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The Highland CLANS of 

Scotland: Their History and 
"Traditions. By George yre-Todd 

With an Introduction by A. M. MACKINTOSH 





































2 7 8 




3 68 



CLAN MATHESON ....... 427 

CLAN MENZIES ........ 432 

CLAN MUNRO . . . . . . . . 438 

CLAN MURRAY ........ 445 

CLAN OGILVY ........ 454 

CLAN ROSE . . 460 

CLAN ROSS ........ 467 

CLAN SHAW . . . . . . . -473 

CLAN SINCLAIR ........ 479 

CLAN SKENE ........ 488 

CLAN STEWART ........ 492 

CLAN SUTHERLAND ....... 499 

CLAN URQUHART . . . . . . .508 

INDEX ......... 513 


Armorial Bearings .... 

MacDonald of Keppoch 

Cairn on Culloden Moor 

MacDonell of Glengarry 

The Well of the Heads 

Invergarry Castle .... 

MacDougall ..... 

Duustaffnage Castle . . . 

The Mouth of Loch Etive . 

MacDuff ..... 

MacGillivray ..... 

Well of the Dead, Culloden Moor . 

Maclnnes ..... 

Maclntyre . . . 

Old Clansmen's Houses 

Maclver ..... 

MacKay . . . 

Mackenzie ..... 

Brahan Castle ..... 

Castle Leod, Strathpeffer . 

Mackinnon ..... 

Mackintosh ..... 

Inverlochy Castle .... 

MacLachlan . . . 

Castle Lachlan .... 

MacLaurin ..... 

Loch Voil and the Old MacLaurin Country 

Maclean ..... 

MacLennan . 

MacLeod . . 

Macmillan ..... 



. Facing page viii 





















> ., 340 










Lawers, Loch Tay ..... Facing page 380 

MacNab . . . . 382 

Francis, Twelfth Chief of MacNab . . 384 

Kinnell House . . . . 386 

MacNaughton . . ,, . 388 

MacNicol . . . * . 394 

MacNiel . . . . . / . 398 

Kismul Castle ..... 400 

MacPhee or Duffie ..... 402 

Macpherson . . -'. . 406 

MacQuarie . . . \ . , 414 

MacRae ... 420 

Matheson . . . . ,,426 

Menzies . . . . ,,432 

Weem Castle ... 434 

Munro . . . ..... 438 

Murray . .. 444 

Tullibardine Kirk . . . . ,,448 

Ogilvy ... . 454 

Inverquharity Castle . . . . . 456 

Rose ....... 460 

Kilravock Castle, Nairnshire . . 464 

Ross . . 4 66 

Shaw .... 472 

Sinclair. ... . 478 

Sir John Sinclair, Bart., of Ulbster . . 484 

Skene . . . . 4 8F 

Stewart . . . . ,,492 

Garth Castle, Glenlyon . . . . ,,494 

Sutherland 498 

Ur( l uhart 508 


eding page 261. 


BADGB : Fraoch gorm (erica vulgaris) common heath. 

SLOGAN : Dia 's Naomh Aindrea. 

PIBROCH : Ceapach na fasaich, and Blar Mhaol rua'. 

AN interesting subject for the pen of the Scottish his- 
torical student would be the mass of evil consequences, 
extending for centuries afterwards, which flowed from the 
moral indiscretion of Robert II., first of the Stewart 
kings. As a warrior and a statesman the Stewart was in 
every way worthy of his grandfather, King Robert the 
Bruce. It was his private conduct, in the matter of his 
conjugal relationships, which entailed such endless woes 
upon his descendants and upon Scotland. Though 
legitimated by a Papal dispensation in 1347, eight years 
before his second marriage, there can be no question that 
the Stewart's early connection with Elizabeth Mure of 
Rowallan was irregular. Out of this fact arose the claim 
of the children of his later marriage with Euphemia 
Ross, the Earls of Strathearn and Atholl, to be the proper 
heirs of the Crown, a claim which brought about the 
assassination of James I. and the terrible Douglas Wars 
against James II. At the same time, by their own acts 
the children of Elizabeth Mure brought a heritage of woe 
on Scotland. The eldest son, John, ascended the throne 
as Robert III., but the third son, the ambitious, able 
Robert, Duke of Albany, ruled the country, secured the 
death of Robert III.'s elder son, by starvation, at Falk- 
land, and the capture and long imprisonment of the king's 
second son, afterwards James I., by the English, for 
which betrayal a fearful nemesis was suffered by his own 
son and grandsons on Stirling heading hill. Elizabeth 
Mure's fourth son was the savage Alexander Stewart, 
Earl of Buchan, better known as the Wolf of Badenoch, 

vhose defiance of the laws of God and man kept the 
rthern half of Scotland in fire and bloodshed for more 

nan twenty years. To mention only one other of the 
twenty-one children of Robert II., his eldest daughter 

Margaret, who was married to John, Lord of the Isles, 

35o, carried with her what seems to have been nothing 

s than a curse. To make way for her, the Lord of the 

Isles set aside his first wife, Amy MacRuari, with her 

VOL. II 26l A 


children, and from that day the misfortunes of the great 
House of the Isles began, and the downfall of the whole 
race of Macdonald. It was Margaret Stewart's son, 
Donald of the Isles, who married a sister of the Earl of 
Ross, and on that Earl's death claimed the Earldom. 
This was claimed also by his uncle, Robert, Duke of 
Albany, for his own younger son. To assert his claim 
Donald, in 1411, marched across Scotland and fought the 
bloody battle of Harlaw, where he was defeated by his 
cousin, Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, eldest natural son 
of the Wolf of Badenoch. It is true that in 1431 the tables 
were turned, when the same Earl of Mar was defeated by 
the Islesmen, under Donald Balloch, in the fierce battle 
of Inverlochy ; but the victory brought down upon 
Alexander, the next Lord of the Isles, Margaret Stewart's 
grandson, condign punishment at the hands of his other 
cousin, King James I., and the misfortunes of the house 
went from less to more, till in 1493 John, " fourth and 
last " Lord of the Isles, died a forfeited and landless 
man in Paisley Abbey or Dundee. 

In these matters the Macdonalds of Keppoch shared 
the misfortunes of the great House of the Isles from which 
they had sprung. Their ancestor was Alastair, third son 
of John, Lord of the Isles, and Margaret Stewart, daughter 
of King Robert II. Angus Og, the father of John of 
the Isles, who figures as the hero in Scott's poem, had 
received from King Robert the Bruce, as a reward for 
loyal support, the lands of Morven, Ardnamurchan, and 
Lochaber, forfeited by his kinsmen the MacDougals of 
Lome, and John of the Isles made his third son Lord of 
Lochaber. In a deed of 1398 Alastair is termed " Mag- 
incus vir et potens," and for three hundred years his 

cendants were known as the race of Alastair Carraich 
s not till the end of the seventeenth century that the 
Keppoch Chief, Colla MacGillieaspuig, on the persuasion 

his kinsman, the Glengarry Chief, Lord MacDonell 
os, resumed the family name of Macdonald. Th 

onghold of the Macdonalds of Keppoch stood on hig 
I at the meeting of the Roy and the Spean, where, 

rirdrn ** ^^ ***** the fruit trees f their old 
garden continued to blossom and bear fruit 

th i lTi5!l C f mi J Ch Wa x? r had flowed P ast the walls of 

o d ^f tt r uUn- N tabl ? in ''. while Alexander, 

,K ^ lHy a prisoner in Tantallon, and 

Inch^m A fl ^r nteSS u f . RoSS ' was immur * d on 
m. Alasair Carraich joined the formidable in- 

the Islesmen under his cousin, Donald Balloch, 


Chief of Clanranald, which routed the Royal forces under 
Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar, and the Earl of Caith- 
ness at Inverlochy. For this the lordship of Lochaber 
was forfeited and bestowed by James I. on his loyal sup- 
porter, the Mackintosh Chief, Captain of Clan Chattan. 
This grant proved a cause of trouble for several centuries. 
Like the MacGregors further south, the Macdonalds 
resisted the Mackintosh's parchment tenure, and con- 
tinued for the most part to hold their lands by the ancient 
coir a glaive, or right of the sword. 

Alastair Carraich's son Angus, the second Keppoch 
Chief, had two sons, Donald and Alastair. Of these, 
Donald was slain in 1498 in a battle with the first Appin 
Chief, Dougal Stewart, and his son John earned the 
enmity of his clan by an act which the Highlanders 
invariably regarded as unpardonable. One of his tribe, 
having committed some offence, fled to him for protec- 
tion. John, however, weakly handed the man over to the 
Mackintosh Chief, as Steward of Lochaber. By this act 
he sealed his own fate. The clan deposed him from the 
chiefship, and made his cousin and heir-male presumptive, 
Donald Glas, chief in his place. Ranald, the son of 
Donald Glas, met a still more tragic fate. Along with 
the Captain of Clan Cameron he took part, in 1544, 
in supporting the stout and capable John Moydertach, 
natural son of the late Chief of Clanranald, in his claim 
to the chiefship, which had been conferred upon him by 
his clan, in despite of the weak and unpopular legitimate 
heir, Ranald Gallda. For a time, while Moydertach was 
imprisoned by James V., Ranald was placed in possession 
of the Moidart estates by his mother's people, the Frasers ; 
but on James's death and Moydertach's return, Gallda 
fled, and his rival, helped by Keppoch and the Camerons. 
carried fire and sword through the Fraser country. These 
disorders brought into action the Earl of Huntly, as 
King's Lieutenant in the North. With a force of the 
Frasers, Grants, and Mackintoshes, he drove out Moyder- 
tach and his raiders, and replaced Ranald Gallda in 
possession of his estates. On their way back Huntly's 
forces separated in Glen Spean, and Lovat with 400 men 
went homewards by the Great Glen. There, at the head 
of Loch Lochy, he was intercepted by the Macdonalds, 
and in the terrible battle of Kin-Loch-Lochy, or Blar-na- 
leine, had his force completely cut to pieces, and was slain- 
himself, with his eldest son and the luckless Ranald 
Gallda. It was in the following year that the Earl of 
Lennox invaded the West of Scotland in the interest of 


Henry VIII., and he found it easy to gain over John 
Moydertach and his allies. These transactions proved 
disastrous to Keppoch. In 1546, along with the Captain 
of Clan Cameron, he was secured by Mackintosh as 
Deputy Lieutenant and handed over to Huntly, who first 
imprisoned them at Perth, and afterwards carried them to 
Elgin, where they were tried and beheaded in 1547. 

Ranald's son and successor, Alastair of Keppoch, was 
mixed up with the affairs of that turbulent chief, Sir James 
Macdonald of Islay and Kintyre, chief of clan Ian Vor, 
and last representative of the second son of John of the 
Isles and the daughter of King Robert II. When Sir 
James, after trying to burn his father and mother in their 
house of Askomull in Kintyre, was imprisoned in Edin- 
burgh Castle, he made several attempts to escape. After 
the first of these he was confined in irons, and in the 
second attempt the irons severely injured his ankle as he 
leapt from the wall. At last, however, in 1615, by the 
help of Alastair of Keppoch and his eldest son, he suc- 
ceeded in getting away. His estates in Islay had by this 
time been feued to Sir John Campbell of Cawdor, brother 
of the Earl of Argyll, and Sir James proceeded to raise 
his forces to make a last stand against the usurpations of 
the Campbells, who for centuries had been ousting the 
ancient House of trie Isles from its heritage. In the 
struggle he was vigorously helped by Keppoch, and the 
affair caused an immense commotion in the Western Isles. 
In the end, however, the Earl of Argyll himself was 
brought from England, whither he had fled, it is said, to 
escape his creditors. Armed with the King's commission 
he gathered his forces at Duntroon on Loch Crinan, drove 
Sir James and his supporters from Islay and Kintyre, 

finally secured these territories as Campbell pos- 

isions. Keppoch seems to have followed his leader to 

Spam, and when they were recalled to London and 

pardoned by King James VI. in 1620 he received a pension 

merks, while Sir James got one of 1,000. 
Twenty-five years later, during the Civil Wars, the 

e of Keppoch was very active on the side of King 

M ^ en the Kin >s general, the Marquess of 

c, made his astonishing march in the snows of 

o overthrow the pusillanimous Marquess of Argyll 

\lJnT M y : r Was a memt er of the clan, John 

nald, the famous Iain Lorn, the poet, who guided 

Momroje s army through the difficult mountain passes. 

> death of Montrose the bard of Keppoch 

>mposed a lament in his honour. 


Facing page 264. 


At a still later day Iain Lorn played a dramatic part 
in another tragic episode in the history of his clan. The 
tradition runs that a Keppoch Chief, Donald Glas, sent 
his two sons to France to be educated, and died during 
their absence. On the return of the lads, Alastair and 
his brother Ranald, they were barbarously murdered, in 
September, 1663, by certain members of the clan, who 
took possession of their land. No one seemed disposed 
or powerful enough to avenge the crime : only the poet 
seemed to feel the outrage, and he exerted himself un- 
ceasingly to induce some chief to take the matter up. At 
last he managed to enlist the interest of Glengarry, who 
had recently been raised to the peerage as Lord MacDonell 
and Aros. By this chief a body of men was sent to 
Brae Lochaber, and the murderers were attacked in their 
dwellings and slain. The sequel is told in the inscription 
on a curious monument with an apex representing seven 
human heads which stands near the south-west end of 
Loch Oich. The inscription runs: " As a memorial of 
the ample and summary vengeance which, in the swift 
course of feudal justice, inflicted by the orders of the Lord 
McDonell and Aross, overtook the perpetrators of the foul 
murder of the Keppoch family, a branch of the powerful 
and illustrious clan of which his lordship was the Chief, 
this monument is erected by Colonel McDonell of Glen- 
garry, XVII. Mac-Mhic-Alaister, his successor and 
representative, in the year of our Lord 1812. The heads 
of the seven murderers were presented at the feet of the 
noble chief in Glengarry Castle, after having been washed 
in this spring, and ever since that event, which took place 
early in the sixteenth century, it has been known by the 
name of ' Tobar-nan-ceann,' or ' The Well of the 
Heads.' " 

In its chronology the inscription is somewhat astray, 
as Iain Lorn was not born till about 1620. At the 
Restoration in 1660 he received a pension, and he is some- 
times referred to as the poet laureate of Charles II. He 
was present with the Jacobite army under Dundee at 
Killiecrankie in 1689, and celebrated the victory of the 
Highland army on that occasion in a poem, " Rinrory." 

Meanwhile the Macdonalds of Keppoch had been 
making history vigorously in their own way. In 1682 
Archibald Macdonald of Keppoch died and was suc- 
ceeded by his son Coll, then a youth at St. Andrews. 
After his father's funeral Coll went to Inverness and tried 
to arrange terms to settle the old difficulties with the 
Mackintosh Chief. The latter, however, replied by throw- 


in* Keppoch into prison, and it took an order from the 
Privy Council to set him free. After this treatment 
Keppoch naturally refused to have dealings with 
Mackintosh, and in the end the latter procured a com- 
mission of fire and sword against him. It was in July, 
1688, that the Mackintosh Chief, irritated by Keppoch 's 
refusal to pay rent and admit his authority, at last raised 
his clan, and, accompanied by a body of Government 
troops under Captain Mackenzie of Suddie, descended 
upon Brae Lochaber, and encamped on the height of 
Maol rua', near Keppoch 's stronghold. The upshot, 
however, was far different from what he expected. His 
force numbered about a thousand men, while Keppoch 
had his own force increased by the Macdonalds of Glen- 
garry and Glencoe and some Camerons. At dawn on 
the 4th of August Mackintosh beheld his enemies 
descending upon him from the ridge above. They 
charged without shoes, stockings, or bonnets, and did 
dreadful execution with their swords and Lochaber axes. 
Suddie was killed and Mackintosh himself taken prisoner, 
while his banner only escaped by its bearer leaping a 
chasm over which no one could follow him. The battle of 
Mulroy, which was the last clan battle in the Highlands, 
was celebrated with characteristic vigour by Ian Lom. 

Mackintosh complained to the Privy Council, which 
sent two companies of foot and a troop of dragoons into 
Lochaber to destroy the Macdonalds, " man, woman 
and child " and burn their houses and corn. The Mac- 
donalds, however, managed to escape to the hills, from 
which they witnessed the destruction of their homes and 
crops. In the following year, Mackintosh having refused 
to join the Jacobite forces under Dundee, Macdonald had 
the satisfaction of driving off his cattle, and burning his 
new mansion of Dunachton. For his activity in cattle- 
raiding for the Jacobite army Dundee nicknamed Keppoch 
as " Coll of the Cows." 

In the interest of King James, Coll threatened Inver- 

with a force of 800 men, but was drawn off by 

J'SSSS 1 and he led a thous a n d Highlanders to the battle 

ecrankie. After the building of Fort William in 

jo, however, he saw it to his interest to become recon- 

to the law, and he entered into an arrangement with 

osh to pay a regular rent for his lands in 

He still, however, remained loyal to the 

>ite cause, and at the rising of 1715 he joined the 

tarl of Mar and fought at Sheriffmuir. 

* the son of Coll of the Cows, Alexander 


Macdonald of Keppoch, who played a very notable part 
in the rising under Prince Charles Edward in 1745. At 
the Prince's landing he was one of the first of the High- 
land Chiefs to declare for him, and it was in his country, 
at the bridge over the Spean, that the first shots of the 
rising were fired and two companies of Government 
soldiers taken prisoners. Keppoch himself led three 
hundred clansmen to the raising of the Prince's standard 
at Glenfinan, and having been an officer in the French 
service he proved of very great value throughout the 
campaign, till the last onset at Culloden. Since Bannock- 
burn the Macdonalds had claimed the place of honour 
on the right of the Scottish armies. At Culloden this 
was denied them, and from their assigned place on the 
left they refused in consequence to charge. As the critical 
moment was passing, Keppoch, who was their colonel, 
uttered the cry, " Have the children of my tribe forsaken 
me? " and rushing forward himself, sword and pistol in 
hand, received a bullet through the breast and fell dead. 

Following the battle, Lochaber was burned, houses, 
corn-stacks, and woods, with ruthless barbarity, by the 
red soldiers under the Duke of Cumberland, and two of 
the clansmen who went to Fort William to deliver up 
their arms and avail themselves of the proffered pardon 
were immediately hanged at a spot still pointed out near 
the mill. In 1752, however, Keppoch's son, Ranald Og, 
petitioned for the restoration of his property on the ground 
that his father had fallen before the passing of attainder. 
He served in the Fraser Fencibles, each company of which 
was commanded by a chief, and he distinguished himself 
very highly at the siege of Quebec. The chiefs remained 
tenants of the lands of Keppoch till Major Alexander 
Macdonald had to leave, in consequence of quarrels with 
Sir JEneas Mackintosh. The representative of the ancient 
chiefs was afterwards lost sight of in America. 

Only less celebrated than Ian Lorn was a poetess of 
the clan, Sheila Macdonald, daughter of Gillespie Mac- 
Alaistair Buidhe, sixteenth chief, who became the wife 
of Gordon of Baldornie in Aberdeenshire. In addition 
to her poetry she was a noted performer on the harp, and 
is said to have had the gift of improvisation. 


MacGillivantic MacGilp 

Macglasricli MacKillop 

MacPhilip Philipson 

Ronald Ronaldson 


BADGE : Fraoch gorm (erica vulgaris) common heath. 

SLOGAN : Craie an fitheach. 

PIBROCH : Faille Mhic Alastair, Cille chriosd, and Blar Sron. 

IT is not many years since there lived in an old house 
with high-walled garden in the heart of Rothesay, two old 
maiden ladies whose pride and regret were that they were 
the last in this country of the great old house of the 
MacDonells of Glengarry. They were women of noble 
appearance and strong character, and one of them at least 
took a considerable part in public affairs. Many stories 
regarding them were told in the town. Among these one 
may be cited as characteristic. When the late Marquess 
of Bute, as a young man, called upon them on the eve of 
his marriage to a daughter of the great Roman Catholic 
house of Howard, it had become known that he was likely 
himself to become a member of the Church of Rome. Of 
this proceeding the Misses MacDonell did not approve, 
and they took the opportunity to inform him that if he did 
enter the Roman Communion they would " no longer be 
able to call at Mount Stuart." Among the treasures which 
the survivor of them took delight in preserving was a tall 
shepherd's crook of hazel which had been sent home to 
her by her nephew, the young Chief of the Clan in 
Canada. That hazel staff represented the tragedy of the 
race, for after the death in 1828 of the seventeenth Chief 
of Glengarry, who is said to have been the model in part of 
Fergus Maclvor in Sir Walter Scott's \Waverley, his 
impoverished successor, gathering together between 500 
and 600 of his clansmen, emigrated with them in a body 
to Canada, where they still perpetuate the traditions of the 
race which had its headquarters on the lovely shores of 
Loch Oich in the Great Glen. 

On the shore of Loch Oich still stand the ruins of the 
noble and picturesque ancient stronghold of Invergarry, 
which was the seat of the chief. Among the many 
memories of its days of magnificence and hospitality, the 
IMC is not the least striking. It was the day of his defeat 
mt Culloden, and Prince Charles Edward was in full flight 
before the "Red Soldiers" of the Butcher Duke of 


Facing page 268. 


Cumberland. Hungry and almost alone he reached 
Invergarry, and was there entertained to a meal which 
consisted of a brace of salmon which had been taken from 
the loch by the forester only an hour or two before. That 
was the last hospitality which the noble old house of 
Invergarry was to afford, for a few days afterwards the 
" Red Soldiers " came ravaging down the loch, making 
the country of the clans a desert with fire and sword, and 
by order of the Duke of Cumberland, Invergarry Castle 
was burned to the ground. 

Of the noble old race which had its home here the 
history is romantic in the extreme. Like the other two 
great branches of the clan, the MacDonalds of the Isles 
and of Clanranald, which contest with Glengarry the 
supreme chiefship of the name, the MacDonells are directly 
descended from Reginald, the younger son of the famous 
Somerled, King of the Isles in the twelfth century. Their 
patronymic of MacDonald they took from Donald, the 
elder of Reginald's two sons. A common ancestor of all 
three houses was Donald's grandson, Angus Og, who 
supported King Robert the Bruce in the Wars of 
Succession, entertained him in his castle of Dunavertie, 
at the south end of Kintyre, when he was fleeing for safety 
to the Island of Rachryn, and on whom in consequence 
Bruce 's grandson, King Robert II., bestowed the 
territories of Morvern, Ardnamurchan, and Lochaber, 
forfeited by the Macdougals, descendants of Somerled 's 
elder son, who had sided with Baliol and Comyn 
against the House of Bruce. 

A privilege claimed by all the MacDonalds in common 
was the right to the post of honour on the right in all 
Scottish armies on the day of battle. This right, it is 
said, was conferred upon them by King Robert the Bruce 
in recognition of the part they played on the field of 
Bannockburn, and the ignoring of it, they declare, brought 
about the disastrous issues of the battles of Harlaw and 
Culloden. On other occasions, as at Prestonpans and 
Falkirk, when accorded their proper position on the right 
of the Scottish armies, they performed prodigies of valour. 

Angus Og's son, John, first Lord of the Isles, had by 
his first marriage three sons, John, Godfrey, and Ranald ; 
and it is from the third of these, who inherited Moidart 
and Glengarry, that the families of Glengarry and 
Clanranald are descended. John of the Isles, however, 
repudiated his first wife, married the Princess Margaret, 
a daughter of King Robert II., and settled the Lordship 
of the Isles upon his family by her. From her second 


if" T d S"S."l 

f "T Xt d Donkld oi Ito I*'. " 

Btrs. '' 

John, Kafl of Ross and Lord of the Isles, simply as " frater with- 
out inv Qualifying word, e.g., the charter confirmed by James IV. 
KSfffSSSK? Ca'risfimo fratri nostro Hugoni Alexandri de 
nsuHs Domino de Slete,' and one of the witnesses is Celesfano 
de Insnlis de Lochalch fratre nostro' (Reg. Mag. Sig., Vol. xm., 
No. 186). A contrary opinion was at one time expressed L m 
consequence of Hugh and Celestine being designed by John, Earl 
of Ross and Lord of the Isles, in a charter granted in 1470, as 
Iratribus carnalibus.' But a fuller knowledge of ancient writs 
has rendered any such inference of little or no value. Carnaiis, 
it is now well known, is frequently applied to persons whose 
legitimacy is not open to question. A curious instance of the 
application of this word even to a brother uterine may be noted. 

" After the death of James I. of Scotland his widow, Joanna 
Beaufort (daughter of the Earl of Somerset), was married in 1439 
to Sir JttMS Stewart, known as the Black Knight of Lorn. They 
had three sons who were : (i) John; (2) James, afterwards Earl of 
Bucban; (3) Andrew, who became Bishop of Moray. These three 
were thus half-brothers to King James II. of Scotland. The eldest, 
John, who was created Earl of Atholl on 25th March, 1459-60, 
received a charter of Balvany from King James II., ' fratri suo 
Johanni Stewart comiti Atholiae.' Here it will be seen, he is 
nmnly styled /rater. On i8th March, 1481-82, in a re-grant of the 
Earldom of Atholl from King James III., he is designed ' f rater 
carnal i* (not of the blood royal) quondam progenitoris sui Jacobi 

" The position, so far as is known, seems to be fairly stated 

by Donald Gregory, in his History of the Western Highlands 

and ItUt o/ Scotland (1881 Ed., Vol. ii., pp. 40-1), as follows : 

Countess, Elizabeth, daughter of Alexander Seton, Lord 

* Gordon and Huntly, Alexander, Earl of Ross and Lord of the 

**. had issue, John, his successor. He had likewise two other 
legitimate tons (but whether by the same mother or not is 


judge for himself of the justice of the claims made by the 
heads of the three houses, of the Isles, Glengarry, and 
Clanranald, to be supreme chief of the MacDonalds. 

By way of evidence that their house was regarded as 
the head of the great MacDonald race, the Glengarry 
family cite many facts. Among these is the circumstance 
that in 1587, when the Scottish Parliament passed an Act 
for the keeping of the peace in the Highlands, MacDonald 
of Glengarry and Knoidart was made responsible for the 
peaceable behaviour of those of his name. 

For a time Glengarry was regarded as the deer forest 
belonging to the royal castle of Inverlochy, and the Mac- 
Donalds held as royal tenants, but they afterwards 
obtained a crown charter. In the year of Flodden they 
took part with MacDonald of Lochalsh in an attack on the 
royal castle of Urquhart, on Loch Ness. 

This connection led to one of the fiercest of the High- 
land feuds. Alexander MacDonald, sixth Chief of 
Glengarry, married Margaret, daughter of Sir Donald of 
Lochalsh, and when the latter died in 1519 he left half of 
his estate, Lochalsh, Loch Carron, and Attadale, with 
Strome Castle, to the pair. The other half was purchased 
by Mackenzie of Kintail. Soon the two were at each 
other's throats. Mackenzie's forester in Glen Affaric 
killed a Macdonald poacher. The MacDonalds in return 
murdered the brother of Fionnla Dubh of Gairloch. The 
Mackenzies next trapped Glengarry himself at Kishorn, 
slew his followers in cold blood, and seized his castle of 
Strome. His uncles also were murdered with all their 

uncertain), Celestine, Lord of Lochalche, and Hugh, Lord of Sleat ' 
and he adds in a footnote : ' I call these sons legitimate, not- 
withstanding that Celestine is called " Filius naturalis " by Earl 
Alexander (Ch. in Ch. Chest of Macintosh, 1447) and " f rater 
carnalis " by Earl John (Reg. of Great Seal, vi., 116, 1463), etc., etc. 
They are, however, both called " f rater " without any qualification 
by Earl John (Reg. of Great Seal, yi., 116; xiii., 186). The history 
of Celestine and Hugh and their descendants . . . sufficiently 
shows that they were considered legitimate, and that consequently 
the words " naturalis " and " carnalis " taken by themselves, and 
without the adjunct " bastardus," do not necessarily imply 
bastardy. It is probable that they were used to designate the 
issue of those handfast or left-handed marriages which appear 
to have been so common in the Highlands and Isles. Both 
" naturalis " and " carnalis " are occasionally applied to individ- 
uals known to be legitimate in the strictest sense of the 
word. . . .' 

" A further question which might have been of importance, 
viz., as to the respective seniority of Hugh and Celestine, has 
now only an academic interest, through the extinction in the 
male line of the family of Lochalsh." 


people except two sons. Glengarry was released by the 
Privy Council, but the sons of his uncles grew up to waste 
Applecross with fire and sword, while Glengarry's own son, 
Angus Og, harried Kintail, killed every man, woman, and 
child he could find, and drove a great spoil south to 
Glengarry. Mackenzie in return procured a commission 
of fire and sword, and with seventeen hundred men harried 
the MacDonald territory as far as Moray, and drove away 
the greatest spoil ever seen in the Highlands. Angus 
Og retaliated by ravaging Glenshiel and Letterfearn as far 
as Loch Duich, while his cousins again burned Apple- 
cross. During the raid one of them, forsaken by his 
followers, set his back to a rock and defended himself 
magnificently till a Mackenzie, climbing the rock, hurled 
a boulder on his head. The feud came to an end with two 
of the most famous incidents in Highland history. In 
November, 1602, Angus Og with seventeen birlinns set 
out to harry Loch Carron. As he returned, in passing 
through Kyle Akin he was attacked by a Mackenzie galley 
sent out from Eileandonan by the heroic Lady of Kintail, 
his birlinn struck a rock and capsized, and all his sixty 
warriors, with Angus Dubh himself, were slain. The 
final event took place in the following year, when the Mac- 
Donalds invaded Easter Ross, burned the church of 
Kilchrist with a party of Mackenzies inside, while their 
pipers marched round the blazing pile playing the tune 
which became the pibroch of the clan. But the lands 
of Loch Carron and Lochalsh were lost to Glengarry. 

-/Eneas the ninth Chief was out with Montrose 
in 1645 an d for his pains had his new house of 
I nvergarry burned by General Monk; but was after- 
wards compensated by Charles II. who made him 
Lord MacDonell and Aros. A notable figure in the 
campaign was Ian Lorn, the famous bard of the house 
of Keppoch. At the battle of Inverlochy, in which the 
forces of Argyll were utterly defeated and cut to pieces by 
the Royalist clansmen under Montrose, Ian Lom placed 
himself on the battlements of the old castle to stimulate the 
royalist clansmen and witness the incidents which he was 
ifienvards to weave into stirring verse. After the death 
itrose he composed a lament in his honour. At the 

storation he became a sort of Highland poet laureate, 
was pensioned by Government. He lived to be 

sent at the battle of Killiecrankie in 1689, and to cele- 
brate the .triumph of the Highlanders in his poem, 

But perhaps the most striking episode in , 
his career was that which brought him into direct touch 


Facing page 272. 


with the Glengarry Chief. The incident has already 
been recounted in the article on the MacDonalds of 

In 1672, as Chief of the MacDonalds, Lord MacDonell 
and Aros was ordained to find caution for the good 
behaviour of " the whole name and clan. M He died with- 
out issue in 1682, and the title accordingly became extinct. 
At a later day, " James VIII.," the Old Chevalier, 
granted a warrant for the restoration of the peerage, but 
as he never became king de facto, this did not take effect. 
Only, since the date of the peerage the family has adopted 
MacDonell as the spelling of its name. 

Lord MacDonell and Aros was succeeded as chief by 
his cousin, Ranald of Scotas. At the revolution in 1689, 
as befitted the tradition of his family, the next chief, 
Alastair Dubh MacRanald, took the side of the Stewarts, 
and commanded the clan at Killiecrankie. Lord Macaulay 
in his History describes how " at the head of one large 
battalion towered the stately form of Glengarry, who bore 
in his hand the Royal Standard of James VII." Later he 
was seen mowing down two men at every stroke of his 
broad sword. On that occasion the Chief's brother, 
Donald Gorm, performed heroic deeds, and, when attacked 
by an overwhelming number of the red-coated soldiers, 
he continued to catch their pikeheads in his target, and 
hew off the poles, till at last he fell, when no fewer than 
twelve pikeheads were found fixed in his buckler. 

Glengarry himself afterwards reluctantly took the oath 
of allegiance to William III. in 1691, and when that 
monarch and his successor, Queen Anne, had passed away, 
the chief might have continued in allegiance to George I. 
As a matter of fact, his name appeared first among the 
signatures to the loyal address of the Highland chiefs, 
which was presented by the Earl of Mar to the new king 
when he landed at Greenwich in 1714. But King George 
slighted the document, and turned his back on the Earl. 
The latter, thereupon, scenting danger to himself, fled 
disguised in a coaling vessel to the north, and called the 
great meeting of the chiefs which became known as the 
" Hunting of Mar." At the meeting at Braemar, Glen- 
garry attended to ascertain the Earl's plans, and let him 
know what the Highlanders were prepared to do for King 
James. At that time the clan could furnish 800 fighting 
men, and Glengarry led them throughout the campaign 
and fought at Sheriffmuir. For this he had his house 
burned down, and was so reduced that he had to let his 
woods to an English company for iron smelting. He was 


afterwards, in 1720, appointed a trustee for managing the 
Chevalier's affairs in Scotland, and he died in 1724. 

At the time of Prince Charles Edward's landing in 
1745 the head of the clan was one of the most ardent 
supporters of the Stewart cause. It was at Invergarry 
that Prince Charles lay and gathered his forces on the 
night before setting out to encounter General Cope at 
Corryarrack, and it was here, as we have seen, that on 
the night after Culloden the Prince enjoyed his first sub- 
stantial meal, and for the political opinions and active 
services of the chief, the house was presently given to the 

At Falkirk Angus MacDonald, the Chief's second son, 
who led his clansmen, was killed by the accidental dis- i 
charge of a musket, and the incident is said to have so 
discouraged the clansmen that they did not regain their 
native spirit. At Culloden, as already mentioned, the 
MacDonalds were not appointed to their usual place of 
honour on the right, and in consequence stood sullenly 
aloof when the Highland army was ordered to charge. 
Their leader, MacDonald of Keppoch, advancing alone, 
fell with the bitter words on his lips, " Have the children 
of my tribe forsaken me? " and MacDonell of Scotas, 
who was reckoned the bravest man of the clan in the 
Prince's army, and had fifty men under his command, fell 
with his lieutenant, ensign, sergeant, corporal, and 
eighteen privates. 

A very different personage was his elder son, Alastair 
Ruadh, who was to succeed as thirteenth Chief of Glen- 
garry nine years later. This is the individual who 
remained known to posterity by the unenviable name of 
4 Pickle, the Spy." Like Murray of Broughton, who was 
the Prince's secretary, he lies under the suspicion of 
having played a double part from first to last. In 1738, 
when he was perhaps thirteen years of age, the estates 
being heavily burdened and the free income only ^330) 
sterling, he went to France, and in 1743 he joined Lord! 
Drummond's regiment of Royal Scots Guards in the I 
French service. Before the landing of Prince Charles 
Edward in Scotland in 1745, he was employed by the I 
lighland chiefs on a secret mission to the Prince. He! 
was, however, captured by the English, and imprisoned 1 
in the Tower of London from 1745 till 1747. Finally, 
from 1749 till 1754, when he succeeded as Chief of the 1 

in, he acted, under the pseudonym of " Pickle," as a 

the Prince. The whole history of his exploits was 

n recent years brought to light in a volume by the late 


Andrew Lang, under the title of " Pickle, the Spy." 
Alastair Ruadh was one of the most polished men of 
his time, in outward appearance one of the most chivalrous, 
and in reality perhaps the most unscrupulous. He was 
probably the original of Stevenson's *' Master of 

At the time of the latest Jacobite rebellion the clan was 
reckoned to be 700 strong. 

Duncan, the next chief, restored the family fortunes 
by marrying an heiress and introducing sheep-farming on 
his estates, but his policy led to the emigration of large 
numbers of his clansmen. From ^"700 per annum in 1761 
his rental rose to .5,000 before the end of the century. 

Not the least notable of the long line of Glengarry 
j chiefs was his son, the last who retained a footing in the 
Highlands, Alexander Ranaldson MacDonell. A colonel, 
and major of the Glengarry Fencibles, he was an 
enthusiastic upholder of the old Highland games, and gave 
prizes yearly to the winners at the great sports at Inver- 
ness and Fort William. He set much store upon keeping 
up the historic memories and feudal splendours of his 
house. It was he who set up the monument at the Well 
of the Heads in 1812, his own name being inserted upon 
it as " Colonel M'Donell of Glengarry, XVII. Mac-mhic- 
Alaister." When Gustavus, eldest son of the King of 
Sweden, deposed in 1809, during his education in Edin- 
burgh, made an excursion to the district, " Glengarry 
awaited the Prince's arrival at the boundary of his. property 
with a numerous following in full Highland garb, with 
bagpipes, broadswords, and targets, and a barrel of 
whisky." Likewise, when George IV. paid his visit to 
Edinburgh in 1822, Glengarry took a body of his clansmen 
to the city, where they excited the wonder and admiration 
of the people. In his youth he had killed in a duel a 
young officer who at a county ball was a rival for the hand 
of Miss Forbes of Culloden, and later in life he picked a 
quarrel with a doctor at Fort Augustus who in conse- 
quence was severely mauled by his henchman. For this 
he was fined ,2,000. The Chief made a point of main- 
taining the dress and style of living of his ancestors. He 
travelled with the Luchd-crios, or body-guard, and when 
he took up his quarters at any house these were posted as 
sentinels with military regularity. His death, alas ! was 
tragic. The steamer Stirling Castle, in which he was a 
passenger on a day in 1828, having run ashore opposite 
Fort William in Loch Linnhe, the Chief with rash 
impetuosity leaped overboard, and was killed instantly 


on a rock. His brother, Sir James MacDonell, who died 
in 1857, was a distinguished soldier in the Napoleonic 
Wars. After fighting in Naples, Sicily, and Egypt, he 
took part at the Peninsula, and was engaged at Waterloo. 
He afterwards commanded in Canada for three years, 
became a general in 1854, and G.C.B. in 1855. 

The lavishness of the seventeenth chief, Alexande 
Ranaldson, however, left his son and successor in seriou; 
difficulties, and, in 1828, the estate was sold to th 
Marquess of Huntly, from whom it passed successively t 
the Earl of Dudley and to Honourable Edward Ellice 
The Knoydart portion was sold in 1853 to James Baird c 

Meanwhile, as already mentioned, the Chief trans 
ferred himself with a large body of his clan to Uppe 
Canada. For this enterprise the way had been prepare< 
by a very notable personage and member of the tribe. 
Alexander MacDonell, first Roman Catholic Bishop o - 
Upper Canada. Educated at the Scots College a. 
Valladolid, and ordained in 1777, this individual, while 
a mission priest in his native district, helped to embod> 
the clansmen into the first Glengarry Fencibles, and when 
the regiment was disbanded in 1801 he obtained for the 
men a grant of land in Canada. There he again raised a 
regiment of Glengarry Fencibles, which was of much 
service in Upper Canada during the war with the Unitec 
States in 1812. He himself organised the colony, am 
carried on valuable missionary work there, being made 
Vicar Apostolic of Upper Canada in 1819, and Bishop of 
Regiopolis or Kingston in 1826. He lived to see the 
young Chief come over with the body of his clan, and a 
his death in 1840 was buried in his own Cathedral a 

The British public has of late been reminded of th 
existence of this colony of pure-blooded Scottish High 
landers in Canada by the appearance of a series of stories 

?/T? anadian life> of whicn the first and principal was 
The Man from Glengarry." 

During the great war of 1914 not a few of ~ 
Highlanders, who so magnificently played 
icir part in the conflict, paid a visit to the ancien 
stronghold of the MacDonells on Loch Oich, to view fo 
Jemselves the scene amid which the chiefs who prided 
nselves in the name of Mac-Mhic-Alaister lived ir 
state, and to stand on the rocky headland o 
cr ea an Nam Fitheach, whose name was the slogan of th 


With the death of Charles Ranaldson MacDonell, the 
;, eighteenth Chief, in 1868, the line of the notorious 
Alastair Ruadh (Pickle the Spy) came to an end. The 
successor to the chiefship was ^Eneas Ranald MacDonell 
of Scotas, descendant of the brave MacDonell of Scotas 
who feil at Culloden, and himself great-grandfather of the 
present Chief, British Vice-Consul at Baku in Russia. 





BADGE : Fraoch dearg (tetralix) bell-heather. 
SLOGAN : Buaidh no Bas. 
PIBROCH : Moladh moradg. 

No Highland clan has a history of more striking changes 
than that of the MacDougals. While the chiefs of the 
name were at one time sovereign princes in the Western 
Isles, their representative to-day is a private gentleman of 
moderate estate, and the race which once made treaties 
and fought battles with the kings of Scotland is no^l 
content to play a modest part as private citizens and loyal 
subjects of the British Empire. 

The early ancestor of the race was the mighty Somerled, 
Thane of Argyll and Lord of the Isles, in the middle of 
the twelfth century. Somerled was practically an inde- 
pendent sovereign, or, if he owed allegiance at all, it was 
to the King of Norway and not to the King of Scots. 
During the reign of Malcolm IV. he made several 
descents upon the Western Lowlands, and about the year 
1157 made peace with that king upon the terms of an 
independent prince. It was the time when the possession 
of this north country still hung in the balance between the 
Norse and the Scottish races. David I. of Scotland, known 
to us by his descendant's epigram as the " sair sanct for 
the croun," had laid far-sighted plans which were in the 
end to decide the issue in favour of the Scots. He had 
planted the threatened parts of his kingdom full with 
feudal knights, and in particular had settled the Stewarts 
at Renfrew for the purpose of blocking the waterway of 
the Clyde against the threatened Norse invasion. The 
Stewarts had carried the war into the enemy's country, 
conquering Cowal and Bute, and being made Lords of these 
regions in consequence by Malcolm IV. By way of 
thanksgiving, it would appear, they had in 1 163 founded 
the priory, now the Abbey of Paisley, when in the following 
year, with a view to turning the tables, Somerled sailed up 
the Clyde with a great fleet to attack them in their 
own territory. The attack failed. Somerled and his son, 
Colin, were slain, and another chapter in the great strife 
was ended. 



; page 278. 


Somerled left two ultimately surviving sons. To the 
younger, Reginald, fell the Lordship of the Isles, held for 
centuries by his descendants, the MacDonalds ; to the elder, 
Dugal, fell Somerled's possessions on the mainland, and 
from him were descended the powerful Lords of Argyll 
and Lome. Somerled's wife was a daughter of Olaf, 
King of Man, and it is just possible that the present last 
remaining seat of the MacDougals, Dunolly, which is, of 
course, " the fort of Olaf," may take its name from this 

A century and a half after the days of Somerled the 
MacDougal Lords of Argyll and Lome were probably the 
most powerful family in the West. Alastair or Alexander 
of Argyll had married the third daughter of John, the Red 
Corny n, and, after the tragic death of King Alexander III., 
was a stout supporter of the claims of his father-in-law to 
the throne of Scotland. The episode at the Church of the 
Minorites in Dumfries, when Robert the Bruce stabbed the 
Red Comyn, made the MacDougals most bitter enemies of 
that king. Again and again Alastair of Argyll and his 
son, John of Lome, came within a stroke of achieving their 
purpose, and overthrowing and slaying the king. Shortly 
after Bruce's first defeat at Methven, the little Royal army 
was wandering among the western mountains when, 
at Dalrigh near Tyndrum, it was suddenly attacked 
by John of Lome with a powerful following, and forced to 
retreat. John Barbour, the poetic historian of the Bruce, 
tells how the king was guarding the rear of his retreating 
company when, as he passed through a narrow way between 
the river and the hill, three of the MacDougal clansmen 
made a special effort to capture him. One seized his bridle, 
but the king dealt him a stroke that severed his shoulder 
and arm. Another thrust his hand between the king's foot 
and stirrup, hoping to drag him from the saddle; but the 
king, feeling the hand there, stood firmly up and struck his 
spur into the steed, so that it dashed forward and the man 
lost his footing. At that moment the third assailant leapt 
from the steep hillside upon the horse behind Bruce, and 
tried to garrotte the king. Bruce, however, bent suddenly 
forward, pitching this man over his head, and cleft his skull 
with his sword. Then he slew the man at his stirrup with a 
third stroke. Though he had slain his assailants, however, 
Bruce was not free, for one of them held the king's plaid 
in his death grip, and it was only by undoing his brooch 
and letting the plaid go that Bruce got rid of his burden. 
This brooch, known as the brooch of Lome, remains in 
possession of the MacDougals to the present day, and is 


the last tangible evidence of the ancient greatness of their 


More than once afterwards John of Lome came within 
reach of slaying or capturing the king. On one of those 
memorable occasions he pursued him with a blood-hound. 
Bruce endeavoured to escape by dividing his forces again 
and again, but on each occasion the hound followed the 
party containing the king, and at last Bruce, left alone with 
his foster-brother, seemed on the point of being taken, when 
he remembered the device of wading a bowshot down a 
running stream, thus throwing the hound off the scent, and 
so escaped. 

But the king's turn came at last. After his return from 
Rachryn, his victory at Loudon Hill, and his taking of 
Perth, he made a special incursion into the West to avenge 
the hurt, hatred, and cruelty he had suffered from John of 
Lome. The latter waited his coming in the steep, narrow 
defile between Loch Awe and Loch Etive known as the 
Pass of Awe. It was a difficult place, so narrow that two 
men could not ride abreast, with Ben Cruachan towering 
above and the river pools boiling below. Here Lome made 
an ambush, but he was out-generalled by the king. The 
latter sent the Lord of Douglas with Sir Alexander Fraser, 
William Wiseman, and Sir Andrew Grey, higher along the 
hillside, and the battle had not long joined when a shower 
of arrows from this outflanking party above took Mac- 
Dougal's forces in the rear. They were compelled to 
retreat, and, crossing the Bridge of Awe, were slain in large 
numbers at a spot still marked by their funeral cairns. 
Bruce then captured Dunstaffnage, the ancient Royal 
Scottish stronghold, which had been MacDougal's chief 
seat, and proceeded to lay the country waste; whereupon 
Alastairof Argyll surrendered and was received into favour. 
But John of Lome remained a rebel, and after Bannock- 
burn, when Bruce sailed into the Western Isles, " None 
refused him obedience except only John of Lome." Very 
soon afterwards, however, he was captured and imprisoned, 
first at Dunbarton and afterwards in Loch Leven Castle. 
After the death of Bruce, strangely enough, he was restored 
to liberty and his estates, and married a granddaughter 
of the^ king. When war broke out again in the days of 
Bruce *s son, and Edward Baliol overran the country, the 
UacDougals took the Baliol side. This was again the 

sing side, and in consequence the MacDougals lost a large 
part of their estates, which from that time passed more and 
more into the hands of the Campbells. 

The last MacDougal Lord of Lome was Ewen. He 


left two heiresses, who became the wives of John Stewart 
of Invermeath, now Invermay, near Perth, and his brother 
Robert. Those Stewarts were descendants of Sir John 
Stewart of Bonkyl, who fell at the battle of Falkirk, and 
was a son of the High Steward of that time. Robert 
Stewart, the younger of the two, made a bargain with his 
brother John by which John obtained the whole Lordship 
of Lome while Robert secured the entire family patrimony 
of Invermeath. From John Stewart and his MacDougal 
wife, accordingly descended all the Stewart Lords of Lome, 
the Stewart Earls of Athol, and the Stewarts of Appin. 

The only part of the MacDougal Lordship of Lome 
which did not pass to the Stewarts was Dunolly Castle, 
with its dependent lands, which belonged to the Mac- 
Dougals of Dunolly, the next cadet branch, descended from 
Allan, son of John, brother of Ewen, last of the elder line, 
already mentioned; and upon these MacDougals of 
Dunolly the chiefship of the clan devolved. 

The MacDougals continued to hold these decreased 
possessions in more or less security till the time of the 
Civil Wars in 1645. Meanwhile the Campbells, whose first 
fortunes had been founded upon the downfall of the earlier 
house, had continued to grow in power steadily from 
century to century. At length, in 1645, the Campbell chief, 
now Marquess of Argyll, found himself at the head of the 
Government as the representative of the party of the 
Covenant in Scotland. For a few brilliant months his 
Royalist rival, the Marquess of Montrose, by a rapid 
succession of victories for the cause of Charles I., threatened 
to shake his power, but the battle of Philiphaugh practi- 
cally ended his career and quenched the hopes of the 
Royalists in Scotland. Then Argyll, finding himself 
supreme, proceeded to turn the opportunity to account by 
destroying the last relics of greatness possessed by the 
families his own had supplanted. The army of the Cove- 
nant was sent first to destroy the MacDonald stronghold of 
Dunavertie in Kintyre, where three hundred of the garrison 
were slain. The Lamonts of Cowal were attacked, carried 
to Dunoon, and butchered bloodily to the number of some 
two hundred and thirty. And General Leslie was sent to 
attack and destroy the remaining MacDougal strongholds 
of Gylen on the Island of Kerrera, and of Dunolly on the 
northern horn of Oban Bay. This last commission was 
duly carried out, the castles were destroyed never to be 
restored, and the Brooch of Lome, last sign of former Mac- 
Dougal greatness, mysteriously disappeared. 

The MacDougals suffered again in 1715, when, as Sir 


Walter Scott puts it in a note to The Lord of the Isles, 
" their representative incurred the penalty of forfeiture for 
his accession to the insurrection of that period, thus losing 
the remains of his inheritance to replace upon the throne 
the descendants of those princes whose accession his 
ancestors had opposed at the expense of their feudal 
grandeur." At that time the strength of the clan is said to 
have been five hundred fighting men, though, according to 
President Forbes' report, it was reduced thirty years later to 
two hundred. 

The chapter of the family history which followed is as 
romantic as anything in the memory of the Highlands. 
The head of the family fled to France, and his son would 
have been destitute had it not been for a member of the clan , 
at that time keeper of a public house in Dunbarton, who 
took the young chief into his house, and maintained and 
educated him till his sixteenth year. The lad proved clever 
and intelligent, and turned whatever advantages he 
possessed to good account. When the Jacobite rising of 
1745 was afoot it was expected that Prince Charles Edward 
would land near Oban. Instead, as is well known, he 
disembarked at Lochnanuagh in Arisaig. Word of his 
landing was sent to MacDougal by Stewart of Appin, and 
MacDougal ordered his brother to have the clan ready to 
rise while he himself went to consult the Chamberlain of 
the Earl of Breadalbane. This individual threw cold water 
on the enterprise, pointing out that Charles had not kept 
his promise either as to his place of landing or in the matter 
of bringing forces to support his cause. MacDougal then 
proceeded to interview the Duke of Argyll at Rosneath. 
While awaiting the interview there he saw a horseman 
arrive at full gallop. Shortly afterwards the Duke, 
entering the apartment, map in hand, asked MacDougal to 
point out Lochnanuagh. MacDougal quickly perceived 
that the secret was known, and seized the opportunity of 
being the first to give details. By the Duke's advice he 
took no part in the rising, and his reward was the restora- 
tion of the estate of Dunolly, which his father had lost. 

Such was the story told by a relation of the family at 
Uunstaffnage to Sir Walter Scott when he visited the 
neighbourhood in 1814. 

The MacDougal who had the estate restored lived to a 
great age, and it was his son who was in possession at the 
time of Scott's visit. MacDougal had just then lost his 
eldest son who had fallen fighting under Wellington in 
Spam. The second son was then a lieutenant in the Royal 
Wavy, and it was to him at a later day that the Brooch of 







H 05 

W O 

ffi W 

O ffi 

C H 





Lome was restored with much ceremony by Campbell of 
Lochnell. On the occasion the Duke of Argyll himself was 
present, and everything in the way of courtesy was done to 
show that the ancient feud between the houses had at last 
come to an end. 

When Queen Victoria sailed along Loch Tay after 
enjoying the resplendent hospitality of Taymouth Castle in 
1842, Captain MacDougal acted as the steersman of the 
Royal barge. It was pointed out to the Queen that he was 
wearing on his shoulder the famous Brooch of Lome, and 
at Her Majesty's request it was handed to her and examined 
with the utmost interest. On the occasion of the Scottish 
Historical Exhibition at Glasgow in 1911 the brooch was 
lent for exhibition, and a copy of it in gold, half the size 
of the original, was made and presented to Her Royal 
Highness the Duchess of Connaught, who accompanied the 
Duke on the occasion of his opening the Exhibition. 
Along with other interesting relics the Brooch of Lome is 
still cherished by MacDougal in the quiet mansion-house 
behind the ruin of Dunolly Castle, which is now the seat 
of the chief. 

The principal cadet of the family was MacDougal of 
Rara, who is believed to have been represented later by 
MacDougal of Ardencaple. Other cadets are the families 
of Gallanach and Soroba, both close by Oban, the former 
having been represented by the late Sir James Patten 
MacDougal, K.C.B., deputy clerk register, and Keeper of 
the Records of Scotland, who assumed the name Mac- 
Dougal in 1891 on succeeding his brother in possession of 
the Gallanach estate. 


Conacher Cowan 

Dougall Dowall 

MacConacher MacCoul 

MacCulloch MacDowall 

MacDowell MacDulothe 

MacHowell MacKichan 

MacLucas MacLugash 


BADCi: Lus nam braoileag (vaccineum vitis idea) red whortle 

PIBROCH : Cu 'a Mhic Dhu. 

ANDRO of Wyntoun, in his famous chronicle, tells the 
story of the circumstances in which the early chief of this 
clan rose to note and power. It was in the middle ot 
the eleventh century, when Macbeth, one of the greatest 
Scottish kings, afterwards to be so sadly defamed by 
Shakespeare, was in the seventeenth year of his reign. 
Macbeth, like the later James I., had made " the key keep 
the castle, and the bush the cow " throughout Scotland. 
As Wyntoun put it, 

All hys tyme wes gret plente 
Abowndand bath in land and se. 
He wes in justice rycht lawchfull, 
And till hys legis all awfull. 

As was to happen afterwards in the case of James I., 
however, Macbeth 's strictness of rule and justice of govern- 
ment made him many enemies among the nobles of his 
realm, who found themselves subject to law equally with 
the humblest peasant. In the end it was the king's 
insistence on fair play which brought about his downfall. 
The chronicler tells how Macbeth was building his great 
new castle, of which the traces are still to be seen, on the 
little mount of Dunsinnan in the Sidlaws. For this work 
of national importance the lieges had to furnish teams and 
working parties. As he watched the building, Macbeth 
one day saw one of the teams of oxen engaged in drawing 
timber fail at its work. On inquiry he was told that the 
inferior oxen had been furnished by Macduff, Thane of 
Fife, and with indignation he threatened to put the Thane's 
own neck into the yoke and make him draw. Macduff 
knew that the king was apt to be as good as his word, and 
he forthwith fled. He went first to his castle of Kennachy, 
then took boat across the Firth of Forth from the spot 
still known from that circumstance as Earlsferry. At 
Kennachy his wife, who seems to have been of stouter 



Facing page 284. 


heart than her husband, kept the pursuing king in treaty 
till she saw Macduff's boat safely reach the middle of the 
Firth. From this occurrence arose the rule down to a 
recent period that any .fugitive taking boat at Earlsferry 
was protected from pursuit till he had made his way half- 
way across the Firth. Macduff fled to the court of Siward, 
Earl of Northumbria, where he represented to Macbeth's 
cousins, sons of the late Duncan, King of Scots, that the 
time was ripe for them to secure possession of their father's 
throne. Duncan's legitimate sons held back, knowing 
that they were Macbeth's natural heirs, who must shortly 
succeed to the crown without effort. But an illegitimate 
prince, Malcolm, son of King Duncan and the miller's 
daughter at Forteviot, saw his opportunity, and seized it. 
All the world knows how, helped by Siward and guided 
by Macduff, he invaded Scotland, drove Macbeth from 
Dunsinnan to Lumphanan on Deeside, and finally slew 
him there. Afterwards, Malcolm III. being firmly seated 
on his throne, Macduff asked, for his services, three 
special boons : first, that in all time coming his descendants 
should have the privilege at royal coronations of leading 
the king to the coronation chair; second, that, when the 
kings of Scots made war, the Thanes of Fife should have 
the honour of commanding the vanguard; and third, that 
if the Thane or his kindred to the ninth degree should slay 
a man he should be entitled to remission on payment of 
a fine, twenty-four merks for a gentleman and twelve for 
a yoeman, while if anyone slew a kinsman of the Thane 
he should be entitled to no such relief. As a result of this 
last boon, as late as 1421 three gentlemen in Fife who 
could claim kin with Macduff obtained a remission for the 
slaughter of Melville of Glenbervie upon payment of the 
stipulated fine. A more famous occasion on which the 
Boon of Macduff came into play was at the coronation of 
King Robert the Bruce. Duncan, the Earl of Fife of that 
time, had married Mary de Monthermer, niece of 
Edward I. of England, and was upon the English side, 
acting as Governor of Perth. His sister Isabella, how- 
ever, who had married John Comyn, Earl of Buchan, was 
an ardent Scottish patriot, and at Scone in 1306 exercised 
the right of her house, and brought the sanction of 
ancient usage to the ceremony, by leading Bruce to the 
place of coronation. Both the Thane and his sister suffered 
from the contrasting parts they played. Falling into the 
hands of the English, the Countess of Buchan was 
imprisoned by Edward I. in a cage on the walls of 
Berwick, while Earl Duncan and his wife were captured 


by Bruce and imprisoned in the castle of Kildrummie in 
Aberdeenshire, where the Earl died in 1336. 

Gilmichael, fourth Earl of Fife, who died in 1139, left 
two sons, of whom the elder, Duncan, carried on the line, 
while Hugo the younger, became ancestor of the house 
of Wemyss, which now probably represents the early 
thanes and earls of Fife. 

Duncan, twelfth Earl of Fife, who was killed in 1353, 
was the last of the direct line of these early thanes. His 
daughter Isabella, who died without issue, conveyed the 
property and title of the earldom to the third son of King 
Robert II., who afterwards became notorious in Scottish 
history as the first Duke of Albany. During the Duke's 
lifetime the title of Earl of Fife was borne by his son 
Murdoch, and upon the execution and forfeiture of this 
Murdoch, Duke of Albany, by his cousin James I. in 
1425, the earldom at last became extinct. 

The name Duff is believed to be the Celtic Dubh, which 
was given as a descriptive name to any Highlander who 
might be dark-complexioned, like Sir Walter Scott's 
famous character, Roderick Dhu. The numerous families 
of Duff, therefore, who afterwards appeared as respectable 
burgesses of Aberdeen and Inverness, may not all have 
been descended from the original stock of the Thanes 
of Fife. 

The family of the name which was afterwards to attain 
most consequence had for its founder a certain Adam Duff, 
tenant in Cluny Beg. One of the two sons of this farmer, 
another Adam Duff, born about 1598, by his remarkable 
shrewdness and sagacity, laid the foundation of the future 
greatness of his house. In the wars of Montrose and the 
Covenanters, he took part on the Royalist side, and was 
*od in consequence; but he died between 1674 and 1677 
in possession of considerable wealth. His eldest son, 
Alexander Duff, took advantage of the great depression 
which prevailed in the country just before the Union with 
^ngland, and purchased the lands of many of the old 
Xft T Banffshire and Aberdeenshire. Among the lands 
which he obtained on wadset or mortgage, and which the 
proprietors were never able to redeem, was Keithmore, a 
possession of the Huntly family, from which he took his 
^nation as Alexander Duff of Keithmore. He also 
further advanced the family fortunes by marrying Helen, 
1 " G ^ rf Ballentomb, ancestor of the lairds of 
h ' S Iad 7 S P rudn <* and industry, not less 

VT 11 far to raise the fortunes of * e fami 'y- 

son of the pair, again, Alexander Duff of Braco, 


continued to add to the family estates, which now included 
Aberlour, Keith-Grange, and Mortlach. At the time of 
the union he was Member of Parliament for Banffshire. 
He and his son, William Duff of Braco, were men of great 
importance in their district. Among other events in which 
they were concerned was the arrest in romantic circum- 
stances of the cateran James MacPherson. 

William Duff, however, died without surviving male 
issue, and the family estates passed to his uncle, another 
of the same name. This individual had already acquired 
immense wealth as a merchant in Inverness. According to 
Cosmo Innes, in Sketches of Early Scottish History, " he 
was a man of very general dealings large and small. He 
could take charge of a commission for groceries, or advance 
the price of a barony, on good security. He had formed 
extensive connections, and was the first man in the north 
who dealt in money on a large scale, and he laid the 
foundation of a very noble fortune." This highly success- 
ful merchant acquired large estates in Morayshire, 
including Dipple and Pluscardine, and was known as 
William Duff of Dipple. On the death of his nephew, 
William Duff of Braco, in 1718, the older family estates 
also, as already mentioned, came into his possession, 
and when he died himself in 1722 he left his eldest son the 
landed proprietor with the largest rent-roll in the north of 
Scotland ^6,500 sterling all clear. 

As a result that son, still another William Duff " of 
Braco and Dipple," was M.P. for Banffshire from 1727 to 
1734. In the following year he was made Baron Braco of 
Kilbride in the peerage of Ireland, and twenty-four years 
later was raised to be Viscount Macduff and Earl Fife in 
that same peerage. He continued the policy of his family 
by purchasing further large estates in the counties of 
Aberdeen, Banff, and Moray, and managed all his 
possessions with much care and ability. Two years after 
his father's death he rebuilt the castle of Balveny, and 
between 1740 and 1745 he built the splendid mansion of 
Duff House at a cost of ^70,000. During the Jacobite 
rebellion in 1745 he joined the Duke of Cumberland, and 
offered the Government his free services in any way that 
might be desired. By his first wife, a daughter of the 
Earl of Findlater and Seafield, he had no children, but 
he married again, a daughter of Grant of Grant, and two 
of his sons in succession inherited the earldom. 

James, the elder of these, was Member of Parliament 
successively for Banff and Elgin, and was made a peer of 
the United Kingdom as Baron Fife in 1790. By careful 


purchase he nearly doubled the size of the family estates, 
and he changed the name of the town of Doune, where 
Duff House was situated, to Macduff, procuring for th 
place at the same time a royal charter as a burgh. H 
married the only child of the ninth Earl of Caithness, bi 
died without male issue, when his peerage of the Unite 
Kingdom of course expired. His brother Alexander, wh 
succeeded as third Earl in 1809, married a daughter o 
Skene of Skene, and in consequence his son James, wh<. 
became the fourth Earl, succeeded to the estates of Skene 
and Cariston in 1827. This Earl distinguished himself 
during the Peninsular War. He volunteered his services, 
became a Major-General in the Spanish army fighting 
against Napoleon, and was twice wounded, at the battle of 
Talavera and at the storming of Fort Matagorda near 
Cadiz. In consequence, he was made a Knight of the 
Order of St. Ferdinand of Spain and of the Sword of 
Sweden. He was also made a Knight of the Thistle and 
G.C.H., and in 1827 was made a peer of the United King- 
dom as Baron Fife. In private life he was notable as an 
art collector, and the towns of Elgin, Banff, and Macduff 
owed much to his generosity. He died, however, without 
issue, and was succeeded by James, son of his brother, Sir 
Alexander Duff of Delgaty Castle, as fifth Earl. This 
Earl's wife was a daughter of the seventeenth Earl of 
Errol and Lady Elizabeth Fitz Clarence, daughter of King 
William IV. He was Lord-Lieutenant of Banffshire, and 
was made a peer of the United Kingdom as Baron Skene 
in 1857 and a Knight of the Thistle in 1860. 

The only son of this peer, who succeeded him in 1879, 
was Alexander William George, sixth Earl Fife, who was 
to be the last male of the more modern line. Before suc- 
ceeding to the peerage he became Lord-Lieutenant of 
Elginshire, and he was M.P. for Elgin and Nairn from 
1874. He was also Captain of the Corps of Gentlemen at 
Arms, and was a highly popular peer. The climax of 
the fortunes of his family was reached when in 1889 he 
married Her Royal Highness the Princess Louise, eldest 
daughter of the Prince of Wales, afterwards the late King 
Edward. Already, in 1885, he had been created an Earl 
United Kingdom, and two days after his marriage 
e was made a Duke. In 1900, seeing he had no sons, he 
was further created Earl of Macduff and Duke of Fife, 
with special remainder to his first and other daughters 
He Princess Louise, and their male issue, and in 1905 
s wife received the title of the Princess Royal, while her 
daughters were ordained to bear the title of Princess and 


to rank immediately after all members of the Royal Family 
bearing the style of Royal Highness. A great sensation 
was caused, when in 1912, the vessel in which the Duke 

nd his Duchess, with their two daughters, were sailing 
.'p the east, was shipwrecked in the Mediterranean. None 
;^f the family was drowned, but the Duke's health gave 

vay, and he died shortly afterwards. He was succeeded 
>n the honours and estates of the dukedom by his elder 
laughter,. Her Highness the Princess Alexandra Victoria 
puff, who in the following year married H.R.H. Prince 
Arthur of Connaught. The ancient line of the Duffs, 
therefore, has now merged in a branch of the reigning 
house of these realms. 

Among distinguished people of the name of Duff has 
been the famous Indian missionary and publicist, 
Alexander Duff, D.D., LL.D., Moderator of the General 
Assembly of the Free Church in 1851, and one of the 
framers of the constitution of Calcutta University, who 
founded the Missionary Chair in the New College, 
Edinburgh, and was the first missionary professor. 
During the Irish insurrection of 1798 it was General Sir 
James Duff, commander of the Limerick District, who 
rendered the important service of keeping Limerick quiet. 
It was Robert Duff, who, as senior officer of a squadron 
in 1759, drew the French into the main body of the British 
fleet, and brought about the battle of Quiberon Bay. He 
became Commander-in-Chief in Newfoundland in 1775, 
and as Vice-Admiral co-operated at the siege of Gibraltar 
in 1779. And Sir Robert William Duff, who for a time 
bore the name of Abercrombie, was successively M.P. for 
Banffshire, a commander in the Navy, a member of the 
Liberal Government, a Privy Councillor, and was made 
G.C.M.G. and Governor of New South Wales in 1893. 


Duff Fife 

Fyfe Spence 

Spens Wemyss 


BADGE : Lus nam braoileag (vaccineum vitis idea) red whortle 


SLOGAN : Loch Moy, or Dunma'glas. 
PIBROCH : Spaidsearachd Chlann Mhic Gillebhrath. 

MR GEORGE BAIN, the historian of Nairnshire, in one of 
his many interesting and valuable brochures, The Last of 
Her Race, recounts a tradition of the battle of Culloden 
which was handed down by members of an old family of 
the district, the Dallases of Cantray. At the time of the 
last Jacobite rising, it appears, two beautiful girls lived 
in the valley of the Nairn. At Clunas, a jointure house 
of Cawdor, high in the hills, lived Elizabeth Campbell, 
daughter of Duncan Campbell of Clunas. She was a 
highly accomplished young woman, having been 
educated in Italy, whither her father had fled after taking 
part in the Jacobite rising of 1715, and she was engaged 
to be married to young Alexander MacGillivray, chief of 
the clan of that name. Anna Dallas of Cantray, on the 
other hand, was a daughter of the chief of the Dallases, 
and her home was the old house of Cantray in the valley 
of the Nairn below. She likewise was engaged to be 
married, and her fiance" was Duncan Mackintosh of 
Castleledders, a near relative of the Mackintosh chief. 
These were said to be the two most beautiful women in 
the Highlands at the time. Old Simon, Lord Lovat, 
who, with all his wickedness, was well qualified to 
criticise, is said to have declared that he did not know 
which was the more dangerous attraction, " the Star on 
the Hilltop," or " the Light in the Valley." There was 
doubtless something of a rivalry between the two young 
women. Now, Angus, chief of the Mackintoshes, was on 
the Government side, and in his absence his wife, the 
;roic Lady Mackintosh, then only twenty years of age, 
had raised her husband's clan for Prince Charles. On 
the eye of the battle of Culloden it was thought that 
Mackintosh of Castleledders might lead the clan in 
rf 'W dl "J u batt ] e - Th at night, however, Elizabeth 
Campbell told her fiance that unless he led the Mackin- 



Facing page 290 


tosh clan for the Prince on the morrow, he need come to 
see her no more. The young fellow accordingly hurried 
off to Moy Hall, and told " Colonel " Anne, as the 
pressmen of that time called Lady Mackintosh, that the 
MacGillivrays would not fight on the morrow unless he 
was in command of the whole Clan Mackintosh. Now 
the MacGillivrays were only a sept of the clan, though 
the mother of Dunmaglass was descended from the 
sixteenth Mackintosh chief, but they made a considerable 
part of the strength of Clan Mackintosh. Lady Mackin- 
tosh, therefore, became alarmed, sent for Castleledders, 
and begged him for the sake of the cause which was at 
stake to forego his right, as nearest relative of its chief, 
to lead the clan on this occasion. Moved by her entreaty 
he agreed, with the words, " Madam, at your request, I 
resign my command, but a Mackintosh chief cannot serve 
under a MacGillivray "; and accordingly he went home 
and took no part in the battle. Next day, it is said, the 
heart of Elizabeth Campbell was filled with pride when she 
saw her sweetheart, Alexander MacGillivray, yellow- 
haired young giant as he was, marshalling the Mackin- 
toshes 700 strong in the centre of the Prince's army, and 
it is said she rode on to the field to congratulate him. 
The Prince noticed her, and asked who she was, and, on 
being told, remarked that MacGillivray was a lucky fellow 
to have so beautiful and so spirited a fiance'e. 

Alas ! a few hours later young MacGillivray lay dying 
on the field. His last act, it is said, was to help a poor 
drummer boy, whom he heard moaning for water, to the 
spring which may still be seen at hand, and which is 
known to this day from the fact as MacGillivray 's or the 
Dead Men's Well. There he was found next morning, 
his body stripped by the cruel Hanoverian soldiery, and 
it was remarked what a beautiful figure of a young fellow 
he was. His body was buried in the Moss where it lay, 
and six weeks later, after the English had gone, when it 
was taken up, to be buried under the doorstep of the kirk 
of Petty, people marvelled that it was still fresh and 
beautiful, and that his wounds bled afresh. 

Young as he was, Dunmaglass had played his part 
splendidly in the battle. In the furious attack which he 
led, the Mackintoshes almost annihilated the left wing of 
the Duke of Cumberland's army, and before he fell, with 
four officers of his clan, MacGillivray himself encounters! 
the commander of Barrel's regiment, and struck off some 
of his fingers with his broadsword. Next day, in the 
streets of Inverness, this commander met a private soldier 



the Dallases account- 

i was me laiimy ncj.i !-" ~* ** , , , . , 
ing tor the fact that Dunmaglass led ^e Mackintoshes a^ 
Culloden But it must be remembered that he had seen 
foreign service and had led the clan from the first meeting 
the Prince at Stirling with seven hundred men at his back 
on Charles's return from England, and commanding the 
regiment at the battle of Falkirk. 

