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HERODOTUS 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 

A. D. GODLEY 

HON. FELLOW OF MAGDALBN COLLKOK, OXFORD 



IN FOUR VOLUMES 
II 



BOOKS III AND IV 




LONDON : 


WILLIAM 


HEINEMANN 


NEW 


YORK 


: G. P. PUTNAM'S 


SONS 






MCMXXI 










S\; 










306259 



• • • • 






CONTENTS 



PAOB 
INTBODUOnON TO BOOKS III AND IV vii 



BOOK III , 1 

. ^ J, 

BOOK IV 197 

INDEX OF PBOPKB NAMES 409 

MAPS: — 

1. The Persian Empire At end 

2. The World According to Herodotus ..... „ 



INTRODUCTION TO BOOKS III AND IV 

units^ appear in other passages in Herodotus as 
subjects of a single satrapy. What the historian 
gives us in Book III is simply a statistical list of 
Darius' revenues and the sources from which they 
were drawn. 



xvni 



\ 



HERODOTUS 
BOOK III 



VOL. II. 3 



HERODOTUS 

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Bpaaa-opuevo^ avTO'xeipiri Biiaireipe t§ arpaTiy, 

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T€tj^09 TO ev Mifj^i K.afi/Svo'f)^, KaTiaa^ €9 to 
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avTov T^ yjrvxv^ iroUtov TOidBe' aTeCXa^ avrov 
r^v OvyaTipa iaOrJTi BovXtjirj e^iirepme eir vBtop 
eyovaav vopijiov, avviirepure Bk xal aXXa^ nrap- 
devov^ diroXi^a^ dvBp&v t&v irpanonv, 6/iota>9 

i6 



HERODOTUS 

apiaTOV alpeofievotat avrolat eirnrvevaai votov 
fiiyav T€ fcal i^aiaiov, ^opeoura he dlva<; rrj^ 
ylrd/jLfjLOV KaTa'X&aai (706a9> xaX rpoircp ToiovTtp 
a(f>avi(r07jvaL. *Afifia)vioi fi^v ovtcd Xiyovat yevi- 
aOai ire pi t^9 a'TpaTi7j<; ravrtf^, 

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AlyvTTTioi eifiaTa iff>6peov ra KoXkiara /cal fjaav 
iv OaXiTfO'i. Ihobv Be ravra tov($ Alyuirriov^ ttol- 
evPTa^ 6 Ka/i)8i5<riy9, irdyyy a(f>€a<; KaraSo^a^; 
ecovTOv /cafc&^ irpri^avTO^ y(^apfi6a'vva ravra Troii- 
eiv, ifcdXee tou9 eirirpoirov^ t% Mefiffyio^, dwiKO' 
/jL€Vov<; Bk 69 oyfriv eXpero 6 ri irporepov fiev iovro^ 
avrov iv M.€/jL<f>i iiroLevv roiovrov ovBev AlyvTrrioi, 
rare Bk eirel avro^ wapeir] rr}<; arparirj^ irXtjOo^ 
ri diro/SaXxov. ot Be €(l>pa^ov &<; ccfii Oeb^ etr) 
<l>av€l<i Bih 'xpovov iroWov ia)0a)<; inKfyaiveadai, 
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K6re<; oprd^oiev, ravra aKovaa^ 6 lSiafi^v(rr)<i €<f>i] 
yjrevBeadai a(f>ea'i fcal 0)9 yjrevBo/ievov^ 0ai/dra)' 
i^rjfuov. 

28. ^ Airoicreiva^; Be rovrov^ Bevrepa rov^ ipea<i 
eKokee €9 o-^iv* X&yovrwv Be Kara ravra rcav 
ipetov, ov \i]aeiv €<f>rj avrov el 0e6^ ta9 xeiporjOr)^ 
(iTTiyfievo^ ecT) AlyvirrioKTi, roaavra Be eXira^ 
dirdyeip ixeXeve rov^Airiv rov^ ipea^, ot /mci/ St) 
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Be Xeyovai aeXa^ iirl rrjv l3ovp ix rov ovpavov 
Kdri(T')(eiv, fcai fiiv ifc rovrov rifcreiv rov ^Attlv, 

36 



HERODOTUS 

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fiv 0vyaTpo<; iovra^ t?)9 koavrov iralha^, iireLTe 
Se a<^ea^ direirefiireTO, elire ir poire pjiroav avrov^ 
" Kpa L(TT€, & TratSe?, 89 vfikoDv rijv fir^repa dire- 

KT€IV€; ' TOVTO TO CTTO? flkv IT p€<T ^VTepO^ aVTO^V 

ev ovhevX \6y(p iiroirjaaTO* 6 he vecorepo^, tc3 
ovpofia fjv AvKo^pcov, ffKyqcre d/covaa^ ovtcj &aTe 
diTiKOfievo^ €9 T^i' K.6pLV0ov are (fiovea t% firjrpb^; 
TOP Trarepa ovTe irpoaehre, BiaKeyofiepm re ovre 
irpoahieXeyero iaropeoprl re \6yop oihepa iSiSov. 
T€\o9 Be p,ip irepidvpL(o^ €)(a)P 6 HepiapSpo^; i^e- 
\avpei ifc t&p oIklcop, 

51. 'Efe\a<ra9 Be tovtop laropee top irpec^v- 
Tcpop Ta a'<f>t 6 fJitiTpOTraTcop BieXeyOrj, o Be oi 
dirrfyeeTO dx; 0'<^ea9 <f>iXo(f>p6pa)<i eBe^UTO* ixeipov 
Be Tov 67reo9 to (t^l 6 UpoxXei]^ diroaTeXXayp elTre, 
CLTe oi potp Xa^(OP, ovk epAp.PY}TO» TleplapBpo^; Be 
ovBep^Lap firjx^^h^ ^^V eZi/at p^fj ou a<f)c ixelpop 
viroOeaOai ti, eXnrdpee ts laTopeeop' o Be dpafipr]- 
aOeX^ elire koX tovto, HepLUpBpo^ Be p6<p Xa^iov 
[koX toOto] ^ KoX p,aXaKOP epBiBopai /3ovX6p6PO<; 
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p.epo<i eXOoi 69 aXXrjp oIkltjp, dirrfXavpeT &p xal 
aTTo TavTq^, direiXeopTo^ re tov TLeplapBpov Tolait 
Be^apApoLai koX e^epyeip KeXevoPTO^* direXavpo- 

^ Stein brackets kqX tovto ^ as a repetition. from the last line. 

64 



BOOK III. 50-51 

had already befallen him. He had two sons by 
Melissa^ one seventeen and one sixteen years old. 
Their mother's father, Procles, the despot of Epi- 
daurus^sent for the boys and kindly entreated them, as 
was natural, seeing that they were his own daughter's, 
sons. When they left him, he said as he bade them 
farewell : " Know you, boys, him who slew your 
mother?" The elder of them paid no heed- to 
these words; but the younger, whose name Was 
Lycophron, was struck with such horror when he 
heard them that when he came to Corinth he 
would speak no word to his father, as being his 
mother's murderer,.nor would he answer him when 
addressed nor make any reply to his questions. At 
last Periander was so angry that he drove the boy 
from his house. 

51. Having so done he questioned the elder son, 
what their grandfather had said in converse to them. 
The boy told him that Procles had treated them 
kindly ; but he made no mention of what he had 
said at parting; for he had taken no heed to it. 
Periander said it could not be but that Procles had 
given them some admonition ; and he questioned 
his son earnestly ; till the boy remembered, and told 
of that also. Being thus informed, Periander was 
resolved to show no weakness ; he sent a message to 
those with whom his banished son was living^and 
bade them not entertain him in their house. So the 
boy being driven forth and going to another house 
was ever rejected there too, Periander threatening 
all whd received him and bidding them keep him 

VOL. II. F 



HERODOTUS 

/j^evo^ o dp rjie eir ereprjiv tcov eraLpeov oi oe are 
IlepidvSpov iovTa iraloa Kaiirep SeifiaivovTe^ ofia>^ 
iBixomo* 

52. Te\o9 Bk 6 TlepiapBpo^ . K'qpvyfia iiroiriaaTO, 
09 Ai; ff oixloiai viroBi^rjTai fuv fj irpoaBcaXex^V* 
ipr)P ^Tffurjp TOVTOP Tc5 'AttoWcdi;* o^eLXetP, oar)P 
Sf} etira^. irpo^ &p hrj tovto to tci^pvyfia ovt€ Tt9 
oi BuiXiy€<T0ai ovre ol/ctoiac BixeaOai riOeke* irpo^ 
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aXovairfai t€ fcal dairiija-i avfiireTTTeofcora oiKreipe' 
vTTclf; Be T^9 opyrj^ ijte acaop koX eXeye '**fl Trai, 
xorepa tovtcop alpeTforepa iari, ravra to pvv 
ex^v TTpija.o'cif;, ff Ti)P TVpapplBa xaX rh ayaOd 
ra pvp iyo) l^co, ravra iopra t^ irarpl iiriTi^Beop 
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ixpv^' €l yap Tt9 <TVfi<f>oprj ip avrolai yeyope, i^ 
9)9 viroylrirfp 69 ifi€ e;^e*9, 6/AOt T€ avrr) yiyope Kal 
iyo) avrrj<; to irXevp /a€to^o9 el/u, oatp avro^; 
a<f>€a i^epyaadfjLTjp, aif Be jjbaOoup o<T(p (pdopeeaOaL 
Kpeaaop ea-ri fj olKreipeadai, a/ia re okolop ti €9 
T0t>9 TOKea^ Kal 69 tol'9 Kpeaaopa^ Tedvfi&aOai, 
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e(0VT& €9 \o70t;9 diriKOfiepop. fiaOtop Be 6 Hepl- 
apBpo<i ft)9 airopop ti to kukop ett) rov iraiBb^ Kal 
aviKf)TOP, ef 6^6aXfi&p fiip airoTrefiTreTai aTeuXa^ 
irXoiop €9 KepKvpap* iireKpaTee yap Kal TavTt}^' 

66 



BOOK III. 52-53 

was subject to him ; which done, he sent an army 
against Procles his father-in-law (deeming him to be 
the chief cause of his present troubles)^ and took 
Procles himself alive^ besides taking Epidaurus. 

