J. D. SOUTHWICK,
ON THE BEACH
REMAINS OPEN THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EVERY
CONVENIENCE, INCLUDING HOT AND COLD
SEA-WATER BATHS, AND PASSENGER
THE A. B. ROBERTS CO.
ON THE OCEAN FRONT
Has Enlarged to Double its Former Capacity
The Travinore has long been recognized as one of Atlantic City's most popular and
famous beach-front hotels ; and the extensive alterations and additions just completed
make it a model of comfort and elegance.
Rooms en Suite, Baths attached. Etc., Etc.
Capacity, 450 D. S. WHITE, Jr., Owner and Proprietor. 'Phone 27
Large Rooms, Single and
En Suite, with Private
Sea and Fresh Water Baths
Piazza joined to the Boardwalk. Heated Sun Parlor and Pavilion on the Ocean
Write for Illustrated ,r^ci A M \\/HITPr C CniV Open every month
Booklet to JOSIAH WHITE & SON i„ the Year
. . . Capacity^ 450.
Open the Entire Year.
Modern and Complete. Luxuriously Furnished.
Booklets upon Application.
JOSEPH H. BORTON
See view on opposite page.
Overlooking the Ocean -:$;2^
Enlarged and Refurnished throughout.
FOR 300 GUESTS.
Sun Gallery. Elevators. Hot and Cold Salt-Water Baths in the House.
Enclosed vi^alk of glass from Hotel to Beach. Billiard room and all the
appointments of a first-class house. Coach meets all trains. Ocean
parlor on the beach, free to guests. Telegraph and Long Distance Tele-
phone in the house.
CHARLES EVANS & SON.
See view opposite i)age 25. '^ •••Open all the Year.
HOTEL 5T. CHARLE5.
^^ ^be Xatest Conception ^^
4v ot a Scasborc il
•^.. tbotel. M
Directly on the Ocean Front, at the foot of St. Charles Place, Two
Hundred Feet from the Breakers.
/IIb06t Brtistic JBuUDing in Atlantic Cit^.
^boroucibl^ /llboDern in all its appointments.
jforts IRooms en Snite, witb private JBatb.
An ever-flowing artesian well on the premises, bringing the water
crystal pure, from a depth of 1000 feet. Ball and music
room, 60 x 75 feet, large dining room, seating
500. Reception Halls, etc.
See view opposite page 32. '^^^'^' '''''' 3amCB B» IRCUllJ*
Vir§:inia Ave. near the Beach*
HE CUISINE RECEIVES
THE PERSONAL j// 250 Guests.
ATTENTION OF THE 'M\ Elevator from Street Level.
^^\y Sun Parlor.
OWNER AND MANAGER 1' g^jj^^
MRS. N. R. HAINES, FOR- |. Shuffle Boards
MERLY MANAGER OF i
THE CHALFONTE. \
Long Distance Telephone.
For Terms and Full Particulars, Address
MRS. N. R. HAINES,
Telephone 407. Owner and Proprietress.
See view opposite page 42.
^ VIRGINIA AVENUE,
^W9f Directly on the Beach.
OPEN ALL THE YEAR.
A Modern Hotel in Every Respect.
Fresh and Salt Water in all Bath Rooms.
^ HALE & SCULL, Managers.
See view opposite
en Suite, with
Sea and Fresh Water
Street Level and com-
plete Electric Plant.
Steam Heat. Sun Par-
Luncheon and Dinner
On Beach Front.
Terms, $3.00 to $5.00 per day.
Special Rates for May, June and September.
Accommodations for 600 Guests.
W. E. COCHRAN, ChARLES R. MyERS,
Cliief Clerk. 'Phone 111. Proprietor.
See view opposite page 62.
: H 3 3 S *
S £ rt E c 2J
iU 3 O £ <« 83
U U3 S2 u « ^
- s s « — —
., ?3 bfi P lU
« ^ S d ^ ==
^0.2 3 f« ^
•^ = rt > Ji .>
_ 3 (U C 1) (U IJ
^ t5 =
d r 1 ^
: rt t <fl
Royal Palace Hotel
Ocean End of
IT is in the coolest, most pictur- PACIFIC AVENUE.
esque and exclusive hotel section.
The boardwalk is but 50 feet away
and 200 rooms have unobstructed
views of the ocean, which sweeps
past not one but several sides. Private
baths are attached to 100 rooms, many
of them being en suite.
All sailing craft to and from the Inlet
pass immediately in front of the hotel.
The furnishings, equipment, appoint-
ments, cuisine and service are unex-
Write for ceiled on the coast. Persons desiring
a quiet and retired location, away from
Illustrated the crowd and bustle, yet within easy
r> « I . distance of the centre of amusement,
OOOKiei. will find the Royal Palace the place
F. N. PIKE, Proprietor.
Also Proprietor of the HYQEIA HOTEL. Old Point Comfort, Va.
Directly on the Beach at
Full Ocean View.
New, handsome fire-proof hotel, built of
brick and stone; complete with every
modern appointment. Rooms en-suite
with private bath. Elevator from level
of street. Capacity 200. Open all yean
Illustrated booklet^ show-
ing plan of rooms, mailed SENSOR St IMEL
Entirely New Hotel with Full Ocean View from Every Room.
Ocean end of new Jersey Jfuenue.
Buffet and Grotto— Ground Floor.
Convenient to Golf Links.
CONDUCTED IN THE MOST
LIBERAL AND APPROVED
MANNER. .• .■ .• .• .• ••
CAPACITY 30 0.
Thoroughly Steam Heated.
Elevator from Street Level.
Rooms en Suite, with Bath.
Write for Booklet.
See view opposite page 65.
^pTj-ri 'Pi^on^ 378.
A SUPERB NEW HOTEL.
Sooth Carolina Ave*
Ocean view; capacity 500; steam
heat ; sun parlors ; elevator to
street ; rooms en suite, with bath ;
spring rates, $12 to $17.50 weekly;
W. F. SHAW.
St. Charles Place*
European and American. Meals served to order from 6 A. M. until 12 M. at night. New
and elaborately furnished in ancient and modern designs. Rooms en suite
or single, with bath. Elevator to street level.
OPEN ALL THE YEAR.
C. O. SHAAR.
OPEN ALL THE YEAR.
Strictly first-class Family
House. All modern improve-
ments. Special rates to fami-
lies. |8.oo to $10.00 a week,
^\. 51.50 to J2.00 per day.
'Phone 338. J. E. REED,
CUISINE THE BEST.
OPEN ALL THE YEAR.
JNO. M. TAYLOR,
^-Square from Beach.
Near the Beach.
f2.oo to f2.50 per day. 58.00 to $14.00 per week.
On Atlantic City's most fashionable avenue (Pennsylvania), near beach.
Open throughout the year.
Modern and homelike.
Write for booklet and rates. HENRY DARNELL.
Everybody goes to Brigantine***
Elevator. Modern in ever
BY BOAT AND TROLLEY CAR
Across the Inlet Alongf the Beach
Bfigantine Transportation Company Steamers
run every few minutes in season.
. . . See Holland House advertisement.
VIRGINIA AVE , third house from the beach.
Directly overlooking: the New Steel Pier.
L'tail. Capacity 300. Booklet mailed on application.
OSBORNE & PAINTER.
Ocean End New York Ave.
STEAM HEAT. ELECTRIC LIGHTS.
ELEVATOR FROM STREET LEVEL.
OPEN ALL THE YEAR.
First-class in every respect. Modern
improvements. $2.50 to $5.00 per day,
$15. CO to $30.00 per week.
F. P. PEALE.
MICHIGAN AVENUE, Near Beach.
J. C. COPELAND.
Open all the Year. Enlarged'. Every convenience, including passenger elevator, steam
heat and electric bells. Ocean view from all rooms.
VIRGINIA AVENUE, Near the Beach
'Phone 476. F. A. CANFIELD.
Ocean End Tennessee Avenue
MRS. J. F. NEALL, of Tioga.
100 feet from Ocean. Convenient to all places of interest.
Special rates made with families for the season.
Near the Beach.
108 SOUTH KENTUCKY AVENUE.
M. B. WALKER.
Open all the Year.
No. 109 OCEAN AVENUE.
M. D. WELSH.
Open all the Year.
No. 112 MICHIGAN AVENUE, SOUTH
MRS. S. LETTRE.
Open all the Year.
MISSOURI AND ATLANTIC AVES.
Opposite Reading Depot.
Phone 227. CHAS. M. SPEIDEL.
Corner Atlantic and Harrisburg Avenues
FRANK J. KRAEMER, Proprietor. Every Room Ocean View.
KENTUCKY AVE., 100 FT. from the ocean.
L. V. STICKNEY.
Steam Heat. Elevator. 59.00 to $14.00 per week. Transient, $2.00 to J2. 50 per day.
"R T J KENTUCKY AVE., Second house from Beach.
INOrWOOa^ -Phone 367. F. ALSFELT.
Appointments First-class. Steam Heat. Open all the Year. Location very desirable.
Ocean End of South Carolina Avenue.
MRS. JOHN E. FLYNN.
Open all the Year.
NEW YORK AVENUE near PACIFIC.
N. A. DIELING, Proprietor.
First-class accommodations Convenient to Depot and Beach. Open all the Year.
SOUTH CAROLINA AVENUE and BEACH.
'Phone 658. LUKENS & HUDDERS.
Elevator, Steam Heat, Sun Parlor and every modern convenience. Personal attention to
Cuisine and Service. Centre of all attractions. Capacity 250. Open the entire Year.
1907 Pacific Avenue near Ohio Avenue
MRS. MARY LAUGHLIN.
Rooms, Single or en Suite. Table Board. Formerly of Wells' Beach, Maine.
Home Comforts. Good Table. Central Location.
154 and 156 OCEAN AVE., near Beach.
W. F. BECKER.
A cheerful family house. Good Table. Delightful Location. Steam Heat. Rates per
day, $1.50 to 52. .so. OPEN ALL THE YEAR.
163-165 OCEAN AVE., near the Beach.
MRS. J. H. LEEDOM,
Close to the Ocean Promenade, hot and cold sea-water baths, and all places of interest.
All modern convenience, perfect sanitation and large porches. Open all the Year.
2016 PACIFIC AVENUE. 'Phone 415.
MRS. N. L. WARD.
Excellent Cuisine. With home comforts. OPEN ALL THE YEAR.
SOUTH CAROLINA AVENUE.
Good Ocean View. Hot-Water Heat. Open all the Year.
Hotel St. George^
MISSOURI AND ATLANTIC AVES.
FRANK HEINISH, Proprietor.
Boarding by Day or Week. Opposite Philadelphia and Reading Depot.
Terms Moderate. Open all the \'ear.
Atlantic and North Carolina Avenues.
Open all the Year.
M. MALATESTA, Proprietor. J. K. CARMACK, Manager,
P'ormerly (iirard House, Philadelphia.
COR. ILLINOIS AND ATLANTIC AVES.
Ameriran and European Plan.
J. R. LONGINOTTI, Proprietor. DAVID LONGINOTTI, Manager,
Formerly of Wm. Megonegal's, 1021 Chestnut St., Philadelphia.
Hotel LonginOtti and Cafe
Cottage of C. H. McPherson— Residence of Col. George P. Eldridge— Cottage of
Thomas M. Thompson— Cottage of Mrs. Cuthbert Roberts.
nrff "D PARK PLACE, near Beach. 'Phone 92.
i lie iS^CVCTCf JAMES M. MOORE.
Facing City Park. SteamHeat. Heated Sun Parlor and Smoking Room. Open all the Year.
PACIFIC AVENUE AND ST. JAMES PLACE.
'Phone 70S. MRS. CHAS. H. SASSE.
Open all Year. SteamHeat. Large Rooms. Full Ocean View. All Modern Improvements.
The Chester Inn^
lEW YORK AVE., near the Beach.
Central Location. SteamHeat. Sun Parlor. Moderate Rates. 'Phone 42.
OCEAN END SOUTH CAROLINA AVE.
Near Beach and Railroad Station.
Open all the ^'ear. P. O. Box 237. M. A. MELONEY.
npl Tp , KENTUCKY AVE., near Beach
1 ne V isia^ macht & blaci
;h. 'Phone 514.
Every possible home comfort. Si.soand up daily. 5S 00 and up weekly.
31 SOUTH DELAWARE AVENUE.
Open all the Year. GEO. ZIP PEER, Jr.
Special rates for Spring and Fall. Convenient to Beach and all places of interest.
PACIFIC AND NEW YORK AVENUES.
One Block from Beach and Railroad Station. Terms Moderate.
VIRGINIA AVENUE AND BEACH.
S. S. PHOEBUS, Owner and Proprietor.
For Booklet and information address the Proprietor.
Hotel Buena Vista^
OPP. PHILA. AND READING R. R. DEPOT.
CHAS. C. HAINES.
European plan. Cuisine unexcelled. Salads and Fish Foods a specialty. Buffet
supplied with the finest grades of Wines, Brandies, Gins, Cigars, etc., my own importa-
tion. Open all the \'ear. Fine Furnished Rooms, jTi. 00 per day. Special attention given
to Planked Shad Dinners, from March 15th until June i.slh.
Cor. arctic and ARKANSAS AVENUES.
Open all the Year.
A brick Hotel, newly furnished. With modern appointments.
Steam Heat. Electric Bells and Lights. 'Phone 740 THOMAS KILCOURSE.
T 1 j_ "T) »1» Concerts Mornin
inlet ravilion, Fi.^.c,
g, Afternoon and Evening,
ass Cafe Attached.
joHX E. MEHKER, Proprietor.
ARCTIC AND SOUTH CAROLINA AVES.
Near \Y. J. cSi S. S. Station. J. D. FAS5IO, Proprietor,
Good Table Home Comforts. Terms Moderate. 'Phone s;'^.
Opp. West Jersey & Seashore R. R. Depot.
LOITS KUEHNLE, Prop.
Open all the Year. 'Phone 400.
■BY THE BREAKERS AT BRIGANTINE-
Opened in 1S96. Supplied with Artesian well-water.
Lighted by Electricity.
Meals served at any hour k la carte. Fish and
Game Dinners a Specialty.
SAFE SURF BATHING.
Take Steamer at the Inlet, electric cars to the door. EUGENE MEHL, Manager.
See Brigantine Transportation Company's Advertisement.
Bleak House^ ^m
DIRECTLY ON OCEAN FRONT.
"Won^t Burn/^ GEO. H. CORYELL.
Strictly European. Modern. Absolutely fire-proof. The Hotel " par excellence." Forty
private baths. Capacity 400. Luxuriously appointed. Booklet mailed. 'Phone 486.
Unobstructed Ocean View.
1 36 MARYLAND AVE., South, near the Beach.
L. C. MILLER.
Spacious Lawn. Open all the Year. Appointments First-class
Elevator and modern appointments
Send for Booklet
ARKANSAS AND PACIFIC AVENUES.
MRS. P. J. OSBORNE.
$1.50 to $2.50 per day, J8.00 to $14.00 weekly.
Enlarged and Refurnished.
VIRGINIA AVENUE AND BEACH.
Phone 616. EVANS & WOOD.
Thoroughly Heated. Open all the Year.
North Carolina Ave. near Pacific Ave.
mrs. e. m. mason.
Convenient to all places of interest. Open all Year.
OPEN ALL THE YEAR.
Cor. ATLANTIC and PENNSYLVANIA AVES.
HENRY HECKLER, Proprietor.
Heated by Steam in Winter.
Convenient to all places of interest.
27 SOUTH MICHIGAN AVENUE
One square from the Beach.
LYLBURN H. BEWLEY,
JEWELER, Repairing a Specialty.
No. 1 105 Atlantic Avenue.
Alfred W. Ely, Optician.
R. T. CHAPMAN,
Optician and Jeweler, 1829 Atlantic Ave.
Optical Work a Specialty. Special At-
tention given to repairing Souvenirs.
B. F. LEEDS, Telephone 26.
Boarding and Livery Stables.
Agent for Keystone Wagons.
Stables, No. 1811 Atlantic Avenue, and
California Avenue above Atlantic.
FRANK CURZIO, hTJri' t1:.o..
2013 Atlantic Avenue.
Cleaning, Dyeing, Scouring, Pressing and
Repairing at Low Prices.
Picture Frames ok all Descriptions
Made to Order.
Dealer in Window and Looking Glass.
1819 Atlantic Avente.
AL FARRAND, "Heiio"393.
Electrician and Locksmith,
15 S. New York Av., next door to Post Office.
r:iectrical Repair Work a Specialty.
Trunks and Umbrellas Repaired.
DICKERSON & CO.
Always new, fresh goods to show you. Good styles and plenty to
Shirt Waists, Skirts, Underwear,
Hosiery, Linens, Notions,
Linings, Parasols, Sailor Hats,
Leather Goods, Belts, Neckwear,
Summer Dress Goods. piine 521.
THOS. J. DICKERSON & CO., 1330=32=34 Atlantic Ave.
HINKLE & MCDEVITT, "^^=-
PAINTS OILS, PLUMBIMG,
VARNISHES, i-u-v^i i u i * ^ >=? ,
RooFiNc^rr'' ""'''' Steam and Hot-Water Heating,
METAL WORK. wt,v,u O^
817 ATLANTIC AVENUE. 'Phone 130.
ARTISTS' MATERIALS. ESTABLISH ED 1878 . TELE PH O N E No 1 75.
OUi:^ER H. GWXTRIDGE.
Dealer in Mard\A/are, M ou sef u rn ish i n g Goods,
WALL PAPERS AND WINDOW SHADES, OIL CLOTHS AND LINOLEUMS,
PAINTERS' SUPPLIES, WINDOW GLASS,
W. L. RiDGWAY, MANAGER. 1326 ATLANTIC AVENUE.
T^^LBERTSON St YOVyiSG CO.
HARDWARE, PLUMBING AND STEAM HEATING,
Stoves^ Heaters^ Ranges^ and Housefurnishing Goods,
TELEPHONE 47. ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS.
L. E, FREEMAN, 1022 Atlantic Avenue,
Practical Plumber, Steam and Gas Fitter.
Sanitary Plumbing and Drainage a Specialty. Constantly on hand a full line of
Gas Fixtures and Globes.
WILLIAM HEALT) CO.
ANTHRACITE AND BITUMINOUS COAL,
Flour, Feed and Grain, Hay, Straw, Salt, Soap,
Corn Meal, Etc.
Telephone No. 93. BALTIC AND CONNECTICUT AVENUES.
BALTIC AND Dealer in COAL and WOOD
KENTUCKY AVES. Telephone No. 606.
ALLEN B, ENDICOTT
UNION NATIONAL BANK BUILDING
Rooms I, 2 and 3
Carlton Godfrey B. C. Godfrey
GODFREY & GODFREY
...MASTERS IN CHANCERY AND NOTARIES PUBLIC...
Rooms 13 and 15 Real Estate and Law Building
ROBERT E. STEPHANY
Counselor-at-Law Office^ 17 and 19 Real Estate and Law Building
HAROLD F. ADAMS
Telephone 348 Rooms 30-32 Law Building
S. HUDSON VAUGHN
'Phone 178 Rooms 45 and 47 Law Building
MECCA OF THE VISITORS
The Ocean Pier
Nearly 3000 Feet Long
JOHN L. YOUNQ, Owner and Proprietor
..FOOT OF TENNESSEE AVENUE..
Admission, 10 cents; Children under 12 years of age, and Baby
Coaches and attendant, 5 cents
The best equipped and most popular amusement resort in Atlantic City.
Continuous chain of exclusive features from morning till night.
THP RTP NPT HA TIT ^^^ '"''** interesting sight along the coast.
inC Diyj JMZl IIAUL ^„ ^j^jg ^j curious fish are caught in the great
sea net at end of the Pier. Hauls will be made daily at 11 A. M. and 4.30 P. M.
GOOD FISHING ON THE OUTER DECK
... Band Concerts Mornings, Afternoons and Evenings ...
Finest Dancing Pavilion on the Coast
Special Attractions Daily in the New Theatre.
Irvin's Dry Goods Store— Union National Rank Building.
2>r^ (3oob6 IDouee
of Htlantic <L\t^ . . .
Nos. 16 J9 and 1621 ATLANTIC AVENUE
. . . Extends a cordial invitation to all
visiting Atlantic City to call and examine
the large and well-assorted stock of . . .
Br^ (3oob8, IKlotions, XTriinniinos,
Btc, Btc, lEtc,
AT THE LOWEST CASH PRICES.
The Largest House Furnishing Establishment
in West Jersey.
ELL ^ GOR/AAM.
Furniture, |I|attresses, Carpets, yptiolstery.
ATLANTIC AND TENNESSEE AVES.
COAL, WOOD, LIME, CEMENT,
Plaster and Mortar.
California avenue, between arctic and Baltic a\'enues.
DR. J. B. JONES, Telephone 2b.
Vei ERiNARv Surgeon,
Graduate N. ^•. Cllcgc of \oterinary Sur-coiis.
181 1 Atlantic Avenue.
L. A. CHARLTON,
HOT AND COLD SE.A-WATER BATHS
Beacli-front and Illinois Aves.
" Much valuable information is given by Mr. Heston in
this little volume/' — Public Ledger, Philadelphia.
"An excellent account of Atlantic City's many
attractions. ' ' — Pittsburgh Chronicle- Telegraph.
"A complete description of the famous watering
place. ' ' — Washington Star.
PHYSICIANS ( Unsolicited).
1404 Olive Street,
St. Louis, Mo., May 7, 1900.
Mr. a. M. Heston.
Dear Sir : Please accept my thanks for the Hand-
Book. I will spend all of my Augusts in Atlantic City in the
future, as I am about retiring from practice. I believe the
book has already determined two of mv patients to go to
Atlantic City instead of to Wisconsin resorts.
C. A. WARE.
Atlantic City, May 12, 1900.
Mr. a. M. Heston.
Dear Sir : I have always had a livelv interest in your
Hand-Book, have recommended it to a great many people, and
look upon it as the most valuable publication on Atlantic City.
I have seen similar works in other cities, but consider your work
the best and most perfect exponent of any city in the country.
M. D. YOUNGMAN.
A. M. HESTON,
Office: Union National Bank Building,
Heston's Hand-Book of Atlantic City.'*
Atlantic CiO — Queen of the Coast."
Winter Ontinfis and Summer Rambles."
Outing by the Sea," etc.
ATLANTIC CITY AND COUNTY OFFICIALS.
I. Allen B. Endicott, County Judge, 2. Lewis P. Scott, County Clerk.
3 Lewis Evans, State Senator.
4. Franklin P. Stoy, Mayor. 5- Alfred M. Heston, Comptroller.
Oueen otthe Coast
H E STON'S
Being an account of the settlement of Evre Haven,
and a succinct history of Atlantic City and County
during the 17th, i8th and 19th centuries; also
Indian Traditions and Sketches
of the region between Absegami and Chico-
h a c k i , in the c o u n t r \- called S c h e \- i c h b i .
Bv ALFRED M'. H E S T O N
ATLANTIC Crrv, NEW JERSEY
NINETEEN HUNDRED. / /HI TE.-iR OF PrBLIC.-iTloX
Good-bye to pain and care ! I take
Mine ease to-day ;
Here, where the sunny waters break
And ripples this keen breeze, I shake
All burdens from the heart, all weary thoughts away.
Ha ! like a kind hand on my brow
Comes this fond breeze,
Cooling Its dull and feverish glow ;
While through my being seems to flow
The breath of a new life — the healing of the seas.
48 65 55
JUL Z 1942
Copyrighted, igoo. by A. M. HESTON.
All persons are cautioned not to use any part of this work in other compilations or
publications without proper credit.
Atlantic City Sketches — Winter and Summer
OUTINGS BY THE SEA.
;N the olden times, 'tis said, every feudal baron welcomed the
stranger to his castle and the pilgiim to his fireside ; he
listened with delight to the tale of the traveler and the song
of the troubadour. The barons and bards, pilgrims and
poets, made their entrance and their exit a thousand years
ago, and since their day the centuries have wrought many changes.
The world is not what' it was, but though the times have changed,
mankind has not changed his nature. He still has the same desire for
novelty, the same love of story, the same fondness for pleasure.
Attend then, worthy friends, if you will, while I, a stranger and
traveler, tell of a delightful place whereunto 1 have been, and show unto
you some pictures of the greatest and fairest of the world's watering places.
Sir Oracle, another pilgrim who preceded me to this place of pleasure,
homeward bound, was benighted, and craved a shelter at my hands,
promising that this courtesy he would repay with some story of the
wonderful city which he had visited. In my veins there flows no blood of
barons; howbeit, in imitation of the cavaliers of old, 1 feasted Sir Oracle
at my humble board and seated him at my fireside. Then remembering
his promise, and mindful of my hospitality, out of the fullness of his
heart he thus spake: "Atlantic City! Place of Pleasure! Haven of
Rest! Mecca of the Tourist! Delight of the Pilgrim! Abode of
Fashion ! Paradise of the Summer Girl ! Home of the Neglige Shirt !
Age can not wither nor custom stale thine infinite variety ! Pceans of
praise can add naught to the glory that surrounds thee, thou Queen of the
Coast." Again he was silent, and though I waited long, 'twas all he said.
Since then 1 have been to Atlantic City, and for thee, worthy listener,
who, perchance, hath never been there, this panorama of pen pictures and
camera sketches hath been prepared, with the confident expectation that
the succeeding season of outing will find thee there among the thousands,
enjoying to the full the beauties and the pleasures of that unique resort.
Though as yet a stranger to the place, thou mayst profit by my story,
and, the while believing, may say to thy friend, in the language of Scot-
land's bard, " 1 cannot say how the truth may be ; i tell the tale as 'twas
told to me."
Be assured, I would not forestall thy good opinion of Atlantic City
by offering thee pictures and sketches that are too highly colored. Briefly
and frankly, my only hope is that, having heard my story and seen my
play, thou mayst say, as Nick Bottom, the weaver, said to good master
Cobweb, the fairy, "1 shall desire more acquaintance of thee"— thou
Jersey island fair, with the wine of life in thy pleasant air.
A. M. H.
JULY I, iQoo.
Shall 1 not take mine ease in mine inn r'—Su Joint Falstaff. (Shakspeare.)
Sir Oracle.— What sayest thou, spirit of the departed Falstaff?
Dost thou desire ease in thine inn ? Then seest thou that the inn be chosen
with care, that thy host be one worthy of thy company, and above all that
the inn be situate in Atlantic City.
Falstaff.— But how can I know the whereabout of this place thou
callest Atlantic City, the direction thereto, the number of inns therein, and
which be goodly taverns that rob me not of mine exchequer?
Sir Oracle.— All this and much more store of information is vouch-
safed unto thee, my lord.
Falstaff.— But suppose that I too be a belated traveler, who spurs
apace to gain the timely inn — how shall 1 find my place of abode, seeing
that the west doth not yet glimmer with some streaks of day and I be a
stranger in a strange land?
Sir Oracle.— List! Let my worthy and adipose knight send for
that book yclept Heston's Hand-Book of Atlantic City, whereof there
be many thousands print, and see therein many fair pictures and much
story about the town ; and a catalogue of all the inns and boarding places,
likewise some pictures of the taverns wherein thou wilt fmd thy warmest
Falstaff.— Wherefore shall 1 know, Sir Oracle, if I go thence, how
many pieces of gold to place in mine pouch, that 1 may have the where-
withal to pay the inn-keeper?
