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Full text of "الحضارة الإٍسلامية في القرن الرابع الهجري ; المؤلف: آدم متز"

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Dvorak : AbQ Firas, Leiden, >Jlj { \o\ ^ \ ^^^ ^^^ <^ oUi^l j 

. 1895, s. 114 n: 
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— ^y _ 



jl ^ji}\j ii^i ^>. <us oiL. ^ c-j.i _ «lL3 j "Ju^ ^»x:*j oils' 

ilyj i -uMfri ^y_t j?lj ^y_l ^ --1 Jlj\9 i ^yl^l (^LJI «jja> 



^U l^ir ^b" ,^1 V ^«« a* O^^ V^-^ <^j ' «*Y cr* '^ c *^,^ — • (T) 

— nA — 



U::^ c^l J'j'i^ J\ '^3jf3 \'y^3 ^'j\^ ci iJly*^! a* ^l*- ^ 

<J oil ^ 4 4r>_ Mi j.>)l jflj ^J ^ aiU .l^,^l Tjl::^ 
Jbo a)S Li*i lilj 4 4l::l.l Ji^jA^^L ^^_ >1 \Xa : Jlij ^IJI 
^^U ^iJjAJI 'ui^ \x^ ,^C*j ^JU JL_sj ♦ (^>U^ jir jU'^l 

'jcuslj JUL IjUt ,_Jll. _L-U ,^i Uj^icj 4 <)JLaJI ^rLsw ci S 

* 

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. V — ' lee i^ 0>?»" *r^^ (f) 

- ^^ - 



^y\ j^iJi C -O-jrw ^ ^^ :>\jJo 'jAl ^1 OSj ♦ ^^^J>U.^t 

^y^ ^*^. : J^l^ij <{^-jj ^^^^ *^-?'>. jL^lj jjjllJl 



j <ll^i ^0. jlTj . <^>l-.j> L_4. ^>j i jW^I L_^i ^^ij 
* 'j-^^ Oi' a* ^s ^1 ^ji ^y. 1^ Oil JI jjjo. Mi ^. ij^j 

A3 dA^- jlTj i <;Ll^ iJ^ ^Vjl ^y aLJ\3 Ttj^ ^ x>j>t^ Ll 
cr^ ^ Oi-^ ^-^'-^ ^ 'uj' f-^-? ^ ^V-? ^y^ 2L^' a* -^^' 



• y?u UJ <JUL| ^IJJl J-aiJ» >-ljl >^lj t oY» e;^ ^ ^ij5^-— (U 

. \ \K. ^ jju-ai ^^ (T) 

j/L u^ <JUL ^uji j.-:Lij» Uuj >;ij £ u -r^ u- A c:*'--'^^— *^' 

— v» — 



^1 — til J ^^ <] cJbo i <:^t>II J> UjC <«ij ^1 :U.LJlI (j 

4 oV <-^^ *j=M Ol (> jAi V i^l JbJu; jlTj 4 (^^iLlu ^jjl 
4 ^^^-LliJ oibo jl5o 4 r^ .:bj-- ^y uj> <0 jl? Ai 015" «C50j 
<-»^r-^^ _;^lj 4 U-^ pOaJli f^3 i ^-^ (J^ ^r^K 'Jl*> ^ ry^-l^ A5j 

(i ^yuil olfrOl^l Uii 4 o^,.-afr (_^_y-3- Jic! <,.i^ j'^'j ♦ ^^^UiLi 

^ L <r*Ufr ^y^j /1-Jl ^ ^y Ijjijj jlj-*^lj >lj-Jl 



• r. ^ JS I u- a* 1A\A 6^ <*4» JU^ cr^V v>i^ cr^ J V.>^1 V^J 

. w- n u- jJL-ii ,^ (T) 

■". V TU t^ j-*-ftIl (^ (0) 

— v\ - 



lii jiTj c <^^i ojj pLji o^^-yi ^ ^ui jir ^j 

o:' '^A * ^"^^ ^_-J (t^i ^jiJ ^^/^.J Jjp-iL^i 

^>l:vj 4^^!>^ cJ^j : JU ^^.^..-^1 -oil J^ ^^ A^ ^^^-^j » 



. (O 



l^j oaj_ |_^ olkii hjixA IfLki MjJU^ <:^ Tj*-^ ,^-aflJI OseT «A> 



• n - To ^ o,.^ ^v v>l» 0) 

. obu»^ j^Vb ^uji j-uji >;i (Y) 

< rv c 10 ^ Oe.- ^V v>ll (T) 

• T\ u- * To _ Tt u- V>1^ (t) 

• TV ^ jju-ai .j-i; (0) 

— vr — 



(> u! -A*^ J% LT^ <J J^J i ^ u; -^-^ 'J^lj 4 ^^ 
? oj^ ^4 JUj . o>^^ . o'^ 'a^Vl ^j ^ J> J-JJ 

<J JUs 4 -Cili^! 'Jl <*i:> liU 4 T^ ILJS /ij 4 loTj loT oJLU. 

Ijtj 4 "J-j::* ^j Ui. .Sit ^ ^1 J_^j /i j ^ : j^JI 



o\ y^ J\^ J»L.j ^2^* jr^' ■*->-? f ^i^ — * rrN i:-. Jj 

ol* t (3ijW z"^. '.f**' r^ /«-• •*»-^* -^ ,y^ i tfcjAJJ jUI /Jail M>.j 



To o- -'^*- c;i^ V>1' (U 



— vr — 



*• ^ "* •• 1 



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. 1 n- _ V T.\ ^ o^» v^ (1) 



— vt ~ 






JaI j;^ jfU iJi; 'i^^j (>^^l j_,-^l (i <f<^\ Js, l^lT 

IJL* ^ 'Jl:*Vlj 4 Us^tS-l Jb J>J!j Jill <-1ji t^l 4 jL:>S/l 



— vo — 



^rLil jlTj (. jLaiVI cLJ ^^ jfr l4.;>.; 4l.^rL:« LjOjl eifl^^l 

jir A-ki j^l <)jJdl j_^U ji ur i j::ill ^5_^ ^%J^\ ^ jb-_,l lii 



{-* TA\ - -• TU) ^^UJl oUxJl ^^ ju*- J) ^j » : -Ot (:^^UJ1 jL^i. j;ij1 ^ ^jb. 

^^UJl <> ^li fi piL-Vl J J ^J^H^J V^J-i^ "-ij-r^ r*'^^! -^ ^J^J^ i5J^-^ V-^ 
-• tn fU .^>d» ) tJ^l *XJ1 ^1 J^j fi (Michael Syrus. S. 535) ^^^.^^^ ^pj 

: ( P 1 . ov - 

. ( To. (_^ t^^*i <*J» *^W'JiJ'^* ) 
t,.4^ 4_^1 ^j> <J* -.._^ tpliUV^ >J ^ C^^t^--ai ol-JJ^ J^-J jV Cr-J 
<^.-^ OilJ>-Jl <iil--V» ^j ^\ ( 4^0^41 ^Ul ) iSj^^ ^^^ O^l >ljt ^ 

p \A» • r'\* r^ (^l^j f (Bariiebraeufl, Chron. Bccles. Ht. 171 ff.) 

^b c-i/j <i,a* <«U-1 ^^j jju f. l.n • t*V <L^ ,^j M TtV t;-» 

(EUafi NlBibenus. S. 226, .jj^\ ^ ^^^ ^y- ^-(^ ^^ ^ <;1j t <:.^ .U.V 
iwU-^l ju^l ^ ^a;V J tiUarj < Bartiebr. Chron. Elccles m. 287 ff.) 
fSL-tl jiJ^U < -u^ .j^ Elvira i^i x^^ ,j;^\ jj^^ ^^ ^ ^^3, 
•Uj^l ^1 juj jOJj ♦ (Graf Baudlssin, Euloglus Und alvar, 1872, S. 162) 

c;;-- u : v*t-JJ J^ Aii) Utii uu J >iu « j>-i, yj^i : c^uji -u jui < jii- 

• ( ITT — UT t;-» A ^ «/^j«..JI v^JLSl ^j^ ) 

— vn — 



^_ ^j 4 ^■>l.'yi J ^^/>^ 'iUi jV lil -yi ^_A)I ^- jyC Vj 

J I jir t.i_^_ ^1 j..-::^ '^1 Vj ^1 ^^. 'J 1^1 

^ <\xr ft r\\ <^ j j-Jcjii iiJLiJi jJu^i oij ♦ ^^^ljl_^ 

cJlT J^l ^Ty jl ^:^ ^ 4 (( «cX jj»i ^ i t?jij c^ ^j 

^^ j^^J^ jJu^ ^^1 ^IJI 0^1 J- jWl ^i-=Jl (Jj 



. Sachau :Syriche Rechtsbtlcher, II, S. 75, 170. 192. (^) 

<-:3ab o\.Y (^j J»>i^ t >*> cH <^^JUJ vL5J\ <*;u-j ^^j^^ V*^ (^) 
..^^ 'J*l ^'jy_ VI ^1 <iV^ ^^UJ -14* J JJJ ^^r* ' V ^t a- LT-iJ^. M*V1 
jLuJ U-i jJLul^ JL4* Jy ^l^ J*^' O' ^.j ) MtA ^ *ljjyi V^ (T) 

ju* o,>*-^. jL** *^^ o^j 5 ^^'l^ i^M Jy*^" V^ Jj^^ o^- (^ ol t of^^ J 
. ( ^>ai _ ^j Vj ii^jij <i oj5o Vj oj^_ g:JUi ^1 4r>J ^^^_ ^ J\j^\ 0^ 

— vv — 



^1 ^ ^1 j^j '^1-^ c:Ai)UJLi a* ^^j callji ^_^!^ J 



^^>(!: /A:fL 



c -<.-:> y\ ^\ ^j^ ^^! ^^1 ^ij, j5^, .Lji Jj 

••V •• 

4 o^l j*i Jl^ <^_ U ^ jM L-UI ^ o.,--i^. JJ ^>* 1^ ir 
^^^ J^'-? ^-c^ t>- (»^ tr-^i Ui t>^l^ j>JI cij^l cJlTj 

^jL-jj ^_ jlTj 4 <oljj :>j^\3 ^^1 (j <-.bJl cJlTj » 

juji jir a u^ii 4 ^'L-jj ^'i_^i o^o. \y\S3 4 dbd.1 ^ 



(Y) 



. V _ 1 T\\ ^ :aj^ o^ v^ v\-\ i^j J.>i- ^^i-jt j;l-.j (o 

. Noldeke : TaburiUbersetzung, S. 68. Anm. (|) 
jix J-ojll ^ <.JU1 Jj.) oWj < Michael Syrus, ed, Chabot, S. 519. (^j 

. (R. Petachja, S. 275) i^^^^ 



— VA — 



<I1 



^_ 



TA^fr <J ,_^j i 4.U.^1 j_ylfr '<LJ^\ J-sL^.j <-^l V^" '^^-J 
J^ ^ic^ J V/j a5j i ^l^a^^^lj JU)I jUC! c-::^, iS 

^^LJl Jl ^Jh i ^<i> dill. y\ '^\ dUlj i jjcujil 

<i»L._^t Jop J i_^lj ^^3 j^^^3 ^3}^ iltl^j ^IjJ 
^JJl jiVl> *4:ifr dtlJLij Uul l_^'Lj i ^.a... « .> ^ j ^_j5 i ^ 

pMJI 0.JU3 ^^L^l ^^j>...:i UJfU ^"j:o jJyJlj ^i:i>Ji*^ 

J^iyil J ^Ijj cifl>Jl oJL^ J ^U Jfj 3>UI ^2:;^ J aIjCOJlIj 

J^c^\ J ^=_i- "^j jLj^ Ijla J JjLi* '^ ^-bU ^\^3 
\^^ ^kji33 ^j ^ ^ tk^ ^^^^U-i jl oii^t jl jl>i <* 

Dlonys, von Tellmachre. ed, Chabot, 148, Barhebraeus, Chronicon (^j 

ecclesiasticum, ed. Abbeloos et Lamy 1,372 

. Amedroz JRAS, 1908, 467 ff.j^jx.1 U^ ^^\ oj-^u>. ^\ iJXi-^ MiJ (T) 

T ^ J. \Tn j-u <*-t ott^l^ oW^ >^ _ hyperbole <JU^» <JS^\ ^ 
<;1 t^^r^iJl ^^^ Oj^^ S? CC^JL-i^ ^UJJ\ oU^l J^\ ^ (/=w AJI ^ , ( YA u- 

• o^^ ^ \\.\ ~ n- fl* (Frledrlch Schwally u^ ) i^^j^j^l <^\ 

— V\ — 



f^T^ M^-J ^"'>*i *lj'>-* <i i'j*:Uli iiL_Jl c-Lij 

* a <.ai»..^"....».U 

jt <) A. V ol^ 4 "4^ V^:" JiAJ v^ 'Jl^' dUoTj 

. <^)<) r> :>\j^ -^o^ cr*^ ^^r - j» r** ^l ^i_p. <^ 

J jL:^ ^U. "jT^^ t^jUdl ^L- oji j^_^l ^^Ld) jlTj 



Michael Syrus, S. 519 (Y) 
Barhebraeus, Chron. Ekscles. m, 275, Aum. 1. j^j 
Michael Syrus, S. 532. j c TAt ^ 1 j. jA^l ,^- (() 



_ A* — 



(Petachja von I ^bj (Benjamin von Tudela) <V_^Lj 

^X-*VI j»LJuI jlT Ajj ♦ t5j*«JI ^_^iLJI j_^l J Regensburg) 

^W 01:*^ c^. JlS-j 4 ( .I^SlI ^t ^1 ) ^_jLl>* ^ .^_ >T 



•• 



J^ ^'-^, Jl <V>- .r-^ V-^' <^'li-» crr^V V^ 



<'l-j ^J ) ciyLi (/IJ /^.JJ f ^'^^'-^ cr- J-J'^ J^ ^ r4 






Ujj .H. Graetz, Geschlchte der Judra, V, 4. Aufl, S. 276 ff. ^j) 
Goldziher : Revue des : J^^ o^UJl ^0 o* ^=-1^ v=l» ^^1 cr»^b jU, 
o^UJIj : J^^:^ ^^ ^^ ^ ^.J-J^>»- Jii ^j 4 etudes jiUves. Vni, 121 ff, 
<.ai J.U1 ojS? ^^i^ ( ^ui Ji> ojS, c^ ) tr-'y. ^ <^' r*^i* r*jij * r^^j 

' To ^ lA^o oJJ <*J» (^Jjl>J» -All JU* ^V p^» j^^Ui Ui! >;i t <^j ^ 

. isUj j-i.j ^ JUU •j-.l o' ^*■^ xL#j . Benjamin. S. 61 (Y) 

. Benjamin, S. 98. (y) 
. Mitteil. Sanunl. Erzh. Ralner, V. 130. (^) 

( n - V^^^ ijL-WI ) — A^ — 



jbc^ '^Afr jj^Lo j^oij 4 V:ei_^vi iifLyi ^- o^ir i_^i 

p\Tir jij^\ (^1 *^J^" /*^ji j-f^ ^ (Bailo Marsilius Georgius) 

<-^ ^ (ij _ ci'yT i^JU^ Ub JLifrj _ j^JUl jC>. 

^pj D : <^>ub ^,, j>^ 4 ^li ^^, ii^^ > > 01-^^ i>ir 

^ ub j^j ) ^"yT <--- j-^^i cij 4 o-yi ioj! ^ ^1 



. Petachja, S. 289. (^ 

Tafel iind Thomas, Urkunden zur &lteren Handels-imd Staatsges- t^\ 

chlchte der Republik Venedlg Wlen, 1856. H, S. 359. 

-r^' f^l W^ o! Jliij . Petachjft, S. 280. ^iUaTj Benjamin S. 19. (o) 
Obermeyer, Modemes v^ >i) t <*^ Ojy^j cfJb^) ^ « iS^y^^ UJl ct*!jl cf 
< Ull o^jl ce*Vri^ v^^ •jr^-V) <*JaH ^j t Judentum, Wlen, 1907. S, 23. 

— AY — 



^^1 )) A^j ^jU J dUoTj i ( i \ i ^_;^ ) «: ^>^ll jt :ij^l 

^JLi4 ) i'jUjj ^ijU jL«JI jJ^ <Jlf i ^-^ OJ^ Jb ^Ul 
^Air U- J3I j^L:. U/S ^^1 ^U^S/U ^^^^ L.i ♦ ( Ai _ Ar ^ 



. nt ^ <r^jjV» <*JJ1 t^U^ll *US:3J» jU^l (1) 

• V^t^ ^-^J ' -^J^J^ O* ^^ O J ■ ■■ *■ ■> ■ ' Vj^^ '-^ij^ •j:-^-' <ijXi (-»j 

• TTT ^ ^J^l (T) 

oL Jl:u; ^jU l^y\ as^Sj. oj (^JiU» yt* ^\J\ oyUl jyU> a^^l J^uj (©) 
HamdaUah Mustawfl von ^i 4 u^ o^jl ^ ^1 p^ .\,^_ v UJ j^l *u.1 

G. Le Strange. 1903 S. 65. 

(Caro, Wlrtschaft- ^\s^\ ^ ^ p\ o^J^ i^iOill j,^--Jl ^ I^^IT j^l oj 

segeschlchte der Juden, I, 27). 

_ Ar — 



i lA^ UjIs L>- L-*r VI <i^- c^ Mi ^ jUdl iJ^ Li 

• • -W^ MM e MH t^ M ^^ -J 



ijisJI 1^^ jjJJI ^Afi; jlT <:fr -il ^j ^Ik^n ^1 ^^ o^c J^ 
t> t^j^' <>l^' j^' J .r^ J^5C- .La,.! Ja3j 4 (^)^_^l ^ 

^IjyM?^ cJ! :i*L ^^1 ^li)l j^l Jjt J :>lJbL, ij*JI jiAl. 

L ("^yjji oiji ^:^j i'L ciL ^jji j^i jfiji jj c ^'^jj* oiji 

J_^_ jbUl lUij ol>Jl ;40 Li jlra-^_^l j^^ilj <. j\^ oill 



. Ftihrer durch die Samnd. Ralner, S. 152. (yj 

. ^ t.( fU (^>3 cjUI j^'U iiUb <-JUl J*l <j^ oj ( To^ ^r* 
. Kremer : Bbmahembudget der Abbasiden, DWA. 36, S. 313. (*\) 

— At — 



^^ j i^ir u >ij . ^^>ji^L ^_^ i^bCi ^j-ii ui 

^.U ^;JWJ ^ <*Jifr 4^ C-3J p \v\ — * rA\ <^ Jj ♦ ^jl* 

^_A J ^Lj dUi J "jl'i <J a* JS' ^j ^1 ^j->JI A-i^ ^ 
^,^ aSj 4 SiUI J <fiU OiX. cilS" jl^ ^yOj 4 ^^^^j>.j3 

^\jJi\ jl ^;^j o>-^_ TjU ^-j^ <> ^ 'j^. f^ "^ ' i^" <^-^' 

<■ t^^' 'j^' >'->^ V f/"" y*^J' -^ >'^ '^^ '^.^' ^^ 

Lt >UIl 'iLUJl <>:ii-.i J» rr» pit J'j^ <ij ♦ « ^'^^lil; 



r.^ y. <AA\ OJ^ i^ >* cr; i-i-^ v^i i-^j e'>" vi^ «) 

. Michael Syrus S. 497. ^e) 

— AO — 



I f M W* . ^„ ._tl CI tl * ^> ■ A H • 1^^ tl t it f- 

/.Lill j sJbU=Jlj <^jL^I Ji*^ jlT ..l.^_ ,^..,a.ii 1^^ i,iJI JaI 

ji^j ♦ ^^^c5jL^ v^'j ^^^^ jis'i jir ^:^ ^ i b^ ^Mi. 



I "j Ju- ^_^l ^'LU^I J t^l^ ^A5 jlTj i JUS'! ^I_^_ I ^ 

i <^>*lli»ij pLj, ^U-^ij r_,U;j <ijLu» Ij^bG i iyl_^l 






. V- Mn ^ uJ^ M^ VM^j J»>^ t^L^^ ^^j {)) 

jL^Lj JJL^ <i^J^ Jlvrr V-rr^^ pU ( ^U- ^ Afo * T ^ • pl^ J^ (o) 

LT-^^ ^1 Jyu^ ( (Barhebraeus, Chron. Eccles., in. 187) ^^_ ,u ..^i t jjjbj\ 

• ( Tol ^ 1A\A <^ 5ybUJ\ i^ <l'y.J ) 
J ^ ^y^ ^ J'^ ** (J yjJii ' <J *"-li,i 

— An — 



^L:. J^j Xij ♦ ^^)^l ^j jjjl^>)lj i^L-V^lj j>il-Jlj 

. ^'^^j>l\ IJ^ ,$^ U Jl j\^ L Jl <^^^_ L : ^.L-^ JUL 
j^a'^ LjjUI J\j^\ (j Ji-Jc; v^*^' LjjCpJI ^" Jj 




4J.-J ^1^1 ^-J^^ ) M M 1 ^ o^ <r^ «"^A r*J -i>>^ ) ^ 4^V uW^' 
: ( \\y:\ <:l- ^^juL Drr. Sven Dederingr j^jj,.> ^^j^ jy^^^ U^ <i^^ 

. ^jL-oaJI^ ejl—flAJtj i^UksJU' ejJUJl *4J:£l_L-^ j^JU CC-'-T*-* ■^>*ir' ^ LjJLI^-^j 

j=^] Ul : JUi ^y 4_J* M Ju^ ^^\ JJ ^J OL3J1 JaI j;;- iUj JjJ o^^^L-41 ^ 

c o T^ ^ o^.Y **j u-ij'-: -i».?i»^^ <*ijui ^^^^ v^ W^J ^^^ • ^ — i^ -^j ^-j^ 

I ; ' jLji _j^ jj jSachau : Muhammedanisches Recht, 1897, S. 787. ^i^ 

— AV _ 



y_jJl <iUi ^ 4 cjAA j i;^_:>'yi oy»:>jl dDoTj 4 « (^^ji_^n;i J 

♦ (( ^^^^...LJI Jut <JI ^Ul x-oJ^tJ (^Jdl 



^L-i; jU^b i ^ Jr*^ Vj i jrv/ jli^ ^2^.ua=JI j^bj i y'b 

j^ i^M? <ij i J^L :it_5^j^ -u,^!^ , dUi Vj ^L.^j ^^j 



-. ^r.T <!-. oVj^ <^ ^i^^_ ^V ^1>J1 vL5" ) ^X-. ^^>i j1 i J*L-L- j! 
. jU*Vb ^UJ! J-^1 Li.1 ^Ij • WU* Xo ^^ ,J IJU ^j t ( Uj^ Uj a. ^ 

. Dlonys. von Tellmachre, S. 176. (^j 

s-^i u; y_ajr J <.:« <^v j^i^_ j^^^ oi^" ,^ mt - ^ r.. r^ ^^^^ m 
V no ^ cc^jj <^jj:^ att^ ,»5j J.>i^ ^^^i-i^uoj oIjUjui vL=^ (O 

c5>^^ CJU» j^l j^i^ j^^i ^ OL:*^^ 5L^ <i.r« ^b^ o-^ : Streck, S. 284 

Budge : Book of Governors I. S. CXLCII ff. ; ^u-j: 

— AA — 



c/^-J 



J *L« 



^ J^j^ ^-> ' J** tr'j ^' ^^ • "V" '^i t)=*-J ' ^ fj^ 






iJiA j»i.j <jCI_j 4 aJjjJI i--^ <iLfl-» ^y {♦4::«-*i o' ^. (♦♦^'j f L-^l 



ol Ji. loj D c ^b^l 4..^ill dy^^ ^ c^^ j^ ^ ^J^^ *^^ 



Michael Synis, S. 556 ff. (X) 
_ A\ _ 



4.^CtT...^.4>.Ll 



^ (t^j»-^ <jt^^ -H 3^' cjy 0ji>— ^ oj)o 1...4.LI 4j!?^^l Jl:>-j ol5 

i ptiJdl t— J »5 D Ju JO J C j^Jti\ (J ^jLwaJI ^yA IjLj^ (J^yS ^cJjULJ 

-*» rxx *i-^ (Jj ♦ ^^-^t-iuo M,4...a.*.^ Ji3 ^ jjw^-sUdll *:^ j\ ^L^j 

4 <uk >Niij iJ^.>JI ^ j^^l i .4y.> ^;^- >lj ..r^ >l ^1 

Juto^' Llli' jJL.^ Jl jj^Ul <iJiJl ^Ijl ^A\0 *»X** <^ Jj 

. j. ^ 1 [ \ Ujb jLisJL. -1 -^■. 4_Uj. Barhebraeus Chron. Eccles., I, 432 ff. (^) 
:i_ ^ ci \ cJLo lJl5Jbj < Schlumberger : Epop6e Byzantine S. 168. ^\ (Y) 

. cJLl— Jj j-J 1 ^ f^r'^ <_r*^ O^'-**' 
. Michael Syrus. 536. (yj 

— \* — 



jf- j£'(. ( t L^l LtfLo ^4>.>J cJ IXj ) i tiUi <i o I? <k;. ^ _^ 

..II .. * ** 

ji*U d ^T Jlj 6-U> eU J' i ^U d ^04)1 iJ^ jLj^ <JJ| j^^..,^ 

ij^A^i j^^jLii jL*^ ^^r — *r** ^l^ Jj ♦ ^^^Jt^l^'j ^iUt-Ji 



Michael Sjrrus, 517. (^ 
Sachau, Von den rechtlichen Verhaitnissen der Christen Im {^) 
Sasanidenrelche, Mltteil dea Sem. ftir Orientallsche Sprachen, X, 2, S. 78 f. 