53. As time went on, Periander, now grown past 

his prime and aware that he could no longer oversee 

and direct all his business, sent to Corcyra inviting 

Lycophron to be despot ; for he saw no hope in 

his eldest son, who seemed to him to be slow-witted. 

Lycophron refused even to answer the messenger. 

Then Periander, greatly desiring that the young man 

should come, sent to him (as the next best way) 

his own daughter, the youth's sister, thinking 

that he would be likeliest to obey her. She came 

and said, " Brother, would you see the sovereignty 

'pass to others, and our father's house plundered, 

rather than come hence and have it for your own ? 

Nay, come away home and cease from punishing 

yourself. Pride is the possession of fools. Seek not 

to cure one ill by another. There be many that 

set reason before righteousness ; and many that 

by zeal for their mother's cause have lost their 

father's possessions. Despotism is a thing hard to 

hold ; many covet it, and our father is now old and 

past his prime; give not what is your estate to 

others." So, by her father's teaching, she used such 

arguments as were most likely to win Lycophron ; but 

he answered, that he would never come to Corinth as 

long as he knew his father to be alive. When she 

brought this answer back, Periander sent a third 

messenger, offering to go to Corcyra himself, and 

69 



HERODOTUS 

69 lHopivOov diri/cofiepop iiaZoypv yiveaffat Ttj^ 
TvpavviSo^. Karaivea-avTO^ Sk iirl tovtoktl tov 
7ratSo9, 6 fJL€P Tl€piavSpo<: iariWcTO 69 rrfv K.€pfcv' 
pav, 6 Sk 7rat9 oi 69 ttjp K.6piv0ov, jiaOovre^i Se 
ol KepKvpaioi TOVTCDV cKacTTa, iva {I'q a^i Tlepi- 
avBpo^ 69 Tffv X^P^^ airi/crjTai, Kreivovai rbv 
verjviaKov. avrX tovtodv fiev Tlepiavhpo^ J^epfcv- 
paiov^ irifimpieTO. 

54. AcuceSaifiovioi he ajoKtp fieyaXq) 0)9 uttl- 
KOVTO, eTToXiopfceov ^dfiov irpocrPaXovre^ he irpo^ 

TO T6Z;^09 TOV fl€V 9r/0O9 0a\d<Ta"jJ 6(7T6a)T09 TTvpyov 

Karh TO irpodaTeiov t^9 7ro\to9 eirelSrfaav, fieTcu 
hi avTov fiorjO'^aapTO^ HoXvfcpaTeo^ X^^'P^ iroXKfj 
d'rrrj\d(T0i](Tap, kuto, he top eirdpco irvpyop top 
ein T^9 pdxi'O^ TOV 6peo<; etreoPTa eire^rjkdop ol re 
iTTL/covpoi /cal avT&p Xafiicop avx^ol, Se^dfiepoi he 
T0U9 KaKehaifWpiov^; en* oXiyop XP^^^^ €<f>€vyop 
oiriafo, ot he eirKT'Trofiepot exTetpop* 

55. Et flip pvp oi irapeoPTe^ AaKehaifiopCcov 
ofioioi iyepoPTo TavTtjp ttjp '^fxeprjp ^Ap'xf'p re /cat 
AvKcoTTTf, alpedr) ap ^dfio^' ^Apx^V^ y^p fcal 
AvKtoirr)^ fiovpoL avpecrireaoPTe^ (fyevyovai 69 to 
T6t;^09 Toiat ^aploKTi xal drroKKfjia-OepTe*: ttj^ 
oiriaoD ohov direOapop ep Tji rroXi Tjj ^afiloDp, TpiTtp 
he dir* ^ApxUto tovtov yeyopoTi aW^ ^Ap^irj t^ 
%apiov TOV *Apxi€(o auT09 ep TltTdpf) avpeyepofir^v 
(hrjiJbov yhp tovtov ffp), &9 ^ipa>P irdpTODP fidXiaTa 
€TLfia T€ 'Zafiiov^ xai oi t^ nrarpX e^t} Sdfiiov 
TOVPOfjLa Tedrjpcu, oti oi o iraTtjp ^Apyiv^ €P Sa/io) 
dpi(TTev<Ta^ €T€\€VTr)ae' Tifmp hk %apiov^ 6^?/, 
hioTi Ta(f>7Jpat oi top irdirirop hrj/Aoattf xnro 
%aiii(op. 

70 



.BOOK III. 79-80 

the greatest holy day that all Persians alike keep ; they 
celebrate a great festival on it^ which they call the 
Massacre of the Magians ; while the festival lasts no 
Magian may come abroad^ but during this day they 
remain in their houses. 

80. When the tumult was abated^ and five days 
had passed^ the rebels against the Magians held a 
council on the whole state of affairs^ at which words 
were uttered which to some Greeks seem incredible ; 
but there is no doubt that they were ^oken. Otanes 
was for giving the government to the whole body of 
the Persian people. "I hold," he said, "that we 
must make an end of monarchy ; there is no pleasure 
or advantage in it. You have seen to what lengths 
went the insolence of Cambyses, and you have borne 
your share of the insolence of the Magian. What 
right order is there to be found in monarchy, when 
the ruler can do what he will, nor be held to 
account for it ? Give this power to the best man on 
earth, and his wonted mind must leave him. The 
advantage which he holds breeds insolence, and 
nature makes all men jealous. This double cause is 
the root of all evil in him ; he will do many wicked 
deeds, some from the insolence which is born of 
satiety, some from jealousy. For whereas an absolute 
ruler, as having all that heart can desire, should 
rightly be jealous of no man, yet it is contrariwise 
with him in his dealing with his countrymen ; he is 
jealous of the safety of the good, and glad of the 
safety of the evil ; and no man is so ready to believe 
calumny. Nor is any so hard to please ; accord him 
but just honour, and he is displeased that you make 
him not your first care ; make him such, and he damns 



loS 



BOOK III. 80-82 

you for a flatterer. But I have yet worse to say 
of him than that^ he turns the laws of the land 
upside down, he rapes women, he puts high and low 
to death. But the virtue of a multitude's rule lies 
first in its excellent name, which signifies equality 
before the law; and secondly, in that its acts are 
not the acts of the monarch. All offices are assigned 
by lot, and the holders are accountable for what 
they do therein ; and the general assembly arbitrates 
on all counsels. Therefore I declare my opinion, 
that we make an end of monarchy and increase the 
power of the multitude, seeing that all good lies in 
the many." 

81. Such was the judgment of Otanes : but Mega- 
byzus' counsel was to make a ruling oligarchy. 
" I agree," said he, " to all that Otanes says against 
the rule of one ; but when he bids you give the 
power to the multitude, his judgment falls short 
of the best. Nothing is more foolish and violent 
than a useless mob ; to save ourselves from the 
insolence of a despot by changing it for the insolence 
of the unbridled commonalty — that were unbearable 
indeed. Whatever the despot does, he does with 
knowledge ; but the people have not even that ; 
how can they have knowledge, who have neither 
learnt nor for themselves seen what is best, but 
ever rush headlong and drive blindly onward, like a 
river in spate? Let those stand for democracy 
who wish ill to Persia ; but let us choose a company 
of the best men and invest these with the power. 
For we ourselves shall be of that company; and 
where we have the best men, there *tis like that 
we shall have the best counsels." 

82. Such was the judgment of Megabyzus. 

107 



BOOK III. 82 

Darius was the third to declare his opinion. 
" Methinks/' said he^ " Megabyzus speaks rightly 
concerning democracy^ but not so concernitig 
oligarchy. For the choice lying between these 
three^ and each of them^ democracy^ oligarchy and 
monarchy being supposed to be the best of its kiud^ 
I hold that monarchy is by far the most excellent. 
Nothing can be found better than the rule of the 
one best man ; his judgment being like to himself^ 
he will govern the multitude with perfect wisdom, 
and best conceal plans made for the defeat of 
enemies. But in an oligarchy, the desire of many 
to do the state good service ofttimes engenders 
bitter enmity among them ; for each one wishing to 
be chief of all and to make his counsels prevail, 
violent enmity is the outcome, enmity brings 
faction and faction bloodshed ; and the end of 
bloodshed is monarchy; whereby it is shown that 
this fashion of government is the best. Again, 
the rule of the commonalty must of necessity 
engender evil-mindedness ; and when evil-minded- 
ness in public matters is engendered, bad men 
are not divided by enmity but united by close 
friendship ; for they that would do evil to the 
commonwealth conspire together to do it. This 
continues till someone rises to champion the people's 
cause and makes an end of such evil-doing. He 
therefore becomes the people's idol, and being their 
idol is made their monarch ; so his case also proves 
that monarchy is the best government. But (to 
conclude the whole matter in one word) tell me, 
whence and by whose gift came our freedom — 
from the commonalty or an oligarchy or a single 



109 



HERODOTUS 

Ovyarepa, ^ rov Mdyop xardSrfKop iirolqtre' hvvd- 
luo^ T€ iravra oi hrifiTrXearo, irp&TOV fUv vvv 
rvirop iroi7f(rdfjL€VO^ \l0ivov eaTqae* ^^ov he oi 
ivfjv avifp iTnrev^t'iTreypayjre Sk ypdfifiaTa "Keyovra 
rdSe' " Aapelo^ 6 ^TardoTreo^ trvv re tov ittttov 
T§ dp€T^ *' TO ovvofia XiyoDV " /cal Oll3dpeo<; rov 
iTTiroKOfiov iKTtjaaTO rr^v Hepaecov /3aai\ijLrivJ** 

