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Full text of "The Hieron of Xenophon: The Text Adapted for the Use of Schools"

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EEN0<DQNT02 
lEPQN H TYPANNIKOS 

HOLDEN 



i7G025 



EEN0<DQNT05 
lEPfiN H TYPANNIK02 

THE HIERON OF XENOPHON 



The Text adapted for the use of Schools 

WITH INTRODUCTION SUMMARIES 
CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY NOTES AND INDEXES 



REV. HUBERT A. HOLDEN M.A. LL.D. 

EXAMINER IN GREEK TO THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDON 

SOMETIME FELLOW AND LECTURER OF TRINITY COLLEGE CAMBRIDGE 

EDITOR OF ARISTOPHANES. PLUTARCH'S THEJilSTOKLXS, GRACCHI. NIMUAS ETC 



THIRD EDITION 



3Lonl»on 
MACMILLAN AND CO., Limited 

NBW TOBK THE MAOMILLAN COMPANY 
1904 
WO 
All rights reserved 



First Edition 1883. 

Reprinted 1885. 

New Edition, printed by C. J. CLAY, M.A. and SonSy 1888. 

Reprinted 1904. 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION 



Among the neglected minor writings of Xenophon 
one of the most graceful and interesting is the 
Uieron. Cobet speaks of it as venustiswnivs libeUuSy 
and the passage in it which describes the change 
from the contentment of private life to the anxieties 
of sovereignty (cap. vi ^ 1 — 8) has been pronounced 
by Prof. Mahaffy in his History of Greek Literature 
to be perhaps tlie most striking in all our remains 
of Xenophon. 

Interesting, however, though the Ilieron un- 
doubtedly is, as contributing, along with Plato's 
Republic, Aristotle's Politics and Herodotus' dis- 
cussion of the Seven Conspirators to our mental 
picture of the Greek tyrant — it had never before 
been edited with notes in English, or as a separate 
work, until I published an edition in 1883; and it is 
nearly forty years since the last annotated edition 
appeared in Germany. The dialogue is admirably 
suited to School purposes, and, the only objection 
that could be raised to its use having been removed 
H. I. h 



vi PREFACE 

in this edition, I hope that its present form will 
secure it a more favourable reception. 

The explanatory notes have been throughout care- 
fully revised ; new matter has been added, while of 
the old, compression here, expansion there, and, where 
necessary, excision have been employed unsparingly. 
Reference has been made throughout to Hadley- 
Allen's grammar, as well as that of Prof. Goodwin. 

In settling the text I liave adopted a course mid- 
way between the conservatism of Sauppe and the 
bold criticism of Cobet and C. Sclienkl. An editor 
of any portion of Xenophon's work is placed in con- 
siderable difficulty. No writer probably has suffered 
more from the glosses of sclioliasts and the ignorance 
of copyists importing the usages of their own day 
into his text ; and on the other liand there is practi- 
cally, as Mr Rutherford boldly avows, nonstandard of 
criticism possible for him. For although many later 
writers have commended his style as the perfection 
of Attic, calling him the 'Attic bee,' *the Attic Muse' 
and so forth, it is certain that we cannot reasonably 
apply the same standard to him as may be justly 
applied to Aristophanes, Plato and the Orators. 

Demosthenes speaks of Athenians losing the Attic 
purity of diction by absence from Athens, and Xeno- 
phon is a conspicuous example of this, often indeed 
quoted by the Greeks themselves e.g. Helladios (a 
grammarian of the 5th century A.D.), who remarks 
that *it is not a matter of wonder that a man like 



PREFACE vii 

Xenophon, who spent his time in military service and 
in intercourse with foreigners, should occasionally 
adulterate his mother-tongue; on which account no 
one should consider him as an authority on Atticism.' 
He must have picked up in his wanderings many 
Laconian and Ionian expressions and many old words 
uncongenial to Attic, which reappear mostly in the 
common dialect (koiv^ SwiXckto?), to which his style 
distinctly approximates. 

Hence it is difficult to exhibit a satisfactory Text, 
for, to use Sauppe's words {de Xenophontis vita et 
scriptis Pommentatio, 0pp. vol. i pr xvi), *aut metuen- 
dum est, ne constanter restituta antiquioris atticismi 
integritate orationis colorem exstinguas scriptoris 
proprium, quem ab ea descivisse iam olim concessum 
sit, aut cavendum, ne elegantissimo laudatissimoque 
scriptori congestarum ex omnibus fere dialectis for- 
marum turpem varietatem iniungas, quaerendumque 
ubique, quae legentem offendant aut parum emen- 
date scripta videantur utrum tribuenda ei an 
eximenda sint.' 

H. A. H. 



London 

March 10 1888 



b^ 



ADDENDA 

P. 64 ch. IV § 5 1. 27 add:— We know from Xen. (Hell, vi 
iy 32) that the murderers of Jason of Pherae, who was not an 
oppressive ruler (Biod. xy 61), were publicly honoured in most 
of the Greek states they visited (Xen. Hell, vi iv 32). On the 
other hand in the same work (vii iii 12) we are told that the 
memory of Euphron, tyrant of Sikyon, was idolized by his 
subjects, who buried him in the agora and worshipped him as 
the second founder of their state. 

Popular hatred is unequivocally expressed in the conduct 
of the Agrigentines, who forbade their citizens to wear the 
colour which had been worn by the body-guards of their tyrant 
Phalaris. But heroic honours were awarded to Gelon and 
Theron (Diod. zi 38, 53) ; and their names with those of a 
Eypselus, a Eleisthenes and a Peisistratus have been handed 
down to posterity with the glory they deserve, nbwman ArU- 
totle*8 Politics Vol. i p. 644. 

P. 70 ch. VII § 11 1. 61 add: — Polybius records the voluntary 
abdication of Iseas, tyrant of Earuneia, about b.c. 281 a cen- 
tury and more after the composition of this dialogue. See his 
Hist, u 42, where Mr Capes observes *Few usurpers could 
safely abdicate in Greece, as no constitutional forms could be 
observed in transferring the power which had no legal basis. 
The story of Maeandrius of Samos (Herod, iii 142) illustrates 
the difficulty of such abdication ; the language of the historian 
in the case of Cadmus of Cos shows that it was very rare in 
the earlier period (Herod, vii 164, 1)*. Cp. the remarks of 
Grote {Hist, of Greece t Vol« xi p. 212 ed. 1) on the resignation 
of Dionysius the younger. 

P. 76 oh. vin § 10 1. 48: add.— Cf. Arist. Polit. iii o. 9 
p. 1286 a, 2^ K<d ij 0vXa/c^ Si paaiXuc^ Kal oi) TvptwvLK^ did tt^p 
aMfv alrloM, ol ykp ttoXitcu tpvK&TTOwnv 6v\ok roi>s paaiXeU, 
roi^ 8i rvpdyvow ^€vik6v ol fiiv ydp xard v6fiov Kal ixdprup ol 6* 
OLKOVTUP &pxovffip. 

P. 78 ch. IX § 3 1. 11 add;— Cf. Plutarch Philop, c. 7, 4 
Kar aMdpa rOv vitav iKOffTov ivl r-qv (piXorifdap awc^pfiw Kal 
Ko\dt<»>y 'roi>i dpdyKrji ScofUvovs^ and for *coercion* read 
•pressure'. 

P. 81 ch. IX § 9 1. 46 add: — The recommendations of Simo- 
nides may have been present, as is suggested by Mr Newman, 
to Aristotle's mind, when he wrote, expressing his disapproval 
of the proposition to award honours to those who claimed to 
have discovered something advantageous to the state (Pol. n 8 
p. 1268b, 22) : xepl dk rod rots tvpLaKowrl n r^ tSXcl avfitf^ipov 
ibf dcT ylveffOal rtva Tifi'/iPt odK fffrip d<r<pa\h rb pofjiodereiPt d\\* 
c^6<l>da\fiop dKoGcai fi6pop' ix^^ 7^P <rvKo<paPTlai Kal Kip^ffcuj dp 
HfXOi ifo\iT€las, 



CONTENTS 



PAass 

INTRODUOTION Xl— lU 

1 On the Object of the Dialogue xi — xy 

2 On the interlocutors in it . . xy — xxxix 
8 On the rvpapplt of the Qreek* . xxxix — Hi 

TRXT 1—26 

KOTKB 29 — 90 

CBITIOAL APPSNDIX 93—105 

XNDSXKB 109—128 



INTRODUCTION 



1. The object of the dialogue 

The general scope of the IIieron\ which is a trea- 
tise thrown into the form of a dialogue between 
Hieron, tyrant of Syracuse, and Simonides of 
Keos, the celebrated lyric poet, is the same as that 
of the historical romance of the Cyropaedeia in which 
Xenophon has set out his own theories of an ideal 
monarchy. The subject which he treats of is the 
species of monarchy which the Greeks called rupav 
Fi9, i.e. *a Despotism founded on the overthrow of 
constitutional government.' But in its tendency it 
is ethic rather than political. *It examines' says 
Mure' 'neither the modes in wliich a tyranny may 
originate, nor the policy by which the constitutional 
party may best counteract tlie despot's schemes or 
undermine the tyrannical government in its turn. 
The argument is mainly directed against the vulgar 
opinion, that the possession of tyrannical power, with 
its unlimited sources of personal gratification, is 
necessarily a source of liappiness.' *It illustrates 

1 The alternative title TvpawiKbs, like that of oUoyo/uKSi, 
KvyvryeriKSs and iirirapxiicost agrees with \6yoi understood. 
' Hist, of Grecian Literature, Vol. iv p. 428. 



r 




xii INTRODUCTION 

what Xenophon calls the iorment of TantaluB — the 
misery of a despot wlio lias to extort obedience from 
unwilling subjects;— especially if the despot be one 
who has once known the comfort and security of 
private life, under toleralily favourable circumstances. 
If we compare this dialogue with the Platonic 
Gorgias, where a very analogous thesis is handled 
in respect to Archelaus — ^ve shall find Plato soaring 
into a sublime ethical region of his own, measuring 
the despot's liappiness and misery by a standard 
peculiar to liimself and making good w]mt he admits 
to be a paradox by abundant eloquence covering 
faulty dialectic : wJiile Xenophon applies to human 
life the measure of a rational common sense^ talks 
about pleasures and pains ^vhich every one can feel to 
be such and points out how many of these pleasures 
the despot foi-feits, how many of these pains and pri- 
vations he undergoes, ^ — in spite of that great power of 
doing hurt^ and less power, thotigh still considerable, 
of doing goodj which raises the envy of spectators. 
The Hiej'irn gives utterance to an interesting vein of 
sentimentj more common at Athens than elsewhere 
in Greece— serving as a corrective protest against 
unqualified worship of power"/ 

What was Xenophon's design in composing this 

* Qrote, liUionj of Plato and the other Companiont of So- 
crates Vol. Ill p, 577. Cp, Lertainier, Hhtoire im ligislateurg 
et dcM constituthms de la Grece antique. Tome i p. 154 f : Xt?no- 
phon n'a ni ra-iiatere gravitfi d'Aristote, ni la dramatiqiie v^he- 
ineiice de Platon, mais peiit-^tre dans le lli^rmi, oil son style 
et sea peinturea ont tine rfaliti' bi ptn^^ranto, 8'cBt-il iiioutrd 
phis vrai que ces deux grands [jf^niea qui le dupassent par tant 



INTEODUCTION xiii 

dialogue, and why he should have represented 
Bimonides as ad\dsing the tyrant wlio had hitherto 
pursued a course o£ violence and rigour to try a 
milder and n\ore refined policy, at a time when all 
despotic govemnients in Greece had come to an end, 
is a problem which cannot h© solved. The solution 
suggested by Delbnaech * in his Apology far Xen&phnn^ 
viz. that the contemporaneous events in Thessaly 
gave occasion t^o it, is a plausible one and deserves to 
be considered. Some time during Xenophon's retreat 
at Ski 11 us ^, where so many of his works were 
produced, Jason was engaged in the struggles against 
the old aristocratic families of Thessaly, which ended 
in his becoming tyrant of Pherae and ultimately in 
374 B.C. sovereign (rayo?) of the whole country , with 
the exception of Pharsalua {of which Polydamas 
was ruler), and his power became so great, that it 
excited much apprehension in Greece* Letronne' 

^ Xenophon. Zur Jiettmig s finer durch B, G. Ntehtihr 
fff/Hhrdeten Khrti, 182**, p. S3, 

* In Elifl, some miles aoutli of Olympia, where an enlate 
had been ftsaigned to him by the liacedaemontans, which they 
had wronted from tlie EIdjiiib. See Amih. v 3, 7, 

* II est bien possible que le choix d*un tel aajet Be rattach© 
au voyage que Tauteur a dd faire en Sicile, puisqne Atlidnee 
rapporte an mot de X^nophon^ fils de Gryllus, ^ In, table de 
DenyB le tyran (x p. 427—8). O'est, il est wai^ la senle trace 
qui exiBte d'un tel voyage; maia^ comme il n'a rien qae de 
tf^vraifleiublable k cette ^poque ou tantd'Ath^nieuBviBitaient 
Byracuse, uoas n'avona r^^ellement aucan motif do 1© rejeter. 
Denys Tancien a regn^ de 406 i 3G7 j dan a le coiirs de ces 
trente-nepf ann6efi, il nV a guisre que deux iutervalles qui 
oonviennent k ee voyage i celui de 405 k 401, ann^o du d^^part 
de Xinophon pour TAsie ; et Relui de 300 k S94, qui oomprend 



i 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

suggests that Xenophon may have been led to write 
the dialogue by what he saw at the court of Dionysius 
the elder, who was tyrant of Syracuse from B.c. 
406 to B.a 367; and there is a story of his having 
visited Sicily in the lifetime of the tyrant. Grote^ 

I'espace entre son retour d' Asie et son depart ponr aller rejoindre 
Ag^silas. n est difficile de se decider entre Tun et Tautre; 
nous penchons n^anmoins poor le premier; mais qnelqtie 
opinion qu*on adopte k cet 4gard, 11 nous parait assez probable 
que la redaction de VHiiron doit se rattacher k ce voyage. 
Xenophon, de retour de Syracuse, TAme encore toute remplie 
du spectacle des inquietudes de Denys et des moyens violents 
qu*il employait pour maintenir son autorit^ naissante, a pu 
ooncevoir Tid^e de ce dialogue, Tun des plus parfaits Merits qui 
soient sortis de sa plume sous le rapport de la diction et de 
Penchainement des pens^es. Dans cette hypoth^se VHUron 
aurait ^t^ compost entre 404 et 401, sous les yeux et peut-Stre 
par les conseils mdme de Socrate. L'auteur ^tait alors ^g^ 
de quarante ans. — Biographie VniverselUy Tome xlv p. 188 a, 
1851. But according to Grote l,c, p. 578 the tenor of the 
anecdote points to the younger Dionysius: if so, the visit must 
have been later than 367 b.c, and therefore subsequent pro- 
bably to the composition of the Hieron. 

^ *That the Syracusan Hieron should be elected as an 
exemplifying name, may be explained by the circumstance, 
that during 38 years of Xenophon's mature life (405 — 367 b.c.) 
Dionysius the elder was despot of Syracuse ; a man of energy 
and ability, who had extinguished the liberties of his native 
city, and acquired power and dominion greater than that of 
any living Greek. Xenophon, resident at Skillus, within a 
short distance from Olympia, had probably seen (Anab. v iii 
11) the splendid The6ry (or sacred legation of representative 
envoys) installed in rich and ornamented tents, and the fine 
running horses sent by Dionysius at the xcixth Olympic festival 
(384 B.C.); but he probably also heard the execration with 
which the name of Dionysius himself had been received by the 



INTRODUCTION xv 

also and Lerminier" hold like opinions as to the origin 
of the dialogue 

2. On the interlocutors of the dialogvs 
There were two tyrants of Syracuse named 
Hieron, one who reigned from 478 to 467 RC. ; the 
other, from 270 to 216 b.c., the great ally of the 
Romans in their struggle against the Carthaginians. 
The one who gives his name to the present dialogue 
was the elder of the two, son of Deinomen6s* and 
brother of Gelon, the tyrant of Gela and subsequently 
of Syracuse, who was renowned for his great victory 
over the Carthaginians at Himgra in 480 B.c/", 

apectators, and he would feel that the despot could hardly show 
himself there in person. There were narratives in circulation 
about the interior life of Dionysius, analogous to those state- 
ments which Xenophon puts into the mouth of Hieron. A 
predecessor of Dionysius as despot of Syracuse and also as 
patron of poets, was therefore a suitable* person to choose for 
illustrating the first part of Xenophon's thesis — the counter- 
vailing pains and penalties which spoilt all the value of power, 
if exercised over unwilling and repugnant subjects.' — l. e, 
p. 677. 

8 Platon, qui k Syracuse fut Thote des deux Denys, n*avait 
qxi*k recueillir ses souvenirs pour peindre le gouvemement 
arbitraire des tyrans, leurs calculs, leurs transes et I'espdce 
de fatality qui les emprisonnait. Un autre disciple de Socrate, 
X6nophon rapporta ^galement de Syracuse des impressions qui 
lui servirent k composer un de ces ouvrages aimables et courts 
dans lesquels les anciens mariaient la raison et la gr&oe aveo 
un charme ineffable. L e, p. 153. 

» Pindar Pyth. i 79, n 18. 

10 Herod, vii 166. Diodorus Siculus (xi 25) tells us that the 
number of captives taken by Gelon was so great ujarc 8ok€w 
xrwh T^f vfyrov yeyov^vau, Hjv Aip^fTjv oXtjv alxj^-AXiarov. The 
oonditions of the peace were so much more favourable than the 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

— popularly put on the same day as the battle of 
Salamis, but really won somewhat earlier — by which 
he obtained a great accession of power and influence. 
Hieron's share in the glory of that day was com- 
memorated by his brother in the inscription at Delphi 
which recorded his triumph". 

The accounts of Hieron's succession to the kingdom 
of his brother vary. It is stated by Diodorus 
Siculus^' that Gelon appointed him his successor. 
According to others, however, Gelon left an infant 
son, whom Hieron, his guardian, displaced and thus 
became an usurper. Hieron's rule was more severe 
and tyrannical than that of his elder brother and he 
became jealous of his more popular brother Polyze- 
los, who was at the head of the army and had married 

Carthaginians expected owing to the intervention of Gelon's 
wife Demaretd (ib. e. 26), that in gratitude they presented her 
with a hundred talents of gold, from the proceeds of which 
were struck, circa b.c. 479, the celebrated Syracusan medallions 
or properly speaking Pentekontalitra or Dekadrachms (pieces of 
50 litrae or 10 Attic drachms) sumamed Demareteia (Simo- 
nides ir. 196 ed. Schneidewin). See Mr B. Y. Head's interesting 
monograph on the Chronological Sequence of the Coins of Syra- 
cuse, p. 8, London, 1874, also his Historia numorunij p. 151. 

" Schol. on Pind. Pyth, i 80, ^ffl di t6v TAwva roin dSeX- 
001^ <f>CKo4>povo6fi€vov dvaOeivai t<} 0€(fi xp^^^^ Tplirodas iinypd- 
rf/avra ravra 

ircudas Aciyofievcvi, rhv rplirod^ A.v$ifievai.y 
pdpPapa vucfyravra^ fOvrj* iroXkiiv di irapaffx^iv 
ffi^fifjMXov "BWrjfftp X"P* ^* iXevBeplrjp. 
^^ XI c. 38 6 /ScuriXei); TiXtav virb &pp<a<rrlas ffwex^fJi'Cyoi KtU 
Tov ^p direXiriffas ttjv paaiXelav irapibtaKev *lip(avi rf 
vparfivrdrip twv &de\<pCjv, 




INTHODUCTION xvii 



Demareti*, widow of tlii3 late tynmt mid daughlerof 
Theron tyrant of Agrigentutn. Hieron is said to 
have sent him on u militiiry expedition to It^ily or 
Sicily, ill liopes that Jie might fall in wan His design 
was unsuccessful and Hieron's suspicion and jealousy 
led iiltinmtely to an open quarrel between the 
brothers, when Polyzelos took refuge wdth his father- 
in-law, Theron was about to support his cause by an 
armed intervention when the brothers beciune recon- 
ciled by the mediation^ it is said, of Simonides, and 
Hiemn in the end married Theron's sister *^. 

We have nothing but fragmentary notices of the 
events of the reign of Hieron, but, such as they are, 
they suffice to attest his great power and influence. 
In Sicily he was not only master of Syracuse, Gela, 
Kamarina and Megara Hyblaea, which cities had 
been under the sw^ay of Gelon, but he obtained pos- 

" Sohuh ad Findan Olymp. it B7 : h O^pitiv o^rcs, *Aif^7ai'- 
ffwdtrT€i tV ah-ov dvyaTipa^ Artfiap4'n}v. rod M TiXutvos reXei'- 

ASt'Kpbs ^SiHfi^aas khI trpa^aatadp^vQi rbv rpos Zi'^apira^ w6\tfjwtf<t 
i^dyet TovTo* rijs f'^ev^ KtiTtiipStttKir ot oi'V Kcd tovtov rhv 
wdXcfiov HoXi'i^Xov 6 *14pi>}v, qvk. ix^*' ^ '"* **^ 7i?i'0iito» irpdf 
aC^Ti^y iTtipdro tffurtpl^tiv. B^ptifv o5*', vwtpayavaKriitTat Btrya- 
Tp6t apia KtU yaptppovj iFvppd^tti irpbf ^lipuva i^/Scrt'Atro x6Mfiatf^ 5^ 
^ipLwirliT}t X^piKbi Ka.Ta.raiki SiaXXd^as^ ui aal KTjSilap Tp6f 
dXXi7Xot/t 'jratiJffOffiSat, 'liptavuf \a^6vT0i TT}y rod O^fmvQt ddfXfpyv, 
Biodoroa (xi 48) gives rather & different vcjiBion of the atory. 
He Btatefl that Theron abandoned his hostile inteatiotiH out of 
gialitlldie to Hiemu for Ibetraying the desii^a of the people of 
Himera» who had rebelled against the tyranny of ThraeydfteoB, 
their governori eon of Thcrun^ and Huegkt Ihe aid of Hieiron. 

p J 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

session also of the powerful cities of Naxos and 
Katana. The inhabitants of the two latter were 
removed to Leontini, and he peopled them with 
Syracusan and other Dorians, giving Katana the new 
name of Aetna ^*. His influence extended as far as 
Magna Graecia, for we find him interposing in the 
affairs of the cities there on two several occasions, 
when he prevented the destruction of Locri by 
Anaxilas, tyrant of Khegium, without armed inter- 
vention, and again, when he procured the retirement 
of Mikythos from Rhegium in favour of the two sons 
of the same Anaxilas'*. An attempt of Thrasy- 
daeos on the death of his father Theron in 472 B.C. 

^* Diod. Sic. XI 49 'I^pwv 5^ toiJs t6 ^a^lom teal roi>s Kara- 
valovs iK Tuv ir6\e(i;)' dpoffTi^as Idlovs oUi^opas diriffTetXcv, €k 
fUv HcXoTTovPT^ffov irevra/ct<rxtX^ous a$pol<raSt iK 8k XvfMKovffQv 
SXKovs TOffoijTovs irpoadeh Kcd t^v fih KaTdvrjv fierwySfiaffev 
AhvTjVf T^p Si x^P°^ oj5 fidpov t^v Karavcdap dWa Kal iro\\r}p 
TTJs dfidpov irpoaOils KareKXripo^xV^^^y fivplovs ir\7jp(&ffai olK'fyropa's, 
.... Toi>j 8k "Sa^lovs Kal Toi>s Karavalovs iK tQv Trarplduy 
fieT(fiKtff€v els Toifs AcoptIpovs kcU fierd tCjp iyx(>)pi(>iv vpoaira^e 
KaroiKcip tV "TdXip. Schol. on Pindar Pyth. 1 1. 118 dvaKrlaas 
tV Kardprjp 6 'lipcjp Kcd Atrprjp fieropofidaaSf dtotKCip Aeipofiivei 
T(p vlfp raj&TTjp 8idu)K€P ip p6fJLois t^s AwpfSoj <TTd0fxrjs* Schol. ad 
OL I 35, Pyth. 1 1. 1 ttjv Kardyrjv dpaKriaas oficjpijfuas r^ vapa- 
KeifUptp 6p€i Atrpav vpoaijybptXHTe koX AItpoXop iavrbp Karb, roits 
dyQpas vlkCjp dp€K^pv^€P, Hence in a fragment 71, 2, quoted 
by Strabo vi p. 412 a, Pindar addresses him as Krlarop Atrpas, 
Cf. Nem. IX 3. 

" Schol. ad Pind. Pyth. i 98 6ti 8i *Apa^i\aos A6Kpovs i^ei^ 
Xffirep &p8rjp dvoXiffoi Kal iK(a\i5$7i rp6s*Iip(apos, laTopei Kal 
^ETlxapfios ip IfdffotSi ib. n 34 ^Apa^lXa tov "Mea-ai/jpris Koi'Pi/yfou 
rvpdpvov AoKpoTs iroXe/uoOvrof, *lip(av irifixf/as Xp6fuoy rhp KtibeaT^p 
dirfTTciXifjaeP adn^t c/ fi^ KaraXOffauTo rbv Tpbi airoi>s TrbXcyuop, 
airrbs irphs rb^V'ffyioi^ <frpaT€6€iV. 



INTRODUCTION xix 

to attack Syracuse ended in his complete defeat 
by Hieron and ultimate downfall**. But Hieron's 
chief glory dates from liis great victory in a sea-fight 
474 B.C. with the Etruscans'^ near Kume in wliich he 
shattered the naval power of the people, to whose 
early OaXarroKpar la the Tyrrhenum Mare owed its 
name. 

The government of Hieron appears from the ac- 
counts of ancient writers to liave been considerably 
more severe and despotic than that of his father. 
Diodorus after praising the mildness and peaceful end 
of Gelon's reign uses very different language about 

'« Diod. Sic. XI 63. 

17 To this Pindar Pyth. i 71 ff . refers : 
TdaffofJMif v€v<roVj Kpovluv, a/xepov 

6<ppa Kar^ oUov 6 ^oIvl^ b TvpffavCjv r* dXaXarij ixVi vavff iff to- 
pop Cppiv I5wp tAv TTpb K^ffias' 
ola 'ZvpaKOfflwv apxv SafJ^affO^'Tei TddoVy 
(jl)Kuir6p<av &ir6 va(av 6 fftpip iv ir6pT(fi pd\t0' oXtKlav^ 
'EXXdd' i^i\K(ap ^apelas dovXelaSy 

i.e. 'grant, I beseech thee, my prayer, son of Kronos, that the 
war-party (lit. war-cry) of the Phoenician and Tyrrhenian 
hosts may remain in peace and quiet at home, now that they 
have witnessed the discomfiture of their fleet off Cumae, in 
what plight they were when vanquished by the lord of Syra- 
cuse, who cast into the sea the flower of their youth from off 
the swift-sailing ships, so drawing Hellas (Magna Graecia) out 
of the heavy yoke of bondage.' Gf. Diod. Sic. xi 51. A bronze 
helmet, now in the British Museum, was found at Olympia in 
▲.!>• 1817, with the following inscription : 

'Idpcjp 6 Aeivo/x^peos 

Kal Tol XvpaKdffioi 

Tip M Tvpdp* iirb Kt;/iat, 
(Bdckh CJ.G. 16, Hicks' Manual no. 15) where Tvpdi'' is for tA 
Tv/i^d, * the Etruscan spoils.* 



XX INTRODUCTION 

Hieron. He says^": 'I^cov, o irp€a'PvTaTOi T<av aScXc^fov, 
ovx d/AoiCDS VPX^ '''***'' vTroT€TayiJi€Viov' rjv yap <f>LXapyvpos 
KoX piaio^ KaOoXov ttJs dirXjOTrjro^ koI KoXoKayaOia^ 
raScXfj^ov ctAAoTpMUTttTos. Pindar in the four Odes, in 
which he celebrates the victories won by Hieron at 
the Olympian and Pythian games, cautions him 
against particular faults e.g. pride such as ruined 
Tantalus", avarice*®, encouragement of flatterers*^, 
and presumption**, and exliorts him to liberality and 
moderation in his desires. Aristotle also in his Poli- 
tics*^ makes a passing allusion to his jealous and 

w XI 67. 

19 01. 1 54—57 

el 5^ S-fj Ttv^ &p5pa dvarbv *OXiJ/iirou (rKovol 

irlfJMffav, riv ^AvtolKo^ ovror dXXA yap KaTatrixl/ai. 

fUyav 6\pov oiK idwdaOrjj K6p(^ d* ?Xcv 

arouf inr^poirXoyf 
i.e. *for surely, if ever there was a mortal man that the 
guardians of Olympus honoured, that man was Tantalos. But 
he was not able to digest his great happiness, but through 
excess of it he got an overwhelming woe.* 

20 Pyth. I 90—94 

cfirep re ^cXets &Kohp ijdeTav alel «cXi^eiv, firj Kdfwe \lap dairdvais* 
i^Ui d' iSairep Kvpepvdras dv^p 

UttIov dveixbev, fi^ doXuOySf w ^^Xos, eurpairiXois xipdeffai ..... 
• • • • o(> ^Ipei Kpolffov 4>CKb4>p(av dperdf 

Le. * if you care to hear at all times a pleasing report of your- 
self, be not troubled too much about expenses, but like a 
pilot let out your sail to the wind. Be not deceived, my friend, 
hy juggling gains... Croesus' kindness and generosity is not 
forgotten.' 

« Pyth. n 72 ff. 

23 Pyth. in 55 ff. 

23 v p. 1313^ 14. Cf. TTpoaaycjyeTs Plut. Dion. c. 2 
and c. 28. 



INTRODUCTION xxi 

suspicious temper, as shown in the system of espionage 
which he established and the employment of 'tale- 
bearers' (TTorayoyytiSc?, as they were called at Syracuse) 
and 'eaves-droppers' (wraKovorai). Xenophon" him- 
self puts into his mouth this confession: olrvpawoi 
dvayKoiovrcu TrXcarra <rv\dv dSCKtoq koI tcpci kol dvOpd' 
-TTOVS Sta TO CIS TttS avayKaCa^ Sawdvas act Trpoo-Scur^ot 
ypqiAjdiiov, from which and from the admonitions ad- 
dressed to him by Simonides it may be inferred that 
Hieron did not abstain from rapine and sacrilege and 
that there was much in his conduct towards his sub- 
jects, which was generally regarded with disapproba- 
tion. On the other hand there are not wanting proofs 
tliat, with this alloy of baseness in his character, he 
had some considerable merits. Thus, Pindar bestows 
praises on his gentleness and hospitality**, his justice**', 

«* IV 11. 

» Pyth. Ill 70 ff.— 

vfHWS iffToiSf oil <f>6oviu)v &ya0oUt ^elvois 5^ davfuurrbs irarij/), 
i.e. 'who rules at Syracuse, a king courteous to citizens, not 
jealous of the good but looked up to as a father by strangers.' 

« Olymp. VI 92 ff. 

elirbv d^ fiefivaaScu ZvpaKOffffdy re ical *Ofyruylar 
tAv 'liptav Kadapip aKdirT(p 5t^irwv, 

dpTM flTjddfJiePOS, <f>OLVLKbir€^V 

dfuffiirci Ad/mrpa XevKlirirov re $vyarp6s ioprdv, 

Kol Zrjpbs AItvcUov Kpdros, 
i.e. *and bid them make special mention both of Syracuse and 
of Ortygia, which Hieron rules with righteous sceptre, pursuing 
truthful counsels, and worships Demeter of the ruddy foot, the 
festival of her daughter with the white steeds and the majesty 
of Aetnean Zeus.' 

H. I. c 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

his love of excellence % and his virtues in gene- 
ral". To these passages we may add Plutarch's 
judgment of him: aAAa FcXcova yc la-yLtv Kat 'Icpcova 
Tovs iSiKcXtcorag koX UeLO-icrTpaTOv rov 'linroKpaTOV^ ort 
TTovrjpLijL Krq(rdfi€voL TvpavviSa^ ixpija-avro irpos ap^rrjv 
avrais #cat Trapai/o/xo)? ctti to ap\€LV €\06vt€s lyivovro 
fiirpiOL Kttt Si^/Aco^cXet? apxovT€^^. 

27 Olymp. I 103 ff.— 

fi"^ Tiv* dfupdrepa Ka\u>v re tSpiv dfifie Kal d^vafiiv Kvpidrepov 
Tujv ye vvv «cXura?<rt baiba\{b(T€pxv i^fjvwv irTuxats, 
debi iirlTpoiros iu)v reaiai fi'^derat 
iX'^v Tovro Kcidos, "liptav^ 

i.e. *and I am confident that there is no host of the present 
time whom I can bedeck with the artistic tarns of song, that 
is at once more acquainted with honours and has more right- 
ful influence in his power. The god who is your family 
guardian makes you, Hieron, his special care and has regard 
to your interests.' 
« 01. 1 11 ff.— 

• • *Up(aifOif . . 

defUffTcTov ds dfjupiirei ffKairrov iv iro\vfid\(p 
liiKeXiq,, dpiircjv pukv Kopv^s dperav dirb iraaapf 
dy\at^€Tai di Kal 

fJLOWriKOLs iv d(jbT(pt 

ota iral^ofiev <f>(Xap 

oj'dpes dfupl OapA. rpdve^ay, 

i.e. ' of Hieron, who wields the judicial sceptre in Sicily, the 
land that teems with fruit, culling the heads from all kinds 
of virtues, and he rejoiceth also in music's rarest bloom, to 
wit, in such festive lays as we men oft raise at the friendly 
board.' 

^ de sera numinis vindicta p. 551 f. 



INTROD UCTION xxiii 

There are two passages in Aelian where Hieron is 
mentioned favourably, one at least of which may per- 
haps help us to reconcile these contradictory accounts. 
He says that Hieron was at first as illiterate as his 
brother Gelon, but that after a severe illness his 
character in this respect underwent a complete 
change and he became liumanised and a devoted 
patron of learning ^°. Elsewhere*' he gives him a 
very much better character than Diodorus Siculus 
does. 

From whatever cause, whether in consequence of 
the severe illness with which he was attacked in the 
fourth year of his reign (474 B.C.) or after he had 
established liis authority more firmly, Hieron seems to 
have become more amiable and to have displayed 
more of the qualities, that ought to distinguish those 

** var. hist, iv 15 'I^pcjvd <paffi rbv SticcXfas rdpaivov rd 
irpGna ISidyrrfv {rudem) ehai Kal dvdpdnrwv dfiova&rarov Kal t^v 
dypoiKlap dXXA firj5^ Kar' dXlyov rod ddeXipov bia<j>^p€iv rod 
FAwvos* iirel 8^ airf ffvyrjvix^V voarjaaiy /MvaiKuyraros dvdp(b- 
iriop iyiyerot ttjp (txoXtjv t^p ix t^s appiiXTrias els dKoxxTfutra 
iretraidevfUva KaraOifievos. fnoaOeli o^ 'I^pup cvvrjv ^tfxwvlS-g 
rf Keiip Kal Tltuddptp r^ QrjPaiip Kal BaKxvXlhi rf *Iov\L^Ty. 
6 8i TiKwp SpOpuiiros &fiov<Toi. 

'* ib. IX 1 *Iip<apd ipaffi rbp "LvpaKoinop <l>CK4\\riPa yepicdaj. 
Kal nfiTJaax vaidelap dpSpetorara, Kal cus ^p irpoxciporaros €h 
rdt ei^pyeffias \^yov<Ti' irpo$ufi6T€pop ydp airop <paaip xo-pf't^<^^ou 
^ rods alrouPTai Xappdpeip, rfp dk Kal t^p \^vxV dpdpetbraroi, 
dfiaffopUrrus d^ koI rots ddeXipoU ffvpe^iuxre Tpiaip ofxrt, vdvv 
fft^dpa dyaiHi<ras aJ>Toi>$ Kal vw' aCrrup <f>i\rj0€U h ry puipct.. 
Tointfi <f>aal koX ^ifKOplSrjs (rvpcpiwae Kal JltpdapoSt kiI oC^k (axprjir^ 
ye XifKOptdrjit ^apds (3v ifirb yi^pcaSj irpbi avrbp d<fnKi<r$ai. ''Up 
Itiv ydp rj ipwrei (fHXapyvpos 6 Kctos, Tpoih-peire di alrbp Kal 
rXiop ij ToO 'Upcjpos tfHXodtaplOf ^<rL 



xxiv INTRODUCTION 

who rule over others, than he had shown at the 
beginning of his reign. 

Be that as it may, whatever his defects and de- 
merits, however inferior he was to Gelon'* in the 
mildness of his rule, Hieron evinced his superiority 
over his brother by the liberal patronage which he 
accorded to men of letters, so that his court became 
a centre of literature and art and the resort of tiie 
most distinguished poets and philosophers of the day. 
Aeschylus^, and Simonides"* were admitted to in- 
timacy with him; Bakchylides** and Pindar were 
frequent visitors at his court; Epicharmos also of 
Kos and Xenophan^s of Kolophon appear to have 
been on intimate terms with him. Intercourse with 
men of this stamp must have done much to humanise 
the tyrant's natural tastes and inclinations, and we 
may fairly assume him to have been ah instance of 
the truth of Horace's^ maxim : — 

nemo adeo ferm est ut non mitescere possitf 
si modo culturae patientem commodet aurem. 

In his love of splendour and in the magnificence of 
his court Hieron surpassed other Hellenic tyrants*''. 

^ Diod. Sic. XI c. 26 6 Ti\(op ixfiV^<^ ird<rip eirietKQsi fidXurra 
fjL^p 5tA rbv tdiov rpdvov o^ TJKiffTa 5k xal <nrc^5(t)v atravrai ^x^^ 
reus eipolcus Idlovs: ib. c. 38 toO TiXcjvos itrieiKCjs vpoearriKSTos 
rwv ^iK€\i(aT(av koX iroXX^i' eivofdav re Kal irdvTCjv iiriTTjdelcjv 
eitvofAav vapexofUfOv reus ToXeai. 

^ Pausanias i 2, 3. 

•* Athenaeus xiv c. 72 p. 666 d, Aelian ubi supra. 

" Aelian ubi supra, Sohol. on Pindar Pyth. n 181. 

«• Epist. I i 40. 

^ Herodotus in 125 must refer to Hieron when he says: 
ih-i/iif ot SvpuKoalbw ycpdfievoi r^pavpot, o^dk ets r&v *'EtK\'qviKC!>v 



INTRODUCTION xxv 

The inscription on the noble gift, which he vowed to 
the Olympian Zeus and which was set up after his 
death by his son Deinomends at Olympia, recorded, 
according to Fausanias^, that he was three times suc- 
cessful at the great Olympic contests, twice with the 
single-horse, and once in the four-horse chariot-race. 
The first of these distinctions is celebrated by Pindar 
in his first hnviKiov. His other victories, at Delphi 
and elsewhere, have been, as we have already seen, 
immortalised by the Theban bard. Like his brother 
Oelon he sent splendid offerings to the temple at 
Delphi'" also in commemoration of his victories. 

rvpdyptap &^i6s i<m UdXvKpdrei fuydKorpeTeLiiif avfipXtfOipfai. Gf. 
Plutarch Themist. c. 25. 

* vni 42, 8 *14puyos &TfoOa,v6vroi irp&rcpov irpiy 1j ry *0\vfAritfi 
All dtfaBtipaL rd AvaOiifiara S. cif^aro iirl rwv tTirw rout W/ratf, 
oihu AeiPOfUvrjs 6 *14p<apos dr^duKep {firip toO varpSs, ^Ovdra 
Kcd raOra iroii^/itara, jcai iiriypdfifJLara iv *0\vfJLiri^f rb fiiv {nrkp 
Tov dpaB'^fiarSs iariv airrw ' 

Z6v wore PiKi/iffas, ZcO *0X«J/tAir«6, ffepofbv ArfCava 

T€dpLwT(fi fUv ava^i fiovpOK^Xirri 9^ 9lst 
5(3p* *Up(av rdde aoi ix(ipi<r<raTO' irats d* dp^OrjKe 
AeiPOfjJpTfS iraTpbt pafrjpa ^vpaKoalov, 
t6 Si ircpop X^et twv iiriypafi/idTiav 

Tlbt ikiv fi€ 'M.iKunfos 'Opdras i^tTiK€ff<r€v 
pdcifi iv Alylpjj Sutfuira pcuerdtop, 
ib. VI 12, 1 ; irXrffflov 6i dpfia t4 iffTL xaX'^oui' Kal dvijp dvaficpii' 
KUfS iir* a^6, jc^Xi/rej Si tinrot irapd t6 dpfia ets iKwripoidev HerriKtt 
KoX ivl rCop tiTTUfv KaBi^ovrai Tatdfs. vvoiuffipATa bk M pUout 
'OXvpixiKcus iffrlp *14p(ayos toO AeivopAvovs Tvpopp'^aoPTOf Zu/ki- 
KOcUav furd rbp dbeXtpbp TiXupa, rd bk dpaO'^/Mra o^x 'I^pw 
dxdareiXep, dXX' 6 fiiP diroboifs rf def Aeipofiiprit icrhf b *Upiapot, 
fpya bit ^^ /"-iv 'Ovdra rod AlyiPT/JTov rb ipfJM, KoKafilbos bi ol 
triroL re ol iKaripcaOep koI iir* airtav elclp ol iraibes* 

** Athenaeus vi c. 20 p. 231 — 2: laropoww o^o«. ^. ^aVco.% 



xxvi INTRODUCTION 

Hieron became the type of splendid misery as he had 
been of splendid success; for during Jiis life he lived in 
an atmosphere of treachery and meanness, surrounded 
by sycophants and informers, and he was the victim 
of great bodily suffering. He died 01. 78, 2, b.c. 467 
at his favoured Aetna, in the territory of Katana, in 
the 12th year of his reign *^', where he was interred 
with heroic honours as the founder of the city*': but 
his tomb was afterwards destroyed by tJie former in- 
habitants on their return to the town after expelling 
the new colonists. 

The other interlocutor in the imaginary dialogue is 
the poet Simon ides, son of Leoprepes, of 
lulis in the island of Keos, whose life exten- 
ded from 01. 56, 1 to 01. 78, 1 ( = 556—468 b.c.), 
the most stirring and eventful, if not the most glorious, 
period of Greek history". He was one of a family, 

6*E/9^(rtos KoX QebTTOfva-oi) Kocfirfd^vau, t6 1Iv$ik6v Upbv {fir6 re toG 
r^yov Kal ToO (Jxrh. tovtop Kpoicov, jxeO* o*j inr6 re ViXtavoi koL 
*Iip(avos TW¥ l^iKeXiumaPf toO fih rplvoda Kod vIktiv xP^<^o^ ireirotiy- 
fiiya ioKidivTOi Ka$^ ovs xpbvovz S^p^i/s iveaTpdreve ry 'EXXadt, rod 
2' ^Upupos rd 6fxota. Athenaeus proceeds with the story told by 
Theopompos how Hieron, being unable to procure pure gold for 
his offerings, had to send to Hellas, where he bought some of 
ArchitelSs of Corinth ds iroXXy XP^^V (rvp(^vot)fi€vos Kark fUKpbv 
$rj<ravpoifs etx^v oifK 6\iyovs. 

^ Schol. ad Find. 01. 1 1, Pyth. i 89, in l.Diod. Sic. xn 38 
'14p<av .. .ipa<Tl\€v<T€ rtav ^vpcucovffiujv irtj ^vBcku Kal fiijvas 6ktu)^ 
ib. 1 166, Aristot. Pol. v c. 12, Plutarch de Pyth. orac. 19. 

*i Diod. Sic. XI 66 'Uptav d^...iT€\€iJT7f<T€P iv r-j Kardvri Kcd 
Tifiup ijpmKWP (rvx^Vi ws Av KrlffTtis yeyopCjt ttjs T6Xews. The 
founding of Aetna was celebrated by Aeschylus in his Alrvouai 
{yvpoiKeij and by Pindar in his first Pythian. 

^ According to his own testimony in the Epigram in 



INTRODUCTION xxvii 

in which music and poetry was an hereditary art, and 
which held some office in connexion with the worship 
of Dionysos. He was himself chorus-teacher in the 
town of Carthaea where the house of the chorus 
(xofnyy€tov) was his usual abode*'. From his native 
island he migrated to Athens at the invitation of the 
Peisistratid Hipparchos**, at whose court he spent 
several years (ac. 527 — 514), at the same time as 
Anacreon and his rival, the dithyrambic poet Lasos, 
Pindar's teacher**, and was highly esteemed by him. 
After the murder of Hipparchos in b.c. 514 (of which 
event the poet speaks as a great light to Athens**, 
although the tyrant was so great a benefactor to him 
personally) and the subsequent overthrow of Hippias 
in B.C. 510 Simonides spent the next period of his life 
in Thessaly with the families of the Aleuadae and 
Skopadae, the hereditary grandees of Thessaly, 
whose names have been rescued from oblivion by the 

Planudes {Jacobs Anth, Palat. Append. Epigr. 79 = 203 Schnei- 
dewin) he was 80 years old in 01. 75, 4 (= b.c. 477) : 

^PX^^ * i^SelfiavTOi ixkv *A0Tjpalois St* hUa 
'AmtioxIs <f>v\^ daiSaXiw rpliroda' 
♦ ♦ * ♦ ♦ 

dfA<pl iiSouTKaXlif S^ Xifjuapldrj icwtro kvSos 
^duKOPTah-ei iraidl Aewir/)eWos. 
*^ See the story related by Chamaeleon in Athenaeus x c. 84 
p. 456 c. 

♦* Plat. Hipparch. p. 223 c, Aelian var, hist, vm 2. 
« Arist. Vesp, 1410 with Schol. 
^ Epigr, 131 = 187 Schneidewin. 

^ fUy* *A0Tivaloi(ri <p6u)s y4p€d* rfyU^ 'A/wcrro- 
yeiTiov "linrapxov kt€iv€ Kal 'Apfwdtos, 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

poet's OprjvoL, and the iinvLKia*^ in which he sang of 
the prizes won by their horses in the sacred 
games*®. Of these epinikian odes that on the victory 
of Skopas with the four-horse chariot is best known 
by the commentary on a fragment of it in the Protor 
goraa of Plato*®. There are also extant fragments of 



^^ i.e. songs performed at a feast in honour of a victor in 
public and sacred games, cither on the scene of the conflict or 
upon his return home. *The most striking occasion' says 
Mr J. A. Symonds (Studies in tlie Greek poets Vol. i p. 128 
od. 2) ' must have been the commemoration of a victory in 
the Temple of Zeus at Altis in the Olympian plain by moon- 
Ught.' 

*8 Theokritus Idyll xvi 1. 86 ff., speaking of the value of 
song and of the wealth of the Aleuadae and Skopadae, 
says of them : — 

A/jvcuTToi 8^, tA iroXXA Kal tX^ia rijva XiTr^vTcj, 
deiXois iy P€Kije(r<n fiojcpoin alSyas fKctPTOf 
el fi^ dfivbs doidbs 6 K-^ios, al6\a tpuvitav 
jSdpjSirov is ToXtJXopSoPf iv ivSpdffi 6^k^ ovofMcroiti 
bTrXoripois' Ti/JLoLi d^ Kal ujKies iWaxov trrvoif 
dt atpkv i^ Upuv ffT€<pavT}<p6poi ^vdov irfiijvwv, 

* and for long ages they had lain nameless among the forlorn 
dead, leaving behind them all that store of wealth, had not the 
skilled minstrel of Ceos with subtle song to the accompaniment 
of a stringed lyre made them famous among later generations : 
and their swift racers also, who came back to them from the 
sacred contests crowned with victory, had a share in their 
meed of praise.' 

^ p. 339 F. In this ode the saying of Pittakos ' it is difficult 
to be good,' which was censured as requiring too much, was 
probably applied for the purpose of extenuating some faults in 
his patron's character. ' With Ionian facility and courtly com- 
pliment' says Mr Symonds I.e. 'he made excuses for a bad man 
by pleading that perfect goodness was unattainable.' 



INTRODUCTION xxix 

the dirges {Bprjvoi) on the hapless Skopad*® and on 
the Aleuad Antiochus, son of Echekratides : and 
doubtless the exquisite lyric piece containing the 
La/inent of Danae^^ was part of a Oprjvoq composed for 
one of the Aleuadae. But the rough nature of the 
Thessalians was not to be softened by the charms of 
his poetry or at least to be covered with a varnish of 
civilization, for he says himself of them dfiaOiarepoC 
cto-iv rj m VTT Ifxov liairaraia-Oai^'. That these families 
were not always equally liberal to their poet, appears 
from the anecdote recording the most dramatic inci- 
dent in his life**. According to the story Skopas 

^ fr. xlvi ed. Schneidewin : 

Aydpuiros iCiw /n^ wore etTrijs 5 tl ylyerai aifpioy^ 
fijfi Avdpa lS(i)v 6\fiioVt Baffov "xjidvov fatrerai' 
ihK€ia ydpf o^d^ ravwrepiyov fivlai 
olh-dis d fierdiTTaur IS ; 
i.e. 'mortal that yon are, never talk of what is to happen to- 
morrow, nor when you see a man prosperous, (say) how long 
he will last ; for swift is the change, not so swift is the move- 
ment of a winged fly from place to place.' 

" Prof. Jebb thinks on the contrary that it was a' piece 
complete in itself, not a gem adorning a larger piece on another 
subject. See his admirable Essay on Pindar in Journal of 
Hellenic Studies, Vol. ni p. 164. 
^ Plutarch de aud. poet. p. 15 c. 

w Cic. de oratore ii 86, 362 f. Cf. Quintilian Imt. orat. 
XI 2, 11; Valer. Max. i 8 ext. 7, Phaedr. Fah, iv 25, Ovid 16. 
51 f. (ed. B. Ellis), 

lapsuramque domum suheas, ut sanguis Aleuae, 
Stella Leoprepidae cum fuit aequa viro, 
Callimach. fr. 64 (ed. Meineke) where Simonides is made to 
Bay: 

oifS* vfidas, IIo\ijd€VK€i, {firirpeffeVy oif fi€ fieXdOpov 
fUWovTOS TlrrT€LP iKTbs iOeadi wore 



XXX INTRODUCTION 

once refused him more than half the promised reward 
and referred him for the other half to the Dioskuri, 
whom he had also praised in his ode; and, in conse- 
quence, the Dioskuri saved Simonides when the build- 
ing fell and buried Skopas in its ruins. 

But the high reputation of Simonides among the 
Hellenes is chiefly apparent at the time of the Persian 
war, when he was resident at Athens. He was in- 
friendly intercourse with Themistokles*^* and the 
Spartan general Pausanias, and he became the spokes- 
man of the nation in celebrating the great deeds and 
heroes of that period. The poems which he wrote for 
this purpose were for the most part epigraphs; 
but some were lyrical compositions, like the panegyric 
of those who had fallen at Thermopylae and the odes 
on the sea-fights at Artemision and Salamis. Others 
were elegiacs, as the elegy** in honour of the 
warriors who fell at Marathon (b.c. 490), for which 
he is stated to have carried off the prize from 
Aeschylus himself, the Athenians having instituted 

daiTv/JLovwv diro /xovpov, ore KpavvdiiPuoi alai 
uiXiadey fieydXavs oIkos M XKorrddas. 

Schneidewin infers from a quotation from Phanias of Eresos 
by Athenaeus x p. 438 e, who placed the death of Skopas under 
the head of Destruction of Tyrants through revenge, that the 
tyrant's death was really plotted by the people and that timely 
notice was given to Simonides, on account of his sacred cha- 
racter as a poet, of the intended undermining of the building 
in which Skopas was about to celebrate his victory. *The 
story' observes Mr Symonds * perhaps belongs to the same 
class as the cranes of Ibykus and the dolphin of Arion.' 

** Plutarch Them, v 4. 

w Grammaticus in vita Aeschyli p. xiv Dindorf. 



INTRODUCTION xxxi 

a contest of the chief poets. Ten years later, in 
B.C. 479, he composed the epigram (cVtKiy^ciov) in- 
scribed on the tomb of the Spartan heroes of Thermo- 
pylae** and the celebrated iyKtajxiov on the same*^, 

^ Herod, vii 228 : 

(5 |c?v', iyY^Weiy AaKedcufwylois, 6ti rqZe 
K€l/jL€$af Tois KeLvcay jtiifj^ai. wciddfieyoi. 
die, hospes, Spartae nos te hie vidisse iacentis^ 
dum Sanctis patriae legibus obsequimur, 
as it is translated by Cicero Tusc. i 42^ 101. 

•^ Diod. Sic. XI 11 : oi)x ol rQy laropiwy avyypaipih m6vo(, 
dXX& KoX iroyCKol rwy iroirp-Qy KaOij/jiyrjcray avTuy rds AvdpayaOlaSi 
wy yiyoP€ Kal XifKayidTjs 6 /ieXoTO(6s, A^lov ttjs dper^s airrCov 
Kovfyrai iyKib^xoy^ h y \4yei,' 

rwy iy 9e/)/*0Ti)Xcus OayiyTcay 

c^ifXcijs fUy & Tj^xOf KoKbs S* 6 Trbrpjos^ 

P(ofji6s d* 6 Td<f>os, wpb yduty Si /xvcwrrts, 6 5' oi/cros frraiyos. 

iyrdipLoy dk Toiovroy oih* eiipws 

oHO* 6 iraydafidTOJp dfjuivpibffei j(p6vos dvSpujy dyaduy. 

6 d^ (raxbs oUiray eiio^Lay 

'EXXd^os cTXero' frnprvpei di Aewyidas 

6 Xirdpras j3a(rtXei/s, dpcras niyav XeXoiTo^s 

KOfffioy diyoAy re K\ios. 
1.6. * of those who died at Thermopylae glorious is the fate and 
fair the doom ; their grave is an altar ; instead of lamentation, 
they have endless fame ; their dirge is a chant of praise. Such 
winding-sheet as theirs no rust, no nor all-conquering time, 
shall bring to nought, brave men that they were. But their 
sepulchre took for its habitant the glory of Hellas. Leonidas 
is witness thereof, Sparta's king, who hath left a mighty crown 
of valour and undying fame.' 

If we analyse this fragment, what strikes us is the masterly 
skill and grace with which the poet plays with a single thought ; 
and the skill with which the antitheses are wrought ; the glory 
of the heroes' fate, then with a boldness of thought succeeding 



xxxii INTRODUCTION 

and, on account of the high consideration in which he 
was held both at Athens and in Peloponnesos*®, he 
was frequently employed by the states which fought 
against the Persians to adorn with inscriptions (ctti- 
ypa/x/iara) the tombs of their warriors, who had fallen 
in the War of Liberation. 

