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University of Western Ontario 















Jltitlvoriircb Jbg th^ (gbacatton department of dDntavb. 





Entered according- to Act of the ParliHnient of Canada, in the year one thousand eiffht 
hundred and eijjhty-seven, by Tub Coi'P, Clark Companv, Limitkd, Toronto, 
Ontario, in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. 

T 3b 


The design of this work, which is largely a compilation, is to 
furnish the pupil with material to enable him to extend his vocabu- 
lary, to appreciate the nice distinctions in the use of words, and to 
acquire some degree of proficiency in the correct spelling, syllabi- 
cation, pronunciation, and general use of his mother-tongue. 

(i) The section on Orthoepy, which is preceded by a series of 
explanatory rules for the class-room, gives the pronunciation, 
according to the best and most accepted authorities, of some four 
thousand words in more or less general use. The orthoepical 
notation followed is that of Stormonth, which, it is believed, will be 
found at once simple and effective. The same authority's pro- 
nunciation has also, in the main, been adopted, as that which has 
not only the approval of the Department of Education for Ontario, 
but is sanctioned by the present usage of cultivated society. The 
compilers, however, have not slavishly followed Stormonth, pre- 
ferring, in disputed cases, to give the alternative pronunciation 
where such is allowed by good and competent authority. Where 
they have differed from Stormonth, their preference, it is proper to 
state, has been given to English rather than to American lexicog- 
raphers: in all cases they have striven1:o avoid pedantry on the one 
hand and undue license on the other. They have also eschewed 
all orthographical innovations, save such as have the sanction of 
recognized English authority. In the list of words apt to be mis- 
pronounced will be found a few proper names and the .most com- 
monly used Latin and French words and phrases. 

(2) In the section on Synonomv, the compilers have en- 
deavoured to supply a much-needed manual of English Synonyms 
and Antonyms, such as would be useful in the schools in enabling 
the pupil to acquire a knowledge of the most commonly used 
synonymous words in the English language, with illustrations of 
their usage, and some idea of their various shades of meaning. 
The importance of this section, in supplying an aid in the cultiva- 
tion of correctness and precision in English composition and in 
our every-day speech, will hardly be questioned. 


In the preparation of this department of the book the authors 
-have availed themselves of the labours of Crabb, whose work on 
" English Synonyms Explained," despite its rather prosy reflec- 
tions and much that is now obsolete, is a great storehouse of 
illustration. They are also somewhat indebted to Archbishop 
Whately, and particularly to Archdeacon C. J. Smith, M, A., whose 
" Synonyms Discriminated," (London : George Bell & Sons), the 
compilers would earnestly recommend to the attention of the pro- 
fession. For many of the definitions and illustrations in this 
department of their work the authors are under obligations, in 
addition to Stormonth and the " Imperial Dictionary," to " The 
Encyclopaedic Dictionary," ( London : Cassell ), a work which 
teachers and trustees should see finds a place in every school 

(3) Section three is devoted to Derivatives and Word- 
formations. In this section the comparative method, at once 
the only scientific and the most labour-saving one, has been fol- 
lowed. It is surely time that students of Etymology should not 
look upon the correspondence of Anglo-Saxon with Latin and 
Greek words as anything strange or exceptional. The original 
identity of these languages can be realized only by constant com- 

The material for this section has, in the main, been either drawn 
from or tested by Skeat's " Etymological Dictionary." In a few 
instances the compilers have ventured to dissent from the decisions 
of this eminent authority, chiefly where these conflict with the evi- 
dently sound conclusions of recent German philologists. But, as 
has been said. Professor Skeat, in the main, has been followed, 
and no English master can afford to be without his work: whoever 
trusts for derivation to the dictionaries in ordinary use will lean 
on a broken reed. For some valuable hints on arrangement the 
authors are indebted to Prof McElroy's excellent little work, 
" Essential Lessons in English Etymology," which teachers will 
find it profitable to consult. It should need no apology that in an 
'■'English Word-Book" the Anglo-Saxon element of the language 
is taken as the starting-point for all comparisons. 

The Authors. 

Toronto, August, 1887. 




1. Orthoepy, literally, "right speaking," depends mainly 
upon correctness in articulation, or the uttering of the sounds 
that make up words, and in accent, or the laying special stress 
upon a particular syllable. 


2. To practise articulation intelligently, we should know 
something of the means by which speech is produced. We all 
know that the lungs act much like a pair of bellows, forcing 
the breath up through the wind-pipe. Now at the upper end 
of the wind-pipe is a kind of box, the larynx, commonly 
called "Adam's apple," which contains two cavities. These 
are separated by a pair of membranes, which in speaking can 
be tightened so as to leave only a narrow slit between them. 
When this happens, the breath as it passes up sets these mem- 
branes, the vocal chords, as they are called, vibrating like the 
strings of a harp, being itself made sonorous, and, if the tight- 
ening lasts long enough, distinctly musical. The breath thus 
made sonorous is called " voice." 

3. After leaving the larynx, the breath (or the voice) passes 
through the pharynx, a continuation upwards of the oesophagus, 
or gullet, behind the mouth and the nose. The pharynx is 
swelled out by the breath, when checked for a moment, and 
gives force to the bursting forth of the breath that follows, 
producing the sound. 

T is vibra ion 'he pupil can feel by putting his finger on his "Adam's apple " whilt 
loandlng vowels or b, g, d, z, and other voiced consonants, whereas it is not felt iK> 
(Dundi g p, d. t, 8, etc. 


4. The breath not made sonorous by vibration of the vocal 
chords, if allowed to escape unchecked, produces the aspirate 
h ; " voice," or sonorous breath, unchecked but only moulded 
by the various shapes the mouth while o[)en can take, accoi'd- 
ing to the position of the tongue and lips, gives such sounds as 
rt/t, eh, oh, ee, which are called vowels. These are true musical 

5. Either "breath" or "voice" can be squeezed through nar- 
row passages formed by bringing two parts of tlic mouth 
(tongue, teeth, lips ikc.) near each other, so as to produce such 
sounds as s, sh, th (of thin), f — all formed by " breath ", or z 
zh, th (of the), V — formed by voice. These are called "sjiirants." 

6. Finally, by placing the tongue firmly against some part of 
the palate or by closing the lips, we can quite stop th(; breath 
— or voice — which, when allowed to break forth strongly, pro- 
duces such sounds as k, t, p, g, d, b, ng, n, m, which are 
appropriately called "stops." "Stops " and "spirants" together 
make up the consonants, so called because it was once wi'ongly 
supposed that they can be sounded only with vowels, i. e. the 
sounds made by the voice unobstructed in any way. 

7. As Orthoepy has in practice to take the written word as 
its starting-point, we shall now consider the various characters 
that make up the Alphabet, noting what sound, or sounds, each 
represents. We begin with the consonants, and with those 
that indicate " stops." These ai-e b, d, g, formed by " voice " 
and therefore said to be " voiced " and p, t, k, formed by breath 
and therefore called "voiceless" or, by some, "whispers." 

8. These are formed by the sudden breaking forth of voice — 
or breath ; b :ind p, after it has been stopped by closing the 
lips ; d and t, after a stoppage by the tip of the tongue and 
the hard palate ; g and k, after a stoppage by the root of the 
tongue raised so as to touch the soft palate. B and p are 
therefore called labials, or lip-sounds ; d and t, Unguals or 
tongue-sounds ; g, and k, (not so appropriately) gutturals, lit- 
erally throat-sounds. 

9. We must notice that g sometimes, as in gem, is sounded 
like d-zh, which sound is often indicated by j, and will always 
be so in this book when words are re-spelled. The correspond- 
ing voiceless group (really t-sh) is usually represented by ch. 
Further, ti before a vowel indicate the sound usually indicated 


by sll, which cofnliination, as representing a simple sound, is 
called a digraph. 

10. M, n, and the digraph ng, are used to indicate the sounds 
produced when, the organs being in the positions for b, d, and 
g, res})ectively, the breath is allowed to pass through the nose. 
They are therefore called nasals (^" nose-sounds.") 

11. P, and V, represent the voiceless and the voiced spirant, 
sounded by forcing the breath between the upper teeth and 
the under lip. The sound of f, and (in nephew and Stephen) 
of V, are sometimes re{)resented by ph. H, as already seen, 
stands for the aspirate, or sound produced by letting the breath 
passfoi'th unchecked. Sometimes h is "silent," i. e. represents 
no sound whatever, as in heir, honor, hour, honest, thyinQy and 
always after r, as in rhetoric. 

1 2. J, we have seen, represents the union of the two sounds, d 
and zh., the latter i*epresenting the sound of z, in azure. L, 
stands for the sound made by placing the tip of the tongue 
against the palate and letting the " voice " come over the sides of 
the tongue. It is commonly " silent " before f, v, k, m, as in 
calf, salve, chalk, palm (kS.f, siv, chawk, jjam). 

13. R represents two sounds, according as it stands before a 
vowel or not. Before a vowel it is said to be " trilled " the 
breath being forced over the upturned tip of the tongue, so as to 
produce a little shaking. When not before a vowel, it is really 
an imperfect vowel or " glide," often affecting the sound of the 
preceding vowel. Thus a, and O, have other sounds in fair and 
/ore than in^ame and/oawi. 

14. S pi'operly represents the hiss caused by the breath rub- 
bing against the surface of the tongue, as in the word hiss. It is 
used, however, also to represent the sound properly denoted by 
sh., i.e. that formed by the breath rubbing against the edges and 
tip of the tongue. Z, properly marks the voiced spirant corres- 
ponding to S ; but S, often represents this sound and also, as in 
pleasure, the voiced spirant corresponding to sh., sometimes 
marked by Z, but in our re-spelling always zh. 

15. "W marks the sound produced by squeezing the voice be- 
tween the lips brought near together. * The corresponding voice- 
less spii-ant is denoted by wh- 

• The tongue too Is drawn back to near the g-position so that the sound is what Bell 
calls "mixed. " The Sound wll is now simple, thouj^h once complex and marked by hw . 


16.- Y stands for tlie spirant produced by squeezing the voice 
between the surface of the tongue and the palate. 

W and y are nearly akin to vowels, as we see by pronounc- 
ing oo-et, ee-et first slowly, then rapidly, when we get the sounds 
wet and i/et. 

17. The digi-aph th is used to represent two simple sounds 
formed by making the breath or tlie voice rub against the edges 
of the tongue, its tip being placed against the u])per teeth. The 
voiced form will in re-spclling be denoted by ih. 

18. We have now to consider the vowel signs a, e, i, O, U ; 
and here a difficulty occuis. 

We have seen that vowels are only voice (sonorous breath) 
moulded by the various shapes that the mouth takes. Now as 
either the back or the front of the tongue, or both at once, can 
take a low, a high, or a middle position, each producing a 
different sound, and as the lips instead of being in their natural 
position may be rounded, or pursed up, so as to modify any one 
of these sounds, the number of possible vowel-sounds to be 
represented by these five signs is very great. In English we 
have at least the following thirteen vowels : 

A as in ah arc soiuiJed with the back of the tongue low. 

U II II us II 
*A II II an ) 
E 1. II ell \ 


front It 


A II II ale II 
*I M „ ill ) 
E „ II eel \ 


II «i 


E II II err n 


II both back and front low. 

And with the lips rounded ; 

*0 n^ in on ) 
AW II 1 awe 1 ^""'^'l®*^ wi*^ the back of the tongue low. ; 

" " go " M " medium-high. 
*00i. .1 goo,l ) u- u 
0.1 i.movei " ♦• •• ^^gh. 

19. Besides these there 

are the sound of ay (yes) and of oy, 

* The difference between these and the other vowels formed with the game positions 
of the organs is that the voice-channel is wider, either the phar^'nx being more ex- 
panded, or (as Sweet thinks) the tongue not being so much arched along its axis. 
In either case the vowel sounds of an. ill, on, good, and also of ah, and err, are appropri- 
ately called "wide vowels." To these we might add a, as in ask, but ortheopista 
differ as to its nature, some thinking it identical with a, iu an. 


and OW, in. boy and cow. These are clearly compounds,?^ their 
first elements being respectively a, aW, a, and their second 
sounds somewhat like those of 66 and OO. These latter 
sounds are however not true vowels, the mouth in sounding 
them not having a fixed shape but passing quickly from one 
position to another. They may therefore, like the r not befoi-e 
a vowel, be called "glides." 

20. Ay, Oy, and OW, are called diphthongs. The sound ay 
is so often represented by i, that we shall follow the general 
usage and represent it by i. We shall also use the sign Vi to 
indicate the sound of you ; but it must be remembered that 
both i and U are used to indicate compound sounds. 

21. These vowel sounds are in this book denoted as follows : 

k "-epresents the sound of a in ah, are, alms, 

a II ti M an, at. 

a II II II fame, paiu. 

S II II e II end, ell. 

e II II It err, her. 

e II II II me, eel. 

f It It i II ill, it. 

aw II II a II all, awe. 

II II o II not. 

5 M II II go. 

6 II II II do. 
66 II II OO II good, 
ti IT II u II us. 

1 11 the diphthong heard in I, high, ay. 
oy II II in boy, oil. 

OW II II « cow, out. 

u II sound of y-u n unit, you. 

So that a, e, I, 5, u, indicate the name-sonnds of these letters ; 
a. 8, I, 6, H what are commonly called their short souuds ; 4 the 
Bound of ah ; 6 the last sound of do. 

When words are re-spelled, the digraphs sh, zh, th., th, 
will invariabl)' indicate the sound heard in she, az-ure, thin, the. 
S will never be used to indicate any sound but that of S in see 
nor cll any but that of ch. in each. 

* We see this by prolonging them, ay and oy giving rise to the soand ee-ee, and 
aWt to the sound oo-OO. 


1.— a as in ah. 

22. This is the fullest and purest of vowel-sounds. It is 
unfortunately, somewhat rare in our language, and therefore 
should be jealously preserved where it exists. In pronouncing 
the following words the tongue should be kept low in the 
mouth, and the sound somewhat prolonged. The lips should 
not be rounded, otherwise the common error of substituting 
aw for ah, will result : — 

Alms, (not Smz), balm, calm, 'calf, psalm, half, salve (sAv), 

can't, (not cant,) aunt, (not ant), spa, 

laugh, (not lafF), launch, draught. 

are, arm, art, mart, far, 

pass, past, vast, mast, rasp, (not rSsp), 

bath, lath, aft, raft, waft. 

Accented on the first syllable. 

laundry, malmsey, (m&m'ze), bravo, Brahmin, 

master, pastor, drama, rather, 

raspberry, (r&s'-bgr I), man-sard, (man'-sS,rd,) 

rhubarb, (r6'-barb), pariah, (pft'-rl-a) Fahrenheit (farn'-hit) 

Accented on the second syllable. 

mirage, (mlr-&zh') palaver, piano, pacha, (pa-shft'), pStftrd, 

Accented on the third syllable. 
panorama, boulevard. 


1. In words ending in -and, accented on the final, many good 
speakers now give the a the sound &. This practice is gaining 

2. There is a class of monosyllables ending in -afif, -aft, -asS, 
-ast, -ask, -asp, with a few in -ance and -ant, to which 
many good speakers give the sound of a as, st&ff, grdft ; while 
others give that of a., as, staff, graft. Probably the true sound 
is between these limits, differing from that of S, merely by the 


back of the tongue being raised to the position it has in sound- 
ing Tl as in us. 

N". B. — 1. Pronounce clerk, hearth, sergeant, kl&rk, hftrth, 
s4r'-jSnt ; not clerk, berth, serjent. 

2. In ar, followed by any consonant but r, or ending a word 
accented on the last syllable, a has the sound of fi as in drk, 
fdr, bazaar, but drrant, arid, beggar, (bfig-ger). But after 
W, or qu, a is sounded aw, or 0, as in water, quart. Al 
before m, V, or f, is sounded &, as in qualm, halve, calf, almond, 

2. — a, as in an. 

23. In pronouncing many of the following words the sound 
of a, as in ale, must be specially guarded against. 

Accented on the first syllable. 

Bade, catch, {not kStch), sate (past of sit), acrid, arid, arrSnt, 
chalice (Is) davits, glSmOur, manor, navvy, pageant (paj-6nt) 
parol*, pastern, pastil, pastime, paten, phalanx, raven (v), ra- 
venous, I'avin, satyr (sat'er), bass relief (bas'-re-lef), fratricide 
(-sId), matricide, marigold, pacify, sacrament, sacrifice (-fis), 
sacerdotal, sanable, sanitary (-eri), tapestry (tap'-gs-trl.) 

Accented on the second syllable, 

cSbSl, cuirass (kwI-rSs') 

In the following, the sound of aw or o must be specially 
guarded against : — 

swam, swag, swagger, alto, (contralto), falcate, quagmire, 
saltant, altruism (al'-trd-Ism.) 

Accented on the second syllable. 

alternate (S,l'-ter-nate), canal, quadrille (kadril' or quadrll') ; 
(so also in al'-ter ca'-tion, defalca'-tion, accented on third syl- 

3.— a, as in ale. 

24, Aye (ever), plait, scathe, swathe, steak, azure (a'-zhoor), 
bathos, blatant, caliph (ca'-lif) calyx, chasten (chas'n), dado, 
data, maelstrom (mal'-strom), naked, pasty, nation (na'-shtin), 

* A law term, to be distinj^uished from the military term parole, 
t But the simple word past has an & as in ah. 


satrSp, vagrS,nt, stratum, gainsaid (gan'-sad), wainscot, heinous, 
(ha'-nus,) alias (a'-ll-as), caveat, dahlia (dali-a), napery, phaeton 
(pha'-e-ton), plagiarise (pla'-jar-iz), salient (sa'-li-gnt), satiate 
(sa-shS-at), aviary. 

Accented on the second syllable. 
armada, vira'-go, obey, obeisance (o-basans), cayenne (ko< kl-S,n). 

Accented on the third syllable. 
apparatus, desperado. 

In unaccented syllables. 

decade, quadrate, operate. 

In the following words, the sound of a should be guai'ded 
against : — Danish, flagrant, fragrant, gratis, nabob, patent, 
pathos, matron, patron-ess, patron-age, -ise, patriot, patriotic. 

Note. — Before r a, like most other vowels, is modified and 
has a somewhat more opent sound. This appears in the pro- 
nunciation of such words as : 

air, fare, ere, e'er, eyre, char (to work by the day), caret, 
chary, garish, corsair, wherefore, area, aria (in music), malaria, 
aerolite (a'rollt), aeronaut (a'-ro-naut),J rarefy, rarity. 

6, as in err. 

25. Berth, birth, chirp, dearth, dirge, dirk, earn, earth, fern, 
firm, germ (jerm), girl, girth, learn, mirth, myrrh (mer), search, 
serge, squirm, squirt, verge, irksome, myrtle, pearl, per' -co-late, 
skirmish, sterling, courteous (kert'-yiis), courtesy (ker'-tS-si w 

So generally in accented syllables when e, ea, i, or y, stands 
before untrilled r. 

N. B. — O and u before untrilled r, and in unaccented sylla- 
bles, other vowels sometimes have a sound somewhat like that of 
U in gun, as work, burden, surge, zephyr, martyr, sojourn. 

The same is true of birch, bird, dirt, fir, first, firth, sir, stir. 

j^T This sound is not heard before rr as squirrel, stirrup, not 
squerrel, sterrup. 

*The exact nature of the difference is disputed. Bell says that a not before r is 
really a diphthong ending in an "ee" sound, which is absent before r. Ellis says 
that this " ee " sound is a vulgarism. 

tit a special symbol were required the best would be §, i. e., Continental e. 

{But a'erate. 


4.— e, as in ell. 

26 Clench, deaf, get, said, says, (sgz), 8teppe(st8p). 
(Do not say def, git.) 

Accented on the first syllable. 

any, many, bni-y, clem'ent, decade (dSk'-ad), febrile (-11), 
febrifuge (-ri fuj) fecund, gerund, legate (-at) legend, Inessieurs 
(mSs'yerz), petal, prelate, prelude, Rhenish, shekel, sterile (-11), 
tepid, zealot, zealous (-tis), zephyr, bestial, desuetude (dSs'we- 
tud), des'ultory, (dSs'tilteri) derelict, egotism, equable, equerry, 
leg'islature, nepotism, prebendary (-eri), sesame (sSs'-a-me), 

Accented on the second syllable. 

again {not S-gan'), against, burlesque (ber-lesk') depot (dS-po'), 
decrepit, enfeoff (-fef ), grotesque (-esk), indelible, lieutenant 
(lSf-t6n-'ant), polemic, strategic (stra-t6j'-Ik). 

In unaccented syllables. 
pSnult', Sconom'ical, ecumenical, eleemosynary (Sl'S-moz'-In- 
erl), Squivocal, 6qulv'6cate, malSfactor. 

N. B — Avoid the sound of \ for S in final syllables as instid, 
bedstid, for instead, bedstead, also of -mtint for -ment as element. 

5. — e, as in me, eel. 

27. Beard (not bard), bleat, been (not bin, nor ben), bleat, 
creek, (not crick) frieze, lief inot lev), quay (ke), seine, sheik, 
weir, clique, (klek, not klick), pique, Sikh (sek) suite (swet). 

Accented on the first syllable. 
(Avoid the sound of S in met for the accented syllable.) 
demOn, eagre (eger), epoch (e'-pQk), leisure, (le'-zhoor), 
lever, piquant (pe-kant), seamstress, secant, senile (se'-nll), 
sequSl, seton, treacle (tre-kl^, venous, weregil'd (wergild), were- 
wolf, clerestory (kler'storl) de-vi-ous, equinox, feasible (fg'zlbl), 
lenient, phoenix, predl al, pres-cience, . pre-shl-ens, ) re qui-em, 
ve-ni-ftl, haematite (he'-mft-tit), hut haemorrhage (hSm'-or-raj). 

Accented on the second syllable. 
brevier, chagrin (sha,-gren'), critique (kri-tek'), cuisine 
(kwl-zen'), fatigue, oblique, pglisse, tureen, unique, valise (-les'). 
allegro, amenable, beleaguer, diaeresis, Hellenic, hyaena, pyaemia. 


Accented on the third syllable. 
mandarin, palanquin (pal'-Sng-ken'), indefeasible(-fgz'ibl,) 
sacrilegious (-le'-jus not -ll jus). 

In unaccented syllables. 

aesthetics (ez-thSt'-Iks) equation, evangelical, genealogy. 

NoTE.-»»— The digraphs se, oe, (except in ohoe, o'b5y), have the 
sound of e as in Csesar, phoenix, onomatopaeia (On'Omatope -ya), 
except in asafoetida (-ffet'-i-d&), haemorrhage. 

VI.— i, as in ill. 

28. Glimpse (glimps), glyph, rinse (rins), sieve (siv). 

Accented on the first syllable. 
busy, cynic (sin'-ic), livelong, lyric, pi-etty, squirrel, steelyards, 
(stil'-yArdz) stirrup, syringe (sir'-inj), syrup, tribune, vicar, 
women (wim-en), dynasty, dynamite, lIn-8-S-ment, literature 
(llt'-er-a-ture) Michaelmas (MikSImas), miniature (mlnltur), 
minotaur, mystSr-y, virulent (vir'-oo-18nt). 

Accented on the second syllable. 
bedizen (bS dizn), Idyllic ;i-dfl'-Ik) In-im-i-cal, officinal (Offis'- 

In unaccented syllables. 
alkali, circuit, counterfeit, didactic, dynam'ics (dl-nSm'-Iks,) 
finance, fiord, forfeit, miasma, obsequies (Ob' sg-kwiz), parlia- 
ment (pftr'-llmgnt) res-pite {rSs'-])It), simultaneous (-ytts). 

Also the ending -ain as in certain (ser'-tin), curtain (ker'-tin), 
but bargain (-Sn). 

VII.— aw, as in all, awe. 

29. Balk (bawk), calk (kawk), wasp, wrath, wroth, caldron, 
falchion (fawl'-shiin), falcon (faw'-kn) palter, palfrey (pawl'- 
frl), palsy(-zl), stalwart (stawl'-wert, not stOl), thraldom. 

daunt, flaunt, gaunt, haunt, gauntlet, staunch,* taunt, vaunt, 
auction (awk'-shtin), faucet {not fOsset), saunter, caught, 
bought, brought, awful {not ofFul), awkward (-werd). 

bom, cord (not c5rd), corn, acorn, lord, thorn, form (so re- 
form, perform, uniform, but fbrmer). 

* But stanch (st&aati), 


Accented on the second syllable, 
aaom, because (bS-kawz', not be-kuz'), forlorn. 
The sound aw is simple though represented by a digraph. 

VIII. — 6, as in on. 

30. Cost, gorge, loll, shone {not shon), troth, was, chaps, 
( ^-jaws). 

Doric, Georgics (JOr-jiks), gorgeous, horrid, hostage, laurel, 
ordeal, sorry, sort, nom'Inative, cSrol, orthoepy (Or-tlio'-6 pi). 
It is affected to say " Gawd " for God. 

In the following avoid the sound of d in old. 

forehead, (fOr'-8d) forty, fortnight, holocaust, homage, jocund, 
knowledge (nOl'-Sj), monad, nonage, I'ollocks, roster, solstice 
(sOl'-stIs), sombre, extol, loll, 

cochineal, dolorous, molecule (mOl'-S-kul), monody, mono 
logue (mOn'-o-lOg), orotund, porcelain (pOrs'-lan), probity, sor- 
cerer, solecism, portent (pOr'-tSnt), portend (pOr-tSnd'). 

In the following avoid the sound of v,. 
bomb, comrade, donkey, grovel (gr6v'-l), hovel (hOv-Sl), hover, 
sovereign (sOv'-gr-In), yonder, parasOl, ballot, sermon, baron. 

31. The sound of o before f, th, or s in the Siime syllable 
and in -ough (-Of), though generally denoted by 0, is by many 
good speakers pronounced somewhat, though not quite, like 
aw, as in hroth, soft, cross, cough. 

IX.— 6, as in go. 

32. Brooch, goal (not gool), groat, gross, scroll, sloth, yolk 
(yok), bowsprit (bo' sprit), homely, ogle (ogl), ogre (oger) only 
(not tinly), onyx, phonic, tophet, trophy. 

coterie(-ri), potable, vocable, nomenclature, Bowie knife 

Accented on the second syllable, 
opponent, patrol, provocative, revolt. 

In unaccented syllables. 
bellow, borough (btir'-o), gallows (-loz), hollow, obey, omi' 
tallow, thrSshold, thorough (thtir'O), in'-do-lgnt. 
N.B. — Z6-0l'-6-gy (not zoo-Ol'o-gy). 


33. Some good orthoepists assert that 5 in the above words 
is really a diphthong, ending in the glide answering to "W. 
This, however, is disputed. All agree that the pure O-sound is 
heard before r, as in ore, oral, Porte, pour, forge, corps (kor), 
horde, original, oriental, deportment, torn (but shOrn). 

Oral is often incorrectly pronounced Oral. 

X.— 6, as in move. 

34. Booth, food, room, pool, too, halloo, (ha-16'), tattoo 


So generally oo in monosyllables, except in good, hood, stood, wood, 
soot, and before k as in book. 

bourn (b6rn, not born), brougham (br6am), ghoul (g6l), 
gourd, route (not rowt), tour (not towr), tournament, caout- 
chouc (k6'-ch00k), gourmand, amour (a-m6r'), manoeuvre (ma- 
n6'-vr), recoup (-k6p'), surtout (ser-t6'), ormolu (6r'-m0l-d). 

blue, clew, flew, flue, Jew, juice, jujube (j6'-j05b), brew, 
bruit, crew, rude, ruse, rheum, sew-age, *sewer (s6-er), sure, 
suzerain (s6'-z6-ran), slew, accoutre, allude (-16d'), allure (-I6r), 
recruit (rS-krdt'). 

In unaccented syllables. 

bouquet (b6'-kay, not bo'-kay), ci-oupier (kr6-per'.) 

35. After r, 1, ch, j, and the sound of sh, in the same 
syllable, long u is without the y-sound that generally precedes 
it ; as lucid, glue, (glo, not glu,) rue, rheumatic (r6-). But 
after 1, some good speakers give a faint sound of y before u. 

XL— OO, as in book. 

36. Bull, bush, could, full, pull, put, soot {not sfit), bosom 
(boo'-zum), bullion, bulwark, courier {not currier), cushion, 
pulpit {not pulpit), pudding, bivouac (bIv'-50 -ak), courant 
(koo-rant'), guano, (goo-§,'-no or gwS,-.) 

This is really a simple sound, though often represented by 
the digraphs OO, OU. 

XII.— u, as in gun. 

37. Combat, comely (ktim'-ll), compass, covenant, covey 
(kuv'-I), doth, does (duz), dromedary (drum'-S-der-i), luscious 

* Sewer, a taster at a royal court, is pronounced su-er. 


(lush'-tis), monetary (nitin'-S-ter-l), luongiel (miing'-grSl), mon- 
key, none, nothing (ntithing, not nOthingX nuptials, somer- 
sault, supple, also -monger (as in scandal-monger), discom'fit. 

In unaccented syllables. 
bombast (biim-bast'), bombazin (bum-ba-zen'), column kOl'- 
iim, Wit kOl-ytlm or -yum). 

XIII.— i, as in fine. 

38. Ay or aye ( = yes), bayou (bI-6), height (hit, not hith), 
geyser (gl'-zer). 

bicycle (bl'-s!k-l), bison (bl' zOn), cynosure (si'-no-zhoor), 
icl6l, idyll (i'-dll), isolate, litotes (li'-to-tez), *lived (in low-lived, 
etc.), nihilist {not nihilist), scion (si-On), sinecure (si'-n6-kur), 
siphon, si'-i)huncle, siren, tryst, violent (vi'-o-lgnt, not voy-liint). 

Accented on the second syllable. 

albino, annihilate, canine, demise(-raiz'), environ. Opine, 
declivous (but dS-clIv'-I-ty), verti'-go. 

bronchitis (so other medical terms in -itis, as meningitis). 

Accented on the third syllable. 
elegiac (Sl-8-ji'ak), matutinal (mat-u-tl'-nai). 

In unaccented syllables. 

alibi, andirons (and'-Irnz), encyclopaedia (Sn-si-), licentiate, 
sacrifice (sak'-rl-fts), satire (sat'-Ir). 
The sound i is really a diphthong. 

XIV.— oy, as in boy. 

39. Avoid the sound of 1. 

Boil, goitre (goyt'-r), hoist, hoyden, quoit {not kwat), 
quoin (koyn), dacoit (dS,k'-oyt), oboe (5'-boy). 

Accented on the second syllable. 

adroit, employ'-ee, turquoise (ter-kOyz' or -kwoyz'), avoirdu- 
pois (Srver'-du-poyz). 

* Here lived is from life, not from live. 


40. N.B — oi has the sound of waW in patois (pSt'-waw) 
mSmoir, soir'ee (swaw'-ra), escritoire (6s'-kri-twawr'). But 
connoiseur is sounded kOu nls ser'. 

XV.— ow, as in owl. 

41. Browse, blowze, giaour (jowr or ge owr'), grouts, pouch, 
carouse, MacLeod (ma-klowd'). 

acoustics, (a-kow'-stlks), but often pronounced a-k6'-stlks, 
even by cultivated speakera. 

XVI.— u, as in tune. 

42. In pronouncing tlie following words, care should be 
taken to sound a distinct y before the U, saying " dyuty," 
"nyuter," not "dooty," "nooter. 

Beauty, buhl (bul), curule (ku'-rool), culinary (ku'-IIn-eiT ), 
dew, due, duty, gnu (nu), new, nuisance, j)eculiai', pugilist 
(pu'-jll-lst), puisne (pii'-ng), queue (ku), sue (su), suit, tubular 


Accented on the second syllable. 
astute, consume, presume (pr8-zuui'), denude, pursuit. 
N.B. — Pharmaceutical is pronounced far'-ma-su'-tl-k2,l. 

In unaccented syllables. 
erudite, querulous, soluble, salutary (but salute, -I6t), man- 
tua (-tu), municipal, occupy, petulant, peculate. 

43. After a short syllable, unaccented u, even after r and 1, some- 
times has the sound yu, as in erwrfi/e, etc. 

XVII.— Unaccented Vowels. 

44. The best rule that can be given for the pronunciation of 
vowels in unaccented syllables is to pronounce them as nearly 
like their sounds in accented syllables as we can without affec- 
tation or laying undue stress upon them. Exceptions will be 
pointed out farther on. 

O gen< Tally has its long sound, as borrow (b0r'-r5), unless a 
consonan : in the same syllable follows. 

XVIII.— Endings. 

45. -ace, -ade, -age, -ate -ave, generally have the sound 
of a in ale somewhat shortened, as populace, reprobate ; but 


in dissyllables this inclines to the sound of a, as in palace, de- 
cade (dgk'-ad), octave. 

But in carriage and mari'iage, -iage is pronounced -ij. 

ain is sounded like In, as mountain, fountain, not mount'n, 
fount'n, still less moun'n, foun'n. But bargain (-Sn.) 

al should retain the distinct sound of a. Thus radical 
Pihould be distinguished in pronunciation from radicle, (r&d'-tkl). 

-ar generally has the sound er, as vicar (vik'-er), so -ard 
and -ward as standard (■ or d), backward (-werd). But lazar 

el retains the sound e, except in a few words like snivel, 
swivel (swivl), grovel, hovel, mantel. 

en generally drops the e sound, as in often (Ofn), glisten 

Weapon, basin are wgpn, basn. So too beacon, beckon, 
blazon, button, glutton, pardon, etc. 

ial and ian are sounded -ial and i-an. 
But social (so'-shal). 

ier is generally but one syllable, as glazier, c mrtier (gla- 
zher, kortyer). 

ice, ide, ile, ine, are generally sounded with i. 
Common exceptions — 

(i.) cyananide, sulphide, oxide. 

(ii.) infantile, juvenile, senile, versatile, hostile, Gentile, 

mercantile, reptile; also imbecile(-sel'). 
(iii.) Aldine, canine (kS-nln'), equine, feline, leonine, 

carbine, libertine, chloi'ine, Byzantine, quinine, 

saline, divine, Capitoline, Saturnine, 
(iv.) benzine, marine, submarine, Ghibelline, gaberdine, 

guillotine, ravine, in which ine is pronounced en'. 

ise or ize has i. 

franchise or Ise, but its compounds -Ise. 

ite generally has i, but exquisite, favourite, infinite, preter- 
ite, (-It). 

le is really a digraph for 1, thus ample, readable, are pro- 
nounced ampl, red'abl. 


XIX.— Prefixes. 

46. Bl, bin, Tri, except in Trinity, trimeter, trigono- 
metry, trilogy, Tripoli, trisyllable, trivial. 

De, generally, but defile, detail, deviate, devious, demarca- 

De, meaning to undo, as in decompound, depopulate^ is 
sounded d.6. 

The s after de is sounded Z, except in desist and pereist. 
Di (asunder), except in dilate, divers, and a few rare words. 
di, too, in unaccented syllables, except in a few rare words. 

Dis is not pronounced diz, except in disaster, discern, dis- 
ease, dismal, dissolve. 

Ex before the accented syllable, beginning with a vowel or 
h, has the sound of egZ, as in exhaust. 

Excep. exhume, exuberant, exude, and a few rare words. 
Mai, not " mawl ", as maltreat (mal-tret'). 
Pre before a vowel or an unaccented syllable. 

Excep. preface, prelate, premiss, presage, present, preci- 
pice, predicate, prejudice, preposition. 
Pre before an accented syllable, 

Excep. preform, precontract, prerequisite, prefigure, and 
a few technical words. 

Pro when accented, pro when unaccented, as prO'duce and 

Excep. procreate, prolate, prolix, programme, protest, pro- 
file, proletai'ian. 

Re before a vowel, or when the word as a whole means to 
do again what the latter part denotes ; e.g., recount, to count 
again ; recount, to tell ; recreate, to create anew ; recreate, to 

Also in re'flux, recoup. 

Excep. rSjoin, reform, regenerate, renew, review. 
N.B. — After rg, s represents the sound z, as in reside (r8- 
zid'), so resign (rS zln'), to^ive up ; resign, to sign again. 

But research, resource, resurgent, resuscitate, have the 
soiind of S> 


First Elements of certain Compounds. 

Bio, chiro (kiro), palseo, phon, photo, proto, quasi, chrttno, 
dgca, dSci, meso (mSzo), phllo, t6tra. 

XX. — Exercise on Unaccented Syllables. 

47. 1. Pronounce the following sets of words so as to distin 
guish the vowels in their unaccented syllable : — 

Bridal, bridle (bridl) ; Britain, BritOn ; carat, carrttt ; caster, 
castOr ; censer, censOr ; concert, consOrt ; council, counsel ; cym- 
bal, symbol ; ferrule (f8r'-81), ferule(-ul) ; gamble, gambol ; idle, 
idol, idyll ; manner, manor ; medal, meddle(-dl) ; metal, mettle 
(-tl); missal, missile, missel*; ott3,r,t otter; profit, prophet; 
rabbet, rabbit ; treatise, treaties ; vial, viol ; deviser, divisor ; 
accept, except ; accede, exceed ; immanent, imminent ; impas- 
sable, impassible ; insolation, insulation. 

2. Pronounce the following words so as to shew the differ- 
ence between the second vojvels in each pair : — 

History, mystery ; Ttaly, Sicily ; bailable, fallible ; model, 
noddle ; company, mutiny ; termagant, elegant ; reticence, 

XXI.— Sounds represented by the 

48. G before e, i, y, represents the sound of j. 

Exceptions : gear, geese, gewgaw, geyser, gibber-ish, gib- 
bose, giddy, give (and its derivatives), gig, gild, gilt, gills, 
gimbals or gimmals, gimlet, gimp, gingham, gird, -le and 
girth, girl, gizzard, begin. 

The g retains its sound also in dingy (ding-gy, a small boat), 
gill (a mountain stream), and in the Hebrew gehenna and 

In gendarme (zh&n-d&rm'), mirage, prestige, genre, rouge 
(r6zh), and some other words borrowed from the French, g re- 
presents the sound zh. 

Magyar is sounded Madyar. 

49. N before the sound of g or k represents the sound 
generally denoted by ng, as in anchor, conch (konk) ; but not 

3 * Another name for mistletoe. t More correctly attar. 


in the case of the j)refixos COn-, in-, Syn-, un-, except in 
concord (kong'-kawrd), concourse, cojicubine, congress, conquer. 

In many words that contain ng the g begins a syllable, as 
in fin-ger, clan-gor (klang'-ger), conger, and in such words as 

N.B. -English should be pronounced Ing'-gllsh not Tng'-l^fsh. 
Length and strength are often mispronounced lenth, strenth. 

50. ' S should have its own sound in the following words in 
which many wrongly give it the sound Z : desist, persist, (but 
resist, -zist), concise, precis", pi-esentiment, rinse, dose. Also 
in the prefixes dis- and trans- (but transit) as dislike, not diz-, 
and in the ending -sive, as decisive (dS-si'-sIv), but delusive 
(-zlv), conclusive. See 4G, N.B., under re-. 

S is rightly pronounced like Z before m (except in dis, mis, 
and trans), as chasm (kasm). Also in desert, gooseberry, 
gaseous, greasy, Jesuit, mistletoe, preside, president, rase, vase 
(vaz or vaz), beniaon (bSn'-I-zn),* venison (vSn'-zn), dessert, 
possess, ^tc. 

S has the sound sh very often before unaccented i, as in 
Persian, transient, scansion ; and sometimes before u, as tissue, 
sure ; also in nausea, nauseous (-shia, -shivis). 

51. S has the sound of zh. (i.) in -sion after a vowel, (ii.) 
sometimes before U ; also in ambrosia, artesian, Elysian, clo- 
sure, osier. 

52. S has the sound gz in auxiliary, anxiety, luxuriant, -ous. 

XXII.— Digraphs. 

53. Oh represents the sound of k in 

(i.) Arch- followed by a vowel, as in architect (&r'-ki-tgkt), 
architrave, anarchy, except in arch-ed, -ing, archer-y. 

(ii.) Initial brach-, chalc-, chl, chr, chor (except chore), 
troch-, chil- (thousand), cheir or chir ( = hand). 

(iii.) The following words, with their derivatives, Chaldee, 
chalybeate, chameleon, chamomile, chaos, character, charta, 
(but not chart, chai-ter), chelonian, chemic, -ist, chimera, choir, 
choler,-a, chyle, chyme, anchor, anchoret, bronchitis, anarchy, 
colchicum, conch, distich, echo, hypochondria, inchoate, ma- 


chiiiatioii, monarch, orchid, orchestra, tetrarch, Mocha, Cher- 
sonese, strychnine, melancholy. 

Generally in words from Greek, chiefly scientific terms. 

Also in a few Italian words as chiaro-oscuro, Machiavelian. 

Oh represents the sound of sh after 1 and n, except in 
milch; also in chagrin (-gren'), chaise, chamade, chamois 
(sham'-wS,), champagne, champaign, champerty (-pS.r-tT), chan- 
delier, chaperon, charade (-rS,d'), charivari, charlatan, chasseurs 
(-ers'), chemise (-mez'), chevron, chicane, chivalry. 

Generally in words lately borrowed from French. 

54. Gh. initial always stands for g. 

Its many sounds at the end of a syllable occur only in 
familiar words, so that there is no danger of mispronunci- 
ation, except in Edinburgh (-bliro), hough (hOk), sough (stif) 
and slough (sltif, but slow,* not sl5 nor slu, when it means a 

55. Ph represents the sound of f, except in nephew and 
Stephen (n8v'-u and Ste'-ven), and in diphthong, tripthong, 
naphtha, where it has the sound of p ; diphtheria (either dlf- 
or dip-). 

In phthisic {i\z'-\^), phthisis {\h\'-s\^), ph is silent. 

56. Th represents the sound of t in asthma, isthmus, 
lliames, thyme. 

It should be pronounced as in the in the following words : 
booth, with, bequeath. 

Also before 6 mute, as in seethe, lithe, blithe, loathe, and in 
the following plurtils baths, paths, laths, truths, youths, oatlis, 
sheaths, wreaths. 

57. Unaccented ce, ci, ti before al, an, on, ous, ent, 

ence represent the sound sh, as in ocean, optician, tertian, 
partial, herbaceous, spacious, conscience. Before -ation ci- 
should be pronounced shI-, not si, as pronunciation. 

So, too, nuncio (nun'-shl-o), but halcyon (hal'-sI-On). 

58. Sc before e or i has the sound of S, except in sceptic, 
scirrJious (skSp'tIc, skir'-rus). 

* Here, as always in re-spelled words, ow is sounded as in owl. 


Sch has the sound of sh in schist, schedule, of sk in 
scheme, school, schooner, scholastic, scholium, scholar. 
Schistti is pronounced sizm. 

XXIII. — Exercise on Silent Letters. 

59, B, dumb, thumb, subtle (but siib'-tile). 
So always after m. * 

0, Czar, (but Czekh, Ch6k), victuals (vlt'-lz), scene. 

D, handkerchief (han'-ker-chlf, woihang-), Wednesday (wens- 

G, gnat, coigne, sign, poignant, imbroglio (Im-br5l'-yo), 
seraglio(-raryo), diaphragm(-frara), paradigm(-dlm), apothegm 
(ap'-o-thSm), phlegm (fl8m). 

H, heir, honor, honest, hostler, hour, exhaust. 

In Jitrb, hospital, humble, the present usage is to pronounce the h. 

L, almond, alms (S,mz), calm, falcon, halm (hawm), holm 
(hom or hOlm), cul de-sac (cOQ-d6-sSk). 

L is generally silent before f, k and m, but not in talc. 

M, mnemonics (ne-m6n'-Iks). 

N, damn, damning, condemn-ing, hymn-ing, contemn-er. • 

N is silent after ra in the same syllable. It is sounded before other 
affixes than -ing, -ed and er, as in dam-nable, condem-nation, hym-nal. 

P (ph.), contempt, pneumatics, pneumonia, psalm, ptarmi- 
gan, psychology, pseud- (as in pseudonym). 

S, demesne (dS-men'), isle, aisle. 

T, often (Ofn), soften (sOf'n), mortgage, apostle, epistle, 
wrestle, forecastle (fok'-sl), mistletoe (miz'-l-to), chasten, fasten, 
glisten, chestnut, Christmas, boatswain (bosn), ballet (bSl'-la), 

T is generally silent in the endings -stle, -sten, as in jostle, 
moisten, (jOs'-l, moys'-n), christen (kris'-n). 

V7, answei*, boatswain (bosn), cockswain (kOk'-sn). 

"W is also silent in -wich after 1, m, n. r. 

The letters italicised in the following words must be pro- 
nounced: — Arctic, Antarctic, government, brearfth, wi(/th,\d- 
some, co^rnisance, incog'nito, recognise, cartridge, pS,rtridge, 
asthma (as^ma), isthmus (Is^miis). 

Present English usage omits h even in succumb. 


XXIV.— Accent. 

60. The following words are accented on the last syllable : — 

AdSpt, adult, alcove, ally (al-li'), awry (a-rl'), basalt (-sault'), 
bombast (biimbast'), burlesque (ber-lesk'), cement, charade 
(sha-rad'), coquet (ko-k6t'), dis-course, Occiilt', pretence', (but 
pre'-text), recSss', robust', tirade, commandant', complaisant' 
(kOm-pla-zanf), confidant', imbecile (-sel'), recitative (-ev), Capu- 
chin (-shen), bombasin, ambergris (-gi es'), chagrin, mandarin, 
palanquin, routine. 

N.B. — Bureau, an ordinary piece of furniture, we must, on this side 
of the Atlantic, call bu'-ro ; in the sense of a department of government, 
we should pronounce it bu-ro'. In all cases we must say dg-pO' (or 
dep'-6), not the vulgar d6'-po. 

61. The following words are accented on the penult: — ' 
(i.) Often incorrectly accented on the final. 

Adverse, brgvet, brIgS,nd, complex, construe, misconstrue, 
harass, levee, mattress, mohair. 

(ii.) Often incorrectly accented on the antepenult. 

anchovy, calisthSnics, coadjutor, congener, farrago, hOrizon, 
illicit, intrSpid, plebeian (plS-be'-Sn), pyrites(-ez), quandary 
(kwOn-da'-re), sequestrate, stalactites (-tits), stalagmite, sub- 
jected, vagary (vS-ga'-ii), vertigo, viragO, canorous, decorous, 

emetic, fanatic, caloric, panegyric, and most words in -ic. 
Cyclopean, Augean, ii n -ean. 

Colosseum, lyceum, museum, m » -eum. 

albumen, bitumen, ii n -umen. 

panacea, hymeneal ; aspirant, condolence, coquetry, inquiry, 
precedence (from aspire', condole', and other words accented on 
the final), clandestine, compensate, confiscate, contemplate, ex- 
purgate, exculpate, illustrate. 

The words in this last group have two or more consonants 
after the last word but one : 

Present English usage allows the pronunciations obliga'-tory, 
ortho'-Spy (-pi)i which are certainly much easier than ob'-liga- 
tory and or'-thoepy. 


62. Accented on the antepenult, often incoi-rectly accented 
on the penult : 

Ai-ea, armistice, blasphemy, conveisant, contrary, camSl'-o- 
pard, chastisement, centrifugal, centiipgtal, cergbral, clematis, 
dSflcIt, discipline, exOrcise, exquisite, gon' dola, ira'-pious, indus- 
try, obdurate, orchestra, puissant, subaltern, supeifiuous, vehe- 
ment ; also allo'-pathy and other words in -])athy,* telegraphy, 
alveolar, variola, gladiolus (and other words in eolar and Tola). 

Other words accented on the antepenult are : abstractly, 
deflagrate, d6s'-uetude, demoni' acal, mani'-acal, discrepancy, 
fortnightly, illative, inetamor'-phoses, i)arietal, Philistines, per- 
func'-tory, polygamy, i-eceptacle, photographer, phonOtypy, 
sardonyx, univocal. 

Accented on the pre-antepenult, or fourth syllable from the 
end : 

t Accessory (-eri), aggrandizement, allegOrist, antepenult, ap- 
probative, caricature, celibacy, circumjacent, combativeness, 
comparable, (but -par'-ative), contumacy, contumely, corollary, 
desultory, diligently, (in-)disputable, formidable, fragmentary, 
incomparable, interested, lamentable, laboratory, peregrinate, 
peremptory, rofragable, rem'-gdiless, remediable, repertory, rec'- 
ognizable, supererogatory, usurpatory, (uzerp'-at-erl;, v6t'-er- 
inary (-ei'l). 

XXV. —Varying Accent. 

63. The following woi-ds are accented on the last syllable 
when they are verbs, on the fii*st when they are nouns or 
adjectives : 

Absent, abstract, accent, affix, collect, comment, compact, 
compound, compi'ess, concert, concrete, conduct, confines, con- 
.flict, consort, contest, contract, contrast, converse, convert, con- 
vict, convoy, decrease, descant, desert, detail, digest, discount, 
escort, essay, exile,J export, extract, ferment, frequent, import, 
incense, increase, insult, interdict, object, overcharge, over 
throw, pei-fume,|| permit, pervert, placard, prefix, prod.uce, 
progress, rebel, record, refuse (ref'-use and re-fuz'), surname, 
survey, torment, transfer, transport. 

* But not in -pathic, which accentuate the penult as hydropathic, 
t ary, cry, are both sounded eri. 

J Exile, noun, is pronounced egz'-lle or eks'-U ; verb, egz'-il or eg-zll'. 
I Perfume " " per-fum or per'-ftim' " per-fum'. 


64. So miscon'-duct (n. ), misconduct' (v.), precoii'-tract («.), 
precoutract' (v.), at'-ti-ibute( rt.), attrib'-ute (v.). En'-trance 
(n.) and entrance' (v.) are totally different words coming re- 
spectively from enter and trance. 

66. Sometimes other distinctions are expressed by differ- 
ence of accent, as : 

Ay-sSnic (n.), ai-sSn'-ic (adj.); ex'-pert («.), expei-t' (adj.); 
consum'-mate {adj.), con'-summate (v.) ; Au'-gust (w.), august', 
{adj.) ; min'-ute («.), minute' {adj.) ; prSc'-gdent {n.), prece'-dent 
{adj.) ; gal'-lant (brave) ; gallant' (polite) ; inval'-id (not bind- 
ing), invalid (-led'), (disabled) ; su'-pine (a kind of verbal 
noun), supine' (indifferent). 

66. On the other hand, very many have the same accent, 
no matter what part of speech they may be, as : 

Address, alternate, assent, cement,* discourse, effect, employ, 
perfect, preface, prostrate, purport, purpose. 

67. Such differences are sometimes expressed by difference 
of pronunciation, as in ab-use', which as a verb is pronounced 

So grease, close, diffv^e, which as verbs give s the sound of Z. 
Cleanly, adj., is sounded kl8n'-ll ; adv., Wqu'-W. 
Beloved, learned, sound the e of ed as adjectives, but not .as 
verbs or participles. 

68. Conjure (k0n-j6r'), entreat; (kiin-j'er), to juggle; courtesy 
(kertSsI), politeness ; (kerb'-st) a bow ; hinder {a.), hinder {v.) ; 
mow (m6w), a loft; mow (mow), to cut with a sythe ; raven, a 
bird; rSven, to devour; housewife (howswif), a mistress of a 
house; (htlzlf), a case for needles; mall (mawl), a hammer ; 
(mSl), a walk. 

69. The following spellings represent each, not two pronun- 
ciations of the same word, but two distinct words : 

Troll, to roll ; trOU, a fabulous being ; leasing (losing), letting 
for hire ; (lezing), lying ; gout (gowt), a disease (g6), taste ; 
lower, (loer), make low ; low-er, to darken ; won't, will not ; 
(wtlnt), acciistomed ; pe'-ri5dic, belonging to a period ; pgr'-IOdic, 
a composition of iodine ; salve (sav), an ointment ; (salv), to 
save from loss ; pOll, ordinary degree at Cambridge ; poll, head, 
to vote. 

* Cem'-ent is obsolete. 



XXV f.— Misleading Analogy. 

70. We generally find that in groups of related words the 
accent remains on the same element, e. g., delnd'e, dehxs'-ion, 
delus'-ive ; and also that that main element has the same 
sound in all. This is not so in the following instances ; hence 
the analogy (or likeness) is misleading : 

assign (-sin'), assignee (Ss'-In-e) 
consign', con'signee 
blaspheme, blS,s'-phSmy and 

consist', consistory (-erf) 
decll'vous, decliv-ity 
define, def'-in-Ite, definition 

(-Ish'-un), defin'-itlve 
drima, mSl'-odrama 
flora, -al, -iferons, flOrid, flor- 

Iform, -1st, -i-culture 
frater'-nal, frSt'-ernlse 
fort, -let, fort-alice, fortress, 

four, fbi-ty, fortnight 
front, (frttnt), so front -let -age, 

frontier, -ispiece (-pes) 
gen'-us, gSneral 
gSs, gasometer; gaseous (ga'- 

gratis, gratti'-itous 
grateful, grat'-itude, -ify, -ulate 
heath, heathen, h gather 
hero, hero'-ic, hSroIne, -ism 
hind, hinder, hinder, hindrance 
hygiene (hi'-jen or hi'-jl-en), 

hygienic (hi-jI-Sn'-Ik) 
IMh (pL, Ikthz), Ihthe 
lenient, -iency, ISnity 
luxury (x=ks), luxuriant (gz), 

-ate, -ous 
maintain, maintSnance 
maniac, mani'-acal 

matron, -al, -ise ; matrimony 
mi'-croscope, microscopic, mi- 

mime, mimgt'-ic, mimic, -ry, 

mode, mod-al, -ish ; mOdest, 

moderate, etc. 
nation, national* 
obscene, -ly, obscgnityt 
o})pugn (-pun'), oppug-nancy 
palm (pW), pal'm-ate, pal'm- 

phlegm (flgm), phl6g-mat'-ic 
pious, Im'- pious, but impiety 
precede, prec'-edent (n.) 
prime, primitive, prim'er or 

realise, reallsa'-tion 
remedy, reme'-diable 
restore, -ation, restorative 
satiate (sa'-she-ate), -able, sa- 

social (so'-shal), society 
solemn (sOl'-gm), sO-lem'-ni-ty, 

sphere (sfer), sphgr-ic, -ical, 

-icity, -oid 
squalid (skwOl'-Id), squalor 

(skwa-ler or skwO'-ler) 
staunch (stawnsh), stanchion 

sublime, subllm-ity, -ate, -ise 
suit (sut), suite (sweet) 

* So, too, ration-al, Spanish. 

t So, too, serene, serSn-'ity, sSrS'-nade. 


swath (swOth),swa<Ae,swa<Aing 
tel'-egraph, tel'-egraph'-ic, -ist, 

telephone, telephOn'-ic, teleph'- 

telescope, telescOp'-ic, teles'copy 

ti-ansit (-sit), but transition, 

type, -ology, -ography, typify, 
vivid, viv-acious, -acity, -ariuni, 

zeal, zealot (zSl'-tit), zSalous 

71. N.B. — Words ending in -isive, with the preceding syl- 
lable, are often mispronounced, owing to the analogy of the 
corresponding -sion, e. g., decisive, decision (-zhun) ; so inci- 
sive, incision (-zhun), diffusive, -sion. So many names of 
sciences end in -Ology that sometimes mineralogy and gene- 
alogy are wrongly called minerOlogy, etc. 

XXVII.— Review Exercise.. 

72. Common faults in pronunciation * 

1. Mispronouncing the accented vowels : 

Because, was ; catch, can, gather ; get, kettle ; plait, heinous 
(a not e) ; been, clique, creek, sleek (e not I) ; since, spirit, 
steady; sirsaparilla, sauce, saucy, sausage {not sas-) ; only, 
goal ; cord, fOrty [not for-) ; Russian, Prussian, giims, stlpp e 
{not oo) j bronchitis (-kitis) ; supergr'-ogation. 

2. Substituting the sound of I or ti for that of e in the ter- 
minations of such words as : 

BedstSad, ailmSnt, honSst. 

3. Substituting the sound of ii for in unaccented syllables, 
as : 

Oblige, provide, potato, position, society, tobacco; bellow, 
hollow, thorough, borough ; innocent. 

4. Omitting vowels in unaccented syllables : 

Aggd, blessSd, learngd, bglieve {not blev), boistgrous, com- 
pany, despSrate, evgry, histOry, memOry, mystery, nominative, 
several, favorite, victory (-er-), library, participle, real, really 
{not rel-y), diamond, geography, antip'-odes (-ez), manes (-6z), 

5. Omitting consonants : 

* The teacher should make the class pronounce the words in this exercise , he 
watching for the errors likely to be committed. In some parts of the Province addi- 
tional exercises may be needed, varying according to the nationality of the first 
settlers, nearness to the United States, etc. 


Arctic, February, breadth, width, partridge, cartridge, facts, 
posts, grandmother, sends, handsome, recognise, cognizance. 

6. Omitting the y of u after d, n, t, as in duke, neuter, 

7. Mispronouncing consonants : 

Covetous (not -chtis), decrep'-it (not -id), drought, height (not 
-th), Indian (not -juu), idiot (not -jiit) partner, Protestant, pre- 
sumptuous (not -shus), stupendous, tremendous (not -jus). 

Some put W for wh, Sr for shr, -in for -ing. Dis- and 
mis- are often wrongly sounded dlz- and miz-. 

8. Wrongly inserting vowels or consonants : 

Alpaca, casualty, elm, helm, massacring, mischievous (not 
chevytls), baptism, spasm, attack (not -takt), drown, once, 
sudden, across (not -crost). 

9. Transposing sounds : 
Brethren, children (not -em). 

10. Pronouncing according to the spelling : 

(a) Courteous, courtesy (ker- not kor-), e'er and ere (a.r) , 
fbrehead (f6r'-8d), knowledge, none, nothing, evil (evl), devil 
(dSvl), route (r6t), tour (t6r), joiist, nephew (-vu not -fu). 

(b) Often (Ofu), soften, apostle, epistle, fasten, chasten 
(chasn), "Wednesday (wensda), towards (tordz). 

11. Following a misleading analogy (see § 70) : 

Zoology (not zoo-), Danish ; neuralgia (vulgarly -alojy), forty 
(vulgarly forty). 

12. Accentuating the wrong vowel : 

Ally, depot, complaisant, discourse, occult, recess (which 
accent the final syllable) ; assets, construed, decorous, extirpate, 
harass, idea, inquiry, panacea, plebeian, precedence (which ac- 
cent the penult) ; centrifugal, conversant, deficit, homoeopathy, 
vehement (which accent the antepenult) ; contumely, indisput- 
able, irrevocable (which accent the pre-antepenult. For other 
examples, see § 60-2. 

N.B. — It is wrong to sound too fully the endings -ary and 
-Ory, as in mercenary and observatory (-eri, not -ary, nor -ory). 


[N.B, — Vowels left unmarked have the "short" sound, as in an, ell, ill, on, US, y 
havinsf that of i in ill.] 


abatis, Sb'-a-tis or ab' ate. 
abatoir, ab'-at-war. 
abbreviate, ab-bie'-vi-at. 
abdomen, ab-do'-mgn. 

ablution, S,b-l6'-shiin. 

aborigines, Sb'-o-rii'-i-nez. 
ab'-sent, (adj.). 
absent' (v.) 

absolutory, ab-sOl'-ti-ter-!. 

absolve, ab-zolv'. 

absorb, ab-sOrb' (not -zOrb'). 
abstemious, ab-ste'-ml-us. 

abstract' (v.) 
ab'-s tract (adj.). 

abuse, a-bus' (n.); S-buz' (v). 

accent, ak'-sSnt (n.); ak- 
sgnt' (v.). 

accept, ak-s6i)t' (often con- 
founded with except'). 

access, S,k-sgs' or ak'-s5s. 

accessible, ak-s6s'-si-bl. 

accessory or accessary, 


acclimate, Sk-kli'-mat. 
acclimatise, ak-kir-ma-tiz'. 
acclivity, ak-kliv'-i-ti. 

accompanist, ak-ktim'-pan- 

accomplice, ak-kOm'-plIs. 

.accomplish, ak-kom'-piish 

(not -kum-). 
accord, ak-kawrd'. 
accost, ak-kOst' (not -kawst'). 

accoucheur (^V.), ak'-koo- 

accoutre, ak-k6'-ter, 
accurate, ak'-ku lat (not ak- 

ker-It). See § 43. 

acknowledge, ak-noi'-gj. 
acme, ak'-me. 

acoustics, a-kow'-stlks. 
acri, ak'-kr! ; acro, ak'kio* 

acumen, a-ku'-mSn. 
adamant, ad'-a-mant. 


adduce, ad-dus (not -doos). 
adept, adept'. 

' acro unless a consonant in the same syllal)le follows. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



adipose, ad'-Ipos (not -p5z). 
adobe, Span., a-do'-ba. 
Adonis, a-do'nis. 
adult, a-cliilt' (not ad'-), 
adverse, ad'-vers (not -vers')' 

advertisement, a,d-vei'-tiz- 


advertise, ad'-ver-tiz. 
.<Sneid e-ue'-Id. 
^neas, e ne'-as. 
.^Eolian, e-o'-ll-an. 
^Olic, e-Ol'-Ik. 

aerate, a'-er-at. 
aerial, a-e'-ii-rd. 
aerie, or eyry, e'ri. 
aerify, ar'-i-fi. 

aeriform, ar'-I-fawrm. 

aerolite, ar'-o-lit. 

aeronaut, ar'-O-nawt. 

aesthetics, ez-thgt'-iks. 

affix, af-flks (n.) ; af-f Iks' (u). 
■» affront, af-fitint' (n. and v.) 
again, a-gSn', 
against, a-gSnst'. 
aggrandise, ag'-grSn-diz'. 
aggrandisement, ag'-gran 

agile, aj'-n. See § 43. 
aide-de-camp, ad'-dg-kow^. 
alabaster, al'-a-bas'-ter. 
albino, al-bl'-no. 
albumen, al bu'-mSn. 

Aldine, ai'-din. 
algebra, al'-js-hra. 
alias, a'-li as. 
alibi, al'-i-bi. 

alien, al'-ySn. 

alienate, al'-y2n-at (not fil- 

alkali, al'-ka-li. 
alkaline, ar-ka-lin. 
allegiance, al-le'-jans. 
allegory, ai'-le-gor'-i (not 

allegro, ai-le'-gro. 
allopathy, ai-iop'-athr, but, 

ally, ai-ii', (not ai'-ii). 
almond, a'-miind. 
alms, amz. 
almoner, ai' mOn-er. 
alpaca, al-pSk'-a, (not ai'-a- 

Alpine, al'-pin (not -pin), 
altercation, al'-ter-ka'-shaa 

(not awl-). 
alternate, al-ter-'-nat or al'- 

ter-nat (not awl-). 

alternative, al-ter'-na-tiv. 
alto, al'-to. 

alto-relievo, aj'-to-i i-'e'-vs. 
altruism, ai'-trd izm. 
altruistic, ai'-tr6-is-tik. 

alumnus, a-lum-'nus ; pi. Br 
lumni, a liim'-ni. 

ale, me, file, nSte, pure, f4r, her, in6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



amateur, am'-S-ter or tur 
[not tur', -toor, nor -chur). 

ambrosia, Sm-bio' zhi-&. 
amenable, ft-me'-nS-bl {rwt 


amend, a-mon^pd'. 
amenity, a-mgu'-i-ti. 
amnesty, am'-ngs-ti. 
amphiscii, am-f ish-i-i. 
anaemia, an-e'-mia. 
anaemic, Sn-e'-mik. 
anaesthetic, au'-es-thet'-ik. 
analogue, an'-aiog. 
analogy, a nar-oji. 
ancestral, an-sgs'-tiai. 
ancestry, an'-sSs-tri. 
anchovy, an-cho'-vi. 
Andean, an-de' an. 
anemone, a-nSm'-o-nS. 
anile, an'-il, 
anility, an-il'-i-tL • 
aniline, an'-Min. 
animalcule, an-i-mai'-kui 

{iiot -kul-e.) 

anise, an-is. 
annihilate, an-ni'-hMat. 
anodyne, an'-o-din. 
anomaly, a nom'-a-li. 
antarctic, ant-aik'-tlk. 
antepenult, an'-tS-pS-niilt' 

{not an-cS-})e-ntilfc). 
anti-, (prefix) an'-tl {not 

antipodes, an-wp'o-dez. 
antistrophe, an-tis'-tro-is. 
anxiety, ang-zi'-6-ti. 
anxious, angk'-shus. 
aorist, a-'-o-rfst. 
aperient, a-per'-i-6nt. 
aplomb, a-piow' or a-pior??^'. 
apotheosis, ap-o-the'-o-sis. 

apparatus, ap'-pa-ra'-tus 
{not -ra'-), 

apparent, ap-pa'-vSnt. 
apricot, a'-prf-kot. 
a priori, a'-puor'-L 
apropos, ap'-ro-po'. 
aquiline, ak'-wi-hn. 
Arab, av'-ab. 
Arabic, ar'-awk. 
Arabian, a-ra'-bi-an. 

arch, (chief) Arch; §,rk, before 
a vowel ; &rch, before a con- 

architect, S,r'-ki-t6kt. 

archives, av'-kivz. 

Archimedean, ar'-ki-me'- 

Arctic, ftrk'-tik. 

Arctm'US, ark-tu'-i-iis. 

arduous, ar'-du-us. 

are, iy-) ar ; a metric unit, dr. 

area, a'-rg-a. 

aria, a tune, ar'-i-a. 
Arian, a' li-an. 
arid, ar'-id. 

ale, me, file, nOte, pure, f4r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



aristocrat, ai'-istr) kiat or 

Armada, ai-ma'-da. 

armistice, ai'-mis-tis. 
aroma, a-io'-ma,. 
arquebuse, ar'-kg booz. Fr. 
arrogant, av'-io-gant. 

arsenic, in.) ar'-sS-nik ; {adj.) 

artesian, ar-te'-zM-an. 

Arum, a'-ium. 

Aryan, ar' ian, or a'-rian. 

asafoetida, as'a-fgt' i-tia. 
ascetic, as-s6t' ik. 

ascii, as'-i-i, or ask'-i-L 

asphyxia, as-fik'-si a. 
aspirant, as-pf-rant. 
aspirate, as'-pi-rat. 
assess, as-s6s'. 
assets, as'-s6ts. 
assume, as sum', 
assure, a sh6r'. 
asthma, ast'-ma. 
ate, at or 6t. 

athenaeum, ath'-6-ne'-iim. 
atoll, at'-oi. 
atrophy, at'-rof-i. 
attribute, at'-tn-but {n.), 

at-trib'-ut {v.). 

bade, bad (not bad), 
badinage, Fr., bad'-i-nazh. 
bagatelle, Fr., bag'-a-ter. 

auction, awk' .slifin. 
Augean, aw-je'-an. 
auger cmd augur, aw'-ger. 
August, («.) aw 'gust; {adj.) 

aunt, ant. 

aureola, aw-re'-5-la. 

auricle, aw'-n-kl. 

auspice, aw'-spis ; pi. au- 
spices, aw'-spis 6z. 

auto-da-fe, Span., aw'-to- 

auxiliary, awgzal-'-i-a-ii. 
avalanche, av'-a lansii'. 
avant-courier, a-von,^'-k6r'- 

avarice, av'-a-i-is. 
avenue, av'-g-nu {not av'-g- 


avoirdupois, &v-er'-du- 

poyz'. , 
awkward, awk'-werd. 

awry, a-ii'. 
axiom, ak'-si-ttm. 
ay or aye (yes), l 

aye (always), a. 
azure, a'-zhoor. 


balk, bawk. 
ballet, bal'-la. 
balm, bam. 

ale, me, file, note, pui-e, far, lier, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



balsam, bawl' sam. 

banquet, bimg'-kwgt {not 

ban-). See languid. 

baptism, bap'-tizm. 
barbarous, bai'-ba-ius {not 


bargain, bar'-ggn. 

baron, bar'-On (not to be 

confounded with bai'-r6n). 
barouche, ba-rdsh'. 
barrel, b&r'-r6l {not b4rl). 

basilisk, baz'-Misk. 

bass-relief, bas'-re-lef . 
bath, bath ; pi. hUhz. 
bathos, ba'-thOs. 
bayonet, ba'-6n-6t {not ba'- 

bayou, bi'-oo. 
bazaar, ba-zar'. 

beard, berd {not bard), 
because, be-kawz' {not bS- 

bedizen, b6-diz'-n. 

Bedouin, bSd'-oo-in. 
been,* ben or bin. 
begone, bg-gQn' {not -gav/n')- 

behalf, be-haf. 

behemoth, be'-he-moth. 
believe, bg-lev' {not blev). 
Bellerophon, b6l-l6r'-o-fon. 

belles-lettres, Fr., bel-iet'- 

bellows, b6l'-loz or lus.- 
beloved {ad}.), b6-Jav'-6d ; 

part, bg-luvd'. 

benzine, b6n'-zen. 
bequeath, h&-kw eth'. 
besom, be'-zum. 
bestial, b6st'-yai {not best'-). 
betroth, be-trSth' {not bg- 

bewray, bg-ra'. 
bezique, Fr., ba-zek'. 
bi, bl, rarely bl. 

bibliography, bib'-li-og'-rfi- 

bicycle, bi'-sik-l. 
bifarcate, bi-fer'-kat. 
bijou, be-zh6'. 

binomial, bi-no'-mi-ai. 
biography, bi-og'-ra-fl. 

bison, bi'-zOn. 

bitumen, bi-tu'-mgn. 
bivouac, biv'-oo-ak. 
blaspheme, blas-fem', but 


blatant, bla'-tSnt. 

blessed {adj. ),h\&ss'-&d ; part. 

blithe, bli^A. 
bohea, bo-he'. 

•"Been, with the sound^of e as in mete, which, I repeat, is the pronunciation I 
/e heard from all the well-bred and well-educated Englishmen that I have met."— 


Richard Grant White, 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



boisterous, boys'-ter-us 

{not boys'-triis). 
bomb, bOm, (not btim). 

bombast, bttm-bfet'. 
bombazin, bam'-bs-zen. 
bona fides, b6'-n& fi'-dez. 
booth, hdth. 

bonhomie, Fr., b0n'-6m-e. 
borealis, bOr'-e-a'-lis. 
bosom, booz'-tim. 
boudoir, Fr., bood'-w&r. 

boulevard, Fr., bool-v&r'. 

bouquet, Fr., b6'-ka. 

bourgeois (French middle 
classes), b6rzh-w4'; (a kind 
of printing type), ber-joys'. 

bourgeon, Fr.. ber'-jOu. 
bourn, bdrn. 
Bourse, b6rz. 
bow («.), b5 ; (v.) how. 
bow or bows (of a ship), 
bow, bowz. 

bowsprit, b5'-sprft. 
bravado, bi-&-va'-do, but 


breeching, brfch'-ing. 

brethren, br6th'-rgn (not 

brevet, brgv'-st. 
breviary, bre'-vi-er-i. 
brevity, br6v'-i-ti. 

brigand, brig'-aud (not bri- 

brigantine, brig'-ftn-tin. 

brimstone, brlm'stOn (not 

bromide, bro'-n)Id ; bro'- 
mlne ; bro-miLo. 

bronchitis, brOng-ki'-tls. 

brooch, bioch (not b)ooch). 
broth, broth. 
brougham, brd'-am. 
bruit, brot. 
brusque, broosk. 
Buddha, bood'-da. 

Buddhism, bood'-dlzm. 
bufifet, Fr. (a sideboard) 

buhl, bul. 

bulletin, bool'-lg-ten or tin. 
bullion, bool'-yun. 
bunion, btin'-ytin. 
buoy, boy. 
buoyancy, boy'-an-sr. 

bureau, bu'-ro, or bu-ro'. 
(See page ). 

burlesque, bei-igsk'. 

business, biz'-ngs. 

butcher, booch'-er (not 

Byzantine, biz- Sn'-tin. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f4r, her, move, awl, owl, good, boy. 




cabal, ka-bal'. 

cachinnation, kak'-in-na- 

cadaverous, ka-dav'-er-us. 

cadence, ka'-dens. 
cadi, ka'-dl. 
Oadmean, kad-me'-an. 
caesura, sg-zu'-i-a. 

caisson, kas'-sOn. 

calcine, kai'-sin. 

caldron or chaldron, 

calf, kaf. 

calibre, kai'-i-ber. 
caligraphy, ka lig'-ra-fi. 

caliph, ka'-lif or ka-lef . 

calisthenics, kai-is-thfin'-iks. 

calm, kam (not kaai). 

caloric, kal-l6r'-ik. 

calyx, ka'-liks ; pi. calyxes, 

ka'-iik-sSs, or calyces, kal'- 


canine, ka-nin'. 
canon or canyon, kSn'-yOn. 
capitoline, kap'-i-to-iin. 
Capuchin, kap'-a shen. 
carbine or carabine, k4r'- 

bin or kar'-a-bln. 

cardiac, kar'-di-ak. 
caricature, kar'-i-ka-tur'. 
Carlovingian, kar'-lo-vin'- 

carmine, k&r'-min. 

carotid, ka-roi'rd. 
carte-blanche, Fr., kart- 


carte-de-visite, Fr., kait'- 

castle, kas'-sl. 
casualty, kazh'-a-ai-ti {not 

casuist, kazh'-u-ist. 
catamaran, kat'-a-ma-i-an'. 

catch, katch {not ketch). 

catchup or catsup, katch '- 

up or kats'-up. 

catechumen, kat'-6-ku'- 

caustic, kaws'-tik. 

caveat, ka'-vi-at, 

caviare, kavM-ar [not -a-ra). 
cayenne, ka-ygn' or ka-Sn'. 
Celebre, Fr. sa-l6b'-r. 

celibacy, s6l'-i-ba-si. 

cement, n. and v., s6-m6nt'. 
centenary, s6n'-t6-ner-i, hut 

centrifugal, s6n-trif'-u-gah 
centripetal, s6n-tiip'-6-tai. 
cephalic, se-fai'-ik. 
ceramic, se-i-am'-ik. 
cerebral, s6r'-6-brai. 

certain, ser'-tin {not sert'-n). 

cerulean, s6-r6'-li-an. 
chagrin, sha-gren'. 
chaise, shaz. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f^r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



chalcedony, kal-sed'-5-nI. 
chamois, bham'-wa. 
char, (to blacken) cliar ; (to 
work by the day ) char. 

character, kar'-ak-ter {not 

chasten, chas'-n. 
charivari, Fr., sha'-re-va'-re. 

charlatan, shar '-la-tan. 

Charon, ka'-rOn. 

Oharybdis, ka lib'-dis. 
chastise, chas-tiz'. 
chastisement, c h a s' - 1 1 z- 


chateau, sha-to'. 
chef-d'-oeuvre, Fr., slia-d6'- 


chiaro-OSCUro, ke-ar'-o-os- 

chicanery, shl-ka'-ner-l 
chignon, &\i\n-y6ng'. 
chimera, kl-me'-ra. 

chimerical, ki-mgr'-i-kai. 
chirography, ki-rOg'-ra-fi. 
chiropodist, kl-rOiy-o-dist. 
chivalry, shiv'-al-rf. 
chloride, klo'-rfd. 
chlorine, klo'rin. 
choleric, kOl'-er-ik. 
chord, kawrd, 

christen, kris'-n. 
Ohristianity, kris'-ti-an'!-ti. 

chronological, krSn'-o-lcj'- 

chronology, ki5-n5l'-6-jL 
cicatrice, sik'-a-tris. 

cicerone, sis-e-ro'-nS or 

circuitous, ser-ku'-i-tus {not 

civil, siv'il. 

civilisation, siv'-l-ll-za'-shtin. 
clandestine, klan-d6s'-tin. 
cleanly, (aJj.) klSn'-lI ; (ad.) 

clematis, klgm'-a-tis. 

clerk, klark (not klei'k). 
climacteric, kllm'-ak-ter-Ik. 

or kli-mak'-ter-lk. 
cloth, klOth [not khiwth). 
coadjutor, ko-ad-j6'-ter {not 

COadjutant, ko-ad'-jti-t&nt. 
cochineal, kochl-nel. 
codicil, kOd'-i-sll. 
cognisance, kOg'-nl-zSns or 

cognomen, kOg-no'-mSn. 
COlchicum, kOl'-ki-kum. 
Coliseum, kOl'-I-se'-iim. 
collusive, k6l-16'-siv. 
colporteur, kOl'-por-ter'. 
column, kOl'-um {not -yoom, 

nor -yum). 
combat, kum'-b&t. 


ale, mS, file, note, pure, far, her," move, awl, owl, good, boy. 



com 'bat ant. 

comedian, kOm-e'-di-an. 

comedy, koui'-e-ui, 
comely, kum'-li. 
commandant, kom'-man- 


comment (n. and v.), kOm'- 

commissary, kOm'-mls-ser-I. 

comparable, k5m'-j)ai-a-bl. 
compatible, kom-iiat'-r-bi. 
compensate, kom-psn'-sat. 
complaisance, - s a n t, 

k6m'-pla-zans". -zaut". 
comrade, kOm-rad. 
concave, kOn'-kav (not 


concentrate, kcn-sen '-i i at. 

conch, kOngk. 
conchology, kOn-kOl'-O-jI. 
concord, keng'-kawrd. 

concor'dance, cOn-, (twt 


condemning, kon-dSm'-ing. 
condem'-nable, (-na-bl). 
condolence, kon-do'-lons. 

conduit, kon'-dlto?- kuu'-dit. 

coniidant, kon'-fi-dauL". 
confiscate, kon-fis'-kat. 

confront, kOn fiunt'. 

confute, kou-fut'. 

COUge, kon//'-zIia. 
congener, kOu-je'-ner. 

congenial, kon-je'-ni-ai. 
congenital, kon-jsn'-i-tai. 
conjugal, koii'-joo-gai. 

conjure, (to implore) kOn- 

j6r' : (to juggle) kun'-jer. 
COnnoiseur. kOn'-nis-sei". 

conscientious, kon'-shi-gn'- 


conservator, kOn'-ser-va'- 

ter, but conser'-yatlve. 
consols, koii'-sOlz or kOn- 

consort, (n.) kOn'-sOit; (v.) 

construe, koii'-str6 (not 

consummate, (adj.) kon- 

stini'-iiiat; (v.) kOii'-«um- 

contemplate, kou-tem'- 


contents, kOu '-tents or kOn- 


contour, k0n-t6r'. 

contumacy, kon' 

contumely, kon'-tu-inel-I. 

conversa-zione, kou'-ver- 


conversant, kOu'-ver-sant 
(not k5n-vei-s'-). 

corrigible, koi'-ri-jr-i)]. 
corrugate, kor'-ioo-gat. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, lier, ni6vo, awl, owl, good, boy. 



cost, kOsfc (not kawst). 
costume, k5s-tum' or kOs'- 

coterie, ko'-ter-e. 
coup, Fr. (a stroke) k6. 
coup-d'etat, Fr., k6'-da-ta'. 
coupon, V6-\)6n(j. 

courier, kooi'-i-er. 

courteous, kert'-yiis. 
courtesy, (politeness) ker'- 

tg-sl ; (an act of reverence) 

courtier, kort'-yer. 
covetous, ktiv'-€-tus (not 


cowardice, kow'-er-dis. 
coxwain, kOk'-sn. 
creature, kre'-tur {not -ter). 

credence, kre'-dgns. 
credible, krgd'-i-bl. 
credulous, kr6d'-u-las. 
creek, krek {not krik). 
criterion, kri-te'-rl-On. 

critique, kii-tek'. 

croquet, kiO'-ka {not krO 

cucumber, ku'-kttm-ber. 
cuirass, kwi-ras'. 
cuirassier, kwi-ras-ser'. 

cuisine, kwi-zen'. 
cul-de-sac, koo'-ds-sak'. 
culinary, ku'-li-ner-i. 

cupola, ku'-p6-la. 
curator, ka-ra'-ter. 
curtsey, see courtesy. 

Cyclopean, si'-klo-pe'-Sn. 
cynosure, si'-uo-zh6r. 
Oymry, kim'-ri. 

converse, {v.) kOn-vers' ; (n.) 

coquetry, ko'-ket-ri. 
cordial, k5r'-di-ai. 

corduroy, kOr'-doo-roy*. 
corollary, kOr'-Ol-ler-L 
coronal, kOi'-O-nal or kO-rO'- 



dacoit, dak'-oyt. 

dado, da'-do. 

daguerrotype, da-ggr'-o-tip. 
dahlia, da'-li-a. 
damning, dam'-ing. 

Danish, da'-nish. 

data, da'-ta. 

daub, dawb {not dOb). 

daunt, dawnt. 
debris, da-bre. 
debut, da-b6. 
decade, dek'-ad. 

decorous, de-ko'-rtts. 

decrepit, dg-krgp'-it. 

defalcation, de'-ft,l-ka'-shiin. 
deficit, d6f'-i-sit. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fS,i-, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



defile, dS-fil' or de'-. 
deflagrate, d6f'-is,-grat. 
deliquesce, der-i-kwgs. 

demarcation, de'-mar-ka'- 

demesne, de-men', 
demise, d6-miz'. 

demon, de'-mOn. 

demoniacal, d6m'-o-i.i'-ak- 

demonstrable, de-mOn'- 


demonstrate, dg-mOn'-strat 

or d6m'-0n-strat. 

demonstrator, d6ni'-on- 

depot, dS-po' or d6p'- {not 

deprivation, dsp'-iiv-a"- 


derelict, dsr'-g-likt. 
derisive, de-ri'-siv. 
deshabile, d6z'-a-bel. 
desiccate, dSs'-ik-kat. 

dsperadO, d6s'-per-a'-do. 

despicable, d6s'-pi-ka-bl. 

dessert, d6z-zert'. 

destine, dgs'-tin. 
desuetude, d6s'-we-tud. 

desultory, dgs'-Hl-ter-i. 
detail, (v.) de-tal'; (n.) de'-tal. 
deu-, du- (not d6-). 

devastate, d6v'-as-tat. 

devil, dSv'-l (not d6v'-il). 

devoir, dSv-wawr'. 
di, di, generally when before 
a consonant and unaccented. 

diaeresis, di-e'-rs-sis. 

diamond, dl'-a-mtind. 

diaphragm, di'-a-fram. 
diastole, di'-as'-to-le. 
diatribe, di'-a-trib. 

dictate, (n. and V.) dik'-tat 
(7iot dik-tat'). 

didactic, di-dak'-tik. 

diffuse, (v.) dif-fuz'; (a.) dif- 

diffusive, dif-fti'-siv. 

digest, (t;.) di-jSst' ; (n.) dl'- 

digression, di-gr6sh'-un. 

dilapidate, di-iap'-i-dat. 
dilate, di-lat'. 
dilemma, di-l6m'-m&. 
diluvial, di-i6'-vi-ai. 
dimension, di-mgn'-shun. 
diocesan, di-cs'-6-san. 
diptheria, dif-the'-ri-a. 

dipthong, dip'- or dif -thOng. 

direct, di-r6kt'. 
dis-, (not diz-, except in the 
words specified below.) 

disaster, dxz-as'-ter. 

discern dis-zem'. 

discrepancy, dis-crgp'-Sn-sl 
disease, diz-ez'. 
dishabille, dis'-a-bel'. 

ale, me, file, nota. pure, fSr, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, lx)y. 



dismal, diz'-niS,l. 
disputable, dis'-pu-ta-bl. 

disputant, dis'-pu-tant. 
dissolve, diz-zOlv'. 
distich, dis'-tik. 
divan, di-van'. 
divers, di'-verz. 
diverse, dl-vers' or di'-. 
divulge, di-viilj' {not d!-). 
docile, dOs'-il, or do'-sil. 

does, {v.) duz. 

dolorous, d6l'-6-rus. 

dominie, d6m'-i-ni. 

donation, do-na'-sliun. 

donative, don'-a-tiv. 

donjon, dOn'-jOn. 

donkey, d5ng'-k6. 

dost, dust. 
doth, duth. 

double entendre, Fr., d6'- 

bl 6n-t6ndi-'. 
douceur, doo-ser'. 
douche, d6sh. 
draft, draft. 
drama, dra'-ma. 
draught, draft. 
droU, drol. 
dromedary, drttm'-g-der-i. 

drought, drowt (not drowth). 

du-, du- before a vowel, except 
in diic'-at, before a conson- 
ant followed by a vowel. 

dubious, du'-bi-iis. 

ductile, dtik'-til. 

duty, du'-ti {not d6'-ti). 

dynamics, di-nam'-iks. 

dynamite, din'-a-mit. 

djmasty, din'-as-tl 


early, er'-li {not ar' li). 

easel, e'-zi. 
ebony, 6b'-on-i. 

ebriety, S-bri'-Iti or e-bri'- 

ebullition, Sb'-iil-lish'-un. 
6carte, a-ka.r'-ta. 
Ecce Homo, 6k'-sg ho'-mo. 
eccentric, Sk-s6n'-trik. 

eccentricity, ek'-sSu-tris'- 


echelon, gsh'-g-low^r. 

6clat, Fr., a-kla'. 

eclogue, 6k'-lo;^. 

economical, 6k'-o-n5m'-i-kal 
{or e'-ko). 

ecstasy, ek'-sta si. 


ecumenical, ek'-u-mgn'i- 

edible, 6d' i-bl. 

edict, e'-dikt. 

edify, gd' i-fi. 
edifice, gd'-i-fis. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fai-, her, move, awl, owl, good, boy. 



edile, or aedile, e'-dii. 
educate, gd'-u-kat {not Sd'-i- 

e'er, ar. e'en, en. 
efifete, 6f-fet'. 

effort, gf-fOrt {not -furt). 

effrontery, Sf-frun'-tei-i. 
effuse, sf-fuz'. 
effusive, Sf-fu'-siv. 
eglantine, Sg'-lan-tin. 
ego, e'-go. 
egoism, e'-go-izm. 
egotism, gg'-o-tizm. 

egregious, e- or S'-gre'-ji-us. 
either, e'-thev or \'-th6Y. 

eleemosynary, 6l'-6-mOz'-i- 


elegy, si'-6-ji. 
elegiac, gl'-s-ji'-ak. 

elenchus, e-lSngk'-us. 

elephantine, Si'-efan' tin. 
Eleusinian, Sl'-u-sin'-i-an. 
61eve, Fr., a-lav'. 

eleven, 6-igv'-n (too< isvn). 
eligilble, 81' i-ji-bl. 

61ite, Fr., a-let'. 
elixir, 6-lIks'-er. 

Elizabethan, e-liz'-Srbeth'- 

elm, 61m {not Sr-um). 
elocution, 61'-o-ku'-shun. 
61oge, Fr., a-lozh'. 

eloquence, 61'-o-kw6ns. 
elucidate, 6-16'-si-dat. 
elude, 6-16d'. 
elusive, S-16'-ziv. 
Elysian, s-iizh'-i-an. 

