe County and graduated 
from the University of North Carolina. She is 
married to Samuel R. Parris and they have two 
sons, Richard and Wesley, who are students 
in the Buncombe County public schools. Phyl- 
lis and her husband and children reside at 
Pisgah View Ranch. 

Max Oliver Cogburn attended public 
schools in Haywood and Buncombe Counties. 
Thereafter, he graduated from the University 
of North Carolina, the University of North 
Carolina Law School, and received the degree 
of LL.M. from the Harvard Law School. He is 
married to the former Mary Helen Heidt of 
Charleston, South Carolina, and they have five 
children: Max Oliver Cogburn, Jr., a member 
of the North Carolina Bar who is now serving 
as Assistant United States Attorney for the 
Western District of North Carolina, Mary 
Christine Babb, an accountant who is married 
to Jerue Babb, Michael David Cogburn who is 
a third year medical student at East Carolina 
University School of Medicine, Steven Doug- 
las Cogburn who is a second year law student 
at the University of North Carolina Law School, 
and Cynthia Diane Cogburn who is a senior at 



North Carolina State University. Max Oliver 
Cogburn, Jr. is married to the former Fran 
Gresham of Decatur, Alabama, and they have 
a son, Max Oliver Cogburn III, who was born 
on December 27, 1979. All of the Cogburns 
live at Pisgah View Ranch except Mary Christ- 
ine Babb who lives with her husband in Ashe- 
ville and Spartanburg. 

— Max O. Cogburn, Sr. 

WILLIAM COGDILL, SR. 

278 

Family tradition is that Will Cogdill, born 
175?, London, England, was "pressed" into 
service by a ship's crew in London, long be- 
fore the Revolution. He was about fourteen 
years old when he arrived in the Colonies. This 
statement was made to the writer in 1937 
when James Lenard Cogdill, a great-uncle, 
visited the family and it was written down at 
the time. 

William Cogdill was in Tryon County in 1 772 
when he appears in the Minutes of the Court of 
Common Pleas & Quarter Sessions, in Andrew 
Neel's Book, at page 28: 

"1772 October Term, Claims On The 
County Of Tryon For Year 1772" List of 
names, tickets for venire etc. * * * fifteenth 
name: 

"William Cogdale, 1 wolf scalp ticket, 
7.6" 

(Tryon County was in existence from 
1 768 to 1 779.) In 1 770-1 772 Tryon Coun- 
ty paid a bounty of seven shillings sixpence 
for wolf and some panther scalps; others 
were ten shillings. 

William Cogdill served as a Private in the 
North Carolina Line (Certificate #90121) in 
Alexander Brevard's Company, enlisting May 
25, 1781, leaving service April 25, 1782. His 
name was "Cogdill" on the List of Accounts. 

On October 3, 1 783 he obtained a land grant 
for 200 acres on a branch of Long Creek "ad- 
joining land of Thomas Perkins and Peter 
Costner" for fifty shillings per 100 acres, 
which grant included the words, "including 
his own improvements". (#107, Bk 1 p 89 
Lincoln County reds.) 

Although William is not in the 1790 census, 
Fed Cogsdil and John Cogdill appear (9th 
Company). Both served in Virginia regiments 
in the War. 

On September 23, 1789 William Cogdill 
signed his name "Will Cogdill" in his own 
hand to the will of Thomas Harrington in 
Rutherford County. Thomas Harrington 
named his wife, Sarah, as devisee; executors 




The wedding photograph of F.P. Cogdill and Charlotte 
Jane Cook. Made in 1862. Owned by Mrs. C.T. Car- 
michael, Sun City, Arz. 



177 




TheF.P. Cogdill family 
Ann. Sealed: Mattie, F 



Back Row: Linda, Robert Gerdes, Charlotte, Newton, Columbus, 
P., Charlotte Jane, William. Standing, front: Hannah, Frank (on right). 




This is a photo of a Confederate Veterans' Reunion in New Orleans in 1 906. 
in the Tintype. 



F. Patton Cogdill, 1 841 -1917, is the tallest man 



were Daniel and Jacob Shipman, the latter on 
above List of Claims. Sarah Cogdale was wit- 
ness on a deed from Erasmus Rupert to David 
Jenkins dated January 25, 1769 for 50 acres, 
part of a tract granted to Rupert in 1764 on 
Long Creek, South side of South Fork of 
Catawba River in then Mecklenburg County. In 
the body of the will, Thomas Harrington 
directs that "Fredrick Cogdal settle with his 
estate for a ten pound horse which he has 
received". 

On October 20, 1 797, Will Cogdill signed as 
bondsman for Joseph Cross in Rutherford 
County on his license to marry Ann Cogdill. 
The signature is identical to that on the will. 

William Cogdill is in the 1800 census of 
Rutherford County, with one son, 16-26 
years, he and his wife over 45 years. Before 
1810 William had migrated to Buncombe 
County, settling at Spring Creek. He is in the 
1810 census for Buncombe County, taken 
December 5, 1810, at page 262: 

Line 6: William Cogdill, Senr., wife, 
both over 45. 

Line 4: William Cogdill, 16-26, three 
sons, one daughter, all under ten, wife 
16-26. 

Also on that census are Joseph Cross with 
wife, two sons, four daughters, and Joseph 

178 



Cross, Senr. (They are in Lincoln County in the 
1820 census.) 

Most early records of Buncombe County 
were destroyed in the fires of 1830, 1835 and 



y 



1865. On a lower shelf of a large bookcase in 
the Register of Deed's office was found a soot- 
covered journal showing early land entries. 
William Coggdail entered land on June 22, 
1818 (Entry #342) for 100 acres lying on 
Crumply's Branch, the waters of Spring Creek. 

William Cogdill, Senr. does not appear in 
any record after 1810 or 1818. The land entry 
could have been William Cogdill lid. They have 
many land grants and deeds in early days. The 
home place was occupied by a family member 
until 1883 when Robert Cogdill sold seven 
tracts of land and moved to Cocke County, 
Tennessee. In 1937 James Lenard Cogdill re- 
ferred to family ties in Lincoln County. De- 
scendants of William Cogdill, Revolutionary 
soldier, live in or near Spring Creek today. 

It is believed the early Cogdills are buried in 
the abandoned Roaring Fork cemetery at the 
upper end of Meadow Fork of Spring Creek. 

James Lenard Cogdill stated in 1937 that 
William Cogdill II, his grandfather, had five 
sons and four daughters. Records reveal they 
are believed to be: Fredrick (born 1802); Wil- 
liam H. (born 1804); James (born 1810); 
Robert, and Matthew (born 1825). 

Robert Cogdill, born April 15, 1819, Spring 
Creek, North Carolina, married Malinda Davis, 
born September 10, 1824, daughter of John 
and Nancy Davis. Malinda had seven brothers 
for whom she named her sons. Their Family 
Register names the children: Fidilla Patton; 
Harriet M.; Alford Bert; Malinda E.; James 
Lenard; Nancy Jane; Benjamin F.; Andrew J.; 
Joseph C; Sintha Lusinda; and Robert A., 
who died in infancy. Malinda died about 1873 
and was buried in the private family cemetery 
on Cove Mountain, Spring Creek. 

Robert Cogdill married 2 — Mary Jane Tur- 
ner, widow, in 1874; they had one son, Royal 
Jehu. The marriage license names Robert's 
parents as William Cogdill, Sr. and Nancy 
Cogdill. 

F. Patton Cogdill, this writer's grandfather, 
enlisted in the Civil War in 1861 , in Company 
H, 2d N.C. Battalion. Five of his cousins en- 
listed at the same time. They were captured at 
Roanoke Island, Virginia 1862 and paroled. 



<: it E essuoi 



MIHTU C A ItOLIN .1 , 



III 



day of April, 18US, 1 



clnnco with the terms of the Milits 

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uNisToy, Command 



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into on 1 1 io twenty tilth 

tl.c Confederate Army, 

the Diiitcd Slates Army in_Nortli-Ciiroliiia, 



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lias gIVOIl III" BO 

until properlj > 
disturbed by th 



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1'iytcd States nut! 
Iiere lre-^isji 




against tlio Government of tlic United Sta'es 
ibligation ; and is permitted to return to bis borne, not to be 
rities so long a= be observe tbis olligation and obe 



the 



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1 



Civil War parole papers — F.P. Cogdill 



SV" Addr«M "Tin AdjMi.nl Genml, 
n p T} W.r Deputm.nt, Washington, D. C." 4 

WAR DEPARTMENT. 
THE ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE. 

WABHINOTON Jan. 14. 1925. 
Respectfully returned to 

lension Lept.atate of Oklahoma, 
Oklahoma City.Okla. 

The records show that Fidelia ] . Cog- 
dill ,prt. Co. H, 2nd. Battn. .C.Inf.C.S.A 
enlisted July 4, 1961, at Marshall ,V..Q. 
was cartureu at Hoanoke Is.reb .8,186^. 
released on jarolu at -.lizabeth City, v 
M.G. Feb. 21,1862. a d was transferred^ 
to Co.B,60th...egt.:..C.Inf .. e; t. 1,186$, 
on muster roll or which or r..fcrJuly. 
4 Aug. 1864. (last on fiiejho is shown, 
Irosent.^bout ..pr.S ,1865, the outh. .0 
Inf. by consolidation became ^ art i 
of the o8th.Hegt... .C .Inf. consolida- 
ted. as a prt.of Co.^,of which Cons. 
hegt. I'.?. Cogdill , is ~hown, paroled at 
Greensboro, .G.aoout L'.ay 1,18CL. 



SittAidr C <&VvC?* 



Major General, 
The Adjutant General, 



F«m No. 072-A.C.O 



Confirmation of Civil War records of F.P. Cogdill. 