Though inferior as a poet to his contemporary, the 
other great master of universal melic, in profundity 
and novelty of ideas, in fervour of feeling and in 
that Swaftt? a/i,<^tXa<^>ys*®, 'breadth of view and power 
of grasp,' which was at once Pindar's aspiration and 
characteristic, he nevertheless was decidedly better 
known and more admired in his day"" than the poet 
who so completely eclipsed him in the judgment of 
posterity. Yet we cannot help agreeing with Prof. 
Mahaffy when he says that *the exquisite beauty, 

what is commonplace, their grave is an altar. *We do not 
lament for them so much as hold them in eternal memory: our 
very songs of sorrow become paeans of praise. Bust and time 
cannot affect their fame ; Hellas confides her glory to their 
tomb. Then generalities are quitted; and Leonidas, the pro- 
tagonist of Thermopylae, appears.* J. A. Symonds I, c. p. 161. 

w * The practical tendency of his poetry, the worldly wisdom , 
guided by a noble disposition, which appeared in it, and the 
delicacy with which he treated all the relations of states and 
rulers, made him the friend of the most powerful and distin- 
guished men of his age. In fact scarcely any poet of antiquity 
enjoyed so much consideration in his life-time or exercised so 
much influence upon political events, as Simonides.' E. O. 
Miiller's Hist, Greek Lit. tr. by Lewis and Donaldson Vol. i 
p. 276. 

w 01. IX 88. 

«> Cf. Jebb Ic, p. 166, Mahaffy Hist, of Gr, Lit. Vol. i p. 206 
ed. 1. 



INTRODUCTION xxxiii 

the pellucid clearness, and the deep but chastened 
pathos of his fragments make us wish to exchange a 
few of Pindar's more laboured odes for the master- 
pieces of his rival**/ 

Simonides was probably the most prolific poet 
whom Greece had seen, although so little of his poetry 
has come down to us. He gained (according to the 
inscription of a votive tablet, written by himself on 
his departure for Sicily)*" no less than fifty-six oxen 
and tripods in poetical contests at public festivals. 

Of the several classes of poems which he composed 
for public festivals the greater part relate directly to 
the worship of the various gods. These were dithy- 
rambs or choral songs, chiefly but not always 
dedicated to Dionysos**, chants (v/xvoi) and prayers 
(KttTcvx^^O sung by a chorus standing before an altar, 
paeans (Trotavcs) to Phoebus in his double character 
of a victorious and a healing god, the accompaniment 
of the battle and the feast; processional hymns 
{irpoaohui) sung at solemn festivals by troops of men 
and maidens walking to the shrines, crowned with 
olive, myrtle, bay or oleander, a special kind of 
which were irapOivta^, called daphnephoria when 

« i.c.p.208. 

« Antbol. Palat. vi 213, fr. 202 ed. Schn. 

f^ iirl xeirriiKOVTay ^fuavlSi^^ ijpoLo rai^povs 

Kol rplwodaSf vphf t6vS* dvOiftevcu xipoxa' 
TOffffdKi, d* Ifiepoevra diSa^dfiofOt X'^P^^ dpSpioy 
€0S6^v JfUai iyXabv aipfi* Mfirjs. 
" MiaierZ.c. p. 278. 

^ There is a beantifal example of antiphonal parthenia at 
the end of the Lysistrata of Aristophanes, where ohoroflf^ ol 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

addressed to Phoebus, because the maidens carried 
laurel branches to his shrine; songs to lively 
dancing performed by choruses of boys or of boys 
and young maidens, which were originally confined 
to the worship of Apollo (vTropxofiaTa), *In these 
last ' says Miiller** * Simonides seems to have excelled 
himself; so great a master was he of the art of 

Athenian and Spartan girls sing in rivalry turn and turn 
about. 

«* I, c. on the authority of Plutarch Mor, p. 748 a, b : ^px^trri/cj 
5^ Kal TTOiryriK'S Koivuvla iraffa Kal fiiOc^is dWifiXwy iaH^ koX fidXiara 
fufio^fieyai wepl rb itwopXfllJ^^TUv yivos (vepyov &iJL4»Tepai tV 
dih, tQv axVI^"^^^ f^^ '^^^ dvofidriov filfiriffiv &7r<yr€\ovffi. . . . di^Koi 
di 6 fjidXtara KaTCjpOcjK^pai 56|as iv ^Topx^/^A<''(f ^^^.i 
yeyovivai, mdavtbTaros iavrov, t6 SciaOai tV Mpav rrfi 
iripas' rb yb.p 

drrikaffTOv txTOV ij kOv* *AfivK\alap 

dycaviwp iXeXi^fievos woSl filfieo 

Kafirr^Xov fiiXoi biibKwv' 
(i.e. *celerem equum aut canem Amyclaeam clamore laeto imitare, 
pedum levitate viae perseqttens varias modorum), 1j rb 

otos dvh Adrriov dvd4fW€v vedloy TriraTai 
ddvarov Kcpdq. 
evpi/iey /AarciJwi' ^Xo^y 
rdp 5* ^' aux^vi arpitpoKrav 
a<l>iT€pov Kdpa Trdrr' is otfioVf 
Kal tA i^rjs — /njdiva XiXrjdev 'Hjv ip dpx^ei SidOeaip rd iroi^- 
fMLTa vapaKa\€iy Kal rtb x^*/^ ^ *^ '"'»' iro5e, fiSWop di 6\op uxrirep 
Tiffl fiTipivOois iXjceiv rb aSfia toU /liXeai Kal ivrelpeiPt to&twp d^ 
\eyofiipup Kal q.botUv(ap^ ijavxiap dyetp /i^ dvpafUpois' ai^rbs 
yovp iavrby oC>K alax^f^rat irepl t^p 6pxv<^^^ o^x V'^fo^ 
J) T^p volrjCLP iyKcafjiidi^up' 

6ira 5^ yapvaai 
viip t' iXaippibp ipXfiiJ^ otda vodcip puypi^fiep' 

Kp^a di fup KaXioiai, rpfnrop, rb 5* Spyapop MclKocirop, 



INTRODUCTION xxxv 

painting by apt rhythms and words the acts which 
he wished to describe/ Of the poems which 
Simonides composed for private persons, the odes 
of Victory (cirivwcta)** and laments (Oprjvoi) are 
among the best specimens of his art. The former 
belong, like those of Pindar, to the age when sculpture 
was finding a new field in the commemoration of 
victorious combatants, who were then raised to such 
an eminent rank, as to be almost on a level with demi- 
gods (i^fjiCOcoL) in respect to the honours paid to them. 
* They appear to have been distinguished from those 
of Pindar mainly in this : that the former dwelt 
upon the particular victory which gave occasion 
to his song and described all its details with greater 
minuteness ; while Pindar passes lightly over the 
incident and immediately soars into higher regions. 
Simonides too more frequently indulged in pleasantry 
than befitted a poem destined to be recited at a 
sacred feast*'.' 

What Simonides possesses quite peculiar to his 
own genius is tenderness of feeling and pathos*®, and 

^ See note 47. * 

«7 Mailer Ic, p. 279. 

«8 Dionys. Halicam. vett, script, iud. n 6 p. 420 ed. Reiske 
t6 olKTlj^€<T$ai fi^ fi€ya\ovp€Tru>s a>s TiLvSapos dXXd TraOfjTiKws, 
Cf. Catullus xzzviii 8 maestius lacrimis Simonideis^ and 
Horace Od. n 1, 37 

Sed ne relictis, Musa proeax, iocis 
Ceae retractes munera naeniae. 

Qnintilian inst, orat. z 1, 64: Simonides, tenuis alioqui, 
germone prqprio et iucunditate quadam commendari potest: 
praecipua tamen eius in commovenda miseratione 
virtus, vt quidam in hoc eum parte omnibus eius operis 
auctoribus praeferant. 



xxxvi INTRODUCTION 

this is seen most remarkably in his dirges {Oprjvoi) 
or choral hymns sung at funeral solemnities (of which 
we have one exquisitely beautiful fragment already 
spoken of)*®, in which the poet surrenders himself 
to the genuine feelings of human nature, expressing 
grief for the dead and the fond regret of the 
survivors and resignation to inevitable evils, and 
seeking consolation in the shortness and toils of 
human life and the instability of fortune with the 
tone usual to the Ionic elegy. The style of Simonides 
is pure and graceful, smooth and highly polished 
— hence the ancients called him Melikertes^^ 
In his choice of words ^^ he departs less from the 
language of ordinary life than Pindar, whose majesty, 
force and gorgeous exuberance of poetical ideas 
form a contrast to the exquisite finish and skill with 
which Simonides works out in detail one or two 
images, producing with a few graphic touches a 

® p. xxix. 

70 Schol. ad Arist. Vesp. 1410, Suidas s.v. 2t/Awv/ai;s. Cf. 
Gic. de nat. deor. i 22 suavis poeta Sinwnides^ Epigr. on the 
nine lyrists (Anthol. Pal. ix 671) 

(Kkayeif ix GiyjSwv fUya lilvdapos' iirpce rcpTvA 
ijdvfieXctpddyyov Movaa ^ifitavLdcu), 

"^^ Dionys. Halic. n 6 Ztfuapldov irapaHjpeL ttjv iKXoyijp twi» 
dvofjjdTuyt TTjs (rwO^aetas riiv dKpipeiav : elsewhere he is reckoned 
by him among the poets who excelled rif -njs y\a<t>vpds xal iv- 
dripas ffwdiffetas x'-P^'^'^P'' ' ^^ ^ comp. verb. p. 842 ed. Schaefer. 

Simonides' compositions, to judge from the waifs and strays 
we have left, justify the definition which he himself is said by 
Plutarch to have given of poetry as ^(oypaipla XaXoOtra: see the 
tract de glcnria Atheniensium p. 846 f, quoted by F. G 
Sohneidewin l,c. p. xliv. 



INTRODUCTION xxxvii 

perfectly harmonious whole. The spirit of cr<t}fl>po(rvvrf 
• reserve ' or * tempered self-restraint/ and absence 
of enthusiasm for which the lonians of Keos were 
noted ^', 'a modest consciousness of human weakness 
and recognition of a superior power are everywhere 
traceable in his poetry^"/ and give it a mellow tone 
as they do to his philosophy also and moral precepts. 
It was this same trait in his character which made 
the younger generation of Athenians, typified by 
Pheidippid^s in the CUmda of Aristophanes^^, despise 
him as old-fashioned, whereas with their ancestors, 
the heroes of Marathon {fiapauStovofiaxai), he was an 
object of worship. 

The system of patronage under which he lived 
seems to have destroyed the independence of his 
character, and in this respect he contrasts unfavour- 
ably with Pindar, whose great desire was to raise 
his art above the reproach of sordid servility from 
which Simonides was not exempt, as appears from 

^' Aristides wcpl irapaipOiyfi. iii p. 646 A: tiJv 7c roG 
'Zifiiavihov (na<f>po(r^V7iv oXaOa' el 5i fA-^^ dXX' irepoi IcoffUf, un 
ip Ti ruv iyadCov i<rrl tQv ixeipov rb yviapifidyrarov ffX'^Sbp koI 
T€pL rijp wolriffuf xal rrepl aitrbv rby ploy, quoted by Sohnddewin 
Ix. p. xxiii. Ct Plat. Prolog, p. 341 e with Stallbaom's note. 

" See e. g. Encomiwn fr. 10, 6 dwainu ydp iari Btwp ijairta, 
Epinie, fr. 88 

OijTli OMCV 0€<ap 

dptrdw \dp€¥, 06 t6Xis, od fiporSi- 
Beds 6 rofifiiJTis' i.-riifuufTW ykp oOdiy 
ioTUf iv ah-ois, 
and the rebuke which be administered to Pausanias (Phitavoh 
Com, ad ApoU. p. 105 a) for his {nrepvf^xufla hj reminding him 
dri dpBpvrSt ieru 
»* V. 1866. 

H. I. ^ 



xxxviii INTRODUCTION 

allusions in the contemporary poet^* and from various 
anecdotes^* recorded of him. The wise and philo- 
sophic discourses of Simonides at the court of his 
patron at Syracuse have been made the subject 
of an allusion in Plato^^, as some of his gnomic 
sayings are discussed in the dialogues, e.g. the 

7« See Prof. Jebb he. p. 159, who refers to Uthm, ii 1—11, 
Tyih, in 64, Schneidewin he, p. xxiv — xxzii. 

7« e.g. the story in Aristotle's RJietirric (in 2, 14) that he 
was once asked to write an iwivUiov by a victor in the mule- 
race, when, being offended with the smaUness of the fee offered, 
he declined to compose an ode on ijfilovoi 'half-asses.* But 
when the terms were raised, he wrote at once xa^pc^'* AfXXox^- 
dtay dvyarpci tinrwv^ * hurrah for the daughters of the storm- 
footed mares I ' and yet, adds Aristotle koX rOiv 6p(av Ovyaripes 
rjffw, *they were daughters of the asses as well.' Again in ii 
16, 2 his mot on the comparative advantages of money and 
wisdom in answer to Hieron's wife is quoted: yevitrdai Kpcirrov 
irkoxxFLOw • roiis ffotpoits ydLp fiprj opav ivl toTj tQp TrKowrluv dvpais 
diarpLpopTas. His greed of gain is also alluded to by Aristo- 
phanes in the Peace v. 697 ff., Schol. ad Pindar. Isthm. ii 6 vDy, 
<p7i<Th fuaOov (rwrdrrovai rods iirtviKlovs trpiinov ^ifuapidov wpoKaT- 
ap^apu^vov fvdcy koI Ka\\ijj.axos' 

oif ykp ipydriif Tp4<p(a 
Tr}v Mowrouft ci^s ^ Keioi 'TXTUxov j^^tovs, 
X^6i di ravra rrpbi Zifitavldriv, w$ <pi\dpyvpov 5taur6pu)v rbp Mpa, 
Ghamaeleon ap. Athenae. xiv c 72 p. 656 d 6vtw Sk riv cus 
iiKriOm Klfipi^ 6 Xifiujuidrfs Kal al(rxpoK4p5ris, Phaedr./a&. iv 
23. Socrates in Plato {Protag. p. 346 b) says that Simonides 
was often induced to write encomiums on tyrants and other 
powerful men without being convinced of the justice of his 
praises, as in the case of Skopas, son of Ereon, referred to 
above p. xxix. 

^ Epist. II irepl *14p<avos &raM diaKiyuvToi ol wOptawoi Kod 
Uavaavlov toO Aaxedaifioplov, x'^P^^^'- ''^ 'Ziimvibov ^wovaLop 
xap(up4povT€S & re (Tpa^e Kal tire irpht o^roi' ?. 



INTRODUCTION xxxix 

Protagoras p. 339 b, and the Republ i p. 331 e. The 
celebrated evasion of the question on the nature of 
God, implying that our safest eloquence concerning 
Him is our silence, is ascribed by Cicero to Simonides 
as a reply to Hieron^*. 



3. On tlie TvpawCs, — its origin, different forms a/iid 
place in the political development of Greece 

The word tv^wo% originally meant nothing more 
than * ruler* and had no invidious secondary meaning 
associated with it'®. BACiAeYc" for a * tyrant' and 
TYPANNOC*', as applied to the kings of the early age, 
were still employed promiscuously after the full de- 

^ de nat. deor. i § 60: rogti me quid aut quale sit detUy 
auctore utar Simonide, de quo cum quaesivisset hoc idem ty- 
rannus Hiero, deliberandi sibi unum diem postulavit; cum 
idem ex eo postridie quaereret, biduum petivit; cum saepius 
duplicaret numerum dierum, admiransque Hiero requireret cur 
ita faceretf ^Quia^ quanto diutius consider o^"* inquit 
*tanto mihi res videtur obscurior,* Cf. Minuc. Fel. 
Octav. 0. 13. 

7» Wachsmuth Hist, Antiq, of the Greeks Eng. Tr. Vol. i p. 
414 : the word rvpavvlt occurs first in ArohHochus ap. Plutarch. 
Afar. p. 470 c where he is speaking of Gygds the Lydian 
prince. 

*> e.g. in Herod, ni 62, v 44 where the term is applied to 
Telys, V 110 to the tyrants of Eypros, v 23 to SkythSs 
tyrant of ZanklS. Eypselos is spoken of in an oracular 
response as pcuriXein KXeiyoTo KoptvOovt v 92, 5, and immediately 
afterwards Herodotns calls his government a rvpawls. 
Thncydldes i 13 contrasts rvpavvldes with limited hereditary 
monarchies (iwl ^dis yipaat TarpiKol patnXeiai), 

^ Herod, i 7 i^i' KapSaCXrjs ripawos 'Lap^iov^ \ui 187. 



xl INTRODUCTION 

velopment of democracy. The distinction between 
the latter as something worthy of universal repro- 
bation"^ and the former as an object worthy of love 
and affection was an immediate outcome of a devi- 
ation from paternal government on the part of the 
tyranny and its adoption of a system of cruelty and 
unnatural oppression. 

The ancient TypANNfc must be regarded as a 
singular feature of ancient society and one of the 
chief links in the development of political phaeno- 
mena in the history of the Hellenic states. It was 
Qj^^of not an immediate continuation of, or a 
tyrannies. degeneration from, the princely power of 
the early age, since republican institutions in fact 
formed the link by which it was connected with the 
ancient kingship"*. It began in demagogy in this 
way : — 

In most of the Hellenic states from the seven- 
teenth century till the middle of the fifth b.c. the 

^ Cp. Polyb. n c. 69 where it is said of Aristomachos 
of Argos: 06 fjMvov a&rbv ytyop^pai r^pawov^ dXXd Kal ix 
Tvpdvvtav rretpvK^vai. Ta&nfs S^ fieLJi'to Karriyoplay rj viKporipav 
06S* av elrruy ^q.dl(os d^vcur dp oideis' airb ykp roHvofia 
Tepi^x^i' T^p iffepeffrdrrip ifi^atriP Kal xdtraf vepiel- 
Xi706 rds ip dp0p(brrois ddtKlas Kal vapapofiias, Eur. 
Suj^l 429 

oifbkp Tvpdppov dwTfiepiarepop t6X«i, 

dirov rb fjuh Trpdyrurrop oi>K ehrlp pdfioi 

KOiyolj Kparei d' e?$, t6p p6fwp KCKTTjfUpos 

a^Orbi Tap* aini}, 
*• Comelins Nepos ^lilt. 0. 8, 3 : omnes autem et dicuntur 
et hahentur tyranni, quipotestate swUperpetua in ea civitate^ 
S'iioe libertate usa est. 



INTRODUCTION xli 

oligarchical factions that had overthrown and suc- 
ceeded the kingly authority had in their turn been 
conquered, and this double revolution was sufficient 
evidence that the principles of durable government 
were wanting. There were neither traditions nor 
laws strong enough to restrain men". Everything 
was decided by force. Bold and energetic men put 
themselves at the head of the people, and the first 
demagogues were soldiers'". After having flattered 
the Commons and acted as their champions against 

8* Aristot. PoL viii (v) c. 10, p. ISIC^, 7: ifxapx^^ «' ^ 
y^vrivii eddifs i^ ivajfrifav iKaripq. rtov fioifapxiC^v (sc. kingship and 
tyranny)* ^ flip y6.p ^ouriKcla rrp^ porfOeicuf r^v ivl rbv dijfwv 
TOif iTL€uciai yiyovevy Kal KaOlaTarai paaiKcifS ix tw iirieucQif 
KoB* hvepox^ dperrjs rj Tpd^iav rCw (1x6 t^j ^perrii 17 KaO^ inrt- 
poxhtf toio6tov yivoviy 6 5i r^pavvoi iK roO d-^fiov Kal tov 
xXi/jBovs irrl rods yt^uplfiovs, dwus 6 dijfios idiK^rai, 
fjLildiv iiT airup i.e. *the origin to begin with of each of 
these two forms of monarohioal government is different. 
Kingship is instituted for the protection of the better classes 
against the conunons, and a king is appointed from among the 
members of the better classes on the groond of his own 
Buperiority in virtue or virtnons actions or the superiority of a 
virtuous race, whereas the tyrant (is taken) from the commons, 
i.e. the mass, to act against the notables, to save the commons 
from oppression by them/ 

• Aristot. ib. 1. 14: <rx«56i' oi xXcttfrot tuv rvpdviKavyeyovaffiy 
ix drifjLayuywp wj e/Tciv, iriorevdipres ^k tov SiafidWeiv rods 
yvtapifJLovt. Cf . C. 5 p. 1305*, 7 : M 6i r(av ipxcdf»»'i ^re y4poiTo 
6 ai>r6f drffiaytayos Kal <rT partly hi^ eh rvpavpiSa fieri pa\\o¥' 
ffX€^¥ yh.p oi xXetcrrot rCi>v ipxaiunf Tvpdvpwv ex d7ifxay(aywp 
TCT^a^iy Le. *in ancient times, whenever the functions of 
demagogue and general were combined in the same person, 
(democracies) were changed into a tyranny : for in almost all 
oases the ancient tyrants had once been demA«|!;i^^%« 



xlii INTRODUCTION 

the oligarchs'*, these chieftains made them their slaves. 
The outcome was the same in almost all towns. A 
single adventurer usurped the sovereign power and 
ruled arbitrarily. The safety and welfare of his fellow- 
citizens depended solely upon his personal proclivities. 
*Some tyrannies' says Aristotle®^ *were established 
in this manner, after the States had attained con- 
siderable dimensions, others at an earlier period 
originated with ambitious kings outstepping their 
hereditary rights or else holders of some supreme 
office in free States who converted their lawful pre- 
rogatives into tyranny ®^ In all such cases their 

8* Aristot. ih. v c. 5 p. 1305*, 20 oi irpoffT&Tai rod d-fifiovj 6t€ 
iroKefiiKol yivoLVTO^ TvpavvLSi iTrcTlOefTO. Trdvres 5} toGto idp<a¥ 
virb Tov S-iifiov irtirreu^A'Tes, ^ Si irlffTts tjv tj dir^daa ij irpbs roifs 
irXowrLovs i. e. ' the leaders of the people, whenever they were 
men of military genius, used to try to make themselves 
tyrants ; and they did so in all cases because they possessed 
the confidence of the commons, and the ground of their 
confidence was their hatred of the wealthy classes.' 

87 ib, c. 10 p. 1310^ 16. 

88 Aristot. ib. c. 8 p. 1308% 19 : oiJ ydip o/xoltjs /^Sioy 
KaKovfr/TJccu dXlyov xpoVoi' dpxovrai Kal TroXiJVf iirel did toOto 
iv rats At7apx^ats Kal dTj/xoKpariaii ylvovrat, TvpavvLScs' rj ydi,p 
ol fi^iOToi h ixaripq^ iiriTldeyrcu TVpavvihi^ ivOa fiif ol drjfia' 
yoryol ivOa 5' ol dwdcraif ij ol rds /jLcylffras dpxoi^Tei oipx^h 
Sray iroXifv xp^*'^^ apx^o'ii' i.e. * abuse of power is not so 
easy on the part of State officers, where the tenure of office 
is short, as where it is long, for it is the long tenure which in 
oligarchies and democracies is a cause of the establishment of 
Tyrannies. For it is either the most powerful in the two 
polities, who attempt to seize tyrannical power, viz. the 
Demagogues in the one, the Dynasts in the other, or else those 
who hold the highest official positions, whenever their tenure 
is a long one.' 



INTRODVCTION xliil 

object was easily effected, as their kingly authority 
or official position already gave them the power if 
they had but the will.* Aristotle gives as examples 
of tyrants of the first kind Panaetiusat Leontini, 
Kypselus at Corinth, Peisistratus at Athens, 
Dionysius at Syracuse and others; of the second 
Pheidon at Argos; of the third the Ionian tyrants 
and Ph alar is of Agrigentum. 

The beginnings of tyranny were not attended with 
difficulty, ^nifi-peej^ in. their hpstilitj to the rich and 
powerful supported the usurper, and applauded their 
^liation and proscription. But little by little dis- 
trust of their new master began to spread among the 
commons. Meetings and reunions became objects of 
suspicion to the tyrant, who preferred that the citizens 
should remain unknown to one another, since isolation 
and silence rendered them more easy to govern. 

In speaking of the vices of Tyranny the same 
philosopher says that it cc^abines- in itself yj^^^ ^^ 
the worst_Jeatures of extreme democracy *y'">n>'- 
and extreme oligarchy: from the first it borrows its 
hostility to the citizens of plosition (rots yvtopifwi^), 
whom it regards as rivals and obstacles to the tyrant's 
authority and so puts them to death both secretly 
and openly and banishes them from the State; frora^ 
the second, the pursuit of wealth as the chief end (as 
enabling the possessor to maintain his body-guard 
and to gratify his luxurious lusts) and its distrust 
of the masses (which leads to a general disarmament 
and oppression of the common people)"*. Periander 

» ib. vni (v) p. 1311», 8 $ti 8' ij Tvpavvli ix^i KaKh. koX 



xliv INTRODUCTION 

of CJorinth was credited with being the author of 
the demoralising policy traditionally recommended to 
tyrants. The tyrant was to get rid of prominent 
characters, to prohibit common meals, clubs and 
intellectual gatherings, all free social intercourse for 
relaxation and discussion (which was everything to 
a Greek community), to discourage education and all 
that tends to develop high spirit and self-confidence, 
to do all in his power to prevent his subjects from 
coming to know or trust each other, and to keep them 
in a perpetual state of slavery •". Other objectionable 
expedients for securing the continuance of tyranny 
are to employ spies and eaves-droppers *' ; to 
promote disunion and sow distrust between indi- 
viduals, to set class against class, to impoverish his 

yapx^ai t6 t6 riXos cZi'at TrXovrov (o^u yap Kal SiafUvetP dvay- 
Kcuoy fjLovut T'/jv T€ <f>v\aK^y Kol Hfif rpv4niv) koX to ry rXiJ^et 
firiSif TTiffTe^eiy (Sio Kal rrpf Trapalpcffw Towwrai TUfv BxXuyf 
Kal t6 kokovv t6p 6x^o¥ koI to iK rod dareos direXa^Pity koX 
BiolkI^iv dfuporiptav koivov, Kal rijs dXiyapxtas Kal r^s Tvp<tyyldos), 
4k SrifioKparlas di to iroXeficTy rotf yvuplfAois koX Sta^clpew 
\d0pq^ Kal ipoMcpws koI (pvyaSeiieiy (as dmirix^ovs koI wpos rijy 
dpxV ifiToiloin. Of. Hier. ii 17, v 1, 2. 

^ lb, p. 1313% 36 Toirruy (of the modes in wliich tyrannies 
are preserved) rd ToXXa ipa^ri Karoffrijaai HefAavbpov rbv 
KoplvOiov • iffrt Si rd re irdXat. Xex^ipra Trpbs (Twri/pfay, «j dt6y re, 
rrjt TvpayyLdoSf rb roiVs virep^xoyras KoXodciv Kal rods tppoyfifiarlas 
dyatpeiy, Kal p.ifrt awTclTia iay fi-rfrc iraiplay firp-e xaiSclay firfre 
rfXXo fiTjd^y ToiouToVf dXXo vayra <f>v\dTT€Uf BOey efw^c yeyiffOai 
diio, ^phyrffid re Koi irf<rrts, Koi firp-e ax<>^^ M-^^ aXXous <rwX- 
\6yovs cTiTp^Teip ylvetrOai axoXaariKO^Si koI irdyra Toi€ty i^ 
<5i' Uti fJoKLtna ayy&res dXXriXois iaovrai irdyres (rf yap yywris 
wicrrtv Totet fjioKXoy rpbs dXXriXovs), 

'^ See above note 23. 




INTRODUCTION xly 

subjects for th© support of a. Ixnly-guard and by 
costly works (such as the pyramids, the votive offer- 
) ings of the Kypselidae, the great Olyuipieion of the 
PeiaiBtratid.s and the works of Poly k rates at Sainos), 
to be always at war tliat his subjects may be in 
continual need of a leader and be kept in constant 
employment ''^ H€iavy taxation was also employed by 
tyi'ants, as by Dionysius, who nuide the Syracusans 
pay in taxes iu live years the fidl amount of their 
property"'. Again the tyrant will be fond of low 
people^, who will cringe Uy him and serve as 
puppets for carrying out his purposes; he will dis- 
countenance high-minded and independent characters'^, 

^ AliBtot. 1 5. p. 1313'', 16 KoX tA Bta^dXXetJ' oWtiKqi^ koI criry. 
Kpo^€w kqX ^i\oi>i <^i\<ni Kai riiif d^fittp tws ytfiupifjLmi {opthnattbuJf) 
teal Tot'i irAouuioiff iavro^s. Koi rb irivifTai voi€iv tojW upx^f^'^^^^'^ 
TvpoMtuK&ift <3ir&?s fii^e ^t-XaifiJ rp^^TfTtn Kal irpht rtfi Ka&* Tjpi^pav 

^' Plato lie rfp, vni p. 5Cti b, p. 5l>7 a ovKuvif Kal tva 
j(jpTjfjua.Ta. €l<ri!f>ipoyT€tj wivrp-es yiyvhfjityoi^ ttpit^ r^J Ka0^ ijpidpaw 
dvayxd^uvriLi elji'at Kal ^ttov avT^f fTri/?oijAfiJw(n; i.e. 'ifl it not 
(the tyrant's object) to impoverish hia citizens bj war-taxtiB, 
BO that thej may he forced to labour for ilieir dailj bread and 
I to be leas likely to plot against himself?* Anst. L c. p. 131^)^ 
28 i9Ti Si Kal ToXtpioirothi 6 Tvpapvo^y Bwtiis Srf cur;j^t]Xoif re 

*"* Aristot. ih. p. ISl-l", 1 TrQvyip6<^i\o» »J rvfxipvit ' ivoXa- 
IC€V^(^if Oi yap xaAj0^i«''t*'< Tovra 5" ov&fh dv Troiiftreie if>pov'rffAa ix*^^ 
r ik€^&€pw, oKXa ^tXowrtv oi (fniiKeh tJ ou KoXaxeuovfTiV ^ 

** AriBtot. ib. 13M», 5 Kalrh jUTj3n?l ^aipcti* ffffufif fiTfS' iXeiSipip 
ri>p<winK6r. Cf. Plat. Lc. p. 567 n : iVt^at^eiV 3t) miirom rdvras 
del riyv r^pafvov^ cl /i^XXct df^itv, ^us av fxrfT€ tpi\i,}v fi^* ix^P^^ 

rit /xeyaX&ippiiJV , ris if>p&vipi,ott rit irXoi3(rtot...roi''Ttiit airatrcv aiforfxi^ 
ai^r^^ etr€ ^oi^XfTat ttrt ^rf^ troTiepdtp elrat teal i-wt^mfKtveiit itin or 




I 



xlvi INTRODUCTION 

he will choose foreigners rather than citizens as his 
daily associates'^. In short, the JjM?ee-oly)BCts of a 

tyrant are^tp.jBow distrust j^mong the 
objects of a citizens, to incapacitate them for action 

and to destroy their self-respect*'. The 
evil effects of a tyranny administered on such 
principles as these which, though not ineffective 



KaOripxi T^v ?r6\(F i.e. 'if a tyrant is to keep up his authority, he 
must put all these people quietly out of the way, until he has 
left himself not a friend nor an enemy who is worth anything 
...he must keenly notice who is manly, who high-minded, who 
prudent, who wealthy... whether he wishes it or not, he is 
compelled to be the enemy of all these and to plot against 
them, till he has cleared the city of them.* 

These passages afford an excellent illustration of Hieron's 
remarks in this Dialogue ch. v § 1 f. 

•• Aiistot. ih, c. 10 p. 1314», 10 koI rb xPV<f^O'*^ <rv<r<rlTois Koi 
<rwfffi€p€VTaU ^eyiKots fiSWo¥ ij ttoXltikoTs rvpavviKhv, i^s robs i»kv 
ToXcfdovt Toifs 8* oOk ayriTotovfihovs. 

•^ ib, 27 Trdvra yh.p av dvayaryoi rts rd rvpavviKd xphi ra&ras 
rds VTro64<rciSt rd pJkv Httus fi^ xurei&ua'W oXXi^Xois, rd 5* 6t<os 
fi,^ d^^uyraif rd d* Circus puKpbtt ippoytoaiv i.e. * for all the measures 
of a tyranny may be referred to one or other of these funda- 
mental principles, viz. to prevent mutual confidence among 
the citizens, to incapacitate them for action and to degrade 
their spirit.' Cf. ib. 15 (rroxd^cu ydp rj rvpavvls t/hoji', ivbt fi^ 
Tov fUKpd tppweiv robs dpxofiiyovs {obievl ydp ay fUKp6\f/vxos iwi- 
povKetJceiev), Scvripov di tov diaTurretv dWi^Xois {ob KaroKderai 
ydp irpdrepov rvpoMvXs irpHv rj wurrcbffuai rivcs iavroU' 8t6 koX 
rots iTriciKiffi voXefAovciy uk pXa^pots irpbs t^v opxV ^^ fi6voy 
Sid rb fi^ d^ioOv dpxcffOat SeffworiKus, dXXd Kal dt& rb iriffrobs 
Kol iavTois ifai rots dtXXots chat kuI fi^ Karayopebeiy firp-e iavrwy 
fiifr^ TtSy dLXXunf)' rplroy 3' ddvyafda twv irpaypATtav {obOels 
ydp hrix^ipei toTs dSvvdroiSi <5ot6 obSi rvpatrylSa KaraXbciy /lij 
bwd/ittas inrapxoi^ris). 



fFTROmrCTlOK 



Dr theii' purpose, Aristotle condemns as imnioraP", 
must have been felt by rich and cultivated classes 
even more than by the poor, for to them it was 
deprivation of all that was best in Hellemc life*". 
The philosopher suggests less objection- cont-iiiatart 
able means for securing its continuance. S^gStSby 
He recommends the tyrant, if he wishes ^™^°'^*^" 
to safeguard his tyranny, to approximate it to a 
kingship'*'**- He advises him to nile as the public- 
spirited and thrifty steward ol the State, not, as a 
tyrant, wasting the public treasure, so as to excite 
the indignation of his subjects at seeing the money 
wrested from their work and thrifty labour lavished 
on mistresses, foreigners and artists, but giving 
account of all receipts and expenses ^'*^ He should 
endeavour to inspire reverence rather than fear in 
liis subjects'"^ and, even if he disregards all other 
virtues, he should at least not disregard political 

** ib. 12 Tat>ra *cal ri roiai/ra rupawwra fj^h Ktd (rtirr^pta 

"* Newmunt Ariatotlo's PoUtics Vol t p, 54li. 

*** Aristot. I.e. p. 1314*, 34 ttjs rvpawlSoi ctiinjpia iroieiv 

iw t6* 40 SoK€tv tftpovrt^fiv rCttf fcoiPu*', M^^^^ Sawni^^vra <eis> 
Utaptiit rmairTUi ftp* ah tA irXi^Srf x^^^'^^^*'*^^'^^*^t ^t'**' *'''' o*^**" 
fxikw \aftpdiftiHTLy ^pya^ofiivuv Kal TrofouvTutv 'yXtcr^/Jus, StStJfft 
3' ertUpaii Kal ^vm% Kal re^*'^'"^*^ d^&6pijjs^ \uyov re dv<^5id6tn'a 
Tww XafjL^av o/jJvujv Kai daTravutfj^iifuv (otfrws ^ip dv rm StoiKusf 
oUoM^fjkot d\\* o6 Tdpapvoi etvai B6^€ifv), Cf. ib. p. 1314''^ 16 &\wi 
m avT6¥ <:5er>' TraftaaKivd^iv 4^{f\a,Ka Kal rap^iwif tif KOiVi^v dXXa 
(x^ im IBiuttr; ib. 37 KaraiTKeiid^eiff yap ^ft Kal ioxrfuiv r-fff 7r6\w 
tin €wlTpowo¥ 6tfTa Kai fi^ njpoMvo*'. Cf. Hier. vui 9. 

'''^ ib. 18 <paltffffBai pL^ x^^*!'"^*' dXXA irt.uifiiVt in B^ roiOvTo^ 
tSffrt /iij tpo^€iff8ai ro^t itm'yxdvQvrat dXXA /ioKXop ai^tlif&aL. 





xlviii INTRODUCTION 

virtue**"; he should be moderate in his sensual 
indulgences and not parade them before the public *°*; 
he should be particular in his religious observances*^, 
without appearing superstitious. He should dispense 
his honours personally, but his punishments should 
be inflicted by the agency of others ^'^j in a paternal 
spirit rather than with haughty indifference*"^. In 
short, his object should be to appear in the eyes of 
his subjects as a householder or king, not as a tyrant, 
as a guardian of the public interests and not a self- 
seeker, to cultivate moderation and avoid all ex- 
travagance; to win the favour of the populace by 
flattery, that of the upper classes by affability, so 
that his subjects may be morally elevated instead 
of being degraded, and that he may be himself ndt 
an object of hatred or fear, and his power more secure 
and lasting*"®. 

'*' ih, 21 5tA fie? kSLv firi rCi¥ aXXcui' &p€T(av iwifi^Xeiav Tot^reu, 
dXXd TTJs TToKiTLK^, (Susemihl, however, adopts Madvig*s reading 
ToXefUKrjs.) 

^^* ib. 32 ftdXiffTa fUv fierpid^eiv toU roio&rois (80. reus 
axoXaiLtffcai reus <rw/iOTt«fatj), el 8^ fiii^ t6 ye tpabfeaOai rots aWois 

^®* ib, 38 frt Si rh. rpbi rods Oeoits ipaii'ea'dat del (rToufidjDvra 
ptaipepdprfas. , , . Set 5i dvev d^eXrepiat ^oUvetrdat toiovtow, 

Joo ib, p. 1315*, 6 rA» fikv rifids dirovifieiy abr6v, tAs Sk KoiXdffeis 
8i' kriptaw. Such is the advice given by Simonides to Hieron, 
1x4. 

^®' ib, 21 ras ijuh KoXdtreis warpucios tpcdyeffOat Troto^fJieyw koI 
fiii 5t' dT^iyiapULy, 

108 ib, 41 Set jx^ TvpavvLKbv dXX oUwdfiw Kal ^aciXiKdv etpai 
^xdvecBat rois dpxofUvoit xal fi^ <r<fierepiffT^v dXX' iirlrpoToy, Kal 
rds fierptoTirras roO ^lov SubKeiy, fi^ rds ifxep^oXds, fn Si roits 
fjJh yyupifiovs KaOofuXeip, roifs Si TroXXods Srifiaywyeip, U ydp 




INTRODUCTION xlix 

The rule of tyrants V>eing generally (though not 
always) \iolent and cruel was for that very reiison of 
short duration. The longestj that of the 

^ , . - J <riM /* j^Ti -IT n The BJmrt 

Orthafforxdae at mkyon (iii the liVth duration of 

^ 1 1 " tjniimieA. 

Olympiad), lasted only a century; the next 
most permanent was that of tlie Kypselidae at 
Corinth (about 01. 31), which lasted between seventy 
and eighty years. The explanation of this is that 
they behaved with moderation to their subjects and 
submitte^l themselves in many cases to the laws *"*, 
while Kypselus never even employed a Tx)dy-guard^*^ 
The third longest tyranny and the last of the 
Hellenic continent was that of the Pisiatratidae 
at AthenSj which lasted in all thirty-five years ^", 
With these exceptions that of Hieron and Gel on 

to6twv dvayKOiov oO fJL&ifov ttjv d/JX^*" ^^^^ JcaXXtw xal ^^utTori- 

piiaHpav, 

*** lb. p. 1315'', 11 iraff^f &Xtyoxpoviurr€pat tuv iroXtT«w 
eifftp iXtyapx^o- ifai rvpojfvLs' wXetiTTov yAp ^/jomoi' €y4v€T0 7} xtpl 
^Mvwva TtJpavvU, ij rt^p *Op3ay6p(}v waliuf Kal aurod *Op&ay6pov ' 
iTff <5' a§rT} htipLU¥i¥ iKarov. toutov Hi ahwif Sri rah apx^- 
/iiyotf ixp'^T'o firr pitas Hal TFokXH rots pAp^n ^^oi^Xeuaf'...A£ur/pa 
W irepi K6pi¥Bof 4} rwv Kv)f'f\iBu.v* koa yip ai^rrj SifriKeaof imi 
rpia aal ij^iSopk-^Kovra ncd fiijvttt ^f..*r4 5' alna. ravri, koI ra&n^' 
b fUv yAp K^iJ^eXot STfti^x-ytay^t ijiv koI kotA. t^v dpx^ SLcriXetrtw 
dSopuipdprp-ai^ llefKavSpoi 3' iyiveTO jiiiv ri^pavviKbs aXXd troXepuKh. 
Tpirri S* i} Ttijr UtiffnTTpanBajv ^ A&i^vfj^ip* oi)a: iyiytro M (fiwexi^s, 
ri ii wdin-a frrf rpidKotn-n Kal ir4vrc. tQu Bi Xotirwi' ii<^TtBp:^ 
trtpllipotva fcal FAwj'a wtpl ^vpaKQ6ifas. fnq 3' o^d' aiViy ro^XXA 
^idpk€iv€ff d\X4 rk a^ftwawTo, Svuv Bdoyrm tUofft, 

''^^ Herodotua v 92, H does not agree witli this ettiifimetit. 

i>^ B-a 560-^510. Of the 33 years from 560 PiBifltnitofl 
hftd been iymai 17. 



d 



1 INTRODUCTION 

at Syracuse was the longest, although it lasted only 
eighteen years. Besides the tyrants of Sikyon, 
Corinth and Athens, we find also recorded as tyrants 
of the earlier age, i.e. somewhere about the sixth 
century, Theagenes of Megara, Prokles of Epi- 
daurus"*, and at a later period tyrants arose in 
Ionia at the same time that Gyges began to reign 
in Lydia. The tyranny which subsisted in the 
Grecian States of Asia, after the commencement 
of the Persian domination was less the outcome of 
their own political system than a Persian satrapy. 
Tyrants of this description were Polykrates and 
his brother Syloson at Samos "', Cadmus in 
Cos"*, Histiaeus and Aristagoras in Miletus"*, 
Lygdamis atNaxos"® with others"". 

*In Sicily the tyranny had the most prosperous 
career; Syracuse in particular not only followed the 
example of the mother-city, Corinth, but even sur- 
passed it, and that at a time when the last tyrant of 
the Grecian continent, Hippias of Athens, had been 
expelled, and popular freedom was advancing with 
rapid strides. The first of the list is Phalaris in 
Agrigentum B.C. 565 — 549; he was succeeded there 
by Alkamenes and Alkander, apparently rather 
aitrvfivrjTai, than tyrants; afterwards Ther6n, who 
probably inherited from his father Aenesid^mus the 
tyranny of Leontini, where in an early age Panaetius 

"» Herod, in 50. 
lis Herod, in 39, 134-149. 
"* ib. vn 164. 
"5 ib, IV 138, V 137. 
"« ib. I 61, 64. 

^^ See Gkr(m. Tables of Greek History by C. Peter, Eng. 
tr. by G. Chawner, Cambridge, 1882, p. 18. 



INTRODUCTION 



If 



hafl been tyrant ; but nmrching from Agi^igejituiii he 
afterwards expelled the tyrant TexilJos of Kirtiera, 
the son-in-law of Aoaxilas the Rhegian, and like- 
wise reigned over Hiiuera. His son Thrasydaeiis 
was expelled (b. c. 473} by the Agrigentines. Py- 
thagoras was tyrant of Selinas at the time the noble 
Dorieus came froDi Sparta to Sicily {b,c. 519); the 
companion of the latter, Euryleon, deposed Pythagoras 
and then reigned over JVIinoa (Herod, v 46) as well 
as Selinus, The civil dissensions in Gela ended with 
the tyranny of Kleander (b.€. 505); he was (B.a 498) 
succeeded by his brave brother Hippokrat6s, who 
reduced Zaiikle (Herod, vi 23, 24), wliere Scythes, 
tlie father of Kadmos, the subsequent tyrant of Koa, 
had ruled before; he was followed by Gelon, Gelon 
transferred (b.c. 485) the tyranny to Syracuse, 
whither he brought back tlie expelled yafxapoij and 
extended his authonty far around, over Megara, 
Euboea etc. (Herod* vii 155, 156); after him gov- 
erned Hieron and then Thrasybulos, his brothers. 
The latter of these was driven out by the people 
(kg. 4 66)* Lower Italy likewise had its tyrants; 
Anaxilas in Khegium in B.c. 493; after him in rc. 476 
his noble-minded slave Smikythos, guardian of the 
children of Anaxilas, who were expelled soon after 
tlieir accession to power : Kleinias in KrotAn ; 
Telys in Sybaris, originally a demagogue hostile to 
the nobility, Nearchos or Demylos in Elea, B.c. 500 ; 
.and in the Carapanian Cuma, Aristodemua or Mala- 
"kua, who was contemf>orary with the younger Tar* 
quin.* WACHgMUTH I/iifforical Antiquities of tlie 
Greeks Vol. i p. 407 f, K Tr. 

The Spartans were especially active in expelling 
the tyrants and this policy was one of the causes 
which secured for them the hegemony of Greece ^^*. 

'** Aristot, Pol. p. ISIS**, 7 AaMf6atfiivtoi rXelrrctf jroTAwa*- 
rtfpayviSaf* Cf. Herod, v92^ Thiic. i 18 who extols Sparta bb the 




lii INTRODUCTION 

deliverer of the Hellenic continent from tyrants. His testi- 
mony is strictly admissible only so far as it relates to ▲thens^ 
but it is of sufficient importance to warrant us in applying 
it more extensively. Plutarch de malign, Herod, o. 21 KoXroi 
ir6\Lv iv ToU rdrc xp^i'ots offre </n\6TifJL0» oirruts o6tc fitaoriipay- 
vov tfffiey, UK Hjif Acucedaifiovluifi yevofd^tnpf ; bat the examples, 
which he has collected in support of his assertion, are a 
number of doubtful statements made in a spirit of opposition 
to Herodotus. See Wachsmuth l,c. i p. 421 f. 




'lipwpa rov rvpavvov. a')(oXr}^ he jevofiepri^^ 
afjLipolp eirrep 6 ^ifimPLhr}^' 'A^' ai/ ^loi iffeXijtrat^, 
oJ 'llpofp, hnjy^o-aa'0ai a el/co^ elSipai <7e ^eXriop 
s ifiov ; 

Ko-t woia raiiT ierriv, e<f>T] 6 'Mprnv^ oirola hrj 
iycD ^iXrioif ap elBeiijp trov ouT<i}i oi^ro? aotpov 
dphpo^ ; 

Olha ce, e(f>i)t iyw «^al Ihmrriif y€y€Piip,€VOP xal ^ 
lo vvp rvpappop opt a' etVo? ovp dfi(j>0T€pmp wejreipa- 
p,€pQV elScpai ere p,aXXov iftov, 7r§ Siatf^ipet i 
TvpappiKO^ Kal l^imTtfco^ ^w^ el^ evippooiipa't re 
xal XvTia^ dpdpwiroiq. 

Ti ovVj €i^7i 6 lipmPf ov'^i <rv^ errel pvp ye en 
15 tSioln?? el, PTrefxPTjad^ p^e to- ip r^ iBimriic^ ^tay ] 
ovreo yap ap aoi olp.ai p^aXajra iyw hvpaaBat, 
hrfXovp rd Sia<l>ipopra ip e/caripcp, 

OvT€t} Sj) o ^ip^copISt}^ elire" Toi)? fiep Bij IBimra^f - 
eycaye^ m Iep&>y, fia/ca> /tot Karap^ep^diftcipat Bed 
»o ptr€P rwp oipdaXpmp opapLaa-ip .'^hop.ipovs T£ teat 
H.I. « \ 




i 



2 EENO^QNTOS I 4 

ayjBofjAvov^, Bcci Se t&v (Stcov aKOvtrfMaac, Bca 8k 
T&v pLV&v oafiaUf Sid 8k rov arofuiTO^ airoc^ re 

5 Kal iroToU' rd Be '^Irvxv ^^^ OdXirrj xal a/cXrjpd 
Kol fiaXaxd xal Kov<l>a xal fiapea HXqy tg5 aoifiari 
fioc SoKovfieVf i<f>r)i Kpivovre^ fjBeadai re xal as 
Xvireladat eir avTol^' dyaOol^ Be teal xaxot^ 
earn fikv ire Be avrrjf; Trj<; yfrvxTj^; fjLOt BoKOVfiev 
^BeaOal re xal Xwrelaffac, etrri B' ire Kotvfj Bed 

6 re T^9 "^vxv^ /col Bid rov adixaro^;. r^ S' virv(p 
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i^rrrep rov fiTj^ej/a Tmv TroXirmp ^lal^ Oavar^ 
d'7rodvr]o'K€UK oxnm hk iroppdr wpoeX'jjXvBaATi 4 
(ftvXafcPfii^ to(TT€ weTTOiypTat. ttoWoI poftov raJ 

ao fiiat<p6v<p fi/rjoe rov <rvPovrcL Kadapet/eiv wtTT€ Stii 
Ta<; 7raTpiSa<; acr^aXaJv tfcaifTos ^lorevei rmv 
iroKiTmiK TOLK he rvpdpvoi^ xal rovro ep/jraXiv 5 
avea^pairrat. avri yap tou Tip^mpelv [aiVoiv] €lI 
-roXei? p^ejaXfi}^ Tt/Acocrt rov airotCTeivavra top 

25 Tvpavi/oi'y /cat avrt ye rov eipyetp ix t(Sp lepcoVf 
mairep tou? twp Ihii^r^p <f>ap€a<f, dprl tovtqv 
kclI €ifeopa^ ^P tol^ i€pOL<i tdTOiTip at TToX^t^f 
Twp roiovTo Ti iroi7}<TaprtAiP. * O Se av otei 6 
m^ TrXiiim ^'^mv twp IBkotwp KTtjpLara 6 rvpap- 

jo V09 hid rovro xal wXeito afr avrSp €V(j>paiP€Taif 
ovBe rovro oSto*? ^X^*, ^5 Si/^ctJi^tSij, dXX^ mu-irep 
01 affXi^rctX ot}^ irap Ihidirmp ySpatprat fcpeir- 
Toi/€9, rovr avToifs €V<f>paLP€tf aXX^ orap rwp 
dpraytopttrrSp jJttoi/s'^ tout avrov^ dpia^ avrm 

15 Kal 6 rvpavpo^ ov')(^, orap rSp Ihta^rmp TrXeio} 
<f>aip7}rat. e)(Ci)p, ror €v<f>palp€rai, dXX\ ^rap 
eriptap rvpapprnv iXarrm €)(j}, rovrtp XinreiTat' 
rovTov^ ynp aPTOPfanfiffTa^ ijy^lrat avrw rov 
ttXovtou eipai. ovSe yt Bar top ri ytyverai 7 

4.^ rm rvpdpvm 7} T€o loLcirT} wp iirtOvpel. o pt,€p 
ydp iStftJTi^? oixla^ j) aypov tj olfcerov emdvp^el^ 
6 Sc rvpappQ^ rj ttoXewp ?} -^wpa^ TroXXr}^ tj 
Xifiiumv 7) dxpoTToXemp la'^vp^p^ a ea-n woXv 



12 HENO^ONTOS IV 7 

'XoXeirdrepa KaX iTriKivSworepa /caTefyyacaadai 

8 Toip IBicoTiKciv iTrtdvfirjfuiTcop. aXXa pAvroi icaX as 

TToXXoi)? T&v TVpdvvcav, ov yap r^ dpcO/jLtp ovt€ 
rd iroWd Kplverai ovre rd iKavd, dXXd wpo^ 
rd*; 'xpi]<r€i<;' Sare rd fjuev vTrep/SdWovTa rd 
t/cavd TToWd iari, rd Bk t&v iKav&v iXXelirotna s© 

9 oXiya, to5 ovv rvpdvv(p rd iroXXairXaa-ia tjttov 
iKavd icrtv eh rd dvayKaia Bairavrfp^ra fj r^ 
IBicoTy. ToU /lev ydp iBidraL^ i^eari rd^ Baird" 
va^ avvTefiveiv eh rd Kaff rjfiepav iirrf fiovXovrai, 
Toh Be rvpdvvoi^ ovk evBe^eraL. at yap fjueyia-rat ss 
avToi^ Batrdvat Kal dvar/KaioTarac eh rd^ rrj^ yjrv* 
j(rj<: <l>vXa/cd^ ei(Tv' rd Be tovtodv <tc> awrefiveiv 

10 oXeOpo^ BoKel elvai. eireira Be oaoi pJkv Bvvamcu 
€')(eiv diro tov Bcfcalov iaaov Biovrat, 7I dv tovtov^ 
olfcrelpoi Tt<; (09 trevriTa^ ; '6<tol S' dvayKa^ovrai, 60 
BC evBeiav KaKov ti kcli al<rj(p6v firj^avatfievoi 
^fjVf TTcSv ov TOVTOv^ dffXCov^ dv Tt9 KaX irevriras 

1 1 BiKai<o<i vofil^oc ; ol rvpavvoi roivvv dpa/yKa^oinrat 
irXela-ra avXdv dBlK(o<: Kal iepd KaX dvOpdirov^ 
Bid TO eh Ta9 dvayKaLa<i Bairdva^ del tt/ooo*- 65 
Beladac 'XprjfioTCiiyv, Sairep ydp iroXefjiOv 6vto^ 
del dvar/Ka^ovTat arpdrev/jLa Tpe<f>eiv fj diroXtO' 
Xepai. 

