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French Grammar 



W. H. ERASER, B.A., 

Associate- Professor of Italian and Spanish^ University of Toronto^ 


Associate- Professor of French^ University College^ Toronto. 

^ttthomcb bs the (Kbwcation ^tpartrntnt of (Dntario. 


Entered accordinf; to Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one thousand 
nine hundred, by Tiik Coit, Ci.akk Company, Limitku, Toronto, Ontario, in the 
Office of the Mirjister of Agriculture. 


The present volume has been compiled to meet the requirements of 
the various grades of High School work in French. 

Part I. consists of a series of lessons on the elements of grammar, and 
includes copious exercises. An effort has been made to render the 
exercises interesting in themselves by basing them, for the most part, 
on connected pieces of French dealing with topics of everyday life. 
Considerable prominence has been given to oral practice. 

Part II. consists of a systematic grammar of modern French. A 
series of exercises has been added, dealing with the various topics 
treated in the text. It was thought best to group these exercises 
together at the end of this part, in order not to impair the usefulness 
of the grammar as a book of reference by inserting the exercises 
immediately after the paragraphs to which they refer. Each exercise 
is furnished with section references, which will enable the pupil to turn 
readily to the theory upon which the exercises are based. 

The Reader is made up of interesting selections, for the most part 
complete in themselves, and aflfgrding a considerable range as to topic, 
vocabulary, and idiom. The exercises which have been inserted at the 
end of the Reader are based on the idiom and vocabulary of the text, 
and are intended to give practice in the reproduction in French of the 
substance of the selections. 

A word of explanation is required as to the indication of the pronun- 
ciation. The system of transcription employed is that of the Associa- 
tion Phondtique Internationale y and in the case of doubtful or disputed 
pronunciations the authority of the Dictionnaire Phondtique of Michaelis 
and Passy has been followed. In order not to confuse the beginner 
with too minute distinctions, "half long" vowels have not been indi- 
cated, and the same rule has been observed for the most part with 
regard to such vowels in the stressed syllable as are optionally long or 

The authors take this opportunity of expressing their thanks to Mr. 
J. H. Cameron, M.A., and Monsieur St. Elme de Champ, of University 
College, for numerous and valuable suggestions, and also to many 
modern language teachers throughout Ontario, whose practical advice 
and criticism have been of very great assistance. 



Phonetic Introduction ......... 1 

Exercise in Phonetic Transcription ...... 12 


Elementary Lessons, I-LI ........ 13 


The Verb 129 

The Noun 220 

The Article . . 233 

The Adjective 247 

The Pronoun 262 

The Adverb 302 

The Numeral . , . .314 

The Preposition 321 

The (Conjunction 331 

The Interjection . 334 

Abbreviations 336 

Exercises on Grammar, I, a-LXXV, a 337 


Prose Selections .......... 395 

Poetical Selections 431 

Composition Exercises on Reader ....... 439 

Vocabularies : 

French-English 461 

English-French 512 

Index 543 


By a decree of the French Minister of Public Instruction, 
dated February 26th, 1901, certain deviations from commonly 
accepted rules of grammar are permitted at all examinations 
held under his control. In the Appendix (see last page of 
this volume) will be found a reference list explaining the 
bearing of these deviations upon the various sections of the 
Grammar affected thereby. 


I. General Distinctions. The pronunciation will be 

explained, as far as possible, by comparison with English 
sounds, but it must never be forgotten that the sounds of 
two languages rarely correspond. Important general distinc- 
tions between English and French are the following : — 

1. English has strong stress (§ 7) and comparatively weak action of 
the organs in articulation. 

2. French has weak stress, while the action of the organs in articula- 
tion is very energetic. 

3. Hence, French sounds, both vowels and consonants, are almost all 
'narrow,' i.e., uttered with tenseness of the organs concerned in their 
articulation. (To understand 'narrow' and 'wide,' compare the narrow 
sound of ea in ' seat ' with the wide sound of i in ' sit. ') 

4. tongue and lip positions for French vowels are more definite, and 
more promptly taken, than in English. Lip-rounding (as in 'who,' 
'no,' 'law') and lip-retraction (as in 'let,' 'hat') are much more 
definite and energetic in forming French vowels. 

5. The tongue, both for vowels and consonants, is, in general, either 
further advanced or further retracted than in forming English sounds 
requiring tongue action. 

6. English long vowels (like a in ' fate' ) are diphthongal (especially as 
pronounced in the South of England), while French vowels, whether 
long or short, are uniform throughout their utterance. 

7. The nasal vowels of French are entirely foreign to English. 
They are formed by allowing the soft palate to hang freely, as in 
ordinary breathing, thus causing the air to escape through both nose 
and mouth at once. If, for example, the a of ' father ' be uttered with 
the soft palate hanging freely, the resulting sound will be approxi- 
mately that of the nasal [a] in ' tante ' [to it]. The position of the soft 




palate in forming this sound maj- be readily observed with a mirror. It 
must be carefully noted that there is absolutely no sound of n, m, or ng, 
in French nasal vowels, and hence that great care must be taken neither 
to raise the tongue nor close the lips until the sound is complete. 

2. Sounds. The French language has thirty-seven sounds, 
exclusive of minor distinctions. The orthography, like that of 
English, is irregular and inconsistent. Hence, to avoid con- 
fusion in indicating the pronunciation, we shall employ a 
phonetic alphabet (that of the 'Association Phon^tique In- 
ternationale'), in which each sound is represented by but one 
83rmbol, and each symbol has bub one sound. 

3. Table of Symbols. In the following table, the 
examples are in ordinary orthography, the heavy type indi- 
cates the sounds which correspond to the symbols, and the 
phonetic transcription is given within brackets : — 






ni, vive [ni, viiv]. 


beau, robe [bo, rob]. 


pu, muse [py, my:z]. 


dame, fade [dam, fad]. 


€t^ [ete]. 


fort, neuf [foir, noef]. 

creux, creu8e[kr0, kr0:z]. 


gant, dogue [go, dog]. 

Ic [U]. 


aha ! [a(h)a]. 


pris, p^re [pre, pe:r]. 


car, roc, [kar, rok]. 


fin, prince [f?, prJis]. 


long, BCUI [lo, fld'l]. 


neuf, neuvo [na'f, n(i?:v]. 


mot, dame [mo, dam]. 


un, humble [d;, <I':bl]. 


ni, jlno [ni, am]. 


paito, part [pat, pan*]. 


agnoau, digno [apo, diji]. 


IjaH, paHHo[pa, jxhh]. 


pas, tape [p<i, tap]. 


Unt, Umt«[t<l, t<T:t]. 


drap, par [dia, par]. 

note, tort [not, t'.y.v]. 


si, pciise [si, pHis]. 


ron<l, rondo [r5, r5:<lj. 


chou, iache[Ju, IdiJ], 

not, <:hOHe [ho, Jo!/, J. 


tttH, patto [t(i, pat]. 


tout, tour [tu, tuir]. 


vin, cave [v?, kaiv]. 


viiifidc [vjflul]. 


zone, rose [zoni, roiz]. 


lui [iMi]. 


jo, rouge [30, ruLij]. 


oui [wi]. 


sign of length. 


4. The Alphabet. The letters of the alphabet, with 
their French names, are as follows : — 


a [a]. 

j ji[3i]. 

s esse [es]. 


bo [be]. 

k ka[ka]. 

t te [te]. 


ce [se]. 

1 elle [el]. 

u u [y]- 


de [de]. 

m emme [era]. 

V ve [ve]. 



n eime [en]. 

w double ve [dubl ve]. 


•efFe [ef]. 


X iks [iks]. 


g*^ [56]. 

P pe[pe]. 

y i grec [i grek]. 


ache [aj]. 

q ku[ky]. 

z z^de [zed]. 


i [i]. 

r erre [er]. 

Note.— Words are commonly spelled by naming their letters, as above, together with 
the other orthographic signs, if any. 

5. Other Orthographic Signs. In addition to the 
letters of the alphabet, the following signs are used : — 

1. The acute accent -^ , Fr. 'accent aigu' [aksat egy], e.g., Viti, 

2. The grave accent ^, Fr. ' accent grave ' [aksa graiv], e.g., voila, 
p^re, oil. 

3. The circumflex accent ^ , Fr. 'accent circonflexe' [aksa sirkofleks], 
e.g., kne, tete, ile, hote, flute. 

Observe: None of the above accent marks serve to denote stress (§ 7). 

4. The cedilla, Fr. 'cedille' [sediij], used under c to give it the 
sound of [s], before a, o, u (§ 17, 13), e.g., facade, le^on, commen^ait, 
commen^ons, recjumes, recu. 

5. The diaeresis '* , Fr. * tr^ma ' [trema], shows that the vowel bearing 
it is divided in pronunciation from the preceding vowel, e.g., Noel, naif. 

6. The apostrophe, Fr. * apostrophe ' [apostrof], shows omission of 
final vowel before initial vowel sound, e.g., I'amie ( = la amie), I'ami 
( = le ami), I'homme ( = le homme), s'il ( = si il), § 19. 

7. The hyphen, Fr. * trait d'union ' [tre d ynjo], used as in English. 

6. Syllabication. 

1. A single consonant sound between vowel sounds always belongs to 
the following syllable. 

Ex.: Ma-rie, in-di-vi-si-bi-li-te, a-che-ter. 

2. Two consonants, of which the second is 1 or r (but not the com- 
binations rl or Ir), similarly both belong to the following syllable. 

Ex.: ta-bleau, e-cri-vain. 

4 INTRODUCTION. [§1*^-8 

3. Other combinations of consonants representing two or more sounds 
are divided. 

Ex. : par-ler, per-dre, es-ca-lier. 

N.B. — Great care should be taken to avoid the consonantal ending 
of syllables, so frequent in English. Compare French ' ci-te,' ' ta-bleau,' 
with English ' cit-y,' * tab-leau.' 

7. Stress. 

'Stress' is the force with which a syllable is uttered as compared 
with other syllables in the same group. In French, the syllables are 
uttered with almost equal force, a very slight stress falling on the last 
syllable of a word of two or more syllables, or, on the last but one, if 
the last vowel of the word is [a]. 

Ex.: Che-val, par-ler, par-lai, per-dre, cr4-di-bi-li-t6 (compare the 
strong stress of English cred-i-bil-it-y). 

NoTK.— In connected discourse the rule above stated varies considerabl}', but a full 
treatment of the subject would exceed the limits of an elementary work. The safest 
practice for the beicinner is to pronounce all syllables with almost equal force. It should 
be remembered that accent-marks have nothing to do with stress, and that all vowels 
except [a], see § 19, whether stressed or unstressed, have their full value, never being: 
slurred over as in EnKlish. 

8. Vowel Quantity. The most important general rules 
are: — 

1. Final vowel sounds (including nasals) are regularly short, e.g., 
fini [fini], vie [vi], loue [hi], pari* [parle], rideau [rido], mais [me], 
donner [done], enfant [dfd], parlerons [parlorSj. 

2. Btreiaed voweb are long before the sounds [v], [z], [3], [j], 
[r final], e.y., rive [riiv], ruse [ryiz], rouge [mis], feuillo [foeij], 
iaire [fe:r]. 

8. Of jitreMod voweUi standing l)ofore other consonant sounds, nasals 
are long, r.y., prince [prJis]; [o], [0], long, e.g., fauto [foil], meulo 
[m^tlj; [o], long (almoKt always), e.g., passu [pots]; [c],'l()ng or short, 
€,g»t raine [rem], renne [ren]; othor vowels regularly short, e.g., cap 
[kap], pooho [po/], koupe [kupj, \A\m [pip], seul [s<vlj, lune [lyn]. 

NanL—It ispoMible to dbtlnirulsh also Ixtlween 'long' and 'half lonif ' vowels, but 
It llM bMD tbougbi b«ft to omit, in an «lcmunUry work, the rules relating to this 
I Mid to IlidlMto ' k>ag' vowels only In thu tranHcriptions. 

§§9-11] VOWELS. . 6 


9. Tongue Position. The relative position of the 
tongue for the various vowels may be seen from the following 
diagram, adapted from Vietor. Rounded vowels are enclosed 
in parentheses : — 









6 ? (ce ce) 

(0 5) 







a a 




least > . 

< greatest^ 

N.B. — In the following descriptions of sounds, the word 
*like' means, of course, only 'resembling,* or 'approximately 
like'(§l). The examples given after the word 'also' show 
the less common orthographical equivalents. 

ID. i, y 

1, i — Like ea in 'seat'; the corners of the mouth retracted as in 
smiling (§1, 4) ; avoid the sound of i in 'sit' ; avoid diphthongization 
(§1, 6); narrow (§1, 3). 

Ex.: ni [ni], vive [viiv] ; also, ile [i:l], lyre [li:r]. 

2. y — Has no counterpart in English. The tongue position is practi- 
cally the same as for [i] above ; very tense lip-rounding (§1, 4) ; avoid 
diphthongization (§1, 6) ; narrow (§ 1, 3). The sound may be best 
acquired either by prolonging [i], and at the same time effecting the 
rounding, or by holding the lips rounded and taking the tongue 
position of [i]. 

Ex.: pu [py], muse [my:z]; also fut [fy], il eut [il y], nous eumes 
[nuz ymj. 

II. e, 0, 9. 

1. e — Like the first part of the sound of a in * day,' but with the lips 
more retracted (§ 1, 4) ; avoid diphthongization (§ 1, 6) ; narrow (§ 1, 3). 
Ex. : ete Letej ; also, parler [parle], donnai [done]. 

6 INTRODUCTION. [§§12-13 

2. — Has no counterpart in English, The tongue position is prac- 
tically the same as for [e], with tense rounding of the lips (§ 1, 4); avoid 
diphthongization (§1, 6); narrow (§1, 3); best acquired by combining, 
as explained for [y] above, the lip-rounding with the [e] position. 

Ex.: creux [kr0], creuse [kr0:z] ; also, bcEufs [b0]. 

3. 9 — Like English e in * the m^n,' or a in * Louisa,' but slightly 
rounded ; best acquired by relaxing the tension of the organs required 
for the production of the [0] sound. 

Ex.: le [la] ; also, monsieur [masj^], faisant [faza], 

12. e ?, ce, &. 

1. e — Like the sound of e in * let,' with the mouth more definitely 
open and the lips more retracted (§ 1, 4) ; avoid diphthongization (§ 1, 6) ; 
narrow (§ 1, 3). 

Ex.: prfes [pre], p^re [pe:r]; also, fete [fsit], terre [te:r], secret 
[sakre], parlais [park], paix [pe], reine [rem]. 

Note. — The e of a stressed syllable followed by a syllable containing 
t mute has almost always this sound (orthographically denoted by h, h, 
or e -I- double consonant), e.g., je m^ne [men], tete [te:t], ch^re [|e:r], 
j'appelle [apel], ancicnne [asjen]. This principle accounts for the 
apparent irregularities of certain verbs and adjectives. 

2. f — The [e] sound nasalized (§ 1, 7), but slightly more open. 

Ex.: fin [ff], prince [pr2:8]; also, faim [f?], sainte [8?:t], Reims [r?:s], 
plein [p\t\, simple [s^ipl], symbole [sSbol], syntaxe [sStaks], viendrai 
[vj?dre], soin [sw?]. 

8w ce — Has no counterpart in English. It has practically the tongue 
poHition of fe], combined with definite rounding of tho lips ; avoid diph- 
thongization (8 1, 6) ; narrow (§ 1, 3) ; best acquired by combining, with 
the [c] poHJtion, the rounding duHcril)od. 

Ex.: neuf [no-f], ncuvc [ikiiv]; also, coeur [kujir], ceil [a'j], orgueil 

4. ^fr— The [cej Kmnd naaabzed (§ 1, 7), but Klightiy more open. 
EoLt an [A], hiunble [d^iU] ; u1h<>, it, jeun [a i&]. 

13. a, a, fl. 

1. a — Only very ulightly renombloH the Round of a in ' pat,' wliich is 
nearer that of [c]. The [a] miund ro({uire8 mu<^li widor niouMi oixuiing 
of ' pAt/ aooompaiiiud by retraction of the lips and lowering of 

§§14-16] CONSONANTS. 7 

the tongue, though with the point still toucliing the lower teeth ; avoid 
diphthongization (§ 1, 4) ; narro\v (§ 1, 3). 

Ex.: patte [pat], part [pa:r] ; also, Ik [la], femme [fam], nioi [mwa], 
boite [bwa:t], parl^mes [parlam], parlat [parla]. 

2. a — Like a in * father' ; the mouth well open, the tongue lying flat, 
and so far retracted that it no longer touches the lower teeth ; lips 
absolutely neutral, i.e., neither rounded nor retracted ; avoid especially 
rounding, as of a in ' fall.' 

Ex.: pas [pa], passe [pais]; also, p&te [pa:t], roi [rwa], pofele 

3. a — The [a] sound nasalized (§1, 7). 

Ex.: tant [ta], tante [ta:t] ; also, lampe [laip], entre [aitr], membra 

14. o> 3, o. 

1. — Like o in 'not,' but with definite bell-like rounding (§1, 4); 
avoid diphthongization (§ 1, 6) ; narrow (§ 1, 3). 

Ex.: note [not], tort [to:r] ; also Paul [pol], album [albom]. 

2. — The [0] sound nasalized (§ 1, 7), but slightly more close. 
Ex.: rond [ro], ronde [ro:d] ; also tomber [tobe], comte [koit]. 

3. o — Like o in * omen,' but with more protrusion and much tenser 
rounding of the lips (§1, 4) ; avoid diphthongization (§1, 6) ; narrow 

Ex.: sot [so], chose [|o:z], fosse [foss]; also, cot^ [kote], cote [ko:t], 
faute [foit], beauts [bote]. 


1. u — Like u in * rumour,' but with more protrusion and much tenser 
rounding of the lips (§ 1, 4) ; avoid diphthongization (§ 1, 6) ; narrow 

Ex.: tout [tu], tour [tu:r] ; also, gout [gu], aofiit [u]. 


16. j, \[, w. 

When the sounds [i], [y], [u], § 10 and § 15, come before a vowel of 
stronger stress, they are pronounced with the tongue slightly closer to 
the palate, and hence assume a consonantal value, indicated by [j], [i{], 
[w], respectively. They are sometimes called semi- vowels. 


1. j — Like very brief and narrow y in *yes.' 

Ex.: viande [vja:d]; also, yeux [j0]*, aieul [ajcel], fille [fi:j], travailler 
[travaje], travail [travaj]. 

2. n — Has no counterpart in English ; avoid very carefully the sound 
of w in ' -wall ' ; may be best acquired by at first substituting [y] for it, 
and afterward increasing the speed of the utterance and the elevation 
of the tongue until it can be formed exactly along with what follows. 

Ex.: lui [Iqi]; also, nuage [nqais], ^cuelle [eki[el]. 

3. w — Like very brief and narrow "w in *we,' *west.' It is best, 
however, to proceed from the sound of [u] in the manner described 
for [nJ above. 

Ex.: oui [wi] ; also, poids [pwa], tramway [tramwe]. 

17. The remaining consonantal sounds can be sufficiently 
described by noting the differences between their mode of for- 
mation and that of the nearest English sounds (see § 1). 

1. b— Like b in * barb.' 

Ex. : beau [bo], robe [rob], abb^ [abe]. 

2. d — Like d in * did,' but with the tongue so far advanced that 
its point, or upper surface, forms a closure with the inner surface of 
the upper teeth and gums ; or the point of the tongue may be thrust 
against the lower teeth, the upper surface forming a closure with the 
upper teeth and gums. It must be remembered that in forming English 
d (also 1, n, r, s, t, z) the tongue touches at some little distance above 
the teeth (§1, 5). 

Ex. : diime [dam], fade [fud], addition [adisjS]. 

8. f— Like fin 'fat.' 

Ex.: fort [fojr], ncuf [ncef], difficile [difisil], 

4. g— Like gin * go.' 

Ex.: g^ant [(jfl], dog^uc [d.»jjj, gufiic [ne:r] ; also, second [8og5]. 

fi. h — In orthography tlio Icttn- h is known as 'h nnito' (Kr. 'h 
rouotto*), or *h unpirato' {Vr. *h aspir/H)'), mctonling as it does, or «loes 
not, r:aujio oliKion (g 19). The loarrn'r may regard if, in ritlMT fiiH<«, tus 
abtolutely niUmi. 

EoLt rbommo [1 om], le h^rus [lo ero]. 


In hiatus, however, a sound resembling, but much weaker than h in 
*hat,' is permissible, and is actually used by many Frenchmen. 
Ex.: aha ! [aha], le h^ros [la hero], fl^au [fleho]. 

6. k — Like k in 'take'; avoid the slight aspiration which generally 
follows the English sound. 

Ex. : car [kar], roc [rok], accorder [akorde] ; also, chr^tien [kretjf ], 
cinq [seik], bouquet [buke], acqu^rir [akeriir], kilo [kilo], maxime 

7. 1 — ^Like 1 in ' law,' but with the tongue advanced as for [d] above. 
Ex. : long [15], seul [soel], aller [ale]. 

8. m — Like m in * man,' * dumb.' 

Ex. : mot [mo], dame [dam], homme [om]. 

9. n — Like n in ' not,' ' man,' but with the tongue advanced as for 
[d] above. 

Ex.: ni [ni], ^ne [a:n], donner [done]. 

10. ji — Somewhat like ny in ' ban-yan,' except that [ji] is a single, not 
a double, sound, and is formed by pressing the middle of the tongue 
against the hard palate, the tip being usually thrust against the lower 

Ex. : agneau [apo], dig^ne [dip]. 

11. p — Like p in 'pan,' 'top'; avoid the slight aspiration which 
generally follows the English sound. 

Ex. pas [pa], tape [tap], appliquer [aplike]. 

12. r — Has no English counterpart. It is formed by trilling the tip 
of the tongue against the upper gums, or even against the upper teeth. 
This r is called in French 'r linguale.' The tongue must, of course, 
be well advanced towards the teeth, and not retracted and turned 
upward, as in our r sound {§ 1, 5). The sound may be advantageously 
practised at first in combination with d, e.g., dry, drip, drop, drum 
(as in Scotch or Irish dialect), and afterwards in combinations in which 
it is less easily pronounced. 

Ex. : drap [dra], par [par], torrent [tora], rond [ro]. 

Note.— Another r sound (called in French 'r uvulaire'), used especially in Paris 
and in the large cities and towns, is formed by withdrawing and elevating the root of 
the tongue so as to cause a trilling of the uvula. This r is usually more difficult for 
English-speaking people to acquire. 

13. s — Like s in * sea,' ' cease,' but with the tongue advanced as for 
[d] above. 

10 INTRODUCTION. [§§18-19 

Ex.: si [si], pense [pais], casser [kase]; also sc^ne [sein], place [plas], 
facade [fasad], le^on [laso], re^u [rasj], commen^ait [komase], commen- 
^ons [komaso], re^mes [i-osym], portion [porsjo], soixante [swasait]. 

14. J — Like sh in shoe, but with the tongue more advanced (§1, 5). 
Ex.: chou [Ju], lache [la: J], also, schisme [Jism]. 

15. t — Like t in 'tall,' but with the tongue advanced as for [d] above ; 
avoid the slight aspiration which generally follows the English sound. 

Ex.: tas [to], patte [pat]. 

16. v — Like V in 'vine,' *cave.' 

Ex.: vin [ve], cave [ka:v]; also, -wagon [vago], neuf heures [noev oe:r]. 

17. z — Like z in * zone,' or s in * rose,' but with the tongue advanced 
as for [d] above. 

Ex.: zone [zo:n], rose [ro:z]; also, deux heures, [d0z oeir], exact 

18. 3 — Like z in ' azure ' or s in ' pleasure,' but with the tongue more 
advanced (§ 1, 5). 

Ex. : je [39], rouge [ruis] ; also mangeant [maja], Jean [3a]. 

18. Liaison. Final consonants are usually silent, but in 
oral speech, within a group of words closely connected logically, 
a final consonant (whether usually sounded or not) is regularly 
sounded, and forms a syllable with the initial vowel sound of 
the next word. This is called in French * liaison * = * linking,' 

Ex. : C'est^un petit^homme [s^e-tdfe-po-ti-tom]. 

1. A few of the conBonants change their sound in liaison, thus, final 
t or x = z, d = t, g = k, f=v, e.g.^ nos^amis [no-za-mi], quand^on parlo 

2. The n of a nasal iH carrie<l on, and the nasal vowel loses its nasality 
in part, or even wholly, e.g., un bon^ami [(T»-b5-na-mi, or (t»-bo-na-nii]. 

NOTl.->Th« •oundN carried over really helont; in pronunciation to the initial syllable 
of Um foUowljif word, hut to avoid oonfURion they will hu indicated in the transcription 
with Um prtOwUng word, f.y., les^homines (lex otn, more properly lo Kom]. 

19, Elision. The lottors a, e, i, am entirely silml in 
certain cases : — 

1. Thu A and e are nilont and replaced by apostrophe in le, la, je, me, 

te, we, de, ne, que (and some of iU vom\HmiuU) hvAova initial vowel or 

§§20-21] CAPITALS. 11 

h mute (not, however, je, ce, le, la after a verb) ; so also i of sj before 

Ex.: L'arbre (=le arbre), I'encre (=:la encre), j'ai (=jeai), qu'a-t-il 
{=que a-t-il), jusqu'a (=jusque a), s'il (=:si il). 

2. In prose the letter e is silent at the end of all words (except when 
e is itself the only vowel in the word), silent in the verbal endings -es, 
-ent, silent within words after a vowel sound, and in the combination 
ge or je [3]. In verbs which have stem g [3], g becomes ge [3] before 
a or o of an ending, to preserve the [3] sound. 

Ex.: rue [ry], donn^e [done], rare [ra:r], place [plas], ai-je [eis], 
table [tabl], sabre [sa:br], prendre [praidr], tu paries [ty pari], ils 
parlent [il pari], gaiety [gete], mangeons [ma35], Jean [30]. 

NOTK.— In ordinary discourse, thissound is usually slighted or wholly omitted in most 
cases in which consonantal combinations produced by its weakening or elision can be 
readily pronounced, but beginners will do well to sound it fully, except in the cases 
above specified. The treatment of the [a] in poetry is beyond the scope of this work. 

20. Punctuation. The same punctuation marks are used 
in French as in English. 

1. Their French names are : 

. point. - trait d'union. [ ] crochets. 

, virgule. — tiret, or tiret de 

; point et virgule. separation. 

: deux points. . . . points suspensifs. * ast^risque. 

? point d'interrogation. ** " guillemets. t croix de renvoi. 

I point d'exclamation. ( ) parenth^se. 

2. They are used as in English, but the ' tiret ' commonly serves 
to denote a change of interlocutor. 

Ex.: "Qui est 1^? dis-je. — Personne. — Quoi ! personnel — Personne, 

21. Capitals. The principal differences between French and 
English in the use of capital letters (Fr. ' lettres majuscules,' 
' capitales ') may be seen f i-om the following examples : 

Un livre canadien ^crit en fran9ais par un Canadien. Toronto, lundi, 
le 3 Janvier. Je lui ai dit ce que je pensais. 




[The sign (:) in unstressed syllables indicates *half long.'] 

Tu aimeras le Seigneur ton Dieu de tout ton coeur, de toute 
ty * eimra 1 sejiceir to dj0 d tu t5 koe:r, da tut 

ton ame, de toute ta force, et de toute ta pensde; et ton 
ton a:m, da tut ta fors, e d tut ta pa:se; e to 

prochain comme toi-meme . , . 
proj? kom twameim... 

Un homme descendait de Jerusalem h Jdricho; et il est 
d&n om desaide d serj'zalem a seriko ; e il e 

tomW parmi des brigands, qui I'ont d^pouill^, ils I'ont charg^ 
to: be parmi de briga, ki 1 5 depuje, i 1 5 Jarse 

de coups, et ils sont partis, en le laissant k moiti^ mort. Et 
d ku, e i so parti, a 1 leisa a mwatje moir. e 

par hasard un pretre descendait par ce chemin-la, et en le 
par azair dfe pre:tra desaide par sa jmS la, e a 1 

voyant, il a pass^ outre. De meme aussi un Invite, arrivt^ 
vwaja, il a paise utr, da me:m oisi dfe levit, ariive 

dans cet endroit, il est venu, et en le voyant, il a pass^ outre, 
da st a:drwa, il e vny, e 3 1 vwajfl, il a parse utr. 

Mais un Samaritain, qui voyageait, est venu 1^, et en le voyant, 
me <fi samarit?, ki vwajase, e vny la, e a 1 vwajd, 

il a ^t^ <5mu de piti^; et il s'est approch^ pour bander ses 
il a ete emy d pitje ; e il s et aproje pur baide se 

blessures, en j versant de I'lmile et du vin ; puis il I'a mis sur 
blc8y:r, fin i verafl do 1 qil o dy vf ; pqi i 1 a mi syr 

sa propre b6te pour le conduire k uno auberge, et il a pris soin 
Ma propra bcjt pur lo k5!di{iir a yn ol)€r.i, e il a pri sw? 

'le liii. Et le lendemain il a tir^ deux deniers, et il les a 
(i l*l> e 1 Ididm? il a til re d0 danje, e i lez a 

<|nnri.' ri rfniV)erj(i8te, en disant, 'prends soin de lui, et ce que 
• I ■' '":rjiiit, A diizfl, prtJ swf d \\\\, o h ko 

tu (i« j.^ i. .. J.... do plus, moi jo to lo ron<lrai h nion rotour.' 
ty dofMlMra d )>lyM, rowa s to 1 rtlidru a m5 rtuir. 

R47priiit<!<l by kitid iHTfiiJMMioii of M. Paid PawMy, from IiIh *' Vrrsion 

|Mipuliiiru i\ii ri!Svuiigil(« do Luu vii tranHcription plioiu'ttiquo." 



22. Definite Article. 1. The definite article has the 
following forms in the singular: 

{le [la], before a masculine beginning with a consonant. 
la [la], before a feminine beginning with a consonant. 
1* [1], before any noun beginning with a vowel or h mute. 

Le p6re, la m6re. The father, the mother. 

L'enfant (m. or f.), I'homme. The child, the man. 

2. The definite article must be repeated before each noun 
to which it refers : 
L'oncle et la tante. The uncle and (the) aunt. 

23. Gender. 1. All French nouns are either masculine 
or feminine : 

Le papier (m.), la plume (f.). The paper, the pen. 

2. Names of male beings are masculine, and names of 
female beings feminine, as in English. 

24. Case. French nouns have no case endings. The direct 
object (accusative) is expressed by verb + noun ; the indirect 
object (dative) by the preposition k + noun ; the possessive 
(genitive) by de + noun, and these prepositions must be 
repeated before each noun to which they refer : 

La m^re aime l'enfant. The mother loves the child, 

J'ai la plume de Robert. I have Robert's pen (the pen of 

Je donne I'argent a Marie et a I give the money to Mary and (to) 
Jean. John. 




25. Agreements. French has the following agreements, 
and they are usually expressed by change of form : (1) Verb 
and subject, in number and person ; (2) adjective and noun, 
in gender and number ; (3) pronoun and antecedent, in gender 
and number. 


avec [avek], with. 

crayon [krejo], m., pencil. 

encre [a:kr], f., ink. 

est [e], is. 

et [e], and. 

livre [li : vr], m. , book. 

montrez-moi [m3tre rawa], show 

ou ? [u], where ? 

papier [papje], m. , paper. 

plume [plym], f., pen. 

sur [syr], on, upon. 

table [tabl], f., table. 

voici [vwasi], here is, here are. 

voil^ [vwala], there is, there are. 


A. 1. Ou est le livre? 2. Voici le livre. 3. Ou est la 
table ? 4. Voilk la table. 5. Ou est le papier ? 6. Voici le 
papier. 7. Ou est la plume ? 8. Voici la plume. 9. Ou est 
i'encre? 10. Voil^ I'encre sur la table. 11. Ou est le crayon? 
12. Voili le crayon avec la plume. 13. Voici le livre et la 
plume sur la table. 14. Voila le papier avec I'encre sur la 
table. 15. Montrez-moi le papier, la plume et I'encre. 16. 
Ou est le crayon? 17. Voici le crayon et la plume. 18. 
Voilii le papier et Tencre. 

B. (Oral Exercise — questions to be answered in French by 
the pupil.) 1. Montrez-moi la table. 2. Montrez-moi le 
papier. 3. Montrez-moi la plume. 4. Montrez-moi I'encre. 
5. Oii est la table? 6. Oil est le papier? 7. OCi est la 
plume? 8. Oi!i est I'encre? 9. Montrez-moi le papier, la 
plume et Tencre. Etc., etc. 

C 1. Here is the pen. 2. There is the ink. 3. Where is 
the paper t 4. There is the paper with the pen. 5. Here is 
the book. 6. Show me the paper. 7. Here is the paper on 
the table. 8. Where is the pen? 9. The pen is with tho ink. 
If). Show me the paper and ink. 11. The paper is on the 
t ii<l> 12. The ink is with the paper. 

§26] LESSON II. 15 


26. Indefinite Article. It has the following forms, which 
must be repeated before each noun to which they refer : 

fun Feel, before any masculine noun, 
A or ail - ^ypgj^j^ijjbefore any femimne noun. 

Un livre et une plume. A book and (a) pen. 

Un homme, une ^cole. A man, a school. 


Marie [mari], Mary. 

non [no], no. 

porte [port], f. , door. 

qui ? [ki], who ? 

tableau [table], m., picture. 

aussi [osi], too, also, 
chaise [Je:z], f., chair. 
derrifere [derjsir], behind. 
devant [dova], before, in front of. 
fenetre [foneitr], f., window. 
Jean [3a], John. 

j'ai [3 e], I have ; il a [il a], he has ; elle a [el a], she has ; 
vous avez [vuz ave], you have. 


A. 1. Voici une porte et aussi une fenetre. 2. IVIontrez-moi 
la porte. 3. ]VIontrez-moi la fenetre. 4. IVtontrez-moi une 
chaise et une table. 5. Voila une chaise devant la table. 6. 
Voici une plume sur la table. 7. Voila un tableau derriere la 
porte. 8. Qui a un crayon et une plume? 9. Jean a un 
crayon et Marie a une plume. 10. Non, elle a un crayon et il 
a une plume. 11. J'ai un crayon et vous avez un livre. 12. 
Ou est Jean? 13. Jean est derriere la table. 14. Marie est 
devant la fenetre. 15. Marie a I'encre et elle a la plume 
aussi. 16. Elle a le papier et vous avez I'encre. 17. Montrez- 
moi I'encre et aussi la plume. 18. Voici Tencre avec la plume^ 
sur la table. 

£. (Oral.) 1. Montrez-moi une porte. 2. Montrez-moi une 
fenetre. 3. Montrez-moi une table aussi. 4. Ou est la chaise? 
5. Ou est la table ? 6. Qui a la plume et I'encre ? 7. Ou est 
le crayon? 8. Montrez-moi une plume? 9. Montrez-moi un 
tableau? 10. Ou est le tableau? 11. Ou est Marie? 12. 
Oi!i est Jean ? Etc., etc. 

16 LESSON III. [|§27-29 

C. 1. There is a door and here is a window. 2. Show rae 
a chair and a picture. 3. Here is a chair behind the door. 
4. There is a picture. 5. Who has a pen and a pencil 1 6. 
John has a pen and Mary has a pencil. 7. You have a pencil. 
8. No, I have a pen. 9. Who has the ink? 10. Mary has 
the ink. 11. She has the ink. 12. You have the pen and a 
pencil. 13. There is a chair in front of the window. 14. 
There is a book on the table. 15. The pen is with the book. 
16. The chair is behind the door. 17. Where is the picture? 
18. The picture is behind the door also. 


27. Some Possessives. Observe the following, and 
remember that possessive adjectives must be repeated before 
each noun to which they refer (for pronunciation, see § 32) : 

Mon (m. ) livre et ma (f. ) plume. My book and (my) pen. 

Ton (m. ) livre et ta (f. ) plume. Thy book and (thy) pen. 

Son (m. ) livre et sa (f. ) plume. His or her lx)ok and pen. 

Votre (m. ) livre et voire (f. ) plume. Your book and (your) pen. 

28. Negation. With verbs, 'not' or *no' = ne . . . pas, 
with the verb placed between them, ne becoming n' before a 
vowel (§19, 1): 

Je n'ai pas, vous n'avez pas. I have not, you have not. 

29. Interrogation. In questions, the personal pronoun 
subject comes after the verb, as in English, and is joined to it 
by a hyphen, or by^^;; if thg_yerb ends in a vowel : 

ATes*TOua ? ; »>t-il ?; est-elle ioi 7 Have you 7 ; has he 7 ; is she here 7 


autre |otr], other. 
boite (hwiiitj, f., box. 
cour (ku:r], f., yard. 
dan> [(1(1 ], in, into. 
frire (fre:r), in., brother, 
ici [iNi], hvru. 

I'encre de votre fr^re, your brother's ink. 

mais rinc], but. 

ne. . .pas [na. . .pa], not, no. 

oui [wi], y(5H. 

salle (hu1|, f., room (large). 

soBur [mi'ir], f., Mister. 

§30] LESSON III. 17 


A. 1. Avez-vous voire crayon ? 2. Oui, j'ai mon crayon, et 
Jean a son crayon. 3. Ou est votre crayon^ 4. Voici mon 
crayon dans ma boite. 5. Ou est votre frere '1 6. II est dans 
la cour avec ma soeur. 7. Ou est Marie] 8. Elle n'est pas ici. 
9. Elle est dans I'autre salle. 10. A-t-elle la boite et le 
papier? 11. Elle n'a pas le papier, mais elle a la boite. 
12. .Ou est Jean? 13. A-t-il le papier et la plume? 14. II a 
le papier mais il n'a pas la plume. 15. Montrez-moi votre 
fr^re et votre sceur. 16. Voici mon frere, mais ma soeur 
n'est pas ici. 17. Qui est dans la salle? 18. Votre fr^re est 
dans la salle. 19. Qui a I'encre de mon fr^re? 20. Jean a 
I'encre de votre frere. 21. Avez-vous un crayon? 22. J'ai 
un crayon. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Ou est Jean? 2. Est-il ici? 3. Ou est 
Marie? 4. Est-elle ici? 5. A-t-il son livre et sa plume? 

6. A-t-elle son papier et son crayon? 7. Avez-vous votre 
livre? 8. Avez-vous le livre de Marie? 9. Avez-vous un 
crayon et une plume? 10. Ou est ma plume? 11. Ou est mon 
papier? 12. Oil est votre boite? 13. Ou est-elle? 14. Mon- 
trez-moi une autre boite. 15. Montrez-moi votre frere et votre 
soeur. 16. Est-il ici? 17. Est-elle ici? Etc., etc. 

C. 1. Has he the paper? 2. He has not the paper. 3. 
Where is my pencil ? 4. Where is your pencil 1 5. There is 
my pencil in the box on the table. 6. Where is your sister ? 

7. Is she in the other room ? 8. No, she is in the yard. 9. 
Where is your brother ? 10. Is he here? 11. He is not here. 
12. He is in the yard with your brother. 13. Your sister has 
her pen. 14. I have her pencil. 15. Show me the picture. 
16. There is the picture behind the door, 17. Where is the 
table? 18. Where is it? 19. The table is in the room in 
front of the window. 


30. Some Pronoun Objects. 'Him' or *it' = le (m.), 

and 'her' or 'it' = la (f.), both becoming V before a vowel or 
h mute (§19, 1). They come next before the_verb, or before y 
voici and voila : 


18 LESSON IV. [§30 

Ou est la plume ? Je I'ai. Where is the pen ? I have it. 

Oil est le livre ? Le voici. Where is the book ? Here it is. 

Oil est Marie ? La voila. Where is Mary ? There she is. 

NoTB.— VolCi and VoUit are derived from vois = 'see' + ici = 'here* and vois 
= 'see' + lil = 'there' (literally, 'see here,' 'see there'), and, owing to their verbal 
force, govern words directly like transitive verbs. 

cahier [kaje], m. , exercise-book. 
6cole [ekol], f., school. 
6glise [egliiz], 1, church. 
la [la], f. , her, it. 


mademoiselle [madmwazel], f. , 

maison [mezo], f., house. 
monsieur [masj0], m., sir, Mr. 

le pa], m. , him, it. pardon [pardo], I beg your pardon. 

madame [madam], f., madam, I 
Mrs. i 


A. 1. IVIontrez-moi la fenetre. 2. I^a \oi\k. 3. Ou est mon 
cahier 1 4. Le voil^ sur la table. 5. Avez-vous votre plume, 
mademoiselle 1 6. Non, monsieur, je ne I'ai pas. 7. ]Vlarie a 
I'encre. 8. Non, monsieur, elle ne I'a pas. 9. A-t-il mon 
crayon? 10. II ne I'a pas. 11. Ou est ma soeur? 12. La 
voila dans la cour derri^re I'^cole. 13. J'ai mon crayon; 
Marie ne I'a pas. 14. La cour est derri^re r<5cole ; la voil^. 

15. Vous avez I'encre. 16. Pardon, madame, je ne I'ai pas. 

17. Montrez-moi votre maison, 18. La voil^ derri^re I't^glise. 
19. A-t-elle sa plume? 20. Non, monsieur, elle ne I'a pas. 
21. La voilii sur la chaise. 22. N'avez-vous pas mon cahier ? 
23. Non, monsieur, jo ne I'ai pas. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Montrez-moi la fenfitre. 2. O^ est votre 
cahieri 3. Qui a ma plumo? 4. Qui a mon crayon? 5. Avez- 
vous I'encro? 6. Qui a votre cahier? 7, Montrez-moi I'dglise? 
H. Ou ent le papier de Jean ? 9. A-t-il son papier? 10. Avez- 
vouH votre encro? 11. N'avez-vous pas le papier aussi? 
12. A-t-ello Ha lx){tc? 13. A-t-elle son papier dans sabotte? 
14. A-tre\\(i H& plume aussi? 15. Oili est votre fr^re Jeani 

16. 06 est votre Hwur Marie? 17. Montrez-moi votre fr^re. 

18. Montrez-moi votre H<L*ur. Etc., etc. 

C. 1. Who has my pen? 2. John has your pen, sir. 
8. John, have you my exeroise-book ? 4. No, sir, I haven't 

§§31-32] LESSON V. 19 

it ; here it is on the table. 5. Who has your exercise-book 1 
6. Here it is, sir. 7. Jolin, where is your pen? 8. Another 
pupil has my pen. 9. 'J'he yard is behind the school j there it 
is. 10. Mary, your pencil is on the chair. 11. I beg your 
pardon; I have it here. 12. Have you your ink, too? 
13. Yes, sir, I have it. 14. Mary has her book, pen and 
exercise-book. 15. Where is Mr. B. ? 16. Here he is. 
17. He is here. 18. Where is Miss B. 1 19. She is here, 
too. 20. There she is with her brother. 


31. Plural Forms. 1. The plural of a noun or an adjec- 
tive is regularly formed by adding -s to the singular : 

Le grand roi, la grande reine. The great king, the great queen. 

Les grands rois, les grandes reines. The great kings, the great queens. 

2. The plural of the definite article le, la, V is les : / 
Les [Ic] livres, les [lez] enfants. The books, the children. ^ 

3. The plural of the personal pronoun le, la, V is also les : 
Je les ai. I have them (books, pens, etc. ). 

32. The Possessive Adjective. 1. The following are 
its forms in full (for agreement and repetition, see § 27) : 

Masculine. Feminine. Plural. 

mon [mo] ma [ma] mes [me], my. 


ton [to] 

ta [ta] 

tes [te], thy, your. 

son [so] 

sa [sa] 

ses [se], his, her, its. 

notre [notr] 

notre [notr] 

nos [no], our. 

votre [votr] 

votre [votr] 

vos [vo], your. 

leur [loeir] 

leur [Iceir] 

leurs [Iceir], their. '-*• 

*. i-Ui--^ 

2. The forms mon, ton, SOn, arc used instead of ma, ta, sa 
before feminines beginning with a vov,^cl or h mute : 

Mon £mon] amie (f. ). My friend. 

Son [[son] ''listoire (f. ). His story. 

Son fson] autre plume (f.). His other pen. 

3. Since son (sa, ses) means 'his,' 'her,' or 'its^' it can 
only be known from the context which is meant. 

20 LESSON V. [§32 


affaires [afe:r], f. pi., things. 
aujourd'hui [osurdqi], to-day. 
bon [bo], good, 
canif [kanif], m., penknife. 
6\hve [eleiv], m. or f., pupil. 

ils ont [ilz 5], they have, ils sont [11 so], they are 

porte-plume [portplym], m., pen- 
regie [reigl], f., ruler. 
sous [su], under. 


A. 1. Mes livres ne sont pas sur la table ; qui les a 1 2. Les 
voil4 sur une chaise. 3. Qui a nos bons crayons? 4. Les 
voila dans la boite de Marie. 5. Ou sont vos plumes 1 6. Voici 
nos plumes. 7. Ou sont nos affaires'? 8. Voici vos crayons 
et vos plumes sur la table. 9. Leurs plumes et les plumes de 
leur t jur ne sont pas ici. 10. Pardon, monsieur, les voici 
sous la table. 11. Les Aleves n'ont pas leurs livres aujourd'hui. 

12. Montrez-moi la regie de Icleve. 13. La voici dans sa 
b^jite. 14. Leurs canif s sont bons. 15. Nos canifs sont bons 
aussi. 16. Vos porte-plumes ne sont pas bons. 17. Ou est 
mon encre? 18. La voila avec I'encre de ma soeur. 19. Ou 
est mon autre plume ? 20. EUe est dans ma boite. 

B. (Oral.) 1. Ou sont les affaires de mon hhrel 2. Qui a 
le canif de ma soeur? 3. Montrez-moi votre rfegle. 4. Ou est 
la plume de Marie? 5. Ou sont nos livres aujourd'hui? 
6. Avez-vous ma boite ? 7. Qui est duns la salle ? 8. Qui est 
avec Jean dans la cour ? 9. Ou est la cour? 10. Oil est 
Manet 11. .T'est-elle pas ici? 12. Montrez-moi vos bons 
crayons. 13. Avez-vous mon encre? 14. Qui a mon autre 
plume? Etc., etc. 

C. 1. Where are your books to-day? 2. They are here. 
8. Tliere they are on the table. 4. Wlu;re an^ your brother's 
things? 5. There is his pen-liolder and his ruler. 6. Have 
you my ink and my other jkjh ? 7. Where is your sister's 
ruler? t*. Her ruler is not here to-day. 9. There is her pen- 
knife on the table. 10. Where is Mary's book? 11. Her 
brother haM her book. 12. And she has lu^r brother's book. 

13. John'N ink in on the table. 14. Their books are not here. 
16. Have you not my pens? 16. No, your pens are in the 

§§33-36] LESSON VI. 21 

box. 17. Where are John's and Mary's books? 18. Here 

they are on the table. 19. Where is my sister's ruler? 20. I 
haven't it ; there it is on the table. 


33. Present Indicative of auoir, * to have.* 

1. Affirmative. 2. Negative. 

I have, etc. I have not, etc. 

j' ai [3 e]. je n'ai pas [?,q n e pa], 

tu as [ty a]. tu n'as pas [ty n a pa]. 

II a [il a]. il n'a pas [il n a pa], 
nous avons [nuz avo]. nous n'avons pas [nu n avo pa], 
vous avez [vuz ave]. vous n'avez pas [vu n ave pa]. 

ils ont [ilz 5]. ils n'ont pas [il n pa]. 

34. Pronouns in Address. * You ' is regularly vous ; 

the form tu = ' thou ' or * you ' is used in familiar address : 
Avez- vous ma plume, monsieur ? Have you my pen, sir ? 
As-tu ta plume, mon enfant ? Have you your pen, my child ? 

N.B. — Translate *you' by vous in the exercises, unless the use of tu 
is required by the context. 

35. Contractions. De + le and de + les are always 
contracted into du and des ; the remaining forms are not 
contracted, thus, de la, de 1' in full : 

La plume du [dy] fr^re. The brother's pen. 

Les plumes des [de] soeurs. The sisters' pens. 

But : La plume de I'el^ve, etc. 

36. The Partitive Noun and Pronoun. 1. *Some' or 
* any,' whether expressed or implied before a noun in English, 
is regularly expressed in French by de + the definite article : 

J'ai de I'encre. I have (some) ink (lit., *of the ink'). 

A-t-il des fr^res? Has he (any) brothers? 

2. In a general negation tlie partitive is expressed by de 


22 LESSON VI. [§36 

n n'a pas de pain. He has no bread. 

H n'a pas d'amis. He has no friends. 

3. * Some ' or * any ' as a pronoun = en, which must be ex- 
pressed in French, even when omitted in English : 

A-t-il de I'encre ? — II en a. Has he (any) ink ? — He has (some). 

A-t-il une plume ? — II en a une. Has he a pen ? — He has one. 

ami [ami], m., friend. 
deux [d0], two. 
encrier [akrie], m., inkstand, 
enfant [a fa], m. or f., child, boy, 

il n'en a pas, he has not, he has not any, he has none. 

fils [fis], m., son. 

Ik [la], there. 

un, une [tie, yn], ona 


A. Continue the following throughout the singular and 
plural : 1. J'ai des plumes, tu as des plumes, etc. 2. Je n'ai 
pas de plumes, etc. 3. J'ai des amis, etc. 4. Je n'ai pas 
d'amis, etc. 5. J'ai de I'encre, etc. 6. Je n'ai pas d'encre, 
etc. 7. J 'en ai, etc. 8. Je n'en ai pas, etc. 

B. 1. Avez-vous des plumes et des crayons 1 2. Je n'ai pas 
de plumes, mais j'ai des crayons. 3. ]VIoA fr^re a un canif et 
ma sceur en a deux. 4. Ou est I'encre? 5. La voilk dans 
Fencrier sur la table. 6. Avez-vous du papier 1 7. Je n'en ai 
pas. 8. Jean est \k dans la salle. 9. A-t-il de I'encre? 
10. Non, monsieur, il n'a pas d'encre. 11. A-til des livres? 
12. Non, mofisieur, il n'en a pas. 13. As-tu du papier, mon 
fiWi 14. Je n'en ai pas. 16. Tu as de I'encre et des plumes, 
raon enfant. 16. Pardon, monsieur, je n'en ai pas. 17. Oii 
sent les livres des ^lijves ? 18. J^s voil^ sur la table. 19. Mes 
somni n'ont pas do papier, inais elh's ont de I'encre et des 
plumes. 20. Oil est la regie du irbro do Jean? 21. Je I'ai. 
22. Nous avons des livres ot dtjs plumes. 23. En avez-vous? 
24. Nous n'en avons pas. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Avez-vous un cabier ? 2. OiieBt votrecabier? 
3. Od est le cabier de Marie? 4. A-t-ello des cniyfms aussi? 
5. Qui s de I'encre? 0. Oi^ est son encre? 7. (>u Kotit vos 
fibres et voe soeun? 8. Avez-vous des crayons? 0. Avons- 

§§37-38] LESSON VII. 23 

nous du papier et des plumes ? 10. Avez-vous des amis ? 11. 
Ou sont-ils? 12. Qui n'a pas d'amis? 13. As-tu du papier, 
mon enfant? 14. Qui a ton cahier, Marie? 15. As-tu la r^gle 
de ta soeur ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. Where is your brother's book? 2. Here it is with 
our books. 3. Have you any ink ? 4. I have some. 5. Show 
me your ruler. 6. I haven't any, but my sister has one. 
7. Have you a pen-holder? 8. Yes, sir, I have one, and my 
brother has two. 9. Show me your pencils. 10. I haven't 
any, but my friend has some. 11. We have pens. 12. You 
have ink. 13. They have no pens. 14. He has no ink. 
15. His brother's friend has no books. 16. Where are their 
books? 17. There are some books on the table. 18. Here 
are our books on the chair. 19. She has brothers and sisters. 
20. Where are they? 21. They are in the yard. 22. Where 
are the pupils' things ? 23. They are in the other room. 
24. Where is your ruler, my boy ? 25. Here it is. 26. Have 
you any ink, my son? 27. I haven't any. 


37. Present Indicative of avoir {continued). 

1. Interrogative. 2. Negative Interrogative. 

Have I ? etc. Have I not ? etc. 

ai-je? [e! 3]. n'ai-je pas ? [n e: 3 pa], 

as-tu? [a ty]. n'as-tupas? [n a ty pa], 

a-t-il ? [at il]. n'a-t-il pas ? [n a t il pa], 

avons-nous ? [avo nu]. n'avons-nous pas ? [n avo nu pa], 

avez-vous ? [ave vu]. n'avez-vous pas ? [n ave vu pa], 

ont-ils ? [ot il]. n'ont-ils pas ? [n 5t il pa]. 

38. Interrogation. 1. When the subject of an inter- 
rogative sentence is a noun, the word order is noun- verb- 
pronoun : 

L'homme est-il la ? Is the man there ? 

2. This form of question may be combined with an inter- 
rogative word : 

Jean ou est-il ? Where is John ? 

Jean combien de plumes a-t-il ? How many pens has John ? 

24 LESSON VII. [§38 

3. 'What?' (as direct object or predicate of a verb) = que ? 
See also §19, 1 : 
Qu'avez-vous la ? What have you there ? 


chez moi [Je mwa], at home, 
classe [kla:s], f., class, class-room. 
combien de ? [kobjf da], how 

ensemble [asaibl], together, 
raaintenant [m?tna], now. 
maitre [me : tr], m. , master, teacher. 

ou [u], or. 

poche [poj], f. , pocket. 

quatre [katr], four. 

sac [sak], m,, bag, satchel. 

salle de classe [sal daklois], f., 

trois [trwa], three. 


A. Continue the following: 1. Ai-je un canif?, as-tu un 
canif?, etc. 2. Ai-je des crayons dans une boite?, as-tu des 
crayons dans une boite?, etc. 3. N'ai-je pas un bon ami?, etc. 

B. 1 . Avez-vous votre crayon dans votre boite ? 2. Non, 
monsieur, je I'ai dans mon sac. 3. Combien de livres avez- 
vous? 4. J'en ai trois ou quatre dans mon sac. 5. N'avez- 
vous pas un canif dans votre poche? 6. Non, monsieur, je 
n'en ai pas dans ma poche, mais j'en ai un chez moi. 7. Ou 
est votre frfere maintenant? 8. II est dans la cour avec les 
autres enfants. 9. Ou sont Marie et sa soeur? 10. Les voil^ 
ensemble dans la salle de classe. 11. Jean n'a-t-il pas mon 
porte-plume et mes plumes dans son sac ? 12. Non, monsieur, 
il les a dans sa poche. 13. Ou sont lo maitre et les Aleves 
maintenant? 14. lis sont dans la salle de classe. 15. Qu'as- 
tu dans ton sac, mon enfant? 16. J'ai doux livres et quatre 
plumes dans mon sac. 17. Oil sont les porte-plumcs ? 18. 
£n voilit un sur la table. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Oik est le sao de Jean? 2. Montrez-moi votre 
papier. 3. Jean, oil est ton canif? 4. N'as-tu pas un canif 
etbn port<vpluine? 6. Ovi sont les onfants? (J. Qu'avtiz-vous 
dans votre poche? 7. Combien do frrros avcz-vous? 8. Votre 
fr^ combien (h^ pbinw^s a til? 9. Qu'a-t-il dans son .sac? 
10. Oh Html uu'.H adaircH? 1 1. Qui est dans la s.'illo d(^ (^lassii 
maintenant? 12. Ix) niattre ou (ist-il? 13. Kt les ('sieves 
oh sont-ils? H. Combien do plumes as-tu, mon enfant? 

§39] LESSON VIII. 25 

1 5. Marie, combien de plumes a-t-elle 1 16. Les ^l^ves sont-ils 
dans la salle? 17. Les eleves ont-ils leurs affaires dans leurs 
sacs? 18. Avez-vous mes bons crayons ? 19. Qui a mes bons 
crayons? Etc., etc. 

J). 1. Where are our bags? 2. There they are behind the 
door. 3. What have you in your pocket ? 4. I have a 
knife and a pencil in my pocket. 5. Have you pens and 
pencils? 6. Yes, sir, I have two pens and three pencils. 
7. Where are John and his brother 1 8. They are with the 
other boys in the class-room. 9. Show me your books and 
pens. 10. I haven't any. 11. John is in the other room with 
his brother. 12. How many pencils have they? 13. They 
have four. 14. Where are your things? 15. Here they are 
in my bag. 16. Have we any pens? /^17. Yes, sir, here 
are some in the box. 18. Where are John and Robert? 
19. There they are together in the class-room. /20. How 
many knives have you? 21. I have one and my brother has 
two. 22. Have you any paper? 23. We haven't any, but 
the master has some. 24. Here is his paper. 

39. Present Indicative oi etre, 'to be.' 

1. AflSrmative. 2. Negative. 

I am, etc. I am not, etc. 

je suis [38 sqi]. je ne suis pas [sa na sqi pa]. 

tu es [ty e]. tu n'es pas [ty n e pa]. 

il est [il e]. il n'est pas [il n e pa], 

nous sommes [nu som]. nous ne sommes pas [nu na som pa], 

vous etes [vuz e:t]. vous n'etes pas [vu n e:t pa]. 

ils sont [il so]. ils ne sont pas [il na so pa]. 

3. Interrogative. 4. Negative Interrogative. 

Am I ? etc. Am I not ? etc. 

suis-je? [siiii 3]. ne suis-je pas ? [na sqi: 3 pa], 

es-tu? [e ty]. n'es-tupas? [n e ty pa], 

est-il ? [et il]. n'est-il pas? [n et il pa], 

sommes-nous ? [som nu]. ne sommes-nous pas ? [na som nu pa]. 

etes-vous? [e:t vu]. n'etes- vous pas? [n eit vu pa], 

sont-ils ? [sot il]. ne sont-ils pas? [na sot il pa]. 

26 - LESSON VIII. [§40 

40. Observe that il and elle mean not only ' he ' and ' she/ 
but also 'it,' since there are but two genders of nouns in 
French : 

Ou est la plume ? Elle est ici. Where is the pen ? It is here. 

Oil sont les plumes ? Elles sont ici. Where are the pens ? They are 



malade [malad], ill, sick, 
nous [nil], us. 

tableau noir [tablo nwair], m., 

k present [a preza], at present. 

k [a], to, at, in. 
commence [komais], begins, 
difficile [difisil], difficult, 
facile [fasil], easy. 
le^on [laso], f., lesson. 


A. Continue the following : 1. Je suis k I't^cole, tu es, etc. 
2. Je suis malade aujourd'hui, tu es, etc. 3. Je ne suis pis 
malade aujourd'hui, etc. 4. Suis-je malade?, etc. 5. Ne 
suis-je pas malade ?, etc. 

B. 1. Nous sommes k I'^cole aujourd'hui, et nos freres sont 
avec nous. 2. Nous sommes k present avec les autres ^l^ves 
dans la salle de classe, et le maitre est ici aussi. 3. Nous 
avons nos affaires. 4. Nos canifs sont dans nos poches. 5. 
Nob plumes et nos porte-plumes sont dans nos boites. 6. Nos 
livres sont dans nos sacs. 7. L'encre est dans les encriers. 8. 
La le9on est sur le tableau noir. 9. Nous avons des cahiers, 
et les autres ^Ifeves en ont aussi. 10. La lec^'on commence. 
IL La le9on n'est pas difficile. 12. Elle est facile. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Oil fites-vous k present? 2. Oil suis-je k 
pr^Dt? 3. Oh sommes-nous? 4. Qui est avec nous? 5. Ou 
•ont les a£bire8 des ^l^ves ? 6. Le maitre n'est-il pas avec les 
^I^vest 7. Oil sont les chaises et les tables? 8. N'avez-vous 
pas VXM livreet 9. Montrez-moi les regies et les porte-plumes. 
10. Qui est devant le tableau noir? 11. Oii est la lc9on? 
12. Avez-vooB des cahiers? 13. La le(;on commence-t-elle? 
14. Qui oommenoe la le^on? 15. Ta lei^on est-elle facile? 
16. Tes le90ns sont^lles difficiles, mon enfant? Etc., etc. 

/>. 1. Our brothers are not in tlio claHH-roorn. 2. Tli«?y are 
in the yard with the other pupils. 3. The h^ssoii is uot on 
the black-board. 4. Are you not in our class ? 5. Yes, I am 

§§41-42] LESSON IX. 27 

in your class. 6. Have you your things in your bags? 7. 
No, our things are on the table. 8. Have you exercise-books 1 
9. Yes, and our brothers have some too. 10. Have you no 
paper? 11. No, sir, I have none. 12. Are the pencils here? 
13. Yes, here they are on the table. 14. What have you in 
your bags? 15. We have paper, exercise-books and pen- 
holders. 16. Have you no ink? 17. Yes, I have some. 18. 
How many books have you? 19. I have four in my bag, and 
three at home. 20. The lesson is easy to-day ; it is easy. 21. 
John's lessons are difficult. 22. Are your lessons difficult, 
John ? 23. Yes, sir, they are difficult. 


41. The Regular Conjugations. French verbs are 

conveniently divided, according to the infinitive endings -er, 
-ir, -re, into three conjugations : 

I. II. III. 

Donner [done], to give. Finir [finiir], to finish. Vendre [va :dr], to sell. 
Like these are conjugated all regular verbs with corres- 
ponding infinitive endings. 

42. Present Indicative of donner, 'to give.' 
1. Affirmative. 2. Negative. 

I give, am giving, etc. I do not give, am not giving, etc. 

je donn e [38 don]. je ne donn e pas [3a na don pa]. 

tu donn es [ty don]. tu ne donn es pas [ty na don pa]. 

il donn e [il don]. il ne donn e pas [il na don pa]. 

nous donn ons [nu dono]. nous ne donn ons pas [nu na dono pa]. 

vous donn ez [vu done]. vous ne donn ez pas [vu na done pa]. 

ils donn ent [il don]. ils ne donn ent pas [il na don pa]. 

3. Interrogative. 4. Negative Interrogative. 

Am I giving ?, do I give ?, etc. Am I not giving ?, do I not give ?, etc. 

donn^-je? [done: 3]. ne donn^-je pas ? [na done: 3 pa], 

donnes-tii ? [don ty]. ne donnes-tu pas? [na don ty pa], 

donne-t-il? [don t il]. ne donne-t-il pas ? [na don t il pa], 

donnons-noiis ? [dono nu]. ne donnons-nouspas? [na dono nu pa], 

donnez-vous ? [done vu]. ne donnez-vous pas ? [na done vu pa], 

donnent-ils ? [dont il]. ne donnent-ils pas ? [na dont il pa]. 

28 LESSON IX. [§§43-44 

43. Interrogation. By prefixing the words est-ce que ?, 
literally, 'is it thatf, any statement may be turned into a 
question : 

Vous avez mon canif. You have my penknife. 

Est-ce que vous avez mon canif ? Have you my penknife ? 

Note. — The first singular interrogative form (e.g., donn6-je? suis-je? etc.) is 
avoided in most verbs, and must be avoided in some, by using 'est-ce que?' In the 
exercises, use • est-ce que ? ' everywhere in interrogations with the first singular. 

44. The Demonstrative Adjective. 1. The following 
are its forms, and they must be repeated before each noun to 
which they refer : 

Tee [so], before a masculine beginning with a consonant. 
•This,' 'that' = -| cet [set], before a m. beginning with a vowel or h mute. 

[cette [set], before any feminine. 
* These,' • those ' = ces [se], before any plurah 

2. To distinguish 'this' from 'that,' or for emphasis, add 
-Ci ( = ici) and -la respectively to the noun : 
Cc livre, cet homme, cette amie. This (or that) book, man, friend. 
Cc crayon-ci et ces plumes-Ik. This pencil and those pens. 


aller [ale], to go. 
arriver [arive], to arrive, 
chemin [jom?], m,, road, way. 
commencer [komdse], to begin, 
continuer [k5tinqe], to continue, 
^couter [ckute], to listen to, hwir. 
en [fi], in, on. 

entrer [cltreldans, to enter, go into, 
histoire [iHtwair], f., Htory. 

marcher [marje], to march, walk, 
pour [pur], for, in order to. 
raconter [rakoto], to relate, tell, 
ramasser [ramase], to pick up, 

rcncontrcr [rfikStre], to meet. 
Robert [robe:r], Robert, 
route [nit], f., way. 
rue [ry], f., street. 

nous voici (mi vwiiHi], here wo are. en route [o rut], on the way. 


A, Je ramaiwe mes affairoK pour aller tx I'c^cole. Voici ines 
HvreSy mon cahitir, nt(;H phiiin's, ina rt^ghs nion crayon. Ii<^s 
voi]4 mainteiiant daiiu mon sac. Main tenant jo nuis en routo 

§44] LESSON IX. 29 

pour I'dcole. Dans la rue je rencontre mon ami Robert. 
Nous marclions ensemble. Nous continuons notre chemin. 
II raconte une histoire. Nous arrivons a la porte de I'eeole. 
Nous entrons dans I'^cole. Nous voici dans la classe. Les 
autres eleves arrivent aussi, et le maitre commence les le9ons. 
Ce maitre donne des lemons faciles. Cette le9on n'est pas 
difficile. Ces dleves-ci ecoutent. Ces sieves-la n'ecoutent pas. 

B. Continue the following : 1 . Je donne du papier a Televe, 
etc. 2. Est-ce que j'arrive a I'ecole ?, etc. 3. Je ne ramasse 
pas mes affaires, tu ne ramasse pas tes affaires, etc. 4. Est-ce 
que je ne donne pas un canif a Robert ?, etc. 

G. (Oral.) 1. Ou allons-nous? 2. Qui ramasse nos affaires? 
3. Ou sont nos cahiers ? 4. Avez-vous vos livres 1 5. Est-ce 
que vous avez votre crayon aussi 1 6. Ou sommes-nous mainte- 
nant 1 7. Qui est en route pour I'ecole 1 8. Qui rencontrons- 
nous? 9. Ou est-ce que nous le rencontrons ? 10. Qui est 
Robert? 11. Est-ce que Robert est en route pour I'ecole 
aussi ? 12. Qui raconte une histoire ? 13. Qui arrive a la 
porte de T^cole? 14. Ou entrons-nous ? 15. Ou sommes- 
nous maintenant? 16. Qui est dans la classe? 17. Est-ce 
que les autres Aleves sont dans la classe aussi? 18. Qui 
commence les lemons? 19. Ce maitre donne-t-il des legons 
faciles? 20. Ces legons sont-elles faciles? 21. Cet ^leve-la 
^coute-t-il? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. Where are you going? 2. Are you going to school ? 
3. We are going to school. 4. I am collecting my things to 
go to school. 5. My things are in my bag now. 6. We meet 
our friends in the street. 7. We continue our way. 8. We 
arrive at the door of the school. 9. The other pupils arrive 
also. 10. They enter the school. 11. We enter the school 
too. 12. The master and the pupils are in the class-room. 
13. He begins the lesson. 14. Is he beginning the lesson 
now? 15. He continues the lesson. 16. This lesson is not 
easy. 17. It is difficult. 18. These lessons are difficult. 
19. The master tells a story. 20. The pupils listen. 21. Are 
you listening? 22. Yes, sir, I am listening now, 23. Robert, 
are you listening? 24. Yes, sir. 25. Are those pupils 
listening ? 

30 LESSON X. ' [§§45-47 


45. Plural Forms. Note the following exceptions to the 
rule (§31) that the plural of nouns and adjectives is formed 
by adding -s to the singular : 

1. Nouns in -s, -x, -z, and adjectives in -s, -x, remain unchanged in 
the plural, e.g , bras, bras, arm(s) ; voix, voix, voice(s) ; nez, nez, 
no8e(s) ; has, has, low ; vieux, vieux, old. 

2. Nouns and adjectives in -au, nouns in -eu, and a few nouns in -ou, 
add -X instead of -s, e.g., couteau, couteaux, knife, knives ; beau, 
beaux, fine ; jeu, jeux, game(s) ; bijou, bijoux, jewel(s) ; caillou, 
cailloux, pebble(s), and a few rarer noims in -ou. 

3. Nouns, and the commoner adjectives, in -al change -al to -au and 
add -X (as above), e.g., general, g^n^raux, general{s) ; rival, rivaux, 
rival(s), except bal, bals, ball(s), and a few rarer nouns. 

4. Oeil, yeux, eye{s) ; ciel, cieux, sky, skies, heaven(s). 

46. Contractions. The forms a + le and a + les are 
always contracted into au and aux respectively ; the remain- 
ing forms are not contracted, thus, a la, k V in full : 

Je parle au [o] fr^re. I speak to the brother. 

Aux [o] HOL'urH, aux [oz] hommes. To the sisters, to the men. 
But : Ju parle k la su-ur, k I'homme. 

47. Use of //^ a. 1. 'There is' and 'there are' are not 
only translated by voilk, but also by il y a ; 

VoiUl dcM plumes sur la table. There are some pens on the table. 

II 7 a [il j u] duH plumes sur la table. There are some pens on the ta)>le. 

2. Observe, however, that voilcl answers the question 
•where Ul', * where are?', and makes a specific statcMncnt 
about an object to which attention is directed by pointing or 
the like, while il y a does not answer the question * where 
isV, * where are 1 ', and makes a general statement. 

3. II y a governs nouns just like other transitive verbs : 

Je donne des plumes k Marie 7 I give (Home) pens to Mary. 

H y a del plumes sur 1* table. There are (some) pens ou the table. 





aimer [erne], to love, like. 

beau [bo], fine, handsome. 

beaucoup [boku], much, very much. 

blanc [bla], white. 

bleu [bl0], blue. 

bord [bo i r], m. , edge, shore, border. 

caillou [kaju], m., pebble, stone. 

cheval [Javal], m., horse. 

courageux [kuras^], brave. 

creuser [kr0ze], to dig. 

eau [o], f., water. 

fougueux [fug0], spirited, fiery. 

general [seneral], m., general. 

grand [gra], great, large, tall. 

jouer [3 we], to play. 

k cheval, on horseback, chez 

lac [lak], m., lake. 

I'un [1 ce], the one, one. 

naturel [natyrel], natural. 

noir [nwa:r], black. 

oeil, yeux [oej, j0], m., eje, eyes. 
V parce que [pars ka], because. 
. pourquoi ? [purkwa], why ? 

qui [ki], indecl., who, whom, 
which. ' 

repr^senter [raprezate], to repre- 

sable [sQjbl], m., sand. 

si [si], so. 

vieux [vj0], old. 

nous, at home, at our house. 


A. II y a deux tableaux chez nous. Nous les aimons beau- 
coup, parce qu'ils sont si naturels. L'un represente quatre 
enfants qui jouent au bord du lac. L'eau du lac est bleue (f.), 
et les yeux des enfants sont bleus aussi. II y en a deux qui 
ramassent des cailloux, et les deux autres creusent dans le 
sable. L'autre tableau represente deux grands generaux a 
cheval. lis sont sur deux beaux chevaux. L'un des chevaux 
est blanc et l'autre est noir. Les generaux sont courageux et 
leurs chevaux sont beaux et fougueux. 

B. Continue^ the following: 1. Je parle aux g^ndraux, etc. 
2. Je parle a I'enfant, etc. 3. Est-ce que je ramasse des 
cailloux?, etc. 4. II y a des plumes dans ma boite, dans ta 
boite, etc. 5, II n'y en a pas dans ma boite, ta boite, etc. 
6. Mes yeux sont bleus, tes yeux, etc. 7. J'ai deux beaux 
chevaux, etc. 8. J'aime ces vieux tableaux, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Ou sont les tableaux ? 2. Est-ce que vous les 
aimez? 3. Pourquoi est-ce que vous les aimez ? 4. Y a-t-il . 
des tableaux dans cette salle ? 5. Montrez-moi ces tableaux. 
6. Qui joue? 7. Ou est-ce qu'ils jouent*? 8. Les yeux des 
enfants sont-ils bleus ou noirs? 9. Vos yeux sont-ils noirs? 

32 LESSON XL [§§48-49 

10. Qui ramasse des cailloux? 11. Que ramassez-vous ? 12. 
Qui creuse dans le sable? 13. Ou s6nt les deux grands 
generaux? 14. Les chevaux des generaux sont-ils blancs ou 
noil's? 15. Vos frdres sont-ils courageux? 16. A qui est-ce 
que je parle ? 17. A qui est-ce que vous parlez? 18. Y a-t-il 
des plumes dans votre boite 1 19. Combien de tableaux j a-t-il 
chez nous? 20. Aimez-vous ces vieux tableaux? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. There are two fine pictures in our class-room. 2. The 
pupils like them. 3. These pictures are natural and beautiful. 
4. In this picture there are four children. 5. They are play- 
ing. 6. The children's eyes are blue. 7. Three of the children 
are picking up pebbles on the shore of the lake. 8. The 
other child is digging in the sand. 9. He is talking to the 
other children. 10. There is the other picture. 11. In that 
picture there are two generals. 12. Their horses are fine 
and spirited. 13. The generals are brave. 14. I like these 
pictures very much. 15. The master is relating the story of 
the generals to the pupils. 16. There is a pupil who is not 
listening. 17. Show me the pupil who is not listening. 
18. I am listening, because I like this story. 19. Now, show 
me the fine pictures. 20. There they are. 


48. An Indefinite Pronoun. 1. *One,' *some one,' 'we,' 
'you,' 'they,* 'people,' used indefinitely, are represented in 
French by on, with the verb always in the singular : 
On [5] jMirlo do Jean. We (you, they, etc. ) speak of John. 

2. When following a verb with a final vowel, on is joined 
to it by -t- (cf. § 29) : 

Par oh commcnce-t-on ? Where do we (etc.) begin ? 

3. An on construction often corresponds to an English 
paMive, especially when the agent is not mentioned : 
Eosnito on apporte le potago. Next the Boup in brought. 

4^ Interrogation. ObHerve the frequently used inter- 
rogative phrase * qu'est-ce que ? ' *- ' what 1 ' which is made 
up of que ? (§ 38, 3) f est-ce que ? (§ 43) : 

Qn'a-t-il ? or Qu'eit-ce qu'il a ? VN'hut Iuih ho 7 

§50] LESSON XL 33 

50. Present Indicative off aire, * to do/ * make ' (irreg.). ] 

I do, am doing, etc. We do, are doing, etc. 

je fais [39 fe]. nous faisons [nu fazo]. 

tu fais [ty fe]. vous faites [vu fet]. \ 

a fait [life], lis font [il fo]. 


* d*abord [d aboir], first (of all). 
" apporter [aporte], to bring. 

* assiette [asjet], f., plate. 
^ bientot [bjeto], soon. 

bibliotheque [bibliotek], f., li- 
^ bonne [bon], f., maid, servant. 

caf6 [kafe], m., coffee. 

chapeau [Japo], m., hat. 
* couteau [kuto], m., knife. 
^ cuiller [kyJEir], f., spoon. 

dessert [deseir], m., dessert. 

ensuite [astiit], then, next. 
' escalier [eskalje], m., stairs. 

fourchette [furjet], f., fork. 

fruit [fri[i], m., fruit. 

journal [surnal], m., newspaper. 

legume [legym], m., vegetable. 

lire [li:r], to read. 

manger [maje], to eat. 

- en haut [a o], up stairs. 

moment [momS], m., moment. 

monter [mote], to go up. 

nappe [nap], f., table-cloth. 

oter [ote], to take off. 

place [plas], f., place. 

potage [potars], m., soup. 

.prend [pro], 3 sg. pres. ind. jyren- 
dre, to take. 

puis [pi{i], then, afterwards. 

remporter [raporte], to take away. 

repas [ropa], m., meal, repast. 

retoumer [raturne], to return, go 

salle a manger [sal a mase], f., 

sonner [sone], to ring. 

vestibule [vestibyl], m., hall, en- 

viande [vja:d], f., meat. 

en bas [a bo], down stairs. 


A, Nous voici de retour de Fecole. Nous entrons dans la 
maison. Dans le vestibule nous otous nos cliapeaux. EnsuiK; 
nous montons I'escalier. Nous somraes en haut maintenant, 
et nous entrons dans la bibliotheque un moment pour lire les 
journaux. Bientot on sonne, et nous allons en bas. Nous 
voici dans la salle a manger. La nappe est sur la table. Les 
assiettes, les cuillers, les couteaux et les fourchettes sont a leur 
place. On commence le repas. La bonne apporte le potage. 
Puis, elle apporte la viande et les legumes. On mange, on 

34 LESSON XI. [§50 

raconte des histoires. La bonne remporte les assiettes. Au 
dessert on mange du fruit et on prend du cafe. 

B, Continue the following: 1. J'ote mon chapeau, tu 6tes 
ton chapeau, etc. 2. Je ne suis pas en liaut, etc. 3. Qu'est-ce 
que je fais % etc. 4. Est-ce que je ne sonne pas ?, etc. 5. Je 
ne monte pas I'escalier, etc. 6. On apporte mon repas, ton 
repas, etc. 7. Est-ce qu'on n'apporte pas mon repas?, ton 
repas?, etc. 8. II n'y a pas de viande sur mon assiette, ton 
assiette, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Ou est-ce que nous allons maintenant ? 2. Que 
faisons-nous dans le vestibule? 3. Qu'est-ce que vous faites 
dans le vestibule ? 4. Ensuite que faites- vous 1 5. Pourquoi 
est-ce que j'entre dans la bibliotheque ? 6. La biblioth^que 
est-elle en haut ou en bas? 7. Ou est la salle a manger? 
8. Qui Sonne ? 9. Est-ce que la bonne sonne pour le repas ? 

10. Qu'est-ce qu'il y a sur la table dans la salle k manger? 

11. Ou sont les couteaux et les fourchettes? 12. Les cuillers 
sont^elles sur la table? 13. Qu'est-ce qu'on apporte d'abord ? 
14. Ensuite, qu'est-ce qu'on apporte? 15. Qu'est-ce qu'on fait 
au repas? 16. Raconte-t-on des histoires aussi ? 17. Qui 
apporte le dessert? 18. Qu'est-ce qu'on mange au dessert? 
Etc., etc. 

/>. 1. I am returning home now. 2. I enter the house. 
3. First, I take off my liat in the hall. 4. You take off your 
hat. 5. I moot my brotlier in the hall. 6. We go into the 
library for a moment to read the newspapers. 7. Somebody 
rings. 8. We listen. 9. We are up stairs. 10. The dining- 
room is down stairs. 1 1 . There is a cloth on the table in the 
dining-room. 12. There are phites, spoons, knives and forks 
on the table also. 13. First, the soup is brought. 14. The 
soup 18 eaten, and the maid brings the meat. 15. There is no 
fruit on the table now. 16. The maid brings it at (tlie) 
dofwert. 17. People take coffee at dtissert. 18. Then they 
jjo up stairs. 19. Then tlicy go into \\\v li})rary. 20. Wliafc 
am I doing now? 21. What aro you doing? 22. Wo are 
going into the library. 





51. Feminine of Adjectives. It is regularly formed by 
adding -e to the masculine singular, but adjectives ending in 
-e remain unchanged. 

Grand, m.,*grande, f., tall; facile, m. or f., easy. 

52. Irregularities. Change of stem takes place in cer- 
tain adjectives on adding -e. The following list shows the 

commoner ty 

pes : 






actire, active. 


cruelle, cruel. 


heureuse, happy. 


gentille, nice. 


flatten se, flatter- 


ancienne, ancient. 



grosse, big. 


blanche, white. 


muette, dumb. 


long^ue, long. 


chere, dear. 


fausse, false. 


shche, dry. 

Observe also : m. beau or bel, f. belle, fine ; m. nouveau or nouvel, 
f. nouvelle, new ; m. vieux or vieil, f. vieille, old, with two forms for 
the masculine, one of which gives the feminine. The masculine forms 
in -1 are used before a vowel or h mute : 

Le bel arbre, le bel homme. The fine tree, the handsome man. 

But : L'arbre est beau ; le beau livre ; les beaux arbres ; les arbres 
sont beaux. 

53. Position. 1. An attributive adjective more usually 
follows its noun : 
Un homme riche, une pomme mure. A rich man, a ripe apple. 

2. Adjectives from proper nouns, adjectives of physical 
quality, participles as adjectives, almost always follow : 

La langue anglaise. The English language. 

Du caf4 chaud, une lampe cass6e. Hot coffee, a broken lamp. 

3. The following of very common occurrence nearly always 
precede : 

Bon, good, mauvais, bad ; beau, fine, handsome, jqli, pretty, vilain, 
ugly ; jcujie, young, vieux, old ; gragd, tall, great, gros, big, petit, 
small ; long, long, court, short. "^ 




54. Interrogative Adjective. *Whichr, «whatf, *what 
(a)!' = m. quel?, f. quelle?, m. pi. quels?, f. pi. quelles? 

Quel [kel] livre ? Which (what) book ? 

Quelle [kel] plume ? Which (what) pen ? 

Quelle belle vue ! Quels h^ros ! What a fine view ! What heroes ! 