Sir Oracle.— Be not uneasy about that. Your jocund highness
will fmd in the Hand-Book a catalogue of all the inns, the dole which each
host doth demand of the pilgrim and the number of lodgings at his dis-
posal. And thou shalt read in this book of elevators, electroliers, tele-
phones, electric lights, electric cars, locomotives, railroads, steamboats,
automobiles, biographs, phonographs, merry-go-rounds, roundabouts, to-
boggans, switchbacks, kinetoscopes, and divers other strange devices, of
which thou hast never before heard.
Falstaff. — Avaunt there, wizard, with thy telephones and auto-
mobiles, thy elevators, railroads, biographs and phonographs ! Thou
speakest in an unknown tongue. Yet will 1 send for this book on the
many taverns in thy town of Atlantic City ; howbeit, this be a place
whereof 1 never before heard. Verily, 1 must view the manners of this
strange town, peruse its traders, gaze upon its buildings and take mine
ease in mine inn. Knowest thou the cost of the book of which thou
speakest so highly?
Sir Oracle.— Yes, my dear Falstaff. Send a bag of forty and eight
farthings to the publisher, or to any bookseller in the provinces of America ;
so shalt thou receive it by the earliest post. Verily, in this book there be
much story about the town and pictures waiting of the best of the inns
therein, where thy stomach is most carefully honored and thy couch like
unto a bed of roses.
(^mtn of tt)0 Coast.
HE island whereon Atlantic City is built is situated
between Absecon and Great Egg Harbor inlets,
within sixty miles of Philadelphia and one hundred
and fifty miles of New York, by railroad. It is
distant five miles from the mainland, the intervening space
being an expanse of bays, sounds and salt marshes. The
island in its chrysalis condition, before it felt the electric touch
of a railroad, was known as Absecon Beach, which name still
exists in the adjoining village of Absecon, on the mainland,
now put completely in the shade by its more successful
Many of the more recent patrons of Atlantic City do not
know that, although the history of the place as a pleasure
resort dates from the time of its founding, in 1854, it was not
until more than twenty years later that it became widely
known as a winter health resort and sanitarium. To-day
there is no northern winter resort so popular, none so largely
patronized and none so urgently recommended by physicians
generally as Atlantic City. The physicians of Philadelphia
were the first to discover the wonderful curative effects of the
saline air of Atlantic City, and to them, more than to any
other class of men, is due the credit of making the city what
it is to-day, a famous sanitarium.
in the olden times the seashore was considered a desolate
place in winter. Such a bleak idea as to be there in January
would have chilled the marrow of an invalid. And yet we
find that many of the wealthy, who otherwise would go to
Europe, now spare themselves the annoyance of ocean travel
by going to Atlantic City. Others, who formerly sought
health and relaxation in the more distant Southern resorts,
now make this their winter abiding place.
^Oung £pen anU ^[paitieng, The founders of Atlantic City
W>Ut\)t\0t& auD mt} ^aitl0* prophesied that it would stand
pre-eminent as a resort. Doubt-
less it is to-day the queen of American watering places and
health resorts. There is a sort of freedom about the place
that pleases all who come here. It is no uncommon sight,
even in winter, to see men eminent in their callings busily
engaged in scooping up bucketfuls of sand for children whom
they chance to meet on the beach, or aiding them in their
search for shells after a receding tide. Young men and maid-
ens, sedate bachelors and prudish old maids not infrequently
take part in such diversions, and one can not help thinking
that the intellects and the characters thus unbent appear to
greater advantage by the relaxation.
Yachtins Scene at the Inlet.
€)?ont off tl^c ^ctan.
EVERAL elements combine to produce the tonic and
resting effects of the Atlantic City air, the first of
which is the presence of a large amount of ozone —
the stimulating, vitalizing principle of the atmos-
phere. Ozone has a tonic, healing and purifying power, that
increases as the air is taken into the lungs. It strengthens
the respiratory organs, and in stimulating them helps the whole
system. It follows naturally that the blood is cleansed and
revivified, tone is given to the stomach, the liver is excited
into healthful action, and the whole body feels the benefit.
For some persons the air alone is sufficient, while others
get along famously with the air and the aid of judicious bath-
ing. Of course, during the cooler months of the year the bath
must be elsewhere than in the surf. For all seasons of the
year there are the hot sea-water baths and the natato-
riums, with large pools of tepid sea-water. For some only
the briefest dip in the ocean is all that is necessary or safe;
others should refrain altogether from ocean bathing, and con-
fine their ablutions to the hot baths; exercising in these, how-
ever, proper care as to time and temperature of the water.
Delicate persons can not safely bear a prolonged soak in hot
water, whether salt or fresh.
As to diseases of the respiratory organs, a physician says :
" I have had personal knowledge of many patients suffering
from various forms of such affections who have made trials of
the climate of Atlantic City in winter. The cases have, as a
rule, improved, some of them very decidedly, though there
have been exceptions. Consumptives in the incipient stage,
and even those in the advanced stages of the disease, where
the destructive process has advanced slowly, have often ex-
perienced marked improvement and, in some cases, have been
^11 ^t WtRV^ anU Sufferers from autumnal catarrh, which
Jt)eat3r ilaUen* ^^ essentially a form of hay fever, enjoy
^ great relief by coming to Atlantic City.
The late Rev. Henry Ward Beecher and the late Dr. Oliver
Wendell Holmes had a witty correspondence on the subject of
hay fever some years ago, in which the latter declared that
there was no cure for the disease "but six feet of gravel."
Atlantic City, however, has answered back that if it can not
be cured, it can at least be alleviated.
Come then, ye disconsolate consumptive ; come, thou
wheezing, sneezing victim of hay fever ; come, all ye weary
and heavy laden, ye who seek health, rest or pleasure ; come
and fill your lungs with ozone ; come and promenade on the
broad Boardwalk, planted within reach of the sea ; come and
take a mid-winter sun-bask ; come while ye may ; come ?iow.
Take no heed of the chronic fault-fmder who may be here,
enjoying to the full all the benefits and advantages of Atlantic
City, and who still carps and grumbles because the town,
perhaps, lacks a few pretty curves and graces.
A Morning Promenade in Mid-Winter.
Rummer ^cati^cv 'ncatl) l^mtcr ^fitCiS.
HE fame of Atlantic City is grounded not alone upon
those qualities which give it prominence as a sum-
mer resort. It is a great seaside city, where,
throughout the year, people from every State crowd
its hotels and lounge on its famous beach. In summer time
the visiting population exceeds one hundred thousand. It is a
great democratic crowd, good-natured, rollicking and happy,
bent on the pursuit of amusement and enjoying the quest with
unalloyed pleasure. The witching charms of autumn sea and
sky hold many a summer visitor, even until the ides of Novem-
ber. Indeed, not a few linger until December, and ere the
holiday festivities are fairly over at home, the first company of
winter visitors has arrived, harbingers of that larger company
whose appearance marks the advent of February. Excepting
an occasional " nor'easter," which is a treat in itself, by way
of contrast, the weather at this season is usually all that one
could desire. The winter and spring or Lenten season is the
swellest of the year. The resort then becomes the abode of
a distinguished company who seek to escape the rigor of
northern climes. The great hotels, which remain open through-
out the year, are filled in the earlier months by the best repre-
sentatives of society from the East, the West, the North and
the South. There are days in February and March suggestive
of May and June in cities farther north or remote from the sea.
Indeed, the visitor is sometimes wont to say, " Truly this is
summer weather 'neath winter skies."
In point of accessibility, Atlantic City possesses advantages
unequaled by any other resort on the coast. With Philadel-
phia and all the railroads centering there, it is connected by
numerous through trains, while with New York and the East
there is ample communication by through trains, which make
the run from New York to Atlantic City in but little more than
tEI^onic for 31^^^l^^S( The air here is so dry and mild, as a
anD ConMc0CnTt0» ^^^^^ ^^^^ convalescents who are able
to be about may enjoy at least a brief
walk on the famous Boardwalk, even in winter. Then again
there are miles of drives, either upon the hard, smooth beach,
the finely paved streets of the city, the Speedway down the
beach, or across the meadows to the grounds of the Country
Club on the mainland.
Visitors from all parts of the country have found in the
equable climate and invigorating air of Atlantic City their
only means of restoration to health. Hundreds and thousands
who have been thus benefited will bear willing testimony to
the tonic effects of its bracing atmosphere. Confirmed inva-
lids are often materially benefited, and existences that would
be utterly miserable at home are here made not only tolerable,
A Relic of the Revolution — Cabin ot General Doughty, on
Lenten anD pojst Lenten l^ajstimeg*
N mid-winter, when the majority of the guests are
invalids, any but the mildest forms of dissipation
are out of the question, but during Lent, when the
more extravagant gayeties of the rest of the world
are temporarily suspended, Atlantic City becomes the scene
of genuine fun and frolic.
Upon the advent of Lent some good-natured married lady,
of unimpeachable social standing, in one of the larger cities,
organizes a party of a dozen or more young people, and chap-
erons them to Atlantic City. They come for ten days, often
staying longer, and while they are here the heretofore quiet
halls ring with the sounds of their music, dancing and merry
laughter. The more sober-minded invalids gaze with a mild
surprise, not unmixed with pleasure, at these jolly parties, and
by force of example are inclined to forget their ailments.
Equestrianism is an every-day recreation during the Lenten
season. The brisk sea breezes, which sing and whistle around
the cottage gables and through the bare branches of the trees,
inspire the visitors with longings for the vigorous exercise of
long walks and horseback rides. From these they return with
such glowing cheeks, sparkling eyes and keen appetites that
the mere sight of them is a better advertisement of Atlantic
City air as a tonic, t'han all the hand-books that might be
There is never any dearth of amusement for those who
pass any portion of the fashionable spring season in Atlantic
City. The opportunities for enjoyment at the Casino are
varied, and include private theatricals, readings, musicales,
orchestral and other entertainments. The visitors, of course,
are the elite of other cities, refugees from the demands of
social life, drawing new vigor from the pure air, and pleasure
seekers whiling away their time 'neath the bright skies of this
new-born rival to Southern Europe.
Contjenient tlounging The ocean parlors and pavilions are
]3lact0 for ^IL convenient lounging places, when
one is not inclined to sit on the sand
and take a sun-bask. Here he may behold the many strange
and beautiful aspects of the sea. Sometimes it is as calm and
placid as a lake, with only a line of breakers laving the shore.
On another day it reflects all the delicate hues of the setting
sun. Then again, under a serene sky, it is beautifully blue,
while under heavy clouds it assumes the sombre green. When
the wind prevails it heaves in heavy swells and dashes its
breakers furiously on the gently shelving beach, sending up a
roar like that of thunder. So, day by day, one may watch
the changed and ever-changing conditions of the sea ; or, if
not so inclined; whatever may be his tastes, he can find in the
wonderful resources of the town an inexhaustible means for
Central M. E. Church.
am erica' js fEccca of Coimjstsi.
OURISTS who have visited all parts of the civilized
world, men whose word we cannot doubt, and
women whose judgment we cannot question, have
declared that nowhere is there a resort combining so
many points of excellence as Atlantic City. Already
it is the Mecca of a considerable number of tourists from coun-
tries beyond the Atlantic, as well as from states bordering on
the Pacific ; and the time is not far distant when many Euro-
peans, who have been in the habit of passing a portion of the
year at some over-rated resort on the Mediterranean, will cross
the expanse of ocean and spend a month or more in Atlantic
City, whose climate combines the bracing qualities of Brighton
and Malaga with the sedative virtues of Rome and Venice;
and within whose bounds might be placed the Frenchman's
highly-prized Trouville and his picturesque and fashionable
Etreta without making any appreciable difference in appear-
ance or conditions.
The visitor here, whether from Europe or the most distant
parts of the United States, is charmed by the beauty of the
town and the grandeur of the sea. The bright sunshine
bronzes the cheeks and aids the bracing breezes to vivify the
frame, while the paved avenues and magnificent strand afford
ample opportunity to all who wish to indulge in equestrian
pleasures. The facilities for sailing are unsurpassed, and
yachts go bounding seaward or glide across the bays and
estuaries with a speed that is truly entrancing. Here, also, is
the perfection of fishing, whereof more is said under the caption
of " Hook and Line."
All the benefits that can be expected of a sea voyage are
obtained by a residence in Atlantic City, with the added
comforts and luxuries of a metropolis and the freedom of fast
land. In his "Literary Recollections" Thomas Hood says:
** Next to being born a citizen of the world, it must be the best
thing to be born a citizen of the world's greatest city." This
is stating only half a truth. In this country, next to his home,
here in Atlantic City best may he abide, to rest and cheer him
by the flowing tide.
Agreeable Climate anU The idea that Atlantic City is a
Congntial i?nrnD0* "^^re lounging place for the summer
idler was long since abandoned. It
is an all-the-year-round resort, where one can always fmd an
agreeable climate, congenial friends and almost anything to
engage his attention or excite his interest. It is without a
rival in America in the matter of hotel accommodations, suited
to the tastes and the means of every class of people. There
are elaborate hotels, equipped with all modern appliances and
kept in the best manner ; less pretentious houses, well-kept
and comfortably equipped cottages, villas with classic names
and an indefinite number of boarding houses.
Home of the " Atlantis Club," Illinois Avenue.
glimmer ©a^si l^csiitit t])t ^ta.
HEN spring unlocks the flowers to paint the laughing
soil, when hath passed that period of transition from
the austere glory of winter to the roseate weather
of June, then it is that one's thoughts revert,
with fond remembrance, to the delightful scenes, the cool and
invigorating breezes and the joyous pastimes of Atlantic
City, whose summer day is more than a mere creation of
The oft-quoted words of George Herbert, the sweet singer
of Cherbury — "Sweet day, so cool, so calm, so bright," are
almost meaningless to those who know summer only from the
high temperatures, the glaring sun and the hot, parching winds
that are its distinguishing characteristics in no inconsiderable
portion of the United State^^.
The ideal summer presupposes climatic conditions that
make physical life, from the highest to the lowest, a perpetual
delight and rejoicing ; and if there is any place more favored
than another in that regard, it must surely be a matter of
concern to the toiling millions to know where it may be
But, apart from the mere pursuit of pleasure, the mere
seeking after enjoyment, and that love of change for its own
sake that is inherent in every son of Adam, there is, happily,
in this busy, restless age, a just recognition of the importance
of relaxing the extreme tension of business and endeavoring to
repair the terrible waste of vital force. We are, however, with
our pleasures very much what we are in our business, except
that while we may not always make a pleasure of our business,
we certainly make a business of our pleasure, seeking to obtain,
with the least outlay, the largest possible results.
01033^ from t\)t f^tUt The accessibility of a summer resort
anti J^urllvllBurlvn ^^' ^^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^' ^ matter of impor-
tance, second only to the paramount
consideration of health and pleasure ; and herein lies the secret
of Atlantic City's wonderful growth and popularity.
The solid character of its patrons from the better elements
of society, the quiet home-like aspect of the place, the natural
scenery and charms peculiar to itself conspire to make Atlantic
City the very ideal of a summer resort. Art and design have
added to its attractions, beautifying it with broad avenues,
walks bordered with trees, and with gardens whose fragrance
unites with the cool breeze of the ocean to delight and refresh
those who, turning from the heat and hurly-burly of the city,
seek the charm and change of seashore life.
Easter Sunday, iqoo.
TStant^ on ti^t l3oarDtoalfi»
TLANTIC CITY invented the Boardwalk, and
while other resorts have been content to tamely
copy, she has lengthened and strengthened, rebuilt
and renewed, until the present structure, erected in
1896, and extended in 1897-98-99, is forty feet wide, twelve
feet high, over three miles long, and cost the city $170,000.
It has no equal in the world.
The life, the light and the color that one sees on this prom-
enade during the early evening hours are indescribable.
It is an endless dress parade, a grand review, in which
everybody is one of the reviewers, as well as one of the
reviewed. The animation, the overflowing good nature, the
laughter and contagious hilarity of this restless throng are irre-
sistible. The lights from the scores of bazaars, the buoyant
merriment of the children, the soft, melting colors of the sum-
mer dresses of the women, the grace and freshened loveliness
of the women themselves, the dizzy whirl of the merry-go-
round, and the thousand and one little scraps of life and tone
that line the thoroughfare, all blend in a picture that is war-
ranted to banquet the eye and rest the mind of any one who
is not utterly lost to every sense of enjoyment.
Nowhere in the world is there such a kaleidoscope of
beauty, such a panorama of wonders, as one sees on this
great ocean promenade. An annual visitor said : " 1 have
been to every prominent seaside resort and spa in Europe, and
I know whereof I speak when I say that nowhere is there a
resort that can in any way approach Atlantic City. In addi-
tion to the unusual opportunities for enjoyment, it is unques-
tionably the healthiest place in America."
pleading panorama From the balcony of the lighthouse,
of ^Ca anlD tlantl* ^^^^^ ^^^^ eastern end of the prom-
enade, a grand panorama of sea and
land is presented. Looking north and east, across the ex-
tended miles of salt marshes, with their winding bays and
estuaries, one sees the pretty buildings and the fertile farms
of the mainland. Westward is the beautiful city, with its
splendid hotels and extensive boarding-houses, its hundreds of
private cottages, and the long line of shade trees skirting the
sidewalks ; while beyond, to the east and south, is the great
ocean, reaching far out into the distant horizon.
The ocean piers usually offer some sort of entertainment
aside from the ordinary Boardwalk diversions. Indeed, it is
impossible to pass a dull day or evening in Atlantic City, and
yet if one does not care for the sprightlier pleasures, he may
be as quiet as he please, and fmd delight in meeting and chat-
ting with friends on the promenade, or listening idly to the
thunderous monotone of the blue, unresting sea.
Observing the Dress Parade.
■-»«— -:T— 5^!f!5;;r
pitamtt^ of tl^c f&latsiance.
HE Plaisance of Atlantic City is the Boardwalk, but,
in winter time, on pleasant days, and in summer,
when the Boardwalk is literally full of humanity, so
S full, indeed, that the crowd surges over on the side,
then it is that the Strand, either from choice or necessity,
becomes an equally popular promenade. Up on the Boardwalk
or down on the. Strand the visitor may pass many delightful,
The long stretch of sandy beach and the roar of the surf
may be uninteresting to some upon a gloomy day, but when
the sun is shining all dreariness disappears, the ocean sparkles
like a huge diamond, and groups of people wander along the
Strand or scoop out convenient hollows, in which they lie for
hours, enjoying the warm sun-bath and inhaling ozone at
every breath. Bevies of girls, dressed in dainty costumes,
are scattered about on the sand, and ripples of laughter come
to one's ears from every side. Far out upon the horizon a
faint trace of smoke may be seen ascending from a passing
steamer, while above the horizon and sometimes just beyond
the surf the white wings of swift-sailing yachts or other craft
lend a charm and a motion to the scene. Nothing could add
to the quiet beauty of this scene or heighten the pleasure of
those for whom it is created.
From morning until evening the beach is a perfect paradise
for children. The youngsters take to digging in the sand and
paddling in the water by natural instinct, having unlimited
opportunities for both. Every day they throw up fortifications,
build mounds and excavate subterranean caverns, and every
night the tide washes away all of their labor and leaves a soft,
smooth surface for another day's toil.
ItDopularitV' of t\)t The pleasures of the surf bath bring
§)urf 115atll» multitudes to Atlantic City during the
summer months, and bathing here attains
a popularity unknown to more northern resorts, the near
approach of the Gulf Stream to this point increasing the
temperature of the water to a delightful degree, and taking
from it the bitter chill from which so many would-be bathers
shrink. At the fashionable hours of bathing, from eleven to
one, the beach is crowded with thousands of merry bathers,
whose shouts and laughter mingle with the roar of the surf,
while the Strand and Boardwalk are lined with interested
spectators and promenaders. The scene at this time is as
animated as the streets of a continental city on a fete day.
An April Sunday on the Boardwalk.
^lavgrounti of tl)c Countri?.
TLANTIC CITY is the nation's health resort, its
pleasure spot, its playground. Congress may re-
solve and newspaper correspondents may with
hasty pen declare that this or that spot, distin-
guished by some local phenomena, shall be known as a
national park, but neither formal resolution nor the verdict of
casual writers can change the geography of the country, the
facts of nature, nor the verdict of the people. The public has
declared, with an emphasis that cannot be misunderstood, that
Atlantic City, though not exactly a park, is the Playground of
This resort long since learned how best to provide for the
summer and winter visitors, and it is now the business of the
place to set forth its attractions, which are all in the direction
of making one's stay delightful. Hard to amuse, indeed,
would be the visitor who could not fmd some congenial diver-
sion ever close at hand on this interesting island. There is
some sort of diversion at every hour of the day, every day in
the week, and for those who prefer to do just nothing at all
there is always the sublime panorama of sky and sea spread
out in perennial magnitude before the most listless eye.
For the man or woman who is brain weary, and breaking
down under the weight of business, professional, social or
domestic cares, there is no better restorative than a season of
rest and recreation at Atlantic City. With increased bodil}'
vigor, incident to a stay here, comes the gentle ministrations
of tired nature's sweet restorer. Many who have been troub-
led with insomnia find in a change to this climate the soothing
" Upon the high and giddy mast
Seals up the ship-boy's eyes and rocks his brains
In cradle of the rude, imperious surge."
|Bure 2iit W^^^t^ Persons who could scarcely walk at
(Dut t\)t ilung^, ^o"^^' ^^^^^ coming here, stroll long
distances on the Strand or Boardwalk,
with only a cheerful sense of weariness that is soon succeeded
by a sharpened appetite, the reward of agreeable exercise.
Few, indeed, who visit Atlantic City fail to experience a
marked improvement in appetite, while to many there comes
such a feeling of drowsiness that the most exciting story fails
to keep them awake. This is a sure sign that the nerves are
being well rested.
The exercise that one gets here is a tonic in itself. The
pure air brightens, rests and strengthens the eyes, purifies the
blood, washes out the lungs, flushes the air-passages of the
nose and ears, quickens the sluggish circulation, strengthens
the weak digestion, brightens the complexion and resists the
progress of disease. In the flood of ozone off the sea all poison
is driven out of the system.
A Snap Shot.
TStac)) BiDtiS^ gacl^ting auD dSimninij*
jTLANTIC CITY is so situated that nature provides
a constant round of summer pleasures. The sea,
of course, is an endless source of delight. Even
those who do not bathe find a pleasure in sitting
under the big umbrellas and canvass-covered chairs on the
beach, and watching the antics of those who are tumbling in
the surf. Yachting is another delightful pastime. There isn't
a safer, speedier or more comfortable fleet of fishing and sail-
ing boats on the seaboard than Atlantic City's squadron, found
at the picturesque inlet harbor, with its breezy houses of
refreshment by the docks.
Those who prefer steam to sails can be accommodated, and
the few whose stomachs dread the heaving billows may eschew
both and sit and watch the fleet of gaily-decked boats dancing
in the distance, their blood meanwhile tingling with the ozone
blown from the sea, or the commoner kind which some en-
deavor to suck through a straw.
The island is ten miles long and the two extremes are
united by an electric railway, which is an unfailing source of
pleasure to a countless number of visitors. The greater por-
tion of the route is within sight of the sea and almost at the
water's edge. In some places one may see the original for-
mation of the island. There are woods and pleasant retreats
among the sand-hills, shaded by umbrella-shaped trees, which
have withstood the storms of many years. To those who
love nature and who hold communion with her visible forms,
a day of pleasure is promised in exploring these ancient sand-
hills and sylvan retreats.
If the visitor is a sportsman, he will scent the delirium
of pursuit in the spray of the billows. With gun and rod,
either or both, one is sure of a great day's sport under the
guidance of the veteran yachtsmen at the inlet. The succes-
sion of game fowl which visits the adjacent beaches, each in
its own season, is surprisingly varied ; snipe, plover, marlin,
willet, yellow legs, marsh hens, black duck, mallard and teal
follow each other, often in such numbers as to provoke the
city sportsman to the highest pitch of enthusiasm.
2r>0iDU t\)t W>tUtl) The trip down the beach is a most de-
bt' a^00nligl)t* Hghtful one, either by day or night, and
to afford a view of the ocean by moon-
light at least one night train is usually run throughout the
year. This train is in great favor with the young people. It
passes Sea View ; Ventnor, a quiet place with a fine hotel ;
St. Leonard ; Oberon and South Atlantic City, celebrated for
its sacred white elephant, which is the largest white elephant
in the world. A mile and a half farther down the beach is
Longport, where sailing craft or steam pleasure-boats convey
passengers across the finest sheet of inland water in the State,
to Ocean City or Somers' Point.
A Business Block on Atlantic Avenue — Residence on Pacific Avenue-
Pennsylvania Avenue corner of Pacific.
i^oofi anD Line*
ERHAPS there are in this world souls so sordid that
they never can rise to the height of enthusiasm
over that enticing pastime, fishing. It may be a
matter of early training or education — this love of
angling — since the man whose boyhood was passed in the
country is usually an expert fisherman, and he remembers
with pride and pleasure his first fishing outfit. He'd a horse-
hair line and an elder stick, with bended pin for a hook, and
he fished till noon in the shaded creek, with an angleworm for
bait. At the very first nibble, when the cork went under, the
rod was thrown swiftly over his head, and the fish, breaking
away from the unbarbed hook, went flying through the air, and
landed back in the woods, perhaps fifty feet from the edge of
the creek. A pretty sight it was, too, that perch or sun-fish,
with its silvery sides dappled with gold. Then it was strung
by the gills on a crotched stick, and, with three or four others,
was carried home in triumph.
Ah ! lives there a man with soul so dead that he cannot
cherish, with fond recollection, the joy of those youthful
sports ? a memory so weak that it cannot recall the long-gone
days of boyhood pleasures in the country — days of wishing
and of fishing, when he listened to the voice of the rivulet
and the language of the winds and woods ? The roar of the
ocean was an unknown song in that distant country home,
but to him the green aisles of the forest were more than a
In Atlantic City there are no scenes, no pastimes, like
those incident to boyhood life in the country. There are no
dank grottoes, vine-trellised and luxuriant, with perhaps only
a ray of sunlight bursting through the fretted vault of green ;
no vistas of glory like those found in hilly and mountainous
places ; but, brother anglers, on the veracity of thousands of
the fraternity, we assure you that you will find congenial
spirits here, and as fine a lot of liars ( fish liars, of course) as
can be found in the United States— barring, perhaps, the State
0. ilanU^tLocfefD True, there are no fresh-water trout here,
W^ttt PrC0fr^r» ^^^ ^^ have weak-fish, sea bass, flounders,
blue fish, sheepshead and other fish, as
good as, yes, better than those which navigate the mountain
streams, as active and as gamy as any fish you ever saw.
The bays and thoroughfares are a vast water preserve, with
Nature for their keeper. From Grassy Bay and Little Egg
Harbor on the north to Scull's Bay and Great Egg Harbor on
the south, from the wreck of the " Cassandra " to the wreck
of the "Diverty," fish of large size are found in abundance.
The creeks and sounds teem with millions of the finny tribe at
certain seasons of the year, and it is here, also, where agile
oysters, mild, serene, on beds of moss recline ; where soft-
shell crabs live pinchingly, and pearly sheen of hake and
flounder wins the flies.
place of perennial pieagiure*
|N the charms of novelty and ever-shifting variety,
Atlantic City surpasses the most celebrated of Euro-
pean resorts. Surrounded on all sides by the waters
of the ocean and blessed with a climate of rare
equability, its physical advantages are superb. Seaward the
waste of waters stretches almost three thousand miles, kissing
the shores of another hemisphere ; while landward is a wide
estuary as smooth as a mountain lake, and beyond that an
expanse of salt meadows, reaching out to meet the pine forests,
whose breezes mingle with Neptune's briny breath.