While at home he married Charlotta Jane 
Cooke on May 4, 1862 at Marshall, North 
Carolina, then he reenlisted for the duration, 
being placed on the ROLL OF HONOR. He 
fought in all major battles and was with Gener- 
al Bragg on Missionary Ridge which he often 
said was the hardest fought battle of the war. 
Although he was illiterate, his captain taught 
him to read and write. 

In 1867-8, F.P. Cogdill migrated with his 

wife and two small boys to Texas with his 

wife's parents, R.S. Cook, and their families. 

Three of his brothers later joined him in Texas. 

— Mrs. Erma V. (Cogdill) Carmichael 

GEORGE BRYAN COGGINS 

279 

George Bryan Coggins was born at Bee Tree 
February 24, 1908. He was the son of Vara 
Elizabeth Keene and Henry Allen Coggins II. 

He attended Swannanoa and Bee Tree pri- 
mary schools, Miss Mary E. Griffiths' classes 
and was a 1925 graduate of Swannanoa High 
School. He took selected courses at the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill for four 
years specializing in business administration. 

He was a member of Sigma Zeta and Lamb- 
da Chi Alpha Fraternities and the Di Senate. 
Other organizations to which he belonged 
were the Biltmore Forest Country Club, the 
Asheville City Club, the Mountain City Club, 
Urban Land Institute, the International Council 
of Shopping Centers and the American Society 
of Mining Engineers. 

He was a member of the Vestry and Building 
Committee of All Souls Episcopal Church; a 
member of the Board of Directors and Chair- 
man of the Building Committee of Thorns 



Rehabilitation Hospital; a member of the Build- 
ing Committee of Asheville Country Day 
School; a member of Governor Robert Scott's 
committee to reorganize state government; a 
member of the Board of the North Carolina 
Symphony Orchestra; Secretary and Vice 
president of the Asheville Civitan Club; Secre- 
tary and President of Welcome to Asheville, 
Inc.; first President of Asheville Kennel Club, 
Inc. and life honorary President; a Director and 
Vice President of Asheville Chamber of Com- 
merce; Vice President of Asheville Community 
Theatre; a director of Civic Arts Council; 
founding president of Chamber Music group; 
founding secretary of Asheville Community 
Concerts and secretary and campaign mana- 
ger of the committee to raise funds to build the 
Asheville Civic Auditorium. 

He is a licensed real estate broker and a 
developer. He was President of Bee Tree Ver- 
miclite Mines which merged with American 
Zinc, Lead and Smelting Company. He was 
President of Ban Dan Laboratories which 
made Ban Dan hair tonic. 

In 1956 he built Westgate Shopping Center 
in Asheville, the first shopping center in the 
south with a department store. 

He has been named man of the year by the 
Asheville Civitan Club and the Asheville Cham- 
ber of Commerce. 

In 1938 George Coggins went to Washing- 
ton, and through the efforts of Senator Robert 
R. Reynolds, secured a federal grant to build 
the present civic auditorium even though the 
city of Asheville had not applied for a grant. 

He is married to the former Margo Beach of 
Bethel, Ohio. They have a daughter Craig 
Mackenzie "Copper" Coggins born April 15, 
1946. 

— George B. Coggins 

HENRY ALLEN COGGINS II 

280 

Henry Allen Coggins II was born at Bee Tree 
in 1 875, the son of John Wesley Coggins I and 
Mary Jane Melton Coggins. 

He attended Piney Grove School, Weaver 
College and Wake Forest College where he 
studied law and was a star pitcher and batter 
for the Wake Forest baseball team. 

While he was a star pitcher for the Deacons 
he was offered a contract with the Philadelphia 
Nationals but an arm injury prevented his play- 
ing in the major leagues. He returned to Ashe- 
ville and in 1904 he organized the first Ashe- 
ville baseball league team and became mana- 
ger of the Asheville Mountaineers and always 
led that team in hitting while he was a member. 

In 1905 he married Vera Elizabeth Keene of 
Mt. Olive, North Carolina, an honors graduate 
in math at Atlantic Christian College and a 
math teacher at Holman Christian University at 
Black Mountain. She was born in 1885, the 
daughter of John Preston Keene and wife Nan- 
cy Alice Godwin Keene. 

Henry Allen and Vera Elizabeth Keene Cog- 
gins had nine children: Eldridge Allen, George 
Bryan, Henrietta Allene Ellington, Mary Alice 
Stevens, Margaret Elizabeth (Rowland) Avis, 
John Wesley II, Dorothy Pearl Davis, Vara 
Ruth Henson, and Betty Jane Garland. 



All of these were living until the death of the 
eldest son Eldridge Allen I January 9, 1981. 
Eldridge Coggins II and his family live at 
Arden. Mary Stevens lives at Bee Tree, John A. 
and Pearl Coggins Davis live on Sunset Moun- 
tain, Allene Ellington lives in Biltmore Garden 
Apts., and George and Margo Beach Coggins 
live at 65 Town Mountain Road and have a 
daughter Craig Mackenzie "Copper" Coggins 
who lives in Asheville. 

Henry Allen Coggins II was an original 
member of the Board of Directors of Farmers 
Federation Inc. and a member of the Executive 
Committee. He was superintendent of the Bee 
Tree Christian Church Sunday School, and 
active in the perpetuation of the famous annual 
Bee Tree picnic which was first held at the 
close of the Civil War. 

He was active in local political and civic 
affairs and was a 32nd degree Mason and a 
Shriner. He was a trustee and deacon of the 
Bee Tree Christian Church. 

Allen was affectionately known as "The 
Mayor of Bee Tree". He inherited from his 
mother Mary Jane Craig Coggins, and ac- 
quired from his brothers and sisters their 
shares in a large tract of approximately 1 ,000 
acres of land at Bee Tree extending to the 
upper reaches of Bee Tree Lake and down the 
creek to Bee Tree Church. He operated a saw 
mill and engaged in mica mining and cattle 
raising and farming. 

In 1912 he purchased the large home, water 
mill and dairy buildings of the original David- 
son farm settlement at the mouth of Bee Tree 
Creek on the Swannanoa River and operated 
the mill as Swannanoa Rolling Mills with water 
power by a long mill race from Bee Tree Creek 
which drove a large iron water wheel. This 
large home stood in the location now occupied 
by Owen Blanket Mill on the east side of War- 
ren Wilson College. The grave of William 
Davidson, one of the first permanent settlers, 
was on that farm. 

Allen was an ardent hunter and trout fisher- 
man, and in later life took pleasure in bass 
fishing at Lake James where he had a cabin 
and boat. 

His interest was heavily enlisted in the cause 
of education and good roads, and he served 
for many years on the Swannanoa School 
Board and school building committee. 

During World War I he served as Chairman 
of the Buncombe County Exemption Board. He 
was an articulate and ardent debater and pub- 
lic speaker, and was heard many times on the 
radio on subjects of political or civic interest. 
He was a member of the Asheville Kiawanis 
Club. 

Henry Allen Coggins II led a very active life 
to the very last day of his life, and died in his 
rocking chair by the fireside April 26, 1946 at 
the age of 71 . His wife Vera Elizabeth Keene 
Coggins died November 28, 1956, ten years 
later, and two months after she had been the 
guest of honor at the dedication of Westgate 
Shopping Center. She was 71 years old. 

Henry Allen and Vera Elizabeth Keene Cog- 
gins are buried in adjacent graves in the Cog- 
gins plot at Piney Grove Cemetery in the Swan- 
nanoa Valley. 

— George B. Coggins 



179 



DR. JAMES CASWELL 
COGGINS 

281 

James Caswell Coggins was the eldest son 
of John Wesley Coggins II and Mary Jane 
Melton Coggins. He was born at Bull Creek in 
1865 where his grandmother Jane Craig Mel- 
ton owned a large tract of land comprising all 
of the area between Warren Wilson College 
and Lower Grassy Branch Road north to the 
Riceville Road and Bethel Church, south to the 
Swannanoa River, comprising about 1,000 
acres. 

When he was a young man his parents 
moved to Bee Tree where they owned another 
1 ,000 acre tract of land and where they built a 
large home. 

He attended Piney Grove Elementary 
School, Weaver College, Milligan College, 
Columbia University and the University of Chi- 
cago and earned doctorate degrees in Divinity, 
Literature and Law. 

He served as pastor of the Christian 
Churches in Savannah, Georgia, Norfolk, 
Virginia, Augusta, Georgia, Kansas City, Mis- 
souri, and Chicago, Illinois. 

He was one of the founders and first presi- 
dent of Atlantic Christian College at Wilson, 
North Carolina. He served as speaker of the 
North Carolina General Assembly while serv- 
ing as representative from Washington County 
in 1919. 

He was author of many books of religion 
and biography and was active in educational 
and religious circles throughout the south for 
many years. 

Dr. James Caswell Coggins was married 
three times and had three sons and seven 
daughters. Among his descendants still living 
in Western North Carolina or East Tennessee 
are Mrs. Robert Game and Mrs. Reginald 
Moody of Bryson City and Mrs. Edgar Fisher of 
Johnson City, Tennessee; the descendants of 
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Carson of Hendersonville 
and a son J.C. Coggins of Hendersonville; and 
the descendants of Cecil and Eugenia Brown of 
Black Mountain. 

Dr. Coggins had two brothers living in this 
area Henry Allen Coggins of Bee Tree and 
Samuel Tilden Coggins of Asheville; and a 
sister Mrs. Lettie Coggins Tipton of Bee Tree. 

Dr. Coggins died July 9, 1958 at Johnson 
City, Tennessee at the age of 93. 

— George B. Coggins 

JOHN WESLEY COGGINS 

282 

John Wesley Coggins I was born May 27, 
1 832 in Yadkin County, North Carolina the son 
of Roland and Letticia Raper Coggins and 
grandson of Zachariah and Worlenda Coggins 
of Davidson County and the great grandson of 
John and Alice Elizabeth Coggins of Rowan 
County. He was descended from Scotch and 
Welsh families who lived in the Isle of Wight 
County, Virginia in the early Jamestown Col- 
ony founded in 1609, in the Lower Parish. 