55. * There,' *in that place ' = y. It stands for a place 
already referred to, is put before the verb like a pronoun 
object, and is less emphatic than la = * there ' : 

Est-U i r^cole ? Ily[i]est. Is he at school ? He is (there). 

agneau [ajio], m., lamb. 

animal [animal], m., animal, beast. 

arbre [arbr], m., tree. 

beau, belle [bo, bel], fine, hand- 

blanc, blanche [bid, bid: J], white. 

bois [bwa], m., wood(s). 

campagne [kupaji], f., country. 

champ [Ja], m., field. 

chemin de fer[|omSd9 fe:r], m., 

comme [kom], how ! 

comment [komd], l»ow? 

cousin(e) [kuzS", kuzin], cousin. 

fer [fe:r], m., iron. 

fleur [fia-rr], f., flower. 

g;are [ga:r], f., station. 

beureux -«e [oer^, oer0iz], happy 
(to, dc). 

k U ounpagne, in the country. 


joli [soli], pretty. 

oncle [r):klj, m., uncle. 

par [par], by. 

parents [pard], m. pi., relatives. 

passer [pose], to pass. 

petit [p8ti], small. 

regarder [ragarde], to look at. 

semaine [some 5 n], f., week. 

tante [td:t], f., aunt. 

tout [tu], all, everything. 

travailler [travaje], to work. 

trouver [truve], to find. 

vache [vaj], f., cow. 

visiter [vizite], to visit. 

vite [vit], quickly. 

voir [vwair], to see. 

voiture [vwatyir], f., carriage. 

y [i], there, in that place. 

de nous voir, to see us. 

aller Tisiter, to go to visit, go and visit, en fleurs, in flower, blooming. 

A, KotiB alloni visitor nos parents k la campagne. Nous y 
allona par le cheimn de fer. Nous arrivons h, la petite gare. 
Noui y trouvona ma tante et uno de raes cousines avec leur 
▼oiture. Comme nous sommes beureux de les voir! Mon 
ooola at mat ooutiiis n'y tout pat, paroe qu'ils travaillent dans 

§§54-55] LESSON XII. 37 

les champs. Nous montons dans la voiture, et nous voil^ en 
route. Comme la campagne est belle ! Tout est en fleur^, 
les arbres et les champs. Nous passons devant les beaux 
champs et les jolies maisons blanches. Les chevaux marchent 
vite, et nous arrivons bientot chez nos parents. Nous y 
passons deux ou trois semaines. Nous allons dans les bois 
et les champs. Nous y trouvons des fleurs et des fruits. 
Nous allons regarder les animaux, les belles vaches et les 
jolis agneaux. 

B. Continue the following : 1 . Quelle plume est-ce que je 
donne a I'enfant?, etc. 2. Est-ce que j'ai des fleurs blanches?, 
etc. 3. Mes fleurs sont belles et blanches, tes fleurs, etc. 4. 
Je ne suis pas heureuse, etc. 5. Je suis k la campagne ; j'y 
suis, etc. 6. J'ai un bel arbre devant ma maison, tu as un 
bel arbre devant ta maison, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Ou sont vos parents ? 2. Comment allons-nous 
a la campagne ? 3. Comment ,y allons-npus ? 4. La eare est- 
elle grande ou petite 1 5. Qui ^rouVe-t-on^ la gare ^ 6. Notre 
tante est-elle heureuse de nous voir? 7. Que fait votre oncle? 

8. Pourquoi vos cousins ne sont-ils pas a la gare ? 9. Aimez- 
vous la campagne? 10. Pourquoi? 11. Les chevaux de 
votre oncle sont-ils beaux? 12. Et sa maison est-elle belle? 

13. Combien de aemaines passez-voiis chez vos parents? 

14. Aimez-vous les fleurs blanches? 15. Quelles fleurs 
aimez-vous? 16. Etes-vous heureuse de visiter votre tante, 
mademoiselle? 17. Ou trouve-t-on ces belles fleurs? 18. Ou 
sont les belles vaches et les jolis agneaux ? 19. Quels animaux 
y a-t-il dans les champs? Etc., etc. 

D. \. 1 have an uncle and aunt in the country. 2. They 
have a fine house and a carriage. 3. There is my uncle's house. 
4. We are going to visit them. 5. We are going (y) by (the) 
railway. 6. We find my uncle and cousins at the station. 
7. My aunt is not there. 8. How beautiful the country is ! 

9. The flowers in (de) the fields are so pretty ! 10. We go to see 
the animals in the fields. 1 1 . There are pretty white lambs 
and fine cows in the fields. 12. We are going to pass two or 
three weeks with (chez) our relatives. 13. They are happy to 
see us. 14. We are happy to see them too. 15. I like my 
aunt and uncle. 16. Which uncle are you going to visit 
now ? 1 7. What are you going to do in the country ? 




56. Present Indicative of donner, flnir, uendre. 

I give, am giving, 

I finish, am finishing. 

I sell, am selling 




donn e [don]. 

fini s 


vend s [va]. 

donn es [don]. 

fini s 


vend s [vu]. 

donn e [don]. 

fini t 


vend* [va]. 

donn ons [dono]. 

finiss ons 


vend ons [vddo]. 

donn ez [done]. 

finiss ez 


vend ez [vade]. 

donn ent [don]. 

finiss ent 


vend ent [va:d]. 

♦Vendre is irregular in this one form. The regular verb rompre has rompt, 
but vendre is here given as being more useful for practice. 

Note. — The pronouns Je, tu, 11, etc., have been omitted in this paradigm and in 
some others to economize space in printing. They should be supplied in learning or 
reciting the paradigms. 

57. The General Noun. A noun used in a general sense 
takes the definite article in French, though not commonly in 
English : 

L'homme est mortel. 

Les hommea sont mortels. 

Le mi el est trfes doux. 

Le cheval est un animal utile. 

Man is mortal. 

Men are mortal. 

Honey is very sweet. 

The horse is a luseful animal. 

58. Tout. *A11/ Hhe whole,' * every,' = tOUt, with the 
following forms, which precede the article, when it is present : 

m. 8., tout [tu]. f. 8., toute [tut], m. pi., tous [tu]. f . pi. , toutes [tut]. 

Tout homme, toute femme. 
Tous los homines. 
Toute la joum^ 

Every man, every woman. 
All t\w men. 
The whole day. 


Aofit [u], m., Angunt. 
bAtir [Uitiir], to huiUl. 
bon, bonne [h*), l»on], good. 
cerise [NoriiKJ, f., ohurry. 
cerifier [•oriije], m., cherry- ti-m 

esp^ce [eHpsH], f., RpeoioR, kind, 
fruitier [fniitje], fruit (twlj.)- 
fi^oCit [ki>1« ">•< taHto. 
g^rimper (K^Jpo], to olimh. 
majority [ina.^t)ritt)], f., majority. 

§58] LESSON XIII. 39 

quand [ka], when, 
roug^e [ru:3], red. 
septenibre[septaibr], m., Septem- 
souvent [suva], often, 
vendre [vaidr], to sell, 
verger [verse], m., orchard, 
vert [veir], green. 
ville [vil], f., town, city. 

marchand [raarja], m., merchant, 
mois [mwa], m., month, 
mur [my:r], ripe, 
murir [myriir], to ripen, 
poire [pwa:r], f., pear. 
poirier [pwarje], m., pear-tree, 
pomme [pom], f., apple, 
pommier [pomje], m. , apple-tree, 
prune [pryn], f. , plum, 
prunier [prynje], m., plum-tree. 

k la maison, at home, pour en avoir, to get some, en quel mois ?, 
in what month ? au mois d'aoiit, in the month of August. 


A. Chez notre oncle k la campagne il y a iiii verger. Dans 
ce verger il y a des arbres fruitiers. La majorite des arbres 
sont des pommiers, et ils donnent des pommes de toute espece. 
II y en a qui murissent au mois d'aout, et il y en a qui 
murissent au mois de septembre. On ne mange pas toutes les 
pommes a la maison. On en vend beaucoup aux marchands 
des villes. II y a aussi dans le verger des cerisiers, des 
pruniers et des poiriers. Les cerises sont rouges et ont un 
bon gout quand elles sont mures. Les prunes et les poires 
sont bonnes aussi. Nous les aimons beaucoup, et souvent 
nous grimpons dans les arbres pour en avoir. 

B. Continue the following : L Je vends des pommes aux 
marchands, etc. 2. Est-ce que je vends des pommes aux 
marchands % etc. 3. Je ne vends pas de pommes, etc. 4. Je 
finis mes legons, tu finis tes legons, etc. 5. Est-ce que je b4tis 
une maison?, etc. 6. Je ne batis pas une maison, etc. 7. 
J'aime les pommes, etc. 

C. (Oral.) L Ou est le verger de votre oncle? 2. Quels 
arbres y a-t-il dans son verger ? 3. Quel fruit les pommiers 
donnent-ils ? 4. Quel fruit est-ce que le prunier donne? 
5. Ces pommes sont-elles mures ou vertes? 6. Les pommes 
ont-elles un bon gout quand elles sont vertes? 7. En quel 
mois les prunes murissent-elles ? 8. A qui est-ce qu'on vend 
les cerises ? 9. En quel mois est-ce que votre oncle vend ses 
pommes? 10. Ne vendez-vous pas toutes vos poires? IL 

40 LESSON XIV. [§59 

Aimez-vous les poires? 12. Mange-t-on les poires quand elles 
sont vertes? 13. Mange-t-on toutes les poires k la maisoni 

14. En quel mois la pomme murit-elle? 15. Pourquoi grimpez- 
vous dans le pommier de votre oncle ? 16. Allons-nous visiter 
le verger de votre oncle aujourd'hui ? 17. Est-ce que vous 
finissez vos le9ons maintenant? 18. Qui bS,tit cette maison 
(Jerriere le verger? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. There is a pear-tree in our orchard. 2. There are 
also apple-trees, plum-trees and cherry-trees. 3. What fruit 
does the apple-tree bear {donner)^ 4. What fruit do plum- 
trees bear? 5. The cherry-tree bears cherries. 6. Are the 
plums ripe now ? 7. In what month do plums ripen ? 8. They 
ripen in the month of September. 9. The apple ripens also in 
the month of September. 10. The pears on {de) these trees are 
green. 11. There are ripe cherries on that tree. 12. When 
the apples ripen they are sold. 13. We sell them to the 
merchants. 14. We do not eat apples when they are green. 

15. They have not a good taste. 16. When we finish our 
lessons we go into the orchard. 17. All the apples are 
ripening now. 18. I climb into the pear-tree to get pears. 
19. We sell the good pears. 20. We give the others to the 


59. Partitives. In partitive constructions (§36), de 
alone iB used: — 

1. In a general negation (§ 36, 2) : 

n n'a pas de plumes. He has no pons. 

2. When an adjective precedes the noun : 

Mario a de jolies fleura. Mary has (some) protty flowers. 

•J'ai de votre argont. I have some of your money. 

But : J'ai des pommos mftret. I have (some) ripe apples. 

3. Similarly when a noun after an adjective is understood : 
De bonn roin ol de mauvais. (Jo<m1 kiiigH uiul hud (kingH). 

I . As in KngliBh, in saoh conHtructions as the following : 

I ; II .,u|> de thd. A gmat dual of tea (much tea). 

I I' livru de viande. A iM)und of moat. 

A ' /, de viiijido. Knoiigh (of) moat. 

'Jk^J) Uc jMiii. TtK) iiiiich hroad. 

§§60-61] tEssoN XIV. 41 

60. The preposition de + a noun forms adjectival phrases : 

Une robe de soie. A silk dress. 

La feuille d'^rable. The maple leaf. 

r 61. Observe the following expressions of frequent use,] 
formed from avoir + an undetermined noun : I 

ayoir besoin [bazwe] dCi be in 
need of , -Mwil. t:;, YuulX- 
avoir chaud [Jo], be warm, 
avoir froid [frwa], be cold, 
avoir faim [f s], be hungry. 

avoir soif [swaf], be thirsty. | 

avoir sommeil [somezj], be sleepy. I 
avoir raison [rezo], be (in the) ! 
right. 1 

avoir tort [toir], be (in the) wrong. 1 


> abriter [abrite], to shelter. 
\ alors [alo:r], then. 
brise [briiz], f., breeze. 
canadien [kanadje], Canadian, 
chaud [Jo], m., heat. 
^ chose [Jo:z], f., thing. 

6cureuil [ekyroeij], m., squirrel. 
;> embleme [ableini], m., emblem. 
> Arable [erabl], m., maple. / 
feuille [fceij], f., leaf. 
feuillage [foejais], m., foliage, 
foumir [furniir], to furnish. 
hetre [eitr], m., beech, y 

il fait chaud, it is warm, 


insecte [?sekt], m., insect, 
int^ressant [eteresa], interesting. 

> mauvais [move], bad. 
4 moins [mwe], less. 

national [nasjonal], national. 
^ nombreux [nobr0], numerous. 
^ nourriture [nurityir], f., food. 

oiseau [wazo], m., bird. 

ombre [o:br], f., shade. 
. orme [orm], m., elm. / 

> parmi [parmi], among, 
tres [tre], very. 

utile [ytil], useful, 
(of weather or temperature). 


A. Quand nous sommes a la campagne nous allons souvent 
aux bois. On y trouve beaucoup de choses interessantes. II 
y a la de grands arbres et de petites fleurs. Les arbres abri- 
tent beaucoup de petits animaux. Les ecureuils et les petits 
oiseaux trouvent leur nourriture dans les arbres. Les fleurs 
fournissent de la nourriture aux insectes nombreux. Parmi 
les arbres nous aimons I'erable. L'erable est un bel arbre et 
il est trfes utile. La feuille d'erable est I'embleme national 
canadien. II y a d'autres arbres, comme le hetre et I'orme, qui 
sont beaux et utiles aussi. Leur feuillage est vert et donne 

42 LESSON XIV. [§61 

de I'ombre. Quand il fait chaud nous trouvons souvent a 
I'ombre une bonne brise, et alors nous avons moins chaud. 

B. Continue the following : 1. J'ai de jolies fleurs, etc. 2. 
Est-ce que j'ai des pommes mures?, etc. 3. J'ai de bonnes 
pommes et de mauvaises, etc. 4. J'aime la feuille d'erable, etc. 
5. Est-ce que je vends beaucoup de pommes?, etc. 6. J'ai raison, 
etc. 7. Je n'ai pas tort, etc. 8. Est-ce que j'ai chaud?, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qu'est-ce qu'on trouve dans les bois? 2. Ou 
trouve-t-on de grands arbres ? 3. Y a-t-il de petites fleurs dans 
les bois aussi ? 4. Quels animaux les arbres abritent-ils 1 5. 
Les oiseaux ont-ils besoin de nourriture ? 6. Ou est-ce que les 
oiseaux trouvent leur nourriture ? 7. Ou trouvons-nous notre 
nourriture? 8. A quels petits animaux les fleurs fournis- 
sent-elles de la nourriture ? 9. Quels arbres trouve-t-on dans 
les bois? 10. Quels arbres aimez-vous ? 11. L'^rable est-il un 
belarbre? 12. Aimez-vous la feuille d'erable? 1 3. Trouve t-on 
des arbres fruitiers dans les bois? 14. Oii est-ce qu'on les 
trouve? 15. Les arbres des bois son t-ils beaux ? 16. Y a-t-il 
de beaux arbres chez votre oncle? 17. Qu'est-ce que le feuil- 
lage des arbres donne ? 18. Est-ce qu'il fait chaud aujourd'hui? 
19. Avez-vous chaud ? 20. Ou allonsnous quand il fait chaud? 
21. Est-ce qu'on a soif quand il fait chaud? 22. Avez-vous 
soif? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. To-day it is hot, and we are going to the woods. 2. 
There are many interesting things in the wckkIs. 3. One finds 
there great trees and beautiful flowers. 4. Among tlie trees 
there are pretty little animals. 5. The leaves of tlio trees and 
the flowers shelter many little insects. 6. Theso trcies are very 
beautiful and very ust^ful also. 7. The maplt; is a very fine; 
tree. 8. We love the maple leaf because it is our national 
emblem. 9. The beech and the elm are useful trees. 10. The 
foliage of trees gives shade. 11. In the woods b<>hind our 
houM there are large trees and small oncvs. 12. People like 
the shade of trees wh(>n it is hot. 13. We go into the woods 
to And shade. 14. The aninials in tin* woods have need of 
food. 15. The fruits of tlie trees furnish fixtd to the animals. 
16. Many littlr iiiHoclH find f<KKl in tin* IIowcms. 17. Wh<'n il, 
IM hot the aiiimalH are thirsty. |H. Then t\w,y ne<Ml water. 
19. They find it in the wimmIh. 20. We m'<'<l wali'r s\\\v\\ \\v 
are ihirHty. 21. 1Nmij)1i« need food wh(«n tlu^y are hungry. 

§§62-66] LESSON XV, 43 


62. Past Participles. 

Given. Finished. Sold. Had. Been. 

donn6 [done], fini [fini]. vendu [vady]. eu [y]. 6t6 [ete]. 

63. Compound Tenses. They are formed from the past 
participle along with an auxiliary (usually avoir, sometimes 
^tre), as in the following section. 

64. The Past Indefinite. 

I have given, or I have finished, or I have sold, or 
I gave, etc. I finished, etc. I sold, etc. 

j'ai donn^ [3 e done] j'ai fini [3 e fini] j'ai vendu [3 e vady] 
tu as donn^ [ty a done], tu as fini [ty a fini], tu as vendu [ty a vady], 
etc. etc. etc. 

I have had, or I had, etc. I have been, or I was, etc. 

j'ai eu [3 e y]. j'ai ^t6 [3 e ete]. 

tu as eu [ty az y]. tu as et6 [ty az ete]. 

11 a eu [il a y]. 11 a ete [il a ete]. 

etc. etc. 

65. ^Vord Order. The auxiliary is the verb in a com- 
pound tense, and all rules of word order apply to it : 

Nous ne I'avons pas fini. We have not finished it. 

N'a-t-elle pas ^te ici ? Has she not been here ? 

66. Use of Past Indefinite. It denotes not only what 
has happened or has been happening, as in English, but also 
what happened ( = English past tense) : 

J'ai fini mon ouvrage, I have finished my work. 

EUe a chante toute la matinee. She has been singing all the morning. 

II a et6 longterai)s iei. He was here for a long time. 
J'ai quitte Paris I'hiver pass^. I left Paris last winter. 

N. B. — The past indefinite is the ordinary past tense of French. For 
the past tense of narrative in the literary style, see § 148. 

44 LESSON XV. [§67 

67. Idiomatic Present Indicative. Besides its use in 

general, as in English, the present indicative is used idioma- 
tically, in certain phrases, to denote what has been and still 
continues to be : 

Depuis quand etes-vous ici ? How long have you been here ? 

Je suis ici depuis trois jours. I have been here for three days 

{or for three days past, or 
for the last three days). 


acheter [ajte], to buy. 
battre [batr], to beat, thresh. 
h\€ [ble], m., wheat. 
centre [kStr], against, from, 
couper [kupe], to cut. 
depuis [dapqi], since, 
fait [fel, p.p. /(lire, to do. 
farine [farin], f., flour. 
froid [frwa], m., cold, 
g^ermer [scrrae], to sprout. 
gfrandir fgradiir], to grow large. 
grange [gra:3], f., bam. 

hier [jeir], yesterday, 
meunier [m0nje], m., miller, 
morceau [morso], m., piece, 
neige [neis], f., snow, 
paysan [peiza], m. .peasant, farmer, 
plante [pld:t], f., plant. 
protdger [protege], to protect, 
saison [sezo], f. , season. 
sec [sek], dry. 
semer [some], to sow. 
transporter [trcisporte], to carry, 

en quelle saison ?, in what season ?, when ?; au printemps [o pr?tn], 
in spring ; en ^t^ [on etc], in summer ; en automne [un oton], in 

antmnn; en hiver [Qn iveir], in winter. 



A. Voici Ihistoire d'un morceau do pain. En automne 
le payHan a Rcin^ lo bid, et puis le bh; a geriiuj. En hiver la 
ncigo a protdgd Ics jouiies plaiites contro le froid. Au prin- 
t<?inpH elles out grandi. Eii 6i6 lo blt^ a mfiri. Iavs paysans 
rout coupti lU I'ont transport*^ dans la grange, ot ils I'ont 
baltu. ]m meunier a twAmU lo bl<^ pour faiio de la fariue. II 
a fourni la farine au Ixiulangor. Lo Ixxilangfu* a fait lo pain, 
et cnMuite il I'a vendu. Voil^ un morcc.iu <l(i pain sur la tabh^ 
II ent 14 depuiH hier, et 11 est tr^ rcc 

B.(^^ ' !. Quelle hiHtoiropst-co (jiH' vons nuorit.*'/,'/ 2. C^ni 
a triL r fairu lo pain? 3. C^ui a h<'iii('- I(^ h\v'l i. I*]n (jikiIIc 

HaMUM la t il Hem<i? 5. Quand lo bid a-t-il germd 1 0. Qu'estco 

§§68-69] LESSON XVI. 45 

que la neige a fait en l»iver? 7. En quelle saison est-ce 
que les plantes out grandi ? 8. Quand le ble a-t-il muri ? 
9. Avez-vous coupe le ble 1 10. Est-ce que j'ai coupd le ble ? 
11. Qui a coupe le ble ? 12. Ou I'ont-ils transports ? Ki. Et 
ensuite qu'est-ce qu'ils ont fait? 14. A qui I'ont-ils vendu? 
15. Qu'est-ce que le raeunier a fait? 16. Le boulanger qu'a-t-il 
achete pour faire le pain? 17. Qui a fourni la farine au bou- 
langep? 18. Avons-nous vendu le pain? 19. Qui I'avendu? 
20. Depuis quand ce morceau de pain est-il sur la table? 21. 
Pourquoi est-il sec? 22. Depuis quand etes-vous ici? Etc., etc. 
v. 1. This bread is dry. 2. It has been on the table 
since yesterday. 3. Here is the story of a piece of bread. 
4. The farmer sowed the wheat. 5. He sowed it in the 
autumn. 6. The wheat sprouted. 7. In the winter the snow 
protected the young plants from the cold. 8. When did they 
grow large? 9. In spring. 10. When did the wheat ripen? 
11. It ripened in summer. 12. Who cut the wheat? 13. Did 
we bring it into the barn? 14. Did you thresh it? 15. Who 
bought the wheat? 16. The miller bought it, and made the 
flour. 17. We are the bakers ; we made the bread. 18. Then 
we sold it to the farmers. 19. Here are two pieces of dry 
bread. 20. Did you make this bread? 21. Who made it? 
22. Our baker made it. 


68. Comparatives. Place plus = ' more,' moins = ' less,' 

or aussi = ' as,' before the adjective, and que = ' than ' or * as ' 

after it, to form comparatives :. 

II est plus grand que Jean. He is taller than John. 

II est moins grand que Jean. He is less tall than (not so t. as) John. 

II est aussi grand que Jean. He is as tall as John. 

69. Superlatives. 1. Place the definite article or a pos- 
sessive adjective before plus or moins to form superlatives : 
Marie est la plus jeunQ de toutes. Mary is the youngest of all. 

Obs.: La plus jeune des deux. The younger of the two. 

2. Do not omit the definite article when the superlative 
follows the noun : 

La le9on la plus difficile. The most difficult lesson. 

Mes livres les plus utiles. My most useful books. 




70. Irregular Comparison. Observe the irregular forms : 
bon [bo], gocxl, meilleur [meja>:r], better. le meilleur []& meja^:r], 

the best. 

71. Comparison of Adverbs. 1. They are compared by 
plus and moins like adjectives, but le in the superlative is 

2. Observe the irregular forms : 
bien [bj?], well, mieux [mj0], better, le mieux [la nij0], (the) best, 
peu [p0], little. moins [mwe], less. le moins [la mwe], (the) least. 

72. Present Indicative of al/er, * to go * (irreg.). 

I go, airr going, etc. We go, are going, etc. 

je vais [sa ve]. nous aliens [nuz alS]. 

tu vas [ty va]. vous allez [vuz ale], 
il va [il va]. ils vent [il vo]. 

73. Imperative of a/Ier, ' to go.' 

▼a [va], go. allons [al3], let us go. allez [ale], go. 


ann^ [ane], f., year, 
avril [avril], m., April. 
carotte [karot], f., carrot, 
charraant [Jarma], charming, 
chou [Ju], ni., cabbage, 
chenille [jani:j], f. , caterpillar. 
cdt^ [kotu], m., side, 
couleur [kulaMr], f., colour. 
ii€jk [de^a], alrciuly. 
dernier, -i^re [dernjo, •jeir], laHt. 
encore [okatrj, yet 
entre [<l!tr], among. 
graine [grctn], f., toed. 
grot, -M [gru, grotii], big. 
Jardio [sanir], m., garden. 
modMU [modest], modest. 
ffliig;ii«t [mygc], m., lily of tho 

oignon [ojio], m. , onion, 
partie [parti], f. , part, 
peu [p0j, ra., little, 
peut-etre [p0t eitr], i)erhaps. 
planter (ploto], to plant. 
pomme de terre [pom do teir], f., 


pousser [pusd], to grow, 
probablement [probablonia], prob- 
reine [re:n], f. , (piuon. 
r^serv^ [rozervo], rosorvetl. 
rose [ro:z], f., rose, 
semaine [Homein], f. , week, 
terre (Icir], f., earth, 
toujours (tii3u:r], Htill. 
tout k fait [tilt a fe], quite, 
tulipe [tylip], f., tulip. 

mienx, to like better, prefer ; d'un cbti, de I'autre cdt^, on the 
one side, on the other itidti ; I'ann^e derni^re, latit year. 

§73] LESSON XVI. 47 


A. Nous sommes toujours a la campagne. Allons voir main- 
tenant le jarclin. D'un cote il y a des legumes, de I'autre cote 11 
y a des fleurs. II y a des pommes de terre, des choux, des 
oignons et des carottes. On a plants les pommes de terre au 
mois d'avril, et elles sont maiiitenant en fleurs. On a plante 
les choux la semaine derniere. lis ont deja pousse un peu. 
lis vont etre Imeilleurs probablement cette annee que I'annee 
derniere. L'annde derniere les chenilles en o nt mang^ beau- 
coup. On a sem^ la graine de deux especes de carottes : des 
carottes rouges et des carottes blanches. Nous aimons mieux 
les rouges pour le potage que les blanches. Les oignons sont 
d'une espece plus grosse que les oignons de I'annee derniere. 

Dans la partie du jardin reservee aux fleurs nous trouvons, 
entre autres, des roses, des tulipes et des muguets. La rose 
est la reine des fleurs. Elle est peut-etre la plus belle de 
toutes les fleurs. Les tulipes sont tres jolies. Elles sont de 
toutes les couleurs. Le muguet est une petite fleur blanche, 
tres modeste mais tout^ fait charmante. 

B. Continue the following: I. Je suis plus grand que 
Robert, etc. 2. Est-ce que je suis aussi grande que Marie 1, 
etc. 3. Je suis le meilleur ^leve de la classe, etc. 4. N'ai-je 
pas la le9on la plus difficile?, etc. 5. J'ai vendu mes meilleurs 
livres, tu a vendu tes, etc. 6. Est-ce que j'aime mieux les 
fleurs rouges ?, etc. 7. Est-ce que je vais visiter mes parents % 
est-ce que tu vas visiter tes parents?, etc. 8. Je n'ai pas 
encore visits mes parents, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qu'est-ce que vous allez voir aujourd'hui? 
2. Qu'y a-t-il de ce_ cote ? 3. Qu'est-ce qu'il y a de I'autre 
c6t61 4. Dans quel mois plantez-vous vos choux? 5. Les 
choux poussent-ils aussi vite que les pommes de terre ? 

6. Vos pommes de terre sont-elles bonnes cette annde 1 

7. Sont-elles meilleures que Tannee derniere? 8. Sont-elles 
plus grosses ? 9. Est-ce qu'elles ont un meilleur gout ? 
10. Combien d'espfeces de carottes y a-t-il dans ce_ jardin? 
IL Aimez-vous mieux les carottes blanches que les carottes 
rouges? 12. Pourquoi? 13. Quelle est la reine des fleurs? 
14. De quelle couleur les tulipes sont-elles? 15. De quelle 
couleur le muguet est-il? 16. Est-il aussi blanc que la neige? 

48 LESSON XVII. [§§74-75 

17. Quelle est la fleur la plus cliarmante de votre jardin? 

18. Quels soiit vos nieilleurs legumes'? Etc., etc. 

I). I. 1 am going to see your garden. 2. Your garden is 
large and fine. 3. What have you planted on this side? 
4. Where are the flowers ? 5. I planted my potatoes in the 
month of April. 6. I am going to plant my cabbage this 
week. 7. The potato is a very useful plant. 8. It is perhaps 
the most useful of all the vegetables. 9. It is good for men 
and for animals. 10. Carrots are not so useful. 11. I like 
the red carrots better than the white. 12. They are better 
for soup. 13. The white ones are larger, but they are not so 
good. 14. Now let us go and see the flowers. 15. How 
beautiful those tulips are! 16. They are finer this year than 
last year. 17. The lily of the valley and the rose are not yet 
in flower. 18. Do you like roses better than tulips ? 1 1). Yes, 
but I like the lily of the valley better than all the other 
flowers. 20. It is smaller than the others, but more charming. 
21. I like your garden very much. 22. I am going to visit it 
often this summer. 


74. Agreement of Past Participle. 1. In a compound 
tense witli avoir t he past participle agrees in gender and 
number with a direct object which preceaes it : 

J*ai fini meH lemons. I have finished my lessons. 

Je les ai finies. I have finished them. 

Quels livrei a-t-il achet^s ? What Iwoks has lio bought ? 

N.B.~B<inembcr that the imrtidple does not ajrreo with en, e.g., 'Avezvous 
dM plniMtf Oui, j'en ai aohet^ hler.' 'Have you any pens? Yes, I bought some 

2. When uted as an adjective, the post participle agrees 
like an adjective : 
La plumo ochot^ hior. The pen bought yestcnlay. 

75, Some Relatives. 1. The relative pronouns of most 
common uim) arc qui an subjiMt, and que as direct object of a 

La daoM ^i chanta. The lady who HingH. 

Lee Uvree <|tli eont ioi. The Ux)kH which are hon;. 

qu* J*ai MheUee. 1'ho apploe that I have huught. 

§75] LESSON XVIT. 49 

2. The relative pronoun, often omitted iii English, is never 
omitted in French : 
Le pain que j'ai achet^ hier. The hread I bought yesterday. 


banane [banan], 1, banana. - 
car [kar], for. 

cher, --ere [|e:r, |e:r], dear, 
cuisiniere [knizinjeir], f., cook, 
diner [dine], m., dinner, 
douzaine [duzen], f., dozen, 
franc [fra], m., franc. 
laitue [lety], f., lettuce. ^ 
marche [marje], m., market, 
matin [mate], m., morning. 
oeillet [oeje], m., pink. ^^ 
oie [wa], f,, goose. ^ 

orner [orne], to decorate, adorn 
payer [peje], to pay, pay for. 
plusieurs [plyzjoeir], several, 
poulet [pule], m. , chicken, fowl, 
preparer [prepare], to prepare, 
quant k [kat a], as for, as to. C 
salade [salad], f. , salad. 
soir [swair], m., evening. 
sou [su], m., sou, cent. 
train [tre], m. , train, act of, etc. 
vingt [vs], twenty, 
volaille [vola:j], f., poultry. - 

etre en train de, to be in the act of, be busy (doing a thing). 
je les ai pay6s ving;t [ve] sous la douzaine, I paid twenty cents 
a dozen for them. 


A. Nous avons ^t^ au marche ce matin. Nous avons achet<5 
plusieurs choses pour ce soir: des legumes, des fleurs, des fruits 
et de la volaille. Nous allons avoir des amis a diner. Voici 
les legumes que nous avons achetes. II y a des pommes de terre, 
des carottes et de la laitue. Les carottes sont pour le potage, 
et la laitue est pour la salade. Voila, sur la table, les fleurs 
que nous avons achetees. II y a des roses et des ceillets. 
Nous les avons achetees pour orner la table. Quant a la 
volaille, nous avons achete un poulet et une oie. La volaille 
n'est j)as tres chere, car i l y en a beaucoup en cette saison. 
Nous avons paye le poulet vingt sous et I'oie trois francs. 
La cuisiniere est en train de les preparer. Pour le dessert 
nous avons achete des pommes et des bananes. Les bananes 
sont cheres. Nous les avons payees vingt sous la douzaine. 

B. Continue the following : 1. Voila les pommes que j'ai 
achetees, etc. 2. Quelles fleurs ai-je achetees au marche ?, etc. 

50 LESSON XVII. [§75 

3. J'ai vendu les pommes qu'on a achetees hier, etc. 4. Est-ce 
que j'ai ete au marche ce matin t, etc. 5. J'ai achete les livres 
qui sont sur la table, etc. 

Relate the story of Part A, using the first singular instead 
of the first plural. 

C (Oral.) 1. Avez-vous ^te au marche ce matin? 2. 

Qu'avez-vous achete? 3. Pourquoi avez-vous achete toutes 

ces choses ? 4. Combien d'amis allez-vous avoir a diner ? 5. 

Montrez-moi les legumes que vous avez achet^s. 6, Sont-ils 

tres chers en cet te saison? 7. Combien avez-vous pay^ les 

pommes de terre que vous avez achetees ? 8. Quels autres 

J legumes avez-vous achet^s ? 9. Oii sont-ils? 10. Quelle belle 

' oie! combien I'avez-vous paye'e? 11. Qu'est-ce que la cui- 

siniere fait maintenant 1 12. Oii sont les fleurs que vous avez 

V achetees? 13. Quelles espfeces de fleurs^ a-t-il la? 14. 

Qu'allons-nous faire de ces fleurs? 15. Les fleurs qu'on a 

achetees hier les avez-vous encore ? 16. Quels fruits allez-vous 

avoir pour le dessert? 17. Les bananes sont-elles plus chk-es 

que les pommes cette ann^e? 18. Combien avez-vous payd 

ces pommes ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. We are going to have some friends to dinner this 
evening. 2. I have bought some flowers to decorate the table. 
3. The cook has been at the market to buy meat and vege- 
tables. 4. Here are the things she brought. 5. What 
poultry did she buy? 6. Is poultry dear at this season? 
7. Here is a goose which she paid three francs for. 8. There 
are two chickens which she ])ought. 9. Cliickens are not so 
dear as geese; they are not so largo. 10. What pretty 
flowers! 11. Where did you buy them? 12. I bought them 
at the market this morning. 13. I bought some y(5sterday, 
but they are not so pretty. 14. My flowers are dearer. 15. I 
paid three francs a dozen for the roses. 16. I/ist year I 
bought rofes for twenty cents a dozen. 17. Fruit is dear 
this year. 18. How much did you pay for the bananas? 
19. 1 paid twenty cents a dozen for them. 20. We are going 
to have a good dinner. 21. The cook is busy preparing it 





76. Tenses with etre. 1. The verb ^tre + the past parti 
ciple forms the compound tenses of all reflexive verbs (§ 82) and 
of a few intransitive verbs, of which aller, * to go/ arriver, 
' to arrive,' and venir, * to come/ are of very frequent use. 

2. 'The past participle of a verb (not reflexive) conjugated 

with ^tre agrees with the subject, thus : 

I have arrived, etc. 

je suis arriv6(e) [arive]. nous sommes arriv6(e)s [arive]. 

tu es arriv6(e) [arive]. vous etes airive(e)s [arive]. 

il (elle) est arrive(e) [arive]. ils (elles) sont arriv6(e)s [arive]. 

admirablement [admirablama], 

admirer [admire], to admire, 
amuser [amyze], to amuse, 
celebre [sele:br], celebrated, 
chanter [jate], to sing, 
concert [koseir], m., concert. 
depuis que [dapqi ka], conj., since. 
dimanche [dimaij], m., Sunday. 

> Edifice [edifis], m. , edifice, building, 
emplette [aplet], f., purchase, 
entendre [ataidr], to hear. 

> hotel de ville [otel da vil], m., 

town -hall. 
hier soir [je:r swair], yesterday 

intention [eta sjo], f., intention. 
jour [3uir], m., day. 


lundi [Ic&di], m., Monday, 
magasin [magaze], m., shop, 
mener [mone], to lead, take. 
nuit [mii], f. , night. 
partout [partu], everywhere. 
pr^dicateur [predikatoeir], m., 

principal [prfsipal], principal.- 
prochain [proje], next.. 
public [pyblik], public. 
rencontre [rakoitr], f., meetings- 
sermon [sermo], m., sermon. 
songe [so 13], m., dream, 
theatre [tea: tr], m., theatre. 
tour [tu:r], m., circuit. 
tramway [tramwe], m., street-*: 

venu [vany], p.p. venir, to come. 

aller k la rencontre de, to go to meet, 
faire le tour de, to go around. ^ 


A. Nos parents de la campagne sont chez nous depuis qua- 
tre jours. Ils sont arrives lundi dernier par le chemin de fer. 
Nous sommes alles a la gare a leur rencontre. Depuis qu'ils 

52 LESSON XVllI. [§76 

sont ici nous les menons partout pour les amuser. Nous nion- 
tons daiis les tramways et faisons le tour de la ville. Nous 
entrons dans les grands magasins pour ffure des emplettes. 
Nous avons visite les principauic edifices publics. Nous avons 
admire les eglises et I'hotel de ville. Hier soir nous avons ete 
au theatre. On y a jou^ le " Songe d'une nuit d'ete " de 
Shakespeare. Nous I'avons admire beau coup. Nous avons 
4t4 aussi a un concert. On y a cliante admirablement. 
Dimanche prochain nous avons I'intention d'aller a I'eglise 
pour entendre un sermon par un des plus celebres predicateurs 
de la ville. 

B. Continue the following: 1. Je suis arrive hier, etc. 
2. Je (f.) suis venue ce matin, etc. 3. Est-ce que je ne suis 
pas all^ a la gare 1, etc. 4. Est-ce que je ne suis-je pas allee a 
la rencontre de mes amies % est-ce que tu n'est pas alk'e a la 
rencontre de tes amies?, etc. 5. Je fais le tour de la ville, etc. 

6. Je suis entr^ dans les magasins, etc. 7. Je n'ai pas et6 au 
theatre, etc. 8. J'ai I'intention d'aller k I'eglise, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui est chez vous? 2. Vos parents sont-ils 
toujours chez vous? 3. Depuis quand sont-ils chez vous? 
4. Quand est-ce qu'ils sont arriv^^s? 5. Votre tante est-elle 
venue ce matin 1 6. Qui est all^ k sa r encontre 1 7. L'avez- 
vous trouv^ k la gare ? 8. Que faites-vous pour amuser vos 
amis ? 9. Comment faites-vous le tour de la ville 1 10. Sont-ils 
entr^ dans les magasins? 11. Dans quels magasins sont-ils 
entr^? 12. Quels sont les plus grands Edifices de votre ville ? 
13. Votre tante a-t-elle admir<5 les t^glisesl 14. Oii est-elle 
allde hier soir? 15. Qu'est-ce qu'on va jouer au tlu'/ltre ce 
Hoir? IG. Aime-t-elle njieux allVr au concert qu'au thdiitro? 

17. A-t-olle I'intention de retourncr bicntOt k la cauijiagne? 

18. Vos panmts oill sont-ils alien dimanche dernier? lU. Oil 
avez-vous I'intention d'aller I'etti prochain? Etc., etc. 

/>. 1. My uncle and aunt are at our liouse. 2. They 
arrived this morning. 3. They came by the railway. 4. My 
titter went to meet them at the station. 5. Thoy camo from 
the ttation in a carnage. 6. They soon arrived at our house. 

7. To-day we took them into the city to amuse them. 8. First 
we went around the city in the street-cars. 9. 'I'hen my aunt 
went to one of the large shops to make purchases. 10. To- 
morrow we are going to visit the largest churches. 1 1. They 

§§77-78] LESSON XIX. 63 

admire very much the public buildings of the city. 12. "We 
are going to the concert this evening, perhaps. 13. We 
went to the theatre yesterday evening. 14. My aunt did 
not go iy) ; she does not like the theatre. 15.1 always go {y) 
when they play Shakespeare's " Midsummer Night's Dream." 
16. I admire it very much. 17. The churches of this city are 
very fine. 18. My aunt intends to go to church next Sunday 
to hear a sermon. 19. Next Monday my uncle and aunt 
return to the country. 20. They admire the city, but they 
like the country better. 


77. Pronoun Objects. 1. The personal pronoun has, for 
the indirect object of the third person, the following forms : 
lui [li{i], (to, for) him, (to, for) her. leur [Iceir], (to, for) them. 

2. Lui and leur precede the verb (§ 30), but follow le, la, 

Nous lui parlous. We speak to him (to her). 

Je doiine une rose k Marie. I am giving Mary a rose. 

Je la lui doniie. I give her it (it to her). 

Je donne mes livres aux enfants. \ give the children my books. 

Je les leur donne. I give them (to) them. 

78. Observe the following orthographical peculiarities : 

1. commencer, nous commen^ons — stem c [s] becomes ^ [s] before o of 
ending (cf. § 5, 4). 

2. manger, nous mangeons — stem g- [3] becomes ge [3] before o of 
ending (cf. § 19, 2). 

3. mener, je mene [men], tu menes, il mene, ils mfenent — stem e [a] 
becomes e [e] in most verbs when ending is e mute (cf. § 12, 1, n.). 


accompagptier [akopajie], to accom- 
article [artikl], m., article, 
avoir [avwair], to have, get. 
bonbon [bobri], m. , bonbon, candy. 
chapelier [Japolje], m., hatter. 

chaussures [Josyir], f. pi., boots, 

canfiseur [kofizoeir], m., confec- 

couru [kury], p.p. courir, to run 

54 LESSON XIX. [78 

demander [damade], to ask (for), 
dentelle [datelj, f., lace. 
dollar [dolair], m., dollar, 
examiner [egzamine], to examine, 
fatigue [fatige], tired, 
faux-col [fo kol], ra. , collar, 
a la fin [a la f?], at last, finallj'. 
manchette [ma Jet], f., cuff, 
raeme [me:m], same. 

k bon march^, cheap, magasin de nouveautes, dry-goods store, 
aller faire des emplettes, to go shopping. 

montrer [mStre], to show. 
mouchoir [mujwa:rj, m., handker- 
nouveaut^ [nuvote], f., novelty, 
paille [pa:j], f., straw, 
paire [pe:r], f., pair, 
prix [pri], m., price. 
Soulier [sulje], m., shoe, 
toilette [twalet], f., toilet. 


A. Que nous sommes fatigues ! Nous avons couru beaucoup 
aujourd'hui. J'ai accompagne mon cousin chez plusieurs mar- 
chands pour avoir des articles de toilette. D'abord nous 
sommes entr^s chez le chapelier. Mon cousin a demands un 
chapeau de paille. Le chapelier lui a montr^ un trfes joli 
chapeau a un dollar, que mon cousin a achet^. J'en ai achet^ 
un au.ssi au meme prix. Ensuite nous sommes alleys chez le 
marchand de chaussures ou nous avons examine plusieurs 
paires de souliers. Mais nous n'en avons pas achet^. Puis 
nous sommes entr^s dans un grand magasin de nouveauti^s., 
Mon cousin y a demand^ des faux-cols et des manchettes. On 
lui en a raontr^ h trfes l)on march^, et il en a achetd. Nous y 
avons achetd aussi des mouchoirs pour mon oncle et de la 
dentelle pour ma tante. A la fin nous sommes entr^s chez un 
Cf>nfi8cur ou nous avons achetu pour mes cousinesdes bonbons, 
c^ue nouH Icur avons doniii^s. 

B. CJontinue the following: 1. Qu'est-cequo jolui donnel, etc. 

2. Jo parle h, mes amis, jc leur parlo ; tu paries k tes amis, tu 
leur paries, etc. 3. Voici unir plume ; je la lui donne, etc. 
4. Voici des iKmlxms; je ne les leur donne pas, etc. f). Kst-ce 
que y'. ne mange pas lx*aucoup de bonbons?, (;tc. 6. Jo com- 
mence mes lc(;onH, etc. 7. Kst-cc que je nicne mon cousin chez 
lo confiwur?, est-ce quo tu menes ton cousin, etc. 

U4'lHNf part A, using *raa tant-<i' and 'ello' as subject, and 
changing *couMin' to *cou«in<*.* 

C. (Oral.) 1. Votro oncle est-il fatigue? 2. Pounfuoi ? 

3. Eft^w que voire frdro Ta occompagn^ partoutt 4. Oii 

§79] LESSON XX. 55 

sont-ils entrds d'abord ? 5. Qu'est-ce qu'on trouve chez le 
chapelier 1 6. Vofcre frere qu'a-t-il demande chez le chapelier ? 
7. Quels chapeaux le chapelier lui a-t-il montres 1 8. Qui les 
leur a montres? 9. Combien votre frere a-t-il paye le 
chapeau? 10. Oii sont-ils all es ensuite? 11. Qu'est-ce que le 
marchand de chaussures leur a montre? 12. Les souliers de 
ce marchand sont-ils chers ou a bou march^ ? 13. Votre oncle 
a-t-il achete les souliers que le marchand lui a montres'? 14. 
Votre tante et votre soeur qu'est-ce qu'elles ont achete dans le 
magasin de nouveautes? 15. Pour qui est la dentelle que 
votre tante a achet^e? 16. Est-ce qu'elle la lui a donnee'? 
17. Et pour qui sont les bonbons'? 18. Quand est-ce qu'elles 
vont les leur donner*? 19. Mangeons-nous des bonbons au 
dessert? 20. Ou est-ce qu'on achete les bonbons? Etc., etc. 
D. 1. We are going shopping again to-day. 2. My rela- 
tives are buying a great many things. 3. They always buy 
articles of dress when they are here. 4. I take them to all 
the large dry-goods stores. 5. They bought several articles 
yesterday. 6. First I went with my uncle to a hatter's. 
7. The hatter showed him several straw hats. 8. My uncle 
bought one at a dollar. 9. Afterwards I went with my 
cousin to buy shoes. 10. The shop-keeper showed him some. 
11. He bought two pairs. 12. Then the shop-keeper gave 
them to him, and he brought them home. 13. My aunt has 
been to a dry-goods store to buy handkerchiefs. 14. The 
shop-keeper showed her handkerchiefs at a dollar a dozen. 
15. She bought some of them for my uncle. 16. Finally my 
aunt and my cousin (f.) went to a confectioner's. 17. The 
confectioner showed them several kinds of bonbons. 18. Who 
paid for the bonbons? 19. My cousin paid for them. 20. 
They are for her little sister, and she is going to give them to 
her after dinner. 


79. Personal Pronoun Objects. The remaining forms 
serve both as direct and indirect object of verbs (for elision, 
see §19): 

me [ma], me, to (for) me. nous [nu], us, to (for) us. 

te [to], thee, to (for) thee. vous [vu], you, to (for) you. 

se [sa], himself, herself, itself, one's se [sa], themselves, to (for) them- 
self, to (for) himself, etc. selves. 




80. Pronominal Adverbs. They are used with verbs, 
and are equivalent to a preposition + a pronoun, standing 
usually for things : 

/ y = k (dans, but, etc.) + a pronoun, means ' to (at, on, in, into, etc.) 
it or them,' * there.' 

en = de + a pronoun, means ' of (from, etc. ) it or them,' ' some of it,' 
V* some oOhem,' 'some,' 'any,' 'thence,' 'from there.' 

81. Position. Personal pronoun objects and pronominal 
adverbs, coming before the verb, are arranged thus : 


before rie ' 







11 me donne les plumes. 

11 me les donne. 

11 les leur donne. 

II nous en donne. 

11 y en a. 

before J lui "^ before y 

before en. 

He gives me the pens. 
He gives them to me. 
He gives them to them. 
He gives us some of it. 
There is (are) some. 

The compound tenses of reflexive 
' flatter one's self,' are formed with 

Past Indefinite. 
I (have) flattered myself, etc. 

82. Reflexive Verb. 

verbs, e.g.j se flatter, to ' 

Present Indicative. 
I flatter myself, etc. 

jo me flatte [so mo flat], 

tu tc flatten [ty to flat]. tu t'es 

il (ellc) se flatto [11 ko flat]. il (ulle) s'est 

notui nous flaltouH [nu nu fliitl]. mouh uouh sommes 

votw vous flatt43Z [vu vu Wiiiv], vouH vouH fctes 

ils (oUeii) se flattont [U so flat]. ilH(oIIeH)Hu sont 

83. Agreement. Tho pant participh^ u;,'i'(>e.s with /i pre 
ceding n^flcxivt? object, uiiIpkh the c)bj<H;t Imi indinuit: 

VA\m m sont flatti'-es. 'I'hoy hav« flattered thomselvoH. 

Itiii : riN NO soot Uv^ IcM muiMM. Thoy liavo woHhe*! thoir haiulH. 





84. Observe the possessive force of the article, or of the 
article with an indirect object, when there is no ambiguity as 
to the possessor : 

Je vous donne la main. I give you my hand. 

L a bonn e leur lave les mains. The maid is washing their hands. 

They are washing their hands. 


lis se la vent les mains. 

apr^s [apre], after. 

armoire [armwair], f., cupboard, 

bonjour [bSsurr], m., good morn- 

brosse [bros], f . , brush. 

brosser [brose], to brush. 

chercher [Jerje], to seek, look for. 

cheveux [Jav^], m. pi., hair. 

dejeuner [desjzJne], m,, breakfast. 

dent [da], f., tooth. 

descendre [desaidr], to descend, 

go down (stairs). 
dire [di:r], to say, tell, 
dormir [dormiir], to sleep, 
figure [figyir], f., face, 
gilet [3ile], m., vest, waistcoat. 

tout de suite [tu da sqit], at once. 
k rinstant [a 1 esta], at once, in- 

habiller [abije], to dress. 

habit [abi], m. , coat. 

instant [esta], m., instant. 

laver [lave], to wash. 

main [me], f., hand. 

mere [me:r], f., mother. 

mettre [metr], to put, place. 

peigne [pe:ji], m., comb. 

pere [pe:r], m., father. 

pret [pre], ready. 

se lever [lave], to rise. 

se promener [promne], to go for a 

walk, drive, etc. 
savon [savo], m. , soap, 
serviette [servjet], f., towel, 
temps [ta], m,, time. 

donner la main a, to shake hands 


je suis leve, I am up. 


^ A. Comme nous avons bien dormi ! II est temps ^dese lever 
maintenant. Nous nous levons tout de suite, et nous faisons 
notre toilette. Je vais me laver les mains et la figure, mais 
ou sont I'eau et lesavon 1 — Les voici ; je vais vous les donner. — 
IVIaintenant, ou est la serviette 1 — La voici. — Je cherche main- 
tenant mes brosses et mon pei gne. — Les voila sur la table de 
toilette. — Je me brosse' les cheveux et les dents. Je vais 
mettre mon gilet et mon habit, mais ou sont-ils 1 — Les voici 
dans I'armoire, je vous les donne a I'instant. — Me voila pret. 
Etes-vous pret aussi 1 — Oui, me voila habille. — Nous descendons 

58 LESSON XX. [§84 

k la salle k raanger. Mon pfere et ma mere y sont deja. Kous 
allons leur dire le bonjour. Apres le dejeuner nous allons nous 

B. Continue the following: 1. Je me leve, etc. 2. Je me 
suis lave les mains, etc. 3. Voila du savon ; je lui en donne, 
etc. 4. Je leur en ai donne, etc. 5. Me voila pret, te voila 
pret, etc. 6. Me voila prete, te voila prete, etc. 7. Je des- 
cends a la salle a manger, etc. 8. Je me suis promen^ hier, tu 
t'es, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Avez-vous bien dormi ? 2. Est-il temps de se 
lever maintenant? 3. Allez-vous vous lever tout de suite? 4. 

/ Qui se lave les mains ? 5. Est-ce que Jean et Robert se sont 
lav^ les mains? 6. Allez-vous leur donner de I'eau et du 
savon 1 7. Qui en donne aux autres enfants ? 8. En donne- 
t-elle aussi a Marie ? 9. Qu'est-ce que vous cherchez ? 10. Qui 
est-ce qui va me donner la serviette et les brosses? 11. Oii est 
mongilet? 12. Qui vous a donn^ ce beau gilet? 13. Est-ce 
que les enfants sont habillds 1 14. Que font-ils ensuite? 15. 
Qui est dans la salle a manger ? 16. Les enfants donnent-ils 
la main k leur phrel 17. Est-ce que je lui donne la main 
aussi? 18. Les enfants que vont-ils faire apres le dt^jeunerl 
19. Ne sont-ils pas encore prets? 20. Ou est-ce que vous vous 
fites promenes hier? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. Have you slept well? 2. Ye^ and it is time to rise 
now. 3. I rise, you rise, we rise, we are up. 4. Now I 
make ray toilet. 5. I am washing my hands and my face. 
6. You have already washed your hands and your face. 7. I 
give you your comb and brushes. 8. 1 give you them. 9. 
You are bruslnng your hair. 10. I brush my teeth. 11. 
Have you brushed your teeth yet? 12. You need your vest 
and coat now. 13. Why do you not give me them? 14. 
There they are in the clothes-press. 1ft. 1 am going to give 
you them at once. 1 0. We are ready now, and we are going 
down Rtaira. 17. Wo shako hands with our father and mother. 
18. They shake hands with us. 19. We shnkv. hands with 
each other. 20. Thev are going for »i walk in the garden 
after breakfast. 21. We are going for a walk there too. 




85. Imperfect Indicative of donner, flnir, vend re. 

I was giving, etc. 
donn ais [done]. 

donn ais 
donn ait 
donn ions 
donn iez 


donn aient [done]. 

I was finishing, etc. 
finiss ais [finise]. 
finiss ais [finise]. 
finiss ait [finise]. 
finiss ions [finisjo]. 
finiss iez [finisje]. 
finiss aient [finise]. 

I was selling, etc. 
vend ais [vade], 
vend ais 
vend ait 
vend ions 
vend iez 


vend aient [vade]. 

We often used to speak of that. 

My uncle was very old. 

He would often walk to town. 

86. Imperfect Indicative of auoi'r, Stre. 

I had, used to have, etc. I was, used to be, etc. 

av ais [ave]. av ions [avj3]. ^t ais [ete]. et ions [etjo]. 

av ais [ave]. av iez [avje]. 6t ais [ete]. et iez [etje]. 

av ait [ave]. av aient [ave]. ^t ait [ete]. et aient [ete]. 

To form the Pluperfect tense, add a past participle, see § 63. 

87. Use of Imperfect. 1. It denotes wliat used to hap- 
pen or continued to happen : 

Nous parlions souvent de cela. 

Mon oncle etait tr^s vieux. 

II allait souvent k pied k la ville. 

2. It denotes what was happening when something else 
happened or was happening : 

On chantait quand je suis arriv^. They were singing when I arrived. 
II parlait pendant que nous chan- He was speaking while we sang 
tions. (were singing). 

88. Imperfect of f aire (irreg.). 

I was doing, etc. 
je fais ais [38 faze]. nous fais ions [nu fozj5]. 

tu fais ais [ty faze]. vous fais iez [vu fozje], 

il fais ait [il faze]. ils fais aient [il faze]. 

89. For imperfect of commencer, manger, cf. § 78 : 

je commen^is [3a komase], etc. je mangeais [mase], etc. 

60 LESSON XXI. [§89 


[The vocabularies for this and the remaining exercises will be found 
at the end of the volume. ] 

A. Nous avons ete a I'^glise ce matin. Qiiand nous sommes 
arrives on chantait deja le premier cantique. II y avait 
beaucoup de monde, et nous avons trouve un banc avec difR- 
cult(^. Le pasteur a In (read) un cha^jjitre das proverbes. Tout le 
monde ^coutait attentivement pen^^ant la lecture du chapitre. 
Ensuite le pasteur a prie Dieu, et on a chante des versets 
d'un autre cantique. AjpVes ceta le pasteur a choisi comme 
texte un verset du " Sermon sur la montagne." Ce texte est 
comme voici : "Tout arbre qui est bon porte de bons fruits; 
mais un mauvais arl^re Porte de mauvais fruits." Le pasteur 
I'a expliqu^, et en a tire de bonnes le9ons. 11 a compare 
les homraes avec les arbres. Le merite des hommes consiste 
dans leurs bonnes actions, comme le merite des arbres dnns 
leurs bons fruits. Ce sermon a ett? un encouragement a faire 
le bien. Le sermon fini, on ^ fait la quete, on a chants encore 
et le pasteur a donn^ la benediction. 

B. Continue the following: 1. Je chantais le premier 
cantique, etc. 2. J'avais deja chantd le premier cantique, etc. 

3. Le pasteur priait Dieu quand je suis arrivd, le pasteur, etc., 
quiind tu, etc. 4. Je comparais les hommes avec les arbres, 
etc. f). Est-ce (jue je fuisais la quete ?, etc. 6. Est-ce que 
je ne fmi.ssais pas nies le9ons?, est-ce (|ue tu, . . tes lemons?, etc. 
7. A qui est-ce que je vendais mes ponimes?, i\ qui est-co que 
tu...te.s pominos?, etc. 8. Y avait-il beaucoup do plumes 
dans ma boite ?, dans ta boite, etc. 

C. (Oral.) \. Oil avez-vous ^ ^t^ ce matin? 2. Y avait-il 
beaucoup de monde ? 3. Que fafsail-on^quand vous fites entrds? 

4. Qu'est-ce que le pasteur a fait apri'^s cehi? 5. Est-ce cjue 
nous ^coutions pendant la lecture du chapitre? 6. Votre 
tante ^coutaitelle att<»ntivemont aussi ? 7. Tout le monde 
^ooutait-il atU^ntivement? 8. Qu'est-ct* (ju'on faisait pen(hint 
que le paitteur priait Dieu? 9. Kt api-^a cehi (ju'est-co (juo le 
pMteurafait? 10. Quel <<tait le text.o <pril a 11. Le 
sermon dtait-il int^reHsnnt? 12. Qui a e.xplicpn'r lo texte? L3. 
Quelii fruite lea bona arbreH (M>rtcntilH? 14. Kt les mauvais 
arbree quels fruits porU^nt-ik ? 16. Qu'tist co qu'on a fait 
aprte le eenxiont 16. Est-ce qu'on chantait pendant qu'on 

§90-91] LESSON XXII. 61 

faisait la qu§te ] 17. Qui a donne la benediction? 18. Que 
faisait-on quand vous etes arrive chez vous? 19. Alliez-vous 
souvent h I'eglise quand vous etiez h la campagne f 20. Votre 
vieil oncle allait-il a I'eglise tous les dimanches? Etc., etc. 

/). 1. I often used to go to church when I was in the 
country. 2. My relatives used to go (?/) every Sunday. 3. My 
old uncle used to go (y) in his carriage. 4. I went to church last 
Sunday. 5. While I was at church my brother was taking a 
walk on the mountain, 6. There were a great many people 
in the little church. 7. There were people everywhere, in the 
seats and at the door. 8. I met one of my cousins at the 
door. 9. When we went in the pastor was finishing the 
reading of the chapter. 10. They (on) had already sung and 
prayed. 1 1 . Then they sang two verses of another hymn, and 
the pastor began the sermon. 12. What was the text? 13. 
The text was a verse from the "Sermon on the mount." 14. 
While the pastor was speaking, everybody listened attentively. 
15. He finished the sermon, and then the collection was taken 
up. 16. While they were taking up the collection, the pastor 
read some verses. 17. We sang again, and after the last 
hymn the pastor pronounced the benediction. 18. As I was 
going home I met my brother. 19. We were hungry when 
we arrived at the house. 20. My uncle had already arrived, 
and we had a good dinner. 


90. Future Indicative of donner, flnir, uendre. 

I shall give, etc. I shall finish, etc. I shall sell, etc. 

donner ai [donere]. finir ai [finire]. vendr ai [vadre]. 

donner as [donara]. finir as [finiral. vendr as [vadral. 

donner a [donara]. finir a [finira]. vendr a [vadra]. 

donner ons [dcnoi-o]. finir ons [finirol. vendr ons [vadro]. 

donner ez [donore]. finir ez [finire]. vendr ez [vadre]. 

donner ont [donaro]. finir ont [finiroj. vendr ont [vadro]. 

91. Future Indicative of auoi'r, etre. 

I shall have, etc. I shall be, etc. 

aur ai [ore], aur ons [oro]. ser ai [sare]. ser ons [saro]. 

aur as [ora]. aur ez [ore]. ser as [sora]. ser ez [sore], 

aur a [ora]. aur ont [oro]. ser a [sara]. ser ont [soro]. 

62 LESSON XXTT. [§§92-94 

92. Future Indicative of a f/er (irreg.), and f aire (irreg.). 

I shall go, etc. I shall do, etc. 

ir ai [ire], ir ons [iro]. fer ai [fore], fer ons [faro], 

ir as [ira]. ir ez [ire]. fer as [fara]. fer ez [fare]. 

ir a [ira]. ir ont [iro]. fer a [fara]. fer ont [faro]. 

93. For the future of lever and acheter, cf. § 78, 3 : 
je liverai [Icvare], etc. j'achfeterai [ajetare], etc. 

94. Use of Future. It is used in general as in English, 
but observe its use in a subordinate sentence, when futurity 
is implied : 

Je lui parlerai quand 11 arrivera. I shall speak to him ^^'hen he comes. 


A. II est d^j^ tard. IMaintenant nous allons nous coucher^ 
Nous avons arrangd nos plans pour de^nainT' Nous nous l^ve- 
rons de boniie heure. Le dejeuner sefa pret^jmn^^ufr|&Qps 
leverotis, et lious sortirons bieiit6t api-fes. ^JflBWBHRWwips, 
nous irons k pied, niais s'il fait mauvais temps, nous prendrons 
le tramway. Nous passerons d'abord chez la modiste. Si nos 
chapeaux ne sont pas prfets, nous attendrons un peu. ' ]VIais ils 
seront prfits, parce que je les ai vus hier, et^ls dtaieht bien 
avanc^s. Avant midi nous .serons chez la cou£uri^ro pour 
€«8ayer nos robes. Nous y Vesterons probablement une ,he,ure. 
Aldrs nous irons prendre une glace au caf^. Eiisuite nous 
entrerons dans un magaHiude nouyeaut(f>i^. pour acheter de la 
dentelle et des rubans. Puis nous monterons encore (hui^ le 
tramway, et nous serons de retour de bonne heure dans iVipr^s- 
midi^ parce que nous ai£cn(}bhH des amies. Si nous ne sonimes 

rtl^ fatigu^es, nous irons lo soir au tlit^fttre bu au concert. 
nous nous amu^aB bien, uous ne serons pas chez nous 
avant minuit. V'^ 

B. Continue the following: 1. Je vnis me coucher, etc. 
2. Je mo l^verai de lionnu heuro demain, etc. 3. Kst-ce que 
je sortirai aprte le ddjeuner?, etc. 4. Est-co quo J'ach^jtt^rai 
detrabanil^ etc. 6. J'attondrai au cafd, etc. 6. Kst-ce que 
je ne tend pat de retour do bonne heure ?| etc. 7. 8i je suis 

§95] LESSON XXIII. 63 

fatiguee, je ne sortirai pas, si tu, etc. 8. S'il fait beau temps 
demain, j'irai en ville, etc. j ■ 

G. (Oral.) 1. Pour quand arrangez-vous vos plans? 2. Sor- 
tirez-vous demain s'il fait beau temps ? 3. Que ferez-vous s'il 
fait mauvais temps 1 4. Vous leverez-vous de Iwnne heurel 
5. Le dejeuner sera-t-il pret? 6. Qu'est-ce que vous ferez 
apres le dejeuner ? 7. Irez-vous a pied ou dans le tramway 1 
8. Qui* va vous accompagner 1 9. Ou irez-vous d'abord ? 
10. Votre~'soeur ira-t-elle aussi chez la modiste? 11. Qu'est- 
ce que vous ferez si votre chapeau n'est pas pret 1 12. Nous 
attendrez-vous chez la modiste ou au cafd? 13. Pourquoi allez- 
vous chez la couturifere? 14. Quand y serez- vous ? 15. Irez- 
vous au cafe ensuite? 16, Qu'est-ce que vous acheterez au 
magasin de nouveautes? 17. Quand serez-vous de retour? 
18. Vos amies seront-elles chez vous? 19. Ou allez-vous le 
soir? 20. Quand serez-vous de retour? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. After (the) dinner I shall arrange my plans for to- 
morrow. 2. Then I shall go to bed. 3. To-morrow I shall 
rise early. 4. After (the) breakfast I shall go out if it is fine. 
5. My sister will go out too. 6. We shall take the street-cars 
if it is not tine. 7. First I shall go to the milliner's. 8. I 
shall wait for my sister there. 9. Our hats will probably be 
ready. 10. They were well advanced yesterday. 11. After 
that we shall go to the dressmaker's. 12. We shall remain 
an hour there to try on our dresses. 13. If we have (the) 
time we shall probably go to the caf^. 14. What shall you 
do next? 15. I shall go to the dry-goods store to buy some 
ribbons. 16. My sister will return home. 17. Some friends 
will be waiting for her there. 18. I shall go to the concert 
in the evening with my brother if I am not too tired. 19. My 
sister will stay at home with my mother. 20. They will 
expect us before midnight. 


95. Disjunctive Personal Pronouns. The personal 
pronouns already given are used as subject or object with 
the verb, and are hence called * conjunctive.' The following 
forms, not being immediately connected with a verb, are 
called * disjunctive ' : 

64 LESSON XXIII. [§§96-97 

moi [rawa], I, me. nous [nu], we, us. 

toi [twa], thou, thee, you. vous [vu], you. 

lui [hii], he, him. eux [0], they (m.), them (m.). 

elle [el], she, her. elles [el], they (f.), them (f.). 

96. The following are some of their uses : — 

1. Absolutely,- a verb being implied, but not expressed : 
Qui est la? — Moi (eux, elles). Who is there? — I (they). 

2. After a preposition : 

Pour elles ; avec moi ; sans eux. For them ; with me ; witliout them. 

3. As logical subject after ce -f- ^tre I 

C'est moi, e'est toi. It is I, it is thou (you). 

Cest lui, c'est elle. It is he, it is she. 

C'est nous, c'est vous. It is we, it is you. 

Ce sent eux, ce sont elles. It is they (ra. ), it is they (f. ). 

97, Hitherto in the exercises 11 (s), elle(s), standing before 
a verb as subject, have been used for *he,' 'she,' *it,' 'they' 
(§ 40). When the logical subject follows the verb ^tre, ' he,' 
*8he,' *it>* *they* = ce, as representative subject, in cases like 
the following : 

C'est Marie et sa ra^re. It is Mary and her mother. 

C'est nous, ce sont eux. It is we, it is they. 

C'est un homme c^l($bre. Ho is a celebrated man. 

Cent una jolie dame. She is a pretty lady. 

Ce sont des amis do Jean. They are friends of John. 

Ce Mont mes roeilleures amies. They are my best friends. 

C'est aujourd'hui lundi. It is Monday to-day (to-day is, otc.)^ 

Coftt h DOUH (ju'il parle. It is to uh that lie is speaking. 

C*ett ici qu'il demeure. It is liere that hu lives (he lives h^r/q). 


Nora.— B«for« doing thin exerolM) learn tliv prvMciit iiKlicatixc nf wiir, ' to uee,' §124, 
•ad its pMt |wtioipl« pu, ' M«n.' 

A. NouK irons en vlllo i pied co matin, n'est-ce pas? — Ob 
oiii, iT fait Ijeaii, et jtiouH catj4eroni^ en route. Qui est ce 
ibonHicur <|ui tjHt l^k^lkui'^de I'^u^ro c/^te de la nie? -C'est un de 
no* ancienM vo)kiiim! II demeure a prc'^Hent dans une autre 

§97] LESSON XXIII. 66 

rue. — Voilk un autre monsieur qui attend le tramway ; c'est 
vQtre professeur de fran9ais, n'est-ce pas'? — Qui, c'est lui. II 
'^^fu^'donner probablement une le9on. — Voila maintenant le 
tramway qui passe. Avez-vous vii ces deux messieurs qui 
nous ontsalues"? — Oui, je les ai vus. Ce sont les messieurs 
que nous avons rencontres Fautre soir. — Voyez-vous cette dame 
qui monte en voiture? C'est I'amie de votre mere, n'est-ce 
pas'? — Non, ce n'est pas elle. L'amie de ma mere est plus 
grande. — Qui est ce monsieur qui approche ? II va nous parler, 
n'est-ce pas '? — Non, ce n'est pas a nous qu'il va parler, mais a 
ce monsieur qui est derriere nous, — Voila encore un autre 
monsieur qui vous salue. — Ce n'est pas moi qu'il salue, c'est 
vous. — Mais non, c'est bien vous. II m'est inconnu. C'est la 
p^:'emiere fois que je le vois. — Nous voici arrives maintenant. 
C'est ici que vous alliez entrer pour acheter vos gants. 

B. Continue the following: 1. Je vais donner une le9on, 
n'est-ce pas ?, etc. 2. C'est ici que je demeure, etc. 3. C'est 
moi qui vais en ville, c'est toi qui vas en ville, etc. 4. J'irai a 
pied, etc. 5. Je vois un monsieur qui monte en voiture, tu 
vois, etc. 6. Ce n'est pas moi qu'il a salue, ce n'est pas toi, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Oil est-ce que vous allez ce matin ? 2. Allez- 
vous k pied ou en voiture ? 3. Qu'est-ce que nou^ ferons en 
route pour nous amuser? ^. Qui est ce vieiix monsieur 
la-bas? 5. Ou est-ce qu'il demMre a present *? 6. Voila un 
monsieur qui attend le tramway ; qui est-ce % 7. Voy^z-vous 
ces messieurs qui nous satuent ? 8. Ce sont des amis de votre 
pere, n'est-ce pas 1 9. Qui est cette dame qui se promene en 
voiture'? 10. Quand est-ce que je I'aivue? 11. Est-ce bien 
elle? 12. Ce monsieur qui approche est votre voisin, n'est-ce 
pas'? 13. Est-ce moi qu'il a salue ^ 14. Qui est-ce que vous 
avez salue devant I'hdtel de ville? 15. Est-ce un de vos 
anciens amis? 16. Est-ce ici que vous allez acheter vos gants? 
17. N'est-ce pas dans cet autre magasin la-bns? 18. Est-ce 
la premiere fois que vous allez a ce magasin ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. We are going down town on foot. 2. We are 
chatting on the way. 3. We see a gentleman on the other 
side of the street. 4. He is one of my old neiglibours. 5. He 
lived on the other side of the street, 6, He is your old 
French teacher, is he not? 7. JNo, he is an old merchant. 


66 LESSON XXIV. [§98 

8. A carriage passes next. 9. Who are those two gentlemen 
in the carriage who bowed to us ? 10. They are the gentlemen 
we met yesterday evening. 11. Was it I that they bowed to"? 
12. Who bowed to them, you or I ? 13. I see a lady (who 
is) waiting for the street-cars. 14. She is a friend of your 
family, is she not 1 15. She is a friend of my mother. 16. Do 
you see that gentleman who is approaching? 17. Yes, who 
is it? 18. He is a celebrated general who lives in this city. 
19. Is it here that you buy your gloves] 20. No, it is in 
that large shop over yonder. 


98. Impersonal Verbs. They are conjugated in the 
third person singular only, with the subject il = ' it,' used 
indefinitely and absolutely. Among such are verbs describing 
natural phenomena, as in English : 

Quel temps fait-il ? What kind of weather is it ? 

II fait beau temps. It is fine (weather). 

II pleut, il pleuvait. It is raining, it was raining. 

II a plu, il pleuvra. It has rained, it will rain. 

II neigc, il a ncigd. It is snowing, it has snowed. 

II fait chaud, il fait du vent. f\ It is hofc JtisAvindy. 

ae toJJi-cQjLQ. iJiaXnJX =2a- A/a. Xidl^JD^l/^ 

A. C'est marcii dernier ^uenous avons eu notre pique-ni(}ue . 
Nous nous sommes lev^s presque au Jever du soloil. La pre- 
mi^re question a »^t^ : 4"^L|Jg"iP''' ^^y3'-p-^^ ? ^^ temps titait 
couvert, et il faisatf'tres louro ^ II y avait de^g^^cos nuages k 
I'ouest, et !e tijimorre ^roiKJait dc^j^. II a fai^ dcs ecIait^H , ot 
apres un grand coiip de tonnerro la plufe u comuKincITjl a 
plu [>cn(liiut uno houro. Eiisuito le solcil s'cist moiitre, et un 
Don vent a chtiWKc le«^ nuages. 15iont6t il a fait trcs beau, et 
nous Homroes partifl, Lo pique-ni(|uea eu lieu daiis Ioh bois au 
bord du lac. Nous avions I'lnt-ention de nous i)n)moner en 
bateau, mais il faisait du vent, «t il y avait den vagu(«H. O'est 
pourquoi nous ne sommes pas all^s sur Teau. II a fait chaud, 
mais nous ^tions k Tombre, et un vtmt frai.s nous arrivait <lu 
lao. Vers midt nous avons mange notre go titer. Dans I'apr^s- 

§98] LESSON XXIV. 67 

midi nous avons jou^ et chante. Avant le coucher du soleil 
nous sommes arrives chez nous. 

B, Commit to memory : , ^ 

La semaine au lundi commence, 

Et i6ardi Fouvrage avance, 

Ensuite vient le mercredi, 

Le jeiidi,' puis le vendredi ; 

Le saraedi comble nos voeux, 

Et le dimanche nous prions Dieu. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Aimez-vous les pique-niques? 2. Quand avez; 
vous eu votre pique-nique cette annee? 3. Qu'est-ce qu'on' 
deniande quand on va partir ? 4. Quel temps faisait-il quand 
vous vous etes lev^s? 5. Est-ce qu'il a fait des eclairs? 6. 
Est-ce qu'il a plu ? 7. Quand la pluie a-t-elle commence % 8. 
Pendant combien de temps est-ce qu'il a plu? 9. Quel temps 
faisait-il quand vous^ etes partis? 10. Ou votre pique-nique 
a-t-il eu lieu? 11. Etes-vous alles sur I'eau? 12. Pourquoi 
pas? 13. Y avait-il de grosses vagues ? 14. Quand avez-vous 
mang^ votre gouter? 15. Vous etes-vous bien amuses? 16. 
Etes-vous arrives tres tard chez vous? 17. Quand etes-vous 
arrives? 18. Quel jour est-ce aujourd'hui? 19. Etdemain? 
20. Et apres-demain ? 21. Quels sont les autres jours de la 
semaine? Etc., etc. 

Z>. 1. I like picnics. 2. I always enjoy myself at picnics. 

3. If the weather is fine, we shall have a picnic to-morrow. 

4. What kind of weather is it now? 5. It is raining. 6. 
There will be no rain to-morrow. 7. The sun is showing itself 
already. 8. This afternoon it rained for (pendant) two hours. 
9. Where will your picnic take place? 10. It will take place 
in the woods, at the lake shore. 11. We had a picnic there 
last summer too. 12. If it is not windy, we shall go for a 
row. 13. Last summer we did not go upon the water. 14. 
The waves were too large. 1 5. Shall you eat your lunch before 
noon? 16. What shall you do in the afternoon ? 17. We shall 
sing and play. 18. When shall you reach home? 19. We 
shall set out before sunset, and we shall reach home early. 
20. The days of the week are : Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, 
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday. 

68 LESSOX XXV. [§99 

lesso:n^ xxy. 

99. The Infinitive. Some of the commoner uses of the 
infinitive are : — 

1. Without cany preposition, after such verbs as vouloir, 
' will,' pouvoir, 'can, may,' d^sirer, 'wish, desire,' savoir, 
*know how to,' devoir, ' ought,' falloir, 'be necessary,' aller, 
*go'; after verbs of perceiving, such as voir, 'see,' ^COUter, 
* hear,' regarder, ' look at' ; also after faire, ' make, cause to,' 

laisser, ' let ' : 

Desire-t-il aller en villa ? Does he wish to go down town ? 

H lui faut travailler. He must work. 

Je vais chercher des plumes. I am going to get some pens. 

Je vois venir des soldats. I see some soldiers coming. 

Je fais sonner la cloche. I make the bell ring. 

2. Preceded by de, after ^tre impersonally + an adjective; 
after many verbs like cesser, 'cease,' regretter, 'regret,' 
prier, 'beg'; after nouns to form adjective phrases; and after 
most adjectives : 

n est facile de parler. It is easy to talk. 

n a cessd de chanter. He has ceased singing. 

Le crime de voler. The crime of stealing. 

V0U8 etcs libre de partir. You are free to go. 

3. Preceded by k, after verbs like rdussir, 'succeed,' aimer, 
' likt;,' enseigner, * teach,' etc.; and after some adjectives : 
J'aimo k patiner. I like to skate (like skating). 

Je m'amuHc k i>atiner. I amuse myself (l)y) skating. 

CeU est facile k faire. That is easy to do. 

4. Observe that the same adjective may take k <>r de, 
according to the construction in which it is used : 

n est facile k oontenter. Hu ii* easy to satisfy. 

n est fadle 4e le contentor. It is uaHy to satisfy him. 

Cest facile k faim. Tlmt (ur it) is eany l< > d. .. 

b. A verb governed by a preposition must b(! in ihr iiiHiji 
tive, except after en (cf. § 10 1 ) : 
Je I'ai £ait sans |>enMvr. 1 did it without thinking. 

§§100-103] LESSON XXV. 69 

100. Present Participle of donner, finir, uendre, etc. 

Giving. Finishing. Selling. 

donn ant [dona]. finiss ant [finisa]. vend ant [vada]. 

Having. Being. 

ay ant [eja]. ^t ant [eta]. 

101. Agreement. Used as an adjective, the present parti- 
ciple agrees like an adjective ; otherwise it is invariable : 

Une sc^ne charmante. A charming scene. 

Elle tombait souvent en marchant. She often fell while walking. 

102. Present Indicative of pouuolr, *be able,' *can,' 

'may' (irreg.). 

I can, am able, etc. 

je puis or peux [3a pi{i> P0]- nous pouvons [nu puvo]. 

tu peux [ty p0]. vous pouvez [vu puve]. 

11 peut [il P0]' ils peuvent [il poeiv]. 

103. Observe the use of the impersonal il faut + infinitive : 
II lui faut partir. He must (it is necessary for him to) go. 
II me faudra travailler. I shall have to work. 

II ne faut pas voler. We (one) must not steaL 


A. Bonjour mon ami ; je suis charme de vous voir. Com- 
ment vous portez-vous ? — Je me porte trfes bien, merci. — Comme 
j'aime a me promener le matin ! II a gele cette nuit, mais . 
maintenant le soleil brille et il fait presque chaud. Malgi'e^lfe *" : 
froid tout est gai. — II ny'a pas de fleurs, mais il y a de petits 
oiseaux qui n'ont pas eiicore cesse de chaniber. En passant j'ai 
regarde le petit lac, et j'ai vu qu'il y avait de la glace. Nous 
pouvbns pa'tiner bientot. — Aimez-vous a patiner? — Oui, j'aime 
beaucoup a patiner. Nous avons beaucoup d 'amusements en 
hiver, n'est-ce pas? — Oh oui, il est tres facile de s'amuser e^i 
hiver quand on se porte bien. — Aimez-vous a vous promener] 
en traineau? C'est tres amusant, n'est-ce pas? — C'est surtbut ' "^' 
le soir que j'aime une promenade en traineau. C'est si joli 
quand il fait clair de luhe. La neige est blanche, tout le monde 
est gai, et les chevaux font sonner leurs grelots.— Et si on ne 

70 LESSON XXV. [§103 

desire pas sortir, on peul s'amuser a la maison. Vons aimez la 
lecture, n'est-ce pas? — J'aime beaucoup a lire. Hier j'ai com- 
mence un roman de Daudet. Quelquefois nous invitons nos 
amis a passer la soiree chez nous. Nous aimons a chanter et a 
danser. II est facile de passer le temps quand on a des amis. 

B. Continue the following : 1 . Je ne peux pas partir ce 
matin, etc. 2. II me faut partir ce soir, il te faut, etc. 

3. Est-ce que je ne me porte pas bien"?, etc. 4. Est-ce que 
j'aime a patiner?, etc. 5. Je ne cesse pas de chanter, etc. 
6. Je vois une scene charmante, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Comment vous portez-vous ce matin? 2. 
Avez-vous bien dormi? 3. Est-ce qu'il a gel^ cette nuit? 

4. En quelle saison les oiseaux cessent-ils de chanter? 

5. Quand est-ce qu'ils commencent k chanter? 6. Est-ce 
qu'il y a deja de bonne glace sur le lac ? 7. Peut-on y patiner 
ce soir ? 8. Aimez-vous a patiner ? 9. Qu'est-ce que vous 
faites en hiver pour vous amuser? 10. Est-il facile de 
s'amuser en hiver? 11. Pouvez-vous vous promener en 
traineau ce soir? 12. Ne desirez-vous pas sortir ce soir? 
13. Qu'avez-vous I'intention de faire? i-I4. Allez-vous passer 
toute la soirde chez vous? 15. Faut^il avoir des amis pour 

^Is^rauser ? 16. Aimez-vous a passer la soirt^e k lire ? 17. Quand 
avez-vous commence k lire ces romans? 18. Ce sont des 
romans channants, n'est-ce pas? 19. Vous faut-il rester a la 
maison ce soir ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. Good morning ; T am charmed to see you. 2. The 
weather is very fine for the season, is it not? 3. Did you look 
at the ice on the lake in passing ? 4. Yes, the ice is good, 
and we can soon skate. 5. Do you like to skate ? 6. Yes, 
but I cannot go skating this evening. 7. I must stay at 
home. 8. You can amuse yourself reading. 9. I like to pass 
the evening at homo sometimes. 10. It is easy to find 
amusementH. 11. Wo oft<'n invite friends to pass tlio evening 
with un. 12. Wo have begun to read a novel together. 
13. It is clianning t^) go for a sleiglj-ride sometimes. 1-1. The 
white snow and the nuMinlight make a charming scene. 
15. It is so charming to hear the sleigh-lM'llK ring. 10. We 
must go for a sletgh-rido tomorrow. 17. I sliall go if I can. 
18. We shall go t<X). 19. Wo must have some friends witli us. 
20. To enjoy one's self one must have friends. 