Elysium, g-Hzh'-I-iim. 
emaciate, 6-ma'-shi-at. 
embalm, Sm-bam'. 

embrasure, Sm-bra'-zhoor. 

embryo, Sm'-bri-o. 
emendation, Sm'-gn-da'- 


emeritus, e-mgr'-i-tus. 
emetic, S-mSt'-ik. 
6meute, a-mut'. 

emir, e'-mer. 

emissary, Sm'-is-ser -i. 

emollient, 6-mOl'-li-6nt (yr 

emolument, 8- or e-moi'-u- 

emotion, S- or e-mo'-shttn. 
empiric, Sm-pir'-ik. 
empyrean, Sm'-pi-re'-an. 
encore, an^/'-kor. 
encyclical, Sn-sik'-li-kai. 
encyclopaedia, 6n-si'-kl6- 


endemic, gn-dsm'-ik. 

enervate, 6n'-er-vat or 6- 

enfranchise, Sn-fr&n'-chiz or 

engine, 6n'-jln {not -jln). 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



enginery, 6n'-jin-ri, 
English, ing'-glish. 
enigma, e- or 6-nIg'-ma. 
ennoble, 6n-no'-bl. 
ennui, Fr., an'-we. 

ensemble, an^-sam'-bl. 

enteric, 6u-t6r'-ik. 
enthusiasm, Sn-th6'-zi-azni. 
entity, 6n'-ti-ti. 
entree, angr'-tra. 
entrepot, ang-'-t. po. 
envelop, {v.) Sn-vgi'-op. 
envelope, (w. ) 6n'-v6l-op. 
envious, Sn'-vi-us. 
environ, Sn-vi'-rOn. 

environs, gn'-vI-iOnz or 6n- 

eOZOOn, e'-o-zo'-on. 

epaulet, Sp'-aw-igt. 
ephemeral, s-fSm'-g-ral. 
epicurean, Sp'-i-ku-re' an. 
epidemic, Sp'-i-dgm'-ik. 
epigrammatic, Sp'-i-gi-am- 


epilogue, 6i)'i-l6g. 
Episcopacy, S-pis'-ko pa-si. 
episode, Sp'-i sod, 
epistle, S-pis'-l. 
epitaph, 6p'-i-taf. 
epithalamium, gp'-i-tha la'- 


epithet, ep'-r-thgt. 

epitome, S-i>it'-o-m6. 

epoch, e'-p6k. 

equable, Sk'-wa-bl. 

equation, e-kwa'-shiin. 

equerry, gk'-w6r-i. 
equestrian, 6-kwgs'-trf-an. 
equilateral, e'-kwi-lat'-er-ai. 
equilibrium, e -kwi-lib'-ii- 


equine, e'-kwin. 

equinox, e'-kwI-nOks. 

equip, S-kwip'. 
equipage, Sk'-wi-paj. 
equipoise, e'-kwi-poyz. 
equitable, Sk'-wi-ta bl. 
equivalent, S-kwiv'-a-l6nt. 
equivocal, S-kwiv'-o-kal. 
ere, ar. 
Erebus, Sr'-6-bus. 

Erin, e'-iin. 

ermine, er'-min. 
errand, Sr'-rand 
errant, Sr'-rant. 
erratic, er-rat'-rk. 

erratum, er-ra'-tttm. 
erroneous, er-ro'-ne-us. 

erudite, Sr'-u-dit. 
erysipelas, Sr' -i-sip'-g-ias. 
escalade, gs'-ka-lad'. 
escapade, Ss'-ka-pad'. 
eschatology, 6s'-ka-toi'-o-jr. 
escheat, Ss chef. 
eschew, Ss-ch6'. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



escort, (n.) Ss'-kOrt ; (v.) 6s- 

escritoire, Ss'-krl-twawr'. 

Esculapian, gs'-ku-la'-pi-an. 

esculent, 6s'-ku-lent. 
EsCUrial, 6s-ku'-rl-al. 

Eskimo or Esquimaux, 


esoteric, 6s'-o-t6r'-ik. 
espionage, Ss'-pe-o-naj' or 

esplanade, Ss'-pla-nad'. 

esprit, Ss'-pre'. 

essay, (w.)6s'-sa; (v.) gs-sa'. 

estuary, Ss'-tu-a-rf. 
et-cetera, St-sSt'-S-i-a,. 

ether, e'-ther. 

ethereal, e-the'-ii-Sl. 

ethics, StJb'-iks. 

ethnography, 6th-nOg'-r&-f i. 
etiquette, St'-i-kSf. 
Eucharist, u'-ka-rist. 

EucholOgion, u'-k0-lo'-jt-6n. 

eulogy, u'-l6-jJ. 
eulogium, u-lo'-jf-um. 
euphemism, u'-^m-izm. 
euphony, u'-fo-ni. 
euphuism, u'-fu-izm. 
eureka, u-re'-ka. 

European, u'-ro-pe'-S,n. 

Euterpe, u-ter'-pe. 
euthanasia, u'-thun-a'-zlit-a ; 
evanescent, ev'-a-ngs'-Cnt. 
evangelical, e'-van-jgr-i-kai. 
evangelization, e-van'-jgl-i- 

evasion, 6-va'-zhun. 

evasive, 6-va'-s!v. 

every, 6v'-er-i (not 6v'-ri). 

ewe, u. 

exacerbate, 6ks-as'-er-bat. 
exact, 6gz-akt' (not 6ks-). 
exaggerate, 6gz-aj'-er-at. 
exasperate, 6gz as'-pei--at. 
ex cathedra, eks' ka-the'- 


excerpt, ek-seipt'. 
excise, ek-siz'. 

excision, ek-sizh'-iin. 
exclusive, 6ks-kl6'-siv. 

excoriate, 6ks-ko'-ri at. 
excrescence, 6ks-ki-6.s' 6ns. 

excretion, Sks-kre'-shfin. 
excruciate, 6ks-kr6'-shl-at. 
exculpate, 6ks-kul'-pat. 
excursion, 6ks-ker'-shuR. 
excuse, (n.) 6ks-kus'; (v.) 

execrate, 6ks'-6-krafc. 
execute, 6ks'-6-kut. 

execution, 6ks'-6-ku'-shun. 
executory, 6kz-Sk'-u-ter-i. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fkr, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



executive, 6kz'-6k'-u-tiv. 

exegesis, sks-s-je'-sis. 

exemplar, ggz-em'-pler, but 

exemplify, 6gz-6m'-pli-fi. 
exempt, 6gz-6mt'. 
exhale, 6gz-hal'. 
exhaust, 6gz-awst'. 

exhibit, Sgz-hlb'-It, or 6gz-Ib'- 

exhibition, sks'-hi-bish'-un. 

exhilarate, ggz-hU'-er-at, or 

exhort, 6gz-liOrt', or 6gz-0rt'. 

exhume, 6ks-hum'. 
exigent, 6ks'-i-j6nt. 
exigency, 6ks'-i-jSn-si. 
exiguity, sks'-i-gu'-i-ti. 

exile, Sgz'-il or 6ks'-Il, 
exist, Sgz-Tst' {not 6ks-). 
exit, 6ks'-it {wtt Sgz'-). 
Exodus, 6ks'-o-diis. 

exonerate, 6gz-0n'-er-at. 
exorbitant, 6gz-5i'-bi-tant. 
exorcise, sks'-or-siz. 
exordium, 6gz-0r'-di-run. 

exoteric, 6ks'-o-ter'-Ik. 

exotic, 6gz-ot'-ik. 
expatiate, sks-pa'-shi-at. 
expatriate, 6ks-pa'-tri-at 
expectorate, 6ks-p6k'-to- 

expedient, 6kz-i)e'-di-ent. 

expedite, eks'-j^g-dit. 

expert, (a.) eks-jiert'; {n.) 

expiable, eks'-pi-a-bl. 
expiate, 6ks'-pi-at. 
expletive, 6ks'-pje-tiv. 
explicable, 6ks'-pii-ka-bl. 
explicit, 6ks'-plts-it. 

exploit, 6ks-ployt'. 

explosive, sks-pio'-siv. 

exponent, Sks-pO'-ngnt {not 

expose, 6ks'-po-za'. 

expurgate, 6ks-per'-gat. ' 

exquisite, 6ks'-kwi-zit {not 


extempore, 6ks-t6uj'-po-r6 

{not -t6in-por). 

extirpate, 6ks-ter'-pat {not 

extol, 6ks-tOl' {not gks-tol';.) 
extra, Sks'-tra {not -trl), 

extraordinary, 6ks-tiOr'- 


extricate, 6ks'-tri-kat. 
extrinsic, sks-tdn'-sik. 

extrude, 6ks-tr6d'(?io<-tmd'). 

exuberant, 6ks-u'-ber-ant. 

exude, eks-ud'. 

exult, 6gz-ult' {not 6ks-). 


eyot, i'-ot. 

eyrie or eyvy, e'-r\ or a'-ri. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, move, awl, owl, good, boy. 



fable, fa'-bl. 
fabulous, fUb'-u-lus. 
fabric, fab'-iik. 
fayade, fa-sad'. 

facetious, fa-se'-shtts. 

facetiae, fU-se'-shi-e. 
facial, fa'-shi-ai. 
facile, fas'-il. 
facility, fa-silM-tl 
fac-simile, fak-sim'-i-ls. 

factitious, fak-tish'-us. 
faotory, fUk'-ter-i (not fak'- 

Fahrenheit, fam'-hit. 

faience, /'V., fa.-y dnys'. 

failure, fal'-ur. 

fait accompli, fat' ak-kOm'- 

fakir, fU-ker'. 

falchion, fawl'-shun. 
falcon, faw'-kn. 
fallacious, t'al-la'-slms. 
fallacy, ial'-la si. 
falter, fawl'-ter. 

familiarity, fa-mn'-i Sr'-i-ti. 
fanatic, fa-nat' ik. 
fanfare, Fr., fau'-far. 
fantasia, fan-ta'-shi-a. 

fantastic, fan-tas'-ttk. 

farina, fa-ve'-na or -rV-. 
farrago, far-ra'-gO. 

farther, far'-tlier, or fur- 
ther, fer'-ther.* 
fatigue, fa-teg'. 

fatuous, fat'-u-us. 
faubourg, Fr., fO'-boorg. 
fauces, faw'-sez. 
fault, fawlt (not folt.) 
fauteuil, Fr., fo-tal'. 
favourite, fa'-ver-it (not -it) 
fealty, fe'-al-ti (not fel'-ti). 

feasible, fe'-zt-bl. 

feature, fe'-tur or -choor. 

febrile, feb'-nl. 
febrifuge, fSb'-ri-faj. 
February, i^b'-io-er-i (not 

f6b'-u-&-rI nor f6b'-i-wer-ri). 

fecit, fe'-sit. 

fecund, fek' iind. 

federal, fed'-er-Sl (not f6u" 

feign, fan. 
feint, fant. 
feline, fe'-lin. 

fellow, fel'-io (not fel'-li). 

felon, f^l'-on. 
felucca, fe-luk'-ka. 
female, fe'-mal. 

* Though both terms are in good use, further is the genuine Saxon word ; far- 
ther takes precedence, however, in modern use. The accepted rule seems to be as 
follows : farther is applied to physical distance ; further refers to the progress of 
an argument or inference. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fkr, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



feininine, f^m'-i-inn. 
femme-couverte, fam- 

femoral, f6m'-5-i-s,l. 
Fenian, fe'-ni-an. 
feofiE f6f. 
ferment, (n.) fer'-mgnt ; (u.) 

ferocious, f^-rO'-shtis. 

ferocity, fe-ro.s'-i-ti. 
ferreous, f6i'-ii-us, also fer- 
rous, fgr'-iis. 
fertile, fer'-tll or fer'-tll. 

ferule, fSr'-ul. 

fete, fat. 

fetich or fetish, fe'-tish. 

fetid, f6t'-id or fe'-tld. 
feudatory, fu'-da-ter-I. 

feu-de-joie, Fr., fo'-dg-zhwii'. 

feuilleton, Fr., {6'-l-t6ng. 
fiacre, Fr., fe-ak'-r. 

fiancee, Fr., fe'-Sw^-sa'. 

fiasco, fe-as'-ko. 
fichu, fIsh'-6. 
fidelity, fi-dSP-i-H. 

fiduciary, fl-du'-shl-er-I. 

fief, fef. 

fieri facias, fr-Sr-i fa'-shi- 


figaro, fe'-ga-ro'. 

figure, f'Tg'-tir or -er. 
film, film (not fll'-um). 
finical, fin'-I-kal, 

finale, fi-na'-la, 

finance, f i-nans'. 

financial, fi-nan'-sh&l. 
finesse, fl-n6s', 
finger, fing'-ger. 
finis, fi'-nis, 
finite, fi'-nit. 

fiord or fjord, fl-ord' ur 

first, ferst (not furst). 
fissure, fish'-oor. 
flaccid, flak'-sld. 
flageolet, flaj'-&-l6t. 

flagitious, fla-jish'-us. 
flagon, flag'-On. 

flagrant, fla'-giant. 
flambeau, flam '-bo. 

flaunt, flawut or flant. 
fleur-de-lis, flar-dS-le' 
flaw and flue, fld. 

flora, flo'-r&. 


Florentine, flOr'-Sntin or 

florid, fl6r'-id. 
florist, flOr'-Ist 
flotage, flo'-taj. 
flotsam or floatsam, flot'- 


fluctuate, fluk'-tu-at. 

fluvial, flo'-vi-al. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f&r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



focus, fb'-kus ; pL, fo'-cuses 

or foci, fo'-si. 

foible, foy'-bl. 

folio, fo'-li-o. 

foment, fo-mSnt'. 
forage, f6i-'-aj. 

forbade, tQr-bad'. 
forecastle, for'-kas-l or 

forefend, for-fgnd'. 
forehead, for'-sd. 
forensic, f6-i6n'-sik. 
forfeit, for'-fit. 
forge, forj. 
forgery, for'-jer-l 
formidable, ftir'-mi-da V)l 

{not f5r-mid'-). 
fort, fort, but fOrt'-ress. 
fortnight, fOrt'-nlt {not nil). 
forty, fOr'-ti {not foi-'-tl). 
forward, fOr'-werd {not for'- 


fracas, frS-ka'. 
fragile, fraj'-U. 
fragmentary, Mg'-m6n- 


fragrant, fra'-gi-ant 

franchise, fran'-chiz or -chTz. 

frankincense, frangk'-in- 


fraternize, frat'-er-nis. 
fratricide, fjat'-ii-sid. 
fre'quent (a.); frequent 

friends, frSndz {no' frgnz). 
frontier, frOn'-ter {not frun'-). 
frugal, fr6'-gal {nut fru-). 
fruit, fr6t {not frut). 
fruition, fr6-ish'-un. 

fuchsia, fu'-siii-a. 

fuel, fu'-6l {not ful). 

fugue, fug. 

fulcrum, ful'krum {not 

fulminate, ful'-mi-nat. 

fulsome, ful'-sum {not fool'-). 

functionary, ftingk'-shun- 

furniture, fer'-nl-tur or -111- 

fusil, fu'-zil. 
fusion, fu'-zhun. 
fustian, ftist'-i-an. 
futile, fu'-til or -til. 

Gaelic, ga'-llk or ga'-lik. 
gainsay, gan'-sa. 
gainsaid, gan' sad. 
gairish or garish, gar'-ish. 


gala, ga'-la or gk'-Yi. 

gala.-y, gal'-aks-i. 
gallant, (a.) gai'-ant; {v.) 

ale, me, file, note, piire, f4r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



galleon, gal'-ieon. 
gallows, gSi'-ioz. 

gamboge, gam-b6j'. 

gangrene, gang'-gien (not 


gantlet, gSnt'-lst, or gaunt- 
let, gavvnt'-lSt. 

gape, gap. gaping, gap' ing. 

garden, g4r'-dn {not g4i'- 

garrote, ga-rot'. 
garrulous, ga,r'-roo-las (voi 


garrulity, gar-r6l'-i-ti. 
gas, gS.s, but gaseous, ga' 

gaSCOCiade, g&s' kOn-ad'. 

gasometer, gas-5m'-6-ter. 
gather, gUh'-ev, 
gauche, Fr., gosh, 
gaucherie, gosh 're. 

gaudeamus, gawd'-e-a'-nms. 

gauge, gaj. 

gaunt, gawnt. 

Gehenna, ge-h6n'-na. 
gelatine, jsl'-a-tin, 
gemini, jSm'-i-ni. 
gendarme, Fr., zhang'- 


genealogy, je'-ne-ai'-o ji. 
generally, j6n,'-6r-ai-li (not 


genial, je'-ni-ai. 

genii, je'-m I. 

genius, je'-ni-us. 

genre-painting or -sculp- 
ture, zhkng'-r. 
Gentile, jsn'-til. 
gentleman, jSu'-tl-man ; pf. 

-mgn (not -mtin). 

genuine, jgn'-u-in. 
genus, je'-niis ; pi., genera 


geodesy, je-od'-6-si. 
geography, je Og'-ia-ft (v<d 


geometry, je-om'-S-tii (not 


Georgics, joi-'-jtks. 
gerryraander, gSr'ri-man'- 

gesture, jSs'-tur or -clioor. 

get, ggt (7iot git). 
gewgaw, gu'-gaw. 
geyser, gi'-zer. 

gherkin, ger'-kin. 
ghoul, g6l. 

giaour, jowr or ge-owr'. 
gibbous, gib'-biis (not jib). 

giblets, jib'-l6ts. 
gigantic, ji-gan'-tik. 
gigantean, ji'-gan-te'-an. 

gigOt, Fr., jig'-Ot. 

gilly-flower, jil'-i-flow'-r. 
gingham, ging'-am. 
giraffe, ji-i-af or zhi-raf'. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



girasole, zlirr'-a-.sol. 

gird, gerd. 

girl, gerl {not gurl). 

Girondist, ji-iOn'-dlst. 
gist, jizt. 

glacial, gla'-shl-al. 
glaciers, glas'-i-eiz or gla' 

glacis, glS.'-se or g)a'-sls, 
gladiator, glad'-r-a'-ter. 
gladiolus, gla-dl'-o-lus. 
glamour, glam'-er. 
glimpse, glims or gllnips. 

glisten, glis'-n. 

gluten, gl6'-t6n. 

glycerin, glis'-er-ln. 
gneiss, nis. 
gnome, nom. 

gnomon, no'-mon. 
gnostics, iiOs'-tiks. 
gnu, nu. 
Gobelins, gob'-linz. 

goblin, g5b'-Iin. 
God, gOd (not gaud). 

goitre, goy'-tr. 

Golgotha, g0l'-g5th-a. 

goloshe, (dso galoche, gc- 

gondola, gOn'-ds-ia. 

gone, gOn [not gawn). 

gooseberry, gooz'-b6i-ii. 

gorgeous, gOr'-ji-us or g5r'- 

gorget, g5r'-j6t. 
Gorgon, g5i'-g6n. 
gorilla, go-ril'-ia. 
gormand or gourmand, 

gOr'-mand or gor'-niaud. 

gospel, gOs'-p6l {not gaws'-) 

gouge, g6j. 

gourd, g6rd. 

gout, (taste) gd. 

gouty, (affected with the 
gout) gowt'-I. 

government, guv'-ern-m6nt 
{not guv'-er-m6nt). 

gramercy, Fr., gi fi-mer'-si. 
granary, gi-au'-ft-n. 

grandeur, grand'-yer. 
granter, gran'-ter. 
grantor, gran-tOr'. 

graphite, giaf-it. 
gratis, gra'-tis. 
gratuitous, gra-tu'-I-tus. 
gravamen, gra-va'-m6n. 
gravel, giav'-el {not grav'-l). 
grease, {n.) gres; {v.) gioz. 

gregarious, grg-ga'-ri-iis. 

Gregorian, gr6-go'-ri-an. 

grenade, grg-nad'. 
grenadine, gr6n'-a-din. 

grew, gr6 {not gru). 

grevious, grev'-tis. 
grimace, gri-mas'. 
grimy, gi-i'-mi. 
groat, giot. 

ale, ine, file, iioto, pui-e, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



grocer, gio'-ser. 
groschen, grosh'-n. 
grotesque, gio-tgsk'. 
grovel, gi(iv'-l 

guano, goo-a'-no or gwS,'-no. 
guardian, gard'-i-Sn. 
guava, gwa'-va. 

gubernatorial, gu'-ber-na- 


guerdon, gei'-don. 
Habeas Corpus, ha'-bg-as 

habiliments, ha-bir-I-m6ntz. 
Hades, ba'-dez. 

haematite, he'-mS-tit. 
haemorrhage, hgm'-or-iaj'. 
halcyon, har-si-on. 
half, haf. 
half-penny, ha'-pen-ni. 

Hallelujah, hal'-li-ld'-ya. 

halloo or halloa, lial-16'. 
hallucination, hal-l6'-si-na'. 


halo, lia'-lo. 

handbook, hand'-book (not 

handkerchief, lian'-ker-chxf. 
handsome, Land'-sum. 
harangue, ba-iang'. 

harass, har'-as {not ha-ras'). 

harassed, har'-ast. 

guillotine, gil-Jo-ten'. 
gum-arabic, guin-ar'-5-bik. 
gulch, gulch. 

gunwale, guu'-6l. 
gutta--percha, gut'-ta-pei'- 

cha {not -ka). 

gutteral, gut'-ter-ah 

gymnasium, jim-na'-zi-um, 
gypsum, jip'-sum. 
gyve, jiv ; gyves, jivz. 


harem, ha'-rSm. 
hasten, ha'-sn. 

haunch, hawnsh or hansh. 
haunt, hawnt or hant. 

hauteur, ho-ter'. 
hearken, har'-kn. 
hearth, harth. 
heathen, he'-th?n. but 
heather, heth'-er. 

heaven, h6v'-n. 
Hebe, he'-be. 
hecatomb, hsk'-a-tom. 

Hegira, he-jl'-ra or hgj'-ra. 

heigh-ho, hi'-ho. 

height, hit {not hith). 
heinous, ha'-nus. 

heliotrope, he'-li-o-trop. 
Hellenic, hel-le'-nik. 

helot, hel'-Ot or he'-lOt. 

hemistich, h6m'-i-stik. 

hepatic, he-pat'-Ik, 

ale, nie, file, note, pure, fS.r, her, move, awl, owl, good, boy. 



heptarchy, hep'-tar-ki. 
herald, hgr'-ald. 
heraldic, h6-ial'-dik. 

herb, herb or erb. 
herbaceous, her-ba'-shtls. 

herbage, her'-baj. 

herbivora, her-biv'-O-ra. 

herculean, her-ku'-le fin. 
hereditary, hg-iSd'-iter i. 
hero, he'-io. 

heroic, he-ro'-ik. 

heroine, hSr'-o in. 
hexameter, heks-Sm'-g-ter. 
hey-day, ha'-da. 

hiatus, hl-a'-ttis. 

hibernate, hi'-ber-nat. 
Hibernian, hi-bei'-ni an. 
hiccough, luk'-ttp. 

hideous, hid'-i-us. 
hierarch, hi'-er-ark. 

hilarious, hi-la-ii us. 

hilarity, hi-lar' i-ti. 

Hindoo or Hindu, hin-do'. 
hippuric, lup-pu'-iik. 

hirsute, her-sut'. 
history, his'-t6-ri {not his'- 

histrionic, his'-trf-on'-ik. 

holocaust, hOl'-o-kawst. 

homage, li6m'-aj. 
homely, hom'-li. 

homestead, hom'-sted {not 

homoeopathy, ho'-me-op'- 


homogeneous, ho'-mo-je'- 

homon37m, hOm'-o-nim. 

honest, 6n'-6st. 

honour, On'-er. 
horizon, hO-rl'-zun {not hOi'- 

horologe, hor'-o-lcj. 

hors de combat, hor'-dg- 


hortative, h5r'-tfi-tiv. 
hospitable, hos'-pi-ta-bl. 
hostile, hos -til. 
hostler, Os'-ler. 

houri, how'-ri. 

Hugenot, hu'-gS-nOt or -n5. 

humble, hum'-bl. 

humour, u'-mer or hu'-mer. 
humus, hu'-mus. 

hundred, hun'-drgd {not 

hungry, hung'-gri {not hfing'- 

hurrah, hoor-ra'. 
hurricane, hur'-n-kaii. 

hussar, hooz-zar'. 

hybrid, hi'-biid. 
hydra, hi'-di-a. 
hydride, bi'-drid. 

ale, me, file, n5fce, pure, far, her, ni6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



hydrogen, hi'-dro-j6n. 
hydrography, hi-drOg'-ra-fi. 
hydrometer, hi-drOm'-g-ter. 
hydropathic, hi'-dro-path'- 

hydropathy, hi-drOp'-S-thi. 
hydrophobia, hr-dro-fo'- 

hydrostatics, hi'-dro-stat'- 

hygiene, hl'-jen or hl'-ji-en. 

hygienic, hr-ji-6n'-Tk. 
hymeneal, hi'-in6n-e'-a,l. 

iconoclast, I-k6n'-6-klast. 
idea, I-de'-a. 
ideal, i-de'-ai. 
idem, id'-gm. 
identity, i <l6M'-ti-ti. 
Ides, idz. 

idiom, id'-i iini. 

idiosyncrasy, id'-i-o-stng'- 

idol, i'-dOl. 
idyl or idyll, I'-dil. 
igneous, ig'-m-us. 
ignis-fatuus, ig'-nis-fUt'-a 


ignoble, ig'-no'-bl. 

ignominy, ig'-no-min-i. 
ignoramus, ig'-no-ra'-mtls. 

Ihad, il'-i-ad. 

hyperbole, hi-per'-bo-le. 

hjrperborean, hi'-per-bo' . c- 


Hyperion, hi-pe'-ri-On. 
hypertrophy, hi-per'- tio ft 
hypochondriac, hip' o- 

hypocrisy, hi-pOk'-rl-si. 

hypotenuse, lii-p<5t'-g-nfis 

(incorrectly hypoth-). 

hypothesis, hi-poth'-g-sis 

hyssop, his'-siip. 

hysteria, his-te-ri-a. 

hysterics, his-tSr' iks. 


illative, ii'-ia-Hv. 
illegal, il-le'-gal. 
illegible, il-isj'-i-bl. 
illusive, il-ld'-siv. 
illustrate, 5fl ifts'-trat. 

illustration, il'-liis-tra'-.sliuii. 

imagery, im'a-jer-i. 
imbecile, im'-bg-sel. 

imbroglio, Tm-brol'-yO. 

imitative, im'-i-ta-tiv. 

immanent, im'-ma-ngnt. 

immature, im'-ma-tur. 

i'Timediate, im-me'-dl-al (noi 

imminent, im'-nii-ngnt 
immolate, im'-Mio-lat. 

immunity, im-mu'-nl-ti. 

immure, im-mur'. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f&r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



immutable, im-mu'-ta-bl. 
imperturbable, im'-per- 


impermeable, im-peii'-me 


impetus, im'-jig-tus. 

impetuous, im-p6t'-u-us. 

impiety, im-pi'-g-ti. 

impious, im'-pi-us. 

implacable, im-pla'-ka-bl. 
implement, (v.) im'-ple- 

iiigiit'; (n.) im'-pl6-m6nt. 

implicate, im'-pli kat. 
implicit, im-i>lis'-it. 

import, (v.) ini-port'; (n.) 

importune, im'-pui-tun. 
importunate, im-p6r'-tu- 

impost, ini'iwst. 

imposture, im-p5s'-tur. 
impotent, iin'-i)d-tSnt. 
imprecate, im'-prg-kat. 
imprecatory, Im'-pr6-ka'- 


impregnable, im-prgg'-na- 

impresario, im'-prSs-a'-rf-o. 

impress, (v.) Im-pres'; (n.) 

imprimatur, Im'-pri-ma'-ter. 

imprimis, im-pir-niis. 
improbity, im-prob'-iti. 

impromptu, im-prOmp'-ta. 
improvident, im-pr6v'i 

improvise, im'-pro-vez'. 

imprudence, im pr6'-d6ns. 
impudent, im'-pu-d6nt. 
impugn, im-pun'. 
impunity, im-pu'-ni-tL 
inadequate, in'-ad'-g-kwat. 
inadvertent, in'-ad-vei'- 


inalienable, iti-al'-vSn-abl. 

inamorata, in-fim'-o-ra'-ta. 

inapplicable, in-ap'-plr-ka- 

inaugural, in-aw'-gu-rai. 

inauspicious, In'-aw-si)ish'- 


incalculable, in-kai'-ku-lfi- 

incandescent, in'-kan-dss'- 


incarnate, in-kar'-nat. 
incendiary, in-sSn'-di-a-rr. 
incense, in'-sSns. 
incentive, in s6n'-tiv. 
inchoate, in'-ko-at. 

incisive, in-sl'-siv, (not -ziv), 

inclement, in-klSm'-gnt. 

inclusive, in-kl6'-slv. 
incognito, in-kOg'-ni-to. 
incoherent, in'-ko-lie'-rgnt. 

incommensurable, in'- 


ale, me file, note, pure, far, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



incommunicable, in'-kom- 


incomparable, m-kom'-pa- 


incompatible, in'-kcm-pat'- 

incongruity, in.'-k5ii-gr6'- 


inconvenience, in'-k6n-ve'- 


incorporeal, in'-k5r-po'-r6-ai. 
incorrigible, in-k6r'-ri-ji-bl. 

increase, m'-kres, {not In- 
incredulous, In-krSd'-u-lus. 

increment, In'-kr6-m6nt. 
incriminate, in-krim'-i-nat. 

incubate, in'-ku-bat. 
in'cubus, In'-ku-biis. 

indecorous, in'-de ko'-rus. 
indenture, in-dgn'-tur. 

Indian, in'-dl-an or ind'-yan, 

(not In'-jun). 
indicative, in-dik'-a-tiv. 
indicatory, in'-di-ka'-ter-i. 

indictment, in-dit'-mgnt. 

indigenous, in-dij'-g-nus. 
indigent, in'-dl-jent. 

indisputable, in-dis'-pu-ta- 

indissoluble, in-dis'-sol-u- 

indite, in-dit'. 

indocile, in-dOs'il or in-d6'-sil. 

indolent, in'-do-lsnt. 
indomitable, in-d5m'-i-ta-bl. 
indubitable, in-du'-bi-ta-bl. 

indurate, in'-du-rat. 

industry, in'-dtis-tii. 
industrial, in-dus'-tri-&l. 
inebriate, in-e'-bi-i-at. 
ineffable, in-gf-fa-bl. 
ineffaceable, in'-6f-fas'-a-bl. 
inefficacious, in-gf-fi-ka'- 


ineligible, in-6l'-i-ji-bl. 
inequitable, in-gk'-wi-ta-bl. 
ineradicable, in'-g-rad'-i-ka- 

inertia, in-er'-shi-a. 

inestimable, in-6s'-ti-ma-bl. 
inexhaustive, in'-6gz-haws'- 

inexorable, in-6ks'-5-ra-bl. 

inexpedient, in'-6ks-pe'-di- 


inexpiable, in-6ks'-pi-a-bl. 

inexplicable, in-6ks'-pli-ka- 


inextricable, in-sks'-trf-ks- 

infamous, In'-fa-miis. 

infantile, in'-fan-til. 

infecund, in-f^k'-iind. 

infinite, in'-fi-nit, 


infrequent, in-fre'-kwgnt. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fkv, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



ingenious, in-je'-ni-us. 

ingenuous, in-jgn'-a-us. 
ingratiate, in-gra'-shi-at. 

inhospitable, in-h6s'-pi-ta- 

inimical, in-im' i-kai. 

inimitable, in-im'-i-ta-bl. 
iniquitous, in-ik'-wi-tus. 
initial, in-ish'-al. 

innate, in'-nat. 

innoxious, in-nOk'-shi-tts. 

innuendo, iu'-u-6n'-do. 
inoflacial, in'-of-fish'-ai. 

inoperative, in-Op'-per-a-tiv. 
inopportune, in-6p'-p5r-tun. 

inordinate, in-Oi '-di-nat. 
inquiry, in-kwi'-n, 

insalubrious, in'-sa-16'-bii- 

insalutary, in-sar-a-ter i. 

insatiable, in-sa'-sla-a-bl. 

inscrutable, in-skrd'-ta-bl. 

insects, in'-s6ktz. 

insensate, in-s6n'-s5t. 
inseparable, in-.sgp'-a-i-a-bl. 

insidious, in-sid'-i-us. 

insignia, m-sig'-iu-a. 

insipid, in-sip'-id, 

insolent, in'-so-lsnt. 
insoluble, in-sor-a-bl, 
insouciance, Sng-soos'-e- 

insular, in'-su-ler. 

integer, in'-tg-jer. 
integral, in'-tg-grai. 
integrity, in-tgg'-ri ti. 
intercalary, in-ter'-ka-ler-i. 

interdict, In'-ter-dikt'. 

interesting, in'-tei-6st-ing. 

interim, in'-ter im. 

interlocutor, in'-ter-lok'-u 

interloper, in'-ter-lo'-per. 

interlude, in'-tei--16d. 
intermediary, in'-tSr-me'- 


interminable, in-ter'-mi-na- 

intermittent, in'-ter-mit'- 


international, in'-ter-nash' 


internecine, m'-ter-ne'-sin. 

interpolate, in-ter'-po-lat. 

interposition, in-ter'-po 


interpret, in-ter'-prst. 

interrogate, in-ter'-ro-gat, 

hut in'-terrog'-ative. 

interstice, in-ter'-stis or in'- 

intervene, in'-ter-ven'. 

intestate, in-t6s'-tab. 
intestine, in-tss'-tin. 
intimacy, in'-ti-ma-si. 
intimidate, in-tim'-i-dat. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



intituled, in-ti'-ti-ild. 
intransmissible, in-trans- 


intransmutable, in'-trans- 


intrepid... in-trgp' id. 
intrigue, in-tieg'. 

intrinsic, in-trin'-sik. 

intrusive, iii-ti-6'-siv. 

intuition, In'-tu isb'-tin. 

inundate, in-un'-dat. 
inure, in-ur'. 

inutility, in'-u-til'-i-ti. 
invalid, a. (null) iu-val' id ; 


invalid, n. (infirm) in'-va-led'. 

inveigh, m-va'. 
inveigle, in-ve'-gl. 

inventory, in'-v6n-ter-i. 

inveterate, in-v6t'-oi-af.. 

invidious, in-vid'-ius. 

inviolable, in-vi'-o-ia-bl. 

invOCate, In'-vo-kat. 

invoke, in-vok'. 
involuntary, in-vol'-un- 


iota, i-o'-ta. 
ipecacuanha, ip'-6-kak'-u- 


ipse dixit, ip'-sg diks'-it. 
irascible, i-ras'-si bl. 
iridescent, r-ri-d6s-sent. • 

iron, I'-ern. 

irory, I'-ron-i. 

ironic, I-rOn' ik. 

irradiance, n-ra'-dt-ans. 
irreclaimable, ir'-r6-kla - 


irreconcilable, ir-rgk'-on- 


irrefragable, ir-ref'-ia-ga-bl. 
irrefutable, ir'-rg-fu'-tS-bl. 
irrelevant, ii--r6l'-g-vant. 
irremediable, ir'-rg-me'-di- 


irreparable, ir-rSp'-S-ra-bl. 
irrespirable. ir rgs'-pi-ra-bl. 

irrevocable, ir-rev'o-ka-bl. 

irritant, ir'-ri-tant. 

isinglass, I'-zing-glas. 

isochromatic, I'-so-kro- 

isochronous, I-sOk'-rO-nus. 

isolate, I'-so-lat. 

isothermal, I'-so-ther'-ma]. 

Israelite, iz'-ra-gl-it 

issue, ish'-shu. 
isthmus, ist'-mus. 

Italian, i-tal'-yan. 
italics, i-tai'-iks. 

iteration, it'-er-a' shun. 

itinerant, i-tin'-er-ant. 

Ixion, iks-i'-On. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, move, awl, owl, good, hoy. 



jacinth, ja'-sinth. 
jackal, jak'-aw). 
Jacobin, j ak '-O-l iTn. 
Jacobite, jak'-o-bit. 

Jacobus, ja-k5'-l)us. 
Jacquerie, jak'-ri o?- zhak'-ii. 
jaguar, jag-u-ar or ja-gwar'. 

jalap, jjir-ap. 
January, jau'-u-Sr-i. 

Japanese, jap'-an-ez. 
jargon, jar'-gOn. 

jasmine, jas'-mtn. 
jaundice, jawn'-dis. 

jaunt, jawnt. 

javelin, jav'-lin. 
jealous, jei'-us. 
jehu, je'-hu. 
jejune, /'r., je-jfm'. 

jeopardy, j6p'-ei-di. 
jeremiad, jgr'-g-nii'-ad. 
Jerusalem, j6-r6-sa-lgm. 

Jesuit, j6z'-u-it. 

jewellery, jcV-cl-er-i. 

jocose, jO-kos'. 
jocular jOk'-u-ler, 
jocund. j5k'-uiid. 
jonquil, jOn-kwTl. 
joust, jost or just. 

jovial, jo'-vi-ai. 
jowl, jol. 
Judaic, j6 da'-Ik. 
judgment, juj'-m6ut {not 

judicature, j6'-di-ka^-tur. 
jugular, j6' gu-ler (wo^ jug'-). 

jujube, j6'-joob. 

julap, jO'-lap. 
junior, j6'-nl-er. 
junta, jun'-ta or j con '-til. 

juridicial, j6-rid' ik-ai. 

justiciary, jus-tish'-T-er-lt. 

justificatory, jus'-ti-fi-ka'- 

juvenile, j6-v6-nil or -nil. 


kaleidoscope, ka-ii'-do- 


keelson, kel'-sun. 

kept, kSpt (not kgp). 
kettle, k6t'-l {not kit'-]). 
Elhan, kawn. 

Khedive, ked-ev'. 
kiln, kil. 

kilometre, ktl'-o me'-tr. 
kinetics, kin-gt'-iks. 

kitchen, kitch'-gn {not kitch'- 

knowledge, nol'-gj. 

koumiss, k6'-mls. 
kreutzer, kroyt'-ser. 
Kyrie, kir'-i-e. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f4r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



laboratory, lab'-o-ra-ter-I 
(no! la-bOr'-). 

labyrinthine, lab'-i-rinth'- 

lachrymose, lak'-ri-mos. 
laconic, la-kon'-ik. 

lacuna, la-ku'-na ; pi lacu'- 
nae, -ne. 

lacustrine, la-ktts'-trin. 

lamentable, lam'-Sn-ta-bl 

(not lS.-m6nt'-). 

landau, ]a,n-do'. 

landlord, land'-l5rd (not 

Landwehr, ISnt'-var. 

langsyne, lang-sln' (not -zin). 

la " guage, lang'.gwaj (not 

langOUr, iSng'-gwei- (not 

LaOCOOn, la-Ok'-o-On. 

Laodamia, la'-od-a-mi'a. 

Laodicean, la'-Od-I-se'-an. 

lapsus linguae, lap'-sus 


laringeal, lar'-ing-je'-al. 

larynx, lar'-ingks or la'- 

lascar, las-ker'. 

latent, la'-t6nt. 

lath, lath ; pi. mhz. 

lathe, lath. 

Latin, lat'-in (not lat'-n). 

laudanum, lawd'-a num (not 

laughter, laf-ter. 

launch, lansh. 

laundry, lan'-dri. 
laureate, law'-ie-at. 

laurel, lOr'-gl or law'-rgl. 
Laurentian, law-ien'-shl-an. 

lava, la'-va. 
lazar, la'-zdr. 
leaped, lept or Igpt. 
learned, lern'-Sd. 

lecture, I6k'-tur or -choor. 
leeward, le'-werd or 16 -erd. 
legate, l6g'-at (not le'-). 
legend, I6j'-6nd or le'-j6nd. 

legerdemain, 1 6j ' -er-de - 


legible, lej'-i-bl. 

legion, le'-jun. 

legislative, isj'-is-la-tiv. 
legislature, l6j'-is-la-tur. 
legume, l6-guin'. 

leisure, le'-zhoor. 

lenient, le'-ni-gnt but len'- 

lethargy, l6th'-ar-ji, but 

Lethe, le'-the. 
lettuce, I6t'-tis (not ISt'-ttts). 

levee, iSv'-g. 
leverage, le'-ver-aj. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fAr, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



leviathian, l6-vi'-a-tlian. 

levin, lev '-in. 

Levite, le'-vit. 

levity, ]6v'-i-ti. 

Ley den-jar, la'- or ir-dn-jar. 

lex talionis, ISks ta'-li-o'-nis. 

liaison, le'-a-zon^'. 

libation, ll-ba'-shun. 
libel, ll'-b6l {not ll'-l)l). 
libertine, lib'-er-tln or -tin. 

licentiate, li-s6n'-shi-at. 

lichen, li'-kgn or lich'-6n. 
lictor, lik'-ter. 

lief, lef. lieve, lev. 

lien, le'-Sn or len. 

lieu, 16. liege, lej. 
lieutenant, I6f-t6n'-&nt, 

ligneous, lig'-ne-tis. 
lilac, li'-lak {not li'-l6k). 

lilliputian, lil'-ll-pu'-shan. 
limn, lim. 
lineage, lin'-g-aj. 
lineal, lin'-6 ai. 
lineament, lin'-g-a-mSnt. 

lingual, ling'-gwal. 
linguist, ling'-gwist. 


linoleum, lin-or-6-um. 

liquor, lik'-ev. 

lissom or lissome, lis'-sum. 

literary, lit'-er-a-ri. 

literati, pi. lit'-er-a'-ti. 

literatim, lit'-er-a'-tim. 

literature, lit'-er-a-tur. 
lithography, lith 6g'-ra-fi. 

litigious, li-tij'-tis. 

litigant, lit'-i-gant. 

liturgic, li-ter'-jik. 
livelong, Hv'-lOng, {not llv'-). 

livraison, Fr., liv'-ra-zow^'. 

livery, liv'-er i {not liv'-ri). 
llanos, la'-noz. 

loath, lotli. loathe, \oth. 
loathsome, lo«A'-sum. 

locale, lo-kal'. 

location, lo-ka'-shun. 
locum tenens, lo'-kttm te'- 


locus standi, lo'-ktls stan'- 

logarithms, j>l. log'-a- 


logomachy, lo-gOm'-a-k) 

loiter, loy'-ter. 

longevity, lon-jgv'-i-ti. 
longitude, l6n'-ji-tud. 
long-hved, long'-livd. 

loquacious, lo-kwa'-shtis. 

lorgnettes, Fr., pi., lorn- 

lottery, lOt'-ter i {not lOt'- 


louis d'or, 16'-i dor. 
lounger, lownj'-er. 
lower, (to bring low) lo'-8r. 
lower, (to overcast) lowr. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



lozenge, loz'-gnj. 

lubricate, !6'-brI-kat. 
lucid, Id'-sid. 

lucid '-ity. 
Lucifer, l6'-sr-fer. 
lucrative, lo'-ki-fi-tiv, 

lucre, lo'-ker. 

lucubration, l6'-ku-bra'- 

ludicrous, lo'-di-krus. 
lugubrious, l6-^u'-bri-us. 
lukewarm, lok'-wawmi. 
lullaby, lul'-a-bi ; lullabies, 

pi. -biz. 
luminous, lo'-ml-nus. 
luminiferous, l6'-mi-nlf er- 


lunatic, lo'-na-tik. 

lunch, liinsh. 
luncheon, lunsh' un. 

lunge, liinj. 

lupercalia, lO'-per-ka -li-a. 
lurid, I6r'-id. 
luscious, lush -us. 
lustre, Itts'-ter. 

lusus naturee, i6'-sus uri- 


lute, lot. 

Lutheran, 16'-ther-an. 
luxuriant, lug-zu'-ri-aut. 

luxury, luks'-u-ii. 

lyceum, ll-se'-um, {not ll'-). 

Lyonnaise, le'-un-naz'. 
lyre lir. 


Machiavelian, mak'-i-a vel'- 


machination, mak'-i-na'- 

macrocosm, mak'-ro-kOzni. 

Madeira, ma-de'-ra or ma- 


Mademoiselle, mad'-mo-a- 

maelstrom, mal'-strom. 

magazine, mag'-a-zen. 


Magna Oharta, mag'-na 

magnesia, mag-ne'-shi-a. 

magnolia, mag-no'-lT-a. 

Mahomet, ina'-liom-et. I)i( 


maintain, man-tan'. 

maintenance, m an'-tSi i 

majolica, ma-jdl' i-ka. 

malachite, mal'-a-kit. 
mal h. propos, maiap'-pro- 


malaria, ma-la'-ti-a. 
malign, ma-lin'. 

mall (a jmblic walk), maw], 
mal or raSl. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fSr, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



maninia, ma-ma' (not raam'- 

inanimillary, mam'-mil- 


mandarin, man'-da-ren'. 

manes, (L. pi.) ma'-nez. 

manganese, mSn'-gan-ez. 

manger, man'-jer. 

mangy, man'-ji. 

mania, ma'-ni-a. 

maniacal, iDa-ni'-a-ki. 

Manichean, man'-i-ke'-an. 

manoeuvre, ma-no'-ver. 

manor, man'-er. 

mansard-roof, man'-sard- 


mantua-maker, man'-tu- 


manure, ma-nur'. 

marasmus, ma-raz'-mus. 
mar6chal, mar'-a-shal. 

mareschal, mar'-shal. 

marigold, mar-' i-gold. 
marine, ma-ren'. 

marital, mar'-i-tai. 
maritime, mar' i-tim. 

market, m&r'-kSt (not mai-'- 

marque, mark, 
marquee, mar-ke'. 
marquis, mar'-kwis. 

marvel, mar'-v6l (not mar'- 

masculine, mas'-ku-lin (not 

massacred, mas'-sakerd 
(not mas'-sa-kred). 

massacring, mas'-sakring 

(not mas'-sa-ker-ing). 

master, mas'-ter. 

matins, mat'-lnz. 
matinee, mat'-In-a. 

matrice, ma'-tris. 

matrix, ma'-trtks (not m&V- 

matron, ma'-trOn (not mat'- 

matronal, ma'-trOn al. 
mattress, mat'-r6s (not 


matutinal, mat'-u-ti'-nai. 

mausoleum, maw-sO-le'-um. 

mauvais honte, mo-va 


mayoralty, ma'-er-al-ti. 
measure, mCzh'-oor. 

mechanist, m6k'-an-Ist (not 

Medici, mSd'-6-che. 

mediaeval, m6d'-i-e'-vai. 
medicinal, mC-dis'-i-nal (not 

medicine, mSd'-i-sin (rtot 

mediocre, me'-dl-o-ker. 


ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, hoy. 



medium, me'-di-tim, {not ^ miasma, mi-az'-ni& {not me). 

Michaelmas, mik'-si-mas 

{not mi'-k6l-mas). 
microscope, ml'-krO-skop 
{not mik'-ro-skop). So mi'- 

cro-scop'-ic, mi'-cro- 

midwifery, mid'-wif-ri. 
Mikado, mi-ka'-da 
Milan, mii'-an. 

milch, milch. 

mineralogy, min'-er-ai'-5ji 

{not mIn'-er-6l'-o-jI). 

miniature, min'-i-tur. 

minotaur, min'-o-tawr. 

minus, ml'-niis. 

minute, {adj.) mi-nut' or nil- 


minute, {n.) min'-lt. 
miracle, mir'-a-kl {-not m6r'- 

miraculous, mi-rak'-a-lus 

{not mi-r3.k'-u-lus). 
mirage, ml-razh' {not mir'-aj). 

misanthrope, mis'-an-throp 

{not miz'-an-throp nor mis- 

mischievous, mis'-chlv-iis 

{not mis-chev'-iis). 
misconstrue, mis-kOn'-str6 
{not mls-kOn-stroo'). 

miscreant, mis'-krg-ant. 
Miserere, miz'-gr-e'-rg. 

misery, miz'-er-l {not miz'-ri). 


meerschaum, mer'-shum. 

mel6e, ma'-la. 
meliorate, mel'-yO-rat. 
mellow, mSl'-l5 {not mgl'- 

melodeon, m6-lo'-d6-on, 
melodrama, mel'-o-dram'-a. 

memoir, m6m'-wawr. 

memory, mgm'-o-ri {not 


menace, m6n'-as. 

menagerie, m6n-aj'-6r-i or 

meningitis, mgnMng-ji'-tis. 
mensurable, m6n'-sur-a-bl. 
mensuration, m6n'-su-ra'- 

mercantile, m6r-'kS,n-til {not 

mesmerize, mgz'-mer-Iz {not 

m6s'-mer-iz). So mesmer'- 
ic, mes'-merism. 

messieurs, ni6s'-yerz. 
metal, mgt'-al or m6t'-L 

metamorphose, mgt'-a- 

metonymy, mg-tOn' i-mi or 

metropolitan, mgt'-ro-pol'- 

i-tS,n {not me'-lro-pOl'-i-tan). 
mezzotint, mgz'-zo-tlnt or 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fS,r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



mioogynist, mIs-Og'-i-nist. 

mistletoe, miz'-l-to (not 

mitten, mIt'-tSn (not mii'-n). 
mnemonics, ne-mOn'-Iks. 

mobile, mo'-bil. 
moccasin, mok'-a-sin. 
Mocha, mo'-ka. 

model, mOd'-Sl or mOd'-l. 
modest, m0d'-6st. 

moiety, moy'-6-tr. 

moisten, moys'-n (not -tn). 
molecular, mo-l6k'-u-ler (not 

molecule, mol'-g-kal (not 

kul nor mo'-lS-kul). 

moUient, mOl'-ygnt or mOl'- 

momentary, mo'-m6nt-er-i 
(not m6-m6nt'-S,-ri). 

monad, mOn'-ad (not mo'- 

monetary, mtin'-g-ter-i or 
m0n'-6-ter i. 

mongrel, mung'-grgl (not 

monogram, mOn'-o-gram 

{not m6'-no-gr3,m). 

monograph, mOn'-o-graf 
(not mo'-no-graf ). 

monologue, mon'-o-log, 
monomania, mon'-o-ma'-nt- 

S, (not mo'-no-ma'-ni-S,). So 

monomaniac, mdn'-o- 


monosyllabic, mon'-o-sl- 


monsieur, mOs-su'. 
monument, mon'-u-mgnt 

(not mOn'-i-inSnt). 

morale, mo-rai'. 

morphine, mOr'-fIn (not 

morsel, mOr'-s6l (not mOr'-sl). 
mortal, mOr'-tal (not mOr'-tl). 
Mosaic, mo-za'-ik, 
Moslem, mOz'-l6m (not mOs'- 


mosquito, mOs-ke'-to. 
moth, mOth ; moths, m6ths. 
mountain, mownt'-in or 


mountainous, mown'-tin- 

iis (not mown-ta'-ni-us). 
mouths, (n. pi.) mowthz. 
multiplicand, miil'-ti-pli- 


multiplication, mtll'-tt-pli- 


multitude, marti-tud. 
municipal, mii-iiis' i-j)a] {not 

munificent, mu-nif-I-s6nt. 
murderer, mur'-der-er (not 


muscovado, miis'-ko-va'-do. 
museum, mu-ze'-tim (n^t 
mu'-zS-um). < 

Mussulman, mus'-ul-m4n. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f^r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, bov. 



mustache or moustache, 

mus-tasli' or moos-tjisli'. 

myopia, mi-o'-pi-a. 

Naiad, na'-jad or ni'-ad, 
naive, na'-ev [not nav). 

naively, na'-ev-ii. 
nape, nap {not nap). 

naphtha, nap'-tha. 

narrate, nar-raf. 

narrow, nar'-io. 

nasal, na'-zal (^not na'-.'-al). 
nascent, nas'-ent {not na'- 

national, nash'-un-ai {not 

na'-shun al). 
nature, na'-tui- or -choor. 
nausea, naw'-slu-a {7iot naw'- 

.se-a). So nau'-se-ate. 

nauseous, naw'-slms or naw'- 

nearest, ner'-6st {not -ist). 

nebula, neb'-ii-la, pi -le. 
necrology, nfik-rol'-o-ji, but 

nectarine, uek'-ter-in. 

n6e, Fr., na. 
ne'er, nar {not ner). 

nefarious, n6-fa' -rf-us. 
neglige, Fr., na'-gle'-zha'. 

negotiate, nC-go'-shi-al. So 

ne-go'-ti-a-ble, ne-go'- 

myrmidon, nier'-ml-d6n. 

mythology, mitli-ol'-o-ji {not 



neighbouring, na'-ber-Ing 

{'not na'-brlng). 

neither, ne'-itAer or ni'-thei: 

Nemesis, ngm'-g-sis. 
nephew, nSv'-u. 
nepenthe, ne-p6u'-thg. 

nepotism, nSp'-O-tizm or ne'- 

nescience, nSsh'-r-ens. 

nestle, ngs'-l {not nes'-tl). 

nethermost, n^th'-er-moat 
(not n6th'-er-mdst). 

neuralgia, nu-rarji-a {not 

nu-ral'-ji nor nu-iai'-i-ji). 
neuter, nu'-ter {not noo'-ter). 

neutral, nu'-ti-al {not noo'- 

new, nu {not noo). 
newspaper, nuz'-pa'-per 

{not noos'-pa'-ptir). 

niche, nich. 

nicotine, nik'-O-ttn {not nik'- 

nihilist, ni'-hil-ist 

noblesse oblige, Fr., no- 
bles' o-blOzh'. 

nomad, nOm'-ad {not no'- 
niad') ; but no-niad'-ic. 

nomenclature, no'-mgn- 


ale, me, file, note, pore, fai-, her, m6ve, awl. owl, good, boy. 



nominative, nom'-i-na-tiv 

{not ii6m'-na-tiv). 
none, nun {not non). 

nonpareil, non'-pa-rgl. 
noose, ndz. 

nosology, no-sol'-O-ji or no- 

notable, no'-ts,-bl. 
Notre Dame, no'-tr dam. 

nothing, nuth'-ing {not n6tli'- 

novel, n6v'-6l {not n5v'-l). 
novitiate, nO-vlsh'-i-at {not 

nucleus, nu'-klS-ttS. 

nuisance, nu'-sans {not XI oo'- 

numerous, nu'-mer-us {not 

numismatics, nu'-mls-mat'- 

nuncio, ntln'-shi-o. 

nuncupative, nun-ku'-pS- 

nuptial, nup'-shSl {not niip'. 

nutriment, nu'-trl-mSnt {not 

noo'-tii m6nt). So nu'-tri- 

tive, but nu-tri'-tious, 


Oasis, o-a'sTs. 

oath, otli {^iiot bth). oaths, 

bth-L {not oths). 

obdurate, db'-du-rat. So 

obeisance, o-ba'-sans. 
obelisk, ob'-S-lisk. 

Oberon, O'-ber-On. 

obese, o-bes'. 

obit, o'-bit. 

obligatory, 6b'-hg-a-ter i. 

oblige, o-blij'. 
oblique, 5b-lek'. 
obloquy, ob'-lo-kwi. 
obscene, Ob-Sen', but ob- 

obsequies, 5b'-s6-kwiz. 

obsequious, Ob-se'-kwi-us. 
obsolete, 5b'-.s6-let. 

obstinacy, ob'-sti-na-si. 

obstreperous, 0V>-str6p'-er- 

obstruct, 5b-stiukt'. 

obtrude, ob-tiod'. 
obtuse, ob-tus'. 
obverse, ob'-v6rs. 
obviate, 6b'-vi-at, ob'-vi- 

occasion, Ok-ka' shun. 
Occident, 6k'-si-d6nt. 
occult, 6k-kfilt'. 

Oceanic, o'-shs a,n'-ik. 

octagon, Ok'-tA-gC>n, but 


ale, me, file, note, pure, fftr, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



octavo, 6k-ta'-v5. 
octosyllabic, Ok'-to-all-lab'- 

ocular, Ok'-u-ler. 
OCUliform, O-ku'-li-fawim. 
Odeon, o-de'-6n. 

Odin, o'-din. 

odious, o'-di-iis. 

odium theologicum, o'- 

di-iim the'-O-lOj'-i-kum, 
odoriferous, o-der-if -er us. 

Odyssey, od' 
cesophagus, e-s5f-a-gus. 

offertory, Of-fer-ter-L 

ofiO-cial, of-fish'-ai. 

Oflacinal, Of-fts'-I-nal. 

ogle, o'-gi. 
oleaginous, o'-lg-Sj'-i-nus. 

Olefiant, o-le'-fi-ant. 

oleomargarine, o'-16-o-mar'- 

olfactory, Ol'-fak'-ter-l 
oligarchy, cl'-i-gar-ki. 
olio, o'-li-5. 
olla podrida, ol'-l&' po-die'- 

Olympiad, o-iim'-pi-ad. 
omelette or omelet, Om'- 

6-l6t or Om'-let. 

omen, o'-mSn, but om -in- 

Omni (a prefix), 5m'-nJ. 
omniscient, 0ni-nish'-i-6nt. 

omnium gatherum, fic^'- 

nl-tim gath'-er-utn. 
once, wiins. 
onerous, 6n'-er-tis. 
only, on'-li, {not un'-li). 

onomatopoeia, oa'-o-ma-to- 


onus proband! o'-niis pro- 

onyx, On'-iks. 

Oolite, o' o-lifc. 

opal, o'-pal. 

opaque, o-pak'. 
opera, dp -ra. 
ophicleide, of-i-klid. 
ophidian, 6f-id'-i-an. 
ophthalmia, of-thai'-mi-a 
opiate, o'-pi-at. 
opine, o-pin'. 
opodeldoc, op'-o-dei'-dok. 

opossum, o-pos'-stim. 

opponent, Op-po'-ngnt. 

opportune, 0p'-p6r-tun. 
opposite, 6p'-po-zit {not -sit), 
opprobrious, Op-prC-bri-us. 
oppugn, Op-pun'. 
optimism, Op'-ti-mizm. 
opulent, 6p'-u-l6nt 
opuscule, o-pus'-kul. 

oracle, or'-a-kl, but o-rac'- 

orang-outang, o-iang'-oo- 


ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



oration, 5-ra'-shun, hut ov'- 

oratorio, 6r'-&-to'-ri-o. 

orchestra, Or'-kgs-tra, but 

orchid. Or -kid, also orchis, 

ordeal, 6r'-d6-al {not Or-de'- 

ordinance, Or'-di-nans. 

ordinary, Or'-di-na-ri {not 

ordnance, 6rd'-nS,ns. 
organ, Oi'-gan, hut organ'- 

orgies, Or'-jiz {not 6r'-jez). 

orifice, Or'-i-fis. 

Orion, o-rl'-un {not o'-ri-un). 
orison, Or'-I-zOn {not 5r'-i- 

ormolu, 6r'-ni5-16'. 
ornate, Or'-nat o,- Oi-nat'. 
orotund, o'-ro-ttind or Or-o- 


Orphean, Or-fe'-Sn. 
orpheon, Or'-fe-On. 

orthoepy, 0r'-tho-6-pI or 6i 

tho'-s-pi. So or'-tho-e- 
pist or ortho' epist, 

Osiris, Os-i'-ris. 

ostentatious, ds'-tsn-ta'- 

shus {not aws-). 
ostler, Os'-ler. 
ostracism, Os'-tra-slzm. 
ostrich, O.s'-tiich {not Os'-trij 

nor aws'-trich). 

ought, awt {not ort). 
oust, owst {not oost). 
outre, 6'-tra. 
ovation, o-va'-slmn. 
overseer, o'-ver-ser', 
overt, o'-vert {not 0-vert'). 
overthrow, o'-ver-thro' {not 

oxide, Oks'-Id (yr 6ks'-Id. 
oyer, o'-yer {not oi'-er). 


Pacha or Pasha, pS,-sli§,'. 
pachydermatous, pak'-i- 


pacification, pS-sif'-i-ka'- 

pacificator, pS,-sif'-i-ka'-ter. 
pageant, paj'-gnt or pa'-jSnt; 

hut pag'-eant-ry. 
palace, pai'-as. 

paladin, pal'-S-din. 
palanquin, pal'-ang-ken'. 
palaver, paia'-ver. 
Palestine, pal'-Ss-tin {not 

palfrey, pawl'-frl or pal'-frl. 

palisade, pal'-i-sad. 
palHative, pal'-li-a-tir 
palm, pS.m {not pSm). 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fdr, her, move, awl, owl, good, boy. 



palmy, p&m'-i {not i)S,m'-i nor 

palsied, pawl'-zld {not pal'- 

paltry, pawl'-tri, 
panegyric, pfin'-g-jii' ik. 

pannier, pfin'-yer or pan'-nl- 

panorama, pan'-5-r&'-ma,. 
pantaloons, pan'-ta-lOuz'. 
Pantheon, pau'-the-on. 
pantechnicon, p3,n-t6k'-nt- 


pantisocracy, p3,n'-ti-sok'- 


pantomime, pan'-to-mim. 

papa, pa-pa' {not pa'-p)a. 

papier-mach6, pap'-ya-ma'- 

papoose, pa-p6z'. 

papyrus, pa-pi'-i-iis. 
parabola, pa-i-ab'-o-ia. 
parabolical, par'-a-bor-i-kai. 
parachute, i)ai-'-a-sL6t'. 
Paradise, par'-a dis. 
paraflSne, p&r'-a-f in {7iot par'- 

parcel, par'-s6l {not p&r'-sl). 
paregoric, par'-5-gOr' ik. 
parent; pa'-r6nt {not p5r'- 

6nt) ; hut par'-ent-age. 
parenthesis, pa-rSn'-the-sls, 
hut par'-enthet'-ic 

parhelion, pS-r-hel'-yGn () 

Pariah, i)ar'-i-a or pa'-rl-a. 
parietal, pa-ii'-g-tai. 

Parisian, pa-rlz'-i-an. 

parlance, p^r'-iaiis. 
parley, par'-lr. 
Parliament, par'-li-mSnt 
parody, pai'-o-di, hui 

Parmesan, par'-m6-zan'. 
parole, pa-rol'. 
paronomasia, par'6-n5-ma' 

paronym, par'-o-nlm. 

parotid, p&-iot'-id. 
parquet, pfir-ka' or par'-ket. 
parterre, pSi-tar'. 
Parthenon, ])ai'-thg-nOn. 

partial, p4r'-shal. 

partiality, par'-shi-ai'-i-tL 
participle, par'-ti-si-pl {not 


partisan, par'-tl-zan {not pfir- 

partner, part'-ner {not pftrd 


partridge, par'-Mj {not pai 

rij, nor par'-tilch). 

parvenu, par'-v6-n6'. 
Pasha, pa-sha' or pa'-siia. 
pasquinade, pas'-kwin-ad. 
pass6, pas'-sa. 

&le, me, file, nOte, pure, far, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



Passover, p&s'-o-ver. 
pastel, pas'-t6l. 

pastil, pas-tel'. 

pastime, pas'-tim. 

patent, pS,t'-6nt or pa'-tent. 
patentee, pS.t'- or pa'-tgn'-te. 

paterfamilias, pa'-tei-fa- 

paternal, pa-ter'-nfil. So 

Paternoster, pat'-er- or pa'- 

path, pS-th (jiot \ifdK) ; pi. 

ipkthz (not paths). 
pathos, pa'thOs (not pSth'- 

patois, pSt'-waw. 

patriarch, pa'-tii ark. 
patrimony, ))at'-ii-ni6-ni 

(not pa'-tri-mO-ni). 
patriot, pa'-tii-Ot (not pat/- 

ri-ot). So pa'-tri-ot'-ic 
patriotism, ]>a'-tri-ot-iziu 

{not i)at'-ri-Ob-izin). 
patron, pa'-tiou (not pat'- 

i'5n). So pa'.troness. 

patronize, pat'-rou-Iz or pa'- 

trdn-iz. So pat'-ronage. 
patronymic, pat'-io- or pa'- 

paunch, pawnsh. 

penn, or paean, pe'-an. 

PeCCavi, pSk-ka'-vI. 

pectoral, pek'-to-ral. 

peculiar, p6-kul'-y&r or p6- 

peculiarity, pS-kul'-i-ar'-i-tr. 
pecuniary, p5-ku'-ni-a-ri. 

pedagogism, p6d'-a-gOg-Tzm 
(not p6d'-a-go-jizm). 

pedagogue, p6d'-a-gOg. 

pedagogy, p6d'-a-go-ji or 

pedal, (adj.) pe'-dai; (n.) 


pedant, p6d'-ant, but ped- 

pedestal, psd'-6s-tal. 

Pegasus, p6g'-a-sus. 
pellucid, p6l-l6'-sid). 

penance, pen'-rms. 

Penates, p6-na'-tez. 
penchant, pkng-shkng'. 
pencil, i)6n'-sil (not p6n'-sl). 

penitentiary, ' p6n'-i-ten'- 

shar i {not pgn'-i-t6n'-shi-a- 

pentameter, pSn-tam'-6-ter. 

penult, pe'-ntilt or pg-nult'. 

penury, p6ii'-u-ri, but penu- 

peony, pe'-o-ni. 

people, pe'pl. 
Pentateuch, p6n'-ta-tuk. 
penumbra, pe- or pS-uum'- 


peradventure, pSr'-ad-vSn'- 

ttir (not piii"'-). 

ale, me, file, note, ])ure, f&r, her, move, awl, owl, good, boy. 



perdu, perdu'. 

peremptory, p6r'-Smp-tcr-i 

(not p6-r6rnp'-to-n). 

perfect, {v.) p6r'-f6kt or per- 

perfidious, per-fid'-i-iis. 

perfume, («.) per'-fum. 
perfume, [v.) pei-fum'. 
perfunctory, per-fungk'- 

perhaps, per-ha,ps' {not 

periodic, pe'-ri-od'-ik. 
peripatetic, pSr'-i-pa-tgt'-ik. 

periphrase, pSr'-i-fraz ; also 

periphrasis, p6r-if-ra-sis 

[not p6r-i-fra'-sis). 
periphrastic, pSrM-fras'-tik. 
permit, («.) per'-mit; (u) 

Persian, per'-shan or per'- 

shi-au (not pgr'-zhan). 

Personse. dramatis per- 

SOnse, dram'-S,-tis per-so'-ue. 

persuasive, per-swa'-siv {7iot 

peruke, pSr-6k'. 
peruse, pgr-6z'. 

pestle, p6s'-tl or pSs'-l. 

petal, p6t'-al. 

petrel, pSt'-x-Sl {not pe'-trel). 
pewit, pe'-wit {not pu'-it). 
phaeton, fe'-S-tOn {not fe'-). 

phantasmagoria, fan-tas' 

phalanx, fal'-angks. 

pharmaceutic, far'-ma-su'- 

tik {not far'-ina,-ku'-tlk.) So 

pharmacopoeia, far'-ma-ko- 

pe'-a {not far-ma-ko'-pe-S). 

philanthropy, fil-an'-thro- 
pT {not fi-). So phil-an'- 
thro-pist, hut phil'-an- 

Philistine, filMs-tin or -tin. 

philology, fn-5r-5-ji {not 
fi). So philol'-o-gist. 

philosophy,. fil-lOs'-o-fi {not 
f i-). So phil-os'-o-pher. 

phlegm, fl6m. 

phoenix, fe'-niks. 
phonics, fOn'-iks or fo'-nlks. 

phosphorus, f6s'-f5i-us. 
photographer, fo-tog'-ra 

fer {not fo'-to-gra-fer). So 

Phrenological, fr6n'-o-loj'-i- 

kal {not fre-no-l6j'-ik-al). 
phthisis, thi'-sis. 

phthisic, tiz'-ik. 
physique, fi-sek'. 
physiognomy, fiz'-i-Og'-no- 

mi {not fIz'-i-5n'-o-mi). 
pianist, pl-an'-ist {not pe'- 

piano, pi-an'-o. 

ale, uie, file, note, pure, fllr, lier, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



pianoforte, pi-ftn'-o for'te. 

The pronunciation pl-an'o- 
fOrt, so often heard, is not 
sanctioned by the orthoe- 

piazza, pi-Sz'-zi 

pibroch, pe'-brOk. 

picayune, pik-a-un'. 

picture, pik'-tur or -choor. 

pigeon, pij'-un. 
pilaster, pMfis'-ter. 

pincers, pin'-serz {not pln'- 
sherz, unless spelled pin- 

pinchbeck, pinsh'-bSk {not 

piony, pi'-o-ni ; also peony, 

pe'-o-ni, is a better spelling 
and pronunciation. 

piquant, pe'-kant. 
pique, pek. 
piqu6, pek'-a. 
pismire, piz'-mir. 
placable, pia'-ka-bl or piak'- 

placard, {n.) plak'ard; {v.) 

placid, pias'-id. 
plagiarism, pla'-j'a-rizm. 
plagiarise, pla'-j'a-iiz. 

plaintifif, plant'-if. 
plait, plat (not plet). 
plateau, i)la-to'. 
platina, piat'-i-na. 
platinum, piat'-i-nfim. 

plebeian, plS-be'-Sn. 

Pleiades, ple'-ya-dez or pli'- 

plenary, ple'-na-ri or plgn'-a- 

plenipotentiary, pl6n'-i-po- 


plenitude, plSn'-i-tud {not 

pleonasm, p'e'-O-nazm. 
plethora, plsth'-o-ra {not 

plethoric, ple-thOr'-Ik. 

pliosaurus, plr-o-saw'-rtts. 
poetaster, po'-6t-as'-ter. 

poignant, poy'-nant So 


poison, poy'-zn {not pi'zn). 
police, po-les' {not pies). 

polonaise, po'-lo-naz'. 
polype, pol'-ip. 
polysyndeton, pol'-i-sin'-de 

pomade, po-mad' or i)o-mS,d'T 
poniard, pOn'-y^rd {not 


porcelain, pOrs'-lan, or pOr' 

porch, porch {not pawrch). 

porphry, pOr'-fi-ri. 
porpoise, pOr'-ptts. 
porridge, pOr'-rij. 
Porte, port. 
portend, p0r-t6ud'. 

ale, me, file, nOte, pure, f^r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



portent, pOr'-tgnt 

portfolio, p5rt-fo'-h-5. 

porte-monnaie, port-msn'- 

portrait, pOr'-trat {not p6r'- 

tvat). So por'-trai-ture. 

position, po-zish'-un. 
possess, p6z-z6s' {not pOs- 

s6s'). So pos-ses'-sive, 
pos-ses'-sion, etc. 

posterior, pOs-te'-i-i-er (not 

posthumous, pOst'-u-mus. 
postpone, p5st-pon'. 
posture, pOs'-tur or -choor. 
potato, pO-ta-'to. 
potentate, po'-tSn-tat {not 


potentiality, po-ten'-shi&l'- 

pourtray, por-tm'. 
prairie, pmr -L 
prebendary, prSb'-Sn-der-l 
•precedence, pr6-se'-d6ns. 
precedent, (adj.) prS-se'- 

dSnt ; (n.) prgs'-S-d6nt. 

precept, pre'-s6pt. 
preceptory, pr6-s6p'-ter-i. 

precis, pra-se' or pra'-se. 
precise, pr6-sls' {not prg-slz'). 

So pre-cise'-ly. 
predatory, pr6d'-a-ter-i or 

predecessor, pr6'-d6-s6s'-ser. 

predilection, pre-drlck- 

shan {not prgd-1 15k'-shaii 

nor prg-di-lik'-shiin). 
preface, {n. and V.) prSf'-as 

{not pre'-fas). 
prefect, pre'-ffekt. 
preference, prgf-er-gns. 
preferment, prg-fer-m6nt 
prehensile, prS-hen'-sil {not 

pr6-h6n'-sil). *" 

prelacy, prSl'-ft-sI {not prg'- 

prelate, prgl'-at {not prg'-lat). 
prelude, (n.) prSl'-ud or pre'- 

lud ; {v.) pi-e-lud'. 
premature, pre'-ma-tur. 
premier, pre'-ml-er or pr6m'- 


premium, prg'-ml-ttm. 

premunire, pre'-mu-nl'-r6. 
preposterous, prg-pOs'-ter- 
iis {not prS-pOs'-trus). 

presage, («.) prSs'-aj. 
Presbyterian, pr6s'-bi-te'-ri- 

presbytery, prgs'-bi-ter-i. 

prescience, pre-shl-6ns {not 
pre'-shens nor prSsh'-fins). 

So pre'-sci-ent. 
presentation, pr6z'-Sn-ta'- 

shan {not pr6'-z6n-ta'-shun). 

presentiment, pr6-s6n'-ti- 

mgnt {not pre zSn'-tI-m6nt 
nor pr6-z6nt'-mgnt). 

ale, me, file, nOte, pure, fftr, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



president, pr6z'-i-dSnt (not 

prestidigitator, pr5s'-tt- 

prestige, piSs'-tezh or prS.s - 

presumptuoas, prg-zum'- 

tu-iis (not pre-ztini'-shus). 

pretence, prg-tgns'. 

preterit, pr6t'-er-it. 
pretext, pre-tSkst'. 

pretty, prit'-ti. 
preventive, pre- or prS-vSi '- 

tlv (not prS-vSn'-ta-tlv). 
primary, pn'-mer-i. 

primer, prim'-er or pvi'-mcr. 

primeval, pri-me'-vai. 
primogeniture, pri'-mo- 

primordial, prI-mOr'-dl-al. 
princess, prIn'-sSs (not prm- 

prism, prizm (not pnz'-um). 
pristine, pris'-tin or -tin. 

prithee, ipvuh'-i. 

privacy, pri'-va-si (not prlv'- 

privity, priv'-i-tl 

probity, prOb'- or pro'-bl-tl. 
proboscis, pro-bOs'-sIs. 

proceeds, prs'-sedz. 

process, prOs' sSs or pro'-sSs. 

Procrustean, pio-krus'-te- 

procuress, prOkur'-Ss or 

prodigy, prod' i-ji. 
produce, (n.) prOd'-us; (v.) 


product, prOd'-ukt (not pro'- 

proem, pro'-Sm. 
proemial, pro-e'-mi-&l. 

profile, pro'-fel or pro'-fll. 
profuse, pro-fus' (not pro- 

progress, (n.) prOg'-rgs or 

pro'-gr6s. (v.) pro-grSs'. 

prohibition, pi o'-hi-bish'-un 

(not pro-I-bish'-un). 

prohibitory, pro-hib'-i-ter-i. 

project, (n.) pr6j'-6kt (not 
pvo'-jSkt) ; (v.) pro-j6kt'. 

projectile, pro-j6k'-til. 
proletariat, pro'-ls-ta'-ii-at. 

prolix, pro'-liks. 

prolocutor, pro-lOk'-u-ter or 

prologue, pro'-log. 
promenade, prOm'-g-nad'. 
Promethean, pvo-me'-thg- 

promiscuous, prQ-mis'-ku- 

promissory, prOm'-tsser-i. 
promontory, pr0m'-5n-tei' i. 

promulgate, pio-mul'gat 

(not prOm'-ul gat). 

ale, me, file, note, piiie, fir, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



promulgator, prOm'-fll-ga'- 

proimnciation, pro-nttn'-si- 

prophecy, piOf-5-si. 
prophesy, (v.) prOf'-6-si. 
propitiate, pro-pish'-i-at. 
prorogue, pro-rog'. 

prosaic, pro-za'-ik, 
proscenium, pro-se'-nl-um. 

proselyte, prOs'-g-lit. 
prosody, piOs'-o di. 

prosperous, prOs'-per-tis (not 

Protean, pro'-t6 -Sn or pro- 

prot6g6, prO'-ta-zha' (not 

prOt' S-zha). 

protest, (n.) pro'-tSst; (v.) 

prothonotary, pr5-thon'-«- 

protocol, prO'-tO-kOl. 

protoplasm, pro'-to-pia,sm. 

protrude, pro-tr6d'. 

protuberant, pro-tu'-ber- 


Provencal, pro-vawg-'-sai, 

provender, prOv'-6n-der. 

proviso, pio-vi'-zo. 
provocative, pvo-vok'-a-tiv. 
provocation, prov'-u-ka'- 


provoke, piO-vOk' (not ptlr-). 
provost, prOv'-Ost or pro'- 

prowess, prow'-6s (not pro). 

prudence, pro'-dgns. 
prune, pron. 
Prussian, prash'-ftn. 

prUSSic, prtts'-ik. 
psalmist, sam'-lstor sal' mKst. 
psalmody, sar-mO-di 07 

Psalms, sS-mz. 

psalter, sawl'-ter. 

pseudo, su'-do. 
pseudonym, su'-do-nira. 
psyche, si'-ke. 
psychology, si-kol'-o-ji. 
Ptolemaic, tol'-g ma'-lk. 
puerile, pu'-er-il or pu'-cr-Il. 
puerperal, pu-er'-per-al. 

puisne, pu'-ng. 

puissance, pu'-is-sans, 
puissant, pu'-is-S,nt or pu- 

pulmonary, ptH'-mOn-er i. 
pulpit, pool'-pit. 
pumice, pu'-mis or pttm'-is. 
pumpkin, pump'-kin, often 

mispronounced pQnk'-in. 

punitive, pu'-ni-tiv. 

purlieu, per'-lu. 
purloin, per-loyn'. 
purport (n. and v.) per'-pOrt 

ale, me, file, note,, pure, fkr, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, l>oy. 



purulent, pu'-roo-lSnt {not 

pursuit, per'-sut'. 
pursuivant, per'-swe-vant. 
purview, per'-vu. 
Puseyism, pu'-zi-izm (wo< 


pusillanimous, pu'-sil-ian'- 


pustule, ptis'-tul. 

put, poot (not put). 

putrescent, pu-trSs'-sgnt. 
pyaemia, pi-e'-mi-a. 

pygmean, pig-me'-an, 
pyramidal, pir am'-i-dal. 

pyramidic, pir'-a-mul' ik. 
pyrites, pi-ri'-tez. 
Pythagorean, pi-thag'-o-re - 

Pythoness, pr-thon-ss. 


Quadrille, ka-dril' or kwSr 
drll' (not kvv5d-rll'). 

quadrupedal, kw6d'-r6'-pe- 

quaff, kwaf. 
quagga, kwag'-gS. 

quagmire, kwag'-mir (rwt 

quality, kwOl'-i-tl (not kwOl'- 

qualm, k^am. 
quandary, kwOn-da'-ri. 
quantity, kwon'-titi. 
quarantine, kwOr'-au-ten. 
quarrel, kwOi'-r6l. 
quasi, (jyrefix) kwa'-sL 
quassia, kwSsh'-i-&. 

quaternion, kwa-ter'-nl-On. 

quatorze, ka-torz'. 

quatrain, kwOt'-ran or ka'- 

quay, ke. 

quelque chose, kelk'-s shoz. 

query, kwe'-i-i. 

queue, ka. 

quid nunc, kwld'-ntlngk. 

quid pro quo, kwid pro 


quiescent, kwi-6s'-s6nt. 

quinine, kwl-nln' or kwln'-lu 
Quirinal, kwi-ri-nal. 
qui vive, ke vev'. 
quoit, kwoyt or koyt. 
quondam, kwOn'-dam. 
quote, kwot (no' kot). 
quotient, k\vo'-sb6nt. 
quoth, kwoth. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f4r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 




Rabbi, rSb'-bl or rSb'-bl. 

raddish, i-ad'-ish (not vM'- 

raillery, rai'-er-I or ral'-er-i. 

rajah, ra'-ja or ra'-ja. 
rampage, ramp'-aj. 

rapacious, ra-pa'-shtls. 

rapine, rfip'-in. 
raspberry, ras'-bSr-i (not 

rather, rkth'-er. 
ratio, ra'-shi-O. 

ratiocinate, rasli'-i-os'-i-nat. 
ratiocinative, iSsli '-i os'-i- 

ration, ra'-shtln (not v&sh'- 

rational, rSsh'-iin-ai (not la- 


rationalist, rash'-un-al-ist. 
rationale, i-ash'-un-a'-is. 
ravin, iSv-in. 
ravine, ra-ven'. 
realization, re'-ai-i-za'-shtin . 
rebel, rgb'-Sl (not r6b'-l). 
rebus, re'-biis. 

recapitulate, re'-ka-pit'-u- 


receptivity, re'-sSi)-ti v' i ti. 

recess, rg-sSs' (not re'-s6s). 

Rechabite, r6k'-ab-it. 
recherch6, 16 sher'-sha. 

reciprocal, r6-sip'-r5-kal. 

reciprocity, r6s'-i-pr6s'-i-tl. 
recitative, r6s'-i-ta-tev (not 

reclamation, rgk'-ia-ma'- 

recluse, r^-kW (not rS-kluz'). 

recognizable, rgk'-og-niz'-Sr 


recognisance, rg-kog'-ni- 

zans or rg-kOn'izans. 
recognize, rgk'-Og-niz (not 

rgk'-o-nlz nor rg-kOg'-nIz). 
recollect, (to call to mind) 

rgk'-Ol-lgkt' (7iot re-). 
Recollet (a monk) ra'-kOl-la'. 
recondite, igk'-On-dlt or rg- 

reconnaissance, rg-kon'- 


reconnoitre, rgk'-On-noy'- 

recourse, rg-kOrs' (not re'- 

recovery, rg-kuv'-er-l 

recreant, rgk'-rg-ant (not re'- 

recreate, (to give fresh life 

to) igk'-rg-at (not re'-kre-at). 

So rec'-re-a-tion. 

recruit, rg-kr6t', 

rectitude, rgk'-ti-tud (not 

. rgk'-tl-tood). 

ale, me, file, nSte. pure, fS,r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



recusant, r6k'-u-zant. So 

redowa, rgd'-o-vi 

referable, r6f-er-a-bl [not r6- 

referrible, rg-fer'-i-bl. 

reflex, {adj.) re'-flSks. 

refulgent, r6-ful'-j6nt. 

refuse, (v.)r6 fuz'; (w.)r6f'-us. 

refutable, rg-fu'-ta-bl or igf- 

regicide, igj'-i-sid. 
regime, la-zhem'. 
regimen, r6j'-!-mgn. 

regius, re'-jl-us. 

regnancy, rgg'-nSn-st 

regress, (n.) re'-grSs; {v.) 

regular, rSg'-u-ler {not rSg'- 


rehabilitate, re'-ha-bil'-i-tat. 
Reichstag, richs'-t&g. 
relaxation, re'-iaks-a'-shun 

or rgl'-Sks-a'-shtin. 

relevant, iSr-5-vant 
reliquisB, rS-lik'-wi-e, 

remainder, rS-man'-der {not 

reminiscence, r6m'-i-nis'- 


remonstrate, rg-mon'strat. 
remunerative, rg-mu'-ner- 

renaissance, rs-na'-sangrz. 

rencontre, Ytng-'kJ6ng'-iv. 
rendezvous, xgn'-d6-v6 or 

rendition, rSn-dlsh'-iin. 

renunciation, r&-niin'-si-a'- 


reparable, rgp'-fi-rS-bl. 
repartee, rgp'-ar-te', 
repertoire, ra'-per-twar'. 

repertory, rgp'-er-ter-L 
repOUSS§, ra-p6s'-sa. 

reprieve, rg-piev'. 
reprimand, rgp'-ri-m&nd'. 
reprisal, rg-pri'-zal. 

reptile, rgp'-tll or rgp'-tU. 
repugnant, rg-pug-nant. So 

reputable, rgp'-u-ta-bl {not 


requiem, rgk'-wi-gm. 
reredos, re'-rg-dos. 
research, rg-serch'. 

reservoir, rgz'-er-vwawr'. 
residue, rgz'-I-da {not rgz'-I- 
doo), hut resid'uary. 

resignation, rgz'-ig-n&'-shun 

{not igs'-), 
resin, rgz'-in {not rgz'-n). 

resonance, rgz'-6-nans. 

resource, rg-sOrs' {not re'-). 

respirable, rS-spir'-a^bl {not 


ale, me, file, nOte, pure, fUr, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



respite, (n. and V.) r6s'-pit 

(not r6s'-}>it). 
respited, rSs'-pit-ed (not r6- 


restaurant, i gs'-to-i-an^'. 

restitution, r6s'-tl-tu'-shun. 

restorative, rS-stor'-a-tiv. 

resume, ra-z6'-ma. 

resurgent, rS-ser'-jgnt. 
resuscitation, rg-«us'-si-ta'- 

retail, (v.) rg-tal' (not re'-tal); 
(n.) rS'-tal (not r6-tal'). 

retailer, rg-tal'-er. 

retardation, i-e'-tar-da'-shun 
retch, rSch or lech. 

reticence, rSt'-i-sgns. 
retina, rgt'-i-nS. 
retinue, r6t'-i-nu. 
retributive, rg-trib'-u-tiv. 
retroact, re'-tro-akt' So 

retrocede, re'-tro-sed' or rgt'- 

rosed'; but re'-tro-ces'- 

retrograde, re'-tio-grad or 
rgfc'-ro-grad. So re'- or ret- 


retrospect, re'-tro-spekt or 
rgt'-ro-si)gkt. So re-tro- 

spec'-tion, etc. 

retrovert, re'-trO-verfc' or 
rgt'-ro-vert'. So re'-tro- 


reveille, ra-vgl'.ya or rS-val'- 

revelry, rgv'-gl-rl (not rev'l- 


revenue, rgv'-g-nu; rg-vgn'- 

yoo is now obsolete. 
reverie, rgv'-gr-e. 

revocable, rgv'-o-karbl (not 

revolt, rg volt'. So revolt'- 

Reynard, ra'-nard or igu'- 


rheum, r6m. 

rheumatism, r6'-ma-tizm, 

but rheumat'-ic. 
rhomb, rOm. 
rhubarb, rd'-birb. 
rhyme, rim. 

rhythm, rithm or rUhm. 
rhythmic, nth'-mik or rlth'- 

ribald, rlb'-ald (not ri'-bal(i 

nor lib'-awld'). So rib'- 

ricochet, nk'-o sha'. 

ridicule, rid'-i-kul (not rgd'-). 
ridiculous, li-dlk'-u-lus (not 

rind, rind (not rin). 
rinse, rlns (not rgns). 

risible, liz-i-bl. 
rivalry, li'-vai-rL 

robust, ro-btist'. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f&r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



rococo, i'5-ko'-k5. 
roisterer, roys'-ter-er. 

r61e, rol. 

romance, rO-mans' {not ro-). 

roseate, ro'-ze-at, 

rote, rot. 

roue, lo'-a. 

rouge, r6zh. 

rout, rowt. 

route, r6t. 

routine, r6ten'. 

Rubicon, r6'-bi-kOn. 

rubicund, r6'-bi-kund. 

ruby, r6'-bl (not i-u'-bi). 

rudiment, r6'-di-mgnt. 
rue, 1-6. 

rufiBan, ruf'-fi-Sn. 
ruin, r6'-ia. So ru'-inous. 
rule, r61. 

rumour, r6'-mer. 

rural, r6'-ral. 

Russian, rush'-an (not roo'- 

ruthless, r6th'-l6s. 
rustle, lus'-l. 
ryot, li'-ob. 


Sabaoth, sa-ba'-Oth. 
saccharine, sak'-ka-rin or 

sacerdotal, sas'-er do'-tal 

(not sa'-ser-do'-tal). 

sacrament, sak'-ra-m6nt 

(not sa'-ki-a!-iii6nt). 
sacrifice, (n. and V.) sSk'-ri- 

fls (not sa'-kri-fis). 
sacrilege, sak'-rl-lSj (not sa'-). 

sacrilegious, sak'-ii-le'-jus 

(not sak'-ri-llj'-iis). 
sacristan, sak'-rls-tan. So 

saffron, s&f -rOn. 

sagacious, sa-ga'-shtts (not 

said, sSd (not sad). 

salam or salaam, sa-iam'. 

salary, s&l'-a-ri (not sal'-i'i). 

saleratus, sai'-e-ra'-tus. 

