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Publicatiou lO. 
Biologrical Series 3. 












no . 3 




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no .3 



Publication 10. 
Biological Series 3. 

















EX officio: 

The Governor of the State^ 
HON. CHASE S. OSBORN, President. 


The Superintendent of Public Instruction^ 
HON. L. L. WRIGHT, Secretary. 

The President of the State Board of Education^ 
HON. D. M. FERRY, Junior. 

scientific advisers. 

Geologists. — Dr. L. L. Hubbard, Houghton; Prof. W. H. Hobbs, 
Ann Arbor; Prof. Wm. H. Sherzer, Ypsilanti. 

Botanists. — Prof. E. A. Bessey, East Lansing; Prof. F. C. New- 
combe, Ann Arbor. 

Zoologists. — Prof. W. B. Barrows, East Lansing ; Prof. J. Reighard, 
Ann Arbor; Dr. Bryant Walker, Detroit. 



To the Honorable the Board of Geological and Biological Survey 
of the State of Michigan: 

Governor Chase S. Osborn, President. 
Hon. D. M. Ferry, Jr. Vice President. 
Hon. L. L. Wright, Secretary. 

Gentlemen : — I beg to present herewith as a part of the report 
for 1911 of the Board of Geological and Biological Survey, Publica- 
tion No. 10, being a contribution to the biological survey of the 
state authorized by Act No. 250 of the Session of 1905. 

Yery respectfully, 



Ann xA-rbor, Mich., October 1, 1911. 

R. C. Allen^ State Geologist, Lansing, Michigan: 

Sir : — I transmit herewith a report upon the amphibians and rep- 
tiles of Michigan, prepared under my direction, to form a part of 
the series of monographs on Michigan forms that the biological 
division proposes to issue, and a bibliography of Michigan arch- 
aeology compiled by Mr. Harlan I. Smith of the Victoria Memorial 
Museum. According to our plan for the series, the papers in this 
report attempt to summarize our present knowledge of the subjects 
treated and in such a way that the results may be used by teachers 
and local naturalists and archaeologists. 



Chief Naturalist. 



The Herpetology of Michigan H 

General Introduction, by Alexander G. Ruthven 11 

The Amphibians of Michigan, by Crystal Thompson and Helen Thompson 13 

Introduction 13 

Literature 13 

Methods of Study 16 

Methods of Collecting and Preserving Specimens 18 

Collecting 18 

Keeping Live Material .^ 19 

Preservation of Specimens 19 

Description of Species 20 

Key to Michigan Amphibia 20 

Necturus maculosus 23 

Ambystoma tigrinum 26 

Ambystoma punctatum 28 

Ambystoma jeffersonianum 30 

Plethodon erythronotus 32 

Hemidadylium scutatum 34 

Diemictylus viridescens 36 

Bufo americanus 39 

Hyla versicolor 41 

Hyla pickeringii 43 

Acris gryllus 45 

Chorophilus nigritus 47 

Rana pipiens 49 

Rana palustris 51 

Rana clamitans 53 

Rana cantabrigensis 55 

Rana septentrionalis 57 

Rana catesbeana 59 

Glossary 61 

The Reptiles of Michigan, by Alexander G. Ruthven 63 

Introduction 63 

Lit ^rature 63 

Methods of Study 67 

Methods of Collecting and Preserving Specimens 74 

Collecting 74 

Cages 74 

Preservation of Specimens 75 

Description of Michigan Reptiles 76 

Class Reptilia 76 

Keys to the Orders and S.uborders of Michigan Reptiles 77 

Order Squamata — Suborder Sauria (Lizards) 77 

Key to the Genera and Species of Michigan Lizards 77 

Eumeces quinqidhneatus 77 

Order Squamata — Suborder Serpentes (Snakes) 81 

Key to the Snakes of Michigan 81 

Storeria dekayi 83 

Storeria occipitomaculala 85 

Heterodon platyrhinu< 87 

Elaphe obsoletus 90 

Elaphe vulpinus 93 

Natrix sipedon 95 

Regi a lebcris 98 

Clonophis kirtlandii 100 

Liopeltis vernalis 102 

Diadophis pundatus 104 

Bascanion constridor 107 

Lampropeliis doliatus triangulus 110 



Thamnophis saurihis 113 

Thamnophis butlerii 116 

Thmnnophis sirtalis 119 

Sistrurus catenatus 124 

Order Testudinata (Turtles) 128 

Key to the Genera and Species of Michigan Turtles 128 

Platypeltis spinifera 129 

Chelydra serpentina 133 

Kinostemon odoratum 137 

Chrysemys cinerea 141 

Chrysemys belli 143 

Clemmys guttata 147 

Graptemys geographica 150 

Emydoidea l)landingii 153 

Terrapene Carolina ^ 155 

Glossary 159 

General Bibliography 1 62 

Memoranda towards a Bibliography of the Archaeology of Michigan, by Harlan I. Smith . 167 



1. Diagram of mouth of frog to show position of teeth 17 

2. Diagram of mouth of salamander to show position of teeth 17 

3. Distribution of Nedurus maculostis 25 

4. Distribution of Ambystoma tigrinum 27 

5. Distribution of Ambystoma punctatum 29 

6. Distribution of Ambystoma jeffersonianum 31 

7. Distribution of Plethodon erythronotus 33 

8. Distribution of Hemidadylium scutatum, 35 

9. Distribution of Dieviidylus viridescens 38 

10. Distribution of Bufo americanus 40 

11. Distribution of Hyla versicolor 42 

12. Distribution of Hyla pickeringii 44 

13. Distribution of Acris gryllus 46 

14. Distribution of Chorophilus nigritus 48 

15. Distribution of Rana pipiens 50 

16. Distribution of Rana palustris 52 

17. Distribution of Rana clamitans 55 

18. Distribution of Rana cantabrigensis 56 

19. Distribution of Rajia septentrionalis 58 

20. Distribution of Rana catesbeana 60 

21. Head of snake, side view, to show arrangement of scales 68 

22. Head of snake, top view, to show arrangement of scales 68 

23. Scales on the body of a snake 68 

24. Carapace of Emydoidea blandingii to show position of plates 70 

25. Plastron of Emydoidea blandingii to show position of plates 71 

26. Plastron of Chelydra serpe^itina 72 

27. Plastron of Kinosternon odoratum 73 

28. Distribution of Evmeces quinquilineatus 80 

29. Distribution of Storeria dekayi 84 

30. Distribution of Storeria occipitomaculata 86 

31. Distribution of Heterodon platyrhinus 88 

32. Distribution of Elaphe obsjletus 91 

33. Distribution of Elaphe vulpinus 94 

34. Distribution of A^atrix sipedon 97 

35. Distribution of Regina leberis 99 

36. Distribution of Clonophis kirtlandii -. 101 

37. Distribution of Liopeltis vernalis 103 

38. Distribution of Diadophis punctata 106 

39. Distribution of Bascanion constrictor 109 



40. Distribution of Lampropeltis doliatus triangulus 112 

41. Distribution of Thamnophis sauritus 114 

42. Distribution of Thamnophis butleri 118 

43. Distribution of Thamnophis sirtalis 123 

44. Distribution of Sistrurus catenatus 127 

45. Distributioi; of Platypeltis sphiifera 132 

46. Distribution of Chdydra serpentina 136 

47. Distribution of Kinosternon odoratum 139 

48. Distribution of Chrysemys cinerea 142 

49. Distribution of Chrysemys belli 144 

50. Plastron of Chrysemys cinerea 145 

51. Plastron of Chrysemys belli 146 

52. Distribution of Clemmys gxdtata 149 

53. Distribution of Graptemys geographica 152 

54. Distribution of Emydoidea blandingii 154 

55. Distribution of Terrapene Carolina 158 


I. Hemidactylium scutatum, Plethodon erythronotus, Necturus maculosus and eggs of 

Dieniictylus viridescens 160 

II. a. Amby stoma jeffersonianuni, Diemictylus viridescens, Amby stoma tigrinum and 

A . pimctatum 1 60 

b. Plethodon erythrrnotus and eggs 160 

III. a. Bufo americanus 160 

b. Hyla versicolor and H. pickeringii 160 

IV. a. Chorophilus nigritus and Rana cjntabrigensis 160 

b. Ra7ia palustiis and R. pipiens 160 

V. Rana clamitans 160 

VI. Chelydra serpentina, Graptemys geographica, Thamnophis sauritus and Elaphe 

obsoletus 160 

VII. Terrapene Carolina, Platypeltis spinifera, Emydoidea blandingii, Clemmys guttata, 

Chrysemys cinerea and Kinosternon odoratum 160 

VIII. Nest and eggs of Eumeces quinquilineatus. . 160 

IX. a. Elaphe vulpinus 1 60 

b. Heterodon platyrhinus 160 

X. Bascanion coristrictoi- on a limb ten feet from the ground 160 

Photos taken near Hamburg, Livingston County, by Erail Body. 

XI. a. Platypeltis spinifera 160 

b. Sistrurus catenatus ". 160 

XII. Thaynnophis sirtalis 160 

XIII. a. White's Woods near Ann Arbor. Habitat of Rana pipiens, R. cantabrigen- 

sis, R. palustris, R. clamitans, Chorophilus nigritus, Acris gryllus, Hyla pick- 
eringii, Diemictylus viridescens, Bufo americanus, Ambystonia tigrinum, A. 

punctatum, Thamnophis sirtalis and Lampropeltis doliatus triangulus 160 

b. Margin of pond in White's Woods near Ann Arbor. Habitat of Diemic- 
tylus viridescens 160 

XIV. a. Pond south of Cassopolis. Habitat of Rana pipiens 160 

b. Shore of Charity Island, Saginaw Bay. Habitat of Ambystoma jeffersonia- 

num 160 

XV. a. Chri.stiann Creek, Cass County. Habitat of Rana catesbeana 160 

b. Pine barrens at Port Austin. Habitat of Hyla versicolor and Heterodon 

platyrhinus 160 

XVI. a. Carp River, Ontonagon County. Habitat of Rana septentrionalis and 

Chrysemys bellii 1 60 

XVII. a. Woods of Charity Island. Habitat of Laupropeltis doliatus triangulus. 
b. Decaying log in woods at Port Austin. Breeding place of Plethodon 

erythronotus 164 

XVIII. a. Pond near Geddes, Washtenaw County. Habitat of Rana palustris and 

R. clamitans 166 

b. Undergrowth in woods near Port Austin. Habitat of Plethodon erythronotus 
XIX. Moss-covered stumps in Cady's Woods south of Ann Arbor. Habitat of Hemi- 
dactylium scutatum 168 

XX. General view in woods near Port Austin. Habitat of Plethodon erythronotus 170 




In view of the geographical situation of Michigan, it miglit be 
expected that its reptile and amphibian faunas would by this time 
be at least as well known as those of other states east of the 
Mississippi River. As it is our knowledge of the status of these 
groups in the state is astonishingly meager. It is true that all of 
the species known to occur in the state are well known to herpe- 
tologists, as they are, without exception, forms that occur com- 
monly elsewhere in eastern North America, but of the actual num- 
ber of forms that occur within our limits and the distribution, 
habits and variations of these we have as yet most inadequate data. 
Furthermore, there are practically no general works on the amphi- 
bians and reptiles of the state for the use of students and other 
persons interested in natural history. 

Recognizing the need of a summary of the herpetology of Michi- 
gan the survey set aside out of the appropriation for 1907, |250.00 
for the preparation of a work on the reptiles of Michigan and out 
of the appropriation for 1911, |200.00 for the preparation of a re- 
port on the amphibians of the state. The writer took personal 
charge of the reptile work, and with the appropriation engaged 
Miss Frances Dunbar, assistant in zoology in the University of 
Michigan, to assist him. The second appropriation was given to 
Miss Crystal Thompson and Miss Helen Thompson, who have had 
charge of the amphibian work under the direction of the writer. 

In the pursuit of the work two ideas have been kept in mind: 
first, to make the results of genuine scientific value as a summary 
of our knowledge of the status of the groups in the state, and, 
second, to present the results in such form that the}^ may be readily 
grasped by students and teachers and used as a reference work in 
the schools of the state. In order to place Michigan herpetology 
on a firm basis only those species are included (a) of which the 
writers have examined specimens^ from authentic Michigan local- 

1 All specimens refeired to in this report are in the University of Michigan Museum of Nat- 
ural History unless otherwise stated. 


ities, or (b) of which specimens have been examined by competent 
authorities, or (c) that have been reported to us by reliable observ- 
ers who could unmistakably describe them. We have rigidl}^ ex- 
cluded all records by persons who possibly did not know the forms 
in question. It is believed, therefore, that the work is reliable as 
far as it goes, and, altho it is of course incomplete, for there are 
large areas in the state from Avhich no or only a few records have 
been obtained, we trust that it will serve as a basis for future work 
and as an incentive to further investigation. It should be added 
that all descriptions of species are based on Michigan specimens 

unless othei^wise stated. 

Januarv 1, 1912. 




One of the greatest difipiciilties encountered by the general student 
when he attempts the study of Michigan amphibians is the lack of 
a general work on the subject. Many papers have been published, 
but these are principally local lists and are so widely scattered that 
they are not generally available. The general books on the group 
are quite adequate for the determination of species, but they do 
not, as a rule, give the correct distribution of the forms in the 
state, so that, aside from the disadvantage of having to deal with 
many more forms in the keys than we have within our limits, the 
further objection to their use is that one can scarcely tell from 
them what species to expect in any region. 

It is the purpose of this paper to present in a concise and con- 
venient form the present knowledge of the amphibian fauna of 
Michigan. The work is necessarily far from complete because of the 
lack of data from many parts of the state, but it is hoped that it 
will prove of assistance to students. It should also serve to arouse 
an interest in this group of vertebrates that will result in the ac- 
cumulation of data on the intrastate distribution of the species, 
particularly as an effort has been made to show just how much in- 
formation is at hand for each section. 


The published papers that deal either entirely with Michigan 
amphibians, or that include definite records for Michigan are as 
follows : 

1. Sager, Abram. Report to the State Geologist. Senate Doc, 
State of Michigan, 1839, 294-305. Includes a catalogue of the am- 
phibians of the state. The following sjrecies are listed : Bufo 
musicus [americaniis) , Eyta versicolor, Rana clamitans, Rana 
halecina {pipiens), Rana palustris, Rana sylvatica, Rana grijllus 
[Acris grylhis) , Salamandra symetrica (Diemictylus viridescens) , 


Salamandra cinera {Pletliodon erpthronotus) , Menohranches latera- 
lis (Necturus maculosus). 

2. Holbrook, John Edwards. North American Herpetology, Vol. 
IV, 1842. Holbrook states, on the authority of Dr. Kirtland, that 
Rana sylvatica is common in the woods of Michigan. 

3. Miles, M. A Catalogue of the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and 
Molluscs of Michigan. First Biennial Report of the Geological Sur- 
vey of Michigan, 1861. This, as the name implies, is merely a cata- 
logue of the species supposed to occur in Michigan. The list of 
amphibians includes: Biifo americanus, Acris orepitans {grylliis), 
Eyla versicolor, Eyla pickermgii, Helocaetes triseriatus {Cliorophi- 
his nigritus), Rana cateshearm, Rana fontinali^ {clamitans), Rana 
pipiens, Rana palustris, Rana sylvatica, Amhystoma punctatum, 
Aniby stoma luridum (tigrinum), Aml)ystoma laterale {Jefferson- 
ianum), Diemictylus viridescens, Pletliodon cinereus, Necturus 
lateralis {maculosus) . There are a few footnote references to local- 

4. Milner, James W. Report on the Fisheries of the Great 
Lakes. Report of the U. S. Fish Commission, 1872-3. Milner re- 
ports Necturus from Grand Haven, Ecorse and the Detroit River. 

5. Smith, W. H. The Tailed Amphibians, including the Caecil- 
ians; A Thesis presented to the Faculty of Michigan University, 
1877. Descriptions are written of the specimens in the University 
of Michigan Museum. In no case is the specific locality given. 

6. Smith, W. H. Catalogue of the Reptilia and Amphibia of 
Michigan. Supplement to Science News, 1879. Under Amphibia 
Smith lists: Rana lialecina {pipiens), Rana palustris, Rana tem- 
poraria var. sylvatica, Rana clamitans, Rana cateshyana, Bufo 
lentiginosus, Eyla versicolor, Eyla pickeringii, Chorophihis triseri- 
atus, Acris gryllus var. crepitans, Plethodon erythronotus, Pletlio- 
don erythronotus var. cine^^eus, Notophthalmus viridescens {Diemic- 
tyhis viridescens), Amhystoma punctatum, Am'bystoma opacum, 
Amhystotna tigrinum, Aml)y stoma jeffersonianum and Meno 
hranchus lateralis {Necturus tnaculosus). The species known to 
occur at Ann Arbor are starred. 

7. Smith, W. H. Report on the Amphibians and Reptiles of 
Ohio. Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio, Vol. IV, 1882. 
Mentions Plethodon erythronotus, Amhystoma tigrinum and Amhy- 
stoma opacum as coming from Ann Arbor. 

8. Cope, E. D. Batrachia of North America. Bulletin 34, U. 
S. National Museum, 1889. Specimens of Necturus maculosus, 
Amhystoma tigrinum, Plethodon cinereus, Plethodon glutinosus, 


Rana clamitans and Rana palustris are listed from Michigan. 

9. Kirseli, Philip H. A Report on the Investigations in the 
Maumee River Basin during the summer of 1893. Bulletin U. S. 
Fish Commission, Vol. XIV, 1894. In the list of amphibians ob- 
served in the Maumee River Basin, Rana syivatica and Rana 
clamitans are recorded from near Hudson, Mich. 

10. Clark, H. L. Notes on the Batrachians and Reptiles of 
Eaton Countj^ Fourth Ann. Report Michigan Academy of Science, 
1902. This list includes the species found in Eaton County by the 
writer and those reported to him b}^ reliable observers. 

11. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on the Molluscs, Reptiles and 
Amphibans of Ontonagon County, Michigan. Sixth Ann. Report 
Michigan Academy of Science, 1904. Records the amphibians col- 
lected by the writer in Ontonagon County. 

12. Ruthven, Alexander G. The Cold-Blooded Vertebrates of 
the Porcupine Mountains and Isle Royale, Michigan. Ann. Report 
of the Geological Survey of Michigan, 1905. The list of amphibians 
includes all of the data "available to the author on the occurrence of 
these animals in the Northern Peninsula." 

13. Clark, H. L. A Preliminary List of the Amphibia and Rep- 
tilia of Michigan. Seventh Ann. Report Michigan Academy of 
Science, 1905. A list of amphibians whose presence in the state 
"is vouched for by at least one of the writers" (M. Gibbs, F. N. 
Notestein, H. L. Clark), together with the localities from which 
records were obtained. It includes in the bona fide list; Nectiirus 
maculosus, Amhystoma maculatum {punctatum), Amhystoma tigri- 
nuni, Amhystoma jeffersonAanum, Hemidactylium sciitatum, Pletho- 
don cinereus and P. cinerens erythonotiis , Pletliodon glutinosus, 
Diemictylus viridescens, Bufo lentiginosus americanus, Acris 
gryllns, ChoropMlus nigritus triseriatus, Hyla versicolor, Eyla 
picheringii, Rana pipiens, Rana clamitans, Rana palustris, Rana 
syivatica and Rana syivatica cantahrigensis, Rana septentrionalis 
and Rana catesheana. Unfortunately the sources of the individual 
records are not given. 

14. Smith, Bertram G. The Breeding Habits of Amhystoma 
punctatum Linn. American Naturalist, Vol. XLI, 1907. Work 
on the breeding habits of Amhystoma punctatum was conducted at 
the University of Michigan and the material upon which the work 
was based was collected in the vicinity of Ann Arbor. 

15. Hankinson, T. L. A Biological Survey of Walnut Lake, 
Michigan. Report Geological Survey of Michigan, 1908. A list of 
the amphibians found at Walnut Lake, Oakland County, during the 
spring and summer of 1906. 


16. Ruthven, Alexander G. The Cold-Blooded Vertebrates of 
Isle Rovale. Report Geological Survey of Michigan, 1909. A sum- 
mary of the amphibian fauna of Isle Royale, based largely npon the 
results of the Universitj' of Michigan Museum expeditions to the 
island in 1901 and 1905. 

17. Ruthyen, Alexander G. Notes on Michigan Reptiles and 
Amphibians. Eleventh Ann. Report Michigan Academy of Science, 
31)09. This paper places on record some miscellaneous data upon 
the amphibians of Michigan. The writer refers the Michigan wood 
frogs to Rana cantci'brigensis rather than Rcma sylvatica. 

^18. Smith, Bertram G. The Nests and Larvae of Necturus. Bio- 
logical Bulletin, Vol. XX, 1911. A larval specimen taken from the 
Detroit River, Xov. 21, 1906, is described. 


The amphibians are a group of animals that Avill furnish many 
interesting problems to Michigan students. In the first place, while 
most observers of nature know something of their habits and con- 
siderable has been published on the subject, there is still much 
to be done upon the species to be found within our limits. Added 
to this is the fact that the species are not difficult to observe in the 
field after one becomes familiar w4th their haunts. 

In taking up the systematic study of amphibians, it is desirable 
first to become familiar with the general characters of the group. 
The best method of doing this is to dissect a specimen, following the 
directions in some manual on the subject. The anatomy is treated 
in most vertebrate zoologies. The Frog Book, by Mary O. Dicker- 
son, gives an excellent account of the characters used in the classi- 
fication of the tailless forms, but unfortunately there is nothing at 
present available on the tailed amphibians. Other books which 
will prove helpful are, The Batrachians and Reptiles of the State 
of Indiana, by O. P. Hay, A Manual of the Vertebrate Animals of 
the Northern United States, by David Starr Jordan, and The 
Batrachia of North America, by E. D. Cope, although the latter is 
at present difficult to obtain and is for the most part technical and 
rather difficult for the beginner. 

The external characters are sufficient for the identification of the 
Michigan species and are alone used in this work. The points to be 
considered in the identification are : — first, presence or absence 
of a tail in the adult state. This at once separates the two orders 
found in this region, the Salientia (tailless forms) and Caudata 

1 Since this bibliography was compiled two papers have been published, Thompson, 1911, 
and Ruthven, 1911a, containing records from Cass and Huron counties. 



(tailed forms). In ideutil'viiig llie 8alienti;i the fulluwiiig char- 
acters are used, — general external appearance, pi'oportionate length 
of head and body, ])r()|)or1ionate length of hind limb and body, 
presence or absence of ])arotid glands. ])resence or absence of lateral 
glandnlar folds', teeth, presence or absence of disks on fingers and 

Fig. 1. Diagram of Mouth of Frog to Sliow Position of Teeth. 

n, Internal nares; v, Vomerine teeth; e. Eustachian tuUs; o, Oesophagus; (7, Glottis; 

t. Tongue, 

toes, gromid color and pattern. The characters used in the identi- 
fication of the Caudata are, — general external appearance, propor- 
tionate length of body and tail, shape of tail, nnmber of costal 
grooves, number of toes on the hind feet, character and position of 
teeth (Fig. 2), ground color and pattern. 

Fig. 2. Diagram of Mouth of Salamander to show Position of Teeth. 
n, Internal nares; v, Vomerine teeth; p, Paresphenoid teetli; t, Tongue. 

Teachers mav outline laboratorv and field work from the follow- 

ing suggestions. Tlie collecting and identifying of s])ecies shouhl 

precede or go along with the study of habils. The sjning is the best 

time to observe the species in The field, for this is the breeding 



season and the associated habits are most interesting. Particular 
points to be noted are, — time of appearance in the spring, habitat, 
food habits, time of breeding, characteristic notes of the different 
species, method of fertilizing the eggs, nature of egg masses, time of 
hatching of eggs, habits and metamorphosis of larvae. 



Collecting: Since most of the species come to the streams or 
ponds to breed in the spring this is the best season for collecting. 
They may also be collected during the entire summer and fall, but 
as most of the species leave the ponds after breeding and become 
more solitary, they are much more difficult to find. However, dur- 
ing the summer many frogs will be found along the borders of 
ponds and lakes, along the banks of streams, near springs, and in 
marshes, woods and fields. The toad and the tree frogs as a rule 
retreat from the water after the breeding season is past. 

The Caudata, or tailed amphibians, with the exception of 
Hemidactylium scutatimi, Plethodon enjthronotus and Nectiirus 
iiiaculosus^ may be found in the spring in small ponds where they 
have gone to breed. At other times during the year they, with 
Hemidactylium scutatum and Plethodon erythronotus, are to be 
found under logs, moss, and in and around decaying stumps and 
logs in the woods. Some may also be found, before entering the 
water in the spring, under logs and stumps in woody places. Nec- 
turiis maciilosus may be caught at all seasons of the year in the 
larger lakes and streams. Plethodon erythronotus never enters the 
water. It may be found under the bark of decayed logs and similar 
places. Hemidactyliu'm scutatum, so far as is known, does not 
enter the water. It may be collected, during the spring at least, 
under loose moss and in old stumps in low, wet woods. The two 
year old form of Diemictylus viridescens may be found in decaying 
logs with the other species, but younger and older forms occur in 
the ponds at all seasons. 

Amphibians may be readily caught with the hands or by means 
of a net. The best net to use is a long handled dip net of small 
mesh and deep enough to prevent the escape of frogs after 
they are caught. The net is useful in collecting frogs or toads when 
in the water, or for scooping them out of the mud at the bottom of 
ponds. A 22 caliber rifle shooting cartridges loaded with dust shot 
(No. 14), or a 28 gauge shot gun loaded with light loads of powder 


and dust shot, are very effective means of collecting large series of 

The tailed amphibians are rather slow in their movements, and 
when on land they can be readily picked up bj^ hand. ^Alien ob- 
served in the o]>en water they may be easily caught in the dip net. 
Digging up with the net the leaves and mud from the bottom of 
ponds in woody places will usually result in the finding of several 

Specimens may be carried from the field in a minnow pail in 
which there is enough water to keep them moist. When it is neces- 
sary to keep several collections separate, the animals may be placed 
in cheesecloth bags with some wet moss. Small specimens should 
be kept separate from the large ones so that the former may not be 

Keeping Live Material: It is often desirable to keep amphibians 
alive in the laboratory and the following suggestions may be found 
useful. Toads and frogs may be kept in large glass jars, covered 
over the top with netting and containing some moss and a small 
amount of water. Flies and earthworms placed in the jars will be 
eaten readily. The frogs should be sorted according to size and 
those of approximately the same size placed in the same jar, other- 
wise the large individuals will eat the smaller ones. 

The small tailed amphibians which are terrestial in habit, Hemi- 
dactylium seutattini and PJetliodon erytlironotus, may be kept in 
l)acteria dishes with a little damp moss. If the moss is renewed fre- 
(juently they will find sufficient numbers of insects and larvae in it 
to keep them in good condition. The Ambystomas and Diemifctilus 
riridescens should be kept in dishes containing moss, bark and dead 
leaves with some water at one side, so that thev mav enter it at 
will. They will eat insects, worms and small pieces of meat if 
ottered to them. Small tadpoles placed in the water will furnish 
food for Dieini/ctilus viridescens. 

The aquatic forms will need a larger supply of water. Xecturus 
should be kept in a tank containing running water to the depth of 
two or three inches. There should be some floating plants or other 
objects under \\hich they may partially conceal themselves. Raw 
beef cut in small pieces and presented on the end of a fine wire will 
sometimes be taken as food. If this method of feedins: is not sue- 
cessful, small frogs and fish may be eaten if placed in the tank. 
Necturus will remain in good condition for a few weeks without 

Preservation of Specimens: Amphibians which are to be per- 


manentlj preserved should be properly killed and ])iit nj) iu a pre- 
serving fluid, for a poorly preserved speeiiiieii is usually Avorse than 
none. The best method of killing is to drown the animals. This 
can easily be done b}' placing them in small cheesecloth bags and 
immersing them in water so that no air can reach them. The air 
should be excluded from the bag b}' gently kneading it in the hands 
while under water. The amphibians will drown within twelve 

After killing, the specimens should be placed in 4% formalin for 
at least a week to harden. The formalin must be allowed to enter 
the body cavity or otherwise the internal organs will decompose be- 
fore the preservative can penetrate to them. This is best accom- 
plished by injecting the formalin into the body cavity, by means of 
a hypodermic syringe, but if this is not convenient, the abdomen 
may be slit open with a pair of scissors. When thoroughly hard- 
ened, the specimens should be transferred to from 55% to G0% alco- 
hol for permanent storage. It is important that the alcohol be of 
this strength, for stronger solutions will shrivel them and weaker 
will not properly preserve them. Each, specimen should be pro- 
vided with a tag tied rather loosely about the body just in front of 
the hind legs. This label should give the locality', date, name of col- 
lector and habitat unless a catalog is kept, in Avhich case a number 
may be placed on the label and in the notebook with the habitat 



a\ Tailed throughout life. Caudata. 

b^ External gills persistent in adult. Proteiclae. 

c^ Body lizard-like. Limbs four, equally devel- 
oped. External gills. Color brown, spotted 

Avith black. Four toes on each foot 

yecturus maciilosus, p. 23. 

b-. Adult without external gills. Limbs well developed. 
Eyelids present. Mutahilia. 

c^. No parasphenoid teeth ; vomero-palatine teeth 
in parallel or posteriorly diverging series 
that do not extend posteriorly over the 
parasphenoid. Body lizard-like. Costal 
grooves distinct. Tail compressed. Amhjj- 


(L^ Costal "Tooves 12. r>ack dark brown 
Willi large iiTcgular yellow spots. 
Body and head stont. IMantar 

tubercles well developed 

Aml.)}jHi(}in<i tUjrlnuiu, p. 20. 

d". ('ostal grooves 11. Body and head 
broad. Back black with series of 
bright yellow spots on each side of 
vertebral colnmn. Xo ])lantar 
tubercles. Transverse line of teeth 
in three parts, central se})arated 
from the lateral by a slight inter- 
val; central patch usually straight 
but may curve forwai'd in the mid- 
dle. Anihij.stoina pinictatiun, p. 28. 

d\ Costal grooves 12. Back bluish 
black, uniform or with pale blue 
spots. Head and body slender. 
No plantar tubercles. Teeth in 
four patches, the two central in a 

nearly straight line 

.Amhi/sfonia jcffersoiiiamiin. p. 30. 
Parasphenoid teeth present. Body cylindri- 
cal. Tail round, tapering to tip. PlctJw- 

d^ Color brownisli black, usually with 
a broad red or asliy dorsal band. 
Bodv slender. Inner toes rudi- 
mentary. Costal grooves 1(1 to 10. 
. . . .PJcthodon crijihrouotus, p. 32. 

d". Color light brown spotted with dark, 
a lighter stripe down the back. 
Under surface yellowish white with 
dark inky spots. Body slender. 
Four toes on each foot. Tail verv 
long, separated from the body by 
a distinct depression. Costal 

grooves 13 

. . .HcniifJacfijliiiDi scutatinn. p. 34. 


c^ Paraspheuoid teeth absent. Yomero-palatine 
teeth in transverse or posteriorly diverging 
series extending posteriorily over the para- 
sphenoid. Tail compressed. Outer and 
inner toes on hind foot rudimentary. Sala- 

d\ Costal grooves indistinct. Color 
varying from olive green to red- 
dish brown above 

. . . .Dlcmlctylus viridesccns, p. 36. 
a-. Tail absent in adult. Body short and broad. Hind limbs 
adapted for leaping. Salientia. 

b\ No maxillary teeth. Parotid glands present. Skin 
Avarty. BufonicJae. 

c^. Parotids oval. Cranial crests divergent be- 
hind Bufo americanus, p. 39. 

b-. Maxillary teeth present. Parotid glands lacking. 
Fingers and toes enlarged at ends to form adhesive 
disks. HyUdae. 

c^. Disks large. Color green, gray or brown with 
irregular dark blotches. Irregular dark 
star-shaped blotch on upper i)art of back. 

Hijla vcrsicoJor, p. 41. 

C-. Disks medium. Oblique dark cross on back. 
J^ark mark between eyes. Limbs barred. 

Hyla pk'keHngil, p. 43. 

c". Disks small. Color - variable with three 
oblique blotches on sides. Dark triangular 
spot between eyes. Light line from eye to 

arm Acris (jrylhis, p. 45. 

c*. Disks small, scarcely discernable. Color 
changeable. Three longitudinal dark stripes 
on back. Dark line from eye to arm. 

Chorophilus nigritiis^ p. 47. 

b". Maxillary teeth present. Parotid glands lacking. No 
adhesive disks. Ranklae. 

c^. Lateral folds large. Color green with two 
irregular rows of rounded dark spots 
edged with lighter color on back. Legs 
barred or spotted Rami pipiens, p. 49. 


C-. Color brown with two irreiiiilar rows of ob- 
long sqnare blotches of dark l)i'0wn on the 
back, tlie spots without edgings of lighter 
color Rana jmlustrif<, p. 51. 

c\ Lateral folds conspicuous. ('(>h)r brownish 
green with small dark spots. Legs spotted 
or barred with dark. Web broad leaving 

last two joints of fourth toe free 

Rana rhunitan^'i, p. 53. 

c^. Lateral folds present. Ground color variable. 
Arms and legs barred. A l)hick ]>atch in 
ear region. Length of hind limb to heel 
equals distance from anus to some i)oint in 
front of eye. . . .Rami cantahrigeiisis^ p. 55. 

c\ Xo lateral folds. Color light olive brown 
Avith blotches of darker color. Legs spotted 
or branded Rami scptentriomiUs, p. 57. 

c^. No lateral folds. Color greenish brown with 
darker spots. Fold of skin from eye to arm 
curving behind ear. Hind feet webbed, 

leaving last joint of fourth toe free 

Rana catrsheami, p. 59. 



(PI- I.) 

Description: Body elongate, thick and cylindrical. Head broad, 
flat and depressed. Muzzle rounded; mouth large, upper lip over- 
hanging lower. Eyes small, situated near fi'ont of head; nostrils at 
end of snout. Three bushv external gills on each side of neck. 
Gular fold prominent, fourteen costal furrows and a dorsal groove. 
Limbs small but well developed, digits four in number. Tail greatly 
compressed. Skin very smooth and slimy. Two series of teeth in 
almost parallel rows. Premaxillary series short, forming an angle 
anteriorly. Yomero-palatine series longer, extending from the angle 
of the premaxillaries to the angle of the jaw. 

Ground color varies from dark to ashy brown above, paler below. 
Upper surface usually mottled with darker color and with small 
light spots. Gills bright red. In young specimens a dark lateral 
band is sometimes found. 


Measurements: iSpeciincn Xo. -'/1723. 


Total length 243 

Length of head and body 155 

AVidth of head 034 

Hiihits and Hahltat: Xccfiinis hkicuJosus is wholly aquatic and 
is rather dnll and sluggish during the day time. It usually rests on 
the bottom with the gills spread out and may sometimes be 
seen crawling slowly about. When disturbed, the gills are 
contracted close to the sides and the animal swims raoidly away bv 
means of the large, flat, paddle-like tail. The fact that it is fre- 
quently taken throughout the winter would seem to indicate the 
absence of a hibernating period. 

At night the Necturus, which is extremely voracious, swims about 
in search of its food, which consists mainlj' of small Crustacea, 
worms, fish and their eggs, and insects. In captivity it will some- 
times eat small pieces of meat, but only when it has been for some 
time without food. It is frequently caught on hooks or in nets by 
fishermen, who commonly regard it as ver}' poisonous. This fallacy 
is no doubt due to the coat of slime which is emitted when the ani- 
mal is irritated. Adult specimens can also infiict a rather painful 
bite with their sharp, strong teeth, and it is hard to dislodge them 
when they have secured a good hold. The flesh is reported excellent 
by those Avho have eaten it. 

^'erv little is known of the breeding' habits of Xecturus. The 
animals are usually found in pairs in the autumn, and it is possi- 
ble that this is the mating season. Hay (1892a, p. 12) states that 
eggs were taken from the Detroit Eiver about the middle of July, 
while according to Eycleshymer (190G, ]). 133), who has studied 
their habits in the small lakes of Wisconsin, "the best time for col- 
lecting is during the middle and latter parts of the month of May." 
The nest is much like that of a fish, consisting of a small excavation 
in the sand under some sheltering object, such as a log, board or 
stone. The eggs are found attached to this shelter ''by the slender 
stalks of the gelatinous envelopes" (Smith, 1911, p. 191), and cover 
a surface of from six to twelve inches in diameter. Smith (1911) 
found the average number of eggs in a nest to be sixty -six. They 
are about the size of a pea, and lack the pigment which is charac- 
teristic of the eggs of most amphibians. Further details of develop- 
ment have not been worked out. 

Distrihution: Eastern United States, mostlv north and west of 




the Alleglianies, abnudaiit in tlie Great Lake region. (Jordan, 

Miclii<;aii: SiuM-iineiis in the University Museum fioni Keweenaw 
(Isle Royale), Dickinson, Cbeboygan, Hnron, Livingston, Washte- 

■^o, V D C M I N I ^ OF CANADA 

Fi<?. 3. Distribution of Nediiriis maculosus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

naw and ^^t. Joseph Counties. Tlie writers have also examined 
specimens from Gratiot and Eaton Counties. Reported from Kewee- 
naw (Isle Royale). Wayne and Oakland Counties (Cope, 1889); 
Wayne, St. Clair, Allegan, Kalamazoo, Eaton, Montcalm and Van 
Ruren Counties (Gibbs, Notestein and Clark. 190.') I ; Ottawa 
County (jMilner, 1874) ; Keweenaw County (Isle Royale) (Ruthven, 


1909) ; ClieboYgan County (Ruthven, 1911) ; Huron County (Rutli- 
ven, 1911a) ; Washtenaw County (Smith, 1879) ; Ottawa and Wayne 
Counties (Milner, 1874). 


(PI. II a.) 

Description: Body large and thick. Head flat and not as broad 
as body in adult specimens. Ejes prominent, nares small. Parotid 
region much swollen. Gular fold prominent, extending upward on 
sides of neck. Also a groove running from corner of mouth to eye. 
Twelve costal furrows and a distinct dorsal groove. Limbs stout; 
toes depressed, tapering from a broad base to the tips which are 
hardened and horn}' in appearance. Two distinct plantar tubercles. 
Tail long and compressed, equal in length to distance from snout to 
groin. Skin smooth and glossy, and covered with mucous pores 
which are not as prominent as in Ami) ij stoma punctatum. Vomero- 
palatine teeth in a straight or slightly curving series across roof 
of mouth. Tongue large and fleshy, free on sides and attached at 

Ground color brownish black above, lighter beneath. Bright yel- 
low spots scattered irregularly over entire surface of body. These 
spots may be few or many in number and are sometimes confluent 
to form more or less definite stripes. 

Measurements: Specimen No. 36030. 