Gottheil, Dhlmmis and xl* aMU\ oJL* ^ m\J3\ ^ TjJlT «4^jUJ» -Lw (T) 

. Moslems In Egypt, S. 353 ft. 

- \\ ~ 



dUJb ^ij c p^ ^\ ^\i :>!JbJI ^1 L.\i d .Uiill <5^ Ijj^ 

d -Um^^Ij ci^Ulj ojj-XJl Cal^lj V^J' C-jLSj ♦ ^Li ^ aJJj 

j^jt /»Lr JJ j^j c— iu- Cij^ 4 tj"^' Jl5 US' Laj^! jlTj 

. (^>oLi^orp^j4iL- 

4 jjwlJLl iUUu. 3IJUJ olili^jL* J j_^Ll) i*JJ! Jjbl jlTj 
cs-=^ 01 i> yJ-^' (^^> ^ (^i'J' '^^l t>''j' <i "*l!J '^^-^ u^J 



J-^ 



. (^>l.JJI 



i/^J 4 SAfl. Jt, "jT j>iAj_ I.AJI jAlj JjwJLil j^-j^ jlTj 



tfjusjj iUiiiij ;Vj)i jUi.1 j=a.j < rr - rv o- -^^^ o^^ v>i' v^ (U 

. Tallqulst, 32 f. ^\j^ « eoe _ oot ^ 

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cJLi. 



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(Timotheus) ^^^^ Jr^V ^-*^^ "^^-J ' ^-^' '^ *^^ 



Sachau : Syrische Rechtsbtlcher, II, 57. (y) 



c^i >j ♦ -'^^ j»5C=u 0^1 J ^jL^i ji3i ^ jj! ji5a 

j_- l_^*;i,l lilj i <l ^lj:JV <JC^ ^jL L_-Jlj i ^Uij j:;^ 



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• V^. u-* j-»-^l u-^ (t) 

l.A u- W^^'l; (Bonn) ^^^ :uj» tijjjjUl ^—^^ t^V <JlLl, M ^15:^ VI v^ (U 

. Sachau : Syrische Rechtsbiicher II, S. VI (^j 

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L 



I^IT (^jL^l ji isilb ^jl>. jJu^ ^ liojji ^^oi^l J L*i 

*yi ^^UU Jjbtl) 1^*_^^ J ^Ij 4 .»< i '.' fli ^^ ^"Loj-^2^ (J ^j. 

♦ Ju^ ^If 4 pLkiiJI /*Ll SjiU^ ^Juill) ^o' "i> ^^ J Ail ULj^ 

l^\^ jJir cJlT l^U <jl^l ^\>1\ Li ♦ ^^)>T L^l- ^l 

♦ <-)jL*LiII J U^^y p^^ ^1 ^U)l jlT ^1 J.j^l 



. Graf Baudissin : Eulogius und Alvar, S. 13 Anm: 6 (Y) 

. Petachja, 275. (y) 
jvl jua- (oiUJl 0^3 ' Sachau. muhammedanisches Recht, S. 739. (^ 

. V IT a- LT-iJ^ -t>^ i-laij < Vol ^ t^XL5Jl >;i i ,>^. ^ JUl 

. Sachau : Syrische Rechtsbticher, II, 107. (o) 

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i L-oj.j:> ^^ j_^*l LfrU L_JaJl ^jj : oUJ» »!.%* l^^lTj 4 -CjJi 
^-^U)l j^Jl •^l U*ia3 •^ jbG 4 ^^1 ^U^ <^^>, <^! i j^^l 

: ^j\ ^Lj j1 ^ 4 J:>^\ JL^I jj^iOi l^ir ij^l ^1^ 

(/^^j ♦d^^^O^UJI ^Ij Ta^lj Tjb:> ^U jT J ^ j^l^l ^a.^ 
jj^l J (Bailo Marsilius Georgius) 




. Noldeke, Tabariubers., S. 247. 

. in a- 'iUUllj ellUUl (T) 

J*j J^ o* 'j^J c*-^ o' w^ j>*' t> v-1^ J»' c«j r->-^^ ctt j^^^ j^i*" c ^Y• 

^>J1 -u» <i_>>Jl ^^ t/--J1 <JU^l •lii- U oj^j ' Beojamln, 77. (t) 

. Noldeke : TabariUberectzung, 246, Anm. 2 

. Petachjft, 288, 275. (o) 

— \n — 



♦ 



(J 4-4^^ili»JI cJo J ♦ <LijJI j^ c- ^^ ^-^^i-^*^ ^-^^ ^^y^" cJo Lijj 

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_ j» f (>U Jl_^ i yij ^^_ jlTj i ^j:^ji^ lJ^.>Jl 

crir" cy jV <^-^ ^ o^'LjOI i'-^i^ jLCJL S^U ^_^" <oA^ 
^JJI la — A jO — .^L4 ^ ^^"l ^ a5j 6 l4Ut ^^^ ^ ^t Jd) J 

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<)t iJji>Jl ^Uli ♦ o: tL-Jl *V> o>^l J:^ ^-^.-^ ^''^ cW 
,^4i4 ,^1 ^A) 61 i -^1 ,^4^ oJl^ ,;:* ,*U^ /4l ^1 J wis ^..^ 



. Tafel und Thomtis : Urkunden..., n. 359 (^) 
. Tafel und Thomas : Urkunden..., n, 359 (y) 



( V - 'Um^UV ojUaaJI ) — \v — 



i^ jT (i *4^"L-^ o_^U:ji I_^15' jjuU.1 JU oH^'^3 <- ^^^ j*^ 

*ll^L 4j.jU. ijiUI cJlTj ♦ ^-^^^p^ ^^Ij ^ Vj c ^Jul^ ^ J* 



jLu UJ j-LJJb >,jUiJl (^ ^>_ jL-. jLij ; Michael Syrus, S. 516 (i) 

. Tafel und Thomas, Urkunden, II. 360. : >iW ^j ojr»-*-^^ c>J^ -J^^ 

>il^ c (Noldeke, Tabarl. S. 342) <^jUJt \j^\^^\ J Jl^l o^ UT (V) 
elXp- L. LJljI (iUJli'j tSammel. Ralner IX/III, 176 f. j Karabacek^LUb^ <JLj L. 

. Dionysius, ed. Chabot, S. 61. .^^ \y^ 

, Mitteil. Il/ni, 163, (Y) 

Leovllgildus, De habltu clericonam (Esp. sagr. XI) : vectlgal, (o) 
quod omnl lunarl mense pro Christ! nomine solvere cogimur. Eulogius 
Memoriale I, 247 : quod lunariter solvimus cum eravi moerore tributum. 

Graf Baudissin, Eulogius und Alvar S. 10. ^\ 

Ukjj >;w nv ^ u^A <u- ( j^, ) i-*-^*: <ri-^ <^ t/.^-^' J^''— j H) 

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u^ p^^ (^-Sr^ ijj^^ ^,^1 JLjfr (i ij^l jlS'j ♦ ^^^flJu- 

ji jLo w)\ \^u. ^L. jir (. ©♦♦ ^u jj ♦ ^^^^^1 ji vJi 

f»— '4 -^Ij Jj J_j*:3bj jj^lflS. t_jl^r-aJI JUx. «^ J— j^ jt D *AiJ£- 

j^j ALII ^1 ^^1 oOj. j^ »3,^_ Iyb3 (. o_^ ^Ij oJlI 

W-i xa:^ ^ <lUo oLrJ'yi cS-4' <i~— 'j j^ J cSj-Vl o+Jl >lj! J ill»i (l) 

. nol ^ u—UJl jULUI Jj^I iU^ (T) 
. Krauss : Talmudlsche Achaeologle, n, S. 89. (^) 

'^>"' 1^ C-f^'^-' *^.-^ 1^ '^•^i < Josua Stylltes, ed. Wrlgrht, S. 42. (I) 
(Brucker, Strassburger Jytlt <.iU jdJl ,t_;u J.»sw ^l^ cS->5Ul >ia ^l_^l 
oLl-UI ,1 — Jl j\S j_,U) oyill J J . Zunft-und PoUzelverordnungen, S. 6 f. 

^-U^ u^J.* ^i^^\ ^ u-u ,:^:w ,ujl <^_> ^x ^-iuij ^:5_JL; ^bjJ' olj;-> ^i 
. (Renaud, Relation des Voyages, S. 69. >J1 ) . ^U*i J •oiLuj iwi 

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^\£> ^^.^ J <G t dUS i <i JlJI <^>I1j (*UI ljJ.1 d^ ^^^^ jlT 1-XAj 



. Dlonys V. Tellmachre, ed Chabot, S. 148 f. (^ 
MltteU. aus der Samml. Ralner n/m. S. 176 (t) 






^ • *• • •• w* •• •• • •• c * 

^ Ijj^ jlj d 4^..., ::.■.:. ^Ui d!^ I^^Lc^u jtj i ^i'^^A- ^^^ 



M. Wanslebs : Beschreibung von Aegypten, S. 57. (Y) 

, Y^ ^ ^^y. t^V j^j^\ v^S- (t) 

. Yo ^ jr^>Jl v"^ ' YIT o^ T c: t^-rJ*I^ c'.J^" (O 

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ji <*jJu)l oLJjdl J LL^ Us j JJl Li ♦ ^^^^ i^U. c^3 
ObUJ ci'p ill-il oiA jl ^_j i J^yc^ jjJ iUtJL p^i Ta^I 

pjli^ cjLDI iiijl jy^^j i L«>Li jt Li^ jl tiUbjl ji bLjL jl 

^ ? LUI >> ^j ? 4ll Jl 4^ ■■■■r^l ^U^i ^\ )) : <rj-^ ^l 

oj :1^ Jl« Sj-^ ^j^ 2>\J\ ^3 (. 4,.i.....fr.n LJLUI oJla ^^-^ <l«iJI 



j,>^ »jj ju j;\jVi v^^-) • -5^^ ol;^! <^Vj ^t \jfl..?,i j\^\ ^yss\ .^^--l 

. ( ^ loA ^ ^TYT oJ^ 

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^IJbo ^^L- jU ^ AAO A XVT <^ cij ^ <pUe>i) I4J frj-.^'JJI JjJ*l> 

<^UJ1 ^IaJIjUI OJili^ qC- ^,,1 ^IJl jyill Jjl JJj . ^^>J1S.JJ1 



jUi--J («^ (t^ ' ^^' <^ ^'-^-^-5J 4 j>«iaJ' ^I (j-LUl) 






lijjl^ (^ ^..11 <-Ul ^JL*; cj^l t,^.J i Elias Nisibenus, S. 188. (T) 
<mJ» 5yb\^l r>>^^ *^-^^ ' ^ a^ ^ C: ^^^^ -''^ "^^ -^^ ^^ '^^■^-^ t^* 



i o^^jJIj cil ^^1 j^ J^^ A*^ *i •^,^' *^J^^" cT'bj *^ (^jL^l 

^"^^ U*; ^ i-JJI jAi '^ i> JjV ^r^l li^ J ^j 

. o-^*^' ^ <^ 'J5' <^^-^'^'' ^. ^^^'^ ^'J^"^' cA^^ 

dUoTj i ^^^^^LJ -Oil jU ^ i ^l 1^^'j 3^1 ji dUi ;ilcl ^j 



. Caro, I, 296. j^] (y) 

. T^V u* -» I'f-' -r-^ ^*^ ^*~^ C^^ i-xl5J\,v-5l ill^ >:^ (U 

. P^» IJU J ^5jU:uJ1 >^ ^Ui JUSJ ^1..^ ^Y u* T ^ y^JJ^ <.*-r^, («) 

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Cf. ^S-^ cf J^J <: ^"^_-^ <i^ (»4Jl>-b <:?wiJ.I jLi.! 






Cr! Lrr^. -r^' -r^-H v>^ '-'^J ' ^AT (^ ^JuUl Jii^ f.UJJL> jJLlo U*i (T) 



jUi j^^ l*i ^ JjU-Jl Oj-»-"**^> "^^^-J'j ^jLuajJl 0^''^r^-J^' OiJj 

Lait ^ij i A4JI dUi ci -^j^Jl 4o.^>ii olf ^JUl vl^l <*::-^ (* \ irA 



^>: ^1 olLUI jUlj -yjljAJI J i*jJl Atol 6L2^ Vt 



>iij t w.i - 1 r.r ^ ar\ ,^j ^-ijij ^>i** *Ljjvt oiy_j v^ (t) 

. Fagnan, Rev. Et. julves, 1910 S. 229. 

. T.T u- t^J^SJJ iVyi (1) 



olS'j . ^^^**_ ,_,.£S.I ^y_Jjl <«-JI ^IjjOI iU^ (i l^^-lTj i /»_^_ jT 
: JIS ^Ul oTj Ui i AJ^i aL 1 J i ^!»a^ i jU.I.., ,v -il jl^ oj 



Karabacek, J^\ ) . i-JLoJl <J* t^JUl <*j:ij oWl^t ^.Jw ^j^\ o^ f ^■^• - 

. (MitteUimgen n/m S. 168. 



\ •• * * ** 

♦ (^>'^ Jl >i ^ Ll^ V^ <) i^rl jl -oji ^y. *^> IJC.I dUoTj 

>UU ^,,^ D^^^ ioJu Js. j^Ul ^^ U5j ♦ ^^^i^AJI Ja! ^ 









J (. iLiiJJ v.Ja^_j j_x"*-^^. LjW ^^-"-^ i^^-? ' '^-*:r^ J^-^-? ' ^^ 
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i jJJt ^y "i : <) JlSj i Ob ji> Aiy]j J_^l Jll^l jbl <) 

'"-^ij c <ui] X, ; ;• , • ..,. tju^u tjLi ijj^j ^L^i pU Ui i "dU 



•Luaij i>,*aS jLL:? ^^ jLoJ <_i]| fj^'L* flftj L^l* IjAi-lj i *>.^ruJ <~-^ 

Ijjl? S}JSj (. ij^ *:jljli-3 Ij^j (■ \^j^3 jlj-^j ^jj^j 
«iy i. *<.jL-J <^ l_^JLftj 51_d:UJU jcl^ Ij^-wi <l.j)l. 



♦ o\Y t o\o ,^ s?-*-^^ SL-iiJl (t) 
- \*\ - 






^J^j^. ^ ^^^1 >t Jl pCJL <jj_^__, ,J^| J jUl 

<i Si , „3t~*« *^^9ei*j /aJ-jli .-^4 ."s^u. . t •^"■■ i * « « \ A w-x \ : • 



• •• • 

p \MT--A i.rcL.tij ♦ ^°)UJii.^S/l JlTji^.Ljj 1:1.. .^j 
«>j r^ ' p.^lj jLLJI, jUJIj ,^-i|, ^'l^i. 



jji jSlj A^] \j^j c ojA^\ ^^ i pjjl ^L ;^ ^1 



• ' AT i^ jA-^1 j_^ (If) 

. Barhebraeus Chron. ecclea. m, 259. (yj 

. jA-^\ ij-i- ({) 

tJJ^l c^V |.t^(j Mtr u- 'bJjJl Vl^ t t^Ji Uj c TAT ^ jJL^l ,^ (0) 



ft* 

jiikii ^>ui, p^'^-j i 4:^Li.i 'lij^i iii;i ^u i ^Lii 

^Ldl 4:joj <iiiJI jyo 'JfUJI C^^^'^yj rt^>i^ <i ^jLiJI j^ 
^jjl j^l >lji Jl^ VI U^l ^ ^y J JwiJl ^4 

ir J> i Jl-Jl Oljy ^-IliuT J S^pt;^ jAf^jS/' J^ riJ' Jj 



♦ (^) 






< ^1_^^ Cij}] ^ijl J _pAw oir oij < ^-*^^ o^ ^JUj -H*^. L- Of-^^ <>^J (^) 

: JUL ^ \.\. (b (., fV*^ <iJl t^JUt 45'jLkJl j;^ <j\jS j J^ _pAw o>*-^^ 

j^UJl o>J^ cr* ^^y* cf-^^ t,rr*-^^ v^*"^ -r*-^' 0^ c> • n cr» ^A-t <^ ^JjH 
H. Junker, A. Erman ^ui a^j o* ^ J ^.U UT ^l^ ^^^j ^^ ^ ^s^)U\ 

. JJ.-U1 IJL4J 



(. \y'j>-3 \j^3 j> ^^♦ _ j» ri^ c^ j^UJi ijji-:> ^ji j\ ^i 



. MT ,^ J^*- cri (^-3*j (T) 
. V \T ^ >u^l jj-ju (t) 



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JU ^^1^ U J!L:pj ip^j Ij^j^ ;?Mi> -J^j 

<iji^ ^j ^LJi iJL* '^1 j>^>]i ji j-^1 10 dj 



. Graetz : Gesch. der Juden V. 4. Aufl. S. 266. (^j 
Bodl. J,^lii^ ) (^jj*J^ cri^ a* ^ ^® ^^®J® • 2iDMG. 52, S. 77 (y) 

Url. 679 Jahr 380. 
. Guyard, Grand Mattre des Aasasslns, S. 14. ^^j 



( A ~ V^^^^ ijlM>}\ ) 



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ji LUI ^ij \ij ♦ (^)<d!l j.\ ^UJI <LUJI ^..^.r UjLl ^1 
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^j 4 o^ Jl i_^j ji Jl ^1^1 j_^_ ^_> J i_^ij, ^j 



(De Sacy : Expos6 de la ^^ */■> *15^ U yt (»ri*iJ ^jU ^^jT {\) 
cr^*^- CiJ^ Jl t^-fi (J ^^ cJJ c^j ' religion des Druses, CCLXXVm ff.) 

. J-^^^ <»i ^jy> ^J t Ji^T^^ lH (.rr^. r.-*^' J^^ S?"^^ ^-> ' C^^^^ -r-*^ ■>:»■■> cH^ 

<^\ ^ (Severus) ^3>_. ..ii^Vl Ji- oj>^l Oj^UI 0>jjll <r^ U 

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I_^ir <«3j ^ Js.]j i <)U:^i "jk^i ^i Jujiii JUJI dU; ^ 
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i ^.l^j (i ^^1 jLLJl ^»Jlijj Ij^i j^N|l ^j ^ ^ ci-^ 

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i (^jL^I :>a^-_5 4 UL, »jx^ ^^JUl J*JI ^ij Jl ''ijLiI Jll,^! 

^It J:i t^JJI ^jA. ^;^ j^^p^ ^j (, '\Jj^\^- ^%.^l Ijy^Ui; Ul 

»• 1 

^_Aj iyl.«j ^U ij^JI U ♦ *^^^*(_s^ dlli ^ ^_ Jj i <u:i._j 
M i .US *:/i <5QJi JUi Li J .^ •■ I-,/. Ji i jj-iUl 



jfrjij • l^J ^ -iUl l^ Ijjfcit^ <_j^l JfL5 ^_^^ o^ 4 <^ V^' 



C. H. Becker, Beltrftge Zur Geschichte Aegyptens, X» S. 61. 



- ^^•v - 



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s ** •• •• * 

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♦ V>^V' J^^' .j^ obC UJL^j 6 <^JLi)l ii^l ,bGS!i .^ 



• TYT u* uS"-J^ (T) 
J^l ^^ L.1 i <.jixi V^m ^yl^-j < Goldziher, ZDMG. 41, S. 31 ff. (Y) 



jl ^l>^l J\ J:>\ *j>-=". OJjU^ d^L. U cJl)l All J 

JLt«Jl *iUi j_^ 4...:.H jTj^ ^^/i ( "Ct. -(il <^j ) '^ j^ UiJ 

: Jlillij (i^yOL) ^J^l jl:> Ji-JUii SiU-JI :>\j\ J. )) : Jli olS'j 
c^Ju ''JC.l *^IJI jyLll OjJil jj ♦ '^'^^(C oUfr '^j> 'oUJ^ -it 5»*j 

J_^l /:. _^i >J.I i^l jj i ^^h <u^j '^ UJ* cJLi 

4 ^jf^ iS3j ^*^ ^^ J^ J^^ jl ( C MX - -* rr* ^\^ J>:ii ) 
jji\ jj . (•)<iiij l.uij <-^UJl <:Uks i ( <:fr -il (^j ) '^ 



Julius Wellhausen. Die religiSs-politischen Oppositions- 01:5" ^ij {\) 

parteien im alten Islam, Berlin 1901, S. 91. 

Jyuj £ o K a- ^*->Vl ,j-ijU <^S^ THA (^j J»>^ j^JUo ^_j\j (T) 

, \ ^ n-T o-M^ o^"^ 0^ <-^ Jw^uJi oUi* i_^v JL-j ^^' (i) 

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oUVl O^V^ ot^ <JU JU-V\ (J U IJUj i cujus regio, ejus religio (o) 

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i_^-ir ^u 'p y\ VI ^i::^! >s; udi cjig j^i ^J^ 

^AA j1 dUij y JAI i'^- J ,__J| , (O^ ^jj^ ^-^L^ ;^_^jj, 

^j ♦♦♦)) jit^l ^ ^^_^ 'p- JaI 'yi jir_j i :uyGl J ol 
^ <;Li c b*A^ L^ jlTj i ^Jl_, ^ j-_j 4j1 ^^_ u Lii> 
"^-^ -^ ^ -^ii <--. o^ ^ ^^y_ V ^1^1 iU^l ^.^^ ^-t 

^ <1 jUi ^»4*i^^ ^tj ! -^ jjjiL:^ 4il jU. ^l j^. "'^ 



• tT\ o^ jo-^ai ,j_i; (X) 
^u ^jyi uj_^ otJ'j <-4^J <V«r-i <-^to 

j^\ <3^\ S^a. J iJi 'iUi 'T^^- J) <-^-UJ ob-j < ( \ro ^ ( ^ ytjOl <^_ , 



-US' JLli j! ^Juj 4 ioi^i ^j i:>\:j) ^ *';5> y J jiTj 

^ JiilL oj3^A^ oL^L oU) ^ ^^U ^ Jj Lii 4 CJ^ 

^j <J.U J=^S? *^^l *-^ J\ <^^^^ (J^'jJ' j'-r^ (>• f>» r^^J )) 

jbo ^ cijji diii J cJir y j^; i uji i ^lu! ^L^i oi 

i iiJUJll jr '^ oilUj JUi^i cJlTj . <^^<4 l_^^ -cfj^i ilil^l 
j^. '^ <^.lcr^ J--^J u^ J-^ -^-t <i^i vr- 'Jl^J ^ ^'""^' 

j^L^^ t^'j^ o' Jj^ /y'-*-<^' "^ c5j^?^' /^'j^' ^y^' j^'j' 

<*^i '-uu. ^j^iij dUi jr u jiar^^i ^:ii^j ^y=ji^( 'irfi::. 

( ^^ jA Uic ) Lj- LuJ Ckj TJujt4 j! : j^ .r:";^ L^ j^l J 

. ivA u- t c: r ^^^^ ^^^ xiJ^ t^ ^iJ^ '^^^ u^-^i f^ v^ (i) 

• T^^ ^ ^-^^ (T) 

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♦ 4^l^l>i ^i^V L. oj/dl ^U.^1; <]j:JlI ^IaipI <i5jyC" ji a, 
^^^_j, . :^UU VI ^ c^l. iJL^ ^. ^j . ^^>i]j:J.! 