The geological peculiarities of the island are one of the
agents that contribute to its remarkable healthfulness. There
is no indigenous or spontaneous vegetation on the island.
The only growths are the arboreal embellishments of the ave-
nues and lawns — sylvan contributions from the forests and
fields of the mainland. No stagnant pools or sloughs disfigure
the facial lineaments of the island, and there is no malarial or
miasmatic emanation to offend the senses or affect its perfect
hygiene. Indeed, it is believed by many scientists that the
air of Atlantic City is ''hostile to physical debility."
All other attractions, of course, are secondary or subservi-
ent to the charms of the sea, whose sunny waters break upon
the strand and whose keen breezes drive all burdens from the
heart, all weary thoughts away. The famous promenade,
which follows the contour of the beach, is wide enough to
accommodate 100,000 visitors, without crowding or discomfort.
Here, at eventide, the city pours its countless thousands out,
and a great procession marches and countermarches the entire
length of the four-mile promenade, under the brilliant glare of
the electric lights, lighted the year round, and the strains of
music from the numerous places of amusement that line the
3f|0^ ant) pleasure ^tjrougl) The current of humanity on
tl)e artDelt3e.-£ponti)0* ^^^ Boardwalk moves con-
stantly on, the rule of the
road — keep to the right — being strictly observed. As a study
of some of the most unique phases of human character, a stroll
along this crowded thoroughfare in spring or summer is worth
a year of ordinary life.
Year after year this commingling of the young and the old,
the high and the low, the rich and the poor, the grave and the
gay, goes on in Atlantic City ; and so until the end of time,
generation after generation, the charmed voice of the sea will
draw man to its sands and to its surf. From the plains of the
South, from the wide expanse of the West, from the bleak,
gray rim of the North, men, women and children will come and
go, girdling our coast with joy and pleasure through the twelve-
Perhaps You Know Them.
Wl}tvtin Atlantic Citi? cBrccliS*
FEW of the advantages of Atlantic City over other
resorts may be thus stated :
There are excellent schools and churches, good
society, good order, good government, good drainage,
good water and good living.
The underground sewage system has worked so successfully
that Atlantic City is admitted to be the only properly drained
resort on the coast. The waves that beat on the beach here
are not required to act as scavengers for the city. The surf is
absolutely free from refuse or defilement of any kind.
The water supply from artesian wells, some of them looo
feet deep, and from natural springs on the mainland, is inex-
haustible. There is no purer or clearer water anywhere in
America. This is conceded by scientists and recognized by
thousands of critical visitors.
For the promenader, a broad Boardwalk, without equal in
the world, is built along the entire ocean front of the city, forty
feet wide and over three miles long. It is at all times a
centre of attraction and thousands of visitors from every
corner of the United States there enjoy the delicious exhil-
aration of the vitalizing ozone off the sea.
There is an absence of formality, the bane of European
resorts, that renders a sojourn in Atlantic City refreshing as
well as fashionable.
The city is admirably lighted with electricity. The authori-
ties spend nearly $40,000 a year for lighting. The ocean
promenade and all the principal avenues are lit with brilliant
electric lights the year round.
Notwithstanding the fact that hundreds of thousands of
people visit the city annually, many of them afflicted with
severe illness, statistics are not wanting to show that Atlantic
City's death-rate is almost the lowest in the country. The
national mortuary table averages the deaths among the resi-
dent population at 12.05 to the 1000, or second only to one
other place in the country.
King Lear -
" May be he is not well ;
Infirmity doth still neglect all office,
Whereto our health is bound."
Pilgrim.— Not well, my lord? Methinks thou knowest not what
the matter is. Send thou and tell him I would speak with him.
King. — Nay! I will not command his presence, seeing he doth yet
suffer. We are not ourselves when nature, being oppressed, commands
the mind to suffer with the body. But what is this thou revealest?
What kind offices hast thou for the indisposed and sickly?
Pilgrim.— 'Tis this, my lord. These many summers have 1 wan-
toned with the breakers at Atlantic City, and there, also, on many a win-
ter day, have I found delightful outing by the sea and much ease in mine
inn. There, my lord, once 1 sat upon a pier and heard a mermaid, on a
dolphin's back, uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath that the rude
sea grew civil at her song. At this place, whereof much praise hath been
spoken by most learned men, in winter time, ere yet the inns at other
places have their portals opened, I durst lay my hand upon the Ocean's
mane and play familiar with his hoary locks.
King. — 1 perceive, pilgrim, that thou art no fool, nor art thou abste-
mious of pleasure, seeing that thy countenance is round and good-natured
and that thy nose doth already wear the livery of good living. This
word of thine persuades me that it behooves us all to go and linger yet a
while at thy fair city which thou callest Atlantic City. Give me my serv-
ant forth ! Nay ! go thou thyself and summon up the retinue. Command
them to attend'to-morrow at nine, for at that hour we go to this place of
rest and pleasure ; and so may this be our custom hereafter. Resolve,
also, with all modest haste, whichsoever way thou mayest please, that
this be our usage thrice every twelvemonth. Write it down and post it by
every path we tread, and let it shine with such a lustre that he who runs
Indian Stories and Traditions — Tales of the Olden Time-
Settlement of Eyre Haxen — Atlantic County
Reminiscences — Origin and History
of Atlantic City.
ODWIN'S once-famous story of " Caleb Williams" is said to
have been written backwards. That is, the hero was first in-
volved in a web of difficulties, forming the second volume ;
and then, for the first, the author cast about for some mode of
accounting for what was already done.
In like manner, this Histo'ry and Hand-Book has been
written backwards. In the first part is presented an Imperfect pen picture
of Atlantic City, "Queen of the Coast," within whose bounds are cen-
tralized all the forces and features necessary for a complete health and
pleasure resort. In the second part is an account of the beginning of
seaside pleasures, when the aborigines made periodical visits to the sea-
shore, eating enormous quantities of baked shell-fish (soquanock and
sickissuog), making belts of poquanhock and luckahouk, bathing in the
surf, and making merry in other ways.
After the Indians came the first settlers, with their old-time diversions.
Then came the generations of revolutionary and post-revolutionary times.
In those days, at the seashore, it has been said, when men
Old-Time went fishing in the morning, they rolled up their trousers to
Diversions, the knees; when they "dressed for dinner," they simply
rolled them down again. By degrees the methods of sea-
shore recreation have changed. The sea laves the beach the same as
of yore, but modern ways have made surf bathing a luxurv, instead of
a penance; and there are just as good fish in the sea now as there were
then, but they are caught with less trouble— some with a silver hook.
What co'uld have been more perfect than the conception of this great
seaside resort? Its founders prophesied that it would stand pre-eminent
among its kind, and looking at it to-day, as described in the first part of
this Hand-Book, who will deny its pre-eminence? Undoubtedly, Atlantic
City is " Queen of the Coast."
•d d d
In issuing this souvenir edition of the Hand-Book, I shall offer no
excuse, other than this : the demand has been made and the field is open
for a work of this character— historical and descriptive— com-
Labor of memorating the closing and signalizing the opening centurv.
Love. Nothing in the nature of a reliable historv and sketch-book of
Atlantic County has been heretofore attempted, and I have
therefore prepared these desultory chapters, hoping that thev will merit the
perusal of all into whose hands a copy of the book mav chance to fall. I
need scarcely add that their preparation has been entirely a labor of love.
It is not presumed that the book is faultless, but to approximate a
degree of completeness has been my endeavor. The historical chapters
will answer the end for which they were written, if thev but awaken in the
people of Atlantic County an interest in the oft-neglected subject of local
history, to the study of which pride and patriotism should alike impel us.
True knowledge, like true charity, should begin at home, and he who
fails to study the history of the locality wherein he lives commences the
36 Heston' s Hand-Rook.
fabric of his education at the summit, instead of at the base; wherefore,
should these chapters direct any native or adopted son of ancient Absegami
to the path of TRUE knowledge, the author's labors will have been abun-
d d d
In a work of this size and character, it would be impossible to embody
a complete history in one volume ; hence, to preserve the annual feature of
the Hand-Book and at the same time to offer a history that is reasonably
compact and complete, 1 have deemed it wise to publish only a few of the
historical chapters in this volume, reserving the rest for later editions of the
It is hoped, and I now make the suggestion to the future Mayor, City
Council and other officials, that the year ic)04 be made a jubilee year, com'-
memorative of the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of Atlantic
Year of City. One or two months in that year may well be given over
Jubilee, to festivity, including a week of carnival — possibly a " Carnival
of Atlantis," similar to that which was proposed for the year
igco. To perfect and direct this proposed semi-centennial, there should be
a committee of fifty representative citizens — one for each year of history —
appointed by the Mayor a year or so in advance of the festival. Doubt-
less, this committee, in the fertility of its resources, will show to the country
and to the world that in push, progress and popularity Atlantic City has
Succeeding editions of the Hand-Book will contain chapters on the
history of the county and growth of the city, the whole to be united in one
grand souvenir edition, published in the year of Jubilee, 1904.
A. M. H.
ATLANTIC City, July i, igco.
\ r: i
'Tis the pearly shell,
That murmurs of the far-off murmuring- sea ;
A precious jewel, carved most curiously—
It is a little picture painted well.
— R. W. Gilder.
Indian Stories and Traditions.
Circa 500 to Circa 1500, A. D.
AR back in the annals of time, ere the foot of white man had
trod the soil of Scheyichbi, the region of country east of the
Lenape-Whittuck was a paradise for the Indians. Here the
untutored child of the forest flourished in his glory ; here, un-
molested, he wooed his mate beneath the greenwood boughs
and traversed the forests at will in quest of game.
Living in the country of Scheyichbi, the inhabitants were of course
Scheyichbians. In our time those living in the same country are called
Jerseymen. The Scheyichbians belonged to a nation of
A Tribe of Indians called Lenni-Lenape, meaning original people, but
Manly Men. the very name suggests a falsehood. There are witnesses
in the stones to the probable existence of an entirely different
people anterior to the Lenapes. The Scheyichbians may have been the
descendants of those Chinese navigators who are said to have penetrated
the forests of North America in the year 4:58 A. D.-^
The tradition of the Lenni-Lenapes was that the name meant "Original Men."
As the central, largest and at one time the stronjjest division of the Algonquin race of
Indians, which comprised all the Eastern tribes, they assumed, and for a long time held, the
leadership among the Atlantic coast tribes. Orthographical research in the Indian lan-
guage, however, indicates that the original meaning of the name was "manly men," the
race name for man being " lenape," and " lenni " being another form of " illini," as seen in
"Illinois." Other traditions indicate that the tribe was once located west of the Missis-
sippi, whence it migrated eastward to the valleys of the Susquehanna and Delaware.
The " histories" of these so called original people consisted entirely of
stories handed down through the centuries, from generation to generation,
until they finally reached the Indians who were in possession
Illoslons of of the country when the white man came among them. The
History. red man's history, therefore, was simply his-story.t
A missionary'^and scribe (Rev. John Heckwelder) has given
us some account of what the Indians believed concerning their origin. They
assured him that their earliest ancestors were animals and that they lived
in caves under the earth. One of their number discovered a hole, through
which he climbed, and once upon the surface he found the air and country
so delightful that he hastened back to tell the other animals. They came
forth from their subterranean highways and by-ways, and beheld, indeed,
a country that was very fair to look upon ; an Island beside the sea, it may
* M. de Guignes, 1753 ; Smith, p. 13, 1765
t One of the greatest men of Europe once said that history is a combination of lies,
which men agree to call truth. Few of us will ever know exactly the extent of the legends,
the myths and the falsehoods which have been incorporated into history. When we think
of the histories of our wars and the biographies of our heroes, we can truly appreciate the
cynicism of Frederick the Great, who, desiring his secretary to read history to him, said,
" Bring down from the shelves one of my liars." In days of old there were liistorians who
avowedly wrote as they were bribed. It was said of Paolo Giovio that he kept a bank of
lies. To those who paid him liberally he assigned a noble pedigree and illustrious deeds ;
those who gave nothing he vilified and blackened. Who is not familiar with the despair-
ing exclamation of Sir Walter Raleigh, on vainlv trying to get at the facts of a quarrel
which he had witnessed in the courtyard of the Tower, in which he was imprisoned. Two
gentlemen had entered the room and given him contlicting. and, as he thought, untrue
accounts of the brawl. "Here am I." he cried, " employed in writing a history of the
world— trying to give a just account of transactions many of which occurred three thousand
years ago— when I cannot ascertain the truth of what happens under my window."
38 Heston s Hand-Book.
be, with the wine of life in its pleasant air. The effect was marvelous, for
straightway they saw that they were no longer animals, but men and
women. Two of the animals, however, the ground-hog and the rabbit,
refused to leave their underground homes when bidden, and consequently
they remained unchanged ; wherefore, some of the tribes of Scheyichbi
would not eat of these animals, lest they be accused of eating their own
family relations !
MYTHS OF PRIMITIVE AMERICANS.
Described briefly, and by an Indian, the American myth system is as follows: There
was a world before this one in which we are living at present; that was the world of the
first people, who were different from us altogether. Those people were very numerous, so
numerous that if a count could be made of all the stars in the sky, all the feathers on
birds, all the hairs and furs on animals, all the hairs of our own heads^ they would not be so
numerous as the first people.
These people lived very long in peace, in concord, in harmony, in happiness. No
man knows, no man can tell, how long they lived in that way. At last the minds of alt
except a very small number were changed; they fell into conflict— one offended another
consciously and unconsciously, one injured anotfier with or without intention, one wanted
some special thing, another wanted that very thing also. Conflict set in, and because of
this came a time of activity and struggle, to which there was no end or stop, till the great
majority of the first people— that is, all except a small number— were turned into the various
kinds of living creatures that are on earth now or have ever been on earth, except man —
that is, all kinds of beasts, birds, reptiles, fish, worms, and insects, as well as trees, plants,
grass and rocks, and some mountains ; they were turned into everything that we see on
the earth or in the sky.
That small number of the former people who did not quarrel, those great first people
of the old time who remained of one mind and harmonious, left the earth, sailed away west-
ward, passed that line where the sky comes down to the earth, and sailed to places beyond.
Jeremiah Curtin, in his work on " Creation Myths of Primitive Americans," published
in 1899, gives us the result of close personal communication with the American Indian in
the nineteenth century. Mr. Curtin considers that "the treasure saved to science by the
primitive race of America is unique in value and significance." Among the more note-
worthy of the myths is "Olelbis," containing an account of the creation of the heavenly
house in the Central Blue, the highest point in the sky above us. In this myth is described
the great World Fire which was extinguished by a flood ; and next a reconstruction of the
race in the form now existing.
d d d
William Nelson, an authority on Indian history, says the Lenapes had
their origin in the neighborhood of Hudson's Bay, and began migrating
southward probably three or four thousand years before the Christian era.
This statement is based partly upon their traditions and
Origin of partly upon the kitchen middens or kitchen leavings, traces
the Lenapes. of which are found in the shell-heaps of New Jersey. These
shell-heaps are the production not only of the Indians living
along the coast, but of tribes living along the shores of the Lenape-Whit-
tuck, who made periodical journeys to the seashore for the triple purpose
of fishing, fowling and bathing. These journeys were always made afoot,
as the horse was then unknown on this continent.'"
One of the largest of these shell-heaps was found on the marsh skirt-
ing what is now known as Great Bay, about a mile from the mainland.
It has been conjectured that this mound marks the site of an ancient pile-
dwelling settlement, similar to the settlement of twenty huts found by
* Until quite recently it was believed that the horse originated in Asia, but late dis-
coveries, says a recent writer (E. L. Anderson, London, 1898), show that " at a period long
anterior to the earliest records of Asia, horses were known to mankind in various parts of
Europe. The remains of the horse of our times are found with those of the extinct mammals
of the quarternary period ; and, as far as 1 can discover, our horse has an antiquity as great
as that of any existing quadruped. The primitive man who dwelt in rock-shelters and caves,
and who is supposed to have flourished in that division of the world's history called the
"reindeer period," certainly used the horse for food. In the caves of France, Switzerland
and other countries great quantities of the bones of horses have been found under circum-
stances which prove that they were put there long before the times of which we have any
historical knowledge, and that their presence was due to a primitive race of man.
PROMINENT ATLANTIC CITY PHYSICIANS.
I. Dr. Thomas K. Reed.
3. Dr. William M. Powell.
2. Dr. B. C. Pennington.
4. Dr. John R Fleming.
Indian Stories and Traditions
Columbus on the north coast of South America, to which he gave the sug-
gestive name of Venezuela, or Little Venice. In place of a shallow layer of
shells scattered over a considerable area (a characteristic of all aboriginal
village sites on the seacoast) at Great Bay there was found a single
mound of extraordinary height and proportions. This significant feature,
coupled with the fact that the marsh was once an integral part of the bay,
naturally suggested a pile-dwelling settlement. Several Indian graves
were uncovered on the slope opposite the mound, from which were taken
thirty-two skeletons of adults.
Doubtless the curling smoke from Indian wigwams once ascended
above the hill-tops and red cedars which marked the present site of Atlantic
City. Traces of these remained until recent vears in
Indian Mounds the shell-mounds in the vicinity of Hill's Creek, above
and Shell-Heaps. Chelsea, where Indian implements of a very archaic
character were also found. Another of these shell-
mounds was found at what is now Missouri avenue, between Arctic and
Baltic, Atlantic City. Thousands of bushels were taken from this mound
and used in the building of the Higbee road.
Dr. Thomas K. Reed, of Atlantic City, has a collection of Indian relics
that is unsurpassed by any other private collection in the country. To him,
also, the writer is indebted for much information concerning the early his-
tory of Atlantic City and Absecon Beach. Dr. Reed has been an active
participant in the various movements tending to the
Dr. T. K. Reed, advancement of Atlantic City, and during the three
decades, i860 to i8go, he was the leading spirit in every
such movement. He is the Nestor of Atlantic City physicians, is univer-
sally respected as a model professional gentleman and highly esteemed by
a wide circle of friends in Atlantic City and elsewhere. The soul of honor,
courageous, educated, studious and refined, he is, literally and exactly, in
the best conceivable meaning of that hackneyed phrase, a gentleman and a
INDIAN RELICS ON THE LEEDS HOMESTEAD.
While working: in the rear of a house on Division street. Atlantic City, on April 2, igoo,
a plumber discovered a box containing human bones. The house was at one time the home
of Andrew Leeds, who died in 1867, and was buried in a vault on the premises, his being the
only grave on the island, so far as known. This property remained in the possession of
Andrew's widow, familiarly known as " Aunt Ellen " Leeds, until about 1897, when it passed
into other hands, and the bones of Andrew were removed to Absecon. The finding of the
bones of a human being in the rear of the old Leeds homestead caused some speculation,
but the mystery was explained by Mrs. Abbie Leeds, widow of James Leeds, a son of Andrew
and grandson of Jeremiah Leeds, the first settler. Mrs. Leeds said the bones found in the
box were no doubt the same bones which Andrew Leeds had unearthed about 1850, near the
present entrance to the turnpike bridge, at Baltic and Georgia avenues. At one time there
were Indian shell-mounds at this point, the shells being used in the building of the Higbee
road in the early history of the city. Near these shell-mounds the skeletons of a number of
Indians were dug up out of the sand by Andrew Leeds, who sent them to Dr. Pitnev at
Absecon. Many years ago, after the death of Dr. Pitnev, the bones were returned to Mr.
Leeds, and after the death of the latter his widow kept them about the premises. At this
writing (igoo) "Aunt Ellen " is still living, aged eighty-six.
Indian mounds have been found in other parts of Atlantic Countv.
In opening a new street at Pleasantville, in February, iSgo, workmen dis-
covered the skeletons of twenty-one Indians. The bones were found about
three feet under-ground, and with them several flints, many arrows, one
stone knife, two flakes and a stone mill, used for cracking corn. The
latter had been worn nearly in two by use.
These Indian skeletons revived afresh the finding of human skeletons
laid bare by the March winds, in the sandy hills of Chestnut Neck, a few
years previous. Two skeletons were found beneath the branches of a large
cedar, with the head of one encased in a turtle-shell, indicating that it was
Heston' s Hand-Book.
that of an Indian who had belonged to the Unamis, or Turtle Indians, a
tribe of the Lenapes, whose emblem was a turtle. Many other mementoes
of the aborigines have been found at different times' in the vicinity of
Chestnut Neck and places farther inland.
d d d
Very early in their history the Indians living along the Lenape-
Whittuck instituted summer excursions to the seashore.
Summering at When the warm days of June had come, the squaws
Absegami. having previously planted the maize, the tribe was
1500101650 ready for the march to the chosen spot by the sea.
Two or three days suftked to bring them to their place
of summer encampment at Absegami, whose oyster beds were ever a
ORIGIN OF THE WORD ABSECON.
Absecon is a corruption of tlie real Indian name, Absegami. The name originally
designated the bay or salt-water lake inside the sand-bar, above what is now Atlantic City,
and should be spelled Absegam, or, if the original form be used, Absegami.
Aps or abse is the common Algonkin name for small or little, and is used in relation
to inanimate objects. Gami, kami, kam or gom all mean across or on the other side of. In
one sense they are particles, but more frequently they are used as nouns or adjectival
suffixes, referring to a wide and level extant of land or water. Thus, Lake Superior, in the
Indian tongue, is Kitchi-gami, the great wat»r. In his song of Hiawatha, Longfellow calls
it Gitchi-gumi, the big sea-water, but the Bureau of Ethnology, at Washington, uses the
The true Indian etymology of our local name is therefore Absegami, meaning " little
sea-water," and the original spelling has been corrupted to Absecam, Absecum, Absecom
and finally Absecon. It must be admitted that the last is the most euphonious. On a map
of New Jersey, published by William Faden, in 1777, it is spelled Absecum. In any form,
it signifies little water or water of limited extent, implying that the other shore is in sight.
In some of the early deeds the name of this beach or island was spelled " Absequan."
Since we have Manasquan, farther up the coast, there is some excuse for the use of Absequan.
Indian Stories and Traditions.
We do not find Absegami nor any of its various derivatives in William Nelson's work
on the New Jersey Indians, nor is it found in Pilling's bibliography of the Algonquian
languages; nevertheless, with the assistance of the Bureau of Ethnology, at Washington,
the author found that the modern name of Absecon is derived from the two Algonquian
words, abse and gami.
Arriving at the seashore, the Indians prepared for a sojourn of many
weel<s by erecting temporary lodges of skins or cedar barks and boughs,
where they lived and feasted' on the luxuries so bountifully supplied by the
waters, the marshes and the forests. They visited friendly tribes farther
up the coast, and doubtless enjoyed these sociables as though they them-
selves and their rude entertainers were people of the highest civilization.
The men went fishing and fowling, searched for the eggs of the marsh-
hens and gulls, or gathered shell-fish on the flats of the bay. While they
were thus engaged, the women attended to the children, cooked the foocl
procured by their lords and masters, gathered the materials and made
circular beds of fire on which to roast terrapin, oysters and clams. At this
encampment the chief of the tribe strutted about, proudly displaying his
white and purple pearl-embroidered costume, deeming himself the most
gorgeously dressed and greatest monarch on earth.
Ere the melancholy winds of October began to blow, the Indians pre-
pared to leave their temporary abode at the seashore. They loaded them-
selves with dried shell-fish, some winkle-shells for drinking-cups, and a few
large sea-shells intended for crockery-ware in the winter wigwams. The
squaws lashed the papooses to their shoulders and, with a string of dried
shell-fish on each arm, they were equipped for the journey. The men
carried their tomahawks, their scalping knives and bows and arrows,
besides bundles of wild fowl or strings of dried shell-fish, and thus equipped
the whole tribe commenced the journey, Indian file, back to their winter
42 Hestivi' s Haiid-Book.
Indian "history," which, as already stated, is only another term for
tradition, makes the vicinity of Absegami the scene of a sanguinary
battle. A numerous party of the Unamis were hunting on the shores of
the Mullica, and while thus engaged they encountered a party
Battle of the of warriors belonging to a hostile northern tribe, who had
Aborigines, come south in quest of pleasure or scalps. Instantly the
About 1500 spirit of vengeance was aroused, and with drawn weapons
the warriors rushed into battle. Stern was the strife, for
the forces were about equal in numbers and courage. Gliding panther-like
from tree to tree, hurling the tomahawk or drawing the bow and arrow,
they waged deadly strife until the shadows of night closed around them.
Half the warriors on each side had fallen, but as yet there was no thought
of flight. Crouching low in their leafy coverts, and casting eagle glances
through the darkness, those unrelenting foes watched and waited for the
coming day. At dawn the fight was renewed with unabated fury. Shouts
of rage and vengeance were heard on every side, and the wild shrubbery
was dyed with blood, as brave after brave fell. Still the conflict went on
till but two of the Unamis and one of the northern tribe remained. Ob-
serving their advantage, the two Unamis sounded the war cry and advanced
to seize their solitary foe, but this doughty savage had no idea of being
taken. Flourishing' his tomahawk, he uttered a yell of defiance and
plunged into the river. His enemies attempted pursuit, but he left them far
behind and quickly gained the other shore. Pausing a moment to wave a
taunting farewell,'he dashed swiftly away and disappeared in the forest.
The baffled Unamis then returned to their camp with tidings of the fatal
combat, which was destined to be long preserved in the traditional annals
of the nation.
d d J!i
Indian Tribes and Previous to 1645 the Indians were monarchs of all
Their Location. they surveyed in that part of Scheyichbi between the
1645 to 1698 Mullica and Great Egg Harbor. At the time of the
coming of the English and Scotch emigrants from
Long Island, the red men were not so numerous as they had been.
LOCATION OF INDIAN TRIBES.
A pamphlet published in 1648, by Beauchamp Plantagenet, entitled "A Description of
the Province of New Albion," etc., contains a letter written by Robert Evelin, who had passed
four years in the province, in which he says: "I find some broken land, isles and inlets,
and many small isles at Egbay [Egg Harbor]; But going to Delaware Bay, by Cape May,
which is 24 miles at most — on that north side about five miles within a Port or rode for any
ships called the Nook [Maurice River], and within lieth the king of the Kechemeches, hav-
ing as I suppose about 50 men, and 12 leagues higher a little above the Bay and Bar is the
Manteses. The king of the Manteses hath about 100 bow-men ; next above about 6 leagues
higher is the king of the Sikonesses, and next is Asomoches, a king with an hundred men,
and next is Eriwoneck, a king of forty men [the Amarongs], and five miles above is the king
of Ramcock [Rankokas tribe] with a hundred men, and four miles higher the king of
Axion [tribe of Atsion or Atsionks] with two hundred men, and next to him tenne leagues
over land an inland king of Calcefar, with an hundred and fifty men. And six leagues
higher, near a creek called Maselian, the king having two hundred men. And then we come
to the Fals. The Indians are in several factions and war against the Susquehannocks."
The author of the pamphlet adds that in addition to those named by Evelin " there are
at least 1200 under the two Raritan kings on the north, and those come down to the ocean
about little Egbay and Sandy Barnegate and about the South cape [Cape May] two small
kings of fortv men apiece, called Tinans and Tiascans, and a third reduced to fourteen men
at Raymont." — Plantagenet, p. 20 ; Smith, p. 31.
DeLaet, another early historian, mentions other tribes, as follows : Naraticongs, Arme-
wamexes. Maeroahkongs, Sewaposes, Minquosees, Mattikongees and the Sanhigans, the
latter being the tribe situated at the falls of the Delaware, or what is now Trenton, but which
the Indians called Chickohacki. This was the largest Indian village on the east bank of
the Lenape-Whittuck, and here the great chief of the Scheyichbi resided.