^Meanwhile poor Elizabeth Campbell, though her 
ambition had been gratified, was stricken to the heart. 
Her big beardless boy lover he was six feet five inches in 
height with light yellow hair, and a complexion as fair 
and delicate as any lady's was dead, and he would indeed 
come to see her no more. A few months afterwards she 
died of a broken heart. On the other hand, Anna Dallas 
had lost her father. The chief of the Dallases was killed 
in the battle by a bullet through the left temple. But she 
married her lover, Duncan Mackintosh of Castleledders, 
and their son, Angus, by and by, succeeded as chief of 
the Mackintoshes and the great Clan Chattan. 

Of the MacGillivrays it may be said, as was said of the 
great house of Douglas, that no one can point to their first 
mean man. A tradition recorded by Browne in his 
History derives the name from Gillebride, said to have 
been the father of the great Somerled. But of the origin 
of the family nothing is known definitely except that so 
far back as the thirteenth century the ancestor of the race, 
one Gilbrai, Gillebreac, or Gillebride, placed himself and 
his posterity under the protection of Ferquhard, the fifth 
Mackintosh chief. The name MacGillivray probably 
means either " the son of the freckled lad," or " the son 
of the servant of St. Bride." In any case, for some five 
centuries, down to the last heroic onset on the field of 
Culloden, just referred to, the MacGillivrays faithfully 
and bravely followed the " yellow brattach," or standard, 
of the Mackintoshes, to whom they had allied themselves 
on that far-off day. An account of the descent of the race 
of Gilbrai is given in the history of The Mackintoshes and 
Clan Chattan by Mr. A. M. Mackintosh one of the best 
and most reliable of the Highland clan histories extant. 


Mr. Mackintosh quotes the Rev. Lachlan Shaw's History 
of the Province of Moray, the Kinrara Manuscript of 1679, 
and various writs and documents in the Mackintosh 
charter-chest at Moy Hall, and his account is not only the 
latest but the most authoritative on the subject. 

The first of Gilbrai's descendants to attain mention is 
Duncan, son of Allan. This Duncan married a natural 
daughter of the sixth Mackintosh chief, and his son Ivor 
was killed at Drumlui in 1330. A hundred years later, 
about the middle of the fifteenth century, the chief of the 
MacGillivrays appears to have been a certain Ian Ciar 
(Brown). At any rate, when William, fifteenth chief of 
the Mackintoshes, was infefted in the estate of Moy and 
other lands held from the Bishop of Moray, the names of 
a son and two grandsons of this Ian Ciar appear in the list 
of witnesses. Other Mackintosh documents show the race 
to have been settled by that time on the lands of Dunma- 
glass (the fort of the grey man's son), belonging to the 
thanes of Cawdor. Ian Ciar was apparently succeeded by 
a son, Duncan, and he again by his son Ferquhar, who, 
in 1549, gave letters of reversion of the lands of Dalmigavie 
to Robert Dunbar of Durris. Ferquhar's son, again, 
Alastair, in 1581 paid forty shillings to Thomas Calder, 
Sheriff-Depute of Nairn, for " two taxations of his ^4 
lands of Domnaglasche, granted by the nobility to the 
King." It was in his time, in 1594, that the Mac- 
Gillivrays fought in the royal army under the young Earl 
of Argyll at the disastrous battle of Glenlivat. Alastair's 
son, Ferquhar, appears to have been a minor in 1607 and 
1609, for in the former of these years his kinsman Malcolm 
MacBean was among the leading men of Clan Chattan 
called to answer to the Privy Council for the good 
behaviour of Clan Chattan during the minority of Sir 
Lachlan Mackintosh its chief; and in the latter year, 
when a great band of union was made at Termit, near 
Inverness, between the various septs of Clan Chattan, 
responsibility for the " haill kin and race of the Clan 
M'lllivray " was accepted by Malcolm MacBean, Ewen 
M'Ewen, and Duncan MacFerquhar, the last-named being 
designated as tenant in Dunmaglass, and being probably 
an uncle of young Ferquhar MacGillivray. 

This Ferquhar, son of Alastair, was the first to obtain 
a heritable right to Dunmaglass, though his predecessors 
had occupied the lands from time immemorial under the 
old thanes of Cawdor and their later successors, the 
Campbells. The feu-contract was dated 4th April, 1626, 
and the feu-duty payable was 16 Scots yearly, with 
VOL. ii. c 


attendance on Cawdor at certain courts and on certain 

Ferquhar's eldest son, Alexander, died before his 
father, and in 1671 his three brothers, Donald, William, 
and Bean MacGillivray, were put to the horn, with a 
number of other persons, by the Lords of Justiciary for 
contempt of court; at the same time Donald, who, three 
years earlier, had acquired Dalcrombie and Letterchallen 
from Alexander Mackintosh of Connage, was designated 
tutor of DunmaglasSj being probably manager of the 
family affairs for his father and his brother, Alexander's 

Alexander MacGillivray had married Agnes, daughter 
of William Mackintosh of Kyllachy, and his son 
Farquhar, was in 1698 a member of the Commission 
against MacDonald of Keppoch. Three years later he 
married Amelia Stewart. Farquhar, his eldest son and 
successor, was a Captain in Mackintosh's regiment in the 
Jacobite rising of 1715, while the second son, William, 
was a Lieutenant in the same regiment and was known 
as Captain Ban. Their kinsman, MacGillivray of 
Dalcrombie, was also an officer, and, among the rank and 
file forced to surrender at Preston, and executed or 
transported, were thirteen Mackintoshes and sixteen 

It was Alexander, eldest son of the last-named 
Farquhar, who, having succeeded his father in 1740, 
commanded the Mackintosh regiment and fell at Culloden 
as already related. Among those who fell with him on 
that occasion was Major John Mor MacGillivray. It was 
told of him that after the charge he was seen a gunshot 
past the Hanoverian cannon and killed a dozen men with 
his broadsword while some of the halberts were run 
through his body. Another clansman, Robert Mor 
MacGillivray, killed seven of his enemies with the tram 
of a peat cart before he was himself overpowered and 

The young chief, Alexander MacGillivray, was suc- 
ceeded by his next brother, William, who, in 1759, became 
a captain in the 89th Regiment, raised by the Duchess of 
Gordon. He served with that regiment, mostly in India, 
1 it was disbanded in 1765. His next brother, John, 
was a merchant at Mobile, and a loyalist colonel in the 
American Revolution. With his help William added to 
family estate the lands of Faillie, and half of 
Inverarney, with Wester Lairgs and Easter Cask, the two 
last having previously been held on lease. 










His son, John Lachlan MacGillivray, succeeded not 
only to the family estates but to the property of his uncle, 
Colonel John, the wealthy Mobile merchant. As a young 
officer in the i6th Light Dragoons, he had been given to 
much extravagance, but on inheriting his uncle's money 
he was able to clear the estate of debt. At his death, 
however, in 1852, he left no family, and the chief ship 
devolved on the representative of Donald of Dalcrombie, 
the tutor of Dunmaglass in the seventeenth century. 
The tutor's grandson, Donald, was one of those murdered 
in cold blood by the Hanoverian soldiery after Culloden, 
but his son Farquhar, also an officer of the Mackintosh 
regiment, survived the battle. He married Margaret, 
daughter of yneas Shaw of Tordarroch, and it was his 
son John who, in 1852, succeeded to Dunmaglass and the 

This succession was disputed by a kinsman, the 
Reverend Lachlan MacGillivray, descended from William 
MacGillivray of Lairgs, brother of Donald, the tutor, the 
question being whether Donald, the tutor, or his brother 
William of Lairgs, had been the elder. In 1857 the court 
decided in favour of Donald and his descendants. Two 
years before this, however, John MacGillivray had died. 
He had been a well-known man in Canada, where he was 
a member of the Legislative Council. The eldest of his 
four sons, Neil John, found himself in financial straits, 
and after selling Wester Lairgs and Easter Gask, took 
steps to dispose of Dunmaglass itself, and the rest of the 
property which had been possessed by his family from 
time immemorial. His eldest son, John William, born in 
1864, is the present chief of the MacGillivrays. 

The ancient property of this family lies about the 
sources of the river Farigaig in Stratherrick. When the 
Thane of Cawdor, in 1405, procured an act incorporating 
all his lands in Inverness and Forres into the shire of 
Nairn, Dunmaglass was part of the territory included. It 
forms an oblique parallelogram about seven miles long and 
sixteen square miles in extent. In " the forty-five " the 
chief's own followers numbered about eighty men. 

Besides the family of Dunmaglass and its following 
there was in the Island of Mull a sept of the MacGillivrays 
which took its name from the residence of its head and was 
known as " Og Beinn-na-gall." They were believed to 
have been descended from the main stem in Lochaber, 
and to have been dispersed after the discomfiture of 
Somerled, Lord of the Isles, in 1164. They were also 
known under the name of MacAngus, or Maclnnes. 


In the line of ancestors from whom these island clans- 
men claimed descent was a certain Martin MacGillivray, 
a parson of about the year 1640. This individual, 
according to Logan, author of the letterpress of Maclan's 
Clans of the Scottish Highlands, was in the habit of 
carrying a sword. Upon one occasion he happened to 
call on a son of MacLean of Lochbuie for part of his 
stipend. The latter refused to pay, and asked whether 
his visitor meant to enforce his demand with his sword. 
'* Rather than lose what is my due," answered Mac- 
Gillivray, " I shall use my weapon, and I am content to 
lose the money if you can put my back to the wall." In 
the upshot, however, he quickly brought his opponent to 
his knees, and the latter thereupon gave in, paid the 
amount due, and declared that he liked well to meet a man 
who could maintain his living by the sword. 

Another anecdote of this house is told by the same 
writer. At the battle of Sheriffmuir, in 1715, he says, the 
Laird of Beinn-na-gall happened to stumble, whereupon a 
friend standing near, thinking he was shot, cried out, 
" God preserve ye, MacGillivray ! " He was no doubt 
startled by the reply, " God preserve yourself," exclaimed 
Beinn-na-gall, " I have at present no need of His aid." 

These island MacGillivrays or Maclnneses, however, 
followed, not the chiefs of Clan Chattan, but the 
MacDougal Campbells of Craignish, as their chiefs. 
Details regarding them are to be found in Cosmo Innes's 
Early Scottish History and in Skene's Highlanders of 


Gilrojr MacGillivour 

MacGilroy MacGilvra 

MacGilvray Macilroy 


BADGE : Cuileann (Ilex aquifolium) Holly. 

IOT a great deal appears to be known about this West 
Highland clan. The common derivation of the name is 
from Angus, one of the most ancient of Christian names 
among the Gael. In the genitive the " g " of this word 
is aspirated, and the name is left with the sound 
MacAon'es or Maclnnes. Who the original Angus was, 
however, appears to be unknown, and as the name 
Maclnnes also means " Son of the Islet," many of the 
bearers of it are no doubt descendants of individuals who 
dwelt in such a spot, and in the usual way took their name 
from their location. The ancient family of Innes of Innes 
in Moray, of which the Duke of Roxburghe is head, no 
doubt derives its name from such a circumstance. 

Skene, in his Highlanders of Scotland, says, " The 
oldest inhabitants of Morven, Ardgour, and Lochaber 
consisted of two clans, the MacGillivrays and the 
Maclnneses, who were of the same race. The statement 
is confirmed by an old MS. History of the MacDonalds 
written in the reign of Charles II. in the Gregory 
collection. Before the defeat of the Lord of the Isles and 
the dispersion of the clans by Alexander II. a single 
confederacy, the Siol Gillivray, appears to have included 
the MacGillivrays, Maclnneses, MacEacherns, and Mac- 

Clan Maclnnes had its headquarters in the heart of 
Morven, and at the head of Loch Aline, which winds away 
into the hills from the Sound of Mull, the ruin of an old 
square tower is still pointed out as the ancient seat of the 

Tradition avers that this old tower of Kinlochaline was 
built by a lady of the name of Dougall. This tradition is 
corroborated by an old saying MacAonghais an Dun's 
MacDhughil an Laorn, " Maclnnes of the Fort of Mac- 
Dougall of Lorn." The stones of which the stronghold 
is erected are remarkable for their size, even to the top of 
the wall, and it is said that the cost of the building was 
equal to that of a mass of butter of the same extent. 



Whatever the cost, the builder chose a site for the fortalice 
that was both picturesque and of great natural strength. 
From the summit of a 'bold rock overhanging the loch the 
ruin still romantically lords the scene. Kinlochaline was 
within a short distance of Ardtornish, on the Sound of 
Mull itself, one of the principal seats of the all-powerful 
Lords of the Isles, and the Maclnneses were probably, 
therefore, closely allied with and dominated by these 
potentates. The seat of the Maclnnes chiefs, however, 
was still a place of strength in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. In 1645, during the wars of Montrose, Kin- 
lochaline was besieged by the Irish auxiliaries of that 
leader. The siege was pressed with much vigour, but 
Clan Maclnnes held out with great bravery till a breach 
was made in the wall and defence became hopeless. The 
castle was then taken and garrisoned for King Charles I. 

The Maclnnes chiefs sleep their last sleep in the little 
burial-ground of Kilcolumkil, a short distance away. 
Several of their monuments are there to be seen, slab 
stones beautifully sculptured with intricate designs of 
foliage and tracery. No inscriptions, however, remain to 
tell the names of the sleepers or the deeds which they 

In early times the Maclnnes clansmen were famous for 
their skill in archery, and one of their families held the 
office of hereditary bowman to the Chiefs of MacKinnon. 
This official had the duty of instructing the MacKinnon 
clansmen in the use of the weapon, and for its services the 
family enjoyed a hereditary farm, Dal na Saighdear 
" the Field of the Archer." Many characteristic anec- 
dotes are related regarding these hereditary bowmen. 


Angus Innes 

MacAngus MacCainsh 

MacCansh MacMaster 


Facing page 298. 


BADGE : Fraoch gorm (erica vulgaris) common heath. 

SLOGAN : Cruachan. 

PIBROCH : Gabhaidh sinn an nathad mor. 

LIKE Gow, MacNair, and others, the name Maclntyre is 
one of the Highland cognomens derived from a handi- 
craft. Its holder was " the son of a carpenter." Whether 
cr not all holders of the name are derived from a single 
origin appears doubtful, though common tradition asserts 
that they are a branch of the great Clan Donald. A 
romantic story which accounts for the conferring of the 
name is of a Macdonald at sea alone in an open boat, who 
found his craft suddenly spring a dangerous leak. Being 
without other means to stop it he thrust his thumb into 
the hole, and as it was impossible to keep the thumb there 
and at the same time navigate the boat to land he cut the 
thumb off. For this drastic expedient he was ever 
afterwards named " the Carpenter." Such a story looks 
like a device of the Highlander to escape from the necessity 
of deriving his name from an actual handicraft, which was 
looked down upon as unbefitting the character of a gentle- 
man. Holders of the name, however, seem never to have 
taken the field under a single chief or leader, and from their 
appearance in widely separate parts of the country, there 
is room for the supposition that the name was derived not 
from one but from many individuals who each in his own 
district, were actual workers in wood. Maclntyres, at 
any rate, held lands under different chiefs of other names, 
and fought under different banners. 

Perhaps the most notable ancestor claimed for the clan 
is a certain Paul, who is described as a personage of great 
power in Sutherland towards the close of the thirteenth 
century. Dun Creich, a vitrified fort in that county, is 
said to have been built by him, and to have been his 
stronghold. Even this tradition, however, seems seriously 
open to question, for vitrified forts, the construction of 
which is a long lost art, are believed to belong to a much 
earlier date than 1290 or thereabout. If Paul himself is 
not altogether a myth, he can hardly have been more than 
the builder of a wooden fort on the remains of a much 



more ancient vitrified foundation. To the fact that his 
fort was of wood, like Macbeth's Dunsinnan, and 
Lumphanan and other strongholds of the middle 
centuries, Paul may have owed his name of Carpenter. 

But the name of Maclntyre has been much more 
illustrious in the arts than in the crafts. In the district of 
Rannoch a family of Maclntyres were famous for centuries 
as musicians. From the year 1680 they were pipers to 
Chiefs of Clan Menzies, who owned the district, for 
whom, among other airs, they composed the salute. Ian 
MacDhonuill Mor, who was the Menzies piper at the time 
of the battle of Sheriff muir, in 1715, was the composer of 
the fine pibroch, " Cath Sliabh an t-Siorra," which 
commemorates that event. 

Most celebrated of all the holders of the name, 
however, was Duncan Ban Maclntyre, the Gaelic poet of 
the eighteenth century, who ranks next to Ossian himself 
as the bard of the Gaelic race. Born in Glen Orchy in 
1724, Fair Duncan had none of the advantages of 
education, yet for originality and sweetness his songs 
remain unsurpassed in the language of the Highlands. 
During the Jacobite rising of 1745 many Maclntyres 
fought under the banner of Stewart of Appin; but 
Duncan was on the side of Government, and took part 
against the Jacobites at the battle of Falkirk. He cannot, 
however, have been a very convinced Hanoverian, for, 
after the battle he composed a humorous poem on General 
Hawley's defeat. When, a little later, as a result of the 
rebellion, an Act of Parliament was passed forbidding the 
clansmen to wear arms and the tartan, thus depriving 
Hanoverian and Jacobite clans alike of their national dress 
and weapons, he gave voice to a strenuous indignation, 
declaring that the Highlanders were made the Saxon's 
jest, and that, should Charles return, they were ready to 
stand by him. For this he was thrown into jail and only 
saved from a long imprisonment, or perhaps worse, by 
the solicitations of powerful friends. Thirty-five years 
later, when, at the instance of the Duke of Montrose and 
General Fraser, the Act against wearing Highland dress 
was repealed, Duncan burst forth in joyous strain with his 
Jram na Bnogas, " the Song of the Breeches. Wearing 
these garments, the sons of the north, he declared, blushed 
when in presence of the fair. But now, he exclaimed, 
n of the hills appear again in their loved tartans, 
iJl? at i^, e ? rife of colou rs; gracefully stream our 
lted plaids, pur hose reach not the knee, nor hinder the 
tep. lo the Highland Society, of which he was 








appointed Bard, Duncan at the annual meetings addressed 
many stirring harangues in the Gaelic tongue. To the 
present hour the sweet singer of Glen Orchy remains the 
greatest glory of the name of Maclntyre. 

The clan is generally believed to be an offshoot of 
the MacDonalds. A family of the name was in possession 
of Glenoe near Bonawe in Lorn from 1300 till 1810, and 
acted as hereditary foresters to the Stewart and Campbell 
Lords of Lorn. In 1556, under the name of Clan Teir, the 
Maclntyre's are mentioned in the Black Book of Taymouth 
as giving a bond of good behaviour to Sir Colin Campbell 
of Glenurchy after the murder of one MacGillenlag. 
Branches were dependents of the Campbells of Craignish 
in 1612, and of the Mackintosh chiefs in Badenoch in 
1496. The weaving village of Cladich on Loch Awe was 
once almost entirely peopled by holders of the name, and 
Maclntyres were the hereditary pipers to the Chiefs of 
Clanranald and Menzies. 

The representative of the Chiefs of the name is now in 






BADGE : Garbhag an t-sleibh (lycopodium selago) fir club moss. 

ACCORDING to Highland record and tradition the great Clan 
Campbell took its origin about the beginning of the twelfth 
century with the marriage of Gillespie Campbell with Eva, 
daughter of the Treasurer of Scotland, Paul O'Duin, Chief 
of the race of the famous Diarmid. This marriage made the 
Campbells lords of Lochow. Half a century later, in the 
reign of Malcolm IV., Duncan Campbell of Lochow had a 
younger son, Iver, who became the ancestor of the separate 
clan of that name. This was a hundred years before the 
birth of the great Sir Colin Campbell of Lochow, knighted 
by Alexander III., and slain on the Sraing of Lome, from 
whom the Campbell chiefs to-day take the patronymic of 
MacCailein Mor. A different origin is given in Principal 
Campbell's book Clan Iver, published about 1870. That 
author makes out that the Maclvers were holding lands as 
a distinct and separate clan in Argyll prior to any Campbells 
being known there, having come from Glenlyon in Perth- 
shire about 1222 and having been awarded lands in return 
for services rendered in the conquest of Argyll at that 
period. The Maclvers, however, maintained allegiance to 
the House of Argyll. In turn they were regarded with 
high affection and were entrusted with such posts as the 
Keepership of Inveraray Castle after that stronghold was 
built in the middle of the fifteenth century. 

In 1564 Archibald, fifth Earl of Argyll, he who com- 
manded Queen Mary's forces at the battle of Langside, 
recognised the separate authority of the Maclver chiefs. 
By formal deed the Earl resigned all direct claim upon the 
Maclver dependants. The document declared that the 
Earl relinquished for ever, to his cousin Iver Maclver and 
his successors, of " his awin frie motife, uncompellit, and 
for special cause and favours," all " ryght, title, and* 
kyndnes, quhatsomever, we, or our predecessoris had, has. 
or in any manner of way may claim, of the calpis aucht and 
wont to come to our house, of the surname of MacEver, 
with power to use, uplift, intromit, and uptak the said calpis 
to thair awin utilitie and profile, and to dispone thairupon as 



they sail think expedient, as anie uther freehalder, and as we 
was wont to do of before, providing that we haif the said 
Ever's calpe." 

The " calpe," it should perhaps be mentioned, was a 
death duty, in the shape of a horse, cow, ox, or other 
chattel, payable to a chief out of the possessions of a 
deceased clansman. The fact that the calpe of Maclver 
himself remained to be paid to Argyll, was an acknowledg- 
ment that the Maclvers were a branch or sept of the 
Campbell clan. 

The original possessions of the Maclvers were Lerga- 
chonzie, Ashnish on Loch Melfort, and certain lands in 
Cowal. To these they made great additions, while branches 
of the family settled as far afield as Caithness, Inverness- 
shire, and the Lewis. They are said to have been expelled 
from Glen Lyon in the end of the fourteenth century by 
Cuilean Cursta, the fierce Wolf of Badenoch. The Chiefs 
also held the honourable office of Crowner within a certain 
district. In the middle of the seventeenth century, how- 
ever, the properties of the Maclvers suffered considerable 
alienation. A Chief of that time, Gillespie Ban Maclver, 
had an only daughter, whom he married to Campbell of 
Barchbeyan, ancestor of the Campbells of Craignish, and 
by way of dowrie he bestowed on her the lands of Lerga- 
chonzie and others. From that date the Maclver Chiefs 
were known as of Ashnish only. At the same time 
Gillespie Ban, having no male heir, resigned the rest of 
the family possessions to his cousin, " a man of remark- 
able courage and intrepidity." The latter was heir-male 
to Duncan Maclver of Stronshira, and so the two estates 
of Stronshira and Ashnish came into the same hands. 

In the latter part of the same century the Maclvers 

suffered a still more serious eclipse. It was the time of the 

Solemn League and Covenant. The Marquess of Argyll, 

as head of the Covenanters and opponent of King 

Charles I., had misused his powers for the extinction of the 

hereditary rivals of his house, such as the Macdonalds of 

i Kintyre, and Macdougalls of Gylen and Dunolly, and the 

Laments of Cowal, and at the Restoration he had been 

i brought to trial and executed. His son Archibald, the 

i ninth Earl, who was restored to the family estates and 

1 honours in 1663, g ot into similar trouble eighteen years 

later. In 1681 he refused to sign the Test Act, was found 

j guilty of treason, and sentenced to death. While awaiting 

cution in Edinburgh Castle he contrived to escape 

5 disguised as a page, holding up the train of his step- 

i< daughter, Lady Sophia Lindsay, and reached Holland. 


Four years later, simultaneously with the rising of the Duke 
of Monmouth in the south of England, Argyll landed in 
the Kyles of Bute and raised the standard of rebellion 
against James VII. and II. He was promptly joined by 
Iver Maclver, chief of that clan, at the head of a hundred 
men. After crossing the Water of Leven, however, the 
expedition went to pieces in a night march over Dunbarton 
Muir, and the Earl was captured at Inchinnan, and carried 
to Edinburgh, to sleep the " last sleep of Argyll." The 
Argyll estates were then forfeited to the Crown, and Mac- 
Iver's possessions suffered the same fate. After the 
Revolution in 1689, however, the Argyll forfeiture was 
rescinded, and Maclver obtained a new grant of his lands 
from Archibald, the tenth Earl and first Duke of Argyll. 
This grant contained a serious stipulation. In the deed of 
1564 by which the fifth Earl recognised the chief ship, it had 
been stipulated that the heads of the house should be 
known, not as Campbells but as Maclvers. The new grant 
changed this. For his favour the Duke imposed the 
condition that Maclver's son, Duncan, and his heirs, should 
assume the name of Campbell, and should quarter the 
Campbell arms with their own.' 

This Duncan Maclver or Campbell of Ashnish, who was 
the eighth Chief, married a daughter of MacAlastair of 
Loup, and distinguished himself in the early years of the 
eighteenth century by his well-directed exertions to 
" civilise " the Highlanders. His second son and successor 
married Catherine Campbell, daughter of the Captain of 
Dunstaffnage, and his son and heir, again, Angus Campbell 
of Ashnish, the tenth Chief, who was spoken of for a 
century afterwards with great respect, married Elizabeth, 
daughter of MacLachlan of Craigentary, and had six sons, 
all of whom attained honourable positions in life, as well as 
four daughters who married well, and all had families. 
The eldest of these sons, Robert Campbell of Ashnish, 
attained an excellent reputation as an advocate in the Court 
of Session. He married in 1769 a daughter of Mail of 
Maghide in Lancashire, but had only one daughter. 

Meanwhile, apart from the main body of the clan, a 

branch which had settled in Lochaber had attached itself 

the following of Macdonald of Keppoch. From th 

patrimony of its progenitors in Argyll it was often referreu 

3 as the race of Maclver Glasrich, which name in time was 

iprtened to MacGlasrich. In the keen spirit of clanship 

J's race maintained its separate identity, and at the battle 

I Cu loden, though acting under Keppoch, they insisted 

on being drawn up as a separate clan, under their own 


officers. They also, mindful of their origin and of the fact 
that they wore the Campbell tartan and carried the 
Campbell colours, refused to be marshalled in such a 
position as would have compelled them to engage the 
Argyll militia. 

In his first great romance of Waverley Sir Walter Scott 
introduced as a tragic figure the handsome young Fergus 
Maclver, who looked to a success of the Jacobite cause to 
enable him to realise certain dreams of setting up an inde- 
pendent chiefship and founding a clan. It is usually 
supposed that Scott's model for this personage was the 
handsome young Glengarry, whose visits to the Scottish 
capita! in full Highland panoply and with a formidable 
41 tail " of clansmen created something of a sensation at 
that time. But Scott could not have been unaware of the 
existence of an actual Maclver Chief, and of the disabilities 
under which he lay in being compelled to use the name 
Campbell. This seems a much more likely suggestion for 
the character of Fergus Maclver than that which has been 
commonly accepted. 

1 In August, 1919, Captain Maclver Campbell of Ballochyle 
wrote from Vancouver as follows : " As far as my family is con- 
cerned our title deeds were all in the name of Maclver until 1599, 
when they appear as Maclver or Campbell and then gradually 
as Campbell only. My father, the late Lieutenant-Colonel Wm. 
Rose Campbell of Ballochyle, when entailing the property, made 
it imperative that the laird should take the name of Maclver- 
Campbell so as to preserve the ancient patronymic of the family." 

BADGE : Bealnidh (vSarothamnus scorparius) broom. 

PIBROCH 7 Brattach bhan Clan Aoidh and Donald Duaghal Mhic 

SLOGAN : Bratach Bhan Chlann Aoidh. 

ONE of the finest songs by that fine song writer and 
musician, Dr. John Park, deals in an allusive way with 
an episode characteristic of the past of the far north-west 
of Scotland, in the region of Cape Wrath, which was the 
ancient country of the warlike Clan MacKay. 

" This howling wind o'er sea and sky 

Careers wi' dule and sorrow, 
And many a woeful heart and eye 

Shall weep the coming morrow ; 
But yet I dream amid this tide 

So furious, wild, and wintry, 
Of the fairest eyes on any side 

Of the Lord Reay's country. 

Now lulls the gale, but upward fly 

The roaring surges round us; 
Nor e'er could reach a drowning cry 

To the wild shores that bound us; 
Where soon for us the dirge may rise 

From caves, the sea-sprites' chantry 
Whose sound now dims the bluest eyes 

In the Lord Reay's country. 

The moon shines out. Oh! pale and fair 

Is she whose lamp is burning, 
Through lonely night and stormy air, 

To welcome my returning, 
And see, how dearly yonder lies 

The well-known bay's old entry, 
Where our sail shall greet the fairest eyes, 

In the Lord Reay's country." 

The district anciently occupied by the Clan MacKay, 
and known from the name of its chief as the Lord Reay's 
country, extended along some two-thirds of the broken 
north coast of Scotland, from Reay itself on Sandside 
Bay, some ten miles west of Thurso, along the wild loch- 
indented coast to Cape Wrath, and as far southward as 



'acing page 306. 


Edrachills Bay on the West Coast. It is a pathetic fact 
that this great stretch of country is no longer in possession 
of its ancient owners; but the story of how the MacKays 
came into possession of Strathnaver, of how they held it 
through the stormy middle centuries, and how at last it 
passed out of their hands, remains one of the most 
interesting in the Highlands. 

On the east the territory of the MacKays marched with 
that of the Sinclairs and the Gunns, while on the south it 
marched with that of the MacLeods and the Murrays of 
Sutherland, and naturally much of the story is of feud and 
friendship with these neighbouring clans. 

According to Skene in his Highlanders, " there are 
few clans whose true origin is more uncertain than that 
of the MacKays." But while this origin cannot be 
altogether definitely ascertained, tradition carries it back 
to the first Gaelic inhabitants of the country. The 
Norwegian sagas declare the ancestor of the race to have 
been a jarl, which is probably a Norse translation of the 
Celtic Maormor, or governor of a province. From the 
similarity of badge and armorial bearings, some writers 
have counted the clan a branch of the Forbeses. Accord- 
ing to Sir Robert Gordon, the first of the MacKays who 
obtained possessions in Strathnaver was named Martin. 
This Martin, he says, " wes slain at Keanloch-Eylk in 
Lochaber, and had a son called Magnus. Magnus died 
in Strathnaver, leaving two sons, Morgan and Farquhar. 
From this Morgan the whole of MacKay is generally 
called Clan-vic-Morgan. From Farquhar the Clan-vic- 
Farquhar in Strathnaver are descended." Nisbet in his 
Heraldry derives the MacKays from Alexander, a 
younger son of Ochonochar, the ancestor of the Forbeses, 
who came from Ireland about the end of the twelfth 
century; and this theory is followed by Robert MacKay, 
historian of the Clan, who says the ancestor of the Mac- 
Kays was Alexander, who lived between 1180 and 1222. 
When King William the Lion, at the end of the twelfth 
century, marched northward to repel the Norse invaders, 
he is said to have had with him one body of men from 
the province of Moray under Hugh Freskin, ancestor of 
the Murrays of Sutherland, and another body from Gallo- 
way under Alexander, ancestor of the MacKays. Skene 
believes the progenitors of the clan to have been the old 
Gaelic Maormors of Caithness. 

In any case from an early period the MacKays played 
a striking part in Scottish history. Magnus, the great- 
grandson of Alexander, fought on the side of Robert the 


Bruce at Bannockburn. It was from Morgan, the son of 
this Magnus, that the clan took its appellation of Siol 
Mhorgain, the race of Morgan. Donald, the son of 
Morgan, married the daughter of MacNeil of Gigha on the 
Kintyre coast, and from the son of this pair, named Aodh, 
the clan derives its patronymic of MacAodh, or MacKay. 
The clan seems rapidly to have become very powerful, and 
from an early date to have been engaged in feuds with its 
neighbours. In 1395, at Dingwall, in the course of one 
of these feuds, the Earl of Sutherland killed the MacKay 
chief and his son with his own hand; and a few years 
later, in the course of a family quarrel with the MacLeods 
of Lewis, a bloody battle was fought in Strathoykell on 
the marches of Ross and Sutherland, from which, it is 
said, only one solitary Lewis man escaped, seriously 
wounded, to tell the tale in his native island. 

In 1411 the chief, Angus Dubh, was able to muster no 
fewer than 4,000 men to oppose Donald of the Isles in his 
campaign to seize the earldom of Ross, which ended at 
the battle of Harlaw. MacKay was bold enough to face 
Donald single-handed at Dingwall, but was defeated and 
taken prisoner. After a short time, however, he was 
released, and the Lord of the Isles gave him his daughter 
Elizabeth in marriage, with certain lands by way of tocher. 
In the charter of these lands he is called " Angus Eyg 
de Strath naver." 

This alliance with the Lord of the Isles proved 
disastrous to MacKay, for when, to curb the disturbances 
raised by the island prince, King James I. marched into 
the north, he arrested Angus MacKay and his four sons, 
and only set the Chief free on condition that one son 
became a hostage for his father. 

There was trouble again when Thomas, one of the 
MacKays, for an act of outrage and sacrilege, was outlawed 
by the king, and his lands in Sutherland were offered to 
any person bold enough to kill or capture him. With the 
help of MacKay 's own brothers, Angus Murray of Cubin 
seized the outlaw and executed him ; but when Murray 
came further, at the instignation of the Earl of Sutherland, 
to invade Strathnaver, his force was defeated, and he and 
the two MacKays who had helped him were slain. This 
was the battle of Druim na cuip, at the top of a pass near 
Ben Loyal. The leader of the MacKays was young Iain 
Aberach, a son of Angus MacKay by his second wife, a 
Macdonald of Keppoch in Lochaber. From him descended 
vJ C Aberach MacKays. After the fight old Angus 
MacKay had himself carried to the field to view his son's 


victory, when a lurking Moray man shot him with an 

, arrow. 

Later, in 1437, when the hostage Neil MacKay returned 
from his captivity on the Bass, the MacKays invaded 
Caithness, defeated the Sinclairs, and plundered the 
country. A later feud among the MacKays of Strath- 
naver, the Earls of Sutherland and Caithness, and the 
Gunns, brought about a pitched battle in 1517 at Torran 
Dubh, in which hundreds of men on both sides were slain, 
and the MacKays were routed. After several further 
struggles the MacKay chief made his peace with the Earl 
of Sutherland in 1522. Twenty years later Donald Mac- 

; Kay again invaded Sutherland, but was captured and 
imprisoned, and in 1549 gave his bond of service and 
manrent to the Earl. 

These were only a few of the feuds, excursions, and 
alarms in which the MacKays were engaged for 150 years, 
and something of their warlike temper may be guessed 
from the fact that they fought no fewer than ten pitched 
battles, between that of Tuttumtarmhich in 1406 and 
Garuarrai in 1555. Part of the reason for this turbulence 
of the MacKay chiefs is probably to be found in the fact 
that they were among the last in Scotland to hold their 
lands as allodial or entirely independent territory. They 
did not come under the feudal system and accept a charter 
to hold their lands of the King till 1499. 

Among notable events in the story of that time Aodh 
or Hugh MacKay fell at Flodden with James IV., and his 
second son and successor Donald MacKay, "a great 
general and a wise and political gentleman," took part in 
the battle of Solway Moss, and, returning to Edinburgh 
with James V. three days after the conflict, had certain 
fortified lands bestowed upon him by the King. In the 
feuds of the days of Queen Mary and James VI. between 
the Earls of Caithness and Sutherland, the MacKays took 
an active part. One day in 1586 while returning from 
a raid on the Macleods of Assynt the MacKays found 

, themselves pursued by the Sutherland men, who, with the 
Sinclairs, had set out to harry the Gunns. Just before 

I dawn, they met the Gunns and the two clans joining in 

; Dnset first overthrew the Sinclairs and then drove off the 
Sutherland men, on the field of Aultgawn. 

Amid such exploits, Aodh, the son of Donald, mentioned 
above, was imprisoned for a time in Edinburgh Castle 
because of his turbulence, but his son, another Hugh, 
married first Lady Elizabeth Sinclair, daughter of the 

, fourth Earl of Caithness, and secondly Lady Jean Gordon, 
VOL. H, D 


daughter of the fifteenth Earl of Sutherland, and lived in 
prodigal fashion on his ancestral estates. 

The MacKay chiefs were zealous supporters of the 
Reformation, and in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century the chief, Donald MacKay of Far, son of the 
above Hugh, raised 3,000 men, mostly of his own clan, 
and sent half of them, under the command of Colonel 
Robert Munro, to the help of the Protestant King of 
Bohemia. On the death, almost immediately, of that 
monarch, the company entered the service of Gustavus of 
Sweden, and its exploits and famous deeds of valour were 
made the subject of a notable book, Munro's Expedition 
with the Scots' Regiment, the MacKeyes, published in 
1637. The chief himself, Donald MacKay, after some 
trouble with the Sutherland family at home, carried a rein- 
forcement to the regiment in Germany, and won a high 
reputation there, while his territory at home enjoyed an 
unwonted period of repose. After the death of Gustavus, 
MacKay returned to this country, where, as a reward for 
his loyal services to Charles I., he was first of all created 
a Baronet of Nova Scotia in 1627, then raised to the 
peerage by the title of Lord Reay in 1628. The King 
also gave him a patent, creating him Earl of Strathnaver, 
but the title was never completed, owing to the Civil War 
and the refusal of Parliament to homologate the creation. 
Unfortunately the MacKay Chief gained his honours at 
considerable cost, for the enterprise of raising the company 
which he sent abroad, and the losses which he sustained 
in support of Charles I., plunged him into money 
difficulties, which in the end forced the family to part with 
all its great territories in the North. 

Lord Reay himself was one of those excepted from 
pardon in the treaty between the Covenanters and the 
King, and was forced to retire to Denmark, where he died 
in 1649. His wife was the daughter of Lord Kintail, and 
their son married a daughter of Lieutenant-General Hugh 
MacKay of Scourie, the famous leader who commanded 
the troops of William of Orange against the Highland 
Jacobites under Viscount Dundee at Killiecrankie ia 

General MacKay was a sterling soldier if not a brilliant 
general, and his overthrow at Killiecrankie was perhaps 
as much the result of the rawness of the levies he com- 
manded as of his own rashness in attempting an almost 
impossible task. The soundness of his ideas as to th 
best means of pacifying the Highlands may be judge< 
from the fact that, after wellnigh insuperable difficulties 


he found the means, by private enterprise, of erecting a 
fort at Inverlochy, which, in honour of the King, he 
named Fort-William, and which is represented by the 
town of that name to the present day. And it was owing 
to MacKay's activity in the months which followed that 
the efforts of the Jacobite generals, Buchan and Cannon, 
were again and again rendered futile. By sheer ability 
he made himself military master of the Highlands, and 
did so with the least possible bloodshed and without sully- 
ing his success by vindictive measures of retaliation. He 
fell at the battle of Steinkirk in 160,2. 

During Mar's rebellion in 1715 the MacKays took arms 
for George I., kept the castle and town of Inverness from 
capture, and held the Jacobite clans of the North in check. 
Again, in 1745, there were 800 of them under arms on the 
side of the Government. Still later, in 1795, the Reay 
fencible regiment, or MacKay Highlanders, were embodied, 
and on being sent to Ireland, distinguished themselves by 
a gallant defeat of the rebels at the Hill of Tara. 

It was in the time of the seventh baron, Sir Eric Mac- 
Kay, that a serious change came over the fortunes of the 
family. During his sail round the coasts of Scotland in 
the yacht of the Lighthouse Commissioners in 1814, Sir 
Walter Scott paid a visit to Cape Wrath, where the Com- 
missioners had to fix the site for a lighthouse. It was the 
day when sheep-farming was being introduced to the 
Highlands, and in the diary of his voyage Scott makes an 
interesting entry. " Lord Reay's estate," he says, " con- 
taining 150,000 acres, and measuring eighty miles by sixty, 
was, before commencement of the last leases, rented at 
1,200 a year. It is now worth ,5,000, and Mr. 
Anderson says he may let it this ensuing year (when the 
leases expire) for about ; 15,000. But then he must 
resolve to part with his people, for these rents can only be 
given upon the supposition that sheep are generally to be 
introduced on the property. In an economical, and 
perhaps in a political point of view, it might be best that 
every part of a country were dedicated to that sort of 
occupation for which nature has best fitted it. But to 
effect this reform in the present instance, Lord Reay must 
turn out several hundred families who have lived under 
him and his fathers for many generations, and the swords 
of whose fathers probably won the lands from which he 
is now expelling them. He is a good-natured man, I 
suppose, for Mr. A. says he is hesitating whether he shall 
not take a more moderate rise (^"7,000 or ^"8,000), and 
keep his Highland tenantry. This last war (before the 


short peace), he levied a fine fencible corps (the Reay 
fencibles), and might have doubled their number. Wealth 
is no doubt strength in a country, while all is quiet and 
governed by law, but on any altercation or internal com- 
motion, it ceases to be strength, and is only the means of 
tempting the strong to plunder the possessors. Much may 
be said on both sides." 

The Reay estates, however, as has been already 
mentioned, were in difficulties, and in the upshot, Eric, 
seventh Lord Reay, disposed of the whole property to the 
Earl of Sutherland, by whom were carried out the great 
" Sutherland clearances," of which so much has been said 
and written since. 

On the death of this Lord Reay the title and chiefship 
reverted to his cousin, Eneas MacKay, a descendant of the 
second baron. That second Baron's second son Eneas 
had followed the first baron's example, carried his sword 
to the Continent, and become a Brigadier-General and 
Colonel-proprietor of the MacKay regiment in Holland. 
His son Donald succeeded him in command of the 
regiment, and fell at the siege of Tournay in 1745. Each 
generation had married a daughter of a noble house of the 
Netherlands, and the family had attained the title of Baron 
MacKay d'Ophemert. Among his other honours in the 
Netherlands, Baron MacKay was Minister of State, Vice- 
President of the Privy Council, and Grand Cross of the 
Netherland Lion. His wife was a daughter of Baron 
Fagel, also a Privy Councillor. The new Lord Reay, who 
remained a Dutch subject, died in 1876, and was 
succeeded by his son Sir Donald James, the late peer. 

Lord Reay was naturalised as a British subject in 1877, 
and played a highly distinguished part in the affairs of 
this country. Among his honours he was a Knight of the 
Thistle, G.C.S.I., G.C.I.E., LL.D., D.Litt., and a Privy 
Councillor. He was Lord-Lieutenant of Roxburghshire, 
and Rector of St. Andrews University. He was also 
Governor of Bombay from 1885 to 1890, Under Secretary 
for India from 1894 to l8 95, and Chairman of the London 
School Board from 1897 to 1904. He was President of the 
Royal Asiatic Society, and of University College, London, 
and was the first 'President of the British Academy. 
Besides Lady Reay's seat of Carolside at Earlston in 
Berwickshire, he retained Ophemert in the Netherlands; 
but his chief interest throughout lay in this country, and 
his warmest pride was in the fact that he was Chief of the 
ancient and honourable Clan MacKay. 

Not least famous of the name in the eighteenth century 


was the poet, Rob Don MacKay. Born in the year 
before Sheriffmuir, he earned his living as herd, game- 
keeper, and boatman, and was a member of the Reay 
Fencibles from 1759 till 1767. His poems are chiefly 
satires and elegies. 

In modern times the Clan has led the way in a move- 
ment which promises, more than anything else, to 
perpetuate the old clan spirit and comradeship. On 2ist 
July, 1806, there was instituted a " M'Kays Society," 
which was probably the first genuine clan organisation 
ever formed in the Lowlands. Its purpose was " to raise 
a fund for the mutual help of each of us in the time of 
afflictive dispensations," and as "a happy means of 
establishing unity and good order amongst us." That 
Society carried on its useful work for fifty years. The 
present Clan MacKay Society was founded in 1888. It 
carries on a highly useful benevolent and educational work, 
has a fund of over ^"1,600, and counts its influential 
membership in every part of the world. 


Bain Bayne 

MacCay MacCrie 

Macghee Macghie 

Mackee Mackie 

MacPhail Macquey 

Macquoid Macvail 

Neilson Paul 

Poison Williamson 


BADGE : Cuilfhion (Ilex aquifolium) holly. 
SLOGAN : Tullach ard. 

PIBROCH : Failte mhic Choinneach, Fear Coinerach, or Applecross, 
and Cumha mhic Choinneach. 

FROM the seventeenth century down to the later nineteenth 
the origin of the great Clan Mackenzie was commonly 
supposed to be from a certain Colin Fitzgerald of the great 
Norman family of the Earls of Desmond and Dukes of 
Leinster in Ireland. This Colin or Cailean is said to 
have been driven from Ireland in 1262, and to have found 
refuge at the Court of Alexander III. of Scotland, under 
whom he distinguished himself by his valour at the battle 
of Largs in the following year. So much is stated in the 
Record of Icolmkill. After that battle he is said to have 
been established by the King as Governor of Eileandonan, 
a strong castle in Kintail at the junction of Loch Duich 
and Loch Long, which has been identified as the Itus of 
Ptolemy and Richard of Cirencester. The charter of 
1266 on which this statement is founded is quoted by Sir 
George Mackenzie of Tarbat, first Earl of Cromarty, in 
his MS. history of the Clan Mackenzie written in the 
seventeenth century, and it has been quoted from his work 
by later historians of the clan, including the Laird of 
Applecross in his genealogy of the Mackenzies in 1669. 

This last writer proceeds to tell how Cailean acquired 
the coat of arms first used by the Mackenzie chiefs. The 
King, it appears, was hunting in the forest of Mar, when 
a furious stag, brought to bay by the hounds, made 
straight at him, and he would doubtless have been slain 
had not Cailean Fitzgerald stepped in front of him, and 
shot the beast with an arrow through the forehead. For 
this, it is said, the King granted him for arms a stag's 
head puissant, bleeding at the forehead, on a field azure, 
supported by two greyhounds, with, as crest, a dexter 
arm bearing a naked sword, surrounded with the motto 
1 Fide parta, fide aucta." At a later day the Mackenzies 
changed this crest and motto for those of the MacLeods 
of the Lews, to whose possessions they had succeeded in 
that island. 


Facing page 314. 


According to the Earl of Cromarty, Cailean Fitzgerald 
married a daughter of Kenneth MacMhathoin, the Mathie- 
son chief, and had by her one son whom he named 
Kenneth after his father-in-law. Cailean was afterwards 
slain by MacMhathoin out of jealousy at the Irish 
stranger's succession to his ancient heritage, and it was 
from the son Kenneth that all the later members of the 
family and clan took their name MacKenneth or Mackenzie. 

Cosmo Innes, however, in his Origines Parochiales 
Scotiae, vol. ii, pp. 392-3, points out that the original 
charter on which this Norman-Irish descent is founded 
does not exist, and is not in fact genuine, and Skene in 
his Celtic Scotland, quoting an authenic Gaelic MS. of 
1450, printed with a translation in the Transactions of the 
lona Club, shows the Mackenzies to be descended from 
the same ancestor as the old Earls of Ross. Their 
common ancestor, according to the MS. genealogy of 
1450, was a certain Gillean of the Aird, of the tenth 
century. Mr. Alexander Mackenzie, author of the latest 
history of the clan, quotes unquestioned Acts of Parliament 
and charters to show that the lands of Kintail, with the 
Castle of Eileandonan, were possessed by the Earls of 
Ross for a hundred years after the battle of Largs. It 
seems reasonable that the Mackenzie chiefs, as their near 
relatives, were entrusted with the lands and castle at an 
early date, and in any case there is a charter to show that 
the lands of Kintail were held by Alexander Mackenzie 
in 1463. 

The first chief of the clan who appears with certainty 
in history is " Murdo filius Kennethi de Kintail " who 
obtained the charter from David II. in 1362. According 
to tradition, filling out the Gaelic genealogy of 1450, the 
name of the clan was derived from this Murdoch's great- 
grandfather, Kenneth, son of Angus. This Kenneth was 
in possession of Eileandonan when his relative William, 
third Earl of Ross who had married his aunt, in pursuit of 
his claim to the Lordship of the Isles, demanded that the 
Castle be given up to him. The young chief, however, 
refused, and, supported by his neighbours the Maclvers, 
Macaulays, and other families in Kintail, actually resisted 
and defeated the attacking forces of the Earl. He married 
a daughter of Macdougall of Lome, and granddaughter 
of the Red Comyn slain by Bruce at Dumfries, but his 
son Ian, who succeeded him in 1304, is said to have taken 
the part of Robert the Bruce, and actually to have sheltered 
that monarch for a time within the walls of Eileandonan. 
He is said to have fought on Bruce's side at the battle of 


Inverury in 1308, and to have waited on the King at his 
visit to Inverness in 1312, and he also led a following 
said to be five hundred strong of the men of Kintail at 
the battle of Bannockburn, three years later. His loyalty 
to Bruce is better understood when it is known that he 
was married to Margaret, daughter of David de Strath- 
bogie, Earl of Atholl, the warm supporter of that monarch. 

lan's son, Kenneth of the Nose, had a severe struggle 
against the fifth Earl of Ross. According to Wyntoun's 
Chronicle, Randolph, Earl of Moray, paid a visit to 
Eileandonan in 1331, for the punishment of misdoers, and 
expressed himself as right blythe at sight of the fifty heads 
" that flowered so weel that wall," but whether the heads 
were those of Mackenzies or of Ross' men we do not know. 
In 1342 the Earl of Ross granted a charter of Kintail to 
a son of Roderick of the Isles, which charter was con- 
firmed by the King, and in 1350 the Earl actually dated 
a charter at Eileandonan itself, from which it may be 
gathered that he had seized the castle. Finally, the Earl's 
men raided Mackenzie's lands of Kinlochewe ; Mackenzie 
pursued them, killed many, and recovered the spoil; and 
in revenge the Earl had him seized and executed at Inver- 
ness, and granted Kinlochewe to a follower of his own. 

Mackenzie had married a daughter of MacLeod of the 
Lews, and on his execution his friend Duncan Macaulay 
of Loch Broom sent Murdoch, his young son and heir, 
to MacLeod for safe keeping, and at the same time 
prepared to defend Eileandonan against the attacks of the 
Earl of Ross. He kept the castle against repeated attacks, 
but a creature oflhe Earl's, Leod MacGilleandreis, the 
same who had procured the death of the late chief, and had 
received a grant of Kinlochewe, laid a trap for Macaulay's 
only son, and murdered him. At last, however, the young 
chief Murdoch, having grown up a strong brave youth, 
procured one of MacLeod's great war galleys full of men, 
and with a friend, Gille Riabhach, set sail from Storno- 
way to strike a blow for his heritage. Landing at Sanachan 
in Kishorn, he marched towards Kinlochewe, and hid his 
men in a wood while he sent a woman to discover the 
whereabouts of his, enemy. Learning that MacGilleandreis 
was to meet his followers at a certain ford for a hunting 
match, Murdoch fell upon him there, and overthrew and 
slew him. He afterwards married the only daughter of 
his brave friend and defender Macaulay, and through her 
succeeded to the lands of Loch Broom and Coigeach. 
Then, after the return of David II. from his captivity in 
England, he obtained in 1362 a charter from that monarch 



confirming his rights, and he died in 1375. He was 
known as Black Murdoch of the Cave, from his resort to 
wild places for security during his youth and while laying 
his plans for the overthrow of his enemies. 

His son, Murdoch of the Bridge, got his name from a 
less creditable incident. His wife having no children, 
and he being anxious to have a successor, he had her 
waylaid at the Bridge of Scatwell, and thrown into the 
river. She, however, managed to escape, and made her 
way to her husband's house at Achilty, coming to his 
bedside, as the chronicler puts it, " in a fond condition "; 
whereupon, pitying her case and repenting of the deed, he 
took her in his arms. A few weeks afterwards she gave 
birth to a son, and they lived together contentedly all their 
days. Murdoch was one of the sixteen Highland chiefs 
who took part under the Earl of Douglas at the battle of 
Otterbourne, and against all threats he refused to join the 
Lord of the Isles in his invasion of Scotland which ended 
at the battle of Harlaw. Murdoch married a daughter of 
MacLeod of Harris, and as that chief was fourth in descent 
from Olaf, King of Man, while his wife was daughter of 
Donald Earl of Mar, nephew of King Robert the Bruce, 
the blood of two royal houses was thus brought to mix 
with that of the Mackenzie chiefs. 

The next chief, Alastair lonric, or the Upright, was 
among the Highland magnates summoned by King 
James I. to meet him at Inverness in 1427. With the others 
he was arrested, but, while many of them were executed 
for their lawless deeds, he, being still a youth, was sent to 
school at Perth by the King. During his absence his three 
bastard uncles proceeded to ravage Kinlochewe, where- 
upon Macaulay, constable of Eileandonan, sent a secret 
message to the young chief, who, leaving school forthwith, 
and hastening north, summoned his uncles before him, 
and, on their proving recalcitrant, made them " shorter 
by the heads," and so relieved his people of their ravages. 
In similar case, Alexander, Lord of the Isles, had been 
sent to Edinburgh by the King, but, escaping north, raised 
his vassals, burned Inverness, and destroyed the crown 
lands. On this occasion the young chief of the Mackenzies 
raised his clan, joined the royal army, and helped to over- 
throw the island lord. Later, during the rebellion of the 
Earl of Douglas, the Lord of the Isles, and Donald Balloch, 
against James II., Mackenzie again stood firm in loyalty 
to the Crown. For this in 1463 he received a charter con- 
firming him in his lands of Kintail, and in various other 
possessions. So far these possessions had been held of 


the Earls of Ross, but after the rebellion of the Earl of 
Ross in 1476, when he was compelled to resign his earldom 
to the Crown, Mackenzie, who again had done loyal service, 
became a crown vassal, and received a further charter of 
Strathconan, Strathbran, and Strathgarve, which had been 
taken from the Earl. 

Of Alexander Mackenzie as a young man a romantic 
story is told. This is to the effect that Euphemia Leslie, 
Countess Dowager of Ross, set her fancy upon him, and 
desired him to marry her. Upon his refusal she turned 
her love to hatred, and made him a prisoner at Dingwall. 
Then, by bribing his page, she procured his ring, and 
sending it to Eileandonan induced Macaulay the constable 
to yield up the castle to her. To secure his master's free- 
dom Macaulay seized Ross of Balnagown, the countess's 
grand-uncle. He was pursued by the vassals of the Earl 
of Ross, and at Bealach na Broige a desperate conflict took 
place. Macaulay, however, carried off his man, and 
presently, managing to surprise Eileandonan, kept the 
countess's governor and garrison, along with Balnagown, 
in captivity until they were exchanged for the Mackenzie 
chief. The conflict of Bealach na Broige, the Pass of the 
Shoe, took place in 1452, and was so named from the 
Highlanders tying their shoes to their breasts to defend 
themselves against the arrows of their opponents. Many 
other romantic stories are told of the sixth chief. He 
was so far the greatest man of his name, and when he 
died at the age of ninety in 1488 he left the house of 
Mackenzie one of the most powerful clans in the north. 

Till now the succession to the Mackenzie family had 
depended always upon a single heir. Alexander the sixth 
chief, however, was twice married. By his first wife, 
Anna daughter of MacDougall of Dunolly, he had two 
sons, the elder of whom succeeded him, and by his second 
wife, daughter of MacDonald of Morar, he had one son, 
Hector who became ancestor of the Gairloch family. 

The seventh chief, Kenneth of the Battle, got his name 
from his part in the battle of Blair na pairc, fought during 
his father's lifetime near their residence at Kinellan, a 
mile and a half from the modern spa of Strathpeffer. To 
close the old family feud, Kenneth had married Margaret 
daughter of John of Isla, Lord of the Isles, but John of 
Isla s nephew and heir, Alexander of Lochalsh, making 
a feast at Balcony House, invited to it, among other chiefs, 
Kenneth Mackenzie. On Mackenzie arriving with forty 
followers he was told that the house was already full, 
but that a lodging had been provided for him in the kiln. 


Enraged at the insult, he struck the seneschal to the 
ground, and left the house. Four days later he was 
ordered with his father to leave Kinellan, which they held 
as tenants of the island lord. Kenneth returned a message 
that he would stay where he was, but would return his 
wife, and he accordingly sent the lady back with the 
utmost ignominy. The lady had only one eye, and he 
sent her on a one-eyed horse accompanied by a one-eyed 
attendant and a one-eyed dog. A few days later, with 
two hundred men he besieged Lord Lovat in his castle, 
and demanded his daughter Anne in marriage. Lord 
Lovat and his daughter agreed, and ever afterwards 
Kenneth and the lady lived as husband and wife. 

Meanwhile MacDonald had raised an army of sixteen 
hundred men, marched northward through the Mackenzie 
lands, burning and slaying, and at Contin on a Sunday 
morning set fire to the church in which the old men, 
women, and children had taken refuge, and burned the 
whole to ashes. Then he ordered his followers to be 
drawn up on the neighbouring moor for review. But 
Kenneth Mackenzie, though he had only six hundred men, 
proved an able leader. He succeeded in entangling his 
enemies in a peat bog, and when they were thrown into 
confusion by a discharge from his hidden archers, fell 
upon them and put them to flight. This invasion cost the 
Macdonalds the Lordship of the Isles, which was declared 
by Parliament a forfeit to the Crown. 

Kenneth was on his way with five hundred rtien under 
the Earl of Huntly to support James III. when news 
reached him of his father's death, and Huntly sent him 
home to see to his affairs, and so he missed taking part 
in the battle of Sauchieburn, at which James fell. He 
was afterwards knighted by James IV., and died in 1491. 
The eighth chief, Kenneth the Younger, was the son of 
the daughter of the Lord of the Isles whom his father 
had so unceremoniously sent home. Along with the young 
Mackintosh chief he was secured in Edinburgh castle by 
James IV. as a hostage for his clan. After a time the two 
lads escaped, and reached the Torwood. Here they met 
the Laird of Buchanan, then an outlaw, and he, to secure 
the remission for his outlawry, surrounded the house at 
night with his followers and demanded surrender. Mac- 
kenzie rushed out sword in hand, and was shot with an 

This was in 1497. The next chief, John of Killin, 
Kenneth's half-brother, was considered illegitimate by 
many of the clan, though the marriage of his mother had 


been legitimated by the Pope in the last year of her 
husband's life. The estates were seized by the young 
chief's uncle, Hector Roy, ancestor of the Gairloch family. 
But Lord Lovat procured a precept of clare constat to 
protect his nephew's interest, and Munro of Fowlis, 
Lieutenant of Ross, proceeded to Kinellan to punish the 
usurper. As Munro was returning, however, he was 
ambushed at Knockfarrel by Hector Roy, and most of 
his men slain. Hector also defeated a royal force sent 
against him by the Earl of Huntly in 1499. At last, how- 
ever, his nephew John, with a chosen band, beset him in 
his house at Fairburn, and set the place on fire. Hector 
thereupon surrendered, and it was agreed that he should 
possess the estates till the young chief was twenty-one 
years of age, whereupon Eileandonan was delivered up 
to the latter. Both the chief John and his uncle Hector 
Roy took part in the battle of Flodden, and, strange to 
say, both escaped and returned home, though most of 
their followers fell. The chief was taken prisoner by the 
English, but escaped through the kindness of the wife 
of a shipmaster with whom he was lodged, and whose life 
had been saved in dire extremity by a clansman in the 
Mackenzie country, who by killing and disembowelling 
his horse and placing her inside during a terrible storm 
had preserved her and her new-born child. 

Upon coming into possession of Eileandonan John 
Mackenzie made Gilchrist MacRae constable of the castle, 
and before long the MacRaes had an opportunity to show 
their mettle in this post. In 1539 MacDonald of Sleat 
laid waste the lands of MacLeod of Dunvegan and his 
friend the Mackenzie chief, killing the son of Finly Mac- 
Rae, then Governor of Eileandonan. Mackenzie there- 
upon despatched a force to Skye which made reprisals in 
MacDonald's country. MacDonald, hearing that Eilean- 
donan was left ungarrisoned, made a raid upon it with 
fifty birlinns. The only men in the castle were the 
governor, the watchman, and Duncan MacRae. Presently 
the governor fell, and MacRae found himself left with a 
single arrow. Watching his chance, however, he shot 
MacDonald in the foot, severing the main artery, and 
causing him to bleed to death. For the overthrow of the 
MacDonalds King James conferred further possessions 
on Mackenzie. Old as he was, Mackenzie fought for the 

Id-Queen Mary at the battle of Pinkie, where he was 
taken prisoner. His clansmen, however, showed their 
affection by paying his ransom. John Mackenzie added 
greatly to the family estates in Brae Ross, and many a 


quaint story is told of his shrewdness and sagacity before 
he died at the age of eighty in 1561. 

Like so many of the early chiefs John had an only son, 
Kenneth of the Whittle, so named from his dexterity with 
the skian dhu. He was among the chiefs who helped 
Queen Mary to get possession of Inverness Castle when 
refused by the governor, Alexander Gordon; and on the 
Queen's escape from Loch Leven, his son Colin was sent 
by the Earl of Huntly to advise her retreat to Stirling 
till her friends could be gathered. The advice was 
rejected, and Colin fought for the Queen at Langside. 
In Kenneth's time a tragedy occurred at Eileandonan. 
John Glassich, son and successor to Hector Roy 
Mackenzie of Gairloch, fell under suspicion of an intention 
to renew his father's claim to be chief of the clan. 
Mackenzie therefore had him arrested and sent to Eilean- 
donan, and there he was poisoned by the Constable's 
lady. This chief married a daughter of the Earl of Atholl, 
and from his third son Roderick was descended the family 
of Redcastle. 

The eleventh chief, One-Eyed Colin, was a special 
favourite at Court, and, like all his forebears, an able 
administrator of his own estate. 

The Mackenzies were now strong enough to defy even 
the Earl of Huntly. This great noble was preparing to 
destroy Mackintosh of Mackintosh, whose wife was Mac- 
kenzie's sister. Mackenzie sent asking that she should be 
treated with courtesy, and Huntly rudely replied that he 
would " cut her tail above her houghs." The Mackenzie 
chief was at Brahan Castle in delicate health, but next 
day, his brother Roderick of Redcastle crossed the ferry of 
Ardersier with four hundred clansmen, and when Huntly 
approached the Mackintosh stronghold in the Loch of Moy 
he saw this formidable force marching to intercept him. 
' Yonder," said one of his officers, " is the effect of your 
answer to Mackenzie." The effect was so unquestionable 
that Huntly found it prudent to retire to Inverness. 

In One-Eyed Colin's time, about 1580, one of the most 
desperate feuds in Highland history broke out, between 
the Mackenzies and the MacDonalds of Glengarry, whose 
chief owned considerable parts of the neighbouring 
territories of Lochalsh, Loch Carron, and Loch Broom. 
The feud began by Glengarry ill-using Mackenzie's 
tenants. It came to strife with the killing of a Glengarry 
gentleman as a poacher, and before it was ended, in the 
next chief's time, it had brought about some of the most 
tragic events in Highland history. 


This next chief Kenneth, twelfth of his line, was a man 
of singular ability, who managed to turn the MacDonald 
and other feuds directly to the increase of his house's 
territory and influence. While Mackenzie was in France, 
Glengarry's son, Angus MacDonald and his cousins, 
committed several outrages, slaying and burning Mac- 
kenzie clansmen, and, on the Mackenzies retaliating, had 
the chief summoned at the Pier of Leith to appear before 
the Council on pain of forfeiture. Through the prompt 
action of a clansman, however, Mackenzie managed to 
return in time, turned the tables on his enemy, and had 
him declared an outlaw, and ordered to pay him a very 
large sum by way of damages. He then marched into 
Morar, routed the MacDonalds, and brought back to 
Kintail the largest creagh ever heard of in the Highlands. 
The MacDonalds retaliated with a raid on Kinlochewe, 
killing women and children, and destroying all the cattle. 
Angus MacDonald also proceeded to raise his kinsmen in 
the Isles against Mackenzie, and while the latter was 
absent in Mull, seeking help from his brother-in-law, 
MacLean of Duart, he made a great descent, burning and 
slaying, on Kintail. 

Then a notable incident occurred: Lady Mackenzie at 
Eileandonan had only a single galley at home, but she 
armed it and sent it out to waylay MacDonald. It was a 
calm moonlight night in November, with occasional 
showers of snow, and Mackenzie's galley lay in wait in 
the shadows below Kyle-rhea. Presently as the tide 
rose a boat shot through. He let it pass, knowing it to be 
MacDonald's scout. Then they saw a great galley coming- 
through, and made straight for it, firing a cannon with 
which Lady Mackenzie had provided them. In the 
confusion MacDonald's galley ran on the Cailleach rock 
and every one of the sixty men on board, including Angus 
MacDonald himself, was slain or drowned. 

Mackenzie also took and destroyed Glengarry's strong- 
hold, Strome Castle. Then Allan Dubh MacDonald, 
Glengarry's cousin, made a raid on Mackenzie's lands of 
Brae Ross, and on a Sunday morning, while all the 
people were at divine service in the church of Cillechroist, 
set fire to the fane, and burnt men, women, and children 
to ashes, while his piper marched round the building, 
drowning their shrieks with a pibroch which ever since, 
under the name of " Cillechroist," has remained the 
family tune of Glengarry. As the MacDonalds returned 
home they were pursued by the Mackenzies, who came up 
with them, as morning broke, oh the southern ridge of 


"Glen Urquhart above Loch Ness. Like Bruce on a 
famous occasion, Allan Dubh divided his men again and 
again, but the Mackenzies were not thrown off his track, 
and presently he found himself alone with Mackenzie 
of Coul at his heels. In desperation he made for the 
fearful ravine of the Aultsigh Burn, and sprang across. 
Mackenzie followed him, but missed his footing, slipped, 
and hung suspended by a hazel branch. At that 
MacDonald turned, hewed off the branch, and sent his 
pursuer to death in the fearful chasm below. He himself 
then escaped by swimming across Loch Ness. The feud 
was ended by Mackenzie, in 1607, obtaining a crown 
charter of the MacDonald lands in Loch Alsh, Loch 
Carron, and elsewhere, for which he paid MacDonald ten 
thousand merks, while MacDonald agreed to hold his 
other lands off him as feudal superior. 

Another great addition to Mackenzie's territories 
occurred in the time of the same chief. Torquil MacLeod 
of the Lews had married as his second wife a daughter of 
John Mackenzie of Killin, but he disinherited her son 
Torquil Cononach, and adopted his eldest son by a third 
wife as his heir. Torquil Cononach was protected by 
Mackenzie, and recognised as the heir by the Government, 
and upon his half-brother raiding Mackenzie's territory 
the latter obtained letters of fire and sword against him. 
At the same time Torquil Cononach, his two sons being 
slain, made over his rights in the island to Mackenzie. 
Then came the attempt of the Fife adventurers, who 
obtained a grant of the Lews and tried to colonise and 
civilise it. After much disturbance they were ruined and 
driven out, and a later effort of the Earl of Huntly fared 
no better. Mackenzie then in virtue of Torquil Cononach's 
resignation, had his possession of the Lews confirmed by 
charter under the Great Seal, and, proceeding there with 
seven hundred men, brought the whole island to sub- 
mission. In recognition of this service to law and order 
James VI. in 1609 conferred a peerage on the chief, as 
Lord Mackenzie of Kintail. 

Only a small band of MacLeods kept up resistance in 
the Lews, and this was brought to an end in a dramatic 
way. On the death of Lord Mackenzie in 1611 he was 
succeeded by his son, Colin the Red. During his 
minority the estates were managed by Sir Roderick 
Mackenzie of Coigeach. The remnant of the MacLeods 
had held out on the impregnable rock of Berrissay for 
three years when the tutor of Kintail gathered all their 
wives, children, and relations, placed them on a tidal rock 


within sight of MacLeod's stronghold, and declared that 
he would leave them there to drown unless MacLeod 
instantly surrendered. This MacLeod did, and so the last 
obstacle to Mackenzie's possession was removed, and 
" The inhabitants adhered most loyally to the illustrious 
house, to which they owed such peace and prosperity as 
was never before experienced in the history of the island." 

This latest addition vastly increased the possessions of 
the Mackenzie chief, who was moreover a great favourite 
at the court of James VI., and in 1623 he was created 
Earl of Seaforth and Viscount Fortrose. The Earl lived 
in his castle of Chanonry in the Black Isle in great 
magnificence, making a state voyage with a fleet of vessels 
round his possessions every two years. He built the 
castle of Brahan and Chanonry while his tutor, Sir 
Roderick of Coigeach, ancestor of the Earl of Cromartie, 
built Castle Leod. 

His brother George, who succeeded as second Earl 
and fourteenth chief in 1633, played a very undecided and 
self-seeking part in the civil wars of Charles I., appearing 
now on the Covenant's side and now on the King's, as 
appeared most to his advantage. He fought against 
Montrose at Auldearn, but afterwards joined him. Upon 
this he was excommunicated and imprisoned by the 
Covenanters for a time, and he died while secretary to 
King Charles II. in Holland in 1651, upon news of the 
defeat of the young King at Worcester. 

His eldest son, Kenneth Mor, the third Earl, joined 
Charles II. at Stirling in his attempt for the crown, 
and after the defeat at Worcester had his estates forfeited 
by Cromwell and remained a close prisoner till the 
Restoration, when he was made Sheriff of Ross. He died 
in 1678. 

His eldest son, Kenneth Og, the fourth Earl, was made 
a member of the Privy Council and a companion of the 
Order of the Thistle by James VII. 

It was the time of the later Covenanters, and two of 
Seaforth's relatives had the chief direction of affairs in 
Scotland Sir George Mackenzie of Tarbat, afterwards 
first Earl of Cromartie, as Lord Justice-General, and Sir 
George Mackenzie of Rosehaugh as Lord Advocate. 
Both were, in private, amiable and learned men, but as 
officials they showed little mercy to rebels, as they 
considered the upholders of the Covenant. 

At the Revolution the Earl accompanied King James 

France, and after taking part in the siege of London- 
derry and the battle of the Boyne, was created a Marquess 


at the exiled court. But the fortunes of his house had 
reached their climax, and he died an exile. 

It was his only son, William Dubh, the fifth Earl, who 
took part in the Earl of Mar's rebellion in 1715. As a 
Jacobite he raised three thousand men, and fought at the 
battle of Sheriffmuir. For this his earldom and estates 
were forfeited. Four years later, on the breaking out of 
war with Spain, he sailed with the Spanish expedition, 
and landed in Kintail, but was wounded and defeated by 
General Wightman at Glenshiel. During his exile after- 
wards in France the Government completely failed to take 
possession of his estates. These were defended by his 
faithful factor, Donald Murchison, who had been a colonel 
at Sheriffmuir, and who now skilfully kept the passes and 
collected the rents, which he sent to his master abroad. 
At last, in 1726, on his clansmen giving up their arms 
to General Wade, they and Seaforth himself received a 
pardon. Sad to say, on the chief returning home he 
treated Murchison with rude ingratitude, and the factor 
died of a broken heart. 

The Seaforth title remained under attainder, and the 
Earl's son Kenneth, the eighteenth chief, who succeeded 
in 1740, remained known by his courtesy title as Lord 
Fortrose. The estates were purchased on his behalf for 
^26,000, and on the outbreak of the Jacobite rebellion 
of 1745 he remained loyal to the Government. His kins- 
man, the Earl of Cromartie, who had then probably more 
influence with the clan, took the side of the Prince with a 
considerable number of men, and in consequence lay under 
sentence of death for a time. It was one of the name, 
Roderick Mackenzie, son of a goldsmith in Edinburgh, 
who, on being cut down in Glen Morriston, called out, 
' You have slain your Prince ! " and from his likeness 
to Charles threw the scent off his royal master for a space, 
and so helped his escape. 