§§104-106] LESSON XXVI. 71 


104. Present Subjunctive of donner, flnir, uendre. 

1 (may) give, etc. I (may) finish, etc. I (may) sell, etc. 

donn e [don]. finiss e [finis]. vend e [va:d]. 

donn es [don]. finiss es [finis]. vend es [va:d]. 

donn e [don]. finiss e [finis]. vend e [va:d]. 

donn ions [donjo]. finiss ions [finisjo]. vend ions [vadjo]. 

donn iez [donje]. finiss iez [finisje]. vend iez [vadje]. 

donn ent [don]. finiss ent [finis]. vend ent [va:d]. 

N.B. — The paradigm meanings 'I may give,' etc., are only approxi- 
mate, as will be seen from the examples below. 

105. Present Subjunctive of avoir, etre. 

1 (may) have, etc. I (may) be, etc. 

aie [e]. ayons [ejo]. sois [swa]. soyons [swajo]. 

aies [e]. ayez [eje]. sois [swa]. soyez [swaje]. 

ait [e]. aient [e]. soit [swa]. soient [swa]. 

106. Use of the Subjunctive. Some of the commoner 
uses of the subjunctive are: — 

1. In a subordinate noun clause introduced by que, 'that,' 
after expressions of willing or desiring : 

Je desire que vous restiez. I desire you to remain ( = that you 

may or should remain). 

2. Similarly, after expressions oijoy or sorrow : 
Je suis content qu'il soit ici. I am glad he is here. 

3. So also after expressions of necessity, like 11 faut : 

II faut que vous restiez. You must remain. 

II est necessaire que vous restiez. It is necessary for you to remain. 

4. It is used in adverbial clauses after certain conjunctions, 
e.g., afin que, 'in order that,' pour que, 'in order that,' 
avant que, 'before,' bien que, 'although,' quoique, 
* although,' etc. 

Bien qu'il soit pauvre il est heureux. Although he is poor he is happy. 

5. Que is never omitted, as ' that ' often is in English : 
Je suis content qu'il soit ici. I am glad (that) he is here. 

72 LESSON XXVI. [§§107-109 

107. Tense Sequence. Present or Future is regularly 
followed by Present Subjunctive : 

^^"^^ II ^^^^ ( que vous parliez. \ ^^^ "^"^^ ^P^^^' 

FuT. II faudra ) ( You will have to speak. 

108. Present Indicative of uou/oir, 'will/ 'wish,' etc. 

I will, wish, etc. 

je veux [36 v0]. nous voulons [nu vulo]. 

tu veux [ty v0], vous voulez [vu vule]. 

ii veut [il v0]. ils veulent [il voel]. 

109. Present Subj unctive of faire (irreg. ). 

I (may) do, etc. 
fasse [fas]. fassions [fasjo]. 

fasses [fas]. fassiez [fasje]. 

fasse [fas]. fassent [fas]. 


A. On frappe k la porte. Je vais voir qui c'est. C'est une 
de mes amies. Elle entre. Nous causons ensemble. — Qu'allez- 
VOU8 faire aujourd'hui? — Ma robe n'est pas encore prete. II 
faut que je sois cliez la couturifere avant niidi. Apres cela je 
vais porter des fleurs k une amie qui est un pen souffrante, et 
je desire que vous m'accompagnicz, si vous pouvez. C'est assez 
loin, mais nous n'irons pas a pied. Je serai, si contente que 
vous soyez avec moi. II faut que vous fassiez connaissance 
avec raon amie; ello est si charmante. — Je regretto do ne 
pouvoir pas vous accompagner ce matin ; j'ai mal aux dents 
depuis bier.^ I! y en a (leux qui me font souffrir.~Que je 
regrette qiie vous ayesll^Glitt^^eniTu^l"' C'est trt\s fftcltieiix. Et 
quallez-vous faire?— II me faut aller voir lo dentiste. 11 
arrachera une de mes dents pn)l)al)lement, car elle est entiere- 
ment gktdo. Mais je desire qu'il t&clieideme'conservcr I'autre. 

/i. Continue the following : 1. Je. suis content qu'il soit 
arriv<$, tu es, etc. 2. Je veux qu'elle attende, tu veux, etc. 
3. II faut que je sois \k avant midi, il faut (jue tu, oU^. 4. II 
dMre que je le finisse, que tu, etc. T). II faut que jn vonde 
ma maisun, que tu, etc. 6. Bien que j'aie des amis, bien que 
to, etc 7. Je hqih fAoh^ qu'elle soit souffrante, tu es, etc. 

§110] LESSON XXVII. 73 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui frappe a la porte? 2. Qu'est-ce qu'elle 
demande ? 3. Votre robe est-elle prete *? 4. Faut-il que je 
sois en ville avant midi 1 5. Me faut-il partir tout de suite ? 
6. D^sirez-vous que je vous accompagne 1 7. Regrettez-vous 
que votre amie soit souffrante 1 8. Etes-vous contente qu'elle 
se porte mieux a present? 9. Qu'est-ce que vous avez ce 
matin? 10. Desirez-vous que le dentiste arrache votre dent 
malade 1 11. Youlez-vous qu'il vous arrache les deux dents 
malades? 12. Que d^sirez-vous ? 13. Ne voulez-vous pas 
que je vous attende au cafe? 14. De'sirez-vous que je sois 
avec vous chez le dentiste? 15. Faut-il que nops soyons de 
retour avant midi ? 16. Etes-vous facliee que votre pere ait 
vendu sa maison ? 17. Desirez-vous qu'il en achete une dans 
cette rue? 18. Cette maison est jolie bien qu'elle soit petite, 
n'est-ce pas ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. There is a knock at the door. 2. I do not wish you 
to knock at my door. 3. I wish you to ring, 4. Must you 
be at the dressmaker's at noon? 5. Yes, I must have my 
dress for this evening. 6. I am going afterwards to see my 
friend who is indisposed. 7. I am very sorry that she is 
indisposed. 8. I must bring her some flowers. 9. Do you 
wish me to accompany you ? 10. No, I desire you to remain 
at home. 11. I am very sorry you have toothache. 12. Is it 
necessary that the dentist should extract your two teeth ? 
13. I must go and see him first. 14. I wish him to try and 
save one of the two. 15. Although this tooth is a little 
decayed, it is better than the other. 16. Do you wish me to 
be with you at the dentist's? 17. No, I wish you to buy 
some fruit for our dinner. 1 8. Although fruit is dear, I shall 
buy a great deal. 19. One must eat to live. 20. Everybody 
must eat enough. 


1 10. Imperative of donner, flni'r, uendre. 

Give, etc. Finish, etc. Sell, etc. 

donn e [don]. finis [fini]. vend s [va]. 

qu'il donne [don]. qu'il finiss e [finis], qu'il vend e [va:d]. 

donn ons [dono]. finiss ons [finiso]. vend ons [vado]. 

donn ez [done]. finiss ez [finise]. vend ez [vade]. 

qu'ils donn ent [don], qu'ils finiss ent [finis], qu'ils vend ent [void]. 
Obs. : The 3rd sing, and 3rd plur. are subjunctive forms used as imperatives. 

74 - LESSON XXVII. [§§111-113 

111. Imperative of avoir, etre. 

Have, etc. Be, etc. 

aie [e]. sois [swa]. 

qu'il ait [k il e]. qu'il soit [swa]. 

'ii.V ^i.-'ay ons [ejo]. soy ons [swa jo]. 

ay ez [eje]. soy ez [swaje]. 

qu'ils aient [k ilz e]. qu'ils soient [k il swa]. 

112. Imperative Negative. 

ne donne pas. qu'il ne donne pas. ne donnons pas, etc. 

113. Position of Objects. 1. Personal pronoun objects 
follow the positive imperative (but not the subjunctive as im- 
perative), and are joined to it and to one another by hyphens : 

Donnez-lui la plume. Give him tlie pen. 

Donnez-la-lui. Give it to him. 

Donnons-leur-en. Let us give them some. 

Qu'il me la donne. Let him give it to me. 

2. If tlie imperative be negative, the general rule of position 
(§81) holds good: 

Ne la lui donnez pas. Do not give it to him. 

3. Moi and toi are used after an imperative instead of me 
ai>d te (unless before y and en, in whicli case apostrophe 
replaces liyphen) : , 

Donnez-moi dcH pommoR. (Ji\c nic sonui apples. 

Donnez-m'cn. Give mo some (of thorn). 

4. When a verb has two objectSi they are arranged thus 
after it (for slight exceptions, see Part II) : 

le (la, lo«) Ixjforo moi (toi, lui, noii-^, vouh, Umm). 

me (to, lui, nout, vour, leur) Ixifore 7 (en). 
J iKjfore en. 


A. Voun aliens ^tudier nos le^'ons^. , Le professeur nous a 
Uiis^ ioi dfuis oette salle afih''*^*u on ne nous dc^rango pas. 
Travaillonfl ferine. Quel est le livro que vous tivir/h la main 1 
--Cett om grammaire fran9aise. — Ponnez-la-moi uti uiuiueut 

§113] LESSON XXVII. 75 

ffil vous plait. Je desire chercher quelque chose. — Ou est 
done mon cahier"? Le vOyez-vous? — Oui, le voici. — Donnez- 
le-moi, s'il vous plait. — Maintenant c'est ma regie que je , 

cherche. — Je ne 1 ai pas vue. — Si vous la trouvez, ne la cassez 
pas. — Avez-vous de Fencre^ — Oui, j'en ai. — Soyez '^^sez bon"^ 
pour m'en donner. Mon petit ami n'en a pas, non plus. 
Donnez-lui-en un peu aussi. — En voila. Est-ce assez ? — Oui, 
je vous remercie infinimenT.— Aliens, depeclions-nous ! II est 
deja tard, et nous n'avoi^ pas. encore fait beaucoup. — Soyez 
tranquille, nous finirons meiit^t.— *' Ayez de la patience" est 
une bonne maxime, mais n'en abusons pas. — Avez-vous parl^ 
au professeur de cette affaire ? — Pas encore. — Eh bien, parlez- 
lui-en cette apres-midi. — Pour vous contenter, je lui en parlerai. 

B. Complete the following by adding a noun object, and 
then repeating the phrase with the proper pronoun: 1. Cher- 
chez ... 2. Ne cherchez pas ... 3. Finissez ... 4. Ne 
finissez pas ... 5. Vendez ... 6. Ne vendez pas ... 7. Qu'il 
^coute. . . 8. Chante. . . 9. Ne chante pas. . . 10. Choisis- 
sez... 11. Ne choisissez pas... 12. Vends... 13. Ne 
vends pas... 14. Finissons... 15. Ne finissons pas... 
16. Vendons. . . 17. Ne vendons pas. . . 

C. 1. Go and study your lessons. 2. Study them for an 
hour. 3. Remain in this class-room. 4. Remain in it for an 
hour. 5. Do not disturb me; I wish to study. 6. Now let us 
work hard. 7. Show me the lesson. 8. Show me it. 9. Find 
me my exercise-book, if you please. 10. Find it for me. 
11. I have your ruler. 12. Do not break it, please. 13. If 
you have any ink, give me some of it, please. 14. Give some 
to Robert, too; he hasn't any, either. 15. Now Robert, thank 
him. 16. Come, hurry up. 17. Have patience, but don't 
have too much of it. 18. Let us finish our lessons. 19. Let 
us finish them before noon. 20. Have you spoken to the 
master of that affair? 21. Do not speak of it to him to-day. 
22. Speak to him of it to-morrow. 23. We have finished our 
lessons. 24. The lessons are finished now. 25. Have the 
kindness to bring me my hat. 26. Look for it, please. 27. 
Let us go for a walk. 28, Let us not take advantage of the 
patience of our masters. 29. Let us not take advantage of it. 

76 LESSON XXVIII. [§§114-116 


114. Conditional of donner, finir, uendre. 

I should give, etc. I should finish, etc. I should sell, etc. 

donner ais [donare]. finir ais [finire]. vendr ais [vadre]. 

donner ais [donare]. finir ais [finire]. vendr ais [vadre]. 

donner ait [donore]. finir ait [finire]. vendr ait [vadre]. 

donner ions [donarjo]. finir ions [finirjo]. vendr ions [vfidrjo]. 

donner iez [donarje]. finir iez [finirje]. vendr iez [vadrje]. 

donner aient [donare]. finir aient [finire]. vendr aient [vadre]. 

115. Conditional of auoir, etre. 

I should have, etc. I should be, etc. 

aur ais [ore]. aur ions [orjo]. ser ais [sore]. ser ions [sorjo]. 
aur ais [ore]. aur iez [orje]. ser ais [sore]. ser iez [sorje]. 
aur ait [ore]. aur aient [ore]. ser ait [sore]. ser aient [sore]. 
Obt. : In all verba the stem of the conditional is the same. as that of the future. 

116. Conditional Sentences. 1. The conditional is used 
to express what would happen (result) in case something else 
were to happen (condition) : 

S'il avait le temps (condition), If ho had time (had ho time, etc.), 
il finirait sa le^on (result). he would finish his lesSon. 

2. A * result' clause in the conditional (English 'should' or 
'would') regularly has the 'if clause in the imperfect indica- 
tive, whatever l)e the corresponding English form : 

8i jV'tudiain bien (condition), If I studied (or if I wore to s., or 

lonrt' "'••-Mf r<M)t»'t)i (result). were I to h. , or should I s. )well, 

tlio niaHU^r would be glad. 

3. A * result' clause in the future requires the *if' clause in 
the pnwent indicative, wh-itcvor lye the corresponding English 
fomi : 

8*11 out Icl domain (condition), If bo is {or bo, or will bo, or should 
jo lui donnurai I'argent (rcMult), Ikj) hero to-morrow, T Hhall ^mvc 

him the money. 

§117] LESSON XXVIII. 77 

117. Future and Conditional of f aire (irreg.) and aller 


ir ai [ire]. ir ais [ire]. fer ai [fare]/ fer ais [fare]. 

ir as [ira], etc. ir ais [ire], etc. fer as [fara], etc. fer ais [fare], etc. 


Aj Sij'avais mes livres, j'etudierais mes le9ons. Je les ai 
laisses, atxl'ecole. — Cependant il n'est pas necessaire que vous 
perdiez'^vbtre temps. J'ai mes livres et je puis vous les preter, 
si vous desirez preparer vos le9ons. — Vous etes trop airaable, 
je les accepterai avec plaisir. — De quels livres avez-vous 
besOin? — J'ai besoin d'une arithm^tique et d'une geographic. 
Si j'avais aussi un crayon et du papier, j'en ferais usage. — JVIa 
bibliotheque entifere est a votre disposition. — A propos, 
qu'allez-vous faire pendant les vacances 1 — Si j'avais beaueoup 
d'argent, j'irais bien loin. Je suis si fatigue depuis quelque 
temps. Et qu'est-ce que vous allez faire ? — Si je n'avais pas 
ete si sou vent a la campagne, j'y serais alle encore cette annee. 
Mais jl me faut un plus grand changement s'il est possible. — 
Alofs vous n'etes pas encore decide. — Pas encore, il y a tant 
de reflexions a faire. S'il ne fait pas trop chaud, nous reste- 
rons ici. On est tres bien ici, s'il fait frais. Mais s'il fait 
tres chaud, nous partirons pour un endroit plus agreable. 

B. Complete the following by adding a 'result' clause or an 
'if clause as the case may be: 1. Le maitre sera content. . . 
2. S'il fait chaud demain ... 3. S'il ne faisait pas si chaud . . . 
4. Je lui donnerai I'argent ... 5. Je lui donnerais I'argent . . . 
6. Si j'avais du papier et des plumes. . . 7. Si j'avais ma 
grammaire fran^aise . . . 8. J'irais bien loin .. . 9. Vendriez- 
vous votre maison. . . 10. Seriez-vous parti. . . 

C. (Oral.) 1. Ou sont vos livres? 2. Si vous les aviez, 
qu'est ce que vous feriez 1 3. Si je vous pretais ma grammaire, 
en feriez-vous usage? 4. Qu'est-ce que vous ferez si je vous 
prete mes livres? 5. Le maitre sera-t-il content si nous ne 
preparons pas nos le9ons? 6. Ne sera-t-il pas Von tent si nous 
etudions deux heures entieres ? 7. Serait-il content si je perdais 
mon temps ? 8. Le maitre est-il content si nous perdons notre 
temps ? 9. Est-ce que je serai content si je perds mon temps ? 
10. Serions-nous contents si nous perdions notre temps? 

78 LESSON XXIX. [§118 

11. Seriez-vous fatigu^ si vous travailliez toute la soiree? 

12. Irez-vous a la campagne s'il fait chaud demain'? 13. 
Qu'est-ce que nous ferons s'il fait chaud demain? 14. Si vous 
aviez des vacances, est-ce que vous resteriez a la maison? 
15. Que feriez-vous? 16. Iriez-vous a, la campagne? 17. Si 
vous aviez beaucoup d'argent, que feriez-vous pendant Fete 1 
18. Serons-nous bien ici s'il fait chaud ? Etc., etc. 

Z). 1. I have left all my books at school. 2. If I had them, 

I should prepare my lessons for to-morrow. 3. If I do not 
prepare them, the master will not be pleased. 4. If you wish 
to study, I shall lend you my books. 5. If you were to lend 
me them, I should be very glad. 6. I should study the whole 
evening. 7. I do not wish to lose my time. 8. I am never 
happy, if I am not working, i). Should you make use of 
my pens and paper, if I lent you them? 10. I should accept 
them with pleasure, if you were kind enough to lend me 
them. 11. If we work the whole evening, we shall be tired. 

12. By the way, what are you going to do in the holidays? 

13. I shall go to the country, if it is hot. 14. I should go 
too, if I had not been there so often. 15. If I had a great 
deal of money, I should go a long way off. 1 6. If one has no 
money, one cannot go far. 17. If it is possible, I shall spend 
some days witli my relatives. 18. It (ce) will be for me a 
great pleasure, if my cousins are at home. 


Il8. Use of Article. 1. Names of continents, countries, 
provinces, largo islands, regularly take the definite article : 

La Franco est un beau pays. France is a beautiful country. 

NouH aimonH le Canada. We love Canada. 

II (lerooure aux Itltats-Uiiis. He Hvch in the United States. 

2. The article is omitted after the preposition en = *in,' *to;' 
it is also omitted after dc in certain constructions : 

Hon p^re est en Angleterre. My father iH in England. 

Nous ailons en Fraooe. We are going to France. 

II riant d'ltalie. He cohich from Italy. 

Lm Tint d'Bspagne. iSpaniMh winuH. 

§§119-120] LESSON XXIX. 79 

119. 1. Place * where,' 'whereto/ is usually denoted by 
en before names of continents, European countries singular, 
and feminine countries singular outside of Europe ; other 
countries usually take the preposition a + the definite article : 

II est en (va en) Europe. He is in (goes to) Europe. 

II est au (va au) Canada. He is in (goes to) Canada. 

2. 'Cities, towns, etc., usually take a, without any article : 

II est k (va a) Paris. He is in or at (goes to) Paris, 

But : A la Nouvelle-Orl^ans. At New Orleans. 

120. Present Indicative of sauoir, 'to know' (irreg.). 

I know, etc. 
je sais [sc]. nous savons [savo]. 

tu sais [se]. vous savez [save]. 

il sait [se]. ils savent [saiv], 


A. Savez-vous que votre ami est parti hier pour la France? 
— Oui, je le sais. II etait si content ! II sait bien le frangais 
deja ; dans quelques mois il le parlera comme un Fran^ais. 
— Avez-vous jamais ete en France 1 — Non, je n'y ai jamais dte, 
mais j'ai I'intention d'y aller I'annee prochaine. Vous y avez 
^td, n'est-ce pas'? — Oui, j'y ai pass^ deux annees. C'est un 
beau pays. J'airae beaucoup la France, j'aime les Fran9ais et 
le frangais. C'est une belle langue. — Oh oui, vous, vous etes 
bien avance. Vous parlez frauQais couramment, mais moi, je 
trouve cela difficile. — En commen9ant, c'est difficile, mais avec 
le temps vous I'apprendrez, surtout si vous passez une annee en 
France. — Quelle partie de la France avez-vous habitee ? — J'ai 
habite Paris, mais j'ai visite d'autres grandes villes. J'ai ete a 
Kouen et a Lyon. — Avez-vous jamais et^ au Bas-Canadal — 
Oui, j'y ai ete. J'ai et^ a Montreal et a Quebec. Ce sont 
deux belles villes. J'ai et^ aussi a la Nouvelle-Orleans, ou il y 
a beaucoup de Fran9ais. On ^ y parle encore aujourd'hui 
fran^ais. IVIais en general aux Etats-Unis les Fran9ais n'ont 
pas conserve leur langue si fidelement que les Fran9ais du 

80 LESSON XXIX. [§120 

B. Continue the following: 1. Je parle anglais, tu, etc. 

2. Est-ce que je parle f ran9ais % est-ce que tu ?, etc. 3. Je sais 
bien le fran9ais, tu, etc. 4. Ai-je ete en France?, as-tu ^te?, 
etc. 5. Demain je partirai pour le Canada, tu, etc. 6. Je 
vais aux Etats-Unis, tu, etc. 7. J'habite les Etats-Unis, tu, 
etc. 8. J'irai a Paris I'annee prochaine, tu, etc. 9. J'ai 
demeur^ une ann^e k Paris, tu as, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Oil est la France ? 2. Quelle langue les Fran- 
9ais parlent-ils ? 3. Savez-vous le frangais ? 4. Parlez-vous 
fran^aisl 5. Le parlez-vous couramment? 6. Avez-vous jamais 
^t4 en France 1 7. Combien de temps avez-vous passe k Paris ? 
8. Avez-vous ^t^ aussi a Rouen et k Lyonl 9. Aimez-vous 
la France? 10. Aimez-vous les Fran9ais? 11. Est-ce que 
le fran^ais est une belle langue? 12. Quelle langue parlez- 
vous? 13. Est-ce que nous sommes Anglais ou Fran^ais? 

14. Les habitants de la France parlent fran9ais, n'est-ce pas? 

15. Y a-t-il beaucoup de Fran9ais aux Etats-Unis ? 16. Quelle 
langue parle-t-on au Bas-Canada ? 17. Parle-t-on aussi la langue 
fran9aise 4 la Nouvelle-Orl^ans ? 18. Quelle langue parle-t-on 
k Montreal et a Quebec ? 19. Les Fran9ais des Etats-Unis 
ont-ils conserve fidelement leur langue? 20. Depuis quand 
^tudiez-vous le f ran9ais ? 21. Avez-vous I'intention d'aller en 
France I'ann^e prochaine ? 22. Dans quels pays avez-vous 
pass^ les vacances I'ann^e derni^re ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1 . France is in Europe. 2. France is a beautiful country. 

3. Its inhabitants speak French. 4. French is spoken also in 
Canada and in the United States. 5. It is spoken at Mont- 
real, Quebec and New Orleans. 6. French is a fine language. 
7. We like the French and the French language. 8. We have 
been studying Frencli for three months. 9. 1 have not been 
in France yet. 10. T intend to go there next year. 11. I 
shall set out for France; in the summer. 12. 1 shall spend a 
month in Paris, and some time at Lyons and Houen. 
13. On my return, I shall nanain soiru; days at Montreal and 
Quebea 14. French is a difficult language for the English. 
15. We speak English. 16. Wo live in Canada. 17. Our 
reUtivet live in the United States. 18. They live in Now 
Orieaiis. 19. They have never been in Franco, but they speak 
French like Frenchmen. 20. If you were to spend a year in 
France, you would speak it fluently also. 





le mien [mje], m. 
la mienne [mjen], f. 
, le tien [tj£], m. 
la tienne [tjen], f. 
le sien [sje], m. 
la sienne [sjen], f. 
le notre [noitr], m 
la notre 
le votre 
la votre 
le leur 
la leur 

lesso:n^ XXX. 
The Possessive Pronouns. 


les miens [mjej. m.^^j^^ 

les miennes [mjen], f. J 

les tiens [tje], in. ) ^j^.^^^ 

les tiennes [tjen], f. / 

les siens [sje], m. ) his, hers, 

les siennes [sjen], f. J its, one's own. 



[voitr], m. I 
[vo:tr], f. j 
[loeir], m. ) 
[loe:r], f. j 

les notres 
les votres 
les leurs 

[no:tr], ours, 
[voitr], yours. 
[IcEir], theirs. 

122. Agreement. Possessive pronouns agree in gender 
and number with the object possessed, and in person with the 
possessor : 

J'ai mes livres ; elle a les siens. I have my books ; she has hers. 

123. Use of Possessive Pronouns. 1. Afteretre, mere 
ownership is regularly expressed by a + a personal pronoun 
disjunctive, while the use of a possessive pronoun implies 
distinction of ownership : 

Cette raontre est k moi. This watch is mine. 

Cette montre est la mienne. This watch is mine. 

2. De and a + le mien, etc., contract as usual (cf. §§ 35, 46): 
Je parle de son ami et du mien. I speak of his friend and of mine. 

3. Since le sien, la sienne, etc., mean 'his,' 'hers,' 'its,' 
'one's,' the context determines which sense is intended : 

II a ses livres ; elle a les siens. He has his books ; she has hers. 

4. Observe the idioms : 

Un de mes amis. 
Un Parisien de mes amis. 

A friend of mine. 

A Parisian, a friend of mine. 

82 ~ LESSON XXX. [§124 

124. Present Indicative of dire, 'to say,' Heir (irreg.), 
and of voir, ' to see* (irreg.). 

I sa}', etc. I see, etc. 

je dis [di]. nous disons [diz5]. je vois [\'iva]. nous voyons [vwajo]. 

tu dis [di]. vous dites [dit]. tu vois [vwa]. vous voyez [vwaje]. 

il dit [dij. ils disent [di:z]. 11 voit [vwa]. ils voient [vwa]. 


A, Un de mes amis, qui voyage actuellement en Europe, m'a 
envoye une lettre I'autre jour. Dans cette lettre il fait les 
comparaisons les plus interessantes entre les habitudes des 
Europeens et les notres. Par exeraple, les chemins de fer 
europdens sont diffe rents des n6tres. Nos voitures sont plus 
graiides que les leurs, et elles ont un seul compartiment, 
tandis que les leurs sont divis^es en plusieurs. Les petits 
compartiments sont souvent tres commodes ; on peut y etre 
seul ou avec une petite compagnie agr^able. Mais il y a un 
inconvenient: on risque de se trouver face a face avec un 
compagnon de voyage tres dt^sagr^able, ou meme dangereux. 
Un jour, par exemple, mon ami se trouvait dans un comparti- 
ment avec un individu qui ne respectait pas trop la dillcrence 
entre le mien et le tien. Mon ami avait une jolie montre 
d'or. Son compagnon la remarque. Le train approche d'une 
petite ville, et ralentit sa marche. L'individu tiro un revolver 
de sa poche et dit k mon ami : " Vous avez 1^ une belle 
montre, donnez-la-raoi et je vous donnerai la mieiine." Mon 
ami a peur, il donne sa montre, et le voleur saute du train. 

B, Complete the following by supplying a suitable posses- 
sive pronoun form: 1. Ma montre est en or;... est en 
argent. 2. Mes parents sontii Paris;. . . sont aux ittats-ITnis. 
8. Marie va chercher mes plumes et. . . 4. Nous avoiis f'mi 
nos lemons; ils ont fini. .. 5. J'ai fini mes leijons, ot .Jean 
a fini... C. V08 le9on8 sont faciles, mais. . s(mt diiIicil(^s. 
7. J'ai mon crayon, et Marie a. . . 8. Marie a ses crayons et 
. . .aussi. 9. Les Fran^ais aiment leur pays, et nous aimons . . . 
10. Nous aimons notre langue ; les Franijais aiment. . 11. 
Je parte de mes amis, et vous parle/. ... 12. Jean donne des 
fleurs k ses soenrs, et Robert en donne . . . 

§124] LESSON XXX. 83 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui vous a envoye unelettre'? 2. Les habi- 
tudes des Europeans sont-elles les memes que les ndtres? 3. 
Nos chemins de fer sont-ils meilleurs que les leurs? 4. Leurs 
voitures sont-elles plus grandes que les noties 1 5. Les notres 
sont-elles plus commodes que les leurs? 6. Avec qui votre 
ami se trouvait-il dans un compartiment ? 7. La montre du 
voleur ^tait-elle meilleure que la sienne % 8. En quoi est votre 
moutre'^ 9. Voulez-vous me donner la votre en echange de 
la mienne? 10, A qui etait la belie montre d'or^ 11. Qu'est- 
ce que le voleur veut donner en echange de la montre de votre 
ami? 12. Qui a tire un revolver de sa poche ? 13. Votre ami 
a-t-il tire le sien aussi de sa poche? 14. Auriez-vous donne 
au voleur votre belle montre en ^change de la sienne? 
15. L'auriez-vous donn^e si la sienne avait ^te meilleure que 
la votre? 16. Qui ne respecte pas la diflerence entre le mien 
et le tien? Etc., etc. 

/). 1. A friend of mine is travelling in France. 2. There 
is much difference between the customs of the French and 
ours. 3. For example, our railways and theirs are different. 
4. Their railways are not so long as ours. 5. Tlie carriages 
of our trains are larger than theirs. 6. But their carriages 
are often more comfortable than ours. 7. Ours are not 
divided into compartments. 8. One day I find myself in 
one of these compartments. 9. I draw my watch from my 
pocket to look at it. 10. My travelling companion is an 
individual who does not respect the difference between mine 
and thine. 11. He draws out his also from his pocket, and 
looks at it. 12. He looks at mine too. 13. He says to me: 
" Here are two watches ; yours is of {e7i) gold and mine is 
of silver. 14. Give me yours, and I shall give you mine." 
15. At these words, I draw a revolver which I have in another 
pocket. 16. The thief does not draw his from his pocket, 
because he has no revolver. 17.^At this moment the train 
arrives at a little town. 18. The thief is afraid, and jumps 
from the carriage, leaving me his watch. 19. I have now two 
watches, mine and his. 20. If he had had his revolver, 
and if I had not had mine, the affair would have been very 

84 LESSON XXXI. [§§125-129 


125. The Demonstrative Pronouns. 

ce [sa], this, thes?e, that, those, he, she, it, they. 
ceci [sasi], this. 
cela [sala], tliat. 

celui [soliji], ra. ) that (one), the (one), ceux [s0], m.)^ those (ones), the 

celle [sel]. j he, she. celles [sel], f. j ones, they, 

celui-ci [saliji si], ni. ) this (one), ceux-ci [s0 si], ra. ^these (ones), 

celle-ci [sel si], f, j tlie latter. celles-ci [sel si], f. J the latter, 

celui-lk [salqi la], m. ) that (one), the ceux-lk [sdla], m.^l those (ones), 

celle-lk [sel la], f. /former. celles-lk [sel la], f. /the former. 

126. For the use of ce as distinguished from the personal 
pronoun il (elle, etc.), see § 97. 

127. Ceci = * this,' and cela = * that/ are used to denote 
something pointed out or indicate(J, bub nob named. Cela is 
often contracted into ga in familiar language : 

Cela est joli ; je prefere ceci. That is pretty ; I prefer this. 

Pouvez-vous faire cela ? Can you do that ? 

J'aime ^. I like that. 

128. Celui, * that (one),' * the (one),' * he,' is used of persons 
or things, and is regularly followed by a relative clause or a 
de clause : 

Celui que j'attendaia est arriv^. He whom I expected has arrived. 

Cenz qui cherchent trouvent. Those who seek find. 

Mes fleurH et celles de Marie. My flowers and Mary's. 

Celles que vouh aimoz. The ones (flowers) you like. 

129. 1. Celui-ci, Hhis,' 'this one,' *he,' and celui-1^, 
• timt,* * tliat (in<;,' are used of persons or things alr(;ady men- 
tioned, to contrast the nearer and the more remote : 

Voici leu deux chalncK ; ganlu/. Hero are the two cliains ; keep 

celle-ci ut (lc)nnt)'/-moi celle-Ul. thin (one) and give nie that (one). 

2. *The latter' is celui-ci, and 'the former' is celui-1^, 
the order of ideiu* l>cing inverted as compared with English : 

Ciotfron ot Virgilo jHuient touH Cicoro ami Virgil wore hoth colo- 
dcux c^libr«;H ; celui-ci <5t4iit hrutrd ; the former was an 

po^U) et celui-Ui uruteur. orator and the latter a poet. 

§129] LESSON XXXI. 85 


A. Un certain homme possedait un S,ne et un petit chien. 
A celui-ci il donnait des caresses et a celui-la des fardeaux a 
porter. Le chien s'amusait toute la journee. II courait par-ci 
par-la. A table il mangeait avec son maitre. II donnait la 
patte a tout le monde, et tout le monde lui donnait des 
baisers. Le pauvre kne voyait tout cela, et il en etait tres 
mecontent. Un jour il se demande : " Pourquoi ne me donne- 
t-on pas autant de bonnes choses qu'a ce miserable petit chieni 
Pourquoi donne-t-on toutes les caresses a celui qui ne travaille 
pas, et tous les coups de baton a celui qui travaille toujours 1 
Je cesserai de travailler. J'entrerai dans la salle a manger 
de mon maitre, je donnerai la patte a tous ceux qui y sont, et 
ils me donneront des caresses." Le pauvre kne tache de faire 
cela. II entre dans la salle a manger, il salue la compagnie. 
II chante de sa belle voix. II veut donner la patte a son 
maitre. Mais en levant la patte il fait tomber la vaisselle. 
On a peur. on crie. Les valets entrent, et donnent a la pauvre 
bete, non des caresses, mais des coups de baton. 

B. Complete the following by supplying suitable demonstra- 
tive pronoun forms : 1. Ceci est bon, . . .est mauvais. 2. Cela 
est grand, ... est petit. 3. Voila deux montres d'or ; ... est 
plus jolie que. . . 4. . . .de mon pere est plus jolie encore. 
5. Voici des livres pour nous ; donnez-moi . . . , et je vous 
donnerai... 6. Donnez-moi d'autres plumes, j'ai perdu... 
que vous m'avez pretdes. 7. Je parle de Ciceron et de 
Virgile ; . . . ^tait poete et . . . ^tait orateur. 8. ... qui volent 
sont des voleurs. 9. Cet homme a vole mon argent et. . .de 
mon ami. 

C. 1. Give me that. 2. I do not need this. 3. There are 
two pens ; give me this one and keep that one. 4. My watch 
is finer than John's. 5. My father's is still finer. 6. He 
who steals is a thief. 7. Those who steal are thieves. 8. I 
have two brothers, John and Robert ; the former is taller 
than I, the latter smaller. 

D. (Oral.) 1. Quels etaient les deux animaux que possedait 
cet homme 1 2. Qu'est-ce qu'il donnait a celui-ci 1 3. Qu'est-ce 
qu'il donnait a celui-la'? 4. L'ane etait-il content de cela? 
5. Qu'est-ce que Vkne se demande? 6. Ou est-ce qu'il veut 

86 LESSON XXXII. [§§130-132 

entrerl 7. Est-ce qu'il • a fait cela? 8. La voix de I'ane 
est-elle plus belle que celle du chien'? 9. A qui veut-il 
donner la patte ? 10. Ceux qui sont dans la salle sont-ils 
contents? 11. Qu'est-ce que font les valets? 12. Est-ce 
qu'on donne toujours des coups de baton a ceux qui les 
m^ritent? Etc., etc. 

E. 1. The ass and the dog are useful animals. 2. The former 
carries burdens, and the latter is the faithful friend of man. 
3. The ass in this story is dissatisfied. 4. He asks himself 
why people give good things to those who do not work. 
5. His master gives caresses to the dog and blows to him who 
works. 6. The unhappy animal is dissatisfied with that. 7. He 
ceases to work, and enters the dining-room. 8. He salutes 
those who are there. 9. He sings with his beautiful voice. 
10. That is not very agreeable to the company. 11. You know 
that the voice of the ass is not so pleasant as that of the dog. 
12. The master is afraid. 13. All those who are present 
scream. 14. The servants hear this, and enter the room. 
15. They give the poor ass blows with a stick. 16. People do 
not always give blows to those who deserve them. 

130. The Relative Pronouns. 

qui [ki], who, which, that, wliora (after a preposition). 

que [ko], whom, which, that. 

dont [d3], whoBo, of whom, of which. 

oil [ul, in which, into which, at wliich, to which, etc. 

lequel [lokelL m. h., lesquels flckElI, m. ])1. 1 , , , . , , 

1 11 ri 1 n * I II n I n f 1 > who, whoni, which, that, 

laquellc [lakel], f. h. , lesquelles [Ickcl], f. pi. j 

quo! [kwa], what, which. 

113. Ag^reement. A relative pronoun, wliother variable 
or invnriul»hi in form, ih of tlio gender, numln^r and person of 
it«i M\U'An*Avut : 

Moi qui Omm (vouk qui ^tiec) I^ I who wan (>oii who were) there. 
Lot lettrM que j'al apport^et. The letterH which 1 have brought. 

X32. Use of the Relative. 1. TIm^ relative of most 
common iwo is qui, aw Kijlijict, and que, as direct object, of a 
verb (ct §75). 

§133] LESSON XXXII. 87 

2. Qui = *whom' (of perso ns onljj is also used after a 
preposition : 

L'oncle chez qui je demeurais. The uncle with whom I lived. 

3. The force of de + a relative is generally expressed by 


Les amis dont nous parlions. The friends of whom we sjKjke. 

L'eglise dont je vols la tour. The church whose tower I see. 

4. Oil = dans (or some other preposition of position) + a 
relative : 

La ville ou (or dans laquelle) je The city in which I live, 

5. Lequel is often used instead of qui (que, etc.), to avoid 
ambiguity, and mu st I?e ysed of things after a preposition : 
Les sceurs de nos amis, lesquelles The sisters of our friends, who (i.e., 

sont chez nous k present. the sisters) are with us now. 

6. Quoi stands after a preposition, rarely otherwise : 
Voila de quoi je parlais. That is what I was speaking of. 

7. The absolute *what,' 'which,' 'that which' as subject is 
ce qui, and, as object or predicate, ce que J 'of what,' ' that 

of which,' is ce dont : 

Je vois ce qui vous amuse. I see what amuses you. 

Je sais ce que je sais. I know what I know. 

Vous savez ce que je suis. You know what I am. 

Ce dont j'ai besoin. That which I need. 

8. * He who/ ' the one who,' etc. = celui qui : 

J'aime ceux qui m'airaent. I love those who love me. 

Ma montre est plus jolie que My watch is prettier than the one 

celle que vous avez. you have. 

9. The relative pronoun, often omitted in English, is never 
omitted in French : 

Le tableau que j'ai vu hier. The picture I saw yesterday. 

133. Present Indicative of connaitre^ 'to know,' 'be 
acquainted with,' etc. (irreg.). 

88 LESSON XXXII. [§133 

I know, etc. 

je connais [3a kone]. nous connaissons [nu koneso]. 

tu connais [ty kone]. vous connaissez [vu konese]. 

il connait [il kone]. ils connaissent [il konsis]. 


A. C'est ma premiere promenade a Paris. Un Parisien de 
mes amis m'accompagne. Nous voila a la place de la Con- 
corde. — Quelle est cette eglise dont on voit la fa9ade au bout 
de cette rue ? — C'est I'^glise de la Madeleine dont je vous ai 
deja parl^ ce matin. C'est une tres belle eglise. Je vous y 
m^nerai un de ces jours pour assiste r a la messe. — Quel est cet 
autre Edifice de I'autre cote du fleuv^?— C'est le palais de la 
Chambre des deputes. C'est la que se font les lois du pays. 
Je connais un ddput^ qui m'a donn^ des hillcts; d entree pour 
demain. Voulez-'vous m'y accompagner? — Anco plaisir. YA 
quel est ce grand monument tout pr^s de nous*? — C'est un 
ob^Iisque dgyptien qu'on a apport^ en France sous Louis- 
Philippe. Voyez-vous aussi ces huit statues situdes a diffi^rents 
points autour de la Place? Ce sont des statues qui repr^- 
sentent les villes les plus importantes de la France. Regardez 
surtout celle de Strasbourg qui est couverte de couronnes. 
C'est une society patriotique qui a fait cela pour marqucr sa 
douleur pour la perte de cette ville dans la guerre. Kegardons 
encore ce qui se trouve autour de nous. A droite il y a les 
fameux Cliamps-EIysdos avec leurs belles promenades. Cette 
avenue splendide qui les traverse mene au bois d<3 ]ioulogne, 
en passant par TA-rc de Triomphe qu'on voit Ifi-bas k I'liori/on. 
A gauche nous voyons les jardins des Tuileries, ot plus loin Ic 
Fx)uvre^ttncien palais des rois de France. C'est \k que nous 
irons visitor les grandes galcrios do ppintures. Tout ce qu'on 
voit d'ici est inU^ressant. 

B. Complete thn following by supplying suitable relative 
pronoun forms: 1. I^^i vill(^..nous lwi))it(>ns. 2. La ville 
. , .nous demeurons. 3. L'onclo chez. . .jo domeurais. 4. Los 
amis. . . m'accompagnont. 5. L'eglise ... on voit la facade 
U^bas. 6. Les sours do nos amis. . .sont choz nous k prc^sont. 
7. Les dames... j'ai donno h^s Hours. 8. Los chions. . .j'ai 
donn^ la viande. 9. Vous savozco. . .il a pordu. 10. Jo vois 
oe...vous amuse. 11. Nous aimons con x... nous aimont. 
12. Ce...j'aibesoin. 

§133] LESSON XXXII. 89 

G. (Oral.) 1. Est-ce la premiere promenade que vous faites a 
Paris 1 2. Quel est I'ami qui vous accompagne % 3. L'ami que 
vous accompagnez connait-il la ville 1 4. Quel est I'endroit ou 
vous commencez votre promenade 1 5. L'eglise dont on voit la 
fagade, quelle est-elle? 6. Est-ce l'eglise dont vous m'avez parle 
ce matin ? 7. Et cet autre edifice dont on voit la fa9ade de 
I'autre cot^ du fleuve, quel est-il 1 8. Vous dites que vous avez 
des billets d'entree ; qui vous les a donnas? 9. Est-ce le depute 
chez qui vous etiez hier soir 1 10. Ou est cet obelisque egyptien 
dont vous m'avez parle? 11. Est-ce le grand monument prfes 
duquel on voit tant de mOnde 1 12. Que representent ces 
statues-la *? 1 3. Celle sur laquelle on voit tant de couronnes, 
la connaissez-vous ? 14. Voulez-vous me dire ce qu'elle reprd- 
sente ? 15. Cet espace qui se trouve a droite, est-ce un jardin 
public"? 16. Cette avenue par laquelle on voit passer les voi- 
tures, ou mene-t-elle? 17. Quels sont les jardins qui sont a 
gauche 1 18. Quel est cet Edifice dont on voit d'ici les fenetres % 
19. M'avez- vous montre tout ce qui est interessant? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. Paris is a city of which we have often spoken. 2. 
To-day I take my first walk in Paris. 3. The gentleman who 
accompanies me knows the city well. 4. He shows me every- 
thing which is interesting. 5. The point at which we begin 
our walk is the "place de la Concorde." 6. From this square 
we see the church of the Madeleine, whose fagade we admire. 
7. We see also the "chambre des Deputes," where the laws of 
the country are made. 8. A member of parliament {depute), 
at whose house we were yesterday, has given us tickets of 
admission. 9. Near the middle of the square there is an 
obelisk which was brought to France in the time of (sous) 
Louis-Philippe. 10. Statues which represent the most im- 
portant cities of France are situated around the square. 

11. What is that statue on which I see so many wreaths? 

12. It is a statue which represents a city the loss of which 
caused much sorrow to France. 13. Let us look again at 
what is around us. 1 4, Where does that avenue lead, through 
which we see the carriages passing? 15. And what public 
gardens are those on our left, to which we are going (se 
rendre)1 16. They (ce) are the gardens of the Tuileries. 
17. Farther oft* you see the Louvre, in which lived (vivre) the 
kings of France. 18. All that you have shown me is very 
interesting. 19. I thank you very much. 

90 LESSON XXXIII. [§§134-135 


134. The Interrogative Pronouns. 

^ qui ? [ki], who ?, whom ? 

>que? [ka], what? 

>quoi? [kwa], what? 
lequel? [lakel], m. s., lesquels? [lekel], m. pi. ")^ which?, which one(s)?, 
laquelle ? [lakel], f. s. , lesquelles ? [lekel], f. pi. J what one(s) ? 

135. Use of Interrogatives. 1. Qui? = ' who?,' 'whom?,' 

is used of persons : 

Qui Sonne ? Qui sont-elles ? Who is ringing ? Who are they ? 

Dites-moi qui sonne. Tell me who is ringing. 

Qui a-t-il frapp^ ? Whom has he struck ? 

De qui parlez-vous ? Of whom are you speaking ? 

2. * Whose V denoting ownership simply = ^ qui ?, otherwise 
generally de qui ?, butjiever dont : 

A qui est ce livre ? Whose book is this ? 

De qui etes-vous (le) fils ? Whose son are you ? 

3. Que? = 'what?,' stands always as the object or the 
predicate of a verb : 

Que vous a-t-il dit ? Qu'est-ce ? What did he tell you? What is it ? 

4. 'What?' as subject is usually qu*est-ce qui?, and 
' what' in indirect question is usually ce qui (ce que, etc.) : 

Qu*est-cc qui vous a int<5re886 ? What has interested you ? 

Jii no HiiiH pjiH ce qui m'a frapp<^. I do not know what struck nie. 

l>it<5H-ni()i ce que vous desire/.. Tell mo what you doniro. 

T). Quoi ? =« * what V stands regularly after a preposition, or 
abftolutoly, the verb being understood : 
A quoi p<!nM4s/,-vouH? What are you thinking of? 

Jo chorcho quulquo ohoHo. -Quoi? lam l<M)king for something. — What? 

6. Lequei? (la<juolle?, etc.) = ' which ?,' 'which or what 
one1|' agreen in gfindrr with the noun referred to. Both parts 
of lequel (le nud quel) are inflectcMl, and the usual contrac- 
tioriH with de ami k (''f. ^'^^^, 46) take place: 
Laquelle «!«« »lum«^H umI hi'! Which of the lodieH is there? 

Auquel <lim horiimuN |mrle-t-il 7 To which of tho men doos ho speak V 

§135] LESSON XXXIII. 91 


A. Mon ami et moi continuons aujourd'hui notre promenade. 
Nous allons voir d'autres choses int^ressantes. Je demande a 
mon ami : ''Qu'est-ce que c'est que Tile de la Cite dont vous 
me parlez ? " — L'ile de la Cite est une ile dans la Seine oii on 
trouve plusieurs des grands Edifices publics de Paris. Mais 
vous . allez voir tout de suite. Nous voici au Pont-Neuf par 
lequel on entre dans la Citd — Quel est ce grand edifice dont 
nous approchons ? — C'jest le Palais de Justice. — Qu'est-ce que 
c'est que le Palais de_ Justice'? — C'est I'endroit ou les juges 
r^glent les differen(}s qui existent entre les particuliers . — 
Quelle est cette part^e de I'edifice qui ressemble a une eglise? — 
C'est, en effet, une eglise qui s'appelle la Sainte-Chapelle. — Par 
qui a-t-elle et^ batie ? — Elle a ete batie par un roi de France qui 
s'appelait Saint-Louis, fils de la celebre Blanche de Castille. 
Mais continuons notre cherain. En avan9ant nous voyons 
I'Hotel-Dieu. — Qu'est-ce que c'est .que I'Hotel-Dieu?— C'est un 
hdpital. — Et en face de nous quelle est cette grande eglise 1 — 
C'est I'eglise de Notre-Dame dont nous avons deja tant parle. — 
Oh oui, je me rappelle. Je ne sais pas a quoi je pensais. Que 
je suis bete ! Laquelle est la plus ancienne, I'eglise de Notre- 
Dame ou la Madeleine 1 — Notre-Dame est beaucoup plus 
ancienne : elle est parmi les plus anciennes dglises de 1 'Europe. 
C'est une belle facade ; admirons-la un peu. Regardez les trois 
portails qui sont ornes de statues. — Qu'est-ce que c'est que 
cette rangde de statues au-dessus des portails ?— C'est ce qu'on 
appelle la galerie des rois. — Qu'est-ce que cela signifie? — On 
dit que les vingt-huit statues representent des rois de France. 
Au-dessus de la galerie il y a une belle rosace , plus haut, une 
deuxieme galerie ou il n'y a pas de statues, et encore plus haut, 
les deux grandes tours ou se trouvent les cloches. 

B. Write in French one example t)f the correct use of each 
of the following interrogative forms and locutions : 1 . Que ? 
2. Est-ce que? 3. Qu'est-ce que? 4. Quel? 5. Quelle? 
6. Quels ? 7. Quelles ? 8. Qui ? 9. Qu'est-ce que c'est que ? 
10. Quoi? 11. Lequel? 12. Laquelle? 13. Lesquels ? 
14. Lesquelles. 15. A qui? 16. De qui? 

C. (Oral.) 1. Avec qui vous promenez-vous aujourd'hui? 
2. Qu'est-ce que vous alle^ voir? 3,(^Qu'estce que < c'est que 

92 . LESSON XXXIV. [§136 

Tile de la Cite? 4. Ou est-ce qu'elle est situee? 5. Quels 
edifices s'y trouvent 1 6 Comment s'appelle ce pont-la 1 
7. Qu'est-ce que c'est que ce grand palais ? 8. J 'en vois 
deux, lequel voulez-vous dire ? 9. Voulez-vous me dire par qui 
la Sainte-Chapelle a ^t^ batie? 10. Savez-vous de qui il ^tait le 
fils ? 1 1. Savez-vous ce que c'est que I'Hotel-Dieu 1 1 2. Quelle 
est la plus ancienne de ces deux ^glises, Notre-Dame ou la 
Madeleine? 13. Quel est I'autre Edifice que vous voulez visiter 
maintenant? 14. Auquel voulez-vous aller? 15. Ou sont ces 
fameux portails dont vous parliez? 16. Qu'y a-t-il au-dessus 
des portails? 17. Qu'est-ce que c'est que la galerie des rois ? 

18. Voulez-vous me dire ce qu'il y a dans cette tour-1^? 

19. Qu'est-ce qui vous a int^ress^ le plus dans cet edifice? 
Etc., etc. 

D. 1. What interesting things are you going to see to-day? 
2. What is the ile de la Cit^ ? 3. What is the name of the 
bridge by which one enters it (y) 1 4. Which of those build- 
ings is the Palais de Justice? 5. What is the Palais de 
Justice ? 6. What is a judge ? 7. A judge is a man who 
settles disputes. 8. There is a part of the building which 
resembles a church ; what is it? 9. Will you tell me ])y whom 
the Sainte-Chapelle was built? 10. Which of those Vmildings 
is the H6tel-Dieu? 11. Do you know what the H6tel-Dieu 
is ? 12. What is the name of that large church in front of us ? 
13. Which is the more ancient of those two churches, Notre- 
Dame or la Madeleine ? 14. Which of these two churches do 
you admire the most? 15. In which do you attend mass? 
16. What is it that people call "la galerie des rois"? 17. What 
is there in tlie two high towt^rs on the right hand and on the 
leftl 18. What has interested you most in Notre-Dame? 


136, Indefinite Pronouns. The indefinite pronouns of 
mrmt fre(|uent occurrunco ;ii < 

J. On [5], 'one/ 'lonioonr, "". ' tluiy,' ' jMjoplc,' otc (cf. 

8 4H). 

2. Quelqu'un (kdk •••|, in. quelqu'une (kelk ynj, f., 'MoMulxxiy,' 'Hutne 
uuv,' 'liny ()ii«s' plurul qiiclques-uns |kelki)/. (ij, in., quelques-unes 

(k( lk.»/. VII I f , 'Miinm/ * Honiu pcuplu/ *anv'," ' -l l<iw' : 

§137] LESSON XXXIV. 98 

II y a quelqu'un a la porte. There is somebtxly at the door. 

J'ai vu quelques-unes de vos amies. I have seen some of your friends. 
Avez-vous des cerises, madame ? Have you any cherries, madam ? 
J'en ai quelques-unes. I have a few. 

3. Quelque chose [kelka joi?,], m., ' something,' * anything ' : 
Quelque chose est tomb6. Something has fallen. 

J'ai quelque chose de bon. I have something good. 

4. Along with ne + a verb, or when alone, a verb being understood, 
personne [person], m., means 'nobody, 'not anybody,* 'no one,' and 
rien[rje], m., 'nothing,' 'not anything': 

Je n'ai parl^ k personne. I did not speak to anybody. 

Vous n'avez rien apporte. You have brought nothing. 

II n'a rien dit de mauvais. He said nothing bad. 

Qu'a-t-il dit ?— Rien. What did he say ?— Nothing. 

Personne ici ! Nobody here ! 

137' Certain forms serve both as adjectives and as pronouns. 
Those of most frequent occurrence are : — 

1. Autre [otr], 'other' (adjective); un autre, 'another,' I'autre, 
' the other' (pronoun) : 

Une autre fois ; d'autres causes. Another time ; other causes. 
Les autres iront aussi. The others will go too. 

2. Distinguish un autre from encore un : 

Une autre plume. Another (a different) pen. 

Encore une plume. Another (an additional) pen. 

3. From autre are formed various locutions : 
L'une et I'autre occasion. Both occasions. 

Les uns et les autres partent. Both (all) are going away. 

Donnez-le a I'un ou a I'autre. Give it to either. 

Ce n'est ni pour les uns ni pour It is for neither (for none of them). 

les autres. 
Elles se flattent les unes les autres. They flatter each other, 
lis ont peur les uns des autres. They are afraid of one another. 

4. When used with ne + a verb, or when alone, the verb being under- 
stood, aucun [okce], nul [nyl], pas un [paz ce], as adjectives = ' no,' ' not 
one,' ' not any,' and as pronouns = ' none,' ' no one,' ' not one ' : 
Aucun auteur ne dit cela. No author says that. 

A-t-on de I'espoir ? — Aucun. Have they any hope ? — None. 

94 ~ LESSON XXXIV. [§137 

5. Tel [tel]='such,' un tel = 'such a.' 'Such' as an adverb is si 
[si] or tellement [telmcij : 

Telles sont nies douleurs. Such are my griefs. 

Qui raconte une telle histoire ? Who tells such a story ? 

Una si belle maison. Such a beautiful house. 

Un homnie tellement crueL Such a cruel man. 

6. Tout [tu], m., toute [tut], f., tons [tu (as adj.), tus (as pron.)], m. 
pi., toutes [tut], f. pl., = 'all,' 'every,' 'any,' 'whole,' etc.: 

Tous les hommes. All (the) men. 

Toute ma vie. All my (my whole) life. 

Tous (toutes) sont arriv6(e)8. All have come. 

7. Meme [me:m], before a noun or as a pronoun =* same ' ; meme, 
following the noun or pronoun qualified =' self,' 'very,' 'even,' and 
agrees, but has no article ; as adverb meme = ' even ' : 

La m6me chose. The same thing. 

Ce sont les memes. They are the same. 

Dieu est la Ixjntd meme. God is goodness itself. 

Les enfants memes le savent. The very children know it. 

Nous-memes ; elles-memes. We ourselves ; they themselves. 

lis nous out meme battus. They even beat us. 


A, A Paris on peut s'amuser facilement. On y trouve des 
amusements pour tout le monde. On y trouve des theatres, 
des cirques , des s pectac les de toute esp^co. Hier nous avons 
6t6 k un spectacle qui nous a amus^ beaucoup. Un monsieur 
en ^tait le directeur, mais tous les acteurs ^taient des chats et 
des chiens. C'^tait quelque chose de magnifique. On n'a 
jamais rien vu de plus arausant ! Personne n'avait jamais vu 
ries animaux si intelligents ! II y avait des chiens noirs et 
des chiens blancs. II y en avait des grands et des petits. II 
V en avait de toutes les races : des chiens danois, des chiens de 
berger, des terre-neuve, des I^vriers et des canichos. Les 
grands chiens portaient les petits sur le dos. Qucdques-uns 
itaient hahillA* on homme et en feriune, et faisaient iK^aucoup 
de tours comiqueM. II y on avait <|(ii ruMwiicnt la pipe. 1 1 y en 
avait d'autres qui oausaient ensemble coinnu^ des personnes. 
D'autres promenaient des voitures d'enfant coinrne des bonnes. 
Quelques-uns le promenaient en bioyclette, quelques-uns mar- 

§137] LESSON XXXIV. 95 

chaient sur les pattes de derri^re, et un, plus fort que les autres, 
marchait sur les pattes de devant. 11 y en avait d'autres qui 
se battaient a coups de poing. II y en. avait meme qui tiraient 
des coups de pistolet. lis couraient, ils sautaient, et pas un ne 
semblait s'ennuyer. Les personnes qui assistaient au spectacle 
ne s'ennuyaient pas non plus. On riait, on applaud issait, on 
battait des mains, et personne n'a quitt^ la salle en mauvaise 

B. Write in French one example for the use of each of the 
following in a sentence : 1. On. 2. Quelque chose. 3. Quel- 
que chose de. 4. Quelqu'un. 5. Quelques-unes. 6. Ne . . . 
personne. 7. Ne . . . rien. 8. Autre (adj.). 9. L'une Tautre. 

10. Les uns aux autres. 11. Pas une (adj.). 12. Un tel. 

13. Toutes (adj.). U. Tous (pron.). 15. Meme ( = self). 
16. Meme ( = even). 

6'. (Oral.) 1. Est-ce qu'on s'amuse facilement a Paris? 
2. Y a-t-il des amusements pour tous ? 3. Quelques-uns des 
theatres sont-ils tres c^l^bres 1 4. Avez-vous ^te a quelque 
spectacle hier? 5. Etait-ce quelque chose d'amusant? 6. N'avez- 
vous jamais rien vu de plus amusant ? 7. Avez-vous jamais 
vu un tel spectacle 1 8. A-t-on vu des animaux si intelligents ? 
9. Quelles especes de chiens y avait-iU 10. Qu'est-ce que 
les uns faisaient pendant que les autres fumaient la pipe 1 

11. Avez-vous dit que les uns parlaient aux autres? 12. Com- 
ment se battaient-ils 1 13. Jouaient-ils tous en meme temps 1 

14. Est-ce que tous les chiens semblaient contents? 15. Est- 
ce que les personnes qui y assistaient s'amusaient bien ? 

16. Et personne n'a quitt^ la salle avant la fin, n'est-ce pas? 

17. Ces chiens sont-ils les memes que nous avons vus I'ann^e 
pass^e? 18. Est-ce que les enfants iront les voir encore une 
fois? 19. Irez-vous vous-meme ? 20. Irez-vous meme s'il 
fait mauvais temps ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. There are amusements in Paris for all sorts of people. 
2. There is something new every day. 3. One can find 
amusement in the promenades and public gardens for nothing. 
4. You can also visit the picture galleries for nothing. 5. Some 
of the theatres of Paris are among the best in the world. 
6. Some of its promenades are very celebrated, for example, 
the Champs- Elysees. 7. Yesterday evening I was at a very 
amusing show. 8. Two of my cousins (f.), who are at our 




house, were with me. 9. Both enjoyed themselves very much. 
10. I have never seen anything more amusing myself. 11. It 
was a kind of theatre, in which the actors were dogs and 
cats. 1 2. There were dogs of all races : shepherd's dogs, 
poodles, and many other kinds. 13. Several of the dogs were 
dressed like men and women. 14. Some were walking on 
their hind feet. 15. Others were smoking pipes. 16. And 
there were even a few that were chatting together like people 
in the street. 17. Nobody left the hall before the end of the 
show. 18. We were all very much pleased. 19. We saw the 
same dogs last year, but they seemed all cleverer this year. 
20. I should go to see them again to-morrow if somebody 
accompanied me. 21. I shall go with you myself. 



1. un, une 

2. deux 

3. trois 

4. quatre 

5. cinq 

6. six 

7. sept 

8. halt 
0. neuf 

10. dix 

1 1. onzo 

12. tUmzo 

13. truizo 

14. quiitorae 

15. quince 

16. Mice 

17. dix-Ncpt 

18. (lixhuit 

19. dixnouf 

20. vingt 

Cardinal Numerals. 














[diN set], 
[dix qit]. 
[diz noef]. 


21. vingt et un -^ 

[vft e &l 

22. vingt-deux 

[v?nd d0]. 

30. trente 


31. trente et un -«' 


40. quarante 


60. cincjuante 


60. soixante 


70. soixante-dix ' 

» [swasait dis]. 

71., Boixante-onze 

[awasait oiz]. 

80. quatre-vingtH 

[katr vf]. 

81. quatro-vingt-iui 

[katr vl d']. 

90. quatro-vingt-(Hx 

[katr V? dis]. 

91. quatre- vingt-onzo [katr v? o!/). 

100. cent 


101. cent un 

[8<i *]. 

200. doux cents 

[d0 Hn], 

201. deux cent un 

[d0 Htl .T.J. 

1000. luille 


1001. roilloun 

[mil <t']. 

^»00. deux HiilK) 

[d0 mil]. 

§§139-142] LESSON XXXV. 97 

Nouns of Number: 1,000,000 =:un million [& milj5] ; 2,000,000 = 
deux millions [d0 milja] ; 1,000,000,000 = un milliard [(fe railjair]. 

Observe: 1. The hyphen unites together compound numerals under 
100, except where et occurs. 2. Et stands regularly in 21, 31, 41, 51, 
61, is optional in 70, 71, omitted in si, and elsewhere. 

Notes on Pronunciation : 1. The final consonant of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 17, 18, 19, is silent before initial consonant or h aspirate of a word 
multipMed by them, not elsewhere: *Cinq livres' [s? li:vr], but ' le 
cinq mai' [la se:k me]. 2. No elision or liaison occurs before huit, 
onze : Le huit [l9 qit] ; les huit livres [le qi liivr] ; le onze [la o:z]; 
les onze francs [le 5:z fra]. 3. The t is sounded in vingt in 21, 23, 24, 
25, 26, 27, 28, 29, becomes d in 22, is silent from 81 to 99, is silent in 
cent un, deux cent un, etc. 

139. Million and milliard require de before the object 
enumerated ; cent = 'a {or one) hundred'; mille = ' a (or one) 

thousand ' : 

II a pay^ un million de francjs. He has paid a million (of) francs. 

Ceci vaut cent francs. This is worth a hundred francs. 

140. Quatre-ving^ and the multiples of cent take -s only 
when immediately preceding a noun, oP^when they themselves 
are used as nouns of number : 

Quatre-vingts francs. Eighty francs. 

Trois cents francs. Three himdred francs. 

Les cinq cents. The five hundreds. 

But : Trois cent un francs ; quatre- vingt-un francs, etc. 

Obs. : They are not nouns of number in dates, or when used as ordinals. 

141. Multiplicatives. *Once* = una fois, 'twice' = deux 

fois, ' three times ' = trois fois, etc. : 

Dix fois dix font cent. Ten times ten make a hundred. 

142. Ordinal Numerals. They are formed from 'third' 
upwards by adding -ieme to the corresponding cardinal, final 
e being dropped ; cinq adds u, and neuf changes f to v 
before -i^me ; 

7 . 

98 -^ LESSON XXXV. [§143 

1st premier [pramje]. 7th septienie [setjem]. 

r second [s8go]. . 8th huiti^me [iiitjem]. 

\deuxi6me [d0zjem]. 9th neuvieme [iia'vjein]. 

3rd troisieme [trwazjem]. 10th dixi^me [dizjeni]. 

4th quatrieme [katrjem]. 11th onzi^me [ozjcm]. 

5th cinquienie [sekjem]. 21st vingt et uni6me [vet e 3^njem]. 

6th sixi6me [sizjem]. 22nd vingt-deuxi^me [vend d0zjem]. 

143. Fractions. The numerator is expressed by a cardi- 
nal, the denominator by an ordinal, as in English. ' Half ' = 
moiti^, f. (as noun), and demi (as adjective) ; J = un quart, 
J = un tiers. Before a noun, demi is invariable, and joined 
by a hyphen, but agrees elsewhere. Use la moiti^ (not demi) 
where ' the half of ' is, or may be, used in English : 

Un huiti^me ; les trois dixi^mes. One-eighth ; the three tenths. 

La moiti^ de I'ann^. (The) half (of) the year. 

Une heure et demie. An hour and a half. 

Une demi-heure. Half an hour. 

Les trois quarts de cette somme. Three-fourths of that sum. 


A. En France on indique la valeur des objets par francs et 
centimes. Ixj franc vaut k peu pr^s vingt "cents" de la 
monnaie canadienne ou am^ricaine. Le centime est la centi^me 
partie du franc. On compte souvent aussi par sous pour les 
petites Hommes. Un sou, aussi bien qu'un " cent " amdricain, 
vaut cinq centimes. Pour trouver la valeur, en monnaie 
canadienne, d'une somme queleonque, exprimde en francs, on 
la divise par cinq. Par exem[)le, une somme de sept francs 
quarante centimes (7 fr. 40) vaut un dollar et quaranUi-huit 
"oent«" de notre monnaie. Au contraire, pour trouver la 
valeur en francs d'une somme queleonque, exprimde en dolhirs, 
on la multiplie par cinq. Ainsi $7.45 vaut, en monnaie 
fran^iitei trente-sept francs vingt-cinq centimes (37 fr. 25). 

B, (Oral.) 1. Comptez en fran9ais juscpi'/i dix ; i\i\ dix k 
vin^ ; do vingt k trente. t?. Nommez Ich nombres 40, 11, 50, 
ft], 53, 60, 61, 64. 70, 71, 75, 76, 80, 81, H7, 90, 91, 92, 93, 
100, 101. 102, 118, 171, 179, 200, 2'JO, lOOO, 1001, 75,000, 
2,000,000, |, I, 2f 3. Deux fois un font deux; deux fois 

§144] LESSON XXXVI. 99 

deux font quatre, etc. . .continuez jusqu'a deux fois douze. 
4. Trois fois un font trois, etc. 5. Combien font 2 fois 10 ; 7 
fois 9 ; 9 fois 9 ; 11 fois 111, etc. 6. Donnez les nombres ordi- 
naux jusqu'a vingtieme. 7. Nominez les ordinaux 2P, 5P, 
7P, 89", 101% 200«, 2000«. 8. Comment indique-t-on la valeur 
des objets en France? 9. Combien vaut le franc en notre 
monnaie ? 10. Combien de centimes y a-t-il en un franc? 
11. Quelle partie du franc le centime est-il? 12. Combien 
vaut'le sou? 13. Quelle est la valeur de cent francs en 
monnaie canadienne ? 14. Quelle est la valeur de cent 
dollars en monnaie frangaise ? Etc., etc. 

C. Give in dollars and cents the equivalents of: 1. Cinq 
centimes. 2, Dix centimes. 3. Quinze centimes. 4. Vingt 
centimes. 5. Vingt-cinq centimes. 6. Cinquante centimes. 
7. Soixante-quinze centimes. 8. Quatre- vingt-quinze centimes. 
9. Un franc dix (centimes). 10. Un franc vingt-cinq. 
11. Un franc soixante-quinze. 12. Un franc cinquante. 
13. Dix sous. 14. Vingt sous. 15. Cinquante sous. 16. 
Cent francs. 17. Cent cinquante francs. 18. Deux cents 
francs. 19. Cinq cents francs. 20. Mille francs. 21. Deux 
millions de francs. 

D. Give in French, in francs and centimes, the equivalents 
of: 1. One cent. 2. Five cents. 3. Eight cents. 4. Ten 
cents. 5. Fifteen cents. 6. Eighteen cents. 7. Twenty 
cents. 8. Twenty-five cents. 9. Thirty cents. 10. Fifty 
cents. 11. Seventy-five cents. 12. Ninety cents. 13. One 
dollar. 14. One dollar and twenty-five cents. 15. One dollar 
and fifty cents. 16. One dollar and seventy-five cents. 17. 
Two dollars. 18. Ten dollars. 19. Fifty dollars. 20. A 
hundred dollars. 21. A thousand dollars. 


144. Dates, Titles, etc. 1. The form mil is used in 
dates of the Christian era, from 1001 to 1099 :'Trom 1100 to 
1900, dates are often expressed by hundreds, as so frequently 
in English : 

(En) I'an mil six. (In) the year 1006. 

En mil neuf cent neuf. In nineteen hundred and nine. 

En dix-neuf cent neuf. In 1909. 


100 _, LESSON XXXVI. [§144 

I \_ 

2. Days of the m onth and numerical titles of rulers are 
indicated by c ardinals, except ' first ' = premier : 

Le premier niai. Charles premier. The first of Ma}-. Charles the First. 
Paris, le deux mai. Paris, the 2nd of May. 

Louis quatorze (XIV). Louis XIV. 

3. Observe tlie following date idioms : 

Quel jour du mois est-ee aujour- What day of the month is this ? 

d'hui ? 
Quel jour du mois sommes-nous n n n n 

aujourd'hui ? 
Quel quanti^me du mois est-ce n n .i •■ 


C'est aujourd'hui le quinze. To-day is the fifteenth. 

Ce sera demain le seize. To-morrow will be the sixteenth. 

Le six Janvier. On the sixth of January. 

lis sont arrives lundi. They came on Monday. 

D'aujourd'hui en huit. A week from to-day (future). 

H y a quinze jours. A fortnight ago. 

4. The names of the months may be conveniently learned 
from the following rhyme: 

Trente jours ont septembre, 
Avril, juin, fiovembre ; 
Trente et un ont mars et mai, 
Aoiit, octobro, puis juillet, 
Et d<icorabie et Janvier ; 
De vingt-huit est f^vrier. 

5. Observe the following idioms referring to age: 

Quel ftge avez-vou8 ? How old are you ? 

J*ai vingt ana. I am twenty (years old). 

'^ Unc fillo (lg(^ de six ans. A girl six years old {or of ago). 

A r&go <lo viugt-oinq ana. At the age of twenty-five (years). 


A. Dam tout leH pays 11 y a des jours de f^te, oil on ne 
travaille pas. En France, U^n jourH de f6te reconnus par la loi 
soDt : les dimanches, le jour de fXn, oii on He donne des c^tren- 
nat; le lundi de PAqu^. <|(ii totnbe entre le 21 mars et le 

§144] LESSON XXXVI. 101 

26 avril ; I'Ascension, qui tombe quarante jours apres Paques ; 
le lundi de la Pentecdte, qu'on celebre cinquante jours apres 
Piques en memoire de la descente du Saint-Esprit sur les 
apotres ; la Fete Nationale, qu'on celebre le 14 juillet en 
memoire de la destruction de la Bastille (le 14 juillet, 1789) ; 
rAssomption, qu'on celebre le 15 aout en memoire de I'ascension 
de Ta sainte Vierge ; la Toussaint, la fete de tous les saints, 
qui tombe le I*"" rioVembre; et le jour de Noel, le 25 decembre, 
en memoire de la naissance de Jesus-Christ. II y a beaucoup 
d'autres fetes religieuses, comme par exemple le vendredi saint 
et la Fete-Dieu. H y a aussi, en outre, plusieurs fetes plutot 
populaires que religieuses, quoiqu'ayant une origine religieuse, 
comme le jour des Rois et le mardi gras. 

B. Parmi les rois de France les plus celfebres se trouvent 
ceux-ci: Fran9ois P'^, n^ le 12 septembre, 1494. II a com- 
mence a r^gner en 1515, a I'age de vingt ans. II est mort le 
31 mars, 1547. Louis XIV, ne le 5 septembre, 1638. Lors- 
qu'il n'avait que cinq ans il a succede a son pere le 14 mai, 
1643. Apres un long regne de soixante-douze ans, il est mort 
le I*"" septembre, 1715. Louis XVI, ne le 23 aout, 1754, a 
succede a son grand-pfere, Louis XV, le 10 mai, 1774, a I'age 
de vingt ans. C'est sous son regne que la Revolution a delate. 
II a ^t^ d^capit^ le 21 Janvier, 1793. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Repetez-moi les noms des six premiers mois 
de Fannee. 2. Quels sont les noms des six derniers mois de 
I'annee ? 3. Quels sont les mois qui n'ont que trente jours ? 
4. Le mois de fevrier combien de jours a-t-il ? 5. Quelle est 
la premiere fete de I'annee en France ? 6. Entre quelles dates 
le lundi de Paques tombe-t-il 1 7. Combien de jours y a-t-il 
entre Paques et I'Ascension ? 8. Quand est-ce qu'on celebre 
la Fete Nationale ? 9. En memoire de quoi la c^lebre-t-on ? 
10. Dites-moi la date de la fete de I'Assomption. 11. Qu'est- 
ce que c'est que la Toussaint ? 1 2. Quand est-ce qu'elle se 
celebre 1 13. Qu'est-ce qu'on celebre le jour de Noel ? 14. Quel 
jour du mois sommes-nous aujourd'hui '? 15. Quel jour du mois 
serons-nous demain? 16. Quel jour du mois serons-nous d'au- 
jourd'hui en liuit ? 17. Et lundi de la semaine prochaine quel 
jour du mois serons-nous ? 18. Quel jour,de la semaine Noel 
tombe-t-il cette annee ^ Etc., etc. , ^ )hiX^ • C* ILMt = ^ 

102 LESSON XXXVI. [§144 

D. (Oral.) 1. Quel age avez-vous ? 2. Dans quel mois etes- 
vous n^ % 3. Quel jour du mois ? 4. Quand Francois V est-il 
ne ? 5. Quel age avait-il quand il a commence a regner % 
6. Quand a-t-il commence a regner ? 7. Dites-moi la date de 
sa mort? 8. En quelle annee Louis XIV est-il ne? 9. Quel 
jour du mois? 10. Quel Age avait-il quand il a succed^ a son 
pere? 11. Cpm bien de temps a-t-il regn^? 12. Quand est-il 
mort? 13. 'A qui a succ6d6 Louis XYI? 14. Quand a-t-il dtd 
d^capit^? Etc., etc. 

E. 1. The months of April, June, September and November 
have thirty days. 2. The months of January, March, May, 
July, August, October and December have thirty-one days. 
3. The month of February has twenty-eight, and sometimes 
twenty-nine days. 4. The 1st of January is New -Year's 
Day. 5. On (a I'occasion de) New- Year's Day in France 
people (on) give each other gifts i^irenne). 6. Easter Monday 
falls between the 21st of March and the 26th of April. 7. 
The Fete Nationale is celebrated on the 14th of July. 8. It is 
celebrated in memory of the destruction of the Bastille, in 
1789. 9. The 15th of August is the date of the Feast of the 
Assumption. 10. All Saints' Day falls on the 1st of November. 
11. The 25th of December is Christmas Day. 

F. 1. Francis I., Louis XTV., and Louis XVT., are among 
the most celebrated kings of France. 2. Francis I. was born 
(c»< n^) on the 12th of September, 1494. 3. He was twenty 
years of age when (lorsque) he began to reign. 4. He reigned 
thirty-two years, and died {est mort) in 1547. 5. Louis XIV. 
Ix'gan t/O reign at tlio age of five years, 6. He was born in 
1G3H, on the 5tli of SepU;mber. 7. Ho reigned seventy-two 
years. 8. The day of his death was the Ist of September, 
1715. 9. In the reign of {aouh) TiOuis XVI. the Krcnch devo- 
lution broke out. 10. l/>uiH XVI. Iwwl succjM'dod Louis XV. 
in 1774. II. On the 2lKt of January, 171)3, ho was decapi- 
tatcMl. 12. How old are you? 13, Flow old were you when 
you began to go to school I 14. What is the date of your 
birthday? 15. What day of the month is it to-day? 16. Two 
woeks from to-<ltty (it) will bo the 24th May. 


>, 'V.0 1% <y^ 

§145] LESSON XXXVII. 103 


145. The Time of Day. The hours and fractions of 
hours are indicated as follows : 

Quelle heure est-il ? What o'clock is it ? 

II est deux heures. It is two o'clock. 

*fr^a Keures et demie. Half- past three. 

Trois heures (et) un quart. A quarter past three. 

Quatre heures moins un quart. A quarter to four. 

Trois heures dix (minutes). Ten minutes past three. 

Quatre heures moins cinq (minutes). Five minutes to four. 

Trois heures cinquante-cinq. Three fifty-five. 

. II est midi et demi. It is half -past twelve (noon). 

'II est minuit. It is twelve o'clock (night). 

'A sept heures du soir. At seven o'clock in the evening. 

A quelle heure ? At what o'clock ? 

]k trois heures precises. At three o'clock precisely. 

Vers (les) trois heures. About three o'clock. 


A. Quel jour du mois sommes-nous ? C'est le quinze, n'est-ce 
pas 1 J'ai une lettre a ecrire a mon frere pour lui raconter ce 
que j'ai fait aujourH^ui. C'a et^ une journee bien remplie. 
Le matin a neuf heures un quart j 'arrive chez le tailleur "pour 
essayer mon vetement. C'est un complet en sergeT '11 me va 
tres bien. II coutera cent dix francs. ' A dix heures mxje 
ine^ trouve chez le chapelier. II n'a pas de chapeaux que 
j'aime, et j'en commande lin. Le prbc sera de vingt-deux 
francs. J'entre cliez le gantier a onze neures precises. J'achete 
deux paires de gants dS^Kevreau. A onze heures et demie 
uie voilaTchez le^^marchanoT' de chaussures. On prend ma 
mesure, et on me fera une paire de spuliers. lis seront prets 
dans huit jours. A midi precis je fais ma deuxieme visite au 
m^decin. J'ai fait ma premiere visite il y a huit jours. II 
m'a ausculte, et il a trouve chez moi une le^^ere faiblesse de 
poitrme. 11 m'a fait une ordonnance, et je le visiterai pour la 
troTsTeme fois d'aujourd'hui enTiiiit. *" A midi et demi je dejeune 
dans un restaurant rue de Rivoli. L'addition est de deux 
francs vingt-cinq, avec cinq sous de pourboire. A une heure 

104 LESSON XXXVII. [§145 

vingt-cinq me voila dans les galeries du Louvre. J'y passe une 
heure et demie. A trois heures un quart j'arrive au Theatre- 
Fran9ais. Je paie ma place au parterre deux francs cinquante. 
On joue le Cid de Corneille. A six heures moins vingt-cinq 
j'arrive ici. J'etais tres fatigue, et je me repose pendant une 
heure avant de m'habiller pour diner. A sept heures dix 
nous nous mettons a table. Nous dinons bien. Nous causons 
apres. Et \oWk maintenant huit heures et demie. Je vais 
ecrire ma lettre. 

B. 1. Relate the above, beginning at the fifth sentence, 
using * mon fr^re ' as the subject, and making the necessary 
changes throughout. 2. Re-write the extract, substituting a 
time five minutes later for each hour of the day mentioned. 

C. (Oral.) 1. C'est aujourd'hui le dix, n'est-ce pas] 2. Quel 
jour de la semaine est-ce? 3. Quelle heure est-il a votre montre? 
4. Avez-vous ^t^ en ville aujourd'hui? 5. A quelle heure 
etes-vous parti ce maHnT 6. Chez qui etes-vous all^ d'abord ] 
7. X^uand etes-vous arriv^ chez lui? 8. Combien votre complet 
en serge coutera-t-il ? 9. A quelle heure vous etes-vous trouve 
chez le chapelier? 10. Quel sera le prix du chapeau que vous 
a vez command^ ? 11. Etes-vous restd une demi-heure chez le 
gantierl 12. Ou dtiez-vous ^ onze heures et demie prdcises? 
13. Vos souliers quand seront-ils prets? 14. A quelle heure 
votre m^decin se trouve-t-il chez lui ? 15. Quand est-ce que 
vous I'avez visit^^ I'autre fois? 16. A quelle heure avez-vous 
d^jeun^? 17. Combien avez-vous payt^? 18. A quelle heure 
files- vous arrivt^ au l^ouvre? 11). A quelle heure avez-vous 
dtn^cesoir? 20. Quelle heure est-il a pn^sont *? Etc., etc. 

D. 1, My lirother has related to me what h(5 did to-day 
down town. 2. Ho has told nie the [)re}cise hour at which he 
was at the tailor's, the hatter's, etc. 3. Ho set out at half- 
past eight. 4. He arrived at the tiiilor's at half-past nine. 
5. He siiys that his serge suit fits him well. 6. He was trying 
on hats at the hatter's at ten minutes after ten. 7. Ho bought 
two pairs of gloves at eIev(Mi o'clock pnunscsly. 8. Half an 
hour Iat4!r he was at the slxsimaker's. 9. His shoes will be 
really in a week. 10. At fiv<5 minutes aft<H' twelve he visited 
his doctor for the set^ond tinm. 11. He will visit him again 
a week from to-day. 12. At lialf-pust twrlvn li(> IumcIkmI in a 
roMtaurant. 13. His lunch cost hiiu two trancs and fifty cen- 




times. 14. At twenty-five minutes past one he went to the 
Louvre to see the paintings. 15. At a quarter to three he 
was at the door of the Theatre-FranQais. 16. At ten minutes 
to six he left the theatre. 17. In a quarter of an hour he was 
at home. 18. He rested for half an hour. 19. At ten minutes 
after seven (the) dinner was ready. 20. All that is interesting 
for him, but not for me. 