V 'KaXeTTov S* ep& aot Koi aXXo irdOripM, Gd Xcfuo- 
viBrj, r&v rvpdvvcov. yiyvdaKovai fjuep ydp ovBkv 
fjTTOv TWP lBi(OT&v Toif^ Koc/Jblov*; re KaX ao(f>ov^ KaX 
BtKaLOv<;y rovTOV^ S' dvrX tov dyaadai (fyo^ovv- 
rac, Tov<; fiev dvBpeiov^ fiij rt ToXpLria<o(ri rfj^ s 



TO 7r\^0o^ vir avTWV 'jrpoo'Tarela'Bat. orar Be 2 
tot)? ToiovTovi Bia top ipo^op vire^atpmt/Tai, rtVe? 
10 dWoi avTot<t fcaraXeliroprai '^prjadai akX* tj 01 
aZiKot T£ KoX dfcpar^lf; koI avSpawoBdhefi ; 01 
fjuev aBtKoi •jriarevofjt^evoi^ Biort ^o^ovvrai mairep oi 
TvpavvoL rM 'n^oXec^ p^j^TTore iXevffepat j€p6p.€ifai 
iyKparel^ avrwv j^pcoifrcLtt 01 S' afcpar^l'i Tt}s €is 
*s ri wapoif i^ovcia^ et^eiia, ol S* dpBpairohwhetf; 
BiOTi ovS* auTol d^iovatP eXevdepot eJpat, '^^aX^irov 
ovv Kal rovro to wdOfjpui epoiye Bofcei elvac, to 
aXKov^ fi€p Tfyehrdai ayadov^ dvBpa^j aXXoi? Be 
'^fjaBat dpajxd^eaBai, en Be iptXoTroXLP p>kp z 
ao dvayKj} Kol TOP Tvpapvop elpat • apev yap 7^9 
iroXew^ ovT dp trd^eo-OaL BvpaiTO out dp evBai- 
1 fAOPeiv 7} Se Tvpappl^ dpayKa^et Kal Tal^ iammv 
^H waTplatp €7^arXeu>* ovt€ ydp dXKtp^ov^ out 
^V €v67rXov^ ^aipovai tov^ TToXtVct^ TrapaaKevd^opre^, 
' aj oXXa TOv^ ^epovi BeipoTepov^ twp ttoXit&v woiovv- 
T€<s T^BopTaL fidXXop fcal tovtol^ '^pmvTai Bopvfpo- 
pot^, dXXd p.7jp ovS' dp eveTrfpmp y€Pop.ipmP 4 
d^Qopia rmp dyaOiiP yiypTjTaL, ovBe t6t€ aity^atpei 
i Tvpappo^. ipBeetTTepoii; yap overt, Taw€LPOT€poi<% 
3P avroLs otopTat '^pTJcrBaL 

l^ovXop^ai Be aot, ^^f ^ ^tpMpiB% xaKeipas VI 
Ta? €Vif>poa-vpa<i BTjX^Zaat, Ba-at^ iym '^pwp.evo*;, 
OT* ^p IBimTTf^f pvp eTreiBt) Tvpappo^ iyePOfLTjp, 
alaffapop^i <XT€p6fL€po^ avTmP, eyta yap trvprjp 2 
ifjtev fjiXiKtmrats iJSo/iej'o? '^Bop^poi^ ifiol, awijp Be 




14 EEN04»nNTOS VI 2 

ffw/iTTOtJtot? TToXXatci^ pAif fiAxpi' Tov iirikaSia-dai, 
irdvrmv el re y^aXeirov eV dvBptoTrlptp 0i^ 771/, 
TToWdfct^ Se f^expt' tov oJSatv t€ koI daXiai^ koI 
^opoU T'r}p '^i/%?)j' avyKarafiiyi'VPai^ iroX\d/ci<? S^ 10 
fjt^e^i fcowi}^ evBvfiia^ i/iyj^ re Kal nSp irapovrwp, 

3 vvp Bk dTrearip'Jjij.at pip rmv r^hop^epmif i/JLol Sta 
TO bovXov^ dvrl (j>iXa}p e^etp tqv^ iraipov^, 
dTreareptjfiai S* avrof^ tov TjSeci><f ixetpoi^ ofitXelp 
Bid TO p>7}B€fjLiap ipopdv evpotap ip^l wap^ avrmv* 15 
pri07}i' Be Kal VTTPQP ofjLotmf? ivihpa (ffuXdrrofiai, 

4 ri 5e ^o/3€la0ai fiev 6j(XoVt <j>o0€to'0at S* iprffjiiap^ 
<fHt0€i(Tdat Be d<fivXa^iaPf ^o^eltiBai Be tccfX avrovs 
Toi^s (pvXdrrovTa^ Kal firjr doirXov^ ^X^^^ ^^^~ 
Xeiv 7re/>t avrop fn]0' wirXio-iiivov^ ^Sea>9 d^dadat, so 

5 TTcS? ovx dpjaXiop iu-rl wpar/fia ; ert Be ^epoi^ 
fihf fiaXXop 7} iroXirai^ inareietv^ ^apffdpoi^ Be 
fiSXXop 77^ KXXrfo-iPf i'jnOvfj.up B^ rov^ fiep iXevffi^ 
pov^ SovXov^ ^X^^^f "^^^^ Be BovXou^ dpayxd^eo-Oat 
woielv iXevOepou^, ov wdpTa aoi ravra Boxel^s 
'^ir)(7}s vfTo (f>60a>i/ KtMrraireirXTiy^evT}^ retcfiT^pta 

6 etvat ; o ye Toc. ^o^os ov fiopoy avro^ ip^p rat? 
i^v^flttS' Xvinqpo^ itrrtp^ aXXd Kat, Trdprmp tSp 

7 TfBefoP a-vfiTrapofiapTc^p Xvp^apri/jp yiyperai. ei Be 
teal crv TToXefiiKmP ep-Treipo^ el^ m %tfMi}piBf}t xal 50 
^8t? wore iroXep^ia (paXajyc irX7}crwp dpTerd^tiy, 
dpafjkP7}(j07jTi wo LOP p,€p rtva (tItop "^pov ev etcelvm 

g T^ ^poi/G>, wolop Be TIP a vwvop ifcoifiS. ola fiiprot 
a-ol TOT rjp Ta XvwTjpd^ roiavr <d€i> itrri rd t^p 
Tvpdppmp Kal €Tt Betporepa ' ov ydp ef epaprias 35 





(lovov^ aXKa Kal irdvroQev woXefitowf opap vofit- 
^ovaip oi TvpavpOL 

Tavra B' aKouawi 6 Si/waj^/S^*? uTToTuz^dip elirev* 9 
^Tiripev fioi Soxel^ epia Xiyeiv, 6 yap TroXe/fo? 
40 <f>o0€p6p fiePj aXX o/i<ji>?, m 'lepmVt ^p>€i^ ye ormp 
cS/xej/ ip arpareia, if>vXafca^ TrpoKaStaTdfjLevoi 
BappaXim^ SeiTTPov re xal vttpov Xay^dpofiev. 

Kat 6 'lepojp €(jyri' Nal p.d Ala^ m St/icurt'Si?' 10 
avrSv fi>€P yap wpo<}>v\aTTOv(TiP at pofjboij mare ir^pl 

45 kavrmp tpo^ovvjai Koi virep Vfimp' oi Sk rvpapvoi 
pLiadov <fiv\afca^ e-^oucrtp 6)tTW€p ffepio'Ta^;, xal Bel ii 
pi£P hjjTTOu Tov^ (f>vXaKas fiTjBep ovro} Troielp Bvpatr- 
Oai a)s" wtoToif^ etpat' wtATJOP Se epairoXi^ '^aXeirm- 
T€p0P evpelv rj irdpv woXKovs ipydra^ ottoiov ^ovXet 

50 ipyov^ dWw^ re fcal oworap xpTjpLdrdiP p£p ei/exa 
irapwa'iif ot (^vXaTTOpre^, i^j} S* avTOi<i iv hXlym 
')(p6p^ TToXv wX^im Xa^eip aTTOfCTeiifaai top rvpap- 
pop ^ oca iroXvp ')(p6pop (f^vXarroirre^ irapd rov 
TVpdppov Xa^^dpovatp, b S i^jjXaxra^ ^/^«?, o>^ 12 

55 T01I9 pL€P (fyiXov^ fjAXitrra ev wot^ip Bvpap^eda^ rov'i 
S* i'^ffpoif'? TrdpTtap pidXiaTa j^etpovp^eSa^ ovSe ravd 
ovro)^ e')(€t. <f>iXQV^ ii€if yap ttw^ ap popLlaai^ i^ 
iroT€ €V TToieiPi orap €v elB^v art o rd irXeZa^a 
Xafj,^dpmp irapd crov tjBio-t ap ftS? rdy^iara e^ 

60 6if>0aXp.mp croi/ yepOLTo; rt yap ap Ti? Xd^rj 
irapd Tvpdvpov, 01; Set? ovBep avrov vop>i^ei Trpip 
dp 1^(0 T^<r TOUTOV iTTiicparua^ yipTjrat, ej^ffpov^ 14 
8' oAj wm^ ap (f>ati]^ p^dXtara rot? rvpapvoi^ i^elpat 
yeipoviidai, orap €v elBwa^tp hrt eyOpol avrmp elai 

65 7rdpr€K 01 Tvpavpoup^potf tovtov^ §€ pLTjre Kara' 




16 HENO^ONTOS VI 14 

tcaiveip &irama<i firfre hea-fievecv olov re ^' rivtov 
yap en ap^ei; a\\ ei^oora, on eyppoi €t<ri, tov- 
Tov^ ap^ fiev (jyvXaTTea-dac Bep /cat j^ri<rdac S' 

15 auT0A9 dpayKa^eaOai'j €v S* i<r0i koI toOto, c5 
^fjMVLBrj, in Kal, 0S9 t£v ttoXito^v SeSiaa-i, X^^~ 7® 
TTfti? fJ^P avTov<; ^£pTa<: opwa-c, j^aXcTrcS? S' oTro- 
KTeivovaip' &<nr€p ye xal itttto? ei dyad 6^ fikp 
€17), (jyo^epo^i Bk fjurj dpriKea-TOP n TroLrjarj, 'x^akeww^ 
fjL€p ap Ti9 avTOP aTTOKTeipai Bid rrjp dperTjp, 
j^a\e7ro59 Be ^(optl ^pmro, €v\afiovfjL€Po^ firj n is 

16 dvTjicea-TOP ip Tot9 klpBvpoi^ ipyda-rjTai, koI rdWa 
ye KTijfjLaTa, oca j(^aXe7rd fiep xprfCLfjua 8' ia-rip, 
ofioUo^ airapra Xvirel fiep tov^ KeKT7jfi€Pov<i, Xvirel 
Be diraXKaTTOfiepov^, 

VII ^Eirel Be ravra avrov rJKOvaep 6 XifKOPcBrj^, 
elTre' ^EotKep, €<j>i], o5 'lepcop, fjueya n elpat rj nfii^y 
^9 opeyofievoi oi dvOpcoiroL irdpra fiep iropop viro- 

2 BvoPTai, irdpra Be klpBvpop vTrop,epov(TL. KaX vfiel^, 
ct)9 loLKe, Toaavra irpdyfiara e'Xpva-Tj^ OTroaa s 
X676A9 T^9 TVpappiBo^t '6fi<o<; 7rpo7reTw<s ^epetrde 
ek avTTjp, o7ra)9 nfidaOe teal VTnjpeTwa-c fup vfup 
irdvTe^i irdpra rd irpoaTaTTOfxeva dirpo^aaUrTto^, 
irepifiXeTTcoat Be irdpre^y v7rapcaT(SpTai B* diro r&p 
OdKoyp, oBwp re 7ra/>aj^<»/>c3o"t, yepaLpfoa-i Be koX x© 
X07049 KaX epyoL^ irdpre^ oi irapopre^ del vfid^'* 
rotavra yap Brj iroiova-i T0Z9 TVpdppoc^ oi dp'^o- 
p^poL KaX aWop ipTiPa deX np^Apre^ Tvyxdvovci, 

3 Kol yap p,oi BoKet, c3 'lepayp, rovrtp BuKJyepeip dpfjp 
T&p aXKfOp ^(pcDPy rat np,rj<i opiyecdau iireX alroi^ 15 

7€ KOi TTOTols KaX VirPOl^ KaX <T0t^ T0l0VT0l^> 



Vlf 9 ^ lEPON 

Ttapra 6fLol(i><s ^i€<T0ai €01K€ tu ^wa* rf he <pikO' 
TL^la ovT €V Tol'i oXoyoc^i faJoi? ifitf^verai ovr ip 
{kiraatv dvOpm'iroi^' ol^ S' au ifi>(j>v7} jcpLT}^ re xal 

3o iwaiimv ep&>9, ovToi elo'tp t/St^ ol wXeltrroif fxev rmv 
^QiTK'rifid'rmif Bia(f>€poirr€^j apEpe^ Se xai ovfciri 
avBpmiToi fiopop pofii^ofj^epot. mare e^iol fj,ev 4 
et/coTcas^ Bofcelre ravra irdpra v7rop>€P€iP & ff>€p€rn 
ip T'§ Tvpappi&ty €7r€L7rep TtfiaaBe Sia^pepoPTO}^ tSp 

35 dXXcap apQpmirmp* teal *yiip ovSefila dpdpmiripT} 
'qhovi} Tov Beiov iyyvrepm Soxel ejpat 17 ?J we pi rav 
Tifim evippotTi/pT}. 

UpQ^ ravra Sj] elirep 6 'l^pmv' *AXV, cl 5 
'S.ifj.wvtBrf, a I VTTovpyiai at x/iro ^o^ovp>iv<ap ov 

30 TifJiai elcri. ttoj? ytip a p (f>al't}p,€p fj tov^ ^i(t 7 
i^aPicrrap^ipovii BaKtav Bid to np^dp tov^ dhtKovv- 
Ta? t^avio-racrffai. ^ roii? oBmif 7rapa')(mpovpra^ 
ToiS KpeiTToa-t Bta to TipLav tov^ dBtfcovpTa<i frapa- 
'^aipetp ; xal Bt^pa ye BiBoaatp ol ttoXXoI tovtoi^ S 

15 ot)<? piixTOVdi, Kal ravra oraj/ p-dXta-ra (jxj^Sprai 
fjLTj Ti fcaKOP VTT avrwp irdOajtrtp. aXXa ravra 
fjLep 0Lp.aL BovXelas epya elfcoro)^ ap vopLt^oiro* 
ai Be repeal efiotye Bofcovtrip etc rwp ipavrlmp 
tovtok; yiypeadat. orap yap avBpaPTroi dpBpa 9 

40 rfyvja-dp^poi evepyeretp Itcavop eipai teal diroXaveiP 
avrov dyaOil pop,iaapre<i, eireira t ovr op dpa crr6p,a 
T€ €)(m<TLP €'Traipovpr€<ij Bemvral r avrop w^ 
oltcelop €Ka<rrQ^ dyaSop, e^copre^ re irapaympwu'i 
TovTf^ oBwp Kal ddtcmp vrrapio'rmprat (piXovpre^ re 

45 xai fjiTJ <f>o^ovp,€Poi^ Kal irre(f>apmcrt /coip'^ apery ^ 
seal euepyeata^ epetca teal BmpeitrOat i6eXm<Tiu ol 

ILL "^ 




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18 HENO^nNTOS VII 9 

aVToiy ovTOC €fjLotrf€ BoKovai rifjudv t€ tovtov dX7)d<S<; 
ot av Toiavra iirovfrfqaoxTLy koX 6 tovtcdv d^iov- 

10 /JL€V0<: Ttjj,a<r0ac rw optl. koI eyorfe top jj,€v o^tod 
TLfjLWfievov fiaKapl^Q}' aiaOdvofiai yap avrov ovk 9> 
eiTiPovKevofievov aiXKd tf>popTi^6fi€vop firj ri irddrj 
KoX d<l>6P(o^ KoX dveiri<fi06v(o<; Kal dKivBvv(o<: Kal 
€vBaLfi6v(o<; rov /3lov Sidyovra' 6 Be Tvpavvo<;, qj? 
VTTo irdvTcov dv6p(iyir(ov KaraKeKpipAvo^ BC dBiKlav 
diroOvrjaKeiVy ovtco^, cS 'S.tfuoviBr), ev ta-Oc, kol 55 
vvKTa Kal rjp,epav Bcdryei, 

11 'EttcI Bk ravra iravra BirfKovtrev 6 XtfjuayvlBrj^, 
Kal irm, €(f>i]y cS ^lepayv, el ovrto irovrjpov eari ro 
Tvpavvelv koX tovto <rv eyv(OKa^, ovk dircLKKdrreL 
ovTQ) /jLeydXov KaKov ovre cri) ovre aWo9 fiev Bfj 60 
ovBel<; TTwiroTe eKcov elvai TvpavviBo^ d^elrOy o<Tirep 
dtra^ eKTrjaaro ; 

12 "Ort, eifyq, w Si/mcovlSi], Kal ravrr) affXidraTOV 
iarcv rf rvpavvl^ ' ovBe yap dirdXXarfrjpai Bvvarov 
avTTJf; eaTC, ttoS? yap av T/9 irore e^apKetreie 65 
Tvpavvo^ fj ')(pr)pxiTa eKTivtov (5o"oi;9 dcfyeiXero^ fj 
Becfiov^ dvTiirapda'x^oi o<rov<; Brj iBeafievaev, ^ 
(iaov^ KoreKave irw^ av Uavas; yjrv^d<; dvTCTrapd- 

13 o'xof'To diroOavovfieva^ ; aW' elirep r(p oXX^, (3 
Xcp'toviBrj, XvaLTeXei dTrdr/^aaOaiy iadi, etfyrj, iri 70 
Tvpdvv(p eytoye evpC<rK(o fioKiara tovto Xva-tTeXovv 
iroL7J<rai. fi6v(p ydp avTw ovt€ ej^etv oirre xaTa- 
OetrOai Ta KaKa \v<TVTeKei. 

VIII Kat o ^ifKovLBri^ v7ro\al3(av ehreV 'AWa to 
fiev vvv, cS ^lipayPy dOvfJuo^ ^x^tv ae irpo^ rffv 
TvpavviBa ov 0avtJui^a), erreiirep iir^Ovficop ^tX€i^ 



19 



adai VTT dvdpojwfop ifjLTTohmP trot rovrov pofii^et<7 

ae co^ TO apx^ip ovShf dirofcrnXvei rov <f>i\€la6aif 
dXkd fcal irkeov^tcr^Z ye Tijs ISimreia^' imtrKo- 3 
TTOVpre^ Se avro el ovtq3<; ^X^^> f^V"^^ i/ceipo 
aKowmpLep, et Sta ro fieltpp BvpairOat, o apx(*>P 

> /cai '^api^eaOat TrXeint Svuatr ap^ aXX' ap rd 
opLOia TroiwaiP 6 re /StfwTTjs' fcal 6 rvpappo^, ippoet 
TTorepo^ f^ei^at airo twp X<rmp fcrdrai ydptp. 
ap^of^at 8e <70i aTro r^p pu/cpordrcctv TrapaSety/jLa- 
TOJf. iS(iiP ydp wpmrop TrpoaetTrdrm ripd iptXiK^^ ■ 

i re apx^^yp teal 6 IBimrT)^ ' ip rovrfp tt^p Trorepov 
TTpQcrpnaiP p.dXkov ev(f>p€U¥€ip top oKovaaPTa 
vofii^ei'i : Wi S?) iiraiPEcrdvTmv apLt^arepoi top 
avTOPf TOP iroripov Sa/cei9 iiraipop i^iKPmrQai 
^dXXov e/9 ev^poavtnjPi 0ifaa<i Se TLfjiJiadrw 

3 e/cdrepo^* Trjp irapd irorepov Tifirjp ^il^ovo^ dp 
'^dpLTO'^ Bofcet^ Tvy^dp^ip ; Kap^vovra Bepairev- i 
adi^rofP ofAoim^' ovtcovp tovto (Ta<j>e^ on at vtto 
rmv 8vpaTmr(LTQ>p ffepaweiat Kal ^apdv ifi'irotoDtrt 
fi€yi(TT7}p ; BopTtop StJ to. taa' ov koI iv toiVm 

5 acupi^ on at ajrh Tmp ^waTrnTnTc^p ^filcetai 
^dpire^ wXeop t) oXou to irapd rov Ihia^TOV BtopTjpia 
Bvpamafy a?OC epLOtye Bofcet fcal etc Bemif ripLYj rt? 1 
KoX ')(dpi^ fTV^TrapiirecrSai dphpl dp^opri. /A17 
ydp '6ti fcaXXiopa irotei dphpa^ dXXd teal top 

D aVThif TOVTOP <T}BioP> Bew^dd re oTap dp^jj ^ orav 
t8io>T€v7}, BidXejofiepoi re dyaXXop.€0a rot^ irpore- 
rifi7)p,epoi<; fmXkov 7} to* 9 etc rov taov ^fup ovat. 
ovore y€ p,r}P tV t^p la-mu VTrovpyjifLdrmv p,€il^6v<t>v ' 




20 HENOOONTOS VIII 7 

')(aptT<ov vfjueU Tvy)(av€T€y ttcS? ovk, eireihav ye 
vfiec^ 7ro\\a7rXa<rt,a fikv BcaTrpdrrovTe^ (0if>€\eiv 3s 
Svvrj<rd€f 7roWa7r\d<ri,a Bk Beopecadai e^^^re, vfia^ 
KoX TToXv fjuaXXov <f>LK€UT0ai T&v ISiayrd^p TrpocijKet^l 

8 Kal 6 lipaov €v6v<; UTToXaySwi/, "Ort vrj AC, l<f>r), 
oi ^LfKovihriy Kal i^ wv dTrexSdvovrai, avdp(07roi, 
Tffia^ irdkb TrXelco t&v ihi<oT&v dvdryKf) eVrl Trpary- 40 

9 fiarevea-dai. irpaKreov fiiv 76 'xpr^fiara, el fiiX- 
Xofiev l^etv Bawavdv eh rd Beovra, dvar/Kturreov 
Bk <f>vXd7T€iv o<ra Belrac if>vXaKtj<;, KoXaareop Bi 
Tov^ dBUov^;, KcoXvreov Be roi^^ vfipi^eiv jSovXo- 
fiipov<i' Kol irav ye rd'xpv^ Kavpo^ Trapaa-Tj} rj 45 
Tre^rj fj Kara OdXarrav i^opfjuao'dai, ovfc eTTcrpe- 

10 Trriov roU paBiovpyovaLv, en Bk fiv<Tdo(f>6p(i)v fikv 
dpBpl Tvpdvvtp Bel' TovTov Be jSapvrepop <\>6prjfia 
ovBev e<rTL roU iroXirai^, ov ydp rvpdvvoi^ 
l<roTCfjLia<; dXXd irXeove^ia^ iveica pofjul^ovfrc rov- 50 
Tot;9 rpe^ea-dat. 

]X 11/509 ravra Brj wdXiv elirev XcfMcopvBr}^' 
'AW* Xtto)? fjuev ov irdvrcav tovtodv eirvfieXr^Teov, & 
'lip(0Vf ov Tuyco. iTrifjueXecai fjuivroi fjuoc Bokov<tlv 
ai fikv irdpv 7rp6<; i'xOpav dyeiv, al Bi irdw Bid 

2 j(aplTeov elvai. rd fikv ydp BiBdcfcecp & ecrc 5 
/SeXriara /cat top KaXXitrra ravra i^epya^ofiepov 
eiraLvelv Kal rifjudv, avTTj fiev ^ ivifMeKeia Bid 
Xapircov ylyveracy t6 Bk rov evBem rt 'rrocovpra 
XoiZopelv re Kal dpayKa^eiv Kal ^rjfjLiovv Kal 
KoXd^ecv, ravra Bk dvar/Kfj Bi dire^deta^ fiaXKov zo 

3 yiyveadat,. eyco ovv ifyrffii dvBpl dp^opri ri 
fiev dvdyKfi^ Beofievov dXKoi,^ irpoaraKreov elvoh 




/coXa^cLp, TO Be ra affXa aTroSi^ovai &i avrov 
wot7}T€oif. oS? Be ravra xaXm^ e^et fiaprvpet ru 

is ^iym^eva. koX yap orav ;^o^oi)<r tJ/a*i/ fiovXoifieffa 4 
wymvi^etrBai^ affXa ^€P o ap^tatf irpoiidijo'tv^ 
d0pot^€iv Be avTov^ irpoo^eratcTai xopf^jols fcaX 
dKkot,^ BiBaa-K€tv kol apayxijv wpodriOivat rot? 
ivBem^ Ti iroiovxTii*. ovkoGv evOv^ iif roi/roi? to pi^ev 

TO iiri')(ap^ Bifl rou f'/p;^ofTO? ijipero^ Ta B* dvTiTxrrra 
Bl aXXci)*^. Tt ovp fcoiXvGL xal TciXXa ra TroXtriKa $ 
ovTQi 'TrepaivecBai; BiT^pjivrai p,€p jAp awaa-ai at 
TToXei^ at flip Kara ^vXd^^ ai Be fcaTci fin pas, ai 
B^ Kard Xo^ou^^ xal ap'^opres i<p^ efcaaTtp fiepet 

25 i<f>€(TTijfcacip, ouKovp €i Tt9 Kul TovTOLS &(rrr€p 6 
Tot? '^(^opoU d$Xa TTpoTidelri Kal €i'OwXla<i xal 
evra^ia^; Kal iTTTrifCTjs teal oXkyis Tfjs cV TroXe^i^ 
Kol BiKawcrvvTffi r^^ ip toU (rvfi^oXatoi^y etVo? xal 
Tavra iraPTa Bui ipiXoPtfciap ii'TOPo^^ daKeladai, 

JO Kol pal fMl Ala opptmPTQ J OP ddrrop Zttol Beoi 7 
Tifirjs opey6fjL€POL xal j^ptifiara fftiTTop eia^e- 
poieVj OTTore rovrov Katpas €ti7, icaX to wdpToap ye 
'XpTjKnfimTarop yKitrra Bk €i6i<TfL€Pop Bid <f>tXoPi- 
Kias TTpiirTea-dat^ ij yempyia avTr^ dp iroXv e-rriBaii}, 

35 et TVS adXa irpoTideiij tcaT dypovs r} fcaTa fcmfia^ 
rots icaXXifrra ttjp y'I'^ e^epya^ofiepoi^, teal rols 
€l*i rouTo rwp TToXiTmp eppayp^epm^ TpeirofLepQi^ 
woXXd dp dyaOd wepalpoiTo. icai yap at TrpotroBoi 8 
av^otPT dp teat ^ <Ta}(f>pocrvP7} ttoXv p>€iXXop dp 

40 TTJ da')(oXla (Tv/iTrapofiapToiij, teal firjp fcaKovpylai 
y€ jfTTOP Tol^ ipepyois ifit^voprai* el Be xal 9 
ift^wopia axpeXel ti ttoXip^ Ti/^oj/iej^o'f dv o wXeltrra 



1 



22 EENO^ONTOS IX 9 

TQvro woiSp ical e^iropov^ av itKuovk djeipot, 
€1 fie (f>ai'€poif jepotTo on koI 6 TrpoaoBop rti/a 
aXvwov i^evpia-Kmv ri} TroXct rt/iTjo-erai, ov8 avrrj 45 

10 av Tf (TK€'^i'i apyolra. cu? fie avi/eXovn elweiVj €1 
fcaX Kara irapja ipL^avh<s ctiy, on 6 ayadou tl 
ela-Tfyovp^poq ovk aTLfj,7}T0^ ear at j TroX\ov<i av /cai 
TQVTO i^oppLTja€L€V cpjov 'KOietaBaL TO (TKOiretv Tl 
elyaGoif, Kal Zrai^ ye ttoXXow wepl rmji ojt^eXtycai/ 50 
fjLeXrjj dvdyKT} evpia-JC€a6ai T€ pLoXXov xal eViTcXet- 

n adai. el Be (f>o^elj m 'lepcou^fir} eirl TroXXot? a0Xtav 
irpOTL6ep.ivmv iroXKaX <ai> Bawavai ylyv€i>vTai^ 
ivvoTjcrov ore ovk enrtv epwapev^ara XvaiTcX- 
earepa 7 oaa avGpmwoi adXwv mvovvraL opa^ iv ss 
iTTTrtKol^ fcal yvp,viKOi<; Kal '^oprijLKol^ aywciv m^ 
filKpd 3>d\a pLejaXa^; Sawdifa^ KUi TToXkov^i irovov^^ 
Kal TToXXor? eTTtp^eXeia^ i^dyerat dv6pmirwv\ 

X Kat o \ep(iiv ehrev' *AXXrt ravra fLeVj c5 
XipLoij/ihTj, icaXw'i p^ot BoKeifi Xlyeiv' wepl fie rmv 
pttrdofpopo}!/ €'^€i^ Ti elw£iv ci? p^"^ pio-ela-BaL Si 
avrov<; ; 17 Xejet^ ct>9 ^tXiav KTija'dp^evo^ ap'Xjft^v 
ovBep en Bei^aerat Bopvi^opcap', 5 

2 Nai pia Aia, etirev it/Aft) WSt^?, SeTJaerai p,€V 
oSp, olBa yap on &<nrep iv iTnrot^ oi/rm Kal ev 
dvBpmiToi^ n<j LP iyyiyverai, 2cr^ dp eKirXea rd 

3 Siovra e')(mai^ roaovrtp v^piaroTepoi^ elvai. rov^ 
fjuev ovv TO4OUT0U? fidXXov dp ac&^povi^oi diro 10 
Twv Bopv^opmv ipo^o^, roi'i Be fcaXot^ xdyadol^ 
d*K ovBevo'^ av p^oi BoKei^ roaavra w^eXripara 

4 irapOfT'^eip ha a dirh rmv ptaBo<f>6pa>p. rpetf^et^ 
p^ev yap Byjfrou teal av avrov^^ aavrm <f>vXaKa^' 



i 




IS ^Siy Se TToWol fcal Betrworai ^la vtto rmv Bovkmv 
dirWavov, cl ovv €if Trpt^rov tovt etTj tSp 
irpoaTeTajfiivQiv Tot^ ^i<T0o(f>6poi^t cS? 7rai^T(t}p 

Ti roiovTOP aicrOavrnvraV jijvovraL Be irov, ci? 

9o 7ra//T€? iwta-rd^eda, /caxovpyoi ip TroXeinv' ei ovv 
xai TovTov<i <f>vXaTreip etev rera/y/Mevott fcal tovt 
av etSetei/ inr avrwv ciif>€kovfi€vot» 7rp6^ Se tov- 5 
rotr^ Koi TOL<i iv ry X^P9 ipydrat^ xal kt7]V€0'ip 
ovTQi ap eiKorta}^ ical ffappo^ koI d(T<f>d\ei,av 

as BvpaiPTO fidXitrra Trape'j^eiPf Q^oitc^ f^ep rol^ aoh 
IBiat^, o^oio}^ Be roi^ apa 7iqp ^wpav, ItcaPoL je 
/irijj/ ela-f, Kal a")(oXTfp Trapi'x^eip to*? TroXtrat? Tfi5i' 
IBtoiyp iwifjLeXeicrBait rd iwltcaipa (j>v\dTTOpT£^, 
wpo^ Be TOVToii; KOi TToXep^itiip i^oBov^ Kpv<palaii 6 

30 xal i^awipaim rlve^ h'Oipt.orepQt fj wpoaiadeadat 
^ KtoXvaai rmp ael ip £77X0^9 re oprmp kqX avpre- 
TwypLepmpi aXXii /trjj/ KaL iv crpaTeia rl etrriv 
w^eXip^^repov xoXirot? pi^iado^opdip] rotirou? fyup 
wpoiropelp xal irpofCivBvpeveiv koX wpo^uXdrreiv 

35 eitco^ eroiftoraTOVfi elvai. Ta<? B* drf^irepfiopa'i 7 
'TToXet^ ovK dvdyfCT} Bid rovs del ep oirXoi^ opra^ 
Koi elprivfi^ pAXttrTa €7rc0vpeLP; 01 yap (rvvTeTo^- 
pLevQC fcal (T6i^€LP rd tq)p <pi\(itp pAXurra koI 
a<f>iiXXeip rd rSv iroKepLmp Bvvaivr dp, orap ye 8 

40 iMTjp ypw(Tip 01 iroXtrai on ovrot Kaxop p>ep ovS^v 
TTotovcrt TOP prjBep dBiKOVPTa, to 1)9 Se /caxovpyetp 
fiouXop^epov^ KmXuovat, 0o7}0ovai Be toI^ dBiKOV- 
p^poi^, TTpopooifiri Be /cat TrpoKipBvpevovtrL TtZp 
iroXiTt^Pj TTaJ? OVK dpdyKi} fcaX BaTrapdp €i<; tov- 





24 BENOOONTOS X8 

Tov^ i^BtoTa; Tp€<f>ov<n jovv koX IBla im fieloa-i 4$ 
XI TOVTCOV <f>vkaKa<;, j(prj Si, cS 'lipODv, ovS* airb 
T&v Ihitov KTTjfiaToyv OKvelv hairavav eh to 
Kovvov d^a66v, koi *yap efioiye Bok€c to, eh 
rfjv ttoXlv dva\ovfi€i/a fjudWov eh to Biov reX- 

2 eladai, rj rd eh to tStov dvBpl rvpdvv^, Ka0* 5 
%v S' IxaaTov <T/co7roifiep, oIkIuv irp^rov virep- 
fiaXKov<rf} hairdvQ KefcaWoD'mo'fjbei/Tfv fwXKov 
ijyel KoafjLOP av aroi Trapex^tv fj irdaav ti^p 
ttoXlp Tel')(€<rL re Kal paoh fcal Trapaarda-c Kal 

3 dyopah ical Xcfjueac Kareo'Kevaa'fjLeprjp] ottXoc^ Be xo 
irorepop roh iKirayXordroi^ avTo^ Kara/ceKoafir}' 
fiepo^ Beiporepo^ dp (f>alpoio rok woXefjiloc^ rj t^9 

4 TToXeo)? iXr)^ evoirXov <toi ovatf^] irpofToBov^ Be 
TTOTipcof; dp BoKeh 'rrXelopa^ ylr^peadav, el rd ad 
IBia fi6pop ipepyd i')(Oi,^ fj el rd wdproDP t£p 15 

5 TToX^TiSp fJLefJ/rj')(apf)fi€Po^ etr)*; ipepyd elpai; to Be 
irdpTcop KaXXvcTOP koI fMeyaXoTrpeTrea-rarop pofjuc- 
^ofiepop elpai einTijBevfia, dpfjLaTOTpo<f>iap, Trorepto^ 
dp Bo/ceh fJudXXop Koafieip, el avro^ irXelara twp 
'EXXijPcop dpfiara Tpe(f>oc<; re kov irefiiroi,^ eh rd^ ao 
iraprjyvpeif;, rj el ix rrj^ afj^ ttoXcco? irXetaroi /ikp 
LTTiroTpo^olep TrXetaro^ B* drycopi^otpro; PLicap Bk 
TTorepa Bo/ceh /cdXXiop elpai apfiaro^ dper^ fj 

6 TToXecD?, ^9 7r/)oo^TaT€uet9, evBaifiopia; eyci fjuep ydp 
ovBe frpoafjKeip <f>r)pX dpBpl rvpdpptp 7rpd<; IBidra^ »5 
dytcpH^eadai, pifetSp fiep ydp ovk dp OavfMa^oio 
dXXd (f>dopolo, c»9 diro TroXXtSp oIk(op rd^ Bairdpa^ 
TTOtovfiePo^y PLKtofiepo^ B* dp irdprcap fjudXiara 

7 tcarayeX^o, dXX* eyd aol ^r}fii, c5 'lepoDP, tt/oo? 



XI 13 lEPON 25 

30 a\\ov^ TrpocTdra^ 7r6\€a)v rbv arf&va elvai, tSv 
iav (TV evhavfjLOveardrrjv rrjv irSXcv, ^9 Trpoarar- 
€V€i<;, "rrapi^D^, eH eaet vvk&v r£ KaWlar^ xal 
/leyaKoirpeTreaTaTip iv dvdpdiroi^ df^tovlafiari, 
Koi irp&TOV fxev €vdv^ Kareipyaa-fievo^ av elr}^ ro 8 

35 <f>c\€la0ac VTTO r&v dp'^^ofiivcov, ov S^ av eircdvfiwv 
T\rf)(dveL^' eireira Bk rrjv crrjv viKrjv ov/c dv eU eltf 
6 dvatcripvTToyVy dXKa irdvre^ dvdpcoiroi vfjuvolep 
dv rrjv crjv dperrjv, irepi^eirro^ Se (ov ov^ inro 9 
Ihitmrwv fjLOVov dWd feal vtto [iroWoop] iroKetov 

40 drfa'rr&o dv xaX davfiaoTO^ ovk Ihia fiopop dWa 
Kol Br)fioala irapd irdaiv dv €Lr)<;' xal i^eirj fiev dv 10 
aoi €V€K€V da<f>a\ela<;, et iroL ^ovKoio, decDpijaovrt 
7ropev€<r0ai, i^eltf B' av avTov /Mivovri tovto 
TTpdrrecv. del ydp dv irapd aol 7ravt]yvpi<; etr) r&v 

45 /3ovXofjL€V(i)v iiTiSeLKvvvai et rh ti aro<f>dv 17 xaXov 
fj dyadov e'xpc^ t(Sv 8e koI eiriOv/MovvToyv virTjperelv, 
ird^ Se 6 fjbev irapcov avfifiaxo*; dv etrj cot, 6 Be 11 
dircov eTndvfjLoli] dv IBelv are, Sare ov /movov <f>tXolo 
dv dXXd xal eptpo vtt dv0pd>7r(i)v, ^6/3 ov Be ovk dv 

50 e^ot^ aXV dXKoL<; irape'x^oi'; /mtj tl Trddrj^;, CKOvra^ 12 
Sk Toi)? 7reidofjL€vov^ €^^049 dv Kol e6eXov<Tms <tov 
TTpovoovvra^ de&o dv, el Be rt? kivBvvo^ elrj, ov 
(TViMfid')(pv<; fjLOVOv dXXd Kal irpofid'xpv^ koX irpodv- 
/lov^ 6p<pr)^ dvf iroXXojv fiev BcopeSv d^Lovfievo*;, 

55 OVK diropdov Be Urtp tovtcov evfievel fieTaB(iaei<:, 
7rdvTa<; jxev avy')(alpovTa<; e'^aov iirl rol^ aol^ 
dyadol^y irdvra^ Be Trpo rcSv cr&v wcrirep t(Sv 
lBl(ov fia')(pfievov^. 6rjaavpov<; ye fjurjv e^ot? <dv> 13 
irdvTa<; tov<; irapd rol^ <f>IXoL^ irXovrov^. dXXd 



26 HENO^ONTOS lEPQN XI 13—15 

Oappwv, c5 ^lepayv, irXovri^e fiev rov^ ^iXov^' 60 
aravrov yap TrXovTLel^' av^€ Se t^v ttoKiv a-avrS 
yap Bvvafiip 'rrepia^^et^' kt& Be avr^ <rvfjLfid'x^ov<:' 

14 v6/JLL^€ Be Trjv fi€v irarpiZa oIkov, rov^ Sk TroXiraf; 
kraipov^y roi^ Be (f>CXov^ rexva aeavrov, rov^ Be 
iralBa^ in irep Trjv arjp '^1^5^ i', /cal tovtov<: 65 

15 iravra^ ireipoo viKav ev iroi&v, eav yap tov<; 
^tXot;9 Kparfj*; ei ttoloov, ov fjurj aot Bvvcovrai 
dvTC'xecp oi iroXefiiou kolv ravra iravra iroi,^^, 
ev iadi, Trdvrcov twv ev dvOpdirot^ KaXXcarov xal 
ftaKapioiraTov KTrjixa Ke/cnjaret' evBaL/juovSv yap 70 
ov <l>6opr)aeL, 



NOTES 



THE HIERON 



XENOPHON 



N.B. The Marginal Numerals refer to the Pages of the 
Text. 

The Beferences to the Notes are by Chapters and Sections. 

coBET refers to Novae Lectiones by Prof. C. G. Cobet, Leyden, 
1868. 

Q. to Prof. W. W. Goodwin's Greek Grammar. Macmillan 
and Co. 

G. MT, to Prof. W. W. Goodwin's Syntax of the Mood$ and 
Tenses of the Gieek Verb. 6th Edition. 1876. 

HA. to Prof. James Hadley's Greek Gramm>ar^ revised and in 
part rewritten by Prof. Fr. Allen. Macmillan and Co. 

KUHN. to AtLsfiihrliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache 
von Dr Raphael Kiihner. £d. 2. Hannover, 1869—1870. 

MADV. to Madvig's Syntax of the Greek Language tr. by 
H. Browne. Bivingtons, 1863. 

TH. to F. E. Thompson's Syntax of Attic Greek, Bivingtons, 
1883. 

STUBZ to Lexicon Xenophonteum by F. G. Stnrz. 4 vols. 
Leipzig, 1801—4. 

VEircH to Greek Verbs by W. Veitch, LL.D. Oxford, 1871. 



NOTES 



CHAPTER 1 

Simotiide8t on occcuion of a visit to the court of Hieron, the 
despot of Syracuse^ oaks him, as one who has personally tried 
the life of a private citizen and that of a despot, which of the 
two he considers preferable in regard to pleasures and pains 
(§ 1 — § 2). Before replying to his question, Hieron inquires of 
Simonides what are the agreeahUs and disagreeables of private 
life, and, when Simonides has recounted these, declares that he 
does not know any sensations of pleasure or pain that a despot is 
susceptible of besides those he has mentioned (§ 3— § 7). Simonides 
says that, though despots may experience no other pleasures, 
still what they have exceed in variety and degree those of private 
men, while of pains they have a much smaller share (§ 8). 

Hieron replies that the life of a despot lias much more pain, 
and much less pleasure, than that of a private citizen of middling 
circumstances, Simonides insists on the superior means of 
enjoyment possessed by the despot, because otherwise so many 
would not have aspired to be despots, nor would despots have 
been the object of so much envy to all mankind (§9). ' Their 
inexperience of both conditions of life misleads them\ says 
Hieron. *The despot feels no greater real happiness in his 
own bosom; while he suffers many pains and privations of which 
the spectator takes no account. As to the pleasures of sight, 
the despot forfeits altogether the first and greatest, because it is 
unsafe for him to travel abroad or visit the public festivals and 
fiuitc^»(§ 10-^18). 



30 NOTES ON i , 

* Well* replies Simonides ^at all events despots have the ad- 
vantage of us in what they hear, if not in what they see. Their 
ears are always gratified by praise, while they escape the un- 
pleasantness of censure and detraction* (§ 14). 

To this Hieron replies * There is not much to gratify in praise 
which is insincere, nor in the absence of censure, which is unheard 
only because speakers dare not express what they really feeV 

(§ 15). 

*7 quite agree with you* says Simonides Hhat disinterested 
praise is the pleasantest. But surely in the pleasures of the 
table there can be no comparison between despots and private 
men. The despot has finer cookery and richer unguents *. * This * 
says Hieron Hs a vulgar error. A thing is pleasant in proportion 
to its rarity. He who but rarely meets with a delicacy enjoys 
it with a keener relish. As to the scent of unguents, it gives 
more pleasure to those who are near him than to the despot 
himself* (§ 16— § 26). 

\ 
1 § 1 1. 1 wotI, * once upon a time', G. § 87, 2. 2 otxoXtjs 

7cvo|UvT)s dK^otv, G. § 184, 4, HA. § 768. 3 6 2:i|m»v{8t|s : 

The article is used as in renewed mention. dp' &v — l6cXi{- 

<rais, * would you be willing?* On the use of the optative with 

&> as a potential without expressed protasis see my 

note to Cyr. ii i 8, G. § 226, 2 (6) Note 1, MT. § 52, 2 Note, 

HA. § 872. 4 cIk^s, sc. iariv, ix 6, x 7. 6 Kal iroto, 

*pray, what sort of things?' koI prefixed to an interrogative 

pronoun or particle serves to emphasize the question. 

SiroC — av cIScCtjv, 'such as I must know', potential opt. 

as above 1. 3. 7 pikr%6v irov: G. § 75. o^c»s dfvros vo^ov 

dvSpos, *such a wise man as you': out us, like ttoXj^, xdw, 

fiaWoy and other adverbs, is frequently separated from the 

adjectives or adverbs which it qualifies for the sake of additional 

emphasis : cf. 1. 130, Oecon. ii 9. 

§ a 1. 9 otSd o-c.^rycviiiUvov: G. § 280. IStwrris is 
the 'ordinary private man', in contradistinction to one 
who is distinguished by his office or by the possession of 
some professional acquirement {ivaUjy). See on iv 1. 32. 



» 



p 



XENOPHON'S HIEEON 31 

10 d|JufM>TCpa>if, i. ti. Toy Ti'pa*'jf(A"oi' Kal rod ISnttTUtoO 
piw. ir^TTiLpaj^vov, 'since yoa have liad experieDct^, U. 

§ 277 1 2. 11 irj, qua rati one, *iii what way' G. § 87, 3, 

UA. § 779 a. 12 ils cuc|>pcMnJvasT * in respecit to enjoymentB ', 
Cf. Aimb. n vi 30 ovBeh ets i;i()i\l'a*' avTom fAt^^^ero, Cyr, i iii 1 

a 5^oi, Oecon. iL *1, xviii 1 BiBaCTKc ovv cf rt ^x^*^ M* f«^ 'f'r rorrro* 
ct^^pofft'i'ij is one of tbe many poetical words used l>y Xen. 
See Index 1 for a list of snch words. 1^ dv6p«Wrois, 

g^nencaUy 'mankind*, cf, vii iJ, viii 8. For the dat. see O. 
% 184, 5, HA, § 771. 

§ 3 L 14 t£ ovv...oux^ crij,..iirfji.v»jr<it |M (for v^^^5^»'7y- 
<r<5»^ fu], 'why do you not then at once recall to my mind?* 
The aorist with t£ ov expresaea a command or proposal in the 
more Uvely form of a question: cf. CjTop. n i 4 with my note, 
VIII iii 46 ri offv ovx^-'^t^^ ^^ €vSaifAotfa iwotifffas; and see HA, 
§ BH9. 15 TCI Iv T«^ tS, p. Hcil. tv^ppotri^vaj re xal Xi'iras, 

10 oStw — J?i* hoc feceTin^ *bo\ *in this case' (i,e. if you remind 
me) J stands in lieu of the proper protasifl to At^ di&patr&ai \ et 
Mem» I ii 59 o6 TaDr' Aryf, xal ykp iavrbv odrb; 7' dv tf ero deiv 
waUtrdaij whtire o{iTti} Btanda for ei radr* iKirff, and see iu § 22fi, 
1, HA. § 902. av ol|iai, , .SiSvao-fiat : G. § 13<>, N. S, HA, 

I 1*40. On av anticipated hyperbaticiilly >vith olfiai see my 
note to Cyr. i vi 18, 

§ 4 1. 18 oijTw SiJ, quamohrem, not *Hpake thtiH^ in refpr- 
) to what foUowg. fiiv St^, 'well theu\ introducing in a 

lively manner th© fall eatplanation of the proposed sabject. 

2 § A 1. 23 T«l i|^x^ '^^1- ^c^Xtti), ' (extrt^mes of) cold and 
heat'« Abstract BubfitantiveH are used in plural where iu- 
stances of the quality are denoted in Greek juflt as Ln Latin; 
Bee Index I and my note on Cic. dc off. i. § 78 L 3. 
S4 oki^ Tip 0-M|Mi,Ti: in opp. to the five organs of aenso. 
Cf. Cie. de nat, deon 11 § 141 tactim autem toto e or pore 
aequabiliUr fiisus eat, ut omni^ ictiu omnieque minimm <»( rifforis 
et caloriM appulms sentire paxsiimu. 25 ^$*ar^Q,i..,h/ 





32 NOTES ON is 

avTott: iirl is used of the antecedent cause or groond of 
anj mental affection, where the simple dative of cause (HA. 
§ 778 a) might be used ; for an instance of the two construc- 
tions, cf. Anab. n Iri 26 Cocirtp ret dydXXerai irl Seoirepelqi..., 
oih-uf Miyuv "fyyaWero r^ i^xarav dCvoffOau. 27 Icrri |Uv 

5Tf...lo*ri 8' &n, 'sometimes... at other times', HA. § 998 b. 
For the anaphora^ cf. ii 15, iii 2. 8i' avrrjt rrjt H'^^** 

*with the mind alone*. Cf. Oecon. vii 8, xvii 15. 
28 KOivj, una, 'jointly'; but in vii 9 it means im&^ic^. 

§ 6 1. 30 Sirctfs, indefinite relative, 'how', *in what 
manner'; HA. § 1054, 3. There was a variety of opinions 
amongst philosophers of old— Alkmaeon, Empedoklds, Aristotle 
— on the causes of sleep. 81 c^ivt koX Air^rc, 'by what 
means ' (not, as some, ' with what part ', i.e. body or mind or 
both) and at what time' (i.e. when actually asleep or when 
falling asleep). ftaXXov sc. ij Bn ijdofieda rf 0iryy, not as 

Bernhardy takes it, 'more than is right'. 82 Kal ov8^ — kv 
nf virv^, 'and yet this surely is not at all a matter of surprise, 
since the sensations produced by what takes place in a waking 
state are more distinct than those produced in a state of sleep'; 
<ra^€ffT4pas, being a predicate adjective, precedes the article, 
of. 1. 42 and see G. § 142, 8, HA. § 618. Some take el for 
fh-i after a word expressive of wonder, see G. § 228, HA. § 926. 

§ 7 1. 36 lyci |Uv, ' I for my part'. The fi4v refers to an 
opposition which is understood without being expressly men- 
tioned as in taufs fUy, eUbs fiiv^ otfuu fi^v, doK(2 fih^ Cjs fUy Xi- 
yowrty^ which imply some possible different view or statement, 
cf. vii 4, xi 6. dircicpCiraTo — 1^ : On the pleonastic use 

of ((fnjj 0ayat, elirc, X/7€t etc. see my n. on Oecon. viii 2. 
86 i{tt Tovrwv <Sv ^pi|Kat: G. § 158, HA. § 994. Translate 
'I cannot say how a despot could possibly be sensible of 
anything else beyond (lit. 'outside of) what (such pleasures 
and pains as) you have mentioned; and consequently thus tax 
I do not know in what respect the life of a despot differs from 
that of a private person'. 37 dy oto^otro— l^oi|fc' dv: 

see note to f 1 1. 3. 88 dare, quo fit ut, quodrca, marks 



1 9 XENOPHON'S HIERON 33 

a strong oonclasion. K^^XP^ 7< tovtov, *so far at least', 

'hitherto*. ovk ol8* cl: hand, scio an would have exactly an 
opposite meaning. 

§ 8 1. 40 dXXd— Siat^pct: dXXa is often used, as here, 
in quick answers and objections. kv rotcrSc = 4n this (the 

following) respect*. 41 iroXXairXao-ia cv(|>pa£vcTai (sell. 

dn&paypos tov l5i(tyrov)=iroWair\a<rlai €^<f>poff6vai eitppai' 
verai: see G. § 159 Note 2, HA. § 716 b. We should have 
expected the explanatory yap after fUv; but this is often 
omitted. Cf. de ven. v 31 : rcKfi'^^piov W, u^j i\a<f>p6y icTtv • Braif 
drpefui diairope&rp'aij miSq. kt\. tovtmv i.e. the organs of 

sense. 42 |lcCc» rd Xvnipa lx<^ • <^^* 1- ^^ ^ote. 44 |jicC» 
iroXi cv^paCvovrai, * have much fewer pleasures and pains much 
more in number and greater in degree than private persons with 
moderate means (those in the middle ranks of life) '. For the 
position of iroXiJ cf. the Latin plura multo^ maiora multo, 
ante multOt post paulo, 

§ 9 1. 47 fl Ydp o(iT« ravT clxc — iircOiu|iow, *how comes 
it that so many would have desired if this had been the case 
(which it is not)?' G. § 222, HA. § 895. If we substitute 
for the interrogative irws its equivalent negative ovk, the 
superiority of the reading in the text, which is that of Stobaeos, 
over the vulgate ^x^* "^^^^ carry conviction with it. 
49 Kal ravra, idque^ *and that too', often used with the 
participle when it stands in a concessive relation, HA. § 612 a, 
G. § 277 Note 1 (6). t»v 8oko^vto»v iKavwr&rtav dvSpwv 
ctvat, *of those who are considered to be most competent 
persons'. The predicate-noun with etvat or ylyvca-Oat stands 
in the genitive when it is preceded by the genitive of a 
participle of a verb declarandi or sentiendi: cf. below ii 1, Plat. 
Apol. c. 7, c. 32 Tw ^xKTKovTuv dtKaaruv elvai, and see HA. 
§ 941, G. § 136 Note 3 (6), Madv. § 168. By tKav«>- 

rdTwv Weiske and Schneider understand * most rich and pow- 
erful* )( tQv fierplun JiiaybvTiov^ cl. de re eq. ii 1, rarroi^rat fjukv 
yh,p ^ iv reus ToXcctv lirxeOeiv ol roh xp^M-o^^ "^^ lKavu)TaTot 
Kol T^ ToXewf o6k i\dxt(rrov ixerixovTcs. 60 ir«s 8^ vdrris : 



34 NOTES ON I9 

the regular order should have heen tcSs irdvrcj bi to cor- 
respond with Twj ^ iroKKol yuh, Cf. Anab. iii iv 2 HaB^ fikv 
oCfdivy iroXXd 8k Kaxd. ivo/ua-c xoiija'at, Mem. I yi 11 ck /xiv 
8 Ik a 10 V vofd^o), <T0<f>6v dk OT^dk oTOKmoOv, for ci diKouov yukv ktX., 
I i 10 i\€y€ fih {Z<t>KpaTrji) Cts rb iroXiJ, rots 8i povXofihois 
i^rjy dKoiieiv ; but, though fjJv — 84 are commonly placed after 
the words which are severally opposed to each other, the 
Greeks did not always observe uniformity in this respect^ 
referring them sometimes to the predicate, sometimes. to the 
whole clause. 

3 § lO 1. 52 dfi^oT^pwv Tov IpyMV, ' of both conditions of 
life', i.e. the state of both the private man and the despot. 
This is better than to take d/u^ or ^poii^, as it is taken by Bremi, 
Frotscher and Sauppe, as a genitive dependent upon tuv fpywp 
* the circumstances of each ', cl. Anab. v v 18 plq. oi8h iXa/i- 
^apofiey rCv iKcLpuvy VI V 38 K^pov Tjaav rod iKeiyov 8oiLf- 
Xou, Hell. VII i 13. For the above meaning of ipyoy cf. 
Oecon. iv 5. ircpl avrov, soil, irepl tov Tvpavvctv. 

54 hnrcOOcv, scil. dir6 rijs 6\l/€(ai, inde, *with that'. The 
order is 8oKia yh.p /JicfiyijaOau (HA. § 944 a) xal <rk df^dfiepw iv- 
T€v6€v X^etv. The phrase dp^dficyos diro tii^os, inde «, * be- 
ginning with any person or thing', generally agrees in gender, 
number and case with the substantive, of which it defines and 
limits the sense, almost with an adverbial signification, as 
in Plato Theaet. p. 171 b i^ &xdyT(i)y...&x6.,.JIp(aTay6pov 
dp^afiipuy dfupia-prfHiffercu, See my note to Cyr. i vi 8 1. 74 
and Madv. § 176 (c) Bem. On the construction )jic|i.VTJ(r6ai 
— dpgdficvov see G. § 280, HA. § 982. 56 rois 8id Tt|s 

5i|rc«»s Ofdiwo-t: cf. 1. 20. 