Lord Fortrose died in 1761. His only son Kenneth, 
known as " the little Lord," was created Earl of Seafortfi 
in the peerage of Ireland in 1771. Seven years later he 
raised a regiment of 1,130 men, but on his way with it 
to India died near St. Helena in 1781. 

The Earl was without a son, and in 1779, being heavily 
embarrassed, had sold the Seaforth estates to his cousin 
and heir male, Colonel Thomas F. Mackenzie Humberston. 
The father of the latter was a grandson of the third Earl, 
and had taken the name Humberston on inheriting the 
estates of his mother's family. Colonel Humberston had 
been chief for no more than two years when he was killed 



in an attack by the Mahrattas on the " Ranger " sloop of 

Wa He7as sucked by his brother Francis Humberston 
Mackenzie, as twenty-first chief. In the war with France 
this chief raised two battalions pf his clansmen which 
were known as the Ross-shire Buffs now the Seaforth 
Highlanders, and as a reward was made lord-lieutenant of 
Ross-shire, and a peer of the United Kingdom, with the 
title of Lord Seaforth. As Governor of Barbados he put 
an end to slavery in that island, and altogether, though 
very deaf and almost dumb, achieved a great reputation by 
his abilities. These drew forth from Sir Walter Scott 
an eloauent tribute in his Lament for the last of the 
Seafortns : 

In vain, the bright course of thy talents to wrong, 

Fate deadened thine ear and imprisoned thy tongue, 

For brighter o'er all her obstructions arose 

The glow of thy genius they could not oppose; 

And who in the land of the Saxon or Gael 

Could match with Mackenzie, High Chief of Kintail. 

It was in the person of this chief that the prediction of 

the Brahan Seer was fulfilled. This prediction, widely 

known throughout the Highlands for generations before 

it was accomplished, declared that when a deaf Mackenzie 

should be chief, and four other heads of families should 

have certain physical defects, the house of Seaforth should 

come to an end. So it happened. At this time Sir Hector 

Mackenzie of Gairloch was buck-toothed; Chisholm of 

Chisholm was hare-lipped ; Grant of Grant was half-witted ; 

and MacLeod of Raasay was a stammerer. So it came 

about. Lord Seaforth's four sons all died before him 

unmarried; from his own indulgence in high play he was 

forced to sell, first a part of Lochalsh, and afterwards 

Kintail and other estates, and when he died the remainder 

passed to his eldest daughter, Lady Hood, then a widow. 

This lady afterwards married Stewart of Glasserton, a 

cadet of the house of Galloway, himself distinguished as 

a member of parliament, governor of Ceylon, and lord 

High Commissioner to the Ionian Islands. He took the 

name of Mackenzie, and at his lady's death at Brahan 

Castle in 1862, she was succeeded in possession of 

the estates by her eldest son Keith William Stewart 

Mackenzie, of Seaforth. 

Meanwhile the chiefship of the clan passed to James 
Fowler Mackenzie of Allangrange, as lineal representative 
of Simon Mackenzie of Lochshin, seventh son of Kenneth, 


first Lord Mackenzie. It is interesting to note that the 
eldest son of Simon Mackenzie was Sir George Mackenzie 
of Rosehaugh, Lord Advocate, author of the famous 
Institutes of Scots Law, founder of the Advocate's Library, 
and well known as " the Bluidy Mackenzie " of Covenan- 
ting folklore. Sir George's sons, however, all died without 
male heirs. Through his daughter Agnes, who married 
the Earl of Bute, his estates passed to that family, and 
the succession was carried on by his younger brother, 
Simon. Since the death of Allangrange some years ago 
the title to the chief ship has been uncertain. It probably 
remains with a descendant of the Hon. Simon Mackenzie 
of Lochshin by his second wife, until recently Mackenzie 
of Dundonnell ; but several of the sons of this family are 
untraced. Besides this line there are many cadet branches 
of the ancient house, and it remains for one of those 
interested to trace out the actual chiefship. In several 
instances, such as those of the houses of Gairloch and of 
Tarbat, the latter of whom became Earls of Cromartie, the 
history is only less romantic than that of the chiefs 
themselves; but for these the reader must be referred 
to the work already quoted, The History of the Clan 
Mackenzie, by Alexander Mackenzie, published in 
Inverness in 1879. 


Kenneth Kennethson 

MacBeolain MacConnach 

Maclver Maclvor 

MacKerlich MacMurchie 

MacVinish MacVanish 

Murchison Murchie 


BADGE : Giuthas (pinus sylvestris) pine. 
SLOGAN : Cuimhnich has Alpin. 

A POETICAL derivation of the name Mackinnon has been 
suggested from Maclonmhuinn, the Son of Love, and the 
monkish writers of feudal centuries Latinised it as 
Findanus. Several Finans or Finons are to be found in 
the list of Culdee saints, and one of the Pictish kings, 
of the year 645 was named Loceni MacFhinnon or 
Mac'innon. But universal tradition attributes the name 
and the origin of the clan to Fingon, grandson of Gregor, 
son of Alpin, King of Scots, beheaded by the Picts on 
Dundee Law in the year 834. This tradition is supported 
by the fact that the clan badge is the same as that of other 
clans claiming descent from Gregor and Alpin, and also 
by two bonds of manrent executed in the seventeenth 
century. In one of these, of the year 1606, Lauchlan 
Mackinnon of Strathardle and Finlay Macnab of Bowain 
having met at Uir in Breadalbane, declared that " being 
come of ane house, and being of ane surname and 
lineage," bound themselves to support each other in all 
time coming. In the other, at Kilmory in 1671, James 
MacGregor of that ilk and Lauchlan MacFingon of 
Strathardle, " condescending that they are descended 
lawfullie frae twa brether of auld descent," obliged 
themselves, their successors, kin, and friends to support 
each other against all men, the King only excepted. 

The tradition runs that the original Fingon brought 
his following from the mainland to the island of Mull, and 
that he also owned Mackinnon 's or Findanus' Castle in 
Skye. The early chiefs also owned lands in the island of 
Arran. Gribun, in Mull, appears to have been their 
original seat, and their property in this island was of 
considerable extent. They had lands as well in the island 
of Tiree. Strathardle in Skye, which was afterwards to 
become their chief seat, they acquired through a custom 
then very prevalent among the Highland and Island 
chiefs. A Mackinnon heir had been sent to Skye to be 
" fostered " or brought up in the house of Gillies, the 



Facing page 328. 


owner of that extensive property. Gillies had an only 
son and a nephew, and on one occasion these two young 
men, while hunting on the island of Pabay, quarrelled and 
came to blows. In the conflict both of them were slain. 
Being then without heirs, Gillies, having become attached 
to young Mackinnon, left him the whole of his estate. 
To this Mackinnon by excambion added the islands of 
Pabay and Scalpa. Apparently at an early date the clan 
was powerful enough to be a menace to the Macdougall 
Lords of Lorn. According to Gregory, " The first 
authentic notice of this ancient tribe is to be found in an 
indenture between the Lord of the Isles and the Lord of 
Lorn. The latter stipulates, in surrendering the Island of 
Mull and other lands to the Lord of the Isles, that the 
keeping of the castle of Kerneburg, in the Treshnish Isles, 
is not to be given to any of the race of Clan Finnon." 
Under the Lords of the Isles, the Mackinnons were 
hereditary custodians of the standards of weights and 

The first check which the fortunes of the family 
received was brought about by an act of the Mackinnon 
chief himself. On the death in 1380 of John, Lord of the 
Isles, Mackinnon took arms in an endeavour to secure 
the succession for his younger son, Ian Mor. In this 
attempt Mackinnon was joined by the Macleans and 
Macleods, but their united forces proved unsuccessful 
against the elder son, Donald, who vindicated his right 
to the Lordship of the Isles. Iain Mor, afterwards known 
as " the Tanister," was driven into exile in Ireland, but 
was afterwards pardoned and founded the Clan Iain 
Mhor, or Clan Donald South, of Islay and Kintyre. 
Mackinnon was less happy. As leader of the formidable 
insurrection he was put to death. 

Meanwhile the Clan Maclean had increased in power 
in the island of Mull, and almost inevitably came into 
rivalry and collision with the Mackinnons. Lachlan 
Lubanach, first of the Macleans of Duart, had become 
Steward to the Lord of the Isles, had married his 
daughter Mary, and had received charters of Duart, 
Brolas, and other lands, and apparently there was bad 
blood between him, his brother, Hector Reaganach, and 
Mackinnon. The climax came on a day in the year 1400, 
when the Lord of the Isles, who had been hunting in Mull, 
set out to return to Ardtornish Castle, his stronghold on 
the opposite shore of the Sound of Mull. As Mackinnon 
was stepping into his galley to follow, Lachlan and Hector 
Maclean fell upon him and slew him. They then disarmed 


his men, and hastening after the Lord of the Isles, seized his 
galley and forced him to grant them an indemnity for the 

Of the feud with the Macleans which followed many 
incidents are related. On one occasion the young Chief 
of the Mackinnons was forced to seek refuge in Ireland. 
There the Earl of Antrim gave him forty young gentlemen 
to support him. The party landed at Camus na fola, the 
Bloody Bay a couple of miles north-west of Tobermory in 
Mull, and to discover the whereabouts of his enemies 
Mackinnon paid a visit to an old woman of his clan who 
lived in a certain lonely glen. He told her he had forty 
men to carry out an attack. She replied, " Do as I tell 
you, and you will have possession of your lands by 
sunrise." Following her counsel he took to the woods 
with his party, where each man cut and stripped a caber. 
Surrounding Ledaig House, where Duart and Lochbuie 
lay asleep, they planted their cabers in the ground, the 
Chief placing his before the door with his naked sword 
hung on it. In the morning the astonished Macleans, 
realising who had been their visitor, and that he could 
easily have taken their lives if he had wished, sent for 
Mackinnon and restored his lands. 

On another occasion the Mackinnon chief, then a mere 
lad, was entrusted to the care of Maclean of Brolas, who 
was his godfather, who took charge of his titles and 
charters. By and by, hearing that Maclean had gone to 
Edinburgh to settle his affairs, and had returned, 
Mackinnon went to see him. At Brolas, however, he 
found at the door-side a burning stick, the sign that there 
was sickness in the house and that no visitors were being 
admitted. On returning next day he found that Maclean 
was dead, and when he asked the new laird for his papers 
the latter said he knew nothing about them, but was quite 
sure that, if his father had them it was because Mackinnon 
owed him money, and that, if ever he found them he 
should keep papers and lands together. The papers were 
never returned. 

An appeal to arms was not more fortunate. In a 
desperate battle between the two clans at Doire Shuaig, 
the day was going for the Mackinnons when one of them, 
who had married a Maclean, deserted with all his 
followers. Mackinnon fled to a cavern fastness at 
unban, but presently Maclean discovered it and proceeded 
to smoke the place. Some of the Mackinnons, however, 
managed to get a boat in time, rowed him to Staffa, and 
hid him in the great cavern there which is still known 


from this fact as Mackinnon's Cave, till he could escape to 
Skye. In this way the Mackinnons lost their lands of 
Gribun and Inchkenneth, as well as Mishnish, their later 
possession near Tobermory. 

In those stormy and eventful centuries several of 
the race became Abbots of lona. The last of them 
was John, who, with his father, Lachlan, raised the 
sculptured monument known as Mackinnon's Cross, over 
the graves of his family in the Reilig Oran, and whose 
effigy is still to be seen on an altar tomb in the chancel of 
the cathedral. He died in the year 1500. 

Thenceforth the seat of the Mackinnon chiefs was at 
Strathardle in Skye. The twenty-sixth of the line, Sir 
Lachlan, was a man of much importance in the islands, 
and in 1628, the year before his death, his estate was 
erected into a barony by Charles I. 

A few years later, in 1639, the Covenanting Govern- 
ment under Argyll considered it desirable to check the 
pretensions of the Island chiefs. Accordingly in a court 
held at lona, it was enacted that Mackinnon and others 
of his rank should sustain and entertain no more than three 
gentlemen in their retinue. None must carry hagbuts or 
pistols, and only the chiefs and their immediate house- 
holds were permitted to wear swords and armour. A 
chief was to keep no more than one birlinn or galley of 
eighteen oars ; no bards or seannachies were to be retained, 
and gentlemen of Mackinnon's rank were to use no more 
than one tun of wine in a year. 

In the Civil Wars of Charles I., the Mackinnons 
were staunchly loyal. Joining the gallant Marquess of 
Montrose in 1645, they played a brilliant part at the 
desperate battles of Auldearn and Inverlochy, in the latter 
of which Argyll's force was cut to pieces with a loss of 
fifteen hundred men. 

The chief of that time, Lachlan Mor Mackinnon, had 
been brought up at Inveraray by Argyll, but had married 
a daughter of Maclean of Duart. In 1649 he was induced 
by that chief to join in an attack with two hundred 
followers on the lands of his former guardian. The 
enterprise proved disastrous. Recognising the assailants 
by the badge in their bonnets, the Campbells attacked 
furiously, giving no quarter, and the Mackinnons were cut 
to pieces. 

Two years later, the young King, Charles II., having 
landed in Scotland, Mackinnon raised a battalion from 
his lands in Skye, and marched to Worcester. There he 
is said to have saved the King's life and to have been 


knighted on the field in consequence, but the honour was 
not confirmed at the Restoration. 

In the Jacobite rising of 1715 the Mackinnons joined 
the Earl of Mar, and took part at the battle of Sheriffmuir, 
and in 1745-6 they marched to Derby with Prince Charles 
Edward, and helped to win the battle of Falkirk. Half of 
them fell at Culloden. The other half on the same 
day completely broke up Lord Loudoun's force in Suther- 

In the romantic adventures of the Prince which 
followed, Mackinnon bore an outstanding part. It was 
on 2nd July that Charles took refuge with them in Skye. 
That night they rowed him over to the mainland, and 
after many adventures handed him safely to Angus 
Macdonald at Borrodale. Next day Mackinnon was 
taken prisoner, and after a year's confinement in Tilbury 
Fort, was tried for his life. He had been attainted, and 
was excepted from the Act of Indemnity passed in 1747, 
but was pardoned on account of his years and of the fact 
that he had acted rather from a spirit of chivalry than of 
rebellion. As he was leaving the court the Attorney- 
General asked him, " If King George were in your power, 
as you have been in his, what would you do? " To which 
Mackinnon replied, " I would do to him, as he has this 
day done to me; I would send him back to his own 

As a result of these events the Mackinnons had to 
part with Strathardle in 1765. Since then they have 
been landless in the ancient country of their clan, and 
the last Chief of the senior line died unmarried and in 
reduced circumstances in 1808. He was the great- 
grandson of John, elder son of Lachlan Mor, who fought 
for Charles II. at the battle of Worcester. On that event 
the chiefship passed to the representative of Lachlan 
Mor's second son Donald. At Worcester this Donald 
was taken prisoner. On his release he went to Antigua 
in the West Indies, where, by a common corruption he 
was called Daniel, and it was his great-great-grandson, 
William Alexander Mackinnon, who became thirty-third 
3hief in 1808. He sat in Parliament almost uninter- 
ruptedly from 1819 till 1865. His representative, the 
present Chief, who resides at Gollanfield near Inverness, 
> an enthusiast for all things Highland. His wife is the 
daughter of the late Lord Hood of Avalon 
and a niece of Sir Fitzroy Donald Maclean, Bart., of Duart ; 
rns sons the elder at the beginning of the war of 
1914 held a commission in the ist Battalion Cameron 


Highlanders, and the second was a sub-lieutenant in the 
Royal Navy. 

In the tale of members of the clan who have 
distinguished themselves in the service of their country 
in recent times, must be included Major-General Henry 
Mackinnon, who fell leading his brigade at Ciudad 
Rodrigo in 1812, and Colonel Daniel Mackinnon who 
commanded the Coldstream Guards at Waterloo and held 
the farm of Hougomont till he fell severely wounded. 
He afterwards wrote the History of the Coldstream 
Guards. Others have been General George Henry 
Mackinnon of the Grenadiers, who fought in the Kaffir 
War of 1846-7, and became Chief Commissioner of British 
Kaffraria; Colonel Lionel Mackinnon of the Coldstreams, 
killed at Inkerman ; and Colonel William Alexander 
Mackinnon, who distinguished himself in the Indian 
Mutiny, while in another field was Sir William Mac- 
kinnon, Bart., founder of the British India Steam 
Navigation Company. 


Love MacKinney 

MacKinning Mackinven 



BADGE : Lus nam braoileag (vaccineum vitis idsea) Red whortle- 

SLOGAN : Loch Moidh ! 
PIBROCH : Cu'a' Mhic an Tosaich. 

Two chief authorities support different versions of the 
origin of this famous clan. Skene in his Highlanders of 
Scotland and in his later Celtic Scotland, founding on a 
manuscript of 1467, takes the clan to be a branch of the 
original Clan Chattan, descended from Ferchar fada, son 
of Fearadach, of the tribe of Lome, King of Dalriada, 
who died in the year 697. The historian of the clan, on 
the other hand, Mr. A. M. Mackintosh, founding on the 
history of the family written about 1679 by Lachlan 
Mackintosh of Kinrara, brother of the eighteenth chief, 
favours the statement that the clan is descended from 
Shaw, second son of Duncan, third Earl of Fife, which 
Shaw is stated to have proceeded with King Malcolm IV. 
to suppress a rebellion of the men of Moray in 1163, and, 
as a reward for his services, to have been made keeper of 
the Royal Castle of Inverness and possessor of the lands 
of Petty and Breachley, in the north-east corner of Inver- 
ness-shire, with the forest of Strathdearne on the upper 
Findhorn. These, in any case, are the districts found 
in occupation of the family in the fifteenth century, when 
authentic records become available. The early chiefs are 
said to have resided in Inverness Castle, and, possibly as a 
result, the connection of the family with that town has 
always been most friendly. 

Shaw's youngest son, Duncan, was killed at Tordhean 
in 1190, in leading an attack upon a raiding party of Isles- 
men under Donald Baan, who had ravaged the country 
almost to the castle walls. Shaw, the first chief, died in 
1179. His eldest son, Shaw, was appointed Toisach, or 
factor, for the Crown in his district, and died in 1210. 
His eldest son, Ferquhard, appeared in an agreement 
between the Chapter of Moray and Alexander de Stry- 
veline in 1234 as " Seneschalle de Badenach." His 
nephew and successor, Shaw, acquired the lands of Meikle 
Geddes and the lands and castle of Rait on the Nairn. 
He also obtained from the Bishop of Moray a lease of the 
lands of Rothiemurcus, which was afterwards converted 



Facing page 331. 


into a feu in 1464. He married the daughter of the Thane 
of Cawdor, and while he lived at Rothiemurcus is said to 
have led the people of Badenoch in Alexander III.'s 
expedition against the Norwegians. There is a tradition 
that, having slain a man, he fled to the court of Angus 
Og of Islay, and as the result of a love affair with Mora, 
daughter of that chief, had to flee to Ireland. Subse- 
quently, however, he returned, married Mora, and was 
reconciled to his father-in-law. In his time a certain Gille- 
bride took service under Ferquhard. From him are 
descended the MacGillivrays of later days, who have 
always been strenuous supporters of the Mackintosh 
honour and power. In keeping with his stormy life, 
shortly after his marriage, Ferquhard was slain in an 
island brawl, and his two children, Angus and a daughter, 
were brought up by their uncle Alexander, their mother's 
eldest brother. 

During the minority of Angus the family fortunes 
suffered from the aggressions of the Comyns. In 1230 
Walter Corny n, son of the Justiciar of Scotland, had 
obtained the Lordship of Badenoch, and he and his 
descendants seem to have thought the presence of the 
Mackintoshes in the district a menace to their interests. 
During the boyhood of Angus they seized his lands of 
Rait and Meikle Geddes, as well as the castle of Inver- 
ness, all of which possessions remained alienated 
from Clan Mackintosh for something like a hundred 

Angus took for his wife in 1291 Eva, only daughter of 
the chief of Clan Chattan, a race regarding whose origin 
there has been much discussion. According to tradition 
he received along with her the lands of Glenlui and Loch- 
arkaig in Lochaber, as well as the chiefship of Clan 
Chattan. According to another tradition, however, Eva 
had a cousin once removed, Kenneth, descended, like her, 
from Muireach, parson of Kingussie, from whom he and 
his descendants took the name of Macpherson or " Son 
of the Parson." It is through this Kenneth as heir-male 
that the Macpherson chiefs have claimed to be the chiefs 
of Clan Chattan. 

Angus, sixth chief of the Mackintoshes, was a 
supporter of King Robert the Bruce. He is said to have 
been one of the chief leaders under Randolph, Earl of 
Moray, at the battle of Bannockburn, and as a reward to 
have received the lands of Benchar in Badenoch. Also, 
as a consequence of the fall of the Comyns, he is under- 
stood to have come again into possession of the lands of 


Rait and Meikle Geddes, as well as the keepership of the 
Castle of Inverness. From younger sons of Angus were 
descended the Mackintoshes or Shaws of Rothiemurcus, 
the Mackintoshes of Dalmunzie, and the Mackintoshes in 
Mar. He himself died in 1345. 

His son William, the seventh chief, seems to have been 
almost immediately embroiled in a great feud with the 
Camerons, who were in actual occupation of the lands of 
Locharkaig. Mackintosh endeavoured to secure his 
possession of these old Clan Chattan lands by obtaining 
a charter from his relative John of Isla, afterwards Lord 
of the Isles, who had been made Lord of Lochaber by 
Edward Baliol in 1335, and afterwards by a charter from 
David II. in 1359; but the Camerons continued to hold 
the lands, and all that Mackintosh ever really possessed 
of them was the grave in which he was buried in 1368, on 
the top of the island of Torchionan in Locharkaig, where 
it is said he had wistfully spent Christmas for several 
years. From a natural son of this chief were descended 
the Mackintoshes or MacCombies of Glenshee and 

Lachlan, William's son by his first wife, Florence, 
daughter of the Thane of Cawdor, was the chief at the time 
of the clan's most strenuous conflicts with the Camerons. 
In 1370 or 1386, four hundred of the Camerons raided 
Badenoch. As they returned with their booty they were 
overtaken at Invernahaven by a superior body under 
the Mackintosh chief. A dispute, however, arose in the 
ranks of Clan Chattan, the Macphersons claiming the 
post of honour on the right wing, as representatives of 
the old Clan Chattan chiefs, while Davidson of Inverna- 
haven claimed it as the oldest Cadet. Mackintosh decided 
in favour of Davidson ; the Macphersons in consequence 
withdrew from the field, and as a result the Mackintoshes 
and Davidsons were all but annihilated. Tradition runs 
that in these straits Mackintosh sent a minstrel to the 
Macpherson camp, who in a song taunted the Macpher- 
sons with cowardice. At this, Macpherson called his men 
to arms, and, attacking the Camerons, defeated and put 
them to flight. 

Closely connected with this event appears to have been 
the famous clan battle before King Robert III. on the 
North Inch at Perth in 1396. According to some 
authorities this battle was between Clan Davidson and 
Clan Macpherson, to settle the brawls brought about by 
their rival claims to precedency. The weight of evidence, 
however, appears to favour the belief that the battle was 


between Clan Chattan and Clan Cameron. The incident 
is well known, and is recorded in most of the Scottish 
histories of the following 1 and later centuries. It has also 
been made famous as an outstanding episode in Sir Walter 
Scott's romance The Fair Maid of Perth. On a Monday 
morning near the end of September, thirty champions 
from each clan faced each other within barriers on the 
North Inch. Robert III. was there with his queen and 
court, while round the barriers thronged a vast crowd of 
the common people from near and far. Before the battle 
began it was discovered that Clan Chattan was one man 
short, and it seemed as if the fight could not take place; 
but on the chief calling for a substitute, and offering a 
reward, there sprang into the lists a certain Gow Chrom, 
or bandy-legged smith of Perth, known as Hal o' the 
Wynd. The battle then began, and was fought with 
terrific fury till on one side only one man survived, who, 
seeing the day was lost, sprang into the Tay and escaped. 
On the victorious side there were eleven survivors, among 
whom Hal o' the Wynd was the only unwounded man. 
It is said he accompanied Clan Chattan back to the High- 
lands, and that his race is represented by the Gows or 
Smiths, who have been ranked as a sept of Clan Chattan 
in more recent times. 

For a generation after this combat the feud between 
the Mackintoshes and the Camerons seems to have 
remained in abeyance. In 1430, however, it broke out 
again, and raged intermittently till well on in the seven- 
teenth century. 

Lachlan, the eighth chief, died in 1407. His wife was 
Agnes, daughter of Hugh Fraser of Lovat, and their son 
Ferquhard held the chief ship for only two years. He 
appears to have been slothful and unwarlike, and was 
induced to resign his birthright to his uncle Malcolm, 
reserving to himself only Kyllachy and Corrivory in 
Strathdearn, where his descendants remained for a couple 
of centuries. 

Malcolm, the uncle who in this way succeeded as tenth 
chief, was a son of the seventh chief, William, by his 
second wife, daughter of Macleod of the Lewis. He was 
a short, thickset man, and from these characteristics was 
known as Malcolm Beg. Two years after his succession, 
Donald of the Isles, in prosecution of his claim to the 
Earldom of Ross, invaded the north of Scotland. Of the 
mainland chiefs who joined his army Mackintosh and 
Maclean were the most important, and at the great battle 
of Harlaw, north of Aberdeen, where the Highland army 


was met and defeated by the Earl of Mar and the chivalry 
of Angus and Mearns, both of these chiefs greatly dis- 
tinguished themselves. Maclean fell in the battle, as also 
did many of the Mackintoshes, including James, laird of 
Rothiemurcus, son of Shaw, who was leader of Clan 
Chattan in the lists at Perth; but the Mackintosh chief 
himself appears to have escaped, and there is a tradition 
that at a later day he conducted James I. over the field of 
battle. There is also a tradition that, for yielding the 
honour of the right wing to the Maclean chief in the attack, 
Mackintosh was granted by Donald of the Isles certain 
rights in the lands of Glengarry. 

It was in the time of this chief that the Mackintoshes 
finished their feud with the Comyns. During the lawless 
times under Murdoch, Duke of Albany, Alexander Comyn 
is said to have seized and hanged certain young men of 
the Mackintoshes on a hillock near the castle of Rait. 
Mackintosh replied by surprising and slaying a number 
of the Comyns in the castle of Nairn. Next the Comyns 
invaded the Mackintosh country, besieged the chief and 
his followers in their castle in Loch Moy, and proceeded 
to raise the waters of the loch by means of a dam, in order 
to drown out the garrison. One of the latter, however, in 
the night-time managed to break the dam, when the waters 
rushed out, and swept away a large part of Corny n's 
besieging force encamped in the hollow below. Thus 
foiled, the Comyns planned a more crafty revenge. Pre- 
tending a desire for peace, they invited the chief men 
of the Mackintoshes to a feast at Rait Castle. The tradition 
is that the Comyn chief made each of his followers swear 
secrecy as to his design. It happened, however, that 
his own daughter had a Mackintosh lover, and she took 
the opportunity to tell the plot to a certain grey stone, 
when she knew her lover was waiting for her on the other 
side of it. As a result the Mackintoshes came to the 
feast, where each one found himself seated with a Comyn 
on his right hand. All went well till the moment for 
the murderous attack by the Comyns was all but reached, 
when Mackintosh suddenly took the initiative, and gave 
his own signal, whereupon each Mackintosh at the board 
drew his dirk and stabbed the Comyn next him to the 
heart. The Comyn chief, it is said, escaped from the table, 
and, guessing that the secret had been revealed by his 
daughter, rushed, weapon in hand, to her apartment. The 
girl sought escape by the window, but, as she hung from 
the sill, her father appeared above, and with a sweep of 
his sword severed her hands, whereupon she fell into the 


arms of her Mackintosh lover below. Whatever were the 
details of the final overthrow of the Comyns, the Mackin- 
tosh chief in 1442 established his right to the lands of 
which his family had so long- been deprived, and secured 
a charter of them from Alexander de Seton, Lord of 
Gordon. The Mackintosh chief was also, as already 
mentioned, restored to his position as constable of the 
castle of Inverness by James I. in 1428. He defended the 
castle in the following year against Alexander, Lord of 
the Isles, when the latter burned Inverness, and, when the 
king pursued and defeated the Island Lord in consequence 
in Lochaber, the issue is said to have been largely 
brought about by the Mackintoshes and Camerons taking 
part on the side of the king against their former ally. 

In 1431 the tables were turned. The royal army under 
the Earls of Mar and Caithness was defeated at Inverlochy 
by Donald Balloch, a cousin of Alexander of the Isles, 
who forthwith proceeded to devastate the lands of Clan 
Chattan and Clan Cameron for their desertion of him. 
For his loyalty Mackintosh obtained from the king certain 
lands in Glen Roy and Glen Spean. 

Though the Mackintoshes and the Camerons fought on 
the same side in this battle they were not really friends. 
There is a tradition that in the following year the Camerons 
made a raid upon Strathdearn, and that the Mackintoshes 
fought and all but exterminated a sept of them in a church 
on Palm Sunday. 

Afterwards, when the Lord of the Isles was made 
Justiciar of the North of Scotland, he set the Mackintoshes 
against the Camerons, and though the latter were victorious 
in a conflict at Craigcailleach in 1441, when one of Mackin- 
tosh's sons was slain, in the end Donald Dhu, the Cameron 
chief, was forced to flee to Ireland, and his lands were 
forfeited for a time. 

Malcolm Beg lived to an extreme old age. In his time 
a number of septs came into the clan, including the Mac- 
Queens, Clan Andrish, and Clan Chlearich, while his 
second son Alan was the progenitor of the Kyllachy 
branch of the clan. One of the last events of his life was 
a brush with the Munroes. On returning from a raid in 
Perthshire, the latter were driving their booty through the 
Mackintosh country, when they were stopped by the 
demand of Malcolm, a grandson of the chief, that they 
should deliver up not only the usual share in name of toll, 
but the whole of their booty. Munro thereupon refused 
to pay anything, but at Clachnaharry, beyond the River 
Ness, he was overtaken, and a bloody battle took place in 


which young Mackintosh was slain, and Munro, tutor of 
Fowlis, was left for dead on the field. 

Malcolm Beg's eldest son Duncan, the eleventh chief, 
who succeeded in 1464, was in favour with King 
James IV., and devoted himself largely to securing his 
family possessions by means of charters from the Crown 
and other superiors. But though Duncan, the chief, was 
a peace-lover, his son Ferquhard was not. He joined 
Alexander of Lochalsh, nephew of John of the Isles, in his 
attempt to regain the earldom of Ross, and in the course 
of the attempt stormed the castle of Inverness, obtaining 
possession by means of a " sow " and by sapping. After 
ravaging the Black Isle, they proceeded to the Mac- 
Kenzies' country, where they were surprised by the chief, 
and utterly routed at the battle of Blair-na-Park, with the 
result that the Lord of the Isles was finally forfeited and 
Ferquhard Mackintosh imprisoned in Edinburgh Castle 
and in the castle of Dunbar till after the battle of Flodden. 

After his father's death in 1496, Ferquhard in prison 
had his affairs managed by his cousin William, who ably 
defended the Mackintosh lands against raids of the 
Camerons, Macgregors, and Macdonalds of Glencoe, and 
who was finally infefted in the Mackintosh lands and 
chiefship, and succeeded to them on the death of Ferqu- 
hard without male issue. Meanwhile, during his long 
imprisonment, Ferquhard proved his ability in another 
way by compiling a history of his clan. When he was 
set free after Flodden, in 1513, he was received on the 
haugh at Inverness by eighteen hundred of his clansmen, 
but he died in the following year. 

The marriage of William, who succeeded as thirteenth 
chief in 1514, was characteristic of the time. In 1475 
the Earl of Huntly had granted his father the marriage 
of the sisters MacNaughton or MacNiven, co-heiresses of 
Dunachton, on condition of receiving a bond of manrent. 
Lachlan's son William was accordingly married to the 
elder heiress, with the result that for the next hundred 
years the Mackintosh chiefs were styled " of Dunachton." 

William, however, had no children, and his brother 
Lachlan was unmarried. Accordingly, his cousin, John 
Ruaidh, who was next heir, proceeded to hasten his 
fortune. Learning that the chief lay sick at Inverness, he 
entered the house and murdered him in May, 1515. The 
assassins, however, were pursued through the north by 
another cousin, Dougal Mhor, and his son Ferquhard, and 
finally overtaken and executed in Glen ness. 

William's brother, Lachlan, who succeeded as four- 


teenth chief, had a similar fate. First Dougal Mhor set 
up a claim to the chiefship, having seized the castle of 
Inverness, but he was slain with his two sons when the 
castle was recaptured for the king. Next a natural son of 
the chief's elder half-brother took to evil courses, and 
murdered the chief while hunting on the Findhorn. 

Lachlan Mackintosh had been married to the daughter 
of Sir Alexander Gordon of Lochinvar and Jean, sister 
of the first Earl of Cassillis, who was mother also of 
James IV. 's natural son, the Earl of Moray; and on the 
death of Lochinvar at Flodden, the son of Mackintosh 
quartered the Lochinvar arms with his own. This son, 
William, was an infant when he succeeded to the chief- 
ship, and during his minority Hector, a natural son of 
Ferquhard, twelfth chief, by a Dunbar lady, was chosen 
as captain by the clan. Fearful for the safety of the infant 
chief, his next-of-kin, the Earl of Moray removed him 
with his mother to his own house, where he caused the 
latter to marry Ogilvie of Cardell. In reply, Hector 
Mackintosh raided the lands belonging to Moray and the 
Ogilvies, and slew twenty-four of the latter, as a result of 
which his brother William and others were hanged by 
Moray at Forres, and he himself, having fled to the south, 
was assassinated by a monk of St. Andrews. 

It was now Queen Mary's time, and in the person of 
William, the young fifteenth chief, the most famous 
tragedy in the history of the Mackintosh family was to 
take place. The young chief appears to have been well 
educated, and distinguished by his spirit and enlighten- 
ment. On the death of his early friend the Earl of Moray, 
his most powerful neighbour became George, fourth Earl 
of Huntly. This nobleman at first acted as his very good 
friend, and on the other hand was supported by Mackin- 
tosh in some of his chief undertakings, notably the 
expedition to replace Ranald Gallda in possession of his 
father's chiefship in Moidart, which had been seized by 
the notorious John Muydertach the expedition which led 
to the battle of Kinlochlochie, in which the Macdonalds 
and the Frasers all but exterminated each other. But on 
Huntly becoming feudal superior of most of the Clan 
Chattan lands, trouble appears to have sprung up between 
him and his vassal. First, the earl deprived Mackintosh 
of his office of Deputy Lieutenant, as a consequence of the 
latter's refusal to sign a bond of manrent. Then Lachlan 
Mackintosh, son of the murderer of the chief's father, 
though the chief had bestowed many favours upon him, 
brought an accusation against his chief of conspiring to 
YQL. II, ? 


take Huntly's life. Upon this excuse the earl seized 
Mackintosh, carried him to Aberdeen, and in a court 
packed with his own supporters, had him condemned to 
death. The sentence would have been carried out on the 
spot had not Thomas Menzies, the Provost, called out his 
burghers to prevent the deed. Huntly, however, carried 
his prisoner to his stronghold of Strathbogie, where he 
left him to his lady to deal with, while he himself pro- 
ceeded to France with the Queen Dowager, Mary of Guise. 
Mackintosh was accordingly beheaded on 23rd August, 


Sir Walter Scott, following tradition, invests the 
incident with his usual romance. Mackintosh, he says, 
had excited the Earl's wrath by burning his castle of 
Auchendoun, and afterwards, finding his clan in danger 
of extermination through the Earl's resentment, devised a 
plan of obtaining forgiveness. Choosing a time when the 
Earl was absent, he betook himself to the Castle of 
Strathbogie, and, asking for Lady Huntly, begged her to 
procure him forgiveness. The lady, Scott proceeds, 
declared that Mackintosh had offended Huntly so deeply 
that the latter had sworn to make no pause till he had 
brought the chief's head to the block. Mackintosh replied 
that he would stoop even to this to save his father's house, 
and, as the interview took place in the kitchen of the castle, 
he knelt down before the block on which the animals for 
the use of the garrison were broken up, and laid his neck 
upon it. He no doubt thought to move the lady's pity by 
this show of submission, but instead she made a sign to 
the cook, who stepped forward with his cleaver, and at 
one stroke severed Mackintosh's head from his body. 

The historian of Clan Mackintosh points out the flaw 
in this story, the burning of Auchendoun not having taken 
place till forty-three years later, at the hands of William, 
a grandson of the same name. 

It is interesting to note how Mackintosh was indirectly 
avenged. Four years later Huntly was sent by the Queen 
Regent to repress John Muydertach and Clan Ranald. 
Chief among the Highland vassals upon whom he must 
rely were Clan Chattan ; but, knowing the feelings 1 
cherished by the clansmen against himself, he thought 
better of the enterprise and abandoned it ; upon which the 
Queen, greatly displeased, deprived him of the Earldom 
of Moray and Lordship of Abernethy, and condemned 
him to five years' banishment, which was ultimately com- 
muted to a fine of .5,000. 

But Huntly was to be still further punished for Ms 


deed. Lachlan Mor, the son of the murdered chief, 
finished his education in Edinburgh, and was a member 
of Queen Mary's suite, when in 1562 she proceeded to the 
north to make her half-brother Earl of Moray. This pro- 
ceeding was highly resented by Huntly, who regarded the 
earldom as his own, and who called out his vassals to resist 
the infeftment. When Mary reached Inverness Castle she 
was refused admittance by Alexander Gordon, who held 
it for Huntly. At the same time she learned that the 
Gordons were approaching in force. Here was the oppor- 
tunity of the young Mackintosh chief. Raising his 
vassals in the neighbourhood, he undertook the Queen's 
protection till other forces arrived, when the castle was 
taken and its captain hanged over the wall. Mackintosh 
also managed to intercept his clansmen in Badenoch on 
their way to join the army of Huntly, their feudal 
superior, and, deprived of their help, the Gordons retired 
upon Deeside. Here, on 28th October, Huntly was 
defeated by Mary's forces at the battle of Corrichie, and 
died of an apoplectic stroke. It is believed that the young 
chief, Lachlan Mor, afterwards fought on Mary's behalf 
at Langside. 

In the faction troubles of the north in the following 
years Mackintosh played a conspicuous part, and at the 
battle of Glenlivet in 1594, commanding, along with 
Maclean, the Earl of Argyll's right wing, he almost 
succeeded in cutting off the Earl of Errol and his men. 

Lachlan Mor died in 1606. Of his seven sons the 
eldest, Angus, married Jean, daughter of the fifth Earl of 
Argyll, and their son, another Lachlan, becoming a gentle- 
man of the bedchamber to the prince, afterwards Charles I., 
received the honour of knighthood in 1617, and is said 
to have been promised the earldom of Orkney, but died 
suddenly in his twenty-ninth year. His second brother, 
William, was ancestor of the Borlum branch of the clan, 
and his second son, Lachlan of Kinrara, was writer of 
the MS. account of the family upon which the earlier part 
of the modern history of the clan is based. 

In the civil wars of Charles I. the Mackintoshes took 
no part as a clan, on account of the feeble health of 
William, the eighteenth chief, though large numbers of 
Mackintoshes, Macphersons, and Farquharsons fought for 
the king under Huntly and Montrose, while the chief him- 
self was made Lieutenant of Moray and Governor of 
Inverlochy Castle in the king's interest. 

At the same time, the Macphersons, who, through 
Huntly's influence, had been gradually, during the last 


fifty years, separating themselves from the Mackintoshes, 
first took an independent position in the wars of Montrose 
under their chief Ewen, then tenant of Cluny, and pro- 
ceeded to assert themselves as an independent clan. A 
few years later, in the autumn of 1665, the dispute with 
the Camerons over the lands of Glenlui and Locharkaig, 
which had lasted for three hundred and fifty years, was 
brought to an end by an arrangement in which Lochiel 
agreed to pay 72,500 merks. Still later, in 1688, the old 
trouble with the Macdonalds of Keppoch, who had 
persisted in occupying Mackintosh's lands in Glen Roy 
and Glen Spean without paying rent, was brought to a 
head in the last clan battle fought in Scotland. This 
was the encounter at Mulroy, in which the Mackintoshes 
were defeated, and the chief himself taken prisoner. 

Lachlan Mackintosh, the twentieth chief, was head of 
the clan at the time of the Earl of Mar's rising in 1715, 
and with his clan was among the first to take arms for 
the Jacobite cause. With his kinsman of Borlum he 
marched into Inverness, proclaimed King James VIII., 
and seized the public money and arms, and he afterwards 
joined Mar at Perth with seven hundred of his clan. The 
most effective part of the campaign was that carried 
out by six regiments which crossed the Forth and made 
their way into England under Mackintosh of Borlum as 
Brigadier. And when the end came at Preston, on the; 
same day as the defeat at Sheriffmuir, the Mackintosh 
chief was among those forced to surrender. He gave upj 
his sword, it is said, to an officer named Graham, withj 
the stipulation that if he escaped with his life it should 
be returned to him. In the upshot he was pardoned, bu 
the holder of the sword forgot to give it back. A numbe 
of years later the officer was appointed to a command a 
Fort Augustus, when the sword was demanded by the 
successor of its previous owner, who declared that if i 
were not given up he would fight for it. The weapon 
however, was then handed back without demur. Thi 
sword is a beautiful piece with a silver hilt, which was 
originally given to the Mackintosh chief by Viscoun 
Dundee. It is still preserved at Moy Hall, and is laid on 
the coffin of the chief when he goes to his burial. Fo 
his part in Mar's rising Lachlan Mackintosh received 
patent of nobility from the court at St. Germains. 

Angus, the twenty-second chief, was head of the clar 
when Prince Charles Edward raised his standard in 1745 
In the previous year he had been appointed to command 
a company of the newly-raised Black Watch, and his 


wife, the energetic Anne, traversing the country, it is 
said, in male attire, had by her sole exertions in a very 
short time raised the necessary hundred men, all but 
three. She was a daughter of Farquharson of Invercald 
and was only twenty years of age. Though hard pressed, 
Mackintosh kept his military oath. Lady Mackintosh, 
however, raised two battalions of the clan, and it was 
these battalions, led by young MacGillivray of Dunma- 
glass, who covered themselves with glory in the final 
battle at Culloden. There, charging with sword and 
target, they cut to pieces two companies of Burrel's 
regiment and lost their gallant leader, with several other 
officers and a great number of men. 

A few weeks before the battle the Prince was sleeping 
at Moy Hall, when word was brought that Lord Loudoun 
was bringing a force from Inverness to secure him. Like 
an able general, Lady Mackintosh sent out the smith 
of Moy, with four other men, to watch the road from 
Inverness. When Lord Loudoun 's force appeared, these 
men began firing their muskets, rushing about, and 
shouting orders to imaginary Macdonalds and Camerons, 
with the result that the attacking force thought it had 
fallen into an ambush, and, turning about, made at 
express speed for Inverness. The incident was remem- 
bered as the Rout of Moy. A few days afterwards 
Charles himself entered Inverness, where, till Culloden 
was fought, he stayed in the house of the Dowager Lady 

The battle of Culloden may be said to have ended the 
old clan system in Scotland. The line of the Mackintosh 
chiefs, however, has come down to the present day. 
^Eneas, the twenty-third, was made a baronet by King 
George III. Before his death in 1820 he built the chief's 
modern seat of Moy Hall, entailed the family estates on 
the heir-male of the house, and wrote an account of the 
history of the clan. 

The tradition known as the Curse of Moy, which was 
made the subject of a poem by Mr. Morrit of Rokeby, 
included in Scott's Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, 
refers particularly to this period, when from 1731 till 1833 
no chief of Mackintosh was succeeded by a son. The 
story is of a maiden, daughter of a Grant of Urquhart, 
who rejected the suit of a Mackintosh chief. The latter 
seized her, her father, and her lover, Grant of Alva, and 
imprisoned them in the castle in Loch Moy. By her tears 
she prevailed upon Mackintosh to allow one of his 
prisoners to escape, but when, at Her father's entreaty, she 


named her lover, Mackintosh, enraged, had them both 
slain and placed before her. In consequence she became 
mad, wandered for years through Badenoch, and left a 
curse of childlessness upon the Mackintosh chiefs. The 
drawbacks to the story are that Moy was not the seat of 
the Mackintosh chiefs in early times, and tfiat there were 
no Grants of Urquhart. 

Alfred Donald, the twenty-eighth and present chief, is 
one of the best known and best liked heads of the High- 
land clans, one of the best of Highland landlords, and one 
of the most public-spirited men in the country. At his 
beautiful seat of Moy Hall he frequently entertained the 
late King Edward, and his grouse moors are the best- 
managed and most famous in Scotland. His only son, 
Angus Alexander, was among the first to go to the Front 
in the great war of 1914, where he was severely wounded 
in one of the earlier engagements. He was afterwards 
secretary to the Duke of Devonshire when Governor- 
General of Canada, and married one of the Duke's 
daughters, but died in the following year. The Mackintosh 
is one of the most enthusiastic upholders of Highland 
traditions, and, in view of his own family's most romantic 
story, it will be admitted that he has the best of all reasons 
for his enthusiasm. 


Adamson Ayson 

Clark Clerk 

Clarkson Crerar 

Combie Doles 

Dallas Esson 

Elder Glennie 

Glen Hardy 

MacAndrew MacAy 

MacCardney MacChlerich 

MacChlery MacCombe 

MacCombie MaComie 

M 'Conchy MacFall 

Macglashan MacHay 

Machardy M'Killican 

Mackeggie MacNiven 

MacOmie MacPhail 

Macritchie MacThomas 

Macvail Niven 

Noble Paul 

Ritchie Shaw 

Tarrin Tosh 


BADGE : Faochag, no Gillefuinhrinn (Pervinca minor) lesser 

PIBROCH : Moladh Mhairi. 

FROM its location on the western coast of Scotland, Clan 
Lachlan might straightway be assumed to be either of 
early Scottish or of Norse origin. Its name might point 
to the latter source. Lochlin or Lochlan was the name 
under which the Norwegian invaders of the early centuries 
were known to the people of western Scotland. They 
appear constantly under this name in the poems of Ossian, 
Further, in the traditions of the clan, and in a manuscript 
of 1450, published by the lona Club, the MacLachlans 
are closely associated with the Lords of the Isles. The 
usual traditional account of the origin of the Clan, how- 
ever, is that they are descended from the early Scottish 
race in the north-east of Ireland. There are many refer- 
ences to them in the Annals of the Four Masters, and 
from this it is believed they were the elder branch of the 
Irish Hy Niall, who were kings in Ireland for a thousand 
years. The lona Club manuscript already referred to, 
which was preserved in the family of the MacLachlans of 
Kilbride, gives the early genealogy of the race as follows : 
" Kenneth, son of John, son of Lachlan, son of Gille 
Patrick, son of Lachlan Mor, son of Patrick, son of Gille 
Christ, son of Dedalan, son of Andadan, from whom are 
descended also the children of Niall." The probability 
is that they were among the early Scottish settlers who 
came over from Ireland with the renowned Fergus and 
his two brothers, in the early years of the sixth century, 
to make the first beginnings of the little Scottish kingdom 
of Dalriada, and give the part of the country in which 
they settled its new name of Earrha Gael, Argyll, the 
Land of the Gael. According to one tradition, dealt with 
at length by Buchanan of Auchmar in his famous work, 
the earliest settlement of the MacLachlans was in Loch- 
aber, where for several centuries the senior cadets of the 
clan, the MacLachlans of Coire-Uanan, held the hereditary 
office of standard-bearers to the Lairds of Locheil. A 



tradition of the MacLachlans of this region is recounted 
in Maclan's Clans of the Scottish Highlands as follows : 
" A story is told of one of this branch which we do 
not recollect having met with in any publication. A 
quarrel having arisen between a young man and one of 
the Camerons of Glen Nevis, he took his revenge by the 
slaughter of his enemy, which was accomplished in a 
somewhat singular manner. Glen Nevis passing the fold 
where the young women were milking the cattle, he was 
presented, according to custom, with a draught. Mac- 
Lachlan, who had been lying in wait for him, and was 
celebrated for his skilful archery, let fly an arrow which 
simultaneously split Cameron's head and the vessel which 
contained the milk. MacLachlan instantly fled, and was 
obliged to wander through the Highlands and isles for 
many years, in constant dread of being captured or slain 
by his enemies. During this time it was his practice to 
sleep in caves, or the least accessible mountains, and even 
when in the shelter of a house, he always rested his head 
on his naked dirk, a weapon peculiarly convenient in case of 
sudden or close attack. He is represented as having been the 
last of his family, and perhaps was therefore more reckless of 
his life ; however, in process of time, he ventured to revisit 
his native hills, and as he passed by the house of Glen Nevis, 
he observed by looking through an open window, a very 
fine gun, which he resolved to appropriate to himself. A 
broad ditch intervened between him and the building, but, 
being remarkably athletic, he cleared it at a bound, and 
silently entering, seized the gun. At the moment when 
he was retreating by the window, Glen Nevis entered the 
room, and, pouncing on the depredator, seized him by 
the arm with an iron grasp, exclaiming, ' You are now 
in the talons of the mountain eagle, and a death struggle 
alone shall disengage them ! ' A minute's portentous 
pause ensued, when MacLachlan, with unsuspected dex- 
terity, stabbed Cameron with his dirk, and then, relieved 
from his hold, leaped across the ditch and escaped ! The 
gun, a very curious piece, is still preserved by Glen 

There is a tradition that when King Alexander II., in 
the thirteenth century, was making his way into the West 
Highlands in prosecution of his campaign against the 
Norsemen, in which he declared his intention to plant his 
standard on the walls of Thurso, he ordered the Mac- 
Lachlan chief to send him his tribute by the swiftest 
messenger. MacLachlan, it is said, complied by tying 
the bags of tribute to a roebuck, which he despatched by 


a trusty and swift-footed messenger to the king, at which 
Alexander was so impressed that he conferred upon the 
chief a pair of roebucks as supporters to his coat of arms. 

There was long treasured in the family of the 
MacLachlan chiefs a custom which was said to have taken 
its origin during one of the crusades. Upon that crusade, 
it is said, the chiefs of Strath Lachlan and of Strachur, 
who were close friends as well as neighbours, made a 
promise to each other that, if one of them were slain in 
battle, the other would see to it that his body was carried 
home and duly laid in the family burying-place. For 
centuries afterwards the custom remained that when a 
Laird of Strath Lachlan or a Laird of Strachur died his 
neighbour laid his head in the grave. 

According to tradition the chiefs of Clan Lachlan at 
one time owned very extensive lands in Argyllshire, and 
even yet their possessions run eleven miles along the shore 
of one of the most beautiful parts of Loch Fyne. Their 
present estate is said to have been acquired by marriage 
with the daughter and heiress of one of the chiefs of Clan 
Lament. The manuscript above mentioned puts it that 
" Caitrina, the daughter of Duncan Mac Lamain, was 
the mother of Kenneth, Patrick, and Gille Easpuig, and 
Agais, daughter of MacDonald, was mother of John, and 
Culusaid, daughter of the Maormar of Cowal, was the 
mother of Lachlan Oig." In whatever way their present 
possessions on the western coast of Cowal were acquired, 
the MacLachlan chiefs are believed to have possessed 
Strathlachlan since the eleventh century. The first docu- 
mentary evidence of their ownership appears in 1292, 
when the lands belonging to Gilleskel MacLachlan were 
recorded as included in the Sheriffdom of Argyll or Lome, 
and King John Baliol granted Gilleskel a charter of them. 
The same chief also received a charter later from King 
Robert the Bruce, and appears on the roll of the Scottish 
magnates who sat in the first Parliament of Bruce at St. 
Andrews. The chief's name also appears on one of the 
seal tags of the letter sent by the Scottish barons to King 
Philip of France. From Gilleskel the direct line of the 
chiefs is declared to be clearly traced to the present day, 
and, though they never played a leading part in the great 
affairs of the realm, their history has not been without its 
tincturing of adventure, heroism, and romance. 

During the disorders of the Douglas Wars in the reign 
of James II., when Lauder, the Fifeshire Bishop of 
Lismore, was endeavouring to dominate the clansmen witH 
the law of the Church, Sir Gilbert MacLachlan and Sir 


Morier MacFadyan, respectively chancellor and treasurer 
of the diocese, raised the whole strength of Clan Lachlan, 
attacked the bishop and his train on the way to his cathe- 
dral, stripped them of their robes, plundered the church 
of its treasures and charters, and forced the bishop himself 
to promise to make no reprisals. 

Archibald MacLachlan of Strath Lachlan appears in 
the Rolls of 1587 and 1594. Tne chiefs were Jacobites, 
and as their possessions were situated in the midst of the 
territory of the powerful Campbell race, who were upon 
the other side, their position must at all times have been 
precarious, and their opinion must have required more 
than the usual courage and loyalty to express. 

During the civil wars, when the Marquess of Montrose 
raised an army for King Charles I. in the Highlands, 
Colonel MacLachlan was one of his most active officers. 
At the battle of Alford he led a regiment of foot, and 
routed the enemy's cavalry. His fate was as grievous as 
it was undeserved. After the surprise and defeat of 
Montrose's little royalist army at Philliphaugh, he was 
taken prisoner, carried to Edinburgh, and executed by 
the Covenanters. 

After the Revolution in 1689 the Chief of MacLachlan 
took the field with King James's general, Viscount 
Dundee, and as a result he figures in the curious Latin 
poem of the time, " The Grameid." Fifty-six years later, 
when Bonnie Prince Charlie raised the Stewart standard 
in the Highlands for the last time, Lauchlan MacLachlan, 
the fifteenth chief, raised his clan and marched to join 
him. This chief had evidently all the courage of his 
convictions, for, notwithstanding the danger of the pro- 
ceeding, with the Campbells at his door, he is said to 
have proclaimed his intentions at Kilmichael market, 
where he openly summoned his clan ; and it says much 
for his leadership that he made his way successfully 
through the heart of the Argyll country, to join the Prince 
in the north. The military and other esteem in which he 
was held may be gathered from the fact that he acted as 
aide-de-camp to Prince Charles; and his career ended in 
the gallant fashion such a brave man might desire, for 
he was killed at Culloden. 

A pretty story is told in connection with this event. 
The chief, it is said, owned a favourite dun horse. When 
he was slain at Culloden this dun horse escaped, and 
made its way home to Strath Lachlan, where it was the 
first to bring the terrible news. A few months later the 
castle was bombarded and destroyed by a Government 


frigate, but the horse took up its quarters in one of the 
ruined apartments, which, from that fact, is still known as 
The Dun Horse's Stable. 

As a result of the part taken in the Rebellion by the 
chief, the lands of Strath Lachlan were forfeited, but the 
next heir succeeded in recovering them in 1749. 

It says much for the finer spirit of the clan in a rude 
and warlike time that they were among the few who 
cherished the literary memorials of their race's past. 
When James Macpherson produced his translation of 
Ossian in the sixties of the eighteenth century, the erudite 
and unbelieving Dr. Samuel Johnson declared in scorn 
that there was not in the Highlands a Gaelic manuscript 
more than a hundred years old. Among the evidences 
which were forthcoming to refute this statement was a 
wonderful collection of ancient manuscripts which had 
been preserved by the MacLachlans of Kilbride. Besides 
the manuscript of 1450 above quoted, this collection in- 
cluded many details throwing light upon Highland 
history and the authenticity of the Ossianic poems. It 
attracted much attention at the time, and was eventually 
purchased by the Highland Society and deposited in the 
Advocates' Library. 

A few years later Clan MacLachlan itself produced a 
Gaelic poet and scholar of considerable repute. Ewen 
MacLachlan, headmaster of Aberdeen Grammar School, 
was the author of at least two volumes of poetry, pub- 
lished in 1807 and 1816. And in more recent days 
Thomas Hope MacLachlan, barrister of Lincoln's Inn, 
abandoned law for the painter's art, in which he attained 
considerable reputation. His picture, " Ships that pass 
in the night," has a place in the National Gallery. 

In recent times the MacLachlans have also won dis- 
tinction in other ways. In 1810 Captain MatLachlan of 
the Royal Marines distinguished himself in the Basque 
Roads at the storming of the battery on the Point du 
Chee, where with conspicuous bravery he spiked the 

The present head of the Clan is one of the most 
popular of the Highland chiefs, an enthusiast for all 
things pertaining to the traditions and welfare of the 
Gaelic race, and possessor of perhaps the most character- 
istic designation and address of any landowner in the 
Highlands MacLachlan of MacLachlan, Castle Lachlan, 
Strath Lachlan, Argyllshire. 



Ewing Ewen 

Lachlln Gilchrist 

MacEwan J; au ? lan 

MacGilchrist MacEwen 


BADGE : Labhrail, or Buaidh craobh (laureola) laurel. 
SLOGAN : Craig Tuirc ! 

IT is a melancholy fact that many of the clans of the 
Scottish Highlands are at the present day without a chief. 
Considering that the feudal system was substituted for 
the patriarchal so many centuries ago, it is perhaps a 
marvel, on the other hand, that so many clans have 
retained a record of the descent of their patriarchal heads 
to the present day; but undoubtedly interest is added to 
the story of a tribe when that story can be traced through 
a succession of leaders who have been the recognised 
main stem of their race from an early century. 

Of recognised chiefs of the clan MacLaurin there have 
been no more than faint traces within modern times, and 
the attempt of the Scottish judge, John MacLaurin, Lord 
Dreghorn, in 1781, to establish his claim to the chiefship, 
can be regarded as little more than a verification of the 
mystery surrounding the disappearance of the chiefship 
a couple of hundred years before. The last record of the 
existence of these chiefs appears to be in the rolls of the 
clans drawn up in 1587 and 1594 for James VI., when 
that monarch hit upon the excellent plan of making the 
Highland chiefs responsible for the good behaviour of 
the members of their tribes. But the clan MacLaurin, 
nevertheless, claimed a highly interesting origin, and 
achieved a record of doughty deeds in its time, which 
was strenuous and heroic enough. 

Romantic legend has associated the origin of the clan 
with the romance of a mermaid who appears in the 
armorial bearings assigned by the Lion Court to Lord 
Dreghorn when he claimed the Chiefship. Another more 
plausible derivation is that from Loam, one of the three 
sons of Ere, who crossed from Ireland in 503, and founded 
the infant Kingdom of the Scots. From these settlers 
the district about Loch Awe got its name of Earrha Gaid- 
heal, or Argyll, the " Land of the Gael," and from Loam 
or Lorn, the youngest of the three brothers, the district 
of Lome immediately to the westward is said to have 



taken its name. The name Loarn or Laurin, in the first 
instance, is understood to represent Laurence, the 
Christian martyr who is believed to have suffered under 
the Emperor Valerian in 261 A.D. Whether or not the 
chiefs MacLaurin were actually descended from the early 
son of Ere, families of the name appear to have been 
settled at an early date in the island of Tiree and in the 
upper fastnesses of western Perthshire, about the Braes 
of Balquhidder and the foot of Loch Voil. Tradition 
declares that three brothers from Argyllshire came east- 
ward and settled in these lands in Balquhidder, named 
respectively, from west to east, the Bruach, Auchleskine, 
and the Stank. The descendants of these three brothers 
had their burial-places divided off in the little kirkyard 
of Balquhidder, in agreement with this tradition. While 
the chiefs of the clan appear to have had their seat in 
Tiree, and it was to them that Lord Dreghorn made his 
claim of descent, the history of the race appears mostly to 
have been made by the families of the name settled in 
Balquhidder. In keeping with this fact Tiree long ago 
passed into possession of the great house of Argyll, 
though down to a comparatively recent date there were 
landowners of the name of MacLaurin at Craiguie and 
Invernentie on the shores of Loch Voil. 

In Balquhidder the MacLaurins were followers in 
early times of the great Celtic Earls of Strathearn, and 
by some authorities they have been taken to be cadets of 
that ancient house, settled in the district possibly as early 
as the days of Kenneth MacAlpine. At the great battle 
of the Standard, fought by David I. in 1138, it is recorded 
by Lord Hailes in his well-known Annals that Malise, 
Earl of Strathearn, was the leader of the Lavernani. And 
a century and a half later, in 1296, when the notables of 
Scotland, in token of submission to Edward I. of England, 
were compelled to sign the Ragman Roll, three of the 
signatories, Maurice of Tiree, Conan of Balquhidder, and 
Laurin of Ardveche in Strathearn, have been assigned 
as cadets of the Earl's house. 

From an early period the MacLaurins figured in the 
battles of their country. Whatever were the undertakings 
extorted by Edward I., it is recorded in a later document 
that the clan fought by the side of Bruce at Bannockburn. 
They were also among the followers of the luckless 
James III., when that monarch fought and fell at Sauchie- 
burn seventy-five years later. Three-quarters of a century 
later still, through a romantic episode, they became mixed 
up with one of the great family dramas of the West High- 


lands, which, drawing down upon them the animosity of 
the ambitious house of Argyll, may have done not a little 
to darken the later fortunes of the clan. About the middle 
of the fifteenth century, John, third and last of the 
Stewart Lords of Lome, as a result of a love affair with a 
lady of the MacLaurins of Balquhidder, became father of 
a natural son, Dugal. He had at the same time two 
legitimate daughters, the eldest of whom, Isobel, was 
married to Colin, Lord Campbell, first Earl of Argyll, 
while the younger became the wife of the Earl's uncle, 
Campbell of Glenurchy. On the death of his father in 
1469, Dugal Stewart claimed the Lordship of Lome. 
Against him he had the powerful forces of the Campbells. 
Nevertheless he gathered his friends, among whom were 
his mother's relatives, the MacLaurins of Balquhidder. 
The two forces met at the foot of Bendoran in Glen Urchy, 
when a bloody battle ensued. In the end the Stewarts 
were overcome, and among the dead on their side, it is 
recorded, were 130 of the MacLaurins. As a result Dugal 
Stewart had to content himself with only a part of his 
father's possessions, namely Appin ; and he became 
ancestor of that well-known house, the Stewarts of Appin. 

Stewart, however, did not forget the MacLaurins, 
among whom he had been brought up, and who had 
served him so well in his great attempt. In 1497 they 
made a sudden appeal to him for help. According to the 
custom of the time the MacLaurins had made a foray on 
the lands of the MacDonalds in Lochaber. On their way 
home, driving a great spoil of cattle, they were overtaken 
in Glen Urchy by the wrathful MacDonalds, and the spoil 
recaptured. Thereupon the MacLaurins appealed to 
Stewart of Appin, who instantly raised his men and joined 
them. The united forces came up with the MacDonalds 
in the Black Mount, near the head of Glencoe, where a 
fierce struggle at once began. Many were slain on both" 
sides, and the dead included the two chiefs, MacDonald 
of Keppoch and Stewart of Appin. 

The MacLaurins, however, had enemies nearer home 
the MacGregors on one side and the Buchanans of Leny 
on the other. A story well remembered in Balquhidder, 
and told with many circumstantial details by the 
inhabitants of the district at the present day, is that of 
their great conflict with the Buchanans. Local tradition 
assigns the incident to the twelfth or thirteenth century, 
but the Buchanans were not then in strength at Leny, 
and it seems much more probable that the event occurred 
sometime in the days of James V. According to tradition 


the episode began at a fair at Kilmahog, at the foot of the 
Pass of Leny. Among those who attended the fair was 
a certain " natural " or " innocent " who was one of the 
MacLaurins of Balquhidder. As this wight strutted 
along he was met by one of the Buchanans, who, by way 
of jest, slapped his face with the tail of a salmon he was 
carrying, and knocked off his bonnet. In the way of at 
weakling the MacLaurin innocent dared his assailant to 
do this again at the fair at Balquhidder. The natural 
then went home, and promptly forgot all about the inci- 
dent. On the day of the fair at Balquhidder, however, 
when the MacLaurins were busy buying, selling, and 
enjoying themselves, word was suddenly brought that a 
considerable body of the Buchanans were marching up 
through Strathyre, and were already no farther away than 
the Clachan of Ruskachan. Then the idiot suddenly 
remembered what had happened to him at Kilmahog, and 
the challenge he had given. There was no time to lose; 
but the fiery cross was at once sent round the MacLaurin 
country, and the clan rushed to arms. The MacLaurins 
had not all come in by the time the Buchanans arrived on 
the scene, but those who were present, nothing daunted, 
began the attack. At first the Buchanans carried every- 
thing before them, and drove the MacLaurins for a mile, 
to the place where the manse now stands. There one of 
the MacLaurins saw his son cut down, and, being sud- 
denly seized with battle madness, turned, shouted the 
slogan of the clan, " Craig Tuirc," and, whirling his 
claymore, rushed furiously at the enemy. The clansmen 
followed him, and before this new furious attack the 
Buchanans went down like corn. Only two escaped, by 
swimming the river Balvaig, but even these were followed, 
one being cut down at Gartnafuaran and the other at the 
spot since known from the circumstance as Sron Lainie. 
The whole episode is typical of the ways of the Highlands 
at that time. 

In their encounter with the MacGregors, their enemies 
on the other side, the MacLaurins were not so fortunate. 
It was in 1558 that the event occurred. Mention of it 
appears in the indictment of the MacGregors for the 
slaughter of the Colquhouns at Glenfruin in 1602, and 
an account of it is to be read on a tombstone in Balqu- 
hidder kirkyard at the present day. The MacGregors, it 
appears, who by this time had become the Ishmaels of 
the West Highlands, made a sudden and unprovoked 
descent on Balquhidder, and murdered and burned no 
fewer than eighteen householders of the clan MacLaurin 


with their wives and families. The attack seems to have 
been a disabling one, for the MacGregors remained in 
possession of the farms of their slaughtered victims, and 
from that time appear to have been dominant in the 

It was at any rate in the little kirk of Balquhidder that, 
towards the end of the century, the dreadful ceremony 
took place which has since been known as Clan Alpine's 
vow. The story of this is told by Sir Walter Scott in 
the preface to his Legend of Montrose, and, as it belongs 
rather to the story of the MacGregors, than to that of the 
MacLaurins, it need not be repeated here. It was one of 
the chief acts, however, which brought Nemesis upon the 
Clan MacGregor, and in view of the fact it may seem 
strange to find a MacGregor at all in possession of lands 
in Balquhidder at the present day. These lands, how- 
ever, some of them the possession of the MacLaurins of 
early times, were purchased by the Chief of the 
MacGregors from the Commissioners of Forfeited Estates 
jn 1798. 

Meantime the MacLaurins had not failed to play a 
warlike part in the greater struggles of the nation. The 
clan fought for James the Fourth at Flodden, and for the 
infant Queen Mary at Pinkie, and when Prince Charles 
Edward raised his standard at Glenfinnan in the autumn 
of 1745, considerable numbers of the clan rallied to his 
cause under the banner of their distant kinsman, Stewart 
of Appin. Under that banner during the campaign 
thirteen MacLaurins were killed and fourteen wounded. 
The story of one of the clan, MacLaurin of Wester Inver- 
nentie, who was taken prisoner after Culloden, afforded 
>the subject for the episode of "Pate in Peril" which 
! appears in Sir Walter Scott's novel, Redgauntlet. This 
young man was being marched south, like so many others, 
to take his trial at Carlisle. As the party made its way 
: through the defiles of the Lowthers above Moffat, the 
i prisoner, who had formerly driven his cattle southward 
to the English market by the same route, and knew the 
spot, where the path passed along the edge of the curious 
; hollow now known as the Devil's Beef Tub, asked to be 
' allowed to step aside for a moment, when, seizing the 
' Dpportunity, he disappeared over the edge of the abyss. 
! Hiding himself up to the neck in a bog, with a turf on 
tyiis head, he eluded the search of his pursuers till night- 
I all, then, returning to Balquhidder, lived disguised as & 
:voman till the Act of Indemnity set him free to show 
Hiimself again. 



Among the most famous personages of the name have 
been two sons of an Argyllshire minister, John and Colin 
MacLaurin. The former, born in 1693, was a famous 
preacher and controversialist, a leader of the Intrusionists 
in the Church of .Scotland, and author of Sermons and 
Essays, published in 1755. His brother Colin, five years 
younger, is regarded as " the one mathematician of first 
rank trained in Great Britain in the eighteenth century." 
He was Professor of Mathematics successively at Aber- 
deen and Edinburgh. In 1745, when Prince Charles 
Edward was marching on the Scottish Capital, he 
organised the defence of the city, and in consequence, 
being forced presently to flee, he endured such hardship 
that he died in the following June. It was his son John, 
an advocate and senator of the. College of Justice, with 
the title of Lord Dreghorn, who made a claim to the Chief- 
ship of the clan in 1781. Another of the name, though 
spelling it differently, was Archibald MacLaren, soldier 
and dramatist. Entering the army in 1755, he served in 
the American war. On his return to Scotland he joined 
a troupe of strolling players, and was author of a number 
of dramatic 'pieces and an account of the Irish Rebellion. 
Ewen MacLaurin, again, a native of Argyll, on the out- 
break of the first American war, raised at his own expense 
the .force known as the South Carolina Loyalists. There 
was also Colonel James MacLaren, C.B., son of the 
" Baron MacLaurin," and a distinguished Indian soldier, 
who played a distinguished part at the head of the i6th 
Bengal Infantry at the battle of Sobraon. And it was 
Charles MacLaren who established the Scotsman news- 
paper in 1817, edited it from 1820 till 1845, and, besides 
editing the 6th edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica in 
1823, published several geological works. 

From first to last it is a sufficiently varied record, this 
of the clan MacLaurin, from the days of Loarn son of 
Ere to the present hour, and it was one of the regrets of 
those interested in "old unhappy far-off things" when, 
a few years ago, the Corporation of Glasgow proposed to 
annex Loch Voil as a reservoir, that the undertaking would 
entail the disappearance of many spots associated with 
the tragic and romantic memories of the clan. 


MacFater MacFeat 

MacPatnck , MacPhater 

Paterson MacGrory 


"acing page 358. 


BADGE : Cuilfhionn (ilex aquifolium) Holly. 

SLOGAN : Bas no Beatha, and Fear eiP air son Eachainn Ruaidh. 

PIBROCH : Caismeachd Eachuin mhic Aluin an sop. 

THERE are various legends of the origin of the Clan 
Maclean that its ancestor was a hero of the days of 
Fergus II., that he was a brother of Fitzgerald, the 
traditional progenitor of Clan Mackenzie, and that the 
race was one of the tribes driven out of Moray by 
Malcolm IV. in the year 1161. As a matter of fact, 
however, from its earliest days the Clan Maclean has been 
associated with the island of Mull. Its progenitor is said 
to have been a noted warrior who flourished early in the 
thirteenth century. The story runs that one day, hunting 
on Ben Talla, he lost his way in a fog. Some days later 
his companions found him in the last stage of exhaustion 
lying beside his battle-axe, which he had stuck into the 
ground near a cranberry bush to attract attention. 
From this he became known as Gilleain na Tuaighe, the 
Lad of the Battle-Axe. With his redoubtable weapon this 
chief played a distinguished part at the battle of Largs. 