146. Past Definite of donner, ffnfr, uencfre. 

I gave, etc. 
donn ai [done], 
donn as [dona], 
donn a [dona], 
donn kmes [donam]. 
donn ates [donat]. 
donn hrent [donezr]. 


I finished, etc. 
fin is [fini]. 
fin is [fini]. 
fin it [fini]. 
fin imes [finim]. 
fin ites [finit]. 
fin irent [finiir]. 

I sold, etc. 
vend is [vadi]. 
vend is [vadi]. 
vend it [vadi]. 
vend imes [vadim], 
vend ites [vadit]. 
vend irent [vadi:r]» 

eus [y]. 
eus [y]. 
eut [y]. 

Past Definite of auoir, etre. 

I had, etc. I was, etc. 

eumes [ym]. fus [fy]. fumes [fyra]. 

eutes [yt]. fus [fy]. futes [fyt]. 

eurent [y:r]. fut [fy]. furent [fyjr]. 

148. Use of the Past Definite. The past definite is 

used in the literary narrative style to denote what happened 
(completed past action), or what happened next (successive 
events). It never denotes, like the imperfect (§87), what was 
happening or used to happen, or continued to happen : 

Les Romains briilerent Carthage. The Romans burnt Carthage. 

God accepted the gifts of Abel, 
who was more righteous than his 
brother; but he turned away his 
eyes from those of Cain, because his 

heart was not pure One day 

Cain and Abel were alone in a field, 
and Cain fell upon Abel, and slew 

Dieu accepta les presents d'Abel, 
qui etait plus pieux que son frere ; 
mais il detourna les yeux de ceux 
de Cain, parce que son coeur n^ etait 
pas pur. . . .Un jour Cain et Abel 
4taient seuls dans un champ, etCain 
se jeta sur Abel, et le tua. 

106 LESSON XXXVIII. [§149 

149. Past Definite of f aire (irreg.). 

I did, etc. 

je fis [3 a fi]. nous fimes [nu fim]. 

tu fis [ty fi]. vous fites [vii fit]. 

ilfit[ilfi]. ilsfirent[ilfi:r]. 


Note. — Up to this point the past indefinite has been used exclusively in the exercises 
to express completed action in past time. It was thought well to give ample practice 
in the past indefinite, owing to its almost exclusive use as a past tense in the language 
of every-day life. Since the past definite, however, is so extensivelj' employed in 
narration in the literary or elevated style, and since familiarity with its forms is so 
necessary for the reading of books, this tense will be given prominence in the extracts 
and exercises which follow. 

A. Un petit rouge-gorge frappa a notre fenefcre. "Ayez 
piti^ de moi ! Ouvrez-moi, je vous prie ; la neige tombe, la 
bise souffle, et j'ai bieii faim." 

Nous eumes piti^ du petit rouge-gorge, et j'ouvris la fenetre. 
Le gentil oiseau vola dans la chambre, et raraassa les miettes 
de pain qui ^taient tombdes jde la table. Bient6t meme il 
becqueta le grain dans la main qu'on lui tendait. 

Mais lorsque la neige fut fondue, le printemps revint et les 
haies se couvrirent de feuilles. Nous ouvrimes la fenetre, et 
noti*e petit h6te s'envola dans le bois voisin, ou 11 batit son nid, 
et nous entendtmes ses joyeuses chansons. 

L'hiver revint, et le rouge-gorge revint aussi, cette fois avec 
sa compigne. Les deux petits oiseaux entr6i-ent avec con- 
fiance dans la cliambro, et nous nous r^jouiuKis bcaucoup de 
les re voir. 

/?. Continue tlm following : 1. J'eua pitiu de lui, tu cus, etc. 
2. J'ouvris la fcnfitre, tu, etc. 3. Jo volai dans la (Oianibio, 
tu, etc. 4. Je rarna.s.sai les miettes de pain, tu, etc. 5. Je 
ine couvris la t6t<?, tu, etc. 6. Je m'envolai dans le l)oiH, tu, 
etc 7. Je b&tis un« maison de piorre, tu, etc. 8. .I'ciitondis 
des chanitons d'oiseau, tu, etc. 9. J'entrai dans la chain bre, 
to, etc. 10. Jo mo n'jouis de les revoir, tu, etc. 11. Je fis 
mon devoir, tu Ah ton, ok;. 12. Jo fus joyeux, tu, etc. 

C, (Oral.) 1. De quel oiseau raconte-t-on cette histoire? 
2. Oe petit roug«'-j(orgo ou frappa til If 3, Qu'ost ce (ju'il a dif? 
4. £ft-oe que vouh eOtcs (or ave/. uu) pitid do lui? f). C^ui 

§150] LESSON XXXIX 107 

ouvrit la fenetre ? 6. Et alors le rouge-gorge que fit-il? 
7. Qu'est-ce qu'il ramassa 1 8. Qu'est-ce qu'on lui tendait 
souvent dans la main? 9. Quelle saison arriva enfin 1 10. La 
neige etait-elle deja fondue? 11. Qu'est-ce que vous files {or 
avez fait) alors ? 12. Et le petit rouge-gorge ou sen vola-t-il ? 
13. Qu'est-ce qu'il batit dans le bois] 14. Chantait il souvent? 
15. Ses chansons etaient-elles joyeuses ou tristes ? 16. Enten- 
dites-vous ses chansons ? 17. Quand le rouge-gorge re vint-il ? 
18. Qui I'accompagna ? 19. Qui ouvrit la fenetre de la cham- 
bre cette fois ? 20. Et les oiseaux que firent-ils ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. Here is the story of a little robin. 2. The snow was 
falling, the north wind was blowing, and the robin was hungry. 
3. He often knocked at our window. 4. At last I had pity 
on the poor bird, and I opened the window. 5. The pretty 
little robin flew into the room. 6. There were some crumbs 
of bread on the table, and he picked them up. 7. My sister 
used to hold out crumbs to him in her hand. 8. At last he 
pecked at them. 9. In spring the snow melted, and the 
hedges were covered with leaves and flowers. 10. The little 
robin was sad, and did not sing. 11. 1 opened the window, 
and he flew away. 12. He built his nest in a neighbouring 
wood. 13. We heard his joyful song again. 14. The robin 
returned (revint) with the winter. 15. Another robin ac- 
companied him this time. 16, We rejoiced very much at 
this. 17. We opened our windows, and the two birds flew 
into the room. 18. They passed a second winter with us, 
and flew away again in spring. 

150. Imperfect Subjunctive of donner, finir, vend re. 

(That) I gave, might (That) I finished, might (That) I sold, might 
give, etc. finish, etc. sell, etc. 

donn asse [donas]. fin isse [finis]. vend isse [vddi.s], 

donn asses [donas]. fin isses [finis]. vend isses [vadis]. 

doini kt [dona]. fin it [fi»i]- vend it [vadi]. 

donn assions [donasjo]. fin issions [tinisjo]. send issions [vadisj.l]. 

donn assiez [donasje]. fin issiez [finisjc]. vend issiez [vddisje]. 

donn assent [donas]. fin issent [finis]. vend issent [vadis]. 

108 LESSON XXXIX. [§§151-152 

151. Imperfect Subjunctive of avoir, etre. 

(That) I had, might liave. (That) I was, were, might be, etc. 

eusse [ys]. eussions [ysjo]. fusse [fys]. fussions [fysjo]. 

eusses [ys]. eussiez [ysje]. fusses [fys]. fussiez [fysje]. 

efit [y]. eussent [ys]. fut [fy]. fussent [fys]. 

152. Tense Sequence. Any other tense than the present 
or future (§107) in the governing clause regularly requires the 
imperfect subjunctive in the governed clause ; so also for com- 
pound subjunctive tenses, the auxiliary being considered as 
the verb : 

'I was desiring him to remain. 
,.. , , . . I desired him to remain. 
^ 'I should desire him to remain. 

I had desired him to remain. 

Impf. Je desirais 

P. Def. Je d^sirai 

CoNDL. Je desirerais 

Plupf. J'avais desir^ 


A. L'^ducation d'Henri IV, roi de France, fut dirig(5e par 
son grand-p^re Henri d'Albret, roi de Navarre, qui ne voulut 
pas qu'on elev&t le jeune prince avec la d^licatesse qu'on a 
d'ordinaire pour les gens de cette quality, sachant bien (|ue 
dans un corps inou et tendre n'habite ordinaireraent qu'une 
Ame molle et faible. II d^fendit aussi qu'on I'liabillat ridie- 
ment, qu'on lui donnat des babioles, et qu'on le flattfit, parce 
que toutes ce« chosos ^l^vent le coeur des enfants plut6t dans 
I'orgueil que dans les sentiments de la g^n(5rositt?. Mais il 
ordonna qu'on habillAt et qu'on nourrit son petit-fils coinine 
les autres onfants du pays, et mfime qu'il fut accoutuino a 
courir et k grimper sur les rochers, pour I'habituer a la 

NfJTR.— The Imperfect tuhjunctive ii of very limited use in the lantcuoKe of evory 
day life, beitiK nuwly employed except in the literary or elevated ittyle. A knnwlcdirc 
Of Ite forma and their uee i«, however, neoeeeary for reading puriK>HCH. 

A Continue the following: 1. Mon p^re ne voulait pas (juc 
Je pai^iiwe hier, que tu partisHCH, etc. 2. Ij<; inaitrn drfViidit^ 
que je piiHaKHo h, Henri, quo tu, ot<j. 3. Notro voisin (l«'sirait, 

auejelui v«»ndiMM« iUin pouiinoM, (pie tu, ot(;. 4, Vt\ boii roi 
^irerait quo jn fusHo iKMinMix, quo tu, otn. 5. Un t>ol roi 
ngreiterMl que j'eusse beHoin do ricn, (pie tu, etc. 



Turn the governing verbs in the extract into the present 
indicative, and make the necessary changes in the subjunctive 
forms. — 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui etait le grand-pere d'Henri IV? 2. Par 
qui I'education d'Henri IV fut-elle dirigee] 3. Le jeune 
prince fut-il eleve avec delicatesse ou avec severite 1 4. Est-ce 
qu'on a ordinairement beaucoup de deUcatesse pour les jeunes 
princes 1 5. Le vieux roi voulait-il qu'on elevat le prince avec 
delicatesse 1 6. Quelle ame trouve-t-on souvent dans un corps 
mou et tendre ? 7. Henri d'Albret desirait-il que son petit- 
fils eut une telle ame? 8. Les gens de la cour aiment-ils a 
flatter les jeunes princes? 9. Le grand-pere aimait-il qu'on 
flattat ce jeune prince? 10. Permettait-il que les gens de la 
cour flattassent son petit-fils? 11. Votre pere permettait-il 
que vous vous habillassiez richeraent quand vous etiez jeune ? 
12. Henri d'Albret ordonna-t-il que son petit-fils eut une 
nourriture riche? 13. Comment voulut-il qu'on le nourrit? 
14. Pourquoi ordonna-t-il que le jeune prince fut accoutume 
k courir et a grimper? 15. Desireriez-vous que je fusse ac- 
coutume a courir et a grimper? 16, Pourquoi le desireriez- 
vous? 17. Desireriez-vous que j'eusse des sentiments de 
gen^rosite? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. Henry d'Albret was the grandfather of Henry IV. 
of France. 2. His grandfather directed his education. 3. 
Here is what the old king said to the people of the court. 

4. " I desire my grandson to have a strong mind {ame). 

5. Knowing that a weak mind usually dwells in a weak body, 
I desire his body to be strong. 6. I desire that nobody should 
flatter him." 7. So you see that the king did not wish the 
prince to be brought up with delicacy. 8. He did not wish 
his grandson to have a soft and weak mind. 9. He wished 
his body to be strong in order that his mind might not be 
weak. 10. He did not like the people of the court to flatter 
him. 11. He forbade them to flatter him. 12. He did not 
permit them even to give him trinkets. 13. He ordered the 
prince to be dressed like the other children of the country. 
14. He allowed him to play with the other children and to 
climb the rocks, 15. He wished him to be fed like the other 
children too. 16. All this he did because he wished his grand, 
son to be a good king. 17. Our parents wish us to be strong 
and good. 18. They would not wish us to be weak and bad. 



A. Un matelot, a bord d'un vaisseau, ayant^ eu la maladresse 
de laisser tomber par-dessus le bord une theiere d'argent, alla- 
trouver le capitaine et lui dit^ : "Peut-on^ dire^ d'une chose, 
qu'elle est^ perdue*^, lorsqu'on sait^ ou elle est^l — Non, moii 
ami. — En ce cas, vous n'avezi rien a craindre^ pour votre 
theiere; car je sais" qu'elle est^ au fond de la mer." 

« § 154. 3 § 193. » § 154. T § 222. « § 190. 

»§160. ♦§221. «§210. 

(The sections indicated give the forms of the irregular verbs. ) 

B. Complete the following by conjugating the tense in full, 
repeating also the remainder of the expression along \|ith the 
verb: 1. II alia trouver le capitaine. 2. II lui dit. 3. Peut- 
il dire? 4. II sait ou il est. 5. Elle est perdue. 6. Vous 
n'avez rien a craindre. 

C. (Oral.) 1. De quelles personnes parle-t-on dans cette 
histoirel 2. Ou etaient ces personnes'/ 3. Qu'avait fait le 
matelot] 4. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'une tht^i^re ? 5. En quoi 
^tait cette th^i^rel 6. A qui ^tait-elle"? 7. Ou etait-elle 
tomb^e 1 8. Savait-on oii elle dtait 1 9. Etait-elle alors vrai- 
ment perdue? 10. Mais quel ^tait I'argument du matelot 1 
Etc., etc. 

D. 1. The sailor was so clumsy as to let the tea-pot fall. 
2. If you let a silver tea-pot fall into the sea, it is lost. 3. Go 
to the captain. 4. I went to the captain. 5. Tell him that 
the tea-pot is not lost. G. The captain will say : " My good 
fellow, did you drop my silver tea-pot into the seal" 7. When 
w« are on Ixiard of a .ship we do not let tea-pots fall into the 
sea. 8. Where is the tea-pot 1 9. I do not know where it is, 
10. No one finds tea- pots at the bottom of the sea. 

E. A sailor dropped the captain's silver tea-pot into tljc sea. 
Tlie captain went to the sailor and said to him : " You let my 
teft-pot fall into the sea, did you not? It is lost." " No, no," 
said the sailor, " I know where it is. It is at the bottom of 



A. Un Arabe, egare dans le desert, n'avait^ pas mang^^ 
depuis deux jours, et se voyait-^ menace'* de mourir^ de faim. 
En passant pres d'un de ces puits ou les caravanes viennent*' 
abreuver leurs chameaux, il voit^ sur le sable un petit sac de 
cuir. II le ramasse et le t^te. "Allah soit'' beni^ ! dit-il^; 
ce sont/ je crois,^^ des dattes ou des noisettes." Plein de cette 
douce esperance, il se hate d'ouvrir^i le sac ; mais, a la vue de 
ce qu'il contient^'^ . « Helas ! s'ecrie-t-il douloureusement, ce 
ne sonf que des perles !" 

» §154. *§156. »§154. »§193. "§176. 

2 § 156. » § 174. * § 163. »« § 191. ' ' § 177. 

3 §224. «§178. 

B. Complete the following, as in the preceding exercise : 
L II n'avait pas mangd 2. II se voyait menac^. 3. lis 
viennent, 4. II voit son sac. 5. II le t^te. 6. Qu'il soit 
beni ! 7. Je le crois. 8. II se hate d'ouvrir le sac. 9. II 

Relate the story in the first person singular, thus : " Egar^ 
dans le desert, je n'avais pas, etc." 

C. (Oral.) 1. Ou demeurent les Arabes ? 2. Ou est 
I'Arabie ? 3. Ou s'etait egare I'Arabe ? 4. Est-ce qu'il y a 
beaucoup de deserts dans ce pays ? 5. Dans quel etat se 
trouvait I'Arabe 1 6. Par ou passait-il ? 7. Qu'est-ce qu'il a 
vu ? 8. Qu'est-ce qu'il y avait dans le sac 1 9. Etait-il content 
de trouver les perles? 10. Est-ce que les perles ne sont pas 
des choses precieuses 1 11. Qu'est-ce qu'il esp^rait trouver dans 
lesac"? 12. Pourquoi preferait-il des noisettes a des perles*? 
13. Lesquelles prefereriez-vous maintenant? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. The Arab has lost his way. 2. If we had not eaten 
for two days, we should be hungry. 3. We saw ourselves 
threatened with starvation. 4. The caravans will come to 
water their camels at the well. 5. We shall water our camels. 
6. If I saw pearls on the sand, I should pick them up. 7. He 
felt the dates in the bag. 8. If there had been hazel-nuts in 
the leathern bag, he would have hastened to open it. 9. But 


the bag did not contain nuts, it contained only pearls. 10. At 
the sight of that he exclaimed : " I shall die of hunger." 

E. An Arab had lost his way in the desert. Not having 
eaten for two days he saw that he would soon starve. As he 
was passing near a well where the caravans came to water 
their camels, he saw there on the sand a leathern bag which 
he hoped to find full of dates or hazel-nuts. He picked it 
up, felt it, and opened it. Alas, it contained only pearls ! 


A. Un paysan accompagnd de son fils, le petit Auguste 
alla^ un jour visiter ses champs pour voir^ dans quel ^tat ^tait^ 
son bl^. lis arriverent a un champ ou certains epis se te- 
naient* drpits tandis que d'autres ^taient^ lourdement inclines 
vers la terre. Auguste s'^cria : " Quel dommage que ces ^pis 
soient^ si courb^s ! Combien je prefere^ ceux-la qui sont^ 
vigoureux et droits." Le pere prif^ deux des dpis, les roula 
entre ses doigts pour faire^ sortii*® le grain, et r^pondit-* : 
** Regarde un peu mon enfant ; ces ^pis courb^s sont*' pleins 
du meilleur bl^, car c'est^ le poids qui fait'^ pencher leur tete, 
tandis que ceux qui la reinvent ^^ si fierement sont^ vides et ne 
valent^i rien." 

>|lfla «|177. «§202. «§160. 'o§158. 

»|224. 'IISS. M195, »§210. "§228. 


B. Complete the following, as above: 1. 11 alia visiter ses 
champs. 2. lis arrivferent h, un champ. 3. lis se tenaient 
droits. 4. II s'dcria. 5. Quel dommage qu'ils soient si 
oourb^! 6. Je prdf^re ceux-1^. 7. II en prit deux. 8. II 
fait pencher leur t^to. 9. lis ne valent rien. 

Give tlie present indicative in full of: 1. Alia. 2. Be 
tenaient. 3. Prit. 4. Fait. 5. Valent. 

Relate the story, substituting tho past ind(>fuiite for the past 
definite, thus: *'Un paysan. . .est alld visiter," etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un paysan? 2. Oh. ce 
paysan ost-il all<^? 3. EKt-co qu'il dtait h<>u1 ? 4. Qui est all^ 
avec lui 1 6. Pourquoi sont-ils all^s aux champs 1 (5. Com- 
ment 80 tenaient certains ^pis dans les champs qu'ils ont 


visit^s 1 7. Tous les dpis se tenaient-ils droits 1 8. Comment 
les autres se tenaient ils '? 9. Quel epis prt'ferait le petit 
Auguste? 10. Qu'est-ce qu'il s'est eerie? 11. Lewquels pre- 
ferez-vous? 12. Pourquoi les preferez-vous ? 13. Lesquels 
des epis etaient courbes? 14. Qu'est-ce qui leur faisait pen- 
cher la tete ? 15. Pourquoi les autres se tenaient-ils si droits 1 
16. Lesquels valent le plus? 17. Comment le pere a-t-il de 
montrd cela a son fils? 18. Les personnes fieres valent-elles 
ordinairement grand'chose? 19. Pr^ferez-vous les personnes 
modestes? Etc., etc. 

J). 1. 1 am going to see the fields. 2. If you were to go 
and visit the fields, in what condition would you find the 
wheat? 3, Hold yourself upright. 4. Take two ears of 
wheat. 5. Rub the grain out. 6. The best wheat is not in 
the upright ears. 7. The full ears are bent, whilst the empty 
ears are upright. 8. Just look, my boy, the upright ears are 
empty. 9. Full heads are worth a great deal, but empty 
heads are worth nothing. 

Use either the past definite or the past indefinite for the 
narrative tenses of the following : 

U. Little Augustus went one day to the fields. He went 
with his father, who was going to see whether his wheat was 
ripe. They arrived at a wheat-field. Augustus observed that 
certain ears of wheat were bent down towards the earth. He 
observed also that others held themselves upright. He said 
to his father : " Look at those ears of wheat. What a pity 
they are so bent down ! I prefer those which hold them- 
selves upright." His father wished to teach him a lesson. 
He took two of the ears of wheat, and rolled them between 
his fingers. The one was empty and was worth nothing. The 
other was full of good wheat. Then he said: "Look, my boy, 
this ear which raised its head so proudly was almost empty. 
On the contrary, this other which was so bent down was full 
of the best grain. We observe the same thing amongst men. 
Those who are proud have an (the) empty head. They are 
worth nothing. On the contrary, those who are modest and 
humble are generally the best." 



A. Un laboureur etant sur le point de mourir^, et voulant^ 
donner a ses enfants une derniere preuve de sa tendresse, les 
fit^ venir^ aupres de lui, et leur dit^: "Mes enfants, apres 
moi vous aiirez le champ que mon pere a possede^, le champ 
qui m'a servi'^ a dlever^ et a nourrir ma famille. Cherchez 
bien dans ce champ, et vous trouverez un tr^sor." 

Les enfants, aprfes la mort de leur pere, se mirent^ k retour- 
ner le champ en tous sens, bechant, labourant la terre. lis 
n'y trouv^rent ni or ni argent; mais la terre bien remude, bien 
labour^e, produisit^** une moisson abondante. Le sage vieillard 
ne les avait pas tromp^s ; il leur avait euseign^ que le travail 
est un tr^or. 

»§174. •§195. •9193. »816e. »§198. 

*f226. «§178. •§158. "flSS. '"§185. 

B. Complete the following, as above: 1. II les fit venir 
aupres de lui. 2. lis se mirent a retourner le champ. 3. II 
produisit une moisson. 4. II ne les avait pas tromp^s. 

Give the future and the past definite in full of : 1. Mourir. 
2. Voulant. 3. Fit. 4. Venir. 5. Dit. 6. Servir. 

C. (Oral.) 1. De queiles personnes parle I'histoire? 2. 
Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un laboureur? 3. Ce laboureur-ci (5tait-il 
unjeune liomme? 4. Dans quel ^tat se trouvait-il? 5. Qu'est- 
ce qu'il allait laisser k ses enfants? 6. Avait-il achet^ ce 
champ f 7. Illtait-ce un bon champ? 8. Quel conseil le 
laboureur a-t-il donn^ k ses enfants ? 9. Ont-ils bien clierch^? 
10. Estrce qu'ils y ont trouvtS de Tor 1 11. Leur p^re les avait-il 
tromp^s, alors ? 12. Quel trdsor ont-ils trouvd? 13. Quelle est 
la morale de I'histoire ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. The father gave his children a proof of his love. 2. 
He called his children into his presence. 3. The children will 
own the field after the father. 4. The children dc^lvod and 

{)loughed the field. 5. Stir the land, and it will ])nK]uce a 
larvent. 6. If you plougli this fiel<l, you will find a treasure. 

7. It will not bo silver or goI<i, but it will Ix^ a good harvest. 

8. Your fiithor is not deceiving yuu, he is teaching you a good 


E. A husbandman, who was at the point of death, wished to 
teacli his children that hibour is a treasure. Calling his chil- 
dren into his presence, he told them that they would have the 
field which his father had owned. It was a good field, and it 
had fed his father and his father's family. If they would 
seek in it, they would find a treasure there. After the old 
man's death, the children dug everywhere in the field, but 
they found no treasure. There was no gold or silver, but they 
stirred the land so well that they had an abundant harvest. 
They had not been deceived. Their father had taught them a 
good lesson. 


A. Louis XI Y, traversant avec sa cour la galerie de Ver- 
sailles, aper9oit^ Jean Bart fumant sa pipe dans I'embrasure 
d'une fenetre ouverte^; il le fait-^ appeler'*, et lui dit^ d'un 
ton afiectueux : " Jean Bart, je viens^ de vous nommer chef 
d'escadre. — Vous avez bien fait^, sire, re])ondit'^ le marin en 
continuant de fumer tranquillement sa pipe." Cette brusque 
rdponse ayant excite parmi les sots courtisans un grand ^clat 
de rire : " Vous vous trompez, messieurs, leur dit^ gravement 
le roi, cette reponse est celle d'un homme qui sent^ ce qu'il 
vaut^, et qui compte m'en donner bient6t de nouvelles preuves. 
Sans doute, Jean Bart ne parle pas comme vous ; mais qui de 
vous peut^^ faire^ ce que fait^ Jean Bart 1 " 

•§213. •■'§195. 6 §193. »§210. » § 223. 

= § 176. < § 158. « § 178. 8 § 166. »« § 221. 

B. Complete the following, as above : 1. II aper9oit Jean 
Bart. 2. II le fait appeler. 3. Je viens de le nommer. 
4. Vous avez bien fait. 5. Vous vous trompez. 6. II sent 
ce qu'il vaut. 7. II ne parle pas comme les autres. 

Give the imperfect indicative and the imperfect subjunctive 
of: 1. Apercoit. 2. Fait. 3. Dit. 4. Viens. 5. Sent. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui^tait Louis XIV? 2. Ou est Versailles ? 
3. Qu'est-ce que c'etait autrefois? 4. Quel est 1 'autre person- 
nage de notre histoire? 5. Quelle etait sa profession? 6. Etait- 
il, ce jour-la, a bord de son vaisseau ? 7. Qu'est-ce qu'il faisait 
qui mon trait qu'il n'etait pas courtisan ? 8. De quelle f a9on le 
roi a-t-il montr^ qu'il n'en etait pas m^content? 9. Quelle 


sorte de reponse Jean Bart a-t-il faite an roi? 10. Quelle im 
pressioii a-t-elle faite sur les courtisans? 11. Quelle en etait 
I'opinioii du roi'? 12. Pourquoi etait-il perniis a Jean Bart, et 
non pas aux courtisans, de faire une brusque reponse? Etc., etc. 

D. I. The king sends for Jean Bart. 2. I shall call him. 
3. We have just called Jean Bart. 4. The king had just 
appointed him rear-admiral. 5. A great outburst of laughter 
was excited by Jean Bart's blunt answer. 6. The king did not 
appoint the stupid courtiers rear-admirals. 7. We are mis- 
taken ; it is not a blunt answer. 8. Do not make a mistake. 
9. The stupid courtiers did not make blunt answers, because 
they did not feel their own worth. 10. Jean Bart hopes soon 
to give the king new proofs of his worth. 11. We can not do 
what Jean Bart did. 

E. Jean Bart was coolly smoking his pipe in the embrasure 
of a window in the palace {chdteau) of Versailles, as the king, 
accompanied by his courtiers, was passing through the great 
gallery. The king sent for the bi-ave sailor, and told him that 
he had just been appointed rear-admiral. The sailor's blunt 
reply : "You have done well, sire," caused a burst of laughter 
among those who were with the king. But Louis knew that 
it was the reply of a man who would soon give proofs of his 
worth. Jean Bart did not talk like a courtier, but he did 
what courtiers could not do. 


A. J'ai vu^ une petite fourmi qui allait^ <^k et la cherchant 
fortune. Elle a rencontr^ sur son chemin un briu d'lierbe 
qu'ello voudrait* bien emi)orter; mais comment faire^ ] II est 
si gros, et elle si faible. Alors elle est montt^e sur un 
caillou, du haut duquel elle regarde la campagne, com me du 
haut d'une tour. Elle regarde, elle regarde ; enfin elle a 
aper<;u* deux de sen compagnes qui passent par \k, et t^lle 
court^ k elles. Elle se frotte le nez contre lour noz ])()ur lour 
dire^ : " Venez® vite avec moi ; il y a par \h. (juehiue (thosi^ do 
bon!'' Les trois fourmiH ne pr^ipitent vers le brin (TlKM-be et 
le isisissent. Ce que Tune ne pouvait^ faire^, les trois h^ fonf^ 
aiitoont, et elles emportent en triompbe le })rin devonui" 
Mger pour elles. 

i|«4. •ftM. •1218. M103. •rm. 

•ffltti MIN^ 'flM. *|178. '"Kira 


B. Complete the following, as above : 1. Elle allait 9a etla. 

2. Elle voudrait bien I'emporter. 3. Elle est raontee. 4. Elle 
court a elles. 5. Elle se frotte le nez.. 6. Venez. 7. Elles se 
precipitent. 8. Elles le saisissent. 9. Elle ne pouvait pas le 
faire. 10. Elles le font ais^ment. 

Give in full the past definite of: 1. Vu. 2. Rencontrd 

3. Regarde. 4. Apergu. 5. Court. 6. Se precipitent. 7. 
Font. . 

Beginning at the second sentence, relate the story in the 
past definite, thus : " Elle rencontra. etc." 

C. (Oral.) 1. De quel insecte parle-t-on ici ? 2. Qu'est-ce 
qu'elle faisait? 3. Qu'est-ce qu'elle a rencontre sur son 
chemin 1 4. Le brin d'herV)e etait-il gros ou petit ? 5. Et la 
fourmi etait-elle forte ou faible 1 6. Qu'est-ce que la fourmi 
aurait voulu faire? 7. Est-ce qu'elle pouvait le faire toute 
seule 1 8. Ou est-elle montee % 9. Qu'est-ce qu'elle a regarde 
du haut du caillou 1 10. Pour la fourmi le caillou ^tait conime 
une tour, n'est-ce pas? 11. Qu'est-ce qu'elle apergoit enfin ? 
12. Que faisaient les deux compagnes de la fourmi? 13. Et 
la fourmi qu'est-ce qu'elle a fait? 14. Est-ce qu'elle leur a 
parl^ ? 15. Comment leur a-t-elle parle ? 16. Qu'est-ce qu'elle 
leur a dit ? 17. Quelle est la premiere chose qu'ont faite les 
trois fourmis? 18. Et ensuite qu'ont-elles faiti 19. Une 
fourmi pouvait-elle emporter le brin d'herbe ? 20. Les 
trois fourmis ensemble pouvaient-elles le faire aisement ? 
21. Pourquoi le brin d'herbe est-il devenu leger ? Etc., etc. 

D. A little ant was going hither and thither one day. She 
found a blade of grass on the road. "This blade of grass is 
very big," thought the ant. " I am too weak to carry it off 
alone. I know what I shall do. I shall climb upon a pebble. 
From the top of the pebble I shall look around. The pebble 
will be for me like a tall tower." She did so. She looked 
about her a long time. At last she saw two of her compan- 
ions. They were passing along {par) the same road. She 
called them, and they ran to her. She said to them : "Come 
here, for I have found something good." She said this by 
rubbing her nose against theirs. Ants, as you know, cannot 
speak like men. After that the three ants rushed towards 
the blade of grass. They seized it quickly. It had been very 
heavy for the one ant. But the three together carried it off 



A. Un homme descendit^ de Jerusalem k Jericho, et tomba 
parmi des brigands, qui le ddpouillerent. Apres I'avoir blesse 
de plusieurs coups, ils s'en allerent^, le laissant a deini raort.^ 
Un pretre, qui par hasard descendait^ par ce chemin-la, I'ayant 
vu*, passa outre. Un levite, venant^ aussi dans le meme 
endroit, et le voyant^, passa outre. Mais un Samaritain, 
qui voyageait^, vint^ vers cet homme, et le voyant*, fut 
touche de compassion. S'approchant de lui, il banda ses plaies, 
et il y versa de I'huile et du vin ; puis il le mit" sur sa moii- 
ture, le raena^ a une auberge, et prit^ soin de lui. Le lende- 
main, en partant^^, il tira de sa poche deux deniers d'argent, 
et les donnant k I'aubergiste, lui dit^^: "Aie soin de lui, et 
tout ce que tu d^penseras de plus je te le rendrai^ a mon 
re tour." 




8 §158. 


sf 160. 

* § 178. 

» § 198. 

» § 202. 


» 1 174. 

B. Complete the following, as above: L II descendit. 2. lis 
le d^pouill^rent. 3. lis s'en all^rent. 4. II descendit par ce 
chemin. 5. II passa outre. 6. II vint vers cet homme. 7. II 
y versa de I'huile. 8. II le mit sur sa monture. 9. II prit 
soin de lui. 

Give the present indicative and present subjunctive of: 
L S'en all6rent. 2. Mort. 3. Venant. 4. Voyant. 5. Mit. 

C. (Oral.) 1. D'od a-t-on tir^ cette hiatoire? 2. Comment 
s'appelle I'histoiro? 3. Oh sont Jt^rusalem et Jericho? 4. 
Est-ce que la terre sainte est un grand ou un petit paysl 
6. Qu'ont fait les brigands au voyageur ? 6. En quel <5tat se 
trouvait-il apnVs lour dt^partl 7. Quelles personnes sont venues 
enHuite? H. Qu'«8t-ce qu'elles ont fait? 9. Qui est venu aprfes 
le priUre «t h) invito 1 10. Est-ce que les Samaritains dtaient 
bien uim«'?H dcH .luifs? IL Est-ce que cela a (uiquHihd le 
Samaritain do fairo lo bien? 12. Qu'fist-co (lu'il a fait au 
Juif? 13. Apr^H I'avoir Hoign(^ (ju'a-t-il fait? 14. Qu'a-t-il 
dorm/) k TaulMirgiMU^ ? 15. Va\ (mi(,lant. I'.uibcri^'c, (pia t il dit? 
Kic., «tc. 

I). \. Tf wo fall among ilii.-\.vs, ihry will mIuj. us. il. After 
liaving woundo<J us they will depart. 3. If you should see a 


poor traveller half dead, would you pass by on the other side? 
4. If the priest had been touched with compassion, he would 
have bound up the wounds. 5. Let us pour oil and wine into 
his wounds. 6. Let us put the poor man on our own beast. 
7. Let us take him to the inn, 8. Let us take care of him 
there. 9. The next day we shall give money to the inn- 
keeper. 10. On our return we shall give him back whatever 
he shall have spent for our friend. 

E. A man, who was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, 
fell among thieves. They stripped him and wounded him, and 
left him half dead. Then a priest and a Levite came by 
chance to the same place, and they saw him and passed by on 
the other side. But a Samaritan, who was going down by 
that road, saw him, and was touched with compassion. Then, 
after having bound up his wounds, he put him on his beast 
and took him to an inn. On the morrow he gave money to 
the innkeeper, and said that on his return he would give the 
innkeeper whatever he should spend if he took care of the 
poor man. 


A. Lorsque M. Laffitte, le fameux banquier, vint^ a Paris, en 
1788, a I'age de 21 ans, toute son ambition se bornait a obtenir^ 
une petite place dans une maison de banque. II se presenta 
chez un riche banquier. " Impossible de vous admettre^ chez 
moi, du moins pour le moment, lui dit* le banquier : mes 
bureaux sont au complet." Le jeune homme salue et se retire. 
En traversant la cour, il apergoit^ a terre une ^pingle, et la 
ramasse. Debout devant la fenetre de son cabinet le riche 
banquier avait suivi^ des yeux la retraite du jeune homme. II 
lui vit'^ ramasser I'epingle et ce trait lui fit^ plaisir. Le soir 
meme le jeune homme re^ut^ un billet du banquier, qui lui 
disait^: "Vous avez une place dans mes bureaux; vous pou- 
vez^ venir^ I'occuper des demain." Le jeune homme devint^ 
bientot caissier, puis associe, puis maitre de la premiere maison 
de banque de Paris, et enlin homme d'Etat tres influent sous 

1 § 178. » § 198. • § 213. T § 224. » § 221. 

2 §177. ♦§193. •§206. •§196. 


B. Complete the following, as above : 1 . II vint k P&ri? 
2. Elle se bornait a cela. 3. II se preseuta chez le banquier. 
4. II se retire. 5. II aper9oit a terre une epingle. 6. II I'avait 
suivi des yeux. 7. II vit ramasser lepingle. 8. II re9ut un 
billet. 9. Illuidisait. 10. Vous poiivez venir. 11. II devint 

Give in full the future and conditional of : 1 . Tenir. 
2. Admettre. 3. AperQoit. 4. Suivi. 5. Vit. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Quel age avait M. Laffitte a son arriv^e k 
Paris'? 2. Qu'est-ce qu'il cherchait? 3. R^ussit-il d'abord a 
trouver une place ? 4. Ou se presenta-t-il 1 5. Que lui a-t-on 
dit ? 6. En se retirant ou va-t il % 7. Qu'est-ce qu'il trouve 1 
8. Qui I'a vu ? 9. En ^tait il content ? 10. De quelle fa9on 
a-t-il montr^ son contentement ? 11. Qu'est devenu lejeune 
homme par la suite? 12. Quelle est la morale de I'histoire *? 
Etc., etc 

D. 1. If your ambition is only to get a humble position, 
you will get it. 2. Present yourself at the office of the rich 
banker. 3. He will admit you into his employ. 4. His 
offices are not full. 5. Do you see that pin on the ground 1 
6. Pick it up. 7. There is the rich banker standing at his 
office window. 8. The banker is watching the young man as 
he retire.s. 9. If we see him pick up a pin, it {cela) will please 
us. 10. Did you receive a note from the banker? 11. You 
shall have a position in his banking-house. 12. You shall 
soon become his partner, shall you not ? 1 3. Those who pick 
up pins may become statesmen. 

E. When M. Laffitte was twenty-one years of age he came 
to Paris. Ho wished to get a humble position with a rich 
banker. But when he presented himself, the rich banker told 
him that his offices were full, and that ho could not admit 
him. He withdrew. Tbe rich banker watched him from his 
office window, and saw him pick up a pin which he noticed on 
the ground as he was crossing the yard. 'J'his action pleased 
the banker. That very evening ho sent a note to th(^ young 
man, which said that he crould havo a position in his (liliccs 
the viTy next <lay. The young man became hcsad of a gnvit 
iMinking-hoiiHe, anfl at hist an influential statesman. 



A. Benjamin Franklin raconte I'anecdote suivante^ : "Quand 
j'etais un enfant de cinq ou six ans, mes amis, un jour de fete, 
remplirent ma petite poche de sous. Je partis ^ tout de suite 
pour une boutique ou Ton vendait-^ des jouets. Chemin faisant^, 
je vis^ dans les mains d'un autre petit gar90n un sifflet, dont 
le son me charma. Je lui donnai en echange tout mon argent. 
Revenu^ chez moi, fort content de mon achat, sifflant par 
toute la maison, je fatiguai les oreilles de toute la famille. 
Mes freres et mes soeurs apprenant'' que j'avais tout donne 
pour un mauvais instrument, me dirent^ que je I'avais pay^^ 
dix fois plus cher qu'il ne valait^^. Alors ils enum^rerent^^ 
toutes les jolies choses que j'aurais pu^^ acheter^i avec mon 
argent si j'avais ete plus prudent. lis me tournerent tellement 
en ridicule que j'en pleurai. Cependant, cet accident fut de 
quelque utilite pour moi. Lorsque plus tard j'dtais tent^ 
d'acheterii quelque chose qui ne m'etait pas n^cessaire, je 
disais^ en moi-meme : TVe donnons pas trop pour le sifflet^ et 
j'^pargnais mon argent." 

»§206. ♦§195. T§202. » § 157. "§168. 

«§166. 6 §224. «§193. »o§223. '»f221. 

3 § 210. « § 178. 

B. Complete the following, as above : 1. Quand j'dtais un 
enfant. 2. Ils remplirent ma poche. 3. Je partis tout de 
suite. 4. Je vis un sifflet. 5. Je fatiguai tons mes amis. 
6. Je remplis mes poches, tu remplis tes poches, etc. 7. Ils 
me dirent, ils te dirent, etc. 8. Je disais en moi-meme, tu 
disais en toi-meme, etc. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui ^tait Benjamin Franklin? 2. A quelle 
epoque vivait-il 1 3. Quel age avait-il a Tepoque de I'anecdote ? 
4. Qu'est-ce qu'il avait dans sa poche? 5. Qui lef lui avait donne ? 
6. Pour quel endroit est-il parti ensuite ? 7. Y est-il jamais 
arrive 1 8. Quel etait I'obstacle ? 9. Qu'est-ce qu'il a fait 
de son argent? 10. A son retour chez lui, qu'est-ce qu'il a 
fait? 11. A-t-il charme ses freres et ses soeurs? 12. Est-ce 
qu'il avait paye assez cher son sifflet? 13. Est-ce que la 
famille ^tait contente de son achat? 14. De quelle fa9on la 
famille a-t-elle fait voir son m^contentement ? 15. Le pauvre 


Franklin ^tait-il content k la fin? 16. Quelle le9on Franklin 
a-t-il re9ue par cet accident 1 Etc., etc. 

D. 1. You have paid twice as much for that apple as it is 
worth. 2. If you pay ten cents for that pencil, that will be 
three times as much as it is worth. 3. Never pay more for 
things than they are worth. 4. We could have bought many 
pretty things with our money, if we had been prudent. 5. If 
our friend had been less prudent, he could not have bought so 
many pretty things. 6. That accident will be of some use to 
our friends. 7. When we are (fut.) tempted to buy some- 
thing which is not necessary for us, we shall say to our- 
selves : " We are not going to give too much for the whistle." 

E. When Benjamin Franklin was five years old, his brother, 
on a holiday, filled his pockets with coppers. Starting off at 
once for a shop where toys were sold, he met on the way 
another little boy who had a whistle. The sound of the 
instrument charmed him, and he gave all his money to have it. 
He was much pleased with his purchase, but he whistled so 
much all over the house that he tired the whole family. His 
brothers and sisters asked him where he had bought his whistle 
and how much he had paid for it. He told them he had given 
all his money to the little boy. Then they told him he had 
paid too much for it. They said too that if he had been more 
prudent, ho could have bought ten times as many pretty things, 
and he cried on account of it. But the affair was of some use 
to him later on. Whenever he was tempted to buy things 
which he did not need, he would always say to himself : " I 
will not give too much for the whistle." 


A, Henri IV, dans une chasso, sV'tant dearth, suivant^ sa 
ooutume, de sea gardes ot de sa cour, rencontra un paysan 
atsit' sous un arbre. '^Quo fai.s-tu*' h\l lui dit* le prince. — 
J'^tais venu* id d^s le point du jour, pour voir<^ passer le roi, 
r^pondit^ le paysan ; sans ce ddsir, je serais k labounu- mon 
ohi&mp, qui nest pas fort ^loign^. — Si tu voux*^ montcr sur la 
oroupe do mon cneval, lui r^pliqua Henri, je te conduirai'* ou 
••t le roi, et tu le verras^ k ton aise." 

Le paysan, enohanU^, profite de la rencontre, monte k c6t6 
du roi, ot demande, cbotnin faisant*'', comment il pourra*^ recon- 


naitre^i le roi. "Tu n'anras qu'a regarder celui qui sera 
couverti2 pendant que tous les autres auront la tete nue." 

Enfin le moment arrive ou le roi rejoint^-^ une partie de sa 
cour et se trouve parmi ses courtisans ; tous se decouvrent^^^ 
excepte lui. Alors il demande au paysan : " Eh bien, quel est 
le roi? — Ma foi, monsieur, lui repondit-iF, c'est vous ou moi, 
car il n'y a que nous deux qui ayons le chapeau sur la tete." 



T §210. 

10 §221. 



« § 178. 



*•■' §190. 




B. Complete the following, as above : 1. J'^tais venu. 2. 
Tu veux voir le roi. 3. Tu le verras a ton aise. 4. II pourra 
reconnaitre le roi. 5. II sera couvert. 6. II rejoint les 
courtisans. 7. lis se decouvrent. 8. II n'y a que nous qui 

C. (Oral.) 1. Qui ^tait Henri IV? 2. A quelle dpoque 
vivait-il? 3. Quelle etait sa coutume quand il ^tait a la 
chasse? 4. Qui a-t-il rencontre un jour? 5. Qu'est-ce que 
c'est qu'un paysan? 6. Que faisait le paysan? 7. Depuis 
combien de temps y dtait-il ? 8. Pourquoi y ^tait-il venu ? 
9. S'il n'^tait pas venu ou aurait-il cte ? 10. Qu'est-ce que le 
roi a propose au paysan? 11. Le paysan a-t-il accepte ? 

12. Qu'est-ce que le paysan a demande au roi en chemin? 

13. Quel etait le signe par lequel on reconnai trait le roi? 

14. Le roi et le paysan ou arrivent-ils bient6t? 15. Qu'est-ce 
que les courtisans ont fait a leur approche? 16. Combien de 
personnes restaient couvertes? 17. Et combien de rois y 
avait-il dans la compagnie? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. We have wandered from the court. 2. If the king 
had not wandered from the court, he would not have met the 
peasant. 3. We came here at the very peep of day. 4. I 
have not seen the king go by. 5. The peasants are busy 
ploughing the field. 6. If you get up beside me, you will see 
the king. 7. As they went along, the peasant said to the 
king: "Take me where the king is." 8. Everybody had his 
hat on, and we could not recognize the king. 9. If the 
courtiers had taken off their hats, we could have recognized 
the king. 


E. One day Henry TV. had wandered from his courtiers. 
Meeting a peasant who was sitting under a tree, he asked 
the latter what he was doing there. The peasant replied that 
he had been there since daybreak, and that he wished to see 
the king, and that if he had not come, he would be busy 
ploughing his field. The king said to him : " Get up behind 
me, and I shall take you where you can see the king." The 
peasant was delighted, and got up beside the king. As they 
went along, he asked how he should recognize the king, and 
the king told him to look at the one who should have his hat 
on^ whilst the others should be bareheaded. When they 
arrived where the courtiers were, the latter took off their hats. 
Then the king asked the peasant which was the king. He 
replied : " We two have our hats on, the others are bare- 
headed : it is you or I." 


A. JJn paysan traversait la campagne avee son fils Thomas. 
" Regarde ! lui dit-iP en chemin, voil^ par terre un fer a 
cheval perdu^, ramasse-le ! " 

" Bah ! repondit^ Thomas, il ne vaut^ pas la peine de se 
bais.ser pour si peu de chose ! " Le p6re ne dit^ rien, ramassa 
le fer et le raif* dans sa poche. Arrive au village voisin, il le 
vendit^ pour quehjues centimes au marechal ferrant, et acheta^ 
des cerises avec cet argent. 

Cela fait®, ils se remirent* en route. Le soleil ^tait brulant. 
Thomas mourait^ de soif , et avait de la peine a poursuivre^ son 
chemin. Le p^re, qui marchait le premier, laissa, comme par 
hasard, tomber une cerise. Thomas la ramassa avec cmpresse- 
ment, et la mangea^. Quelques pas j)lus loin, une s(?c(mde 
cerise s'^chappa des mains du pore, et Thomas la saisit avec 
le mdme empressement. Le pere fit*' do mome avec toutes les 
oerises. Lonque I'enfant eut portc^ k la boucho la d(M'nii;re 
oeriie, le p^re se retourna et lui dit^ : '^ Vois'*', mon ami, tu n'as 
pas vottlu^^ te baisser une fois pour ramasser ie fer a oiieval, et 
to at ^t^ oblig^'^ de te baisser plus de vingt fois pour ramasser 
lef oerises." 





< > « 226. 






• laa^ 

• 1196. 


B. Complete the following, as above : 1. II ne dit rien. 
2. II le mit dans sa poche. 3. II vendit le fer. 4. II acheta 
des cerises. 5. II mourait de soif. 6. II mangea une cerise. 

7. II la saisit. 8. II fit de meme. 9. lis se remirent en route. 
1 0. II s'^chappa de ses mains. 11. 11 se retourna. 12. Tu t'es 

G. (Oral.) 1. De quelles personnes parle-t-on dans cette his- 
toire ? 2. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un paysan ? 3. Etait-il seul 1 
4. Qu'est-ce qu'ils ont vu en chemin ? 5. Qu'est-ce que c'est 
qu'un fer k cheval 1 6. Qu'est-ce que le pere a dit au fils 1 7. 
Qu'est-ce que le fils a r^pondu ? 8. Lequel des deux etait le 
plus prudent 1 9. Par quelle action a-t-il montr^ sa prudence ? 
10. A qui a-t-on vendu le fer a chevaH 11. Pourquoi I'a-t-on 
vendu k un mardchal f errant 1 12. Qu'est-ce qu'on a acheta 
avec I'argent ? 13. Quel temps faisait-il ? 14. Quel dtait I'effet 
de la chaleur sur le petit Thomas? 15. Est-ce que le p^re 
n'avait rien pour la soif? 16. Est-ce que les cerises sont 
bonnes pour la soif? 17. Qu'est-ce que le pere a fait des 
cerises? 18. Et qu'est-ce que son fils en a fait? 19. Com- 
bien en a-t-il mangles ? 20. Pourquoi aurait-il mieux fait de 
se baisser pour le fer k cheval ? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. It was not worth the trouble. 2. It will not be 
worth the trouble. 3. If it is worth the trouble, we shall 
pick up the horse-shoe. 4. Put the horse-shoe into your pocket 
and buy cherries. 5. We shall set out again on our journey. 
6. If the sun is hot, they will not set out again. 7. I am 
very thirsty (dying with thirst) ; give me some cherries. 

8. We have difficulty in picking up the cherries. 9. If you are 
dying with thirst, I shall drop a cherry. 10. The cherries are 
on the ground; pick them up. 11. If you walk ahead, will 
you pick up the cherries? 12. A few steps farther on, I 
stooped to pick up the horse-shoe. 13. Why did you seize 
the horse-shoe so eagerly ? 14. We did not seize it eagerly. 
15. If you had been willing to turn round, we should have 
given you the cherries. 16. Stoop, if you wish to pick up. 
17. He who is not willing to stoop once, will perhaps stoop 
more than twenty times. 

E. As a peasant and his son were crossing the country, 
they saw a horse-shoe on the ground. The father told his son 


to pick it up and put it into his pocket. The son replied that 
it was not worth while to stoop for a horse-shoe. Then the 
father stooped and picked it up. They sold it to the black- 
smith of the neighboring village, and bought some cherries, 
which the father put into his pocket. They pursued their 
way, the father walking ahead. The sun was hot and Thomas 
was very thirsty, and, as if by chance, a cherry fell from his 
father's pocket. V/The son seizing it, ate it, and also a second 
one, which slipped from hi^ father's pocket. Soon the last 
cherry was carried to his mouth, and his father, turning round, 
told him that if he had been willing to stoop once for the 
horse-shoe, he would not have been obliged to stoop twenty 
times for the cherries. 


A. Un jour Frederic le Grand, roi de Prusse, ayant sonn^ 
sans que personne r^pondit^ k cet appel, ouvrit^ la porte de son 
antichambre et trouva son page endormi^ sur une chaise. Au 
moment ou il allaif* le reveiller, il aperQut^ un papier ^crit^ 
sortant' de la poche du page. La curiosity du roi fut excit^e, 
il prit^ le papier et le lut^. C'^tait une lettre de la m^re du 
jeune homme, dans laquelle elle remerciait son fils de ce qu'il 
lui envoyait^^ une partie de ses gages pour la soulager^i dans sa 
mis^re. Le roi, ayant lu^ la lettre, prit^ un rouleau de ducats 
et le glissa avec la lettre dans la poche du page. Un instant 
apr^ il sonna si fort que le page se rt^veilla et accourut^'- 
aupr^ de lui. " Vous avez dormi^" lui dit^^ le roi. Le jeune 
homme, ayant honte, tacha de s'excuser. Dans son embarras il 
rait** la main dans sa poche, et y trouva le rouleau de ducats. 
II le prit^ p&lit, trembla, et ne put*'^ articuler un seul mot. 
** Qu'avez-vouH 1 dit*^ lo roi. — H^las ! sire, dit*^ le page, (juol- 
qu'un veut** mo perdro*; je ne sais*^ pas d'oii m'est venu*** 
oet or. — Ija fortune ne vient-elle*® pas souvent en dormant^'? 
reprit* Frdddric. Envoie*® cette somme k ta nuNre, en lui fai- 
•ant*^ men compliments et assure-la bien que J'aurai soin d'elle 





'» 1222. 










»• f 196. 





Exercise li. 127 

B. Complete the following, as above : 1 . Sans qu'il repondit. 
2. II ouvrit la porte. 3. 11 lut le billet. 4. II allait le 
r^veiller. 5. II aper9ut un papier. 6. II remerciait le roi. 

7. II envoyait Targent. 8. II prit le rouleau. 9. II se 
r^veilla. 10. II accourut aupres du roi. 11. II ne put dire 
un mot. 12. II veut me perdre. 13. Je sais d'oii c'est venu. 
14. Envoie cette somme. 

Re-write the anecdote, substituting the past indefinite for 
the past definite. 

C. (Oral.) 1. Quel est le sujet de cette anecdote? 2. A 
quelle ^poque vivait Frederic le Grand 1 3. Ou est la Prusse 1 
4. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un page 1 5. Ou ^tait le page dont 
parle Fhistoire? 6. Qu'est-ce qu'il y faisait ? 7. Qu'est-ce que 
les pages devraient faire dans les antichambres des rois? 

8. Est-ce que le roi s'est mis en colere contre le page? 9. 
Qu'est-ce qu'il a fait ? 10. En lisant la lettre qu'est-ce que le 
roi a d^couvert? 11. Est-ce que la mfere dupage etait riche? 
12. Qu'est-ce que le page faisait pour elle? 13. Le roi en 
^tait-il content? 14. De quelle fagon a-t-il montr^ son con- 
tentement ? 15. Comment le jeune homme a-t-il decouvert ce 
que le roi avait fait? 16. Qu'est-ce que c'est qu'un ducat? 

17. Que pensait-il en sentant les ducats dans sa poche? 

18. De quelle fa9on le roi a til calm^ le jeune homme? 

19. Est-ce que le proverbe est toujours vrai : "La fortune 
nous vient en dormant ? " 20. Qu'est-ce que cette histoire 
nous apprend^? Etc., etc. 

D. 1. He rings without anyone answering him. 2. If we 
open the door, we shall find the page. 3. I am going to wake 
him. 4. He will waken. 5. The paper was sticking out of 
his pocket. 6. She thanked her son for sending her a part of 
his wages. 7. She sent a letter in which she thanked her son. 
8. We have been asleep. 9. We had been asleep. 10. The 
king asked : " What is the matter with him ?" 11. Somebody 
will ruin me. 12. He took care of him and her. 

E. One day Frederick the Great rang, and nobody answered 
him. Opening the door of the antechamber, he finds his page 
asleep. A letter, which was sticking out of the page's pocket, 
aroused the king's curiosity. The young man used to send his 
mother a part of his wages, and in this letter she was thanking 


him for it. The king read the letter, and, taking a roll of 
ducats, slipped it, with the letter, into the young man's pocket. 
Then ringing very loud, he waked the page, who hastened into 
his presence. He asked the young man if he had been asleep. 
The young man was ashamed, and tried to excuse himself. 
Putting his hand into his pocket he finds the ducats. He 
trembles, and cannot utter a word. The king asked him what 
was the matter with him, and he replied that somebody wished 
to ruin him, for he did not know where the ducats came from. 
The king replies that good luck comes to us often while we 
sleep. He tells the page that he will take care of his mother 
and him. 








153. Regular Conjugations. Regular verbs are con- 
veniently divided into three classes or conjugations, according 
as the present infinitive ends in -er, -ir, -re, and are inflected 
in their simple tenses as follows : — 





Infinitive Mood. 




donn er, to give. 

fin ir, to finish. 


romp re, to break. 




donn ant, gimng. 

fin iss ant, finishing. 

romp ant, breaking. 




donn 6, given. 

fin i, finished. 

Indicative Mood. 

romp u, broken. 




/ give, am giving, 

I finish, am finishing, 

/ break, am breaking. 




je donn e. 

je fin i s. 

je romp s. 

tu donn es. 

tu fin i s. 

tu romp s. 

il donn e. 

il fin i t. 

il romp t. 

nous donn ons. 

nous fin iss ons. 

nous romp ons. 

vous donn ez. 

vous fin iss ez. 

vous romp ez. 

ils donn ent. 

ils fin iss ent. 

ils romp ent. 





/ was giving, used 
to give, etc. 
je donii ais. 
tu donn ais. 
11 donn ait. 
nous donn ions, 
vous donn iez. 
lis donn aient. 


/ was Jinishing, used 

to finish, etc. 

je fin iss ais. 

tu fin iss ais. 

11 fin iss ait. 
nous fin iss ions, 
vous fin iss iez. 

Us fin iss aient. 


/ was breaking, used 
to break, etc. 
je romp ais. 
tu romp ais. 
11 romp ait. 
nous romp ions, 
vous romp iez. 
lis romp aient. 

Past Definite. 
/ gave, etc. 
je donn ai. 
tu donn as. 
11 donn a. 
nous donn dines, 
vous donn ktes. 
ils donn ^rent. 

/ gJiall give, etc. 
je donner ai. 
tu dormer as. 
il donnur a. 
nous donner ens. 
vous donner ez. 
iU donner <^nt 

/ should give, etc. 

je donner ais. 

tti donner ais. 

il donner ait 
nouN donner ions. 
vou« donnor iez. 

ils donner 

Past Definite. 
J finished, etc. 

je fin is. 

tu fin is. 

11 fin ij. 

nous fin imes. 

vous fin ites. 

lis fin irent. 


/ shall finiahf etc. 

je finir ai. 

tu finir as. 

il finir a. 

nous finir ons. 

vouB finir ez. 

ilfl finir ont. 

/ hUouUL fininh, etc. 
je Hnir ais. 
tu finir ais. 
il finir ait. 
notiH finir ions. 
vouH finir iez. 
ilM finir aient 

Past Definite. 

/ broke, etc. 

je romp is. 

tu romp is. 

11 romp it. 

nous romp imes. 

vous romp ites. 

lis romp irent. 

/ shall break, etc. 

je rompr ai. 

tu rompr as. 

11 rompr a. 
nous rompr ons. 
vous ronjpr ez. 

ils rompr ont. 

1 should break, etc, 
je rompr ais. 
tu rom])r ais. 
11 rompr ait. 
nouH r()m|>r ions. 
VOUH rompr iez. 
iU rompr aient 




Give, etc. 
donn e.* 
(qu'il donn e.) 
donn ons. 
donn ez, 
(qu'ils donn ent. ) 

Imperative Mood. 

Finish, etc. 
fin is. 
(qu'il fin iss e.) 
fin iss ons. 
fin iss ez. 
(qu'ils fin iss ent. ) 

Break, etc. 
romp s. 
(qu'il romp e. ) 
romp ons. 
romp ez. 
(qu'ils romp ent. ) 

*Thi8 form becomes ' donn es ' when followed by -y or -en (of. § 370, 8, obs. 3, 4). 


( That) I (may) give, 
(que) je donn e. 
(que) tu donn es. 
(qu') il donn e. 
(que) nous donn ions, 
(que) vous donn iez. 
(qu') ils donn ent 


Subjunctive Mood. 

{That) I (may) finish, 


(que) je fin iss e. 

(que) tu fin iss es. 

(qu') il fin iss e. 

(que) nous fin iss ions. 

(que) vous fin iss iez. 

(qu') ils fin iss ent. 



{That) 1 {may) break, 


(que) je romp e. 

(que) tu romp es. 

(qu') il romp e. 

(que) nous romp ions. 

(que) vous romp iez. 

(qu') ils romp ent. 


( That) I {might) give, ( That) I [might) finish. 

(que) je donn, 
(que) tu donn asses. 
(qu') il donn at. 
(que) nous donn assions. 
(que) vous donn assiez. 
(qu') ils donn assent. 


(que) je fin isse. 

(que) tu fin isses. 

(qu')il fin It. 

(que) nous fin issions. 

(que) vous fin issiez. 

(qu') ils finissent. 


( That) I {might) break, 
(que) je romp isse. 
(que) tu romp isses. 
(qu') 11 romp it. 
(que) nous romp issions. 
(que) vous romp issiez. 
(qu') ils romp issent. 

154. The auxiliary verbs avoir, * to have/ and 6tre, * to be,' 
are conjugated in their simple tenses as follows : — 


avoir, to have. Pres. etre, to be. 





Pres. ayant, haviuy. 
Past, eu, had. 

Pres. etant, being. 
Past, ete, been. 



/ have, am having, etc. 

j'ai. nous avons. 

tu as. vous avez. 


ils ont. 


1 had, was having, etc. 


nous avions. 

tu avals. 

vous aviez. 

il avait. 

ils avaient. 

Past Definite. 

I had, etc. 

j'eus. nous cfUmes. 

tu eus. vous efites. 

il eut. ils eurent. 

/ am, am being, etc. 
je suis. nous sommes. 
tu es. vous etes. 
il est. ils sont. 


/ was, was being, etc. 

j'^tais. nous ^tions. 

tu ^tais, vous (5tiez. 

il etait. ils iHaient. 

Past Definite. 

/ was, etc. 

je fus. nous fflmes. 

tu fus. vous ftttes. 

il fut. ils furent. 



/ shall have, etc. 

/ sfiall he, etc. 

j'aurai. nous aurons. 

je serai, nous serous. 

tu auras, vous aurez. 

tu seras. vous serez. 

il aura. IIb auront. 

ils sera. ils seront. 



/ Mhould have, fie. 

/ should be, etc. 

j'aurais. nous aurions. 

je serais, nous serious. 

tu auraiB. vous auriez. 

tu serais, vous seriez. 

il aurait. ils auraient. 

il Hcrait. ils seraiunt 

Pkksent. Pkksent. 

Have, etc. 

Ue, etc. 



aie. ayes. 
(qo'ilaTt.) (qu'iliaient.) 

Bois. Boyez. 
(qu'il solt. ) ((lu'ils soicnt. ) 





Present. Present. 

( That) I (may) have, etc. ( That) 1 (may) he, etc. 

(que) j'aie. (que) nous ayons. (que) je sois. (que) nous soyons. 

(que) tu aies. (que) vous ayez. (que) tu sois. (que) vous soyez. 
(qu') il ait. (qu') ils aient. (qu') il soit. (qu') ils soient. 


(That) I (might) have, etc. 
(que) j'eusse. (que) nous eussions. 
(que) tu eusses. (que) vous eussiez. 
(qu') il etit. (qu') ils eussent. 


( That) I (might) he, etc. 

(que) je fusse. (que) nous fussions. 

(que) tu fusses, (que) vous fusSiez, 

(qu' ) il f dt. (qu' ) ils f ussent. 


155. Formation. Compound tenses are formed from the 
past participle of the principal verb along with an auxiliary 
verb (usually avoir, sometimes ^tre), see §§ 227-229. 


To have given. 
avoir donn^. 

Having given. 
ayant donn6. 

Past Indefinite. 

I have given, etc. 

j'ai donn6, 

tu as donn6. 



/ liad gwen, etc. 

j'avais donn^. 







To have arrived. 

etre arriv6(e)(s). 

Having arrived. 
^tant arriv^(e)(s). 

Past Indefinitk 
/ have arrived, etc. 

je suis arrive(e). 

tu es arrive(e). 

/ had arrived, etc. 
j'etais arrive(e). 




Past Anterior. 

/ had given, etc. 

j'eus donn6. 


Future Anterior. 

/ shall have given, etc. 

j'aurai donn^. 


Conditional Anterior. 

/ should have given, etc. 

j'aurais donn^. 


Past Anterior. 

/ had arrived, etc. 

je fus arrive(e). 


Future Anterior. 

/ shall have arrived, etc. 

je serai arrive(e). 


Conditional Anterior. 

/ shotUd have arrived, etc. 

je serais arriv^(e). 



Perfect. Perfect. 

(That) I {may) have given, etc. {That) I {may) have arrived, etc. 
(que) j'aie donn6. que je sois arriv^(e). 

etc. etc. 

{TTiat) I (might) have given, etc. 
(que) j'eusse donn^. 


{That) I {might) have arrived, etc. 

(que) je fusse arriv6(e). 




Verbs in -cer and -ger. 

1. Verhn in -ccr, e.g., avancer [avdsc], 'to advance,' require the [a] 
sound of c throughout their conjugation, and hence c becomes ^ before 
A or o of an ending (g 5, 4), but not elsewhere : 


Pres. Indie. 

Impf. Indie. 

Past Def. 

Imp/. Subj. 



























Past Def. 

Impf. Svbj. 

2. Verbs in -ger, e.g., manger [mase], ' to eat,' require the [3] sound 
of g throughout their conjugation, and hence g becomes ge before a or 
o (§ 19, 2), but not elsewhere : 

Pres. Part. Pres. Indie. Impf. Indie. 

Hiangeant. mange. mangeais. 

manges. mangeais. 

mange. mangeait. 

mangeons. mangions. 

mangez, mangiez. 

mangent. mangeaient. 

157. Verbs in -yer. 

Verbs in -oyer and -uyer change y to i whenever it comes before [a] 
in conjugation, but not elsewhere ; verbs in -ayer and -eyer may either 
retain y throughout, or change it to i before [aj : 

Pres. Indie. Put. Condi. Pres. Snhj. 

nettoie, etc. nettoierai, etc. nettoierais, etc. nettoie, etc. 

P^y^'letc. P^y^^^^'jetc. P«'y^^^i«'\etc. P^^^'Utc 

paie, J paierai, J paierais, J paie, j 

158. Verbs with Stem-vowel e or e. 

Verbs with stem-vowel e require the [e] sound of e (§ 12, 1 ) whenever, 
in conjugation, the next syllable contains [9] ; so also verbs with the 
stem-vowel 6, shown orthographically as follows : — 

1. By changing e or e to ^ (§ 12, 1), e.g., mener, ' to lead,' c^der, ' to 

res. Indie. 

Pres. Subj. 



























But ceder with the stem-vowel e : 

c^de, etc. cede, etc. cederai [sedare], etc. cederais [sedare], etc. 

065..- In men^-je? [mans 15], e of the ending is not mute, and hence 
the stem-vowel e is unchanged. 

Like mener : Verbs with stem- vowel e (for exceptions in -eler and 
-eter, see below). 




Like c^der : Verbs with stem- vowel e + consonant, e.g., regner, 
' reign,' etc. 

NOTR. — Verbs like creer, create, with stem- vowel followed bj- a vowel, are regular: 
Je cr6e, etc. 

2. Most verbs in -eler, -eter, however, indicate the [e] sound by 
doubling 1 or t (§ 12, 1), e.g., appeler, ' to call,' jeter, ' to throw' : 

Pres. Indie. 

So also, jeter : 
jette, etc. 

Pres. Suhj. 

jette, etc. 


jetterai, etc. 


jetterais, etc. 

agneler, lamb. 
becqueter, peck. 
bourreler, goad. 
dtouuiteler, dinuantle. 
taurteler, quarter. 

ach^terais, etc. 

modeler, model. 
peler, peel. 
rapi(5ceter, piece. 
trompeter, trumpet. 

A few verbs in -eler, -eter take the grave accent precisely like mener, 
e.g. , acheter, ' to buy ' : 

achate, etc. achate, etc. ach^terai, etc. 

Exceptions like acheter : 

* (Spoupseter, dunt. 
^tiquetor, laln-l. 
geler, freeze. 
harceler, harass. 
marteler, hammer. 
*Fut. ^pousseterai accordinsr to the ' Dictionnaire de rAcad^mie.* 

ExceptioHH like appeler or acheter : 
boiltler, baU (hay, etc.). ca(\\\eU'r, cackle. crocheter, picik(a lock). 

OMineler, groove. ciseler, chisel. 


159. Principal Parts. Hy tho following; rules, tho various 
teriM'H ofull ro^ular v(;rl>H and of most irrc^gular verbs may be 
known from five forniH of the verb, calh;d i)rincipal parts or 
primary UmnoH : — 

1. Tho InfinUivr givoM the Future by uddiii^^ -ai, -as, -a, -ons, -ez, 
•Ootv and tho Conditional hy a<lding -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, 

§§160-161] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -ER. 137 

-aient — dropping the final infinitive -e of the third conjugation for 
both tenses. 

2. The Present Participle gives the Imperfect Indicative by changing 
-ant into -ais, -ais, -ait, -ions, -iez, -aient, and the Present Subjunctive 
by changing -ant into -e, -es, -o, -ions, -iez, -ent. 

3. The Past Participle gives the Compound Tenses, with the auxiliary 
avoir (§227) or etre (§228), and the Passive, with the auxiliary etre 

4. The Present Indicative gives the Imperative by dropping the 
pronoun subject of the second singular and first and second plural, 
the -s of the first conjugation second singular being also dropped, 
except before y and en (cf. § 370, 3, ohs. 3, 4). 

5. The Past Definite gives the Imperfect Subjunctive by changing the 
final letter of the first singular (-i or -s) into -sse, -sses, -t, -ssions, 
-ssiez, -ssent, and putting a circumflex accent over the last vowel of 
the third singular. 

Obs.: The tenses, except the future and conditional, are not really derived from the 
principal parts, as is sometime: said in grammars; the method is merely an aid to 


i6o. Aller, ' to go.' 

1. Infinitive, aller ; fut. *irai, iras, ira, etc. ; condl. irais, etc. 

2. Pres. Port, allant ; impf. indie, allais, etc.; pres. subj. aille [a:j], 
ailles, aille, allions, alliez, aillent. 

3. Past Part. al\6 ; past indef. je suis all^, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vais [ve], vas, va, allons, allez, vont ; impve. va, aliens, 

5. Past Def. allai, alias, alia, allames, alUtes, all6rent ; impf. subj. 
allasse, allasses, allat, allassions, allassiez, allassent. 

*The stem of the future is from the Latin infinitive ire. 

Like aller : 

s'en aller, go away. 

i6i. Envoyer, * to send.' 

1. Infinitive, envoyer ; fut. enverrai, etc. ; condl. enverrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, envoyant ; impf. indie, envoyais, envoyais, envoyait, /^ 
envoyions [avwaijo], envoyiez, envoyaient ; jwes. subj. envoie, envoies, 
envoie, envoyions [dvwaijo], envoyiez, envoi ent. 



138 THE VERB. [§§162-164 

3. Past Part, envoye ; past indef. j'ai envoy^, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, envoie, envoies, envoie, envoyons, envoyez, envoient; 
impve. envoie, envoyons, envoyez. 

5. Past Def. envoyai, envoyas, envoya, envoy§,mes, envoyates, 
envoy^rent ; impf. suhj. envoyasse, envoyasses, envoyat, envoyassions, 
envoyassiez, envoyassent. 

Like envoyer : 

renvoyer, send away, dismiss. 


162. Acqu^rir, ' to acquire.' 

L Infinitive, acqu^rir ; fut. acquerrai, acquerras, etc. ; condl. acquer- 
rais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, acqu^rant ; imp/, indie, acqu^rais, etc. ; pres. subj. 
acqui^re, acqui^res, acqui^re, acqu^rions, acqu^riez, acqui^rent. 

3. Past Part, acquis ; j)ast indef. j'ai acquis, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, acquiers, acquiers, acquiert, acqu^rons, acqu6rez, 
acqui^rent ; impve. acquiers, acqu^rons, acquerez. 

5. Past Def. acquis, acquis, acquit, acqutmes, acquites, acquirent ; 
imp/, subj. acquisse, acquisses, acquit, acquissions, acquissiez, acquissent. 

Like acqu^rir : 

oonqu<^rir, conquer. *querir or qu6rir, seek. requ^rir, require, claim. 

■"enqu^rir, inquire. reconqu^rir, reconquer. 

• Has only Uit infinitive. 

163. B^nir, ' to bless.' 

Is regular, but has also an irregular past participle b^nit, used only 
as adjective : 

De I'eau b^nite ; du pain b^nit. Holy water ; consecrated bread. 

164. Courir, * to run.' 

1. Infinitive, courif ; fiU. oourrai, oourras, etc. ; condl. courrais, etc. 

2L Pres. Part, courant ; imp/, indie, oourais, etc. ; pi'es. subj. couro, 
ooares, courc, couricjuH, fourioz, courent. 

8. Pcut Part, couru ; pnxl indef. j'ai couru, etc. 

4. Pr€M» Indie, courf, cours, court, oourons, courez, couront ; impve. 
oocini| oourooif oouros. 

§§165-166] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -IR. 139 

5. Past Def. courus, courus, courut, courumes, courutes, couru- 
rent ; impf. snbj. courusse, courusses, courut, courussions, courussiez, 

Like courir are its compounds : 
accourir, run up, hasten. discourir, discourse. recourir, run again, apply. 

concourir, co-operate, con- encourir, incur. seoourir, succor, help. 

cur, compete. parcourir, run over. 

Note.— Courre, chase (a hunting term), sometimes replaces cOUlir in the infinitive. 

165. CueilHr, Ho gather,' * pick.' 

1. Infinitive, cueillir ; fut. cueillerai, etc. ; condl. cueillerais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, cueillant ; hnpf. indie, cueillais, etc. ; prea. suhj. 
cueille, cueilles, cueille, cueillions, cueilliez, cueillent. 

3. Past Part, cueilli ; past indef. j'ai cueilli, etc. V 

4. Pres. Indie, cueille, cueilles, cueille, cueillons, cueillez, cueillent ; 
ivfipve. cueille, cueillons, cueillez. 

5. Past Def. cueillis, cueillis, cueillit, cueilllmes, cueilUtes, cueilli- 
rent ; impf. suhj. cueillisse, cueillisses, cueillit, cueillissions, cueillissiez, 

Ohs. : The present indicative, future, and conditional are like those of donner. 

Like cueillir : 
BXicueWWr, welcome. *Bss,a.i\\\r, assail. tressaillir, ««art. 

recueillir, gather, collect. \ saillir, jut out. 

* Regular in future and conditional : assaillirai, etc. 

t Saillir, gush out, rush forth, is regular, like finir. 

166. Dormir, Ho sleep.' 

1. Infinitive, dormir ; fut. dormirai, etc. ; condl. dormirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, dormant ; impf. indie, dormais, etc. ; pres. suhj. 
dorme, dormes, dorme, dormions, dormiez, dorment. 

3. Past Part, dormi ; past indef. j'ai dormi, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, dors, dors, dort, dormons, dormez, dorment ; 
impve. dors, dormons, dormez. 

5. Past Def. dormis, dormis, dormit, dormimes, dormites, dormirent ; 
impf. suhj. dormisse, dormisses, dormit, dormissions, dormissiez, 

Like dormir : 

endormir, put to sleep. se rendormir, go to sleep mentir, lie. 

s'endormir, fall asleep. again. d^mentir, contradict, belie. 

redormir, sleep again. bouillir, boil. partir, set oxit. 

rendormir, put to sleep 6bouillir, boil atvay. d^partir, distribute. 

again. rebouillir, boU a^ain. se d^partir, desist. 


140 THE VERB. [§§167-169 

repartir, set out again, consentir, consent. se servir, make use. 

reply. pressentir, forebode. desservir, clear the table. 

se repentir, repent. ressentir, resent. sortir, (/o out. 

sentir, feel. servir, serve. ressortir, ffo out again. 

Note.— Asservir, enslave, assortir, sort, match, ressortir, depend (on, k), 
r^paxtir, distribute, are like flnlr. 

Observe the Present Indicative of the following tjrpes, which are 
represented in the above list : 

bouillir : bous, bous, bout, bouillons, bouillez, bouillent. 

mentir : mens, mens, ment, mentons, mentez, mentent. 

partir : pars, pars, part, partons, partez, partent. 

se repentir : repens, repens, repent, repentons, repentez, repentent. 

sentir : sens, sens, sent, sentons, sentez, sentent. 

servir : sers, sers, sert, servons, servez, servent. 

sortir : sors, sors, sort, sortons, sortez, sortent. 

167. Faillir, ' to fail.' 

1. Infinitive, faillir ; fut. faudrai, faudras, etc.; condl. faudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, faillant ; imp/, indie, faillais, etc. j pres. subj. faille, 
failles, faille, faillions, failliez, faillent. 

• 3. Past Part, failli ; pant indef. j'ai failli, etc. 
^^ 4- Pre8. Indie, faux, faux, faut, faillons, faillez, faillent ; impve. 

5. Pcut Def. faillis, faillis, faillit, faillimes, faillites, faillircnt ; impf. 
tuhj. faillisse, faillisses, faillit, faillissions, faillissiez, faillissent. 

Like faillir : 

• (k'fftillir, faint, fail. 
• I»rf«. Indlo. UHually d^faus, d^faus, d^faut. 
Nan.— Faillir, fail in butinstt, ii uiually like flnir. 

168. F^rir, * to strike.' 

Vmnl only in 'Siiiih coup f^rir,' ' Without striking a blow,' and in the 
past jiart. f^ru, v>ounded (a veterinary term). 

169. Fleurir, ' to flourish,' etc. 

Pre$, Part, florissant ; impf. indie. florissaiR, etc. , when used of ])cr- 
or a ooUection uf persona, or fleurissais, etc., when u8od of things 

othenrife like finir. 
Nom-Fltnrlr, blouom^ bloom (tn a literal MnM)Is like flnlr. 

§§170-174] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -IR. 141 

170. Fuir, 'to flee,' 'fly.' 

1. Infinitive, fuir ; fut. fuirai, etc, ; condl. fuirais, etc. 

2. Prea. Part, fuyant ; impf. mdic. fuyais, etc. j pres. suhj. fuie, fuies, 
fuie, fuyions, fuyiez, fuient. 

3. Past Part, fui ; past indef. j'ai fui, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, fuis, fuis, fuit, fuyons, fuyez, fuient ; impve. fuis, 
fuyons, fuyez. 

5. Past Def. fuis, fuis, fuit, fuimes, fuites, fuirent ; impf. suhj. fuisse, 
fuisses, fuit, fuissions, fuissiez, fuissent. 

Like fuir : 

s'enf uir, Jlee, escape. 

171. G^sir, ' to lie,' ' lie buried.' 

1. Infinitive, gesir ; fut. ; condl. . 

2. Pres. Part, gisant ; impf. indie, gisais, etc. ; jrres. suhj. . 

3. Past Part. . 

4. Pres. Indie. , , git, gisons, gisez, gisent ; impve. , 

5. Past Def. ; impf. suhj. . 

Note.— Its most frequent use is in epitaphs: 'Ci-glt,' 'Here lies,' ' Ci-gisent,' 
•Here lie.' 

172. Hair, 'to hate.' 

1. Infinitive, hair ; fut. hairai, etc. ; condl. hairais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, haissant ; impf. indie, haissais, etc. ; pres. suhj. 
haisse, haisses, haisse, haissions, haissiez, haissent. 

3. Past Part, hai ; past indef. j'ai hai, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, hais, hais, hait, haissons, haissez, haissent; impve. 
hais, haissons, haissez. 

5. Past Def. hais, hais, hait, haimes, haites, hairent; impf. suhj. 
haisse, haisses, hait, haissions, haissiez, haissent. 

Obs. : Hair loses its diaeresis in the present indicative and imperative singular, and 
takes no circumflex accent ; otherwise like finir. 

173. Issir, ' to spring (from, de),' etc. 

Used only in the past part, issu ; past indef. je suis issu, etc. 

174. Mourir, 'to die.' 

1. Infinitive, mourir ; fut. mourrai, mourras, etc. : condl. mourrais. n/ 
etc. ^ 



142 THE VERB. [§§175-177 

2. Pres. Part, mourant ; impf. indie, mourais, etc. ; pres. subj. meure, 
meures, meure, mourions, mouriez, meurent. 

3. Past Part, mort ; past indef. je suis mort, etc. 

4. Pres. Iridic, meurs, meurs, meurt, mourons, mourez, meurent; 
impve. meurs, mcurons, mourez. 

5. Past Def. mourns, mourus, mourut, mourftmes, mouriites, mou- 
rurent ; imp/, subj. mourusse, mourusses, mourdt, mouiussions, 
mourussiez, mourussent. 

Obs. : The stem-vowel becomes eu wherever it bears the stress. 

Like mourir : 

Be mourir, be dying (used only in infin., pres. indie, impf. indie). 

175. Ouir, * to hear.' 

Is hardly used beyond the infinitive and past participle : * J'ai oui* 
dire.' ' I have heard said,' etc. 

176. Ouvrir, * to open.* 

1. Infinitive, ouvrir ; fut. ouvrirai, etc. ; condl. ouvrirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, ouvrant ; irnpf. indie, ouvrais, etc. ; jtres. subj. ouvre, 
ouvres, ouvre, ouvrions, ouvriez, ouvrent. 

3. Past Part, ouvert ; past]indef. j'ai ouvert, etc. 

4. Pres. Jndic. ouvre, ouvres, ouvre, ouvrons, ouvrez, ouvrent; 
impve. ouvre, ouvrons, ouvrez. 

5. Past Def. ouvris, ouvris, ouvrit, ouvrimes, ouvrites, ouvrirent ; 
impf. subj. ouvrisse, ouvrisses, ouvrit, ouvrissions, ouvrissioz, ouvrissent. 