Salic, sal'-Ik (not sa'-lik). 
salient, sa'-li-Snt (not sal'-i). 
saline, sa-lln' or sa'-lin. 

saliva, sa-ii'-va. 
salmon, sam'-un. 

salon, s&-\6ng'. 

salutary, sal'-u-ter-l 

salubrious, sa 16'-brl-tis. 

salute, sa-l6t'. 
salutatory, sal-u'-ta-ter-i. 
salve, sav. 

salver, (a plate) sai'-ver. 

sal-volatile, sai'-voi-at'-ii-g, 

but popularly pronounced 

Samaritan, sS-mar'-i-tan. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, tar, her, ra6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



Samian, sa'-mi-an. 
samite, sSni'-it. 

Sanable, san'-a-bl (not san-). 

So sanitory, sanatori- 
um, etc, 

sanctimonious, s5ngk'-ti- 


sanctuary, sangk'-tti-er-g, 

Sangfiroid, Fr., sang'-frwl 
sanguine, sang'-gwin (not 
san'-gwin). So san'-guin- 
a-ry, san-guin'-e-ous. 

Sanhedrim, san'-6-drim. 

sapience, sa'-pi-6iis. So 

sapphire, saf-fer or saf'-flr. 

sarcasm; sar'-k&zm, but sar- 

sarcenet, s&rs'-nSt (not sar'- 

sarcophagus, s4r-kof'-fi-gus. 
Sardanapalus, sai-dan-a- 

sardonic, sar-dOn'-ik. 
Sardon37X, s4r'-d6-uiks. 

sarsaparilla, sar'-sa-pa-ril'- 

1& (not s&s'-a-pa-rH'-la). 
satiate, sa'-shl-at (not sa'- 

satiety, sa-ti'-s-ti. 
satin, sat'-in (not sat'-n). 

satire, sat'-Ir (not sa'-tir), but 

satiric, sa-tir'-ik. 
satrap, sa'-trap. So sa'- 

saturnine, sat'-er-nln. 

satyr, sac'-er. 

saucy, saw'-sl (not .sSs'-I). 
saunter, sawn'-ter. 
sausage, saw'-saj (not s&s'- 

sautern, so tern', 
savant, sa-van-/'. 

Saviour, sav'-ydr. 
savour, sa'-ver. 
scald (to burn with fluid), 

scald (a bard), skawld. 
scallop, skOl'-lttp or skal'- 

scarce, skars. So scarcely. 

scared, skard (not skart). 

scarify, skar'i-fi. 
scarlatina, sk4r'-lat-g'-n&. 
scathed, skatht or skhtM. 

scathing, sk&th'-ing. 

scenic, sSn'-ik or s6n'-ik. 
sceptic, skSp'-tik. 
schedule, skSd'-yul or s6d- 
yul, or sh6d'-yul. 

schism, sizm (not siz'-iim). 

schismatic, siz-mat'-ik. 
scholastic, sko-ias'-tik. 
scholiast, sko'-li-ast. 

schooner, sk6n'-er. 

sciatica, si-at'-X-ka. 
sciolist, si'-o-list. 

scion, si'-On. 

ale, mS, file, n5te, pure, f&r, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



scire facias, si'-rg fa'-si-Ss. 

SCirrhus, skir'-rus. 
scissors, siz'-erz. 

Sclav, sklkv, but sclavo'- 

scorbutic, skOr-bu'-tlk. 
scourge, skerj. 
SCrivner, skriv'-6n-er. 

scrofula, skrof-uia. 

scrupulous, skr6'-pu-lus (yiot 

scrutinize, skr6'-ti-nlz. 
scurrilous, skur'-rll-tis. 

Scylla, sil'-ia. 
Scythian, sith'-i &n. 

seamstress, sem'-str6s or 

sempstress, sSm'-strgs. 
seance, ^^nga'. 
seclude, s6-ki6d'. 
secretary, sgk'-i-S-ter-L 
sedative, sSd'a-tiv. 

sederunt, sg-de'-rtint. 

seidlitz, ssd'-litz. 
seigneurial, sen-ur'-i-&l. 
seigneury, sen'-u-ri. 
seignior, sen'-yOr. 
seine, (a net) sen. 
Seine, (a river) san. 

seismic, siz'-mik. 

semi, (a prefix), s6m'-i. 
senatUS, sg-na'-ttls. 

seneschal, s8n'-S-sh&l. 
senile, ss'-nil. 

senna, s6n'-na. 

sentient, s6n'-shl-6nt (not 

sentiment, sgn'-ti-mgnt (not 


separatist, s6p'-a,-i-a-tist. 

septenary, s6]j'-tgn-er-i, but 
septen'nial. So sep'- 
tenate, but septen'nial. 

septuagenarian, sep'-tu a- 


septuagesima, s6p'-tu-a- 


Septuagint, sgp'-tu-a-jint. 

sepulchre, s6p'-iil-ker, but 

sepulture, sgp'-iil-tur. 

sequel, se'-kwSl (not s6k' wil) 

sequence, se'-kw6ns. 
sequestration, sSk'-w6s- 

tra'-shiin (not se'-). 

seraglio, sg-rai'-ys. 
sergeant, sir'-jgnt. 

series, se'-ri-5z or se'-rSz. 
servile, sgr'-vll or sgr'-vll. 

sesame, sgs'-a-me. 

sesquipedal, sgs'-kwi-pg'- 

seventy, sSv'-ntt (n(4 s6v'- 

several, s6v'-er-ai (not sSv'- 

sew, so (not su). 

sewer, (a drain) s6'-er. 

ale, mi, file, nOte, pure, fir, her, m6ve, awl, owl, goo*', boy 



Sha'nt (shall not), shant. 

sheath, (n.) sheth ; sheaths, 
(pi.) shethz (not sheths). 

sheik, shek. 

shekel shek'l (not she'-kl). 

shone, shon. 

short-lived, shOrt'-lIvd (not 

shrewd, shr6d. 

shriek, shiek. 
shrievalty, shieV-al-tL 
sibilant, sib'-i-lant. 
sibyl, sib'-il. 

sibylline, sib'-il-lln or -lin. 
Sideral, sl-de'-rS-al. 
siege, sej. 
sierra, si-6r'-r&. 
siesta, si-Ss'-ta. 

sieve, siv (not sey). 
signatory, sig'-na-ter-L 
Sikhs, seks. 
silhouette, sir-oo-6t'. 
siUca, sU'-I-ka. 
simile, sim'-i-16. 
simony, sTm'-5 ni. 
simulacrum, sim'-u-l&'- 


simulate, sim'-u-lat. 
simultaneous, sim'-til-ta'- 

Sinaitic, sl'-ua,-it'-ik or sl- 

sine die, si'-nS di'-e. 

I sinecure, si'-n6-kur. 

I sinew, sin'-a. 

I sine qua non, si'-ng kwa 

I n6n. 


singular, sing'-gu-iar (wo^ 


sinister, siu'-is-ter. 

siphon, si'-fOn. 

sire, sir. 

siren, si'-rgn (not str'-6n). 

sirrah, sir'-ia. 
Sisyphus, sis' i-fus. 
situated, sit'-u-a-ted. 

slabber, slab'-ber, colloqui 
ally sl5b'-ber. 

sleek, slek {not silk), 
slept, slept (not sl6p), 
sloth, sloth (not sloth), 
slough, (v.) sluf. 
slough (a mire-hole), slow. . 
sloven, sluv'-6n or sliiv'-n 
(not slOv'n). 

smudge, smuj. 

smutch, siniich. 
snout, snowt (not snoot). 

sobriquet, s6'- or so'-bri-ka. 
sociable, so'-shi-a-bi or sc- 


sociaUty, so'-shi-ai'-i-ti. 
sociology, so'-shi-or-o-jt 
sofa, so'-f^ (not so'-fi). 
soft, soft (not sawft). 

ale, me, file, note, pure, far, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



soften, sOf-n (not siif -tSn nor 

softly, s5ft'-li (not sawft'-ll). 
soiree, swawr'-a. 
sojourn (n. and v.), so'-jern. 

solacement, sol'-as-mSnt. 

solder, sOl'-der or sOd'-er. 
solecism, sOl'-S-sizm (not so'- 

solemn, sOl'-gm (not sOl'-um). 
solstice, sOl'-stls {not sOl'- 

solution, s6-16'-shtln. 

sombre, sOm'-ber. So som'- 

something, sum'-thing (not 

somewhat, sum'-whOt (not 

somnolent, sOm'-no-lSnt 

(not sOm-iio'-l6nt). 

sonata, so-na'-ta. 

sonnet, sQn'-nSt (not sun'-). 
sonorous, so-no'-rus (not 

soot, s6t (not Slit). So SOOt'y. 
soothsayer, s6th'-sa-ei- (not 

sooth -sa-er). 
sophism, sOf-izm. 
soporific, sOp'- or so'-pO-iif- 

sortie, sOr'-te. 
sough, suf or sow. So 


soupgon, s6p'-sOwp. 

souse, (v.) sows (not sowz). 
southerly, stt^A'-er-lI. So 

southward, sowth'-wird or 

souvenir, s6v'-ner. 

sovereign, sav'-Sr-in or sov'- 


spaniel, spSn'-ygi. 
specialty, spgsh'-al-ti 
species, spe'-shez or spe'- 

specious, spe'-shtls (not 

spectacles, spsk'-tfi-klz. 

spermaceti, sper'-ma-se'-tl. 

sphere, sfer. 

spheroid, sfe'-royd or sfSr- 

Sphinx, sfingks. 
spinach, spin'-aj (not spin'- 

Spinoza, spi-no'-za. 
spiracle, spi'-ra-kl. 

spirit, spir'-It (not spSr'-it nor 

splenetic, sple-ngt'-ik. 

spouse, spowz (not spows). 

spurious, spu'-ri-us. 
squabble, skwob'-bl. 
squadron, skwod'-rOn. 
squalid, skwOl'-id (not 
skwal'-td nor skwawl'-id). 

ftle, me, file, note, pure, fS,r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, bov 




squalor, skwOl'-er or skwa'- 

squirrel, skwh-'-v6l. This is 
the generally accepted Eng- 
lish pronunciation. 

stallion, stal'-ytin. 

stalwart, stawl'-wert {not 

stamen, sta'-men, hvi stam'- 

stanch, stansh or stawnsh. 

starboard, star'-bord, collo- 
quially stS,rb'-erd. 

statics, stat'-iks {not sta'- 

statu quo, {L.), stftt'-yu 

steelyard, stel'-yS,rd, collo- 
quially stil'-y&rd. 

stenography, stSn-og'-ra-fL 
steppes, stgps. 

stereoscope, ste'-re-o-skop 

or st6r'-6-o-skop. 
stereotype, ste'-reo-tlp or 

steward, stu'-erd {not stoo'- 

stint, stint {not stent). 

stipend, sti'-pSnd. 

stirrup, stir'-rup. 
stolid, stOl'-Id {not sto'-lld). 
stomacher, stum'-S-ker or 

stomachic, sto-mak'-ik. 

strata, stra'-t& {not stra'-ta). 
Sostra'tum. Butstrat'- 
ify, strat'ifica'tion. 

strategic, stra-tSj'-Ik. There 
is some authority for strS,- 

strategist, strftt'-S-jist. 

strength, strength {not 

strew, str6 or str5. 

strident, stri'-dgnt 
strophe, strof-e. 
strychnine, strik'-nin or 


student, stu'-dgnt {not stoo'- 

stupendous, stu-p6n'-dtls 
{not stu-p6nd'-yu-us nor stu- 

stupid, stu'-pid {not stoo'-). 
suasion, swa'-zhiin. 

suavity, swav'-i-ti. 

subaltern, sfib'-ftl-tern {not 

subaqueous, stib-a'-kwg-us. 

subdue, sub-du'(wo« siib-doo') 
subjacent, sfib-ja'-sSnt. 
subjected, siib-jSkt'-6d {not 

sublimate, siib'-li-mat. 

sublunary, stib'-l6-ner-i {not 

suborn, sttb-Om'. 

subpoena, siib-pe'-n& {not 

&le, mS, file, note, pure, fS,r, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



subsidence, siib-sid'-gns. 
subsidiary, stib-sid'-i-er-i. 
subsidy, sub'-si-dr. 
substantiate, sab-stan'-shi- 

at {not sub-stSn'-shat). 

substantively, siib'-fitan- 

tiv-li {not sub-stan'-tlv-li). 
subterfuge, sub'-ter-fug. 

subterranean, sab'-tSr ra'. 


subtile, (thin or rare), sub'- 

subtle, (sly), siit'-l. 
subtract, stlb-trfikt' {not 

subtrahend, sttb'-tra-hSnd. 

suburb, stib'-erb, hut subur'- 

succinctly, stlk-singkt'-ll. 
succour, siik'-ker. 
succumb, siik-ktimb' {not 

succulent, stlk'-ku-lSnt. 
such, sach {not sSch nor sich). 
sudden, stld'-dSn {not sud'-n 

nor stid'-ding). So sud'- 


SUflaoe, siif-fls' or sttf-fii'. 
suggest, sug-j6st' &r siij-jSst'. 

suicidal, su'-i-sid'-ai 
suite, swet. 

sulphuric, stil-fu'-rlk. 

sultan, sui'-tan, but sulta- 
na, sttl-tS.'-n&. 

sumach, su'-mfi,k. 

summary, sum'-mer-I. 
summoned, sum'-mtind {not 

sumptuary, siim'-tu-er-l 

supercilious, su'-per-sll'-i- 

supererogation, su'-per 61'- 

O-ga'-shiin, but SUper- 


superficies, su-per-flsh'-i-ez. 
superfluous, su-pei-'-floo-Qs 

{yiot sup'-er-floo-iis). 
supine, su'-inn. 
supple, sQp'-pl {not soo'-pl). 

supplement, {n.) siip'-j)lg- 

mSnt {not 8up'-pl-m6nt) ; 
{v.) stlp'-plg-m6nt'. . 

suppliant, sttp'-pli-Snt. 

suppose, sup-poz'. 

SUrnamed, ser'-namd. 

surreptitious, stir'-rgp-tish'- 

SUrtout, ser-t6'. 
surveillance, ser-var-ySns. 
survey, (w.) ser'-vS; {v.) ser- 

sustenance, stts'-ts-nans, 
suture, su'-tur. 
suzerain, s6'-z6-ran. 
swarthy, swawrth'-l 
swath, swawth or swOth. 
swept, swgpt {not swep). 
swiftly, swift'-li (not swif-ll). 

ale, me, file, note, pure, f4r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



sycophant, sik'-o-fant. 

syllogism, sil'-lo-jizm. 

symphony, sim'-f6-nT. 

symposium, slm-po'-zT-um. 
synchronous, sm'-krO-ims 

Tabernacle, tab'-^r-nHk-l. 
tableau, t&b'-lo 
taboo, t&bo'. 
taciturn, ts,s'-i-tem. 

tactician, tak tish'-an. 
talc, t&lk (not tawk). 
talCOSe, talk'-os. 

talisman, tai'-iz-man or tai'- 

tapestry, t&p'-6s-tri (not 


tapioca, tap'-i-o'-ks. 
tapis, ta-pe'. 

tariff, tar'-if (not ta-rif). 
tarpaulin, tar-paw'-ltn. 

Tartarean, tai-ta'-rg-an (not 

tartaric, tar-tar'-ik. 
Tasmanian, tas-ma'-ni-Sn. 

tassel, tas'-sl (not taw'sSl, 
nor fcOs'-l). 

tatterdemalion, t&t-ter-ds- 


tattoo, t&t-td'. 

taunt, tfint or tawnt. 
tautology, taw-t5l'-6-jI. 

tautophony, taw-tof-o-ni 

syncope, sin'-kO-pe. ' 
synecdoche, sin-gk'-dO-ke 

synonym, sin'-o-nim. 
synthesis, sin'-thg-sia. 


taxidermy, taks'-i-der'-mi. 
Te Deum, te de'-um. 
tedious, te'-di-us. 

telegraphist, tsi-6g' ra-fist 

or tSl'-Sgraf-Ist; but teleg'- 

teleology, tei'-g-ol'-o-jL 
telephone, tgl'-S-fon (not 


telephonic, tsi'-6-f0nMk. 
telescopy, tsi-gs'-ko-pi but 

temerity, tg-mgr'-i-ti. 
temperament, tem'-pcr-a- 

rngnt, (not -munt). 

temperature, tgm'-pei-a- 


tempestuous, tgmpSst'-u 

tenable, tgn'-a-bl (not te'-na-) 
tenacious, tg-na'-shiis. 
tendril, tgn'-diil (not -dril). 

tenebrious, tg-no'-brr-Qb ; 

also ten'ebrous. 
tenet, tgn'-et or te-ngt. 
tenor, tgn'-er. 

tentative, tgn'-ta-tiv (not 


ile, me, file, note, pure, fftr, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



tenuity, te-nu'-i-til. 
tenure, tgn'-ur. 
tepid, t6p'-Id {not te'-pid). 
tergiversation, ter'-ji-ver. 

terniagent,ter'-m§,-gant {not 

terminable, term'-i-na-bl. 
terminative, term'-i-na-tiv. 
terminology, term'-l-nol'-o- 

terminus, term'-I-ntts ; {pi.) 

termini, term'-i-ni. 
Terpsichore, terp-sik'-o-re. 
terpsichorean, terp'-sik-o- 


terra incognita, tsr'-i-a \n- 


terrapin, t6r'-rSrpin. 
terraqueous, t6r-ra'-kwg-us. 
terrestrial, t6r-r6s'-tii-ai {not 

tertiary, ter'-sher i. 
testator, tSs-ta'-ter ; {/em.) 

tetanus, tSt'-S-ntis. 
t^te-^-tete, tat'-a-taf. 
tetrahedron, t g t ' - r a - h e ' - 


tetrarch, tet' rark. So tet'- 

Teutonic, tu-ton'-ik. 

textile, t6ks'-til or tgks'-tll. 

Thalia, tha-li'-a; 

thane, than. So thane'- 

thanksgiving, thSngks'- 

giv-Ing {not thangks-giv'- 

thaumaturgic, thaw-ma- 

theatre, the'-a-ter {not the- 

theism, thS'-izm, hut theis'- 

theocracy, the ok'-i-a-si, bvt 

theorem, the'-o-rgm. 
theosophy, the-os'-o-fl. 
therapeutics, thgr'-a-pu'- 


therefore, ^Aer-ftjr'. 

therewith, ^Aar-wrth'. 

thermometrical, tlier'-mo- 

thesaurus, thg-saw'-rus. 

thesis, the'-sis; {pi.) the- 
ses, -sez. 
thews, thuz. 

thither, thUh'-er {not thith'- 

thoroughly, thui'-o-li. 
thorough-bass or base, 

thur'-o bas. 
thraldom, thrawl'-dOm {not 

threepence, thre'-pSns, col- 

loquially thrip'-6ns. 

ale, me, file, nOte, pure, f^r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



threshold, thrgsh'old or 

Thule, thu'-le. 
thjmae, tim {not thlm). 
tiara, tl-a'-ra {not ti-a'-rS). 
tic-douloureux, tik'-doo- 

tid-bit, tid'-bit, improperly 
tit'-bit. [Origin A. S., tid- 
der, tended.) 

tiers-6tat, terz'-a-ta'. 

tincture, tingk'-tur. 
tirade, ti-rad' {not tl-rad'). 
tirailleur, tir'-I-yer'. 
titular, tit'-u-ler. 

tocsin, t6k'-sin. 

toga virilis, to'-ga vi-rr-iis. 

tomato, to-ma'-to or -ma'-, 
tonsure, tOn'-shoor ; but 

topography, to-pOg'-r&-fi ; 

but top'ograph'ical. 
toreador, tor-g-a-Jor'. 
tortise, tor'-tis. 

tourist, t6r'-ist {not tow'-). 
toward, te'-erd ; also tow'- 
ards, erdz {not to-wawrdz'). 

trachea, tra-ke'-a, but 

trajectory, tra-jSk'-ter-I. 

tranquil, tran'-kwil {not 

transact, trSns-akf {not 

transcendentalism, tran'- 


transept, tran'-s6pt {not 

transient, trSn'-sh'-Snt or 

transferable, also trans- 

ferrible, traiis'-fer-&-bl or 
*• traus-fer'-S^bl. 

transmigratory, trans-mi'- 


transference, trans'-fer-6ns. 

transition, tr&n zish'-iin. 
translucent, trans-l6'-s6nt. 

transmigrate, trans'-mi 
grat ; but transmi'gra- 

transparent, trSns-pa'-rgnt 

{not trSns par'-6nt). 

transpire (to become public; 

misused in the sense of to 

happen), tran-spir'. 
trapeze, tra-pez' ; trape'- 

travail, trSv'-si. 
travesty, tr&v'-6s-ti. 

tremendous, tr6-m6n'-dus 
{not -jus). 

tremor, tr6m'-0r, w tre'- 

tribune, tnb'-un {not tri'- 

bun nor trib-yoon'). 

tribunal, tri-bu'-nSl. 
trichinae, tr!-kr-ne, trichi- 

- nosis, trik'-i-no'-sis. 

ale, me, file, nOte, pure, f§,r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



tricolour or tricolor, tri'- 

truncate, tiang'-kat. 

kiil-er or tre'-. 

truncheon, trun'-shttn. 

trident, tri'-dSnt. 

tryst, trist. 

trilobite, tn'-lo-bit. 

Tsar or Tzar, {see Czar) zftr. 

triology, tiil'-5-ji. 

tuberculosis, tu-ber'-ku-lo'- 

trio, tri'-o or tre'-O. 


triolet, tri'-o-l6t. 

Tuesday, tuz'-da. 

trioxides, tn-oks'-idz. 

tuition, tu-Ish'-ttn. 

tripartite, trip'- or tri-par'- 

Tuileries, Fr., twe'-le-re'. 


tulip, tu'-lip. 

tripthong, trip'- or trif-' 

tumid, tu'-mid. 


tumult, tu'-malt hut tu- 

tripos, tri'-pOa. 


triptych, tnp'-tik. 

tumulus, tu'-mu-ltts. 

Triton, tn'-ton. 

tune, tuh {not toon). 

triturate, trit'-u-rat. 

turbulent, ter'-ba-lgnt. 

triumvirate, tri-um'-vi-rat. 

Turcoman, ter'-ko-man. 

triune, tn'-un. 

tureen, tu-ren'. 

trivial, triV-I-al or triv'-y&l. 

turgid, ter'-jid. 

troche, (a lozenge), trOch or 

turmoil, ter'-moyl. 


turpentine, ter'-pgn-tin. 

trochee, tro'-ke, hit troch- 

turpitude, ter'-pi-tud. 

-a'-iC (-ka-ik). 

turquoise, ter'-kojz' or 

Trojan, tro'-j&n. 


trophy, tr5'-f L 

tutelage, tu'-te-laj. 

troth, troth {not trOth). 

tutor, tu'-ter, hut tuto'rial. 

troubadour, tr6'-ba-d6r'. 

Tycoon, ti-k6n'. 

trough, trOf (not traf). 

tympanum, tim'-pa-ntim. 

trousseau, tr6s-so'. 

type, tip, hut typical, tip'-i- 

trow, trO {not trOw). 


truckling, (servile), trttk'- 

typhoon, ti-f6n'. 


typhus, ti'-ftis. 

truculent, (savage), truk'-u- 

typography, ti- or ti-pOg'- 



ale, me, file, note, pure, fS,r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 


typology, ti-p5l'-o ji. j Tyrian, tiv'-i-aii. 

tyranny, tir'-an'-nt ; hut j tyro, tl'-ro. 
tyran'nical, ti-r3,n'-ni-ka]. ! Tyrolese, tii'-olcz. 


ubiquitous, u-bik'-wl-ttta 

Uhlans, u'-ians. 
ukase, u-kas'. 

Ultima Thule, al'-ti-ma 

ultimatum, ul'-tl-ma'-tum. 
ultimo, (usually contracted 
into ult.) ur-ti-nio. 

ultramontane, ul'-tr&-mOn'- 


Ulysses, u-lis'-sez {not u- 

umbilical, um-bU'-i-kftl, o 

umbrage, um'-biaj. 

umbrageous, ttm-bra'-jus. 
umbrella, um-brSl'-ia {not 

unalterable, tin-a wl'-ter-a-bi . 

unanswerable, tin-an'-ser- 

uncial, tin'-shi-ai. 
unconscionable, tln-kon'- 

uncouth, iin-kdth'. 
unction, tlngk'-shun. 
unctuous, ungk'-tu-tis. 

undersigned, ttn'-der-sind'. 
undertone, tin'-der-ton. 

undertow, tin'-der-tO. 

undiscerned, un'-diK-zemd' 

Undulatory, un'-du-la-ter-i. 

unenviable, iiu-6n'-vi-a-bl. 
unfrequented, tin'-fie- 


ungual, tiiig'-gwai. 
ungentlemanly, ttn-jgu'-tl- 

man-ll {not un-jSn'-tl-man-l). 

unguent, ung'-gwgnt. 
uniclinal, u'-ni-kli'-nai. 
unideal, tin'-i-de'-ai. 
unigenous, u-nij'-g-ntis. 
uninteresting, un-in'-ter- 


uniparious, u-mp'-a-rtis. 
unique, u-nek'. 

unison, u'-ni-slin. 

univocal, u-niv-o-kai. 
unlearned, {pp.) au-lemd' ; 

{adj.) un-lern'-Sd. 

unostentatious, tin-os'-t6ii- 


unprecedented, un-prSs'-s- 


impremeditated, tin'-piS. 

unsavoury, tin-sa'-ver-i. 

ale, me, file, note, pare, f&r, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



unscathed, tin-skatht' or un- 

apas-tree, u'-pas-tre. 

upholsterer, up-hol'-ster-gr. 

iiraeniia, u-re'-mi a. 
Urania, u-ra'-ni-a. 
Uranus, u'-rS,-nus. 

urban, er'-ban, 

urbane, erban', but urban- 
ity, er-ban'-i-ti. 
urethra, u le'-thra. 
urinary, u'-ri-nei-i ; u'rinal. 

Ursa Major, er'-sa-ma'-jOt . 
UrSUlines, er'-su-llnz. 

usquebaugh, us'-kw6-baw. 

usufruct, u'-zu-frukt. 
usurpation, u'-zer-pa'-shun, 

but usur'patory. 

usury, u'-zhoo-rl. 
usurious, u-zh6'-rl-us. 
uterine, u'-ter-in or -in ; u'- 

utilitarian, u-til' i-ta'-d-an. 

Utopian, u-to'-pi-an. 
uvular, u'-vu-Iei-. 
uxorious, ug-zo'-ri-iis (not 

Vaccine, vftk'-stn or -sin (not 

vaccinate, vSk'-si-nat. 

vacuum, vak'-u-iim, but va- 

cuity, va-ku'-i-ti. 
vade-mecum, va-d6-me'- 


vagabondage, vag'-S-bond- 

vagary, v&-ga'-ri (not va'- 


vagrant, va'-grant (not vag'-). 

vague, vag. 
valance, vai'-ans. 

vale (farewell), va'-18. 

valedictory, vai'-g-dik'-ter-i. 
Valenciennes, va.-l&nff'-s^- 

valet de chambre, vai'-a- 


valetudinarian, val'-etu'- 


Valhalla, val-hai'-ia. 

valiant, val'-yant. 

valid, vai'-id, but validity. 

valise, va-les'. 

valorem, ad, ad-va-lor'-Sm. 

valor ously, var-er-us-ii. 

valuable, vai'-u-a-bi (not 


vampire, vam'-pir. 

vandalism, van'-dal-!zm. 

vanquish, vang'-kwish. 
vapid, vap'-id, but vapid'- 

ale, me, file, nSte, pure, fftr, her, m6ve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



variegated, va'-ri e-ga'-ted. 
variorum, va'-ii-o'-ium. 

vascular, vas'-ku ler. 
vase, ^'^z or vaz {not vas). 

vaseline, vas'-S-iin. 
Vaticanism, vat'-i-kSn-izm. 
vaticinal, va-trs'-i-nal. 
vaticination, vfi-tis'-i-na'- 


vaudeville, vod'-vil. 
Vaudois, vo-dwa'. 
vehement, ve'-g-mgnt. 
vehicle, ve'-i-kl. 
velocipede, vg-los'-i-ped. 
velocity, v8-l6s'-i-ti. 

velvet, v6l'-vSt {not v6l'-vTt). 

venal, ve'-nal, but venal'- 

Venetian, vg-ne'-sh'an {not 

venial, ve'-ni-fil. 
venison, v6n'-zn. 
Venite, vg-ni'-ts. 

venous, ve'-niis. 

ventriloquism, vgn-tril'-o 


venue, vSn'-u. 

Venus, ve'-nus. 
veracious, vg-ra'-shus. 

veranda, also verandah, 

verbena, ver-be'-nS. 

verbiage, ver'-bi-aj. 

verdigris, ver'-dl-grls. 
verdure, ver'-dur. 

verisimilitude, ver'-i-si 


vermicelli, vei'-mi-chgl'-li or 

vernacular, ver-nfik'-u-ler. 

Veronica, v6-rOn'-i-ka. 
versatile, ver'-sa-tii or -til. 

Versicular, ver-slk'-u-ler. 
vertebra, ver'-tS-bia ; {pi.) 

vertebrae, ver'-t6 bie. 

vertex, ver'-tsks; {pi.) ver- 
tices, ver-'-ti-s6z. 

vertigo, ver-tl'-go. 

Vertu, ver'-tu, 

vessel, v6s'-s6l {not v6s'-l). 

vestige, vgs'-tij. 
veterinary, vgt'-gr-i-ner-i. 
via media, vf-a me'-fii-a. 

vibratory, vi'-bra-ter-i {not 

vicar, vik'-er. 

vicegerent, vis-je'-rgnt. 
vice versa, vi'-se ver'-sS. 
vicinage, vis'-inaj. 

vicinity, vi-sin'-i-ti. 
vicious, vish'-iis. 
vicissitude, vx-sis'-si-tud. 
victory, vik'-ter-l {not vlk'- 


victuals, vit'-lz. 

vide, vi'-de; vidimus, vi'- 


ale, me, file, note, pure, fir, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



videlicet (contracted foini, 

viz.), vl-del'-i sgt. 
vignette, vln-y6t' or vT-n6t'. 

vigorous, vlg'-er-iis {not vlg'- 

Vikings, vi'-kfrigz. 
villain, vil'-lan. 

vindicative, vin'-dl-ka-tlv ; 

vineyard, vin'-yard. 

vinous, vin'-iis. 

violable, vr-o-ia-bl. 
violent, vi'-o-l6ut. So vi'- 

violet; vi'-o-ist. 
violinist, vi'-o-lin-ist. 
violoncello, vi'-o-lon-sgl'-lo, 

or -ch6l'-l5. 
virago, vi-ra'-gO. 

virile, vir'-U, or -il ; virility, 
virulent, vir'-oo-l6nt ; vir'- 

virus, vi'-rtis. 

ViS-^-viS, viz'-§,-v§'. 

viscera, vis'-sgr-a. 

viscid, vis'-sid, Imt viscid'- 

viscosity, vis-kosM-ti 

viscount, vi'-kownt. 
viscous, vis'-ktis. 
vis inertise, vis'-in-er'-shi-e. 
visor, or vizor, viz'-ei-. 

visual, vizh'-u-ai. 

vitiate, viah'-i-at. 

vitriol, vit'-ri-Ol {not vlt'-rOl). 

vituperative, vita'-per-a- 


vivacious, vi-va'-shas. 
vivacity, vi-vas'-i-ti. 
vivandiere ve-vant/'-de ar. 
viva voce, vi'-va vo -se. 
viviparious, vi-vip'-a-ius. 

vivisection, viv'-i-s6k'-shun. 
vocable vo'-ka-l)l {not vOk'-). 

vocabulary, vo-kab'-a-ler-i. 

vociferous, vo-sif-er-iis. 

vogue, vog. 

volatile, voi'-a-til or -til. 

volcano, v6l-ka'-no, hut vol- 


volition, vo-llsh'-tin. 
VOltigeur, vOl'-ti-zher'. 
volume, AOl'-um {not yum), 
voluptuous, v6-lup'-tu-us. 
voracious, vO-ra'-shtls. 

vortex, vOr'-t6ks ; {pi.) vor- 

tices, vOr'-tl-sez. 
votary, vO'-ter-I {not vOb'-). 

voyage, voy'-aj. 
vraisemblance, vra'-san^r. 


vulnerable, val'-nei-a-bl. 
vulpine, vul'-pin. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, ikv, her, mOve, awl, owl, good, boy. 




Wagner, vkch'-ner. 

Wahabees, wk-M'-hez. 
wainscot, wan'-skOt. 
Walhalla or Valhalla, 

Wallachian, wai-la'-ki-an. 
wallet, wol'-igt. 
Walloon, wai-i6n'. 

walnut, wawl'-niit. 
walrus, wawl'-rus. 
waltz, wawlts. 
wampum, wOm'-i>tim. 
wan, wOn (not wan). So 

wand, wOnd. 

wanderer, wOn'-derer. 

wane, wan. So wa'ning. 

want, wawnt or wOnt. 
wanton, wOn'-ton. 
warehouse^ war'-hows (not 

warily, wa'-ri-li. 
warning, wawm'-Ing (not 

warrant, wOr'-rant. 

warrior, wOr'-ri-er or wawr'- 

wassail, wOs'-sSl. 

water, waw'-ter (not wOt'-er). 

wayward, wa'-werd. 
weald, weld; also wold, 

weapon, w6p'-n or w6p'-un. 

weary, wer'-i. 
weasel, we'-zsi. 
weather, ^v&tk'-er. 

weird, werd. 

welkin, wgl'-kin. 
weregild, wet-'-gild. 

werewolf, wer'-woolf. 
westward, wgst'-werd (not 

wharf, hwOrf ; pi. wharves 


wherefore, hwar'-fOr (not 

whether, hwgth'-er. 
whey, hwa. 

which, hwich (nj .«ich). 
while, hwil (not \>\V, 
whilom, hwi'-l6m. 
whinny, hwin'-ni (not win'- 

whisk, hwisk (not wisk). 
whiskey, hwis'-ki (not wis'-), 
whistle, hwis'-sl. 
whither, hwlth'-er (not 

Whitsunday, hwit'-sun-da. 
whole, hoi (not hul). So 

whole'sale, whole'- 

whooping- or hooping- 
cough, hdp'-Ing-kOf. 

whorl, liw6il or hwerl. 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fdr, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy. 



whortleberry, hort'-l-bgr'- 
ri, colloquially huckle- 
berry, huk'-l-bSr'-ri. 

why, liwl {not wi). 

wife's, (possessive case) wifs 
{not wivz). 

wigwam, wig'-wam. 

wind (n.) wind ; {v.) wind. 

window, win'-do {not win- 

windward, wind'-werd. 

wiseacre, wiz'-a-ker {not 

witenagemot, wit'-Sn-ag'-g- 

with, wI^A {not with). So 

withdraw', etc. 
withe, wi(!A. 
woman, w6in'-an ; pi. 

women, wim'-gn. 

won't (will not), wont. 

wont (use), wiint. 

world, werld {not wur'-S,ld). 

worst, werst or wiirst {not 

worsted, woos'-tSd or wool' 

worth, werth or wurth {not 

wound (n.), w6nd; (u) 


wrack, i-ak. 
wraith, rath, 
wrath, rawth or rSth. 

wreath, reth ; wreathe, 


wrestle, rgs'-sl {not r6s'-tl 
nor rSs'-I). 

wrist-band, rlst'-b&nd {not 

writhe, nth. 

wrong, I'Ong {not rawng). 
wroth, rawth or roth. 
wrought, rawt. 

wry, ri. 

Xanthian, i-an'-thi-an. 
Xanthine, ziin'-thin. 

xiphoid, zif-oyd. 

xylanthrax, zi-iau'-thrfiks. 

Yacht, yttt {not yat). 
yahoo, ya-h6', 
yclad, e-kiad'. 

xylocarpous, zf-lo-kar'-ptts. 
xylography, zi-lo'-gra-fi. 
xylographic, zi'-l6g-rat'-ik. 
xylophilans, zi-lof'-i-lanz. 


yclept, 6-klSpt'. 
yea, ya; yes, y6s {not yfe 
nor yaas). 

ale, me, file, note, pure, fS,r, her, mdve, awl, *^^\, good, boy. 



yeast, yest, but yeasty, 

yeoman, yo'-man. 

yesti-een, y6s-tren'. 
yolk, yok {not yolk). 

yonder, yOn'-der {not yun-) 

Yosemite, yo-sSm'-i-tg. 

yourself, y6r-s6lf' {not yv\ 
youths, jtthz {not yootbs). 

Zambezi, zSm'-be'-zi 
zealot, z6l'-ut. 

zealous, z6l'-tis {not zel-). 

zemindar, zSm'-in-dar'. 

zenana, z6-an'-na. 

Zend Avesta, z6nd' a-vSs'- 

zenith, zSnMth. 
zephyr, z6f-er. 
zero, ze'-ro. 

zest, z6st. 
zeugma, zug'-m&. 

Zeus, zus, {not ze'-tis). 
zinciferous, zing-klf-er-us. 

Zingari, zing'-gar-i. 

zither, zlth'-er, alsozithern: 


zodiac, zo'-di-a,k. 
zoetrope, zo'-6-trop. 
Zollverein, zol'-fei-m. 
zoolite, zo'-ol-it. 

zoology, zo-Ol'-O-ji; hvi ZO- 

zoophyte, zo'-o-fit. 
zoophytic, zo'-o-fit'-ik. 

Zoroaster, zor-'-o-Ss'-ter. 
Zouave, zwav or z6'-ky. 
zounds, zownds. 

Zuider-Zee, zoy'-der-za. 
zymosis, zi-mo'-sis. 
zymotic, zi-mot'-ik. 

ale, me, file, ndte, pure, fkv, her, mdve, awl, owl, good, boy 



N0T>. — When practicable, and where deemed expedient, the antonym (or opposite) 
is added immediately after the synonym of the word illustrated. 

abandon, v., to give up finally. 

Syn. : forego, surrrender, quit, i-elinquish, renounce. 

Ant. : cling to, seize, retain, occupy, hold, own. 

Synonyms discriminated : Desert, unless in referen'^e to 
places, implies blame. Not so abandon, the general term ; 
forsake, said of what we have been connected with; re- 
linquish, to give up under pressure. 

abandoned, given up, wholly forsaken; hopelessly 

"He abandoned himself without reserve to his favourite vice." 

— Macaulay . 
Syn. ; deserted, forsaken ; vUe, pi-ofligate, reprobate, de- 

Ant. : occupied, cherished, precious, virtuous, approved, 

Syn. dis. : By evil associations a person may be depraved, 
he may become unprincipled in his dealings, and by 
abandoning himself to temptation may grow openly 
profligate, and finally become utterly reprobate. 

Abase, V. (S-bas') to bring low, to cast down. 

"But the Hydas abased themselves in vain." — Macaulay. 
Syn. : depress, lower, humble, degrade. 
Ant. : exalt, elevate, raise ; proud. 
Syn. dis. : To abase or humble oneself may be meritori- 
ous ; degrade, debase, imply blame; one is humbled inter- 
nally, humiliated externally. 

abasement, n. (a-bas'-mSnt), humiliation, the act of 
humbling or bringing low. 

" The austerities aud abasement of a monk." 

— Wealth of Nations. 



Syn. : degradation, humiliation, shame, ignominy. 
Ant. : elevation, exaltation. 

abash, v., to make ashamed, to strike with sudden fear. 

" He was a man whom no check could abanh." — Macaulay. 
Syn. : confuse, confound, disconcert, discompose. 
Ant. : countenance, encourage. 

Syn. dis. : Abashed in the presence of superioi*s ; con 
fused, unable to speak collectedly — often the result, it may 
be, of modesty ; confounded by some extraordinary phe 
nomena, or when one's villainy is suddenly detected. 

abate, v., to beat down, lower in price ; subside. 

" The wind was fallen, the rain abated." — Wordsworth. 
Syn. : lessen, moderate, mitigate, decrease, slacken. 
Ant. : enlarge, intensify or aggravate, increase. 
Syn. dis. : Lessen is generally transitive; diminish is 
used as its intransitive. A thing may be instantly di- 
minished, but only gradually decreased. 

abatement, n., a reduction, a lessening, the sum 

"The spirit of accumulation requires abatement rather than 
increase." — John Stuart Mill. 

Syn. : diminution, subsidence, discount, drawback. 
Ant. : enlargement, increase, addition. 

abbreviate, v., to shorten, to abridge. 

" It is one thing to abbreviate by contracting, another by cutting 
off." — Bacon's Essays. 

Syn. : compress, contract, curtail, condense, epitomize. 

Ant. : expand, amplify, enlarge, extend. 

Syn. dis. : Abridge by compressing, abbreviate by cut- 
ting ; contract sounds. Contract and curtail imply di- 
minution of value. 

abdicate, v., to give up right or claim to. 

" But Christ as soon would abdicate his own, 

As stoop from heaven to sell the proud a throne." — Cuwper, 
Syn. : relinquish, renounce, resign, vacate. 
Ant. : seize, claim, retain, occupy. 


Syn. dis. : Abdicate a high office, resign to a superior 
or the giver, renounce pleasures or possessions. 

abduct, v., to cari-y off secretly and forcibly. 

" His Majesty had been abducted or spirited away." — Carlyle. 
abduction, n. (ab-diik'-shun), a can-ying away by 
fraud or open violence. 

Syn. : absti-action, appropriation, kidnapping, seizure. 
Ant. : surrender, restoration, restitution. 

aberration, n. (ab-gr-ra'-shun), wandering from oi- away. 

Syn. : deviation, divergence, inconsecutiveness, discon- 

Syn. dis. : Aberration, metaphorically speaking, is a 
wandering or lapsing from continuity of thought ; hence, 
where this is constitutional or becomes chronic, insanity is 
the result. 

mental aberration, unsoundness of mind. 

Syn. : insanity, lunacy, mania, madness, derangement. 

aberrance, aberrancy, n. (ab-gr'-rans, ab gr'-ran-si), 

a wandering from the right path. 

aberrant, «. (ab-gr' rant), deviating from the type. 
We apply the term aberrant to that which seems to be 
a heedless or haphazard divergence from the typical char- 
acter of some division, great or small, in the animal oi- 
vegetable kingdom ; abnormal does not convey the idea of 
heedlessness in the action, design, or plan of a thing, but 
simply that which is not according to rule ; erratic, that 
which has no fixed course, showing a tendency to wander, 
or act in an irregular manner ; excejMonal expresses that 
which is occasional or unusual in its occurrence. 
See eccentric. 

abet, v., to aid, incite, encourage, used chiefly in a bad sense. 

" Amd you that do abet him in this kind 
Cherish rebellion. " — Shakespeare. 

Syn. : aid, assist, favour, help, promote, sustain. 

Ant. : thwart, baffle, deter. 

abettor, n., one who abets or encourages, generally 
to do evil. 

" Authors or abettors of evil." — Orote^s Greece. 


Syn. : an accessory, an accomplice, a backer-up. 

Ant. : baffler, foe, adversary, rival. 

Syn. dis.: ^' An abettor incites, proposes, encourages, but 
takes no part ; an accessory aids, conceals, helps forward ; 
an accomplice designs or executes. Blackstone says an 
accessory is not the chief actor nor even present." 

abeyance, n. (a-ba'-ans), the state of being held back for a 
time, sus])ension. 

The matter was left in abeyance — i. e., was not proceeded with 
— for a time . 

Syn. : sus[)ension, reservation, dormancy. 
Syn. dis. : ^'Abeyance, according to usage, is suspension* 
with the expectation or possibility of revival." 

abhor, v., to regard with horror or detestation. 

" I hate and ahJior lying ; but thy law do I love." — Psalms. 

Syn. : abominate, detest, dislike, hate, loathe. 

Ant. : approve, relish, enjoy, love. 

Syn. dis. : Loathe implies disgust ; abhor— lit. shudder 
at— is instinctive ; abominate, reflective and voluntary ; 
detest involves judgment as well as feeling. We abomi- 
nate what is offensive, abhor what is uncongenial, loathe 
what is nauseous and disgusting. 

ability, w., power to act, mentally or physically. 

Syn. : energy, power, force, might, genius, talent, skill. 

Ant. : weakness, imbecility, incapacity, maladroitness. 

Syn. dis. : This word is sometimes confused with capacity: 
the two are not exactly synonymous. Capacity denotes 
power or capability of receiving; ability implies action — the 
power to do. Abilities denotes all our powers, but chiefly 
our mental endowments. " Capacity is the power of re- 
ceiving and retaining knowledge with facility ; ability is 
the power of applying knowledge to practical purposes. 
Capacity is shown in quickness of apprehension. Ability 
supposes something done ; something by which the mental 
power is exercised in executing, or performing, what has 
been received by the capacity." 

abject, adj., mean, low, woi-thless, sunk to a low condition. 


Syn. : despicable, servile, base, degraded, grovelling. 

Ant. ; esteemed, exalted, honoured. 

Syn. dis. : " The low and mean are qualities whether of 
the condition or the character ; but abject is a peculiar 
state into which a man is thrown, sometimes by the pres- 
sure of advei-se circumstances. A man in the course of 
things is low ; he is voluntary mean, and involuntary ab- 
ject. By birth, education or habits, a man may be low ; 
but meanness is a defect of nature which sinks a person in 
spite of every external advantage." Mean i« derived from 
O.E. maene, wicked. {See Skeat). 

abjure, v., to renounce, recant, or retract upon oath. 

Syn.: disclaim, disown, disavow, foi'swear, repudiate. 

Ant. : assei't, acknowledge, own. 
" To abjure for ever the society of man." — Shakespeare. 

Care is here necessary to distinguish between this word 
and adjure, which means, to implore, or charge solemnly. 

Syn. dis. : We can abjure, not recant, what we never 
have held or acknowledged ; we repudiate only what has 
been charged upon us ; retract a promise or an accusation. 
To renounce is to disown, repudiate, or forego all claim to. 

abnegate, v., to deny, renounce, repudiate. 

"The very possibility of heroism had been, as it were, abne- 
gated in the minds of all." — Carlyle. 

abnegation, n., a denial, self-denial, renunciation, 

Syn. : renunciation, abjuration, stint. 

Ant. : claim, license, assertion. 

Syn. dis. : Abnegation is applied rather to rights and 
objects of desire than to statements, as the abnegation of 
self or evil desires. 

aonormal, adj., irregular, anomalous, deviating from the 
ordinary rule or type. [See aberi-ant.) 

Syn. : erratic, exceptional, unnatural, unusual. 

abolish, v., to annul, to do away with. 

" It was therefore impossible to abolish kingly government." 
Syn. : abrogate, destroy, nullify, repeal, suppress. 
Ant. : affirm, re-enact, maintain, restore. 



Syn. dis. : Abolish is general; repeal (said of a legisla- 
ture) and abrogate apply to laws ; annul, is to render in- 
operative ; suppress, to put down forcibly. 

abolition, «.., the act of putting an end to, destroying, 
or sweeping out of existence ; emancipation. 

" The introduction of new customs will cause the abolition of 
the old." 

abominate, v., to loathe, as ill-omened or morally foul. 

Syn. : {See abhor) execrate, detest. 

Syn dis. : To abominate a thing is to feel an avereion 
towards it ; the detestable thing is that which excites in 
us hatred and revulsion ; the execrable thing, indignation 
and horror. 

abominable, adj., very hateful, detestable. 

abomination, n., the act of doing something hateful, 
the state of being greatly hated, or, (objectively) an object 
of loathing or aversion. 

"Abominable comes from abominor, which again is from ab 
omen (a portent) ; it conveys the idea of what is in a re- 
ligious sense profane and detestable — in short, of evil omen." — 
Mathews' " Words: Their Use ami Abuse." 

abortive, adj-, fruitless, ineffectual ; immature. 

" A plan may be abortive, but an act cannot." 

abridge, v., to lessen, curtail, shorten ; to epitomize. 

" Besides, thy staying will abridge thy Wie." —Shakespeare. 
Syn. : contract, reduce, diminish, condense, compress. 
{See abbreviate). 

abridgment, n., the thing abridged; the act or pro- 
cess of abridging. 

Syn. : an epitome, a couipend, abstract, summary, 
synopsis, draught, precis, digest; reduction, contraction, 

Syn. dis. : "An abridgment contains the more important 
parts of a larger work. A compendium or an epitome is a 
condensed account of a subject. An abstract or a sum- 
mAiry is a brief statement of a thing in its main points. A 
synopsis is a bird's-eye view of a subject or work in its 
several parts." 


abrogate, v., to repeal, annul, abolish, make void. (See 
abolish ). 

abstain, v., to hold back, to keep or refrain from. 

" But not a few abstained from voting." — Macaidai/. 

Syn. : to forbear, refrain from, give up, relinquish, 

Ant. : indulge, exceed, revel, wanton. 

Syn. dis. : "Abstaining smd forbearing are outward ac- 
tions ; but re/raining is connected with the operations of 
the mind. We abstain from whatever concerns our food 
and clothing; we forbear to do what we may have parti- 
cular motives for doing ; we refrain from what we desire 
to do, or have been in the habit of doing." 

abstemious, adj., temperate, or sparing in the use of food 
or strong drinks. 

Syn. : abstinent, temperate, sparing, frugal. 

Ant. : self-indulgent, gluttonous, 

Syn. dis. : A person is said to be abstemious who is spar- 
ing in the indulgence of the appetites or passions. Abste- 
miousness is the quality of being sparing. Tem,perance is 
the act of using or enjoying with moderation ; abstinence, 
the act of refraining altogether. 

accomplish, v., to execute, to fulfil, to complete. 

Syn. : achieve, consummate, finish, realize, perform. 

Ant. : frustrate, lose, fail. 

Syn. dis. : We accomplish a task, achieve success, fuljU, 
an agreement, execute a mission, perform a duty or an act, 
complete a work or a bargain, realize an expectation. 
•We accomplish a plan proposed by oneself; we execute 
another's plan ; effect a purpose ; achieve under special 
circumstances of difficulty ; perform a part assigned to us. 

account, «., a sum stated ; result of a summing up ; a narra- 
tive or statement ; also verb, to reckon or compute. 

Syn. : computation, reckoning ; recital, narration, des- 

" An account is a statement of a single event, or a 
series of events taken as a whole, — as a shipwreck, a 


battle ; a narrative is a story of connected incidents, — as 
the events of a siege, or of one's life ; a descrijytion is a 
sketch or picture in words, — as of a person, a sunrise." 

accountable (tdj., liable to be held for one's conduct. 

Syn. : answerable, amenable, responsible, liable. 

" Accountable is used to mean, not that may be accounted for, 
but that may be held to account ; but answerable is used to mean 
both that may be answered and that may be held to answer ; 
while unaccountable is used only to mean that cannot be accounted 
for, and unanswerable only that cannot be answered." — Richard 
Grant White. 

accurate, adj., very exact, free from error or mistakes, in 
careful conformity to truth. 

Syn. : correct, precise, just, strict, careful, right. 

Ant. : vague, loose, careless. 

We say " accurate account, statement or calculation ; 
exact date, amount or likeness ; p^-ecise moment in mean- 
ing ; precise in dress or language." Exact means conform- 
able to the thing represented ; accurate {cur a, care), re- 
fers to the pains bestowed ; correct refers more to the 
doer ; precise, ( precisus, cut down) denotes exact limita- 
tion as opposed to vague. An exact drawing is one per- 
fectly faithful ; a correct drawing, one fulfilling all the 
rules of the art ; an accurate one, that which pains have 
made exact. (See perspicuity.) 

accuse, v., to complain against, to find fault with. 

Syn. : charge, impeach, arraign, indict, blame, criminate. 

Ant. : defend, vindicate, absolve, acquit. 

Syn. dis. : The term charge is the most general. Jt is 
an informal action, while accuse is properly a formal 
action. Accuse, in the proper sense, is applied particularly 
to ci'imes, but it is also applied to every species of offence ; 
charge may be applied to crimes, but is used more com- 
monly for breaches of moral conduct : we accuse a person 
of murder ; we charge him with dishonesty. " Impeach 
and ao-raign are both s])ecies of accusing ; the former in 
application to statesmen and state concerns, the latter in 
regard to the genei-al conduct or principles." 



achieve, v., to accomplish, to finish or complete successfully, 
to carry on to a final close. 

" For aught that human reasoning can achieve." — Wordsworth. 

Syn. : perform, execute, complete, fulfil, realize, finish. 

acMevenieilt, n., act of achieving or performing; a 
great or heroic deed. 

Syn. : exploit, feat, deed, performance, accomplishment. 

Syn. dis. : " The words deed, exploit, achievement, rise 
progressively one on the other ; deed, compared with the 
others, is employed for that which is ordinary or extraor- 
dinary ; exploit and achievement are used only for the extra- 
ordinary ; the latter in a higher sense than the former." 

acquiesce, v., to assent to, to submit to, or remain passive 

Syn. : to accede, assent, agree, conform, concur, comply. 

Ant. : dissent, object, demur. 

Syn. dis. : Agree is a general term ; accede, yield assent, 
acquiesce, consent, are voluntary ; accord, concur, coincide, 
are involuntary. Acquiesce implies a less hearty feeling 
than accord ; accord of feeling, cothcur of opinion. To 
comply expresses more strongly our feeling and wishes than 
to consent. 

address, v., to speak to; to pay court to; to write a direction, 
as on a letter. 

address, n., manner of speaking, delivery; tact; the 
act of making a verbal or written communication, or the 
communication itself. 

Syn. : appeal, invocation, petition; tact, dexterity, adroit- 
ness ; discourse, speech, harangue, oration. 

Syn. dis. : "A speech is a form of words bearing on some 
topic of common interest to speaker and hearer; an ad- 
dress is a form of woi'ds directed to some person or body of 
persons ; an oration is an elaborate speech for a special 
occasion ; a harangue is a noisy, vehement appeal to the 
passions ; a declamation is the delivery of a memorized 
speech or exercise, as in schools ; the latter also means 
loud or empty speaking in public." 


addicted, v., habituated to ; wholly given over to ; over 
mastered, generally by some bad habit, or enslaved by 
some low vice. 

' ' Young men addicted to low company seldom ever dedicate 
themselves to the highest service of the State." 

Syn. : accustomed, prone, inclined, habituated. 

Ant. : averse, unaddicted. 

Syn. dis.: " To addict is to indulge oneself in any particu- 
lar practice ; to devote is to direct one's powers and means 
to any special pui-suit ; to apply is to employ one's time or 
attention about any object. Men are addicted to vices : 
they devote their talents to the acquirement of any art or 
science : they apply their minds to the investigation of a 

adduce, v. (ad-dus'[-ywce']), to cite, name, offer or bring for- 
ward by way or proof. 

" People of no great weight were addticed on both sides ; for 
neither party ventured to speak out." — Macaulay. 

Syn. : allege, assign, advance, offer, mention, present. 

Ant. : contradict, withdraw. 

Syn. dis. : "An arguu\ent is add iced ; a statement or a 
charge is alleged ; a reason is assigned ; a position or an 
opinion is advanced. What is adduced tends to corrobo- 
rate or invalidate ; what is alleged tends to criminate or 
exculpate ; what is assigned tends to justify ; what is ad- 
vanced tends to explain and illustrate. . . We may con- 
trovert what is adduced or advanced ; we may deny what 
is alleged ; and question what is assigned." 

administer, v., to manage or conduct (public affairs); to direct 
the application of laws (as a king or judge) ; to comfort, 
relieve, or bring aid to (the needy or distressed), 

Syn. : Intransitively, to conduce, to tend, (the simple 
form minister is genei-ally used in this sense) ; transitively, 
to manage, to dispense, to supply. 

Syn. dis. : Administer is commonly used in the good 
sense of serving another to his advantage ; contribute^ on 
the other hand, is used in either a good or bad sense : we 
may contribute to a man's relief, in suffeiing, or to his 
vices and follies. 



Newspaper Englisli sometimes speaks of a man coming 
to his death from blows administered by a constable. 
Avoid this incorrect use of the word. Blows are dealt ; 
comfort and consolation are administered. 

admirable, adj., worthy of esteem or praise ; of a quality to 
excite wonder or esteem. 

"His fortitude was the more admirable, because he was not 
willing to die." — Macaulay. 

Syn. : astonishing, wonderful, rare, choice, exquisite, 

Ant. : ordinary, common. 

Syn. dis. : We use the term admirable when speaking 
of those things, qualities, prospects, manners, etc., that 
excite approving wonder, thus : an admirable trait or char- 
acteristic, an admirable record, an admirable future, an 
adm,irable view, admirable restraint, etc. A writer gives 
examples of the use of kindred adjectives, thus : 

* ' Beautiful, having that assemblage of graces or properties 
which pleases the senses (especially the sight) or the mind, as : 
beautiful scenery, woman, or thought. 

Pretfy, pleasing by delicacy or grace — applied to things com- 
paratively small ; as : pretty face, flower, or cottage. 

Handsome, agreeable to the eye or to correct taste ; suitable ; 
aa : handsome face, house, apology, or fortune." 

adroit, cidj., possessing or exercising skill or dexterity. 
Syn. : clever, ready, apt, skilful, expert, dexterous. 
Ant. : awkward, clumsy, unskilful, inexpert. 

Sidopt, v., to choose for oneself; to take, receive or assume. 

" The measures suggested by the Minister were adopted by the 

Syn. : choose, assume, endorse, appropriate. 

Ant. : reject, decline, repudiate, disavow, disclaim, dis- 

Syn. dis. : It is not well to use adopt of a measure 
unless it is suggested by another. To adopt is to take to 
oneself, by choice or approval, principles, opinions, or a 
course of conduct that have previously been well approved, 
or a line of action that our reason will justify. We may, 
on the other hand, adopt a course inimical to our interests 
and bringing in its train a legacy of trouble. 


" Adopt is sometimes so misused that its meaning is 
inverted. ' Wanted to adopt,' in the heading of adver- 
tisements, not infrequently is intended to mean that the 
advertiser wislies to be relieved of the care of a child, not 
that he wishes to assume the care of one." 

adjoin, v., to be next, or close to ; to join or unite ; to be con- 

Syn. : annex, add, attach, couple, link, border, touch, 

Ant. : disjoin, disconnect, dismember, disunite. 

adjoining', p. par. and adj., joining to, adjacent to, 

" What is adjoining must touch in some part ; what is 
contiyuous must be fitted to touch entirely on one side ; 
what is adjacent may be separated altogether by the inter- 
vention of some third object. Adjoining farms meet or 
join at some point ; houses are contiguous when they touch 
or join closely ; fields are adjacent when they lie near to 
each other." 

advantage, v,., Lit. something that puts one forward; supe- 
riority in any state, condition, or circumstance. 

Syn, : benefit, gain, profit, interest, assistance. 

Ajit. : disadvantage, loss, drawback. 

Syn. dis. : "An advantage is anything the possession of 
which secures, promotes, or indicates success. It is used 
in the plural in no specific reference, but briefly, as, the 
advantages of education. {See Hodgson's " Errors," Part T., 
" Advantage.") 

advantageous, adj., promising or actually conferring 
advantage ; profitable, beneficial, favourable, convenient. 

adverse, adj., inimical, hostile, antagonistic, opposed to. 

"Though time seems so adverse, and means unfit." — Shakespeare. 

Syn. : contrary, op])osite, conflicting, unfavourable, un- 

Ant. : favourable, friendly, lucky, fortunate. 

Syn. dis. : '■^Adverse is commonly employed of that which 
tends to thwart our plans or movements by an opposing 
force or influence, as adverse fate, adverse circumstances 
adverse winds ; contrary — the far wider term — is employed 
rather of the course or character of evenis, as running 


counter to one's expectations or designs, though we some- 
times speak of contrary winds ; opposite rather belongs to 
that which is widely nnlike." Inimical and hostile belong 
strictly to personal character and feeling, the latter being 
the stronger term of the two. 

affable, adj., easily approached and spoken to ; accessible and 
inviting ; of courteous and pleasing manners. 

Syn. : approachable, courteous, condescending, gracious. 

Ant. : inaccessible, discourteous, haughty, forbidding. 

Syn. dis. : Affable denotes being approachable, easy of 
address, inviting to strangers or inferiors ; courteous, 
(suitable to a court) in one's manner and bearing ; polite 
(polished) in behaviour and address ; civil (belonging to a 
citizen, not rude) in person and reply ; condescending (com- 
ing down from one's level to that of another) to one's infe- 
riors; complaisant (desiring to please) towards others — 
their views, opinions or fancies : affability we look for in a 
superior ; courtesy may be between equals. 

aflOlueilCe, n., overflowing abundance ; wealth of money or 
other material property ; also, wealth of intellect, emo- 
tion, or other immaterial thing. 

Syn. : opulence, wealth, riches, plenty, abundance, ex- 

Ant. : want, penury, poverty, scarcity. 

Syn. dis. : In common usage, affluence expresses the ag- 
gregate, rather than the process, of an inflowing abund- 
ance ; in other words, prolific resources. '* Affluence air- 
ries with it the idea of large sources and unfailing sup})lies 
of the good things of this life, especially of those elegancies 
and luxuries which are the tokens of wealth. Wealth (the 
simple and the generic term) and opidence are a])plied to 
individuals and communities ; affluence is applicable only 
to an individual." 

affront, v., to give cause of oflTence to, to insult one to the 
face by language or demeanour. Also n., contemptuous 
and rude treatment. Trench considers affront to have 
originally meant to strike on the face. Wedgwood, Skeat, 
and many others think it was to meet face to face— to 
confront, we now say. 


Syn. : ' aflfront, t>.,' to insult, offend, provoke, otitrage, 
pique, nettle ; ' affront, n.,' indignity, disgrace, contumely, 

Syn. dis. : "An affront is a mark of reproach shown in 
the presence of others ; it piques and mortifies ; an insult 
is an attack made with violence ; it irritates and provokes ; 
an outrage combines all that is oflensive ; it wounds and 

aggrandise, v. (ag'-gran-dlz'), to exalt, to raise to wealth, 
honour, or power ; to make great or greater — applied to 
individuals and families, or their condition in life. 

" If the king should use it no better than the pope did, only to 
aggrandise covetous Churchmen, it cannot be called a jewel in his 

Syn. : advance, augment, exalt, enrich, ennoble, elevate, 
dignify, promote. 

Ant. : retard, curtail, lower, impoverish, degrade, de- 
press, detract. 

agnostic, n., one who disavows any knowledge of God, the 
origin of the universe, or of any anything but material 

Syn. : unbeliever, doubter, sceptic, Positivist, atheist. 

" Facts, or supposed facts, both of the lower and higher 
life, are accepted {by Agnostics), but all inferences deduced 
from these facts as to the existence of an unseen woiid, or 
of a being higher than man, are considered unsatisfactory, 
and are ignored." 

agnosticism, n., the religion of modern scepticism ; a 
school of thought which believes that, beyond what is 
known by the senses, nothing can be known. 

alien, n. (al'-ySn), a stranger, a foreigner, one born in or be- 
longing to another country. 

adj., foreign, or of foreign extraction. 

alienate, v. (al'-ygn-at), to estrange, to misapply, to 
withdi'aw love, loyalty, or affection from ; to transfer pro- 
perty to another. 

" I shall recount the errors which alienated a loyal gentry and 
priesthood from the House of Stuart." — Macaulay, 

Syn. : estrange, wean, convey, transfer, make over. 

Ant, : endear, bind, conciliate. 


Syn. dis. : " From stranger and alien come tlie verbs to 
estrange and alienate, which are extended in their meaning 
and application ; the former signifying to make the under- 
standing or mind of a person strange to an object, and the 
latter to make the heart or affections of one person strange 
to another : thus we may say that the mind becomes allevi- 
ated from one object when it has fixed its affections on 
anotlier ; or a person estranges himself from his family." 

alienation, n. (al'-ySn-a'-shun), the state of being 
alienated ; estrangement ; mental derangement. 

allegory, n., a continued description of one thing under the 
image of another. 

Syn. : fable, parable, metaphor, image, illustration. 

Syn. dis. : The distinction between an allegory and a 
metaphor and between an allegory and a parable is very 
slight. A bi'ief allegory may be considered as a single 
metaphor; a parable is mostly employed for moral purposes, 
and an allegory in describing historical events, or abstract 
subjects. An allegory differs from an enigma or riddle in 
not being intended to perplex. Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Pro- 
gress" and Spenser's "Faerie Queen" are allegoi-ies, 

allude, v., to make indirect reference to, to hint at. 

Syn. : to refer, hint, suggest, intimate, insinuate. 

Ant. : specify, demonstrate, declare. 

Syn. dis. : "To allude is indirect; refer is direct and 
positive." If we quote an author, for instance, not by 
name, but by description, style, or subject matter, we al- 
lude to him ; but if we point, specifically and plainly, to 
something he has said or written, wc refer to him. The 
fault of reference is not obscurity, but inexactness ; the 
fault of alhision is often its vagueness and indefiniteness : 
We say a wrong or inaccurate reference, a vague or ob- 
scure allusion. Hint, in the main, has to do with matters 
of knowledge ; suggest, with matters of conduct. We re- 
receive a hint of danger, a suggestion how to avoid it. 

amend, v., to correct a fault or error, to improve, to make or 
grow better. 

"Therefore now amend your ways and your doings, saith the 


Syn. : correct, reform, emend, mend, rectify, improve, 

Ant. : spoil, corrupt, vitiate, mar. 

Syn. dis. : Amend, emend, and mei/// are really the same 
word, their common root being menda, Lat., for a blemish. 
In oi-dinary usage, amend means to better morally, while 
emeiid means to remove faults, chiefly literary blemishes. 
To correct is to bring into conformity with moral or arti- 
ficial rule ; to reform, is to correct in a moi-e continuous and 
lasting manner. To rectify means to set right or straight 
what formerly was wrong or false. " We am,end our 
moral conduct, correct errors, reform our way of life, 
rectify mistakes, emend the readings of an author, improve 
our mind, mend or better our condition." 

ample, ac(;., wide, extensive, large; liberal, more than sufii- 

Syn. : Spacious, capacious. 

Ant. : scanty, narrow, small. 

Syn. dis. : Ample is employed for whatever is extended 
in quantity ; spacious for whatever is extended in space ; 
capacious may refer to both quantity and space. We say 
ample stores, means, or allowance ; we say spacious house, 
garden, or grounds ; we say capacious vessel, also capa- 
cious mind, soul, or heart. A ruple is equally applicable to 
things moral and intellecual, for we say ample powers, or 
ample scope for the exercise of our moral and mental 

Binimate. v., to give life to, inspire, inspirit, invigorate. 

" Thus armed, he animates his drooping bands, 
Revives their ardour, turns their steps from flight, 
And wakes anew the dying flames of tight. " 

— Pope's Homer. 

Syn. : cheer, enliven, inspire, embolden, exhilarate. 

Ant. , dishearten, depress, discourage. 

Syn. dis. : Ani7nate and inspire imply the communica- 
tion of the vital or mental spark ; enliven, cheer, and ex- 
hilarate signify action on the mind or body. The lower 
influence is expressed by the word animate, as "the soul 
animates the body ; " the higher, more energetic, and 
finer faculties ai'e said to be imparted by inspiration, as : 



to be inspired with a sublime courage or devotion. To 
enliven respects the mind; cheer relates to the heart; 
exhilarate regards the spirits, both animal and mental ; 
they all denote an action on the frame by the communica- 
tion of pleasui'able emotions. 

annals, n., year-book ; a brief narrative of events divided 
into periods. 

Syn. : Chronicles, memoira, history, anecdotes. 

Syn. dis. : Chronicles, memoirs, and anecdotes mark a 
species of narrative, more or less connected, that may 
serve as materials for a regular history. Mernoirs are a 
partial narrative respecting an individual, and compre- 
hending matters of a public or private nature ; chronicles 
and annals are altogether of a public nature, and approach 
the nearest to genuine and regular history. Chronicles 
detail the events of small as well as large communities, or 
of j)Mrticular districts and cities ; annals detail only the 
events of nations or of a people. 

answer, v. to speak in return, to rei)ly, to suit, to correspond 

n., something said in reply, correspondence with, re- 

Syn. : reply, rejoinder, response. 

Ant. : challenge, affirmation, question. 

Syn. dis. : " Under these terms is included the idea of 
using words in return for other words. An answer is 
given to a question ; a reply is made to an assertion ; a 
rejoinder is made to a repli/ ; a response is made in accor- 
dance with the words of another. An answer may be 
either sjjoken or written ; reply and rejoinder ai'e used in 
personal discourse only ; a response may be said or sung." 

apology, n., an excuse, a defence, a speech in excuse or de- 

Syn. : excuse, plea, defence, justification, exculpation. 

Ant. : insult, injury, wiong, offence. 

Syn. dis. : 'An apology had originally the simple mean- 
ing of defence, as Jewell's ' Apology for the Churcli of 
England.' " As at present employed, the term apology im- 


jilics something said by way of ariKnids. In this way it 
would differ materially from both JeJ'ence nxiA justification, 
as implying wrong committed," which is not implied in the 
two latter terms. A p^ett is a specific point of self-defence ; 
excuse admits the fact charged, but endeavours to show 
that there are extenuating circumstances. Exculpation re- 
lieves one from censure or punishment, by advancing facts 
calculated to exonerate and hold blameless him who is 
accused. An apology mostly respects the conduct of indi- 
viduals with regard to each other as equals ; it is a volun- 
tary act springing out of a regard to decorum, or to the 
good opinion of others. 

apparent, «^., that may be easily seen, obvious, plain. 

Syn. : clear, visible, manifest, evident, plain, seeming. 

Ant. : dubious, hidden, inapparent, unobservable, real. 

Syn. dis. : Apparent, as a scientific term, means seem- 
ing, as opposed to real ; here we deal with it in the sense 
of being clear, visible, in opposition to concealed or du- 
bious. In the general sense, the synonyms of apparent 
agree in expressing various degrees in the capability of 
seeing ; visible is the only one used purely in a physical 
sense ; clear, plain, obvious, as well as apparent, are used 
physically and morally ; evident and manifest solely in a 
moral acceptation. Obvious is applied to what we cannot 
help understanding ; evident denotes what is easily recog- 
nisable as a fact or truth ; manifest (lit. " struck by the 
hand") is that which is palpably plain, and exhibits itself 
without question. 

apprehend, v. to take hold of, to seize, to understand, to 
think on with fear. 

Syn. : conceive, imagine, fear, dread. 

Ant. : misconceive, comprehend. 

Syn, dis. : In its first sense, apprehend is a laying hold 
of by the mind of certain facts which we have a more 
or less clear idea of; conceive expresses what is shaping 
itself in our mind, with perhaps the help of the imagina- 
tion. In its second sense, apprehend marks the sentiment 
of pain and uneasiness at the prospect of coming trouble ; 
apprehend respects things only ; fear and dread relate to 
persons as well as things. See understand. 


arduous, o^j-, Lit. steep and lofty ; of difficult attainment, 
involving much labour. 

" Such an enterprise would be in the highest degree arduous 
and hazardous." — Macaulay. 

Syn. : hai'd, difficult, laborious, onerous. 

Ant. : easy, light. 

Syn. dis. : ^' Hard expresses in a blunter and more gen- 
eral way what difficult and arduous represent in a more; 
particular and refined way." Arduous denotes a high de- 
gree of difficulty. What is difficult requires the efforts of 
ordinary powers to surmount ; what is arduous requires 
the sustained exertion, in a high degree, of mind or body. 

ascribe, v., to impute to, to assign to as a cause, to attribute. 
" The Letters of Junius have been falsely ascribed to many per- 
sons in succession, as the author to this day remains concealed. ' ' 

Syn. : impute, assign, attribute. 

Ant. : dissociate, deny. 

Syn. dis. : To ascribe is to assign anything, in one's 
opinion, as the possession or the property of another ; to 
attribute is to assign things to others as their causes ; to 
impute is to assign qualities to persons. Ascribe is mostly 
used in a favourable or indiffeient sense ; impute is either 
favourable or unfavourable. 

asperse, v., to slander, to bespatter one with calumnies, to 
cast evil reports at one. 

Syn. : defame, detract, slandei*, calumniate, vilify. 

Ant. : praise, extol. 

Syn. dis. : "All these terms denote an effort made to 
injure the character by some representation. Asperse and 
detract mark an indirect representation ; defame, slander, 
vilijy, and calumniate, a positive assertion. To asjyerse is 
to fix a moral stain on a character ; to detract is to lessen 
its merits and excellence. Aspersions are generally the 
effect of malice and meanness ; detraction is the effect of 
envy ; defamation is the consequence of personal resent- 
ment. If I speak slightingly of one I asperse him ; if I take 
away from the merit of his conduct, I am guilty of detrac- 
tion ; if I publish any thing openly that injures his reputa- 
tion, I am a defamer ; if I communicate to others things 


that are not true of him, I am a slanderer ; if I fabricate 
anything false myself and s])read it abroad, I am a calum 

assent, n., act of admitting or agreeing to, consent, accord. 

Syn. : consent, appi-obation, concurrence, agreement. 

Ant. : dissent, disavowal, repudiation. 

Syn. dis. : ^'Assent resj)ects the judgment; consent re- 
spects the will. We assent to what we admit to be true ; 
we consent to what we allow to be done. Some men give 
their hasty assent to ])i-opositions which they do not fully 
understand; and their hasty consent to measures which are 
very injudicious. Approbation is a species of assent ; con- 
currence of consent." To ajyprove is not merely to assent 
to a thing, but to signify that it has the su|)[>ort of our 
reason and judgment. Concurrence is generally used only 
of numbers, not of single individuals. 

assent, v., to admit as true, to yield to, to agree to. 

Syn. : to accede, acquiesce, concur, comply, accord. 

Syn. dis. : " To assent is purely mental, and denotes a 
concurrence with approval as an act of the judgment ; to 
acquiesce is to concur with what is said or done by 
another ; to consent is to agree to act according to the 
will of another." 

assert, v., to declai-e positively, to aver, to maintain. 

Syn. : affirm, avow, protest, maintain, vindicate. 

Ant. : deny, disavow, (see affirm). 

Syn. dis. : We assert anything we believe to be true ; 
we maintain it by adducing proofs, argument, etc. ; we 
vindicate our own conduct or that of another when it is 
called in question. Assertions which are made hastily 
and incon.siderately are seldom long maintained without 
exposing one to ridicule ; those who attempt to vindicate 
a bad cause expose themselves to contumely and reproach. 

averse, adj., Zi^., turned away from; disinclined to, un- 
favourable to. 

Syn. : reluctant, unwilling, indisposed, loath, backward 

Ant. : ready, inclined, eager. 


Syn. dis. : " Averse is positive, it marks an actual senti- 
ment of dislike ; unwilling is negative, it marks the 
absence of the will ; backward is a sentiment betwixt the 
two, it marks the leaning of the will against a thing ; 
loath and reluctant mark strong feelings of aversion. 
Aversion denotes the quality of being averse : its chief 
synonyms are : antipathy, dislike, repugnance : its an- 
tonyms are liking, and attachment. 

avocation, n., Lit., a calling oflF, a directing of the attention 'i 
a calling away from any business or work in which one is 
chiefly engaged. 

Syn. : calling (by common but incorrect usage), em- 
ployment, business, occupation. 

Syn. dis : This word is often and wrongly confounded 
with vocation, which means one's steadily-pursued pro- 
fession, business, or calling in life. One's avocations are 
the things that interrupt or call away from business or 
pursuit, the objects that occupy one incidentally. "The 
term avocation is properly used of the minor affairs of life, 
less prominent and engrossing than business, or such calls 
as are beside a man's duty or occupation in life." One's 
vocatio7i may be to teach ; one's avocations may be any- 
thing in which one finds relief fiom the drudgery and 
routine of teaching. 

austere, ac//., harsh, sour, stem, severe. 

" For I feared thee, because thou art an austere man." — St. Luke. 
" He clothed the nakedness of austere truth." — Wordsworth. 

Syn. : stern, rigid, severe, rigorous, strict, morose. 

Ant. : mild, yielding, kindly, afiable. 

Syn. dis. : Austere is said of the behaviour, severe of 
the conduct ; strictness is rigour in reference to rule : 
austerity is the result of a stern view of life ; rigour is an 
unbending adherence to rule or principle ; severity is the 
tendency to enforce the rigour of justice or discipline, un- 
moved by pity or tenderness of disposition. Sternness it 
more applicable to look, demeanour, and manners. 

axiom, w. (ak'-si-tim), a self-evident truth ; an established prin 
ciple in an art or science. 


Syn. : maxim, aphorism, proverb, bye-word, adage, 
apothegm, saying, truism. 

Syn. (lis. : "The axiom is a truth of the first value ; a 
self-evident proposition which is the basis of other truths. 
A maxim is the truth of the first moral importance for all 
practical purposes. An aphorism is a truth set apart for 
its pointedness and excellence. Adage and proverb are 
coinmon sayings, the former among the ancients, the 
latter among the people of to-day. The bye-word is a 
casual saying, originating in some local circumstance. 
An apothegm is a terse, concise saying, of a sententious 


baflB.e, v., to foil or render ineffectual the efforts of another ; 
to elude ; to thwart ; to confound. 

*' By wily turns, by desperate bounds, 
Had baffled Percy's best bloodhounds." — Scott. 

Syn. : defeat, disconcert, confound, foil, frustrate. 

Ant. : aid, abet, assist, promote, advance, encourage. 

Syn. dis. : (1) "When applied to the derangement of 
the mind or rational faculties, baffle and defeat, i-espect the 
powers of argument, disconcert and confound the thoughts 
and feelings. Baffle expresses less than defeat ; disconcert 
less than confound. A person is baffled in argument who 
is for the time nonplussed and silenced by the superior 
address of his opponent ; he is defeated in argument if his 
opponent has altogether the advantage of him in strength 
of reasoning and justness of sentiment. A person is dis- 
concerted who loses his presence of mind for a moment or 
has his feelings in any way discomposed ; he is confounded 
when the powers of thought and consciousness .become 
torpid or vanish. 

(2) When applied to the derangement of plans, baffle 
expresses less than defeat ; defeat less than confound ; and 
disconcert less than all. Obstinacy, perseverance, skill or 
art baffles; force or violence o^e/eate ; awkward circum- 
stances disconcert ; the visitation of God confounds. 

(3) To frustrate is to make the purpose miss its end , 
hence we say, ' purposes or hopes are frustrated.^ The 


term /oil, which most resembles bq^e, seems to imply an 
undertaking already begun, but defeated in the course of 
execution. Baffle, defeat, and /oil imply relation to ex- 
ternal powers or persons ; the rest are applicable to under- 
takings made solely on our own account." 

balance, n., a pair of scales ; (in commerce,) the diiference 
between the debtor and creditor side of an account ; over- 
plus ; the sum due on an account. 

The use of the word balance, in the sense of rest or 
remainder, is utterly without authority. Balance pro- 
perly means " the excess of one thing over another," and 
in this sense only should it be used. " Balance," says a 
writer, " is metaphorically the difference between two sides 
of an account — the amount which is necessary to make 
one equal to the other. Balance, in the sense of rest, 
remainder, residue, remnant, is an abomination." 

balance of trade, the difference in money- value 
between the imports and exports of a country. 

balance of power, (politically,) the endeavour not 
to permit any nation to have such a preponderating power 
as to endanger the peace or independence of the others. 

banish., v., to send away, to condemn to exile, to compel to 
leave a country. 

• * " bherefore we banish you our territories." — Shakespeare. 
** And bids the world take heart and banish fear. — Cowper. 
Syn. : exile, expel, transport, dispel. 
Ant. : retain, harbour, foster, protect. 

Syn. dis. : The idea of exclusion, or coercive removal 
from a place, is common to the terms banish, exile, and 
expel. " Banishment is a coi;ipulsory exercise of power 
which must be submitted to ; exile is a state into which 
we may go voluntarily ; banishment and expulsion both 
mark a disgraceful and coercive exclusion, but banishment 
is authoritative ; expulsion is simply coercive ; it is the act 
of a private individual or a small community. Banish- 
ment always supposes a removal to a distant land ; expul- 
sion seldom reaches beyond a particular house or society, — 
e.g., a univei-sity or public school, etc." In a figurative 
sense, also, we banish that which it is not prudent to 


retain, — e.g., groundless hopes, fears, etc. ; we expel that 
which is noxious, e.g., envy, hatred, and every evil passion. 

base, adj., of low station, mean, vile, worthless, n., that 
which is morally bad ; plu., persons low or despised. 

Syn. : vile, mean, low, sordid, ignoble, grovelling, dis- 
honourable, ignominious. 

Ant. : lofty, exalted, noble, esteemed. 

Syn. dis. : " Base is a stronger term than vile, and vile 
than mean. Base marks a high degree of moral turpi- 
tude : vile and mean denote in different degrees the want 
of all value or esteem. What is base excites our abhor- 
rence, what is vile provokes disgust, what is mean awakens 
contempt. Base is opposed to magnanimous, vile to noble, 
mean to generovis. Ingi-atitude is base; it does violence 
to the best affections of our nature : flattery is vile ; it 
violates truth in the grossest manner for the lowest pur- 
poses of gain : compliances are m,ean which are deroga^ 
tory to the rank or dignity of the individual." 

base-born, adj., bom out of wedlock, or of humble 
though legitimate birth. 

base-hearted, adj., having a low, mean, vile, of 
treacherous heart. 

beat, v., to strike, to knock; to overcome in a contest. 

Syn. : defeat, overpower, overthrow, conquer, vanquish. 

Ant. : defend, protect, shield, shelter. 

Syn. dis. : Beat respects personal contests between indi- 
viduals or parties ; defea,t, rout, overpower, and overthrow 
are employed mostly for contests between numbers. "To 
beat is an indefinite term expressive of no particular 
degree : the being beaten may be attended with greater or 
less damage. To be defeated is a specific disadvantage ; it 
is a failure in a particular object of more or less import- 
ance. To be overpowered is a positive loss ; it is a loss of 
the power of acting, which may be of longer or shorter 
duration. To be routed is a temporary disadvantage, 
always arising from want of firmness, though it may not 
disable. To be overthrown is the gx'eatest of ;j11 mischiefs, 
and is applicable only to gi-eat armies and great concerns : 


an overthrow commonly decides a contest," — though it may 
not imply dishonour. 

becoming', pr. par., adj. and n. (become v.), befitting, suit- 
able, in harmony or keeping with, appropriate. 

Syn. : decent, fit, suitable, comely, gi'aceful. 

Ant. : unseemly, unbefitting, indecent, derogatory. 

Syn. dis. : " Becoming expresses that which is hai-- 
moniously graceful or attractive from fitness. The becom- 
ing in dress is that which accords with the appearance, 
age, condition, etc., of the wearer. Becoming is relative ; 
it depends on taste and opinion : comely and graceful, how- 
ever, are absolute; they are qualities felt and acknowledged 
by all. Becoming is often applied, also, in the sense of 
morally fit, as modesty is becoming in a youth, gravity in 
a judge. It always relates to persons. Comely respects 
natural embellishments, graceful natural or artificial ac- 
complishments : figure is comely ; air, figure, or attitude 
is graceful. Decent indicates a due attention to moral 
and social requirements, and, like becoming, is external 
or internal. Proper denotes an adaptation to an end or 
purpose — the ends, for instance, of order, taste, moi'ality, 
or the circumstances of persons and cases. As proper 
indicates natural fitness, so fit comprehends artificial 
adaptation or qualification. Seemly occupies a middle 
place between decent and becoming, being more than the 
first and less than the second." Just and right are used 
in the sense of apt, fit, proper, and well-suited. 

beg, v., to ask earnestly, to solicit, to supplicate, to desire. 

Syn. : beseech, solicit, expect, supplicate, crave, implore, 
request, entreat, adjure. 

Ant. : insist, exact, extort, require, demand. 

Syn. dis. : ** To beg marks the wish ; to desire, the will 
and determination. Beg is the act of an inferior ; desire, 
of a superior. We beg a thing as a favour, we desire it as 
a right. To beg indicates a state of want ; to beseech, en- 
treat, and solicit, a state of urgent necessity ; supplicate 
and implore, a state of abject distress ; crave, the lowest 
state of physical want. One begs with importunity ; be- 
seeches with earnestness ; entreats by the force of reasoning 


and strong representation. One solicits by virtue of one's 
interest; supplicates by a humble address; implores by 
eveiy mark of dejection and humiliation. * * Graving 
is the consequence of longing ; it marks an earnestness of 
supplication, an abject state of suffering dependence." 

begin, v., to commence ; to take the first step ; to enter upon 
something new. 

Syn. : commence, enter upon, essay, inaugurate. 

Ant. : achieve, complete, conclude, finish, end. 

Syn. dis. : Begin and commence are employed by many 
speakers and writers interchangeably, though the use of 
the latter is largely tabooed by those who justly prefer a 
simple, idiomatic Saxon word to a grandiloquent fox'eign 
one. How strange to our ears, for instance, would be this 
Latinized rendering of the opening verse of the Bible : 
" In the commencement God created the heavens and the 
earth." There are some, however, who hold that comr- 
mence, like all words of Latin origin, has a more emphatic 
force than begin; hence, formal and public transactions, 
ceremonies, and the like, are said to commence ; common 
and familiar things to begin. Begin, it is said, moreover, 
refers only to time or order, while com,mence implies 
action. The former is certainly more colloquial, and for 
that reason, if for no other, it should be preferred. To 
begim is either transitive or intransitive ; to commence is 
mostly transitive. To begin is used either for things or 
persons ; to commence for persons only. To commence 
seems rather to denote the making an experiment ; to enter 
upon, that of first doing what has not been tried before : 
we begin or commence an undertaking ; we ent&r upon an 

behaviour, n., conduct, good or bad ; manner of conducting 
one's self; propriety of carriage, bearing, dej)ortment. 

Syn. : conduct, carriage, deportment, demeanour, manner. 

Ant. : misbehaviour, misconduct, misdemeanour. 

Syn. dis. : " Behaviour respects corporal or mental 
actions ; conduct, mental actions : carriage, deportment, 
and demeanour are different species of behaviour. Be- 
haviour respects all actions exposed to the notice of 


others ; conduct, the general line of a person's moral pro- 
ceedings ; the former applies to the minor morals of 
society, the latter to those of the first moment. Carriage 
respects simply the manner of carrying the body ; deport- 
ment includes both the action and the carriage of the body 
in performing the action ; demeanour respects only the 
moral character or tendency of the action." 

belief, n., trust in a thing as true ; persuasion, conviction. 

Syn. : credit, trust, faith, credence, confidence, reliance. 

Ant. : dissent, distrust, misgiving, rejection. 

Syn. dis. : " Belief is the general term ; the others are 
specific. We believe when we credit and trust, but not 
always vice-versa. Belief rests on no particular person or 
thing ; but credit and triost rest on the authority of one or 
more individuals. Things are entitled to our belief; per- 
sons are entitled to our credit; but people repose a trust 
or have a /aith in others. * * * Belle/, trust, and 

faith have a religious application, which credit has not. 
Belief is simply an act of the understanding ; tritst and 

faith are active moving principles of the mind in which 
the heart is concerned." 

beneficent, ac^-, kind, generous, charitable, doing good. 
•' God, beneficent in all His ways. " — Cowper. 