§ 11 1. 57 cvpCo'Kw lUiovcKTovvras, 'I find that they are 
worse off'. Observe that fieLoyeKTeip (the opposite to which is 
wXeoveKTety) may be used either (1) absolutely or (2) with 
the dative (a) alone (1. 77) or (6) with kv as here, (3) with the 
genitive of the thing of which one falls short, as iv 1. 3, (4) 
with genitive of person and dative of thing (1. 107, 
1. 111). . |Uv 71] see n. on viii 9. SXXa — kv SKXy^ X*^* 

'some things are worth seeing in one country, some in another '. 




OPHOI?r^S EIERON 



68 hti To^Mv iKcurrei — ^in^Yf(j>fcr0a^ *jn q^iiesi of these 
several curiositioa private men resort either ta bhcIi cities as 
they may pkaf^e for tlie sake of the sights in them, or to the 
national festivals, in wliich it is considered there is a collection 
of sights most worth seeing". "Bj TravTfy{rp€L% are meant in 
particular the Olympian games in whioh Hieron ro difstin- 
gmBhed hi mself . Frotsch er explains ^ i/ y a 7 e f p t o- £? a t as = iaert 
awayeipttrBai aiVot's. Cobet suspects that there is gomethlng 
wrong here and that several words have been lost. See crit, n. 
5!J els irdXit$ (£s div ^ovXaivfaL : forfftTroXetse^jdsS*' 
^odXciri'Tai livf %ii cf. Oecon. 3£ 10 ef /card x'^P^^ ^X^^ V^ 
ffft itoLiTTa for Ka.&* ^s^i Cyr. 11 iv 11 with my note. 



§ 13 L 52 ou \kd\a d^^l 6f(c>p(as i^^o^u^^v, ' have not mueh 
to do with*, *are not mudi concerned about public showe': 
of. Oecon. vi 7 rotW dpt>^t y^v ix^vTai, Cyr. viir iii 20 d/i^i 

dft<f>l Tavra elxov^ v i 30, V 44, v iv 10 d^^l t4 alxp^^fiJTa 
ix^"'"' '^* ^' ^yXarrci*'. 04 acttMiA^s, rc, torL 

Sirov jt^, the negative /A^ is used because of the indefinite 
(implied) antecedent * anywhere* (conditional relative clause): 
see G. § 231, HA. § 1021, K^irrnvt^ rmv ir^jj^VTwv, 

•superior in strength to thoHO present at them\ 65 tqL 

otKOt, * their affairs at home', G. § 141, Note 3, also § 190 
Note 2, HA, § 066 a, also § 220. K^icnjvTav ijiypa,, win-f— 

dtiTofiijpty, ^possess in suiHcient security (Gr. § 142 , 8, HA. 
§ 618) to leave them in the charge of others while they are 
Aboent from their kingdom \ See note to L 74. 66 ^opt^v 

'(90. lirrl} \Lr\f 'it is to be feared lest". 68 Ti|4^pilJ' 

gntur^b tovs aSuctiiravras, *to revenge themselves on those 
who do them wrong' (in deposing them), * their aggressors ^ 

, Tipitijpilv is *to asHist one who has suffered wrong ' , 'to avenge' 
with the dative of the person avenged, the accusative of the 
person on whom vengeance Is taken, and the genitive of the 
crime avenged ; the niiddlertjttwpetrtfat is*to avenge oneself 
upan\ 'visit with punishment', with the accusative of the 
person and Reuitive of the crime. Plato de lep. 11 p. 579 b 
draws a similar picture of the misery of a diiAijat dafe^rt^^ 



:1 




36 NOTES ON i « 

from the privileges and pleasures of travelling and seeing men 
and manners, and confined to the prison of his own court: 
\ixv(i? 5^ 6vTi ai>T(f r^v ^vxV ii6v(^ rGnf h tJ T6Xet oifre dirodri' 
/xijaat i^ffTty ovdafidae oih'e ffetapTJaaiSffuv 8^ koX ol aXXot 
Aei^^epoc iwi0vftrp-al eZ(rt, KaradcSvKciJS 5^ iv t'S olxlff rd xoXXd cbf 
yw^ i"5» <pOov(bp Kal rdis aXXois iroX/rats, idv tis f^u) dirodrjfi'S koI 
Ti dyaOby 6p$. 

§ 18 1. 68 Amis &Vt potential opt. See n.to 1. 3. 

69 dXX' dfM, *but then surely'. rd roiavra: generic 
article, * spectacles of this kind'; G. § 141 (d)^ HA. § 659. 

70 Kal otKOb lUvovo-i, *even when they stay at home'. 

vol |jid ACa appears to serve not so much the purpose of 
affirming the preceding position, as of ushering in the sub- 
sequent objection. See ShiUeto Dem. de faU, leg, App. in. 
71 dXCya y€ rwv iroXXwv (scU. ipxcrai ai^rots), *only 
a few out of the many that there are', partit. gen., G. § 168. 

72 Toiavra 5vra, *such as they are', sciL dXLya. 
ri^Mk irttXctrat, "are sold at a high price': on the use of 
predicate adjectives in apposition to the subject, where other 
languages use an adverb, see HA. § 619. 73 ol lirtSctKvv- 

IMvot Kal dnovVt 'those who furnish any exhibition, ever so 
small'. d£iova'^ * expect'. 74 XoPovrts — dmivat, secum 
auferrBy *to go away with'. The participle here expresses the 
leading idea; cf. Cyr. i iv 13, 20, Anab. vii vii 63 ravja Xapdiv 
dviei, G. § 279, 4, HA. § 968 b. kv 6U^ XP^v<p, < within a 

short time'. Cf. Mem. i iii 13 iv Toffo6T(p xP^^Vi de red. 
iv 23 iy irea-L vivre ij ?^. 75 iroXXairXcuria — tj 5ffa ktiSv- 
rai, *many times — as great as they get'. Cf. Cyr. rv ii 37 tfxwj 
liiv\d<ria aira Kal irorA irapaaKcvaaftiva y rj rots dtavdrout 
^ToiciTe, with my note, de red. i 5 dpvaaofUyri di (yij) iroXXa- 
rXaff lovs rpitpci rj €l aiTov (<l>€pe. The same thought might 
have been expressed also by ToKKairXdaia oatay KrupraLf such 
adjectives having the construction of comparatives; see G. 
§ 175 Note 1, HA. § 755 a, and cp. Cyr. v ii 30, vni iii 38. 

§ 14 1. 77 aXXd— 7^ toi, «weU— at any rate*. 'AXXA ia 
used with an adversative force in relation to a latent fe^eling 




XENOPHON S EIEEON 37 

in the lomd of tLe sp^iaker. tois 8fapA(ri, * in respect of 

fiiglit8\ gee above L 1(MK G. § 188 Note 1, HA. § 780. 79 rw 
■qS£<rTou aicpoa|juiTos : of. Cic. or. p. Arch. ^ 20 ThemUtocleii 
iUuiii dixis.ii!' iiuifity cum ex eo qutMreretnr, quod acroama aut 
€uiu» vocem libentissime audi ret: ^eim, a qito nua tirtu* optitfte 
praedicarttur \ 80 v|iiv may be regarded either as governed 
by Tap6rr(^ or as the dative belongiiig to the whole eentencc 
rather thaja to any special word, G. g 184, 4, HA. | 771. 
4 82 TOW x^^^<"^Tov ciicpiodi|MiTo«: for the genitive after 

ajt^oM, *not hearing \ ^ee G, § 160 Note 1, HA. § 753 d. Cf. 
Mem, n i 31 rou Train- wk ifBUTrou OKoviT^aros^ ixalvev iatrnpf 
dy^Koot cL |ir«Uv«ii is in descriptive appoaition with 

dKpodfjLaTOi^ HA. § 624 b. 83 icaT* tJiJ'dc&Xiioii^, *to his 

face' ; cf, Arisi. Ran. 626 tva <Toi Kar' A^tBaXfiaOf X^ij, Soph. 
I Antig. 760 /car' ^^/tetra, Eiir. Andr, 1064 iX&Hi' xar* B^pta, 

^^ft 84 KaKTjyopcti^, 'to slander V ^ speak eYil of: see cr, n* 

f 

mi 



f 16 1. 85 Kal t£ <iUi — <i5(^pa£viLv, ' bnt^ pray^ what pleasure 
d4» you think thej give who don't speak evil of us? ' On the 
emphatic xal before interrogative particles and pronoune see n. 
to 1. 6, and on the ose of the negative ^rj >\ith the participle, 
G. § 283, 4, HA. § 1025 a. 87 ol o-tcmrwvr*® oiSxoh Hhese 

your silent men * ; the participle with the article ased Bub- t^ 
stantively instead of a relative periphrasis of a person, see Gv,>V 
§ 27<J, 2, iravTfs KCLKovoi tUrC: see cr. n. 89 VTroirrot^ , 

^v¥ — Tovs Iwatvovs TTowliff'tQv, "are suspected of bestowing-"' 
their {G. | 141 Note 2) praises for the sake of flattering'. On 
the personal for impersonal construction see HA. §944 a, G. 
9 380 Note 1, G. MT. g 93 Note 2 (6). 



§ 16 1. 94 &p4s and ^pan at the beginning, or paren 
ihetically in the middle of a aentenoe, are used, without any 
influence on the constmction, like Latin tidfji\ *do you see? 
don't you sec?' in explanation, where the speaker assumes 
that hla stattzTuent must command assent ; cf. Arist. Nub. 355, 
Thesm. 496 ravd\ op^fi oiJtwitot* elwev. Plat. Protag. p. 336 d 

illud cerUf *this certainly \ vis. what has yet to be mentioned. 





38 NOTES ON \ ^ 

o^ Irb, non itemy non iam, 'not as in the other case*. 
So in Mem. iv iv 20, after several deCtp y6fjLoi have been 
enumerated, Socrates says, 'o^k4ti fioi SokcT — o&rot OeoO w6/jlos 
clyot, Agesil. ii 26 K6rus dmyXXdyij — . Ma^cuX^ ye fi'¥ — 
o^k4ti (*not like the others') dcUras dXXd ireurOcU diriirXewrep 
dtxade, Oecon. xxi 11, Cyr. i v 8 1. 79 with my note. ovk £v 
ircCoais — ov84va, *you would not get any one to believe'. The 
protasis implied is, 'if you were to try', see n. to 1. 3. 
96 kv avroks c^i^cUvfo^, 'you enjoy yourselves in respect to 
them'. We should have expected a demonstrative reference 
(iy toOtois), but cf. Cyr. viii viii 16 rd Trerdfiafa iirl rpdwe^w 6ffa, 
Te xpbaOev cOfnjTOj oid^v air dp d^jpi/rou. 

§ 17 1. 97 KOki — Ti, 'yes (I agree with you) and what is 
more'. TovTcp KpCvoixriv, 'judge by this fact* viz. Sri 

d^oKoOffi ktX, Cf. iv 8 od yb.p rt} dpiOfitf rd, iroXXd Kplvcrai. 

98 ifjSiov, libentius, 'with greater relish'; cp. iii 2, viii 5. 
99 SoKovo-i — kivTots, 'they have a notion that they 
themselves also would have more pleasure in partaking of an 
entertainment served to us than of one served to themselves'. 
UapariOiyai rivl is the technical term for 'setting a meal 
before a person', so oi xapaTidipTe^ are 'the serving-men', 
Cyr. VIII viii 20, rd wapaTiO^fxevat 'the meats served', 
II i 30, V ii 16. Cf. Arist. Ach. 85, Eq. 52 poCXci xapaOQ aoi 
ddpTToy ; 101 tovto, emphatic, ' this it is which'. See G. 

§ 152 Note 3, HA. § 996 b and cp. §§ 21, 25, 32, de rep. Athen. 
i 2 ol KvpepvijraL — xal ol vavfrqyol, o^toI el<riv <A r^v d^pafuw 
ir€piTi04vT€i tJ t6X«. 102 rds tjSovcCs, ' their enjoyment* ; 

cp. 1. 89. 

§ 18 1. 102 ijS^fids irpoo^xovrai, 'look forward with plea- 
sure to', Apol. C. 33 IXapCbs vpotrc^ix^'^^ ^^^ Odvaroy, 
103 irXi]vovx: see crit. n. 104 iKirXccp— iraf>co*Kcvao'|UvckS 
'since they have been always provided to the full, supplied 
with abundance'. For the predicate nominative see G. § 166 
Note 4. ov8€|i>£av — Ix^vo-tv — hrCSwrw, ' do not admit any 

sort of addition', of. Oecon. xz 23 oC>$^y (x^'- ^Xcloya iirldoffip 
7J xwpos c$ apyov vdfiipopos ytypdfupos. 106 tq < 



lax XENOPHON'S HIERON 39 

Ttjs ^ir£8os, *the pleasure of (i.e. arising from) anticipation*. 
For €i<ppoai^¥7i see n. on vii 4. 107 lutovctcrovo-b rAv 

ISumiv : see n. on 1. 57. 

§ 19 1. 107 iKCbvo, <the following fact', 1. 94. The ace. 
depends loosely npon ifxTcipos el (not on otSa) : see n. to Oecon. 
xvi 6, and cf. Cyr. in ui 9 ixiffn^fioves ija'ay rd irf»o<rfiKO¥Ta* See 
cr. n. 108 8o^, G. § 188, 2, HA. § 781. irXcCcD, predicate 
adjective; cf. 1. 32 with note. 109 iropaOriTCU, sihi 

apponi uibeatf 'has set before him', the middle in oansative 
sense. Cf. Cyr. y ii 19. rd ir^iTrd rav Uavwy *superr 

fluities': xepiTrds having a latent comparative force takes 
the gen., as in Cyr. viii ii 21, 22 ireptTri tuv 6.pKo6vTU)v. 
r^vQimf Odrrov, eo citius, 110 T«p XP^^ *"!* iJSovtis, *in 

reigpect to the duration of the pleasure '. 

5 § 20 1. 114 irpoor£i|Tab sc. r& irapaTi04/xcvay ^approves*, 
* likes* (what is served), i.e. as long as the appetite for food 
continues. The verb xpoaieaOai admits of a double construc- 
tion: to0t6 fi€ xpofficrai 'this likes me*, and tovto vpo<r- 
Icfiaiy *I like, aflfect this*. Cf. Cyr. viii vii 4 ry 5^ ^ \//vxh 
cirmv oi irpoaleTo. 

§ ai 1. 117 tAv ii8o|&cvov — TovTov : see n. to 1. 101. 

1. 118 oi^Kovv IpfiDnKflorara Ix^tv rov Ip^ov to^itov ; * do you 

imagine that the greater delight a man takes in any occupation, 
the more fondly he is attached to it?* The form of the 
sentence is like that of v 4 1. 30. Cf. Oecon. xii 15 ipuriKut 
iX^^^*- ''"oC K€p$alv€iVt Cyr. iii iii 12 ipwriicQs ^x^*" ^o*' "i^V 
TToieTy Ti, and for the gen. see G. § 182, 1, and HA. § 756. 
120 irctw |jiv oZv sc. oiofiaty * of course ', * unquestionably*. The 
most simple way of expressing an affirmative answer is by v a/; 
more strongly by irdw 7e, xdw fikv o^Vy Trdm-us 5iJ, fJLdXtffTa, 
Kol /id\a, ffipdSpa ye, <f>rffUy tI ydp ; tI fiiiv ; xws ydp o6 ; and an 
answer in the negative by oil, ov 5^a, o^^a/uDs, rJKio'Ta, tws; 
w6d€p; od pih ovvy see below, L 124. 121 ti — 4)8iov, *with 

at all greater pleasure*. So below ii 18 oWv tl *not at all*, 
iv 7 BaTTdv rt, Herod, iv 52 ovtu) ti, Thuc. i 107 r6 n. 



40 NOTES ON i ^t 

124 ov |ul r6v AC, ov ykv oSv sell. bpCi. Stobaeos has oO nkp 
drf. Cf. Cyr. v v 18 ov fid, t6u AC—ou /j^v 5iJ, i vi 9, ii ii 22. 

125 cLyXcvk^o^cpov )( TJiiov, *more sourly',.* with less pleasure'. 
Suidas s.v. ^AyXevK^s rb drjd^i ^cvo^cov etpriKCv iv rf OUovofwcif 
<viii 4). AoKcT 8i ^€pik6v t6 ivofM, ^uctkiKbp' ttoXi) yoOu itrrl 
Trapb. r^*V{v6u)VL. Ka2 dyXevK^iTTepov inrrl rod dijd^ffrepoy Sc- 
po4>ujp 'Upwn. dv 86{ci.€ : § 1 1. 3. 

§ 22 1. 126 |jiT|xavii|uira, afterwards (1. 136) called ffo4>la- 
/tara, * skilful dressings of food', * artificial stimulants to the 
appetite '. 128 (rrpv^vd, * harsh ', * astringent '. ro^twv 

d8^<|>a, 'akin to these', HA. § 754 d. 130 irdw jUv o^ 
scil. KaTav€vbT)Ka. Kal irav^ ^c, to be taken with irapb. 

</>ij(riv, 'quite unnatural'. See n. to ii 10. 

§ 28 1. 132 dXXo Tk o{v...iirkOv|i,Tf|uira, 'do you then 
suppose that these viands are anything else but objects of 
craving to an appetite sickly and weakened by indulgence?' 

In my former editions I followed Cobet in accepting r a r a e£e<r/iar a, 
the reading of IT, so that Hieron's meaning should be 'do you think that 
these are (merely) eatables or etc' ; but I now see that there are objections 
fatal to this interpretation. In the first place aAAoTtoiet, according to 
Platonic usage (see Hipparch. p. 226 e a A Ao r i oZv ol ye ^iKoKtpSeU ^iAov<n 
TO icepdof, Euthjphr. p. 10 D kkko ri ifukeiTcu viro Bemv) can only mean 
nonne putas 'do you not think ?' (6. § 282, 3, HA. § 1015 b), and in the 
second place we find that Xenophon does not use oAAo n but aAAo t4— 
rj, as in Cyr. III ii 18 aXAo rt o^v ^ Std. rh t^? y^5 airavC^tiv dya&fii vvy 
ireinTTes yofii^er' elvai; Anab. II V 10 aXAo Ti av ^ — dymvi^oCfitBa; IV vii 6 
aAAo Tt ^ ovSkv KcuAvei irapi4vax\ Oeoon. i 16 aAAo re ^ rovrots ovre at 
eTTioT^/uiat xPvi^f^^o- fta-tv ovre ra xT^/uiara; I conclude therefore that we 
fihould stand by the common reading— the absence of r a in IT may 
easily be accounted for by lipography— taking iBta-fiara as the subject 
of eti/ai, not as its predicate, and giving ^ the meaning of quamy not 
aut. 

134 4irkOv|jiij)iara, 'objects of desire'. See iv 7, where 
cities, fields, harbours etc., which are coveted by kings, are 
opposed rots IdiuTiKoh iirtOv/xi^fiaffiv. 185 irov, 'I pre- 

sume', 'surely', used where the speaker puts something in a 
half -questioning manner. ov8^ irpo(r8c6vrai, ' do not at all 
require in addition'. The wpbs has here its adverbial, not 
a prepositional sense. Cf. iv 11. 



1 25 XENOPHON'S HIERON 41 

§ 24 1. 137 dXXd (livToi— TO^ttv — roiis irXv|<ria|^ovTas — Airo- 
Xavciv ktX., * well certainlyin the case of those expensive unguents 
with which we are familiar, I really do believe that those who 
are near your x>erson have more enjoyment of them than you 
yourselves have, just as, in respect to disagreeable odours, it 
is not the person himself who has eaten (anything which 
emits a dis&greeable odour) who is sensible *of them, as those 
who come near him '. For the construction of d x o X a (^ 6 ( y cf. 
Cyr. VII V 81 dirf/T^ffas t&p ijdLffTup votwv dToXai/ereroi, Amphis 
Leuc. (Mein. Com, Fr, in p. 311) i^v dxoXat/etv Ixfiitav dXiy- 
OipQv, Antiphanes Arch. (ib. in p. 22) dir6Xau6 rov ^yuovy jtbif>€it 
Didym. (ib. p. 44) dxiXavva iroXXcDv Kal ko.\G>v iScfffidruty, 
Diodor. Epicler. v 19 (ib. p. #544) Tdyrwy diroXaiiaas rdv ira- 
pareOipTiav, 140 dxop^Tttv : the reading* dxap^crru;;' offends 

against Cobet's canon who {Nov, Led, p. 420) says, * perpetuo 
Veterum usu c&xjo^pii et ci)xd/H<rTo$, axa/MS et dxdpwros sic dis- 
tinguuntur ut animum gratum et n^r/rafum habentes cifx^P*-^'''^'- 
etdxd/>t(rTO( dicantur, sed venustus et scittis et elepans e^a/Hs 
ot iirlxcLpu nominetur, et dxa/Hs qui vetiustatis et elegantiae sit 
expers, Nauci non sunt formae 6 ii dxd/nros, evxdptros et iirixd- 
ptTos a Graeculis imperite fictae. Probae sunt roO dxdpiros, ol 
ei^d/Mres, et sic rd dxdpira et X^ety oCfK dxdpira pro xap^c^'Ta \ 
140 avrdif ipse, o pcpp«»K»s: see n. to 1. 87. 

6 § 26 1. 143 r»v a-irwv, partitive genitive dependent upon 
voMTodaird, Observe that the usual plural of 6 ffiros is not ol 
aiToi but rd aira. For the sentiment cf. Mem. iv v 9. 144 

|urd ir60ov, periphrasis for adverb. 145 tlv^s bc. alrov. 

For the emphatic ovtos ct above 1. 101. Hiero's meaning is : — 
* (You admit that the enjoyment of unguents is not after all so 
great). This is precisely the case with those who have con- 
stantly a variety of food set before them. They eat nothing 
with an appetite, whereas , he who rarely meets with any 
delicacy, this is the man who takes his fill of it with enjoyment, 
whenever it comes before him'. Schenkl proposes to read Twy 
TOio6T<av for tuv alrtav. 



42 NOTES ON it 



CHAPTER II 

StiU, contends Simonides^ there are otiier pleasures greater 
than those of sense. You despots have a considerable ad- 
vantage over private men because yoa can conceive and readily 
execute great projects and can do most to benefit your friends and 
hurt your enemies ; you have all the proud consciousness of 
superior might. You possess the greatest abundance and variety 
of possessions ; you have at your command luxuries of all sorts, 
the finest chariots and horses, the most splendid arms, the most 
brillia7it ornaments for your wives , the finest and most sumptuously 
furnished palaces and the most numerous, intelligent and valuable 
servanU (§ 1— § 2). ^ 

Hieron expresses his surprise that a wise man like Simonides 
should be misled by outward appearances and take the popular I 
view of happiness and unhappiness. A despoVs possessions and all 
that is reckoned of most value are displayed before the eyes of the 
vulgar; but they do not see the reality in the background, the evils 
to which he is exposed are concealed from them, lying as they do 
in the imnost recesses of his soul, where alone real happiness or 
misery resides (§ 3 — § 6). A despot Jms less enjoyment from the 
greatest blessings incident to human life, such as peace, and more 
vexation from the greatest curses, such oa war, than a private 
citizen : he is a slave in many things where a private, man is 
free; he cannot in his own country, with safety to his person, 
freely pass from place to place, but must go about fully armed 
himself and with an armed escort, as if he were in an enemy^s 
country (§ 6 — § 8). Private persons on their return from a 
foreign expedition consider themselves safe at all events when 
they get back; not so despots, who find themselves then most 
surrounded by enemies. Or in caie of an invasion, private men 
can retire within their fort for safety; but a despot does not find 
his home a castle, but must be on his guard there more than in 
any other place (§ 9 — § 10). Again private persons can obtain 
a respite from war by a truce and by peace, but a despot can 



II t XENOPHUNS JflEMON 43 

fuiver he at peaca or tru^it a truce with hh subjects (§11). For 
there are tieo kinds of war — there w that between state and 
tiate^ and there is thai hehseen a despot and his tuhjects. 
Whatever ills arise from the Jirat viust be shared bij despot and 
citizen alike {§ 1*2 — § 13). But a despot b]/ his ptmtion i« 
debarred from a »hare of the pleasures of a successful near (§ 14), 
which are iwi^ con»iderable {% 16 — § 16), In the second lind of 
war — while mspt'cting every one as an cnemtj^ he knoic^ neverthe- 
le»s thati ichen he has put to death the persons siu/tpected, iie Jms 
mdy ireaktnrd tite power of thtt city (§ 17), and his coitfiderwe 
is not restored hut he becomes more suspicions than before. 
His house is to htm like a besieffed eamp^ perpetualhj oa the 
alarni agaitui the open amaults or secret iutriguen of enemies 

(9 18). 



^ 



§11,2 TTiivv— p-Kpd : see n, on L 7, 3 txSv Bokcj^v- 

TMw dvBp«3v flvai: Bee n, to i 9 1. 41). For the erapliatic use 
of filfi)/} cf. vii 'A ILv'&pt^ &i Kal ofrK^ri afSpiitiroi ft.&vQif vofu^/lifAf wot 
CjT. V V 33 ffi> jAiy &vi}p <paiv€ij iyw Si ovk a^ios ^.px^^f Hellen 
TH i 24 ifrepe^Xotty tAf \vKopi¥f&ifi> sal p.6»ov dvSpa ijyQvvTOi 
Ariat. Ach. 70, Eq. 179. So in Latin rir: Cic. ep, ad Qti. fr* 
II 11 earn veneris^ virum te putabo; si SaffuHil Empedoeiea 
iefieris, homlnem non putabo. "Weiake is wrong in translating 
tQv SaKoC'tfTuv hy il lu» f r in m , co uspicuor um . See Prof. Jebb'a 
note on SopJi. Oed. IL llUl ed, % 4 iKorra? ; G. § 138 
Note 7i HA* § 619 a. ptoviKTOvvTcts — <r£T«v^ see note to 

i 11, For a^wr Heindorf ou Plato Protag. § 100 Biiggesta 
Afffi^Vf on the groand that the formur in included in frlrmM^ 
and aUo in reference to i L 22. 

§ 3 I, ;> iv iKdvott, 'in respect to what follows*, cp. i 1. M. 

7 linvoilTi, in animnm inducitis. TrXiMrra— Ix«t«, 
*poBfie8S— ^in greatt^st abundance', CI. g 1^8 Bern. 1, HA. § 618. 

8 SifiL4>^|»orras opfT^ 'of surpartaing ticelJence *. Aristot, 
jBth. Nic, II vi 2 ^ To9 twTrov d/Jf ttj tiTTov t« ff-^oifBaioif Tratfi Kal 
dyad^tf ^pa^utf Kai fveyKtiv top eTrt^dn^v Koi pLetvai roiJf TroXefdovt. 
The root oi ^ptTTf ia up- 'to lit", from which are derived dpa- 
piffttm *I suit', dp&poy 'a joint', dprrinj 'I lit together', *prepare\ 



se I 
a. I 



d 



44 NOTES ON ii . 

dpiOfjUts * reckoning ' i.e. fitting numbers together in a series, d/>rtot 
*even*, apri * just', * exactly ', (£/H<rros, dp^tncw, Lat. annat armus, 
artus *limb', artus * tight', ars etc. For the epanaphora 
dia^4povTas puh — dia^ipovra 84 cf. i 5, ii 15, iv 3 etc. 
9 Wcp^ovra, egregium. 10 K^o-fiov, mundum muLiebrem^ 

Fr. panire. Cf. Oecon. ix 6 1. 36. Kal ravras, easque, * and 

those too '. We find generally Kal ravra idque (i 9), not so often a 
demonstrative agreeing with the preceding substantive; but of. 
below vii 8, Anab. ii v 21 dwdfxav iffrl Kal dftrixdif<av xal roi&Ttap 
Torrip&Vf Oecon. ii 5, Herod, iii 73, 1 dpx6/ie6a ifwb Mi^dov dvdpbs 
liidyov Kal roiirov cSra o{>k ^oi^ros. 11 KaTf<rKCva(r|i4vot 

Tots irXcCo^ov a{Cots, 'with the most costly furniture*. 
12 lirurnt|uus dpla^ovi, 'superior in accomplishments': 
dative of respect, HA. § 780. With irXi{6cb we must supply 
some word like 8ia<pipovTai from dplarovs. 14 dvrjaai, pro- 
desse, G. p. 349. 

§ 8 1. 17 ovS^v rt, i 21 1. 12 note. |&dXa is to be taken 

with do^dj^eiVy and eddalfjLovas etvat depends upon So^dj^cuf^ 
not upon 6pw», 18 So(d|;civ &p»v, *to judge by appearances 
that etc' 

§ 4 1. 20 iroXXov d[£ia, 1. 11. ctvot, to be taken with 

doKovyra. ctvcimry)Uva (dfaTrri^tro-etv), explicita, 'un- 

folded ', ' revealed ', predicate participle. On the use of the infi- 
nitive (deaadai) as a sort of accusative of specification, see 
G. § 261, 2, HA. § 952. 4>av€pd looks so much like a gloss on 
dp€TTvyfi4vai that I have enclosed it in brackets as at least 
doubtful. See cr. n. 23 Iv^ir^ i.q. iy alffwep, 

24 dir6Kctrab, ahditur, 'is kept out of sight'. 

7 § 6 1. 25 t6 irXv|Oos ircpl rotfrov X(Xi)6ivat : cp. Plato legg. 
p. 908 c ffidi \4\rj6e xepl Toi^rov,wherealso the verb is used 
impersonally : the usual construction would be toOto \e\ri04vai 
t6 irX^^os, 'that this is unknown to the multitude'. 
26 Kal ifuls, *you as well as they'. 27 Sokcitc, 'are 

considered*. 28 tovto: see n. to i 1. 101. 

§ 6 1. 31 {XdxM^rov scil. fUpoSy see G. § 170, 2 Note, and cf. 
1.35. 




XENOPHON'S lilERON iS 

§ 7 1. 33 avT^Ka, *for instance'; when the firKt iriKiiinco 
that presontA itself is urged. Cf, Oecon» xix 18* Cyr. i vi 9. 
34 TavTf|s — Tois Tvpavi'oi.s |jiiT«cmv, G. § 184, 2 Note 1 {a}, 
HA. § 734. 'dB o S^ ir6Xcp.0f fiytx na^Kov, £ciL el 6oKtt elffai. 

§ a L 36 tvHi, i.q, avTUal. 3:^, *iit the outset \ 'to begin 
with\ It ifl followed b^^ iiretTa ^i 1. 4B. 37 tois tSiwratf l|- 
faTtv-']XTiS%v ^^u^out : On the accusative for the dative, 
as in Bgreement with the (understood) subject of the inftnitive, 
Bee G. § 136 Note 3^ and cf. Oecon* i 4t Hell* iv i 35 ^feo-Ti aot 
fif}6ira wpo<rKi*voOt^a — ^f, Mem. n vi 26 el i^^y roti icpario^* 
TOit ffvy&e^ivovi iirl roOt x^^P^^*^ livait Eur. Heracl. 693 
lis /j,^ fifvovvTo, rdKXa <roi Xi-yav wdpa, I'ltilarch Agis vi 2 
ffvv4^aiy€ roii iraXXotj, wcrrcp eirt Setnr^ng*' ayt^pLivovi iK 
dpao/jLoO, 3e3tevai t^i* AvKovpyotf. 38 7<SXf}Afiiv iroXcixj : G. 

% 159, HA. § 715* Siroii <£v pe^Xwvrai., *wbitherBOever they 

please*, G, g 207, 2, HA. § 860. 39 ittj ns— diroitTfCvxj : 

a. § 218, HA. § 8S7. 41 irflX«|i£as, eciL 7^1. -yow, *at 

ftU events*, series to confirm an assertion by giving the grounds 
for it. tfirXuri^ivoL etoir-rcbi vLVfiyKT\v tlvav Bidytw : dfdyKTiv 

f Ik at, as is aometimea the case with Mv^ XP^*'«" ^^- f*<^ter otofmt 
etc.f does not affect the construction of Ihe clauBo; otherwise 
we must have had wTXiC^^voLt?. Cf. Dt»m. de fals. leg. § 2fU) 
ifyo^fifjv — aurbs irepictyat Sfif ai'Tti>*', ib* § 337, Plat. Prota^^ p. 
Bl^iy € 'jr6Tepop p(.&vot offt S(ty BiaXiycffffai; 42 Bidjuv Be, 

Hf ^iov, vivert?, (urmn trnmiger4^, as in i 8, iv 2, vii 10. 
43 rv^ifipuK7<(r0ai^ jfccfim una circitmducere. 

§ © 1. 45dXX" ouv: 'the clause to which dXXd is opposed is 
sometlmt'H in the form of an liypothctical protasis; so dXX' 
ov»i when the consequeneea of the former clause are to be signi- 
fied. Plat. Phaed. p. HI b ei 5^ fi-ridiv eVn reXeunfJo'aj'T^ dXX' 
oZv tovt6v^ y€ rbv -)(pbvov^ tjttov mi^T}t i{To^t\ Jelf Gr, § 774 ohs. 
I. lirftBdv fXflwcriVT 'after they have returned*. See G. 

MT, § 20 Note 1 p, 26. 48 ivwnv &vmi G. § 280, g 136 

Kote 4. HA. § 980, § 982. 



§ 10 !. 4H lav S4-^^^TpaT<va»l^^v,— eav — 8oKwa-i.v: an example 
af ft conditional claoae snbordinate to a primary conditional 




4 



46 NOTES ON II ,o 

dause, where in some oases we should insert a copulative 
particle so as to make it a co-ordinate clause. Cf. Auab. iii ii 
31 ijv 5^ TLi CLTreidy, j^v yl/rf<f>l<nf<r0€ — icoXd^etv, ovtus oi ro\4/Juoi 
wXeuTTov i\//€vafiivot iaoyrcu. Such instances of a conditional 
clause within a conditional clause are found also in Latin, see 
my n. on Cio. or. p. Sestio § 45 1. 31 ed. 2. 49 els njv ir6Xiv: 
Gobet would read ivl^ which of course would be the correct 
classical combination, but, as Saappe remarks, ^positi ck signi- 
ficatione contra exempla non pauca, maxime sequente hostium 
nomine, veluti Anab. i i 11, iii 6, in ii 16, iv ii 7*, to which 
may be added Cyr. i v 14, m ii 9 dXaX(£|dvres (Oeoy els airo^St 
Anab. m ii 16 iroX/xi^aTc <rifv T(fi. vaTptixp tppoyj^fiari Uvai els toM 
TToXcfilovs, 51 dXXd is opposed to the second hypothetical 
protasis: see n. on 1. 45. 52 voffcCloiNrv KoOcorrdvai: G. 

§ 134, 3, HA. § 940. 53 ov84, ne—quidem. 64 IvmvOa 
8i) Kal iMLXurra, ibi demum vel maxime^ * there of all places 
most'. On the intensive jca/ = German gar, see my n. on 
8 Oecon. i 19 and cp. below viii 7. 55 ^vXcucrfov : G. § 281, 
2, HA. § 990. 

S 11 1. 56 Sid (TirovSttv — yiyvtrax trokfyjont cCvdiravoM, 'a 

cessation of hostilities is brought about by means of a truce'. 
58 To^ Tvpavvcvo|fc^vovs, *the subjects of a despotic 
sovereign'. 59 dv — doppijcrcic, * would confidently rely 

on treaties*, potential optative, i 1. 3, HA. § 872. Observe 
that the participle Ticrrci^cras is the virtual primaiy predicate, 
HA. § 984. 

§ la 1. 59 Kal— )Uv ^.etprofecto iam, *and further'. The 
/jiiy {=fiifv) serves to strengthen the afiQrmation. See on vii 11. 
60 oOs iroXcfiovot : 1. 38. 62 roi^rMv r&v irdkfyMv : i.e. 
the wars between contending free states, and those between a 
despotic king and the people who have been forced by him into 
subjection, respectively. The gen. is partitive, depending upon 
Sao. But some with goodreason understand 6 ivrats irdXeai 
to refer to irdXcfMs: in that case the genitive must be referred 
to it. The vulgate 6 c^y rait vHXeffi could not possitly mean 
'war between states '. I should prefer to read 6 cSv rats ir^Xco-t, 



11,6 XENOPHON'S HIERON 47 

find in 1. 68 ol 6vt€s rais T6\e<ri. 6 kv rats ir6X«n may=cirig, 
as also in 1. 68, the singular being used as opposed to 6 
riipavyos. The fUv in Sa-a fiiv ix^i xaXexd is answered by the 
dimddi fxovffip iid4a 1. 67. 

§ 18 1. 64 kv oirXots: For iv in the sense of * wearing' » 
'equipped with', see my n. to Cyr. ii i 16. 65 &v Ti 

irdOcMrb— lirl TovTois : Such transitions from a singular col- 
lective noun to a plural are not uncommon: cf. below iii 4, 
V 4, vi 14, Cyr. i ii 2 rjv dd t is ro&ruv rt xapapatp-g, jyi/xUw 
ai^TOis ixoMdOcffav, Oecon. xxi 9 dr ay~ovro(, and E|ee HA. § 632. 

§ 14 1. 66 |Uxpi Tovrov, Hhus far', cf. i 1. 38. '|jiv 8tj is 
ordinarily used in dismissing one consideration and passing to 
another, cf. 1. 92. to-ot sc. cUrlv. ol kv rats iriXctn, may be 

for cives: cf. 1. 62, but as there, so here, it might refer to T6\e/iot, 
i.e. *war8 between different states*. Weiske, Add. p. 454, pro- 
posed ol 6vT€s x6\€<ri (sc. xoKefioi). ovK^rt, non item. 
See n. on i 1. 94 p. 38. 

§ 16 1. 70 ov ^Siov sc. iffri 71 Stn\v |Uv— 8(nf|v 8^ : see 
n. to 1. 8. rpii|ra(r6at, fugare, • to put to flight'. Observe 

that the strong aor. rpaTia-BaiiB never used in this sense but 
always in that of *to turn and flee'. 73 Yavpovvrat, 'pride 
themselves, exult ', a poetical word, not found elsewhere in Xen. 
74 dvaXa|ipdvov(rtv, which Sturz renders sibi vindicant, 
can only signify, as Cobet points out, amissam {gloriam) re- 
cuperant, ' they recover lost credit ' — a meaning which does not 
very well suit the context. The &vd may be easily ascribed to 
dittogriEiphy, a frequent source of error. Cf. Plat. Phaed. p. 
75 B. 75 n^v ir6Xkv vo|JiCtovrfs v|v£T|K^at * because they 

consider that they have enhanced (the power and glory of) 
their city'. The participle agrees with ol toXTtcu implied in 
al 7r6\€is 1. 69. 

§ 16 1. 76 irpo<nrokCirai rfjs PovXtjs |MTC<rxT)Klvcu, 'pro- 
fesses that he has had some share in the plan', G. § 170, 2. 
78 x^i'^**'^ ^^* ^^"^^ cvpctv Sirov ovx^ Kal firii|rc^8ovTaC 

Ti, 'to find an occasion on which they do not add some 



48 NOTES OF ii r6 

falsehood': observe that oiy not ti-ffy is used because the 
relative is not conditional, as in i 12 1. 64. 79 irX^vas 

^ao-KovTcs dircKTOv^vcu t[ — diroOavaMriv, * pretending that they 
have pat to death more than have really been killed', 
diro^avetv does duty as the passive of dTOJcre/yetv. 
80 ovTw, tuque adeo. KaX&v rt, pulcrum quiddam^ *a 

really fine thing', i.e. something certain in that way, though 
perhaps indescribable. Sec my n. on quidam, Gic. de off. 
I § 96 1. 29. 81 r6 iroX^ vucdv (G. § 268) i.q. iroW^v or 

fieydXiiy vlKtiv viKav^ 'to win a great and decided victory'. 
Cf. Hipparch. viii 11 rb ykp xo\if viK&y oidevl irtttiroTe fUTafU- 
Xeiov irdpeax^^f ^3^* "^^^ ^^^ 26 ffinf fitv o^p toU Uipcous airrbs 
TJXcure KoX ivlxairoX^i Thuoyd. i 49, 5i8k aiirol rjaav ol KoplvStoL, 

§ 17 1. 81 iJirowTCVOTj sc. dyTiTpdrTovTai rivai. 
82 dLvTiirpdrrovTas, see crit. app. 83 ovk a{i{ci rijv 

ir^tv, in reference to 1. 75 t^v irbXiv vofd^ovTes Tfd^TiKivai, op, 
xi 13. 84 |ui6v«»v, paticiorum. ^iSp^Si 'cheerful', a 

9 favourite word of Xenophon's. 85 i&cyaXvvcrai, effertur, 

gloriatur, 86 |fcfioC, verbis elevate 'extenuates', Gyr. vi 

iii 17 fiijbi fielov rb, tQv iroKcfdiav. 87 &|ui irfKCrrMV, inter 

agendum^ 'while acting'. 'The adverbs afM and fura^A, in 
point of signification, belong in the first instance to the leading 
verb, but in the Greek idiom they usually attach themselves 
more closely to the participle', G. § 277 Note 1 (a), HA. § 976. 
88 o&r«»s, tuque adeo, as in 1. 80. 

§ 18 1. 90 ov8^ n ffcoXXov, 'not a whit the more': ef. iii 
4 oM^y rjrrov, 92 |jiv 8ij, 'thus then', to terminate the 

subject; the new subject being introduced by di, iii 1. 1, see n. 
to 1. 66. Ix«»v SiATcXct: G. § 279, 1, 4 Note, HA. § 981. 

93 olov: see orit. n. 



Ill 3 XENOPHON'S UIERON 49 



CHAPTER in 

Agairii friendship may he considered as one of the greatest 
blessings of life. But of this blessing no one has a less share 
than a despot, and whereas private men enjoy the pure delights 
of family affection^ a despoVs bitterest foes are often those of his 
own household, and, in proof of the fatal influence of despotical 
power on the tenderest ties of natural affection, you have only to 
look at the number of cases in which despots have slain their own 
sons or have themselves been slain by their own nearest relatives 
or the friends in whom they chiefly trusted, 

§ 1 1. 1 ^iXCas : The order is KaraSiaffcu d* ad ois KOivtapoOffiy 
ol r. <l>i\las. Observe that the emphatio word is placed first. 
Karad^aoxu, considera, ' contemplate ^ So Cyr. vni ii 18 
Toifs dWovs djjffavpoin xaraOeQ Kal \oyUrat xbca iarl "xjyfifiATa. 
MS, quo modo. See cr. n. 2 cl, * whether', G. § 282, 
4, HA. § 1016. (Uya dyaB6v sc. iarl. 3 t{ <|»iX£a: 

G. § 141 Note 1 {b), HA. § 659. . 

§ 2 1. 3 ^op merely serves to introduce the promised sub- 
ject and is not to be translated in English. 4 ifiini |Uv 
— 4fiitn hi: cf. i 5, ii 2, 15. 5 irop^vra 6pc»<riv: G. 
§ 279, 2. 6 dv irov ctirj : G. § 219, 2, HA. § 1052. 
7 oruvcirucovpovo-i, 'help to relieve him'. 8 ri a'^aXX6- 
|Mvov 8cil. airdv. See note to i 8. 

§ 8 1. 8 01$ |iiv Sij, minime vero; cf. Cyr. i vi 9, ii ii 22, Soph. 
EL 103 dXK' ov fikv d^ Xijfw, Plat. Phaed. 266 paaiXiKol fUy 
Mpts, oi fi^v d^ iwurri/ifiov^s ye, 9 X^v|Ocv ov8i rds ir^Xcts, 
tn, 'the fact has not escaped the notice of cities either, that', 
cf. Mem. Ill V 24. 10 yovv, 'at all events', in quoting an 

illustration, cf. ii 8 1. 41. 11 vo^(lova% — vtprotvil diroicrcC- 
vfiv, 'have an established custom to put to death ('have a law 
that adulterers only may be slain ') with impunity '. The second 
votii^oviTi means simply 'they think'. Cf. de rep. Lac. ii 4 Kal 
dt^ri ye rov Ifiarlois SiaBp&irreffOai 6 AvKoGpyos ivbiiiffev ivi 
itULrUfi iC irovt vpocedi^eaBof., votLl^tav oOrtas koX wpbs rf^^XV *<*^ 

H. L 4: 



50 NOTM ON in 3 

irp6% diXiTJi ofieiifoy atv irapaffKcvdffaaOai, where in like manner 
vofiL^wv has a double import. 12 8t|Xov Srt, also written 

3i;Xo»'6r£, 'it is clear that*, 'evidently'. HA. § 1049, 1 a. 
8id ravra 5x1, propter^ag^fod. 13 XvfMivTTJpas : see note to vi 
6. Of. for the sentiment Lys. de caede Eratosth. § 32 f. rCiv fiJkw 
yhp ifioixti^v) voyuodiri)^ ddvarov Kariyvw, Tjyoifievoi avroin odrw 
rQf iWoTfUuf ywatKQv rks yf/vxa^ 8ia<f>d€lp€iVj wct^ oUeioT^pas 
aifTots iroieTv ij rots dydpd<riy. 

§ 4 1. 15 6rav a^c^witurB^ — Tvvij, 'whenever a wife is 
guilty of an act of infidelity*. Kord <rvp^pdv nva, *by some 
(unfortunate) concurrence of circumstances'. Cp. Arist. Eq. 
130 681 vpoff^px^rai uxrwep Karb. Oebp els dyopdv^ Av. 544 icard 
Salfiova Kal riva ^wTvx^av dya$T^Vf EccL 114 /card t^xV^ rtw, 
in all which quotations /card with the ace. denotes the manner, 
and forms a periphrasis for an adverb. ov8h^ tfrrov, * not a 
whit the less*. The datives rivl, ovdevi are never used with com- 
paratives, whereas we have 6\ly(fij iroXX^ by the side of 6\lyow 
and ToXiJ, HA. § 719, § 781 a. 16 words sc. tAs 7ui'arico$, 
to be understood from preceding yw/i : see n. on ii 13. 
17 dKijparos (d, Kcpdypvfu) Integra^ inviolate': this may be 
added to the list of poetical words employed by Xen. 

§ 6 1. 18 Too-ovTov Ti : see n. to ii 16. 19 avTOfMiTa 

'spontaneously', 'without being sought', predicate adjective 
= adverb. Cf. Ar. Ach. 976 aird/naTa ird^r' d7add Tifdi ye 
iropi^eTaij Crat. IlXoirr. 6 aifrd/jLara rotcri debs djflei rdyaOd* 

§ 6 1. 21 Kal Toirrov roiwv rov KTT{)iaTos: Kcd is not to be 
taken with toIpw but with toOtov^ 'this possession also*. 
10 22 irdvTttv |icCXi<rra, 'more than all'; it is better to take 
TrdvTuy as masculine and not as neuter. See my n. on Cyr. 
I iv 2. 

§ 7 1. 25 Yovivori irp^s vatSas, ' between parents and chil- 
dren'. The ydp refers to the preceding (aSe (cf. 1. 3), the fiiw 
to a suppressed clause. See on viii. 9. 

§ 8 1. 28 cifnjorcis )ikv rovs ISuoraSt for cifp^ffcis robs fi^y IS,, 
which is the reading of Stobaeos. 29 vv6 tovtwv, *by 





WV XENOPHONS HIEROy 

theae relations \ le. parents by childi*Gn, and children by 
|>arentSf etc. irdirwv belongB to iiiMtrra ufi in 1. 22. 
30 treXXoi^s in partitive appoBition to n^pAifvmt : G.% 137 Note 
2, HA. § (j24 d. 31 d.wtKToy&m^: ihefoTm6.ireKrov7}K6Tas, 

(from awokToveltf]^ retained by Brei ten bach, is justly coDdeiiined 
hy Cobet and Veitch as unclaaBical. 32 avTovc^ inteneive, 

ipitQs. iv Tv^awitriv^ 'in despotic govenimentii'. <IXXt|- 

XiH^^vovt: he is probably refurriag to the mytli of Eteoklua and 
Polyneikf'ei, 34 virA "YuvOpiKiav twv lavriSv : The murder of 

Alexander of Pherae by his wife Thebc, daughter of Jason, took 
pla<5e in u.c. 357t HeU, vi iv 35: the Nitron was probably 
composed about b.c. 394. 35 icaC — ^€, *aye and\ i 17. 
TiBv ^Xmrra SaKoiivriuv <{>CX«v ftvai, * who were reckoned 
eepeeial friends'. Bee n, to i 1. 49. 

*Tlie third diapter of Flu Larches life of lJemeiri«» FoliorkM^ pre- 
wnt§ arivid description of Ihe leeliri]^ prevRlent belwuen iw-TObersof 
rcf^l bunilies in those age^ Beiiietriui}^ roming home from the chasL*. 
with hts hunting jiivelinsi in hia hand, goeB up to his futher Antigoniis, 
saluttis him and !iit« down hy hia iide without dt^rmlnf^. This i« 
extol] ed a» an unpttrulltlifd proof of the tonfidjence and alTBction »tib- 
»i»tinj^ betwoctn the father and the son. In the famiii^ of all the other 
IMadochi (HA.vti Plutarch) murders of sons, mothers and wives, were fre< 
qnent— murdere of brothers were evtn eomiiion, assumed to be pr«- 
cautions m'cestmrj' for security. oCt*ik; apa vdyr/f SwKotyiJiinjToy if ipx^ 

KOi fAtoTW aTTurriAi Koi iv^iv^ia'i, tutrrt ayoAAtir&iu rbv ti.«yir(rTOV ri2f 'AAt- 
fd^poit iniB6)(*tv >tai fptfr^vtati>Vt ort ^tj ^j^tlrai r&v i^ibF aAAot irpocrirrat 
'njv Aov;^)' i^ovta rev irutfi.a'nri; wtiijaiov. Ov fir^^ oAAa Jtal fjLOtfOS!, iLf rLirci»', 
D oLcoc oCrot ini nhftftTa^ Sia&oT^a.^. rt^t^ TOtovToii' Koxat' tKa^dprvO't , fJioAJuiV 
hi «Is ft^voi Ttiv air' *Aj'Ttyrii'OV ^tAtmrot dytiKtv viav. At ■&€ oAAai tf^eSbj' 
iwamrai Btaioxiii iroMt^i^ fLitr ixtwiri Tratfiftus woAAwk Ai fiijriptitv ^avovv koI 
yvMUtwt'* TO firiv ydp d&tXffitaiit dn'tupfli', taenrep oi yew^rr^Mu, Tot ait^fxara 
kap.fi^voii^iv, QUTiti avvfx^^P*^'^'^ Kfiivov Tt I' Oft I i,*6^ e vo I* aLT3;|Lta uai 
fiatrt-kiKoy inip a(r<^*Af tas. Uompari? Tacitus Hist, v S about the 
fauiily feudji of the king» of Judaea '.— «eotb Mist of Greece Vol, xii 
II. 6 note 3^ ed. 1, 

§ O L 36 Twv i^^ft wt^vK^Tiav ^tX*Ev ktX, quos ipia ivatura 
€td amaitdmn compellit ei lex coijit, Hho&e who aie naturally 
bom to love and who have been constrained withal by usage *. 
C£. Cyr, v i 24 jSafTiXeOt f^ot >£ ooKets trh ipu^et wtt^vKiifai, 
3y iTiwf iir' dXXov yi t*vos ktX. *how are we to suppose 
that they are loved by Mij one else? " The yt eniphatiizes tlXXou, 
For ofcu-^at x?^ cp. Cyr. iv ii 28. 




62 NOTES ON nr . 



CHAPTER IV 

Agaiiij mutual confidence is another great blessing, necessary 
to social life and happiness, hut 7io one partakes less of this than 
a despot, who can so little count upon good faith, that he must 
cause all his food to he tasted by others before he can eat it 
himself (%l-% 2). 

Moreover private persons are greatly indebted to their native 
cities for the protection of life and property afforded by them; but 
it is not so with despots ; there is no such immunity from danger 
for them, since tyrannicides are everywhere honoured and recom- 
pensed (§ 3— § 5). 

A despot does not derive more enjoyment from his possessions, 
because they are greater tJuin those of private men; for he measures 
himself by the standard of other despots whom he cannot bear to 
see wealthier than himself (§ C). 

Nor are the wishes of a despot more readily satisfied than 
those of a private man; the objects of his ambition being 
altogether of a higher kind are more difficult of attainment 
(§7). 

There are, in faxit, more really poor kings in proportion 
than there are poor private persons, for an abundance or 
sufficiency is not to be estimated by tJie actual amount of our 
possessions but by tlie exigenjcies of our station; and despots 
are not at liberty to retrench their expenses, as private men 
are. The men who are to be pitied as poor, are not those 
who have all their wants supplied by fair and honest means, 
but those who are forced to supply their necessary wants by 
degrading acts and a>cts of iiyustice; and such are despots, 
who must have recourse to robbery and extortion, oppression and 
8a>crilege, that they may he enabled to maintain an army for tlu 
protection of their lives (§ 8— § 11). 

§ 1 1. 1 cLXXd |ii^, Hhen, again'. 2 IXdxi<rrev 

f&cWxci : see note to ii 6. 4 i|Sfta sc. itrrl, dvcv irCoTHts 

TTJs irp^ oXXijXovs, * without mntual trust*. 7 diriOTotl- 
/iCVO$=:e^ diriirreiTai G. § 226, 1, HA. § 902. 




XENOPHON'S BIERON 



63 



§ a 1. 7 ToiSrov—TQw wMrriSs — ^tiv 'of this attitude of 
a trastfiil disposition towards others', /rai toiJtou so, rrff 
trUmiiit would liave b^en sofEcient without any epexegetic oIaubb : 
and roS vKm^t ix^itf Trp6s rtvas does not Batisfj the 
which requires rather rov irnrroi^f irpot ■^ai/r6v> ruraf ^x^*-** 
or Tov TTtifToi's Tivas etuai. Hence Cobet considers the clause to 
have been originally a gloss ; Bee crit n. 9 oir6Ti ^f^ 

quandoquid^'mt *inaRrauc}i as'. Cf. below viii 7, Cyr- n it 13, 
vin iii 7 jiiiyv^t av ye, oirorf 7* Kal -^puv ra^eif d dp dirf woirTv^ 
Anab, vir vi 11 wdvra fjt^v 4pa du&pitiwot* &vTa TrptxrSoiraj' Set^ 
oiroTeye kclI eytijyC'V u^' i'pLQy oirtaj ^x^' cn5S^, ne—qiiidt'm. 