When John Wesley was 13 years old his 
family moved to Bull Creek, a tributary of the 
Swannanoa River in Buncombe County. At the 




John Wesley Coggins (1832-1899) 



age of 1 6 he apprenticed himself to John Orr to 
learn the brickmason's trade, and they later 
operated the Coggins-Orr Brickyard on Brick 
Street in Asheville. He gave the brick and built 
one of the principal buildings on the original 
campus of Weaver College at Weaverville. 

John Wesley I was a member of the original 
Buncombe Riflemen and on April 18, 1861 
they marched off under Captain W.W. 
McDowell after a stirring speech by Colonel 
Nicholas W. Woodfin, and were engaged in 
the first pitched battle in the Civil War in Vir- 
ginia. John Wesley was wounded several 
times and re-enlisted after his recovery and 
served in many theaters of the war. 

During the war in 1862 he married Mary 
Jane Melton, daughter of Jane Craig and 
Eldridge Melton of Bee Tree. 

Although he was from a strong Methodist 
family, at age 40 in 1872 he joined the Chris- 
tian Church and inspired three of his sons to 
become Christian Church ministers. 

The children of John Wesley and Mary Jane 
Melton Coggins were Dr. James Caswell Cog- 
gins, the first president of Atlantic Christian 
College; Dr. L.B. Coggins, a Christian minister 
and osteopathic physician; John Wesley Cog- 
gins, Jr., a Christian minister; Samuel Tilden 



Coggins, a deputy sherriff of Buncombe 
County; Henry Allen Coggins, "Mayor of Bee 
Tree" and manager of Asheville's first baseball 
team; Delia Coggins Owens; and Letticia Cog- 
gins Tipton. 

John Wesley Coggins died July 31 , 1899 at 
the home of his son James Caswell Coggins 
whom he was visiting in Independence, Kan- 
sas where he is buried. 

— George B. Coggins 

JOHN WESLEY COGGINS II 

283 

John Wesley Coggins II was born at Bee 
Tree January 26, 1914 the third son of Henry 
Allen II and Vera Elizabeth Keene Coggins. 

He attended Swannanoa High School, Miss 
Mary E. Griffith's private classes and Black 
Mountain College before entering law school 
at George Washington University where he 
was graduated tenth in the class of 800 
lawyers with the degrees LLB and LLM. As 
president of his law fraternity he served one 
day as honorary Chief Justice of the United 
States Supreme Court. 

He married Florence O'Donnohue of Bos- 
ton, Mass. and they had the following chil- 



180 



dren: John Wesley III born March 9, 1948, 
Joseph born March 31, 1949, Catherine born 
October 19, 1950, Jean born February 17, 
1952, and James Craig born August 10, 1953. 

Immediately after graduation John enlisted 
in the United States Army, completed officers 
training school and was commissioned a 
lieutenant. During World War II he served as 
an anti-aircraft officer and Judge Advocate in 
the Panama theater with the rank of major. 

After the war he engaged in the practice of 
law in the city of Washington and became 
Chief Counsel of Wine Institute. He was 
appointed by President Harry Truman Chief 
Attorney in the Division of Alcohol, Tobacco 
and Firearms Control in the Treasury Depart- 
ment where he received a special presidential 
citation for his work in recodifying the entire 
internal revenue code, supervising the work of 
200 attorneys under his direction. 

At the request of Congress he drafted the 
Firearms Control Act under the supervision of 
Dwight E. Avis, Director. 

Upon his retirement from federal service in 
1974 he became associated with a New York 
law firm in their Washington office. 

— George B. Coggins 

ROLAND COGGINS 

284 

Roland Coggins was born in Davidson 
County, North Carolina about 1815, the 
youngest of eight sons and three daughters of 
Zachariah and Worlenda Coggins, and is 
named in Zachariah's will recorded in Book I at 
page 353 in the Office of the Clerk of Court in 
Lexington, North Carolina. Zachariah was the 
son and executor of the estate of John Coggins 
who died in 1793 and whose will is filed in the 
Office of the Clerk of Court in Salisbury, North 
Carolina in Will Book E at page 209 dated 
January 26, 1793. John's wife was Alice 
Elizabeth and he mentioned fifteen children in 
his will, the youngest son being Zachariah. 

This family is descended from one of the 
earliest families in the Jamestown Colony in 
Virginia where Dr. John Coggan was the first 
surgeon or doctor. 

Sir Hugh Hamersley was one of the incorpor- 
ators of the "Royal Charter for Virginia" May 
23, 1 609. He was one of the adventurers in the 
Colony of Virginia at Jamestown, and his son 
William Hamersley married Eliza Coggan in 
1620, and his daughter Mary married Andrew 
Coggins the same year. 

Sir Hugh Hamersley employed Captain John 
Smith, a widely known soldier of fortune, to 
accompany Andrew Coggins on an exploration 
into what is now the state of Maine, and in the 
absence of any other claimant, it is believed 
that the Androscoggin river was named for 
Andrew Coggins. 

Roland Coggins was married to Letticia 
Raper of Catawba County, North Carolina and 
they had several children including Captain 
William I. Coggins, Dr. Caswell Coggins, Polly 
Coggins Rickman, Annie Coggins Higdon, 
Jennie Coggins Watkins, Roland H. Coggins, 
John Wesley Coggins and Henry Allen Cog- 
gins. 

Roland moved from Catawba County to 



Buncombe County in 1845 with his wife Letti- 
cia and their three first sons, Caswell, John 
Wesley, and Henry Allen. Roland purchased 
200 acres of land on Bull Creek from Samuel 
Davidson, and built a home there. He built a 
corn mill operated by water from Bull Creek, 
and built a blacksmith shop. 

All of the sons of Roland Coggins of military 
age enlisted in the Confederate cause and 
several of them had distinguished army 
careers. Among them was John Wesley who 
was in the Buncombe Riflemen in the first 
pitched battle of the war; Henry Allen who was 
taken prisoner at Cumberland Gap and sent to 
Chicago to prison; David who was personal 
aide to General Buford; William I. who orga- 
nized and commanded his own Texas com- 
pany; Caswell M. and Barry, who was killed in 
action at Richmond. 

With all of his sons away at war Roland 
moved to a farm on the Little Tennessee River 
below Franklin, N.C. where he built another 
mill and where he and Letticia raised their 
younger children among whom was Roland H. 
Coggins who was born June 28, 1 851 , married 
Mary Zachary, and died July 22, 1 880, leaving 
a son Roland and a daughter Lettie, who have 
long lines of descendants. 

Most of the other sons of Roland who sur- 
vived the Civil War went west and southwest, 
to Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana and California. 
One of them, Henry Allen I, returned to Bun- 
combe County in 1930 when he was 90 years 
old, and died in Asheville that year. A story of 
his adventures is included among these biog- 
raphies. 

The only son of Roland to remain in Bun- 
combe County was John Wesley, who enlisted 
in the Buncombe Riflemen on April 27, 1861 
and saw service in the first pitched battle of the 
Civil War. He was wounded several times. 
During the war he married in 1862 Mary Jane 
Melton, one of the two daughters of Elderidge 
and Jane Craig Melton. His biography is in- 
cluded in this series. 

Roland is buried at West's Mill in Macon 
County, N.C, as is his son Roland II. 

— George B. Coggins 



FREDERICK JACK AND 
CAROLYN J. MATHEWS COLE 

285 

F. Jack Cole, Councilman, City of Asheville 
(1 977-1 981 ) , President and Director of Caroli- 
na Federal Savings and Loan Association of 
Asheville, North Carolina. 

Born February 4, 1919 on Queen Road, 
Candler, N.C, Jack was the son of Benjamin 
Harrison Cole (1 2-1 9-1 888 — 1 -30-1 970) and 
Opal Jones Gaston Cole (10-20-1891 — 9-8- 
1963). Ben was a native of Pleasant Run, 
Hunterdon County, New Jersey and the 
youngest of thirteen children, born to David 
Cole (1840-1907) and Mary LaRue Cole 
(1846-1891). The Cole family, originally of 
Dutch decent, had lived at the Cole homeplace 
in Pleasant Run for five generations. The first 
Cole in America, Barent Jacobus Crol (some- 
times spelled Krol, Kohl, Cool, Stol, Cole), the 
emigrant ancestor of the Cole Family, came to 



New Netherlands from Amsterdam, Holland, 
in the year 1630 on a little vessel called the 
"Rensselaer". He was sent over by the West 
India Company to buy land from the Mohawks 
for the patroon Killaev Van Rensselaer, a pearl 
merchant of Amsterdam, Holland. The com- 
pany had a trading post at Fort Orange on the 
Hudson River later changed to Albany, N.Y. 

Ben H. Cole's mother, Mary, was the great 
granddaughter of Abraham LaRue, who came 
to America in the 17th Century. They were 
French Hugenots forced to leave France be- 
cause of unhappy religious and political condi- 
tions, and Cole's mother, Mary, died when he 
was only 1 8 months old. At the age of 1 7, Ben 
Cole went to New York City where he was 
employed to drive a street car. Later having 
been injured in a sawmill accident, Ben Cole 
came to Candler in 1913 to recover his health 
and took residence in the large home of Mrs. 
Ann (Mrs. O.B.) Candler. Cole met Opal Jones 
Gaston (1891-1963) daughter of Russell 
Jones Gaston (1858-1921) and Ida Harkins 
Gaston and they were married in Asheville in 
January, 1916. Their residence was on Queen 
(Morgan Hill) Road in a house owned by 
Opal's father. 

Ben H. Cole raised chickens, turkeys, and 
sold eggs to the Farmers Federation. Later he 
worked at American Enka and afterwards as a 
carpenter. 