Syn. : bountiful or bounteous, munifi.cent, generous, 

Ant. : cruel, oppressive, hard, illibeiul, uncommiserat- 

Syn. dis. : " Beneficent inspects everything done for the 
good of others ; bounty, munificence, and generosity are 
species of beneficence ; liberality is a qualification of all. 
The first two denote modes of action ; the latter three 
either modes of action or modes of sentiment. The sincere 
well-wisher to his fellow-creatures is beneficent according 
to his means ; he is bountiful in providing for the comfort 
and happiness of others ; he is munificent in dispensing 
favours ; he is generous in imparting his property ; he is 
liberal in all he does." Bountiful applies to persons, not 
to things, and has no reference to quantity. 



benignity, n., kind-heartedness, loving-kindness, good-feel- 

"The king was desirous to establish peace rather by benignity 
than by the shedding of blood." 

Syn. : benevolence, humanity, kindness, tenderness. 

Ant. : hai-shness, malignity, ill-will, churlishness. 

Syn. dis. , " Benevolence and benignity lie in the will ; 
humanity lies in the heart; kindness and tenderness in the 
affections ; benevolence indicates a general good-will to 
all mankind ; benignity, a particular good- will flowing out 
of certain relations ; humanity is a general tone of feeling ; 
kindness and tenderness are particular modes of feeling. 
Benignity is always associated with power and accom- 
panied with condescension ; benevolence, in its fullest sense, 
is the sum of moral excellence." 

bent, n., disposition towards something, tendency, proclivity. 

Syn. : bias, inclination, prepossession, proneness, pre- 

Ant. : indisposition, aversion, prejudice. 

Syn. dis. : These various terms denote a predisposing 
and preponderating influence on the mind. " Bent is 
applied to the will, affections, and powers in general; bias 
solely to the judgment ; inclination and prepossession to 
the state of the feelings. The bent includes the general 
state of the mind, and the object on which it fixes a 
regard; bias, the particular influential power which sways 
the judging faculty. Inclination is a faint kind of b&nt ; 
prepossession is a weak species of bias." 

beside, besides, prep., by the side of, over and above. 
ad. or conj., moreover, more than that. 
" It is beside my present business to enlarge upon that." 
"And the men said unto Lot, hast thou here any besides?" 
Syn. (beside) : also, moreover, except, likewise, too, 


Syn. dis.: (n) ^'Beside marks simply the connection 

which subsists between what goes before and what follows ; 

moreover marks the addition of something particular to 

what has been said. * * (b) Besides expresses the idea 


of addition ; except that of exclusion." The distinction in 
usage between beside and besides is indicated in the last 
edition of Webster's " Unabridged Dictionary " as fol- 
lows : " Beside and besides, whether used as prepositions 
or adverbs, have been considered synonymous from an 
early period of our literatui-e, and have been freely inter- 
changed by our best writers. There is, however, a ten- 
dency in present usage to make the following distinction 
between them : 1. That beside be used only and always as 
a preposition, with the original meaning by the side of ; 
as, to sit beside a fountain ; or with the closely allied 
meaning aside from, or out of; as, this is beside our 
present purpose : ' Paul, thou art beside thyself.' The ad- 
verbial sense to be wholly transferred to the cognate wox'd. 
2. That besides, as a preposition, take the remaining sense, 
in addition to ; as, besides all this ; besides the considera- 
tion here offei'ed: 'There was a famine in the land besides 
the first famine.' And that it also take the adverbial 
sense of moreover, beyond, etc., which had been divided 
between the words ; as, besides, there are other considera- 
tions which belong to this case." 

between, prep., in the middle, from one to another. 

"How long halt ye between two opinions ?" — / Kings xviii., 21. 

Syn. : betwixt, intermediate, intervening, and (wrongly) 

Syn. dis. : "In strict accui-acy, between is used only of 
two. When there are more than two the proper term to 
use is among ; but this distinction is not always, as it 
should be, observed. Between (from twain) is used in 
reference to two things, parties, or persons; among, in 
reference to a greater number, as : There was a perfect 
understanding between the two leaders of the people, 
though there was great dissension and disagreement among 
the rioters. Betwixt and interm^ediate signify between 
two objects ; intervening signifies coming between : the 
former is applicable to space and time, the latter either to 
time or circumstances." 

bla/ine, v., to find fault with, to express disapproval of. 

Syn. : reprove, reproach, upbraid, censure, condemn. 
Ant. : acquit, exculpate, exonerate, praise, approve. 

124 THE HIGH school English word-book. 

Syn. dis. : "The expression of one's disapprobation of a 
person, or of that which he has done, is the common idea 
in the significance of these terms ; but to blame exj)resses 
less than to reprove. We simply chai-ge with a fault in 
blaming ; but in reproving severity is mixed with the 
charge. Reproach ex[)resses more than either; it is to 
blame harshly. To blame and reprove are the acts of a 
superior ; to reproach, upbraid, that of an equal ; to cen- 
sure and condemn leave the relative condition of the agent 
and the sufferer undefined. Blams, reproach, upbraid, 
and condemn may be applied to ourselves ; reproof and 
censure are applied to others. We Maine ourselves for 
acts of imprudence ; our consciences reproach us for our 
weakness, and upbraid or condemn us for our sins." 

bold, adj., daring, courageous, confident. 

Syn. : The Encyclopoidic Dictionary diflferentiates the 
synonyms of bold as follows : 

I. — 0/ persons, or other responsible beings capable of 
action : 

(1) In a good sense: heroic, brave, gallant, fearless, 

(2) In an indifferent sense : confident, not doubting, 
with regard to a desired result. 

(3) In a bad sense ; bad, stubborn, impudent, rude, fuU 
of efii-ontery. 

II. — Of things : 

(1 ) Of an enterprise : requiring courage for its execution. 

(2) Of figures and expressions in literary composition, 
etc. — In a good sense : executed with spirit, the i-e verse of 
tame. In a slightly bad sense : overstepping the usual 
limits, audacious, even to temerity, in conception or exe- 

(3) Of a coast or line of clijBf : high and steep, abrupt or 

(4) Of a type of handwriting : conspicuous, easily read. 
Syn. : fearless, intrepid, undaunted ; brave, courageous. 
Ant. : timid, fearful, shy, bashful, retiring. 


8yn. djs. : " Boldness is positive ; fearlessness is nega- 
tive, and is also a temporary state : we may he fearless of 
danger at this or at that time, fearless of loss and the like. 
Boldness is a characteristic : it is associated with constant 
fearlessness. Intrepidity denotes a still higher degree of 
fearlessness : it is collected, sees the danger, and faces it 
with composure : undauntednesss is associated with uncon- 
querable firmness and resolution ; it is awed by nothing. 
These good qualities may, without great care, degenerate 
into certain vices to which they are allied." Care should 
be taken to distinguish between bravery and courage, 
terms that are sometimes used interchangeably. " Bravery 
is inborn, is instinctive ; courage is the product of reason, 
calculation. There is much merit in being courageous, 
little merit in being merely brave" Fortitude is passive 
courage or resolute endurance. 

border, n. (of a country), its confines, its limits, its boundary 
line, or the districts in the immediate vicinity. 

Syn. : boundary, frontier, confine, precinct. 

Syn. dis. : "All these terms are applied to land, except 
the latter, which may apply to space in general. Border 
marks the extremities of one country in relation to 
another ; boundary respects the precise limits of any 
place ; frontiers denote the commencement of a country, 
and confines those parts adjoining or lying contiguous to 
any given place or district. Borders and frontiers are 
said of a country only ; boundary and confines of any 
smaller political division. Precinct signifies any enclosed 
place. In the United States it answers to our polling 

bound, v., to limit, to terminate ; to indicate the boundaries of. 

Syn. : limit, confine, circumscribe, restrict. 

Syn. dis. : Bound, limit, confine, circumscribe are em- 
ployed in the proper sense of parting off" certain spaces ; 
in another sense they convey the idea of control which is 
more or less exercised, as, we bound our desires according 
to principles of propriety. To limit or confine are the acts 
of things iipon persons, of persons upon persons ; but 
restrict is only the act of persons upon jiersons. " Bounded 


is opposed to unljounded, limited to ext(;nded, confined to 
expanded, circumscribed to ample, restricted to unshackled." 
Be careful to discriminate between bound and determined 
— a wholly indefensible use of the word bound : " He is 
bound to have it," should be, " He is determined to have 
it." Bound to have it means obliged by duty (or law) to 
have it. 

bountiful, adj., genei'ous, munificent, liberal in bestowing 
gifts and favours. See beneficent. 

brace, n. (etymoL), a pair, referring principally to the two 
aims [F. bras ; O. F. the arm, strength], 

Syn. : couple, ])air. 

Syn. dis. : " Couple or pair are said of persons or things. 
When used for persons, the word couple has relation to 
the marriage tie ; the word pair to the association of the 
moral union. * * When used for things, couple is 
j)romiscuously employed in familiar discourse for any two 
things joined together; brace is used by sportsmen for 
birds which are shot and supposed to be coupled. Brace 
signifies things locked together, after the manner of the 
folded arms, which on that account are confined to the 
number of two. Brace is sometimes employed of men, 
but then contemptuously." The term couple should never 
be employed for two, brace, or pair unless when referring 
to persons or things joined or linked together. 

burlesqUG, n. and adj., also v., n.: verbal language or other 
composition in which a subject is treated in such a way 
as to excite laughter. 

adj.: droll, comic, ludicrous, mocking, jocular. 

V. : to parody, to comment with ridicule. 

Syn. (w. ) : parody, satire, travesty, irony, sarcasm, cari- 
cature, wit. 

Ant. : (adj.) grave, truthful, severe, historic. See 

" Burlesque draws its amusement from incongruous representa- 
tion of character, placing persons in situations not proper to their 
actual positions and circumstances in society. Travesty makes a 
thing distort and misrepresent itself ; irony is a mode of censuring 
by contraries ; sarcasm is that kind of personal allusion which is 
vented by indignation and spite." 



cabal, n. (ka-bal'), a few men united secretly for some party 
purpose ; v., to design secretly, to intrigue. 

Syn. : conspiracy, combination, faction, junto, league, 
coterie, clique, plot, intrigue. 

Ant. : parliament, legislature, government, council. 

Syn. dis. : Cabal (Fr. cahale) is from the Hebrew Kabala, 
a mystic tradition, which it was pretended had come down 
from Moses along with the Jewish law ; hence the term 
WHS applied to any association that had a pretended secret. 
"In its modern sense of 'political intiigue or plotting,' 
cabal was first used 1671, when ' by a whimsical coinci- 
dence,' it was found to be formed of the initial letters of 
the names of the members of the English cabinet Clifford, 
Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley, and Lauderdale." "6W- 
Hpiraay denotes a treasonable attempt for the purpose of 
subverting a dynasty, or re-establishing one, or generally 
for altering the political face of affairs. Combination is an 
association of persons united for the purpose of acting or 
resisting in a matter of their own interests — not necessar- 
ily for a bad purpose. It differs from cabal in being moi-e 
active than deliberative, and from conspiracy in being 
open and not secret. Faction is now used moi-e com- 
monly of a minoiity than of a majority, but in either case 
denotes a party acting unscrupulously for the promotion of 
their own interest. A Plot is a complicated plan for the 
accomplishment of a purpose always evil or mischievous." 

calamity, n., a great misfortune or cause of misery, either 
public or private, but more frequently the former. 

Syn. : disaster, misfortune, mischance, mishap, visitation. 

Ant. : blessing, boon, God-send. 

Syn. dis. : A calamity seldom arises fi'om the direct 
agency of man ; like visitation, it is a term sometimes 
used to denote pi-ovidential infliction or retribution. In 
its general sense, it is a great misfortune ov disaster ; a 
misforlime is a great mischance or mishap. "The devast- 
ation of a country by hurricanes or earthquakes, or the 
desolation of its inhabitants by famine or plague, are great 
calamities ; the overturning of a carriage, or the fracture 


of a limb, are disasters ; losses in trade are misfortunea ; 
any minor misadventure is a mischance or a mishap." 

calculate, v., to arrive at a result by an arithmetical operation 
of any kind ; to compute, to reckon, to estimate. 

Syn. : compute, reckon, count, enumei'ate, estimate. 

Syn. dis. : "To calculate is the generic term ; the rest 
are specific ; computation and reckoning are branches of 
calculation, or an application of those operations to the 
objects of which a result is sought. To calculate compre- 
hends arithmetical operations in general, or particular 
applications of the science of numbers, in order to obtain a 
certain knowledge ; to compute is to form a numerical 
estimate, though it is applicable to magnitude. Count is 
etymologically another form of compute, bub its significa- 
tion is nearer to that of reckon : it is to reckon one by one, 
to add up the individual items. Estimate is to compute 
more generally, as to estimate the average or probable 
market value of goods, distance, and the like, in a rough 
manner. Enumerate is to tell the number by expressing 
the items, and is a process of speech rather than of arith- 

Avoid the use of calculate as the equivalent of think or 
believe; also avoid its more vulgar form, when used for 
expect, intend, purpose. As a synonym for likely or apt, 
when we say a thing is calculated to do harm, its use is 
also objectionable. 

calibre, n. (kal'-I-ber), In mechanics : the diameter of a body ; 
the bore of a gun. In letters : capacity of the mind ; the ex- 
tent of mental or intellectual qualities possessed by anyone. 

Syn.: gauge, diameter; capacity, ability, powez', strength. 

Syn. dis. : Metaphorically, calibre is used to express the 
capacity or compass of mind, as, "men of greater or smaller 
calibre " — referring to their mental vigour and attainments. 
It is improper to apply it to the productions or efforts of 
the mind, though this use is common, as in the sentence : 
" This author's later works are of a higher calibre than his 
former writings." 

Caluniny, n. (kal'-um-nl), slander, false accusation, the mak- 
ing and spreading of reports injurious to character. 


Syn. : aspersion, detraction, defamation, slander, libel, 
reviling, vilification. 

Ant. : vindication, cleai'ance, eulogy, panegyric. 

Syn. dis. : "Calumny is that evil-speaking which is based 
in any degree on what the speaker knows to be false ; os- 
persion is like the bespattering a person with foul water. 
It brings no definite charge, but seeks by any means to 
convey an unfavourable impression morally of the charac- 
ter and conduct of another. Detraction is that mode of 
cheapening another in public or private estimation which 
consists in granting facts as to his character, but interpret- 
ing them so as to diminish or contradict favourable infer- 
ences. Defamation is essentially pviblic ; it is the spread- 
ing far and wide what is injurious to reputation. Slander 
differs from defamation in being not only public, but also 
secret and underhand. Libel is written slander oi' defa- 
mation (libellus, a little book). Reviling is a direct act, 
vilification, an indirect : we revile a person to his face : we 
mlify him or his character generally in the eyes of the 
world." (^See asperse). 

calm, adj. and n., still, quiet, undisturbed ; stillness, peace- 

" * * 'mid the calm, oblivious tendencioa of Nature." — 

"Thy life a long dead calm of fix'd repose." — Pope. 

Syn. : placid, serene, composed, collected ; tranquillity. 

Ant. : agitated, excited, ruffled, discomposed, discon- 

Syn. dis.: These terms agree in expressing a state. 
Composed and collected almost exclusively refer to the air 
and manners of a pei-son, or to the condition of his 
thoughts and feelings ; the othei-s are applied to the ele- 
ments, as well as to the thoughts and feelings. Placid, 
though it may refer to an undisturbed condition of water 
— lake, sea, etc. — is mostly applicable to a serene state of 
the mind ; a state of being pleased or free from uneasiness. 
Calm respects the total absence of all perturbation, and 
may refer to the thoughts and feelings as well as to Nature. 
'* Q'iiiet, as applied to the mind, denotes rather an habitual 
than a passing state ; though it is more generally applica- 


ble to the external circumstances of life than to temper or 
manners. A peaceful atmosphere in the natural and the 
moral world is one in which there is no strife of warring 
elements. Placid denotes more than peace/id. One may 
be peaceful on principle, but persons are placid by 

candid, a^j. {Lit. white, bright, clear), Fig., free from malice, 
or from any intention to deceive. 

Syn. : frank, fair, open, sincere, ingenuous, cordial. 

Aiit. : reserved, close, disingenuous, insincere. 

Syn. dis. : '■^Candour arises from a conscious jmrity of 
intention ; openness, from a warmth of feeling and a love 
of communication ; sincerity, from a love of truth. A 
candid man will have no reserve when openness is neces- 
sary ; a sincere man will maintain a reserve only as far as 
it is consistent with truth. Frankness and candour may 
be either habitual or occasional ; ingenuousness is a per- 
manent characteristic." Candour uiay refer to our judg- 
ment of othera. 

Ciptious, adj., disposed to fin'd fault; apt to cavil or raise 
jections ; cros.s-grained. 

Syn.: peevish, fretful, petulant, carping, censorious. 

Ant.: appreciative, commendatory, laudatory, approving. 

Syn. dis. : " Captious marks a readiness to be offended ; 
cross indicates a readiness to offend ; peevish expresses a 
strong degree of cvossness ; fretful, a com|)laining impa- 
tience ; petulant, a quick or sudden impatience or capri- 
cious peevishness." Another writer aptly defines captious 
as " given to catching at defects or objections," and cross, 
as exhibiting a consciousness, with or without grounds, 
of being thwarted. Cross-grained is that characteristic 
trait or disposition which " finds adversity and opposition 
in every circumstance and person." 

care, n., thoughtful attention ; uneasiness of mind ; caution. 
Syn. : concern, regard ; solicitude, anxiety ; charge, 

Ant. : inattention, neglect, indifference, disregard, care- 


Syn. dis. : " Care and concern consist both of thought 
and feeling ; but the latter has less of thought than feel- 
ing ; regard consists of thought only. Care, solicitude, 
and anxiety express mental pain in different degrees ; 
care less than solicitude, and less than anxiety. Care 
respects the past, present, and future ; solicitude and 
anxiety regard the present and future. Care will include 
both charge and management ; but, in the strict sense, it 
comprehends personal labour : charge involves resfjonsi- 
bility \ management includes regulation and order." 

cause, n., the piimal or original thing ; anything which pro- 
duces an effect, v. to effect or produce, to occasion. 

Syn. {n.) : reason, motive ; {v) occasion, create. 

Ant. : effect, result, production, issue. 

Syn. dis. (rt.) : "■Cause respects the order and connection 
of things ; reason, the movement and o])erations of the 
mind ; motives, the movements of the mind and body, or 
the actions of a responsible being. Cause is properly gen- 
eric ', reason and motive are specific ; every reason or motive 
is a cause, but not every cause is a reason or a motive. 
Cause is said of all inanimate objects ; reason and motive, 
of rational agents." * # * ^^ -^ "What is caused 
seems to follow naturally ; what is occasioned, follows in- 
cidentally ; what is created I'eceives its existence arbi- 
trarily. A wound causes pain, accidents occasion delay, 
but bodies create mischief." 

cautious, adj., very careful in conduct, discreet, watchful. 

Syn. : wary, circumspect; vigilant, watchful. 

Ant. : rash, hasty, unguarded, reckless. 

Syn. dis. : " The epithets cautious, wary, circumspect, 
denote a peculiar care to avoid evil or trouble ; but cautious 
expresses less than the other two. It is necessary to be 
cautious at all times ; to be wary in cases of peculiar 
danger ; to be circumspect in mattex"s of peculiar delicacy 
and difficulty." Vigilant denotes being keenly on the 
alert, and expresses a high degree of watchfulness or 

celebrate, v., to praise or extol ; to render famous ; to honour 
bv marks of joy or by ceremonies. 


Syn. : commemorate, distinguish, honour, solemnize. 

Syn. dis. : To celebrate is to distinguish by any marks 
of honour and attention, without regard to the time of the 
event, whether past or present ; but nothing is commemo- 
rated but wliat has been past. The latter term is confined 
to whatever is thought of sufficient importance to be borne 
in mind, whether of a public or a private nature. A mar- 
riage or birthday is celebrated ; the anniversary of any 
national event is commemorated. 

chance, n., that which happens without being contrived, in- 
tended, or foreseen ; accident, o})portunity. 

Syn. : fortune, fate ; probability ; hazard ; accident. 

Ant. : law, rule, sequence, piirpose, design, certainty. 

Syn. dis. : Chance is the generic, fortune and fate, the 
specific terms : chance applies to all things personal or 
otherwise : fortune andy^^e are mostly said of that which 
is personal. Chance and 'probability are both employed 
in forming an estimate of future events ; but the chance is 
either for or against ; the probability is always for a thing. 
Chance and hazard are terms employed to mark the course 
of future events, which is not discernible by the human 
eye. Chance denotes a hidden senseless cause of things, 
as opposed to a positive intelligent cause : acrident is used 
only in respect to particular events, as it was pure accident. 

changeable, adj., prone to change, wavering, unsettled, vola- 

Syn. : variable, inconstant, fickle, mutable, versatile. 

Ant. : uniform, undeviating, regular, settled, i*esolute, 
firm, steady. 

Syn. dis. : " Changeable is said of persons or things ; 
k mutable is said of things only : human beings are change- 
able, human affairs are mutable. Changeable respects the 
sentiments and opinions of the mind ; variable, the state 
of the feelings ; inconstant, the affections ; fickle, the in- 
clinations and attachments ; versatile, the ap])lication of 
the talents. Changeable, variable, inconstant, and fickle, 
as applied to persons, are taken in a bad sense ; but versa- 
tility is a natural gift, which may be employed advanirtgc- 
ously." Versatile, though meaning in its etymological 


sense, " easily turned from one thing to another," also 
denotes "easily applied to a new task, or to various sub- 
jects," as a man of versatile or prolific genius. 

character, n., pei-sonal qualities or attributes, good or bad ; 
a man's moral and mental constitution. 

Syn. : reputation, credit, temperament. 

Syn. dis. : " Character lies in the man ; it is the mark 
of what he is ; it shows itself upon all occasions : reputa- 
tion depends upon othei'S ; it is what they think of him. 
A character is given particularly ; a reputation is formed 
generally." " Character is used of the whole complex 
constitution of a man's personal qualities. It therefoi-e 
exists anterior to and independent of his reputation. It 
is possible for a man to have a fair reputation who has not 
in reality a good character ; although men of really good 
character are not likely to have a bad reputation." "Credit 
is that trustworthiness which is based upon what is known 
of character [credere, to trust), and relates both to right 
conduct and the truth of propositions. Credit may be 
given on specific occasions only ; cJuiracter and reputation 
are permanent." The two latter terms are often used in- 
discriminately, without noting ihsit reputation is really the 
I'esult of clmracter ; character representing what one 
essentially is, and reputation, the estimation in which one 
is held. One leaves behind him a reputation, good or bad, 
not a character. The etymology of the two words will help 
to distinguish them in the minds of those ai)t to confuse 
the terms : character signifies an impression or mark, and, 
figuratively, the woi'd is employed for the moral mark 
which distinguishes one man from another : rejmtat/on, 
comes from the Fr. reputer, Lat. rejimto, to think, and sig- 
nifies what is thought of a person. 

choose, v., to take by preference out of several things oflered ; 
to pick, select, prefer (persons, it may be). 

Syn. : prefer, select, elect, adopt. 

Ant. : reject, refuse, discard. 

Syn. dis. : " To choose is to prefer, as the genus to the 
species : we always choose in preferring, but we do not 
always prefer in choosing. To choose is to take one thing 


from among others ; to prefer is to take one thing before, 
or rather than, another. * * Our choice is good or bad, 
according to knowledge ; our preference is just or unjust, 
according as it is sanctioned by reason. One who wants 
instruction, chooses a niaster, but he will mostly prefer a 
teacher whom he knows to a perfect stranger. * * * 
To choose does not always spring from any particular de- 
sign or preference ; to pick and select signify to choose with 
care. * * Choosing is the act either of one person or 
of many ; election is always that of a number ; it is per- 
formed by the concuirence of many voices." 

circumstance, n., that which stands round a thing or is 
attached to another ; an attendant state of things. 

Syn. : situation ; incident, fact, event, occurrence. 

Syn. dis. : " Circumstance is to sitv/ition as a part to a 
whole ; many circumstances constitute a situation ; a situ 
ation is an aggregate of circumstances. Circumstance 
res{)ects that which externally affects us : situation is em- 
ployed both for the outward circumstances and the inward 
feelings. Incident and fact are species of circumstances ; 
incident is what hap})ens, fact is what is done ; circum- 
stance is not only what happens and is done, but whatever 
is or belongs to a thing." 

cite, v., to call upon authoritatively ; to adduce as an author- 
ity, to bring forward or adduce as an example. 

Syn. : quote, recount, summon, call, adduce. 

Ant. : discard, contradict, disprove, discredit. 

Syn. dis. : " To cite is employed for pei-sons or things ; 
to quote for things only ; authors are cited, passages from 
their works are quoted ; we cite only for authority ; we 
quote for general purposes or convenience. * * The 
idea of calling a person authoritatively to appear is com- 
mon to the terms cite and summon. Cite is used in a gen- 
eral sense ; summon, in a particular and technical sense : 
a person may be cited to appear before his superior ; he is 
8um,m,oned to appear befoi'e a court : the station of the in- 
dividual gives authority to the act of citing ; the law itself 
gives authority to that of summoning." 



cla<illl, n., a demand for anything as one's due or right. 

Syn. : demand, right, pretension, privilege, prerogative. 
Ant. : disclaimer, surrender, abjuration. 

Syn, dis. : " Claim su])poses an acknowledged right, de- 
mand, either a disputed right or the absence of all right, 
and a simple determination to have it. Right is not, like 
claim and demand, developed, but lies, as it were, doi-- 
mant. It is the latent power to claim or demand upon 
occasion. Pretension is the holding out the appearance of 
right or possession, without directly urging it. Privilege 
is a right, immunity, or advantage posses.sed by some, but 
not enjoyed by others. Prerogative denotes a right of pre- 
cedence, or of doing certain acts, or enjoying certain 
privileges, to the exclusion of others." 

clandestine, adj., (klSn-dSs'-tln) Lit., hidden from daylight ; 
kept back from public view or knowledge for a bad purpose. 

Syn. : secret, hidden, private, underhand. 

Ant. : open, unconcealed, public, unreserved. 

Syn. dis. : "Clandestine expresses more than secret. To 
do a thing clandestinely is to elude observation : to do a 
thing secretly is to do it without the knowledge of any one : 
what is clandestine is unallowed, which is not necessarily 
the case with secret." * * « What is secret is known 
to some one ; what is hidden may be known to no one : it 
rests in the breast of an individual to keep a thing secret ; 
it depends on the course of things if anything remains 
hidden." See privacy. 

close, V. (kloz). Fig., to end, to bring to a conclusion, to con- 

Syn. : finish, conclude, complete, end. 

Ant. : open, begin, initiate ; protract. 

Syn. dis. : " To close is to bring to an end : to finish is 
to make an end : to conclude is a species oi finishing, that 
is to sa,y , finishing in a certain manner ; we always finish 
when we conclude, but we do not always conclude when 
we finish. A history is closed at a certain reign ; it is 
fvnished when brought to the period proposed : it is con- 
cluded with a recapitulation, it may be, of the leading 


events." * * " It is a laudable desire in everyone to 
wish to close his career in life honourably, and to finish 
whatever he undertakes to the satisfaction of himself and 

commercial, adj., pertaining to, or connected with, com- 
merce ; relating to trade or traffic. 

Syn. : mercantile. 

Syn. dis. : "Commercial is the widest term, being some- 
times made to embrace mercantile. In that sense it ex- 
tends to the whole theory and practice of commerce, as a 
commercial speculation, a commercial education, a commer- 
cial people. Mercantile respects the actual transaction of 
business ; and, as commercial relates strictly to the ex- 
change of commodities, so mercantile relates to their sale 
when brought to market." 

common, adj., jiertaining or relating to all in general ; of 
inferior character or quality. 

Syn. : vulgar, ordinary, mean, commonplace, universal. 

Ant. : unusual, rare, exceptional, refined, infrequent. 

Syn. dis. : " Familiar use renders things common, vulgar, 
and ordinary ; but what is mean is so of itself. Common 
is unlimited in its aj)plication ; it includes both vulgar and 
ordinary." * * " Common is opposed to rare and re- 
fined ; vulgar, to polite and cultivated ; ordinary, to the 
distinguished ; mean, to the noble ; commonplace, to the 
unique and striking ; universal, to the local and particular." 
Vulgar implies pretension and often manifests itself in 
ostentatious display and the offensive parade of wealth 
and social position. 

compensation, n., what is given to supply a loss or make 
good a deficiency. 

Syn. : remuneration, recompense, requital, reward, satis- 

Ant. : depravation, injury, nonpayment, damage. 

Syn. dis. : "A compensation is something real ; it is 
made for bodily labour, or for some positive injury sus- 
tained : in the latter case, justice requires that it should 
be equal in value, if not like in kind, to that which is lost 


or injured. Remuneration is made for mental exertions, 
for litei'ary, civil, or political services. A recompense is 
voluntary, both as to the service and the returns ; it is an 
act of generosity : requital is the repayment of injuries or 
a return for a kindness ; the making of the latter is an act 
of gratitude. A satisfaction may be imaginary, both as 
to the injury and the return, it is given for personal slights 
or injuries, and depends on the disposition of the peison 
to be satisfied whether it really satisfies or makes full 

competition, n., strife foi- superiority. 

Syn. : emulation, rivalry. 

Ant. : partnership. 

Syn. dis. : "Com^Jetilion and em,ulation — the latter par- 
ticularly — have honour for their basis ; rivalry is but a 
desire for selfish gratification. Oomq^etition is the attempt 
to gain something desirable, with or against others who 
are aiming at tlie same thing ; emulation expresses a dis- 
position of the mind towards i)articular objects ; rivalry 
expresses both a relation and the disposition of a rival." 

complaisance, n. (kOm'-pla-zans' or k5m-plas'-ans), a dispo- 
sition characterized by a desire to please, oblige, or gratify. 

Syn. : deference, condescension, affability, courtesy, 

Ant. : churlishness, moroseness, austerity. 

Syn. dis. : "All these qualities spring fr<5m a refinement 
of humanity ; but complaisance has most of genuine kind- 
ness in its nature ; deference, most of respectful submis- 
sion ; condescension, most of easy indulgence. Complai- 
sance is the act of an equal ; deference, that of an inferior ; 
condescension, that of a superior. Complaisance is due 
from one well-bred person to another ; deference is due to 
all superiors in age, knowledge, or station, whom one 
approaches ; condescension is due from all superiors to 
such as are dependent on them for comfort and enjoyment." 

conciliate, v., to reconcile or bring to a state of friendship 
those formerly at enmity or variance. 

Syu. : reconcile, pacify, propitiate, enlist. 


Ant. : alienate, irritate, estrange. 

Syn. dis. : " Conciliate and recoricUe are both employed 
in the sense of uniting men's affections, but under different 
circumstances. The conciliator gets the good-will and 
affections for himself ; the reconciler unites the affections 
of two persons to each other. The conciliator may either 
gain new affections, or regain those which are lost ; the 
reconciler always either lenews affections which have been 
once lost, or fixes them where they ought to be fixed. The 
best means of conciliating esteem is by reconciling all that 
are at variance." 

conclusive, adj., putting an end to debate or argument; 
leading to a conclusion or determination. 

Syn. : final, decisive, ultimate, definitive. 

Ant. : uncertain, dubious, hypothetical, indeterminate. 

Syn. dis. : These terms agree in expressing that char- 
acter of what is said or done which leaves no room for 
subsequent modification or procedure. Conclusive is com- 
monly used of that which terminates agreement or debate 
by its overwhelming or irresistible force, as "a conclusive 
proof," " conclusive evidence "; JinMl, to that which brings 
with it an intentional end. Decisive is that which has the 
power of prompt or summary deteimination, as " a decisive 
victory "; ultimate denotes that beyond which all attempts 
to go are stopped, as " an ultimate concession." 

conduce, v., to lead or tend to; to help forward some 
object or purpose. 

Syn. : contribute, tend, promote, forward, advance. 

Ant. : neutralize, defeat, indispose, counteract. 

Syn. dis. : " Tend is used of anything likely to bring 
about or to contribute to a given end, hence, it is used of 
a single cause, as "idleness tends to poverty." Conduce 
expresses more distinctly than tend the separate existence 
of cause and effect. The term is employed of that which 
leads to a favourable or desirable end, not to the contrary. 
We speak of things as conducive to happiness, not to 
misery. Contribute denotes partial causation, which is 
shared with other things of like tendency, while one thing 
alone may conduce to bring about a result." 


confirm, v., to add strength to, to fix or settle, to assure. 

Syn. : corroborate, establish, ratify, strengthen. 

Ant. : weaken, shake, upset, refute, cancel. 

Syn. dis. : "The idea of strengthening is common to all 
these terms, but under different circumstances : conjirm is 
used generally ; corroborate, only in particular instances. 
Conjirm respects the state of a person's mind, and what- 
ever acts upon the mind : a testilnony may be confirme-l 
or corroborated ; but the thing covjirms, the person cor- 
roborates. Established is employed with i-egard to what- 
ever is external : a report is confirmed, a reputation 

conformable, adj., having the same form or shape with 
another ; like, resembling, corresponding, compliant. 

Syn. : agreeable, suitable. 

Ant. : unconformable, unagreeable, unsuitable. 

Syn. dis. : " Conformable is employed for matters of 
obligation ; agreeable, for matters of choice ; suitable, for 
matters of propriety and discretion. What is conformable 
accords with some prescribed form or given rule of others ; 
what is agreeable accords with the feelings, tempers, or 
judgments of ourselves or others ; what is suitable accords 
with outward circumstances." 

confute, v., to prove to be wrong or false ; to convict of 
error by argument or proof. 

Syn. : disprove, refute, impugn. 

Ant. : prove, establish, maintain, corroborate. 

Syn. dis. : " To confute applies both to the arguer and 
the argument : it is to overwhelm by decisive argument. 
Refute is to repel by the same kind of argument, and so 
applies to what is alleged against one, as charges, calum- 
nies, and the like, to which confute is not applied in the 
same sense." "An argument is confuted by proving its 
fallacy ; a charge is refuted by proving one's innocence ; 
an assertion is disproved by proving that it is false." "Im- 
pugn denotes a hostile attitude in argument, and calls in 
question what is stated or alleged, as, ' the truth of his 
statements was impugned.' " 


consequently, adv., by necessary connection of effects witli 
their causes ; in consequence of something. 

Syn. : accordingly, therefore, wherefore, hence, thence, 
since, because, then, as, so. 

Ant. : irrelevantly, inconsequently. 

Syn. dis. : " These words all mark the drawing of a con- 
clusion from something which has been said as a pi-emise. 
Consequently expresses a definite conclusion, but is seldom 
used of logical inferences. It rather relates to practical 
privileges or decisions. Therefore and accordingly differ, 
in that the former is applicable both to inference and 
proof, while the latter is u.sed, mainly, to express a cou- 
gruity of action or proceeding. Because represents the 
correlative of the question 'why V Then is a less emphatic 
word for therefore, and as or so, a less emphatic word for 
because, and express the I'elation of cause and effect in a 
less marked manner." 

consider, v., to think on with care ; to look at carefully. 

Syn. : reflect, ponder, meditate, weigh, contemplate. 

Ant. : disregard, ignore, conjectui'e, despise. 

Syn. dis. : " The operation of thought is expressed in 
all these words, but in the case of consider and reflect, 
particularly, it varies in the circumstances of the action. 
Consideration is employed for practical purposes ; reflection 
for matters of speculation or moral iiuprovement. Com- 
mon objects call for consideration ; the workings of the 
mind itself, or objects jmrely spiritual, occupy reflection. 
Meditation is internal ; contemplation external : the poet, 
for instance, meditates ; the astronomer contemplates." 

consistent, a/Ij., uniform, not contradictory or opposed. 

Syn. : consonant, accordant, comi)atible. 

Ant. : incohei-ent, incongruous, inconsistent. 

Syn. dis. : " Consistent signifies the quality of being able 
to stand in unison together : consistent is employed in 
matters of conduct, consonant in matters of representation, 
accordant in matters of opinion or sentiment. A person's 
conduct is not always co7isistt^t with his station ; a par- 
ticulnr account is accordant with all one hears and sees on 
a subject ; a particular passage is consonant with the whole 


tenor of the Scfiptures. Compatible denotes an extran- 
eous relation of one thing to another, or of two to each 
other : that thing is compatible with another which may 
exist under similar conditions." 

consummate, v., (kOn'-stim-at), to finish by completing 
what was projected, aJj. (k5n-stim'-at), carried to the ut- 
most extent or degree. 

Syn. : (v.) to complete, to finish ; (adj.) perfect, finished, 

Ant. : inteiTupt, frustrate, nullify, mar, spoil, defeat ; 
faulty, defective, im])erfect. 

Syn. dis : " Completion is the filling up of a design or 
purpose ; a work is completed when the plan of it is re- 
alized. Consummation is applied to matters which must 
reach a certain degree or extent to mak(i them complete. 
Com,plet!on is more external, consumm,atio7i more internal. 
Consumviation is the completion of the idea or definition : 
it is also used in the sense of a gathering up in one of 
many things ; as ' the event of to-day its the Gonsum.mation 
of the hopes of many years.' " 

contrive, v., to plan out; to frame or devise. 

Syn : devise, invent, concert, manage, plot, scheme. 

Ant. : chance, hit, venture, hazard, bungle. 

Syn. dis. : ''To contrive denotes effort, or a series of 
efforts, of inventiveness : it is to form, find, or adapt 
means to an end by the exercise of practical ingenuity. 
Devise implies not so much the finding ways of using 
means, as finding the means themselves. Invent repre- 
sents the practical aspect of contrive, the invention being 
the more perfect in proportion to the lasting character of 
the contrivance. Concert commonly implies the joint 
assistance of others ; unanage denotes rather a judicious or 
ready employment of means extemporized on the occa- 

convene, v., to come together for a public purpose ; to cause 
to assemble. 

Syn. : convoke, assemble, meet, join, unite. 
Ant. : disperse, dismiss, disband, scatter. 


Syn. dis : " The idea of collecting many persons into 
one place, for a specific purpose, is common to the terms 
convene, convoke, and assemble. Assemble conveys this 
sense without any addition ; convene and convoke include 
likewise some collateral idea. There is nothing impera- 
tive on the part of those that assemMe or convene, and 
nothing binding on the part of tliose assembled or convened. 
one assembles or convenes hy invitation or i-equest; one 
attends to the notice or not at pleasui-e. Convoke, on the 
other hand, is an act of authority : it is the call of one who 
has the authority to give the call ; it is heeded by those 
who feel themselves bound to attend. Where the power 
is lodged equally in the hands of many, convene seems the 
more suitable term, and convoke when peculiar power of 
summoning is lodged in the hands of a single person." 

conversation, n., familiar intercourse in speech ; easy unre- 
strained talk. 

Syn. : colloquy, conference, dialogue, discourse, chat. 

Ant.: speech, oration, monologue, soliloquy; silence, 

Syn dis. : " Conversation is vei-bal intercourse of an un- 
premeditated kind, in which any number of persons may 
take part. Colloquy is a species of dialogue indefinite as 
to number, but restricted as to subject, in which each per- 
son present contributes remarks pertinent to the matter in 
hand, without the rigidity of a public meeting. Confer- 
ence has more of foi-m, being a colloquy on ui-gent or pub- 
lic and national affairs, where some line of action has to be 
taken or some expression of opinion published authorita- 
tively. JDialogite is commonly, though not necessarily, 
restricted to two speakers ; discourse is consecutive speech, 
whether of one or more persons, upon a given line of 

corporal, adj., of or relating to the body ; pertaining to the 
animal frame in its proper sense. 

Syn. : bodily, corporeal, material, fleshly, physical. 
Ant. : mental, moral, spiritual. 

Syn. dis. : " Corporal and corporeal both mean relating 
to the body, but under different aspects of it ; corporal, 


relating to the substance ; corporeal, to the nature of the 
body; while bodily denotes, more generally, connected with 
the body; hence, corpor«^ punishment, corporeal existence, 
bodily vigour, pains, or shape. Material respects all bodies, 
inanimate as well as animate. Corporeal is distinguished 
from spiritual ; bodily from mental : the world contains 
corporeal beings, and consists of material substances." 

crime, n., a violation or breaking of some human or divine 
law ; a serious fault ; iniquity. 

Syn. : vice, sin, guilt, offence, trespass, misdeed, misde- 

Ant. : duty, obligation, well-doing. 

Syn. dis. : "A crime is a social, a vice, a personal offence : 
every action which does injury to others, either individu- 
ally or collectively, is a crime ; that which does injury to 
ourselves is a vice. Sin is a departiire from a divine law, 
or any law regarded as of a divine or sacred character. Guilt 
is a state, the state of one who has infringed or violated 
any moral or political law, or to whom anything wrong, 
even as a matter of taste or judgment, may be attributed. 
Misdemeanour is a minor crime under the purely social 
aspect of crime : in common parlance it is used in the 
sense of misconduct. Any crime less than a felony, or 
any for which the law has not furnished a name, would l)e 
a misdemeanour. Offence (Lat. offendere, to stumble 
against), is indefinite and very general in its application : 
trespass is an offence of which the essence consists in going 
beyond certain allowable or right limits." 

crisis, n., the decisive point in any important affair. 

Syn. : conjuncture, emergency, exigency, turning-point. 

Ant. : course, ordainment, pi'ovision. 

Syn. dis. : " Crisis (Gr. krisis, a decision) denotes liter- 
ally what decides or turns the scale. It is commonly 
used as a turning-point in affairs, before it is known 
whether the issue will be for better or worse. Conjunc-^ 
ture is a compound crisis, or a state which results from 
the meeting of several external circumstances to form it. 
Emergency is an unforeseen occurrence or combination, 
which calls for immediate action. Eodgency is a minor 


emergency. A crisis is the high-wiought state of any 
affair which immediately precedes a cliarge ; a coajuncture 
may be favourable ; crisis, alarming." 

cultivation, n., the act or practice of cultivation ; husbandry; 
study, care, and practice directed to improvement or 

Syn. : Culture, civilization, refinement ; tillage. 

Ant. : neglect, discouragement, extirpation. 

Syn. dis. : " Cultivation is used V)0th in a physical and 
in a metaphorical sense. It denotes the use of art and 
labour and all things needful to the production of such 
things as grow out of the soil. The same force belongs to 
the metaphorical or moral use of the term, as in the cul- 
tivation of the mind, or of s{)ecial habits, or of literature, 
or the arts. Culture is commonly (imployed to denote 
the s[)ecific cultivation of some particular kind of pioduc- 
tion for the sake of its amelioration. In this sense the 
term is used of the culture of the human race or human 
mind (but not of moral habits), to indicate such civiliza- 
tion and training as result in the raising of the condition 
of the race. Civilization and refinement are respectively 
the first and the final stage of cultivation as regards the 
condition of men in their social capacity ; the first mean- 
ing the mere redeeming from a state of barbarism ; the 
second a high condition of intellectual culture in the 
liberal arts and social manners." 

CUStoni, n., frequent repetition of the same act; established 

Syn. : fashion, manner, method, practice, habit, usage, 

Ant. : laWj rule, regulation, dictate, disuse, non-observ- 

Syn. dis : " Custom is an habitual practice, whether of 
individuals or communities. It differs from habit in that 
habit is applicable exclusively to individuals, and denotes 
that the stage is reached when by a repetition of acts 
the custom is no longer purely voluntary. Fashion, be- 
sides its primary meaning of shape or manner, has tlie 
secondarv mwiniii"- -^^ vrevailinq manner. Method is 


scientific manner, as manner is natural method. Practice 
has the two senses of a regular doing, and the thing 
regularly done. Usage implies longer establishment than 
custom : custom is prolonged by usaije till it confers rights 
of prescription. " 


danger, «., a state of exposure to injury or loss of any kind. 
'* But new to all the dangers of the rxxaSn," ^Pope. 

Syn. : peril, hazard, risk, jeopardy. 

Ant. : security, safety. 

Syn. dis. : " The idea of chance or uncertainty is com- 
mon to all these terms : danger and peril may sometimes 
be seen and calculated upon ; but hazard and risk aie 
purely contingent. The danger and peril ai-e applied to a 
positive evil ; the hazard may simply respect the loss of a 
good ; risks are voluntarily run from the hope of goo<^l." 
Grabb says perils are more remote than dangers. " Jeo- 
pardy (Fr, jeu parti, drawn game) may exclude all volun- 
tary agency, which is implied in hazard and risk, and- 
unlike peril, is applied to things of value as well as to 

date, n., the point of time at which anything happened, or is 
appointed to hai)pen ; the period of time during which 
any season or thing is in existence. 

Syn. : period, era, epoch, time, age, generation. 

Syn. dis. : " Of these, the most general is time, which 
means unmeasui-ed duration, or any specific measure or 
point of it ; date is a point, and not a duration of time, 
bearing reference to the whole historic course of time 
within which it occurs. Period is, properly, a recurrent 
portion of time, or a stage in history which may itself be 
included among other stages ; era is used both for a fixed 
point of time, and for a succession of years dating from that 
point; epoch is an ei-a constituted by the inherent im- 
portance of an event, while an era may be arbitrary. Age 
and generation have nearly the same meaning ; but age is 
taken broadly for such periods as coincide with the joint 
lives of human beings, and so is extended to mean a cen- 
tury, while generation rather refers to the average dura- 


tion of individual life, and frequently means thirty yenrs." 
Period is often misused for date or time. 

debar, v., to shut out, exclude, prevent, stop, oppose. 

Syn. : deprive, hinder, prohibit, disqualify, exclude, 
preclude, foi'bid. 

Ant. : admit, enclose, embrace, entitle, qualify, permit. 

Syn. dis. : ^^Dehar indicates merely an act of prevent- 
ing power in reference to those things which we do our- 
selves, or which come about as the act of others, or of 
circumstances. Deprive denotes the coercive taking away 
of what one possesses, either in fact or in prospect, while 
debar relates to what one does not as a fact possess or at- 
tain to. Prohibit and forhid have the force of interdiction 
by authority, or debarring by the use of words of command. 
Disqualify is to debar by attaching personal and inherent 
prohibition from some ])rivilege, office, or dignity ; exchidc 
is formally to shut out ; preclude is to exclude by indirect 

debate, n., contention in words ; discussion between two or 
more ])ersons ; v., to ai-gue, to combat, to contest. 

Syn. : delil)erate, argue, dis})ute, discuss, contend. 

Ant. : yield, concede, admit, allow, surrender. 

Syn. dis. : " To debate supposes always a contr;iriety of 
opinion ; to deliberate supi)oses simply the weighing or es- 
timating the value of the opinion that is oftered. To 
argue is to say all that can be said for or against a propo- 
sition or a case ; to dispute is always antagonistic : it is to 
argue against something as held or maintained by another. 
Contend, is the opposite to dispute ; for, as dis})ute is to 
attack and endeavour to shake what is held or advanced 
by another, so contend is to argue urgently in favour and 
support of something held V)y oneself. Discuss is more 
commonly a})plied to matters of opinion, while debate be- 
longs rather to action or proceedings." 

deceive, v., to mislead intentionally ; to cause to believe 
what is false, or not to believe what is true. 

Syn : delude, mislead, beguile, ensnare, impose upon. 
Ant. : enlighten, guide, disabuse, illumine. 


Syn. dis. : "To deceive is the most general of these 
terms : it signifies simply to produce a false conviction ; 
to delude and to impose itpon are properly S])ecies of de- 
ceiving, including accessory ideas : a deception does not 
always sui)pose a fault on the part of a person deceived, 
but a delusion does : a person is sometimes deceived in 
cases where decej)tion is unavoidable; he is deluded through 
a voluntary blindness of the understanding ; mislead may 
be voluntary. Beguile is to place another in a false po- 
sition, to induce him to believe a thing affii-raed as true, 
and to leave him to the consequences of his error, es))ecially 
by seductive arts." 

decide, v., to terminate or settle ; to form a definite opinion. 

Syn. : determine, resolve, conclude upon. 

Ant. : waver, doubt, drop, suspend. 

Syn. dis. : "To decide expresses an intellectual result ; 
determ,ine and resolve moral results. I decide according to 
my judgment : I determine according to my pur|)ose : I 
resolve as combining the two, and implying a sort of pledge 
given to myself to carry out or firmly act with determina- 
tion what I have decided upon. To conclude upon is px^o- 
perly to come to a final determination. Decide expresses 
more than determine, and determine more than conclude." 

dftCree, n., an edict or law made by a superior authority ; the 
decision or order of a court. 

Syn. : edict, proclamation, law, statute, rule, regulation. 

Ant. : intimation, hint, suggestion. 

Syn. dis. : " In decree the leading idea is absolute obli- 
gation ; in edict, absolute authority : hence, decree is used 
largely of any binding power, as the decrees of fate. Pro- 
clamation is a published order emanating from the sov- 
ereign or supreme magistrate, and boars reference to 
specific occasions, as determined upon in council, and not 
provided for by tlie law of the land. Law, in its wider 
sense, is the authoritative expression of will on the part of 
8.Dy rightful governing powei-, and in its ])olitical sense, 
permanently controls every department of the State. Stat- 
ute is commonly applied to the acts of a legislative body 
composed of representatives of the people. Regulation is 


a governing direction of a State, department, institution, 
or an association for a specific purpose, and may be only ol 
a temporary character." 

decry, v., to cry down, to censure, to clamour against. 

Syn. : disparage, depreciate, detract, degrade, traduce. 

Ant. : extol, praise, laud, eulogize. 

Syn. dis. : " The idea of lowering by words the current 
value, is common to most of these terms. Decry relates 
primarily to the inherent value of the thing itself; dejyreci- 
ate to the estimate of it as formed or expressed by oneself ; 
disparage to the estimate as formed by others. We dis- 
parage a man's pei'formance by speaking slightingly of it ; 
we detract from the merits of a person by ascribing his suc- 
cess to chance ; we traduce him by handing about tales 
that ax-e unfavourable to his reputation." 

defer, v., to yield or give way to the opinion of another ; to 
put off, retard, adjourn. 

Syn. : delay, posti>one, prolong, protract, procrastinate. 

Ant. : hasten, quicken, expedite, press, urge. 

Syn. dis. : " To delay is simply to place an indefinite 
term between the present and the commencement of the 
thing delayed : this may be either a voluntary act or the 
result of circumstances. In this point, defer differs from 
delay, expressing always a voluntary act : defer is more 
specific ; delay, more indefinite. Postpone implies a definite 
intention to resume what for the present is put off; pro- 
crast'nate is to delay, defer or postpone thi'ough indolence 
or general unwillingness to commence action. Prolong 
and protract differ from the former in implying something 
actually commenced, as a period or a transaction : there is 
very little difference between them ; but we commonly 
use protract in the sense of contriving to lengthen." 

delicate, adj., of a fine texture ; nice or pleasing to the 
taste ; nice and discriminating in the perception of beauty 
or deformity ; considerate of the wishes and feelino's of 

Syn. : nice, fine, dainty, soft, sensitive, fragile. 

Ant. : coarse, raw, rough, common; robust, vigorous. 


Syn. dis. : " These terms are all employed both of the 
chai-acter of objects and of the faculties which perceive and 
treat of them. As to the quality of objects, that is delicate 
which is refinedly agreeable, or likely to please a highly- 
cultivated taste. When used of persons, in a moral sense, 
the term expresses an appreciation of what is extrinsically 
delicate, a shrinking from harshness and coarseness, a con- 
sideration of others, and an appreciation of the less pi-o- 
minent beauties and graces of things. Nice, when applied 
to objects, is not a word of high meaning. It indicates 
such a degree of excellence or agreeableness as people in 
general would approve or enjoy. When used of persons 
or their powers of discrimination, it seems to combine 
exactness of knowledge with a certain fastidiousness of 
requirement. The fine is that which combines delicacy 
and power or grandeur, as Osfine speech, ^ fine landscape ; 
it also implies keen and discriminative power, as a. fine dis- 
tinction. The delicate is a high degree of ih^fi/ne, as a. fine 
thought, which may be lofty ; fina feeling, which is acute 
and tender ; a delicate ear in music, an ear which is 
offended with the smallest discordance. A person is deli- 
cate in his choice, who is guided by taste and feeling ; he 
is nice in his choice, who adheres to a strict rule." 

delightful, adj., giving delight, highly pleasing. 

Syn. : delicious, charming. 

Ant. : hateful, repulsive, obnoxious, horrid. 

Syn. dis. : " Of these terms delightful relates to the 
state of the mind, delicious to the specific gratification of 
the senses, and charming to the gratification of the mind 
through the senses. Anything is deli/jhtfid which pro- 
duces gladness of mind ; delicious is generally confined to 
matters of tast«, touch, and smell ; charming is used in a 
wider sense, of that which delights and engages the whole 
nature, and commonly denotes that state of mental enjoy- 
ment which is produced through the senses. A charming 
landscape is one which we linger to enjoy ; a charming 
person, one in whose society and conversation we feel 
continual delight." 


demur, v., to delay by ruising tloubts and ol >j actions ; to 
pause in uncertainty. 

"They detmirring, I inukrtook that office." — Milton. 

Syn. : hesitate, pause ; scruple, waver, fluctuate. 

Ant. : acquiesce, a[)prove, agree, assent. 

Syn. dis. : " The idea of stopping is common to demur, 
to hesitate, and to pause. We demur from doubt or diiB- 
culty; we hesitate from an undecided state of mind ; we 
pause from circ\imstances. To hesitate is literally to stick 
at doing something, whether it be a practical act contem- 
plated, or a design formed in the mind, to which we desire 
to give effect. Hesitation may proceed from a variety of 
causes, such as prudence, fear, doubt, etc. To demur is a 
specific kind of hesitation : it is to suspend action or 
judgment in view of a doubt or difficulty. Scruple is a 
kind of internal demurring, dictated, it may be, by a 
sense of propriety, intellectual or moral, or from a consid- 
eration of what is wise or expedient in arresting our 
thought or action. Waver and fluctuate express motion 
and change of mind ; the former is Mpplied to mattei-s of 
intellectual decision, the latter to states of feeling." 

describe, v., to represent in words, or by signs or drawinga 
Syn. : depict, characterize, represent, relate, naxTate, 

Ant. : misrepi-esent, mystify, distort, confound, confuso. 

Syn. dis : " Describe is to write down an account ; hence, 
to give an account, whether in writing or in s{)oken words. 
DescrijAion belongs to the external manifestation of 
things, and ought to be full, clear, and explicit. Depict 
{lit. to paint) refers to the vivid description of anything 
which may be brought with more or less distinctness to 
the mind's eye. Characterize is employed in moi-al de- 
scription of what represents the subject by its leading 
feature or features. Hence, a whole course of conduct, or 
a whole class of character in men, may be said to be 
characterized by some one strong and distinctive epithet 
which sets a peculiar mark and stamp upon it." 


design, v., to form in the mind ; to plan ; to have in view. 

Syn. : intend, purpose, mean, contemplate. 

Ant. : miscontrive, misconceive, risk, chance. 

Syn. dis : " These terms all refer to the condition of the 
mind antecedent to action. Mean, being of Saxon origin, 
is the most comprehensive and colloquial, and signifies 
simply to have a mind to do or say a thing. Design and 
purpose are terms of higher purport than intend or mean ; 
intend points to no more than the general setting of the 
mind upon doing a thing ; design denotes an object of 
attainment placed befoi-e the mind, with a calculation of 
the steps necessary for it ; purpose indicates a permanent 
resolution to be carried out in such a way that circum- 
stances must be made subservient to it." 

deter, v., to hinder or discourage by consideration of danger, 
difficulty, or great inconvenience. 

Syn.: discourage, dishearten, obstruct. 

Ant. : encourage, incite, prompt, persuade. 

Syn. dis. : " Deter and discourage denote gradually the 
action of the judgment ; dishearten, an influence upon the 
spirits. One is deterred by formidable difficulty or opposi- 
tion ; discouraged by the representations of advisers, or by 
a calm estimate of the nature of the case ; disheartened by 
anything that robs us of .-sinrit, energy, or hope. Disheart- 
ened ap[)lie' only to porsons ; discourage both to persons 
and their effi)rts." 

develop, v., to unfold gradually ; to lay open ; to disclose. 

Syn. : unfold, unravel, uncover, exhibit. 

Ant. : envelope, wrap, obscure, conceal, involve. 

Syn. dis. : " To develop is to open that which has been 
wi-apt in an envelope ; to unfold is to open that which has 
h<iQv\. folded ; to unravel is to open that which has been 
ravelled or tangled. The api)lication of these terms there- 
fore to moral objects is obvious : what has been folded 
and kept secret is unfolded ; what has been entani^led in 
any mystery or confusion is unravelled; what has been 
wrapped up so as to be entirely shut out fi'om view is 
developed. We speak of the development of plans, plots, 


ideas, the inind, etc., and also, scientifically, of the develop- 
ment of one species from another, of the development of 
the body in growth, etc." 

diction, n., style or manner of expressing ideas in words. 

Syn. : phraseology, diction, style. 

Syn. dis. : "In the order in which these words here 
stand, they advance from the moi'e particular to the more 
general. Phraseology is the employment of particular 
expressions in such a way as to be distinctive, but not as 
a matter of praise or blame. We do not speak of good 
or bad phraseology. Diction is the construction, disposi- 
tion, and application of words. The term is employed in 
cases where clearness and accuracy are at stake ; while 
style is employed of the characteristics of productions and 
performances which lay claim to an artistic character, as 
writing, oratory, painting, and the like." 

dictionary, n., a book containing the words of a language 
arranged in alphabetical order, with explanations or defi- 
nitions of their meanings. 

Syn. : lexicon, vocabulary, encyclopaedia, glossary. 

Syn. dis. : " The term dictionary has been extended in 
its application to any work alphabetically arranged as 
biographical, medical, botanical dictionaries, and the like ; 
but still preserving this distinction, that a dictiona/ry 
always contains only a general or partial illustration of 
the subject proposed, whilst an encyclopedia embraces 
the whole circuit of science. Lexicon is a species of dic- 
tiona/ry appropriately applied to the dead languages; a 
vocabulary is a partial kind of dictionary which may com- 
prehend a simple list of words, with or without explana- 
tion, arranged in order or otherwise; a glossary is an 
explanatory vocabulary, which commonly serves to explain 
the obsolete terms employed in any old author, or in 
which certain words are selected and arranged for consid- 
eration in detail." 

difiference, n., want of similarity; that which distinguishes 
one thing from another ; distinction. 

Syn. dis. : " A difference is either external or internal ; 
a distinction always extei-nal ; difference lies in the thing ; 


distinction is the act of the person ; the fojiuer is there- 
fore to the latter as the cause to the (effect ; the distinction 
rests on the difference. Those are equally bad logicians 
who make a distinction without a difference, or who make 
no distinction where there is a difference." 

diffidence, n., want of confidence ; distrust of oneself. 

Syn. : distrust, mistrust, misgiving, suspicion. 

Ant; : boldness, effrontery, shamelessness. 

Syn. dis. : " Diffidence is used only of ourselves ; it is a 
distrust of our own powers, with or without sufficient 
grounds. Distrust is want of trust both as regards our- 
selves and others, and relates not only to the power but 
to the will and the schemes, efforts, and the like. Mis- 
trust relates not to the power, but only to the will, find 
hence can be used only of animate beings : to distrust is to 
doubt the sufficiency ; mistrust, to doubt the integrity. 
Misgiving is entirely internal and reflective ; it is the 
spontaneous suggestion of distrust. Suspicion is the tend- 
ency to believe ill, without adequate and sometimes, indeed, 
without any proof" 

diffuse, adj., using too many words to express one's meaning ; 
wanting conciseness and due condensation 

Syn. : discursive, prolix, copious. 

Ant. : laconic, terse, condensed, epigrammatic. 

Syn. dis. : " Of these, as epithets applied to styles of 
speaking or writing, diffuse (Lat. diffund&re, diffustus, to 
pour abroad) rather relates to the language ; discursive 
{discurrere, to run about) to the treatment of the subject ; 
and prolix {jaro and laxios, loose) to the effect of both in 
combination. A diffuse writer or speaker is not sparing 
of time or space ; he employs sentences which might have 
been condensed into fewer words, and expands into imag- 
ery, illustration, and amplification of all sorts. Diffuse- 
ness is the extreme of which copiousness (Lat. copia, 
plenty) is the mean, and may be the I'esult either of 
wealth of thought or language, or simply of the contrary, 
— an inability bo compress. Discursive denotes the absence 
of unity, system, method, and sequence. It belongs to 
the mind, which does not estimate the relative bearings 


of different portions of the suVjject matter upon the cen- 
tral })oint, and treats them in undigested series. Prolix 
denotes any sort of protraction of discoui'se which imparts 
the sense of weariness, of superfluous minuteness or tedious 
length in the treatment of the suljject. Prolixity arises 
from the introduction of unimportant details. The dif- 
fuse is properly o])posed to the pi-ecise ; the prolix to the 
concise or laconic." 

diligent, adj., steady in application to business ; constant in 
ell'ort to accomplish what is undertaken. 

Syn. : assiduous, industrious, laborious, sedulous, active. 

Ant. : idle, desultory, inert, slothful. 

Syn. dis. : " The diligent man is he who gives sustained 
attention to any matter which admits of perseverance and 
interest. Industrious denotes a nature which loves work 
for its own sake. The active man loves employment, and 
is uneasy when he has nothing to do. Laborious is em- 
ployed both of the agent and the work, and is a stronger 
form of industrious as apj)lied to persons. Assiduoua and 
sedulous both express steady and persevering attention to 
an occupation or pursuit ; but sedulous denotes that it is 
natural or habitual ; assidtious only denotes the fact 
without implying a habit." 

directly, adv., straightway ; soon ; without delay. 

Syn. : immediately, instantly, instantaneously. 

Ant. : by-and-by, afterwards. 

Syn. dis : " Directly is most applicable to the actions of 
men ; imined lately and instantly to either actions or events. 
Immediately and i7istantly, or instantaneously, mark a 
quick succession of events, but the latter in a much 
stronger degree than the former. Immediately is negative; 
it expresses simply that nothing intervenes ; instantly is 
positive, signifying the veiy existing moment in which 
the thing happens. A course of proceeding is direct, the 
consequences are immediate, and the effects instantaneous." 

disbelief, n., denial of belief, incredulity. 
Syn. : unbelief, sce])ticism, infidelity. 
Ant. : faith, credence, trust, assent. 


Syn. (lis. : " Unbelief is, negative ; disbelief is, positive : 
unbelief ni&y arise from want of knowledge, but disbelief 
rejects as false. Unbelief is the absence, disbelief the re- 
fusal of credit. Incredulity and infdelity are used, the 
former to signify absence of belief where it is possible, the 
latter absence of belief where it is right. Incredulity may 
be therefore right where it denotes a proper reluctance of 
assent to what ought not to be easily believed, or not 
believed at all ; infidelity is, by the force of the term, 
wrong." Scepticism implies disbelief or inability to be- 
lieve, and commonly expresses a doubting of the truth of 
revelation or of the Christian religion. 

discernment, n., power of perceiving differences in things 
or ideas. 

Syn. : penetration, discrimination, judgment, discretion. 

Ant : heedlessness, dulness, density, blindness, inob- 

Syn. dis : " Discernment is combined keenness and ac- 
curacy of mental vision ; it is first penetrative, then dis- 
criminative. Penetration is the power of seeing deeply 
into things; discriminatiort, is discernment in minute 
particulars, and of such a kind as leads to the acting upon 
the differences observed. Judgment is the faculty of 
deciding in practical matters with wisdom, truly, skilfully, 
or accurately : it has to do not so much with actualities, 
like discernment and penetration, but with possibilities. 
Discretion is cautious discernment, and has for its result 
the avoidance of such errors as come from want of self- 
control or want of judgment." 

disease, n., any deviation from health; disorder in any part 
of the mind or body. 

Syn. .• sickness, malady, complaint, ailment, disorder. 

Ant. : health, sanity, salubrity, convalescence. 

Syn. dis : " Disease is the most strictly technical of 
these terms, being applied in medical science to such 
morbid conditions of the body, or of parts of it, as admit 
of diagnostics, and is commonly of prolonged duration. 
Sickness is an unscientific term, to denote the deranged 
condition of the constitution generally, without specifying 


its character. A malady is a lingering and deejj-seated 
disorder, which weakens without immediately jeopardiz- 
ing the vital functions. Complaint is commonly applied 
to the less violent, though continuous kinds of disorder. 
Disorder is a disturbance of the functions of the animal 
economy, and differs thus from disease, which is organic. 
Ailment is the lightest form of complaint and expresses 
its slight and passing character." 
See indisposition. 

disposition, n., natural constitution of the mind ; inclination. 

Syn. : character, temper. 

Syn. dis. : " Disposition and temper are both applied to 
the mind and its bias ; but disposition respects the whole 
frame and texture of the mind ; temper respects only the 
bias or tone of the feelings : disposition is permanent and 
settled ; temper is transitory and fluctuating. The dis- 
posiiion comprehends the springs and motives of actions ; 
the temper influences the actions for the time being : it is 
possible to have a good disposition with a bad temper, and 
vice versa. As a synonym with disposition, character is 
the whole moral nature, of which the disposition is a 
manifestation ; it is often, though improperly, used in the 
sense of the social estimate formed of a man, his reputa- 
tion for good or ill." 

distinguish, v., to perceive a difference by the senses ; to 
separate or divide by some mark or quality. 

Syn. : discriminate, mark, discern, perceive, recognize. 

Ant. : miss, overlook, confuse, confound. 
" Syn. dis. : " In the sense in which distinguish is a 
synonym with discriminate, it is similai-ly used in regard 
to physical objects, while discriminate is only used of 
moral things : we distinguish by the eye or the mental 
perception ; we discriminate by the judgment alone ; we 
distinguish broadly ; discriminate nicely. We distinguish 
best when we show great differences ; we discriminate 
best when we show slight differences, or dissimilarities in 
detail under a general resemblance." 

distinguislied, adj., noted or celebrated for some superior or 
extraordinary quality; marked, famous. 


Syn. : eminent, illustrious, conspicuous, prominent. 

Ant. : common, commonplace, obscure, ordinary. 

Syn. dis. : '* Distinguished directly relates to persons 
and to deeds, and to persons for the sake of their deeds : 
it conveys the idea of social eminence or prominence as 
the result of public services rendered, or merit publicly 
exhibited. Eminent is only employed of persons — those 
who stand above their fellows : wlien things stand out 
conspicuously they are called prominent ; e. g. the eminent 
characters of history, and the prominent events. Illustri- 
ous is used strictly only of persons, inasmuch as human 
acts or character can alone make things illustrious, as 
being the agents or recipients of what is illustrious ; thus 
we speak of illustrious heroes, nobles, titles. If we speak 
of illustrious deeds or events, it is as being done or 
brought about by human agency." 

docile, adj., (dd'-sll or d6s'4l), easily instructed or managed ; 
teachable ; willing or ready to learn. 

Syn. : tractable, amenable, compliant, tame. 

Ant. : stubborn, dogged, intractable, obstinate. 

Syn. dis. : " Docile [lit. easy to teach) implies more than 
tractable (easy to handle) : tractable denotes no more than 
the absence of refractoriness, docile the actual quality of 
meekness. Amenable is commonly used of human beings 
who are willing to be guided by pei-suasion, entreaty, and 
reason, without requiring coercion. The docile is easily 
taught or led ; the tractable easily managed ; the amenable 
easily governed and persuaded." 

droll, adj., odd, out of the common way ; farcical ; waggish. 

Syn. : ludicrous, comical, laughable, ridiculous, facetious. 

Ant. : sad, tragic, lugubrious, funereal. 

Syn. dis. : " D7-oll denotes the combination of the laugh 
able with the unfamiliar or odd ; ludicrous, that which is 
personally laughable, but without any necessary admixture 
of contempt or pity, in this differing from ridiculous, 
which conveys the idea of the contemptible in things and 
the humiliating in persons. Comical denotes what is 
demonstratively and, as it were, dramatically, laughable." 


duty, n., a moral or legal obligation ; a debt due : obedience 
or submission due to parents or superiors ; loyalty. 

Syn. : obligation, service. 

Ant. : freedom, licence, immunity, exemption. 

Syn. dis : " The distinction commonly made between 
duty and obligation is that duty {lit. what is due) rises 
out of jjei'uianent relationships between persons, while 
obligation, {lit. to bind) flows from the application of moral 
princij)les to particular cases. Obligations in this way 
would often be duties, while duties would often be based 
upon obligation. Duty is a graver term than obligation : 
a diUy hardly exists to perform trivial things, but there 
may be an obligation to do them : a duty never can be 
against reason ; an obligation may be even absurd, as 
depending upon custom. Obligation is defined by the 
extent of the power which obliges ; duty by the ability of 
the subject who })erforms." 


ease, n., an undisturbed state of quiet, either of the mind or 
body ; comfort, enjoyment. 

Syn. : quiet, rest, repose, tranquillity ; easiness, facility. 

Ant. : disquiet, trouble, annoyance, vexation. 

Syn. dis. : ^^ Ease means the absence of any cause of 
trouble : tins may be either internally as regards oneself, 
or externally, in regard to what one has to do. Hence its 
two-fold meaning of quiet 2Mi\ facility. Quiet denotes the 
absence of a disturbing cause, a quiescent state : rest de- 
notes the cessation from active or laborious movement : 
repose implies the placing of all parts of the body, as well 
as the mind, in a posture or condition of rest. In the 
other sense of the word, ease commonly refers to specific 
action ; easiness, to inherent quality. Ease is also appli- 
cable to purely physical undertakings ; facility, to mental : 
ease is opposed to effort, facility to difficulty. 

eccentric, adj., peculiar or odd in manner or character. 

" With this man's knavery was strangely mingled an eccentric 
vanity, which resembled madness." — Macaiilay. 

Syn. : singular, strange, odd, flighty, peculiar. 


Ant. : unremarkable, customary, regular, unnoticeable. 

Syn. dis. : '^Eccentric (as an adjective) is employed only 
of persons, and, again, only of what meets the observa- 
tion in reference to conduct, as the appearance, dress, and 
the behaviour : it implies a will, nature, or habits which, 
as it were, move in a different orbit from other people. 
Singular, on the other hand, is applied to the whole per- 
son, or to any aspect of his character, to his ideas, to his 
whole life, or to any particular act, as standing by itself 
out of the common course, and even to phenomena, cir- 
cumstances, or occurrences. Strange is of equally com- 
prehensive aj:)plication, but bears reference to the experi- 
ence of the witness, to which it is foreign or alien. Odd 
implies disharmony, incongruity, or unevenness." 

ftCOnomy, w.,the frugal and prudent management of a family 
or household ; the judicious management of the affairs of 
an office or a nation. 

Syn. : frugality, parsimony, tlu-ift. 

Ant. : liberality, generosity. 

Syn. dis. : " Economy im])lies management ; frugality 
implies temperance ; parsimony implies simply forbearing 
to spend, which is in fact the common idea included in 
these terms." 

economical, adj-, managed or handled with care and 
frugality ; not wasteful or extravagant. 

Syn. : saving, sparing, thrifty, ])enurious, niggardly. 

Ant. : wasteful, extravagant, improvident. 

Syn. dis. : '^Economical signifies not spending xmneces- 
sarily or unwisely ; saving is keeping and laying by with 
care ; sparing is keeping out of that which ought to be 
spent ; thrifty or thriving is accumulating by means of 
saving ; penurio^is is suffeiing, as from penury, by means 
of saving ; niggardly is not spending or letting go, but in 
the smallest possible quantities." 

Gducation, n., the educing, leading, or drawing out the latent 
powers of an individual ; (po[>ularly) the cultivation ot 
the moral, intellectual, and physical powers. 

Syn. : instruction, breeding, training, discipline. 


Syn. dis. : Education is derived from Lat. eiluaire, " to 
bring up " ; hence it includes all that is involved in its 
synonyms. " The term is used of a premeditated effort 
on the part of parent and teacher to draw out one's intel- 
lectual and moral endowments, encouraging what is good 
to oneself and to society, and discouraging what is hurtful. 
With this is combined an effort to give more or less of 
technical training to tit the scholar or student for the 
occupation by which he desires or is likely to support him- 
self in life." * * « Instruction respects the communi- 
cation of knowledge, and breeding respects the manner or 
outwai'd conduct ; but education comprehends not only 
both of these, but the formation of the mind, the regula- 
tion of the heart, and the establishment of the principles." 
A person may be a man of education who has not been 
trained in school or college : one may be so trained and 
yet be a person of little education : education includes 
instruction (which may be received in the university of 
the world) and breeding, an essential part of a man's men- 
tal and moral outfit. * * " Training is development 
by instruction, exercise and discipline, and is applicable 
to the whole nature of a man, or, specifically, to the facul- 
ties which he possesses." 

6£f6Ct, n., result or consequence of a cause or agent. 

Syn. : result, consequence. 

Syn. dis. : " Effect applies either to physical or moral 
objects ; consequence, only to moral subjects. An effect 
is that which necessarily flows out of the cause, — the 
connexion l)etween the cause and the effect being so inti- 
mate that we cannot think of the one without thinking of 
the other. A consequence, on the other hand, may be 
either casual or natural ; it is that on which we can cal- 

effective, adj., having the power to effect; producing 

" The use of these rules is not at all effective upon erring con- 

Syn. : effectual, efficient, efficacious. 
Ant. : weak, futile, inoi)erative, nugatory. 


Sj'n. dis. : "An end or result is effp.ctual, the means are 
efficacious. Efficient is actively operative, and is used of 
persons, of things, and of causes, in a philosophical sense, 
as 'an efficient cause,' an ' efficient officer.' Effective is pro- 
ducing a decided effect, as ' an effective remedy,' * an effective 
speech.' Effectual is finally effective, or producing, not 
effect generally, but the desired effect in such a way as to 
leave nothing to be done. Efficacious is possessing the 
quality of being effective, which is latent in the thing until 
it is put into operation. It is not employed of persons." 

eligible, adj., fit or deserving to be chosen. 

Syn. : desirable, preferable. 

Ant. -. worthless, ineligible, undesirable. 

Syn. dis. : "Eligible means px'itnarily worthy of being 
or qualified to be, chosen ; it denotes, therefore, an alterna- 
tive — that of choosing something else, or not choosing 
this. Desirable is of wider application, and conveys no 
idea of comparison or selection. Preferable is that which 
is comparatively desirable or specifically eligible. What is 
eligible is desirable in itself, what is preferable is more 
desirable than another. There may be many eligible situ- 
ations out of which perhaps there is but one preferable : 
of ])ersons, however, we say rather that they are eligible 
to an office than preferable." 

elocution, n., the management and quality of the voice in the 
utterance or delivery of words. 

Syn. : eloquence, oratory, rhetoric, declamation. 

Syn. dis.: ^'Elocution turns more upon the accessory 
graces of speaking in public, as intonation, gesture, and 
delivery in general ; eloquence on the matter, and the 
natural gifts or the attainments of the speaker. Oratory 
comprehends both the art and the practice of the orator, 
and, in an extended sense, the combined productions of the 
orators, as ' the oratory of Greece and Ex)me.' Rhetoric is 
strictly the theory or science of which oratory is the ])rac- 
tice." By poetic licence, we sometimes speak of eloqv.ence 
in a mute sense, as ' the silent eloquence of a look.' 

endurance, n., the power or capacity of bearing or enduring 
without yielding or giving way. 


Syn. : patience, resignation, fortitude. 

Ant. : weakness, feebleness, lassitude. 

Syn. dis. : ''Endurance is the power or act of enduring) 
that is, of suffering without sinking, and may be a i)hy8i- 
cal or a mental quality. Patience is endurance, which is 
morally acquiescent : the opposite to endurance is simply 
exhaustion ; the opposite to patience is repining, or irrita- 
bility and impatience. Resignation is unresisting, unmur- 
muring acquiescence in the issue of circumstances or in 
the exercise of the will of another. Fortitude is a moi-e 
energetic quality, and might be defined as passive courage 
or resolute endurance." 

enthusiast, «., a person of ardent zeal, a highly imaginative 
person ; one whose mind is completely possessed by any 

Syn. : fanatic, visionary, zealot, bigot. 

Syn. dis. : " Enthusiast is one who is influenced by a 
peculiar fervour of mind, not necessarily irrational — in 
certain limits admirable — as when we say an ' enthusiastic 
lover of music' Enthusiasm begins to be blameworthy 
and perilous when the feelings have over-mastered the 
judgment. Fanatic is employed to designate one whose 
overheated imagination has wild and extravagant notions, 
especially upon the subject of religion, which render him 
incapable of using his judgment and dangerous to others : 
visionary, as the term expresses, is one who is moved 
by visions and influences of the imagination, mistaken 
for realities : zealot and bigot represent the one actively, 
the superstitious partisan, the other, more passively, the 
superstitious believer and adherent." 

entire, adj., whole, undivided, complete in its parts. 

Syn. : whole, complete, total, perfect. 

Ant. : partial, broken, incomplete, impaired. 

Syn. dis. : " In most cases the words entire and whole 
are simply interchangeable ; but whole relates to what is 
made up of parts, while entire does not relate to any idea 
of parts, but simply to perfect and undiminished unity. 
Complete is possessing all that is needful to constitute a 
thing, or to fulfil a purpose or a definition. 7'otal is com- 


plete in amount, so that in matters which do not relate to 
mere quantity, we cannot use the term. We say total 
sum, or amount, total loss, or total darkness, because the 
mere perfection of quantity is all that is regarded. Per- 
fect is a more comprehensive term, relating not only to 
quantity, but also to quality." 

envious, culj., feeling uneasiness at the superiority or happi- 
ness of another ; full or infected with envy. 

" An envious man, if you succeed, 
May prove a dangerous foe indeed." — Cowper. 

Syn. : invidious, jealous, suspicious. 

Ant. : unselfish, trusting, disinterested. 

Syn. dis. : "Invidious signifies looking at with an evil 
eye : envious is literally only a variation of invidious, 
which, in its common acceptation, signifies causing ill-will ; 
while envious signifies having ill-will. Jealous is a feeling 
of envy mixed with rivalry : we are jealous, not only of 
the actual but the possible, whence the alliance between 
jealousy and suspicion. The latter tenn relates more com- 
monly to thoughts of the character, conduct, and designs of 
other persons, and wears an inauspicious or unfavourable 

equivocate, v., to make use of expressions admitting of a 
two-fold interpretation. 

Syn. : prevaricate, evade, quibble, shuffle. 

Syn. dis. : " These words designate an artful mode of 
escaping the scrutiny of an inquirer. We evade by art- 
fully turning the subject or calling oflF the attention of the 
inquirer ; we equivocate by the use of equivocal or ambig- 
uous expressions ; we prevaricate by the use of loose or 
indefinite statements, shuffling or quibbling, so as to avoid 
disclosing the truth." 

error n., a deviation from truth ; involuntarily wandering 
from the truth. 

Syn. : mistake, blunder. 

Ant. : truth, accuracy, correctness. 

Syn. dis. : "Error, in its universal sense, is the general 
term, since every deviation from what is right, and, we may 


add, from what is true, just, or acciu-ate, in rational 
agents is termed error, which is strictly opj)Osed to truth. 
A mistake is an error committed under a misapprehension 
or misconception of the nature of a case. An error may 
be from absence of knowledge ; a mistake is from insuffi- 
cient or false observation. Blunder is a practical error of 
a peculiarly gross or awkwai-d kind, committed through 
gross or glaring ignorance, heedlessness, or awkwardness. 
Mistake is an error of choice ; blunder, an error of action." 

essay, n., in literature, a written composition or disquisition 
upon some particular point or topic, less formal than a 
Syn. : treatise, dissei*tation, tract, monograph. 
Syn. dis. : " Essay is a modest term to express an 
author's attempt to illustrate some point of knowledge or 
learning by general thoughts upon it. It is tentative 
rather than exhaustive or scientific. A treatise is more 
formal and scientific than an essay. A dissertation is of 
an argumentative character, advancing views upon a sub- 
ject capable of being regarded in difierent lights. A tract 
is of a simpler and shorter character, simply didactic, and 
commonly, as now used, of a religious nature." A mono- 
graph — the word is recent — is a treatise or description 
limited to a single being or object, or to a single branch 
of a subject. 

ever, adv., at any time ; always ; in any degree. 

Syn. dis : There is need for discrimination in the use 
of the words ever and always. Ever expresses uniformity 
of continuance, and has the additional meaning of at any 
time, in which it belongs peculiarly to negative and inter- 
rogative sentences, as " Who ever (at any time) heard the 
like of that]" Always expresses uniformity of repetition, 
and means at all times. 

every, adj., the whole, taken one at a time ; each one of a 

Syn. : each, whole, all. 

Syn. dis. : " Tliese are not so much synonyms as words 
which are employed in kindred ways. AIHh collective; 
every is single or individual ; each is distributive. All 


respects a single body regarded as to the number of its 
parts ; whole, a single body regarded as to its quantity ; 
all men being equivalent to the whole human race. Every 
person is justly treated when each receives his due share." 
Every is very frequently, but wrongly, made to do duty 
now-a-days for " all," " perfect," " entire," "great," or " all 
possible," as in the phrases : " He takes every pains ;" "He 
deserves every praise ;" " He is entitled to every confi- 
dence;" ^^ Every one has this in common." 

evidence, n., that which demonstrates or makes clear that a 
fact is so; that which makes evident or enables the mind 
to see truth. 

Syn. testimony, proof, illustration, token, sign. 

Ant. : surmise, conjecture, disproof, fallacy. 

Syn. dis. : " The words evidence and testimony, thougli 
differing widely in meaning, are often used indiscrimin- 
ately by careless speakers : evidence is that which tends 
to convince ; testimony is that which is intended to con- 
vince. Proof, being a simpler word than testimony and 
evidence, is used more generally of the ordinary facts of 
life. Testimony is strictly the evidence of a witness given 
under oath ; evidence is a term of higher dignity, and is 
applied to that which is moral and intellectual, as the 
evidences of Christianity ; or the body of proofs, or alleged 
proofs, tending to establish facts in law." 

examination, n., careful observation or inspection; scrutiny 
by study or experiment. 

Syn. : search, inquiry, research, investigation, scrutiny. 

Syn. dis. : " Examination is the most general of these 
terms, which all agree in expressing an active effort to 
to find out that which is unknown. An examination is 
made by the aid either of the senses or the understanding, 
the body or the mind ; a search is principally a bodily 
action ; the inquiry is mostly intellectual : an examination 
is made for the purpose of forming a judgment ; a search 
is made for ascertaining a fact ; an inquiry has much the 
same meaning. Research is laborious and sustained search 
after objects, not of physical, but of mental observation 
and knowledge ; investigation is literally a mental tracking 


(of facts or appearances) ; scrutiny is confined to minute 
examination of what is known and present • exploration is 
to range in inquiry, or to direct one's search over an ex- 
tensive area." 

example, n., a copy, pattern, or model ; one as an illustra. 
tion of the whole. 

Syn. : instance, sample, illustration, case, precedent. 

Syn. dis. : " The example is set forth by way of illus- 
tration or insti-uction ; the instance is adduced by way 
of evidence or proof. Copy, pattern, and model stand in 
close relationship. A copy has the double meaning of a 
pattern and an imitation of it, or of the thing to be imita- 
ted and the thing imitating ; a pattern is anything pro- 
posed for imitation ; a model, in addition to the meanings 
of pattern, has that of a perfect pattern, or the best of the 
kind. Precedent is something which comes down to us 
with the sanction of usage and common consent, as a 
guide to conduct or judgment, and, in the legal sense, 
has force in other cases, while an example has no force 
beyond itself. Case is used in a loose way of an occur- 
rence of a general character." 

exasperate, v., to excice to great anger ; to enrage or pro- 
voke greatly. 

Syn. : aggravate, irritate, provoke, enrage, inflame, 

Ant. : soothe, conciliate, assuage, alleviate, mitigate. 

Syn. dis.: "Both persons and feelings are said to be 
exasperated, but more commonly the former : it is to pro- 
voke bitter feeling, or to aggravate it. Aggravate is to 
make heavy, and so to make worse, to make less tolerable 
or excusable, and is properly applied only to evils or 
offences, though it has come, incorrectly, to be used in the 
sense of irritate and exasperate. In this latter sense it is 
to be presumed that the idea is to make to feel a burden 
or a grievance. To irritate is less strong than the other 
terms, and denotes the excitement of slight resentment 
against the cause or object. To provoke is stronger, and 
expresses the rousing of a feeling of decided anger and 
strong resentment by injury or insult, such as naturally 


tends to active retaliation. To exasperate is stronger still, 
and denotes a provocation to unrestrained anger or re- 
sentment, based upon a determined ill-will." 

exceed, v., to pass or go beyond ; to surpass. 

Syn. : excel, outdo, transcend, surpass, outstrip. 
Syn. dis. : To exceed is a relative term, implying some 
limit, measure or quantity already existing : in its limited 
acceptation, it implies no moral desert ; surpass and excel 
are always taken in a good sense It is not so much 
persons as things which exceed ; both persons and things 
sv/rpass ; persons only excel. " Transcend is to excel in 
a signal manner, soaring, as it were, aloft, and surmount- 
ing all barriers. Outdo is a simple Saxon compound for 
the Latin or French surpass. It is accordingly a familiar 
term, with a familiar application ; hence, it has sometimes 
the undignified force of to get the better of another in no 
very honourable way, as a synonym of outwit. To outdo 
is simply to do something better than another, and to reap 
some personal advantage by the fact." 

excite, v., to call into action ; to rouse, to animate. 

Syn. : rouse or arouse, incite, awaken, stimulate. 
Ant. : allay, quiet, appease, soothe, pacify. 

Syn. dis.: "To excite is said more particularly of the 
inward feelings ; incite is said of the external actions. 
To excite is to call into greater activity what before existed 
in a calm or calmer state, or to arouse to an active state 
faculties or powers which before were dormant : the term 
is also used of purely physical action. Awaken is to rouse 
from a state of sleep, or, analogously, to stir up anything 
that has lain quiet ; rouse is to awaken in a sudden or 
startling manner. To incite is to excite to a specified act 
or end which the inciter has in view : to stimulate is to 
spur into activity {stimulus, a spur) and to a certain end." 

excuse, v., to overlook on giving an explanation or apology. 
Syn. : pardon, forgive, acquit, remit, exculpate, condone. 
Ant. : charge, condemn, accuse. 

Syn. dis. : " We excuse whenever we exempt from the 
imputation of blame : when used reflectively it sometimes 


means no more than to decline, or to take such exemption 
to oneself. We excuse a small fault ; we pardon a great 
fault or a crime : we excuse commonly what relates to our- 
selves ; we pardon offences against rule, law, or morals. 
Forgive differs from both in relating only to offences 
against oneself. Omissions and neglects or slight com- 
missions may be excused ; graver offences and crimes par- 
doned ; personal insults and injuries ybr^ if ew." The term 
condone implies the forgiveness or overlooking of an offence 
or offences by outwai^d acts ; in law, the term has special 
force as a bar to action in suits for divorce. 

expedient, n., that which serves to promote or help forward 
any end or purpose. 