Gabriel Thomas, in his quaint little history, mentions a tribe called Yacomanshag,
located about where the town of Hammonton is now situated. Remains of this old Indian vil-
lage were found by a wood-chopper, about five miles northeast of Hammonton, in June, 1896.
Indian Stovics and Traditions. 43
Undoubtedly, in the enumeration of the Indians, the writers included the men only, as
not until the boys reached the age of fifteen did they become bow-men. We are told that
until they reached this age they spent most of their time in fishing. At fifteen they became
bow-men, and as soon as they could return to their father's wigwam with a sufficient number
of skins, after a day's hunt, they were allowed to marry any girl in the camp who wore a
crown of red or blue bays, as an advertisement of her willingness to marry. Usually the
male took his first wife at sixteen to eighteen and the female wore her " advertisement" at
about fourteen or fifteen.
To approximate the population of a tribe we may safely multiply the number of bow-
men by four, and on that basis we find that in the year 1648 there were about 8,000 Indians
in the southern and eastern parts of Scheyichbi, or New Jersey. In the north and northwest-
ern sections there were doubtless several thousand more, as we learn from other sources
that there were tribes called the Matas, the Chichequaas, the Raritans, the Navesinks, the
Nanticokes and the Tutelos. These all belonged to the Lenni-Lenape nation, of which
there were two branches in the pine and coast region of Scheyichbi— the Unamis or Turtles,
and the Unilachtos or Turkeys.
About the Delaware, almost all the Indian names of streams have been abolished, but
several branches of the Mullica and Great Egg Harbor yet retain their primitive titles.
In the pamphlet from which we have quoted we read that in the vicinity of what is
now Atlantic City [Egbay] the country "partaketh of the healthiest aire and most excellent
commodities of Europe," and in the forests there were "five sorts of deer, buffes [buffalosj,
and huge elks to plow and work, all bringing three young at once." The uplands were
" covered many moneths with berries, roots, chestnuts, walnuts, beech and oak and mast to
feed them, hogges and turkeys, five hundred in a flock."
According to the traditions of tlie Indians, tlieir number had been
greatly reduced by wars among themselves. One tribe of the Unamis
lived at what is now Leeds Point, another at Wills and Osborne Islands,
to the north, and still another at Manahawkin. The first named were a
branch of the war-like tribe of Atsionks, or Axions, who had their principal
settlement near where the present village of Atsion now stands. 1 hey
claimed the exclusive right to fish in and hunt along all the tributaries of
the Mullica. The Tuckahoe Indians, a more peaceful tribe, dwelt along
the river of that name, on the southern boundary of Atlantic County.
Between the two tribes there was considerable intercourse, and in going
from one settlement or camp to another they crossed the Great Egg
Harbor river at Inskeep's ford, near the present town of Hammonton.
Here they would generally stop for the night, always sleeping in the open
air, and never remaining after sunrise.
Between the tribe whose camp was near the present site of Leeds
Point and the two tribes on the north there was a bitter hostility. One
night when the Wills Island Indians were sleeping in apparent security the
Leeds Point warriors crossed the Mullica, and taking their slumbering' foes
by surprise, massacred all but one, who fled unnoticed to the Manahawkin
tribe, and informed the chief thereof of the fate which had befallen his
people. The Manahawkin braves armed themselves, and started in pur-
suit. They arrived the night after the slaughter and found the victorious
warriors singing and dancing in exultation of their victory. The Mana-
hawkin braves moved stealthily around to the eastern shore, where they
captured the canoes of the Leeds Point tribe, and, placing a guard over
them, rushed in upon the unsuspecting revelers, slaying them on every hand.
Those of the enemy who fled to their canoes found them in the possession
of the guard, who killed every warrior that approached, and in a short
time there was not a Leeds Point brave left to tell the tale of the battle.
Mulberry field, where this battle took place, has always been remarkable
for the fertility of its soil. Near the field were severaf mounds, and some
years ago a farmer who owned the land resolved on turning these mounds
to good account. Accordingly, he scattered their contents over the fields
for purposes of fertilization. ' In digging into the mounds many human
bones were discovered, there being alternate layers of earth, bones and
shells. Mingled with the bones were a number of Indian implements.
44 Heston s Hand-Book.
With the advent of the white man the Indians gradually disappeared.
That part of Scheyichbi, or New Jersey, whose history we are tracing was
called Eyre Haven, or Egg Harbor. Henry Hudson, in the Dutch ship
'• Half Moon," a vessel of about eighty tons, dis-
Discovery of Absegami covered Absegami and Eyre Haven on September
and Eyre Haven. i and 2, i6og, but he did not attempt to enter any
1609 of the inlets along the coast until he reached what
is now Barnegat.
About the last of August Hudson entered Delaware Bay, but finding
the navigation dangerous he soon left without going ashore. After getting
out to sea again he steered northeastwardly and after a while anchored
and made land in the vicinity of the Great Egg Harbor, a few miles south
LOG-BOOK OF THE "HALF MOON."
The log-book of the " Half Moon" was kept by the mate, Alfred Juet, and contains the
first reference to old Eyre Haven of which there is any record. In his log-book, under date
of September 2 i6og, he says : "When the sun arose we steered north again and saw land
from the west by north to the northwest, all alike, broken islands, and our soundings were
eleven fathoms and ten fathoms. Then we luffed in for the shore, and fair by the shore we
_had seven fathoms. The course along the land [Absecon Beach] we found to be northeast
"by north. From the land, which we first had sight of, until we came to a great lake of
water, as we could judge it to be [Great Bay and Barnegat Bay], being drowned land which
made it rise like islands, which was in length ten leagues. The mouth of the lake has
many shoals, and the sea breaks upon them as it is cast out of the mouth of it. And from
that lake or bay the land lies north by east, and we had a great stream out of the Bay ; and
from thence our soundings was ten fathoms two leagues from land. At five o'clock we
anchored, being light wind, and rode in eight fathoms water; the night was fair. This
night I found the land to haul the compass eight degrees. Far to the northward of us we
saw high hills, for the day before we found not above two degrees of variation. This is a
very good land to fall in with, and a pleasant land to see."
HOW STATEN ISLAND WAS ATTACHED TO NEW YORK.
The high hills " far to the northward," referred to by Mate Juet, were the highlands
of Navesink and Staten Island. Perhaps, the reader has wondered why Staten Island, in
spite of its location, is a part of New York, instead of New Jersey. On March 20, 1664,
James, Duke of York, received from his brother, Charles II., a grant for "all that part of
the main land of New England," particularly described; also "all the land from the west
side of the Connecticut river to the east side of Delaware bay. and the several other islands
and lands," etc., including the provinces of New York and New Jersey. Three months
later, on June 23d. the Duke of York, " for the consideration of ten shillings, lawful money
of England," conveyed to Lord Berkeley and Sir George Carteret all that portion of the
territory between the Hudson river and Delaware bay or river, to be known thereafter as
Nova Cctsarea or New Jersey. The Duke despatched Sir Robert Carre and Admiral Richard
Nicholls, with a land and naval force, to take possession of all lands included in the grant
from the king. Much of the territory was then in possession of the Dutch under Peter
Stuyvesant. Nicholls was given command of the land forces, consisting of about three
hundred men, and his instructions were to place Berkeley and Carteret in possession of
New Jersey, and to hold for the Duke the lands eastward of the Hudson, including "the
small islands in adjacent waters." Nicholls carried out his instructions, but was perplexed
as to the disposition of Staaten Eylandt, as the Dutch called it. Long Island was too big to
be doubtful. It was clearly a part of New York by reason of its size and location. The
other islands were so small as to be included in the term " small islands in adjacent waters,"
but Staten Island was neither one thing nor the other — neither large nor small. He finally
decided that any island that could be sailed around in twenty-four hours was small enough
to come within the instructions, and might be fairly considered a part of New York.
Nicholls therefore commissioned Captain James Billup, of the ship " Bent ley," to make
the effort to circumnavigate the island in twenty-four hours. Billup regarded the beautiful
island, with its wooded heights, as a rare prize for the Duke, and he determined to win it for
him, if possible. But treacherous shoals and shifting winds made it a difficult task. He
took the outside course first, but when he started up through what the Dutch called the
Arthur Kills he grounded opposite to where Perth Amboy is now located. Finally the crew
warped the vessel off, but in a short time she was aground again. Billup was in despair,
when three Indians put out from the shore and paddled up to the ship. One of them,
Matoachen, or Metuchen, a chief of the Po Ambo tribe, could speak a few words in Dutch,
and to him Billup managed to make known his plight. Matoachen agreed to serve as a
pilot, and his knowledge of the channel and shoals made it possible for Billup to finish his
course within the twenty-four hours. Thus it was that Staten Island became a part of
New York. Nicholls granted to Billup, as a reward, a large estate on the southern end of
the island, which grant was afterwards confirmed by the Duke of York. Billup named it
Bentley Manor, after his ship, and the old stone Bentley manor-house is still one of the
Indian Stories aiid Tradiiioiis.
landmarks in that part of the island. Billup's memory is preserved in Billup's Point, at the
extreme southern end of the island, where the g-overnment erected a fort during the Spanish-
In 1769 the line between New Jersey and New Yorl< was officially located by a royaT
commission, whose report was characterized by largeness of expression and sparseness of
detail. To settle the disputes that were constantly arising, another commission was
appointed in 1854. This commission decided that the boundary should be the middle line of
the Hudson river, beginning at the forty-first degree of north latitude, the middle of New
York Bay, the middle of Kill von Kull, the middle of Arthur Kill and the middle of Raritan
Bay. This seemed definite enough, but it was not long before new disputes arose. The bed
of Raritan Bay became valuable as an oyster planting ground, and the uncertainty as to
jurisdiction led to frequent disputes and occasional bloodshed. In 1887 another commission
was appointed by the Governors of New York and New Jersey to locate definitely the line
between the two states. This cr mmission agreed upon a line in i88g. From the mouth of
the Hudson it sweeps east of Robbin's Reef Lighthouse, and includes not only Robbin's Reef
and Bedloe's Island, but Ellis Island and Oyster Island, making them a part of New Jersey.
As the Statue of Liberty is on Bedloe's Island, it is on New Jersey soil, although the
Century Dictionary and other atlases erroneously place it within the bounds of Greater
6 <i 6
The discovery of the inlets above and below Absegami may be properly
credited to Captain Cornelius Jacobsen Mey, of the ship " Fortuyn," who
left New Amsterdam in June, 1614, and cruised down the coast on a voy-
age of discovery. He called the inlet now known as Barnegat by the
Dutch name of Barende-gat, meaning " Breakers inlet," or, as it is in
English, "the inlet with breakers." In the rivers his men in the ship's
boat found an abundance of gulls' eggs, and he therefore called the streams
Great and Little Egg Harbor (the latter now known as the Mullica), and
the country Eyre Haven, the Dutch for Egg Harbor. Absecon inlet he
also called Barende-gat, these words being used at first not as a name, but
merely as a description of the inlet. In the course of time the word was
corrupted into Barnegat. On Vanderdonck's Dutch map, made in 1656, it
is Barndegat, and in his description of the coast, in one place, he calls
Absecon Bear-gat. He says: "There are several fine bays and inland
waters, which form good sea harbors for those who are acquainted with
the inlets and entrances to the same, which at present are not much used,
particularly Barndegat, Great and Little Egg Harbor and Bear-gat,
wherein anchorages are safe and secure. But as few Christians are
settled at those places, the harbors are seldom used, unless the wind and
the weather render it necessary for safety."
Gabriel Thomas, who wrote a " History of New Jersey" in 1698, in
enumerating the streams of water, mentions Great Egg Harbor River,
" up which a ship of two or three hundred tuns may
Stones of the sail." This country, he adds, " is noted for its good
Early Historians, store of horses, cows, sheep, hogs, etc., the lands there-
1654 to 1738 abouts being much improved and built upon." On the
map which accompanies his book the beach or island
whereon Atlantic City is now built, the modern name of which is Absecon
Beach, is described as having " some wood land and some sandy ground."
Some of the "wonderful things" found in this part of the country
two centuries ago can be described best in the language of the quaint his-
torian Thomas. " There are, among other various sorts of frogs," he says,
"the bull-frog, which makes a roaring noise, hardly to be distinguished
from that well known of the beast from which it takes its name. There is
another sort of frog that crawls up to the tops of trees, there seeming to
imitate the notes of several birds." in writing of the productiveness of the
soil he digresses in this wise: " Jealousie among men is here very rare,
and barrenness among women hardly to be heard of ; nor are old maids to
be met with, for all commonly marry before they are twenty years of age,
and seldom any young married woman but hath a child * " * '-■ "''^' ."
46 Hcston' s Hand-Book.
" Gloucester-Town," says he in another part of his bool<, " is a very fine
and pleasant place, whither young people come from Philadelphia in the
wherries to eat strawberries and cream, within sight of which city it is
sweetly situated." Burlington was then the " chiefest town" in West
Jersey, but Salem was the " ancientest."
Rev. John Campanius Holm — the last word being an affix to the
name proper, denoting the place of his nativity, Stockholm— was one of the
most ingenious and picturesque liars that ever traveled — a man of more
than Munchausen ability in that particular. He came over in 1643, and
sent over to Sweden some hideous stories of the country. He tells of many
strange things, among which was the fish tree, which " resembles box- wood
and smells like raw fish. It cannot be split, but if a fire be lighted around
it with some other kind of wood it melts away." Somewhere in the middle
of one of the creeks, we are told, there was a place which was never known
to freeze, and where swans were seen at all times. The streams were alive
with whales, sharks, sea-spiders and tarm-fisks, and the shores " with a
large and horrible serpent, which is called a rattlesnake, which has a head
like that of a dog and can bite off a man's leg as if it had been hewn down
with an exe. There are horny joints in their tails, which make a noise
like children's rattles, and when they see a man they wind themselves in a
circle and shake their heads, which can be heard at a distance of a hundred
yards. These snakes are three yards long and thick as the thickest part
of a man's thigh." Speaking of" the king crab, this priestly prevaricator
says: " Their tails are half an ell long and made like a three-edged saw,
with which the hardest tree may be sawed down."
A certain William Wood, in his description of New Jersey, published
in 1634, gives us an idea of some of the habits of our aboriginal friends,
the Indians, in the following classic lines: —
"The dainty Indian maise
Was eat with clamp-shells out of wooden trays,
The luscious lobster with the craw-fish raw,
The brinnish oyster, mussel, periwig-ge.
And tortoise sought by the Indian squaw,
Which to the flats dance many a winter's jigge.
To dive for cockles and to dig for clams.
Whereby her \azy \\\x%\:)a.n^' ^ guts she cravimsy
The last line of the foregoing beautiful stanza is most likely literally
true. A similar practice is prevalent in some sections of the state even
unto this day, being one of the habits of the aborigines which our lazy
forefathers were quick to adopt and transmit to succeeding generations.
In every community there are men whose wives, like the Indian squaws,
are required to do all the drudgery, and often feed and clothe the indolent
lords of creation.
^ id d
Vincent Leonarda, a Portuguese adventurer, was wrecked on Absecon
Beach about the middle of the seventeenth century and wandered thence to
New York, returning eventually to Portugal.
ROMANCE OF MINNEQUA AND THE INDIAN MAID.
Leonarda was said to be a descendant of Vasco da Gama, the great Portuguese dis-
coverer. In the shipwreck he and a few of his followers were saved, and, being kindly
treated by the Indians, they remained at the camp some days. On leaving, and making
their way toward New York, they endured hardships and exposure before reaching the
mouth of the Hudson, whence they were taken by Dutch settlers across the river to New
York Here they soon fell in with a skipper who was about sailing for the Mediterranean, and
after a passage of eleven weeks were landed at Barcelona, whence they made their way to
Portugal. Some time afterwards the government requested Leonarda to write a narrative
of his adventures. This he did, but for some reason, instead of being published, the manu-
script was deposited in the archives of the bureau of navigation at Lisbon, where it was
India)i Stories and Traditiojis.
destroyed by fire, with many other public documents, about 1848. Previous to its destruc-
tion an American traveler gfained access to this quaintly written document. He describes it
as " a sincere and plaintive, but simple story of adventure, which is probably rendered more
sad in tone than it otherwise would have been, by reason of the private troubles that were
weighingupon the heart of Leonarda when he wrote it." Doubtless the writer refers to
Leonarda's grief over the death of his lady love, a voung woman of distinction, which is
said to have occurred during his absence in America. Leonarda himself died at Oporto
three years after his return to Portugal.
The description of the beach and surrounding country, as given in the parchment,
left no doubt in the mind of our American traveler that the shipwreck of Leonarda occurred
at no other place than Absegami, or Absecon Beach.
About the time of this shipwreck, according to the story of Leonarda, there was an
unusual commotion among the Indians encamped in the vicinity of Absegami. One of their
number was Minnequa. brother of Wekolis. the chief, who was deeply enamored of an
Indian girl, called, in English, the "Fair Ocean Maid." The girl also loved Minnequa,
and she in turn was loved by Wekolis. the chief, who cruelly forbade anv communication
or association between his brother and the girl. To prevent any violation of this order,
Wekolis had the girl confined in his wigwam, under guard. The brother whom he had
hitherto loved Minnequa now hated.
One night, so the story goes, Minnequa and a number of his friends, after a fruitless
attempt to rescue the Fair Ocean Maid, broke away from the camp and erected their wig-
wams about four miles distant, proposing to make an assault upon the camp of Wekolis at a
Day and night the young girl was under guard and among the watchers was a young
Indian named Wau-Koo-Naby, who had loved the captive from his childhood. He well
knew that she could never be his squaw, yet he was constrained to risk his own life in an
attempt to rescue her from the hands of one whom he knew she did not love. One day, dur-
ing the absence of the chief, while Wau-Koo-Naby was walking with the fair maidof the
ocean at some distance from the wigwam, he suggested that she escape with him. At first
she hesitated, fearing detection and punishment for both. But at last she consented and a
plan of escape was agreed upon.
One stormy night everything seemed auspicious. The chief had left the camp at
mid-day and had not yet returned from the chase. Wau-Koo-Naby persuaded his fellow-
guardsmen to go to sleep, assuring them that he would guard well their captive. As soon
as the others were asleep, the watchful pair crept cautiously out of the wigwam and tied, in
the face of wind and rain, toward the camp of Minnequa. After traveling some distance
and being fatigued by the rigors of the night, they sought shelter in a grove of cedars.
Here they detected lights at a distance, and believing themselves near the camp of
Minnequa, they hastened on. On approaching the camp thev heard much commotion.
The girl and her companion hallooed for assistance, and soon two red men approached.
Wau-Koo-Naby and the girl supposed they were friends, and before discovering otherwise
one of the Indians smote Wau-Koo-Naby to the earth with his tomahawk. He quickly seized
the girl, and, taking her in his arms, hastened back to his friends. Instead of the camp of
her lover, as the girl had supposed, she found herself in the presence of Wekolis, who.
returning to his own camp that night, had discovered the treachery of Wau-Koo-Naby and
was then in pursuit of the girl and her companion
The next day Minnequa, hearing of the girl's capture, determined to attack the camp
of his brother the following night. This he did, but was worsted by superior force. He
and his men retired to their wigwams sad-hearted and discouraged.
The captive maiden, the object of this fighting, saddened by the fate of Wau-Koo-
Naby. grieving over her separation from Minnequa, and suffering, perhaps, from her
exposure of the night before, was taken sick. As she lay upon her bed of leaves and grass
in the wigwam, the chief approached, perhaps to caress her. Her face was calm and her
brow was cold ; he believed her dead. Instantly his heart was tilled with compunction, and
rushing from the wigwam, he tied to the camp of his brother, crying " Mercy ' Mercy ' I have
killed the Ocean Maid."
Minnequa was greatly alarmed. He did not stop to upbraid his brother, but hastened
at once to the opposing camp, desiring, if possible, to embrace in death the girl whom he
had so dearly loved in life. Reaching the tent, he was overjoyed to find her alive and in
deep slumber. The chief had supposed her dead, when, in fact, she had merely fainted.
This incident served to melt the chief's heart. Not only did he bid the girl marry the
man whom she loved, but if we are to believe our Portuguese chronicler, he actually made
Minnequa chief of the tribe. Wau-Koo-Naby, who had assisted the girl in her flight, though
severely wounded, we are informed, did not die, but bravely returned to camp and was
requited for his fidelity by receiving in marriage the hand of the chief's sister, another
beautiful daughter of the forest.
This story, as given by Leonarda, may be somewhat embellished, although in his
nianuscript he assured the Portuguese that he gave the facts exactly as they occurred about
the time of his shipwreck on Absecon Beach.
a d d
The government of the province always recognized the title of the
Indians to the lands, and always insisted on a fair purchase from them.
Heston' s Hand-Book.
For this reason the white settlers never had any trouble with the aborig-
ines. In 1758, most of the Indians having sold their land, agreed to the
extinguishment of their titles, except the right to fish in all the rivers and
bays south of the Raritan, and to hunt in all uninclosed lands. In 1802
they removed to the vicinity of Oneida Lake, N. Y.,
Migration of the and in 18^2 the remnant of the Lenni-Lenapes, forty in
Red Man. number, were settled at Statesburgh, on Fox River,
1802 Wis. Believing that they had never parted with the right
to fish and hunt secured to them in 1758, they deputed
one of their number. Wilted Grass, known among the whites as Bartholo-
mew S. Calvin, who had served with credit under Washington, to lay
their claim before the New Jersey Legislature. This he did in a memorial
couched in language simple and pathetic, beginning : " 1 am old and weak
and poor, and therefore a fit representative of my people. You are young
and strong and rich, and therefore fit representatives of your people."
The Legislature voted the sum asked for, two thousand dollars. Wilted
Grass addressed a letter of thanks to the Legislature, in which he said : —
" Not a drop of your blood have you spilled in battle ; not an acre of
our land have you taken but by our consent. These facts speak for them-
selves and need no comment. They place the character of New Jersey in
bold relief and a bright example to those States within whose territorial
limits our brethren still remain. Nothing but benisons can fall upon her
from the lips of a Lenni-Lenape."
ii <S d
The Lenapes of Pennsylvania were pressed successively to the Sus-
quehanna and Ohio rivers, and afterward to Missouri and Arkansas.
Most of their descendants are now located in the Indian Territory and are
connected with the Cherokees. Their number is about 17C0.
A Snap Shot.
Days of Yore.
HE deed from the Indians to the
proprietors, for lands between the
Rancocas and Timber creeks (in-
cluding the present bounds of
Atlantic county), is dated Sep-
tember lo, 1677, and that from
the Rancocas to Assanpink creek
one month later — October loth.
The proprietors for some time
seemed loth to part with lands on
the seacoast, for under date of
December 24, 1692, they wrote
from London to Jeremiah Basse,
their agent in New Jersey, ad-
vising him to "sell none of ye land
that lies convenient for whale fishing
till ye heare further from us, for that
wee will not sell." Thomas Budd, an
early purchaser of lands in New Jersey,
had previously sold to Dr. Daniel
Coxe, of London, physician to the
Queen, 15,000 acres on the south side
of the Great Egg Harbor— and pos-
sibly some on the north side — these
being the lands which had been deeded
by the proprietors to Budd in settle-
ment of a claim of 1250 pounds.
ORIGINAL OWNERS OF THE ISLAND.
Thomas Budd. original owner of the island
whereon Atlantic City is built, arrived at Bur-
lington in 167S. Nine or ten years afterwards he
published a pamphlet describing the country,
and quoting a speech made by one of the Indians, at a conference of the white and
red men, held in Burlington. The Indian said: "We are your brothers and intend to
live like brothers with you. We have no mind to have war, for when we have war we are
only skin and bones ; the meat that we eat doth not do us good ; we always are in fear ; we
have not the benefit of the sun to shine on us ; we hide us in holes and corners ; we are
minded to live at peace. If we intend at any time to make war upon you, we will let you
know of it, and the reasons why we make war with you; and if you make us satisfaction
for the injury done us, for which the war was intended, then we will not make war upon you ;
and if you intend at any time to make war on us, we would have you let us know of it, and
the reason ; and then if we do not make satisfaction for the injury done unto you, then you may
make war on us, otherwise you ought not to do it. You are our brothers, and we are willing
to live like brothers with you; we are willing to have a broad path for you and us to walk
in, and if an Indian is asleep in this path, the Englishman shall pass by, and do him no
harm ; and if an Englishman is asleep in this path, the Indian shall pass him by. and sav,
' He is an Englishman, he is asleep ; let him alone, he loves to sleep.' It shall be a plain
path ; there must not be in this path a stump to hurt our feet."
THE SPEECH OF AN INDIAN SAGE.
In the same pamphlet the author says : " The Indians have been very serviceable to
us by selling us venison, Indian corn, pease and beans, fish and fowl, buck-skins, beaver,
Cottage of William F. Taylor— Cottage of John Loughran— Cottage
of S. E. Magarge.
Talcs of the Oldcii lluic. rj
^nf.^r'^ Other Skins and furs. The men hunt, fish and fowl, and the women nlant the corn
f^ ..r n*'"'*.^^"',; .There are many of them of a .^rood understanding, considering the?r
^ff ' i'^H^"^ m their pubhc meetings of business they have e.xceilent order, one spfaking
Whispers: to ?he ot'r' °"^ " ^^^^''"^' '^" '''' '''' ^^^ ^'-^- -^ '^ -^ - -"h af
,„ . /k ^^ ^^^ several meetings with them. One was to put down the sale of rum brandy
and other strong liquors to them, they being a people that have not government of tS
selves so as to drink in moderation ; at which time there were eight k^ngs a^d manv Sr
l.t7L,rlt ^T^ '^* °" ^ ^°'''^' ^"^ ^" •'^ ^"°*h^^ ^^^-^ ^&^'"^t them. They had prl-
fhl bin " K^'*fH°^'^^'"Pr ^°/"'^ "' ^' "^^'^ °^ the covenant thev made with us. One of
the kings, by the consent and appointment of the rest, stood up and made this followinJ
speech : The strong liquor was first sold to us by the Dutch, and thev were blind • thev 1 ad
no eyes : they did not see that it was for our hurt. The next people that came amone us
hnnV^Ti?'''^^'^' ^■^'^ ^o^tinued the sale of those strong liquors to us Th^v vv^e also
Unpw it 7. r l^^^"", F"" = l^'^/"^ "°* """ 't t« ^' hurtful to us to drink it. although
crnl fnrh<f. r "wH "' ' ^".^ -f people will sell it to us, we are so in love with it that
cannot forbear it. When we drink it, it makes us mad ; we do not know what we do-
h..n lintn T ^"°^^^'' i r ^'7°^ ^^^^. ^t^^"" '"*« the fire. Seven score of our people have
been k led by reason of the drinking fit. since the time it was first sold us. Those people
us th'/t h ^'^ ^''"'^»; ^^"^ ^-^^^ !1° "y^^- ^"t now there is a people come to live amongst
us tha have eyes ; they see it to be for our hurt, and we know it to be for our hurt Thev
T. 1\1T^ '^t,^'"^ themselves the profit of it for our good. These people have eves ; we
are glad such a people have come amongst us. We must put it down by mutual consent
n th^'i-T.'* ^' '?h'^^ 7' '* T^' ^^ '"^'^^ ^^^t; it must^ot leak bv day nor by night'
in the light nor in the dark ; and we give you these four belts of wampum, which we w?uld
have you lay up safe, and keep by you, to be witness of this agreement that we make with
you ; and we would have you tell your children that these four behs of wampum are given
you to be witnesses betwixt us and you of this agreement.' " ^
Notwithstanding tlie fact that the proprietors were averse to selling
the lands ' convenient for whale fishing," a considerable portion of these
lands in what is now Atlantic county came into the possession of Budd
previous to 1695, in which year he sold to John Somers, James Steelman
and others many hundreds of acres between the Great Egg Harbor and
Mulhca rivers. In 1695 Budd was the owner of 440 acres on Absecon
beach. His was an "original" survey. Subsequent survevs were as
follows: John Scott, 300 acres (January 6, 1714) : Andrew Steelman -756
acres ; Amos Ireland, 49 acres ; Peter Conover, 100 acres ; Daniel Ireland
34 acres ; and John Ladd, 1035 acres.