Among the notables set down in the Ragman's Roll, 
who did homage to Edward I. of England in 1296, 
appears " Gilliemoire Mackilyn," otherwise Gilliemoire 
MacGilleain or Gilmory Maclean. The son of this 
Gilmory, Eoin Dubh, appears in charters of the time 
of David II. about 1330, as possessor of lands in Mull. 
This Eoin Dubh, or John the Black, had two sons, 
Lachlan Lubanach and Hector Reaganach. The former 
of these was ancestor of the Macleans of Duart, and the 
latter of the Maclaines of Lochbuie, and it has been a 
matter of dispute which of the two was the elder son. 
The brothers lived in the time of Robert II., and at first 
appear to have been followers of MacDougall of Lorn. 
Some trouble having arisen, however, they cast in their 
lot with Macdonald of the Isles. Lachlan Lubanach 
became steward to the Lord of the Isles, married his 
daughter Mary in 1366, and in 1390 received from him 
charters of Duart, Brolas, and other lands in Mull. 
These charters brought the Macleans into collision with 



the Mackinnons previously settled in the island, but, 
backed by the powerful alliance with the great house of 
the Isles, the fortunes of the Macleans never went back. 

When Donald of the Isles marched across Scotland in 
1411 to enforce his wife's claim to the great northern 
earldom of Ross, the second-in-command of his army 
was his nephew, Lachlan Lubanach's son, Eachuin 
ruadh nan cath, Red Hector of the Battles. In the great 
conflict at Harlaw in which the campaign ended, the 
Maclean Chief engaged in a hand to hand encounter with 
Irvine of Drum, a powerful Deeside baron. After 
terrific combat the two fell dead together, and in token of 
that circumstance, for centuries the chiefs of the two 
families when they met were accustomed to exchange 

Meanwhile Red Hector's cousin Charles, son of 
Hector Reganach, settled in Glen Urquhart on Loch 
Ness, where he founded Clann Tchearlaich of Glen 
Urquhart and Dochgarroch, otherwise known as the 
" Macleans of the North," a sept which joined the Clan 
Chattan confederacy about the year 1460. Besides these 
Macleans of the North there were, before the end 
of that century, four powerful families of the clan. 
Descended from Lachlan Lubanach were the Macleans of 
Duart, the Macleans of Ardgour, and the Macleans of 
Coll, while descended from Hector Reganach were the 
Maclaines of Lochbuie. 

The forfeiture of the last Lord of the Isles, who died in 
1493, seems to have affected the fortunes of the Macleans 
very little. The event made them independent of the 
Macdonalds, and at the battle of the Bloody Bay near 
Tobermory in 1484 the royal fleet was led by the galley of 
Maclean of Ardgour. The battle went against him and 
Ardgour was made prisoner, his life being spared only on 
the good-humoured plea of Macdonald of Moidart that if 
he were slain there would be no one left for the Moidart 
men to fight with. 

Meanwhile the son of Hector of the Battles, Lachlan 
Bromach of Duart, married Janet, daughter of Alexander 
Stewart, Earl of Mar, leader of the royal army which 
opposed Donald of the Isles at Harlaw, and which 
suffered defeat at the hands of Donald Balloch and the 
Islesmen at Inverlochy. The earl was the natural son 
of the Earl of Buchan, otherwise known as the Wolf of 
Badenoch, son of King Robert II., so that, although 
under the baton sinister, the Macleans inherited the blood 
of the Royal House of Stewart. 


It was the grandson of this pair, Hector Odhar Maclean 
of Duart, who led the clan at the battle of Flodden in 
1513. It is said he fell in an attempt to save the life of 
James IV. by throwing his body between the king and the 
English bowmen. 

The son of this hero remains notorious in Island 
history for a very different act. For a second wife 
Lachlan Cattenach Maclean had married Elizabeth, 
daughter of the second Earl of Argyll. The marriage was 
not a success, and by way of getting rid of her he exposed 
the lady on a tidal rock in the Sound of Mull, expecting 
that nothing more would be heard of her. But, attracted 
by her shrieks, some fishermen rescued her, and on 
Maclean making his way to Inveraray to intimate his sad 
loss, he was to his horror confronted with his wife. The 
incident has been made the subject of poems by Joanna 
Bailie, Thomas Campbell, and Sir Walter Scott. Maclean 
fled to Edinburgh, but was followed there and stabbed 
in bed by the brother of the injured lady, Sir John Camp- 
bell of Cawdor. The event took place in the year 1523. 

This chief's younger son was that Alan nan Sop, or 
Alan of the Wisp, whose story will be found in the 
account of Clan MacQuarrie, who as a freebooter became 
notorious for his use of the wisp in setting fire to the 
places he plundered, and who finally made conquest of 
Torloisk in the west of Mull, and founded the family of the 
Macleans of Torloisk. 

Alan nan Sop's elder brother, Hector Mor, carried on 
the line of Duart. He married a daughter of Alexander 
Macdonald of Islay, but this connection did not prevent 
differences arising between the Macdonalds and Macleans, 
regarding which a bloody feud was carried on between the 
years 1585 and 1598, " to the destruction of well near all 
their country." 

Hector Og, the son of Hector Mor, married in 1557, 
the Lady Janet, daughter of Archibald, fourth Earl of 
Argyll, and as the Campbells had for nearly three 
centuries been striving to supplant the Macdonalds as the 
most powerful family in the West, it may be understood 
that this alliance was not likely to discourage differences 
between these Macdonalds and the Macleans. 

Hector Og's son, Sir Lachlan Mor Maclean of Duart, 
was a gallant and distinguished chief. He married a 
daughter of the sixth Earl of Glencairn, and in 1594 fought 
under his kinsman, the young seventh Earl of Argyll, in 
the disastrous battle against Huntly and Errol at Glen- 
livet. It was the policy of that Earl to sow strife among 


neighbouring clans, and then avail himself of their 
differences and weakened state for his own aggrandise- 
ment. In this way he incited the MacNabs and Mac- 
gregors to attack their neighbours, then with letters of 
fire and sword proceeded to seize their lands. Whether or 
not Argyll was at the bottom of the strife, the feud between 
the Macleans and MacDonalds came to a head in 1598. 
The immediate issue was the possession of certain lands 
on Loch Gruinart in Islay. Before setting sail with a 
strong force to seize these lands, it is said that Sir Lachlan 
consulted a famous witch as to his prospects of success. 
The witch told him that he must not land in Islay on a 
Thursday, and must not drink out of the Tobar Neill Neo- 
naich, Strange Neil's Well. Unfortunately, being caught 
in a storm, he was forced to land on just that day of the 
week, and being thirsty he drank from a spring near the 
spot, which turned out to be just that well. The tragic 
issue was helped by another act of Sir Lachlan Mor 
himself. Just before the battle a dwarf from Jura offered 
his services to the Maclean Chief and was scornfully 
rejected. Burning with indignation the dwarf, Dubh-sith, 
offered his services to the opposite side, and received a 
hearty welcome. In the battle which ensued, being unable 
to fight on equal terms, the Dubh-sith climbed into a tree. 
Presently he saw, as Sir Lachlan climbed a knoll, the 
joints of his armour open, and instantly letting fly an arrow, 
he slew the chief. This battle of the Rhinns of Islay 
ended the feud, as along with their chief the Macleans 
lost eighty gentlemen and two hundred other clansmen. 

Sir Lachlan's elder son, still another Hector Og, 
married a daughter of the eleventh chief of Kintail, and 
their son Lachlan was the first baronet of Duart. By a 
second marriage, with a daughter of Sir Archibald 
Acheson of Gosford, he had another son, Donald of 
Brolas, whose son Lauchlan became M.P. for Argyllshire, 
and whose descendants were to inherit the chiefship as 
sixth and successive baronets. 

Sir Lachlan Maclean was created a baronet of Nova 
Scotia, with the designation " of Morvern," by Charles I. 
in 1632, and from that time onward, through the Civil 
War and all the troubles of the Stewarts, the Macleans 
remained strong and faithful supporters of the Jacobite 
cause. Sir Lachlan himself joined the Marquess of 
Mont rose, led his clan at Inverlochy, where he helped to 
win that signal victory over the Marquess of Argyll, and 
took part in the arduous campaign and battles which 


Two years after his death, his son, Sir Hector 
Maclean, fell fighting in the cause of Charles II. at 
Inverkeithing. It was after the defeat of the army of the 
Covenant by Cromwell at Dunbar. The Scottish forces 
fell back on Stirling, and to prevent them drawing 
supplies from Fife, Cromwell sent a force of four 
thousand men under General Lambert across the Forth 
at Queensferry. To encounter this force the Scots sent 
Holborn of Menstrie with twelve hundred horse and 
fifteen hundred infantry, and an encounter took place at 
Inverkeithing on Sunday, 2Oth July. At the beginning 
of the battle Holborn, who was both a coward and a 
traitor, fled with his cavalry, and the little force of infantry 
under Sir Hector Roy Maclean of Duart and Sir George 
Buchanan, chief of his clan, were shortly hemmed round 
and cut to pieces. The English made a continuous series 
of attacks on the spot where Sir Hector stood, severely 
wounded but still encouraging his men. The clansmen 
who survived, flocked round their chief, and again and 
again, as an attack was aimed at him, another and 
another gentleman of the clan sprang in front of him 
with the cry " Fear eil* air son Eachuinn I " " Another 
for Hector I " to be cut down in turn. When no fewer 
than eight gentlemen of the name of Maclean had given 
their lives in this way Sir Hector himself fell, covered 
with wounds. As the ballad has it : 

Sir Hector Roy, the stout Maclean, 
Fought one to ten, but all in vain, 

His broad claymore unsheathing. 
Himself lay dead, 'mid heaps of slain, 

For Charles at Inverkeithing. 

It is from this incident that the clan derives one of its 
slogans, " Another for Hector! " The proceeding was 
used with telling effect by Sir Walter Scott as a feature of 
the combat on the North Inch, in his romance, " The 
Fair Maid of Perth." 

Sir John Maclean, the fourth baronet, led his clan under 
Viscount Dundee in the cause of the Stewarts at the battle 
of Killiecrankie, and also, twenty-six years later, under 
the futile Earl of Mar at the battle of Sheriffmuir. 

His son, Sir Hector, the fifth baronet, "was arrested in 
Edinburgh in 1745, on suspicion of being in the French 
service, and of enlisting men in the Jacobite cause. He 
was confined in the Tower of London for two years, till 
liberated by the Act of Grace in 1747. Meanwhile the 
clan was led throughout the campaign by Maclean of 
Druimnin, and fought, five hundred strong, at Culloden, 


where at least one of the mounded trenches among the 
heather may be seen at the present day marked with 
the name " Maclean." 

Sir Hector died unmarried at Rome in 1750, and the 
chief ship, baronetcy, and estates then went to the great- 
grandson of Donald Maclean of Brolas, half-brother of 
the first baronet. Sir Allan died in 1783, also without 
male issue, and was succeeded in turn by two grandsons 
of the second son of Donald of Brolas. The latter of 
these, Sir Fitzroy Jeffreys Graf ton Maclean, was colonel 
of the 45th regiment, and a lieutenant-general, and was 
present at the capture of the West Indian islands of 
Martinique and Guadeloupe. His grandson is the 
present chief, Sir Fitzroy Donald Maclean, Bart., K.C.B. 
Born in 1835 Sir Fitzroy served, as a young man, in 
Bulgaria and the Crimea, and was present at the battle 
of the Alma and the siege of Sebastopol. Through lack 
of food and shelter he fell into dysentery and fever, and 
would have died had he not been discovered by a friend 
of his father, who carried him on board his ship. He 
lost a son in the South African War. One of the most 
memorable days of his life was when he returned to Mull 
in August, 1912, and took possession of the ancient seat of 
his family, Duart Castle, amid the acclamations of Maclean 
clansmen from all parts of the world, and unfurled his 
banner from the ramparts. The castle dates from the 
thirteenth century, and was repaired and enlarged by 
Hector Mor Maclean, who was Lord of Duart from 1523 
till 1568. In 1691 it was besieged by Argyll, and Sir 
John Maclean, the chief of that time, was forced to 
surrender it. After that date, though occasionally 
occupied by troops, the stronghold gradually fell to ruins, 
and the Duart properties passed to other hands till Sir 
Fitzroy repurchased Duart itself in 1912. 


Beath Beaton 

Black Lean 

Bowie MacBheath 

MacBeath Macilduy 

MacBeth MacRankin 

MacLergain MacVey 

MacVeagh Rankin 


MacCortnick MacFadyen 

MacFadzean MacGilvra 



Facing page 364. 


BADGE : Conasg (Ulex Europaeus) furze. 
SLOGAN : Dmim nan deur. 

THE romantic district of Kintail, with its steep mountains 
and deep sea-lochs, on the western coast of Ross-shire, 
must be regarded as the heart of the old Mackenzie 
country. Eileandonan in Loch Duich was their chief 
stronghold, and far to north and south and east of it their 
word was law throughout a territory as extensive almost 
as that of the Campbell chiefs in the south. Yet Kintail 
was peopled almost entirely by two races which, so far 
as tradition or Highland genealogies declare, had no 
blood relationship with the Mackenzies themselves. 
Neither the MacRaes nor the MacLennans were conquered 
clans. Rather, to judge from their bearing and their treat- 
ment by the Mackenzies, do they appear to have held the 
position of honourable and valued allies. The MacRaes, 
we know, were known as " Seaforth's shirt of mail," and 
for generations held the office of Constable of Eilean- 
donan, and it would appear as if the MacLennans were 
held in similar trust and esteem, and were Mackenzie's 
standard-bearers. The districts occupied by these two 
clans were separated only by a river running into Loch 
Duich ; frequent intermarriage took place between them ; 
but throughout the centuries they nevertheless remained 
unfused and distinct. Among other matters, the tartan 
of the MacLennans was quite different from that of the 
Mackenzies and Mac-Raes. The clan has laboured under 
the distinct disadvantage of being unable to name the 
head of any particular family as Chief; and while not 
reckoned a " broken " clan it has been accustomed to 
take the field under chiefs of other names. The Mac- 
Lennans fought under the banners both of the Erasers 
and of the Mackenzies, and for this reason it is not 
possible to ascertain the actual strength of the clan, but 
there is no question that their valour was of the highest 

Under the Marquess of Montrose at the battle of Auld- 
earn in 1645 the MacLennans as usual were entrusted with' 
the banner of Lord Seaforth, the Mackenzie Chief. 



Round that standard, the famous " Caber feidh," so 
called from its armorial bearing of a stag's head, a large 
number of them were cut down. It is on record that 
eighteen of the widows of those who fell afterwards married 
MacRaes from the neighbouring district of Kintail. 

According to one derivation, the name MacLennan 
means simply the son of a sweetheart or young woman, 
but the sole authority seems to be a similarity of sound, 
and is not sanctioned by Highland usage. A tradition 
likely to be much more authentic carries the origin back 
to a certain Gilliegorm, Chief of the Logans of Druim- 
deurfait in Ross-shire at the end of the thirteenth century. 
After a bloody battle with the Erasers near Kessock, in 
which Gilliegorm fell, his widow was carried off, and soon 
afterwards gave birth to a son. The story runs that the 
boy was deliberately deformed in order to prevent his 
ever attempting to avenge his father. Educated in the 
monastery of Beauly, he was known from his deformity 
as Crotach (or Hump-backed) MacGhilliegorm, and on 
becoming a priest he travelled through the West Coast and 
Skye, founding churches at Kilmory in Sleat and Kil- 
chrinan in Glenelg. Pope Innocent III. had issued the 
decree strictly enjoining the clergy of the Roman Church to 
celibacy; but whether MacGhilliegorm belonged to the 
older Columban or Culdee Church which allowed its clergy 
to marry, or whether he simply did not conform to the 
Papal edict, it appears that he was married and had several 
children. One of his sons was named Gillie Fhinan after 
the famous St. Finan. That son's son was of course 
MacGil'inan, which name was shortened by his descendants 
to MacLennan. 

In the annals of the MacLennans considerable space is 
taken up with the exploits of a member of the clan who 
was as remarkable for the ingenuity with which he planned 
his fraudulent enterprises as for the audacity with which 
he carried them out. On a dark night, for instance, when 
a certain dealer was leading a string of horses to a distant 
tryst or market, MacLennan waylaid the convoy, and, 
cutting the rope, made off unperceived with a number 
of the animals. To complete the transaction he rapidly 
trimmed the stolen horses, altogether altering their 
appearance, and at a later stopping-place on the journey, 
actually succeeded in selling them at a good price to their 
original owner. On another occasion, it is said, he joined 
a party of smugglers preparing on a stormy and moonless 
night to transport their illicit product over the mountains. 
Passing as one of themselves, he was entrusted with the 


carrying of one of the kegs, with which he presently con- 
trived to drop behind and disappear. Yet again, in the 
character of a seannachie or bard, he was employed by a 
certain laird, after the fashion of the time, to lull him to 
sleep by the recitation of ancient poems. Having sent 
his unsuspecting employer into a sound slumber, he betook 
himself to the stable, untied several horses, and silently 
swam them to the opposite side of the loch. Leaving 
them in a place of concealment he as silently returned, and 
was still going on with his poetic recitation when the laird 
awoke. Next day, when the theft was discovered, he 
remained unsuspected, but presently another person having 
been arrested for the offence and in danger of hanging, 
MacLennan handsomely confessed his exploit, and, 
restoring the horses with a flourish of generosity, was 
allowed to go unpunished. 

About the same time another member of the clan made 
a name for himself in a different way. The Rev. Murdoch 
MacLennan was minister of Crathie on Deeside at the 
date when the Earl of Mar raised the standard of 
" James VIII. and I." in that neighourhood. The rising, 
which with vigorous and able leadership, might have 
succeeded in replacing the Stewarts on the throne, was 
denied all promise of success by the inefficiency and 
indecision of Mar himself, and when at long last it came 
to blows with the forces of George I. under the Duke of 
Argyll on the Sheriffmuir above Dunblane, the conflict 
was as inconclusive as all the other acts of the campaign. 
The event roused the Rev. Murdoch MacLennan to satire, 
and in a humorous poem of twenty-one verses, in an 
original form of stanza, he not only enumerated the 
leaders on both sides and their parts in the flight, but 
chronicled the result in singularly appropriate lines 

" And we ran and they ran, 
And they ran and we ran, 
And we ran and they ran awa' man." 

A more modern author is Mr. J. F. M'Lennan, whose 
Studies in Ancient History, Exogamy, Primitive Marriage, 
The Patriarchal Theory, and other works contain much 
learning and information. 




BADGE, MacLeod of Harris : Craobh aiteann (juniperis communis) 

juniper bush. 
MacLeod of Lewis : Lus nam Braoileag (Vaccinium vitis 

idea) red whortleberry. 
PIBROCH : lomradh Mhic Leoid. 

MANY hundreds of visitors to the Outer Hebrides to-day 
yachtsmen and passengers by Messrs. MacBrayne's 
steamers are familiar with the noble old towers of Dun- 
vegan at the head of Loch Bracadale on the western side 
of Skye. The ancient seat of the MacLeods towering on 
its rocks is not only the most romantic dwelling in the 
Isles, but the oldest inhabited mansion in Scotland, 
having been one of the sea-eyries built by the Norse rovers 
in the ninth or tenth century, and continuously inhabited 
to the present day. Nothing more picturesque could well 
be imagined than its cluster of square towers and embattled 
walls rising above the wild crags of the shore, and there 
is nothing more interesting in the record of the Western 
Isles than the story of the chiefs of MacLeod who, for so 
many centuries, have made it their stronghold and home. * 
Probably no better description of the castle is to be found 
than that given by Sir Walter Scott in his diary of the 
voyage he made in the yacht of the Lighthouse Com- 
missioners in August, 1814. This runs as follows : 
" Wake under the Castle of Dunvegan in the Loch of 
Folliart. I had sent a card to the Laird of MacLeod in 
the morning, who came off before we were dressed, and 
carried us to his castle to breakfast. A part of Dunvegan 
is very old; 'its birth tradition notes not.' Another 
large tower was built by the same Alister MacLeod whose 
burial-place and monument we saw yesterday at Rodel. 
He had a Gaelic surname, signifying the Humpbacked. 
Roderick More (knighted by James VI.) erected a long 
edifice combining these two ancient towers ; and other 
pieces of building, forming a square, were accomplished 
at different times. The whole castle occupies a pre- 
cipitous mass of rock overhanging the lake, divided by 
two or three islands in that place, which form a snug little 
harbour under the walls. There is a court-yard looking 



Facing page 368. 


out upon the sea, protected by a battery at least a succes- 
sion of embrasures, for only two guns are pointed, and 
these unfit for service. The ancient entrance rose up a 
flight of steps cut in the rock, and passed into this court- 
yard through a portal, but this is now demolished. You 
land under the castle, and, walking round, find yourself 
in front of it. This was originally inaccessible, for a brook 
coming down on the one side, a chasm of the rocks on the 
other, and a ditch in front, made it impervious. But the 
late MacLeod built a bridge over the stream, and the 
present laird is executing an entrance suitable to the 
character of this remarkable fortalice, by making a portal 
between two advanced towers and an outer court, from 
which he proposes to throw a drawbridge over to the high 
rock in front of the castle. This, if well executed, cannot 
fail to have a good and characteristic effect." 

On the first night of his visit Scott slept in the haunted 
chamber of the castle, which is still pointed out, and he 
gives an account of his impressions in the last of his 
" Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft." He had 
previously slept in the haunted chamber of the ancient 
castle of Glamis in Strathmore, and his impressions here 
were somewhat similar. " Amid such tales of ancient 
tradition," he says, " I had from MacLeod and his lady 
the courteous offer of the haunted apartment of the castle, 
about which, as a stranger, I might be supposed interested. 
Accordingly I took possession of it about the witching 
hour. Except, perhaps, some tapestry hangings, and the 
extreme thickness of the walls, which argued great anti- 
quity, nothing could have been more comfortable than the 
interior of the apartment ; but if you looked from the 
windows, the view was such as to correspond with the 
highest tone of superstition. An autumnal blast, some- 
times clear, sometimes driving mist before it, swept along 
the troubled billows of the lake, which it occasionally con- 
cealed, and by fits disclosed. The waves rushed in wild 
disorder on the shore, and covered with foam the steep 
pile of rocks, which, rising from the sea in forms some- 
thing resembling the human figure, have obtained the 
name of MacLeod's Maidens, and, in such a night, seemed 
no bad representative of the Norwegian goddesses, called 
Choosers of the Slain, or Riders of the Storm. There was 
something of the dignity of danger in the scene ; for, on 
a platform beneath the windows, lay an ancient battery of 
cannon, which had sometimes been used against privateers 
even of late years. The distant scene was a view of that 
part of the Quillen mountains which are called, from their 


form, MacLeod's Dining-Tables. The voice of an angry 
cascade, termed the Nurse of Rorie Mhor, because that 
chief slept best in its vicinity, was heard from time to 
time mingling its notes with those of wind and wave. 
Such was the haunted room at Dunvegan." 

Among the characteristic relics in the castle, which' 
Scott saw, and which are still treasured there, were the 
drinking horn of Rorie Mhor, an ox's horn tipped with 
silver, which each chief of the MacLeods, on coming of 
age, was expected to drain at a single draught; the Dun- 
vegan cup, a beautifully chased and ornamented silver 
chalice of the fifteenth century, which Scott by a mis- 
reading of the inscription round its rim made out to date 
from 500 years earlier ; and the famous Fairy Flag said to 
have been given to a Chief of the MacLeods either by an 
Irish princess or a fairy bride, but which is most likely a 
trophy brought home from one of the crusades by some 
early warrior. "It is a pennon of silk with something 
like round red rough berries wrought upon it, and its 
properties," as, described by Scott, were that " produced 
in battle it multiplied the number of the MacLeods ; spread 
on the nuptial bed it ensured fertility; and, lastly, it 
brought herring into the loch." According to tradition 
the flag has already been twice displayed, and produced 
its expected results. When displayed for the third time 
it will have the same effect, but it and its bearer will forth- 
with disappear from earth. 

The Chief of MacLeod of Scott's time was busily 
engaged in planting trees and improving his estate. " If 
he does not hurry too fast," said the novelist, " he cannot 
fail to be of service to his people. He seems to think and 
act much like the chief, without the fanfaronade of the 
character." When Scott and his party left they were 
accompanied to the yacht by MacLeod himself, with his 
piper playing in the bows in proper style, and were sent 
off with a salute of seven guns from the castle. The 
episode concludes with the entry, " the Chief returns 
ashore with his piper playing ' The MacLeods' Gather- 
ing,' heard to advantage along the calm and placid loch, 
and dying as it retreated from us." 

Fifty years before Scott's time Dunvegan was visited 
by Dr. Samuel Johnson and his biographer Boswell, both 
of whom have left characteristic records of their impressions 
of the place. Also at a more recent day a brief visit was 
paid by the poet Alexander Smith, who has left some 
account of it in his well-known book, A Summer in 
Skye. More recently still, a very full and excellent 


account of the castle and its chiefs is to be found in Canon 
MacCulloch's charming volume, The Misty Isle of 

According to popular tradition, cited in Douglas's 
Baronage, the MacLeods were descended from the 
Norwegian kings of Man ; but there is equally strong 
reason to believe that, in the male line at least, they 
belonged to the ancient Celtic inhabitants of the country. 
They come first out of the mists of the past as allodial 
owners of Glenelg, the possession of which was confirmed 
to them in the person of Malcolm, son of Tormod, by 
David II. in the fourteenth century, in a charter under 
which the chief obliged himself to provide a galley of 
thirty-six oars for the king's use when required. Dun- 
vegan and the lands of Skye came into MacLeod's 
possession by marriage with a daughter of MacRaild, the 
heiress of a Norwegian chief. At the same time, the 
MacLeod chiefs appear to have been owners of lands in 
Harris and the Lewis. 

A younger brother of Tormod, already mentioned, 
Torquil MacLeod of the Lewis, married the heiress of the 
Chief of the MacNicols, and through her came into 
possession of the district of Assynt and other lands in 
Wester Ross, for which he obtained a charter from 
David II. His descendants became independent chiefs, 
and were known as the Siol Thorcuil or Race of Torquil, 
while the descendants of his elder brother were known as 
the Siol Thormod or Race of Tormod. At a later day the 
MacLeods of Assynt were represented by MacLeod of 
Raasa. These MacLeods of Lewis and Assynt had their 
own history, which was stirring enough. There is in 
particular the much-disputed episode of the arrest of the 
great Marquess of Montrose in 1651, which by some is held 
to have cast a stain upon the name, and by others is 
believed not to have been the work of MacLeod of Assynt 
at all, but of his wife or one of his clansmen in the ordinary 
course of duty in his absence. 

Meanwhile the MacLeods of MacLeod, the race of 
Tormod, with their seat at Dun vegan, played a most 
notable part in the history of the Western Isles. They 
were among the chiefs who fought on the side of Bruce, 
and a son of the Chief accompanied Donald of the Isles 
in the raid which ended at the battle of Harlaw in 1411. 
A typical incident of that history was the feud with the 
MacKays, of which the most outstanding incident was a 
bloody battle on the marches of Ross and Sutherland in 
Ihe first years of the fifteenth century, from which the 


onry survivor on MacLeod's side was a solitary clansman 
who made his way, seriously wounded, home to his native 
Lewis, told his tale and died in the telling of it. Another 
famous feud was that which followed the marriage of 
MacLeod of the Lewis with the widow of the Chief of 
the Mathiesons of Lochalsh, executed by James I. at 
Edinburgh in 1427. Disputes arose between MacLeod 
and his stepsons, the young Mathiesons. John, the elder 
of these, sought the protection of his maternal grandfather, 
Chief of the Macintosh's, and by and by, with the help 
of the latter, returned to claim his possessions. He 
attacked the castle of Lochalsh in which MacLeod and 
his wife defended themselves. When the stronghold was 
set on fire Mathieson, anxious to save his mother, stationed 
himself at the gate, and gave orders that she was to be 
allowed to pass. When she did so in the darkness and 
tumult, it was not noticed that she was taking with her, 
hidden under the wide folds of her arisaid or belted plaid 
the person of her husband, MacLeod himself. Presently 
the latter returned with a force of his own men from the 
Lewis, but was repulsed by young Mathieson, chiefly by 
the help of his bowmen, from which fact the battle is still 
called Blar nan Saigheadear. Making still another 
attempt to recapture the castle, MacLeod was slain and 
the feud ended. 

One of the great battles in which the MacLeods 
engaged with their enemies of the Isles is commemorated 
in the name of the Bloody Bay, on the coast of Mull, two 
miles north of Tobermory, where the Macdonalds, under 
Angus Og, son of the last Lord of the Isles, about 1484, 
overthrew the fleet of James III., fitted out by the Earls 
of Atholl and Argyll, and Macleod of Harris was slain. 

The MacLeods, however, were still to perform an act 
of friendship towards the MacDonalds. At the end of the 
fifteenth century, when James IV. was endeavouring to 
put an end to the constant clan troubles in the Hebrides, 
caused by the efforts to revive the broken power of the 
Lord of the Isles, Torquil MacLeod of the Lewis was the 
most notable of the chiefs who resisted the efforts of 
the king's lieutenants, first the Earl of Argyll and after- 
wards the Earl of Huntly. It was only by "the efforts of 
James IV. himself that the Islesmen were finally brought 
to peaceful submission. Last of them all, Torquil 
MacLeod who, by the way, was Argyll's brother-in-law, 
and had been forfeited by command of Parliament retired 
to his stronghold of Stornoway Castle. He had with him 
his relative, Donald Dubh, son of that Angus Og who had 


won the battle of the Bloody Bay, and claimant of the 
Lordship of the Isles. But in the end Stornoway Castle 
was captured by the Earl of Huntly, Donald Dubh driven 
to Ireland, and the insurrection of the Islesmen brought 
to an end. 

Perhaps the most tragic incident connected with Dun- 
vegan took place in the middle of the sixteenth century. 
In 1552 William, the ninth chief, died. In the absence of 
his two brothers, Donald and Torquil, the clansmen 
acknowledged as chief Ian the Fair-haired, a descendant 
of the sixth Chief of the MacLeods. Qn the return of 
Donald a meeting was held at Lyndale, when Ian the 
Fair-haired was again chosen chief. Donald thereupon 
retired to Kingsburgh. Here he was approached by Ian 
Dubh, a son of Ian the Fair-haired, with offers of friend- 
ship, and, being enticed to a meeting at midnight, was 
forthwith slain, with six of his followers. Ian the Fair- 
haired ordered the arrest of Ian Dubh, but died before it 
could be effected. His eldest son Tormod was dead, but 
had left three sons, to whom Donald Breac, the brother of 
Ian Dubh, was guardian. When Donald Breac and the 
three boys returned from the funeral they found Dun- 
vegan in possession of Ian Dubh, with the boys' mother 
a prisoner within. On Donald demanding possession, 
the doorway at the top of the narrow stair above the 
landing-place opened, and Ian Dubh appeared in full 
armour. Donald rushed up to the attack, but was presently 
slain. The three sons of Tormod were also put to the 
sword by Ian Dubh, who proceeded to shut up his remain- 
ing brothers, with the wives and children of the other 
leaders of the clan, in the castle dungeons. 

The Campbells now stepped in as guardians of Mary, 
the only child of the ninth chief, William. They landed 
with a large force at Roag in Loch Bracadale, met Ian 
Dubh in the church of Kilmuir, and arranged terms. Ian 
Dubh then invited the eleven Campbell chieftains to a 
feast at Dun vegan. The feast is said to have taken place 
in what is now the drawing-room of the castle. There 
each Campbell found himself seated between two 
MacLeods. At the end of the feast, instead of a cup of 
wine, a cup of blood was set before each guest, and forth- 
with at the signal each Campbell was stabbed in the throat 
by a MacLeod. 

The final scene in the drama took place in 1559. 

Torquil MacLeod, brother of the ninth Chief, then arrived 

to claim the chiefship, and a warder, Torquil MacSween, 

was induced to betray the castle. Hearing a noise, Ian 

VOL. n, H 


Dubh sprang from bed. Seeing all was lost he fled to his 
galley and escaped to Harris. Thence he made his way 
to Ireland, where presently he was seized by the O'Donnell 
chief, and horribly slain by having a red-hot iron thrust 
through his bowels. 

But the main feuds of the MacLeods were with the 
MacDonalds of the Isles, who were their own near neigh- 
bours in Skye. Already in the days of King Robert III. 
they had signally defeated that powerful clan, but it was 
towards the close of the sixteenth century that the most 
notable events in the feud occurred. In the latter part of 
the century the MacLeans of Mull were at bitter feud with 
the MacDonalds of Islay. In that feud they were 
generously helped by the MacLeods. One of the 
traditions of Dunvegan of that time is told in A Summer 
in Skye. On a certain wild night MacDonald of Sleat 
was driven on his barge into the loch, and forced to ask 
shelter from MacLeod. He was admitted with his piper 
and twelve followers, but at dinner, noticing the ominous 
boar's head upon the table, refused to leave his men and 
sit above the salt. Over the wine after dinner some bad 
blood was occasioned by MacDonald's boasting about his 
dirk and his powers of using it, and a serious tragedy 
might have occurred but for a sweetheart of one of the 
MacDonalds, who, as she passed her lover with a dish, 
whispered to him to beware of the barn in which he was 
to sleep. The man told his master, and, instead of going 
to sleep on the heaps of heather which had been prepared 
for them in the barn, the MacDonalds spent the night in 
a cave outside. At midnight the barn was a mass of 
flame, and the MacLeods thought they had killed their 
enemies; but presently, much to their astonishment they 
saw r MacDonald march past the castle with his twelve men, 
his piper playing a defiance to Dunvegan, and, before 
anything could be done, the barge set sail and sped down 
the loch. 

In the course of the warfare with the MacDonalds the 
most terrible event took place on the Isle of Eigg. The 
tradition runs that a small party of MacLeods had landed 
on that island, and ill-treated some of the women. They 
were seized, bound hand and foot, and set adrift in their 
own boat, but managed to reach Dunvegan. Forthwith, 
to avenge them, the MacLeod Chief sailed for Eigg. 
Seeing his overwhelming force the inhabitants of the 
island, some 200 in number, took shelter in a great cave 
which had a single narrow entrance. Their plan seemed 
successful. Macleod searched the island, but failed to 


find them, and at last set sail. Looking back, however, 
the MacLeods spied a man on the top of the island. 
Returning immediately, by means of his footsteps in a 
sprinkling of snow which had fallen, they traced him to 
the mouth of the cave. There they demanded that the 
persons who had set their men adrift should be given up 
for punishment. This was refused; whereupon MacLeod 
ordered his men to gather heather and brushwood. This 
was piled against the mouth of the cave and set on fire, 
and the blaze was kept up until all within were suffocated 
to death. 

By way of retaliation for this massacre, on a Sunday 
when the MacLeods of Vaternish were at service in the 
church at Trumpan, a body of MacDonalds from Uist, 
having landed at Ardmore, set fire to the fane, and burnt 
it with all its worshippers except one woman, who escaped 
through a window. The MacDonald galleys, however, 
and the smoke of the burning, had been seen from Dun- 
vegan, and MacLeod had sent out the Fiery Cross. As 
he came within sight, the MacDonalds rushed to their 
boats; but the tide had left them high and dry, and as 
they struggled to launch them the MacLeods rushed to the 
attack, and everyone of the MacDonalds was slain. The 
bodies of the dead were laid in a long row beside a turf 
dyke at the spot, and the dyke was overthrown upon them, 
from which fact the battle is known as Blar Milleadh 
Garaidh, the Battle of the Spoiling of the Dyke. A few 
years later the MacDonalds made another raid and swept 
off all MacLeod's cattle; but they were overtaken near the 
same spot, a terrible fight took place, and nearly every- 
one of the MacDonalds was killed. It is said that on each 
side, on this last occasion, a blacksmith remained fighting 
in full armour. The MacLeod blacksmith was beginning 
to faint from loss of blood when his wife came upon the 
scene, and with a cry struck the enemy with her distaff. 
MacDonald turned his head, and at the moment was run 
through and slain. In the same battle a son of MacLeod 
of Unish was fighting valiantly when a MacDonald rushed 
at him, and hewed off his legs at the knees. Nevertheless 
MacLeod continued to fight standing on his stumps, and 
the spot where at last he fell is still known after him as the 
Knoll of the Son of Ian. 

Again, at Cnoc a Chrochaidh, the hanging-hill in the 
same neighbourhood, another act of justice took place. 
A son of Judge Morrison of the Lewis had been on a visit 
to Dunvegan, and afterwards on Asay island had killed 
some MacLeods. He was pursued and overtaken here, 


and hanged on three of his own oars. Before the hanging 
he was told to kneel and say his prayers, and long after- 
wards some silver coins found in a crevice of the rocks 
were believed to have been treasure concealed by him 
during his devotions. 

It was at one of the battles near Trumpan that the fairy 
flag is believed to have been last displayed. 

Perhaps most famous of the MacLeod chiefs was 
Roderick or Ruarie More of Dunvegan, from whom the 
waterfall beside the castle takes its name. Along with his 
contemporary, Roderick MacLeod of the Lewis, he had 
resisted the order of King James VI. that all landowners 
in the Highlands must produce their charters. Accord- 
ingly the property of the two chiefs was declared forfeited, 
and an attempt was made to settle Lewis and Skye 
by a syndicate from the East of Scotland. The Fife 
Adventurers reached the Western Isles late in 1598, but 
they were not long allowed to remain at peace. In the 
Lewis, Neil MacLeod rushed the settlement at dead of 
night and slew fifty of the colonists, and after a renewed 
attack and slaughter the rest were forced to depart home. 
A second attempt of the same kind was made in 1605, and 
a third in 1609, with the same disastrous consequences. 
Also in 1607 an attempt was made to form a contract with 
the Marquess of Huntly to effect the civilisation of Lewis 
and Skye by exterminating the inhabitants, and it only 
failed because the Privy Council would not accept 
Huntly's offer of .400 Scots for the island. At the same 
time, Spens of Wormiston, who had received a grant of 
Dunvegan, was prevented by the MacLeod chief from 
obtaining possession, and at last in 1610 MacLeod was 
enabled to procure a free pardon, and was knighted by 
King James. It was this Chief who built Rorie More's 
Tower, and placed on it the effigies of himself and his 
lady, a daughter of Glengarry. He also added much to 
the family estates, and did his best to put an end to the 
ancient feuds with his neighbours. 

In the Civil Wars the clan fought on the Royalist side, 
and at the battle of Worcester it suffered so severely that 
the other clans agreed it should not be asked to join any 
warlike expedition until its strength was restored. As a 
result of his loyalty, in 1655 MacLeod was fined .2,500, 
and obliged to give security to the amount of ,6,000 
sterling for his obedience to the Commonwealth. 

The MacLeods were reported by General Wade in 
1715 to be 1,000 strong; and in 1745 MacLeod, it was said, 
could put 900 men in the field. He did not, however. 


join Prince Charlie, though many of his clansmen fought 
on the Jacobite side. 

A strange episode of that time, in which MacLeod was 
concerned, was the abduction of the unhappy Ladv 
Grange. The lady's husband, a judge of the Court of 
Session, was a brother of the Jacobite Earl of Mar. The 
marriage was most unhappy, and the lady is said to have 
threatened to reveal her husband's Jacobite plots. Then 
in 1731 it was given out that Lady Grange had died, and 
there was a mock funeral in Edinburgh. Meanwhile, with 
the aid of the MacLeod Chief and Lord Lovat, she was 
carried off, kept first on the Isle of Heiskar, to the west of 
North Uist, and afterwards at the lonely St. Kilda. In 
1741 she managed to send letters to her law agent, Hope 
cf Rankeillor, and the latter fitted out an armed vessel for 
her rescue. MacLeod, however, was forewarned, and had 
Lady Grange removed first to Harris and afterwards to 
Skye, where she wandered imbecile for some seven years. 
At last, in 1745, the year of Charles Edward's landing, 
she died. Another mock funeral then took place at 
Durinish, but she was really buried at Trumpan, where the 
Earl of Mar set up a monument to her memory a few years 
ago. Among the papers at Dunveg^an are still extant the 
accounts of the unfortunate lady's board and funeral. 

In later days the MacLeod chiefs have been noted for 
their benevolence, their endeavours for the improving of 
their estates, and their interest in the welfare of their 
clansmen. Among them none has been held in more 
affectionate regard than the present owner of Dunvegan. 
No Chief in the Highlands more faithfully cherishes the 
best traditions of the past, or more faithfully fulfils the 
obligations of the present, and none is more beloved by 
his people, or more worthy of their affection and esteem. 

Beaton Bethune 

Beton MacCaig 

MacClure MacCrimmon 

MacCuaig MacHarrold 

Macraild Norman 


Callum Lewis 

MacAskill MacAulay 

MacCallum MacCaskill 

MacCorkindale MacCorquodale 

MacLewis MacNicol 

Malcolmson Nicholl 

Nicol Nicoll 

Nicholson Nicolson 


BADGE : Dearcag monaidh (Vaccineum uliginosum) bilberry. 

ACCORDING to universal tradition the Macmillans are of 
the same blood as the Buchanans, and Skene in his 
Highlanders of Scotland derives both, along with the 
Monros, from the Siol O'Cain the race of O'Cain, other- 
wise O'Cathan of Clan Chattan. According to Buchanan 
of Auchmar, the immediate ancestor of the Macmillans is 
believed to have been a certain Methlan, second son of 
Anselan, seventh chief of Buchanan, who flourished in the 
reign of Alexander II., in the first half of the thirteenth 

Their original home, to which Skene thinks they must 
have been removed from North Moray by Malcolm IV., 
was at Lawers, on the north shore of Loch Tay, but from 
that possession they were driven in the reign of David II., 
the middle of the fourteenth century, by the Chalmerses, 
Chamberses, or Camerarii, who obtained a feudal charter to 
the lands, and who were themselves afterwards forfeited 
for the part they played in the assassination of James I. 
The Macmillan chief who was thus expelled had ten sons, 
certain of whom became progenitors of the Ardournag and 
other families in Breadalbane; but the chief migrated to 
Argyllshire, where he obtained a property from the Lord 
of the Isles in South Knapdale, and became known as 
Macmillan of Knap. Macmillan is said to have had his 
charter engraved in Gaelic on the top of a rock at the 
boundary of his land. 

The Macmillans are believed to have increased their 
possessions in Knapdale by marriage with an heiress of the 
MacNeil chiefs, and there is evidence that they became of 
considerable importance in the district. One of the towers 
of Sweyn Castle on the loch of that name is known as 
Macmillan 's Tower, and in the old kirkyard of Kilmorie 
Knap, where the chapel was built by the Macmillan chief, 
stands a cross more than twelve feet high richly sculptured 
with foliage, and showing a Highland chief engaged in a 
deer hunt, with the inscription, " Haec est crux Alexandri 



Facing page 378. 


Among traditions extant regarding these Macmillans of 
Knapdale is one of a certain Gillespie Ban. This indi- 
vidual was unfortunate enough while attending a fair to 
quarrel with a personage of some importance and to slay 
his man in hot blood. He fled and was instantly pursued. 
Managing to reach Inveraray Castle he rushed in, and 
making his way to the kitchen found the cook engaged in 
baking. Instantly procuring a change of clothes and an 
apron, he proceeded busily to kead barley bannocks, and 
when his infuriated pursuers came to the castle they took 
him for a regular domestic of the earl. The necessary 
respite being thus allowed him, a composition was made 
with the family of the man he had slain, and he was allowed 
to live thereafter in peace. He settled in Glendaruel, where 
his descendants were known, from the circumstances of his 
escape, by the patronymic of MacBacster, or " sons of the 

Another tradition runs that the line of the Macmillans 
of Knap ended with a chief who had a tragic experience. 
In order to defend the honour of his wife from the advances 
of a too powerful admirer he attacked and slew the man, 
and in consequence was forced to abscond. 

The main line then becoming extinct, the chiefship was 
assumed, rightly, it is believed, by Macmillan of Dunmore, 
on the south side of Loch Tarbert. This family also, 
however, died out, upon which a contention arose between 
the Campbells and MacNeils as to possession of the 
Macmillan lands. The matter was finally arranged, by 
means of mutual concessions, in favour of the Campbells, 
and in 1775 the estates were purchased by Sir Archibald 
Campbell of Inverneil. 

Meanwhile, at an earlier day, a branch of the chief's 
house had settled elsewhere. The reason for this occur- 
rence is the subject of a well-known tradition. A stranger, 
it appears, known as Marallach More, established himself 
in Knapdale and proceeded by his overbearing disposition 
to make himself objectionable to the Macmillans. He made 
himself especially obnoxious, it would appear, to one of the 
chief's sons, who lived at Kilchamag. The affair came to 
an open rupture, and at last, either in a duel or in a general 
fight, Macmillan killed the aggressor, but in consequence 
had to leave the district. With six followers he migrated 
to Lochaber, when he placed himself under the protection 
of Cameron of Lochiel and was settled on certain lands 
beside Loch Arkaig. 

Another tradition runs that the earliest seat of the 
Macmillans was on both sides of Loch Arkaig; that, on 


Lochaber being granted to the Lord of the Isles the clan 
became vassals of that powerful chief ; and that, when the 
Cameron's obtained possession of the district, the Mac- 
millans became in turn their dependants, in which situation 
ever after they remained. This tradition, however, seems 
to be negatived by the fact that Macmillan of Knap was 
recognised as Chief of the clan. 

Latterly, according to Buchanan of Auchmar, the Mac- 
millans in Lochaber, known from the district of their 
residence as the Clan Ghille Mhaoil Aberaich, dwelt in Muir 
Laggan, Glen Spean, and Caillie. Their military force was 
reckoned at one hundred fighting men ; they were among 
the trustiest followers of Lochiel, and were employed by 
him generally in the most desperate of his enterprises. 
One incident is on record which shows the esteem in 
which they were held by the Cameron chief. Late in the 
seventeenth century some cause of trouble arose between 
them and the MacGhilleonies, a sept of the Camerons, and, 
in a fight with twelve of these latter, one of the Macmillan 's 
was killed. In fear of consequences the twelve MacGhille- 
onies fled to the fastnesses of the hills, hoping to maintain 
themselves there till the Macmillans could be appeased. 
But the Macmillans demanded from Lochiel permission to 
pursue the aggressors, and threatened that if this permission 
were not granted, they would wreak their vengeance on the 
whole offending sept. Lochiel perforce gave leave, and 
the Macmillans set about the hunting of the fugitives with 
such energy, that in a short time, without the loss of life to 
themselves, though many of them were sorely wounded, all 
the twelve MacGhilleonies were either slain or captured. 

In more recent times one of the Lochaber Macmillans 
returned to the south, and taking up residence at 
Badokennan, near the head of Loch Fyne, became ancestor 
of the Macmillans of Glen Shera, Glen Shira, and others. 

Still another branch of the Macmillans have been for 
centuries settled in Galloway. According to tradition they 
are an offshoot of the Macmillans of Loch Tayside who 
went south when the chiefs of the clan were driven from 
Lawers by the Chalmerses. These Galloway Macmillans 
played a notable part on the side of the Covenanters in the 
latter part of the seventeenth century, and their doings are 
recorded by Wodrow, the chief historian of that page of 
Scottish history. The most noted of them was the Rev. 
John Macmillan, who published several controversial 
pamphlets, and was deposed for schismatic practices in 1703. 
He was the first pastor of the " Reformed Presbyterians," 
and ministered to the " remnant " from 1706 till 1743. 




i i 
















Even to the present time the Covenanters in Galloway are as 
often called Macmillanites as Cameronians. 

Another noted member of the clan was Angus Mac- 
millan, who emigrated to Australia in 1829, and discovered 
and explored the country south-west of Sydney, afterwards 
called Gippsland. 

Celebrated in yet another way was Daniel Macmillan, 
son of a small farmer at the Cock of Arran, who with 
his brother Alexander founded the great publishing firm 
of Macmillan & Co. in the middle of the nineteenth 
century, publishing Kingsley's Westward Ho in 1855 
Tom Brown's School Days in 1857. 


Baxter Bell 

Brown MacBaxter 


BADGE : Giuthas (Pinus sylvestris) pine. 
PIBROCH : Failte mhic an Abba. 

IT is recorded by Lockhart in his Life of Sir Walter Scott 
that the great romancer once confessed that he found 
it difficult to tell over again a story which had caught his 
fancy without " giving it a hat and stick." Among the 
stories to which Sir Walter was no doubt wont to make such 
additions were more than one which had for their subject 
the somewhat fantastic figure of Francis MacNab, chief of 
that clan, whose portrait, painted by Raeburn, is one of the 
most famous achievements of that great Scottish artist, and 
who, after a warm-hearted and somewhat convival career, 
died at Callander on 25th May, 1816. It was one of these 
presumably partly true stories, fathered upon the Chief, 
which Scott was on one occasion telling at the breakfast table 
at Abbotsford when his wife, who did not always understand 
the point of the narrative, looked up from her coffee pot, 
and, with an attempt to show herself interested in the matter 
in hand, exclaimed " And is MacNab dead? " Struck of a 
heap by the innocent ineptitude of the remark, Scott, says 
Lockhart, looked quizzically at his wife, and with a smile 
replied, " Well, my dear, if he isn't dead they've done him 
a grave injustice, for they've buried him." 

Another story of MacNab, told by Sir Walter, this 
time in print, had probably truth behind it, for it was in 
full agreement with the humour and shortcomings of the 
Chief. The latter, it is said, was somewhat in the habit of 
forgetting to pay all his outstanding debts before he left 
Edinburgh for his Highland residence at the western end of 
Loch Tay, and on one occasion a creditor had the temerity 
to send a Sheriff's officer into the Highlands to collect the 
account. MacNab, who saw the messenger arrive at 
Kinnell, at once guessed his errand. With great show of 
Highland hospitality he made the man welcome, and would 
not allow any talk of business that night. In the morning, 
when the messenger awoke and looked from his bedroom 
window, he was horrified to see the figure of a man 
suspended from the branch of a tree in front of the house. 



acing page 582. 


Making his way downstairs, he enquired of a servant the 
meaning of the fearful sight, and was answered by the man 
casually that it was " Just a bit tam messenger body that 
had the presumption to bring a bit o' paper frae Edinburgh 
to ta Laird." Needless to say, when breakfast time came 
the Sheriff's officer was nowhere to be found. 

Many other stories not told by Sir Walter Scott, were 
wont to be fathered upon the picturesque figure of the 
MacNab Chief. One of these may be enough to show their 

On one occasion, it is said, MacNab paid a visit to the 
new Saracen Head Inn in Glasgow, and, on being shown 
to his room for the night, found himself confronted with a 
great four-poster bed, a contrivance with which he had not 
hitherto made acquaintance. Looking at it for a moment 
he said to his man, " Donald, you go in there," pointing 
to the bed itself; " the MacNab must go aloft." And with 
his man's help he made his way to the higher place on the 
canopy. After an hour or two, it is said, he addressed his 
henchman. " Donald," he whispered; but the only reply 
was a snore from the happy individual ensconced upon the 
feathers below. " Donald, ye rascal," he repeated, and, 
having at last secured his man's attention, enquired, " Are 
ye comfortable doun there? " Donald declared that he was 
comfortable, whereupon MacNab is said to have rejoined, 
" Man, if it werena for the honour of the thing I think I 
would come doun beside ye! " 

The little old mansion-house of Kinnell, in which 
Francis, Chief of MacNab, entertained his friends not wisely 
but too well, still stands in the pleasant meadows on the bank 
of the Dochart opposite Killin, not far from the spot where 
that river enters Loch Tay. It is now a possession of the 
Earl of Breadalbane, but it still contains many curious and 
interesting pieces of antique furniture and other household 
plenishing which belonged to the old chiefs of the clan. 
Among these, in the little old low-roofed dining-room, 
which has seen many a revel in days gone by, remains the 
quaint gate-legged oak table with folding wings and 
drawers, the little low sideboard, black with age, with 
spindle legs and brass mountings, the corner cupboard with 
carved doors, the fine old writing bureau with folding top 
and drawers underneath, and the antique " wag at the 
wa' " clock still ticking away the time, between the two 
windows, which witnessed the hospitalities of the redoubt- 
able Laird of MacNab himself. Among minor relics in a 
case in the drawing-room are his watch, dated 1787, his 
snuff-box, seal, spectacles, and shoe buckles, while above 


the dining-room door are some pewter flagons bearing the 
inscriptions, probably carved on them by some guest : 

Here's beef on the board 

And there's troot on the slab, 
Here's welcome for a' 

And a health to MacNab. 


For warlocks and bogles 
We're nae carin' a dab, 
Syne safe for the night 
'Neath the roof o' MacNab. 

Besides old toddy ladles of horn and silver, great cut-glass 
decanters, silver quaichs, and pewter salvers, and a set of 
rare old round-bowled pewter spoons, some or all of which 
were MacNab possessions, there is the Kinnell Bottle 
bearing the following inscription: " It is stated the Laird 
had a bottle that held nine gallons (nine bottles ?) which was 
the joy of his friends. This holds nine bottles, the gift of 
a friend." The late Laird of Kinnell, the Marquess of 
Breadalbane, took great pains to collect and retain within 
the walls of the little old mansion as many relics as possible 
of its bygone owners, and amid such suggestive relics as 
" the long gun " of the MacNabs, a primitive weapon of 
prodigious length and weight; the old Kinnell basting- 
spoon, known as Francis's Porridge Spoon long enough 
to be used for supping with a certain personage ; and the 
actual brass candlestick which belonged to the terrible 
Smooth John MacNab presently to be mentioned, it is not 
difficult to picture the life which was led here in the valley 
of the Dochart by the old lairds of MacNab and their house- 

Kinnell is famous to-day for another possession, nothing 
less than the largest vine in the world. This is a black 
Hamburg of excellent quality, half as large again as that at 
Hampton Court. It has occupied its present position since 
1837, and is capable of yielding a thousand bunches of 
grapes in the year, each weighing a pound and a half, 
though it is never allowed to ripen more than half that 

Kinnell House of the present day, however, is not the 
original seat of the MacNab Chief. This was situated some 
hundreds of yards nearer the loch than the present mansion- 
house, and though no traces of it now exist, the spot is 
associated with not a few incidents which remain among the 
most dramatic and characteristic in Highland history. 

Most famous of these incidents is that which terminated 
the feud of the MacNabs with Clan Neish, whose head- 

Photo. T. & R. Annan & Sons. From ike Painting fry Si> Henry Raeburn. 


'acing page 384. 


quarters were at St. Fillans on Lochearnside, some twelve 
miles away. The two clans had fought out their feud in 
a great battle in Glen Boltachan, above St. Fillans. In 
that battle the Neishes had been all but wiped out, and the 
remnant of them, retiring to the only island in Lochearn, 
took to a life of plunder, and secured themselves from 
reprisals by allowing no boats but their own on the loch. 
After a time, however, encouraged by immunity, they went 
so far as to plunder the messenger of MacNab himself, as he 
returned on one occasion from Crieff with the Chief's 
Christmas fare. On news of the affront reaching Kinnell, 
MacNab became red with wrath. Striding into the room 
where his twelve sons sat, he told them of what had occurred, 
and ended his harangue with the significant hint, " The 
night is the night, if the lads were the lads." At that, it 
is said, the twelve got up, filed out, and, headed by Smooth 
John, so called because he was the biggest and brawniest 
of the household, proceeded to vindicate the honour of their 
name. Taking a boat from Loch Tay, they carried it in 
relays across the hills and launched it on Loch Earn. When 
they reached the island fastness of their enemies in the 
middle of the night, all were asleep but old Neish himself, 
who called out in alarm to know who was there. " Whom 
do you least wish to see? " was the answer, to which he 
replied, " There is no one I would fear if it were not Smooth 
John MacNab." " And Smooth John it is," returned that 
brawny individual, as he drove in the door. Next morning, 
as the twelve young men filed into their father's presence at 
Kinnell, Smooth John set the head of the Neish Chief on the 
table with the words, " The night was the night, and the 
lads were the lads." At that, it is said, old MacNab looked 
up and answered only " Dread nought 1 " And from that 
hour the Neish 's head has remained the cognisance 
and " Dread nought " the motto of the MacNab Clan. A 
number of years ago, as if to corroborate the details of this 
narrative, the fragments of a boat were found far up on the 
hills between Loch Tay and Loch Earn, where it may be 
supposed Smooth John and his brothers had grown tired of 
carrying it, and abandoned their craft. 

Many other warlike incidents are narrated of the clan. 
It has been claimed that the race were originally Mac- 
Donalds ; but from its location and other facts it seems now 
to be admitted that the clan was a branch of the Siol Alpin, 
of which the MacGregors were the main stem. From the 
earliest time the chiefs possessed extensive lands in the lower 
part of Glendochart, at the western end of Loch Tay. A 
son of the chief who flourished during the reign of David I. 


in the twelfth century, was abbot or prior of Glendochart, 
and from him the race took its subsequent name of Mac an 
Abba, or MacNab, " the son of the abbot." At the 
beginning of the fourteenth century, however, the MacNab 
Chief took part with his powerful neighbour, the Lord of 
Lome, on the side of the Baliols and Comyns, and against 
King Robert the Bruce. The king's historian, John Bar- 
bour, records that Bruce's brother-in-law, Sir Christopher 
Seton, was betrayed to the English and a fearful death by 
his confidant and familiar friend MacNab, and it is said 
the MacNabs particularly distinguished themselves in the 
famous fight at Dal Righ, near Tyndrum, at the western 
end of Glendochart, in which John of Lome nearly 
succeeded in cutting off and capturing Bruce himself. For 
this they came under Bruce's extreme displeasure, with the 
result that they lost a large part of their possessions. The 
principal messuage of the lands which remained to them 
was known as the Bowlain, and for this the chief received a 
crown charter from David II. in 1336. This charter was 
renewed with additions in 1486, 1502, and at other dates. 

Already, however, in the fifteenth century, the MacNabs 
had begun to suffer from the schemes and encroachments 
of the great house of Campbell, which was then extending 
its possessions in all directions from its original stronghold 
of Inch Connell amid the waters of Loch Awe. Among 
other enterprises the MacNabs were instigated by Campbell 
of Loch Awe to attack their own kinsman, the MacGregors. 
The upshot was a stiff fight near Crianlarich, in which the 
MacNabs were almost exterminated. After the fight, when 
both clans were considerably weakened, the Knight of 
Lochow proceeded to vindicate the law upon both of them, 
not without considerable advantage to himself. 

In 1645, when the Marquess of Montrose raised the 
standard of Charles I. in Scotland, he was joined by the 
Chief of MacNab, who, with his clansmen, fought bravely 
in Montrose's crowning victory at Kilsyth. He was then 
appointed to garrison Montrose's own castle of Kincardine, 
near Auchterarder in Strathearn. The stronghold, how- 
ever, was besieged presently by a Convenanting force under 
General Leslie, and MacNab found that it would be 
impossible to maintain the defence. Accordingly, in the 
middle of the night, he sallied forth, sword in hand, at the 
head of his three hundred clansmen, when all managed to 
cut their way through the beseiging force, except the Chief 
himself and one follower. These were made captive and 
sent to Edinburgh, where MacNab, though a prisoner of 
war, was accorded at the hands of Covenanters the same 



















treatment as they meted out at Newark Castle and elsewhere 

[ to the other adherents of Montrose, who had been captured 

j at the battle of Philiphaugh. MacNab was condemned to 

death, but on the night before his execution he contrived to 

escape, and afterwards, joining the young King Charles II., 

he followed him into England, and fell at the battle of 

1 Worcester in 1651. 

Meanwhile his house had been burnt, his charters de- 
stroyed, and his property given to Campbell of Glenurchy, 
kinsman of the Marquess of Argyll, then at the head of the 
; Covenanting party and the Government of Scotland. So 
reduced was the state of the house that MacNab 's widow 
was forced to apply for relief to General Monk, Cromwell's 
plenipotentiary in Scotland. That General ordered Glen- 
urchy, one of whose chief strongholds was Finlarig Castle, 
close to Kinnell on Loch Tay side, to restore the MacNab 
possessions to the widow and her son. The order, however, 
had little effect, and after the Restoration only a portion of 
the ancient lands were restored to them by the Scottish 

These lands might still have belonged to the MacNabs 
but for the extraordinary character and exuberant hospi- 
tality of Francis, the twelfth Chief, already referred to. 
Two more stories of this redoubtable personage may be 
repeated. He was deputed on one occasion to go to 
Edinburgh to secure from the military authorities clothing 
and accoutrements for the Breadalbane Fencibles, then 
being raised. The General in Command ventured to express 
some doubt as to the existence of the force, and MacNab 
proceeded to further his case with the high military authority 
by addressing him again and again as " My little man. 
MacNab himself, it may be mentioned, was a personage of 
towering height, and, with his lofty bonnet, belted plaid, 
and other appurtenances, made a truly formidable figure. 
The Fencibles being raised, he marched them to Edinburgh, 
and was much mortified on being stopped by an excise 
party, who took them for a party of smugglers carrying 
a quantity of whisky, of whom they had received intimation. 
MacNab, it is said, indignantly refused to stop, and on the 
excisemen insisting in the name of His Majesty, the Chief 
haughtily replied, " I also am on His Majesty's service. 
Halt! This, my lads, is a serious affair, load with ball." 
At this, it is said, the officers perceived the sort of personage 
they had to do with, and prudently gave up their attempt. 

By reason of the burdens accumulated on the estate by 
the twelfth Chief the greater part of the possessions of the 
family passed into the hands of the House of Breadalbane. 



Then the last Chief who had his home at Kinnell betool 
himself to Canada. At a later day he returned and sold the 
last of his possessions in this country, the Dreadnought 
Hotel in Callander. When he died he bequeathed all his 
heirlooms to Sir Allan MacXab, Bart., Prime Minister 
Canada, whom he considered the next Chief. But Su 
Allan's son was killed by a gun accident when shooting 
in the Dominion, and since then the chief ship has beei 
claimed by more than one person. Sir Allan MacNab'j 
second daughter, Sophia Mary, married the seventh Earl 

The chief memorial of the old MacXab family in Glen- 
dochart to-day is their romantic burying-place among the 
trees on the rocky islet of Inch Buidhe in the Dochart, 
little way above Kinnell. There, with the Dochart in it 
rocky bed singing its great old song for ever around theii 
dust, rest in peace the once fierce beating hearts of th( 
old descendants of the Abbot of Glendochart and the roval 
race of Alpin. 






Facing page 3S 


BADGE. : Lusan Albanach (azalea procumbeus) trailing azalea. 
SLOGAN : Fraoch Eilean. 

THROUGHOUT the legend-haunted Highlands, where every 
island, glen, and hillside has its strange and tender story 
of the past, no district is more crowded with old romance 
than that of Loch Awe. Here lay the heart of the old 
Oire Gaidheal, or Argyll the Land of the Gael head- 
quarters of the Scots after their early settlement in this 
country in the days of St. Columba. Even at that time 
the islands and shores of Loch Awe seem to have been a 
region of old wonder and story, and from then till now 
traditions have gathered about these lovely shores, till the 
unforgotten deeds of clansmen long since dust would 
make a book of which one should never tire of turning 
the pages. 

The origin of the loch itself is the subject of a legend 
which must have been told to wondering ears a thousand 
times in the most dim and misty past. According to that 
legend the bed of the loch was once a fair and fertile valley, 
with sheilings and cattle and cornfields, where the reapers 
sang at harvest time. It had always upon it, however, the 
fear of the day of fate. High on the side of Ben Cruachan, 
that mightier Eildon of the Highlands, with its strange 
triple summit, was a fairy spring which must always be 
kept covered. For generations this was jealously done, 
but as time went on and no trouble came, the folk grew less 
careful. At last one day a girl who went to draw water 
forgot to replace the cover on the spring. All night the 
water flowed and swelled in a silver flood, and when morn- 
ing broke, in place of the fertile valley, a far-reaching- 
loch, studded with islands like green and purple jewels, 
stretched away through the winding valleys of the hills. 

Each of the islands, again, has its own tradition more or 
less strange or romantic. Of these tales one of the earliest 
is that of Inis Fraoch. In English to-day the name is taken 
to mean the Heather Isle, but another origin is given to 
it in one of the early songs of Ossian, to be found in old 
Gaelic manuscript and tradition. According to this legend 
there grew on the island a tree, the apples of which possessed 
the virtue of conferring immortal youth. This tree and 
VOL. n. 389 i 


its fruit were jealously guarded by a fierce dragon. The 
hero, Fraoch, loved and was loved by the fair Gealchean, 
and all would have gone well had not the girl's mother, 
Mai, also become enamoured of the youth. Mai herself had 
once been a lovely woman, but the years had robbed her 
of her charms, and, moved by her passion, she became 
consumed with a desire to have these restored. She had 
heard of the apples of immortal youth which grew on Inis 
Fraoch, but the fear of the dragon which guarded them 
prevented her trying their efficacy. Driven at last to 
desperation, she induced Fraoch himself to go to the 
island and bring her the fruit. Fraoch set out, while Mai 
gave herself up to dreams of the effect which her restored 
charms would have upon him. As he secured the apples 
he was attacked by the dragon, and a terrible combat 
took place. In the end the beast was slain, but in the 
encounter Fraoch also received a wound, and the eager 
Mai had only received the fruit from his hand when she had 
the mortification to see him expire at her feet. 

At a later day Inis Fraoch became the stronghold of the 
MacNaughton chiefs. According to the Gaelic manuscript 
of 1450, so much relied upon by Skene in his Highlanders 
of Scotland, the clan was already, in the days of David I., 
a powerful tribe in the north, in the district of Moray. 
The name is said to be identical with the Pictish Nectan, 
and a shadowy trace of its importance in an earlier time is 
to be found in the names of Dunecht and Nectansmere in 
Fife, the latter famous for the great victory of the Picts 
in the year 685 over the invading forces of Ecgfrith the 
Northumbrian king, from which only a solitary fugitive 
escaped. Thirty-two years later, Nectan, son of Deriloi, 
was, according to Bede and Tighernac, the Pictish king 
who built Abernethy with its round tower on the lower 
Earn, and made it the capital of the Pictish Church. 
According to tradition, however, the clan took its name 
from Nachtan, a hero of the time of Malcolm IV., in the 
middle of the twelfth century. 

In keeping with the tradition of their Pictish origin, the 
chiefs are said to have been for ages Thanes of Loch Tay. 
Afterwards they are said to have possessed all the country 
between Loch Fyne and Loch Awe, and in 1267 King 
Alexander III. appointed Gilchrist MacNaughton heredi- 
tary keeper of the island and castle of Inis Fraoch on con- 
dition that when the king passed that way he should be 
suitably entertained by the MacNaughton chief. At the 
time of the wars of Bruce, Donald, chief of the MacNaugh- 
tons, being closely related to the great MacDougal Lords 


of Lome, at first took their side against the king. At the 
battle in the pass of Dalrigh, however, as described in 
Barbour's Bruce, MacNaughton, who was with the Lord 
of Lome, was a witness of the king's prowess in ridding 
himself of the three brothers who attacked him all at once 
as he defended the rear of his little army retreating through 
a narrow pass. The MacNaughton chief expressed his 
admiration of Bruce's achievement, and was sharply taken 
to task by the Lord of Lome : 

" It seems it likes thee, perfay, 
That he slays yon gate our mengye ! " 

From that time MacNaughton took the side of the king, 
and in the days of David II., Bruce's son, the next chief, 
Duncan, was a strong supporter of the Scottish Royal 
house. As a reward for the support of the clan, David II. 
conferred on the next chief, Alastair MacNaughton, all 
the forfeited lands of John Dornagil, or White Fist, and 
of John, son of Duncan MacAlastair of the Isles. The 
MacNaughton chief thus became a great island lord as well 
as the owner of broad lands in old Argyll. 

Another Alastair MacNaughton, who was chief in the 
time of James IV., was knighted by that king, and led his 
clan to battle in that great rush of the men of the High- 
lands and Isles which carried all before it at the beginning 
of the battle of Flodden. There, however, he himself fell. 
He was succeeded by two of his sons in turn, John 
and Malcolm of Glenshira.. This Malcolm's second son, 
another John, was noted for his handsome person. His 
good looks attracted the attention of James VI., who, while 
not particularly prepossessing himself, appears to have had 
a keen appreciation of a good presence in other men, and 
to have had a penchant for retaining them about his court. 
In this way the king " who never said a foolish thing and 
never did a wise one " kept near his person such men as 
the Bonnie Earl of Moray, Francis, Earl of Bothwell, Esme 
Stewart, Duke of Lennox, and George Villiers, Duke of 
Buckingham. For the same reason, on succeeding to the 
English throne, he made Glenshira's son one of his pages 
of honour. In this position John MacNaughton became 
a man of means, and, returning to his native district, 
purchased a good estate in Kintyre. 

The chiefs of MacNaughton were now at the summit of 
their fortunes. Alexander, Malcolm's eldest son and suc- 
cessor, was a well-known figure at the court of Charles I. 
In 1627, during the war with France, that king gave him a 
commission, " With ane sufficient warrant to levie and 


transport twa hundrethe bowmen," to take part against 
the country's enemies. This warrant is curious evidence 
of the use of an ancient weapon at that late period in the 
Highlands. The Laird of MacKinnon contributed part of 
the force, and the two hundred were soon got together and 
set sail. On the passage, however, they came near to 
disaster, their transport being twice driven into Falmouth 
and " Hetlie followit by ane man of warr " of France. 
The Highlanders happened to be accompanied by their 
pipers and a harper, and, according to Donald Gregory 
in the Archceologia Scotica, the Frenchman were prevented 
from attacking by the awe-inspiring sound and sight of the 
" Bagg-pypperis and marlit plaidis." In the civil wars of 
Charles I. MacNaughton remained a staunch Royalist, 
and at the court of Charles II., after the Restoration, as 
Colonel Macnachtan, he was a great favourite of that king. 
When he died at last in London, Charles buried him at his 
own expense in the chapel royal. 

John, the next chief, was no less staunch a Royalist. 
At the Revolution, with a strong force of his clan, he joined 
James VII. 's general, Viscount Dundee, and is said to 
have taken a leading part in the overthrow of King 
William's troops at Killiecrankie in 1689. After the battle, 
and the death of Dundee, he, with his son Alexander and 
the other leaders of the little Jacobite army, signed the 
letter of defiance sent to the commander of King William's 
forces, General MacKay ; and he also entered into a bond 
with other Jacobite chiefs, by which he undertook to appear 
with fifty men for the cause of King James, at whatever 
place and time might be appointed. The result of his 
Jacobite activities was disaster to his house. In 1691 an 
Act of Forfeiture was passed by the Scottish Parliament 
which deprived him of his estates. 