Total length 205 - 

Length of head and body 100 

Width of head 02G 

Habits and Habitat: This species, as a rule, spends most of the 
year under stones, logs, in decaying stumps and in holes or burrows 
made bv other animals. However, it has been known to remain in 
the water during the summer. It is voracious and carnivorous, eat- 
ing worms, insects and at times small frogs. According to Metz- 
dorff (Gadow, 1901, p. 113), the breeding season of Am'bystoma 
tigrimim is from April to .Time and occasionally in December. 
Smith (1882, p. 721) states that "they have been observed in great 
numbers in the 'Cathole,' at Ann Arbor, Michigan, swimming vigor- 
ouslv on March 10th, and their eogs were found a few davs later." 
The male enters the water and deposits spermat()]>hores, which are 



taken up into the cloaca of the female. The eggs are nsnall}^ laid 
the day after fertilization, in masses containing from six to ten, 
and are attached to stems or leaves of water plants. The larvae 
emerge after an interval of about two weeks. The latter were 

Fig. 4. Distribution of Amhystoma ligrinum. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

former!}' supposed to be a distinct species, "AxolotT". due to the 
fact that metamorphosis may be delayed and breeding take place 
during the larval stage. Under normal conditions, liowever, the 
adult form is reached in about one hundred davs after hatchinc^. 

Distrihutlon: Northeast to ^Minnesota and south. (Jordan, 


Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Calhoun, 
Washtenaw, Lenawee and Livingston Counties. Reported from 
Wayne and Washtenaw Counties (Cope, 1889) ; Montcalm, Washte- 
naw, Kalamazoo, Eaton and Allegan Counties (Gibbs, Notestein 
and Clark. 1005) ; Washtenaw County (Smith, ISTO; Smith, 1882). 


(PI. II a.) 

Description: Body short and stout. Head broad and slightly 
rounded, with parotid region greatly swollen. Eyes prominent, 
nares small. Oular fold prominent, connected by a ridge with 
another slight fold behind the eye. Eleven costal furrows and a 
slight dorsal groove. Limbs moderateh^ developed; toes slightly 
depressed; plantar tubercles indistinct. Tail compressed, with a 
well marked indentation along each side. Skin smooth and glossy, 
surface pitted Avith mucous pores which are most prominent in the 
]>arotid region and on the tail. Transverse line of teeth in three 
patches, the central separated from laterals by slight interval at 
inner edges of posterior nares. Central patch may curve forward 
in the middle. 

Ground color blue black or black with large yellow blotches 
arranged in a more or less irregular row on each side of vertebral 
column. Legs also spotted. Under surface paler than upper. 

Measurements: Specimen No. 3o787. 

Total length 145 

Length of head and body 081 

Width of head 01G5 

Hahits and Hahitat: Amhystojna piinctatiim is nocturnal in its 
liabits and is found under logs and stones in damp, woody places. 
It resembles Amhijstoma, tigrininn in its food habits. When in the 
water the animal swims rapidly by means of the broad, flat tail. 
Like the other members of the genus, this species goes to the water 
to deposit its eggs. This migration to the ponds takes place in 
March or A])ril. The males enter the i)onds and deposit sperniato- 
phores on sticks and leaves just at the surface of the water. These 
spermatophores are small, Avhite, mushroom-like bodies, the cap- 
shaped tops containing the sperm. Several are usually deposited 
in one place and fertilization probably takes place in the same man- 



nei* as in AiiiJ)jjsto}na tigrUiuni. After fertilization the eggs are 
laid in oval masses, the whole mass being embedded in gelatine. 
They are attached to some sn])])ort in the water, either grass stems 
or small sticks, ^^'hen hatched the AT^nng- larvae are about half an 



Fig. 5. Distribution of Ambysloma putictatum. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

inch in length and metamorphosis does not occur until a length of 
about two inches has been reached. 

Distrihiition: Nova Scotia to Nebraska, south to Georgia. (Jor- 
dan, 1890.) 

Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Manistee 
and Washtenaw Counties. Reported from Eaton County (Clark, 


1902; Gibbs. Xotestein and Clark, 1905) ; Washtenaw County 
(KSmith, 1907; Smith, 1879). 


Jefferson's salamander. 

(PI. II a.) 

Description: Body lon<>' and slender. Head elongate and flat: 
e^'es large and prominent; nares small, situated at end of snout; 
mouth large. Gular fold distinct, rising on sides of neck. Another 
fold extends across the throat from a point just behind the corner 
of the mouth and is met bv a groove running from the corner of 
the eye. Twelve costal furrows and a dorsal groove. Limbs well 
developed; toes long, slender and much depressed; no plantar 
tubercles. Tail compressed and somewhat shorter than body. Skin 
smooth and covered with numerous pores which may be clearlj' 
seen under a lens. Teeth in four patches, the two central extending 
to the inner nares. where they are met by the two lateral patches 
Avliich form the posterior border of the inner nares. Tongue large 
and thick. 

Ground color bluish or brownish black above, paler below. Sur- 
face with or without pale blue spots. 

Measurements: Specimen Xo. 37926. 

Total length .118 

Length of head and body 070 

Width of head 010 

Eahits and Hahitat: Am'bxjstouia jeffersonianiim is secretive, and 
during the day is found in damp, dark places. It is usually found 
under logs and stones. It is extremely active, and, according to 
Gadow (1901, p. Ill), a good climber, ''easily escaping out of high- 
walled bell-glasses." 

Little has been done on the breeding habits of this salamander. 
Smith (1911a, p. 19) states that the early spawning season "sug- 
gests the possibility of an autumnal fertilization.-' Hahn (1908, 
pp. 550-552) has taken the eggs in late segmentation stages on Feb. 
28, at Mitchell, Ind., while Smith (1911a, p. 17) found the first 
eggs on April 5, at Syracuse, Xew York. They are laid in small 
grape-like masses that are usually hung on a leaf or stick. Piersol 
(1910) has found the number of eggs in a single mass to be about 
twenty. The hatching probably takes place in from thirteen to 



eighteen days and transformation occurs some time during July or 


This species resembles Plctliodo)i glutinosus, which has been re- 
ported from Kent (Gibbs, Notestein and Clark, 1905), Wayne 
(Cope, 1889) and Marquette (Ruthven, 1906) Counties. However, 

Fig. 6. Distribution of Ambystoma jeffersonianum. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

the specimens listed from Wayne and Marquette Counties are in 
the University Museum and have been re-identified as Amhijstoma 
jeffersaniamun. The two species may be distinguished by the fact 
that the parasphenoid teeth are present in Plethodoti glutmosus 
and absent in Amhy stoma jeffersonianum. We have not seen speci- 
mens of the former from the state. 


Distrihutioii: Pennsylvania to Virginia and nortli to Canada. 
(Jordan, 1899.) 

Michigan : Specimens in tlie Universit}' Museum from ^larquette, 
Cheboygan, ^fanistee, Arenac (Charity Island), Hnron, Ionia, Ing- 
ham, Liyingston, AVayne and Washtenaw Counties. The writers 
have also examined specimens from Gratiot and Eaton Counties, 
Reported from Eaton County (Clark, 1902) ; Eaton and Montcalm 
Counties (Gibbs, Xotestein and Clark, 1905) ; Washtenaw County 
(Smith, 1879) ; Cheboygan County (Ruthyen, 1911) ; Huron County 
(Ruthven, 1911a j. 


(Pis. I, lib.) 

Description: Body long, slender and cylindrical. Head small; 
mouth yery large, upper jaw slightly protruding; eyes large; nares 
small and situated laterally. Gular fold prominent, reaching up to 
the dorsal stripe and met there by a groove running from the corner 
of the eye. This groove is in turn bisected bv a groove extending- 
upward from the corner of the mouth. Costal folds distinct; the 
number varying from sixteen to nineteen. A distinct dorsal groove. 
Limbs extremely slender, inner toes rudimentary. Tail cylindrical. 
Yomero-palatine teeth extending backward in two converging rows. 
Parasphenoid teeth in two patches behind the nares. 

Color brownish black on sides, usually with a broad ashy or red 
dorsal stripe which is mottled with brown. Under surface yellow- 
ish, also mottled with a darker color. 

Jleasiirements: f^pccimen 'No. SoSO). 

Total length 089 

Length of head and body 015 

Width of head 005 

Hahits and Hahitat: The red-backed salamander is entirely ter- 
restrial in its habits. It is usually found under rocks and in decay- 
ing logs in moist, woody ])laces and occasionally on low shrubs and 
plants. It is very active, the adult disappearing rapidly and hiding 
under leaves and moss when disturbed, unless accom]^anied by its 
young. The food consists mainly of insects, larvae, small snails 
and worms, Avhich are caught by means of the ])rojectile tongue. 



The eggs are fonnd in grape-like bunches of from six to eleven 
attached to the under surface of stones or the bark of decaying trees 
and are brooded b}^ the female. They are laid, according to Hahn 
(1008), in May, but have not been found at Ann Arbor until June 
(Smith, 1882). The writers took eggs in a late stage of develop- 



Fig. 7. Distribution of Plethodon erijihronotus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

ment at Port Austin, Huron Count}^, Aug. 5, 1911. The larvae, 
which are at first provided with branchiae, are usually found with 
the parents and are apparently fed by them. When young the ani- 
mal is very light in color, growing darker with age. 

Prof. Cope (1889) recognizes two sub-species of Plethodon, P. 


cinereus aud P. cinereus var. crythronotiis, which have both been re- 
ported from Michigan. There are no apparent differences in struc- 
ture, proportions and general character between these two forms. 
The distinction is entirely one of color, erythronotus having a red 
dorsal stripe, cinereus an ashy one. Also, the writers have found 
the two varieties in the same region, and not infrequently in one 
log. Without doubt the differences in color are onlv individual. 
Distrihution: Eastern United States. (Jordan, 1899.) 
Michigan : Specimens in the University' Museum from Ontona- 
gon, Baraga, Dickinson, Cheboygan, Benzie, Manistee, Huron, Ing- 
ham, Washtenaw and Lenawee Counties. The writers have also 
examined specimens from Gratiot and Eaton Counties. Reported 
from Eaton County (Clark, 1902) ; Wayne County (Cope, 1889) ; 
Eaton, Montcalm and Antrim Counties (Gibbs, Xotestein and 
Clark, 1905) ; Ontonagon County (Ruthven, 1904a) ; Ontonagon, 
Baraga and Marquette Counties (Ruthven, 1906) ; Cheboygan 
County (Ruthven, 1911) ; Hurou County (Ruthven, 1911a) ; Wash- 
tenaw County (Smith, 1879; Smith, 1882). 


(PI. I.) 

Description: Body short and cylindrical. Head broad, muzzle 
blunt, upper jaw projecting over lower. Eyes large. Gular fold 
distinct but not prominent, and rising on the sides of the neck. 
Another dei)ression extending from the eye to the gular fold. Skin 
Avith slight deju-essions that give it a scuted appearance. Thirteen 
distinct but not prominent costal grooves. A dorsal groove and a 
slight depression extending along the sides from limb to limb. This 
lateral depression forks anteriorly and sends out a branch to the 
middle of the head between the eves. Limbs verv slender but well 
developed. Toes four in number, the inner toe and inner and outer 
lingers rudimentary; third toe the longest. Tail very long, sepa- 
rated from body by a distinct depression, slightly compressed, 
large at base and tapering gradually to a point. Yomero-palatine 
teeth in two series just behind internal nares. Parasphenoidal 
])atches distinctly separated. Tongue attached anteriorly, and 
slightly free posteriorly. 

Ground color dark brown, spotted with darker color, and becom- 
ing dark gray on the sides. Limbs, snout and tail lighter in color 
than back, and blotched with dark above. Small light spot on 
shoulder just above arm. 



A/('((siircui( iil,s: ^pt'ciiiicii Xo. .'/.^/'fU. 


Total leiiulli mi 

Length of liend juid bodv 


AVidth ol head 005 

Hahlfs (111(1 TTahifdt: The loiir-iocMl sahniiainhM- is a rare species 

Fig. 8. Distribution of Hernidactylium scutatum. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

in Michigan, liaving been found in only three counties in the state. 
Clark (1902) reports five specimens, which have been examined by 
the writers, from Eaton County as follows: "A single specimen of 
this uncommon salamander was collected May !:>, 1!)01. It was 
found in the earth on the roots of a violet, which had been pulled 
up. So far as I can learn, it has not previously been collected in 


Michigan. Four other specimens, two males and two females, were 
taken together in April, 1902, under a log. The females were fully 
twice as large as the males." There are at present three live speci- 
mens in the University of Michigan Museum. One of these was 
taken in a Avoods about five miles south of Ann Arbor during the 
summer of 1910, and was presented to the Museum by Miss Jessie 
Phelps. The other tAvo specimens were taken by the Avriters in the 
same woods in April, 1911. A single specimen was collected by 
N. A. Wood at White Fish Point, Chippewa County in August, 

Very little is known of the habits of this salamander. Smith 
(1882, p. 723) states that "it has been found in April under old logs 
and rails in open woods, at some distance from the water, and 
was very quick and lively in its movements." The woods in which 
the Washtenaw County specimens were taken is low and damp. 
One was found under loose moss and one was just inside the bark 
of a rotten stump. The movements are lively and erratic, the 
animal sometimes jumping for some distance. The food probably 
consists of insects and worms, the writers have observed it to eat 
small flies in captivity. The eggs are laid under moss or bark, and 
the salamander, at least in the adult condition, avoids the water. 
Individuals sometimes emit a sharp squeal when annoyed. 

Distrihution: From Massachusetts and Canada westward to Illi- 
nois and south to Georgia. (Jordan, 1899.) 

Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Washte- 
naw and Chippewa Counties. Keported from Eaton County (Clark, 
1902; Gibbs, Notestein and Clark, 1905) ; Washtenaw County (Ruth- 
ven, 1911). 


(Pis. I, II a.) 

Descriptio)i: Body slender and slightly compressed. Muzzle 
rounded; upper jaw extending a little beyond the lower; eyes 
large; exterior nares close together. Limbs slender, anterior about 
half the size of the posterior. First finger and first and fifth toes 
rudimentar}'. Tail much compressed and as long, if not longer, 
than the head and bodv. Skin finelv wrinkled; costal grooves in- 
distinct. On either side of the head below the eye there may be a 
row of four pits, but these are frequently lacking. Yomero-palatine 
teeth in two longitudinal row^s which converge close to the internal 


iiare?!;. Toiijj;iie attached i)()sl(M'i()i'ly and anteriorly but free on the 

Ground color varies from reddisli brown to olive green above; 
lower surface pale yellow. ]>ody covered with small black spots 
especially noticeable on the lower surface because of the lighter 
ground color. On either side of the vertebral line a row of small 
red spots, each having a black border. 

J\feasi(rc)n€ntf<: ^prc'imoi Xo. Sl'037. 

Total length 100 

Length of head and body 04S 

Width of head 008 

Habits (Hid Hahitat: This newt is aquatic in its habits, the 
adult spending most of its time in the water. It frequents places 
with a soft bottom and hides under leaves and water plants. In 
large ponds it is usually found in the more sheltered ])laces. It is 
carnivorous in food liabit and extremely voracious. Tlic food con- 
sists cliietly of Avater insects, small molluscs, worms and tadpoles. 
When kept in captivity the animal beconies very tame and will read- 
ily eat small pieces of meat, worms and small tad]>oles. It some- 
times emits a sharp squeak when disturbed. The breeding season 
extends from April to Jttne. During this season the genital open- 
ings of the male become swollen, and transverse horny ])lates a])pear 
on the posterior surface of the hind limbs and on the under side of 
the tips of the toes. A spotted crest also appears along the upper 
and lower sides of the tail. The male deposits spermatophores 
similar to those of Amlji/stoiiia punctatum except that they are 
fewer in number. In order to insure the fertilization of the eggs 
there is a preliminary ^'Liebes spiel". The eggs are laid singly be- 
tween the leaves of water plants or in other like situations. Ac- 
cording to Jordan (189/)), the egg laying season for one individual 
lasts about seven or eight weeks. The young larvae hatch after a 
l>eriod of about thirty days. After the gills are absorbed, the young 
animal leaves the water and the color chant>es to a dark red. This 
stage was formerly considered a distinct s])ecies and called D. 
miniatus; careful observation, however, has shown that, after the 
first two or three years of its life, the animal returns to the water 
and assumes the adult viridescent coloration. 

Distrihutioii : Eastern United States, abundant north and north- 
east. (Jordan. 181)0.) 

Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Houghton, 



Fig-. 9. Distribution of Diemictylus viridescens. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports onlj-. 

Marquette, Cheboygan, Huron, Arenac (Charity Ishiud), Ionia and 
Washtenaw Counties. The writers have also examined specimens 
from Eaton County. Reported from luiton County (Chuk, 190- ; 
Gibbs, Xotestein and Clark, 1905) ; Cheboygan County (Ruthven. 
1911) ; Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a) ; Washtenaw County 
(Smith. 1879). 



(PI. Ill a.) 

Description : liody sliort and (1e])resse(l. Head very broad, upper 
jaw protruding' sliglitly and notched in the center. I^yes hi roe. 
Pjirotid ghmds hir<;e and kidney sliaped. Fr(>nt()-i)aiMetal erests 
extend back between the eyes and are joined at rii^hl an^h's by the 
])Ost-orbital crests Avhicli extend l»a(k of the eyes to a jjoint al)ove 
the ears. Skin conspicnonsly warty above; nnder surface granu- 
lated. Toes partly webbed. Two dark-colored metatarsal tubercles, 
the outer small, the inner with a cutting edge. Jaws without teeth. 

Ground color varies from grayish to brownish black, with large 
irrgular spots of dark brown which show more plainly on the speci- 
mens which are lighter in color. There is frequently a light verte- 
bral stripe. Under surface a dusky lemon color, S(jmetimes with 
smaller irregular blotches of dark brown. Throat of male black. 


Measurements: Specimen No. 3011 '/- 

Length of head and bod}^ 0845 

Length of hind limb to heel 0505 

Width of head 032 

Hahits and Hahitat: The common American toad is our best 
known amphibian. Tliis is due To its abundance and to tlie fact 
that it is common in gardens and aronnd houses so tlmt it is fre- 
quently seen. It a])pears witli tlie first warm s])ring days and is 
found in shaded i)laces until fall. Axlien it burrows inio the ground 
and hibernates until spring. It is nocturnal in iinbii, coming out 
in the dusk of evening to search for food, which consists mostly of 
insects and their larvae. During the day it sits in lis burrow, 
which it makes by backing into the soft earth or (knise vegetation, 
and sleeps. It is so protectively coloi*ed that it is usually very hard 
to distinguish from the clods of earth or the background of parti- 
ally shaded vegetation in its usual haunts. 

The i30pular belief that toads ar-e poisonous is erroneous. On 
the contrary they are ver^' beneficial to man, since about 88% of 
their food consists of garden pests. They may at times, especially 
when roughlv handled, excrete a colorless, odorless and harmless 
fluid from the skin, which makes them somewhat moist. There is 
also an excretion from the parotid gland region, and this is slightly 



poisonous if taken internally. The latter affects the mucous mem- 
brane of the mouth and protects the toad Avhen seized by dogs 
and other enemies. 

The breeding seasou lasts from April to July. The first specimen 
observed by the writers in 1911 was found on the evening of April 



Fig. 10. Distribution of Biifo americanus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

26, and the next dav lar^e numbers were seen on their Avav to the 
ponds. The males seem to outnumber the females and struggle to- 
gether for their possession. A^'hell disturbed. I lie male utters a 
peculiar chirping sound somewhat like the scolding of a chicken. 
The souiLi' consists of a sweet high trill that is bird-like in its quality. 


The eggs are laid in the water in two ven kjng strands each con- 
sisting of a roAV of eggs embedded in a gehitinous mass. They 
hatch in al)ont fonr days, and the Lnrvae remain in the water until 
the final metamorphosis which occurs in July. The toad does not 
start breedinc; until it is about four vears old, and it may live for 
many years. Miss Dickerson tells of one that lived for thirtv-six 
years and then was killed bv an accident. 

Distrihution: Eastern North America, west to Arizona and 
Mexico. (Dickerson, 1906.) 

Michigan: Hpecimens in the University Museum from Keweenaw 
^sle Royale), Baraga, Ontonagon, Dickinson, Cheboygan, Craw- 
ford, Oceana, Arenac (Charity Island), Huron, Ingham, Washte- 
naAV, Barry, Allegan and Cass Counties. The writers have also 
examined specimens from Gratiot County. Reported from Eaton 
County (Clark, 1902) ; Ontonagon County (Cope, 1889) ; Eaton, 
Kalamazoo, Washtenaw and Montcalm Counties (Gibbs, Xotestein 
and Clark, 1905) ; Oakland County (Hankinson, 1908) ; Ontonagon 
(^ounty (Eutliven, 1901a); Keweenaw (Isle Royale), Ontonagon, 
Baraga and Marquette Counties (Kuthven, 190()) ; Keweenaw 
County (Isle Royale) (Ruthven, 1909); Cheboygan County (Ruth- 
veu, 1911) ; Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a) ; Cass County 
(Thompson, 1911). 


com:mox tree fkog. 
(PI. Ill b.) 

Description: Form toad like. Muzzle blunt in outline. Eyes 
prominent. Toes webbed nearly to tips; fingers and toes with large 
adhesive disks. Upper surface of body slightly warty. Lower sur- 
face granulated. A large fold of skin across the chest. Vomero- 
palatine teeth in two patches just behind internal nares. Tongue 
very large and fleshy, slightly notched behind. 

Ground color gray, green or brown ^\■ith irregular dark blotches. 
A large irregular dark star on upper part of back. Limbs barred 
with dark brown. A dark ear patch and a light spot under the 
eye. Under parts ])ale yellow, brighter posteriorly. Throat some- 
times mottled with darker. Concealed leg surfaces vermiculated 
with brown. 

^[('<lsure^)^€ilts: Specimen Xo. 30SO~). 

Length of head and body 014 

Length of hind limb to heel 0375 

Width of head 0105 



Hahits and SPahitat: The common tree frog, or tree toad as it is 
frequently called, is the most familiar of our Hvlidae. It lives for 
the most part in trees, bushes and vines. It is not confined to the 
woods alone but lives also in orchards and in the vines around 



e M I c A c 

Fig. 11. Distribution of HyZa rersicotor. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; verical ruling, reports only. 

houses. The large size of the disks on the fingers and toes allow 
it to cling to smooth vertical surfaces and enable it to catch and 
hold to branches when it climbs from place to place among the 
trees and bushes. It is more active toward night when it is search- 
ing for food. The latter consists of insects and larvae, found on the 
tree in whose leafv branches it makes its home. In the winter it 


liibernates in hollows of trees or in the moss at their roots. This 
species has the power of chanoin^- its color, altb()n«»h the change 
is not rapid. There is a range of coUn-a from vei-y liglit yellow and 
green to dai-k brown and green. The color, nnder ordinary circum- 
stances, corresponds with that of the object on wliich the frog is 
resting. The eggs are laid in 3Iay. in small gron])S or singly. They 
are attached to water plants or grass stems and hatch in abont 
forty-eight hours. After hatching, the development is rapid, the 
final metamorphosis taking place in about seven weeks. 

Distrihutlon: Canada, south to Texas and Kansas. ( Dickerson, 


Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Dickinson, 
Cheboygan, Oceana, Huron, Livingston, Oakland. Washtenaw, 
Wayne and Cass Counties. Reported from Eaton County (Clark, 
1902) ; Washtenaw and Wayne (\)mities (Cope, 1889) ; Eaton, Mont- 
calm, Kent, Ottawa, Barry and Van Buren Counties! (Jibbs, Note- 
stein and Clark, 1905) ; Oakland County (Hankinson, 1908) ; Mar- 
quette County (Ruthven, 19(IG) ; Huron County ( Ruthven, 1911a) ; 
Cass County (Thompson, 1911). 


(PI. Illb.) 

Description: Body short and stout. Muzzle i)ointed, upper jaw 
extending beyond lower. Ears small. Feet moderately webbed, 
disks relatively large. Under surface granulated. A fold of skin 
across the chest. Yomero-palatine teeth in two patches behind in- 
ternal nares. Tongue large, slightly notched, and free behind. 

Ground color varies from light to dark brown. .V dark V between 
the eyes and a large oblicjue dark cross on the back. Limbs in- 
definitelv barred with darker. A dark band from the snout through 
the eye to the side. Under surface pale yellow, granulated, darker 
posteriorly. Usually darker blotches on throat and chest. 

Mcasurciitcnts: ^peciiucii \o. 31006. 

Length of head and bodv 021 

] Anigth of hind limb to heel 0155 

Width of head 00G5 

Hahits and Hahitkft: The spring peeper is tlie smallest of the 
Hylidae. During the summer it may be found among fallen leaves 



and moss in damp places, the color being- admirably adapted for 
concealment in sncli sitnations. Its searcli for food, which consists 
mainly of small insects and worms, may freqnently take it to 
gardens and orchards, and it has even been fonnd in greenhouses. 




Fig. 12. Distribution of Hula jnckeringii. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

Dnrinu ilie Avinter months it hibernates nnder the moss and leaves 
or in hollow trees. Tlie breeding season begins early and lasts until 
May. The frogs sing in chorus and Tlieir bird-like call is one of 
the most familiar sounds of spring. The male croaks when hidden 
under moss or grass. The eggs are laid in April, usually singly, 
though occasionally in suiall masses, and are attached to Avater 


plants. Thev are very small, "so small that tliov look like tinv 
plant seeds-' (Diokerson, 1000, p. 145). The time of development 
varies from six to twelve days according to the tempei-atnre, and 
metamorphosis takes place in about two months after hatching, the 
little tadpoles nsnally leaving the Avater before the transformation 
is completed. 

Distribution: Eastern North America, Canada to South Caro- 
lina. (Dickerson, 190G.) 

Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Keweenaw 
(Isle Royale), Ontonagon, Dickinson, Houghton, Baraga, Huron, 
Washtenaw, Cass and St. Joseph Counties. Re})orted from Eaton 
County (Clark, 1902) ; Wayne and Washtenaw Counties (Cope, 
1889) ; Van Buren, Eaton, Kalamazoo, xVntrim and Montcalm Coun- 
ties (Gibbs, Xotestein and Clark, 1905) ; Ontonagon County (Rut li- 
ven, 1904a) ; Ontonagon, Baraga, and Houghton Counties (Ruth 
ven, 1906) ; Keweenaw County (Isle Royale) (Ruthven, 1909) ; 
Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a); Cass County (Thompson. 1011 j. 



Description: Form frog like. Muzzle ver^- long and pointed. 
Disks on fingers and toes small, scarcely noticeable. Toes webbed 
almost to tips. Sole tubercles moderate in size. Skin above with 
numerous conspicuous smooth warts. Under surface slightly granu- 
lated posteriorly. A fold of skin across the chest. Vomerine teeth 
in two patches between internal nares. Tongue attached in front 
and along mid-line. 

Ground color variable, usually brown or green with a dark tri- 
angular mark between the eyes. Three oblique blotches on the 
sides. Limbs barred or spotted with dark. A light line from eye 
to arm. Upper \i\) light spotted with darker. Concealed surface 
of femur with a longitudinal dark stripe. Under surface yellowish 
white, throat mottled with darker. Coloration of male may be so 
dark that markings do not show. 

Jlctiisiircinents: Spceinicii A'o. SO'il'3. 

I^ength of head and body 024 

Length of hind limb to heel 025 

Width of head 0085 

Habits and Habitat: The cricket frog is a tree fi-og that is en- 



tirelv terrestrial in its habits. It is iiuable to oliinb trees because 
of the extreme smallness of the disks on its lingers and toes, and its 
agility and ability to accomplish rapid changes in coloration are 
probably its principal protection from enemies. It is nsnally found 




Fig. 13. Distribution of Acris gryllus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined: vertical ruling, reports only. 

in large numbers along the banks of streams or ponds. When dis- 
turbed it jumps into the water with a series of high leaps and 
buries itself in the mud, from which it soon emerges. This species 
liibernates during the cold weather but soon becomes active again 
during warm ])eriods. The food consists of small insects. These 
frogs sing in cliorus during the months of April and May and the 


isolated call may be heard all snininer. The song resembles the 
chirping- of a cricket, hence the common name, cricket frog. The 
eggs are laid in April or May. The deyelopment is rather slo\yer 
than that of the rest of the Hylidae. Miss Dickerson has fonnd 
the tadpoles in the water in August and thinks that metamorphosis 
takes place in Sej)tember. 

Distribution: New York to Florida, \yest to Texas. (Dickerson. 

Michigan : Specimens in the Uniyersity Museum from Cheboy- 
gan, Livingston, Washtenaw, Calhoun, Allegan and St. Joseph 
Counties. Reported from Eaton County (Clark, 1902) ; Antrim and 
Eaton Counties (Gibbs, Notestein and Clark, 1905) ; Cass County 
(Thompson, 1911). 


(PI. IV a.) 

Description: Body frog like. Head long and pointed; upper jaw 
protruding. Eyes prominent. Toes slightly webbed; disks small, 
hardly noticeable. A conspicuous fold across chest. Skin granu- 
lated on back and lower surface. Yomero-palatine teeth near the 
I)OSterior part of internal nares. Tongue medium in size. 

Ground color changeable, varying from light to dark brown. A 
dark stripe begins at the snout and runs back through the eye to 
the posterior part of the body. Upper lip with a light stripe and 
bordered with dark. Usually three dark longitudinal stripes on the 
Ijack; center stripe on the vertebral line and sometimes forking 
posteriorly and behind the eyes. Limbs indistinctly barred or 
spotted. Under surface yellowish white. Throat of male yelh)w. 

Measurements: Specimen No. 31921. 

Ticngth of head and body 017 

Length of hind limb to heel 015 

Width of head OOG 

Hah its and Hahitat: The swamp tree frog is found in marshes 
and damp jdaces throughout the summer and fall. During this 
time it is solitary and its call is rarely heard. It is also seldom 
seen because of the small size and protective coloration. When dis- 
turbed it disappears in the water, but it is a very poor swinuner 



and soon comes back to land. This species is probably, like Acris 
grijUus, nnable to rlinib trees because of the small size of the disks 
on the fingers and toes. The food consists of small insects. It 
comes from its hibernation early. The sono; is very lond. When 




c x t c * c e 

Fig. 14. Dii-tribution of Choropkilus n gritus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined: vertical ruling, reports only. 

croaking, the male sits upright in the water, supporting himself 
with grass, leaves or twigs, and sings with the liead and vocal 
pouch out of the water. When disturbed, he sits perfectly still and 
does not resume his song until the source of alarm has passed. The 
eggs are laid in ^farch or April in small masses containing from 
five to twenty, and are attached to water plants. The devolopment 


is rapid, tlie eggs liatcliiiig in about two weeks. Metamorphosis is 
completed early in June. 

Distribution: Entire United States and novlli in Canada to the 
Hudson Bay region. (Dickerson, lOOG.) 

Michigan: Specimens in the University Museum from Dickinson. 
Huron, Washtenaw and St. Jose})h Counties. The writers have 
also examined specimens from Gratiot County. Reported from 
Eaton County (Clark, 1902) ; Antrim and Eaton Counties (Gibbs, 
Notestein and Clark, 1905); Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a). 


(PI. IV b.) 

Description: Body long and slender. Head long and pointed at 
the snout. Lateral folds prominent; there may be several smaller 
folds between them. Skin smooth above; under surface of thighs 
slightly granular. A glandular fold extending from corner of 
mouth over the shoulder. Legs long and very powerful ; feet partly 
webbed, webs deeply indented. Tubercles under joints of toes 
prominent. Vomerine teeth in two patches between internal nares. 

Ground color green, gra}^ or brown above. Lateral folds lighter; 
between them two irregular rows of rounded dark spots edged with 
lighter. Several rows of smaller rounded spots below lateral folds. 
Under surface j^ellowish white, frequently with dark spots across 
pectoral region. A dark line extending from muzzle to shoulder 
through eye; light lines above and below the darker line make the 
latter more noticeable. Upper surfaces of limbs transversely barred 
or blotched with darker. Concealed surface of femur venniculated 
with brown. 

Aleasurements: Specimen No. 37S(W. 

Length of head and body 087 

Length of hind limb to heel 077 

Width of head , 022 

Habits and Habitat: The leopard frog is the best known of the 
Ranidae, because of its great numbers and its habit of travelling 
away from the ponds into the tields in search of food. Its green 
coloring ])robably serves as a protection from its enemies. The 
leopard frog also possesses the power of changing ihe ground color 
to a limited degree to suit the surroundings. When kept in the lab 



oratory in a dish contoining moss, brown specimens turn green in 
a few days. The food consists of worms, insects and small frogs. It 
becomes very tame in captiyity and may be easily handled. Like the 
rest of the Ranidae, the species hibernates during the cold weather 



c K < £ A '; o 

Fig. 15. Distriljution of Rana jipiens. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined: vertical ruling, reports only. 

in the mud and under stones, but, according to Hay (1892a, p. G6), 
its note may be heard "during the warmer days of midwinter," and 
it is often seen at such times. 

This frog is one of the first to appear in the spring, the breeding 
season being in March and A])ri]. When it first appears it is al- 
most black in color, but soon becomes lighter. The eggs are laid in 

AMFJbllBiAJNS. 51 

the shallow water of ponds in large masses which may float freely in 
the water but are usually attached to sticks or plants. Hankinson 
(1908) found unsegmented eggs, which had evidently been recently 
deposited, in Oakland County, April 8, 1907. The time of hatching 
varies according to temperature, but under ordinary conditions the 
tadpole will appear in about ten days. The metamorphosis is com- 
])leted in July or August and it is for this reason that this species 
is more apt to be raised than RaiUi cateshcana by dealers. Its legs 
are esteemed as an article of food, and it is also reared or collected 
in considerable numbers to su])ply biological laboratories. 

Distrihntion: Common in North America, east of Sierra Nevada 
Mountains. (Dickerson, 190G.) 

Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Houghton, 
Ontonagon, Iron, Dickinson, Cheboygan, Crawford, Iosco, Arenac 
(Charity Island), Huron, Oceana, Barry, Oakland, Livingston, 
Washtenaw, Allegan, Calhoun, Kalamazoo, Cass and St. Joseph 
Counties. The writers have also examined specimens from Gratiot 
(Jounty. Reported from Eaton County (Clark, 1902) ; St. Clair 
County (Cope, 1889) ; Eaton, Van Buren, St. Joseph, Montcalm. 
Kent, Ottawa, Antrim, Kalamazoo and Barry Counties (Gibbs. 
Notestein and Clark, 1905) ; Oakland County (Hankinson, 1908) ; 
Ontonagon County (Ruthven, 1901a) ; Ontonagon, Houghton and 
Marquette Counties (Ruthven, 1906) ; Cheboygan County (Ruthven, 
1911) ; Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a) : Cass County (Thompson, 


(PI. IV b.) 

Descnpiion: Body slender. Lateral fold very broad but not 
elevated. Skin more or less smooth. Lender surface of thighs 

slightly granular. Eyes prominent. Glandular fold from eve to 
shoulder. No external vocal i)Ouch. 

Ground color always some shade of brown, with two rows of 
more or less square spots of dark brown between the lateral folds, 
and two lows of smaller brown spots beneath. Lateral folds 
lighter than ground color. L'nder surface white anteriorly, bright 
yellow posteriorly. The yelloAV may extend along the sides and out 
under the fore arms. A consj)icu()us light line from eye to shoulder. 
Upper surface of limbs barred with brown. Jaws marked as in it. 
pipiens. A brown spot on the snout and one above each eye. 



Measurements: Specimen Xo. .'/Wll. 

Length of head and body 070 

Length of hind limb to heel •. 001 

Width of head 019 

Fig. 16. Distribution of Rana palustris. 
Horizontal ruling, specimen? examined: vertical ruling, reports only 

HaJjits and Hahitat: In habits Rana palustris closely resembles- 
liana pipiens. It lives along streams, ditches, abont cold springs 
and ponds, and is very hard to capture because of its great- agility 
and its protective coloration. When resting on a pile of dried 
leaves, such as is often found along the banks of streams or ponds. 


it is almost impossible to distin^nish tlie froo- from its siiiTomid- 
iiigs. When frightened it makes several long leaps in quick suc- 
'tession. The food probably consist of insects, small Crustacea and 
snails. The common name "pickerel frog" is due to the fact that 
the species is frequently used as bait in pickerel fishing. It is of 
no food value because of the disagreeable odor. 

The breeding season of Rana pahistris is April and May. The 
croaking of the males is said to resemble the sound made by the 
tearing of coarse cloth. The eggs are laid during May and the 
early development is rapid. The metamorphosis usually takes place 
in ,July or August, but under adverse conditions transformation 
may be delaved until the next vear. 

Distrihutioa: Eastern North America, north to Hudson's Bav 
and west to the Great Plains. (Dickerson, 190G.) 

Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Washte- 
naw, Barry, Calhoun, Kalamazoo, Livingston and Cass Counties, 
lieported from W^ayne County (Cope, 1889) ; Wayne, Kalamazoo, 
Montcalm and Van Buren Counties (Gibbs, Xotestein and Clark, 
1905) ; Ontonagon County (Kuthven, 1904a) ; Washtenaw County 
(Smith, 1879) ; Cass County (Thompson, 1911). 

This species has been reported from Michigan by several writers, 
but until this ^^ear there were, with the exception of one from Liv- 
ingston Count}', no specimens in the University Museiun. The 
writers have found it to be rather common in the vicinitv of Ann 
Arbor, and have taken it in Kalamazoo and Calhoun Counties and 
in large numbers in Cass County (Thompson, 1911), and have re- 
ceived two specimens collected by Miss Jessie McNall in Barry 
County, so that the species is without doubt quite common through- 
out the southern part of the southern peninsula. The Ontonagon 
record is erroneous and the other records need to be verified for the 
species is easily confused Avith 7?. plpiens. 



(PI. y.) 

Description: Body stout. Head thick, muzzle pointed. Eyes 
large and close together. Skin of back rough. Back of femur 
granulated. Lateral folds conspicuous. Toes broadly Avebbed, 
leaving last two joints of fourth toe free. Tubercles on joints of 
toes and inner sole tubercles distinct. Ear of male larger 
than eye. A^omerine teeth in tAvo patches between or behind the 
internal nares. 


Ground color variable, iis=>iiallY brownish green with small dark 
spots. Head and shoulders bright green. Sometimes a light band, 
widening anteriorly, from shoulder to jaw. Limbs barred with 
darker. Posterior i)art of femur finely vermieulated with bro\^^l. 
Under surface yellowish white, throat of female spotted. 

Measurements: Specimen No. 36827. 

Leniith of head and bodv 07f) 

Length of hind limb to heel 062 

Width of head 028 

Hal)its rntfl Hahitat: The green frog is thoroughly nquatic in its 
habits, never travelling far from the water. It may be found along 
the edge of small streams, pools and cold springs. It is rather 
solitary and timid, wlien frightened disappearing quickly in the 
water. It is very much like the bullfrog in appearance and habits, 
but mav be readilv distinguished bv the lateral folds and the smaller 
webs on the feet. The food consists of insect larvae, small crusta- 
ceans, small frogs and insects. It comes early from hibernation. 
The song, which is low pitched and explosive in character, is usu- 
ally heard in March. The eggs are laid in April, in large masses 
supported in the water by twigs or water plants. The early develop- 
ment is rapid, but metamorx)hosis is delayed till the second summer 
and sometimes the third. Hay (1892a) states that the tadpoles 
are vegetarians and never carnivorous. 