Ben H. and Opal G. Cole had four children: 
Lt. Col. Ben Gaston Cole (10-1 1-1 6 — 11-10- 
61) single; Frederick Jack Cole (2-4-1919); 
Alice LaRuce Cole larussi (2-22-1923) married 
to Reynald P. larussi; Russell Jones Cole 
(1925-1921). 

F. Jack Cole, graduated from Candler High 
School 1937 and went to work at American 
Enka in 1 938. Jack was inducted into the Army 
October 7, 1 942 and was assigned as a private 
to Company K, 391 st Infantry Regiment of the 
98th Division serving in the continental United 
States and Pacific Area, was discharged Janu- 
ary 27, 1946 with the rank of First Sergeant. 

Cole was employed as the First Gl Trainee in 
banking at First National Bank and Trust Co. of 
Asheville, was elected Assistant Cashier and 
transferred to Hendersonville Office in 1955. 

In 1953, Cole met Carolyn Josephine 
Mathews (5-1-1926) daughter of George 
Washington Mathews (1882 died 1946) and 
wife Ruby Rebecca Johnson Mathews (7-13- 
96 — 3-5-1979). 

Jack and "Jo" Cole have three children: 
Frederic Jack Cole, Jr. (7-31-1957); Russell 
Mathews Cole (6-6-1959); Rebecca Jo Cole 
(2-10-1966). 

Jack was employed as the Managing Officer 
of Carolina Federal Savings and Loan Associa- 
tion to complete the application for organiza- 
tion which opened for business November 26, 
1956. Cole was elected President of Carolina 
Federal in 1975. 

Over the years Cole has been active in Lions 
Club work, first at Candler, second in West 
Asheville and currently the Lions Club of Ashe- 
ville. He is a former President of SPEBSQSA, 
Inc. and formerly sang in the choir of Central 
United Methodist Church where the family are 
church members. Active in local historic in- 
terests served as President of Western North 



181 



Carolina Historical Association, and is mem- 
ber of The Old Buncombe County Genealogical 
Society. At the age of 57, Cole entered politics 
for office of Councilman, City of Asheville, 
being re-elected for a second term in 1959. 

— F. Jack Cole 



DR. WARREN HENRY COLE 

286 

Warren Henry Cole was born on July 24, 
1898 in Clay Center, Kansas, the son of 
George and Mary (Tolin) Cole. His father was 
English, and his mother had German back- 
ground. 

His B.S. degree was received in 1918 from 
the University of Kansas, followed by his M.D. 
in 1 920 from Washington University School of 
Medicine. After extensive, outstanding work in 
the field of medicine and medical research, he 
was awarded an Honorary D.Sc. from 
Washington Univeristy, St. Louis, and in 1970 
another Honorary D.Sc. from The University 
of Illinois. 

He became an Honorary Fellow of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of Edinburgh on July 15, 
1958, and in September of 1 979 while living in 
Asheville, he became an Honorary Fellow of 
the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland. 

He interned at City Hospital, Baltimore 
(1920-1921 ) and went from being an Intern to 
Resident Surgeon, Barnes Hospital, St. Louis 
from 1921 to 1926. 

His University Appointments were: Instruc- 
tor in Surgery to Associate Professor of 
Surgery, Washington University School of 
Medicine, St. Louis from 1926 to 1966. He 
was Professor and Head of Department of 
Surgery, University of Illinois College of Medi- 
cine (1936-1966). 

He married Clara Lund, on June 13, 1942, 
in Chicago, III. and following his retirement 
from active practice and teaching they moved 
to Asheville, N.C. where he has continued his 
energetic round of activity as a member of 
Alpha Omega Alpha, Sigma Xi, The Civitan 
Club of Asheville, The Downtown Club of 
Asheville of which he was President in 1978; 
Nu Sigma Nu; Seniard Club of Asheville, The 
Western Carolina Orchid Society, and the 
Southeastern Chapter of American 
Rhodendron Society. 

Dr. and Mrs. Cole have no children. 

Following, is a list of his many special 
appointments and places where he has given 
leadership — his 'Curriculum Vitae': 

SPECIAL APPOINTMENTS: Senior Scientist Attache in 
the Foreign Service Reserve, Mission on Science and 
Technology in London (Feb. - May, 1948). 

Chairman, American Board of Surgery (1951-1953). 

Member, Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hos- 
pitals (1955-1957). 

Member, Board of Scientific Consultants, Sloan- 
Kettering Institute, (1957-1969), (Chrm. 1968-1969). 

Chairman, Conference Committee on Graduate Training 
(1957-1959). 

Member, Advisory Comm., Cancer Control Program, 
U.S.P.H.S. (1959-1964); Co-Chairman of the Grants 
Program of the Advisory Committee (1963-1964). 

Member, V. A. Research Program Comm. in Cancer and 
Allied Diseases (Consultant) (1961-1965). 

Consultant in Surgery to the Surgeon General, Dept. of 
the Army (1964). 

Member, Citizens Comm. on Grad. Med. Education, 
A.M.A. (1963-1966). 

Member, Clinical Cancer Training Com., N.C.I. (1967- 
1970). 



Project Director, Com. on Guidelines for Cancer Care, 
DRMP and American College of Surgeons (1967-1970). 

Editor's note: Dr. Cole enjoys national and 
international recognition in the medical and 
research world. Space will not permit a listing 
of all his honors ranging from being President, 
The American Cancer Society to being Presi- 
dent, The American College of Surgeons. 

The following is a partial list of his contribu- 
tions to medical literature: 

In 1924, was co-discoverer of cholecys- 
tography (a test for gallbladder function and 
disease). 

In 1 925, was the first to show that fractures 
of the femur in children was associated with 
cumpensatory lengthening of the femur to 
compensate for the shortening associated 
with the fracture. 

In 1945 (with J.T. Reynolds), he reported a 
new operation for carcinoma of the head of the 
pancreas. 

In 1949 (with D.P. Slaughter), he pointed 
out for the first time (with supporting data) 
that cancer of the thyroid gland occured 
almost exclusively in non toxic nodular goiter 
rather than other types of goiter. 

In 1951, and several years following (with 
numerous members of his staff), he described 
improvements in technic for operative treat- 
ment of cancer of Colon, which prevented 
recurrence of the tumor in the bowel at the 
operative site. These ideas and others related 
to the spread of cancer developed by them 
stimulated them to write the Book on Dissemi- 
nation of Cancer. 

With numerous members of his staff he was 
the first to report the prophylactic (adjuvant) 
use of anticancer drugs in animals (1956); a 
few months later this technic using nitrogen 
mustard was begun by them in human beings. 
Numerous Medical groups have continued re- 
search on adjuvant therapy up to the present 
time, with improvement in results in certain 
types of patients and tumors. 

In 1956, with two young members of his 
staff, he showed that numerous types of 
stress (including operations, chemicals, etc.) 
would decrease the resistance of rats to cancer 
cells. This might be construed as being bad 
news for operative treatment of cancer, but the 
benefit of operative removal of cancer is well 
known and irrefutable. This group of investi- 
gators was convinced a drug could be found to 
neutralize the deleterious effect of operations 
etc. on resistance to cancer cells, but their 
efforts to find such a drug was unsuccessful. 
These authors made no attempt to find out if 
operations on human beings would decrease 
resistance to cancer cells, but during the past 
six years numerous investigators have re- 
ported operations in human beings do lessen 
resistance to cancer for several days after an 
operation. 

(Dr. Cole considers his greatest honor to be 
formation in 1959 of the Warren H. Cole Sur- 
gical Society by his residents and Research 
Fellows.) 

— Warren H. Cole 



R.D. COLLIER FAMILY 

287 

Robert D. Collier, born 28 May 1930 in 
Cedar City, Iron Ct., Utah married Rae Ann 
Boyer on 8 Sept. 1955 in Salt Lake City, Utah. 
They moved to Arden, Buncombe Co. North 
Carolina in December 1968. 





Rae Ann (Boyer) and Robert D. Collier 



At that time they had 7 children: Lynette, 
1957, Lisa, 1958, Eric B., 1960, Jolene, 
1961, Alan, 1964, Rachel, 1966, and Wayne, 
1967. They first lived in a white frame colonial 
house at 5 White Oak Rd. in the Oak Park 
section of Arden. 

In 1973 they moved into a house they had 
had built by Marvin Ponder of Weaverville on 
land purchased in 1969 from David Earl Mor- 
gan. The Brookwood section built up around 
that land during and after those years. Their 
driveway became known as Deseret Drive, a 
name they chose from an old hymn which 
goes "In our lovely Deseret . . . there's a 
multitude of children all around". 

In 1973 the Colliers had 10 children includ- 
ing the three born in North Carolina: Martha, 
1970, Marian, 1972, and Ted Robert, 1973. 
Their only neighbors who lived on Deseret Dr. , 
the E.L. Peart family also have a large family (9 
children in 1981) so the total seems like a 
multitude. 

Robert, who is generally known as Bob, 
came to Buncombe county to work for Taylor 
Instrument Company continuing his career in 
instrumentation in which he had worked in the 
Air Force and for such companies as General 
Electric, John Deere, and Lockheed. They had 
lived in the states of California, Washington, 
New York, New Jersey, and Illinois. Before 
that they had both graduated from Brigham 
Young University in Provo, Utah. 

Robert and Rae Ann are active members of 
the Mormon Church. He served as Bishop and 
Branch President of the Royal Pines Ward 
from 1969-1976 and now is a traveling high 
councilman for Western N.C. 

Rae Ann is currently president of the 



182 



women's Relief Society for the Asheville, N.C. 
Stake of the church. 

Bob helped to organize the Skyland Arden 
Fletcher Emergency Asso. and served as 
treasurer for 1 1/2 years. They do volunteer 
work there. They have also been active in 
P.T.A. Bob has been Scoutmaster of Troop 
21. 

The children have appreciated the good 
foundation education given in Buncombe 
County schools. The family likes "calling 
North Carolina Home". 