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. TTA jJL^l o-^ (T) 



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i!jj^_ Will .U^ 0^.1 0^3 . ( ^_Jdl. ^UJl J.^1 >il ) J:^ 

^i ^ i>LJI A*) <*o^l Uai. J jtJb ^ \ .X\ — -A iX ♦ ^It j 



Wellhausen, Oppositlonsparteien, S. 99. (^ 

;^_j^ V,^^. ->-hJ1 J! cr-^^ -'^^ ^^^^-^^ *^J^^ "^J O^ ^Sj^j^^ o* tr^ (T) 
(Frlediander, ZA, 23, S. 24 <jiju >;i ) <ium ©JL* .bT oj^rr^. ol^' r*-> ' V-r^' 



ci-^' o^.':^! o-LI)! C^,3 <^l ^y j^ ;is>i. iJL^ ^3^- L.,j 



^J3\j, jLil5j '^ j^l j^ 3, 



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^1 ^Alll ^ dUoTj ♦ (^)<:^ ^^j LjCII j^^ <i^ "4 Up 
ijU* jl 0_^ JUi^l j^lljj, i>« J?-j (> >Jt <;'^ «o ^/Ja-lj^ir 
cJ^I ,^j 6 ^IjJI ^y> ^^^_ ^ Lk j! ^ . (t) j^^ «^ 

<fLAi ^ ^ jir ^ i o, j^'^j -jj ^_^i j,jui ( ■An^ 

i Aus\ jAj <U-|j oLlCj 4 SOsM 4)L* C-ftJ -cL Ifr 'jLi U.J 



Goldzlher : cKultur ^ (.. . m ^ n jr ( .b.Vl ^:^ ) .Li^vi (,) 

(?) der Gegenwart*. 

: Jyu .U^ (^Jjl j^L ujuii ^uiji ^ (Yj 
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^y-^ LL^ jlTj i ^.^^' <^' Jj=»^ ►'^ -^1 3!AjL» ciy (* \*\\ 



>«A.M«i« 



b I ^ <;i ijiJl *c^.^ JotL jj 4 "^^ ^1 /jb" J 4^jJ 

^ jj-'LJi jv^J^> oIa-« 7"L— laJl tl>- U-U ♦♦ j3 ul Jj iy*3 ^ *^-^L>- 

-tbl ^ : ^1 A-i'j^ ^j:^^ jl aJjjJI >4 ^ ^^^1 jj^\ j\J\i 



W. Sarasln : Das Bild Alls bei den Historikem der Sunnah. (^j 

. UJb Uj oA a- ^A^. Ojjo <*J, j^»JU4Jl j;u-j (() 

. jb Vo\ |"U c^- tVA a- T jr ^^^ y} (V) 



( ^ . V^^^^ ojtiiaJI ) 



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jlT c Ao* ft rr^ <^ J5 ♦ <*U1 AfrlkJI 'aLIj :>lJbL) <3>UJI 

it>lj T>_^ ji-^ ^ J^JI .IL^Ij :^_>JI ^\^H\ ^j^\ 

Jl i,lk^l ^ >L. ^j c L.> ^j^ Vj c ^<^ ^'c5> J^. 

UL4 p ^^^ ft ro* <:-.- ^ij^^U- ^^ j <^i c^i^; a5j 

? dUU. ^ : -o'jJbto ^ oj^\^^ -ij^l jlS'j c <*^l j^j iij:Jlj 



• nA t/» O-^J t Guest <^ tiJ-^5^ 5l-killj iVyi vL:f (Y) 

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j_j3s*JI l:.,.,..'v liU (. i}jj2l^\ \jcij Jjiijl l_^i J) : j-iJI «^UJI 
l-U 4 (^Oli, ^1 j>^ J^ JU. 4.jl^ : l_p.U_5 j^v^l iijL^l ^ 

cUiJill J ..^.^Ldl ^;;...u>.l cJ*^ U^j i LLdL«i4 <^yCl5^ ^•- Jj 
J <-UI ^" ^ Uii U^Ur ^ AL a5j ♦ j^A^j 4>...^H cli^yij 

^jJl p^l ^j c ^ ""^^^J ^r^ ''iULA^ 4 ^jjl jLip ^u^i 



AY er* 1^•A .^^^ <-> cSjiyU-U *UUJt jU^L *U:^1 JiUM oL5 (l) 



. ^''^ jl^l :>Lilj ^Ull ^-uaJj ij_JI jUblj jj^l j fJ-" '^ <-J 

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jUl IJj> 4=^^ c--^j L. jU^ ,:^^LlL) ^LJI j_^jdl JL« <;i 

•yi jlUI J^_ ip::=^_j ^1 ^^1 i/a^_ ^, , ^^1 j^ J^ 
^1 J\ ^^\ l,,«J.i^_ ^j . ^'V^' C-'^' ^>" >'^' ^ 

L^ "^j i iJL* ij5 i_:^ jji'y^. ijiis" jA^yi jS; i ^_^i 

^oiL" L ^U Jl, . cn)ijt ^ ^ ^^_ ^, ^u i^ ^ 



u^-^i o^^^i <Lu^» u) ( rv (^ ) (^-at j^_^ • UA ^ ^^1 ^r) 

. UA ^ \ ^ ^*V1 ^\ (0) 

. ( Too ^ i -^) jlAiu ^/ iur oo»; ^\^\ ^s^^ju. : o_jiL. (A) 

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a5j 4 ^UJL ^^AAltyj IbLbJI tlL^i <i ^ ^bC ^IJI iiJ^l 
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<J'^I j^ i->j jlXjij 'JUJij oUJJl J .jini ^^Ujij 



p \n — -*^rY\ 



• <t^jjjVl <*JJ1 or- TAT ej-» T c: -* TTT p^ cu*j 
t TV ^ 1 jr -4^^— J f TVA ^ A c ^^1 crfl^ J MA u- *^J>?J^ CH^ r^^^ (t) 



'c> Cf ^'>' c> >i' D!^ "^' <i c^ ^. >b > Jl 

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cJu^i' <iy Jj ♦ iijji ijj4i^ij c ^\p\ \jns^3 ^u!i 1^^^ 

-Oe-*-^ Jj i OU^^Ij ^^LjJI C->^J i <U^I 4^p^^, 6'^' 

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— \rv — 



f Ji ^'Ij* <i </-J' -iJy t>- » : »lj^U ^j-. ^>. ^ b'^.A-i- 

Cs^j^ OUI '^JJ J=.J Jfr nil J«*3_ <flC., 4;j*J 41;-^ '^J3_ 

ji ^* ♦ (»^LiJi jftt i^b > v>"' jj^ V. ' ^> V. oir 

jb Y'A\ ('If' <afcaJI ^i ^y J^ joj^ <M^\ ^ji (J iiUi <iJI 



. V ^^ cr- Arri (»ij cci^ J»>i^ ,^^ jui v^ (t) 



A5j ♦ ^^^t;U! Uki^ ^ Oj^:^^ cL^^yi j.l5C:Jl jlT ^ C ^^y}\ 



^.1 jt jy^i J <i^uii 4-^1 oi^y J jU <) jir U-.J ♦ <^)^^i 

(*Ip <j dlli ^^^j>...>,.U ^^ a5j c dLi /^y^ tils' '^^U ^ a-^>* o^ 



. MY^ - t lYA ^ jJL^l .^ (t) 



:>>^^ J A3JJ olr J^l j^j J-o- ^^ o^lr ci "J-^-^ <Ji ("^ J^j 

o^'-^ t>* J-?^-? ^^V ^♦^♦ '^ !♦♦ ^^ **-^ j>^ *^ j^^ ^ (jjj»^ 

<)jJlI1 'JL-Jifr ^\yS^\ cf" <:? c^^ )y Jjlj ♦ ^''Y *^^ * ^^^ 

j'^JLLIj ^^''^^Is'cJj jlj JjLdi ^y ^js^- L« ^Ajij 6^ ^A4> ^ AC* ^ 



• lot ^ ^ ^ _^'Vi o^} (u 

• TA- (j^ A ^ jJ-^1 (j-ii (0) 



A«-i^ J ^^ol jl <<> JJ ^j 05 jlTj i '^JL ^j^l j\S3\ 
JUi i ,L.i 'a!1 J^ i J o v^ ji jo ^Ull Jl o! ..-JiJo 4 jwflJ 






. rrr « n ^^ ^^-^^ (n 

(Schrelner. ZDMG., 53, S. 81). ^j^ i^ (x) 

. ITT (^ ^^JA^ ^*^ S5-*-r^ t:?>" O^^J i T.\ (^ \ c: ^'^^ O^^ («) 




Johannes Hauri<->1:^ J^ (^^ ^r^' ^j^ ^J^^ ^^ ^1 j^ ry» 
• j^J^yr V^ Ji CT^ i}T^^^ ^'j> t>«J Islam, p. 89 ff. 
,^—^J^ ^\::S3\ \X^j q Goldziher, Vorlesungen liber den Islam 
:o!_^_ 4_jyj| J\^j Muhammed and Islam jl_^ ^J:r^^*^l JI 
• tj-U. ^.^ lo^l J^j le Dogme et la loi de I'Islam. 

.L/^ <^^\ j_^l jjj^_ ^i5Cji ,v> (i ^^1 ^_^j j_^_ 



lA^I-^ o-:iU^ P^^l oliOuJ ,^-xJU; ^y> Jj-^L; <i^ail oUOuJl *Jjt {\) 



J>Jl. iLUJl ,_,.;^.Ao j>^jji ^-tJl j! ^ J^j ♦ ij3 jjl ;uwJl 

<^U1 ^ 4-^_^l j.^\ ^J\ ji j_^^_ ^u c <jLjVI vlJl 



io^l ^IX!..! Juiir <::.^ ^Ji. ^.,.,^;r aI^^JI 'Jj»i ^^.j! 

^ iLA^ ij^ jAj i <-)j*Jlj ijbVlj yUJJI ikLJl j:L*^ j» 

-il ^>^ ^*.--j_ ^^jA jlS* L _^ j^ 4!ttl ^^^ dUi Uli« Jloj 
j! <*^l ^-j, ♦ jLjMI .^ .-. J .^ .^ i^U. ."A:^ 



^Jsi\ '^^ U^\ j^ JI c^i ^ 4 ^jjT ^y ciio- i.UVl 
^ jyJI ^1 ^^1 A-p ^j 4 "Ufr -Al ^^J Js, 's^s A^LJI 






— Mr — 



JjJjcJlI jl:p pLVl oU^ ^Iaj <^VI Jj'UiJL 'JS.:::::^ ^1 .1^1^^ 



\y^\ ii^L <«_i)l jljcti Js, Uuj Jjb Uj i »l_^l ^ <«^lj 
i-^ ^_^U! I_^j ^ ij i Ui jLq Lj 41:^1 J ^1 !_^ ^ 1 
4 i:JU ^Ji^jk ,a ''i' . ^; <1:-JI Ja! 0>^jU. V ^jJU c U_^li1j 



Wellhausen. Die Religios-poUtischen: >*)<) >1^. J JjJiU^ <^j 
CjLtl '.r-n <5'ji^ jl dUij .Oppositionsparteien im Alten Islam 

^Sju '.iJjjJI Jl >J1 ^ <:....^"r L. A^L.*yi i^LJI Jj^i jl JHa* 
iS'l Ji "ij jl cAl *^j c^Vli Sj^^ 0-3 ^\^^^ Vi^ 

dUoTj i \j^\ ^1 Jdl ^*l" JJ V- ^. -ujl '-V^ <. ^"1 ^ Jjl JlS" 

ijj^^ij ii^i j^'i :i--^i <^jU. »Ji ^j -A3J i ^>Ji 

^*i J I ^j ^ ^ J jS;i J^Sfl ^j . iJ^l aJV ^ a->^> 

*• *• •• 

II j**^ U^U 4 'jpJl ^1 cjU-^t ^ <*--iJi jt _ r 

• « 

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4 <jjil (^>lf _^ lAA IJ* L. jTj 4 <«-^l J^ V.-^' obU::^*^! 

• * 

jJi; *y l.j-a** aLJL, ^ ^j^ ^^ ^-^' ^>-*^ 'JJ* '"^ J*-' 

♦ (^jl::^ <JjJdl SLstll <) j-*:^ L» >* <J>j\*a 



( U - *^iL-»1 SjUisJ? ) _ Mo — 



♦ <Ij:J.I -^j d JjUllj ^>JI ^U^i JjS ^y ^y>' ^^\^\ ^[^"j\i 

Juo »^:i^lj jj-JJI J T,^ Tjjji ^,^L J <IjiJ.I ...^Ju 61 : JU j^ 

J JO fl\ <*^l Jl dUi ^ d iljlJLl jroV I4J ^^^Ul> 4>..*l,l S^r^ 



♦ l4j--ajc4 ULI ^p^^ jO ^il JjtstJ jl 

^2^ cij^lj Aaj)1) ^UJI J.^1 ^:T J ^^y-^j?- J2 jGj 
Ji>j jfr jLJJl JL^b JljJI j_y^ji jGj ♦ liojj «u*.L» jLifrV 



- \n - 



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i -i^ oLVj ,-^_* oiJb jUtL '4l-ii ^L^LLUi '<Ijj cJlT 
^•^ i/J.1 4iJUl 4S5ip ^" ^j 4 bC-Uj ^45rj oa::^^j 

o\yj> iVj j5a jir ujij l lusi ^^jIjj^ uji^ ^^- olv^i 

^ i ^^^dJiDi jytii (*LC josi ^j i ( p ^♦r — A^r = -A rA\ 

<! i ^^>JaJl o'ji^ ^U^ tl^^^ U^ oillj i yS' oliV^l jijlj^ 

j»>^ t { r ^u — «t rrv pU j^ai ) >->. ^^ i^ioij ^i>Jt v*^ (U 
^bJ^J^ v'-^ J '^-ijj (^^ J-'i <-J^j • 1 1. _ V ^ u-* u-iJ^ v=^ «^•v ^j 

"^ t ^,^^ ^b ' Amedroz, JRAS. 1913, S. 829 ff. IJU ^ >j\ (T) 

^ ^\ .X^ ^UJt ^^Ij XJ^t J^ ^.i^ '^Ij 0^^.:> 'V^L- J V.JJJ '^^rLi- 
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- Uv - 



Ji ^" iijjji iji^ij i ^^1 ^\j\ j^i ,u- d^-^ i c^)j. ^^r 

i"^ ULil ^^^ ^ jl_^_:> jT jlTj , <::^jkji j|_^_:s ^_j iijQi 
^Li* ^_^- cJlT jjlOiL. oLVyi oijlj:^ ^ fj:^ jU i <^ :>l_^l 

' ^_yi^l lt^ LaAo-i : jList^ <Jj i (_r:^' j'^-s (\) 

i JUJI ol5U*i-l >l JjS'I J ti^_j ♦ ibUil ^^J:^^ ^_;ll]lj 



._^^l ^,.„«llj i <_^UJI 






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oi^i jUi)i ^u*. c>i ^aJi _^j i ^Ji'juS/i ..r^* (v) 

♦ JljiS/lj oUUVl <Sy^ }\^ ^ dUi 

Jljjtj i <>.!>(t_j pl_^l -LiL-. 'j^l 4J <ij3tJ_J i ,j-i*-jJ'j j;^' j>« 

♦ ^L-Jl ^'L-j JjuIaJUlIj JaS^jjIIj j._jl*Jlj ^Ul ^U^lj 



o ^ _ \ A ^ jjL-ai u-i : oi-j (1) 



- ^i^ 



\j^ ^^L^ j[ iAiUi ^^1 yu dUoTj c <j ^^ r . /r-] i \4^j\3^ 

^j-^ ^ ^r^ — * r\i ^l^ Jj ♦ '^^^ ojJL^j U^>^'^.-? ^jl^i^^ 

c5j>^^'j jl^JdJ LaIj^-I (. qCit^ ^ ^_iO jl^Jdl Iaa j 

jir L. iJu^ 4 jLj:> ^*yT 4.*%* ^ jT J (^liCj t^j^*^' o-*^' 



j> UXLj 3I L4::-. ,^j^ 3I Lfr^ ju^ o^y.JtJ^ c_^L^ j> <>^ « S-'"^^ WU-i <i-J 



'JlJI <!j i I4) ^^\y>^ J^^ jt 6 iLAiJI^ (^'>J' ^^d j^^3 
a 49 i <^>L-*yi <IjuJI J ^Jl ^ <*t:l*^ <?-j-^ ^^^, -^ U^%b 

^_JJ1 jU.Sil "^ ^3 ) Veredarii ^l, jy«-^_ "jl^l Jb^l 



. (. \rY — » no pu 

J. Burckhardt : Die Zeit Constants des Grossen, 3 Auf. s, 70. ^y) 

. (2A. XX, s!* 196. >il ) <k^\ JU^j J\j=.T 



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JJiyjl J:^5«i) ci^V^' **^i* J^ J^^.J ^ U*-^l>»j U^L.1j <L^ 

^Ijjlj ^L^lj £l>!lj ♦♦♦ JL,lA^^lj (?) ojUil jUj SLkill 
i ^JjjJI <^L^ '^U^^ jLir ^1 jU^^L -Lid ^^^ Jb^l ^^U 












f«r?^ 






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iAiJ;^! -Ufr I!_i JUj ^ c. Uj j^^- <Jl5 i /«:i^l jl^_.i (v) 

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cii, jGj . <j:ir jt iLUJi ^ ujy u.^ 'ijkjs j^ ^jis::^^ i^js 

jlTj . ^ji-^^iJl <jL^U j.^1 j.,.„,>. ^ -Cj-^j U*5j^ »lS'i jUtlj 



. {. _ T\ u- v.y (1) 
. JV^ <^ ^ T-l ^ 1 j7 ^1 vl^ (T) 






«jj_^j <iJiJl lAt__^ l^*^l_^ i^lj Ljl-ai -Uj i <tU jj;_j'j-^' (_^' 

jl_^_^ 'j^ jijij c ^_jljali J\ U^l>lj ^1 ^ j^>i y> 
lS^j^j>3 J^^ j'ji^ -^^ f ^^T — «^ r** pl^ Jt,^ Jj 

♦ ^^^b^j? jLil^ <^V-)' ^.-)V ^ilS'j i o^lj J^J ^"UJI 






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i jl^S/lj J^IV'J ^''j^l J[ v^^' ^>' a- Ui^" ^j\jM\ 

ji'j^j (^iji^b ^i=-^tj ^>i]i ,;^ ^ ^'Liu.j ^u^'yi 

iO^A^ '*^j > ^}J\ jji\ Jflj! Jj . ^-o^l ^ JjV^i ^_^«^| 



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iV^I > ^UiVl J>:, ^^1 ^j . ^UjaJI :g1> J\ iN^I jrl> 
J_p V cJlT "M ^jAl! :gI> oS/ i Jl,^*^! ^ "OaJ J-.^_ L. 

i ^"^oVj J U>*^ j;ry«lJll jj-Jj <l«flu IJiAj i (j-^^. *^!^-^' "^ 

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. YY u- ''JJJ" Vl^ Cf) 

. iJUl OL=^i-oJlj 1 1 ij^ jJL-ai ij-iJ (T) 






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^jyj c U.4-J Wj>- i 03^1 <iUJLljj j;u-*-&j>-j <^-^l /_J1 ^-*^' T^' 

^yi^- Cibo i <ljJdl ^'\j^ ^li- ^^" cJlT obV^i J r-l>Jl 
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c TT - T\ ^ i^Jjrr^ <i^^^ j'^'^^J ' WV _ TVo ^ 1 ^ i/^_>aJ JiliiJl (U 

Simonet, Hlstoria de Los mosarabes de Espana o*J^^^_. .j^^s J ^W^^ ly.l 

. Madrid. 1897 — 1903, S. 158. 



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. Wilken. Griech. Ostraka, S. 378 *>^1 . <iJUl ^1>U pU\ 



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^5 ^y^j i Vj-^' c$>S'1 ^' J\^ J^ -L^l UjI^ o^ ^\ 

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: 1 M _ V ^• a^ «^•Y ^j u-^.jL. ^>^ <_-.1juJ ^1>J^ v*— ^ (T) 

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. ^j.j.-n ',>^ <JVi <*iiij u _ r 
. {.L-AJi o^y.j Lf*-i ^^'^. ^^ >^ oV.-> c:^>^^ ^^y-^ "^^ Jl o^j • j>^' 

. 0»-1> ^ oi-jl-J-^^ *^*-^ c^i ^-i -^ Vj ^ Kremer S. 293 ^i 

— \\r — 



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.b^!>0 jA*.lr Jl^ j^iJDI jC=^^ ^^ J jy-^^l ^^1 J* i\o 



Mathias Gelzer. Studien zur byzantinlschen Verwaltung Aegy- (©) 

. ptens, S. 72 ff. 

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. V - ^ ^^ u- o-iJ^ -t>i^ <.\xi} ^\j^\ vL^ (U 

Schmidt, Die Occupatio Im Islamischen Recht, Der L-ijt ,/-^^j 

Islam, I, 300 ff. 

.^jj J! V jm v^ Ji <-^j>ii fU-J^ o* J-^. ^ J-r J! ^^^' ^-^i (o 

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A n"-n <iJL^l >•' I" A\'\ * XAT i-lj^ t^j { (danisches Recht. S. 211, 247 

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o-^\ ^ LT-'J cr^ cT-^' c3r^^ S^ ^Ji (^-^ 



»5Ll^^U ^\yy^ l^ ^_ jl t^tjl iLUJI pUal-l aSj 

j_^lj <:j^U^_ cij^l iljjOl ci^ jl ^ ♦ (^><*-i._^ Jt Jlil 
jUCj 4 »JLk ^ UiU ^Jl tiUil ^ ^^ ^jj— ».l>lqvfrp\ii_ 

44 •• ' 



<^^i pL^-ji j:;* j-iuu L. •jy_ oL »^T jjloii <iU^i jA-^i p \rr - j> rn = 

. UA - UY u- u-^.-'V -l-^^ i/J^-^ ^^Jj''^ (V) 



^^ ** ** ** •* »« 

^J^ Si j^ "JU ^i^ 4JI J.1^ <i 1 M ♦ \ ♦ — -^ i ♦ \ (^i^ J>J^I 
iLj i <Jp frUlIlj <J frl^oJL ^Ul 7c-iii <; <) ^l^-vll ^1 ^^p^ j^l 

^l^? ^ ' o-yj' a-* L^^. t^J' '^^J ' ■^'^ "^^^ ^-> 



. Wtistenfeld, Die Statthalter von Aegypten, IV, S. 35. ^\) 
Caro. Soziale und Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Juden, 1, 316 (T) 



jl ^ ^^Jl \Xa 111 Jij i ^"U. J <^L:i.Sl JL« ^y *jf- -^ii JlS" 
jUdl ^^^ jl ^ . i^ ^L. '^\y>Ai l_^Jb jl ^1 jLJI 

Jl >- /r-*-^ -^^ n — * i^iS' Jl — «j J — **^^ i^i ^^"-? 

<_JLl>. Vj ii /, • i ruL^ <! /cJl:*^ U -ujIj V : jUa 

SjL^ li Jlil J ^1 ^j ijL^I J o^.ji' L_-ilj 

j__J)l Jl_Z. fijJL_Jjjij ^^^--ill jL_^Ju o_^_:^Ai 

;L- J U^ JUl cJ : jUj j^-i-j iLfJl J—- lil t;^ 

LjLji ^^_j ^1 J..V...1 liai^'li 4 i_^ u _^^ik^! 

^;u i_^'ir ^1 ^_/^uj.i «^L-i (^j=*i ti->Ji c^i ^>- ^jj 

JUJ! JIjhI <^j3C>JI Ai.'^ Jl>.1j "Jl. oljiLJilj Jl«::>" ol^Ul*. ^ 
43_,X1^ J.1 U ,/^i 4 <J_^15 <i> ^ ^ Tjj=.j Uk 4-^UJI 

o>. cr^' c^.' Ol"-^" ^.' ci^W olS- <U. ^ > L 1 ^j^l jl -P 
tij jir <J^i 4 Ul^. U> <J^ ,^1 Jl A^.'^_ ^j i Ol>)! 






t> ^IJl oyi\ Jfljl J jbo c j>1 J .^" OS ij^LJ.! (-Oii 

^Uj ^Jjij ^>L^. ^LU J^l ji 4JI ^ JlTjj ♦ lpVA\ 
^_ jlit jy ^ \ri _ J» rrr ^l^ ^yii • (( ^^^j^^"^ jl*^' (-- tK 



• t^ "CI 



U U:^ <JUl.1 /JLi ybj 6 ( »J_;il <J^_ U \-U ) . jjL-^l ^^ -^il S?-^^ «J^^ t^ 






(2::*^ 



. ("^lill ^ jjs^j ^*U^I J.^^„J ^ ^^^Oi-^ 



lU^l JCfr 7-^ a, . ^•^'lt'. ^x^. ot ^ o* ^il^" J^ Jl 



JU ^ <] J-^;^ 4 U:i ^Ul J^j i ojb Jl ^1 ^j ^. 