DistrihutiOii : (%»unuon throughout eastern Xortli America, in- 
cluding Canada and Florida. (Dickerson, 1906.) 

Michigan : ^^pecimeus in the LTniversity Museum from Keweena\^- 
(Isle Royale), Baraga, Ontonagon, Houghton, Dickinson, Cheboy- 
gan, Crawford, Alcona, Iosco, Arenac (Charity Island), Huron. 
Oceana, Barry, Livingston, Oakland, Wayne, Washtenaw, Cass and 
St. Joseph Counties. The writers have also examined specimens 
from Gratiot County. Keported from Eaton County (Clark, 1902) : 
St. Clair and Wayne Counties (Cope, 1889) ; Eaton, Yan Bureu, 
Antrim, Kalamazoo and Montcalm Counties (Gibbs, Notestein and 
Clark, 1905) ; Oakland County (Hankinson, 1908) ; Lenawee 
County (Kirsch, 1895) ; Baraga and Ontonagon Comities (Ruthven. 
1906) ; Keweenaw Comity (Isle Royale) (Ruthven, 1909) ; Cheboy- 
gan County (Ruthven, 1911) ; Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a) ; 
Cass County (Thompson, 1911). 





Fig. 17. Distribution of Rana clamitans. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only 



(Pi. IV a.) 

Descriptioit: Body slender, uiuzzle ])oiiited. rpiiei- surface 
slightly gTaniilated ; posterior surface of feiiuir graimlar. Lateral 
folds conspicuous. Toes long and slender, webbed almost to the 
tip. Inner sole tubercle present. A'onierine teeth in two patches 
between or behind internal nares. 

Ground color varies from light to reddish and dark brown. Tri- 



angular dark spot back of eve covering ear. Light line along npper 
jaw reaching to shoulder. . Limbs barred. Sides may be obscurely 
spotted with dark. Concealed surface of femur vermiculated. 
I'nder surface yellowish white, sometimes mottled with dark. 




Fig. 18. Distribution of Rana cantdbrigensis. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

Measurements:. Specimen No. 3j2.^3. 
Length of head and body 030 

Leno'th of hind limb to heel 


Width of head 01^ 

Habits and Habitat: The northern wood frog, Rana canta 



drigensis, is one of the most terrestrial of o\ir frogs and is usually 
fouud in thick, wooded places, among dead leaves or moss. It is 
very difficult to see because of the ])rotective coloration, the dark 
brown or grayish coloring blending into the surroundings to such 
an extent that one may almost step on individuals before seeing 
them, and the black ear patch and the light line along the side of 
the head also seem to be ])rotective. When disturbed the frog is 
very active, leaping quickly away. It becomes very tame in cap- 
tivity. The wood frog is among the first of the Ranidae to come out 
in the spring. The hoarse clacking song of the males may be heard 
during the latter part of March and early in April. The male has 
no external vocal pouch, but the throat and the parts of the body 
over the lungs expand. Unlike the males of other species, he floats 
oi' swims in the water while croaking. The eggs are laid in ponds, 
either in the woods or fields, in masses which are usually attached 
to water plants. They are very small and are surrounded by a 
gelatinous envelope. The time of development varies greatly ac- 
cording to temperature. Eggs brought into the laboratory hatch 
in four days, but the development of those left in the ponds is 
much slower. Metamorphosis usually takes place some time during 
May or June. The young tadpoles are very carnivorous, living 
mostly on decaying animal matter in the ponds. 

Distrihutlon: Northern. "Reported from Illinois, ^lichigan, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota northward to Great Slave Lake on the 
west and St. James Bay on the east.-' (Dickerson, 190G, p. 212.) 

Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Keweenaw 
(Isle Royale), Ontonagon, Baraga, Dickinson, ^Mackinac, Cheboy- 
gan, Iosco, Huron, Livingston and Washtenaw Counties. The 
writers have also examined specimens from Gratiot County. Re- 
I)orted from Eaton County (Clark, 1902) ; Eaton, Kalamazoo, An- 
trim, Yau Buren and Montcalm Counties (Gibbs, Notestein and 
Clark, 1905 I ; Lenawee County (Kirsch, 1895) ; Ontonagon County 
(Ruthveu, 1901:a) ; Keweenaw (Isle Royale), Baraga and Ontona- 
gon Counties (Ruthven, 190G) ; Keweenaw County (Isle Royale) 
(Ruthven. 1909) ; Cheboygan County (Ruthven. 1911) ; Huron 
County (Ruthven, 1911a). 



Dmcription: Body stotit. Head rounded, narrow in front. Eyes 
large and close together. Skin smooth, slighth* granulated on ^sides 
and posterior part of femUr. Feet fully webbed. Inner sole tuber- 



cle large with cutting edge. A'omerine teeth in two patches jnst be- 
hind internal nares. 

Ground color light olive brown, nsnally with large dark brown 
blotches. Upper surface of jaw from snout to eye ligliter in color. 

.Ji^O0N\lN\0ti OF CANADA 


Fig. 19. Distribution of Rana septentrionalis, 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

Large irregular l)lotches or bands on limbs. Under surface light 
yellow. Concealed surface of femur strongly vermiculated with 

Measurements: Spcciiiioh No. Ji027o. 

Lenc^th of head and bodv 


Length of hind limb to heel 051 

Width of head 



Hahits and Haliitat-: The iioi'therii or liiiiik frog is distinctly 
aquatic. It has been said not to freqnent lakes or ponds, but in the 
Northern Peninsula Ruthven (1910) has found it more character- 
istic of the inland lakes than of the streams. Wlion frightened, it 
stays for a long time under water. It is solitary in habits, and 
never stravs far from the shores of the rivers and lakes. The food 
consists of water insects and small fish. The eggs of this frog are 
laid in June and July, and are attached to water plants. Two 
years are required for the full development and metamorphosis 
(Dickerson, 190G, p. 225). When annoyed it gives otf a strong 
musky odor, somewhat resembling that of the mink, and because 
of this odor it is frequently called the ''mink frog.'' 

Dlstrihution: Adirondack Mountains to ^linnesota and Ontario. 
(Dickerson, 190G.) 

Michigan : Specimens in the University Museum from Keweenaw 
(Isle Royale), Ontonagon, Houghton and Dickinson Counties. Re- 
l^orted from Ontonagon and Marquette Counties (Ruthven, 1906) ; 
Keweenaw County (Isle Romaic) (Ruthven, 1909) ; Dickinson 
County (Ruthven, 1910). 



Description: Body large and stout, head broad. Eyes large and 
prominent. Ear of male larger than eye. Glandular fold from eye 
to arm, curving behind ear. Xo lateral folds. P>ack and under 
surface slightly granular. Feet webbed, leaving last joint of fourtli 
toe free. Inner sole tubercle distinct. 

Ground color greenish brown, sometimes spotted with darker. 
Limbs spotted or barred. Under surface j^ellowish white, usually 
mottled with darker. 

Jlfeasurements: Specimen No. JjOOIS. 

Length of head and body 130 

Length of hind limb to heel 098 

Width of head 017 

Hahits and Hahitat: liana catcsJjcana, the connnon bullfrog, is 
the largest of our frogs. It does not al'ways follow, however, that 
the individual I*, catesheami is larger than the individual R. clam- 
itans or R. piplens, since the size depends upon the food and en- 
vironment. The bullfrog is aquatic in its habits, being found during 
the summer in large ponds or lakes, usually those with mud bottoms 



and with deep as well as shallow water. It is a powerful 
swimmer, due to the fact that the toes are fullv webbed and 
the hind limbs are long and well developed. The food consists of 
fish, young turtles, young water birds, frogs, small snakes and in- 


Fig. 20. Distribution of Rana catesheana. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

The bullfrog is solitary in habit except during the breeding 
season and even then it sings alone and not in chorus. The song- 
consists of a deep bass note that resembles the roaring of a bull; 
from this it gets the common name, the bullfrog. It is late in com- 
ing from its hibernation quarters, the eggs being laid in May or 
early June. ^letamorpliosis does not take place until the second 


year and may be delayed until the third if the environment is un- 
favorable. This species is of ,<>reat economic importance because of 
its value as food, the legs being considered a great delicacy by 
many people. The frog may be caught in the day time on a hook 
and line baited with a bit of red flannel. They are frequently 
hunted at night with lanterns, the light blinding them so that they 
may be easily' sj)eared by the hunter. 

Distrihution: East of the Kocky ^Toun tains, including Florida 
and Texas. (Dickerson, lOOG.) 

Michigan: Specimens in the University ^luseuni from Che])oygan, 
Iosco, Huron, Livingston, Washtenaw and Cass Counties. Reported 
from Eaton County (Clark, 1902) ; Eaton, Kalamazoo, Van Buren, 
Antrim, Montcalm, Kent, Ottawa, Barry and St. Joseph Counties 
(Gibbs, Notesteiu and Clark, 1905) ; *Ontonagon County (Ruthven, 
1904a) ; Cheboygan County (Ruthven, 1911) ; Huron County (Ruth- 
ven, 1911a) ; Washtenaw County (Smith, 1879) ; Cass County 
(Thompson, 1911). 


Angle of the jaw. — Point of articulation of the two jaws. 

Anus. — External opening of the intestine. 

Branchiae.^ — External branched gills. 

Caudal fin.— The tail fin. 

Compressed. — Flattened from side to side. 

Costal grooves. — Grooves on the sides of the body, indicaling the 
position of the ribs. 

Cranial crests. — Bony ridges extending back between the e^'es. 

Depressed.^ — ^Flattened from above downward. 

Disks. — The enlarged and adhesive pads on the ends of the 
fingers and toes. 

Dorsal groove. — A depression along the back. 

Femur. — ^The upper or jjroximal bone of the leg. 

Fronto-parietal crests. — Crests in front of, and between the eyes. 

Genital openings. — External openings of the genital ducts. 

Gills. — Organs for breathing the air contained in water. 

Glandular. — Swollen and gland like. 

Gular fold. — A transverse fold of skin across the throat. 

Hibernate. — To refrain from an active condition, to remain in a 
torpid state over winter. 

*Rana catesbeana has been reported from Ontonagon County by Ruthven (190ia) 
but the specimens were later identified by Stejneger as somewhat anomalous specimens of 
Rana clamitans (Ruthven, 1906). 


Lateral folds. — Gland like folds extending along the sides of the 

^Maxillary. — The bone of the npper jaw, back of the premaxillarv. 
It forms the greater part of the npper jaw and may bear teeth. 

MaxillarA' teeth. — Teeth borne on the maxillary bone. 

Metamorphosis. — Change from the laryal to the adnlt condition. 

Metarsal tubercles. — Tubercles on the toes. 

Mucous membrane. — Membrane lining the mouth. 

Xares. — ^Nostrils; the external openings are called external nares, 
the internal openings internal nares. 

Palatine. — A pair of bones just behind the yomers and extending 
transyersely across .the skull. 

Parasphenoid. — The large broad bone in the roof of the mouth 
wliich forms the floor of the brain case. 

ParaspJienoid teeth.— Teeth borne on the parasphenoid bone. 

Parotid glands. — Eleyated glandular bodies found back of the 
eye in toads. 

Pectoral. — Pertaining to the shoulder or breast. 

Plantar tubercles. — Tubercles on the palm. 

Postorbital crests. — Bony crests extending behind the eye. 

Premaxillary. — The two bones, one on either side, in front of the 
maxillaries. They unite to form the anterior angle of the upper 

Prenaaxillary teeth. — Teeth borne on the i)remaxillary bone. 

Protectiye coloration. — Coloration of such a character that it 
seryes to conceal the animal in the natural surroundings. 

Ivudimentary. — Xot well deyeloped. Degenerate. 

Scuted. — Haying scutes or scales. 

Segmentation.— The cleayage of the eggs which takes place after 

Sole tubercles. — Small callous like projections on the sole of the 

Spawning. — The act of depositing the eggs. 

Sperm, — The male sex element. 

Spermatophores.— Small mushroom like bodies containing the 
s])erm, deposited in the water by the male of some species during 
the breeding season. 

Vermiculated. — Coyered with fine irregular color marks. 

Vertebral. — Pertaining to the yertebrae or spinal column. 

Viridescent. — Greenish. 

Vomer. — A pair of bones in front of the parasphenoid and form- 
ing the floor of the olfactory capsule. 

Vomero-palatine teeth. — Teeth borne on the yomerine and pala- 
tine bones. 





lu the (Ji)iiiiun of the writer, the inadequateness of the avaiUible 
iuformation on the reptiles of Michigan may be attributed in part 
to the fact that there is no available manual on the subject suitable 
for the use of local students. The literature consists, with few ex- 
ceptions, of a few general and local lists and incidental references 
to Michigan specimens in general Avorks on herpetologv. Aside from 
their limitations as lists the more general papers are all more or 
less erroneous and antiquated, and the local lists at best deal with 
too widely separated localities to be of general interest. The other 
records have, of course, the disadvantage of being widely scattered. 
It is hoped that this report will furnish an accurate summary of 
our present knowledge of the subject, and also serve to encourage 
further work. 


The publications which treat either entirely or in part of Michi- 
gan specimens are as follows: 

1. Sager, Abraham. Senate Doc, State of Michigan, 1S30, pp. 
294-305. A list of Michigan reptiles collected by the State Geologi- 
cal and Natural History Survey. No localities or other data given. 
Copied in Senate Documents of the same year. 

2. Holbrook, J. E. North American Herpefology, 1842. Gives 
"Michigan'' in the range of several species. 

3. Baird, S. F. and Girard, C. Catalogue of North American 
Reptiles, 1853. Specimens of Elaphc tidpiuus, i^toreria dckayi, 
>^istrurihs caicnatus, Natrix sipcdon and Rcfjinu Ichcris listed from 
Michigan and two new species, Bascuuion foxil and Xerodia agas- 
sizii, described on the basis of Michigan material. 

4. Hallowell, Edward. Proc. Acad, of Nat. Sci. Philadelphia. 
1856, p. 310. A description of a specimen of Euuicccs quinqucJine- 
oius frouL rlie neighborhood of Flint, Michigan, as a new species — 
Plestiodon r i 1 1 if/criim . 

5. A2:assiz. Louis. Contributions to the Natural Historv of the 


United States, I, 1857. Several species of turtles recorded from 

6. ^liles. Manly. A Catalogne of the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles 
and Molluscs of Michigan. 1st. Bien. Kept. Geol. Snrv. of Mich., 
1861, pp. 219-241. A list of the reptiles known to occnr in the state 
with a few foot-note records of localities. 

7. Smith, W. H. Catalogne of the Reptilia and Amphibia of 
Michigan, Snpp. to Science News, 1879. A list of Michigan reptiles 
based on the specimens in the University of Michigan Mnseum and 
the fjrivate collection of the writer. Xo data is given but those 
fonnd in the vicinitv of Ann Arbor are indicated bv a star. 

8. Gibbs, M. Forest and Stream, XXXIX, 1892, p. 7. I have 
not been able to consult this article. 

9. Stejneger, I^onhard. Kept. U. S. Xat. Mus., 1893, pp. 337-487. 
States that h'lstninis caienatiis is common in parts of Michigan. 

10. Kirsch, Philip. Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., XIV, 1895, p. 333. 
Several species of reptiles listed from points in lower Michigan. 

11. Cope, E. I). The Crocodilians, Lizards and Snakes of North 
America. Kept. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1898 (1900), pp. 153-1270. Con- 
tains records of Michigan specimens of several species. 

12. Gibbs, M. Herpetology of Kalamazoo County', Michigan, 
Wolverine Naturalist, Feb. 1900, pp. 12-13. Crotalus Iwrridus (one 
specimen) and ^Istrurus caienatus recorded from Kalamazoo-* 
Countv with notes on the habits of the latter. 

13. Clark, H. L. Notes on the Reptiles and Batrachians of 
Eaton County, Michigan. 4tli. Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad. Sci., 1902^ 
pp. 192-194. A list of the reptiles of Eaton County, with miscelr . 
laneous notes on size, abundance, variation, etc. 

14. Clark, H. L. The Water Snakes of Southern Michigan. 
Amer. Naturalist, XXXYII, 1903, pp. 1-23. A careful statistical 
study of the water snake (A. sipedon) on the basis of material col- 
lected in Eaton County, Mich. The writer concludes that the red- 
bellied specimens {cri/throgaster) represent a distinct species. 
Notes on the habits of N. sipedon and Regina leheris. 

15. Clark, H. L. Notes on Michigan Snakes. 5th Ann. Rept. 
Mich. Acad. Sci., 1903, pp. 172-174. Miscellaneous notes on Natrix 
sipedon^ Bascanion constrictor, Elaplie ohsoletus, Lainpropeltis dol- 
iatiis trianguJus, and the garter-snakes. 

16. Clark, H. L. The Short-Mouthed Snake {Eutuinia hrachy- 
stoma Cope) in Southern Michigan. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., XYI, 
])p. 83-88. A discussion of the characters, variation and habits of 
si:)ecimens of Thdiiniophis hutJeri colllected in Eaton county. 


17. SpeiT}', W. L. Variation in the Common Garter Snake 
{TJiamnopMs sirtalis) . 5th Ann. Kept. Mich. Acad. Sci., 1903, pp. 
175-179. A discussion of the variation, scutellation and tail-length 
of specimens of T. sirtalis from Eaton Count^^ Some of the speci- 
mens are referred (erroneously) to 1\ sirtalis parietalis\ 

18. Ruthven, Alexander G. Butler's Garter Snake. Biol. Bull., 
VII, 1904, pp. 289-299. In this paper the writer records Tharrmo- 
phis hiftlerl from several localities in southern Michigan, shows the 
distinctness of the form from T. sirtalis and that the specimens re- 
fered by Clark to T. hrachystoma are referable to it, discusses the 
habits, distribution, characters, variations and affinities and gives 
the synonomy and a list of the known specimens. 

19. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on the Molluscs, Reptiles and 
Amphibians of Ontonagon County, Michigan. 6th Ann. Rept. Mich. 
Acad. Sci., 1904, pp. 188-192. Records of the species collected by 
the writer in the Porcupine Mountains, Michigan, in 1903, with 
notes on their occurrence. 

20. Clark, H. L. A Preliminary List of the Amphibia and Rep- 
tilia of Michigan. 7th Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad. Sci., 1905, pp. 109- 
110. This list, compiled with the assistance of Morris Gibbs and F. 
Notestein, i^urports to be a list of Michigan reptiles with the locali- 
ties (principally counties) in which the species have been observed. 
Unfortunately it is based principally upon records the sources of 
which are not given so that, while it is quite accurate as a list of 
Michigan species, the careful student cannot accept the localities 
as reliable. 

21. Notestein, F. N. The Ophidia of Michigan. 7th Ann. Rept. 
Mich. Acad. Sci., 1905, pp. 112-125. The writer of this paper has 
endeavored to give a synopsis of the reptiles of the state with keys 
to make possible the easy determination of specimens. In reality 
what he has done is to describe the species that may occur in the 
state without giving any state records, so that, while the paper will 
assist in determining Michigan specimens, it cannot be considered 


as a monograph on Michigan herpetology. The paper is, further- 
more, marred by very numerous typographical errors which, altho 
it must be said not the fault of the writer, greath^ impair its use- 
fulness to the general student. 

22. Whittiker, C. C. The Status of Eutaenia Irachy stoma. 7th 
Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad. Sci., 1905, pp. 88-92. The writer compares 
the published description of the tj^pe specimen of Thamrtophis 
hracJiystoma with material of T. hiitleri and concludes that hrachy- 
stomn is a svnonvm of the latter. 



23. Whittiker, C. C. Variation in the Bine Racer. 7tli Ann. 
Kept, Mich. Acad. Sci., 1905, pp. 100-102. A brief acconnt of the 
natnral history and a discussion of the variation in scutellation 
and proportionate size of extremities observed in 58 specimens of 
Bascanion constrictor from Eaton County. 

24. Gibbs, Morris. Bibliography for the Amphibia, and Reptilia 
of Michigan. 7th Ann. Kept. Mich. Acad. Sci., 1905, p. 111. A list 
of the papers ''which directly refer to Michigan herpetology so far 
as known to the 'writer." 

25. Ruthven, Alexander G. The Co'ld-Blooded Vertebrates of 
the Porcupine Mountains and Isle Royale, Michigan. Rept. Geol. 
Survey Mich, for 1905 (1906), pp. 107-112. Lists the species (5 
snakes and 1 turtle) known to occur in the northern peninsula of 
Michigan with notes on the habits and habitats. The list is based 
principally on specimens secured by the expeditions of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan Museum and upon the field notes of the writer. 

26. Hankinson, T. L. A Biological Survey of Walnut Lake, 
Michigan. Rept. Mich. Geol. Surv., 1907 (1908), pp. 153-288. Con- 
tains a list of eight species of reptiles from the vicinity of Walnut 
Lake, Oakland Countv. 

27. Ruthven, Alexander G. The Cold-Blooded Vertebrates of 
Isle Royale. Rept. Geol. Surv. Mich, for 1908 (1909), pp. 329-333. 
A summary of the herpetology of Isle Royale based principally upon 
the data secured by the University of Michigan Museum expeditions. 

28. Ruthven, Alexander G. Variations and Genetic Relation- 
ships of the Garter-Snakes. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 61, 1908. Con- 
tains Michigan records of Thamnophis Jnitleri, T. sirtalis, and 
T. sauritus and notes on the habits of these species. 

29. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on Michigan Reptiles and 
Amphibians. 11th Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad. Sci., 1909, pp. 116-117. 
The ^Titer shows that the Michigan specimens of wood-frog are 
referable to the species cantahrigensls, extends the northward 
range of Thamnophis 'butler i to Huron County, summarizes the dis- 
tribution of Heterodon platyrhinns and Elaphe vnlpiniis in the 
state, giving new records, and shows that Porcupine Mountain speci- 
mens of Chrysemys are C. hellii. 

30. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on Michigan Reptiles and 
Amphibians, II. 12th Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad. Sci., 1910, p. 59. 
Records Rana septentrioiialis , Elaphe rulpimis and Chrysemys 
hellii from Dickinson County. 

31. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on Michigan Reptiles and 
Amphibians, III. 13th Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad, of Sci., 1911, pp. 
114-115. Contains a summary of the distribution of Diadophis 


punctata and a list of the species known from Cheboygan County. 

32. Ruthven, Alexander G. Amphibians and Reptiles in A Bio- 
logical Survey of the Sand Dune Region on the South Shore of 
Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Mich. Geol. and Biol. Surv., Pub. 4, Biol. 
Ser. 2, 1911, pp. 257-272. A discussion of the reptile-amphibian 
fauna of the northern part of Huron County; fifteen species of 
reptiles recorded. 

33. Thompson, Crystal. Notes on the Amphibians and Reptiles 
of Cass County, Michigan. 13th Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad. Sci., 1911, 
pp. 105-107. Records thirteen species of reptiles from Cass County. 


The reptiles are a group which, in the opinion of the writer, 
has been much neglected by students of natural history. The result 
of this is shown by the small amount of material on habits and 
local distribution that has accumulated. Much of this neglect of a 
very interesting group is due to the wide spread aversion to reptiles, 
particularly to lizards and snakes. The truth is that most of this 
aversion is acquired and can be more or less easily overcome. It is 
due in no small part to the absurd stories that still pass current 
in the periodicals. We venture to say that if the statement were 
published in the daily papers that there is in Michigan but one 
poisonous snake (rattle snake), that the largest snakes we have are 
the blue racer, fox snake and pilot snake, which seldom attain a 
length of over six feet, that the breath of the '"blowing adder" is 
not poisonous, that snakes do not sting with their tongues nor 
swallow their young, it would call forth numerous protests and 
snake stories by "eye-witnesses" exactly to the contrary. 

It seems absurd to one acquainted with these interesting animals 
to have to deny such stories. Our reptiles are only dangerous as 
they are poisonous, and the poison is only conveyed by large fangs 
and only possessed by one species — the rattle snake. On the other 
hand there are few groups that will better repay a study of the 
habits, both for the reason that a knowledge of the natural history 
of the forms is of value in the study of their distribution and re- 
lationships and because so little is known on the subject. The work 
on the natural history and distribution of the forms must be pre- 
ceeded by a determination of the .species, but fortunately the latter 
is not difficult for our forms are few and in general well defined. 
The classification is based on structural characters, of course, but 
the external characters are sufficient for the identification of Michi- 



Po Pro 

Fig. 21. Head of snake, side view, to show arrangement of scales. 

P, prenasal; Po, postnasal; L, loreal; Pro, preocular; Poo, postoculars; T, first temporal; 
T.2, second temporals; S, superior labials; I, Inferior labials. 

Fig. 22. Head of snake, side view, to show arrangemant of scales. 
P, rostral; O, iuternasals; F, prefrontals; PR, frontal; I, supraocular; R, parietals. 


Fig. 23. Scales on the body of a snake. (After Cope.) 
V, ventrals; a, anal plate; s, subcaudals, d, dorsals. 

JLCJ-UX J. X J_i I-Li kJ . U^ 

gan forms and have alone been used in this report. The anatomy 
is dealt with in most of the standard text-books on zoology. 

In the identification of species the following characters (compare 
figures) should be noted : 


1. Form of body and general size. 

2. Arrangement of scales on the top, sides and under surface of 
head (Figs. 21, 22). 

3. Arrangement of scales on dorsal surface of body and the num- 
ber of rows at various places, i. e., between the head and anus 
(Fig. 23). 

4. Whether the dorsal scales are smooth or keeled. 

5. Number of large plates on the ventral surface between the 
head and tail (Fig. 23). 

6. Character of anal plate, i. e., whether single or divided (Fig. 

7. Character of scales on the ventral surface of the tail, i. e., 
whether in a single or double series. 

8. Coloration. 


1. General size. 

2. Shape of upper (carapace) and lower (plastron) shell. 

3. Surface of shell, i. e., whether covered with horny plates or 
by a soft skin. 

4. Size of plastron as compared with opening of carapace, also 
form of the bridge between the plastron and carapace (Figs. 25-27), 
and whether or not the plastron is divided by a transverse hinge. 

5. Number and arrangement of plates in the different series on 
carapace and plastron (Figs. 24, 25). 

6. Character of anterior end of upper jaw, i. e., whether notched 
or projected into beak. 

7. Character of biting and grinding surfaces of jaws, particu- 
larly as regards width of grinding surfaces. 

8. Extent of web on digits. 

9. Coloration. 




Fig. 24. Carapace of Emydoidea blandingii, to show position of plates. 
V, vertebrals; C, ccstals; N, nuchal; M, marginals. 

sxniir X ii^rifO. 


Fig. 25. Plastron of Eniydoidea hlandingii, to show position of plates. 
e, gulars; li. huinerals-; p. pectorals; a abdominals; f, femorals; an, anals. 



Fig. 26. Plastron of Chelydra serpentina. 



Fig. 27. Plastron of Kinosternon odoratum. 


The above outlines may very easily be elaborated by teachers into 
laboratory directions. We would suggest, first, the identification 
of specimens accompanied by notes on individual and sexual varia- 
tion ; second, observations on the habits of captive specimens ; third, 
field study of habits and habitats ; fourth, the preparation of tables 
to show in a comparative way the characters and habits of the 
different species studied; and, fifth, a summary of the ways in 
which the characters are evidently adaptive. 


Collecting: As the rattlesnake is the only poisonous serpent in 
Michigan, the collecting of reptiles may be done with safety by any 
one well enough acquainted with this species to distinguish it. With 
the exception of the rattlesnake, all of the Michigan snakes may be 
grasped in the hands, with no more dangerous results than would 
occur in the case of a bird the size of a robin. It is always most 
convenient to grasp the animal by the neck, however, as it is then 
more easily handled and examined. Cloth bags about the size of 
those used to hold corn meal or a little smaller should be carried 
in the field. The snakes, turtles and lizards ma^^ be dropped into 
these and carried back alive to the laboratory or work room. 

Lizards ma}' frequently be grasped in the hand and always with 
impunit}', but if seized by the tail there is great probability that 
this alone will be secured, as the animals part with this member 
readily. The most efficient way to capture them alive is to cauti- 
ousl}' slip over their heads a noose made of horse hair, thread or 
fine wire and placed on the end of a stick. Turtles may be readily 
picked up by the carapace (upper shell), it only being necessary 
to avoid the jaws of the larger ones. 

Collectors who wish to obtain series of specimens in a short time 
will find it more advantageous to shoot the larger snakes, lizards, 
rattlesnakes, and those forms that frequent the margins of lakes, 
ponds and streams. In our collecting we find it ver}^ convenient 
to carry a small, double-barreled shot-gun (44 gauge, which takes a 
40-85 brass rifle shell, or a 28 gauge) or a 22 caliber target pistol 
bored smooth and shooting the .22 shot shell. We load the 
shotgun shells with a small charge of black powder, and dust shot 
(No. 14). Charges of these sizes do not usually greatly injure the 

Cages. Very efficient and cheap cages for snakes and lizards may 

be made by placing a slidiii«^ pane of glass in the top of a shallow, 
light wooden box. The pane of glass serves as a window through 
w^hich the animals may be observed, and also as a door through 
which they may be taken in or out or food introduced. It is always 
best to have the glass on top so that it can be opened temporarily 
without danger of the inmates escaping, and holes should be bored 
thru the side of the box and covered with screen, so as to provide 
air. Water in a small dish fastened to the bottom of the cage 
should always be present. 

Turtles (except the box turtle) should be placed in a metal tank 
in shallow water with stones upon which they may climb. No cov- 
ering is necessary if the sides are reasonably high or the edges 
turned inward. The box turtle should have a dry cage. 

Specimens should be fed shortly after being placed in the cage, 
and rather regularly thereafter, for if they can be induced to eat 
there will be no trouble in keeping them alive. Water should be 
kept in the cages at all times. 

Preservation of Specimens: The animals captured alive should 
be killed by immersing, while still in the bags, in a pail of water. 
When dead they should be removed from the bags and either in- 
jected freely (snakes and lizards along the belly, turtles behind the 
fore legs and in front of the hind legs) with 4% formalin, by means 
of a hypodermic syringe, or if a syringe is not available, slit open. 
Several slits about an inch or two inches long (according to the 
size of the specimen) should be made along the ventral surface of 
the snakes (none on the tail). One short slit will serve for the 
lizards, and the turtles may be slit open in front of the hind legs 
and behind the fore legs. The formalin solution may l>e made by 
adding 24 parts of water to 1 part of the 40% solution of formalin 
sold as pure, and the results are much, better if the better grades of 
formalin (i. e., Shering's) are used. The specimens should then 
be placed in pans (do not crowd) and covered with the same solu- 
tion. When well hardened thev mav be transferred to "lass iars or 
covered crocks and covered with 75% alcohol. In the case of large 
specimens of turtles the shell only need be saved. 

A label should be attached to each specimen, giving the locality, 
date of collection, collector and habitat, but if a notebook or cata- 
log is kept, the specimen may be given a serial number and the data 
kept in the notebook or catalog opposite the corresponding number. 
The label should be tied about the body in the case of lizards and 
snakes (about one-third of the way back from the head in snakes 
and just behind the forelegs in lizards) and on the left hind leg in 


turtles. Only in the case of the latter should the string be tied so 
tightly as to crease the skin. 



The living reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrates that breathe by 
means of lungs and usually have a covering of horny epidermal 
scales; the latter sometimes supported by bony dermal plates. The 
only Michigan species that does not have the body covered with 
scales is the soft-shelled turtle {Platypeltis spinifera). In external 
form the body is elongate and limbless (snakes), somewhat elongate 
and usually quadrupedal but occasionally apodal (lizards and croco- 
dilians), cuirassed and quadrupedal (turtles). The quadrupedal 
lizards are frequently confused w^ith salamanders, but the quadiTi- 
pedal salamanders (which alone occur in Michigan) always lack 
the bony or horny covering characteristic of reptiles, the skin being 
thin and moist. The apodal lizards are frequently confused with 
snakes, but the only apodal lizard in northeastern North America, 
the so-called glass snake {Opliiosaurus ventralis), may always be 
distinguished from snakes by the presence of eyelids and external 
ears. This lizard has never been recorded from Michigan, although 
it is said to occur in Wisconsin. Numerous morphological char- 
acters other than those given characterize the Class Reptilia and 
may be found by referring to any vertebrate zoology. 

Dlstrihution of the Class Reptilia in Michigan. — The distribution 
of each species is discussed in detail with its description. In gen- 
eral the reptile fauna of the state is characterized by the small 
number of forms. This is due in large part to the northern latitude 
of the region, as the reptiles are primarily a tropical group. The 
influence of temperature upon the distribution is also shown within 
the state. It is true in both orders that as one goes northward 
from the southern boundary of the state the number of species 
gradually decreases. Thus it may be seen by an examination of 
the maps that twenty-five or all but one of the species in our fauna 
have been recorded from the two southernmost tiers of counties 
while only six have thus far been found in the northern peninsula, 
and only one occurs there and not in the southern peninsula. It 
must be admitted, of course, that our information on the intrastate 
distribution of the species is far from complete, but enough has 
been learned to make it quite evident that further work will not 
overthrow this conclusion. 


Another general fact of distribution may be pointed out, namely, 
that there is a western element in the fauna of the northern penin- 
sula. This is at present only shown by the occurrence of Chrijsemys 
helUi in that region, but it is in harmony with what has been 
shown to occur in other groups. 


a^ Body elongate and covered with small scales. Anus a cross- 
slit. Order Squamata (Lizards and Snakes). 

b^. Limbs present. Eyelids movable. An external ear 

opening. Suborder Sauria (Lizards), p. 77. 
b^. Limbs absent. No external ear opening or movable 
eyelids. Suborder Serpen tes (Snakes), p. 81. 
a^. Body short and broad and enclosed between two (upper and 
lower) shields. Limbs present. Anus rounded or a longi- 
tudinal slit. Order Testudinata (Turtles), p. 128. 


Description: As indicated by the key, the lizards of Michigan 
may always be known from the other reptiles by the combination of 
characters, presence of small scales over the body and of four limbs. 
As already said, they are frequently confused with the salamanders 
but may always be told from them by the fact that the skin is never 
smooth and moist. 

Key to the Genera and Species of Michigan Lizards. 

a^. Body covered above with fine tubercular scales. Tongue deeply 

bifid. Cnemidophorus sexUneatus (L.)t 
a^. Body covered above with* rather large, imbricated scales. 

Tongue slightly notched. Eumeces quinquilineatus (L.). 


(PI. VIII.) 

Plestiodon vittigerum,% Hallo well, 1856, 310. 
Eumeces fasciatus, Smith, 1879, 6. Clark, 1905, 110. 
Eumeces quinquilineatus, Cope, 1900, 637-638. Ruthven, 1911a, 

*It is hardly necessary to say that the keys in this paper are highly artificial. They are 
designed only to to furnish an easy and efficient means of identifying the species. 

tThe genus Cnemidophorus has not heen recorded from this state, so it will not be considered 
further in this work. C. t^exlineatus occurs in northern Indiana, however, and is to be looked 
for in southwestern Michigan in the sand dunes along Lake Michigan. 

JThe synonomy given under each species includes only papers that refer to Michigan speci- 


Description: Four well developed limbs. Body covered with 
rather large, imbricated, smooth scales. Tongue flat, moderately 
long, free, slightly notched in front, and covered with overlapping 
scale-like papillae. Head with symmetrically arranged plates. 

The color of the blue-tailed skink varies greatly with age. The 
color of medium sized individuals is, above dark olive with five 
bluish or greenish white, or yellowish stripes (one median and 
two lateral on either side) ; under surface pale ; tail usually bright 
blue. Old specimens are reddish olive with the stripes obscure 
(females) or wanting (males) and the head coppery red. Young 
specimens are jet-black with bright yellow stripes. 

Eahits and HaMtat: This skink is distinctly diurnal, being most 
active on warm, bright days in summer. Little is known of its 
habitat preferences in Michigan, but in other regions it is usually 
found in wooded areas, being seen frequently in piles of brush or 
fallen logs. It is very agile, and, like most of the smaller lizards, 
its tail breaks easily so that if seized by this appendage the animal 
easily escapes by parting with the captured portion. The following 
account of the habits of specimens observed in the sand region of 
Huron County has been given by the wi-iter (Ruthven, 1911a, 263- 

"In the Avoods of the sand region it was found on the dry ridges, 
under and in decaying logs, where it fed on the insects that frequent 
such situations. It was, however, much more common than elsewhere 
under the drift logs on the fossil beaches, and also on the middle 
beach on the present shore, at the extremity of Sand Point. The 
logs strewTi along the fossil beaches were in an advanced stage of 
decay, and usually consisted of an outer shell of better preserved 
wood covering a mass of decomposed debris, the decomposition 
taking place most rapidly next to the ground. This apparently 
furnished a very favorable habitat for these lizards, great numbers 
of which were found in the decomposed material when the outer 
shell of the log had been removed. (PI. VIII.) 

"The eggs were laid in the same material, the female generally 
scooping out a small hollow in the bottom of which the eggs were 
partially buried in the debris. Both in the woods and on the 
beaches nests were occasionally found in the sand beneath a log or 
board where there was only a small amount of decaying wood, but 
in every case there was at least a small amount. Females taken on 
June 19 were pregnant, containing large eggs apparently nearly 
ready to be laid. The first sets observed were on July 2, and on 
and after this date nests of eggs were found in numbers. Every- 


thing went to show that the eggs are mostly laid about the first 
of July. None were observed before this date, and those collected 
on July 2 were all clean — they usually become much stained from 
the decaying wood after being in the nest for some time. The 
number of eggs in the set was counted in eight instances and were 
as follows: 6, 6, 8, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14. An examination of the preg- 
nant females shows that the number in each set varies with the 
size (age?) of the female, the smaller ones having 6 to 8 eggs, the 
larger ones 9 to 14. It is interesting to compare this with the state- 
ment of Ditmars (1907, 202) that he found the normal numbers to 
be 8 or 4, and that of Strecker (1908, 169) ^the several sets that I 
have examined were all of 8 eggs each.' 

"It was interesting to observe the behavior of the female when 
with her eggs. As is well known she remains with them until they 
are hatched, but for what purpose is not evident. We usually found 
them coiled about the eggs, but sometimes they simply lay beside 
them. In any case there seemed to be no attempt to come in im- 
mediate contact with the eggs, and indeed this would have been im- 
possible in most instances, as the eggs themselves were not even in 
contact with each other, being somewhat scattered about in the de- 
caying debris. However, there seemed to be a disposition on the 
part of the female to keep her set together; several times I saw a 
female leave her position and crawl about the eggs, and when she 
encountered one which I had displaced, lick it and then nose it 
back with the others. If care was taken in removing the outer shell 
of the log to expose the nest, the female would remain with the 
eggs, only burying herself deeper in the loose debris when her head 
was exposed to the light. 

"The first voung of the vear were observed on Julv 31, when a 
female was found under a small log on a sand beach, coiled about 
a nest of 8 eggs from which the young were emerging." 