The wife of this chief was a sister of that crafty schemer, 
Sir John Campbell, fifth baronet of Glenurchie, who 
became, first, Earl of Caithness and afterwards Earl of 
Breadalbane and Holland ; and his son Alexander, already 
referred to, became a captain in Queen Anne's Lifeguards. 
He might have restored the family fortunes, but was killed 
in the expedition to Vigo in 1702. The chief ship then 
passed to his brother John, but the latter also died without 
heirs of his body, and the chiefship became extinct. 

Both Charles II. and James VII. had intended to confer 
substantial honours on the MacNaughton chiefs, the former 
with a charter of the hereditary sheriffship of Argyll, and 
the latter with a commission as steward and hereditary 
bailie of all the lands which he and his ancestors had ever 


possessed; but in the former case the patent, by reason 
of some court intrigue, never passed the seals, and in the 
second case, though the deed was signed by the king and 
counter-signed by the Earl of Perth, its purpose was 
defeated by the outbreak of the Revolution. 

In 1747, in the report made by Lord President Forbes 
on the strength of the Highland chiefs, the MacNaughtons 
appear as a broken clan, being classed with several others 
who inhabited the district. Like the MacArthurs, Mac- 
Alisters, MacGregors, MacNabs, and Fletchers, who had 
formerly flourished on the shores of Loch Awe, they had 
no longer a chief to lead them and further their interests, 
and the broad MacNaughton lands had passed for the most 
part into the hands of their shrewd neighbours, the 
Campbells. Memorials only of their ancient greatness 
are to be seen in the ruined stronghold of Inis Fraoch in 
Loch Awe, of Dunderaw, now restored, on the shore of 
Loch Fyne, of MacNachtan Castle in the Lews, and others 
in particular, belonging to a still earlier day, that of 
Dunnachton in Strathspey. 


Kendrick Hendry 

Maceol MacBrayne 

MacHendry MacKendrick 

MacKenrick Macknight 

MacNair MacNayer 

MacNiven MacNuir 

MacNuyer MacVicar 

Niven Weir 


OF the ancient races of the West and North which have 
been dignified with the title of the Great Clans, only one 
may be said to have fallen entirely to pieces in the course 
of time. The fact speaks volumes for the vitality of these 
warrior tribes, and the healthiness of the seemingly hard 
conditions amid which they lived and struggled. The 
conclusions of Skene in his Highlanders of Scotland have 
not always been approved by later writers, but it is worth 
noting that he identifies Clan Nicol with the Kairinoi of 
the early geographer Ptolemy. Skene identifies the Ness 
district of the Norwegian sagas with the region in the 
north-west of Scotland now known as Edyrachillis, 
Duirinish, and Assynt, and he declares that " the most 
ancient Gaelic clan which can be traced as inhabiting these 
districts is the clan Nicail or MacNicols." In the article 
on " Assynt " in the Statistical Account of Scotland, the 
Rev. William Mackenzie records that " Tradition and 
even documents declare that it was a forest of the ancient 
Thanes of Sutherland. One of these Prince Thanes gave 
it in vassalage to one Macrycul, who in ancient times held 
the coast of Coygeach, that part of it at the place presently 
called Ullapool. The noble Thane made Assynt over in 
the above manner, as Mackrycul had recovered a great 
quantity of cattle carried off from the county of Sutherland 
by foreign invaders." Mackenzie adds in a note, 
" Mackrycul is reputed by the people here to be the potent 
man of whom are descended the Macnicols, Nicols, and 
Nicolsons." According to the Gaelic genealogical manu- 
script of 1450, on which Skene founds so much of his 
writing regarding the clans, this account is probably 
correct, for in that manuscript the descent of the Clan 
Nicail is traced in a direct line from a certain Gregall, who 
is obviously the Krycul of the tradition. Further, as the 
letters r and n are interchangeable in Gaelic, it can easily 
be seen how Macrycul became MacNicail or MacNicol, of 
which the English translation is of course Nicolson. The 
recovery of the great herd of Sutherland cattle from 
Norwegian invaders is believed to have been accomplished 
by Macrycul or MacNicol of Coygeach some time in the 



Fatfng page 394. 


twelfth century. To accomplish such a feat he must have 
been at the head .of a considerable army or clan, so the 
probability is that the race of Krycul or Gregall had been 
chiefs at Ullapool for a long period before that. This 
would take their ancestry back to the days of Malcolm 
Canmore at least. 

About the time of the battle of Bannockburn the line 
of the MacNicol chiefs ended in an heiress who married 
Torquil, a younger son of MacLeod of the Lewis, and the 
pair obtained a Crown charter of the lands of Assynt and 
others which had been the MacNicol property. From this 
marriage descended fourteen successive MacLeod lairds 
of Assynt. It was one of these MacLeods of Assynt who 
in 1650 earned the execration of the Highlanders by 
handing over the Great Marquess of Montrose to the 
Covenanting Government at whose head was his 
implacable enemy, the crafty Marquess of Argyll. 
MacLeod was then in money difficulties, which perhaps 
explained his willingness to earn the Government reward. 
Ten years later his chief creditor, the Earl of Seaforth, 
foreclosed his wadsets and took possession of the Assynt 
estates. Still later Assynt was purchased by the Suther- 
land family. The more northern part of the old MacNicol 
country remained in other hands till MacLeod of 
Edyrachillis and Morison of Duirinish took occasion 
to engage in a feud, whereupon their neighbours the 
MacKays, then at the height of their power, stepped in 
and wrested these estates from both families, and from 
that time Edyrachillis and Duirinish became parts of the 
Lord Reay's country. 

Meanwhile, on the death of the last MacNicol of 
Coygeach, Assynt, Edyrachillis, and Duirinish, the 
chiefship of the clan had by patriarchal law, passed to the 
nearest male of the race, and the seat of this line was 
afterwards removed to Scoirebreac, a beautiful spot on the 
coast of Skye near Portree. Here they appear to have 
shown their piety, prevision, or ostentation by benefactions 
to the religious house, of which the ruins may yet be seen 
on an island at the head of Loch Snizort. A small chapel 
on the south side of the main buildings is still known as 
MacNicol's Aisle, and within it is to be seen the effigy of 
a warrior in conical helmet and long quilted coat or 
habergeon, who must have been a man of much power in 
his time. 

Of one of these chiefs of Scoirebreac a tradition is 
recorded which furnishes a curious illustration of the 
ancient ideas of clan honour and the rules of blood 


vengeance. The chief concerned, known as MacNicol 
Mor, from his great size, was one day engaged in a warm 
discussion with MacLeod of Raasay, his neighbour across 
the sound. At the height of the debate MacLeod's 
servant came into the room. The two were talking in 
English, so the man did not know the meaning of what 
was said, but under the impression that a serious quarrel 
was on foot, he drew his sword and dealt MacNicol a blow 
from which he died. To decide how the deed should be 
avenged and a feud between the two families avoided, a 
meeting of chiefs and elders was at once called. These 
men of wisdom decided that as the MacNicol chief had 
been slain by the hand of a menial MacLeod, the Laird of 
Raasay should be beheaded by the meanest of MacNicol's 
clansmen. The humblest of the latter was found to be 
one Lomach, a maker of horse panniers, and by him 
Raasay was duly put to death. The execution took place 
near Snizort. At the fatal moment the victim was in the 
act of speaking, and so deftly did Lomach take off his head 
that as it rolled down the hill the onlookers distinctly 
heard the sounds " ip ip " from its lips. From this 
circumstance the little mount was afterwards known as 
Cnoc an h-ip. It is satisfactory to know that the sacrifice 
of the Laird of Raasay prevented all further shedding of 
blood between the MacLeods and the MacNicols. 

Stories of the MacNicols of Scoirebreac come down to 
the beginning of the nineteenth century. About that 
time, according to the author of the letterpress in M'lan's 
Clans of the Scottish Highlands, at a banquet of the 
clansmen given to celebrate some joyful occasion, there 
was a call for the bards to come to the upper end of the 
room. Convinced of the hopelessness of the summons 
MacNicol of Scoirebreac exclaimed, " The bards are 
extinct I ' He was promptly taken to task by one of the 
company, Alastair bui' Mac Ivor, who retorted, " No, 
they are not extinct, but those who delighted to patronise 
them are gone." 

While the seat of the MacNicol chiefs was in Skye 
there were many of the name scattered throughout the 
county of Argyll, and of these there were several 
individuals whose characteristics or exploits have been 
perpetuated in tradition. One of them, reputed to be a 
seer, obtained the name of Gualan Crostadh from his rule 
never to look behind him. For the same reason he was 
also known as " an Teallsanach " or the Philosopher. 
As might be expected of such a personage, a crop of 
stories was long extant regarding him. Another of the 


clan, Gillespie MacNicol, attained fame by a rescue he 
effected at somewhat serious cost to himself. After the 
last Jacobite rising a widow's son had fallen into the 
hands of the " red soldiers," as Government troops were 
called, and they were carrying him off, when the redoubt- 
able Gillespie came to the rescue. Attacking the soldiers, 
he slew one or two, put the others to flight, and set the 
captive free. Unluckily, as he did so, he received a 
swordstroke in the face which carried off his nose. 

Strangely enough, notwithstanding the evident import- 
ance of the MacNicols in their early days, the clan seems 
never to have had a tartan. After the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, when the heiress of the early line of 
chiefs married a MacLeod, they seem to have merged in 
the following of that clan, and probably they adopted the 
MacLeod tartan. 

Among members of the clan who have attained more 
than local repute was the Rev. Donald MacNicol, whose 
best known work was his defence of the Highlands against 
the accusations made by Dr. Samuel Johnson in his 
lourney to the Hebrides. Of the same period also were 
the Rev. Francis Nicoll, D.D., Principal of St. Leonard's 
and St. Salvator's Colleges, St. Andrews, and Robert 
Nicoll, the poet who became editor of the Leeds Times in 
1836. Still later were the Nichols, father and son, 
professors, one of astronomy and the other of English 
literature at Glasgow University. There was also 
Alexander Nicolson, the Gaelic scholar who died Sheriff- 
Substitute of Greenock in 1893. He is chiefly remembered 
by his revision of the Gaelic Bible and his collection of 
Gaelic proverbs. One of the ablest journalists of recent 
times, too, was Sir William Robertson Nicol, founder of 
The British Weekly and " discoverer " of Sir J. M. Barrie 
and other well-known writers. 

It should be noted that the lowland name Nicholson, 
once represented by the Nicholsons of Carnock, a family 
now merged, with the Shaws of Greenock, in that of the 
Stewarts of Blackball and Ardgowan, are not of the 
MacNicol clan. Their name, like that of the English 
Nicholls, is derived from the original form Nicholas. 


BADGB : Luibheann (Octopetala) Dryas; or Feamainn Algae. 

SLOGAN : Biolacreag. 

PIBROCH : Spaidsearachd Mhic Neill Bharra. 

ONE of the most interesting places in the Outer Hebrides 
at which the steamer puts in is Castle Bay in Barra. As 
one of the safest harbours in the Minch this has, in recent 
years, become a great fishing port. The island ordinarily 
has a population of about 2,000, but during the herring 
season this is increased several times over. The " land " 
is nothing to speak of, for it consists mainly of absolutely 
bare rocks worn by the Atlantic storms of thousands of 
years. The houses of the old crofters and clansmen of 
former days, which may still be seen, are almost as 
primitive, being little more than oblong enclosures of 
great stones piled together, their interstices merely filled 
with peat, and their thatch roofs tied down with cords and 
old fishing nets. They have the smallest of windows, 
and, for a chimney, merely a hole to let the smoke out. 
Probably the crofters always obtained their livelihood 
chiefly from the harvest of the sea. In time of scarcity, 
indeed, it is said they were able to subsist altogether on 
the cockles which they obtained in hundreds of horse- 
loads at a time from the sands of one famous beach. But 
of late years, since the coming of the railway to Oban and 
Mallaig, with a fleet of steamers in connection, to buy up 
the fish and carry them swiftly to market, the profits of 
this harvest have been vastly increased, and the results 
are to be seen in the well-built stone cottages which have 
sprung up, and the general air of business and prosperity 
which fills the place. While heaps of herring barrels are 
piled on the shore, the bay is full of fishing craft delivering 
their catch of the previous night, and there are great sheds 
full of active and happy women, cleaning, salting, and 
packing the fish, to be shipped by and by on the waiting 
steamers for transport to the great centres of industry. 

In the midst of all this bustle and business appears, 
strangely enough, the silent and significant monument of 
an older time. Ciosmal, or Kismul Castle, on an island 
in the bay, with its great square walls and scarcely broken 



Facing page 7 


battlements, speaks of a time when the island lords and 
chiefs of clans held their own in these outer isles, and 
defied the power even of the king of Scotland himself to 
enforce the law of the realm. The stronghold is stated 
to have been an arsenal of the Norsemen during their 
dominion in the Isles. 

Kismul Castle was the seat of the MacNiels of Barra, 
chief of one of the most ancient of the island clans, and 
also one of the proudest and most independent. In his 
Account of the Western Highlands, written early in the 
eighteenth century, Martin describes a visit here, and his 
failure to gain admission to this jealously guarded strong- 
hold. " There is," he says, " a stone wall round it two 
storeys high, reaching the sea, and within the wall there 
is an old tower and a hall, with other houses about it. 
There is a little magazine in the tower, to which no 
stranger has access. ..." The tower was kept by a 
gocman, or warder, who paced the battlements night and 
day, and, without the express sanction of MacNiel himself, 
would admit no one within the walls. Martin asked to be 
ferried over to the stronghold, and was referred to the 
constable of the castle. He accordingly sent a request to 
that authority, but though he waited for some hours he 
received no reply, and was forced to come away without 
gaining access to the place. He learned afterwards that 
MacNiel happened to be from home, and that the con- 
stable and gocman could not admit a stranger on their own 
responsibility. Though the proud old castle is now 
inhabited only by ravens and hoodie crows, with perhaps 
an otter or two which take their living, like the clansmen 
themselves, from the shoals of fish in the waters around, 
it is still a stern and stately old place, strikingly suggestive 
of the bold and fierce life of its masters of other days. 

The antiquity of the race of MacNiel is undoubted. It 
is indicated in the jocular tradition that the chief of the 
clan, on the occasion of the great flood of the Biblical 
narrative, refused Noah's offer of hospitality, saying that 
14 the MacNiel had a boat of his own I " The name Niel, 
or Nial as it was originally spelt, is at any rate one of the 
oldest Celtic personal names, and the clan which owns it 
to-day may possibly bear some relationship to the Hy Nial, 
or ancient royal race of Ireland. The first of the Scottish 
race whose name appears in a charter is Nial Og, or the 
younger. The charter is of the reign of Robert the Bruce. 
The clan was at that time located in the Knapdale district 
of Argyllshire, and the chiefs were hereditary constables 
of the castle on Loch Swin. Along with their possessions 


in Knapdale, the MacNiel chiefs probably owned at that 
time, and for centuries before, the island of Gigha, three 
and a half miles off the Kintyre coast. Here, at any rate, 
is the ancient burying place of the MacNiels. According 
to Martin, already quoted, " most of all the tombs have a 
two-handed sword engraven on them, and there is one 
that has the representation of a man upon it." It was in 
Gigha that in 1263 John of the Isles met Haco, the 
Norwegian king, on his way to the battle of Largs, 
and refused to join him and renounce allegiance to 
Alexander III. MacNiel was possibly the host on that 
historic occasion. In any case he would almost certainly 
be present at the meeting, which was to have such far- 
reaching consequences. 

The son of MacNiel of Bruce's time was Murchadh or 
Murdoch, and his son again was Ruari or Roderick. By 
a charter of the time of James I., dated 1427, Ruari 's son 
Gilleonan was settled in Barra. The charter conveyed to 
him also the lands of Boisdale in Uist, but on his attempt- 
ing to take possession of that property he was opposed 
by Ian Garbh MacLean of Coll, who asserted a previous 
right. In the struggle which followed Gilleonan was 
slain. His son, however, another Gilleonan, on i2th 
August, 1495, obtained another charter, confirming him 
de novo in all his possessions, and for centuries the 
clachan clustering round the head of the Castle Bay was 
known as Baile Mhicneill, or Macneil-town. The son of 
this chief, still another Gilleonan, played an active part in 
the rebellious activities of his feudal superior, the Lord of 
the Isles, which activities ended in the death of John, 
fourth and last Lord of the Isles, as a landless and 
impoverished wanderer in the purlieus of Dundee^ in 1498. 

Though the MacNiels of Barra have invariably been 
declared by tradition to be the chiefs of the clan, the 
MacNiels of Gigha were, from an early time, owing to the 
distance and the stormy seas separating Gigha and Barra, 
forced to fend for themselves, and the Gigha family made 
a claim to independent chiefship. In 1493 Malcolm 
MacNiel of Gigha, the head of that house, was a personage 
of much importance in the West Highlands. 

Like the other supporters of the rebellious Lords of the 
Isles, the MacNiel chiefs were the subject of many 
attempts at suppression and control by the Stewart kings, 
but, secure in their far western fastnesses, they laughed at 
the royal summonses and flouted the royal commands to 
attend trial, and accordingly the Parliamentary records 
of that time again and again contain the note " MacNele 






















saepe vocatus sed non compare!. " For a century after 
the downfall of the last Lord of the Isles the MacNiels of 
Barra continued this haughty demeanour. Upon the 
forfeiture of John of the Isles they had become holders 
direct of the crown, but this seems to have made no differ- 
ence in their habit of disregarding the royal mandate. 
As an instance of their pride the tradition may be recalled 
that when the Laird of Barra had dined, a herald used to 
sound a horn from the battlements and make proclama- 
tion : " Hear, O ye people, and listen, O ye nations I 
The great MacNiel of Barra having finished his meal, 
the princes of the earth may dine ! ' 

Roderick MacNiel of Barra, chief of the clan in the 
reign of James VI., was so well known for this 
characteristic as to be named " Rory the Turbulent." 
He went so far, at last, as to seize an English ship on his 
island coast. News of this act being conveyed to the 
English court, Queen Elizabeth complained to the Scottish 
king of the act of piracy. Accordingly MacNiel was 
summoned to Edinburgh to answer for his act. This 
summons he treated with contempt, and several efforts 
made to apprehend him proved ignominiously unsuccess- 
ful. At last, however, MacKenzie, the tutor of Kintail, 
undertook to effect his arrest. His plan was to use 
stratagem where force had failed. Accordingly he came 
ostensibly on a friendly visit to Kismul Castle. In the 
interchange of hospitalities he invited MacNiel and his 
retainers on board his ship. There they were treated so 
well, especially with strong waters, that presently they 
were all reduced to helplessness. The retainers were 
then put on shore, and the vessel hoisted sail under cover 
of night, and was soon far beyond reach, with the 
unconscious MacNiel on board. The chief was carried 
to Edinburgh, and immediately put upon his trial. He 
confessed to the seizure of the English ship, but declared 
that he had thought himself bound, as a loyal subject, to 
avenge the injury done by the Queen of England to the 
king's mother and to James himself. This answer secured 
his life, but his estate was forfeited and given to Kintail. 
The latter then restored it to MacNiel, on condition that 
he should hold it of him, and pay sixty merks Scots as a 
yearly feu duty. Some time afterwards, on the marriage 
of a daughter of Kintail to Sir James MacDonald of 
Sleat, the superiority of Barra was conveyed to MacDonald 
as part of the lady's dowry. 

Rory the Turbulent died as he had lived, though the 
final act of his life was as conspicuous for its loyalty as 


his earlier behaviour had been for contempt of the royal 
commands. When the young Earl of Argyll was com- 
missioned by James VI. to proceed against the Catholic 
lords, Angus, Errol, and Huntly, MacNiel joined the 
royal army with his clan, and at the battle of Glenlivet, in 
which Argyll was so signally defeated, he is said to have 
displayed prodigies of valour before he fell at the head of 
his followers. 

The MacNiels of Barra intermarried with the families 
of Clan Ranald, MacLeod, Cameron, Duart, and others of 
chief consequence in the West and the Isles. In the 
earlier part of the nineteenth century the chief of the clan, 
Lieut.-Colonel MacNiel, who was a Deputy Lieutenant of 
Inverness-shire, was one of the most enterprising of the 
island landlords, introducing manufactures, promoting 
agriculture, and improving the native breed of cattle. He 
abandoned Kismul Castle as a residence and built the 
mansion of Eoligearry at the north end of the island. He 
was an extremely handsome man, adored by his people, 
who ruined themselves to save him from ruin. In 1840, 
however, he sold Barra to Colonel Gordon of Cluny for 
,38,050, and so severed the connection of his family with 
the island which had existed for more than four hundred 
years. The present head of the house of the Barra family 
is the forty-fifth chief. He is a Fellow of the Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland and has his home in the United 
States of America. In April, 1918, he received from the 
United States Government the appointment of Assistant 
to the Bureau of Imports, War Trade Board. 

Thus far have we travelled from the old days when the 
gocman challenged from the battlement of Kismul Castle, 
and MacNiel from his island fastness defied the mandates 
even of the Scottish kings. The fame of the ancient island 
chiefs is likely to remain in memory, however, as long as 
the music and song of the Isles are remembered, for one of 
the most beautiful of the Hebridean songs lately collected 
and given to the world by Mrs. Kennedy-Fraser, is that 
known as " Kismul's Galley." 


MacNeilage Neal 

MacNelly Neill 



Facing page 402. 


BADGE : Giuthas (pinus sylvestris) pine. 

THE Siol Alpin, descended from the early Scottish king 
of that name, and comprising the MacGregors, Grants, 

ilackinnons, MacQuarries, MacNabs, and MacAulays, 
jhave always prided themselves upon being the most 
jancient and noble of the Scottish clans. In the well- 
jknown Gaelic MS. of 1450, Clan Dhubhie is shown to 
be of the same descent. The prefix " dhu " in their name 
indicates that they were of a dark race, which corroborates 
jtheir Celtic origin, in contrast with the fair-haired Nor- 
wegians who for so many centuries colonised and 
dominated the Western Isles. Though the 1450 MS. 
j details their genealogy, little is known of their early 
history, except that they were the most ancient inhabitants 
I of the island of Colonsay. With that island Oronsay is 
] connected at low water, the two together making a 
pleasant domain some ten miles long by one to three miles 
broad. Here St. Columba and his companion St. Oran 
landed first on their way from Ireland in the year 563, 
and gave their names to the islands. Here, in conse- 
quence, a monastery of Canons Regular of St. Augustine 
was founded at a later day, and colonised with monks 
; from Holyrood. The priory, which still stands on Oron- 
say, is, next to lona, esteemed the finest relic of religious 
antiquity in the Hebrides. Martin, in his tour in the 
Hebrides in 1703, describing it, says : " On the south side 
of the church within, lie the tombs of Mac-Duffie and of 
the cadets of his family : there is a ship under sail and a 
two-handed sword engraven on the principal tombstone, 
and this inscription ' Hie jacet Malcolumbus Mac-Dufrie 
de Colonsay ' : his coat of arms and colour-staff is fixed 
in a stone, through which a hole is made to hold it. ... 
About a quarter of a mile on the south side of the church 
there is a cairn, in which there is a stone cross fixed, called 
Mac-Duffie's Cross, for when any of the heads of this 
family were to be interred, their corpses were laid on this 
cross for some moments on their way toward the church." 1 

1 In most accounts the location of this tombstone and cross is 
erroneously stated to be lona. 



The Malcolm MacDuffie of Colonsay thus commemorated 
corresponds with a chief of this name who appears in the 
1450 MS., at the period to which experts assign the carving 
of the stone. The " ship under sail " of the description 
is the galley or lymphad which was the insignia of an 
Island chief. 

Martin also says, " There is an altar in this church and 
there has been a modern crucifix on it, in which several 
precious stones were fixed. The most valuable of these 
is now in the custody of Mac-Duffiie in Black Raimused 
village, and it is used as a catholicon for diseases." 

Monro, Dean of the Isles, in his description of Colon- 
say, says the island " was the property of ane gentle 
Captain called Mac Phie, but perteined of auld to clan 
Donald of Kintire." This writer seems, however, to have 
put the cart before the horse. The MacPhees came before 
the Macdonalds as owners of the island. In early times, as 
was natural on account of their geographical situation, the 
Chiefs of Colonsay appear to have been supporters of the 
Macdonald Lords of the Isles. According to the Register 
of the Great Seal (VI., 17), on i2th April, 1463, Donald 
MacDuffie appears as witness to a charter by John Earl of 
Ross and Lord of the Isles, executed at the Earl's castle 
at Dingwall. In the time of the Lords of the Isles Mac- 
Phee of Colonsay is said to have kept the records of the 
Isles. After the forfeiture of the last Macdonald Lord 
of the Isles in 1493, the MacDuffie chiefs appear to 
have attached themselves to the Macdonalds of Islay. 
In 1531, there is mention of a certain MacDuffie chief, who 
bore the name of Murroch, or Murdoch. 

In the beginning of the seventeenth century the Lairds 
of Colonsay were probably at the height of their conse- 
quence. In 1609, Donald MacPhee of Colonsay was one of 
the twelve chiefs and gentlemen who met the Bishop of 
the Isles, representing the King, and at lona gave assent 
to the nine celebrated " Statutes of Icolmkill." Shortly 
afterwards, however, the fortunes of the family seem to 
have taken an unhappy turn. In 1615, on the escape of 
Sir James Macdonald of Islay from Edinburgh Castle, he 
was joined by Malcolm MacPhee of Colonsay, and in the 
troublous times which followed, the latter was one of the 
chief leaders of disturbance. The business ended tragic- 
ally. Along with eighteen others he was delivered up to 
the Earl of Argyll by Coll MacGillespie Macdonald, well 
known afterwards in the wars of Montrose as " Colkitto," 
being Ciotach or left-handed. By Argyll he was brought 
before the Priw Council. In the end he came to his 

death by violence. In the Council Records for 1623 
appears an entry detailing an accusation against Colkitto of 
being " airt and pairt guilty of the felonie and cruell 
slaughter of umquhill Malcolm Macphie of Collonsay." 

From that time the estates of the Chiefs appear to have 
passed into possession of the Macdonalds, and at a later 
day they became a patrimony of the Macneils, while the 
MacPhees became a " broken " clan, and their numbers 
formed only a small proportion of the inhabitants of 

A branch of the clan then settled in Lochaber and 
attached itself to the Camerons, by whom it was much 
esteemed for its bravery. At the battle of Culloden, when 
the Camerons made the furious onset which nearly annihi- 
lated the Duke of Cumberland's left wing, the MacPhees 
furnished part of their strength, and suffered proportion- 
ately. The story is told of one of them, engaged in the 
attempt to prevent the dragoons getting through the wall 
which protected the right flank of the Highland army, 
that he cut down a horse and its rider, but, failing to clear 
himself in time, received a kick from the animal which 
broke his spine. He was carried from the field next day 
and lived long afterwards, but went through life to the 
last bent to the ground and hobbling on a stick. 

As late as the middle of the nineteenth century the 
traditions of the clan were revived by a deserter from the 
army, named Ewen MacPhee. This individual with his 
wife and family took possession of an island in Loch 
Oich in the Great Glen, and set up as an outlaw, paying 
no rent, prepared to defend himself with a loaded rifle, and 
supporting himself by means of a herd of goats and such 
game and fish as he managed to secure. Still more lawless 
was the career of Edward Duffy, the Fenian leader in 
Connaught who was sentenced to fifteen year's penal 
servitude in 1867. 

More creditable to the clan was the career of Robert 
Andrew Macfie, M.P. for Leith Burghs, from 1868 to 1874, 
who was notable as an advocate of free trade, helped to 
found Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, and published 
several works dealing with patents, copyright, and political 


Duffie Duffy 

MacGuiffie MachafiSe 

VOL. U, 

BADGE : Lus nam braoileag (vaccinium vitis idaea) red whort 


SLOGAN : Creag dim ! 
PIBROCH : Creag Dhubh Chlann Chatain. 

GREAT has been the discussion, since ever an interest 
came to be taken in these things, regarding the origin of 
the famous Clan Chattan. Eager to derive the clan from 
an antiquity as remote as possible, its historians have 
claimed that it represents the early Catti of Gaul mentioned 
by Tacitus. They aver that this tribe, driven from its 
native lands by the Romans, settled in the remote north of 
Scotland, to which it gave the name of Cattiness or Caith- 
ness. Fantastic stories are told also of early settlers who 
took possession of a district in the north formerly infested 
by dangerous numbers of wild cats, which the new settlers 
destroyed. Another derivation of the name is from cat or 
catti, a weapon, and still another from Catav Gaelic, 
cad, high, and tobh, a side, the high land of the Ord of 
Caithness. But the most probable appears to be the 
theory of tradition which derives the name simply from 
Gillecattan Mhor, " the big servant of St. Katan," who 
appears as a fairly authentic personage of the time of 
Malcolm Canmore, and whose ancestor, according to 
tradition, was one of the Gaelic settlers who came ov< 
from Ireland to Scotland in those early centuries. Th 
elder line, descended from this Gilliecattan Mhor, came 
an end in the person of an only daughter named Eva, wh 
in 1291 married Angus, the young chief of the Mac 
Intoshes. This individual received from his father-in-la\ 
not only part of the old Clan Chattan lands of Glenlui an 
Loch Arkaig, but also, it is said, an investiture as chief c 
Clan Chattan itself. There was, however, it appears, 
younger male line descended from Gilliecattan Mhor. Th 
representative of this younger line in the twelfth century wa 
a certain Muirich, priest or parson of the Culdee church s 
Kingussie. The priests of this church were not bound t 
celibacy. Indeed one of the reasons for the introductio 
of the Roman Church at that time was the abuse of t." 



Facing page 406. 


office by the Culdee priests, who were accused of alienating 
the church land in favour of their own families. The Mac- 
phersons are said to be descended from Kenneth, son of 
Ewen Baan, second of the five sons of this Muirich, from 
whom they take their names of Macmhurich, son of 
Muirich, or Macpherson, son of the parson. It is through 
this descent that the Macphersons claim to be chiefs of the 
old Clan Chattan, declaring that it was not in the power 
of a Highland chief to transfer the chiefship through a 
daughter to another family. 

The Macphersons are said to have acquired their posses- 
sions in Badenoch from King Robert the Bruce as a reward 
for certain services in expelling the Comyns from that 
district, but it is also possible that they had retained 
possession of some of the lands of the old Culdee Church 
cf which their ancestor Muirich had been parson there. 
They emerge into history as a body of considerable strength 
in 1370 or 1386. In one or other of these years, the 
Camerons, who had retained actual possession of the old 
Clan Chattan lands of Glenlui or Loch Arkaig in despite 
of the Mackintosh chiefs, had made a raid, four hundred 
strong, on the Mackintosh lands in Strath Nairn, and were 
returning home through Badenoch, when they were over- 
taken by Mackintosh, supported by his relatives, the chiefs 
of the Macphersons and the Davidsons. 

The fact that Mackintosh was in command has been 
claimed by his clansmen to prove that he was recognised by 
the Macphersons and Davidsons as Chief of Clan Chattan. 
But the fact that the personal quarrel was his might 
sufficiently account for his leadership there, and it is 
significant that both the Macphersons and the Davidsons 
found occasion to assert the seniority of their descent on 
the spot. The question arising as to who should have 
the place of honour on the right flank, the Macpherson 
chief claimed it as chief of the old Clan Chattan, and 
the Davidson chief claimed it as head of the senior cadet 
branch of that clan. Mackintosh assigned the post to 
the Davidsons, and as a result the Macphersons straight- 
way withdrew their assistance. In the battle which 
followed at Invernahavon, Mackintosh, thus weakened, 
suffered defeat. There is a tradition that he then sent 
to the Macpherson camp a minstrel who taunted these 
clansmen with cowardice, and that, enraged in consequence, 
they flew to arms, attacked the Camerons, and completely 
routed them. 

According to some it was the difference between the 
different septs of Clan Chattan at Invernahavon which 


directly led to the famous fight of the " Threttie against 
Threttie " before King Robert III. on the North Inch 
of Perth in 1396. Some assert that the clansmen arrayed 
against each other in that fight were the Macphersons and 
the Davidsons, but it seems more likely that the battle 
really was between the Mackintoshes and the Camerons. 

That the Macphersons remained of consequence in 
Badenoch is shown by entries in the Exchequer Rolls, 
which refer to supplies received by James II. from Hugh 
Macpherson at Ruthven in that district in 1459. Accord- 
ing to family tradition the chief, Ewen Macpherson, was a 
staunch supporter of Queen Mary, while his son Andrew 
Macpherson and his clan certainly took part in the battle 
of Glenlivet in 1594, after defending the Earl of Huntly's 
castle of Ruthven successfully against the young Earl 
of Argyll, commanding the invading forces of King 
James VI. 

During the events which led up to the battle of Glen- 
livet, and at the battle itself, the chief of the Mackintoshes 
was ranged with his clan on the side of the Earl of Moray 
and the King, while Macpherson with his men were on 
the side of the Earl of Huntly. Andrew Macpherson, the 
young chief, was at that time only tenant of Cluny, which 
property then belonged to the Earl of Huntly, and on 
1 6th May, 1591, Huntly had obtained from him and 
nine of the chief men of his clan a bond securing their 
support. These circumstances may be taken as illustrative 
of the rivalry which appears always to have existed between 
the two great branches of Clan Chattan. 

In the civil war of Charles I.'s time the Macphersons 
played a gallant part on the side of the King. From the 
register of the provincial synod of Moray it appears that 
Dougal Macpherson acted as Captain of Ruthven Castle, 
and that Ewen Macpherson of Cluny had joined with 
Alastair Macdonald, the Marquess of Huntly, and the 
Great Marquess of Montrose in their daring military 
enterprise ; that he had been present at the battles of Tibber- 
muir and Aberdeen, in which he had been in command of 
all the loyal forces of Badenoch. It was during one of the 
headlong attacks of this campaign, when the little Royalist 
forces were about to engage a party of the Covenanting 
Horse, that an incident occurred which is related effectively 
by Sir Walter Scott. A gentlemen of Clan Macpherson 
was noticed to be crouching somewhat in the rear, and 
Macpherson of Nuid, taking the action to be one of 
cowardice, ran up to him and indignantly upbraided him 
with setting so bad an example. The clansman, however, 


answered, " I have only been fastening a spur to the heel 
of my brogue, for I mean in a few minutes to be mounted 
on one of these horses." And in a few minutes, sure 
enough, he had fulfilled his intention. 

It was shortly after this that the dispute between the 
heads of the Mackintoshes and Macphersons as to the 
chiefship of Clan Chattan found its way into a court of 
law. It was true that in 1609 Andrew Macpherson in 
Cluny had, with several other Macphersons, subscribed 
a bond of manrent, undertaking to maintain and defend 
the Chief of Mackintosh, " as it was of old according to 
the King of Scotland his gift of chieftainrie of the said Clan 
Chattan granted thereupon, in the which they are, and is 
astricted to serve Mackintosh as their captain and chief." 
But such bonds were common instruments of the feudal 
centuries for temporary purposes, and did not necessarily 
mean the admission of a hereditary right. On the opposite 
side, in 1665, when the Mackintosh chief was preparing 
an expedition to assert his rights to the lands of Glenlui 
and Loch Arkaig against the Camerons, he asked the 
help of the Macphersons, and to prevent their action being 
construed into an admission that he was their chief, he 
executed a notarial deed declaring that they did so merely 
of their own good will and pleasure, and added on his 
own part, " I bind and oblige myself and friends and 
followers to assist, fortify, and join with the said Andrew, 
Lachlan, and John Macpherson, all their lawful and 
necessary adoes, being thereunto required." The trouble 
with the Camerons having, however, been settled, Mack- 
intosh proceeded again to assert his chiefship of Clan 
Chattan, including the Macphersons. Once already the 
dispute between the rival chiefs had been on the point of an 
appeal to arms. In 1660 Mackintosh had begun to erect a 
mill, which was likely to injure one belonging to Macpher- 
son of Cluny lower on the same stream. The fiery cross 
was sent through the Macpherson country, and Clan 
Vurich rushed to arms, stimulated by a traditional 
prophecy that at this time a great battle should be fought 
between the rival clans. The Mackintoshes and Macpher- 
sons faced each other at the site of the proposed mill. 
There Mackintosh, finding himself inferior in numbers, 
nt for help, first to the chief of the Grants and after- 
ards to the chief of the Farquharsons, but both of these 
iefs refused to take arms against their neighbour 
acpherson. In the end Mackintosh drew off his men, 
the Macphersons demolished the half-built mill, and its 
erection was finally abandoned. 


In 1672, to end the dispute, Duncan Macpherson of 
Cluny applied for and obtained from the Lord Lyon the 
matriculation of arms as " the laird of Cluny Macpherson 
and the only and true representer of the ancient and honour- 
able family of Clan Chattan." He proceeded, however, 
to carry the assertion of his rights too far. The Lyon 
Office had admitted him to be Chief of Clan Chattan. 
He now undertook under an order of the Privy Council to 
be responsible for the good behaviour of all the holders of 
his name; then, to protect himself, issued a requisition to 
landowners of his name in Badenoch to give him letters of 
relief undertaking to answer to him for the good behaviour 
of themselves and their own people. These gentlemen, not 
being his feudal vassals, naturally resented the assumption 
of feudal authority, and appealed against it to the Privy 
Council, and that body thereupon released him from his 
bond of cautionary and required him only to become 
responsible for his own tenants and servants and the 
persons of his name descended from his family, while the 
Laird of Mackintosh was required to become responsible, 
among others, for such of the name of Macpherson as 
might be his feudal vassals. Further, at the instance of 
the Laird of Mackintosh, the Lord Lyon withdrew Cluny's 
previous matriculation of arms, and granted him a coat 
as a cadet of the Mackintoshes. The right to use sup- 
porters, the heraldic sign of chiefship, was also denied him, 
and it was not till 1873 that this right was conceded by the 
Lyon Office, the person to whom it was conceded being the 
late Ewen Macpherson of Cluny, who succeeded in 1817 
and died in 1885. 

Meanwhile the Macpherson chiefs paid little attention 
to the ruling of the Lord Lyon. In 1673 Cluny signed a 
contract of friendship with Macdonald of Glengarry " for 
himself and taken burden upon him for the haell name 
of Macpherson and some others called Old Clanchatten 
as cheefe and principall man thereof." It is true that 
in 1724, on consideration of receiving from the Mackintosh 
chief certain lands about Loch Laggan, the chief of the 
Macphersons signed an agreement renouncing in favour of 
Mackintosh all claim to be chief of Clan Chattan ; but 
this deed is open to the suggestion that it refers only to 
the more modern Clan Chattan confederacy, which origin- 
ated with the heiress Eva and Angus Mackintosh in 1291. 
There can be little doubt that if the descent from Muirich, 
parson of Kingussie, is authentic, Macpherson of Cluny 
is the actual heir-male of the older Clan Chattan chiefs, 
and since the battle of Invernahavon the existence of 


a chiefship of the Macphersons can never really have 
been in doubt. 

It was the chief, Duncan Macpherson, who had the 
transactions with the Lord Lyon, who in 1680 at last 
procured from the Marquess of Huntly the permanent 
ownership of Cluny, which had been possessed by his 
ancestors only as removable tenants. At the revolution 
in 1689, when Viscount Dundee opened his campaign in 
Scotland for King James, Cluny Macpherson was com- 
missioned by the Estates to call together all the friends, 
kinsmen, vassals, and tenants under his command or 
influence, and reduce them into troops, companies, or a 
regiment, with power to name his inferior officers. Upon 
his death without male descendants in 1722 the repre- 
sentation passed to Lachlan Macpherson of Nuid, and it 
was he who signed the deed of 1724 above mentioned. 
In 1704 he married Jean, daughter of the famous Sir 
Ewen Cameron of Lochiel, and from this pair the later 
Cluny Macphersons have descended. 

Lachlan Macpherson of Cluny lived till 1746, but it 
was his eldest son Ewen who figured so conspicuously 
as the Cluny Macpherson of the Jacobite rebellion of 1745. 
Only a short time previously had occurred the tragic 
incident of the Black Watch, which is one of the most 
pathetic in Scottish military history. The regiment, which 
had been enrolled to keep order in the Highlands, was 
marched to London, and a rumour spread that, contrary 
to its terms of enlistment, it was to be sent abroad. 
Suddenly and secretly the whole body set off for the 
north, but they were intercepted in Northamptonshire 
and marched back to the Tower. After trial many of them 
were banished to the Colonies, and three were shot, of 
whom two were Macphersons. This event had produced a 
strong feeling among the clansmen against the Government 
of King George. Before the landing of Prince Charles 
Edward, Cluny Macpherson had been granted a com- 
mission in Lord Loudon's regiment, but at the outbreak of 
the rebellion in 1745 he was captured by the Jacobites, and, 
shortly after the battle of Prestonpans, threw in his lot 
on the side of the Stewarts. With a hundred and twenty 
Macphersons he took part in the march to Derby, and at 
Clifton, during the retreat, it was he and his men who 
bore the chief brunt of the Hanoverian attack. During 
the winter Macpherson and his clan were allowed by the 
Prince to remain at home, and they were only on their 
way to rejoin the Prince's army when at Dalmagerry, near 
Moy, they were met by news of the defeat at Culloden. 


Had Cluny with his six hundred men reached the field in 
time it may well be believed they might have changed 
the fortunes of that day. As it was, the issue meant ruin 
for the chief. In the months which ensued his seat at 
Cluny was burned and his estate was forfeited. For some 
months he lived with his cousin, the younger Lochiel, 
in the famous hiding-place known as the cage on Ben 
Alder, where for a time he afforded shelter to the hunted 
Prince himself; and when Charles finally left for France 
he confided his military chest to the chief, and gave him 
a letter acknowledging his services and promising reward. 
For nine years Macpherson lived in caves and other hiding- 
places among his own people, whose affection for him 
may be judged by the fact that none was ever tempted 
by the Government reward to betray him. During these 
years, in 1750, his wife, a daughter of the notorious Simon, 
Lord Lovat, gave birth to his son and heir in a kiln for 
drying corn. When at last Macpherson escaped to France 
in 1755 he carried with him the Prince's military chest 
containing a considerable sum of money, which he had 
preserved intact, and his name remains among the most 
highly honoured of those who took part in the unfortunate 
Jacobite cause. 

Duncan Macpherson, the chief born in the corn kiln, 
became Colonel of the 3rd Regiment of Foot Guards, 
and the forfeited estates were restored to him in 1784. 
He married Catherine, daughter of Sir Ewen Cameron 
of Fassifern, another famous Jacobite, and died in 1817. 
His son Ewen was made a Companion of the Bath in 1881. 
He died in 1885, having been chief of the Macphersons for 
sixty-eight years, and the representation of the family has 
since been held in succession by his three sons, Duncan, 
Ewen, and Albert, the last of whom is the present chief. 

Cluny Castle, Macpherson 's seat, is a handsome modern 
building a few miles south-west of Kingussie. Its chief 
treasures are several highly interesting relics of the clan 
and of Prince Charles Edward Stewart. Among these 
last is the Prince's target, lined with leopard skin and 
richly and beautifully mounted with silver trophies and 
ornaments. There are also the Prince's gold-inlaid pistols, 
and silver-mounted sealskin sporran, as well as his lace 
ruffles given to Cameron of Fassifern, the farewell auto- 
graph letter already mentioned, and a plate from which 
it tfas intended to print notes for the use of the Jacobite 
army. Another relic is the Bratach-uaine, or green 
banner of the clan, regarding which an old woman is said 
to have told the Duke of Cumberland that if he awaited 


its arrival he would certainly meet defeat. The Crios 
Breac, again, is a leathern belt of red morocco with silver 
studs representing the Agnus Dei and head of St. John 
alternately, and believed to have been brought from the 
Holy Land by one of the early chiefs. But perhaps the 
chief treasure of the house is the Feadun Dhu or Black 
Chanter of Clan Chattan, which is said to have fallen 
from heaven to supply the loss of the chanter used by the 
piper who played in the famous battle of the " Threttie 
against Threttie " on the North Inch in 1396, and on the 
preservation of which the prosperity of the house of Cluny 
is believed by every true clansman to depend. 

Of other famous members of the Clan, two have been 
noted for their connection with Indian affairs. Sir John 
Macpherson, Bart., began life as a writer in the service 
of the East India Company at Madras in 1770, was dis- 
missed for his conduct on a secret mission to this country 
for the Nabob of the Carnatic, but was reinstated in 1781. 
He was twice a member of the British Parliament, became 
a member of the Supreme Council of Calcutta in 1782, 
and was Governor General of India from 1785 to 1786, 
when he was created a baronet. 

Sir Herbert Taylor Macpherson, as a Major-General 
of the Bengal Staff Corps, served under Havelock at Luck- 
now, where he gained the V.C. in 1857. He commanded 
a division in the Afghan War of 1878, was made K.C.B. 
in 1879, was present at Tel-el-Kebir in 1882, and was 
Commander-in-Chief at Madras in 1886, when he was 
sent to organise the pacification of Burma. 

A more interesting character than either, however, 
was Sir ^Eneas Macpherson, the historian of the clan. 
Born in 1644, he became successively a writer and advocate, 
and was Sheriff Depute of Aberdeen in 1684-5. As a 
Jacobite, after the revolution he suffered imprisonment 
at home, and afterwards attached himself to the court 
in exile at St. Germains, where he appears to have been 
active as a confidential agent. Besides his history of the 
clan he was the author of various interesting pamphlets 
and other papers, which were printed by the Scottish 
History Society in 1902. 

Most famous perhaps of all was James Macpherson, 
the young tutor to Ross of Balnagown, who began by 
collecting fragments of Gaelic poetry in the Highlands, 
and published between 1760 and 1764 the famous transla- 
tions of Ossian, which have given rise to the greatest literary 
controversy the world has ever seen, and which, whatever 
their authenticity, played a vital part in the origin of the 


great Romantic movement in literature which followed 
their time. As a historian, a pamphleteer, and a civil 
servant Macpherson acquired a handsome fortune, and, 
returning to Scotland, purchased an estate of the old 
clan lands on the Spey below Kingussie, where he built 
a fine mansion named Belleville or Balavil. One of his 
daughters married the famous Sir David Brewster, Prin- 
cipal of Edinburgh University, and their grandson, Mr. 
Charles Julien Brewster-Macpherson, is the owner of 
Balavil at the present day. 


Cattanach Clark 

Clarke Clarkson 

Clerk Currie 

Fersen Gillespie 

Gillies Gow 

Keith Lees 

MacChlerich MacChlery 

MacCurrach MacGowan 

MacKeith Maclerie 

MacLeish MacLise 

MacMurdo MacMurdoch 

MacMurrich MacVurrich 

Murdoch Murdoson 


Facing page 414. 


BADGE : Giuthas (pinus sylvestris) pine. 
SLOGAN : An t-Arm breac dearg. 
PIBROCH : An t-Arm breac dearg. 

IN Scottish school-books there used to be, and perhaps 
there is yet, no more popular poem than " Lord Ullin's 
Daughter." One would seek far for a Scotsman who 
does not know the lines : 

A chieftain to the Highlands bound 

Cries, " Boatman, do not tarry, 
And I'll give thee a silver pound 

To row us o'er the ferry." 

" Now who be ye, would cross Lochgyle, 

This dark and stormy water? " 
" O I'm the chief of Ulva's isle, 

And this Lord Ullin's daughter." 

Thomas Campbell got the inspiration for the poem 
when resident as a tutor near Crinan on the west coast of 
Knapdale, where every day before his eyes raged the 
stormy waters of the Sound of Jura, and he could almost 
hear the roar of the famous whirlpool of Corrievreckan. 
Whether he had in his mind any actual tradition of these 
legend-haunted shores is not known, but, so far as the 
present writer is aware, there is no incident to correspond 
with the poem in the actual history of the MacQuaries, 
who were " Chiefs of Ulva's Isle." 

The island of Ulva itself, with its wonderful columnar 
terraces, lies on the west coast of Mull, in the great bay 
which has for its inner continuation the beautiful Loch 
na Keal, immortalised as Lochgyle in Campbell's poem. 
From time immemorial this island was the home of the 
MacQuarie chiefs. Like the MacGregors of the central 
Highlands, whose exploits and sufferings are so much 
better known, those chiefs could make the proud boast, 
' Is Rioghal mo dhream," " my race is royal," for both 
traced their descent from Gregor, son of Alpin, king of 
Scots, who was beheaded by the Picts, in sight of his 
own army, on Dundee Law in the year 837. The second 



son of Gregor was named Cor or Gor-bred, Latinised as 
Godfredus or Godfrey, and transmitted by the Culdee 
chroniclers as MacGotherie, MacGofra, and MacGorrie. 
The proper Gaelic spelling is said to be MacGuarai, and 
from this are derived the common modern forms of 
MacQuarie in Scotland and MacGuaran or MacGuire in 

In the chapel of St. Oran on lona is still to be seen 
the effigy of one of the ancient MacQuarie chiefs. It is 
of unknown date, but is executed in superior style, and 
the mere fact of its existence among the tombs of kings 
and chiefs in that most sacred shrine declares that at one 
period the MacQuaries were among the notables of first 
importance in the Western Isles. 

The great man of the race in early times appears to 
have been Cormac Mor, who was Chief in the reign of 
Alexander II. When that king was making his great 
endeavour, in the middle of the thirteenth century, to over- 
throw the Norwegian power in the Western Highlands 
and Isles, he was joined by Cormac with a force of three 
birlinns or galleys of sixteen oars each. This loyalty to 
the Scottish king brought disaster upon the MacQuarie 
chief. On Alexander's death at Dalrigh in the island of 
Kerrera in 1249, his great expedition to " plant his 
standard on the walls of Thurso '-' was abandoned, and 
those among the islesmen who had taken his side were 
left to the vengeance of their neighbours who supported 
Norway. MacQuarie was attacked, defeated, and slain, 
and his island domain subjected to all the horrors of 
western savagery of that time. From the general slaughter 
and ruin the chief's two sons, Alan and Gregor, found 
refuge in Ireland. The latter settled in that country, and 
the name of his descendants there is said alternatively to 
be derived from the personal characteristic from which he 
was surnamed, of " garbh," or the rough. This Irish 
branch afterwards, under the Earls of Enniskillin, became 
exceedingly powerful in the sister isle. 

Meantime in Scotland itself the tables had been turned 
by the defeat of the Norwegian King Hakon at the battle 
of Largs in 1263, and the MacQuarie chief was enabled 
to come to his own again. In the wars of Bruce for the 
independence of Scotland, Eachuin, or Hector, who was 
chief at that time, consistently with the tradition of his 
family, took the patriotic side, and led his clan at the 
battle of Bannockburn. The same thing cannot be said, 
however, of the later chiefs of the sixteenth century. 
Another Eachuin, who was chief in the days of James 


IV., was among the turbulent islesmen whom that king 
was forced to take strong measures to bring to obedience, 
and made more than one personal expedition to the 
Hebrides to subdue. The judicial records of 1504 con- 
tain repeated summonses to " MacCorry of Ullowaa " to 
appear before Parliament to answer a charge of rebellion. 
MacQuarry, in his distant island fastness, laughed at 
these summonses, and no serious effort to arrest him seems 
ever to have been made by Government. In 1517, four 
years after the battle of Flodden and the death of James, 
when the country was occupied by the bickerings of the 
Douglases and other families who sought power by 
obtaining possession of the person of the Queen-Mother 
and the boy-king James V., Lachlan MacLean of Duart 
took occasion to secure a remission for his misdeeds, and 
at the same time stipulated for a similar favour to the 
" Chief of Ulva's Isle." 

This chief married a daughter of MacNiel of Tainish, 
and the bride's dowry, which remains on record, reflects a 
curious light on the tastes and social curcumstances of the 
time. It consisted of a piebald horse, with two men and two 
women. The latter appear to have kept somewhat to them- 
selves amid their new surroundings on Ulva, and their 
descendants were long recognised there as a separate race. 

In 1545, during the childhood of Queen Mary, when 
Henry VIII. was making a strong effort to harass and 
overthrow the Scottish Government, Donald MacQuarie, 
son of the last-named Chief, was one of thirteen heads of 
clans denounced for entering into traitorous correspond- 
ence with the English king. Henry's schemes, however, 
came to nothing, and in the disturbed state of Scotland 
at that time nothing appears to have been done to punish 
the island chief. 

It was probably during that troubled century that the 
incident occurred which is still commemorated in the name 
of a wild headland on the south coast of Mull. One of 
the Maclaine chiefs of Lochbuie, the tradition runs, had 
seized a certain Gorry or MacGorrie, and inflicted upon 
him an unusually severe punishment by flogging. When 
the punishment was over, and MacGorrie was restored to 
liberty, he took a fearful vengeance. Seizing Lochbuie's 
infant son and heir he rushed to the top of the precipice, 
where he threatened to throw the child over unless Loch- 
buie consented to undergo the same chastisement as he 
had suffered. In the midst of all his clansmen the agonised 
parent was forced to bare his back and submit to the 
torture, his exulting enemy, when the blows slackened, 


constantly shouting out " More! More! " When at last 
Maclaine sank fainting under the stripes, and MacGorry's 
vengeance seemed complete, he turned, and, the boy in 
his arms, with a yell leapt over the precipice to destruction. 
From this incident the headland is still known as Gorrie's 

To the same period belongs the story of the famous 
pirate of the Island seas, Alan a Sop. Alan was the 
natural son of Maclean of Duart by a beautiful girl of his 
clan. She afterwards married Maclean of Torloisk on 
the western coast of Mull. Torloisk treated his stepson 
badly, and on one occasion thrust into his hands a 
burning cake which his mother was baking for him, so 
that he fled from the house. Years afterwards, having 
become the chief of a pirate flotilla, and hearing his mother 
was dead, he returned to avenge himself on his cruel 
stepfather. The crafty Torloisk, however, received him 
well, and, gaining his goodwill, suggested that he should 
attack and slay Macquarie of Ulva, and seize that island. 
By this means he hoped to get rid of Macquarie, against 
whom he had a grudge. The Chief of Ulva, however, 
also received Alan hospitably, and when the latter, on 
leaving, said the hospitality had cost him dear, and con- 
fessed what his errand had been, Macquarie turned the 
tables on his enemy, Torloisk, by reminding Alan of the 
incident of the burning cake, and suggesting this as a 
proper object of vengeance. Thereupon the pirate re- 
turned to Mull, brained Torloisk with a battle-axe as he 
came down the beach to hear of Macquarie's death, and 
took possession of his estate. 

In the seventeenth century Donald's son, Alan, took 
part on the side of Charles II. in the attempt of that 
young monarch to recover for himself his father's throne 
in Scotland. After the defeat of the Covenanting army 
by Cromwell at Dunbar, Charles had been crowned by 
Argyll at Scone, and assuming personal command of the 
Scottish army, had held Cromwell at bay before Stirling 
for a month. The Protector then tried the plan of turning 
the Scottish flank by sending a force under Colonel 
Overton into Fife. To defeat this attempt Charles sent 
forward a contingent under two officers, Holborn and 
Brown, and a battle took place on the north shore of the 
Forth at Inverkeithing. In that encounter Holborn 
showed himself a knave and perhaps a traitor, and though 
Brown fought bravely, he was defeated and his force was 
cut to pieces. Among those who fell was Alan MacQuarie, 
with most of his followers from far-off Ulva. 


From that time the fortunes of the MacQuarie Chiefs 
seem to have taken a downward turn. The last of the 
line to inherit Ulva was Lachlan, the sixteenth chief. In 
1778, finding his financial embarrassments overpowering, 
he sold his estates to pay his debts, and though sixty- 
three years of age, entered the army. He died in 1818 
at the great age of 103. 

The greatest of the race, however, was still to play 
his part in history. Major-General Lachlan MacQuarie 
was either the eldest son or the nearest cadet of the six- 
teenth Chief. Entering the army in 1777 he saw active 
service in India as the sieges of Cannanore and Seringa- 
patam, and from 1809 till 1821 was Governor of New 
South Wales. There he became famous by encouraging 
exploration, by ameliorating the condition of the convicts, 
by the erection of public buildings and works, and by 
laying out the town of Sydney. In his honour the rivers 
Lachlan and Macquarie received their names, as well as 
an island south of Tasmania discovered in 1811. His 
policy regarding the convicts, however, was severely 
criticised in the House of Commons, and he was recalled 
in 1821. Then he bought back Ulva, and when he died 
in London in 1824 his body was carried north and buried 
with his ancestors. He married, first, Miss Baillie 
of Jerviswood, and secondly, a daughter of John Camp- 
bell of Airds, and he was succeeded by Lachlan, his son 
by the latter. Lachlan, however, died without issue, and 
the estate of Ulva passed to another name. 


MacCorrie MacGauran 

MacGorrie MacGuire 

Macquaire Macquhirr 

Macquire MacWhirr 

BADGE : Garbhag an t-sleibhe (L,ycopodium selago) club moss. 

SLOGAN : Sgtir Urain. 

PIBROCH : Spaidsearachd mhic Rha. 

As with so many others of the Scottish clans, traditions 
differ as to the actual origin of the Clan MacRae. The 
name MacRath, pronounced MacRa, or corruptly Mac-^ 
Rae f the^son of good fortune," is said to have been the 
exclamation of a FaTrrer regarding his son, who had 
performed some fortunate exploit. According to some, 
the clan was indigenous in the district of Kintail in Ross- 
shire, where the race is numerous to the present day. 
According to others, the ancestor of the MacRaes came 
over from Ireland in the thirteenth century with Colin 
Fitzgerald, son of the Earl of Desmond, to whom the 
same tradition attributes the origin of Clan MacKenzie. 
MacRae, they say, fought under Fitzgerald at the battle 
of Largs in 1263, and while Fitzgerald was appointed 
Constable of Eilandonan Castle on Loch Duich, MacRae 
settled in the Aird of Lovat, from which his descendants 
afterwards migrated to Glenshiel in Kintail. This 
tradition hardly agrees with another, equally popular. 
According to the latter, Mary, daughter of the last chief 
of the Bissets, was fostered in the family of MacRae of 
Cluns. Marrying the ancestor of the Frasers, she carried 
the estates of Lovat into her husband's family, and in 
token of the respect which she and her husband enter- 
tained for her foster-parents, a stone, it is said, was set 
up at the door of Lovat's castle declaring that no MacRae 
should lodge without while a Fraser resided within. As 
the Bissets were forfeited in the reign of Alexander II., 
this story, if true, would show that MacRaes were sub- 
stantial people in the north a considerable time before 
the reputed Colin Fitzgerald and his henchman fought 
at the battle of Largs. 

Whatever the actual origin of the Clan and name 
MacRae, however, it seems clear that, from their earliest 
appearance in history, a close and most friendly relation- 
ship existed between the MacRaes and the Chiefs of the 



Facing page 420. 


MacKenzie clan. When the ancestor of the Earls of 
Ross was still only Colin og, son of Colin of the Aird, 
the MacRaes were probably his faithful adherents, and 
when Black Murdoch, son of Kenneth of Kintail, from 
whom all the MacKenzie chiefs were descended, received 
his charter from David II. in 1362, the MacRaes were no 
doubt part of his following. When the MacKenzie chief 
was arrested by James I., on his visit to Inverness in 
1427, he is said to have been able to raise a force of 2,000 
men. Of this host a considerable number must have been 
MacRaes, for it is said that, while MacKenzie owned 
Kintail, there were very few of his own name in the 
district, the majority being MacRaes. The latter were, 
in fact, known as MacKenzie's Lein chrios, " mail shirt," 
or bodyguard. Their privileged and honoured place, 
nearest the Chief, continued even after his death, for at 
his funeral they took the first " lift " of his coffin as it 
left the castle on the way to burial. This last right was 
exercised even so late as the year 1862, when, after the 
death of the Hon. Mrs. Stewart-Mac Kenzie, daughter and 
representative of Lord Seaforth, her coffin was borne out 
of Brahan Castle by a contingent of MacRaes. 

As evidence of the high trust and esteem in which they, 
were held by the Chiefs of Kintail, the MacRaes were 
again and again appointed Constables of MacKenzie's 
stronghold of Eilandonan. The office was not hereditary 
or continuous, for MacKenzie appears to have been 
anxious to retain personal control of the castle. A list 
of the successive constables, which has been given as 
follows, will best show the position. 

Malcolm Maclan Charrich MacRae, circa 1509. 
Christopher MacRae, circa 1511. 
>John dubh Matheson of Fernaig, killed 1539. 
i^ Duncan MacRae, " Donnachadh MacGillechriosd," 

temporary Constable 1539. 
John Murchison, " Ian MacMhurchaidh Dhuibh," 

Priest of Kintail, 1539. 
v Christopher MacRae, 1580. 
^Murdoch Murchison, Vicar of Kintail, 1614. 
to ftFarquhar MacRae, 1618-1651, Vicar of Kintail, son 
of Christopher MacRae, and born at Eilandonan 
in 1580, when his father was Constable. 

As followers of the MacKenzie Chiefs the MacRaes 
performed many famous feats of war. Some of the most 
notable of these were achieved during the struggle with 



the MacDonalds, which followed the resignation of the 
Earldom of Ross by the last Lord of the Isles in 1476. 
A sequel to that event was the feud between MacKenzie 
and Alexander MacDonald of Loch Alsh, nephew of the 
island lord. In an endeavour to recover the earldom and 
the lands transferred to MacKenzie by the King, 
MacDonald had invaded the country, burning and slay- 
ing. He was met and overthrown on the banks of the 
Conon by the son of the MacKenzie chief at the battle 
of Blar na Pairc. In this battle one of the MacRaes, 
Duncan More, a man of immense strength, is said to have 
played a very conspicuous part, and contributed largely 
to the defeat of the MacDonalds. It was said of this 
warrior that, though engaged in many conflicts, and 
invariably victorious, he never escaped without a wound. 
Another MacRae warrior, known as Surachan, after 
slaying a notable personage in the MacDonald ranks, was 
seen by MacKenzie to seat himself calmly on the body 
of his fallen foe. On MacKenzie asking why he had 
ceased fighting while so much depended on his efforts, 
Surachan replied, " I have done my day's work. If 
every man does as much the day is ours!" "Kill 
more," exclaimed MacKenzie, " and I shall not count | 
your work by the day ! " Thereupon Surachan leaped to 
his feet, and dealt out a terrible slaughter upon the enemy. 
In consequence the battle was commemorated in the 
famous tune, " Spaidsearachd mhic Rha'," which to the 
present day, as its name imports, is the march of the clan. 

A few years later, in 1509, when Hector Roy 
MacKenzie was trying to wrest the chiefship from his 
nephew, John of Killin, whom he accused of illegitimacy, 
Eilandonan was held for Hector by its Constable, Malcolm 
Maclan Charrich MacRae. The besiegers brought 
MacRae's cattle dwn to the shore and slaughtered them 
in his sight for food, but MacRae still refused to sur- 
render, and held out till Hector made an arrangement 
with his nephew. 

Another episode of the feud with the MacDonalds 
which followed the transference of ancient MacDonald 
lands to the MacKenzies, took place in 1539. On this 
occasion Donald Gorm MacDonald of Sleat, learning that 
Eilandonan was slenderly garrisoned, laid siege to the 
island stronghold with fifty birlinns or galleys. John 
Dubh Matheson of Fernaig, the Constable of the Castle7 
had been killed, and only two men were left, Duncan. 
MacGilchrist MacRae and the watchman. The defenders 
were nearly exhausted, and MacRae was reduced to his 


last arrow, when he saw Donald Gorm going round the 
walls to decide on the best place to make his final assault. 
Drawing his bow, MacRae sent out his last arrow. It 
struck MacDonald in the foot. In the pulling of it out 
an artery was severed, and the bleeding could not be 
stopped. The wounded man was carried some distance 
away, to a reef still known as " Larach tigh Mhic 
Dhomhnuill," and there died. His followers afterwards 
burned the castle and its boats, but this could not make 
up for the loss of their leader. 

x Still another famous exploit was that performed by 
DuncajL-MacRae, grandson of Duncan MacGilchrist. In 
the chief's "absence in Mull, MacDonald of Glengarry had 
raided MacKenzie's lands of Strath Carron, and was 
\returning home with his galleys heavily loaded with 
lunder. Only a few men were left at Eilandonan, but 
ady Kintail sent them out under the intrepid Duncan 
acRae. It was a night in November, and the sea was 
aim, while there were occasional showers of snow, as 
acRae waited under the shadow of the headland at Kyle- 
rhea. At last, on the rising tide a boat shot through the 
narrows. Recognising it as MacDonald's scout, MacRae 
let it pass. A great galley next appeared, and, firing a 
cannon he had brought with him, MacRae dashed against 
it. Many of its oars were broken, and in a damaged state 
it ran upon the Cailleach Rock, where its entire crew of 
sixty, with MacDonald himself, were slain or drowned. 

In the Civil War of Charles I., when Montrose raised 
the Royalist standard in the north, the MacRaes took the 
field under Seaforth, the MacKenzie chief, and many of 
them fell in the campaign. By way of counterpoise to 
these losses they are said to have added to their numbers 
in a somewhat curious way. While the MacRaes were 
nown as Seaforth's " shirt of mail," the MacLennans, 
heir neighbours in Kintail, were his standard-bearers, 
[n this capacity, at the battle of Auldearn, a large num- 
ber of the MacLennans were cut to pieces. As a result 
here were many MacLennan widows left in Kintail. No 
ewer than eighteen of these widows were married by 

The MacRaes, again, were out with Seaforth in the 
larl of Mar's rebellion in 1715. For that campaign 
Seaforth raised two regiments. Of these, two companies 
vere raised in Kintail and one in Loch Alsh, and accord- 
ng to tradition were mostly comprised of MacRaes. It 
3 said that, on the night before they marched away, they 
anced to the music of the pipes on the leaden roof of 


Eilandonan. Alas ! in the battle of Sheriffmuir, on I3th' 
November, at which the Jacobite cause collapsed for the 
time, many of them were slain. Among those who fell, 
along with two of his brothers, was a certain Duncan 
MacRae, who was notable both as a poet of no little merit 
and as a man of extraordinary physical strength. His 
claymore, known as " the great Highlander's sword," was 
long preserved in the Tower of London, and on the farm 
of Auchnangart, in the MacRae country, is still to be 
seen a stone of immense size, which he is said to have 
carried a considerable distance and deposited where it 
now lies. 

In the subsequent Jacobite attempt of 1719, when 
Cardinal Alberoni sent a fleet of thirty ships with 6,000 
troops and 12,000 stand of arms to Scotland, under the 
Duke of Ormond, and only two vessels with three 
hundred Spaniards reached these shores, the MacRaes 
were again concerned. But the affair collapsed after the 
skirmish at Strachells, known as the battle of Glenshiel, 
in which Seaforth was wounded, and on loth May, three 
British men-of-war, the Worcester, Enterprise, and 
Flamborough, under Captain Boyle, sailed up Loch Alsh, 
stormed Eilandonan, and, after the surrender of the 
Spanish garrison, blew up the stronghold. 

To the same period belongs the story of one of the 
most famous members of the clan. James MacRae is 
said to have been the son of a humble washerwoman in 
the town of Ayr. Against his mother's entreaties and 
advice he ran away to sea, and nothing was heard of him 
for forty years. Then he returned, a nabob of immense 
wealth, after having been Governor of Madras. Ascer- 
taining that his mother had been cared for in her last 
days by a niece, he sought out the latter, and finding that 
the niece and her husband, one MacGuire, a country 
fiddler, had four attractive daughters, he undertook the 
education of these girls. When they became of marriage- 
able age he saw them all well married and dowered them 
well. Lizzie MacGuire, the eldest, was married to the 
Earl of Glencairn, and received from MacRae as a 
marriage portion the estate of Ochiltree. To the second 
he gave the estate of Alva, and her husband, an eminent 
lawyer, became Lord Alva. A third, who married the 
son of Dalrymple, the minister of Ayr, received the estate 
of Orangefield, and the fourth married a natural son of 
his own, to whom he gave the lands of Houston in Ren- 
frewshire. It is worth remembering that it was Lizzie 
MacGuire's son, the Earl of Glencairn, who gave Robert 


Burns his chief lift when he went to Edinburgh to find 
p&_tflilunep~the-peet having "been recortTTiiended^Io his 
notice by his cousin, Dalrymple of Orangefield. So 
much had this member of the clan MacRae to do with 
the raising to name and fame of the great national bard. 
Governor MacRae also in 1734 presented to Glasgow its 
first statue, the equestrian monument to King William III., 
which still dominates the Trongate at Glasgow Cross. 
A monument was afterwards erected to the memory of 
MacRae himself in the parish of Prestwick, near Ayr. 

From an early date the MacRaes have been noted not 
only for exploits of arms, which brought them the title 
of the "wild MacRaes," but also for excellence in the 
gentler art of letters. From the early part of the fifteenth 
century some member of the race appears always to have 
held the office of Vicar of Kintail. John MacRae, the 
first vicar, is said to have studied with the monks of 
Beauly, and was much respected for his learning. The 
Rev. Farquhar MacRae, born in 1580, and last of the 
^onstaHTe~ol Eilandonan, was both an energetic church- 
man and a great Latin scholar. On his first visit to the 
island of Lewis he is said to have baptised all the inhabit- 
ants under forty years of age, no clergyman having 
resided on the island during that period. His .second 
son, John MacRae, who became minister of Dingwall in 
1640 and dlecPln 1704, was author of a genealogical 
account of the clan, formerly in possession of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Sir John MacRae of Ardintoul, and now in the 
hands of Sir Colin MacRae, W.S., representative of the 
Inverinate family. Another of the clan, John MacRae, 
better known as MacUirtsi, was last of a race of bards 
who handed on a poetic tradition for several generations. 
A poem which he composed on a heavy loss of cattle 
which he suffered, is considered one of the classics of the 
Gaelic language. Disgusted with the modern decadence 
of Highland customs and the introduction of new-fangled 
" improvements," he emigratedtoA.merica. and his lament 
for the necessity ofdoing~so is also~a notable composition. 
In our own time the late Rev. David MacRae was 
no less remarkable for his fighting qualities as an exponent 
of advanced opinions in theology, and for his upholding 
of the rights and honours of Scotland, than for his contri- 
butions to English literature. His Americans at Home and 
America Revisited furnish perhaps the best accounts of 
the manners and conditions of the great Republic of the 
West after the civil war between North and South. 

A few years ago the actual position of the clan with 


respect to its chiefship formed the subject of an interest- 
ing case in the Court of the Lord Lyon. Sir Colin 
MacRae, W.S., as representative of the family of 
MacRae of Inverinate, made application in that court for 
a grant of arms with supporters as the chief of the clan. 
His application was opposed by Major, now Lieutenant- 
Colonel, John MacRae-Gilstrap, whose elder brother, Mr. 
Stuart MacRae, is representative of the family of MacRae 
of Conchra. The contention of the objector was that the 
MacRaes had never acknowledged any other chief than 
Seaforth, and the upshot of the case was that the Lord 
Lyon refused the petition. 

The MacRaes of Conchra and the MacRaes of Inveri- 
nate both claim descent from the ancient Constables of 
Eilandonan. Recently Colonel MacRae-Gilstrap has 
acquired the island and castle of Eilandonan, and 
proposes to restore the ancient stronghold. 