— Mrs. R.D. Collier 



RUTH LEE WEAVER COOK 

288 

Ruth Lee Weaver was born May 9, 1886 in 
Weaverville, Buncombe Co. N.C. the daughter 
of William Elbert and Hannah Jane (Baird) 
Weaver. 

She attended school and the Methodist 
Church in the village and then went to Greens- 
boro Normal School and became a teacher at 
an early age. 

She taught at Alexander, N.C. for one or two 
years. 

On Feb. 3, 1914, she married John Herman 
Cook in Memphis, Tenn. but they came back 
later and made their home in Weaverville after 
spending some time in Bromide, Oklahoma. 

Their children were: 

Mary Baird Cook, born Feb. 16, 1915 in 
Bromide, OK., married Melvin Hyderand lived 
in Weaverville; 

Nancy Lorett who married William E. Pen- 
land first, and then Robert Holmes; 

Leslie Galbreath who married Beatrice Cole; 

Robert Weaver Cook who married Hazel 
Freeman. 

— Mary Baird Cook Hyder 



THOMAS COOK, 
REVOLUTIONARY SOLDIER 

289 

Thomas Cook was born March 19, 1748 in 
Pitt County, North Carolina, the son of John 
and Mary Cook. He married Elizabeth Bowen, 
the daughter of John and Martha Bowen, on 
October 29, 1 772 in Pitt County. In 1 855 John 
Cook, son of Thomas made pension applica- 
tion on his father's service (R2253) in Union 
County, Georgia, attaching two pages of the 
Bible. Thomas, John and Reuben Cook served 

in the war (see S10483, Reuben Cook, Sept 1833 
Fayette County, Ala.) 

In 1777 while living in Onslow County, 
Thomas Cook was drafted and served three 
years, serving in the militia, and attaining the 
rank of sergeant. 

The forebears of Thomas Cook are traced to 
Richard Cooke, who baptized children in St. 
Augustine's Parish, Bristol, Gloucester Coun- 
ty, England 1577-1698. (See John Bennett 
Boddie's "Seventeenth Century Isle-of-Wight 
County, Virginia".) One son, Philip Cooke, 
was a mariner. Philip's grandson, William 
Cooke II was born in 1633 enroute to or in 
Virginia. They settled in Isle of Wight County, 



obtaining patents in 1699, migrated to Surry 
and Sussex counties in Virginia; to North- 
ampton County, North Carolina; to Pitt and 
Duplin counties, where John Cook, father of 
Thomas, died in 1799. He willed his carpenter 
tools to son Thomas, and cooper's tools to 
son, Nathan. 

In the 1800 census, Marlborough County, 
South Carolina, appear Thomas, John and 
Reuben Cook; in the 1810 census, Marl- 
borough County, appear Thomas and son, 
Obediah. Obed Cook, born December 24, 
1780 in North Carolina, married Sarah Cot- 
tingham, born about 1790 in South Carolina, 
daughter of Charles Cottingham, and Eleanor 
Toadvine, before 1817, the date of Charles 
Cottingham's will. 

The earliest Cook deed in Buncombe County 
was from John Gray Blount to Obed Cook on 
July 24, 1816 for 200 acres on "Rich Moun- 
tain, to include Price's improvements, run in a 
square or oblong". This deed was recorded in 
1832, the lapse of time probably due to legal 
technicalities later determined by the courts. 

John Cook's land entry, #269, dated 
November 13, 1817 was for 640 acres "on a 
branch of Spring Creek, includes Thomas 
Bell's sugar cove". Reuben Cook's entry #69, 
January 17, 1817 was for 200 acres on Little 
Sandy Mush. Thomas Cook's entry W1199, 
August 27, 1821 was for 100 acres, "lying on 
the waters of Rims Creek and Beaverdam on 
top of the mountain joining the Elk Wallow 
tract on the west side." Many deeds in Bun- 
combe County refer to the "old Cook tract". 
James and Joseph Cook appear in early deeds. 
By 1820 John and Reuben had migrated to 
Georgia and Alabama but Thomas Cook and 
son, Obed remained in Buncombe County. 
Thomas Cook died November 23, 1831 and 
his wife, Elizabeth, died February 11, 1937 in 
Spring Creek; her survivors were two sons, 
John and Obed Cook. They are believed to be 
buried in the abandoned family cemetery, ad- 
joining the Brown cemetery on the ridge be- 
hind the old mill. 

Obed Cook had extensive land holdings in 
Buncombe County. He deeded land to chil- 
dren, Royal S. Cook, Nancy and S.A.J. Lusk, 
and Elizabeth and Jeremiah Brown. His older 
sons, Charles Cottingham Cook and William 
Cook probably received their inheritance, hav- 
ing migrated years earlier, Charles to Beeville, 
Texas, via Tennessee and Missouri, and Wil- 
liam to Tennessee. Charles was ordained a 
Methodist minister in Beeville in 1866. 

One deed of particular interest was dated 
December 15, 1849 from Obed Cook to S.A.J. 
Lusk and Nancy Lusk for two parcels of land 
wherein he reserved, "*** the privileges of 
grinding or having grinded free of any toll my 
own grain as long as the mill stands and the 
privilege of using such timber on the land as I 
may need during my natural lifetime." This 
proves that Thomas and Obed Cook estab- 
lished the gristmill on Spring Creek road where 
the old mill wheel still stands across the creek. 
Another grant refers to Roaring Fork of Spring 
Creek, and another to "above the falls". Obed 
Cook died about 1856 and was believed buried 
in the family cemetery next to the Brown 
cemetery. 




Royal S.Cook, 1821-1917 

Royal Stokely Cook, born April 3, 1821, 
Buncombe County, married Judith Emeline 
Hipps (born Jan. 3, 1821 , daughter of Levi C. 
Hipps, Senr. and Elizabeth Lowe) on June 24, 
1838. Judith's maternal grandparents were 
Samuel and Martha Lowe. He was a full blood 
Creek Indian who lived on Turkey Creek (see 
deed from Aaron Freeman, Indian Agent, 
dated October 5, 1812). He later lived in the 
Indian settlements west of Asheville, where he 
died about 1840. This was documented by the 
Special Master's Report, 1897, Case #242, 
Cook vs. Creek Nation, in the United States 
Court for the Northern District of the Indian 
Territory. 

Judith E. Cook's brothers and sisters were 
William Hipps, Nancy Price, Mary Davis, 
Rachel Keener, Rutha Davis and Levi C. 
Hipps, Jr., substantiated by deeds in Bun- 
combe County. 

Royal S. Cook and wife had thirteen chil- 
dren: James C. (died in Civil War); William R.; 
Charlotta Jane; Charles Marion; Lafayette 
M.D.; Christopher C; Violet; Harriet; Martha; 
Mary; Nancy M.; Jackson M.; Forrest F. Lee 
Cook, all born in Spring Creek. The entire 
family (except James C.'s descendants) mi- 
grated to Texas in 1866-7. They were nine 
months by wagon train reaching their destina- 
tion in Parker County, Texas. 

R.S. Cook served in the Confederate Army, 
according to handwritten orders in his bible. 
They were issued in the "A&O Mtn Dist N.C, 
Asheville, Apr 9, 1865" to Capt Brown or Lt 
Cook, signed by Col. J.N. Palmer. R.S. Cook 
died in 1 91 7 and was buried at Claude, Texas. 
On his tombstone are the words, "2d Lieut, 
16th N.C. Regt." 

Shortly after the war, three men rode up to 
the home of R.S. Cook, inquiring if he was the 
Lt. Cook in the Confederate Army. On acknow- 
ledgement, they told him he had a very short 
time to leave the county. As they left, one man 
in a Northern Army uniform, coat unbuttoned 
and unkempt, jumped his horse over the 
fence, turned in his saddle and shot him. He 



183 



fell backward and lay still. Luckily, it was a 
flesh wound. 

— Erma V. (Cogdill) Carmichael 

VIOLET ELAINE MARSHBANKS 
COOK FAMILY 

289-A 

Violet Marshbanks was born Nov. 19, 
1919. She was the sixth child of Stephen Lee 
Roy and Cora Hobson Marshbanks. 

She went to Shanghai School on Jupiter 
Road and Flat Creek High School where she 
graduated in 1938. She took part in all sports 
and was a member of the first string basketball 
and Softball teams. In her first year in high 
school, she was voted "Miss Flat Creek". She 
was a member of the Glee Club and the Bill Nye 
Literary Society of which she was secretary. 
She also participated in several school plays. 

She graduated from Mars Hill College in 
1942 with an A. A. degree and Berea College, 
Berea, Kentucky, in 1949, with an A.B. de- 
gree. She graduated from Pack Square Beauty 
School in 1953 and in 1954, passed the State 
Board in Raleigh, N.C. receiving her state 
license in Cosmotology. 

She taught Language Arts at Belmont High 
School, Belmont, N.C. in the spring of 1949; 
Language Arts at French Broad High School 
and Elementary School at Alexander, N.C, for 
26 years; and is presently teaching Language 
Arts and Social Studies at Barnardsville 
Elementary School, Barnardsville, N.C. 

On August 12, 1950, she married Clifton 
Cook, son of Starling and Mettie Shelton Cook 
from Shelton Laurel in Madison County. Clif- 
ton is a deputy for Sheriff E.Y. Ponder in 
Madison County. They live in the Forks of Ivy 
Community and are members of Forks of Ivy 
Missionary Baptist Church. They have two 
adopted daughters: 

Rebecca Elaine Cook, born Feb. 4, 1960, 
married Daniel Scottie English from Madison 
County. They have a daughter, Stephanie 
Elaine English, born Sept. 30, 1980. Rebecca 
is a graduate of North Buncombe High School, 
Weaverville, N.C. and Western Academy of 
Hair Design, Asheville, N.C. 