Sidyct : of, i 8. 10 trpW dtraf^x^*^^^ ^*^^s Oeol^, i.e. before the 
Dommencement of a feast, which bej^an with libationg to the 
gods. rovTttv — aiTOY*i'*'^°'°^^' *t^ ^^6 a taste of these ^, 1 

G. 171, 2, 11 KiXf^v^LVj sc. ol T^pavvoit to be under- 

stood from Tvpat'vt^ L S. See n. to ii 13. 12 im)— 

4>d^wcriv: On ^nj Meat* in eentencea denoting * precaution ', 
'guspicion\ sec G. § 218, HA, § 887. For the sentiment cp. 
Aescli. c, TInmrch. § 5 rd ^i' TtSi* ffij/ioifpaToii/i^^i'Wi' <ru>fjucLTa Kal 
T^tf troXtTciav 01 p6^t ffth^avat^ rd 51 t<^ Tvpdyv ivif Kal Tc^y 
dXtyapxiiiii^ dirtcrrla Kal if fxerL TiSi* SirXwr 4ppovpa. 

§ a 1. 13 ai irarpiSis 'their native states'. rots ^kv 

dtXXois, answered by roh 8^ rvpdpvots: 1. 22. For the dative cp. 
11 Ariflioph, Ach. 8 d^tov yhp 'EXXdSi. 14 a{«iK m. etVi. 

15 Skifuvi^K^fKiiio-kv dXXi^Xoitfs — hf\ rois So^Xovf, 'act as a 
bodjf guard to each other against their slaves'. Cf. Thuc. 
I 130j Herod, n ll>8j vii 127 : the verb is nsed with the dative in 
Cyr. VII v 84, Polyb. xxxn xxiii. 17 wip tou iii^Wva — 

diro^Kij^nctiv, *in order tliat none of their fellow-citizens may 
parish by a violent death'. For this seni5e of vwip *witli 
a view to' cp. Isocr. Areopsg. f 64 orm^if irafrx^w virhp r<^v 
fi,^ Tocfiv rh TrpoiTTaTr6fi€VQv, Panath. § 80 iraXepflp — vwip 

§ 4 L 18 dliT«» ^dpiMD ■nrp*ocX'r|Xv8curL 4^vXaKtj,s, eo pro* 
videntiae progressi sunt, *they have gone so far in precaution*. 
This is a partitive genitive with an adverb oi place, de- 
noting B point ill and of the whole, cp. Plat. Oorg. p. 484 c 





54 NOTES ON 1V4 

irbppia r^f '^Xt/c/as, 'far advanced in years', ib. 486 a tous 
irbppta ffwplas iXaj^ovras. It is to be distinguished from x6pp(a 
'far from', G. § 182, 2, HA. § 757. 19 t# |uau^v^ 
— t6v (rvv6vra, G. § 187. By transposition of rjy fueu<p6tf(fi 
from its proper place between roy and (rwovra additional 
emphasis is thrown npon the word. 20 Sid rds «aTp(8a«, 
'by means of their (respective) native states*. 

§ 6 1. 22 Kal TovTo l|iiraXiv dWcrrpaiiTai, 'this again 
has been reversed', *in this case also it is quite the reverse'. 
Cf. Cyr. vin viii 13 Kal 6ti ye ol 'iraTS€s...id6Kovp fiOMOayeuf 
diKaiOTrjTO^ Kal rod to iraifT&Kaaiv av^ffrpaiTTai h.e. eorUra- 
Hum accidit, 23 dvrl tov Ti|U0pctv avrots, sc. rots rvpav- 
ifoiSt 'instead of avenging them '; see n. to i 12 1. 68. 24 r6v 
diroKTcCvavra r6v rvpawov ' the tyrannicide ', G. § 276, 2, HA. 
§ 966. 25 KOkC— yc, 'aye and', cf. iii 1. 35. dEfryckv U 

r»v UfxSv : cf. Soph. Oed. T. 236 ff. 26 dvrl roifrov, see 

n. to i 17 1. 101. 27 clKovas: Xen. is doubtless thinking 

of JHarmodios and Aristogeiton, the murderers of Hip- 
parchos. 28 t«5v rou>vr6 n iroit)<n£vTtt»v sc. twu avoKTCi- 
vavT(jiv TOV Tvpavvovi iroieip with tovto or raDra is often 
used vicariously for other verbs to spare the repetition of 
them, like Latin idfacere; see my n. on Cic. de off. r i 4. 

§ 6 1. 28 8 8i o^ oCci] see crit. not. 29 {x<^> '^>6<^^^ 
he possesses*, G. § 277, 2. The addition of 8id tovto more 
exactly denotes the relation of the participle to the principal 
action. Cf. Anab. i vii 3 vofiL^uu kpcLttovs iroWw pap^pwv 
iffi&s ehai di6,T0VT0 ir/KMrAa^ov, where did touto similarly takes 
up tfOfdl^uv, VII i 9 iinaiTiapjov dedfievoi Kal oHk ^x^''^^ '^^ 
tovto AdvfJLOvai irpbs Tijv i^odov. 30 irXcCo» dir* aiSTwv (scil. 

Tujtf KT7)fidT<av) cv^paCvcTat, 'receives more enjoyment from 
them *. oi$8i tovto o&rc»$ lx<^> * ^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^ either', i.e. this 
is not true any more than the other supposition. 31 &T7np 
ol d6XT|TaV — TovT* avrots cv^paCvct: an irregular sentence 
which should have run thus : ol ddXriTal, oifx ^rav — xpelTTotfeSt 
TO&r(fi eiifipaivovTai, For this not uncommon anakoluthon of a 
period beginning with the nominative and passing afterwards 



IV 8 XENOPHON^S HIE RON 55 

over to, another case oomp. Oecon. i 14 ol dk </>l\oiy ijv ns 

32 tSumSv, * those who are not athletes'. 'Idiurr7)t is a nega- 
tive term, the exact import of which depends npon the 
context. Like the English word * layman \ it means 'an 
nnprofessional man', * amateur'. Here it is opposed to an 
* athlete', as in Mem. ni vii 7 rwif dffKrjrwp (* trained athletes') 
6irra KpeUrffu rods /5it6ras <f>o^€tff0atf Hipp, viii 1 (S(jtc aOroin 
futv dtncririis (JHUyeaOai rtav xokefUKUv iv lirirtKy ipyiav, Toin W 
ToXe^oi's l^Librafy elsewhere to a physician as in Thuc. 
n 48, 2 Kal larpbs Koi ISiibrTis; to a seer as in Anab. vi i 31 
olOcol oihus iv ToTs UpoTs ia'fitiijvav ^ uffTC koI Idnbrrip Sm 
ypwvou: to a poet. Plat. Symp. p. 178 i>T oifSevbs oUre IbniiTov 
oihe ToiTjToO; to a musician, Plat. Protag. p. 327 c ws irpbs 
Toi>j Iditaras Kal firfdh aiJXiJcrews iiratoPTas; to a craftsman. 
Plat. Theag. p. 124c twp re Sijfuoijpydjp xal Idiuruv ; to a fti^Tupt 
Aesch. c. Timarch. % 2 od fjMvov repl tCjv Idiurrwp dXXd Kal vept 
TcSr juifrbpiav. Cf. Oecon. iii 9 Iditarris ro&rov rod fpyov {ret eques- 
<m), Cic. or. p. Sest. 61, 110. 32 KpcCrrovcs — tjttovs; note 
the occurrence of the two different forms in close proximity. 
35 8rav — ^aCvT|TCu i^l^v, '^whenever he is seen to possess ' 
i.e. 'manifestly possesses'; Srav <t>alv'qTat ^x^^'' ^<^^d i^^an 
♦whenever he seems to possess' ('though he may not really 
possess'). 37 to^jt^ soil, ry ^x^*'' ^^o''"''"- 38 <£vt- 

ayMVurrds, predicate accusative, G. § 166, HA. § 674. 

§ 7 1. 39 ovW 7€, 'no, nor yet'. Cf. above 1. 26. 
Ti — cSv fmOvfut, i.e. rt— toiJtwi' u»v iTriSvfieT according to 
Breltenbach, but I prefer taking rt with OaTrov (cf. i 2), and 
understanding ravra as the subject of yiyvcrai, 41 olxCas TJ 
dTpov iiri6v|ieC, 'covets (no more than) a house or a field '. 
12 44 XAVttrcbTcpa — Karcp^ctoHurOai, 'more difficult and hazardous 
of accomplishment', G. § 261, 2, HA. § 952 a. 45 firi6v|i,T)- 
|tdT«*v, 'objects of depire', i 23. 

§ 8 1. 45 aXXd fUvTOi koXx dXXd fiivroi generally 
signifies that, although from what has gone before, it might 
not be expected, yet such or such a thing is so; but it is 
aim used where there is no such contradiction between the 



ff6 NOTES ON IV 8 

sentences. 46 vivrpx^, *poor' )( irkawriwn. Of. Menu 

IV ii 37 robi lUv^ otfuUf firj Uoph, ixot^ras els & J« rckeiw ir^injraf » 
Toifs di irXelca tw iKOPujtf irXovalovi. The meaning is *yoa 
will see not so much a few private persons poor, as many 
despots so*, yon will find but few that are really poor amongst 
private persons, in comparison with those (who may be called 
so) amongst despots; but it is, at best, an awkwardly constructed 
sentence. See crit. n. Weiske (Add. p. 454) takes the meaning 
to be : ^071 tanta paucitaa est pauperum inter privatoSf quanta 
multitudo inter tyrannosy h. 1. illorum paucitas minus mirabilis 
est quam horum multitudo. 47 rf dptOfup : the dative of 

the standard according to which anything is measured, judged 
of, or done. Cf. Herod, vn 237 toXgi Xeyofiivonri ffTaOfiib- 
/jLcvotf Dem. p. 113, 10 cfircp oTs irpbs roin aXXovs ireroci/ice Set 
T€KfLalp€<r0ai, For the sentiment and line of argument, cf. 
Anab. vii vii 36 od yb.p dpiOfids iffnv 6 opl^uv rb ro\d xal rb 
d\lyoy, Oec. ii 2 ff . 48 rd iroXXd — rd iKavcC, ' an abun- 

dance ' — * a sufficiency ', i.e. what comes up to the right quantify, 
from the root /Ik whence come vicus *the place where people 
come and go', ol/cos * house', villa =:vicula, 'country-house', 
vicinnst English ' wick' etc. irp^s rds xH**^!^) ' according to 
the exigencies' of our station, *in reference to the uses made of 
them '. 49 cSfrrc rd ^ iirippdWovra ktX., * consequently 
(i 7) whatever exceeds a sufficiency is much, while that which 
falls short of a sufficiency is little '. Cp. The Spectator No. 574. 

§ 9 1. 51 T^ o{lv Tvpdwfp rd iroXXairXdo'ia — ovk IvS^mu, 
*much more ample revenues are not as sufficient to the despot 
for his necessary disbursements as to a private person; for 
private persons may curtail their daily expenses in what way 
they please, but for despots it is not possible to do so'. 
53 rds Sairdvas — els rd ica6* i^|Upav] cf. note on x 8. 
56 TTJs ^jnrxtis, ' their life' :* cf . vii 12. 58 5Xf0pos 8oKct ctva^ 
mortis instar videtur. Cf. Gic. de off. ii § 69 clientes appellari 
mortis instar putant^ or. p. C. Sest. 54, 115 ei plausum im- 
martalitateniy sibilum mortem videri necesse est, or. p. L. Flaoco 
8, 19 quibus odio sunt nostrae secures^ portorium morti. 

§ lO 1. 59 dir6 Tov StKaCov, 'by just means'. So. U 



V, XENOPHON'S HIERON 67 

Tov SiKoUov Arist. Ay. 1435, Thuc. ii 89, Xen. Hell, vi v 16. 
rC &v olKTcCpoi Tit; potential optative, G. § 226, 2 (5), HA. 
§ 872. I^CiV S<r«0v tiovrm i.e. roaavra oatav diovrai, 

61 )fci|xavc&|MVOi (tjv, 'to live by contriving*, *to plot in 
prder to live ' ; the participle contains the leading idea of the 
expression, as in i 74 \ap6vTcs d^t^i^at, ii 11 iriaTeijaas Bap- 
ffi^ete. For the allnsion see Introduction p. xxxix. 

§ 1 1 1. 64 irXf ttrro, plerumque * very often \ 65 Sid r6 
— irpoo^iirOai xP^H't**^* * because they require additional sup- 
plies'. 67 H diroX«X<vai, *or else to forfeit their lives': 
^=:€/ di fi-fl i.e. *if they do not keep an army*: cp. Qecon. 
ii 5 (irpociiKci (roc) xoX/ras denrvi^civ koX 6? ttoicXv iJ fprf/MP 
ffvfifidxutf eXpcu, Thuc. ii 63, 1, Eur. Electr. 307 f. aMi ftkv 
iKfWxOowra KcpKlaiy WirXous | rj yvfivbv f^u <rQ>fui koL ffTcp^aofxcu, 
Jebb Selections from Attic Orators p. 216 § 27 with note ed. 1. 



CHAPTER V 

Another hardship for despotic sovereigns is tliat, their 
power being founded on iryustice, the destruction of the best and 
most estimable citizens must be their ruling policy and none but 
the worst are left to serve them (§ 1 — § 2). 

Again even a despot must be patriotic^ as he cannot he 
safe or happy independently of the state^ and yet he is com- 
pelled to cast a slur upon it by discouraging warlike lutbits 
and tastes in his countrymen^ and employing mercenary forei^ ^ i 
soldiers for the protection of his person (§ 3). i 

Moreover he does not rejoice with his people when tliere is 
a full harvest and abundance of provisions^ because it is his 
interest rather to keep his people in indigence, that they may 
be more submissive; for he is Ttiost afraid of a rebellioji among 
them when they are most prosperous (§4). / 

§ 1 1. 2 |Uv — 84, * although — ^yet'. -ydp : see n. to iii 2. 

3 ico(r|iCous, modestos, 4aw-abiding*. Of. Arist. PI. 89 rods 
Sucalovs Kol ffwpods koI Koff/nlovs, The same class are referred 
to in 1. 5 as dydpelovs; hence Gobet prefers d\Klfiovs the 



58 NOTES ON vr 

reading in Stobaeos. avrl rov £<y(&o^i, 'instead of ad- 

miriDg'. On the limitations to the use of the articular infini- 
tive with prepositions see my n. on Oeoon. xiii 6. 5 to^ 
|Uv dvSpcCovs— ^ro^ 8i co^oirs are in partitive apposition to 
13 To&rovi: cf. iii 8. 8 irpotrraTcto'Oai, regly *to be governed'. 

§ a 1. 8 5Tav — virc{atp<SvTai, 'whenever they exclude, 
except, such characters because of the fear they have of them*. 
10 xP^<r^^ ' ^^^ ^^^\ ^^^ infinitive (as an indirect object) 
denoting the intent of the action : G. § 265, HA. § 951. 
otXX* ^(, nisi, 'except', only used after a negative or quasi- 
negative in the main construction. See my n. on Oecon. 
ii 13. By the dXXa the exception to the negative (or inter- 
rogative) which has preceded is stated flatly; the rj allows 
the negative statement to revive, subject to this exception 
alone. Biddell, Digest of Platonic idioms § 148 g, p. 175. 

11 dxparcts, 'wanting in self-control* )( aoipoL -<r(i><f>pov€t, 
Gp. Mem. iii ix 4 aotplav di kcU ffuxppoa^tfrjv o6 Subptj^cv. 

12 ^povvrai rds ir6Xfis |ii{irorc ktX., for (popoOfrai fi-ffTore 
aX ToK^K KT\,f the subject of the accessory sentence being 
anticipated as the object of the principal clause: so Xen. 
Hell. VI iv 32 (deurav — rbtf 'Idffova /j.^ riJpawos yhoiro. 

14 fyKparcts aivruv, eorum compotes, * masters of them * soil. 
Twy idlKuVf the personal pronoun serving as indirect re- 
flexive : see HA. § 684 a. rrjs els ri irop^v ^ouo-Cot fvtica, 
*for the sake of license for the moment', i.e. they are satisfied 
with any government under which they can enjoy a certain 
amount of license and indulgence. 15 dv8pairo8«t8€is, ser- 

vUi ingenio praediti, 'slavish' opposed to iXevB^piot (Arist. EUl 
Nio. rv viii 5). 16 ov8* ai$rol d(iovo'iv, iie ipsi quidem 

voluntt 'they are not either themselves desirous'. 

§ 8 1. 21 cMtccrOat ' to do well, prosper'. Cf. de rep. Lac. 
9, 2 irertu t§ dperj aib^cffdai e/f rbv ttXcIu xp^^i Plutarch 
de disc. ad. ab am. 74 c with Wyttenbach's note, Plato legg. 
EL p. 662 F iy w$pu/Toit fiOCKowrtv aibj^effdai koX eudcufiofelv, 
ovr &v cvSai|u>vctv soil. S^ycuro. 22 ratt iavrmv: 

for the transition from singular to plural cf. ii 13, iii 4. 



VI XENOPHON'S HIERON 59 

23 fyKoXftv, 'to blame, cast a slur upon'. rot>s rvpdpvovf 
is understood after dvayKa^e. Cf. Cyr. vn ii 22 oiJ3^v ^ ve Ka X GUI' 
Tcuf n$x<^'* Btorz in v. observes that this passage requires 
the sense spemere or odUse or timere rather than conqueri. 

o^c dXKC|u»v« \alpovvi irapaarKcvdtovrfs, * they take no 
pleasure in rendering them either brave or etc.' Cf. Oecon. 
V 16 Toin ipyaffTfipat irpoBiifMvs rapaffKevd^eif, Mem. iii iv 8 
ro^ dpxoiUvoxn KarriKdovt wapaffKevd^eiv eireiOeis tc iavrdis. 

26 ToWois xpnvrai Sofw^pois, 'make use of these 
as a body-guard*. Mark the difference between this and 
rot^rotf xpwvrai toU dopv<f>6poit. The apposition of a 
predicate noun, that may be resolved by *&b\ is rarely found 
with the objects of a verb which are not in the accusative, 
except with xpv^^^cu (dative) and rvyxdyeiv (genitive) as Anab. v 
▼ 15 ipunare to{>s Tpaxej^owrlovs, hiroluv twcSv '^/jliop I^tvxov, 
'what sort of people they found us*. 

§ 4 1. 27 av for Uv^el dv, G. § 219, 2. c6cTi)pu*v, 
(eS, ^rof, annuB) 'good seasons * (for the produce of the earth). 

28 ov8i t6tc, ne tunc quidem, wyxaCpta, sc. roU iroXtreuf. 

29 iv8cf(rT4pois...rairfivoi^poif, quo egentioribus — eo summit- 
tioribuSf 'the more needy — the more submissive*, 'submissive 
in proportion to their indigence*. Cf. i 20 1. 118. 30 oCov- 
Tcu yjnivdaKf 'they expect to find them*. For the transition 
from the singular to plural cf. above L 23. 

CHAPTER VI 

Hieron then proceeds to describe the pleasures which he enjoy- 
ed, as a private man^ but from which he is altogether debarred 
as a despot, with the anxieties to which he is subject in his pre- 
sent position, ' I used * he says ' to converse familiarly with 
and to take pleasure in the society of my equals in age and they 
in mine : I could do as I pleased^ enjoy occasional solitude or 
forget the chagrins of life in convivial mirth, and give myself up 
to the delights of music and the dance. But now I liave no 
familiar friends to delight in my society , none but slaves for my 
companions, and I liave myself lost all pleasure in the society of 



.60 NOTES ON vi 

my former companiom^ heeatue I see no sympathy in them towards 
me. I have to guard against excess in drink and sleep, (U 
against insidioiis foes (§ 1 — § 3) . I am in continual alarm whether 
in a crowd or in solitude, I am in fear without guards, and am 
afraid of the guards themselves. What a wretched state of ex- 
istence is this ! To place greater confidence in strangers than 
in one^s own feUow-citizens, in Barbarians than in Oreeks, to be 
compelled to treat freemen as slaves and slaves as freemen, is a 
sign of a mind deranged by fear. This passion of fear not only 
produces constant uneasiness but poisons life and mars all its 
enjoyment. Despots are even worse off than commanders ivho 
have to face the enemy, for they fancy that they see enemies not 
only in front of them but surrounding them on all sides and at 
all times (§ 4— § 8). 

Simonides replies : * War is undotiktedly subject to continual 
alarms, but when we are in the field, we first post our sentinels, 
and then we can eat and sleep in security * (§ 9). 

*No doubt ' says Hiero, *for the guards do their duty through 
fear of the laws; but despots have only mercenaries for their 
guards, whom they pay as they do their harvest labourers, and 
though the principal duty of guards is to be faithful to their 
trust, yet, for one faithful guard, you will find hundreds of 
faithful workmen in any branch of business; especially when 
these guards enlist themselves for the sake of the stipend; and 
have it in their power to gain a much larger »um in a short time 
by assassinating their master, than they would receive from him 
for many years' faithful attendance * (§ 10 — § 12). 

* As to despots being better able to serve their friends and 
suppress their enemies — this is. also a mistaken notion* For 
how can you think to serve friends when you know that he 
who is under the greatest obligation to you will be the most 
delighted to withdraw himself from your sight and to avoid 
further intercourse with youf for no one considers what he has 
> received from a despot as his own, until he has escaped from 
\ his power. Then as for his enemies, he knows that all men 
are his enemies who are subject to his power; and, if he could 
get rid of them all by hilling or imprisoning them, whom 
would he have left to govern i So that he must be on his 



VI 3 XENOPHON'S HIEROX 61 

(fuard agahut them^ and yet at tJte »ame tinte mtike u^e of ih^ir 
itertrictf. Those of his subjects inhom he (trends he cannot bear 
to see afire, and yet it is a u>re trial to him to pnt them fn death. 
There are it ho vianif other possessions which^ thonQh unf/nJ^ are 
Mource^ of tronhle to their pomesmrSj and yet thetj cannot hie 
them without refjret' (§ 13— § 16). 

g 1 LI KtiKcCvos by crasis for xal ^Ke^Vas. 2 iv- 

^QfTvvmtt ^^^ n, to vii 4. o^aif hftit XJ><^|i«Fos— trrffio|J4vos 

avTwv, qnibu^ effo twii*^ dnin eram priratuSj nunc^ postquam 
tyrannidem adept m ifiini, eis prii^atum me vtdeo^ The force 
of the imperfect participle x/^c&^ei'oy will be perceived if we 
Bubstitnte the finite verb for it: the sentence will then run 

aiTuiv, See for continuation of relative clause by demonatra- 
ti%'e HA. § 1005, G. § 156. a 4ir«LSt| l^fyo|JLTiv, *ever Bince 

I first beeame', ingresalve aorist, Be© G» § 200 Note S {i/}, HA, 
§ 841 and oL Gyr. i i 4 1. 57 with mj note. 

§ a 1. 4 mfvr\v |*iv— onwiiv 81, an epanaphora^ of, i S. 
5 o-uv^v l|Aain-^, ^I was my own eomi>anion\ * was left to nij* 
14 own companionsMp ^ 6 oiroTf — |wi&ii|ii(eraijw, G. § 1^25^ 

§ 233. 7 |Ji^xP^ "^^^ hrik0M(r^Q.i, see note to v i^. 

8 i( T^ »iqttidt quidqiiid, xi 10. 9 \U)(jfi^ TQv njv ^wj^i^v 

«T/yKaTia|iLp^vcii, 'even to the point of completely nilnglin^' 
up my Boul with, becoming absorbed in'. 11 K0ivi]5 

t^^ltCns, * general merriment'. The Ma reading is p,ixpi i^i- 
OvfiiaSf which Eraamufl renders uaqne tid loniinunem mtieta- 
tern. The reading of the text, Bug^ested by Weiske, is ac> 
cepted by Cobet. Cf. Cyr. 17 v 7 ol U M^^oi Kai fCtaxovvro 
leai iwtitou Kol T}v\evvT<i Kol irdtnjs evSujiint iv^wifnrXayro, i 13 

§ 8 L 13 EcniXovs, predicate-noun, HA. g 618. 15 ^vopov 
Bcil.avTotf, *see in them', if^ol is the dative after ei^votav, 
G. § 1«D, HA. § 765 a. Cf. Cyr. i iv 17 with my note. 
16 6^Cwf 4v^8jp^ : cf . Ages, xi 5 roin tcpv^ifoovs wffvtp ivi^pvks 




I 



62 NOTES ON vi 4 

§ 4 1. 18 d^vXafCav, 'absence of guards', Oeoon. iv 10. 

avrovs, ipsos, 20 ircpl avrov, * about oneself*, the 

subject of the previous infinitives being indefinite. 21 ctp- 

yoXfov irpa^fMi, *a painful business', Arist. Plut. 1, Thesm. 

788, Lys. 764. A poetical word akin to rfX7o$. 

§ 6 1. 22 Pappapois: this term included all that were not 
Hellenes or did not speak their language (Anab. 11 i 7, rep, 
Athen. 11 vii 11, especially the Medes and Persians (Cyr. vi iv 
9, vm viii 3, Anab. i v 16). 25 iroictv iXcv^Mvs, 6, 

§ 166. 26 KaTaircirXT)Y|Uin|s, 'that has been cowed*. 

Cobet prefers trapaircrXrjyfUvTfs 'deranged', the reading in Sto- 
baeos, but cf. Gyrop. ui i 25 TrduTuw rwv deirwi' 6 ^)8os fidkiara 
icorairXiJrrci tA$ ^uxA$. 

§ 6 1. 27 aMs, ip8€. Mtv rats 4rvxats, G. § 187, HA. 

§ 775. 29 (rv)fcin&popApT«v XvpAvrrfp: see crit. n. The 

word \vtiavT-fip is un-Attic; it occurs in ch. iii 3. See Greek 
Index s. v. for words with a similar termination used by Xen. ' 

§ 7 1. 30 iroXc|itKcSv, rerum bellicarum, 'of warfare'. 
31 VjSi] iroW, *at any time ere now'. 32 irot^vriva, HA. 

§ 702 a; cf. Cyr. 11 u 10 ovk dida iroiovs rtvAs xph fiaXXw 
ci}^aa0ai 17 roio&rovs ffTparnbras fx^iv. airov )gpov, cibum 

tibi sumpsistiy cf. Cyr. viii i 38 oUrt avrds ttotc Tpiv Ibpiacai. 
deiTvov ipciTo. 33 ifirvov 4koi|ju5, G. § 159, HA. § 715 b^ 

§ 8 1. 34 Totavr' dcC km. The common reading is touwt^ 
elfflt in which Cobet traces the reading which I have adopted : 
the opposition between t6t€ and del seems to be required by the 
context. 35 KaC, atque adeo, 'and indeed', 'or rather'. 

^ IvavrCas sc. 6doG, i.q. ivavrlovt ex adversOf 'from an 
opposite direction, facing' )( ^k rXayiov, Cf. Cyr. vn i 20 
T€pl tCjv i^ itfavrlas iifuv /LteXi^ci, Thuc. iv 35, 2 vpoaioyres 
1^ 4^ iifatfrlast YU 44, 4. 36 ^pdv vo^ovoxvy 'they imagine 

that they see', G. § 134, 3, HA. § 940. 

§ 9 1. 38 ^iroXapttv, 'taking up the discourse', 'in answer'* 
-dnipcv, egregiCj ' extremely well'. The word occurs in Dem« 
de coron. p. 228, 17 § 10 and in Plato Theaet. p. 185 d. 



VI 12 XENOPHON'S IIIERON 63 

39 ir6Xc)fco$ ^pip^v: For a similar use of a neuter predi- 
cate adjective see Eur. Suppl. 508 (r^oXepoi' TryeM^tf Opttads, 
Hero. F. 1292 a^ /icra/3oXai \vT7fp6y, Hipp. 109 repirpby 
iic Kvyaylas rpdire^a ttXtJ/m^s, Xen. r. eq. vi 13 dirpovorjTOv ^ 
dpy-fii Oec. viii 4 ffrpartd, ra/»ax«5^(rraroi', Arist Plut. 203 
SeiXdraroy iff$^ 6 irXoOros, in all which passages observe that 
iffTi is omitted. 40 |&4v— clXXd *it is true — but*. Both 

dXXd and fi^vroi frequently take the place of S4 as correla- 
tives to fUy, especially where a stronger opposition is to be 
marked, cf. ii 2. 42 {iirvov XaYxi^vo^icv, the usual expres- 

sion in Attic Greek : cf. Cyr. lu i 24 ourot fiiv ovre (tItov oUB^ 
Hirvov dCvavrai Xa7X<i»'cii' dtd rw <f>6pov, Anab. iii i 11 pxKpov 
5i Ctpov Xax^y ^^^ci^ 6vapt Arist. Ach. 713 ovk iaO' Ctpov 
Xaxeti'f where however rvx^lv is commonly read. See crit. n. 

§ lO 1. 43 val |i^ ACa, i 13. 44 avTMv— wpo^^^Xar- 

Tovoav, pro eis (scil. custodibus) excubiaa agunt i.e., as Portus 
explains it, 'metu legum excubitores suimi officium faciunt*. 
Cf. X 6. ircpl lavrttv, 'for themselves*, *on their own 

account*, i.e. lest they should be punished for negligence; 
iMp ipav *in your interest', lest harm should happen to you. 
46 |tt<reov, gen. of value, G. § 178, HA, § 746. Cf. Ages, 
iv 4 el iirtiiXeL rd$ x^P^'^^-^ V Ait^^'^oy evepy^reit Cyr, in iii 3, 
Mem. V viii 2 fii<r0oD tA iiriT^eia ipy6.^<T$ai, Ocpio^ds, 

* labourers in the harvest', *qui plus danti facile se addicunt' 
(Breitenbajch), 

§ 11 1. 47 o&ra> — &%j tantopere — quantopere, yjLKinrui' 

Tfpov Wi. iffTi. 49 dtroCov povXft Cp^ov, *of any sort of 

trade'you will', by attraction and assimilation for (pyov droioy 
/3oi$Xei, G. § 154 Note, HA. § 995 a. 50 «XX«»s re xaC, 

* both in other respects and ' , * especially '. 52 fiiroKxcCvoo'i, 
G. § 277, 2, HA. § 969 a. 

§ la 1. 54 8 8' <|;i{X«Hra$ i^ftasi *as to your congratulations, 
felicitations of us*. Cf. iv 6, Oecon. xv & 6 dk el was ws Sti 
fM$€ip — ravra icrX., where in like manner ravra refers to th^ 
single statement introduced by the words d elras, Hell, ii iii 



64 NOTES ON vi « 

46 S, 5' au cItci', ws ^7(6 ei/u ofos cUi Tore /jLcroLfidKKwSai, KarainHj' 
ffare Kal ravra. Compare the use of the Latin quod 'as to the 
oiroomstance that*, on which see Madvig Lat. Gr. § 398 b 
Obs. 2, cf. iii 3. 56 irdvr»v iMUXio^ra : see note on iii 6. 
o^i ravO' o&rws Ixct, 'this is not the case either*. Cf. iv 6. 

§ 18 1. 57 ircos Av vo|iCoxiis: see note on i i 1. 8. 
59 if Surr' dv — 4{ ^^OaX|Miav aim Y^tro, * would be most glad to 
get out of your sight '. Cf. Herod, v 106, 7 i/ieO i^ 6<f>$a\fiQw 
ffifn ycvoiUvovy Dion Cass, lx 34 ^^ 6<f>0a\ficjy avTff erlrrides 
vt' cKcLyrii rd iroXXd yiyy6fi€yoy, Alciphron Epist. 3, 20, 8 
(writing about a conjuror) dveXofuyos (rd Xidldia) e^ 6<f>$a\fiijw 
iwolci, 61 airov vo|iClci, * considers as belonging to him- 

self', predicate-genitive referring to the object of the sentence, 
HA. § 782 b. Cp. Ages, i 33 et rives Hjv 'AffLay iavrQp 
iroiovvTai. irplv &v — yhriYrtu, When wplv is used with a 

finite mood (indio. subj. or opt.), it = our 'until' in negative 
or quasi-negative sentences, HA. § 924 a. A few exceptions and 
irregularities are noticed by Shilleto in a critical note on Dem. 
de fals. Ug. § 235. See also Kiihner § 568. 62 ifw rtis 
TovTOv {irucpanCas, 'out of his dominion' or 'beyond his 
jurisdiction'. 

Gf. Anab. vii vi 42 amfitv ix ti^$ tovtw ^irtieparcia?, V iV 4 Kpnjmi 
...vvb Tji criiepaTctf rov x'^P^'ov i.e. huiits loci ditioni subiectua Le, 
intra huius loci fines situs, Cyr. v iv 28 rat vofia^ tUv K-nivSiv toO? iavrov 
^CXow CK^Xev<rc KaraBtirBcUi el ^ovXo(mv, iv rfj iavrStv cirtiepaTcif, V 24 
ra a-a x**>P^<^ ^^ irporcpov cis ri)!' lS,vpuv iniKpaTttav avyKarappivivTa. 

§ 14 1. 63 The order is tw$ d' a5 dv <f>airis i^eivat {licere) 
fiaXiara rots rvpavvois x^f-poOffOai ix^poi^s; the emphatic 
word ixOpot^s occupying the first place. 65 rvpawov|MVOi : 
16 ii 11. KaraKaCvctv, 'to kill outright', see crit. n. 66 8cr- 
luiiciv: see crit. n. tCvmv In dpfct; sc. 6 rOpappot, 

* whom will he have left to rule ? ' Such transitions from plural 
to singular and vice versa are common in Greek: of. iii 4, iv 2, 
vii 3. 68 8^: supply Stop from 1. 64. koI xpno^cu 

8' avTots, 'and (64) to use them also' (kcU). Observe that 
Kid — di takes the place of ofM $4, the normal correlative of 
ofM iUp. So Cyr. i iv 3 we have ofia fUp followed by ^i di koL 



VII XENOPHON'S HIERON 65 

§ 15 1. 70 ods Ti5v voXiTwv 8c8£a<ri for toi^tovs twv 
iroXiTWP oOj dedlafft, G. § 168, HA. § 73. x^i^^c^^' aegre, 
* with reluctance'. 71 avrovs: seen, to i 1. 96. (iSvTas 
6p«o%: see G. § 279, 2 and cf. iv 8 1. 46. 72 tinros : for a 
similar anacoluthon cf. iv 6 with note. 73 ^^cpos — |ii( 

— voii)<rQ, the personal construction instead of the impersonal, 
as in SfjXos, dlKotds elfu etc., HA. § 944 a, G. § 280 Note 1. 
Cf. Anab. v vii 2 <po^€pol rjaav fi^ xon/j(reiav for tpo^ephy 
Tjp fi.il Ton/jffeiavt Herod, i 155 oOd^ deivoi toi iffovrai fi^ 
aarwrrioMn for oOdb^ Sewov toi ^(Ttcu, fi^ iKcTyoi aaroaTicjffi, 
74 avoMrcCviu : an un- Attic form for ajroKTeiveie, See Ruther- 
ford's New Phrynichus p. 433 £F. (ip€n|v, 'good qualities*. 
76 XP¥^® • ^ P®'^ ^^' °P*' P'^* fr®"^ xpV<r6aL contr. from 
XpioiTo. The dty must of course be repeated with this verb. 

§ 16 1. 76 KoC— -yc, *aye and', i 17, 22. 78 6^l»9 
Avavro, itidem omTiia, *all alike'. Xtnrft |iiv — Xmrct 8^, see 

n. to i 5. To^ Kcicn||Uvovs, * their possessors '. Xwtf 

dvaXXaTTO|i^yovs, *it vexes them to part with them'. Observe 
the difference in the meaning of the participle when used with 
and without the article. In the latter case we should translate 
by the infinitive : see my note to Oecon. iv i 1. 4 and cp. Cyr. 
n i S oCk dp ae dKo^aayra eOtppdveiev. Cobet's alteration into 
dwoKKaTrSfieva is quite unnecessary. 



CHAPTER VII 

Simonides rejoins : — * Honour and a brilliant position mutt 
be things of inestimable valuer if they are worth purchasing at the 
price which you describe. The desire of honour indeed is the 
distinguishing characteristic of man from other animals^ and 
those in whom it is most conspicuous are usually the furthest 
removed from mere brutes. It is no wonder that you submit 
to all the inconveniences attending royalty^ when you are so 
much more honoured than other men. For nothing brings 
a man so near the gods, as the feeling of being honoured* (§ 1 — 

H. I. vs 



66 NOTES ON vii i 

'True* answers Hieron, *hut the marks of tumour paid to 
despots by those who stand in fear of them are not considered 
as sucht they are mere acts of servility. True honour springs 
from an opposite sentiment to that of fear; it must emanate 
from the spontaneotis voice of freemen. * To live upon meri's 
tongues and be their talk\ and at the same time to hold 
a position in their hearts as doers of good, to he the object 
of devotion and reverence and yet not of fear — this is real 
honour. But a despot enjoys no such satisfaction. He lives in 
a constant state of suspense and anxiety ^ like a criminal under 
sentence of death by every one ' (§ 6 — § 10). 

*Why then* says Simonides ^do you not abdicate f How 
happens it that no despot has ever yet shown a disposition to 

\ abdicate?* {% 11), 

\ Hieron answers : * The impossibility of laying down his power 
\ is one of the greatest hardships to which a despot is subjected. 
'He cannot endure his present condition^ but he cannot retire from 
it with safety^ even if he would, because of the number of persons 
whom he has been obliged to make his enemies. The best thing 
he can do is to hang himself* (§ 12 — § 13). 

§ 1 1. 1 ravra avrov t|kovo-€v : G. § 171, 2 Note 1, HA. § 742 c. 
2 \Uya Tt : see n. to ii 16. 3 i{s ^pcyofMvoi, *in their 

efforts to attain which', ix 6, G. § 171, 1. dp^yecBai is 
properly *to stretch forth one's hand', and with gen. * to reach 
at', hence metaph. *to reach after, aim at, desire'. irdvra — 
|jL^ — irdvra 8^: see n. to i 5. viroSvovrai, subeunt, * under- 

go'. 

§ 2 1. 5 TO<ravTa irpdyiuLra k\pvaii\s, * although it in- 
volves so much trouble', G. § 277, 6, HA. § 969 e: cf. Cyr. 
vin ii21 tA ire/xTrA xpinxara irpdyfiara fxo^<^^^'i the usual 
import of the phrase irpdyfiara fx^iv is 'to have trouble about a 
thing'. 6 irpotrcTws <|>^p€<r6c, 'rush headlong*. 7 Sirwf 
— ^vrnipcTwo-iv {»|itv— TOvra rd irpo<rraTT6|jicva, *in order that 
they may do all that is enjoined them in your service'; the 
neuter adjective in lieu of kindred noun, G. § 159 Note 2, 
HA. § 716 b. Cf. i 8, Cyr. vi ii 2 iceiy ravrd fioi /co\<S$ iiriy- 
peri^ffifTCt 37 ct iwitrrapTai ry fiov\ofUy(f) fuaSoO irtfpe- 




vnT XENOPHON^S HIERON 6T 

rov»r€s, 8 aTrpo^^atrCcrrcds, sine excusatione^ prav^Uj 

* unhesitatingly*. Cf. Gyr. ii iii 8, viii i 29 Tod% drpo^ta- 
{Fiimat irtiBQfjJvom TifiQv, 9 ir^pLpX^TrftMrv, m«picia«fj -may 
look up to you witli respect*. Hence Trepi^Xtwro^f 'admired 
of all\ xi 9. (rircivicrr»vT<it aird twv 8aK«v: In Htirod. 
(n 80) we find ol v^ihr^poi rolin Trpuj^vripotffi awrvyxii^ovTCi 
€(Kovfft T^ 6Sov Kal iirtwffi i^ i5 pi/j f itiFavi(rTi ar at. Tho usual 
phrase la I'TroLvlaTaa^Bat tQv Gaxoiv, ttji i^pat^ * to rifl€i! &om 
oiie'» Be&i\ as a mark of reRpect to another. So below I 32, 
L 44, Symp. iv 31 vwavtiFTaPral p.Qi daKutv Kal odwv i^itrravrai^ 
Arist, Nub, 99^1 tQ^ &6x^v roh wfietT^vTipot^ ifiravio'Taa'OaL. 
In rep. Lae. iv 6, ?^pa% Carres vwavlcFTayTai ^tunX^i, ttXtj}* 
oi'K i(popoL arrb twv itpoptxQv M<ppiu)v^ the two conBtructions are 
seen side by side. 10 6%mv irapax**P***'"^^ *inake room for, 

get out of the way for', so below 1, 33, Mem. ii iii Ifi dSoD 
irapax^^^^^^ '^^*' ^^^^p^^ wp^^fiirript^ unnfTvyx^vovn, TrcwToxaC 
vofd^ercLi xal KaG^fAfvov vfrix,v aar^tfaif Gyrop. vn V 20 4 
TTorafiin T^pue irapaxex^^pT^Ke TTjt ets t^f toXw offov. 
Y{pa£ptfo-i, ornent, * honour ', a poetical word, frequently used 
by Xen., e. g!" Cyr* viii i 39 roirrovi Kal ^ibpoi^ xal ^Spaif xal 
wdtrait Tificui iyipaiptf, flelL i vii SrJ {TTttpai'Oi'i y^paipeiv To('t 
vtivurt'Tas, OecoD. iv B. 11 o£ iropAvTCf dt( : del 'each time' 

is placied after the partieiple, when it refers to the ignite verb 
no les3 than to the participle: cf. Oecon. viii 7, xix 19. 

1*2 -y^ ^^t '^^^ ^^ course, aa a matter of fact', TCk^avra 
irotovcri. toIs fvpawoLf, not 'they do these kind of things 
to despots *, which would require roiavra Toiovai rotJi Tvpavvoutt 
but *they do thcBe kind of things in honour of despots' 
{datimie comnwdl), G. | 165. See cr, n, 13 koI £KXov ovnva 
for Kal BvTiva, iWov ml t, t., ficil. roittTi^ ravra irmoOfn^ et 
aliiM^ quag quocumque tempore prut^quuntur hunore. 

§ 8 1. 14 dvijp, not dvep4iBirqf , becanfle Xen, is hare apeaking 
of man in a higher sense, as raised above the level of the brute 
creation, and not as a mere ftjw"* 1*5 rep ^fy«o-6ai.r epexe- 

geUcal infinitive in apposition to rodrtpi see n. to Oeeon. xiv 10 
and for the dative O. § 188 Note 1, HA, § 780. lirtC, * for'. 

For the sentiment cp. the Spectator No 467: *Thci«!. ■wVti 




68 NOTES OK vii 3 

are most affected with the love of praise seem most to partake- 
of that particle of the Divinity which distingniahes mankind 
from the inferior creation', Cie. de off. i viii 26. 16 fhrvots : 
the plural probably is used for the sake of assimilation with 
17 <r/ro(s and TOTocf. 17 irdvra 6|ioC«»s : vi 16. 19 ifi^^: 
subj. of iv^tpvv. The mss reading ^/u^i/f would imply the 
existence of a form <pvrjva(^ formed after the analogy of jivrivai, 
but this was confined to later Greek. olt 8* dCv— o&roi : see 

n. to iii 4. 20 ^Sif : i 36. 21 dCvSpcs— av6p«»iroi. : cf. ii 1 
note and add to the exx. there quoted Anab. i vii 4, Philostr. 
V. A. 1, 16 oifK avdp(iiT(av iavT<f deip aSX dvdp^v. Frotscher 
compares Cic. Ep. ad fam. v 17 3 n€ hoc quidem praeter- 
mittendum esse duxiy te ut hortarer rogaremque,ut et hominem 
te et virum esse meminisses, 

§ 4 1. 22 4|M>1 )Uv: see note to i 7. 23 cIk6t«»s~ 

5Tro|iivciv : For iirucov<f>L^€i n ij ti/x^ Toi>i irdyovs rtfi ApxovTi. Cjr, 
1 vi 25. 24 8toi4>^vT«>s tmv dXXa»v cCvOpooirwv, the genitive 
of distinction, HA. § 753 g. 26 tov OcCov fyyvr^ptt : G. 

§ 75 Note 1, § 182, 2, HA. § 260, § 757. 27 f^<|>poiTJvt|, * mirth', 
another poetical word often used by Xenophon, as below viii 3, 
Cyr. Ill iii 7 Bokcl tj/juv cH^poaj^vfj rts vvv irapeivait ^i ebiropia 
T« TTpoayeyivrp-aty vii 4, 6 clp^vfjs Kal ei<f>po<rjiyrjs rAvra ir\ia 
Tfv, VIII vii 12 Brav ivdpuyirlvrii eiippoffi^vrii iiride^ (ffig; but 
chiefly in the plural in a concrete sense, as above i 2, Cyr. 
VII ii 28 iKclPTj {ri yvv^) rCav &yadCov koL €{f<f>po<rvv cjy ircurcSv ifwl 
rb taov fiereixc, ib. vui i 32 Tporoveiv trifv ry koKi^ rCof elJ- 
<j>po(FvvwVy Agesil. ix 3 -fiydWcro, &n adrbs iv fUaais rcut 
€if</>po<rijv ais dvaffTp^ipoiroj rep. Lac. vii 6 ^ Krijais TrXeloin 
XiJiras rj ij xPV<^^i €i}tppo<T(fvai Tapix^^'j Mem. in viii 10 ypa^xd 
Kal iroiKiXlcu vXciovas €i<l>poffi6vas diroffTepovo'iv rj irap^ovo'c, 
Oecon. ix 12 tSp €{f<l>po<rvvwv /j-eradidSyres, Apol. 8 yi^p^i 
els Tdma rd x^X^^d ffvppet xal fidXa iprrjfM rcSv e^^poavviSr. 
L. Dindorf is mistaken in asserting (Steph. Thesaur, m 
p. 2502 b) that the word * saepius est etiam apud PUUtmem 
et Demosthenem aliosque\ As a matter of fact, in the former 
writer it only occurs thrice, each time in reference to its 
;Graj>posed derivation (e$, <ftip€<r6ou)j viz. Pefin. p. 413 e, Oratyl. 



^ 



VII « XENOPHON'S HIEEOir 69 

p* 419 i>, Timae. p. 80 b; m the liLtter only once^ de falB. 
leg. p. 422, 6, in a quotation from Solon. 

§ 6 1, 29 cil vwoupY^cu al vird ^^^ov^wv *serviL'e8 ren- 
dered by men nnder fear\ For the use of [Jirawith verbal 
sobatantiTe to lieiiote the acting person or efficient cause 
cp. viii 4, CjT. in m 2, Plat Kep. p. 378 n *\\pas Setrfiov^ vvh 
vUot Kal 'Ht^arov piiff€is uirb irarpds; ftlao for the abiyenoe of 
the artiole before the participle is 3 rb p^v apdykfis Se6fJL€VQP 

§ 7 1. 30 dv ^ii\\uVf see note to i I, 'Al Sid to ti|uIv 

TO*s dSiKoui^-ras, *out of respect for their oppressors \ 

§ B L M KaC — ^Y*^ '^ ^^* ^^ ^°^^ Tavra bc. rd du/}a, 

either 'aod those too*, as in ii 2, or Bimply ui^ii^ 'and that too*. 
36 jii^ — tnr avrtSv ira0iiKrtv^ G. § 21fl. For the use of tir6 
to denote the agent or author, with intranflitive neuter 
verbs in paesive sense^ see HA. § 808, lb. 38 4k rtSv Ivav- 
t£«v T©vT©LS, *from the opposite sentiments to these*, i.e. not 
from hatred and servile fear but from Jove and sympathy. 

§ 9 1. ay avB^tii'irot, i 2 note. 40 i^yI^I**^'- — vojaC- 
o-avTfs: \vith verbs of thinkings wishing and those whiti:h 
denote generally any mental act, the G reels b often use! the 
aorist participle, where we use the present* diroXavnv 

avYOv cLyaOd t^ofjudravrt^, lirftra— f)LiiHriv, 'because they think 
that they reap some advantages from him, for that reason 
have his praises always in their moutli '. Some take the 
present infinitive {aroXavuf} here to he used for the 
future infinitive (see G. § 203 note 2, Lobeek on Phrymchns 
p. 746 ft. and cf. Oecon. vi 11, Ages, ii 8), but this doeB not 
appear neceasary. On the use of Irctra with the principal 
verb after a participle to mai-k with emphasis tlmt the principal 
action takes place as a consequence of the action expressed by 
the participle, see HA, § 976 b.— "Eirecra however ia generally 
used in the sense of hime^n, not, as herej, in that of propterea. 
41 dwdtrroiui Ix^tij^iv: Eur, Electr, BO &todf ^x^^ ^*'^ ffrA^a, 
Andr* 95 d^i trrApi* Ad Kal 5ti yTujiifffvfi ix^tp, Honi. 11. ii *i>"ift 




4 



70 NOTES ON vii 9 

r^ oi>K hv pcuriXijas dvA, <rT6fi* ixuw dyopeCois. The phrase did 
ffTofMTos ix^iv occurs ^1 Cyr. i iv 26. 43 oUcdov — a^oO^v, 

ut sihi peculiare — bormm. 45 |ii] ^Po(i(&cvoi : the ni/j is 

controlled by the Btop in 1. 39. The apodosis begins with 
odroi 1. 47. KOkv^, communiter. So Cobet. The common 
reading «coti^^s can scarcely mean *pablio virtue*, as it has 
been translated. 46 8(»pcto^i l04X«Kri.v, *are glad to make 
him presents'. ol avroC, iidem^ 'likewise'. See, however 
18 or. n. 48 rokavra Wovp7ij(r«Mrb: see note to L 7. 

TovTMV, * these marks of respect'. 49 xifido-Oai sc. boKtZ /xm. 
T^SvTti.q. aXiy^ws, 'really' * effectually'. 



§ 10 1. 51 <^povTi,^o|iiCvov |iij Tk irdOxj. As the active 
f^pom-L^eiv fii/j ri irdBri means 'to be anxious for another that he 
may not come to harm ', so the object of the concern of others is 
said <f>poPTlj^€(r0cu fiii n TrdB-g. Cobet compares a similar use of 
the passive de re equestri xi 7, where the horse from which a 
rider dismounts is said Kara^aiveffOai * to be dismounted from ', 
ijv bk Koi h tinroi rax^f re KaTafialvrifai Kal dtroxcLkivwrac, 
and Oecon. iv 3 al pavavaiKal KoKaOfioKu (rix^^) ^txhrtat rdi^v 
ddo^oGvTai irpbs twv irbXetav . 55 o vto>s bears demonstrative 
reference to the preceding clause u>s — aTroOvfyrKeiv. c€ C<r6i, 

as in Oecon. x 13, extra constnictionem. 56 SuIyci : i 8. 

§ 11 1. 57 Si.i]Kov(rcv, ' had heard to the end ' : Oecon. zi 1. 
58 Kal iTtts ; see n. to I i 1. 6. r6 rvpawciv, G. § 258, 
HA. § 959. 59 lyva>Kas, expertua es, 60 o{;t< oXXos 

|Uv 8i^ ovScCs, ' nor in fact, it may be enough to say, any one 
else', the enumeration beginning with fUv is cut short by 
difj, one consideration fidv and there an end. 61 ktu^v ctvcu, 
G. § 268 Note, HA. § 956 a. ouScU ir»iroTc...TvpawC8o« 
d^To, *no one ever yet gave up despotic power'. dl^tTo 
aor. 2 mid, = dir'ri\\dy'ri. Cf. Cyr. ii i 21 d4>4fi€voi rod 
voWois irpoffix^^ r^y voOpj Oecon. vi 16 d<f>4fi€vov rrfs iraX^ 
6^l/€U)St de red. iv 6 dipii/xevoi rod rHjv y^v ipyd^etrOou, Soph. Oed. 
Tyr. 1521 d<pov T^KvuVy Thuo. ii 60 fi^ rod Kotvov ttjs aum^plas 
dtpLeffde. Stnrep diiraf 4KTi](raTo, see cr. n. 



VII 12 XENOPHON^S HIERON 71 

§ la 1. C3 Tuvrii, hoc nomine^ 'in this point, herein', 

as explained in the following sentence introduced by ydp, 

flLOXittrarov: see note to vi 9. For the sentiment cp. 

Plutarch Solon c. 14 rpds roi>s <pC\ovi eXrey {S6\up) Kokbu 

oi»8i ^tip, neque enim, a stronger negative than od ydp, cor- 
responding to the positive Kal ydp, 65 iras av — i£ap- 
Kiofic — bttrlimv, * how is it possible that he should pay enough 
(to repay those)* etc.? The verb apxeTp has here the same 
personal construction as in Oecon. xii 4 8<rTu fiiWei apK^acip 
irifi€\oAfi€¥Oit Cyr. iv v 44 o(frc iyii) dpK4<ru Tpdrrcau 
Tt TTpb iffjuop 6 Tidif idig oUre itfieis Tp6 iifjucvj v iv 36. 
66 &rovs di|»cCXero, to6tois 6<rovs d<f>€i\eTo xP'ht^^'^^' 
see G. § 164, HA. § 724, for the double accusative. r\ (irAs 

dCv) SfOfM)^ dvTiirap(Jurxoi. Scrovs Sij 48^)icvoxv, aut {qui fieri 
potest ut) tamdiu in carcere degat ipse quamdiu alios in vinculis 
tenuerit f * or how could he replace in his own person the exact 
(3iJ) number of imprisonments which he inflicted on others ? * 
I have followed Cobet in rejecting the emendation avmrdaxoi 
proposed by D'Orville on Chariton p. 217 and admitted by 
all subsequent editors. Cobet justly obsei-ves that dcfffibv 
rda-x^i'y is not a Greek expression, and that there is a distinc- 
tion between 8€(r|ui vinetUay * bonds', and Sccrftos, in carcerem 
eoniectio, captivitas in vinctiliSy * imprisonment *. The latter 
is the same in signification as rb b^beaBai^ just as 0d»aToi=i 
rb re&pdvai ; as then ddparoi may be used to express the death 
of several persons, so here becfjuU is said of the * imprisonment 
of several persons'. The Greek equivalent for * to be as long 
in prison yourself as you have left another in prison * would be 
defffjuby dvTiTap^x^tv nvi; so 5€<rfioi>s dvTiirapix^tv Btrovs 
rit airbi idrjffev might be very well applied to a despot 
undergoing a term of imprisonment as long as the combined 
terms of imprisonment inflicted by him on others . 67 So-ovt 
i84o^Mvo*cv. On the form befffierjeiv see crit. note to vi 14. 
68 iTMS av Uavcls il'vxds ktX., qui fieri potest ut pro occisis 
hominibus satis multas suas ipsius animas praeheat morituras t 
Le. lit mortem totiens oppetat quot cives capitali supplicio 
qfeceritf 'how can he offer a sufficient number of his own 



72 NOTES ON vu » 

lives to die (to pay the forfeit of) in return for thoee whom he 
has put to death ? ' See cr. n. 

§181.69 Tyi.q. Tir£. XvoardUC, 'it aTails, it pays'. 