THE TEN ORIGINAL SURVEYS.
Absecon beach was originally located by ten survevs. In 1780 nine of these survevs
f"f,°"^-h^lf the other (which was a survey of 717 acres made to John Ladd) had become
vested in Colonel Richard Somers by virtue of sundry conveyances from John Babcock
hrederick Steelman and others. In 1813 the nine survevs and the undivided half of the
survey having become vested in Sarah Keen, the daughter, devisee
lid Col. Richard Somers. were conveyed to George West, wlio held tl
and executor of
orge West, who held the same until his
death in 1829 In 1816 a salt works being about to be erected on the beach by John Blake.
he obtained leases from George West, and also from Jeremiah Leeds for that purpose.
All of the original surveys referred to were above Jackson avenue or
Dry Inlet," which at that time was the south end of the island, the
term "Dry Inlet" was for manv vears used to designate a
Dry Inlet, locality now forming the lower boundar\- of Atlantic City, at
Jackson avenue. About the vear 1700 the beach was divided
midway by a small inlet, through which the tide ebbed and flowed Years
afterwards it was filled with sand, and the locality was then called " Drv
In 1695 Thomas Budd sold large tracts of land on the mainland and
beaches to actual settlers. Each of his deeds had this clause inserted •
With the privilege of cutting cedar, and commonidge tor cattle etc. on
ye swamps and beaches laid out bv ve said Thomas Budd for commons."
The exaction of these privileges at this date would cause much trouble as
a large portion of the built-up portion of Atlantic Citv stands upon one of
the survevs of Thomas Budd.
Heston' s Hand- Book.
From the time of the original surveys, about 1700, to about t8co, there
was little attempt at permanent settlement on Absecon beach, though the
lands had passed into other hands by deed or inheritance.
At the time of the Revolution the population of the island consisted of
the families of Daniel Ireland, William Boice and George Stibbs. These
men, like Ethan Allen, believed in God and the Continental Congress. A
company of refugees came to the island one night and took
Old-Time Stibbs from his humble home, blindfolded him and compelled
Patriots. him to accompany them and assist in the robbery of
"Uncle" John Winner, a good old patriot, who lived on
the mainland. Many years ago three or four caves, showing unmistak-
able signs of former occupation by man, could be seen in the lower part of
the city limits. Below "Dry Inlet" there was a cave where William
Day, a deserter from the Amencan army in the second war with England,
found a safe retreat from his pursuers". He was employed by Hezekiah
Sampson, who lived near by. The furrows of his plough were traced in
the little patch of soil which' he cultivated near the marsh. After the war
this cave was abandoned to the bats and foxes, and Day, it is said, went
elsewhere in search of a wife. ^ ^ ^
Juan Ponce de Leon, the Spanish explorer of the sixteenth century,
sought in vain for the spring whose virtues were credulously believed to
restore the vigor of youth to the aged. Searching for this fountain of
youth, he landed on the coast of Florida in the year 1512,*
The Fountain and in that country there are springs almost innumerable,
of Youth. each of which to-day lays claim to the high antiquity of
being the identical "spring in which the great Spaniard
performed his ablutions. History informs us, however, that nowhere
could he find this mythical fountain of youth ; but who will deny that
had he extended his search northward his fondest hopes might have
been realized, had he landed upon the island where— quoting the lines of
the late Col. William E. Potter, of Bridgeton, N. J.—
Where the long: surges heave and break,
Foamin.c:, upon the glittering shore,
And laughing maidens often take
A " header" 'midst the breakers' roar;
Where zephyrs gently woo the toiler,
And nights are mild and skies are clear,
And on the housewife's kitchen broiler
The soft-shell crab doth oft appear ;
Where hops abound and bugles blare,
And Roman nobles, in the busy street.
Incognito, with monkeys fare,
Grinding their daily music sweet ;
Where agile oysters, mild, serene.
On beds of moss recline, and lobsters wise
Live pinchingly ; and pearly sheen
Of hake and flounder wins the flies ;
And the mosquito's monotone,
Beyond the woven window-bar.
Prevents our feeling quite alone —
He is so near and yet so far ;
Where, by the heaving sea, the fakir's booth
Is found ere yet the summer's gone, —
Pours forth the fountain of eternal youth,
The spring of ancient Ponce Leon.
* Millions of American school-children have been taught that Ponce de Leon discov-
ered Florida on Easter Sunday, March 27, 1512, and that he gave the country its floral name
because Easter lilies were then and there in beautiful bloom. But this sacred date, with its
sweet and flowery adornment, must in these later days be extirpated from our historic annals ;
for we are now informed by Mr. Fox— with his myth-destroying mathematics— that Easter
Sunday in the year 1512 "did not fall on the 27th of March. Thus it is that history is
written — and rewritten — and then unwritten !
Ta/cs of tJic Olden Time. 53
The old Castilian left his home,
The vine-clad hills of distant Spain,
A thousand leagues of sea to roam ;
To hrave the heat, the cold, the pain
Of wounds, the fata! poisoned dart.
The march through swamp and tangled wood.
The ambush dark, the fear, the start
Of keen surprise when the wild Indian stood,
Stern, painted, cruel, before him.
But undismayed by wounds or death.
His loved lost youth to restore him.
Aged, weak and worn, with failing breath,
He searched, without the glorious sight
Of the famed spring, now flowing free,
Pure and wholesome, sparkling and bright.
In our gay City by the Sea.*
The old Castilian died long before the feet of white men trod the soil
whereon Atlantic City was founded, but the wonderful life-giving atmos-
phere of this beach, if not the identical fountain of youth, was discovered
by Jean LeBarre, a Frenchman, who visited this country after the
LeBarre published an account of his travels, in which he spoke of the
exceptional dryness of the atmosphere on Absecon beach, having visited
this island in September, 1787, to enjoy the excellent gunning and fishing.
He added that in all his travels (and he was a great
'* Auld Lang Syne.'^ traveler) he had only found one other place in the
world, on the seacoast, that could be compared with
this island in the matter of climate. Still, for lack of inhabitants, it was a
dreary place in those early days. One who was familiar with the island,
as a visitor, before it was touched with the iron wand of that modern ma-
gician, the railroad, describes it as a place " more dismal than the deserts
of Arabia." On the beach nothing interrupted the monotonous sough of
the sea but the quack of the wild goose, the cry of the curlew, or the shrill
scream of the gull. On the meadow side, of a summer evening, when bab-
bling day was touched by the hem of night's garment, there was a perfect
realization of peaceful solitude. The sun, resting upon the horizon, flushed,
with his last rosy rays, the surface of the creeks and bays ; and the drop-
ping of an oar by a mooring boatman, or the whistling of a boy in the
sedge grass, served only to emphasize the stillness and solitude of the scene.
Nevertlieless, in those days of long ago the island was occasionally
the scene of mirth unrestrained. The country folk — those living on the
mainland— had what were known as "beach parties." They came in
boats, and, having rounded Rum Point, in the Inlet, they hoisted their flag
at the masthead as a signal to Aunt Judith Adams. She was the c/ief of
the island, and by that sign they conquered her larder. When Aunt
Judith saw the flag she busied herself preparing dinner for the party.
These beach parties were the "events of the season" in those days.
Dr. T. K. Reed, in his reminiscences of the early days, tells us that
down on the beach, at low tide, they danced to the soul-stirring strains of
" Fischer's Hornpipe," discoursed by a single fiddle. There was none of
your mincing and smirking, but genuine fun and frolic — a regular jump-up-
and-down, cross-over- Jonathan, and figure-in- Jemima terpsichorean fling !
At high tide thev all bathed. The hilarity of the occasion culminated when
the young men of the party carried the blushing and screaming maidens
* The concluding lines in the above refer to the artesian wells in Atlantic City, which
began flowing in 1889, and furnished water that was "pure and wholesome, sparkling and
bright." On returning to Spain, Ponce de Leon spoke of an Island which he had not seen,
but of which he had heard, containing a fountain which could make old men young. This
story so fascinated Peter Martyr that he wrote of it to the Pope, argued its credibility and
afterward drew a map showing where the wonderful fountain might probably be found.
Residence of A. M. Jordan— Snellenberg Cottage, States Avenue — Park House.
Talcs of the Oldcn Time.
to the top of the steep sand-hills, and, tying their feet together, rolled them
down to the water's edge.
Where shall we find, in the refinement of the present age, a sufficient
compensation for the loss of this rude form of jollitv? Thev had no bath-
houses in those days, both sexes going among the sand-hillslo disrobe, in
time this came to be regarded as inconvenient and embarrassing ; where-
fore, some liberal spirits engaged Uncle Ryan Adams to build them a bath-
house. When they came to the beach the next time they started down to
take a dip in the surf, and, when nearly there, it occurred to one of the
party that they had forgotten the key to the bath-house, and forthwith a
messenger was sent back to fetch the key. He returned in a few minutes,
saying there was no lock on the door. Reaching the spot indicated by Uncle
Ryan, the party found, to their dismay, that the new " building ""^ was a
frail structure made entirely of brush, with the blue canopy of heaven for a
roof. But it answered their purpose, and that style of bath-house remained
in vogue until after the birth of Atlantic City, when Joshua Note converted
an old wreck into the first frame bath-house, near the foot of Massachusetts
avenue. Abreast of the primitive bath-house was the wreck of the " Vano-
linda," and at various points along the beach there were thirteen other wrecks.
Glorious, indeed, to the country folk, at least, were those davs of
" Auld Lang Syne ! " And the city wight, no less than the country swain,
was not averse to that form of summer outing. He loved the city and its
busy hum ; he loved the excitement of the crowd at home, the absence of
those curious eyes and idle tongues characteristic of rustic life ; but he loved
the seashore, too, and there was no scene over which his eves roved with
greater pleasure than the face of a summer landscape bv the sea. Hither
he came to fish, to hunt, to bathe. His joy of youthfufsport, in summer
time, was to be borne on the breast of the ocean"'; from a boy be wantoned
with her breakers, and he became, as it were, a child of the sea ! To him
the roar of the ocean, no less than the voice of the brook or the language of
the winds and woods, was not a poetic fiction. Being a student of Nature,
as well as a lover of youthful sports, he read a well-taught lesson in the
opening bud of spring ; an eloquent homily in the fall of the autumnal leaf.
The song of a bird, the cry of a passing curlew, represented the glad but
transitory days of youth ; the hollow tree or the hooting owl, the decav and
imbecilitv of old age.
ji i^ j(J
On January 7, 1804, Jeremiah Leeds made his first purchase of land
on the beach. A second purchase was made on March 6, 1805, and a
third on July 5th following. In March, 1807, he purchased one acre of
land on the mainland for a " building lot," from
The First Permanent which it may be interred that he had not vet become
Settlement. a permanent resident of the island ; but there are
other records which indicate a residence on the island
as early as i795> transient, it may be, at first, but permanent about the
year 1800. On April i, 1816, he leased to John Bryant a lot of land on
the north side of the island, " with the privilege of erecting a dwelling
house and salt-works, and of pasturing two cows and team for the
works." These salt-works were in operation more than twenty-five vears,
and the average yield of salt, when properlv attended, was eight hundred
bushels per annum. At this time Leeds doubtless owned all the land east-
ward of Dry Inlet.
The " Chamberlin tract "of 131 acres was owned by James Ireland,
Thomas Latham and Christian Holscom [Holdzkom] in the latter part of
the eighteenth century, when they conveyed it to Thomas Chamberlin, and
Hesto7i ' >? Ha nd-Book.
the heirs of the latter sold it to Francis McManus in 1852. With the
exception of this tract, Jeremiah Leeds owned the whole island (claiming it
and being in possession) as early as the beginning of the nineteenth century.
Leeds' home was originally in the vicinity of Missouri and Arctic
avenues, but he afterwards built a house at the eastern end of the island.
Here he raised corn and rye, and the harvests were so abundant that it was
a common saying among the shallop-men, who came here for grain, that
they were "going down into Egypt to buy corn." He gave considerable
attention to the raising of stock and made willing sales of three-year-old
steers at eight dollars each. As late as 1835 he paid only thirty cents a day
^"^ ^ ^^' HOW THE "OLD TIMERS" LIVED.
At a bank dinner held in Atlantic City in January, i88q, Peter Boice. aged about
eighty-four, of Absecon, gave a description of Absecon beach, as he knew it when a young
man of eighteen or twenty. He used to come here to help Jeremiah Leeds reap and harvest
his grain. "In those days," said he, "the greater portion of the island was sand-hills,
duci<-ponds, swamps, brier thickets and nesting places for the wild fowl. Many of these
wild fowl could be killed with clubs, and it is said that they were so numerous at times that
in lighting upon trees the branches would break. Very few people had guns in those days,
consequently they resorted to other means of capturing game. They would creep up under
Talcs of the Oldcu Time
a tree and pull down a few fat squawks or white heron with long poles having hooks on the
ends. People nowadays have no idea of the great abundance of game in those days A
family by the name of Wilson brought a lot of wild rabbits to the island and set them free
In a few years they became so numerous as to be a nuisance. Foxes were plentiful and
sometimes killed the little lambs, besides doing much harm in other ways. During the war
of 1812 coasting vessels used to stop here for supplies of beef. The captains would help
themselves to Leeds' cattle and pay him theirown price, which was generallv liberal enough
The whole island could have been bought very cheap then— much less than the price of
a single cottage lot to-day. Leeds' occupation was the raising of cattle and Rrain. and
though he lived a lonely life, he generally had an abundance. He took his grain to mill
on the mainland in boats." Mr. Boice died in 1892. His son Henrv Boice was also a
resident of Absecon. and a gentleman of wide influence. He died on March iq, iSqg.
Previous to 1854, says another "old timer," immense flocks of snipe and ducks
settled in the ponds, especially in the vicinity of Arctic and North Carolina avenues. The
district between Maryland and South Carolina avenues, from Atlantic to the meadows, was
known as " Squawktown," on account of the large number of squawks which nightly
roosted there. The land was low and swampv, and was covered with an undergrowth of
bushes, vines and briers. About i8;i5 Jeremiah Leeds fired into a flock of these birds at
this point and killed forty-eight. Besides quail, rabbits and foxes, there were, at that time,
minks, muskrats, loggerheads, terrapins and snakes— black snakes, garter snakes and
adders. Strange to say. there were no lizards or bull-frogs. The frogs made their
appearance after the founding of the city.
Jeremiah Leeds' first home on the island was a log-house, built where the Reading
railroad tracks now cross Arctic avenue. Till the narrow-gauge road was built a cedar-tree
Hcston ' s Ha nd-Book.
Old-time Home of John Leeds.
marked the site of the old fireplace of this log-house. This log-hut was torn down after Leeds
had built a new and better one near the Inlet, at the intersection of Baltic and Massachusetts
avenues. It was built of good
cedar logs, shingled on the out-
side and sealed with plowed and
1^% .--.^ grooved boards inside. It had
»" ~^ "'^~^~-~ ' two rooms below and plenty of
W4 chamber rooms above. This
house was used as a shed and
storeroom when a larger frame
house was built at a later date.
It was finally torn down in 1853,
^ and the cedar logs were convert-
fe I f ^•f"' j ~^ ed into shingles.
^ \ ^ ? The third house was built
about 1815. It was the home of
Andrew Leeds, son of Jeremiah,
and is still standing near the
Drawbridge as a part of the
Island House property. A view
of this old house is shown
opposite page 35.
The fourth house was built
at the old salt-works, where the
Inlet now flows. It was occupied
by John Bryant until John Horner
came to this island from Tucker-
ton and operated ihe salt-works,
Bryant going to Absecon. This
house is now a part of the home of the late Irving Lee on Pennsylvania avenue. Ryan
Adams was the next to build a house on theChamberlin tract, at Delaware and Arctic avenues.
It is still standing, but not on the old site. The fust city election was held at this house. The
sixth house was built by John Leeds, son of Andrew, near Arctic and Indiana Aves. The sev-
enth house was built by James, a brother of John Leeds. It was near Michigan and Arctic
avenues. The eighth and ninth houses were built by Robert B. Leeds above Baltic, between
Rhode Island and Massachusetts avenues, about 1852. These were all the houses on this
island when the city was incorporated and the railroad finished in 1854.
In 1838 Jeremiah Leeds died and his lands descended to his children :
Rubanna Conover, Rachel Steelman, Andrew Leeds, Judith Leeds, after-
wards Judith Hackett, Chalkley S. Leeds and Robert B. Leeds. The mother
of the Leeds progeny at this tinie kept the old Atlantic House as a tavern for
oystermen and traders, it stood near Baltic and Massachusetts avenues.
Less than fifty years ago the
island was so uninviting that
when the project to make a
summer resort was instituted, the
idea was ridiculed as being utterly
impracticable. Said a conserva-
tive old capitalist: "Callitasand-
patch, a desolation, a swamp,
a mosquito territory, but do not
talk to me about any city in such
a place as that. In the first place,
you can't build a city there, and,
in the second place, if you did,
you couldn't get anybody to go
there." The conservative old
capitalist was in due time gath-
ered unto his fathers, and the
enterprising men who set to work
to plant a city have had the sat-
isfaction of seeing more than
their most sanguine expectations
Old-time Home of James Leeds.
Queen of the Coast.
BSE CON ISLAND experienced so few
changes during the first half of the nine-
teenth century, the few inhabitants were so
staid in their ways, and the trade was so
limited that there is but little which the histo-
rian can amplify into importance. During
that period little progress was made on the
island in improvements. No matter if the
sun rose and set along the glistening beach,
giving out its beauty and geniality from
dawn to dark, to pioneer Leeds it gave no
hint of healthfulness nor promise of a future
city. In time the mainland became more
populous and the beach more inviting in the
summer time. Instead of a sportsman's
cabin there came a dwelling house or two,
then more houses, and by and by a city
was born. She grew in beauty and pro-
portions, and, like a beautiful woman, was
admired of men.
The island began to awaken from its
slumbering obscurity in the early part of 1852, when Samuel Richards, a
glass manufacturer of New Jersey, laboring under the difficulties produced
by almost impassable roads and consequent delays in transportation of
goods to Philadelphia, conceived the "idea of starting a rail-
Building of road. Besides this plan for increasing his own business
the City, facilities, he also proposed to make the new road an outlet
from Philadelphia to the sea. His associates were Dr. Jona-
than Pitney, Hon. Andrew K. Hay, Stephen Colwell, John C. DaCosta,
Joseph Porter, William Coffm and Enoch Doughty.
HOW THE PROJECT STARTED.
Thomas Richards, father of Samuel Richards, as early as 1829, became the owner of
a larfje tract of land at a place then called Jackson, a small villasje on the Camden &
Atlantic Railroad. On this land Thomas founded a glass-works, in which his son Samuel
became a partner some time before 1850. The manufacture of glass at that place required
manv teams to do the heavy hauling to and from the works, at a very considerable expense.
Mr. Richards was anxious to increase his facilities and reduce the expense of making
and delivering glass. About 1850 he began to talk of having a railroad built from Camden
Joseph Porter was then making glass at Waterford and was the owner of some 6000
acres of land at that place. William Coffin and Andrew K. Hay were making glass at Wins-
low, and owned a tract of land. W. W. Fleming was active at Atsion and owned the half of
about 60,000 acres. William Coffin and John Hammonton Coffin had been, not long before
that, interested in the old glass-works at Hammonton and owned a considerable tract of land
at that place. Jesse Richards was making glass and iron at Batsto and owned some 50,000
acres. Stephen Colwell and Walter D. Bell were owners of nearly 100,000 acres of land and
were making iron pipes at Weymouth. General Enoch Doughty owned some 20,000 to 30,000
acres of land near Absecon. "Mr. Doughty owned saw-mills and was interested in lumber-
ing. Jonathan Pitney was a practicing physician at Absecon and owned a tract of 500
acres at what was then called "Sailor Boy," near the station now called Elwood. As a
6o //t'sfivi's Hand-Book.
physician of large practice on the mainland from English Creek to Port Republic, Dr. Pitney
\vas a gentleman of large intluence in that region.
Mr. Richards was a gentleman of tireless energy. In emergencies he was known to
have worked twenty consecutive hours per day for days in succession. His perseverance
accomplished results that most people would have regarded as impossible. His project was
pushed with so much energy that all the gentlemen aoove mentioned became interested and
in the earlv part of 1S52 resolved to build a railroad to Absecon beach.
Richard Osborne was the engineer who laid out and built the road. From a letter
written by Mr. Osborne under date of January iS, 1S06, we quote : " Having been con-
nected with the incorporators before the organization of the railroad company, and having
acted from the first as their engineer and contractor until after the completion of the road
and laying out of Atlantic City, I ought to be able to give the earliest and fullest statement,
based on personal knowledge.
" The late Samuel Richards gave to me the first intimation of any intention to con-
struct a railroad to the sea, in a letter dated May 22, 1852, to which I replied in person,
bv going from Tamaqua to Philadelphia, and after conferring with Mr. Richards I accom-
panied him on the 24th of the same month and was introduced to several other interested
gentlemen. According to Mr. Richards' previous arrangement with me, a preliminary sur-
vey of the lines was ordered by the incorporators. This survey was completed on the i8th
of June and submitted to Mr. Richards and his friends: after which the railroad company
was organized and the location of the railroad ordered to be made by the directors.
'"Mr. Richards made the first estimate of the probable business of the projected road
and used it as an argument in favor of the organization of the company and construction of
the railroad. Someof the objects Mr. Richards had in view in urging the building of this
road were: First, to secure the advantage of railroad transportation for his Jackson Glass
Works; second, to con%ert large tracts of waste land, of which he and other branches of
the family were owners, into a productive area ; and, third, to open up Southern New Jersey,
by establishing an attractive terminal at the sea for bathing and general recreation."
The first projecting visit to the solitary marshes and sand-hills of what
is now Atlantic Citv was made in the early part of i8;2 : an act of incor-
poration was obtained and in September o'f the same year a contract was
awarded for the construction of a railroad between the Delaware river and
Absecon beach. The engineer was Richard B. Osborne.
NAMING THE CITY'S STREETS.
The streets of At'antic City, as originally laid out, were dedicated to public use by
deed and map dated April 15. 185:;. The deed is signed by the principal land-owners,
namelv, Chalkley S. Leeds, Robert B. Leeds, William Neleigli, Daniel L. Collins, Richard
Hackett, John Leeds, Steelman Leeds, D. D. Rhodes, J. N. Michener and William Coffin,
the last named representing the Camden & Atlantic Railroad Company. The railroad
companv wished to have Atlantic avenue 150 feet wide and the cross avenues 75 feet, but
the land-owners objected, and finally, against their own judgment, and in spite of the pro-
tests of their engineer, Mr. Osborne, the company yielded to the demands of the land-
owners. The width of .Atlantic avenue was reduced to 100 feet and most of the other ave-
nues to 50 and 60 feet. At the celebration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding
of the city, in June, iStq, Mr. Osborne was called upon, as 'the only man li\ing who was
actively connected with both the building of the railroad and the laying out of the city," to
give a'historv of the resort. That history was published at the time in full or part by
the Philadelphia papers. In his work of laying out the citv, Mr. Osborne was assisted by
a Mr. Stack and Daniel Morris. The latter subsequently became the first surveyor of
Atlantic Citv. He invested largelv in real estate and amassed a considerable fortune. He
died in December, 1808, leaving $50,000 to a Catholic orphanage which he had previously
founded at Hopewell, near Trenton. He also bequeathed many thousands of dollars to va-
rious Catholic institutions in Philadelphia. To the surprise of many persons, no individuals,
churches or institutions in Atlantic City were beneficiaries under his will.
The railroad to Absecon Island was completed and passenger trains
were run on it for the first time on Julv i, 1854- Meanwhile, Bedloe's
Hotel and a little house called the Cottage Retreat had been erected, and
the United States Hotel was so nearly completed that the first excursion-
ists, numbering about six hundred, were given dinner there. The next
vear the Surf House, Congress Hall, and two cottages on Tennessee ave-
nue went up. These were followed bv the Mansion House and Schaufler's
FA.MOLS OLD-TIME HOTELS.
The Surf House occupied the square bounded by Kentucky, Illinois, Atlantic and
Pacific avenues. It was torn down in 1880. Congress Hall was located at the corner of
Pacific and .Massachusetts avenues, extending towards Connecticut and Atlantic avenues.
Uid- Time Iron Forge on the Mainland.
Queen of the Coast. 6i
It disappeared in 1898. The United States Hotel and lawn was bounded by Atlantic and
Pacific, Maryland and Delaware avenues. About 1890 the hotel was removed to the Pacific
avenue front and much of the land converted into buildinjr lots. The building was finally
razed in 1900. Schaufler's Hotel site was bounded by North Carolina, South Carolina, Arc-
tic and Railroad avenues fronting on the last named. It was torn down in 1900. The Man-
sion House occupied what was at one time considered a very eligible hotel site at the
corner of Atlantic and Pennsylvania avenues. The property was purchased by the Atlantic
City National Bank and torn down in 1899.
As an adjunct to, and arising out of the railroad company, the Cam-
den & Atlantic Land Company was organized and chartered. This
company purchased the land of the Leeds family for seventeen dollars and
fifty cents per acre. The money was paid over"^in old Aunt Hannah Shil-
lingworth's Hotel in Absecon. Then began the rise in values that has
made so many people rich, though, with the usual irony of fate, the de-
scendants of the original owners and settlers are still poor. Most of the land
is now valued at over one hundred dollars per lineal foot, and some of it at
over one thousand dollars a lineal foot. The same land was purchased by
Jeremiah Leeds at forty cents an acre.
The city was incorporated on March 3, 1854, but the
Forty Years of name " Atlantic City " was adopted more than a year
Rapid Progress, previous. The names of "Ocean City," " Seabeach,"
1854 to 1894 " Surfing," " Strand," and " Bath " had been suggested,
but when a map of the proposed resort was unrolled at
a meeting of the railroad company in January, 1853, it was found that
the engineer, Mr. Osborne, had lettered it "Atlantic City," and this title
was at once approved by the board.
BOUNDARIES OF THE CITY.
The act of 1854 fixed the western boundary of the city at California avenue. The
present boundaries were fixed by the act of April 2. 1869, and are as follows : " Beginning at
a point in the Atlantic Ocean, as far as the jurisdiction of the State extends, and on a line
with the east side of Dry Inlet; thence easterly along the boundary line of the State to a
line at right angles witti the east side of Absecom Inlet, at high'water; thence westerly
along the east side of said inlet to a point opposite and at right angles with the west bank of
Clam Thoroughfare ; thence southerly along the west bank of said Thoroughfare, to its
intersection with Beach Thoroughfare ; thence southerly along the east bank of said Beach
Thoroughfare to the intersection of the aforesaid line on the east side of Dry Inlet; and
thence along said line to the place of beginning." This description includes within the
city limits the tract now known as Chelsea Heights, between Beach Thoroughfare and
It will be noticed that the sou'hern boundary is in the Atlantic Ocean " as far as the
jurisdiction of the State extends," which means at least three miles seaward from the
Boardwalk. By the modern law of nations, the territorial waters extend to such distance as
is capable of command from the shore, or the presumed range of a cannon, which, for the
purpose of certainty, is regarded as a marine league, or three miles. According to some
writers, a state or nation may extend its jurisdiction seaward with the increased range of a
cannon (now about ten miles), and from their standpoint we may assume that the southern
boundary of Atlantic City is ten miles seaward from the Boardwalk.