Syn. : resource, shift, contrivance, resort. 
Syn. dis. : " An expedient is a contrivance more or less 
adequate, but irregular, and sought for by tact and adap- 
tation to the peculiar circumstances of the case. It is a 
kind of unauthorized substitute for more recognized modes 
of doing things. A shift is an expedient which does not 
profess to be more than temporary and very imperfect, a 
mere evasion of difficulty." Makeshift expresses this idea 
best. A resource is that to which one resorts : it is often, 
therefore, that on which the others are based. So it may 
be a test of skill in contrivance to find an adequate 
expedient in limited resources. Shift usually relates to 
objects trivial and external, contrivance to matters of more 
importance, and expedient to those even of the highest. 

explain, »., to make plain or evident ; to clear of obscurity ; 
to expound. 

Syn. : elucidate, illustrate. 

Ant. : mystify, obscure, misinterpret. 

Syn. dis. : To explain is simply to make intelligible by 
removing obscurity or misunderstanding. To elucidate and 
illustrate are to make more fully intelligible. The field 
of elucidation is commonly broad : we elucidate a subject 
by throwing all the possible light we can upon it : we 
illustrate by means of examples, similes, and allegorical 
figures, by giaphic representations, and even by artistic 
drawings. Words are the common subjects of explaiim,- 


tion ; moral truths require illustration ; poetical allusions 
and dark passages in writers require elucidation. 

explicit, adj., clear, plain ; not ambiguous or obscure. 

Syn. : express, explanatory. 

Ant. : obscure, suggestive, implied, hinted. 

Syn. dis. : " Explicit denotes the entire unfolding of a 
thing in detail of expression, so as to meet every point and 
obviate the necessity of supplement. Explanatory, on the 
other hand, is essentially supplemental, and the necessity 
of explanation often arises from matters not having been 
made sufficiently explicit. Express combines force with 
clearness and notice of detail. Explicit calls attention 
to the comprehensiveness and pointedness of the particu- 
lars ; express to the force, directness, and plainness of the 


fable, n., a feigned tale or story intended to enforce some 
moral precept ; a fictitious narrative. 

''Fable may be divided into the probable, the allegorical, and 
the marvellous." — Pope. 

Syn. : tale, moral, romance, fiction, invention. 

Ant. : history, narrative, fact. 

Syn. dis. : " Different species of composition are ex- 
pressed by the above words : the fable is allegorical ; its 
actions are natural, bui its agents are imaginary ; the tale 
is fictitious, but not imaginary ; both the agents and 
actions are drawn from the passing scenes of life. The 
tale when compared with the novel is a simple kind of 
fiction ; it consists of but few persons in the drama ; 
whilst the novel, on the contrary, admits of every possible 
variety in characteis. The Mle is told without much ai-t 
or contrivance to keep the reader in suspense, without 
any depth of plot or importance in the catastrophe ; the 
novel affbi'ds the greatest sco])e for exciting an interest 
by the rapid succession of events, the involments of inter- 
ests, and the unravelling of its plot. If the novel awakens 
the attention, the romance rivets the whole mind and 
engages the affections ; it presents nothing but what is 
extraordinary and calculated to fill the ima -ination." 


facetious, adj., full of merriment, gaiety, wit, and humour; 
given to pleasantry. 

"By his singing, excellent mimicry, said facetious spirit." 

— iValpole. 

Syn. : jocose, jocular, witty, humorous, funny, droll. 

Ant. : heavy, grave, sombre, lugubrious, saturnine. 

Syn. dis. : Most of these terms may be applied either 
to writing or to conversation. " Facetiousness is a kind 
of afiected humour, to which it bears the same relation 
that a smirk does to a smile. Jocose and jocular are 
derived from the Latin jocus, a joke, and joculv^s, a little 
joke : the jocose pokes fun, the jocular insinuates it. 
Pleasantry carries the notion, not of abstract joking, like 
facetious, but a tendency to personal raillery, though of a 
kind the opposite to obtrusive. Thefax^etious had formerly 
a higher meaning than at present, when it is hardly used 
but in modified disparagement, answering to the Latin 
facetus, elegantly liumorous. A man's disposition may be 
jocose, his demeanour on a particular occasion jocnla/r" 

factious, a., disposed to raise opposition on frivolous grounds. 

"He complained of the endless talking, /aciicms squabbling," 
etc . — Macaulay. 

Syn. : turbulent, seditious, crusty, litigious. 

Ant. : genial, agreeable, complaisant, loyal, harmonious. 

Syn. dis. : Factums is an epithet to characterize the 
tempers of men ; turbulent and seditious characterize their 
conduct. The factious man is given to raising dissension 
and opposition, generally for the ends of his private in- 
terest. The seditiotis man is one who excites disturbance 
in the State or community on questions where political 
principle or feeling are concerned : the /actions man is 
troublesome ; the seditious man dangerous. 

faculty, n., the power of doing anything; a power or capacity 
of the mind. 

Syn. : ability, talent, gift, endowment. 

Syn. dis. : " Faculty is a power derived from nature ; 
ability may be derived from circumstances or otherwise ; 
Jacultij is a permanent possession ; it is held by a certain 


tenure ; the ability is an incidental possession. The 
powers of seeing and hearing -axe faculties; health, strength, 
and fortune are abilities. The faculties include all the 
endowments of body or mind, wliich are the inherent pro- 
perties of the being, as when we speak of a man's retaining 
his faculties, or having hia fac^dties impaired : the abilities 
include, in the aggregate, whatever a man is able to do ; 
hence, we speak of a man's abilities in speaking, writing, 
learning, and the like ; talents are the particular endow- 
ments of the mind which belong to the individual," and 
denote a higher order of mental power than that usually 
represented by the term ability. 

fair, o-clj., just, upright, candid, impartial. 

Syn. : honest, equitable, reasonable. 

Ant. : dishonourable, fraiidulent, unjust, unfair. 

Syn. dis. : " Fair is said of persons or things ; Jiouest 
mostly characterizes the person, either as to his conduct or 
his principle. When fair is employed as an epithet to 
qualify things, or to designate their nature, it apjjroaches 
very near in signification to equitable and reasonable; 
they are all opposed to what is unjust ; what is fair and 
equitable is so in relation to all circumstances ; what is 
reasonable is so of itself." " There is a dignity and stern- 
ness about the tGrxa. just which does not belong to fair, as 
if it connected itself more directly with personal and re- 
sponsible action. So prizes are said to be fairly won and 
and justly awarded." 

faithless, adj., characterized by a want of good faith ; not to 
to be trusted. 

Syn. : perfidious, treacherous, false. 

Ant. : faithful, loyal, true. 

Syn. dis. : " A faithless man is faithless only for his 
own interest ; a perfidious man is expressly so to the injury 
of another. A friend is faithless who consults his own 
interest in time of need ; he is perfidious who profits by 
the confidence reposed in him to plot mischief against the 
one to whom he has made vows of f. iendship. Faithless- 
ness does not suppose any particular efforts to deceive ; it 
consists of merely violating that faith which the relation 


ought to produce ; perfidy is never so complete as when it 
has most effectually assumed the mask of sincerity; ■perfidy 
may lie in the will to do; treachery lies altogether in the 
thing done." 

fame, «., report or opinion widely diffused ; notoriety or 

" And the fame thereof went abroad into all that land." — Mat- 
the^a ix. 26. 

Syn. : reputation, renown, repute. 
A.nt. : silence, suppression, disgrace, disreijute, 
Syn. dis. : " Fa7ne may be applied to any object, good, 
bad, or indifferent, and may even be used of passing 
rumours. Reputalion belongs essentially to persons, and 
not to the subject matter of rumour : it implies some 
amount of publicity of character. Repute differs from 
reputation in applying to things as well as persons : he is 
a man of high reputation; or his character is of good or 
bad repute. Renowi is employed of deeds and characters 
or persons : it is illustrious rejnttation, but is confined, 
as reputation is not, to signal deeds. A man may have a 
high reputation for integrity, but he is renowned for great 
achievements or for moral excellences." 

fancy, n., the power by which the mind forms to itself inifiges 
and representations of things, persons, or scenes of being ; 
the creative faculty. 

Syn. : imagination, conception. 

Syn. dfe. : " Fancy is that faculty which reproduces the 
impressions caused by external objects, combines and modi- 
fies them anew, and recalls them for purposes of mental 
delectation. Imagination is a grander, graver exercise of 
mind than fancy. The historical novels of Scott exhibit 
both fancy and imagination; fancy, where scenes are 
introduced which are not, or in all their details are not, 
historically true, but such as might have occurred ; im- 
agination, where, upon limited historical information, he 
completes the outline of a character or an event by the 
play of energetic but accurate creations. Conception differs 
from both in being more creative, and having for its object 
the production of some reality, as the conceptions of the 


poet, tlie painter, and the sculptor. Fcmcy may be wholly 
unreal ; imagination must be in part real ; concej^tion is 
altogether real." 

fatigue, n., exhaustion from bodily or mental lab nir or 

Syn. : weariness, lassitude, exhaustion, 'anguor. 
Ant. : freshness, vigour, activity. 

Syn. dis. : Fatigue is the feeling of being tii-ed out either 
in mind or in body ; weariness is a wearing out of the 
strength or the spirits ; lassitude, a general relaxation of 
the animal frame. The latter differs from languor, which 
might be thrown off by exercise, in being actual weakness 
and relaxation of the physical powers. Weariness may be 
the result of prolonged physical effort, as after a long 
journey, or it may "be the result of mental toil over a dry, 
dispiriting and uninteresting subject. 

feasible, adj., that may or can be done, performed, or effected ; 
possible to be done. 

" But, fair although a,nd feasible it seem, 
Depend not much upon your golden dream. " — Cowper. 

Syn, : possible, practicable, contrivable. 

Ant. : impossible, unmanageable, unallowable. 

Syn. dis. : " Feasible denotes that which may be effected 
by human agency. Possible is of wider signification, and 
means capable of existing or occurring : feasible belongs to 
the province of action only ; jyossible to that of thought 
and action also, as when we say, ' it is possible, but not 
probable.' Practicable is very like feasible; but prac- 
ticable refers, in the main, to matters of moral practice, 
while feasible belongs to physical action, or human plans 
and designs. For instance, we might say, ' a feasible,' or 
* a practicable scheme '; but we could only say * a pi-ac- 
ticable,' not 'a feasible virtue.' Practicable has the fui-ther 
sense of capable of being made use of; as, ' at this season 
it is practicable to go by the road,' or ' the breach was 
reported practicable.' " 

feeling, n., sense of touch ; emotion; tenderness or sensibility 
of mind. 


Syn. : sense, sensation, perception, susceptibility. 

Ant. : insensibility, callousness, coldness, insensateness. 

Syn. dis. : " Feeling is the general, sensation and sense 
are the special terms ; the feeling is either physical or 
moral ; the sensation is mostly physical ; the sense physical 
in the general, and moral in the particular application. 
The feeling, in a moral sense, has its seat in the heart ; it 
is transitory and variable ; sense has its seat in the under- 
standing ; it is permanent and regular. Sensibility is the 
capacity of feeling or perception ; susceptibility is com- 
monly used in the sense of quick sensibility, or the capacity 
of it. Emotion is a strong excitement of feeling, tending 
to manifest itself by its effect upon the body. Sense is 
employed in the widest way to comprise the whole range 
of mental and physical sensation ; as, ' the things of time 
and sense.' Perception is the conscious reference of sensa- 
tion to the cause which produced it." 

feign (fdn), v., to make a show of doing ; to assume, pretend, 
or dissemble. 

Syn. : pretend, simulate, dissimulate, affect, counterfeit. 

Syn. dis. : " Feign is to give fictitious existence, or to 
give an impression of something as actual or true which 
is not so. To pretend is to put forward what is unreal 
or untrue in such a way that it may be accepted as true : 
feigning commonly misleads the observation ; pretence the 
understanding. Delusion is the very essence oi feigning ; 
but lo fretend is etymologically and in its oldest sense 
simply to put forward ; then, derivatively, to put forward 
in a cloak, or with false purpose. To simulate is to put 
on and systematically exhibit what are the natural signs 
and indications of feeling, a character or a part which 
do not really belong to one ; to act a feigned part. Dis- 
simulate is the feigned concealment of what really exists 
in one's character or feeling ; as simulation is the feigned 
exhibition of what does not exist." 

fertile, adj., having abundant resources; well-supplied or en- 

" He becomes quick of observation and fertile of resource." 
Syn. : fruitful, prolific, productive, inventive; exuberant. 


Ant. : sterile, barren, unproductive, unimaginative. 

Syn. dis. : " Fertile expresses that wliicli has an in- 
herent capacity of producing : it is applied properly to 
soil, and metaphorically or analogously to the mind ol- 
capacity of man, as o, fertile field, db fertile imagination, 
fertile in resources. Fruitful denotes that which produces 
of its own kind, and is opposed to barren, as fertile is 
opposed to waste. A field may be called either fertile or 
fruitful ; fertile as regards the soil, frvitful as regards 
the produce. Prolific is producing young in abundance, 
and is employed both of animals and fruit-bearing trees, 
etc. It also is used metaphorically, as ' a measure pro- 
lijic of evil consequences.' Productive denotes no more 
than the fact of producing in tolerable quantity. The 
naturally productive is identical with the fertile ; but 
productiveness may be the result of art in tillage." 

finish., v., to bring to an end ; to make perfect or complete. 
Syn. : close, conclude, complete, terminate, end. 
Ant. : begin, commence, start, undertake. 
See close. 

flattery, n., the art or i)ractice of flattering; false praise, 
that which gratifies self-love. 

Syn. : compliment, adulation, praise. 

Ant. : insult, derision, rebuke, censure. 

Syn. dis. : " Anything is flattering which expresses 
])raise or admiration, not as being simply due and felt, 
but for the sake of gratifying vanity or gaining favour." 
The term compliment, in itself and etymologically, does 
not necessarily express praise at all : it may be a merely 
conventional expression of regard or respect. When, 
with a certain stretch of politeness, our words express not 
only respect but admiration, the compliment develops into 
flattery. " Adulation (literally, fawning like a dog) is 
excessive and exaggerated flattery, accompanied by a 
feigned subserviency, and is ready to express itself in 
hypocrisy and falsehood." 

flourish., v., lit. to come out in blossom ; to be prosperous. 
Syn. : thrive, prosper. 
Ant. : fade, fail, decline. 



Syn. dis. : " Flourish, and thrive are employed hoth of 
vegetative life and growth and of the doings of men ; 
prosper only of men's state and doings. To flourish is to 
be in the possession and display of all powers belonging 
to the individual according to his nature. The result of 
flourishi7ig is the admiration of others or of beholders. 
Thrive is to prosper by industry and care : acquisition in 
substance by growth is the idea expressed by thrive. 
Prosper is so to thrive as to be in advantageous circum- 
stances : prosperity belongs to him who hoped for success, 
while the merely fortunate man owes it to chance." The 
term prosperity is used also in a general sense, as when 
we speak of the prosperity of a nation, of the arts, of 
commerce, of agriculture, of literature, etc. 

foresight, n., the act or faculty of foreseeing ; a provident 
care for futurity. 

Syn. : forethought, forecast, premeditation, planning. 

Ant. : improvidence ; unwariness, heedlessness. 

Syn. dis. : " Foresight, from seeing before, denotes the 
simple act of the mind in seeing a thing before it happens ; 
forecast, from casting the thoughts onward, signifies com- 
ing at the knowledge of a thing beforehand by means of 
calculation ; premeditation, from meditate, signifies obtain- 
ing the same knowledge by force of meditating or reflecting 
deej)ly. Foresight is the general and indefinite term ; we 
employ it either on ordinary or extraordinary occasions ; 
forecast and premeditation mostly in the latter case : all 
business requires foresight ; State concerns require fore- 
cast : by foresight and forecast we guard against evils and 
provide for contingencies ; by premeditation we guard 
against errors of conduct." 

form v., to make, shape, or mould out of materials ; to model 
or mould according to a pattern. 

Syn. : compose, constitute, fashion, construct. 

Ant. : derange, disintegrate, disorganize. 

Syn. dis. : " Form is a generic and indefinite term ; to 
compose and constitute are modes of forming : all may be 
employed either to designate modes of action, or to char- 
acterize things. Things may be formed either by persons 


or things ; they are composed and constituted only by con- 
scious agents : thus persons form things, or things forrn 
one another : thus we form a circle, or the reflection of 
the light after rainworms a r^&nbow. Form, in regard to 
persons is the act of the will and determination ; compose 
is a work of the intellect; constitute is an act of power." 
WefoTTu a party or a plan; we compose a book or a piece 
of music ; men constitute governments, offices, etc. 

frame, n., a structure formed of united parts, or a structure 
or design afterwards to be filled up and completed. 

Syn. : temper, temperament, constitution. 

Syn. dis. : " Frame is applied to man physically or 
mentally, as denoting that constituent part of him which 
seems to hold the rest together ; which, by an extension 
of the metaphor, is likewise put for the whole contents, 
the whole body, or the whole mind. When applied to 
the body, it is taken in its most universal sense, as when 
we speak of the fram.e being violently agitated, or the 
human frame being wonderfully constructed. Temper, 
which is applicable only to the mind, is taken in the 
general or [)articular state of the individual : the frame 
comprehends either the whole body of mental powers, or 
the {)articular disposition of those powers in individuals ; 
the temper comprehends the general or particular state of 
feeling as well as thinking in the individual. Temp&ra- 
7nent and constitution mark the general state of the 
individual ; the former comprehends a mixture of the 
"* physi(JMl and mental ; tiie latter has a purely physical 
a}){)lication." We speak of a strong bodily frame, a weak 
constitution, or the reveree ; an ungovernable temper or 
one well under control ; a s.inguine, a melancholy, or a 
foreboding temperament. 

fraud, n., a deceitful act by which the right or interest of 
another is injured. 

Syn. : guile, deceit, cheating, imposition, deception. 
Ant. : truth, honesty, genuineness. 

Syn. dis. : " Fraud and guile have in common the idea 
of duplicity, or deceit in action ; but they differ in the 


motives in which they directly originate." Fraud aims at 
the disadvantage of another, or is at least such a deceiving 
of another as shall in some way advantage oneself and 
cause injury, loss, or humiliation to the one on whom it is 
pi*actised. " Guile is a wily regard for one's own interests, 
and is more an abstract quality than fraud ; guile is in 
the natui-e, fraud is embodied in the act." 

frequently, adv., many times ; at short intervals. 

Syn. : often, commonly, habitually, generally, usually, 
ordinarily. ■ 

Ant. : seldom, rarely, casually, uncommonly. 

Syn. dis. : " Often relates to a standard of frequency 
implied or expressed, and has a sort of fixed value ; fre- 
quently denotes the simple numerous repetition of anything 
without any standard to which such repetition can be 
referred. Uncalculated recurrences ogcuv frequently ; cal- 
culated recurrences (if so it be) occur often. Commonly 
denotes that kind of frequency, the non-occurrence of which 
would create surprise ; ordinarily, that which follows, or 
seems to follow, a fixed order or rule ; generally, that which 
occurs in the majority of similar cases, so that the contrary 
would be an exception or a specific deviation ; usually, 
that which occurs in such a way that the idea of custom 
is connected either with the occurrence itself or with the 
observation of him who experiences or takes cognizance of 
it ; habitually, that which exhibits both the force and the 
frequency of habit, and usually its frequency alone." 

fulfil, v., to complete or carry into effect ; to perform what is 
promised, expected, or foretold. 

Syn. : discharge, realize, accomplish, complete. 

Ant. : neglect, ignore, disappoint, falsify. 

Syn. dis. : " To fnljil is literally to till quite full, that 
is, to bring about full to the wishes of a person ; accom- 
plish is to bring perfection, but without reference to the 
wishes of any one ; to realize is to make real, namely, 
whatever has been aimed at. The application of these 
terms is evident from their explanations : the w^ishes, the 
expectations, the intentions, and the promises of an indivi- 
dual are appropriately said to he fulfilled ; national projects 


or undertakings, prophecies, etc., are said to be accom- 
plished ; the fortune or the prospects of an individual, or 
whatever results successfully from specific efforts, is said 
to be realized." 


gaiin, w., anything gained or obtained as an advantage, or in 
return for labour or the employment of resoui'ces. 

Syn. : profit, emolument, lucre, acquisition. 

Ant. : loss, detriment, forfeiture. 

Syn. dis. : " Gain is here a general term ; the other terms 
are specific : the gain is that which comes to a man, agree- 
able to his wish, or as the fiiiit of his exertions ; the profit 
is that which accrues from the thing. Emolument is a 
species of gain from labour, or a collateral gain ; of this 
description are a man's emoluments from an ofiice. Gain 
and jyrofit are also taken in an abstract sense ; lucre is 
never used otherwise ; but the latter always conveys a 
bad meaning ; it is, strictly speaking, unhallowed gain." 

gentle, (idj-, soft and refined in manners; high-bred. 

Syn. : mild, meek, soft, bland, tame. 

Ant. : rough, rude, coarse, tierce, savage. 

Syn. dis. : *' Gentle {Lat. gentilis, gens, a family) denoted 
primarily well-born ; hence, refined in manners, and, by a 
further extension of meaning, of quiet nature and placid 
disposition. Mild conveys the idea of subdued, but not 
deteriorated energy : the air is mild which might be harsh ; 
the expression is m,ild which might have been stem. 
Tame denotes that gentleness which is the result of train- 
ing or domestication : by a metaphor, tarne is used to 
signify spiritless, as * a tame resistance,' * a tame poem ' : 
tameness is inanimate tractableness or quiet. Meekness 
differs from mildness, gentleness, and softness, in being 
never applied, like them, to the deportment, but only to 
the temper or character. Bland is producing pleasing 
impi'essions by soothing qualities of character, and is em- 
ployed exclusively of the outer manifestations of expres- 
sion and manner. The chai-acteristic idea of softness is 
pleasant impress : it is opposed to harshness and hardness ; 


hence the tendency of the term to assume morally an un 
favourable character, as effeminacy, too great susceptibility 
and too great simplicity." 

give, v., to bestow, to impart, to grant without price or 

" Give, and it shall be given unto you." 

Syn. : grant, bestow, confer, present, communicate. 

Ant. : withhold, withdraw, refuse, retain, grasp, deny. 

Syn. dis. : " The idea common to these terms is that of 
communicating to others what is our own, or in our power 
to give. To grant, to confer, and to bestow are characteristic 
modes of giving : to grant is always from one person to 
one or more others, in accordance with an expectation, 
prayer, or request. To bestow (be and stow, a place) meant 
originally to lay up in store. Hence, its latter meaning 
is to give something of substantial value, with the inten- 
tion of benefiting the object of the bestowal. Confer 
implies not so much the value of the thing given as the 
condescension of the giver : honours, favours, distinctions, 
etc., are con/erred; goods, gifts, endowments, are be- 
stowed; requests, prayers, privileges, opportunities, etc., 
are granted." 

gldid, odj-, expressive of or indicating pleasure or satisfaction. 

Syn. : pleased, joyful, joyous, delighted, cheerful, grati- 
fied, happy. 

Ant. : gi'ieved, depressed, dispirited, sorrowful, unhappy. 

Syn. dis. : Glad may denote merely a lively and mo- 
mentary sentiment ; pleased and joyful seem rather to 
denote a gentle, but a more lasting feeling ; all, however, 
express more or less lively sentiments. " Glad is less vivid 
than joyful, and more so than cheerful. Pleased may de- 
note either the pleasure of joy or the pleasure of satisfac- 
tion or approbation ; gratified implies a sense of pleasure 
due to the behaviour of another ; deli'ihted is a stronger 
term than glad or pleased for expressing the same kind of 

glory, n., praise, honour, or admiration or distinction paid or 
ascribed to any person by general consent. 


** Of good and evil much they argued, then 
Of happiness and final misery. 
Passion and apathy, and glory and shame." — Milton. 

Syn. : honour, fame; splendour, brightness, magnificence. 
Ant. : degradation, obscurity, shame, dishonour, igno- 

Syn. dis. : ** Glory is the result of success in such things 
as excite the admiration of men at large, extraordinary 
efforts, brilliant achievements ; honour is the result of ex- 
cellence, as acknowledged by the narrower circle in which 
we personally move, and according to their particular 
standard of it. Honour is never entirely separated from 
virtue ; but glory may have no connection with it. Fume 
is the result of meritorious success in the more select, but 
less showy, walks of life : we speak of the glory of the 
conqueror, the honour of the gentleman, the fame of the 
scholar and the philanthropist." 

govern, v., to rule as a chief magistrate ; to direct and con- 
trol, as the actions and conduct of men, by established laws 
or arbitrary will. 

Syn. : rule, regulate, control, guide, sway. 

Ant. : misrule, misdirect, misgovern, miscontrol. 

Syn. dis. : ** The exercise of authority enters more or 
less into the signification of these terms ; but to govern 
implies the exei'cise likewise of judgment and knowledge. 
To rule implies rather the unqualified exercise of power, 
the making the will the rule ; a king governs his people 
by means of wise laws and an upright administration ; a 
despot rules over a nation according to his arbitrary de- 
cision." " He shall rule them with a rod of iron." In 
regard to persons, though we may speak of " a wise rule" 
the term is sometimes taken in a bad sense ; to govern is 
so perfectly discretionary, that we speak of governing our 
selves, but we speak only of ruling others. Regulate is a 
species of governing simply by judgment; the word is ap- 
plicable, as is also that of govern, to things of minor mo- 
ment, where the force of authority is not so requisite. We 
speak of governing the affairs of a nation and of governing 
our passions ; we speak of regulating the concerns of an 
establishment or of regulating our affections. 


gracious, adj., exhibiting or characterized by grace, kindness, 
favour, or friendliness. 

"And the Lord was gracious to them, and had compassion on 
them." — 2 Kings. 

Syn. : merciful, kind, courteous, benignant. 

Ant. : haughty, discourteous, churlish, ill-disposed. 

Syn. dis. : " Gracious when compared with kind, differs 
princi))ally as to the station of the persons to whom it is 
applied : graciotts is altogether confined to superiors ; kind 
is indiscriminately employed for superiors and equals. 
Kindness is a domestic virtue, it is the display of our 
good-will not only in the manner, but in the act. Merd- 
/ I is the quality of withholding pain, evil, or suffering, 
when it is in one's power to inflict it ; or in a milder sense, 
the granting of benefits in spite of demerit." 

gratify, to afford pleasure, satisfaction, or gratification to ; to 
meet the wishes of 

Syn. : indulge, humour, please, satisfy. 

Ant. : displease, disatisfy, disappoint, deny. 

Syn. dis. : " To gratify, make grateful or pleasant, is a 
positive act of the choice ; to indulge, (Lat. indulgeo and 
dulcis, to sweeten, or make palatable) is a negative act of 
the will, a yielding of the mind to circumstances : one 
gratifies his appetites, and indulges his humour. We may 
sometimes gratify a laudable curiosity, and indulge our- 
selves in a salutary recreation ; but gratfying, as a habit, 
becomes a vice, and indulging, as a habit, is a weakness." 
* * * « To humour is to adapt oneself to the variable 
mood of another ; to please has the twofold meaning of 
exciting (1) anything of the nature of pleasure; and (2) 
specifically a feeling of honourable satisfaction, as when an 
employer expresses himself pleased with one in his employ. 
Pleasure holds an intermediate position between satisfac- 
tion and gratification, being more than the first, and less 
than the second. To satisfy is to fill up the measure of a 
want, whether the want be ordinate and lawful or unlaw- 
ful and inordinate." Satisfying the cravings of hunger 
would be a legitimate act ; yratifying low passions would 
be an illegitimate indulgence. 


grave, adj. {Fr. from Lat. gravis, heavy), Fig. weighty, mo- 
mentous, imi)ortant. 

Syn. : serious, solemn, sad, demure. 

Ant. : joyous, merry, light, trivial, frivolous. 

Syn. dis. : " Grave expresses more than serious ; it does 
not merely bespeak the absence of mirth, but that heavi- 
ness of mind which is displayed in all the movements of 
the body : a man may be grave in his walk, in his tone, 
in his gesture, in his looks, and in all his exterior ; he is 
serious only in his general air, his countenance, and de- 
meanour. Solemn expresses more than either grave or 
serious ; like serious, it is employed to characterize either 
the person or the thing : the judge pronounces the 
solemn sentence of condemnation in a solemn manner ; 
a preacher delivers many solemn warnings to his hearers." 
We speak of considerations as being grave or light ; of 
circumstances as being seriovs or unimportant ; of cere- 
monies as being solemn and impressive, amusing or trivial. 

grievance, n., anything which causes pain or annoyance, or 
gives ground for complaint, i*emonstrance, or resistance. 

Syn. : hardship, injury, injustice, burden, trouble. 

Ant. : boon, benefit, riddance, alleviation. 

Syn. dis. : " The grievance implies that which lies heavy 
at the heart ; hardship, that which presses or bears vio- 
lently on the person. An infraction of one's rights^ an 
act of violence or oppression, are grievances to those who 
are exposed to them, whether as individuals or bodies of 
men : an unequal distribution of labour, a partial indul- 
gence of one to the detriment of another, constitutes the 

grudge, n., a feeling of malice or malevolence ; secret enmity. 

" There is some grudge between them : 'tis not meet 
They be alone." — Shakespeare. 

S3'n. : spite, pique, ill-will, grievance. 

Ant. : approval, good-will, benefaction. 

Syn. dis. : " A grudge is a feeling of continuous and 
sullen dislike chei-ished against another, having its origin 
in some act of the person against whom it is felt. Spite 


is a more active and demonstrative form of malevolence, 
but not so enduring as grudge, which shows itself in cut- 
ting words and irritating demeanour. Pique is purely 
personal, and comes of offended pride, or a quick sense of 
resentment against a supposed neglect or injury, with less 
of malevolence than grudge or spite, both of which are 
characterized by a desire to injure, which does not belong 
to pique." 

guide, n., one who or that which guides or directs a person 
in his conduct or course of life ; a director. 

Syn. : rule, direction. 

Syn. dis. : " The guide, in the proper and moral sense, 
goes with us and points out the exact path ; it does not 
permit us to err either to the right or left ; the rule marks 
out a line, beyond which we may not go ; but it leaves us 
to find the line, and consequently to fail either on the 
one side or the other." Conscience is, or should be, the 
guide of man's actions ; duty to one's neighbour, the rule 
for Christian observance. Direction may be a specific 
order to be obeyed literally, or a suggested course, to be 
followed under given circumstances ; when the former, it 
has the force of an instructive command ; when the latter, 
it is a permissive order, to be carried out or not as circum- 
stances may determine. 

guise, w. (giz), manner, mien, cast of behaviour or conduct. 
" By their guise just men they seem." — Milton. 

Syn. : habit, garb, aspect, semblance. 

Ant. : character, person, individual. 

Syn dis. : Guise is a term employed to denote the com- 
bined effect of dress and deportment. The guise is that 
which is unusual, and often only occasional ; the habit is 
that which is usual among particular classes ; a person 
sometimes assumes the guise of a peasant, in order the 
better to conceal himself; he who devotes himself to the 
clerical profession puts on the hahit of a clergyman. Garb 
is official or appropriate dress, and, like dress, may com- 
prise several articles of apparel ; habit, usually, however, 
denotes one such article of a somewhat ample character, 
as the Jhobit of a monk, or a lady's riding-A«6i<. 



haibita<tion, n., a place to dwell in ; a place of abode. 

"Every star perhaps a world of destined habitation." — Milton. 

Syn. : abode, domicile. 

Syn. dis : " Habitation is a place which one inhabits, 
not necessarily a house or tenement of any kind ; abode 
has the same sense, but with a less direct reference to the 
constant passing of one's life there. Doudcile adds the 
idea of habitation and abode a relationship to society and 
civil government, and is consequently a term rather 
technical than conversational. The legal force of the term 
domicile is a residence more or less prolonged at a par- 
ticular place, with positive or presumptive proof of an 
intention to remain there." * * " Habitation points 
more directly than abode to furnishing necessary slielter 
and protection : the woods are the abodes of birds, their 
nests are their habitations." 

happen, v., to befall, to come to pass. 

Syn. : chance, occur. 

Syn. dis. : " Happen respects all events without includ- 
ing any collateral idea ; chance comprehends, likewise, the 
idea of the cause and order of events : whatever comes to 
pass happens, whether regularly in the course of things, 
or particularly, and out of the order ; whatever chances 
happens altogether without concert, intention, and often 
without relation to any other thing." "To occur (Lat. 
occur rere. to run against) is a relative term, equivalent to 
happening to a person, or to fall undesignedly in his way. 
It is said not only of events, but of ideas or thoughts 
which suggest themselves. Events of remote history hap- 
pen ; but they are not occurrences to us." Never use the 
word " transpire " as the synonym of " happen." Trans- 
pire has one meaning, viz., to breathe through, to 
perspire, or emit through the pores of the skin. It also 
means ' to leak out,' e.g., a secret, or in such an expression 
as, ' The result of their deliberations has not yet transpired.' 

happy, <^j-, fortunate, lucky ; possessed of or enjoying plea- 
sure or good. 


Syn. dis. : Happy, fortunate, and lucky, are all applied 
to the extei-nal circumstances of a man ; but happy conveys 
the idea of that which is abstractly good ; the other terms 
imply rather what is agreeable to one's wishes. A man 
is happy in his marriage, in his children, in his connec- 
tions, and the like ; he is fortunate or lucky in his trading 
concerns. Happy excludes the idea of chance ; fortunate 
and lucky exclude the idea of personal effort : a man is 
happy in the possession of what he gets ; he is fortunate 
or lucky in getting it. Lucky is generally used only of 
minor occurrences ; fortunate of the larger results of fav- 
ourable chance. 

hasten, v., to move with celerity ; to go or act with haste or 


Syn. : huny, urge, accelerate, expedita 

Ant. : retard, impede, obstruct, delay. 

Syn. dis. : " To Jiast&n and hurry both imply to move 
forward with quickness in any matter ; the former may 
proceed with some design and good order, but the latter 
always supposes excitement and irregularity. To hasten 
is oi)posed to delay or a dilatory mode of proceeding ; it 
is often necessary to hasten in the affairs of human life : 
to hurry is opposed to deliberate and cautious proceeding. 
As epithets, hasty and hurried are both implied in a bad 
sense ; but hohsty implies merely an overquickness of mo- 
tion which outstrips consideration;" hurried implies a 
disorderfy motion which may arise from a nervous or 
excited mental condition. What is done in haste may be 
well done ; not so what is done in a hurry. 

hatred, «., a feeling of great dislike or aversion ; detestation. 

Syn. : aversion, antipathy, enmity, repugnance, ill-will, 
malice, malevolence, malignity, abhorrence, loathing. 

Ant. : liking, love, approval, relish, fondness, affection. 

Syn. dis. : These synonyms may be broadly divided into 
two ©lasses, (1) those that express a feeling, not always 
explainable or reasonable, of dislike towards some pereon 
or thing, and (2) those that imply that the feeling is car- 
ried into action towards its object (usually a pei-son), and 
that its exercise gives pleasuie or satisfaction to the person 


displaying the feeling. In the former class, aversion, an- 
tipathy, abhorrence, and loathing, may be grouped ; in the 
latter, s|)eaking generally, the other terms occur and are 
expressive of active and aggressive ill-will. Hatred may be 
considered as a general term expressive of dislike.; aver- 
sion is a turning away from what is unpleasant or obnox- 
ious to us ; antipathy is used of causeless, or more or less 
ill-defined, dislike ; repugnance denotes an involuntary 
resistance to something abhorrent, or to a particular line 
of conduct to which circumstances impel us ; ill-will is a 
settled bias of the disposition away from another and may 
be of any degree of strength ; enmity expresses a state of 
personal opposition, whether accompanied by strong per- 
sonal hostility or not ; malice is that enmity which mani- 
fests itself by injuring its object and in shaping courses of 
action to compass its end ; malignity denotes an inherent 
evil of nature, malignancy denotes its indication in partic- 
ular instances. 

head, n., a chief, a ruler, a principal, a guide, a director. 

Syn. : chief, leader, governor. 

Ant. : servant, retainer, inferior, subordinate, follower. 

Syn. dis. : In its derivative sense, head is the analogue 
{i.e., an object that has a resemblance to) of chief, and 
denotes, as we usually employ the word, the first in an 
organized body. Chief, in addition to this sense of the 
term, expresses pre-eminence, personal and active. " A 
person may be the head of a number, because there must 
be some head ; but if he is the chief, his personal import- 
ance and influence is felt, whether for good or ill. So 
personal is the idea of chief, that a man may be chief 
among others without being in any sense their head, that 
is, bound to them in a relationship of command. A 
leader is one who controls, directs, and instigates others in 
given lines of movement or action : the head is the highest 
man ; the chief is the strongest, best, or most conspicuous 
man ; the leader is the most influential man." 

hearty, odj., pertaining to or proceeding from the heart; 
fi-ank, free from dissimulation. 
Syn. : warm, sincere, cordial. 
Ant. : cold, insincere, repellant. 



Syn. dis. : " Hearty and warm exj^ress a stronger feel- 
ing than sincere; cordial is a mixture of the warm and 
sincere ; hearty is having the heart in a thing — earnest, 
sincere. Heartiness implies honesty, simplicity, and cor- 
diality ; but the term leans rather to ex{)ressing the 
outward demonstration of feeling than any quality of the 
feeling itself, though this is by no means excluded ; as a 
hearty desire, laugh, meal, shake of the hand ; hearty 
thanks, good-will, etc. Sincere, unlike hearty, expresses 
nothing of the strength of feeling, but only denotes that 
it is genuine and not pretended. Cordial {Lat. cor, cordis, 
the heart) is the Latin form of the Saxon hearty, and 
differs rather in the mode of application than in the 
essence of the meaning." We say our thanks are cordial 
when thanks are warmly felt ; thanks are hearty when 
thanks are warmly expressed. 

hedd, n., cautious or careful observation. 

Syn. : care, attention, regard, mindfulness. 

Ant. : heedlessness, carelessness, recklessness. 

Syn. dis. : "Heed applies to matters of importance to 
one's moral conduct ; care to matters of minor import : a 
man is required to take heed ; a child is required to take 
care : the former exercises his understanding in taking 
heed; the latter exercises his thoughts and his senses in 
taking care. Heed combines attention and care ; but 
while attention has the general sense of a careful giving of 
the mind to anything that is proposed to it, heed has 
exclusive relation to what concerns one's own interests. 
One pays attention to another; one takes heed to one's 
own ways." 

heinous, odj. (el as a), wicked in the highest degree ; detest- 
able, hateful, odious, abominable. 

Syn. : flagrant, flagitious, atrocious. 

Ant. : excellent, laudable, praiseworthy, meritorious. 

Syn. dis. : " These epithets, which are applied to crimes, 
seem to rise in degree. A crime is heinous which seriously 
offends against the laws of men ; a sin is Jieinoics which 
seriously offends against the will of God : an offence is 
flagrant which is in direct defiance of established opinions 
and practice : it is Jlagitioits if a gross violation of the 


moral law, or coupled with any gi-ossness : a ciime is 
atrocious which is attended with any aggravating circum- 
stances. Lying is a heinous sin ; gaming and drunkenness 
are flagrant breaches of the Divine law ; the murder of a 
whole family is in the fullest sense atrocious." Flagrant, 
it should be noted, implies that the sin or deed is done in 
the eye of the public, or is taken cognizance of by the 
public: flagrant applies also to error as well as to crime. 

hold, v., to possess ; to be in possession of; to retain or keep 
possession of 

Syn. : occupy, possess, retain, maintain. 

Ant. : drop, abandon, vacate, surrender, release, forego. 

Syn. dis. : " We hold a thing for a long or short time ; 
we occupy it for a permanence : we hold it for ourselves or 
others ; we occupy it only for ourselves : we hold it for 
various purposes ; we occupy only for the purpose of con- 
verting it to our private use. * * The tenant occupies 
the farm when it holds it by a cei'tain lease, and cultivates 
it for his subsistence ; but the landlord possesses the farm, 
possessing the right to let it, and to I'eceive the rent. We 
■ may hold by force, or fraud, or right ; we occupy either by 
force or right ; we possess only by right. Hence we say 
figuratively, to hold a person in high esteem or contempt, 
to occupy a person's attention, or to possess his affection." 

homage, «., deference, respectful regard, revereftce. 

"Paying ignominous liomage to all who possessed influence in 
the Courts." — Macaulay. 

Syn. : fealty, court, allegiance, worship. 

Ant. : defiance, insubordination, disaffection, treason. 

Syn. dis. : Homage, in its modern and figurative sense, 
comprehends any solemn mark of deference, by which the 
superiority of another is acknowledged : homage is paid or 
done to superior endowments. " We pay homage to men 
of excellence, virtue or power (also to women of great 
beauty, or saiatliness of character), and, by a figure of 
speech, to the excellences themselves ; we show fealty to 
principles by which we have professed to be guided, or to 
persons who are not so far our superiors as is implied in 
homage ; and we pay court when we desire pei"Sonal favour. 


consulting the character and honour of the person to 
whom we pay it." 

honesty, n., the quality or state of being honest; honourable 
character or conduct ; good faith. 

Syn. : uprightness, integrity, probity, straightforward- 

Ant. : dishonesty, insincerity, fraud, guile, chicanery. 

Syn. dis. : '^'Honesty is a perfectly plain and unambigu- 
ous term ; it denotes fairness and straightforwardness of 
thought, speech, purpose, or conduct. Sincerity has a 
two-fold meaning, either (1) reality of conviction or earn- 
estness of purpose ; or, (2) exemption from unfairness or 
dishonesty : the one is the condition of mind in itself; 
the other, the relation of this state to practical matters. 
Uprightness is honesty combined with a native dignity of 
character ; as commonly taken, honesty is not so much a 
matter of principle as of act and habit. Probity {Lat, 
probits, good, honest) and integrity (Lat., integer, whole) 
are higher terms, indicative of higher virtues and larger 
chax'acteristics. The man oi probity is a man of principle, 
and not merely of habit ; he is far more than commerciajly 
honest ; he gives men their due in all respects. Integrity 
comes from a sense of responsibility, a desire to keep that 
whole in oneself which ought not to be broken. To the 
man of integrity life itself is a trial : fidelity to the 
obligations of law and duty suffice for probity ; integrity 
is a habitual regard to the principles of morality and 

however, conj., nevertheless, notwithstanding, yet, still, 

These ten objectors, however, were almost all of one mind. 

Syn. dis. : " These conjunctions are in grammar termed 
adversative, because they join sentences together that stand 
more or less in opposition to each other ; however is the 
most general and indefinite ; it serves moi-e or less as a 
deduction from the whole. Example — ' The truth is, how- 
ever, not yet all come out ' — by this is understood that 
much of the truth has been told, and much yet remains to 
be told. Yet, nevertheless, and notwithstanding, are mostly 
employed to set two specific propositions either in contrast 


or direct opposition to each other ; the two latter are l)ut 
species of the former, pointing out the opposition in a more 
specific manner. There are cases in which yet is peculiarly 
proper; others in which nevertheless, and others in which 
notwithstanding, is preferable. Yet bespeaks a simple 
contrast, as, ' Addison was not a good speaker, yet he was 
an admirable writer.' Nevertheless and notvnthstanding 
could not here be substituted ; these terms are mostly 
used to imply effects or consequences opposite to what 
might naturally be expected to result. Example— 'He 
has acted an unworthy part, nevertheless I will be a friend 
to him ' ; ' notwithstcmding all I have said, be still persists 
in his own imprudent conduct.' " 

hurt, n., anything which causes physical pain ; loss or damage. 

Syn. : damage, injury, harm, wrong, detriment. 

Syn. dis. : " When used of the mind or feelings, hurt is 
employed in the sense of i*ecciving a rude shock, as ' His 
pride was hurt.' Some degree of ])hysical violence is iu:- 
plied in the term : a subtle noxious influence would injure, 
but not hurt. Damage is harm externally inflicted on 
what is of value, as trees, crops, movable property, per- 
sonal leputation. Injury has the purely physical meaning 
of permanent hurt to physical objects, and of harm to 
whatever is suscej)tib]e to it, as moral beings, etc., as, 'a 
tree is injured by a storm ' ; ' injury to a man's pei-son or 
to his chaiacter ' ; ' injury to the cause of religion or of 
progiess.' Harm is that sort of hurt which causes trouble, 
difficulty, inconvenience, loss, or im})edes the desirable 
growth, operation, progress, and issue of things." Harm 
and hurt, being Anglo-Saxon terms, are preferable to in- 
jury and damage. Wro^ig is an injury done by one pei'son 
to another in express violation of justice : injustice and 
wrong lie in the principle, injury in the act. 


idle, adj., averse to labour or work ; doing nothing ; vain and 

Syn. : lazy, indolent, slothful, unemployed. 

Ant. : occupied, active, busy, assiduous, industrious. 


Syn. dis. : " A j)ropensity to inaction is the common 
idea by which these woi ds are connected ; they differ in 
the cause and degree of the quality : idle expresses less 
than lazy, and lazy more than indolent : one is termed idle 
who is doing nothing useful ; one is lazy who will do 
nothing at all without great reluctance ; one is indolent 
who does not cai"e to do anything or set about anything." 
Indolent denotes a love of ease and an avei-sion to active 
effort of mind as well as body : it is possible to be indolent 
in mind and not in body, and vice versa. Idle is also 
applied to portions of time, e. g., an idle hour, viz., an 
hour which hangs idly on our hands or one which might 
have been better spent. The men that stood idle because 
no man had hired them were probably not lazy nor idolent. 

ignorant, adj., uninstructed ; destitute of knowledge in gen- 
eral or on any particular subject. 

Syn. : illiterate, unlearned, unlettered. 
Ant. : wise, learned, educated, clever, tutored 
Syn. dis. : " Ignorant is a comprehensive term ; it in- 
cludes any degree from the highest to the lowest, and 
consequently includes the other terms, illiterate, unlearned, 
unlettered, which express different forms of ignorance. 
Ignorant is simj)ly not knowing ; unlettered, without the 
learning acquired from books. Ignorance is not always to 
one's disgrace, since it is not always one's fault ; the term 
is not therefore directly reproachful." Everybody is ignor- 
ant of many things ; but when ignorance is coupled with 
self-conceit and presumption, then the term ignorant or 
illiterate may be one of reproach. " Unlearned and un- 
lettered differ from illiterate in not implying reproach ; a 
man may be learned in one branch of learning and un- 
learned in another : unlettered is rather a rhetorical than 
an every-day term. Illiterate is ignorant of letters. Some 
persons are ignorant of common pi-actical every-dav mat- 
ters, who are far from being illiterate ; others are illiterate 
who, without the opportunities of good education, have 
picked up a good stock of general information." 

ininiaterial, ac??., of no essential weight, importance, or con- 

Syn. : unimportant, trifling, unessential, irrelevant. 



Ant. : material, essential, impoi'tant, relevant. 

Syn. dis : The want of imjyortance, of consideration, of 
signification, either of matter or substance, is expressed 
by these terms. Unimportant regards the consequences of 
our actions ; ' it is unimportant whether we use this or 
that word in certain cases ' ; immaterial is a species of 
the unimportant, which is applied only to familiar sub- 
jects ; ' it is immaterial whether we go to-day or to-mor- 
row.* Trifling may apply not only to questions of 
moment or importance, but also to the value or utility of 
things. The trifling is opposed to the grave and weighty. 
" Unessential is literally belonging not to the essence, but, 
as it were, to the accidents of a thing, not going to form 
part of the thing itself. Irrelevant belongs to argumenta- 
tive considerations ; an irrelevant remai'k, e.g., is one 
which does not appertain in any way to the argument." 

imminent, adj., hanging over, or close at hand ; threatening 
to fall or occur. 

" When danger iTnmineraf betides. " — Cowper. 

Syn. : impending, threatening, hovering. 

Ant. : warded, staved, escaped. 

Syn. dis. : " All these terms are used in regard to some 
evil near at hand, in the way of peril or misfortune ; 
imminent denotes that which is ready to fall ; impending 
generally excludes the idea of what is momentary. A 
person may be in im,minent danger of losing his life in one 
instant, and the danger may be over the next instant " : 
similarly, we may escape the danger that is impending or 
threatening, either by happy chance or as the result of 
warning. Death, in the natural course of things, is 
always impending, and cannot be escaped by anyone, 
though its occui'rence in the individual instance may not 
be imminent. 

immunity, n., a freedom or exemption from any obligation, 
charge, duty, office, or imposition ; particular privilege. 
Syn. : exemption, freedom, dispensation. 
Ant. : liability, obligation, impost, burden. 
Syn. dis. : Imm/wnity is used metaphorically of matters 
which are regarded in the light of burdens or inflictions, 


as immunity from pain, or suffering, or disease, to which 
all are more or less liable, and which the human race is 
compelled to pay as a tax. Exemption is a setting free 
from duty or liability which may press upon others, but 
from which we may be privileged to escape. Exem,ption 
is a stronger term than immunity. " The former might be 
employed of freedom from the worst evils or calamities ; 
the latter, from what is grievous rather from what is 
destructive or deadly. Exemption stands over against law 
and ordinance ; immunity, against common obligation, and 
the pressure of common necessity." 

jjnperfection, w., the quality or state of being imperfect ; a 
defect ; a fault, moral or physical, 

Syn. : defect, fault, vice, blemish. 

Ajit. : faultlessness, blamelessness, perfection. 

Syn. dis. : " These terms are applied either to persons 
or things : an imperfection in a person arises from his 
want of perfection, and the infirmity of his nature : a 
defect is a deviation from the general constitution of man ; 
it is what may be natural to the man as an individual, 
but not natural to man as a species ; in this manner we 
may speak of * a defect in the speech,* or ' a defect in 
temper.' The fault and vice rise in degree and character 
above either of the fonner terms ; they both reflect dis- 
grace more or less on the person posse.^sing or manifesting 
them ; but the fault usually characterizes the agent, and 
is said in relation to an individual ; the vice characterizes 
the action, and may be considered abstractly : hence we 
speak of a man's faults — e.g., harshness of temper — as 
the things we may condemn in him ; but we may speak of 
certain vices without reference to anyone who practices 

implacable, odj. (im-pla'-k&-bl), that cannot be pacified or 
appeased ; stubborn or constant in enmity ; hostile, vin- 

"Their temper was singularly savage and implacable." — 

Syn. : inexorable, unrelenting, relentless. 

Ant. : soft-hearted, appeasable, well-disposed. 


Syn. dis. : "Implacable denotes a disposition which 
nothing can appease : inexorable is implacable to entreaty 
in particular and in a specific case : unrelenting is not 
relenting, that is, yielding, from harshness, hardness or 
cruelty as a fact ; while relentless is unyielding as a 
property or habit. We say, a ' relentless cruelty', ' an unre- 
lenting line of conduct.' Unrelenting belongs rather to 
the person, relentless to the quality which he exhibits ; the 
implacable man is so from moral hardness of heart ; the 
inexorable may be so from mental stubborness or inflexible 
resolution : imrelenting is passive, relentless active." 

import, n., that which is brought to bear upon a point; the 
intended significance or application of a word or state- 

Syn. : purport, meaning, signification, tenor, drift, scope. 

Syn. dis. : "The import is that which a word, state- 
ment, phrase, or document is intended to convey : the 
import of a thing is that which it is specifically and directly 
designed to imply or convey. The purport is the import 
of something continuous, or regarded in its continuity, and 
may be applied to continuous action as well as continuous 
speech. Import is more allied to meaning and significa- 
tion ; purport, to drift and scope. Meaning is used in a 
two-fold sense, either, (1) the casual intention of the 
person, or, (2) the fixed import of the thing. ' That is not 
my meaning,' illustrates the first ; * Take the words in 
their grammatical meaning' the second. Signijiation is 
nearly identical with meaning or import : signification, 
however, is the act of making known, as well as the inten- 
tion of the terms employed for the purpose. Signification 
is attached to the thing, and does not belong to the person. 
Tenor, drift, and scope relate not to isolated terms, but to 
continuous speech : the tenor is the general course and 
character which holds on through a speech or a remark ; 
drift, the tendency of it, or aim not formally avowed ; 
scope, the avowed design, that which it is aimed at and is 
intended to embrace." 

inadvertency, any mistake or fault from want of foresight ; 
heedlessness, carelessness. 

Syn. : inattention, oversight, inobservancy. 


Ant. : carefulness, thoughtfulness, observancy. 

Syn. dis. : Inadvertency {Lat. in, not, and advertere, to 
turn towards) is the quality or effect of not minding, or 
t iking notice ; inattention of not taking heed. In the 
former case there was an involuntary accident ; in the lat- 
ter, a culpable neglect. Inadvertency never designates a 
habit, but inattention does ; the former term, therefore, is 
unqualified by the reproachful sense which attaches to the 
latter. Any one may be guilty of an inadvertence, through 
pre-occupation of the mind, or from other cause which is 
not in itself culpable. Repeated inadvertencies, however, 
lay one open to the charge of carelessness and inattention, 
which we should strive to avoid. Oversight seems to refer 
more to the mistake itself; namely, to the missing or 
omitting to do or say something, or to go somewhei-e, 
and may or may not be culpable or involve serious 

inconsistent, adj., without uniformity of speech or conduct ; 
at variance ; disagreeing ; incompax^iMe. 

Syn. : incongruous, incohei'ent, inconsonant. 

Ant. : consistent, consonant, in harmony with. 

Syn, dis. : "Inconsistency attaches either to the actions 
or sentiments of men ; incongruity attaches to the modes 
and qualities of things ; inconsistency to words or thoughts : 
things are made inconsistent by an act of the will ; a man 
acts or thinks inconsistently, according to his own pleasure ; 
incongruity depends on the nature of the thing ; " there is 
something very incongruous in blending the solemn and 
the farcical, buffoonery and tragedy. Incoherent, from 
hmreo, to stick, marks the incapacity of two things to 
coalesce or be united to each other : incoherence marks the 
want of coherence or agreement in that which ought to 
follow in a train : we speak of a loose, rambling speech as 
incoherent, if it is lacking in the proper sequence of 

inconstant, o^dj., not constant or firm in resolution, opinions, 
feelings, or inclinations ; wavering ; capricious. 

Syn. : changeable, mutable, variable, fickle, versatile. 
Ant. : uniform, steady, reliable, true, unwavering, faith- 
ful. See changeable. 


incontrovertible, Oidj., that cannot be controvei'ted, ques- 
tioned, di'iputed, or contested ; admitting of no controversy 
or dispute. 

Syn. : indubitable, unquestionable, indisputable, undeni- 
able, irrefragabla 

Ant. : disputable, dubious, controvertible, questionable, 

Syn. dis. : " These terms all express conclusiveness of 
evidence, not absolute certainty or truth ; incontrovertible 
applies to such matters as are so clear and certain as not 
to admit of lengthened and argumentative questioning or 
contradiction. Indubitable throws the matter back yet 
farther, and asserts that not only may the matter not be 
controverted in terms, but not even doubted of in the mind. 
Unquestionable expresses that which may not be called 
in question ; indisputable, that which may not be disputed ; 
undeniable, that which may not be denied ; irrefragable, 
that of which the argumentative force or the evidence may 
not be broken. Incontrovertible is employed of statements, 
views, or opinions, evidence and the like, but not of simple 
facts ; indubitable, of facts and assertions ; unquestionable, 
of prop isitions ; indisputable, of rights and claims also ; 
- undeniable, of statements ; irrefragable, of evidence and 
ai'guments." See indubitable. 

indebted, adj., (6 silent), being under a debt or obligation ; 
morally bound or obliged by something received from 
which restitution, return, or gratitude is due. 

Syn. : obliged, beholden. 

Syn. dis. : '■^Indebted is more binding and positive than 
obliged : we are indebted to whoever confers an essential 
service : a man is indebted to another for the pi-eservation 
of his life ; he is obliged to him for an ordinary act of 
civility. The feeling of moral obligation is not necessarily 
implied in indebted; hence the term is employed with 
readiness of many agents, where obliged could not be so 
employed. In such cases it seems to mean little more 
than acknowledgment of a cause or source ; as , ' For such 
elements of the national character we are indebted to our 
Saxon ancestry.' " 


indifference, n., a state of mind in which a person takes no 
interest in a matter which comes before him, or in which 
he does not incline to one side more than the other. 

Syn : insensibility, apathy, unconcernedness. 

Ant : eagerness, interest, ardour. 

Syn. dis. : " Indifference is mostly a temporary state, 
and is either acquired or accidental ; insensibility/ is either 
a temporary or a permanent state, and is either produced 
or natural ; apathy is always a pei-manent state and is 
natural. A person may be in a state of indifference about 
a thing the value of which he is not aware of, or acquire 
an indifference for that which he knows to be of compar- 
tively little value : he may be in a state of insensibility 
from some lethargic torpor which has seized his mind ; or 
he may have an habitual insensibility arising either from 
the contractedness of his powers, or the physical bluntness 
of his understanding and the deadness of his passions : his 
apathy is usually bom with him and is a characteristic of 
the constitution of his mind. Indifference is often the 
consequence of insensibility ; for he who is not sensible or 
alive to any feeling must naturally be without choice or 
preference ; but indifference is not always insensibility, 
since we may be indiffrent to one thing, because we may 
have an equal liking for another. In like manner insensi- 
bility may spring from apathy, for he who has no feeling 
is naturally not to be awakened to feeling ; that is, he is 
xinfeeling or insensible by constitution ; but since his in- 
sensibility may spring from other causes besides those that 
are natural, he may be insensible without being apathetic." 
Indifference may indicate, and often does indicate, a neu- 
trality of mind in regard to persons or things, and a desire 
to be impartial in our judgment of them and in our rela- 
tions towards them. 

indisposition, see sickness ; also, see disease. 
indolent, adj., habitually idle; indisposed to exertion or labour. 
Syn. : supine, listless, careless, slothful. 
Ant. : active, alert, brisk, busy, energetic. 
Syn. dis. : " Indolence has a more comprehensive mean. 
ing than supineness, and signifies more than listlessness or 
carele8sn^-»i •, mdoleme is a general indisposition of a per- 


son to exert either Ms mind or his body ; supineness is a 
similar indisposition that shows itself on particular occa- 
sions : there is a corporeal as well as a mental cause for 
indolence ; but supineness lies principally in the mind : 
corpulent and unwieldy persons are apt to be indolent; 
but timid and gentle dispositions are apt to be supine. 
An indolent person sets all labour, both corporeal and 
mental, at a distance from him ; it is irksome to him ; a 
supine person objects to undertake anything which threat- 
ens to give him trouble, or to embarrass or inconvenience 
him." The listless man unlike the indolent and supine, is 
generally without desire ; he is subject to states of moral 
torpor, and is with difl&culty aroused from them, or, if 
aroused, usually relaxes into his lethargic normal condi- 
tion. " Carelessness is rather an error of the understand- 
ing, or of the conduct, than the will ;' since the careless 
would care, be concerned for or interested about things, 
if he could be brought to reflect on their importance, or if 
he did not for a time forget himself." 

indubitable, n. and adj., a matter or thing which cannot be 
doubted ; certain ; not doubtful. 

"That the Americans are able to bear taxation is indubitable." 

Syn. : unquestionable, indisputable, undeniable, incon- 
trovertable, incontestable, irrefragable. 

Ant. : doubtful, dubious, uncertain. 

Syn. dis. : Indubitable and its synonyms are all op- 
posed to uncertainty ; but they do not imply absolute cer- 
tainty, for they express the strong persuasion of a per- 
son's mind rather than the absolute nature of the thing : 
when a fact is supported by such evidence as admits of no 
kind of doubt, it is termed indubitable ; when the truth 
of an assertion rests on the authority of a man whose 
character for integrity stands unimpeached, it is termed 
unquestionable authority ; when a thing is believed to 
exist on the evidence of every man's senses, it is termed 
undeniable; when a sentiment has always been held as 
either true or false without dispute, it is termed indisput- 
able ; when arguments have never been controverted, they 
are termed incontrovertable ; and when they have never 
been satisfactorily answered, they are said to be i/rrefrag- 


able — that is not to be broken {^frango, to break), de- 
stroyed, or done away with. See incontrovertible. 

infamous, adj., notoriously vile or base ; of bad report or 
reputation ; odious, detesttible. 

Syn. : scandalous, disgraceful, opprobrious. 

Ant. : fair, honourable, creditable, reputable. 

Syn. dis. : " Infamous, like infamy, is applied to both 
persons and things ; scandalous only to things : a charac- 
ter is infamous, or a transaction is infamous ; but a trans- 
action only is scandalous. Both terms are used of that 
which is calculated to excite great displeasure in the minds 
of all who hear it, and to degrade the offenders in the 
general estimation ; but the infamous seems to be that 
which pi'oduces greater publicity and more general repre- 
hension than scandalous, consequently it is that which is 
more serious in its nature and a greater violation of good 

influence, n., power to move or sway others according to 
one's own will or wishes ; acknowledged ascendancy ; 
ability or power to produce some effect. 

Syn. : authority, ascendancy, sway, control. 

Syn. dis. : " These terms imply power, under different 
circumstances : influence is altogether unconnected with 
any right to direct, and the influence may be bad or good ; 
authority includes the idea of right, necessarily ; superior- 
ity of rank, talent, or position, personal attachment, and a 
variety of circumstances give influence ; it commonly acts 
by persuasion and employs engaging manners, so as to 
determine in favour of what is pi'oposed : superior wisdom, 
age, office, and relation give authority : it determines of 
itself ; it requires no collateral aid : ascendancy and sway 
are modes of influence^ differing only in degree ; they both 
imply an excessive and improper degree of influence over 
the mind, independent of reason ; the former is, however, 
more gradual in its process, and consequently more con- 
firmed in its nature ; the latter may be only temporary, 
but may be more violent. Influence and ascendancy are 
said likewise of things as well as of persons : true religion 
will have an influence not only on the outward conduct of 


a man, but on the inward affections of his heart ; and that 
man is truly happy in whose mind it has the ascendanc7j 
over every other principle." 

infringe, v., {L. infringo, to break into), to violate, break, or 
transgress some rule or law ; to encroach, to trespass, to 
intrude ; to violate, either positively by contravention, or 
negatively, by omission or neglect of duty. 

Syn. : violate, transgress, trespass, encroach. 

Ant. : observe, maintain, respect, fulfil. 

Syn. dis. : "Civil and moral laws iweinfringtd by those 
who act in o})position to them : treaties and engagements 
are violated by those who do not hold them sacred : the 
bounds which are prescribed by the moral law are trans- 
gressed by those who are guilty of any excess." It is the 
business of the government to see that the rights and 
privileges of individuals or particular bodies are not in- 
fringed ; that treaties and compacts are not violated ; and 
that the limits of right, reason and equity, so far as it is 
responsible for their maintenance, are not transgressed. 
" Politeness, which teaches us what is due to every man 
in the smallest concei'ns, considers any unasked-for inter- 
ference in the private affairs of another as an infringe- 
ment : equity, which enjoins on nations as individuals an 
attentive consideration to the interests of the whole, for- 
bids the infraction of a treaty in any case." 

ingenuous, adj., frank, open, candid, free from dissimulation, 
reserve, or disguise ; sincere. See candid. 

The confusion of ingenuous with ingenioits, which it is 
supposed had a common i*oot, and were once applied indif- 
ferently to the intellectual and moral qualities, make it 
important to point out the distinction between these two 
words. Ingenuous (^Lat. ingenuus, free-born, as distin- 
guished from liberti, who were afterwards made free) is 
employed by a figure of speech, suggested by the derivative 
term, free or nobly born, to denote nobleness of character, 
of honourable or noble extraction. Ingenious (Lat. ingeni^ 
osus, clever, from ingenium = genius, cleverness) denotes 
natural capacity, talent, skilfulness in invention or con- 
trivance. Crabb says that the former term " respects the 
freedom of the station and consequent nobleness of the 


character which is inborn ; the latter respects the genius 
or mental powers which, too, are inborn. Truth is coupled 
with freedom or nobility of birth : the ingenuous, there 
fore, bespeaks the inborn freedom, by asserting the noblest 
right, and following the noblest impulse, of human nature, 
namely that of speaking the truth. We love the ingenuous 
character on account of the qualities of his heart; we 
admire the ingenious man on account of the endowments 
of his mind. One is ingenuous as a man ; or ingenious as 
an author : a man confesses an action ingenuously ; he 
defends it ingeniously." Archdeacon Smith remarks, that 
" ingenuous implies a permanent moral quality. A man 
may be not remarkable for frankness, yet at heart 
thoroughly ingenuous, that is, a lover of integrity and a 
hater of dissimulation. Men of retiring manner are often 
truly ingenuous, for ingenuousness is, after all, more allied 
to modesty than to frankness." The latter authority 
endorses Crabb's view that the word is associated with the 
characteristics of high rank and noble station, for he says 
" that the term ingenuous expresses a quality of honour 
and candour which befits and was at one time, like many 
other virtues, assumed to belong peculiarly to high birth." 

inherent, adj. naturally conjoined or attached ; sticking fast 
to ; not to be removed ; inseparable. 

" These vices which are inherent in the nature of all coalitions." 

— Macaulay. 

Syn. : inbred, inborn, ingrained, congenital. 

Ant. : foreign, separable, temporary, extraneous. 

Syn. dis. : " Inherent denotes a permanent quality or 
property, as opposed to that which is adventitious and 
transitory. Inbred denotes that property which is derived 
principally from habit or by a gradual process, as opposed 
to the one acquired by actual efibrts. Inborn denotes that 
which is purely natural, in opposition to the artificial. 
Inborn and innate are precisely the same in meaning, yet 
they difier somewhat in application. Poetry and the 
grave style have adopted inborn ; philosophy has adopted 

injustice, n., the quality of being unjust ; that which is 
unfair ; a wrong or a violation of the right of another. 


Syn, : injury, wrong, unfairness, unlawfulness. 

Ant. : justice, equity, right, impartiality, fair-dealing. 

S\n. dis. : ^'-Injustice, injury and vyrong, signifying the 
thing that is unfair or wrong, are all opposed to the right ; 
but the injustice lies in the principle, the injury in the 
action that injures. There may, therefore, be injustice 
where there is no specific injury ; and, on the other hand, 
there may be injury where there is no injustice. A. wrong 
partakes both of injustice and injury : it is in fact an in- 
jury done by one person to another, in express violation of 
justice. The man who traduces another and mars for ever 
his fair fame does him the greatest of all wrongs. One 
repents of injustice, repairs injuries, and redresses wrongs.'^ 

insinuate, v., to wind or push oneself into favour ; to ingra- 
tiate oneself ; to hint at or introduce imperceptibly and 

Syn. : ingratiate, instil, insert, worm. 

Ant. : withdraw, retract, extract, alienate. 

Syn. dis. : " Insinuate and ingratiate are employed to 
express an endeavour to gain favour ; but they differ in 
the circumstances of the action. A person who insinuates 
adopts every art to steal into the good-will of another; 
but he who ingratiates adopts unartificial means to con- 
ciliate good-will. A person of insinuatiw] manners wins 
upon another imperceptibly, even so as to convert dislike 
into attachment ; a person with ingratiating manners pro- 
cures good-will by a permanent intercourse. Insinuate and 
ingratiate differ in the motive, as well as the mode, of the 
action ; the motive is in both cases self-interest ; but the 
former is unlawful, and the latter allowable. Insinuate 
may be used in the improper sense for unconscious agents ; 
ingratiate is always the act of a conscious agent. Water 
will insinuate itself into every body that is to the smallest 
degree porous : there are few persons of so much apathy 
that it may not be possible, one way or another, to ingra- 
tiate oneself into their favour." 

insipid, adj., wanting in spirit, life, or animation ; tasteless, 
without savour. 

8yn. : du\l, flat, vapid, uninteresting. 


Ant. : engaging, racy, bright, relishing, tasty. 

Syn. dis. : "A want of spirit in the moral sense is desig- 
nated by these epithets, which borrow their figurative 
meaning from different properties in nature : the taste is 
referred to in the word insipid ; the properties of colours 
are considered in the word dull ; the property of surface 
is referred to in the word flat. As the want of flavour in 
any meat constitutes it i7isipid, and renders it worthless, 
so does the want of mind or character in a man render 
him equally insipid, and devoid of the distinguishing 
characteristic of his nature." An insipid writer is with- 
out sentiment or imagination ; a dull writer fails in viva- 
city and vigour of style ; a flat performance is wanting in 
heartiness and " go " which would otherwise give it life 
and it bright and enjoyable. 

institute, v., to set up, to originate, to ordain, to enact, to 
put in force ; or simply, to start or begin, as, ' to institut6 
an enquiry.' 

Syn. : establish, found, erect, invest, induct. 

Ant : disestablish, subvert, degrade, deprive. 

Syn. dis. : " To institute is to form according to a cer- 
tain plan ; to establish is to fix in a certain plan or 
after a certain fashion what has been formed ; to found 
is to lay the foundation of anything. Laws, communities, 
and particular orders are instituted. ; schools, colleges, and 
various societies are established. To found is a species of 
instituting, which borrows its figurative meaning from the 
nature of buildings, and is applicable to that which is 
formed after the manner of a building : a public school is 
founded when its pecuniary resources are formed into a 
fund or foundation. To erect is a species of founding : 
nothing can be founded which is not erected ; although 
some things may be erected without being expressly 
founded : a monument is erected but not founded ; the 
same may be said of a tribunal." 

intellect, n., the understanding ; the faculty of the mind which 

receives or comprehends the ideas communicated to it. 

Syn : genius, talent ; undei-standing, intelligence. 


Syn. dis. : " Intellect is the generic term ; there cannot 
be genius or talent without intellect; but there may be 
intellect without genius ot talent : a man of intellect dis- 
tinguishes himself from the common hei-d of mankind by 
the astuteness of liis observation, the accuracy of his judg- 
ment, the originality of his conception, and other peculiar 
attributes of mental power. Genius is a particular bent 
of the intellect, which distinguishes a man from every other 
individual ; talent is a particular gift or manifestation 
of the intellect, which is of practical utility to the posses- 
sor." * * "The former identity of intellect and intel- 
ligence has been of late years widened, and intelligence, to 
say nothing of its meaning of the subject-matter of infor- 
mation (as the intelligence contained in the newspapers) 
now means a good quality of the understanding, a readi- 
ness to comprehend things of ordinary occurrence, which 
may be quickened by practice and experience ; while in- 
tellect is confined to the mental powers and their capacity 
in the abstract. Understanding is the Saxon expression 
for the Latin intellect and intelligence. Its characteristic 
seems to flow from this fact. It is a native word, and so 
applied in a more colloquial way, and to the things of 
life in their more familiar and practical aspects. Hence 
such phrases of frequent occurrence, as, ' A sound prac ical 
understanding * ; 'I understand it sufficiently for all prac- 
tical purposes.' " See €aculty. 

intercede, v., to go, come, or act between as a peacemaker, 
with a view to reconcile parties at variance ; to plead in 
favour of another ; to make intercession. (It is folio we I 
by /or before the person on whose behalf intercession is 
made, and by with before the person to whom it is made. ) 
Syn. : interpose, mediate, interfere, intermeddle, ad- 
vocate, plead. 

Ant. : abandon, incriminate, charge, accuse, inculpate. 

Syn. dis. : "To mediate and intercede are both concilia- 
tory acts ; we intercede with a superior on behalf of an 
equal or inferior ; we interpose between equals. In inter- 
position we exercise our own power or authority ; in 
intercession we endeavour to enlist on our behalf the 
power or authority of another " : one intercedes or inter- 


poses for the removal of evil — e. g., for the mollifying oi 
pacification of one who is justly angry; one mediates for 
the attainment |of good — e. g., for the reconciliation of 
estranged friends. To intercede and interpose are employed 
on the highest and lowest occasions ; to mediate is i-arely 
employed but in matters of the greatest moment. One 
interferes and intermeddles in the concerns of other people 
rather then between persons ; and, on that account, it 
becomes a question of some importance to decide when we 
ought so to interfere and intermeddle. Intermeddle is 
usually the unauthorized act of one who is busy in things 
that ought not to concern him, and therefore, intermed- 
dling, as a rule, is objectionable and to be avoided. 

intercourse, n., connection or association by reciprocal actions 
or dealings between two or more persons or countries ; in- 
terchange of thought or feeling. 

Syn. : communication, connection, commerce, commun- 
ion, dealing. 

Ant. : reticence, suspension, cessation, disconnection. 

Syn. dis : " Intercourse and commerce subsist mainly be- 
tween persons ; communication and connection between 
persons and things. A communication is a species of in- 
tercourse ; namely, that which consists in the communica- 
tion of one's thoughts to another ; a connection consists of 
a permanent intercourse : a communication is kept up 
between two countries by means of regular or irregular 
conveyances ; a connection subsists between two towns 
when the inhabitants trade with each other, intermarry, 
and the like." " Communion, which lies less in externals 
than communication, is among many, being such inter- 
change of offices as flows from a bond of unity in senti- 
ment, feeling, or conviction. Communication is from one 
(place or person) to another; communion is reciprocal. 
Dealing is entirely confined to external transactions, being 
inapplicable to matters of the mind and feelings." 

intervention, «■., act of intervening; state of being or com- 
ing between. 

Syn. : interposition, intrusion, intercession. 


Syn. dis : " Intervention, which is used of space, order, 
and time, is said of inanimate objects ; interposition is said 
only of rational agents. The light of the moon is ob- 
structed by the intervention of the clouds ; the life of an 
individual is preserved by the interposition of another : 
human life is so full of contingencies that when we have 
formed our projects we can never say what may intervene 
to prevent their execution : when a man is engaged in an 
unequal combat, he has no chance of escajnng but by the 
timely interposition of one who is able to rescue him." 
" In the acts of men intervention is commonly less authori- 
tative or forcible than interposition. ' He owed his life 
to the intervention of another,' would imply entreaty or 
help; interposition would involve rescue." 

introductory, adj., serving to introduce something else ; 
serving as or given by way of introduction. 

Syn. : preliminary, preparatory, precursory, initiatory. 

Ant. : complete, final, conclusive, terminal, valedictory. 

Syn. dis. : " In the case of the introductory the proceed- 
ing commonly has reference to thought and understand- 
ing, while preliminary relates to matter or action. We 
say an introductory treatise ; a preliminary step. The one 
precedes wider exhibition or fuller knowledge, the latter 
more extended action. Preparatory i elates to the purpose 
rather than the object, to the doer rather than the deed. 
In the preparatory^ I do what will enable me. to do some- 
thing beyond. Preliminaries commonly belong to-matters 
of social arrangement or compact, whether amicable or 
otherwise, as the preliminaries of a contract, a marriage, 
a peace, or a duel." 

intrude, v., to force or thrust one's self in ; to enter into 
without right or welcome. 

Syn. : obtrude, encroach, trespass. 

Syn. dis. : " To intrude is to thrust one's self into a 
place ; to obtrude is to thrust one's self in the way. It is 
intrusion to go into any society unasked and undesired ; 
it is obtruding to join any company and take a part in the 
conversation without invitation or consent. We violate 
the rights of another when we inirude ; we set up ourselves 


by obtruding : one intrudes with one's [jerson in the place 
which does not belong to one's self; one obtrudes with 
one's person, remarks, etc., upon another: a person in- 
trudes out of curiosity or any other gratification ; he 
obtrudes out of vanity. In the moral acceptation they 
preserve tlie same distinction. In moments of devotion, 
the serious man endeavours to prevent the intrusion of 
worldly or improper ideas in his mind : the stings of con- 
science obtrude themselves upon the guilty even in their 
greatest merriment," 

invective, n., a speech or expression intended to cast oppro- 
brium, censui-e, or reproach upon another. 

Syn. : abuse, obloquy, vituperation, denunciation. 

Ant. : commendation, eulogy, panegyric, laudation. 

Syn. dis. : ^^ Abuse as compared with invective is more 
personal and coaise, being conveyed in harsh and unseemly 
terms, and dictated by angry feeling and bitter tempei*. 
Invective is more commonly aimed at character or conduct, 
and may be conveyed in wiiting or in refined language, 
and dictated by indignation against what is in itself blame- 
worthy. It often, however, means public abuse under 
such restraints as are imposed by position and education." 

invidious, ci^lj-, likely to incur or provoke ill-will, envy, or 
hatred. See envious. 

Syn. : envious, unfair, partial, inconsiderate. 

Ant. : fair, impartial, considerate, due, just. 

Syn, dis. : " Invidious in its common acceptation signi- 
fies causing ill-will ; envious signifies having ill-will. The 
former is now used of such proceedings as shall tend to 
raise a gi'udge between the persons who are in any way the 
subjects of the compaiison. A task is invidious that puts 
one in the way of giving offence ; a look is envious that is 
full of envy. Invidious qualifies the thing ; envious quali- 
fies the temper of the mind. It is invidious for one author 
to be judged against another who has written on the same 
subject : a man is envious when the prospect of another's 
happiness gives him pain." 

irrational, adj., void of reason or understanding; contrary 
to reason ; fiinciful. 


Syn. : foolish, absui'd, preposterous. 

Ant. : sane, sound, sensible, reasonable, judicious. 

Syn. dis. : " Irrational is not so strong a term as fool- 
ish : it is applicable more frequently to the thing than to 
the practice : foolish, on the contrary, is commonly ap- 
plicable to the person as well as the thing ; to the practice 
rather than the principle. Scepticism h the most irrational 
thing that exists, for the human mind is formed to believe, 
not to doubt. Foolish, absurd, and preposterous rise in 
degree ; a violation of common sense is implied by them 
all, but they vary according to the degree of violence 
which is done to the understanding : foolish is applied to 
anything, however trivial, which in the smallest degree 
offends our understanding or is opposed to our judgment : 
it is absurd for a man to persuade another to do that 
which he in like circumstances would object to do himself; 
it is preposterous for a man to expose himself to the ridi- 
cule of othei-s and be angry with those who will not treat 
him respectfully." 

irreligious, adj., disregarding or contemning religion; pro- 
fane, impious, ungodly. 

Syn. dis, : " As epithets to designate the character of 
the person these synonyms seem to rise in degree ; irre- 
ligion is negative ; p^-ofane and impious are positive ; the 
latter being much stronger than the former. All men 
who are not positively actuated by principles of religion 
are irreligious : profanity and impiety are however of a 
still more heinous natui'e ; they consist not in the mere 
absence of regard for religion, but in a positive contempt 
for it and open outrage against its laws." 


jealousy, n., uneasiness from fear of being, or on account of 

being, suj)planted by a rival ; apprehension of another's 

superiority to ourselves ; earnest solicitude, envy. 

Syn. dis. : " We are jealous of what is our own ; we are 

envious of what is another's : jealousy fears to lose what 

it has j envy is pained at seeing another have. Jealousy 

is a noble or an ignoble passion, according to the object 

which excites it : in the former case it is emulation sharp- 
15 ^ 


eiied by fear : in the latter case it is greediness stimulated 
by fear; envy is always a base passion, having the worst 
passions in its train. Jealous is applicable to bodies of 
men as well as to individuals ; envious to individuals only. 
Nations ai-e jealous of any interference on the part of any 
other Power, in their commerce, government, or territory ; 
individuals are envious of the rank, wealth, and honours 
of each other." 

jeer, v., to utter severe sarcastic reflections; to make a mock 
of some person or thing, n., derision. 

Syn. : scoff*, gibe, sneer ; a taunt, a flout. 

Syn. dis. : " Jeer is personal, consisting of mocking 
words addressed to an individual, which is also the case 
with gibe ; but jeer conveys more ridicule and contempt, 
gihe of bitter scorn and ill-will. Scoff is to manifest con- 
tempt in any way, as by looks, gestures, or words. It 
relates not so much to the person as to the force of what 
he says or does. Sneer is connected with the grimace of 
expression rather than with words. If employed, as it 
may be, of spoken contempt, sneering is covert and in- 
direct, while scoff is open, insolent, and defiant." 

judgment, n., the act of deciding or passing decision on 
something ; the act or faculty of judging truly, wisely, oi 
skilfully ; good sense, discernment, understanding. 
Syn. : discretion, prudence, sagacity, penetration. 
Syn. dis. : " Judgment is used in the senses of the pro- 
cess of judging, the faculty of judging, the faculty of judg- 
ing rightly, and the result of judging. Judgment with 
the kindred terms, discretion and prudence, are all em- 
ployed to express the various modes of practical wisdom 
which serve to regulate the conduct of men in ordinary 
life. Judgment determines in the choice of what is good ; 
discretion sometimes only guards against error or direct 
mistakes ; it chooses what is nearest to the truth : judg- 
ment requires knowledge and actual experience ; discretion 
requires reflection and consideration. Discretion looks to 
the present ; prudence, which is the same as providence 
or foresight, calculates on the future. Those who have 
the conduct or direction of others require discretion ; those 
who have the management of their own concerns require 


prudence : for want of discretion tlie master of a school, or 
the general of an army, may lose his authority ; for want 
of prudence the merchant may involve himself in ruin, or 
the man of fortune may be brought to beggary." 

justice, n. conduct in accordance with law, human or divine ; 
the giving to every one his due. 

Syn : equity, right, rectitude, fairness. 

Ant. : injustice, wrong, unlawfulness. 

Syn. dis.: "Justice, is founded on the laws of society; 
equity is founded on the laws of nature : justice is a 
written or prescribed law, to which one is bound to con- 
form and make it the rule of one's decisions ; equity is a 
law in our hearts ; it conforms to no I'ule but to circum- 
stances, and decides by the consciousness of right and 
wrong. Justice forbids us doing wrong to any one ; and 
requires us to repair the wrongs we have done to others ; 
equity forbids us doing to others what we would not have 
them do to us ; it requires us to do to others what in 
similar circumstances we would expect from them." " Jus- 
tice is inflexible, it follows one invariable rule, which can 
seldom be deviated from consistently with the public good ; 
equity, on the other hand, varies wich the circumstances 
of the case, and is guided by discretion : justice may, there- 
fore, sometimes run counter to equity, when the interests 
of the individual must be sacrificed to those of the com- 
munity ; and equity sometimes tempers the rigour of 
justice by admitting of reasonable deviations from the 
literal interpretations and the sometimes harsh demands 
of its laws." [The teacher might illustrate this by giving 
homely examples.] Crabb has one in point; he says: 
" supposing I have received an injury, justice demands 
reparation ; it listens to no palliation, excuse, or exception ; 
but supposing the reparation which I have the right to 
demand involves the ruin of him who is perhaps more 
unfortunate than guilty, can I in equity insist on the 


keen, adj. , having a fine edge ; penetrating ; acute of mind, 
sharp-witted ; full of i-elish or zest. 


Syn. : acute, eager, sharp, piercing, penetrating. 

Ant. : blunt, dull, indifferent, languid. 

Syn. dis. : " In their primary and physical applications 
keen denotes an exceeding degree of sharpness, which is the 
generic term, and applies both to points and edges ; while 
acute belongs only to points. In their secondary and 
moral meanings, the keen person is one of great penetra- 
tion ; the acute, of understanding in speculative matters ; 
the sharp, of quickness in matters of everyday practice, 
business, and conversation. Acute and sharp are more 
generally epithets of bodily, and keen of mental pain. 
Acute is in this sense technically opposed to chronic. In 
this application sharp is an epithet of pain generally, 
a<:ute of some specific disease also ; as sharp pain, acute 
rheumatism, a keen sense of injury or disappointment, 
keen annoyance ; also keen relish or enjoyment, a keen sense 
of the ridiculous." 

kind, n., race, genus, generic class; sort, species. 

*' Again, the kingdom of heaven is like unto a net, that was 
cast into the sea, and gathered of every kind. — Matt, xiii., 47. 

Syn. dis. : " Kind and species are both employed in 
their proper sense ; sort has been diverted from its original 
meaning by colloquial use : kind is properly employed for 
animate objects, particularly for mankind, and improperly 
for moral objects ; species is a term used by philosophers, 
classing things according to their external or internal 
properties. Sort may be used for either kind or species ; 
it does not necessarily imply any affinity, or common 
property in the objects, but simply assemblage, produced 
as it were by sors, chance. 

kindred, w., relationship by blood or marriage; those of 
one kin. 

Syn. : relationship, affinity, consanguinity. 

Syn. dis. : " The kindred is the more general state here 
expressed : it may embrace all mankind, or refer to par- 
ticular families or communities ; it depends upon possess- 
ing the common property of humanity : the philanthropist 
daims kindred with all who are unfortunate when it is 
in his power to relieve them. Relationship is a state less 


general than Jdndred, but more extended than either 
affinity or consanguinity ; it applies to particular families 
only, but it applies to all of the same family, whether 
remotely or distantly related. Affinity denotes a close 
relationship, whether of an artificial or a natural hind : 
there is an affinity between the husband and the wife in 
consequence of the marriage tie, and there is an affinity 
between those who descend from the same parents or 
relations in a direct line. Consanguinity is, strictly 
speaking, this latter species of descent ; and the term is 
mostly employed in all questions of law respecting descent 
and inhei'itance." 

knowledge, n. (nOl'-6j), that which is or may be known ; 
certain and clear perception of things ; acquaintance with 
any fact or person : mental accomplishment. 

Syn. : science, learning, erudition, cognizance. 

Ant. : ignorance, illiterateness, misapprehension. 

Syn. dis. : Knowledge is a general term which simply 
implies the thing known : science, learning, and erudition 
are modes of knowledge qualified by some collateral idea : 
science is a systematic species of knowledge which consists 
of rule and order ; learning is that species of knowledge 
which we derive from schools, or through the medium of 
personal instruction ; erudition is scholastic knowledge ob- 
tained by profound research : it relates to literature and 
learning rather than to science, and to its extensive at- 
tainment, involving a knowledge of subjects commonly 
unfamiliar." See literature. 


lack, n., the state of being without or in need of anything. 
v., to be destitute of; to be deficient in. 

Syn. want, need, necessity, scarcity, deficiency. 

Ant. : supply, fulness, abundance, competence. 

Syn. dis. : "Lack refers more directly to the failing or 
inadequate source or supply ; want, to the inadequate sup- 
ply or possession, combined with the requirement or 
demand. Ifeed relates directly to the urgency of the de- 
mand, and indirectly to the absence of supply : want is 


commonly absence of mere possession ; need, absence of 
means of action. As they express states, necessity is 
stronger than need, for whereas need is negative, necessity 
has a positive and compelling force. A man is in need of 
food. Under some circumstances there is a need for 
action . need is pressing ; necessity unyielding : need is the 
• strongest degree of requiremf-nt, necessity of demand. The 
words lack, want, and need rise in force. The supei-fluities 
of life — wealth, estates, great power or influence — I lack ; 
the conveniencies which I am without, I wamt ; the neces- 
saries which I am without, I need. Lack is the absence 
of excess ; want, of comfort ; need of sufficiency." 

language, n., the expression of ideas by means of words ; 
human speech ; style or manner of expression ; the speech 
peculiar to a nation. 

Syn. : dialect, idiom, tongue, speech, phraseology. 

Ant. : jargon, jabber, gibberish, muteness. 