89. Ilofi^cra? Be ravra ev Jlepariai, dp')(a^ xare- 
arriaaTO elxoaiy ra^ aifroX KoXeovai (raTpairqLa^* 
KaratTTijaa^; Se tu^; dp^^a^ xal dp'xpvra^ eiriaTi^aa^ 
ird^aro (^opov^ oi Trpotrievai xarh eOved re koX 
TTpo? Tola I eOveai tou? ifK'qa'LO'Xjtopov^ irpooTdaafov, 
KoX inr€pl3aiv(ov rov^ irpoae'^ea^i ra eKaarepto 
oKKoLO-L aXKa eOvea vepxov. dpyh^ Be xal (poptav 
irpoaoBov rrjv eTrereiov xarh rdoe BieTKe, Toiai 
fiev avT&v dpyvpiov dTrayiveovai etprjro Ba/Sv- 
Xdviop araOpxiv rdXapTOP dirayipeeip, Toiai Be 
ypvaiop dirayipeovai ISivfioixov. to Be Ba^SuXci- 
piop rdXaPTOP Svparai FivjSotBa^ okto^ xal efiBo- 
fjk^KOvra fivea^,^ inl yap Kvpov apyopro^; KaX 
aSTi9 Kap^^vaea fjp fcarea-TrjKb^ ovBep (bopov trepi, 
aXX^ S&pa dyipeop, Bict Be ravrrjp Trjp eirira^iv 
ToO if>opov fcal irapairXrjaLa TavTjf aX\a \eyovai 
Tlioaai &<: Aap€to(; p^p fjp KdirrfKo^y Kap./3v<rr}f: 
Se oeeTTTOTiy?, KOpo? Be Trarrjp, o pkp on eKairijXeve 
irtiKra rh Trpijypara, o Bk on 'xaXeiro^ re fjp xal 
ikiywpo^, h Be on rjirio^ re /cal dyadd a<f>i itoptcl 
liii,i)')(apri<TaTO, 

^ The MSS. have EvjSofSat ip^ofi'liKovra fiv4as ; bat the 
«^)ng given is now generally adopted. As the weight- 
^^lAMn of the Persian silver stater to the Persian gold stater 

4),e «nit, of which 3000 composed the talent — was 3 : 4, the 



« » 



HERODOTUS 

fjueva ^aaiKrjia iari koL ^kvOui oi apiaroL re xal 
TrXeia-TOi xal tou9 aXXov^ vofu^ovre^ XfcvOa^ Sou- 
\ov<: (T^eripovf; elvai* KarrfKovat ik oStoi to fiev 
7rpo9 /JLe(rafifipir)v €9 rifv Tavpifcijv, to Se irpo^ ^w 
iwi T6 Td<l>poVy Ttjv Brj oi ix r&v TVif>\&v yevofievot 
&pvPaVf KaX iirl rrj^ Xi/ivrj^ t^9 Maii]riSo^ to 
ifiTTopiov TO Ka\€€Tai KprjfivoL' Tct Be avT&v kutij- 
Kouai iwl TroTUfiop Tdvaip, ret Se Karvirepde 
irpo^ l3op4i]v av€fjLov r&v ficuriXijiav Xfcvdetov olfci- 
ovai ^€\arf')(\aivoiy aXKo eOvo^ xaX ov ^kvOikov, 
M.eka^'XXxiivwv hi to fcarmrepffe \ipvai xal eprjpboi 
iaTt dp0p(OTrwv, xaroaov rnxel^ iBfiep. 

21. Tdvaiv Be iroTa/iov Bia/SdpTi ovxeri X/cv- 
ffi/ci], aW' 17 /Jiep irpdnri r&p Tul^lcjp Xavpofiarecop 
iari, ot ifc tov p>vxpv dp^dfiepoi rrj^ M.aii]TiSo^ 
XtyLM/179 pifJLOPTai TO 7r/>09 fioperfP apcfiop fipLepeayp 
irePTeKoiBeKa oBop, iraaap iovaap yfriXffP /cai 
dypioDP /eal fifiepoDp BepBpetop* vwepoifceova-i Be 
TOVTtop BevTeprjv Xd^ip e^oPTe^ ^ovBlpoi, yrjp ve/io- 
fiepoi irdaap Baaeap v\ri TraPToiij. 

22. BouBvpoyp Be KaTVirepOe irpo^ ^operjp eo-Tt 
TTpcoTfj fiep epijfio^ ew rjfjuepeap eirTh oBop, fieTa 8k 
Tfjp epr^jMOP diroKKipoPTt fiaXXop 7r/)09 aTrrfKKOTTjp 
ape/iop pe/JLOPTai ^vaaayeTai, eOpo^ troXKop koI 
tBiop' ^&(n Be diro drjpr}^, avpex^e^ Be tovtoktl 
€P Totci avTotai tottokti KaToixrjfiepoi elai toIo-l 
ovpofia Kelrai ^Ivpxai, fcal oxhoi diro 0i]prf^ ^&pt€^ 
TpoTT^p TOi^Bc XoX9' ^^* BepBpeop dpaj^d^, tA Be 
6<ttI TTVKpd dpd irdaap T7)p x^PV^' 2''T7ro9 Be 
€fcdaT(p BeBiBayfiepo^ eirl yaarepa Keladai Tairei- 
poTrjTO^ eXpeKa eTOtfio^ €<ttI kuI Kva>p' etredp Be 
diriBrf TO Orjpiop dwo tov BepBpiov, To^evaa^ eiri- 

220 



BOOK IV. 20-22 

Royal^ where are the best and most in number 
of the Scythians^ who deem all other Scythians their 
slaves; their territory stretches southward to the 
Tauric land^ and eastward to the fosse that was 
dug by the sons of the blind men^ and on the 
Maeetian lake to the port called The Cliffs ^ ; 
and part of it stretches to the river Tanais. Above 
the Royal Scythians to the north dwell the Black- 
cloaks^ who are of another and not a Scythian 
stock ; and beyond the Blackcloaks the . land is 
all marshes and uninhabited by men^ so far as 
we know. 

21. Across the Tanais it is no longer Scythia; the 
first of the divisions belongs to the Sauromatae, whose 
country begins at the inner end of the Maeetian lake 
and stretches fifteen days* journey to the north, and 
is all bare of both forest and garden trees. Above 
these in the second division dwell the Budini, in- 
habiting a country thickly overgrown with trees of 
all kinds. 

22. Northward of the Budini the land is unin- 
habited for seven days* journey; after this desert, 
and somewhat more towards the eg&t wind, dwell 
the Thyssagetae, a numerous and a separate nation, 
living by the chase. Adjoining these and in the 
same country dwell the people called lyrkae ; these 
also live by the chase, in such manner as I will show. 
The hunter climbs a tree, and there sits ambushed ; 
for trees grow thick all over the land ; and each man 
has his horse at hand, trained to couch upon its 
belly for lowliness* sake, and his dog ; and when he 
marks the quarry from the tree, he shoots with the 

* Apparently on the west coast of the Sea of Azov ; 
cp. 110. 

221 



A 



HERODOTUS 

pov^ i^ 'TTrep/Sopiav Karh tov^ avrov<i toutoi/9 
dvOpdirov^ TTOpevofieva^ airiKetrdai €9 A^Xoi/ en 
Trporepov 'Tirepoxv^ '^^ ^^^ AaoSi/Cf)^;, ravra^ 
fiev vvv rfi ^ilXeiOviij airo^epowa^ avrX rov 
inKVTOKOV Tov ird^avTo (fiopov airiKia-Oai, rrjv Se 
"Apyrfv re koX ttjv ^ilTriv afia avTolai Oeolai 
diriKeaOai Xiyovai xai a(f>i Tifut^ aWa^ BeSoadai 
irpo^ a<f>€a}V' koI yap dyeipeip aff>i ra9 yvvauca^ 
• iirovofia^ovaas rd ovvofuiTa iv r^ ipv^ rov <T(f>i 
'nx^i/ dvrip AvKio^ iiroirjae, irapd he a'<l)ia)v /Lta* 
dovra^ vrjaKOTa^ t€ zeal "Iwi^a? vfivieiv ^iliriv re 
Kal "Apyrjv ovopA^ovrd^ re koX dyeipovra^ (ovto^ 
Be 6 ^DXtfv Kal tov^ aWov^ tou? Trd\aiov<; vfivov<: 
iiroLrjo'e etc Avfcirj^; (KOiav tov<: d€iBofiivov<; iv 
Ai^X^), Kal T&v firjpioav KaTayi^ofiivcov iwl r^ 
/3a}fi& TTJV (TTToBov TavTfjv cttI TtJV 0l]Kn]V Tij<i 
''[Ittios t€ Kal "Apyrf^ dvaio'ipLova'ffai eTrt/SaWo- 
fievrjv, 17 Be 0i]Kr) aifrecov earl oiriaOe rov 'A/jre- 
/jLiaiov, TT/Jo? 17a) T€T pa fifievT), dy^^OTaTO) tov 
Kr}Lcov ia-TirjTopiov, 

36. Kal TavTa fiep 'Tirep^opeoDV irepv elp'^aday 
TOP yap ire pi 'A^ayoto? \oyop tov Xeyo/jLevov eipai 
^Tirep^opeov ov Xeyeo, d)^^ top okttov irepU^epe 
KaTa waaap yrjp ovBep aiTeopjepo^. el Bk elal 
v7repj36p€joc Tipe^; apOponTroi, elal Kal vireppoTioi 
aWoi,yyeX& Be opetop 7^9 TrepioBov^ ypdyjraPTa^ 
TToWmff; i]Bi] Kal ovBepa poope^oPTdd^ i^rfyrja-d- 
fjLevop' ot ^ClKeapop t€ peoPTa ypd<f>ov<n irepi^ ttjv 
yrjp eovaap KVK\oTepia C09 dirb Toppov, Kal tt^v 
^Aairjp TTJ Eivpdirr) iroievPTOOV Itrqp, ip oXiyoicri 
yap €70) orjXaxTO) fxeyaOo^ re eKdarq^ avTetup Kal 
ott) T49 €<ttI €9 ypa(t>r)P eKaaTtf, 
234 [\4yotp] us Stein. 