This question of boundary was settled in 1887 bv Vice-Chancellor Alfred Reed, who
was then a Judge of the Supreme Court. Several mechanics' liens were filed against the
Howard Pier, which then extended into the ocean from the foot of Kentucky avenue. The
defense set up that the State's jurisdiction did not extend below low-water mark, and there-
fore the courts could not pass upon the case or enforce the authority of a decree.
Judge Reed, in a very lengthy opinion, quoted copiously from English and American
authorities bearing on the subject, and said : —
" My conclusion is that the State of New Jersey holds the land and water with all the
rights appertaining thereto to a line at least three miles distant from the low-water mark of
This decision has been quoted since in other cases and is the accepted law of the State.
It is evident, therefore, that the city has authority beyond the low-water mark, and
control of the land underwater at least three miles from the shore. The federal government
exercises jurisdiction in so far as navigation and fisheries are concerned over the marine
league, but all other rights are reserved by the State.
The beach front of Atlantic City has under,gone a considerable change since the time
of the first survey in 1852. The Ligfithouse was for years threatened with destruction by
the encroaching waters of the Inlet, until the Government built a series of jetties in 1876,
thereby diverting the currents. S-nce then other jetties have been built and considerable
Hcston' s Hand -Book.
land reclaimed. A conservative estimate of what would be the present value of lands in the
vicinity of the Inlet— lands that were once high and dry and covered with a thick growth of
cedars, but now washed by the tides, is a million and a quarter of dollars. In other words,
building sites which to-day would sell for $1,250,000, have been washed away by the currents
of Absecon Inlet.
But while abrasion has taken place at one point, accretion has gone on at another, so
that, to some extent at least, what has been one man's loss has been another man's gain.
The present site of the Sea Side House, at the foot of Pennsylvania avenue, was washed by
the tides as recently as 1870, and farther down the beach the sea covers the site of lots for
which deeds were riecorded as late as 1876. From New Jersey avenue down to Chelsea the
present value of the accretions— the lands "thrown up" by the sea or the gift of Prov-
idence — is seven and a quarter millions of dollars. Deducting the $1,250,000 loss from the
$7,250,000 gain, and we have a net gain of $6,000,000.
id d ^
The first election was held on May i, 1854, when eighteen votes were
cast in a cigar-box, secured with yellow tape. A small hole had been cut
in the lid of the box, and through this the ballots were dropped. The city
government then consisted of a mayor, recorder, aldermen, six councilmen,
tax collector, treasurer, constable and marshal. Chalkley S. Leeds was
elected the first mayor.
At one of the first meetings of City Council it was ordered " that a
seal, with appropriate design, be obtained for Atlantic City." For a num-
ber of months, at every meeting of Council, the committee appointed to
secure the seal reported "progress." Finally, on December 11, 1855, the
long-expected seal was reported to have arrived— at Absecon. The com-
mittee was continued, but there is no further trace of the seal in the record.
Just how or when it " arrived " in Atlantic City is not known, but it was
of very ordinary design. At the suggestion of the writer, in a communica-
tion to City Council, the present seal was adopted by a resolution of that
body, February i, 1897. it was used for the first time on the City Improve-
ment Bonds, dated January 15, 1897, and issued shortly after the adoption
of the new seal.*
in November, 1855, Chalkley S. Leeds was re-elected mayor, but
becoming weary of the honors of office, he resigned six months later, and
* The Atlantic City Daily Press of January 13, 1897, said : " Comptroller A. M. Heston
says the present city seal is a disgrace to Atlantic City. ' The man who made it mistook his
calling,' said he yesterday. ' He ought to have been a potato-digger or a charcoal-burner.'
Queen of the Coast. 63
in April, iSqC, Council elected John G. W. Avery to fill the unexpired term.
The city authorities struggled bravely with the difficulties before them,
and before the close of the year they had effected a noticeable
Ante-Bellum change in the topography of the' island, especially in the
Days. vicinity of Absecon Inlet. Hills were cut down, ponds filled,
ditches dug, and streets built, it is said that about this time
one man contracted to cut down a hill and another was engaged to fill up
a hollow. By a clever arrangement, the former fulfilled his contract by
permitting the latter to cut away the hill and deposit the sand in his hole.
To pay for these improvements city scrip was issued to the amount of
$1500, dated February 15, 1856.
Several vears elapsed before the city began to attract attention, even
in Philadelphia. Some who had become interested despaired of success
and abandoned further efforts to build up the resort. The railroad com-
pany struggled through adversities, hoping for that success which was
sure to come in later years.
In 1857 the excursion house was located on Atlantic avenue between
New York and Kentucky, north side, and it remained here until a building
at the foot of Missouri avenue was erected in 1870. A long platform was
The Comptroller showed an impression of the sea! on a piece of paper, and the reporter
'Such punctuation as that,' continued the Comptroller, 'would be discreditable to the lowest
grade of our Atlantic City public schools. When I showed it to a gentleman the other day,
he said it reflected the intelligence of the men who once governed Atlantic City, but it is
difficult to believe that the voters of Atlantic City ever elected to office a man so utterly
ignorant of the first principles of punctuation. No matter who is at fault in the punctuation,
the important fact is that every official document issued by the city of Atlantic City is an
advertisement of somebody's ignorance. The city ought to have a new seal at once, and in
the center should be the coat of arms. Around this coat of arms should be encircled the
usual lettering— "City of Atlantic City— Incorporated March i8, 1854." On the new issue
of Boardwalk bonds you will see a design for a city seal in line with what I have suggested,
and adapted to Atlantic City.' "
Two weeks later, at a meeting of City Council, on February i, 1897, Councilman
Edward S. Lee introduced a resolution adopting the new design as the seal of Atlantic City.
Subsequently it was discovered that this new seal, as well as the old one, bore a date that
was historically incorrect. The Atlantic City Daily Press of October 25, 1898, said :
" The man who designed the present seal of Atlantic City, whoever he was. made a curious
mistake. He inscribed on the seal the date, March 18, 1854, as the date of the city's incor-
poration ; but as a matter of fact the proper date should be March ^, 1854. Just how the
mistake occurred no one knows, but the fact remains that for nearly half a century every
legal document has been stamped with a seal that is historically incorrect. The discovery
was made a short time ago by City Comptroller Heston, and was brought to the attention of
Council last night in the following communication :
"'Atlantic City, October 17. 1898.
" 'To THE President and Members of City Council.
'" Gentlemen:— \r\ view of the fact that the city of Atlantic City is about issuing
Paving and Crematory bonds, permit me to suggest the advisability of procuring a new city
seal, with the correct date of incorporation engraved thereon.
" ' The present and all former seals of Atlantic City give the date of incorporation as
March 18, 1854, whereas the correct date is March ^di. I made this discovery in going over
the records at Trenton, and have a letter from Hon. George Wurts, Secretary of State, in
confirmation of my statement, in which he says : " In reply to your request 1 have to say
that the act to incorporate Atlantic City was approved March 3, 1854, and went into effect
" 'The fact that all legal documents heretofore issued by Atlantic City have been
stamped with a seal bearing the wrong date of incorporation should not be accepted as a
sufficient excuse for continuing the error, and I therefore suggest a new city seal.'
"Council immediately took steps to rectify the mistake by authorizing the Comp-
troller to have a new seal made bearing the correct date of incorporation."
64 Hcston' s Hand-Book.
built along Atlantic avenue, for the convenience of day excursionists. The
railroad track at that time did not extend below Illinois avenue. The plat-
form referred to was the cause of the first difficulty between the railroad
officials and the city authorities. The former claimed that they had full
control of the avenue. Litigation followed and was continued until 1881,
when the difficulties were adjusted by the passage of an ordinance on June
13th of that year. This ordinance provided that the company should con-
struct and maintain two tracks on Atlantic avenue the whole length of the
same, in consideration of which the company should keep the avenue clean
and in good repair and furnish a suftkient"^ quantity of sand and gravel,
free of cost to Atlantic City, to build Atlantic avenue to grade from curb to
curb wheresoever the company's tracks should be extended, from Georgia
ENCROACHMENTS OF THE SEA.
Between 1855 and 1865 the lower end of Brig:antine beach, now low and flat and swept
by nearly every high tide, was hi.8:h and hilly. The sea and Inlet currents together began
to play havoc with the beach at the head of Atlantic, Arctic and Pacific avenues, and at one
time the security of the Lighthouse was seriously imperiled, the waves at high water curl-
ing around its foundation stones. Then it was that the Government built jetties extending
into the Inlet at different angles.
Immense cribs of solid timber were built, lowered into the Inlet and filled with great
masses of rock that sank and formed a foundation about which the sand gathered. The
Camden & Atlantic Railroad built an elevated structure just south of what is now Gram-
mercy Place, on which to run the cars loaded with rock to where the jetties were in course
of construction. This elevated structure is now almost covered with sand, and fully two
blocks of valuable real estate, beautified with handsome cottages, lie between the Light-
house and the Inlet currents, marking the place where at one time the tides ebbed and
The summer of i8!;8 witnessed a plague of green-head flies, gnats and
mosquitoes, and hundreds of persons who would have remained here
returned home, unable to endure the torment of these insects.
The Civil The breaking out of the civil war in i86[ retarded the
"War Period, growth of Atlantic City. Progressive and patriotic people
were resolved to save the nation rather than build a city.
During the early part of the civil war the Republicans living on the island formed a
secret organization, called the Union League, of which Lewis Evans was chosen president.
It was principally a literary association. The Union League retained its organization until
1869, when it was superseded by the Atlantic City Literary Association. "This society,"
says A. L. English, "was non-part izan, and all persons, including ladies, were invited to join.
* * * Among those most prominent in the debates were Newton Keim, John J. Gardner
(afterwards mayor, state senator and congressman). Dr. Thomas K. Reed, Jacob Keim
(assemblyman), Levi C. Albertson (postmaster and county collector), D. W. Belisle (mayor),
S. R. Morse (school-teacher and county superintendent). Gideon Grill and others. The
winter days were chiefly spent in preparation for these mental contests. * * * Another
interesting and profitable feature was the journal read at each meeting. The editorship,
which lasted a week only, was assigned to any person the president might select. Commu-
nications were solicited, and that the modest beginner might be encouraged, the name of
the author, if desired, was kept secret. The association held winter sessions of varying
interest and success until 1880, when, to the misfortune of the community, it was permitted
WEBSTER-HAYNE LITERARY SOCIETY.
Not until i8q7 was there an organization in Atlantic City similar to the Atlantic Citv
Literary Association of 1862-1880. On January 22, 1897. the " Webster-Hayne Literary
Society" was organized by the pupils of the Atlantic City High School. This society
meets on the last Friday afternoon of each month during the school >ear, for the discussion
of questions of public interest by pupils of the High School, the girls having equal part
with the boys in these debates. The meetings are largely attended by friends of the pupils
and the debates are usually very interesting and profitable to old as well as young. The
members of the society have had tlie encouragement and assistance of Mr. H. P. Miller,
the principal of the High School. The present membership is 150. Among the more active
members, since the organization of the society in 1897, have been : Presidents. — Messrs.
Leon Albertson, Frederick Reid. William Alcorn, Benj. Z. Hann, Norwood Griscom and
Eugene Wiltbank. Leaders of Glee Oud.— Misses Carrie Turner, Nan Scull and Amanda
Rothholz. lliiih-School Quartette.— Messrs. Eugene Schwinghammer, Lewis Mathis,
Norwood Griscom and Howard North.
rv- r. r- .^
.' r#' ^* |_,
Queen of the Coast. 65
In addition to the above the foliowin? have been active in the debates, etc. : Homer
Silvers Harriet Armstrong;. George Muller. Caroline Giltinan, Leira Conover. Andrew
Steelman Ida Tavlor, Chester Brown, Ordelle Conover, Herman Sorin, John Ries, Richard
Bew, Lillian Scull, Carrie Cramer. Adele Giltinan. Marion Mundy. William Haupt, Henry
Philo, James Hayes, Mildred Rundall and Mary Leyman.
d <5 d
No seaside resort in the world has grown as rapidly as Atlantic City,
and none stands on a more secure foundation for future prosperity. In the
development of the resort the railroads have played a very important part.
In T876 the increasing importance of the place made another railroad desir-
able, and the Philadelphia & Atlantic City Railroad Company was
incorporated. The construction was commenced in April, 1877, and the
first through train was run on July 25th of the same year. It is now oper-
ated bv what is commonly known as the Reading Company, of Philadel-
phia. The competing facilities offered by this road have been of the greatest
benefit to the citv, and have aided materiallv in the development of the
place. Earlv in the spring of 1880 the West Jersey Division of the Penn-
sylvania Railroad extended its line to Atlantic City. The opening of the
West Jersey was of exceptional benefit to the city, since a direct route to
New York Citv, without change of cars, was thereby afforded. Some
years afterwards the Pennsylvania Railroad Company built a bridge across
the Delaware above Camden and began running through trains to Phila-
delphia and the West, by this route, on April 19, 1896.
The advancement of Atlantic City during the last decade has been
unprecedented in the history of watering places and health resorts, and as
the citv has grown, literally as well as figuratively.
The Boardwalk— its in actual size as well as population, as a place of
Inception and History, permanent residence as well as a resort for winter
1870-1900 and summer, the accommodations for the entertain-
ment of visitors have increased correspondingly,
so that now there are over six hundred hotels and boarding places in
Atlantic Citv. , , , ^ ^ ^, 1
Skirting the ocean for a distance of four miles, from the Inlet to Chel-
sea, is a magnificent Boardwalk, with steel girders and columns, twelve
feet in height and forty feet wide most of the distance.
The first " Boardwalk " in Atlantic City— the first, indeed, in the world
—was built in 1870, five thousand dollars being raised for that purpose.
The venture was regarded in an unfavorable light by many of the con-
servative citizens, some of whom were large owners of real estate, but the
younger men carried the project through.
There was no way at that time for the city to pay for this proposed
improvement, but citv scrip was issued and held bv Brown & Woelpper,
owners of the United States Hotel, and lumber merchants in Philadelphia.
The agreement was that they were to use the scrip for the payment of their
taxes and license. Subsequently ^qooo of city bonds were sold at a discount
of 10 per cent., and with this^nonev a Boardwalk was paid for. The
bonds were redeemed by the city about three years later. This walk was
eight feet wide, and was completed on June 26, 1870.*
* On the completion of this Boardwalk City Council passed the following: ordinance :
"Be it ordained that no building whatever shall be built within thirty feet of said walk and
none upon the ocean side of said walk unless by permission of City Council, under penaltv of
$10 for the first offense, and if not removed within three days a second fine of $50 or impris-
onment for not more than thirty days or both at the discretion of the magistrate before
whom the case shall be brought."
Heston' s Hand- Book.
The second walk was built by authority of a resolution passed by City
Council in September, 1879. On October 2d the contract for its erection
was awarded to Henry Disston & Sons, of Philadelphia, and it was com-
pleted the following spring. It was sixteen feet wide. This walk was
destroyed by severe storms in the winter of 1883-4, but was rebuilt in a
more substantial manner in the spring of 1884, at a cost of less than ten
thousand dollars. Five years later (September 10, 1889), another storm
made almost a complete wreck of the walk, but before another summer it
was rebuilt wider, higher and stronger than ever, with an unobstructed
view on the seaward side. The completion of
this fourth walk was celebrated with a grand
torchlight and fireworks procession of citizens,
secret societies, militia and firemen, on the
night of May 10, 1890, just eight months, to
the day, after its destruction. The total cost
of this improvement, including the purchase of
land and buildings by condemnation, lawyers'
fees, etc., was $53,928.50.
THE BOARDWALK OF TO-DAY.
In February, 1896, the act of 1889, by authority of which
the last Boardwalk had been erected, was amended. It
authorized a much greater expenditure and provided for
a structure of steel, iron or wood. The walk then in use
being too narrow and practically worn out, Council
decided to erect a new one of steel. The contract was
awarded to the Phcenix Bridge Company, of Philadelphia,
and work was begun on April 24, 1896. The formality of
a public dedication of this new walk was observed on
July 8, i8g6, when the golden nail was driven by Mrs.
Stoy, wife of the Mayor. There was a "grand rally"
on the lawn or park opposite the Hotel Brighton, with
speeches by Congressman Gardner and others. In the
evening there was a parade of citizens, military com-
panies and fire companies, on the Boardwalk, and fire-
works galore. The walk was not entirely completed until
the following September, having a temporary railing
during most of the summer. The entire cost, including
legal expenses, was $143,986.38. The Chelsea exten-
sion of this walk was built in the spring of 1898, at a
cost of about $17,000.
The old walk from the foot of Vermont avenue north-
ward was torn down and an improved one was built
nearer the beach, in 1899-1900, at a cost of about $10,000.
By a resolution passed August 17, 1896, the name
of " Boardwalk " was officially given to the present
elevated structure on the beach ifront of Atlantic City.
There is no authority for the word "esplanade," some-
times used by uninformed persons in referring to this
promenade. The word is a misnomer. Mention the
Boardwalk anywhere in the world " from China to Peru,"
and every one knows you mean Atlantic City. There is only one Boardwalk on the globe.
But mention Esplanade or Promenade, and what significance has it? It may mean one at
Brighton or at Ostend, at Mosquito Beach or at Mummychug-super-Mars.
The Boardwalk is the distinctive feature of Atlantic City. It follows
the contour of the beach just above the line of high water, and is lighted with
electric lights its entire length of three and one-third miles. In summer
time, when the beach is crowded and the Boardwalk thronged with pedes-
trians, Atlantic City presents a scene of gayety unequaled anywhere else
in the country.
Around and About.
Condensed Historical and General Information about Atlantic City,
Atlantis Club.— This social club of gentlemen was organized on March
4, 1899. The club house is on Illinois avenue between Atlantic and Pacific.
The membership is limited to two hundred.
Amusements.— Young's Pier, foot of Tennessee avenue ; Academy
of Music, Boardwalk near New York avenue ; Empire Theatre, Atlantic
avenue near Kentucky ; Japanese Tea Garden, Boardwalk near Massa-
Banks.— In Atlantic City there are three national banks where letters
of credit may be made payable— the Atlantic Citv National Bank, the
Second National Bank and the Union National Bank. There are also two
safe deposit and trust companies.
Baptist Church.— This edifice, on Pacific avenue, was completed in
July, 1882, and enlarged and improved in 1893. It is a neat structure,
capable of seating about five hundred. The seats are arranged in amphi-
theatre style. The Bethany Mission, on Atlantic avenue near Georgia,
was recently organized as a church.
Brigantine.— On the opposite shore of the Inlet is Brigantine Beach.
It is reached by yachts and by steamers operated bv the Brigantine Trans-
portation Company. The trolley road follows the contour of the beach
to Little Egg Harbor Inlet, a distance of seven miles. The cars are double-
decked and run swiftly. The road passes the treacherous Brigantine
Shoals, upon which hundreds of vessels of all kinds have been wrecked,
accompanied by great loss of life. The charge for the round trip is
The thought of going to Brigantine [via the Brigantine Transportation
Co.] is a pleasure in itself, and to those who have gone it is a pleasant
and life-long recollection. The bathing is absolutely safe, while the angle
at which the beach extends into the ocean and its distance from the main-
land make it peculiarly open to the prevailing winds of summer. Cool
breezes always favor the island from some quarter, and the facilities for
boating, sailing and fishing are unsurpassed. Brigantine is the summer
home of a number of prominent gentlemen and their families.
This beach, at one time, was one of the choicest places along the coast
for sportsmen. Blue-fish, flounders, porgies, bass and weak-fish are
caught in abundance. The adjacent meadows and marshes are alive with
snipe, curlew, marlin and the whole family of wading birds. Wild geese,
duck, brants and teal are to be had in large quantities in season. The
crabbing is exceptionally good, and the bathing superb. The upper end of
this beach was for many years the breeding place for sea-gulls. Mxriads
of these birds would congregate there. The eggs were laid in the"sand,
the nest being a mere hollow, with sometimes a few twigs and leaves.
Casino.— The Casino is located on the Boardwalk, overlooking the
sea, near the foot of Indiana avenue. It affords various kinds of amuse-
ments for adults and all reasonable attractions for the little folks. The sun
parlors are especially adapted for the use of the many invalids and con-
valescents who find new life in our health-giving ozone during the spring
months. On all sides of the assembly room are sun parlors, reading and
Lighthouse and Life Saving Station.
Around and About. 69
In the one-story extension at the rear are well-lighted and well-ventilated
dressing rooms for surf-bathing, luxuriously furnished, hot and cold sea-
water baths, and also well-appointed dressing rooms for the patrons of the
adjoining natatorium. This large swimming pool is built of brick, with
concrete bottom and white-marble sides, and is the finest on this continent.
Bevond the pool are bowling alleys and shuffle-board parlors.
The Casino is conducted on the club plan, but admission is by tickets,
instead of introduction, and the proprietor reserves the right to exclude any
one for any cause. This is done to make it as select as possible for visitors.
The subscription is 50 cents a day, or $2.50 a week. This includes
admisson, day and evening, to the daily concerts and to the dances. The
cost of the Casino was S?6o,oco.
Catholic Church.— St. Nicholas Roman Catholic Church was built in
1856, on Atlantic avenue near Tennessee, in the spring of 1887 the
building was removed to its present location on Pacific avenue near
Tennessee. Many changes and improvements were made, and it is now a
large and verv comfortable church edifice.
St. Mary's Church edifice, at the corner of Atlantic and Texas avenues,
was dedicated in 1897. This church was formerly known as St. Monica's,
and was destroyed by fire December 2, i8q6.
Children's Seashore House.— This institution was opened in its pres-
ent location, at the sea end of Ohio avenue, occupying what is now the
main building, in 1883. Fourteen smaller buildings have since been erected
within the grounds by visitors at the different hotels, each bearing the
name of the house by which it was erected. There are now accommoda-
tions for over one hundred children and about thirty mothers. The object
of the corporation is to maintain at the seashore an institution in which
children of the poorer classes, suffering from non-contageous diseases, or
from debility, incident to the hot weather and a crowded city, may have
good nursing and medical care, without regard to creed, color or nationality.
The house is open to visitors Tuesday and Friday mornings from half-past
nine to half-past ten o'clock, and every afternoon from three to five o'clock.
Chelsea.— A few blocks below the built-up portion of Atlantic City is
a select suburb, called Chelsea. It is laid out on a comprehensive scale with
wide streets and large lots, those fronting on Pacific avenue being sixty
feet wide, and the corner ones sixty five feet. Restrictions embodied in the
deeds require all houses to be set back a good distance from the street, and
prevent them also from being crowded closely together. Only one build-
ing for dwelling-house purposes is permitted oh each lot. No liquor saloon
or other undesirable places are allowed in the place, and stringent regula-
tions govern the drainage arrangements. The Pennsylvania Railroad has
a station at Chelsea, and both the electric cars and omnibuses convey pas-
sengers to and from the city proper.
Country Club House.— The golf links are on the mainland overlook-
ing Lake's Bay. The city is but twentv minutes distant by motor car.
Adjoining the links is the shore road, a beautiful highway running amid
quaint little villages and fine residences. This road extends along the
entire New Jersey coast from near Sandv Hook to Cape May. A visit
to the Club House and the Golf Links will appeal not only to those inter-
ested in the Club, but to those who seek the enjoyment of country club
life in connection with the charms of the seashore.
Death-Rate.— The death-rate among residents is less than 10 in 1000,
which is probably lower than that of any other city in the country.
In relation to the resident death-rate Dr. M. D. Youngman says :
*' Thirty per cent, of the number are buried either in remote parts of the
Heston' s Hand-Book.
State or in other States, showing that they or their friends were only
temporary residents, and yet claimed residence here and intended living
here while the boarding-house business paid, or while they found employ-
ment as waiters, or as long as their health was conserved. A considerable
percentage of these waiters are colored, the majority being children.
Colored people come here for the purpose of doing laundry work and
waiting, and their children are bottle-fed and neglected. Many of the
permanent residents are impaired lives, persons who maintain a permanency
of residence here because they can not live elsewhere on account of some
impairment of health. The local death-rate from acute diseases is very
St. James' Episcopal Church.
low. Of the non-residents the great majority are chronic invalids, many
of them being in the city but a few days or even hours when they die.
This is the case with children very frequently in the hot season."
Episcopal Church. — St. James' Episcopal Church, corner Pacific and
North Carolina avenues, was the first of this denomination erected in
Atlantic City. It was finished in i86g and enlarged in February, 1874.
The Church of the Ascension, originally a frame building, was completed
in 1879, and stood on Pacific avenue, below Michigan, t)ut was removed
in 1886 to its present location on Kentucky avenue, corner Pacific. The
present brick edifice was completed in 1893.
Around and About. 7^
"Everybody Goes to Brigantine."— This is a by-expression in
Atlantic City, and it is literally true. Anybody is nobody if he does not
go, because everybody goes.
Friends' Meeting-house.— This place of worship was built in 1872,
previous to which the meetings of the Society of Friends were held in the
school-house on Pennsylvania avenue for four consecutive summers.
Fire Department.— The present equipment of this excellent branch of
the citv government includes thirtv-seven employees, thirty-seven pieces of
apparatus, and thirty-nine horses. The apparatus is as follows: Eight
engines, three chemical engines, three combination chemical and hose
wagons, six hose wagons, two aerial trucks, one combination chemical
truck and hose wagon, two patrol wagons, six supply wagons, one hand
carriage, three parade wagons, one crab and one chief's wagon. Besides
these there are one life net, seventeen hand extinguishers, i7,7=;o feet of tire
hose, 2550 feet of chemical hose and 1 50 feet of rope for use of tire wardens.
No city in the country of equal population has a fire department as well
equipped as that of Atlantic City.
Garbage.— The garbage of Atlantic Citv, which amounts to 10,500
tons annually, is collected in sanitary carts and taken to the crematory, at
the extreme northwestern side of the city, and there cremated. The crema-
tory is a model plant and cost $58,000. The city pays the contractor
$io,coo a year for collecting the garbage.
Hospital.— About the year 1892 an effort was made to establish a
public hospital in Atlantic Citv. A number of ladies and gentlemen organ-
ized what was then known as the "Atlantic Citv Hospital Association,
and they collected a fund of about $1200. After a time most of those iden-
tified with the movement lost interest in it, and finally the fund was turned
over to a private sanatorium, and applied toward the founding of a ''free
bed " in that institution. Through the efforts of Mayor Franklin P. Stoy,
the city contracted with the institution referred to, known as the Atlantic
City Sanatorium, of which J. J. Rochford was Superintendent, and for a
few' years all sick or injured persons, who became charges upon the city,
were" provided for at the Sanatorium. In this arrangement Mr. Stoy was
the careful guardian of the city's interests, and to him and Mr. Rochford—
the one for the city and the other for the sanatorium association— belongs
the credit of providing hospital facilities in Atlantic City during the years
The present hospital corporation had its beginning when the following
notice was published in the Atlantic City morning papers of February 12,
^ HOSPITAL MEETING.
All who are interested in the hospital movement in Atlantic City are invited to meet at
the Atlantic City Sanatorium this evenins,^ at eight o'clock. ^ ^ HESTON.