Ditmars (1907, 202) states that the "food consists largely of in- 
sects, but well-grown specimens will feed upon the eggs of birds, or 
newly born wood mice, often discovered by the lizard as it investi- 
gates the crevices of fallen trees." Surface (1908a, 251) records 
the larva of a Geometrid moth in the stomach of one specimen. 
Cope (1900, 038) states that a captive specimen gorged itself with 
wood lice (Omscus). 

Range: The blue-tailed skink was probably not uncommon in 
the southern part of lower Michigan before the timber was removed. 
Whether or not it was of general distribution will probably never 
be known ; it is now apparently very rare over much of this region. 



It has been reported from Genesee County (Hallowell, 1856, 310; 
Cope, 1900, 637), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 6), Barry, Kalamazoo, 
Kent, Montcalm, Ottawa, St. Joseph and Van Buren Counties 
(Clark, 1905, 110). It Avas observed to be quite common in the 



C M t C A C O 

% lAKZ 

..■CtfiLLBO ~j i 

Fig. 28. Distribution of Eumeces quinqxdlineatus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

sand region along the south shore of Saginaw Bay, between Bayport 
and Port Crescent in 1908 (Ruthven, 1911a, 263-264), and specimens 
have recently been received from St. Clair and Oakland Counties. 
Three specimens (one accompanied by eggs), collected by W. J^ 
Beal in Lenawee County (no date), are in the University of Michi- 
gan collection, and we have examined a specimen taken at Alma, 


Gratiot County. These are the only specimens from Michigan that 
the writer has seen. There is a record in the University of Michigan 
Museum catalog of a specimen (No. 3G9) collected by E. W. Mc- 
Graw at Ann Arbor, but the specimen cannot now be found. 


Description: As previously stated the Michigan snakes may be 
distinguished from the other members of the class in the state by 
the absence of limbs, external ear openings, and movable eyelids. 
The body is elongate and covered with scales. The scalation is as 
follows: small imbricated smooth or keeled scales forming longi- 
tudinal and diagonally transverse rows on the dorsal surface of the 
body and tail. A single series of large transverse and imbricated 
scutes on the ventral surface of the body with a somewhat larger 
single or divided plate (anal) just in front of the anus, xl single 
or double row of imbricated scutes on the ventral surface of the 
tail. Large symmetrically arranged plates on the head. 

Key to the Snakes of Michigan. 

a\ No pit between the eye and nostril. Tail not terminating in a 
b^. Anal plate divided. 

c^. Dorsal scales keeled (occasioualh^ but faintly), 
d^. Loreal plate absent, Storeria. 

e^. Oculars 1-2 S. dehayi, p. 83. 

e^ Oculars 2-2 S. occipitomaculata, p. 85. 

d". Loreal plate present. 

e^. Eostral plate greatly developed and protrud- 
ing Heterodon pUityrhinus, p. 87. 

e-. Rostral plate normal, i. e., flattened over the 
end of the muzzle, 
f^ First 3-5 rows of dorsal scales smooth, 
the rest weakly keeled, ^Zap/ie. 
g:^. Color above black or with obscure 

blotches E. ol)soletus, p. 90. 

Color above yellowish to light brown 
with prominent dark brown 

blotches E. pulpimis, p. 93. 

f^. Scales of all of the dorsal rows (except 
often the first) strongly keeled. 




g^ Dorsal scale rows never less than 21- 

23-21-19-11. JS^atrix sipedoii, p. 95. 

g-. Dorsal scale rows never more than 


li^ A light lateral stripe on the 1st 

and 2nd roAvs, no dorsal 

hlotches. Reg hia leheris, p. 98. 

h^. No light lateral stripes, dorsal 

blotches present 

Clonophls kirtlancU, p. 100. 
C-. Dorsal scales not keeled. 

d^. A single nasal plate pierced by the nostril. 

Liopeltis vernalis, p. 102. 

d". Two nasal plates, the nostril between them. 

e^. A vellow collar. Uniformlv blackish above, 

Diadophis punctatiis, p. 104. 

e-. Xo vellow collar, adults uniformly sreen to 

blackish above, young spotted. 

Bascanion constrictor, p. 107. 

b". Anal plate entire. 

c^. Dorsal scales smooth. Dorsal blotches present. No 

fiiv\i)QH. . . .Lampropeltls doJlatus triangutus, p. 110. 

C-. Dorsal scales keeled, a dorsal and two lateral (one on 

either side), light stripes ThamnopMs. 

d^. Tail generally more than .27 of the total length, 

Thamnophis saiiritus, p. 113. 

d". Tail Generally less than .27 of the total lencjth. 
e^. Lateral stripe on the 2nd and 3rd rows. 

Labials generally 7/10 

ThaiiuiopJiis sirtaUs, p. 119. 

e-. Lateral stripe on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th rows an- 
teriorly." Labials generally 6/8 

Thanniophis hutleri, p. 116. 

a-. A pit between the eyes and nostril. Tail (in all but very young 

individuals) terminating in a rattle 

^^istrurus catenatus, p. 124. 




Tfopidonotiis clekayi, Holbrook, 1842, IV, 54. 

Storeria delcayi, Smith, 1879, 7. Notestein, 1905, 114. Clark, 1902, 
194; 1905, 109. Baird and Girard, 1853, 135-136. Miles, 
1861, 233. Cope, 1900, 1002-1003. Ruthven, 1911a, 266-267. 

Description: A small snake seldom attaining a length of more 
than a foot. Bod}^ tapering to'ward the neck and tail. Head small 
but distinct. Cephalic plates normal; rostral normal. Sides of 
head rather high. Loreal absent, being fused with the posterior 
nasal; nostril situated laterall}^ 

Dorsal scale rows, except very rarel} , 17 throughout the entire 
length of the body. Supralabials 7 ; infralabials 7, very rarely 8 or 
9. Oculars generally 1-2; rarely the postoculars are 3 in number, 
and occasionally fused into one scale, preoculars very rarely 2. 
Ventrals 120-137, subcaudals 44-57, anal plate divided. 

The ground color above varying from dark chestnut or dark slate 
to pale brownish yellow, the lighter shades most common. On the 
vertebral line (occupying the median three and the halves of the 
adjacent rows) a pale yellow or greenish band, which is generally 
more distinct in the specimens in which the ground color is light. 
This band margined on either side by a darker shade of the ground 
color (in individuals light enough to show it), and by a row of 
more or less prominent black spots that may be distinct and en- 
croach on the pale band even to the extent of fusing across it or 
may be so small as to be only indicated or entirely absent. The 
dorsal row is one of three of alternating spots that may be present 
on either side, all of these usuallv bein": absent or onlv indicated 
on the scales, except more often on the anterior part of the body. 
On the neck the spots are fused into a transverse spot on either side, 
these being irregular in shape and varying in size. Top of head 
usually dark brownish yellow, densely speckled with black. A heavy 
blotch of black pigment below the e^e, and frequently a black bar 
crossing the posterior part of the first temporal and the upper and 
lower labials. Other head markings variable. Belly pale, with a 
row of very small spots on either side (one on each end of a scute) 
that are frequently absent and often irregular (several small ones 
on each scute). Newly born individuals are said to be dark ^Y'Ay 
or black ^ above, with a ring of grayish-white around the neck. 
^'Their dark hue changes rapidly and during the warm months sue- 



ceeding their first hibernation they acqnire the broT\Ti of the adult 
form"' (Ditmars, 1907, 267). 

Habits and Hahitat: S. dekayl is rather interesting^ in that 
owing to its small size, sober colors and retiring habits it is not 



tr-'^, tAKE 

Fig. 29. Distribution of Sioreria dekayi. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

exterminated by civilization, but is able to live within the limits 
of towns, where it is frequently found on the sidewalks, in vacant 
lots, etc. It seems to prefer dr}- woods, and probably remains in 
concealment most of the time as does its ally the red-bellied snake. 
Surface (1906, 139) records the following items of food in the 
stomachs of four Pennsylvania specimens: ''Earthworms in one; 


slugs in three; undetermined snails in two; and undetermined insect 
larvae in t\\^o." Atkinson (1901, 148) states that "The stomachs 
of several specimens contained earthworms and beetles." Holbrook 
(1842, IV, 54) states that it feeds on "various insects." 

Range: The species has been reported from; Grosse Isle (Baird 
and Girard, 1853, 135, 13G; Cope, 1900, 1002), Michigan (Miles, 
1861, 233; Holbrook, 1842, lY, 54), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 7), 
Port Huron (Cope, 1900, 1003), Eaton County (Clark, 1902, 194), 
Ann Arbor, Olivet, and Antrim, Kalamazoo and Montcalm Coun- 
ties (Clark, 1905, 109), sand region of Huron County, from Sand 
Point to Port Austin (Ruthven, 1911a, 20G-2G7). Specimens from 
the following localities have been examined : Ann Arbor, Portage 
Lake, Pittsfield, Ypsilanti, Delhi, Washtenaw County, Iosco, Liv- 
ingston County, Pontiac and Orchard Lake, Oakland County, Port 
Huron, St, Clair County, Lenawee County, sand region from Sand 
Point to Port Austin, Huron Couijty, and Alma, Gratiot County. 



Storeria occipitomaculata, Smith, 1879, 7. Clark, 1905, 109. Xote- 
stein, 1905, 114. Ruthven, 1904a, 189-191; 1906, 110; 1909, 
332; 1911a, 267; Miles, 1861, 233. 

Description: A small snake attaining a length of about ten 
inches. Head small. Muzzle short. Cephalic plates normal. Ros- 
tral normal. Sides of head high. First temporal large, those in the 
second row tending to fuse into a single plate. Loreal fused with 
posterior nasal. Nostril lateral. 

Dorsal scales in 15 rows throughout the length of the body. 
Supralabials usually 6, rarely 5; infralabials usually 7, occasionally 
6, rarely 5 or 8. Oculars generally 2-2, rarely 3 preoculars or 1 or 3 
postoculars. Ventrals 115-127; subcaudals 39-48. Anal plate 

Color above variable; usually a chestnut-brown, it may be light 
or dark gray or nearly black. A paler vertebral band margined on 
either side by a row of black spots or a dark chestnut band usually, 
but not always, present. First row of scales occasionally dark 
chestnut or nearly black, so that four dark bands are frequently 
present. Belly margined on either side by a band of gray speckled 
with black, the median portion red. Three (a dorsal and two 
lateral) yellow spots just behind the head, frequently obscure. 
Young when born uniformly very dark brown or black above, the 
nuchal spots conspicuous and the belly pink. 



Habits and Habitat: The little red-bellied snake is mostly con- 
fined to woodland areas, and is very secretive, generally being found 
under loose stones, logs, etc. It is a very amiable little snake, and 
in captivity soon learns to take food from the fingers. Its food is 

^^^^^^^^ LAKE SUPERl 
"" ^ \ -V-/-( If 




c M ■ c A c e 


Fig. 30. Distribution of Storeria occipitomaciilata. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

said to consist of earthworms (Ditmars, 1907. 270), slugs (Ditmars, 
1907, 270, Hay, 1892a, 498, Surface, 190G, 137-138), beetle larvae 
(Ditmars, 1907, 270), insects (Morse,' 1904, 133). 

The young are born alive and appear in small broods of from five 
to tliirteen, the earliest date recorded being August 18 (Ditmars, 
1907, 270) for a New York specimen, and the latest date September 


26 (Riithven, 1006, 111) for an Isle Rovale, Michigan, specimen. 

Range: The species lias been reported from: Michigan (Miles, 
1S61, 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 7), Porcupine Mountains, On- 
tonagon County (Kuthven, IDOla, 189, 191), Isle Koyale, Porcupine 
Mountains and Kalamazoo County (Clark, 1905, 109), Porcupine 
Mountains, Iron Countj^ Marquette and Isle Royale (Ruthven, 1906, 
110, 111), Isle Royale (Ruthven, 1909, 332), Sand Point, Huron 
County (Ruthven, 1911a, 267). The writer has seen specimens 
from the following localities : Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, 
Iron River and Crj-stal Falls, Iron County, Iron Mountain and 
Brown Lake, Dickinson County, Isle Royale, Keweenaw County, 
Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon County, Marquette, Marquette 
County, Plainfield, Livingston County, Sand Point, Huron County, 
Hancock, Houghton County, Alma, Gratiot County and Dr. F. N. 
Notestein informs the writer that he saw it in Otsego County in 


(PI. IX b.) 

Coluher heterodori, Sager, 1839, 302. 

Hetcrodon platijrliiniis, Smith, 1879, 6. Clark, 1905, 110. Notes- 
stein, 1905, 118. Ruthven, 1909a, 117; 1911a, 265. Thomp- 
son, 1911, 107. 
Heterodon platyrliinus niger. Smith, 1879, 6. 

Description: A snake of robust build occasionally attaining the 
length of three feet, but usually about twenty-eight inches. Head 
short and rather broad. The rostral plate greatly developed and 
protruded upward and forward, projecting from the muzzle as the 
apex of a triangular pyramid; the anterior face broad and flat, the 
laterals slightly concave so that the lateral and dorsal edges are 
projecting. Internasals entirely, and prefrontals partially, sepa- 
rated by a narrow and elongated plate (azygous) having the form 
of an irregular pentagon whose sides are parallel. The azygous with 
more or less of a median keel (continuing from the dorsal edge of 
the rostral). Two large temporal scales bordering the last three 
supralabials and separated from the temporals by two or three rows 
of smaller scales. A single loreal, and two nasal plates, the nostril 
valvular and situated entirely in the postnasal. A single and con- 
tinuous series of small plates (9, 10, 11, or 12 in number) border- 
ing the eye on the anterior, posterior and inferior sides, occupying 
the place of the usual preoculars and postoculars, and separating 
the orbit from the supralabials. 



Dorsal scale rows iisiialh^ 25-23-21-19, keeled and with two pits; 
snpralabials usually 8; infralabials 9, 10, or 11; veutrals 120-137; 
subeaudals 33-48; anal divided. 

The ground color of the back varies from gray or yellow to red, 

\\ ccrr.\t-uot^ OF Canada 

\- "V 


Ay c^/vyf^A 


Fig. 31. Distribution of Heterodon platyrhinus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined ; vertical ruling, reports only. 

reddish brown or black. When the color is light there are three 
series of spots — a vertebral row of large spots alternating with a 
lateral row of smaller ones on either side. Tail cross-banded above. 
A dark band across the head on the suture between the prefrontals 
and occipitals and frontal; and another from the orbit to the angle 
of the mouth. An elongated dark blotch on either side of the neck. 


Ventral surface yellow or greenish j^ellow, occasionally with faint 
blotches of brown. 

In uniformly colored individuals the ground color is greenish 
olive to black; the ventral surface being immaculate gTeenish or 
yellowish. In black individuals the spots are usually entirely want- 
ing; in the olivaceous specimens the black nuchal spots are often 
distinct, and the vertebral and lateral ones are often faintly in 

Hahlts and EuMtat: As stated below, this species has been found 
in but few localities in Michigan, but the evidence seems to indicate 
that it prefers dr}^ woods and occurs particularly in sandy regions. 
] t is one of the most interesting of the northeastern North American 
snakes. Its stocky build and upturned snout give it a particularly 
savage appearance, which is greatly enhanced by its peculiar habit 
of flattening out the fore part of the body, and hissing loudly 
when disturbed. It also feigns death by throwing itself on its 
back, writhing as if in agony with the mouth widely opened, and 
then lying perfectly relaxed. It will retain this posture for a con- 
siderable time, and if turned over on the ventral surface will im- 
mediately turn over on its back again. Its formidable appearance, 
and the peculiar habit of flattening its body and hissing loudlj- have 
furnished the basis for the most exaggerated stories, earned for 
it the common names blowing adder, hognosed viper, hissing 
viper, etc., and given rise to the general impression that it is a very 
venomous and greatly to be feared serpent. As a matter of fact 
the eastern hognosed snake is not only entirely harmless but can 
scarcely be induced to bite, and makes a most interesting snake in 
captivity. The food seems to consist almost entirely of toads, 
altho we have observed them to eat frogs in captivity. Insects are 
often found in their stomachs, but there is no reason to believe 
that these are taken in any other way than in the stomachs of the 
toads they have swallowed. The species is oviparous. 

Etuuje: The species has been reported from Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 302, Miles, 1861, 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 6), Wayne, 
Kalamazoo, Van Buren, Allegan and Barry Counties (Clark, 1905, 
110), McKinley, Oscoda County, Manistee, Manistee County and 
Pearl Beach, St. Clair County (Ruthven, 1909a, 117), Huron 
County (Ruthven, 1911a, 205), and Cass County (Thompson, 1911, 
107). We have seen specimens from Manistee, Detroit, the sand 
region of Huron County, between Bayport and Port Austin, Alma, 
Gratiot County, Cass County, and Douglas Lake, Cheboygan 


From these records it seems ])robable that the species is to be 
found commonly, if not almost exclusively, in the more sandy parts 
of the state. 


(PI. VI.) 

Coluber ohsoletus. Sager, 1839, 301. Smith, 1879, 6. Clark, 1902, 

192; 1903, 172. 
Coluher spiloides (Part?), Cope, 1900, 841-813. 
Callopeltis ohsoletus, Clark, 1905, 110. 
Colu'ber ohsoletus obsoletiis, Notestein, 1905, 117. 

Description: A large snake attaining a length of from fiye and 
one-half to eight feet. Head moderately swollen through the jaws, 
and tapering gradually to the end of the snout, so that it is decid-' 
edly elongate; high on the sides; the muzzle usually straight on the 
sides, occasionally slightly concave in the preocular region. Eye 
moderate. Nostril lateral. Cephalic plates normal, the frontal 
plate generally longer than broad. 

In the few specimens examined the dorsal scale rows are 25-23- 
21-19-17 and 23-25-21-19-17.* Supralabials 8, occasionally 7; in- 
fralabials 11; occasionally 12. Oculars 1-2. Temporals 2-3, occa- 
sionally 2-2. Yentrals 231-236; subcaudals 79 and 80. Anal plate 

A YQYj good description of the snake is that given by Hay (1892a, 
501) : "In this, the general color is a black with a bluish tinge, or 
a pitch-black, most pronounced on the posterior portion of the 
body. The anterior half ma^^ be lighter, and show evidences of 
blotches. The whole of this part may have a decided tinge of red, 
this being due to the color of the skin between the scales ; vet the 
red may run up on the bases of the scales. Occasionally the spots 
of the upper surface are of a decided red. The dorsal blotches ex- 
tend down on the sides to about the 7th row of scales, counting the 
lowest. They are about G inches long, and are separated by the 
length of two scales. Alternating with these is another series which 
extend from the 3rd to the 7th row of scales. These spots are all 
feebly indicated by the sulphur yellow of the skin between the 
scales; and often the color is almost uniform black. There are 
some scales with yellow or white edges. Lower jaw and throat 
white. The bellv is of a slate-color or black on the hinder half; 

*The number of scale rows in the series is usually given as 27. so that the above formulas 
are probably exceeded in some Michigan specimens. Needless to say this summary of the 
number of scales in the different series, based as it is on a small number of specimens, is only 
a very general one. 



anteriorly the black is mottled with yellowish, which color becomes 
more and more abundant, until the throat and chin are entirely 
yellowish. Small, or even half-grown, individuals may have a 
ground color of ash-graj' and numerous dark blotches." 



C M I c A 


Fig. 32. Distribution of Elaphe obsoletus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

This snake is often confused with the blue racer. It mav readilv 
be distinguished from the latter by the carinated scales and greater 
number of scale rows and the dark markings on the ventral surface. 

Hahits and Hahitat: The writer has been unable to gather any 
data on the habitat of the pilot snake in Michigan. The food that 
the species is kno^Ti to take is as follows: mice (Hay, 1892a, 503), 


cotton-tail rabbit (Ditmars, 1907, 305). undetermined insect frag- 
ments, undetermined larvae, insects, with bird remains, undeter- 
mined species of Ortlioptera, Acridiidae (grasshoppers), wood frog, 
undetermined birds, undetermined eggs, chicken eggs, robin eggs, 
red-winged blackbird, sparrow, robin, undetermined mammals, com- 
mon opposum, undetermined mice, meadow mouse {M. "pennsylvani- 
ciis), Microtus sp, (uncertain species), house mouse, undetermined 
squirrels, red squirrels, chipmunk, undetermined shrew, and 
weasels (Surface, 1906, 160). In the specimen taken at Ann Arbor 
by Winchell (see infra) the writer finds the remains of an adult 

The pilot snake is oviparous. Hay (1892, 395) records a pair that 
were taken in coitu on June 19, and Surface (1906, 159) states that 
the eggs are laid during the latter part of August or early part of 
September. Ditmars (1907, 306) writes that a specimen deposited 
ten eggs on June 26. Surface also states that the eggs are laid 
in loose earth or damp sawdust; Stejneger (1892, 396) has recorded 
a batch found in a hollow stump, and Hay (1892, 396) found a 
number in a pile of stable manure. The last named writer de- 
scribes the eggs and young as follows : 'When found the eggs were 
glued together in one mass. Each is 2 inches long and nearly 
an inch and a quarter in the short diameter. On the outside is 
found a thick, leathery, yellow covering, beneath which is a much 
thinner coat. From one of these eggs I have taken a 3'oung snake 
which measures ten and three-quarters inches in length. Attached 
to this embryo is a considerable mass of yolk, a condition which 
indicates that the embryo is not ready for hatching. Nevertheless, 
all the generic and specific characters are well shown. There is a 
well developed egg tooth. The intromittent organs are everted in 
the specimens examined." 

Range: The status of this snake in the state is little known. It 
has been reported from Michigan (Sager, 1839, 301, Smith, 1879, 6), 
Eaton County (Clark, 1902, 193, 1903, 172), Olivet, Ann Arbor, 
and Kalamazoo, Van Buren and Montcalm Counties (Clark, 1905, 
110). The writer has only seen four specimens that were taken 
within our limits, one from Alma, Gratiot County, one from Eaton 
County, one at Ann Arbor, by Alexander Winchell, and one from 
I^nawee County, by W. J. Beal. Both of the latter specimens are 
without dates, but they have been in the University of Michigan 
Museum collection for many years. 


ELAPHE VULPINUS (Baird and Girard). 

FOX snakp:. 
(PI. IX a.) 

Coluber vulpinus, Notesleiii, 1905, 117. Smith, 1S71), (>. Cope, 1900, 

Scotophis vmlpinus, Baird and Girard, 1853, 75-7(). Miles, 1861, 233. 
Callopeltis vulpinus, Clark, 1905, 110. 
Elaphe milpimis, Ruthven, 1909a, 110; 1910, 59; 1911a, 266. 

Description: A robust snake, attaining a length of about four or 
five feet. Head rather flat, broad and rather short, being usually 
decidedly shorter and broader than in E. ohsoletiis. Sides of head 
rather low, slightl}^ concave in preocular region. Eye moderate, 
pupil round. Nostrils lateral. Cephalic plates normal; the frontal 
generally nearly or quite as wide as long. 

Dorsal scale rows 27-25-23-21, 25-27-25-23-21, 25-23-21; the first 3 
or 4 smooth, the others weakly keeled. Supralabials 8, occasionally 
7 or 9; infralabials 9, 10 or 11. Oculars usually 1-2. Yentrals 200- 
212 (196-217, Cope, 1900, 832) ; subcaudals 50-65 (68, Cope, 1900, 
832). Anal plate divided. 

Ground color above yellowish or light brown. A median series of 
dark chocolate brown blotches with inconspicuous black margins 
and separated by two scales, the first one or two anterior either 
entirely or partly divided on the median line. A^ertebral spots usu- 
ally descending to the fifth or sixth rows on the sides, the lower 
margin being produced in an obtuse angle. A row of smaller 
blotches alternating with those of the vertebral series on the sides 
between the second and seventh rows inclusive. These are also 
margined with black, and in turn alternate with another series of 
black blotches that involve the edge of the ventrals and the first 
one or two rows of dorsal scales. Belly pale yellowish with alter- 
nating series of quadrate black blotches of which the row involving 
the first one or two dorsal rows is the outer. Head light brown, 
with a dusky band across the suture of the prefrontals with the 
frontal and supraoculars, and another from the eye to the angle of 
the mouth. 

Habits and Habitat: Verv little is known of the habits or habitat 
of the fox snake. In common with some other snakes, it will, when 
excited, frequently vibrate the tail rapidly like the rattle snakes. 
As the tail terminates in a horny point, a distinct buzzing sound is 
produced. It is entirel}- harmless, and not usually pugnacious. 



Ditmars, 1907, 297-298) writes of the food and breeding habits as 
follows: ''The Fox Snake feeds largely upon small rodents, young 
rats and mice. To procure the former it often haunts the vicinity 
of barns and sheds where hay or grain is stored. From this habit 




^7 C/t/y/(^/* 

Fig. 33. Distribution of Elaphe vulpinus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

it is sometimes called the house snake. The fully adult individuals 
eat mammals as large as half-grown rabbits. They occasionally 
prey upon birds and will eat their eggs, swallowing them entire 
and breaking the shell in the throat by the contraction of the 
muscles. The good this species does in destroying the smaller, in- 
jurious creatures of the fields, should cause it to be the recognized 


friend of tlie fanner. One snake is worth a dozen Irajts, for llie 
reptile prowls into the bnrrows and nests of rats and mice and eats 
the entire brood. 

"Like all of the Colnbers, the Fox Snake deposits a <-onsid(M-al>le 
number of eg*gs, generally in the hollow of a rolling stump, and 
leaves them without further ado, to hatch within six or eight weeks 
time. The eggs gradually increase in size by al)sorbing- the moisture 
of the wood pulp in which they are de])Osited. Just jnior to hatch 
ing, an egg is a third or half larger than wlicn it was lai<l. One 
of the writer's specimens deposited 12 eggs on tlic first of duly. 
They Avere adhesive in a single cluster. These eggs began hatching 
on the 21st of August, and all had not hatched until abcnit ten days 
later. The female specimen was three and a half feet in length 
and in proportion to her size the young were very large." 
A specimen taken in Huron county by the writer (Ruthven, 1011 a. 
266) had eaten four young rabbits. 

Range: The species has been reported from: Grosse Isle (Baird 
and Girard, 1853, 75-76), south shore of Saginaw liay (Miles, isi;i, 
233), Grosse Isle (Cope, 1900, 832), St. Clair County (Huthven, 
1909a, 110), Dickinson County (Ruthven, 1910, 59), Stony Island 
and sand region of Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a, 2GG). Speci- 
mens have been examined from: Pearl Beach and Herseu's Island. 
St. Clair County, Stony Island and Sand Point, Huron County, 
Brown Lake, Dickinson County, and Monroe County. Captain C. 
C. McDonald, light-house keeper (m Charity Island, has inf(M-ined 
the writer that lie killed a pair of these snakes in coitu on the 
island a number of years ago. Captain McDonald is familiar with 
the species, and the record can be accepted, aliho the snake has not 
since been observed on the island. 



Coluher sipedon, Sager, 1839, 302. 
Tropidonotus sipedon, Smith, 1879, 6. 

^^atrix fasciata sipedon, Clark, 1902, 1!)4; 1903, 173. Notestein, 
1905, 117. Cope, 1900, 909-972. Clark, 190:>>b. llankinson, 

1908, 230. 
Natrix sipedon, Kirsch, 1895, 333. Thompson, 1911. 100. Rntliven. 

1911, 115; 1911a, 209. 
Natrix sipedon fasciata, Clark, VM):k 109. 
Katrix erythrogaster, Clark, 19(12, 194; llMi;;, 172; l!Hr,. 109; VMV.\h. 


Natrix fasciata crythrogaster, Xotesteiu, 1905, 111. 
Tropidonottis erytlirogaster, Smith, 1879, 6. 

Nerodia agassizii, Baird and Girard, 1853, 41-42. Miles, 1861, 233. 
Xerodia sipedon, Baird and Girard, 1853, 38-39. Miles, 1861, 233. 

Description: Medium sized snakes of robust form; size three and 
a half to four feet. Head decidedly swollen at the base of tlTe jaws, 
rather narrow and elongate, with high and straight sides. The 
muzzle bluntly sub-conical, so that the nostrils are directed upward 
to some extent. The nostrils quite small and capable of being 

Dorsal scales generally 23-21-19-17; occasionally 21-23-21-19-17; 
more rarely 23-25-23-21-19-17, and 23-21-19- (17). Labials nearly 
ahvays 8-10, very rarely 9 (or 7) superior and 9 or 11 inferior 
scutes in the series. Oculars 1-3, with rare exceptions 1-2 or 1-4. 
Temporals 1-3 with occasionally 2 in the second row-. Ventrals 
137-149, subcaudals 56-75. Anal divided. 

The coloration of this species has been well described by Cope 
(1900, 970-971) : "In young individuals and in those generally in 
which the epidermis has been removed, the normal type of color- 
ation is seen to consist of three series of nearly quadrate dark 
brown spots, with still darker borders, one dorsal and one lateral 
on each side. These are so disposed that the two corresponding 
lateral spots are opposite the intervals between the dorsals, and 
thus appear to be connected by a light line. The longitudinal diam- 
eter of the dorsal spots, amounting to three or four scales, is 
the greater; just the reverse of what is the case with the lateral. 
Of these lateral spots there are generally about thirty-two on 
each side from the head to the anus, the spaces between equal to 
or less than the spots, not greater, as in T. fasciata. While the 
pattern is generally quite distinguishable on the posterior half of 
the body, anteriorly it becomes confused, the lateral blotches stand- 
ing opposite to the dorsal and becoming confluent, so that the back 
appears crossed by lozenge shaped blotches extending to the ab- 
dominal scutellae, and this separated on the sides by triangular 
intervals of a lighter color. 

''Occasionally the color appears to be a dull and rather light 
brown, Avith the back crossed by narrow transverse lines, with dark 
(nearly black, but still not distinct) margins." Frequently the 
general color is so dark that the animal is more or less uniformly 
dark brow^n or black above, and in some of the black individuals 
the belly is red (so called variety erytlirogaster). 

HaUts and Hahitat: This well known snake is common along 



the streams and lakes of southern Michigan. It is never found far 
from such habitats and generally frequents logs or branches of 
bushes overhanging the Avater, into which it glides swiftly on the 
slightest sign of danger, and conceals itself on the bottom. On 


I I- L I N IS 

O N I C AO • 

V -tAKE ,^ 


Fig. 34. Distribution of Matrix sipedon. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

sandy and rocky shores where bushes and trees do not come down 
to the waters edge (for example, along the Great Lakes) it is found 
under logs and driftwood. 

A considerable variety of food has been recorded In the stomachs 
of these snakes. Surface (1906, 156) records insect fragments with 
toad remains, undetermined species of orthoptera, two-striped grass- 


hopper, striped brown cricket, undetermined ground beetles, unde- 
termined vertebrates, undetermined fish, catfish, white sucker, 
Cottus ictalops, Cottiis ricliardsoni, undetermined salamander, 
Plethodon cinereus, tadpole, toad, green frogs, undetermined mam- 
mals, meadow mouse (Microtus pennsylvanicus) , common shrew 
(Sorew persoiiatus) . Atkinson (1901, 150) says that it feeds upon 
"crustaceans, fish, and batrachians." De Kay (1842, 42) found it 
feeding on the lake lamprey, bullhead, brook trout, and white 
sucker. Blatchley (1891, 30) removed seven leopard frogs from a 
single specimen. Ortmann (1906, 495) states that crawfish form an 
important part of the diet of this snake. Notwithstanding the 
variets^ of food which it is thus evident that the watersnake will 
eat, fish form by far the greater part of the diet. In the few 
stomachs which we have examined from southern Michigan speci- 
mens, small fish alone were found, and these often in considerable 

• Range: The species has been reported from: Grosse Isle and 
Lake Huron (Baird and Girard, 1853, 38, 39 and 42), Michigan 
(Sager, 1839, 302; Miles, 1861, p. 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 
6), Lansing (Cope, 1900, 977), Hudson, Manitou Beach and Tiffin 
River, Lenawee County (Kirsch, 1895, 333), Eaton County (Clark, 
1903, 172; 1903b; 1902, 194), Cass County (Thompson, 1911, 106), 
Ann Arbor, Lansing, and Olivet, and Antrim, Barry, Kalamazoo, 
Kent, Montcalm, Ottawa, St. Joseph and Van Buren Counties 
(Clark, 1905, 109), Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a, 269), Walnut 
Lake, Oakland County (Hankinson, 1908, p. 256), and Douglas 
Lake, Cheboygan County (Ruthven, 1911, 115). The writer has 
examined specimens from Walnut Lake and Pontiac, Oakland 
County, Washtenaw County, North and Stony Islands and the 
sand region of Huron County, Charity Island, Saginaw Bay, 
Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, Shelby, Oceana County, Cass 
County, Allegan County, Oscoda County, and Alma, Gratiot 

KEGINA L.EBERIS (Linnaeus). 


Colu'ber septemvittatus^ Sager, 1839, 302. 
Tropidonotus leheris, Holbrook, 1842, IV, 51. 
l^atrix leheris, Clark, 1902, 194. Notestein, 1905, 116. 
Regina leleris, Baird and Girard, 1853, 45-46. Clark, 1905, 110. 
Smith, 1879, 6. Miles, 1801, 233. 
Descripticyii: Slender, medium sized snakes attaining a length of 
about two feet. Head rather flat from the nape, sides low. 



Dorsal scale rows 19-17 in every specimen examined, except in 
a few that have 21 just behind the head. Labials usually 7-10, 
occasionally 7-9 or 7-11. Oculars 2-2, the preoculars rarely fused 
into a single scale. One anterior temporal. Ventrals 142-154, sub- 
caudals 65-81. Anal plate divided. 

Fig. 35. Distribution of Regina leberis. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

Ground color above uniformlv dark chestnut or chocolate brown, 
as is also the top and sides of the head above the labials and the 
lower part of the lower postoculars. A bright yellow band occu- 
pies the second and upper part of the first scale row, and is con- 
tinued on the head to include the supralabials, lower part of the 
lower postocular and the lower part of the rostral plate. Although 



frequentl}' obscure there is a narrow black line on the fifth and 
occasionally on adjacent parts of the fourth and sixth dorsal rows 
on either side and one on the median (tenth) row. Occasionally 
the entire area between the lower lateral line and the light lateral 
stripe on the second and third rows appears blackish. Ends of 
ventrals with the lower part of the first scale row usually brownish, 
forming a dark band. Belly dull yellow with two parallel bands 
of brown that are broken by the narrow pale margins of the scutes 
and unite into a single, narrow, median band on the throat. 

Hahits ami HaVitat: Little is recorded on the habits of this 
snake. Morse (1904, 132) states that it is often found hanging 
over a stream from projecting willoAvs from which it glides rapidly 
into the water when disturbed." It is apparentl}^ quite aquatic. 
Atkinson (1901, 119) states that in its stomach "crayfish are most 
frequently found, also occasionally fish and small frogs." Surface 
(1906, 151) examined four specimens which had eaten crayfish, 
and one of these had eaten a toad. Ortmann (1907, 495) states that 
crayfish form an important part of its diet and that he has seen it 
disgorge Camharus ohsourus when captured. 

Range: The species has been reported from: Grosse Isle (Baird 
and Girard, 1853, 45, 46), Michigan (Sager, 1839, 302; Miles 1801, 
233; Holbrook, 1842, IV, 51), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 6), Eaton 
County (Clark, 1902, 194), Olivet and Montcalm, Kalamazoo and 
Van Buren Counties (Clark, 1905, 110). The writer has examined 
numerous specimens from Washtenaw County, and one from the 
vicinity of Manistee, Manistee County. 



Regina kirtlandi, Smith, 1879, 6. 

Glonopliis kirtlandi, Clark, 1905, 109. 

IS^atrix Urtlandii, Cope, 1900, 997. Notestein, 1905, 116. 

Desaiption: A rather small snake attaining a length of about 
eighteen inches. Head small and pointed, sloping downward from 
the nape; sides not concave in front of eye, the latter small and 
slightly protruding. Nasal plates united above the nostril. The 
scutellation of the two Michigan specimens examined is as follows : 









• 5 











Ground color light brown and narrowl}" restricted by large, con- 
spicuous, quadrate, black blotches arranged in two rows on either 
side. Spots of the lower roAv larger; those of the two upper rows 
occasionally fused across the back. The first one or two scale rows 

Fig. 36. Distribution of Clonophis kirtlandii. 
Horizontal ruling; specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

light ash, like the ends of the ventrals. Top of head marbled Avith 
black and brown. Supralabials dull yellow. A small, well defined, 
black spot on the outer end of each ventral scute, forming with its 
fellows a row of spots along either side of the abdomen. Ends of 
ventrals outside of spots gray finely speckled with black. Middle of 
the abdomen said to be red in life, in alcohol it becomes vellow. 


Habits and Habitat: This snake is apparently very rare in Michi- 
gan. We have seen but two specimens, as stated below. These 
were both taken in a large tamarack swamp. It is said (Cope, 

1900, 997; Ditmars, 1907, 262) to frequent damp woods and to be 
found generally under logs; also that when near it it will take 
to the water and dive to the bottom like a true water snake. It is 
reported to feed largely on small frogs and toads, and that captive 
specimens will eat fish (Ditmars, 1907, 262) and slugs (Atkinson, 

1901, 150). The young are born alive. 

Range: The species has been reported from: Ann Arbor (Smith, 
1879, 6), Kalamazoo (Cope, 1900, 997) Ann Arbor and Kalamazoo 
(Clark, 1905, 109). 

The two specimens of this snake described above were taken near 
Ann Arbor. They are the only ones the writer has seen. 



Coluber vernalis, Sager, 1839, 302. 

Liopeltis vernalis, Smith, 1879, 7. Clark, 1902, 193; 1905, 110. 
Notestein, 1905, 118. Cope, 1900, 782-784. Kuthven, 1911, 
115; 1911a, 267. 
Chlorosoma vernalis, Miles, 1861, 233. 

Description: A slender and rather small snake, attaining a 
length of one and one-half feet. Bod}^ about same diameter through- 
out, i. e., not tapering strongly toward the extremities, but the head 
well marked off. Cephalic plates normal in arrangement, rostral 
normal in form. Sides of head high, but muzzle short which tends 
to crowd out the x)lates in front of the eye. Nasals fused. Loreal 
when present of normal height but nearly as often absent as pres- 
ent; -when absent it is fused with nasal. Nostril lateral. 

Dorsal scale rows 15 throughout the entire length of the body, 
scales smooth. Supralabials usually 7, occasionally 8; infralabials 
usually 8, frequently 7, and rarely 9. Oculars usually 2-2, occasion- 
ally 1-2, rarely 1-3 or 2-3. Yentrals 123-134; subcaudals 71-84 
(Baird and Girard cite an example with 94). Anal plate divided. 

Uniformly bright green above and yellowish white beneath. 