BOOK IV. 35-36 

Hyperboreans by way of the peoples aforesaid to 
Delos^ yet earlier than the coming of Hyperoche 
and Laodice ; these latter came to bring to Ilithyia 
the tribute whereto they had agreed for ease of 
child-bearing; but Arge and Opis^ they say^ came 
with the gods themselves,^ and received honours 
of their own from the Delians. For the women 
collected gifts for them, calling upon their names 
in the hymn made for them by Olen a man of 
Lycia; it was from Delos that the islanders and 
lonians learnt to sing hymns to Opis and Arge, 
calling upon their names and collecting gifts (this 
Olen after his coming from Lycia made also the 
other and ancient hymns that are sung at Delos). 
Further they say that when the thighbones are burnt 
in sacrifice on the altar, the ashes of them are all 
used for casting on the burial-place of Opis and Arge ; 
which burial-place is behind the temple of Artemis, 
looking eastwards, nearest to the refectory of the 
people of Ceos. 

36. Thus far have I spoken of the Hyperboreans, 
and let it suffice ; for I do not tell the story of that 
Abaris, alleged to be a Hyperlx)rean, who carried 
the arrow over the whole world, fasting the while. 
But if there be men beyond the north wind, then 
there are others beyond the south. And I laugh to 
see how many have ere now drawn maps of the 
world, not one of them showing the matter reason- 
ably ; for they draw the world as round as if fashioned 
by compasses, encircled by the river of Ocean, and 
Asia and Europe of a like bigness. For myself, I 
will in a few words show the extent of the two, and 
how each should be drawn. 

* Apollo and Artemis, probably. 

235 



HERODOTUS j 

37. Uipa-at olfciovai /caTi]KOVT€<; iwl ttjv votLtjv 
OdXacraav ttjv ^Epvffprjv tcaXeofiiprjv, TOVTiov he 
virepoiKeovai Trpb^ fioperjv avefiov MrjSoi, Mi]Bq)p 
Se 2ao'7retp€9, ^aairelpwv Se Ko\^ot KaTi]fcovT€<; 
iirl TTJV fiop}]Lriv OaXaaaav, €9 TtfV ^d<rc<; iroTa'fib^ 
eKSiSol, Tavra reaaepa eOvea olxiei ifc ffaXdaarjfi 
69 OaXaaaav, 

38. ^Ev0€VT€v Se to wpb^ eairipr)^ clktoI Si<f)d' 
(Tiai dir ainrj^ Korareivovat €9 OaXacraav, ra^ 
iya> dTrrjyija'OfJLar €v6ev fiev 17 dfcrrf 17 kreprj ra 
7rpo9 fiopirjv diro <^d<Tio^ dp^apivq TrapareraTai 
€9 OdXaa-trap irapd re top Hovtov koI top 'EX- 
Xija-TTOPTOP p^XP^ Xiyeiov tov TptovKou' tu Se 
7rpo9 POTOV rj avTT) avTrj dxTrj dnb tov Mvpiav- 

81KOV KoXtTOV TOV irpb'i ^OCPL/CTJ K€ip>€POV TCLPei Ta 

€9 dakaaaap P'ixp^ TptoTriov a/cprj^;, olxiec Se ip 
Tji d/CTTJ TavTff edpea dpffpcoiroDP TpiijKOPTa. 

39. AvTfj p.€P pvp 17 erepr} t&p dxTecop, 17 Se Brf 
€T€pr] dirb Hepaeayp dp^afieprf irapaTeTaTai 69 tyjp 
^Epvffprjp ddXaaaap, yj t€ Uepaifcr) koX dirb TavTrj^ 
€KS€Kop.eprf 17 ^Aaavpirf xal dirb ^Aaavpirjii r/ 
^Apa/Sir]* Xijyei Be avTrj, ov Xrjyov^a el p^rj pofitp, 
69 Tbp KoKirop Tbp *Apd/3iop, 69 Tbp Aap€io<i ex 
TOV NetXou Sicopvya earjyaye, P'^XP^ P'^p pvp 
<PoLPLKrf(: dirb HepaeoDP %a)/0O9 7rXaTV<: Kal ttoWo? 
€<TTr TO 8e aTTO ^olpLky}^ Trapr]K€i Bt€t Trjo'Se t^ 
Oakdaar}^ ri dKTt^ avTrj irapd re Svpirjv ttjp 
IJaXaia-TLprfp koX AiyvirTOP, 69 Trjp TeXevTa' ip 
TTJ eOpea iaTl Tpia pLovpa. 

40. TaSra pbep dirb Uepaecop ra irpb'i eaTreprjv 
T^9 ^Atrifff; exoPTa iaTL* tA Se xaTihrepde Tlep- 

236 



BOOK IV. 37-40 

37. The land where the Persians dwell reaches to 
the southern sea^ that sea which is called Red; 
beyond these to the north are the Medes^ and 
beyond the Medes the Saspires^ and beyond the 
Saspires the Colchians^ whose country reaches to 
the northern sea^ into which issues the river Phasis; 
so these four nations dwell between the one sea and 
the other. 

38. But westwards of this region two promontories 
stretch out from it into the sea, which I will now 
describe. On the north side one of the promontories 
begins at the Phasis and stretches seaward along the 
Pontus and the Hellespont, as far as Sigeum in the 
Tread ; on the south side the same promontory has 
a seacoast beginning at the Myriandric gulf that is 
near Phoenice, and stretching seaward as far as the 
Triopian headland. On this promontory dwell thirty 
nations. 

39. This is the first promontory. But the second, 
beginning with Persia, stretches to the Red Sea, 
being the Persian land, and next the neighbouring 
country of Assyria, and after Assyria, Arabia; this 
promontory ends (yet not truly but only by common 
consent) at the Arabian Gulf, whereunto Darius 
brought a canal from the Nile. Now from the 
Persian country to Phoenice there is a wide and 
great tract of land ; and from Phoenice this pro- 
montory runs beside our sea by the way of the 
Syrian Palestine and Egypt, which is at the end of 
it ; in this promontory there are but three nations. 

40. So much for the parts of Asia west of the 
Persians. But what is beyond the Persians, and 

^ Here, the Black Sea ; in 42, the ^* northern sea " is the 
Mediterranean. 

237 



HERODOTUS , 

aetav xal M.i]S(i)v xal ^aaTreipcov /cal Ji,6\^€ov, tA 
7r/oo9 rj& T€ /cal rjXiov dvaTeWovra, evOev fiev 1} 
*Epv6prf trapij/cei OaXatraa, irpo^ fiopkto hk ^ 
K^aairir) re BoKaaaa koL ^Apd^^ 7roTa/i6<:, petov 
TTpo^ ffkiov dvLayovra, /A^vpt Se t^9 ^IvhiKYj^ 
OLK€€Tai AaLTf* TO 0€ UTTO TavTrj<; eprifio^; ijoi] t^ 
7rpo9 T7JV fjSy, ovhk €^€1 ovSeU <f>pdaat olov hrj ri 
ia-TL, 

41. ToiavTf) fjL€P fcal roaavrr] 17 ^Aairj iaji, i] 
06 ALpvrj €P 77) aKTTj TJj €T€pj^ €(TTr UTTO yap AiyV' 
TTTOV Ai^vT) ijSr) iKSefcerai, Kara jxiv vvv AXyviTTov 
17 cLKTr] avrrj GTeivrj iarr aTTO yap rrjaSe t^9 
OdKaaar}^ €9 rriv ^Epv0p^v OdXaaaav Biica /mvpt- 
dS€<; elal opyviioDV, avrai S' av eUv ^tXtot ardBior 
TO Be diro rov areivov tovtov tcdpra irXaria 
Tvyxdvei iovaa 17 a#CT^ ^t*9 At/Si/iy KeKkriTai, 

42. ^cofid^to S)v T&v SiovpiadvTdov /cal SieXov- 
Ttov Ai/3vrjv T€ Kal ^Aairjv xal Evpdi'n'Tjv* ov yap 
(TfiiKpci Tcb Bui<f)€povTa avT€(M)v iari* p^ij/cei puev 
yap Trap* dfi<f)OT€pa^ irapij/cei 1} Evpcoiri], evpeo^ 
Sk nrepL ovBk avfi^dWeiv d^tr) <l>aiv€TaL fioc elvai, 
Ai/Svr) p^v yap BrjXol €(m>vt7)v^ iovaa irepippvTOf;, 
irXijv oaov avTr)<; 7r/)09 Trjv 'Aairjv ovpi^ei, Ne/ccj 
Tov AlyvTnieov ^daiXeo^ irpwrov tcov i7/^€t9 IBpLcv 
/caraBe^avTO^' 09 iireire ttjv BKopv^a iiravauTO 
opvaaayv rrjv e/c tov NeiXov Bte-)(OV(Tav €9 tov 
^Apdfiiov koKttov, dTriireTT^lre ^oCviKa^ dvBpa^ 
TfKoioKn, ivT€iXdp,€vo^ €9 to orrLato Bi 'HpaxXiwp 
aTTjXicjp iKirXsetP €0)9 69 ttip /Soprjirjp ddXao'aap 
Kal ovTd) €9 AlyviTTOP diri/cpieadai. opp/qOipTe^ 
S)P oi ^0LPi/c€f; i/c Trjs ^RpvOprj^ OaXdaarj^ CTrXeop 

^ [iwvT-fir] Stein. 

238 



BOOK IV. 40-42 

Medes^ and Saspires^ and Colcliians^ eastward and 
toward the rising sun^ this is bounded on the one 
hand by the Red Sea^ and to the north by the 
Caspian Sea^ and the river Araxes^ that flows towards 
the sun's rising. As far as India^ Asia is an in- 
habited land ; but thereafter all to the east is 
desert^ nor can any man say what kind of land is 
there. 

41. Such is Asia^ and such its extent, fiut Libya 
is on this second promontory ; for Libya comes next 
after Egypt. The Egyptian part of this promontory 
is narrow ; for from our sea to the Red Sea it is a 
distance of an hundred thousand fathoms^ that is^ a 
thousand furlongs ; but after this narrow part the 
promontory which is called Libya is very broad. 