Syn. dis. : " Language is the most general term in its 
meaning and application : tongue, speech, idiom, and 
dialect, are applicable only to human beings. Language 
is either written or spoken ; but a tongue is conceived of 
mostly as something to be spoken ; and speech is, in the 
strict sense, that only which is spoken or uttered. Sjieech 
is an abstract term, implying either the power of uttering 
articulate sounds, as when w^e speak of the gift of speech ; 
or the words themselves which are spoken, as when we 
speak of the parts of speech ; or the particular mode of 
expressing one's self. Idiom and dialect are not properly 
a language : idiom, is the peculiar construction and turn 
of a language, which distinguishes it altogether from 
others. A dialect is that which is engrafted on a lan- 
guage by the inhabitants of particular parts of a country. 
Languages simply serve to convey our thoughts : tongues 
consist of words, written or spoken : speech consists of 
words spoken." 

latent, adj., lying hid or concealed ; not manifested n( r 

Syn. : secret, hidden, occult, undeveloped. 

Ant. : visible, active, apparent, exposed, manifest. 


Syn. dis. : " Latent is most commonly employed of that 
which is of the nature of an undeveloped or suppressed 
force : what is secret is so far removed from common 
observation as to be unperceived : what is hidden is so 
covered as to be invisible, which may be from natural or 
from artificial causes. Occult denotes the untraceable 
rather than the unknown, and is a term of processes and 
influ^ences, the existence of which is known, but their 
mode of operation is latent, below the surface, and, it may 
be, beyond our ken." 

Ia>ud.a<ble, o,dj., deserving of praise or commendation. 

Syn. : praiseworthy, commendable, meritorious. 

Ant. : blameable, censurable, reprehensible. 

Syn. dis. : Laudable and commendable seem better ap- 
plicable to the actions or qualities of individuals, and 
praiseworthy to the individuals themselves ; as a praise- 
worthy character ; laudable ambition ; commendable pro- 
priety. Laudable is stronger than commendable; the 
former denoting that praise is due, the latter that it is 
appropriate and right. It is a laudable ambition to excel 
in that which is good ; it is very praiseworthy in a child 
to assist its parent as occasion may require ; silence is 
commendable in a young person when reproved." 

lawful, adj., agreeable or conformable to law; unobjection- 
able from a legal point of view ; just, righteous. 

Syn. : legal, legitimate, permissible, allowable. 

Ant. : wrong, unlawful, illegal, illegitimate. 

Syn. dis : *' Lawful denotes conformable to law, in any 
sense in which the term law may be emjiloyed, whether 
the law of the land, moral law, propriety, or specific 
regulation. Legal is conformable or appertaining to the 
law of the land. Legitimate has the wider sense of con- 
formable to law, rule, principle, justice, fairness, or pro- 
priety. These terms regard the lawful or legal in reference 
to mutual trade, intercourse, connections, or relations 
between man and man." 

lay, v., to cause to lie down ; to put or spread in order ; to set 
or place generally ; to dispose regularly or according to rule. 


Syn. : put, place, set, dispose, deposit, spread, arrange. 

Syn. dis. : " Of these terms, the simplest and most 
comprehensive, and, therefore, the least distinctive, is put, 
which denotes no more than to bring in any way to a 
position or relation ; as * to put a question' ; to put a book 
on the shelf.' To place is to put in a particular part or 
space, or in a specific position. A book is placed on the 
shelf, as being the appointed arrangement for it. To lay 
can be used only of those things which may be made in 
some degree to lie; while set, only of those which raay 
be made to stand : we lay a plate on the table, and set a 
candlestick on the bracket." " By a vulgar error the 
verbs lay and to lie have been so confounded as to deserve 
some notice. To lie is intransitive, and designates a state : 
to lay is transitive, and denotes an action on an object ; it is 
properly to cause to lie : a thing lies on the table ; some 
one lays it on the table ; he lies with his fathers ; they 
laid him with his fathers. In the same manner, when 
used idiomatically, we say a thing lies by us until we 
bring it into use ; we lay it by for some future purpose : 
we lie down in order to repose ourselves ; we lay money 
down by way of deposit : the disorder lies in the constitu- 
tion ; we lay a burden upon our friends." 

leave, w., liberty or permission granted ; allowance. 

" He hath wrung from me my slow leave." — Hamlet. 

Syn. : liberty, licence, permission, concession. 

Ant. : restriction, prohibition, prevention, refusal. 

Syn. dis. : " Leave is the simplest term ; it implies the 
placing of a person in a position to act or not, as he 
pleases ; a discretionary permission ; liberty, that all ob- 
structions or hindrances are removed to specific action ; as 
liberty of speech, liberty of access. Licence is liberty in a 
particular case, formally or even legally granted by special 
permission ; as a licence to print, sell, etc. Permission is 
the mere absence on the part of another of anything pre- 
ventive or of opposition, without implying sanction or 
approval " Leave and permission are said to be asked for, 
but not liberty : we beg leave to oflfer our opinions ; we 
request permission to speak ; we take the liberty to call 
to account. 


letters, n. pi., learning, literature, erudition, knowledge. 

Syn. dis. : "Letters and literature signify knowledge de- 
rived through the medium of written letters oy books, that is, 
information ; learning is confined to that which is commu- 
nicated, that is, scholastic knowledge. Such an expression 
as ' men of letters' or ' the republic of letters' comprehends 
all who devote themselves to the cultivation of their 
minds ; literary societies have for their object the diflfusion 
of general information ; learned societies propose to them- 
selves the higher object of extending the bounds of 
science, and of enlarging the sum of human knowledge." 
"Letters — equivalent to the French ^belles lettres,' polite 
learning — is to literature as the abstract to the concrete ; 
literature being letters in specific relationship, as the litera- 
ture (not the letters) of a particular country." (^See know- 
ledge, also literature.) 

lightness, n., light conduct, want of steadiness, fickleness, 
vacillation, inconstancy. 

Syn. : levity, flightiness, giddiness, volatility. 

Ant. : sobriety, gravity, decorum, steadiness. 

Syn. dis. : "Lightness and giddiness are taken either in 
the natural or metaphorical sense ; the rest in the moral 
sense : lightness is said of the outward carriage or the 
inward temper. Levity is that kind of lightness which de- 
notes an inability or inaptitude to weigh the importance of 
principles in thought ajid action, and so borders on immo- 
rality, if it is not actually such. Giddiness is wild thought- 
lessness, especially such as comes of exuberant spirits, 
combined with scanty powers of reflection. Lightness is 
that quality of mind which disposes it to be influenced by 
trifling considerations, and shows itself, therefoi'e, in incon- 
stancy and want of steadfastness and resolution. Vola- 
tility is active lightness of disposition ; a tendency to fly 
from one thing to another from curiosity and petty in- 
terest. Flightiness comes of mental unsteadiness, which 
shows itself in capricious fancies, irregular conduct, and 
disordered intentions; it betokens intellectual deficiency." 

likeness, n., the quality or state of being like ; that which is 
like or similar. 


Syn. : resemblance, similarity, similitude, correspon- 

Ant. : dissimilarity, dissimilitude, disparity, unlikeness. 

Syn. dis. : '^Likeness is the most general, and at the 
same time the most familiar, term : it respects either ex- 
ternal or intei'nal properties ; resemblance usually respects 
only the external aspects. We speak of ' a strong likeness 
in feature ' ; * a faint resemblance in manner.' Similarity, 
or similitude, which is a higher term, is in the moral 
application, in regard to likeness, what resemblance is in 
the physical sense : what is alike has the same nature ; 
what is sim,ilar has certain featui-es in common ; in this 
sense we say feelings, sentiments, and persons are alike; 
but cases, circumstances, and conditions are similar." 

linger, v., to be slow in moving, to delay, to await, to stop. 

Syn. : tarry, loiter, lag, saunter. 

Ant. : hasten, press, push, speed. 

Syn. dis. : " Suspension of action or slow movement 
enters into the meaning of all these terms : to linger is to 
stop altogether or to move but slowly forward ; to tarry is 
properly to suspend one's movement ; the former may pro- 
ceed from reluctance to leave the spot on which we linger ; 
the latter may proceed from motives of discretion which 
suggest our tarrying .*' " Loiter is to linger from tardiness 
or indolence, as linger implies a constraining or retarding 
influence attached to the locality. Saunter (populai'ly de- 
rived from sainte terre, the Holy Land, as if connected 
with the strolling of pilgrims there) is to move onwards, 
but in an idle, dreamy fashion. We lag through laziness 
or absence of mind ; linger through attachment ; loiter from 
idleness ; saunter for pleasure ; and tarry for a purpose." 

listless, a,<lj- , having no inclination or interest, languid, weary. 
Syn.: uninterested, indifferent, careless, torpid. 
Ant. : eager, curious, ardent, attentive, absorbed. See 

literature, n., the collective literary productions of any 
country or period ; knowledge of or acquaintance with 
letters or books. 


Syn. : learning, letters, erudition. 

Syn dis. : The term literature embraces what the French 
call belles lettres, the class of wiitings distinguished for 
beauty of style or expi-ession, as poetry, essays, or history, 
in contradistinction to scientific treatises and words which 
contain positive knowledge. Archdeacon Smith thus dis- 
tinguishes the terms literature and the arts : " Litera- 
ture," he says, "in its widest application, embraces all 
compositions which do not appei-tain to the positive 
sciences. As a man of literature is versed in belles lettres, 
so a man of learning excels in what is taught in the 
schools, and belongs almost wholly to the past ; while 
literature includes the current compositions of the day. 
Art is the application of knowledge to practice. As science 
consists of speculative principles, so art is a system of 
rules, serving to facilitate the performance of certain ac- 
tions. Arts are divided into two classes : the useful, 
mechanical or industrial arts, and the liberal, polite, or 
fine arts. The former are called trades ; the latter have 
to do with imagination and design, as poetry, painting, 
sculpture, designing, and the like." 

livelihood, n., means of subsistence or maintaining life ; the 
support of life ; means of living, 

Syn. : living, subsistence, maintenance, support, suste- 

Ant. : privation, starvation, want, beggary. 

Syn. dis. : "The means of living or supporting life is 
the idea common to all these terms. A livelihood is a 
calling or profession regarded as the condition of sub- 
sistence ; while living is the subsistence itself. Both live- 
lihood and living are restricted to rational creatures, 
whose maintenance depends upon their own exertions. 
Subsistence is employed of what furnishes support to an- 
imal life generally and directly, as food ; while to support 
is to furnish with the means of sustenance in any shape, 
as money, food, and the like. Maintenance has a wider 
meaning, and denotes generally the keeping up of any- 
thing which has to be upheld in a course of being, action, 
or operation ; as the maintenance of life, of the body, of 
a fabric, of respectability, of splendour, of public war or 


worship. Sustenance denotes no more than means of sup- 
porting life, but is not restricted to animal life, being 
applicable to the vegetative life of plants. Maintenance 
and support are applicable to things of the moral nature ; 
as the support of courage and hope ; the maintenance of 
order, cheerfulness, or resolution." 

lively, adj., gay, animated, active, energetic, brisk. 

Syn. : sprightly, vivacious, sportive, merry, jocund. 

Ant. : lifeless, torpid, sluggish, listless, dull. 

Syn. dis. : " Liveliness is the property of childhood, 
youth, and even mature age ; sprightliness is the peculiar 
propei'ty of youth ; vivacity is a quality compatible with 
the sobriety of years. The imagination, the wit, the con- 
ception, the representation, and the like, are lively ; the 
air, the manner, the book, the tune, the dance, are 
sprightly ; the conversation, the turn of mind, the sociefcy, 
are vivacious; the muse, the pen, the imagination, are 
sportive ; the meeting, the laugh, the song, the concert, 
are merry ; the train, the dance, the note, are jocund." 
loose, adj., unbound, rambling, unrestrained in morals and 
manner, wanton. 

Syn. : lax, licentious, dissolute, vague. 

Ant. : bound, tight, moral, conscientious, exact. 

Syn. dis. : " Loose is employed either for moi'al or intel- 
lectual subjects ; vague only for intellectual objects ; lax 
sometimes for what is intellectual, but oftener for the 
moral ; dissolute and licentious only for moral matters. 
Whatever wants a proper connection, or linking together 
of the parts, is loose ; whatever is scattered and remotely 
separate is vague : a style is loose where the words and 
sentences are not made to coalesce, so as to form a regular 
connected series ; assertions are vague which have but a 
remote connection with the subject referred to. Loose- 
ness of character, if indulged, soon sinks into dissoluteness 
^f morals ; and laxity of discipline is apt to be followed by 
licentiousness of manners." 


maintain, v., to sustain ; keep or retain possession of ; sup- 
port or defend by force of reason or intellect. 


"For thou hast maintained my right and my cause." 

— Psalm ix., 4. 

Syn. : assert, hold, vindicate, support. 

Ant. ; drop, abandon, oppose, thwart, subvert. 

Syn. dis. : " Maintain, in the sense in which it is syn- 
onymous with the other terms here given, denotes thf 
holding firmly or with vigour and constancy ; while hold 
denotes simply entertaining with any degree of firmness 
in argumentative defence, and even without argument at 
all. We hold views, opinions, or belief; we maintain, 
besides these, positions, arguments, rights, claims. We 
assert facts and claims. To vindicate is to defend with 
an implied degree of success. Hold is always used of 
persons ; support also of evidence." 

malevolent, adj., having an ill-will or evil disposition to- 
wards others, or rejoicing in their misfortune. 

Syn. : malicious, malignant, ill-disposed. 

Ant. : kindly, benignant, beneficent. 

Syn. dis. : " Malevolence has a deep root in the heart, 
and is a settled part of the character ; we denominate the 
person malevolent to designate the ruling temper of his 
mind : maliciousness may be applied as an epithet to 
particular parts of a man's character or conduct : malignity 
is not applied to characterize the person but the thing ; 
the malignity of a design is estimated by the degree of 
mischief which was intended to be done." Malice will, 
in general, lie dormant until it is provoked ; but malevol- 
ence is as active and unceasing in its operations for mis- 
chief as its opposite, benevolence, is in wishing and doing 
good : a story or tale is termed malicious which emanates 
from a malicious disposition ; a fever is malignant which 
runs a long and unchecked course,- and seems to defy all 
efibrt to arrest it. 

manners, n., behaviour, carriage, deportment, especially 
ceremonious, polite, or respectful deportment, civility. 

Syn. : morals, politeness, breeding. 

Syn. dis. : " Manners respect the minor forms of acting 
with and towards others ; morals include the important 
duties of life : manners have therefore been denominated 


minor morals." By an attention to good manners we 
commend ourselves to others and render ourselves desir- 
able associates ; by an observance of good m,orals we 
become good membei's of society and gain its esteem. 
Goodi-manners is the result of good-breeding, and good- 
beeeding is the index and distinctive characteristic of a 

maxim, n., a short and concise statement of an important 
truth ; a principle generally reciuved and admitted as true. 

Syn. : precept, rule, law, proverb, adage, aphorism. 

Syn. dis. : " Maxim is a moral truth that carries its 
own weight with itself : precept, rule, and law all borrow 
their weight from some external circumstance : the precept 
derives its authority from the individual delivering it ; 
the rule acquires a worth from its fitness for guiding us in 
our proceeding ; the law, which is a species of rule, 
derives its weight from the sanction of power. Maxim,s 
are often p ecepts, inasmuch as they are sometimes com- 
municated to us by our parents or those in authority ; 
they are rules inasmuch as they serve as a rule for our 
conduct ; they are laws inasmuch as they have the sanc- 
tion of conscience." 

may, an auxiliary verb, denoting (among other things) sub- 
jective power, ability, or might. In this sense, may is 
almost obsolete, its place being taken by can ; may being 
j-eserved for those cases in which there is something re- 
garded as possibly true or likely to happen. 

Syn. dis. : Distinguishing may from can, Archdeacon 
Smith has the following remarks : " Can denotes power ; 
innay, probability, possibility, and permission. I can, or 
cannot, walk ; that is, T have, or have not, the power to 
walk. It is remarkable that the negative cannot is used 
in the sense of extreme improbability ; as, ' surely it 
cannot be raining with this bright sun ; ' in which case 
it seems to take the place of may not. So we should say, 
'I think, with the wind from the sout'i, it may rain 
to-day.' But we should not say, ' surely, with the wind 
from the north, it may not,' but ' it cannot rain to-day.' 
May not is usually said to negative, not probability, but 


mental, odj., pertaining to the mind or intellect ; intel- 

Syn. dis. : There is the same difference between mental 
and intellectual as between mind and intellect : the mind 
comprehends the thinking faculty in general, with all its 
operations ; the intellect includes only that ])art of it which 
consists in understanding and judgment : menial is there- 
fore opposed to corporeal ; intellectual is opposed to 
sensual or physical : m,ental exertions are not to be 
expected from all ; intellectual enjoyments fall to the lot 
of comparatively few. Objects, pleasures, pains, opera 
tions, gifts, etc., are denominated mental, though some 
may be also characterized as intellectual ; subjects, con- 
versation, pursuits, literary society, and the like, are en- 
titled intellectual. 

merit, n., goodness or excellence entitling to honour or 
reward ; value or excellence ; that which is earned or 

Syn. : goodness, desert, worth, excellence, worthiness. 

Ant. : demerit, unworthiness, worthlessness, defect. 

Syn. dis. : " Of these desert and merit have the two-fold 
meaning of good and evil deserving ; while goodness, 
worth, and worthiness are employed only in a favourable 
sense. Worth is the intrinsic and permanent value of the 
moral chai-acter or the thing appraised : worth describes 
the qualities ; merit, the actions of a man. Merit and 
desert are well-nigh identical in meaning ; but merit is 
used more abstractly, as, ' the merits of a case,' * the merits 
of a literary or musical production.' It represents excel- 
lency less strictly in connection with its dues than does 
desert, which always takes into account some correspon- 
dent treatment of persons." 

mindful, adj., attentive, heedful, regardful, observant. 

Syn. dis. : " Mindful respects that which we wish from 
others : regardful respects that which in itself demands 
regard or serious thought : observant respects both that 
which is communicated by others and that which carries 
its own obligations with itself." Heedful has the general 
sense of thinking much on, or of giving heed to, that 
which is brought to our notice, and of which we are to be 


careful. In this it agrees with attention ; hence we speak 
of giving heed and paying attention. Observant expresses 
the faculty of noticing things, not from mere curiosity, 
but from the hope of gaining or profiting something by 
such observation. 

misconstrue, v., to interpret either words or things in a 
wrong sense ; misinterpret. 

Syn. dis. : " The difference is slight between the usages 
of these terms : both imply voluntary action ; yet miscon- 
strue seems more commonly employed of things of which 
the meaning has to be gathered by inference ; misinterpret, 
of those of which it is dii-ectly ex])ressed. Hence we 
should say, * to misinterpret words or actions,' ' to miscorir 
strue motives.' Interpretations should be truthful : con- 
structions of conduct should be charitable. I misinterpret 
a man's actions when I pass wrong judgment ; I miscon- 
strue them when I err in appraising the nature of their 

modesty, n., the lowly estimate of one's own merits, impor- 
tance, or powers ; unassuming conduct ; propriety of 
manner or behaviour. 

Syn. : moderation, decency, decorum, diffidence. 

Ant : vanity, self-conceit, assurance, effrontery. 

Syn. dis. : Modesty lies in the mind and in the tone of 
feeling ; moderation respects the desires : modesty is not 
only a becoming virtue, but a discreet principle of action ; 
moderation is a rule or line that acts as a restraint on the 
views and the outward conduct. Modesty shields a man 
from mortifications and disappointments, which assail the 
self-conceited man : Tnoderation is equally advantageous, 
since it suitably restrains and regulates one's desires, de- 
mands, and expectations. Modesty, though opposed to 
assurance, is not incompatible with a justifiable confi- 
dence in ourselves, and, unlike diffidence, qualifies one for, 
and often incites one to, the proper fulfilment of duty. 

mutual, adj., interchanged; given and received; each acting 
in return or correspondence to the other. 

" The soul and spirit that animates and keeps up aaciety is 
mutual trust." — South. 


" Life cannot subsist in society but by reciprocal concessions." 


Syn. : common, correspondent, reciprocal, interchange- 

Ant. : one-sided, unreciprocated, unreturned. 

Syn. dis. : " Mutual supposes a sameness in condition 
at the same time ; reciprocal supposes an alternation or 
succession of returns. Mutual applies mostly to matters 
of will and opinion : a mutual affection, a mutual inclina- 
tion to oblige, a mutual interest or concern (for each 
other's comfort, pleasure, etc.) — these are virtues we 
should display and encourage ; reciprocal ties, bonds, 
rights, duties — these are what everyone ought to bear in 
mind as a member of society, that he may expect of no 
man more than what in equity he is disposed to return. 
Mutual applies to nothing but what is personal ; reciprocal 
is applied to things remote from the idea of personality, 
as reciprocal terms, relations," etc. " A mutual thing is 
simply a thing which exists between two pei"Sons ; a 
reciprocal thing so exists as the result of a giving and 
returning. ' The attachment was mutual ' would mean 
simply that it was felt on both sides ; that it was reci- 
procal, that what one had given the other had also 
returned." When we ai'e speaking of « third person the 
word mutual is much misused for the wwrd common, as in 
the phrase, ' our mutual friend ' — mutual properly i-elating 
to two persons only. Care should be taken also to avoid 
adding the words for each other, in such a phrase as, 
'^ mutual regard for each other.' The idea expressed in 
the word ' mutual ' makes it i-edundant to add the words 
' for each other.' Similai'ly the phrase, * mutually depen- 
dent ' is the exact equivalent of ' dependent on each 
other ; ' hence, ' mutually dependent on each other ' is 
tautological and a solecism. 


naxue, n., that by which a person or thing is called or desig- 

Syn. : appellation, title, denomination, designation. 
Syn. dis. : '■'■Name is a generic term ; the rest are spe- 
cific. Whatever word is employed to distinguish one 


thing from another, is a name; thei-efore an appe/Iatioh 
and a title is a name, but not vice versa." Appellation 
properly denotes a descriptive term wlien some individual 
is expressed or some peculiar characteristic, as Alfred the 
Great ; Richard, the Hunchback. " A title is a name in 
some way indicative of dignity, distinctiveness, or pro- 
minence. Denomination is a distinctive name, implying 
sectional division or classification : designation is a dis- 
tinctive title, pointing out more specifically one individual 
from others." 

narrow, adj., limited as to space, extent, duration, means, 
etc. ; cii'cum scribed ; contracted in views or intellect. 

Syn. : contracted, confined, straitened, slender. 

Ant. : wide, broad, ample, capacious, expanded. 

Syn. dis. : " Narrow is a variation of near, signifying 
the quality of being near, close, or not extended; con- 
tracted signifies either the statR or quality of being shrunk 
up, lessened in size, or bi-ought within a small compass. 
Contracted and confined respect the operations of things ; 
narrow their qualities or accidents." " A narrow escape 
is one in which the interval between the point of danger 
and the person avoiding it is near or narrow. Metaphori- 
cally a narrow mind is so by nature ; a contracted mind is 
so by association, training, or ])rejudice. Confined implies 
more sti'ongly than contracted the operation of external 
forces : a stream is contracted within its ordinary couise 
by the drought of sunnuer ; it is confined to a narrow bed 
by artificial embankments. We s])eak morally of the 
contracted span of a man's life, and the confined view he 
takes of a subject." 

naturally, adv., in a naturally way; spontaneously; accord- 
ing to the usual order of things. 

Syn. : in course, consequently, of course, normally. 

Ant. : artfully, abnormally, unnaturally. 

Syn. dis. : " Naturally signifies according to the natur© 
of things, as, ' this might naturally have been expected-' 
hi course signifies in the course of things, that is, in the 
regular order or sequence that things ought to follow. 
Consequently signifies by a consequence, that is, by a 


noccss;r,y law of dependence, which makes one thing 
follow aiiotlicr. Of course signifies on account of the 
course which things most commonly or even necessarily 
take. Whatever happens naturally, ha])jiens as we expect 
it ; what happens in course, happens usually as we approve 
of it ; whatever follows consequently, follows as we judge 
it right ; whatever follows of course, follows as we see it 
necessarily. Consequently is either a speculative or a 
practical infex'ence ; of course is always practical. In 
course applies to what one does or may do ; of course 
applies to what one must do or leave undone." 

necessary, adj., indispensably rfquisite or needful ; such as 
cannot be done without or dispensed with. 

"'Tis necessary he should die." — Timon of Athens. 

Syn. : expedient, essential, requisite, inevitable. 

Ant. : contingent, optional, disci-etional, unessential. 

Syn. dis. : " Necessary is a general and indefinite tenn : 
things may be necessary in the course of nature ; they 
may be necessary according to the circumstances of the 
case or our views of necessity. Expedient, essential, and 
requisite are modes of i-elative necessity ; the expedience of 
a thing is a matter of discretion and calculation. The 
requisite and the essential are more obviously necessary 
than the expedient ; but the former is less so than the 
latter : what is requisite may be so -only in part or 
entirely ; the essential, on the contraiy, is that which con- 
stitutes the essence, and without which a thing cannot 

negligent, adj., apt to neglect or omit that which ought to 
be done or attended to ; careless, neglectful. 

Syn. : remiss, careless, heedless, thoughtless, inattentive. 

Ant. : careful, thoughtful, mindful, heedful, considerate. 

Syn. dis. : '* Negligent is a stronger term than remiss ; 
.one is negligent in neglecting the thing that is expressly 
before one's eyes ; one is remiss in forgetting that which 
was enjoined some time previously : the want of will 
renders a person negligent ; the want of interest renders 
a person remiss. Servants or employees are not infre- 
quently negligent in what concerns their master's interest • 


teachers are sometimes remiss in not correcting the faults 
of their pupils." See heed. 

Qeighbourhood, n., the state of living or being situate J 
near ; an adjoining district or locality ; vicinity. 

Syn. dis. : " Neighbourhood is Saxon ; vicinity is Latin. : 
hence, as commonly happens, the Saxon term is the more 
comprehensive. Neighbourhood is, in the first place, 
employed both of the place or places in the vicinity, and 
of the persons inhabiting them : vicinity, only of the 
place. Again, neighbourhood is employed to designate the 
general nearness or collectiveness of persons or objects 
among one another ; vicinity, only of the nearness of one 
being to another, or a person to a place. Hence, a differ- 
ence in the form of expression ; as, to live in the vicinity 
of the sea, rather than the neighbourhood ; nothing more 
being meant than physical proximity. Vicinity expresses 
nearness ; neighbourhood, social nearness." 

news, n. (pi., but always treated as a singular noun), recent 
or fresh intelligence, or information concerning any matter 
or event ; tidings ; intelligence. 

Syn. dis. : " News denotes what is generally read in the 
way of intelligence from any or all quarters. This may 
be interesting to ourselves in common with others, or it 
may be wholly uninteresting. Tidings are news of what 
has tided or betided (A. S., tid, tide or time), more or less 
expected, from a particular quarter, and always personally 
interesting. Intelligence is a more formal word, denoting 
public or official communication of news, and is always of 
general interest, whether good or bad, and commonly on 
definite subjects." 

QOise, n., loud or confused sound; loud or continuous talk; a 
din ; a rumour. 

Syn. : cry, outcry, clamour. 

Ant. : melody, silence, stillness, hush. 

Syn. dis. : " These terms may all be taken in an impro- 
per as well as a proper sense. Whatever is obtruded upon 
the public notice, so as to become the universal subject of 
conversation and writing, is said to make a noise ; in this 
manner a new and good performer at the theatre makes a 


noise on his first appearance : a noise may, however, be for 
or against ; but a cry, outcry, and clamour are always 
against the object, varying in the degree and manner in 
which they display themselves : cry implies less than out- 
cry, and this is less than clamour. When the public voice 
is raised in an audible manner against any particular mat- 
ter, it is a cry ; if it be mingled with intemperate language, 
it is an outcry ; if it be vehement and exceedingly noisy, 
it is a clamour : partisans raise a cry in order to form a 
body in their favour ; the discontented are ever ready to 
set up an outcry against men in power ; a clamour for 
peace in time of war is easily raised by those who wish to 
thwart the government." 

DOte, n., an explanatory or critical comment; a minute, mem- 
orandum, or short writing intended to assist the memory. 

Syn. : annotation, comment, commentary, observation, 

Syn. dis. : " In the sense in which it is synonymous 
with the other terms here given, note is always written, 
being either a brief writing to assist the memory or a 
marginal comment or explanation. It is this latter respect 
of the word which is more fully expressed by annotation. 
Comment has a less systematic meaning, and denotes the 
expression of anything which may casually suggest itself 
as worth making in relation to what is said or written, 
and may be itself either written or said. When the com^ 
meat is only spoken as well as casual, and has relation' 
rather to the circumstances of the case than to its inter- 
pretation, it may be called an observation or remark. 
Commentary is a systematic collection of comments in a 
literary form, and by way of explanation and illustration." 

notice, v., to take cognizance of; to make comments or re- 
mai'ks upon ; to observe. 

Syn. dis. : "In the first sense of these words, as the 
action respects ourselves, to notice and remark require 
simple attention; to observe requires examination. To 
notice is a more cursory action than to remark : we may 
notice a thing by a single glance, or on merely turning 
one's head ; but to remark supposes a reaction of the mind 
on an object : we notice the state of a person's health or 


his manners in company ; we remark his habits and pecu- 
liarities in domestic life. What is noticed or remarked 
strikes on the senses, and awakens the mind ; what is 06- 
served is looked after and sought for : the former are often 
involuntary acts ; we see, hear, and think, because the 
objects obtrude themselves imcalled for ; but the latter is 
intentional as well as voluntHry ; we see, hear, and think. 
on that which we have watched. We remark things as 
matters of fnct ; we observe them in order to judge of, 01 
draw conclusions from them." 


obedient, adj., ready to obey the commands or directions ol 
a superior ; submissive to authority, restraint, or control. 

Syn. : submissive, obsequious, dutiful, compliant. 

Ant. : rebellious, disobedient, intractable, antagonistic. 

Syn. dis. : " One is obedient to command, submissive to 
power or the will, obsequious to persons. Obedience is 
always taken in a good sense; one ought always to be 
obedient where obedience is due : submission is relative y 
good ; it may, however, be indifferent or bad : one may be 
submissive from interested motives, or meanness of spirit, 
which is a base kind of submission ; but to be submissive 
for conscience' sake is the bounden duty of a Christian : 
obsequiousness is never good ; it is an excessive concern 
about the good-will or favour of another which has always 
interest for its end." 

object, n., that towards which the mind is directed in any of 
its states or activities. Syn. : subject. 

Syn. dis. : " Object signifies the thing that lies in one's 
way ; subject, the thing forming the ground-work ; the 
one is perceived by the sight, the other is that which the 
mind deals with and reflects upon. The object puts itself 
forward ; the subject is in the background ; we notice the 
object ; we observe and reflect on the subject : objects are 
sensible ; the subject is altogether intellectual ; the eye, 
the ear, and all the senses are occupied with the surround- 
ing objects: the memory, the judgment, and the imagina- 
tion are supi)lied with subjects suitable to the nature of 
the operation. When object is taken for that which is 


intellectual, it retains a similar signification ; it is the 
thing that presents itself to the mind ; it is seen by the 
mind's eye : the subject, on the contrary, is that which 
must be sought for, and when found it engages the mental 
powers : hence we say an object of consideration, an object 
of delight, an object of concern ; a subject of reflection, a 
subject of mature dclil eration, the subject of a poem, the 
subject of grief, of lamentation, and the like." 

objection, «., that which is or may be urged or brought for- 
ward in oi)})Osition ; an adverse argumeiit, reason or charge. 

Syn. : diflaculty, exception. 

Syn. dis. : " Objection is here a general term ; it com- 
prehends both the difficulty and the exception, which are 
but species of the objection : an objection and a difficulty 
are started ; an exception is n)ade : the objection to a thing 
is in general that wliich renders it less desirable; but the 
difficulty is that which renders it less ])racticable : there is 
an objection against every scheme which incurs a serious 
risk ; the want of means to begin, or resources to carry 
on a scheme, ai'e difficn ties. Objection and exception both 
respect the nature, the moral tendency, or moral conse- 
quences of a thing ; but an objection may be frivolous or 
serious ; an exception is something serious : the objection 
is positive ; the exception is relatively considered, that is, 
the thing excepted from other things, as not good, and 
consequently objected, to." 

obstinate, adj., pertinaciously adhering to one's opinions, 
purposes, or views ; firmly fixed in resolution. 

Syn. : contumacious, stubborn, headstrong, inflexible. 

Ant. : amenable, complaisant, yielding, docile. 

Syn. dis. : " Obstinacy is a habit of the mind ; conttim- 
acy is either a particular state of feeling or a mode of 
action : obstinacy consists in an attachment to one's own 
mode of acting ; contumacy consists in a contempt ot 
othei-s : the obs'inate man adliei-es tenaciously to his own 
ways, and opposes reason to i-easoa ; the contumacious man 
disputes the right of another to control his actions, and foi'ce to force. Obstinacy interferes with a man's 
private conduct, and makes him blind to right reason : 


contumacy is a crime against lawful authority ; the con 
tumacious man sets himself against his superioi-s The 
stubborn and the headstrong are species of the obstinate : 
the former lies altogether in the perversion of the will ; 
the latter in the perversion of the judgment : the stubborn 
person wills what he wills ; the headstrong person thinks 
what he thinks. Stubbornness is mostly inherent in a 
person's nature ; a headstrong temper is commonly associ- 
ated with violence and impetuosity of character." 

occasion, n., an incident, event, or casualty which indirectly 
gives rise to something else; an incidental, but not e£Gi- 
cient cause. 

Syn. : necessity, requirement, need, want. 

Syn. dis. : " These terms are applied to the events of 
life ; but the occasion is that which determines our con- 
duct, and leaves us no choice ; it amounts to a degree of 
necessity : the opportunity is tliat which invites the action ; 
it tempts us to embrace the moment for taking the step. 
We do things, therefore, as the occasion requires, or as 
the opportunity offers. There are many occasions on which 
a man is called upon to uphold his opinions. There are 
few opportunities for men in general to distinguish them- 
selves. The occasion obtrudes upon us ; the opportunity 
is what we seek or desire." 

old, adj., not new ; not fresh or recent ; ancient. 

Syn. : antique, antiquated, old-fashioned, obsolete. 

Ant. : young, youthful, modern, current, recent. 

Syn. dis. : " Old respects what has long existed and 
still exists ; ancient what existed at a distant period, but 
does not necessarily exist at present ; antique, that which 
has long been ancient, and of which there remain but faint 
traces : antiquated, old-fashioned, and obsolete that which 
has ceased to be any longer used or esteemed. A fashion 
is old when it has been long in use ; a custom is ancient 
when its use has long been passed ; a person is antiquated 
whose appearance is grown out of date ; manners which 
are gone quite out. oi fashion are old fashioned ; a word o»* 
custom is obsolete which has grown out of use." 


omen, n., a chance event or occurrence, considered as a sign 
of good or ill ; anything thought to portend good or ill. 

Syn. : prognostic, presage, augury, portent. 

Syn. dis. : " All these terms express some token or 
sign of what is to come. The omen and prognostic are 
both drawn from external objects ; the presage is drawn 
from one's own feelings. The 07nen is drawn from objects 
that have no necessary connection with the thing they are 
made to represent ; it is the fruit of the imagination, and 
rests on superstition ; the prognostic, on the contrary, is a 
sign which partakes in some degree of the quality of the 
thing denoted. The o/uen and presage respect either good 
or bad events ; prognostic respects mostly the bad. It is 
an omen of our success if we find those of whom we have 
to ask a favour in a good-humour ; the spirit of discontent 
which pervades the countenances and discourse of a people 
is a prognostic of some popular commotion ; the quickness 
of povvers discoverable in a b jy is sometimes a presage of 
his future greatness." 

option, n., the right, power, or liberty of choosing; the 
privilege of choice. 

Syn. : choice, selection, preference. 

Syn. dis. : " Option is the right or power of choice, or 
freedom from restraint in the act of choosing : the optional 
is opposed to the compulsory. Choice denotes the act and 
the power of choosing out of a number, with the sense, 
sometimes, of judgment in choice, as when we say Ho show 
choice.' Preference is the specific exercise of choice in 
reference to one or more objects of choice. Selection has 
much the same meaning as prejerence ; but preference may 
express only a feeling, while selection is an act of taking 
one or more out of a number upon some principle of 
choice connected or not with feeling." 

oral, adj., uttered or delivered by the mouth ; spoken, not 

Syn. : verbal, vocal ; unwritten, traditional. 

Syn. dis. : " Oral means spoken by word of mouth ; 
verbal, the same thing ; vocal, belonging to the voice. The 
difterence is in the application. Oral is opposed to written 


or printed in vohinies and documents, and stands related 
to history, records, and tradition ; verbal, to common and 
brief communications ; vocal, to instrumental in music, or 
to sounds produced in other ways, or to silence." 

order, n., regular or methodical disposition or arrangement. 

Syn. : method, rule, arrangement. 

Syn. dis. : Order is a])plied in general to everything 
that is disposed ; method and rule are applied only to what 
is done ; the order lies in consulting the time, the place, 
and the object, so as to make them accord ; the method 
consists in the right choice of means to an end ; the rule 
consists in that which will keep us in the right way. 
Where there is a number of objects thei-e must be oi'der 
in the disposition of them : there must be order in a school 
as to the arrangement both of the pupils and of the busi- 
ness : where there is work to carry on, or any object to 
attain, or any art to follow, there must be method in the 
pursuit. As e])ithets, orderly, methodical, and regular, are 
applied to persons and even to things : an orderly man, or 
an or derly society, is one that adheres to the est; b i hed 
orde ot things : the former in his domestic habits, the 
latter in their public capacity, their social meetings, and 
their social measures. A m^ethodical man is one who 
adopts method in all he sets about ; such a one may some- 
times run into the extreme of formality, by being precise 
where precision is not necessary : we cannot speak of a 
methodical society, for method is altogether a personal 
quality. A man is regidar, inasmuch as he follows a cer- 
tain rule which is the guide of his conduct." 

origin, «., the beginning or first existence of anything ; that 
from which anything primarily proceeds j the commence- 

Syn. : original, beginning, rise, source, derivation. 

Syn. dis. ; " Origin has respect to the cause, beginning 
to the period of existence: everything owes its existence 
to the origin; it dates it existence fnmi the beginning: 
there cannot be an origin without a beginning ; but there 
may be a beginning where we do not speak of an origin. 
Origin and rise are both o nployed for the primary state 


of existence ; but the latter is a much more familiar term 
than the former : we speak of the origin of an empire, the 
origin of a family, the origin of a dispute, and the like ; 
but we say that a river takes its rise from a certain moun- 
tain, that certain disorders take their rise from particular 
circumstances which happen, it may be, in early life. We 
look to the origin as to the cause of existence : we look to 
the rise as to the situation in which the thing commences 
to exist, or the process by which it grows up into exist- 

oversight, n., supeiintendence, supervision ; omission, in- 

Syn. dis. : Oversight has two apparently opposite 
meanuigs — that of control or supervision, and that of 
inadvertency. The one is expressed in the duties of over- 
sight, or care over persons committed to one's charge ; the 
other expresses neglect or omission to go somewhere, or to 
do or perform some act. In the latter sense, oversight 
differs from inadvertency "in being jjuiely negative, while 
inadvertency may denote active error : we do wrong things 
through inadvertency ; we omit to do right or needful 
things thi'ongh oversight. Oversight differs from superin- 
tendence in that it relates only to persons : we speak of 
the superintendence of an institution, and the oversight of 
its inmates." 


overturn, v., to turn over, upset, overthrow ; overpower. 

Syn. : overthrow, subvert, invert, reverse. 

Ant. : restore, reinstate, revive, construct. 

Syn. dis. : " To overturn, overthrow, and subvert, 
generally involve the destructit)n of the thing so overturned, 
^overthrown, or subverted, or at least renders it for the time 
useless, and are, therefo;e, mostly unallowed acts; but 
reverse and invert, which have a more patticnlar applica- 
tion, have a less specific character of piopriety : we may 
reverse a proposition by taking the negative instead of the 
affirmative ; a deci"ee may be reversed so as to i-ender it 
nugatory ; but both of these acts may be right or wrong, 
according to circumstances : likewise, the order of par- 
ticular things m-iy be inverted to suit the convenience of 
parties; but the order of society cannot be inverted with- 


out subvertiny all the principles on which civil society is 


paint, v., to represent by delineation and colours; (Jig.) to 
re]n-esent or exhibit to the mind. 

Syn. : depict, describe, image, characterize, represent. 

Syn. dis. : To paint is employed either literally to re 
present figures or scenes on canvas, or to represent char- 
acters, events, and circumstances by means of words : to 
depict is generally used in this latter sense only, but the 
former woi'd seems to express a greater exercise of the 
imagination than the latter : it is the art of the poet to 
paint nature in lively colours ; it is the art,of the historian 
or narrator to depict a real scene of misery in strong 
colours. See describe. 

parody, n., a poetical pleasantry in which verses of a grave 
and serious nature on one subject are altered and applied 
to another by way of burlesque. 

Syn. dis. : Parody is the humorous adaptation, by alter- 
ations here and there of an author's words, or by a close 
copying of the measure and melody of his verse, to a 
subject very different from the original : it is a burlesque 
imitation of a serious poem, a literary composition in 

, which the form and expression of serious writings are 

closely imitated, but adapted to a ridiculous subject or a 
humorous method of treatment. See burlesque. 

partake, v., to share in common with others; to participate. 
Syn. dis. : " To partake is literally to take a part, share, 
or portion (and is followed by * of,' sometimes by * in '), 
in common with others. This also is the etymological 
force of participate, which is the Latin equivalent of par- 
take ; but in participate there is implied a more perfect 
unity and community of feeling or possession. Hence it 
is followed, not by ' of,' but by ' in.' Two persons may 
partake of the same dish ; but they participate in each 
other's feelings, convictions, joys or sorrows. To share is 
to partake or participate according to an allotted or regu- 
lated method," as when we say we have our share of the ills 
of life or we have our share of its pleasure and happiness. 


It is a gj-oss and unpardonable error, because arising from 
pretentiousness, to use '■partake' for ' eat,' e.g., 'he par- 
took of his noontide meal.' 

patience, n. the power or quality of suffering or enduring ; 
calm endurance ; long suffering. 

Sjn. : endurance, resignation, submission, perseverance. 

Ant. : resistance, repining, rebellion, impatience. 

Syn. dis. : " Patience applies to any troubles or pains 
whatever, small or great ; resignation ia employed only for 
those of great moment, in which our dearest intersts are 
concerned: patience when compared with resig ation is 
somewhat negative ; it consists in the abstaining from all 
complaint or indication of what one suffers " : resignation 
consists in an absolute but uncomplaining submission to 
existing circumstances, be they what they may. There 
are many occurrences which are apt to harass the temper, 
unless one regards them with patience ; the misfortunes of 
some men are of so calamitous a nature that if they have 
not acquired Christian resignation they must inevitably 
sink under them. Patience lies in the manner and temper 
of suffering ; endurance in the act. 

penetration, n., having quickness of understanding ; sagacity 
or intuition. See discernment. 

Syn. : discernment, acuteness, sagacity, sharpness. 
Ant. : dulness, obtuseness, stolidity, indiscernment. 

perception, n., the power, act, or state of receiving a know- 
ledge of external things by impressions on the senses. 

Syn. : idea, notion, conception, sight, cognizance. 

Syn. dis. : *' Perception expresses either the act of per- 
ceiving or the impression produced by that act ; in this 
latter sense it is analogous to an idea. The impression of 
an object that is present to us is termed a perception ; the 
revival of that impression, when the object is removed, is 
an idea. A combination of ideas by which any image is 
presented to the mind is a conception; the association of 
two or more ideas, so as to constitute a decision, is a notion 
or a judgment. Perceptions are clear or confused, accord- 
ing to the state of the sensible organs and the perceptive 
faculty ; ideas are vague or distinct, according to the nature 


of the jye.rception ; conceptions are gross or refined according 
to the character and elevation of one's ; 7iotions are 
true or false, correct or incorrect, according to the extent 
of one's knowledge." 

perplex, v., to make intricate or difficult ; to distress with 
suspense or anxiety ; complicate, bewilder. 

Syn. : embarrass, puzzle, pose, entangle, involve. 

Ant : clear, enlighten, simplify, elucidate, disentangle. 

Syn. dis. : "We are jnizzled when our faculties are 
contused by what we cannot understand, by moral or 
physical antagonisms or contradictions, which we cannot 
reconcile or clear. We are posed when we are arrested 
by a mental difficulty, or meet with a problem which we 
cannot solve. We are perplexed when we are unable, 
under contending feelings or views, to determine an opin- 
ion or to pursue a definite line of conduct. We are em- 
barrassed, in matters of action, tli ought, or speech, by 
anything that interferes with their free action. We are 
entaiigled when we find ourselves in verbal or practical 
difficulties, either by our own error or oversight, or by the 
designs of others. We are puzzled by calculations or 
riddles ; perplexed by casuistry ; embarrassed, in some 
cases, before our superiors, or in speaking a foreign lan- 
guage, or in our efforts to express ourselves." 

perspicuity, n., that quality in language which presents with 
great plainness to the mind of another the precise ideas 
of a writer or speaker. See accurate. 

" Whenever men think clearly and are thoroughly interested 
they express themselves with perspicuity and force." — Robertson. 

Syn. : plainness, clearness, distinctness, lucidity. 

Ant. : obscurity, confusedness, unintelligibility. 

Syn. dis. : " These epithets denote qualities equally re- 
quisite to render a discourse intelligible; but each has its 
peculiar character. Clearness respects our ideas, and 
springs from the distinction of the things themselvts that 
are discussed : perspicuity respects the mode of expressing 
the ideas, and s])rings from the good qualities of style. 
Clearness of intellect is a natural gift ; perspictdty is an 
acquired art : although intimately connected with each 


other, yet it is possible to have clearness without persjjiai- 
ity, and persj/icuity without clearness. People of quick 
cav)acities will have clear ideas on the subjects that oflFer 
themselves to their notice, but for want of education they 
may often use improper or ambiguous phrases ; or by 
errors of construction render their phraseology the reverse 
of perspicuous : on the other hand, it is in the power of 
some to express themselves perspicuously on subjects far 
above their comprehension, from a certain facility which 
they acquire of catching up suitable modes of expression." 

phrase, n., a short sentence or expression j two or more 
words containing a particular mode of speech ; style or 
manner in writing or speaking ; an idiom. See diction. 

Syn. : sentence, expression, proposition, peiiod, para- 

Syn. dis. : " A phrase is a portion of a sentence consist- 
ing of two or more words, and is impressed with a 
character of its own, though it is not grammatically 
inde})endent. A sentence is grammatically complete, and 
stands for any short saying of that character. An 
expression is a distinctive form of utterance, regarded in 
a technical or rhetorical point of view, and may therefore 
consist of either one or more words. A period is a 
sentence wholly divested of the idea of its meaning, and 
regarded only in its material construction as a matter of 
grammar. A paragraph meant, at first, a marginal 
writing, but has come to signify a group of sentences or 
periods limited to the common point to which they refer. 
A proposition is a sentence regarded in a logical point of 
view, that is, as stating the connection or disconnection 
between the subject and predicate, by an affirmative or 
negative copula : as ' Men are, or are not, responsible for 
their actions.' " — Archdeacon Smith. 

positive, adj; not admitting any condition or discretion ; 
explicit ; ovei'-confident in opinion or assertion ; dog- 

Syn. : absolute, peremptory, definite, certain, arbitrary. 

Ant. : doubtful, relative, contingent, dependent, ficti- 


Syn. (lis. : " Positive signifies placed or fixed, that is 
fixed on, established in the mind ; absolute signifies 
uncontrolled by any external circumstances ; peremptory 
signifies removing all further question. Positive is said 
either of a man's convictions or temper of mind, or of his 
proceedings ; absolute is said of his mode of proceedings, 
or his relative circumstances ; peremptory is said of his 
proceedings : a decision is positive ; a command is absolute 
or peremptory ; what is positive excludes all question ; 
what is absolute bars all I'esistance ; what is peremptory 
removes all hesitation ; a positive answer can be given 
only by one who has positive information ; an absolute 
decree can issue only from one vested with absolute 
authority ; a peremptory refusal can be given only by one 
who has the will and the power of deciding it without any 
controversy. As adverbs, positively, absolutely, and per- 
emptorily have an equally close connection : a thing is 
said not to be positively known, or positively determined 
upon, or positively agreed to ; it is said not to be abso- 
lutely necessary, absolutely true or false, absolutely required; 
it is not to be peremptorily decided, perem,ptorily declared, 
peremptorily refused. Positive and absolute are likewise 
applied to moral objects with the same distinction as 
before : the positive expresses what is fixed in distinction 
from the relative that may vary ; the absolute is that 
which is independent of everything." 

possible, adj., that may happen; that can be done; barely 
able to come to pass ; not contrary to the nature of things. 

Syn. : practicable, practical, feasible. See feasible. 

Syn. dis. : " Possible signifies properly able to be done : 
practicable signifies able to be put into practice : hence 
the difference between possible and practicable is the 
same as between doing a thing at all or doing it as a 
rule. There are many things possible which cannot be 
called practicable ; but what is practicable must, in its 
aature, be possible. The possible depends solely on the 
power of the agent; the practicable depends on circum- 
stances. The practicable is that which may or can be 
practised; the practical is that which is intended for 
practise : the former, therefore, applies to that which men 
devise to carry into practise : the latter to that which 


they have to pract'se : the practicable is opposed to 
the impracticable; the j)''''^''^^^^ to the theoretical or 

prayer, n., earnest entreaty, supplication, form of supplica- 
tion ; the favour, gift, or blessing asked for. 

Syn, : petition, entreaty, suit, request. 

Syn. dis. : " Prayer and petition differ in that the 
former is cijmmonly a request for greater gifts or blessings 
of supreme importance, while the latter relates to the 
more ordinary wants of our nature or circumstances. 
From this flows the further difference, that jyrayer 
involves a more decided superiority in him who is the 
object of prayer ; while petition may be to a superior 
or an equal. The characteristic idea of petition is the 
formal recognition of power or authority in another ; of 
prayer, earnestness, and submission in oneself. Entreat 
involves a certain equality between the parties ; it is a 
request of an urgent character dictated by the feelings, 
and having reference to some specific act in the power of 
the other to perform, or, in some cases, to abstain from. 
Request is a more simple and less formal expression, and 
may come from a sujierior, an equal, or (with due respect) 
from an inferior. The sicit is a petition, often prolonged, 
for some favour toward oneself, and so is only made to 
those who have it in their power to grant a favour; as, 'a 
gentleman pays his suit to a lady,' 'a courtier to a 
prince.' " 

prelude, n., something introductory; preface, preliminary, 
o\eiture; something which indicates a coming event. 

Syn. : preface, introduction, proem, prolusion. 

Ant. : sequel, finish, conclusion, finale. 

Syn. dis. : The idea of a preparatory introduction is in- 
cluded in both these terms : preface is compounded of 
prm, before, and fari, to speak ; prelude, of proe, before, 
and Itidus, a game. In their common usage this distinc- 
tion is preserved : a preface is made up of preliminary 
words ; a prelude of preliminary acts. A preface is always 
an indication of design ; it is the laying down of some- 
thing which shall prepare the mind for subsequent state- 
ment or representation. Although a prelude is commonly 



used of conscious acts, as ushering in others, and subse- 
quent acts or events — as, in j)oetry, a brief introductory, 
or, in music, a short musical flourish or voluntary played 
before the commencement of the piece to be perrormed, — 
it is also, by an extension of meaning, sometimes used of 
events abstractly, as indicating others to follow by relation 
or sequence ; as, ' the growling of thunder is a prelude to 
the coining storm.' In ne\ English, we also some- 
times read of 'the throwing of stones and breaking of 
windows as the prelude on the part of a mob to a general 

pretence, n., a holding out to others something unreal or 
feigned ; that which is assumed ; a feigned claim ; outside 
show. See feign. 

Syn. : pretext, excuse, pretension, mask, appearance. 

Ant. : verity, reality, truth, candour, fact, openness. 

Syn. dis. : *' A pretence is a show in act O" in words of 
what has no real existence in oneself, a jus^titi cation of 
one's conduct before others in some fictitious way, or a 
fictitious assumption of what does not really belong to us. 
It involves both the exhibition of something unreal, and 
the concealment of something real." Pntensioyi is the 
holding out the appearance of right or possession ; the 
making claim to a thing, which we may o.- may not sub 
stantiate ; or, in its more common acce}>tation, exhibiting 
attempts to pass for more than one's real worth, an act of 
impudent self-assertion. " Pretext is anytliing which is 
put forward as the ostensible ground of action, and is re- 
lative to something lying beyond it and justified by it. 
Pretext differs from excuse as the assertor from the dis- 
claimer." Excu>ie is some exj lanation or apology set forth 
to justify one's conduct in the eyes of others. 

priority, n., state of being first in time, place, or rank ; an 
anterior point either of time or order. 

Syn. : precedence, pre-eminence, preference. 

Ant. : inferiority, subordination, sequence. 

Syn. dis. : " Priority denotes the absti-act quality of 
V)eing before others ; precedence, from prce and cedo 
signifies the state of going before : pre-eminence signifies 


being moi-e eminent or elevated than others : preference 
signifies being put before others. Priority respects simply 
the order of succession, and is applied to objects either in 
a state of motion or rest ; precedence signifies 'priority in 
going, and depends upon a right or privilege ; 'pre-eminence 
•signifies priority in being, and depends iipon merit ; 
preference signifi s priority in placing, and depends upon 
favour. The priority is applicable rather to the thing 
than to the person." 

privacy (jjrl'-va-si or priv'-S-si), n., a place of seclusion, 
retreat, or retirement ; the place intended to be secret, 

Syn. : retiiement, seclusion, solitude, concealment. 

Ant. : publicity, currency, notoriety, exposure. 

Syn. dis. : '^ Privacy is a condition of persons ; retirement 
is a condition both of places and persons. Privacy may 
be of short duration ; retirement implies a longer duration j 
hence we say, ' hours of privacy' ; 'a life of retirement.' 
Solitude and seclusion imply more than this — a withdrawal 
from all society ; while both privacy and retirement are 
compatible with the companionship of a few, but in differ- 
ent senses. Seclusion is sought; solitude may be imposed. 
The inhabitants of a retired or out-of-the-way village may 
be said to live in seclusion, but hardly in solitude : we say 
a person lives in privacy, in retirement, in seclusion. 
Privacy is opposed to publicity ; 7-etirement is opposed to 
0[)enness or freedom of access ; seclusion is the excess of 
retiremen' : he who lives in seclusion bars all access to 
himself; he shuts himself from the woi'ld." 

proceeding, n., a process from one thing to another ; a 
measure or step taken in business ; a transaction. 

Syn. dis. : " Proceeding signifies litei'ally the thing that 
proceeds ; and transaction the thing transacted : the former 
is, therefore, of something that is going forward ; the 
latter of something that is already done ; we are witnesses 
to the whole proceeding ; we inquire into the whole 
transaction. The term -proceeding is said of every event 
or circumstance which goes forward thr :ugh the agency of 
men ; transaction comprehends only those matters which 
have been deliberately transacted or br ught to a conclu- 
sion : in this sense we may us(! the word proceeding in 


aj)plication to an affray in the street; and the word 
transaction to some commercial negotiation that has been 
carried on between certain peisons. The term jyroceeJiny 
marks the manner or course of business ; as when we 
speak of the proceedings of or the procedure in a cou t of 
law : transaction marks the business transacted ; as the 
transactions on the Exchange. A proceeding may be 
chai-acterized as disgraceful ; a transadion as iniquitous." 

profession, n., any business or calling engaged in for sub- 
sistence, not being mechanical, in trade or in agriculture, 
and the like ; the colL-ctive body of peraons engaged in a 
particular profession. /See avocation. 

Syn. : trade, business, calling, art. 

Syn. dis. : " Business is the most general, and com- 
prises any exercise of kni wiedge or expeiience for 
purposes of gain. When learning or skill of a high order 
is required, it is called a profession : when it consists of 
buying and selling merchandise, it is a trade. When 
there is a peculiar exercise of skill, it is called an art. 
Those productions of human skill and genius more imme 
diately addressed to the taste or the imagination — such as 
painting, sculpture, engraving, music, etc., are called the 
fine arts. Those exercise an a/rt who exchange skilled 
labour for fame or for money ; those a trade who ex- 
change commodities for money \ those a profession who 
exchange intellectual exertion or services for money." 
The art of the painter lies in painting pictures ; it is the 
trade of the picture-dealer to sell them. 

promiscuous, adj., collected together without order or 
distinction, as an assembly or meeting ; mingled, common, 
not restricted j indiscriminate. 

Syn. dis. : " Promiscvous is applied to any number of 
different objects mingled together ; indiscriminate is ap- 
plied only to the action in which one does not discrim- 
inate different objects : a multitude is termed promiscuous, 
as characterizing the thing ; the use of different things for 
the same purpose, or of the same things for different 
purposes, is termed indiscriminate, as characterizing the 
person : things become promiscuous by the want of design 


in any one : they are indiscriminate by the fatilt of any 
one : plants of all descriptions are to be found promiscu- 
ously situate I in the beds of a garden : it is folly to level 
any charge indiscriminately against all the members of 
any community or profession." 

purpose, v., to determine on some end or object to be 
accomplished ; to resolve, to intend, to propose. 

Syn. dis. : " We purpose that which is near at hand, oi 
immediately to be set about ; we propose that which is 
more distant : the former requires the setting before one's 
mind, the latter requires deliberation and plan. We 
purpose many things which we never think worth while 
doing : but we ought not to propose anything to ourselves 
which is not of too much importance to be lightly adopted 
or rejected, We purpose to go to town on a certain day; 
we propose to spend our time in a particular study." 

pursue, v., to go or proceed after ; to follow with a view to 
overtake ; prosecute. 

Syn. dis. : " Th re is," says Archdeacon Smith, "the 
closest etymological affinity between the words pursue and 
prosecute, the former coming to us, mediately, through the 
French poursuivre ; the latter, directly, from the Latin 
prosequi, prosecutus, to follow out. As applied to pro- 
cesses of mental application, they differ very slightly ; but 
pursue seems rather more to belong to general, prosecute 
to specific, investigations or undertakings. So we com- 
monly say, to pursue one's studies (indefinitely) ; but 
(definitely) to prosecute a particular line of inquiry." 


qualified, adj., having a qualification; furnished with legal 
power or capacity ; fitted, limited, modified. 

Syn. : competent, entitled, modified, limited. 

Syn. dis. : A man is competent to a task when his 
powers, either by training or by nature, have, at least, a 
special aptitude for that task : a man is qualified for such 
a task when he has not only the natural powers, but the 
technical acquirements necessary to the due fulfilment of 
the task. Qualified has also the meaning of ' modified ' 


or 'limited,' as, ^ a quctli/ied statement,' that is, a state- 
ment which is accompanied with some limitation or modi- 
fication that lessens its truth or fcrce. "■ Entiiled denotes 
an assertive kind of q>ialiftcation ; that is, is applied to 
cases not only of fitniiss but of privilege, and denotes the 
condition to claim with success." 

quote, v., to adduce from some author or speaker, by way of 
authority or illustration ; to cite the words of. 

Syn. dis. : Archdeacon Smith thus discriminates in the 
use of the words cite and qv de : "To czVe is literally to 
call as a witness, and, in its literary sense, to call in the 
words of another to lielp one's own : in this way it 
becomes synonymous with quote. To cite an author, and 
to quote an author, have practically nearly the same 
meaning ; but we use the term cite when the mind dwells 
primarily upon the matter imported ; quote, when we 
think of the precise words. To cite Shakfspeare as an 
authority, does not imply so exact a reproduction of his 
words as the term quote, for we may cite roughly, but we 
are bound to qv^te exactly." {See cite.) 


rare, «'^'., occurring but seldom ; exceptional, precious ; pos- 
sessing qualities seldom to be met with. 

Syn. : scai'ce, singular, unusual, uncommon, unique. 

Ant. : common, fiequent, abundant, numerous, worth- 

Syn. dis. : ^^Rare is applied to matters of convenience 
or luxury ; scarce, to matters of utility or necessity : that 
which is rare becomes valuable, and fetches a high price ; 
that which is scarce becomes precious, and the loss of it is 
seriously felt. The best of everything is in its nature rare ; 
there will never be a supeifluity of such things. What is 
rare will often be singular, and what is singular will 
often, on that account, be rare ; but these terms are not 
necessarily applied to the same object : fewness is the 
idea common to both ; but rare is said of that of which 
there might be more ; while singular is aj)plied to that 
which is single, or nearly single, in its kind. Scarce is 
applied only in the proper sense to physical objects; rare 


and singular are applicable to moral objects. One speaks 
of a rare instance of fidelity, of which many like exampl'S 
cannot be found ; of a singular instance of de|:i"avity, when 
a parallel case can scarcely be foun 1." Unique is perhaps 
the strongest word to indicate rarity ; it denotes some- 
thing unparalleled, without an equal, indeed, without an- 
other of the same kind. 

rate, n., a calculated proportion ; an assessment at a certain 
proportion ; degree in whicPi anything is done or valued, 
as speed and price. 

Syn. : ratio, proportion. 

Syn. dis. : " Rate and ratio are in a sense species of 
propoition: that is, they are supposed or estimated j^ro/^or- 
tions, in distinction from jyroportujns that lie in the nature 
of things. The first teini, rate, is employed in ordinary 
concerns : a person receives a certain sum weekly at the 
rate of a certain sum yearly ; ratio is applied only to num- 
bers and calculations ; as two is to four, so is four to eight, 
and eight to sixteen ; the ratio in this case being double : 
proportion is emj)loyed in matters of science, and in all 
cases where the two more specific terms are not admissi- 
ble ; the beauty of an edifice depends upon observing the 
doctrine oi proportions ; in the dis))osing of soldiers a cei- 
tain regard must be had to pi-oporlion in the height and 
size of the men." 

ravage, n., destruction by violence or decay ; spoil, ruin, 
havoc, waste. 

Syn. : desolation, devastation. 

Syn. dis. : "Ravage expresses less than either desolation 
or devastation : a breaking, tearing, or destroying is im- 
plied in the word ravage; but desolation signifies the 
, entire unpeopling a land and devastation the entire clear- 
ing away of every vestige of cultivation. Torrents, flames, 
and tempests ravage; war, plague, and famine desolate; 
armies of barbarians, who inundate a country, carry deva- 
station with them wherever they go. Ravage is employed 
likewise in the moral application ; desolation and devastar 
Hon only in th" proper application to countries. Disease 
makes its ravages on beauty ; death makes its ravages 


among men in a more terrible degree at one time than at 

ready, adj., set in order, prepared ; quick, willing ; furnished 
with what is necessary ; not dull in intellect. 

Syn. : apt, prompt, expert, skilful, compliant. 

Ant. : tardy, slow, hesitating, reluctant, unprepai'ed. 

Syn. dis. : " Ready is in general applied to that which 
has been intentionally prepared for a given purpose ; 
promptness and aptness are species of readiness, which lie 
in the personal endowments or disposition : hence we 
speak of things being ready for a journey ; persons being 
apt to learn, or prompt to obey or to reply. Ready, when 
applied to persons, characterizes the talent ; as a ready 
wit : apt characterizes their habits ; as apt to judge by 
appeai'ance, or apt to decide hastily : prompt characterizes 
more commonly the pai'ticular action, and denotes the 
willingness of the agent, and the quickness with which 
he p:'rforms the action ; as prompt in executing a com- 
mand, or prompt to listen to what is said." 

reasonable, adj., endowed with or governed by reason ; 
moderate ; not excessive ; sane. 

Syn. : rational, intelligent, judicious, sensible. 
Ant. : absurd, fanciful, irrational, unsound, silly, 
Syn. dis. : " Reasonable signifies accordant with reason ; 
rational signifies having reason : the former is more com- 
monly applied in the sense of right reason, propriety, or 
fairness ; the latter is employed in the original sense of 
the word reason : hence we term a man reasonable who 
acts according to the principles of right reason ; and a 
being rational who is possessed of the rational or reason- 
ing faculty, in distinction from the brutes." Crabb des- 
pondently and somewhat queralously remarks "it is to be 
lamented that there are much fewer reasonable than there 
are rational creatures," 

recognize, v., to know again j to i-ecollect or recover the 
knowledge of; to admit with a formal acknowledgment. 
Syn. : acknowledge, avow, own, allow, identify. 
Ant. : disown, disavow, ignore, overlook, repudiate. 


Syn. dis. : ** To acknowledge is opposed to keeping back 
or concealing : it is to avow our knowledge of. To ac- 
knowledge one's obligations for the kindness of others iS 
little more than openly to express them : to acknowledge 
one's fault may or may not imply that it was not known 
to others." " The difference between acknowledge and 
recognize," says Archdeacon Smith, " turns on the pre- 
vious state of our own minds. We acknowledge what we 
knew distinctly before, though we did not make that 
knowledge public : we recognize what we said at first, it 
may be, only indistinctly. That which we recognize we 
know, as it were, anew, and admit it on the ground of 
the evidence which it brings. In acknowledging we im- 
part knowledge ; in recognizing we receive it." 

recover, v., to revive, to rescue, to win back, to regain. 

Syn. : retrieve, repair, recruit, repossess, regain. 

Ant. : lose, forfeit, impair, relapse. 

Syn. dis. : We recover advantages ; we regain posses- 
sions ; we retrieve losses ; we repair injuries ; we recruit 
that which has been diminished — our strength for instance. 
We are said to recover what has been accidentally lost, 
or lost from want of reflection or thought ; to retrieve that 
the loss of which is more distinctly chargeable upon us as 
a fault : a man may recover by good luck ; but he retrieves 
through his own exertions : he regains either through his 
own exertions or the exertions of others : a doctor may 
enable one to regain health, or we may do that ourselves 
by changing our mode of life. 

rectitude, n., rightness of principle or practice ; conformity 
to truth, or to the rules prescribed for moral conduct. 

Syn,: uprightness, justice, correctness, integrity, honesty. 

Ant. : obliquity, crookedness, tortuousness, wrong. 

Syn. dis. : Rectitude (Lat. rectus, right or straight) is 
conformity to the rule of right in principle and practice ; 
uprightness is honesty combined with a native dignity of 
character which makes for true worth in a man. We 
speak of the rectitude of the judgment ; of the uprightness 
of the mind or of the moral character : the latter must be 
something more than straight, for it must be elevated 


above everything mean or devious: thus ujrrightness 
would seem to be the stronger, as it is the more familiar 

redress, n., the correction, amendment, remedying, or removal 
of wrongs, injury, or oppression. 

Syn. : reparation, compensation, succour, relief, amends. 

Ant. : aggravate, intensify, wrong, reiterate, perpetuate. 

Syn. dis. : '■'■Redress is said only with regard to matters 
of right and justice; relief to those of kindness and hu- 
manity : by power we obtain redress ; by active inter- 
ference we obtain a relief : an injvired person looks for 
redress to the government : an unfortunate person looks 
for relief to the compassionate and kind : what we suffer 
through the oppression or wickedness of others can be re- 
dressed only by those who have the power of dispensing 
justice ; whenever we suffer, in the order of Providence, 
we may meet with some relief ivova those who are more 

reluctant, adj., unwilling to do what one has or ought to do ; 
acting with hesitation or repugnance. 

Syn. : averse, adverse, unwilling, loth, disinclined. 

Ant. : ready, willing, eager, prompt, desirous. 

Syn dis. : "Reluctant [re and lurtari, to struggle) is a 
term of the will, which, as it were, struggles against the 
deed, and relates always to questions of action. Averse 
is a term of the nature or disposition, and relates to ob- 
jects or to actions, as a matter, pretty much, of taste. It 
indica'es a settled sentiment of dislike, as reluctance is 
specific in regard to acts. Adverse denotes active opposi- 
tion and hostility, as a matter of judgment. The man 
who is averse to a measure, only dislikes it, and may still, 
perhaps adopt it : he who is adverse to it, thinks it his 
bounden duty to do all he can to oppose and defeat it. 
Unwilling is the widest of all terms, and expresses ro 
more than decided disinclination : it is, however, the 
weakest term of all, and refers to actions only." 

remainder, n., that which remains ; anything left over after 
a pait has been taken away, lost, or destroyed. See 


"(He) wastes the sad remaimier of his hours." — Wordsworth. 
Syn. : rest, remnant, residue, surplus. 

Syn. dis. : " The remainder is the rest under certain con- 
ditions, most commonly the smaller part which remains 
after the greater part has been taken away. It is also 
more applicable to mental and moial, rest, to physical, 
matters. Remnant has in itself much the same meaning, 
but differs from it in the implied process which preceded 
the leaving, which, in the case of remnant, is that of use, 
consumption, or waste. Residue is that part which has 
not been disposed of; that is, either purposely omitted to 
be used, or untouched by a previous process of distribn 
tion, sale, or use." 

repeat, v., to do or perform a second time or again ; to re- 
iterate ; to go over, say, do, make, etc., again. 

Syn. : recite, rehearse, recapitulate. 

Syn. dis. : " The idea of going over any words, or 
actions, is common to all these terms : to recite, rehearse, 
and recapitulate are modes of repetition, conveying each 
some accessory idea. To recite is to repeat in a formal 
manner ; to rehearse is to repeat or recite by way of pre- 
paration ; to recapitulate is to repeat in a minute and 
specific manner. We repeat both actions and words ; we 
recite only words : we repeat a name ; we recite an ode, 
or a set of verses : we repeat for purposes of general 
convenience ; we recite for the pleasure or amusement 
of otlieis : we rehearse for some specific purpose, either 
for the amusement or instruction of others : we recapitu- 
late for the instruction of others. We repeat that which 
we wish to be heard ; we recite a piece of poetry before a 
company ; we rehearse the piece in private which we are 
going to recite in public ; we recapitulate the general heads 
of that which we have already spoken in detail." 

repetition, n., the act of repeating, saying over, or rehears- 
ing ; repeated words or acts ; (in rhetoi-ic) the iteration or 
repeating of the same words, or of the meaning in different 
words, for the purpose of making a deeper impression on 
the audience. 

Syn. : tautology, recitation, rehearsal. 


Syn. (lis. : " Repetition is to tautology as the genus to 
the species : the latter being as a sj)eeies of vicious repeti 
tion. There may be frequent repetitions which are war- 
ranted by necessity or convenience ; but tautology is that 
which nowise adds to either the sense or the sound. A 
repetition may, or may not, consist of literally the same 
words ; but tautology supposes such a sameness in expres- 
sion as renders the signification the same." 

reprobate, v., to express disapproval of with detestation or 
marks of extreme dislike ; to condemn strongly. 

Syn. : condemn, disapprove, denounce. 

Ant. : sanction, commend, approve. 

Syn. dis. : "To reprobate is much stronger than to 
condemn : we always condemn when we reprobate ; but 
not vice versa; to reprobate is to condemn in strong and 
reproachful language. We reprobate all measures which 
tend to sow discord in society, and to loosen the ties by 
which men are bound to each other ; we condemn all 
disrespectful language towards parents or superiors : we 
reprobate only the thing ; we condemn also the person." 

retort, n., a severe reply or repartee; the return of an 
argument, taunt, or incivility ; a censure, taunt, or 
incivility retui-ned. 

' ' He sent me word, if I said his beard was not cut well, he was 
in the mind it was : this is called the retort courteous. " — Shake- 
speare, "As you like it," Act v., sc. 4, 

" A man renowned for repartee, 
Will seldom scruple to make free 
With friendship's finest feeling." — Cowper. 

Syn. dis. : Archdeacon Smith, in distinguishing be- 
tween retort and repartee, says " that repartee is a far less 
grave word than retort, being restricted to meaning a 
sharp, ready, and witty reply ; while retort is applied to 
matters more earnest, as arguments, accusations, and the 
like. In repartee there is more of wit ; in retort there is 
more of logic. Repartee throws back a joke upon the 
joker ; retort throws back the views of an argument upon 
the urguer. It is plain that the same thing may ofton be 
called a repartee or a retort. Many a serious thing is said 


in jest : a repartee which veils argument under wit is a 
retort, and of a very effective kind. 

retrospect, w., a looking back on things past ; a contempla- 
tion or review of the past ; a survey. 

" Short as in retrospect the journey seems." — Cowper. 

Syn. dis. : " A retrospect is always taken of that which 
is past and distant ; a review may be taken of that which 
is present and before us ; every retrospect is a species of 
review, but not every review is a retrospect. We take a 
retrospect of our past life in order to draw salutary 
reflections from all that we have done and suffered ; we 
• take a review of any particular circumstance which is 
passing before us in order to regulate our present conduct, 
The retrospect goes farther by vii-tue of the mind's power 
to reflect on itself, and to recall all past images to itself; 
the remeu) may go forward by the exercise of the senses on 
external objects. The historian takes a retrospect of all 
the events which have happened within a given period ; 
the journalist takes a review of all the events that are 
passing within the time in which he is living." 

ridicule, n-, words or actions intended to express contempt 
and excite laughter; but of that kind which provokes 
contemptuous laughter; derision, burlesque, banter, 

" Jane borrowed maxims from a doubting school. 
And took for truth the test of ridicule : 
Lucy saw no such virtue in a jest ; 
Truth was with her of ridicule the test. " — Cowper. 

Syn. dis. : " Ridicule is that species of writing which 
excites contempt with laughter, so differing from bur- 
lesque (which see), may excite laughter without contempt." 
Archdeacon Smith remarks, in discriminating between 
ridicule and derision, that, "as common laughter may 
be either sympathetic or hostile- that is, we may laugh 
toith others, or laugh at them — so ridicule and derision 
are always hostile ; but ridicule is the lighter term of the 
two. Ridicule indicates a merry, good-humoured hostil- 
ity ; derision is ill-humoured and scornful : it is anger we 
aring the mask of ridicule, and adopting the sound of 
laughter. We ridicule what offends our taste ; we deride 
what seems to merit our scorn." 


rustic, adj., of or pertaining to the country; rural, rude, 
rough, course ; not costly or showy ; simple. 

Syn. dis. : " Rural is employed of the country, or of 
matters belonging to it, as distinguished from man, or 
from towns, and is so associated with the pleasant things 
of Nature. Rustic is applied to the persons or conditions 
of men in reference to simplicity or rudeness of manners. 
Etymologically it is opposed to such words as civil, 
urbane, denoting *.he refinement of cities. A rural abode 
means one pleasantly situated in the country ; a rustic 
abode, one wanting in elegance. We, however, use the 
term rustic in reference to certain styles of construction^ 
in which there is an aiSectation of rudeness combined with 
I'eal elegance ; as an elegant country retreat built in a 
rustic style of architecture ; that is, with stone or 
woo^l which shall wear an appearance of undesigned 

scruple, v., to doubt or hesitate about one's actions or 
decisions ; to hesitate to do something ; to question the 
correctness or pi-opriety of ; to hesitate, to waver. 

Syn. dis. : " To scruple simply keeps us from deciding ; 
the terms hesitation and wavering bespeak a fluctiiating 
or variable state of the mind : we scruple simply from 
motives of doubt as to the propriety of a thing : we 
hesitate and waver from various motives, particularly sucli 
as affect our interests. Conscience produces scruples, fear 
produces h sitation, irresolution produces wavering : a 
person scrvjyles to do an action which may hurt his neigh- 
bour or ofiend his Maker ; he hesitates to do a thing 
which he fears may not prove advantageous to him ; he 
wavers in his mind betwixt going or staying, according as 
his inclinations impel him to the one or the other." 

secondary, adj., succeeding next in order to the first; second 
in place, origin, rank, value, importance, or the like. 

Syn. : second, inferior, subordinate. 

Syn. dis. : " A consideration is said to be secondary, or 
of secondary importance, which is opposed to that which 
holds the first rank. Secondary and inferior both desig- 


nate some lower degree of a quality ; but secondary is 
applied only to the importance or value of things ; in- 
ferior is applied generally to all qualities : a man of 
business reckons everything as second art/ which does not 
forward the object he has in view ; men of inferior abili- 
ties are disqualified by nature for high and important 
stations, although they may be more fitted for lower 
stations than are men of greater talents." Subordinate is 
said mainly of the station and office : we speak of a sub- 
ordinate \)OHit\on, capacity, sphere; but we also speak of 
a subordinate consideration, that is, one which is inferior 
to the first or prime consideration, and which usually 
makes place for the latter." 

sedulous, adj., assiduous and diligent in application or pur- 
suit ■; constant, steady, and persevering in the endeavour 
to effect an object. 

Syn. : diligent, assiduous, industrious, unremitting. 

Ant. : idle, unpersevering, lazy, inactive. 

Syn. dis. : " The idea of application is expressed by 
both these epithets, but sedulous is a particular, diligent 
is a general term : one is sedulous by habit ; one is diligent 
either habitually or occasionally : a sedulous scholar pur- 
sues his studies with a regular and close application ; a 
scholar may be diligent at a certain period, though not 
always so. Sedulity seems to mark the very essential 
property of application, that is, adhering closely to an 
object ; but diligence expresses one's attachment to a thing, 
as evinced by an eager pursuit of it : the former, there- 
fore, bespeaks the steadiness of the character : the latter 
merely the turn of one's inclination : one is sedulous from 
a conviction of the importance of the thing : one may be 
diligent by fits and starts, according to the humour of 
the moment." 

self-willed, «{;, governed by one's own will; not accom- 
modating or compliant ; obstinate. 
" For T was wayward, bold and wild, 

A seif-wiU'd imp, a grandame's child. " — Scott's Marmion, 
Syn. : self-conceited, self-sufficient. 

Syn, dis. : " Self-conceit is a vicious habit of the mind 
which is supei'induced on the original character : it is 


that which determines in matters of judgment : a sfyj- 
willed person thinks little of right or wrong : whatever the 
impulse of the moment suggests, is the motive to action : 
the self-conceited person is usually much concerned about 
right and wrong, but it is only that which he conceives to 
be right and wrong ; self-sufficiency is a species of self-con- 
ceit applied to action : as a self-conceited person thinks of 
no opinion but his own : a self-sufficient person refuses the 
assistance of everyone in whatever he is called upon to do." 

sensible, odj., capable of sensation ; having the capacity of 
receiving impressions from external objects ; having the 
power or capacity of perceiving by the senses. 

Syn. : sensitive, sentient, susceptible, impressible. 

Ant. : coarse, insensible, inappreciable, unimpressible. 

Syn. dis. : " All these epithets have obviously a great 
sameness of meaning, though not of application. Sensible 
and sensitive both denote the capacity of being moved to 
feeling : sentient implies the very act of feeling. Sensible 
expresses either a habit of the body and mind, or only a 
particular state referring to some particular object : a 
person may be sensible of things in general, or sensible of 
cold, sensible of injuries, sensible of the kindness which he 
has received from an individual. Sensitive signifies 
always an habitual or permanent quality ; it is the char- 
acteristic of objects; a sensitive creature implies one 
whose sense is by distinction quickly to be acted upon : a 
sensitive plant is a peculiar species of plants marked for 
the property of having sense or being sensible of the touch. 
Sensible and sensitive have always a reference to external 
objects; but sentient expresses simply the possession of 
feeling, or the power of feeling, and excludes the idea of 
the cause. Hence, the term sensible and sensitive are 
applied only to persons or corporeal objects ; but sentient 
is likewise applicable to spirits : sentient beings may 
include angels as well as men." 

sentimental, a,dj., liable to be moved or swayed by senti- 
ment ; artificially or aflfectedly tender ; romantic. 

Syn. dis. : " The sentimental person is one of excessive 
sensibility, or who imports mere sentiment into matters 
worthy of more vigorous thought. The romantic (Old Fr. 


)-omiince, Koiw.iu or Romant, the dialects formed from a 
mixture of the Latin language with those of the bar- 
barians who invaded the Roman Empire, and so a species 
of fictitious writing in that mixed language, generally 
treating of marvels and adventures) creates ideal scenes 
and objects by the extravagant exercise of the imagination. 
The sentimental character is soft and sometimes sickly ; 
the romantic is apt to be extravagant and wild." 

series, n., a continued succession of similar or related things ; 
an extended order, line, or course ; a succession. 

Syn. : sequence, succession, course. 

Syn. dis. : ^'Series denotes a number of individuals or 
units standing in order or following in succession. Se- 
quence (Lat. sequentia, sequi, to follow), denotes of neces- 
sity a moving series or the quality of it, in which that 
which follows does so by virtue of that which went before. 
Sequence is succession by a regular force or law. Succes- 
sion may be with or without interconnection. Succession 
to the throne in England is according to rule or law ; on 
the other hand, a succession of misfortunes may be without 
such common rule or cause. Series implies of necessity a 
number more than two ; sequence and succession may de- 
note no more than one thing following upon another." 

shall, v„ " one of the two signs employed to express futurity, 
wiU being the other ; in the first person shall simply fore- 
tells or declares ; in the second person (sJudt) and the 
third person {shall ) it promises or expresses determination , 
interrogatively, shall either asks for permission or for 
direction ; shall, like will, apart from its other senses, 
uniformly denotes futurity : should, pt., as an auxiliary, 
expresses a conditional present, a contingent future, and 
obligation or duty," — Stormonth. See Seath's High 
School Grammar, pp. 226-231, and McElroy's "Structure 
of English Prose," pp. 108 110. 

sickness, n., state of being in bad health ; a disease, a 
malady ; any disordered state. See disease. 

Syn. : illness, ailment, indisposition. 

Syn. dis. : " Sickness denotes the state generally or 
particularly ; illness denotes it particularly : we speak of 


sickness as opposed to .good health ; in sickness or in 
health ; but ot the ihness of a particular person : when 
sickness is said of the individual, it designates a protracted 
state ; a person may be said to have much sickness in his 
Airuily. Illness denotes only a particular or partial sick- 
ness : a person is said to have had an illness at this or that 
time, in this or that place, for this or that period. 
Indisposition is a slight ailment, such an one as is capable 
of deranging him either in his enjoyments or in his 
business ; colds are the ordinary causes of inilisposition.' 

signail, adj., distinguished from what is ordinary ; remark- 
able, memorable, notable, conspicuous. 

Syn. dis. : " Signal and memorable both express the 
idea of extraordinary, or being distinguished from ever\ - 
thing : whateve)- is sicjnal desei-ves to be stamped on the 
mind, and to serve as a sign of some property or charac- 
teristic : whatever is memorable impresses itself upon the 
memory, and refuses to be forgotten : the former applies 
to the moral character ; the latter to events and times." 
Signal is used of events in regard both to their moral and 
their historical value or importance. We say a signal 
deliverance, signal bravery, a signal instance of Divine 
favour or displeasure ; a mem^orable event, a memorable 
exploit, a memorable deed, an act memorable in the annals 
of the nation. 

signify, v., to express or declare by a token ; to have or con- 
tain a certain sense ; to imply, to have consequence. 

Syn. dis. : " The terms signify and imply may be em- 
ployed either as respects actions or words. In the first 
case signify is the act of the person making known by 
means of a sign, as we signify our approbation by a look : 
imply marks the value or force of the action ; our assent 
is implied in our silence. When applied to words oi- 
marks, signify denotes the positive or established act of 
the thing ; imply is the relative act : a word signifies 
whatever it is made literally to stand for ; it implies that 
which it stands for figuratively or morally. It frequently 
happens that words which signify nothing particular in 
themselves may be made to imply a great deal by the 
tone, the manner, and the connection." 


JUgniflcant, adj., expressing some fact or event ; forcible to 
express the intended meaning ; standing as a sign of some- 
thing important ; momentous. 

Syn, : expressive, indicative, suggestive, symbolical. 

Ant. : inexpressive, meaningless, unindicative, mute. 

Syn. dis. : " That is significant which strongly expresses 
or indicates some particular thing : that is expressive 
which forcibly shows expression, as opposed to inexpres- 
sive. An expressive countenance manifests clearly succes- 
sive and varied emotions : a gesture is significant which 
plainly and forcibly illustrates what is on the mind. Ex- 
pressive is restricted to looks and words ; as, ' an exjyressive 
eye' ; * an expi-essive phrase'. Significant is applicable to 
complex actions or measures ; as, ' such a measure is sig- 
nificant of a liberal policy.'" 

simile, n., a common figure of speech in which two things 
which have some strong point or points of resemblance 
are compared ; a poetic or imaginative comparison. See 

Syn. : similitude, comparison, likeness, resemblance. 

Syn. dis. : " Simile and similitude are both drawn from 
the Latin similis like ; the former signifying the thing 
that is like ; the latter either the thing that is like or the 
quality of being like : in the former sense only it is to be 
compared with simile, when employed as a figure of s[)eech 
or thought ; everything is a simile which associates objects 
together on account of any real or supposed likeness be- 
tween them ; but a siinilitude signifies a prolonged or 
continued simile. Every simile is more or less a compar- 
ison, but not every comparison is a simile : the latter 
compares things only as far as they are alike ; but the 
former extends to those things which are different : in 
this manner there may be a comparison between large 
things and small, although there can be no good simile." 

social, adj., pertaining to society; relating to men living in 
society ; or to the public as an aggregate body ; ready t-o 
mix in friendly converse. 

Syn. : sociable, companionable, agreeable, genial. 
Ant. : churlish, solitary, ixnconversible, morose. 


Syn. dis. : " Social (fronl socius a com})anioa), signifies 
belonging oi' allied to a companion, having the disposition 
of a companion ; sociable, from the same, signifies able or 
fit to be a companion ; the former is an active, the latter 
a passive quality : social people seek others ; sociable 
people are sought for by others. It is j)ossible for a man 
to be social and not sociable ; to be sociable and not social : 
he who draws his pleasures from society without commu- 
nicating his share to the common stock of entertainment 
is social but not sociable ; men of a taciturn disposition 
are often in this case : they receive more than they give : 
he on the contrary who has talents to please company, 
but not the inclination to go into company, may be 
sociable but is seldom social. Social and sociable are 
likewise applicable to things, with a similar distinction ; 
social intercourse is that intercourse which men have 
together ior the purposes of society ; social pleasures ar.; 
what they enjoy by associating together." 

solicitation, n. , the act of soliciting ; an earnest request ; 
endeavour to influence to grant something. 

Syn. : importunity, entreaty, urgency. 

Syn. dis. : Solicitation is general ; importunity is par- 
ticular : it is importunate or troublesome solicitation. 
Solicitation is itself indeed that which gives trouble to a 
certain extent, but it is not always unreasonable : there- 
may be cases in which we may yield to the solicitations of 
friends to do that which we have no objection to be 
obliged to do : but importu ity is that solicitation which 
never ceases to apply for that which it is not agreeable to 
give. We may sometimes be urgent in our solicitations 
of a friend to accept some ))roffered honour; the solicita- 
tion, however, in this case, although it may even be 
troublesome, yet it is sweetened by the motive of the 
action : the importunity of beggars is often a public means 
of extorting money from the passer-by. " 

special, adj., pertaining to something distinct or having a 
distinctive character ; differing from others ; designed for 
a particular purpose or occasion. 

Syn. : specific, particular, distinctive, peculiar. 
Ant. : general, universal, common, generic. 