Obi.: The present indicative Is like that of donner. 

Like ouvrir : 

•ntr'ou vrlr, o;>en »/(/;At/i/. dicouvrir, df«cotwr. off nr, offer. 

rouvrir. ojien again. reoouvrir, eover again. suuffrir, aufer. 

oouvrir, cover. 

177. Tenir, ' to huW 

I fn/tnitive. tcnir ; fut. tiondrai, tiendras, etc. ; condl. tiondrais, etc. 
'i. J'rtn. Part, tenant ; imp/, indie, tonais, etc. ; pres. subj. tionne, 
tlennea, ticnnc, tuiiionK, teniez, tienncnt. 

3. Pcut Part, tenu ; jxint iiuhf. j'ai tcnu, etc;. 

4. Pres. Indie, tiens, tiens, tiuut, tunouM, tenez, tieunent; impvt. 



5. Past Def. tins, tins, tint, tinmes [tsim], tintes [teit], tinrent 
[tsir] ; impf. subj. tinsse, [teis], tinsses, tint, tinssions, tinssiez, 

06s.; The stem-vowel becomes ie wherever it bears the stress. 

Like tenir are its compounds : 
s'abstenir, abstain. d6tenir, detain. obtenir, obtain. 

apparteriir, belong. entretenir, entertain. retenir, retain. 

contenir, contain. 

entretenir, entertain. 
maintenir, maintain. 

soutenir, sustain. 

178. Venir, ' to come/ 

1. Infinitive, venir ; fut. viendrai, viendras, etc. ; condl. viendrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, venant ; impf. indie, venais, etc. ; pres. subj. vienne, 
viennes, vienne, venions, veniez, viennent. .,- 

3. Pact Part, venu; past indef. je suis venu, etc. \ 

4. Pres. Indie, viens, viens, vient, venons, venez, viennent ; impve. 
viens, venons, venez. 

5. Past Def. vins, vins, vint, vinmes [vsim], vintes [veit], vinrent 
[vsir]; imif. subj. vinsse [ve:s], vinsses, vint, vinssions, vinssiez, 

Obs.: 1. The stem-vowel becomes ie wherever it bears the stress. 2. Venir is 
precisely like tenir in its irregularities, but owing to its difficulty it is given in full. 

Like venir are its compounds : 

avenir, happen. 
advenir, happen. 
convenir, agree, suit. 
contrevenir, violate. 
circonvenir, circumvent. 
de venir, become. 

disconvenir, be discordant. 
intervenir, intervene. 
parvenir, attain. 
pr^venir, prevent. 
provenir, proceed (from, de). 
revenir, come back. 

redevenir, become again. 
se souvenir, recollect. 
subvenir, aid. 
survenir, occur. 
se ressou venir, recollect. 

179. ^ V^tir, ' to clothe. 

1. Infinitive, vetir ; fut. vetirai, etc. ; condl. v^tirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, vetant ; impf. indie, vetais, etc. ; pres. subj. vete, vetes, 
v^te, vetions, vetiez, vetent. 

3. Past Part, vetu ; past indef. j'ai vetu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vets, vets, vet, vetons, vetez, vetent ; impve. vets, 
v^tons, vetez. 

5. Past Def. vetis, vetis, vetit, vetimes, v^tites, vetirent ; impf. subj. 
vetisse, vetisses, vetit, vetissions, vetissiez, vetissent. 

Like vetir : 

d6v6tir, divest. revgtir, clothe, invest. se revgtir, put on clothing, 

se d6vdtir, take off clothing. 

144 THE VERB. [§^180-183 


i8o. Battre, *to beat.' 

Loses one t in the present indicative singular : Bats, bats, bat ; 
otherwise like rompre. 

Like battre : 
abattre, fell. d^battre, debate. rabattre, diminish the price. 

comhaXtTB, fight, oppose. se d6battre, straggle. 

181. Boire, 'to drink.' 

L Infinitive, boire ; fut. boirai, etc. ; condl. boirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, buvant ; impf. indie, buvais, etc. ; pres. suhj. boive, 
boives, boive, buvions, buviez, boivent. 

3. Past Part, bu ; past indef. j'ai bu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, bois, bois, boit, buvons, buvez, boivent ; impve. bois, 
buvons, buvez. 

5. Past Def. bus, bus, but, b<imes, bdtes, burent ; impf. suhj. busse, 
busses, b&t, bussions, bussiez, bussent. 

Like boire : 

etnboire, coat (In painting). imboire, imbibe, imbue. 

'■'emboire, become dtUl. reboire, drink again. 

*iued in third person. 

182. Bruire, * to murmur,' * rustle.' 

1. Infinitive, bruire ; fut. bruirai, etc. ; condl. bruirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, bruyant ; i7npf. indie, bruyais, etc. ; pres. suhj. . 

3. Pn»t Part, bruit ; past indef. j'ai bruit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, bruis, lnui«, bruit, , , ; impve. . 

5. Past Dtf. ; im}f. suhj. . 

Nom.— 1. The pres. part, bruyant, noi«y, is used as adjootivo only. 2. Tlie fonus 
bmlMUtnt, brulsiali, etc, brulsse, etc., are also in use. 

183. Clore, * to close,' 'enclose.' 

1. Infinitive, dore ; /u^ clorai, etc.; condl. cloraia, etc. 

2. Prti. Part. ; impf. indie. ; pres. subj. close, closes, close, 

olodont, cloaiez, clotent. 

3. Pott Part, cloi ; past ind^. j'ai clos, etc. 

4. Pru. Indie, clot, clos, clOt, , , ; impve. . 

6. Pad Dff, ; impf. subj. . 

§§184-185] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -RE.' 145 

Like clore : 

d^clore, throto open. \ enclore, inclote. 

* 6clore, hatch, open (of flowers). tt forclore, foreclose, debar. 

* Has also pres. plur. ^clOSOns, etc. ; impf. indie. ^Closais, etc. Its future and 
conditional have circumflex, ^Cldrai, etc. 

t Has also 2^68. plur. enclOSOns, etc. ; pres. part, enclosant ; impf. indie. 
enclosais, etc. 
tt Hardly used beyond the infinitive, past participle, and compound tenses. 

184. Conclure, ' to conclude.' 

L Infinitive, conclure; fut. conclurai, etc.; condl. conclurais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, concluant ; impf. indie, concluais, etc. ; pres. subj. 
conclue, conclues, conclue, concluions, concluiez, concluent. 

3. Past Part, conclu ; past indef. j'ai conclu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, conclus, conclus, coiiclut, concluons, concluez, con- 
cluent ; impve. conclus, concluons, concluez. 

5. Past Def. conclus, conclus, conclut, concMmes, concldtes, conclu- 
rent ; impf. subj. conclusse, conclusses, concliit, conclussions, conclussiez, 

Like conclure : 
exclure, exclude. *inclure, inclose. treclure, shut up. 

*Pa8t Part, inclus. 
t Used only in infin., past part., and comp. tenses. Past part. reclUS. 

185. Conduire, ' to conduct,' etc. 

1. Infinitive, conduire ; fut. conduirai, etc. ; condl. conduirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, conduisant ; impf. indie, conduisais, etc. ; pres. subj. 
conduise, conduises, conduise, conduisions, conduisiez, conduisent. 

3. Past Part, conduit ; past indef. j'ai conduit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, conduis, conduis, conduit, conduisons, conduisez, 
conduisent ; impve. conduis, conduisons, conduisez. 

5. Past Def. conduisis, conduisis, conduisit, conduisimes, condui- 
sites, conduisirent ; impf. subj. conduisisse, conduisisses, conduisit, 
conduisissions, conduisissiez, conduisissent. 

Like conduire : 

se conduire, conduct one's d^uire, deduct. r6duire, reduce. 

self. enduire, coat (with plaster). reproduire, reproduce. 

6conduire, show out, dismiss, induire, induce. sMuire, seduce. 

reconduire, lead back. introduire, introduce. traduire, translate. 

*duire, please, suit. produire, produce. construire, construct. 

146 THE VERB. [§§186-188 

diconBtmire, take apart. d^truire, destroy. iluire, shine. 

instruire, instruct. cuire, cook. t reluire, glisten. 

reconstruire, reconstruct. recuire, cook again. J nuire, injure. 

* Only in third singr. and plu. pres. indie, and third sing. impf. indio. Obsolescent. 
t Past part, lui and relui respectively. No past def. or impf. subj. 

X Past part. nuL 

i86. fetre, 'to be.' 

See § 154 for the full conjugation. 

187. Confire, ' to preserve,' etc. 

1. Infinitive, confire ; fut. confirai, etc. ; condl. confirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, confisant ; impf. indie, confisais, etc. ; pres. subj, 
confise, confises, confise, confisions, confisiez, confisent. 

3. Past Part, confit ; past indef. j'ai confit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, confis, confis, confit, confisons, confisez, confisent j 
impve. confis, confisons, confisez. 

5. Past Def. confis, confis, confit, confimes, confites, confirent ; imp/, 
subj. confisse, confisses, confit, confissions, confissiez, confissent. 

Like confire : 
d^confire, discomfit. circoncire (p.p. -Cls), circumcise. suffire (p.p. suffi), suffice. 

188. Connaitre, 'to know,' etc. 

1. Infinitive, connaitre ; fid. connaitrai, etc. ; condl. connaitrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, connaissant ; impf. indie, connaissais, etc. ; p7'es. 
mbj. connaisse, connaisses, connaisse, connaissions, connaissiez, con- 

3. Past Part, connu ; j'ai connu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, connais, connais, connatt, connaissons, connaissez, 
connaififlent ; impve. connais, connaissons, connaissez. 

5. Past Def. connus, connus, conmit, conniunes, connfites, connu- 
rent ; impf. subj. connusse, connusses, coniu'it, connussions, connussiez, 

Ob$. : Stem-vowel 1 has circumflex (1) everywhere before t. 

Like connaitre : 
m^ooniudtre, not to know, oomparaltre, appear (law *paltre, grate. 
reoonnaltre, r$eognii$. term). repaltre, /eed, feast. 

iptLnMn, appttur. difparaltre, ditopfMor. ee repattre,/Md,/0a«t. 

nppMmltre, appsmr, reparaltre, reappear, 

* Laoki the pMt part., pMt duf., and Impf. hiiIiJ. 

NOTK.— ApparOlr (a1m> umU in third Ninifular 11 appert. 'it appi'arH') and OOXU- 
parolr, are inflnlUve Mroh«io vari«nt« of apparaltre imd comparaltre. 



189. Coudre, 'to sew.' 

1. Infinitive, coudre ; fut. coudrai, etc. ; condl. coudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, cousant ; impf. indie, cousais, etc. ; j'res. subj. couse, 
couses, couse, cousions, cousiez, cousent. 

3. Past Part, cousu ; past indef. j'ai cousu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, couds, couds, coud, cousons, cousez, cousent ; impve. 
couds, cousons, cousez. 

5. Past Def. cousis, cousis, cousit, couslmes, cousttes, cousirent ; 
impf. subj. cousisse, cousisses, cousit, cousissions, cousissiez, cousissent. 

Like coudre : 

d^coudre, rip, unsew. recoudre, sew again. 


Craindre, 'to fear.' 

1. Infinitive, craindre ; fut. craindrai, etc. ; condl. craindraisj etc. 

2. Pres. Part, craignant ; impf. indie, craignais, etc. ; pres. subj. 
«raigne, craignes, craigne, craignions, craigniez, craignent. 

3. Past Part, craint ; ^>a6'^ indef j'ai craint, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, crains, crains, craint, craignons, craignez, craignent ; 
impve. crains, craignons, craignez. 

6. Past Def. craignis, craignis, craignit, craigntmes, craignites, 
craignirent ; impf subj. craignisse, craignisses, craignit, craignissions, 
craignissiez, craignissent. 

Like craindre : 

in -aindre : 

contraindre, constrain. 
plaindre, pity. 
se plaindre, complain. 
in -eindre : 
astreindre, abstract. 
atteindre, attain. 

enfreindre, infringe. 
6preindre, squeeze out. 
6teindre, extinguish. 
^treindre, draw tight. 
feindre, feign. 
geindre, groan. 
peindre, paint. 

ceindre, enclose, gird, gird ratteindre, overtake. 

on (a sword, etc.). repeindre, paint again. 

d^peindre, depict. restreindre, restrain. 

empreindre, imprint. teindre, dye. 

enceindre, gird. d^teindre, fade. 

* Hardly used beyond the infinitive and future. 

reteindre, dye again. 
in -oindre : 
joindre, join. 
adjoindre, adjoin. 
conjoindre, conjoin. 
d^joindre, disjoin. 
disjoindre, disjoin. 
enjoindre, enjoin. 
rejoindre, rejoin. 
oindre, anoint. 
*poindre, dawn. 

191. Croire, ' to believe.' 

1. Infinitive, croire ; fut. croirai, etc. ; condl. croirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, croyant ; impf. indie, croyais, etc. ; pres. subj. croie, 
croies, croie, croyions, croyiez, croient. 

148 THE VERB. [§§192-193 

3. Past Part, cm ; past indef. j'ai cm, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, crois, crois, croit, croyons, croyez, croient ; impve. 
crois, crcyons, croyez. 

5. Past Def. crus, cms, crut, crimies, crutes, crurent ; impf. subj. 
cmsse, cmsses, crut, crussions, crussiez, crussent. 

Like croire : 

* accroire, believe (an untruth). td^croire, disbelieve. 

* Found only in faire accroire, to cause to believe (an untruth). 

t Used only in * je ne crois ni ne decrois,' ' I neither believe nor disbeliere.' 

192. Croitre, ' to grow.' 

1. Infinitive, croitre ; fut. croitrai, etc. ; condl. crottrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, croissant ; impf. indie, croissais, etc. ; pres. subj. 
croisse, croisses, croisse, croissions, croissiez, croissent. 

3. Past Part, cru (f. crue) ; past indef. j'ai crii, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, crois, crois, croit, croissons, croissez, croissent j impve. 
crois, croissons, croissez. 

5. Past Def. crus, crfts, criit, crimes, cr(\tes, crArent ; imi)f. subj. 

crusse, cnlsses, crftt, crAssions, crlissiez, crussent. 

Obs.: The circumflex accent distinguishes otherwise like forms of croltre and 
croire, but is optional in the imperfect subjunctive (except the third singular). 

Like croitre : 

• aocroitre, increcue. * recroitre, grow again. * surcroitre, overgrow. 
d^roitre, decrease. 

*No droumflex in past participle, past definite third singular and third plural. 

193. Dire, Ho say,' Hell.' 

\. Infinitive, dire ; fut. dirai, etc. ; condl. dirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, disant ; impf. indie, disais, etc.; prea. subj. disc, disos, 
diKo, disionH, diHicz, disent. 

3. Past Part, dit ; jnint indef. j'ai dit, etc. 

4. Pret. Indie, dis, dia, dit, disons, ditos, disent ; impve. dis, disons, 

6. Pa»t Def. dis, dJR, dit, dimes, dttes, diront; impf. subj. disse, 
dines, dtt, dlMHionn, diHHioz, dissent. 

like dire : 
*oontrtdlre, contradict. 'intcrdire, interdict. *pr^dire, predict. 

*d4dir0, retract, deny. "nK^liro (de), alandtr. redire, tay again. 

*The teoond plural Imperative i« : Controdliez, dddisez, intcrdisez, etc. 

Not*. -Mandlre !•< lli(» dire only in inflnltivo, post participle (maudit), future 
sod oonditional ; othcr^^iM like flnlr. 

§§194-196] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -RE. 149 

194. 6crire, ' to write.' 

1. Infinitive, ecrire ; fvt. ^crirai, etc., condl. ^crirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, ecrivant; impf. indie, ^crivais, etc., pres. subj. derive, 
derives, derive, ^crivions, ecriviez, ^crivent. 

3. Past Part, ecrit ; past indef. j'ai 6crit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, ecris, ecris, ecrit, ecrivons, ^crivez, ecrivent ; impve. 
^cris, Ecrivons, ecrivez. 

5. Past Def. ecrivis, dcrivis, ^crivit, ^crivtmes, ^crivttes, ^crivi- 
rent ; impf. subj. ecrivisse, ecrivisses, ecrivit, ^crivissions, ^crivissiez, 

Like Ecrire are all verbs in -(s)crire : 

circonscrire, circumscribe, prescrire, prescribe. souscrire, subscribe. 

d6crire, describe. proscrire, proscribe. transcrire, transcribe, 

inscrire, inscribe. rterire, reiorite. 

195. Faire, * to do,' * make.' 

1. Infinitive, faire; fut. ferai [fare], etc.; condl. ferais, etc. A 

2. Pres. Part, faisant [faza] ; impf. indie, faisais [faze], etc.; pres. 
subj. fasse, fasses, fasse, fassions, fassiez, fassent. v'"' 

3. Past Part, fait ; past indef. j'ai fait, etc. ^ 

4. Pres. Indie, fais, fais, fait, faisons [fazo], faites, font ; impve. fais, 
faisons, faites. 

5. Past Def. fis, fis, fit, fimes, fites, firent ; impf. subj. fisse, fisses, 
ftt, fissions, fissiez, fissent. 

Like faire : 

contrefaire, imitate. m^faire, harm. refaire, do again. 

d6faire, undo. parfaire, complete. satisfaire, satisfy. 

forfaire, forfeit. red^faire, undo again. surfaire, overcharge. 

*malfaire, do ill. 
* Used in infinitive only. 

196. Frire, ' to fry ' (intr.). 

1. Infinitive, frire ; fut. frirai, etc. ; condl. frirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part. ; impf. indie. ; pres. subj. . 

3. Past Part, frit ; past indef. j'ai frit, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, fris, fris, frit, , , ; impve. fris, , . 

5. Past Def. ; impf. subj. . 

150 THE VERB. [§§197-199 

197. Lire, * to read.' 

1. Infinitive, lire ; ftit. lirai, etc. ; condl. lirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, lisant ; impf. indie, lisais, etc. ; pres. suhj. lise, lises, 
lise, lisions, lisiez, lisent. 

3. Past Part, lu ; past indef. j'ai lu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, lis, lis, lit, lisons, lisez, lisent ; impve. lis, lisons, lisez. 

5. Past Def. lus, lus, lut, Iftmes, Kites, lurent j innpf. suhj. lusse, 
lusses, l(it, lussions, lussiez, lussent. 

Like lire : 
^lire, eUti,, r^^lire, re-elect. relire, read again, 

198. Mettre, *to place/ *put.' 

Infinitive, mettre ; fut. mettrai, etc. ; eondl. mettrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, mettant ; impf. indie, mettais, etc. ; pres. suhj. mette, 
niettes, mette, mettions, mettiez, mettent. 

3. Past Part, mis ; past indef. j'ai mis, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, mets, mets, met, mettons, mettez, mettent ; impve. 
mets, mettons, mettez. 

5. Past Def. mis, mis, mit, mimes, mites, mirent ; i7npf suhj. misse, 
misses, mtt, missions, missiez, missent. 

Like mettre : 

M mettre, begin. d^mettre, dismiss. promettre, promise. 

admettre, admit. ^mettre, emit. remettrc, put back, hand to. 

oonimettre, commit. s'entremettre, interpose. repromettre, promise again. 

oompromettre, eompro' omettre, omit. soumettre, submit. 

permettre, permit. transmettre, transmit. 

199. Moudre, * to grind.' 

1. Infinitive, moudre; fut. moudrai, etc.; condl. nuiudrais, etc. 

2. Pre». Part, moulant ; impf. indie, moulais, etc. ; jyres. suhj. nioulo, 
moulet, moulu, mouliouK, moulicz, moulcnt. 

3. Past Part, moulu ; past indef. j'ai moulu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, mouds, moiulH, moud, monlons, nionlfz, moulcnt; 
impve. moudH, mouloiiH, mouh/.. 

5. Past Dff. moulus, iiiouIuh, niouhit, nioulOiiK'K, mouiriioH, inoulu- 
rent; impf, auhj. muuluHMc, niouluHHCH, niuulnl, niouluHHiouH, niuuluHHiuz, 

Like mondre t 

4lDoqdii^ loM. rtmoodre, grind again. r^moudre, sharpen. 

§§200-202] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -RE. 151 

200. N ait re, ' to be born,' etc. 

1. Infinitive, naitre ; fut. nattrai, etc. ; condl. nattrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, naissant ; impf. indie, naissais, etc.; pres. stibj. naisse, 
naisses, naisse, naissions, naissiez, naissent. 

3. Past Part, ne ; pa^t indef. je suis iie, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, nais, nais, nait, naissons, naissez, naissent ; impve. 
nais, naissons, naissez. 

5. Past Def. naquis, naqiiis, naquit, naqulmes, naqultes, naqui- 
rent; impf. subj. naquisse, naquisses, naquit, naquissions, naquissiez, 

06s.; Stem-vowel 1 has the circumflex (1) everywhere before t. 

Like naitre : 
renaitre, revive. 

201. Plaire, 'to please.* 

L Infinitive, plaire ; fut. plairai, etc. ; condl. plairais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, plaisant ; imp/, indie, plaisais, etc. ; pres. subj. plaise, 
plaises, plaise, plaisions, plaisiez, plaisent. 

3. Pa^t Part, plu ; past indef. j'ai plu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, plais, plais, plait, plaisons, plaisez, plaisent; impve. 
plais, plaisons, plaisez. 

5. Past Def. plus, plus, plut, plftmes, plfttes, plurent ; impf. subj. 
plusse, plusses, pl{it, plussions, plussiez, plussent. 

Like plaire : 
complaire, /ittmowr. d^plsAret displease. *ta.ire, say nothing about. 

* n tait has no circumflex. 

202. Prendre, *to take.* 

1. Infinitive, prendre ; fut. prendrai, etc. ; condl. prendrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, prenant ; im}f. indie, prenais, etc. ; pres. subj. prenne, 
prennes, prenne, prenions, preniez, prennent. 

3. Past Part, pris ; ;>ifl6^ indef. j'ai pris, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, prends, prends, prend, prenons, prenez, prennent ; 
impve. prends, prenons, prenez. 

5. Past Def. pris, pris, prit, primes, prites, prirent ; impf subj. prisse, 
prisses, prit, prissions, prissiez, prissent. 

Like prendre are its compounds : 
apprendre, learn. entreprendre, tindertdkc. rapprendre, learn again. 

d6prendre, part. s'^preiidre, be takmi (with). reprendre, take back. 

d^sapprendre, unlearn. se m6prendre, be mistaken. surprendre, surprise. 
Qomprendre, understancU 


152 • - THE VERB. [§§203-206 

203. Rdsoudre, 'to resolve.* 

1. Infinitive, r^soudre ; fut. r^soudrai, etc. ; condl. r^soudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, resolvant ; impf. indie, r^solvais, etc ; pres. svbj. 
resolve, resolves, resolve, resolvions, resolviez, resolvent. 

3. Past Part, r^solu ; past indef. j'ai r^solu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, r^sous, resous, r^sout, r^solvons, r^solvez, resolvent ; 
impve. resous, r^solvons, resolvez. 

5. Past Def. resolus, resolus, r^solut, r^soMmes, r^solHtes, r^solurent ; 
xmpf. suhj. resolusse, resolusses, resolut, resolussions, resolussiez, 

Like r^soudre : 

• absoudre, absolve. * dissoudre, dissolve. 

* Past part, absous (f. absoute), diSBOUS (f. dissoute), respectively, lack the past 
definite and imperfect subjunctive. 

204. Rire, * to laugh.' 

1. Infinitive, rire; fut. rirai, etc.; condl. rirais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, riant ; imp/, indie, riais, etc. ; pres. suhj. rie, ries, rie, 
riions, riiez, rient. 

3. Past Part, ri ; pa^t indef. j'ai ri, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, ris, ris, rit, rions, riez, rient ; impve. ris, rions, riez. 

6. Past Def. ris, ris, rit, rimes, rites, rirent ; impf. suhj. risse, risses, 
rlt, rissions, rissiez, rissent. 

Like rire: 
•e rire, make tport (of, deX souilre, amiU. 

20s Sourdre, *to rise,' etc. 

\. Infinitive, lourdre; fut. il sourdra ; condl. il Rourdrait. 

2. Pre*. Part, sourdant; impf. indie, il sourdnit; pres. suhj. il sourdo. 

3. PoHt Part. ; jxtst indef. . 

4. Pre». Indie. , , Hourd, , , Hourdent ; impve. . 

5. Pant Def. il sourdit ; impf. suhj. il sourdlt. 
Nora.— Littl* tuwd beyond the infln. and third sing. pres. iiullc. 

206. Suivre, * to follow.' 

1. Infinitivr. suivre ; fnl. Ktiivrai, etc.; condl. Huivrais, etc. 

2. Preg. Part, suivant ; iviff. indie HuivaiH, etc.; ;>rf/*. suhj. suivo, 
>«uivM, Koive, tuivioiM, Nuivicz, nuivont. 

§§207-209] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -RE. 153 

3. Past Part, suivi ; past indef. j*ai suivi, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, suis, suis, suit, suivons, suivez, suivent; impve, suis, 
suivons, suivez. 

5. Past Def. suivis, puivis, suivit, suivimes, suivites, suivirent; vnvpf, 
suhj. suivisse, suivisses, suivit, suivissions, suivissiez, suivissent. 

Like suivre : 
s'ensui vre (impers. ), it foUowB. pounnivre, jmntM. 

207. Tistre, *to weave.' 

Used only in the past part, tissu, and compound tenses. 

208. Traire, *to milk.' 

1. Infinitive, traire ; fut. trairai, etc. ; condl. trairais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, trayant ; impf. indie, trayais, etc. ; pres. suhj. traie, 
traies, traie, trayions, trayiez, traient. 

3. Past Part, trait ; past indef. j'ai trait, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, trais, trais, trait, trayons, trayez, traient ; impve. 
trais, trayons, trayez. 

5. Past Def. ; impf. suhj. . 

Like traire : 

abstraire, abstract. extraire, extract. soustraire, subtract. 

attraire, attract. rentraire, dam. *braire, bray. 

distraire, distract. retraire, redeem (legal). 

* Commonly used only in the infin. and the third pers. pres. indie, fut. and condl. 

209. Vaincre, 'to conquer.* 

1. Infinitive, vaincre ; fut. vaincrai, etc. ; condl. vaincrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, vainquant ; impf. indie, vainquais, etc. ; pres. suhj. 
vainque, vainques, vainque, vainquions, vainquiez, vainquent. 

3. Past Part, vaincu ; past indef. j'ai vaincu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vaincs [ve], vaincs, vainc, vainquons, vainquez, vain- 
quent ; impve. vaincs, vainquons, vainquez. 

5. Past Def. vainquis, vainquis, vainquit, vainquimes, vainquites, 
vainquirent ; impf. suhj. vainquisse, vainquisses, vainquit, vainquissions, 
vainquissiez, vainquissent. 

Obs. : Stem c [k] becomes qu [k] before any vowel except u. 

Like vaincre : 
convaincre, convince. 

154 THE VERB. [§§210-213 

210. Vendre, ' to sell.' 

Irregular only in third singular present indicative : II vend (t omitted). 

>\ Like vendre : 

All verbs in -andre. -endre*, -erdre, -ondre, -ordre. 
• Except prendre. 

211. Vivre, ' to live.' 

1. Infinitive, vivre ; fut. vivrai, etc. ; coudl. vivrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, vivant ; imp/, indie, vivais, etc.; j)res. snbj., vive, 
vives, vive, vivions, viviez, vivent. 

3. Past Part, v^cu ; past indef. j'ai vecu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, vis, vis, vit, vivons, vivez, vivent ; hnpve. , vis, vivons, 

5. Past Def. v^cus, v^cus, v^cut, v^cftmes, v^cdtes, v^curent ; impf. 
suhj. v6cusse, v^cusses, v^cAt, v^cussions, v^cussiez, vecussent. 

Like vivre : 
revivre, revive. survivre, survive. 


Note. — The few verbs in -oir, which are all irregular, form, in some 
grammars, a separate conjugation, the third, verbs in -re being the 

212. Avoir, ' to have.* 
See §154 for the full conjugation of this verb. 

Like avoir : 

• nvolr, have again. 

* Uied only in tho infinitive. 

>C 213. Recevoir, * to receive.' 

1. Ii\/inith)f. recevoir ; fut. rocovrai, etc. ; ctmdl. reoevrais, ctt!. 

2. Preu. Part, recevant ; imp/, indie, rccovais, etc. 5 />r<'.s. huIiJ. 
re9oivo, refoivet, re^oive, recovions, rrcevioz, rovoivont. 

8. Paal Part, re^u ; pant imlef. j'ai niyu, etc. 

4. PrtM. Itidir. re^ois, royois, royoit, rocevons, rocevez, reyoivont ; 
impve. re^ob, reoevoiui, rooevez. 

§§214-215] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -OIR. 155 

5. Past def. regus, reyus, regut, regumes, re§{ites, re9urent; impf. 
subj. regusse, regusses, regftt, regussions, regussiez, re9ussent. 

Obs.: 1. Stem-vowel becomes oi wherever it bears the stress. 2, Stem c [s] is 
written c [s] before O or u (§ 5, 4). 

Like recevoir : 
apercevoir, perceive. d^cevoir, deceive. percevoir, collect taxes. 

conoevoir, conceive. 

214, Devoir, ' to owe.* 

1. Infinitive, devoir ; fut. devrai, etc. ; condl. devrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, devant; impf. indie, devais, etc.; vres. subj. doive, 
doives, doive, devions, deviez, doivent. ^^ 

3. Past Part, du (f. due, pi. du(e)s) ; past indef. j'ai dfl, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, dois, dois, doit, devons, devez, doivent ; impve. . 

5. Past Def. dus, dus, dut, dilmes, diites, durent ; impf. subj. dusse, 
dusses, dfit, dussions, dussiez, dussent. 

Note.— Devoir follows the recevoir model, but, as its forms present some difficulty, 
they have been {^iven in full. 

Like devoir : 
redevoir, still owe. 

215. Asseoir, Ho seat.' 

1. Infinitive, asseoir; ftut. assi^rai, etc., or asseyerai, etc., or assoirai, 
etc. ; condl. assierais, etc., or asseyerais, etc., or assoirais, etc. 

^2. Pres. Part, asseyant or assoyant ; impf. indie, asseyais, etc., or 
assoyais, etc. ; pres. subj. asseye, asseyes, asseye, asseyions, asseyiez, 
asseyent, or assoie, assoies, assoie, assoyions, assoyiez, assoient. 

3. Past Part, assis ; past indef. j'ai assis, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, assieds, assieds, assied, asseyons, asseyez, asseyent, 
or assois, assois, assoit, assoyons, assoyez, assoient ; impve. assieds, 
asseyons, asseyez, 07' assois, assoj^ons, assoyez. 

5. Past Def. assis, assis, assit, assimes, assites, assirent ; impf. subj. 
assisse, assisses, assit, assissions, assissiez, assissent. 

Like asseoir : 
s'asseoir, sit down. se rasseoir, sit down again. *mess&o\r, fit badly. 

rasseoir, reseat, calm. *seoir, be becomimj. fsurseoir, suspend, reprieve. 

* Used in third person of the following : Pres. indie, sied, silent (messied, me8si<^ent) : 
impf. indie, seyait, seyaient (messeyait, messeyaient) ; pres. subj. 8\6e, silent (mes- 
si6e, messi^ent) ; fut. si^ra, si6ront (messi^ra, messi^ront) ; condl. si^rait, si^raient 
(messi6rait, messi^raient). 

t Like the forma in oi (oy) of asseoir, but/tt«. and condl. sur8eoirai(8). 

156 THE VERB. [§§216-219 

216. D^choir, 'to decline/ etc. 

1. Infinitive, dechoir ; fut. decherrai, etc. ; condl. d^cherrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part. ; iiiipf. indie. ; pres. subj. d^choie, dechoies, 

dechoie, d^choyions, d^chojaez, dechoient. 

3. Past Part, dechu ; past indef. j'ai d^chu or je suis d^chu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, dechois, d^chois, dechoit, dechoyons, dechoyez, 
dechoient; impve. dechois, dechoyons, dechoyez. 

5. Past Dtf. dechus, d^chus, dechut, dechtimes, d^chiites, d(5churent ; 
impf. subj. d^chusse, d^chusses, d^ch^t, d^chussions, d^chussiez, 

Like dechoir : 

•choir, fall. *rechoir, fall again. 

* Hardly used bej'ond the infin. andcomp. tenses. 

217. 6choir, * fall due,' etc. 

1. Infinitive, ^choir ; fut. il *^cherra ; condl. il *6cherrait. 

2. Pres. Part, dch^ant ; impf. indie, il ^choyait ; pres. subj. il Scheie. 

3. Past Part. 6ch\i ; past indef. je suis 6chu, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie. , , ^hoit or 6chet, , , ^choient or 

^h^nt ; impve. . 

6. Past Def. , , il ^chut ; , , ils 6churent ; impf. subj. 

il ^hfit. 

•Or rejfular : il 6cllOlra(lt). 

218. Falloir, *mu8t/ etc. (impers.). 

1. Ir\finit%ve. falloir ; fut. il faudra ; condl. il faudrait. 

2. Prea. Part. ; impf indie, il fallait ; pres. subj. il faille. 

3. Past Part, fallu ; past indef. il a fallu. 

4. Pre*. Indie, il faut ; impve. . 

5. Poit DeS' il fallut ; impf. subj. 11 falldt. 

219. Mouvoir, ' to move.' 

1. Infinitive., mouvoir ; fut. mouvrai, etc.; condl. mouvrais, etc. 

2. Pren. Part, mouvant ; impf indie, niouvais, etc. ; pres. subj. inouve, 
meavet, mmivt;, mouvionH, rnouvie/., meiivnnt. 

3. Past Pari, mil (f. iim<% pi. nni(r)H); fxiHt indef. j'ai inrt, ntc. 

4. Pres. Indie, meus. uwuh, numt, iiiouvohh, mouvoz, iiiouvout; impve. 
m&OB, mouvonit, inouvoz. 

§§220-223] IRREGULAR VERBS IN -OIR. 157 

5. Past Def. mus, mus, mut, mtimes, miites, murent ; impf. subj. 
musse, musses, mdt, mussions, mussiez, mussent. 

Obs.: Stem- vowel becomes eu wherever stressed. 

Like mouvoir : 
*^mouvoir, arouse. *promou voir, promote. 

* Past participle has no circumflex accent. 

220. Pleuvoir, *to rain ' (impers.). 

1. Infinitive, pleuvoir ; fut. il pleuvra ; condl. il pleuvrait. 

2. Pres. Part, pleuvant ; impf. indie, il pleuvait ; pres. subj. 11 pleuve. 

3. Past Part, plu ; past indef. il a plu. 

4. Pres. Indie, il pleut ; impve. . 

6. Past Def. il plut ; impf. suhj. il pltit. 

221. Pouvoir, * to be able/ etc. 

1. Infinitive, pouvoir ; fut. pourrai, etc. ; condl. pourrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, pouvant ; impf. indie, pouvais, etc. ; pres. subj. puisse, 
puisses, puisse, puissions, puissiez, puissent. 

3. Past Part, pu ; past indef. j'ai pu. 

4. Pres. Indie, puis or peux, peux, peut, pouvons, pouvez, peuvent ; 
impve. . 

5. Past Def. pus, pus, put, ptimes, pfites, purent ; impf. subj. pusse, 
pusses, ptit, pussions, pussiez, pussent. 

Obs. : The first sing. pres. indie, in negation is usually ' je ne peux pas,' or * je ne 
puis' ; in questions, only ' puis-je?'; otherwise ' puis ' or ' peux.' 

222. Savoir, * to know,' etc. 

1. Infinitive, savoir ; fut. saur ai, etc. ; saurais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, sachant ; impf. indie, savais, etc. ; pres. subj. sache. 
sache s, sach e, sachions, sachiez, sachent. ^^^^ 

3. Past Part, su ; past indef. j'ai su, etc. 

4. Pres. Indie, sais [se], sais, sait, savons, savez, savent ; impve sache, 
sachons, sachez. 

5. Past Def. sus, sus, sut, sumes, sUtes, surent ; impf. subj. susse, 
susses, sfit, sussions, sussiez, sussent. 

223. Valoir, Ho be worth.* 

1. Infinitive, valoir ; fut. vaudrai, etc. ; condl. vaudrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, valant ; impf indie, valais, etc. ; pres. subj. vaille, 
vailles, vaille, valions, valiez, vaillent. 




158 THE VERB. [§§224-225 

3. Past Part, valu ; past indef. j'ai valu, etc. 

4. Pres. Jiuiic. vaux, vaux, vaut, valons, valez, valent ; impve. vaux, 
valons, valez. 

5. Past Def. valus, valus, valut, valdmes, valutes, valurent ; impf. 
gubj. valusse, valusses, valdt, valussions, valussiez, valusseut. 

Like valoir : 
6qmva\oir, be equivalent. *pr^valoir, prevail. fchaloir. 

revaloir, pay back, return 

like /or like. 

*Pres. sub), pr^vale, etc. 

t Hardly used beyond, • II ne me chaut de,' • I care not for.' 

224. Voir, * to see.' 

1. Infinitive, voir ; fut. verrai, etc. ; condl. verrais, etc. 

2. Pres. Part, voyant ; impf. indie, voyais, etc. ; pres. S2cbj. voio, voies, 
voie, voyions, voyiez, voient. 

3. Past Part, vu : past indef. j'ai vu, etc. 

4. Pres. Jndic. vols, vois, voit, voyons, voyez, voient ; impve. vois, 
voyons, voyez. 

5. Past Def. vis, vis, vit, vlmes, vites, virent ; impf. subj. visso, visses, 
vlt, vissions, vissiez, vissent. 

Like voir : 
entrevoir, catch tight of. *pourvoir, provide. f pr^voir, foresee. 

revoir, lee again. ♦d6pourvoir, strip, leave destitute. 

"Peut def. -VTM, etc.; imp/, subj. -vuBse, etc.; fut. and condl. -volral(8), regular 

iPtU. and eondL -V0irai(8), etc., regular. 

22s Vouloir, 'to will/ etc."^ 

\, Infin. vouloir ; fut. voudrai, etc. ; condl. voudrais, etc. 

2. Pre.H. Part, voulant ; ivii>f. indie, voulais, etc. ; pres. subj. veuille, 
veuilleii, veuille, vouIIouh, voulicz, veuillont. 

3. Past Part, voulu ; ]>a^t indef. j'ai voulu, etc. 

.4. Pru. Indie, veux, veux, veut, vouIouh, voulez, voulcnt; impve. 
veux, voulons, voulez. 

0. PaU Def, vouluf, voulus, voulut, voulAmos, voulAtos, voulu- 
rent ) impf. tuhj. vouIumm), vouIurhoh, voulfit, vouluHRionH, voulussioz, 


Obs. : BtotU'VOWtl bMOUM eu whenever it is itreiaed. 

NoTB.— Tb« nfruUur impvs. veuz, VOUlonf, VOUlei it raru ; veulllez-'have the 
I to' general! J aerve* aa eeoond piural imperative. 




226. Reference List of Irregular Verbs. 

Note. — Each verb in the list is referred to the section in which its 
irregularity is explained. For verbs in -cer, -ger, see §156 ; for verbs 
in -yer, §157 ; for verbs with stem-vowel e or 6, §158 ; for verbs in 
-andre, -endre, -erdre, -ondre, -ordre, §210. 

abattre §180 

absoudre . . 203 

abstenir 177 

abstraire 208 

accourir 164 

accroire 191 

accroitre 192 

accueillir 165 

acquerir 162 

adjoindre 190 

admettre 198 

advenir 178 

aller 160 

apercevoir 213 

apparaitre 188 

apparoir 188 

appartenir. . . . . . 177 

apprendre 202 

assaillir 165 

asseoir 215 

astreindre 190 

atteindre. 190 

attraire 208 

avenir 178 

avoir 154 


battre 180 

b^nir 163 

boire 181 

bouillir 166 

braire 208 

bruire 182 


ceindre § 190 

chaloir 223 

choir 216 

circoncire 187 

circonscrire 194 

circonvenir 178 

clore 183 

combattre 180 

commettre 198 

comparaitre 188 

comparoir 188 

complaire 201 

comprendre 202 

compromettre . . , 198 

concevoir 213 

conclure 184 

concourir 164 

conduire 185 

confire 187 

conjoindre 190 

connaitre 188 

conquerir 162 

consentir 166 

construire 185 

contenir 177 

contraindre 190 

contredire 193 

contrefaire 195 

contrevenir 178 

convaincre 209 

convenir 178 

coudre 189 

courir §164 

courre 164 

couvrir 176 

craindre 190 

croire 191 

croitre 192 

cueillir 165 

cuire 185 


debattre 180 

decevoir 213 

dechoir 216 

declore 183 

deconfire 187 

deconstruire .... 185 

d^coudre 189 

decouvrir 176 

ddcrire 194 

decroire 191 

d^croitre 192 

d^dire 193 

d^duire 185 

defaillir 167 

defaire 195 

dejoindre 190 

dementir 166 

demettre 198 

departir 166 

d^peindre 190 

deplaire 201 

depourvoir 224 

d^prendre 202 

desapprendre 202 


desservir §166 

deteindre 190 

d^tenir 177 

d^truire 185 

devenir 178 

d^vetir 179 

devoir 214 

dire 193 

disconvenir 178 

discourir 164 

disjoindre 190 

disparaitre 188 

dissoudre 203 

distraire 208 

dormir 166 

duire 185 


ebouillir 166 

tehoir 217 

6clore 183 

^conduire 185 

ferire 194 

^lire 197 

emboire 181 

^mettre 198 

^moudre 199 

^mouvoir 219 

empreindro 190 

enceindre 190 

enclore 183 

enoourir 164 

endormir. 1(56 

enduire 185 

enfreindre MK) 

•nfuir 170 

enjoindre V.H) 

enquMr. 162 

enraivra 206 

6ntf6inottre 1 98 

entreprandru . . . 202 


entretenir §177 

entrevoir 224 

entr'ouvrir 176 

envoyer 161 

^preindre 190 

^prendre 202 

^quivaloir 223 

^teindre 190 

etre 154 

^treindre 190 

exclure 184 

extraire 208 


faillir 167 

faire 195 

falloir 218 

feindre 190 

ferir 168 

fleurir 169 

forclore 183 

forfaire 195 

frire 196 

fuir 170 


geindre 190 

g(i8ir 171 


hair 172 


imboiro 181 

inuluro 184 

induire 185 

iiiHcriic! 194 

inHtruirc 185 

inttjrdiro 193 

iutiu'vonir 178 

iiilnKluin- 1H5 

iHsii- 173 


joindn MM) 



lire §197 

luire 185 


maintenir 177 

malfaire 195 

maudire 193 

meconnaitre 188 

mMire 193 

mefaire 195 

mentir 166 

meprendre 202 

messeoir 215 

mettre 198 

moudre 199 

mourir 174 

mouvoir 219 


naitre 200 

nuire 185 


obtenir 177 

offrir 176 

oindre 190 

omettre 198 

ouir 175 

ouvrir 176 


paitre 188 

paraitre 188 

parcourir 164 

parfairo 195 

partir 166 

parvonif 1 78 

poindrc 190 

pcrcovoir 213 

IMinnottro 198 

plaindrc 190 

plairo 201 

plouvoii- 220 




poindre §190 

poursuivre 206 

pourvoir 224 

pouvoir 221 

predire 193 

prendre 202 

prescrire 194 

pressentir 166 

prevaloir 223 

pr^venir 178 

pr^voir 224 

produire 185 

promettre 198 

promouvoir 219 

proscrire 194 

provenir 178 

'"^"■•l 162 


rabattre 180 

rapprendre 202 

rasseoir 215 

ratteindre 190 

ravoir 212 

reboire 181 

rebouillir 166 

recevoir 213 

rechoir 216 

reclure 184 

reconduire 185 

reconnaitre ..... 188 

reconquerir 162 

reconstruire 185 

recoudre 189 

recourir 164 

recouvrir 176 

r^crire 194 

recroitre 192 

recueillir 165 

recuire 185 

red^faire 195 

redevenir 178 


redevoir §214 

redire 193 

redormir 166 

reduire 185 

rehire 197 

refaire 195 

rejoindre 190 

relire 197 

reluire 185 

remettre 198 

remoudre 199 

r^moudre 199 

renaitre 200 

rendormir 166 

rentraire 208 

renvoyer 161 

repaitre 188 

reparaitre 188 

repartir 166 

repeindre 190 

repentir 166 

reprendre 202 

reproduire 185 

repromettre 198 

requerir 162 

r^soudre 203 

ressentir 166 

ressortir 166 

ressouvenir 178 

restreindre 190 

reteindre 190 

retenir 177 

retraire 208 

revaloir 223 

revenir 178 

revetir 179 

revivre 21 1 

revoir 224 

rire 204 

rouvrir 176 


saillir 165 

satisfaire 195 

savoir §222 

secourir 164 

sMuire 185 

sentir 166 

seoir 215 

servir 166 

sortir 166 

souflfrir 176 

soumettre 198 

sourdre 205 

sourire 204 

souscrire 194 

soustraire 208 

soutenir 177 

souvenir 178 

subvenir 178 

suffire 187 

suivre 206 

surcroitre 192 

surfaire 195 

surprendre 202 

surseoir 215 

survenir 178 

survivre 211 


taire 201 

teindre 190 

tenir 177 

tistre 207 

traduire 185 

traire 208 

transcrire 194 

transmettre 198 

tressaillir 165 


vaincre 209 

valoir 223 

vendre 210 

venir 178 

vetir 179 

vivre 211 

voir 224 

vouloir 225 

162 THE VERB. [§§227-229 


227. Avoir -f- the past participle forms the compound tenses 
-^ of all transitive and of niost intransitive ve rbs (cf. § 155). 

228. Etre + the past participle forms the compound tenses 
of all reflexive verbs (§ 242), and of_the following intransitive^ 
denoting motion or change of condition (cf. § 155) : 

•9 aller, go. — ^choir, fall due. « mourir, die. 

^ arriver, arrive. -- ^lore, hatch out. ,-. naitre, be born. 

m. choir, fall. -^entrer, enter, go (come) in. ., venir, come. 
* d6c^er, die. 

So also, the following compounds of venir : 

devenir, become. parvenir, attain. survenir, supervene. 

redevenir, become again. provenir, proceed. 
intervenir, intervene. revenir, come back. 

/ 229. 1 . Avoir or ^tre + the past participle forms the com- 
pound tenses of a number of intransitive verbs, the general 
distinction being that avoir, when so used, denotes action, 
while ^ tre denotes state or condition resulting from action : 

La pluie a pass^ par la fenStre. Tlie rain came through the window. 

La pluie est pass^. The rain is past. 

EUe a grandi bien vite. She grew up very fast. 

\EIIo eat grandie. She is grown up. 

2. Reference list of verbs with avoir or ^tre : 

•border, land. ^ "dewsendre, descend. redcscondre, come doum agaiiu 

•ooourir, run to. *<»diHparaitre, disappear. reinoiiler, go up (tgain. 

aocroltre. inereate. "v 6chapi)er, excape. *rentrer, go in again. 

.apparallre, appear. 6ohouor, be ntranded, fail. repoHHcr, pass again, 

iNUwer, faJ.1, deetin*. emhcllir, grow handtomer, 'rt'KHortir, go out agaiti. 

■ cewer, eeoM. dinitfror, emigrate. resHiiHcitcr, revive. 

-■chmngw, change. tm\)\ri'r, i/rnw worse. ronUT, remain. 

"•croltre, jrrotff. explr«r, r r/nr*?. *retoml»«r, /<//<! o^ain. 

d4t>ord«r, uvtrJUno, »|fnin<llr, grow up. ^ *retourr>cr, go back. 

d4dlolr, d$eay. <— *inonter, go up. ■» Honncr, Htrikc, toll. 

dterotm, dtenati. •^^•parUr, »et out. *,»»ortir, go out. 

dig^ntrt, dtgmerats, ptm9r,p<u$. *^*iomhvr, fall. 

"^Atnmant, r$main. rAohftpper, e§eap4 again. - vieillir, grow old. 

* Almost ftlwajr* with Itre, and placed by some gramiimrianii unions verbs taking 

Atra •xultulvely. 



a. Any verb in the list, used transitively, must, of course, take avoii 

II m'a pass^ la plume. He handed me the pen. 

Avez-vous rentr^ votre bl^ ? Have you hauled in your wheat? 

lis ont descendu le tableau. They have taken down the picture. 

h. The meaning also determines the auxiliary in a few other cases : 
Avoir. Etre. 

convenir, suit, become. convenir, ag^ree. 

disconvenir, not to suit, he discordant. disconvenir, deny. 

repartir, reply. repartir, go away again. 

Nous sommes convenus du prix. We agreed on the price. 
Le prix ne m'a pas convenu. The price did not suit me. 


230. Auxiliary Function. Several verbs, when followed 
by an infinitive, have a sort of auxiliary function, and serve 
to form verb phrases of various values, modal, temporal, etc. : 

1. Vouloir=' will,' 'wish to,' 'want to,' 'desire to,' etc. : 

Je ne veux pas rester. I will not remain. 

n voudrait (bien) le savoir. He would like to know it. 

Elle n'a pas voulu m'ecouter. She would not listen to me. 

II aurait voulu le frJre. He would have liked to do so. 

Veuillez le faire. Be so good as to do so. 

a. Distinguish from * will ' of simple futurity : 
Elle vous ^coutera. She will listen to you. 

2. Devoir=* ought,' 'should,' 'must,' 'be to,' 'have to,' 'be obliged 
to,' 'intend to,' etc., varies in force in different tenses: 

Present : je dois rester. I am to (have to, intend to, must) 

Imperfect : je devais parler. I was to (had to, etc. ) speak. 

Future : je devrai revenir. I shall have to (be obliged to) come 

Conditional : je devrais ecrire. I ought to (should) write. 

Past Indefinite: j'ai dum'arreter. I have had to (been obliged to) stop, 

must have stopped. 


164 THE VERB. [§230 

Past Definite : Je dus revenir. I had to come back. 

Conditional Anterior : j'aurais du I ought to have (should have) 
savoir, known. 

3. Pouvoir= ' can,' * be able to,' ' be permitted to,' * may,' etc.: 
H ne pouvait pas porter le sac. He could not carry the sack. 
Puis-je aller ? May I go ? 

Tls auraient pu le faire. They could (might) have done it. 

Je pourrais le faire, si je voulais. I could do it, if I would. 

Pourraient-ils en trouver ? Could they find any ? 

Pourrais- je vous demander ? Might I ask you ? 

4. Savoir = ' know how to', ' can,' etc. : 

Elle salt chanter et danser. She can sing and dance. 

a. Distinguish savoir in this sense from pouvoir : 
EUle est enrou^e et ne pent pas She is hoarse and cannot sing this 

chanter ce soir. evening. 

6. The conditional with ne has peculiar idiomatic force : 
Je ne saurais le croire. I cannot believe it. 

5. Oser= 'dare'; 

Je n'ose pas le lui dire. I dare not tell him so. 

NoTB.— The above five verbs are sometimes called 'modal auxiliaries.* 

6. Faire = ' make,' * cause to,' * cause to be,' * have,' * order,' * order 
to be,' etc. : 

J'ai fait dtudier les enfanta. I have made the cliildren study. 

H les fora ^couter. He will make them listen. 

11 s'est fait faire un habit. Ho had a coat made for himself. 

Faites chercher un mdtlocin. Send for a doctor. 

a. A governed Kubstantivo follows the infinitive, but a governed con- 
junctive pcrHonal pronoun (not reflexive) goes with faire : 
Faites venir le domeHtiquo. Have the servant come. 

Faites-le venir. Have him come. 

^ b. U the infinitive with faire huvo a direct object, the personal object 

(of {Bin nratt be indirect (cf. g293, 2, a) : 

\ Je fi« 4orire mon fill. I had my son write. 

I Je fit ^riro nn devoir k mon file. I nuulu my son write an exercise. 

lFaitae«le-ltii terire. Make him write it. 

Vje !• tear fit voir. I iihowu<i them it. 


c. Possible ambiguity is sometimes avoided by par : 

II fit porter le sac par le guide. He had the sack carried by the guide. 

d. Note the passive force of a transitive infinitive after faire : 
Je ferai ^rire une lettre. I shall have a letter written. 

7. Laisser = ' let,' has usually the same constructions as faire : 
Laissez ^crire les enfants. Let the children write. 
Laissez-leur (or -les) ^crire un Let them write an exercise. 


8. The present and imperfect of aller + an infinitive give a kind of 
immediate future, as also in English : 

II va I'acheter. He is going to (is about to) buy it. 

Nous allions nous arreter. We were about to stop. 

II allait se noyer. He was on the point of drowning. 

9. Similarly the present and imperfect of venir de + an infinitive give 
a kind of immediate past : 

Je viens de le voir. I have just seen him. 

II venait de I'entendre. He had just heard it. 


231. General Rule. The verb agrees with its subject in 
number and person : 

Les hommes sont mortels. Men are mortal. 

Tout le monde est ici. Everybody is here. 

Toi et moi (nous) ne faisons qu'un. You and I are but one. 

232. Simple Subject. Special rules for the agreement of 
a verb with one subject are : — 

1. A collective subject singular, when not followed by de, 
or when followed by de + the singular, has a singular verb : 

Le peuple fran9ais est brave. The French people are brave. 

Le s^nat I'a decide. The senate has {or have) decided it. 

La plupart du monde le croit. Most people believe it. 

2. A collective subject singular + de + a plural takes a 
plural verb, unless the sense of the collective be dominant : 




Une nu^ de sauvages I'attaqu^- 

Une nu^e de traits I'obscurcit. 
Une partie des soldats restent. 
Une partie des bourgeois protesta. 
Cette sorte de poires est ch6re. 

A cloud of savages attacked him. 

A cloud of arrows hid him. 
A part of the soldiers remain. 
A part of the citizens protested. 
This sort of pears is dear. 

a. When so used, adverbs of quantity, e.g. beaucoup, peu, etc., the 
nouns nombre, quantite, without article, and la plupart, are regularly 
plural in sense ; so also, force : 

Beaucoup de gens pensent ainsi. 
Peu de gens le savent. 
Que d'ennemis m'attaquent ! 
Nombre d'Atht^niens avaient fui. 
La plupart des soldats p^rirent. 
Force sots le tenteront. 

Many people think so. 

Few people know it. 

How many enemies attack me ! 

A number of Athenians had fled. 

Most of the soldiers perished. 

Many a fool will try it. 

b. Beaucoup, peu, combien, used absolutely, are singular or plural 
according to tlie sense of the de clause implied ; la plupart when so 
used is always plural : 

Beaucoup {sc. de gens) le croient. Many {sc. people) believe it. 
Peu {sc. de ceci) me suffira. Little (sc. of this) will suffice me. 

La plupart vot^rent contre. The majority voted nay. 

c. Plus d'un is singular, unless reciprocal or repeated, and moins de 
deux is plural : 

Plu.s d'un t(*moin a d^pos^. 
Moins de deux ne valent rien. 
Plus d'un fripon so dupent (I'un 

Plus d'un officier, plus d'un 

g<5ndral furent tu^s. 

More than one witness has sworn. 

Less than two is no use. 

More rogues than one cheat each 

More than one officer, more than 

one general was killed. 

3. Ce nnjuires a plural verb only when tlio predicate is a 
plural noun, a plural pronoun of the third person, or when ce 
refers to a preceding plural : 

Sont-oe vet amis ? — Ce sont oux. 
Oe doivent Aire les •ieni. 
Oe lont nm teinblablM. 
Set d6iArn. ce iiont ia loi. 

Is it your friends ? It is they. 
ThuHU mtist be liis. 
They are our fi'now-crcatures. 
}\\h dcHircH ai(! liis law. 

But : Cent moi ; c'est to! ; c'est lui ; <:'est nous ; ( 'est vous. 

a. The third singular it often ubo<1 for the third plural in tliis construc- 
tion, more otipooially in familiar language or to avoid liarsh locutions : 


Est-ce les Anglais que je crains? Is it the English that I fear? 

C'est eux qui I'ont fait. It is they who did it. 

C'est des betises. That is stupidity. 

Ne fiit-ce que quelques lignes. If it were only a few lines. 

b. The verb with ce is singular when the predicate is a numeral + a 
noun of collective force : 

C'est dix heures qu'il sonne. It is ten o'clock that is striking. 

c. Si ce n'est is always singular : 

Qui, si ce n'est nos parents ? Who, if it is not our parents ? 

4. II (impers.) always has a singular verb, whatever be the 
logical subject : 

II est arrive bien des choses. Many things have happened. 

II en reste trois livres. Three pounds of it remain. 

a. Importer is construed personally or impersonall}' : 
Qu'importe (importent) les depens? What matters the cost ? 

233. Composite Subject. A verb common to two or 
more subjects is regularly plural ; when the subjects differ in 
person, the verb agrees with the first person, if one subject is 
of the first person, otherwise with the second : 

Toi et moi (nous) ne faisons qu'un. You and I are but one. 
Sa scBur et lui sont la. His sister and he are there. 

a. With subjects of diflferent person, pleonastic nous, vous, is generally 
used : 

Vous et lui (vous) I'avez vu. You and he have seen it. 

b. With ou = 'or,' ni. . .ni= 'neither. . .nor,' the verb is singular if 
the sense is clearly alternative, i.e., the one subject excluding the other, 
otherwise generally plural ; I'un ou I'autre is always singular : 

Sa vie ou sa mort en depend. His life or death depends on it. 

Ni lui ni votre fr^re n'aura ce Neither he nor your brother will 

poste. have that post. 

Ni I'un ni I'autre ne sont bons. Neither is good. 

L'une ou I'autre viendra. The one or the other will come. 

L'un ou I'autre jour me convient. Either day suits me. 

c. If the subjects (generally without et) are synonymous, or nearly so, 
or form a climax, the verb may be singular : 

168 THE VERB. [§234-236 

Sa dignite, sa noblesse frappa His dignity, his nobility struck 

tout le monde. everybody. 

L'heure, le lieu, le bras se choisit The hour, the place, the arm are 

aujourd'hui. chosen to-day. 

Une excuse, un mot le disarms. An excuse, a word disarms him. 

d. When the subjects are recapitulated by a word in the singular, 
e.g., tout, rien, etc., the verb is singular agreeing with it : 
Remords, crainte, perils, rien ne Remorse, fear, dangers, nothing de- 

m'a retenue. terred me. 

e. With an intervening clause, e.g., ainsi que, plus que, etc., the 
subject is usually only apparently composite : 

La vertu, plus que le savoir, ^l^ve Virtue, more than knowledge, ele- 

I'homme. vates man. 

/. Even with et the sense is occasionally singular, or distributive, or 
alternative, and a singular verb is required : 
Le bien et le mal est en ta main. Good and ill are in thy hand. 
L'un et I'autre pent se dire. Both may be said. 

L'^t^ est revenu et le soleil. Summer has returned and the sun. 

Tombe Argos et sea murs. Down falls Argos and its walls. 

234. Relative Subject. The verb agrees with the rela- 
tive pronoun subject, which is itself of tlie number and person 
of the antecedent (see also Relative Pronoun) : 

Cast nous qui I'avona fait. It is we who have done it. 

Dieux (vous) qui m'exaucez ! (Ye) Gods who hear me ! 


235. General Rule. The subject usually precedes the 
verb. Exceptions to this rule are noted in the following 

236. Interrogative Word Order. "Oirect interrogation 
is expressed oh follows : — 

I A personal pronoun subject (also CC or on) follows the 
verb, and is joined to it by a hyphen : 

ParloK-TOUS fran9ai«? Do you speak French? 

E«t-celui7 Is it he? 

§236] 'position of subject. 169 

a. The letter -t- is inserted after a third singular with final vowel 
before a pronoun with initial vowel : 
Parla-t-elle ? Parle-t-on ? Did she speak ? Do they speak ? 

h. A final e of the first singular takes acute accent, but with the 
sound of [e] : 
Donn^-je ? [done: 3]. Do I give ? 

2. A noun subject precedes the verb, and is repeated after 
it by a pleonastic pronoun ; so also, possessive, demonstrative 
and indefinite pronouns : 

Get homme parle-t-il anglais ? Does that man speak English ? 

Cela est-il vrai ? Is that true ? 

Les miens ne sont-ils pas bons ? Are mine not good ? 

3. Questions are also asked by interrogative words (adjec- 
tives, pronouns, adverbs) : 

Quel po6te a ^crit cela ? What poet wrote that ? 

A quelle heure partira son ami ? At what o'clock will his friend go ? 

Qui est 1^ ? Qu'y a-t-il ? Who is there ? What is the matter? 

Lequel des deux est parti ? Which of the two has gone ? 

Combien coute cela ? 
Combien cela coute -t-il 


How much does that cost ? 

a. The word order of either of the last two examples is commonly 
permissible for noun subject under this rule. 

b. The word order of the last example is obligatory when the verb 
has a direct object (not reflexive), or a prepositional complement, or 
when ambiguity might arise ; this arrangement is preferable with 
pourquoi ?, or when a compound tense is used : 

Ou le roi tient-il sa cour ? Where does the king hold his court ? 

De quoi le roi parle-t-il ? Of what is the king speaking ? 

Quel prix le roi paya-t-il ? What price did the king pay ? 

Jean qui aime-t-il ? Whom does John love ? 

Pourquoi mon ami part-il ? Why does my friend go ? 

Quand ce roi a-t-il et6 decapite ? When was this king beheaded ? 

4. By prefixing est-ce que ? a statement becomes a ques- 
tion without change in its word order : 

Est-ce que vous partez ? Are you going away ? 

Quand est-ce que vous partez ? When are you going away T 

170 THE VERB. [§237 

a. The use of est-ce que? is permissible with all forms of the verb, but 
is obligatory with a monosyllabic first singular (except ai-je ?, suis-je ? 
dis-je ?, dois-je ?, fais-je ?, puis-je ?, sais-je ?, vais-je ?, vois-je ?), and 
is preferable to avoid forms like donne-je ? : 
Est-ce que je sers, moi ? Do I serve ? 

Est-ce que je parle de lui ? Do I speak of him ? 

5. Interrogation is also expressed by mere inflection of 
the voice, without change in word order ; 
Vous jjartez dejk ? You are going already ? 

237. Rhetorical Inversions. Owing to rhetorical con- 
siderations the noun subject not uncommonly follows the verb, 
or the sentence assumes interrogative form, though not inter- 
rogative, as follows : — 

1. In interjected remarks explanatory of direct quotation, 

as in English : 

Pais comme tu voudras, dit-il. Do as you please, said he. 

Que veux-tu ? demanda la mere. What do you wish? asked the mother. 

2. In optative clauses when que is omitted, and also after 
the rare omission of si, * if ' : 

Vivo le roi I Perisso lo tyraii ! (Long) live the king ! Perish the 

tyrant ! 
Voulait-il do I'argont, son p6ro If ho wished money, his father al- 

lui en donmiit toujoura. ways avo him some. 

Ne fflt-ce que pour cola. If it were only for that. 

3. Very commonly after certain adverbs and adverbial 
locutions : 

I>u moinM dovrait-il attondro. Ho should at least waif. 

A peine lo jour fut-il arrive. Hardly had the day arrived. 

Ruch are : 

k peine, hardly. * peut-Atre, jMrhapt. toutofoh, although. 

wamS, henes. •ncore, b4iid§t, en vain, in vain. 

aum' bton, mitrtinvtr. toujoura, howentr. raremoiit, rarely, 

tM twAn:, at UoMt. tout mi pliix, aMnoW. proliablement, probably. 

du tnoina, at U>att. d'aulnnl |)luii, lh« mort. eto. 

* Peut-Atr« qiM doM not omuw inveralon : ' I'eul-Otrc qu'il lo fera/ ' Perhaps he 
wUi do tut.' 


4. Sometimes in exclamatory sentences : 
Avons-nous crie ! Didn't we shout ! 

5. When a predicate adjective heads the phrase : 

Telle fut la fin de Carthage. Such was the end of Carthage. 

Quelque riche que soit cet homme. However rich that man is. 

Note. — All the above inversions may take place whatever be the nature of the sub- 
ject, but the following rules do not usually hold good for personal pronoun subject. 

6. Very commonly in a relative clause, especially when a 
second relative clause qualifies its subject : 

II fera ce que peut faire un He will do what a man can who 

homme qui se respecte. respects himself. 

Dites-moi ce qu'a. fait votre ami. Tell me what your friend did. 

Dis-moi ot. est ton ami. Tell me where your friend is. 

NoTK.— The relative is unstressed (proclitic), and naturally stands next the verb 
which governs it. 

7. Commonly after c*est QUe, and in the second member 
of a comparative sentence : 

C'est en vous qu'esperent tous. It is in you that all hope. 

J'en ai plus que n'en a mon ami. I have more of it than my friend has. 

8. Commonly when an adverb, other than those mentioned 
in (3) above, e.g., ainsi, bientdt, ici, la, etc., or an adverbial 
phrase heads the sentence «• 

Ainsi va le monde. So goes the world. 

Bientdt viendra le printemps. Spring will soon come. 

A la tete de I'armee fut port4 At the head of the army was carried 
r^tendard sacre. the sacred standard. 

9. Quite exceptionally, when the verb comes first : 
Viendra un autre. (Along) will come another. 

Note.— No inversion of noun subject usually occurs if the verb has a direct object 
or a prepositional complement. 

238. Indirect Interrogation. It has no special rules of 
word order apart from those of the clause in which it occurs : 
'Dis-moi ce qu'il a dit. Tell me what he said. 

172 THE VERB. [§§239-241 


239. Formation. The passive voice of a transitive verb is 
formed from the auxiliary ^tre + the past participle, which 
agrees with the subject of the verb in gender and number : 

Pres. Infin. £tre lou^(e) or lou^(e)s, to he praised, 

Perf. Infin. Avoir ^t^ loue(e) or loue(e)s, to have been praised. 

Pres. Part. Etant loue(e) or lou^(e)s, being praised. 

Perf. Part. Ayant ^te lou^(e) or lou^(e)s, having been praised. 

Present Indicative. Past Indefinite Indicative. 

/ am (I am being) praised, etc. I have been ( / ivas) praised etc. 

je suis^ j'ai ^te^ 

tu es > loue(e). tu as et6 \ lou^(e). 

11 (elle) est J il (elle) a ett^ J 

nous sommes^ nous avons et^^ 

vous etes. > lou^(e)s. vous avez ^t6 \ lou(5(e)s. 

ils (elles) sent, j ils (elles) ont 6t6 J 

etc., etc., throughout. 
OtMi.: 1. The past participle ^t^ is always invariable. 2. The past participle after 
YOUS agrees with the sense: 'Madame, vous serez m^prisde de tous,' 'Madam, you 
will be despisefl by all.' 

240. The Agent. The person by whom the action is done 
is usually denoted by par, when a specific intention or definite 
volition is implied, and by de when the action is habitual, 
usual, or indefinite : 

Elle fut HaiHio par le volour. She was seized by the thief. 

Lo g^ndral fut suivi do pr6s par The general was closely followed by 

rcnnemi. the enemy. 

La roinu fut Huivie de koh damos. The queen was followed by her ladies. 

Ili» Mont aini<''H dc tons. They are loved by evoryl)ody. 

241. Remarks. 1. Only trnnsitivo vorbs reijularly have 
tho passive voice, but the intransitives obdir, d^sob^ir, par- 
donner, may also be made passive : 

Votui At«t pardoante toiu. You are all pardoned. 

Elle ett toajourt ob^ She is always olxsyod. 

2. The paAsive ia much less used than in Knglisli, nspocially 
if tho agent bo not Bpccifiud, or if llio ccjrrespouding French 




verb is intransitive, or if an indirect object be present. 
Substitutes are : 

a. A verb with the indefinite pronoun on : 

On m'a tromp6. 

On se doute de moi. 

On a r^pondu a ma question. 

On lui a rendu I'argent. 

b. A reflexive construction : 
Ce livre se publie a Paris. 
La guerre se continua. 
Voil^ ce qui se dit. 

I have been deceived. 
I am suspected. 

My question has been answered. 
The money has been given back to 

This book is published in Paris. 
The war was continued. 
This is what is being said. 

3. A transitive infinitive has passive force after verbs of 
perceiving (voir, etc.), after faire, laisser, and when a + an 
infinitive is used adjectivally (cf. § 284) : 
Le ferez-vous vendre ? Will you have it sold ? 

Je la vis battre. I saw her beaten. 

Une faute a t^viter. A mistake to be avoided. 


242. Compound Tenses. The auxiliary ^tre + the past 
participle forms the compound tenses of all reflexive verbs, as 
follows : — 

Pres. Infin. Se flatter, to flatter one's self. 

Perf. Infin. S'etre flatt6(e) or flatt4(e)s, to have flattered one's self. 

Pres. Part. Se flattant, flattering one's self. 

Perf. Part. S'^tant flatt6(e) or flatt6(e)s, having flattered one's self. 

I flatter myself, etc. 
je me flatte. 
tu te flattes. 
il (elle) se flatte. 
nous nous flattons. 
vous vous flattez. 
ils (elles) se flattent. 


Past Indefinite. 
I {liave) flattered myself, etc. 
je me suis ^ 
tu t'es Uatt^(e). 
il (elle) s'est J 
nous nous sommes^ 
vous vous etes |-flatt^{o)s. 
ils (elles) se sont J 

etc., etc. 

174 . THE VERB. [§§243-245 


Flatter thy self ^ etc. Do not flatter thyself ^ etc. 

flatte-toi. ne te flatte pas. 

(qu'il se flatte. ) (^u'il ne se flatte pas. ) 

flattons-nous. ne nous flattens pas. 

flattez-vous. ne vous flattez pas. 

(qu'ils se flattent. ) (qu'ils ne se flattent pas. ) 

Notes.— 1. Se flatter, se flattant, etc., are the infinitive and participial forms 
found in dictionaries, but se must be replaced by me, te, etc., according to the sense. 

2. Except in the use of 6tre as auxiliary, reflexive verbs have no peculiarities of con- 
jugation on account of being reflexive. 

243. Reflexive or Reciprocal. A reflexive verb often 
has reciprocal force, especially in the plural. Ambiguity is 
generally avoided by some modifying expression : 

_,.. fl . . . /They flatter themselves. 

\They flatter each other. 
Elles se flattent Tune I'autre. They flatter one another. 

On se dupe mutuellement. They cheat each other. 

244. Agreement of Past Participle. 1. In compound 

tenses, the past participle of a reflexive agrees in gender 
and number with the reflexive object, unless that object be 
indirect : 

Ella s'eBt deride. She cried out. 

EUe t'est dit k cUe-mSme. She said to herself. 

lis se sont ^crit They wrote to each other. 

Elles se sont achet^ des robes. Thoy bought themselves dresses. 

2. Besides the reflexive object, a direct object may precede 
the verb, and with this object the participle agrees : 
Les pIumcM qu'ils bo sent aol»et<5es. The pens tlicy bought themselves. 

NOTSik— 1. The auxiliary 6tre in coniildcrod an replacinif avolT, and the above 
ifTMroraUi are explained by thu general prinoiplu (| 2\)\). 
%. Tb«SffrMn«nt with vous it aooonUng to tho homho : * Vous vous Ctcs tromp6e, 
*Tou were mietaken, madam.' 

245. Omission of Reflexive Object. 1. It is always 

oinitUid witli Mm jwist juirticiplo ustid as attributive adjective: 
Lo t4Jini>H <^coule. Tlio time jiast. 

§§246-247] THE REFLEXIVE VERB. 175 

2. The infinitives of certain verbs, such as s'asseoir, se ix 
souvenir, se taire, regularly omit se when preceded by V 
faire : 

Faites asseoir vos amis. Make your friends sit down. 

Je vous en feral souvenir. I shall remind you of it. 

a. A similar omission of se sometimes occurs after laisser, entendre, K 
voir, etc. ' "^ 

246. Remarks. The reflexive construction is much com 
moner in French than in English : — 

1. It often translates the English passive, especially when 
the agent is not specified : 

La bourse s'est trouvt^e. The purse has been found, 

Cela se raconte partout. That is being told everywhere. 

2. Or it is expressed by an English non-reflexive verb, gen- 
erally intransitive : 

S'arr^ter ; s' Verier ; se porter. Stop ; exclaim ; be (of health). 

S'asseoir; se hater; se tromper. Sit down ; hasten ; be mistaken. 

3. Or the French reflexive -f a preposition has the value of 
an English transitive : 

S'approcher de ; se douter de. Approach ; suspect. 

S'attendre a ; se fier a. Expect ; trust. 

Se passer de ; so souvenir de. Do without ; recollect. 

247. S'en Allen The conjugation of s'en aller, 'to go 
away,' presents special difficulty : 

Present Indicative. Past Indefinite Indicative. 

I go away, etc. I have gone (/ went) away, etc. 

je m'en vais. je m'en suis' 

tu t'en vas. tu t'en es |-all6(e). 

il s'en va. il (elle) s'en est 

nous nous en allons. nous nous en sommes 

vous vous en allez. vous vous en etes }-all^(e)s. 

ils s'en vont. ils (elles) s'en sont 

176 THE VERB. [§§248-249 

Imperattvb. Imperative Negative. 

Go away, etc. Do not go auay, etc. 

va-t'en. ne t'en va pas. 

(qu'il s'en aille. ) (qu'il ne s'en aille pas. ) 

allons-nous-en. ne nous en aliens pas. 

allez-vous-en. ne vous en allez pas. 

(qu'ils s'en aillent. ) (qu'ils ne s'en aillent pas. ) 

Further examples : 

Est-ce que je m'en vais ? lis ne s'en sont pas all^s. 

Vous en allez- vous ? Ne nous en sommes-nous pas al- 
S'en sont-elles allies ? le(e)s ? 


248. Conjugation. An impersonal verb, or a verb used 
as such, is one conjugated, in the third singular only, with the 
subject il = ' it,' ' there,' used indefinitely and absolutely, e.g.^ 
tonner, ' to thunder ' : 


pRES. H tonne, it thxuidera. Past Indf. II a tonn6, it has thundered. 

Impf. I\ tonna,ii, it Ihtmdered. Plupf. 11 &y ait tonn6, it Jiad thunde7'ed. 

Past Def. II tonna, it thundered. 1*ast Ant. II out toiuu'', it. had thundered. 

etc., etc., like the third singular of donner. 

Note.— Apart from beinjf limited to the third singular, their conjugation does not 
differ from that of ordinary verbs. Some are regular, others irregular. 

249. Use of Impersonals. 1. Verbs denoting natural 
phenomena and time are impersonal, as in English : 

II tonne ; il a plu ; il plouvra. It thunderH ; it rained ; it will rain. 

II a gcle hior ; il dug^lo. It froze ycHtorday ; it is thawing. 

II est one heure ; il ett tard. It in onu o'clock ; it is latu. 

Snoh verb* are : 

pUavolr, rwki. grAler, haU. geler. freeze. 

Mlffvr, tnovD. teUlrer, lighttn. diigeler, tha%e. 

2. Faire - ' make/ ia also much used impersonally to 
daioribe weather, temperature, etc. : 

§§250-251] IMPERSONAL VERBS. 177 

Quel temps fait-il ? What kind of weather is it ? 

II fait beau (temps) ce matin. It is fine (weather) this morning. 

II a fait bien froid hier. It was very cold yesterday. 

II faisait du vent aussi. It was windy too. 

Est-ce qu'il fera obscur ce soir ? Will it be dark this evening ? 

Obs. : Distinguish these from constructions with a personal subject : ' Le temps est 

beau,' 'The weather is fine ' ; ' L'eau est froide,' ' The water is cold.' 

• 250: Impersonal auoir and etre. 1. The verb avoir, 
preceded by y, used impersonally = ' there is,' * there are,' 
' there was,' ' there were,' etc. : 

II y a. II y a eu. Y a-t-il? There is. There has been. Is there? 

II n'y a pas. II n'y a pas eu. There is not. There has not been. 

Y a-t-il eu ? N'y a-t-il pas eu ? Has there been? Has there not been? 

Y aura-t-il ? II pent y avoir. Will there be ? There may be. 

2. II est (etait, etc. ) is sometimes used for il y a in this 
sense : 

II est des hommes qui le croient. There are men who think so. 

3. II y a=' there is,' 'there are,' is distinguished from 
VOila = ' there is,' ' there are.' Voila answers the question 
'where is?,' 'where are?,' and makes a specific statement 
about an object to which attention is directed by pointing or 
the like, while il y a does not answer the question 'where is?,' 
' where are ?,' and makes a general statement. 

II y a des plumes sur la table. There are pens on the table. 

Voila les plumes sur la table. There are the pens on the table. 

4. Y avoir also forms idiomatic expressions of time, 
reckoned backwards, and of distance : 

lis sont arrives il y a trois jours. They came three days ago. 

II y avait trois jours que j'etais la. I had been there three days. 

Combien y a-t-il a la ville ? How far is it to tlie city ? 

II y a dix milles d'ici a la ville. It is ten miles from here to the city. 

251. Falloir = 'be necessary,' expresses the various mean- 
ings of 'must,' 'be obliged to,' 'have to,' 'need,' as follows : 

I . ' Must ' + infinitive = falloir + que and subjunctive : 

178 THE VERB. [§252 

II faut que je parte. I must go. 

H faudra que vous restiez. You will have to (be obliged to) stay. 

2. Or the subject of 'must/ etc., if a personal pronoun, may 
become indirect object of falloir + an infinitive : 

n me faudrait rester. I should be obliged to remain. 

H leur faut faire cela. They must do that. 

II lui a fallu parler. He was forced (obliged) to speak. 

3. The infinitive construction without indirect object is 
used in general or indefinite statement : 

n faut faire son devoir. One must do one's duty. 

II ne faut pas voler. We must not steal. 

4r. Falloir + an indirect object and a substantive signifies 
'lack,' 'need': 

II faut une ardoise k Jean. John needs a slate. 

II leur faudra cent francs. They will need a hundred francs. 

5. S'en falloir='lack': 

II s'en faut de beaucoup que I'un The one is not nearly so good as the 
vaille Tautre. other. 

252. Other Impersonals. 1. Besides faire and avoir, 
ah-eady noted, many other verbs take a special meaning as 
impersonals : 

^De quoi s'agit-il? What is tho matter? 

.x- n est uouvent arriv^ que, etc. It has often happened that, etc. 

^^1 vaudra micux ne rien dire. It will be better to say nothing. 

p, II y va de hcs jours. His life is at stake. 

^ II se pout que jo me trompo. It may be that I am mistaken. 

Obi. : Compare the literal meanings : Agir. act, arrlver, arrive, valoir, be worth, 
Allar. go, pooToir, b* able. 

2. Many verbs may stand in tho third singular with imper- 
nonal il representing a logical subject, singular or plural, 
following tho verb: 

II viondra un meilleur temps. There will eomo a happier time. 

II en njsto troiH livres. There remain throo poundw of it. 

II est arrive das masisgers. Messengers have arrived. 

§§253-256] TENSES of the indicative. 179 

253. Omission of //. II is understood in certain phrases, 
such as : 

Reste k savoir. It remains to be seen. 

N'importe. No matter (it matters not). 

Mieux vaut tard que jamais. Better late than never. 


254. Use of Indicative. The indicative is the mood of 
direct or indirect assertion, and of direct or indirect inter- 
rogation. It stands both in principal and in subordinate 
clauses, both affirmative and negative : 

Dieu crda le monde. God created the world. 

Moise dit que Dieu cr^a le monde. Moses says that God created the 

Ou allez-vous ? Where are you going ? 

Dites-moi ou vous allez. Tell me where you are going. 

Je le ferais, si je pouvais. I should do so, if I could. 

NOTKS.— 1. It should be noted especially that the indicative is regularly the mood of 
indirect discourse and of 'if clauses. 

2. When the verb of a subordinate clause is subjunctive, the mood is determined 
by the context, and not simply by the fact that the clause is subordinate. 


255. Periphrastic Forms. Such forms, so common in 
English, are not used in French : 

Je parle. I speak (am speaking, do speak). 

II a ecrit. He has written (has been writing). 

II disait. He was saying (used to say, etc. ). 

256. Hlliptical Forms, Ellipsis of part of a verb form 
is common in English ; in French the form is either fully 
given or entirely avoided : 

J'irai. — Moi, je n'irai pas. I shall go. — I shall not (go). 

11a promis de venir, mais il n'est He promised to come, but he did 
pas venu. not (come). J 

180 THE VERB. [§§257-258 

H est venu. — Vraiment ! He has come. — Has he ! (Indeed!) 

Vous viendrez, n'est-ce pas ? You will come, will you not ? 

H 6tait sorti, n'est-ce pas? He had gone out, had he not? 

257. Present Indicative. The present tense is used : — 

1. To denote what is happening, including the habitual and 
the universally true : 

Je crois qu'il pleut. I think it is raining. 

II se leve toujours do bon matin. He always rises early. 
L'homme propose et Dieu dispose. Man proposes and God disposes. 

2. To denote what has happened and still continues, after 

il y a . . . que, voici (voila). . . que, depuis, depuis quand ?, 
depuis . . . que : 

Depuis quand attendez-vous ? How long have you been waiting ? 

D y a (or voici, voila) trois jours I have waited (I have been waiting) 

que j 'attends, or j 'attends de- for three days. 

puis trois jours. 