42. I wonder^ then^ at those who have mapped 
out and divided the world into Libya^ Asia^ and 
Europe; for the difference between them is great, 
seeing that in length Europe stretches along both 
the others together^ and it appears to me to be 
beyond all comparison broader. For Libya shows 
clearly that it is encompassed by the sea, save only 
where it borders on Asia ; and this was proved first 
(as far as we know) by Necos king of Egypt. He, 
when he had made an end of digging the canal 
which leads from the Nile to the Arabian Gulf, sent 
Phoenicians in ships, charging them to sail on their 
return voyage past the Pillars of Heracles till they 
should come into the northern sea and so to Egypt. 
So the Phoenicians set out from the Red Sea and 

239 



HERODOTUS 

rifv voriffv BoKaaaav o/cto^ Bk yivoiro <f>0iv6' 
iraypov^ irpoc&xovTe^ &v aireipeaKov rrjv yijv, Xva 

€KdaTOT€ T?}? Al^VTf^ 7r\€0VT€^ yiVOiaTO, teal /i€- 

veaxov rov afirjrov Oepiaavre^ S' civ top airov 
€n\€ov, &aT€ Svo iriayv Sie^eXffovTtav rpir^ ereL 
/cdfiy^avre^ 'H/oa/cXia? cmyXa? clttIkovto €9 Af- 
yvTTTov. /cat eXeyov ifiol fukv ov Tnard, oKKtp he 
hri T€^, ft)9 TrepiTrXawvre: ttjv Aifivriv rov fikiov 

43. OvTG) fiev avTfj iyvdadrj to Trp&TOv, fiera 
Be Kap^rjBov^oi eltrl oi Xeyovrefi^ iirel ]SaTa<r7n;9 
ye TedcTTTU)^ dvrjp *A)(a^fJi^piBff^ ov irepieirXofae 
Ai^vrjv, eii aino tovto TT€iif\>dei^, aXKh heiaa^ 
TO re firjKOf; rov ifKoov KaX Ti}V ipff/urjv dTrrjfkde 
oTTtcft), ovS* iTrereXeae tov eireral^e oi fi firfTqp 
aeOXov, Ovyarepa yap Zairvpov rov Meyafiv^ov 
i/Sn^a-aro rrapdevov eireira fieWovro^ avrov Sia 
ravrrjv rrfv atrirfv dvaaKoXomelaBai inro Sep^eco 
/3aai\€0<;, 17 fii]rr)p rov XardcTreo^ iovaa i^apeiov 
dBe\<f>ei} irapairricTaTO, ^aad oi avrrj fie^ca ^Vf^^V^ 
emdrjaeiv rj irep eicelvov* At^vrjv ydp oi dvd/yfcrfv 
eaeadai irepiTrXdeiv, €9 ap dTriKTjrai irepifr\e<ov 
avrijp €9 rop ^Apd^iop koXttop, avy^oopijaaPTO^ 
Be Sip^eca iirl rovroKTi, 6 ^ardairr)^ dniKOfievof; 
69 AlyvTTTOP KoX Xa/Scop pea re /cat pavra^ rrapct 
r our COP eirXee iirl 'HpaKXea^ ari]Xa^' BiefCTrXwaa^ 
Bi Kal KdfjLy^a^ rb dKpoi>ri]piop rrj^ Aifivrf^ r^ 
ovpofia 2o\o€£9 earLi etrXee irpo^ fieaafi^piffp' rreptj- 
240 



HERODOTUS 

cra9 Se daXaaaav woWrjv iv iroWolai firjal, iireire 
rod TrXevvo^ aUl eSec, airoaTph^a^ oiria'to airim^Xee 
€9 AtyvTTTOV. ifc Be ravTiy? d'7n/c6/JLevo<; irapa 
fiaaiKia Hep^ea eXeye ^A? tA TrpoatoTdToa av- 
OpcoTTOv^ fUfcpoif^ irapairKeeiv iaOrJTi <f)0tpifcfji7j 
hiay(peciip,€vov^, 6i okod^ a^el^ KarayoiaTo rrj vrjl 
^evyeaKov irpo^ ra opea XeLTrovre^ rci^ iroXia^' 
avTol Se dBiK€€iv ovBev iaiopre^, fipwra Be fiovva 
ef aifTCfav Xafi^dveiv. rov Bk firj Trepiifk&aai 
Ai^vrjv iravreXeo)^ atriov roBe eXeye, to ttXolov 
TO TTpoata ov Bwarov en elvai irpoPaivetv clXV 
ivL{r)(ea0ai, Sep^rj^ Be ov oi avyy ipdaxtov Xeyeiv 
aXrjOea ovk eirireXeaavTa re rov irpoKeifievov 
aedXov dvea-KoXoTTKre, rijv dp'xairjv Bifcrjv iTrirt- 
fi&v. rovTov Bk Tov ^ardaTreo^; evvovxo^ cnreBpr} 
69 %dp,ov, eireLTe eirvOero Ta^^ecra rov Beatrorea 
TereXevT'qKoTa, lj^a>v 'x^prjpuja fieyaXa, ret ^dfJLiof; 
avrjp Karicx^i tov eirKTTdp.evo^ to ovvofia exoyv 
€7riXr]dofjLai, 

44. T979 Bk *A<rirj^ tA iroXXct inro ^apeiov 
i^evpedt), 09 PovX6p£VO<; ^IvBov iroTapLOV, &9 KpOKO- 
BeiXov<; BevTepo^i ovro^ iroTafi&v irdvToyv irape- 
X^Tait TovTOV TOV TTOTapov elBevai ttj €9 OdXaaaav 
ifcBiBoi, TrifiTrei irXoioiai aXXov^ tc toIci iirlaTeve 
T7JV dXTfdeirfv epieiv koX Br} Koi 'S^KvXaKa avBpa 
KapvavBea, ot Be opp/qdevTe^ ex KatnraTvpov t€ 
TToXio^ Kal T^9 HafCTvifcrj^ 7% eirXeov KaTh, iroTa- 
fiov irpo^ ri& T€ /cal fjXiov dvuToXct^ €9 OdXaaaav, 
Bid ffaXdaat)^ Be 7r/>09 eaireprjv TrXiovTC^ Tpirj- 
KoaT& p.r)v\ diTLKveovTai 69 tovtov tov xwpoi' oBev 
o AlyvTTTLcov ^aaiXev^ tou9 ^0ivifca<: tov9 irpo- 
Tepov elira dtreo'TeiXe irepiirXdetv AijSvrjv, fieTU 

242 



HERODOTUS 

r&v fj^el^i iSfiev, ?<to9 aiel avro^ eayvr^ ftiei Kal 
0€p€O9 Koi 'X^eifi&vo^, Trp&TO^ Ei to air eairifyq^; 
T(ov iv rfj Zt/cvOiK'p peojv Korh ToiovSe fiiyi(TTo<: 
ryeyove' iroTafi&v fcal aWcjv €9 avrbv iKhihovTwv 
elal hi) oXhe oi fieyav avrbv irotevvTC^, Sict fjuiv 
ye TTj^ %Kv0iKfj^ X^P^l^ irivre fi€P oi peovre^, 
TOP Te ^Kvdcu HopaTa KoXeovai EXXiyve? Se 
Tlvperov, /cat aX\o<; TidpavTo^ xai "A/oa/oo? t€ 
Koi Na7ra/9i9 Kal ^OpBrfaao^. 6 fiev Trp&ro^ 
XexdeU T&v TTOTa/JL&v fiiya^ xal ttoo? f)& pewv 
avaKoivoirrai Tq> "laTpto to vSayp, o Bk Beirrepo^ 
XeyOeU TidpavTO^ 7rpo9 iairiprf^ tc fiaXXov Kal 
iXaao'CDV, 6 Bk Bij "kpapo^ t€ /cal 6 Ndirapi^ Kal 
6 ^0pB7)aab<: Bia fiiaov tovtwv 16vt€^ iafiaWovai 

f 9 TO J/ "IffTpOV, 

49. OvT 01 fiev av0ty€V€e^ SkuOikoI Trorafiol 
cvfnfKrjdvovai avTOV, ck Be ^ Ayadvpawv Mdpc^ 
TTOTafib^ peoDV avfip^iayerat toJ ^larptp, etc Bi tov 
Acp^ov T&v Kopv^eoav Tpel^ oKKol fieydXoc peovTes 
7rpb<; ffopirjv dvefwv ea^dWovai €9 airrov, "ArXa^ 
Kal Avpa^ Kal Ti/SLat^. Bia Be &pr)iKr)^ Kal 
^prjiKtov T&v Vipo^v^fov peovTe^ "Adpv^ Kal N0179 
Kal 'ApTai/779 eKBcBovai €9 tov "laTpov* €k Be 
Haiovcav Kal opeo^ 'PoBoirrj^ Kto9 iroTajMO^ fieaov 
ayi^cov rbv Alfiov ckBiBol e9 avTov, e^ ^IWvpi&v 
Be pewv 7r/oo9 l3operfv avefiov "Ayypo^ irorafib^ 
iafidXXei €9 ireBiov to Tpi^aXXiKbv Kal 69 iroTafibv 
Upoyyov, 6 Be 6^07709 €9 rbv "larpov ovrto afiffio- 
Tepov^ iovTa^ p^ydXov^ 6 *'I<rTp09 BeKerai. ex Be 
T?79 KaTvirepOe X^PV^ ^Ofi^piK&v Kdp7n<i woTafib^ 
Kal aWo9 *'A\7r*9 7roTayLto9 7r/}09 fioperjv avefiov 

248 



those thJt ^^" 

«. n, 









s« 4J 



BOOK IV. 76-78 

Scythian marked him doing this and told it to the 
king^ Saulius ; who, coming himself to the place and 
seeing Anacharsis performing these rites, shot an 
arrow at him and slew him. And now the Scythians, 
if they are asked about Anacharsis, say they have no 
knowledge of him ; this is because he left his 
country for Hellas and followed the customs of 
strangers. But according to what I heard from 
Tymnes, the deputy for Ariapithes, Anacharsis was 
uncle to Idanthyrsus king of Scythia, and he was the 
son of Gnurus, son of Lycus, son of Spargapithes. 
Now if Anacharsis was truly of this family, then I 
would have him know that he was slain by his own 
brother ; for Idanthyrsus was the son of Saulius, and 
it was Saulius who slew Anacharsis. 