— >r>r\ — 



i >T cij j <J^ Jo. MU i dUi J <;j,Lo ^ jiL <il jyjb^ 
VLL ojb Jl ^,j^_ jir : .i^^^l J JU ^^ jtji lii <i^_ jir 

jlLi ^^ -^l ^' i ^ ^j i >vjl ^^1 J ^_A^Li! ^ <u. 
' ^ Uii:%j Ji^L^I J! JUJI --^^^ aJi JU.J, i jai ^a.j 

^ dUi jij i jai ^j J^i ^ Ta^l j::i_ ^ <;i olH ^ij 4 JiDi 

>- jir ^ 4 ^UiS-yij J^\ ^_ i ^j[^ 4,^1 _^ y^^ ^[5-^ 
*>^ cP*^' OJ-^' Oill-U i IL^ dU^_ V ^% <il J^ ^j^l 

ji ^Iki^l ^ i <^jj <^jj f**-^. j^_ o^j * -cLU J^ 






-- rrr ^ 



^ji tL— ! ^ IJU i *t5->j -^a^ <>^ W^l^ "^j^ ^*r^ f^* ^ ^ 

(^JC*I ^2^_ ,_^j i ttl!j <] =^^ ^ ^:jyL«ULl <3yu.j jy>J\ dli j 

^U^lj ^IfiJGl ^y <_._ J^ ^j--- jOj «dAS 'V^l <^> 
,:^u^ ^ T^l :;5-^i ^1 ,>- jl J\ j.^j^\ ^\ iiij .u. i^ 

^'1^1 lj_^-:frl jl <IlJ.I »xt> !>=._ jl pUiiJI Jjl^ -^j ♦ ji^ 

a*-? <: J^*^' (>^ Jrvol .0 V^^. '-^-5 ' *^i' Cr^ ^'^ ^:^j*^' 

^ »Li U^l M.IT Ult cijkj. jl «.,Uv.„. ^bl jl S/1^ oUi lAA 

_^j i ia*.lj S^ ^jJl\ ^J ^^ a">^' a* cs**^ ^^' -^^"^ 
^ Jlil j:jvfr ^2^ -u.. U <-j_^ ^^^_ jl UuJ <] -vj V <Gij i _;^iUI 






iy 



<k:^' 



^jiillj -^Jj jlTj ♦ oijLo.^ <J_^i y^ ^j 4 oljLj^ /j^-^' 
j\^\ j ^jH-j ^>" cJlTj 4 "^j^ j,^ jT ^ ( o-i^' ) 

^-b" i'_^_ x^l^ ^>0:^1 j> v_,yJl iJ>. jliLJ jlTj . (^^LiJl 

jL)^ eiL-aJ Jei-I) x»4-iuo oU3 4 <UJi)i ti OjUr ,j£- t_Jl waJI LJI 



(De Goeje Internationale Handelsverkeer In de Middeleeuwen, Verslagen 
*UJU1 o^ (^ Mededeelingen der K. Akad. v. Wetenschapen, 1909, S. 265.) 

t^ ■< ii tj-i^V^ C^'-'J MK ^ Ji.U.-..; » "^y cg-J^:«-''^'t ij-^Vl J----* j.(>.':^» ) <iiJj 

V4-^>iJu-l < .\i- ...t <JLJj <ijjt* UjLU (J— Jj J ( v*::^^ J^-* ) •y'^l <*^ cr* f^T ^r* 

^ ^^s ^j (^ \u - -* rrr (-u or^i J! _^>— c^-u^ ^^ ^} >rUJi oi a* /-^ ^ 

>j^l V^^-r^ O^ Cr*J ' ( CO-*' ^-^ c-3*J o^-*^-^^ (*^^*"** S? ^->*k ^ Ot^ ^ J ^-JL- «-; 

. Schaube. Handelsgeschichte der roman. V61ker S. 149 ff. j^l . j^~>S\ 

— TTi — 



jl^:> <k<lyi)l :>>Ij :>jJi^ /j-o <jLUt)! <*XlL^ :>j-V^ -Ut ij^\ i_)l) 

^1 ^j (. \:^y^\ J^3 Jo* jT ^ A^J. olS'j . (^)jWJl 

4ft 

i J^l jAl ^'%_ J\ JuLo ^1 ^l_^l Js. -^V^ ^X^"^ oy^_ 

I4J jlT jU i 4^ cJy ^.^ <ii^ jlT ^j i ''jj'j jJj <«-« jlT ^_yj 

jjji ^^ V jir V' ^bj ^iJ * ^^^<ib V c5-^) r^^i ji <i 






( 10 - V^^^ SjL^flJl ) — ^^^ — 



l^^ir j^L:=Jl jl ^ 4 ^1 ijlO dUij i jU^_ j?l_^ oi/-*-^^ 



CT-* -r- 



_ja .gi.:..-^^; <>^Ji - 



• Tt. ^ ^-^1 (1) 



_ TT^ — 



^^^ U- ll^tj Hp^L-jl Jl^ c5-^„^' c-U.^ij ^ (j^. c**^ J^^lj 

^*l5C-j ^Jb^i A.ycJ>.^ ^Ui ^L^i ^ _^ ^i dlli .b*i Jj 4 ^ 
ji -0)1 Jlj i ^ cSJ^'j J^' o^ ^J^ ^ '^'' f^' ^ f^J^' 

<>!> ^^j (-UI Jlil c^^ Jaj J.^lj (*>L.*yi J^ Jjl JLL. (^Jl:S Jui 



. n - To u- 

JU c^ ^> ^I^Vl ^ .^ 4 pUl jm o^ ^^j _^j t ^_j_^ o^ (T) 

— rrv _ 



^yiijCli <iJLiJi dUJiTj i ( ('^♦ ^ — A\r = -ArA^ _ rv^ ) -^■av,«U 

• • • ••• ^^ •* •• •* w •• 



/ «-* « * 



S 



4 4-^UJl JL C-J j^l ^-^a; jb^ cjiJl cJl dlli (^j-^- r-^^icl^ jlj 

«■ 1 



. UA - UY ^ *bJ>J^ V*^ (T) 



- ' " s y 

^^p^l p1*\5j i <jij LiflJl O'j }*Ji OLiii J i ?t^^' (t"^^ Ouii^ T-^ 

♦ ^''^'<^\ici\ JLo c^ Jl j.^^- ^1 Jlj^'^l cj>^j J^ joV.:* 



(2*^' 



, jjiiil^ UiLM (^1 JV^l u^H >*J tAo _ TAl a-* « H ^.^^^ ***> 



— >f>f\ — 



* (^>jLj oJt Zi!i _^ ■<*. ji J I >'ail 

^jU Jul ^^ ^-y_ ^JOl <-Ul ^LjJIj ^1>J1 JU (x) 

^U Jo "-L^ jT (i dUi jtJJU iLj i ( oUiJI i»UL-l Jbo ) jU/j 

i ^ji oi! I oiJl ji^^i^j "^y^ ( c ^rx _ ^ \ \ ) j» rx ♦ J^ -* x^^ 

i ^Ulj i <.UJI JU c^_ Jl J*^" cJlS" ^»j^j:> oil I eiVT <».jl U^ 

jl c-^J ♦ <*^UJ1 JL« C-^^ ^_^^ 6 (♦^J-^ cjLJI <-iIl ^^pii- <«-^" _^J 



< JUl c<^ oJ^ i*'-^. r^" JU^ U^i t^y. t/J^ u-^Vl <^^J f c^L^J^ UiLiM J 
<;U ^p^ v^U^ t./r^V^ VJ JijL-^l J JU^ 0:t^, t^.ij^ o>JVJ -J^^ u^ OL^J 

^V o>ll ) JL^T LfJJ <-;:j4 V ^/Jl cr^l^l Jljul ^ ^y cJbJ < olA*i-Jl o31> 
( ^ \Y( - J» T'\( f^ JJj i/-iJ^ ) Elias Nisibenus >J1 . ( IJU _cx u\ ^ »^jJ^l 



iJL^j i ^^^4^UI JU c^ Jl ^ i o^ til ^1 6jL^l> lLJ^\ JU LUo 

^jjJl »ljjjJI Jl^^S; i>Ull ^^^ J^Ji c5^l c3L_il (i) 
jl>.Jj (_5-xII jLllj ^ ^U-^J? pUTjI /*^ J-^astj Uj JUjJtj i^LOIj 

_,^lj Jv-^lj j'^'^lj :»I>-Jl'. 



♦ 1— } 



t a.^: ^ TjjstJ j<^i jLj^ oiJl oiJl (V^r^J <.^«*J>- <!-*-- /V^r^J (T**"^ 



ouii u o^j < c^^i tr^k cr-^^ ^'^^ Jy p ^Tr - ^ rn pu ^j < <iaiji <;i> 

Jjj 4 JjlJli «-jUT pJ^^j o^-»^^J oL-'jiJl J-^ O* *J^-*JJ— ' -J^-^ J>^ 0*^ ^ C^^^J 

U ^ i/UVl J ,^*— J ^Ji5jb ) i v*iP <jjU <--Lai <*Jb cutU p Mi ft T-T 

juy_ ur i-^_> c*--J < T'A ^ Keller <^ j>JJ J^J^. v*-^ Jj ^ W^ - Wo ij-» 

jJUUl ^li i 0^jU*j UU*ij ^y^j*J ^jr^ ^^ i-^ili- JUj < fl ^}yT t-r^^ ^-^ 

. ( o( (^ S^y^ ) *^ ^^ tA:*^ 



i^t> I ^ij ^u .^^1 ji^_^ ^>L.*yi ^j!j^ Ji^ J ^. ^j 

l^jjjoLu^i J^ ^>'i'i VJ^"-? ^-^.J ^>^N i ^jU jlj._i J. 
^-? ♦ ^^^W! oi-'^^^' L5^ ^^'^'' .J^-3 Ul'>-l -:^>-^J o^t^lj 

, ^\ j^ ^^h i jikui <^i^ ^U! ^1 ^^u y\ . <Ij^l 

l^ir ^_JJ1 ■i^H\ ji .1^. j-JI a-* J^l f^> olS" lij^ ^j 



. aA t toi u^ .^-^^ (t) 

. Kremer. Einnahmebudget, S. 308. (t) 

• oA ij^ (^ ^-^li . n V^ (Y) 

— rrr _ 



• « 

•* ^^ *' 

♦ 4J^15 ^ ^'1^ ( i^JJI jAl \y>^3 ilTjItj ^^^1 ^^ ^j ) 
,, -^ • \ ** * •• • * ••• ^ ^ »• • 

.^ J:JL^^ d Jj^l (^>L.^I J^l Jl ^^^ jl ^l^i Ll^ 



. rn - rn ^^ *ijj^i v^-^^'j moy ^ ^ju^i ^^-ii (Y) 

_ xrr — 



o^. U ^^ ^^1 ^^^ ^ J;^ : <^ JUj^ Ji ^ULij^ •y jLj'yi 



. Hofmeier, Islam, IV, S. 100 ff. (Y) 

J** <J*j t^WUl j^ <iJ o*--j ^Li i v>l^ O^^.Jj L5_r^^ O^^.J -^.ji L51_r*"H Oi^^y.-^* 
jw-*l U; <*:uj J-^l cr* *^^ ^*-^ t/y -^^ ^^^ '-^J '^'^ j^ ^^ JSiS ^ C 4^ <-i ^1 
^^" iS-^^ i^jA-^ cr^ Lf-t* ol -JLe-- LT^ t.r^. ^*je^. 'i^-i^J M AA u^ J5y- ^y.l ) 
^^ ^_,e^., t S_hV L-jSUj Uj-^j i^,Xs>-\ iSj>-^^ Zf-^J^ Oji^ >1^1 Vy -r***^ ^j^j^^ 
• (V ^IV tr* ■' : *■■' ly. t^t^. ) ^^ i/^v^ J*-> ' u — ^ j^^-^ o^^y* * : *■■■' 

. Wilken, Grlech. Ostraka, 410 j^\ ({) 

- ^oA t^JLjll 0^3 M t Becker >. U^ t_^\ ) ^j^\ Jljjl >;i (o) 
j^jb" ) ^\jju J <iiJij ;_rri Wt^ i>rj Jij-^V» (> <jU*. (^^ o* J->^ -* ^"^^ 

. ( Uo u^ t^Jtii^ 5Vyi ) ^p^ Jj ( UAT o^ <^ t Ul (^ T c: t^J**rJ^ 



Jij * '^'^LyL>.^^'^ 'ijj^Jt^ flU.1 l^j Ja-ixj j^a^ ijJU ^_J , ■ •' 
J<,j>. " ,.Jj i <j£. jOib *y ijLo jjij (. /*U. jT ti ^lj-3 <■■>.«>• »iJb ^_jL 

.U>.l J A>J d^ i ^^1 ^JJ! oytll jfljl ^ (^^LJILJI 
JUS (. ^^\jXSiJ^\i j^ : <jl_^ ^U> ^L ":>lyl ^IjjJI Jl_^t 

LjlkJI <?jj t5^1 _^*J <- <— :^'j^l ->^ <^^1 V^t i> 01 Jt 
jLdl ^.jyJI «j_^" J ^ jU <) jlT 4 j_^j_^lj jUjJIj 




c jlkUl piu UJp p^_ U Jbo VI U:* ll-i «--jj_ jl J^' 



. nr u- ^^JiJi! (1) 

. tSjUiillj J^^H i^l^' J-<^' >i' (T) 
. Wilken, Grlech. Ostraka, S. 433 (y) 

. Kremer, Elimahinebudget, S. 309 (o 



^J ^ ^ -^'j (J^'j C U^J^„ ^y ^^J Ja^LJl J ^-^ t>» ^^ ^>^* 

J^lk-^l J^l JaJ; Js^ J {. <ALjilj 1j^ Jloj 4 jb:i c^^^l 'j j 

^ ^'1^1 ^^- ui j^i J Let ♦ ^^^((♦♦^ Aj^j-uc^vi y\^3 



(r) 



^^^^ J^I^IL. jTj,, "ijlrl o'^l o'-^— ' ^ ii'> 



/b fvo /*Ip ci -^Ij^ aJjjJI JLitf' ^^ <!j-ill aLou^ Ajfr Uj 

UjlAl* O^ <iuJ.l ^^^killj *-o^^,Vl c^LJI (^ A-iu 6l ^ •^AO 






~ rrn ~ 



p ^^A _ -A rA^ ^^u Jj ♦ ^^^c <ilJi ^ iyp'\i i ^ri jOJi ^iTj 

ioJdl) *^UJI Jbt^l IjJUaSj ^^Ul jlii i ^DLJI OJUJ oUUllj 

C ^ ♦rr A ixo <-^ Jj ♦ 7«^l (_,i^ V--/^ c^J-a^ c oIj_jj^I 

^. s^ ^^ o^-? ^ ^ c^^ ^''> ^^ r^' s^ ^^ 



. JL4JI liUJU j^Ul 

— xrv — 



J- «t.>^ <i J5j* ^1 J_^_ L ^bC=JI ciMii^L oLbi^- Ui ^_yl:il" 
JL: dUi jL5G 4 W:J,>L- jil^j LftjLi^ij U;UI> Uli » : j-LiJl 
XL. Uji dUij 4 i'a^ljj L^lj CjLL^j oLi. j^l_^_ <ii::^ oUji 

lilj 4 >_..t:-9JI ^ bjaSi ^ <JI .Sj,ji...Jlj 4 JlaStj -XjJb.. k_;L) Jlil 

^_ V ^ 4 J^t ^>. ^ ^Ul ^>'i i>^l cLiJI ol!i:.^ 



• Ol'-^'j J^J — '^ LT^ -r*^^ S-^J ty J^ O^ -r^^ -^^^ ^^ W^! J^-J 



cJiU'l J (. As^\ <J 



• *• ^ •« ^^ • ^» \i^ 

(p ^A♦ „ jb rv (^li^ ^ ) ^J Ji jyi!i fi^ o'^' ^^^ -^-? 



J, A J Jill IJ^ (J \j^Sl^ 






,1 Jii US' <: .Ut-iSn oJ^ •JiJlT') i oJdb <k^l <U^' 



. WUken, Griech. Ostraka, S. 149. oJ^ (T) 



^.-jL) bCL UJL^l ^ij J-^jil OjL-^ j:^ c ^"^^U^ jLi^i ^ 
^Sj\ ^\ Jl ^^^^ ^•:^ ^jSjl wU^i Jj^U. jlTj i <!jaJl 

^f-^J' -^. Ji cT J^ ^ ' ^^ c?-'' S^ ^'-^-9 ^.j'j^, '-^> "^ 

*Co_^5lj5jl Cjj-^L-^j ♦ i'^lf' clAjJb ^^ Ojl-^j i "^4^^ Li-^ ojuJi l^-Jf' 
^Lj^I I_^ ^U^ llil ^j : p>U^t i>i IjyTj )) i :»>y! tlj 

ji roA '4J^ cij ♦ O: '^jj jULi j[ llx <to^jJi) J J^jJl ,r^S'' j^-^. 

L-^ ^^*^l ^1^ cJkijj <! ^l^^ <J*yT i^^-o^ cJkij U>^ -^ f^'-^^' 
SI ;l41j <J»^>Jill pLjJIj Ja>^1^I ^ ^'jj i jLo3 ciVT <-*-^ 



Bifa 



Wiistenfeld, Die Statthalter von Aegypten IV, S. 36 ()) 



p_pl o^j jUt.i'^l c^^ JaJIjujJI ^»X^ JIj Uii i ^i^jLJIj 

^y_^ ^i^'^ ^\j\ jyiii »uri J ^^ ^jji ju> ^1 L.1 

(i lift jl« JS^ ^1 J;^*y oSj 4 ^ijlj viJbl jjOyOl J 4J^ cJlT 






Vj i iJ^ >ji Vj i Uk ^1 dlL j^l ^j\ ^j : j3^ 



. Dozy, n. S. 57. (Y) 

. <AiiJi »ju ^ u *Ufl:»-yj uis:* 4j^,sl— . o^ -^ij * (\'\ — (\o u* "^ r <i^^-^ (T) 
Ellas Nlslbenus. S. 515 ^^^ j^\^ < ^ "Vo _ o At ^ i^. ^^ ,^,^^_ (O 



( n - a^M^^YI S^t-itell ) 



- rn - 



jT J pUi^l iojl 4JUj ♦ ^ji «^t ciJl jj^r^ 6 ^1 <!.- jT J 

c^y^ c i^ji\^ i'UiCllj iUJIj oLj^L ij..^.^ ^Ul JUJ! ^J^j 
i^LJl Jljj ijj^Ul ^ Jl>-Sl <iL=- ^ (>Ulj Jo^l c^U^ 

♦ ^^)^jlJ1 ^ ^yir cJir j^-01 SiL j 6i c5 > ♦ f ^^>^ — -^ ^♦^ 



♦ ^^\c\ 



JRAS, 1912, S. 889. ^^l M ^^^ (T) 
^^ O^ <j^ *4^JJ Jj ' (^J-J ^' '-^' f^ J^ ^^^ O^^ (^j-> '-*^^ '-*^^ 0^^-^J 



<UJ1 J cJiiU Xii .^\a\ 



U ^IJI jyDl J>U j Ui ♦ ^bl j Jl j jb^ oiJi ^Yi 

^iji j^i (i ^a^_ ^j ♦ o)^t ^^yf :^^| ^ ^j ^^^^, 

Uj_^V ^>W^ ^.-icJI C(^ t<L*-i» L^U jlTj i j>LJI 5^1 jjl UJfr 
ajUjL) ^ Aot — Art* <:-J ^lyJi pUTjI v'-^j^ 'c^.' ->'-^ •'^-^ 



Amedroz, Islam, III, 336. ^ c r\r - r^T ,_r^ ■\ ^ <.^SL^ (T) 



iJj^l J^J^ ^^j ♦ (^)^ji oil! oil! Jjoojlj JjO^L Jl^l jU-i. 



jl^l JL^ JI ^jjl j^l j Ij.U. I J, ^^^ j^_4i j^t jiTj 
"^ ''^j^ ^' ^i ,^ cJir ,;JI ^UlJI ,^\,^ dUr l_^jjj 

<i^ULii 0-u oM A3J 4 UJI ^jU Ji^T ^j^ jlli^i ^ Uj^ 

JL JI j-l::*^! Ji^l 4iJ^I jl aiij ^ ^^)\ oy^^ jfo^j 
-xU;* ^^ Of^U vJ-? lt* cT*^'-? ^ jllLJ! AjjUJL "JL^I 4, -^^ 



. Kremer Ennnahmebudgret, S. 312. (,j 

' <T1 (J- ^JUU» (o) 






J ibJI JU^^ ^Ijij c tUJi j^ Ju^L? ^y^y:^U i a ^^^ dIj:>^j 
JU ^ ^^ Jl ^j_^l ^lii^l ^ r»* i:-' Jj ♦ ^^^<:^ a^UI 

d jlkLJI Jl Jlii J^ ^^1^3 ^ iJ^Lij oU/j ^jli ^LjJIj 
i/L ^ ^pcLO <J IklJ I cLjJI ^>* >^Li ^j>Il) Ai^UJt OJCJij 

S^ 5^J-^ C:^- ^^"-^ ^' </^ ^^" ^^ ^i '^ <^-^ >^'-^ ' ^^ 

jU ^ ^ "c,.". "^ jl J\ ijj^i -c-iJ^ ^ U: jij>li i^Uai 

^ Jj ♦ ^^'^AJlkL- UL^ ^Ul) ^4^^ pI; J^ (. ^U ^^^^ :>l_^l 

-ePj i «jU.*-( I4) j^ <^,JlC)J 4 l^^fstJO Jl 4-«\> jLsfelll ^7Ui--L» i^lki 



^UJJ\ 0^>^J Oyi^. Sj^M^ ^^bV\ v^^*--^ O^ J^^Vl "-U J^ .^j (T) 

. (JRAS, 1908, S. 434 J ojJU^^ cr^^ ) • jtr^ U-U? cr* J*^ 



— Tie — 






j.J_^l .-^L^ j\S\k i <^\ (^-V^/li \ ^JJ^ V>.j <Jyu- cjf jU 

<k^ ^^li c jLo^ <J*yT <*--^ p^^ J^ J ^ii^ ^ J<^_ ji Js^ jl^l 

d ^^^^P^LJJI VI t'-^ CJIT Ja^ljj jly^^lj jUl> Jl J* ^^o _ 



. Li _ ^r ^ ^_j^, j.>^ (^j— ^ jbjVi (u 

^ ^;^ Ujb^fi^l -Uj ^jU c - . : > .. n dUOTj . Kremer, Elnnahmebudget (V) 



jlyJI '7r\J^ ct'?^' Cf, ^^ '-?i3-^' Cf^ -* ^•^ <:- Jj ♦ ^ '^j^.-^ 

d .(^--^-* c^^/,^^ d IjJk^'li d ^\jju\ ijUfcoJ JlLL-JI y«\i d jj-^*aJI 

jir ji ^^ <j^ <j^^ ''js^j j^uji cju ji <^js:sj} jiTj 
^j i jjAJij oUjji <-i^j ^UiS;i ^/ ^ jiq u (^^j> 



♦ (i) 






. ( t ) U-\ ^ U-IjV J»>:^ t>^-Wl (U 

. AT - Al ^ A jr ^'Vl c^^ (0) 

- YtV - 



<iL^ i.yCk!l jp It,/ u^Jr ^1 oliU-AJl «Ju Jll.1 cJlTj 

•>» ..h ^ \*\ * T^^ ^-^ /-^ ♦ c5^^' QbU ..^ii < ^..*^ j u 4i.wii 

<m3JS cJIT (^jJI J^^jJI ^r^i^ i>* ^y^i L« jjij <; jL:> oiJt ^j>^^r-^^ 
jiLf- j^ ^ \>ri * rXT <^ Jj ♦ ^^^<^ <?L« -J^ ■>!>UI oJu 

^LiJI^ T-!^l JU ^ (/if* Coif Wi 4iy>. ^>^ <i **j^ cjiJ! <^1 4JI 




. Kremer. Einnahmebudget, S. 299. c YY - Y^ a-' A ^ ^JVl j^;.! (T) 
. j»*jj wi]l will ^r^ <JUiJl J;Uu U y>^ i jUjJ wiJ 1 <3l 



jfL._^l ^y ^1^1 J:>-a^" J V-^' tV'L-.^' JU..V....I jlTj 



aO::^ 



J-^ ^OJI loil- J.>_ ^J^l .,J ^Si\ ,\yi\ 1A*J ♦ ''''>^Jl 



• rn o^ .ijjjJi vL^ (T) 

. IT ^ -i--ji ^V ^1>J\ vLJ' (T) 
. 'U - U- u- cSJ^-^ JVjJl (o) 



V ' oU ^fj l^j ^.^3 J ^ ilil. ^j i .-y^Uij s^ij 

U^j ^W! oyi)l >b^ Jj ♦ ^"« 0_^_ :iLC ^ 0^1 J ^1> 

^1^1 Jl_^i ,^-*; cJlT (-i/ <.jL^jj i iJbJ^ o«.l/ <J J.*^_ jiJll 

\ • a * .. 