3. Instead of a past tense in animated narrative : 

La nuit approche, I'instant arrive, Night draws on, the moment comes, 
Cesar se presente, etc. Caesar appears, etc. 

a. This use is much commoner than in English, especially side by 

side with past tenses. 
6. C'est . . . que + a past tense = * was . . . that ' : 

C'est la que je I'ai vu. It was there that I saw him. 

4. In8tea<l of a future in familiar style : 

Nous partons domain matin. We go to-morrow morning. 

5. As a virtual future after si — * if ' : 

Je serai content, si vous vono/. I shall be glad, if you (will) come. 

258. Imperfect Indicative. The action or state denoted 
by the imperf<M;t is in general viewed as being in progress, i.e., 
at contemporaneous customary, continued, etc., and it is 
employed as follows : — 

1. To denote what was happening, when something else 
happened or was happening : 


II etait nuit, quand je sortis. It was night, when I went out. 

II parlait, pendant que je chantais. He was talking, while I sang. 

2. To denote what used to happen : 

II se levait de bon matin. He used to rise early. 

Je parlais souvent de cela. I often spoke (used to speak, would 

speak) of that. 
Les Romains brulaient leurs morts. The Romans were accustomed to 

burn their dead. 

3. To denote what continued to happen : 

Son pere 6tait n^gociant et de- His father was a merchant and 
meurait dans cette rue. lived in this street. 

4. To denote what had happened and still continued, after 
il y a . . . que, voici (voila) . . • que, depuis, depuis quand ?, 
depuis ... que (cf. § 257, 2) : 

Je le disais depuis longtemps. I had long been saying so. 

Yoilk un an que je le disais. I had been saying so for a year. 

5. In indirect discourse, after a past tense, instead of the 
present : 

Je croyais qu'il revenait. I thought he was coming back. 

Je demandai oh il 6tait. I asked where he was. 

But : * Oii est-il ? ', demandai-je. * Where is he ? ', I asked. 

6. Regularly in an 'if clause when the ' result ' clause is 
conditional : 

S'il venait, je serais content. If he came, I should be glad. 

7. Occasionally, instead of the pluperfect and the condi- 
tional anterior in conditional sentences : 

Si je ne I'arretais pas ( = avais Had I not stopped him he would 
pas arrete), il tombait ( = serait have fallen from the train. 
tomb6) du train. 

8. Sometimes instead of the past definite (§ 260) : 

La lecture finie, le p6re Alphee se The reading concluded, Father Al- 
dressait, marchait a grands pas, pheus rose, walked about with 
voil^ s'ecriait-il, etc. great strides, there cried he, etc. 

259. Past Indefinite. The past indefinite is used : — 

182 THE VERB. [§260 

1. To denote what has happened or has been happening, 
equivalent to an English tense with ' have,' reference to the 
present being implied : 

J'ai fini mon ouvrage. I have finished my work. 

L'avez-vous va derni^rement ? Have you seen him lately ? 

Je I'ai souvent rencontr^. I have often met him. 

J'ai chants toute la matinee. I have been singing all morning. 

2. In familiar style, spoken or written, to denote a past 
event, without implied reference to the present, or a succes- 
sion of such past events as mark the progress of a narrative, 
answering the question * what happened ? ' or ' what happened 
next?' For narrative in the literary style, see §260 : 

lis sont arrives ce soir. They arrived this evening. 

Je I'ai vu il y a dix ans. I saw him ten years ago. 

De quoi est-il mort ? What did he die of ? 

J'ai quitt<5 Rome le dix. Puis j'ai I left Rome on the tenth. Then I 
visits des amis k Lyon, j'ai pass6 visited some friends at Lyons, I 
quelques jours k Paris, et je spent some days in Paris, and I 
suis revenu k Londres hier. came back to London yesterday. 

3. Occasionally instead of a future anterior : 

Attendez, j'ai bientOt fini. Wait, I shall have finished soon. 

260. Past Definite. The past definite denotes a past 
event, or a succession of such past events as mark the progress 
of the narrative, answering the question ' what happened V, 
or *what happened nextf Its use is confined to literary 
or " bwjk " French, and formal public address. It is hardly 
ever used in conversation or in easy correspondence : 

Dien cr^a lo mondo. God created the world. 

La guerre dura Kcpt ana. The war lasted seven years. 

On for^a le {MlaiM, lea »<i6Ura.tB They broke into the palace, the 

n'otirent jnim r/'HlMter longtemps ct villnins did not da*'o to resist long, 

ne tong^^rent qu'ii fuir. AMtarlxi and only thought «»f fleeing. As- 

TOUlut m »auvcr dauH la foulo, tarbd tried to escape in the crowd, 

maU un Noldat la reconnut ; cillo but a soldier recoguized her ; she 

flit prise. was captured. 


a. Some verbs have a special force in the past definite : 
Avoir ; j'eus. To have ; I received. 

Savoir ; je sus. To know ; I found out (learned). 

Connaitre ; je connus. To know ; I realized. 

261. Examples of Narrative. 1. The following ex- 
amples illustrate the principal uses of the past definite, 
imperfect, past indefinite, and historical present, in the literary 
narrative style : 

Les Turcs, qui cependant entouraient cette maison tout embras^e, 
voyaient avec une admiration melee d'epouvante que les SuMois n'en 
sortaient point ; mais leur ^tonnement fut encore plus grand lorsqu'ils 
virent ouvrir les portes, et le roi et les siens fondre sur eux en d^sesp^res. 
Charles et ses principaux officiers etaient armes d'epees et de pistolets : 
chacun tira deux coups a la fois a I'instant que la porte s'ouvrit ; et 
dans le meme clin d'oeil, jetant leurs pistolets et s'armant de leurs 
^p^es, ils firent reculer les Turcs plus de cinquante pas ; mais le moment 
d'apr^s cette petite troupe fut entouree : le roi, qui etait en bottes 
selon sa coutume, s'embarrassa dans ses ^perons, et tomba ; vingt et 
un janissaires se jettent aussitot sur lui : il jette en I'air son ^p^e pour 
s'epargner la douleur de la rendre ; les Turcs I'eninienent au quartier 
du bacha. — Voltaire. 

Stanislas se deroba un jour h dix heures du soir de I'armee su(5doise 
qu'il commandait en Pomeranie, et partit avec le baron Sparre, qui a 
^t^ depuis ambassadeur en Angleterre et en France, et avec un autre 
colonel : il prend le nom d'un Frangais, nomm6 Haran, alors major au 
service de Su6de, et qui est mort depuis commandant de Dantzick. — 

2. So nearly identical is the force of the past definite and 
the past indefinite, as narrative tenses, that they are often 
used interchangeably, as in the following extract, taken from 
a newspaper : 

LoNDRES, 5 aoiit. — Hier soir, a onze heures et demie, un incendie 
a eclate dans I'atelier de composition de la National Press Agency. 

Plusieurs pompes a vapeur arriverent immediatement sur le lieu du 
sinistre, et I'incendie s'etendit avec une telle rapidity, que toute la 
maison a ^te completement detruite. — Le Matin, 

184 THE VERB. [§§262-263 

262. Pluperfect and Past Anterior. 1. Both denote 

what had happened, like the English pluperfect : 
Lorsque je I'avais (eus) fiiii. When I had finished it. 

2. The pluperfect is of much commoner occurrence than the 
past anterior, and can alone be used after si = ' if/ or when 
custom, continuance, etc., is implied (cf. 258) : 

Si je I'avais vu, je I'aurais dit. Had I seen it, I should have said so. 

J'avais toujours fini avant raidi, I always had finished before noon. 

3. The past anterior denotes >*;hat had happened imijuediT 
ately before another event. It is rarely used except after 
conjunctions of time, such as lorsque, quand, apr^s que, 
aussit6t que, ne . . . pas plus tot . . . que, etc. : 

Apr^s qu'il eut din^, il partit. After he had dined, he set out. 

263. Future. The future is used : — 

1. To denote what will happen : 

Hb viendront demain. They will come to-morrow. 

Je les verrai bientOt. I shall see them soon. 

Je ne sals pas s'il viendra. I know not whether ho will come. 

o. Distinguish English * will ' of futurity from ' will ' of volition, and 
from * will ' of habitual action : 

n ne restera pas. He will not stay. 

n ne veut pas raster. He will not stay. 

Ce chasseur reste souvent au bois That hunter will often remain whole 

pendant dos mois entiers. months in the woods. 

b. Observe the following commonly occurring forms : 
Ne vouIez-vouH pas renter 7 Will you not stay ? 

Voulez-voof que je reste. Shall I stay ? * 

Je ne resterai pee. I shall not stay. 

2. Regularly in a subordinate clause of implied futurity : 

TtytoAe qoand il viendra. Pay him when he comes. 

Faltet oomme vous voudro/,. Do as you pluaso. 

Tant quo jo vivrai. As long as I live. 

3. To denote probability, conjecture, or po.ssibility, etc. : 

§§264-265] TENSES of the indicative. 185 

II sera malade. I suppose (no doubt) he is ill. 

Cela ne sera jamais vrai. That cannot possibly be true. 

4. Sometimes with imperative force i 

Tu ne tueras point. Thou shalt not kill. 

Vous voudrez m'ecouter. Be good enough to hear me. 

a. This use is common in official style (edicts, etc. ). 

264. Future Anterior. The future anterior is used : — 

1. To denote what will have happened : 

II aura bientCt fini. He will soon have done. 

2. To denote implied futurity (cf. §263, 2), probability, 
conjecture, or possibility, etc. (cf. § 263, 3) : 

Quand vous serez rentre je When you have come home, I shall 

sortirai. go out. 

Je me serai tromp^. I must have made a mistake. 

265. Conditional. 1. The main use of the conditional is 
to denote result dependent on condition, i.e., what would 
happen in case something else were to happen : 

Je serais content, s'il venait. I should be glad, if he came. 

a. The condition on which the result would depend is often merely 
implied, but not formally stated : 

H^siter serait une faiblesse. To hesitate would be weakness. 

b. Distinguish English 'should' of duty, etc., 'would' of volition, 
and ' would ' of past habit, from conditional ' should ' and ' would ' : 

Je devrais partir. I should (ought to) set out. 

II ne voulait pas ^couter. He would not listen. 

J'allais souvent le voir. I would often go to see him. 

2. It corresponds to an English past in a subordinate clause 
of implied futurity (cf. § 263, 2) : 

Je prendrais ce qui resterait. I should take what remained. 

3. In indirect discourse, it denotes what was once future 
and is now regarded as past, i.e., the original future of the 

186 THE VERB. [§§266-267 

assertion or question becomes a conditional when in a clause 

subordinate to a verb in a past tense : 

Je croyais qu'il pleuvrait. I thought it would rain. 

A-t-il dit s'il le ferait ? Did he say whether he would do so? 

But : ' Je le ferai,' dit-il. *I shall do so,' said he. 

4. It is used in statement or request expressed with defer- 
ence or reserve : 

Je le croirais au moins. I should think so at least. 

Auriez-vous la bont^ d'aller ? Would you have the kindness to go? 

Cela ne serait jamais vrai. That never could (can) be true. 

Je ne saurais vous le dire. I cannot tell you. 

5. It sometimes denotes probability, conjecture, or possi- 
bility, etc., in exclamations and questions (cf. § 263, 3) : 

Serait-il vrai qu'il I'a dit ? Can it be true that he said so ? 

Serait-il possible ? Can (could) it be possible ? 

6. It sometimes denotes concession after quand, quand 
m^me, or with que : 

Quand (meme) il me tuerait, etc. Even if he should kill me, etc. 
Vou8 me le jureriez que je ne Even if you swore it to me, I should 
vous croirais pas. not believe you. 

7. It is used to give the substance of hearsay information : 
A ce qu'on dit, le roi serait malmlo. By what they say, the king is ill. 

266. Conditional Anterior. Its uses are precisely 
parallel with those of the conditional (§265) ; it denotes what 
would have happened, etc., etc. : 

Jo neraiH parti, H'il (Stait venu. I sliould liave gone, had ho come. 

Je partirain dbn que jo I'aurais vu. I shouhl go when I had seen him. 

Solon loH jouniuux, la guorro so According to the nowspapors, war 
Norait (Ui^nrim hior soir. was dodarcd last evening. 

267. Imperative Mood. It is ustjd in general as in 
En^hHli : 

lAmtzh). N»; 1«5 Vm-A paw. Rood it. Do not reafl it. 

AUoiiH riouH <ti a pr/'Hont. Let Us go away now. 

Vouillez iu'(-coutcr. Be good enough to ho^ir me. 

§§268-269] THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 187 

0. The first plural sometimes serves instead of the lacking first 
singular : 

Soyons digne de ma naissance. Let me be worthy of my birth. 

Pensons un moment. Let me think a moment. 

h. The imperatives va, allons, allez, voyons, often have special 
idiomatic force : 

Allons done ! Allons, du courage ! Nonsense ! Come, courage ! 
J'en suis content, allez I I am glad of it, I can assure you ! 

Voyons, que pensez-vous ? Come now, what do you think ? 

c. An imperative perfect is rare : 
Ayez fini votre tache ce soir. Have your task done to-night. 


268. General Function. The subjunctive denotes, in 
general, what is viewed as being desirable or undesirable, 
uncertain, contingent, or the like, and usually stands in a 
subordinate clause. 

269. Subjunctive in Noun Clause. The subjunctive 
is used in a clause introduced by que and serving as logical 
subject or as object of a verb : — 

1. After expressions of desiring (including willing, wishing, 
m"ef erring) and a voiding : 

Je desire (veux) qu'il parte. I desire (wish) him to go. 

Voulez-vous que je reste ? Do you wish me to (shall I) stay ? 

Je souhaite qu'il ait du succes. I wish that he may have success. 

II pref^re que vous restiez. He prefers that you should stay. 

Evitez qu'il ne vous voie. Avoid his seeing you. 

Such are : 

aimer, like. 6viter, avoidY souhaiter, wish. 

aimer mieux, prefer. pr6f6rer, prefer. il me tarde, / long. < 

avoir envie, be desirous. prendre garde, take^ vouloir, will, wish. 

d^sirer, desire, wish. care (lest). etc. 

a. Prendre garde i((|uiiis ne in the subjunctive clause; so also, 
eviter generally. 
Prends garde que cela ne se fasse. Take care lest that happen. 




2. After expressions of commanding (including reguesting, 
exhorting;, for bidd ing, coiisenting : 
Vous ordonnez que je m'en aille. You order me to go. 

Je demande que vous me payiez. 
Dis-leur qu'ils soient prets. 
Le medecin defend que je sorte. 
Je consens que cela se fasse. 

Such are : 

I ask that you should pay me. 
Tell them to be ready. 
The doctor forbids me to go out. 
I consent that that be done. 

demand er, ask. 
emp6cher, hinder. 
exhorter, exhort. 
exiger, exact. 
laisser, allo7v. 
s'opposer, oppose. 
ordonner, order. 

permettre, permit. 
prier, heg, ask. 
souffrir, suffer. 
supplier, beg, pray. 
trouver naturel, find natural. 
veiller, take care. 

6crire, write, entendre, mean, pr^tendre, intend, when 

adinettre, admit. 
agrder, permit. 
avoir soin, taJee care. * 
conjurer, implore. 
consentir, content. 
convenir, affree. 
d^fendre, forbid. 

So also, dire, tell, 
detioting command. 

a. The future or conditional often stands after arreter, commander, 
decider, d^cr^ter, etc. , especially when the subject is a word denoting 
final authority, such as cour, roi, etc. : 

Lc roi d(icr6te qu'il sera pendu. The king decrees that he shall be hanged. 

6. The subjunctive after empecher usually has ne : 

Emp^chez qu'il ne sorte. Prevent his going out. 

3. After expressions of judgment or opinion involving 
approval or disapproval : 

I approve of his coming back. 
He deserves to be feared. 
It is hotter for you to stay 
Ho will have to go to-morrow. 

J'approuve qu'il revienne. 
II merito qu'on le craigne. 
II vaut mieux quo vous reatiez. 
II faudra (ju'il parte domain. 

Kuch arc : 

•pprouver, apfrov$, 
avoir InUr^t. b« inUmUd. 

ivmr, dUnpjtrove 
tun d'avis, bt t/ opinion. 

Atre Indisrne, be ununtrthy. 
jugcr 4 proptM, think fit. 
loner, praiM. 
ni^'rtttr; d^urvt. 
U'lilr (& R« quo), intiht. 
trouver bon, approvt. 

trouver mauvais, disapjtrove 
trnuvfr JjihIi-, think pint. 
f roiivi'r inJuHtc, thinkunjunt, 
valoir, hf worthy. 

00 aUo, a large number of impersonaln of like force : 




il convient, it in fitting. 
c'est assez, it is enough. 

il est, it is 

4-i propos, proper. 

+bien, well. 

+bon, good. 

+ convenable, fitting. 

+es8entiel, essential. 

+k d^sirer, to be desired. 

+ facile, easy. 

+ important, important. 

4- indispensable, indispens 

+ju8te, just. 
+naturel, natural. 
+ntees8aire, necessary. 
•\-k souhaiter, to be wished. 
+(tout) simple, (quite) simple 

+temp8, time. 

il faut, it is necessary, must. 
il inipoite, it is important. 
11 pent se faire, it nmy be. 
il suffit, it suffices. 
il vant mieux, it is better. 
etc. , and their opposites. 

4. After expressions of emotion or sentiment, such as joy, 
sorrow, anger, shame, wonder, fear : 
fites-vous content qu'il soit ici ? Are you glad he is here ? 

Je regrette qu'il soit parti. 
II est fache que vous le bl^miez. 
II a honte que "ous le sachiez. 
Je m'etonne qu il n'ait pas honte. 
J'ai peur qu'il n'ait trop dit. 

Such are : 

I regret that he has gone. 
He is angry at your blaming him. 
He is ashamed that you know it. 
I wonder he is not ashamed. 
I fear he has said too much. 

admirer, be astonished. 
s'affliger, grieve. 
avoir honte, be ashamed. 
avoir orainte, fear. 
avoir peur, fear. 
craindre, fear. 
d^plorer, deplore. 
c'est, it is.... 
+un bonheur, fortunate. 
+dommage, a pity. 
+une honte, a shame. 
+honteux, a shame. 
+piti6, a pity. 

il est, it is 

+curieux, strange. 

+6tonnant, astonishing. 
+faoheux, annoying. 
+heureux, fortunate. 
enrager, be enraged. 
s'^tonner, be astonished. 
6tre, be. .. . 
H-afflig6, grieved. 
+bien aise, very glad. 
+charm6, delighted. 
+content, glad. 
+d68ole, very sorry. 
+6tonn6, astonished. 
+fach6, sorry, angry. 
+heureux, happy. 
+indign6, indignant. 

+ joyeux, glad. 
+m^content, displeased. 
+satisfait, satisfied. 
+8urpris, surprised. 
+ triste, sad. 

se facher, be sorry, angry. 
se plaindre, complain. 
red outer, fear. 
regretter, regret. 
se r(jjouir, rejoice. 
se repentir, repent. 
rougir, blush. 
soupirer, sigh. 
trembler, tremble. 

a. When it is feared something will happen the subjunctive has ne ; 
when it is feared something will not happen the subjunctive has ne . . . 
pas ; when the expression of fearing is negative, or interrogative, o?'. 
conditional, ne is usually omitted ; with double negation ne . . . pas 
stands in both : 

Je crains qu'il ne vienne. I fear he will come. 

Je crains qu'il ne vienne pas. I fear he will not come. 

Je ne crains pas qu'il vienne. I do not fear he will come. 

Craignez-vous qu'il vienne ? Do you fear he will come ? 


190 THE VERB. [§269 

Ne craignez-vous pas qu'il ne vienne? Do j'ou not fear he will come ? 
Si je craignais qu'il vint. If I feared he would come. 

Je ne crains pas qu'il ne vienne pas. I do not fear he will not come. 

h. After expressions of emotion or sentiment (except fear), which 
admit de after them, de ce que + indicative may be used : 
J'ai honte de ce qu'il a ^chou6. I am ashamed that he failed. 

5. After expressions of doubt, denial, despair, ignorance ot* 
very slight probability : 

n doute que je sois loyal. He doubts that (whether) I am honest. 

Je nie que cela soit vrai. I deny that that is true. 

II est rare que vous ayez tort. You are rarely in the wrong. 

Such are : 

contester, dispute. +faux,/aZ<e. de (ii) quoi sert-il?, of what 

d^sesp^rer, despair. + impossible, impossible. use is it ? 

diflconvenir, deny. + possible, possible. il ne sert de (ii) rien, it is of 

dissimuler, not confess. +rare, rare. no use. 

se dissimuler, be hidden, il s'en faut, there is wanting, il se peut, it may be. 

douter, doubt. ignorer, not know. il ne se peut pas, it cannot be. 

il est, it is. . . nier, deny. il semble, it seems. 

+douteux, dimb^ful. etc. 

a. Douter si ( = * if,' ' whether') requires the indicative : 

II doute si je suis loyal. He doubts if (whether) I am honest. 

h. II semble regularly has the subjunctive, since it indicates slight 
probability as distinguished from il parait='it appears,' 'is evident,' 
and il me semble = ' it appears to me ' (personal conviction) : 
II semble que vous mo craigniez. It seems that you fear me. 
II mo Homblo (il parait) que vous It seems to me (it appears) that you 

me craig^ez. fear me. 

c. Verbs of doubt and denial used negatively or interrogatively regu- 
larly require ne in the subjunctive clause : 
Je no nie j>as quo jo ne le sois. I do not deny that I am such. 

<L Ignorer ^ negative = ' know well,' and hence takes indicative : 
Je n'igDore pan qu'il a monti. I know well he has lied. 

Nora.— Ft«(<4lre que, perhaps, and sans doute que, doubtless, require the 

6. After expression! of perceiving, thinking, knowing, 
deoUring, resulting, but only when uncertainty or doubt is 




implied by negation, interrogation, or condition 
the indicative : 


Verra-t-on que j'aie pleure ? 
Je ne crois pas que ce soit lui. 
Esp^rez-vous qu'il r^ussisse ? 
Je ne suis pas sur qu'il vienne. 
Si je pretendais qu'il eut tort. 
But : Je crois que c'est lui. 
J'espere qu'il r^ussira. 

Will they see that I have wept ' 

I do not think that that is he. 

Do you hope he will succeed ? 

I am not sure he will come. 

If I claimed that he was wrong. 

I think it is he. 

I hope he will succeed. 

Such are : 

affirmer, affirm. 
s'apercevoir, perceive. 
apprendre, learn, hear. 
assurer, assure. 
s'attendre, expect. 
avertir, warn. 
avouer, declare. 
conclure, conclude. 
connaitre, recognize. 
croire, believe, think. 
declarer, declare 
deviner, gv£ss. 
dire, say, tell. 
se douter, suspect. 
6crire, write. 
entendre dire, hear said. 

esp^rer, hope. 
6tre certain, be certain. 
6tre persuade, be persuaded. 
6tre sClr, be sure. 
se figurer, imagine. 
se flatter, flatter one's self. 
imaginer, imagine. 
s'imaginer, imagine. 
juger, judge, think. 
jurer, declare. 
oublier, forget. 
penser, think.' 
persuader, persuade. 
pressentir, forebode. 
pr6tendre, assert, claim. 
pr^venir, forewarn. 

pr6voir, foresee. 
proraettre, promise. 
se rappeler, recollect. 
reconnaitre, acknowledge. 
remarquer, remark. 
r^p^ter, repeat. 
r^pondre, answer. 
savoir, know. 
sentir, feel, notice. 
soutenir, maintain. 
se souvenir, recollect. 
supposer, suppose. 
trouver, flnd, think. 
voir, see. 

So also, a number of impersonals of like force : 

+ Evident, evident. 
+d6montr6, demonstrated. 
+ incontestable, indisputable. 
+ probable, probable. 

+8ftr, sure. 

4-vraisemblable, probable. 
11 r^sulte, it follows. 
il me semble, it seems to me. 

11 s'ensuit, it follows. 
il est av6r6, it is stated. 
ilest, it is... 
H-certain, certain. 
+clair, clear. 

a. Negative question usually implies afl&rmation ; hence the indicative : 
Ne trouves-tu pas qu'il est beau ? Don't you think he is handsome ? 

b. When what the speaker regards as fact follows the negative or 
conditional clause, or when a person is questioned as to his knowledge 
of what is regarded as fact, the indicative stands : 

II ne croit pas que je suis ici. He does not believe I am here. 

S'il savait que tu es ici. If he knew you were here. 

Savez-vous qu'il est arrive ? Do you know that he has come ? 

192 THE VERB. [§270 

c. 11 me semble + negation has subjunctive; with interrogation + 
negation the indicative : 

n ne me semble pas qu'il soit fou. It does not seem to me he is mad. 
^Q vous semble-t-il pas qu'il est fou? Does it not seem to you he is mad? 

d. A preceding dependent clause with this class of verbs always has 
the subjunctive : 

Qu'il ait ^hou^, je le sais. That he has failed, I know. 

NoTK.— For the choice between que clause and infinitive see § 283. 

270. Subjunctive in Adjectival Clause. The sub- 
junctive is used as follows in clauses introduced by a relative 
pronoun : — 

1. When purpose regarding the antecedent, or unattained 
result is implied : 

Montrez-moi un chemin qui con- Show me a way which leads to 

duise k la science. knowledge. 

Je cherche un endroit od je sois en I seek a place where I may be in 

paix. peace. 

a. The indicative, however, is used to express what is regarded as 
fact or certain result : 
Montrez-moi le chemin qui con- Show me the road which leads to 

duit k la ville. the town. 

J'irai oil je serai libre. I shall go where I shall be free. 

2. When the principal clause contains general negation, 
interrogation implying negative answer, or condition (all of 
which imply non-existence of the antecedent) : 

n n'a pan do raiwin qui vaillo. He has no reason worth anything. 

Am-Iu un s<5ul ami qui soit fid61c? Have you one friend who is true ? 

8i j'ai un ami qui soit fid61o c'ost If I have one friend who is true, it 
lui. is he. 

a. Oeneral negation is Hometimes merely implied : 
n y a peu do gonii qui le Huchent. There are few people who know it. 

6. When the negation is not general, or when the interrogation does 
not imply negative answer, the indicative standH : 
Ge n'ont pan voim quo jo crains. It is not you that I fuar. 

K'eti'Oo iK>int un nongo quo jo voiw ! Is it nut a dream that 1 sec ! 


c. In a negative relative clause ne, not ' ne . . . pas,' is used wheu the 
principal clause is negative or implies negation : 
En est-il un seul qui ne tremble? Is there one who does not tremble ? 

3. When the antecedent is qualified by a superlative, or 
by seul, unique, premier, dernier (all with superlative 
force) : 

C'est le'meilleur ami que j'aie. He is the best friend that I have. 

C'est le seul ami que j'aie. He is the only friend I have. 

a. What is stated unreservedly as fact requires the indicative : 
C'est la seule chose qu'il a dite. It is the only thing he said. 

4. With concessive force in compound relative and indefinite 
clauses ( = ' whoever,' ' whatever,' etc.) : 

Quoi que vous fassiez. Whatever you do. 

Qui qu'on y puisse elire. Whosoever may be elected to it. 

Qui que tu sois, parle. Whoever you are, speak ! 

Quelles que soient vos raisons. Whatever be your reasons. 

271. Subjunctive in Adverbial Clause. The subjunc- 
tive is used in clauses of adverbial force, as follows : — 

1. After conjunctions of time before which or up to which 
(avant que, en attendant que, jusqu*a ce que) : 

Dis-le-lui, avant qu'il parte. Tell it to him, before he goes. 

Asseyez-vous, en attendant qu'il Sit down until he comes back. 

Persev^rez jusqu'a ce que vous Persevere till you have succeeded. 

ayez r^ussi. 

a. Jusqu'k ce que may have the indicative, when referring to com- 
pleted past event : 
II resta jusqu'i ce que j'y 6tais. He remained till I was there. 

2. After conjunctions of purpose or result (afin que, pour 
que, de crainte que, de peur que): 

J'^cris ceci afin que (pour que) I write this in order that you may 

vous sachiez la verite. know the truth. 

Je le tins de crainte qu'il ne tom- I held him for fear he should fall. 



194 THE VERB. [§271 

a. So also, de sorte que, en sorte que, de telle sorte que, de fa^on 
que, de maniere que, tel . . que, tellement . . . que, when denoting pur- 
pose, but not result : 

Agis de sorte que tu r^ussisses. Act in such a way as to succeed. 

But: J'agis de sorte que j'ai r^ussi. I acted so that I succeeded. 

3. After conjunctions of condition (en cas que, au cas 
que, a moins que . . . ne, pourvu que, suppose que, en 
supposant que) : 

Je viendrai au cas que je sois I shall come in case I am free to- 
libre demain, ou k moins que morrow, or unless I am detained. 
je ne sois retenu. 

a. After si = 'if,' the pluperfect subjunctive stands exceptionally 
(§275, 6). 

b. The present subjunctive sometimes expresses condition : 
Vienne I'ennemi, il s'enfuit. If the enemy comes, he flees. 

c. A (la) condition que takes indicative, conditional, or subjunctive : 
Je lui donne I'argent k (la) condi- I give him the money on condition 

tion qu'il partira {or parte). that he will go. 

NoTK.— Dana le cas oil, au cas od usually have conditional : ' Au cas ou cela 
■endt vrai/ ' In case that should be true.' 

4. After conjunctions of concession (quoique, bien que, 
encore que, nonobstant que, soit que . . . soit que or ou 
que, pour (si) peu que, si tant est que, malgr^ que) : 

Bien r|u'il Hoit mahulo, il ira. Although ho is ill, ho will go. 

I'our jKJU qu'il fut malade, il se If he wore ever so little ill, ho 
croyait mourant. thought himself dying. 

a. The preHont Hubjunotive with que sometimes has oonoessive force : 
Qu'il jMsnlo on gagne, il partira. Though lie lose or win, ho will go. 

h. Tho UH4: of a Hubjuixaivo after adverbial quelque (tout, si, otc.) + 
qtte = ' howcvur' doixindH on tho Hamu principle : 
Quoique gran<l quo vouh Hoyo/, However groat you may be. 

Hi brave qu'il hh croio. However bravo lu! tliinUs hinusolf. 

e. Quand (m6me) uw'd concoHMivoIy som<rtimoH takoH tho pluperfect 
•ubjunctivu for the conditionid anterior (cf. ^265, (5) : 
QuMid (m^e) il in'eAt dit eolu. Even if he hod told me that. 

§272-273] THE SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 195 

5. After conjunctions of negative force (non que, non pas 
que, loin que, sans que) : 

II partlt sans que je le susse. He went away without my knowing it. 

6. After que replacing any conjunction requiring the sub- 
junctive, and also after que replacing si = ' if ' : 

Venez.que (=^afin que, pour que) Come, that I may see you. 

je vous voie. 
Si je vais et que je le voie. If I go, and if I see him. 

272. Subjunctive in Principal Clause. The subjunc- 
tive is sometimes used in principal clauses, as follows : — 

1. Either with or without que to denote what is desired, 
etc. : 

Ainsi soit-il ! Vive le roi ! So be it ! (Long) live the king ! 

Plut k Dieu qu'il en fut ainsi ! . Would to God it were so ! 

Qu'il parte tout de suite. Let him go at once, 

Je meure, si je mens ! May I die, if I am lying ! 

Le croie qui voudra ! Let him beheve it who will ! 

a. Que followed by the third person present subjunctive regularly 
serves as an imperative ; so also, sometimes, the first singular : 
Qu'il parte. Let him go. 

Que je vous entende. Let me hear you. 

Note.— This construction, as also those without que, may be explained by ellipsis of 
some expression of desire, command, etc. (§ 269, 1, 2). 

2. The present subjunctive first singular of savoir is 
sometimes used to denote modified assertion : 

Je ne sache rien de plus beau. I know nothing finer. 

3. The pluperfect subjunctive stands exceptionally for con- 
ditional anterior in a * result' clause (cf. §275, b): 

S'il eut (or avait) su cela, il ne If he had known that, he would not 
I'eut {or aurait) pas dit. have said it. 

273. Tense Sequence. The tense of the subjunctive is 
usually determined by the tense of the finite verb in the 
governing clause, as follows : — 

196 THE VERB. [§273 

1. A present (including present subjunctive and imper- 
ative) or a future, in the governing clause, requires the present 
subjunctive in the governed clause : 

Je doute "j I doubt that (whether) he will come. 

Qiloique je doute I ,., . Tiiough I doubt that he will come. 

Doutez j ' Doubt that he will come. 

Je douterai J I shall doubt that he will come. 

2. Any other tense than the above (i.e., an imperfect, past 
definite, conditional, etc.) requires the imperfect subjunctive : 

Je doutais ^ I doubted that(whether)he would come. 

Quoique je doutasse I >m - i. Though I doubted that he would come. 

Je doutai j I doubted that he would come. 

Je douterais j I should doubt that he would come. 

3. Compound tenses follow the same rules, the auxiliary 
being reckoned as the verb : 

J'ai dout^ (quoique j'aie dout^, I have doubted (though I have 

j'aurai dout<i) qu'il vienne or soit doubted, I shall have doubted) that 

venu. he will come or has come. 

Javais dout6 (j'eus doute, quoique I had doubted (I had doubted, 

j'eusse doutt', j'aurais dout^) though I had doubted, I should 

qu'il vfnt or fiit venu. have doubted) that he would come 

or had come. 

Ob$. : Am appeara from the above, the subjunctive simple tenses express uncompleted 
•vent, and the compomul tenstB completed event, with reference to the time of the 
govemiog verb. 

4. The following exceptional cases depend mainly on the 
senae of the context : 

a. The 8e([Uon(;o after the past indofinito do]K!ndR upon its value as a 
preaent pOMt or um a fuwl (§2r)0, 1, 2) : 

J'al douU^ qu'il yienne (uoit v.). I have doubted that ho will (has) c. 
J'ai (lout4$ qu'il vint (fiH venu). I doubted that ho would (had) come. 

b. Exceptionally after verbs of saying, uto., a governing present may 
take a post Mubjunctivu and vice versd : 

Je De dis pM qu'il f At k blUmtir. I do not say he was to blame. 
n De oroyait pan qu'il y uit un Uo did not believe there is a God. 


c. In a relative clause a past indefinite may stand for a pluperfect : 
II portait cet habit la seule fois He was wearing that coat the only 

que je I'aie vu. time that I saw him. 

d. The conditional of modified assertion (§265, 4), being virtually a 
present, is commonly followed by the present subjunctive : 

Je desirerais que vous veniez. I should like you to come. 

II faudrait qu'il s'en aille. He would have to go. 

e. The imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive, with the force of an 
English conditional, may follow any tense : 

II n'y a pas de rang qu'elle ne put There is no rank she could not hold. 

Je doute qu'il jouat (eut joue), I doubt that he would play (would 

s'il avait (avait eu) de I'argent. have played), if he had (had had) 



274. Typical Form. A conditional sentence consists 
regularly of two parts : the condition, introduced by si = ' if,' 
and the result : 

Si j'avais le temps, j'irais. If I had time, I should go. 

a. The condition may, of course, either precede or follow the result ; 
Irez-vous, s'il pleut ? Will you go, if it rains ? 

S'il ne fait pas beau, je n'irai pas. If it is not fine, I shall not go. 

h. The condition is often disguised or implied, or the result understood : 
Hesiter serait une faiblesse. To hesitate would be weakness. 

Je n'irais pas (si j'^tais de lui). I should not go (if I were he). 

Ah ! si j'etais a sa place. Ah, if I were in his place ! 

275. Mood and Tense. A 'result' clause in the present 
indicative, imperative, or future, regularly requires the 'if 
clause in the present indicative ; a 'result' clause in the con- 
ditional regularly requires the ' if ' clause in the imperfect 
indicative : 

S'il a le temps, il va. If he has time, he goes. 

S'il a le temps, dites-lui d'aller. If he has (have, will have, should 

have) time, tell him to go. 





S'il a le temps, il ira. 
S'il avait le temps, il irait. 

If he has (have, will have, should 
have) time, he will go. 

If he had (had he, were he to have, 
if he should have, should he have) 
time, he would go. 

Obs. : The condition is regularly expressed by the indicative present or imperfect, 
whatever be the corresponding English form. 

a. The above rules hold good for compound tenses, the auxiliary 
being considered as the verb : 

S'il I'a dit, il le fera. 

S'il est venu, faites-le-moi savoir. 

S'il a eu le temps, il sera venu. 

Si j'avais eu le temps, je serais 

S'il ^tait brave, il aurait fait cela. 

If he has said it, he will do it. 

If he has come, let me know. 

If he has had time, he will have 

If I had had time, I should have 

If he were brave, he would have 

done that. 

b. Sometimes the pluperfect subjunctive stands in the ' if ' clause, or 
in the ' result * clause, or in both : 
S'il eAt {or avait) su cela il ne Had he known that, he would not 

I'eAt {or aurait) pas dit. have said so. 

c Occasionally the imperfect indicative stands in the *if' clause 
instead of the pluperfect, and in the * result' clause instead of the con- 
ditional anterior : 
Si StaniKlaft demeurait (= avait If Stanislas had remained, he would 

demeur^), il <jtait (= aurait ^t^) have been lost. 


i« «'xpros8cd by inversion, without si : 
I f it were not for fear of that. 


d. Occasionally lIm; 
N'^tait-ce la crainte de 
EAt-U ^t^ moinH richu. 

«. A virtual corwl it i'.n f...iM-.-v..i., 
locutions : 
Qui(!onque le feru. 
11 lu (lirait. le forait-il ? 
Quand mAmo il no I'aurait puK dit. 
n le (lirait cjue je iic lu croirais 

If ho hiwl b«Hni poorer. 

1 1^ s;i.m«)imi'H I'xpresHod by various 

\\ iKifvcr (it any one) does it. 
Kv<;n if he said it, wouM lie «l() it? 
Kvuu thoii^li lie had not. said ho. 
Kveii if ho Kaid it, 1 should not 
believe it. 

§§276-278] THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 199 

/. The past definite is found in the 'if clause only in the expression 
s'il en fut : 
Riche, s'il en fut (jamais), mais Rich, if any one ever was, but cor- 

corrompu. rupt. 

g. Si = * whether ' may take the future or conditional : 
Dis-moi si tu iras (irais). Tell me whether (if) you will (would) 



276. Function. The infinitive is a verbal noun. As a 
verb it governs, and as a noun it serves as subject, object, etc. : 
Vous devriez lui parler. You ought to speak to him. 

Voir c'est croire. Seeing is believing. 

II lit sans comprendre. He reads without understanding. 

277. Use of Infinitive. The chief difficulty in the use of 
the infinitive is to determine, (1) when it should stand without 
any preposition, (2) when it should be preceded by a, (3) when 
it should be preceded by de. 

278. Infinitive without Preposition. The infinitive 
without any preposition is used : — 

1. As subject, or in apposition : 

Mentir est honteux. To lie (lying) is base. 

A quoi sert parler ? Of what use is it to talk ? 

Vivre c'est souffrir. To live is to suffer. 

2. As predicate after a few verbs (see list below) : 

Vous semblez h^siter. You seem to hesitate. 

II est cens^ I'avoir fait. He is supposed to have done it. 

3. As logical subject after a few impersonals (see list below) : 

II vaudrait mieux se taire. It would be better to keep quiet. 

II fait cher vivre h. Paris. Living is dear in Paris. 

4. As object or complement after the so-called modal aux- 
iliaries (§230), after most verbs of motion and causation of 
motion, after verbs of desiring and preferring, after verbs of 




perceiving, after verbs of thinking and intending, after verbs 
of saying and declaring, and after certain verbs of lacking 
and failing (see list below) 

Voulez-vous diner chez nous ? 

Faites-lui apprendre sa le9on. 

Envoyez chercher le m^decin. 

Je d^sirerais lui parler. 

Je les vols venir. 
-» Quand comptez-vous revenir ? 
r II pretend avoir raison. 

J'avais beau crier. 

Will you dine with us ? 

Make him learn his lesson. 

Send for the doctor. 

I should like to speak to him. 

I see them come (coming). 

When do you expect to come back V 

He claims to be in the right. 

It was in vain that I shouted. 

5. Sometimes, in elliptical expressions, as an imperative, as 
a^ directjor indirect interrogative, or absolutely : 

Voir les affiches. See the posters. 

Quefaire? Oiimecacher? What (am I) to do ? Where hide? 

Je ne sais que faire. I know not what to do. 

Penser qu'il a dit cela ! To think that he said that ! 

6. Reference list of verbs requiring direct infinitive : 

accourir, hasten. 

affinner, affirm. 

aiiiiiT (comll.),'' nhotild like 

aimer autant, like as well. 
\ aimer mieux, prejer. 
. alter, go. 
V aperoevoir, perceive. 

••Burer, €U»ure. 
\ avoir beau, be in vain. 

avoiier, avow. 

<ofiipt«r', intend. 

contender, eonf$»». 

vjo\xr\r, run, 

croire, think. 

daii^ner, deign. 

dtelarer, declare. 

fl^poner, teMt{fy. 

(Irafwnd re ' , come (go) down. 

df^nlritr', dfKtre, iH$h. 

ilifvoir, ought, to be, ete. 

tUrt*, »ay. 

4oout«r, lieten to. 

•numdr*. hear, intend. 

envoyer, send. 
espdrer', hope. 
etre, be. 

tire ceng6, he supposed. 
faillir", be on the point qf. 
faire, make, cause. 
» il fait(imi)er8.), it is. 
falloir, be necessanj. 
M fliTurer, imagine. 
s'imaginer, fancy. 
Juger, consider. 
Jurer*. swear, attest by oath. 
Juvtlflor, justify. 
laiaier*, *, let, allotv. 
tnener, lead, bring. 
mettre, set, put at. 
moiitor, go up. 
nU'T*, deny, 
tmir, dare, 
ouir, hear. 
paraitrc, appear, 
INiniMjr", intend, be near. 
\tnuvn\r, can, may. 

pr(5f»5rer', prefer. 

prdtendre"', assert. 

so rappeler', recollect. 

reconnaitre, acknowledge. 

regarder, look at. 

rentrer, go in again. 

retourner, go back. 

revenir, come back. • 

Bavoir, know how to, can. 

flembler, seem. 

HPtitir, hear, feel. 

Houhaiter', wish. 

Houtenir, maintain 

■uppoHer. suppose. 

fitre Hupp<)Hc\ he supjwsca 

WmoijfiHT, testify. 

■e trouvcr, he. 
•^valoir aiitaiit, he. as good. 
^valoir mieux, he better. 

venIr'', *, come. 

voir, see. 

volor, Jly. 

vouloir, will, wish. 

* Honi«iimMi taktm d0. 

> SofiivtitnPfi UkM k or do. 

• 8m alao Hat of verba r«(|uiriiitf k (f 270. 6). 

« ••• alao Hat of verlia re<|uiriiiK de (» 'MQ, A). 



a. Devoir = * owe,' ' be indebted ' with indirect object takes de : 
Je lui dois d'etre encore en vie. I owe to him that I am still alive. 

h. Faire takes de in ne faire que de : 
II ne fait que de s'amuser. He does nothing but amuse himself. 

c. Ne pas laisser = ' not to cease,' etc., takes de : 
II ne laisse pas de le dire. He is always saying so (says so for 

all that). 

279. Infinitive with the Preposition a. The infinitive 
preceded by a = ' to,' 'in,' * at,' ' by,' etc., is used : — 

1. As direct object of a few transitives (see list below): 

J'aime k chanter. I like to sing. 

Continuez a lire. Continue to read. 

II m'enseigne a chanter. He teaches me to sing (singing). 

J'ai k ^tudier demain. I have to study to-morrow, 

II n'y a pas k se plaindre. There is nothing to complain of. 

2. As a complement, after many verbs, to denote the object 
to which the action tends (answering the question ' to do 
what ?') or the object in, at, on, about which the action takes 
place (answering the question 'in doing what?' 'at doing 
what?' etc.): 

11 aspire k devenir riche. He aspires to become rich 

Poussez-les k agir. Urge them to act. 

Je les ai invites k venir. I have invited them to come. 

Aidez-moi a porter cette malle. Help me to carry this trunk. 

II reussit k me trouver. He succeeded in finding me. 

Je suis a ecrire une lettre. I am (busy) writing a letter. 

II s'amuse a me taquiner. He amuses himself teasing me. 

J'ai gagne k vendre ma maison. I gained by selling my house. 

II joue a faire le malade. He plays at being ill. 

3. As the complement of certain adjectives (cf . § 280, 2) and 
nouns denoting fitness, tendency, purp.Q^e, etc. : 

Ceci est bon a manger. This is good to eat. 

Je suis pret a vous ecouter. I am ready to hear you. 

Quelque chose d'utile a savoir. Something useful to know. 

Cela est facile a faire. That is easy to do. 




La tendance k se croire grand. 
lUne bonne k tout faire. 

The tendency to think one's self 

A maid of all work. 

a. So also, le premier, le dernier, le seul : 
H n'est pas le seul a le dire. He is not the only one to say so. 

4. To form adjectival phrases denoting use, fitness, quality, 

Una salle k manger. 

Une chose k voir. 

Des contes k dormir debout. 

Un spectacle a faire peur. 

De mani^re k r^ussir. 

Vous etes k plaindre. 

Cast k en mourir. 

A dining-room. 

A thing worth seeing. 

Very tiresome stories. 

A terrible sight. 

In such a way as to succeed. 

You are to be pitied. 

It is enough to kill one. 

5. To form adverbial phrases : 

EUe chante k ravir. She sings charmingly. 

Elle pleurait k faire piti^. She wept pitifully. 

A vrai dire, je le plains. To tell the truth, I pity him. 

Elle est laide k faire peur. She is frightfully ugly. 

6. Reference list of verbs requiring infinitive with k I 

Cabaiaer, atoop. 
abandonner(s'), give up. 
A>x)utir, end (in), tend. 
•'abuser, be mietaken {in). 
■'•ocorder', agree (in). 
Aire d'aooord, ofp^u (in). 
aoooatmn«r(iO*. aeeuttcm. 
■'aobarner, be bent (on). 
•dmettri-, admit. 
f^adonner, addict o. «. 

Ir(«'), inure. 




•ppfvndra, M0f 

B'arrfiter, stop. 
aspirer, aspire. 
a8sujettir(8'), siibieet. 
astreindre, compel. 
8'afltrcindre, bind o. a. 
attachcr, attach. 
■'attachcr, be intent (on). 
attendre (a'), exj>ect. 
autoriser, authorize. 
■'avilir, Mtoop. 
avoir, have, mugt. 
avoir (<lo la) peine, have 

balancer, heuitate. 
M bomor, limit o. a. 
oheroher, aeek, trg. 
ootnmenoer', bagin, 
M oomplatre, iaka pUtuwa 

ooncourir, co-operate (in). 

condamner(8o), condemn. 
condescendre, condescend. 
conduire, lead. 
consacrcr (se), devote. 
consent! r=, cuiutent. 
consister, consittt (in). 
conapirer, conxyire. 
con*\\met(iic),contnime (in). 
continuer', continue. 
oontraindre', conatrain. 
contrlbuer, contribute. 
convior*, invite. 
coOter, cotit. 
diioldor'', induce. 
■e di^cidcr, remolve. 
d(''flor'', challenge, incite. 
demander', ank. 
demeurer, remain. 
dinner, Hpend(in). 
ddsapprcndro, forget. 




finir (neg.)'. have done. 
forcer', /orce. 
gagner, gain (by). 
habituer*, accustom. 
s'habituer, accustom o. s. 
hair, hate. 

se hasarder*, venture. 
h^siter^, hesitate. 
inciter, incite. 
incliner, incline. 
induire, induce. 
instruire, instruct. 
int^resser (s'), interest (in). 
inviter, invite. 
jouer, play (at). 
laisser"', ♦, leave. 
se lasser', tire o. s. {in). 
manquer-'', be remiss (in). 
mettre, put, set. 
86 mettre, set about. 
montrer, show how. 
obliger', ', oblige, force. 
s'obliger-, bind o. s. 
s'obstiner, persist (in). 
occuper(8')*', employ (in). 
s'oflfrir^, offer. 
s'opiniatrer, persist (in). 
parvenir, succeed (in). 
passer, spend (in). 
pencher, incline. 
penser*, think (of). 
perdre, lose (in, by). 
pers6v6rer, persevere (in). 
persister, persist (in). 
se plaire, delight (in). 
se plier, submit. 

descendre*, stoop, abase o. s. 
destiner, destine. 
determiner'', induce. 
se determiner, resolve. 
devouer(8e), devote. 
difT6rer2, delay. 
disposer (se), dispose. 
divertir (se), amuse. 
donner, give. 
dresser, 'frain. 
s'eflorcer', try. 
8'6gayer, divert o. s. (by). 
employer (s'), employ (in). 
s'empresser', •'', be eager. 
encourager, encourage, 
engageris")" , engage, advise. 
enhardir-, embolden. 
s'enhardir^, venture. 
s'ennuyer*,'', tireo. s. (in). 
enseigner, teach. 
s'entendre, knoiv well how. 
entrainer, allure. 
essay er*, try. 
s'essayer, tryo.s. (in). 
6tre'', to be occupied (in, 

6tre k^, be one's turn. 
s'etudier, apply o. s. 
s'^vertuer, exert o. s., try. 
exceller, excel (in). 
exciter (s'), excite. 
exercer(8'), exercise (in). 
exhorter, exhort. 
exposer(s'), expose. 
se fatigiier'', tire o. s. (in, 


^ Orde. 

2 Sometimes takes de. 

•■' See also list of verbs requiring de (§ 280, 6). 

♦ See also list of verbs requiring direct infinitive (§ 278, 6). 

a. Suffire sometimes takes pour : 
Cela suffira pour I'amiiser. That will suflBce to amuse him. 

h. The infinitive after etre h. often has passive force : 
Get ouvrage est a refaire. That work is to be done again. 

0. Hair may take de when negative : 
II ne hait pas k (d') etre endett6. He does not dislike being in debt. 

porter, induce. 
pousser, urge, incite. 
prendre garde', take care. 
prendre plaisir, delight (in). 
se prendre, begin. 
preparer (se), prepare. 
pr6tendre*, aspire. 
prier', invite (formally). 
proc6der, proceed. 
provoquer, incite. 
recommencer » , begin again. 
rMuire, reduce. 
se r^duire, confine o. g. 
refuser"*, refuse to give. 
86 refuser, refuse. 
renoncer, renounce. 
r^pugner, be reluctant. 
86 r^signer, resign o. s. 
r^soudre', induce. 
se r^soudre, resolve. 
rester, remain. 
r^ussir, succeed (in). 
servlr, serve. 
songer, think (of). 
souCfrir^, suffer. 
suffire, suffice. 
surprendre, discover. 
tarder, be long, delay (in). 
tendre, tend. 
tenir, be anxious. 
travailler, work. 
trembler^, tremble (at, on). 
trouver, find. 
venir*», ♦, happen. 
viser, aim. 
vouer (se), devote. 

204 THE VERB. [§280 

280. Infinitive with the Preposition de. The infini- 
tive preceded by de = 'to,' *of,' 'from,' 'for,' *at,' etc., is 
used : — 

1. As logical subject of an impersonal verb (for rare ex- 
ceptions see § 278, 3) : 

E est facile de faire cela. It is easy to do that. 

H importe d'arriver k temps. " It is important to arrive in time. 
— Bien vous sied de vous taire. It well becomes you to be silent. 

a. Similarly as subject in inverted sentences : 
Cast une folic (que) d'aller la. It is madness to go there. 

2. As complement of most adjectives and nouns (cf. §279, 3) : 

Le d^sir de partir. The desire of going. 

La n^cessit^ de rester. The necessity of remaining. 

II n'est pas digne de vivre. He is not worthy to live. 

tPai envie de pleurer. I feel like crying. 

a. So also, many expressions, like the last example, made from verb 
+ noun, e.(j., aypir besoin (honte, peur, raison, soin, tort, etc.), faire 
envie (plaisir, semblant, etc.), courir risque, etc., etc. 

?> Aft. I v.iL 1^ M])ject or complement, usual l}'^ to denote 
tl of action (answering * whence ?\ 'con- 
cerning what?'), n ' separation or cessation from 

(answering * from \\ haL ; ;. ^,c list below : 

Je me r^jouis de le voir. I rejoice to see it. 

<ik. EUe te pique d'dtre la premiere. Shu prides herself on being first. 

<i»Preiiez garde de tombor. Take care not to fall. 

n •'excuae d'aller. Ho excuses himself from going. 

Promettez de ne pas le dire. Promise not to tell it. 

4. Ah luHtorical infinitive ( — a past definite) : 
Et Tennemi de B'enfuir. And the enemy fled. 

5. After ^ m g in U io socond moinl)er^of a corapariaon, unless 
the m»nt<inc<! lio very Hhort : 

II vaudra mioux ruMter quo d« It will !•»• lK'tl<M' to stay tlian logo 

partir mi lard. h<» \\\U'. 

But : Miinix vaut navoir qu*avoir. Iktttur wisdom than wealth. 




6. Reference list of verbs requiring infinitive with de 

s'absenter, absent o. s. (from). 

s'absoudre, absolve o.s. 

s'abstenir, abstain (from). 

accorder, grant. 

avoir accoutum6, be accus- 

accuser (s'), accuse (of). 

achever, finish. 

admirer, wonder (at). 

affecter, affect. 

8'affliger, grieve (at, over). 

ambitionner, aspire. 

s'apercevoir, perceive. 

s'applaudir, congratulate 
O.S. (on). 

appr^hender, fear. 

arrfiter, prevent (fratri), de- 

s'attrister, become sad (at). 

avertir, notify, warn. 

s'aviser, think (of). 

blamer, blame (for). 

brQler, long. 

censurer, ce7isure (for). 

cesser, cease. 

se ch&griner, grieve (at, over). 

charger, charge. 

se charger, undertake. 

choisir, choose. 

commander, command. 

commencer', begin. 

conjurer, beseech. 

conseiller, advise. 

consoler, console (for). 

se contenter, be satisfied. 

continuer>, continue. 

contraindre^, constrain. 

convaincre, convict (of). 

convenir, agree. 

craindre, fear. 

crier, cry. 

decider', decide, resolve. 

d6courager (se), discourage 

d6daigner, disdain. 

d6fendre, forbid. 

86 ddfendre, forbear, excuse 

d6fier3, defy. 

se ddfier, distrust. 

degoOter, disgust (with). 

d61ib6rer, deliberate (about). 

demanderS ask. 

se d^p^cher, make haste. 

d^saocoutumsr (se), dis- 
accustom (from). 

d6sesp6rer, despair (of). 

d^shabituer (se), disac- 
custom (from). 

determiner*', resolve. 

d^tester, detest. 

d6tourner, dissuade (from). 

dire*, bid. 

discontinuer, cease. 

disconvenir, deny. 

se disoulper, excuse o.s. (for). 

dispenser, dispense (from). 

dissuader, dissuade (from). 

douter, hesitate. 

se douter, suspect. 

6crire, u}rite. 

s'efiforcer*, try. 

s'eflfrayer, be afraid. 

empficher, prevent. 

8'emp6cher, abstain (from). 

s'empresser"*, hasten. 

s'empresser*, be eager. 

enjoindre, enjoin. 

s'ennuyer^, », be tired (of). 

s'enorgueillir, be proud. 

enrager, be enraged (at). 

entreprendre, undertake. 

6pargner, spare. 

essayeri, try. 

8'6tonner, be astonished. 

etre k^,^,be duty (or office) 

6viter, avoid. 

excuser (s') excuse (from). 

exempter, exempt (from). 

faire bien, do well. 

86 fatiguer', be tired (of). 

feindre, feign. 

f^liciier (B«),^<n^jratulate 

Gnir^, finish. 
se flatter, flatter o. s. 
forcer^, force. 
fr6mir, shudder. 
gager, wager. 
garder(se), forbear. 
g^mir, groan. 
gfiner, incommode. 
se glorifier, boast (of). 
gronder, scold (for). 
hasarder, venture. 
se hater, hasten. 
imaginer, imagine. 
s'impatienter, be impatient. 
inipucer, impute. 
s'indigner, be indignant. 
s'ing6rer, meddle {with). 
inspirer, inspire. 
interdire, interdict (from). 
jouir, enjoy. 
juger bon, think fit. 
jurer*, promise (on oath). 
nepaslaisser^,*, not to cease. 
se lasser' be weary (of). 
louer, praise (for). 
mander, bid. 
manquer', /ai7, be on point 

m^diter, meditate. 
se meier, meddle (with). 
menacer, threaten. 
ni^riter, deserve. 
se moquer, make sport (of). 
mourir, die, long. 
n^gliger, neglect. 
notifier, notify. 
obliger', oblige, force. 
obliger', do favour. 
obtenir, obtain. 
s'occuper'', be intent (on). 
ofifrir, offer. 
omettre, omit. 
ordonner, order, 
o-ahlier'', forget. 
pardonner, forgive. 


parier, bet. 

parler, speak. 

86 passer, do urithout. 

permettre (se), permit. 

persuader, persxiade. 

se piquer, pride o. s. {on). 

plaindre, pity. 

se plaindre, complain (of). 

prendre garde', take care 

not, beware (of). 
prendre soin, take care. 
prescrire, prescribe. 
presser, urge. 
se presser, hapten. 
pr^sumer, presume. 
prier*. beg, pray. 
priver(se), deprive (of). 
projeter, intend. 


promettre (se), promise. 
proposer, propose. 
se proposer, intend. 
protester, protest. 
punir, punish (for). 
recommander, recommend. 
recommencer», begin again. 
refuser', refuse. 
regretter, regret. 
se r^jouir, rejoice. 
retuercier, thank (for). 
se repentir, repent (of). 
reprendre, reprove (for). 
r^primander, reprimand 

reprocher (se), reproach 

r6soudre'», resolve. 



- Sometimes ^ 

* See also list of verbs requiring k, (S 279. 6). 

* See also list of verbs requiring direct infinitive (§ 278, 

se ressouvenir, remember. 
rire(se), laugh. 
risquer, risk. 
rougir, blush. 
sommer, summon. 
se soucier, care. 
souflfrir', suffer. 
soup<;onner, suspect. 
sourire, smile. 
se souvenir, recollect. 
sugg6rer, suggest. 
supplier, beseech. 
ticher^, try. 
tenter-, attempt. 
trembler', tremble, fear. 
trouver bon, think fit. 
se vanter, boast (of). 
venir', •♦, have just. 


281. Distinctions. As appears from the list, the same 
verb sometimes requires a, de, or the direct infinitive. The 
following are examples of cases in which the sense varies 
with the construction : — 

1. Aimer: 

J'aimerais bicn le connaitre. 
J'aime mioux vous dire tx)ut. 
Aimez-vouH k demourur ici ? 

2. Decider: 

II in*a d&oidA k entrcr. 
Noui d^dAmes de parti r. 

& D^fier: 

On lo d^fiA k boire. 

Jo von* d^e de prouver cela. 

4. Detcendre : 
Detoendii cherchor ton ohapeau. 
D • datoendtt nUbne ll voler. 

I flhould like to know him. 
I prefer to tell you all. 
Do you like to live here ? 

He induced mo to go in. 
Wu deci<lod to 8ot out. 

They ohallrn^rd iiim to ili mU 
I «iefy you to prove that. 

Oo down and get your hat. 
He even descended to tlieft. 




5. Determiner: 

Je I'ai determine k rester. 
II avait d^termin^ d'aller. 

6. Dire: 

II dit I'avoir vu. 

Je lui ai dit de venir. 

7. S'empresser: 

II s'empressait k lui plaire. 
II s'empressa de r^pondre. 

8. fetre: 

Je suis k ^crire des lettres. 
Cest k vous de parler. 
C'est a vous a parler. 

9. Se fatiguer : 

II se fatigua k jouer au billard. 
II est fatigu*^ de jouer. 

10. Finir: 

II ne finit pas k me le dire. 
J'ai fini de travailler. 

11. Jurer: 

Je jure I'avoir vu. 
Je jure de le faire. 

12. Laisser : 
Je I'ai laiss^ dire. 

Je vous laisse k penser. 
II ne laissa pas de parler. 

13. Se lasser : 

II s'est lass6 k courir. 
II se lasse de courir. 

14. Manquer: 

Je manquai de tomber. 

II a manque k faire son devoir. 

15. Obliger: 

Je I'ai oblig^ a (de) le faire. 
Je suis oblige de partir. 
Obligez-moi de le faire. 

I induced him to stay. 
He had determined to ga 

He says he saw it. 
I told him to come. 

He was eager to please her. 
He hastened to reply. 

I am (busy) writing letters. 
It is your place to speak. 
It is your turn to speak. 

He fatigued himself playing billiards. 
He is tired playing. 

He was never done telling me so. 
I have finished working. 

I swear I saw it. 
I swear I will do it. 

I let him talk. 

I leave you to think. 

He did not stop talking. 

He tired himself out (by) running. 
He is tired of running. 

I was on the point of falling. 
He has failed to do his duty. 

I obliged him to do it. 
I am obliged to go. 
Oblige me by doing it. 




16. S'occuper: 

II s'occupe k rien faire. 
D s'occupe de tout voir. 

17. Penser : 

Que pensez-vous faire ? 

Je pensai tomber. 

Je pense a r6pliquer a cela. 

18. Prendre garde : 
Prenez garde k le faire. 
Prenez garde k ne pas le faire. 
Prenez garde de le faire. 

19. Pr^endre: 

II pretend vous connaitre. 
II pretend k devenir savant 

20. Prier: 

II m'a pri^ k diner. 

Je vous prie de m'aider. 

21. Refuser: 

Me refusez-vous k manger ? 
Je refuserai d'aller. 

22. R^soudre: 

II m'a rcHolu k I'acheter. 
Jo Buis r^solu de I'acheter. 

23. Trembler: 

II tremble k me voir. 

II tremble de mo rencontrer. 

He is busy doing nothing. 

He is intent on seeing everything. 

What do you intend to do ? J^ 

I nearly fell. 

I think of replying to that. '^ 

Take care to do it. 
Take care not to do it. 
Take care not to do it. 

He asserts that he knows you. 
He aspires to become learned. 

He invited me to dine. 

I pray (ask) you to help me. 

Do you refuse to give me food ? 
I shall refuse to go. 

He induced me to buy it. 
I am determined to buy it. 

He trembles when he sees me. 
He fears to meet me. 

24. Vcnlr: 
Venes now voir. 
81 vous yenoz k \e voir. 
Je vient de le voir. 

Come to sue us. 

If you happtin to see him. 

I have just soun him. 

282. Infinitive with other Prepositions. The; infinitive 
ittandH hIho aft^;r par, pour, sans, apr^s, entre, and .ifior 
IcKJutioriH <«n(lin^ in de or «i, hucIi jih afin de, afin que de, 
jusqu'k, etc:— 

§§283-284] THE INFINITIVE MOOD. 209 

1. Par-- ' by/ usually only after commencer and finir : 

II finit par m'insulter. He ended by insulting me {or He 

finally insulted me). 

2. Pour usually translates * in order to/ ' for the purpose 
of; sometimes also 'for,' 'from/ 'because/ 'though/ etc., and 
' to ' after aSSCZ, trop, etc. : 

II faut manger pour vivre. We must eat (in order) to live. 

II est mort pour avoir trop bu. He died from over-drinking. 

II fut puni pour avoir ri. He was punished for laughing. 

Pour etre pauvre, il n'est pas larron. Though poor, he is no thief. 

II est trop franc pour se taire. He is too frank to keep quiet. 

a. Pour after a verb of motion (§ 278, 4) emphasizes the purpose : 
J'irai pour le voir. I shall go to see him. 

3. Sans = ' without': 

N'allez pas sans manger. Do not go without eating. 

4. Apr^S = ' after ' requires the perfect infinitive : 
Apr^s avoir din^, je partis. After having dined, I set out. 

283. Infinitive for Subordinate Clause. 1. An in- 
finitive construction usually replaces a que clause of vi^hich 
the subject is the same with that of the subject or object 
(direct or indirect) of the principal clause : 

II croit vous avoir vu. He thinks that he has seen you. 

Dites-leur de s'en aller. Tell them to be gone. 

2. Similarly afin de, a moins de, apr^s, avant de, de 
crainte de, de peur de, de fagon a, de mani^re a, pour, 
sans, etc. + the infinitive stand for afin que, etc. + the 
subjunctive, but only when the subject of both verbs is the 
same : 

II partit sans me voir. He went without seeing me. 

But : II partit sans que je le visse. He went without me seeing him. 

284. Infinitive with Passive Force. A transitive in- 
finitive has passive force after verbs of perceiving (voir, etc.), 


210 -^ THE VERB. ^ [§§285-286 

after faire, laisser, and when a + an infinitive is used adjec- 
tively (cf. §241, 3) : 

J'ai vu batir cette maison. I saw this house being built. 

Je me fais faire un habit. I am having a coat made. 

Vous etes a plaindre. You are to be pitied. 

Une faute k dviter. A mistake to be avoided. 

NOTB.— This construction may be explained by supplying some such ellipsis as the 
following : ' J'ai vu batir une maison (i or par quelqu'un), ' I have seen somebody 
building a house.' 

285. Infinitive for English -ing. The infinitive must 
be used to translate many such forms (see § 287, 2, 3, 4). 


286. Functions. The participial form in -ant serves as a 
verbal adjective, as a present participle (without en), and as a 
gerund (with en) : — 

1. As a verbal adjective, it denotes quality or state, and 
agrees like an adjective : 

EUe parait bien portante. She seems well. 

Lea enfanta doivent 6tre ob^issants. Children must be obedient. 

Les vivants, et lea mourants. The living and the dying. 

Des paroles consolantes. Comforting words. 

Ob$.: The verbal adjective, attributively, regularly follows the noun, as in the last 

a. Some verbs have a speoial form for the verbal adjective : 





different. difgrtrU. 


n(5gligent, earelest. 


oonvainoant, eontineing. 


savant, learned. 


Ut\g^t\i, fatiguing. 


puissant, powerful. 






2. Ai a present participle, it is used, in general, like the 
English present participle, to denote Kiinultaneous action, 
manner, cause, motive, etc., and is invariable : 

MiinjB 1 II • -ir -11 •~ini 

Pleurant, die continua lu ri^cit. Weeping, she oontinuod the ntory. 
Je !• troaTfti riant comme un fou. I found him laughing like mud. 


Kile ne sortit pas, etant malade. She did not go out, being ill. 
Ayant parM ainsi, il sortit. Having thus spoken, he went out. 

II n'entrera pas, moi vivant. He shall not enter, while I live. 

Notes.— 1. It is often difficult to determine whether the form in -ant is participle 
(invariable) or adjective (variable). As a participle, the action (generally transitory) is 
prominent, but as an adjective, quality or else continued action (state) is denoted. It 
is nearly always a participle when it has a complement or a construction peculiar to 
the verb, such as object, negative, adverb followhig : ' Une femnie mourante,' ' A dying 
woman' ; 'Des gens mourant de faim,' ' People dying of hunger' ; ' Les ennemis se 
retirferent, brdlant les villes partout,' ' The enemies retired, burning the towns every- 
where ' ; ' Une femme ne craignant rien,' * A woman fearing nothing ' ; ' Des dames 
parlant doucement,' ' Ladies speaking softly ' ; * De soi-disant amis,' * So-called friends.' 

2. In the last example, sol-dlsant, though adjective in force, remains invariable in 
view of the literal meaning, ' calling themselves.' 

3. Ayant and 6tant are also always invariable. 

3. As a gerund, it denotes either simultaneous action or 
means by which, and is invariable; en = ' while,' 'in,' 'on,' 
'when,' 'as,' ' by,' etc., or is untranslated : 

En jouant, j'ai perdu ma montre. While playing, I lost my watch. 

En rentrant, j'ai tiouv^ la lettre. On returning, I found the letter. 

Vous perdrez, en agissant ainsi. You will lose, if you act thus. 

En lisant on apprend k lire. By reading one learns to read. 

a. Both participle and gerund denote simultaneous action, but the 
use of en, strengthened sometimes by tout, usually emphasizes the 
continuity of the action : 

(En) disant ceci, il prit la lyre. (While) saying this, he took the harp. 
Tout en pleuraint, elle continua. Still weeping, she went on. 

b. The gerund usually refers to the subject : 

Je I'ai vu en allant k la poste. I saw him while going to the post. 

But : L'app^tit vient en mangeant. One's appetite comes while eating. 

c. En is sometimes omitted, especially after aller : 
G^neralement parlant. Generally speaking. 

II s'en va (en) grondant. Oflf he goes grumbling. 

d. The gerund denotes progressive action in a few expressions formed 
from aller : 

Cela alia (en) diminuant. That kept growing less and less. 

287. English Forms in -I'ng. These are variously 
translated into French ; idiomatic differences are : — 

212 THE VERB. [§§288-289 

1. Periphrastic tense forms are avoided in French : 

II a jou6 toute la matinee. He has been playing all morning. 

2. English gerunds are translated by an -ant form only 
when the preposition en may be used ; otherwise by an 
infinitive, a noun, or a clause : 

En lisant on apprend a hre. By reading one learns to read. 

But : II parle de partir. He speaks of going away. 

II fut pendu pour avoir vole. He was hanged for having stolen. 

Elle partit sans dire adieu. She went without saying good-bye. 

Voir c'est croire. Seeing is believing. 

J'aime la chasse {or a chasser). I like hunting. 

Je suis etonn^ qu'il soit venu. I am surprised at his coming. 

3. After verbs of perception (entendre, sentir, voir, etc.), 
the relative or infinitive construction is much commoner than 
the participle : 

Je les vois venir (qui viennent or I see them coming. 


Les voilk qui passent ! See them passing ! 

II a vu sortir mes fr^res. He saw my brothers going out. 

Les avez-vous entendus frapper Did you hear them knocking ? 

(qui frappaient) ? 

Je la {or lui) vis frapper I'enfant. I saw her striking the child. 

4. Compound nouns with a first component in -ing are not 
literally translated : 

Uno machine k coudre. A sewing-machine. 

6. It is often more elegant to avoid a French form in -ant, 
even when permissible : 
Pendant mon voyage. While travelling. 


288. General Use. Tim past participle is used, (1) 
without auxiliary, (2) witli 6tre, («i) with avoir (or ^tre used 

as avoir). 

289. Without Auxiliary. A past participle without any 
auxiliary \iivi the fone of an afljcctivo (attributive, predica- 

§§290-291] THE PAST PARTICIPLE. 213 

tive, appositive), and agrees, like an adjective, in gender and 
number with the word qualified : 

Des fetes donnt^es par le roi. Festivities given by the king. 

Les battus ; les morts. The beaten ; the dead. 

Le pass6 n'est plus a nous. The past is no longer ours. 

Jean et Marie semblent fatigues. John and Mary look tired. 

Tenez les portes ferm^es. Keep the doors closed. 

lis me regard^rent ^tonn^s. They looked at me astonished. 

a. Certain past participles have prepositional force when preceding , 
the substantive, and are invariable, but are variable when following : ^ 
Vu les difficult^s. In view of the difficulties. 

Excepte eux ; eux except^s. Except them ; they excepted. 

Such are : Approuv6, attendu, certifie, collationn6, y corapris, non 
compris, entendu, excepte, oui', paye, pass^, suppose, vu, etc. 

b. Ci-inclus = ' enclosed ' and ci-joint =' herewith,' 9,re imariable 
when begiiiiiTiig a sentence, or whenltollowed by a noun without article: 
Ci-inclus la copie, etc. Herewith the copy, etc. 

Vous recevez ci-joint copie, etc. You receive herewith a copy, etc 
But : J'envoie ci-jointe une (la) I send herewith a (the) copy, etc. 
copie, etc. 

290. Past Participle with etre. A past participle with 
^tre agrees with the subject, for exceptions see § 244 : 

II sont (ont 6t6) battus. They are (have been) beaten. 

Marie et Louise sont venues. Mary and Louisa have come. 

lis sont sortis. They have gone out. 

Les dames etant arrivees. The ladies having come. 

EUe parla d' avoir ete bless^e. She spoke of having been wounded. 

o. Hence the past participle of an impersonal verb with etre is 
invariable, agreeing strictly with the grammatical subject il : 
II ^tait venu des soldats. Soldiers had come. 

291. Past Participle with auoir. 1. A past participle 
with avoir agrees with a preceding direct object ; otherwise 
it is invariable : 

La piece que j'ai ^crite, I'avez- Have you read the play I wrote ? 

vous lue ? 
Quels iivres a-t-il apportes ? What books did he bring ? 

21:4 THE VERB. [§292 

But : tTai ^rit la lettre. I have written the letter. 

EUes ont lu et ^crit. They have read and written. 

Je lui ai donn6 la lettre. I have given her the letter. 

2. Similarly, the past participle of a reflexive verb (conju- 
gated with ^tre for avoir) always agrees with the reflexive 
object, unless that object be indirect : 

Us se sont r^jouis. They have rejoiced. 

EUes s'^taient tromp^S. They were mistaken. 

Ella s'est bless^e She wounded herself. 

EUe s'est laiss^e tomber. She has fallen (fell). 

But : Us se sont ^crit. They wrote to each other. 

Elle s'est bless^ la main. She wounded her hand. 

lis 86 sont arro^6 ce privilege. They assumed that privilege. 

lis se sont plu k Paris. They enjoyed themselves in Paris. 

a. Besides the indirect reflexive object, a direct object may be 
present, with which the following past participle* agrees : 
Les robes qu'elle s'est achet^es. The dresses she bought herself. 

292. Remarks. AH cases of the agreement of the past 
participle depend upon the above general principles ; special 
difficulties are : — 

1. The past participl e of an imp ersonal verb is invari£|jl[)le : 
!• La belle joum^e qu'il a fait I What a fine day it was ! 

La diaette qu'il y a eu. The scarcity there was. 

2. A noun denoting distance, time, price, weight, etc., with 
such verbs an marcher, courir, vivre, couter, peser, 
valoir. etc., is adverbial accusative (not direct object) ; hence 
no ayreemen t ; 

Let dix millM que j'ai march6. The ton milns I walkcnl. 

Lm cent francs quu cot ouvrage The huiKlrc<l fiancs tlmt. book coHt 
m'a valu. me. 

a. Huch verhn used traiinitivoly, or figuratively with tranHitive force, 
follow thn general rule : 

1^1 nialhi ijuo j'al ptiw^. The trunk which I weighed. 

L N (langttrM qu'il a courus. The (ItiiigcrR \w inciirnMl. 

La p«}ur quo cola a ooAt^ The fuar which tliat cauned. 


3. A past participle preceded by an expression of number or 
quantity, a collective, etc., is variable or invariable according 
to the sense (cf. §231-234) : 

Que de maux il a soufferts ! What ills he endured ! 

C'est la moitid des meubles qu'on It is the half of the furniture that 

a saisie. has been seized. 

La moitid des meubles que j'ai The half of the furniture which I 

vendus. sold. 

Quelle joie, quel bonheur vous lui What joy, what happiness you have 

avez procure ! procured him ! 

a. Partitive en is never a direct object ; agreement, however, takes 
place with combien, plus, moins, preceding en, if the sense be plural : 
Combien Dieu en a-t-il exauc^s ! How many of them Grod has heard ! 
Plus on vous a donn^ de livres, plus The more books you were given, the 

vous en avez lus. more of them you read. 

4. WTien an infinitive (with or without a preposition) 
follows, the past participle is invariable when the preceding 
direct object is governed by the infinitive, and variable if 
governed by the past participle alone : 

La lettre que j'ai voulu ^crire. The letter I wished to write. 

La lettre que j'ai oubli^ d'^crire. The letter I forgot to write. 

II nous a pri^s d'aller. He begged us to go. 

On nous a dit de sortir. They told us to go out. 

a. Entendu, vu, laiss^, agree when the infinitive has active force, 
but are invariable, if it has passive force (§284) : 

La dame que j'ai entendue chanter. The lady I heard sing(ing). 
Les enfants que j'ai vu battre. The children I saw beaten. 

h. After du, pu, voulu, os6, with auxiliary force, a governing infini- 
tive is either expressed or implied ; hence no agreement : 

J'ai lu tous les livres que j'ai pu I read all the books that I could 

(lire). (read). 

But : Les livres que j'ai voulus. The books I wished. 

c. Fait + infinitive is invariable : 

Les m^decins qu'ila fait venir. The doctors he sent for. 

d. The past participle of avoir k is variable or invariable : 
Les lettres que j'ai eu (eues) k lire. The letters I had to read. 

216 _ THE VERB. [§§293-294 

5. The relative pronoun que is sometimes direct object of 
a verb in a following que cLaiise, either fully expressed or 
implied, and hence the past participle is invariable : 

Des choses que j'ai cru qu'il ferait. Things I thought he would do. 
J'ai lu les hvres qu'il a voulu (que I read the books which he wished 
je lusse). (me to read). 


293. Transitives. 1. A transitive verb governs a direct 
object, as in English : 

J'ai ^rit la lettre (des lettres). I wrote the letter (letters). 

2. A transitive verb can have only one direct object ; other 
substantives related to it must stand as indirect object or as 
prepositional complement : 

Pardonnez-lui ses p6ch6s. Pardon him his sins. 

Je donne le de k la fille. I give the girl the thimble. 

Je lui donne le d^ avec plaisir. I give lier the thimble with pleasure. 

Je conseille k mon fils de partir. I advise my son to go. 

a. By an extension of this principle, the verb (aire =' make,' 'cause 
to,* etc. +an infinitive, requires an indirect personal object, when the 
infinitive has a direct object : 

Je fais lire co livre k mon fils. I make my son read this book. 

Jo lui fais lire ce livre. I make him read this book. 

But : Jo faiH lire mon fils. I make my son read. 

Jo le faiR lire. I make him road. 

6. LjUsser, voir, entendre, oui'r, may have, and frequently do have, 
the name conHtruction : 

Lftiasezle (-lui) lire le livre. Let him road the book. 

Je r(ltli) ft! vu j()u<?r <•«' rAlo. T Haw him play that part. 

But: Laiane/. liro I'enfant r^*t the child road. 

294. IntransitivCS. An intranHitivo verb can have no 
direct obj«'<'t, but may, of cour8e, have an ipdirect object or a 
prcfMfHitioiiHi ccmiph*m(nit : 




II parle k ce soldat. He is speaking to that soldier. 

II lui parle de la guerre. He speaks to him of the war. 

a. A very few intransitives govern a direct object anomalously : 
Oti avez-vous pass^ I'^te ? Where did you pass the summer ? 

II va tout droit son chemin. He goes straight on his way. 

NoTB. — Many verba serve both as transitives and intransitives : ' II est descendu ' 
(intransitive), ' He has ((one down ' ; 'II a descendu le tableau' (transitive), ' He has 
taken down the picture.' 

295. Predicative Complement. Nouns are used pre- 
dicatively after certain verbs, as follows : — 

1. In nominative relation : 

lis sont Anglais. 

II est m^decin. 

Elle est morte jeune fille. 

Such verbs are : 

They are Englishmen. 

He is a doctor. 

She died a young girl. 

mourir, die. 
naitre, be bom. 
paraitre, appear. 
passer, pass. 

dcmeurer, remain. 

d«venir, become. 

•Dtrer, enter. 

etre, be. 

6tre cens6, be supposed. 

2. In accusative relation 

On le fit roi. 

Je le connais honnete homme. 

tester, remain. 
sembler, seem. 
sortir, go ouL 


They made him king. 

I know him to be an honest man. 

Such verbs are 

appeler, call. 
couronner, crown. 
croire, believe. 
declarer, declare. 
^lire, elect. 

estimer, esteem^ 
faire, make. 
se faire, become. 
instituer, institute. 
juger, judge. 

86 montrer, show one's self. 
nommer, nam/e. 
proclamer, proclaim. 
savoir, know. 

296. Prepositional Complement. The use of de and 

a presents special difficulty; other prepositions have, in 
general, their usual literal force: — 

1. Some verbs with de have the force of an English 
transitive : 

II m6dit de ses voisins. He slanders his neighbours, 

II ne jouit de rien. He enjoys nothing. 


Such verbs are 
abuser de, misuse. 
s'apercevoir de, perceive. 
s'approcher de, approach. 
avoir besoin de, 7ieed. 
avoir peur de, fear. 
avoir piti6 de, pity. 
convenir de, admit, 
ae d6fier de, mixtrust. 


se d^mettre de, resign. 
disconvenir de, deny. 
douter de, suspect, doubt. 
se douter de, s^ispect. 
g^mir de, bemoan. 
jouir de, enjoy. 
nianquer de, lack. 
lu^dire de, slander. 


se m^fler de, mistrust. 
partir de, leave. 
se passer de, do without. 
se servir de, use. 
se souvenir de, recollect. 
se tromper de, mistake. 
user de, employ, use. 

2. Similarly, some verbs with a have the force of au English 
transitive : 

He obeys his father. 
I have resisted him. 

H ob^it h, son p^re 
Je lui ai r^sist^. 