77. It is true that I have heard another story told 
by the Pelponnesians ; namely, that Anacharsis had 
been sent by the king of Scythia and had been a 
learner of the ways of Hellas, and after his return 
told the king who sent him that all Greeks were 
zealous for every kind of learning, save only the 
Lacedaemonians; but that these were the only 
Greeks who spoke and listened with discretion. But 
this is a t§le vainly invented by the Greeks them- 
selves ; and be this as it may, the man was put to 
death as I have said* 

78. Such-like, then, was the fortune that befell 
Anacharsis, all for his foreign usages and his compan- 
ionship with Greeks ; and a great many years after- 
wards, Scyles, son of Ariapithes, suffered a like fate. 
Scyles was one of the sons bom to Ariapithes, king of 
Scythia ; but his mother was of Istria,^ and not native- 
bom ; and she taught him to speak and read Greek. 

* In what is now the Dobrudja. 

277 



'li 



HERODOTUS 

(TTOV fiiav dirb rod OKrrov ^ KOfuaar 09 S' ap firj 
KO/XLa"p, Bdvarov aTretXee. KO/xia-OrjvaL re B^ )(prjfia 
TToWov dpSicov /cai oi So^ai i^ avritav /ivrj/jLoa-v- 
vov TTOirjaavTL \i7rea0ai. i/c rovrecov hrj fiiv to 
'X^aXxijiov TTOirjaai tovto kcu dvaOeivai €9 tov 
^Fi^afiiraiov tovtov. tuvtu Se irepX tov 7r\rfieo<; 

TOV %KV6€(0V fjKOVOV, 

82. QoDfidaia Se r] x^PV (^VTtj ovk e^et, ^cd/^U 
7} OTl TTOTaflOV^ T€ TToXk^ fiejiaTOV^i Kol dpidfiov 
7r\€t(TTOU9. TO he d7ro0<o/idaai a^iov xal irdpe^ 
T&v iroTajx&v koX tov fieyddeo^ tov ttcSlov it ape- 
X^T^i'* elpTjasTai' ?;^vo9 ^HpaxXio^ <f>alvovai iv 
irerpri iveov, to coikc fiev fi^pxiTi dvhpos, eaTi Be 
'TO fi€ya0o^ SiTTTjxVi irapd tov Tvptfv iroTapuov, Ju 
TOVTO p.ev vvv TOLOVTO iffTL, dvafiijaofiai Se €9 tov * ^ 
fcaT dpxd'i fjia Xe^cov \6yov. ^^'■ 

83. tlapaaxeva^ofievov Aapeiov iirl tov^ Sacv-^ 
0a<; KCU eTrtirefiTTOvTO^ dyyikov^; eiriTd^ovTa^ Toiat ^ 
pev ire^ov aTpuTov, Totac Se vea^ Trapex^iv, TolaL' ^ 
Sk ^evyvvadcu tov SprjLKiov ^ocriropov, 'A/}Ta-i 
^avo^ o "T(TTd<nr€o<it dheX^eo^ ia)v Aap€Lov,j . 
ixprft^e p.r)hap,S}<i avTov aTpaT7)Lf)v iirl 'Z'cvffa^ . 
TToieetrOai, /caTaXeymv t&v Xxvffecov ttjv diropLr^Vt^^ 
dW' oif yap eireide avp^fiovXevoDV oi XPV^'^^^oy 
o p£V iireTraVTo, h Be, iireiB'q oi tA a7rai/Tteas 
irapea-fcevaaTo, e^rjXavve tov (XTpaTov e.i)eir 
^ovaoDV. 8 

84. ^EvOavTa t&v Hepaetov Olo/Sa^o^ iBei^ff^^iis 
Aapeiov Tpi&v eovTcov oi iralBoyv KaX irdvTco^gl 
(TTpaTevop,evtov eva avT& feaToXei^ffrjvat, h Si 

1 [iirb TOV iXirrov] Stein. '^^ 

284 



BOOK IV. 81-84 

from an arrow, threatening all who should not so do 
with death. So a vast number of arrow-heads was 
brought^ and he resolved to make and leave a 
memorial out of them; and he made of these this 
bronze vessel^ and set it up in this country Exam- 
paeus. Thus much I heard concerning the number 
of the Scythians. 

82. As for marvels, there are none in the land^ 
save that it has rivers by far the greatest and the 
most numerous in the world ; and over and above 
the rivers and the great extent of the plains there 
is one most wondrous thing for me to tell of: they 
show a footprint of Heracles by the river Tyras 
stamped on rock, like the mark of a man's foot^ 
but two cubits in length. Having so described this 
I will now return to the story which I began to 
relate.^ • 

83. While Darius was making preparations^ against 
the Scythians, and sending messengers to charge 
some to furnish an army and some to furnish ships, 
and others again to bridge the Thracian Bosporus, 
Artabanus, son of Hystaspes and Darius' brother, 
desired of him by no means to make an expedition 
against the Scythians, telling him how hard that 
people were to deal withal. But when he could not 
nove the king for all his good counsel, Artabanus 
'eased to advise^ and Darius, all his preparations 
leing now made, led his army from Susa. 

84. Then Oeobazus a Persian, who had three 
ons, all with the army, entreated Darius that one 
aight be left behind. " Nay/' said the king, " you 

I 1 In ch. 1. 
2 The date of Darius* expedition is uncertain. Grote 
Inks it probable that it took place before 514 B.C. 

285 



HERODOTUS 

134. Iliparjai Sk fiera rcL S&pa iXOovra liapeitp 
avT€Ta/xP'r}<Tav oi v7ro\€i<f>0€PT€<; %Kv6ai Trcfo) koX 
iTTTToia-L <»9 avfi^dkiovre^. T€Tayfi€VOC(n ie rolai 
%Kvdr)<n \ayo^ €9 to fiiaov Siiji^e' t&v Bk c»9 
CKaaroi S)pa)v tov Xayov iSiajKov, rapaxOivTcav 
Se Tcjv XKv0e(i)v /cal ^orj 'xpeoofiivoov, etpero 6 
Aapelo^ T&v aim7ro\€fiLG)v top 06pv/3ov irvOo- 
pLevo^ Se. a'(f>€a^ tov Xayov Bi(OfcovTa<;, elire apa 
7r/}09 TO 1^9 Trep ecoOee KaX Tcb aXXa Xiyeiv " OuTOt 
&vSpe<; rjpLeoDV ttoXXov KUTa^poviovai, Kal /iot vvv 
^aivETat To^purj^; eiTrac irepl t&v ^kvOlk&v Bwptov 
opO&i;, 0)9 &v ovT(o ijBfj BoKeovToav koX avT^ fJLoi 
^X^^^* ^ovXr]<; ayadrjs Set, okod^ aa(j>aX€(i)^ rj KOfuhr) 
r)pLlv ecTai to 07rto'a>." 7r/>09 TauTa Yo^pvr]^ 
elire "'ft jSaaiXev, iyo) a-X^Bov fiev xal Xoytp i^tki- 
aTdfir)V TOVToyv t&v avhp&v ttjv aTTOpirfV, iXffoDV 
Se fjLoXXov i^€fia0ov, opecov avTov^ ip/rrai^ovTa^ 
r)ixlv, vvv &v pLOi BoK€€i, iitehv Tap^tcTTa vv^ iireX- 
07f, eKKavaavTa^: tcl rrvph &<; i(o0afiev xal aXXoTc 
iroiieiv, t&v aTpaTtcDTecov tou9 daOevecTaTOv^ €9 
Ta9 TaXanr(opia<!: i^airaTriaaVTa^ KaX Tot'9 qvov<; 
irdvTa^ KaTahrjaavTa^; dTraXXd(T<Te(T0ai, irpXv ^ 
Ka\ c'TTt TOV ^lajpov I0vaai Xfcv0a^ XvaovTa<; t^i^ 
y€<f>vpav, ff Kal tl ^\wai So^ac to '^fiia^ olov t^ 
€<7Tac i^€pyd(Ta<70aiJ'^ 

135. rojl3pvr)<i fiev Tama avve^ovXeve, pueTci 
Bk vv^ T€ iylveTo fcaX Aapeiof; ixpaTO t§ yvtofLf 
TavTT)' Tot>9 fi€V KafUiTrfpoif^ T&v dvBp&v KaX t&i 
fjv €Xa^i<7T09 diroXXvpiivoDV X0709, xaX Tot'9 ovov^ 
Trdvra^ KaTaBija-af; KaTeXnre avTov iv t^ arpcLTo 
TriBip, KaTeXnre Be tov^ t€ ovov^ KaX tov^ A(t0€ 
via<; T^9 cTpaTirj^; T&vBe eXveKev, Xva oi fjuev ovo 

334 



BOOK IV. 134-135 

134. But after the sending of the gifts to Darius, 
the Scythians who had remained there came out with 
foot and horse and offered battle to the Persians. 
But when the Scythian ranks were arrayed, a hare 
ran out between the armies ; and every Scythian 
that saw it gave chase. So there was confusion and 
shouting among the Scythians; Darius asked what 
the enemy meant by this clamour; and when he 
heard that they were chasing the hare, then said he (it 
would seem) to those wherewith he was ever wont to 
speak, "These fellows hold us in deep contempt ; and 
I think now that Gobryas* saying concerning the Scy- 
thian gifts was true. Seeing therefore that my own 
judgment of the matter is like his, we need to take 
sage counsel, whereby we shall have a safe return out 
, of the country." To this said Gobryas : " Sire, reason 
j showed me well enough how hard it would be to deal 
, with these Scythians ; and when I came I was made 
! the better aware of it, seeing that they do but make 
\ a sport of ns. Now therefore my counsel is, that at 
nightfall we kindle our camp-fires according to our 
' wont, that we deceive those in our army who are 
• least strong to bear hardship, and tether here all our 
1 asses, and so ourselves depart, before the Scythians 
'i^can march straight to the Ister to break the bridge, 
; '»or the lonians take some resolve whereby we may 

well be ruined." 