6 ♦• 



Ia (J^^J^J \ *^^ 4_ .4.A->- -^ — )^^il;>*l_j 



<wLL4 p:>OGl J J^Jj -, I J <— ^ij'' U^^Lt>.j Ij^Ji^Lii 



Dionysius von Tellmachre. ed. Chabot. S. 152 (i) 



i jl jt U ^ Lftttijl yiUIl j^j (. UilSjl oj-5 UTM*! »-) (i 0^3"^^ 

i LfLTy ^_^ Silfr^ SU^l ^J^ij i dUA3 LfrU Tjl^SI ^^j 
^\j^ JUJI <Iij Tjj^ Lob ^^LjIj LLj 3) : VLSs LaaII oJl^^ ULtj 



1 •• 

4 t— »■»■ 



^t ois" (/-Ul j*j ' j^^ Jr*- "j^^-^j Garnicha l-ij^ <JLwVl <US31 >:..;.; ..t! 
ijfl» iUOTj (Lea) ^^ <^^i ju ur ,^r..Ti;n ^U^ j^bl UU-,! j t-jXiuaJ JUt 

. Garrota <JL— 11 



JL9.1 »j^ oLT jL^fr -^LJ; oL^j A5J i ^'^^j_^l.aJl. ^jjj ^_^ 
Aiy^JU ^.^ ^ ^♦^^.i '>-t''^ ^.-^' 4 ^^^^ O^'^^ ^J-J 

j^j <I JU ^ 4 j^\ oLJ^t ^>. ^ ^_ ol^ i ^/-^j 
^ ^ lil lA* oi ^" "ii i <^>^l ^-^ 'i^-^ C^^-? ' '^ 

4 ( ^ ^^\ _ ^♦A = ^ T^^ - T^^ ) JjS' <r^i jj J ^'>Ji oi' 



. XT. a- C "^-J^— ^ ("f* 
. XW - X\A a- -'J-^^ cr-*^ («») 



^r^ c*: ' ty."^ r' ' -'-^-^^ ^jS J^~ ^^ "^^^ ' -r^ o* "^^^ 

Jxi! : JU ? J*i;j : JU i j_j^\ \^\ lit : jUi i ol>)l ^^^.1 c^U. 
c.^ LJi 4 LjJI 4>U.t *L.il <OlJ i dUJI_p. 'J-l- : jUj 4 cAii.~a.il) <J 

'viOiii i >Uj ^is^'M* ^Ul <)IVj t>* -^'-J ?:>^ ♦ "^i '^" ^3 

** 

^'jj ^ ^1^1 cf} '-^^ V <^-^J J:^ "^ '^J^. ^b <i cK^^ 

jt J\ ojUii^ «Lk». <I'Lj jJ>J t. Jill Jill : <J J>i jj..-^.:« ^b 



— ror — 



C'^ i.-" jLj^ oiJi <jL« ^k^ Oj-«l Ojjiia i O'^aJI (Vl ^Jl UI^jl ^1^ 
Cf} J^'b i t/UI ff^3 <• J^ ^>-^ ly \^\^3 i-U>. UJl«-j 

-X^c- (3 'bfl ill»^ ^t^l l^lstT tj *J*>*J ! ♦Ju /J^ ojlxilj i^lJuJl ou-^l 
0ji\ (J jC>. lj-^1 .^^1 Ijla jC>. jlTj i ^iJbL; jLlij ^^ 

iL-^jJI oJL-^ ^j ♦ *^^^,^JulIl ^}^l^J{ 43 L^ ^ Jb_)> ^L* 

I'lllM'l ■!! !!■ IIIJI IP" ^1^^— ^M ^IP !■ Ill IW ,■ 

• UC u^ "^ fr ^j^— (T) 

. tot <■ i*\ <■ TiT 

— rot _ 






•• •• 

^j i *4.-^' *^'-^-/r" ^,;*^-? oja.^j <J:S ^^ c tbj^ <^U£.j ^^Jii 



ci jN^LJI'frUii. DjiU cJlTj ♦ '^^^pLLo icUj ;^L:i jbi^ <J^, 

U^>irj i *L5j sji^o^ oj.,...:.i; ij^^ j! ^ijij :j\:}\ j^i 

JiJ^ oij . ^ U.Y Oj^ <-J, ^ oi\ i x\X ^ O'^.-^^ >J1 • f^l-J^ <J* ^\ 

: ^ .-iJL4 ,»4--U o^j ' i^l^ tJLJi- ^ju)1 j^^U ^ AJd^) !jJlUu 

. Mameloucs, I, 133 



olG ^^^ j^UII .Ui^ U ♦ ^^^4A)1 Jj^j A.^ : ^UJI iliOL 






Ji^ ^y^ 6L5o ^ A^V' ^.>" <>' ^J-"-» <^^ ^:r^ '^->^" 

J. c^Sj\j^j ^'j^ ^j ^ y^'-e^^. C^j^ \^" ^^' lT'^ 

Oyill J ^^^Jl A^bJI ^U jlS-j ♦ <^>i;3U y.^L ^>il ^^1 

j^ V? cr- 1> 'J>- Wc^ ^ o^j * r-^- ^ r*-*-* v^^ ^-^" ^-^^ ""^ "^^ *^^ 

c ^,1^1 o>ii >^ji J <^^-^^ -^^ c^j o^^ t r\t a- E ^->^^-" tr) 

^>- J^\ i .b^ <.Jjj ,>eJ 'ly : OUU ^,u. ot^ j^_ c ^1>V1 .V^ ^■"'J 

. tot a* » ^ <i->^ — • (^* 

<*^ ^;^ V^JU\ J> o^^j • ( V ^t u-* -J^r*- CH i.rr*i ) f ^'^t — * tor <^^ s? 
» r.. r^ <^^^ j*-^j c (ZDMG. 41. S. 211) ,UjLiJl O!^^ -J^ C«J^-^^ 



— ro^ — 



a^ jLLJI jU3 ^_gi j_^l j L.I . <^^oj*j ^JbJlj .UJdl 
ilAiL, ILjUJI i'^L^ oL^\ii v^ jlS'j . (i><iJiJi ^U j J -oUj 



. V TTl o^ O^^ V^ (t) 

♦ ( 1 • a* W'Jj*?^ 



,, *^ "^ • » • ■^ • • • • ^^ 

US' i t..^ ^^\ j\:> ^Ui JJJI ^_^ ^ \*ii — ft ir^ 4j^ (ij 

. (^)UUj <iJ^i] <.^L JUJI »* 

UU jir ^ill Jj^ll Jdl ci> ^j ♦ ^^^<) ^Jl Jbo 4> ^>_ 

<ijL^ ^ L5^U' *^^' *--^ f AH*" ** rrr ai-- Jj ♦ ^-iJ 

ftL^Sli ^J^ <^ji o» — j,^«-^' ^ Ji-^l i-^Mj ^^^^it _ <^>*^l 
Jj^l U jC^j ♦ ^ UUjI OjSj^j .ULU! U> c.-:^- ^I 



<Jlj O^*-*^^ ^^ C^r^r f*^-^ c*^ ^'■'-» '^■^ ^^ '-'^i^ ^^^^-^' ^ ^-^ "^-^J ^' r^! 

. ( rrv ^-uii ) 

. Tl-Uo^io — Vo^ u-lJ^ J»,ji»^ JbjVl (0) 



_ roA ^ 



♦ '^^-'l^U-iii i (^IJI <il3 ^^ (i^"^ i^X.-^ ULjo jl iLliJl Aja] 
Ul^l i i^l L-JJ{1! i^^Ji^L AlLl^j ^<AJ^\ /':> J r->l ^y Jjl 

*• 4* 

jyaU::._ JLJlj c^^Ldl ^U^i 'jLTj ^l^^/l jlTj . « ^^>JMi 

^ii)l jj.'rr^ U-^ i^^iTj i fjbJL^ bOUr ^\^^\ js. t.^^ 



, lot ^ { p \.oo - ^ UY pU J_j4^ ) ^y^\ S^ *ljjyi v^ (t) 



4 iilOl ^\2i% ^\jc\ \j^ a ^LJI j:.j D • {^ \*oo - 
Jl ^1 ^\J\ jj}\ ^ J\^\ oL^l Jj ♦ (( ^^^^^j^ c^U, 

A-i^ jbG 4 c^i ^,^.^'i.i j::^ v-.uy'ii ^1=^1 <:^ Ji>:Jl 

: ^JLi- U D/i Jbo ^^j^l J>_ dUJJj 4 .l^*^! o^j ^Ul 
Alp jU <) Jb ^ j-51. 4J> L_-».U jj^XiC- ^y^ i_,..^>t- ^ 






.LL^JI Ij^jj 4 dUi ^ \A^\ ^ (. ^_ai)l Ji^\ ^\ ^j t. iJ>l 
l_pi tUiDI ji «^j 4 "<::J c^33 (. 'jrr% -^ULI J ej/i j._JJl 

jl JI dUi ^jsl ^ i *jl_^ ^ ^ t5^jj^l qr^^l jt Ij/ij 
>ljt J <1^^ ^1^1 ^ dUi jlTj c ^! i^^^l Ul=.l ^ <! ^jq 



^j-A*i < U_y_ iJjjUl J^ aJLU* < <::* ^1 ^b j^l Uii< <JjjU1 J^ ^1> jy. 



Ip — 



i Tj^l^ frl^l ^^r^J <> ^^J^ ^ 01-^-^ "^ ^-^"^ <i^' ^^^'^-^ "^ AjulT^ 
J^jlj i j^^-v-s' _/^-« <?LJ%^J C IXl^ JUl« CjiJlj i ^j^ Jiiii^ ciJij 

♦ (^>i^UJi JUj ^^ ^>l Ua^ Li:.j 

j:^ .^La^l i^^Ji^. J ^^'^l jj^ cJiTji Uijj ^.^1 I Jj«^ (jj 

4(^> J. r» ♦ cli^ Ji j^ *^l^ jJ^i <iri^i ^l^. J^ '^•J^j ♦ ^^^cJ i 

J iJlDI j^l >!j1 (Jj ♦ c/j C^. ^1 ^Ir^jll ^1 Jli Jl53 
Jiljl (J J i aI^L-JI oXf> ^yUJ ^}:>-j 'i£\ *--^l^_ Jl Aj'LJI J- ^_ 

^1 *^jj cJ»U.j i *_,:iS/lj <-AiJI ^Ij i UoJI O;^'^! J^ 
tol^lj ojJuI fJiilr 4l!JCl> jl iUiJI d^*U 4 -u^L 

Sdl J jLL-. ,v Oil? ,^..«k)l 4Ji)JL^ ^l^ lil <L^ iJut 









A5j , (°)<^ij ^Ij ^i^" ^ jl (Telemachos) ^/UJ^" > 

i o^> j! A*, i oJu^ -Li ciL.^L^_ JjjlJ jUi. ^ ^>UJ Llii" ^ 



. Michael Syrus, S. 517. (^ 

. ( ! ) 1 T.l u- u-ijM -l'>^ i>l-WI (T) 

(XXI, 224) jiJlj jiJL^' 'l^J ;^.>c— '.Jj'' J-i '^•^J' Odyssee, XVn, 35 (») 

. ^jVi yiJ ( oV^^i ) iu-j uii : j^ij v^-^i-. '^j ( ui ^- 



A^ju o^> «^ Ju-ii-Sl JlS" ^* 4 citu obG 4 415* : jliU- ^^ J15 



"^^ i^3 <■ JJ^y'3^ '^ oO^l^-li 4 <!-. Jjy%* dULtl dbJj OS » 

1 ! /^ \ 1 t „ - ,-'_ . ^ . . 1 . 1 ' 1 I _ . ^ 



— ■ ■ > \ T- i - 



<iJ^l 



U jLlc- <>Ji>--^A* <>Jb Jajj 4 tij^^lj ^3i»Ldl 4jUj>j ^1_^I <4A>- 



<iJ^l <J jM <JjJJI jlJu. J-^j Ui 
«.lr.U i 4,Jb .•^. ,J»,Ml .Hi ^-LUl 



<) JUs 4 JjC«i^ ^yj'yi JlSj <JjjJI JlJ:^^ JU-^ 4 ASJC-l : <) Jl5j 

^'UJI ^*j <U-j J^_ "^b 4 UAi 4 'J\ 'jVi "Jl 'jVi : ^'UJI 



^iiJI <) JU <it>U Aioj 4 ^^J c^jJ^' J^ 



(. ^ ju*- j^^V o>ll (1) 



— XM - 



, 2.>j ^1 ^-li i o'jJ' Jl <^J-^' -^ u^ ' C'-^.J 
lUiJI ^ ^Ll i'X; Jboj i T-j^j i ^ oJOij i i\j] L) <i-UJl 

Ur ^U)t jlTj i 4-Uj Ji^ ^*15 y»j i ^L <1U- .^^P (/J^' 

IIa ^yOj ♦ <'-)|jJbt-^j j_^UI ^15 ^,^i*j c.Ul>.Vl A^l^j o'j-*^' 
•♦i"^. «4H v'-r'' tb^ Cy lT^' (^*^ -^J^' J«^^ *^^ >'^ S^ ^^r^' 



»A\ a- tS-»^J^ ;L-iiJ(j l'iji\ jLil J=J. (T) 
. y*— 41 .^ iu; A-t i^ jJ-ai ir^ (T) 

.0(0-0- (Ji^' (t) 



i i.l:^' ^^ J^i jlli. ^_ J-^l Ju^ li I ^j ^\^\ .,^^1 ^J 

i ^U\ ^Ui (^^ oAj j^_ Mj i ^jSll Jr^. ^^yji a* ^»«^ 
.(^)<:/^ jJi3 ^ ^Ui >i olTj i 4,ir^ Je^. ^Ul o^. oVj 

.a_^ jir Li^"^ <Jb jLiMlj diJLI] .li^Nl /;-^j ^^Ml Jl. 

i <i:^ ^j; <!> Ji iU Lii 4 d:Ui> f\ u^ ^_ ^j i iJ>o ^ 

.^ S^, , L^_ ,>V Ji V^^il >-j * ^^^Ui. v>Jl ^>b 



• ws ^ \ xi '^^y. "^^ 'M-*^^ oi^i^ >ii 



Jl J>.JL cJUi UJljS t^J^l cJj^ i <Lj\i >U. «^_^ Jl JlJI 
J\^A\ 1J^_ <% ^yC. ^ 4iS/ i d^UJo dUIl ^J^ u .ai J ^jj (. >J! 



^15" 3) : _^c>ti ^iLUJl ^y^^^tOl <jl:5'^l ^^4^:5' lil ^A>.i 
4Sj ^'lyi AiiiJI *^j ^%^V1 'Sj^ >^l cJUJI ^j i ycJjl 



^y:»- < jAf> i-o-L*<» 4^j^So JjJ l^ ( IJL-* <-»uSJ («■•— J (•-♦^ •J'^^^1 c^ ^y (Y*) 

. ( f ) o 1 T (^ D,>t-^ ^ oLjf ■> t • • f ^ 



.iJLft'yi ji ^ li* 4 uj ^> ^^ i ju^ '^h <J-j-»J' >* '^-j 

J AT^lfr ^ jir ^/^l Jo'U)l ^. jl aii o-J ^ <:i^ JL-aij 



(2^Ji^ 



cK- 



^ J ^i:«Jlj jULJI ^j^ J^ cJlTj ♦.♦ <*-Ji J^^S^t 

<I ^JLij i SA^Ij SJbU J& «l»^ jA jbCs i <iJ *UiiJI j^ Oo.! 



et ,j- yl.^^ JbjVl (T) 



— xnA — 



i^ir ^iju. lya* ^^jji ^^jji 6i ciiiiji Jk^^j^^ jifj 4 ^^^D> 

^ ^J^ Jj i tliUJI "i*^ c-^ij <; Tjlj^l <i>UJl ^1 ^i^jU 4 ImuJ. 

j\^ j\j jir a5j ♦ (( ^^><^iijt ^ ^^^ "^ij ^Jiic ^_ ^ 

*• 

<L-L^ ^y-^ ^ jls^ i ^'-^ iljjJI JiJi£' j:^^ ^ r\i cij 






. (( ^'^^i^S'i ^y 0*1 ^/u cUiiJi ^j^ :LjU- iiUi ^- ^j 5) 

^j ^ cliUJI dUL. cJUJl J ^j 4 jjSr::.i«.:ll jLUJi _ r 



. { oi ^ Salmon <aJ» jIjUj j^jjIj ) iJVT <mjJ\ ^jJ^\ jJ. jj 11 

— TV — 



* ^j^^ (J^ jU-J' Jjl (V fLoi'j ^ <iLl>J! jj>'j-L>- Olijl J^-Ulj 
i'-A^j j^^Jj jjPt-LJll <CJU-« j^4-i Uj ^IAjuj Jo 15 jT JLcw jlTj 

Oj^ dLJU-« JLAijtJJ jlT <;t ^ ♦ IjjCaj *<^jjj^h ^-^^Ji^'j 

♦ ^^^ <il^ \jJL^ ^j lilj i qJJ^ ^UI 
qv-Jiil^lj ^J^^-«btIillJ ^wI^blILIj q^^^jilj j^*^' c->L>:-*^ij tl JiJij 

^:^jc;3»^1j c^''ja\j jNi^ij (*!>^^t ^Ut^ij ^^^b jL^^Ij 

jL-^j ^j^l <i>j OiJ^'-? tlA^LUIj clA^ULJIj JaJIIUIj 

liyui \iJJ^ cTt'j ^ J^.-^ '^^ f^' ti O^'jjb ^ f'^r^' — ^ 






- XV\ - 



i oL-S'j J^l*J' oLaei 4 rjj^ jl»-j <-^ J^^'J^ ^^3 ' -Uil^frli 4 (j^>^ 
^L^. Jlij ^ri_-5 ^>_^ <) Jl5 J 4 ^_^ ^^^^_ ^jj JL_^ 






. (^><^ j^^\ ^,.n7.,.r jl .Uj <) *^1 V -g'^ 

SiU ^ >Ul ^^1 J <-^L.jJI 'iljJJI i>lt t^^ ^j 
t ol^lj rl*iJI j_^^ f^s'j'-^i ^^■ f»*'j*- 'j**^ ' ^Lolll ^_^l 



cLiUJI ^U ^y^j :>! Vlj .UJl J. I>^^ jt J-] A3J ♦^*>o:>Sl 
Jb^^ Ui 6 (^IJl <iJi^l i^UJOj ^^ jl ^^ JiTUll JjU aioTj 



• ( M'V (^ Oyr^^ V^ ) *' — ^ ybUJl ijJlj c*Jy 

• VA a* A C: '4jS^— H) 
O^Ul oM ^ A. a* ) c/u:uL-U^ U ,^_j t ^ . T ^^ A ^ "-*-"! c:^-^ ^^^ 

, IjJli Uijl y> jwtj fi Tjjij |^4JL. JLd-Ij JT ^Jw 
. A^ ^ ^^jU» ^y c^>J1 (A) 



( 1A - V^V •J^-^'^^ ) ~ ^^ ~ 



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jlTj 4 i:5Ul. jy^l.^v U cil^^il ..Li j^! i jjju* ^_ 4ii JL^ ^j 

bC^ i <iJ^JI ^- ^* 4 :U>UJI jOi" <^Luj Jb'L^ jiLiil '^jJ^\ 
^"j Jlj^'^l <:i5 c^-^. \..n:\\ \J^ U^ oUJi ^JUi .^^1 ' li* 

^j i V *c^^ *yj 4 ^'yi lAA ^.U J^ 4ilj : <)l3 U jlTj ♦ <ij 
Cj!^. err'' • "J^ '^i Jl '' ^jUJj <iJ ti ^l^l <l^ ^y ^^-s^-j <J y»l^l 

1^1 iiy a_j 4 ^^_ ^ _^" jlTj 4 c_.^ JJ}\ ^ oUL, d.>J 
Jji J .jL^_ ^j <:^_ ^ ^_Ai]l ^ui^ll ^ jO jlTj 4 « ^ 

<b_^l jj_^pii>^ IjilT <j_^| ^yiw^ jt j^Lj 4 <j i^U. <j_^ a J-^ 






^ J\j^\ *UjlJI ^^A c^^ ^y jl ^^\ jlT 4ii ^jU^Lu 



^^ J^l^lj Uj-.^ ^f! tUUJI dUi J*i>^ ^ Jj D ♦ Aj.^^ L. 

i ^^^ J O^b Li' U-U I^Li i 4^lJlj '<^J\ '^\ja]\ ^j^\ 

dUi J^ UU 4,^ (J il j ^ : J>_j i 4Ji. ^_j 4 dUAj 'jl^j 

! jLjl L dU^ : J^^ jj^\^ jlfj i ( JJUI ^"JLi" ULiL^j ) "JL-i 
: Ju^Jtj ^ j^::lJ^ lit : dUil j^^j ^ i:^UJl c^U : J^^ ^^ jlTj 

T^lUl oUi) cJl5o 4 TJu.^ ^<*Jii^ <iM:Ul jb oUii cJlTj 

"^ 6 j^ ^ iJ o% ^^-9 ♦ .7^' ^ J^? *-^*^^ '^J^ J!^'-? 



. YY 6 Yl o^ t^.j-^ 0^jjV\ (Y) 



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^ jL:) b'Uj i ^1 J TjL:> jj^j i'U jjy_lXJ) 

Oliii jLj ciVT 4?>^*j 4 \jib^ TjLj oy>^'j 4 ojlj ^\ 

C^UiJj ^ll^lj »_^_^1 ^'l_^j ^Ij (flL^'-» *.^-^' iy'> 

>:^lj . Jj^^Lkllj po^ jp3\ c^l UJ ^ oUU ^ Jjui, 

4 f^l jl^ V^. Ji »J> a- C> "^^ "-•> '^1 ^^' «^^ '^^. 
♦ <^^( <U1. J*i^ ^ jjuu V U 4£^ 4j J*:=b1J 4,_;Liji U a*J 

j:5\ ii^Ulj .l>JI_, jl_^«j| o_^i^ <Uc c-i-^ Lii4,^UI <. 43U 

t^ oy>^* ('^. jr a .^ ^^^_ jiTj ♦ ty ^ ^^1 ^ 



_ -A rro fit <>» 4 cJL5i 05 ,^1 (.li cJlT ^.^1 diJi Jj 



• Toy < n < u < n (^ -bj^i v^ (U 

— rvn _ 



^ji ^_^'^i <ij^)i jt ^ j^cL, dus Jboj . (^>4ji ^b*. jir 

pL*i> jA3 ^k- i^Lj IjfejrX-J d^p^l pL.*i> ^ tc-L^ 14^ ^J/ j^^ 

^ylj^lj ^LDIj Jill J. liy^\j\:, (i jir U J^>. ^'IkJI ^ 11 

JJUlj ^1 Jlj ^^...t^Jlj (•li-Jlj oN^lj ^j>Jlj ^L^lj 

jlTj ♦ ^*>;^3UJI ^1^ cJi ^ o^L-^JIj 4e.^^'-? ^'-t;*J'j 

Cj^ -Uc- .w-^luaJI IJla Jll jLJI ^».^a;^ J^^ilk) jUjJl ^ <«Ul 



\ ; : • _ i\ .-.It;: ,- Mr /»\ 



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. V YA a- r^i^' (T) 
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n - ^ x^^ r^ j ^j^i ^^ Uj m xya ^ a c; 






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^jb <; i ci-^^ oU^I jlJu* J <^^;:^ jlS' iS^\ ^ j^. j-^'^k 
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(M. Hartmann, Af. R. 1, S. 266. >;' ) 



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i Tj^^ ^ ^yii, : <^ij ^ i dl5CJiJ V'>U d-bCJI j *yiV 

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L^ i'^Uj <L^ "<lu- (^jLij )) : J5^p- (j>l J^ i U^>^j l^rllij 

^1 ^] ^l/lj 4^^^l OLTj^I Jjiil J..nn; ^ c lL..hi]]S' ^^ 

. M. Hartmann, MSOS. 1909, H. S. 81. (y) 

c \ nr er- r^^^' >^i • ^1^1 r*t^ o>- cJi/j jIjuw v^ ^ o^j < pi^i-Ji 



♦ ♦ ♦ 



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( <*^jjJl ^yi Philosophi abessini, ed. Littmann S. n. Ja}\ ) ^ 
,\^ Ot^ A^y_ <;i J^ i Syr. Rechtsb, 2, S. 109, 147, 165 (T) 

. ( V T.A ^ 
. Syr. Rechtsb. 2, S. 161 f. (O 



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Corp. Scrip. or.< <e>*»*' '^ <-* ^* * r^ t^l^)Ellas Nlslbenus S. 