Such verbs are ; 
aller k, fit, suit. 
arriver k, reach. 
attenter k, attempt. 
oomp&tir k, pity. 
convenir k, suit. 
d^plaire k, displease. 
d^sobdir k, disobey. 
M fier k, trust. 
Importer k, concern. 

nuire k, harm. 
ob<5ir k, obey. 
obvier a, obviate. 
ordonner k, order. 
pardonner k, pardon. 
parvenir k, attain. 
permettre k, permit. 
persuader k. persuade. 
plaire k, please. 

promettre k, promise. 
reniMier k, remedy. 
renoncer k, renounce. 
r^pondre k, answer. 
resister k, resist. 
ressenibler k, resemble. 
succ6der k, succeed. 
Burvivre k, survive. 

3. In some instances, on tlie contrary, a French transitive 
has the force of an English verb + a preposition. 

Payez-lui lea livres. 
Je regarde cet arbru-I^. 

Such verbs are : 
•ooepter, aeeept <>J. 
admettre, admit of. 
approuvi-'r, approve qf. 
attandre, toaUfor. 
r, look Jot. 

Pay liiin for the books. 
I um luuking at that tree. 

deniander, ask for. 
dd'sircr, unsh fur. 
<k;outer, listen to. 
envoyer cheroher, send for, 
o«p6rer, hope for. 

war, pay for. 
regardcr, ItMik at. 
rencontrer, meet taith. 
souhaiter, wish for. 

4. De and It frequently have, as compared with English, a 
special idiomatic force with certain verbs : 
Cola d<«|)titid de voua. That dui>on(lH on you. 

Penaer. k voire devoir. Think of your duty. 

8uch verlM are : . 

i^aflllKer de, f/rieM at. blitiior de, blame for. consoler do, console for. 

ftpprocher(ii') de. draw ooinplimentor do, enmpli- d<ijcuner dit, breakfast on. 

nsar U. inent on. <i(ipcndre de, depend 07i. 




se d6soler de, grieve over. se nourrir de, live on. 

diner de, dine on. profiter de, profit by. 

f^liciter de, congratulate on. punir de, punish for. 

g^rair de, lament over. r(icompenser de, reward 
louer de, praise for. for. 

se m61er de, meddle with. se r^jouir de, rejoice at. 

remercier de, thank for. 
rire de, laugh at. 
triompher de, triumph over. 
vivre de, live on. 

acheter qqch. k qqu., buy something from 

(or fer) some one. 
arracher qqch. k qqu., snatch from. 
cacher qqch. k qqu. , hide from. 
conf 6rer qqch. k qqu. , confer on. 
demander qqch. h qqu., ask for (of). 
d^rober qqch. k qqu., steal from. 
emprunter qqch. iiqqu., borrow from. 
infliger qqch. ti qqu., inflict on. 
inspirer qqch. k qqu., inspire with. 
nifiler qqch. k qqch., mingle with. 

6ter qqch. h. qqu., take away for. 
pardonner qqch. k qqu., pardon for. 
payer qqch. k qqu., pay for. 
penser k qqch. or k qqu., think of. 
prendre, qqch. k qqu., take from. 
pourvoir k qqch., provide for. 
procurer qqch. k qqu., procure for. 
prodiguer qqch. k qqu., lavish on. 
reprocher qqch. k qqu., reproach toith. 
Bouhaiter qqch. k qqu., vnsh. 
voler qqch. a qqu., steal from. 

5, Many verbs have a double construction with varying 

meaning : 

lis jouent aux cartes. 
EUe joue du piano. 

Such verbs are : 

abuser qqu. , deceive. 

II de qqch., misuse. 
assister qqu., help. 

II k qqch., be present at, witness. 
concourir k qqch., contribute to. 

II pour qqch., compete /or. 

convenir k qqu. , suit. 

II de qqch., a^rree about. 

croire, qqu., or qqch., believe. 

II k, en, believe in. 
demander qqu. or qqch. , ask after. 

II qqch. a qqu., asfc /or (/rom, o/). 

h^riter de qqu. , be heir of. 

II de qqch., inherit. 
jouer qqu., deceive. 
II d'un instrument, play on an instrti- 

II k un jeu, play (at) a game. 
manquer qqu. or qqch., miss. 
II de, lack. 
I. k, fail in. 
penser k, think of (about). 

They are playing cards. 
She is playing the piano. 

penser de, have opinion of. 
pr6tendre qqch., assert. 

«i k, aspire to. 

servir, serve (tr, and intr.). 

It de, serve as. 

II k, be useful for. 

86 servir de, make use of. 

supplier qqu. , take the place of 

II k qqch., complete. 
toucher qqu. or qqch., touch. 
II de I'argent, draw money. 
II k, meddle with, be near to. 
II d'un instrument, play an instru- 
ment (keyed), 
user qqch. , wear out. 
II de, make use of. 
en user de, deal, act. 
veiller qqu. , watch over, nurse. 
II k qqch., attend to, watch over. 
II sur qqu., watch over. 

220 THE NOUN. [§§297-301 

297. Position. Objects and prepositional complements 
regularly follow the verb, the direct object (if any) being first; 
but if of unequal length, the longer usually last. For position 
of personal pronouns, see the Pronoun. 

298. Composite Complement. The various parts of a 
complement must be of the same grammatical value, i.e., all 
nouns, all verbs, etc.: 

II apprend a lire et a chanter. He learns to read and sing. 

II apprend la lecture et le chant. He learns reading and singing. 

299. Manifold Verb. Two or more verbs can govern the 
same complement only if alike in government : 

II aime et respecte son oncle. He loves and respects his uncle. 

II aime son oncle et lui ob6it. He loves and obeys his uncle. 


300. General Rule. Nouns in French are either mascu- 
line or feminine. As an aid to memory, general rules for 
determining gender are given in the following sections. 

301. Gender by Derivation. 1. Nouns derived from 
fjiitin mtisculinfjs are regularly iiwisculine : 

Mur (Ij. murujn) ; livro (L, lihrtim) ; Wall ; l)ook ; order ; poet. 
ordre(L. ordinem) ; po^te (L. poeta). 

a. RxcoptionH ar« not uncommon ; I^itin maBculino ahHinutH in -or 
(a<}CUiMtivu -orem) huvi) iMjcimiu fumininu, except raasculiim honneur, 
d^thonneur, labeur, amour : 

nmiMlt'tir, f (I,, eamloretn), cantlttur. erreur, f. (L. vrrorem), error. 

'ootttour, f, (L. culurem), uolour. fiirmir, f. {}^ /urorein), fury . 

t. (I* doUtritm), pain, eto. 

in ■iirh phnuKM an 'couleur do ft'u,* 'louhsur do roae,' etc., e.g., 'ce 
ru)i«n aiid'ttn Imnmi <'x>uUMir di* nxte.' 




2. Nouns derived from Latin feminines are regularly 
feminine : 

Justice ; charity fTiand ; faith. 

Justice (L. justitiam) ; charity 
(L. caritatem); main (L. man- 
um) ; foi (L. Jidem). 

3. Nouns derived from 
masculine : 

Corps (L. corpus)^ fer (L. /errMm) ; 
or (L. aurum) ; pr^ (L. pra- 
tum) ; si6cle (L. scBculum) ; verbe 
(L. verbum). 

Latin neuters are regularly 

Body ; iron ; gold ; meadow ; 
century ; verb. 

a. More than a hundred neuter plurals in -a have become feminine 
singular in French, just as if derived from nouns in -a of the Latin 
first declension : 

arme (L. arma), arm. 
date (L. data), date. 
dette (L. debita), debt. 
dtude (L. stadia), study. 

feuille (L. folia), leaf. 
graine (L. grana), seed. 
huile (L. olea), oil. 
joie (L. gaudia), joy. 

Ifevre (L. Idbra), lip. 
OBUvre (L. opera), work. 
pomine (L. poma), apple. 

302. Gender by Hnding^S. L Masculine are most nouns 
ending as follows : — 

(1) In a vowel sound (not -e mute) : 

Un op^ra (c8t^, chapeau, cheveu). An opera (side, hat, hair). 
Un parti (z^ro, caillou, tissu). A party (zero, pebble, tissue). 

a. Feminine exceptions are : 

guerilla, guerilla. 

moiti6, half. 

bru, daughter-in-law. 

gutta-percha, gutta-percha. 

fourmi, ant. 

glu, bird-lime. 

polka, polka. 

merci, mercy. 

tribu, tribe. 

razzia, raid. 

foi, faith. 

vertu, virtue. 

tombola, charity-lottery. 

loi, law. 

eau, water. 

v6randa, verandah. 

parol, wall. 

peau, skin. 

cit6, city. 

virago, virago. 


Further, abstracts in -16, 


tim\t\&, friendship. ' 

liberty, liberty. 

■ant6, health. 

charit6, charity. 



(2) In a consonant : 
Le sac (pied, joug, sol, uez, temps) 

The sack (foot, yoke, soil, nose, time). 




a. Feminine exceptions are 

clef, key. 
net, ship, nave. 
8oif, thirst. 
faim, hunger. 
fagoD, fashion. 
fin, end. 
le^on, lesson. 
main, hand. 
rantjon, ransom. 

chair, flesh. 
cour, cottrt. 
cuiller, spoon. 
mer, «ea. 
tour, tower. 
brebis, sheep. 
fois, time. 
oasis, oom. 
Bouris, mouse. 

VIS, screw. 
dent, <oofA. 
dot, dower. 
for6t, forest. 
gent, <ri6e. 
mort, death. 
nuit, night. 
part, 2'«''^, share. 
chaux, ^t}/i«. 

croix, cross, 
faux, scythe. 
noix, walnut. 
paix, peace. 
perdrix, partridge. 
poix, pitch. 
toux, cough. 
voix, voice, 

Further, nouns in -son, -ion and most abstracts in -eur (cf. § 301, a) : 

chanson, «07i^. 
maison, house. 
raiaon, reason. 
trahison, treason. 

nation, nation. 
occasion, occasion. 
possession, possession. 
couleur, colour. 

f aveur, favour. 
fureur, fury. 
peur, /ear. 

(3) In -acle, -age, -asme, -^ge, -^me, -isme, -t^re : 

Le spectacle (voyage, sarcasme, The spectacle (journey, sarcasm, 
college, diad^me, magn^tisme, college, diadem, magnetism, 

myst^re). mystery). 

a. The following feminines in -age should be noted : 

cage, cage. 
Image, image. 

nage, svnmming. 
page, page (of a book). 

plage, beach. 
rage, rage. 

2. Feminine are most nouns ending as follows : — 

(1) In -e preceded by a vowel or double consonant : 

Une ann^ (vie, vue, raio, soio, 
roue, pluio, faniille, fiammu, 
oonronne, tristesse, botte). 

(2) In -ace, -ade, -ance, 
-ude, -ure : 

I^i prt'iUu'V! (Kulmle, conHtanco, 
pn';M«n<:i!, tU'Uiumi, luinit'Tc, his- 
Uiiro, hubitudo, culture). 

303. Gender by Meaning. 1. Names of male beings 
are UMually inaHculine, and naiucH of female beings feminine : 

Un homme ; une femme. A man ; a woman. 

Ud bottf ) tUM vaohe. An ox ; a oow. 

A year (life, sight, streak, silk, 
wheel, rain, family, flame, 
crown, sadness, boot). 

-ence, -ense, -i^re, -oire. 

The prcf.icd (salad, constancy, 
preHciicij, «lofon(!o, light, his- 
tory, habit, culture). 

§303] GENDER OF NOUNS. 223 

a. Most nouns denoting professions, e.(j., docteur, doctor ^ ^crivain, 
writer, imprimeur, printer, etc., and a few nouns lacking a feminine 
form, e.g., ange, angel, temoin, witness, etc., remain masculine when 
applied to females : 

Elle est un auteur distingu^. She is a celebrated authoress. 

Marie est un ange. Mary is an angeL 

6. Some names of lower animals are masculine only, e.g., Elephant, 
elephant, hibou, owl ; others are feminine only, e.g., fourmi, anl, souris, 
mouse ; ambiguity may be avoided by adding male or femelle : 

Un Elephant male (femelle). A he- (she-) elephant. 

c. Some nouns are feminine only, whether applied to males or females : 

caution, surety. personne, person. vedette, scout. 

connaissance, acquaintance. pratique, customer. victime, victim. 

dupe, dupe. recrue, recruit. vigie, look-out man. 

ganache, blockhead. sentinelle, sentinel. etc. 

2. The following are masculine : — 

(1) Names of cardinal points and winds : 

Le nord ; le sud ; le zephyr. The north ; the south ; the zephyr. 

a. Feminine exceptions are : 

bise, north wind. mousson, monsoon. tramontane, north toind. 

brise, breeze. 

(2) Names of seasons, months, days of the week : 

Le printemps ; octobre ; limdL Spring ; October ; Monday. 

(3) Names of countries not ending in -e : 

Le Canada ; le Dauphine ; le Chili. Canada ; Dauphiny ; Chili. 

(4) Most names of mountains not ending in -es, and most 
names of rivers : 

Le Hartz ; le Jura. The Hartz mountains ; Mount Jura. 

Les Appenins. The Appenines. 

Le Volga ; le Rh6ne ; le Rhin. The Volga ; the Rhone ; the Rhine. 

But fem. : Les Alpes (Pyrenees, Vosges, etc. ). 

a. The rivers of France in -e are nearly all feminine : 
La Seine, la Loire, etc The Seine, the Loire, etc. 

224 - THE NOUN. [§303 

(5) Names of trees and shrubs : 

Le chene ; le bouleau ; le pommier. The oak ; the birch ; the apple-tree. 

a. Feminine exceptions are : 
auWpine, hmothom. 6pine, thorn. vigne, vine. 

bourdaine, buckthorn. hifeble, dwarf-elder. viome, wild clematis. 

bruyfere, heath. ronce, bramble. etc. 

(6) Names of weights and measures of the metrical system : 
Un m^tre (gramme, litre, etc. ). A metre (gramme, litre, etc. ). 

(7) Names of metals and chemicals : 

Le fer (or, cuivre, argent, sulphate). Iron (gold, copper, silver,*Sulphate). 

a. Feminine exceptions are : 
fonte, cast-iron. tdle, sheet-iron. 

(8) Words and phrases not jiouns when used as nouns : 
Le beau ; le blanc ; le fran^ais. The beautiful ; white ; French. 
Un a ; un mais ; un oui-dire. An ' a ' ; a * but ' ; a rumour. 
Le derri^re de la main. The back of the hand. 

a. Adjectives referring to concrete objects have the gender of the 
noun understood : 

Une belle («c. dame, femme, etc. ). A beauty. 
Une capitale («c. ville, lettre). A capital 

b. The names of the letters of the alphabet, as given in § 4, are all 
masculine, except f, h, 1, m, n, r, s : 

Un a ; un b^ ; une offe. An ' a ' ; a ' b ' ; an * f . ' 

3. The following are feminine : — 

(1) Names of countries in -e : 

La France (Aide, Normandie). France (Asia, Normandy). 

a. Iffafloaline exceptions are : 
1« BMigato, Bengal. le Mexlque, Mexieo. le P(ilopon(n)6M, Peloponnemt, 

!• Haaovr*, Hanootr. le Maine, Maine (in Fr.X etc. 

(2) Most nameH of cities and towns, especially in -c, -es : 
Rome : Athtoes ; Tyr ; Ilion. Rome ; Atliens ; Tyre ; Ilium. 

a. BlAMuUne exception! are : 
toOfeire. Cairo. Londree, London. Paria, Paris. 

U B*vre, Uamr*. VerMiliee. V'er$aiU*t, etc. 

NoTWk— 1. Any name of a town or trity h maaoulinc aa a colleotire : 'Tout Rome le 
•alt,' 'All Rome know* it.' 2. In caee of doubt aa to the gendvr, tho nanio may alwaya 
tw prwtdad by la yUle de ■« ' the town (city) of.' 




(3) Names of holidays, fete de being understood : 
La Saint-Martin ; la mi-juin. Martinmas ; mid- June. 

a. Observe : 
Noel (la Noel, la fete de Noel). Christmas. 

(4) Names of arts, sciences, trades : 

La peinture (chimie, librairie). Painting (chemistry, book -trade). 

a. Principal exception : 
le dessin, draxving. 

304. Nouns of Double Gender. 1. Some nouns de- 
noting persons, mostly in -e, and adjectives in -e, when so 
used, are either masculine or feminine : 

An artist ; a pupil. 
A patient ; a rebeL 

Un (une) artiste ; un (une) ^16ve. 
Un (une) malade ; un (une) rebelle. 

Such nouns are : 

aide, assistant. *enfant, child. 

camarade, comrade. esclave, slave. 

compatriote, compatriot. locataire, tenant. 
*Alway9 masculine in the plural. 

2. The meaning of some nouns varies with the gender : 
Un critique ; une critique. A critic ; a criticism. 

The mode, mood (gram. ) ; the fashion. 

propri^taire, owner. 
pupille, ward. 

Le mode ; la mode. 

Such nouns are : 
aide, assistant, 

aune, alder, 
crSpe, crape, 
critique, critic, 
garde, guard (mil.), 

jruide, guide, 
livre, book, 

manche, handle, 
m^moire, memorandum, memory. 
merci, thanks, m^rcy, pity 

mode, mode, mood, fashion. 
moule, mould, mussel. 

mousse, cabin-boy, moss. 

service^ larder. 


assistant, help, 

keeper, body of 
troops, watch, hilt, somme, 


Masc. Fbm. 

page, page, page (ot & hook). 

pendule, pendulum, clock. 

podle, stove, pall, frying-pan. 

politique, politician, politics. 

poste, position, post-office. 

sleep, nap, sum. 

souris, smile, nwuse. 

statuaire, sculptor, sculpture. 

tour, turn, trick, tower. 

trompette, trumpeter, trumpet. 

vapeur, steamer, steam. 

vase, vase, slime, mud. 

voile, veil, sail. 


226 -^ THE NOUN. [§304 

3. The following nouns are either masculine or feminine, 
with identical or closely related meaning : — 

a. Apr^s-midi = * afternoon ' and automne = ' autumn ' are usually 
masculine, sometimes feminine. 

h. Amour (m.)=:'love,' 'loved object,' 'passion,' 'amour'; amour 
(f. s. poet. )=' passion,' 'amour'; amours (f. pi. ) = ' passion,' 'amours.' 

c. Delice =' delight ' and orgue =' organ ' (music) are masculine in 
singular and feminine in plural. 

d. Hymne (m.) = 'hymn,' 'song of praise'; hymne (f.) = ' (church) 

e. Couple (m.) = 'couple,' 'pair' (joined by affection, sentiment, etc.); 
couple (f.) = ' couple,' ' two ' (two like objects taken together) : 

Un couple d'amants. A pair of lovers. 

Une couple d'cEufs. Two (a couple of) eggs. 

Note : Une paire do gants, etc. A pair of gloves, etc. 

/. P4que or p4ques (m. s. ) = * Easter ' ; piques fleuries (f. pl.) = 
* Palm Sunday ' (so also in other phrases) ; p&que (f. ) = ' passover. ' 

g. Orge (f.) = * barley' is masculine in orge mond^ (perl6) = ' pot- 
(pearl-) barley.' 

h. Foudre (f.)=* thunderbolt' is sometimes masculine in poetry or 
elevated prose ; foudre (m.) in le foudre de Jupiter= 'Jove's thunder- 
bolt' and in figurative expressions, e.g., un grand foudre de guerre = 
's great warrior.' 

i. CEuvre (f. )=' work,' 'works,' is sometimes masculine in elevated 
Btyle ; ceuvre (m. s. ) = ' works ' (collectively of an engraver or musician) ; 
le grand ceuvre = ' the philosopher's stone'; le gros ceuvre = ' heavy 
stone- work ' ; de I'ceuvre (»).) = 'silver- lead.' 

j. Gent (pi. m. or f.)=' people,' 'persons,' etc. Attributive adjec- 
tivcM are feminiiio when preceding, and masculine when following' gens, 
but predicatives, before or after, are niaH<!ulinu. 'All' is tiaii.slatod by 
toittetonly when attributive and separated from gens l>y an adjective 
variable for the feminine ; otherwise by tous: 

De boDDM gent. (jood people. 

Lm vieillM geni tont math* ukmix. Old people are unhappy. 




Les petites gens et los grands. 
Merci, bonnes gens, merci. 
Ceci gens sont heureux. 
Toutes les vieilles gens. 
Tous les gens. 
But : Tous les habiles gens. 

Tous ces genB-ci. 

Tous sont de bonnes gens. 

Les gens sont tous ici. 

The small people and the great. 

Thanks, good people, thanks. 

Those people are happy. 

All the old people. 

All the people. 

All the clever people. 

All these people. 

All are good people. 

The people are all here. 

Notes. — 1. A pronoun to which genS is antecedent is masculine : ' Les gens qui sont 
venus,' 'The people who have come.' 2. Gens in expressions like gens de robe = 
' lawyers ' and in jeunes geilS = ' young men ' is always masculine. 

305. Gender of Compound Nouns. 1. Compound 

nouns made up of a verb + a governed noun are regularly 
masculine : 

Un cure-dents ; un porte-plume. A toothpick ; a pen-holder. 
Un tire-bouchon ; un portefeuille. A corkscrew ; a portfolio. 

a. Occasionally they are feminine : 
Une perce-neige. A snowdrop. 

2. The gender of other compounds is regularly that of the 
noun, when only one noun is present, or of the principal noun, 
in case there are two : 

Une eau-forte. An etching. 

Une mappe-monde. A map of the world. 

La f^te-dieu. Corpus Christi day. 

306. Formation of the Feminine. Most nouns de- 
noting living beings distinguish the masculine and feminine as 
follows : — 

1. Some by a different word : 





bceuf, ox. 


mari, husband. 


bouc, he-goat 


oncle, uncle. 


coq, cock. 


parrain, god-father. 


fr^re, brother. 


pore, pig. 


homme, man. 





THE : 



a. The feminine form is often obviously cognate : 





ambaasadeur, amb<issador. ambassadrice. 

gouverneur, tutor. 


canard, drake. 


loup, wolf. 


*chanteur, singer. 


mulct, mule. 


oochon. hog. 


*procureur, proxy. 


compag^on, c<ym2>anion. compagne. 

serviteur, servant. 


dindon, turkey-cock. 


vieillard, old man. 


empereur, emperor. 




*Alao in -ease, see 

§337. 2, (2), a. 

2. Some by adding -esse to the last consonant 






abb^, abbot. 


ogre, ogre. 


&ne, as8. 


pair, peer. 


chanoine, canon. 


pauvre, pauper. 


comte, count. 


pretre, priest. 


diable, devil 


prince, prince. 


drdle, rogue. 


Suisse, Swiss. 


dniide, druid. 


tigre, tiger. 


hate, host. 


traltre, traitor. 


maftre, master. 




a. So also the following, but with changes in the stem : 







*ohasMur, huntsman. 




ddfendeur, dtj'fndant. 


dao. duke. 


Meraandeur, plaintiff. 


torroo. (iU^A 


enohantcur, enchanter. 




p<ioheur, sinner. 



•vondeur, seller (law). 


bftilleur, Umot. 


▼•ngeur, avenger. 


*AlK> in -eilM, Me 

§887, 2, (2), a. 

3. A few nouns take -ine : 







PhiUppe, Philip. 






4. Most other nounH follow the analogy of adjectives of like 
tarminAtion, and will be noted under the Adjective. 

§307-308] NUMBER OF NOUNS. 229 


307. General Rule. The plural of a noun is regularly 
formed by adding -s to the singular : 

Roi(s) ; reine(s) ; jardin(s). King(s) ; queen(s) ; garden(s). 

308. Principal Exceptions. The following are the 
principal exceptions to the above rule : — 

1. Nouns in -s, -X, -Z remain unchanged in the plural ; so 
also invariable words when used as nouns : 

Le bras ; la voix ; le nez. The arm ; the voice ; the nose. 

Les bras ; les voix ; les nez. The arms ; the voices ; the noses. 

Les oui et les non ; les on dit The ayes and noes ; the rumours. 

Plusieurs peu font un beaucoup. Many littles make a * muckle.' 

2. Nouns in -au, -eu, and seven in -ou, take -x : 

Noyau(x) ; chateau(x) ; jeu(x), Kernel(s) ; castle(s) ; game(s) ; 
voeu(x). vow(s). 

The seven nouns in -ou are : 


bijou(x), jewel. genou(x), knee. joujou(x), toy. 

caillou(x), pebble. hibou(x), owl. pou(x), louse, 

chou(x), cabbage. 
But : Clou{s), nail^ sou(s), half -penny, etc. 

3. Most nouns in -al change -al to -au, and add -x as above : 

G^n^ral ; cheval ; journal. General ; horse ; newspaper. 

G^neraux ; chevaux ; journaux. Generals ; horses ; newspapers. 

a. But the following, and a few rarer ones in -al, are regular : 
aval(8), evdcyrsevMnt. cal(8), callosity. chacal(s), jackal. 

bal(s), ball {for dancing). carnaval(s), carnival. r6gal(8), treat. 

4. The following in -ail have the plural in -aux : 

bail (-aux), lease. travail (-aux), work. vitrail (-aux), stained 

corail (-aux), coral, van tail (-aux), folding-door. glass window. 

soupirail (-aux), ventail (-aux), ventail. 

But: d^tail(s), detail; 6ventail(s), /aw, etc., are regular. 

Note.— Bestiaux(pl.)., cattle, is often given as the plural of hitaH, cattle ; it is 
from an obsolete form bestiail, parallel to b^tail. 

230 THE NOUN. [§§309-311 

5. Gent = 'race/ 'tribe,' has the plural gens = * people,' etc. 

NOTB.— A similar omission of t in the plural of nouns in -ant, -ent, now archaic, is 
maintained in the Revue des deux Mondes, e.g., ' ei\fans' for ' en/ants.' 

309. Double Plurals. The following have two plural 
forms, mostly with varying meaning : 

aieul (aieux), ancestor. ceil (yeux), eye. 

" (aieuls), grandfather. •• (oeils-) in compounds, e.g. 

ail (aulx), garlic. oeils-de-boeuf, oval windows. 

** (ails), '• pal (paux), pale, stake. 

ciel (cieux), sky, heaven, climate. ** (pals), ** ** 
** (ciels), bed-tester, sky (in paint- travail (travaux), ivork. 
ing), roof [of a quarry). ♦' (travails), report [of a minis- 

ter, etc. ), brake {for horse-shoeing). 
Obt.: The -x plural regnlarl}' has the literal meaning of the word. 

310. Foreign Nouns. Nouns of foreign origin take -s 
usually only when fully naturalized, but usage varies greatly 
(see dictionary) : 

a. Partial list of variable foreign nouns : 

aooea8it<8), honourable men- bill(B), bill. toa8t(8), toast. 

tion. duo(aX '^"0- tramway(8), street-railway. 

album(B), album. jury(8), jury. vivat(a), hurrah. 

alibi(8), alibi. op<ira(8), opera. etc. 

bifteck(8), beefsteak. pen8um(8), task. 

b. Partial list of invariable foreign nouns : 

amen. item. interim. post-scriptum. vade meoum. 

d^flcit. in-folio. ma^fnifloat. rc(]uioin. veto. 

fMximlle. in-ootavo. nota bene. Te Deum. etc. 

e. A few Italian nouns retain their plural in i : 
dflletant6(-l), dilUtante. 8oprano(-l), soprano. quintetto(-l), quintette. 

librelto(-l), libretto. lazzarone(-l), beggar. etc. 

311. Compound Nouns. The only components which 
take a plural sign are nouns and adjectives. The following 
are special rules : — 

1. Compounds witliout hjrphen are treated as one word, and 
follow the general rules : 

Port«iiuuitoAt)(x) ; gran(rn)6ru(s). yali8o(8) ; grandmothor(8). 
a. RxooptioiiH aro : 

bOll(S)llO»IIM(SX goodman^ He. matlanin (mMdanxs), viadam, Mrs. 

gMUl(S)lMNBlM(B), ncbUman. ma'l<'iiioiHnlb< (me8<lenioiH<>ll<-8), MiMS. 

mflllriiur (mSiiltllll) Mr., Mtr, > i< mOXlMiifnt-ur (meSHciKiieurs), my lord. 

§311] NUMBER OF NOUNS. 231 

2. When placed in juxtaposition and connected by a 
hyphen, nouns and adjectives are variable : 

Chef(s)-lieu(x) ; chou(x)-fleur(s) ; County-town(s) ; cauliflower(s) ; 

grand(s)-p6re(s). grandfather(s). 

a. Demi- is invariable in compounds. 
Des demi-heurea. Half-hours. 

h. Fyirther exceptions are : 
blanc-seing<s), signature in blank. terre-pleiii(s), platform. 

chevau-16ger(s), light-horseman, etc. 

3. Of two nouns joined by preposition and hyphens, the 
first only is variable : 

Arc(s)-en-ciel ; chef(s)-d'ceuvre. Rainbow ; masterpiece. 

a. The preposition de is sometimes understood : 
bain(s)-marie, water-hath. tinibre(s)-poste, postage-stamp. 
h6tel(s)-dieu, hospital. etc. 

b. The following are invariable, since the idea conveyed by their 
plural does not properly belong to the first component simply : 
coq-k-rS,ne, cock-and-bull story. pot-au-feu, beef and toup. 
pied-^-terre, temporary lodging. t6te-k-t6te, private interview. 

4. A noun with preceding invariable component is usually 
variable : 

Anglo-Saxon(s) ; avant-garde(s) ; Anglo-Saxon ; vanguard ; 
tire-bouchon(s) ; vice-roi(s) ; corkscrew ; viceroy ; 

bouche-trou(s) ; stop-gap. 

a. But the final noun remains invariable when the plural idea does 
not properly belong to it : 

abat-jour, lampshade. gagne-pain, means of living, rdveille-matin, alarm- 
coupe-gorge, cut-throat place. perce-neige, snow-drop. clock. 
crdve-coeur, heart-break. prie-dieu, praying-stool. serre-tfite, head-band. 
contre-poison, antidote. boute-en-train, jo%/eW(m>. etc. 

b. On the other hand, a final noun of clearly plural sense retains -s 
in the singular : 

un (des) casse-noisettes, nut-cracker. un (des) porte-clefs, turnkey. 

un (des) cure-dents, tooth-pick. etc. 

5. Invariable words, such as verb, adverb, preposition, etc., 
are invariable in compounds : 

Des on dit ; des passe-partout. Rumours ; master-keys. 

THE NOUN. [§§312-313 

a. Garde- is usually variable in compounds denoting persons, and 
invariable in those denoting things : 

Des gardes- malades. Sick-nurses. 

But : Des garde-robes. Wardrobes. 

312. Plural of Proper Nouns. 1. Names of persons 
or families are usually invariable in the plural : 

Les deux Racine. The two Racines. 

Les Comeille et les Racine de la The Corneilles and Racines of the 
sc^ne. stage (i.e., Comeille, Racine, and 

others like them). 
Lea Duval sont arrives. (The) Duvals have come. 

a. A few Latin names, originally plural in form, and certain well- 
known historical names of families and dynasties, take -s ; 

Lm Bourbons. Les Gracques. Les Pharaona. Les Tudors. 

Les O^sara. Les Ouisea. Les Scipions. etc. 

Les Ck>nd^ Les Horacea. Les Stuarta. 

6. Names of persons used as common nouns to denote * persons like * 
or * works by* those named are often variable, but usage is not 

Les Corneilles sont rares. Corneilles are rare. 

J'ai vu deux Raphaiils. I saw two Raphaels. 

But : Les Hamlet ; les La Fontaine ; les Goethe ; les Washington, etc. 

2. Names of places take -s when the idea is plural : 

Les Indos ; les Vosges. The Indies ; the Vosgoa. 

Lea deux Romes. The two Romes («. e. , the old and new). 


313. Case Relations. The noun in French does not vary 
in form to denote case ; it is used as follows : — 

1. "With verbs, as subjecfc, object, predicate : 

Le ptea Aime non fils. The father loves his hom. 

Jean eft devenu aclidaJi, John has l>ocomu a soldier. 


2. In appositions, and with adjectival force : 

Henri IV, roi de France. Henry IV. , King of France. 

Un roi enfant. A child king. 

3. After prepositions : 

J'ai parl^ h. son p6re. I have spoken to his father. 

4. Absolutely, generally with adverbial force : 

Le diner fini, il parti t. The dinner ended, he set out. 

II ^tait Ik, le chapeau k la main. He was there, (with) his hat in bi« 


Je suis venu samedi. I came on Saturday. 

II est rest^ trois heures. He stayed three hours. 

J'ai marche dix milles. I walked ten miles. 

Nous I'avons achet6 dix francs. We bought it for ten francs. 

5. Vocatively : 

Bonjour, mes amis. Good morning, my friends. 

314. Agreement. A predicate noun, or a noun used 
adjectivally, usually agrees like an adjective with the word 
referred to, see agreement of the Adjective : 

lis (elles) sont Allemand(e)s. They are Germans. 

La reine m6re. The queen mother. 


315. The Indefinite Article. 

Masc. Fem. 

un, a (an). une, a (an). 

316. The Definite Article. 

Sing. Plur. 

Masc. le (l')|the ^^^^ o^. p^^ j ^^le, 

Fem. la (l')j 

Obs.: For the forms in parenthesis, see §19, 1. 

234 THE ARTICLE. [§§317-318 

317. Contractions. The prepositions de and a + le and 
les, are always contracted as follows : 

de + le = du. ^ + le=au. 

de + les=des. ^ + les=aux. 

NOTKS. — 1. No contraction takes place with la, 1'. 2. Formerly en+les was con- 
tracted to ^s, a form still used in academical titles, e.g., 'Bachelier fes lettres,' 
'Bachelor of Arts.' 

318. Agreement and Repetition. The article agrees in 
gender and number with its noun, and is regularly repeated 
(as also de, a) before each noun or adjective denoting a 
distinctive object : 

Une maison et un jardin. A house and garden. 

Le flux et le reflux. High and low tide. 

Au bon et au mauvais c6t^. On the good and bad side. 

Les bons et les mauvais. The good and the bad. 

Des hommes ou des femraes. Men or women. 

But : Le bon et pieux pretre. The kind and pious priest. 

Le delta ou basse liigypte. The Delta or Lower Egypt. 

I a. The definite article is not repeated when a single adjective precedes 
nouns joined by et : 
Les principales villes et provinces The principal towns and provinces 
de la France. of France. 

h. Singular adjectives in apposition to a plural noun omit the article: 
Lofl langues fran9aiRe ot anglaise. The French and English languages. 
Or : La langue fran9ai8e et la langue anglaise. 
La langue fran9ai8e et I'anglaise. 

e. A few expressions of collective force, like the following, are per- 
missible, but ore either not obligatory or are confined to sot expressions ; 
>Les pire et m^re. The jMirentH. 

Let lundi ot mardi. (On) Mondays and Tuesdays. 

Let troifl ut quatro avriL The tliird and fourlli of April. 

Lm ofHciom et ioldata. Tlio oflicHirK and HolditM-H. 

llSoole des ponts et ohanss^es. Hrhool of hi-idgtm and rouds. 

d. For the repetition of le, la, les with the superlative, see CouipariMon 
of Adjoctiveii. 

§§319-321] USE OF ARTICLE WITH NOUNS. 235 


319. Use in General. French and English agree to a 
considerable extent in the use of the article ; differences are 
noted below. 

320. The Indefinite Article. 1. Its use corresponds 
in general with that of English *a,' 'an'; its plural is the 
partitive des (§323) : 

Un homme ; une femme ; des gens. A man ; a woman ; people. 

2. Contrary to English usage, the indefinite article also 
commonly stands before an abstract noun used partitively with 
an adjective or an adjectival adjunct : 
II montra un soin extreme. He showed extreme care. 

II a une patience k toute ^preuve. He has patience equal to anything. 
Elle jouit d'une bonne sante. She enjoys good health. 

C'est une nouvelle triste. It is sad news. 

a. The adjective or complementary clause depending on such a noun 
may be understood : 

Voilk une patience ! There is patience for you ! 

J'etais d'une humeur. . . I was in a temper. . . 

Un gargon d'une raison, . . A young fellow of (splendid) intellect! 

NoTB.— For several cases in which the English indefinite article is replaced by the 
French definite article, or vice versd, or is omitted, see below. 

321. The General Noun. A noun used in a general 
sense, i.e., *in general,' 'all,' 'every,' etc., being implied with 
it, regularly has the definite article in French, though not 
usually in English : 

La vie est courte. Life is short. 

Le fer et le cuivre sont utiles. Iron and copper are useful. 

J'etudie la musique. I am studying music. 

Les Fran^ais aiment la gloire. The French love glory. 

Le cheval est I'ami de I'homme. The horse is the friend of man. 

Le noir vous sied bien. Black becomes you. 

J'aime les pommos et les poires. I lilce ap les and pears. 

Le beau et I'utile. The beautiful and the useful 

Le boire et le manger. Eating and drinking. 

236 - THE ARTICLE. [§§322-324 

a. So also, names of languages, except after en ; but not, however, 
after parler : 

Sait-il le fran9ais ? Does he know French ? 

n parle bien (le) frangais. He speaks French well. 

But : Dites cela en fran9ais. Say that in French. 

Parlez-vous fran5ais ? Do you speak French ? 

322. The Partitive Noun. A noun implying * an unde- 
termined quantity or number of ' is said to be used partitively 
or in a partitive sense. 

323. Partitive with Article. The partitive sense, ex- 
pressed in English by the noun simply, or else the noun 
preceded by 'some' or 'any,' is regularly expressed in French 
by the noun preceded by de + the definite article : 

Du pain tremp^ dans du vin. (Some) bread dipped in wine. 

A-t-il des amis ? Has he (any) friends ? 

Des enfants poussaient des cris Some children were uttering ter- 

d^sesp^r^s, rible cries. 

n est des gens qui le croient. Tliere are people who believe it. 

Cest du Carlyle pur. That is pure Carlyleism. 

Norm. —This iwe of de+the definite article, or even of de alone (see next section), is 
often called the ' partitive article ' ; it is entirely identical in form with de+the article 
in other seiiMt, e.g., 'Je vends du bid,' ' I sell wheat ' ; 'Quel est le prixdubld?,' 
* What i8 the price of the wheat ?' 

324. Omission of Article. The partitive sense is ex- 
pressed by de alone -h the noun as follows : — 

1. When an adjective precedes the noun; so also, when a 
noun is understood after an adjective : 

Avez-Tons de bon papier ? Have you any good paper ? 

Donnez-moi de oes plumes^Uu Give me some of thoHo pons. 

J^al de vo« livres. I have some of your bookn. 

De bon vin et de manvais («c. vin). Good win« and bad. 

De groi UvTM et de petits {hc. 11 vron). Big lM)okH and little ones. 

Bot : Dee noldatii frao9ais. FruM(;h Holdiui-H. 

J'ai da pain bUno. I have whit» brea<I. 

Do boo papier qu'il a aohetd. Some of the good paper ho bouglit. 


b. The article is not omitted when adjective and noun are indivisible 
in sense, i.e., when forming a real or a virtual compound : 

Des grands-p6res ; des petits-fils. Grandfathers ; grandchildren. 
Des petits pois ; du bon sens. Green peas ; common sense. 

Des jeunes gens ; de la bonne foi. Young men ; honesty. 

c. Familiarly, the article is often used contrary to the rule : 
Du bon vin ; du vrai bonheur. Good wine ; true happiness. 

2. After a general negation, implying non-existence of the 
object in question : 

II n'a pas de montre. He has no (not any) watch. 

Je n'ai point de livres. I have no (not any) books. 

Sans avoir d'argent. Without having (any) money. 

II ne fit pas de remarques. He made no remarks. 

Pas d'argent et pas d'amis. No money and no friends. 

3. But the article is not omitted, the negation being no 
longer general : 

o. When the noun has a distinctive adjunct : 
Je n'ai plus du vin de cette annee. I have no more of this year's wine. 
Je n'ai pas de I'argent pour le gas- I have no money to waste ( = I have 
piller. nioney, but not to waste). 

b. In contr asts ; 

Pas du lait, mais du th^. Not milk, but tea. 

c. In negative interrogatipj^ impij^^ Si£^jffa&tiye answer : 
N'avez-vous pas des amis, de la Have you not friends, health, in- 

sant6, de I'influence ? fluence ? 

325. Omission of the Partitive Sign. The partitive 
sense is expressed by the noun simply, when the preposition 
de forms an essential part of the governing expression, 
thus : — 

1. In expressions of quantity or number : 

Une livre de the (noix). A pound of tea (nuts). 

Un morceau de papier. A piece of paper. 

Une foule de gens. A crowd of people. 

Peu de temps ; beaucoup d'amis. Little time ; many friends. 

238 THE ARTICLE. [§326 

Assez de livres. En< ngh books {or books enough). 

Des niilliers d'^toiles. Thousands of stars. 

Que de gens assembles ! What a number of people assembled ! 

a. Analogous to the above are expressions like the following ; 
Trois jours de marche. Three days' march. 

Cent soldats de tues. A hundred soldiers killed. 

Quelque chose (rien) de bon. Something (nothing) good. 

b. Bie n~ ' liraiuoup' regularly has de + tho detinitr ai tick' : 
Bien de I'argent ; bien du monde. Much money ; many people. 
Bien des gens le croient. Many people think so. 

But : Bien d'autres. Many others. 

NOTB. — Bien in other senses does not take de : ' J'ai bien faim," • I am very hungry.' 

c. La plu part= * mo st, * * t he j;reater part,' etc.^as de + the definite 
articlr! "' "^ "' " .»-, ..^.^„ 

La plupart des hommes. Most men. 

La plupart du temps. Most of the time. 

(f. Kxpressions of fiuaiitity or number with a distinctive adjunct 
Iiavr de i1h' (Lnnitr .mi. 1. ; so also, beaucoup, peu, etc., absolutdy : 
Une livro du the do ce nuirchand. A pound of this tradesman's tea. 
Beaucoup des gens ont peur. Many of the people are afraid. 

2. After a verb requiring de before its ccMnplement, and in 
phrases, adjectival or adverbial, formed from de + a noun : 

II vit do jiain (not * de du pain '). He lives on bread. 

II manquait d'argent. Ho lacked money. 

II dtait couvort do plaies. He was covered with wounds. 

Une rol)o do Hoie. A silk dress. 

Un hommo do gdnie. A man of genius. 

Uno bourne ploino d'or. A purse full of gold. 

NOTM.— 1. In both OMM(f 325, l, 2) tho <iiMippearan(;o of the partitive de Ih oimsod 
by iU OOlncid«no« with » yovernlnir de. '2. The nnifativu ooriHtruction (§ 324, 2) in really 
|NUraU«l, th« partlolMpM, point, «'U)., buintr etyuiolo^'ically nouns. 

326. General and Partitive Sense. The gonoral sense 

of a noun (8«J21) is to \m curcfully distinguished from the 
partitive sense (§322) : 

Let ofteaox ont dee ailea. HIhIh l>ave wings. 

Les hommei toot dee anlmftux, Men are auimala. 

§§327-828] USE of article with nouns. 239 

327. Article with Titles. A title of dignity or pro- 
fession, preceding a proper name, regularly takes the definite 
article, except in direct address : 

La reine Victoria est aim^e. Queen Victoria is beloved. 

Le docteur Ribot est arrive. Doctor Ribot has come. 

Qu'est-ce que le p6re Daru (lit ? What does Father Daru say ? 

But : Bonjour, docteur Ribot. Good morning, Doctor Ribot. 

a. So also, when such title is preceded by a title of courtesy (mon- 
sieur, madame, etc.), whether in speaking to or in speaking of the 
person : 

Bonjour, monsieur le docteur. Good morning, doctor. 

Monsieur le president I'a dit. The president said so. 

h. A preceding attributive adjective may have the force of a title : 
La petite Claire ; le gros Robert. Little Clara ; big Robert. 

328. Article for Possessive. The definite article is 
commonly used with the force of a possessive adjective, when 
no ambiguity arises from its use : 

Donnez-moi la main. Give me your hand. 

II a perdu la vie. He has lost his life. 

II avait le chapeau sur la tete. He had his hat on his head. 

a. The use of an indirect pronoun object + the definite article often 
avoids ambiguity : 

Le courage lui manqua. His courage failed (him). 

II s'est d^chir^ I'habit. He tore his coat. 

II m'a dechire I'habit. He tore my coat. 

b. Possessive force appears also in avoir mal (froid, chaud, etc.) 
k + the definite article followed by a noun denoting part of the person ; 
similarly, in phrases of personal description made up of avoir + the 
definite article + a noun + an adjective: 

J'ai mal k la tete. I have a headache (my head aches). 

II a mal aux yeux. He has sore eyes (his eyes, etc. ). 

II a froid au.:c pieds. He has cold feet (his feet, etc. ). 

II a la tdte grosse {or une grosse He has a large head. 


II a les bras longs {or de longs bras). He has long arms. 

Le chene a I'^corce rude. The oak has (a) rough bark. 

240 - THE ARTICLE. [§§329-330 

329. Article Distributively. 1. The definite article with 
distributive force replaces English *a' of weight, measure, 
number, when indicating price ; 

Deux francs la livre (le m6tre). Two francs a pound (a metre). 

Des oeufs dix sous la douzaine. Eggs at ten cents a dozen. 

Des poires un sou la pi6ce. Pears at a cent apiece. 

a. Otherwise par is generally used with price : 
Cinq francs par jour. Five francs a (per) day. 

\ i. Cent francs par tete. A hundred francs a (per) head. 

Trois francs par le§on. Three francs a (per) lesson. 

2. The definite article is also used distributively with names 
of days : 

n vient le dimanche. He comes (on) Sundays ( = every S. ). 

Le bateau part les lundis. The boat goes (on) Mondays ( = every M. ). 

330. Omission of the Article. The article, whether 
definite, indefinite, or partitive, is frequently omitted. This 
takes place : — 

1. In a large number of expressions made up of a verb + a 

J*ai sommeil ; il a honte. I am sleepy ; he is ashamed. 

Je vous demande pardon. I beg your pardon. 

Further examples are : 

avoir betoln, nstd. donner avis, notifif. falre place, make room. 

avoir faim, be kungry. donner ordre, give ordert. prendre uong6, take leave. 

avoir bonno mine, looktoelL faire attention, pay atten- prendre garde, take eare. 

avoir |Nsur, be a/raid. tioiu rendro viaite, pay a visit. 

tkvoW tort, be (ittthe)vfrong. tnirtoiA^LU, make a present, trouver moyen, Jlnd 

oourlr riaque, run the risk. faire failllte, fail {in huai- means. 

dtBMMidfOoiMeil, askmdtJM, %mu). etc., etc. 

2. In many adjectival and adverbial plirases made up of 
a prepotition + a noun : 

Xy«pch$ nature \ devant t^moins. After nature ; before witnesses. 
Saoi oauM) } k traven ^**^»»f Without cause ; acrosH the fields. 


Further examples are : 

k bord, on board. chien de herger, shepherd's par chemin de fer, by rail- 
k cheval, o»i horseback. dog. way. 

k dessein, intentionally. homme de cosur, man of par exemple, for example, 

k genoux, on one's knees. feeling. par exp6riei»ce,6y experience 

kpied, on foot. homine de gdnie, ma7i of par terre, by land, 

pot k f[e\ira, flower-pot. genius. asins cra.\nte, without fear. 

moulin k vent, wind-mill. en bateau, in a boat. sans raison, without reason. 

apr6s diner, after dinner. en 6t6, in summer. sous condition, on condition. 

avec irit6ret, with interest. en voiture, mi a carriage, sous presse, in the press. 

avec plaisir, vrith pleasure. par an, by the year. sur papier, on paper. 
Bortir de table, leave the table. etc. , etc. 

3. Before a predicate noun which qualifies in a general / 
way the personal subject, or object, of certain verbs (cf. § 295): 

lis sont "Russes. They are Russians. 

Elle est modiste. She is a milliner. 

Nous sommes m6decins. We are doctors. 

II parait honnete homme. He seems an honest man. 

Son fr^re se fit soldat. His brother became a soldier. 

On I'a ordonn^ pretre. He was ordained a priest. 

Soyons amis. Let us be friends. 

Note. — Nouns so used are commonly those of nationality, profession, title, etc., and 
their function is adjectival. Whenever a predicate noun denotes an individual or a 
species, it must have the article : * La rose est une fleur,' ' The rose is a flower ' ; * Les 
rois sont des hommes,' ' Kings are men.' 

a. The article is not omitted when the predicate noun has a distinctive 
adjunct : 

Son fr^re est un artiste de m^rite. His brother is an artist of merit, 
lis sent devenus des g^n^raux They became distinguished generals, 

b. Observe the predicative force of a noun after traiter + de, qualifier 
+ de: 

II m'a traits de sot. He called me a fooL 

Je qualifie cela de fraude. I call that fraud. 

c. After c'est, ce sont, the noun is logical subject, not predicate, and 
hence the article or some other determinating word must be used with 

C'est luie AUemande. She is (a) German. 

Ce sont les (mes) gants. Those are the (my) gloves. 





4. Before such an appositive noun as serves merely the 
purpose of a parenthetical explanation : 

L'Avare, comedie de Moli^re. L'Avare, a comedy by Moli^re. 

I^ris, fils de Priam, ravit Hel6ne, Paris, the (a) son of Priam, carried 
femme de Men^las. off Helena, (the) wife of Menelaus. 

a. Thus is explained the omission of the article in numerical titles • 
Jacques premier (deux). James the First (the Second). 

h. An apposition which distinguishes, contrasts, compares, regularly 
has the article, as in English : 

Pierre le Grand. 

Racine le fils et non Racine le 

Montr^l la plus grande villa du 

M. Cook, un ami do mon p^re. 

Peter the Great. 

Racine the son and not Racine the 

Montreal the largest city in 

Mr. Cook, a friend of my father. 

c. Colloquially, the article is often omitted in contrasts : 

Dumas pfere et Dumas fils. Dumas the elder and Dumas the younger. 

NOTB.— Pseudo-apposition (really ellipsis of de or of a de clause) is found in many 
cases like ' L'dglise («c. de) Saint-Pierre,' ' St. Peter's Church ' ; * des meubles («c. du 
temps de) Louis XV,' ' Louis XV. furniture ' ; 'La rue (sc. de) Mirabeau,' Mirabeau 

6. In condensed sentences, such as titles of books, enumera- 
tions, addresses, advertisements, proverbs, antithetical expres- 
sions, etc., and usually after ni . • ni, sans . . . ni, soit . . . soit, 
tant . que, jamais : 

CuuHCH (1«; III [MTtc! dc Rome. 
I*ortrait <U) Nui>oluon III. 
SoldiitH, oflicicrH, citoyons, tous 

\Wax\xU'., tiihint, cHprit, tout 8*U8o 

k hi loiiguo. 
II loj^jj r\ui Richrliou. 
.MaiMiri li vcridn*. 
(.'hii|M'uiix jKiiir liommcH. 
(>>rj»M "'t firnn ; iiuit et j«mr. 
K<<it iMMir, w)it prudoncu, il dvita 


Causes of the fall of Rome. 

(A) portrait of Napoleon III. 

Soldiers, officers, citizens, all has- 
tened up. 

Beauty, talent, wit, ovcrylhiiig 
wears out in the long run. 

Ho livoH in Richelieu street. 

(A) house for sale. 

Mimi'm lialM. 

IJcxly and houI ; night and day. 

Wht'thtir from fear or [nudeiico, he 
avoided the combat. 




II ii'a ni p^re ni m6ro. 
Sans amis ni argent. 
Tant homraes que femmes. 
Jamais pere n'a tant ainie. 

He has neither father nor mother. 

Without friends or money. 

As well men as women. 

Never did a father love so much. 

331. Unclassified Examples. The following examples 

show idiomatic distinctions in the use of the article which 
cannot conveniently be brought under general rules : 

Vous etes le bienvenu. 

Demander (faire) I'aumdne. 

Avoir le temps. 

Aller k I'^cole (I'eglise). 

Commander le respect. 

Le feu s'est d4clar4 

Faire la guerre. 

Jeter (lever) I'ancre. 

Garder le silence. 

Mettre le feu h. 

Sur (vers) les trois heures. 

Au revoir ! 

L'ann^e derni^re (prochaine). 

La semaine (I'annee) pass^e. 

Le vendredi saint. 

Le mercredi des cendres. 

Le printemps, I'^t^, etc. 

Au printemps, en ^t6, etc. 

La (sc. fete de) Saint-Michel. 

La («c. f^te de) mi-juin. 

La moiti^ de I'annee. 

Les deux tiers du temps. 

Tous (les) deux ; tons (les) trois. 

Tous les mois. 

Le ministre de la guerre. 

Le meilleur des amis. 

II cria k I'assassin. 

Je I'ai dit au hasard. 

Prendre le deuil de quelqu'un. 

Sentir la fumee. 

Je vous souhaite la bonne annee. 

II n'a pas le sou. 

You are welcome. 

Ask (give) alms. 

To have time. 

To go to school (church). 

Command respect. 

Fire broke out. 

Make war. 

Cast (weigh) anchor. 

Keep silence. 

To set fire to. 

Towards three o'clock. 

Good-bye ! 

Last (next) year. 

Last week (year). 

Good Friday. 

Ash Wednesday. 

Spring, summer, etc. 

In spring, in summer, etc. 



(The) half (of) the year. 

Two-thirds of the time. 

Both ; all three. 

Every month. 

The minister of war. 

The best of friends. 

He cried murder. 

I said it at random. 

Go into mourning for somebody. 

Smell of smoke. 

I wish you a happy new year. 

He is wretchedly poor. 

244 THE ARTICLE. [§332 

II est plus grand que vous tie la He is taller than you by a head. 


Un homme h la barbe noire. A man with a black beard. 

La belle question ! What a (fine) question ! 

A la (.sc. mode) fran9aise. In the French style. 

S'en aller a I'anglaise. • To take French leave. 

A la {sc. mode de) Henri IV. In the style of Henry IV. 

Cent (mille) ans. A hundred (a thousand) years. 

Les amis, oil allez-vous ? (My) friends, where are you going ? 


332. Names of Persons. 1. Names of persons usually 
take no article, as in English : 
Comeille ; George Fox. Corneille ; George Fox. 

a. The definite article is a constituent part of some surnames : 
Les romans de Lesage. The novels of Lesage. 

Les fables de La Fontaine. The fables of La Fontaine. 

2. The definite article is used according to Italian analogy 
in the French form of a few famous Italian surnames; so also, 
in a very few names which are not Italian : 

Le Corr6ge ; le po6me du Tasse. Correggio ; the poem of Tasso. 
Le Poussin ; le Camoens. Poussin ; Camoens. 

3. The article is used when the name has a distinctive 
adjunct, when it is plural, or when used as a common noun : 
Ixj Christ. Christ ( = the ' Anointed '). 

Lu Satan de Milton ; le grand Milton's Satan ; the Great Cond^. 

LcH Corneille et Ioh Racine. A Corneille, a Racine ( = Corneillo, 

Racine and others like them). 
CiiHt un Alexandre. He is an Alexander. 

(y'*uMt (lu Cio^ron tout pur. It is pure Ciceronian. 

J'ai lu lo T^I^maque. I have read T(^l(iiuaquo. 

4. Familiarly, often in a depreciatory sense, the definite 
article ii not uncommon, especially with names of females : 
Sam attondre la Barbette. Without waiting for Barbara. 

Le Duval mo Ta dit. Duval told me so. 


333. Names of Countries. 1. Names of continents, 
countries, provinces, large islands, regularly take the definite 
article, always so when standing as subject or object of a verb: 

L'Asie est un grand continent. Asia is a large continent. 

Nous aimons le Canada. We love Canada. 

La Normandie ; I'Angleterre. Normandy ;* England, 

a. A few countries named after cities have no article : 
Naples ; Parme ; Bade. Naples ; Parma ; Baden. 

NOTRS.— 1. Names of less important islands are treated like names of cities, or are pre- 
ceded by rile de, or, if plural, les lies : ' II va k (I'ile de) Corfu ' ; ' il est aux Azores 
aux lies Lipari.' 

2. ' Terre-Neuve,' ' Newfoundland,' is used without the article in all constructions: 
' Terre-Neuve est une grande He.' 

2. Before names of continents, European countries singular, 
and feminine countries singular outside of Europe, en denotes 
* where,* ' where to,' and the article is omitted ; so also, after 
de denoting * point of departure from ' and after de in most 
adjectival phrases : 

II est en (va en) Europe. He is in (is going to) Europe. 

II voyage en France (Portugal). He travels in France (Portugal). 

II vient d'Espagne (Danemark), He comes from Spain (Denmark). 

Le roi de Portugal (Espagne). The King of Portugal (Spain). 

Le fer de SuMe ; les vins de France. Swedish iron ; French wines. 

a. Exceptions are very rare, e.g., 'au Maine,' *Le due du Maine,' etc. 

Note.— In an adjectival phrase, de denoting titular distinction, origin, description, 
or mere apposition usually omits the article, e.g.. Me pays de France,' 'Le Royaume 
Uni de Grande-Bretagne et d'lrlande.' 

3. But the definite article is not omitted, in answer to 
' where V ' where to ?', or after de as above, when the name is 
plural, or has a distinctive adjunct, or denotes a masculine 
country outside of Europe : 

II est aux Indes. He is in India. 

II va aux Etats-Unis. He goes to the United States. 

Aux Pays-Bas, In (to) the Netherlands. 

L'imp«^ratrice des Indes. The Empress of India. 

Venir des Indes (de I'lnde). To come from India. 

Dans la France m^ridionale. In Southern France. 

246 THE ARTICLE. [§§334-33& 

Dans TAm^rique du Nord. In North America. 

La reine de la Grande-Bretagne. The Queen of Great Britain. 

H revient de I'Afrique australe. He returns from South Africa. 

Au Canada (Japon). In (to) Canada (Japan). 

Le Dominion du Canada. ) mt. t>w • • e m j 

_. _, . 1 /-, J f The Dominion of Canada. 

La. Fuissance du Canada. ) 

Chasse de la Chine. * Expelled from China. 

Le consul du P^rou. The consul of Peru. 

Le fer du Canada. Canadian iron. 

Obt.: When the definite article is used, 'where,' 'where to,' =^ (general) or dans 

a. In a few names like * Asia Mineure,' * basse Bretagne,' the adjec- 
tive is no longer felt to be distinctive : 
En Asie mineure. In Asia Minor. 

4. Omission of the article in the predicate, in enumerations, 
titles, etc., sometimes occurs (cf. §330, 5) : 

La Gaule est devenue France. Gaul became France. 

Espagne, Italie, Belgique, tout Spain, Italy, Belgium, all would 
edt pris feu. have caught fire. 

334. Names of Cities. Names of cities and towns usu- 
ally have no article, unless used with a distinctive adjunct : 

Londres, Paris, Quebec. London, Paris, Quebec. 

A Toronto (Montreal). To or in Toronto (Montreal). 

But : La Rome de ce si^le. (The) Rome of tliis century. 

La Nou voile- Orleans. New Orleans. 

a. The definite article is an essential part of several names of cities : 
Le Caire ; le Havre ; la Havane. Cairo ; Havre ; Havana. 

335. Names of Mountains and Rivers. Names of 
inounUtinH always, and names of rivers regularly, have the 
(leBnite article : 

Lcii Aliwii ; le Nil ; le mont Blanc. The Alps ; the Nile ; Mt. Blanc. 

a. For rivont, the usage after en, de, ih paralh^l with that doscribcd 
inia.').'). 2: 

Di! r«*iiu d«i Koiiin. S^liio water. 

Uii alxirtliigc a uu lieu en Seine. A oolliHion occurred on the Seine. 




facile, easy. 


jeune, young. 


sincere, sincere. 


cel^bre, celebrated. 






336. General Rule. The feminine of an adjective is 
regularly formed by adding -e to the masculine singular, but 
adjectives ending in -e remain unchanged : 

M. F. 

grand*, grande, tall. 

joli, jolie, pretty. 

ruse, rus^e, cunning. 

bless^, bless^e, wounded. 

mort, morte, dead. 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination (but see § 306, 2) : 
M. F. M. F. 

marquis, marquis, marquise. artiste, artist, artiste, 

ami, friend, amie. camarade, comrade, camarade. 

cousin, cousin, cousine. concierge, porter, concierge, 

lapin, rabbit, lapine. malade, patient, malade. 

b. Adjectives in -g^ are regular, but require the diaeresis to indicate 
that u is sounded, e.g., aigUy sharp, aigufe. 

c. The circumflex in du (f. due) distinguishes it from du= *of the,' 
and disappears in the fem. (§214) ; observe also mu (f. mue, §219). 

d. Besides adjectives in -e, a very few others are invariable for the 
feminine, e.g., capot, in etre capot='have come to grief,' grognon, 
grumbling, rococo, rococo, sterling, sterling, and rarer ones. 

NOTB.— Here also properly belongs grand in grand'm^re, etc. In O. F. grand 

was masculine or feminine, but grammarians at a later date gave it the apostrophe to 
denote the supposed elision of e. 

337. Special Rules. 1. Irregularities consist chiefly of 
changes in the stem on adding the feminine sign -e ; thus, 
when -e is added : — 

(1) Final f=V, X = S, C = ch in some, and qu in others, 

M. F. M. F. 

actif, active, active. *blanc, white, blanche, 

bref, brief, br^ve. f public, public, publique. 

heureux, happy, heureuse. long, long, longfue. 

*So also: Vr^na, frank, tranche ; see, dry, sc'Che. 

t So also: Ammoniac (-C[Ue), ammoniac; caduc (-que), decrepit; franc (-que) 
Frankish; turc (-que), Turkish. 

248 THE ADJECTIVE. [§337 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination : 

M. F. M. F. M. F. 

veuf, widower, veuve. 6poux, spouse, Spouse. turc, Ttirk, turque. 

NOTB.— Here also belongs bailli, bailiff (O. F. baillif), baillive. 
6. The adjectives doux, douce, sweet, faux, fausse,/afee, roux, rousse, 
red (of hair, etc.), retain the [s] sound in the feminine, denoted by c and 
5S respectively ; grec, Greek, has feminine grecque ; prefix prefixed, is 

(2) Final -el, -eil, -ien, -on, and usually -s, -t, double the 
final consonant : 

M. F. 

^pais, thick, ^paisse. 

expr^s, express, expresse. 
prof^s, professed, professe. 
muet, dumb, muette. 

sot, foolish, sotte. 

etc. etc. 

But : ras, rase, flat ; gris, grise, grey ; mat, mate, dead, dull ; prSt, 
prete, ready ; d^vot, devote, devout ; bigot, bigote, bigoted ; cagot, 
cagote, hypocritical ; idiot, idiote, idiotic, and a few rarer ones. 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination, but see § 306 : 

M. F. M. F. M. F. 

mortel, mortal, mortelle. lion, lion, lionne. poulet, chicken, poulette. 

chien, dog, chienne. chat, eat, chatte. linot, lirmet, linotte. 

b. A very few adjectives and nouns of other endings follow this analogy: 

M. F. M. F. 

pftyMn. pfotant, paysanne. ((entil, nice, gentille. 

rouan. roan, rouaniie. nul, null, nulle. 

Note.— The doubling of the final consonant in -el, -ien, -et serves to 
denote the required [e] sound (§12, 1); a few adjectives in -et denote 
this [c] HountI by the grave accent without doubling, cf. (4) l)elow. 

(3) The following have two masoulino forms, one of which 
doubles 1 for the feminine, like the above : 



cruel, cruel. 


pareil, like. 


ancien, old, 


bon, good, 


has, low. 


gros, big. 




M. F. 



mou or mol, mft, moUo. 

foU or fol, TTUUl, 


nouveau or nouvol, new, nouvello. 


VJiMlY in' y\r'\\, oftf, vi<«ill»'. 

jumel) tvnttf 


()b$. : Th« -1 form It r* 

KUlarly iNi-«l nu\) 

,' lt««forf u vowel rir h intilf; vloux lulorr ii 


a. Analogous are a few nouns : 

M. F. M. P. 

cha,meaM, camel, chamelle. jouvence&u, young fellow, jouvencelle, etc. 

(4) Before final -r and -et of a few adjectives e becomes ^ 
(cf. §12, 1) ; so also in bref, br^ve, sec, s^che : 

M. F. M. F. 

cher, dear, chere. * complet, complete, complete, 

leger, light, l^gere. etc. etc. 
a. Similarly, nouns in -er : 

M. F. M. P. 

berger, shepherd, berg^re. stranger, stranger, 6trangere, etc. 

h. The complete list of adjectives in -et with fem. in -^te is : 
(in)complet, (in)complete. (in)di8cret, (in)disereet. replet, over-stout. 

concret, concrete. inquiet, uneasy. secret, secret. 

Note. — The grave accent denotes the required [e] sound (§12, 1). 

(5) The following feminine stems show etymological ele- 
ments which have disappeared in the masculine : 

M. F. M. F. 

coi (L. quietus), quiet, coite. frais (L. L. frescus), cool, fraiche. 

b^nin (L. benignus), benign, b^nigne. tiers (L. tertius), third, tierce, 
favori (it. favorito), favourite, favorite. 

2. Adjectives in -eur form their feminine as follows : — 

(1) Majeur, mineur, meilleur and those in -drieur are 
regular : 

M. F. M. F. 

majeur, major, majeure. exterieur, exterior, ext^rieure. 

meilleur, better, raeilleure. superieur, superior, superieure. 

mineur, minor, mineure. etc. etc. 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination : 

M. F. M. F. M. F. 

mineur, minor, mineure. prieur, prior, prieure. inf^rieur, inferior, inf^rieure. 

(2) Those in -eur with a cognate present participle in -ant 
change -r to -s and add -e : 

M. F. M. F. 

causeur, talkative, causeuse. reveur, dreamy, reveuse. 

^ditte,\xv, flattering, flatteuse. trompeur, deceitful, trompeuse. 

menteur, lying, menteuse. etc. etc. 

250 THE ADJECTIVE. [§§338-339 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination, but see also § 306, \, a, 2, a: 

M. F. F. M. 

danseur, dancer, danseuse. buveur, drinker, buveuse. 

chanteur, singer, chanteuse. vendeur, seller, vendeuse. 

HiMewe, flatterer, flatteuse. etc. etc. 

(3) Those in -teur, with no cognate present participle in 
-ant, have the feminine in -trice : 

M. F. M. F. 

cr^ateor, creative, cr(5atrice. acousateUT, accuaing, acciisatrice. 

ditect&ui, directive, directrice. etc. etc. 

a. Similarly, nouns of like termination, but see § 306, I, a, 2, o : 
M, F. M. ¥. 

•ocusateur, accuser, acciisatrice. cr^ateur, creator, cr^atrice. 
•cteor, actor, actrice. etc. etc. 


338. General Rule. Most masculine adjectives and all 
feminines form their plural by adding s to the singular 
(cf. §307): 

grand(s), grande(s). jeune(s), jeune(s). bas, basse(s). 

joli(s), jolie(s). aigu{s), aigue(s). doux, douce(s). 

rufl^(s), ru.sdu(s). complet(s), corapl6te(s). etc. etc. 

339. Spec.'al Rules. The following rules are parallel 
with those for the irregular plural of nouns (cf. § 308) : 

1. Masculine adjectives in -s, -X (none in -z) remain 
unchanged * 

8. P. 8. P. S. P. 

bM, bas. grit, grit. faux, faux. 

4ptit, ^pait. Boumit, soumit. viiux, vionx. 

fnit, frait. doux, doux. heureux, huuruux. 
etc. oto. oto. 

2. Masculine adjectiveH in -eau, and one in -eu take x ; 

a P. 8. P. 

beau, beaux. juroeau, jumuaux. 

nouvoau, nouvoaux. lu'brou, htibreux. 
But : blou, bletit i feu, fout. 




-al regularly have the plural in 












, principaux. 








^ speciaux. 









3. Masculine adjectives in 
s. P. 

amical, amicaux. 

brutal, brutaux. 

capital, capitaux. 

cardinal, cardinaux. local, 

^gal, ^gaux. 

fiscal, ' fiscaux. 

a. Fatal makes * fatals ;' Littre gives also final(s). 

b. According to the Dictionnaire de VAcad^mie the following have no 
masculine plural : 

*automnal. frugal. *jovial. naval. fpascal. 

*colo88al. glacial. natal. *partial. 

* Littr6 gives a plural in -aux. 

t Littr6 admits a plural in -aux, and quotes authority for a plural in -a. 

Notes.— 1. There are upwards of a hundred and fifty adjectives in -aL The Diction- 
naire de V Academic is silent regarding the masculine plural of some sixty of these, to 
nearly fifty of which, however, Littr6 gives a plural in -auX. The following have not 
been pronounced upon by either authority : Brumal, d^loyal, diagonal, instrumental, 
labial, medicinal, mental, monacal, paradoxal, quadragesimal, total, virginal. 

2. Regular plurals in -als were formerly much commoner, and usage is still unsettled 
for some words. When the plural is wanting or doubtful it is often avoided, e.g., ' Un 
repas frugal; des repas simples.' Plurals commonly so avoided are: Fatal, final, 
frugal, glacial, initial, matinaJ, natal, naval, theatral. 


340. General Rule. An adjective, whether attributive 
or predicative, regularly agrees in gender and number with its 
substantive : 

Cold seasons are healthful. 
They are pleased. 
They said they were ill. 
I believe them sincere. 

a. When the substantive has a de clause, the agreement is parallel 
with that explained for subject and verb (cf. §232, 2). 

b. The agreement with vous is according to the sense : 
Madame, vous ^tes bien bonne. Madam, you are very kind. 

Les saisous froides sont saines. 
EUes sont contentes. 
lis se disaient malades. 
Je les crois sinc^res. 

252 THE ADJECTIVE. [§§341-343 

341. Manifold Substantive. 1. One adjective qualify- 
ing two or more substantives is made plural, and agrees in 
gender with both, if of the same gender ; if of different 
gender, the adjective is masculine. 

De la viande et des pommes de Cold meat and potatoes. 

terre froides. 
Sa soeur et lui feont contents. His sister and he are pleased. 

a. When substantives are joined by ou, ni. . .ni, or are synonymous, 
or form a climax, etc., the principles stated for agreement of subject 
and verb apply (of. § 233). 

h. When nouns differ in gender, the masculine one is usually placed 
nearest the adjective, especially when the feminine form is distinct from 
the masculine. 
La mer et le ciel bleus. The blue sea and sky. 

2. When the noun is followed by a preposition + a noun, the 
agreement is, of course, according to the meaning : 

Une table do bois dur. A table of hard wood. 

Uno table do bois carr^e. A square wooden table. 

342. Manifold Adjective. When two or more adjectives, 
denoting different objects singular, refer to one noun, the noun 
is made plural, and the adjectives follow it in the singular, or 
the noun is made singular, and the article repeated with each 

Lea nations greoque et romaine. The Greek and Roman nations. 
La nation greoque et la romuino. The Greek nation and the Roman. 
Or : La nation greoque et la nation romaine. 

a. The agreement for a preceding ordinal is parallel to this : 
Let tixitaie et aepti^me rangn. The Hixth and Hcvonth ranks. 

Le dxitoie rang et le Mptit^nu). The Hixth nink and the Heventh. 
Le eixiAine et le •epti^roo rang. The sixth and the seventh rank. 

343. Special Cases, l. Adjectives used as adverbs are 
regularly invariable : 

Cctt45 romj Hinit doux. That rose Rmolls sweet. 

Lou livruN cf>(\Um\> cher icL Books cost dear here. 


a. Possible, replacing a clause, and fort, in se faire fort — ' to pledge 
one's self,' are considered as adverbs : 

J'ai fait le moins de fautes pos- I have made as few mistakes as pos- 
sible, sible. 
EUe se fait fort de le payer. She pledges herself to pay it. 

2. Compound adjectives, with or without hyphen, are 
treated as follows : 

(1) Both components are variable when co-ordinate, except 
first components in -o ', 

Des sourd(e)s-rauet(te)s. Deaf-mutes. 

Des oranges aigres-douces. Sourish oranges. 

But : Les lettres greco-romaines. Graeco- Roman literature. 

(2) A subordinate component is usually invariable, being 
regarded as adverbial, but the principle is not fully carried 

Des mots grecs-raoderne. Modem Greek words. 

Des enfants court-vetus. Short-coated children. 

Une dame haut plac^e. A lady of high rank. 

Des enfants nouveau-n^s. New-born infants. 

a. But the subordinated component is variable in frais cueilli = 
'freshly gathered,' in ivre mort='dead drunk,' in g^rand ouvert = 
'wide open,' and in premier, dernier, nouveau + a past participle 
(except nouveau-ne, see above) : 

Des fleurs fraiches cueillies. Freshly gathered flowers. 

La porte est grande ouverte. The door is wide open. 

Les nouveaux mari^s. The bridegroom and bride. 

3. Nouns serving as adjectives of colour are regularly 
invariable : 

Des robes lilas (citron). Purple (lemon-coloured) dresses. 

a. Rose, cramoisi, pourpre, are exceptions, and vary : 
Des robes roses (cramoisies). Pink (crimson) dresses. 

h. Modified adjectives of colour are also usually invariable, the 
modifier being also invariable by rule, 2 (2), above : 
Des cheveux blond ardent. Reddish blond hair. 

NoTB.— These constructions are explained by supplying the ellipeis : ' Des robes 
(couleur de) lilas' ; • Des cheveux (couleur de) blond ardent.' 

254 THE ADJECTIVE. [§344 

4. A few adjectives are variable or invariable according to 
position or context : 

a. Demi= * half,' nu = * naked,' plein= ' full of,' are invariable before 
and variable after the noun ; so also, excepte and others (§289, a, h) ; 
franc de port =* post-paid' (also 'franco,' adverb) is invariable before, 
and usually variable after : 

Une demi-heure ; une heure et Half an hour ; an hour and a half. 

H a de I'or plein ses poches. He has his pockets full of gold. 

H est nu-tete ; il a les bras nus. He is bareheaded ; his arms are bare. 
1\ a les yeux pleins de larraes. His eyes are full of tears. 

Recevoir franc de port une lettre. To receive a letter post-paid. 
Dee lettres franches de port. Post-paid letters. 

Oba. : demi, nu, when preceding, form a compound with hjrphen. 

6. Feu='late,' 'deceased,' is invariable when preceding the definite 
article, or determinative, and variable after it : 
Feu la reine (la feue reine). The late queen. 

c. After avoir I'air =* have an air (appearance)' the adjective agrees 
with air ; but it agrees with the subject of the verb when the expression 
means ' seem,' ' appear ' : 

Cette dame a I'air hautain. That lady has a haughty air. 

Ellle a I'air malheureuse. She seems unhappy. 

Cette Boupe a I'air bonne. This soup seems good. 

6. A very few a^ljectives are always invariable : 

Nous avons ^t^ uipot. We had come to grief. 

Vingt livres sterling. Twenty pounds sterling. 

344. Nouns as Adjectives. By a sort of apposition, 
nouDA are frequently UH(;(i as adjectives ; when so used, they 
UMually agree like adjectives : 

Uno mattrosse ohominuu. A main chimney. 

Dm philoMphet poitet. Poot philoHophers. 

But :*La race n^gre, eta 

a. Tteioill«'witiieM,' at the head of a phrano, is adverbial and 
invariable : 

J'ai bien combattu, t^moin les I have fought well, witness the 
bleeeuree que j'ai re^uee. wounds I received. 

6. For nonnf ae adjeotivee of colour, see § 848, 8. 

§§345-.S46] COMPARISON of adjectives. 255 


345. The Comparative. It is regularly denoted by 
placing plus = ' more,' moins = ' less,' for inequality, and 
aussi = ' as,' for equality, before each adjective compared ; 
' than 'or ' as ' = que I 

II est plus grand que Jean. He is taller than John. 

II est moins grand que Jean. He is less tall than (not so tall as) 


II est aussi grand que Jean. He is as tall as John. 

II est plus diligent et plus attentif He is more diligent and (more) 

que Jean. attentive than John. 

II est plus faible que malade. He is more weak than ill. 

a. Aussi, used negatively, may be replaced by si : 

II n'est pas aussi(si) grand que J. He is not so tall as John. 

b. When aussi or si is omitted, comme {not que) is used : 
Un roi riche comme Cr^sus. A king as rich as Crcesus. 

c. After plus, moins, affirmatively, * than ' = que., .ne when coming 
before a finite verb : 

II est plus grand qu'il ne (le) parait. He is taller than he seems. 

d. * More and more {or -er and -er) ' = de plus en plus ; ' less and less 
{or -er and -er)' = de moins en moins; 'the more ..the more ' = plus 
. . . (et) plus ; ' the less . . . the less ' = moins . . . (et) moins ; ' the more . . . ' 
= d'autant plus . . . : 

L'air devint de plus en plus froid. The air became colder and colder. 

II devint de moins en moins actif. He became less and less active. 

Plus il devient riche (et) moins il The richer he becomes the less 

est g^n^reux. generous is he. 

II en sera d'autant plus riche. He will be the richer for it. 

346. Irregular Comparison. The adjectives bon, mau- 

vais, petit, have a special comparative form : 





bon, good, 


or bon, 

plus bon (rare). 

mauvais, bad, 


or mauvais, 

plus mauvais. 

petit, smally 


or petit, 

plus petit 


256 THE ADJECTIVE. [§§347-348 

a. Bon is hardly ever compared regularly : 

A bon march^, a meilleur march^. Cheap, cheaper. 

Cela sent bon (meilleur). That smells good (better). 

But : Ce n'est ni plus bon ni plus mauvais. 

Notes.— 1. In expressions like 'Ce vin est plus ou moins bon,' bon is not really 
comparative. 2. Some grammarians admit plus bon = ' more good-natured.' 

b. Pire is, in general, stronger than plus mauvais, and may serve 
also as a comparative to mechant= ' bad,' ' evil,' ' wicked ' : 

Get homme est m^chant (pire). That man is bad (worse). 

c. In general, moindre='less,' 'lesser,' 'less (in importance)' and 
plus petit = ' smaller,' ' less (in size)' : 

Votre douleur en sera moindre. Your sorrow will hence be less. 
Una plus petite pomme. A smaller apple. 

347. The Superlative Relative. 1. It is denoted by 

placing the definite article (variable) or a possessive adjective 
(variable) before the comparative of inequality : 

EUe est la moins aimable. She is the least amiable. 

Mas meilleurs amis. My best friends. 

La moindre difficulte. The slightest difficulty. 

o. When the superlative follows the noun, the definite article is not 
omitted : 
C*e«t I'anfant le plus diligent et le Ho is the most diligent and attcn- 

plu« attontif de tous. tivo boy of all. 

Mm amis les plus fiddles. My most faithful friends. 

^ 2. After a superlative, *in' = de (not ^, dans, etc.); 
* among ' = etitre or d'entre : 

L'homme la pluH richa de la villu. The richest man in the city. 
Lo maillaur <^crivain du Cantula. The l>uHt wtitcr in Canada. 
^ Lo plufl bravo (d')entre las ( iracs. The bravest among the Greeks. 

348. The Superlative Absolute. Tt is expressed by le 

(invariable) 4- plus *>y moins In-fon; tli(» ji(lj<'('tiv(», or else by 
an adverb, such us tr^s, bien, fort, extr^mement, etc., or 
tome other modifying expresuion : 

EUe Mt le pliM beureuBo (moinH She \» happiest (least happy) when 
hewreoie) quand elle est ftaula. she iH alona. 




You are very (most) kind. 
It is most beautiful. 
One of the bravest. 
A most worthy man. 
A most worthy woman. 
Most savage tribes. 

Vous etes tr^s aimable. 

C'est tout ce qu'il y a de plus beau. 

Un brave des braves. 

Un homme des plus dignes. 

Une dame on ne peut plus digne. 

Des tribus sauvages au possible. 

a. Occasionally it is denoted in familiar style by repetition of the 
adjective, or by -issime : 

Get homme est ruse, ruse. That man is very, very cunning. 

II est richissime. He is very wealthy. 

349. Remarks. 1. Comparative and superlative are un- 
distinguishable in constructions requiring in English a definite 
article before the comparative : 
Le plus fort de mes deux freres. The stronger of my two brothers. 

2. De denotes 'by how much' after a comparative or 
superlative : 

Older by three years. 
He is the tallest by far. 
He is much taller. 

Plus ag^ de trois ans. 

II est le plus grand de beaucoup. 

But : II est beaucoup plus grand. 

3. Observe the following : 

Les basses classes. 
J'ai fait mon possible. 

The lower classes. 
I did my utmost. 


350. Predicative Adjectives. They are placed, in general, 

as in English : 

Elles sont contentes. 
Elle parut fatiguee. 
Brave, savant, vertueux, il se fit 
aimer de tous. 

They are pleased. 
She seemed tired. 

Brave, learned, virtuous, he made 
himself beloved by all. 

a. Observe the position after assez, after plus . . . plus, moins . . . 
moins, and in exclamations with combien !, comme !, que !, tant !, as 
compared with the order of words in English : 


258 THE ADJECTIVE. [§§351-352 

II est assez sot pour le croire. He is silly enough to believe it. 

Plus il devnnt riche moins il fut The richer he became the less 

genereux. generous was he. 

Que voua etes aimable ! How kind you are ! 

351. Attributive Adjectives. When used literally, to 
define, distinguish, specify, emphasize, etc., they usually 
follow ; but when used figuratively, or as a merely ornamental 
epithet, or denoting a quality viewed as essential to the 
object, or when forming, as it were, one idea with the noun, 
they usually precede : 

Une rue ^troite ; une ^troite a- A narrow street ; an intimate 

miti^. friendship. 