^i 135. This was Gobryas* advice, and at nightfall 

^JJsLTius followed it. He left there in the camp the 

^^en who were weary, and those whose loss imported 

jjeast to him, and all the asses too tethered. The 

^reason of his leaving the asses, and the infirm among 

l^is soldiers, was, as regarding the asses, that they 

335 



HERODOTUS 

^hp elvat ovTO) tovto yiveaOar BieaOai Se oiiceetv 

a/JM TOVTOKTl fWCpdv re TlfieODV fl€T€XOVT€<; Kol T^9 

yrj<; a'jrdka')(pvTe^, AaKcSaifiovLOKTi Se eaSe Si- 
fceadat tou? Mipva<; eir* 6l<n ffeXovai avToL 
fidXiaTa Se ivrjye ai^ea^ &aT€ iroUeiv ravra r&v 
TvvSaptSeoov fj vavriXlr) ev t§ ^Apyoi, Se^dfievoi 
Se Tov^ Mtvva^ 7^9 re pjerehoa-av KaX 69 ^vKa^ 
SieSdaavTo, ot Be avrixa fiev jd/iov^ eyrjfjiav, 
Ta9 Be €K Arfp^vov fjyovTO i^iBoaav oXXokti^ 

146. Xpovov Be ov ttoWov Bie^eXBovro^ avTixa 
ol Mivvai e^v^piaav, t^9 re /3a(TiXi]Lrj<; /jLerairi' 
ovTe^ KaX aXKa iroieovTe^ ovk o<na, rotai wv 
AaKeBai/jLovioiaL eBo^e avrav^ diroKrelvai, av\- 
XajSovre^ Be a<f>ka^ KarejSaXov 69 epKrijv, Krei- 
vovac Be tou9 &p KTeivaxn AaKeBaifJbovioi pvkt6<;, 
fi€T rjfieprjv Be ovBeva, iirel &v efieWov a<f>ea^ 
Kara-xpi^aaaOai, irapaiTrjaavTO al yvvattee^ twv 
^Lwetov, eovaai darai re xal r&v rrpcortov ^wap- 
Tir}T€(ov Ovyarepe^y eaeXOelv re €9 rtfv epKrrjv koX 
€9 Xoyov^ eXOelv eKdarrj t^ eayvTrj^ dvBpL ot Be 
<r<f>ea^ irapijfcav, ovBeva BoXov BoKeovTe<i ef avTeoyv 
etreaOai. at Bk iireLTe ia-TjXOov, iroUovai roidBe* 
iraaav rrjv elxov iadrjra 7rapaBov<rac Totai dv- 
Bpdai avral ttjv t&v dvBp&v eXa^ov, ol Be M.ivvac 
evBvvTe^ TTjV yvvai/crjLijv iadrJTa are yvvaixe^ 
e^Tjtaav e^(o, €/c(f)vy6vTe^ Be Tpoirtp rotovrtp X^ovto 
aJm^ €9 TO Trfvyerov. 

147. Top Bk airop tovtop ^opop 0i7pa9 o 
346 



BOOK IV. 145-147 

as (they said) was most just ; and for their desire^ it 
was that they might dwell with their father's people, 
sharing in their rights and receiving allotted parcels 
of land. It pleased the Lacedaemonians to receive 
the Minyae ^ on the terms which their guests desired ; 
the chief cause of their so consenting was that the 
Tyndaridae ^ had been in the ship's company of the 
Argo ; so they received the Minyae and gave them 
of their land and divided them among their own 
tribes. The Minyae forthwith wedded wives, and 
gave in marriage to others the women they had 
brought from Lemnos. 

146. But in no long time these Minyae waxed 
over-proud, demanding an equal right to the king- 
ship, and doing other things unlawful ; wherefore 
the Lacedaemonians resolved to slay them, and they 
seized and cast them into prison. (When the Lace- 
daemonians kill, they do it by night, never by day.) 
Now when they were about to kill the prisoners, 
the wives of the Minyae, who were native to the 
country, daughters of the chief among the Spartans, 
entreated leave to enter the prison and have speech 
each with her husband ; the Lacedaemonians 
granted this, supposing that the women would deal 
honestly with them. But when the wives came into 
the prison, they gave to their husbands all their 
own garments, and themselves put on the men's 
dress ; so the Minyae donned the female dress and 
so passed out in the guise of women, and having 
thus escaped once more encamped on Taygetum. 

147. Now about this same time Theras (who was 

^ As descendants of the Argonauts, who were Minyae of 
Thessaly, living near the Pagasaean gulf. 
' Castor and Polydeuces. 

347 



HERODOTUS 

Tov \6yov (rvfjuf>€povTai ijBrj ^rfpdioi K.vpY)vcUoiai, 
Kvprjvaloi fycip rh irepX ^drrov ovhapA^ o/jloXo- 
yeova-L %qpaioi<Tr Xeyovai yhp ovrco, eari tiJ? 
Kp^Tfj<: 'Oafo9 iroXi^, iv rfj eyevero 'ETea/o^o? 
fiaai\€v<;, S9 cVt OvyarpX afii]Topc Tp ovvofia ^v 
^povifir), iirl ravry eyrffie aWrjv yvvaiKa. fj he 
iireaekOovaa iSi/caiov /cal r^ ^pyq} elvai firjTpvii} 
T§ ^povifirj, 'irapexovad re KaxcL fcat irav iir* avrf) 
p.r)')(avcofikvq, koX t6\o9 fiaxXoavvrjv iireveiKao i 
oi weiOei tov avhpa ravra ep^e^i' ovro). & Se 
avayvoiiaOeW viro t^9 yvvaiKO^ epyov oi/c oaiov 
ifirj'^avdTO iirl t§ OuyarpL rjv yap Br) ^ejuadnv 
avf)p Sffpdiof; efiiropo^ iv Ttj 'Oafo)' rourov 
'ET6a/)%09 7rapa\a/3a)v iirl ^eivia i^opKol fj fxtv oi 
BiTjKOvrjaeiv 6 rt civ Serffffj, iireLTe Sif i^dopfceoae, 
dyaycov oi irapaSiBol ttjv etovrov Ovyarepa Kal 
ravrqv ifceXeve KaTairovT&aat airayayovra. 
Bk %€pi<T(ov irepi'qfieKTtjaa^ Tjj airaTtf tov op/cov 
fcal BiaXvadfi€Vo<: Ttfv ^eivirfv iiroiee ToidBe* irapa- 
Xafi(ov Tr}v iralBa aTreVXee' &<; Be iyivero iv t^ 
treXayel, airoaievfievof; ttjv i^opxaxriv tov 'Etc- 
dpxov^ a)(oivioiai avTr^v BiaB^aa^ xaTrjxe €9 to 
iriXayo^;, dvaairdaa^ Be diriKeTo €9 ttjv ^tjprjv^ 

155. ^Ev0evT€v Be ttjv ^povifiriv 7rapa\a/3ax9i 
JloXvfivrfO'TO^, ia)v t&v %ripai(ov avr^p Bofccfio^i 
iiraXXaKeveTO, ^povov Bi irepuovTO^ i^eyevcTi 
oi 7rat9 l<T)(p^(ovo^ /cat TpavXo^, t& ovvofia iTefft 
BaTT09, <»9 ^rjpaioi re xal KvpTjvaioi Xeyovai, a> 
fjUvToi iyd) Botcecd, aXXo ta' BaTT09 Be fteTfovo 

356 



JNDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



INDEX OF PBOPER NAMES 



Cydonla, Ul. 44, 69 

Cynetes, iv. 49 

Cyprus, iii. 19, 91 ; iv. 162, 164 

CyrftuJs iv. 195 

Cyrene, m. 13, 91, 131 ; Iv. 164^165, 

169. 186, 203 
Cyrmianae, iv. 93 
Csmis, passim ap. iii. 
Cyzicus, iv. 14, 76 

Dadicae, iii. 91 

Daplmls, iv. 138 

Daritae, iii. 92 

Darius, passim 

Dascyleum, iii. 120, 126 

Delos, iv. 33, 35 

Delplii, iii. 57; Iv. 15, 150, 156, 

161-163, 179 
Demooedes, iiL 125, 129, 137 
Demonax, iv. 161 
Dictsme, iii. 59 
Dionysufl, ilL 8, 97, 111 ; iv. 79, 87, 

108 
Dorians, iii. 56 

Elephantine, iii. 19, 20 

Elis, iU. 132 ; iv. 30, 148 

Epaphus. ill. 27, 28 

Epidaurus, iii. 50, 52 

Epium, iv. 148 

Erinyes, iv. 149 

Erzander, iv. 97 

Erythea, iv. 8 

Eiyxo, iv. 160 

Etearchus, iv. 154 

Euboea, iii. 89 ; iv. 83 

Eveltlion. iv. 162 

Euesperides, iv. 171, 204 

Euesperitae, iv. 198 

Eupalinus, iii. 60 

Euphemides iv. 150 

Europa, iii. 96, 115; iv. 36, 42, 

45, 49, 89. 143, 198 
Eurysthenes, iv. 147 
Euxine, iii. 93; iv. 8, 10, 38, 46, 

81, 85-87, 89, 95, 99 
Exampaeus, iv. 52, 81 

Oadira, iv. 8 

Gandarii, iU. 91 

Oaramantes, iv. 174, 183 

Gebeleizis, iv. 94 

Gelonus (1), iv. 10 

— (2), iv. 102, 108, 119, 136 

GerrM, iv. 53, 71 



Gerrhus, iv. 19, 47, 53, 56 

Geryon, iv. 8 

Getae, iv. 93, 94, 96, 118 

Giligamae, iv. 169 

GiUus, iU. 138 

Gindanes, iv. 176 

Gnurus, iv. 76 

Gobryas, iii. 70, 73, 78 ; iv. 132, 134 

Goetosyrus, iv. 59 

Grinnus, iv. 150 

Gyges, iii. 122 

Gyzantes, iv. 194 

Haemus, iv. 49 

Hebrus. iv. 90 

Hellas (and Hellenes), passim 

Hellespont, iv. 38, 76, 85, 89, 90. 