• UO (J* 1 C <*^^-^l j^l ^;^V »V-i» 

Sachau, Muiiam. Recht S. 174 ju* <--oLjJ1 tsby d, Ohsson, V 

Cod. Just., C. 1, tit. it 
Sachau, Muham. Recht, S. 



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31^1 J j^jJI .:i'yjt <_-Ii ^J^ Ji^UJl S^ A3J . J^l S^. 

♦ ^^VjJi Jl^l ^ l-i' ^ol_^^ ^^1 OjJI -v^ Jc^*::-^^ olS'j 



F. WUstenfeld, Statthalter von Aegypten IV, S. 47. (T) 

Vogt, BasUe, S. 383 >^^ • t/.>^l 

Ft. Hirth, Die JU* 4^j^\ ^ cJU\ o^^l ^ (>^r-^ <I^j *^^ ^ -^^ (^) 

Lftnder des Islam nach Chlneslschen Quellen S. 65 



a5 JJ4J-. ^^^;:i.l. ilJbLj JuJtJI J^t J jlTj ♦ jjwLdi Cj^^^l 
^ ^;,4^LJ o^:J, c^j^iji <31>V <ijU ^i^U 3_^j oJ^ Jii 
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^^^\ f^\yy i5JL«ll ^Ijjl -M^i 3^i 'Michael Syrus S. 514 >^1 (T) 

• tr a- T- c; (/^'" W 

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. 1 AA ^ |Ji^l (0) 

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' T^ ^ t ^ C'--'^^-' '"*^^ '^^-' tKrauss, Talmudische Archaologle, (T) 

. t5J^-*Jlj JWM cr^l^^ J-=^^ >^ (t) 



<l^ cy ^ \^* — • rv ^Ifr J>Jii '-fi^'^ (Sj^^ <^j^^*^ 

jjM^_ <i^yi> Ij'Lii ^y_JJI ^yi ^^ ^j3 ^ J ^33 (. t^^S/l 
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4u^^U4i!lj 4^_;11 jT^ U>1 ij>«-t4 dUJd ^Jib cJlTj i ^^^jL'Iji' 

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• TXo ^ ^oill (T) 
• nA ^ Ji^ 0^1 (t) 



Llil J dUij i <Li* v^'!> j_^A3_ jj^ ^ »L?l j i_^l jlTj 

. WaUenstadt <^>,i. l" ^'-l i; 
- ->" 4 JeJl ^% ^ ^_ jjji S.UJ ^bl j.>llj 

jbl ) ^^J^\ ^iUI jyill J Ub ^J\ aj^\ ^JJI j,_^t lAA, 



(Schaube, Handelsgeschichte der rom. Volker, J^\ ) ^J^^ cetr*-t— ^^ j.....jJIj == 
P \AY fl* ^Vl yjl j>l^^Vl CKJ Sr»-J^l 0:^ *^-^ (>J1 SJUbUl eJlT^ s. 23 

' Ji> o->^ ^-i J^ ^ *>^ ^.-^ .^ 3^J^ *J^-'" ^*^j . ( ^^ jjL-^l ^j^ ) 

^LJ* J (Agobard of Lyon) oW ^:-^ "-jIx— 1 < -^jM^t' - »■ -^f^ yj (\) 
o:ir — ''j^^ c^jtajJl *b_;l Oj*j-j ^y^ ^^^ uA^. 0^ (ji* <ii^' Insolentia Judaeorum 
Opera, ed.) ^r*^— '^ i^ oi*^'— ~*^ (^j-*^.j iH— *J^ i^jU^jJl ^ »1^ ^^^.U ojl,,n,-^t j^ 
Graf Baudissin, : v^ o* ^-^ ^ ' ■■ - ■'^ ^j • (Balnzius. Bd. 1, S. 65 f. 

. Eulogius und Alvar, Leibzig, 1872, S. 77. 

. Caro. Wirtschaftsgeschichte der Juden, I, S. 191. (T) 
. Schaube, Handelsgesch. der rom. Volker, S. 93 (0 



cri-^' >^i xij . ^^%i\ ^ui j>n J jjji ijUd r/^ 

d^yLL-S'l -U-a:^ JIj::^^ p^A^ <1^ c-l_^_ O-Uj Adalbert O^bl 



• ^^^t5^>si 



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Ij^J 4 <«i«Jill o,^_^l Ijl^—j 4 Sy-^l JjO^JI ljj!.^j 4 c^US" 



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, c ^U*;^^ j:j^ ^y_ (^i^^ *^-iSj (, \^y^\ 4JU* ^^^ U.j-i ^ ^^ UJL c-JUlJ1 

, (K. Weule, Negerleben In. Ostafrika, S. 84) 



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<i\X-ftJl J <IL--j . oUjVI J^ i^ JUjJ1 ^y^^J <cUaJl \^^ J Jj > .nU ^a^j s^-Lp ybj 

. Sachau. MSOS. X, 2. S. 93 (0 



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. Michael Syrus. S. 543. (T) 
. Michael Syrus, S. 547. (T) 

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oLV_^l '^^:5C::>-j ^^1 ti i^L-Jll l_^y ^^^^ jj^l jlTj 

jl^_^S/l tlry. JiL-I:Ji Jljj oj:> Jl- J^l J 'jJ' f^ ^^ o\ 

* Jl^Ij 

Jii^s/i^j i al^\ J .Uj^i j^^ u«c^ jir ^ui ^iji ^j 



. Chr. Meyer, Kulturgeschlchtllche Studlen, S. 91. (Y) 



1, j o-^' *-^. -V /c5^' ->-^ -:pJI V ^^ 
♦ « ^'^<J>»-j 'oL-oi V-^' 'cT*-^ ^r^ ciW (^JJl J>.JI ULj 

^■^„Ji 0_,^^" t>*-^' J-^^' <:i <Ji-^' -^ J=*JI fj- J^ 



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. Odyss., XVH, 322. (U 

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Jt5jl j^^ ^^^ A5 ^^L.VI jU . ^fj}\ ._. .15,1 l^.U, 

Robert : Social Laws of the Kur'an p. 53, 60. 
Doughty : Arabia Deserta, I, 554. 
Lane : Modem Eg5rptians, 168. 
Snouck Hurgronje : Mekka n. 18 ff . 



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Goldzlher, Muhanun. :sii> ^Ij < u - tT ^j* 1 ^ ol,>e^l V^ (U 
<4rj s? «^'> < <Ju U : ^IjiU Uy^ JU ^_>>J1 o! ^/»^^J -Studien XL, 233. 



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. Th. GotUleb Ueber Mittelalterllche Blbllotheken, S. 22, 23, 87. (V) 



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. \y. - n\ ^ r c: t/r-J^ ^i^j r-v ^ -lUu-j <--i, ^^^^ s-i-Mi (t) 

. Tor u- t^t,,s_ji (I) 

. Hartmann, Chinesisch-Turkestan, S. 45. (•) 



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(i JJl f\jA jS\ cilSj <; AaUlI dJLA A4- Coif j_^.L^ o^ ^^ 






»i:^ JUi4 ^^_J;i ^^_ i^rvJOl ^UJlI j JL:iJ^l jlTj 

1 »* •• 



Orlgen del Colegio Nldami : <Ili> (^ (Ribera) »^c^.j JU-V\ ju^., (i) 
Homenajo a Don Fr. Codera Zaragoza t>— *-^ tSr-^ '^^*^ j— »j de Bagdad 
^ O^J i <r-ljSJl 01 .> ^^^ l+L^I ^ ^jIjU^ o' *^Vi O' 1^04' S. 3. ff. 

c <^^^ iji^ijNawawl, Taqrlb. trad. Margals, JA, 1901, 18, S. 88. (j) 



( YY -.^U»^L^Y1 SjUa^JI ) 



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^^ \aj^ :>j^ jA J *yi diJJU jui ^j i ^^\ jS\ ^ci^ 



OU— J ) i^-uJ^,*-J^ (/=. ojj i Goldziher, DMG, 1907, S. 861 >J^ (T) 

JA, 1901, 17 : g;j>aJ v*i^^ V*-^ <^^y lA*^ <^ ^r-jL. 9/j U >il (t) 

. S. 196 Anm. 2. 



^15^ ^p ciir -CI i^^ dJllIlj jliJI j^yJI ^ U ^j^^j 

idUjb<) Ij/l^ i ^1 J ^a5 ^ 05 : Jlid ^1 J^i ^j; LC:^^ 

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Margais, JA. 1901, 17, 193 f. >i^ . <t— > <*ry ^^^ ^.^^^ 0) 



\ 



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. A a- t cr <j?^^^ (t) 
. JRAS, 1912, S. 50. j^o^ j^jU (O 

^_;-»UJ^ J-Aill U».! >;\ ; Wustenfeld Schafiiten, AGGW 37. Nr. 88. (A) 

^ : <*>-r-J^ 4j^-*J^j ) i JA, 1901, 18, s. 84. -u— > <*ry t^jyJJ ^.y^^ (V) 



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i*':^! jj^*^ j^ s^i ^MOi ^ ^«;^^ oiiTj i (^)<) u^u. ^:joJi 

J^ ^j,.ji^ jjjkju /oljl jyill j ^j i ijise-. -Lol^iT Jj'Lw4 
JjW-.iL« jjJ--Il jlT (_^l (^_^l (J--JJI J^l Jjy «ax>.j /.MjOI 

j^JJI iljjjsejl cjUe-^l 4^ jj^ <U4iu]l (_J»IJll «..A.-»- ti Jli>-J («4-^ 






Jj ,; frl^jiil) z*-^*^ frl^'uJi Uj-usi- <ij.^l jlT ^ji^l 44^ r^j 

Jjd\ J3.\ Aij^^ L dJS ILL.1 ^j 4 L^IS T.^^^" UoJl J;^ -G 
o^^it*^ "jlil« fr^^^l frUf. *jlil4 : ^^LJI -uk- ^^--^ /^ ^jjj i> 
c \jX^ ^ Mi i ojJ^\ jj,^ ^ IjJuS GaJl *Lk aioTj i ^jjll 
oA^dl j_^l Jl.j.i ^ UiLj ^y^ Uy^lk 4 ^1 iU JuT 

•• •• •• * * •• 

V c5^^ A <iill J^ 6\ y^^ti 4 j>>-*dl ^;^o-Lil j^*^ ^L.1 

^^^ 6 <L^ ^jijJI c.;^y ^^^ t_ifl_^ <ij^! qo Jbcjj ♦ ^^^^.3 

■• 

^1 >t ji ^:^_j 4,1; J jj^ij i^^i .^_ jV 4ii j>_j 

^ ^YY _ ^ r♦^ ^l^ J^i ^'^Uli J>_ ♦ ( ^LU <9_^Ui ^yji 



rt _ « 



. Goldziher, Zahlrlten, S. 182. (T) 
Amedroz, notes on some sufI lives, JRAS., 1912, S. 556 (T) 

— for _ 



•• •• 

cJlTj i <*51j <iJi>. dJLAj i <i -^1 ,v T^^iT '^>\l4 i^LiJlS' ftUUI 
i cUj^l ^liif^^lj i JU; ^l ^ir 1^3 is : ^j T^ T^^l" 

^ doa^i iijj oLj:^ jf^i c5^' ^j ^ -^.-*^ 5»-'j ^JJi o>" 

. ^jJL. ^{^\ j-^1 >;i (V) 



( TT-i^it-^l ijU-bJI ) 



~ ror — 



'Jl. c^JeJI ._-% t^J^I ^Ul 'J2:. jlTj ♦ (^>^,^ ^, ^^ Vj 

L-«JI t5j\ jJl ^liUJJ <JLji *^ (J jlkLJ! J_.U jl ^U! 

l_ill >^ a5j i ^^J^t pL^ iy=wj ^^jj! (( ^:^J12:>^JI 4«jLi. )) 

^1 jjyDt jAi JLif- J^ "adj^ ^\ j\^ 4ii >u«j ^j^ Js. J\y^\ 

*ULJ1 ^ O^ c^jyJ^ /-i J^j i Goldziher, Muh. Studien, H, 190 ff. (D 
Goldziher, Muh Studien, II, 180 i Tt- u^ 1 c: v'^-'i'^ ^"^^ 



ji j^^ji5=aj 4^'-? (i^' ^^' *^> lt*-? * '^^. c^-?^ ^y '"*^ 

i jj4^l vj^JeJil (^jloJI «LU «*— (^JJI j^j i ( ^ WW — -A rol 

. ^^^c: U^ Uir 4;Ujj jj5C" ^* 4 <l, Jl 

^l -yl ^Ji^ : j_^ilJuJI JIj 4 ilAjo /»-Xs LJi 4 1^.-^ »-^i j^"^ 



> £ * A 



♦ (^^U^ "^-^ J Ml \lai.| ,-JC J 4 djjU.1 41^ j ft/lkii JililisJI 



JRAS, 1912, S. 71 : ^J <*> J^^ j^_>- (T) 



^r^ oL» (»^♦^♦ e^ i^\ h^ <jj ^^^^ ^ ^y^ ^.-^ ^^ 

cjL-4 Wji j>Uj*j <*-^ <I^ Jj-^ rj-5 *-^-^ 0^3 <: j-^ -tiUJI 



. (^> 






. Goldzlher. Muh, Studlen, II, 200, (U 



<. Jj^\ <n/ 



— roA _ 



^— ^.h-jJ' 



• • • * *^^ 

jyi)l j ^ >:;*J^ -jT dUi >i jGj i ol>->::J^i ji >::^i^*>ii 
oLL^=-^- ^U iJbA^ "c-::r ^.Ijl jyill J o> ciUiTj 

jC=J1j ^'L^I -k--^j vljJbJI JUj <i^«*j_ ^S^l Jjt J^ dj_a=JI 
iJu. <Jt ^^_ ^JJI ^L-S|l (J lj> ^^* ^ *l-i-^ 3^ ^^ ^\ ^ 

oiJb cUUi j;i^i Ji Jboj ♦ ^^Y^^^ -^ ^^A(^u J>di ji^^ 



oULi» - ( jb tot r^ Jy^l ) J-r— >^^J { -* TTo pU j_^^ ) X.U _^i ^^ 

. UjUu L.J \V (^ T c: t/r-J^ 
L> ^-ri s? '^-^^'^ J'^ -^^ ^ Goldziher, Muh. Studien, n. 257. 273. (T) 

Margais, JA, 1901, 18, S. 115 f. >il t ^^^ <r^,J^ <r-->^ <*ry (T) 

. 'Goldziher, Muh. Studien, U, 241. 

, JA. 1900, 16, 321 t5j>^ <^j^ <^J (U 

— rov — 



Jl^^l ^y-t- ^y25=iiJl j ijU UJt JuiJii (i^i ^_a,>Jl c-Ji" 

uiiur ^pi^"j i ij>^ ^\}\3 ^iiJi jAi^f' j o> ^/)i oiiijii 

„ * *. ** •• I 



. { ^ tlT fl^ Jy^l ) ^1 -*-:* c-!^ -*-^ S^^ ^Ai41 jJL--al^ J <^-^jU 



. (( (^><l.L:iJl jyC_ UJ^ <JLiJI ^^li.1 jJ^ J^3 (. «LAi!l <5lj^j 
j;,^jl_p_ <iyM. ^ bLjj^l U^jy oL'lj <>yJCll Jj'l^V -^ (^ 



t\^ jo^_ jlT (_5JJ1 ^j_-. : <_> tfj4::^ ^.jWl ^j-j-^. (ji-^' 
j\JA Jl* <Jt5t-« 'Sr^.J^" La-^ c5j?^' /^.' J' ^y^' *-^-?^ ^ <^ C^ 

* • 1 ** 

J,bC-j d^O^JI JUi5 UJ^ ^y-j ^1 Jj-^S/l Co^'j dilATj 



. AT - AY u^ T c: i/r-"^ (W 

Margais, JA, 1901, 18, S. 133: ^^^yiJ ^_>^ <::*^y ^ v-jU (T) 

. Goldziher, Muh. Studien n 207. (U 

• Y. Y ^ *ljj^l V^ (») 
. JA., 1901, 18, S., 123. t^jjxU v^,y^l ('\) 



J 



J I (( 4s^ )) ji (( c.yt )) ji (( ^jZil. )) J I (( <i' )) : U^^^U ^\j* 

/\ (( J/JL^ )) ajUIj 4 (( Ja^U, )) J I (( JkiU » J I (( J^ )) 

(i ji^ ^jji AiX-A «-i.jj Mii^ Up ^_-a^i Jj-'I >^ ^ ^ ♦ ^o 

a Z\J\\^ j °< rf . ^'r J <JU! jj Jill j\ ,L^ (. L,Li JI ck^ 



y^iii. aj ^\i xii LoJji La*ji V*^' ^ ^^^ ''-'"^' '^^ 

Jj^i ^ ^^r — * r** ^l—^ Ji^^ ^U« j— >' ^^-^^ 



Goldziher, Muh. Studien, ^r-l^^lj ^ JA, 1901, 17, S. 146 jA— 11 ^j-iJ (U 

. n, S. 142. 

i jb tot pU J>dl oW^ o^^ J*i ^-^J f JA. 1900, 16, S. 330 ff. V-.^^ (T) 

. JA. 1901, 17, S. 528 J t^J>^ V*i-H^^ (t) 



S.ly J_^ io^JLi oU>U. cJji\ iJu J\j>. c^\i J^j . (^><-^Ul 



ju^ ^ JL^>lr ciTi^ i^^ ^1 js3j ♦ a: ^^>*>^ 1^^ Vj <i>U. 

:>U::pVI 6Si ^ i^ <IU- oUlyiJI ^lU- cJlT ^j ♦ <^>tak. l^ 
/* ^^o * rot <u- Jj ♦ iJi* ^^ j! <)Ij ^ -uyi /*!>\5' jT^' j"^ 



jUijVlj fi tT - tl ^ ^.JLJl ^:h^ o^>J1j « AY ^ t^>-^ JbjVl (Y) 

. Noldeke, Gesch. d. Korans S, 274 « U^i ^^ j t • • t.;-* A jr *^yU 

UV t^ o jr <ij^— -J < Meurslnge <--!» 4>- tA (j- t^,^^ — ^ oi-r-^^ oUJ» (T) 
( ^^1 ) , <JyUl 5^*1^^ <JU^ ^;;* oT>!l ^j^" W^j (t) 



<.-iy\ Ur^lyi^ oip.^1 -L5- JJly our ^ v.^' J ^ U JS" j1 

ijlIL ^y^ili i ^UiiiJIj ^!>)1 e^^ 4.ln-lj e^J:»>1i i jlkLJI Jl 
^^^1 (j ^>^ Oi>^' C^ '^^ ^''-' ' '^-^- ^^"^ ^^ 

<,\ Ij/i U>.--a^ 4>-^l ^yuo j^ki c ^ ♦ M _ -A r^A <:- Jj 

CJ^ dUi5a i U^ Js^ Ci^ <*. jS/l V^l ^IJd! jl IS 3 
j;i)l J iiLiJl Ol^l^l >" UJ* J^l V^' ^^' cij^l 



L.J Ti u^ (V^JiJl o^V c*-.^\j c Noldeke, Gesch. d. Korans, S. 275. (T) 
J>a^ (^j^l ^U ^1 v-^ jJj < Noldeke, Gesch. d. Korans, S. 299. (0 



♦ <^^(i: life diUb^ ^ dJ ^ JJJL dii^l ^ 

Joj ^^^^aJD ^yllj ♦ *^^^b^^«A^ T^...>(ir jT^lII 03^r^ \^^ i ^\^ 
.<^)-bUJ!>iI ^>I11 ^^^"ji" J VI ^\J\ J^l 6yq Vj (. ^ijl ^ 



Goldzlher, SWA, Bd. 72, S. 630 : U"J >J1 T-l ^ T c; t>j:-" y^ji^ (T) 



Jli- '^l ^^_ ^jP *U^1 *jl4*J O-^. *-^V-^ "S* «^-^-. ^' '■^- 



Ij.^' 



jlDl j>>Jl <Ui3_ U _^j 4 ^j t5j^' ^ '^'^>" -^^-^. ^^^' 
^^ ♦ (^>3L^Vl. >otJlj iU-^l 'Jlj^ri^ bj_^ iJ^u^ ^Udl 



. Y. ^ Meursinge <^ ^^.^^-4^ oi-r^^ *^^ ("f) 



♦ (^><)lkwj 6jX^ (i <>. Q^j^j L. Jic- a*ifrl 



O^U uJr'oWLidl o/^_j Ji/i:JI OjT^, ^j^^j e 'J'^>" 

. (^)i ^Si --«*^ ^'^ij? 



_ -A rAo ^l^ Jydl jUJi ^^.^ ^^ Js^ j-^l j^.i ^^1 ^3 
Ski <: 0\y^ Tjrwir i A^Ulj ^Ij «ui)lj c^^l^ ^U j^j c ^ ^^o 

T,,;^- i ^ ^^r _ -ft ro\ ('ifr ^i-u-. Jyli J>i' (j^l^i /^ y} 
.(">(!: ^J^i J ^JiC jir )) J i ^^^iSjj Jl ^~ip ^*! ti ^i T^ 
/» ^^A ft rAA ^l^ Jyii <^-/^' ^^-^■^'g' ^- -'"•^ *"'*^^ 'iU^j 

* \»'\» A iAr ^ifr jj^J.' -^i-^. <)>«ii j^ j^j-j&^\ ^>LJi a-£. 



W. Spitta, Zur Gesch, Abu'l Hassan al Asch'ari's, Leipzig. 1876, (1) 

S. 127. 128. 

* \\\^ \ n *:'->-^ CH^ -r;^^ ci^^' *:^ ^ Goldziher, ZDMG, 41. S. 59. (T) 



♦ ^^^U^J t^^i^r^J ^J^^L* r^C^J' t>^J' 4JUt^^ J <i ^i tiTy^ T_;rv-wir 



oJTj ^^5^1 jlT ♦ <ic.Ja.n /^jif^j ,_iJtj rtt^'j 4i. yi <U£; J^lj 

^ ♦ ^"^^jTyiii ^ ^^1 -oils' ci ^i ck. ^3 i Ji/^'j -^-^' 



• U- ^ T jr fj^ CH^ o* ^^ Goldziher, Zahiriten, S. 132. (T) 



ai.«^l ^lo ^U l>c>. J^ ^,4*^1 ^y.lk)l ^li! ._;U^i jir 

j^l ^, „rtVll jl ^j 4 ""CLi <_;L— Si dllij i jTyiil T.^r^" oill-2J_ 

ij/'JjLl <f=-J.lj VW-? V.y^' <*^.J^1 ,^,.2-^1 oils' Aij 
^1 4kiJl ^ CJlTj i JoJ^ c.\yj ^Ml^V L^li- til^ j:Tyi)l j 

^'1^1 ^^j*-J.l '01:5' _^ 4 jT>U jj^\ o_j^~ Juo i jT>!i ^ <j 



. Goldziher, Zahiriten, S. 134, (if) 



Oty^ *Lj!>^ ^y^\ ^jjil 4 icj^ pil^l 4 ^_Ail ^_^Jdl 4 UIIJ 

<_Ji t^iV ^JJir ^»:X:*1. ^ b:^«.j^ UJy <_ji i_^j L-* 
^_ ^l- >(U . Ui. T^^- j^vi Ij^ ^y_JJI jjJJli^-j^l 

♦ ^°^<u._^ *UJ "Jill- ^ UL jju..^ VI i:-- oiJ 1 <,_^ J <U L\i 
j^^ ob ^ (*>ill <} j^i>» y*lS jlkL-j ii^l^ <3tr^ oL-^ i'^^i^l ^ 



(t) 



oi oj> 1 ^Jj ^ '^, y-i ^* i '(ij>c^\ c^" UL;. jyC jl <^ 



. Wu- r t.>j--ai .^^ (() 

RHR, Bd 50, 1904 <U> ^ J.«.uLdl UAjJ >;!_, < TT u- T ^ J-^-^' lt^ («> 

Le Ratlonalisme Musulman a u IVsi^cle : W^>^ j*>4J iJli- ^ 



fjojuj (^'Ij C Vi e>j>^Jfij jUl <! IjJiijl 4^-^' (*>^' j==*^ (*>LJI 

-U4JI ^^^i»J L^ ft*yj^ ^L-j i jUl J<^ UiL4 Jk-j ^1 ij^V 



J^ VpY lil ^ : JU; <)^ j J^l J*j I' dUiS-j i J^j ^ ;. US' 

♦ ^"^^^-A^UJI JJ-4^l> ^jli^j rt^SlJCs^-j ^jlJuJilj 



. \\ \^ L— Sj,^-- (t) 



( TC ^^L^^LwYI SjUaaJl ) 



— r\\ — 



^ajl jji (j-^' c^ («Jj ♦ t—^-^jJIj -ILjJIj ""JJisJI ys>Upl j^ Jj 



Li? 