The fall phrase is \Otuf rikii *to pay dnes' and so to rid 
oneself of liabilities, Soph. Oed. Tyr. 316. Hence Xi^« is 
sometimes found in this sense without rAiy as in Eur. Ked. 
1112, 1362 XiJet ^ SXyoi ifw aif n^ 'rycX^J. -^c- ^27 ^/il 
ToioOrovt ydfiovt \vetv ^pordurip. 70 «iwi&7|air0ai ((bnry^ 

X€<r^cu), * to hang himself *. 71 cvp(aicif — XvomXovr, G. 

§ 2B0, HA. § 982. rovro — v-oiTJircu sc. dxdy^affOat : see 

note to iv 5 ; rovro may also be the subject of Xvo-creXotV and 
TToiTja'cu a limiting infinitive (G. § 261, 1). 72 ovn fxw 

oCr€ KaraO^a^oi rd kokcC, ' neither to retain nor to lay down 
his troubles '. 



CHAPTER VIII 

Simonides in reply, after sympathising with Hieran's de- 
spondency, undertakes to consoU him hy showing thdt such 
consequences do not iiecessaHly attend despotic rule. The 
despoils power is an instrument for good as well cu for evil. 
By a proper employment of it he may not only avoid being 
hated, hut may even make himself beloved, beyond the raeasure 
attainable by any private citizen. Even kind words and petty 
courtesies are welcomed far more eagerly wJien they come from a 
powerful man than from an equal (§ 1 — § 4). Moreover a 
slujwy and brilliant exterior seldom fails to fascinate the 
spectator (§ 5— § 7). 

Hieron replies: *But despots are obliged by their position 
to incur unpopularity where private persons need not do so. 
They must levy taxes for their necessary supplies, punish male- 
factors, restrain law-breakers, and in case of a sudden outbreak 
of war they must enforce a strict attention to duty on those 
in command. Lastly, they must keep up a body -guard of 
mercenaries — a most oppressive burden to their subjects, who 
regard it as an instrument of tyranny * (§ 8 — § 10). 




XENOPHON^S HIE RON 73 

§ 1 L 1 iin)XjKp4^, *\n answer '. The original meaning 
of inrh is ^upwardfl*, hence it expreseea reelBtance 'to a 
motion*. 'TroXa^/Saf ei»' 18 * to take up' or ^intemipt* a 
speaker ; vwaKOTt'^v * to show that one hears ' (by answering 
or obeying) » So vTrofxiy^ip is 'to hear up against \ uirufpLoeia 
is • an affidavit to stop proceedings \ See Monro's Homerie 
Grammar y p. 140. to |iriv vvv — fUvroi, * although for the 

present, yet\ Cp. ix 1, Oeoon* ii 22^ x 49 etc. 2 d^^s 

^«iv irpds TTjv TvpavvtSft, *to be out of heart at (with) 
despotism*. Cp. Hell, iv v 4 li* aKortp A06j^titi t phs t6 Snirpov 
iXovTotv, Plat. Nic. c. 26, (y irpbv rir ix &cQy iXTriSat d&^ffiufi 
X9 flx^^- ^ l|Jtiro8«v TovTov scil. rod ipiXetff&ai utt Av&pw- 
TTUJf, Cp. Cyr. II iv 23 dwoirti^oivTts av ifixoSutv ylyvQitrro 
roD {v. I. rb) fiif opav aiVoiSs, viii v 21 ifiwodthv aXXrfXoif 
TToWwtf Kal dya&ufv i<rf<T$e. 5 t\ti-v ftoi &OKW, rideor 

miki poti.'ie. ^> ovSiv^ adv. 'not at all', of, i 28. diroKuXvcL 
(acil. rbtf dpxofTOr) rov ^Oi^urBa.^, Q. g 174, HA. § 748. 
7 trXfoveicTcZ -yt rijs iStiairgCa*, *be has the adi^antaffe over 
private life'. Cp. Plat. Legg. ijt p. G96 a ^al /5rwref^ jcal 
^a(r*Xei^, Rep. x 618 d lHnjTciai xal dpx^^' Lncian (de conscr, 
hist. c. 27) uBes it in the sense of iH»a'tia. The ye serves to 
emphasize irXtovitcrft. 

§ a 1, iB avri, the anticipatory aecusative, cf, i B8, v 2, 
Anab, rv v 34 Tijv 6d6v f^^poL^ei^ •§ efij for itppa^fv § fiTj Tf 6S6t, 
OeCtin. xix 14 rft l^rpaKoif — aypom- — w^i ay Karaddtj^. 4k^- 

VQ, in reference to what follows. 1^ tl, * whether', iii 1. 

10 xap^^°^^^ ttXiCiu, * to grant more favours' : see note to 
vii 2. av Tr&wScriv for ^ A j^ ir. 12 dw6, * by means of \ iv 10. 

13 voi, tliG so-called ethical dative, superfluous as to tbe 
geneira! sense» but imparting a lively and familiar tone to the 
sentence. So Shakesp. Memj If. of W, 1, 4, [>? *ril do yon 
your maBterwhat good I can's Much Ado 2, 3, 116 'she -will 
Bit you'. G. § 184, B Note 6, HA. § 770. 

§ 9 1. 14 -wp^wtiirdTiWt 'suppose hira to addresH*. The 
imperative is here used to denote a Bapposition^ where 
something is supposed to he true for argmnent'B aak«&. 




74 NOTES ON viii 3 

G. MT, § 84 Note 4. The Latin imperative is frequently thus 
used by Cio. as in Cat. mai. 11, 34 ne sint in senectute vires, 
*let us asBume that age has no strength', de off. m 13, 54 
vendat aedes vir bonus, i. e. * suppose he has for sale '. 16 vp^- 
fn)<riv : Pollux 5, 137 da-r a<rfi6 v, 17 t6b 8ij, age^ porro, * now 
then*, * again', a form of transition, chiefly in dialogue and 
usually followed by 2nd person imper. or 1st person subj. 
4«aiv€(nivTa>v d^>^r§poi tov avT6v, * supposing them both to 
praise the same man '. Cobet was the first to see that ivatMe^ 
a6»rtav is the imperative for iTrajLveffdrwaav^ and to restore 
dfi*f>iT€poi for ofjufxyripfov into whioh it was altered by some 
copyist to suit what he supposed was a participle. 18 j(- 
iKvctcOab cts <iM^po«rvvt)v, suppetere, valere ad laetitiam, * satis- 
fies in respect of causing joy\ Cp. Plat. Protag. p. 311 n 
d¥...i^tKVTfTatTii, "qfUrepa x/Mjftara. 19 Ovcras TtjincPaTw 

IkoCt^os, 'let each of the two, when he offers sacrifice, 
honour (the same man) ', i.e. with an invitation to the post- 
sacrificial entertainment. Sacrifices are enumerated by 
Aristotle Ethic, viii 9 and Thucydides ii 38 among the chief 
means of social enjoyment, as they were mostly accompanied 
by the entertainments of friends and relations. Cf. Mem. n 
iii 11 X^7c 5iJ /tot, i<f)-ri, et ripa tQv ypcapificav jSoi^Xoto icarep- 
yd<ra<r6aif hvbT€ 6uoiy KoKeiv tre iirl belirvov^ tL om ^roto^r/s; ib. 
II iii 11 OTbre dOoi, ixdXei (roOroi'), Plut. Themis t. 5, 1, 1. 19 
with my note. 20 dv— rvyxavciv, i 3, x 3, G. § 211, HA. 

§964 a. 

§ 4 1. 21 KclfivovTa, aegrotantem, 22 cra4>4s scil. iirrL 

al \mo Twv Swarcardrcdv Ocpairciai, * kind offices bestowed 
by those who are most powerful', see n. to vii 6. 23 Ifiiroi- 
ovoav 'produce in them ' scil. rot s ^ epaxcu ^ ct trt. 24 86v- 
T«v Ta tea, 'suppose they (i.e. 6 re dpx'^v koX b Iduvrris) make 
him equal presents '. 25 al i^fiCo-ciai x^^pi-TCS, * favours of 

half the value *. 26 irX^ov — Svvavrai, plus valent, SXov 
t6 8fi5ptiiJia, G. § 142, 4 Note 5, HA. 672 a. 

§ 5 1. 28 oTiiMrop^irccrOai, comitariy *to go along with*, 
' attend on ' : Cyr. ii i 23 koX aXXat rt/tai aX Trpivovcai, ^KdffTMS 
irv/nrap€LrovTO, Plat. Legg. ii p. 667 B Sffois trufiTapiireTal 



vui9 XENOPHON'S HIERON 75 

rtt x<^** dv6pl ^[fixovri: cCi^ifp is frequently used apposi- 
tively with words denoting station or condition. Cp. viii 
10, ix 3, zi 1 and see HA. § 625. |m)— 5ri— iroUC-HiXXcl koI 
— OicS|ftcOa, ' not only does it (anthority) add Instre to the ap- 
pearance of him who is invested with it, but we look at this same 
man with greater pleasure when he is in authority than when 
he is only a private person *. With Toiet we must supply the 
subject t6 dpxetv, implied in dydpl ooxovtl, Cf. Oecon. v 3, 
XX 3, zxi 12. |ii^ oTi, = * not only \ when followed as here 

by aWk k al or simply aXXd, i.e. not supposing us to say. Cf. 
Plato ApoL p, 40 D fi^ 6ti.15i(&T7jp rwd, aXXa rbv lUyw 
pauTiKia, When dW o^d4^ne — quidem follows, it means * not 
only not', like the Latin mm modo when followed by sed 
ne — quidem. Where fi^ 6ti ushers in the second of two 
dauses, of which the first is negative, it means nedum * much 
less '. 31 SutXcyoiicvot d-yoXXoiuOa, G. § 279, 1, HA. § 983. 
Cp. Agesil. y 3 roviow -iydWeTOf Hell, vi v 48 (ed. Cobet) 
dyaWS/xeSa ffwayopeCovres dvdpdfftv dyaOoti, Tot$ irportri- 
|ii||Uvoi9 sc. ^/i(3i^, * our superiors in rank \ 32 rots 4k tov 
to-ov if |itv 0^0%, * those who are on the same level with us '. 

§ 7 1. 33 6vdTC, quandoquidem, cp. iv 2, Symp. ii 12 koI if 

dpdpcla didaKTOPf ovorc a^rvj — ovtcj ToXfiflpiSs els rA ^f^iy tercu, 

20 Ages, viii 5. -yc |&ijv: see n. to x 5. 35 voXXairXoCo'ia 

Bcil. TUP IdiutTiap, 36 ^X'T"'** poaitUy 1. 5. 37 Kal voXv : 

see n. to ii 10. 

§ 8 1. 39 l{ (Sv cLircxOctvovrai, — irXcC«» — irpa7|iaTci>€(rOai, 
* to engage in many more of the transactions, because of which 
men incur hatred \ 

§ 9 1. 41 irpoKT^ov |&^ Y« yjpif\'^rti. sc. itrri, *thus, for 
one thing, we must exact money '. Buttmann on Dem. Mid. 
§ 21 f. observes on (xip yc. — cum quia uno argumento vel 
exemplo aliquid probata potest Jioc ut sujiciens adferre; quod 
Jit particula yap : potest etiam signijicare plura quidem posse 
desiderari sed lioc unum satis grave esse; quod Jit addito yi^ 
*certe saltern \ He observes also that in many passages editors 



76 NOTES ON viii 9 

have sabstituted ijukv yap for fAdw ye ; as Welske would in the 
present passage. Gf. Arist. Nab. 1882, Av. 1608, Lys. 589, 
Xen. Cyr. 11 i 16, ii 14, iv iii 18, v 29 etc. So /ih y€, answered 
by d^, is often used in working out a contrast between two 
characters. Bidd. {. c. § 158. ^ )iAXo|icv Igctv ktX., *if 
we are to have the means of spending upon necessaries '. Cf . 
Oecon. Y 15, vii 20, xii 5, Ages, ii 25 xpVf^'^^^ ^^P**- "^^^ troKiy 
dcofiivriVj el fi4\\oi ffi&fifiaxov riva f^eiv, Mem. n vi 14 (us e/ 
fiiWofiev dya$6p riva KT'fiffeffOai ifftXov, oi>toj>j iffias Set ayaBods 
yeviadoL, de re eq. ii 2 raOro inrobeiyfiAra farai ry Tr(a\oddfu>'g 
iav del iTrtiJLe\7i$TJpait el fiiWet rbv nurOhp ci'jro\'ii\f/e<rdai. On 
Sairavav els see x 8, xl 1. 42 dvaYKoorWov ^Xdrrciv, ' we 
must compel (persons) to guard*; the indefinite object being 
unexpressed. 45 KaC— 7c : i 17, 22. Brav tcCxovs Koip^ 
irapcuTTQ — IJopfJLcUrOai, * whenever the moment for quick action 
presents itself, to start on a land or naval expedition '. 46 o^k 
eirvTpeirWov rots ^hiovpyovax soil. jtq.hi.ovpyeXvy *he most 
not let the listless (trierarchs or other officials) have their own 
way ', i.e. he must hurry them up with pressure and fines. Cp. 
Xen. Cyr. i vi 8 iyCo hk otfiai rbv apxovra oi T<f ftqiBiovpyetv 
XPV^f-'' Sia^peiv tQ>v &pxofJi^<aVy dXXd, ry irpovoeiv Koi <f>iKoirov€ip. 
II i 25, VIII iv 5. 

§ 10 1. 48 dvSpl Tvpdwfp : see n. to 1. 28. ro-ircv bc. 

ToO <l>opi^fiaTos, 'this burden'. Cf. Cyr. in i 25 olov <t>6prifia 
{quam grave onus sit) 6 06/3os. 49 oi5 ydip rvpdwois 

UroTi|iCas — Tp^^c<r6ai, neque enim tyrannos tarn ob par em 
honorem quam muioris causa hos alere credunt, Schenkl 
remarks * regis est id agere, ne quis se potentia opibas 
honore superet, tyranni autem ut ceteros omnes his rebus 
antecedat; non ergo, ut eodem quo oeteri cives utatur iure, 
mercennarii aluntur a tyranno, sed ut maiore quadam potentia 
utatur, ut ipse dominus sit, ceteri servi '. 



IX, XEN0PH0N^8 MIEROK 77 

CHAPTEK IX 

Simonides replies: 'If there are some duties whieh lead 
to tinpopiilarity^ there are otiiera which tend directly to the 
attainment of populur favour. A despot therefore ought to 
delegate to others the task of rehitking and punishing, ttfhile he 
administers reivards in person^ giving prizes for superior ex- 
cellence in every department and thus endearing hinistdf to all. 
Such prizes tcould proroke a stdutary coynpetition in the per' 
fomiance of viiiitary duties, in huj&handnj, commerce and all the 
arts of jyeaee and public lutefulnesx of everg kind. Thus in- 
dustiy would he greatly promoted ami there would be a decrease 
of crime ' (§ 1— § 11). 

§ 1 L 2 aXXd is often thne used in qmok answera and 
ohjectiona, cMeSy in negation. Sirvs — ov — |irLjLtXii|Tfov — ®u 

Xryuj * I do not assert that we are not to cake care of all the^ 
matters \ The declarative use of ^ ir w f for ws or dn in indirect 
qiiotatians is chiefly confined to poetrj% see G. § 219, MX, § 78. 
In most of the paaaages where it ia used it may be rendered 
hy quomodo *how^ M^v h correlative to ^^^f rot in I. 3^ *it is 
true— but*, Cf. viii i. It is so nsied, (1) when particular 
emphasiB h&B to be given to the opposition ; (2) where Bi could 
not be conveniently used^ (rJ) in expressing opposition to a 
clause which ia itself introduced by 3^. 'A hn\Ukt%xi%, stHdia, 
'dntieSf concerns*: cf. Oecon. vii 41. 4 al piv— ho^ SI In 
partitive apposition to ^ir t m ^ ^ * ^ <^ ti cp. iii 8, v 1. On the use of 
the article as a denionstTative pronoun see G. g 143, 1. 
irpAs ^9p«li^ a^itv, ' lead to unpopularity '. Cf. de Ath. rep* i 5 
ij Hi If la avroiff pM-XXatf ayei iirl rd alaxp^ t]yr. vi ii 31 &\pa—hrl 
fflToy ay (it i.e. * create a taste for eating*. 8td xo^^tuv ilviu, 
ffratae emCf ad gratiam conciliandam valeref *to be pleasant*, 
^ agreeable \ not, as Liddell- Scott translate, 'to be on terms 
of mutual friendship - . 

§ 3 L 5 tA ^v — aurri |ji4v— t^ S4 — raiiTtt W. When 
Ihe opposition denoted by piiv arid 3^ lies in a relative aen- 
tenoe, and to this a demonstrntive reference ia annexed 




78 NOTES ON ix a 

d$ — o$ros, iiiv and bi (or one of them) are often pat twice, 
first with the relative, then with the demonstratiye, see 
Battmann Exc. on Demosth. Mid. p. 129. In the same way we 
find a double iU» with a doable 14 in order to bring oat more 
forcibly the parallelism of two clauses. Gf. Oecon. iv 8 oOs 
fikv — To&rois /liv — ots di — to&tovs 54. StScurKCtv a km 

fUKrurrat ea docere quae optima sunt, 6 KcCXXunu, 

*in the best manner', *most efficiently'. ravra sc. r& 

p4\TiffTa, On the emphatic repetition of the demonstra- 
tive pronoun aUrri and 1. 10 r a Or a see on i 17 1. 101. 
9 dvaYKcCtciv, ' to treat with severity *. 10 Si* dircxOcCot 

yCyvwiiait odio esse^ *to be hateful'; cp. Aesch. Pr. V. 120 
rbv rrofft Ocdis di dxex^cfas 4\06vTat so 5t' 6x'^ov yiy- 
veffOaL 'to be troublesome ', Arist. Eccl. 888, bih, tpiXias I4pat 
«to be friendly*, Anab. iii ii 8. 

§ 8 1. 11 dvSpl Spxovn : n. to viii 1. 28. The construcUon 
is t6 fihf KoXdl^ew Sedficvov dvdyKrjs (* coercion *) irpo<rTaKT4op eZvcu 
(G. § 281, 1) dXXots (G. § 187) d^dpl dpxom (G. § 188, 4), 
rb d4 drodidbvai rd d6\a iroLrjT4oy (ehfou) di airrov (i.e. 'without 
the agency of others'). Cobet, regarding /coXd^eci^ as a gloss, 
would take t6 difdyicris dedfievov together as=irdiTa iv oU piav Set 
• Trpo<r4>4p€(,y Kal avdyKviv irpwrTi$4vai, See however cr. app. 
2114 |Uif>TvpctTd'yiYv6|Acva, 'facts testify'. 

§ 4 L 15 i^|uv : see n. on viii 2. 16 d6Xa vporCOiioxv, 

'offers prizes'. Of. de red. iii 3 e^ $^ xal t% rod ifivoplov dpxi 
ddXa irpoTt.Oel'n tk, 6(ms Buccufnara 8icupolrf rd o^i^iXoya, 
Cyr. IV i 18 dywvas Trpoeurdnf ^Kdarois koI d$\a t pond els doicm 
/judKiffT av iromv ev dffKetaOai ^/coo-ra, Hell, iii iv 16 d$\a 
irpo<i67jK€ Tcus inrXiTiKois rd^ccoff ijTii dpurra a(ofidT<ay ^ot, 
IV ii 5 a^Xa irpoiidrfKe rdis rbXeffuf ijru dpiorov arpdrevfta 
v4fiir<H, Eur. Hel. 42 irpo{fT4$7jv iyib—dOXov — 8op6s, By b 
dp%(av is meant the President of the college of Arohona, called 
€T(i)vvfios not because he was cTrujwpjoi rod huavrov, but 
because for reasons arising from his official position, his name 
headed several official lists (Lange Leipziger Studien i p. 159). 
He had the general superintendence of the greater Dionysia and 



1X6 XENOPHON'S HIERON 79 

of the ThargSlia. 17 avroiit ac?ii. -roiVs x^/'*'"*' X**PTY*^* ' 
the xapfiyia waa one of the Bo-oalled iyn^tKhiot Xetroupyfoi 
or * public servicea required of eacli citizen in rotation , The 
duties of the x^PVl^^ "f whom there were teii» one for each 
tribe, consisted in providing the ohoreutae and ia paying 
the ex|x^nBeg of a trainer {xopo&iMo'KaXoij for them, in main- 
taining them while they were in training, also in paying 
the expenseR of their drysaes, crowna and maskB. Cf. Oeoon. 
ii 6. IB iJkXXois^ scil. ;i(opodc(^a(ricd\o(s. dv6;.yK'(\v wpoir- 
TiWvat^ *tu apply coercion'; cp. Cjr. ii iv V2 dvdyxrjv auT^ 
TTpoff&cijfaif de rep. Lao. x 7 iTri$i}K€ rV dyvv6(TTaToif 
avayKTiv. 10 ruWs, * obviously', 'as appears at once*; cp. 
ii 8. tA hrtxopi, *the agreeable part*; Cyr, i iy 4 fv^ rotf 
ffvyovatttii Trdfitratt ^Tfx*"^p^*> Anab. ii vi 12 rb ivlxo-p*- ^'^k 
clx^ 0'^' fn^mm suaviiutem) a\\* a el xaXeirAs ijv Kal wfAOs. The 
Bnperlative iTrix<X'f^i'^^^^TQi occutb in the Oecon. ni 37, 
and the adverb iirtxaplnij^ m Apolog. 4. 20 kyivern^ gnomic 
aorist, G. § 205, 2, HA. § 849. rd dvTCniira, co7itrana, 

the reverse of ri etrlxapt (cf. Theogn. 1244 ijfloj Ix^^ ShXiov, 
ittffTiOi aifTlTvwfiv)^ or mo len ta ' repellent \ * h arsh ^ . It occurs 
in the sense of *adverse' in Hell, vi iii 12 6pQ — iroXXd avrlrvw a 
yiyv bfJL&ra. 

I 5 1. 21 tC kqA^i ; quid ohi^tat quo mimis ? qttidnlf 
^ivhat ia there to prevent?" *what reason ia there why not?* 
riXka, Tid voikiritid, ceUra civilia, * the other municipal 
affairs '. |i^ ydp % see note to iii § 7. 22 a I ir^Xcts td 

|fclv — ^al 8^, ef. L 4. 23 Kaird <f*"Xo5: Attica was divided 
into ten phylae, Laeedaemon into six morae, Thebes and 
Argoa into lochi (Hell, vi iv 13; vii ii 4). That \6xof may 
mean 'a iniion for civil purposes' is evident from AriHtotle's 
Pol V 8, p. 1309 a, 1. 12 icari (pparpiat ^ai \6xov^ Kal ipvXds^ 
Dem* ^e cor. 106 rw>f itf toij X^x**** ffwrtXeiotv. 

§ a h 25 TovToi-s Bcil. ToFs pL^p£<Tu 27 dXicf]s TTJs Iv 

iroXi^^^ 'for bravery in the field '. This is the third attribntive 
powition^ the first beinj^ rrfs iv voXifn^ dXc-^s, the second r^t 
dXJc^t TTJt iv TToXip^ifi. The word dXiciJ is one of the naany 
poetif^nl f^xpreeaions foimd in Xen. It ocoura again in Heli, vi i 




80 NOTES ON ix 6 

12. 28 8ucai<oavin|s tijs hf toC» oTyppXafoit: cf. the passage 
from the de red. iii 3 qaoted ahove L 16. ^ic^ (sc. kvrt^ 

doiUEo^iu, G. § 226, 4. 29 Tavra varra scil. e^orX^ar, 

ti)ra.^ia.v jcrX. 8id ^iXovucCav, 'through competition'. 

Below 1.33 8icl^iXoviKCas=0iXoWicw$, 'in a spirit of rivalry', 
lvT^v«S (^, re^i^w), studiose, 'yigorooslj', 'zealously'. 

§71.30 KoC— ^:i§17. 5iroi 8^i : G. § 233. 31 ipc- 
•y^fuvoi : vii 1. The dy must he repeated with eUif>4poiew. 
32 ToiiTov scil. roO €l<r<f>4p€iy xP'hl^^'^^' Ka^ ''^ mCv- 
T»v 7c xp^o^K^^TaTov — IfcpYot^l'^^^' • *^^^ agriculture itself, 
which of all (things) is the most useful employment, though it 
has not heen usual to encourage it by means of competition, 
would make great progress, if prizes were to be offered to 
those who cultivated the land best by fields or by villages', 
HA. § 626 b. 34 &v lirv8oCT|, incrementum caperet, * would 
advance', 'improve'. Thuc. vii 8 Ka&' Tifiipav ixididovaay 
r^v Tujv iro\€fd<av lax^i Plato Hipp. mai. p. 281 d al aXXou 
rix^ou iirideddKaa-u 36 The order is: twk iroXtrcSp 

(G. § 168) ToU TpeirofjJvois ippcafiivws els tovto scil. els rb i^epyd' 
^(rdax T^v yrjv, not els t6 a^Xa irporiOkvai kt\, 37 ipp«*|UvMS, 
* vigorously ', adv. from ippwfUvos part. perf. pass, of j^c&pvvpu, 
comp. ippufJxviffTepos, superl. ippwfAevkaraTos. Plutarch Apophth. 
p. 175 A tells a story of Gelon, Hieron's brother, how ^^e 
iroKKdKis Toifs ^vpaKwrLovs u)s iwl ffrparelay r^v tpvrelav (i.e. ad 
agrorum culturam tamquam in militiam), oinas ^re x(6pa /SeXWcor 
yhyjfroL yeupyov/iiyTj koI p.^ xef^w oi>roi (rxoXd^oyrej. 

§ 8 1. 39 ij (roM^po(rvvi|, modestia, 'a sober, law-abiding 
spirit'. 40 (rv}i,irapo|uif>ToCT| : cf. vi 6. xal |itfv, 'and 

further'. KaKovpyCai — 4|i^^ovTcu, 'vice seldom springs up 

amongst those who are actively employed ' : of . vii 3. 

§ • 1. 41 cl, 'if, as is the case'. 42 rt, aliquarUum, 

'in some appreciable measure'. Tipo|Mvos av — I|iir6pavs Sv 
irXfCovs dycCpoi, 'the bestowing marks of distinction on one 
who applies himself to it (trade) with the greatest diligence 
would be the means of increasing the number of traders in 
proportion' (koU). Observe that the ok of. the principal 



IX lo XENOPHON'S HIBRON 81 

verb is here attached to the emphatic word at the opening 
of the sentence and repeated in immediate connexion with 
the verb, from which it has been thus removed to a distance : 
see G. MT, § 42, 3 with Note 1 and cp. Anab. i iii 19 ovru 
ybip Kol i-wbfji.evoi av <pl\oi rf Kiipcfi Kal -wpbOvfioi ixoifieda Kal 
dTi6vT€s &a<f>a\w av dirloificvt Oecon. xvii 13 ry odv KaTCKvOhri 
tL S» TroLovvT€i doKouffiv OM (Toi iTriKovp7J<Tai ; The participle rifidj- 
fieifos here takes the place of a protasis = 6^ tl/m^to. 6 tovto 
vouiv so. r6 i/jLTopej^ea-Oai, qui mercaturam exercet. 
22 44 irp^at>8<Sv rtva dXvirov, 'some mode of raising revenne 
which would not be vexatious to his subjects'. 45 ri|iif- 

o-eiui, one of the verbs in which the fut. middle has a pas- 
sive meaning: others are X^^o/xai, /uo-i^o-o/Mit, (rTvyfyrofmi, dX(6- 
ffo/iatf df^ofiai, idffofiaif olK'^iffOfuiij d$tic^(ro/xac, ^i7/u(6(ro/Lcat, dvid- 
aofWAj dfjXdHTofJuiit KoKovfJUUt 6v€i8iovfjLou, <p0oirfyrofiai (xi 15). 
ov8' a^Tt) &v ij (TK^is clf>YOiTo, 'this sort of speculation also 
would not be neglected'. Of. Gyr. ii iii 3 oC^div adroh dpyeirai 
{neglegitur, infectum relinquitur) tC1>v Trpdrreadai deofiivcjv. 

§ lO 1. 46 MS 8^ <rwtK6vr\. clircCv sc. tivI^ * to speak con- 
cisely', Ut. *for one to say it, bringing the matter to a 
point' ; G. § 184, 5, HA. § 956. 47 Kal is to be taken 

closely with Kard irdvTat 'in every department also '. 6 

dyaJdov ti cl<rrfyoi^|Mvo$, 'the proposer of any good suggestion' ; 
see n. to i 15 1. 87. 48 dTC|iT|Tos, * unrewarded', a 

word not found elsewhere in Xen. For its usual meaning in 
Attic Greek see lex. 49 tpyov iroutcrOai r6 o-KOirctv rt 

dyaB6v, 'to apply himself diligently (lit. to make it a busi- 
ness) to making some useful discovery' ; r6 aKoxeii^ being the 
object and fpyov the predicate accusative, HA. § 726. In 
this sense ipyov iroieurdai, or ^x^*'' is usually followed by the 
infinitive alone without t6: e.g. Mem. ii x 6 (pyov etxe 
CKOTreXv^ Agesil. xi 12 dfiavpovv rd tuv iroXefjUojv ipyov elx^^i 
Plat. Phaedr. p. 232 a (pyov tovto iroiovfi4vovs sc. dKo\ov0€iv 
Toti ipufUpoiSj Dio Chrysost. p. 394 d airrb tovto (pyov ircrotiy- 
fiivtav iyKcj/jLidi^eiv] or by a participle as in Cyr. viii iv 6 
ipyop ^x**'' deSfievoy To&rov KotvcjycTv Toiis irapbvTat {fsnixe 
rogare praesentes ut partem ciborum caper ent). 50 xaC — \(ki 

H,I. ^ 



82 NOTEiS O.V ix ,o 

1. 30. Srav voXXois Tcpl Tt*v m^cX£|u*v iUXj) : for the usual 

construction iroXXots rttn' ujipcSliuav /jl^V' ^* Herod, vni 19 
KOfiiS^s d^ irlpi TTjp uprjp avT(} fxeXi^aeip (where tV «pijr is 
wrongly taken as the subject of fieX-fyreip by some commenta- 
tors), Arist. Lys. 502 {;fup S^ irddev vepl rod ToXiftou ttjs t* 
ei/yj^PTfs ifi4\Tj<r€p; Plato Alcib. 2, p. 150 d o5roj <? fiiXei ire pi 
aov. 51 avdYKT] sc. iarL cvpCo-KCorOoi sell, rd w^^Xt/ia. 

§ 11 1. 53 vportdqUvasv : the common readmg rpoTeSetfji^Ptaw 
has been justly condemned by Cobet, smce in purely classical 
Greek Ketfiai is the recognised perfect passive of tLStj/ii, See 
my n. on Plutarch Themist. xviii 1. 54 ovk fcmv, G. § 28, 
3 Note 1, HA. § 480. 4}i,iropcv|iaTa, quaestus genera, * articles 
of commerce', conmiodities. Xv(n.TcX^(rT€pa, qu4ie facilitu 
comparentur, 'that cost less*. Of. de red. iv 30. 55 dOX«iv, 
G. 178, HA. § 746. 57 |Jiucpd iOXa, in reference to the 

simple prizes which were given to the winners at the great 
games, a garland of wild olive or parsley. 58 IfdYcroi, 

'call forth', 'elicit', not as Liddell-Scott translate 'bring on', 
•entail*. Cf. Cyr. n ii 15 ^<c 7c cod irvp, olfxcu^ pqjov dw ris U- 
TptrJ/eicp rj y^Xcjra i^aydyoiTo ('provoke', 'excite*). See my 
note on the passage. 



CHAPTER X 

Hieron asks Simonides whether he can recommend him any 
vieans of avoiding the unpopularity dv^ to the employment of 
foreign mercenaries as a body guard (§1). 

Simonides shows'how they may he so handled and disciplined 
as to afford defence against foreign attack, to ensure for the 
citizens undisturbed leisure in their own private affairs, to 
protect and befriend the honest man, and to use force only 
against criminals. If thus employed, such mercenaries, instead 
of being hated, would be welcome companions, and the citizens 
would gladly furnish contributions for their support (§ 2 — § 8). 

§ 1 1. 3 Ixcis Ti clirctv MS }i.i] fjiurcurOai St airroiSs; num 

prqfcrre quid poteris, quod efficere possit, ut invisi non simus db 

\ 



X4 



XENOPHm 



HIERON 



eos {mercennarios viilites}i The indefinite aub]oct of the 
infinitive is unexpressed, HA. § 942* On the use of oi; iu the 
Benfie of dJtrre conaecntive, see Indpx to my Cvrop. i p. 354 b. 
4 Krne^H*vo«: G. § 226, 1, HA. § 9H9 d. 5 ouBlv. 

Vnot at all\ the qnantltative accnsative, as the measure 
of the degree of the act or process^ cf* i 23. 

§ 3 I. B val |ijd Aitt: see n. to i. 13. piv ouy, immo c^ro, 
*nay rather*, for one tkin^ (m^**! decidedly {q^p): see n. on 
Oecon. vii 37. 7 iv dv0pwTroi.s tl^tIv Iy^Cy^'*'^'^^™' '^^"^^j ^^^ ^^ 
natural to some men to be etc' Cf. Eur. Iph. AaL 1244 

8 fiery, CI. § 188, 2, HA. § 781 a- fiaXXov iB to be understood 
with the predicate adjective ^KirKea from the correlative clause. 
So in Latin, e.g. Tac. Ann. i 57 barbaric, qttanto quk aitdacia 
promphm^ tanto mmjis Jidns rebusque motis potior habettiri iii 
4fi quanto pt'cunia dites, t^nto mag is iFnhelhs, 9 ^Ppurro- 

ripois: oonip. of 5^^ terror (not of it^piaT^t). The word ooours 
again in Cyr, v v 41 j also in Herod, iii 81 and Plato legg. 641 c. 

§ d 1. 1^ Toik — ToiavToiJSi ^Huch men as tIieBe\ The article 
is used beoauae the notion of a elasB is rendered prominent. 
10 av ir»4>poviSot, 'would sober d<r>wn, briug to their 
Kensea \ Cp. Cyr. in 1 20. K^ dir& tmv Sopv^^opuv ^^6^0^ : 

Cyr» I i 5 Ti^ d^' ^airroD 4i&^<ft rn iii 53 toD awb tCjv iroXtfiUaif 
^^ov* 12 olv So»ccit--trciparx*LV : the avis anticipated hyper- 
baticaily au often with oljuat etc, ; cf. i 3. Translate : * &s for the 
respectable part of the community, there is nothing, it eeema 
to me, by means of which you might confer eo great ser- 
vices on them as by the troops kept in your pay*. For the 
meaning of jtaX^f Kdyti&&i see Oecon. vi 11 C and for AttA, 
'by micane of, cf. xi 1 note. 



§ 4 L 14 ^^vXaicat: Bee note to ix 10 h 40. 
S3.1^ 8«nroTAi, 'maBterg* of slaves . viri twv SovXaiv 

dir^iavov : see note to vii 8. 16 The order is tl odv toOt^ 

(Xti wpQrov fv tQv wpo<mrayikivui¥. 17 »f /fvras: 

for the oaBe cf. note to ii 8 1* 39. 1ft 4v -^n. T?jvti%*-c<« 




84 NOTES ON X4 

alo^vctfVTcu., ' should they pei'ceive any thing of the kind', i.e. 
any conspiracy of slaves against their masters. 19 yCYVovroi 
84 ^rov ktX., existunt autem^ opinor, malefici, 'and, as every one 
knows, criminals are found in every community*. 20 cl o^ 
— ctcv TcraYtUvoi, a resumption of the first protasis, oc- 
casioned hy the parenthetic clause yiyvovrat. — er ir6X6<rtv. 

21 Kal TOVTovs scil, roin iroXfros, not roi>$ KaKO^/pyovi^ 
as the Koi alone indicates. Kal tovto, i 8, vii 2 note. 

22 &v cl8<C€v— «»<t»cXo^|Mvoi, G. § 280, § 136 Note 4, H\. § 982. 
avTwv of course refers to rwv fiiadoipbpcjv. 

§ 6 1. 22 irp^s hk TovTois, ' in addition to this ' ; G. p. 240, 
6 (2). 28 Kn^vconv (icrdofjiat), 'cattle', regarded as pro- 

perty. 24 o^ot Bcil, ol /jLiadotpSpoi, 25 6|m»C«*s |iiv 

— 6iLoita9 84: i 5 note. 26 rots dvd ti\v xapav, 'those all 
over the country ', i.e. belonging to others. 71 |jit(v, 'more- 

over', is little more than a stronger form of d^. 

The history of the particle fi^v, both singly and in combination 
with other particles, deserves close investigation. With ye, koi and dXXm 
it serves most frequently to introduce something new or deserving 
special attention, or in connecting the second part of a syllogism with 
the first. It sometimes, however, has an adversative force. In old Attic 
prose it is rarely found, seldom in Andokides, only five times in An- 
tiphon, nine times in Thucydides (always in combination with icaC or w}. 
In later Greek writers, Lysias, Isokrates, Xenophon, oAAa firiv is common 
enough. There is no instance, however, in the two oldest speeches of 
Lysias, xii (or. contra Eratosthenem) and xiii (or. c. Agoratum). 
In the pseudo-tetralogy of Antiphon i y § 5, we find ovfi^ ^^v, and 
oAXa iirjv in the speech of the Pseudo-Andokides against Alkibiades. 
Aristophanes uses koI iiriv seventy-eight times, ye /&^v four times 
(Eq. 233, Nub. 631, 823. Lys. 144). ov mv Nub. 5.S, Tagen. fr. 7, Vesp. 
268, Pac. 41, ov6i firiv Vesp. 480, Ran. 268, Ecd. 1075. 1085, Plut 373, 
oAAa iii^v Av. 385, Ban. 258, and in the Megarian's speech, Ach. 766, 771. 
M^i^ does not occur in any combination in the Kynegetikos^ nor in the 
first part of the Hellenika i i 1— ii iii 10. In the Oekonomikos, oUi 
iii^v is found only once, and aAAoL fjn^v only twice; ye /&^i/ is very common 
in Xenophon, with whom it is not much more than a stronger Bit it 
is found in the HieroHt Symposiont Hellenika ii iii 11— v i, Anabant 
(I ix 16, 20, y vii 23, VII vi 15, 41, vii 32) and Cyropaedeick. It occurs six 
times in the Memorabilia (I iv 6, vi 6, iii vi 12, viii 10, ix 6, xi 10), while 
oAAa ik-ffv is found twenty-eight times, ov6e ti.riv four times, and iwX fii^ 
twenty-six times. In the Symposion d\ka fii^v is used four times, 
icai fii^v nine timon, y< iii^v thirteen times. In the Symposion again 
fii^v is found at the end of a question, iii 13; iv 55 iwX r^ fi^v; 
4, 2S aXU infrv iiiivi and 80 in the Cyropaedsia I vi 88 «■«*« fk-fiv; n iill 



XI XENOPHON'S HIERON 85 

iSAAa Ti ^iav /3«vX6^i«Oi; III i 4L aAA«t riva. iii^vi VII iv 10 rivo9 firfv tptxai 
KeXi Yi iii 13 ri /&V ^koiimv; In the third part of the Sellenika, 
Y ii— VII, in the de veetigalibus, the de re equestri, the hipparchiko8, 
the Agetilaos, the Lao, resp, ye fii^v is very common, in the de re 
equettri it is foond as many as forty times, whereas koI /&^v occurs only 
four times, i 7i 9, 11, v 4, ^^e /i^i^ only once, ix 11. But the attempt to 
found independent conclusions on these statistics, exhibiting the fre- 
quency or rarity of the occurrence of f«.i{ v either singly or in combination 
with other particles, as to the date of a particular writing^-as has been 
attempted by Dittenberger {.Hermes YoL xiv) in the case of the Platonic 
dialogues— has been shown by Dr Hartmann iAnalecta Xenophontea 
p. 85— p. 54) to lead to such curious and unsatisfactory results, that 
no reliance can be placed on them. 

27 crxoXiiv— lm|i^t<reai, G. § 261, 1, HA. § 952. 28 tA 
MicaifMi, loca opportuna, * advantageous positions'. Cf. Oecon. 
XX 9. 

§ O L 30 4|airivaCa8: an lonio word, foond several times 
in Xen. lroi|i6Tcpoi sell, e/o-^v. 32 dXXd |i.i]v: iv 1, 

above 1. 26. 35 cIk<(8 so. iarL 

§ 7 1. 35 dTX^T^i&ovas, a poetical word. 36 Std revs 
del iv oirXots ovras, 'because of standing armies*. 37 koI 

clf>i{vi|8: It is difficult to render the force of ic a ^ by any single 
word, but it is generally identical with the emphasis. 
40 oikoi sc. ol fii0'6o4>6poL. KaK^v ov8^ voiovax r6v 

|fcT|8iv dLSiKovvra, G. § 165, § 283, 4, HA. § 1025 a. 
42 K«»Xvov<ri soil. KaKovpyeiy, 43 t«Sv iroXirwv, G. § 177. 

44 dvcC7KT| scil. iarly HA. § 611 a. Sairavav sc. roi>$ 
24iroX£ra$. ■ ^ ro^ovs, viii 9. 45 TJSurra, lihentUsime, 

Y>vv, see note to ii 8. ktri y^Coax rovrmv, *for objects of 
less moment than these*. 



CHAPTER XI 

A despot should also not grudge the employment of his own 
private means for the public service^ hut he ought to consider 
and have at heart the general prosperity rather than his own 
private advantage (§ 1 — § 5). 

His proper field of competition is not with private persons 
hut with the rulers of other states, and the summit of his am- 



86 NOTES ON xi 

bition should he to make his oton the most prosperous. By 
so doing lie will win the gratitude^ sympathy and willing obe- 
dience of his own subjects, and become the object of general 
admiration not only to them but to other communities (§ 6 
-513). 

In conclusion, Simonides urges Hieron to carry out in practice 
the hints he has given^ and assures him that by a wise and 
philanthropic exercise of his power he will find his subjects 
obeying him willingly, and caring for him of their own accord, 
and obtain the finest and most enviable of all acquisitions, 
security, prosperity and happiness unmarred by jealousy (§ 14 
-§ 15). 

§ 1 1. 1 dir6 TMV ISCiitv — Saiiuvav: On the use of dir6 to 
denote the means or instrument see Eiihner on Mem. 
I ii 14, and of. Anab. i i 9 (rrpdrevfia aw^ke^ dirb ro&rtaw rQw 
Xpritijirtav, Pint. Themist. iv 2, 1. 23 iKarhv iw6 rww xPVf*^'*^^ 
iK€lv(av iTron^6ri<raaf rpii^peis, Oeo. iii 1 roin dirb iroXXoO dpyv' 
plov oUias dxpi^TOUs olKodoftoOyras. 2 els rd Koivdv 

dyaB6v: see n. on x 8. 4 cU r6 84ov r^io-^ai: utiliter 

expendi. Anab. i iii 8 (Xeye BappeTv ojs KaraarriaofJbiptav roOrtaw 
eh t6 54ov, i.e. 'since this matter wonld be settled in the 
right way', Arist. Nub. 869 c&nrcp Uepuc\irji els rb 94ov 
&x{A)\e<ra (so. r^s ifipdSas). 5 dvSpl rvpdwy: see note on 

TiiilO. 

§ 2 1. 5 KaO* tv Ikoo^tov, * each point in detail'. Gf. Ages, 
vii.l Ka0* ip fikv iKuaroy fiaxpbv Bm dtrj ypd^w, Dem. de 
Cor. p. 230, 20 ^odXotuu. U Ka$* iv ^Kaarov aubrww i^erdtrai. 
Mid. c. 39 cMrre diivcurdai koS* &a {ffxiov ixaarop dwoarepeof : 
Ka$* iv may either be taken with iKaarov, or adverbially *one 
by one\ Hertlein on Cyr. i vi 22 quotes the following passages 
in which there is no room for doubt: Xen. Hell, i vii 23 
Kpufia-duHrcw ol dvSpes Kardi iva ixaaTov, Lysias 8, 19 koB* 
iva ^KaffTov vfup airois dircx^ij<re<r^c, Demos th. 44, 4 tAj 
fMipTvplas Ka0' iv iKaarov irap4^ofjuu. 6 olKCav irpcSrov 

if: v&repov, when ^ follows in the alternative question, is 
often omitted, Cyr. m i 12. ^ir^paXXov(r|| ScMrdvg, 

'with lavish cost*. 8 k6oiiov dv (tm irop^tiv, * would 



XI 5 XENOPHON'S HIERON 87 

bring you credit*. 9 irapa<rTaoa, columniSy 'pilasters'. 

*irapaaTd8ei (ira/xurrds) were square pilasters, used as a 
termination to the side walls of a temple, when those side 
walls are projected beyond the face of the cella or main body 
of the bnilding. As one of these pilasters is required on each 
side to form a corresponding support, the word is always used 
in the plural [in Eur. Androm. 1122 we have xapaarddos 
KpefjLatrrik rei^xv trouradXojv KaOapirdaasi Ed.]; and thus a temple 
is said to be in antis or iv xapoffrdat (Yitruy. iii ii 2) when 
the porch is formed by the projection of the side walls, ter- 
minated as described by two square pilasters, which have two 
columns between them*. Bich's illustr, Comp, etc, p. 38 b. 
Schneider after Emesti would read iro<rr(£<ri, * porticoes'. 

§ 8 1. 11 liciraYXoraTois, 'most magnificent, awe- 
inspiring', a poet, word, which occurs only in this passage 
in prose. Gobet N. L, p. 549 says vehementer de mendo siis- 
pecta haec scriptura est et perridicula mihi quidem videtur 
esse. Quae sunt enim 6ir\a Seiv&raTa, qiuieso? De armis Xa/i- 
irpdrara out simile quid in tali re recte dicitur, sed nihil 
statuere licet in libris tarn male haMtis et omni mendorum genere 
inquinatis, KaTaKCKoo^T||iiyos=6/ KaraKiKoa fitifiivoi 

cfiyj, G. § 226, 1, HA. § 902. 13 oif<rT|8=€Z etrii <roi 

dative of the possessor, G. § 184, 4, HA. § 768. 

§ 4 1. 14 ra o-d ISta, 'your own private capital'. I 
prefer this the reading of some hss to the ordinary rd <rd 
ttlq,. See above x 5 roli aoU ISLois, cl ivcfryd ^x^^ts, 

*if you were to keep employed, put out to interest*. Of. 
I>em. c. Aphob. 1 p. 815, 15 del kuO* (Kaarov {ffias dKowrai rd 
r* ivcpyik ('productive ') airrw Kcd 6(ra rjv dpyd. 

§ 5 1. 18 dpiiaroTpo^Cav, in definitive apposition to ^xtrij- 
devfiOf HA. § 624 c. The order is: Troriputs BokcTs ivin/j- 
9ev/ia rb voin^bfievov eXvai KdWtffTOv Kal fieyaXoirpe' 
iriffTaTOV irdvTiaVy dpixaTorpo<f>l<iv, av KOfffieiP ae /jlSlWov, 
19 cl a^rrds— ii^iJiirots. On the victories of Hieron in 
the chariot races celebrated by Pindar see Introd. irXctfrra 
Twv 'EXXi^VMv: HA. § 650. 20 dpfiaTa, equos iugales. 



88 NOTES ON xi s 

21 irXcCkrroi |Uv — vXfWroi 8i, eee n. on i 5. 
22 vucav, *to be saperior to others'. 23 iSpcrj, 'exoellenoe*, 
cf. ii2. 

§ 6 1. 24 h(^ |Uy, i 7. 25 ov8^ vpo<rT(icciV rrX., *that 

it is not even becoming for a despot to enter the lists with 
private persons'. 26 vtiwv, i.q. eZ ytx^^^/f* 27 ^6ovot6: 
the (& must be repeated from preceding clause. dv& voXXmv 
otKcty, ^by means of several estates', *from the substance of 
many families', the means being considered as the starting 
point, cf. 1. 1. rds Sairdvas, G. § 141 Note 2. 28 yucrf- 

pcvos, i.q. el plk^o. irdvTMv |&dXio*ra: see note to iii 6. 

25 § 7 1. 30 <Sv (sc. T6\€<ap). 32 ^ Ure, vtKMv, see cr. n. 
33 h dv0p«&iroi8, ' in the world'. Ck>bet would read with 
Schneider and Heindorf ruf h dF^pc^roci as below L 69, Gyr. 
n ii 17 oifbh dtnadrrepov vofd^v tQp ip dpBpdirois eirax roO 
rQp Iffiav t6p re Kaxbp koI t^p dya$bp d^iovaSat^ Agesil. viii 6 
tSLp t6 ip &p0p(b7rois xp^^t Mem. ii iii 14 rdyra rd ip 
&p0p(i>iroii <l>l\Tpa ; but cp. on the other hand Gyr. vn ii 28 ^ 
itpCKovp tiaXurr' dpBpibinap^ Plat. Lys. p. 211 e koX povXolfirjp Sv 
fioi fpOiOP dyadbp yepitrdai fwXKop ^ rbp dpurrop ip &p0p(»>irois 
dprvya r/ dXcKrpvbpa, de legg. i p. 636 E icdXXi<rr' dpOp^irtaPy 
Theaet. p. 148 b dpurra 7' dp$p(bir(ap, 

§ 8 1. 34 cv6vs, *at the very outset'. Karcip7a(r|Uvos &v 

ctT|$ ktX., 'you will have secured at once the love of your 
subjects, which is the very object of your ambition'. 37 ^ 
clvaKT|p^TTo»v : i 15. The allusion is to the proclamation by 
the herald of the victors in the games. 

§ • 1. 38 ircpCpXrirros, see note to vii 2. 41 wapd 

ircuriv, apud omnes. 

§101.41 4{c£t| (Uv— ^Ct| 84: see on 1. 21. 42 fvcKcy 

(ur^oXcCaSi 'so far as security is concerned', 'if security be all'. 
Gyr. Ill ii 30 i^earai ripxp iKcipov ^pcxa irpbs rb iffiirepop 
cvfKpipop -wdvTa Hdeadax, de red. iii 1 drov ia-rip elaopfuaddprat 
dieQs (p€Ka xei/iAci^i'os d)'airai;6(r^a(, Isocr. xv 163 da'4>0LKQs d^ 
i^iap ^P€Kd ye tup cvKo<f>(unwp, The form ^pckcp is . dialectic^ 



XI ,3 XENOPHON'S HIERON 89 

According to Meisterhans {Orammatik der Attischen Inschriften 
p. 103 — 4) in inscriptions from 400 — 300 b.o. the proportion 
of the frequency of ivcKa : ^ycicey=28 : 1. From 200—100 
B.C. llycKa : hf€K€v=4: : 12. OcwpiicovTi i.e. vel ludos 

vel alia OedfiaTa; Anab. v iii 7 d^KvctTat Mcydpv^os els 
*0\vfixLav decjpificrcjyt i.e. liidoe spectaturus. There is a refer- 
ence in this remark to those in i 11, 12, 13. 43 avrov 
fiivovTi TovTo irpdrrciv, *to stay at home and do so\ i.e. ^eo;- 
peTv. avTov = ofico(, domi, lit. 'in the selfsame spot where 
yon are'. 44 twv Povko^mvi there is no fiivj because 
the sentence following has Si Kal *and also'. 45 km- 
SciKv^ai ft tCs rt — t^oK, 'to exhibit whatever he may have (to 
exhibit) that is either ingenious, beautiful, or useful'. d tCs 
Ti=:8i quis quid ie. quodcumque quis ; cf. v i 2. On the 
assimilated optative ^xoi see G. § 23, 5, 1. 

§ 11 1. 47 iras 6 |Uv iropc^v — h 8i dirciv, 'every one 
admitted to your presence would be devoted to your person, 
and every one at a distance would be desirous of seeing you'. 
On the partitive apposition see v i 5. 48 &<rTc, quamobrem, 
marks a strong conclusion as in iv 8. 50 aXX 'dXXois 

irap^ois scil. dv 4>6pov. 

§ 12 I 50 Mvras sc. iretdonivovs, G. § 138 N. 7, 
*your subjects would pay you a voluntary obedience*. 
61 o-ov irpovoovvras, G. § 177. 62 Oc^, present opt. 2nd 
pers. sing, from 0ea(reai» 63 xal irpo6v|iovs 'and that 
too, zealous'. *cai=icoZ TovTaj see Schaefer on Gregor. Cor. 
p. 987 n. 54 itoXXmv |Uv a{io^|Mvos: the fiiv is transposed; 
it belongs properly to d^iot^fiewos. See note on i 9. 65 6t^ 

ssl^ipi, cvpcvct: predicate adjective, * never at a loss for 
some friend to share them with'. 

§ 18 1. 58 <Yc |Jii^v, 'and further'. See n. to x 5. 9r\- 
otivpo{>s, 'fts treasures'. For irXovrovs cp. Plat. Bep. vi p. 
496 A, p. 019 A ^r6 tXoiJtwi' re Kal rCav roio&rtav koxw, p. 618 
B irXo throes Kal xeplaiSf Gorg. p. 523 c yimj xal tXo^tovs, 
26 ^9 dXXd, in exhortations = 'then*. 60 Oappwv, confidenter, 
•without hesitation'. Cf. HA. 968 a, Cyr. ii ii 16 eU toi>$ 
iroXefdovs BappCbv dairai^eu. 61 o'avrf — trfpuCiffci^ 



90 NOTES ON XENOPHON'S UIERON xi 



X3-IS 



♦you will win*, lit. ♦ attach to yourself', ^£ein. u vi 13 ir€/)i- 
d^af Tt dyaOby avry (rj t6Xci), Cyr. i v 9 vofdj^om-es /uydXas 
Tifidis Kal avToTs Ktd rj irdXci irepidrf/eip. But the word is 
generally used in a bad sense with words denoting discredit 
etc., as in Plat. Apol. p. 36 a, al<rx^v^ '^ ir6Xct ireptawreiv, 
Arist. Plut. 690 xoXi/ t^s xevlas irpayfi' alaxf-ov tw^^ aCrrtp 
irepid\l/ai. 62 ktm 8i avrj o-v|i|uixovs : Weiske and Breiten- 
bach think that a sentence is wanting after this to complete 
the parallelism ; the latter suggests (ravrf ydp i^is c^vfifiaxo^' 
Tttj, * for you will thus gain supporters of your own power*. 