Habits and Habitat: The grass snake is an exceedingly beautiful, 
agile, and harmless little snake that in Michigan is usualh' found 
in dry open clearings. It is generally on the ground but may 
climb small shrubs. The following definite observations on the food 
habits have appeared in the literature : snails, spidei^, insect frag- 
ments, larvae, unidentified orthoptera, crickets, grasshoppers, un- 



identified lepidoptera, measuring worms, ground beetles {Bar pains 
sp.), red ants, striped salamander (Surface, 1906, 165-lCG) ; insects 
(Ditmars, 1907, 324-325) ; grasshoppers (Atkinson, 1901, 148) ; 
spiders, grasshoppers and crickets, but in preference to anything 




Fig. 37. Distribution of Liopeltlis vcrnalis. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only, 

of this character will take the larvae or caterpillars of certain 
moths'' (Ditmars, 1907, 325). 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 302; Miles, 1861, 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 7), Detroit 
(Cope, 1900, 783), Eaton County (Clark, 1902, 193), Olivet, Ann 
Arbor, and Barry, Kalamazoo, Kent, Montcalm and Van Buren 


Counties (Clark, 1905, 110), Huron County (Rutliven, 1911a, 267) 
and Cheboygan County (Rutliyen, 1911, 115). Specimens from the 
following localities haye been examined : Ann Arbor, Washtenaw 
Count}', Au Sable Riyer. Oscoda County, Brighton, Liyingston 
County, Higgins Lake, Roscommon County, Grayling, Crawford 
County, Trayerse City, Grand Trayerse County, Bad Axe and Sand 
Point, Huron County, Manistee, Manistee County, Douglas Lake, 
Cheboygan County, Brown Lake, Dickinson County, Alma, Gratiot 
Count}', Eaton County, Mackinac County, and Dr. F. N. Xotestein 
informs me that he saw specimens in Otsego County in 1911. 



Coluher punctatus, Sager, 1839, 302. 

Biadophis punctatus, Clark, 1902, 193; 1905, 110. Xotestein, 1905, 
119. Smith, 1879, 7. Ruthyen, 1906, 111; 1911, 114. Miles, 
1861, 233. Cope, 1900, 751-753. 

Description: A small snake that attains a length of about a foot 
or eighteen inches. Head flat and broad, low on the sides. Eye 
small. Two nasal plates. 

The scutellation is described as follows : Dorsal scale rows 15, 
the scales smooth. Supralabials usually 8, often 7; infralabials 8. 
Oculars 2-2, temporals 1-1. Yentrals 141-161, subcaudals 36-56. Anal 
plate diyided. In the three specimens examined by us (from Ann 
Arbor, Oliyet and Oakland County) the scutellation is : dorsals 15 
throughout the length of the body, supralabials 7-8, 7-7, 8-7, in- 
fralabials 8-8, 7-7 in two, oculars 2-2 in two, 2-1 in one, temporals 
1-1 on each side, yentrals 144, 148, 159, subcaudals 57, 50, ?. 

The writer has seen but one liye specimen of this snake in Michi- 
gan. Hay (1892a, 493) describes the coloration as follows: "The 
color aboye yaries in the subspecies, or yarieties, from oliye through 
gray to blue-black; below from yellowish white to orange and red, 
with more or fewer dark spots. There is usually a light ring 
around the neck, close to the head. 

"The form in Indiana is the topical pimctatus. The color above 
is a bluish black or a dark ash, with a wash of bronzy that extends 
down to the lowest rows of scales. Below, the color is orange or 
deep red, somewhat ]jalest in front. On the outer ends of each of 
the yentrals there is a small black spot, and these are inyolyed in 
the color of the dorsal scales. Near the middle line of the yentrals 
may be two rows of dark spots, or the spots on the yentrals may 


unite to form transverse bars. The ring around the neck is orange, 
edged with black. It is one or two scales in width. Upper labials 

Hahlts and Hahitat: But little has been recorded on the habits 
of this snake. B}' far the best account is that of Ditmars (1907, 
335). ''The Ringnecked snake is a secretive species, hiding under 
the loose, rotting bark of fallen trees, among loose rocks or under 
flat stones. It is seldom seen abroad and if it ventures from its 
lairs, usually i)rowls at night. In the North the writer has col- 
lected large numbers of these pretty snakes b}" turning over flat 
stones. He remembers a particular stone, about the size of an ordi- 
nary i)latter, lying near the edge of heavy timber, in Sullivan 
County, New York, that appeared to be a favorite hiding place for 
snakes of this species. In his daily trips to the woods, this stone 
was always turned over, and generally to disclose a ring-necked 
snake, snugly coiled beneath it. Many specimens were taken at 
this spot. They had apparently prowled about the clearing at 
night and on their way back to the thicket, and its hiding places, 
had discovered the shelving stone. 

"In the South, large numbers of these reptiles were collected by 
stripping the bark from fallen trees. To find fifty or more speci- 
mens during a half-days hunt for various reptiles that select such 
hiding places, was not unusual. The Ringnecked Snakes were most 
frequently found under the bark of trees infested by" ants; often 
the working streams of these insects would pass but a fraction of 
an inch from the spot where the reptile lay coiled. In one instance, 
while pursuing some entomological investigations during the early 
spring, the writer exliumed one of these snakes while digging 
through a large and thickly populated ant hill." 

The Oakland County specimen (see below) was found under the 
bark of a decaying stum[). 

It has been said to feed on the following forms : snakes. lizards, 
amphibians, insects and earthworms. S])ecific records are as fol- 
lows: green snake, Liopeltis vernalis^ and red-bellied snakes, 
Storeria occipifoiiuiciilata (Ditmars, 1907, 330) ; frog, Engystoma 
caroUnense (Cope, 1900, 753) ; beetles and earthworms, (Atkinson, 
1901, 148) ; insects (beetles and undetermined fragments), sala- 
mander, Pletliodon cinereus, and undetermined remains (Surface, 
1906, 173). 

The ringnecked snake is oviparous. The following account of the 
breeding habits is from Surface (1900, 172). "The latent gonads 
or undeveloped eggs are one-fourth inch in length and commence to 



develop in May, when thev reach a length of one-half inch, and by 
the middle of June they are practically developed or over one inch 
long. They are laid from the middle of June to July or August and 
each is covered with a thin opaque shell, white and leathery, and 

Fig. 38. Distribution of Diadophis punctata. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

very irregular in shape and size. They hatch in September and 
October, and the young are about four inches in length at the time 
of hatching.'^ 

Range: The ringnecked snake is evidently rare in the state. The 
species has been reported from Michigan (Sager, 1839, 302; Miles, 
1861, 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 7), Grayling (Cope, 1900, 


753), Eaton County (Clark, 1902, 193), Olivet, Kalamazoo, Mont- 
calm and Van Buren Counties (Clark, 1905, 110), Marquette (Ruth- 
ven, 1906, 111), Pine Lake, Oakland County (Ruthven, 1911, 114), 
but there is great probability that some of these records refer to 
3^oung specimens of Storeria. The Marquette record is particularly 
open to question and has not been recorded upon the map. We 
have seen specimens from: Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County (a 
single specimen taken many years ago and now in the Museum), 
Pine Lake, Oakland County, Olivet, Eaton County, Alma, Gratiot 
County, and Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County, and Dr. F. N. 
Notestein informs the writer that he saw the species in numbers 
in Otsego County in 1911. 


(PI. X.) 

Colu'ber constrictor^ Sager, 1839, 302. 

Bascanion constrictor constrictor, Notestein, 1905, 119. Clark, 

1905, 110. Smith, 1879, 7. 
Bascanion foxii, Baird and Girard, 1853, 96. Miles, 1861, 233. 
Zamenis constrictor, Clark, 1902, 193; 1903, 172-173. 
Bascanion canstrictor foxi, Smith, 1879, 7. 

Bascanion constrictor, Baird and Girard, 1853, 93-94. Whittaker, 
1905, 100-102. Miles, 1861, 233. Cope, 1900, 701-797. 
Hankinson, 1908, 236. Thompson, 1911, 107. 

Description: A large snake that often attains a length of about 
six* feet. Head somewhat flattened from the nape, but profile curv- 
ing downward anterior to the eye, high on the sides and sides con- 
cave in front of eye. Xostril and ej^e large. 

Dorsal scale rows 17-15 in ever}- specimen examined. Suprala- 
bials 7, frequently 8; infralabials 8 or 9. Oculars 1-2, generally* a 
small plate under the preocular. Temporals usually two in the first 
row. Ventrals 175-192; subcaudals 88-92. Anal plate divided. 

Michigan specimens when adult usually uniformly dull bluish 
green above, rarely darker than dark olive, becoming black only on 
the temporal region and more or less brownish toward the end of 
the muzzle. Color of ventral surface nearly always greenish or 
bluish white, although frequently tinged with yellow. 

The young differ so markedly from the adults that a superficial 
examination would seem to indicate that thev belono^ to a different 
species, and as a matter of fact they are frequently confused with 


the milk snake (Lampropeltis doliatus triangulus) . Specimens less 
than one and one-half feet in length may be described as follows: 
ground color dark olive, this color belonging mostly to the centers 
of the scales, the edges being paler. A roAV of large blotches on the 
back, extending about to the fourth row of scales, about 3 to 4 
scales long, and separated on the median line by about the length of 
half a scale. These spots with dark brown to black margins, the 
centers, in some cases at least, light brownish olive. Exterior to 
the dorsal blotches, on the first four rows of dorsal scales, numer- 
ous small and irregular black spots. Top and sides of head, and the 
pale ventral surface also marked with numerous small, black spots. 

Hahlts and Habitat: The blue-racer is most frequently found in 
(]ry, open situations, general!}' near or in thickets. It also frequents 
liedge rows, and stone walls. It is a good climber and is not in- 
frequently found several feet from the ground in bushes and twenty 
(►r thirty feet up in trees (Plate X). It is extremely graceful and 
agile as are all of the members of the genus, and very frequently 
eludes a would be captor. It will fight furiously when cornered 
or captured, but its small teeth can do little more than puncture 
the skin. As every herptologist knows, the blue-racer is not venom- 
ous (as popularly supposed), but entirely harmless, so that even 
the largest specimens ma^^ be handled with impunity. Indeed they 
make rather interesting pets, and soon cease to resent handling. 
The senseless slaughter of this beautiful snake is as much a dis- 
grace to anv civilized community as is the similar destruction of 
song birds, and an all too common occurrence in southern Michi- 
gan. Large and conspicuous, the adults often fall prey to the 
ignorance and superstition of people who should know better. 
The writer recalls an instance when a farmer shoAved him with 
great satisfaction six splendid specimens not one of them under five 
feet, which he had killed in a brush pile, under the impression that 
he -Avas greatly benefiting the community by ridding it of six very 
dangerous animals. 

The food of the blue-racer consists of small mammals, birds, bird 
eggs, other reptiles, amphibians and possibly insects. Exact records 
of stomach examinations or direct observations of the food habits 
are few. The principle food seems to be small mammals, and birds 
probably occupy a second place. Surface (1906, 170) states that in 
the Pennsylvania specimens examined by him the meadow mouse 
[Microtiis pemisylvanicus) formed a large percent of the stomach 
contents. He sums up the results of an examination of a 
series of stomachs as follows: insects 25%; snakes (garter snakes, 



green snake, water snake) 15%; field mice 22%; bird eggs (robin) 
8%; rabbits 4%; voles 4%; frogs (green frog, wood frog) 7%%; 
birds 4%; mammals miidentified 7%; larvae of Royal Moth 3%%. 
Atkinson (1901, 147) records a Aveasel in the stomach of a Pennsyl- 
vania specimen. 

Fig. 39. Distribution of Bascanion constrictor. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

The writer has never been able to induce captive specimens of 
this snake to eat toads or frogs but that they prey on these forms 
to some extent is proved by the observations of Surface. It will 
probably be found, however, that amphibians form a very minor 
part of the food. Also as regards insects it is doubtful if the blue- 
racer preys on any of these directly except possibly the large 


lepidopterous larvae. That snakes are eaten is shown by the obser- 
vations of Cragin (1878, 820-821), Verrill (1869, 158-159), Cones 
(1878, 269), Ditmars (1907, 282), Surface (1906, 168), and Putnam 
(1868, 136) ; and it is interesting to note that in the instance ob- 
served by Yerrill it was a copper-head that was eaten, while the 
specimen observed by Cones killed and devoured a rattle-snake. 
This suggests that the species is, like the king-snake, immune to the 
poison of these venomous serpents. 

Early writers supposed that this snake was a constrictor, a fact 
denied by some later writers. The truth is about mid-way between 
these views. In capturing small prey it simply seizes the animal in 
the mouth as do garter snakes, or at most after seizing the prey 
partly holds it by covering it with a portion of its body. This 
is exactly the same as does the king snake [Lampropeltis getiilus), 
w^hich is commonly said to be a constrictor. It is true of both 
species that when a snake is captured the captor winds a coil or 
two about the captive and thus secures it until swallowed. When a 
king snake captures a large mammal (e. g., a rat) it constricts it 
until dead, and it is possible that the blue racer does likewise. 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 302; Miles, 1861, 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 7), Eaton 
County (Clark, 1902, 193; 1903, 172, 173; Whittaker, 1905, 100- 
102), "Oceana and Muskegon to Arenac, Saginaw and St. Clair 
Counties and southward" (Clark,- 1905, 110), Grosse Isle (Cope, 
1900, 795, 797; Baird and Girard, 1853, 93-94), Walnut Lake, Oak- 
land County (Hankinson, 1908, 236), and Cass County (Thompson, 
1911, 107). We have examined specimens from various parts of 
Washtenaw County, from Walnut Lake, Oakland County, Alma, 
Gratiot County, Cass County, and the photographs (PI. X) were 
made near Hamburg, Livingston County. 



Coliiher eximkis, Sager, 1839, 302. 

Opliiholus eximius, Miles, 1861, 233. 

OjMholiis triangulus, Smith, 1879, 6. 

Osceola doliata triangula, Clark, 1902, 194, and 1904, 173. 

Lampropeltis doliatus triangulus, Clark, 1905, 110. Notestein, 1905, 

118-119. Hankinson, 1908, 236. Ruthven, 1911, 115, 1911a, 

Opluljolus doliatus triangulus, Thompson, 1911, 107. 
Description: A medium sized snake, attaining a length of about 


three feet. Body of nearly the same diameter from the head to the 
tail. Head relatively small, broad and flat, as compared with the 
usual form as exhibited, for instance, in the garter snakes. The 
sides of the head are low in the milk snake so that the nasals, loreal 
and oculars are also low, and the whole head is short, and the eye 
small. Cephalic plates normal in number and form. Eostral nor- 
mal. Temporals usually 2 in the first row. A single loreal. Nasals 
two, the nostril between them. 

Dorsal scale formula usually 21-19-17: scales smooth and with 
two pits. Supralabials 7; infralabials usually 9, occasionally 7 or 


8. Oculars 1-2. Temporals usually 2. Ventrals 195-201; subcau- 
dals 42-51. Anal plate entire. 

Ground color brownish ash or brownish yellow. Five series of 
dorsal blotches of which those of the median row are much the 
largest, broader than long and involve twelve to fifteen rows across 
the back. They are chestnut brown (inclining to red in the young) 
to olive brown in color, and bordered with black. On the sides, 
involving the second to fifth rows, and alternating with the verte- 
bral series, a row of smaller circular brownish spots, and below 
and alternating with these another series of small black spots that 
involves the edges of the ventral plates and the first one to three 
dorsal scale rows. Belly white blotched with small squares of 
black. Tail crossed by half rings of black. A dark band across 
the posterior half of the prefrontals another from the eye to the 
corner of the mouth. On the nape a large spot of the ground color 
usually surrounded bv extensions of the first dorsal blotch, these 
extensions uniting again on the parietals in a blotch that includes 
a V or heart-shaped spot of the ground color; but there are many 
variations from this arrangement. 

HaMts and Eahitat: The milk snake is a rather common snake 
in southern Michigan, although not as frequently seen as some of 
the other species. Its apparent rarity is due to its secretiveness. 
It lives principally in and under fallen logs in the woods, but is 
found commonly about barns and outbuildings, probably in search 
of food. The name is a misnomer and originated in the popular 
idea that these snakes suck cow^s or steal milk from pans in the 
dairies. It is hardlv necessary to state that this is an absolute 
fallacy. The food, as shown bv examinations of stomach contents 
and by direct observations, is as follows : slugs, unidentifiable in- 
vertebrates, red-bellied snake (Storeria occipitomaculata) , DeKays 
snake {Storeria clekayi), unidentifiable bird, robins eggs, unidenti- 
fied mammals, jumping mouse, unidentifiable mouse, meadow mouse. 
Microtis sp?, white footed mouse, house mouse (Surface, 1906, 



179-180) •; ''Young of other snakes, besides such lizards as the blue- 
tailed and the swift, Avhich it hunts at night as these creatures 
take refuge in the crevices of bark on fallen trees. The writer dis- 
sected a specimen that had been killed in a barn, in Sullivan 




Fig. 40. Distribution of Lampropeltis doliatus triangulus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

Countv, N. Y. The stomach contained five very voung rats" (Dit- 
mars, 1907, 344) ; Matrix leheris (Queen snake) and mice (Atkinson, 
1901, 150) ; mice Arvlcola rlparia, (Cope, 1900. 886) ; garter snake 
(Merriam, 1878) ; Eumeces quinquilhieatus L. (Blue-tailed skink) 
and the mouse Peromyscus 'bairdii (Kuthven, 1911a, 208). 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 


1839, 302; Miles, 1861, p. 233), Auii Arbor (Smith, 1879, i). (3), 
Eaton County (Clark, 1902, p. 194), Ann Arbor, Kalamazoo and 
Olivet, and Antrim, Barry, Montcalm, Kent, Ottawa and A^an Buren 
Counties (Clark, 1905, p. 110), Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County 
(Kuthven, 1911, 115), Oakland County (Hankinson, 1908, p. 236), 
Stony Island and the sand region of Huron County (Ruthven, 
1911a, 267-268), Cass County (Thomi)son, 1911, 107). The writer 
has examined specimens from the following localities : Ann Arbor, 
Washtenaw County; Brighton, Livingston County; Jackson, Jack- 
son County; l*ontiac and Walnut Lake, Oakland (Jounty; Shelby, 
Oceana Count}'; Charity Island, Saginaw Bay, Stony Island and 
the sand region of Huron County, Douglas Lake, Cheboygan 
Countv, Alma, Gratiot Countv, Osceola Countv, Cass Countv. 



(PI. VI.) 

Coluder saurita, Sager, 1839, 302. 

Eutaenia saurltns, Miles, 1861, 233. Notestein, 1905, 114. Smith, 

Thamnotphh saurita, Clark, 1902, 194; 1905, 109. Ruthven, 1906, 

112; 1908, 112-119; 1911a, 269. 
ThamnopJiis faireiji, Kirsch, 1895, 333. 

Description: A slender, long-tailed snake, attaining a length of 
two to two and one-half feet. Head small, distinct from neck, 
rather high on the sides, slightly concave in preocular region. 
Cephalic plates normal; two nasals; one loreal. Nostrils lateral, 
between nasals. 

Dorsal scale rows 19-17. Supralabials usually 7, occasionally 6 
or 8; infralabials 10, occasionally 9 or 11. Oculars 1-3, occasion- 
ally 1-2 ; temporals 1 in the first row, and 2 in the second. Yentrals 
157-169; subcaudals 87-112. Anal single. 

The ground color above is usually chocolate brown, varying from 
light olive-brown to black. There are three light yellowish stripes 
— a dorsal (cm the median and halves of adjacent rows) and two 
laterals (on the third and fourth rows) — all three of which are 
usually brightly colored, the dorsal generally tinged Avith orange, 
the laterals with green. The lateral black spots generally found on 
the skin in the garter snakes are seldom distinct, but are not always 
entirely fused. The ground color of the head is like that of the 
dorsal surface. There is usually a small pair of bright yellow spots 
15 • 



on the suture of the parietals, and another large yellow spot on 
the preoculars. The labials are generally nearly white and without 
black markings. The belly is pale greenish and yentral spots are 
usually wanting. 




* H I C A C O 

, lAKE 


Fig. 41. Distribution of Thamnophis sauritus. 
Horizontal ruling, specimen.s examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

Habits mid HaMtat: Kuthyen (1908, p. 112) describes the habits 
of this form as follows : ''Like the other members of the group, 
sauritus seems to be more than ordinarily aquatic in its habits, but 
apparently less so than either proximus or sackeni. In Michigan 
we haye generally found it about the margin of ponds and streams 
in damp woods. It is somewhat of a climber, and is occasionally 


found in bushes, several feet from the ground. When pursued it 
glides through the pools and herbage at an astonishing rate, and 
does not hesitate to take to water and conceal itself among the 
water plants, but it generally remains near the surface, and we 
have never observed it dive to the bottom like a natricid snake. 
There are numerous short notes in the literature, to the effect that 
sauritus prefers damp situations. 

"Ditmars (1907, 217-219) states that it feeds on salamanders, tad- 
poles, frogs, and fish, but, like sackeni, refuses earthworms. Two 
other writers, Atkinson (1901, 151) and Surface (190G, 142-143), 
record insects in stomachs examined. The latter gives the following 
as making up the stomach contents of Pennsylvania specimens : 
Earthw^orms, spiders, insect fragments, ants, Pletliodon cinereus, 
Spelerpes hilineatus, Hyla versicolor. It should be noted that the 
insects may have been contained in the stomachs of the frogs and 
salamanders. The number of young is comparatively small; we 
have counted the embryos in a few specimens, and they seem to 
average about a dozen." 

Range: The eastern ribbon snake is not very common in Michi- 
gan, at least it is rarely taken by collectors. It has thus far only 
been found in the southern peninsula. The specimen from 
Roscommon County, listed below, is the most northern 
record. A specimen has been recorded from Isle Royale in the 
museum catalog (Ruthven, 1906, 112), but this record is very doubt- 
ful and has not been indicated on the map. It has been reported 
from: Michigan (Sager, 1839, 302; Miles, 1861, 233), Hudson, 
Lenawee County (Kirsch, 1895, 333), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 6), 
Eaton County (Clark, 1902, 194), Ann Arbor, Olivet, and Barry, 
Kalamazoo, Kent, Montcalm, Ottawa and Van Buren Counties 
(Clark, 1905, 109), Roscommon, Gratiot, Eaton, Washtenaw, 
Lapeer, Ingham Counties (Ruthven, 1908, 112), the sand region of 
Huron County from Sand Point to Port Austin (Ruthven, 1911a, 
269). Specimens from the folloAving localities have been examined: 
various parts of Washtenaw County, Pontiac and Walnut Lake, 
Oakland County, Detroit, Wayne Count}^, Alma, Gratiot County, 
Eaton Count} , Lapeer County, and Lansing, Ingham County. 




Eutainia 'bracluj stoma, Clark, 1903a, 1904, 194. 
Eutaenia 'butler i, Notestein, 114. 

Thamnopliis lutleru Clark, 1905, 109. Rntliven, 1904, 289-299; 
1909a, 116; 1908, 87-9G; 1911a, 2G8-2G9. Wliittaker, 1905. 

Description: A small rather thick-bodied snake attaining a 
length of about twelve inches. Head small and usnally not very 
distinct from neck, somewhat elevated behind, and sloping qnickly 
down to the point of the snont. Muzzle short. Sides of head 
moderately high, concave in preocular region. Eye small. Cephalic 
plates normal; two nasals and one loreal. Nostril lateral, between 
the nasals. 

Dorsal scales usuallv 19-17, occasionally 17-19-17 or 17-19-17-15. 
Supralabials 6 or 7, rarely 8, average between 6 and 7 ; infralabials 
G, 1, 8, 9, or 10, average between 8 and 9. Temporals 1 in first 
row and 1 large or 1 large and 1 small in second row. Ventrals 
134-14G (males), 132-140 (females), subcaudals Gl-GG (males), 49-58 
(females). Anal plate single. 

Ground color above some shade of dark olive brown, with three 
(a dorsal and two lateral) bright yellow or greenish yellow stripes. 
The dorsal stripe is usually on the median and halves of the ad- 
jacent rows, and .the laterals upon the third and more or less of the 
second and fourth rows. The color of the first and adjacent half of 
the second rows of scales is generally not lighter than the ground 
color above. There are two rows of black spots on the skin — en- 
croaching on the scales along the stripes in specimens light enough 
to show them — but these often lose their identity' by fusing irregu- 
larly. Belly pale greenish, the only markings being a small black 
spot at either end of each ventral scute. 

Habits and Habitat: The following account of the habits of this 
snake is taken from the monograph of the genus by the 
writer (Ruthven. 1908, 89-91) ; ''In southern Michigan I have only 
taken it in the immediate vicinity of water, either about the margin 
of swampy places or on the banks of streams. This may be a coin- 
cidence, but it is in accord Avith all of the specimens collected 
throughout the range which have habitat data. I have found them 
most frequently by overturning boards, etc., in such places, al- 
though they are also found crawling about in the long grass and 

'"It is in disposition a rather sluggish snake, seldom attempts to 


defend itself, and when surprised is usually easily captured. The 
ease with which they are captured is in part due to their inability 
to escape, owing to the extreme awkwardness of their movements on 
land. When moving slowly this is scarcely noticeable, but Avhen 
they attempt to move rapidly to escape capture their efforts are 
peculiarly odd and ineffective. The movements consist in throwing 
the body in long curves in a manner closely analogous to the wig- 
gling motion by which garter-snakes swim in deep Avater, and which 
results in much movement and muscular effort, but very little prog- 
ress. This movement may be greatlj^ augmented by putting the 
snake on a smooth surface, but it is not entire!}" due to the nature 
of the surface, as it can scarcely make any headway' on a surface 
where sirtalis will glide away with comparative ease. This is one 
of the most striking characteristics of hutleri and was first noticed 
by Eeddick (1895, 261), who comments upon it in the following 
words : 'It is short and chubbv, and its movement is verv character- 
istic of it. It does not have the gliding movement of E. saurita nor 
the swift and active movement of the Xatrlx slpedon, but seems 
rather to exert a large amount of force to do little crawling. The 
movement is so characteristic that I believe anvone having once 
seen the peculiar way in Avhicli it tries to hurry itself away would 
ever after be able to recognize it at a distance.' 

''Fortunately no doubt attaches to the species w^hich Mr. Eeddick 
had, for tlie specimen upon which this observation was based has 
been examined, and it is unquestionably a 'butler L The movement 
seems to be verv similar to the method of locomotion described for 
the so-called at rata specimens of ordlnoides byDitmars (1907, 227). 

''Observations upon the food habits of butler I are but f ragmen t- 
arv. As announced in 1904, it is fond of eartliworms and small 
frogs, but I have since found that in captivity it apparently prefers 
small fish. As a rule it is impossible to get them to take either 
worms or frogs if dead, but it is apparently a matter of unconcern 
to them whether the fish be alive or dead, as tliev will greedilv eat 
specimens of the latter which have begun to decompose. Young in- 
dividuals four or five davs old will eat as manv as three or four 
small minnows successivelv. 

''Females taken in July are usually pregnant, and the number of 
young is apparently small. In the specimens examined the number 
of embryos is about twelve to fifteen. One specimen which was 
taken in late July, 1905, and kept in captivitj^ gave birth during 
the first part of August to ten young. The members of this brood 
were not all born on the same date, but appeared at different times 



between August 7 and 20, a difference of thirteen days. This is an 
unusual occurrence among the garter-snakes, and is undoubtedly 
abnormal, for, as far as we have observed, it has been invariably 
the rule that the entire brood appeared within a few hours at most. 

Fig. 42. Distribution of Thamnophis butlerii. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

We have seen but one other specimen give birth to young, and there 
were four in this brood. The 3'oung when but a few days old will 
struggle eagerly with earthworms or minnows, capturing the latter 
in a small dish of water or taking them from the fingers. For the 
first three or four days they are very secretive and can be seen only 
b}' overturning the moss and stones in the cage, except when they 


come out to feed. They have not been observed to feed during the 
first three days, but after this they will come out freely to gorge 
themselves on fish, returning again beneath the stones when satis- 
fied. One of these young snakes was kept for three months, in 
which time it attained to the respectable length of 150 mm." 

An additional observation on the food-habits was made in 1908, 
when several leeches were taken from the stomach of a specimen 
taken under a stone on the shore of Stony Island, Huron County 
(Ruthven, 1911a, 268). In nature the form probably subsists 
largely on such weak food. 

Range: Thamnophis hiitlerii is rather common in southern Michi- 
gan as far north as the tier of counties represented by Eaton, Oak- 
land and Ingham. A few specimens taken by the State Biological 
Surve} on the south side of Saginaw Bay (Rush Lake and Stony 
Island, Huron County) in 1908 represent the most northern record, 
and they were apparently rare in that region (Ruthven 1909a, 116; 
1911a, 268). It has been reported from Olivet, Eaton County (Clark, 
1903a, 83-88), Brighton, Livingston County, Washtenaw County, 
Eaton County (Ruthven, 1904), Pontiac, Oakland County (Ruth- 
ven, 1908, 92), and Ann Arbor and Chelsea, Washtenaw County 
(Clark, 1905, 109). 


(PI. XII.) 

Coluber. sirtcdis, Sager, 1839, 302. 

Thamnophis sirtaUs, Clark, 1905, 109 ; 1902, 194. Kirsch, 1895, 333. 

Ruthven, 1909, 332-333; 1908, 176-186; 1911, 115; 1911a, 268. 

Hankinson, 1908, 236. Thompson, 1911, 106. 
Eutaenia sirtalis sirtalis, Xotestein, 1905, 115. Ruthven, 1904a. 

189-191. Cope, 1900, 1069-1074. 
TJiamnophis sirtalis sirtalis, Ruthven, 1906, 31, 34, 36, 49, 50, 111. 

Sperry, 1903, 175-179. 
Eutaenia sirtalis ordinatus, Notestein, 1905, 115. 
Eutaenia sirtalis parietalis, Notestein, 1905, 115. Smith, 1879, 6. 
Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, Ruthven, 1906, 49, 50, 53, 111-112. 

Clark, 1902, 194. Sperry, 1903, 175-179. 

♦Although recorded from the state the western subspecies T. s. parietalis does not occur 
within our limits. Nevertheless some Isle Royale specimens have tne interspaces between 
lateral spots generally suffused with red, showing a strong tendency toward the western variety 
(Cf. Ruthven, 1906, 111-112.) 


Description: A medimu sized snake attainino' a length of one 
and a half to two or three feet. Head generally Avell elevated be- 
hind, elongate, high and straight on sides, concave in preocular 
region. Cephalic plates normal. Two nasals and one loreal; nos- 
tril lateral and between the two nasals. 

Dorsal scales 19-17, supralabials 7, occasionally 8, much more 
rarely 6; infralabials 10, occasionally 8, or 11. A single preocnlar 
and usually 3 postoculars. A single anterior temporal. Ventral 
plates 141-108; subcaudals 51-84. Anal plate single. 

The coloration consists of three light stripes on a darker ground, 
the lateral stripes on the second and third rows, the dorsal on the 
median and halves of the adjacent rows. The first row of scales 
much lighter than the ground color above, usually greenish or 
yellowish, at least the upper half. The color between the stripes 
may be uniformly black or broAvn, or olivaceous with two rows of 
alternating, usually poorly defined, black spots. Kegardless of the 
color of the scales between the stripes, however, there may nearly 
always be seen, on stretching the skin, two rows of prominent black 
spots separated by pale interspaces. Along the lateral stripes the 
interspaces may occasionally be red. The stripes may be yellowish, 
greenish or bluish, and the laterals when greenish or bluish fre- 
quently blend with the first row. The dorsal stripe sometimes 
wanting. The ventral surface usually pale and free from promi- 
nent markings, except for a black spot on each end of the ventrals. 

Hahits and Hahitdt: Ruthven (1908, 177-179) has summarized 
the habits of this species as follows : ''The experience of the writer 
indicates that it is quite generally distributed in the Eastern forest 
region, for Avhile it is found most commonlv in the vicinitv of 
water, it is not uncommon in the clearings, woods, and thickets on 
the neighboring hills. 

"The food consists principally of frogs, toads, salamanders, earth- 
worms, and various insects. Whether or not it feeds to anv great 
extent upon tadpoles and fish is undetermined. Garman (1892, 
268) states that they eat these animals, and I have observed them to 
"capture fish in captivity, but since in the wild state they are not 
particularly aquatic, the truth of the matter is probably that they 
capture these forms when they encounter them in small pools, but 
that this is comparatively seldom. The number and kinds of insects 
eaten is also ji (piestionable point. It is true that many species are 
found in the stomachs examined, but, as Surface (1906, 149) says, 
many of these are 'taken inside of the toads and other batrachians 
which the garter-snake had eaten.' However, both adults and young 


are very fond of earthworms. As other garter-snakes, sirtalis ap- 
parently does not refuse dead food. ^Ir. N. A. Wood, of the Uni- 
versity of Michigan, reported to the writer, on ^lay 18, 1907, that 
he saw a specimen of this species swalh^wing a yeUow warbler, 
which he had observed lying dead in the same place on the preced- 
ing' day. In the latter part of October, 1907, the writer discovered 
an individual at Portage Lake, Washtenaw County, Michigan, 
bnsily engaged in an attempt to swallow the dried remains of a 
large green frog (Ekt)ia cUnnitans). 

''The breeding habits have been commented upon several times, . 
but are as yet only incompletely known. In southern Michigan 
copulation takes place in April, and at this time it is reported on 
good authority that these snakes often collect in groups, probably 
owing to the procreative impulse. I have not witnessed this nor 
can I find any observations on the act of copulation. The latter I 
have seen but once, and then but imperfectly. It took place, on 
April 21, 190C, between two specimens in captivity. The male in 
this case lav at full length beside the female, and evidentlv at- 
tempted to excite her by gently rubbing her neck with his snout. 
He finally threw a fold of his tail across hers, and turning his ven- 
tral surface against her side began spasmodic contractions of the 
abdominal muscles, which were continued from twenty to thirty 
minutes. Unfortunatelv the snakes were then disturbed and the 
observations ceased. They indicate, however, that there may be 
some interesting courtship reactions to be observed in these snakes. 

"The period of parturition extends from the latter part of July 
to about the middle of September. Both of these dates are only 
approximate, as definite observations are wanting. The number of 
young is very variable, the average range in number being prob- 
ably about 10-30, while as many as 78 have been recorded in a 
single brood, which is not at all an unusual number, since parietalis 
may have, according to our observations, as many as 73. After 
birth the young remain for a short time about the mother, but 
this time is probably limited to a few hours at most. In captivity 
there is little tendency discernable to stay near the mother, and al- 
though we have several times seen a mother and her brood in a 
wild state, in every case noted, when the mother became alarmed, 
or for some other reason moved away, the young scattered in all 
directions, and it is improbable that they ever came together again. 
The quickness and comi)leteness with wliicli the little snakes dis- 
appear when alarmed may partly exi)lain the fable that this snake 
swallows its voung. 


"Ditmars (1907, 235-23G) gives the following interesting account 
of the hibernating habits : • 

^The favorite situations in which to pass the cold months are in 
soft soil on a slope that faces the south. Here the reptiles burrow 
down a yard or more. Rock}' situations are often selected, and 
among the clefts and fissures, one opening into another, the snakes 
are enabled to retire to a considerable depth from the surface. 

^It is in the fall that these snakes congregate in large numbers on 
ground that is suitable for the winter's sleep. Here they sun them- 
selves during the middle of the da}', retiring into clefts and burrows 
during chilly autumn nights. As the nights become colder, their 
basking periods during the day are shortened, and finally, after 
the first severe frost, they remain below the ground for the winter. 
Instinct seemingly attracts them to these places of hibernation, for 
such spots are usually poor feeding grounds and have been devoid 
of snakes during the summer months. In spring, the breeding time, 
the reptiles remain in numbers until the weather has become well 
settled and the danger of needing good shelter from the cold spells 
has passed. Then they scatter into the ravines, the thickets, along 
streams and brooks, until the scene that has abounded with sinuous, 
craw'ling life is deserted.' 

^^This account harmonizes verv w'ell with the writer's observa- 
tions in southern Michigan. In the latter region they are found 
in the autumn on sunny hillsides in the immediate neighborhood 
of holes, into which they hasten when alarmed, but that they dig 
these holes themselves yet remains to be proven, nor after the be- 
ginning of the period of hibernation do they necessarily 'remain 
below the ground for the winter,' for if periods of marked modera- 
tion in the temperature occur they will come out in December. 
Januar}', or February. Thus, on January 22, 1906, which was a 
w^arm day (60° F.) in a period of very moderate temperature, a 
collector for the University of Michigan Museum reported seeing 
a large garter-snake near Grass Lake, Washtenaw^ County, Michi- 
gan, which was undoubtedly this species." 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 302; Miles, 1861, 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 6), Hudson 
and Manitou Beach, Lenawee County (Kirsch, 1895, 333), Grosse 
Isle and Port Huron (Cope, 1900, 1073), Eaton County (Clark, 
1902, 194), Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon County (Ruthven, 
1904, 189, 191), Ann Arbor, Olivet, and Antrim, Barry, Kalamazoo, 
Kent, Mackinac, Montcalm, Ottawa and Van Buren Counties 
(Clark, 1905, 109), Bessemer, Gogebic County, Isle Royale, Kewee- 



naw Count}', Limestone Momitain, Baraga Comity, Marquette, 
Marquette County, Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon County 
(Ruthven, 1906, 111-112), Washtenaw County, Kent County, Grosse 
Isle, Wayne County, Livingston County, Eaton County, Oakland 





W,^^^^ D Ml N f fv OF CANADA 

I L L ! N I S \ 

c K I c A c e 

Fig. 43. Distribution of Thamnophis sirtalis. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

County, Oceana County, Crawford County, Iosco County, Gratiot 
County, Isle Royale, Lake Superior, Ontonagon County, Gogebic 
County, Houghton County, Baraga County, Marquette County 
(Ruthven, 1908, 181), Walnut Lake, Oakland County (Hankinson, 
1908, 236), sand region of Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a, 268), 
Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County (Ruthven, 1911, 115), and Cass 


County (Thompson, 1911, 6). Specimens from the following locali- 
ties have been examined: Alma, Gratiot County, Washtenaw 
County, An Sable River, Crawford County, south branch of Au 
Sable River, Iosco County, Bessemer, Gogebic County, Walnut 
Lake, Pontiac and Birmingham, Oakland County, Brighton, Iosco, 
Livingston County, Denton, Wayne County, Isle Royale, Keweenaw 
County, Limestone Mountain, Baraga County, Marquette, Mar- 
quette County, Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon County, Shelby, 
Oceana County, Winona, Houghton County, Eaton County, Kent 
County, Grosse Isle, Wayne County, Douglas Lake, Cheboygan 
County, Brown Lake, Dickinson County, Charity Island, Saginaw 
Bay, sand region from Sand Point to Port Austin, Huron County, 
Cass County, Osceola County, and Dr. A. S. Pearse observed speci- 
mens in St. Joseph County in the spring of 1909. 



(PI. XI b.) 

Crotalus tergiminiis, Sager, 1839, 302. 