95, 137, 144 
Hephaestus, ill. 37 
Heracles, iv. 8-10, 59, 82 
Heraeum, iv. 90 
Hermion, iii. 59 
Heiophantus, iv. 138 
Hesiodus, iv. 32 
Hippoclus, iv. 138 
Hippolaus, iv. 53 
Histia. iv. 59, 127 
Histiaeus, iv. 137, 138, 141 
Homer, iv. 29, 32 
Hydarnes, iii. 70 
Hydrea, iU. 59 
Hylaea, iv. 9, 18, 54, 55, 76 
Hypac5rris, iv. 47, 55 
Hypanls, iv. 17, 18, 47, 52, 81 
Hyperborei, iv. 13, 32, 33, 35, 36 
Hyperoche, iv. 33-35 
Hyrcani iii. 117 
Hsrrgis, iv. 57 

Hystaspes, iU. 70, 140 ; iv. 83, 91 
Hytennees, iii. 90 

lapygia, iU. 138 ; iv. 99 

lason iv 179 

Idantkynus, iv. 76, 120, 127 

lenysus, iii. 5 

Ilithyia, iv. 35 

Hlyria, iv. 49 

Inaros, iii. 12, 15 

India, Ui. 38, 94-106 ; iv. 40, 44 

Indus, iv. 44 

Intaphrenes, Ui. 70, 78, 118, 119 

lonians, ill. 39, 90. 122, 127 ; iv. 35, 

89, 95, 97, 128, 133-140, 142 
Iphigenia, iv. 103 
Irasa, iv. 158 



413 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Isis, Iv. 1£6 

Isaedones, iV. 13, 26, 82 

Istrus, iv. 47-51, 53, 80, 89, 03, 

97-101, 118, 122, 133-136 
ItaUa, iii. 136, 138 ; iv. 15 
Itanus, iv. 151 
lyrcae, iv. 22 

Lacedaemon, iiL 39, 54-56; iv. 

147-149 
Laiiis, iv. 149 
Laodamas (1), iv. 188 

— (2), iv. 152 
Laodice, iv. 33, 35 
LasonU, iU. 90 
Learchus, iv. 160 
I/emnos, iv. 145 
Lepreum, iv. 148 
Lesbos, iii. 39 ; iv. 97 
Leucon, iv. 160 

Libya, iii. 17, 96, 115 et passim 

ap. iv. 
Lipoxals, iv. 5 
Lotophagi, iv. 177, 183 
Loxias, iv. 163 
Lycaretus, iii. 143 
Lycia, iii. 4, 90 ; iv. 35, 45 
Lyoophron, iii. 50, 53 
Lycus (river), iv. 123 

— (grandfather of Anacharsis), iv. 
76 

Lydia, iii. 90, 127 ; iv. 45 

Macae, iv. 175 
Machlyes, iv. 178, 180 
Maoistus, iv. 148 
Macrones, iii. 94 
Maeandrius, iii. 123, 142-148 
Maeandrus, ill. 122 
Maeetae, iv. 123 
Maeetes (river), iv. 45 
Maeetian lake, iv. 57, 101, 120 
Magi, iii. 61-80, 88, 118, 126, 140, 

150, 153 : iv. 132 
Magnestia, iii. 122 
Magnetes, iii. 90 
Mandrocles, Iv. 87, 88 
Manes, iv. 45 
Mantinea, iv. 161 
Maraphli, iv. 167 
Mares, iii. 94 
Mariandynl, iii. 90 
Maris, Iv. 49 

Massagetae, iii. 36 ; iv. 11, 172 
Matieni, ilL 94 



Maxyes, iv. 191 

Medians, Hi. 65, 126 ; iv. 4, 37, 40 

Megabyzu? (1), Ui. 153, 160 ; iv. 43 

— (2). iii. 70, 81 

— (3), m. 160 

Melanchlaeni, iv. 20, 102, 107, 119 

125 
Melissa, iii. 50 
Membliarus, iv. 147 
Menelaus. iv. 160 
Mesambrla, iv. 93 
Metrodorus, iv. 138 
Milo, m. 137 
Miltiades, iv. 137 
Milyae, iii. 90 
Minos, ill. 122 
Minyae, iv. 145-150 
Mitrobates, iii. 120, 126, 127 
Mnesarchns. iv. 95 
Moeris, iii. 91 
Moschi, Ui. 94 
Mossynoeci, iii. 94 
Myci, iU. 93 
Mjrriandric golf, iv. 38 
Myrinaei, iv. 140 
Myrsus, iii. 122 
Mysia, iU. 90 
Mytilene, iU. 13. 14 ; iv. 97 

Naparis, iv. 48 

Nasamones, iv. 172, 190 

Nanstrophus, iii. 60 

Necos, iv. 42 

Neuri, iv. 17, 51, 100, 102, 105, 119, 

125 
Nilus, iU. 10 ; iv. 39, 42, 45, 50. 53 
Ninw, iii. 155 
Nipsaei, iv. 93 
Nisaea, iii. 106 
Nitetis, iU. 1 
NoSs, iv. 49 
Nndium, iv. 148 
Nysa, iii. 97 

Oarus, iv. 123 
Oasis, Ui. 26 
Oaxus, iv. 154 
Octamasades, iv. 80 
Odrysae, iv. 92 
Oebares, iU. 85 
Oedipus, iv. 149 
Oeobazus, iv. 84 
Oeolycus, iv. 149 
Olbiopolitae, iv. 18 
Olen, iv. 85 



414 



INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 



Opis, iv. 85 
Opoea, iv. 78 
Ordeasus, Iv. 48 
Oricus, iv. 78 
Oroetes, lU. 120-129, 140 
Orotalt, iU. 8 
Orthocorybantii, iii. 02 
Otanes, Ui. 67-72, 76, 80, 83, 141, 
144, 147, 149 

Pactyes, iii. 93, 102 ; iv. 44 
Padaei, iii. 99 

Palaestlna, Iii. 5, 91 ; iv. 39 
Pamphylia, iii. 90 
Pantagnotus, iii. 39 
Panticapes, iv. 18, 47, 64 
Pantimathi, iii. 92 
Papaeus, iv. 59 
Paphlagones, iii. 90 
Paralatae, iv. 6 
ParicanU, iU. 92 
Parmys, iii. 88 
Paroreatae, iv. 148 
Parthia, iU. 93, 117 
>ataici, iii. 37 
•?atizeithes, iii. 61 
Pausanias, iv. 81 
Pausicae, iii. 92 
"ausiris, iU. 15 
PeUon, iv. 179 
Pelusium, iiL 10 
Periander, iii. 48, 50, 53 
Perinthiu, iv. 90 
Persae, passim 
Pliaedyme, iii. 68, 69 
Phanes, iiL 4, 11 
Pharnaspes, iii. 2, 68 
Pbasis, iv. 37, 38, 45, 86 
Pheretime, iv. 162, 165, 167, 200, 

202,205 
Philes, iii. 60 
Phla. iv 178 
Phoenicia, iii. 5, 19, 37, 107, 111, 

136 ; iv. 39, 42, 44, 147 
Phiixae, iv. 148 
Phronime, iv. 154 
Phrygia, iii. 90 
Pindar, iU. 38 
Pitane, iii. 55 

Platea, iv. 151-153, 156, 159 
Plynus, iv. 168 
Poeciles, iv. 147 
Polycraies, iii. 39-46, 54, 56, 

120-126. 128, 131, 139-142 
Polymnestus, iv. 150, 155 



Polynioes, iv. 147 
Porata, iv. 48 
Poseideium, iii. 91 
Poseidon, iv. 59, 180, 188 
Prexaspes, iii. 30, 33, 66, 74-76, 78 
Procles (1), iv. 147 

— (2), iii. 50-52 
Prooonnesus, iv. 14 
Prometheus, iv. 45 
Propontis. iv. 85 
Psammenltus, iii. 10, 13, 15 
PsyUi, iv. 173 

Pyretos, iv. 48 
Pyrgus, iv. 148 
Pythagoras (1), iv. 95 

— (2), iv. 95 

Rhodope, iv. 49 
Bhoecus, iii. 60 

Sacae, iU. 93 

Sagartii, iii. 93 

Sais, iii. 16 

SalamiB, iv. 162 

Salmoxis, iv. 94-96 

Salmyde<«ii8. iv. 93 

Samos, iii. 39 et passim 

Sarangae, iii. 93, 117 

Sardis, iU. 5, 48, 126, 128 ; iv. 45 

Saspires, iii. 94 ; iv. 37, 40 

Sataspes, iv. 43 

Sattagydae, iiL 91 

Saulius, iv. 76 

Sauromatae, iv. 21, 57, 102, 110, 

116-122, 128, 136 
Sciton. iii. 130 
Sooloti, iv. 6 
Bcopasis. iv. 120, 128 
Scylax, iv. 44 
Scyies, Iv. 76, 78-80 
Scytiiia, passim ap. iv. 
Serbonian marsh, iii. 5 
Sestus, iv. 143 
Sidon, iU. 136 
Sigeum, iv. 38 
Sindi, iv. 28, 86 
Sinope, iv. 12 
Siphnus, iii. 57, 58 
Sitaloes, iv. 80 
Smerdis (1). iU. 30, 65-69, 71, 74, 88 

— (2), iii. 61-80, 88 
Sogdi, iU. 93 
SoloSis. iv. 43 
Sostratus, iv. 152 
Spargapithes, iv. 73 

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