Syn. dis. : " The special is that which comes under the 
general ; the particular is that which comes under the 
special : hence we speak of a special rule ; but a particu- 
lar case. Particular and specific are both applied to the 
properties of individuals ; but particular is said of the 
contingent circumstances of things, specific of theii- 
inherent properties ; every plant has something particular 
in itself different from others, it is either longer or 
shorter, weaker or stronger : but its specific property is 
that which it has in common with its species : particular 
is, therefore, the term adapted to loose discourse : specific 
is a scientific term which describes things minutely. The 
same may be said of particularize and specify : we pan- 
ticularize for the sake of information ; we specify for the 
sake of instruction : in describing a man's person and 
dress we particularize if we mention everything sin.gly 
which can be said upon it ; in delineating a plan it is 
necessary to specify time, place, distance, materials, and 
everything else which may be connected with the carrying 
it into execution." 

spontaneously, adv., the state or quality of acting of one's 
own accoi-d and without compulsion ; or of acting from 
the impulse or energy inherent in a thing. 

Syn. : willingly, voluntarily, in a self-generated, self- 
originated, or self-evolved manner. 

Syn. dis. : " To do a thing iJoiUingly is to do it with a 
good will ; to do a thing voluntarily is to do it of one's 
own accord : the former respects one's willingness to com- 
ply with the wishes of another ; we do what is asked of 
us, it is a mark of good-nature : the latter respects our 
freedom from foreign influence ; we do that which we 
like to do ; it is a mark of our sincerity. Spontaneously 
is but a mode of the voluntary, applied, however, more 
commonly to inanimate objects than to the will of persons : 
the ground produces spontaneously when it produces with- 
out culture ; and words flow spontaneously which require 
no effort on the pai-t of the speaker to produce them. If, 
however, applied to the will, it bespeaks in a stronger 
degree the totally unbiased state of the agent's mind : 
the spontaneous effusions of the heart are more than the 
voluntary services of benevolence. The willing is opposed 


to the unwilling, the voluntary to the mechanical or in- 
voluntary, the spontaneous to the reluctant or the arti 

spread, v., to diffuse, (lis])erse, scatter, or extend ; to put 
forth, to publish, as news or fame ; to cause to be mo>e 
extensively known. 

Syn. : circulate, disseminate, propagate, publish. 

Ant. : suppi-ess, secrete, conceal, confine, contract. 

Syn. dis. : " To spread is said of any object, material 
or spiritual ; the lest are mostly employed in the moral 
application. To sjyread is to extend to an indefinite 
• width ; to circulate is to spread within a circle ; thus 
news spreads through a country ; but a story circulates in 
a village, or from house to house, or a report is circulated 
in a neighbourhood. Spread and circulate are the acts of 
persons or things ; propagate and dissemitiate are the acts 
of persons only. The thing spreads and circulates, or it 
is spread and circulated by some one ; it is al ways propa- 
gated and disseminated by some one. Propagate and 
disseminate are here figuratively employed as modes of 
spreading, according to the natural oj)erations of increasing 
the quantity of anything which is implied in the first two 
terms. What is propagated is supposed to generate new 
siibjects ; as when doctrines, either good or bad, are pro- 
pagated among the people so as to make them converts : 
what is disseminated is supposed to be sown in different 
parts : thus principles are disseminated among youth." 

standard, n., that which is established by competent autho- 
rity as a rule or measure of quantity ; that which is 
established as a rule or model by public opinion, custom, 
or general consent ; that which serves as a test or 
measure (as * a standard of morality or of taste '). 

Syn. : criterion, test, measure, gauge, scale, model. 

Syn. dis. : " The criterion is employed only in matters 
of judgment ; the standard is used in the ordinary con- 
cerns of life. The former serves for determining the 
characters and qualities of things ; the latter for defining 
quantity and measure. The language ai d manners of a 
person are 'he best criterion for forming an estimate of 


his Station and education. In order to produce a uni- 
foi'mity in the mercantile transactions of mankind one 
with another, it is the custom of" Government to tix a 
certain standard for the regulation of coins, weights, and 
measures. The word standard may likewise be used 
figuratively in the same sense. We employ a standard 
to demonstrate the degree of excellence which a thing 
may have reached : we use a criterion as something 
established and ap[)roved, by which facts, principles, or 
acts are tried, in oider to a correct judgment respecting 
them. A test is a ti'ial or criterion of the most decisive 
kind, by which the internal properties of things or persons 
are tried and proved." 

stress, n., force exerted in any direction or manner on bodies ; 
weight or importance laid on some special subject (as to 
lay stress on some point in argument) ; accent, or empha- 
sis ; pressure. 

Syn. : strain, emphasis, accent. 

Syi). dis. : " Stress is applicable to all bodies, the powers 
of which may be tried by exertion ; as the stress upon a 
rope, upon the shaft of a cari-iage, a wheel or spring in a 
machine ; the strain is an excessive stri ss, by which a 
thing is thrown out of its course : there may be a strain 
in most cases where there is a stress. Stress and strain 
are to be compared with emphasis and accent, particularly 
in the exertion of the voice, in which case the strei^s is a 
strong and special exertion of the voice, on one word, or 
one part of a word, so as to distinguish it from another ; 
but the strain is the undue exertion of the voice beyond 
its unusual pitch, in the utterance of one or more words. 
The stress may consist in an elevation of voice, or a pro- 
longed utterance ; the emphasis is that species of stress 
which is employed to distinguish one word or syllable 
from anoth(!r : the stress may be accidental ; but the em- 
phasis is an intentional stress." 

subject, v., to bring under; to subdue ; to expose; to make 
liable, to cause to undergo, adj., liable, from extraneous 
and inherent causes ; exposed. 
Syn. : liable, exposed, obnoxious. 


Syn. dis. : {adj.) "All these terms are applied to those 
circumstances in human life by which we are affected in- 
dependently of our own choice Direct necessity is in- 
cluded in the term subject : whatever we are obliged to 
suffer, that we are mbject to ; we may apply remedies to 
remove the evil, but often in vain ; liable conveys more 
the idea of casualties ; we may siiffer that which we are 
liable to, but we may also escaj)e the evil if we are care- 
ful ; exposed conveys the idea of a passive state into which 
we may be brought either through our own means or 
through the instrumentality of others : we ai'e exposed to 
that which we are not in a condition to keep off" from our- 
selves ; it is frequently not in our power to guard against 
the evil ; obnoxious conveys the idea of a state into which 
we have altogether brought ouiselves; we may avoid 
bringing ourselves into the state, but we cannot avoid the 


talkative, adj., apt to engage in conversation; freely com- 
municative ; chatty ; conversible. 

Syn. : loquacious, garrulous, chattering. 
Ant. : taciturn, silent, uncommunicative, reserved. 
Syn. dis. : " These reproachful epithets differ principally 
in the degree. To talk is allowable, and consequently it is 
not altogether so unbecoming to be occasionally talkative : 
but loquacUy, which implies always an immoderate pro- 
pensity to talk, is always bad, whether springing from 
affectation or an idle temper : and garrulity, which arises 
from the excessive desire of communicating, is a failing 
that is pardonable only in the aged, who have generally 
much to tell." 

taste, n., a particular sensation excited by certain bodies 
when applied to the tongue, palate, etc., and moistened 
with saliva ; the sense by which we perceive this by 
means of special organs in the mouth. 

Syn. : relish, flavour, savour. 

Syn. dis. : " Taste is the most general and indefinite of 
all these; it is applicable to every object that can be 
applied to the oigan of taste, and to every degree and 


manner in whicli the organ can be affected : some things 
are tasteless, other things have a strong taste, and others a 
mixed taste. The flavour is the predominating taste, and 
consequently is applied to such objects as may have a 
different kind or degree of taste ; the flavour is commonly 
said of that which is good, as a fine flavour, a delicious 
flavour ; but it may designate that which is not always 
agreeable, as the flavour of fish, which is unpleasant in 
things that dp not admit of such a taste. The relish is 
also a particular taste ; but it is that which is artificial, in 
distinction from the flavour, which may be the natural 
property." These terms are also used to denote the 
faculty of discerning beauty, proportion, symmetry or 
whatever constitutes excellence, particularly in the fine 
arts and literature; in other words, intellectual relish or 

fcemporary, adj., lasting for a time only ; existing or continu- 
ing for a limited time ; provisional. 

Syn. : transient, transitory, fleeting. 

Ant. : perpetual, lasting, peimanent, confirmed. 

Syn. dis. : " Temporary, (from tempus time), character- 
izes that which is intended to last only for a time, in dis- 
tinction from that which is permanent " : a scaflblding is 
temporary which is erected to give aid in the building of a 
permanent structure. " Transient, that is, passing, or in 
the act of passing, characterizes what in its nature exists 
only for the moment : a glance is transient. Transitory, 
that is, apt to pass away, characterizes everything in the 
world which is formed only to exist for a time, and then 
to pass away ; thus our pleasures, and our pains, and our 
very being, are |ienominated transitory. Fleeting, which 
is derived from the verb to fly and flight, is but a 
stronger term to express the same idea as transitory." 

tenacious, odj-, having great cohesive force or adhering 
power among the constituent particles ; holding fast ; apt 
to retain long what is committed to it (as, ' a tenacious 
memory '). 

Syn. : pertinacious, retentive, adhesive, obstinate. 

Ant. : pliant, yielding, inadhesive, irretentive. 


Syn. dis. : " To be tenacious is to liold a thing clor;e, to 
let it go with reluctance : to be pertinacious is to hold it 
out in spite of what can be advanced against it, the pre- 
positive syllable per having an intensive force. A man 
of a tenacious temper insists on trifles that are suj)posed 
to affect his importance ; a perlinaciotts temper insists on 
evej-ything which is apt to affect his opinion. Tenacity 
and pertinacity are both foibles, but the former is some- 
times more excusable than the latter. We may be tena- 
cious of that which is good, as when a man is tenacious of 
whatever may affect his honour ; but we cannot be 
pertinacious in anything but our opinions, and that too, 
it may be, when they are least defensible." Retentive is 
having a strong power of recollecting and the faculty of 
remembering and recalling things, faces, events, etc. 

tendency, n., an inclining or contributing influence ; aptness 
to take a certain course ; effect of giving a certain bent or 
direction; inclination. {See bent.) 

Syn. : drift, scope, aim, bias, proneness. 

Ant. : disinclination, aversion, reluctance, opposition. 

Syn. dis. : " Tendency, drift, scope, and aim, in general, 
all chai'acterize the thoughts of a person looking forwai'd 
into futui'ity, and directing his actions to a certain point. 
Hence we speak of the tendency of certain principles or 
practises as being pernicious or otherwise ; the drift of a 
person's discourse ; the scope which he gives himself either 
in treating of a subject or in laying down a plan ; or a 
person's aim to excel, or aim to supplant another, and the; 
like. The tendency of most scientific writings for the last 
five-and-twenty years has been to unhinge the minds of 
men : where a pei'son wants the services of another, whom 
he dare not openly solicit, he will di*scover his wishes by 
the drift of his discourse : a man of a comprehensive mind 
will allow himself full scope in digesting his plans for 
every alteration which circumstances may require when 
they cume to be developed : our desires will naturally give 
a cast to all our aims ; and so long as they are but innocent, 
they are necessary to give a proper stimulus to exertion." 

thoughtful, adj., full of thought, contemplative, meditative, 
mindful, full of anxiety, solicitous. 


Syn. : considerate, deliberate, regardful. 

Ant. : heedless, careless, improvident, thoxightless. 

Syn. dis. : " The thoughtful jjei-son considei-s every- 
thing carefully, and acts with reflection in regard to the 
circumstances of a case. The considerate person does the 
same in reference to the relation borne to it by other 
persons. We should be thoughtful of ])articulars and 
details, considerate towards the feelings and position of 
othei's. There is reflection in thoughtfulness ; anticipa- 
tion, in considerateness. Considerateness may be posi- 
tive or negative, or, in other words, may show itself in 
kindness or forbearance. Thoughtfulness of others is 
considerateness." Deliberate may be used either in a good 
or in a bad sense : in the* former, in speaking and acting 
with due deliberation and without reckless haste or 
impatience; in the latter, by acting with deliberate malice 
and a settled intention to do evil. 

threat, n., a declaration of an intention to inflict punishment, 
loss, or pain on another ; a menace. 

*' By turns put on the suppliant and the lord ; 
Threaten' d one moment, and the next implor'd." 

— Prior. 

Syn. dis. : '* Threat is of Saxon origin ; menace is of 
Latin extraction. They do not differ in signification ; but, 
as is frequently the case, the Saxon is the familiar term, 
and the Latin word is employed only in the higher style. 
We may be threatened with either small or great evils ; 
but we are menaced only with great evils. One individual 
threatens to strike another ; a general menaces the enemy 
with an attack. We are threatened by things as well as 
well as by persons ; we are menaced by persons and by 
^ome impending fate." 

timely, a^lj-, being in good time; at the appropriate season ; 
suitable, fit, proper period ; seasonable. 

Syn. dis : " Tim,ely means in good time ; seasonable, in 
right time : timely aid is that which comes before it is too 
lat« ; desirable aid, that which meets the nature of the 
occasion." . . . "A timely notice prevents that which 
would otherwise happen ; a seasonable hint seldom fails in 
its effect, because it is seasonable. The opposites of these 


terms ai'e untimely or ill-timed and unsectsonable : untimely 
is indirectly opposed to timely, signifying before the time 
appointed ; as an untimely death : but ill-timed is directly 
opposed, signifying in the wrong time ; as an ill-timed re- 

time-serving, adj., obsequiously complying with the hu- 
mours of men in power ; (a " time-server " is one who 
meanly and for selfish ends adapts his opinion and man 
ners to the times.) 

Syn. : temporizing, servile, trimming. 

Ant. : independent, unbending, high spirited. 

Syn. dis. : " Time-serving and temporizing are both ap- 
plied to the conduct of one who adapts himself servilely 
to the time and season ; but a time-server is rather active, 
and a tem,porizer passive. A time-server avows those 
opinions which will serve his purpose : the temporizer for- 
bears to avow those which are likely for the time being to 
hurt him. The former acts from a desire of gain, the lat- 
ter from a fear of loss. Time-servers are of all parties, as 
they come in the way : temporizers are of no party, as 
occasion requires. Sycophant courtiers must always be 
tiTne-servers : ministers of state are frequently temporizers." 

traiin, n., that which is drawn along behind; that part of a 
gown or robe which trails behind the wearer ; a succession 
of connected things ; way or course of procedure ; regular 
method ; a series ; a number or body of followers or at- 
tendants, etc. 

Syn. : procession, retinue, following. 

Syn. dis. : " The fundamental idea of train is no more 
than a continuation of connected things in movement. 
But we speak of trains of many things ; as, ' a train of 
thought,' 'a train of ideas,' etc. It is in the personal 
sense that it is synonymous with retinue " — a term used 
when we speak of the attendants of a prince or other dis- 
tinguished personage, in procession, or on a journey. '' Re- 
tinue is applicable only to persons : we may not speak of 
a retinue of carriages. The idea of procession is that of a 
number of persons or conspicuous objects, as carriages, 
banners, etc., moving in order and in line. The term is, 
however, civil, not military. Retinue strictly denotes 


the retained or engaged followers. A prince entering a 
public hall with his own retinue, might be joined by the 
authorities, who would follow in his train." 

transact, v., to carry through, perform, or conduct (business, 
afiairs, etc.) ; to do, to manage, to complete. 

Syn.: negotiate, treat, manage, conduct. 

Syn. dis. : " We transact business generally : we nego- 
tiate a pai-ticular business. No more is involved in trans 
action than the performance of a simple, or a complex 
action, by or with more than one person." We may nego- 
tiate a note, or have one " discounted," at our bankers ; or 
we may negotiate a treaty on behalf of our country, with 
some foreign power. Negotiate implies, in the former, 
that in the ti-ansaction there is a due equivalent given and 
taken — a promise to pay for money now advanced — ; in 
the latter, an adjustment of mutual interests. " Doing 
makes transaction; while deliberation is necessary for 
negotiation. Terms and a common basis have to be 
formed in negotiation, as well as a common end." 

breatment, n., the act or manner of treating ; manner of 
dealing with things; good or bad behaviour towards 
another; usage. 

Syn. dis. : " Treatment implies the act of treating, and 
usage that of using : ti'eatTnent may be partial or tempor- 
ary ; but usage is properly employed for that which is 
permanent or continued : a passer-by may meet with ill- 
treatinent ; but children, domestics, and those subject to 
us, or in our employ, are liable to meet with '\\\-usage. 
All persons may meet with treatment from others with 
whom they casually come in contact ; but usage is applied 
more properly to those who are more or less in the power 
of others : children should receive good not iW-usage ft-om 
those who have the charge of them, servants from their 
masters, wives from their husbands, subordinates from 
their superiors." 

jrick, ri., a fraudulent contrivance for an evil purpose; a 
knack or art; a sleight-of-hand performance; a frolic, a 

Syn. : artifice, stratagem, subterfuge. 


Syn. dis. : " Of these terms trick is the simplest and 
most fieueric, ihe hist being modifications of this funda- 
mental and simple idea. IVick commonly involves 
decei)tion for self-intevest : an artifice is an elaborate, 
artful, or ingenious trick. As artifice sometimes turns 
upon false manipulations, arrangements, or a])pearances, 
so stratagem, as a rule, turns upon false judgments or 
movements. Children and foolish people play tricks; 
designing persons have recourse to artifice; those who 
convert life into a complicated game employ stratagem. 
Subterfuge is something under cover of which one makes 
an esca))e. It is an artijice employed to escape censure;, 
or to elude the force of an argument, or to justify opin- 
ions or actions." 

trouble, n., distress of mind or what causes such; great 
perplexity, affliction, anxiety, annoyance. 
Syn. : disturbance, molestation, harassment. 
Syn. dis. : " Trouble is the most general in its applica- 
tion ; we may be trovhled by the want of a thing, or 
by that which is unsuitable : we are disturbed and mo- 
lested only by that which actively troubles. Pecuniary 
wants are to some the greatest troubles in life ; the 
perverseness, the indisposition or ill-behaviour of children, 
are domestic troubles : but the noise of children is a 
disturbance, and the prospect of want disturbs the mind. 
A disturbance ruffles or throws out of a tranquil state ; a 
molestation burdens or beai-s hard either on the body or 
the mind : noise is always a disturbance to one who wishes 
to think or to remain in quiet ; talking, or any noise, is a 
molestation to one who is in an irritable fi'ame of body or 

tumultuoilS, adj., full of tumult, disorder, or confusion; 
disturbed, as by passion or the like ; disorderly, agitated, 

Syn. : turbulent, seditious, mutinous. 

Ant. : peaceful, calm, placid, orderly, quiet. 

Syn. dis : Tumultuous describes the disposition to make 
a noise, or to be in a commotion or ferment. We si)eak 
of a tumultuous (or excited) gathering ; and, poetically, of 


* the tumultuous seas.' Turbulent marks a hostile spirit 
of resistance to authority ; when prisoners are dissatisfied 
they are frequently turbulent : the nobles of Poland at 
times have been turbulent : seditious marks a spirit of 
resistance to government ; mutinous marks a spirit of 
resistance against officei-s either in the army or navy : a 
general vvill not fail to quell the first risings of a mutin- 
ous spirit. " Electioneering mobs are always tumultuous ; 
the young and the ignorant are so averse to control that 
they ai'e easily led by the example of an individual to be 
turbulent : among the Romans the people were in the 
habit of holding seditious meetings, and sometimes the 
soldiery would be m,utinous." 


Lincertaillty, n., the quality or state of being iTncertain ; 
something not certainly and exactly known. 

Syn. : Suspense, doubt, doubtfulness, dubiety. 

Ant. : confidence, assurance, conviction, positiveness. 

Syn. dis. : *' Doubt indicates the absence of sufficient 
study and inquiry (though neither may yield enlighten- 
ment) ; uncertainty, the absence of judgment formed, or 
of the information necessary to form a judgment upon ; 
suspense, the absence of determination, or of the know- 
ledge of facts, which might remove s%ispense. He is doubt- 
ful who hesitates from ignorance ; he is uncertain who 
hesitates from irresolution ; he is in suspense who cannot 
decide. Suspense has of late also come to mean that 
anxiety of mind which arises fi'om ignorance of the inten- 
tions of another, whex'e our interests hang on those inten- 
tions. Of old the king would be said to be in suspense 
who had not made up his mind whether or not to pardon 
the offender. Now the ofiender is said to be in suspense 
until his fate is made known to him." 

understand., v., to aj)prehend or comprehend fully ; to know 
the meaning of; to perceive or discern by the mind; to 
comprehend. (See apprehend.) 

Syn. dis. : " To understand is to have the fi-ee use of 
one's reasoning faculty in regard to the relation of cause 
and effect, or one thing and another. The understanding 


is eu) ployed upon ordinary discourse and the practical 
business of life. Comprehend requires a greater exertion 
or force of intellect, and denotes an employment of the in- 
tellect upon what is obscure and difficult, upon (it may be) 
theoretical systems or speculative truths. A simple fact 
is understood ; a process of I'easoning is comprehended." 

unimportant, adj., of trifling value or imj^ort ; not of great 
moment. (^See significant.) 

Syn. : insignificant, inconsiderable, immaterial. 

Ant. : weighty, relevant, influential, leading. 

Syn. dis. : " The want of importance, of consideration, 
of signification, and of matter or substance, is expressed 
by these terms. They differ therefore principally accord- 
ing to the meaning of the primitives ; but they are so 
closely allied that they may be employed sometimes 
indifferently. Unimportant regards the consequences of 
our actions : it is unimportant whether we use this or 
that word in certain cases . inconsiderable and insignifi^ 
cant respect those things which may attract notice ; the 
former is more adapted to the grave style, to designate 
the comparative low value of things ; the latter is a 
familiar term which seems to convey a contemptuous 
meaning : in a description we may say that the number, 
the size, the quantity, etc., is inconsiderable ; in speaking 
of persons we may say they are insignificant in stature, 
look, talent, station, and the like ; or, speaking of things, 
an insignijicant production, or an iiisignificant woi*d. 
Immaterial is a species of the unimportant, which is 
applied only to familiar subjects ; it is immaterial 
whether we go to-day or to-monow ; it is immaterial 
whether we have a few or many." 

universal, adj., extending to or comprehending the whole 
number, quantity or space ; pervading all of the whole ; 
all-embracing ; all-reaching ; total ; whole. 

Syn. : general, exhaustive, boundless, comprehensive. 

Ant. : local, partial, limited, particular, exceptional. 

Syn. dis. : " What is universal includes every particu- 
lar : what is general includes tlie majority of particulars. 
A general rule, we say, admits of exceptions : what is 


universal has no exceptions. Universal is opposed to 
individual ; general, to particular. ' The foresight of 
government is directed to the general welfare ' : ' the 
Providence of God contemplates the univtrsal good ' : 
* Among men, the faculty of speech is general, not 
universal.' Although universality does not, strictly 
speaking, admit of degrees, yet it is sometimes loosely so 
, employed. In that way, that is general which is most 

v/niversal, as in the following : * A wiiter of tragedy must 
certainly adapt himself to the general taste, because the 
dramatic, of all kinds of poetry, out to be most universally 
relished and understood.' " 


vain, adj., fruitless, as an effort; ineffectual; unsatisfying; 
accomplishing little ; producing no good result. 

Syn. : ineffectual, fruitless, inefficient. 

Ant. : effectual, cogent, potent, substantial. 

Syn. dis. : " These epithets are all applied to our 
endeavours; but the term vain is the most general and 
indefinite ; the other terms are particular and definite. 
What we aim at, as well as what we strive for, may be 
vain ; but ineffectual and fruitless refer only to the end 
of our labours. Wlien the object aimed at is general in 
its import, it is common to term the endeavour vain when 
it cannot attain this object ; when the means employed 
are inadequate for the attainment of the particular end, it 
is usual to call the endeavour ineffectual ; cool arguments 
will be ineffectual in convincing any one inflamed with 
a particular passion : when labour is specifically employed 
for the attainment of a particular object it is usual to 
term it fruitless if it fail : peacemakers will often find 
themselves in this condition, that their labours will be 
rendered fruitless by the violent passions of angry 

VenaJ, adj., ready to sell oneself for money or other con- 
sideration and entirely from sordid motives ; ready to 
accept a bribe. 

Syn. : mercenary, sordid, hireling. 

Ant. : disinterested, incorrupt, unpurchasable. 


Syn. dis. : " Venal signifies saleable or ready to be sold, 
which, applied as it commonly is to peisoiis. is a much 
'stronger term than mercenary. A venal man gives up ali 
principle for interest ; a mercenary man seeks his interest 
without regard to principle : venal writers are such as 
write in favour of the cause that can pi'omote them to 
riches or honours ; a servant is commonly m,ei cenary who 
gives his services according as he is paid : those who are^ 
loudest in their professions of political purity are the best 
subjects for a politician to make venal ; a mercenary spiiit 
is apt to be engendered in the minds of those who devote 
themselves exclusively to trade." 

vexation, n., the act of disquieting or harassing; state of 
being disturbed in mind ; teasing or great troubles ; the 
cause of trouble. 

Syn. : mortification, chagrin, annoyance. 

Syn. dis. : " Vexation springs from a variety of causes, 
acting unpleasantly on the inclinations or passions of men : 
mortification is a strong degree of vexation, which arises 
from particular circumstances acting on particular passions : 
the loss of a day's pleasiire is a vexation to one who is 
eager for pleasure ; the loss of a prize, or the circumstance 
of coming into disgrace when we expected honour, is a 
mortification to an ambitious person. Vexation arises 
piincipally from our wishes and views being crossed ; 
mortification, from our pride and self-importance being 
hurt ; chagrin, from a mixture of the two ; disappoint- 
ments ai'e always attended with more or less of vexation, 
according to the circumstances which give pain and trou- 
ble ; an exposure of our poverty may be more or less of a 
m,ortification, according to the value which we set on 
wealth and grandeur ; a refusal of a request will produce 
more or less of chagrin as it is accompanied with circum- 
stances more or less mortifying to our pride." 

vote, n., the expression of a desire, preference, or choice in 
regard to any measure proposed, in which the person vot- 
ing has an interest with others ; that by which will or 
preference is expressed in elections or in deciding proposals 
or measures. 

Syn. : suffrage, voice, ballot, ticket. 


Syii. (lis. : "The vote is the wish itself, whether ex- 
pressed or not ; a person has a vote, tliat is, the power of 
wishing : but the suffrage and the voice are the wish that 
is expressed ; a person gives his suffraije or voice. The 
vote is the settled and fixed wish ; it is that by which the 
most important concerns in life are determined ; the suff- 
rage is a vote given only in particular cases ; the voice is a 
partial or occasional wish, expressed only in matters of 
minor importance. The vote and voice are given either 
for or 'Bgainst a person or thing ; the svffrage is commonly 
given in favour of a person : in all piiblic assemblies the 
majority of votes decide the question : members of Parlia- 
ment ai'c chosen by the suffrages of the ueopie : in the exe- 
cution of a will, every executor has a voice in all that is 


WBiYj **•, means by which anything is accomplished ; method 
or mannei of proceeding. 

Syn. : manner, method, mode, course, means. 

Syn. dis. : " All these words denote the steps which are 
pursued from the beginning to the completion of any work. 
The way is both general and indefinite ; it is either taken 
by accident or chosen by design : the manner and method 
are species of the way chosen by design; the former in 
regard to orders. The 'method is said of that which 
requires contrivance ; tfhe mode, of that which requires 
practice and habitual attention ; the former being applied 
to matters of art, and the latter to mechanical actions. 
The course and the means are the way which we pursue in 
our moral conduct : the course is the m.ode or measures 
which are adopted to produce a certain result ; the Tneans 
collectively for the course which lead to a certain end." 

wearisome, adj., causing weariness ; inducing lassitude or 
exhaustion of strength and patience. 

Syn. : tiresome, tedious, troublesome, irksome. 
Ant. : refreshing, invigorating, freshening, recruiting. 
Syn. dis. : Wearisom,e, irksome, and tedious are applic- 
able only to things, not to persons ; tiresome and 
troublesome are applicable both to persons and tc things. 


"The force of that wliich is tiresome is active and 
energetic, producing a feeling of jiliysical annoj'ance and 
exhaustion of patience. Wearisome is said of things tnoi-e 
continuous in their operation, and producing the irii|)res- 
sion of monotony and want of relief. A refractory child 
is tiresome; a long journey through an unintereoting 
country is wearisome. Such things as vain repetitions, 
importunate requests, slight disappointments and checks, 
are tiresome ; monotonous tasks and journeys are weari- 
some ; prolix speeches are fe(iww« / coni[)licated tasks and 
problems difficult to solve, or threads dilliculc to unravel, 
are trovhlesome." 

wellbeing, n., welfare, happiness, prosperity. 

Syn. dis. : '* Wellheing may be said of one or many, but 
generally of a body ; the wellbeing of society depends upon 
a due subordination of the different ranks of which it is 
composed. Welfare, or faring well, respects the good 
condition of an individual ; a parent is naturally anxious 
for the welfare of his child. Wellbeing and welfare 
consist of such things as more immediately affect our 
existence : prosperity, which comprehends both wellbeing 
and welftre, includes likewise all that can add to the 
enjoyments of man. The prosperity of a State, or of an 
individual, consists in the increase of wealth, power, 
honours, and the like ; as outward circumstances more or 
less affect the happiness of man : happiness is, therefore, 
often subst tuted for prosperity : but it must never be 
forgotten that happiness properly lies only in the mind, 
and that consequently prosperity may exist without 
happiness ; but happiness, at least as far as respects a body 
of men, cannot exist without some portion of prosperity." 

wicked, adj., addicted to vice or mischief; evil in principle 
or practice ; bad or baneful in effect ; immoral. 

Syn. : bad, unjust, iniquitous, nefarious, vicious. 

Ant. : good, virtuous, moral, pure, spotless, stainless. 

Syn. dis. : " Wicked is here the generic term ; iniquitous 
signifies that species of wlckedess which consists in violat- 
ing the law of right betwixt man and man ; nefarious is 
that species of wickedness which consists in violating the 
most sacred obligations. The term uncked, being indefin- 


ite, is commonly applied in a milder sense than iniquitous ; 
and iniquitous than nefarious : it is tviked to deprive 
another of his property unlawfully, under any circum- 
stances ; but it is iniquitous if it is done by fraud and 
circumvention; and ne/arious if it involves any breach of 
, trust. Any undue influence over another, in making of 
his will, to the detriment of the rightful heir, is iniqui- 
tous ; any underhand dealing of a servant to defraud his 
master is nefarious." 

will, v., a defective verb used along with another verb to ex- 
press future time ; in the first person, tvill promises or 
expresses fixed purpose or determinatiou, as ' I zvill eat ' ; 
in the second and third person, tvill simply foretells, as 
* thou wilt eat,' ' he tvill eat ' ; would, pt. of toill ; I wish 
or wished to, familiarly, wish to do, or to have ; should 
wish. See Seath's " High School Grammar," pp. 226-231 ; 
also, McElroy's '^ Structure of English Prose," pp. 108-110. 

word, n., an articulate sound, or continuation of sounds, ex- 
pressing an idea ; the letters which represent it. 

Syn. : term, expression. 

Ant. : idea, conception. 

Syn. dis. : " Word is here the generic term ; the other 
two are specific. Every term and expression is a word ; 
but every word is not denominated a terrn or expression. 
Language consists oi words ; they are the connected sounds 
which serve for the communication of thought. Term, 
from terminus a boundary, signifies any word that has a 
specific or limited meaning ; expression signifies any word 
which conveys a forcible meaning. Usage determines 
words; science fixes terms; sentiment provides expres- 
sions. The purity of a style depends on the choice of 
words ; the precision of a writer depends upon the choice 
of his terms; the force of a writer depends upon the 
aptitude of his expressions. The grammarian treats on 
the nature of words ; the philosopher weighs the value of 
" scientific terms ; the rhetorician estimates the force of 

worldly, adj., relative to this life; devoted to this life and 
its enjoyments ; bent on gain ; sordid, vile. 


Syn, : secular, temporal. 

Syn. dis. : " Worldly means relative to the world, 
especially relating to this world oi' life, in contradistinction 
to the life to come ; as. worldly pleasures, affections, max- 
ims, actions, and the like. Secular means relating to the 
woi-ld, in the sense of worldly fashions, habits, duties, 
studies, music, modes of living, etc. Temporal means, 
literally, lasting for a time, as distinguished from eternal. 
In common parlance worldly is opposed to heavenly ; 
temporal, to eternal ; secular, to ecclesiastical or religious, 
Secular is morally an indifferent term : the same may 
commonly be said of temporal ; but worldly has generally 
a bad sense, as a worldly spirit is one wliicli is imbued 
by sordid principles of gain, and is wanting in high- 
minded ness or purity of motive." 

writer, n., an author ; a member of the literary profession . 
a penman, clerk, or amanu(;nsis. 

Syn. : penman, author, scribe. 

Syn. dis. : " Of these the most generic is writer, mean- 
ing one who wi-ites, whether by writing is meant literary 
composition or the mere formation of letters by the pen, 
by the type machine, or by any similar process. Feuman 
is a man who handles a pen, and properly means one 
skilled in the use of the i)en mechanically — a master of 
caligraphy. Author is one whose pen or writing is the 
medium of original thoughts. The term has a familiar 
and more dignified meaning. A writer of a letter is not 
termed technically an author, unless the letter has passed 
into a literary form. On the other hand, he who wrote 
the letter might be called, in the general sense of the 
term, the author of it, if its contents were canvassed or its 
writer c died to account for its statements, tone, or pur- 
port." Scrihe is a now rather obsolete term for a 
professional penman or transcriber, 


youthful, adj., being in the early stage, or pertaining to the 
early part, of life ; fresh or vigorous, as in youth. 
Syn. : juvenile, puerile, young. 
Ant. : aged, senile, mature, old. 


Syn. dis. : " Youthful signifies full of youth, or in the 
complete state of youth : juvenile, from the Latin juvenis, 
signifies the same ; but puerile from puer a boy, signifies 
literally boyish. Hence the first two terms are taken in 
an indifferent sense, or at least always in the sense of 
what is suitable to a boy only : thus we speak of youthful 
vigour, youthful employments, juvenile performances, 
juvenile years, and the like : but piiertle objections, 
puerile conduct, and the like. Sometimes juvenile is 
taken in the bad sense when speaking of youth in contrast 
with men, as juvenile tricks ; but puerile is a much 
stronger term of reproach, and marks the absence of 
manhood in those who ought to be men." 


zeal, '^•j passionate ardour in the pursuit of anything ; eager- 
ess in any cause or behalf, good or bad. 

" The ardour of his friendship, and his zeal in the Master's 
cause, prompted the fervour with which he spoke." 

Syn. : ardour, fervour, earnestness, enthusiasm. 

Ant. : apathy, indifference, coldness, torpor. 

Spn. dis. : " Zecd is passionate ardour in favour of a 
person or a cause ; ardour is simply warmth or heat of 
passion in Kve, pursuit, or exertion. Fervour denotes 
the constitutional state or temperament of individuals. 
We speak of the fervour of passion, declamation, suppli- 
cation, desire, as demonstrative of warmth : ardour is 
more deeply seated ; as ardent friendship, love, zeal, 


The lists which make up this part of the " Word-Book " are 
intended to serve as a supplement to the High School Gram- 
mar, of which Chaptei's IV. and XIX. ought to be read. 

For the sake of convenience a short summary of the main 
facts brought out in these chapters is here given. 

1. Words according as they can or cannot be broken up into 
parts, each of which is itself a word, are said to be COmpoUIld. 

or simple words. Thus helmsman is a compound, but 

its parts helm's and man are simple words. Through the 
changes they have undergone, many compounds have come to 
look like simple words, e. g., lord, doff, or do not shew the 
meaning of each part; as, WOman, once wif-man, i.e., 

2. Many simple words are formed from other simple words 
by putting a letter or letters before or after them ; as stand- 
ing, bystander, withstand, all from stand, the parts put 

before, viz., by, with, being called prefixes, and the parts 
placed after, viz., ing, er, SuflQxeS. Such words are called 


3. Such words as stand, although not formed from any 
simpler word are not alone in the lang lage. Thus staff, 
stead, stalk, stop, have the same simple notion of stand- 
ing, iind have the same sound, st, followed oy a or a 
corruption of a. Hence we say that thev all contain the 
root ST A, and we call each of them, as not formed from any 
simpler word but only from the roOt, a radical or root- 


4. Again we find that many of the words the English tongue 
has borrowed from Latin and Greek, as sta-te, Sta-tue, 

sta-tute, sta-ble,^ sta-tics,^ apo-sta-te,^ sy-ste-m,^ 

1 As a noun, " a gtanding-plotee " for cattle ; as an adj., " that can stand." 

2 The science of keeping things at a standstill. 

* A stander off from his old associat«>^ or principles. 
< What stands together. 


have the syllable sta, with the notion of standing ; we con- 
clude, therefore, that English, Latin, and Greek have the root 
STA in common. 

6. The changes that the forms of words undergo, often com- 
pletely altering their ap|)earance, arise fi'om three main sources, 
the desire of ease, analogy, or the desire for uniformity, 
and the effects of emphasis. 

6. From the desire of ease often amounting to actual 
carelessness, comes assimilation, that is cha ginga sound 
into one more like that which immediately precedes or, more 
commonly, foUowS it. Examples are : 

(i.) irregular, illegal (for in-regular, in-legal), where 
we have complete assimilation. 

(ii.) imperfect where we have incomplete assimilation. 

(iii.) woman, balance, for wif-man, bi-lance, and 
the pronunciation " menny " of many where a vowel is 
assimilated to a following vowel (which change is called 

That a vowel may be influenced by the following consonant, is 
seen from the correct pronunciation of clerk, sergeant, 
Derby (Sr, not er). This accounts for the change of a to o 
before n, and before labials as in stop. 

(iv.) public (c^., people, leaves, dig (O.E., dic-ian), 
in which the voiceless p, f, catch from the following 
vowel or semi-vowel the vibration which makes them 


7. From the same source arise transposition, as fresh, 

nostrU, for fersc, nasthyrl ; epenthesis, as tapes-try, 

kin-d-red, O.F. tapisserie, O.E. kynrede, the inserted t or d 
making easier groups than sr, nr; and substitution of 
easier sounds, viz. : 

(a) Spirants for stops, which require complete con- 
tact. Examples are hitner, lath (O.E., hider, latta ; 

short, shire (O.E., sceort, scire); have, heave (O.E., 

habb-an, hebban) ; -ceive (Fr.) for L. CAP. 

(b) Linguals and palatals,^ or labials f t guttu- 
rals (which are sounded in the back part of the mouth). 

1 The so-called palatals ch and j are really the linguals t and d, followed by the 
sibilants sh and zh. 


Exam|.les are : child, ditch, edge (O.E. cild, die, ecg), 
charm, chief (O.F., cliarme, chef, from L. carmen, 
caput) ; tough, roUgh, laugh (O.E., rdh, tdh, 
hleabhan). Greek has even changed, by assimilation qu 
to pp as hippos, L. equti-8, horse. 

(c) Vowels for consonants, esjjecially in groups, as 
sorrow, borough (O.E., sorh, burh). Conversely u 
or i before a vowel changes through rapid pronunciation 
into w or y. Thus in France men pronounce out " we," 
while the French-Canadians keep the old pronunciation. 
" oo-ee." 

(d) Front and high for back and low vowels. 

See High School Grammar, pp. 404-5. 

Thus i stands for ge, as in riddle, O.E. rsedels. 

II II II U, in the ending ing of gerunds, O.E. -ung. 

II II II e, II II participles, O.E. -ende. 

ie M 11 eo, priest, friend (O.E. preost, fVeond). 

In Latin words we find that as a rule i is put for the final 
vowel of the first part of a compound, and for the open^ a or 
e of a syllable following a prefix. 

Compare anni-versary, corni-ferous, with annu-al, 
cornu-copia^ ; also recipient, abstinent, with capture, 
tenant. i 

If a is not open, it is represented by e, as reception. 
Similarly, Q and u represent au, as exclude, explode, 

cp. clause and plaudit. 

8. Loss occurs especially in COnSOnant-groups and in 
unaccented syllables ; as— 

(i.) know, gnaw, laugh (O.E. hleahh-an), ring 
(O.E. bring). 

(ii.) story, sample, for history,^ example, (aphse- 
resis); lark, England, for lavrock, Englaland, (syn- 
cope) ; lent, cab, for lencten,* cabriolet, (apocope). 

9. These changes tend generally to shortening and wearing 
down words, often to a great extent, as appears from such 

* ' Open ' means not followed by a consonant in the same syllable. 

* ' Cornucopia ' is really a phrase, not a compound. 

* Then accented on the second syllable, 

* O.E, for Spring ; probably the time when days grow long. 


words as alms, aim, from eleemosyna, sestimare. But they are 
counteracted in part by emphasis and analogy. 

10. Ejinphasis tends not only to save the syllable that 
i-eceives it, the accented syllable, from change, but sometimes 
also leads to its being strengthened. Thus we say COW for 
O.E. cu (pronounced coo, as still in Scotland), sight for O.E. 

The effect of accent is often diminished when syllables are added, cp 
child with children, nation with national. 

Perhaps it is a desire to emphasise the end of a word that 

leads to excrescent letters, as t of tyrant, ancient, Fr, 

tyran, ancien ; n of bittern. 

11. Analogy, or the tendency to treat alike all cases that 
seem alike, often prevents the wearing away of words. In 
grammar, it is seen chiefly in producing * regulai-ity,' as in 
making s and ed. the prevailing inflexions for the plural of 
nouns and the past of verbs. 

In derivation it is seen in such extensions as WOndroUS, 
windlass, for wonders, Windace, owing to the speaker's 
thinking of the common suiiix -OUS, and lace, a string or rope. 
This tendency to find or make a meaning in our words shews 

itself in such forms as sparrow-grass, jerked meat, for 

J^SparagUS, Charki. Words so altered are appropriately 
called by a late writer " Blunder WOrds." 

12. The changes that Latin underwent in becoming what 
is called French are especially noteworthy. Here aCCent 
is very important. 

(i.) The syllable accented in Latin is the final 

syllable in French, all vowels that follow the accent being 
lost or changed to e mute. Examples are — 

L. tem'-pus, O.F. terns, En/, tense. 

ca'-mera, " chambre, n chamber. 

- mas'culus, " masle or male, n male. 

(ii.) The vowel just before the accent is very 
often dropped ; as— 

blasphema're, O.E. blasmer, Eng. blame, 
gestima're, n esmer, n aim. 

(ii.) Consonants are often dropped, both between 
two vowels and from groups ; as— 


catena, O.F chaine, Eng. chain. 

precari, n preier, m pray. 

So blame and aim from blaspheme, and sestimars. 
(iv.) Unaccented e or i before a vowel becomes g 

or ch, often with loss of ilie j)receding consonant j ab — 

appropiare, our approach, 
granea, i< grange, 

sapius, II sage. 

(v.) For Latin p, we often find French b or v ; for b we 

find V ; for c before a, ch ; as, arrive, Fr. arriver, Late 
Lat. adripare ; chevalier, Fr. cheval, O.L. caballus. 

(vi.) To initial SC, St, sp a meaningless e has been prefixed, 
as : — 

esquire, O.F. escuier, late Lat. scutarius, 
estate, h estat, L. status, 
especial, n especial, L. specialis. 

13. Moreover nearly all words borrowed from either Latin 
or Greek have lost their last syllables. 

14. The changes which pure English words have undergone 
cannot be so clearly defined. Most of them are exemplified 
under paragraphs 5-8. But the following may here be 

(i.) Final vowels and inflections are dropped or changed 
to e mute. 

sceamu, shame, 

luflan, love. 

(ii.) Consonant groups are simplified, h being dropped 
from hi, hr, hn, Wh being put tor hw, and sh for sC, 

hlot, bring, hnut, hwerf, sceort, 
lot, ring, nut, wharf, short. 

(iii.) O is often changed to ch, Cg to dg, g to y or i, 

ceaf, ecg, gear, segl, 

chaff, edge, year, sail. 

(iv.) Vowels are often changed to those with less open 
sound. Thus : a is changed to o (bef re ng. Id), as aid, 
lang, our old; long ; k is changed to o (regulaly), as 
ham, our home ; 6 is changed to OO (regularly), as 

soth, our sooth. 



Here follows a list of prefixes arranged so as to bring to- 
gether those which, though belonging to different languages, 
are of the same origin, and have similar meanings. " Inten- 
sive" denotes the use of a prefix to strengthen or give force to 
the meaning of a word or root. Thus shamed means ' much 
ashamed,' convert * to turn thoroughly or altogether.' 

The roots (see par. 2, and H. S. Grammar, pp. 76-7) are 
printed in crt[)itals. Many words, however, come, not directly 
from the roots, but from passive participles, the sign of which is 
t (akin to our -d or -ed). Thus ac-cep-t, ex-cep-t, from CAP, 
cap-ir. Wheu the root ends in d or t the participle has s or 
SS \ thus remit and remiss, from MIT, miss-. When roots are 
pnnted thus, FEIl = BEAR, the meaning is that they are not 
only alike in meaning, but also of the same origin, though 
belonging to different languages. 

The student should give the meaning of every example 
somewhat thus — 

" Akin, of kin ; abject, cast away, from the root J AC, cast"; 
giving always to the prefix the force specified in the heading 
of the paragraph. 

1.— "From, off, away." 

E. of, a ; akin, anew, adown^ (dun, hill), offal, offspring. 
Intensive — athirst, ashamed. 

L, ab, a : abject (J AC, cast), ab-s-tract (TRAH, draw), 
a-vert (VERT, turn). 

G. apo, ap : apogee (ge, earth), ap-helion (helio-s, sun), 
apo-stle (STEL, send), apo-calypse.^ 

The primary form must have been apa, to which, by Grimm's 
Law, Gothic of, O. E. of, correspond. 

2.—" On." 

E. on, an, a: aboard, an-on ("in one moment"), anvil 

(O. E. an-filte^), onset, unhss (" on less" condition). 
G. ana, (i) up : anatomy (;TAM, cut), analyse (LY, break).' 

1 Lit., " off the hill ; " hence comes the adv. and prep. dovm. 

* " Taking away the veil," " re-velation," from kalypsis, covering. 

* From fyll-au to fell, make to fall, strike. 


(ii) back: ana-gram (gnimma-t, letter, from GRAPH 
write j, aitapaest,^ anachronism (clirono-s, time). 

3. — " Against, opposite." 

E. an (for and), a : answer (" swear against"*), along {^O. E. 

Un (befoi'e verbs) : unlock, untie. 

G. anti, ant : antipodes (podes = feet), antarctic, ant'typ , 
anthem (for antiphon, phone sound). 

L. ante, before : antechamber, antedate, anti-cipate (CAP> 
take, with i for e of the prefix). 

From the notion "opposite," i. e., face to face, we get 
that of " before." 

4.—" Out." 
E. a (O.E. d) : ago (" gone out "), arise, arouse, awake. 

Intensive — abide (" bide out "), affright (for a-fright). 
The notion "out" readily passes into that of "out 
and out," " greatly." 

5.— To, at, near. 

E. at, a : atone* (" set at one "), ado ( := to do"*,* tw t (O. E. 
setwitan, rei)roach). 

L. ad, a: advert, admit (MIT, send), aspect (SPEC, look). 

ac, af, &c., Fr. a: accede (CED, go, yield), affect (FAC, do), 
aggress (GR AD, gress-, step), alkire (" to the bait "), an- 
nex (NECT, nex-, join), append (PEND, hang), arrange, 
assist (SIST, stand), attract, attend (TEND, stretch), 
achieve (chef, L. caput — head). 

N.B. — Admiral, advance, and advantage are " blunder- 
words" for amiraP (Milton's ^' ammiral"), avavnce, a,nd 
avantage. Abbreviate and aminunition are solitary exam- 
ples of ab- or am,- from ad. 

1 Lit., a dactyl, " reversed," or struck back from PAV, Qr. PAI, strike. 

2 Probably at first an answer to a charge in court. 

* " Over against in length." 

* This pronunciation of one is retained in alone and only. 

' The use of at for to before the infinitive is of Norse origin. 

* Amiral is from Arabic amir, prince or emir ; advance and advantage from Fr. 
avancer, avanta/je, which come from avant, before, from L. ab ante, lit. "from 


6.— Not. 

G. an, a : anarchy (ARCH, rule), anomaly (homalos, alike), 
afatlvy (path-os^ feeling). 

E. un : untrue, untruth, unpleasant. 

L. in (ini, il, ir, i-) : informal, insecure, immature, illegal, 

in'esistible, i-gnor int, i-gnoble, i-gnom,in-y} 
E. ne : neither, never, nought, and not (ne -|- aught). 
L. Tl-O'H'.^ >ionage, nonsense. 

N.B. — (i.) Do not confound un, not, with un prefixed 
to verbs, which means to reverse the act denoted by t^>ft 

(ii.) As appears from un-plea8am.t, un is often prefixed to 
foreign words if usage has made them familiar, especially 
to those that have taken English endings, like -ing, -ed. 
Un is often prefixed to words in -able, hardly ever to 
those in -ible, as unassailable, but inaudible. 

(iii.). Besides these senses, a- may stand forO.E., ge au 
in aware, afford ; L. ex, e, Fr. es, out, as amend, abash, 
assay for essay ; O.F., ah, as alas. 

(iv.) Excei)t in the instances given here and under 1, 3, 
4, 6, a before a true English word represents on. 

7.— Both, on both sides. 

L. Ambi, atnb : ambidextrous (dexter, right handed), amb-i- 
ent^ (I, go), amb-iy-uous (AG, drive, lead, do), amputate 
(puta-re, to lop). 

amphi : amphitheatre, amphibious (jbio-s, life). 

8. — Near (probably akin to ambi). 

E. be: beside, abaft, about (for "on-by-aft," "on-by-out"). 
above (O.E., ufan, up). 

Intensive — bedeck, beset, bedim. 

Be- seems to form verbs as in benumb. 

1 All three from GNO = know, whence Old L. gruirus, knowing, gno-hUis (later 
nobili s), noble, c/ndinen (later nomen), name. 
- A compound word. 

6 The endinffs -ant and -ent are equivalent to -in^r. 
* 'i'he diss of dissyllable was originally a misspellingf. 


9.— Well. 

L. bene : hens-fic-ent and bene-fit (FAC, do, make), benign 
(GEN, produce). 

11— Down. 

G. cata, cat : catarrh (RHY, flow), catechise (lit., "sound* 
down "), cathedral (hed-ra = seat). 

11 —Around. 

J_i. Circum : circumnavigate, circumvent (VEN, come), 
circuit (I, go). 

Really a case of circus, a ring, used adverbially. 

12.— Together. 

L- com (co, con, col, cor) : commingle, compute (puta-re, 
reckon), coheir, co-operate, concur (CUR, run), collect 
(LEG, gather), correlate, council (Fr. form of con-cili-um, 
a calling together). 

Intensive — as in convert, commute (muta-re, change), 
condign (dignu-s worthy), correct (rectu-s, right). 

G. Syn (syl, sym, sy) : syntax (taxis, arrangement), synthesis 
(THE, place), syllable (LAB, take), sympathy (pathos, 
feeling), system (STA, stand). 

Com and syn are probably weakenings of a common form 

Contra (Pr. counter) against : contravene {VEN come), 
controvert, counteract. 

13. — Twice, in two. 

G. di : digraph (GRAPH, write), dissyllable^ 

L. bis or bi : bisect (SEC, cut), biscuit (Fr. cuit, cooked), 


Our tun of twilight points clearly to an original dvi(s). 
(see High Sch. Grammar, p. 408), shortened to di- and 
bi-» This dvis is a case of dva, L. and G. duo, E. two. 

' G. eche-ein, akin to echo. 

* Diss- is an old misspelling for dis-. 

* Lit., " Counting the sixth day (i.e., the sixth before the 1st of March) tvnce. 


14. — Asunder, through. 

L. dis : dispel (PEL, drive), distract, disubeij, disjoin, differ 

(FER, bear), diverge (verg-ere, slope). 
Fr. des, de : descant (canta-re, sing), defame, defeat, defy 

(fides, faith), delay, deluge, defile (to file off"), deploy, detach 

(cp. at-tack). 
G. dia; : (i.) dia-ly-sis, dia-gnosis (GNO = know). 

(iL) through, as in diatonic, diameter (metro-n, measure). 

15. — From, away, down. 

L. de : deject, detract, deposit (positu-s, placed), deduce (DUG, 

Negative — detect (TEG-, cover). 

Intensive — deny (nega-re, say no), deceive (^CAP,^ take), 
delight (LAO, entice). 


G. dys: t/ysen^ery (entera, entrails), dyr.pepsy (pep.sis, diges- 

17. -Well, 

G. eu : eulogy (logo-s, speech), euphony (phone, sound), eu- 
phemism (i)heine, speaking, PHA, speak). 

18.— Out, out and out, thoroughly.' 

L. ex (e ef ; Fr., es, as, s) : extract, expel, extend, (TEND, 
stretch), educe, elaborate, effect, effeminate, (feniina, wo- 
man), essay and assay, estreat, escape ("get out of one's 
cape"), scald (caldus, for calidus, hot). 

G. ex (ec) : ex-odus (hodos, way), eccentric, eclectic (LEG, 

L. extra, outside : extraordinary, extravagant (vaga-ri, 

exo-gen (GEN, produce) and exotic are from Gr. exo, outwards. 

19.— Before, forward, openly. 

E. fore : foreknow, forestall, forehead. 

• CAP in French words is weakened to -ceive, and capt to -ceitor -ceipt. 


L. pro: proceed, propel, prnfdne} ('before the temple'^); 
" Instead of" proconsul, pro cathedral. 

(Fr. pur) purvey, provide (VID, see), pursue, pro- 
secute (SEQ, follow). 

G. pro (for) : prologue (logos, speech), prophet (PHE, speak), 

L. pre : predict, (DIG, say), preposition, prehistoric, prejudice 

(judic-ium, judgment ; judic-era, judge). 

20.— From, away. 

E. for : forbear, forbid, forgive, forget, forswea/r. 

Intensive — forlorn ("quite lost"). So the obsolete 
forbled, furpined, etc. 

N.B. — Forego is a ' blunder word,' the true form being 
forgo. In forfeit, foreclose, the first element is L. foris, 
out of doors, outside. 

21.— In, into on. 

E. in '. inbred, inlay ; imbed or embed, impound.'^ 
L. in (im, il, ir, Fr., en, em): invert, incur, intend (TEN'D, 
stretcli^), impel, impend, illumine (lumen, light), irrigate 
(riga-re, wet) ; endanger, embalm, empower. 

"Against" : impugn (pugna-re, fight', impute iputa-re, 
G. en (em, el) : energy ( = in-working*), endemic (demos, 
people) ; emblem (BEL, throw or put), em-pyr-ean (pyr, 
fire), ellipsis (LEIP, leave). 

Endogen and esoteric contain the adverbs endvs and eso 
inwards, both derived from G. en. 

22.— Within, between, among. 

L. intra : intramural (muru-s, wall). 

L. intro : introduce, intromission (MIT, send), introspection. 

* Therefore ' outside of it, unholy'. 

*The change of E. in to im or en is caused by the analog-y of the Latin prefix tn. 
» Literally stretch (the mind) upon. 

< The G. erg-on was originally wergon, which by Grimm's Law answers exactly to 
work, 0. K were. 

* Really a " leaving in " (the mind) of a thought, instead of expressing it. 


L. inter (intel, Fr. entre) : international, interfere (FER, 
bear\ intellect (LEG, choose), enterprise (Fr. pris, taken). 
Intra (intro) alone means "within"; Inter, "between 
or among." 

23.— lU. 

L. male Tmal): malefactor, malevolent (VOL = will), mal- 
content, maltreat. 

24. — Among, after. 

E. mid. : midship, midriff" (hrif, belly) : — sense genei*ally 
" middle." 

Gr. meta : (i.) metaphysics, method (" way after"). 

(ii.) meta-phor (PHOR = FER = bear), metonymy 
^onyma, name), meta-thesis (THE, place) — all with the 
sense "change," i.e., putting after what was before. 

25. — Wrongly. 

Ej. mis ■ misbehave, misgive. 

N.B. — In misadventure, misalliance, mischance, mischief 
("wrong head"), miscount, miscreant (lit., misbeliever), 
misnomef, misprise, misprision ; mis is a corruption of 
Fr. mes from L. minus, less. 

26.— Upon, 

G. epi : epigram, epidemic, epitaph (^taphos, tomb), epoch.^ 

27.— Against. 

L. ob (op, of, oc, os) : object, obstacle (STA, stand), obstruct 
(STRUG, build), opposite, offer, offend (FEND, dash), 
occur, occult ("covered over"), ostensible (TEND, show). 

28. — Beside, different from. 

G. para: (i.) parhelion, piralysis,^ parable,^ parallel (edlela, 
each other), (ii.) paradox ^^doxa, seeming), paralogism 
(logismos, calculation). 

' Lit., a holding upon, originally applied to a star's apparent stopping after reaching 
its culmination. 

2 Lit. ' a breaking beside,' i. e., at one side —referring to the fact that one side is 
usually affected. 

" Lit, ' something put (thrown) beside ' another for comparison. 


N.B.- In paruchule, parapet, para.-^l, the first element is de- 
rived from L. para-re, to make ready, lieiice to parry or guard. 
Paradise is from an old Persian word meaning "a park." 

29.— Through, thoroughly, amiss. 

L. per : (i.) 2)ermit (MIT, send), perspective, perspire (spira-re, 
to breathe), peroration (' speaking through to the end '). 

(ii.) perfect, perceive, jmrdon (doiin-er ; L. dona-re, give;), 
paramount} (iii.) pervert, perjury (jura-re, to swear). 

30. — Around, near. 

G. peri : perimeter, period (" way around "), perigee, peri- 

31. ^-Almost, 

L pen : peninsula (insula, island) penult /ultimus, last). 

32.— After. 

L. post: postpone (pon-ere, to put), postscript (SCRIB, write). 

33.— Towards, 

G. pros : proselyte (elytos, come), 

L. per (iJOS, pol) : portend, possess (SED, sit), pollute (lu-ere, 

34.— Back, again.* 

L. re, red : reject, return, renew, repel, remote (* moved back 
or away'), redeem (EM, buy), redolent (ole-re, to smell), 
redound (unda-re, flow), redintegrate (integer, whole). 

35. — Aside, by oneself. 

L. Sed orse : sed-i-tion, ("going aside") secede, select, separate, 
and sever (para-re, make ready, put). 

sober and solve have SO another form of se (ehrius, 
drunken; LU, loose). 

^ Lit. 'quite uphill,' or ' at top' ; O.F. am nt ; L. ad monteia, at the mountain. 

2 The force of the i>refix is almost lost in receive, rejoice, renown (Fr. nom, name', 
repute and the three cognate words, rcpro'iate, reprove and reprieve; lit. to prove 
again, or rather, perhaps, 'to throw back the proof.' 


36.— Under, upwards. 

E. up: uphold, upbear, vjybraid,^ (O.E. bregdan, to braid). 

L. sub (sup, suf, sue, sug, sus, sum) : subject, submit, suppress, 
support (portare, to carry ^, suffer ("bear up"), suffice 
('' make up"), succour (CUR, rnin), succumb (cumb-ere, lie 
down), sustain (TEN, hold), subtend, suspend (PEND, 
hang), surrogate, suggt^st (^GES, carry, bring in), summon 
(mone-re, warn). So subterfuge? 

G. hypo : hypothesis (placing under), hypo-tenuse^ (=sub- 
tending), hypogastric (gastei", stomach), hyphen*" (hen, one). 
The primitive form is upa, Eng. up (also w/of above) ; 
L. and G. prefixed s, probably part of an adverb meaning 
' from ' or ' out,' whence perhaps the meaning ' upwards,' 
i. e., from under. This S Greek has as usual changed to h.- 

37. — Over, above. 

E. over : oversee, over-eat, overtake (catch one over or ahead 
of us). 

L. super (Fr. sur) : superscription, superhuman, supervise 
(VID, see), supersede, surpass, surmount, surloin, sur- 
name, surround, for sur-ound (unda, wave). 

G. hyper : hyperbole (' shooting or throwing over the mark'), 
hypercritical, hyperbatcn (going beyond), hyperborean (bor- 
eas, north wind"'). 

38.— Across. 

L. trans (tra, Fr. ti-af, tres) : transport, 'transfer, trans-it, 
traduce, traverse, traffic (FAC, make, do), trespass (pas, 

tran (before S : transcend (SCAND, climb), transcript. 

39.— Beyond. 

L. ultra : ultra-marine, idtramontane, ultra-radical. 

1 Skeat quotes ' Breg-dth s6na fednd, i. e., 'he will soon seize the fiend' ; so that up- 
braid would mean to seize upon, arrest, accuse, 

2 From sub-ter, a comparative of sub and FUG, flee. 

* The tenousa is a participle from TEN, stretch. See the figure of Euclid I. 47. 

* Joininj^ ' under one,' i. e., into one word. 

B Perhaps this at first really meant 'across the mountains' (i. e., the Balkan , aa 
boreas seems to come from an old word 60/ i— meaning mountain. 


Outrage (O.F. oultrage), is a derivative from 'idira, 
used as a separate word. 

40. -Against, back. 

E. with. : withstand, withdraw, withhold. A less common 
prefix is found in gainsay. 

From some of these prefixes used as separate words, or 
words related to them, derivatives and compounds are 

ab ante : avaunt, advantage, advance-ment. 

extra : exterior, extreme, extraneous, strange (O.F. estrange), 
estrange, extrinsic. 

inter : interior, intimate, intestine (intus, within), entrails 
enteric (Gr). 

post : posterior, yosthumons, postern (O.F. posterle), posterity, 

super : superior, supreme, superb (superbus, proud), summit 
and sum (summus, highest ; summa, total), insuperable- 

Paragon is from Spanish paracon (pro-ad-con), in com, 
parison with. 

The following stems, not properly prefixes, often form 
the first part of a compound : — 
auto (Gr.) : self; as auto-graph. 
demi (F.): half; as demi-god. 

hetero (Gr.): other; as Ae^eroc^oa;?/ (other opinion). 
homo (Gr-) • same; as /io»io^ew«OMS (gen-os = kind). 
mono (L.) : one, only; as monograph. 
multi (L-) • ui^iiy 'y ^s multilateral, multitude. 
omni (ti-) • '^'} ^^ omnivorous (vora-re, eat). 
pan (Gr-) • ^ (also panto-); SiS pantheist, pantomime. 
poly (Gr.) : many; »s, polygon (gonia, angle). 
semi (L.) ; hemi (G.) : half; as semi-circle, hemisphere. 
vice (tc) : instead of; as vice-consul. 

In the following words the form of the prefix is much 
changed : — 


afford : ge-forth-ian, to fiu-ther. 

affray (whence afraid) : O.F., effraier, from ex + friihu^ peace. 
amend, assay : for emend, essay. 

coil and cul! : O.F. coUlir, L. colligere, gather together. 
couch. : O.F. colcher, L. col-loca-re, to place. 
curry, to : O.F. conroier, roi, order, 
quaint: O.F. coint, neat; L. cognitus, known. 
meg rim : for hemi-cranium, ' half-skull,' headache, 
pilgrim : O.F. pelerin (? pelegrin) ; h. peregrinus, stranger. 
pilcrOW : for pararaph. 
spend and sport : for dispend and disport. 
provost : praepositus, one set over, 
provender : praebenda, things to be furnished, 
somersault (or -set) : F. soubre sault, leaping over. 
sombre : L. umbra, shade ; prefix ex- or sub-. 
elope and uproar are from Dutch, ont-loopen, to run away, 
and op roer, stirring up. 

SufiOxes Traceable to Words. 

-ard, (F. from O.H.Gr. hart) " one who " : dunkard, dastard 
— generally implies excess. 

-dom, (O.E. ddm, judgment) "rule," "the being" — earl- 
(fom, wisdom, Christendom,, bumbledom, rascaldom. 

-hood or head, (O.E. had state), "the being" widowhood, 
childhood, godhead. 

-ship (O.E. scap-an, to shape) ^' the lOQing" friendship, sureti 
ship, apprenticeship. 

-fast, firm : steadfast (stead, place) shamefaced^. 

-ful, full of, producing : dutiful, dreadful, masterfil. 

-less (O.E. leas, loose) without : speechless, guiltless. 

-ly (O.E. lie, like)-. |i) ViH^Q'. friendly, masterly, (ii) man- 
ner : speedily. 

• So Prof. Paris as quoted by Skeat. But perhaps O.H.6. fridu, peace, is more 
likely to be the word that found its way into French. 

2 Commonly spelled "shamefast" in Shakspeare's time (see Schmidt), so that th« 
meaning is, " firm in modesty." 


-some (O. E. sama, same) " same as," " tendinj^ to " : 

darksome, wearisome, winsome (O.E. wyn, joy^. 

-ward, direction : northward, wayward (for away-ward). 

-wise, manner : likewise, crosswise. 

Less common suffixes are found in knowledge, wedlock (Idc, gift, play) 
hatred, kindred, older kyn-red, (ra(^d-an, to advise), bvikopric (rice, 
kingdom) northern, eastern (from run). D6m is our present "doom." 

English Suffixes with Analogues Latin and Greek. 

-m, that which: sea-m (sew), gleam (glow), bloom and 
blossom (h\ow), /ath-om (FATH to extend). 

-m, S-m, -ism (G. ), act or state : enthusiasm (entheos^, in- 
spired), galvanism, criticism, tvitticism^. 

-m (Gr. for -mat _) schism (schiz-ein, split), problem (BEL throw). 
-me (F. for L. -men) " that which " volume (VOLV, roll), 
crime, legume or legumen, leaven (leva-re, to raise). 
The t of Greek and the n of Latin derivatives appear in secondary 
derivatives ; e.g., problematic, voluminouti, criminal. 

-ment (L.) act, result : payment, pavement. 

-n, en, that which, (suffix of passive participle), little, 
(ii) made of, like, (iii; to become (rare), to make. 

morn (MOR, shine), corn and quern, chicken (cock); 
golden, silken ; waken, warn (ware). 
-k-in, Httle : lamAkin, napkin (nappa, a cloth). 

-n (L.), an, ain (F), ine, -in, belonging to, one who: 

Roma-n, human -ane, (homo, man), librari-an, Canad- 
ian, (by analogy), European, certain, canine. 
(4) sovereign axvd foreign for sov-ran (Mi\ion), for-ain. 

-on, (1) OOn, (F.) one who. (ii) large : centurion, bufoon, 
million, balloon. 

-nd: -nt and ent (L.), -ant (F,) = -ing, hence the doer: 

friend (freond, loving), fend (fednd, hating), errand f as- 
pira-nt (aspira-re), milita-nt (milita-re, to wage war) ; 
adhereyit, co fdent and confidant (F). 

1 Lit. " having a god (theos) within." 

2 The c is inserted by Analogy. 
8 Lit., going, or that goes. 


This must be carefully distinguished from — 
-nd or end (L.) that must or should : reverend, addend, 
tremendous, second (SEQ, follow). 

-bund (L.) = -ing : mori-bund (mori, to die), vagaband (vaga- 
ri, wander). 

N.B. — We must distinguish from the participle -ing — 
-ing (O. E. -ung), the ending of verbal nouns, and 
-ing,^ l-ing, little : farthing, shilling (SKIL, divide), strip- 
ling, sapling (a little "sappy " tree). 

-ness, '' the being : " darkness, drunkenness. 

-ness = n + es for as = L, or. 
-Or^ (L.), eur (Fr.), "the being, the quality of:" ardour 
(arde-re, to burn) candour (cande-i-e, be white), grandeur. 

-ure (L. & E.), " that which is : " figure (FIG, form), 

Leisure, pleasure, are old infinitives in ir, treasure is 0. F. tresor. 

-er, (L.) -est = -ior, comparison-suffixes ; superior, major. 

-er, the doer, one connected with : writer, beggar, liar, 
sailor (misspellings for -er), lawyer, saw-y-er, braz-i er. 

The y may arise from the i that in 0. E. was used to form derivative 
verbs as luf-i-an, to love. 

-er, r, 1, le, (i) that with which ; (ii) to do often or 

feebly : 

(i) finger (cp. Scotch fang, to catch), worider^ (wand), stair 

and stile (stig-an, climb), teasel, nail (nag, scratch), 
(iii) slobber, linger (be long), dribble, drizzle (dreds-an, fall). 

-r, 1, (L.) whence ar, al, ile, belonging to : regular, civi-l 
(civi-3, citizen), servile, polar, tidal. 

-Ole, -ule, -el, r-el little : ulobule, oriole and oriel (Fr. for 
aure-olu-m, golden), satchel, cockerel, fiickerel, mongrel*, 


' Once forming patronymics, as Carling. 

* That the r here stands for S is clear from such derivatives as honextate-m, honesty, 
and hones-tus, honest, from honor ; also from the alternative form in os, as honog. 

^Lit , what makes one turn aside with awe. Skeat quotes, "Thu ne wandast for 
Dtoum men," " Thou earest for no man " 

* From 7ncen(fan, to mingle. ' From !so^+<!h scunner, to nauseate. 


-ary (L. ariu s) -eer, -ier, -er (F.) : belonging to, one 

WllO ; adversary, secondary, mountaineer, brigadier, 

premier, butcher, ivarrior, bachelor, chancellor (-or foi- -er). 

The French -er (for -ier) has become almost undistinguishable from the 

English er (O.E. -ere) ; but if dropping the -er leaves no English word, 

the suffix is probably French, e. g. , butcher, ' 

d, t, th = L. t or te, whence ate, ite ; F. ee, ey, suffix of 

passive participle — that which (ii) possessed of : 
old, naked (nacian, to shame), haft, gift, brand (brenn an 
to burn), uncouth, (cuth, known); winged.; desolate 
(" made quite alone") , script, joint, definite, minute (minu- 
ere, to make less), triistee, payee, jury, army ; robust 
(robur, strength), palmate, passionate. 
We find Italian and Spanish forms in — ade, ado (mas), ada (fern), as 
arcade, palisade, stockade, desperado, armada (= army). 

-ate, sometimes means to make or to be, as captivate, assimi- 
late, militate (milit-em, a soldier) 

-itate implies repetition, as a,gitate. 

Verbs in a-te were once participles, or the imitations of such. 

-et, Ot, Fr. (whence let), little : fiower-et, ballot, stream-let. 

-t, (G.) whence ite ist, one who : prophe-t (PHE, speak), 
pafrio-t (patrio-s,^ belonging to his father), Israelite, 
-ist is formed originally from verbs in ize (Tx. iz-ein) ; as haptis-t from 
baptize ; hence by analogy such words as sinecur-ist, geolog-isl. 

-d, -ad. Gr., that which : monad, dacorde (for -ad). 

-d, -id (L) ; having the quality of : vivid (viv-ere live), fervid 
(FERV, glow). 

-th (d,t) ; ce (F., from L. -tia), ice, is9, ess ; sy and sis,(G.), 

act or state J strength, deed, (do) tide, (TI, divide), 
lieight (for highth^), theft (O. E. theof-th) ^y^^^i-ce, malice 
( malu-s, bad ), franchise ( O.F. franghiss for franc, free), 
largess ; analysis, paralysis and palsy, ec-sta-sy, fancy 
(for fAut-Asy ), frenzy (phren-e-sis, phren, mind), 

' One who kills he-goats (Fr. boo) ; a word that shews the poverty of the people in 
the Middle Ages. 

2 The present sense arose in French (Skeat)— probably through connection with 
patri-s (G.). fatherland. 

* Used by Milton. The use of t is an instance of dissimilation. (H. S. Grammar, 
p. 82,) 


Practice is a Greek adj., prak-ti-ke, suited for doing. Greek and 
French have both changed ti to s, as we in speaking change tion into 
" -shun." The t is retained in secondary derivatives as analyti-c, para- 
lyii-c, ecstati-c. 

-ty, -tude (F. from tat-em-, tuden em^), the being, personal- 
ty and -ity, hy^evity, fortitude, (forti-s, strong). 

-ther = ter and tor (L. and Gr.), or (F. for a-tor) the doer : 

inotlier, brother, sister^ ; minis-ter (minus, less), cap-tor, 
au-thor (for auc-tor, increaser), y^ror, robber, engineer (for 
-or), matador, battledoor^, stevedore^ witli Span, -dor = -tor. 

-der (for ther), == tr (L. and G.), that by which : rudder 
(O.K. ro-ther), bladder theatre (thea- to view), cetitre 
(kent-ein, to goad). 

-S-ter, one who (once fem. only), means of, spinster. Bax- 
ter Brewster,^ songster, bolster (bolla, a ball), holster 
(from Dutch hull-en, to coverj. 

-y, -ow, having, like, (ii.) that which, (iii.) little (O.E. 

-ig) • c (L. & G.), whence ic, ique (F.) belonging to, 

like ■ icy, clayey, mighty , hody,^ willow ( WAL, to roll), 
dummy. Tommy , civi-c (civi-s, citizen), cardia-c (G. 
kardia ;= heart), logi-c (logo-s, speech), antique (ante); 
zoological, &c., with -ical expressing no more than -ic. 

-ish (O E. -isc) = -esque (F from O. H. G. -isk) like, 
belonging to, heathenish, English, Ftench ; picturesque, 
grotesque (like paintings in old crypts or grots). 
" Somewhat " — bluish, oldish. 
ish. (isc) is formed for -Ig by inserting 8 ; -ing, little, by inserting n. 

Latin and Greek Suffixes. 

■y> '6 (^- ^^^ ^- ^^' i"™)> mostly with change of t to c, whence, 

by analogy, cy, ncy, nce, act or state of : and -ry 
(r + y), collection, place, product, art ; forbear- 

1 Double suffixes. 

2 The meanings of these words seem to be respectively, "mana<?er," " bearer" (i.e. 
supporter), " consoler." Daughter (t by dissimilation seems to mean "the milker." 

*Lit. ' beater.' 

* From stipare, to crowd, hence to stow. 

5 Surnames derived from trades once followed by women. 

• Probably " what binds the soul." 


a/nce, suprerriMcy, bankruptcy, modesty, accuracy, (from 
-ate), excellence (from -ent), cavalry, tanner-y, poetry, 

-tor-y, sor-y, or-y place, lending to ; laboratory, manda-, 

tory, cursory (CURj run). 

History (G.) literally means " enquiry " from histor, en- 
quirer, ceme-tery (koiman, to sleep) and mowis-tery 
shortened to minster are analogous foj'mations from 
Greek. Parlour, mirror, reservoir, are shortened forms. 
-ion, (L ) state or act : union and omow (unu-s, one), coercion. 

-tion, -sion. -a-tion (L.), son (Fr.), act, what is done; 

ra-tion and reason i RA, i-eckon), solution, mission (MIT, 
send), redemp-tion and ransom, salva-tion (salva-re, to 
save), starv-ation. 

-ble, able, -i-ble (L) that can be : soluble ( SOLV, 

loosen >, deleble, (dele-re, hlot out), chargeable, inexpressible. 
-CUle, -cle (L. I. F.) (i) cause of, (ii) little : miracle, mi- 
raculous (mira-ri, to wonder), obstacle (obsta-re, to hinder), 

-ge, -age (F. from L. a-ticum) : that, which, place, col- 
lection, belonging to, mira-ge, savage (silva, wood), 
hermitage, foliage, postage. 

-lent (L.) over full of: viru-lent (virus, poison), turbulent 
(turba, crowd). 

-ese -ess, <fec. belonging to : Chinese, burg-ess, covrteous 
(formerly corteys). 

-ish (F.) to make or become : publish, vanish. The Lat. 

suffix is esce, " to become gradually," as deliquesce. 
-ise (F.), ize (G.), to make or become : judaize, civilise. 

-OUS (F.), -OSe (L.), full of: courageous, beauteous, aqu-eous 
(by analogy), verbose (verbu-m, word). 
In many words, especially those in -uous, -ferous-, gerous, -ous is 
unmeaning, -aceous in scientific words means ' having the qualities 
of,' as herbaceous. 

-ive (L.), -iff (F.), that can ; one who : diffusive,^ inexpres- 
sive (note the different force of -ble), plaintive ^ -iff. 
In words from Latin -ive, is generally added to the parti- 
ciple-stem, as in decisive, destructive^ compared with 
decide, destroy. 


Roots and Derivatives. 

Each of the following paragraphs will, in general, begin with 
a group of related English words, together with kindred words 
borrowed from other Teutonic languages. Then follows a list 
of kindred Latin and Gi-eek forms which have given rise to 
what are now English words. 

It must be remembered that the Teutonic languages have 
greatly changed the ' stops ' of the original Indo European lan- 
guage (see the last two pages of the High School Grammar), a 
change which seems to have taken place in this way. The 
oi-iginal Indo-European language had aspirated consonants, gh, 
dh,bh (Greek ch, th, ph; Lat. h and f), from which the 
Teutons dropped h leaving in English g, d, b. Then g, d, b 
were changed to k, t, p, and the original k, t, p to h, th, f. 

This is indicated thus : — 

English g foi- gh, d for dh, b for bh, k, t, h. th, f, answer to 
Latin h, f or d, f or b, ) , -, . 

Greek ch, th, ph, / S' '*' ■"' ^' P* 

In the following lists O.H.G. will mean Old High Gram- 
mar ; I. , Icelandic or old Norse. The sign =:; indicates that the 
words joined by it are parallel forms. A word in italics is de- 
rived from that which precedes it. 

When the root of a group of words is mentioned, it must be 
remembered that the form actually given may be only one of 
two or three differing in their vowels, but all equally primitive. 
Thus FER is the root of differ, PHOR of metaphor. Formerly 
it was supposed that both were " corruptions " of BHAR, but 
this view is now given up, e and o being now recogn zed as 
primitive vowels. When, therefore, a i-oot is given with a as 
its vowel, we must understand this a as sj'mbol for e and o 
also. Similarly when 1 or u is given, we shall probably find 
parallel forms with diphthongs as el, ai, etc. 

Acre (O. E. secer, field) L. ager, field i. e. * what is driven 
over,' from AG, drive, move, lead : whence, L. actu-S, 
impulse ; axi-S axle ; ala, contracted from axula, wing ; 
cp. axle (O.E. eaxl, shoulder); ag-ih-S, nimble; G 
agOgO-S, leader. Ache (O.E. ece), and G. agon, 
struggle (" with notion of violent movement"). 


Der. : acorn (not oak-corn^), agrarian, ambiguity, actuate, 
-arj'^, axial, aisle ; agility ; demagogue (derao-s, people), 
synagogue (agoge, leading), enegetic (G. hege-o-mai, lead), 
hegemony (G. hegemon, leader), strategy, (strato-s, ai-my ), 
stratagem, agony. 

Aghast,^ gasted, (Lear, II., i., 57), gaze, ghost (O.E. 
gast), ghastly. Teut. GAIS, to terrify, cp, L. heere-re 

(hses), to stick.. 
Der. : ghostly, garish ; adhesive, hesitate, cohere, inherent. 
Ail (O.E. eglan), eel (O.E. ael), awe (I. agi), ugly (I. ugga, 
to frighten), from a root AGH, to choke or afflict ; whence 
L. angUStU-S, narrow; anxiuS, vexed; ege-re, be in 
Der. : anguish, ind-igent*, quinsy for kynanche, " dog throt- 
Angler (O.E. angel, a hook) and ankle from ANK, to 
bend ; whence L. ancora*, anchor ; L. angulus, angle. 
Der. : awkward (see Skeat), triangle. 
Atti (for asm), L. and G. ES, be ; Latin participle sent, 
being, (in present, absent), cp. SOOth® (O.E. sdth) and 

ety-mo-s, true. 

Der. : etymology, essential, interest, sin (see Skeat). 

Arm, what reaches; root-meaning, reach or fit, rime (misspelt 

rhyme, L. artu-S, limb; art-em, art ; ra-tus, reckoned, 

agreed ; O.E. rim, number), ration-em, a reckoning. 

G. arithmOS, number ; harmonia®, a fitting together. 

Der. : rate, reason, arraign (call to a reckoning), harmonical. 

B for BH ; Latin, F, Greek, PH. 
Banns, proclamation — banish^ bandit, boon (N. bdn, 

prayer) ; i*oot-meauing, to speak. L. fa-ri to speak, fa- 
num temple ; fa-tum fate, " what is spoken," fa ma 

report. G. phone, sound, PHE- speak. 


1 In O.E., »cern ; op. Gothic akrana, fiuit, from akr-s, a field. 

- Mis-spelling for agast (Wyclif) ; cp. Gothic us-gaith-s beside himself ; us-gaisnau, to 
be amazed. 
' ind- is an extension of in. 

* Borrowed from Greek. 

6 goth for «ant=L. -sent — Greek et for geat, whence etyrnos. 

* The Greeks were like the Cockneys in their use of ?i. It is often inserted where 
not needed ; it is quite lost in modern Greek. 

' Through French and Late Latin from the cognate High German words. 


Der. : abandon, contraband^, ineffable, nefarious (fas, right), 
fairy, anthem, phonic, prophecy, phonograph, telephone. 

Be; boor and bower (bu-an to dwell), bond-man and 

husband • (I. bondi, dweller), by-la w^ and byre^ ; voot- 
meaning, to grow or become. L. futurU-S aboixt to be ; 
tri-bu-S, tribe ; FE to produce ; whence fe-li-S, cat ; 
fe-lic-em, fruitful, prosperous. G. phy-sis, nature, 
imp (for emphyton), graft, child. 
Der. : futurity, tribute, physician. 

Bear, = L. FER = G. PHOR ; brother = L. frater. 

Der. : bier, bi. rrow, offer, metaphor, frateiiial, friar, fratricide 
Bide (O.E. bid-an) ; a- bide, abode ; cp. L. fid-ere (older form 

feid-ere), to trust, fcedus (feder-), treaty ; fiducia, trust, 

fldeli-S, faithful, fide-S (O.F. feid), faith, whence dif- 

fida-re, to renounce faith, to defy} 
Der. : confidential, federal, fiduciary, perfidious, affiance, 

fidelity = fealty, 
Bite, bitter, beetle ("the biter"), bait (I. beita, make to 

bite), whence a-bet* (a for ad) ; root-meaning to split, cp. 

hence L. flS-SU-S (for fid-tu-s), sj)lit ; fl-ni S (for tid-ni-s), 

end, af-flni-S, near; flni-re to finish. Hence fine, (adj.) 

— finite, finished ; (noun) a fined payment ; whence fir- 

nance ; also vent, formerly fente. 
Der. : imbitter, affinity, paraffine (parum, little), confine, 

define, finial, finish, fissure. 

Blink, blench, bleak (O.E. bl4c, shining); blank, blanch 

(Fr. from O.H.G. blanch). L. FULG, shine; fulmen, thu- 
derbolt; flagrare to burn, fiamma (for flag-ma), 
_^ame ; flagitimn, a shameful crime; G. PHLEG, burn. 

Eemembering the frequent change of r to 1 we may take here bright 
(0. E. beorht) ; and frig-ere, to roast ; whence fry. 

Der. : bleach, effulgence, blanket, inflammation, flagitious, 

1 O.H.G. baa or pan, aproclaiuatiou. 

2 I. 63/ a town. 

* I. biir, house, granary. 

4 This meaning appears in Shakespeare's lines : — 
" All studies here I solemnly defy 
Save how to gall and pinch this Bolingbroke." 
*jl&et was formed in French with a French prefix from the Norse verb. 


(i.) Blow, to piitf (O.E. b!a,w-a;i), bladder, blain (O.E. 

bleg-en), bleb, blubber; blaze (veib, O.E. blte's-an), 

blas-t, blazon, blister, bluster, blare, and blurt 
(with r for s), blot, bleat ; blaze (noun, blsese), blush 

Both blaw-an and blae's-an are extensions of BLA, 
cp. L. FLA, blow ; flatu-S, wind, 
(ii.) BLOW, to flower (O.E. blow in), bloom, blOSSOm, 

blood.^ L. flos, flor-em, flower ; flore re, to bloom. 

Both groups are of the same origin. 

Der. : (i.) blazonry, emblazon, flatulent, inflation, afflatus, 

conflated, (ii.) floscule, bleed, inflorescence, fluur (" flower 

of wheat "), florin (from Florence). 

Bore = fora-re j G. pharynx, gullet ; Celtic bar, whence 

harrier, embarass, barrack, and probably barrel, seems to 
belong to this root, taken in the sense " to cut." 
Der. : perforate, embargo, barricade, debar, disbar, barrister. 

Borough and burrow (O. E. burh, town), burgomaster, 
(Du.); burgess and burglar^ bury, borrow (borg, 

pledge), all connected with O. E. beorg-an, to protect, 
root BHARK, whence L. farci-re, to cram ; frequ-ent-em, 
crowded. G. PHRAK, in diaphragm. 
Der. : hauberk ( hals, neck ), habergeon, harbour (I. 
herbergi-^), harbinger ; force meat, frequentative. 

Bow (O.E. biig-an, to bend), el boW, buxom (for buh-sum*), 
badge (bed,g, ring^), bight, bout (Dan. bugt, a turn), 
bow (of a ship, I. bog-r), perhaps buy. L. FUG, flee. 
Der. : bower-anchor, fugue, fugitive, subterfuge. Bough 
(O.E. bdg, arm), seems to come from a different root. 

Break, brake^ breach, breeches^ brick (F. brique a 

fragment); bray, to pound (O. F. brei-er, OHG brech-en) 
to break). L. FRAG, frang-ere, fract, to break, frag- 

1 So called from its colour. 

2 Both through Fr. from O.H.G. burc ; lar, from L. latron-em, thief. 
8 From herr, army, and bjarga, to defend. 

* "Easily bent." 

6 At least from a form parallel to it in Old Low German. Skeat refers to Old 
Saxon hd(j, a ring, and Low Lat. baia, collar. 

* Brake, a machine, is from Old Dutch or Piatt Deutsch ; brake a thicket seems to 
mean liroken ground, and may be pure English. 

' Breeches is from O. E. broc, pi brec, which has not the declension of a borrowed 
word. It would seem to mean the ' broken, i. e., divided garment.' 


His, /rail Celtic brag (Irish brag-aim,' I boast), lit. a 
breaking forth. 
Der. : Breakfast, brakesman, bracken, fragment, fracture, 
irrefragable, infringe, refractory. 
Brook (O. E. briic-an, to use), broker, cp. L. fru-i (for 

frug-i), fruc-t- to enjoy, fructus and fruges, fruit. 
Probably L. fung-i (funct-) is related. 
Der. : frugiferous, fruition, fruit; function, defunct. 

Call, crane, care (O.E. cearu, sorrow^), jar ; root-meaning, 
to make a harsh noise; L. GAR, chatter; garrulus, 
chattering, gallus, cock, au-gur (avi-s, bird), a sooth- 
sayer, slogan (Gael sluagh-gaim, the host's cry). 
Der. : garrulous, gallinaceous, augury. 

Oan, ken, keen, know ( O. E, cunn-an and cnawan ) 
= GNO (L. and G.), to know ; gnotu-s or notu-S, (L.) 

Tfnown, nomen, name; gnaru-s, knowing; i-gnora-re, 

be unknowing ; nota, mark , narra-rc, to tell (make 

Der. : cunning, kith, noble, notable, cognomen, noun, nar- 
rative, notoriety ; gnostic, gnomon. 
Come, root KWAM^ = GWAM whence L. (by loss of g.), 
VEISr, and by assimilation am-bula-re, walk, G. BAN, 
or BA go, whence basi-S, foot, base. 