Caudisona tercjiminci, Gibbs, 1900, 12-13, 

>^lstrurus catemitus, Clark, 1902, 191, 1905, 110. Stejneger, 1893, 

413. Ruthven, 1911a, 270-271. Thompson, 1911, 107. 
^istrurus catenatus catenatus, Xotestein, 1905, 120. Cope, 1900, 

Crotalophorus tergeminus, Baird and Girard, 1853, 14-15. Smith, 

1879, G. 
Crotalophorus I'irtlandi, Holbrook, 1842, III, 32. 
Crotalophorus tergemlnus Idrtlamll, Smith, 1879, 6. Miles, 18C1, 


Description: A short thick-bodied snake attaining a length of 
two and one-half or three feet. Head broad and decidedly trianou- 
lar in shape, being much swollen through the back part, and termi- 
nating in a blunt snout. Generally a slight concavity in the frontal 
region. Cephalic plates normal in arrangement, but parietal 
plates small, which together with the broad head and a rather well 
defined canthus rostralis makes the area covered by the cephalic 
plates broadly oval in outline. Sides of head high and without or 
witli onh' a slight concavity in the loreal region. Eye small, situ- 
ated high up on head, with an elli])tical pupil, and over-hung by the 
supraoculars. A deep pit in the loreal region. Temporal region 
occupied by four or five rows of smooth scales. Tail terminating 
in a rattle. 


Dorsal scale rows usually 25-28-21-19, fmiuently 23-21-(19). 
Siipralabials 11-13 in number, separated from the orbit by a row 
of small scales that is continuous with the postoculars; infrala- 
bials usually about 11 to 14. Two preoculars, elongated anteriorly, 
the upper meeting the posterior nasal scute, Loreal small and 
trapezoidal in form, Ventrals lo4-14T; subcaudals 22-30, undivided. 
Anal plate single. 

Ground color above grayish or ash, relieved by several series of 
deep brown blotches that form cross bands on the tail. Spots of 
the dorsal series large, and transversely and irregularly oblong in 
form. Below and alternating Avith the vertebral row a row of 
small rounded spots, and below these a series of large blotches 
transversely oblong and extending to the second row of scales, and 
alternating with these another series of small spots on the first 
and second scale rows. Spots of all of the series, with the excep- 
tion of the row of small rounded blotches exterior to the vertebral 
series, margined with an inner black and an outer pale yellow line. 
Dorsal blotches occasionally divided or fused with the upper row 
of lateral spots, A pair of elongated spots similar to the other 
dorsal spots in color extend from the cephalic plates to the neck, 
and another on either side extends backward from the orbit. In- 
ferior yellow margin of the latter well developed between the eye 
and the angle of the mouth forming a narrow yellow band. Two 
diverging yellow lines from the pit to the lip. Head dark brown, 
as the dorsal blotches, but with a light brownish band between the 
eyes and occasionally light marks on the posterior head ])lates. 
Color underneath black irregularly broken up with pale yellow. 

Hal)its and Hahltat: The rattle snake, or massauger, as it is 
generally known, is the only poisonous snake in Michigan ; a state- 
ment which when generally known should stop the wholesale de- 
struction of the harmless snakes practiced by most i)ersons who 
come in contact with them. Needless to sav this snake should be 
avoided as it is distinctly venomous, but on the other hand most of 
the current stories about it must be discredited for it is doubtful 
if its bite is sufficiently noxious to kill a healthv adult. It is a 
sluggish snake, slow to bite, and usually gives warning with its 
rattle before striking. It is thus little to be feared. 

It prefers the vicinity of swamps, although not aquatic in its 
habits, and is becoming yearly more rare in this region. Its ex- 
tinction is probably due to several causes chief of which is the 
draining of swamps and the killing of great numbers by farmers. 
An excellent general account of the habits of the species is given 
by Hay (1887). 


Very few observations have been made on the food habits of this 
snake. Taylor (1892, 357) writes on the snbject as follow^s: "The 
contents of the stomachs of this species shows that its food is al- 
most wholly made up of mice and animals of that class. Aside from 
well known venomous qualities this snake has no bad habits and is 
decidedlv useful. It is said that rats and mice will very soon dis- 
appear w^hen the presence of this reptile is known. In at least one 
instance we have known this statement to be true. It was noticed 
that rats which a few days previous had been extremely numerous 
in a certain cellar had wholly disappeared. AVithin a few days 
more the mvsterv was solved by findino- a huffe rattler in the door- 
way. These facts fully account for the frequent finding of rattlers 
around old cellars, buildings, etc., where thej' go to hunt for their 
choice food." Ditmars (1907, 438) states that his captive specimens 
"would take young birds, mice and frogs, and, like the copperhead 
snake, different kinds of food according to the seasons, a trait prob- 
ably developed by necessity while in the Avild state." 

Our observations on the food habits of the species differ from 
those of Taylor in that frogs form the bulk of the stomach contents 
in the specimens we have examined. We have also found in two 
instances snakes (one a rattlesnake) in stomachs examined, and in 
one case it was evident that the snake eaten had been dead for a 
considerable time before it was eaten (Ruthven, 1911a, 270). 

The young are brought into the world alive, i. e., the eggs are not 
laid. There are, according to Hay, usually about six young in a 
brood, and they are about six inches long. 

Many erroneous opinions are current concerning this snake. 
Among these are that the number of rattles indicates the age of an 
individual, one rattle being added each year. The researches on 
the growth of the rattle all agree that each ring represents the 
epidermis shed from the enlarged portion of the tail, in a manner 
analogous to the general shedding of the skin, the new ring being 
added at the base each time, thus pushing the string outward. 
There is some disagreement among observers as to whether or not 
the two processes always take place at the same time, but the fact 
is well established that the shedding of the epidermis from the 
terminal enlargement of the tail and the consequent formation of 
rattles, like the general shedding of the epidermis, takes place every 
few (two-five) months, so that several rattles are usually added 
each year. The reason that so few rings are generally present at 
one time is that the terminal ones are easily and frequently lost. 
The number of buttons even on the largest individuals is rarely 



more than eight or nine, and the long strings occasionally exhibited 
as curiosities are in most instances formed bj' the joining together 
of several strings. 
Another popular fallacy regarding these snakes is that the ex- 




T£«.t»o ERIE 

Fig. 44. Distribution of Sistrurus catenatus. 
*^ Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

traction of the fangs renders them harmless. It is true that it does 
so for a time, but, as is well known to scientists, new fangs soon 
replace the old ones when the latter are broken off or shed. This 
is in fact a wise provision of nature, since the long fangs are occa- 
sionallv broken off bv the strugofles of the prev. 

The writer will not take space to describe further the character- 


istics of this suake. A most excellent account may be found in 
Stejneger's "The Poisonous Snakes of Xorth America" (1893, 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 302; Holbrook, 1842, III, 32; Miles, 1801, 233; Stejneger. 1893, 
413, Grosse Isle (Baird and Girard, 1853, 14, 15), Ann Arbor 
(Smith, 1879, 6), Xew Buffalo, Berrien County (Cope, 1900. 1149), 
Eaton County (Clark, 1902, 194), Benzonia to Au Sable River 
(Clark, 1905, 110), Cass County (Thompson, 1911, 107 j, and Huron 
County (Ruthven, 1911a, 270-271). We have seen specimens from 
Alma, Gratiot County, Au Sable River, Oscoda County, Pontiac, 
Oakland County, various localities in WashtenaAv County, Charity 
Island, Sagina\v Bay, Cass County, Stony Island. North Island and 
Sand I*oint, Huron County. 


As indicated by the ke^^ (p. 77) the members of this order are 
quadrupedal, cuirassed forms with a rounded or longitudinal anal 
opening. The shell in our species is, with the single exception of 
the soft-shelled turtle, covered with large dermal plates. Sieben- 
rock (1909) divides the order into four superfamilies only two of 
Avhicli have representatives in Michigan. It is sufficient for our 
purposes to diagnose the genera and species. 

Key to the Genera and Species of MU-higaii Turtles. 

a^ Carapace covered by leathery skin, and Avithout horny epider- 
mal plates Plat ij pelt is spinlfera, p. 129. 

a-. Carapace rigid and covered with horny epidermal plates. 

b^. Plastron narrow, not nearly filling the opening of the cara- 
e^. Bridge long and narrow. Tail long and furnished 
above with a median row of large horny tubercles. 
Marginal scutes '2'^. . . Xliehjdra serpentina, p. 133. 
C". Bridge short and rather wide. Tail in males with a 
terminal nail, and without a median dorsal row of 

tubercles. Marginal scutes 23 

Kinosternon odoratuni, p. 137. 

b-. Plastron nearl}- or quite filling the opening of the cara 
I^ace. Marginal plates 25. 
e^. Parts of plastron immovably attached to each other 
and to the carapace, 
d^ Carapace smoothly rounded, i. e., with no median 
dorsal keel. 


e^. A sharp tooth on either side of the notcli at 

the syiiiphvsis of* the upper jaws. Carapace 

without round, bright orange spots, 


f^ Vertebral and costal scutes unicolored 

except for a Yelh)W margin. A rela- 

tiveh' small plastral blotch along the 

median line C. cinerea, p. 141. 

f^. Vertebral and costal scutes marked with 
irregular pale-yellow lines. A large 
blotch covering most of the plast- 
ron C. 'belliiy p. 113. 

e-. Xo teeth bounding the notch at the anterior 
end of the upper jaws. Carapace marked 
with numerous, round, bright orange spots. 

Clemmys guttata, p. 147. 

d'. Carapace with a strong median keel 

Graptemys geographica, p. 150. 

C". Plastron with a transverse hinge, and movablv at- 
tached to the carapace, 
d^. Upper jaw notched in front. Carapace long and 

depressed Emydoidea 'blandingii, p. 153. 

d-. Upper jaw produced downward at the symphysis 
to form a hook. Carapace short and high .... 
Terrapene Carolina, p. 155. 


(Pis. VII, XI a) 

Aspidonectes sjrinifer. Smith, 1S70, 7. Clark, 1902, 103; 1005, 110. 

Miles, 1861, 233. Agassiz, 1857, 404-405. 
Trionyx spin if ems, Thompson, 1911, 107. 

Description : Body broad and very fiat. Carapace and plastron 
not covered with epidermal pUites, but by a soft and leathery skin, 
the margins of the carapace bending freely at the edges. Head 
tapering to the snout which is much ])roduced and flexible. Nos- 
trils separated by a septum, and each willi a ]>ai>illa projecting into 
it from the septum. A Ioav obtuse keel along the middle of the 
back. A series of spines along the anterior edge of the carapace, 
in the adults; the entire upper surface of the carapace covered 
with small tubercles. Feet broad and fully Avebbed. 


Color of carapace o-live or light brown, the margin yellow. Near 
the margin is a narrow, broken line of black. In young specimens 
there are on the carapace numerous spots somewhat darker than 
the ground color and each surrounded by a broad, black ring. These 
spots become smaller and entirely black toward the margin of the 
carapace, and are obscure in old individuals. Plastron immaculate 
white or pale yellow. Limbs olive spotted with black. A pair of 
black lines on the snout, each of which at the base of the latter be- 
come two diverging black lines separated by yellow, and pass 
through the eye onto the neck. 

Hahits and Habitat: In southern Michigan the soft-shelled turtle 
occurs rather commonly in the rivers and lakes Avhich have a soft 
muddv bottom. Thev are not commonlv seen, as thev seldom leave 
the Avater, and owing to the fact that the color of the carapace 
harmonizes well with the color of the bottom. When surpised, they 
are rapid swimmers and easily elude capture. The larger individ- 
uals should be handled with care as the lip-like folds of skin cover 
sharp-edged mandibles that are capable of inflicting considerable 

Newman's (1906, 126 et seq.) observations on the habits of the 
soft-shelled turtle at Lake Maxinkuckee, Indiana, are the most com- 
prehensive that have been made and are largeh^ the basis of the 
following very brief account. 

They appear early in April (or in the latter part of March), 
from their hibernation, and soon begin to feed actively. In food 
habits it "is voracious and carnivorous, feeding principally upon 
crayfish and the larvae of large insects. From the vantage ground 
of a high bank it was possible on still days to observe individuals 
as they captured their prey. They crawl or swim along the bottom, 
thrusting their snout under stones and into masses of aquatic vege- 
tation, occasionally snapping up a crayfish or larvae that they have 
succeeded in dislodging. They do not tear up their food, but swal- 
low it whole, using the fore-feet to assist in forcing it down. 

"The stomachs of three specimens, opened during the latter part 
of June, contained the following: 

1. A large female contained nine medium sized crawfish, only 
slightly digested. 

2. A medium sized female contained four crayfish and twenty- 
two dragon-fly larvae. 

3. A large male contained nine dragon-fly larvae and a few plant 
buds, probably taken by accident when snapping up larvae." 

Surface (1908, 123) has recorded the following observations on 


the food liabits : "Unfortunately, only two of tlie Soft-slielled 
Turtles available for examination contained food, although a greater 
number were examined and found to be empt}^ Of these neither 
had eaten any vegetable matter, but both contained Crayfish, 
which are common inhabitants of streams they frequent, and are 
doubtless among the chief elements of their food. In devouring 
Crayfish (or Crawfish), any creature is objectionable from the fact 
that it is one of the most important foods of the carnivorous fishes. 
Hay asserts that 'it feeds on such fishes and reptiles as it can 

"One Soft-shelled Turtle was found to contain fragments of 
beetles so broken as to be beyond recognition, but indicating the 
possibility of these creatures feeding upon insects which may be 
found floating on the water or in damp places frequented by such 

"We take this opportunity to record the fact that we have found 
the Soft-shelled Turtle feeding upon grains of corn obtained in or 
near the ponds which they inhabit. A specimen examined by us 
in Ohio some years ago contained both yellow and red field corn, 
or Indian corn, to the extent of almost as much corn as would be 
produced upon two average ears of this plant." 

Mating must take place during April or May (Newman) and the 
nesting period extends from about the middle of June to the middle 
of July. Newman states that "The character of the soil seems to 
be immaterial so long as it is near the water's edge. Nests were 
found in clay so hard packed that one could scarcely break it with 
the fingers. One nest was made in a rock pile, the eggs being 
dropped into crevices between the rocks, and sand packed around 
them. Several nests were made among the smaller roots of a tree 
growing on the sandy beach, the eggs being deposited between and 
under the roots in a very irregular fashion. The majority of nests, 
however, were found in the soft beach sand over six feet from the 

The same writer briefly describes the nest building as follows : 
"A warm sunshiny day. Place: the 'old road' about ten feet from 
the water's edge and concealed from view on one side by tall grass. 
A large female Aspidonectes has just escaped from the grass and 
is commencing to make a nest. No time is lost in selecting a spot. 
She scratches out footholds for the forefeet and begins to excavate 
with the hindfeet, using right and left alternately with a circular 
gouging movement. As the hole becomes deeper it is generally 
necessary for her to give a more nearly perpendicular thrust with 
the hindfeet. 



^'In less than forty minutes the nest is completed and she has 
commenced to lay her eggs, letting the tail dgwn into the narrow 
hole as far as possible. After depositing several eggs she arranges 
them with the hindfeet and then rakes in some earth previously wet 


I L L 1 N I 

W I O .t^Cj^LtPO 

Fig. 45. Distribution of Platypeltis spinifera. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

up with water from the accessory bladders. The earth is gently 
packed in before any more eggs are laid. The remainder of the 
eggs are deposited and the hole is filled up with earth and tramped 
doTvn quite firmly with the knuckles of the hind feet, right and 
left feet being used alternately. This treading movement 
continues for some minutes and seems to be quite thorough. Al- 


though not in any way disturbed, the tortoise left without attempt- 
ing to cover up the traces of scratching feet, and anyone who is 
familiar with the appearance of a tortoise nest would have no diffi- 
culty in detecting this one. At 12:2o she turned and started for 
the water but was captured with a landing net. The nest was ex- 
amined and found to be flask-shai)ed with a narrow neck only an 
inch and a half in diameter. The depth of the nest was a trifle 
over six inches and the dii>meter at the bottom about three inches. 
The nest contained eighte^in rather large spherical eggs of a deli- 
cate pink color and with a very thin brittle shell." 

After the breeding season is over they spend their time in the 
water, and as the cold weather comes on, bury themselves in the 
mud and sand of the bottom where thev remain until the follow- 
ing spring. 

The soft shelled turtle is highly valued as food, the flesh being 
delicate and of excellent flavor. Individuals attain a large size, 
and are rather readilv shot or caught with a hook and line. 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Agassiz, 
1857, 404-405) ; "Southern half of the Lower Peninsula. It is 
frequently met with as far north as Genesee Countj^ and in the 
streams of the eastern as well as the western slope of the state" 
(Miles, 18G1, p. 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, p. 7), Eaton 
County (Clark, 1902, p. 193) ; Ann Arbor, Brookfleld, Olivet-, and 
Allegan, Kalamazoo, Montcalm and Van Buren Counties (Clark, 
1905, p. 110), and Cass County (Thompson, 1911, 107). The writer 
has seen specimens from : Ann Arbor and Portage Lake, Washtenaw 
County, White Pigeon, St. Joseph County, Cass County, Kalama- 
zoo County and Allegan County. 


(PI. VI.) 

Chelydra serpenthia, Sager, 1839, 301. Smith, 1879, 7. Clark, 
1902, 193; 1905, 110. Kirsch, 1895, 333. Miles, 1861, 232. 
Hankinson, 1908, 236. Thompson, 1911, 107. Ruthven, 
1911a, 271. 

Description: Carapace rigid, covered Avith horny plates, broadly 
oval in outline, rather depressed and serrated behind. There are 
three moderate keels on the carapace, one median and two lateral, 
very prominent in the young, less so in old individuals, the keels 
tuberculated, the tubercles with radiating edges. Plastron small. 


leaving most of the body exposed, bridge narrow. Tail long and 
tapering. Under surface covered with large scales, the upper sur- 
face furnished with a row of large horny tubercles; other smaller 
tubercles on the upper surface of the tail. Head large and flat- 
tened above, and with rather conspicuous bony ridges; snout rather 
pointed; both jaws terminating in a hook. Large, transverse, 
sharp-edged scales on the anterior part of the fore leg. Skin 
wrinkled and covered with prominent warts. 

The color of the carapace may be very dark olive, broTNOi or black. 
Upper parts of head, neck, limbs and tail brown or black, the tips 
of the warts and various lines on the head frequently yellow or 
brown. Plastron and under surface generally mostly dull yellow. 

Eahits and Hahitat: This is the largest turtle native to Michi- 
gan. True (1893, 153) gives the maximum weight as twenty or 
thirty pounds. It is extremely pugnacious in disposition, and uses 
its sharp and powerful jaws upon slight provocation. Large indi- 
viduals are to be handled carefully, as their powerful, keen-edged 
jaws are capable of inflicting a severe injury. 

Snapping turtles prefer the quiet water habitats, such as lakes, 
ponds and the pools of sluggish streams. They frequently lie 
partly embedded in the mud of the bottom, snapping at their prey 
as it comes within reach; in this habitat they are rendered more 
inconspicuous by the mat of algae that often grows on the shell. 
According to Newman (1906, 150), they may also stalk their prey. 
They are carnivorous, and, according to Garman (1893, 245), 
"their food consists of all manner of small animals, such as 
fishes, frogs, reptiles, and young Avater birds." Hay (1892a, 558) 
states that "a large specimen that I dissected had in its intestine 
the feathers and partially digested bones of a full grown robin. 
The wing and tail feathers filled up the intestine. Its excrement 
contained the remains of a cravfish." 

Numerous other authors mention the food of this turtle but the 
observations of Surface, who has published the following table, 
are the most exact. 



(Number with food, 19). 


Algae (low w^ater plants) 

Seeds, undetermined 

Leaves, undetermined 

AooIg scGcis • 

Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetida) leaves 


Animal Matter 

MoUusca (Snails and Slugs) 

Snails (Helix) 

Pond Snails 


Crustacea, Cambarus sp. (Crayfish) 


Undetermined Insects 

Hemiptera (Bugs) 

Corisidae, Corisa sp. (Water Bugs). 

Pentatomidae (Stink Bugs) 

Diptera (Flies) 


Stratiomyiid (Fly) Larva 

Coleoptera (Beetles) 


Water Beetle larva 

Hydrophilidae, Water Scavengers. . . 

Dytiscidae, Diving beetles 

Gyrinidiae, Whirligig Beetles 

Vertebrata (Vertebrates) 

Undetermined species (Fish) 

Pisces (fishes) 

Undetermined fish 

Catostomidae (Suckers) 

Batrachia (Frogs, etc.), Ra7ia sp. . . . 

Ophidia (Serpents) 

Aves (Birds) 

Mammalia (Mammals) 


Muridae (Mice) 

Leporidae (Rabbits), Lefus sp 


Per cent. 






5 2 












36 . S 


















■ 3 





















10 5 





















*From Surface (1908, 128-129.) 

Captive specimens Avill feed upon pieces of meat or the bodies of 
mammals and birds. They grasp the food, pull it under the water, 
and swallow it, or, if too large, tear it to pieces by seizing it 
firmly in the mouth and clawing it with the forefeet. 

On land a snapping turtle is a curious sight, as it walks with the 
body well elevated on the legs. If brought to bay at this time they 
do not retire into their shells, but, raising themselves still higher 
.on their limbs, open their jaws and lunge forward at the offender 
with a force that often destroys their equilibrium and causes them 
to fall forward. 

Newman (1906, 150-151) records the following notes on the 
breedino- habits : ^'Onlv in one instance have I observed the female 
Chelydra during the nesting process. On this occasion the nest 
was more than half completed when I first caught sight of her. 
Although she stopped work and showed signs of preparing for a 
retreat, she concluded the filling-in process in a somewhat slovenly 



manner and then retreated. Tlie filling-in process was the same 
as that observed for Graptemvs and Aspidonectes. 

"The nest was in gravelly sand on the side of a railway embank- 
ment, sej^arating the lake from a swamp. An examination of the 

Fig. 46. Distribution of Chelydra serpentina. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined; vertical ruling, reports only. 

nest revealed a broad fnnnel shaped depression, about a foot in 
diameter, at the apex of which a tnnnel, about fonr inches in 
diameter, led diagonally into a wider expansion of irregular shape 
and about a foot beneath the general ground surface. The tunnel 
was obstructed b}^ a stout stick and was consequently turned some- 
what to one side. In the expansion and communicating tunnel 

^ REPTILES. 137 

were thirty-three eggs scattered irregularly in a double layer. On 
the whole it was a decidedly untidy and i)riniitive sort of nest. 

"At about the same time of the month (June 15) several half- 
finished nests were found in the same railway embankment and all 
had the same general characteristics as the one described. I am 
told by the engineers on the railroad that the females are often 
seen at work and that they leave precipitately on the approach of 
the earlv train. 

''The eggs are spherical with one hemisphere white and the other 
pinkish. The shell is very tough, so that the eggs, if thrown on 
hard ground, will rebound several inches without breaking. The 
eggs laid on June fifteenth hatched during the last week in 

The flesh of the snapping turtle is usually esteemed as food, by 
the people in localities where the species is found. True (1893, 
154) states that "The snapping turtle is regularly seen in spring in 
the markets of Washington, dressed for cooking, that is, having the 
under part of the shell and the entrails removed." The eggs are 
also often eaten. 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 301; Miles, 1861, 232), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 7), Hudson 
and St. Joseph River (Kirsch, 1895, 333), Eaton County (Clark, 
1902, 193), Ann Arbor, Olivet, and Barry, Kalamazoo, Kent, Mont- 
calm, Ottawa, St. Joseph and Van Buren Counties (Clark, 1905, 
110), Walnut Lake, Oakland County (Hankinson, 1908, 236), Huron 
County (Ruthven, 1911a, 271), and Cass Countj^ (Thompson, 1911, 

Specimens have been examined from Washtenaw County, 
Oakland County, Brown Lake and the falls of the Sturgeon, Dick- 
inson County, Alma, Gratiot County, Charity Islands, Saginaw 
Ba}, Cass County, in Turtle Bay (Sand Point) and in lower part 
of Pigeon River in Huron Countv, and Kalamazoo Countv. 


(PI. VII.) 

Emys pemhsylvanica, Sager, 1859, 301. 

Aromochehjs odoratus, Smith, 1879, 7. Clark, 1902, 193, 1905, 110. 

Miles, 1861, 232. Hankinson, 1908, 236. Thompson, 1911, 


Description: Carapace rigid, covered with horny plates, rather 


narrowly oval in outline, and considerably arched. Young speci- 
mens haye a prominent keel, but this becomes obscure with age. 
Plastron yery narrow and short, not nearly filling the opening of 
the carapace, rounded anteriorly, emarginate posteriorly, the 
anterior part slightly movable on a transverse hinge between 
the pectoral and abdominal scutes. All of the plastral scutes in 
the adults separated b}^ areas of skin. Head large; snout tapering 
and conical. Skin soft and everywhere provided with fleshy 
papillae, those on the neck in rows, and two to four elongated ones 
on the chin and two on the anterior part of the throat. Several 
long curved scales on the anterior side of the foreleg near the foot, 
and several on the heel. 

The color of the carapace in voung specimens is dull olive or 
brown ; in old specimens it is blackish brown. The plastron varies 
from dark yellow^ to brownish black. Skin dark greenish olive to 
dark olive brown, marbled with light olive or yellowish olive. Two 
yellowish lines extend backward from the snout, one passing below 
and the other above the eye and ear. 

Hahits and Hal)ltat: The musk turtle is quite aquatic in habits, 
being found most commonly- on the bottom in ponds and lakes. 
The carapace is very often covered with a thick growth of algae, 
so that it is difficult to detect when lying in a patch of aquatic 

Hay (1892a, 562) states that "They lay their eggs on shores in 
holes that they have dug in the sand with their hind feet. The 
eggs are from three to five in number, of an elongated elliptical 
shape, a little more than an inch long, and have a hard, smooth 
shell." Newman (1906, 147-148) records the following notes on the 
breeding habits : "On onl}- one occasion did I have the good fortune 
to observe Aromochelys in the process of nesting. When I first en- 
countered the little "tortoise she was digging in some soft soil, using 
all four feet and her snout. On my approach she abandoned her 
work and wandered about for full}^ an hour trying different places. 
Finally she selected for nesting a decayed stump that had rotted 
down level with the ground. She dug with fore-feet and hind-feet 
a shallow hole about two inches wide and of about the same depth, 
and deposited two eggs therein. After covering these eggs with the 
excavated debris, she w^ent her way. The form and Avorkmanship 
of this little nest were of an inferior order as compared with those 
of other species of tortoise I have observed. 

"Specin>ens were captured on land with eggs in the oviducts, 
ready to be laid, on the following dates : June 11, 16, 20, 22, 23, 



arid 25. In no case did I find more than three eggs in the oviducts. 
These were elliptical in form and nearly as large as the eggs of 
Chrysemys. The shell is hard and of a china-like consistency, 
brittle but capable of withstanding considerable pressure." 






Fig. 47. Distribution of Kinosternon odoratum. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined ; vertical ruling, reports only. 

The same writer (1906, 146-147) records the following notes on 
the food habits : "I have caught them at dusk, crawling about in 
the grass and have seen them catching and eating slugs'' (p. 147) ; 
''They are the scavengers of the lake, feeding on all sorts of ma- 
terial, from dead molluscs to kitchen refuse. They refuse nothing 
that could be construed as edible. If food is placed in the midst of 



a group, they fight over it like so many puppies over a rag, pulling 
and jerking to the best of their ability." "Their appetite is in- 
satiable and indiscriminate. On one occasion I pnt a living rat 
in an aqnarium containing several musk tortoises. Almost imme- 
diately three of them seized it bv the feet and pulled it under, thus 
drowning it. Before it had ceased to struggle they proceeded to 
disembowl it and succeeded in making a fairly good skeleton of it 
in a few hours" (p. 147). 

Surface (1908, 138) has tabulated the food found in the stomachs 
of a number of specimens as follows: 




Orthoptera (Crickets, Grasshoppers) 

Grijllus penusi/lvanicus 

Lepidoptera, (Moths, etc.) 


Coleoptera, (Beetles) 

Undetermined fragments 

Carabidae — Undet., (Ground Beetles) 


Per cent. 





















When captured the musk turtles emit a strong odor (not especi- 
ally disagreeable), open their jaws widely, and hiss, but they seldom 
bite and then with little effect. 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 301; Miles, 1861, 232; Smith, 1879, 7), Eaton County (Clark, 
1902, 193), Ann Arbor, Olivet, and Barry, Kalamazoo, Montcalm 
and Van Buren Counties (Clark, 1905, 110 j, Cass Comity (Thomp- 
son, 1911, 107). and Walnut Lake, Oakland County (Hankinson, 
1908, 236). The writer has seen specimens from the following 
localities : Washtenaw County, Walnut Lake, Oakland County, Cass 
County, and Miss Crystal Thompson saw one in the Kalamazoo 
River Calhoun County, in September, 1911. 



(PI. VII.) 

Emijs picta, Sager, 1839, 301. 

CJirysentys marginata, Agassiz, 1857, 439. Smith, 1879, 7. Clark, 

1902, 193; 1905, 110. Miles, 1861, 233. Hankinsoii, 1908, 

Clirysemys cinerea, Kutliven, 1911, 115; 1911a, 271. Thompson, 

1911, 107. 

DesciHption: Carapace rigid, covered with horny plates, broad 
and depressed, flaring considerably posteriorly, and without trace 
of keel. Plastron broad and flat, immovably attached to the cara- 
pace and not hinged. Head moderate in size; upper jaw with a 
distinct notch in front, and a sharp tooth on either side of the 

Carapace dark olive, brown or black. The scutes narrowly mar- 
gined with dull yellow. Marginal plates prominently marked with 
red as follows : on the upper surface narrow cresentric bands often 
surrounding (especially anteriorly) a wider vertical band that is 
median in position and an extension of a similarly situated band 
on the loAver surface. The last named band is the principal mark 
on the lower surface and is there surrounded, on the inner end 
and on the sides, by the black ground color. There may be other 
light marks on the lower surface, but these are rarely prominent; 
the most conspicuous and perhaps frequent one is a spot or short 
band in the black areas between the central bands. (Cf. description 
of G. helllL) Plastron yellowish with a large central parch of 
dusky, which is, however, never as large as in C. hellii (Figs. 50- 
51). Head black striped with ^^ellow; neck and limbs striped with 

Hahlts and Hahltat: This is the common turtle of southern 
Michigan. It may be seen along most of the streams or about the 
borders of ponds and lakes. If the habitat is apj)roached cauti- 
ously- they may be seen basking on logs, muskrat houses, etc., but 
they are easily alarmed, and quickly scramble ofiC into the water 
and .bury themselves in the mud and vegetation of the bottom. If 
undisturbed they soon come to the surface again and thrust their 
pointed black snouts out of the water. 

Hay (1892a, 572) states that the food "probably consists of in- 
sects, tadpoles and other feeble small animals." Newman (1906, 
144) writes that he has observed individuals "feeding on dead fish. 



dead clams, decaying- tortoises, worms, meat, and aquatic insects. 
They even capture the soft and defenseless young of Aspldonectes 
[Platypeltis] .^' The same writer describes the egg-laying as fol- 
lows : "The method of nest-making is essentially like that de- 

Fig. 48. Distribution of Chrysemys cinerea. 
Horizoural ruling, specimens examined : vertical ruling, reports only. 

scribed for Graptemys, but the flask-like enlargement is much less 
pronounced. This may be due to the smaller number of eggs laid 
and the consequent economy of space. The nesting season is about 
the same as for Graptemys and the choice of nesting places about 
the same. They lay only four to eight eggs that are strikingly like 
those of Graptemys in color, shape and character of shell. In size, 
however, they are somewhat smaller. 


''Like Graptemys, the broods are sometimes belated in hatching, 
so that a forced hibernation of embryos results. Many just-hatched 
young were found during the months of May and June." 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 301; Agassiz, 1857, 439; Miles, 1861, 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 
1879, 7), Eaton County (Clark, 1902, 193), Porcupine Mountains, 
Ontonagon County (Ruthven, 1901, 191), Ann Arbor, Marquette, 
Olivet, Porcupine Mountains (Clark, 1905, 110), Stony and North 
Islands and Sand Point, Pigeon River, Rush Lake, Huron County 
(Ruthven, 1911a, 271), Marquette, Porcupine Mountains, Ontonagon 
County (Ruthven, 1906, 112), Douglas Lake, Cheboygan County 
(Ruthven, 1911, 115), Cass County (Thompson, 1911, 107), Walnut 
Lake, Oakland County (Hankinson, 1908, 236-237). The northern 
peninsula records probably all refer to C. helUi and are not re- 
corded on tliB map. The writer has seen specimens from Washtenaw 
Oceana County, St. Joseph County, Monroe and Douglas Lakes, 
Cheboygan County, Cass County, Alma, Gratiot County, Stony and 
North Islands, Sand I*oint, Pigeon River at Caseville, and Rush 
Lake, Huron County, Allegan County, Kalamazoo County, Calhoun 
County, and Mr. N. A. Wood observed specimens on Charity Island 
in 1910. 



Chnjsemys hellii, Ruthven, 1909, 117. 
Clirysemys marginata li^eUn, Ruthven, 1910, 59. 
Chrysemys margimata, Ruthven, 1904a, 191; 1906, 34-112. 

Description: Structural characters as in C. cinerea from which 
it differs in attaining a somewhat larger size (large individuals 
reaching a length of six to eight inches as compared with five to 
six inches in cinerea) and in color markings. The ^^ellow borders 
to the dorsal shields are generally narrow or wanting but are 
occasionally as wide as in cinerea. Costal and vertebral scutes 
marked with faint, irregular light lines. The prominent markings 
on the marginals are: above; a median and two lateral pale vertical 
bands, the median continued on the lower surface and there ex- 
tended on the outer and inner margins to restrict the intervening 
black area to a spot with a pale center. These markings may be 
yellow or red. The dusky markings on the plastron alwaj^s form a 
much larger blotch than in C. cinerea (Figs. 50-51). This blotch 
covers a large part of the plastral surface and send out extensions 
along the sutures. 



Habits and Habitat: The habits of this species are probably 
very simihir to those of C. cinera. It is found in similar habitats. 

Range. C. bellil has been found thus far only in the western 
part of the northern peninsula. It is a western form that ranges 


C M I C A C O 


Z,AKE ^ 


Fig. 49. Distribution of Chryscinys hcUii. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined ; vertical ruling, reports only. 

westward to Oregon. The Michigan localities are : Porcupine Moun- 
tains, Ontonagon County, Brown Lake, Norway and Iron Mountain, 
Dickinson County (Ruthyen, 1909, 117; 1910, 59). The Marquette 
record for cinerea (Ruthyen, 1906, 112) is probably this form and is 
so indicated on the map. 



Fig. 50. IMastron of CJiryscinys cinerca. 




Fig. 51. Plastron of Chryscmiis hcJUi. 



(PI. VII.) 

Emys (juttata, Sager, 1889, 301. 
Narwrni/s (jutiatus, Smith, 1879, 7. Miles, 1861, 23o. 
CJemmijs f/uttatu.8, Clark, 1902. 193; 1905, 110. Thompson, 1911, 

Description: Carapace riiiid, covered with horny plates, oval in 
ontline and widest behind the middle. Carapace without a keel. 
Plastron large, without a transverse hinge, and immovably joined 
to tiie carapace. Head of moderate size; snout not projecting; 
upper jaw notched in front. 

Carapace black or dark reddish brown with one to several round, 
bright orange spots on each scute. The plastron is reddish orange 
and black, the black being limited to large blotches on the ends 
of the scutes. The head and the upper surface of neck and limbs 
are black (often washed with red) with orange spots, the imder 
surfaces orange yellow, the throat marbled with darker. 

Hahits and Hahitat: We have no notes on the habits of this 
turtle in Michigan. Ditmars (1907, 51) has recorded the following 
observations : ^'The writer has found many specimens along brooks 
that here and there spread into thick, grassy spots. It is in this 
water-grass that the turtles delight to hide, after feeding. The 
species always feeds under w^ater and, in fact, appears to be unable 
to swallow unless the head is submerged. The food consists largely 
of dead fish and the larvae of aquatic insects. Captive specimens 
wiU eat the tender leaves of lettuce if these be thrown upon the 
surface of their tank. It therefore appears probable that they 
feed upon various water plants as well, while in a wild condition." 
Ilolbrook's account differs in some respects from the above. He 
says (1812, I, 83). ''It lives in ponds, brooks and rivers, feeding 
on such animals as it can seize, as tadpoles, young frogs, etc. It 
takes to the land frequently' in search of food, devouring earth- 
worms, crickets, grasshoppers, etc.'' Hay (1892a, 577) states that 
it is less aquatic than most of our turtles but ''seems io delight in 
being in tlie neighborhood of swamps and sluggish streams, and 
probably s])en(ls the greater ])art of its time in the water.'' 

The same writer also savs "Their food is said to consist of tad- 
poles, young frogs and other ^^ eak animals. On land they devour 
earthworms, crickets and grasshoppers." Surface (1908, 10G-1G7) 
has sunnnarized his examination of the stomachs of 27 specimens 
as follows : 



Vegetat ion 

Undetermined leaves 

Undetermined seeds 

Gramineae — Grass 

Animal matter 

Annulata, (Worms) 





Undetermined spp 

(iitmmarus sp., (Fresh Water Shrimps) . . . 

Cambaru.s sp.. (Crayfish) 

Myriapoda, (Millipedes, etc.) 

Arachnida, (Spiders) 

Insecta, (Insects) 

Undetermined fragments 

Ephemerida, (Mayflies) 

Plecoptera — Perlidae, (Stone Flies) 

Odonata, (Dragon Flies) 


Agrionidae, (Damsel Flies) 

Hemiptera, (Bugs) 

Capsidae, (Water Bugs) 

Notonectidae, (Back Swimmers) 


Zaitha jmminea 

Xeuroptera — Sialidae 


Undetermined Moth larvae 

Noctuidae, (Cutworms) .' 


Undetermined Beetle fragments 

Carabidae, (Ground Beetles) 

Dytiscidae, (Diving Beetles) 

Chrysomelidae, (Leaf Beetles) 


Donacia sp 


Lachnosierna, (June Bugs) 

Euphoria inda, (Flower Beetles) 

Macrodactylus siibspi7iosus, (Rose Bugs) 

Rhynchophora, (Snout Beetles) 

Diptera, (Flies). 

Undetermined flies 

Tipulidae, (Crane Flies) 

Chironomidae, (Midges) 


Hymenoptera, (Ants, etc.) 






Per cent. 
















7. J 


3 7 


29. (i 








3 7 






40. S 




11 .1 




- 29 . fi 


































3 7 

























"Their eggs are few in niimbei*; never according to Agassiz, ex- 
ceeding three or fonr. They are about an inch and a quarter long, 
and three-(inarters in the shorter diameter. The eggs are hiid about 
the 20t]i of June, in a i)er-pendiciihir liole dug by the use of the 
hind h\gs. After the eggs are deposited the dirt is pushed back 
over the oi)ening so as to conceal it entirel3\" (Hay, 1892a, 577- 

Ranfje: The species has been reported from: Michigan (Sager, 
1839, 301), Genesee County, Oakland County, SaginaAV Bay (Miles. 
18G1, 233), Ann Arbor (Hmith, 1879, 7), Eaton County (Clark. 
1902, 193), Ann Arboi', Olivet, and Barry, Kalamazoo and Van 
Buren Counties (Clark, 1905, 110). and Cass County (Thompson, 






Fig. 52. Distribution of Clemmys guttata. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined ; vertical ruling, reports only. 