§ 14 1. 63 v6|ii|;c oticov, G. § 166. 66 5ti mp, i.q. 

rai/rd d, 'the very thing which*, * the same thing as*; always 
in neuter. So dfo-airep quemadmodum, Cyr. i v 12 vvicTl...6<raT€p 
ol dWoi Tjfiipq. d^PourO* dv XPV^^^* XifUfi dk dcawep 6\f/(fi dia- 
XprjaOCf Hellen. vi i 16 Uavds i<m Kal yvicrl Baairep ^lUpq. 
XprjffdaL^ Ages, vi 6. 66 vucav dS irouSv, * to surpass them 

in acts of beneficence *. 

§ 16 1. 66 Idv Kparjs Toi>s <^CXovs, *if you get firm hold 
(secure the attachment) of your friends*. 67 oiS |ii) 8i>- 
ytavmx, *they will not be able*, G. § 267, HA. § 1032. Dindorf 
and Cobet (p. 667) require dvy^aovrai, on the ground that 
od /jLTi can only be used with future indicative or aorist sub- 
junctive, not with the present subjunctive. But di^vafiou 
and elfd seem to form exceptions to this rule, see G. MT, 
§ 89, 1, § 89, 2 Bem. 2. 68 k(£v for Kal idv, 69 cS 
torOi is inserted in the sentence without grammatical con- 
nexion to denote an assurance, just as dCei is inserted with 
a question, and SokQ, 8oKei pott to denote the thing said as 
conjecture or opinion. Cf. above vii 1, Oecon. x 13 : cv tare 
Hell. V i 14; in V 11; Cobet would read cu tad* drt. tw 

kv dvOpMirots, see note to 1. 33. 70 KCKTif<rfi, 'you 

will become possessed of*. cvSatftovMv ov ^6ovi{<rii, 

♦you will be happy and yet un-envied*. The common reading 
is <f>0wridi/ja-rjy a form of later Greek, which, as Cobet remarks, 
copyists were fond of substituting for the genuine. See above 
ixO. 

END OF EXPLANATORY NOTE8 



CRITICAL APPENDIX 




It is a subject of regret and not a llttb xemarkableg con- 
BideriDg tliG popularity of Xenophon, that we have no very 
anciertt good aiss of bit* works^ of the Ilteron in particular^ : 
the best and earliest is not older than the JLiith Century. 

8mcc the publication of my first oditiou, a freah collation 
of fourteen Msa of the Hkron, made by or for Profeasor C. 



I 



1 Cf, Madvig Adpemarm rritica i p. li-^: 'ouiniutii Xc^iiophontits 
oponuu eodJcf^H fere Ktitia rpcenteji »iuit et in orationi« H seiitetitiariim 
fotiua fkcile currenti tjim^n mendiM nori ila rftro interpolatione t<M!tLa 
dbpravftti^ y&lde aiitiqui «t intt'gritBte auctoritatifqnc^ P^^^^~ 
stantes utilli, ftsi in alils opw^ribiis unuw et altor Taiinns m<!indiormii 
et ill roendis plnra veHtigia vefi habBi", 

' CI. Cobet A'orrwf LBctionea p. Ml sq. 'In nulJo alio libro Xi^rio- 
phontig, si Bempuhlieam Atft^ntfitisriim el Lfjtxt/ti€$nomorftm fxceperis, 
iKTibae peiiiH gr&Mi>mti muiiI qiiaiu iij, If if rone, qui pasaim |>essiiiiifi fxera- 
j&lis corruptiis t>t iifit<?rpolatus in CodicihuH pert'xigiii pretiicircumfertun 
Fieri potest ut nliqugLndo nieliores librt in Italia adhiu^ lttt^»nteJi e^tcuti- 
aiitiir er sic para meodoruio toUatiir. Nunc c(Uftra vinhenif ottr corrtipLa 
tint plcrjquQ et inter l^^iceiiUuiii fHx-tli neii^tio txjf^OBcitm-, 91 quia hoc 
•a^t et qiiam i^ita vt ab Altico nitore et a Xenophontea scribt^iidl re- 
tioBiaie abhorrcant dintnma Atlicomin et Xenophontis lectiune et 
moditationc^ aii^mc^rn et Kentire didicit. Idem animadvertet bonani 
partem mt'iidostiriira lectionuni sic esse conifiiaratajji^ nt Critifortim 
acuminie et iiollertja in integnim restitui neqii**at: non enitn eiriiroAJiir 
ffufjt at leviora vulnera a «tTibaTiira oacitantia, iit fere iit, profecta, 
med ihrovXa sciolonim tcinentate t?t ptuva corrK'torum s«i^ii]itDte prniitus 
inilict*. Intercidemnt gnbindfl oomplura, aha perperaiu adbues^irurit, 
ifltinbcine mnlta nienda huiusinodi u| fraudem iube&ne perspiL-imm (tit, 
^^ qme ait genuiim et «aim aeriptuia, quae ipsa XenopboiitiM manns 
,t| etiam hajrum rerum intelleffentibus evident«r deiiionatrari non 
poaait'. 

Gustavns Sauppe da Xen, vifa et acriptit Ct}iinm. (Opp* Vol. I 
p« ivi)j 'iwfque enim Hatia vet^res (libri iiiami»mpti Xenophontis) 



iM^t boni aunt, dotendumque 
ducibtts contldefv hc«at' 



maiime non estate quibua ut praecipnia 



J 



94 APPENDIX ON THE TEXT 

Schenkl of the University of Vienna, has heen published 
by him^. Two of these are of the xnth cent. viz. : — 

Vaticanus 1335 (A) 
(now restored to the Biblioth^que Nationale Paris, whence it was origi- 
nally removed) 

Marcianus 611 (K) 
(in the Library of St Mark, Venice; originally the property of Cardinal 
Bessario) 
Two are of the xrvth cent. viz. : — 

Vaticanus 1950 (D) 
(copied flrom A before that MS was corrected by a second hand) 

Ambrosianus (Xi) 
(in the Ambrosian Library, Milan, to which it was brought with others 
from Chios in a.d. 1606) 

The rest are as late as the xvth cent. 

Vaticanus 128 (B) 
,, 1384 

Urbinas 93 
Palatinus 143 
Pari sinus 1642 
„ 1643 

2077 
2955 
Marcianus 869 , 

Vindobonensis 87 (P) 
Lipsiensis (O) 

There are in addition to these fifteen mss (of which those 
at Paris, Milan, Venice and Vienna have been collated by Prof. 
Schenkl himself), one at Perugia of the xvth century (once the 
property of the Monastery of St Peter there), another at G e s en a, 
a third at Munich of the same date: of which Schenkl remarks 
*cum omnes saeculo xv sint conscripti, exigua vel, ut rectius 
dioam, nulla sine dubio eorum est fides atque auctoritas*. 

* C. Schenkl de eodicibus quibus in Xenophontis Sierone reeen- 
sendo utimur in the MSlanges Oraux p. Ill— p. 120: 'Xenophontis 
quae dicuntur scripta minora cum omnino fortunam adversam experta 
sint, Ubrariorum socordia ac neglegentia oorrupta, maximam tamen 
traxit labem Ubellus qui inscribitur JSiero, merito a Cobeto dictus ve- 
nustissimus. nam quae sit librorum manuscriptorum quibus nunc 
utimur condicio, llEunle colli^tur iis locis, quos Athenaeus et Stobaeos 
ex hoc opusculo excerptos suis operibus inseruerunt, pearlustratis. qua 
de re cum Cobetus Nov. Led. p. 6417 sqq. luculenter disputaverit, noB 
meum esse puto rem actam agere, quamquam mihi persuasum est <>>be- 
turn in scnptura constituenda mmis oili^nter Athenaei et Stobaei 
secutum esse vestigia* qui quin in exowptis illis baud pauca pro arbitrio 
immutaverint, in primis verborum ordinem et constructionem, omiserint 
multa, alia de suo addiderint, omnino dubitare non licet, quam ob rem 
si cocQcibus ipsis, quibus is libellus nobis traditus est, postbabitis 
Athenaeo et Stobaeo duoibus te committas, verendum esl^ ne ea, quae 
hi intulerunt, amplectaris, germanas autem Xenophontis scriptniaa 
reiejaa*. 



F 



APPENDIX (JN the text 




The above mrr (BettiDg aside H and VL, of which D is 
a tranBcript of A and in of w) Diay be divided into t%vo groupts, 
one ooBtHining 

A B E Q KI. li' = (|> 
the other 

crsiop=z 

as may be proved by a comparison of the resptsctive readingB 
in i 7, 10, 11, 13, 27, 28, Hi; iv 2, 5, 10 j vi 9; vii 4, 6; viii 6; 
ixl, 6; x4. 

Of the HISS comprised under Z those whieh niOBt msemble 
earcb other are r ]a I F ; C and O are very closely connected^ 
both have in iv 9 rd irapairAi^cricii in vii 6 C haa otJrw wiih 
re written under, O hati offre in niargia ; in viii H ^rotpof is 
omitted ; in viii 4 tqv ia omitted ; and in si 12 both have fihvov 

The former group "!> may be divided into two clasBes, in the 
first of which A must be placed ; all the otlierB (which Schenld 
names X) being taken from a ms very like A. K beara most 
resemblance to A; H and !■ ahovv a considerable di^erence from 
it % Jm occupiee a place intermediate between W O and B B X; 
the latter are most divergent from J^ 

All the MSB were apparently tran script ts of a copy, which 
was not very old and full of errors. Jk. most reaemblea this 
copy, bnt sometimes X and Z pre&ent hotter readingB, though 
generally they are more corrupt. Some of these may have 
existed in the common original of all the extant um^ but 
most of the correctionB, no doubtt are traceable to copyists, 
who corjected a few trifling errore, while they left the more 
important untouched. 

We must therc^foro make A the baaia of our text ; whether 
we are lo attribute any weight to the second group (Z) ia ex- 
tremely doubtful. 

Btaides these mss, other aids to criticism are furnished by 
the readings in the extracts in the Vienna sis of Stobaeos 
in his Florilegium xlix ilO — 46=:ch. i 1— ch* vi | 6 with 
sundry oniisaioiiR, and in xlvi 109 = ch, ix § 1 — § 10. 
Athenaeos also haa inserted three passages in his Deipno- 
sophists in p, 121 d, iv p. 144 c and rv p. 171 e 

A HPITIONB AND COMMENTABIEfl 

The editio princeps of Senophon issued from the 
press of P. Qiunta at Piorence a.d. 1516 and was reprinted 
1527; in the interval appeared the Aldine^ Venice a.I). 1525, 
edited by F. Asnlanns; this was followed by one with an Intro- 
duction by P. Melanohthon , Halle 1540, and by another at 
B41e in 1555 with a Latin Translation by Erasma&. 




i 



06 APPENDIX ON THE TEXT 

Tlie editions of Henri Estienne (StephanuB), Paris 1561, 
1581, are much more correct than any of the preceding, and 
form the vulgate. The edition published at BAle in 1569 con- 
tained a Latin version by J. Ldwenklaii (Leunclavius); a 
second edition of this was issued at Frankfurt in 1594, and 
a third in 1596 containing the notes of Aemilius Port us. 

After a long interval followed the edition of £ d ward Wells 
Oxford 1708, with Dodwell* s Chranologia Xenophontea, 5 vols. 
8vo, republished with considerable improvements in the Text 
by C. A. Thieme, Leipzig 1768— 17(^ m 4 vols. 8vo with a pre- 
face by J. A. Emesti and three dissertations by T. Hutchinson; 
the Kditor however did not live to complete the work. 

[The old editions of the Ilieron were based on such uss as 
B B X. Bouchlin used one of the mss that fall under the 
group denoted bv Z. Most of the readings noted by Stephanos 
in the margin of his Edition are taken from IT, as i 7 cf rt, xi 1 
KOKodcufjMifBj^. The various readings of Yilloison were taken 
from 7 H; they contain therefore nothing authoritative.] 

There are also Editions of the entire works by : 
J. 0. Zeunius, Leipzig, 1778—1782, 6 vols. 

B. Weiskc, Leipzig, 1789—1804, 6 vols. 8vo. 

J. Gottlob Schneider, Leipzig, 1806—1815 (reprinted at 
Oxford 1810—1817): ed. 8 Cyropaedeia by F. A. Bornemann, 
Opuscula minora by 0. A. Sanppe, Leipzig, 1888, HeUenica 
1849. 

J. B. Gail, Paris, 1797—1815, 7 vols. 4to (the Greek Text 
with a French version and critical notes by the Editor in the 
7th volume). 

G. H. Schaefer, Leipzig, 1811—1818, 6 vols. 16mo. 

L. Dindorf, Leipzig, 1824, ed. 2, 1880. 

Didot, Script. Grace. Bibl. Paris 1888, ed. 2, 1861. 

The edition in the IHbliotkeca Graeca of Bost-Jaoobs, 
4 vols. 8vo, Gotha 1828—1846. 

G. Sauppe, Leipzig, 1865—1866, 5 vols. 8vo with Ap- 
perulicula containing critical notes on the scripta minora, 
1869. 

0. Schenkl, Berlin, 1876 (Vols, x and u only published, 
neither containing the Hieron). 

There are several separate Editions of the Ilieron by : — 
Johann Beuchlin, Hagenaw 1520 sm. 4to containing 
the Apologia and Agesitaua with the Hieron: praised for its 
accuracy by Stephanus, Dindorf, Frotscher, Sauppe. 

C. H. Frotscher, Leipzig, 1822, 8vo. 
B. Hanow, Halle, 1885, 8vo. 

0. Graff, Leipzig, 1842. 

G. A. Sauppe, Hehnstadt, 1841, 8vo. 



APPENDIX ON THE TEXT 



97 



L. Breitenbach^ Gotha, 1847, 8vo, (forming part of the 
Bihlwlli^ca Graeea edited by JacobH and lk>Bt). 

Some iifieful observationa are given bv J. H. Breiui Id 
SymboLFhUoL IMvet. I p. 167 ff, 2;urieh 1819^ by TL. E. 
Bichtfir de locix qufhuMiiim Ilienmis Xen^phontei^ Liegiiltz 
1837, by N. I. B. Kappttyne Van de Coppello in hiB 
inaugural diaaertation Leydea 1B41 (reviewed by Breitenbach 
in the ZeiUekHft fur die Aiterthufmwissemchaftf 1845 Nr. 70, 
p. 553 — p. 563), hy (J. Frank in his lieview of Broitenbacih'a 
edition ZAW 1848, p. 294— p. 299, and by C. G. Cobet in 
hisA\j|5ae Lectw}ie» p. 547 — p. 5iiK. G. A. Sauppo's Lejrilo- 
ifm Xenophontem or grammatical Index, to the entire works 
is a uaefnl suppIemeDt to Bturz's Ltscicon. 



B. Critical Not^ 



ABEHEVtATIOKS 



Br =Brei ten bach 
Co = Cobet 
I>in(l=L, Dindorf 
Fr ^^Frotscher 
Qa — Hanow 



Sa 

Sch 

Schii 

Stepk 
T 



= ti. Sanppe 

= Sclmefer 

=r Schneider 

= editio Steplianiana 

^ oodiceB onmes 




CHAPTEE 1 



§ I 1. 4 ctSJvoi: Kai efo^jrat Ha vulgo. G im>ia ^ hfm 
— dv ftSftT|v codd.; owotu f-yii Stobaeus: oiroT dv iy<li — 
flBeiTjv Cobetna ^ ex ay natnra e«se ratua et obscuratam big 
particnlam, cum dt^t^ideraretiir a nescio q^uo corrector e, in 
luliennm locum iofiertam. 

§ 1 1. H ^ TUfavi'iiicds Co uum A B r vulgo o T\tpai^yiK6% 
re. Moi IStiitTiK 6s Ha cum C D O I K O P. Sec liiddeli IHtj, 
of Plat, idioms § 237 F where Beveral pafssagea are adduced from 
I'lato, to «how ths irregularity with wliioh the ^ticle la ex- 
presaed and omitted, when it has to be Bupplicd from a pre- 
eeding to a snbBeqaent clause. €f. Skilleto on Thoc, i 10, 4, 

§ 8 L 14 ovxl 0-& cum Btobtitju Co: ^I'x^ f^^^ <^^ Tulgo. 

i I A 1. 28 KOiv^ Ba vulgo: «:a^ #r^£»'^ cum D Br> 

§ 7 L 39 h TCn Suu^pu Frank, Schenkl : ef rtwi 5- 
volgot a ri B. oom Stobaeo Co. fiioit quod \Tilgo legitur 

1^0-^ tntiariKoB omijai aooutUA Cobet um; pios om. Btobaeua, 




98 APPEXDIX ON THE TEXT 

§ 8 1. 40 4v Toto^c — Sio^Apii Tulgo: ip fiiw roiirdt dca- 
4>4poi &p el ToXkaxXdata icri Stobaeofl, nnde Gobetus (p flip 
rdde 8ta^4pot &v coniecit. 

§ 9 1. 48 ctxc cum Stobaeo Weiske Sdm Dind; ^x^^ com 
libris Br Fr. 

3 § 11 1. 56 Miuurt delet Coppello: si quid matandum, 
equidem malim veroa dtdr?;; t^etat delere cum Schenklio. 

60 OcofuirMV IvcKa om. Schn Co. 61 boKel eXpaiYi 
ctvat ita demum retineri potest, si ant boKovpra. scribas et 
mox avpayclptTo.!. ant onm Leonclavio ipda a d{to<9ear«S- 
rara ^o/cet elpai dp0p(jjTots avpayelperat. 

§ 12 I 67 AfM Yulgo: dfia re A (re m^) O X. W. 

§ 18 1. 69 dlXX' dfMi Sa vulgo : dWd Co. Cf. Mem. in iii 
2, xi 4, lY iv 2, 22, Ages, vii 5. 71 dXCva ^c Sa Co: 6\iya 
re yulgo. 73 iroXXatrXdo-ta — 1{[ 50*41 vtugo : ^ om. ZonaraR 

p. 162 c. 

§ 14 1. 77 Tots Ocoiiocri vulgo: ip toTs Oedfiaat malit Co. 

4 83 rifpawov — KaKTfyopcCv Co coll. Plat. Gorg. p. 522 b: 
vulgo Tvpdppov — Karriyopeip: rifpappop B. 

§ 16 1. 87 irdvTcs KaK^voi Aa-i Co coll. Mem. xi ii 9: vulgo 
TdPT€i vdPTa Kaxd poovan xdPTa, quod omittunt libri, 
habet Stobaeus om. irdvTes. 

§ 17 L 98 iadleiv Kai xlveiv B F H (iu quo xal ante 

iadieip) 1 Stobaeus. 

§ 18 1. 103 irKffp ovY ol rCpawoi Co ex Athenaeo (ubi 
tamen o^x uncis inclusit Kaibel) : vulgo rX^v ol ripappou 
Cf. de rep. Lac. v. 6, Dem. 18, 45 koI toiovtopI re irdOot 
ireiropd&TWP drdPTWP, xX^p oOk i<p^ iavToi>s iKdarcop olofUpiop rh 
5€lv6p rj^eiPt 56, 23 pvp di <f>alv€Tai (^ I'aDs) irXiowra irarraxp<re 
tXV oitK €ls 'A^iji'as. 104 o^Scfilap ip rati ioprats iirl- 

doaip ix^^^^^ aifTdp al rpdre^ac Athenaeufi. 

§ 10 1. 107 4kcCvo vulgo: iKcipov, quod Stobaeus haW, 

5 malit Co. Ill n} XP^^H? ^^ iioi^i Y Stob. (r^t ^dov^t 
A sec. Sauppium) : corr. Steph. ii 9 ex Athenaeo. lutovcKxtf 
6 post Castal. Steph. ii: /tecoveicretf A (m^ fietovejcrei 6) oet. 

§ ai 1. 117 ovKovv vulgo: oHkovp Breit. 122 M ti)v 
lavrwv ut inficete et putide repetita damnat Co. 125 (iy- 
XcvK^CTT^ov Zeune alii: dyXvKiffrepov Y. 

§ aa 1. 128 TO^TWV vulgo : roiiroit H. 



APPENDIX ON THE TEXT 99 

§ 28 1. 132 ravra rd 48l(r|iaTa Ynlgo: raOra ^"qr-fifiara 
Stobaeus; raDra k^iafiara Cobetus cum Athenaei cod. 
Marc; ^bic tiara, temere Coppello, et moz iiriKovp-fifMra mA- 
Tult. 133 vocalam ^ ante fiaXatc^f suspectam habet 

Sauppius. Pro |&aXaici|s Stobaeus habet dfut KaKTjn /ti; 5i& 
xa/c^f Athenaeus, unde Kaibel effecit i.-qUq. KaKijs, 134 4ircl 
of Tf i|S4ms MCovrts Athenaeus: iirel eh oX5* iytaye 6ti oi 
ijS^ui iaOlovTCf Sa vulgo. 

§ 24 1. 140 dxapCrav Sa vulgo : 6LXo-pi<^r<av !■ (r m^) D S 
Stob. Par. A ViUoison Steph. 

6 § 25 1. 143 ro>v cfrMV vulgo: roioirtav com. Schenklius: 
oerte tQv roio^rtav debuit. Adnotat idem: Postquam Hiero 
vera esse quae de odoribus Simonides dixerat, concessit, haec 
addit: 'et eiusmodi rerum cui semper genus omne 
suppetit, is nihil earum sumit cum appetentia: ve- 
rum oui quid raro oontigit, is cum gaudio eo frui- 
tur, si quando obvenerit*. 146 iriiitrXoiuvos Zeune 
Dind Sa: i/iwifiirXd/ievoi If Stob. rrpo^v^: Trpoa- 
eiTL^av^ Stob. 

CHAPTER II 

§ 1 1. 5 Pro S^ny Heindorf Plat. Protag. § 100 p. 351 a 
scribi iubet dafiQvt respiciens cap. 1 § 24. 

§ 2 1. 12 trXijdci: etdei v. 4>^(rci coni. Ernesti. Equidem, 
si quid mutandum, irlaTei malim coll. quae Hiero dioit in re- 
sponsione iv 1 de fide servorum. 

§ 4 L 21 ^vcpd codicum om. Ernesti al., et Hesychius 
quidem v. dydrri'irra ezplicat per <f>apepd. In Stobaeo legitur 
OedaaaOai </>av€p<as. 

7 § 6 1. 25 XfXTiO^vab vulgo: oi)5^i' eldivai coni. Jacobs 
Animadv. in Athenaeum p. 189. 

§ 6 1. 31 IXdxurrov Co: i\dxt<rTa vulgo, quod ex seq. 
irXeTtna ortum videtur. 

§ 7 1. 33 cl 1^ |Uv ctprfvi)— 4 tk ir6Xc|i.of Co: el iikv elp'^v'n 
— 6/ Sk ir6\€/ios Sa vulgo: et Stobaeus quidem 6 S^irdXefios 
habet. 

§ 9 1. 44 iroi Heind. Sa Co : rov vulgo. 

§ lO 1. 52 Iv do-^oXcC^ vulgo, quod apud optimos scrip- 
tores reperiri notat Sa; itf da'4>a\€T Co. Cf. Eur. Hec. 981 
ip da^aXti ydp ijd* ipyifda^ Hippol. 785 rd roWi vpdfftrcw oi/K 
iv diTipaXti piw, Iph. T. 762 iy dffipaXei ydp^ HeracU «5f\ V>» 



100 APPENDIX ON THE TEXT 

d<r0 aXet re rri<rV ISpdaeroi x^opit, Plat. legg. p. 892 E KaraXt- 
irbwra vfidi iy aer^aXe? , Dem. de faU. leg. § 152 iy d<r0aXec 
rd irpdyfiaO* iffuv ^<r6<r^cu, § 262 ^wf oSir Ir' h d<r0aXec ^vXd- 

8 ^offBc, 55 or oferai Co. 

§ la 1. 62 6 Iv raSt ir6Xc<ri Beuchlin Dind Sa; airv rats 
ir6X6(ri (6 om.) Y; 6 avvCiv rati x, e coni. Steph. 

§ 14 1. 68 ol kv ToSt ir^Xioa trp^ rds trdXcit Beuchlin 
(intervallo post o2 relicto) Sa: ol (n^vorret T6X6<rc Y. 

§ 16 1. 72 roi>s iroXcfjiCovs primns inolusi. 74 8d{av 
dvaXofJiBdvovo-iv Yulgo: d6^aF XafiBdvovcLv Co coll. Cyr. 
I vi 22, Plat. Politic, p. 290 d, Ear. Hel. 847 xCn olv OavoOtuff 
w<rr€ KoX 56^ay Xa^eTv. 

§ 16 L 79 Ti addidit Co. 

§ 17 1. 82 ctvTiirpdTrovTtts: vulgo ivnir parTOfiiyovs^ 
quod ut foedam barbariem damuat Cobetus N. L. p. 555. 
Bauppius contra oonferri iubet Plutarchum Cam. vit. c. 42 
dvmrpaTTOfiivrii rijs BovXrjs koI rhv Kd/uXXov oiK ifinnp dwo- 
ditrOai r^v apx^Vt et Pelopid. vit. c. 17 rj 5{^y KarairXrfTTdfUPoi 
Tovi avTiTpaTTo/i4vovst ubi tamen Dindoifius Thesaur. dyri- 
TarrofUyrii et oMTiraTTopAvovt coutra Sintenisium reponi vult. 
Adde Dionys. Halio. A, R. vii 51 ivrix pdrretr 0ai \6yoit re 
Kal ipyois, 

9 § 18 1. 90 To^ov <lvcKa> Schn Co: toi^tov vulgo, quod 
cum Keuchlino prorsuB omittere quam cum aliis fyexa addere 
malit Sa. Cf. iii 4 1. 16. Ceterum toOto Frotsoher post Ja- 
cobsium Anim. in Athen. p. 224, qui confert Cyr. vi v 9 6 X^ercu 
ipopepby €tvai...TovTo /idXi<rra ^appetre, Heind. ad Plat. 
Phaedr. p. 228 : quibus locis addi potest Cyr. v v 42 ubi vide 
quae adnotavi. 93 olov Co: vulgo ^v. 

CHAPTER in 

§ 1 1. 1 <&s Emesti Dind Sa: d:; O Z K O: otas Steph: ijs 
Br vulgo. 

§ 2 1. 6 dv irov dirg Co Sa: libri dv tov dirln. Bed 
absentem, non abeuntem, desiderare solemus. 

§ 8 1. 12 viproiVcC: vrjiroiyl Z, 1^7x00^ IT; yrjiroiyd K: 
cet. 

§ 4 1. 17 aiihuCs A (in mg m' a&roii) Z Sa Br: adroU 
vulgo. 

§ 6 1. 19 Td^aed Schn e Stobaeo: dya$d Y. 



APPENDIX ON THE TEXT 101 

10 § 7 1. 25 8i{irov om. A. 

§81. 28 fipifo^it |Uv rois IS. vulgo: et^pi^crets roi)f fi^t/ 
U. StobaeuB 81 (iircicTov6raf 8tobaeug: airtKTovyiK6frai 

vmX^o, 84 Tvpdwovt delet Cobetug. 

§ 9 1. 87 ^iXcCv Stobaeas: libri 0(Xei<r^cu, A omisso Be- 
quente koX: ^XtiaOai [Kal v6/jup awrfvayKaafjiivuv] Stobaeus 
MeinekianuB. 39 xH ^^^^ ^^i XP^^ ^XP^^) ^• 



CHAPTEB IV 

§ S 1. 7 Tov trujTMf ii|p6t Tivas Ixctv vehementer suspecta 
sunt Cobeto, ut quae ct fngeant nee satis ei convenire viaean- 
tar, 'quoniam Ti<rriDf ^x^^'' ®s^ Tivrht eTi^at, neque hoc 
tyraunus expetit ut ipse erga alios servet fidem, Binat airroii 
Turrbs lerrai, sed ut habeat quibus tuto credere poHsit'. 
\) oM o-Croit KaV trorott : oidi atrloit Kal totoU Athenaeus 
Kaibeliauus: oi>Si alroit oOdi totois Stobaeus Meinekianus. 
olht ffirlois KparlffToit Y: aKpaTtffTdroit puritnimU ooni. 
Heind. coll. Piers. Moer. 25. 11 dtroTWO-oo^oc Z Sa: 

droye^effdai AX Athenaeus Stobaeus. 

LI § 6 1. 28 vulgatum verborum ordinem n/iupeiy al T6\etf 
aOroU correxit Woiskius. Schenkelius cum Kichtero aiJrots, 
quod aliquis ad Tifiupeiy s. v. adsoripserit, potius quam cum 
Frotsohero al r^Xeti, quo aegre oaroas, eiciendum esse indioat. 
28 roiovT^v Ti, SchenkeliuH; |K)st Oobetum; toioDto 
Stobaeus Meinekianus; toioOtov A {v post o eras.) X. 

J 6 1. 28 6 Si on) ot<i Cobetus coll. vi 12; vulgo tl Si a^ 
ofet. 88 ifYitratF: ij^iyrat vcl i^7^rac cet. 

S 7 1. 89 Oarr^ ri cum Stobaeo (BSi<r<roif) Zeunius: 
earropY. 

[2 § 1* ^^ Scripturam Stob. MS Paris. a\\& fUvToi xal 
TXovfflovt 6\f^€i ovx ovTws dXlyovs r&y ISiurruv wi Tiyrjras woWodt 
Twv Tvpduvwy probant Heindorf et Schneider. Magis placeret 
quod editus habet dXX& a^V f^o.1 Tiprirat 6\l/€i dXiyovt rQy IdKoruvt 
ToXXoi)f di r&v Tvpdfpuif, nisi eadcm sententia in vulgata inesse 
videretur (Sauppe). 46 o^ ante oUtcjs delent Bremios, 
Breit. 

I 9 1. 67 Tk aocessit e Stobaeo. 

§ lO 1. 08 vo|iCtoi libri praeter Z in quibus legitur KaXot^ 
qua de forma vide llatherford The New Phrynichue p. 442 sq. 



102 APPENDIX ON THE TEXT 

CHAPTEB V 
§ 1 1. 3 KWTfdovs Y; aXic{|Mvt com Stobaeo Go. 

13 § 2 L 9 viriEaipMVTai : ante Schneidemm vwefydpwn-tu 
legebatur. Cf. Plat. Rep. p. 667 b. 

§ 4 1. 28 onryxcUpCi F et K (in mg) , <rvyx*ap€l cet. 

CHAPTER VI 

14 § 2 1. 9 ^8ats re: re om. Z. 11 co6v|fcCat Co dace 
Weiskio: ^^^i/f Schn; /Lie^i^tf-eaif Schenkl. 

§ 8 1. 14 avr^ rov IT et A B Xi (in quibus v ante r eras.) ; 
avTo{n cet.; auroD rod Brodaei lectionem restitoit Zenne. 

§ 4 1. 19 d6trXovs G Sa; ivbrXovi A (p eras.) cet. 



§ 6 1. 22 PfikpBdpoiS 84: vulgatam re ita com Bachio corr. 
Weiske. 26 ^Pmv: tpS^cav re A (in quo re eras.) Z ; 06/3ur 
- yc Bcribendum suspicor. KaTairffirXify|Uvns libn : rtLpawe- 

rXrrYM^Vi cum Stobaeo malit Cobetus, sed vide Cyr. in i 25. 

§ 6 1. 29 o-v|i'nx4>o|Mif>Twv Xvfiavriip e Stobaeo CobetoB 
. . (TVfixapaKoXovOCjv XvfjLetiv Sa vulg. 

15 § O 1. 40 tiiuts Tf ed. i Steph Zeune ; ijfieU re Y. 42 Xa^- 
Xdvoffccv A (in mg m^ rvyxdyofiey) X : rvyx^yofj^cv Z. 

§12 1.54 6 8il(i|X«iKrasStepli: 6 d^ ^i7X(^(raf AX. 

§ 14 1. 65 KarcucaCvciv Go Sa: tcaratcre^vecv libri, quod 

epicorum et tragi6orum esse monuit Cobetus N.L, p. 560. 

Attica habentur atr o kt elv u , &ir4icT€ipaf awiKTopa; Kara- 

1Q Kaivtjf KUT^Kavov , KaraK^Kova. 68 8^ Schn Sa: re 

a^AOKXiW. 

§ 16 1. 79 c£iraXXaTTO|iivovs.* diraWarrbfjieva em. Cob. 



CHAPTER Vn 

§ 2 1. 12 rots Tvpdwois Yulgo Sa: roits Tvpdvvovs Schn 
Hdf Ha Co : scd additi ad rotetF dativi exempla sunt Hell, n 
i 8 airf (ry Ki6p<p) &iravrtbvT€S oi SUuaav 5Ul t^s Kbprtp rhs 
X€tpai, 6 xoLovffi /3a<rtXet fibvoVf Y iii 10 oi^h r(av ducalup 
iroiovv roTi KaTcXriXvOdffiVt Mem. ii iii 13 toOto d4oi or 
irp&repop airbv iKcivip woieiVt Anab. in ii 24 -^/iiv or oW in 
TpuTOLfffievoi TOVT* ivolcLy IV ii 23 wdm-a ixolrjcap roTs d,T<h 
OoMovaiv Saanp vofd^ercu &vdpd<riy dyadoiSt v vii 29, Vil i 2 
{nrurx^c^'To wdyra Toti^aetv a^r<p Ara d4otf REq. fiXtucl ye 




APPENDIX 0^'' THE TEXT 103 

fji^v tTnr<fi apKuv p.oi hoKtl yp<i\l^ai frdvra rAvaifrla. WBieiif, 
Plato ApDl. Socr. c. xvii p. 30 a raOra irotTJtrw ftal ^^j^y Kal 
dcT^, Isae. dc Nioostr. her. § 19 flt r^ t€&v€U}ti fAjjdh' Tutv 
»QfU^fi4vti!ir wof^aai rSrv xpif^^"^^^ auroi? K\itipovofX€i¥ ik^im.. 
The occurrence of oXXoy in the next clause does not affect 
the question whether Tuphnfoit^ or rvp6jfvQit be the right 
rending, because 16 may be attracted into the case of the 
relative ^jfriva, of, Anab. v v 12 a,v6,yKyf tj/mv xal KopirXav Kal 
Ila^\ay6vai Kai dWov 6yTiva hf divvtLfXiBa tffOiovi inmliiTBat^ 
1 iv 15 aXXoi' oOriifos Af Sii^<r&€ oTSa drt ws tf}l\oi reu^etf^S* 
Kirpov, Dem. adv. Lept. § 12Q fcrrat X''^^'^^^^ mTdeat xal <rini' 
ffi¥ SiiZiivai KwL a\\* on, &if ^ovXi^crffe irX^tt Toi/ru*f» 13 Sv- 

TitVOr — Tvyx^dvowcri : Smtic* av Tvyx^vt^^^i'^ requirit Cobetns: 
Tvyx^^^f^^^ ABO, 

I a 1. 15 iiTfl fl'trois y* Bchneidema : irsl ^it ton re Y 
(om, B). Cf, Oecon, vii 6 in-el tA yt afi<pl yuvripa irdw 
KoKQs tfXBf TTfTraidevpLivij^ Anab. i iii 1^ oJ?tc yiip i^^eU in iKtl- 
tuto cTTptLTii^ai iirei ye oiJ ffvveTrAfLe&tt tivT^, Plat. Gorg. § 46 
p, 492 U ixaiPau^Ti ttjk ffttttppocuvrpf — Aid TijJf aiftusy dvoP^pltlv' 
ird ye ah dpxv^ vw^p^fv tj ^a.ai\iii}*f uUffiv tltrtu — Ti^-at<rxiotr 
17 **^^ Kdts lotf (If} ffw^pcwjV'ijr Ti>vroi% rots du$pwirfyis. 19 ip|*^l] 

Co ; ^Mfl^LrJ Y. 

^ 5 L 21> at {tJFQvpyiai ax O: alteram at om. cet. hv6 
T»K ^pov^vmv A (in mg ni^ irtt/hij X; irapA rwtf <ifioploufi4- 

§ 9 1. BO ^MLtriiifv: ipaifiev Diudorf. 

§ © ]. 4i> Koi,vfj MehlerCo: icocir^f vulgo. Jfi lO^Xucrtv 

ol avTot, oJiToi Beuchlin» Krueger: i&iXbfirif^ ol ai/rol o&rot 
13 vulgo : avTol DiTflt Bremi* 47 ot <fv luTroupyrf*'"'**'"'" "^'^l^f^ - 

^ap ifrottpy^<ruiTi maUt SchaeferuB- 

g 11 L 61 ocnrip — iKnJffaTO Sa auctore Madvigio: 6ifir(p 

§ la 1, 63 [koI] Ta^rn Beuchlin: ^f {om. Koi) ravT-jj Y 
(in H /v exponotam), 67 fivriTropao-xot libri: dvTi- 

ird trx^* D'Orville Charit, 217. iSiffprn'trev vulgo quod in 
gdrf<F§p tnotandnm ease ludicat (Jobetun, iUud ratuii noti esse 
XeuophoDteae aetatiB vombulum. Habet tamen Plato Legg. 
p. 808 IV A voui irdi'TWj' §ifjpiutif icrrl fliJarpteraxfipc^TAraToi'" 5i6 S^ 
TtoWois avrd olov p(a\tvo?T ntfi &ei i^efffiet^fiv monente v. d* Her- 
manno Hager in hniuB UheUi receosione In Berliner Fhtlolo- 
ffi$che Woehemchrift No. 24 p. 747* 



• 



i 



104 APPEXDTX ON THE TEXT 

CHAFTEB Vm 

19 § 8 1. 17 IvaiVfvavTMV dtfi^^r^MH v. d. ap. Frotschemm 
Go: ixaiveadpTiav d,fi4>0T4p<ay libri. 

§ 4 1. 21 OcpatrcvinlvTMv — 86vtmv Go pro vnlgatlB dtpa- 
irevffdTuaav — d6T(a<rav. 23 X^H^^ vulgo. 

§ 6 1. 30 t|8u>v in O add. idemqne m' in A (s. t.) B e mera 
coniectura profectum recepit Zeonins, dacem secutus Gastalio- 
nem; xaWlu, quod vulgo recepemnt ex Beuchlini editione^ 
nihili esse statoit Schenkelins. fiaWoy cum Leonolavio et 
Brodaeo Stephanus inseri malnit. 

20 § 1. 41 )UXXo|icv Weiske : fi^Woifxcp Y. 

§ lO 1. 48 ^pT||Ui vulgo : dopv^pdpfffua Lobeok ad Phryn. 
p. 250. 50 la-OTi^ias K: laSrifios A {-Tl/iovt m^) CXiO: 
Ifforlfiovs ceteri. ffutrripLas ex versione Aretini {salutis stute) 
adscivit Zeune. Sohneidero videtur aliquod vocabulum latere 
in vitio aperto. Equidem cum Leundavio legendum puto 
rtfiiis B,ni els rtfids. 



CHAPTER IX 

§ 8 1. 12 dv(£YicT)S Mu^v Y: rbv d. 5, Steph. Zeune. 

21 13 KoXatitv in ora libri adscriptum fuisse suspicatur 
Gobetus pro interpretamento. 

§61.21 iroXkTiKcE Stobaeus; iCbiXvrcird Y. 23 yu6pa9 
A: fio(pa$cet. Stobaeus. 

§ 6 1. 29 4vT^va>s Ht €vr6pias cet. Stobaeus. 

§ 7 1. 30 &p|u»vr6 y dv Z. (7? dp in ras. m') et O (?) 
Stobaeus; bpiidpTb ye A (in mg m' t6 ap) cet.; 6p/iQpTo dp 
(om. 7') oir. 

§ 8 1. 39 &v TQ cUrxo^^^ on»|iirapo|iapToCi| Go : vulgo ai^p 
rg daxoki^ avfATapofiapTol ; sed dativo solo utitur post <rv/u- 
TTopoiiapTcip in aliis locis, sicut in Symp. iv 17, Gyr. via vii 7. 

22 § 10 1. 46 o-vv^6vTt vulgo: cvpcXbpra B. 49 «rd 
o-KoirttvG: tov ffKowctp cet. 51 IvtrcXcCv-Ocu ex Stobaeo 
adscivit Steph 11: iTifi€\€t<r$aiY, 

§ 11 1. 62 lirX iroXXoCs Go: ip woWott vulgo. Vide 
Wayte on Dem. Androt. § 69. 53 vpoTiOR|UiN*v vulgo: 
wpoTiOefiipdfp Go. al oavtCvou Co: Sawdpai vulgo. 



APPENDIX OK THE TEXT 105 

CHAPTEB X 

23 § 4 1. 20 KOKOVfyyoi Tulgo: ira2 KOKovfr^oi Heindorf. 

§ 6 1. 27 T»v lSCfl»v Zeune: rQ>v ISnarQv Y. 

§ 6 1. 32 Iv (TTparcC^ Sa, cf . "vi 9 : iv ffrpanq. Y (rj post 
iv add. A s. v. et K. 

§ 7 1. 35 rds 8^ K (d' om. cet.). 



CHAPTER XI 

24 § 2 1. 6 trpttTOV Yolgo: wdrepov O. 9 trapao-nurt 
vulgo: Ta<rr(i(rc Ernesti Schn G. Dindorf jr/i««. Steph. vi 
391c. 

§ 4 1. 15 tSia O Z O Steph. probante Cobeto; Uiq, vulgo. 

25 § 7 1. 30 <Sv ^v vulgo; u>s 4dv Hdf Schn; t} idv conicit 
Sa. 32 dl l<r€i viKttv libri: quae verbi cTvat cum participle 
coniunctio cum per se non improbabilis sit tum aliis locifl 
defenditur, veluti Anab. iii iii 2 elfd didyuif ; ii ii 13 ; Oecon. 
vii 21, ix 3, [Hell, i vi 32 6ti etri koXQs ix<^^]' Obstat eS, quod 
Cobeto e lacuna [pro eASaifuav itrci, cvKXeiffraroi icet] superesse 
videtur {Sauppe)^ 33 kv <iv6pc»trokS vulgo: r(av iy dvOpd}- 
iro IS Schn Heindorf Co. 

§ O 1. 39 troXXAv insulse abundare vidit Cobetus. 

§10l. 42 irotWe: TouY. Ocwpijo-ovrt vulgo: ^cwpij- 
ffuv ri B et O. 

§ la 1. 53 Kal ante irpodufiovs del. Heind. Co. 57 Idicjy 
post Tiop 9(av add. Y {}.hUav re O) : seclusit primus Schn. 

26 § 16 1. 70 KCKTijo-ii ex Beuchlino et marg. Steph. revocavit 
Schaefer Mel. cr. p. 4: KCKTrifi^vos Zeune: K^Krrjao A; 
K€KTr)ff0ai cet. (O in mg yp. K€KT7jfjk4vos). 71 ^Ooviio^i 
Co: iftewficxi Reuchlinufl; 4>6opri0iia€iY. 



END OF CRITICAL NOTES 



INDEXES 

I ENGLI8H 
11 QRBKK 



INDEX I ENGLISH 



N.B. The references are by Clmpter and Section 



Abstract nouns in plural 1 2, 

1 5, 9 I, 9 II, U 13 
accusative, anticipatory 1 38, 

6 2, 8 2 

— in predicative apposition 
to infinitive 2 8 

— of relative neuter pronoun 
in apposition with a sen- 
tence following i 6, 6 12 

— of noun-phrase in app. to 
the verbal action 9 7 

— quantitative, as measure 
of the degree of the act or 
process 1 21, 10 i 

— of kindred formation {rd- 
Xefiov Tcikefiy) 2 8, 12, 7 12 

— of kindred meaning {Hvyop 
iKOifJua) 6 7 

— (cognate) replaced by neu- 
ter adjective 1 8, 3 2, 7 2, 

7 9, 8 2, 10 4 

adjective, position of, with 
the article, v. s. predicate 

— in apposition to the subject 
instead of the adverb {rlfiia 
TuJXctrat) 1 131 8 5 

— verbal, in riovy vftaxriov 
XfyfilMra 8 9 

adverbial use of cases (roti{) 
79 

adverbs of intensity empha- 
sized by Kol 2 10 

— position of 1 8, 8 8 

— of rest after verbs of mo- 
tion 2 9 



anakoluthon i 6 

answer, afi&rmative and nega- 
tive, forms of I21 

antecedent: v.s. relative 

aorist indie, instead of the 
present 1 3 

— ingressive 6 i 
apposition to the object (rare 

except in the accusative) 
63. « 5. 104,11 13,11 14; 
with xfn)(r0ai and dative 6 3, 

— partitive (instead of a par- 
titive genitive) 3 8, 6 i, 9 i, 
95,11, II, 12 

— to characterize a whole 
sentence 9 7 

— definitive 11 5 

— descriptive, 1 14 

article with generic word 1 1 3, 
18, 2 6, 6 I 

— with adverb 1 12 

— omitted with ovrot when 
the noun is part of the pre- 
dicate 1 23 

— third attributive position 
of 9 6 

— used where in English a 
possessive pronoun 1 15, 17, 

4 2, 4 

— with adverb {t6 wp6a0€i^) 2 
18,83,113 

— generic 8 i 

— with SXosl 5, 2 17, 8 4, 11 3 

— yfith ToiovTOi 10 3 



110 



INDEX I English 



attraction of the Bubject of an 
object-sentence as object 
into the principal sentence, 
where the principal verb is 
one of saying, thinking and 
knowing, 8 2 ; also in sen- 
tences with /A17 after verbs 
denoting apprehension 6 2 

— of the antecedent into re- 
lative clause 6 11, 15 



Causative middle 1 19 
choragus, the office of 9 4 
choruses at festivals 94 
collective noun, transition 

from, to a plural 2 13 
comparative to be supplied 

from correlative clause 10 2 
conditional sentence, double 

2 10; conditional relative 

1 12 
conjunctive after historical 

present 11 1 1 
construction of a clause not 

necessarily affected by ^etv, 

erases : K&Kcipas for xal iKeivas 
6 I ; KoLv for Kal idv 11 15 



Dative of general reference 
1 2, 1 14 

— of cause 1 23, 4 3 

— of possession 1 i 

— ofdegree of difference with 
comparatives 1 19 

— after adverb of likeness 

63 

— after compound verbs G 6 

— ethical 8 2 

— of respect 1 2, 14, 18, 2 2 

— of standard 4 8 

demonstrative pronoun, em- 
phatic repetition of 1 17, 
9 2; after articular infin. 
and preposition 4 5 



different forms of the same 
word in juzta-position 4 6 

E 

Ellipsis of parts of elfd 3 i 

— of ^(rr£ especially in univer- 

sal propositions 81,69 
with dyaddv 8 i 

— ivdyKTj 6 3, 9 10, 10 8 

— d<r<f>d\4s 1 12 

— €^6$ 11,96,107 

— -^51)$ 4 I 

— iideia 4 i 

— p^diop 215 

— o-a^s 8 4 

— </>o^€p6if 1 12 

— XoXeirdv 2 16 

— XCL^cirdtTepov 611 

— of c^(r( 43 

— of substantive (7^) 2 8 ; 
(6Ws) 6 8 (HA. § 622) 

emotion, verbs of, construc- 

ofl5 
epanaphora, instances of 1 5, 
2 2, 15, 3 2, 6 2, 3, 7, 15, 
16, 7 I, 8 7, 11 5, 10 



Festivals and sacrifices, enter- 
tainments given to friends 
after, 8 3 

forms of the same word, dif- 
ferent, in dose proximity 
46 

future middle of some verbs 
used in passive sense 9 9, 

G 

Genitive of the agent after 
verbal substantives 7 6, 8 4 

— with verbs to denote, the 
object aimed at 9 9 

— of enjoyment 1 24 

— of value 6 10, 9 r I 



INDEX I English 



111 



genitive objective, iifdvavan 
roXifiov 2 1 1 

— partitive 1 13, 25, 2 5, 3 3, 
6, 4 8, 9, 6 15 

— with adverb of place, Tdppu 
TpoeXriXj&Ocuri ipvkcucijs 4 4 

— with verbs of ruling 11 

5» 7 

— with iyKpan/jSi dtcpaHjs 6 2 

— predicate after ylyptaBcu 
2i,3 8, 6 13 

— referring to the object of a 
sentence 6 13 

H 
Horses, the keeping of 2 3, 

Us 



Imperative denoting a suppo- 
sition 11 3 

infinitive dependent upon ad- 
jective 4 7 

— attraction of predicate re- 
lating to the subject of the 
infin. when it is object of 
the principal verb 1 9, 2 i, 
8 8; even when detp and 
such verbs are expressed 2 8 

— sometimes predicate in ac- 
cusative (<f|«rri ^pov- 

fUvovt) 2 8, 10 4 

— with Am answering to the 
potential optative of direct 
discourse 1 4, 17 

— with u)s limiting and re- 
stricting 9 10 

— active where other lan- 
guages have the passive 4 

— the articular in the geni- 
tive 4 2, 6 8, 8 I 

— — in the dative 7 3 

— — in the accusative 2 5, 
8 5, 9 10, 11 7 

— — with dmi 4 5, 6 i 



— — with did and ace. 4 
II, 63,77,82 

— — with^ 16, 15 

— — with fjUxP*^ 6 * 

— — with ^4p 4 17 

— — as subject of verb 1 
16, 2 4, 16, 6 4, 7 1 1, 8 1, 9 2, 3 

— indefinite subject of, not 
expressed 10 i 

— of purpose, intent 6 2 

N 

Negation repeated in solenm 
protestations 1 2 

negative answers, various 
modes of expressing 1 21 

neuter (sing.) of the predicate 
adjective with feminine sub- 
stantive 7 12, with mas- 
culine 6 9 

nominative, change of the 
active construction of the 
verb with the dat. or gen. 
into the passive with, e.g. 
dTtarovfAai 4 i, xpoimiTod' 
fiai 6 I 



Object-sentences, the subject 
of, attracted into the prin- 
cipal sentence 8 2 

optative with Am in conditional 
sentences where protasis is 
implied, not expressed (po- 
tential) 1 I, 7, 13, 16, 21, 
2 II, 4 10, 6 13, 14, 11 8, 
9, 10, II, 13 

— forms of 7 7 



Parechesis : <rvi^ 4^/Kf yot 
T)dofUvois 6 t 

participle, circumstantial de- 
noting cause 1 2, 4 6 

— virtual primary predicate 
1 II, 13,2 12, 4 10 



112 



INDEX I English 



X>articiple with article used 
attributively = substantive 1 
15, 35,616,99,118 

— emphasised by 5iA rovro, 
4 6, by ftrctro 7 9 

— causal 11 6 

— concessive 1 13 

— supplementary, with ^hpUr- 
K€tM in indirect discourse 1 
II, 8 8, 7 13; with alff- 
edveffdai 6 i, 7 10; with 
eid^vai 2 9, 10 4; with verbs 
of continuing 2 18, 4 2 ; with 
verbs of emotion 8 5 

— with the object of verbs of 
seeing tovtov irapbvTa. bpw- 
ffip 3 3, 6 15 

— in lieu of protasis 4 i 

— preceded by u;s denoting 
cause 11 6 

— containing leading idea of 
the expression 4 10 

partitive apposition 3 8, 5 i, 
9 I, 11 II 

periphrasis of conjugation : 
(ff€i with present participle 
11 7 dub. 

personal for impersonal con- 
struction tpo^epbs — fi^ — 
xon>(r|7 6 15: Utottos elvcu 
ToieTadai 1 15 

— pronoun used for demon- 
strative 1 17 

pleonasm: ^/uow koI KoKd- 

i^eiM 9 2 
pleonastic use of itpr/ etc. 1 15 
plural, sudden transition from, 

to singular 8 4, 4 2, 6 14, 7 3 

— of abstract nouns 1 2, 5 

— where in English the sin- 
gular 18 

poetical words used by Xeno- 
phon, dyxiTipfuaif 10 7 
dxi^paros 3 4 
d9€WTvy fjuhoi 2 4 
pePpwKiifi 1 24 
yavpwaOat 1 15 
yepalpetM 7 2 



itiifnifUL 8 4 

fKxayXot 1 3 

eif<t>po<rinni 7 4 

Kpvipcuos 10 6 

puaiip&i'ot 4 4 
potential optative, 1 i, 16, 

2ii 
predicate adjective 1 6, 8 

— special use of 1 12, 19, 2 2, 
4, 3 5,48, 86, 10 2, U4, 7, 
12 

— adjective for adverb 1 13, 

35 

— nominative proleptic, 1 18 

— genitive after elyat 1 9 
preposition, to be supplied 

with the relative pronoun 
from the antecedent 1 1 1 
prepositions to denote the 
agent with passive and 
neuter verbs, dir6 4 6, inr6 
2 3, 3 8, wapd 8 4 ; omission 
of, in relative clause 1 11 
proleptic predicate 1 18 
pronoun, demonstrative, used 
as an emphatic repetition 
of (expressed or omitted) 
antecedent 1 17 

— relative, assimilation of, 
to the case of its antece- 
dent 611 

protasis in conditional sen- 
tence contained in oUtw 31 1 
-^ implied 1 i, 13, 16 

— contained in participle, 11 3, 
6 



Belative clause continued by 
demonstrative 6 i 



8 

Sacrifice, feasting after 8 3 
singular, tnuisition from, to 
plural 2 13, 34, 53; and 
from plural to singular 6 14 



INDEX I English 



113 



sleep, cause of, different opin- 
ions on, 1 6 

Bubj unctive with relative words 
and &v 1 14, 10, 2 8, 16, 
3 I, 4 6, 6 1, 8 6, 9, 10 2; 
with temporal conjunctions 
and w 2 18, 3 4, 5 2, 6 11, 

87, 9. » 3 

Fubjuuctive present of di^i^ao-- 
^ai after 01; m^ H 15 



and intensifying adverbs 
and conjunctions 

ovria% 1 I 

/ttdXa 2 3 

irdvu 2 I 

At^v3 8 

li.i\lk 4 4 
transposition for the sake of 
emphasis of words 3 1,44, 

9 7. 10 4 

* tyranny ' in the Greek sense, 
V. Introd. p. xxxix ff. 



Temporal particles used caus- 
ally 8 4, 4 2, 7 3, 87 

'the more — the more', how 
translated in Greek 1 21, 

«4 

transposition of qualifying 



Verb, middle, causative sense 
of,=to get a thing done by 
another 1 19 
verbal adjectives in rkov 8 9 
— substantives, with the geni- 
tive of the agent 8 4 



H.J. 



The References are by Chapter and Section, 

)( indicates *as distinguished from'. 

The numbers affixed to words denote respectively : — 

1 doubtful or suspected words 

2 words that occur only once in Xen. 