Jennifer Ann Cook, born Aug. 6, 1963, is a 
1981 graduate of North Buncombe High 
School and is currently attending Western 
Academy of Hair Design. 

— Violet Marshbanks Cook 



MARY LOUISE COOLMAN 
FAMILY 

290 

Gordon Clifton Thompson married Mary 
Louise Graves in Wilson County, Tenn. On 
July 20, 1934 a child was born to this union 
and was given the name Mary Kathleen 
Thompson. The marriage was dissolved in the 
early 1940's. Mary Louise married a second 
time to Paul Coolman. In the 1960s she 
moved to Western North Carolina to spend her 
last days. The following is her family history 
with each paragraph covering one generation. 

Her father, Oddie Lennon Graves married 



Katherine Louise Shepherd on December 11, 
1909 in Corum, Tenn. Oddie (1889-1979) was 
the son of Rufus William (1850-1906) and 
Mary Elizabeth Brown (1852-1890) Graves. 
Mary Elizabeth was the daughter of Jack and 
Betsy Watson Brown. Children of Oddie Len- 
non and Katherine Louise Shepherd Graves 
are: Mary Louise, born September 14, 1910, 
Nancy, 1912, Joe, 1915, Charles, 1917, 
Ruth, 1920, Lora, 1921, Addie, 1928, Oddie 
Lennon, Jr., 1931, Oscar, 1934, and George 
Graves, 1935. 

Douglas Hardcastle Shepherd married Mary 
Ann Greer in Nashville, Tenn. on February 25, 
1876. Mary Ann was born May 6, 1855 and 
was from the old Greer family of Nashville. 
Elizabeth was her mother's name. Douglas 
was raised by his aunt Maria after the deaths of 
his parents in Texas. Mary and Douglas made 
their home in Wilson County, Tenn. where he 
was in the undertaking and farming business. 
Both died on the farm and were buried nearby. 
Douglas filed a will in Wilson County. Children 
of Douglas Hardcastle and Mary Ann Greer 
Shepherd were: Jane, born 1877, Johnson, 
1879, Charles, 1881, George, 1883, Mary, 
1887, William, 1885, Laura, 1889, Katherine 
Louise, February 8, 1892, Lillie, 1894, and 
Bonnie Lucille Shepherd, 1896. 

— B.L. Phillips 



ADAM CORN-HANNAH 
HETHERLY 

291 

Adam Corn, son of John Peter Corn and 
Hannah Elizabeth Parr, was born in Virginia 2 
May 1783. He died 19 Sept. 1871. Hannah 
Hetherly (Heatherly) was born in South Caroli- 
na about 1791 and died in 1870. They were 
married prior to 1810. 

Adam was a Baptist Minister. It is said that 
he helped establish the Old Union Church in 
Brasstown Valley at Towns Co., Ga. 

Adam and Hannah had seven children: 
John, Alfred E. (b) 19 Jan. 1817 (d) 16 Jul. 
1905 (m) Nancy T. Cook 16 Jan. 1842. Silas 
Andrew, Jessee, Jane, Posey and Jacob. 

Documentation: The Daily Times, Gainsville, Ga., The 
Story of Henderson Countyby Sadie Smathers Patton; Old 
Union Cemetery in Towns Co., Ga., 1850 Census of 
Towns Co., Ga.; Bible Records of Mangum Bryson and 
Arminta J. Corn; and NSDAR proven lineage. 

— Donna Gertrude Morton Morgan 



ALFRED E. CORN AND NANCY 
T. COOK 

292 

Alfred E. Corn, son of Adam Corn and Han- 
nah Hetherly was born in Buncombe Co. , N.C. 
19 Jan. 1817. He died 16 Jul. 1905 in Towns 
Co., Ga. Nancy T. Cook, daughter of John 
Cook and Mother Cook (was a Cook), was 
born 15 May 1819 in N.C. and died 26 Nov. 
1884. Alfred and Nancy were married 16 Jan 
1842. They are both buried in the old Union 
Cemetery at Towns Co., Ga. 

Alfred (known to family and friends as Pap- 
py Corn) was sent by the Baptist Association to 
the mountains of Georgia as a missionary to 



the Cherokee Indians. He preached to them in 
their native tongue. He was 88 years old when 
he died and had been a Baptist Minister for 57 
years. 

Alfred E. Corn had a published book of his 
poetry of which a copy is in the possession of 
the family today, one of which is as follows: 

THE MISSIONARY 
A weary pilgrim her I roam, 
Sometimes in sorrow then in song, 
Sometimes beneath the burning sun, 
And then anon in snowy storm. 

Sometimes I climb the mountain high, 
And mingle with the cloudy sky, 
Then plunge again into the valley deep, 
To seek and feed my Father's sheep. 

I feed them with the word of God, 
And point them to my Savior's blood, 
Baptizing them in Jesus' name, 
The Jew and Gentile all the same. 

I love to feed my Father's sheep, 
I love the tender lambs to keep, 
I love to see them live in love, 
While on their way to Heaven above. 

They hear with Joy the Shepherd's voice, 
They've surely made a happy choice, 
All in one fold they dwell complete, 
While resting near the mercy seat. 

Now hear the sequel of my song, 
I know on earth I'll not be long, 
My work will soon be done below, 
And then to glory I will go. 

Nancy was not without talent herself as she 
wrote the poem "Little Jeno". 

The children of Alfred E. and Nancy, as far 
as I know, were Arminta J. (b) 19 Aug. 1843 
(D) 27 Feb. 1932 (m) Mangum H. Bryson 19 
Aug. 1860 and John. 

Documentation: Old Union Cemetery, Towns Co., Ga.; 
1850 Census of Union Co., Ga. ;Young Harris News, 
Young Harris, Ga.; Bible Records of Mangum Bryson and 
Arminta J. Corn. 

— Donna Gertrude Morton Morgan 

JOHN PETER AND HANNAH 
ELIZABETH PARR CORN 

293 

John Peter Corn, son of Mathew and Molly 
Corn, was born 15 Mar. 1752 in Albermarle 
Co., Va. and died 14 Oct. 1843 in Henderson- 
ville, N.C. He married Hannah Elizabeth Parr, 
daughter of John and Miriam Parr, 24 May 
1781 in Henry County, Virginia. She was born 
14 Jun. 1764 in Henry Co., and died 16 Mar. 
1853 in Hendersonville, N.C. Her father John 
was a Soldier of the American Revolution. 

John Peter served in the Revolutionary war 
for two years, inlisted 8 Feb. 1776. After the 
war he returned to Virginia to marry Hannah. 
They lived in Virginia for about 1 2 years before 
moviRg to N.C. They lived in Surrey Co., N.C. 
5 years, Wilkes Co., N.C. 5 years, Buncombe 
Co., N.C. and finally Hendersonville, N.C. 
where they both died. 

The children born to John Peter and Hannah 
were as follows: 

(1) Adam (b) 2 May 1783 (d) 19 Sept. 71 o 74 
(m) Hannah Hetherly. (2) William (b) 5 Feb. 
1785. (3) Samuel (b) 6 Feb. 1787 (d) 5 Oct. 
1838 (m) Mary D. Corn. (4) John (b) 29 Dec. 
1789. (5) Sarah (b) 1790 (d) 21 Oct. 1874 (m) 
William Capps. (6) Peter (b) 18 Sept. 1792 (d) 
26 Feb. 1 862. (7) Arthur (b) 27 Jun. 1 794 (d) 
5 Feb. 1847. 

(8) Jessie (b) 27 Jul. 1796 (m) Sarah 
Smith. (9) Elizabeth (b) 5 Aug. 1798 (m) Solo- 



184 




The Rev. Alfred E. Corn at 88 years of age. He was a Baptist Minister for 57 years at Young Harris, Georgia. 



mon Hetherly. (10) Mariam (b) 7 May 1800 
(D) 14 Feb. 1902. (11) Noah P. (b) 25 Jan. 
1802 (d) 9 Oct. 1874 (m) Elizabeth — . (12) 
Silas (b) 18 Sept. 1803 (d) Jun. 1884 (m) 
Elizabeth Capps. (13) Mathew C. (b) 5 Oct. 
1805 (D) 3 Jan. 1892. (14) Mary (Nancy) Ann 
(b) 18 Oct. 1807 (D) 14 Feb. 1890 (m) Mathew 
Capps. (15) Adah (Addie) (b) 3 Oct. 1811 (d) 
12 Feb. 1891. 

— Donna Gertrude Morton Morgan 

THE JAMES AND ELVIRA 
RANDAL COWAN FAMILY 

294 

James Stewart Cowan was the son of John 
Canada Cowan Sr. and his wife Mary Ann 
Walker. He married Elvira Randal, daughter of 
John and Fannie Cassida Randal who lived in 
the Leicester area. Fannie's parents were John 



and Zilphy Cassida. 

James and Elvira had eight sons and three 
daughters who survived until adulthood. They 
were: 

Marcella (1850), Marcus (1851) Mary 
(1855), John (1857), William (1859), Janes 
(1861) George (1863) Pinkney (1866), Emma 
(1868), Elbert and Ellis, twins (1871). 

Two others did not survive infancy: Sarah J. 
(1853-1854) and David (1873). 

— Betty Cowan McFeeture 
(Mrs. Kenneth) 

JAMES GERALD COWAN 

295 

James Gerald Cowan was born in Asheville, 
N.C. , the son of James Kennedy and Florence 
Doggett Cowan, on January 6, 1895. He was a 
graduate of Asheville High School, The Uni- 
versity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the 



Graduate School of Banking at Rutgers Uni- 
versity. He served in France in World War I 
with the 316th Field Artillery and was dis- 
charged in 1919 as a First Lieutenant. Return- 
ing to Asheville, he embarked on a construc- 
tion career, joining his father in the contracting 
business. On April 29, 1922, he married the 
former Florence Elise Alexander. They had two 
daughters, Florence Elise and Cornelia Alex- 
ander. 