1911, 107). The specimens the writer has seen are from the follow- 
ing localities: Ann Arbor and ^fanchester, AVashteiiaw County; 
Cass Conntv, Calhonn Connty, St. Joseph County and Montcalm 



(PI. VI.) 

Eniys geogyapliica, Sager, 1830, 301. 

Grapteniysi f/cographica, Agassiz, 18."57, 43V). Clark, 1002, 103, 1005, 
110. Smith, 1870, 7. :\riles, 1861, 232. 

Description: Carapace rigid, covered with horny i)hites, de- 
1 tressed and Aviih a distinct, slightly tubercnlated keel (much more 
distinct in the yonng). Carapace feebly serrated behind. Plas- 
tron large, nearly filling the opening of the carapace, immovably 
united to it, not hinged, and distinctly notched behind. Snont not 
])rojecting. Cutting edge of upper jaw somewhat sinuous. 

Color of carapace dark olive, covered with a network of greenish- 
yellow lines (occasionally uniformly dark brown above). Hexid, 
neck, limbs and tail dark green to black Avith numerous longitudinal 
lines of greenish yellow. A triangular yellow spot behind each 
eye. Under side of marginal plates pale greenish or yellowish 
with large blotches consisting of concentric lines of olive and black 
or brown. Plastron yellow, with brownish bands (frequently ab- 
sent in old individuals) along the sutures of the scutes. 

Habits and Habitat: The map turtle is markedly aquatic, sel- 
dom, except during the breeding season, being found on land. In 
southern Michigan it occurs both in lakes and rivers, but is much 
more common in the former. According to the observation.s of 
Garmen (1801, 237), Hay (1802a, 576), and Newman (1006, 140) 
its food consists principally of molluscs, and very largely of the 
heavy shelled forms of the family Viviparidae. The young feed on 
the thiner shelled ones. Newman writes as follows: "Two methods 
of feeding prevail. The favorite method seems to be to capture 
the mollusc when the foot and gills are well out of the shell, to 
bite off the soft parts and leave the hard shell. To do this the 
final closure of the jaws must be quite sudden. If they fail to 
secure the body of the snail in this way they adopt the crushing 
method. The hard shell is easily crushed between the broad flat 
jaws and the broken pieces of shell are picked out with the aid of 
the claws. When in search of food they prowl about the bottom, 
often underneath the dense vegetation. The heavy growth of Chara 
or Nitella is tunneled in every direction with the passageways made 
by foraging Graptemys." 

Hay (1802a, 576) states that "After a number had been kept for 
a few davs in a tub there were found in it a large number of the 


opercles of sucli mullnscs; and in the intestines of one were the 
remains of a crayfish, some fish scales, and what appeared to be 
the cases of some kind of caddiswoTin. Tts broad masticatory snr- 
faces are well fitted for crushin<>' the shells of mollnscs.'' In cap- 
tivity Ditmars (1907, 44) found that it would eat ^'chopped fish, 
meat and mealworms, also earthworms and various softbodied 
grubs, dragging all its food into the water and devouring it beneath 
the surface." 

A specimen examined by Surface (1908, 141) had only crawfish 
remains in the stomach. 

The breeding habits of Indiana specimens have been rather fully 
reported by Newman (1906, 140-142) : '"Graptemys begins to lay 
very early in June, somcAvhat earlier than other species observed. 
The females are apt to wander some distance from the water for 
nesting, seeming to prefer soft, plowed soil or clear, dry sand away 
from the beaches. Thej' wander about for hours in search of a 
suitable place for nesting. One specimen started five nests before 
she was satisfied with the condition of the soil. Two were rejected 
on account of the presence of stones and one because the sand caved 
in too readily. The other two appeared to me to be suitable in 
every way and I was unable to explain why she abandoned them. 

"If one expects to see the first stages of nest-making it behooves 
him to be astir before sunrise. Over half of the females found 
nesting w^ere encountered before eight o'clock. They Avork slowh* 
and seem to prefer the quiet hours of the day, probably because 
they are less likely to be disturbed. 

"Apart from the slowness and deliberateness of their movements, 
they Avork much after the fashion adopted b}^ Aspidonectes, except 
that they ne\ev Avork the fore-feet so as to secure foothold. 

"The nests are of someAAhat smaller dimensions and the flask- 
shaped expansion is more symmetrically placed, scarcely more 
bulged on one side than the other. Tavo layers of eggfi are de- 
posited in the flasklike expansion but the last tAA^o or three egg's 
are placed in the narrow neck, the uppermost egg being sometimes 
only about tAA^o inches from the surface. 

"It is difficult to frighten them away after they haA'e once de- 
cided upon a nesting place. When surprised they stop Avork but 
soon resume it and continue it to the end, even Avhile the obserA^er 
is in plain view. The nest of Graptemys is a finished product, all 
traces of nest-making being obliterated. This is accomplished by 
dragging the smooth plastron back and forth across the small area 
that had been disturbed by nesting. 



''The eggs are ellipsoidal in shape, of a dull white color, and 
have a rather soft easily indented shell. The number laid by one 
female at one time varies from eleven to fourteen. 

The eggs hatch, as a rule, late in August or earlj in September, 





C H ■ C . C • g|. 

Fig. 53. Distribution of Graptemys geographica. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined ; vertical ruling, reports only. 

the young burroAving to the surface through the sand. When thej 
emerge they are covered with sand that adheres for some time. 
Their instinct directs them unerringly toward the water and they 
frequently have to travel almost incredible distances before reach- 
ing the lake or a tributary stream. On two occasions I have found 
recently hatched Graptemys, at a distance of about a quarter of 


n mile from the water, traveling steadily and in an approximately 
correct direction toward the lake. At the observed rate of pro- 
gress they wonld reach the lake in about two days. 

^'For some time I was greatly jinzzled by the fre(pient discovery 
of newl}^ hatched Graptemys during the months of ^lay and June. 
Farmers in the vicinity frequently plowed up nests of eggs thai 
A> ere nearlv ready to hatch. 

'^These facts have been explained by the observation of occasional 
specimens nesting during the latter part of July. Eggs laid at that 
time would have onlv about iive or six weeks of steadilv warm 
weather, in which to develop, and would be retarded by the chill- 
ing of the ground in October. Thus the well advanced embryos 
must pass the winter in a condition of dormancy analogous to that 
observed in hibernating adults. 

"On no occasion have I caught a female nesting whose carapace 
length w^as less than nineteen centimeters and whose age was less 
than fourteen years — according to the age record afforded by the 
annual growth ring on the scutes." 

Hay (1892a, 576) has found sixteen eggs in a large female. 

Range: The species has been reported from: Michigan ( Sager. 
1839, 301; Agassiz, 1857, 436; Miles, 1861, 232), Ann Arbor (Smith, 
1879, 7), Eaton County (Clark, 1904, 193), Olivet, and Barry, Kala 
nmzoo, Kent, Montcalm, Ottawa and Van Buren Counties (Clark, 
1905, 110). The specimens examined are from: Washtenaw 
County, Brighton, Livingston County, Pawpaw, Van Buren 
(Jounty, St. Joseph County, Allegan County, Calhoun County, and 
Kalamazoo Count v. 


(PI. VII.) 

Emys mclcagris, Agassiz, 1857, 442. Smith, 1879, 7. Miles, 1861, 

Emydoidea hUuidiugi, Clark, 1902, 193, 19(15, 11(1. Hankinson. 

1908, 236. Ruthven, 1911a, 271. 
Emys hlandinyli, Thompson, 1911, 107. 

Description: Carapace rigid, covered with horny plates; elon- 
gated oval in outline, and rather high and convex but not as much 
so as in the box turtle (Terra pene Carolina). Plastron large, clos- 
ing the opening of the carapace and attached to it by a ligament. 
Plastron divided into two movable lobes, the hinge line between the 



abdominal aud pectoral scutes. Head biuad, snout not projecting- 
and the npper jaw notched in front. The lower jaw with a hooked 

The ground color of the carapace is nsnally black with numerous 

Fig. 54. Distribution of Emydoidea Mandingii. ' 

Horizontal ruling, specimens examined ; vertical ruling, reports only. 

round or irregularly elongated, pale yellow or light brown spots. 
In old individuals the lighter markings may predominate toward 
the margins of the carapace restricting the black to small irregu- 
lar blotches. Plastron pale yellow to light brown, the outer end 
of each scute occupied by a large black or brown blotch. Head and 
neck black or brown above with numerous small vellowisli or olive 


Spots; the miizzlo and sides of tlie head predominatingly olive. 
Chin and throat inmuicnlate Aell<»w. Le«is olive or liiiht brown witli 
niottlings ol' black or dark brown. 

Habits (fiid Hdhitat: Little has been recorded on the liabits of 
the lUanding turtle. Ditinars (11)07, 57) writes on the subject as 
follows: ''Althongh fnliy as agile in the water — in swimming, div- 
ing and remaining a considerable time beneath the surface — as 
the typical pond and river turtles and terrapin, this species often 
evinces a desire to Avander about on land, and while it seldom ven- 
tures from wet, marshy areas, prowls about through the under- 
growth in search of tender shoots, berries and insect larvae, a 
character quite in opposition to the feeding habits of the strictly 
aquatic turtles and terrai)ins, which are unable to feed unless 
under the water. Blanding's Turtle feeds with equal readiness 
tipon the ground, or under water. Captive specimens are very fond 
of lettuce; they also feed voracioush' upon earthworms, small 
fishes, tadpoles and young frogs, actively pursuing these creatures 
in the water and seizing them by a sudden dart of the head. Well 
fattened specimens are unable to employ the hinged plastron to 
but a slight extent and Avith such individuals the rear lobe is quite 
useless in covering the hind limbs Avhicli bulge from the shell in 
helpless fashion." 

Range: The species has been reported from: ^lichigan (Agassiz, 
1857, 442; Miles, 1861, 233), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1879, 7), Eaton 
County (Clark, 1902, 193), Ann Arbor, Olivet, and Kalamazoo 
and Van Buren Counties (Clark, 1905, 110), Sand Point and Stony 
Island, Huron County (Ruthven, 1911a, 271). Walnut Lake, Oak- 
land County (Hankinson, 1908, 23G), and Cass County (Thompson, 
1911, 107). The writer has seen specimens from: Washtenaw 
County, Au Sable Eiver, Oscoda County, Brighton, Livingston 
County, Walnut Lake, Oakland County, Cass County, Alma, 
Gratiot County, Sand Point and Stony Island, Huron County, and 
Mr. N. A. Wood reports seeing one in the pond on Charity Island. 


(PI. VII.) 

Cjwtudo claiisa, Sager, 1839, 301. Smith, 1879, 7. 
Clstiula tirginca, Agassiz, 1857, 445. 

Ten^ipene Carolina, Clark, 1902, 193; 1905, 110. Thompson, 1911, 

Description: Carapace rigid and covered with horny plates, 
broadly oval in outline, high, very convex, and solid. Plastron, 


large, closiug the opening of the carapace with which it is united hy 
a ligament. Plastron divided into two movable lobes, the hinge 
line between the abdominal and pectoral scutes. Snout not pro- 
jecting; the upper jaw drawn down in front to form a beak, the 
lower jaw turned upward at the tip. 

The colors of the carapace are yellow and brown or black. The 
arrangement is very variable and either the lighter or darker colors 
may predominate. The head, neck, limbs and tail are brown, 
spotted with yellow. The plastron is also very variable in colora- 
tion. It mav be uniformlv brown or black, and the brown or black 
may be spotted with yellow, or the yellow may be the predomina- 
Tiug color and the brown or black reduced to irregular blotches. 

Hah its and Hahitat: The box turtle differs from other Michigan 
turtles in being strictly terrestial. Xo notes are available on the 
habitats preferred by the sjiocies in Michigan, but Ditmars (1907, 
()1) makes the general statement that it is "most abundant in situa- 
tions where open, grassy spots alternate in sparse thickets. The 
food consists largely of vegetable matter and berries, though the 
larvae of insects are eaten as well as earthwoiniis and slugs. Dur- 
ing the periods when blackberries ripen many specimens show un- 
mistakable evidence of feasting by their stained mandibles and fore- 

Holbrook (1842, I, 34) states that it feeds on "insects, crickets, 
etc., and according to Leconte, on fungous plants, as the Clavaria, 
etc. When in confinement and it can easil}^ be domesticated, it 
eats readily whatever is offered, as bread, potatoes, apples, etc." 
Surface (1908, 175-176) has examined stomachs of 40 specimens 
and tabulated the results as follows : 




Cryptogams, (Flowerless Plants). 

Undetermined fungi 



Bryophyta, Moss 

Phanerogams, (Flowering Plants). 

Roots . 

Leaves . 
Berries , 
Seeds . . 

Podophyllum, pelatum (May Apple) 

Vitis labrusca (Grapes) 

Primus sp. (Cherry) seeds 

Rubus sp. (Blackberry) 

Pyrus sp. (Apple) 

Osmm-hiza sp 

Pyrula rotundifolin 

Physalis sp. ((iround Cherry) 

Gramineae, grass 

Bird's Wheat Moss 

Animal matter 

Annulata (Earthworms) 

Mollusca (Mollusks) 



Crustacea {Cambariis sp.) 

Myriapoda (Millipedes) . . 

Insects (Insecta) 

Undetermined insects 

Orthoptera (Grasshoppers, etc.) 


Melanoplus femur-rubrum (Red-legged G). 

Gryllidae (Crickets) 

Gryllus pennsjlvavicns (Cricket) 

Locustidae (Long Horned Grasshoppers) . . . 

Hemiptera Pentatomidae (Stink Bugs) . .' 

• Lepidoptera (Moths) 

Larvae (Caterpillars) 

Pupae (Chrysalids) 

Notodontidae — Datana ministra 

Noctuidae, larvae (Cut worrrfs) 

Diptera (Flies) 

Coleoptera (Beetles, etc.) 

Undetermined beetles 

Larvae of Beetles 

Carabidae (Ground Beetles). 

Undetermined ground beetles 

Carabus limbatus 

Pterostichus lucublandus 

Harpalus cniiginosus 

Hymenoptera (Ants, etc.) 

Vertebrata (Back-boned Animals). 

Mammalia, Muridae (Mice) 


Per cent. 


62 . 5 




















7 . 5 






2 . 5 




/ . o 
























2 5 






























7 . 5 



















Z . O 

The eggs jii-e covered by a thin shell, and are deposited in loose 
soil. Acoording to Hay (185)l'a, 581), they nninber from four to 
six and are laid about the latter part of June or after. 

In winter they burrow into the soil to hibernate, and Ditmars 
(1907, 62) records one that was found in January, buried to a 
depth of about two feet. 

Range: The species has been re])orted from: ^Michioan (Sager, 
1830, :?()1; Aoassiz, 1857, 445), Ann Arbor (Smith, 1870, 7), Eaton 
and Montcahn ("ounties (Clark, 1002, 193), Barry, Kalamazoo, 





Fig. 55. Distribution of Tcrrapene Carolina. 
Horizontal ruling, specimens examined ; vertical ruling, reports only. 

Montcalm and Van Buren Counties (Clark, IDU.j, 110 j, and Cass 
County (Thompson, 1911, 107). The writer has examined specimens 
from Battle Creek, Calhoun (\)iinty. Manchester, A^'ashtenaw 
County, and Cass County. 



Abdominal plates. The anlepoimltiniato pair of large scales on 
tlie plastron in turtles. (See Fij>'. 25.) 

Alveolar surface. The niasticatory surface of the jaws in turtles. 

Anal plate. The large scale just in front of the anus in snakes. 
(See Fig. 23.) The posterior plates on the plastron of a turtle. 
(Fig. 2.5.) 

Azygous scale. Occurring singly, i. e., unpaired. Applied to the 
small plate on the median line of the snout in Heterocfon platjj- 

Bridge. The part of the shell which joins the carapace and 
plastron in turtles. 

Canthus rostralis. The ridge from the eye to the tip of the snout 
that separates the top of the muzzle from the side. 

Carapace. The upper shell in turtles. (See Fig. 24.) 

Cephalic plates. The large scales on the top of the head in snakes. 
(See Fig. 22.) 

Costal plates. The row of large scales between the marginal and 
vertebral series on the carapace in turtles. (See Fig. 24.) 

Dorsal scales. The scales on the upper surface of the body in 
snakes. (See Fig. 23.) 

Emarginate. Obtusely notched. 

Femoral plates. The penultimate pair of scales on the plastron 
in turtles. (See Fig. 25.) 

Frontal. The single large scale on the top of the head, and be- 
tween the supraoculars, in snakes. (See Fig. 22.) 

Gular plate. In turtles, the first plate or pair of plates on the 
plastron. (See Fig. 25.) 

Hinge. A transverse joint in the plastron in some turtles. 

Humeral plates. The second pair of scales on the plastron in 
turtles. (See Fig. 25.) 

Internasal plates. The two large scales on top of the head, 
and between the nasals, in snakes. (See Fig. 22.) 

Keel. A ridge. 

Labial plates. See upper labials and lower labials. 

Loreal jdate. The scale on the side of the head, between the 
nasals and i>reocular, in snakes. (See Fig. 21.) 

Lower labial plates. The row of scales along the margin of the 
lower jaw in snakes. (See Fig. 21.) 


' Marf>iiial platen. The scales about the maijiiii of tlie carapace in 
turtles. ( See Fig. 24.) 

Xasal ]>laie or ]>lates. The first one or two ])lat(^s on the side of 
the head in snakes. (See Fig. iM.) See also jirenasal and j)ost- 

Xnchal })late. The small ])late in the marginal series at the 
anterior end of the carapace in tnrtles. (See Fig. 24.) 

Ocnlar plates. See pr-eocnlar and postocnhir ])lates. 

Parietal ])lates. The ])air of large scales on the toj* of the head, 
hack of the frontal and snpraocnlar ]>lates, in snakes. (See Fig. 

Pectoral plates. The third pair of scntes on the ])lastron in 

Pit. The ojiening on the side of the head, between the eve and 
nostril, in the rattlesnake. 

Plastron. The lower shell in tnrtles. (See Fig. 25.) 

I*late. A large scale. Svnonvmons with scnte. 

Postnasal plate. The i)osterior nasal scale, wlu^n there are two, 
in snakes. (See Fig. 21.) 

Postocnlar ] dates. The series of scales jnst behind the orbit in 
snakes. (See Fig. 21.) 

Prefrontal ])lates. The i)air of large scales on the lop of tlie 
head, jnst in front of the frontal and sni)rao(iilars. in snakes. 
(See Fig. 22.) 

Prenasal ])late. The anterior nasal scale, when there are two, in 
snakes. (See Fig. 21.) 

Preocnlar ]»late or ])lates. The scale or scales jnst in front of the 
orbit in snakes. (See Fig. 21.) 

Rattle. The dermal strnctnre on the tail in rattlesnakes. 

Rostral j)late. The large scah^ <m the end of the snout in snakes. 

Scales. Thin hornv outgrowths of the skin ^^•hich overlax^ to 
form a more oi- less coni])lete investment in i'e})tiles. When large 
known also as ])lates and scntes. 

Scale pits. Tiny pores at the ai)ex of the scales in some snakes. 

Scnte. A lai-ge scale. Synonvnnjns with ])late. 

Snbcandal plates. The large scales on the ventral snrface of the 
tail in snakes. (See Fig. 28.) 

Sn])raocnlar ]»late. The large scale above encli vyv in snakes. 
(See Fig. 22.) 

Temporal jilates. The scales on the side of the head, behind the 
postocnlars. in snakes. (See Fig. 21.) 

Michigan Gcolojiical aiul 
Biological Survey-. 

I'uhlical ion 10; IWology o. 
IMate I. 




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r.iolouical Survey. 

rublicat ion 10 : Rioloy-v •>. 
I'lato \". 


Michigan Goolo.nic-il :iih1 
Biological Sui-\ey. 

riililication 10: Biology 3. 
I'latc VII. 



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77.7.'/,' 1/7; .V A' CUA'OL/A.A, DUKSAL AND VEXTKAI. VIEWS. 

PLA'i yrr.i/ri^ fiPiNiFERA. emydoidi: \ iilamuxgii. 

CLEMMYS (H 'l"l'\'l' \ . (lll!ysEMY>< c/MUn.W. I\ / \()Sl i: I,' \ < ) \ ODOhWTl'M. 

Biological Survey 

Plate VIII. 





xj:st -VXD i:(;r;s of eimeces QiTXQiifjyFiTUi^. 

Michigan Geological and 
Biolocical Survoy. 

rublication 10 ; Biology 3. 
Plate IX. 



Michigan Geological and 
Biological Survey. 

Publication 10 ; Biology 3. 
Plate X. 


Michigan Geological and 
Biological Survey. 

Publication 10 ; Biology 3. 
Plate XI. 




Michigan Geological and 
Biological Survey. 

Publication 10 ; Biologj' 3. 
Plate XII. 




Miclii,i;nn Geolo.iiicnl nnd 
r.iological Sur\('.v. 

rul)lic;i1 ion 10; Bioloijry 3. 
Plate XIII. 


OF DJKMICTYTJJR VIRjnES.f:F.NR rlanrl form h 

Michii^an Geological and 
Biological Survev. 

Publication 10 ; Biology 
Plate XIV. 


..■■ I- .v. 


Michigan Geological and 
Biological Survey. 

I'ublication 10 ; Biology 3. 
Plate XV. 



AND Jfj:rr:i,'(}ii()\ ilatyrhinlis. 

Michigan Geological and 
Biological Survey. 

rublication 10 ; Biology 3. 
Plate XVI. 






Upper labials. The series of scales along the margin of the upper 
jaw in snakes. (See Fig. 21.) 

A>ntral plates. The large scales on the ventral surface of the 
body in snakes. (See Fig. 23.) 

Vertebral plates. The median dorsal series of scutes on the cara- 
pace in turtles. (See Fig. 24.) 




1857. Agassiz. Louis. Contributions to the Natural History of 
the United States, I. 

1901. Atkinson, E. A. The Reptiles of Allegheny County, Penn- 
sylvania. Annals Carnegie Museum, I, pp. 145-157. 

1853. Baird, S. F. and Girard, C. Catalogue of North American 
Reptiles. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, 49. 

1891. Blatchley, W. S. Jour. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., 1891. 

1903. Brimley, C. F. Notes on the Reproduction of Certain Rep- 
tiles. American Naturalist, XXXVII, pp. 261-266. 

1902. Clark, H. L. Notes on the Reptiles and Batrachians of 
Eaton County. Fourth Annual Report Michigan Academy 
of Science, pp. 192-194. 

1903. Clark, H. L. Notes on the Michigan Snakes. Fifth Annual 
Report Michigan Academy of Science, pp. 172-174. 

1903a. Clark, H. L. The Short-mouthed Snake (Eutainia brachy- 
stoma Cope) in Southern Michigan. Proceedings Biological 
Society Washington, 1903, pp. 83-87. 

1903b. Clark, H. L. The Water Snakes of Southern Michigan. 
Amer. Nat., XXXVII, pp. 1-23. 

1905. Clark, H. L. A Preliminary List of the Amphibia and Rep- 
tilia of Michigan. Seventh Annual Report Michigan Acad- 
emy of Science, pp. 109-110. 

1911. Cochran, Ethel M. The Biology of the Red-backed Sala- 
mander. Biol. Bull., XX, pp. 332-350. 

1900. Cope, E. D. Crocodilians, Lizards and Snakes of North 
America. Report U. S. National Museum, 1898 (1900), pp. 

1889. Cope, E. D. Batrachia of North America. Bull. U. S. Na- 
tional Museum, 34. 

1878. Cones, E and Yarrow, H. C. Notes on the Herpetology of 
Dakota and Montana. Bull. U. S. Geog. and Geol. Surv. 
Terr., IV, pp. 259-291. 

1878. Cragin, F. W. Amer. Nat., XII, 820-821. 

1842. DeKay, J. E. Reptiles and Amphibia. New York Fauna. 

1906. Dickerson, Mary C. The Frog Book. New York. 

1907. Ditmars, R. L. The Reptile Book. New York. 


1906. Eycleshymer, Albert C. The Habits of Necturus maculosus. 

Amer. Nat., XL, pp. 123-137. 
1901. Gadow, Hans. Amphibia and Reptiles. The Cambridge 

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1891. Gage, Simon Henry. Life-History of the Vermillion-Spotted 
Newt. Amer. Nat., XXV, pp. 1084-1110. 

1892. Garman, H. A Synopsis of the Reptiles and Amphibians 
of Illinois. Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist., 1891, pp. 215- 

1892. Gibbs, M. Forest and Stream, XXXIX, p. 7. 

1900. Gibbs, M. Herpetology of Kalamazoo County, Michigan. 
Wolverine Nat., February, 1900, pp. 12-13. 

1905. Gibbs, Notestein and Clark. See Clark, H. L., 1905. 

1908. Hahn, Walter H. Notes on the Mammals and Cold-Blooded 
Vertebrates of the Indiana University Farm, Mitchell, Indi- 
ana. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXXV, pp. 545-581. 

1856. Hallowell, E. H. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1856, p. 310. 

1908. Hankinson, T. L. Biological Survey of Walnut Lake, Michi- 
gan. Ann Rept. Geol. Surv. Mich, for 1907, pp. 153-288. 

1887. Hay, O. P. The Massasauga and Its Habits. Amer. Nat., 
XXI, pp. 211-218. 

1892. Hay, O. P. On the Breeding Habits, Eggs, and Young of 
Certain Snakes. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XV, pp. 385-397. 

1892a. Hay, O. P. The Batrachians and the Reptiles of Indiana. 
Rept. Ind. Dept. of Geology and Nat. Resources, XVII, 
(1891) pp. 409-610. 

1898. Hodge, C. F. The Common Toad. Nature Study Leaflet, 
Biology Series, No. 1. 

1842. Holbrook, E. North American Herpetology. Philadelphia. 
1911. Hurter, Julius. Herpetology of Missouri. Transactions of 
the Acad, of Science of St. Louis, XX. 

1899. Jordan, David Starr. A Manual of the Vertebrate Animals 
of the Northern United States. 

1893. Jordan, Edwin O. The Habits and Development of the 
Newt (Diemictylus viridescens) . Jour, of Morphology, VIII, 
pp. 269-366. 

1895. Kirsch, Phillip H. A Report upon Investigations in the 

Maumee River Basin during the Summer of 1893. Bull. U. 

S. Fish Comm., XIV, p. 333. 
1878. Merriam, C. H. Science News. 
1861. Miles, Manly. A Catalogue of the Mammals, Birds, Reptiles 

and Mollusks of Michigan. 1st Bien. Rept. Geol. Surv. 

Mich., pp. 219-241. 


1874. Milner, J. W. Report on the Fisheries of the Great Lakes : 

the Result of Inquiries Prosecuted in 1871 and 1872. Rept. 

U. S. Fish Comm., 1872-73, pp. 1-75. 
1901. Morse, Max. Batrachians and Reptiles of Ohio. Proc. Ohio 

State Acad, of Science, IV, pp. 91-144. 
190G. Newman, H. The Habits of certain Tortoises. Jour. Comp. 

Neur. and Psvco., XVI, pp. 126-152. 

1905. Notestein, F. N. The Ophidia of Michigan. Seventh Ann. 
Rept. Mich. Acad, Science, pp. 112-125. 

1906. Ortmann, A. E. The Crawfishes of the State of Pennsyl- 
vania. Mem. Carnegie Mus., II, pp. 343-533. 

1910. Piersol, W. H. Spawn and Larvae of Ambjstoma jefferson- 

ianum. Amer. Nat., XLIV, pp. 732-738. 
1868. Putnam, F. W. Do Snakes Swallow Their Young. Amer. 

Nat., II, p. 136. 
1895. Reddick, G. Snakes of Turkey Lake. Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci., 

1895, pp. 261-262. 
1904. Ruthven, Alexander G. Butler's Garter Snake. Biol. Bull., 

VII, pp. 289-299. 
1904a. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on the Molluscs, Reptiles and 

Amphibians of Ontonagon County, Michigan. Sixth Ann. 

Rept. Mich. Acad. Sci., pp. 188-192. 
1906. Ruthven, Alexander G. The Cold-Blopded Vertebrates of 

the Porcupine Mountains and Isle Royale, Michigan. Rept. 

Geol. Surv. Mich., 1905 (1906), pp. 107-112. 

1908. Ruthven, Alexander G. Variations and Genetic Relation- 
ships of the Garter Snakes. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 61. 

1909. Ruthven, Alexander G. The Cold-Blooded Vertebrates of 
Isle Royale. Rept. Geol. Surv. Mich., 1908 (1909), pp. 116- 

1909a. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on Michigan Reptiles and 
Amphibians. Eleventh Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad, of Sci., pp. 

1910. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on Michigan Reptiles and 
Amphibians, 11. Twelfth Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad, of Sci., 
p. 59. 

1911. Ruthven, Alexander G. Notes on Michigan Reptiles and 
Amphibians, III. Thirteenth Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad, of 
Sci., pp. 114-115. 

1911a. Ruthven, Alexander G. Amphibians and Reptiles in A 
Biological Survey of the Sand Dune Region on the South 
Shore of Saginaw Bay, Michigan. Geol. and Biol. Surv. 
Mich., Pub. 4, Biol. Ser. 2, pp. 257-272. 

^lichigan Geological and 
Biological Survey. 

I'ublication 10 ; Biology 3. 
Plate XVII. 





1839. Sager, Abraham. Catalogue of ^lamnials, Birds, Reptiles, 
Amphibians, Fishes, and Molluscs of Michigan. Senate Doc. 
State of Mich., 1839, pp. 294-305. 

1909. Siebenrock, F. Synopsis der rezenten Schildkroten, mit 
Berncksichtigung der historischer Zeit ausgestorbenen Arten. 
Zool. Jahrb., Supp. 10, Heft 3. 

1907. Smith, Bertram G. The Breeding Habits of Ambystoma 
punctatum Linn. Amer. Nat., XLI, pp. 381-390. 

1910. Smith, Bertram G. The Structure of the Spermataphores 
of Ambystoma punctatum. Biol. Bull., XVIII, pp. 204-211. 

1911. Smith, Bertram G. The Nest and Larvae of Necturus. Biol. 
Bull., XX, pp. 191-201. 

1911a. Smith, Bertram G. Notes on the Natural History of Amby- 
stoma jeffersonianum, A. punctatum and A. tigrinum. Bull, 
of the Wisconsin Nat. Hist. Soc, IX, pp. 14-28. 

1877. Smith, W. II. The Tailed Amphibians, including the Cae- 
cilians. A Thesis presented to the Faculty of Michigan Uni- 

1879. Smith, W. H. Catalogue of the Reptilia and Amphibia of 
Michigan. Supp. to Science News, 1879. 

1882. Smith, W. H. Report on the Amphibians and Reptiles of 
Ohio. Rept. of the Geol. Surv. of Ohio, IV, pp. 633-735. 

1903. Sperry, W. L. Variation in the Common Garter Snake 
(Thamnophis sirtalis). Fifth Ann. Rept. Mich. Acad, of 
Sci., pp. 175-179. 

1893. Stejneger, L. The Poisonous Snakes of North America. 
Rept. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1893, pp. 339-487. 

1892. Stejneger, L. apud Hay, 1892, p. 396. 

1908. Streeker, John K. Notes on the Breeding Habits of Phrvno- 
soma cornutum and other Texas Lizards. Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash., XXI, pp. 165-170. 

1906. Surface, H. A. The Serpents of Pennsylvania. Zool. Bull. 

Penn. Dept. of Agri., IV, pp. 113-202. 
1908. Surface, H. A. First Report on the Economic Features of 

the Turtles of Pennsylvania. Zool. Bull. Penn. Dept. of 

Agri., VI, pp. 105-195. 
1908a. Surface, H. A. The Lizards of Pennsylvania. Zool. Bull. 

Penn. Dept. of Agri., V, pp. 234-258. 
1892. Taylor, W. E. The Ophidia of Nebraska. Ann. Rept. Neb. 

St. Board Agri., 1891, pp. 310-357. 
1911. Thompson, Crystal. Notes on the Amphibians and Reptiles 

of Cass County, Michigan. Thirteenth Ann. Rept. Mich. 

Acad. Sci., pp. 105-107. 


1893. True, F. W. Useful Aquatic Keptiles and Batrachians of 

the United States. Fisheries & Fishery Industries of the U. 

S., Sec. I, pp. 141-162. 
1905. Whittaker, C. C. The Status of Eutaenia brachystoma. 

Seventh Ann. Kept. Mich. Acad. Sci., pp. 88-92. 
1905a. Whittaker, C. C. Variation in the Blue Racer. Seventh 

Ann Kept. Mich. Acad. Sci., pp. 100-102. 

1908. Wright, Albert H. Notes on the Breeding Habits of Am- 
bystoma punctatum. Biol. Bull., XIV, pp. 284-290. 

1909. Wright and Allen. The Early Breeding Habits of Amby- 
stoma punctatum. Amer. Nat., XLIII, pp. 687-693. 

1869. Verrill, A. E. Amer. Nat., Ill, pp. 158-159. 

Michigan Geological and 
Biological Survey. 

Tublication 10 ; Biology 
Plate XVIII. 



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Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, Canada. 

Abbott^ (Chas. C). Primitive Industry, pp. 270-325. 

American Antiquarian, Vol. 1, 1878, p. 8, mentions an embankment 
in Branch County. 

American Antiquarian, Vol. XI, No. 4, 1889, p. 249, refers to Sagi- 
naw Grave. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Proceedings, 
Vol. XXIV, 1875, pp. 311, 316-322, mentions mound in 
Wayne County. 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Proceedings, 
Vol. XXV, 1876, p. 324, mentions mound in Wayne 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, Proceedings, 
Vol. XXVI, 1877, pp. 336-337, mentions mound in 
Wayne County. 

Anderson^ (Abel). Smithsonian Keport for 1879, p. 434, reports 
mounds in Newaygo County; p. 434, reports mounds 
in Ottawa County. 

Armstrong^ (Benj. G.). Early Life among the Indians. Press of 
A. W. Bowron, Ashland, Wisconsin, 1892, p. 150. 

Baldwin. Ancient America^ p. 43-45, mentions copper mines in On- 
tonagon County. 

Barnes^ (Chas. E.). Smithsonian Report, 1879, p. 434. 

Beauchamp^ (Wm. M.). a History of the Netv York Iroquois^ 
Bulletin 78 (Archaeology 9) of the New York State 
Museum, p. 396, refers to Sansond's map of 1656; p. 
398, refers to Crenoxins' map of 1660, and, p. 400, 
refers to Caronellis' map of 1688. 

— - Indian Nations of the Great Lakes, American Anti- 
quarian, Nov. 1895, Vol. XVII, No. 6. 


Berrien County. See United States National Museum Report, 1886, 

p. 107. 
Blois, (John T.). Gazetteer of the State of Michigan, 1838-1810 

(copyrighted 1838), p. 165, mentions mounds in Lena- 
wee County ; p. 168, mentions sites in Calhoun County ; 

pp. 168-170, mentions sites in Macomb County; pp. 

173-177, mentions garden beds. 
Boyle, (David). Archaeological Report, Ontario, 1901, pp. 32-35, 

mentions matter for comparison with Ogemaw County 

Archaeological Report, Ontario, 1903, Toronto, 

1904, p. 91, mentions perforated skulls from Canada 

similar to those of Michigan. 
Brax>y, (Samuel). Smithsonian Report for 1879, p. 434, reports 

that he is exploring copper mines on Isle Royale. 
Branch County. See United States National Museum Report 1889, 

p. 118. 
Brower, (J. v.). Kathio, Memoir of Explorations in the Basin of 

the Mississippi, St. Paul, Minn., 1901, page opposite 

Plate II mentions copper. 
Canfield^ ( ). SketcJies of Sauk County, Wisconsin, American 

Antiquarian, 1890, refers to garden beds. 
Carson_, (H. H.). American Antiquarian, Yol. IX, No. 4, July 1887, 

p. 237, mentions village sites in Clinton County; p. 

238, mentions mounds, effigy mounds and garden beds 

in Saginaw County, and, pp. 237 and 238, mentions 

sites in Shiawassee Countv. 
Catherwood, (Mary Hartwell). The White Islander (Indians), 

Century Magazine, Sept. 1893. 
Charlevoix^ (Sagard). Voyage au grand pays des Hiirons. 
CoFFiNBERRY^ (W. L.) aud Stroxg, (E. a.). Proceedings of the 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, 

Vol. XXIV, 1875, pp. 293-297, describes mounds in 

Kent County. 
CoNAXT, (A. J.). Foot Prints of Vanished Races in the Mississippi 

Valley, p. 65, refers to garden beds. Barnes, says p. 

181, of Nadaillac. 
Copper Mine in Michigan, Records of the Past, Vol. II, Part 7, July 

1903, p. 223. 
Copper. See Brower, Detroit, Moore, Palmer, Short, Whittlesey, 

Wisconsin Archaeologist, Vol. II, No. 1, Oct. 1902, p. 


Michigan Geological and 
Biological Survey. 

Publication 10 ; Biolog\ 
Plate XIX. 



OopwAY^ (G.). The Traditional History and Characteristic 
Sketches of the Ojihwuy Nation^ London, 1850. 

Courier, see Saginaw. 

Dan^ (John E.). Smithsonian Report 1879, p. 434, reports that 
he has in preparation a manuscript on forts and 
mounds of Macomb County. 

Davis^ (A. C.) Antiquities o^f Isle Roy ale, Smithsonian Report 

DoDGE^ (Byron E.). American Archaeologist, Nov. 1898, A-'ol. II, 
Part 11, p. 299, refers to shell-heap on Flint River 
near Richfield, Genesee County. 

American Archaeologist, March 1898, Vol. I, Part 

3, p. 78, refers to supposed bridge across Flint River, 
Sec. 15, Genesee Tp., Genesee County. 

Detroit Evening News. 

Detroit Free Press, August 2, 1903, mentions copper. 

Detroit Free Press, July 8, 1900, mentions Bert Marsh's Collection. 

Detroit Free Press, May 1, 1901, refers to grave in Wayne County. 

Elsworth^ Epworth Assembly Quarterly, IV, 1897, p. 7, refers to a 
site in Mason County. 

Everts^ (L. H.). History of Calhoun County, 1877, p. 11, mentions 
sites in Calhoun County. 

History of St. Joseph Ootinty, Michigan, 1877, p. 

11, mentions sites in St. Joseph County. 

Everts and Abbott. History of Kalamazoo County, Philadelphia, 
1880, mentions sites in Kalamazoo County; p. 65, 
mentions garden beds; p. 68, cuts of garden beds on 
W. B. Cobbs' Farm at Schoolcraft, also one at Gales- 
burgh and one in Kalamazoo, probably the one in the 
Park west of the mound. 

Farmer^ (Silas). History of Detroit and Michigan, 1884, p. 321, 
mentions mounds in Wayne 'County. 