3 words that occur only once in Xen. and seldom, if 

ever, in other writers 

4 Ionic words 

6 poetical words 

7 un-dassical words 



INDEX H GREEK 



dydWea-dai with part. 8 5 
dyaurOai )( tfto^eiadai 6 i 
dyeiv Tpbs i-xfipdv 9 i 
dy\evK-fii, a Sicilian word 1 2 1 
dyxtripfjuav^ 10 7 
a56X06s, geniellUSy fimilia, adj. 

followed by gen. 1 22 
ddUus <rv\dv 4 1 1 
dc£ for €KdaTOT€, quotiens res 

fert 7 2 
adXtos* 4 10, 7 12 
o^Xoy: a^Xa irporidivai 9 4, 9 7 
alp€L(r0ai airoVf capere cibiim 

aK-fiparos^ 3 4 
(uot^cii' W rtws 7 I 
&Kov<rfjLat res quae audiiur 1 4 
OKpan}? )( <ro^6s 5 2 
dxpdafia 1 14 
aXK-ij^j fortitudo 9 6 
dXKifxoi* 5 3 

dXXd in quick answers and 
objections 1 8, 9 i 

— with imperatives 11 13 

— preoeded by fUv 1 16 

— &pa 1 13; 7e 2 10 

— otfVt ^ apodosis after idy 
29 

— 7^ Toif in relation to a latent 
feeling in the mind of the 
speaker 1 14 



dXXd ij 5 2 

— fi^vToif denoting transition 
to a new topic 1 24 

— fiivTOL Kni 4 7 

— p.-fiv (Kai) *then again', 
marking a transition to a 
new argument 41,3, 64, 
106 

d\\riKo(f>6voi^ 8 8 

aWos * besides' 2 8; rdXX a as 
a substantive 9 5 ; dXXos &(t- 
Tis in the same case 7 2; 
dXXo TL 1 23 

SXKwi T€ Kal praesertiniy 'es- 
pecially', relates to some 
condition or state of things, 
the existence of which is 
assumed 611 

dXvTos Tp6<rodoi 9 9 

dfia fUv — Kai — 5i 6 4 ; dfia with 
participle 217 

d/u0l ri ix^ip 1 1 2 

ofjuporepa rd fpya utrumque 
munus i.q. utritisqne munus 
1 10 

dv with imperfect indicative 

19 

— with optative (potential) 
where protasis is not ex- 
pressed 1 I, 7, 13, 16, 4 10 

— with infinitive representing^ 
dtf with optative of direct 
discourse 1 3, 8 j, 10 v'*-'^'^> \ 



116 



-ap^cfr^oL 



&¥ repeated in the same clause 
99 

— omitted in second of two 
clauses 7 12, 9 7, 11 6 

— attached to the emphatic 
word in a sentence 9 9 

— with relative and tempo- 
ral words followed hy sub- 
junctive, making them in- 
definite 1 14, 30, 36, 36, 
38, 2 8, j6, 3 I, 4 6, 62, 
10 2 

— anticipated hyperbatically 
with ot/uat and the like 1 3, 
83.103 

— for ^(£v 2 I, 13, 3 2, 5 4, 
8 2, 10 4 

i.vh. T^v x<^pa>'^ * up and down 

the country', 10 5; ovh. 

<rrf>ijja. ?x«»' 7 9 
ajfayK6.^€uf 9 2 
way KtKrriov^ 8 9 
Qafd.yKy\v TpoariBivai rivl 9 4 
opaXafipdveiv d6^av amissam 

gloriam recuperaM 215 
dyaTTTJ^aaew : apeiTTvyfi^vos^ 

= </>ay€p6s 2 3 
dva<rrp4</>€ip : roirro ffiiraXiv 

dpia-TpaTTai inversa est 

ratio 4 5 
dvdpaToSu)57fif illiberalis 6 2 
dpeiriibBoPUi^ 7 10 
dpi/lKoos Tipos 1 14 
op-iip — Sjfdpdnros 2 1,73; ){yvp'!fi 

4 i; dp^p Tijpappos 8 10, 

116; d. dpx(»fy 8 5, 9 3, 11 

I 
&pOp<jnroij IwmineSi 'men in 

general*, 1 2, 22, S i, 7 p, 

8 8, 11 II ; ^p dpdpiJjToii 'm 

the world* 11 7, 15 
dpT^x^ip tipI 11 15 
dPTiirap^X^''^ ^f^/AwJs 7x2 
dpTifrpdrrety dub. 217 
dpTiTdTTcad at I avrcrd^w, 6 7 
dprlTinros )( Mxapis 9 4 
aliod^aros 1 11; rd d^io^ea- 

rSrara 1 11 



dt^ios xoXXoG 24; d^ios irXe£- 
(TTou riv( 4 3 

d^iovp 1 13; oi^/c d^tovp iiolUt 
indignum habere 6 2 ; a^(oO<r- 
dai dapewp 11 12 

aoxXos 6 4 

dTaXXarrfO-^ai kclkov 6 16, 7 11 

dTdpx€(rBai toTs Beds 4 2 

aTftyot (not dirUpcu) tov 3 2 

dwiKTOPa not axefcroi^ica 2 16 

drefcroyt^s not dTCKTOPriKiSfs 8 8 

direxBdyeaB aif exosum esse 8 8 

dTt0-re?(r^ai passive 4 i 

CLTO : 6 drd rwi' dopv</>yp<ap 4>6pos 
10^; drd rtvos d^pcUpeffBcu 
4 6; dT6 ToO ducoiou 4 10; 
dwb t(op taojp 8 2; instru- 
mentum quo quid Jit S 2; 
dwb TUP ISlup KTijfMTWP da- 
xapoy els t6 koip6p dyaOop 11 
i; dirb toWup Ukwp tAj 
dairdpas iroioiifiepot 11 6 

d7ro7CiJ€a'dai 4 2 

dTodrjfMcip pereyrinari 1 1 2 

OTO^cu'erir, occisum esse 2 16; 
10 4 

dT<iiC6((rdat 2 5 

dxoKTelpai for droicre/veie 615; 
dT€icT0p4pau 2 16, 8 8 

dToXat/ety cum gen. rei, *to 
enjoy a taste of *, 1 24 ; dxo- 
XaiDeip dyaBd tipos 7 9 

dTpoipaalaras inrripeTetp ri tipI 
7 2 

d/Kii 13 

dpa with optative and ^^sa 
mild imperative 1 i 

dpya\4os^ 6 4 

dpyeiffBoL neglegi 9 9 

d/9€ri^, boniUis cuituque rei pro- 
pria : d^er^ tmrov 2 *i ; dprH) 
apfiaroi 11 5 

dpi<rros irXi^^ei i.q. iia^p<ap 
dub. 2 2 

d/)fia: apfiara (equos iugales) 
rp44>^ip 11 5 

dpfiaroTpwpla 11 5 

&pX€ffBai: dp^ofial aoi dwb 



ap\tov- 



-ScCTflCVCiV 



117 



tQ¥ fUKpoTOLTunf 82; dp^d- 
fi€¥oi dT6 riyof n incipias 
db aliquo 1 lo, to be trans- 
lated by an adverb * particu- 
larly* 

dpxftfff the official president 
of musical contests, 9 4 

aadcpeiv languerei dadevo^t- 

^ arjSTpv<pi}f/vxrh^ 13 
cur^dXeia: iv a<r0aX6/{t 2 10 
drLfirjTOs^ 9 10 

215 

aMKu, *foT instance*, when 
the first instance that pre- 
sents itself is urged, Fr. 
d^abord. Germ, gleich 2 7 

ai^r<$s 8olu8, * alone* 1 5; ipsCy 
'self* I14, 28,51,97; ol 
airol iideniy * likewise '79; 
for oOrof 1 16, 6 15 

avToO fUveiPy 'to remain at 
home' 11 10 

d</>apl^€iv )( dva<f>alv€LV 8 6 

dif^Uvar. d</>i<rdat rvpavvldo^ 
7 II 

diffoficji^ 7 10 

d4>podiatdi^eadai {de muliere) 3 4 

dipvXa^la 6 4 

ax^ptf , iVt<itcun<2u4f 1 24 

B 

pdppapoi )(lSXXi7i'et 6 5 
Pe^icur/A^pot, vi subactwi 2 12 
ppttJCKCtp^: fitPpaKibs 1 24 



ydp in explanatory affirm- 
ations, especially after de- 
monstrative pronouns and 
adverbs, 3 1, 7, 6 i, 7 12; 
ydip 3i7 7 2; Kal yiip ^ I37 

yavpodadai* iiri tivl 2 15. T?nis 
word (like yavp^aadaL re eq. 
X 16) is properly applied to 
horses bearing themselves 
proudly, prancing, hence it 



expresses the feeling of self- 
complacency and conceit, 
such as pride of birth, of 
outward appearance or suc- 
cessful performance; Plut. 
Coriol. vit. c. 15 ^ Ti v€p iv 
rj TToXet nd\i<rTa yavpoO- 
fievov €^€V€i^, Arat. c. 23 
TTJs ypvxv^ t6 yavpo6fi€vov 
Kal x^^^poy, Eur. Or. 1532 
^avOoli iw' (Spuav ^oarp^xois 
yavpoifievoi 
ye emphasizes a word with- 
out intensifying its meaning, 

I 7, 16, 3 9; 76 firjv, porro, 
*and further', 8 7, 10 5, 7; 

II 13; y4 Toi 1 14, 6 6 
y€paip€iv^ 7 2 

ylypeaOai: rdiyiypofieya 'facts* 

»3 

yiyvJtaKcitf : fyvwKai 7 1 1 
yovv, certe quidem 2 8, 3 3, 

10 8 
71/i'iJ uxor )( dp'/ip v!r 4 i 



daTavdv els rd 84oin-a 8 9; e/s 
TovTovs 10 8; els t6 xocvdv 
dyadov 11 i 

iairdvri', Saxdvai els rd KaO* 
ilfiipau 49; d. els rds rrjs 
ypvxv^ <f>v\aKds 4 9 

Si properly indicates that the 
new clause stands in some 
contrast to what has pre- 
ceded 6 16; ordinarily it is 
used in the continuation of 
a narrative, ie. to show that 
the new fact is not simul- 
taneous, as re would imply; 
it is generally the second 
word in the clause 

8i Kod 'and also* 11 10 

deiPf xpV^f'^f ®^c> ^^ construo- 
tione delitescunt 2 8; r6 
d4ov 11 I 

decfieueip^ 6 14; 9. 9€<[^'^\\ w 



118 



8coTror»;s- 



-€//.7ropos 



SeaTOTTis )( 80OX0S 10 4 

di}: ivravBa bii 2 10; jcal ^^v 

5t7 2 12, 18. V. 8. 7d/), ^^i' 
StJXov 5ri 3 4 
5id: 5t' dTTcx^ci'as yi'yveaBaL )( 

81 A x^P^"^^^ 7. 9 2 ; 5id 0i- 

Xovt/r/as irpciTTeadaL 9 7 ; 5id 

XO-p^Twv cTftti 9 I 
5id7eti' T^y /Stoi' d</>6^<t)S 7 10; 

in trans. SidYctv oOtws 7 10; 

5id7cii' fi€TpLti)s 18; 5id7C(i' 

TOfflois 6 2 ; 5id76ti' ihirXia- 
jj^voi 2 8 

dtatpeti': diyfyrfprai 1 15 

^airoi^eti' 7 1 1 

diaT€\€ip with participle 2 iS 

diaipepdvTcjs with gen. 7 4 

Si5daK€iv x^P^^^ 9 4 

SoKcrv, *to be thought* 25; 
ol boKovvTcs not *men ol' 
reputation' 2 i. See Jebb 
on Soph. Oed. R. 1191 ed. 2 

56^a : 56^av dvaXafi^dveiv 215 

do^d^eiv bpG>v 2 3 

5opv<f>op€iv c. ace. fw^ri instar 
sateUitis 43 

dibprffia^ 84 

B 

^di' — ^di', in same clause 2 10; 

idy—dWd 2 10 
eyyiyvcadal tivl 1 30; Iv rtvt 

10 2 
^77i5s : iyyvTipu 7 4 
iyKaXeiv rf iraTpLoL 5 3 
^^f/aarijs rtvos 5 2 
iyCijfiiv 1 7, 74, 116 
(defffia: idiafiara cibi 1 23 
iO^Xeiv, *to do a thing will- 
ingly' 79 ; ideXififfaii 1 1 
^deXoi;(rfws% 11 12 
iOi^eiu: eldia-fx^voyf t6 9 7 
c^ siquidenit * since ' 2 7, 99 
el after dau^d^ctv 1 6; cl * whe- 
ther' 1 7, 3 I, 82 
e/ Tts for a<rTts 6 2, 11 1 1 



elddvai itaaaiv 6vt€S 2 10; Kal 
TOVT* el 5c lev av uxpeXoiiffAevoi 
10 4 ; o7da dfri 10 2 ; oldd <t€ 
yeyevt^fUvov 1 2 ; oifK old* €1 
1 7 ; cS taOi 6x16 15 ; c5 fo-^t 
without 6ti (mihi crede^prc- 
fecto) 7 10, 11 15 

eUbsl I, 9 6, 107 

elKdrtas 7 4, 10 5 

e^irc^i^: eUova^ 45 

fr^oi : ^K (bi' civat 7 r I ; r^ 6vTi 

7 9 ; fu fffei vlkQv dub. 11 7 
dpyeiv iK Twv lepQv 4 5 
elprfivtj 10 7 

ets, 'in point of, *in respect 
to' 1 2; for iiri * against* of 
hostile action 2 10; eh, 
'on', of expenditure 49, 

8 9, 10 8, 11 1 ; eh rb vaptv 
52 

elarjyeTaOaL dyadov ri 9 10 

(Iff^dpeiv x/wJfMiTa 9 7 

iK of the cause 8 8 ; of the 
source 76, 84; iK tov taov 
85; CK tCov lawv i/TTOVpyq- 
fidruiv 87;^^ 6<f>daXfiClJv yly- 
veadai 16 13; e^ ivavrlas 6 8 

^KoaTOi for iKaarSre rts 1 21 

ixdrepoi 8 3 

^/cctvos, referring forward 1 16, 
18, 82 

^KirayXoi^ 11 3 

iicirXeujs : iKvXea ix^<TL 10 2 ; 
iKvXetfi TapaaKevaafiiyai iop- 
ral 1 18 

iKriveiy 7 12 

^Kcbi' etvai 7 1 1 

iXevdepla 6 i 

iX&jdepos 5 2, )( SoCXos 6 5 

iXXetveip : rd ray UavQv iXXel- 

TTOVTO. 4 8 

ip.TaXiv 4 5 
i/xireipoi etvai rt 1 19 
ifjLTodiiv TIVOS 8 I 
ifjLiroteTv 8 4 
ifiiropia 9 9 
e/MTopeiifiaTa 9 1 1 
(fiTopOi 9 9 



ili^xnrq% ifiyov 



119 



ifufxufi/li 9 lo 

i/Kpj{f€<real 9 8, fr rtPi 7 3, 9 8 ; 
oh Sp iiM/»6y 7 3 

^, 4n', i.e. *by', of the dis- 
tinctive mark by which any- 
thing is recognised, iv toj^- 
Tip aa<t>ii 85; * among', iv 
6jf0p<birois 11 7, 15; iv TO- 
XefjUois ehfai 29; iy da^pa- 
Xelq, 2 10; iv dKiv56v(fi cXvai 
2 10; iv KwdT^Pip ctvai 2 10; 
fw ran €6</>pcUy€ffd(u 1 16; 
diiiyov iv (rvfiToaloii 6 2 ; 
*in respect to* 1 7, 8, 2 2; 
iv TLVi iidov^ ^f'*' 2 15; 
iv dXiyt^ XP^^ 1 '3* * n; 
i¥ 5tX(ks e&ai 2 1 3, 10 6 

ivavrioi : i^ ivavrla^ 6 8 

ivbeifi : ivSceffrdpoii 6 4 ; ivdcuii 
Tt TToieti' 9 2, 4 

&5c(a 4 10 

^i^d^erac Zicef 4 9 

iv4dpq. bfiolui 6 3 

evetval rivt inesse 6 6 

fycKitf Tivoi qvu)d attinet arf, 
9 lianfum sifuTfi es^ tn — ^h.e. 
si nihil opus est nisi: (vcKty 
dffipaXelas i^eari 11 10 

hepyoi, * employed* 9 8; * pro- 
ductive* 11 4 

iv$aT€p i. q. ^ oTs 2 4 

ivvoeiv 8 1 ; iw6ri(rov 9 1 r 

iwopay 6 3 

ivrbytai 9 6 

^$d7eo"dai, 'to elicit* 9 11 

i^arlffraa-Bai 7 5 

i^aTlpcuoi^ 10 7 

i^apKcTv, in personal ccmstruc- 
tion 7 12 

i^Tpax licere 6 14 

^^efiy liceret 11 10 

i^epydl^cffdai 9 2 ; r^v Tiyr koX- 
Xtirra i^epyaj^ofxivois 9 7 

i^€vplaK€iv 9 9 

^Iticveur^at (vtm habere, valere) 
els e^pofp^vrfv 8 3 

i^opfiouff impellere 9 10; ^$o/>- 
fjLaaOaut exire 8 9 



i^vffla 6 2 

^^w, praeter, * without*, •ex- 
cept' 1 7 ; cac^ra, ?^w ttjs iwi- 
Kparelas yhKovrai 613 

^cuveTv 7 9, 8 3, 9 8 

iwaiyos 7 33 

^ircf, * for* 34; hrei-yeli 

iT€i5dy 2 9, 8 7 

ixelirtp 7 4 

iireiTa d4 4 10, without 5^ 2 1 1 ; 
with principal verb after 
participle =propterea 7 9 

ciri fieloai, ob res minoris mo- 
menti 10 8; with dat. and 
verbs of emotioo, irl run 
yjdeffOau, XinreTadai 1 5, 2 13; 
yavpovaBoL 2 15; auvifieadaL 
3 2 ; auyxo^P^'-v 11 12 ; iirl ri 
^diov Uvai 1 2 [ 

iTTLpovXeTjeaOai (pass.) 7 10 

^idciKviJvai 11 10; ividelKw- 
aOax 1 1 3 

iTidi56paiy incretiienta capere 

97 
iTcidoaiv ix^iv 1 18 
iviOv/Mfiv 10 7 
iTidij/jLTifia, desideratum 47 
^«-^icat/>os 11 8, 10; rd firlKaipa, 

loca opportuna 10 5 
iTiKpaTeia, potestas, ditio 613 
brCKadiffdaL 6 2 
erifiiXeia 9 2 ; ^rc/uAetac studia 

9 I, II 
iirifieXeTaBai 10 5 
iTifieXrfriov 9 i 
^TTtvoetv, ill animum inducere 

22 

iTTurK^iTTea'Oai : iirlaKexpai 3 6 
^iruricoT6?v 8 2 
iTLffT^^iaii dpurros 2 2 
iiriTcXeiffdat 9 10 
iTiTifldevfia 11 5 
hnrpiireiv : iriTpeirriov 8 9 
iTcixapis, iueundtis 9 5 
€Tn\l/c65€<r0<U riy aliquid men- 

tiendo adder e 2 16 
ipydrrii 6 10, 10 5 
l'/)70i', wfmii* 1 10; ^p70i' xot- 



120 



ipif/ua- 



-OavfLaitaOoL 



tiaBojL seq. n vel infinitiyo 
cnm vel sine articolo 9 lo; 
ipya ZovKelas 7 8 

^/M7/4io)(«xXM64 

ippca/jjyufs 9 7 

ipvfia 2 10 

ipfOTLKds : ipwriKilnara tx^iy 1 2 1 

h-aXpoi 3 7, 6 3, 11 14 

in fiaWow, * still more* 2 18; 
in deiv&rtpa 6 8 ; #ri d^, 'and 
moreover' 8 10 

iroifwi 10 7 

eti tmcav 11 7 

eOdaifioveiv 6 3, 11 15 

eiSaifutpia 11 5 

eifdcu/iopas 7 ID 

cOdaiiMav: eitSaifjuovtaT&Tijv 11 7 

evepyeala 7 9 

cOtpyeretp 7 9 

€V€T7ipLa proventus 6 4 

eOOvfdai oblectamentum in epu- 
lis 6 2, 11 7 

e^^i^s, statinif dub. interdum 
confirmat, indicans id quod 
statim ut yerum se com- 
mendat 2 8, 9 4 

eifXapo^fACPOs 615 

eifxeyj/ji benevolus 11 12 

eiivoia irapd nvos 6 3 

ciJo7rMa3 9 6 

eiteirXof 5 3, 11 3 

€bpL<fKc<rOaL 9 10 

ei^ra^^a 9 6 

€v<t>paiveLP 8 3 ; ei><f>paiv€<rOcLi. iy 

Tin 1 17; dTTO Ttl'OJ 4 6 

€u</>pocr^rj^ 1 18, 74; ^ ei)0po- 
(r6yrj T^s ^Xiridoi 1 18; «i>- 
</>po<T6vai 1 2, 6 I 

ifpUrTatrdoi iiri nvi: ifpean/jKa- 
<nv 95 

^0odos 10 6 

^cti' >vith adverb *to be cir- 
cumstanced % * to be so and 
so', ojJx ourws ^et 1 8, 4 6; 
ixti» d^i5/uw5 irp6s rt 8 i ; 
iX^^v ipwiKtas rtvoi 1 21; 
^civ TKTTws 4 2; ^x"'' 
d>i0£ n 1 1 2 ; ^x^u' iTldoair 



1 18; ^x^(^ Tpayfiara 7 2; 
^€tj» Tiyd drd 0t6/ui 7 9; 
ixtiy posse objective 81,7 
iX^pa9 I 



^fuovv 9 2 
f#or7 3 



17 inteiTogandi particula 1 21 
17 in a question without ir6- 

repoy preceding 11 2 
i7*orelse' = frWAiiJ4ii 
TiyeTaSai : riyrjira/ieMoi 7 9 
ijdecOm iiri rofi )( ax^caOat 1 4 

— with dative 6 3, 7 3 

— with participle 5 3 
ijdicjs libenter 1 8, 3 2, 6 3, 4 
ridrj^ 10 4 ; rjdyf Tore 6 7 ; toOto 

rjdrf (lain per se, utique) 1 

36 ; ovTOL TJdrj 7 3 
i^dtoi' libentitis 1 17, 18, 8 5 

dub. 
ydurra libentissime 82, 10 8 
ijSiJs: TOMTiav rwv ifiiiav 6 6; 

it^thv rt 1 21 
yiXLKidmji aequalis 6 2 
'^Kiara minivie 9 7 
^Aua-i/s: a2 iifdffeiai xapt^cs 8 4 
ijavxiCL 6 2 
^oj' mintt« 9 8 
^rwi' : rJTTovs 4 6 



e 

da/coj 7 7 

^a\fa2 6 2 

OdXTOi aestus: 6dXin) 1 5 

BappaXitos 6 9 

Oappeiv 2 11; ^i^cicd rtyos 2 18; 

dappwv conjidenter 11 1 3 
^dppos 10 5 

OoLTTov 9 7 ; Oarrbv n citius 4 7 
Bav/idl^effdtu (pass.): Bavpidtoio 

116 



OavfiaoToq- 



-Karaxpiv€iv 



121 



$av/JM<rr6s 11 9; BavfuurrSy, el 

16 
BiafMi T(Mt did r^ S^/zeus 0» 

lio 
dewrBai. 7 9, 8 5 ; dej^o 11 11 
Ocpavda : depareuu 8 4 
SepaTevffoyTwv for BepaTewrd- 

Tiocav 8 4 
Bepdiriov 4 i 
BepurHft^ 6 10 
BecjpcTv 11 10 
Brjcavpol 11 1 3 
^ai' : ^(^<ras 8 3 



fdtos : rois troiS /^ocf (^/>Yclrait) 
10 5 ; rd <rd f dia 11 4 ; tQv 
lilioif iTifie'KaffBai 10 5 ; dird 
Ttav L KT7ifAdT<av 10 I 

Idnarela )^rA ApX^^" 8 i 

/^twrcueu'^ )( dpxci-i^ 8 5 

Ididnris )( &(ricijHfi 4 6; *a pri- 
vate person* )( *an official' 
12,18,83; )(riJpavyos4 8,9, 
6 I, 7 2, 11 6; )( t6X(S U 9 

/5t<irr(/cot )( Tvpa¥¥iK6s 1 1 

Upai : tBi St/j porro 8 3 

Uopos c infin. 7 9, 10 5 ; I. 
Avqpt dives ac potens 1 9 ; 
rdt. 4 8; L ^vx<^s 7 13 

Imrucif 9 6 

ZTX(ic6r 9 1 1 

Xttos 10 2 

lTTroTpo4>€iv e coniect. Cobeti 

115 

fo-^i : V. 8. eldiyai 

tffoil ix Tov taou e&oi 8 5; rd 

tira 8 4 
IffOTifda dub. 8 10 
Iffrdvai : ek6vas laraffw 4 5 
/<rxup6r: /. dKpoTdXtup 4 7 

K 

KaBap€(f€t»^ 4 4 

iccU at9ti« a<2eo 6 6 ; prefixed to 
interrogative pronouns and 



particles 1 i, ic, 7 11 ; em- 
phasizes adverbs of inten- 
sitj when prefixed to them, 
KtiX /laXurra vel maxime 2 10 ; 
KoX ToM 87; Kol — 76 adeo, 
*yes and* 1 17, 22, 3 8, 6 
16, 8 9, 9 7, 10; Kal — 54 in- 
super 45, 6 14; Kal ydp 
etenim^ *for in fact' 11 i; 
Kol fjih 81/j *and further' 2 
12; Kol fi^/jy — ye 'moreover* 
98; Kol ovTos et is, isque, 
formula quae inferendae rei 
inservit, quae id quod iam 
dictum est augeat atque 
acuat I9, 22, 7 8; koI rav- 
ra idque, et quidem, *and 
that too * 1 9, 7 8 dub. 

Ktupbi rdxovi 8 9 

KdxeLpai for Kcd ixetifai 6 i 

KaKrjyopeiv ripa coni. Cobeti 
pro vulg. KarrfyopeTv 1 14 

KCUcodoufutveTv^ 2 4 

KOKlofoxn coni. Cobeti 1 15 

KOKoOv : KaKioaai. 2 2 

KaKovpyeTv 10 8 

KaKovpyia 9 8 

KOKoOpyoi 43, 10 4 

KoKkutTl^iPi (pass.) ice icaXX 01- 
TifffiivTiy 11 2 

KoXdyTipulcrum quiddam 2 16; 
KoXKlwa 8 5; roif xaXots 
ird7a^o<t 10 3 ; irdXXiov 11 5 

KOfwetf aegrotare 8 4 

/cdi' i. q. Kcd idM 11 15 

Kara in distribution : irard Xo- 
Xovs 9 5 ; Kar^ dypovi, icord 
Kw/ias 9 7 ; ica(^' A' singula- 
tim, *one by one*; Kard 
avfupopdv 3 4; irar* 6<pBa\- 
fioOs 1 r4 

KaTa76Xcurdou : Karaye\<}o 11 6 

KaraBeoffBat eonsiderare 3 i 

iraraico^i^etv 6 14; KariKOMe 7 
12 

KaraKOff/xeiv 11 3 

KaraKpiveufl KaraKeKpifiiwos 
droByi/jaKeiM 7 10 



122 



KaTajcr€iv€Lv- 



'/jLcyaXuvca-Oai 



KaraKTelyeiv onolassioal in 
prose for KaraKaipeiv T 12 

KaTaKeiireaOai (pabs.) 6 2 

KaTafULvdoMeuf z KaTafiefia' 
OrjK^yai I4 

KaTafjJfi<t>€a0aif cum accus. *to 
complain of ' 8 6 

Karavoeip: Karayevin/jKai 1 22 

KaruT'K'fyrTcaOai : yf^vxfjs vir6 (f>6- 
fiii)P KaTawcTXrfyfjJprii 6 5 
dab. 

KaTOffKevd^eof : (pass. ) Kara- 
(FK€vd^(T6aL TLVL 2 2, 11 
2 

KoraTLOivaL: KaraOiaOau onus 
deponere 7 13 

Karcpyd^cffdau. 2 2; Karcpyd- 
aa<r$ai 4 7 ; Kareipyaajiidvoi 
118 

KoifiaffOai Uttvov 6 7. The verb 
means properly *to take 
up a position conducive to 
sleep ' * to lie down' (Hom. 
Od. XX. i). Hence it is 
often found with ihrvov as 
its object, as in Hom. H. 
XI 214 (5s 6 ^ih avdi veauiv 
Kotfii^aaro xa^cov iivvoVy 
Hippocr. Epid. 2, 10 toutl 
TrXeiiTTOiaL -fj ^apit Ku)/xa xa- 
pcfTrero, 17 iJ-t-Kpobi koX Xct- 
roi>$ vTvovt Koi/j.a<rdai 

Koufy, adverb, una 1 5 ; publice 

19 

KoXd^eiv 9 2 

KoXaar^ov 8 9 

Kdpos 11 9 

Koafieiy 11 5 

KOfffios 2 23, 5 I, 6 

KparcXv Tiva c5 toiovv 11 15 

Kpelrruv 7 7 

Kpipeip Tipl *to judge by a 

thing', I17, 4 8 
KpvipOLOi^ 10 6 
KToiadai: ktQ 11 12; iKTj^aaro 

7 II 
KT^Aia: K-rfifiara. 4 5, 6 15 
KTiivri^ rdi pecora 10 5 



KTTjffdfJLepos 10 I ; KdcHjaec 11 
15; KCKTTjfjJpoi, 6, 6 16 

KcaXvei impers. with ri or oi>- 
JA* : W KutXvci TrepoUpcffBax 9 5 

icwXur^ov^ 89 

A 

Xayxou^fty deiwpou xal fiirpov 6 9 

XafA^aveiP dd^ap 2 15; XoSup 

diri^ai *to go away with' 

Xai'dai'6tv, followed by relative 
clause 3 2; Xapddpei rufh. 
irepl ripos 2 5 

Xifi-fjp 4 7 

Xoidopeip 9 2 

\o($o/>£a^ 1 14 

Xoxos : icard Xoxoi/f 9 5 

XvfiapHip^ cwruptor for Xv- 
IMPT-fi^ 3 3, 6 6. (Xenophon 
was fond of the forms in 
'Tqp as OepaTrevT-fip for depa- 
TcuTTis Cyr. vn v 65, ^pfiuxr- 
riip for dpfjuoarfis Hell, iv 
viii 39, doTi/ipt diroSeKT-fip 
Cyr. vni i 9, iviraK-Hip Cyr. 
II iii 4: see Butherford's 
New Fhrynichus p. 59, p. 

165) 
Xvireip 6 16; Xinreiadal ripi 46; 

^Trf TiPi 1 5 
Xi/in7p6s 6 6, 8 
XvaiTcXeip 713 
Xi/o-ircXi^s 9 II 

M 

IJ.aKapl^€ip 7 10 

fiaKapidrrarop KTrjixa 11 1 5 

/iaXa transposed 23; od |xaXa 
ix^tp dfKpi Ti I12; /LiaXXov 
omissa re comparata 1 6 ; 
to be understood from the 
correlative clauso 10 2 ; fid- 
Xiara irdpTdiP 3 6, 6 13, 116 

fiapTVpetv 9 3 

fieyaXoirpe'jn^s 11 5, 7 

fieyaXvpeffOou iiri tipl gloriari 
217 



iLie-q- 



-oticenys 



123 



IJiA9ri 6 II 

fiei^oy dijvaffdcu 8 2 
/uiwcKTciVf constmotion of, 
1 II, 14, 18, 19,21, 36, 4i; 

llCiOV€KT€lV tQ>V IZliOTWV * tO 

have less (in regard to i.e.) 
than priyate persons' 1 18 

/i€iow elevare 217 

fieibov: iieiovis * fewer* 2 17; 
fjLciia 1 8 

fUXeiPi fUXei tipI irepi twos 
9 10 

/UWeiy : €lfU\\o/M€f si volumtu, 
*if we mean' 89 

fUy — dXX<£ 2 2, 6 9; ofia fUv — 
KoL — U 614; iJuh ye certe 
quidem In, 89; fxiv — ^ 
not always subjoined to the 
words opposed 1 9, 3 8; fiiv 
— fUvToi 81, 9 I ; flip soli- 
tarium, without any adver- 
sative copula, iy<a tUv 1 7, 
3 7, 11 6; fjuiv omitted when 
Zk KoU follows 11 10 ; flip difi 
in introducing a subject 
1 4 ; in concludiog a subject 
1 16, 2 14, 18; oiJ fxip Jt; 
nequaquam 3 3 ; flip oOp in 
replies 1 21, 22, 10 2; fUp — 
fUpTOL 'although — ^yet' 8 i; 
oihe aO oUtc dfXXos flip d^ 
o^dds 7 1 1 

fiipcip adrov 11 16 

fierdi t66ov 1 25 ; fierd. X^P^^ 

fieradi56pai 11 12 

fieHxeiPf construction of 2 6, 
4i 

fierfiius Sidyetp 18; fi. diai- 
ToLffdai 1 19 

fUxP*- To&rov hactemiSy hue- 
usque, *thus far' I7, 2 14; 
fi^xpi Tov iinXadiaBai 6 2 

fi'fl in temporal sentences with 
indefinite antecedent 1 12; 
fi^ 6ti — 6X\d 8 5 ; with par- 
ticiple and article 10 8 ; in 
sentences denoting ' precau- 



tion', * suspicion *=*lest' 2 

8, 4 2, 6 2, 7 10, 9 II, 11 12 
fiiip, history of the particle 10 

5; ye fi-fip^ 7, 105,8, 11 rs 
p-rixo^^BoA 4 10, 6 I ; cl fiefiri- 

XOJ^fJ^os €tr}s 11 ^ 
fitixcLP^/^ara, ' dainties ' 1 2 2 
fuaiipopoi^ 4 10 
fUKpdp : fi. aBXa 9 11 
fuffeip 7 7: PASS. 10 I 
fiiaOoi : fitaOov gen. pret. 6 to 
fua$o<f>6poi. 8 10, 10 I, 3, 4 
fi6pai Lacedaemoniorum 9 5 

N 

pal M Ala 1 13, 6 10, 10 2 

p^AiaSS 

PTfiroipei^ 33 (In an inscrip- 
tion at Thasos of the middle 
of the 5th century B.C. we 
find the form dycovtre/, which 
must be recognised as the 
proper form against the 
testimony of ApoUonius de 
adv. p. 571, 4 and Herodian 
TTcpl dixp^^<^^ V- 374* See 
Roberts' Introd. to Greek 
Epigraphy, p. 60. ) 

piKap 11 5, 6; p, iroXiJ magnam 
et certain victoriam repor- 
tare 2 16; pikcLv ripa ev 
Toi(op 11 14, 2 16 

pofiii^eip 6 12; with double 
meaning in the same clause, 
lege sancire and putare 3 3 ; 
pofiLffais 611; POfJUffaPTes 7 9 ; 
pofu^6fi€POL 7 3 

pvp : rb pvp 8 I 

p6^ : Kal p{>KTa Kal ijfiipap 7 10 



6 ip rats TSXeai civis, where 
ol ip rots ir^Xeat cives might 
be expected 2 12 

of/cadc 2 9 

ouceTos : oIkcTop dyadop 7 9 

oLKirrfs 4 7 



124 



Kcvofcty 



oUia 2 lo, 4 7 

ofirot 1 1 2 

ohcot 11 14 

o2bf 6 8 

6\€0potf mortis itutar 49 • 

8\ot, poftition in reference to 

the def. article 1 5, 2 17, 8 4 
6fju\eTif 6 3 
6fu\la 4 I 

6fioios : rd. 6. Toiunrtv 8 1 
6fioUat 8 4; 6. &rayra 616; irtiyra 

6^bif 731; dfioUn (aeque 

ac) hiipq. </>v\dTTOfiax 63; 

6/ioiufs iiiv — bfJLoiwt 8i tarn 

— quam 10 5 
dpUnfffu : dwTJaai 2 2 

6ir\l^€iv'. u}ir\ifffiivoi 2 8; w- 

irXurfAdyovi 6 4 
SttXov : iy ^rXoit etvai 2 13, 10 7 
iirXo^pos 2 8 
6iroi 9 7 
^^e guan^cunkj'ue 9 7; 

qiuindoquidem 8 7 
^^c 7c 4 a 
Ihrov 2 16; ^TTOi; oiJ — 6xov fxifi 

I12, 2 16 
^TTws c. indie, praes. for 8ri 

after oiJ \^7w 9 i 
6pfsi parenthetical 1 16 
dpiyeadod riyos 7 i, 3, 97 
6pfJLa<r$ai 9 7 
^cr/xa^ 1 24 
tfs gui; d ^^i^Xb^cras 6 12; 6 (rj> 

ore(46 
6<roti Strip — roffo&rip, with the 

comparative in one member 

only of a bimembral sen- 
tence 10 2 
6<rTti: 8t(p 11 12; Sri vepy i.q. 

Tot/Tb 11 14 ; hruivv 1 13 
oil pleonastice 1 18 
01^ fuvf with present subj. 11 

15; oj> /LidXa 1 12 ; oiJk-- -dXXd 

non tarn — quam 8 10; oit pub. 

rbv Aia — oiJ fiiy odv 1 2 1 
oiJW, ne-quidem *not even* 

6 2, 4; tffiani non, *not 



either', *no more' 8 3, 4 6, 

6 2, 6 1 2 ; oOS4—y€^ * no nor', 
•nor yet* 47 

cdddti cMp neqtutquam 1 23, 
10 i; 96^ TL, *not one 
bit' 23; odi^ Tt /taXXw 2 
18; a68hf riTTOv 84, 61; 
<M€96i nullitu rei 10 3 

odxiri, mm item, non aeqtie 
1 16, 2 14 

oitKWV 1 21, 9 6 

o9r resomptive 10 4 

ovrof emphatic, with demon- 
strative reference to rela- 
tive clanse preceding 1 17, 
21, 4 6, 7 3 ; for roiovrot 8 5 ; 
KoX o^ot 2 2, 7 8; Sik rovro 
emphasizing]; a preceding 
participle 46;^ raOra * for 
this reason ', 8 3, cf. 6 1 2 ; xal 
ravra 'and that too', 1 9, 

7 8 ; ra&T'o hoe nomine 7 12 
c0r(us serving as protasis in a 

conditional clause 1 3 ; with 
demonstrative reference to 
preceding (!;s 7 10; o0ra»s 
separated from its adjective 
1 I ; ot^ois — wj tantcypere — 
quantopere 4 8, 6 t i ; oUrcfs 
transposed 1 i ; olh-ai utqtie 
(ideo, tantopere 2 16, 17 

60daX/i6s: i^ 6<f>0a\puop rivot 
ylyyeaOai 613 

^XXot )( ipiffda 6 4 

n 

ir&dTjfia 6 2 

Tavfiyvpis 1 1 1 , 11 5, 10 

xdyroOey 6 8 

Tdyv 9 I ; xduv pLkv odp in 
answers 1 21, 22 

irapb. ira<TLv apud omnes 11 10 ; 
TOi>s irapb, roTs <f>CKoLS irXoiJ- 
Tow 11 13 ; irapb, <pi<nv 1 22 

irapdSeiypLa 8 2 

TapaTrXi/frreadau^ 6 5 dub. 

Tapa<rK€vd^€w effieere^ reddere, 



-TTpty ai' 



with predicate ace. 63; Ik- 

wapartBivat apponere: irctpa- 
ridt<fBm (paasive) 1 17, 121 
(middle) albi apponi tuber e 1 

irapaxt^pdv 68od riyi 7 i» 7,, 9 
irapexfii* pmestare : irapaerxet*' 
oi^fXi^juaTa 10 4 ; Qtippoi 10 
5; dtr^Xfmi^ 10 5; trxoAV 
10 5 j If (iu/tDv 11 1 ; 4*^§av 
aXXotr 11 1 1 J facere with 
prtni. aec,» vap^x^"-^ '^^^^ 
TriXiy €i'5>atpmi'€{XTdT!}y 11 7 

trapao'T^ S 9 
Tttf : wdvruff ^Xt<rT<«i6, 6 13, 

116 
warpis 11 1 4 j al irarptSts 4 3» 4, 

ircfiw » Te^ ){ ffard ^dXaTTCu' S 9 

ird^etrtfat 11 1 1 

TteLpdff&cu (iLED.), ir«/>uj 11 15* 
TTtTTctpafjiitfoi exjiertim 1 j, 3 6 

irivift {cut quideni nihil nuper' 
est sed Uimen auppctit luid^ 
vivat Aj". Plat. 553) i8, 10 

repaiveirBat con^i (a favou- 
rite word with Xen.) 9 5» 7 

irtplx ii wfpl rii Ttpia<s; ey^/>CKri5- 
*^74 

irc/MdsrTeiy emnparare : era it ^ 
Suvafuif -wtpid^lftis 11 1 3 

wcptpXiwi^tv siupic'ere 7 1 

ire^^Xfirros 11 9 

ire^rriii with gCD. 1 19 

irj li 

TTtiTTf iVcr6'(u passive 5 1 
TftTTif TTphs dXXijXot't 4 I 
irnrrwt ix^^ wpo^ nva. 4 2 
rXe^rra j?/<'nim^i4<? 4 1 1 

TrK€Q¥£KTtlllf 1 M J '"**'<'*' ^ ^ 

rXfOfflia J( l(SQTtjfiia (dub.) 8 lo 
»XTj^(rt, t6 5 I 
irXV ou 1 i8 dub. 



7r\ij<nd^(Lt* : ot TAijcrid^opres* 1 
"34, may mean either ' those 
who are new hia person' 
(cf. Soph. Oed. R. 91) or 
'members of hi« hoasehold' 
(ib. 1136) 

wKovrittiVf hcupletare 11 1^ 

jrXouTOT • Buperflmty of sub- 
stance '48; irXowrot 11 j 3 

TToiCi*' with double accusative 
65, 10 8 ; iroiet» rivl t4 7 i ; 
TOiflt' TovTo vicariously *to 
do bo' 4 5, 7 13, 9 9 J wotu- 
<Fdat ipryov 9 10; wsTrtdrjitTtu 
v6ptoy 4 4 J TotTjT^ov 9 1 

iroi^Sf rij qua lis fere 6 7 

TToXe^a sc. y^ i 8 

iraXe^iA:^? ; ToKifutcutv iprtretpnf 

67 

TT^Xe^s: w6\€fioy TroXfjufT*' 28 

ToXtrufQS 10 5 

iroX^iairXdfru); 4 9, 8 7» 17 1 13 

-roXi/s : troki't StaipipiiP 2 1 ; 
TTohi^ Sia(ptp6vTii)s 1 ^9 ; iroX^ 
f-uav 2 1 6 J troXiJ misplaced, 
18 

iroXi/reXiyr )( eiTcXiJs 1 20 

irgi'i7j00f 7 1 1 

Trop€V€crBat 11 lo 

w&ppta with gen, 'far gpne* ad- 
vaneet-F in anythiugt differ- 
ent from w&ppttf *i&T from* 

*4 
ir^rc/jos 8 3 ; Trdre/ia Mtrir)/t 11 5 
iroTipoii utfo vmdo 11 4 
Tror6v I w a, (rlroj 
TTOU 3 1 
Trpa7^a dpyd\tov € 4 ] ir/xt'y- 

ptMTa j?Xf^*' 7 1 
T^a^ii^aTeTlecriS'at 8 8 
TTpdTTfiv 1 TpoKriof xp^f^^'^^ 

Gcigemltt pecsmiu est S 9; 

TQiTo wpdrrtiv ' to do »o ' 

11 to 
Tply dxf generally with aor. to 

estpres^ an action prtrceding 

the action of the antecedent 

negative claa^e^ the verb 



126 



irpoaia'0€(rOai- 



-crtofciv 



in which is future or some 
equivalent for the future 

«>3 

irpocua$i<r0ai 10 6 

irpodvuoi 11 1 2 

TrpoKaBiffTaffdai^ 6 9 

irpoKiPdvpe^euf tivos 10 8 

trpofiaxos 11 1 1 

irpovoeiv rivos 10 8, 11 1 1 

irpoireTQs 7 2 

irpds c. aoc. 'at\ *in conse- 
quence of 81; secundum f 
denoting the standard hy 
which a thing is tried 4 8 
c. dat *in addition to*, Tpbi 
roiJrotj * besides* 10 5; ad- 
verbial in compos. 1 23 

trpoffdeierBai 1 23, 4 11 

TpotreiirdTta 8 3 

TpoaiffKci S "J J 116 

xpoffUffdai appetere 1 20 

irp6<Todot dXvTOi 9g; rpdaoSoi 
98 

irpo<TTOL€T<rdai sibi arrogare 2 
16 

Tp6<rprf<rLs^ salutatio 8 3 

TTpoffraKTiov ^83 

Tpoararai rSXews 11 7 

irpoaTaTtiaOai regi 5 i 

irpo<rraTev€iP TSXewi 11 5, 7 

irpoardTTeaB at 7 2, 84, 10 4 

TpocTiSivai dvdyicriv 9 4 

trporidivai 3,0\a 84, 10 4 ; pass. 
811; TpoT€$€i/jitf05 unclassi- 
cal for irpoK€lfjL€P05 811 

irpoTLfiaadai : roU TpoTerififj- 
fUpois )( Totj iK ToO (aov ofkri 

rpo<f>v\dTT€Uf Ttvoj 6 10 
irpGrrov for irpdrepov 4 2 
T(6irore 7 1 1 
srws oCf 6 4 



padiovpyety 8 9 
^djypvffOai I ippufidpun 8 7 



(ra0i7s: acup^s 82 
•"tTos: crtToi' alpeur^at 6 7; ctra 
irol Tord, *meat and drink* 

I 4, 2 I, 4 2, 7 3; tQp &. 
travTodaird 1 25 

ffKixf/tt 8 9 

(TKoircTp 8 2 

ffo4>lfffjuiTa de ciborum condi- 

mentis 1 23 
<r<Hp6s )( &K/>ar)}s 5 2 ; <r<Hp6p ri 

II 10 

ffxapl^ciP 1 14 ; ffxapUras 1 25 

(TToydai 2 1 1 

ffT€p€tp : <TTip€<rOai privatum 

esse, carere, arcpo/jLepoi 6 i ; 

ffTepyjOufft 1 12 
ffTe<f>apovp 7 9 
OTOfxa : dpd <r. ^x^*** 7 9 
ffTpareia : i5/a6I' ^v (t. 69 
ffTpareijeip 2 8 ; arpaTevuprai 2g 
arpiHppos I22 
(ru7Kara;tt7i'ui'at2 r^ yj/iOcffP 

Tipi toto animo se dedere 

alicui rei 6 2 
<T\rfxodp€LP 5 4, 11 1 2 
ffvkdp lepd Kol dpdpibirom 4 1 1 
ffvfip6\ai,a *, rd 8 6 
trvinrapaxoKovdeip^ 6 6 
avpLvaphrtffdai 8 5 
avfiTopofiapreip 6 6; c. dat. 

88 
avfiT€ptdy€a$at 2 8 

Kt paucU absolvam 8 10 
O'uyovaYica^eo'^cu 3 9 
(Tvpcival Tipi 1 26, 4 4, 6 2 ; aw^ 

ifiavrf 6 2 
ffuyeirt^roupeti' 3 2 
ffuyovT/a 4 I 
ffvpTdrretv : ol <TWT€TayfUvoi 

107 
awTifjufeof r&s ^airdfas 4 9 
(r^aXXety )( (To^^eiy 10 7 ; atf>d\' 

XcffOal Tt 3 2 
<rxoXi^ 10 5 
tf-c^^etv 10 7 ; ff(j)^iTOai, 6 3 



(r(ti<l}povi^€iv- 



-Hh-^ 



127 



ffca<ppo<riivT] 9 8 



Taireiifos ' submissive'- 5 4 

TaTT€<rdcu (pass.) 10 4 

rdxos 8 9 

rdKva 11 15 

TeXeiaSai impendi 11 i 

TifjLoip 7 2, 9, 8 3 ; TL/jL-ffffOfiai fut. 

pass. 9 9 
Ttfii/ll I, 2, 3; 8 5; 97; tAjt. 

74 

Tifiwpciy 4 5 ; ri/juap'^aadcu 1 1 2 

r/j (interrogative): rf oi5 with 
indie, (present or aor.) to 
express a command 1 3 

Ti$ (enclit.): xotos ri$ 67; 
ri aliquantum 9 9; rt 17^101' 
1 21 ; Oarrbv rt 4 7 ; /t^a 
Ti 7 I ; otJSA' Ti 2 3 ; oi^d^' rt 
/xoXXoi' 2 18; roffovrbv ti 
dyaOov 3 5 ; Ka\6v rt 2 16 

TOLovTos: rA rotaOra 1 13, 73; 
roiys r. 10 25 

TpixeffOat 9 7; (med.) rpixj/a- 
ffSaifugare 2 15 

Tp4<f>€tv apfiara 11 5 ; ffrpdrevfia 

4 11; ^Aairas 10 4 ; pass. 
8 10 

TpwpTJ: da$€voi5a7is Tpv<f>i ^vxvs 

I22 
Tvpavveiv 7 11; Tvpavv€i<rOou 

(pass.) 2 II ; 6 14 

TvpoMveOeadat. (pass.) 2 i i 

Tvpavyls, 6 3, 7 2, 4, ii, 12 ; 8 i 

T^payyos — a ruler whose power 

is above and against the 

laws ; it is characteristic of 

him that he rules in his own 

interest ^r6 iavrov ffvp.<pipov 

iro(€(, Anstot. Eth. Nic. viii 

12, 7, Introd. p. zxxiz ff.) : 

<l>CKoTo\iP dvdyKtj rhv t. etvax 

5 3, 8 10 ; wipl TVpdpptfi 11 6 



{fpplj^etv 8 9 



v^purros : i^purrlyrcpos 10 2 - 

hfjLveiv 11 8 

inrayiaTOffBtu [drb) roO Bdxov 
T2, 9 

vir€^aip€ur$ai 5 2 

inr^p * with a view to * 4 3 

inrep^dWeiy : vireppdXKovaa da- 
TrdfTf 11 2, r4 ifirep^WovTa 
rdUapd^S 

vTripev^ egregie 6 9 

ifirepix^^ praestare 2 2 

v-mipcTclv 11 10; V. rtW tA 
Trpoffrarrbfieva 7 2 

iJirvoi' Koifidadcu 6 7 ; (hrf oc 7 3 

UT^ with verbal substantives 
to denote agency 1 28, 7 6, 
8 4, 10 4 ; with intransitive 
neuter verbs 7 8, 10 4 ; ori- 
ginal meaning of 8 i 

inrod6e<r0ai Trhvov 7 1 

viro\ap.pdpeiP excipere sermone 
et respondere : ifiroKa^ujv 6 9, 
81,8 

viropAveiv sustinere 7 4 ; v. kIv- 
Swov subire periculum 7 i 

VTOfUfUr^aK€lP Tipd Tt 1 3 

inronTCi^cip 217 

ihroTTTos in personal construc- 
tion with infinitive 1 15 
inrovpyeip rt 7 9 
inroiOpyrjixa^ beneficium 8 7 
ifirovpylai 7 5 



<f>ay cip 4 2 

<f>aidp6s 'beaming with joy' 

217 
<f>alp€a$ai ix^^ aperte habere 

46 
^Xa^f iroKepia 6 7 
ipapcpos 9 9 
<l>€p€ty tolerare 7 4 
</>^p€a$cu irpoirerwj efs rt 7 2 
0i7A^ 9 2 ; 0avat, ^^17 inserted 

pleonastically 1 7, 8, 15, 7 i ; 

^IrjfUP 7 7 



128 



fl>$OV€lV Ctf^cAcflO? 



<l>$i»€Zy: ^cutfyropMi in passive 

sense 11 15 ; ij^woto 11 6 
<fH\iK<at amicey comiter 8 3 
<f>iKoviKia: SidL ipiXovuclas 9 7; 

dt^ ^tXoytWay 9 6 
0iX6iroX(s 5 3 
4>t\oTifila 7 3 
ipoficTadcu inrip rivos 6 10; t6/>2 

iavToD 6 10 ; )( AyaffOai 5 i ; 

ipopowrai tA$ xoXctj /xi) — 

yivwrai 5 2 
4>opep6s fi^ 'iroi'/fff'Q 615 
<f>6poi dirb tQv iopv<l>6p<ap 10 3 

4>6prifia 8 10 

<l>pwTl^€<rdai (passive) *to be 

the object of concern' T 10 
ip6€Uf\ Te4>VKiyai 4>v<r€i with 

infinitive 8 9 
<f>v\alf the, of Attica 9 5 
<f>v\cLK7i 8 9, 0vXairds t^ ^vxV^ 

*9 
0(^Xa^, ^i^Xaicas irpoKadiffTaffdox 

69 
0uXarTeti' 8 9 
0i;<ns : <t>^<r€i x€<J>vK(i>s 3 7 

X 

XaXciroj )( i^diJs 2 12; x^^^^rd 

Tc/)a Kare/)7(£fe<r^at 4 7; x«- 

XeT(i;s ac^e 615 
Xapd 8 4 

XOLpi^^(f&o-f- irXc£w 8 2 
Xopts 8 3, 5 ; al iifiiaeiai. xopires 

8 4, 7; dtd x^P^"^^^ etyat 

9 I ; 5tA xapi^w'' 7f7»'CTai 9 2 
Xftpovadai 6 12, 14 
XopriyiKdi"^ 9 1 1 

Xo/)<jj 6 2, 9 4, 6 

XPVf^O'' XPli^"^^^ ^v€Ka S 11; 



XP^tMLTa iKTl»(aw 7 12; x» 

elff<f>4p€i» 9 7 
XP^^eu: TouTotj XP^"^** 5opu- 

^/>o(f 6 3; XP^^^*- (*^o 

find') Twrfivvripoit airroTs 5 

^; xPVro6i5 
XpriiTLixoi 6 x6, 9 7 
XPT^''" * 8 

Xpovoi rifi ^wrji 1 19 
Xc6pa rus 10 5 



^ux^ * appetite* 1 23, *life' 

49, 7 12, 11 14 
\l/vxoi I ^XV f^ol BoKtij 1 5 



Q 

(fiSri^ 2 
(bP€i<rOai. 9 1 1 

d>s consecutive with infinitive 
for <5tfT6 10 I 

— with participle denoting 
cause 7 10, 11 6 

— omission of, before noons 
in apposition 5 3, 11 13 

— parenthetical clause intro- 
duced by, w$ avPeXoyTL el- 
iretp {ut paxicis absolvavi) 

^ 9io 

ioffirep 76 1 24, 6 15 

toffre consecutive with indie. 
6 10; with infinitive 1 12; 
to mark a strong conclu- 
sion, quare^ itaque, * and so*, 
17,48,1111 

<b4>€\€lV 87,99; PASS. 10 4 

(iiipiXyifM, qttoa prodestf emo- 

lumentum 10 3 
(^X(/Aos 9 10 



C 



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