Mr. Cowan retired as Senior Vice President 
of Wachovia Bank and Trust Company on 
January 17, 1961. Even though he was in- 
terested in the profession as far back as his 
days at The University of North Carolina, he 
was 40 years old when he entered banking. In 
1931 , he was named Director of Public Works 
and Public Safety when Asheville entered its 
present city manager form of government, 
where he served for two years. Then, another 
service job awaited him. He was named dis- 
trict engineer for the Emergency Relief Admin- 
istration, a job embracing a dozen WNC 
counties. On February 1, 1935, Mr. Cowan 
joined Wachovia Bank and Trust Company. He 
held the title of assistant vice president until 
1938 when he was named vice president. He 
was elected chairman of the board of mana- 
gers and head of the Asheville office of Wacho- 
via in 1940. He assumed the title of senior vice 
president in 1946. 

Mr. Cowan served as a member of the State 
Board of Education, president and member of 
the Executive Committee of the Asheville In- 
dustrial Council, vice president and director of 
the Greater Asheville Council and president of 
the Asheville Chamber of Commerce. He 
served as campaign chairman for the Com- 
munity Chest and was one of those in- 
strumental in setting up the present United 
Way of Asheville and Buncombe County, later 
serving as president in 1959. He was active in 
the affairs of the North Carolina Bankers Asso- 
ciation and served as chairman of the Associa- 
tion's Western North Carolina Division. He 
was a director of the Charlotte Branch of the 
Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond. 

To Mr. Cowan's roles in construction, gov- 
ernment, banking and civic service should be 
added industry as he served as a director of the 
American Enka Corporation, was a North 
Carolina representative on the Interim Com- 
mittee to study economic problems of the 
Appalachian Region and was a director of the 
Business Foundation of North Carolina. He 
served as a director of the Asheville Civic 
Music Association, as senior warden of Trinity 
Episcopal Church, president of the Civitan 
Club, a member of the Board of Trustees of 
Asheville-Buncombe Technical Institute, and a 
member of Biltmore Forest Country Club, 
Mountain City Club, Rhododendron Brigade of 
Guards, Sigma Alpha Epsilon Fraternity, and 
the Sixth District Morehead Scholarship Com- 
mittee. 

James Gerald Cowan died on October 17, 
1975, at age 80. 

— Doris Patteson 




185 



JOHN COWAN AND 
DESCENDANTS 

296 

John Cowan was born about 1795 in North 
Carolina, married in 1821 Mary Anne Walker 
born February 22, 1802. Mary Anne, daughter 
of William and Mary H. Walker, was born in 
Burke County, N.C. Adam Cowan is believed 
to be John's father, but this hasn't been 
documented. Adam and John, if not father and 
son, were closely related. Both were living in 
Buncombe County in early 1800. 

John and Mary Anne owned a large farm in 
what is now known as West Asheville, N.C. In 
early records, the location was often referred 
to as Cowan Mountain Road, later to be called 
Cowan Cove Road. 

John and Mary Anne had two sons; Canada, 
born November 7, 1823; and James, born 
May 12, 1831. Most of the Cowans in Bun- 
combe County from early 1800 until today are 
descendants of this couple and their two sons. 

John Cowan died July 29, 1869, his wife a 
few years later — June 20, 1878. 

Canada Cowan married November 11, 
1847, Mary Caroline Miller, born April 1831, 
daughter of John George and Annie Alexander 
Miller. Canada was a well-known jeweler, 
owning the first jewelry store in Asheville. He 
was a County Commissioner of Buncombe 
County. 

Canada and Mary Caroline were the parents 
of fifteen children. They were: Jesse Tinsley, 
born January 1849, married Mary Boyd; John 
Adam, born April 1850, married Mary Jarrett; 
Martha Ann, born December 1851, married 
James Buttrick; Mary Louesa, born December 
1853, married Robert G. Finch; Laura Euge- 
nia, born March 1856, married Benjamin H. 
Cosby; Ellen Elizabeth, born March 1858, died 
when she was eighteen; Margaret Josephine, 
born May 1 860, died December 1 879, was not 
married; Minnie Belle, born January 1862, 
married Thomas M. Porter; Lillie Amelia, born 
July 1864, married Samuel Doak Hall; Annie 
Victoria, born February 1866, married William 
Vanderwoort Low; Cordelia Hilliard, born July 
1868, married James M. Seigler; James Ken- 
nedy, born September 1869, married Florance 
Doggett; Teresa Frazier, born February 1873, 
died in infancy July 1 873; Freddie Carroll , born 
September 1874, died July 1876; and Ella 
Adams, born September 1875, married 
Samuel P. Burton. 

Mary Caroline Cowan died November 1881 . 
Canada was married October 7, 1883 to Laura 
Coan of Spartanburg, S.C. He was a very 
active member of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South until his death, August 11, 
1887. 

James Cowan, my great-grandfather, mar- 
ried Zilpha Elvira Randall, January 10, 1850. 
Zilpha Elvira was born October 13, 1833. She 
was the daughter of John and Zilpha Cassida 
Randall. James was a farmer remaining on the 
land he inherited from his parents. James and 
Elvira were the parents of thirteen children (all 
born in Buncombe County), eleven living to 
adulthood. They are: Marcilla Ann, born 
September 1850, married Marcus S. Smith; 
Marcus A., born December 1851, married 



Alma Lester; Sarah J. , born August 1 853, died 
August 1854 in infancy; Mary Louise, born 
June 1855, married Milton M. Ledford; John 
Canada, born March 1857, married Eliza Jane 
Graham; William Cornelius, born April 1859, 
married Eliza Cornelia Bruce; James Wesley, 
born May 1861, married Mary Josephine 
Spradlin; George Waxley, born December 
1863, married Delia Michael, left Buncombe 
County for the Klondyke in 1898 and his wife 
and family never heard from him again; Pink- 
ney Lawrence, born April 1866, mar- 
ried Lillian McCarson; Emma Elvira, born De- 
cember 1868, married Thomas J. Harrison; 
twins, Robert Ellis and Elbert Nelson, born 
January 1871 : Elbert Nelson died as a young 
man and Robert Ellis married, first Sophia 
Ford, second, Bertha Ledford and lived to be 
96 years old. The thirteenth child, David H., 
born November 1873, to James and Elvira 
died at birth. Besides this large family, they 
also raised Elvira's half sister, Hester Randall, 
born 1870, married James L. Hawkins. 

James Cowan served in the Civil War. He 
was a faithful member of the Baptist Church. 
He served as town Constable for several years. 

Great-Grandmother Elvira was an expert 
seamstress. The story is she had domestic 
help so as to devote more time to sewing as 
many, both men and women, wore the beauti- 
fully tailored suits made by her. The 1860 
Census shows James and Elvira, their chil- 
dren, a farmhand, and domestic help. 

Elvira died February 12, 1894. James was 
stricken with paralysis a few years later and 
never recovered. He died June 20, 1897. Both 
are buried in Jarrett Cemetery. 

Most members of this family spent their 
entire lives in Buncombe County. 

— Mrs. Kenneth (Betty Cowan) McFeeture 



"JOHN" CANADA COWAN 

297 

At the turn of the century, John Canada 
Cowan (1856-1925) was one of the leaders in 
community development in the area of West 
Asheville known as Cowan Cove. He was a 
man of integrity, good moral character, high 
intelligence and energy. His leadership was 
acknowledged when he was chosen Chairman 
of the local school board and elected to serve 
as a Buncombe County Commissioner from 
1910-1918. He was employed as Buncombe 
County Road Inspector from 1918 until about 
1924, which was just before his death. He was 
a lifelong Democrat. 

John was born March 30, 1 857 at Asheville. 
His parents were "James" Stewart and Ziphra 
"Elvira" Randal Cowen. John was named for 
his grandfather, John Cowan, and his uncle, 
John Canada Cowan, who was known as 
"Canady". 

Young John first attended a little country 
grammar school near Cowan Cove taught by 
George Collins. Later, he attended Newton 
Academy on Biltmore Avenue while he lived 
with his grandmother, Widow Mary Ann Walk- 
er Cowan in a big grey house on Walnut 
Street known as Gray Gables. This home was 
back of the old Denton Store which was on the 




John Canada and Jane (Graham) Cowan 



corner of Haywood and Walnut Streets. 

He attached such an importance to a good 
education that he provided horses and a 
wagon to his children as a means of trans- 
portation to their country school. 

At the age of seventeen, John and a neigh- 
bor Collins boy sought to make their fortune 
out west. They worked, walked and rode 
freight trains until they reached the Mississippi 
River, and crossing over, they went up the 
White River to DeValls Bluff, Arkansas. 

He lived in a boarding house run by Widow 
Lucy Melvin Graham and there he fell in love 
with her daughter, Eliza "Jane." They mar- 
ried May 3, 1881. 

Jane's family had also gone to DeValls Bluff 
to seek their fortune after the death of Jane's 
father, Benjamin "Alfred" Graham, July 11, 
1874 at Tampico, Illinois. Alfred had been 
born July 12, 1825 in Ballyfin, Queens Co., 
Ireland. He had left Ireland with his brother, 
Malcolm, and his sister, Lucy, at the time of 
the terrible potato famine. Coming from a 
heritage of "fighting Irish", they were chided 
in a letter by their father for remaining neutral 
during the Civil War. They brought with them 
the inheritable genes that mark many of their 
descendants with golden yellow teeth. 

Jane's mother, Lucy Melvin Graham, be- 
queathed her descendants a family tree filled 
with the earliest of settlers in New England. 

John brought Jane to Asheville, back to his 
home in Cowan Cove where they lived in the 
Jesse Cowan house. It had originally been the 
home of the first John and Mary Anne Walker 
Cowan. He farmed for himself and for his 
father. He was able to "enter' ' a request for 40 
acres of land adjoining his father's property. 