Fisher, (A. W.). Cache of Leaf -shaped Relics, Popular Science 
News, February, 1901, Vol. XXXV, No. 2, p. 38. 

Foster, (J. W.). Prehistoric Races of the United States of Ameri- 
ca, p. 265, p. 266, mentions copper mines in Ontonagon 
County; p. 155, mentions garden beds. 

Foster and Whitney's Report, 1850, p. 162, mentions mines in 
Keweenaw County; pp. 161-162, notices copper mines 
in Keweenaw County; pp. 159-161, describes and fig- 
ures copper mines in Ontonagon County, and, p. 161, 
mentions mounds in Ontonagon Countv. 


Fowler, (8. Vs.). Smithsonian Report, 1879, p. 434, mentions 
shell-heaps and sites in Manistee Coimtv. 

FowKE, (Gerard). Copy of Fowke's Report on Michigan. A care- 
fully compared copy made with permission of Pro- 
fessor Thomas from a copy made by Rev. Wm. M. 
Beaucham]), of Syracuse, N. Y., for his use while as- 
sisting in ]>reparing the Thomas Catalogue. 

Mr. Gerard Fowke of Chillicothe, Ohio, made a recon- 
naissance of Michigan for the Bureau of American 

Gal.\tian, (A. B.). See I. M. Thomas. 

GiBBS, (Morris). Origin of Mcnunds, Popular Science, March, 1899, 
p. 59. 

GiLLMAN^ (Henry). Smithsonian Report, 1874, pp. 369, 370, de- 
scribes mines in Keweenaw County. 

Appleton's Journal, Vol. X, 1873, p. 173, describes 

mines in Keweenaw County. 

• 6th Report of the Peabody Museum, pp. 13-19, de- 
scribes and figures mounds in St. Clair County. 

Smithsonian Report, 1873, pp. 380-382, describes and 

fig-ures mounds in Emmett County; pp. 378, 379, de- 
scribes mounds in Iosco County; pp. 387-390, describes 
and figures pits in Keweenaw County ; p. 380, mentions 
with plat mound in Mackinac County ; pp. 382-384, de- 
scribes with plat and figures mounds in Manitou 
County; p. 380, mentions mound in Presque Isle 
County; pp. 370-374, describes and figures mound in 
St. Clair County; pp. 367-368, describes and figures 
mound in Wayne County ; pp. 364-365, partly describes 
with map mound in Wayne County. 

The Mound-Builders and Platycnemism in Michi- 
gan-^ Smithsonian Report 1873, Government Printing 
Office, 1874, pp. 364-390, Figs. 1-12, some being maps. 

Also reprint 1877. 

Certain Characteristics Pertaining to Ancient Man 

in Michigan^ Smithsonian Report 1875, Government 
Printing Office, 1876, pp. 234-245, Figs. 1-13. 

■ Also reprint 1877. 

■ The Ancient Men of the Great Lakes. Abstract from 

Proceedings of the American Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science, Vol. XXIY, Salem, 1876, pp. 
316-331, Figs. 1-7. Read August 16, 1875, at Detroit 





o — 




Perforation of the Humero'us conjoined toith Platy- 

cnemis7n, American Naturalist, Vol. IX, No. 7, 1875, 
pp. 427-428. 

Grand Rapids. The Evening Press, February 20, 1904, refers to 
sites in Kent County. 

Handbook of the American Indians, Bulletin 30 of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, pp. 149-150, refers to Saginaw County; p. 
139, refers to Manitou County; p. 58, refers to Sagi- 
naw County; p. 535, mentions piece of hafted celt 
from Michigan; p. 345, refers to copper from Michi- 

Hauptman. (See Science.) 

Havard_, (Dr. v.). The French Half Breeds of the Northtvest, 
Smithsonian Eeport, 1879, pp. 309-327; p. 318, men- 
tions Michigan. 

Haven^ ( ). Archaeology of the United States, contains report 

of Verandrier who explored this region before 1748. 

HiLLS^ (Leslie W.). American Archaeolgist, March 1898, p. 77, 
refers to a cache in Berrien Countv. 

Hinsdale^ (W. B.). Washtenaw Times, Ann Arbor, June 23, 1901, 
mounds in Washtenaw County. 

History of Kalamazoo) County. 

Holmes^ (Wm. H.). Aboriginal Copper Mines of Isle Royale, Lake 
Superior, American Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. 3, 
1901, pp. 684-696, Plates XXIII-XXIV, Fig. 73. 

History of Saginaw County, Michigan; together with sketches of its 
cities, villages and townships, educational, religious, 
civic, military, and political history; portraits of 
prominent persons, and biographies of representative 
citizens. History of Michigan, embracing accounts of 
the prehistoric races, aborigines, French, English and 
American conquests, and a general review of its civil, 
political and military history. Illustrated. Chicago, 
Chas. C. Chapman & Co., 1881, pp. 960. P. 268, refers 
to Rifle River in Ogemaw County; p. 287, refers to 
sites in Iosco County. 

HoDGMAN^ (F.). The Old Fort, written for the Michigan Pioneer 
and Historical Society, June 5, 1902. Refers to fort 
in Kalamazoo County. 

Houghton^ (Jacob). Ancient Copper Mines of Lake Superior, 
mentions mines in Ontonagon County. 

Hubbard, (Bela). American Antiquarian, Vol. I, 1878, pp. 4-9, 
partly describes and figures garden beds in Kalamazoo 


County ; p. 7, partly describes rectangular -and circu- 
lar embankments in Kalamazoo County; p. 4 and Fig. 
4, mentions garden beds in St. Joseph. County. 

Memorials of a Half Century^ 1887, Copyrighted G. 

P. Putnam Sons, p. 185, mentions L'Arbe Croche Vil- 
lage Site in JEmmett Co. ; p. 203, describes, with cut, 
sites in Macomb County. 

Ancient Garden Beds of Michigan^ Pioneer Collec- 
tions of the State of Michigan, Vol. II, 1877-78, pp. 
21-27 and maps pp. 28-35, partly describes and figures 
garden beds in Kalamazoo County. 

Hubbard^ (Lucius). Smithsonian Eeport, 1879, pp. 434-435, men- 
tions mounds in Berrien County. 

Huron, see Miner. 

Jenison^ (O. a.). Smithsonian Eeport, 1879, p. 435. 

Jenks, (Albert Ernest). The Wild Rice Gatherers of the Upper 
Lakes, 19th Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, Part 
2, p. 1050, refers to Saginaw County and Bay County. 

Jennings^ (H. S.). The Michigan Academy of Science, Science 
N. S. XIII, No. 329, April 19, 1901, p. 616, refers to 
papers by Harlan I. Smith on "An Archaeological 
Survey of Michigan : The Antiquities of Michigan, 
Their Value and Impending Loss." 

JoNES^ (Joshua). Smithsonian Report, 1879, p. 435, mentions 
mounds in Livingston County. 

JoNES^ (Peter). History of the Ojihway Indians, 1861. 

Kelton^ (Dwight H.). Annals of Fort Mackinac, Copyrighted 

Kinzie^ (Mrs. John H.). '^Wau-Bun the Early Day in the NortTi- 
tvest/^ New York, 1856. 

KoHL^ (J. G). ^'Kitchi-Gami Wanderings Round Lake Superior V 
London, 1860. 

La Honton. A^et(? Voyages, Vol. I, p. 93, 1703, refers under the 
names Otontagans and Ottawas of Talon, to Otonta- 
gan, an Ottawa band living before 1680 on Manitoulin 
Island and driven out by the Iroquois. 

Lapham^ (I. A.). Antiquities of Wisconsin, p. 74, mentions copper 
mines in Ontonagon County and garden beds. 

Larmour^ (J. J.). Smithsonian Report 1880, p. 444, mentions 
mounds in Calhoun County. 

Lathrop^ (J. H.). Prehistoric Mines of Lake Superior, American 
Antiquarian, Vol. XXIII, No. 4, July and August 


. Also printed in Northwest Magazine, Feb. 1901. 

Leach^ (M. L.). Ancient Forts in Ogemaio County, Michigan, 
Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1884, 
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1885, pp. 
849-851, with two maps. 

Also reprint in Papers Relating to Anthropology 

from the Smithsonian Report for 1884, Washington, 
Government Printing Office, 1885, pp. 11-13, with two 


- Ancient Mounds in Clinton County, Michigan, An- 
nual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1884, 
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1885, pp. 
839-848, describes and figures monnds; pp. 840-841, 
describes and figures mounds on a flat in Shiawassee 

. Also reprint in No. 620 Papers Relating to Anthrop- 
ology from the Smithsonian Report for 1884, Washing- 
ton, Government Printing Office 1885. 

Address Traverse City, Michigan. 

Leeson, (M. a.). History of Macoml) County, Michigan, 1882, men- 
tions sites in Macomb County. 

Manktelow^, (Chas. W.). The American Archaeologist, April 1898, 
p. 105, and the American Archaeologist, December 
1898, p. 323, reports mounds or earthworks near Boone 
and Cadillac, Wexford County. 

Prehistoric Remains in Northern Michigan, Popular 

Science News, Nov. 1902, p. 289. 

Address Cadillac, Michigan. 

Mason, (Otis T.) . Papers Relating tO' Anthropology, 1884, pp. 4-10, 
mentions mounds in Clinton County; pp. 11-13, men- 
tions enclosures in Ogemaw County; pp. 1-4, mentions 
mounds in Shiawassee County. 

United States National Museum Report 1902, p. 385, 

refers to Angwassag, Saginaw County. 

McCoRMiCK, (W. K.). Mounds and Mound Builders of the Sagi- 
naio Valley', Michigan Pioneer Collection, Vol. IV, 
1881, Lansing, W. S. George & Co., 1883, p. 382, men- 
tions sites in Bay County and refers to Ogemaw 
County; p. 379, mentions enclosures in Ogemaw 
County, and describes mounds in Genesee County; p. 
380, mentions mounds and earthworks in Saginaw 


MacLean_, (Jno. p.). Moimd Builders, pp. 76-77, mentions copper 
mines in Ontonagon County. 

Mallory^ (Isaac). History of Baptist Indian Missions, 1840, p. 
366, mentions mound in Wayne County. 

MiDDLETON^ (James D.). The Smithsonian Report, 1889, footnote 
on p. 47 in appendix I, refers to his work in Michigan. 

Miner, The Michigan, Nov. 1, 1901. The Lake Huron Region. An 
early geographical Sketch of Lake Huron with accom- 
panying map of interest. Saginaw, Michigan. 

■ — — Vol. VI, No. 2, January 1902, p. 12, mentions copper. 

MooRE^ (Charles). The Ontonagon Copper Boulder in the United 
States National Museum, United States National Mu- 
seum Report for 1895, pp. 1021-1030, with two plates, 
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1897. 

Also reprint. 

Moorehead^ (Warren K.). Prehistoric Implements, Cincinnati, 

1900, pp. 23 and 307, mentions a cache. 
Morse^ (Jedidiah). Report to the Secretary of War of the United 

States on Indian Affairs, 1822, Appendix, p. 19, refers 

to Saganau. 
Muir, Michigan, (Ionia County). Story of a Fort Near Muir, 

Michigan, Detroit News, Feb. 25, 1893. 

Also reprint in the Archaeologist, Vol. I, No. 4, pp. 


Nadaillac. Preliistoric America, p. 81, refers to garden beds. 
New York Times, January 9, 1908, mentions discovery of a copper 
axe at Presque Isle, Presque Isle County. 

March 23, 1902, mentions copper found at Lake 


August 10, 1902, refers to perforated skulls found 

near Arkona, Ontario, similar to those found in Michi- 

Oakes^ (H. E.). The Garden Beds of Michigan Modeled. American 
Antiquarian, Vol. XVIII, No. 6, November 1896, p. 

Packard/ (R. L.). Pre-ColumMan Copper Mining in North Amer- 
ica, Smithsonian Report for 1892, Washington, Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, 1893, pp. 175 and 178, refers 
to Marquette. 

Also reprint, p. 919. 

Pre-ColumMan Copper Mining in North America, 

American Antiquarian, March, 1893, Vol. XV, No. 2, 


pp. 67-78, continued in American Antiquarian, May, 
1893, Vol. XV, No. 3, pp. 152-164. 

Palmer^ (Friend). Early Days in Detroit, p. 247, mentions copper. 

Peabody Museum, Harvard University, 10th Annual Report, 1877 
(Reports II) p. 20, refers to photograph, 11054, of 
stone ornament found in Fruitport, Michigan, pre- 
sented by W. L. Coffinberry of Grand Rapids, Michi- 

16th and 17th Annual Reports, 1884, (Report III), 

p. 202, articles 29476-29521 from mound on Devil River, 
collected by Henry Gillman and presented by Stephen 

19th Annual Report, 1886, p. 505, 38225, perforated 

crania, mound on River Rouge presented by Bela Hub- 
bard. P. 508, articles from mound at Grand Rapids 
presented by W. L. Coffinberry. 

Peck^ (William Ira). The Evening News, Detroit, Dec. 7, 1901, 
refers to fort in Ogemaw Countv. 

Peet^ (Stephen D.). American Antiquarian, Vol. VII, 1885, pp. 
23-28, describes and figures garden beds in Kalamazoo 

Emblematic Mounds, Vol. II, p. 131, refers to gar- 
den beds. 

Perforated, see Saginaw. 

Pioneer Collections, Vol. II, 1877-78, p. 45, mentions sites in Mani- 
tou County. 

Popular Science, March 1899, p. 59. 

Popular Science Monthly, 1881, p. 601, mentions copper. 

Post, (H. D.). Michigan Pioneer Collections, Vol. Ill, 1879-80, p. 
296, mentions sites in Allegan County. 

Riley, (Henry H.). Michigan Pioneer Collections, Vol. Ill, 1879- 
80, p. 14, refers to mounds discovered by Gillman in 
St. Clair County. 

RoYCE. Map 1st. Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, 
1881, refers to Pocagons Village (Pocagon). 

Sagard, (Theodat, Gabriel). Le Grand Voyage au Pays des 

Saginaw Courier-Herald, June 30, 1901, refers to an earthwork in 
Ogemaw County. 

— January 29, 1903, mentions mound in Genesee 


— March 14, 1903, refers to perforated skull from Bay 

County in American Museum of Natural History. 


Xov. 1, 1905, Nov. 11, 1905, Dec. 17, 1905, and Dec. 

30, 1905, refers to graves at Bridgeport, Saginaw 

May, 1907, mentions graves at Bridgeport, Saginaw 


Saginaw Evening News, June 1, 1888, refers to Saginaw Grave. 

December 31, 1902, mentions Edinger collection. 

September 23, 1909, mentions a grave in Berrien 


Saur^ (Wm. C). Illustrated Atlas of Kalamazoo County, MicM- 
gari, with Early and Present History, Detroit, Mich., 
1890, p. 79, refers to garden beds. 

Schoolcraft^ (Henry E.). Historical and Statistical Iftformation 
respecting the History, Conditions and Prospects of 
the Indian Trihes of the United States, Lippincott^ 
Grambo & Company, 1851-1857, Vol. I, pp. 50-54-60 
with plates VI and VII, refer to garden beds in the 
Grand River Valley. 

Science, February 21, 1902, p. 309, refers to Hauptman Earthwork 
in Ogemaw County. 

Short^ ( -) . North Americans of Antiquity, pp. 89-92, mentions 

copper mines in Ontonagon County. 

Smith, (HarIvAn L). The Antiquities of Michigan Their Taliie 
and Impending Loss. John F. Elby & Co., Detroit, 
Michigan. A reprint of a syndicated article which 
appeared in the Detroit Evening News and the Detroit 
Free Press. 

Prehistoric Michigan, Popular Science News, May, 

1901, pp. 110-111. 

Also reprint. 

An Archaeological Survey of Michigan, Third Re- 
port of the Michigan Academy of Science, 1901, pp. 

Also separate. 

Archaeological Survey of Michigan. Presented be- 
fore the Michigan Academy of Science at its seventh 
annual meeting, Ann Arbor, March 28, 1901, pp. 198- 

'■ American Anthropologist, N. S., Vol. Ill, January- 
March, 1901. This paper with slight changes the 
same as "An Archaeological Survey of Michigan." 

Also reprint. 


In Primitive Times. Saginaw P^vening News, April 

9th, 1894. 

The ^^aginau' Valley Collection, The culture of the 

people once inhabiting a limited area near Saginaw, 
Michigan, as illustrated by material in the Anthrop- 
ological Department of the American Museum of 
Natural History. Illustrated, 2 maps, 24 pp. Supple- 
ment to American Museum Journal, Vol. I, No. 12, 
November-December, 1901. A popular account. 

Anthropological Matters in Michigan, read at the 

43rd Meeting of A. A. A. S. at Brooklyn, N. Y., 1894. 

Relics of an Early Race, Detroit Free Press, Octo- 
ber 21, 1894, refers to sites in Saginaw and Kalamazoo 

Study of Man, Detroit Free Press, Nov. 12, 1893. 

Legendary Invasion of the Saginaw Valley, Ameri- 
can Antiquarian, Chicago, Vol. XIII, No. 6, Nov. 1891, 
pp. 339-340. 

Reprinted under the title — The Invasion of Saginaw 

Valley. A legend of northern Michigan as told by an 
Indian, Detroit Free Press, Sunday, January 3, 1892, 
p. 11, column 4, also in daily issue of Saginaw Courier- 
Herald, Januarv 7th, and in the weeklv issue of the 
same January 14, 1892. 

The Archaeology of the Saginaw Valley as illus- 
trated at the World's Columbian Exposition. 

Also reprint. 

Voles on th^ Data of Michigan Archaeology. Pre- 
sented at the first meeting of the Michigan Academy 
of Science, Dec. 26, 1894. American Antiquarian, Vol. 
XVIII, No. 3, May, 1896, p. 144, part I. 

Also reprint. 

The Development of Michigan Archaeology. Pre- 
sented at the first meeting of the Michigan Academy 
of Science, Dec. 26, 1894. The Inlander, VI, 8, May, 
1896, part II. 

Also reprint. 

Partial Eeprint in Preservation of Local Archae- 
ological Evidences, Report of the Museums Associa- 
tion of the United Kingdom. Brighton Meeting for 

Also reprint, 1900. 

Also reprint Sci. Am. 



Work in Antliropology at the University of Michi- 
gan for 1892, University Record, Feb. 1894, pp. 98-100. 

Reprint Courier Presses, Ann Arbor, 1894. 

Also reprint Detroit Free Press. 

A71 Earthtvork Discovered in Michigan, Science, 

1901, p. 991, refers to Hauptman Earthwork in Oge- 
maw County. 

Science, 1901, p. 228, refers to Hauptman Earthwork 

in Ogemaw County. 

Primitive Remains in the Saginaiv Valley^ Michigan^ 

The Ayres Mound, The Archaeologist, Vol. 1, No. 3, 
March, 1893, pp. 51-53. 

Caches of the Saginato Yalley, Michigan, Proceed- 
ings Am. Ass. for the Advancement of Science, Vol. 
XLII, 1894, pp. 300-303. 

Also separate. 

See also same article revised and extended in The 

Antiquarian, Columbus, Ohio, Vol. I, Pt. 2, Feb., 1897, 

pp. 30-33. 
Nummary of the Archaeology of the Saginaio Yalley, 

Michigan, I, American Anthropologist, N. S. Vol. 3, 

No. 2, April-June, 1901, pp. 286-293. 

Also separate. 

^nmmary of the Archaeology of the Saginaw Valley, 

Michigan, II, American Anthropologist, N. S. Vol. 3, 
No. 3, July-September, 1901, pp. 501-512. 

Also separate. 

Summary of the Archaeology of the Saginaw Val- 
ley, Michigan, III, American Anthropologist, N. S. 
Vol. 3, No. 4, October-December, 1901, pp. 726-730. 
This article covers in the Saginaw River Valley, Sagi- 
naw Countv as far as Avres Graves inclusive. 

Anthropological Work at the University of Michi- 
gan, Memoir of the International Congress of An- 
thropology, Chicago, 1894. 

Lyceum Advocate. 

Smith, (Emile). Wrote in German on Michigan Copper and also 
translated into English. 

Smithsonian Report, 1897, p. 434, refers to mounds. 

1892, p. 50, refers to Holmes' exploration of copper 

mines on Isle Rovale. 

Squier, (E. G.). Ah original Monuments of New York, p. 184, men- 
tions copper mines in Ontonagon County. 


Starr, (Frederick). American Antiquarian. 

Stevens, (Edward T.). Flint Chips, p. 540, refers to garden beds. 

Stockwell, (G. Archie). Smithsonian Report, 1879, p. 435, re- 
ports mounds in St. Clair County. 

_ — Dr. G. Archie Stockwell of Port Huron, Michigan, 

at the time of Mr. Fowke's reconnaissance, while hunt- 
ing extensively in various parts of the state, had been 
watchful for mounds or other remains. He desired 
to make a systematic survey of Huron County and 
had collected many data regarding Michigan Archae- 
ology which he freely offered to place at the disposal 
of science. In 1894 Dr. Stockwell removed to Detroit, 

Strong, (E. A.). See Coffinberry. 

SwiNEFORD, ( ) . History and Review of the Mineral Resources 

of Lake Superior, mentions copper mines in Ontona- 
gon County. 

Talon. Refers to Ottawas (Otontagan). 

Teed, (Del^iar E.). American Archaeologist, April 1898, note p. 
105, assisted Chas. E. Manktelow explore mounds near 
Boon and Cadillac, Michigan. 

Address Cadillac, Michigan. 

ThOxMas, (Cyrus). 12th Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, pp. 
550 and p. 33, refers to garden beds, describes enclos- 
ures in Ogemaw County. 

Catalogue of Prehistoric Earth-Works East of the 

Rocky Mountains, pp. 106-116, Plate X, and Archae- 
ological map of Michigan. Washington, Government 
Printing Office, 1891. 

Thomas, (I. M.). and Galatian (A. B.). Compilers as well as 
publishers. Indian Pioneer History of the Saginaw 
Valley ivith histories of East Saginaw, Saginaio City 
and Bay City from the earliest settlements, also Pio- 
neer Directory and Business Advantages, 1866-67. 
Published in East Saginaw. Copy Detroit Public Li- 

Thomas, ( ) . Kalamazoo Directory and Business Advertise- 
ments, 1867-1868, together tvith History of Kalamazoo, 
Kalamazoo, 1867, p. 7, refers to garden beds. 

Tippecanoe Treaty (1832). U. S. Indian Treaty 701, 1873, refers to 
Pocagon's village (Pocagon). 


University. Wants University to Search fm- Prehistoric Remains. 
Ann Arbor Argus Democrat, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 
February 27, 1903. 

Verandrier. (See Haven.) 

Ward^ (Henry L.). A Remarkable Ceremomal Object from Michi- 
gan, Bulletin of the Wisconsin Natural History So- 
ciety, Vol. IV, N. S., No. 4, October, 1906, pp. 160-161. 

Washington Treaty 1836. U. S. Indian Treaty, 1873, p. 607, refers 
to sites in Manitou County. 

Washtenaw Times, June 26, 1901, refers to graves in Washtenaw 

Wayerman, Walkins & Co. History of Cass County, 1882, men- 
tions sites in Cass Countv. 

Wayne County. Find of Indian Skeletons, American Antiquarian, 
November-December, 1894, Vol. XVI, No. 6, p. 383. 

AVest Branch Herald Times, June 14, 1901, refers to wall around 
Rifle Lake. Possibly a natural ice push. 

Western Gazetteer or Emigrant's Directory, 1817, p. 170, mentions 
sites in Wayne County. 

Whitney. See Foster. 

Whittlesey^ (Charles). Ancient Mines on the Shores of Lake 
Superior, Contribution to Knowledge, 1863, pp. 17-20, 
describes and figures copper mines in Ontonagon 

Wilson^ (Thomas). Arroio Points, Spearheads and Knives of Pre- 
historic Times. United States National Museum, 1897. 
P. 980, refers to caches in Saginaw County and in 
Huron County. Frontispiece represents a hafted 
celt from Genesee County. 

Report of the United States National Museum, 1892, 

part 1, p. 980, refers to cache from Chippewa County. 

Wilson, (Daniel). Prehistoric Man. Vol. I, p. 278, refers to 
copper mining. 



A. Page. 

Acris crepitans 14 

gryllus 13, 14, 15, 22, 45, 46, 48 

var. crepitans 14 

agassizii, Nerodia 63, 96 

Ambystoma jeffersonianum 14, 15, 21, 30, 31 

laterale 14 

luridum 14 

maculatum •• 15 

opacum 1 * 

punctatum 14, 15, 21, 27, 28, 29, 37 

tigrinum 14, 15, 21, 26, 27, 28, 29 

Ambystomidse 20 

American toad 39 

araericanus, Bufo 13, 14, 22, 39, 40 

lentiginosus 15 

Aromochelys 138 

odoratus 137 

Aspidonectes 131, 136, 142. 151 

spinifer. 129 

atrata, Thamnophis 117 

Axolotl 27 


Bascanion constrictor 64, 66, 82, 107, 109 

constrictor 107 

foxii 107 

foxii 63, 107 

bellii, chrysemys 66, 77, 129, 141, 143, 144, 146 

marginata 143 

Bell's turtle 143 

bilineatus, Spelerpes 115 

blandingii, Emydoidea.. 67, 71, 129, 153, 154 

Emys 153 

Blanding turtle 153, 155 

Blowing adder 67, 89 

Blue racer 67, 91, 107, 108, 110 

Blue-tailed skink 78, 79, 112 

Box turtle 75, 153, 155. 156 

brachystoma, Eutaenia 65, 116 

Eutainia 64 

Thamnophis 65 

Bufo americanus 13, 14, 22, 39, 40 

lentiginosus 14 

americanus 15 

musicus 13 

Bufonidae 22 

Bullfrog 54, 59, 60 

Butler garter snake 65, 116 

butlerii, Eutaenia 116 

Thamnophis 64, 65, 66. 82, 116, 117, 118, 119 


Callopeltis obsoletus 90 

vulpinus , 93 

184 INDEX. 


cantabrigensis, Rana 16, 23, 55, 56, 66 

sylvatica 15 

Carolina, Terrapene 129, 153, 155, 158 

carolinense, Engystoma 105 

catenatus, Sistrurus 63, 64, 82, 124, 127 

catenatus 124 

catesbeana, Rana 14, 1 5, 23, 51 , 59, 60, 61 

catesbyana, Rana 14 

Caudata 16, 17, 18, 20 

Caudisona tergimina 124 

Chelydra 135 

serpentina • 72, 128, 133, 136 

t'hlorosoma vernalis 102 

Chorophilus nigritus 14, 22, 47, 48 

triseriatus 15 

triseriatus 14 

Chrysemys 66, 129, 139 

bellii ■. 66, 77, 129, 141, 143, 144, 146 

cinerea 129, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145 

marginata 141, 143 

bellii 143 

cinera, Salamandra 14 

cinerea, Chrysemys 129, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145 

cinereus, Plethodon 14, 15, 98, 105, 115 

erythronotus . . . .' 14 

Cistuda vifginea 155 

Cistudo clausa 1 55 

clamitans, Rana 13, 14, 15, 23, 53, 55, 59, 61 

clausa, Cistudo 155 

Clemmys guttata 129, 147, 149 

Clonophis kirtlandii 82, 100, 101 

Cnemidophorus 77 

sexlineatus 77 

Coluber constrictor 107 

eximius 110 

heterodon 87 

obsoletus 90 

obsoletus 90 

punctatus 104 

saurita . 113 

septemvittatus 98 

sipedon .^ - 95 

sirtalis 119 

spiloides 90 

vernalis 102 

vulpinus 93 

Common tree frog 41, 42 

Common tree toad 42 

constrictor, Bascanion 64, 66, 82, 107, 109 

constrictor 107 

Coluber 107 

Zamenis 107 

Copper head 1 10, 126 

crepitans, Acris 14 

gryllus var 14 

Cricket frog 45, 47 

Crotalus horridus 64 

tergiminus 121 

Crotolophorus kirtlandii 124 

tergeminus 124 

kirtlandii 124 

INDEX. 185 



Dekay snake '■ 83, 1 1 1 

dekayi, Storeria 81, 83', 84, ill 

Tropidonotus 83 

Diadophis punctata 66, 67, 82, 104, 106 

Diemictylus miniatus 37 

viridescens 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 22, 36, 38 


Eastern hognosed snake 89 

Elaphe 81 

obsoletus 81, 90, 91, 93 

vulpinus 63, 64, 66, 81, 93, 94 

Emydoidea blandingii 67, 71, 129, 153, 154 

Emys blandingii 1 53 

geographiea 1 50 

guttata 147 

meleagris 153 

pennsylvanica 137 

pieta 141 

Engystoma carolinense 105 

erythrogaster, Natrix 64, 95, 96 

fasciata 96 

Tropidonotus 96 

erythronotus, Plethondon 14, 18, 19, 21, 32, 33, 34 

cinereus 15, 34 

Eumeces fasciatus 77 

quinquilineatus 63, 77, 80, 112 

Eutaenia brachystoma 65 

butlerii 116 

saurita 117 

sauritus 113 

sirtalis ordinatus 119 

parietalis 119 

sirtalis 119 

Eutainia brachystoma 64, 116 

eximius, Coluber 110 

Ophibolus 110 


faireyi, Thamnophis 113 

fasciata, Xatrix sipedon 95 

Tropidonotus 96 

fasciatus, Eumeces 77 

fontinalis, Rana 14 

Four-toed salamander 34, 35 

Fox snake 67, 93, 94, 95 

foxii, Bascanion 63, 107 

constrictor 107 


Garter snake 65, 108, 110, 111, 112, 113, 117, 118, 119, 120 

geographiea, Emys 150 

Graptemys 129, 150, 152 

getulus, Lampropeltis 110 

Glass snake 76 

glutinosus, Plethodon 14, 15, 31 

Graptemys 136, 142, 143, 151, 152, 153 

geographiea 129, 150, 152 

Grass snake 102 

Green frog 53, 54, 98, 109, 121 

newt 36 

snake 105, 109 

186 INDEX. 


gryllus, Acris 13, 14, 15. 22, 45, 46, 48 

Rana •. 13 

guttata, Clemmys 129, 147, 149 

Emys 147 

Xanemys 147 


halecina, Rana 13, 14 

Helocaetes triseriatus 14 

Hemidactylium scutatum 15, 18, 10, 21, 34, 35 

heterodon. Coluber 87 

Heterodon platyrhinus 66, 81, 87, 88, 159 

platyrhinus niger 87 

Hissing viper 89 

Hog-nosed snake 87 

Hog-nosed viper 89 

horridus, Crotalus 64 

House snake 94 

Hyla pickeringii 14. 15, 22, 43, 44 

versicolor 13, 14, 15, 22, 41, 42. 115 

Hylidae 22, 42, 43, 47 


jeffersonianuni, Ambystoma 14, 15, 21, 30, 31 

Jefferson's salamander 30 


King snake 110 

Kinosternon odoratum : 73, 128, 137. 139 

Kirtland snake 100 

kirtlandii, Crotolophorus 124 

tergeminus 124 

Natrix 100 

Regina 100 

kirtlandii, Clonophis 82, 100, 101 


Lampropeltis doliatus triangulus 64, 82, 108, 110, 112 

getulus 110 

laterale, Ambystoma 14 

lateralis, Menobranches 14 

Necturus 14 

Leather snake 98 

leberis, Natrix 98, 1 12 

Regina 63, 64, 82, 08, 99 

Tropidonotus 08 

lentiginosus. Bufo 14 

Leopard frog 49, 98 

Liopeltis vernalis ". 82. 102, 103. 105 

luridum, Ambystoma 14 


muculatum. Ambystoma 15 

maculosus, Necturus 14, 15. IS. 20, 23, 24. 25 

Map turtle 150 

marginata, Chrysemys 141. 143 

Massauger '. 124.125 

meleagris, Emys 1 53 

Menobranches lateralis 14 

Milk snake 110, 111 

miniatus, Diemictylus ; 37 

INDEX. 187 


Mink frog ". 59 

Mud puppy 23 

musicus, Bufo 13 

Musk tortoise '. 140 

Musk turtle 137, 138, 140 

Mutabilia 20 


Nanemys guttatus 147 

Natrix erythrogaster 64, 95 

fasciata erythrogaster 96 

sipedon 95 

kirtlandii 100 

leberis 98 

sipedon 63, 64,r82, 95, 97, 112, 117 

fasciata 95 

Necturus 14, 16, 19, 24 

lateralis , 14 

maculosus 14, 15, 18, 20, 23, 24, 25 

Nerodia agassizii 63, 96 

sipedon 96 

niger, Heterodon platyrhinus 87 

nigritus, Chorophilus 14, 22, 47, 48 

Northern frog 57, 59 

Northern wood frog 56 

Notophthalmus viridescens 14 


obsoletus, Callopeltis 90 

Coluber 90 

obsoletus 90 

Elaphe ' 81, 90. 91, 93 

occipitomaculata, Storeria 81, 85, 86, 105, 111 

odoratum, Kinosternon 73, 128, 137, 139 

odoratus, Aromochelys 137 

opacum. Ambystoma 14 

Ophibolus doliatus triangulus 110 

eximius 110 

triangulus 110 

Ophiosaurus ventralis 76 

ordinatus, Eutaenia sirtalis 119 

ordinoides, Thamnophis 117 

Osceola doliata triangula • • • • HO 


palustris, Rana 13, 14, 15, 23, 51, 52, 53 

parietalis, Eutaenia sirtalis 119 

Thamnophis 121 

sirtalis '■ 65, 119 

pennsylvanica, Emys 137 

Pickerel frog 51 , 53 

pickeringii, Hyla 14, 15, 22. 43, 44 

picta, Emvs 141 

Pilot snake 67, 90, 91, 92 

pipiens, Rana 13, 14, 15, 22, 41). 50. 51, 52, 53, 59 

Platypeltis 142 

spinifera 76, 128, 129, 132 

platyrhinus, Heterodon 66. 81. 87, 88, 159 

Plestiodon vittigerum 63, 77 

Plethodon ^^ 

cinereus 14, 15, 34, 98, 105, 115 

ervthronotus 15, 34 

erythrcnotus 14. 18, 19, 31, 32, 3.3, 34 

glutinosus 14, 15, 31 

188 INDEX. 


Plethodontidse 21 

Proteidje 20 

proximus, Thamnophis 114 

punctata, Diadophis 66, 67, 82, 104, 106 

punctatura, Ambystoma 14, 15, 21, 27, 28, 29, 37 

punctatus, Coluber 104 


Queen snake 112 

quinquilineatus, Eumeces 63, 77, 112 


Rana cantabrigensis 16, 23, 55, 56, 66 

catesbeana 14, 15, 23, 51, 59, 60, 61 

catesbyana 14 

clamitans 13, 14, 15, 23, 53, 55, 59, 61, 121 

fontinalis 14 

gryllus 13 

halecina 13, 14 

palustris 13, 14, 15, 23, 51, 52, 53 

pipiens 13, 14, 15, 22, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 59 

septentrionalis 15, 23, 57, 58, 66 

sylvatica 13, 14, 15, 16 

cantabrigensis 15 

temporaria var. sylvatica 14 

Ranidae 22, 49, 50, 57 

Rattle snake 67, 74, 93, 110, 124, 125, 126 

Red-backed salamander 32 

Red-bellied snake 84, 85, 86, 105, 111 

Regina kirtlandii 100 

leberis 63, 64, 82, 98, 99 

Ribbon snake 113, 115 

Ring-necked snake 104, 105, 106 


sackenii, Thamnophis 114, 115 

Salamandra cinera 14 

symetrica 13 

Salamandridae 22 

Salientia 16, 17, 22 

Sauria 77 

saurita, Coluber 113 

Eutaenia 117 

Thamnophis :.. 113 

sauritus, Eutaenia 113 

Thamnophis 66, 82, 113, 114, 115 

Scotophis vulpinus 93 

scutatum, Hemidactylium . .15, 18, 19, 21, 34, 35 

septemvittatus. Coluber 98 

septentrionalis, Rana 15, 23, 57, 58, 66 

Serpentes 77,81 

serpentina, Chelydra 72, 128, 133, 136 

sexlineatus, Cenemidophorus 77 

sioedon. Coluber 95 

Natrix 63, 64, 82, 95, 97, 112, 117 

fasciata 95 

Nerodia 96 

Tropidonotus 95 

sirtalis. Coluber 119 

Eutaenia sirtalis 119 

Thamnophis 65, 66, 82, 117, 119, 121, 123- 

sirtalis 119 

INDEX. 189 


Sistrurus catenatus 63, 64, 82, 124, 127 

catenatus 124 

Snapping turtle 133, 134, 135, 137 

Soft-shelled turtle 76, 129, 130, 131, 133 

Speckled tortoise 147 

Spelerpes bilineatus Ho 

spiloides. Coluber 90 

spinifer, Aspidonectes 129 

spinifera, Platypeltis 76, 128, 129, 132 

spiniferus, Trionyx 129 

Spotted salamander 28 

Spring peeper 43 

Squamata 77, 81 

Storeria 81, 107 

dekayi .• 63, 81, 83, 84, 111 

occipitomaculata 81, 85, 86, 105, 111 

Swamp tree frog 47 

Swift : 112 

sylvatica, Rana 13, 14, 15, 16 

temporaria var 14 

symetrica. Salamandra 13 


tergeminus, Crotolophorus 124 

tergimina, Caudisona 124 

tergiminus, Crotalus 124 

Terrapene Carolina 129, 153, 155, 158 

Testudinata 77, 128 

Thamnophis 82 

atrata '. 117 

brachystoma 65 

butleri 64, 65, 66, 82, 116, 117, 118, 119 

faireyi 113 

ordinoides 117 

parietalis 121 

sackenii •• • • 114, 115 

saurita 113 

sauritus 66, 82, 113, 114, 115 

sirtalis 65, 66, 82, 117, 119, 121, 123 

parietalis 65. 119 

sirtalis 119 

Tiger salamander 26 

tigrinum, Ambystoma . .14, 15, 21. 26, 27, 28, 29 

triangula, Osceola doliata 110 

triangulus, Lampropeltis doliatus 64, 82, 108, 110, 112 

Ophibolus 110 

doliatus 110 

Trionyx spiniferus 129 

triseriatus, Helocaetes 14 

Chorophilus 14 

nigritus 15 

Tropidonotus dekayi 83 

erythrogaster 96 

fasciata 96 

leberis 98 

sipedon 95 


ventralis, Ophiosaurus 76 

vernalis, Chlorosoma 102 

Coluber . 102 

Liopeltis 82. 102, 103. 105 

190 INDEX. 


versicolor, Hyla 13, 14, 1.5. 22, 41, 42, 115 

virginea, Cistuda . 155 

viridescens, Diemictylus 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 22, 36, 38 

Notopthalmus 14 

vittigerura, Pleistodon 63, 77 

vulpinus, Callopeltis 93 

Coluber 93 

Elaphe 63, 64, 66. 81, 93, 94 

Scotophis • 93 


Water snake 64, 95, 98, 109 

Western painted turtle 141 

Wood frog 16, 55, 57, 66, 92, 109 


Zamenis constrictor 107 

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North Carolina State University Libraries 

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