^J ♦ (( U^ ^J^\ ^(»i )) O^;*!*) ^J}\ JLJI <1A cl^ljS«il ^AS^I 

frLi jLCal JU^lj (j-^_^ "^-^ ^"^ cy ^^^-5 * *^^'*^'^ c5y ^ frU.^.JI 

Tc ILw UJ...5»- (i L5*^ jJ^r^ O ^ r*^' (T^ **"*^ C5_^^=^ *-* < A.* .J.. J 






^t j:^^ )) : AijL^ <iL,i j^j <ii ^>LJI 4j£^ ^1 ^ c5j^j 
JaI jj4<-3- Ja; tLUl ^ii j^ taj» 'Jojj ♦ '^'''Y ^r"^ » rtr 



' e^^^i 0^1 ,y>^^ ^\ i ^^iuui >. ^1 ^ujt ^^ ^ <.\js y^^wi (r) 

Goldziher, Zur Charakteristik es— Suytltis SWA, Bd. 69, S. 8 ff. (T) 
0^ J (y_aJl r^li^ o^ (Oc jr J j-i^ <J pi ^Ij jjL^ 0> J53 J* *UUJ1 U^^J:^\ Jij 



Jp AjL*^ ^jJo- ^jC- TTP^ i <-i>L^ <--*^0 AilUfc^ jj^.o.l II jj^>t^^ 

i i^l u^lJu ^ ni\j^ ^] Aiyjl\ r->l c^j^' ^l^' oy^' 



c nro s^iiJi . J» J»uui ji.,iT.;v^ v*^^ ^^^ <--^ <>. ja*^ ^-^ ^^ (T) 

c7-3^/j c w - 1 a* a> ( nr\ ) n jJ:>- Der Islam <i:>* j ^ j <i* <^ U^ 

^T a* ( nrt ) u JJ:^- ^ u^j j jj-^- ^^\ (rso) <t^^^ ol^Ijoji <J:^ ^^ 

( ^^1 ) . rY\ - rro t n\ - 

. Spltta, el — Asch'arl, 87. (o) 

» TV - To ^ cH""^^ lH >^^ (^) 

• ot . or ^ jjL-ai ,jju (Y) 

— rvr — 



- C5^' O-^^. O/AI..^ ^>il 61 ^jjt>Jt /O^j ♦ (^)<J1 



' nv a- t c r-H- chV J— iJl (O 
J jL-^i .Ij-mJ.! 01-^^ ^-4^ cr-j ' ^1 t> r^^.yj iji^ oi-^^ <ijjuji ^ i_^i )> : ju 

<rJ t> O^j^i V^ '^^^ O^iJl J L.1 . (H a- (.r-^^^^ CH^ <}j^\ V^) «^1 ^ 
iU^CoA^l ^.Jls^ <^ ^]) jji}] jli^_ pi U ../J 1 C))j jH^^ J^ J^' -i)^ o! ^-J^i 
*Jjb v<r-iJ <(Spitta S. 131) ^iiij ^j uriJbV^ J t^,H^Vlj> c(o ^ ^ KYA *ytUJl 

.M jbi Ji^ :<) JUi i^) juy_ ,^^ :jui to^ii b ^jLw VI :<>JUi >! ^ j:,.^ ju <;! 

— rvr — 



c 



•* • • •• „ " 

j .^'-^1.. ji US' i ^U- >oLL <oyJi 4a,.,..u:ji ^ (^1 4JI-I1 eJ^ 



ol ^ JJb L. (Spitta, 131) ^y^'i\ j_^_j t ( TV ^ ) <ij^l ^ ij^ <J>^1 j; 

Schreiner. ZDMG 52, S. 209 f. : ^.^^ Jl^V^ <!li. >J1 ( ^^ a- "^^j 

S. Horovitz : p ilber en Einfuss der griechishosen philosophic auf (^) 
<.uL- iiJl ci^UlU J iir.-. yi o^j ) ' ^^ Entwicklung des Kalam, Breslau 1909. 

. Becker, ZA, Bd 26. 175 ff. (T) 

Goldziher, Zahiriten, S. 145, j^j^y: o^ ^' -*^>Jl v*-^ • lSj*^^ (T) 

. Anm. 1. 



^,4-jiJu ji '■ - Jji^lj i^lib j^j^ ijJlT <Jj::J.l jl ^i^ Jaj_ Uj 

4j 






• ( t ) l.\ ^ ( ^ Ui^UJJ o^.M^l (0) 

. Goldzlher, AGGW, N. F., 10, S. 13 ff.^-^^ t^^ V^ (^) 

oU^Uil J e^JL^jjJl ^ ^ cGoldziher, ZDMG, Bd, 62. S. 2 ff. >J1 (V) 

Ol jr^ Cr- c>li-J^l (-li (v^' « »ti^J <;^^ V^J t^M h \ ^\ *U- Ji| JJ t,/^ 1 

IJjb ^yi ^1_jJL 6pUj t X-^ viUj >iUl J^j i LTlj our ^J iUJ j1 c ^^1 IjU 

( rr^l ) • b^t*r O^J^jdl v-*-^ ^-^ C/Sii ^ (A) 



S/\ ^3 _ "^'^\ .V> ^ dJlDlj Jj^ilj (. (( ^1 Jbj _^ij 
U! <; Voltaire ^_?3 <-^ Jir>.UJIj <; *^^^DLiu«j 4LiI jil^ 3) 

^ *^ll)l jyill J ^1 ^^CiJI iU-^ Ja) Alexander Humboldt 

(*^j Ulyt^lj ._JJlj f^r^^' 4--lj^ ii-Jill <^lj^ ^^ *^ a5j 

jlf J i oLkl /*^(jC, 4J ^- i jT^l JL) ^U-. llii' oi)ij 4 <i^i 

I 

j^l^i cjlii' J^i LUi l^j oM*^ -uU ^^^ cy ^' ^^-5 ^ ^ 
jA j^ D \\^ Cf} "^ "^ ^r'l Ji.>.UJI (*j^^ JiJ ^ Nil. 






UA- ui ^ ^ c:-'^-'^^ t^* 



— rvA — 



^\/\ uji 4jir 4 <«ji J jj^- ^^ ^jiji jt jU iju i ^wUli 



{ 



(^>l Jl>i <lji«il ^y^ Cjj'j -vSj ♦ ^^^(( Jl^U *A^.^b ^.-^ 
'-*^- ck-J iy ^J^. V L; «gLJ J^y_j j'>U.Vl ^j^^ 0^ ^^1 
Ji lj>il : JUJ i>L-^l 'o'/l ^yj Jb^l Jl :L^I j._^_ 

* ''h'\ ^lil ^^^\ 






^1 ^ ^'lioi ^j\ ^>iO' v-^1 ^j^\ ^\j\ jyiii J Ui 

.• * * * ♦• •• 

LJ ^i_j c jUl ^yj iiJl Ja! c_j^1. j^. jijj_ jl 4;jA3 j ji 
J_^ ^JJl L:Jj5 )) : (iji^^i J>_ ^ ^Lb^l c_j^Juj <5l^" Iff 

>»ij_5 <^j "USl j^ (. J^ tj^ -U*.t "tic jlS* Uj_5 i j_y».. ^ '.j . .« dU-V) 
4 jj^Uel* Oj3 <!Jj3 t-aJU- |^_5 4 j_jL'la 4 '^.j^ Jj?"'-? "^J-^ 

-oU 4 /• \»\x ft i»r ("Ifr j>il J>^LJl Jilt dUi as=j L. ^t_j 

aii jrviij 4 »^UJlj 4 Ij^lj V ^JJl *]>J1 <!U. AfUJI ^ J Ji^:>! 

<iy ) "^isjy j^-" -^ cs^^' ^"^3 * ^"^<^ <ti>^' *^'^' i>* 

: ,^ o::*^^^ c^ o^yV^ <j_^*-iVl ujM--1 o^j cSpitta. Asch^arl, 46 (i) 

. Spitta, 133. (T) 

. n 1 ^ jjL^i o-^ (t) 

ojJlU- ^yl (^ iliJ fi Schreiner, Or, Konger. Stockholm, I, 1, S. 82. (o) 

<j^ i (^:«ULJ jL-^1 our i^-xx. ^ij ) f ( ^ys}\ ^^ ^uji j-^i « 4^xii\ > 



J 
d 



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. -^ .. .« •.. \\ 

Jl5 '^^LJl Jy Ui i .Ui)l *"Vjj -u'-vij <J1 ^>-^i a5 

4jU <; ^^U^j U...2i. ^*:j>1) 4l*-» J^l dUi J ^j5 a5 ^^c^^I 
iu*UJl o^tJil Jj^ji t>« f ^♦V^ *» i^r (*l^ Jj^l i^:>lAjJl 

• VY ^ ^ ^ ^^Vl ^1 (T) 
Zwel besonders characktsristlche.... bel Goldzlher, ZDMG, 62 S. 8. (T) 



— rv\ ^ 



iiL^i ^:^_ ciij^tj'yi ^j^j ljt_-. /Ut ^j ^"ji A^iUJi ojj* 

tjLilil ^fl JyuiJil jj4<^ c-^JU ..rwaj J\ <I /oS (^JJI J4^-V:3J1 

3 *^b ^Jb ;ai Air /i ^1 ,e^i ,^ i '<^%^^\ <5£ai j tLk, 



»L-&J5tJS 



c >T Jl Jilj ^y i^Li^l ^Ju ^^1 Jus ^^1 J ul 



, Goldziher, ZDMG, 62, S. 8. (U 

Spitta, Asch'arl, S. 145. (T) 

♦ 1 W ^ T c (/r-^^ ^1^ (T) 

• T»t (^ t fr pj*- cr!^ J-^-»Jl (o) 

■ Goldziher, ZDMG, 41, S, 30 ft. (\) 



,(^) 



U_^ j^jcr ^^J^\ ^^UJl jyJl jj'lji (J i*_^l cJlTj 
^^bOl d^ ^^\^ i ■'Llji.il 'jlJ. LLT jiUIl <iiiJI jJl^i f" \ ♦ \y 

^jjGij i ^>L-:^ iLJUcii o*yuiij Ji_p.^i <i i;_;iLiij ^_r^_jJdij 

'-u^ J SS'ij (. (ijiU)! iliifr^yi j^,!!- >T "^15" il-Ui <i jX^j 

^_Jp j>; iUJ dUi j^:*^ jlTj i (^><_ii^l <iLo ^^^j :>li:frl 
lAft ^ Ur jT (J jjuij jl >JI c^lDl J^JI ^.Kv.,.j (. ^MX3l 

^j 'JlT, ^ )) i <! dl^ ^; o'J^j 'J>.j > ^1 jl ^_ jl jLjVI 
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p^^:iaJ Mj ,i'U^ 4.W V <jS i Ta.1 <.l^ jLo^U j JC Mj i <JI 

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r-ljjlj^ A-^J ^ <^ll S^r^iJJ "O^-^j C ^ 4^1 ^^j i uJil^ 

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.U jl i^JI J>^j ^Ul ^ 'iU^I <, '^*^j ^i_^| j,^!j 
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^br y^j i obUlj jli'^l U^j J i^l iiy:> '-^l:^ ^'"^^ 
J^ ^JJI a^^l ^bCJl y> ^bGl 1Jl*j i <JjaJI j^\ ^\kLi\ 

U.„*L. ^jblJdl cii3^ ^ <J ^jj i >Jlj *\y>^\j Jill J J-^l 
oil! ^^-451 ^'^1 Jy^l J''':'' <:^J ' r^T o^ t^-^ *^^ S? 

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( ^ jU^ <^ ^jj^ -U4)i V^ (T) 



( TO - V^^^' iijUtoJl ) ~ ^^^ ~ 






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<li^j ^1^ J ^_ ^j i :U_Li)l oUL j;::jilj '.Lo^l j_^ ^ 



Goldziher, SWA. >;ij i <ojjVl <^1 cr- tit u- t jr olJlJl r=>*- (U 

. 73, S, 552. 
* >-Jb Jiil U-— i^ J.H-=J1 V^^l V*^*--. jjbj ^ oU pU Jyai (T) 



^1 ^>i^Vl ^^ AilUl -y »^l ^J J^l lift J «Gl t 



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♦ jUi>.VI hJ J=*jj ^bOl j_^_ j;y_JJi ^bOl pUfr 

ji |.>i^vi Jijt jj jir u ^_^i J ^\j'\ ^^ jA ^o* L 

<jljjjl oL^l ^_ JoJb^ ^y_, v:u^ LT i ^%.^\ <iiJI 

il*)*\>JI (^Ut-^l ^aJUtjj i tl^iill l^j'^rt^ ) JO J ♦ *U->-JU)i <JL5 JI 5 

. Snouck Hurgronje, RHR, 37, S. 176. (!) 

^ rAv _ 



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\j}j:j S\ -^JuIL jjJC^I p*^Ja *L:j Jj ♦ ^^^' <l«JIj ^y>*jJI 
j^JbJI Jjt*^ cits' dJJkfj i /^LjJIj ^^jli Laj V^*^' ^^^^' 

♦ ^^^Cj-U. c->Ut-^t Ujil^U jlJuA CJ^ IS (. JC-^l J <AL 

UJ JUJI4JI ,L:.ati^_dlli JiLL^I .jC Jj ♦ ^^^ij>i)lj 
: \ji^ «1JI jyill >lji Jj ♦ ^^^iijjloJIj <;^lj i ^J_^l 

d TjUi <J^ j^ ojul^j oju^i i^UJt j^ d ^XJ fiji-xj jj'ji >» ^xr 

ol^^^l <L>JI Jj. ^j ♦ ^^^i?^JL=^ jlf LjIj ri^ ^^^^ ^ : jUi 



. TV u^ (^-Ul\ (U 
. Wustenfeld, AGGW, 37, Nr. 80 t <j jSL-- o^ ^^ \^ ^ 
• { Uu-'^f l^•^ • ITT. ,r^< (Kern) 0/ <*rl» ' t^-r^^ 



_ -* nv ^\^ iJjA^ J^^ ^^ olT:, . (^ V^*^' 4 c/'j^*^' 

i ;l. .jdi ^iJdi > ^jj^i ji^ '^j- 15-^' *-^ '^■^-' 
^lSjj^.^^ cr^J^ ^ cf. j^' -^ /:.. ^.> Jy f ^♦ M - -* i-0 

^t y^j d *^ ^jj^l jU- ^^ J^ cZJL^ >\^, cf^_ Jj 



Fagnan, Homenaje a Don Fr. Codera, v^ ^-^ J^ ^-^ >^Ml) 

. Zaragosa. 1904. S. 108. 

. 0^ <-> ttV a- ^ C Cr-^^ >^^ (^) 
. T\o i TV o^ ,^^1 (o) 

oJli-^ < C^jU^ Sju* v^ or* ^ * U a- ^-r^ '^^^^ ^^>^^ ^^ t"^* 



.(^>^ 



'. .Liitlj JUS/I jjjOiL ^jU i:>jjlJjl jlTj . ^^^ Jljil; ^Wl 

jlTj , ^''^_^^\ ^1 :a;j «U1 ^I c^ilt ^.Aill ^1 ^1 ^ 

dL^l ^ UJI IjJl:::-! ^I ^^I iJu^UIl cJlTj i i:Ai>:J^I 

^^! y^l ^^ ^j ^ J^ ^ J> i L. Jii Up ^ <iL!l jl l_^j'-^t 
<^^jUI d^Ut J jif J> i -uill j i ^1 ^p^ ^ JLiJI ^^^5^ 

^^^Ul ,^L^ ^^^1 ^^^ ^^ A^^ ^i^ _^j ^^^1 Jij 



. Goldziher, Zahiriten S. 110. (1) 

Uj_,iJ5' <^ ) ,j^\^\ y\ /JUj t Wiistenfeld, AGGW, 37, Nr. 80. (o) 

• iS^^ V^-U ^ <U:j o^ ' (J*^ *Uj c(^l.\\ tb i\, <i^ Cow UA ^ 

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. L4JL Uj \r\ o^ T ;7 t/^1 oliJ» Li.1 



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^1 :>%i\ L^i-l lil i ^^\ »^- ^Jdi _^i j^ UilTjt o^yj 
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^^ 1^—-? <j%*j <i'U — ^ j^ o^LJ'j i iojdlj <Cj <«UVlj 



• TTA ^ \ j7 ^^j : .■■■11 ;_^UJ1 j;^ — ». (T) 



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^ LJ»UJI <-yC^ <*^y^ JS\ «Cij^ J-ii <-i:3JI ^1. jlfj 
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. r-r- r-r u- ^^•^' (f) 



♦ (^^aiu ^^ji <iiui SiL-ji 

• •• 

c <uJl J^i ^'L- jj:> i <LLoJI jlT ^ U..a; :>lJ^^ J Ul 

i :>iAiLj 4*^1 4)jUc^ J IjJC-il ^1 J^ i <AjSCs>J\ Jl* Jl3l ^ ^^ 

• •• 

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4 ^J\ ^^ c JdJl lo^I 'aL..::^\ ^^^ : JlSj LOU jUi c UiLi 
^^^ ^> J^l J^l (>Jl l->^ ^i-^> (>j V 6>0 V cJ/ 

^S; <^- ^_^^ ^ ^jull JLI. Llj . ^^^-LL. ^1 a^j. J «ui 

4 ^JLsLiJJ Jj^'a'flVt i^U^ (^Uc*^! <l*r»*l3 *Atolj '^/y*^^ <)* ! j«-« i 4jL-^ 

.^IJdl c~i UJUt Jlill j^ill j VI iJbJL: i-jj^ J .^iJdl 

dUi Xs. 4 <J^^1 jt-X^ ti 1^-J^J ii^C*^' *..^ljdl C.>-fl'J i (iywaJl 

^jAio ^Jf- ^4.. ^ . » . ) j;j\. m . V -«.>j t^^^lJil ^.jUc^^i jL^j c <u«iLdl c^^ 



< ^-y^\ W^J U*S-1 4JU- . ^ tU* v^--»' '^J ^^jUII ol <^l^lj « J^^ <t-»>Jl -^.jj 

Snouck Hurgronje, RHR, 37, S. 178.: ( o^jVI 




% ♦• 




(J-3aI 



<liJ Jl_^! Jii::^! aSj . Uii TJbJ^r*; Jl_^l ^L.^i^'^ l^l 
AiiA ^ j^^ iUlll ^_jl; .^U ^.u^l /li ^ 4 ^^^1 j^ 

Wellhausen, Die rellgies-polltlschen OppoBltionspartelen Im (\) 

. alten Islam, S. 78. 

. (TV t Ton « TTV - Tf\ u^ t/A^i^ J^-^iJ' (T) 



Jl l^lyj i jr'jjJI Ij^b l^LJji ^. ^UU i UfUrt ^ ^ 

^^ ^uii > ^^1 ji i^Ai . ^;ii i ^bcji ^ ^yi 

*^_ jl S^L. <iJ;iJI <l£^_ j\^3 i J'^l Jli^ Cf e^^' E^ 



<iU^31 ^ ^ ^r^ Js ^li Jjl 4 p YVr - -* Ue pU J^JL^ ^ ^^^ pU*J ^J^ ^^\ 

UJ Ulj . ( (At a- f G: i^.>*-^^ i>" ) ^-*^^ <M^31 J-i ^:;- t,^*^^ u^.r** C;^* 
ol ^Uyli C ,^:..«> o^ (5^^ >* UOiJI ol (/=*i oi^^ oJj"^^ f>-^^ •L-^ JJL*i 



r 



►^pijsJlj ij^.*] 






►I4. 'jlkui JOS (» \..i _ -A r\i <i- (jj ♦ ^^^<i-U)i ji-5 ^ 

iUJLll .Ui ti jLo jji i yikilj *^lj SUill .Uij ^I^L 
jlLL- ^ ^ lAA i dUJb <I jiVl ^^^ -uiL _,:>UII <^1 ^Ui^V 

. ^^^^^uj iUill ^15 <:-^- ^_^l iiJ^l 

^^ -01.1 *A^ ^^1 <J1 J^^l j^ Y\r — ^ \YY pip V^JI jl-5 



»iU j JU. oi^ )Gottheil, The Cadi, SA der REES, 1908, S. 7, Anm. 3 (i) 

• C S-i^ -^* (>• 

t J. Y\Y pU j^^ 4 jL-,t ^JJVl ^UJU o\r»\m-r Uftj < J^lj J^-^ »^Vb >1 n»n 

.( ^jd\ i \/,y\ <L^ o-^Ai iSy^ iS^ v^^i ^^ c^ -^ c^-^J' 'j^^ J) .r-^. ^}i^^ ) 









• ( r.r o^ Y jr ySL-J^ oULi^j ) i WUstenfeld. AGGW, 37, Nr. 91. {\) 



^1 9-L? dlli JCpj 6 LfltiCU 4.w-a^ dUfcJzi 6 j^l "w^L^ t/-^-^' 

-0^1 dU-J.1 *y i dUJiT "^ )) : Jl3j c jloJI o3U 5:=^:-^ "^.-^.j*- 
dU-Ji; ! dUj^j i <i dLU ><Ik* -Oil <; ^j-J^ J "^Ap^JlT c dU-. 
4?>l* ^^j c J^JI ^^UJI c^/ii c <L t jUlj iipJ! Ja) dLj^lSj 



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WOstenfeld. AGGW, 37, Nr. 287. ^^ >31j $ XI ^^ T ^ ->-^--^' lt^ <f) 



•• •• 

ol>ll o;l V^. ^'U^ ^ V^ ^'^'^ c> ^JJ t^ ' 'Sr'i ^^. *^^ 

■ *« 

(^) •• 1 * 






( TA - V^^^ ijUbkSI ) 



- i-\ - 



I4J ^^^^ ^* i 4XII4JI j^ I4J jlS^ Uj ^dftUJi jA ^ -0)1 <-Pfco *y 



jii> ^ /^ui ^-1 ^^ jt^i ^ ^^ ^ *uai ^-:> ^>ll, i>\S 

J\ cl^_A* l^l*r dj^JbJI jAi ^ LjS ji (^^1 jC>. Jkij i (^^oU 
.UUI i^Vj <oJdl ^15 ^j)i ^j^l <iJ^l j^ Jj\ (^).UUl 



. r-Y ^ iS-'^^ (1) 

' V,>^*^' ^^-^ V^ S? t^>^ <JLJ^1 ^"^ i r\ ^ tiTJLJ^,— iJ o^ijUl o^^^--! (t) 






«* 

>* a * " S „ 



^^ jo ...* j (V-^' iLijJI ^ ijjAjii ij^^ f' J^ 4^ «-«flJi ou J 



. \\X\ j^ UJp UV _ TAA u^ n j7 6 JRAS. 1912, 54. jIjU. j|ujU (l) 

( 4_JLkl — II ^IS^Vl j pLJiiJi y.n:* ^^ <JU- j JjjX.1 Uyj cf>-l •*-^^ -H"" (T) 