Macara MacCraw 

Macra Macrach 

MacRaith MacRath 

Facing page 426. 


BADGE : Bealaidh (Sarothamnus scorparius) broom. 
SLOGAN : Dail acha 'n da thear nai'. 

CARE is taken by the historians of this clan to draw a 
distinction between its patronymic and that of the Low- 
land families whose original name was " Mathew's son." 
The Highland name, they point out, is Mac Mhathain, 
" the son of heroes," and the chiefs of the clan claimed to 
have been settled on the shores of Lochalsh in the west of 
Ross-shire as long ago as the time of Kenneth MacAlpin 
in the middle of the ninth century. According to tradition 
they were among the followers of that king in his wars 
with the Picts, whom he finally overthrew at the great 
battle of Cambuskenneth near Stirling in 838. They 
claimed to be of the same blood as the MacKenzies, whom 
they aver to have been the junior line. A certain 
Coinneach, or Kenneth, who was chief in the twelfth 
century, they say left two sons. From the elder of these 
Cailean or Colin, the Mathesons were descended, and from 
the younger, Coinneach or Kenneth, the MacKenzies took 
their origin. In the beginning of the fifteenth century 
the Matheson chief was strong enough to defy the Earl 
of Sutherland, and upon the latter descending upon 
Lochalsh, intent upon punishing so presumptuous a 
person, he was actually defeated and slain by the 
Mathesons. The scene of the encounter is still pointed 
out at a spot known from the event as Cnoc an Cattich. 

Alastair MacRuari, who achieved this feat of arms, 
was among the turbulent chiefs of clans who supported 
the Lord of the Isles in his claim to the earldom of Ross 
and his struggle against the power of the Scottish kings. 
In the struggles of those times he is said to have been able 
to bring as many as 2,000 men into the field. Every 
student of Scottish history knows how those troublers of 
the peace were dealt with by James I. upon his return 
from his long captivity in England. Summoning them to 
a " Parliament " at Inverness, he promptly arrested the 
most dangerous of them, executed some on the spot, and 



carried others to Edinburgh, where a number more were 
tried and condemned to the same fate. Alastair MacRuari 
was among the latter, and was executed in 1427. 

Alastair left a widow with two sons, and his widow 
presently married again, her second husband being a son 
of Macleod of the Lews. This individual took advantage 
of the youth of his stepsons to endeavour to establish 
himself in possession of their property, and at last, finding 
themselves probably in actual danger, the lads fled from 
Lochalsh. While the younger went to Caithness, John, 
the elder of the two, betook himself to his mother's father, 
the chief of the Mackintoshes. He did not, however, give 
up the hope of recovering his patrimony, and by and by, 
having arrived at years of manhood, he obtained from his 
grandfather a force of men for his purpose, and set out 
to surprise the usurper. It was night when the party 
arrived at Lochalsh, and having observed the utmost 
precautions of secrecy, young Matheson succeeded in his 
purpose. Making a sudden assault, he set the castle on 
fire, and as the garrison was forced to come out they were 
slain or captured by the Mackintoshes. Anxious to save 
his mother's life, Matheson took up a position at the gate, 
and when she appeared, she was, by his orders, safely 
passed through the lines of the Mackintoshes. In the 
midst of the tumult, however, and flashings of the torches, 
it was not perceived that she was walking in an unusual 
way. She was wearing an arisaid, or wide plaited garment 
with heavy folds doubled around the hips. Under this 
she had managed to conceal her husband, and in a few 
moments the latter was beyond the light of the torches and 
able to escape in the darkness. 

The Matheson chief then took possession of his patri- 
mony, but he was not allowed to enjoy it long in peace. 
MacLeod, hastening to the Lews, raised a considerable 
force, with which he returned and deliberately invaded 
the Matheson country. In the encounter which took place 
he was finally forced to retreat, and as he fell back upon 
his birlinns or galleys, his force suffered severely from the 
flights of arrows poured into it by a company of Matheson 
bowmen under a certain Ian Ciar MacMurghai Mhic- 
Thomais. From this incident the battle is remembered 
as Blar-na-saigheadear. But MacLeod was not yet 
completely discouraged. Once more he gathered his 
men on the Lews, and once more came back. But in this 
second attempt he was defeated and slain, and the Mac- 
Leods troubled the Mathesons no more. 

Meanwhile the MacKenzies had gradually risen to be a 


clan of great power in the region, and in their island fast- 
ness of Eilandonan, at the mouth of Loch Duich, they 
were able to resist the attacks of all their enemies. The 
Macraes and the Mathesons in turn deemed it an honour 
to be appointed constable of Eilandonan, and a later 
Matheson chief, John, greatly distinguished himself in 
discharge of this duty. It was at the time of the great 
feud between the Macdonalds and the MacKenzies. 
Again and again the savage Donald Gorm of Sleat, on 
the coast of Skye, opposite, raided the MacKenzie country, 
but in these attacks Eilandonan was successfully defended 
by the Matheson chief. At last, however, as he stood by 
a window watching the progress of the defence, Matheson 
was struck down and slain by a Macdonald arrow. This 
was in 1537. 

By that time theMathesons had greatly diminished in 
influence, and John Matheson 's son Dougal possessed no 
more than a third of the ancient Matheson property on 
Lochalsh. Even that property he was in danger of losing 
by engaging in a dangerous feud on his own account with 
Macdonald of Glengarry. This powerful chief had estab- 
lished himself on the shores of Loch Carron at hand, and 
he presently seized Matheson and threw him into prison, 
where he died. 

This incident brought about the final ruin of the Mathe- 
sons. With a view to avenge his father's death, and 
recover his lost territory, Dougal's son, Murdoch Buidhe, 
relinquished all his remaining property, excepting the 
farms of Balmacara and Fernaig, to MacKenzie of Kintail, 
in return for the services of an armed force with which to 
attack Glengarry. The lands thus handed over were 
never recovered, and neither Matheson's generalship nor 
the force lent him by MacKenzie seems to have been equal 
to the task of forcing terms upon Glengarry. Murdoch's 
son, Ruari, the next Matheson chief, had more satisfaction, 
when, as part of the following of Seaforth, the MacKenzie 
chief, he set out to punish Glengarry. On this occasion 
Glengarry's stronghold of Sron, or Strome, on Loch 
Carron, was stormed and destroyed. By this time the 
Mathesons appear to have been merely the " kindly 
tenants" of Seaforth; in course of time that kindly 
tenancy, or occupation on condition of rendering certain 
services, was changed into a regular rent payment, and 
Balmacara and the other Matheson properties passed from 
the hands of the chiefs of that name for ever. The family 
was afterwards represented by the Mathesons of Ben nets- 
field, and in 1822, it appears, from a MS. history of the 


clan quoted by James Logan, author of the letterpress of 
M'lan's " Clans of the Scottish Highlands," the lineal 
representative of the ancient heads of the clan was a 
certain Alexander Matheson who lived in Sallachie. The 
Chiefship is now believed to be held by Hayling Matheson, 
who is resident in England. 

In the middle of last century, however, two members 
of the clan succeeded in restoring the name to even more 
than the distinction it had enjoyed in the Highlands during 
the patriarchal and feudal centuries. Sir James Mathe- 
son, Bart., a cadet of tacksman stock, who had acquired 
vast wealth, and attained the distinction of a baronetcy by 
commercial enterprise in the East, became the owner, first 
of the great Highland estate of Achany, in the old clan 
neighbourhood, and afterwards purchased the great island 
of Lewis in the outer Hebrides. For the latter he paid 
no less a sum than ; 190,000 and he afterwards spent some 
^"340,000 in improving his purchase. Among other great 
works he built the existing castle of Stornoway, on the 
site of old Seaforth Lodge, formerly the residence of the 
Earls of Seaforth who previously owned the estate. Half 
a century ago it was truly said, " No instance of improve- 
ment in recent times within the United Kingdom has been 
more striking to the eye of an observer, more compensating 
to the proprietor, or more beneficial to the population. 
Its details have comprised draining, planting, road- 
making, the reforming of husbandry, the improvement of 
live stock, the introduction of manufactures, and the 
encouraging of fisheries, all on a great scale, and with 
good results." In the policies of Stornoway Castle alone 
the work carried out included ten miles of carriage drives 
and five miles of footpaths. Previously little more of the 
land of the island than a narrow belt along the shore had 
been in cultivation, the rest being a dismal expanse of 
bog and moor. The improvements carried out by Sir 
James Matheson, however, may be said to have literally 
made the desert blossom like the rose. Alas for the 
patriotic and altruistic efforts of Sir James, the island a 
generation ago became the special field of the efforts of 
land agitators, who introduced discontent and trouble. 
Crofter's commissions and land courts have also played 
their part in interference, with the result that in the spring 
of 1918 Sir James's heir, Colonel Duncan Matheson, found, 
it desirable to dispose of the island to Lord Leverhulme, 
head of the great firm of Lever Brothers, soap-makers on 
the Mersey. Happily Colonel Matheson still retains 
Achany, and so the house of the clansman who did so 


much for the welfare of the Highlands is still represented 
in the old clan country. 

Another notable figure is that of Sir Alexander Mathe- 
son of Ardross, who promoted the Highland Railway, 
and through the influence of the Sutherland family brought 
about the extension of the line to the far north, an enter- 
prise that brought new prosperity to the northern High- 
lands. It is interesting also to note that the management 
of the Highland Railway to-day, as part of the London, 
Midland, and Scottish group, is in the hands of a 
clansman, Mr. Donald A. Matheson. 

Another branch of the ancient family of Matheson of 
Lochalsh is represented in the district by Sir Kenneth 
James Matheson, Bart., of Lochalsh, whose seats are at 
Gledfield House, Ardgay, and Duncraig Castle, Plockton, 
at the mouth of Loch Carron. Sir Kenneth is descended 
from Farquhar Matheson, tacksman of Fernaig in Lochalsh 
in the latter half of the seventeenth century, Farquhar 
Matheson 's mother having been a daughter of Alexander 
MacRae of Inverinate. Farquhar Matheson's eldest son, 
John, acquired Attadale in 1730. John's grand-nephew, 
another John Matheson, gave up Fernaig in 1810, having 
married in 1804 a sister of Sir James Matheson, Bart.; 
and his eldest son, Alexander, who was M.P. for the Inver- 
ness burghs and Ross-shire from 1847 to 1884, acquired 
the lands of Ardentoul and Inverinate, and in 1851 crowned 
his purchase by securing the barony of Lochalsh, the 
ancient patrimony of the chiefs of his clan. The present 
baronet, Sir Kenneth James Matheson of Lochalsh, is his 
eldest son. 

Thus it will be seen that the fortunes of the Matheson 
clan have been happily restored in that clan's ancient 
country, though the lands may no longer be held by the 
direct lineal representatives of the ancient chiefs. 




BADGE : (Dress) Fraoch na Meinnanich (Phyllodoce coerulea) 
Menzies Heath, or (Hunting) Uinseann (Fraxinus excelsior) a 
sprig of ash, or (Ancient) Garbhag nan gleann (Lycopodium 
clavatum) staghorn or club moss. 

SLOGAN : Geal 'us dearg a suas, The red and white for ever 1 

PIBROCH : Failte na Meinnanich. 

THOUGH the chiefs of this clan had their seat in the very 
heart of Perthshire, the centre of the Highlands, cadets 
of the clan were landed men far to the north and south. 
The Menzieses of Pitfoddels in Aberdeenshire were a 
separate branch as early as the fourteenth century, while 
other houses of the name were located in Fifeshire, 
Lanarkshire, and the Lennox, about the lower districts of 
Kippen and Killearn. The valley of the Tay, however, 
seems always to have been the headquarters of the race, 
and the beautiful old seat of Weem Castle there still 
remains to speak of the former greatness of the clan. 
With its grey walls rising high among the trees in its 
stately park, against the noble background of the Hill of 
Weem, this romantic old house, dating from 1571, keeps 
memories of a long line of chiefs and their varying 
fortunes, which, as set forth in the Red Book of Menzies, 
edited by the claimant to the chiefship, excite a wistful 
regret in the mind of the student. 

If one were to judge from a popular tradition of the 
neighbourhood, the house of Menzies might seem to have 
been settled here at a very early date indeed. The Hill of 
Weem, and Weem Castle itself, take their name from the 
Gaelic " Uamh," a cave, or a Pict's house. No cave is 
now traceable in the neighbourhood, so the alternative 
reading of " Pict's house " is more likely to be the origin 
of the name. The tradition runs that a certain ogre who 
inhabited this " Uamh," and who is described as going 
about in the guise of a red-hooded monk of scowling visage, 
carried off a daughter of the house of Menzies. The story 
forms the subject of a well-known Gaelic ballad. If it 
really goes back to the days of the Picts, this story would 
infer that the Menzieses had been settled here as long ago 
as the tenth century at least, and if it could be authenti- 



Facing page 432. 


cated would fully justify the claims made by writers like 
James Logan, author of The Scottish Gael and the letter- 
press of M'lan's Clans of the Scottish Highlands, for a 
purely Celtic origin to this famous old clan. This writer 
founds his contention on the fact that the Gaelic appella- 
tion of the clan is Meinn, plural Meinnanich, often 
corruptly written Meinnarich. This corruption he regards 
as accounting for the fact that the name in old documents 
and charters is frequently spelt Meyners. The general 
view of genealogists, however, is that the name is 
Norman, and that the family was an early offshoot of the 
great house of Manners, whose head is now the Duke of 
Rutland. The probability is that the founder of the house 
of Menzies was one of those Norman or Saxon settlers 
brought into the country in the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries by Malcolm Canmore and his sons, when they 
were introducing the feudal system as a support for their 
dynasty, and as a means of establishing settled govern- 
ment and improved methods of living in the country. 

The first mention of the name appears in charters of 
the reign of William the Lion, in 1213. By the middle of 
that century the family already occupied a distinguished 
position, as, in the reign of Alexander II., about 1250, 
Robert de Meyners, Knight, appears as Lord High 
Chamberlain. According to Douglas's Baronage, 
Alexander, the son of this personage, appears in posses- 
sion of wide lands in many scattered districts, including 
Weem, Fortingal, and Aberfeldy in Atholl, Glendochart 
in Breadalbane, and Durrisdeer in Nithsdale. Upon the 
death of this chief the lands of Fortingal, with their 
Roman traditions, went to his younger son Thomas, and 
in the fifteenth century, by the marriage of the heiress to 
James, natural son of the notorious Wolf of Badenoch, 
son of Robert II., they became the property of the 
Stewarts, with consequences which were almost disastrous 
to the elder line of Weem. In 1428 there is mention of 
Sir David Meigners of Weem. In later life this chief 
became a monk of the Cistercian order, and in 1450-1, 
following this event, his son and heir obtained a charter 
putting him in possession of Weem and the other family 

It was in the days of James IV. that the ambition of the 
chief brought him into conflict of most serious kind with 
his neighbours. Having acquired possession of the wild 
and beautiful district of Rannoch, he obtained a charter 
of that barony. On the very day on which the charter was 
signed, 2nd September, the caterans of Rannoch, led by 


Neil Stewart of Fortingal and Garth, descended upon the 
headquarters of the chief at Weem, and, committing much 
havoc on his lands on Tayside, burned his castle. The 
stronghold of that time stood somewhat to the east, near 
the village of Weem and the eastern gate of the park. The 
blow was a serious one, and it was sixty-nine years before 
the stronghold was rebuilt on its present site. This was 
in 1571, three years after the overthrow of Queen Mary at 
the battle of Langside. The Menzies chief, however, 
retained possession of Rannoch, which remained part of 
the family estates down to the twentieth century. Mean- 
while, his family charters having been destroyed by the 
fire, Robert Menzies of that ilk had obtained a re-grant 
dated 6th October, 1510, of his barony of Weem and other 
lands united into the barony of Menzies. In 1587, sixteen 
years after the rebuilding of Weem Castle, according to 
the Acts of the Scottish Parliament, " The Menyesses in 
Athoill and Apnadull " (the abthanery of Dull further up 
the valley of the Tay) are recorded as upon " The Roll of 
Clans that hes Captanes, chiefs, and Chieftanes on whom 
they depend." 

The clan was long famous for the rearing of cattle, and 
its possessions in consequence were a special mark for the 
raids of less peaceably disposed tribes. " A fat mart from 
the herds of the Menzies " was a reward often promised 
for the performance of a deed of valour or for extraordinary 
skill as a piper. In consequence, the Menzies lands were 
the frequent subject of predatory raids. The clansmen, 
however, proved themselves well able to defend their 
property, and the skill in arms thus gained made them a 
welcome addition to the righting forces of the country in 
the field. 

During the civil wars of Charles I., the Menzieses 
suffered somewhat severely. In the wars of Montrose, for 
the accidental shooting of a trumpeter whose blood was the 
first shed in the campaign, the lands of the Menzieses were 
ravaged and greatly destroyed. Menzies of Pitfoddels 
was among the gentlemen who fought oh the King's side 
against Montrose in the first fight of that general at the 
Bridge of Dee, and later, in the last battle fought by 
Montrose, himself now on the King's side, Gilbert Menzies 
of this family carried the Royal standard, and, refusing 
quarter, was slain rather than give up his trust. 

In 1665 Alexander Menzies, eldest son of Duncan 
Menzies of Weem, was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia 
as " Princeps clarae familiae." The mother of this laird 
was Jean Leslie, only daughter of James, Master of 





Rothes, and his wife was Agnes, eldest daughter of Sir 
John Campbell of Glenorchy. His eldest son, Robert, 
died before him, and he was succeeded by his grandson, 
another Alexander. In his time the Jacobite Rising of 
1715 took place, and among those who were taken 
prisoners at the battle of Sheriff muir were a number of 
" Gentlemen vassals of the Menzies chief." Among these 
were Menzies of Culdares and two of his brothers, but they 
were fortunate enough all to be pardoned. 

In 1745, again, the clan was out on the Jacobite side. 
On this occasion the chief remained at home, and the clan 
was led by Menzies of Shian, with the rank of Colonel. 
On this occasion they brought into the field 300 fighting 
men, which is said to be a much smaller number than the 
ancient following of the chiefs. Menzies of Culdares, he 
who had been captured at Sheriffmuir, did not take the 
field on this occasion, but, to show his sympathy for the 
Jacobite cause, he sent a handsome charger for the use of 
Prince Charles Edward. The clansman who was sent with 
the horse into England by Culdares was taken prisoner, 
and condemned to death. In this situation he was offered 
pardon if he would reveal the name of the person who had 
made the gift to the Prince. The faithful Highlander, 
however, refused to betray his master, and suffered the last 
penalty in consequence. 

This same cadet of the family, Menzies of Culdares, is 
said by General Stewart of Garth to have introduced the 
larch into Scotland in 1737, and to have given two plants 
to the Duke of Atholl. These are still to be seen growing 
beside Dunkeld Cathedral, and from them, it is said, have 
been derived all the valuable plantations of larch in the 
Atholl district. 

Sir Robert Menzies, third baronet, married Mary, 
eldest daughter of James, first Earl of Bute, the strenuous 
opponent of the Union with England, the lady's mother 
being Agnes, eldest daughter of James VII. 's famous Lord 
Advocate, Sir George MacKenzie of Rosehaugh, founder 
of the Advocates' Library, and the 4< Bluidy MacKenzie " 
of Covenanting tradition. In November, 1778, Sir Robert 
Menzies executed an entail of the estates and baronies of 
Menzies and Rannoch, and at his death without issue in 
1786 the title and possessions of the house reverted to his 
kinsman, John Menzies, grandson of Captain James 
Menzies of Comrie, second son of the first baronet. Sir 
John Menzies married Charlotte, eldest daughter of John, 
fourth Duke of Atholl, but in 1800 also died without issue, 
when the family honours were inherited by Robert Menzies, 


son of Neill, third son of Captain James Menzies of Comrie. 
This Sir Robert was the fifth baronet, and from him the 
honours and possessions of the house descended directly 
to the late Sir Neill James Menzies, eighth baronet, who 
succeeded in 1903, and died without issue some three or 
four years later. 

So far as at present recognised, Sir Neill Menzies was 
the last baronet and chief of the clan. A claim to the 
family honours and estates has, however, been made by 
Mr. D. P. Menzies of Plean Castle, near Larbert. This 
gentleman claims to represent Robert Menzies, yet another 
son of Captain James Menzies of Comrie above referred 
to, second son of Sir Alexander Menzies, first baronet. 
So far, Mr. Menzies has been unsuccessful in proving his 
case before the Lord Lyon and the Court of Session ; but 
out of the mass of documents in his possession, and in the 
possession of others interested, which were acquired at the 
sale of the contents of Weem Castle after the death of Sir 
Neill Menzies, it is still possible that some absolute proof 
may be forthcoming in this interesting case. 

The line of Menzies of Pitfoddels came to an end with 
the death of John Menzies, Sir Walter Scott's acquaint- 
ance, in 1834. This laird was an ardent Roman Catholic, 
and, besides largely benefiting Saint Margaret's Convent, 
Edinburgh, which was opened a year after his death, he 
in 1827 conveyed to Bishop Paterson his estate of Blairs 
for the education of secular priests. For a considerable 
period of years the old mansion-house of Blairs served 
for a college, but it has more recently been replaced by a 
great modern building which ranks as the chief seminary 
for Roman Catholic priests in Scotland. 

Among others of the name who have earned a place in 
public recognition have been John Menzies, who, in the 
troublous times of Charles I. and Charles II., as minister 
and professor of divinity at Aberdeen, acted with constant 
inconsistency the part of a Scottish Vicar of Bray. There 
was Michael Menzies, who died in 1766, and who, while 
by profession an advocate, produced such useful inventions 
as a threshing machine, a machine for conveying coal to 
the pitshaft, and a machine for draining coal mines. 
There was also Archibald Menzies, the famous botanical 
collector (1754-1842). By profession a naval surgeon, he 
accompanied a voyage of fur-trading and discovery to the 
north-west coast of America and China in 1786-9. As 
naturalist and surgeon he went with Vancouver to the 
Cape, New Zealand, and North- West America in 1790-5, 
making on the way ascents of Wha-ra-rai and Mauna Loa 


in Hawaii, settling their altitude by the barometer, and 
bringing home many interesting plants, cryptogams, and 
natural history objects. Members of the clan have also 
distinguished themselves in many other spheres, and the 
name must always remain among those honoured in 


Dewar Macindoer 

MacMenzies MacMinn 

MacMonies Means 

Mein Meine 

Mennie Meyners 

Minn Minnus 



BADGE : Garbhag an Ghlinn, otherwise Crotal a mada'ruadh 

(Lycopodium clavatum) common club moss. 
SLOGAN : Caisteal Foulis na theine. 
PIBROCH : Failte Rothich and Beallach na Broige. 

MUCH controversy has been excited regarding the origin 
of the name Munro. Clan tradition, detailed by Sir 
George MacKenzie, has it that the race, with others of the 
original Celtic inhabitants, was driven out of Caledonia 
by the Romans in the middle of the fourth century. 
Settling in County Derry in Ireland, they took the name 
from a mount on the River Roe there, and on returning to 
Scotland in the reign of Malcolm II. to help in expelling 
the, they retained the name. According to the 
same tradition the lands on which they settled, formerly 
known as East Dingwall, received the name of Foulis from 
association with the River Foyle in Ireland. The whole 
story seems, to say the least, far-fetched. Sir George 
MacKenzie says the name was originally Bunroe, but 
there is nothing to confirm the statement. It seems much 
more likely that the cognomen had the same origin as the 
name of Montrose on the east coast of Scotland, which 
was originally known as Munros " the hill promontory " 
or " the moss promontory." This would agree with the 
location of the territory of the chiefs on the south of Ben 
Wyvis in Ross-shire, the " promontory country," on the 
northern shore of the Cromarty Firth. 

The first known of the race is said to have been a 
certain Donald O'Ceann, of the time of Macbeth. The 
patronymic O'Ceann, Skene, in his Highlanders of 
Scotland, ingeniously converts into O'Cathan, and so 
makes out that the race is a branch of the great Clan 
Chattan or Siol O'Cain. It seems much more likely, 
however, that the name Donald O'Ceann is simply what 
it says Donald, son of the Chief. The same word is 
found in the name of the contemporary Malcolm III., who 
was known as Ceannmore or Canmore, " great Chief," 
by his Gaelic subjects. The Munroes are also known 
among the Highlanders as Clan Rothich or Roich, 



Facing page 438. 


From this Donald O'Ceann, its first possessor, the 
territory on the north side of Cromarty Firth came to be 
known as Fearran Donuill, or Donald's Country. Foulis, 
or Fowlis, the actual seat of the Chief from then till now, 
is a local and personal name common in Scotland. There 
are parishes of Fowlis-Easter and Fowlis-Wester in 
Perthshire, and a family of Fowlises or Foulises were trie 
owners from whom the ancestor of Lord Linlithgow in 
the reign of Charles I. acquired by marriage the valuable 
mining property of Leadhills in Lanarkshire. 

Hugh Munro of Foulis, who died in 1126, is believed 
to have been a son of George, son of Donald O'Ceann. 
His son Robert, who is reckoned to have been the second 
laird or baron of Foulis, took part in the wars of David I. 
and Malcolm IV., and died in 1164. It was Robert's heir, 
Donald (died 1 192) who built the old tower of Foulis, and 
Donald's successor, another Robert, married a daughter 
of the Earl of Sutherland. It was to George, son of this 
pair, that, according to Nisbet's Heraldry, William, 
Earl of Sutherland, in the reign of Alexander II. granted 
a charter which runs, " carissimo et fidelissimo con- 
sanguineo, Georgio Munro de Foulis." 

On the introduction of the feudal system, however, 
the Munroes had secured their possessions by accepting 
charters, not from the Earls of Sutherland but from their 
more immediate neighbours, the Earls of Ross. One of 
these charters, about 1350, expressly states that the lands 
of Easter Fowlis had belonged to the Munroes in free 
possession from the time of Donald O'Ceann. The 
reddendo mentioned for the lands of Pitlundie was a pair 
of white gloves or three pennies if required. 

Meanwhile the friendship with the Earl of Ross had 
involved the Munroes in serious trouble. In 1282 the 
clans Iver, Talvigh, and Laiwe, with others, had rebelled 
against the Earl, the latter seized their leader and 
imprisoned him at Dingwall, and the rebels, to safeguard 
their chief, carried off the Earl's second son from Balna- 
gown, and held him as a hostage. Thereupon, according 
to Sir Robert Gordon, " the Munroes and the Dingwalls, 
with some others, gathered their forces and pursued the 
Highlanders with all diligence, so overtaking them at 
Beallach na Croig, betwixt Ferrindonnel and Loch 
Broom. There ensued a cruell fight, well foughten on 
either side. The clan Iver, clan Talvighe, and clan 
Laiwe were almost utterlie extinguished and slain, but the 
Munros had a sorrowful victory, with great loss of their 
men, yet carried back again the Earl of Ross his son. 


The Laird of Kildun was ther slain, with seven score of 
the surname of Dingwall. Divers of the Munroes were 
slain in this conflict, and there were killed eleven of the 
house of Foulis, that were to succeed one another, so that 
the succession fell unto a child then lying in his cradel." 
Thus ended " carrissimus et fidelissimus Georgius Munro 
de Foulis." 

Robert, the infant in the cradle, fought in Bruce's 
army at Bannockburn. His only son, George, was slain 
in the battle, but left an heir, another George, who fell at 
Halidon Hill in 1333. 

In 1341, while Robert, the son of this chief, was still an 
infant, occurred an event which would seem to show that 
the Munroes were certainly not regarded as kinsmen by 
the Captains of the Clan Chattan. John Munro, the 
" tutor " or guardian of Foulis, was treated with some 
indignity by the inhabitants of Strathardle as he passed 
through that country. For this his clansmen eagerly 
desired revenge, and the tutor accordingly raised a force 
of 350 picked men, with which he raided the Strathardle 
lands. As he returned past the Mackintosh seat of Moy, 
Mackintosh demanded his toll of the plunder. The tutor 
offered a share, bift Mackintosh demanded nothing less 
than half. " Wherewith John Munro would not hearken 
nor yield, but goeth on his intended journie homeward, 
Macintosh conveens his forces with all diligence, and 
follows John Munroe, whom he overtook at Clagh ne 
Hayre, besyd Inverness, hard by the ferry of Kessack. 
John, perceaving Macintosh and his company following, 
then hard at hand, sent fiftie of his men home to 
Ferrindonald with the spoil, and encouraged the rest to 
fight. So there ensued a cruell conflict, wherein Mac- 
intosh was slain, with the most part of his companie. 
Divers of the Munroes were also ther killed. John 
Munroe was left as deid in the field, and was taken up by 
the Lord Lovet, who carried him to his house, where he 
was cured of his wounds, and wes from thenceforth called 
John Bacclawigh becaus he wes mutilat of one of his 
hands all the rest of his days." 

Robert Munro of Foulis, the eighth laird, who was in 
tutelage at the time of this conflict, and was slain in an 
obscure skirmish in 1369, married a niece of Euphemia, 
daughter of the Earl of Ross and second wife of King 
Robert II. By this marriage the Munro chiefs became 
nearly related, not only to the royal house of Stewart but 
to Robert II.'s grandson, Donald, Lord of the Isles, who 
married the sister of the last northern Earl of Ross, and 


claimed the earldom in her right. When, therefore, the 
Island Lord set out to make good his claim at the battle 
of Harlaw in 1411 he was joined by Hugh Munro, the 
next laird of Foulis, his wife's cousin. Hugh Munro's 
successor, George, was killed in one of the conflicts of 
these wars of the Isles and the Douglases in 1454, but 
when towards the end of the century the troubles ended 
with the forfeiture of the earldom of Ross and the ruin of 
the last Lord of the Isles, the Munroes escaped scatheless, 
and indeed rose in rank by having their vassalage trans- 
ferred to the Crown. The fresh charters which they then 
obtained from the King declared that they held their lands 
on condition of furnishing a snowball at midsummer if 
required. This condition they could easily fulfil, as snow 
was to be found in some of the mountain corries of their 
property all the year round. 

William, second in succession to the chief slain in 
1454, died, like so many of his ancestors, by violence in 
1505. His successor, Hector Munro of Foulis, married 
Katherine, daughter of Sir Kenneth MacKenzie of 
Kintail, and their son Robert, the next chief, fell fighting 
against the English aggression at the battle of Pinkie in 
1547. His son, Robert More Munro, the fifteenth chief, 
took the part of Queen Mary against the Earl of Huntly. 
To judge from the narrative of George Buchanan, the 
clan was now regarded as one of the chief in the north. 
When Huntly 's henchman refused the Queen admission 
to her castle of Inverness in 1562, the famous Latin 
historian wrote, " When they heard of the Queen's danger 
a great host of the Scottish notables, some under pressure, 
some of their own accord, attached themselves to her, 
foremost among them being the Frascrs and Munros, 
among the most valiant of these tribes." 

In view, probably, of the help afforded to the Queen's 
cause and his own on that occasion, the Regent Moray 
in 1569 entrusted the castle of the canonry of Ross to 
Andrew Munro of Milntown, and this doughty castelan 
defended the stronghold for three years, at the cost of many 
lives, against the attacks of the MacKenzies, with whom 
the Munroes were then at feud. It was only under the 
later act of pacification that the castle was finally delivered 
up to the MacKenzies. 

Robert More Munro, the chief of that time, already 
mentioned, became a Protestant in the early days of the 
Reformation, and this fact practically decided the future 
politics of the clan. It was probably in consequence of 
this that Robert Munro. the eighteenth chief, remembered 


in Highland tradition as " the Black Baron," proceeded 
in 1626 to join the Protestant forces of Gustavus Adolphus. 
He and six other officers of his name went over with the 
Scottish corps raised by Sir Donald MacKay, first Lord 
Reay, head of the other chief Protestant clan of the north, 
and three years later he raised a regiment of 700 men on 
his own lands. According to Doddridge, " The worthy 
Scottish gentleman was so struck with a regard to the 
common cause, in which he himself had no concern but 
what piety and virtue gave him, that he joined Gustavus 
with a great number of his friends who bore his own name. 
Many of them gained great reputation in this war, and 
that of Robert, their leader, was so eminent that he was 
made colonel of two regiments at the same time, the one 
of horse, the other of foot." In the service of Gustavus 
there were at one time no fewer than " three generals, 
eight colonels, five lieutenant-colonels, eleven majors, and 
above thirty captains all of the name of Munro, besides 
a great number of subalterns." 

The Black Baron died from a wound in the foot at Ulm 
in 1633. His brother Hector, who succeeded as nineteenth 
Laird of Foulis, also distinguished himself in the wars of 
Gustavus, and was created a Baronet of Nova Scotia by 
Charles I. in 1634. His son, another Sir Hector, dying 
in Holland in his seventeenth year in 1651, was succeeded 
by his distant kinsman, Robert Munro of Obsdale. Sir 
Robert was also a veteran of the wars of Gustavus 
Adolphus. In our own Civil Wars he served Charles I. 
chiefly in Ireland, from 1641 to 1645, when he was 
surprised and taken prisoner personally by General Monk. 
In the Royalist army he had one son a Major-General, two 
of the rank of Colonel, and one a Captain. He was 
afterwards Lieutenant-General of the Royalist troops in 
Scotland, where he fought a duel with the Earl of 
Glencairn. He afterwards joined the young Charles II. 
in his exile in Holland, and at the Restoration was made 
commander-in-chief of the forces in Scotland. He is 
generally understood to have been the original of 
Dugald Dalgetty in Scott's Legend of Montr ose. He 
died before the Revolution in 1668. His eldest son, Sir 
John Munro, the fourth baronet, was such a strenuous 
supporter of Presbyterianism, that, being of massive 
frame, he was known as " the Presbyterian mortar-piece." 
He had been fined and imprisoned as a Covenanter, and 
at the Revolution he naturally took the side of William of 
Orange. His son, Sir Robert, though blind, was made 
High Sheriff of Ross by George I. in 1725. During the 


risings of 1715 and 1719 his clan did much to check the 
activities of the MacKenzies and other Jacobite clans. 
This chief further influenced the future policy of the clan 
by marrying Jean, daughter of John Forbes of Culloden. 

With these antecedents his eldest son, another Sir 
Robert, naturally took the Government side against the 
Jacobite risings of his time. He was Member of 
Parliament for Ross-shire. When the Independent Com- 
panies were, in May, 1740, formed into the 43rd Highland 
Regiment, afterwards famous as the 42nd or Black Watch, 
he was appointed lieutenant-colonel, the Earl of Crawford 
and Lindsay being Colonel. Sir Robert's next brother, 
George Munro of Culcairn, was one of the captains, while 
another was John Munro, who became Lieutenant-Colonel 
in 1745. The chief's youngest brother, Dr. James Munro, 
was surgeon of the regiment. In the Jacobite rising of 
1745 the Munroes, following their chief, took the side of 
the Government, and played an important part in keeping 
the remoter northern counties for King George. The 
campaign, however, proved costly to the house of the 
chief. At the battle of Falkirk in January, 1746, Sir 
Robert himself fell, with his brother Dr. Munro. So 
greatly were they respected that the Jacobite victors, after 
the battle, buried them with military honours in Falkirk 
churchyard. The fate of Sir Robert's other brother, 
George Munro of Culcairn, was not less tragic. After 
Culloden, at which the clan took part in full force, the 
Highland clans were ordered to deliver up their arms. 
In fulfilment of this order one of the Jacobite clansmen, 
Dugald Roy Cameron, sent his son to Fort William to 
surrender some weapons. As the young man passed 
down Loch Arkaig, he was met by a party of soldiers 
under an officer named Grant, by whom he was seized and 
forthwith shot. Vowing vengeance upon the slayer of 
his son, who, he learned, rode a white horse, Dugald Roy 
lay in wait behind a rock above Loch Arkaig for the 
officer's return. By and by, as the troop came back, he 
took careful aim at the officer riding the white horse, and 
shot him dead. Unfortunately, however, Captain Munro 
had borrowed the horse, and it was he who was shot mstead 
of Grant. On learning his mistake Dugald Roy gave up 
his vengeance, and became a soldier in the Government 

Sir Robert's son, Sir Harry Munro, seventh baronet 
and twenty-fifth Chief, was an eminent scholar and 
Member of Parliament. His son, Sir Hugh, left no heir 
to the baronetcy, and was succeeded by his kinsman 


Charles Munro of Culraine, lineal male descendant of 
Lieutenant-General Sir George Munro, next brother of the 
third baronet. Sir Charles served with high credit under 
Wellington in Portugal, Spain, and France, and was 
wounded at the storming of Badajos. He also distin- 
guished himself under Bolivar in the South American 
War of Independence, and commanded a division at the 
battle of Agnotmar, where the Spanish army surrendered 
to the Colombian general. The present Chief, Sir Hector 
Munro of Foulis, eleventh baronet and twenty-ninth laird, 
is his grandson. Among his other honours he is A.D.C. 
to the King and Lord-Lieutenant of Ross and Cromarty. 

Among its cadets the house includes the family repre- 
sented by Sir Hugh Munro, Bart., of Lindertis, in Forfar- 
shire. This family is descended through younger sons 
from the Foulis chief who fought at Harlaw. Its 
immediate ancestor was General Sir Thomas Munro, 
Governor of Madras from 1820 to 1827, whose father, a 
wealthy Glasgow Virginia merchant, was ruined by the 
American War of Independence in 1776. The General's 
sister became the wife of the Hon. Henry Erskine, the 
famous Scottish lawyer and wit. 

Another distinguished cadet was Sir Hector Munro of 
Novar, also an eminent Indian commander. He is said 
to have spent ; 120,000 in improving his estate on the 
Cromarty Firth. He died unmarried, but left three 
natural children. Of these the elder son Hugh, an officer 
in India, was killed by a tiger, and the younger, Alexan- 
der, was devoured by a shark, both in their father's 
lifetime. The daughter, Jane, married Colonel Sir Ronald 
Crauford Ferguson of Raith near Kirkcaldy, and her 
grandson is the present Right Hon. Sir Ronald Crauford 
Munro-Ferguson, P.C., G.C.M.G., of Raith and Novar, 
late Governor-General of Australia, created Lord Novar 
in 1921, and now Secretary for Scotland. 

The clan has also a distinguished representative in 
literature in the person of Dr. Neil Munro the Celtic 
novelist, of the Loch Fyneside sept of the name; in 
archaeology by the late Dr. Robert Munro, the eminent 
authority on lake-dwellings; and in politics by the Right 
Hon. Robert Munro, K.C., P.C., late Secretary for Scot- 
land, now Lord Justice Clerk of the Court of Session, 
under the title of Lord Alness. 

Dingwall Foulis 

MacCulloch MacLulich 

Vass Wass 


Facing page 444. 


BADGE : Bealaidh chatti (Ruscus occiliatus) Butcher's broom. 
PIBROCH : Failte Dhuic Athull. 

IT is highly interesting, at a period when this country 
has been brought into such close touch with the Belgian 
people, as indomitable as they are industrious, to recall 
the fact that more than one of our most illustrious Scottish 
families derive their descent from the notables of Flanders 
in earlier times. Among the Flemings who have left a 
conspicuous mark in Scottish history one of the most 
distinguished was a certain Freskin. Sir Robert Douglas 
in his Scottish Peerage calls him " a gentleman of 
Flemish origin " who came into Scotland during the reign 
of David I., and obtained from that munificent sovereign 
the lands of Strathbrock in Linlithgowshire. Soon after 
the settlement of this individual the famous insurrection 
of the Moraymen broke out. This was in the year 1130, 
and Freskin by his skill and bravery is said to have con- 
tributed vitally to the reduction of the rebellion. In 
return, King David conferred upon him a large and 
fertile district in the lowlands of Moray. Forthwith the 
new owner built a strong castle at Duffus, where his 
descendants flourished for many generations. William, 
a chief of the family, who was Sheriff of Invernairn, and 
died about 1220, is believed to have been the first to 
assume the surname " de Moravia " or Moray. From him 
descended the Morays, Lords of Bothwell, the Morays of 
Abercairney, and Sir William de Moravia, ancestor of 
the Dukes of Atholl of the present day. 

Of the younger branches the Lords of Bothwell made 
a great name during the Wars of Succession and Inde- 
pendence. The sixth chief, Sir Andrew Moray of 
Bothwell, was the first to join the patriot Wallace when 
he raised his standard. When the other barons deserted 
the national cause he alone remained steadfast. Along 
with Wallace he acted as Governor of Scotland, and after 
the battle of Stirling Bridge, where he was grievously 
wounded, he signed along with Wallace the famous letter, 
still extant, to the free city of Lubeck, which declared the 



ports of Scotland open to foreign commerce. His son, 
another Sir Andrew, was not less distinguished for his 
support to the cause of King Robert the Bruce. He 
married Christian, a sister of that King, and after the 
overthrow of the Regent Earl of Mar at Duplin, was 
appointed Regent by the Scottish Parliament. He was 
a prisoner in England at the time of the battle of Halidon 
Hill, but obtained his freedom in time to march to the 
relief of his wife, who was bravely defending Kildrummy 
Castle, one of the four strongholds which alone in Scot- 
land held out for David Bruce against Edward Baliol and 
Edward III. Curiously enough the besieger on that 
occasion was David Hastings, Earl of Atholl, a title 
which, in later days, was to become a distinction of the 
Morays. In the upshot Hastings was overthrown and 
slain at the battle of Kilblene on St. Andrew's Day, 1335. 
It was in the same campaign that Sir Andrew Moray, 
besieging Lochindorb, was almost surprised by the 
English, and reassured his men, first by insisting upon 
completion of the service of Mass which he was hearing, 
and then by delaying to mend a strap of his armour which 
had been broken, then led his force out of danger in 
good time through the wild passes of the Findhorn. On 
the death of Thomas Moray, of Bothwell, the estates of 
this branch passed to his daughter Joanna and her 
husband, Archibald the Grim, Lord of Galloway and 
third Earl of Douglas, the natural son of the Good Sir 
James of Douglas. 

The Morays of Abercairney still own their ancestral 
estate in Strathearn. It was saved for them on one 
occasion by the stratagem of a retainer. Moray of Aber- 
cairney was preparing to join the rebellion of Prince 
Charles Edward, when, as he was drawing on his boots, 
his butler dashed a kettleful of boiling water about his 
legs, with the exclamation, " Let them fecht wha will, 
bide ye at hame and be laird of Abercairney." 

The main line of the Morays, however, was repre- 
sented by Sir John de Moravia, Sheriff of Perth in the 
time of William the Lion, 1165-1214. The son of this 
individual is named in a charter of 1284, " Dominus 
Malcomus de Moravia, Miles, Vicecomes de Perth." The 
successor of the latter, Sir William de Moravia, married 
Ada, daughter of Malise, Earl or Seneschal of Strathearn, 
and got with her the lands of Tullibardine in that district, 
from which his descendants took their title. In the same 
way another daughter of the Seneschal of Strathearn 
married the chief of the Grahams, bringing him the estate 


of Kincardine, adjoining that of Tullibardine in Strath- 
earn, and becoming the mother of the great Scottish hero, 
Sir John the Graham, the friend of Sir William Wallace, 
and ancestor of the great house of Montrose. 

The son of Sir William de Moravia and Ada of Strath- 
earn was Andrew Murray of Tullibardine. It was he who 
in 1332 helped Edward Baliol to win the battle of Duplin 
by fixing a stake to mark the ford in the Earn, through 
which BalioFs army passed to surprise and route the 
Scottish host under the Regent Mar. For this, when he 
was made prisoner two months later, Murray was put to 
death. He left a son, however, and his descendant Sir 
John, the twelfth Murray of Tullibardine, was Master of 
the Household and a member of the Privy Council of 
James VI. In 1604 he was made Lord Murray of Tulli- 
bardine, and two years later Earl of Tullibardine. His 
son, William, the second Earl, had the good fortune, 
along with his cousin David, Viscount Stormont, when 
a very young man, to help in the rescue of James VI. at 
Perth, when the Earl of Gowrie is said to have attempted 
his life. For this he was made hereditary Sheriff of 
Perthshire. He married the Lady Dorothea Stewart, 
eldest daughter of John, fifth Earl of Atholl. By this 
marriage the Murrays became inheritors of a title which 
had an interesting story. On the overthrow of the Black 
Douglas in the middle of the fifteenth century, James II. 
had married Margaret, the Fair Maid of Galloway, heiress 
of that great house, to his own half-brother, John Stewart, 
son of the Black Knight of Lome and Queen Joan, widow 
of James I. This pair the King made Lord and Lady 
Balvenie, and afterwards Earl and Countess of Atholl, 
and their direct descendant was the fifth Earl of Atholl, 
whose eldest daughter carried the title and estates to the 
house of Tullibardine. 

Earl William arranged that the earldoms of Atholl 
and Tullibardine should go respectively to his son and 
his brother Patrick, but on the death of Earl Patrick's 
son the earldom of Tullibardine came back to the main 

The second Murray Earl of Atholl, to whom the 
Tullibardine title thus returned, was a strong supporter 
of the cause of Charles I. during the civil wars. The 
Marquess of Montrose was received by him at Blair Castle 
in 1644; and he raised no fewer than eighteen hundred 
men to fight for the King. It was this addition to his 
forces which enabled Montrose to win his early victory at 
Tibbermuir. Atholl's son also, in 1653, brought no 


fewer than two thousand men to the royal standard when 
it was raised by the Earl of Glencairn. These were the 
Atholl men who swooped down upon the Argyll country 
and struck an effective blow against the influence of the 
Covenanting Marquess of Argyll, then at the head of the 
Scottish Government. By way of return one of Crom- 
well's officers, Colonel Daniel, penetrated the Atholl fast- 
nesses, took Blair Castle by storm, and blew it up. It 
was for these services and sufferings that in 1676, after 
the Restoration, the Earl was made a Knight of the 
Thistle and raised to the dignity of Marquess of Atholl. 
Sixteen years later, however, the Revolution took place, 
and then, possibly owing to his wife's relationship with 
the House of Nassau, Atholl took the side of William of 
Orange. An officer belonging to the Jacobite army of 
Viscount Dundee seized Blair Castle, and refused to 
deliver it to the owner's son, and it was to attempt the 
reduction of the stronghold that General MacKay set out 
on his march with the Government forces through the 
Grampian passes. Dundee, who had come to the help 
of the garrison, was ready for him, and as the Government 
troops emerged from the narrow gorge at Killiecrankie 
he swooped down upon them, cut them to pieces, and 
himself fell in the moment of victory. 

The first Marquess of Atholl married Lady Amelia 
Sophia Stanley, only daughter of James, seventh Earl of 
Derby, by his wife, Charlotte de la Tremouille. This 
lady was the famous Countess of Derby who defended 
Latham House against the army of the Parliament in 1644, 
and for her energetic protection of the Isle of Man in 
1651 figures in Sir Walter Scott's Peveril of the Peak. 
Her mother was a daughter of the Prince of Orange, and 
she could trace descent from the Greek emperors of Con- 
stantinople in the eleventh century. It was in com- 
memoration of the marriage of the Marquess of Atholl 
with the daughter of the House of Derby that the name 
of Stanley was given to the well-known village between 
Perth and Dunkefd. 

While the eldest son of this marriage succeeded to the 
Atholl titles, the second son, Charles, was created Earl 
of Dunmore, and became ancestor of the distinguished 
family bearing that title. The fourth son, William, 
having married Margaret, daughter of the first Lord 
Nairne, became the second lord of that name. He was 
out in " the '15," and his son, the Honourable John 
Nairne, was out in " the '45 "; but the title was restored 
in 1824 to the latter's grandson, whose wife was the 



famous singer of the lost Jacobite cause, Carolina 
Oliphant, Lady Nairne. 

The second Marquess was created Duke of Atholl in 
1703. Partly no doubt because of his mother's descent 
from the House of Nassau, he supported the cause of 
William of Orange; but he was a strong opponent of the 
union between Scotland and England, and the Jacobite 
influence was strong in his family, so his sons played 
striking parts in the story of the Jacobite rebellions of 
their time. His second son, William, who, on the death 
of an elder brother, became Marquess of Tullibardine, was 
one of the first to join the Earl of Mar in 1715. For this 
he was attainted, but escaped abroad. He returned to 
Scotland with the Spanish forces, took part in the battle 
of Glenshiel in 1719, and again escaped. Twenty-six 
years later he came again to Scotland with Prince Charles 
Edward. After Culloden he made his way to the 
shores of Loch Lomond, where, being taken prisoner by 
Buchanan, Laird of Drumakil, he hurled a curse upon the 
latter's house which, according to local tradition, took 
effect for three generations. Eventually he was carried to 
London, where he died in the Tower in 1746. Charles, 
the Duke's fourth son, commanded a Jacobite regiment in 
1715, was captured at Preston, and sentenced to be shot, 
but was afterwards reprieved. Most distinguished of all 
was Lord George Murray, the Duke's fifth son. Wounded 
at the battle of Glenshiel in 1719, he escaped abroad and 
served in the Sardinian army, but obtained a pardon and 
returned home. He joined Prince Charles in 1745* and, 
as Lieutenant-General of the Jacobite army, was the real 
commander at the battles of Preston, Falkirk, and Cullo- 
den. Notwithstanding various accusations which have 
been made against him, he was without doubt the ablest 
leader on the Prince's side, and, had his suggestions been 
followed, a different turn might have been given to the 
later history of the House of Stewart. As it was, his 
eldest son succeeded as third Duke of Atholl. 

Meanwhile James, third son of the first Duke, had 
succeeded to the titles, and on the death of the tenth Earl 
of Derby without issue had inherited the Stanley barony 
of Strange as well as the Kingship of the Isle of Man, 
which had been granted to Sir John de Stanley by King 
Henry IV. in 1406. The lordship of the Isle of Man had 
formerly been an appanage of the Scottish crown, but 
was seized during the Wars of Succession by Edward I. 
of England. There was an element of justice, therefore, 
in its return to the possession of a great Scottish house. 


The existence of an independent kingship within the 
British Isles, however, became an anomaly, and in 1765 
it was purchased from John, third Duke of Atholl, by 
the British Government for ^70,000. Further payments 
were subsequently made for the family's landed and other 
interests in the island, and the entire sum ultimately 
amounted to nearly half a million sterling, which may be 
regarded as the redemption money for the seizure made 
by Edward I. as Hammer of the Scots. 

It was in the time of this second Duke that the larch 
was introduced to Scotland and to the ducal estates from 
the Tyrol in 1738. Five larch plants were brought to 
Dunkeld, and a few others to Blair Atholl and Monzie. 
The species had not previously been looked upon as a 
suitable forest tree for Scotland, as it was thought to be 
far too tender for the climate. Of the five trees planted at 
Dunkeld, two are still to be seen near the eastern end of 
the cathedral. In 1839 two of the others were felled. 
One, containing 168 cubic feet of wood, was sold where 
it lay to Leith shipbuilders for. 2$ 45. ; the otfier, con- 
taining 147 cubic feet, was sent to Woolwich, and used 
as beams in the repair of the store-ship Serapis. These 
marked the beginning of great tree-planting operations 
in the Atholl district, and before 1821 some nine thousand 
acres had been placed under wood, converting a barren 
district into valuable forest land, and rendering much of 
the previously waste country between the plantations 
available for natural pasture. 

The son of the second Duke of Atholl died before his 
father, and John Murray, who succeeded as third Duke, 
was the eldest son of Lord George Murray, Lieutenant- 
General of the Jacobite forces in " the '45." He married 
the only surviving daughter of the second Duke, and with 
her inherited the barony of Strange and the sovereignty 
of the Isle of Man, which latter he disposed of as already 
mentioned. It was his eldest son, the fourth Duke, who 
was the famous improver of the Atholl estates, and to him 
is attributed the saying " aye be putting in a tree, it will 
be growing while ye're sleeping." It was he who finally 
disposed of the family property and privileges in the Isle 
of Man to the Crown for the sum of ,409,000. And he 
also began the building of the new palace at Dunkeld, 
which was designed to be one of the most magnificent 
residences in Scotland, but was never completed. The 
park about it he converted into one of the finest landscape 
gardens, planning it to include a famous home farm, 
American gardens, and carriage drives thirty miles in 


extent. It was he who received the poet Robert Burns at 
Blair Castle, and of whose hospitality and pleasant fain 
circle the poet has left so charming a picture. His second 
son was created Lord Glenlyon in 1821. The second 
Lord Glenlyon succeeded as sixth Duke. His mother 
was the second daughter of the second Duke of North- 
umberland, and his only son was the late holder of the 
dukedom, who succeeded in 1864. 

Needless to say, the House of Atholl and the great 
family of Moray or Murray have always played a striking 
and strenuous part in the history of the country. Their 
feuds with their neighbours have not been so numerous 
as those of many other clans, but one at least was long 
continued and included one of the most tragic episodes 
in clan warfare. It was the feud between the Murrays of 
Auchtertyre and the Drummonds in Strathearn. A 
mutual jealousy existed for centuries between the two 
families, and it came to a head in 1490, when Murray of 
Auchtertyre was induced to poind certain cattle belonging 
to the Drummonds, for payment of a debt demanded by 
the Abbot of Inchaffray. In revenge, William, Master 
of Drummond, son of the first Lord Drummond, led an 
attack against the Murrays. In the battle at Knockmary 
near Crieff the Murrays were at first successful, but the 
Drummonds, being reinforced, finally drove them off the 
field. The fugitives took refuge in the little kirk of 
Monzievaird, on the spot where the Mausoleum now 
stands in the park of Auchtertyre, and for a time the 
pursuers could not find them. But a too zealous Murray 
clansman, seeing his chance, shot an arrow from the kirk 
and killed a Drummond; whereupon the Drummonds 
heaped combustibles round the little fane, and burned it 
with all it contained to ashes. Eight score Murrays were 
included in the holocaust, only one of those within the 
kirk escaping by the compassion of a Drummond clans- 
man outside, who was his relation, and who, for his kind- 
ness, had to flee from the wrath of his own clansmen to 
Ireland for a time. 

Blair Atholl itself, we have seen, had also its own tale 
of storm and battle. The oldest part of Blair Castle is 
known as Comyn's Tower, having been built, it is said, 
by John Comyn de Strathbogie, who enjoyed the Atholl 
title in right of his wife. From its builder's time down- 
wards the stronghold stood many a siege. Its last experi- 
ence of this kind was in March, 1746, when Sir Andrew 
Agnew defended it against the Jacobites, then on their 
way north to their last struggle at Culloden. Some 


curious details of the siege on this occasion are given in 
the Scots Magazine for 1808. Many a famous visitor 
has been entertained within these walls, as well as at 
Dunkeld lower in the pass, where the Dukes of Atholl 
also have a seat. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert 
visited Dunkeld House in 1842, and in 1844 tne Royal 
Family spent some weeks at Blair Castle. On these 
occasions the illustrious visitors were received at the 
boundary of the property by a guard of Atholl High- 
landers several hundreds in number, and to the present 
hour this body remains in existence. It has been called 
the only private army in the British Isles, and when 
it turns out on great occasions under the command 
of the Duke of Atholl it forms indeed a notable sight 
to see. 

The late seventh Duke was Lord-Lieutenant of the 
County of Perth from 1878. As a young man he was a 
captain in the Scots Fusilier Guards, and was afterwards 
Colonel of the 3rd Battalion of the Black Watch. During 
the South African War he raised 1,200 men for the Scot- 
tish Horse, and sent them out to the command of his son, 
the Marquess of Tullibardine. From material in the 
family charter room he compiled for private circulation 
five volumes of Chronicles of the Atholl and Tullibar- 
dine Families. 

The present Duke is one of the most active men of 
affairs in the country. While still Marquess of Tullibar- 
dine, he won distinction in many fields. Holding a com- 
mission in the Royal Horse Guards, he served with the 
Egyptian Cavalry as Staff Officer to Colonel Broadwood 
during the Nile expedition of 1898, and took part in the 
battles of the Atbara and Khartoum, when he was men- 
tioned twice in despatches, and received the D.S.O. He 
also served in the South African War, first with the Royal 
Dragoons and afterwards as Lieutenant-Colonel com- 
manding the ist and 2nd Scottish Horse, which regiment 
he had himself raised. For his share in this campaign 
he was mentioned three times in despatches, received the 
Queen's and the King's medal, and was made M.V.O. 
For service in the great war of 1914 he raised two addi- 
tional regiments of Scottish Horse for the formation of 
a Highland Mounted Brigade, and is Commandant of the 
Scottish Horse and a Brigadier-General. He also had a 
distinguished career as Member of Parliament for Perth- 
shire, and there is no more popular peer north of the 
Border. Since the war he has raised ,140,000 for a 
Scottish National War Memorial ; he has acted as Lord 


High Commissioner to the General Assembly, and has held 
the post of Lord Chamberlain in the Royal Household. 


MacMurray Moray 

Rattray Small 




BADGE : Seorsa luibh (anchusa) evergreen alkanet. 

THE Siol Gillichriosd, or Gilchrist the Race of Gilchrist, 
claims descent from a Maormor of Angus of that name, 
one of the seven great hereditary chiefs of Scottish dis- 
tricts who bore this designation. When the title of 
Maormor came to be replaced by that of Earl in the time 
of David I., Gillibride, son of Gilchrist, became Earl of 
Angus. While the Earl's eldest son succeeded to his 
father's title, and the second, Magnus, inherited, through 
his mother, the Earldom of Caithness, the third son, 
Gilbert, became ancestor of the Ogilvies. By Gaelic 
enthusiasts the name is taken to mean a fair or yellow- 
haired young man Gille-Bhuidhe, but it is more likely 
to be derived from lands so called, of which Gilbert 
received a charter in 1172. There is a Glen Ogilvie in 
the parish of Glamis, the Ogilvie country at the present 

Gilbert's descendant, Sir Patrick de Ogilvie of Western 
Powrie, was a steady adherent of King Robert the Bruce, 
and received from him a charter of the lands of Kettins 
in Forfarshire. From his elder son Alexander descended 
the Ogilvies of that ilk, now long extinct. The younger 
son, Patrick, obtained from his nephew, Sir Patrick of 
Ogilvie, the family estate of Western Powrie, and by 
marriage with Marjory, heiress of Ramsay of Auchter- 
house, added that estate to his possessions. His son, 
Walter Ogilvy, on the death of his uncle, Sir Malcolm 
Ramsay, in 1365, succeeded to the hereditary Sheriffdom 
of Forfar. He is said also to have acquired the barony 
of Cortachy in 1369, and it was his second son and heir, 
Sir Walter Ogilvy of Auchterhouse, Sheriff of Forfar, 
in whose person the family first made its way into the 
limelight of history. 

The incident took place in 1391. King Robert II. 
had only succeeded to the throne in the previous August, 
and the rule of Scotland was practically in the hands of 
his unscrupulous brother, Robert, Earl of Fife, better 
known by his later title of Duke of Albany. Another of 



Facing page 454. 


the King's brothers, Alexander, Earl of Buchan, himself 
better known as the Wolf of Badenoch, had already shown 
his contempt for all authority by plundering the lands of 
the Bishop of Moray, and burning the Bishop's Cathedral 
and town of Elgin. Forthwith, following his father's 
example, the " Wolf's " natural son, Duncan Stewart, at 
the head of a raiding host of the Robertson clan and 
others, suddenly burst out of the Grampians and proceeded 
to plunder, burn, and slay in the shire of Angus. Ogilvy 
of Auchterhouse, as Sheriff, promptly gathered his people, 
and with Sir Patrick Gray and Sir David Lindsay of 
Glenesk, came up with the raiders at Glen Brierachan, 
eleven miles north of Gasklune. Though much inferior 
in numbers, he did not hesitate to attack. But, though 
clad in steel, he and his little party were no match for 
the fierce caterans. And while Ogilvy and his half- 
brother, with other lairds and some sixty followers were 
slain, Gray and Lindsay were grievously wounded, and 
only with difficulty carried from the field. 

The gallant Sheriff's eldest son, Sir Alexander Ogilvy 
of Auchterhouse, wr.s " the gracious gude Lord Ogilvy ' 
of the Ballad of Harlaw : 

For faith and magnanimity 

He had few fellows in the field, 
Yet fell by fatal destiny, 

For he nae ways wad grant to yield. 

In that tremendous conflict north of Aberdeen against 
Donald of the Isles in 1411, Sir Alexander and his eldest 
son, George Ogilvy, were among the slain. 

The line of Sir Alexander's next son, Sir Patrick, 
ended with his granddaughter, who married James 
Stewart, Earl of Buchan, half-brother of King James II. 
His next son, Sir Andrew of Inchmartin, was ancestor of 
the second Earl of Findlater (son-in-law of the first Earl), 
who in strict line of blood carried on the Chieftainship of 
the Clan. His descendant, the fourth Earl, was the dis- 
tinguished Scottish statesman of the days of William and 
Mary, and Queen Anne, and on his own merits was 
created Earl of Seafield. That line ended, however, 
at the death of the seventh Earl of Findlater and fourth 
Earl of Seafield, when the latter title passed to the son 
of his aunt, who had married the Chief of the Grants. 

Meanwhile, Sir Walter, younger brother of the 
"gracious gude Lord Ogilvy," had acquired the estate 
of fcintrathen by marriage with an heiress, it is, believed, 
of the Durward family, and had become High Treasurer 


of Scotland under James I. Among his transactions he 
conveyed to his youngest brother John the estate of Inver- 
quharity. John's son, Alexander Ogilvy of Inverquharity, 
by marriage and purchase acquired many valuable 
estates, and was an excellent man of affairs. In the end 
this ability was his undoing, and the tragic event in 
which he was concerned came within measurable distance 
of effecting the complete ruin of the Ogilvies. It was in 
1445, when the House of Stewart was still fighting for 
its sovereignty against an array of turbulent nobles, and 
the lawlessness of the latter had not yet been brought to 
an end by the decisive action of James II. It happened 
that the wealthy monastery of Arbroath had appointed 
Alexander Lindsay, afterwards to be known as the Tiger 
Earl of Crawford, or Earl Beardie, to be their Justiciar. 
Finding that ferocious personage a somewhat expensive 
and troublesome protector, they deposed him and 
appointed Ogilvy of Inverquharity Justiciar in his place. 
To avenge the insult and repossess himself of the lucrative 
office, Lindsay mustered his vassals, and, reinforced by a 
large party of the Douglases, appeared before Arbroath. 
Ogilvy also gathered his friends and followers, and was 
helped by Sir Alexander Seton of Gordon, afterwards Earl 
of Huntly, who happened at the moment to be a guest at 
his house, and obliged by an ancient Scottish custom to 
fight for his host so long as the food he had eaten under 
his roof remained in his stomach. As the two forces faced 
each other, Lindsay's father, the old Earl of Crawford, 
anxious to prevent bloodshed, came galloping between the 
lines. A common soldier, unaware of his rank, and 
annoyed at his interference, shot him dead. This greatly 
infuriated the Lindsays, who, rushing fiercely to the 
attack, cut the Ogilvies to pieces. The latter made such 
a gallant resistance that nearly every man fell, including 
Inverquharity himself, and Seton only narrowly escaped. 
Lindsay then proceeded to lay waste the Ogilvy country, 
burning, slaying, and plundering throughout the district. 
The house of Inverquharity, however, survived the dis- 
aster, and in 1626 was raised to the rank of baronetcy, 
which it still enjoys, though its original patrimony was 
disposed of in the eighteenth century, and its seat is now 
Baldovan, near Dundee. 

At the same time the elder line of Lintrathen was also 
advancing in possessions and power. The son of the 
Treasurer acquired the lands and castle of Eroly or Airlie 
in 1459, and his son, Sir James Ogilvie of Airlie, who was 
sent as Ambassador to Denmark in 1491, was made a Lord 


Photo. Wm. Ritchie & Sons, Ltd. 


Facing page 456. 


of Parliament as Lord Ogilvy in that year. The second 
Lord Ogilvie of Airlie married a sister of the first Earl of 
Montrose, and the third married Margaret, daughter of 
David, eight Earl of Crawford. The fourth Lord s eldest 
son fell at Pinkie in 1547, and the seventh Lord was made 
Earl of Airlie by Charles I. in 1639. 

A year earlier Lord Ogilvy of Deskford, representative 
of the second son of the High Treasurer of James I.'s 
time, had been made Earl of Findlater, so that the Ogilvies 
had now two Earldoms to their name. 

The Earl of Airlie was a devoted Royalist, who, joining 
the little army of the Marquess of Montrose, distinguished 
himself highly at that leader's crowning victory, the battle 
of Kilsyth. He and his family suffered severely for their 
adherence to the cause of Charles I. In 1640 the Earl of 
Argyll, head of the Covenanting Party, procured a com- 
mission from the Committee of Estates to proceed with fire 
and sword against those who had not signed the Covenant, 
and who were therefore termed " enemies to religion." 
This commission he proceeded to turn to account for the 
destruction of families whom he considered unfriendly to 
his own. Among them were the Ogilvies. The Earl 
of Airlie was in England at the time, but his house was 
in the keeping of his eldest son, Lord Ogilvy, when it 
and Forthar, another seat of the family, were taken, 
pillaged, and burned by Argyll. Lady Ogilvy, it is said, 
was near confinement at the time, and begged for delay 
upon that account, but Argyll refused, and turned her out 
remorselessly. The incident is commemorated in the 
well-known ballad, " The Bonnie House o' Airlie." By 
way of reprisal, when Montrose took the field, with the 
Earl of Airlie in his company, they crossed the Ochils 
and burned Argyll's own stronghold of Castle Campbell, 
above Dollar, which still remains as they left it, a ruin. 
Airlie's second son, Sir Thomas Ogilvy, raised a regiment 
for the Royal cause, and fell at the battle of Inverlochy, 
where Argyll, taking refuge in his galley, saw his forces 
cut to pieces by Montrose. In the autumn of the same 
year, when' Montrose suffered his first and last defeat at 
Philiphaugh, below Selkirk, Airlie's eldest son James 
was taken prisoner. While the Covenanters were butcher- 
ing and hanging at Newark and elsewhere the captives 
they had taken, Ogilvy was sentenced to execution at 
St. Andrews, but on the night before the sentence was 
be carried out he made a romantic escape in the attire 
which his sister managed to exchange with him. 

A member of the clan took part in another romantic 


event of that time. George Ogilvy of Barras was governor 
of Dunnottar Castle when that stronghold was besieged 
by Cromwell's troops, and it was by his connivance that 
the wife of the neighbouring minister of Kinneff saved 
the Scottish regalia by carrying it through the English 
army in a bundle of flax. 

In 1715, when the Earl of Mar took arms for Queen 
Anne's brother as " James VIII. and III.," he was joined 
by James, Lord Ogilvy, elder son of the third Earl, and 
after the collapse of the rebellion at Sheriffmuir he was 
attainted. He received a pardon from the Crown in 1725, 
but was not enabled to assume the family honours. On 
his death without issue, however, in 1731, his younger 
brother John assumed the title as fourth Earl, Lord Ogilvie 
having been attainted before the death of his father, the 
third Earl, in 1717. The family and clan, nevertheless, 
remained strongly Jacobite ; and after the landing of 
Prince Charles Edward in 1745 the Earl's eldest son, 
David, Lord Ogilvy, joined the Prince at Edinburgh with 
a following of 600 men, chiefly of his own name. After 
the final overthrow of the cause at Culloden he escaped 
through Norway and Sweden to France, where he com- 
manded a regiment known as " Ogilvy 's," and rose to 
the rank of lieutenant-general. His wife was imprisoned 
after Culloden, but also escaped to France. Meanwhile, 
also in his father's lifetime, he had been attainted, and 
though he received a pardon in 1778, and a Parliamentary 
removal of his disabilities in 1783, he was not empowered 
to assume the honours of his house. His son, titular Earl 
of Airlie, died unmarried in 1812. Thereupon the Earldom 
was claimed by Walter Ogilvie, younger son of the fourth 
Earl, but the English judges who were consulted by the 
House of Lords were of opinion that the attainders of his 
brother and uncle, though both of them had taken place 
before they could inherit the titles and estates, operated 
against him. It was not till 1826 that Parliament confirmed 
and restored the family honours to his eldest surviving 
son, who was then acknowledged as David, sixth Earl of 

The seventh Earl was a Knight of the Thistle, a 
representative peer, and Lord High Commissioner to the 
Church of Scotland from 1872 to 1878. The eighth Earl, 
who was lieutenant-colonel of the I2th Lancers, took part 
in the Egyptian war, and was killed in action in the South 
African War, at Diamond Hill, near Pretoria, in 1900, after 
gallantly leading his regiment in a successful charge which 
saved the guns. The present Earl is his eldest son. The 


family estates comprise most of the old Ogilvy country, 
and extend far up the Grampian glens, while the chief 
seat is Cortachy Castle, overlooking the lovely and fertile 
valley of Strathmore. 






BADGE : Ros-rnhairi fiadhaich (Andromeda media) wild rosemary. 

As with many other clans of the north, the origin of the 
Roses of Kilravock has been the subject of considerable 
debate. It has been urged that the name is derived from 
the Gaelic " Ros," a promontory, in the same way as that of 
the Rosses farther north ; but in Douglas's Baronage the 
similarity of the coat armour of the chiefs to that of the 
Rooses or Roses of Normandy and England is taken as 
evidence that the race was of Saxon origin, and in his 
account of the house in Sketches of Early Scottish History, 
Mr. Cosmo Innes, who was closely connected with the 
family, and had made an exhaustive study of its charters 
and other documents, supports the Norman source. Innes 
declares the history of the house written in 1683-4 by Mr. 
Hew Rose, parson of Nairn, to be a careful and generally 
very correct statement of the pedigree of the family. 

The original patrimony of the Roses appears to have 
been the lands of Geddes in the county of Inverness. In 
the days of Alexander II., as early as 1219, Hugh Rose 
of Geddes appears as a witness to the founding of the 
Priory of Beaulieu, now Beauly. The founders of that 
priory were the Byssets, at that time one of the great houses 
of the north, the downfall of whose family forms one of the 
strangest stories of Alexander's reign. The incident is 
detailed in Wyntoun's Chronicle. In 1242, after a great 
tournament at Haddington, Patrick, the young Earl of 
Atholl, was treacherously murdered and " burnt to coals " 
in his lodging at the west end of that town. Suspicion fell 
upon the Byssets, who were at bitter feud with the house of 
Atholl. Sir William Bysset had just entertained the King 
and Queen at his castle of Aboyne, and on the night of the 
murder had sat late at supper with the Queen in Forfar. In 
vain the Queen offered to swear his innocence. In vain 
Bysset himself had the murderers cursed t( Wyth buk and 
bell," and offered to prove his innocence by the ordeal of 
battle. All men believed him guilty. The Bysset s saw 
their lands harried utterly of goods and cattle, and before 
the fury of the powerful kinsmen of Atholl, they were finally 



Facing page 460. 


banished the Kingdom. Sir John de Bysset, however, had 
left three daughters, the eldest of whom inherited the lands 
of Lovat and Beaufort, and became ancestress of the Erasers, 
while the youngest inherited Redcastle in the Black Isle and 
Kilravock on the River Nairn, and married Sir Andrew de 
Bosco. Mary, one of the daughters of this latter union, 
married Hugh Rose of Geddes, and brought him the lands 
of Kilravock and of Culcowie in the Black Isle as her 
marriage portion. This was at the latter end of the reign 
of Alexander III., and from that day to this the Roses have 
been lairds of Kilravock in unbroken succession. 