Der. : Comely, perambulator, ambulatory, venture, ad- vent, 
con-venticle, &c. ; basal Arbiter, from ar for ad and 
bit-ere, to go. Hence arbitra-tion -ry ; -am of ambulare 
is evidently for ambi-. 
Corn and quer-n ("ground" and " grinder" , churn (O. E. 
ceran to turn), root KAR, to grind , cp. L. gran-Um, 
grain. L grandis and gra-Vi-S = G. bary-S, heavy, 
whence aggravate, grief, bary-tone, baryta, probably from 
the same root, but with the sense " oppress." 

Der : kernel, curmudgeon (for corn-mudging, corn hoard- 
ing , garner, granaiy, grange, garnet, pomegranate. 
Choose, choice, and kiss (O.E. coss), root-meaning, to 
taste , L. gustu-S, taste, whence F. gout, taste. 

Der. : ragout, gustatoiy. 

1 German, lit. the ' shouter ' is explained a< the name given by the Gauls, to their 
enemies, the hurrahing Teutons. 
* Which is found in the Gothic kwam, I carae. 


D (originally DH) = G. th L. f, d (not initial;,. 
Dare, durs-t, (cp. G thars OS courage) from a root meaning 
to be firm; cp. L. for-ma, shape; fre nu-m, rein; 
firmu-S, strong; G. thronO-S, seat, thorax, breast- 

Draw, dregs, drain, dray, dredge, also drink, drown 

(M.E. tUunc-n-ian),from another extension of the same root 
Der. ; refrain, affirm, force, drawl, draggle, draught, drench. 

Dike (O.E. die, what is formed or moulded), doUgh, (O.E. 
dse'g), lady (loaf kneeder), dairy (N. deig, a maid or 
kneader), cp. L. FIG (fict), to make up ; whence feign (F 
feind-re for L. fing-ere). 
Der. : figure, figment, fictile, fiction, feint and faint. 

Do, doom, root-meaning, place ; cp L. FAC (fac-t, Fr. fait) 
do, make; hence -fy ; facili-S, "do-able," easy; famu- 
lus, house-slave; fa-ber, workman ; Gr. THE place; 
thesaurOS, treasure, (O. Fr. tresor). 
Der. : deed, deem, dempster, feat, benefit, counterfeit, 
deficit, forge, fabricate, frigate, fashion, faction, facility 
and faculty, family, feasible, theme, hypothec, epithet. 

Dust ; Lat. fu-mus, smoke ; Gr. thymo-S, thyme ; thy- 

os, incense. Deaf, dumb, damp, and G. typho-s, 

mist, contain an extended form. 
Der. : thurible, tunny, (for thunny), fume, typh-us and -old 
Dull, dwell (originally detain, deceive), deceive ; L. fraud- 
-em, deceit ; frustra, in vain. 
Der. : dolt, fraudulent, frustrate. 

East,^ Easter, cp. L. aurora dawn ; i-oot EUS or AXIS, 

shine or burn. L. US-tUS, burnt; aurU-m, gold ; auS 
ter, south wind (the " burner "). 
Deriv. : Auroral, adust ; auriferous, oriole and oriel (Fr. or) 
gold, austere (auterus, stern). The connection of combus- 
tion is not certain. 
Edge (O.E. ecg), ear^; root-meaning sharp, swift; L. ac-er, 
sharp ; ace-re, be sour ; aCU-tus, sharp ; G. akros, 
sharp, top. Also, L. equUS ; G. hippoS, horse. 
Der. : acrimony, eager, vinegar, ague, acrostic 

iQ. E. East, Eastie, goddess of sprinur, in which e;i represents as usual, as older au 
from wa. In Latin s between two vowels regularly becomes r ; ep. our were with 


Else (O.E. ell-es, gen of el, other) akin to Lat. aliu S and Gv. 
allO-S, other, and Lat. alter, the other. 
Deriv. : Alien, alibi, alias, inalienable, alteration, alternate, 
altercation,^ altruism, parallel. 

F originally P.. 

Fair,^ (or fseger), fain, fang, root FAG,^ to fasten, whence 

pac-em, peace ; pac-tu-s, agreed ; impingere (im- 

pactu-s, to fasten (hence sti-ike) upon; palu-S (for pac-lus) 
a pale ; PagUS, a village ; Pagina, a page. Fee (O. E. 
feoh, cattle) cp. L. pecu, cattle, whence pecunia 
money ; peculium, a slave's own herd ; all pointing to 
the time when cattle constituted the chief property. 
Der. : pay (Fr payer, to appease), compact, impact, im- 
pinge , pole, pawl, impale ; fief, feudal, fellow (I. felagi*), 
pecuniary, peculation, pack (a Celtic word), pagan (cp. 
heath-en. ) 

Fare (far -an, to go) far, fear,-' fresh (O. E. fersc, lit. going) 
firth (I. fjorth-r) root-meaning, to cross, whence L. ex- 
peri-ri, to try, and peric(u)uni, trial, danger portu-S 

a port ; porta, i^ gate ; porta-re, to carry ; G. peir-a 
ein, to try, poro-s a passage. Also, L. para-re, get 

ready, and pare-re, appear. 
Der. : ferry, ford, wayfarer ; expert, experiment, perilous, 
importunate, opportune (portunu-s, accessible) ; porte, 
porter, porch = portico, port-ly, -pur-port, important, 
pirate, porous, Bosporus (bous, great, lit. " ox"), parade. 

Fathom (O.E. faeth-m), cp. L. pate-re, to be open, and 
pand-ere (pans), to stretch ; paSSUS, pace. G. peta- 
lon, leaf, 
Deriv. : patent, expansive, pass, pace, compass, petal, pan, 
i(short form of paten or patine, as pail of patella.) 

■' Lat. altercari ; the origin of the c is not certain. 

2 Grig. " fit," the meanuig of Gothic fagrs. 

3 Verner has shown that after an originally unaccented vowel, the h, th, or f that 
in Teutonic languages represents an Aryan k, t, p changes to g, b or a. 

* Sharer in afelag or property from fe -\- lay, law. 
6 Used originally of the perils of wayfarers 


Feath er, find\ cp. Lat. penna'-' (for petna), also pinna and 
Gr. ptero-n, wing ; root-meaning, fall or fly, L. pet- 
ere, fly towards, seek ; Gr. PET (or pto), fall. 
Der. : pen, pinnacle, diptera, pterodactyl (daktylos, finger), 
coleoptera (koleo-s shield), compete, compatible, impetuous, 
perpetual, petition, propitious, asymptote, symptom. 

Fire == G. pyr, lit. what purifies; cp. L. pu-ru-S, pure ; 
puta-re, cleanse, lop, reckon. 
Der. ; fiery, purify, count = compute, amputate, impute, 
pyrometer, pyrotechnics (techne, art), pyrites. 

Flax, fold^; L. plica-re to fold, plect-ere to plait. Also 

— plex (in compounds) =fold. 

Der. : imj)ly = employ = implicate ; explicit = exploit ; 

simplicity, complicate ; plagiary (plagium, kidnapping, 

from plaga, a net). 

Flow, fly (O.E. fleog-an) ; fleet, flit, float, root meaning, 

to flow or float ; cp. pluma, feather ; plora-re, to weep. 

.N^.B. — There is no connection with L. flu-ere, to flow. 

Der. : flood, flutter, fledge, flight, fly (n) ; plumage, ex- 
Food, foster (O. E. faster, for fdd-stor, nourishment) fod- 
der; L. pastu-S, fed; pastor, shephered; pani-S, 

Father = L. pater, probably from the same root in the 
sense " to protect." Also, L. poti-S, able , posse, to be 
able ; hos-pitem, host ; cp. G. despote-S, master, and 
Pan, the shepherd-god. Feed, forage ^ (Low Lat. 

Der. : pasture, pastoral, pabulum, pantry, companion, pan- 
nier, paternal, patrimony, potent, possible, hospitable, 
hostel = hospital = hotel, hostler, hospice. 

Foot, fast, vat (O. E. fset). L. pedem, foot, im- 
pedi-re, hinder, ex-pedi re, to further. G. pod-a, 

Der. : fetter, fetlock, pedestal,* pedestrian, impediment, ex- 
pediency, pawn, and pioneer (Old Fr. and Spanish peon 

1 Orig. , light upon. 

2 By assimilation ; the intermediate form penna has good authority. 

*0.E. feald-an, Gothic falth-an akin to flah-to, which shows the root to be FLAH. 
* Stal, through Italian, from German stall, a stall . 


for ped-on-em, foot soldier), tri-pod, trapezoid (G. tetra- 
four), polyp. 
Pull, folk, flocks root-notion, to fill. Lat. ple-re, to 

fill ; amplu-s and plenu-s, full ; plus, more ; mani- 

pulu-S, handful ; plebe S, commons ; po pulu-S, people, 
whence publicus (for popli-cu-) ; pi- = fold. G. 
plethos, fulness ; poli-S, city ; polite-S, cititizen ; 
poly-S, many. 
Der. : Plenary, plural, plebeian, popular, manipulate, ample, 
double, triple, &c., implement, complete, phethora, polity, 
policy, police, metropoli-s (mother city). 

G for GH, Latin, H, or F ; Greek, G. 
Gird, glean, yard, garden (Fr. from O.H.G.) ; root-mean- 
ing to seize or hold ; L. hor-tU-S, garden ; late L. 
COrte-m (from cohort-em'*), castle, yard, hered-em, 
heir; G. cheir, hand ("holder") chorO-S, a dancing 
Der. : girth, horticulture, courteous, heredity, chirography, 
surgeon,; (contraction of chirurgeon), choir. 

Glad (O. E. glsed, bright), glade, glass, glare, gleam, 
glimpse, glimmer, glee, glib, glide, gloom, glow, 
gloat, gloss, glitter, glint, glance, glisten ; root- 
meaning, to shine or glow ; yelloW, gold, grOW, 
green, also guild and yield (from gildan, to pay) ; 
cp. G. chloro-S, green ; chryso-S, gold ;chole ( =gall), 
bile; also, with a metaphorical application, yearn (O.E. 
georn) ; Gr, charis, favor, tlianks. L. fornac-em, 
furnace, and G. thermo-S, hot, are generally explained 
as irregularly for hornac-em, chermo-s. 

Der. : gloaming, gild, guilt (O. E. gylt, debt), chlorine, 
chrysalis, choleric ; exicharist. 

N. B. — Charily is for caritate-m, love, not from charis, 

Goad (O.E. gdd^), gad (I. gaddr), yard (O. E. gyrd, a rod) 
root-meaning, to strike ; cp. L. h.OS-ti-S, enemy ; hence 
" stranger," cp. guest (O. E. gaest). 

1 Probably a variant of folk (Skeat). 

* Cohortem originally meant a yard or enclosure. 

* For gasd, cp. Gothic (jazds. 


Der. : gadfly, gad-about, hostility, host^ ; also garfish, i:ai- 
lic (O. E. gdr, spear. 

Grind ; L. frica-re, rub ; Gr. chri-ein, to anoint. 
Der. : grist, fricative, friable, friction, chi'ism, Christ. 

Gut,^ ingot, gush;' geysir,^ gust,^ -pour ; L. FUND 

(fus), pour, futilis (easily emptied), refuta-re, to pour 
back ; fonte-m. fountain ; hauri-re (haust-), to drain ; 
G. CHY, pour. 
Der. : fuse, foundry, futility, refutation, font,*, nugget (for 
" ningot "), profusion, foison = fusion, confound, i-efund, 
suffuse, exhaust, chyle, chyme, chemist. 

H originally K, Latin G 

Ham (so called from the " bend " in the leg), hem, root- 
meaning, bend, cp. cam (in Shakespeare from Welsh cam, 

crooked), L. cam-era, vaulted room, Fr. chambre. 

Der. : akimbo, concamei'ated, the Cam, chamber, comrade 
(Span, camarada), chum. Some would add hammercloth 
(I, hamr, covering) ; others hammer. 
Hate lOE. hatian, orig., to drive away), root-meaning fall, 
hence fell or drive, OA.D (cas-), fall; casUS, chance, 
CED (cess), go or yield. 

Der. : heinous (F. haine from Low German, hatjan to hate), 
caducous, Occident, chance = cadence, cheat (for escheat^), 
case, casual, pai-achute (Fr. chute, a fall), decadence, decay, 
cession, ex-ceed (so pro- and sue-), cede, recede, cease. 

Have, hawk:= havoc (O.E. hafoc), hovel (hof, house), 

heaV"e (O.E., hebban) — all from IIA.F seize ; cp. L. CAP 
(cap-t, F. ceiv-, ceit-) to take, capta-re or captia-re, to 
chase ; cap-ac em, able to contain ; cap-Sa, chest. From 
the same root couie, head (O.E. heafod) = L. caput 

(capit, F. chef), G. keph-ale,^ L. capillu-s, hair. 

^Host, an entertainer, for hospitem, see under food ; host, an army, from hostem 
(though misunderstaiidinj^ the phrase "bannitus in hostem,/ "summoned against the 
enemy" to mean "summoned for an expedition"); host, the sacramental bread, 
from hostia, a victim. 

2 Also in Provincial English, a channel ; op. the " Gut of Canso." 

3 Of Norse origin. 

* Baptismal /ont is font-em, font of type is O.F. fonte, from fondre, to cast. 
6 What falls to tlie crown for want of heirs. The word got its present meaning 
from the rascality of the royal " E^heators." 
« Only with another sufllx. 


Der. : haft, haven ( what contains ) heavy, heaven (1), 
receive, 2'eceipt, conceit, &c., incipient ; chase = catch, 
cate, cater,^ cap, case = ehase,^ = sash, casket, capitulate, 
chapter, captain = chieftain, cattle^ = chattle, = capital, 
kerchief, cabbage, cadet (see Skeat), capillary, dishevel (F. 

Heal (0. E. hse'lan, from hdl), w hole (hdl), hale,* hail ;* 

G. kalo-S beautiful, kallos beauty. 

Der. : Health, holy, holiday, halibut, hollyhock (both for 
holy-), hallow, wholesome, wassail (lit. " be hale ") ; cali- 
graphy, calisthenics (sthenos strength). 
Heart (O.E. heorte) = L. COrdi^ = G, kard-ia ; root mean- 
ing to leap or swing ; whence also L. cardin-em, hinge. 

Der. : hearty, cordial, core, Cceur de Lion, courage, (Fr.) 
quarry' (O.F. coree, intestines of slain animal), cardiac, 
pericardium, cardinal. 

Hedge, haw, cp. L. cing ere (cinct-), to surround. 

Der. : hawthorn, church-hay, hag, haggard, precincts, cinc-ture. 

Hall (O.E. heal), hele (helan to hide), hell, hole, hollow, 

hold, and holster, (Dutch) hull, husk (once hulsc), 
cover or hide ; L. cela-re, to hide ; cella a cell ; clam, 
secretly ; OC-CUl-ere to hide ; Color,^ color. 
Der. : helmet, conceal, cellar,^ clandestine, occult, domicile. 

HilP, holm, haulm. L. cel-sus, high; cul-men, top; 
colmnna, pillar. G. kara, head ; cp. L. cerebrmn, 

brain, " borne in the head," and cervlc-emi, neck (carry- 
ing the head). 

Der. : hillock, excelsior, culminate, colonel, cheer^" (see 
Skeat), cerebral, cervical. 

Probably from the same I'oot in the sense ' to be hard,' are 

1 Formerly catour and acatour, buyer (aeeepta-re). 

" Chase, to hunt, is from captare : a frame, Is from capsa, as in casket. 

3 Once cattle constituted most men's capital. 

* Norse, from hsill ; from hal, must come, hole misspelled whole. 

5 The nomiTiative cor has dropped di. 

6 Quarry (for stone) is from quadra-re to square, and should be quorrer. 
' Conceived of as a covering,' that hid the real surface of the object. 

8 Not Si salt cellar, which conies from sal, salt, and should be saliere. 

9 The O.E. hyll corresponds to L. colli-s, y being after an " umlaut " f' r o 
w Spenser's Red Cross Knight was " of his cheer too solenm sad." 


horn = L. COrnU ; L. carina, a nut shell; a hull; and 
can cer, crab ; whence hornet, corner, car>een, cancer. 

Home (O.E. hdm), hive (O.E. hiw, a house), while ("a rest"). 
hind (see Skeat), L. QUI to rest ; ci-vi-S, citizen ; G 

koiman, to sleep. 

Der. : Quiet, quit, quite, acquiesce, requiem, city (Fr. cit^, 
L. civitat-em, a state), citizen^, cemetery, comic and comedy 
(G. komos'^, feast + ode, song); hamlet, (O.F. hamel, 
Frisian, ham, a dwelling). 

Horse, same origin as L. CUR, (curs) run ; CUrru-S, chariot; 

cel-er, swift ; Celtic car, cart, carry, career, 

charge ; G. polos, sky (as " whirling"). 
Der : Curricle, curriculum, concur, discourse, recourse, 
chariot, cargo, caricature, pole. 

Idle (orig. clear, hence empty), from AIDH, shine or burn. G. 
AITH, whence alther,^ upper air. L, SSde-S, house 
(" fire-place "*) ; sestu-a-re, to boil. 
Der. : etherial, Ethiopian (Op-s, face), edify, edile, estuary. 

K = original G. 
Kin, kind, child, knave (cnapa, boy), queen^ (O.E. 

cwen, woman, i.e. "mother"), root-meaning to j)roduce 
or be born. L. GEN, produce ; genus, (gen-er-), kind ; 
genius, spirit attending man ft-om birth ; ingeniu-m, 
inborn faculty ; gna.tU-S or natU-S, (F. n^) born ; 

gente-m and nation em, a kindred or nation ; natura, 

nature, (the " producer "). G. genea, race ; geneslS, 
birth ; gyne, (gynaik) woman (cp. O.E. cw^n) ; ge, earth 
(the " All-Mother "). 
Der. : kindred, king, (O.E. cyning, lit. "son of the tribe"/, 
knight (prob. " belonging to the tribe "), gender, genial, 
ingenious, engine, ingenuous (L. -uus, free born), indigen- 
ous, gentle = genteel =^ gentile, gentry, puny = puisne ; 
heterogeneous, oxygen, gynarchy, geology. 

1 Skeat accounts for the z as a misreading of the Middle English symbol for y. 

2 So called because the guests lay or reclined at it. 

• Supposed to be of a fiery nature ; cp. the terra em-pyr-ean. 

* Cp. Irish aidhe, a houseand, aedh, fire. 

6 Quean, a contemptible woman, is exactly the same word except in spelling. This 
shows the correctness of the derivation. 


L sometimes represents R. 

Leaf, lobby, lodge (L. L. kubia, poich ; O.H.Gr. laup, leaf); 

L. lapid-em, stone ; liber, book (orig. bark). G. lepra, 

Der. : leaflet, lapidary, dilapidate, library, leper. 

Lean (O.E. blini-an) to slope; L. cli-na-re,^ to slope; cll- 
VUS, a slope ; G. KLIN, to slant ; klima-t, a slope ; 
klimax, ladder. 
Dei*. : lean (adj.), lid, inclination, declension = declination, 
declivity, proclivity, (proclivus, inclined), clime = climate, 
synclinal, climacteric. 

Lie (O.E. licgan), lair; ledge,^ low (I. 14g-r, low, lit. flat), 
log (I. log-r, a felled tree), leaguer (Du. leger, camp), 
ledger (Du. logger, one that lies) ; L. lectu-S (F. lit.), 
a bed; cp., law ; (O.E. lagu), lit. what "lies" or is in 
order = L. leg-em (F. loi). 
Der. : lay, layer, letter, coverlet (once coverlite), lectern, 
(prop. " couch," Gr. lek-tron), leal = loyal = legal, legis- 
late (latus, carried). 

Lief (O.E. le(5f, dear), love, (lu-fi-an), leave, furlough 

(Dan. forlov, leave) ; root-meaning, to desire ; cp. L. libl- 

din-em, lust ; liber, free (doing as he likes) ; F. livr-er, 

give (freely). 
Der. : belief, libidinous, liberty, liberal, libertine, deliver, 
livery (what is delivered). 

Light, (O. E. ledht) ; lea^ low (I. log flame) loom (I. Ijoma 
to gleam); root-meaning, to shine; cp., L. luc-em 
and lu-men (from lucmin) light; luna, moon. G. 
lynx, the "bright-eyed" animal. 
Der. : lighten, lightning; lucid, limn = illuminate, lunatic, 
lucubration (LTJC -I- br, from FER, bear.) Lu-Str-um 
purificaton, whence illustrious, illustrate is by some re- 
ferred to in this group ; by others, to LAV, wash 
(see lye). 

Light (adj. O. E. ledht) ; root-meaning = to spring. L. 

levl-s, light ; leva-re, to lighten ; F. leger, light (p. 303). 

1 Obsolete, except in compounds. 

2 Also Norse. 

» A brigrht spot, probably among the dark woods ; cp.— loo in Waterloo. 


Der. : alight/ lighter (Du.), levity, alleviate, relief, leaven, 
levy = levee, legerdemain. 

Loan (O. E. laen, from lih-an, to grant) ; root-meaning 
let free ; L. linqu-ere (lict), to leave, lice re, to be 
allowed (" left free ") ; G. leip-ein, to leave. 

Der. : deliquent, relict, derelict, licence, licentious, licen- 
tiate ; eclipse, ellipsis (" leaving in the mind "). 
List-en (O.E. hlyst, hearing): loud (O.E. hlud) ; lurk (Dan- 
luske, to sneak'-); root meaning, to hear. L. client-em> 
retainer (" listener ") ; gloria, glory. 

Der. : lurch, clientele. Slave, from slav, a word that in the 
Slavonic languages means " glory." 

Loose (O.E.le^s), lose/ loss; root-meaning, break or separate. 

G. LY, to break ; L. SO-lv ere (solut), to break up, to pay. 
Der. : leasing, forlorn, perhaps lust ; analytic, electro-lyte, 

palsy = paralysis, assoil = absolve, dissolute, solvent. 
Lye (O.E. led,h), lather (O.E. leathor), root LAV, to wash. 

L. lava-re (lot, lut), to wash; di-luv-ium, a flood; 

probably lustra-^'e, to purify ; poUutU-s^ detiled. 
Dei*. : lave, lava, lotion, lavender (lavanda, things to be 

washed) laundry, ablution, alluvial, deluge, lustration, 

illustrious, luted (lutu-m, mud). 
May (O.E. mjeg, I can), main, maiden (maegden, lit. 

" grown "), maw (lit. great), make, match (O.E. maca, 

equaF), mickle (O.E. mycel), muCh ;' root-meaning, 

grow, be strong. L. mag-nU-S, great ; major, greater; 

maximus, greatest ; magis-ter, master. G. mega and 

megalo-, great ; mechane (L. machina), contrivance. 
Der. : Might, mayor, majority, magistrate, maxim, megalo- 
mania, mechanist, machine, machination, perhaps many. 

(i.) Mete, mother,^ moon (mona, the measurer), meals 

(O. E. msel, stated time) ; root-meaning, to handle or 

1 Alight is properly to lighten the load on the horse. 

2 The notion is to be listening. 

3 The vowel sounds have changed irregularly, owing to analogy ; see loose and lose 
ill Skeat. 

■•Lit., washed over, as when a river overflows and ^o^^uteg its bank with mud (Skeat). 

•' " One of the same make." 

'' Taken by Skeat as Norse. 

'' The measurer, i.e., the manager. 


L. manU-S, hand; mensUS, measured; moduS (moder), 
measure ; mater, = mother ; materia, stuff, 
(ii.) Man, mind, mood, mean (O.E. mten-an, to intend). 

L ment-em, mind ; mone re, to remind, warn ; mon- 
stru-m, prodigy, 'warning ;" mane re, abide. G. mne- 

mon, mindful ; man-la, madness (excite 1 thought) ; all 
with the metaphorical sense "to think." G. mathein, 
to learn ; L, medita-rl, to meditate ; and mederl, to 
heal, from an extension of the same root. 

Der. : (i.) meet (adj.), month, Monday ; manual, mensuration, 
moderate, maternal, material; probably also mature (ma- 
turus, early), matins ; also probably moral (uios, custom^). 

Der. : (ii.) mental, monition, monument, monstrous, mansion, 
mnemonics, mathematics. 

Mould (earth), meal ; L. molli-s, soft ; mel, honey ; mola, 

a mill ; malleu S, a hammar ; root MAR, to crush, 
whence, with application to persons, murd-er, L. mort- 
em, death ; morbu-S, disease. Extended forms mark, 

malt, melt, milt, mild; L. margin-em, border; 
mulce-re, to stroke. 

Skeat connects 0. melan-, black, and L. malu-S, bad ; the notion 
being, " dirty ^." 

Der. : mildew^, emolument, mellifluous, malleable, mortality, 
morbid, emulsion, melancholy, malice. 
New (O.E. niwe) = L. noVU-S == G. neo-S (for nevo-s); 
L. nuntiUS (Fr. nounce), messenger (for novu-s). 
Der. : news, new-fangled, novelty, innovate, neologist, neo-, 
nuncio, annunciation, pronounce, but -nunciation, de- 

Night (O.E. neaht), from NEK or NOK, perish, destroy. L. 
nocte-m = night, nec-em, death ; noce-re (F, nui-re), 
to hurt ; G. nekrO-S, dead. 
Der. : nocturnal, internecine, pei-nicious, innocent, noxious, 

Nimble (M.E. nimel, O.E. nim-an, to take), numb ;* root- 
meaning, to allot, take f G. no'mo-S, law (" what allots") ; 

' The measure of conduct. 

* As from dust or powder. 

* Honey dew (Skeat). 

■* Lit. '• seized," O. E. nuin-en ; hence deprived of sensation. 
6 " Allot to oneself." 


nomo' S, pasture (" what is allotted "); nomisma, coin; 
L. numeru-S (F. nombre), number. 
Der. : numbskull, Nym, antinomian, nomad, numismatics, 
numerous, and the ending -nomy. 

One (O.E. kv}) = l,. unus (formerly oino-s) ; whence 
nullu S (ne+ullus), none. 
Der. : none (n-an), any (O.E. ae'rig), onion ^ union, nullify, 

Q = original G. 

Quick (O.E. cwic, living), |/ KWIW, live ; L. vivu-S, alive ; 

viv-ere, to live ; victu-s, food ; vita, life. G. bio-s, 

life ; ZOOn, living thing. 
Der. : quicken (make alive), quicklime, couch-,"^ grass ; 
viands, vivid, vivify, victuals, vitality, biology, zodiac. 

R is sometimes changed to L. 

Rack, reach (O.E. rse'c-an), right (O.E.rih-t, straight), rank 
{adj.), |,/ JRAK, stretch. L. REG (rect), rule ; reatus 
= right ; reg-nu-m, kingdom ; reg-em (F. roi), king ; 
reg-ula, rule; SU-rg-ere (surrect), rise ("reach up"). 
Der. : reckon (recc-an. to set right), righteous (riht-wls), rake 
(of a ship), rich^, dirgf**; direct, dress, rector, correct, escort, 
reign, royal = regal, realm, regulate, surge, source = surge, 
(in-), resurrection ; also reg-ion, erect (whence alei^t), rig-id 
(rige-re, be stiff), with the original meaning "stretch." 

Rake (O.E. raca), a tool for gathering; L. leg-ere (lect), 
gather or read ; Gr. leg-ein, gather or speak ; logO-S, 
speech, reason (with 1 for r.) 
Der. : legend, lecture, elite = elect, selection, legume, coil== 
cull (collig-ere) ; antho-logy (anthos, flower), lexicon (lex- 
ikos, belonging to speech), logic, catalogue, dialogue, and 
words in — logy. 

Saw (O.E. saga), sedge, scythe (O. E. sigthe), root-mean- 
ing, to cut. L. seca-re, to cut; serra, a saw. 

1 O.E. fi is a corruption of ai, cp, dn with Gothic ains and German ein ; ham, home, 
with haima, heira. 

2 Provincial English, quich grass ; O.E. cwic was sometimes shortened to cue, as 
sweltry to sultry. 

^FromO.E. rio, adoubletof reg-em, i.e. like a kiiij,'-; but r(c/ie« comes through French 
from oHG riche. 

* From dirijje the first words of an anthem (Psalm v. 8) in the ancient office for the 


Der. : section, segment, sickle ( sec-ula), scion, risk (see 
Skeat), and perhaps chisel. 

Salt^ = L. sal = G. hal-s ; cp. seal,^ and L. insula, island 

(" in water "), from a root meaning to go ; specialized 
in L. sali re (salt, suit), to leap. 
Der. : saline, halogen, isola-te (It.), salient, dissilient, de- 
sultory, assail, assault, result. 

Share,^ shear, sharp, shire, shore, scarf, short, score ; 
scare*, scaur, scrap, scrape, scratch; root- 
meaning, to cut ; cp. L. curtu-s = short ; coriu m, 

skin or leather; COrtiC-eni, bark, also cern ere and 
G. kri-, to sift, and, with 1 for r, E. SCale = shell, 
(O.E. sceale, shell), SCale (scdle, balance), shell, 
shelf (but not shelve), skill (I. skil, distinction). 
Der. : shirt and skirt^ (= short), sherd, shred ; cuirass, 
scorch (take skin off), discern ; critic, shilling. 

Silly (O.E. sse'lig, happy) ; cp. L. salvU-S, safe ; salut-em 
health ; SOllu-S, whole ; SOlu-S, only ; SOla-ri, to com- 
fort ; SOlidu-S, solid ; Gr. holo-S, whole. 
Serva-re to preserve is probably related ; servu-s, slave, may be 

from SEK, to bind ; whole (see heal, p. 311), has no connection 

with holo-s, nor salve (0 E. sealf ) with salvu-s. 

Der. : solicit (citus, stirred up), solidarity, console, save 
salutary, holocaust (kausto-s, burnt), catholic, preserve, 

Sit, seat ; cp. L. sede-re and sid-ere, to sit ; sub-sidiu-m, 
help : G. hedra, seat. 
Dei-. : set, settle, sediment, subside, assessor, assiduous, 
dihedral, cathedral, saddle 

Sow, seed; cp. L. sa-tus, sowed; se-men, seed; seculu-m, 

a generation, the world ; Saturnus, the god of sowing. 
Der. : Saturnine, Saturnalia, Saturday, seminary, dissemin- 
ate, secular. 
Span, spin, speed, spade^ (spa^du) ; root-meaning, to 
stretch. L. spa-tiu-m, space ; spes, hope ;. sponte, 
of one's free will, and probably stude-re, to be intent. 

1 At first, probably an adjective. 

2 The marine animal. 

* The share of ploughshare is O.E. scear ; share, a portion, is seearu. 

* This and the four followinjj words are Norse. 
6 So called from its broad surface. 


Gr spa-ein, to draw. Also, with loss of s, path, L. 
pont-em, a bridge ; penus,, and perhaps 
pati (pass), to suffer, and G. pathos, suffering. 
Der. : spindle, spider, spacious, expatiate, despair, prosper- 
ous, spontaneous ; studious, S{)asm ; })ontiff, i)enury, passive, 

Stand, stead, steed, stud, all from STA-D, an extended 
form of STA , to stand. L. ST A, stand ; status, stand- 
ing ; statutura, law ; statura, height ; destina-re, 

to ap]toint ; sistere, to stand; G. STE, stand; sta- 
tO-S, standing; histo S, web. 
Der. : stable, establish, staid, stage, arrest, interstice, con- 
stant, institute, stanza, assist, statics, system, histology. 

The following words contain extensions of STA, to stand : 
Stare, Gr. stereos, firm ; sterili-S, barren, fr-om STA-R. 

stall, stale, stalk, stilt, stout (with 1 for r) ; cp. 

stolid (L. stolidus), stultify, (stultu-s, a fool). 

staple, step, stub, stump, staff, stiff, stifle, from 

STA-P, to make stand. 

stem, stammer, stumble, from ST AM. 

Der. : stereotype, sterile. 

Sweet ; L. suavis (for suad-vi-s) ; suade-re (suas), to 

Der. : suavity, assuage, suasive, dissuade. 

T for original D. 

Tear (v.), tarry (see Skeat), tire (v) ; root-meaning, to rend. 

L. dole-re, to grieve ; dele-re, to destroy. G. derma-t, 

Der. : condole, dolorous, delete, indelible, pachyderm (pa- 
chy-s, thick. 

Thane (O. E. thegn, child, servant), thank, think, thing ; 

root-meaning to fit, hew, produce ; cp. G. techue, art ; 
taxi-s (from tak-ti-s), arrangement, tek-ton, carpenter. 
L. tex-ere (text), to weave ; SUb-tili-S, finely woven. 
Der. : technology, syntax, taxidermy, tactics, architect, tex- 
tile, tissue^ subtle = subtile, Pentateuch and intoxicate, 
(see Skeat.) 

' Reallj- a passive participle of F. titttre, to weave from tex-ere. 


Thin = tenuis ; root meaning, to stretch. L. TEN-D (tent 
or tens), stretch; TE>f (tain), hold; tenta-re, to try ; 
tener, tender. G. TEN, stretch ; tono-S, tone 
Der. : tend, retentive, retain, taunt := tempt, tentative, hy- 
potenuse, tonic, monotone. 

Thirs-t, L. torrere (tost), to parch ; terra, dry land ; tes- 
ta, a pitcher (used in alchemy. ) 
Der. : torrent, torrid, toast, tureen, terreen, test. 

Thrill, through, thorn, throe, drill (Du driUen, to bran- 
dish), root-meaning, to cross over, penetrate, rub ; ter- 
minus, end ; tri-tu-S, rubbed ; torna-re, turn. G. 
telos. end. 
N. B. — Throw, thread, and Scotch thraw (O.E. thraw- 
an) also thrust ; akin to which are L. torqu-ere (tort), 
to twist, and tropo-S, trope, a turn, are from exten- 
sions of the same x-oot. 
Der. : term, transom, trestle, trite, triturate, turn, attorney, 
teleology, talisman ; torture, retort, tropics, trophy. 

Tuesday, cp. L. Jovis, Jove's; diurnus, daily; whence 
F. jour, day; deus, a god; divinu-S, godlike.— 
root-meaning, be bright 
Der. : jovial, journal, deity, deist, divine. 

W = Latin V. 
Wake, watch, wax, eke ; root meaning, be strong ; L. 
vegere, be lively ; vigil, watchful ; auge-re, in- 
crease ; auxilium, help. 
Der. : vegetable, vigor, vigilant, auction, augment, auxiliary, 
august (augustu-s, majestic). 
Wallow (O. E. wealw-ian), walk, welP, Welter (cp. Ger- 
man waltz) ; root meaning, to turn. L. VOLV (volut), 
roll ; valva, a door ; G. halo-S, a threshing floor. 
The 1 here stands for an older r, seen in the next gi*oup. 

Writhe, wreath, wrest, wrist, wroth, worth. ^ L. 
VERT (vers), turn ; versa-ri, to be. 
Der. : revolution, voluble, convolvus, valve, halo ; wreathe, 
wrestle, wrath, conversation. 

Ware, ward, warden,^ guard, warren, garrison; 

root-meaning, look sharply. G. horaein, to see; L. 

1 Properly a spring-. 

* As in " Woe worth the day." 

^ This and the ne.xt three words are French from German kindred forms. 


Vere-ri, to fear, probably too. L. Veru-S, tiue (referred 
by some to the root VOL for VER, choose) ; worth (n) 
and ware perhaps mean " what is guarded." 
Der. : wary, war-n, guardian, guarantee, warrant, panorama, 
verily, very, reverence, veracity. 

Water, wet ; L. unda, wave ; unda-re, to flow ; G. hydor, 

Der. : ottor, winter (T), undulate, abundant, redound, hydrant. 

Wit, wot, wise; L. Vide-re (vis), to see; G. eidos, ap- 
pearance (whence o-id), eidolo-n and idea, image; 
histor, enquirer. 

Der. : witness, visionary, advise and advice, idolater (latris, 
servant), ideal, history. 

Word = L. verbu-m ; G. rhetor, orator ; eiron, dissem- 
bler (" who only says "). 
Der. : verbage, rhetoric, irony. 
Who, what ; L. qui-s, who ; qua-li-s, what like ; 

quantu-S, how great ; quot, how many. 

Work (O.E. weorc) = G. ergo-n (for wergo-n), organ on, 


Wreak, wring, wrong, irk (Norse), L. nrge-re, to press ; 

VUlgUS, crowd. Probably both groups contain the same 
root with the sense, to press. 
Der. : wrought, wright, energy, liturgy (leitos, belonging to 
the people), surgeon, organic, wretjh, wrinkle, wriggle, 

Yoke = L. jugu-m ^^ G. zygon ; L. jung-ere, to join ; 
G. zeugma, a yoking ; cp. L. jus, right ; jurare, to 

swear; judic-em, a judge ; judiciu-m, judgment; also 
L. jus, broth ("mixture"), and G. zymo-S, yeast. 
Der. : conjugate, jugular, syzygy, juncture, junto (Span.), jus- 
tice, injury, judicial, prejudice, juice, zymotic. 



Supplementary List of Root Words. 


aequU-S, equal 

alacer, prompt. 

albuS, white. 

al-ere, to feed. 

altUS, high. 

ama-re, to love. 

amicU-S (F. ami), friend. 

anima, soul. 

animu-s, mind (cp. G. 
anemo-s, wind), 
aptu-s, fit. 

adeptus, having obtained. 
aqua (F eau), water, 
arcus, a bow. 
arde-re (ars), to burn. 

argentum, silver. 

argU-ere, make clear. 
audi-re, to hear. 

ob-edi-re, to obey. 

ave-re, be intent. 
avidus, greedy. 
avi-S, bird. 

bellum, war (cont. of duell- 

um, from duo, two). 

bibere, to drink, 
bonus, good, 
bene, well. 
brevis==G.brachy-s, short. 

caballu-S (L. cheval), a horse 

caed-ere, to cut. 
calc-em., lime. 

CalCUlu-S, a pebble, 
causa, cause. 
cave-re (caut), to beware. 
CaVU-S, hollow. 
caelum, heaven. 

cande-re, to shine. > 
candidu-s, white. 


carmen (F. charme), song, 
form of words. 

carn-em, flesh. 
celer, swift. 
cense-re, to judge, 
centum = G. he-katon = 


circu-s,= G. kyklos=iing 

(O.E. bring). 

claud-ere (ciaus, clos), to 

COl-ere (cult), to cultivate. 

coqu-ere (coct), to cook. 

corona, crown. 
corpus (corpor), body. 

cre-sco, grow. 

Crea-re, create (make grow), 
cumulus, heap. 

damnu-m, loss. ^ 

da-re (dat), = G. do-, give. 

dec-em = G. deka = ten. 
deCUS, honor, ornament. 

dent em, G. odon-t=tooth. 
dic-ere, to say. 
dica-re, to assign. 

dignu-S, worthy. 

disc-ere, to leam. 

dOCe-re, to teach. 
duc-ere = (tow), to lead. 
durU-S, hard. 

ed-ere = eat. 
es-ca, food. 
ego = I. 
em-ere, to buy. 
fall ere (fals), to deceive, 
fend-ere (fens), to dash, 
ferru m, iron. 

flig-ere (flict), strike. 



fixu-S, fastened. 

fllu m, a thread. 
flect-ere (flex), to bend, 
foliu-m (-foil), leaf. 
foris, outside. 

gelu, fi-ost, cp. chill. 

ger-ere I'gest-), to carry, 
glomus, (glomer), a ball, 
grad-i (gress), to step. 

gramen, grass. 

gratu-S, pleasing. 

gratia, favour, thanks. 

greg-em, a flock. 

habe-re (habit), to have 

debe re, (debit), to owe. 

("have from "). 

hi-a-re, G. cha-, to gape. 

horr-ere, to bristle or shud- 
horta-ri, to encoui-age. 
humu-S, ground. 
homo, man. 

imita-ri, to imitate. 
ire (it), to go. 

COm.item, comjianion. 
iter-(itiner), journey. 
jace-re (jact), to throw, 
jac-ere, to lie. 

JOCU-S, a jest. 

juva-re, to help, 
juvenis = young. 
lab-i (laps), to slip, 
labor, work. 

lac-ere (licit), entice. 

latus (pai't), carried. 

latllS (adj. for stlatus), wide. 

lega-re, to send. 

hbra, a balance. 

ligare, to bind, 
hgnum, wood. 

limen, threshold. 

litera (better littera), letter. 

lOCU-S, place. 
loqu-i (locut), talk. 

lud-ere (lus), to play. 

m.acies, leanness. 

macer, lean, 
mare, the sea. 
mediu S = middle, 
merc-em merchandise, 
milit-em, soldier, 
niille, thousand. 

mine-re, to project. 
minor, minimus, less,leasi 

minu-ere, to diminish, 
mitt-ere (miss), to send. 
morde-re (mors), to bite. 

mort-em, death (cp 

move-re (mot), to move. 
multu-S, many, 
muta-re, to change. 

navi-s=Gr. naus, a ship. 

OCUlu-S = eye. 
Optare, to desire. 
optimus, best. 
opus (oper), work. 
Ordin-em (F. ordre), order. 

origin-em, origin. 
ori-ri, to rise. 
orna-re, to deck. 

Otium, ease. 

ovum (cp. avi.s), egg. 

OCto, G. Okto == eight. 

part-em, part. 
pecca-re, to sin. 

pell-ere (puis), drive. 

pend-ere, to pay. 
pende re, to hang. 

placa-re, to appease. 

place re, to please. 

plumbu-m (F. plong-er),lead. 

prehend-ere (F. pris), to 



pon-ere (posit, not pos-^), to 


probu-s, good. 
proba-re, to prove. 

prope (F. proch-), near. 

quaer-ere (quest), to seek. 
quatuor (quadr)=G. tetr- 

= four. 
quer-i, to complain. 

quinque = five. 

rabies (F. I'age), madness. 
rad-ere (ras), scrape, 
radius, a spoke. 
rap-ere (F ravir), snatch, 

ride-re (ris), laugh. 

rod-ere (ros-), gnaw; cp. rad- 

roga-re, to ask. 
rump-ere ( rupt ), burst, 


sacer, holy. 

SanctU-S (F saint), holy. 
SanU-S = sound. 
SCribere, script, write. 
sen-em, old man. 
senti-re (sens), to feel, 
septem =G. hepta = 

sequ-i (secut, sue), to follow. 
SOCi-US, a companion, 

sex = G. hex = six. 

Signu-m (siofillu-m), a seal. 
Silva, awo. d 
Situ-S, placed. 

spec-ta-re = G. SKEP, 
SKOP, loo^- 




splende-re, shine, 
sponde-re (spons), to 


stingu-ere, (stinct), thrust ; 

Stimulu-S, goad ; cp. G. 

stigma, brand, our 

string-ere (strict), bind 

Teg -ere (tect), cover, 


tempus (tempor), time. 

tempera-re, to mix. 
tolera-re, to bear; cp. G. 

talanton, weight, talent. 
trah-ere (tract, trait), to 

tre-S= G. trei-s = three, 
tume-re, to swell. 

uti (us-), to use. 
Utili-S, useful. 
uxor, wife. 

vacca, cow. 

vacuus and vanus, empty. 

Vaca-re, be free, 
vale-re, be strong; cp. well, 
veh-ere (vex), carry. 

via = way. 
vesper, evening. 
Vesti-S, garment. 

vetus, old. 

Vinc-ere (vict), to conquer 

vitru-m, glass. 

VOra-re. to devour, to eat. 

vove-re (vot.), vow. 

VUISU-S, torn. 

VUlnuS (vulner), wound. 

1 The ?>o« that seems to represent posit, as in depose, repose, comes from Fr. poser, 
late Latin pausare, from Greels: pau-ein, to stop. 




akou-ein, to hear 
bal-lein, (ble), to throw. 
biblo-s, book. 
bio-S, life. 

chrono-s, time. 
didak-to-s, taught. 

dog-mat, opinion. 
doxa, opinion, glory. 

dyna-mis, force. 

dynaste-S, one powerful. 
gamo-S, mai-riage. 
glOSSa, tongue. 
gonia, angle. 

graph-ein, to write. 
gramma-t, letter. 
haire-ein, to take, 
helio-s, sun. 
hiero-s, holy. 

hora, season, hour. 
idiOS, one's own, private. 
kako-s, bad. 
kaUStO-S, burnt. 
kosmo-S, beautiful order, 

lab-ein (leps), to take. 
litho-S, stone. 

mikro-s, little. 
mei-on, less. 
mise-ein, to hate. 

Onoma (onyma), name. 

ortho-s, light. 

osteo-n = L. ossi, bone. 

OXy-S, sharp. 
pau-ein, (pos), to cease. 

petra, rock. 

PHEN (phan), to show. 

phile-ein, to love. 

phot-, light. 
poie-ein, to make, 
prakto-s, done. 
SOpho-S, wise. 
Stell-ein, to send. 
StenO-S, short. 
tele-, afar, 
theo-s, a god. 

topO-S, a place. 

typo-S, blow, mark, type. 



1. Words should not be hyphened where separate words 
will convey the signification just as well ; and separate simple 
words should always be united when they are in common use, 
and when the words themselves are accented as single words. 

2. The number of words foi-merly hyphened, or written 
as two words, which -elipe now generally written as one, is large 
and constantly increasing ; as, 

railroad (railway is preferred), steamboat, slaveholder, slaveowner, 
wirepuller, footnote, prehistoric, quicklime, bystander, onlooker, 
headquarters, masterpiece, horseplay, wellbeing, goodwill, downcast, 
eavesdropper, noteworthy, byword, anything, anybody, everything, 
everybody, roughhew, heartache, raindrop, teardrop, nowadays, 
commonplace, candlelight, fireplace, foi-ever, forevermore. 

Many people even go so far now as to write any one and evej-y one as 
single words. But these are just as distinctly pronounced and accent- 
ed as two words as any man and every man. 

3. So, many words which are now frequently seen com- 
pounded, or written as two woi'ds, may be found written as 
one by Spenser, Shakespeare, Milton, or other old authors, and 
should now be so written ; as, 

wellnigh, erelong, bygone, alehouse, schoolboy, spellbound, 
awestruck, downtrodden, selfsame. 

4. Where a noun is used as an adjective, a useless compound 
word should not be made ; as, 

mountain top, Sunday school, supper table, slave trade, coffee trade, 
minute hand, multiplication table, journeyman printer, peasant woman, 
cabbage leaf, sister city, brother minister, apple tree, fellow student. 

5. The following adjectives and nouns, as well as many 
others, are sometimes needlessly compounded : — 

common law, common sense, ill health, free will, grand jury, 
Canadian Pacific Railway Co., North American Life Insurance Co., 

* The authors are in ebted for this chapter, dealing with a perplexing: subject, to 
Marshall T. Bis^elow, of Boston, from whose work, "Mistakes in Writinjif English," it 
is taken, with some additions and adaptations. 


New Westminster Directory, North Toronto Car Service, Map and 
School Supply Association, Yonge Street Bakery, Canada Southern 
R.K., Berlin Wool Shop, French Canadian. 

Also phrases like the following : — 

good bye, good morning, ever to be remembered (event), well laid out 
(grounds), long looked for (return), inside out, imcalled for (remarks), 
by and by, attorney at law, the pulling down, the carrying away, the 
blotting out, never to be forgotten, out of the way, good for n' thing, 
well to do, hand to mouth, recently published, crudely expressed, 
cunningly contrived, etc. 

Using hyphens between these words adds nothing to the 
clearness of the expression. 

6. The following rules are given for foregoing classes o! 
words, in accordance with the foregoing general principles. 
The Dictionaries are so inconsistent that they are not sat; 

7. Military and civil titles like the following are hyphened: — 

governor-general, lieutenant-governor, receiver-general, adjutant- 
general, sergeant-major, aide-de-camp, commissary-general, (jueen- 
mother, queen-dowager, Prince-Consort, attorney-general, major- 
general, 4ieutenant-colonel, rear-admiral, vice-president, vice-chancellor, 
etc. ; hut viceroy, vicegerent. 

8. The following words expressing kindred are hyphened . — 
father-in-law, son-in-law, etc., step-mother, step-daughter, etc., 

cousin-german, second-cousin, great-grandfather, great-grandson, etc., 
grand-uncle, great-aunt, mother-in-law, etc. 

9. The following points of the compass should be written as 
single words : — 

northeast, northwest, southeast, southwest. 
But the following are hyphened : — 
north-northeast, west-southwest, etc. 

10. Fractions like the following, when written out, should 
not be hyphened : — 

one half, two thirds, five eighths, ten thousandths. 
Another class are hyphened as follows : — 

one twenty-fifth, forty-nine fiftieths, ninety-nine hundredths, 
thirteen ten-thousandths, etc. 

Numbers like the following are also hyphened : — 
twenty-live, forty-nine, tweuty-lifth, forty-second, etc. 


11. Compounds of half ov quarter (whether a fraction or 
trom quarters) like the following are usually printed with a 
hyphen : — 

half-dollar, half-crown, half-barrel, half-way, half-past, half-witted, 
half-yearly, half-price, quarter-barrel, quarter-day, quarter-face, quar- 
ter-deck, etc.; 6m^ quartermaster. 

12. The words fold, score, fenny and fence, united with 
numbers of one syllable, are written as single words ; but with 
numbers of more than one syllable they are h3'phened or 
written as two words : — 

twofold, tenfold, twenty-fold, hundred-fold, two hundred-fold ; 
fourscore, twenty score, a hundred score ; halfpenny, twopenny 
tenpenny, halfpence, foiirpence, tenpence, fifteen-penny, fifteen pence. 

13. Ordinal numbers compounded with the word rate or 
hand are usually written with a hyphen ; as, 

first-rate, fifth-rate ; second-hand, fourth-hand, etc. 

14. Numerals are compounded with words of various mean- 
ing, which explain themselves : — 

one-eyed, one-armed, two-handed, two-headed, three-legged, four- 
story, four-footed, etc. 

Numerals are also combined with a noun to form an adjec- 
tive, as follows : — 

two-foot rule, ten-mile run, one-horse chaise, twenty-feet pole, etc. 

•15. Compound nouns ending with rtian or woman are 
written as one word , as. 

Englishman, workman, oysterman, goodman ; needlewoman. 
Frenchwoman, marketwoman, etc. 

16. Compounds ending with holder, monger are usually 
written as one word ; as, 

bondholder, stockholder, landholder, slaveholder ; boroughmonger, 
cheesemonger, ironmonger. 

17. Compounds ending with hoat, hook, drop, light, house, 
room, side or yard ai*e made single words if the first part of 
the compound is of only one syllable, but are joined by a 
hyphen if it is of more than one, or written as two words ; as, 

longboat, sailboat, canal-boat ; handbook, daybook, commonplace- 
book ; dewdrop, raindrop, water-drop ; daylight, sunlight, candle- 
light ; alehouse, boathouse, warehouse, greenhouse, meeting-house, 
dwelling-house ; bedroom, greenroom, [also anteroom), dining-room, 
dressing-room ; bedside, fireside, hillside, river-side, mountain-side ; 
churchyard, farmyard, courtyard, timber-yard, marble-yard. 


1 8. Compounds ending with work are usually written a8 
single words, unless the combination is unusual : as, 

groundwork, network, framework, needlework, brickwork, ironwork, 
stonework ; but mason-work, carpenter- work. 

19. Compounds octree, leaf and bush are frequently made; 
but this seems unnecessary. Such words are always printed 
separately in the Oxford Bibles. 

20. Compounds ending with like are written as one word, 
unless derived from a proper name, or unusual combinations, 
when they take the hyphen ; as, 

childlike, lifelike, womanlike, workmanlike, fishlike ; Argus-like, 
Bedouin-like, business-like, miniature-like. 

21. Compounds beginning with ei/e are written as one word; 
as, eyelash, eyebrow, eyeglass, eyewitness. 

22. Compounds bef^nning with school are written as one 
word, except when made with a participle (school-bred, school- 
teaching) ; as, 

schoolboy, schoolmate, schoolfellow, schooldame, schoolhouse, 
schoolmaster, schoolmistress. 

But the following are better as separate words : — 

school days, school district, school committee, school teacher, school 
children, school board, etc. 

23. The word fellow is frequently compounded with another 
nonn, as /eUow-citizen, fellow-traveller, etc.; but there seems 
to be no better reason for this than for compounding any of 
the pairs of words given in paragraph 4, above. 

24. Compounds of a noun in the pofisessive case with an- 
other noun, and having a peculiar signification, are not infre- 
quent ; as, 

bird's-eye, king's-evil, crow's-nest, bear's-foot, Jew's-harp, etc. 
But many like words have become consolidated ; as, 
beeswax, ratsbane, townspeople, etc. 

25. Compounds of a verbal noun ending in ing with a noun 
or adjective are generally connected by the hyphen ; as, 

printing-office, dining-table, composing-room ; good-looking, cloud- 
compelling, church-going bell, etc. 

In a few pages of Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors occur the 
following compounds of this ftlass . — 


"always wind-obeying deep," "well-dealing countrymen," "dark 
working sorceress," "soul-killing witches," "fool-begged patience,' 
" sap- consuming winter," 

26. Compounds of words expressing colour, like hrownish- 
yellow or yellowish white, need not be written with a hyphen ; 
but where a noun is written with an adjective expressing 
colour, the hyphen should be used ; as, 

lemon-yellow, iron-grey, iron-red, silver-grey, emerald-green ; also 

27. The word self\s united with numerous words c" various 
parts of speech, forming compounds which are self-explaining. 
The hyphen is used in all words beginning with self, excepting 
selfhood, selfsame, and selfish with its derivatives. Self is also 
compounded with pronouns as a termination, and the compound 
written as one word ; as, himself, myself itself, etc. Some 
writers use oneself for one's self, and its use in this form is 

28. Many compound personal epithets are in constant use, 
which are usually written with a hyphen and explain them 
selves ; as, 

light-haired, blue-eyed, sharp-nosed, broad-shoul-iered, long-legged. 

29 Compounds of adverbs like aftove, ill, well, so, (but no' 
of adverbs ending in ly), with a participle or participial adjec 
tive, to form an epithet, may be written with a hyphen when 
they precede the noun they qualify, but not otherwise ; as, 

" the well-known author," "the so-called spelling reform," "this 
ill-advised proceeding," " the above-named parties." 

Compound adverbs should be written as single words ; as, 

meanwhile, awhile, meantime, everywhere, anywhere, forever, 
forevermore, moreover, howsoever, wheresoever, hereinbefore. 

30. Compounds of all with an adjective or a participle are 
very common, and are wi-itten with a hyphen ; as, 

all-conscious, all-wise, all-knowing, all- commanding, all-seeing, all- 
honoured, all-informing, all-mighty, hut Almighty. 

31. Compounds made with prefixes are very perplexing as 
to the use of the hyphen, and are given in the Dictionaries and 
used by authors both with and without it. Those made from 
prepositions or adverbs, like over, under, after, out, cross or 
counter, with words of one syllable, are generally made one 
word, and sometimes with words of more than one syllable. 


But the practice is so variable, and the difference of the 
Dictionaries so great, that the matter must be left to the taste 
and discretion of the writer. All words should be consolidat- 
ed that it is possible to consolidate. 

Many of these compounds given in the Dictionaries, however, 
would be much better written as separate words, as they have 
two main accents ; as, 

upper lip, over anxious, over cunning, over burdensome, after age, 
after part, cross section, cross reference, counter revolution, counter 

32. Compounds made from prefixes like demi, semi, non, 
sub, inter, intro, intra, extra, etc., or like deutero, electro, 
pseudo, sulpho, thermo, etc., are often made and written as 
single words, although usage is unsettled. 

33. Where the prefix co-, re- or pre- occurs before a word 
which begins with the vowel of the prefix, or where before a 
consonant the prefix makes a word similar in form with an- 
other of different signification, a hyphen should be used after 
the prefix ; as, 

co-operate, co-ordinate, pre-exist, pre-eminent, re-examine, re-crea- 
tion, re-collect, re-formation. 

34. It is not claimed that the foregoing rules are perfect, 
and usage is so variant that it cannot be expected they will be 
univei-sally adopted, as the matter is dependent on taste as well 
as custom. But the main principle is to use the hyphen 
only where it will help the reader to understand the writer's 

The authoi*s append a selection of hyphened words, according 
to recent English usage, which they have come across in their 
reading, in addition to those already cited. Whether words 
should be compounded, hyphened, or written separately, has 
been so often left to the conflicting practice of printers, and is 
at all times so puzzling a question, that the addition of the 
list may not therefore be unacceptable. 

Austro-Hungary, Anglo-Turkish, anti-social, anti-clerical, 
awe-insj)iring, art-critic, after-glow, apple-blossom, agreed-on 
(dimensions), all-embracing, broad-based, burial-places, by-pro- 
duct, ball-room, black-letter, battle-field, beacon-fires, basket- 
chair, book-making, by-the-way, by-the-bye, by-and-by, brain- 


weight, beer-shop, blue-stocking, cool-headed, common-sense 
(plan), character-sketching, clear-cut, cock-sure, co-operator, 
close-shaven, crude! y-expi-essed, chalk-drawing, child-criminals, 
cannon-ball, close-titting, cock-eyed, dark-green, deep- blue, 
dark blue, day-dream, day-time, distinguished-looking, dining- 
hall, dance-music, death-bed, dead-lock, dead-weight, dew-drop, 
dog's-eax-ed, double-dealing, double-faced, down-trod, drift-wood, 
dumb-waiter, dwelling-{)lace, day-school, dust-bin, eau-de-Co- 
logne, ebb-tide, egg-shaped, elbow-room, eye-glass, English- 
built, empty-headed, exquisitely-modulated, ever-changing, ever- 
increasing, ever-growing, evil-speaking, four-footed, four-storied, 
fellow-men, flame-coloured, finely-drawn, folk-lore, foul-mouthed, 
frock-coated, far-off, field-sports, fellow-subjects, fellow-citizen, 
fever-areas, farm-buildings, far-reaching, feather-brained, first- 
class, fair-minded, fan-light, flower-bed, faint-hearted, fair- 
haired, fair-spoken, free-sj^oken, fashion-monger, field-day, field- 
glass, field-officer, fii-e-engine, fire-proof, fine-spun, fine-drawn, 
flesh-tints, fool's-errand, free-hearted, gas fittings, gold-mounte-l, 
ofood-night, good-humour, goody-goody, garden-scene, golden - 
mouthed, gentle-hearted, good-will, God-speed, go-between, the 
go-by, go-cart, good-natured, good-tempered, good-breeding, 
great-hearted, ground-swell, lialf-breed, half-holiday, half-pay, 
half dead, hand-glass, hand-bell, haggard-looking, half-closed, 
hard-di-inking, hot-headed, high-spirited, high-born, home-made, 
hiding-place, high-minded, highly- wrought, half- weird, half-con- 
scious, hand-mirror, half-believing, half-century, half- forgotten, 
highly-finished, Hartington-Salisbury (coalition), half-burned. 
Home-rule, high-sounding, hair-trigger (temper !), hard-visaged, 
harvest-home, heart-burning, heart-rending, heart^sore, heart- 
melting, heart-sickening, hanger-on, head-dress, head-gear, heir- 
apparent, hero-worship, high-flavoured, high-mettled, horse- 
jockey, hydra-headed, ice-cream, ice-house, ill-tempered, ill-bred, 
ill-favoured, India-rubber, iron-bound, ill-will, Indo-China, ill- 
disposed, ill-gotten, ivy-covered (ruins), iron-grey, ivory-headed, 
ill-guidance, ill-starreJ, ill-considered, jaw-breaker, joint-stock, 
job-lot, job-printer, judgment-day, kind-hearted, knee-deep, 
kirk-session, kitchen-maid, knight-errant, lunch-time, large- 
hearted, long-lived, long-loved, look-out, life-buoy, lady-love, 
long-forgotten, Liberal-Conservative, long-protracted, long-suf- 
fering, life-size, life-like, last-named, long-continued, law-mak- 
ers, low-bred, money-making, much noted, master-hand, merry- 
making, middle-class, make-believe, meeting-place, matter-of- 


fact, magic-lantern, make-shift, maiden-like, maid-servanti 
manor-house, maple-sugar, market-gardener, master-mind, mean- 
spirited, me lium-sized, mid- winter, middle-aged, many-sided, 
modern-looking, mill-dam, mocking-bird, mole-hill, moss-grown, 
mother-of-pearl, moving- power, musk-melon, narrow-minded, 
neat-handed, near-sighted, news-room, night-cap, non-payment, 
non-contagious, non-submissive, noble-hearted, nobly-born, 
newly-met never-failing, nineteenth-century (poet), non-useful, 
nice-looking, nesting-places, nature-worship, night-lights, novel- 
reading (public), note-book, off-hand, old-fashioned, oil-well, 
oj)en-handed, open-mouthed, over-tired, on-goings, orange-peel, 
oyster-shell, over-zealous, out-put, out-of-door, over-elaborate, 
old-time, open-air, pen-and-ink, peace-offering, pi-ess-gang, pass- 
degree, poet-painter, pleasure-seeking, paper-knife, pinched- 
faced, peasant-life, pro-Russian, j)oet-]aureate, panic-stricken, 
quick-witted, quai-ter-day, r«,in-beaten, reading-book, railway- 
carriage, rain-cloud, rock-bound (coast), rhyme-sounds, rough- 
cast, race-horse, rack-rented, rail-fence, reading-desk, rear- 
rank, receipt-book, red-haired, resting-place, return-ticket, re- 
turning-officer, riff-raff, nng-finger, right-minded, river-bed, 
oad-maker, rolling-stock, root^crop, rose-coloured, round- 
shouldered. Sabbath -breaker, sailing-master, safety-lamp, saddle- 
horse, salt-cellar, sand-bank, sash-frame, sauce-pan, scale-boai'd, 
scrap-book, screw-driver, sea-i;i"een, sea-level, sea-sickness, seal- 
ing-wax, search-warrant, seed-time, self-command, self-abase- 
ment, self-conceit, self-evident, self-sacrificing, self-love, self- 
assertive, self-questioning, self-condemning, self-respecting, self- 
defence, self-educated, self-importance, self-righteous, self-sup- 
porting, self-government, self-elected, self-constituted, self- 
willed, state-directed, simple-minded, sight-seeing, semi-detached, 
sea-fight, sweet-scented, sub-title, still-born, sonnet- writter, set- 
off, sense-organs, safety-valve, sky-line, signal-rocket, sixth- 
form (boy); semi-moral, short-service (system), stable-boy, 
stone-woi'k, such-and such, so-and-so, steel-grey (dress), sou^- 
piercing, soul-sustaining, so-called, sweetly-scented, soft-spoken, 
semi-starvation, thorough-going, turning-point, title-page, tor- 
toise-shell, tide-swayed, twin-born, trade-unions, transformation- 
scene, toilet-table, tulip-tree, typhoid-fever, tenant-right, un- 
looked-for, undreamed-of, vantage-ground, washing-day, wooden- 
shoed, water-colour, watei'-melon, well-dressed, worn-out, well- 
known, well-nigh, white-cowhid (monks), well-deserved, work- 
a-day, world-wide, water-sprite, war-whoop, walking-stick, 


would-be, wage-earner, wide-spread, well-trained (intellect), 
wrong-doing, wind-swayed, wife-beating, war-drum, well-to-do, 
word -picture, wall-paper, watei'-colours, weak-hearted, wax- 
modelling, weather-beaten, wedding-ring, wedding-cake, well- 
favoured, well-intentioned, whip-hand, wine-merchant, window- 
blind, wishy-washy, work-box, wood-engraving, worldly-minded, 
yeai-book, yellow-haired. 

Supply the hyphen when needed in the following sentences ; 

The shrill-sounding bugle had scarcely awaked us when we 
heard the far distant cannon loud booming through the cold 
grey dawn ; and not far distant from us we were soon able to 
distinguish the misty forms of the Russian skirmishers in their 
ash grey coats. 

We had become so absorbed in his slow striking sentences 
that we were astonished when the slow striking clock pealed 
forth twelve. 

Old school ideas ai'e not more taught in old school houses 
than in new ones. 

He is a stone mason, but not a master mason. 

The sextons in '• Hamlet" were grave diggers, but not grave 


A. Page. 

abandon, -ed, -ing .* 95 

abase, -nient 95 

abash, -ed 96 

abate, -nieiit 96 

abbreviate 96 

abdicate 96 

abduct, -ion 97 

aberration, -ant 97 

abet, -tor 98 

abeyance 98 

abhor, -reiice 98, 187 

ability, -ties 98, 187 

abject 99 

abjure 99 

abnegate, -tion 99 

abnormal 97, 99 

abode 185 

abolish, -ition 100 

abominate, -able, -atioii 98, 100 

abortive 100 

abridge, -inent 96, 100 

abrogate 100, 101 

absolute, -ly 240 

abstain, -ing 101 

abstinence 101 

abstemious, -ness 101 

abstract 100 

abuse 108 

accede 103 

accessory 9S 

'accident 132 

accomplice . 98 

accomplish, -ment 101, 179 

achieve, -ment 103 

accord 103 

accordant 140 

accordingly 140 

account, -able 101 , 102 

accurate 102 

accuse, -ation 102 

accute 212 

acknowledge 248 

acquiesce 103, 1 14 

active 154 

adage 116 

addict, -ed 104 

address 1 03 

adduce, -ed 104 

adjacent 106 

adjoin, -ing 106 

administer, -ed 104, 105 

admirable 105 

adopt, -ed 105 

adroit 105 

adulation 175 


advanced 104 

advantage, -ous lOii 

adverse . 106, 250 

affable, -ability 107 

affinity 213 

affluence '. . 107 

affront 107 

age 145 

agnostic, -isui ] 08 

aggrandize, -ment 108 

aggravate 166 

agree 103 

agreeable 139 

ailment 166 

aim 266 

alien, -^te, -ation 109 

alike 218 

all 164 

alleged 104 

allegory 109 

allude, -sion 109 

always 164 

amenable 157 

amend 110 

among 123 

ample . . . 110 

anecdote Ill 

animate, -ation 110 

annals.. .. Ill 

annotation 229 

answer Ill 

antipathy 187 

anxiety 131 

apathy, -thetic 198 

aphorism 116 

apology 112 

apothegm 116 

apparent 112 

appellation 226 

apply 104 

apprehend, -sion 112 

approbation 114 

approve 114 

apt, -ness 248 

ardent 279 

arduous 113 

arraign 102 

art, arts 219, 244 

artifice 270 

ascendency 200 

ascribe 113 

asperse, -sion 113, 129 

assemble 142 

assent 114 

assert, -tion 114, 221 





assign, -ed 104, 




attention I'S, 


austere, -ity 



averse, -sion 115, 187, 




backward . 


banish, -ment 


beat, -en 



beg, -8 

begin, -ning liO, 




belles lettres 217, 






besides 122^ 







blame, -ing 

bland . 



bold, -ness 

border, -s 

bound, -ed, -ary 

bountiful 121, 



breeding . 

burlesque 12G, 





cabal .. 127 

calamity, -ies 127 

calculate 128 

calibre 128 

calm 129 

calumniate, -or 113, 114 

calumny 129 


can, cannot 222 

candid 13i; 

candour 130 

capacious .... 110 

capacity 98 

captious 130 

care 131, 188 

carelessness 199 

case 166 

carriage 121 

carrying ■. 121 

cause 131 

cautious 131 

celebrate 132 

censure 124 

chagrin 274 

chance 132, 185 

changeable 132 

character 133, 156 

characterize 150 

charge 102, 131 

charming 149 

cheer 110 

cheerful 180 

chief 187 

choice 134, 233 

choose, -ing 134 

chronic 212 

chronicles Ill 

circulate 262 

circumspect 131 

circumstance 134 

cite, -ed 134, 246 

civil 107, 253 

civilization 144 

claim 135 

clamour 229 

clandestine, -ly 135 

clear 112 

clearness 238 

close, -ed 135 

coherence 196 

coincide 103 

collected 129 

colloquy 142 

combination 127 

comely . 119 

comical 157 

commence, -ment 120 

commerce 206 

commercial 136 

commemorated 132 

commendable 215 

comment 229 

commentary 229 

common, -ly 136, 178 

commonplace 136 

communication 206 

communion 206 

comparison 269 

compatible 141 

compendium 100 

compensation 136 

competent 246 

competition 137 




complaisance, -t 107, 137 

complaint 15(i 

complete 101 

completion 141 , 1(52 

compliment 17o 

comply 103 

compose, -ed 12;), 177 

comprehend 272 

compute, -tation 128 

co'iception 172 

conceive 112 

concern . 131 

concert 141 

conciliate, -or, -ing 138 

conclude, -sive 135, 139, 147 

concur, -reiice 103, 114 

condemTi 124, 252 

condescension 107, 137 

condone 168 

conduce, -ive 138 

conduct 121 

confer ' 180 

conference 142 

confined 226 

confines 125 

confirm, -ed 139 

conformable ] 39 

confound, -ed 96, 116 

confused 96 

confute, -ed 139 

conjuncture 143 

connection 206 

consanguinity 213 

consequence 160, 226 

consequently 140, 226 

consent 103, 114 

consider, -ate, -ation 140, 193, 267 

consistent 140 

consonate 140 

conspiracy 127 

constitute 177 

constitution 177 

consummate, -ation 141 

contemplation 140 

contend 146 

contiguous 106 

contract, -ed. 96, 226 

contrary 106 

contribute 104, 138 

contrive l4l 

contumacious, -acy 231 

convene 142 

conversation 142 

convoke 142 

copy 166 

cordial 188 

corporal, -eal 142 

corroborate 139 

count 128 

couple 126 

court 189 

courteous, -y 107 

craving 120 

created 131 

credit 121, 133 


crime 143 

crisis 143 

criterion 262 

cross 130 

cross-grained 130 

cry . 229 

cultivation 144 

culture 144 

curtail 96 

custom 144 

damage 191 

danger 145 

date 145 

dealing 206 

debar, -ring 146 

debased 95 

debate 146 

deceive, -ed, -ing 146 

decent 119 

deception 147 

decide 147 

decisive 138 

declamation 103 

decree 147 

decrease 96 

decry 148 

deed 103 

defamation 113, 129 

defeat 117, 118 

defect 194 

defence 112 

defer 148 

deference 137 

degraded 95 

delay 148 

deliberate, -tion 146, 267 

delicate 148 

delicious 149 

delightful, -ed 149, 180 

delude 147 

delusion 147, 174 

demand 135 

demeanour 121 

demur 150 

denunciation 226 

depict 150, 236 

deportment 121 

depraved 95 

depreciate 148 

deprive 146 

derision 253 

describe 150 

description 102, 150 

desert, -ed 95, 223 

design 1 51 

designation 226 

desire, -able 119, 161 

desolate, -tion 247 

deter, -red, -mine 147, 151 

detest, -able 98, 100 

detract, -ion 113, 129, 148 

devastation 247 

develop, -ed, -ment 151 




devise 141 

devoted 104 

dialect 214 

dialogfue 142 

diction 152 

dictionary 162 

difference 152 

difficult, -y 113, 158, 231 

diffidence 153, 224 

diffuse, -ness 153 

diligent, -ce 154, 255 

diminish 96 

direction : 184 

directly 154 

disaster 127 

disbelief 154 

discernment 155 

disconcert 116 

discourse 142 

discretion 155, 210 

discriminate, -tion 155, 156 

discursive 153 

discuss 146 

disease 155 

dishearten 151 

dislike 187 

disorder 156 

disparage 148 

disposition 156 

disproved 139 

dispute 146 

disqualify 146 

disseminate 262 

dissimulate 174 

dissoluteness 220 

distinction 153 

distinguish, -ed 156, 157 

distrust 153 

ddsturb, -ance 270 

docile 157 

domicile 185 

doubtful 271 

dread 112 

drift 195, 266 

droU 157 

dull 2C4 

duty 158 


each 165 

ease 158 

eccentric 159 

economy 159 

economical 159 

education 159 

effect, -ual, -ive 160 

efficient, -cacious 161 

effort, -8 128, 158 

eligible 161 

elocution 161 

eloquence 161 

elucidate, -tion 168, 169 

emend 110 

emergency 143 

emolument 179 



emotion 174 

emphasis 263 

emulation 137 

encyclopijediii 152 

endurance 162 

enigma 109 

enliven 110 

enmity 187 

enthusiast, -iasm 162 

entire 162 

entitled 246 

entreat 119, 241 

enumerate 128 

envy, -ious 163, 208 

epitome 100 

epoch 145 

equity, -able 171, 211 

equivocate, -cal 163 

era 145 

erect 204 

erratic 97 

error 164 

erudition 213 

essay 164 

essence 227 

essential 227 

establish, -ed 139, 204 

estimate 128 

estrange 109 

events 185 

ever, every 164 

evidence, -t 112, 165 

exact 102 

examination 165 

example 166 

exasperate, -ed 166 

exceed 167 

excel 167 

excepted 231 

exception, -al 97, 231 

excite 167 

exclude 146 

exculpation 112 

excuse 112, 168 

execrable 100 

exemption 194 

exhilarate 110 

exigency 143 

exile 117 

expedient, -ce 168, 227 

expel 118 

explain, -planatory 168 

explicit 169 

exploit 103 

exploration 166 

exposed 264 

express 169 

expressive, -ion 259, 278 

expulsion Ii7 


fable 169 

facetious, -ness 170 

facility , 158 

fact 134 




faction 127 

factious 170 

faculty, -ties 171 

fair..; 171 

faithless, -ness 171 

fame 172, 181 

fanatic 162 

fancy 172 

fashion 144 

fate 132, 147 

fatigue 173 

fault 194 

fealty 189 

fear 112 

fearlessness 125 

feasible 173 

feeling 174 

feign, -ing 174 

fertile 175 

fervour 278 

fickle 132 

fine 149 

fine arts 244 

finish,-ing 135,175 

fit : 119 

flagitious 188 

flagrant 188 

flat 204 

flattery, -ing 175 

flavour 265 

fleeting 265 

flight 265 

flightiness 217 

flourish 176 

fluctuate 150 

foil 117 

folded 151 

foolish 209 

forbear, -ing 101 

forecast 176 

foresight 176 

forgive, -en 168 

forsake 95 

form 176 

fortitude 125, 162 

fortune, -ate 132, 186 

found, -ed, -ing 204 

frame 177 

frankness 130 

fraud 178 

freedom 194 

frequently 178 

fretful 130 

frontiers 125 

fruitless, -ful. . .■. 175, 274 

frustrate 116 

fulfil, -led 101, 178 


gain 174 

garb .. .189 

garrulity 264 

general -ly _ . 179, 274 

generation 145 

genius 205 


gentle 179 

gibe 210 

giddiness 217 

give 180 

glad 180 

glory 181 

glossary 152 

good-breeding 222 

good-manners 252 

goodness 223 

govern, -ing 181 

graceful 119 

gracious 182 

grant 180 

gratify, -ed, -ing, -ification 180, 182 

grave . 183 

grievance 183 

grudge 183 

guide 184 

guile 177 

guilt 143 

guise 184 


habit 144, 184 

habitation 185 

happen, -s, -ing 185 

happy, -iness 186, 278 

harangue 103 

hard 113 

hardship 183 

harm 191 

haste, -n, -y 186 

hatred 186 

hazard 145 

head 187 

headstrong 232 

hearty, -iness 188 

heed, -ful 188, 224 

heinous 188 

hesitate, -ion 150, 254 

hidden 135, 215 

hint 109 

hold 189, 221 

homage 189 

honesty 190 

honour 181 

hostile 107 

however 190 

humanity 122 

humbled 95 

humiliated 95 

humour 182 

hurry 186 

hurt 191 


idle 192 

idiom 214 

ignorant, -ce 192 

illiterate 102 

illness 257 

ill-timed 268 

ill-usage 269 

ill-will 187 




Uustrate, -tion 168 

illustrious 157 

magination 172 

mmaterial 193 

mmediately 154 

mminent 193 

mtnunity 193 

mpeach . 102 

ni pending 193 

mperfection 194 

mpious, -iety 209 

mplacable 195 

mplored 120 

mply , -led 258 

mport 195 

mportunity 260 

mpose 147 

mpugned 1 39 

mpute 113 

nadvertence, -cy 12C, 235 

nattention 190 

nbred 202 

nborn 202 

incident 134 

ncite 167 

nclination Ii2 

ncoherent, -ce 190 

ncongrous 196 

nconsiderable 272 

nconsistent, -cy 196 

nconstant 196 

neon vertible 1 97 

incredulity 155 

ndebted 197 

indifference 198 

ndiscriminate, -Iv 244 

ndisposition 198, 258 

ndisputable 197 

ndolent, -ce 192, 199 

ndubitable 197, 199 

ndulge 182 

ndustrious 154 

neffectual 273 

nexorable 195 

nlamous, -y 200 

nferior 254 

nfidelity 155 

nfluence 200 

nfraction 201 

nf rlnge, -ed, -ment . . 201 

ngenious, -ly 201 

ngenuous, -ness 130 201 

ngratiate, -ing 203 

nherent 202 

nimical 107 

Iniquitous 278 

njury.. 191, 203 

njustice 203 

nquiry 165 

insensibility 195 

nsigniflcant 272 

insipid 204 

insinuate, -ing 203 

nspire, -ation 110 

nstaiice, -tly 154, 166 


instantaneously 154 

institute, -ed, -ing 204 

insult 108 

integrity 190 

intellect, -ual 203, 223 

intelligence 205, 228 

intend 151 

intercede, -ces=ion 205 

Intercourse 206 

interfere 200 

intermeddle 206 

intermediate 123 

Interposition 205, 207 

interpretation 224 

intervene, -tion 123, 207 

intrepidity 125 

introductory 207 

intrude, -sion 207 

invective 208 

invent 141 

investigation 165 

inverted 235 

invidious 208 

irrational . . 209 

irrelevant 193 

irrefragable 197, 199 

irreligious, -ion 209 

irritate 166 


jealous, -y 163, 209 

jeer 210 

jeopardj' d.i5 

jocose, jopiihr 170 

jocund 220 

joyful 180 

judgment 155, 210 

jjstifieation 112 

just 119 

justice 211 

juvenile 278 


j^^gQ _ 212 ■ 

Ifind, -ness 122, 182, 212 

kindred 212 

knowledge 213 


laborious 154 

lack 213 

lag 218 

language 214 

languor 173 

latent 215 

lassitude 173 

laudable 215 

law 147, 215, 222 

lawful 215 

lax, -ity 220 

lay, laid 216 

lazy 192 

leader 187 

learning, -ed 213, 217, 219 

leave 216 




legal 215 

legitimate 215 

lessen 96 

letters 217 

levity 217 

lexicon 152 

liable . . . . ; 264 

libel 129 

liberality 121 

liberty 216 

licence 216 

licentiousness 220 

lie, lies 216 

lightness 217 

likeness 218 

linger 218 

listless, -ness 198, 218 

literary' 217 

literature 217, 219 

livelihood 219 

lively, -ness 220 

living 219 

loath, lo ithe, -ing 08, 115, 187 

loiter 218 

loose, -ness 220 

loquacity 264 

low 99 

lucky 186 

lucre 179 

ludicrous 157 


maintain, -ed 114, 221 

maintenance 219 

makeshift 168 

malady 156 

malevolent, -ce 221 

malice 187, 221 

malicious 221 

malignity, -nant 187, 221 

manage 141 

manifest 112 

manner, -s 144, 221, 275 

material 143 

maxim 116, 222 

may 222 

mean 99, li8, 136, 151 

meaning 1 95 

mediate 206 

meditate 1 76 

meekness 179 

memoirs Ill 

memorable 258 

menaced 267 

mend LIO 

mental 223 

mercantile 136 

mercenary 274 

merciful 182 

merit 223 

merry 220 

metaphor 109 

method 144, 275 

methodical 234 

mild 179 


mind 2'.-3 

mindful 223 

mischance 127 

misconduct 1 4:^ 

misconstrue 224 

misdemeanour 1 43 

misfortune .27 

misgiving 153 

mishap 127 

misinterpret 224 

mislead 147 

mistake 104 

mistrust 1 63 

mode 275 

model 166 

moderation 224 

modesty 224 

moral 222 

mortification 274 

motive 131 

munificence, -ent 12 1 

mutable 132 

mutinous 271 

mutual, -ly 225 


name 226 

narrative 102 

narrow 226 

naturally 22(5 

necessary 227 

necessity 227 

need 213 

nefarious 278 

neglecting 227 

negligent 227 

negotiate 269 

neighbourhood 228 

news 228 

nice 149 

noise, -y 228 

note 229 

notice 229 

novel 169 


obedient, -ce 230 

object, -s, -ion 230 

obligation 158 

obnoxious 264 

obsequious 230 

observe, -ed 230 

observant, -tion 224, 229 

obstinate, -cy 231 

obvious 112 

odd 159 

offence 143 

often 178 

omen 233 

opposite 107 

option, -al 233 

opulence 137 

oral 233 

oration, oratory 103, 161 

order, -ly 234 




ordinary 136 

origin 234 

outcry 229 

outdo 167 

outrage 108 

outwit 167 

overpowered 118 

oversight 235 

overthrow, -n 118, 235 

overturn, -ed 235 


paint 236 

pair 126 

parable 109 

paragraph 239 

pardon, -ed 168 

parody 236 

partake 236 

participate 236 

particular, -ize 261 

patience 162, 237 

pattern 166 

pause 150 

peaceful 130 

peevish 130 

penetration 155 

penman 278 

perceptive, -tion 237 

peremptory, -ilv 240 

perfect " 163 

perform 101 

peril 145 

period 145, 239 

perplex, -ed 238 

perspicuous, -ly 238 

petulant 130 

phrase, -ology 152, 239 

placid 130 

plain 112 

plea 112 

plot 127 

polite i07 

posed 238 

positive, -ly 239 

possible 240 

postpone 148 

practice, -able 145, 240 

prayer 241 

precedent, -ce 166, 242 

precinct 125 

precise 102 

preclude 146 

preeminence 242 

preface 241 

preferable, -ence 134, 161, 233 

prelude 241 

prerogative 135 

presage 233 

prescription 145 

prepossession 123 

pretence, -sion 135, 242 

pretext 242 

prevaricate 163 

priority 242 


privacy 243 

privilege 135 

proceeding 242 

procession 268 

proclamation 147 

procrastinate 148 

production 128 

profession 244 

profligate 95 

prognostic 233 

prohibit 146 

prolix, -ity 154 

prolong 148 

prominent 157 

promiscuous, -ly 244 

prompt 247 

proof 165 

propagate 262 

proper 119 

proportion 247 

propose 245 

proposition 239 

prosecute 245 

prosperity 278 

protract 148 

proverb 116 

puerile 278 

purpose 151, 245 

pursue 245 

puzzled 238 

qualify, -ification 245 

quibbling 163 

quiet 129, 158 

quote, -ed 134, 246 


rare 247 

rate, ratio 247 

rational 248 

ravage 247 

ready, -iness 248 

realize 101 

reason, -able 131, 248 

recant '. 99 

recapitulate 251 

recite 251 

reckoning 128 

reciprocal 225 

recognize 248 

recompense 137 

reconcile, -ing 133 

recover 249 

rectify no 

rectitude 249 

redress 2.50 

refer, -ence 109 

refinement 144. 

reform no 

refrain, -ing loi 

refute, -ed 139 

regain 249 

regard 223 




regrular 234 

rehearse 251 

rejoinder Ill 

relieve 10(i 

relinquish 95 

reluctant 115, 250 

remainder 117, 251 

remark, -ed 229 

remiss 227 

remnant 251 

remuneration 137 

renounce 99 

repair 249 

repartee 252 

repeat, repetition 251 

repeal 100 

represent 150 

reproach 124 

reprobate 95, 252 

reprove, -ing 124 

repudiate 99 

reputation 133 

request 241 

requisite 227 

requital 137 

research 165 

resignation 237 

residue 251 

response Ill 

retentive 266 

retinue 268 

retirement , 243 

retort 252 

retract 99 

retrieve 249 

retrospect 253 

reversed 235 

review 253 

reviling 129 

riddle 109 

ridicule, -ous 157, 253 

right 119, 135 

rigour 115 

rise 234 

rivalry 137 

romantic 257 

routed 118 

rule 234 

rural 253 

rustic 253 


satisfaction 137 

scarce 247 

scope 266 

scribe 278 

scruple 254 

seasonable 267 

seclusion 243 

secondary 255 

secret 135 

secular 278 

seditious 271 

sedulous, -ity 255 

seemly 119 


select 134 

selection 233 

self-conceit 255 

self-sufficient 256 

self-willed 255 

sensible 256 

sensitive 256 

sentence 239 

sentient 256 

sentimental 256 

sequence 257 

serene 129 

series 257 

severe, -ity 115 

shall, should 257 

share 236 

shuffling 163 

sickness 257 

signal 258 

signify, -icant 258 

simile, itude 269 

sin 143 

sincere 130 

singular 247 

situation 134 

slander, -er 114, 129 

social, -iable 260 

solicit, -ation 120, 259 

solicitude 131 

spacious 11c 

special 261 

specify 261 

speech 103 

spontaneous, -ly 261 

spread 262 

standard 262 

sternness lis 

strain 263 

strange, -er 109 

stratagem 270 

stress 263 

strictness 115 

stubborn, -ness 232 

subject 230, 264 

submission, -i ve 230 

subordinate . . . . ' 255 

substance 143 

subterfuge 270 

subvert, -ing 235 

succession 257 

suffrage 275 

suggest, -ion 109 

suitable 139 

summary 100 

summon, -ing 134 

superintendence 235 

supplicate, -ion 120 

suppress 100 

suspense 271 

synopsis 100 


talk, -ative 264 

taste 264 

tautology 252 




temper 156 

temperance 101 

temporal 278 

temporizer 268 

temporary 265 

tenacious 266 

tend, -s 138, 165 

tendency 266 

tenderness 122 

term 278 

test 263 

testimony 165 

therefore 140 

thougrhtful 267 

threat, -ened 267 

tidings 228 

time, timely 146, 267 

time-server, -intr 268 

title 226 

trade 244 

train 268 

transact, -ed, -Ion 243, 269 

transitory 265 

treatment 269 

trick 2o9 

troubles 270 

trust 121 

tumultuous 270 

turbulent 271 


ultimate 139 

uncertainty 27 1 

understand, -ing 271 

undauntediiess 125 

unimpo. cant 272 

unique 247 

universal 136, 272 

unseasonable 268 

untimely 268 

upbraid 124 

uprightness 249 

ilrbane 253 

usage 145, 269 

V, PAa*. 

vain 273 

variable 132 

venal 274 

verbal 233 

versatile •. . . 132 

vexation 274 

vicinity 228 

vigilant 131 

vile 118 

vilify, -fication 129 

vindicate 114 

visible 112 

visitation 127 

vocal 233 

vocation 115 

voice 275 

voluntary 261 

vote 275 

vulgar 136 


wary, -iness 131 

watchfulness 131 

waver 254 

way 275 

wealth 107 

wearisome 276 

welfare 276 

wellbeing 276 

wicked 276 

will 277 

willingness 261 

whole 165 

word 277 

worldly 278 

writer 278 


youthful 279 

zeal 279