, JRAS, 1910, S. 775.: <U^ J ^Uj^ 

. ^ \r]' j^ <^ UY o^ 1 ^ V.^LiJl o_^ (t) 



^pi£. <«-iu ^Ul ^j i ojb ti <>. jiJ^' tP"-^ ' -^'-^ *^-^ 



<^ 



► T.-\ fU J>ai « ;^.^ cH.V c^j l^^j « AGGW, 37, Nr. 81. (W 

f^u j^i « ts^i j-jjii jVjj cH.^ a* ( TU ,^ r j: ) J^\ (/*^.j i j-ii :iu 



jXuai\ (i o^ illoi ^Ij i^ v^j^^l^^ j^i ^^ (J T-\:'.\...4 Jill 

ijl^l /j^j j^.ygiiH ^y* <3jj jlS"j C Jill C*-; ijblj ^JaJL^\ ^LoiiJl 

<i*jfU. cJlS'j 4 jLo:> (^'U ftjlLi. jlfj 4 jLoi <fL^jl Jill c-j 

^^^ ^U ^2;) ^^^^Jl ^ ^r^ (^U Jjj jU* (* ViA _ J^ \r\ 

J^^^ ^f jl5Cd c iL. JT J jLo^ oi!l J^l jlT S^^^:^ ^1 ^UJI 

JuJj (» V*\ ^\^ <^^ (J J^lk^l (^15 JU- J:>-j Ji^ JjJj 



. GottheU, The Cadi. S. g. (U 



cS\3 : -UJ% jlT Cjy^^r^i^ ^ "j-JI ^^-^ J>-j <! jLid i C^ j)l> 

♦ (( ^^^^>^. ^^1 

J;;**- J «ii]i jlTj i ^j f^ -^3 jO (. <jj-uC-.Vl JaI ^^ 

'♦ (( <^>^l 



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- i*n ~ 



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jlTj i j^ Jf J fjL:> JaI^j 4JUj <fU ji. \\A ^It *UiiH Jj 

♦ ('f)^l jjji lift -ub ^^1' ^U Jji J-iJl 

^ ^Lj c-A^ Li i ^)l ^ >a] T^lJ UJL <i)U- ^ oObj 

^ ^LiiLi Li!^ -ca^fr L-. JuiJi) jj» li^j i ^ ^r \ — * r♦^ <^ 

A5 <5! Oj-i-1' Jij ♦♦♦ >i)l (_ylc- J^ U*^J^j T_^lJ i bi-^j L. 



rvA - rvY ^ j^L-^i u-^ (u 



c IjUjj 









o^ Jj 






n. _ UA ^ A ^ (^J_^---.UJ ^^^-Ul ^j^ (U 



— l*v — 



t5^1 ^^UJI j^l J j^^ ^IJ ^^jliJI <!U.J1 l:?J^_j 

* ^^)jLj:> cJi ^y,^ J^ -ioji jlS" <i-JI <i 

/^.-jsJI jlT JL43 i i A^ <)jUJ <jJl« cJlT <jjJl1 oJLft jl ju<j i L.U 

ji^ J <3^ i 15 j J Jii^l 6 1 (^J^l A^f^ <i ojJlI (^15 >^:i-«l J13J 






. no ^ ^^i-'y_ ^y ^\jj\ v*-^ (t) 

Huart, CalUgT. S. 77. (o) 
JyiUUl <.J» ^ TYY o-* ^^ c: -? J^- ■^- S-' 1912, S. 54 jlJLi^ ^^JJ (^) 



01—^ ^1 /y_ ^Lm0 ry •X«,^fc4 ^IJliLt *LiLAll »LiaJ ^j lL_j 

j^y jl:^ i.jU5l dUU -Ciij jlS'j /» ^vr * ryr '<^ J j^-iUJ' 

■ ■ •• •* 

'^1 J TjL^ j^ i^Uill ^ U*y_^_ olT ^1 



♦ ^^^ 












J_^l :>lJbo *Li3 ^15 ^Ul J^\ j>_ .U^ /^. ^.1 olS'j 

j c-ii]l ^ >^ J^Sfl ^Ijt liU ^ ie^l c^ V J--, a-/ ^ 

♦ (^)<u jTij till ^y ^U> "Lb ^jj i -c--^ 

(Petermann) jL.^. L^*-^j ♦ '■^''1—^ ,_;i-«J Jo^l; l*j**i 
^ "JbU:>. ^^\> 'J^°>„ iL- JT (i » : ^ ^AoY ^U J^:> J _^j 




. Petermann, Relsen im Orient. S. 98. (T) 
. Revue du monde Musulman, Xm S. 517, ^^ (U 









Nl 



^U-SJl cJlS" LjIj 4 ^U-*^l t> «-Ai ^j ^^. o^lS Jji ^ vrA 

^ vo\ _ ^ \rr (-li^ ^j i (^Ul J'^^ J>i '-^ v^^' Jl 
L. >U->. U:u JU JT J j:*-j Jill c-j ^ ^, ^ t^l2)l Uijji 



t (Amedroz, JRAS 1910, S. 789 4 ) JjjJ^^ -^ Oj-^*^ o^^ */-^" (^) 

. :>\jT \i; ^i JJ »i5jUJ1 j^^ oUUJl JJ J^l a- r^l O^ ,jir>^. 

, too ^ jJ-aII ,_;-JJ (O) 

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Jl ( JdJI J^t jU ^j ) ^J^\ c^ ^\i^\ cJlT ^}}\ ij4^l 

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<Ac *is«jj Jli' V ^->i C^J^ ^j'^3 i ^^ *^J (nri 'J*-* -s^*-^' 



♦ (>) 



I4I. ;^J1 J ^IS^^ ^UD l^oij jl ^Udl SiU cJlTj 



( o-l^t J-aiJI ) iJUl j^VL; ^^UJ» J-aiU» >;t (T) 



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4 »LAiU ^^1 ^ Vji <*Ul. W\ j^ : ^^lill JUJ i 5i>UJI 
J A-oUi! ji^j i 4i!)UJI jb ^^ 4-9.1; (J -^j t^jLJ' 7=;^. j^' y* 
iiiiJl ^:a, ^ ^* 4 ^UL Uij ^\ij\ Jb.lj t5^Ull ^it J J>.iJI 

•t 

i ejii j ^uju tui ^j^i t^uii jir aioTj 4 ^^^o^^i ^iaI^u 

^ VTA ft \x» ^l^- ^r^ ^l^ Jy c5-^' jnr*^ (>; -^ u^ s^^.-^ 



/•^Jdb (^lill iJu ^^o Jj ♦ ci^ ^ ^UJI J^ JJ Xo Jj 

<£^Uj Dj^t JuJ\i 4 j'yJ' Cf* ^.' "Sr^ r*'^ cr^ ^ J^^' *^-^^ *-* 






* T\V <^ ^y-A4 frUii <ul J-^ ^ Ojy^ ^^Lill ^j lij 






Jl_^ ^iJbLj iUill ^15 jlT JUiJ 4 XJS Vl yo ^ ^^'^l li* ^j 
j^i tiU.1 «^UJt Jj 4 tU.! «jb J sLmU ^^ j^UJl 



♦ (») 






* Hi - UT o^ j-»-^» o-^ (Y) 

>^' (T) 



( i^j^^ ) • ( ( J* rA( « rv\ ri* ) <^_»* 



: ^^^j»4i*^ *j-j Jj-u)i JU \S\J. iSj^\ J>^. 

^ly.1 ^_yi]l ij^fjl ^Ij jl — ^1 Jl Jj-^lt >/--^" •^'^^ 



: (^^j^^.f «-i»_^ J JjaJI J J^_j 



^lj;*Jlj ^^y}\ ^\y\ jjr*---J, ''^e?^ ei-^JJl ^ ^ Jj-^ 



j^-j ♦ ^.j*- -'^^-*-5 ***•'> (> cT'^' <>: -5^ (T^ *^^-^- '^'-^'-' 

Uiil> i^U. olj^ ^y^j i »lj-^l cs-/ -^^"-J ^ 'Sr'l r-^~^' ■^- 






. Kremer, ZDMG, 30 S. 49 (U 
. Kremer, ZDMG, 31 S. 478 (t) 



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J*Aj p>U <«^j 4 JJ"U 4 <«..ua3. >i* O'**^'?^ <iiJUJI (S^J^ ' (t^ 

♦ ^1 iyjl 






J^_ (( ^»5CJ<^ ^>LJ1 d : jUi j^w^a^ll JL..! <Jt JL. 

Iij» jS/ 4 L^ dUi ^ A.j,_ Vj 4 «: j,5Ca;^j » : J_^_ ji ^UU 

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^ <iCIj 4 ^2;./jJl. 4J;> (y^^jdl ci^U 4 jL:> <fL, >^l L*a>>i 
^l;:> i-^^ ^0. jl ^Sll Jji (J t^^l^l ^j::5U 4 lU'. „ ;f« <Jju_ ji 
^* 4 ^1;^ L^ Jl d^ji ^U)l ^^Ai^ ^^1 oOj 4 ^ jr J 
T^ij 4 j*-Jl >\^ 4 jb^ c^^ ^ 4 jb^ J! ^^ 4 ^_jL^ Jl 
J jLoi ^j ^-b 4;^ JU^ 4 <J-b jl A-ki-j L jjuj jl ^U)l <)*u 
j^j J^i' jl <>H i j5t_]l J <.^^ jLj_ jl J,^ <jOj 4 /.U JT 
^ : ^U)l '^UJI JU d^li Ji:;^ . <l:i L,^ 4j;> U .bi ^ _^ 
i^ 4*ijl jt 4 Cj^ja 4atLil : ^UJl JUs 4 i'a>>lj : jUs ! oJiJ 

^ VAi _ -A ^•^A ^Ifr ^O^il Jl-5 ^y _^^ eri'U ^JUii ^^ J.JuiLl 



. de Sacy, Religion des Druses, CCCCXXVni. (T) 



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Jl_^ ^ d\jl JU : <J l_^lSj i -4 jlLUl 'i>- >U^i li'^i 
'o_^ Jj . (^>o_^l ^ ijJ\ .Uf ^U Jl ^>^ i V> cr^. 

^_ ju>.l tjyo ^y»is p \YA — *» r^A Aj— ci -^i-^. ol^j 

jlJi^l <JI ^Aia i aLjI^ <^j <Ij^ 4l>.j <^ <J CjlS'j C j\L^ 

i ^l> UJ> 1^3) : cJl5 i liU : Jl5 ♦^^ll!l 4^1 oi i ^^jit : cJl5 



. TYA (^ (/JLJL531 (1) 
c o> <lj jj^ jUI s? r^^=*^ -^J -'^^>-i^ (J! c:>i o^J ' crr^^ ^-^ ^-^^ cr-^ 

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i J^lji Sc-uzai J3 : Jl5j c <1jsJ aUC^ ^J^lL^ u ^.. __ 

: ^ ^ vt'\ <^ (J ^l-U-j dLiJill ^^15 (jl^^ jitj^ jlS'j 



(JRAS, 1911 p. 669, <^1 ^>r-Vl S-^l U^ ^ ^^AU j.:iluVl ^j\j {]) 

^'— ^ oj-^. lyi^ t^l^l o>Ji a- JjVl ^^-^1 ^ ^^ suiJ ol ^UiJlj i Note. I) 

-jt i.. pU ^_;i_p. jlj^ sLjOJI o^! ol^ ^"IJ'j M Mn ^ oljb-Ol yLiT ) Jjjt 
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J^-Cfr ^ jlfj (. iljji ^j (j jjj)l i^l^J; ijS^ tU!i ,_.-^ jlTj 
J*^ ^ Jjl jAj 4 i^llT (J ^pL^I Ja>.j )) :>^^^1 -Xijli >- A* \ 

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^L_t J\y>. il-u-. jlS'j ♦ ^^^*4r^ii^ ^^. '-?^ ^ ' ^♦^-r-^" 

♦ JubLi '<?Ui Uj ciJi ^ ^ ^ ^^T — «^r»» 



. 0^. i oA^ i oA. t ooT er^ jJ-^1 ,j-^ (t) 
J:»>:i^ (>>^^ i>ua^ jl^ a* ^ Amedroz. JRAS, 1910. 779 ff. (t) 
^.^jj (^JUL. J.,4-^^ j^ cr-^.-J • nr u- c/'--J^ J^'"-*-* ^J >^ • LT-.J^ 
^r*^ y«.j M TYA er- A ^ jrj^ ) <^J,^-— il r^" -^J ( «A^ t oAA ^ <^-L:^ ) 

Revue du monde musulman, ty^L^'i^ (JUl ii^v ^^ ) fj^^ (J\ cr^^j^. 



o^l fr^^stj !)U i liA:^- (jil*^ (t^L* : ^^ jUi i ^^-^ l5^>* Oi -^'^ 
^1 ^IJI jyDl >ljl Jj i ^^^T^ ^f^^ jlT ^uJI 1^ ^j 

o^ ^Jdl JiiJl ji ^bCll \Ji ^3 JuUI -Ll^L-li >'! ^1 



^j o* ^^ Amedroz, JRAS. 1910, S. 783. J^jx.tj t on ^ o;JliSJ1 (n 
Amedroz, JRAS. 1910 S. 779 ff. n ^rC < Mr ^ t^J^^ c^V ,Ji^l (T) 

. oM ^ o;JLiSJl M TA ^ i ^V^ c^j (T) 



A — *il?til }^^ (J jj-vl^ Lane u^ j-^^ l3 -^j^-^I jIj j 

"j:!:;^'^! *y[j 6 i_«j iJub -X=- juaI jji jC>.* <_^ ^jdi ^^jj 

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Jj • ^T ^ Ravaisse <^ t^yt-lkU ciUUll > :^.\S Sjjj ^^ >^^ - ^-.t-nJl 
iUJUl 0^ ol J^ t ie^UUl JJ <JMiiJ\ iLJiiJl ^^rrr^ yt.1^1 <iJiil ^ ^ \Wa^^ 




U lu-iu jl .^ij 4 ^"liUl ^;,_t ^_;^25cij :>j^l jlj:»i ^ ,^.j^ 
Vlj ^1 V .^j jU i ^\ ^Li- J! ^*3^_ jl <J j..^! 4^:^ 

VjI^ 015- lil VI <U jir ^ «4 ^ u:^ ^^_ VI .^"ij 

*^^^(:i-^„J (^r^i ^-^ -LJ^. '^^ -^ 4 'UJ! ^y^ ^J3]j ^U^Y' 
aLLJ j_,-A^_ V ^_iJI sUJi 5frL^ ^ Ai.jj ^Jji cU-VI IJlaj 

r-b '^J-V. Oi-*J' "l-LJl .V>j i LUI i;OL-VI ^jCJi _^ ^^1 
UI>.^1 4^ c^i ^^1 ^1 ^ i,i^| yu^i^uC^s^i jlo^ J 

♦ jul^l AtU. ^ ja^_ U ^S/l ^1 j^ i U3_^j 4-.X-VI 

c(^j}\ ji. * .Udii .^Lu J aii jir u '>ij 4 ^vi Jl ^Sfi 

c?*.^ *-r-i jy> i"-L_*lj i>! ^2,^-. SLiiDI ^Ui ja_s- ^\J\j ^iDi 
o^ ui>'>' V^15 ^^ <I- lAt IJj. 4 :>1a;^_ JUj '<jU; ^j1_^1 



^^uii ^ ts.r>4ii t;'-'" '^'^J' J"j' JJ f '^-'-^ ^j no ^ ^uji j;l-j o) 
j-^^j j^(xj\ ji_;j <.s» j=»_j 0' <i Ji-i--' sJ* j'-iti « ■<-s» ji » ^^ .LjiiJi iur 



^j j}\ oUUJl j>-^ J "V*jj i ^ISS' ^j <iV^i v-^^ 
^,U ib c J^lj ^^15 ^^ jir <;! ^^1 ^.1^1 oyiJl J?tjt Jl 

pUJl ^b^ij <)^1 jLjOI pL-JJ *^ Uj 615^ <:^LiIl x^ Jj 



J.>i** < oj^u^ o"} •/^' cr* ^li^ Amedroz, 1910, S. 780. •li=- U >J1 {^) 

. JRAS, 1912, S. 14 f, yiJUl cy} (^) 

Gotthell, a distinguished famUy of fatlmlde Cadis In the tenth (T) 

century, JAOS, 1906. S, 217 ff. 

. YY u^ \ ^ t^j^^— JJ ^-jfciJ\ ^jyi O) 



j >LJ1 jlTj i ^lUl J '>JI »Uii)l -r^l^ Jl ^^ o^J 



L_^_i : ol* ^ Uli I.U31 <!'LIl cJlTj c ILS^ Ua*; ^'a:*! 
^"itil J }^_ ^\^ ^^t SL^l cT'l^ jlTj d ^Uiil J >. tUl 






. o 1.0 ^ C^Jul^ (1) 



. Amedroz, JRAS, 1911, S. 635 ff. Jjj-^^ 

JL4* J j^ J U1 . Schwarz. Ture stan, 210 J^^ o^^— ^-^b jU:j UJ (T) 
j!n-. UJj ^Ul J-*iJl J3I \s Lane, Manners and Customs... >^U i/* -^^^ 

. Snouck Hurgronje, Mekka, 1, 182 >^1 is^ 

. Amedroz, JRAS, 1911 S. 664 (() 

t ^\x\ - ^rrt <:- '1-^1 (^3 (/^^ jL-i^^^ ^u ,r^ (J^i 4? >H ^^ tff) 

^,u-p ^1 j. 1 . . t _ ^ T\( <^ 4? J^-^ L^J^. ^--H3 ' ( oYT a* (/-A^l ) J^i^-^ 
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^ <U^t ^U^l 4.11^^ .Uiil* .N> jbC^ ^ ^^\^ J^l ^ c5j^. 

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• 1-Y^ *bjy^ V^ (t) 



:>_^ <-jji pUij 4 UJp j::^ 4 -^Ji^ c^^i-U 4 JjUS -u«- jjl 
i:^\i i ^^lill jl— -i^l; ^Ij <: -tJi^ -W-^b UajH^^ T^Ji^t^ J^jii 

V^ »^ JS" jbG 4 Jjv^ ^2r- ^' '^^ S^ ^c/"^ v^ S^ i/h: 

. d (^y ma) j>ir ^>>- i^ <-b jj^^^iir ^uii jir » 



^^jb J.>iu- ^^1 ^j j>j> iliJ Amedroz, JRAS, 1910, S. 793. (\) 
^SXSi\ ,y^i i JRAS, 1911, S. 663 LiiL,! Jli\ ; V - ' "^^ u- T\n |^j 

• oU a* grJLiiJl J=^ (T) 
. oAl ' oAr a- jJ-ai o-^ (t) 



"^ ^ '^\ ^J-^" c^y i V o^s^h i <^^ q^l^l J^'^ 
Jlj^ tiUi ^Jbo jlTj 4 ^^^Ai>:C /.JUT oU!)4IiJI cilTj 



C^r^^ J*^. oT (JLIUI 0^^.-5 *T*>-1— ' L> Ol^j • \.Y t oY ^ «bJjJ^ V*-^ (T) 

Josua Stylltes, S. 29. O) 



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• ^^^JlUI e_^jj i_^4jJlj eUiiiJIj 

j^j ^ika) ^^_ t5-^i J^j ♦ ^'X f ^'^^ - A^A = -* ^o'^ 

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. (Enger) j=^\'<^ HT o- s?-'-'-'^ <Jlil_J\ rli::-VI (1) 

— trN — 



^LOi j^\ jiTj 4 .i?M_iii (.^_ ^ikai ^^_ ^iji j^i jfi_,t 

jAiili ^^ "iiiU^ ^ituJ o^ (» su _ ^ r.A <^ cij 

^ L ^1 i-_^j ;^l j^ ^ ^lUl >J ji 1^1 : <^ji%^ 






• 1\T er* A ^ ^*V1 (^1j ( Amedroz, JRAS, 1911, S. 657 (U 

J >J^ J U < 1/j o^, o^ ^UJl ^ JU, UJ J.>^! ^' t ( V.A - l.Y ^ 



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^ U^L:i^l J^ij i Jli^l j^lj (^j*Jl j^l cK o>^l <Jj^ 

: JlS yij j^JtJl (J dJ0A;>t)l ^f-jJl ^I'l.. ..,->■- J I J U .1..^ jA ^ OJj 

oUlOi ^Lic« 'Jo-ApbI jji <jiDl cUp ^joJ ^ -^" U ^Ij 



. i-jjjVl <*JaJV ^ TAT u-* t>**^ ^US^\ jl^l *UJ\ jL-i.J (T) 

_ tro _ 



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L_^_ jjy^ ^>tj ^i\j:i\ ^ yS \jn\ j^JJIj .LJJIj *LkUl 
<i Ur <fUaojl /i ^L-U i-jl^^l ^b" Ji (. ilLiJI J *LLiJI 

cUJI tL-i <Jl:Jt JjyiJI »Lb oLiu J d..^ i Ulj -Cl*:*. jlT oi, 
UJi J* /**^ cjy-^j <j'Llb* vi>!jLJt oJl* /j^ ma^ JkS "CmSL^ jlTj 

Jc^jij^ oi IT L. j-3. A« o^t iOjOflJl i^jjdl jt J^ 

<J ^^1 j c^1 S^l ,_^l jl ^ 1 _.,.&c t5y»_^l jU 



. (?) Mlttwoch, MSOS, 1910, S. 148 f. (J) 

Goldzlher. Beltr Zur Gesch. d. Sprachgelehrsamkelt bei den (T) 
Arabem, SWA. phll. hist. Kl. 37, S. 518. 

Goldzlher, SWA, 72. S. 587 : Zur Gauharl Llteratur, (T) 



_ -A AA^ (^li> ^ydl ) ^^Lui c5^>*JI ^ ^^U. ^_^^ L^15 

♦ ^^^<ifr ^>:JI j^ci^ L ^ji^l 

(^jL^^ll ^^^ ^1 i-^ljJJI di A ib^t jlTj <; :^^ T^,.^ c-ij 

^ r^' J[ ^^* c/Ji J'ji ^ c^^i ^^1 >*j ^ ^'^^Sfi o^^. 

♦ !-u ^ ^! j^bl ^^! 

jiTj i ibOi u ^i^ II ;^,ijji ^^u^i 'iu c^j 



• ( n( ^ V ^ ) c>,>^r-U y^ji* a* ^ Goldziher, SWA, 67, S. 250 (T) 
( of'^Ul J-^1 ) J>\^\ vLiJl Jj . ^ irro <:- ^^ <^ ^ T.l ^ 1 jr >^j 
O. Rescher, >1 ) ^Vl JLi^^Vl ^ ^^1 ^^^ ^l JjU; ^^'u^^iJi ^\^ ^ 
Studien fiber Ibn Glnnl, ZA, 1909, S. 20). 



(^^n _ j^rr* ^l^ JA^) ^^'i'^ iS^J^ cr-^^ Cf. -^^^ J^. 



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Jl i_^l ^jCUJ U)U« >T tL-i 

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• Wr a- lA c; (^l^VI (T) 
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jLi.!j /»l_^l *t5jLw. cjl5' i ( ^ AAA — * rv« clc- Jy:il ) _r*r 



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j«-uj^ yu- jijuu u . -fc u-T j^ <*^ rY^ - rvA u-» ^ c: ^>^— ^^ O) 

, Reich. Mimus, 1, 443 ^\ ' ^^-^^ £:>-^^ -H* ^J>-» 
. Uju/ Uj 0*; ^ 1 j: Jbyil^ JuU^ ^^U ^jU t^^p-^^ v^J^^ y^j (Y) 

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4 ^'i^..^-?; WjL-osj i ^^Jl Jst i-^i ^ ^j ^:^^ <^'J 

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(. A^_jdl j»4Jifrl_^ (i /otu^l jLjui^l lyJi ai Ijjir J14JI dUJ> J 

. (( (^^ICSC^ -US' -X. J jl? C .Vj.nJ! 4iJ^ 



<^^U^ j_^ jUbl ^ ^_>D VU^ J.*L.J1 ^j l::r ^i > cJ iTj 



Gioldzlher, Abhandlungen Zur arabischen Philologle. 1, S. 65 f. (T) 

- Hi - 



jir ^jui ^_juii ^_yyji ^.^ir t.;^ ._jjc jLG i ^o^i v^i/ 
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4 Liu-aJl <)"jj-3 (J jLJ' -L^U ^Mi-lj i <i:^Jl <3L;^ j^wiJil 
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