No house in Scotland seems to have kept more carefully 
its charters and family papers from the earliest times, and 
from these Cosmo Innes derived many interesting facts for 
his sketch of the intimate customs and history of this old 
Scottish family. 

From a very early time, even before there is evidence 
of their lands having been erected into a feudal barony, 
the Roses were known as Barons of Kilravock. They 
were never a leading family in the country. The heads of 
the house preferred to lead a quiet life, and though by 
marriage and otherwise they acquired and held for many 
generations considerable territories in Ross-shire and in the 
valleys of the Nairn and the Findhorn, we find them 
emerging only occasionally into the limelight of history. 
For the most part the Roses intermarried with substantial 
families of their own rank. William, son of the first Rose 
of Kilravock, married Morella or Muriel, daughter of 
Alexander de Doun, and Andrew, his second son, became 
ancestor of the Roses of Auchlossan in Mar. William's 
grandson, Hugh, again, married Janet, daughter of Sir 
Robert Chisholm, Constable of Urquhart Castle, who 
brought her husband large possessions in Strathnairn. 
This chief's grandson, John, also, who succeeded in 1431, 
married Isabella, daughter of Cheyne, laird of Esslemont 
in Aberdeenshire, and further secured his position by 
procuring from the King a feudal charter de novo of all his 
lands. It was John's son Hugh who built the existing 
old tower of Kilravock in 1460, and his energy, or his need 
for protection, is shown by the fact, recorded as marvellous, 
that he finished it within a year. 

The family at this time was at serious variance with one 
of its most powerful neighbours, the Thane of Cawdor. 
This Thane's father, six years earlier, had built the present 
keep of Cawdor Castle, and Thane William himself had 
made one of the best matches of his time by marrying a 
daughter of Alexander Sutherland of Dunbeath, whose 


wife was a daughter of one of the Lords of the Isles. Thane 
William was an ambitious man. He had his estates 
changed into a Crown holding by resigning them into the 
hands of the King and procuring a new charter, and, to 
make sure of the permanence of his family, he set aside with 
a pension his eldest son, William, who had some personal 
defect, and settled the whole thanedom and heritage of the 
family on his second son, John, whom, to close the feud 
between the families, he married to Isabella, daughter of 
Rose of Kilravock. The marriage, however, was not 
happy, and out of it arose one of the most curious romances 
of the north. 

The young Thane John did not long survive his 
marriage; he died in 1498, leaving as sole heiress to the 
Cawdor estates an infant daughter, Muriel. The old 
Thane, William, and his four sons were naturally furious. 
They did their best to have Muriel declared illegitimate ; but 
their efforts were useless. By reason of the new charter 
the child was a ward of the Crown, and the Earl of Argyll, 
who was then Justiciar of Scotland, procured her wardship 
and marriage from James IV. The Roses were no doubt 
glad to have the keeping of the child entrusted to so power- 
ful a guardian, but old Lady Kilravock was evidently not 
without her doubts as to the good faiih of Muriel's new 
protector. When the Earl's emissary, Campbell of Inver- 
liver, arrived at Kilravock to convey the child south to 
Loch Awe, the old lady is said to have thrust the key of her 
coffer into the fire, and branded Muriel with it on the thigh. 

Inverliver had not gone far on his way to the south when 
he was overtaken by the child's four uncles and their 
following. With shrewd ability he devised a stratagem. 
Sending Muriel off hotfoot through the hills under a small 
guard, he dressed a stook of corn in her clothes, placed it 
where it could be seen by the enemy, and proceeded to give 
battle with the greater part of his force. Seven of his sons, 
it is said, fell before he gave way, and even then he only 
retired when he felt sure the child was far beyond the reach 
of pursuit. When someone afterwards asked whether he 
thought the prize worth such sacrifice, and suggested that 
the heiress might die before reaching womanhood, he is said 
to have replied, " Muriel of Cawdor will never die as long 
as there's a red-haired lassie on the shores of Loch Awe." 
Muriel, however, survived, and indeed lived to a good old 
age. The Earl of Argyll married her when twelve years 
old to his second son, Sir John Campbell, and the Earls 
of Cawdor of the present day are directly descended from 
the pair. 


Hugh Rose of Kilravock, grandson of him who built 
the tower, for some reason now unknown seized William 
Galbraith, Abbot of Kinloss, and imprisoned him at 
Kiiravock. For this he was himself arrested and kept long 
a prisoner in Dunbarton Castle, then commanded by Sir 
George Stirling of Glorat. A deed is extant by which, 
while a prisoner, in June, 1536, the laird engaged a 
burgess of Paisley as a gardener for Kilravock " Thorn 
Daueson and ane servand man with him is comyn man 
and servand for all his life to the said Huchion." 

The next laird was known as the Black Baron. He lived 
in the troublous time of the Reformation, and in his youth 
he fought and was made prisoner at Pinkiecleugh ; yet he 
managed to pay his ransom, 100 angels, and to provide 
portions for his seventeen sisters and daughters, built the 
manor place beside his ancient tower, and reigned as laird 
of Kilravock for more than fifty years. It was in his time 
that Queen Mary paid her visit to Kilravock. The Castle 
of Inverness, of which the Earl of Huntly was keeper, had 
closed its gates against her and her half-brother, whom she 
had just made Earl of Moray, and the Queen, while 
preparing to storm the stronghold, took up her quarters 
at Kilravock. Here possibly it was that she made the 
famous remark that she " repented she was not a man, 
to know what life it was to lie all night in the fields, or 
walk the rounds with a Jack and knapscull." A few days 
later, overawed by her preparations, the captain of Inver- 
ness Castle surrendered and was hanged, and shortly 
afterwards the Queen defeated Huntly himself at Corrichie, 
and brought the great rebellion in the north to an end. 

The Black Baron of Kilravock was justice depute of the 
north under Argyll, sheriff of Inverness and constable of its 
castle under Queen Mary, and commissioner for the Regent 
Moray. He lived to be summoned to Parliament by 
James VI. in 1593. 

In the time of the eleventh and twelfth Barons we have 
pictures of Kilravock as a happy family house, where sons 
and grandsons were educated and brought up in kindly, 
wise, and hospitable fashion. The thirteenth baron, who 
died young in 1649, was well skilled in music, vocal and 
instrumental. Hugh, the fourteenth baron, lived through 
the trying times of Charles II. and James VII., but, 
though sharing his wife's warm sympathy with the 
persecuted Covenanters, managed himself to avoid the 
persecutions of his time. The fifteenth baron, again, 
educated in a licentious age, began life as a supporter of 
the divine right of kings, but afterwards admitted the 


justice and necessity of the Revolution. He voted against 
the Act of Union, but declared openly for the Protestant 
Succession, and, after the Union, was appointed one of the 
Scottish Commissioners to the first Parliament of Great 
Britain. On the outbreak of the Earl of Mar's rebellion in 
1715 he stood firm for King George's Government, armed 
two hundred of his clan, kept the peace in his country side, 
and maintained Kilravock Castle as a refuge for persons in 
dread of harm by the Jacobites. He even planned to 
reduce the Jacobite garrison at Inverness, and, along with 
Forbes of Culloden and Lord Lovat, blockaded the town. 
His brother, Arthur Rose, who had but lately been 
ransomed from slavery with the pirates of Algiers, and 
whose portrait in Turkish dress may still be seen at Kil- 
ravock, tried to seize the garrison. At the head of a small 
party he made his way to the Tolbooth, but was betrayed 
by his guide. As Rose pushed past the door, sword in 
hand, the fellow called out "An enemy! an enemy! " 
Upon this the guard rushed forward, shot him through 
the body, and crushed the life out of him between the 
door and the wall. On hearing of his brother's end, 
Kilravock sent a message to the garrison, ordering it to 
leave the place, or he would lay the town in ashes, and 
so assured were the governor and magistrates that he 
would keep his word that they evacuated the town and castle 
during the night, and he entered and took possession next 

In 1704 Kilravock 's following was stated as five 
hundred men, but in 1725 General Wade estimated it at 
no more than three hundred. 

In 1734 the sixteenth baron was returned to Parliament 
for Ross-shire, and he might have been elected again, 
but preferred the pleasures of country life. He built the 
house of Coulmonie on the Findhorn, and married Eliza- 
beth Clephane, daughter of a soldier of fortune, and friend 
of the Countess of Sutherland. He was engaged in the 
quiet life of a country gentleman, hawking and shooting 
and fishing, when in 1745 the storm of Jacobite rebellion 
again swept over the country. Two days before the battle 
of Culloden, Prince Charles Edward rode out from Inver- 
ness to bring in his outposts on the Spey, which were 
retiring before Cumberland's army, and he spent an hour 
or two at Kilravock Castle. He kissed the children, 
begged a tune on the violin from the laird, and walked out 
with him to see some plantations of trees he was making. 
Before leaving he expressed envy of the laird's peaceful 
life in the midst of a country so disturbed by war. Next 










day the Duke of Cumberland arrived at the Castle, where 
it is said he spent the night. His boots, a pair of huge 
Wellingtons, are still to be seen there. In course of talk 
he remarked to the laird, "You have had my cousin 
here?" and on Kilravock hastening to explain that he 
had had no means of refusing entertainment, the Duke 
stopped him with the remark that he had done quite right. 
The laird was then Provost of Nairn, and a silver-mounted 
drinking cup of cocoanut still preserved at Kilravock bears 
the inscription, " This cup belongs to the Provost of 
Nairn, 1746, the year of our deliverance. A bumper to 
the Duke of Cumberland." 

For a hundred years the Sheriffship of Ross had been 
all but hereditary in the family, and after the abolition 
of heritable jurisdictions in 1746, Hugh Rose, the seven- 
teenth baron, was still appointed sheriff depute by the 
King. Books and music, gardening and hospitality, filled 
up the pleasant life at Kilravock in this laird's time. He 
himself was a good classical scholar, and was consulted 
constantly by Professor Moore, of Glasgow, regarding his 
great edition of Homer. 

It was the daughter and heiress of this laird who was 
known in so much of the correspondence of the north in 
her time as Mrs. Elizabeth Rose. This lady succeeded 
her brother, the eighteenth baron, in 1782, married her 
cousin, Hugh Rose of Brea, the heir-male, and lived 
through a long widowhood till 1815. Lady Kilravock, as 
she was called, had a high reputation for taste in music 
and literature, and when Robert Burns set out on his 
Highland tour in the autumn of 1787, he carried an intro- 
duction to her from her cousin, Henry MacKenzie, the 
" Man of Feeling." The Poet's two visits to the castle 
within a couple of days of each other are noted in his journal, 
and referred to in a letter in the following spring. 

Below the crag on which the castle stands, winds the 
wild sequestered path known as the Fairy Walk, on which 
Burns is said to have rambled with the ladies of the house. 
The highly accomplished character of Mrs. Elizabeth 
Rose is also attested in the writings of Hugh Miller and 
other well-known authors. 

From first to last, indeed, the Roses of Kilravock stand 
distinguished among the chiefs of Highland clans for 
their refined and literary taste. Something of the 
popular impression of this is to be seen in the well-known 
ballad of "Sir James the Rose," which had probably 
some member of the house for its subject. Major James 
Rose, the late laird and head of the house, was Lord- 


Lieutenant of Nairnshire from 1889 to 1904. His son, 
the present laird, Colonel Hugh Rose, had just retired 
from active service in the Army when the Great European 
War broke out in 1914. He then again offered his services, 
and shortly after the beginning of hostilities was 
appointed Camp Commandant of one of the divisions of 
the British Expeditionary Force in France. Among other 
distinguished holders of the name in recent times have 
been William Stewart Rose, the well-known scholar, 
poet, and friend of Sir Walter Scott, and his nephew, 
Hugh Henry Rose, Lord Strathnairn, who won his way 
by distinguished services in India to the position of 
Commander-in-Chief in that great dependency. 


Facing page 466. 


BADGE : Craobh Aiteann (Juniperis communis) juniper. 
PIBROCH : Spaidseareachd larla Ros, composed in 1427. 

THERE seems to be little doubt that the Chiefs of Clan 
Ross took their name from the character of the district 
in which they held their possessions. Ross is the descrip- 
tive name for a certain type of promontory, and the district 
of Ross in the north of Scotland is par excellence the 
great promontory of the country. It is in somewhat 
similar fashion that the Ord of Caithness and the Mull 
of Kintyre have come to be known above all others as 
" the Ord " and " the Mull " respectively. 

There seems to be no record of the time or circum- 
stances in which the chiefs of the clan now bearing that 
name originally settled in the district. They may, there- 
for, have been originally of Celtic blood, or they may, 
like so many others of the Highland chiefs, have been 
settlers introduced from the south in the time of Malcolm 
Canmore and his son. In this latter case they would 
originally be known under the appellation of De Ros, from 
the name of their territory, and the appellation would, in 
the course of time, as in other cases, come to be their 
family name. The race was also known in the Highlands 
as the Clan Gille Andras, or Tribe of the Follower of 
St. Andrew, the tradition being that one of the early chiefs 
had been devoted to the service of the Patron Saint of 

The chief of the clan does not appear in history till 
the reign of Malcolm IV., but when he does so, he is 
termed by Wyntoun the chronicler, one of the seven 
" Mayster men " or magnates of Scotland, and so must 
already have occupied a position of high power and con- 
sequence. According to the Register of Dunfermline, a 
certain Malcolm was at that time Earl of Ross, and he 
was probably the same individual with the Gille Anrias 
Ergemauche whom Wyntoun describes as chief spokes- 
man, along with Ferquhard, Earl of Strathearn, among 
the seven magnates who conspired to overthrow the King, 
and place his brother William on the throne. The cause 



of the conspiracy was the fact that King Malcolm, as 
holder of an English fief, the Earldom of Huntingdon, 
had followed Henry II. of England in his expedition 
against Toulouse. Malcolm was holding his court at Perth 
in 1160, soon after his return from France, when the 
conspirators suddenly surrounded the city. The young 
King, however, proved more vigorous than they expected. 
Instead of waiting to be attacked, he took the offensive, 
drove them from the field, and pursued them into Gallo- 
way. There, at the third attempt, he overthrew his 
enemies. Fergus, lord of Galloway, became a monk at 
Holyrood and the Earl of Ross appears to have been 
forfeited. Two years later, at any rate, according to 
Documents, etc., illustrating the History of Scotland, 
IV. 5, p. 20, the earldom of Ross was granted as part of 
the dowry of the Princess Ada on her marriage with 
Florence, Count of Holland. 

It would appear, however, as if the earldom of Gille- 
anrias had before long been regranted to the son of that 
personage, for, shortly after the accession of Alexander II. 
in 1214, Ferquhard Mac-in-Sagart (son of the priest), 
Earl of Ross, appears performing a brilliant part in the 
history of the north. Donald Bane, representative of the 
legitimate line of " the gracious Duncan," appeared in 
that region to assert for the last time the claim of his house 
to the Scottish throne. He was promptly met there by 
the Earl of Ross, who defeated the rebels, slew the leaders, 
and, on presenting their heads to the king, received the 
honour of knighthood from the royal hand. The story is 
told in the Chronicle of Melrose. 

From that time the Earls of Ross appear as strong 
supporters of the Scottish King, and, holding Skye and 
the Nordreys, or northern islands, in opposition to a 
Norwegian nominee, seem to have done their best to com- 
plete the overthrow of the Norse power in the Isles. The 
" race of the priest," otherwise Gilleanrias, appear indeed 
to have been among the great leaders of that time who, 
under Alexander II. and Alexander III., finally defeated 
and overthrew the Norse dominion which had been closing 
its hold upon the north and west of Scotland for 
500 years. 

Twenty years after the attempt of Donald Bane, the 
Earl of Ross did the King most substantial service in 
another province of his realm. On the death of Alan 
Fitz Roland, Lord of Galloway, that province seemed 
upon the point of being divided between his three 
daughters, Helen, wife of Roger de Quinci, Earl of Win- 


Chester, Christina, wife of William de Fortibus, and 
Devorgilla, wife of John Baliol. Resisting this partition, 
the people of the Province invited Thomas, a natural son 
of their late lord, to assert his claim, and proceeded to 
attack the neighbouring country with fire and sword. 
King Alexander advanced into Galloway with an army, 
and while his forces were entangled in marshy ground, 
ill suited to the movements of mounted men-at-arms, the 
insurgents rushed down from a hill, and would have over- 
whelmed him, had it not been that the Earl of Ross, at 
the head of his own light-armed mountaineers, came up 
in time, attacked the Galloway men in the rear, and 
scattered them in disorder. Alexander, it will be seen, 
had good reason for his policy of confirming and support- 
ing the Earl of Ross in his great possessions in the north, 
as a buttress against the power of the enemies of the 

The fortunes of the family of Ross thus rose upon the 
decay of the ancient Norwegian earldoms of Orkney and 
Caithness. By the middle of the century Alastair, Earl 
of Ross, had attained the high position of Justiciar of the 
Kingdom, and from that time, for two centuries and a 
half, the Earls of Ross remained the most powerful nobles 
in the north. 

In the boyhood of Alexander III., when his father-in- 
law, Henry III. of England, was scheming to secure a 
suzerainty over Scotland, and actually effected a coup 
de e"tat at Roxburgh, the heads of the Scottish Govern- 
ment, whom he succeeded in displacing, were the great 
Walter Comyn, Earl of Monteith, John Baliol, father of 
the future king, and Robert de Ross, these personages 
being too patriotic for the purposes of the English 
monarch. The Robert de Ross who thus appears in a 
heroic light on the historic page may have been a brother 
or a son of the great northern Earl. 

In the campaigns of Robert the Bruce and his brother 
Edward, Sir Walter, the Earl of Ross of that time, 
appears as the bosom friend of the latter, and he and Sir 
William Vipont are recorded as the only persons of note 
who were slain on the side of the Scots at the battle of 
Bannockburn. At the battle of Halidon Hill, again, after 
the death of Bruce, one of the four divisions of the 
Scottish army was led by Hugh, Earl of Ross. When the 
day was going badly against the Scots, who, as they 
struggled through the marshy ground, were falling thick 
as leaves in Vallombrosa under the arrows of the English 
bowmen, the Earl proceeded to lead his division against 



the wing where Edward Baliol commanded, but was driven 
back and slain. 

Thirteen years later still, when David II. was gather- 
ing a great Scottish army in preparation for the ill-fated 
campaign which was to end in defeat at the battle of 
Durham, the Earl of Ross took part in a transaction which 
withdrew a large part of the Scottish forces from the royal 
army. The muster took place at Perth, and was the> 
greatest known for a considerable period. Unfortunately* 
however, it afforded an opportunity for ancient feuds if 
break out between the Highland chiefs. Among the*; 
the bitterest occurred between the Earl of Ross and Rana( 
of the Isles. This came to a head in the monastery c, 
Elcho, where the Earl assassinated his enemy. Forth, 
with, dreading the royal vengeance, the Earl withdre\y 
his men, and retreated rapidly into the north. At the 
same time the Islesmen, having lost their leader, dispersed] 
in confusion. Not only did the king find his forces con-; 
siderably reduced in consequence, but the event made a- 
serious impression upon the spirits of the army, by whom 
it was looked upon as an omen of disaster. 

This Earl, William, left no male issue. His daughter, 
Euphemia, married Sir Walter Leslie of Leslie, Aberdeen- 
shire, and he, in her right, assumed the title of Earl of 
Ross. Their son, again, was known as Alexander Leslie, 
Earl of Ross. Alexander married a daughter of the 
Regent Duke of Albany and upon his death, about the 
year 1405, his only child, a daughter, having become a 
nun, was induced by the all-powerful Duke of Albany 
to assign the lands and earldom to her mother's brother, 
the Earl of Buchan. Alexander Leslie's sister, Margaret, 
however, had married Donald, Lord of the Isles, and he, 
in her right, now claimed the earldom of Ross. Raising 
an army of 10,000 men, he took possession of the Earldom, 
and, marching southwards, reached Inverurie on the Don, 
less than twenty miles from Aberdeen. There he was met 
by the Regent's forces under the Earl of Mar, and on 
St. John's Eve, 24th July, fought the bloody battle of 
Harlaw. Ultimately, by a treaty with Albany at Loch- 
gilp on the Firth of Clyde, Donald was forced to relinquish 
the earldom ; but, after the return of James I. and the over- 
throw of the house of Albany, Donald's son, Alexander, 
who was the King's cousin once removed, was recognised 
as Earl of Ross. 

In this way the earldom of Ross became separated from 
the chiefship of the clan, and it ultimately, after the for- 
feiture of John, Lord of the Isles and Earl of Ross, at the 


end of the fifteenth century, was conferred upon the 

second son of James III. and a succession of other holders. 

Meanwhile, however, the chiefship had really passed to 

a brother of the last Earl William, father of the Countess 

Euphemia. This brother, Hugh Ross of Rarichies, in 

1374 received a charter of the lands of Balnagown. The 

influence of the Leslies, who as feudal superiors in right 

^f the Countess Euphemia, claimed the services of the 

loss-shire tenants as their vassals, prevented Balnagown 

om openly exercising the powers of the chiefship, and a 

ar relative, Paul MacTyre, a man celebrated for his 

lour, took command of the clan, much in the same way 

at a later day the famous Rob Roy took command of 

ic MacGregors. When at last the Balnagown family 

/as able to resume its proper authority, the power of the 

.Ian had considerably declined, and in the feuds which 

ollowed it suffered still further loss. The chief of these 

"euds was with the Mackays of Strathnaver. Again and 

again the Rosses had suffered molestation from these 

enemies, and when at last, driven to desperation and 

thoroughly infuriated, they gathered their forces and 

marched against the Mackay Chief, they were in the mood 

to teach a severe lesson. The Mackays, with Angus of 

Strathnaver at their head, finding themselves fiercely 

attacked, sought shelter in the church of Tarbat. There 

several were slain, and, the church being set on fire, Angus 

Mackay and many of his clansmen were burnt to ashes. 

To avenge this "cruel slaughter," Ian Riach MacKay 

gathered his men, and, helped by a force of the Suther- 

lands, his neighbours on the south, invaded the territory 

of the Rosses and proceeded to lay it waste with the 

utmost fury. In defence of his people, Alastair Ross, the 

Laird of Balnagown, gathered all his forces, and, meeting 

the invaders, engaged in the long and desperate battle 

of Blair alt na charish. In the end the battle went against 

the Rosses, Alastair himself being slain, with seventeen 

gentlemen of his clan and a great number of others. The 

defeat proved a real disaster, from which the clan never 

really recovered. In 1427 the Earl of Ross could bring 

into the field 2,000 men; in 1715 the strength of the clan 

was reckoned at no more than 360, and by 1745 it had only 

increased to 500. 

At the beginning of the eighteenth century the line of 
Balnagown came to an end. David Ross, the 
inding himself the last of his line, sold the estate 
l^eneral Charles Ross, brother of Lord Ross of Hawkl 
icar Glasgow, in whose family it has since descended. 


The Hawkhead family, however, were in no way related 
to the Rosses of the North, their ancestor having come 
from Yorkshire in the twelfth century, and settled in the 
county of Renfrew. As a matter of fact the Rosses of 
Balnagown of the present day are descended from the 
Rosses of Hawkhead only in the female line, the estate 
having been inherited by Sir James Lockhart, Bart., of 
Carstairs, on the death of his cousin, William, fourteenth 
and last Lord Ross, and the name Ross having been 
assumed by the Lockharts in consequence. 

Thus, though of an ancient race, the present house of 
Balnagown can make no claim to the chiefship of the 
clan. On the death of David Ross of Balnagown in the 
eighteenth century, the chiefship passed to Ross of Pit- 
calnie, who thus became representative of the ancient and 
powerful race of northern Earls. 


Anderson Andrew 

Dingwall Gillanders 

MacAndrew MacCulloch 

MacLulich MacTaggart 

MacTear MacTier 

MacTire Taggart 

Vass Wass 





Facing page 472. 


BADGE : Lus nam braoileag (Vaccinium vitis idaea) red whortle- 

THE Rev. Lachlan Shaw, historian of Moray, declared 
that he saw no reason to doubt that all persons of the 
name, in the south country as well as the north, were 
members of this clan. There is reason to believe, how- 
ever, that many Shaws in the south take their name from 
some ancestor's residence near a " shaw " or thicket, this 
being a common local place-name either alone or with 
some qualification, as in Pollokshaws, near Glasgow. The 
Gaelic name, Na Si'aich, on the other hand, means " Son 
of the Tempest " or " Son of the Snow." The same 
author, and the Rev. W. G. Shaw, following him, in his 
Memorials of Clan Shaw, quote unvaried tradition for the 
statement that the Shaws held Rothiemurcus from the 
Bishops of Moray in undisturbed possession for a long 
period prior to 1350. In that year, these writers declare, 
the Comyns of Strathdallas obtained a wadset or lease of 
the lands, and on the Shaws refusing to give them up, 
a combat took place in which James Shaw, the chief, fell. 
By his wife, a daughter of Ferguson, a baron of Atholl, 
this chief, say these writers, was father of a son who, on 
coming of age, attacked and defeated the Comyns and 
killed their leader at a place since called Laggan na 
Chuiminaich. He then purchased the freehold of Rothie- 
murcus and Baile an Easpuig, and so stopped further 

Still another statement was made, in a Genealogie of 
the Far quhar sons, written about the year 1700. The 
writer of that document derived his clan and that of the 
Shaws from Shaw, third son of Macduff, who, he says, 
" took his proper name for his surname, came north, and 
possessed himself of Rothiemurcus, which was a part of 
his father's inheritance." 

All these writers appear to have" been misled by the 
occurrence of the Christian name Seth or Scayth in early 
documents. As a matter of fact, down to the seventeenth 
century the owners of Rothiemurcus were known as 



Mackintoshes, and only then took the Christian name of 
their doughty ancestor Shaw Mackintosh for a family 
name. The entire matter is clearly discussed and set forth 
in The Mackintoshes and Clan Chattan, by Mr. A. M. 

The Mackintoshes themselves claim descent from Shaw 
Macduff, son of the Earl of Fife, in 1163. The early chiefs 
of the Mackintoshes in the thirteenth century were alter- 
nately named Shaw and Ferquhard, and according to the 
Kinrara MS., Shaw the fourth chief obtained in 1236 from 
Andrew, Bishop of Moray, founder of Elgin Cathedral, a 
lease of Rothiemurcus in Strathspey. Angus, sixth 
Mackintosh chief, in 1291 married Eva, only daughter and 
heiress of the head of the " old " Clan Chattan, and he 
and his descendants became on that account Captains of 
Clan Chattan. According to the Kinrara MS., the 
founder of the family afterwards known as Shaws was a 
great-grandson of this pair. In modern tradition he is 
called Shaw Mor, or " the Great " ; by Bower and Major 
he is designated Shaw Beg, or " Little," probably from 
his stature; and otherwise he is known as Shaw Sgorf- 
hiaclach or Coriaclich, the Buck-toothed. The Mackintosh 
tradition is that his father's name was Gilchrist, but that 
of the Shaws runs that his father was James. The latter 
tradition seems the more likely, as Shaw Mor's son was 
named James, probably so called in Scottish fashion, after 
his grandfather. In this latter case the tradition would 
agree with the account already mentioned of the fall of 
James, an ancestor of the Shaws, in the struggle with the 
Comyns for possession of Rothiemurcus, and Shaw Mor 
would be the son who, on coming of age, avenged his 
father's death at Laggan na Chuiminaich. A little later 
he was to appear as a leader in a more extended warfare. 

When Duncan, natural son of the Wolf of Badenoch, 
following his father's lawless and evil ways, swept down 
upon the lowland district of Angus in 1391, destroying 
and murdering with reckless cruelty, and overthrowing 
the royal forces under Ogilvie, Sheriff of Angus, at the 
bloody battle of Gasklune, near the Water of Isla, the 
Mackintoshes were led by Shaw Mor. Among the persons 
put to the horn for that raid of Angus the Act of Parlia- 
ment of the time mentions " Slurach and the haill Clan 
Qwhevil." The " Slurach " is obviously a mistran- 
scription of Sheach, or Shaw, while the Qwhevil of the 
Act is, of course, the Clan Qwhewyl mentioned in Wyn- 
toun's Chronicle as taking part five years later in the 
famous combat of the " threttie against threttie "on the 


North Inch of Perth. Rothiemurcus was at the time 
under the overlordship of the lawless son of Robert 11., 
and a good deal of interesting matter regarding Shaw 
Mor is to be found in Sir Thomas Dick Lauder's romance, 
The Wolf of Badenoch. 

It was probably by reason of the reputation he had 
gained in these affairs that Shaw Mor was chosen by his 
chief, Mackintosh, as captain of the picked warriors of 
the clan who took part in the battle on the North Inch 
in 1396. On a Monday morning, the day before Michael- 
mas, in the September of that year, a mighty multitude 
gathered to see that fight to the death within the barriers 
on the river side. King Robert III. was there, with his 
queen, Annabella Drummond, and his crafty brother, the 
Duke of Albany, in the Gilten Arbour specially built for 
the occasion, as well as many of the nobles of Scotland 
and even visitors from France. All the world is familiar 
with the scene, as depicted in Sir Walter Scott's Fair 
Maid of Perth. At the last moment Clan Quhele was 
found to be a man short. His place was filled by an 
armourer of Perth, Hal o' the Wynd, otherwise the Gow 
Crom, or bandy-legged smith, who for his hire was to have 
a piece of silver and maintenance for life if he survived. 
Tradition runs that no sooner was the signal given than 
this doughty individual drew his bow and shot an enemy 
dead. He seemed disposed to make no further effort, and, 
on his captain demanding why, declared he had earned 
his day's wage. " Fight on," cried Shaw, " and your 
wage shall not be stinted." At this the smith rushed 
again into the battle, and by his fierce valour did much to 
win the fight. When all was over, and the only survivor 
of their opponents had plunged into the Tay and escaped, 
there were only eleven of Clan Quhele left, and all except 
the smith were wounded. According to the Kinrara MS., 
the stout armourer went home with the clan he had 
supported, and became the ancestor of the Gows or Smiths, 
who are counted a sept of Clan Chattan. At the same 
time, according to the same authority, the captain of the 
victorious party was handsomely rewarded by the Mackin- 
tosh chief : " Lachlan gave to Shaw possession of the 
lands of Rothiemurcus for the valour he showed that day 
against his enemies." In the quiet graveyard which 
surrounds the little kirk of Rothiemurcus the grave 
Shaw Mor may still be seen. For centuries it was mark 
by a grey stone on which were laid five roughly rour 
smaller stones. But about 1870 an American individual 
of the name of Shaw, who claimed to be a grand-nephew 


of Farquhar Shaw, shot as a deserter from the Black 
Watch in 1743, laid on the grave a modern slab in which 
the deeds of Shaw Mor are attributed to a Farquhar Shaw I 

James, the son and successor of Shaw Mor, took part 
in another and yet more important conflict. When 
Donald, Lord of the Isles, was being ousted by his uncle 
Robert, Duke of Albany, from his claim to the Earldom 
of Ross, and set out on his great raid across Scotland, he 
was followed, among other vassals, by Malcolm, tenth 
chief of the Mackintoshes, and his clan. They played their 
part valiantly in the great battle of Harlaw, fought on 24th 
July, 1411, and among those who fell in the struggle, both 
the ancient ballad and the historian Boece enumerate the 
Mackintosh chief. There is evidence, however, in the 
Kinrara MS., in charters and in the MS. History of the 
Macdonalds, that the chief survived till 1457. The leader 
who really fell was James of Rothiemurcus. The fact 
that he was called Mackintosh in the ballad and by Boece 
merely shows that the Rothiemurcus family were still 
known by that name. 

James left two infant sons, Alexander Keir (ciar, 
brown) and Ai or Adam, ancestor of the Shaws of 
Tordarroch. At that time the Comyns, who had once 
been lords of Badenoch and of vast territories elsewhere 
in Scotland, were still numerous in the region, and they 
seem to have taken advantage of the infancy of the holders 
to take possession of Rothiemurcus. On coming of age, 
however, Alexander Ciar gathered his friends, surprised 
and destroyed these Comyn enemies, and cleared his 
territory. His father and grandfather had merely held 
the lands as duchas, but Alexander secured the per- 
manent rights. According to the Kinrara MS., the 
eleventh Mackintosh chief, Duncan, disponed his right of 
possession and tack of Rothiemurcus to his cousin, Alister 
Keir Mackintosh, alias Shaw, and the conveyance was 
confirmed by the Bishop of Moray, feudal superior of the 
lands, who in 1464 gave " Alexander Keyr Mackintosy ' 
a feu charter. The bishop was to receive an annual rent 
of twenty-four merks till Alister or his heirs should infeft 
him in lands of ten pounds annual value nearer Elgin, 
after which the payment for Rothiemurcus was to be a fir 
cone annually, if demanded. Some trouble took place 
with the Mackintosh chief over this charter, but in the end 
Alister Ciar secured possession, and so became feudally 
independent of Mackintosh. From that time onward he 
seems to have acted as an independent chief, to have given 
bands of manrent direct to the Earls of Errol and Huntly, 


and to have been recognised as the equal of the thanes of 
Cawdor and the lairds of Kilravock. 

While John, his eldest son, succeeded him in Rothie- 
murcus, Alexander Ciar's younger sons became the 
ancestors of the Shaws of Dell, the Shaws of Dalnavert, 
the Farquharsons of Deeside, and the Maclvers of Harris 
and the Western Isles. 

John's son Alan succeeded in 1521. Three years later 
Lachlan, chief of the Mackintoshes, was murdered while 
hunting at Raigmore on the Findhorn. Shortly after- 
wards the murderers were captured, and kept in chains in 
the stronghold of Loch-an-Eilan in Rothiemurcus till 1531, 
when they were tried by the Earl of Moray, and duly 
executed. At the same period when Clan Chattan was 
bringing trouble upon itself by raiding and slaughtering 
on the lands of the Earl of Moray, who had assumed the 
guardianship of his nephew, their infant chief, and by 
supporting the Earl of Angus in his too close guardian- 
ship of his stepson, the boy king, James V., " Allan 
Keir " is found concerned. So serious was the trouble 
that a mandate of extermination was issued against Clan 
Chattan. Among others, Grant of Freuchie was com- 
missioned to pursue the offenders. 

These acts seem to have undermined the fortunes of 
the house of Rothiemurcus. In 1539 Alan disposed of the 
property to George Gordon, governor of Ruthven Castle, 
and son of the Earl of Huntly. From the Gordons the 
lands passed to the Grants in 1567. This alienation of 
the lands was a bitter regret to the Mackintosh chief. He 
appealed to Grant's generosity to let him have his " own 
native country of Rothiemurcus " for the price he had 
paid for it. But Grant was adamant, and a feud began 
in consequence, which continued till 1586. Some of the 
popular stories of that feud are recounted in Memoirs of a 
Highland Lady, one of the Grants of Rothiemurcus. The 
authoress describes how the new owner repaired the ruins 
on Loch-an-Eilan in case of mishap, and destroyed the old 
fort of the Shaws on the Doune Hill, " leaving his 
malediction on any of his successors who should rebuild 
it." One rather gruesome story is of the slaying of one 
of the leaders of the Shaws. His followers " had to bury 
him, and no grave would suit them but one in the kirk- 
yard of Rothiemurcus beside his fathers. With such 
array as their fallen fortunes permitted of, they brought 
their dead, and laid him unmolested in that dust to which 
we must all return. But, oh, what horrid times ! Hi 
widow next morning, on opening the door of her house 


at Dalnavert, caught in her arms the corpse, which had 
been raised in the night and carried back to her. It was 
buried again, and again it was raised, more times than I 
care to say, till Laird James announced he was tired of 
the play. The corpse was raised, but carried home no 
more. It was buried deep down within the kirk, beneath 
the laird's own seat, and every Sunday when he went to 
pray he stamped his feet upon the heavy stone he had laid 
over the remains of his enemy." 

Alan, who sold the estate, reserved possession to him- 
self during his lifetime, and his son James and James's 
son Alan continued in the district after him. In 1620 
appears the first instance of the use of Shaw as a family 
name, when Alexander Shaw in Dalnavert witnesses a 
Mackintosh sasine, but by 1640 the name was in full use. 
In 1645, the time of Montrose and the Civil War, the 
chief, as Alan Shaw, witnessed a bond of defence against 
the king's enemies. 

According to tradition, Alan was outlawed for the 
slaughter of his stepfather, Dallas of Cantray, and having 
been seized and imprisoned in Castle Grant, died there 
soon afterwards. 

The Rev. Lachlan Shaw, in his History of Moray, 
states that Alan's brother and associates " exiled into the 
Western Isles and Ireland," the main line of the family 
thus becoming extinct in the country. To the present day 
there are many Shaws in Skye and Jura, who may be 
descendants of these " exiles." The Rev. W. G. Shaw, 
however, in his Memorials of Clan Shaw, quotes the 
tradition of an Alasdair Ruaidh Shaw who resisted all the 
attempts of the Grants to eject him from his tenancy of 
Achnahaitnich, laughing at legal processes, and resisting 
with sword and gun. This Alasdair he makes out to have 
been Alan's brother, and to have continued the main line 
of the family at Crathinard in Braemar and Crandard in 
Glenisla. But the evidence seems doubtful. Sir Robert 
Sibbald in 1680 described Rothiemurcus as formerly 
belonging to " the Schaws, who still possess (i.e., occupy) 
the parish, Alexander Schaw of Dell being head of the 


Facing page 478. 


BADGR : Conasg (Ulex Europaeus) furze or whin. 
PIBROCH : Spaidsearachcl Mhic nan Cearda. 

EVERY Scottish schoolboy is familiar with the story of 
the heroic fight with the Moors on a field of Spain in which 
the Good Lord James of Douglas met his death. In that 
fight, it will be remembered, Douglas noted that a Scottish 
knight, Sir William St. Clair, had charged too far, and 
had been surrounded by the enemy. " Yonder worthy 
knight will be slain," he exclaimed, " unless he have 
instant help," and he galloped to the rescue. Then, him- 
self surrounded by the enemy, and seeing no hope for 
escape, he took from his neck the casket containing 
Bruce's heart, and threw it forward among the enemy. 
'* Pass first in fight," he cried, " as thou were wont to 
do; Douglas will follow thee or die!" and pressing 
forward to the place where it had fallen, was himself slain. 
The William St. Clair who thus comes into historical 
note, and who, with his brother John, was slain on that 
Andalusian battlefield, was the ancestor in direct male line 
of the Sinclairs, Earls of Caithness, of the present day. 
Like so many of the great Highland families, the St. 
Clairs were not originally of Celtic stock. Their pro- 
genitor is said to have been William, son of the Comte 
de St. Clair, a relative of William the Conqueror, who 
" came over " with that personage in 1066. He or a 
descendant seems to have been one of the Norman knights 
brought into Scotland to support the new dynasty and 
feudal system of Malcolm Canmore and his sons. In the 
twelfth century there were two families of the name, the 
St. Clairs of Roslyn and the St. Clairs of Herdmonstoun 
respectively, though no relationship was traced between 
them. Sir William de St. Clair of Roslyn, who 
flourished in the latter half of the thirteenth century, was 
a guardian of the young Scottish king, Alexander III., 
and one of the envoys sent to negotiate the French 
marriage for that prince. He was sheriff of Dumfries and 
justiciar of Galloway, and, as a partizan of Baliol, was 
captured by the English at Dunbar in 1294, escaping from 



Gloucester Castle nine years later. His son, Sir Henry, 
was also captured at Dunbar, but exchanged in 1299. He 
was sheriff of Lanark in 1305, fought for Bruce at Bannock- 
burn, and received a pension in 1328. It was his brother 
iWilliam, Bishop of Dunkeld, who repulsed the English 
at Donibristle in 1317 and crowned Edward Baliol in 

Sir William St. Clair who fell in Spain in 1329 was the 
elder son of Sir Henry St. Clair of Roslyn. His son, 
another Sir William, who succeeded to the Roslyn 
heritage, added immensely to the fortunes of his family by 
marrying Isabella, daughter and co-heir of Malise, Earl 
of Strathearn, Caithness, and Orkney. In consequence 
his son Henry became Earl or Prince of Orkney at the 
hand of Hakon VI. in 1379. He conquered the Faroe 
Islands in 1391, wrested Shetland from Malise Sperra, 
and with Antonio Zeno, crossed the Atlantic, and explored 
Greenland. His son, another Henry Sinclair, second Earl 
of Orkney, was twice captured by the English, at 
Homildon Hill in 1402 and with the young James I. on 
his voyage to France in 1406. He married Isabella, 
daughter and heiress of Sir William Douglas of Nithsdale, 
and the Princess Egidia, daughter of Robert II.; and his 
son, William, third Earl of Orkney, was one of the most 
powerful nobles in the country in the time of James II. 

The Earl was one of the hostages for the ransom of 
James I. in 1421, and in 1436, as High Admiral of Scot- 
land, conveyed James's daughter to her marriage with the 
Dauphin, afterwards Louis XI. of France. At his 
investiture with the earldom of Orkney in 1434 he 
acknowledged the Norwegian jurisdiction over the islands, 
and in 1446 he was summoned to Norway as a vassal. In 
this same year he began the foundation of the famous 
Collegiate Church, now known as Roslyn Chapel, on the 
Esk near Edinburgh, which is perhaps at the present hour 
the richest fragment of architecture in Scotland, and in 
the vaults of which lie in their leaden coffins so many 
generations of " the lordly line of high St. Clair." Sir 
Walter Scott has recorded in a well-known poem the 
tradition that on the death of the chief of that great race 
Roslyn Chapel is seen as if it were flaming to heaven. 
At his great stronghold of Roslyn Castle at hand the 
Earl of Orkney lived in almost regal splendour. In 
1448, when the English, instigated by Richard, Duke of 
York, broke across the Borders and burned Dumfries and 
Dunbar, the Earl assisted in their repulse and overthrow. 
In the following year he was summoned to Parliament as 


Lord Sinclair. From 1454 to 1456 he was Chancellor of 
Scotland under James V., whose side he took actively 
against the Earl of Douglas, though Douglas's mother, 
Lady Beatrice Sinclair, was his own aunt, and who, in 
1455, on his relinquishing his claim to Nithsdale, made 
him Earl of Caithness. This honour was no doubt partly 
due to the fact that, through his great-grandmother, the 
wife of Malise of Strathearn, he inherited the blood of the 
more ancient Earls of Caithness, the first recorded of 
whom is said to be a certain Dungald who flourished in 
875. A few years later certain actions of Earl William 
and his son may be said to have brought about the 
marriage of James III. and the transference of Orkney 
and Shetland to the Scottish crown. During some dis- 
agreement with Tulloch, Bishop of Orkney, St. Glair's 
son seized and imprisoned that prelate. Forthwith 
Christiern, King of Denmark, to whom Orkney then 
belonged, wrote to the young Scottish king demanding 
not only the liberation of his bishop, but also the arrears 
of the old " Annual of Norway " which Alexander III. 
of Scotland had agreed to pay for possession of the 
Hebrides. The matter was settled by the marriage of 
James III. to Christiern's daughter, Margaret, the annual 
of Norway being forgiven as part of the princess's dowry, 
and the Orkney and Shetland islands pledged to James 
for payment of the rest. St. Clair was then, in 1471, 
induced to relinquish to the king his Norwegian earldom 
of Orkney, receiving as compensation the rich lands 
of Dysart, with the stronghold of Ravenscraig, which 
James II. had built for his queen on the coast of Fife. 

The earl was twice married. By his first wife. 
Elizabeth, daughter of the fourth Earl of Douglas, he had 
a son and daughter. Katherine, the daughter, married 
Alexander, Duke of Albany, son of James II., and was 
divorced, while William the son was left by his father 
only the estate of Newburgh in Aberdeenshire and the 
title of Lord Sinclair, by which title the earl had been 
called to Parliament in 1449. In 1676 this title of Baron 
St. Clair passed through a female heir, Katherine, Mistress 
of Sinclair, to her son Henry St. Clair, representative of 
the family of Sinclair of Herdmonstoun. Through t 
daughter Grisel and two successive female heirs the 
estates passed to the family of Anstruther Thomson of 
Charleton, while the title of Lord Sinclair was inherited 
by the descendants of his uncle Matthew, :he pres< 
Lords Sinclair are therefore of the family of Herdmon- 
stoun, and are not descended from the original holder of 


the title, the great William, Earl of Orkney and Caithness 
and Chancellor of Scotland, of the days of James II. 
and III. 

Earl William's second wife was a daughter of 
Alexander Sutherland of Dunbeath, and by her, besides 
other children, he had two sons. To one of these, William, 
he left the earldom of Caithness, and to the other, Sir 
Oliver, he left Roslyn and the Fife estates. It is from 
the former that the Earls of Caithness of the present day 
are directly descended. 

William, the second Earl, was one of the twelve great 
nobles of that rank who fell with James IV. on Flodden 
field. So many of the Caithness men were killed on that 
occasion that since then the Sinclairs have had the 
strongest aversion to clothe themselves in green or to cross 
the Ord Hill on a Monday; for it was in green and on a 
Monday that they marched over the Ord Hill to that 
disastrous battle. So great was the disaster to the north 
that scarcely a family of note in the Sinclair country but 
lost the representative of its name. 

John, the third Earl, was not less unfortunate. In 
1529, ambitious of recovering for himself his grandfather's 
earldom of Orkney, and of establishing himself there as an 
independent prince, he raised a formidable force and set 
sail to possess himself of the island. The enterprise was 
short-lived, most of the natives of the islands remained 
loyal to James V., and, led by James Sinclair, the 
governor, they put to sea, and in a naval battle defeated 
and slew the Earl with 500 of his followers, making 
prisoners of the rest. 

George, the fourth Earl, has a place in history chiefly 
by reason of the sorrows and indignities he had to suffer 
at the hands of his eldest son. That eldest son, John, 
Lord Berriedale, Master of Caithness, induced his father 
in 1543 to resign the earldom to him. He married Jean, 
daughter of Patrick, third Earl of Bothwell, and widow 
of John Stewart, prior of Coldingham, a natural son of 
James V., and he set out to aggrandise himself by most 
unnatural means. Among other exploits he imprisoned 
his father, and in 1573 strangled his younger brother, 
William Sinclair of Mey. Earl George himself was 
mixed up in the history of his time in a somewhat question- 
able way. In 1555 he was imprisoned and fined for 
neglecting to attend the courts of the Regent. As a Lord 
of Parliament in 1560 he opposed the ratification of the 
Confession of Faith, when that document was abruptly 
placed upon the statute book. He was made hereditary 


justiciar in Caithness in 1566, but that did not prevent 
him taking part in the plot for the murder of Darnley in 
the following year, nor again did this prevent him from 
presiding at the trial of the chief conspirator, the Earl of 
Bothwell. Among his other actions he signed the letter 
of the rebel lords to Queen Elizabeth in 1570, and was 
accused of being an instigator of crimes in the north. 

His son, the Master of Caithness, being dead five 
years before him, in 1577, he was succeeded by the 
Master's eldest son, George, as fifth Earl. This 
personage, in the days of James VI. and Charles I., 
engaged in feuds, raids, and other similar enterprises 
which seemed almost out of date at that late period. It 
was he who in 1616 instigated John Gunn, chief of that 
clan, to burn the corn-stacks of some of his enemies, an 
exploit which secured Gunn a rigorous prosecution and 
imprisonment in Edinburgh; and it was he who in 1585 
joined the Earl of Sutherland in making war upon the 
Gunns, in the course of which undertaking, at the battle 
of Bengrian, the Sinclairs, rushing prematurely to the 
attack, were overwhelmed by the arrow-flight and charge 
of the Gunns, aud lost their commander with 120 of his 
men. The Earl's great feud, however, was that against 
the Earl of Sutherland himself. The feud began with the 
slaughter of George Gordon of Marie by some of the 
Caithness men in 1588. By way of retaliation the Earl of 
Sutherland sent into Caithness 200 men who ravaged the 
parishes of Latherone and Dunbeath ; then, following 
them up, he himself overran the Sinclair country, and 
besieged the Earl of Caithness in Castle Sinclair. The 
stronghold proved impregnable, and when Sutherland 
retired after a long and unsuccessful siege, Caithness 
assembled his whole clan, marched into Sutherlandshire 
with fire and sword, defeated his enemies in a pitched 
battle, and carried off much spoil. Sutherland retaliated 
in turn, 300 of his men spoiling and wasting Caithness, 
killing over thirty of thejr enemies, and bringing back a 
great booty. The Sinclairs again made reprisals with 
their whole force. As they returned with their plunder 
they were attacked at Clyne by the Sutherland men to the 
number of about 500, but maintained a desperate fight 
till nightfall, and then managed to make off. On reaching 
home, however, they found that the Mackays had raided 
their country from the other side, and, after spreading 
desolation and gathering spoil, had retired as suddenly 
as they had come. When these raids and counter-raids 
with the men of Sutherland were over, the Earl of Caith- 


ness found other openings for his turbulent enterprise. 
After committing an outrage on the servants of the Earl 
of Orkney, he earned credit to himself by putting down 
the rebellion of Orkney's son, and for this in 1615 received 
a pension. Having, however, committed certain outrages 
on Lord Forbes, he was obliged to resign his pension and 
the sheriffdom of Caithness in order to obtain pardon. 
For his various acts a commission of fire and sword was 
issued against him, and he was driven to seek refuge in 
Shetland. It was not long before he was allowed to return, 
but he did so only to meet his creditors, and at his death 
twenty years later he left his affairs still in a state of 

The son and grandson of the fifth Earl having died 
before him, he was succeeded as sixth Earl by his great- 
grandson, George. The career of this Earl and of his 
rival, the astute and unscrupulous Sir John Campbell, 
Bart., of Glenurchy, reads almost like the pages of a melo- 
drama, and still forms the subject of many a tradition 
repeated among the people of Caithness. The Chief of 
the Sinclairs, helped, it is said, by the machinations of 
Glenurchy, found himself more and more deeply involved 
in debt. There are stories of his raising money upon 
mortgage to help friends who were in turn in the power 
of Glenurchy, and of the mortgages and loans alike find- 
ing their way into Glenurchy's hands. Finally in 1672, 
the Earl, finding himself involved beyond recovery, was 
forced to make over to Glenurchy, as his principal creditor, 
a wadset, not only of his lands, but also of his honours. 
The wadset was to be redeemable within six years, but 
after that time the right to the lands was to become 
absolute and the title of Earl of Caithness was to pass 
to Glenurchy. Four years later the Earl of Caithness 
died, and two years later still Glenurchy married his 
widow, Mary, daughter of Archibald, the notorious 
Marquess of Argyle. At the same time, the period of the 
wadset having arrived, Glenurchy laid claim to the lands 
and title of the Earldom of Caithness. His claim was 
resisted by the heir male, George Sinclair of Keiss, son 
of the second son of the fifth Earl. King Charles II., 
deciding that the right belonged to Campbell, granted him 
a new charter, including both title and estates, but when 
Glenurchy tried to collect his rents he found the Sinclairs 
refuse to pay. In order to enforce his right Glenurchy, 
who was now Earl of Caithness, sent into the north a body 
of men under his kinsman, Robert Campbell of Glenlyon, 
afterwards notorious as captain of the force which carried 

Photo. T. & R. Annan & Sons. 

From Ike I'ainling by Sir Hfttf 


Facing page 484. 


out the Massacre of Glencoe. The Campbells marched 
northward till they were confronted by the forces of the 
Sinclairs on the further bank of a stream. For a time, it 
is said, they remained there, neither side venturing an 
attack; but at last Campbell sent a convoy of French 
wines and spirits along a road on which he knew it must 
fall into the hands of the Sinclairs. That night there 
were sounds of merrymaking in the camp of the latter. 
When these sounds had died away, and Glenlyon judged 
his opponents to be unlikely to make effective resistance, 
he marched his men across the stream, and cut the Sinclairs 
to pieces. As he did this, the pipers of the Campbells 
played for the first time the pibroch, Bodach an Briogas, 
the Lad of the Breeches, in derision of the Sinclairs, who 
wore, not the kilt, but the trews. The tune has ever since 
been the gathering piece of the Campbells of Breadalbane. 

But though Glenlyon had routed the Sinclairs, King 
Charles shortly afterwards became convinced that he had 
made an error, and in 1680 he caused Glenurchy to 
relinquish the earldom of Caithness, recompensing him at 
the same time by creating him Earl of Breadalbane and 
Holland. George Sinclair of Keiss who thus became 
seventh Earl, died unmarried in 1698, and the family 
honours devolved on John, grandson of Sir James Sinclair 
of Murchill, brother of the fifth Earl. Sir James had 
married Elizabeth, daughter of Robert, Earl of Strath- 
earn and Orkney, a natural son of James V., so John, 
who succeeded as eighth Earl, was a great-great-grandson 
of the gay " guidman of Ballengeich." 

At this period the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745 took place. 
According to the estimate of President Forbes of Culloden, 
the Sinclairs could then raise 1,000 men. Five hundred 
of them actually took arms, and were on their way to join 
Prince Charles when news of the defeat of the cause at 
Culloden reached them and caused them to disband. 

On the death of Alexander, ninth Earl of Caithness, 
without a male heir, the earldom was claimed by a grand- 
son of David Sinclair of Broynach, brother of the eighth 
Earl. The claimant's father was understood to have been 
illegitimate, but it was sought to be proved that he had 
been legitimated by a subsequent marriage of David of 
Broynach to his mother. Both in 1768 and 1786, how- 
ever, the courts repelled this claim, and the earldom 
accordingly passed to William Sinclair of Ratter, repre- 
sentative of Sir John Sinclair of Greenland, third son of 
the Master of Caithness, fourth Earl. The son of this 
Earl was again the last of his line, and the earldom passed 



to Sir James Sinclair, Bart., of Mey, representative of 
George Sinclair of Mey, third son of the fourth Earl. 
This peer, who was the twelfth Earl of Caithness, was 
Lord Lieutenant of the county, and became Postmaster- 
General in 1810. Alexander, his second son, who 
succeeded him, was also Lord Lieutenant, and his son, 
James, the fourteenth Earl, after being for a time a repre- 
sentative peer, was created a peer of the United Kingdom 
as Baron Barrogill in 1866. This honour became extinct 
on the death of his only son, George, fifteenth Earl, in 
1889. The Scottish honours then passed to James 
Augustus Sinclair, representative of Robert Sinclair of 
Durran, third son of Sir James Sinclair, first baronet of 
Mey, grandson of George Sinclair of Mey, third son of 
the fourth Earl ; and the present Earl of Caithness, who 
in 1914 succeeded his elder brother as eighteenth Earl, is 
his second son. 

Probably none of the ancient peerages of Scotland has 
passed so often to collateral heirs as has the earldom of 
Caithness since the death of George, sixth holder of the 
title, in 1676. The present chief of the Sinclairs is still, 
however, representative by direct male descent of the 
doughty Lords of Roslyn of the twelfth and thirteenth 

Of cadet houses of the name, the two most noted are 
those of Sinclair of Ulbster and Sinclair of Dunbeath. The 
former of these is descended from Patrick, elder legiti- 
mated son of William Sinclair of Mey, second son of the 
fourth Earl, who was strangled by his brother, the Master 
of Caithness, in 1573. Of this family John Sinclair of 
Ulbster became Hereditary Sheriff of Caithness at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century, and Sir John Sinclair, 
first baronet of Ulbster, whose mother was sister of the 
seventeenth Earl of Sutherland, remains famous as the 
greatest improver of Scottish agriculture, founder and 
President of the Board of Agriculture, and compiler of 
that indispensable work, the Statistical Account of 
Scotland. He raised from among the clansmen two 
Fencible regiments each 1,000 strong, and was the first to 
extend the services of these troops beyond Scotland. Sir 
John, who was a Privy Councillor and cashier of the 
Excise in Scotland, died in 1835, and the present baronet 
of Ulbster is his great-great-grandson. 

The Sinclairs of Dunbeath, again, are descended from 
Alexander Sinclair of Latheron, youngest son of George 
Sinclair of Mey, third son of the fourth Earl, who married 
Margaret, daughter of William, seventh Lord Forbes. 


The baronetcy dates from 1704, and the house has been 
notable for its distinguished services in the Army and in 
Parliament, one of its members being the Rt. Hon. John 
Sinclair, Lord Pentland, who was Secretary of State for 
Scotland in 1905, married a daughter of the Marquess of 
Aberdeen, was raised to the peerage in 1909, and has been 
Governor of Madras since 1912. 

Among other notable personages of the name have been 
Oliver Sinclair, the notorious general of James V M who 
was defeated and captured by the English at Solway Moss 
in 1542, and released on condition of furthering the 
English interest. His brother, Henry Sinclair, Bishop 
of Ross, and President of the Court of Session, was a 
member of Queen Mary's Privy Council, had the dis- 
tinction of being denounced by John Knox, and wrote 
additions to Boece's History of Scotland. Another 
distinguished brother was John Sinclair, Bishop of 
Brechin, who was believed to be the author of Sinclair's 
Practicks, was also denounced by John Knox, and 
officiated at the marriage of the Queen to Darnley in 1565. 
There was, again, the famous Master of Sinclair, son of 
the tenth Lord Sinclair. While serving with Marl- 
borough in Flanders in 1708, he was sentenced to death 
for shooting Captain Shaw, and fled to Prussia till 
pardoned in 1712. During the rebellion of 1715 he dis- 
tinguished himself by the capture, at Burntisland, near 
his own family estates, of a ship with Government 
munitions of war, destined for the Earl of Sutherland at 
Dunrobin. He was attainted, but pardoned in 1726, and 
was the author of Memoirs of the Rebellion, printed in 
1858. A notable author of the name was George Sinclair, 
who died in 1696. Professor of Philosophy at Glasgow, 
he was compelled to resign for non-compliance with 
Episcopacy, but was reappointed after the Revolution. 
He was associated with the inventor in the use of the 
diving-bell, was one of the first in Scotland to use the 
barometer, and superintended the laying of Edinburgh 
water-pipes in 1673. 




ACCORDING to a popular tradition, the founder of thi5 
ancient Aberdeenshire family was a valiant individual who, 
early in the eleventh century, distinguished himself b] 
rescuing King Malcolm II. from the attack of a ferocious 
wolf, which he slew with his skean or dirk. It is a ston 
similar to that of the young forester, who, after carrying 
off Malcolm's daughter Cora at the Falls of Clyde, save( 
that king's life three times at the great battle of Mortlach, 
and was rewarded with lands on the lower Cyde to whicl 
he gave the name of Eri-Skene, or Erskine, which ha< 
been his war-cry on the battlefield. It is much more 
likely that the families of Skene and of Erskine took theii 
names in the usual way from the lands on which the] 
settled. From time immemorial Skene has been a place- 
name quite apart from any connection with either of these 
families. Loch Skene, the famous fishing loch in Moffat- 
dale from which descends the highest waterfall ii 
Scotland, the Grey Mare's Tail, has no such personal 

A much more believable tradition is that the Skenes are 
a branch of the Clan Donchadh or Robertson. The 
founder of the branch, according to the antiquary and 
Highland historian, Dr. W. F. Skene, was the second son 
of a Robertson Chief, and was himself known as Donchadh 
mor na Sgine, or Big Duncan of the Skean. The latter 
part of his designation, we may suspect, was derived, not 
from his weapon, but from the lands on which he settled. 
The Robertsons are believed to be the descendants of 
Conan, second son of Henry, last of the old Celtic Earls 
of Athol. Henry's eldest son had daughters only. 
Through them the earldom and the lower lands of Athol 
passes to Lowland families, while the Robertsons retained 
the upper and wilder districts. The newer or Lowland 
race of Earls, however, gradually ousted the Robertsons 
from large parts of their inheritance, and it is believed to 
have been during this process that Dunchadh Mor 
migrated across the hills to Deeside, and settled there on 
the lands about Loch Skene, which were to form the 
patrimony of his descendants for so many centuries. 


Facing page 488. 


John le Skene and his son Patrick, who signed the 
Ragman Roll in 1296, are believed to have been son and 
grandson of Dunchadh Mor, and it is believed to have 
been Patrick's son who received a charter of the family 
lands from King Robert the Bruce in 1318. This charter 
runs, " Roberto Skene, dilecto et fideli nostro, pro homagio 
et servitio suo, omnes et singulos terras de Skene, et lacum 
ejusdera, per omnes rectas antiquas metas et divisas suas," 

In warlike affairs the family was consistently loyal, 
brave, and unfortunate. In 1411, when Donald of the 
Isles with his Celtic host swept across the north of Scotland 
with the intention of forcing the Regent, Robert, Duke of 
Albany, to disgorge the Earldom of Ross, the Laird of 
Skene raised an armed force, joined Albany's nephew, the 
Earl of Mar, and fell with many others of the gentlemen 
of the North at the bloody battle of Harlaw. To meet 
the occasion, Adam de Skene had raised money by a 
wadset on his estates, and for many years this proved a 
serious burden to his successors. 

A century later, when James IV. mustered his forces 
on the Boroughmuir of Edinburgh to invade England, 
Alexander Skene of Skene was among those who obeyed 
his summons, and fell with the too chivalrous monarch on 
Flodden Field. The grandson of this laird again, another 
Alexander, fell at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, when the 
Scots were endeavouring to protect their capital and save 
the country and the infant Queen Mary from the " rough 
wooing " of the English Protector, Somerset. 

Still later, after Queen Mary's return from France, 
when the Queen's brother Moray was at the beginning of 
those insidious plottings which in the end were to bring 
Mary to the scaffold at Fotheringay, and when, in the 
north, the Earl of Huntly made his great effort to resist 
these schemes, the Laird of Skene joined Huntly's forces 
and fell with that Earl and so many of his friends and 
vassals at the close-packed fight of Corrichie. Skene's 
youngest son and several of his kinsmen also fell in the 
same battle. 

Notwithstanding these disasters the family survived, 
and in the succeeding centuries, by marriage and purchase 
added great areas to their possessions. Additions were 
made to the grim stone tower which is said to have been 
the first house built of stone and lime in the district of 
Mar, and to which access could only be gained by means 
of a ladder reaching the second floor. At the same time 
several branches of the family established themselves in 


Aberdeenshire, notably at Dyce, Hallyards, and Cariston. 
As the Macphersons cherished the Black Chanter of Clan 
Chattan, while the Macleods treasured their Fairy Flag, and 
other clans of the West kept certain relics as trophies, 
charms, and incentives, the Skenes preserved a dirk, said 
to be the original skean of the founder of their house, 
Dunchadh Mor. This antique weapon was kept in the 
family charter chest, and on its safe custody was believed 
to depend the tenure of certain lands. 

The senior line of the Skene family came to an end at 
the death of George, the twenty-first chief, in 1824. On 
that event, Skene and Cariston, the possessions of the 
house, passed to his sister's son, the fourth Earl Fife, 
who attained high distinction in the Peninsular War. 
This peer's nephew, the fifth Earl Fife, was created Baron 
Skene in the Peerage of the United Kingdom in 1857, 
and it was his son who in 1889 married the eldest daughter 
of the Prince of Wales, afterwards King Edward, and 
was created Duke of Fife. 

Apart from its territorial importance the family of 
Skene has contributed a number of distinguished figures 
to the annals of Scotland. Gilbert Skeyne, who died in 
1599, was Professor of Medicine at King's College, 
Aberdeen, in 1556. His Brief Description of the Pest, 
printed in 1568, was the earliest Scottish medical work; 
and he was appointed doctor of medicine to King James VI. 
in 1581. Sir John Skene, who died in 1617, began as a 
regent in St. Mary's College, St. Andrews, in 1564, became 
an advocate in 1575, an< ^ was granted a pension by the 
Regent Morton for his digest of the Scottish laws. He 
accompanied James VI. to Denmark and was ambassador 
to Holland in 1591. As King's Advocate he took a 
zealous part in prosecuting witches, and was made a Lord 
of Session and Lord Clerk Register with the title of Lord 
Curriehill in 1594. He was one of the Octavians, and a 
notable author on Scottish law. His son, again, Sir James 
Skene, became President of the Court of Session in 1626, 
and was created a baronet of Nova Scotia in 1630. Sir 
James's brother, John Skene, who died in 1644, was the 
reputed compiler of "Ancient Scottish Melodies," printed 
in 1838. James Skene, the friend of Sir Walter Scott, was 
a member of the Scottish Bar, and Secretary to the Board 
of Trustees and Manufacturers. He edited Spalding's 
History of the Troubles, in 1828, produced a "Series of 
Sketches of Existing Localities,-" alluded to in the 
Waverley Novels, in 1829, and was the author of manu- 
script memoranda utilised by Lockhart in his life of 


Scott. He lived for six years, from 1838 till 1844, in 

The daughter of this savant, Felicia Mary Skene, was 
the authoress of a volume of poems, several novels, and 
memoirs of her cousin, Alexander Penrose Forbes, and 
rivalled the work of Florence Nightingale of the same 
period by organising a band of nurses under Sir Henry 
Wentworth Acland during the outbreak of cholera at 
Oxford in 1854. And last of all, there was this lady's 
brother, William Forbes Skene, author of The Highlanders 
of Scotland, The Four Ancient Books of Wales, and Celtic 
Scotland, and editor of Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, 
and Fordoun's Scotichronicon. He held the office of clerk 
of the bills in the Court of Session, was made a D.C.L. of 
Oxford in 1879, and Historiographer of Scotland in 1881. 






BADGES : Royal Cluaran (carduus) thistle. 

Clan Darach (Quercus robur) oak. 
SLOGAN : Creag-an-Sgairbh. 
PIBROCH : Earrach an 'aigh's a' ghleann, and Creag-an-Sgairbh . 

WHEN Shakespeare, in writing Macbeth, paid his great 
compliment to King James VI. and I., he was drawing 
attention to the popular tradition that the monarch's 
lineage was at least as far descended as that of the 
English nobiliity whose ancestors " came over with 
William the Conqueror." Whether the Stewarts were 
really descended from Banquo, Thane of Lochaber in the 
eleventh century, may be disputed, but there can be no 
question of their descent from Walter Fitz-Alan, the 
Shropshire knight whom David I. settled at Renfrew 
about the year H38. 1 

The purpose of that settlement is tolerably clear. The 
burning question of the hour for the Scottish monarch 
was the menace of Norse invasion in the Firth of Clyde. 
To oppose this invasion, David planted Walter Fitz-Alan 
where he could best bar the way to the heart of the 
kingdom, and made him Steward of Scotland. Most 
efficiently that guardian of the gate justified his appoint- 
ment, driving the Norsemen out of Cowal and Bute, and 
when the mighty Somerled of the Isles brought an army 
to force the passage, overthrowing and slaying him at 
Renfrew itself in the year 1164. It was possibly as a 
thank-offering for this victory that Walter the Steward 
founded Paisley Abbey in that year. 

For exactly another hundred years the great struggle 
went on, till in 1263, Walter's great-grandson, Alexander, 
now Lord High Steward of Scotland, finally overthrew 
the Norsemen under their king Hakon, at the battle of 

Alexander's son James, who died in 1309, was the fifth 
High Steward or Stewart. From his brother, Sir John 

1 Walter's elder brother William was the progenitor of the 
Earls of Arundel ; his younger brother, Simon, of the Boyds, 
Earls of Kilmarnock and now Earls of Erroll. 



Facing page 492. 


Stewart of Bonkyl, who fell fighting along with Wallace 
for the cause of Scottish independence at the battle of 
Falkirk in 1298, a number of famous Scottish families 
took their origin. The line of his eldest son, Sir 
Alexander, became Earls of Angus, and ended in a female 
who carried the earldom to the Douglases, who are Earls 
of Angus and Dukes of Hamilton at the present day. 
From his second son, Sir Alan Stewart of Darnley, 
descended the Stewart Earls of Lennox, whose heir, Lord 
Darnley married Mary Queen of Scots, and became ancestor 
of the later Stewart kings. From Sir Alan also descended 
the Earls of Galloway, who are chiefs of the Stewarts at the 
present hour. From Bonkyl's fourth son came the Stewarts 
of Innermeath in Strathearn, from whom descended the 
Stewart Lords of Lorn, the Stewarts of Murthly and 
Grandtully, the Stewart Earls of Athol, and the Stewarts of 
Appin. And from Bonkyl's sixth son, Sir Robert, came 
the Stewarts of Allanton and their cadets. 

Meantime Bonkyl's nephew, Walter, the sixth High 
Stewart, had greatly distinguished himself in the cause of 
King Robert the Bruce, at the great battle of Bannock- 
burn, and at the heroic defence of Berwick, and as a 
reward had received the hand of Bruce's only daughter, 
the Princess Marjory. Their married life was rhort. As 
she rode by the Knock between Renfrew and Paisley, 
Marjory was thrown from her horse and killed, and the 
life of her infant was only saved by the Cajsarean operation. 
The spot was long marked by a monolith known as Queen 
Bleary's Stone. The boy lived, however, and though he 
inherited his mother's weakness of the eyes, played a 
heroic part in Scottish history. From that old possession 
of his family, the island of Bute, which his ancestor had 
won from the Norsemen, he sallied forth to attack Dunoon 
and overthrow the entire conquest of Edward Baliol, and 
when he came to the throne as King Robert II. in 1371 
he had earned it by his sword almost as heroically as his 
grandfather Robert the Bruce himself. 

It is a point which has not been sufficiently noted by 
.Scottish historians that from the two marriages of 
Robert II. a large proportion of the later troubles of the 
Stewart kings and of the kingdom of Scotland took rise. 
For centuries it was questioned whether his first union, with 
Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan, had ever been legitimised. 
In consequence the descendants of his second wife, 
Euphemia Ross, again and again made claim to the 
throne. From this cause arose directly the murder of 
King James I. in 1437 and the Douglas wars against 


James II. in 1450. James I. was slain by the descendants 
of King Robert's second wife, whom he had dispossessed 
of the royal earldom of Strathearn ; and the ambition of 
the Earls of Douglas was directly stimulated by the fact 
that they had inherited the claims of the family of 
Euphemia Ross and of the earlier great house of Comyn. 

Other of the troubles of Scotland arose from the family 
arrangements of King Robert II. in another way. One 
of his daughters, Margaret, he married to John, Lord of 
the Isles, and as John was already married to his cousin 
Amy, he made him put her away, granted him a charter 
of her lands, and made the title and great possessions of 
the Lord of the Isles to descend to his own grandchildren, 
Margaret's sons. From this arrangement came endless 
trouble. Not even yet has it been settled absolutely 
whether Glengarry or Clanranald, the descendants of 
John's first wife, or Macdonald of the Isles, the descendant 
of his second wife, is the rightful Chief of the Macdonalds. 
From the first also there was trouble arriong the sons and 
grandsons of Robert II. His eldest son, King Robert III., 
whose real name was John, was practically displaced by 
his brother Robert, Duke of Albany, who first starved 
the king's eldest son to death at Falkland, and then secured 
the capture and imprisonment of the second son in 
England. And by way of reprisals, when he returned 
from his captivity, that second son, James I., sent to the 
block the Duke's son and grandsons who had succeeded 
to Albany's usurpation. Meanwhile the north of Scotland 
had been laid waste by the wars between the Duke of 
Albany and his sister s son, Donald of the Isles, for 
possession of the rich Earldom of Ross wars which only 
came to an end with the terrific and bloody battle of 
Harlaw, fought near Aberdeen in 1411. 