He developed a thriving agriculture busi- 
ness on his farm where he grew all kinds of 
fruit trees as well as grapes and strawberries. 
He raised chickens for sale and about 1906 he 
started a nursery and landscape business. He 
had a special interest in bee culture and kept 
about ten hives. 

John and Jane's children were as follows: 
"Mabel" Clair (1881-1902), died unmarried. 

George "Melvin" (1883-1965) married 
Sadie Bryson in 1914. Their children were 
Mildred, George, Richard, Louise, and Earl. 

"Lucy" Elva (1886-1968) married John E. 
Baumberger in 1914. Their children were 



186 



Jack, Robert, Jean, Harold and Betty. 

"Addie" Belle (1888- — ) married Bebly 
Hipps in 1914. Their children were Lila, Billy 
and Ethel. 

"Frances" Lois (1890 — ) married first, 
Dr. Garrett DeWeese Gardner. Their children 
were Lois Jean and Graham Dale. She later 
married J.K. Cole and they had no children. 

"Maud" Miranda (1894-1920) married 
Oscar Lee Wilson in 1912. Their children were 
Vernell, Eleanor and Virginia. 

"Dyke" Canada (1897-1980) married 
Kathryn Meadows. They adopted one daugh- 
ter, Frances Jane. 

"Hazel" Graham (1900 — ) married Wil- 
liam "Suber" Henry in 1927. Their children 
were Graham and Jane. 

John Canada Cowan died February 16, 
1925. His wife, Jane, died February 3, 1934. 
Both are buried in Jarrett Cemetery in West 
Asheville. 

Two family anecdotes: John had a dry sense 
of humor and one example of this has never 
been forgotten. He took his horse and wagon 
into town to buy some needed supplies. 
Among these supplies he had gotten a small 
bottle of kerosene. On his way home he gave a 
ride to a man well-known for his weakness for 
alcohol. Eyeing John's bottle and presuming it 
was some of the then legal homemade "white 
lightening", he said he was thirsty and asked 
John for a drink. John nodded assent. Helping 
himself, his passenger greedily filled his 
mouth with kerosene which was immediately 
spewed back out like a geyser. John almost 
lost a friend that day. 

On another occasion he had a lesson to 
teach to one of his small daughters. She had a 
curiosity she could not seem to control. Every 
time anything was brought into the home in a 
paper bag and not immediately displayed, she 
rushed over and pinched a hole in the bag to 
see what it contained . John took a small bag to 
the chickenyard and filled it with chicken drop- 
pings. This bag was the last one she pinched. 
— Jean Baumberger Jones 



WILLIAM C. COWAN AND 
DESCENDANTS 

298 

William Cornelius Cowan, born April 16, 
1859, in Buncombe County, was the sixth 
child of James and Elvira Randall Cowan. He 
was a farmer. Will, as he was known to his 
family and friends, did not marry until he was 
around forty years old. 

The family story is that Will's property and 
the property of Jesse Bayles and Clarrisa (Cler- 
cy) Parham Bruce joined. The Bruce family 
and Will were very good friends. When their 
daughter was born, August 1, 1880, he was 
asked to name her. He gave her the name Eliza 
and her mother and father added Cornelia after 
him. As a baby, Eliza Cornelia Bruce, it is said, 
sat on William Cowan's knee. He was very 
fond of his namesake. When she grew up, that 
fondness grew into love and they were mar- 
ried, he being about twice her age. When 
applying for their marriage license their ages 
were 39 and 18. They were married in Bun- 



combe County October 5, 1898, by Eliza's 
grandfather, Rev. Avery Kimsey Parham. 

William C. and Eliza Bruce Cowan were my 
grandparents. They lived on Cowan Cove 
Road, Buncombe County, N.C. and were the 
parents of nine children: Conley Jesse, born 
August 1899, married Mamie Jones of Bun- 
combe County, lives in Florida; Robert Ellis, 
born July 2, 1901, married Wilma Galloway, 
born May 1 , 1907, died June 12, 1979, buried 
in Oakdale Cemetery, Hendersonville, N.C. 
They moved to Henderson County shortly after 
they married and remained there. The third 
child born to Will and Eliza died at birth about 
1903. George Elmer, my father, born Novem- 
ber 1, 1904, married Mattie Gladys Hendrix; 
Clarence William, born January 29, 1907, 
married Gamette Styers, born Danville, Va. 
Clarence served his country in World War II. 
He died March 29, 1979, and is buried in 
Green Hills Cemetery, Asheville, N.C. Albert 
Joseph, born August 28, 1909, married, first, 
Beulah Powers, divorced, then married Mary 
Lucy Hendrix (my mother's sister), born Au- 
gust 17, 1912, died June 7, 1978, buried in 
Green Hills Cemetery, Asheville, N.C. Albert 
also served his country in World War II. He is 
retired and lives in West Asheville, N.C. The 
next, twins, Emma Faye and Elizabeth May 
were born May 22, 1912. Elizabeth May died at 
nine months in 1913. Emma Faye married 
Talmadge D. Roberts of Buncombe County, 
born May 9, 1912, died September 25, 1974, 
buried Pleasant Grove Cemetery, Weaverville, 
N.C. Faye lives in Arden, N.C. Effie Rosetta, 
born April 10, 1916, youngest child, married 
Charles A. Lisenbee, born March 10, 1910 in 
Yancey County. Effie and Charlie also live in 
Arden, N.C. 

Grandfather suffered a stroke and died Au- 
gust 16, 1921. Grandmother and the children 
remained on the farm. In March 1924, just a 
few years after her husband's death, several of 
the children were sick with colds and flu. One 
son was quite ill with pneumonia. Grand- 
mother looked after him day and night. The 
attending doctor is quoted as saying, 
"Mother's love saved this boy". After her son 
had passed the crisis, Grandmother took sick 
and lived only four days — double pneumonia. 
She died April 4, 1924, and is buried beside 
her husband in Cedar Hill Cemetery, West 
Asheville, N.C. 

The family left the farm, boys going to stay 
with relatives until they could be on their own. 
The girls, Faye 12, Effie 8, went to live with 
their aunt and uncle, R. Ellis and Sophia Ford 
Cowan. They remained with them until they 
married. 

George Elmer (my father) and Mattie Gladys 
Hendrix, born May 17, 1907, in Buncombe 
County, were married December 6, 1925. 
Mother was the daughter of John William and 
Frances Lurana Britt Hendrix. They had two 
children: Betty Jean, born January 5, 1927, 
Buncombe County, N.C, and Martha Anne, 
born June 29, 1934, Buncombe County, N.C. 
My father is retired from Coca Cola Bottling 
Company after 48 years service and lives in 
West Asheville, N.C. Mother died November 
7, 1961, after a five-month illness. She is 
buried in Green Hills Cemetery, Asheville, 



N.C. 

I, Betty Jean Cowan, married December 6, 
1948, Kenneth Dolph McFeeture, born August 
10, 1926, Wolf Creek, Cocke County, Tenn. 
He is the son of Dolph George and Eliza Wyatt 
McFeeture. Ken and I are the parents of one 
daughter, Martha Elizabeth (Libby), born 
February 14, 1950, in Buncombe County, 
N.C. She married, later divorced, September 
24, 1971, Deward Edward Hawkins, Jr. of 
Etowah, Henderson County, N.C, son of De- 
ward Edward and Ellen Fletcher Hawkins. They 
have one son, Kenneth Scott McFeeture- 
Hawkins, born July 22, 1973. 

Martha Anne Cowan married September 10, 
1950, Robert Sam Calloway, born September 
2, 1930, Buncombe County, N.C, sonofZeb 
Franklin and Allie Coleman Calloway. Robert 
died December 2, 1980, buried in Green Hills 
Cemetery, Asheville, N.C. They have two 
sons, Robert Michael, born June 16, 1951, 
married September 15, 1973, Toccoa, Ga., 
Brenda Brown King, born September 6, 1945, 
Buncombe County, N.C. , daughter of Jack N. 
and Estella Johnson Brown. They have one 
son, Anthony Michael, born July 31, 1974, 
Toccoa, Ga. George Marshall, born July 1, 
1952, is unmarried. 

— Betty Cowan McFeeture 

JOHN CRAIG 

299 

John Craig and his three brothers, Robert, 
William and James lived in Augusta County, 
Virginia at Craigville. His borther Robert went 
to Greenbriarand established an Inn. His other 
two brothers raised large families and died 
prior to 1812. 

John Craig married Hannah Davis in Augus- 
ta County, and along with several other fami- 
lies moved to Buncombe County in 1789 with 
the first settlers. 

Prior to the Blount grant he acquired a grant 
of 1 00 acres in the north of Asheville extending 
from Charlotte Street to Sunset Drive and 
north of Baird Street. 

When Buncombe County was organized at 
Gum Spring, the County Court elected John 
Craig trustee, or the first treasurer of Bun- 
combe County. Samuel and William Davidson 
were his sureties. 

He bought a lot in the first Burton subdivi- 
sion creating the city of Morristown which 
later became Asheville. 

John Craig acquired numerous grants of 
large tracts of land from 100 acres to 1,000 
acres each before 1795 in Buncombe County, 
including one tract of 100 acres at Bull Creek 
and 50 acres at Bee Tree. He later built a home 
at Bull Creek where he operated a mill and 
raised a family of several children including 
William, James and John and daughters Han- 
nah, Elizabeth, Martha, Mary, Sarah and Jane. 

John Craig's body was found in a small 
clearing on his farm, Craigfields, near Bull 
Creek in 1708. He had been shot in the back 
with a rifle by someone with a deformed foot, 
the only tracks found at the scene. 

A neighbor of Craig, Henry West, a sailor 
who had injured his foot in an accident and had 
jumped ship at Charleston and later purchased 



187 



several tracts of land in the Buncombe area, 
was arrested and charged with the murder. He 
was convicted by the jury and sentenced to 
hang on a scaffold ere