The following is from the hospital minutes :
Pursuant to the above call, the following persons met at the Sanatorium this evening :
A. M. Heston and J. J. Rochford. Notwithstanding the small attendance, it was decided to
organize the meeting and carry out the purpose of the call. .
Mr Heston nominated Mr. Rochford as temporary president, and he was unanimously
elected. Mr. Rochford nominated Mr. Heston as temporary secretary, and he was unani-
'"""On motion', it was decided to elect a board of nine governors. Mr. Heston nominated
Franklin P. Stov, Stewart R. McShea, M. A. Devine, John F. Hall, M. V. B. Scull H S.
Scull, and J. Leonard Baier, Jr. Mr. Rochford nominated Lewis Evaiis and A. M. Heston.
There being no other nominees, bv special request. Miss Josephine O Brien, clerk of tne
Sanatorium, cast the ballot and the above-mentioned persons were declared duly elected.
The Secretary was directed to notify the gentlemen of their election and request them to
meet at the Sanatorium on Wednesday evening. February 24, 1897, to perfect arrangements
for organizing the Atlantic City Hospital Association.
Heston' s Hand-Book.
The gentlemen selected as a Board of Governors were duly notified
and met on the evening appointed. Extracts from minutes of February 24,
Resolved, That this board elect six additional members, making a board of fifteen, and a
Mr. Stoy nominated Louis Kuehnle; Mr. H. S. Scull nominated William G. Hoopes ;
Mr. Heston nominated Charles Evans. H. H. Deakyne, James D. Southwick and Isaac
Bacharach. They were duly elected. Alien B. Endicott was elected solicitor of the Board,
to serve without salary.
Subsequently, at a meeting held on April 9, 1897, the constitution and
by-laws were adopted and permanent officers elected as follows : President,
F. P. Stoy ; Secretary, A. M. Heston ; Treasurer, Lewis Evans.
The Woman's Auxiliary was organized at the Hotel Dennis, on
November 27, 1897, and the money collected by the ladies, amounting to
$616.71, was set aside toward the furnishing of the hospital, when built.
The officers are : President, Mrs. John F. Hall ; Recording Secretary, Mrs.
J. G. Shreve; Financial Secretary, Mrs. Carl Voelker; Treasurer, Mrs. M.
The property on Ohio avenue near Pacific was purchased of Henry
J. White, of New York, on August 20, 1898. The purchase price was
$16,000, on account of which the Board of Governors paid $2000 in cash,
and executed a second mortgage of $6000. The property was purchased
subject to a first mortgage of $8000. It included a frame building contain-
ing ten rooms.
The formal opening of this temporary hospital building took place on
November 30, 1898, on which occasion there were many visitors and gen-
erous welcome to all friends of the institution.
In the early part of April, 1899, Miss Elizabeth C. Boice, of Absecon,
signified her desire to erect a bricl< annex to the hospital building, as a
Around and About.
memorial to her father, Henry Boice, and her generous offer was accepted
bv the Board of Governors. , , ... d •
It was suggested that the proposed building be known as the Boice
Annex and that it be constructed of brick, with stone trimmings, to which
she readily assented. Plans for this building were drawn by Architect
Harold F. 'Adams, and work thereon begun immediately.
It was learned that the marriage of Miss Boice to Mr. Clarence
Doughtv Nourse was to take place on June yth, at the home of a relative
in West Philadelphia, and the Secretary of the Hospital deemed it appro-
priate to celebrate this happy occasion by breaking ground for the new
building to be erected bv the bride-elect. Accordingly, at the hour of the
ceremony in West Philadelphia, he removed the first soil for the foundation
of the Boice Annex in Atlantic City.
The work on this building progressed satisfactorily, the Board of
Governors suggesting some changes and improvements during its progress,
t^ which Mrs Nourse readily assented. The building being hnally com-
pleted, at a cost of nearly $10,000, announcement was made of the formal
opening on Thanksgiving Day, November 30th exactly ^^^ year after he
opening of what is now known as the " main" building, but whiJi nmII
be razed or moved at some future time, to make room for an imposing
main building, thoroughly modern in appointments and architecturally in
keeping with the Boice Annex. 4 . -.1 ;.1o„h
Inlet.-This is a large body of water at the upper end of the island,
where sailing and fishing boats' in charge of experienced captains can he
hired by the day or by the hour. The sail through the bays or ou to sea
through the Inlet outlet, is delightful, and the fishing is generally very
good. The rates per hour for parties is twenty-five cents a-piece. 1 ne
yachtsmen are prohibited by law from taking more than thirty passengers
Heston' s Hand-Book.
at one time. Yachts can be chartered by the day for from five to ten
Jewish Synagogue. — This unique building is situated on Pennsyl-
vania avenue above Pacific. The corner-stone was laid and the edifice
completed in 1892.
Kechemeches. — This was the name of a tribe of Indians that once
inhabited the country south of the Great Egg Harbor river, and made
occasional visits to Absegami (Absecon Island) in quest of oysters and
game, and perhaps to visit friendly Indians who came here from Coa-
quanock (Philadelphia), Chicl<ohacki (Trenton) and other places in summer
Longport.— Longport is below Atlantic City, and occupies the western
end of the island, bordering on Great Egg Harbor Inlet. Its water advan-
tages are unique. The ocean, the inlet and the thoroughfare surge restlessly
or wave pleasantly on three sides of it. The island narrows and is scarcely
more than one block in width in the improved portion of Longport, render-
ing both bathing and fishing convenient. The ocean beach is broad, smooth
and level, making a fine promenade ground when the tide is out and safe
bathing when the tide is in. Fish are abundant in the thoroughfare, and
are caught steadily from the pier and breakwater, which accommodate and
protect the shore at different angles. Little steamers make regular trips to
Ocean City and Somers' Point. Sail-boats accommodate those who desire
such recreation. The cottages are diverse in architectural design. The
Bay View Club House is a substantial structure and is the headquarters of
the Bay View Club, which is composed of Philadelphia gentlemen. Long-
port derived its name from James Long, a Philadelphia merchant, who sold
the land to M. S. McCullough, founder of the resort.
Lutheran Church.— St. Andrew's Evangelical Lutheran Church (Eng-
lish) is at the corner of Michigan and Pacific avenues. This society was
organized in June, 1887, by the Rev. William Ashmead Schaeffer, D. D.,
of Philadelphia. The first service was held in the upper room of a building
on Atlantic avenue above Tennessee. The congregation afterwards bought
the Philopatrian Hall on New York avenue, and changed the name to
St. Andrew's Hall. In 1892 they bought the lot at Michigan and Pacific
avenues and built the present edifice thereon. The pulpit was filled by
various persons until the present pastor took charge in 1894.
Mercer Memorial Home.— This institution provides a place where
invalid women, of moderate means, can spend a few weeks at the seashore,
and have not only the comforts of a home, but also good nursing and the
care of a physician, at a price which they are able to pay, but much below
the actual cost. It differs from other seaside institutions for women in that
it is intended for invalids only, and in this respect it meets a want which
has often been felt by those who come in contact with the masses of
working-women in our large cities.
In 1884 the building at the corner of Ohio and Pacific avenues was
erected, largely through the munificence of the late Mrs. J. C. Mercer, of
Philadelphia, who gave $40,000 for the purpose. An addition to the east
wing of the building, finished in 1894, increased its capacity about one-third.
The building is one of the finest of its size in Atlantic City, and is provided
with every convenience for the care of sick women.
Methodist Church.— The first religious services held in Atlantic City
were under the direction of the Methodists. The building was dedicated in
1857, and still stands where originally built, on Atlantic avenue below
Massachusetts. It has been enlarged and improved, however, and will
Ai'ound and About.
now seat comfortably several hundred people. Besides this, the First
Methodist Church, there is the St. Paul's M. E. Church, built in i8g8 ; the
Central M. E. Church, built in 1896; Christ Methodist Protestant Church
and Trinity M. P. Church.
Military Companies.— Joe Hooker Post, No. 32, G. A. R., meets the
second and fourth Tuesday evening in each month at G. A. R. Hall.
First Presbyterian Church.
First Baptist Church.
Colonel H. H. Janeway
Camp, No. ii,S.ot V., meets the
first and third Monday evening
in each month in G. A. R. Hall.
Morris Guards, named in
honor of Colonel Daniel Morris,
who was one of the first residents
of the place. It is both a social
and a military organization, and
is intended to be always ready
to render any service required of
a military company, and to offici-
ate at the reception of all organiza-
tions visiting the city in a body.
76 Heston' s Hand-Book.
Company L, attached to the Third Regiment, New Jersey National
^araticongs and Nanticokes. — These were two tribes of Indians
living in Scheyichbl (New Jersey) when the white man came among them.
They are referred to on pages 42 and 43 of the Hand-Book.
Origin of tlie Lenapes. — On page 38 the reader will find some account
of the " original people."
Presbyterian Church. — There are three edifices of this denomination
in Atlantic City. The one at the corner of Pacific and Pennsylvania ave-
nues was erected in 1856, enlarged some years later, and very much im-
proved in the spring of 1887. The Gerrhan Presbyterian Church was
dedicated in 1884 and enlarged in i8g6. The Olivet Presbyterian Church,
at Pacific and Tennessee avenues, was dedicated March 27, 1898.
Public Schools. — The public schools of Atlantic City are well-
appointed and six in number, the oldest being at Pennsylvania and Arctic
avenues. The original building was removed in 1887, and a new brick
buiding erected on the site at a cost of $20,000. The other buildings are on
Indiana avenue near Arctic, Texas avenue and Arctic, Arctic avenue near
New Jersey, an imposing brick and stone high-school building at the
corner of Illinois and Arctic avenues, finished in i8q6, and the Chelsea
school, corner Brighton and Arctic avenues, finished in 1897. The build-
ings are well heated, comfortably furnished, and connected with the sewer
system. It has been truly said that no more cogent reason is required to
show the salubrity of the' climate and the desirability of Atlantic City as
an abiding place for all who esteem health a blessing than the number of
children born within the island's sandy rim. According to the school census
of 1899 the number of school-children in Atlantic City is 4574- A new
high-school building, to cost $88,oco. is now in course of erection at Ohio
and Pacific avenues. The site for this building cost $50,000. Another
school building is also in course of erection on the West Side, to cost about
Quail. — In the fall, when the gunning season opens, large numbers of
these birds are killed by sportsmen in the woods and fields on the main-
Railroad Stations. — West Jersey and Seashore, South Carolina ave-
nue, above Atlantic.
Atlantic City (Reading System), Atlantic avenue, between Arkansas
and Missouri avenues.
Longport and South Atlantic City, corner Tennessee and Atlantic
Sanitation. — Atlantic City has a model system for the disposal of
garbage and refuse, at the crematory. No bad odors are noticeable either
in or out of the building in which the work is done, and all classes of offal
and refuse, including dead animals, broken glass, and crockery ware, etc.,
as well as garbage, are quickly and successfully destroyed.
Unlike other places on the coast, the surf is absolutely free from refuse
or defilement of any kind. By an underground system, which is a revela-
tion to most city people, the air, the soil, and the water are absolutely free
from contamination by sewage. Briefly stated, this system comprises a
pumping station and reservoir, with deeply laid sewers converging to it,
and filter beds situated on the salt meadows" at a considerable distance from
The reservoir is placed on the edge of the meadows, next that side of
the city which is farthest from the ocean and the hotels. It is a walled pit,
Pennsylvania Avenue School— Texas Avenue School— Indiana
Heston' s Hand-Book.
cemented inside and out, thirty feet in diameter and twenty feet deep.
Connected with it is a ventilating shaft seventy-five feet high^ The main
sewer, which empties into the bottom of this well, is a cylindrical iron pipe
twenty inches in diameter. Connected with this is a system of sub-mains
and laterals of iron or glazed terra-cotta pipe.
Somers' Point.— Somers' Point, one of the oldest ports of entry in
the United States, is a favorite resort for sportsmen. It is reached by
steamers from Long-
port, but the popular
way is by railroad,
across the meadows
to Pleasantville, and
thence to Somers'
Point. The ride in
pleasant weather is
in open cars across
the wide expanse of
salt meadows and
through a fertile
farming country to
the bay, on which
Somers' Point is lo-
cated. In its vicinity,
many years ago, was
the summer encamp-
ment of the Algon-
quin Indians, who
j enjoyed the bounti-
and game. The ful supply of oysters
charge is 25 cents
for the round trip.
Other Drives. —
The Speedway is
a new drive, ex-
tending from Sea-
view to Longport.
It is about seven
miles long. Other
drives in Atlantic
City are as fol-
at low tide, ten
miles; to Longport
or Great Egg Har-
bor Inlet, eight
miles ; the Ele-
phant, or South Atlantic City, five miles ; Absecon Inlet and Lighthouse,
two miles ; Pacific avenue drive, five miles to Ventnor. Another pleasant
drive is to the Inlet on a macadamized road. Still another ride is across the
meadows to Pleasantville, and thence along the shore road to the Country
Club and Somers' Point, Absecon and other pretty towns in the vicinity of
Atlantic City. The road across the meadows is kept in first-class condition.
Trolleys.— The trolley cars of Atlantic City run the entire length of
the island, a distance of ten miles, connecting With the boats for Brigan-
The Fishing Deck and Boardwalk.
Around and About. 79
tine on the north, and for Ocean City and Somers' Point on the south.
The ride is always enjoyable.
Unamis and Unilacktos. — These were two opposing tribes of Indians
who inhabited the pine and coast region of New Jersey. In English their
names mean Turtles and Turkeys.
Ventnor.— Ventnor is another near-by resort, it is two miles below
Atlantic Citv, and is accessible by the motor cars to Longport. The
various amusements and diversions of Atlantic City are easily accessible
by train, drive or beach, while freedom from noise and perfect rest are
assured by its suburban location. A large and thoroughly appointed hotel
is open for guests.
Water Supply.— Atlantic City has an exhaustless supply of pure
fresh water, furnished both by artesian wells and conduits, which bring the
water seven miles across the meadows from a sweet, clear, and pure source
among the pines of the mainland, partly from mill ponds and partly from
fifty driven wells. There are five artesian wells on the island, furnishing
water that is as crystal clear, pure, and wholesome, and as wholly uncon-
taminated by organic matter as that obtained at any of the mountain
resorts. There are water-works of the most elaborate character, and two
stand-pipes, having a capacitv of over half a million gallons, thus insuring
an abundant supply of excellent water at all times for every purpose. The
pumping capacity of the engines is eleven million gallons a day. Over
fifty miles of pipe are laid throughout the city, and connected with these
pipes are 468 fire-hydrants.
Woodland Charms.— The woods and swamps on the mainland, west-
ward of Atlantic City, are fragrant with magnolia blooms and ablaze with
the laurel and rhododendron in spring-time. The ground, also, is carpeted
with arbutus and the lakes are white with water-lilies; everywhere, in
wood and swamp, field and fen, the heath tribe gives beauty and perfume,
in the brilliant autumn-time, when the gorgeous woods are gleaming, ere
the leaves begin to fall, when the pippin leaves the bough and the sumac's
fruit is red, when the quail is piping loud from the near-by buckwheat
fields, when the mist is on the ocean and the network on the grass, when
the harvests are all housed and the farmer's work is done— 'tis then that
there is good quail and rabbit shooting in the woods and fields on the
'Xions (usually spelled Axions).— These were a tribe of Indians who
had their hunting-grounds along the Mullica river, in the upper end of
Atlantic County. They were on 'xcelent terms with the Tuckahoe tribe,
whose provender they often shared. It is even said that the kindness of
the Tuckahoes to the 'Xions brought about the saying, which we hear to
this day, " Tuckahoe— God bless her ! "
Yacomanshag.— This is the name of a tribe of Indians that once lived
about where the town of Hammonton now stands.
Zounds !— if I can think of any word to complete this zigzag manu-
script, which the publisher is to transform into beautiful print for zealous
Woodland Charms on Mainland— Atlantic City's Water Supply.
The Old and the New.
ANY interesting sketches, descrip-
tive of the old and new times on
Absecon Island and the adjacent
mainland, intended for publication
in the Hand-Book, are omitted
from this edition for want of room.
Succeeding editions will contain
chapters as follows :
Early Settlements by the Whites.
Daniel Leeds and His Almanac.
A Quaker Indiction of Slavery.
James Doyle the Scout.
Roadways and Taverns.
Old Times and New.
Capture of Giberson and Lane.
Skirmish on the Egg Harbor.
James Steelman the Patriot.
Pine Robbers at The Forks.
Execution of MuUiner the Tory.
Ployden and Plantagenet Principalities.
Atlantic County During the Revolution.
Depredations by Tories and Refugees.
Exploit of Commander Somers.
Mays Landing and the Early Settlers.
Hammonton and Egg Harbor City.
Brigantine and Barnegat.
Reminiscences of Old Gloucester.
Meeting Houses and Churches.
Schools and School Teachers.
Hospitals and Charitable Institutions.
Township Lines and Tithing Officers.
Redemptioners in the Early Days.
Albion Knights of Old Gloucester.
Rain and Snow — Wind and Tide.
Shipwrecks and Drownings.
The Pen and the Sword — Editors and Soldiers.
Lawvers and Physicians.
The Water Question and Water-Works Litigation.
Murders and Hangings.
City Hall and Post-Oftke.
Atlantic City and County Officials.
Mysteries of the Sea.
Gunning and Fishing.
Outings by the Sea.
Autumn and Winter Pleasures.
Sanitation and Drainage.
Atlantic City Officials.
Mayor.— Vran'k.lin P. Stoy *
J?ecordei.— Robert E- Stephany.*
Alderman. — Harry Bacharach.*
City Solicitor.— Carlion Godfrey.!
City Comptroller.— h-Ured. M. Hestou.f
City Treasurer. — John A. Jeffries.*
City Clerk.— Turnery D. Irelan.f
District Court Judge —Robert H. Ingersoll. Appointed by Governor.
City Surveyor. — John W. Hackney .f
Tax Collector.— WiXW^SiVa. lyowry, Jr.*
Mercantile Appraiser.— John W. Parsons. f
Super-visor of Streets.— ^ex'x'&h Mathis.f
Building Inspector. — Simon I,. Wescoat.f
Overseer of Poor. — Daniel ly. Albertsou.*
City Electrician.— h. C. Farrand.f
Chief of Police.— TLarry C. Eldridge.J
Commissioner of Sinking Fund.— Wired M. Heston. Appointed by Supreme Court
of New Jersey.
City Assessors .Sie-wSLrt H. vShinn, Seraph I,illig and A. J. Withrow. Appointed
Chief Engineer of Fire Department. — Isaac Wiesenthal. Elected by City Council.
Assistant Chiefs of Fire Department.— Charles M. Speidel and Henry Williams.
Elected by City Council.
City Council.— Alderman, Harry Bacharach. First Ward : David R. Barrett, Albert
Beyer, Joseph C. Clement, Edv^rin A. Parker. Second Ward : Enos F. Hann, Edward
S. Lee, Henry W. I^eeds, John Donnelly. Third Ward : Somers I,. Doughty, John R.
Fleming, Willis H. Vanaman, George H. L,ong. Fourth Ward : Thomas H. Thompson,
Hugo Garnich, William A. Ireland, William W. Bowker. Sergeant-at-Arms, Cornelius
Water Commissioners.— l^oms Kuehnle, Dr. E. A. Reiley, Rufus Booye. Appointed
Superintendent of JVater Department. — William C. Hawley. Appointed by Com-
Cashier of Water Department.— William H. Randolph.
Chief Clerk of Water Department.— Henry R. Albertson.
Inspector of Water Department. — B. Frank Souder.
City Hall Commissioners. — Frederick Hemsley, Charles Evans, John B. Champion.
Appointed by Mayor.
Board of Health. — Dr. A. W. Baily, Wm. F. Koeneke, Joseph E. lyiugerman, Arthur
H. Stiles, Thomas McDevitt, Elwood S. Johnson, William Clark. Elected by City
Plumbing Inspector. — Curtis Frambes.g
Health Inspector.— YLarry C. Beck.g
Register of l^ital Statistics.— Alfred T. Glenn. §
Board of Education.— C J. Adams, S. R. Morse, Wm. A. Bell, Aaron Hinkle, Carl-
ton Godfrey, Paul Wootten, Samuel H. Kelley. Elected by City Council.
Superintendent of Schools.— Br. W. M. Pollard. ||
.Supervising Principal. — Charles B. Boyer. [[
Principal of High School.— Henry P. Miller. ||
Stiperintendent of Manual Training and Draiving.—'Wilhem.ine Ochs.
Superintendent of Business Course. — F. J, Klock.||
* Elected by voters, f Elected by City Council, t lyife tenure, g Appointed by
Board of Health. || Appointed by Board of Education.
Atlantic City Statistics,
Population of Atlantic City (census of 1895) 18,329
Present population of Atlantic City (census being taken), about 30,000
Number of School-children in Atlantic City, 1900, 5,206
" Registered Voters in " " in 1900 6,348
Transient Population during summer season 40,000 to 150,000
Number of Houses in Atlantic City, 4 498
Value of Real and Personal Rstate, as per assessment of 1898, 5i5-3i2,393
Actual value of Real Estate, at least, $45,000,000
Water Pipes laid and in use in Atlantic Citj', 56 miles.
Length of Streets 51
Number of Public School Houses 6
" " " " in course of erection 2
Churches (white, 17; colored, 3), 20
National Banks 3
" Safe Deposit Companies, 2
" Military Companies, including Grand Army Post and Sons of
Value of School Buildings and Lots, $265,000
Number of Teachers employed 72
Area of Atlantic City, 2,704 acres.
Island between Atlantic City and South Atlantic City, 1,101 "
South Atlantic City, 895 "
Longport 5^3 "
entire Island . . 5,213
Acreage of Atlantic City built upon, 640 "
Island outside of Atlantic City built upon 15
" entire Island built upon, 655 "
Distance from Inlet to lower end of Atlantic Citv 454 miles.
" Atlantic City to South Atlantic City, 3
" " South Atlantic City to Longport 1%
" " Longport to lower point of beach, . ^ i
" Atlantic City to Mainland, 5% "
First Permanent Residenton the island, Jeremiah Leeds, about 1795
First Train to Atlantic City, July ist, 1854
Second Railroad (narrow'gauge) to Atlantic City, opened July 25th, 1877
" " changed to broad gauge by Reading, October 5th, 1884
Double track of Reading road first used in April, 1889
Third Railroad to Atlantic City, opened June 16th, 1880
First Train on Pennsylvania system via Delaware River Bridge to
Atlantic City April 19th, 1896
Length of entire Island, 10 miles.
Young's Pier 2,804 feet.
" Iron Pier 94^ "
" Boardwalk, from the Inlet wharf to Chelsea, 3>3 miles.
Erection of Boardwalk begun April 24th, 1896
Boardwalk dedicated to public use July 8th, 1896
Cost of Boardwalk $171,248
Cost of City Water Works $934-993
Number of Fire Hydrants in use, 468
Newspapers in Atlantic City (3 daily and 5 weekly), 8
Number of Police Officers and Patrolmen, summer, 46
" " " " " winter 36
Life Guards, 28
" active P'iremen 37
Height of Lighthouse 167 feet.
Distance visible at sea, 19 miles.
Number of Steps to Lighthou.se, 228
Cost of Lighthouse ?52.i87
Bricks in Lighthou.se Tower 59^.634
Highest curb elevation in Atlantic City above mean low water 13^2 feet
Lowest " " " " '■ " " " 6 "
:Meadow surface in Atlantic City above mean low water 4
Number of Arc l^lectric Street Lights, 260
Gas Street Lights, 160
Assets of Atlantic City $1,934,660
Liabilities of Atlantic City, including Water Bonds $1,294,831
Expenditures during Fiscal Year, excepting Permanent Improvements, . . $491,317
for Permanent Improvements during Year, • . $i57,798
Total Fire Loss during Year $35,Soi
Number of Pieces of Fire Apparatus, 37
Horses owned by Fire Department 39
" P'ire Companies 8
Atlantic City's Pioneer Editor.
OD made the editors, the editors made the papers, and the
papers made Atlantic City." Thus wrote the author of the
Hand-Book ten years ago, and he again asserts that the
newspapers, more than any other one agency, have earned
for Atlantic City her unique position as the greatest winter
and summer sanitarium in the world, and the leading pleasure
resort of the country.
A. L. ENGLISH. Ph()t().iiraphed by John T. Irving, May, 1900.
Atlantic County was not without newspapers previous to 1872, but
they were published in Hammonton, Mays Landing and Egg Harbor City.
in that year A. L. English, a native of the county, established the Atlantic
City Daily Reviezv. The first issue was dated July i, 1872, and it ap-
peared regularly every week-day until the following September ist, when
it was suspended.
Atlantic City's Pioneer Editor.
The publication of the Daily Review was resumed on the first of the
following July, and the paper again suspended on September ist. The
weekly edition was begun on the nth of the following October, and has
been continued without interruption ever since.
Mr. English was a wide-awake editor and an energetic citizen. Much
credit is due him for the part he took in the building of the city during the
transition period— the time when Atlantic City was changing from a mere
summer resort to a permanent city by the sea.^ He disposed of the Review
to Alfred M, Heston and John G. Shreve on March i, 1884, when it was
published under the firm name of Heston & Shreve. Mr. Heston sold his
interest to Mr. Shreve three years later. The daily issue was revived every
summer until 1888, when, beginning on July ist, it was issued bv Mr.
Shreve as an all-the-year daily, and has remained such ever since— a
credit to its proprietor and a testimony of the work so well begun by Atlantic
City's pioneer editor.
iiJ 4 d
The newspapers of Atlantic City will be considered in a later edition
of the Hand-Book.
Old Catawba Church, below Mays Landing.
IXTEEN years ago Mr. A. L. English, the founder of Atlantic
City journalism, published a volume whose concluding
page was a breviary of "Advice to the City Authorities."
In imitation of Mr. English, the author of the Hand-Book
appropriates the concluding page of this souvenir edition to
his own use, and offers, without apology, a few suggestions
for the betterment of Atlantic City.
First, he suggests that the condition of Atlantic avenue, the sidewalks
in many parts of the city and the alleys generally receive more attention.
Atlantic avenue should be paved, not macadamized, and City Council
should speedily enter into an equitable arrangement with the railroad com-
pany to meet the expense of this improvement.
Second, the sidewalks on Atlantic and every other avenue should be
kept absolutely free from obstructions. Electric light, telephone and
telegraph poles should be banished for all time and the wires placed under-
ground. No signs, boxes or obstructions of any kind should be tolerated
on the sidewalks anywhere.
Third, the curb lines on Atlantic avenue might be moved out two or
three feet — the driveways being more than ample now — and the additional
space assigned to shade trees, the planting of which should be encouraged,
not only along Atlantic avenue, but on every avenue in the city. Make
Atlantic avenue more inviting— shady in summer and free from mud in
winter— and visitors will be glad to leave the Boardwalk, if only for a
chance to see the commercial side of Atlantic City. Storekeepers will not
then complain of business drifting away from the avenue to the Boardwalk.
Give the visitors a chance to see clear and clean sidewalks, give them a
refuge from the sun in summer and freedom from mud in winter, and they
will soon realize that the Boardwalk is not Atlantic City's only promenade.
Where the people are, there will the trade be also.
Fourth, the ordinance against the dumping of refuse in alleys or on
vacant lots should be rigidly enforced. It should be the duty of the street
supervisor to see that all alleys are kept absolutely free of rubbish, and the
Board of Health should not tolerate for one day a nuisance of any kind in
back alley, back yard or side lot.