The leaders in that conflict were Donald of the Isles 
himself and his cousin Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar. 
The latter had obtained his earldom by slaying the 
husband of Isabel, Countess of Mar, and then marrying 
the lady. He was a natural son of the fierce " Wolf of 
Badenoch," Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, third son 
of King Robert II., who is remembered solely by his 
lawless deeds in the north, the burning of Forres and 
Elgin, and countless other oppressions. He had many 
illegitimate children, and many of the name of Stewart in 
Atholl and Banffshire are his descendants. 

A notable Stewart family in the south, that of Bute, is 
directly descended from Robert II. himself. On succeed- 
ing to the throne, that king appointed his natural son, 


Facing page 494. 


Sir John Stewart of Dundonald, known as the Red 
Stewart, to be Constable of Rothesay Castle and Heredi- 
tary Sheriff of Bute, thus handing to his son and that son's 
descendants in perpetuity the islands which had been 
captured by the sword of his ancestor, Walter Fitz-Alan, 
the first of the Stewarts. After the execution of Murdoch, 
Duke of Albany, and two of his sons at the instance of 
James I. in 1425, a third son who had escaped took 
vengeance by burning Dunbarton, and in it this same 
Red Stewart of Dundonald, uncle of the king. But Sir 
John Stewart's direct descendant is Marquess of Bute at 
the present hour. 

Two of the sons of Murdoch, Duke of Albany, also 
left natural sons. Of them, Walter Stewart of Morphy, 
son of Sir Walter Stewart, beheaded at Stirling, became 
ancestor of the Earls of Castle-Stuart in Ireland, and also, 
by the marriage of a descendant to the daughter of the 
Regent Earl of Moray, half-brother of Mary Queen of 
Scots, became ancestor of the Earls of Moray of to-day. 
Another of Duke Murdoch's sons, Sir James Mohr Stewart, 
had a natural son, James " beg" Stewart of Baldorran, 
who became ancestor of the Stewarts of Ardvorlich on 
Lochearnside, whose family history is recounted by Sir 
Walter Scott in A Legend of Montrose. 

Most romantic of all the memories of the Stewarts, how- 
ever, is probably that connected with the settlement of the 
race in Lorn, Appin, and Atholl. On the death of Ewen, 
Lord of Lorn, of the days of Robert II., his estates passed 
to his daughters and co-heiresses. These daughters had 
married two brothers, John and Robert Stewart of Inner- 
meath, descendants of the fourth son of Sir John Stewart 
of Bonkyl, already referred to. These two brothers made 
a bargain. Robert gave up his wife's share of Lorn in 
exchange for his brother's share of Innermeath. Sir John 
Stewart who thus relinquished his share of Innermeath 
and became Lord of all Lorn, had a second son Sir James, 
known as the Black Knight of Lorn. After the assassina- 
tion of James I. at the Charterhouse of Perth in 1437, this 
Black Knight married the widowed Queen Joan, and they 
had a son, John, who was of course half-brother to the 
king, James II. When that king in 1450 finally over- 
threw the last Earl of Douglas, he found a fair lady on 
his hands. This lady, known from her beauty as 
Fair Maid of Galloway, was the heiress to all the great 
Douglas estates, and, as a child, had been marrie 
succession by William, Earl of Douglas, whom Jai 
stabbed in Stirling Castle, and his brother, Earl James, 


who was overthrown at Arkinholme. While Earl James 
fled into exile in England, from which he was only to 
return to die a monk at Lindores, the king procured a 
divorce for his fair young wife, and married her to his 
own half-brother, John, son of Queen Joan and the Black 
Knight of Lorn. He conferred upon the pair the Douglas 
lordship of Balveny, and they became presently Earl and 
Countess of Atholl. The Earl played a distinguished 
part in three reigns. On the death of the fifth Stewart 
Earl of Atholl, in 1595, the title passed first to Stewart 
of Innermeath, and afterwards, on the Innermeath line 
becoming extinct, to John Murray, son of the eldest 
daughter of the fifth Earl, by his marriage with the second 
Earl of Tullibardine. The direct descendant of that union 
is Duke of Atholl at the present day. 

Meanwhile through Robert, elder brother of the Black 
Knight of Lorn, the line of the Stewart Lords of Lorn was 
carried on. The line ended in two heiresses who married 
Campbells, when this family secured the Lordship of Lorn. 
A natural son of Stewart of Lorn, however, with the help 
of his mother's people, the Clan MacLaurin, succeeded in 
seizing and retaining the district of Appin, and founding 
the family of the Stewarts of Appin. In the days of 
James IV., Duncan Stewart of Appin built on an islet in 
Loch Linnhe the stronghold of Castle Stalker in which 
he entertained his " cousin " the King. During the 
Jacobite rising in 1745 under Prince Charles Edward the 
Appin Stewarts, led by Stewart of Ardsheal, played a 
conspicuous part. Sir Walter Scott in Waverley tells 
how Stewart of Invernahyle saved the life of Colonel 
Whiteford of Ballochmyle, and how, after the overthrow at 
Culloden, Colonel Whiteford returned the obligation by 
obtaining a pardon for Invernahyle by a special and 
chivalrous interview at Whitehall. In Appin itself a cave 
is shown behind a waterfall, in which Ardsheal hid for a 
time from the red soldiers, as well as the hollow in the top of 
a great boulder in which he was afterwards concealed. As 
a result the Appin estates were forfeited for a time, and 
while they were under the management of Campbell of 
Glenure the famous Appin murder took place which forms 
the pivot of R. L. Stevenson's famous story Kidnapped. 
The spot where Glenure was shot is marked by a cairn 
behind Kentalen. The supposed murderer was Alan Breck 
Stewart, who escaped to France, but as a victim James 
Stewart of the Glens was seized, tried by the Campbells at 
Inveraray, and hanged in chains on the little mount behind 
Ballachu'lish Hotel. 


The Chief of the Appin Stewarts is now Robert Bruce 
Stewart, a lawyer in London. 

From Alexander, younger brother of the Black Knight 
of Lorn, are descended the Stewarts of Grandtully below 
Aberfeldy in Perthshire. It was Sir James Stewart of 
Grandtully who, before he succeeded to the family title and 
estates, ran away with Lady Jane, sister of the first and last 
Duke of Douglas, and whose son by her was the claimant 
in the great Douglas Cause. The House of Lords declared 
Archibald Stewart to be really Lady Jane's son, and he 
accordingly came into possession of the great Douglas 
estates, and was created Lord Douglas by George III. 

Of the main line of the Stewarts, as represented by the 
kings of that name, the history is too well known to need 
recounting here. Of two of its members, Mary Queen of 
Scots and Bonnie Prince Charlie, the careers are among 
the most romantic and moving in the world's annals. From 
first to last these Stewart kings were consistently unfor- 
tunate, yet their lives give a brilliance and glamour to 
history that is entirely lacking from the sedate annals of 
other dynasties. Their legitimate male line came to an end 
with Henry, Cardinal York, the younger brother of Prince 
Charles, who died in 1807, but three of the great ducal 
houses of the country, those of Buccleuch, Richmond and 
Gordon, and St. Albans, are directly descended from 
natural sons of King Charles II. 

The spelling of the name Stuart, used by the royal 
family and the Marquess of Bute was probably introduced 
by Queen Mary on her return from France. 


Boyd France 

Garrow Lennox 

Menteith Monteith 


Carmichael Combich 

Livingston Livingstone 

MacCombich Macktnlay 

Maclae Maclay 

Maclea Macleay 


Crookshauks Crtrickshanks 

Duilach Gray 




Bannatyne Fullarton 

Fullerton Jameson 

Jamieson MacCamie 

McCloy MacCaw 

MacKirdy MacLewis 

Cartnichael MacMichael 


Facing page 49^ 


BADGE : Bealaidh chatti (Ruscus occiliatus) Butcher's broom. 
PIBROCH : Piobaireachd nan Catach. 
SLOGAN : Ceann na Drochaide Bige. 

ONE of the many clans of Scotland which have never 
been of Celtic blood, or have been so only by marriage, 
the race of Sutherland has nevertheless always been one 
of the most powerful in the north, and at the present 
hour its real leader, if not its actual Chief, the Duke of 
Sutherland, is the largest landowner and one of the 
greatest nobles in the kingdom. 

The district from which the clan takes its name, and 
which was then of much less extent than at the present day, 
was no doubt named Sudrland or Sutherland by the Nor- 
wegians by reason of its position with respect to Caithness, 
for long the only possession of these invaders on the main- 
land of Scotland. Skene, in his Highlanders of Scotland, 
supports the theory that Thorfinn, the Norwegian Jarl of 
Orkney, on overthrowing Moddan, maormar of the region, 
in 1034, expelled or destroyed all the Celtic inhabitants, 
and that the Celts who afterwards formed part of its 
population were chiefly of the Clan Ross, who migrated 
into it at a later day from adjoining districts. There 
seems, however, as little reason to believe that the 
Norwegians drove the Celts out of Sutherland as to believe 
that they drove them out of other parts of the country 
which they conquered. Skene's idea is merely his means 
of fitting facts to his general thesis, that the Scottish clans 
are descendants of the ancient Picts, and not of a race of 
Gaelic invaders from Ireland. It is his way of accounting 
for the fact that no Highland clans whatever are to be 
found descended from the ancient inhabitants of this 
region. The truth, however, as now very well ascertained, 
seems to be that the Gaelic invasion from the west and 
the Norwegian invasion from the north went on at the 
same time, that the people whom the Norwegians sub- 
merged in Sutherland in the eleventh century were not 
Gael but Picts, and that the later Gaelic incomers from the 
west were the first of that race to set foot on the soil. 



In any case, it appears certain that the ancestor of the 
Sutherland Chiefs was neither Gael nor Pict. That 
ancestor was the famous Freskin, ancestor also of the 
Douglases, and said to be a Fleming, who received from 
David I. the lands of Strathbrock in Linlithgowshire, and 
afterwards, for his skill and bravery in suppressing the 
rebellion of the Moray men in 1130, certain fertile lands 
in that region and those of Sutherland which they also 
possessed. Freskin's second son, William, who was a 
trusted attendant of William the Lion, got the Moray 
estates on the death of his father in 1171, and became 
ancestor of the Murrays of Tullibardine, whose Chief is 
Duke of Atholl at the present day. Freskin's eldest son, 
Hugh, succeeded to the greater estate of Sutherland, 
granted the lands of Skibo to his cousin Gilbert, Arch- 
deacon of Moray and founder of Dornoch Cathedral, and 
died in 1214. His son William, styled Lord of Suther- 
land, took an active part with Comyn the Justiciar in 
suppressing the rebellion of Gillespie MacScolane, who in 
1228 burned the crown lands in the North and set fire to 
Inverness. For this service Sutherland was made an Earl 
by Alexander II. 

William, second Earl of Sutherland, was the hero who 
overthrew a large force of invading Danes at the battle of 
Embo in 1259, himself slaying their leader with the leg 
of a horse, a circumstance commemorated in the name of 
Dornoch a horse's hoof, and by the Earl's Cross which 
still stands on the spot. He was one of the Scottish nobles 
who at Scone in 1284, settled the succession to the Scottish 
Crown on the Maid of Norway, granddaughter of 
Alexander III. His son, another William, was one of the 
eighteen Highland chiefs who fought in Bruce's army at 
Bannockburn, and six years later he signed the famous 
letter to the Pope declaring Scottish independence. This 
chief's brother, Kenneth, the fourth Earl, married a 
daughter of the Earl of Mar, and fell at the disastrous 
battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. 

His son, William, fifth Earl, married Margaret, 
daughter of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, 
Elizabeth de Burgh, and sister of David II. Following 
this marriage King David raised the Earldom of Suther- 
land into a regality, and plotted to make the son of this 
union heir to his crown instead of Robert the Steward, 
son of the Princess Marjorie, Bruce's daughter by his 
first wife. In support of this plot, Earl William made 
grants of land in the shires of Inverness and Aberdeen to 
various powerful individuals, whose goodwill it was 


desirable to secure. But the plot came to nothing. The 
son, John, died at Lincoln of the plague while a hostage 
for the King's ransom, and the Earl himself, who had 
been one of the Scottish commissioners for the release of 
the King, and a hostage for him afterwards, only secured 
his liberty in 1367, and died at Dunrobin three years later. 

His second son, Robert, who became sixth Earl, was 
present at the surprise of Berwick by the Scots in 1384. 
He married Mabel, daughter of John, Earl of Moray, and 
granddaughter of the famous Black Agnes, daughter of 
Randolph Earl of Moray and Countess of March, who so 
heroically defended Dunbar against the English. Their 
son, Nicholas, the seventh Earl, married a daughter of the 
Lord of the Isles. From his second son are descended 
the Sutherlands of Berriedale, and from his third the 
Sutherlands of Forse. In his time began the first of 
the great feuds between the Sutherlands and the Mackays 
of Strathnaver. To put an end to the trouble, the Earl in 
1395 arranged a meeting at Dingwall Castle, in presence 
of his father-in-law, the Lord of the Isles, and other 
witnesses. At the conference, however, the altercation so 
incensed the Earl that he slew the opposing chief, Hugh 
Mackay of Fay and his son Donald with his own hand. 
Sutherland escaped with difficulty to his own country, and 
prepared for defence; but the Mackays were not strong 
enough to attack him, and when he died, four years later, 
his successor, Earl Robert, effected a reconciliation. 

A few years later the Earl had an opportunity of still 
further securing Mackay's adherence. The latter had 
married a sister of Malcolm Macleod of the Lewis. On 
his death his brother, Hucheon Dhu Mackay, became 
tutor or guardian of his two sons. Macleod, hearing that 
his sister, Mackay's widow, was not being well treated 
by the tutor, invaded Strathnaver, and laid it waste with a 
great part of the Breachat in Sutherland. The tutor asked 
help from the Earl, who responded by sending a force 
under Alexander Murray of Cubin, which, joining with 
the Mackays, came up with the Macleods on the march of 
Sutherland and Ross. Here a desperate fight took place. 
Only one of the Macleods escaped to carry the news to 
the Lewis, and died immediately afterwards of his wounds. 

A little later, Thomas Mackay, a nephew of Hucheon 
Dhu, burned Mowat of Freshwick and his people in the 
chapel of St. Duffus at Tain. For this outrage James I. 
declared Mackay a rebel, and offered his lands to anyone 
who should kill or capture him. The enterprise was under- 
taken by Angus, son of Alexander Murray of Cubin, who, 
VOL. n. Q 


securing the help of Mackay's two brothers by offering 
them his daughters in marriage, apprehended Thomas 
Mackay, who was forthwith executed at Inverness. 
Murray then obtained Mackay's lands of Palrossie and 
Spaniziedale in Sutherland, married his daughters to the 
two Mackays, and, with the consent of the Earl of Suther- 
land, proceeded to invade the Mackay country in Strath- 
naver, which his sons-in-law claimed should be theirs. 
Angus Dhu Mackay, the Chief, their cousin, however, 
raised his clan, and as he was old and infirm, gave the 
command to his natural son, John Aberich. The two 
forces met at Drum-na-Cuip, two miles from Tongue. 

Before the battle Angus Dhu sent an offer to resign all 
his other lands to his cousins if they would allow him to 
keep Ringtail. This fair offer they rejected. In the 
fierce fight which followed John Aberich was victorious, 
though he lost an arm, while Angus Murray and his two 
sons-in-law were slain. After the battle Angus Dhu had 
himself carried to the field to seek the bodies of his cousins, 
and while doing this was killed with an arrow by 
Sutherland man from behind a bush. 

Earl Robert was, in 1427, one of the hostages to 
England for the payment of the ransom of King James I. 
He married a daughter of the King's cousin, the Earl of 
Buchan, and died at Dunrobin in 1442. His son, John, 
the tenth Earl, married a famous beauty of her time, 
Margaret, daughter of Sir William Baillie of Lamington, 
a descendant of the Scottish patriot, Sir William Wallace. 
In the time of this Earl John occurred the life and death 
struggle between King James II. and the House of Douglas. 
That struggle reached as far as Sutherland. Upon the over- 
throw of the last Earl of Douglas by the King, Douglas 
made an alliance with the King of England and the Lord 
of the Isles, and while Donald Balloch, kinsman of the 
Island Lord, invaded the Firth of Clyde with a great fleet 
and laid waste Arran, Bute, the Cumbraes, and Inverkip, 
the Lord of the Isles himself made an incursion into Suther- 
land and besieged Skibo Castle. To raise the siege Earl 
John sent a force under Neil Murray, son of the doughty 
Angus slain at Drum-na-Cuip. Murray attacked the 
Lord of the Isles and forced him to retreat to Ross with the 
loss of one of his chieftains and fifty men. To avenge 
this disgrace, Macdonald sent a force to lay waste the 
Sutherland country. This invasion was met by a force 
under the Earl of Sutherland's brother, Robert, and after 
a bloody struggle on the sands of Strathfleet, the Islesmen 
were overthrown with great slaughter. 


This feud with Clan Donald was ended by a marriage 
between the Earl of Sutherland's son John and Fingob, 
daughter of Celestine, brother of the Lord of the IMS. 
John succeeded as tenth Earl in 1460. Twenty-seven 
years later the Sutherlands were drawn into another of the 
blood feuds which formed one of the strongest motives of 
Highland life for many centuries. Angus Mackay, grand- 
son of Angus Dhu, having been slain at Tarbert by a Ross, 
his son, John Riach Mackay, asked the help of his feudal 
chief, the Earl of Sutherland, to avenge the death. The 
Earl sent a party under his uncle, Robert Sutherland. 
This force of Mackays and Sutherlands, with whom was 
William, son of John Aberich, invaded Strathoykell and 
laid it waste. They were attacked at Aldicharish, by Ross 
of Balnagown, chief of that clan, but Balnagown and 
seventeen of his chief followers being slain, the rest of 
his force fled and was cut to pieces. An immense booty 
fell to the victors. This was divided on the same day, 
but its value excited the greed of the men of Assynt, and 
they induced John Riach Mackay to agree to a most 
perfidious and diabolical plot the murder of the friends 
who had come to his help. Their scheme was to cut off 
Robert Sutherland and his party, and give out that they 
had fallen in battle. When the plot was broached to 
William Aberich he was horrified, and took means to warn 
Robert Sutherland, who at once got his men together 
and prepared for attack. John Riach Mackay, however, 
finding the Sutherlands prepared, abandoned his dis- 
graceful plan and slunk home to Strathnaver. 

Hugh Roy Mackay, brother of this John Riach, played 
a part in another enterprise which concerned the Suther- 
lands. A certain Sir James Dunbar of Cumnock had 
married the beautiful Margaret Baillie, Countess Dowager 
of Sutherland, and with others of his name had settled 
in the north. Alexander Sutherland of Dilred had bor- 
rowed money from him, and being unable or unwilling 
to repay, was sued for the debt. Conceiving a grudge 
at the Dunbars as incomers, he picked a quarrel with 
Alexander Dunbar, Sir James's brother, and after a long 
combat, killed him. Sir James went to Edinburgh a 
laid the matter before James IV., who was so mcens< 
that he outlawed Dilred and promised his lands to a 
person who should arrest him. Dilred was arrested wit 
ten of his followers by Hugh Roy Mackay, his uncle, a 
was duly tried and executed, while MacKay rec 
grant of his lands from the King. 

It seems to have been either the tenth or eleventh t irl, 


both of whom were named John, who was the chief actor in 
a tragic occurrence at the family seat of Dunrobin. The 
Earl had two nephews, sons of a natural brother, Thomas 
More. These young men often annoyed their uncle, and 
at last one day invaded the castle and braved him to his 
face. Their act so enraged him that he killed one on the 
spot. The other escaped with some wounds, but was 
overtaken and slain at a spot at hand, afterwards known 
from the fact as Keith's Bush. 

The eleventh Earl, dying without lawful issue, was suc- 
ceeded in 1514 by his sister Elizabeth. She had married 
Adam Gordon, second son of the Earl of Huntly, and he 
accordingly took the title of Earl of Sutherland. 

On this succession of a new family to the Earldom of 
Sutherland, there began a series of conflicts, first with 
the Mackays of Strathnaver and afterwards with the Earls 
of Caithness, which kept the far north in turmoil for three- 
quarters of a century. 

The eleventh Earl had left a natural son, Alexander 
Sutherland, who, pretending that his parents had been 
married, laid claim to the title and estates. In July, 1509, 
however, he was induced by the new Earl to sign a docu- 
ment before the Sheriff of Inverness renouncing his claim. 
Seven years later, fearing other trouble, Earl Adam 
engaged the Earl of Caithness in a treaty of friendship, 
and to secure his goodwill conveyed to him some lands 
in Strathully. But these transactions only delayed the 
storm. In 1517, while the Earl was absent in Edinburgh, 
John Mackay of Strathnaver, a natural son of Hugh 
Roy Mackay, who had beheaded his own uncle and seized 
his lands, invaded Sutherland with a prodigious force 
gathered throughout the north by promise of plunder. 
In the emergency the Countess of Sutherland induced 
her bastard brother, Alexander Sutherland, to oppose 
Mackay. Assisted by John Murray of Aberscors and 
the Chief of Clan Gunn, Sutherland raised a force, and 
encountered the Mackays at Torrandhu in Strathfleet. 
Sutherland's force was much the smaller of the two, but 
he attacked vigorously, and after a severe and bloody 
action entirely defeated his opponents, who lost about 
three hundred men. Mackay next, attributing his defeat 
to Murray of Aberscors, sent two kinsmen with a force to 
destroy him. But Murray met them at Loch Salchie, 
and cut them to pieces. Mackay, still further exasperated, 
sent yet another party to burn Murray's village of Pitfour, 
but it met the same fate, one of his nephews, who led it, 
being slain, and the other taken prisoner. The Earl of 


Sutherland then returning from Edinburgh, Mackay 
, thought it prudent to submit to him and give him i bond 
of service; but he secretly tampered with the bastard, 
Alexander Sutherland, to renew his claim to the Earldom 
and estates. Sutherland, it is said, was further persuaded 
by a witch's prophecy that his head should be the highest 
that ever was of the Sutherlands. In consequence, 
while the Earl was absent in Strathbogie, Sutherland 
attacked and took Dunrobin. John Murray of Abersoors 
promptly raised a force for defence, and, reinforced by a 
body of men sent north by the Earl, besieged Dunrobin, 
which surrendered. Alexander Sutherland had retired 
into Strathnaver, but he now returned with a fresh body 
of men, wasting the country and putting to death several 
of his own kinsmen who had joined the Earl's party. 
Flushed with success, he grew careless, and was lying at 
a place called Ald-Quhillin, on the Sutherland coast, when 
the Earl himself came upon him, took him prisoner, and 
slew most of his men. Sutherland himself was immedi- 
ately executed, and his head on a spear placed on the top 
of the great tower at Dunrobin, thus dramatically fulfilling 
the witch's prophecy. 

The Earl, being now well advanced in years, retired to 
his native country of Strathbogie and Aboyne, leaving the 
conduct of affairs to his son Alexander, the Master of 
Sutherland. John Mackay, still thirsting for revenge, 
thought this a favourable chance to retrieve his losses. 
Twice he attempted to invade Sutherland, but on each 
occasion was driven out by the Master, who retaliated by 
dispossessing him of his estates in Sutherland and plunder- 
ing and burning Strathnaver. Finally, Mackay, attempt- 
ing a third expedition, the Master came suddenly upon him 
near Lairg, cut his force to pieces, and recovered 
plunder he had taken. Mackay only escaped by swimming 
to Eilean Minric and submitting once more to the Earl. 
This was in 1522, and John Mackay himself died in 152^ 

These and the subsequent raids and burnings beti 
the Sutherlands and Mackays and the Earls of Sutl 
and of Caithness respectively are detailed with much quam 
ness by Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstown, the histori 
the Sutherlands. Only two episodes of the feud chara 
istic of the time need be noted here. 

The Master of Sutherland dying in 1529. eight yei 
before his father, the Earldom was inherited 
John, known as the Good Earl. He was Lieute 
Moray in 1547, and along with his cousin George, l< 
Earl of Huntly, accompanied the Queen Regent, wid 


James V., to France in 1550. For taking part in Huntly's 
rebellion in 1562 he was forfeited, and retired to Flanders, 
but the forfeiture was rescinded in 1565. Two years later 
he was staying with his countess, then pregnant, and his 
only son, with Isobel Sinclair, widow of his uncle, Gilbert 
Gordon of Gartay, at Helmsdale Castle. This lady's 
son was next heir to the earldom, and, whether or not 
she was instigated by her relative, the Earl of Caithness, 
she conceived the diabolic scheme of opening the way 
for her son's succession by poisoning her guests. The 
poison was mixed with the ale with which the Earl and 
Countess were supplied at supper, and they died five days 
later at Dunrobin. The Earl's son only escaped by the 
fact that he was late at a hunting party, and on his return 
was warned by his father not to touch the repast. For 
this crime Isobel Sinclair was tried and condemned to 
death, but escaped execution by destroying herself in 
prison at Edinburgh. 

Alexander, the thirteenth Earl, who thus succeeded, 
was committed by his sister to the care of the Earl of 
Atholl, who disposed of his wardship to George, Earl of 
Caithness, the house's enemy. This nobleman seized 
the boy in Skibo Castle, carried him off to Caithness, and 
forced him at the age of sixteen to marry his own 
daughter, Lady Barbara Sinclair, a profligate woman of 
thirty-two. Two years later the young Earl escaped from his 
sinister guardian, who had taken up residence at Dun- 
robin and formed a design upon his life, and on attaining 
his majority in 1573 he divorced Lady Barbara. He 
afterwards married his second cousin, Lady Jean Gordon, 
sister of the fifth Earl of Huntly, who had been previously 
married to the Earl of Bothwell, but repudiated when that 
unscrupulous nobleman wished to marry Queen Mary. 
It may be mentioned here that when Bothwell married 
Lady Jean he was already the husband of a wife in Den- 
mark. Earl Alexander died in his forty-third year, and 
his countess afterwards married Ogilvie of Boyne, whom 
also she survived. To the Earl of Sutherland she had 
four sons, the youngest of whom was that Sir Robert 
Gordon of Gordonstown who was created a Baronet of 
Nova Scotia, the first of the order, in 1625, and became 
the historian of the family. He was tutor to his nephew, 
the fifteenth Earl, throughout a long minority, during 
which, with much wisdom and skill, he kept the peace of 
the country, greatly improved the fortunes of the Earldom, 
and completely secured it against the intrigues of the 
Earls of Caithness. 


The line of the Gordon Earls of Sutherland, who after- 
wards held high offices and honours in the State, came to 
an end with the death of William, nineteenth Earl, at 
Bath in 1766. The title and estates were then claimed 
by Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstown and George 
Sutherland of Fors, and the case, in which the celebrated 
Lord Hailes took part, remains among the most famous 
in our legal annals. It was finally decided, however, by 
the House of Lords in 1771 in favour of the late Earl's 
only surviving daughter, Elizabeth. This lady married, 
in 1785, George Granville Leveson-Gower, Viscount 
Trentham, afterwards second Marquess of Stafford, who 
was, in 1833, created Duke of Sutherland. From that 
time to this the distinguished holders of the Sutherland 
titles have been of the Leveson-Gower family, and only 
distantly related, through the two heiresses named Eliza- 
beth, of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries respectively, 
to the original heads of the clan of the name of Murray 
or Sutherland. Meanwhile the actual chiefship of the 
clan by male descent was believed to be vested in William 
Sutherland of Killipheder, who enjoyed a small annuity 
from the Duchess-Countess, and died at a great age in 
1832, and after him in John Campbell Sutherland of Fors, 
in the county of Caithness. The last-named died about 
1917, leaving five daughters but no son. In the course 
of the intervening centuries the race of the famous Freskin 
the Fleming has made a mighty record in the history of 


Cheyne Federith 

Gray Keith 

Mowat Ohpbant 


BADGR : Lus leth 'n t-samhradh (cheiranthus) native wallflower. 

THE name Urquhart, -which is still widespread in the 
counties of Ross and Cromarty, has been the subject of 
much curious speculation. The family genealogist, Sir 
Thomas Urquhart, Knight of Cromartie, of the days of 
Charles I. and Charles II., declares it variously to be 
derived from Ourohartos, " fortunate and well-beloved," 
and to have the same meaning as Adam, namely, " red 
earth." He backs up the latter speculation with a pedigree 
which traces the descent of the clan from the first parents 
of mankind, and makes Ourohartos to have been the 
familiar name of Esormon, of whom he himself was the 
1 28th descendant. While the worthy if eccentric chief of 
the seventeenth century was no doubt as amply justified 
as other people in claiming descent from " the grand old 
gardener and his wife," it may be feared that absolute 
reliance is not to be placed upon the authenticity of all 
the links in his long connecting chain. 

More authentic, probably, is the origin of the clan and 
name given by Nisbet in his Heraldry. "A brother," 
he says, " of Ochonchar, who slew the bear, and was 
predecessor of the Lords Forbes, having in keeping the 
castle of Urquhart, took his surname from the place." 
Urquhart, or Urchard, is the name of a district in Inverness- 
shire, and the ruin of Urquhart Castle, which was a royal 
stronghold in early times, still stands at the foot of Glen 
Urquhart, on the western side of Loch Ness, and was the 
scene of a famous siege by the army of Edward I. of 
England, during which the wife of the governor, about 
to become a mother, escaped in the guise of a beggar 
driven forth from the gate. 

It should here be noted, however, that in the old county 
of Cromarty itself, in the Black Isle, lies a district known 
as the White Bog, or Glen Urquhart, and it seems possible 
that this was the original seat of the Urquhart family, and 
the property from which that family took its name. There 
&re also parishes of Urquhart in Ross and Moray shires. 

At the time of the siege of Urquhart Castle the ancestor 



Facing page 508 


of the Urquhart Chiefs was Sheriff of Cromam I I 
Hailes in his Annals describes how, durine 
tion for thp SmttJch ,.,,, 


tion for the Scottish crown at the end f t he 
century, Edward I. ordered a list of the Sheriffs of 
to be made out. In that list appears the name of 
Urquhart of Cromarty, Heritable Sheriff of the county 
Evidently therefore, even at that early date, the 
was already of considerable importance in Cromarty i 
the north. 

The Heritable Sheriff of the days of Edward 1. and 
King Robert the Bruce married a daughter of Hugh Earl 
of Ross, and his son Adam obtained charters ofviriow 
lands. In the years that followed, the family estates wot 
greatly enlarged by marriages with heiresses of the neigh- 
bouring Mackenzies and others. 

Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty, chief of the name in 
the first half of the sixteenth century, had a family of no 
fewer than eleven daughters and twenty-five sons. Of 
these sons, seven fell at the battle of Pinkie in 1547, and 
from another descended the Urquharts of Newhall, Mon- 
teagle, Kinbeachie, and Brae-Langwell. The eldest of the 
family, Alexander Urquhart of Cromarty, in 1532, under 
a charter of James V., acquired the lands of Inch Rory 
and others, in the shires of Ross and Inverness. He had 
two sons, the younger of whom, John Urquhart of Craig- 
fintry, born in the year of the disastrous battle above 
mentioned, was afterwards known as the Tutor of 
Cromarty, to be referred to presently. 

The elder son's grandson, who succeeded to the chief- 
ship was Sir Thomas Urquhart, the family genealogist of 
the days of Charles I., already mentioned. During his 
minority the estates prospered under the management of 
his grand-uncle the Tutor, who died only in 1631 at ihe 
age of eighty-four. Born in 1611, Sir Thomas was 
educated at King's College, Aberdeen, and travelled in 
France, Spain, and Italy. On the outbreak of the Cbfl 
War he took the side of Charles I. and fought against the 
Covenanters at Turriff in 1639. Two years later he was 
knighted by the king and began a notable literary career 
by the publication of his Epigrams. After returning from 
London to Scotland to arrange his affairs in 1642, he again 
went abroad, and remained there till 1645. On his return 
he published Trissotetras, a work on trigonometry, and 
for five years resided in Cromarty Tower, on his ancestral 
estate. Then the news reached him of the execution of 
Charles I., and he forthwith took part, along will 
Mackenzies, Monroes, and other clans, in the Invrrom 


rising of 1649, which proclaimed that monarch's elder son 
as Charles II. After the young king's landing in the 
north of Scotland in the following year Sir Thomas again 
took arms, and as an officer in the royal army followed 
Charles into England. At the battle of Worcester he was 
made prisoner, and had many of his manuscripts destroyed. 
During his captivity in the Tower of London and at 
Windsor he published his True Pedigree and Lineal 
Descent of the Most Ancient and Honourable Family of 
Urquhart, since the Creation of the World, as well as an 
invective against the Scottish Presbyterians. In 1652 he 
returned to Scotland on parole, to find that his affairs 
had gone to ruin in his absence. The trustees to whom 
he had entrusted the care of his estates had pillaged 
his lands and appropriated the rents. Believing him 
to be dead they had even abstracted his title-deeds 
and other documents, and one of them, Leslie of 
Findrassie, had made a predatory raid on one of his 
chief vassals. 

His clansmen would have avenged his wrongs by force 
even at that late day, but he would not hear of it, and 
in the end his property was sequestrated, and to his great 
grief a choice collection of books which he had formed 
was dispersed. In 1653, he published his scheme for a 
universal language, and also the first part of his most 
important work, a translation of Rabelais. These were 
only a moiety of the literary achievements he had planned. 
" Had I not," he says, " been pluck'd away by the 
importunity of my creditors, I would have emitted to public 
view above five hundred several treatises on inventions 
never hitherto thought upon by any." He afterwards 
went abroad, and his death place is unknown. Tradition 
says he expired of an inordinate fit of joyous laughter on 
hearing of the restoration of Charles II. to the throne in 
1660. A further part of his Rabelais was published in 
1693, and his miscellaneous works were published in 1774 
and 1834. 

The senior line of the Urquharts came to an end with 
the death of Colonel James Urquhart, an officer of much 
distinction, in 1741. The chiefship of the clan then 
devolved on a descendant of the Tutor. The latter's son 
had married, in 1636, Elizabeth, heiress of the ancient 
family of Seton, of Meldrum in Aberdeenshire, and his 
descendants were known as the Urquharts of Meldrum. 
Still later, the representation devolved on the Urquharts 
of Brae-Langwell, descended from a brother of the Tutor, 
but Brae-Langwell was sold, excepting a small portion, 


which was strictly entailed, by Charles Gordon Urquhart, 
an officer in the Scots Greys. 

Among notable bearers of the name of Urquhart have 
been Thomas Urquhart, the famous violin-maker of 
London, who flourished about 1650, and David Urquhart, 
the diplomatist and traveller, who after serving in the Greek 
navy, and advocating Turkish autonomy, represented 
Stafford in Parliament from 1847 to 1852, bitterly opposed 
Palmerston, and died at Naples in 1877. 

Meanwhile, after the sequestration of Sir Thomas 
Urquhart in the middle of the seventeenth century, the 
ancient possessions of the Urquhart chiefs passed into 
possession of Mackenzie of Tarbat, and Sir George, second 
baronet of Tarbat, the famous antiquary, Lord Justice 
General, and Secretary of State, who was made Earl of 
Cromarty by Queen Anne in 1703, had them included, 
along with his other landed possessions, in the widely 
scattered county of Cromarty, a territory fifteen times as 
great as that ruled by the Heritable Sheriff of the days of 
Edward I. and Robert the Bruce. 


ABBOT, 388 

Abbotson, 388 

Aboyne, Lord of, 134 

Achalader, 39 

Adam, 142 

Adamson, 346 

Adie, 142 

Agincourt, g 

Airlie, 459 

, Earl of, 457, 458 

Albany, Duke of, n, 28, 37, 
78, 85, 93, 234, 262, 286, 
338, 454, 470, 476, 489, 4Q4, 

Albemarle, Duke of, 81 

Alexander, 207, 277 

II.. 15, 59, 74, 113, 

145, 154, 166, 188, 209, 233, 
348, 378, 416, 420, 431, 439. 
460, 468, 500 

III., 15, 26, 27, 36, 

60, 66, 123, i 88, 209, 279, 
3'4, 335, 390, 400, 461, 468, 
469, 479, 481, 500 

Allan, 98, 251 
Allardice, 152 
Alpin, Clan, 214 
Alt-no-g-aun, battle of, 174 
Altyre, Gumming- of, 66 
Alwyne, 215 
Anderson, 472 
Andrew, 472 
Andrish, Clan, 339 
Angus, 298 

, Earl of, 38, 48, 78. 

99, 114, 119, 137, 192, 454. 

477, 493 
-, Master of, 78 

Ardwill, Robert of, 15 
Argyll, Alexander of, 63 
- , Duke of, 32, 66, 126, 
207, 216, 228, 230, 304 

, Earl of, 28, 30, 37, 54, 

137, 167, 169, 198, 233, 239, 
240, 264, 293, 302, 331, 343, 
355, 361, 372, 404, 4o8, 457, 

Argyll, Marquess of, n. y. 

387. 395, 448. '48*4 '* *** 
Ardmcaple. 214. 21$ 
Ard Phadruic, 206 
Arkil, 92 

Arnpryor, 8, 10. la. 13 
Arran, Earl of, 78 
Arthur, 213 

, Clan, 210 

Atholl, Duke of, is. 43 J. 44) 

449, 450. 453. 496. 500 
, Earl of. 30, 47. 6$. 84, 

86. 155, 238, a8i, 446. 

460, 488, 493, 4fl6, $06 
Augustus, Fort, 59 
Ayson, 346 

BADENOCH. 50. 60. 7$ 

, Comyn of, 6$ 

, Wolf of. Sff Watf 

Bain, 313 

Bains of Tulloch. 222 

Baliol Edward. 36 

, King John, 61. tol 

Ballindalioch, Laird of. tfi. 


. Grant of. 161. 161 

Ballinfreich, Guidmao of. to 
Balvaiff, 14 

Bannachra Castle. 63. of 
Bannatyne. 35. 408 
Bannennan. 121 
Bannockburn. 7$, oa. 190. MO* 

246. 308. 316. 33$. J4. 39S. 

Barca'ldine. 39 

Bartholomew, 08 

Baxter. 381 

Bealach na Brotf*. 38 

Bean, 323 

"Beardie, Earl." 191. If* 

Beath, 242. 3*4 

Beaton. 242. VM. JT7 

Beaufort Castle. i>g 

BeauR#. battle of. 9 

Bell. 381 




Ben an Tuire, 26 

Bethune, 242, 377 

Black, 172, 186, 364 

Blar-na-saigfheadear, 428 

Bontine, 152 

Bourdon, 186 

Bowie, 364 

Boyd, 497 

Braemar Castle, 103 

Breadalbane, Earl of, 41, 254, 
255, 383, 384, 387, 392, 485 

Brown, 186, 381 

Bruaich, Loch, 49 

Bruce, Robert the, 9, 27, 29, 
36, 66, 74, 75. 84, 99, 108, 
114, 123, 133, 179, 188, 190, 
202, 205, 206, 209, 211, 214, 
252, 262, 269, 279, 285, 308, 
315, 317, 335, 349, 354, 39O, 
398, 407, 446, 454, 469, 479, 
480, 489, 493, 500, 511 

Buccleuch, Duke of, 24 

Buchan, 66, 360 

, Countess of, 59, 285 

, Earl of, 63, 84, 285, 455, 

470, 494, 502 

Buchanan, Clan, 8, 355 

of Auchmar, 8, 96, 380 

of Leny, 13, 355, 356 

, Sir George, 353 

Bullock, 6 1 

Buntain, 152 

Burdon, 186 

Burns, 35 

Bute, Marquess of, 495, 497 

Cailean Mor, 27, 29 
Caird, 487 

Beag-, 87 

Cairn-a-Quheen, too, 101 
Caithness, Earl of, 40, 41, 

288, 309, 479, 481, 482, 503, 

505, 506 

, Thane of, 47, 336, 461 

Calder, 35 

Cameron, 337, 339, 340, 344 

348, 402, 407, 409, 412 
, Clan, 18, 69, 218, 235, 

247, 248, 263, 264, 266, 380, 

Campbell, Captain Robert of 

Glenlyon, 41, 42, 484, 485 
, Charles W., of Boreland, 


, Clan, 26, 208, 210, 211, 

230, 253, 254, 304, 462 

of Cawdor, 128, 219 

of Glenlyon, 256, 257, 


of Glenurchy, 38, 39, 

180, 254, 355 

Campbell of Loch Awe, 386 

, Sir Robert, 43 

Campbells of Breadalbane, 36, 

Camus na fola, 330 

Cannich, Glen, 46 

Cariston, 49 

Carlippis, Thomas, 56 

Carmichael, 497, 498 

Carrick Castle, 32 

Cattanach, 414 

Caw, 98 

Cawdor, Earls of, 30, 36, 462 

Chalmer, Thomas of Lawers, 

Chalmers, 25 

Charles I., 12, 21, 31, 82, 96, 
101, 108, 139, 141, 146, 147, 
157, 169, 176, 183, 194, 207, 
229, 240, 241, 253, 310, 324, 
331, 343, 350, 386, 391, 392, 

408, 423, 434, 435, 439, 442, 
447, 457, 483, 508, 509 

II., 32, 40, 41, 80, 82, 

101, 129, 150, 169, 254, 265, 
272, 297, 324, 331, 332, 363, 
387, 392, 418, 435, 436, 442, 
463, 484, 497, 5o8, 510 

Edward, Prince, 18, 47, 
82, 119, 126, 139, 171, 226, 
244, 245, 267, 268, 274, 281, 
282, 332, 344, 350, 357, 358, 
362, 377, 4", 412, 435, 44<>, 
449, 458, 464, 

Chattan, Clan, 20, 68, 69, 72, 
100, 156, 161, 162, 163, 219, 

222, 235, 248, 292, 293, 303, 

334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 

341, 342, 360, 406, 407, 408, 

409, 4.10, 413, 474, 475, 477. 

Cheyne, 507 
Chinese Gordon, 142 
Chisholm Brothers, 45, 48, 49 
, Clan, 45 

of Mucherach, 50 

, Sir James, 57 

" Chlann 'Ac-al-Bheath," 218 

Chlearich, Clan, 339 

Civil Wars. 12, 31 

Clach na Bratach, 87 

Clachnaharry, 339 

Clann an Oiprhre, 96 

" Clann Fhearg-uis of 

Strachur," 106 
Clanranald, 46, 494 
Clan-vic-Farquhar, 307 
Clark, 25. 346, 414 
Clarkson, 25 
Clyne, 487 
Coiraghoth Cave, 46 
Coirskreaoch, Cave of, 46 


Colla, Clan, 229 

Collier, QO 

Colman, 17 

Colquhoun, Clan, 52, 97, 215, 


Combicn, 407 
Combie, 346 
Comer, 49 
Comrie, 172 
Comyn, Black, 61 

- , Clan, 59 

- , Robert de, 59 

- , Sir Robert, 66 
Conacher, 283 
Connall, 242 
Connochie, 35 
Core, son of, 91 
Corse, Patrick of, 120 
Coutts, 105 
Cowan, 58, 283 
Craig Cluny, 104 

- Coynoch, 99 
Craigellachie, 160 
Craigfievar, 119 
Crawford, 199 

- , Earls of, 20, 86, 192, 
193, 194, 196, 197, 236, 237, 

Crerar, 346 

Cromartie, Earl of, 324, 3*5 

Cromlix or Cromlics, 50 

Cromwell, 21, 32 

Crookshanks, 4Q7 

Crossragnel Abbey, 12 

Cuin, Clan, 229 

Culloden, 332, 345, 4<>5, 4". 

443, 457, 458, 464, 45 
Currie, 251, 4M 

DALLAS, 346 
Dalraid Castle, 175 
Darroch, 242 

David I., 59, 67, 68, 75, 2 ' 
134, 232, 278, 354, 386, 390, 

^ 9 n 4S4 ,'5, 49 aV 48. ,08, 
133, 145, 202 2II 234> 33 * 
359, 371, 378. 386, 39', 42U 
470, 500 

Davidson, Donald, 7' 

, Sir Robert, 73 

- , , 

Davidsons, 20, 67, 33&, 4 


Davie, 73 
Davis, 73 

Dawson, 73 , 

De Campo Bello, 26 
Denoon, 35 
Deuchar, 199 
Devorgilla. 63 
Dewar, 388, 437 
Dhai, Clan, 69 

Dingwall. 444. 

. Ca 

Docbart, Loch. 39 
Doles, 346 
Donaoue, op 
Donachy, Clan. oa 
Donald. CUn. ajj. 4. Ml. 

250, aw. 5*4. $3 

- Dhu, 10. 21 
Donaldson. 341 
Di-nlcvy, 17 

Donachadh. CUa. M. 5 
DouRall. 28^ 

DouffUs. 470. 4*1. *fc 4^* 
497, 500, $oa 

- . Earl of. 1$. to, 
133. 9. 3J6. 37. 37. 

Dove, 17 

Dow, 17. 73 

Dowai, $1 

Dowall, 38^ 

DrcRhorn. Lord. 353. 354. 35 

Druim-an-dcur, aoo 

Dnimdeurfait. 301 

Druromond. Clan, 74 

- , Lord. 57 
Duff, 280, 
Duffie, 405 

Duffus, Baron of. 40 
Dufral Ciar. 170 
Duiiach, 407 
Dunbar battle. 31 
Duncan, oo 

- , Clan, 84 
Duncanson, Robert, 
Dunrhadh Mor, 400 
Dundee, VUeoiuit. . . 

363, 4>t 

Dunfallandie, 108 
Dunglass Castle. 53 
Dunnacbie, 90 
Dunphail. Alatir of. 4 

- , Castle. 64 
Dunollie, 314 
Durham. Simeoa of. oa 
Dyce, 491 


F.die, 143 

IV., 135. 9*. 
- VI.. 

n Ai|f, . 
Kilcan Vow, 06, 

vA w* * 

EMfc. EH "3- 



Erchless Castle, 49, 50 

Ere, sons of, 107 

Errol, Earl of, 31, 137, 343, 

361, 476 
Esson, 346 
Ewan, 352 


Farquhar, 105 

Farquharson, 66, 99, 343, 345, 


Fassalane, Walter de, 93 
Fearquhard, 105 
Federith, 507 
Fenton, Lord, 49 
Fergus, Clan, 106 
Ferguson, David, no 

of Raith, 97 

Ferson, 414 
Ferries, in 

Fiery Cross, 14, 375, 409 

Fife, Thanes of, 100 

, Earls of, 285, 286, 288, 

334, 474, 490 
Findlay, 105 
Findlayson, 105 
Finlarig, 39 
Finlay Mor, 100, 101 
Finnon, Clan, 329 
Fletcher, 172 
Forbes, 112, 464, 486, 508 

, Fergus de, 113 

Forbhasach, 112 

Fordyce, 121 

Fort Augustus, 45, 46 

Forth, Lord, 81 

Foulis, 444 

Fraser, Sir Simon, 61 

Frasers, 122, 263, 341, 420, 


Frissell, 131 
Fullerton, 498 

GALBRAITH, 98, 242 

Gall-'aobh. 174 

Galley of Lome, 29 

Gallic, 178 

Galloway, Fair Maid of, 38 

, Lord of, 108 

Garrow, 497 
Gasklune, 85 

George I., 33, 34, 5, 103, 
150, 273, 367 

II., 79, 121, 126, 196 

III., 73, 160, 227, 242 

Georgeson, 178 

Gibb, 17 

Gibson, 17 

Gilbertson, 17 

Gilbride, 242 

Gilchrist, 352, 454, 458, 474 

Gilfillan, 388 

Gillanders, 472 
Gilleain na Tuaighe, 359 
Gille Andras, Clan, 467 
Gillespie, 414 
Gilliecattan Mhor, 68, 406 
Gillies, 414 
Gilroy, 160, 296 
Glasgow, Bishop of, 123 

, Earl of, 197 

Glas, Ian, 42 

Glen, 346 

Glencairn, Earl of, 94, 109, 

no, in, 424, 442, 448 
Glencoe, Massacre of, 41 
Glenelg, 45 
Glenfallpch, 37, 40 
Glenfruin, battle of, 31, 216 
Glengarry, 47, 265, 494 
Glenlivat, 31 
Glen Morriston, 45, 50 
Glenorchy, 37 
Glenurchy, 41 
Gloucester, Earl of, 62 
Gordon, John, of Brackley, 


, Lord of, 339 

of Coldingknowes, 141 

, Sir Robert, 47 

Gordon-Gumming, Sir William, 


Gordons, The, 132, 343 
Gorm, John, 30 
Gorrie, 242 
Gow, 337, 414 
Gowan, 242 
Gowrie, 107, 242 

, Earl of, 107 

Graeme, Sir John, the, 143 
Grahams, the, 61, 143 
Granard, Earl of, 121 
Grant, Castle, 63, 154 

, Clan, 153, 161 

, James of Pluscardine, 56 

of Glenmoriston, Clan, 


of Stratherick, 64 

Gray, 497, 507 
Greenwich, Duke of, 33 
Gregor, 38, 172 

, Clan, 38, 52, 161, 204 

Gregory, 172 

Greig, 172 

Greusach, 105 

Griantach or Plain of the 

Sun, 153 
Grier, 172 
Grierson, 172 
Griesch, 08 
Grogan, Hugh, 73 
Gruamach, 08 
Grumach, Gillespie, 31 
Gunn, Clan, 173, 504 


Gunning, Elizabeth, 34 
Gunnson, 178 


Hal o' the Wynd, 337 

Hamilton, Duke of, 34. 403. 

Hardy, 105, 346 

Harperson, 17 

Hauffh of Castletown, 103 

Hawthorn, 242 

Henderson, 259 

Hendrie, 393 

Henry I., 108 

II., 78, 468 

III., 60, 469 

IV., 1 88, 44Q 

V., 114 

VII., 135 

VIII., 115, 180, 248, 264, 


Hewison, 242 

Hill of Lundy, 45 

Holland, Earl of, 40 

Home, John, 46 

Homildon Hill, battle of, 148 

Hughson, 242 

Huntly, 142 

, Earl of, 21, 31, US. 

116, 118. 134, '35. 136, 141. 
162, 236, 237. 2 39, '' 
264, 3iQ, 320, 321, 323. 340, 
341, 342, 343, 301, 372, 408, 
441, 456, 463, 476, 489, 504, 
505, "?o6 

Marquess of, 79, '49, 

Hutcheson, 242 


nan Caisteal. 102 

Vor, Clan, 264 

Inches, oo 

Inch Lonaipr, 57 

Tavanach, 57 

Inchmarlo. 73 

Inis Fraoch, 300 

Inverlochy, 75. 219 

Inverury, battle of, 03 

lona Cathedral, 34 

Irvine, Earl of, 32 

Islay, Earl of, 33 

Isles, 243 

, Lord of the, 20, 

206, 278, 317, 3i8, 3'0, 
336, 339, 347, 360, 372, 
401, 404, 427, 440, 462, 
476, 494, SGI, 53 

Jaroei I., 17, *. 37. >*. . 
66. 84. 86. 87, 93. 
ijf. 146, 148. ' 

. 325. m a* ife PR 

; . . * * < * 
, 457. 47. 4to, Q* 4M. 


3 !1' 

405. 501. S 

II., n 

87. 103, 114. m. iu. 49 

163, IQ2. 211. 236. 1)7. SOI* 
304, 3>7. 349. 40*. 


n4 '40. 163. ' '- 

30. 354, 373. 45*. 

IV.. 10, jo. 38. 49. 

78. 04. IU. 134. 
.. 196. >97. 



SS, 114. . 

JACOBITE, 23, 42, so, 70, 
88, 104, 126. 127, 130. 
158, 163, 196, 227, 244. 
332, 363, 392, 397, 4". 
435, 443, 449, 45L 458. 






300. 30. 340. 34. 3W. Jp. 
30L 417. 433. 4M. 4. 4ii. 

V^o. it. 30. 3. ? 
00. 5, 116. no. tej, lot. 


ai6. 217. 263. 3g. 3M. 4IJ 
, 481, 482. 4J. 47. J^ 


__ vi.. 12. 31. $4- H. n 

78, 107. no, 129. 37. 
149, 162. 103. 04. 07. 9. 
109. 203, 21$. 3l6. 317. JV 
264. 300. 33. 34. 353. !. 
370, 30. 401. 4". 40*. 447. 
463. 43, 490. 491 
_-- VlY. 21. 79. 1. '03. * 
118. 163. 304. 3*4. 39*. 4f. 

_ 3 VIII.. 88, I9J. m. 344. 

307. 4$8. 
Jameson. 178 

Johnson.' 1787 f4. 
Johnston, Sir JOM, X 

KAY. 73 
Kav. Clan, 69 
Kr.^a. i:!*. *' *W 
Krith. 4M. 57 


Kcndrifk. 393 

Krnnrth. M7 
II . t3 



Kinchrk. - 
Kindrochil Cat*. 



Kinloch Rannoch, 16 
Kinnell, 243 
Kinnoul, Earl f, S 1 
Kippen, King 1 of, 10 
Kirkmahpe, 48 
Kirkpatrick, 58 
Knockmary, 77 

LACHLAN, CLAN, 349, 350, 

Lake of Thong's, 19 

Lame, 186 

Lammie, 186 

Lamondson, 186 

Lament, Clan, 177, 349 

of Cowal, 281 

Landers, 186 

Langside, battle of, 96 

Largs, battle of, 359 

Lauder, Sir Robert of Quarrel- 
wood, 48 

Lean, 362 

Leckie, 172 

Lees, 414 

Lemond, 186 

Lennox, 98 

, Earl of, 89, 91, 92, 93, 

94, 215, 216, 263 

, Thane of, 74 

Lenny, 17 

Limont, 186 

Lindsay, Clan, 187 

Linlithgow Palace, 76 

Living-ston, 497 

Lobban, 367 

Lochaber, Thane of, 20, 21 

Lochalsh, Alexander of, 239 

Lochiel, 21, 23, 221, 380, 412 

Lochindorb, 60 

Lochnell, Campbell of, 283 

Lochsloidh, 95 

Logan, 200, 366, 367 

Lome, John of, 63 

, Lord of, 27, 37, 231, 

355, 391, 493 

, Marquess of, 34 

Loudon, 35 

Loudoun, Earls of, 29 

Loup, Laird of, 207 

Lovat, Lord, 21, 130, 223, 247, 
290, 319, 377, 4io, 440, 464 

Love, 333 

Lucas, 1 86 

Luke, 1 86 

Lyon, 105, 410, 426, 436 

Macadie, in 
Macachounich, 58 
MacAindra, gS 
MacAlastair, 205 
of the Isles, 391 

Macaldonich, 17 

Macalduie, 186 

MacAllan, 98, 257 

Macandeoir, 17, 388 

MacAndrew, 346, 472 

MacAng^as, 298 

Macara, 172, 426 

Macaree, 172 

MacArthur, 27, 84, 208 

MacAskill, 377 

Macaulay, 53, 161, 214 

MacAy, 346 

MacBacster, 379 

MacBaxter, 381 

MacBean, 218 

MacBeth, 218, 243, 285, 364, 


MacBrayne, 243, 393 
MacBride, 243 
MacBurie, 251 
MacCaig-, 105, 377 
MacCaihbre, 2^8 
MacCailean Mor, 211, 212, 
MacCainsh, 298 
MacCalam. 17 
MacCallum, 377 
MacCamie, 498 
MacCammond, 17 
MacCardney, 105, 346 
MacCartair, 213 
MacCarter, 213 
MacCash, 243 
MacCaw, 98, 498 
MacCawse, 98 
MacCay, 313 
MacCeallaich, 243 
MacChlerich, 23, 25, 346, 414 
MacChlery, 23, 25, 346, 414 
MacChoiter, 172 
MacChrtfiter, 17 
MacCloy, 498 
MacClure, 377 
MacClymont, 186 
MacColl, 229, 243 
MacComas, 178 
MacCombich, 497 
MacCombies, 336, 346 
MacConacher, 283 
M'Conchy, 346 
MacCondy, 98 
MacConnechy, 35, 90 
MacConnell, 243 
MacCook, 243 
MacCorkill. 178 
MacCorkindale, 37, 377 
MacCormack, 17 
MacCormick, 364 
MacCoul, 283 
MacCowan, 58 
MacCraw, 426 
MacCrie, 313 
MacCruimmin, 377 



MacCuag, 243 
MacCuish, 243 
MacCulloch, 444, 472 
MacCutcheon, 243 
Macdade, 73 
MacDaniell, 243 
MacDavid, 73 
MacDawell. 283 
MacDhaibhidb, Milmoir, 70 
MacDiarmid, 35 
MacDonachie, 90 
MacDonald of Boisdale, 244 

of Glengarry, 19, 50, 245, 

268, 322, 410, 423, 429 

of the Isles, 232, 243, 

249. 253, 269, 301, 319, 374 

MacDonalds, 27, 84, 106, 205, 
229, 249, 341, 332, 355. 360, 
362, 372, 375. 401. 404. 422, 
423, 429, 494 

of Clan Ranald, 2t, 244, 

249, 250, 257, 263, 269, 271 

of Glencoe, the, 252, 266, 

34 1 
of Keppoch, the, 247. 

248, 261, 270, 274, 294, 305 

308, 344, 345 
of Kintyre, 32, 303 
McDonell and Aross, Lord, 

265, 273 

Macdonleavy, 17 
MacDonnell, John, 45 
MacDougal, Clan and 

chiefs, 278, 303 
of Lome, 27, 29, 232, 

MacDouIra'lls of Dunolly, 32. 

63, 318 

MacDougals, 30. 2 53 
MacDrain, 243 
MacDuff, 284, 474 

, Shaw, loo 

MacDulothe, 283 
MacEachern, 27 
MacEachin, 257 
MacEarachar, 105 
MacElfrish. 243 
MacEoin, 98 
Maceol, 393 
MacEwan, 35* 
MacFadyean, 304 
MacFall, 346 
MaeFarlane, 53. Q * 

216, 346 

, Duncan, 07 

MacFarquhar, 105 
MacFater, 3<;8 
MacFeat, 35 
MacFergus. m . f g 
MacFhearjniises. chie of. 
MacFhinnon Loceni, 3>* 
Macfie, Clan, 161 

MacGtbbon. 17. 

MacGUchriM, ifCjlt 
MacGilleu OttT Cha. If 

atacGiUimy." 8a. aft W. 

MacGilp. xoV 
MacGilror. tte 
MacGilvrroock. m 
MacGiUra. 364 
MacffUahaa, 346. 4W 
Macfflashcb. 3). w. 5^4 
MacGorrie. 243. 4i*. 47. 4* 


MacGomaa. US 
MacGregor, 30. 

64. 153. '57. |. 

216, 230, 340, 3'. 

403. 4$ 

Macffmuicb. oJ 
MacffrowtMT. 171 
Macrraoer. 171 
MacGrurr. MI 
MacGnilne. 409 
MacGoire. 410. 4M 
MacHafte. 405 
Macbardie. 146 
MarHanhr. lOi 
MarHanold. 577 

* Vfc* "W"^- 

llaclaa, i?t, - 
' of 


fe UJ 
. ite. 




Macilwraith, 243 

Macimmey, 131 

Macinally, 17 

Macindoe, 17 

Macindoer, 437 

Maclnnes, Clan, 297 

Macinroy, go 

Macinstalker, 98 

Maclntyre, Clan, 299 

Maclock, 98 

Maclsaac, 35, 251 

Maclver, 302, 327, 477 

Maclvor, 35, 90, 327 

Macjames, 98 

MacKail, 23, 25 

MacKames, 178 

MacKay, 306, 471, 483, 501, 

502, 503, 504 
MacKeachan, 251 
MacKeamish, 178 
MacKean, 178, 243 
MacKechnie, 251 
MacKeith, 414 
MacKellachie, 243 
MacKellar, 35 
MacKenning-, 333 
MacKenrick, 393 
Mackenzie, 222, 225, 246, 272, 
314, 320, 35Q, 365, 420, 421, 
422, 427, 428, 429, 438, 44i, 
443, 465, 509 

, Bernard, 71 

MacKerdy, 498 
MacKerracher, 105 
MacKerras, in 
MacKersey, in 
MacKessock, 35, 251 
MacKichan, 251, 283 
Mackie, 313 
MacKim, 131 
MacKimmie, 131 
Mackinlay, 17, 98, 105, 377, 

403, 497 

Mackinnon, Clan, 161, 328 

Mackintosh, 20, 65, 68, 70, 
135, 155. 218, 219, 226, 247, 
263, 264, 265, 266, 290, 294, 
335, 372, 406, 407, 409, 410, 
428, 440, 474, 476, 477, 

Mackintosh, Lachlan, 72 

Mackinven, 333 

MacLachlan, Clan, 437 

Maclae, 497 

MacLagan, 90 

Maclaine, 418 

MacLairish, 243 

MacLamond, 186 

MacLardy, 243 

MacLaurin, Clan, 353, 496 

MacLaverty, 243 

Maclay, 497 

MacLean, 30, 329, 330, 331, 

338, 359, 417, 4i8 
MacLeish, 414 
MacLeister, 172 
MacLennan, 365, 423 
MacLeod, 222, 227, 228, 368, 

395, 396, 402, 501 

of MacLeod, 244, 329 

of the Lews, 314, 316, 

323, 324, 337, 372, 376, 395, 


MacLergain, 364 
Maclerie, 25 
MacLewis, 377, 376 
MacLise, 414 
MacLiver, 172 
MacLucas, 283 
MacLulich, 444, 472 
MacLymont, 186 
MacMartin, 20, 23, 25 
MacMaster, 17 
MacMath, 431 
MacMaiirice, 19 
MacMenzies, 437 
MacMichael, 497, 498 
MacMillan, 378 
MacMinn, 437 
MacMonies, 437 
MacMorran, 333 
MacMurchie, 17, 243, 327 
MacMurdo, 414 
MacMurdoch, 243 
MacMurray, 453 
MacMurrich, 251, 414 
MacNab, 161, 167, 382, 403 
-, Findlay, 328 

MacNair, 98, 393 
MacNaug-hton, Clan, 389 
MacNee, 172 
MacNeil, 378 
MacNeilag-e, 402 
MacNeish, 172 
MacNelly, 402 
MacNeur, 98 
MacNicol, 35, 377, 394 
MacNider, 98 
MacNiel, 398, 417 
MacNiven, 66, 346, 390 
MacNuir, 393 
MacOmish, 178 
MacOnie, 23, 25, 346 
MacOran, 35 
MacO'Shannon, 243 
MacOurlic, 23, 25 
MacPatrick, 186, 358 
MacPeter, 172 

MacPhail, 23, 25, 219, 313, 346 
MacPharrie, Robert, 97, 205 
MacPhater, 358 
MacPhedron, 217 
MacPhee or Duffie, 403 
MacPheidiran, 217 



MacPherson, 20, 335, 338, 

343, 406 
i , James, 240 

, Sir .rCneas, 67 

Macpherson, Alexander, 65 
MacPhilip, 267 
MacPhin, 431 
MacPhorich, 186 
Macquarrie, 16, 166. 361, 4O3. 


Macqueen, 338 
Macquey, 313 
Macquhirr, 419 
MacQuistan, 243 
Macquoid, 313 
MacRae, 365, 420, 43' 
Macraild, 377 
MacRaith. 243. 426 
MacRanald, Alastair, 40 
MacRankin, 364 
MacRitchie, 346 
MacRob, g8, 178 
MacRobbie, go 
MacRory, 243. 358 
Macruarie, Alan, 246 
MacShannachan, 243 
MacShimes, 131 
MacSimon, 131 
MacSorley, 23, 186, 243 
MacSporran, 243 
MacSwan, 243 
MacSymon, 131 

MacTaRjrart, 472 

MacTavish. 35 

MacTear, 301 

MacThomas, 35, 34O 

MacTyre, 47'. 472 

MacUlric, 23, 35 

MacUre, 35 A 

MacVail, 23, 25, 3'3 34^ 

MacVarish. 251 

MacVean, 223 

MacVey, 364 

MacVinish. 327 

MacVourish, Neil. 24* 

MacWalrich. 23, 25 

MacWalter, 08 

MacVVattic, 17 

MacWhinnell, 343 

MacWhirter. 17 

MacWilliam. Q, 17 

, Donald, 7 

Maderty, Lord. 83 

Malcolm II.. 448 g 

III., 59, 74, 4. 285. * 

IV., 02. 303. 378. 390 


Hanson, 178 _. 

Mar, Earl of, 12. 23. 5<>. 75- 
7Q , 88, 104. 108. HO. i 
220, 226, 235. 241, J44. 3W 
263 266, 273. 332, 33. 330. 

U4. JBO. *. +9, 
376. 446. 440. **. 

470, 480. M. fOtt. |M 

Martin, n. 

Mary OMM ol Scott, it, m, 
3>, $7. 7.M. i)f. i A 

172. 175. l>>. Itt. Iffc >A 
309, ML MS* ))?* " 

463. 4*5. <. m. 4. 

Matbesott. 4*7 

Matbir. 4U 

MathieMtt. 37* 


Mrdw>n. Lord. n 

M.-.klrham. i 5 


Menttnc. ao 
Mentcith. 407 

. Earl of. n. 61 

IMte < 

. Clan. 300 

Minna*. 4J7 

Mochastcr. Cote of. 43 

" :.. '. ' 

Monroe.. JOQ 
Montaiffjw. n 

MotlrtU*. '& of. 44. 144. 

l$0. IOJ. 100 

. Eari of. 4$7 ^ 

loi. III. 140. 17*. * * 

350. j. 5*5. 

ri*.. 4J7 
Mor. Finlay. 101 

^/Ea'rTof. .3.3..H. ^ 

uft. 157. isit >n * 

raca wwr. *7 
Mutrirh. 6j 
Munro, 43* 
Morthtt. $n 
Morchitoo. ir. 4J. 99 

.1-. 4-1 

- . Dwt. J 
Mortar. 445. J4, 

Neat. 4M 
Nebi. Ctoj, 3f4 
o. IT*. 3H 
Nkkotoo^ J77. IV 

Nkol. 377 

Hitw. o*. M* JW 



Noble, 346 
Norman, 377 


O'Chonochar, 113 

O'Choncar, James, 118 

Odhar, Ian, 225 

O'Drain, 243 

O'Duibhne, Diarmid, 26, 36 

O'Duibne, 209 

Og-ilvy, 454, 457, 458, 474, 


Oire Gaidheal, 26 
O'Kyan, Anselan, 8 
Oliphant, 507 
O'May, 243 
Oria, Bishop of, 53 
Ormelie, Earl of, 43 
O'Shaig-, 243 
O'Shannachan, 243 
O'Shannaig-, 243 
Ossian, 19, 26 

Paterson, 358 
Patrick, 186 
Paul, 25, 313, 346 
Pembroke, Earl of, 62 
Perth, Duke of, 80, 83 

, Earl of, 51, 78, 79 

Peter, 172 
Philip II., 31 
Philiphaug-h, 32, 281 
Pitslig-o, 119, 120 
Pluscardine Abbey, 9 
Poison, 313 
Purcell, 243 



Rachryn Island, 27 

Rae, 426 

Ragman Roll, 9, 354, 35Q 

Ranald, Clan, 342, 402 

Randolph's Leap, 65 

Rand9lph, Thomas, 64 

Rankin, 364 

Ray, James, 18 

Reformation, 38, 50 

Reid, 90 

Reoch, 86, 243 

Revie, 243 

Revolution, 16, 22, 33, 49, 79, 

Riach, 105 

Risk, 17 

Robb, 98 

Robert II., 9, 28, 36, 37, 75, 
85, 93, M6, 1 80, 234, 246, 
252, 261, 262, 264, 269, 359, 
360, 433, 440, 454, 475, 480, 
493, 494> 495 

Robert III., 20, 28, 36, 68, 75, 
84, 133, 148, 191, 261, 336, 
337, 408, 475, 494 

Robertson, Clan, 84, 169, 488 

Robison, 178 

Ronald, 267 

Rorison, 243 

Rose, Clan, 460 

Ross, 467, 494 

Ross Priory, 16 

Rossdhu, 55 

Roy, 90 

Ruskin, 17 


Sanderson, 277 

Seaforth, Earl of, 46, 64, 455 

, house of, 326 

Seosal, 47 
Seumas Lajfach, 69 
Shannon, 243 
Shaw, 346, 397, 473 
Sheriffmuir, battle of, 33, 34, 
88, 139, 170, 296, 325, 332, 
.344, 363, 424, 435 
Sim, 131 
Simon, 131 
Simpson, 131 
Sinclair, 479 
Skene, Clan, 480 
Sloichd an Eich Bhain, 96 
Small, 453 
Smith, 337 
Somerled, Lord of the Isles, 

Sorley, 25, 243 

Soulis, Lord, 145 

" Spaidsearach mhic Rha, 422 

Spaldingr, 453 

Spence, 289 

Spens, 289 

Spittal, 17 

Sporran, 243 

Srainjr of Lome, 36, 210 

Sron Lainie, 356 

Stair, Earl of, 255, 259 

Stewart, James of Ardvorlich, 

, Sir John of Darnley, 


Stewarts, 61. 87, 363, 492 

of Appin, 281, 282, 355 

Strathallan, Viscount, 78 
Strathbog-ie, Lord of, 60, 133, 

Strathearn, Earl of, 146, 354, 

480, 485 

Strath Echaipr, 28 
Strathglass. 46, 47 
Struan or Strowan, 87 
Sutherland, Clan, 498 
, Earls of, 48, 483 


:ARILL, 346 

Tavoy, House of, 116 

fawesson, 35 

fayler, 25 

Taymouth Castle, 38, 40 

Tchearlaich, Clann, 360 

Thomas, 35 

Thomason, Q8 

Thomson, 35 

"illiechewan, 56 

iTolmie, 377 

"onnochy, go 

.'osh, 346 

Toward, 1 86 

"oward-an-Uilt, 182 

Tower Lindsay, 189 

'rail-the-Axe, 120 

Train, 242 

rullibardine, Earl of, 447. 

449, 496 

, Marquess of, 15 

;ulloch Castle, 72 
Burner, 186 

yre, 301 

IRE, 35 

Urquhart Castle, 48 
, Clan, 508 

VASS, 444, 472 

Vean, Clan, 219, 220, 2M 

Vurich, Clan, 409 

Watson, 17 
Wass, 444, 472 
Weaver, 98 
Weir, 98, 3Q3 
Wemyss. 289 
Whannell, 243 
Wharrie, 419 
White, 1 86 

Whitemire, Earl of, 64 
Whyte, 172 
William II., 255 

III., 255, 273 

Williamson, 178, 3 I 3 
Wilson, 178 

Wolf of Badenoch. 85, 235, 
261, 262, 433. 474, 404 

Yuill, 17 



5 1 3