Fifth, waste paper should be deposited in proper receptacles on the
street corners, and once a day or once a week, as may be necessary, such
refuse should be taken to the crematory.
Sixth, low lots everywhere, especially along the railroads, should be
filUed to grade and kept absolutely free from rubbish.
Seventh, the wires for electric lights on the Boardwalk should be
placed in conduits, and the wooden poles which now disfigure the walk
should be removed.
Eighth, the city should control absolutely the ocean front, and the
bob-tail pier at the foot of Pennsylvania avenue should be removed. The
one at the foot of Tennessee avenue should be improved architecturally.
Ninth, between the stations and the Thoroughfare all railroad tracks
should be elevated. This improvement should be completed not later than
the Year of Jubilee, 1904.
Tenth, the city should erect places of public comfort along the Board-
walk and pavilions at the ends of the avenues, outside the walk.
Eleventh, the city should prohibit the charging of a fee for the privi-
lege of sitting in a private pavilion anywhere along the Boardwalk.
Twelfth, all sidewalks on cross avenues from the Boardwalk to
Atlantic avenue should be flagged from curb to property line.
IN D C A.
Aborigines, battle of 42
Absecon Beach 44. 45
Absecon. origin of word 40
Absegami, discovery of 44
Absegami, summering at 40
Adams, Ryan 55. 57
Adams, Aunt Juditli, 53
Allen, Ethan 52
Albertson, Leon 64
Aibertson, Levi C 64
Alcorn, William 64
Amarong Indians 42
America's Mecca of Tourists 15
Ante-Bellum Days 63
Armewamexes Indians 42
Arthur Kill 44, 45
Armstrong, Harriet 65
April on the Boardwalk 4
Asomoches Indians 42
Assanpink Creek 4q
Atlantis Club (plate) 16
Atlantis Club .... 67
Atlantic City National Bank, 61
Atsion, 43. 59
Atsion Indians 42, 43
Atlantic House 58
Auld Lang Syne, 53 55
Avery, John G. W 63
Axion [Atsion, Atsionks] 42, 43
Babcock, John 51
Bachelors and Old Maids 8
Barnegat Bay 44
Baptist Church 67
Baptist Church (plate) 75
Barnegate, Sandy 42
Basse, Jeremiah 49
Barnegat 44. 45
Beauty on the Boardwalk ig
Bentley Manor 44
Beach Rides 25
Bedloe's Hotel 60
Bedloe's Island 45
Belisle, D. W 64
" Bentley," ship 44
Beach Thoroughfare 61
Bell, Walter D 59
Berkeley, Lord 44
Bew, Richard 65
Billup's Point, 45
Billup, Captain James 44
Blake, John, 51
Boardwalk, history of, 65
Boice, Henry 57
Boice, Peter 57
Boice, William 52
Boundaries of the City 61
Bryant, John 55, 57
Breakers, Inlet 45
Brown & Woelpper 65
Brown, Chester 65
Budd, Thomas 49, 51
Carteret, Sir George, 44
Campanius, Rev. John (Holm) 46
Calvin, Bartholomew S 48
Calcefar — Indian king 42
Central M. E. Church (plate) 14
Carre, Sir Robert 44
Casino 67, 69
Catholic Church 69
Chestnut Neck 40
Chelsea Heights 61
Cherokees Indians 48
Chichequaas Indians 43
Chamberlin Tract 55, 57
Chamberlin, Thomas 56
Charles II 44
Children's Seashore House, 69
Civil War period 64
Clam Thoroughfare 61
Climate, agreeable 16
Coaquanock [Philadelphia], ..... 74
Conover, Peter 51
Coffin, William 60
Congenial Friends 16
Conover, Ordelle 65
Conover, Rubanna 57
Colwell, Stephen 59
Collins, Daniel L., 60
Congress Hall 60
Coffin, John Hammonton 59
Coxe, Dr. Daniel 49
Cottage Retreat, 60
Coffin, William 59
Conover, Leira 65
Country Club House, 69
Cramer, Carrie 65
Curtin, Jeremiah 38
Day, William 52
Da Costa, John C 59
Death-rate 69, 70
De Laet — historian 42
Disston & Sons, Henry 66
Doughty, Cabin of (plate) 12
Doughty, General Enoch 59
Down the Beach by Moonlight 26
Dry Inlet 5^. 52. 55. 61
Egbay (Egg Harbor) 42, 43
Ellis Island 45
Encroachments of the sea 64
Endicott, Allen B. (plate) i
English, A. L. (plate) 84
English Creek 60
Episcopal Church 70
Evans, Lewis 64
Evans, Lewis (plate) 1
Evelin, Robert 42
Eyre Haven, discovery of 44
Eriwoneck Indians 42
Excursion House, first 63
Frederick the Great 37
Fair Ocean Maid 47
Fire Department 71
Fleming, Dr. J. R. (plate) 39
Friends' Meeting House 71
Fountain of Youth 52
Gardner, Congressman 66
Gardner, John J 64
Giltinan, Adele 65
Giltinan. Caroline 65
Grill, Gideon 64
Great Egg- Harbor 44
Griscom, Norwood 64
Great Egg Harbor. 45
Great Bay 44
" Half Moon." ship 44
Hackett, Judith 57
Hann, Benj. Z 64
Hay, Andrew K 59
Hayes, James 65
Indian Stories and Traditions 37, 48
Indian Sage, Speech of, 49
Inlet (plate) 80
Ireland, Amos 51
Ireland, Daniel, 51. 52
Ireland, James, 55
Indian tribes and their location 42
James, Duke of York 44
Jackson Glass Works 60
Jewish Synagogue, 74
Hackett, Richard 60
Haupt, William 65
Heat and Hurly-Burly 18
Heston. A. M., i, 62
Heckwelder. Rev. John, 37
Historians, stories of the early, .... 45
History, illusions of 37, 42
Hook and Line 27
Hospital, 71, 72
Howard Pier 61
Holscom, Christian [Holdzkom] 55
Holm, Rev. John Campanius 46
Hudson, Henry 44
Indian Mounds and Shell-Heaps, ... 39
Indian Relics 39
Joy and Pleasure Through the Twelve-
Jordan, A. M., cottage of 54
Jubilee, year of, 36
Kechemeches Indians 42
Keen, Sarah, 51
Keim, Jacob 64
Keim, Newton 64
Kill von Kull 45
Kitchen Middins 38
Ladd, John 51
Land-locked Water Preserve, ..... 28
Latham, Thomas 55
Leonardo, Vincent 46, 47
LeBarre, Jean 53
Lee, Edward S 63
Lee, Irving- 57
Leeds, Andrew 57
Leeds, Chalkley S 57, 60, 62
Leeds Homestead 3q
Leeds, Judith, 5?
Leeds, James 57. 5*^
Leeds. Jeremiah 51. 55. 56, 57
Leeds, John 57, 58, 60
Leeds Point 43
Leeds, Robert B 57, 60
Maeroahkong Indians 42
Mantesees Indians, • • • 42
Matoachen, Indian Chief 44
Marriage among the Indians 4?
Maseiian Creek 42
Magarge, S. E., cottage of 50
Matliis, Lewis 64
McManus, Francis 56
Metuchen, Indian Chief, 44
Mey, Captain Cornelius Jacobsen, . . 45
Leeds, Steelman, 60
Lenni-Lenape 37, 38, 40, 48
Lenapes, origin of 75
Life-Saving Station (plate), 68
Lighthouse (plate), 68
Literary Association 64
Lenten and Post-Lenten Pastimes. ... 13
Lounging Places for All, 14
Loughran, John, cottage of 50
Littie Egg Harbor 45
Leyman, Mary 65
Lutheran Church 74
Martyr, Peter (note) 53
Matas Indians 43
Matikongees Indians 42
Mercer Home 74
Methodist Church, 74
Military Companies 75
Minquosees Indians 42
Minnequa, 46, 47
Michener, J. H 60
Migration of Red Men 48
Muller. George 65
Mansion House 60, 61
Morris, Daniel, 60
Morse, S. R., 64
Mundy, Marion 65
Naming the City 61
Navesink Indians 43
Nanticoke Indians 43. 76
Neleigh, William 60
New Albion, Province of 42
Nicholis, Admiral Richard, 44
Nelson, William 38, 41
North, Howard 64
Naraticongs (Indians), 42, 76
Old-time Diversions 35
Oldest Hotel in Atlantic City (plate), . 34
Old-time Patriots 52
Osborne, Richard B 60
Osborne Island 43
Oyster Island 45
Original Owners 49
Original Surveys 51
Ozone off the Ocean g
Park House (plate) 54
Panorama of Sea and Land, ..... 20
Pennington, Dr. B. C. (plate) 39
Permanent Settlement, first 55
Perth Amboy 44
Philo, Henry 65
Phoenix Bridge Company 66
Pitney, Dr. Jonathan 59,60
Place of Perennial Pleasure, .... 28
Plantagenet, Beauchamp, 42
Playground of the Country 23
Pleasures of the Plaisance, 21
Porter, Joseph 59
Port Republic 60, 80
Ponce de Leon, 52
Potter, Col. William E., 52
Powell. Dr. William M. (plate) 39
Presbyterian Church, . . 76
Primitive Americans, myths of, ... . 38
Promenade in Mid-Winter (plate), ... 10
Press, Daily 62
Progress, rapid 61
Prologue _ 6
Public Schools '76
Pure Air Washes Out the Lungs, ... 24
Queen of the Coast 7
Rancocas Creek 49
Ramcock (Rankokas Indians) 42
Railroad litigation 64
Railroad stations 76
Raleigh, Sir Walter 37
Raritan Bay, 45
Raritan Indians, 42, 43
Reed, Dr. Thomas K. (plate), . . 39, 53, 64
Reed, Alfred, Vice-Chancellor, ... 6r
Reid, Frederick 64
Review, Daily 84
Ries, John 65
Rhodes, D. D 60
Richards, Jesse 59
Richards, Samuel, 59, 60
Richards, Thomas 59
Robbin's Reef Lighthouse 45
Romance of the Indian Maid, 46
Rum Point 53
Rundall, Mildred 65
Sampson, Hezekiah, 52
Sanhigan Indians 42
Schautler's Hotel 60, 61
Scheyichbi, 37, 42, 43
Schwinghammer, Eugene, 64
Scott, John 51
Scott, Lewis P. (plate) i
Scull, Lillian 65
Scull, Nan, 64
Seal of the City, 62
Sewaposees Indians 42
Sikonesees Indians 42
Silvers, Homer 65
Snellenberg Cottage, 54
Somers, Col. Richard, 51
Somers, John 51
Somers' Point 78
Sorin, Herman, 65
South Cape 42
Staten Island 44
Statue of Liberty 45
Steelman, Andrew 51. 65
Steelman, Frederick 51
Steelman, James 51
Steelman, Rachel 57
Stibbs, George 52
Stov, Franklin P. (plate) i
Stoy, Mrs. F. P 66
St. James' Episcopal Church (plate), . 70
Stuyvesant, Peter 44
Summer Days Beside the Sea, 17
Summer Weather 'neath Winter Skies, 11
Surf Bathing 22
Surf House 60
Taylor, Ida 65
Taylor, William F., Cottage of 50
Thomas, Gabriel, 42, 45
Tiascan Indians 42
Tinans Indians, 42
Timber Creek 49
Tonic for Invalids and Convalescents, . 12
Tuckahoe Indians, 43
Tutelos Indians, 43
Turtle Indians, 40, 43
Unamis Indians 40, 42, 43, 79
Unilachtos Indians 43. 79
United States Hotel Co 61
United States Hotel 65
Vanderdonck's Map 45
Water Supply 79
Weary and Heavy Laden 10
West, George 51
Webster-Hayne Literary Society, . . 64
Wherein Atlantic Citv Excels 31
Wills' Island 43
Winner, Uncle John, 52
Wilted Grass 48
Wood, William 46
Woodland Charms, 79
Wiltbank, Eugene, 64
Wurtz, Hon. George 63
Yachting Scene (plate) 8
Yacomanshag Indians 79
Young Men and Maidens 8
Yachting (plate) 25
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THE PENNSYLVANIA RAILROAD
THE ONLY ALL=RAIL
THE DELAWARE RIVER BRIDGE ROUTE
nROAl Broad Street Station, Pliiladelphia, fast express trains run to Atlantic City,
couiiectiiiij with all the through trains of the Pennsylvania Railroad's vast svstem
coming into Philatielphia, from the South, Southwest, West and Northwest.
I'nder the comprehensive arrangement of through cars used by the Pennsylvania
Railroad, it is possible tor a visitor tlestined to Atlantic City to travel from any
of the large cities included in the territory above mentioned with only one change of cars,
and without transfer through Philadelphia.
From New PIngland and the North but one change is necessary.
THE NEW YORK AND ATLANTIC CITY THROUGH FAST EXPRESS TRAINS
AND THE NEW TWENTY-THIRD STREET FERRY establish a direct connection
between the great hotels of New York and those of Atlantic City. These trains leave
New York at convenient hours in the morning and early afternoon every week-dav during
the year, and run through to Atlantic City without change.
Ample Cab Service at the New York End of the New Ferry.
The local service of fast express trains between Market Street Wharf, Philadelphia,
and Atlantic City is unsurpassed.
The Pennsylvania Railroad has been closely identified with the material development
of this great seaside resort, to which end nothing has contributed more than the matchless
railroad facilities always provided by this company.
Any ticket agent of the Pennsylvania Railroad or its connections can give information
as to routes and rates, or, should more detailed knowledge be desired, address
J. B. HUTCHINSON, J. R. WOOD, GEO. W. BOYD,
Gtni'l Manager. C'li'l Pass. Ai:t. Assf. Ge>i' i Pass. A^t.
Carpets Called for and Delivered Free of Charge. Mail Orders Promptly Attended to.
Atlantic City Carpet Cleaning Co.
I. R. BISHOP, Manager. Office and Works, No. 1822 Baltic Avenue.
'Phone 417. Carpets thoroughly Cleaned, 4 cents per yard.
WILLIAM SABATH, Dealer in
Imported and Domestic WINES AND LIQUORS
No. 1608 ATLANTIC AVE., Pet. Kentucky and Mt. \ernon Aves.
BUCKEYE LAUNDRY AND CARPET STEAMING CO.
221, 223, 225, 227 N. Vermont Avenue.
ONE DAY LAUNDRY. 'Phonr 4S0. We wash everything washable.
Rugs and Fine Carpets Cleaned, and Nape raised to its original softness,
the colors at the same time being restored in brightness.
J. ROSENBAUM, ••T"=-Auc.io„eerJor^M,a.,.cCi.,a„dCo„u.,.
MAMMOrH Ni:\V STORAGE HOISE, OFFICE AND SALESROOM,
MARYLAND AVENUE BELOW ATLANTIC.
Furniture and Household C.oods Rented b\ the season. The only Storage House in
Atlantic City. Advances made on Storages.
I a ADAMS & CO., 11^.
Real Estate and
I ^ QY f t^^ 'fT/^^ Money to Loan on
XllOvil CtilwC'^ First-Class Mortgages.
Rooms 2, 4, 6 and 8 Real Estate and Law Building.
For Sale or Rent Valuable Properties in all parts of the City.
The Largest Fire Insurance Agency in the State.
Notaries Public and Commissioners of Deeds for New Jersey, Pennsj'lvania and
New York. ,_,,
J. P. CRAMER & CO. S^^fcrf^*^'' ^'^'^ .NSUR.NCE
r' »«^:»o- Money to Loan on Mortgages in amounts from $500 to $100,000.
conveyancing-. interest as low as Five Per Cent.
Telephone 67. No. 1328 ATLANTIC AVENUE.
C. C. SHINN,
Real Estate, Insurance, Conveyancing, Mortgage Loans.
Rooms 7 and 9 Law Building.
P. O. Box 357. Long Distance 'Phone 287.
THE A. H. PHILLIPS CO.
Insurance and Real Estate. Money to Loan on Mortgage. Conveyancing.
'Phone 138. No. 1315 ATLANTIC AVENUE.
WM. R KEATES, real estate and insurance,
1208 Atlantic Avenue.
Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds. Mortgages Negotiated and Sold. Hotels,
Boarding Houses, Cottages and Stores foi Rent or Sale.
Choice Building Sites for Sale. Business Opportunities. 'Phone 578.
DAVID GILTINAN, Real Estate, Insurance and Mortgages.
'Phone 612. Room 314 Rothschild Building,
1302 ATLANTIC Avenue. 14 south Broad Street, PHILADELPHIA.
HARRY R. YOUNG,
REAL ESTATE BROKER.
Offices, 6 States Avenue.
WARNER, ALLEN & CO, "^iSl^^ifSiSS^ns"
REAL ESTATE BROKERS phone 832.
Money Loaned on Bond and Mortgage. No. 4 STATES AVENUE.
E. H, COOK & CO, Real Esta te, I ns urance and Mortgages.
Philadelphia Office: Room 803 Real Estate Trust Co.,
No. 8 STATES AVENUE. 'Phone 464. S. E. Cor. Broad and Chestnut Sts.
Indiana Avenue School House, North View— Hospital for Insane,
M. A. DEVINE. HARRY WOOTTON.
DEFINE ^ iA^OOTTON.
REAL ESTATE AND INSURANCE.
Rooms 10 and 11, First Floor, Real Estate and Law Building.
Cottages and Hotels for Rent and Sale. Building Lots for Sale. Agents for Chelsea,
Ventnor and Longport. Mortgage Loans Negotiated. General Collections. Law and
Conveyancing Bureau. 'Phone 190.
J. C. RISLEY.
W. K. CAVILLER.
RISLEY & CAVILEER,
REAL ESTATE, INSURANCE, CONVEYANCING,
Telephone 274. ^S" ATLANTIC AVENUE. p. q. Box 305.
DOWN & SHEDAKER, ^^^^ Estate investors. Conveyancing
Monev to Loan, anv Amount, on Mortgage, ^li per cent, to 6 per cent.
Choice Hotels and Cottages for Sale or Rent. Lots and Blocks for Sale.
1436 ATLANTIC AVENUE, Opposite Real Estate and Law Building.
CoNVEVANCiNG ^pj^g 5. E. CROWLEY CO., Collections.
Real Estate, Insurance and Mortgages. U33 Atlantic Avenue.
Hotels and Cottages for Sale or Rent. Lots for Sale. 'Phone 230.
F. W. WYLD,
REAL ESTATE, INSURANCE AND MORTGAGES,
'Phone 24S. 1900 Atlantic Avenue.
JAMES B. SPRINGER, real estate and insurance.
Money Loaned on Mortgage. Conveyancing.
Interest and Rents Collected. No. JJ S. NEW YORK AVENUE.
Agent for Columbia Wagon Co.'s Wagons, Carriages and Harness. 'Phone 825.
Commissioner of Deeds for New Jersey and
Pennsylvania, Real Estate and Insur-
ance, Notarv Public,
No. 1026 ATLANTIC AVE,
MATHIS & WELLS, c.' k. w^^l""
Real Estate and Insurance,
Cottages and 43 South Virginia Ave.
Boarding Houses for Sale or Rent.
Rents Collected. First Mortgage Loans.
T B FOWLER. ^^^^ ^^ta^t^ and
J. O* jrwWl^i:.IV, Insurance.
1208 Atlantic Avenue.
Money to Loan at 5 per cent.
Cottages for Sale or Rent.
J. H. BARTLETT & SON,
no South Carolina Ave.
Conveyancing, Mortgages and Insurance.
V. C. BRUCKMANN,
Real Estate and Insurance Broker.
Property for Sale, Rent or Exchange.
UNION BANK BUILDING.
BARBER & JENNINGS, LLat^nin,.
Real Estate, Insurance,
Mortgages a Specialty.
A full list of fur- 1125 Atlantic Avk.
nished Hotels atid Cottages. Telephone4o6.
S. E. REILY & CO.,
Peal Estate, Insurance and Mortgages.
Room 10 Union Bank Bldg.
IRELAN & CO.,
Real Estate and Insurance,
'Phone 64S. 1009 Atlantic Ave.
D. B. EDWARDS, FLORAL HALL.
107 South Carolina Avenue.
Beautiful Foliage and Bedding Plants. Fresh Cut Flowers of the finest quality received
daily from our own Nurseries at Bridgeton, N.J. Jardinieres, Floral Deco-
rations for weddings, parties, funerals, etc. Open all the year.
Charles Evans, Joseph H. Rorton, Francis P. (Juigley,
President. Vice-President. Cashier.
ATLANTIC CITY NATIONAL BANK,
Atlantic City, N. J.
CAPITAL $50,000, SURPLUS, $150,000. UNDIVIDED PROFITS, $50,000,
I 88 I. ^900.
Charles Evans Frederick Hehiisley, Dr. Thos. K. Reed, Elisha Roberts,
George Allen Joseph H, Borton. John B. Champion, J. Hanies Lippmcott,
'PHONE 23 Geo. W. Croshv, M. D.
CAPITAL, $500,000.00 FULL PAID.
GUARANTEE TRUST COMPANY,
North Carolina and Atlantic Aves.
This Company conducts a General Banking Business. Receives deposits subject to
check at sight. Pays three per cent, interest on Saving Fund and time deposits.
Executes trusts of every description, and becomes surety on contractors' bonds. Acts
as executor, administrator and trustee. Rents safe deposit boxts at J5 and upwards.
Wills safely kept by this Company without charge.
OFFICERS— CARLTdN Godfrey, President. Charles H. Jeffries, Treasurer.
Louis KuEHNLE, Vice-President. A. H. Phillips, Trust Officer.
DIRECTORS— John J. Gardner, Carlton Godfrey, Louis Kuehnle, A. H. Phillips, Wm.
A Faunce Clifton C. Shinn, O. T- Hammell, Hubert Somers, Wm. F. Wahl, Heulings
Lippincott Dr. Nelson Ingram.M. S. McCullough. Dr. Wm. M. Pollard, S. R. Morse,
George P. Eldredge, Henry W. Leeds, VV. E. Edge, James B. Reilly, L. G. Salmon,
James Parker. Interest alloieed on Special a7id Time Deposits. 'Phone 453.
Allen B. Endicott, Smith Conover, James M. Aikman,
President. Vice-President. Cashier.
UNION NATIONAL BANK.
CAPITAL, $100,000. SURPLUS and UNDIVIDED PROFITS, $60,000.
Allen B. Endicott, James Flaherty, A. W. Bailv, Lucien B. Corson
Smith Conover, Thompson Irvin, G. Jason Waters, Clarence M. Busch,
C.J.Adams, Thomas J. Dickerson, Lewis P. Scott, (ieo. W. Jackson.
George F. Currie, Levi C. Ai.bkrtson, Rohert B. MacMullin,
President. Vice-President. Cashier.
SECOND NATIONAL BANK.
CAPITAL, $100,000. SURPLUS, $70,000. UNDIVIDED PROFITS, $18,000.
George F. Currie, Louis Kuehnle, James H. Mason, E. V. Corson,
LeviC. Albertson, Enoch B. Scull, Joseph Scull, Lewis Evans,
Joseph Thompson, Israel G. Adams, Absalom Cordery. Warren Somers,
Samuel K. Marshall.
ATLANTIC SAFE DEPOSIT AND TRUST CO.
CAPITAL, $100,000. SURPLUS, $25,000. UNDIVIDED PROFITS, $15,000.
Pays three per cent, interest on deposits. Loans money on collateral or mortgage. Safe
' Deposit Boxes for rent in burglar-proof vaults, 55 per annum and upwards. Becotties
Suretv. Acts as executor, administrator, trustee, guardian, trustee for corporation
mortgages, and executes trusts of every description. Private rooms for convenience
of customers. Invites accounts. Every banking facility ottered and courteous and
careful attention given to all business. ^ ,, ^ ,
Directors— Geo. F. Currie, John C. Fitield, M. D. Youngman, Enoch B. Scull, Samuel
K. Marshall, Levi C. Albertson, Alfred C. McOellan, Warren Somers, Jos. Thompson,
Israel G. Adams, C. L. Cole, Jas. H. Mason.
Officer.s— Geo. F. Currie, President. Thompson & Cole, Solicitors.
Joseph Tho mpson, Vicr-I'ies. Robt. H. MacMullin. .Si-c. fl>/rf Treas.
G£0. C. FEIvKER,
House and Sign Painter. Paper Hanging and Decorating.
Paints, Oils and Window Class.
No. 9 «C3UTH IvKNTUCKY AVKNUE.
-^m -' ^ ii \
New Jersey Avenue School— Chelsea School.
Souvenirs of Atlantic City...
BATES & CO.,
Successors to Wii-I.iams 8; I'lmhr, Ltd.,
926 ATLANTIC AVENUE,
Silversmiths, VVatcliniakers, Jewelers.
Special Attention given to Repairing.
J, R WRIGHT,
Graduate of the V. S. College of Embalming.
lU Pennsylvania Ave., North.
Telephone No. 222-
H. N. BOLTE,
Practical VVatchmakhr and Jeweler,
IN HIS NEW r.RlCK STORE,
No. 912 ATLANTIC AVENUE.
Watches, Jewelry and Diamonds.
Repairing of Watches a Specialt\ .
JSn ATLANTIC AVE.
D. L SEIFERT,
Practical Watchmaker and Jeweler
For 33 Years,
920 ATLANTIC AVE.
Repairing Done and Guaranteed.
Engraving. Spectacles and Eye Glasses.
August Generotzky, Successor to
All kinds of Bread.
RYE BREAD a Specialty.
No. 127 North Indiana Ave.
CARPENTER AND BUILDER,
12 South Tennessee Ave.
Hardwood Finishing a Specialty. Buildings
Superintended. Plans and Estimates Fur-
nished. Jobbing Attended to 'Phone43i.
Fruits, Nuts and Confectionery,
1212 Atlantic Avenue.
Clothier and Gents* Furnisher.
A Full Line of Ladies' and Gents' Shoes.
1603-05 Atlantic Ave.
BACHARACH & SONS,
NEW YORK AND ATLANTIC AVES.
Atlantic and Pennsylvania Aves.
Leading: Hatter and Furnisher,
1210 ATLANTIC AVE.
Bathing Robes, Trunks, i:tc.
WATCHES and JEWELRY,
1709 ATLANTIC AVE.
Repairing a Specialty.
E. A. McGUIRE,
Ship Chandlery^ Fishing Tackle and
Hardware, House-Furnishing Goods, Tools
and Cutler\ .
No. 807 ATLANTIC AVENUE.
1310 Atlantic Avenue.
H. D. BROWN,
Practical Plumber, Gas and
2411 Atlantic Avenue.
'Phone 740. Stove Repairing a Specialty.
B. HEIL •'•"■'"^■''V ^^'^'^ H. Schultz.
Cor. Atlantic and Maryland Aves.
MYERS' Union Market
1513 ATLANTIC AVENUE.
The leading house for the sale of all kinds of
meats and country produce.
Fresh and Salt Meats, Etc. CHICAGO TENDERLOINS
Truck Fresh from Farms Daily. A SPECIALTY.
The only slaughtering establishment on the island.
CHARLES ROESCH & SONS,
Central Market, ^°'^- ^^^^Teiepho„^l™j:° ^'"^^^^^
City Dressed Meats.
Refrigerator Salesrooms, Slaughtering Department,
834, 836, S38 N. Second Street, Phi1a. Abbatoir Stock Yards, West Phila.
Headquarters for Finest Print Butter.
Hotels and Restaurants Supplied. Rolls and Tenderloins a Specialty.
KESSLER'S ATLANTIC MARKET,
No. 1913 Atlantic Avenue. Phone 129.
A good suppl