Un roi savant ; le savant auteur. A learned king ; the learned author. 

Le fanieux Pitt ; un rus6 coquin. The famous Pitt ; a cunning rogue. 

a. The following, of very common use, generally precede : 
beaiL grand. Joli. tneilleur. pire. vilain. 

boa. gros. long. nioindre. sot. 

court. jeune. uiauvais. petit. vieux. 

352. Special Rules for Attributives. 1. Certain ad- 
jectives serve regularly to define, distinguish, etc., and hence 
regularly follow ; such are : — 

(1) Adjectives of physical quality : 

Une table carrde • une pierre dure ; A square table ; a hard stone ; cold 
de I'eau froide (chaude) ; de (hot) water ; black ink ; a piquant 
I'encre noire ; une sauce piquante. sauce. 

a. By the general rule (§351) they sometimes precede : 
De noirs chugriuH ; une verto Dark sorrows ; a green old age ; 
vieilleiwe ; le bleu ciel d'ltalie. the blue sky of Italy. 

(2) Adjectives of nationality, religion, profession, title, and 
those from proper names : 

La lol anglaUra ; un prdtre catho- The English law ; a Catholic priest ; 
Hqne ; une tplendenr royale ; royal splendour ; Ciceronian 
le latin oio^ronien. I^itin. 

(3) Participles used as adjectives : 

Une ^toile filanto ; un hommo in- A Hhooting star ; an educated man; 
•tmit ; one portc ouverte. an open door. 


a. By the general rule (§351) they sometimes precede : 
Une ^clatante victoire. A signal victory. 

h. Past participial forms which have become real adjectives, e.g., 
pretendu, absolu, parfait, dissolu, feint, ruse, etc., very often precede 
(pretendu nearly always) : 

Une feinte modestie. Feigned modesty. 

Le pretendu comte. The would-be count. 

2. Adjectives sometimes follow the noun on account of 
their adjuncts or their function ; thus : — 

(1) When modified by an adverb, other than aussi, si, 

tr^s, bien, fort, plus, moins, assez : 

Un discours extremement long. An extremely long speech. 
But : Un tr6s long discours. A very long speech. 

(2) When modified by an adverbial phrase, or in com- 
parisons : 

Une contr^e riche en vins. A district rich in wines. 

Un guerrier brave comme un lion. A warrior as brave as a lion. 

(3) Nouns used appositively as adjectives : 
Une puissance amie. A friendly power. 

3. Two or more adjectives, with one noun, follow, in general, 
the rules stated, but, if joined by a conjunction, they all follow, 
in case one is such as must follow : 

Une jolie petite fille. A pretty little girl. 

Une belle maison blanche. A beautiful white house. 

Un object blanc et etincelant. A white and dazzling object. 

Une dame belle et savante. A beautiful and learned lady. 

n. The more specific of two or more adjectives which follow comes 
last, contrary to English usage : 
Des ^crivains fran9ais habiles. Clever French writers. 

4. A considerable number of adjectives differ more or less 
widely in meaning, according as they precede or follow : 

Mon cher enfant ; une robe chere. My dear child ; a costly dress. 
Une f ranche coquette ; une f emme A thorough coquette ; a plain- 
franche. spoken woman. 
































Such adjectives are : 

parfait. sage, 

pauvre. seul. 

petit. simple, 

plaisant. triste. 

premier. veritable, 

propre. vi-ai, etc. 

Note. — Distinctions of this kind depend, in the main, upon the general principles 
laid down above, but they are too numerous and too subtle to be given in detail here 
Observation, and the use of a good dictionary will, in time, make the learner familiar 
with the most important of them. 

353. Determinatives. Such adjectives, including numer- 
als, possessives, demonstratives, indefinites, precede : 

Trois plumes ; mes plumes. Three pens ; ray pens. 

Ces plumes-ci ; d'autres plumes. These pens ; other pens. 


354. An adjective is often followed by a complement con- 
nected with it by a preposition, such as a, de, en, envers, 
etc. The preposition to be used is determined by the mean- 
ing of the adjective, as explained in the following sections. 

355. Adjective + a. The preposition ^ = *to,' *at,' *for,' 
etc., is recjuired after most adjectives denoting tendency, 
fitness, and their opposites, comparison, etc. 

Get hommo est adunnt^ k la l)oi88on. That man is addicted to drink. 

n est favorable k mcH projets. 
II eitt hien habile aux afFaires. 
Un homme HUfi^riuur k Umn. 
Co ii'est Imhi k Hen. 

He is favorable to my projects. 
He is very clever in business. 
A man superior to all. 
That is good for nothing. 

8uch adjectives arc : 

•oooutumA, aeeuMtomed(to). 
minA%, ettvtr (at). 
•frtebU, pUasant (to). 
uaiMtnr, anUrior (to), 
MdsDt, aniMU (in). 
\»oa, good, Mi/Of). 

i;hi'r, dfar {tu). 
convftuihlo, Huitable (to). 
djfal, eifual (to). 
ttxact, rxact (in). 
fort, el4ver (at). 

hardi, IwU (in). 
inipropro, inijit (for). 
inforleur, iiij'friiir (to), 
inflilMo, nii/ait/iful(to). 
inutile, iitieleHH (to). 
lent, itow (in). 



nuisible, hurtful (to). pr6t, ready (to). semblable, similar (to). 

oppos6, opposed (to). prompt, prompt (in). utile, useful (to). 

pareil, similar (to). propice, propitiotis (to). etc. 

port6, inclined (to). propre, fit (for). 

a. Bon pour =' good for,' 'beneficial to,' 'kind to.' 

356. Adjective + 0^6. The preposition de = 'of,' *from/ 
' with,' etc., is required after most adjectives denoting source 
or origin (hence also, feeling, sentiment, abundance), separ- 
ation (hence also, absence, distance, want, etc.), and after 
most past participles to denote the agent (cf. §240) : 

£tes-vous natif de Paris ? 

lis sont contents de mon succ^s. 

EUe est pleine de vanity. 

Je suis libre de douleur. 

II est inconnu de tous. 

Are you a native of Paris ? 
They are pleased at my success. 
She is full of vanity. 
I am free from pain. 
He is unknown to all. 

Such adjectives are 
absent, absent (from). 
afflig6, grieved (at). 
aise, glad (of ). 
alarms, alarmed (at). 
ambitieux, ambitious (of), 
avide, greedy (of ). 
b^ni, blessed (by). 
capable, capable (of). 
charm6, delighted (ivith). 
chdri, beloved (by). 
confus, confused (at). 
contrari6, veaxd (with). 
d6nu6, destitute (of). 
d6pourvu, devoid (of). 
ddsireux, desirous (of). 
different, different (from). 

61oign6, dista7it (from). 
enchants, delighted (with). 
ennuy^, weary (of). 
6tonn6, astonished (at). 
exempt, free (from). 
fach^, sorry (for). 
fier, proud (of). 
glorieux, proud (of). 
h6riss6, bristling (with). 
heureux, glad (of). 
honteux, ashamed (of). 
ignorant, ignorant (of). 
indigne, unworthy (of). 
inquiet, uneasy (about). 
ivre, intoxicated (ivith). 
jaloux, jealous (of). 
libre, free (from). 

lourd, heavy (with). 
malheureux, unhappy (at). 
offensd, offended (at). 
pauvre, poor (in). 
plein, ftUl (of) 
ravi, delighted (with). 
satisfait, satisfied (with). 
soucieux, anxious (about). 
souill6, soiled (with). 
8<ir, sure (of). 
surpris, surprised (at ). 
triste, sad (at). 
vain, vain (of). 
vex6, vexed (at). 
victorieux, victorious (over). 
vide, empty (of). 

digne, worthy (of). 

a. Fache contre= ' angry at or with (a person).' 

357. Adjective + e/7. En is required after a few adjec 
tives denoting abundance, skill, etc. : 
Le Canada est fertile en ble. Canada is fertile in wheat. 

II est expert en chirurgie. He is expert in surgery. 

Such adjectives are : 
abondant, abounding (in). fort, strong (in), learned (in). riche, rich (in). 

f6cond, fruitful (in). ignorant, ignorant (in). savant, learned (inX 




a. fort and ig-norant sometimes have sur : 

H est fort sur I'histoire. He is well versed (good) in history. 

Ignorant sur ces mati^res-l^. Ignorant about those matters. 

358. Adjective + eA7L'e/'s. Envers is used after most 
adjectives denoting disposition or feeling towards : 
II est liberal envers tons. He is liberal towards all. 

Such adjectives are : 
affable, affable. honndte, polite. 

bon, kind. 

charitable, charitable. 
civil, civil. 
cruel, cruel. 
dur, hard, har$h. 
g6n6reux, generous. 
e^roesier, rude. 

indulgent, indulgent. 
ingrat, ungrateful. 
insolent, insolent. 
juste, just. 
m^chant, malicious. 
misdricordieux, merciful. 
offlcieux, obliging. 

poll, polite. 
prodigue, lavish. 
reconnaissant, grat.eful. 
respectueux, respectful. 
responsable, responsible. 
rigoureux, stern. 
s6v6re, severe, stem. 

a. Bon, dur, very frequently take pour ; indulgent may take pour 
or k ; civil, s^vfere, may take k regard de : 

n est bon (dur) pour moi. He is kind (harsh) to me. 

Indulgent pour (k) ses enfants. Indulgent to his children. 

Civil (8^v6re) k I'egard de ses Civil (harsh) to his servants. 




Personal Pronouns. 

1. Conjunctive form.s 




ttt. thfni. 
te. (to) thoo, 
t«, thM. 
▼GUI. you. 

D. B<mt.(tA)tu. vo»U.(U))you. leur.(t<))them. 
TOOS, you. !••, them. 

,^. IIOtU.w0. 

Sro PRR.(m.)- 

II, he, it. 
Ita, (to) htm. 
le. him, it. 

III. they. 

.IRI) Pkr. (f.). 3rd RRK.(m.f.). 

elle, Hhp, it. 

lUl, (to) her. 86, (to)-iolf. 

la. her, it. 80, -Mulf 
ellOB, they. 

leur. (to)thnm. Be,(to)-HeIvt'a 

lea. thcu). 86, -flulvea. 

§§360-361] THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 263 

2. Disjunctive forms : 

1st Per. 2nd Per. 3rd Per. (m.). 3rd Per. (f.). 3rd Ref. (m.f.> 

mol, I, me. tOi, thou, thee, lui, he, him. elle, she, her. sol, one's self, etc. 


3A. Vnous,we,us. V0U8, you. eux, they, them, elles, they, them. 

[N.= nominative; D. = dative; A.=accu9ative ; P. = object of a preposition.] 

Note. — A more scientific terminoloery would be 'unstressed' and ' stressed* instead 
of ' conjunctive ' and ' disjunctive,' as indicating the real distinction between the two 
sets of forms, e.g., ' Je (unstressed) parle ' ; ' Qui parle ?— Moi' (stressed). As a matter 
of fact, the unstressed forms usually stand in immediate connection with the verb (as 
subject or object), hence the term 'conjunctive,' while the stressed forms are usually 
employed otherwise, hence the term 'disjunctive.' The distinction of 'unstressed' 
and ' stressed ' is common to most other kinds of pronouns as well. 

360. Pronominal Adverbs. 

y=to (at, on, in, into, etc.) it or them ; there, thither. 
en = of (from, etc.) it or them ; some, any, some of it, some of them ; 
thence, from there. 

Note.— Y and en were originally adverbs (y from L. t&t=' there,' and en from L. 
tnde=' thence'), but they are now visually pronominal in function, and are used 
precisely like the conjunctive forms. 

361. Agreement. The personal pronoun regularly agrees 
with its antecedent in gender, number, and person : 

Nous les avons frappe(e)s. We have struck them. 

Elle lit la lettre ; elle la lit. She reads the letter ; she reads it. 

a. The first person plural for the first person singular is used by 
sovereigns and authorities, and by writers, as in English : 

Nous (le roi) avons ordonn^ et We (the king) have ordained and 

ordonnons ce qui suit. ordain as follows. 

Comme nous avons dit d6]k. As we have said already. 

b. Vous='you' (singular or plural) has a plural verb; its other 
agreements, as also those of nous above, are according to the sense : 
Nous (la reine) sommes contente. We (the queen) are satisfied. 
Madame, vous etes bien bonne. Madam, you are very kind. 

c. For imperative first plural instead of first singular, see §267, a. 

264 THE PRONOUN. [§362 

d. II and le are used as invariable neutral forms, when the antecedent 
is one to which gender cannot be ascribed : 
Y en a-t-il ? — Je le crois. Is there any (of it) ? I think so. 

362. Case Relations of Conjunctives. 1. The nomi- 
native forms stand as subject and the accusative forms as 
direct object to a verb ; their use is obvious : 
II nous a VMS. He saw us. 

a. The conjunctive may not be used when there are two accusatives : 
Je blame lui et elle. I blame him and her. 

2. The dative forms denote the person or thing for whose 
' advantage ' or * disadvantage ' the action is done, denoted by 
a = * to,' ' for/ * from,' with nouns : 

Je leur preterai les livres. I shall lend them the books. 

On lui a vol^ son argent. His money has been stolen from him. 

But «l + a disjunctive form is used in the following cases : 

(1) When two datives are joined by a conjunction, or when 
in emphasis a second dative is implied : 

Je parle k lui et k elle. I speak to him and to her. 

Je donne le livre k elle (pas k lui). I give the book to her (not to him). 

(2) When the conjunctive direct object is any other pronoun 

than le, la, les : 

Je votu pr^nte k elle. I introduce you to her. 

n M pr^nta k moi. He introduced himself to mo. 

But : Je le (la, les) leur pr^nte, etc. 

(3) After verbs of motion and some otliers, to denote the 
'ofcrject towards which tlie action tends,' the relation, though 
ezpretaed by 4, not being really dative : 

Je ooarui k lui. I ran to him. 

C«tto omiaoD est k rooL That house belongs to me. 

n peoM (tonge, rAve) k eux. He thinks (muses, dreams) of thorn. 

§§363-365] THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 265 

Such verbs are : 

accoutumer, accustom. comparer, compare. prendre inWrfit, take interest. 

aller, go. courir, run. pr6tendre, aspire. 

appeler, call. 6tre (^), belong (to). recourir, have recourse. 

en appeler, appeal. fa,\re&ttention,pay attention, renoncer, renounce. 

aspirer, aspire. habituer, acctistom. revenir, come back. 

attirer, attract. marcher, march. rfiver, dream. 

avoir affaire, have to do. penser, think. songer, muse. 

avoir recours, have recourse, prendre garde, pay heed. venir, come. 

a. Certain verbs of this class, when not literal, take the conjunctive 
dative : 

II lui vint une id^e. There occurred to him an idea. 

Vous nous reviendrez. You will come to see us again. 

Note.— The ethical dative, denoting the person 'interested in' or ' affected by' an 
action, rare in English, is common in French : ' Gout6z-mol ce vin-la,' ' Just taste 
that wine ' ; ' Ne me faites pas cela encore,' ' Don't do that again (I tell you).' 

363. Impersonal //. For invariable il as the subject of 
an impersonal verb, see §§248-253. 

364. Predicative /e, la, les. As predicate the accusative 
third person is either variable or invariable : — 

1. Le agrees when referring to a determinate noun or to 
an adjective used as such : 

fites-vous sa m6re ? — Je la suis. Are you his mother ? — I am. 
fites-vous la mariee ? — Je la suis. Are you the bride ? — I am. 
Sont-ce \k vos livres? — Ce lessont. Are those your books ? — They are. 

2. Le, invariable, is used when referring to an adjective, 
or to a noun as adjective : 

fites-vous fatiguee ? — Je le suis. Are you tired ? — I am. 
fites-vous m^re ? — Je le suis. Are you a mother ? — I am. 

Sont-ils Anglais ?— lis le sont. Are they English ? — They are. 

365. Pleonastic le. The neutral form le (§361, d) is 
often pleonastic, as compared with English usage : 

fites-vous m^re ?— Je le suis. Are you a mother ? — I am. 

Qu'ils soient venus, je le sais. That they have come, I know. 

Fais du bien, quand tu le peux. Do good, when you can. 

Ce qu'il voulait, il le veut encore. What he wished, he still wishes. 

266 THE PRONOUN. [§§366-367 

Je suis prete, s'il le faut. I am ready, if need be. 

J'irai si vous le desirez. I shall go, if you wish (it). 

lis sont comme je (le) d^sirerais. They are as I should like. 
II est plus age que je ne (le) suis. He is older than I am. 
Obs.: This le is optional in comparative clauses. * 

a. Le is also used in a number of fixed expressions : 

II ne le c^de h, personne. He yields to nobody. 

Nous I'avons emport^. We have carried the day. 

II I'a ^chapp4 belle. He had a narrow escape. 

b. Le may sometimes be translated by * one ' or * so ' : 

II est soldat ; je le suis aussi. He is a soldier ; I am one too. 

Sois brave, et je le serai aussi. Be brave, and I shall be so too. 

366. Reflexives. 1. A special conjunctive reflexive form, 
Se for dative or accusative of either gender or number, is 
required in the third person only; for the first and second 
person the ordinary forms are used (cf. §242) : 

II (elle) se loue. He (she) praises him (her) -self, 

lis (elles) se le sont dit. They said so to each other. 

But : Je me loue ; tu te loues ; nous nous louons ; vous vous louez. 

^ 2. The disjunctive soi is hardly used beyond the third 
I singular in an indefinite or general sense : 

Chacun travaille pour soi. Every one works for liimself. 

doit parler rarement de soi. One should rarely 8j)eak of one's self. 

|l)e soi le vice est (kHcux. In itself vice is hateful. 

I But : Elle est contcntc d'elle-mdme ; ils ne songent qu'ilt eux-m^mes, etc. 

a. The use of soi is rarer for the feminine than for the masculine : 
Un bienfait porte sa recompense A good deed brings its reward with 

avec toi (lui). it. 

La guerre entratne apr^s elle (soi) War brings after it countless evils. 

det maux sans norobre. 

MOTB.— Sol l» HO loii((fr \iitf(\ of pcraotiK donotwl by a pronoral noun, f.(}., ' I/avare 
n* vlt qu« |)our lol'inAine ' (not ' |>our «ol '), nor Ih it mud, on fonnorly, of personH to 
avoid Ambiguity, «.g., 'Quoique son fi^re toll daiiH lu nilti^rc, 11 ne pcnHu ({u'l'i lui- 
I (not • * Mot *). 

K ^^: 

367. Uses Ot en. l. En ih in function an equivalent 
of dc + a pronoun of th<! tliird person of either gender or 
number; it is used of things, and leus commonly of persons: 




Je parle des plumes ; j'en parle. 
Donnez-les-moi ; j'en ai besoin. 
II est mon ami ; j'en reponds. 
II aime ses fils, et il en est aime. 

I speak of the pens ; I speak of them. 
Give me them ; I need them. 
He is my friend ; I answer for him. 
He loves his sons, and is loved by them. 

Vous voil^ ; j'en suis content. There you are ; I am glad of it. 
Vient-ilde Toronto? — Ilenvient. Does he come from T.? He does. 

a. The antecedent is often understood or indefinite : 

Voyons L oil en 6tions nous ? 

lis en sont venus aux mains. 

II m'en veut. 

Tant s'en faut. 

C'en est fait de lui. 

A vous en croire. 

Quoi qu'il en soit. 

Je n'en peux plus. 

II y en a qui le croient. 

Let me see, where were we ? 

They came to blows. 

He has a grudge against me. 

Far from it. 

It is all up with him. 

If one is to believe you. 

However it may be. 

I am done out. 

There are some who think so. 

2. Through a somewhat special application of the general 
principle, it is further used : — 

(1) In a partitive sense : 

Voici du papier ; en voulez-vous ? Here is some paper ; do you wish any 

— Merci, j'en ai. of it ? — Thank you, I have some. 

Avez-vous une plume? — J'en ai Have you a pen? — I have one (I 

une (j'en ai plusieurs). have several). 

II me faut en acheter d'autres. I must buy others. 

(2) En = ' thereof ' + the definite article replaces a possessive 
adjective referring to a possessor in the preceding sentence, 
but only when the thing possessed is a direct object, a subject 
of ^tre, or a predicate noun : 

J'aime ce pays ; j'en admire les I like this country ; I admire its 

institutions. institutions. 

Blamez les pech^s de ces gens, mais Blame the sins of those people, but 

n'en blamez pas les malheurs. do not blame their misfortunes. 

Cette afiaire est delicate ; le succes That affair is delicate ; its success is 

en est douteux. doubtful. 

Ceci est la gloire du pays ; cela en This is the country's glory ; that is 

est la honte. its disgrace. 

But : * Cette maison a ses defauts ' (the possessor not being in the pre- 

268 THE PRONOUN. [§§368-369 

vious sentence) ; * J'aime ces vers ; leur harmonie me ravit ' (the thing 
possessed being subject of another verb than etre) ; ' J'admire ce pays ; 
il est fameux pour ses bonnes lois ' (the thing possessed being governed 
by a preposition). 

368. Use of y. Y is in function equivalent to a (en, 
dans, etc. ) + a pronoun of the third person of either gender or 
number ; it is used of things, and rarely of persons : 

Je pense a mes p^ches ; j'y pense. I think of mj'^ sins ; I think of them. 

II est en Europe ; il y est, et moi He is in Europe ; he is there, and I 

j'y vais aussi. am going there too. 

II se connait en ces choses, mais He is an expert in those things, but 

moi je ne m'y connais pas. I am not. 

II aspire k cela ; il y aspire. He aspires to that ; he aspires to it. 

Vous fiez-vGua k lui ? — Je m'y fie. Do you trust him ? — I trust him. 

a. The antecedent is often understood or indefinite : 
II y va de votre vie. Your life is at stake. 

J'y suis ! Qu'ya-t-il? I have it ! W^'nt is the matter? 

II s'y prend adroitement. He goes about it cleverly. 

Est-ce que Monsieur B. y est ? Is Mr. B. at home ? 

Y pensez-vous ? You don't mean it ? 

369. Position of Conjunctive Objects. 1. They stand 
immediately before their governing verb, except the imperative 
afiSrmative : 

Je leur en parlerai. I sliall speak to them of it. 

Je I'y ai en\oy^ pour lo leur dire. I sent him there to tell ^hem it. 
II lui faut parler; il faut lui jMirler. He must speak ; one must speak to 

Obt. : Remember th*t the auxiliary is the verb in compound tenses. 

a. With negative infinitive, the object may stand between ne and 
pat (point, rien, etc.) ; similarly adverb + infinitive : 

Je tuis 6lonn6 de no innni le voir I am astoniahed not to see him. 

(or ne le point voir). 
Poor let bien oonsid<^ror. To consider them well. 

b. The objeota of an infinitivo governed by faire, laisser ((^f. §230, 6, 7)or 
a verb of perceiving (entendre, voir, etc), accompanying the finite verb: 
Je le lui forai dire. I Hhall make him say it. 

n ee le voit refuier. He sees himself refused it. 

FAltee-vooe-U ntoonter. Have it related to you. 




I shall send for him. 

c. A similar arrangement is permissible with aller, venir, envoyer, 
etc. +an infinitive : 
J'enverrai le chercher or\ 
Je I'enverrai chercher. / 
Envoyez-le chercher. Send for it. 

Note. — In the older language, objects of an infinitive often stood before the so-called 
modal auxiliaries, e.g., * Je VOUS dois dire,' but usage hardly permits this now, except 
for en, y, e.g., *Ce qu'on en doit attendre.' 

2. Conjunctive objects stand immediately after an imperative 
affirmative : 

Regardez-les ; ^coutez-nous. 
Donnez-le-lui ; allons-nous-en. 
But : Ne les regardez pas. 

Ne nous ^coutez point. 

Ne le lui donnez pas. 

Look at them ; listen to us. 
Give it to him ; let us go away. 
Do not look at them. 
Do not listen to us. 
Do not give it to him. 

a. The rule does not apply to the subjunctive as impve. (§272, 1, a) : 

Qu'il les ^coute. Let him listen to them. 

Notes.— 1. Formerly, but rarely now, an imperative affirmative when joined to 
another by et (OU, mals) might have an object before it: 'Achetez-les et les 
payez,' etc. 

2. Voici and V0ll4, which are imperatives by derivation, are always preceded by 
their conjunctive object : 'Les voici ; en voil^, etc.' 

370. Relative Position of Objects. Personal pronoun 
objects and pronominal adverbs are arranged with reference 
to each other, as follows : — 


II me les donne. He gives them to me. 

II les lui donne. He gives them to him. 

II nous en donne. He gives us some of it. 

Je leur en parlerai. I shall speak to them of it. 

Ne leur en parlez pas. Do not speak of it to them. 

Je I'y ai envoys pour le leur dire. I sent him there to tell them it. 

. When coming before the verb : 

me ' 

before rle ' 

before riui ]] 








270 THE PRONOUN. [§370 

o. When there are two direct or two indirect objects, they become 
disjunctive and follow the verb : 

tPai vu lui et elle. I have seen him and her. 

Je parle k lui et a elle. I speak to him and to her. 

2. When coming after the verb : 

le (la les) before moi (toi, lui, nous, vous, leur). 

me (te, lui, nous, vous, leur) before y (en). 

y before en. 
Donnez-les-moi. Give them to me. 

Donnez-leur-en. Give them some of it. 

l>onnez-m'en ; va-t'en. Give me some ; begone. 

Conduisez-nous-y. Take us there. 

AUez-vous-y-en. Go away there. 

a. After an imperative, the indirect objects nous, vous, may precede 
the direct le, la, les in familiar language •. 
Conservez-vous-le. Keep it for yourselves. 

Tenez-vous-le pour dit. Consider it as final. 

3. Reference table showing possible combinations of two 
pronouns : 

(Before the Verb.) 

(After 1 

bhe Verb. ) 

me le 



le lui 

-le -moi 

-le -toi 

-le -lui 

me la 


se la 

la lui 

-la -moi 

-la -toi 

-la -lui 

me les 


80 les 

lu8 lui 







lo leur 

-lo -nous 

-lo -vous 

-le -leur 


vuus la 


la leur 

-la -nous 

-la -vous 

-la -leur 

nous lee 

vous les 

se les 

lea leur 


•les -vous 





lui en 











nous en 



leur on 




none an 

vous en 


log en 







[lui y] 











DOW y 

vous y 






none y 



les y 




-les -y 

§§371-3'72] THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 2*71 

Obs, : 1. The disjunctive forms moi, toi are used instead of me, te after tiie verb, 
except before en. 

2. After the verb, the forms are Joined to it and to each other by hyphens, apostrophe 
instead of hyphen being used according to §19. 

3. Combinations of three forms are rare, e.g., *1\ nouS yenadonn^'; they are 
usually avoided, e.g., * Donnes-y-en h. moi' for ' Donne-m'y-en.' 

4. The forms in [ ] are almost always avoided, either by transposition or by some 
other form of expression, e.g., * M6nes*-y-moi ' or ' M6ne-moi 1^' for * M6ne-m'y,' etc. 

* See §159, 4. 

371. Omission of Object. The object of the second of 
two verbs in a compound tense joined by et or ou may be 
omitted along with the auxiliary and the subject : 

II I'a pris et tue. He caught and killed it. 

Or : II I'a pris et I'a tu^. He caught it and killed it. 

II I'a pris et il I'a tue. He has caught it and he has killed it. 

But : II I'a pris, i'a tu6. He has caught it, has killed it. 

11 le prend, et le tue. He catches it, and kills it. 

Note. — The verbs must be alike in government, must have the same auxillaiy, must 
both be afflrmative or negative, otherwise no omission is allowed. 

372. Disjunctives. When, for any reason, the pronoun 
is stressed (§7), the disjunctive form is usually employed (see 
§359, note) ; thus, the disjunctives are used : — 

1. Absolutely, a verb being implied, but not expressed : 

Qui est 1^ ? — Moi (eux, elle). Who is there ? — I (they, she). 

Qui as-tu vu ? — Lui (eux). Whom did you see ? — Him (them). 

Toi absent, que ferai-je ? You absent, what shall I do ? 

a. So also, in comparisons, and analogously, after ne . . . que : 

Je suis plus grand que toi. I am taller than you. 

Faites comme eux. Do as they do. 

Je n'ai vu que lui. I have seen him only. 

2. In appositions, often emphatic : 

Moi, je I'ai vu (moi-meme). (Why) I saw it myself. 

Toi qui I'as vu, tu me crois. You who saw it (you) believe ma. 

Lui aussi (il) le sait. He too knows it. 

Cela vous est facile k vous. That is easy for you. 

272 - THE PRONOUN. §373 

a. With lui so used, and sometimes also with eux, the conjunctive 
subject may be omitted : 

Lui seul (il) ne le voulait pas. He alone did not wish it. 

Lui travaillait ; eux jouaient. He worked ; they played. 

NOTK.— Je S0USSigIl6 = ' I the undersigned ' is a relic of the earlier language. 

3. As logical subject after ce + ^tre : 

Cest raoi (toi, vous) ; ce sont eux, etc. It is I (thou, you) ; it is they. 

4. With an infinitive : 

Moi t'oublier ! jamais. I forget thee ! Never. 

Et eux de s'enfuir. And they made off. 

5. When the subject or object is composite, see also §362, 
1, a and 2, (1) : 

Son fr^re et lui sont venus. His brother and he have come. 

a, A composite subject or object is usually summed up by a pleonastic 
appositive conjunctive, especially when the components are unlike in 
person : 

Vous et lui (vous) I'avez vu. You and he saw it. 

Je vous envoie, toi et ton fr6re. I send you and your brother. 

6. After a preposition : 

Je parle de toi et d'eux. I speak of you and of them. 

11b sont chez eux. They are at home. 

II se moque de nous. He makes sport of us. 

a. Observe the peculiar use of a preposition -f a disjunctive pronoun 
M a sort of emphatic appositive of possession. 
(Tsi una maison k moi. I have a house of my own. 

MonifUe k moi, c'est, etc. My (own) idea is, etc. 

Nora.— A dlajunotlve for things aft«r a prepoiltioii Ih uhhuIIv uvoi<l<>(l, oither by meani 
of «n. y, or elM by an adverb, tuoh m dddtxil, dehors, dessus. devant, derrl^re, 
•te. : ' Je ne voU rien lit dedans (in it)' ; * Voyez lur la table, cherchoz dessus (on 
It) tt deMOUS (under it).' 

7. For moi and toi after imperative, see §370, 3, ohs. 1. 

373. Pronouns in Address. In addressing one person 
▼0U8 i«, in g(;in!ral, the pronoun of formality and respect, 


whilst tu denotes familiarity, afiection, solemnity, etc., 
as follows : — 

1. Tu = 'you,' of one person, is generally used between 
members of the same family (husband and wife, parents and 
children, brothers and sisters), between very intimate friends, 
between children, by grown persons to children and sometimes 
to servants, by everybody to animals and inanimate objects : 

Ou es-tu, mon cher pere ? Where are you, my dear father ? 

Est-ce toi, mon enfant ? Is that you, my child ? 

Pauvre chien, tu as faim. Poor dog, you are hungry. 

2. Tu = ' thou ' is used in poetry and elevated prose, and 
by Protestants in addressing God, Roman Catholics using 

Nous te (vous) louons, 6 Dieu ! We praise thee, O God ! 

3. Vous, with the above limitations, is used, both in the 
singular and plural, as in English. 


374. Possessives. 

1. Adjectival Forms : 2. Pronominal Forms : 

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

m. mon ") m. le mien les miens ^ 

r , . >mes, my. r 1 • , . Vmme. 

I. ma (mon) J *' f. la mienne les miennes J 

1 , ,, m. le tien les tiens ) ,, . 

I te^. thy your. J ,^^^_^^ lestien„esr'""«'y°"'^- 

\ I his, her, m. le sien les siens \ his, hers, its, 

j ' J its, one's, f. la sienne les siennesj one's own. 

m. le notre^ , 
nos, our. ^ V les notres, ours, 

f. la notrej ' 

m. le votrel , 
vos, your. ^ ^^ ^^^^| les votres, yours. 

leurs, theirs. "^' ^ ^"^ I les leurs, theirs. 




ta (ton) 












274 THE PRONOUN. [§§375-376 

Obs. : 1. The forms in parenthesis, Obs. : 1. The feminine, except for leur, 

mon, ton, son, are used instead of ma, is formed as for adjectives of like ending. 

ta, sa, before a vowel or h mute : ' Mon 2. De, a+le, les, contract as usual ; thus, 

amie,' 'my friend (f.)'; 'ton llistoire du mien ( = d.e+le mien), aux miennes 

(f.),' 'your story'; 'son aimable tante,' ( = 4+les miennes), etc. 3. Note the ac- 

♦his amiable aunt.' 2. Since son (sa cent mark in n6tre, v6tre, absent in notre, 

Bes)='his,' 'her,' 'its,' ' one's,' the con- votre. 4. Since le Sien (la Sienne, etc.) 

text determines which sense is intended. = ' his,' ' hers,' ' its,' ' one's,' the context 

determines which sense is intended. 

Note.— The regular feminine forms, ma, ta, sa, were at one time used before a 
vowel sound ; a trace of this usage survives in ma mie (for m'amie), m'amour. 

375. Agreement. The possessives agree in gender and 
number with the noun denoting the object possessed, and in 
person with the possessor : 

Elle a son crayon et les miens. She has her pencil and mine. 

II a sa plume et les vOtres. He has his pen and yours. 

a. The possessive adjective must be repeated precisely like the 
definite article (cf. §318) : 
Mes parents et mes amis. My relatives and friends. 

6. When the possessor is indefinite, son (sa, etc.) and le sien (la 
sienne, etc. ), are used : 

On doit tenir sa parole. One must keep one's word. 

Se charger des affaires d'autrui et To undertake the business of others 

n^gliger les siennes. and neglect one's own. 

376. Use of Adjectival Forms. They are used, in 
general, like the corresponding English forms ; idiomatic 
difitinctions and special rules are : — 

1. The possessive adjective is commonly replaced by the 
definite article (cf. §328) when no ambiguity arises from its 

Donnez«moi la main. Give me your hand. 

II in'a di'chirt^ 1' habit. He has torn my coat. 

Hut : II a d(k:hir(i son habit. He hoe torn his ooat. 

a. If the senfle ii ■pecific, emphatic, or diatinotivo, the possessive is 

Mon brae me fait mal My arm pains me. 

VoUi ma migraine encore 1 There ii my «ick-headache again ! 


Je I'ai vu de mes propres yeux. I saw it with my own eyes. 

Elle lui a donne sa main. She has given him her hand (sc. in 


2. En + the definite article serves in certain cases as a 
substitute for son, leur, see §367, 2, (2) : 

a. This construction is more usual for things than for persons ; for 
things personified, for names of places, or to avoid ambiguity, son, leur 
are not uncommon : 

La necessite parle ; il faut suivre Necessity speaks ; we must follow 

sa loi. her law. 

Vous rappelez-vous cette ville ? Do you remember that city ? Its 

Ses promenades sont tres belles. promenades are very fine. 

La source de toutes les passions Sensation is the source of all the 

est la sensibilite, I'imagination passions, imagination determines 

determine leur pente. their tendency. 

3. The emphatic 'own' is denoted by propre or by an 
apposition with a I 

Je I'ai ecrit de ma propre main. I wrote it with my own hand. 

C'est mon opinion k moi. That is my own opinion. 

Cf. also : J'ai un cheval k moi. I have a horse of my own. 

C'est a moi k jouer. It is my turn to play. 

a. Along with son the k construction often avoids ambiguity : 
Son p^re k lui. His {i.e., not ' her ') father. 

^- Men (ma) is commonly used, in direct address, before 
the name of a relative (not before papa, maman) or the title 
of a superior officer : 

Bonjour mon p^re (mon colonel). Good morning father (colonel). 

But : Est-ce toi papa (maman) ? Is that you papa (mamma) ? 

Note.— This usage explains the origin of monsieiy: (=mon+8ieiir), madame 
(=ma+danie), etc. 

5. In speaking to a person of his or her relatives, votre 
(vos) is often preceded by monsieur, etc., for politeness : 
Madame votre mere y est-elle ? Is your mother in ? 

276 THE PRONOUN. [§377 

6. When there is plurality of possessor, the object possessed 
usually remains singular, if it is singular as regards the 
individual possessor : 

Les hommes songent moins k leur Men think less of their souls than 

4me qu'4 leur corps. of their bodies, 

lis ont perdu la vie. They lost their lives. 

a. Sometimes the sense demands a plural : 
Leurs tetes se ressemblent. Their heads are alike. 

377. Use of Pronominal Forms. They are used, in 
general, like the corresponding English forms; idiomatic 
distinctions and special rules are the following : — 

1. * Mine,' etc., after ^tre is regularly expressed by a + moi, 

etc., when denoting ownership simply, while le mien, etc., 

denotes a distinction of ownership : 

Cette montre est k moi. 1 mi ^ . 1 • 

^ ^^ , . y That watch is mine. 

Uette montre est la mienne. J 

2. The pronominal form sometimes stands without article 
in the predicate after certain verbs : 

Ces opinions sont vOtres. Those opinions are yours. 

EUe deviendra mienne. She shall become mine. 

Je les ai fait miens. ' I made them mine. 

Such verbs are : 

dtre. devenir. dire. faire. regarder oomme, etc. 

3. The idiom *a friend of mine,' etc., is not literally 
translated : 

Un do mcs amis. A friend of mine. 

,. 7» . 1 , f One of my friends, (who is) a doctor. 

Un mCHlecm de mes amis. I a 1 . r • ^ c • 

\A doctor, a fnond of mine. 

Un ami k moi. A friend of mine. 

ICon ami qne voldL ' This friend of mine 

Ct t Un tour da sa fafon. One of his tricks. 

a. The nse of mien (tien, sien) attributively in this sense is familiar : 
Un mien parent A relative of mine. 

Une deone ooosine. A cousin of his. 


4. Emphatic 'own' is rendered by propre, or is, more 
usually, untranslated : 

Son avis et le mien (propre). His opinion and my own. 

5. When used absolutely, ^.e., without antecedent, the 
singular denotes 'property,' *what is mine,' etc., and the 
plural 'relatives,' 'friends,' 'allies,' etc.: 

Je ne demande que le mien. I ask only for what is mine. 

Les notres se sont bien battus. Our soldiers (etc. ) fought welL 

a. Familiarly, the feminine means 'pranks,' etc.: 
II fait encore des siennes. He is at his pranks again. 

Note.— Other absolute uses are not permissible, e.g., * Votre lettre (not ' la vdtre ') de 
la semaine derni6re.' 


378. Demonstratives. 

1. Adjectival forms : 2. Pronominal forms : 

Sing. Plur. Sins. Plur. 

m. ce(cet)'k ... ,, , m. celulK, . , . . ceux \ 

A h this, that. COS. . .. V that (one), etc. ii„„ f 

f. cette / ' f. celle / cellesJ 

m. ce (cat) . . .-ci \ ,, . ^^„ . "^- cel^i-ciltu:„ /«^„x „+„ ceux-cl -v 

2j. 1 }-thi8. ces. ..-ci. , „ , }- this (one), etc. ^^n^„ ^4 J- 

f. cette... -cl / f. celle-ci i ' celles-ci/ 

m. ce(cet).. -l^K, . ,, i"- celul-li \ .. „ . . „ . .^ ceux-1^ \ 

f. cette.. -1^ l*^*'- ^^^---l^- f. ceue-lkl'^"*^""'^'"'"- ceUes-lit / 

'^ ce, thi8(the8e), that( those), he(8he,it, they). 
Obs. : The form cet is used before a > ceci, this, 
vowel or h mute : Cet arbre ; cet t:^ cela, that. 

homme ; cet autre d6 ; but : ce oi,s. : The e of ce is elided before a vowel 
Chfine; ce hfitre. or jj mutg (§19); c' becomes 9' before a 

(§5,4): '9'a6t6.' 

379. Agreement. The adjectival form agrees in gender 
and number with the noun before which it stands ; the pro- 
nominal form agrees in gender and number with the noun 
instead of which it stands: 

Cette plume et celle de Jean. This pen and that of John. 

J'aimc ces livres-ci, mais je n'aime I like these books, but I do not like 
pas ceux-14. those. 

278 THE PRONOUN. [§§380-382 

a. The demonstrative adjective must be repeated like the definite 
article (cf. § 318). 

380. Use of Adjectival ce. Ce (cette, etc.) = * this' 

or 'that*; to distinguish 'this' from *that' -ci and -la are 
respectively added to the noun : 

Lis ce livre-ci ; lis ce livre-l^. Read this book ; read that book. 

J'aime ces tableaux-Ik. I like those pictures. 

a. Ce (cette, etc.), referring to what has already been mentioned, 
sometimes has the force of * that ' : 

Le t^l^graphe, cette grande d6- The telegraph, that great discovery 
couverte de notre si^cle. of our century. 

b. The definite article replaces the demonstrative adjective in a few 
idioms : 

Ne parlez pas de la sorte. Do not speak in that way. 

J'irai k I'instant. I shall go this (very) moment. 

381. Celui. The pronoun celui (celle, etc.) = * that,' 'that 
one,' 'the one,* 'he,' is regularly used only along with a 
relative clause or a de clause : 

Ceux qui rient pleureront. Those who laugh will weep. 

Celle dont je parle est venue. She of whom I speak has come. 

Le devoir d'aimer Dieu et celui The duty of loving God and that of 

d'aimer son prochain. loving one's neighbour. 

Cette robe et celle que j'ai vue. This dress and the one I saw. 

Mea plumes ct celles de mon f rt>re. My pens and my brother's. 
Obi. : Note the um of oelui=En((li8h possessive noun Hub8t4xiitively. 

rt. The relative sentence is sometimes elliptically oxpressod by the 
patt participle : 

Let d^oouvortes ^num^r^es sont The discoveries enumerated are 
O0UM faites par Edison. thoHe made by Edison. 

b. C€ltli*lk replaces celui wIkii t)i<> ])rodicate comes before the 
relative : 

CtfllMJt eat riche qui est toujours lie (that man) is ri(;h who is always 
content huppy. 

382. Cclui-ci, cclui-lii. The pronouns celui-ci (celle-ci, 
etc.) -* thin,' •this one,' Mie,' Hh« hitter' and celui-li (celle- 


la, etc.) = ' that/ ' that one,'. * the former/ are used to contrast 
the nearer with the more remote : 

Voici les deux chaines ; gardez eel- Here are the two chains ; keep this 

le-ci, et renvoyez celle-1^. (one), and send back that (one). 

Veut-il ceux-ci ou ceux-1^ ? Does he wish these or those ? 

CiceronetVirgile^taientRomains; Cicero and Virgil were Romans; 

celui-ci ^tait po^te, et oelui- the former was an orator, and 

1^ orateur. the latter a poet. 
Obs.: The idiom in the last example is literally ' the latter. . ., the former.' 

a. ' This ' or * that ' for emphasis, not contrast, is celui-lll : 
C'est une bonne loi (que) celle-la. This (that) is a good law. 

383. Ce as Representative Subject. Ce = 'this,' 'that/ 
* these/ * those,' ' he,' ' she,' ' it,' ' they,' according to the con- 
text, is used with ^tre, or with devoir, pouvoir, savoir + 
etre, as representative subject, when the logical subject is : — 

1. A proper noun, or a determinate noun, including 
adjectives as such : 

C'est Marie et sa m6re. It is Mary and her mother. 

Ce sera un beau spectacle. That (it) will be a fine sight. 

Ce sont nos plumes. These (those) are our pens, 

l^tait-ce le meilleur ? Was it the best ? 

Ce sont des Allemands. They (those) are Germans. 

C'est mon ami(e). He (she) is my friend. 

Ce peut etre Jean. That may be John. 

a. Before etre + an indeterminate noun il (ils, elles) is the regular 
construction : 

II est temps d'aller. It is time to go. 

lis sont amis (Allemands). They are friends (Germans). 

EUe est couturiere. She is a seamstress. 

NoTK.— For a few expressions like c'est dommage, etc., in which c'est stands 
with an indeterminate noun, see 384, 1, note 3. 

b. II est is always used to indicate hours of the day : 

II est midi (trois heures). It is noon (three o'clock). 

But: Quelle heure est-ce qui What hour has just struck? — It is 

vient de sonner ? — C'est cinq five, 


280 -.- THE PRONOUN. [§384 

, c. Observe the use of ce in the following date idioms : 
C'est aujourd'hui lundi. To-day is Monday. 

Ce sera demain le quatre. To-morrow will be the fourth. 

2. A pronoun : 

Qui est-ce ? — Ce sont eux. Who is it ? — It is they. 

Ce sont les leurs. Those are theirs. 

C'est ceci ; c'est cela. It is this ; it is that. 

C'etaient les memes. They (those) were the same. 

Ce doivent 6tre les miens. Those must be mine. 

3. An infinitive, or an infinitive with de : 

Ce serait tout perdre. That would be losing everything. 

Voir c'est croire. Seeing is believing. 

Ce que je crains c'est de I'offenser. What I fear is to offend him. 

4. A noun sentence : 

Est-ce que vous ne le ferez pas ? Will you not do it ? 
Oil est-ce qu'il est ? Where is it that he is ? 

Ce n'est pas qu'il ait peur. It is not that he is afraid. 

a. The noun sentence may be understood : 
Vous partirez, n'est-ce pas ? ( = You will go, will you not ? 
n'est-ce pas que vous partirez ?) 

6. An adverb of quantity : 
Combien est-ce ? ^'a di^ trop. How much is it ? It was too much. 
Note.— For agreement of the verb, see §232, 3. 

384. Ce as Real Subject. Ce stands as real subject of 
^tre, or of devoir, pouvoir, savoir + ^tre, when the com- 
plement of ^tre is : — 

1. An adjective, an adjective + «i + an infinitive, an infinitive 
preceded by ^ an adverb (in all caHcs without further syntac- 
tical connection, see a, below) : 

C*e«t facilo (vrai, bien). That (it) is easy (true, well). 

Ce doit Aire (ne laurait lire) vraL That tnuHt 1)() (cannot be) true. 

II Mt parti, c'ent olair. Ho is gone, that is clear. 

C'est clair, il eat parti. It is clear, he !» gone. 

C'ect 4 dMrar. That (it) is to be desired. 


Ou sera-ce ? Where will it (that) be ? 

C'^tait bien mal k vous. That was very wrong of you. 

a. When followed by de + an infinitive or by a que clause, the regular 
construction for the above is impersonal il (not *ce'); so also the 
parenthetical il est vrai and n'est-il pas vrai? ( =n'est-ce pas?), though 
without syntactical connection : 

II est facile de dire cela. It is easy to say that. 

II est triste de vous voir ainsi. It is sad to see you thus. 

II est clair que j'ai raison. It is clear that I am right. 

II est a desirer que la guerre linisse It is to be desired that the war will 

bientot. soon end. 

On rit, il est vrai, mais attendez. They laugh, to be sure, but wait. 
II est bien mal k vous de parler It is very wrong of you to speak so. 


Note.— 1. Colloquially, c'est is pretty freely used instead of il est before de+inflni- 
tive or a que clause : ' C'est facile de faire cela * ; * C'est clair que j'ai raison,' etc. 

2. This use of ce is permissible in the literary style only in expressions of emotion, 

e.flf., C'est heureux (malheureux, beau, triste, 6tonnant, etc.), c'est ^pr6- 
sumer (craindre, regretter, etc.): 'C'est triste de vous voir'; ' C'est ^ craindre 
qu'il ne soit noy6.' 

3. The ce construction is obligatory after a few noun phrases of like value, e.g.^ 
C'est dommage (piti6, plaisir, justice), etc., • C'est piti6 de lentendre.' 

2. A prepositional clause, or a conjunction : 

C'est pour vous. It (that) is for you. 

C'est pourquoi je suis venu. That is why I came. 

C'est comme vous (le) dites. It is as you say. 

385. Ce + a. Relative. As antecedent ce + a relative de- 
notes * that which,' ' what,' * which,' etc. : 

Ce qui m'amuse. What (that which) amuses me. 

Ce que je dis est vrai. What I say is true. 

Ce dont nous parlions. What we were speaking of. 

Ce k quoi je pense. What I am thinking of. 

II est §Lge, ce qui est dommage. He is old, which is a pity. 

a. Ce, so used, either inunediately precedes the relative, or is, for 
emphasis, divided from it by etre + a predicate substantive : 
Ce qu'il veut est la gloire. What he desires is glory. 

Cest la gloire qu'il veut. It is glory that he desires. 

NoTK.— This type of construction is widely used to render a predicate substantive 
emphatic, e.g., • C'est ton frfere qui le dit ' ; • C'est h vous que (=^ ' ^ qui ') je parle ' ; 
• C'est mourir que de vivre ainsi ' ; ' C'est une belle ville que Paris ' (cf . 397, 2, n. 1). 

- THE PRONOUN. [§§386-388 

386. Other uses of Ce. Apart from its use with ^tre 
or with a relative, ce is found in a few phrases only, mostly 
archaic, familiar or jocular : 

Ce devint un usage. This (that) became a custom. 

Tu crains, ce lui dit-il. You fear, said he to him. 

Sur ce, je vous quitte. And now, I leave you. 

De ce non content. Not satisfied with this. 

a. The parenthetical ce semble may be used only when unconnected 
(cf. §384, 1, a), otherwise il semble : 

C'est lui, ce me semble, au moins. It's he, it seems to me, at least. 
But : II me semble que c'est lui. 

387. Pleonastic ce. As compared with English, ce is 
often pleonastic; thus, it is used with ^tre + a logical sub- 
ject : — 

1. Regularly, after celui qui and ce qui : 

Celle qui I'a dit c'est vous. The one who said so is you. 

Ce que je crains ce sont mes pr^- What I fear is my would-be friends. 

tendus amis. 

Ce k quoi je pense c'est sa santd. What I tliink of is his health. 

2. Regularly, between infinitives when not negative : 

Penser, c'est vivre. To think is to live. 

But : V^g^ter (ce) n'est pas vivre. To veget-ate is not to live. 

3. Regularly, in inversion with que : 

^, . , ,. .,, ^ . rTaris is a beautiful city. 

Cett one belle ville que Pans. ■{ _^ . . .^ /.• ,vt^ . 

^ Vlt 18 a fine city, (* is ') Pans. 

4. Optionally, in other inversions for emphasis : 
La gnerre (ce) serait la ruine. War would bo ruin. 

Non.— Wh«n the oompletncnt of Atre ii an luljtotlvo or participle, pleonostio ce 
majr not be UMd : *Ce qui eet utile n'cHt pu toujount JuHte.' 

388. Cecf and cela. Ceci-'this,' the nearer, and cela 
i.s*that,' the more niiiot*', are used to denote soincthing 
indicaU^d, bub not yet naiiicil : 

(iardes ooci ot donneZ'inoi cela. Krcp this and give mo that. 

Ob$. : If the ohJeoihM been already tuuned, or if the tiatno Ih fully implied by the 
ooaUxi. c«lttl-cl (14) muni be uaed. 

i That is a secret. 


a. Ceci also refers to what is about to be said, and cela to what has 
been said : 

Reflechissez bien k ceci. Think well on this. 

Je ne dis pas davantage, cela suffit. I say no more, that is enough. 

b. Ceci {not 'cela') may have a predicate noun : 

Ceci est un secret. ) ,»,,.. 

r, r-> 4. ' ■ X / ^ } This IS a secret. 

Ur : C est ici un secret (rarer). ) 

But : C'est \k un secret, 
Cela c'est un secret. 
Note.— Cela is not so divided before mSme, seul, and its division in negations is 
optional : ' Cela seul (m6me) en est la cause ' ; ' Cela n'est pas (or ce n'est pas li) une 

c. Cela {not * ceci ') = ' this ' before a de clause : 

Paris a cela d'avantageux. Paris has this advantage. 

d. Cela may be replaced by \k after de and par : 

De Ik vient que, etc. From that it comes that, etc. 

II faut commencer par Ik. We must begin with that. 

e. Cela is often contracted to ^a colloquially : 

^a ne fait rien. That doesn't matter. 

/. ^a is sometimes used familiarly or contemptuously of persons 
instead of a personal pronoun : 

Regardez comme ^a mange. Look how they (etc. ) eat. 

Ca veut faire h sa tete. You (etc. ) wish to do as you please. 

NOTB. — Distinguish ^a from <^ (adverb) and q^ ! (interjection). 


389. Interrogatives. 

1. Adjectival forms : 2. Pronominal forms : 

Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

m. quel? quels? \ which?, m. lequel? lesquels? ) which?, which 
f. quelle? quelles ?' what ? etc. f. laquelle? le8quelles?lorwhatone(8)? 

"^ qui?, who?, whom? 
> que ?, what ? 
•S quoi?, what? 
Obs. : 1. For the feminine and plural of quel, cf. §§337, 1, (2), and 338. 

2. Lequel =le+ quel, both parts being inflected (§§316, 389, 1); de, k contract with 
le, lea (duquel, auquel, etc., cf. §317). 

3. Que^qu' before a vowel or li mute (§19). 

284 - THE PRONOUN. [§§390-392 

390. Agreement. The adjectival forms agree like ordi- 
nary adjectives; the variable pronominal forms agree in gender, 
not necessarily in number, with the nouns for which they 
stand; qui? assumes the number of the noun or pronoun 
referred to : 

Quels livres avez-vous? Which (what) books have you? 

Quelles sont vos raisons ? What are your reasons ? 

Laquelle des dames est venue ? Which of the ladies has come ? 

Qui Sonne? Qui sont-elles? Who rings? Who are they? 

391. Quel?, Lequel?. The adjective quel ? = ' which ?', 
'what?', and tlie pronoun lequel ?=' which (one)?', 'what 
(one)?', refer either to persons or things, and stand both in 
direct and indirect questions : 

Quels livres avez-vous ? Which (what) books have you ? 

Dites-moi quel livre il a. Tell me which (what) book he has. 

Desquels avez-vous besoin ? Which (ones) do you need ? 

Dites-moi lesquels vous avez. Tell me which (ones) you have. 

Quelle dame est arriv^ ? Which (what) lady has come ? 

Je ne sals pas laquelle. I do not know which (one). 

Quelles sont vos raisons ? What are your reasons ? 

Quel homme est-ce \k1 What (what kind of) man is that? 

Auquel des hommes parle-t-il? To which of the men does he speak ? 

a. Quel 1 in exclamations sometimes = ' what a ! ', ' what ! ' : 
Quel h^roB ! Quels h»^ros ! What a hero ! What heroes ! 
Quelle belle sc^ne ! What a beautiful scene ! 

b. Quel ? luj pre<licativo adjective often replaces qui ?= ' who ? ' : 
Quels Bont ces gens-U ? Who are those people? (or what 

kind of people are tliose ?) 
SafS'tu quelle est cette dame ? Do you know who that lady is ? 

NOTS.--A pleonMilo de la oomtnonly uaed Ixsfore alterimtivcH after quel ?, lequel? 
snd otbcr InterrogstivM, prohulily (!iiUMKl by cone attmdiion with des deux, oft on 
prtsMfc In atiob expr«MlonM : ' (juul (clfv deux) ohI )e plus habile, de cia hoiumc-ci on de 
mIuI'UT' ; ' Lftquelle c*t U \thin lltuMtru, d'AthdiicN oit de lloiiicV 

392. Qui?. 1. Tlio pronoun qui? 'who?', 'whom?', is 
regularly iikimI of perKonH only, and »tands in both direct and 
indireot quentions : 


Qui frappe ? Qui est \k ? Who is knocking ? Who is there ? 

De qui {h qui) parle-t-il? Of whom (to whom) is he speaking? 

Qui avez-vous vu ? Whom did you see ? 

Qui etes-vous ? Who are you ? 

Dites-moi qui est venu. Tell me who has come ? 

a. Qui? is sometimes used, though rarely and not necessarily, as 
subject to a transitive verb in the sense of * what ? ' : 

Qui vous am^ne de si bonne heure? What brings you so early ? 

b. Qui ?, predicatively, is often replaced, especially when feminine or 
plural, by quel ? : 

Quelle est cette dame ? Who is that lady ? (What 1. is that ?). 

Quels sont-ils ? Who are they ? 

2. * Whose V, denoting ownership simply = a qui ? J other- 
wise generally de qui ?, sometimes quel ?, but never * dont ' : 

A qui est cette maison-lk ? Whose house is that ? 

De qui etes-vous fils ? Whose son are you ? 

Quelle maison a 4te bruise ? Whose (what) house was burnt ? 

Note.— Compare with this the idiom c'est k qui : * C'^tait k qui finirait le premier,' 
• It was a strife as to who would finish first.' 

393* Que ?, Quoi ?. The form que ? = ' what 'i ' is con- 
junctive, while quoi ? = * whr.t ? ' is disjunctive ; their uses in 
detail are : — 

1. Que? stands regularly as direct object or as predicate, 
and in direct question only : 

Que vous a-t-il dit ? What did he say to you ? 

Que cherchez-vous ? What are you looking for ? 

Que sont-ils devenus ? What has become of them ? 

a. Que ?, alternatively with quoi ?, may stand with an infinitive in 
indirect question : 

Je ne sais que (quoi) dire. I know not what to say. 

b. Que? and que ! sometimes have adverbial force : 

Que ne m'avez-vous dit cela ? Why did you not tell me that ? 

Que vous gtes heureux ! How happy you are ! 

Que d'apgent perdu I What a quantity of money lost ! 




2. 'What*?' as subject of a verb is regularly qu'est-ce 

Qu'est-ce qui fait ce bruit ? What is making that noise ? 

a. The form que? may stand as subject to a few intransitive verbs, 
mostly such as may also be impersonal, but never as subject to a 
transitive verb : 

What is the use of crying ? 
What do you think of it ? 
What is it? 

Que sert de pleurer ? 
Que vous en semble ? 
Qu'est-ce ? 

3. Quoi ? is used absolutely, i.e., with ellipsis of the verb, 
and after a preposition : 

There is news. — What? 
What finer than that ? 
What ! You admire him ! 
What are you thinking of? 
In what can I help you ? 

n y a du nouveau. — Quoi ? 
Quoi de plus beau que cela ? 
Quoi ! vous I'admirez ! 
A quoi pensez-vous ? 
En quoi puis-je vous servir ? 

a. In cases of special emphasis quoi ? may be direct object : 
Je re9ois quoi ? — Des lettres. I receive what ? — Letters. 

b. With an infinitive, que ?, or more emphatically, quoi ? is used : 

Que (quoi) faire ? What is one to do ? 

Je ne sais que (quoi) r(5pondre. I know not what to answer. 

3^ Interrogative Locutions. Tlie use of interrogative 
phrases formed with est-ce, etc., instead of the simple forms 
is very frequent (of. §§392-3) : 

for Qui chante ? 
II Qui demandoz- vous? 
A qui parlicz-vous? 

Qui ett*oe qui chante ? 
Qui estHM que vous demandez 7 
A qui est-ce que yovm parliez 7 
Qtt*est-oe que cela prouvo 7 
Qu'est-oe que c'est 7 
Qn'est-oe que c'est que cela 7 
De quoi est-ce qti'il parle 7 
Qn'estKie qui fait co bruit f 

Quo prouvo cola ? 


Qu'i!Ht-(;o quo cola? 
Do quoi j)arle-t-il ? 
What is making titat noiso? 

§§395-397] THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 287 


395. Relative Pronouns. 

qui, who, which, that ; whom (after a preposition). 

que, whom, which, that. 

dent, whose, of whom, of which, etc. 

oil, in which, into which, at which, to which, etc 

m. pi. I 
laquelle, f. s. lesquelles, f. pi. J 
quoi, what, which. 
Obs. : For qu', see §19. 

lequel, m. s. lesquels, m. pi. , , , , . , , 

who, whom, which, that. 

396. Agreement. A relative pronoun, whether variable 
or invariable in form, is of the gender, number and person of 
its antecedent : 

Moi qui ^tais (vous qui etiez) la. I who was (you who were) there. 

Les lettres que j'ai apport^es. The letters which I have brought. 

Moi qui suis son anii(e). I who am his friend (m. or f.). 

Dieux (vous) qui m'exaucez ! (Ye) gods who hear me ! 

C'est nous qui I'avons dit. It is we who have said it. 

Je suis celui qui I'ai dit. I am the one who has said it. 

a. When the antecedent is a predicate noun, or an adjective as such, 
the relative may agree in person either with this noun or with the 
subject of the sentence : 

Nous sommes deux moines qui We are two monks who are trav- 

voyageons (voyagent). elling. 

Je suis le seul qui I'aie (ait) dit. I am the only one who has said it. 

b. The relative after un + a plural is either singular or plural, usually 
according to the sense : 

C'est un de mes (des) proems qui It is one of my (of the) law-suits 
m'a (m'ont) ruin^ which has (have) ruined me. 

397. Qui, Que. Both qui and que refer to antecedents, 
of either gender or number, denoting persons or things ; their 
uses in detail are : — 




1. Qui = * who,' 'which,' 'that,' serves as subject; qui = 
*whom,' of persons only, or things personified, may also be 
used after a preposition : 

La dame qui a chants. 

Les amis qui sont arrives. 

La vache qui beugle. 

Les livres qui ont ^t^ perdus. 

Les oiseaux qui volent. 

Ce qui m'amuse. 

Rien qui est beau. 

La tante chez qui je demeure. 

Les amis k (de) qui je parlais. 

Rochers k qui je me plains. 

The lady who (that) has sung. 
The friends who (that) have come. 
The cow which (that) lows. 
The books which have been lost. 
The birds which (that) fly. 
What (that which) amuses me. 
Nothing that is beautiful. 
The aunt with whom I live. 
The friends to (of) whom I spoke. 
Rocks to whom I complain. 

etc. ), 

a. Qui, without antecedent, sometimes = celui qui (ceux qui 
or, when repeated, = les uns. . les autres : 

Aimez qui vous aime. 

Jouera qui voudra. 

Pour qui connait. 

Qui d'un cOt^, qui de I'autre. 

b. Similarly, in a few phrases, 
qui = ce qui: 
Voili qui est strange 1 
Qui pis est {or ce qui est pis). 

Love him (the one) who loves you. 

Let those who will play. 

For any one who knows. 

Some on one side, some on the other. 

mostly exclamatory or parenthetical, 

That is strange I 
What is worse. 

2. Que = * wlioiu,' * whicli,' ' that,' serves regularly as direct 
object : 

Le8 ami(e)8 que j'aime. 
Le livro (choval) quo j'ai. 
IjbH plumes que j'ai achet<^B. 
Ce que vous dites. 
Rien que vous dites. 

a. Que stands &lso as predicate nominative (cf. §2! 
logical subject of an impersonal verb : 

TIjo friends whom (that) I love. 
The book (horse) which I liavo. 
The pens wliicli I have bought. 
I'hat which you say. 
Nothing that you say. 

, 1 ), and as 

Malheureuse que Je suin ! 
Qu*6stK)e qu'elle est devenue ? 
A rheure qu'il est 
Vhomme quMI vous faut 
PnoBt oe quHl vous taut 

Unhappy woman tlmt T am ! 
What has Injcomo of lior? 
At the present hour. 
The man that yon need. 
Tiik<r what you need. 


§§398-399] THE RELATIVE PRONOUN. 289 

Notes.— 1. The que of emphatic inversions (§385, a, n.)i9 best explained as predicative 
que : 'C'est une belle ville que Paris ' = ' C'est une belle ville que Paris (est)' or 'C'est 
une belle ville (ce) que (c'est) Paris ' ; * Erreur que tout cela ' - ' (C'est) erreur que tout 
cela (est)' or * (C'est) erreur (ce) que (c'est) tout cela.' 

2. The form que is often a relative adverb, not to be confounded in function with 
the relative proper : ' Dans le temps que cela arrivait ' ; ' C'est ^ vous que je parle ' 
(or ' C'est vous k qui je parle '). 

398. Dont. The form dont = ' whose,' ' of whom,* ' of 
which,' etc., has the value of de + a relative; it refer-s to 
antecedents, of either gender or number, denoting persons or 
things : 

L'homme dont le fils est mort. The man whose son is dead. 

Les gens dont je parle. The people of whom I speak. 

Les plumes dont je me scrs. The pens which I make use of. 

La gloire dont il est avide. The fame for which he is eager. 

Ce dont je me plains. That of which I complain. 

a. A noun after dont= ' whose ' does not omit the article as in English, 
and must follow its governing verb (cf. §400, 2) : 

Le monsieur dont j'ai trouv6 la The gentleman whose purse I found, 

b. As compared with d'ou (cf. §399, a), dont has figurative force in 
expressions referring to extraction, lineage, etc. : 

La maison dont 11 sort. The family from which he comes. 

c. Dont was originally an adverb (L. de + unde), and is often best 
construed as such : 

La pays dont il est venu. The country whence he came. 

399. Oil. The adverb ou = ' where ' is also used as a 
relative with the value of danS (a, SUr, vers, etc.) -fa 
relative ; if preceded by a preposition, oil = ' which,' ' where ' : 
La maison o^ je loge. The house in which I lodge. 

Le siecle ou nous vivons. The age in which we live. 

Le but ou il tend. The end towards which he tends. 

Les villes par ou je suis venu. The cities through which I came. 

L'endroit d'oii il vient. The place from which he comes. 

D'ou venez-vous ? Where do you come from ? 

a. D'ou= ' from which,' ' whence,' is usually literal in force : 
La maison d'ou il sort. The house out of which he comes. 


290 THE PRONOUN. [§§400-401 

400. Lequel. The form lequel = *who/ *whom,' * which,' 

* that,' refers to persons or things, and varies in form to agree 
with its antecedent ; it is chiefly used where qui, que, etc., 
may not be employed : — 

1. Lequel, being inflected, stands where qui, que, from 
want of inflection, would be ambiguous, or it serves, owing to 
its stress, to denote the more remote of two possible ante- 
cedents : 

La soBur de mon ami laquelle vient The sister of my friend who has just 

d'arriver. come. 

Le fik du r^dacteur lequel je viens The son of the editor whom (i.e., 

de voir. * the son ') I have just seen. 

a. Lequel may not be used of persons after en, and it must be used 
of persons after parmi, entre : 

Un homme en qui je crois. A man in whom I believe. 

Les amis parmi (entre) lesquels. The friends among whom. 

2. When depending on a noun governed by a preposition, 

* whose ' must be turned by duquel, etc., which must follow 

the noun (cf. §398, a) : 

La damo au fils do laquelle {or de The lady to whose son I give les- 
qui) je donnu des le9onH. sons. 

NOTB. — L6<lU6l is used exceptionally as an adjective : ' J'osp6re partir demain, 
aw^flftl OM, •to.' ; * Je viena de toucher miUe francs, de laqueUe aoninie Je payerai 

401. QuoL L The form quoi-*what,' * which,' is used 
without definite antecedent, and stands after a preposition, 
rarely otlierwise : 

VoiU de qnoi je parlaia. That ia what I was speaking of. 

Bur qnoi fl est parti WhereuiM)n ho wont away. 

Cfatt 4 qnoi Je poniaii. That is what 1 was thinking of. 

n m'a pay^i 00 k quoi Je ne m'ut- He paid ine, which I hardly ex* 
UndtiM gaiknx pected. 


a. De quoi + an infinitive, expressed or implied, denotes the means or 
cause of the action of the infinitive : 

II a de quoi vivre. He has enough to live on. 

II a de quoi (sc. vivre, etc. ). He has means (is well off). 

Donnez-moi de quoi ^crire. Give me something to write with. 

II n'y a pas de quoL There is no occasion (don't mention 

it, etc.). 

h. Quoi stands without a preposition in a few expressions : 
Quoi faisant. (By) doing which. 

Un je ne sais quoi de cnieL A certain indefinable cruelty. 

2. * What ' = * that which ' is expressed by ce + a relative 
(cf. §385) : 

Je vois ce qui se passe. I see what is going on. 

Je sais ce que je sais. I know what I know. 

Ce dont je me plains. That of which I complain. 

Ce k quoi je me fiais. What I was trusting to. 
II est sourd, ce qui est bien dom- He is deaf, which is a great pity. 


402. Remarks. 1. The relative pronoun, often omitted 
in English, is never omitted in French : 

Le tableau que j'ai vu \k. The picture (which) I saw there. 

Le livre dont je parle est k moi. The book (which) I speak of is mine. 

2. Relative and antecedent should stand as near together 
as possible : 

II y a de ce livre une Edition qui There is an edition of that book 

se vend, etc. which is sold, etc. 

Not : Une Edition de ce livre qui, etc. 

3. A preposition never ends the relative sentence, as some- 
times in English : 

Ce k quoi je me fiais. What I was trusting ta 

4. For English forms in -ing = relative clause, see 
§287, 3. 

}. quelqu'un, m. S.1 ^^^^^^j^^^^^^ 
quelqu'une, f. s. J 

292 THE PRONOUN. [§§403-404 


403. Indefinites. 

1. Adjectival forms -. 

1. certain, a certain ; pL certain. 4, divers, m. pi. ) . .^ 

' J- r 1 h various, etc 

2. chaque, each, every. diverses, f. pi. J 

3. diiferent(e)s, pi. , various, etc. 5. maint, many a. 

6. quelque, some ; pi, , some (few). 
Obs. : Except for divers, the feminine and plural are formed like those of ordinary 


2. Pronominal forms : 

1. autrui, others, other people, etc. 

2. chacun, m. "j^each (one), every 
chacune, f. j(one). quelques-uns, m. pi. ^some (peo- 

3. on (I'on), one, people, etc. quelques-unes, f. pi. j pie), etc. 

4. personne . . . ne, nobody, etc. 6. quelque chose, something. 

7. rien . . . ne, nothing. 

Obs.: 1. On often becomes Ton after a vowel sound to avoid hiatus, especially after 
et, GO, oil, que, lorsque, etc., qui, quel, pourquoi, si, ainsi, aussi, but not 
usually when a closely foUowinjf word has initial 1 ; qu'on almost always becomes 
qae Ton when a closely following word has initial [k] sound. 

2. For quelqu'un(e), see §19. 

8. Note the hyphen of the plural of quelqu'un. 

3. Forms serving either as adjective or as pronoun : 

1. aucun. . .ne, no; nobody, etc. 6. plusieurs, m. or f. pi., several. 

2. autre, other. 7. tel, uu \^^^ ^^^ 

3. m^me, same, etc. telle, f. j 

4. nul. . ne, m. \no; nobody, 8. tout, m. tons, m. pi. "l all, every, 
mille . . . ne, f. J eta toute, f. toutes, f. pi. J etc. 

5. pas un. . .ne, no ; nolnxly, etc. 9. un, a ; one, etc 

Ob».: The feminine and plural are like thoM of adjectives of like ending, except the 
fuMiInlne of nul anil tho plural of tOUt. 

404. Use of AcUectival Forms. 1. Certain = M^) cer- 
tain/ pi. 'certain,' 'some,' precedes its noun; the use of un 
in the singular, and of partitive de in the plural, is optional : 

(Un) certain roi fran9als. A certain French king. 

(De) oorUinat genSi Certain (somu) people. 


a. Certains is exceptionally used as a pronoun : 

Certains pretendent, etc. Some assert, etc. 

Note.— Certain, placed after the noun, is an ordinary adjective = ' sure,' 'trust- 
worthy, • positive,' etc. (cf. §362, 4). 

2. Chaque = * each,' * every/ is distributive and singular 

Chaque homme (femme). Each or every man (woman). 

a. Distinguish chaque = * every,' * each,' which individualizes from 
tout= * every,' * all,' which generalizes : 

Chaque homme a des passions. Every (each) man has passions. 

Tout homme a une passion do- Every man has (all men have) a 

minante. ruling passion. 

Chaque ann^e ; tous les ans. Each year ; every year. 

3. Diff^rentS, Divers = ' various,* * several,' ' sundry,' 
'divers,' are indefinite adjectives only when plural and stand- 
ing before nouns : 

DiflF(6rentes choses m'ont retenu. Various things detained me. 

On a essay^ divers moyens. Several methods have been tried. 

Note. — With the sense of 'different,' ' diverse,' they are used as ordinary adjectives. 

4. Maint, whether singular or plural; = * many a ' ; it is 
often repeated : 

Maint(s) danger(s). Many a danger. 

Mainte(s) fois. Many a time. 

En mainte et mainte occasion. On many an occasion. 

5. Quelque = * some ' ; when used of quantity or number, 
quelque = ' some, but not much or many,' ' a little,' ' a few,' 
and is of more limited force than the partitive some (§322) : 

Quelques amis sont pires que des Some friends are worse than ene 

ennemis. mies. 

J'ai eu quelque difficult^. I have had some (a little) difficulty. 

II a quelques amis ici. He has some (a few) friends here. 

Voici les quelques francs qui nous Here are the few francs we have 

restent. left. 

294 - THE PRONOUN. [§405 

a. Quelque has adverbial force, and is invariable, before numerals (not 
nouns of number) = ' about,' ' some ' : 

A quelque dix milles d'ici. About (some) ten miles from here. 

But : Quelques centaines de pas. A few hundred paces. 

A cent et quelques pas. At a little more than 100 paces. 

h. Similarly before adjectives or adverbs =* however' (cf. §271, 4, 6) : 
Quelque riches qu'ils soient. However rich they may be. 

Quelque bien que vous parliez. However well you may speak. 

Note.— * However '+ adjective is also expressed by tout... que (usually with the 
indicative), si. . .(que) (with the subjunctive), pour. . .que (with the subjunctive), e.g., 
' TOUtes bonnes qu'elles sont,' * However good they are ' ; 'Si bonnes qu'elles 
soient,' 'However good they are'; 'Si bonnes vos raisons soient-elles,' ' However 
good your reasons are ' ; * Pour bonnes qu'elles soient,* ' However good they are.' 

c. For the use of quelque(s) . . .que= ' whatever,' see §407. 

40s Use of Pronominal Forms. 1. Autrui= 'others' 
* other people,' 'our neighbour (in general),' is rarely used 
except after a preposition : 

II ne faut pas convoiter les biens We must not covet the goods of 

d'autrui. others. 

La rigiieur envers autrui. Severity towards others. 

NoTB.— ' others ' is more usually les autres, d'autres (§ 406, 2, b) ; regularly so, as 
•ubject or direct object 

2. Chacun = * each,* ' each one,* * every one * is the pronoun 
corresponding to the adjective chaque (§4:04, 2)': 
Chacun d'eux a refus^. Each (every) one of them refused. 

Donnez h. chacun(e) sa part. Give to each hiH (her) share. 

Dm poires h deux sous chacune. Pears at two cents each. 

a. The poMessive form to chacun is regularly son : 
Mettez-les chacun(o) k m place. Put them each in his (her, its) place. 

h. Chacun in apposition to nous, vous, takes, as its possessive, notre, 
voire : 
Pnrler. chaoun(e) k votre tour. Speak each in your turn. 

e. Chacun, in apnoHition to ils, elles, takes the possessive leur before 
the direct object ; othorwiMo son ur leur : 
RUes r(k:it«ni chacune Usur verset They each recite their verse (each 

(chacuno h, son or leur tour). in tum)k 


d. The reflexive to chacun= * every one ' is se (soi) : 
Chacun pour soi. Every one for himself. 

3. On = 'one/ 'some one,' * we,' *you,' 'they,' 'people,' 
etc., is used as subject of a verb in the third singular, without 
specifying any person in particular : 

On dit que la reine est malade. They (people) say the queen is ill. 

A-t-on allum4 mon feu ? Has anyone lighted my fire ? 

On ne pent pas meler I'huile avec One (we, you) cannot mix oil with 
■ I'eau. water. 

a. The on construction often corresponds to an English passive, 
especially when the agent is not specified : 

On a attrapd le larron. The thief has been caught. 

On croit que la guerre est finie. It is thought the war is over. 

On vous demande. You are wanted. 

6. On may not be replaced by a personal pronoun subject : 
On est triste quand on est sans A man is sad when he is without 
argent. . money. 

c. Since on is subject only, the corresponding direct and indirect 
object, when required, are borrowed from vous : 

Lorsqu'on presse trop un poisson When you squeeze a fish too much 
il vous ^chappe. it escapes you. 

d. The reflexive to on is se (soi), and the corresponding possessive is 
son, whatever be the English equivalent : 

On se demande. People ask themselves. 

On perdrait son temps. You would lose your time. 

e. Although on is invariable, a feminine or plural noun or adjective 
may relate to it, when the sense is clearly feminine or plural : 

On est plus jolie k present. She is prettier now. 

On est si proches voisins. We are such near neighbours. 

/. On may replace a personal pronoun, often with depreciatory force : 
On y pensera. " I (we) shall see about it. 

On se croit bien fin. You (he, etc. ) think yourself very 


296 THE PRONOUN. [§405 

4. Personne and rien along with ne + a verb, or when 
alone, a verb being understood, = ' nobody,' * no one,' * not any- 
body,' etc., and 'nothing,' 'not anything,' respectively : 

Personne n'est venu. Nobody (no one) has come. 

Je n'ai parle k personne. I have spoken to nobody (not spoken 

to anybody). 
Ne dites rien. Say nothing (do not say anything). 

Personne ici ! — Personne. No one here ! — No one. 

Qu'a-t-il dit ?— Rien. What did he say ?— Nothing. 

a. If the context contains or implies negation, personne, rien, assume 
affirmative force ( = quelqu'un, quelque chose) : 
11 n'a rien dit ^ personne. He said nothing to any one. 

Personne n'a jamais rien dit. Nobody has ever said anything. 

Je vous defends de rien dire. I forbid you to say anything. 

Je crains de parler k personne. I fear to speak to anybody. 

Impossible de rien faire ! Impossible to do anything ! 

II cessa de rien donner. He ceased giving anything. 

Od trouverai-je rien de pareil ? Where shall I find anything like it? 

Sans parler k personne. Without speaking to anybody. 

h. The above rule does not apply to pleonastic ne, nor to double 
negations : 
Je crains qu'il ne fasse nial k quel- I fear he will hurt somebody. 

Ne revenez pas sans voir quel- Do not come back without seeing 

qu'un. somebody. 

Note.— The pronoun personne is moaculine (sometimes sylleptically feminine like 
Ollt 8, e, above) ; the noun personne is always feminine (cf. §303, 1, c). 

5. Quelqu'un (e) ^'somebody,' 'some one,' 'anyone,' etc., 
with its plural quelques-un(e)s = 'some,' 'some people,' 'any,' 
'a few,' etc, is the pronoun corresponding to the adjective 
quelque (§404, 6) : 

II y a qucKitrun \k. There Ik HoniolxMly there. 

Y a-t-il quelqu'un 14? Is there any one there? 

A*t-il quolquoiMnnM den fleura? Han he hoiik; (any) of the ilowors? 

II en rcfiU* quelquM'tinet. A few of remain. 

Quelqu'utie den dAmet viendra. Rome one of the ladioH will come. 

QuelqucW'tiiif le ordentk Some (people) believe it. 


6. Quelque chose = ' something,' * anything,' and is mascu- 
line, though formed from the feminine noun chose : 
Quelque chose est promis. Something is promised. 

A-t-il dit quelque chose ? Did he say anything ? 

A-t-il quelque chose de bon ? Has he anything good ? 

406. Adjectival or Pronominal Forms. 1. Aucun, 

nul, pas un, along with ne + a verb, or when alone, a verb 

being -understood, = * no,' * not any,' * not one,' as adjective, 

and 'none,' * nobody,' ' no one,' 'not one,' as pronoun : 

Aucun "I 

Nul |-6crivain ne le dit. No writer says so. 

Pas un j 

Aucun ne le croit. No one believes it. 

Je n'en ai vu aucun(e). I saw none of them. 

Pas un de ses amis ne reste. Not one of his friends remains. 

A-t-il de I'espoir ? — Aucun. Has he any hope ? — None. 

a. Aucun, but not *nul' or ' pas un,' becomes affirmative (=quelque 
or quelqu'un) when the context is negative (cf. §405, 4, a) : 

Sans aucune cause. Without any cause. 

Rien pour aucun de nous. Nothing for any of us. 

Garde/.-vous de faire aucune faute. Take care not to make any mistake. 

b. The plural adjective aucun(e)s may be used, especially before 
nouns with no singular, or before such as are preferably plural ; 
(d')aucuns = quelques-uns is sometimes found in naif or jocular style : 
II ne me rend aucuns soins. He gives me no care. 
(D')aucuns le croiraient. Some would believe it. 

2. Autre = ' other,' is usually preceded in the singular by 
un or r : 

Une autre fois ; d'autres livres. Another time ; other books. 

En avez-vous un(e) autre ? Have you another ? 

Un autre dit le eontraire. Another says the contrary. 

Les autres m'aideront. The others will help me. 

Entre autres choses. Among other things. 

a. Distinguish un autre = ' another (a diflFerent) ' from encore un = 
* another (an additional) ' : 

Donnez-moi une autre plume) ^,. 

> Cjtive me another pen. 

II i; encore une n J 

298 THE PRONOUN. [§406 

h. * Others,' 'other people,' =les autres or d'autres, sometimes au- 
trui (cf. §405, 1) : 

H se m^fie tou jours des autres. He always suspects others. 

D'autres pensent autrement. Others think otherwise. 

Bien d'autres. Many others. 

Oh$. : The d' of d'autres is a partitive sign (cf. §325, 1, &). 

c. Autres is often added familiarly to nous, vous : 
Nous autres peintres. We painters. 

Vous autres Fran9ais parlez tr^s You Frenchmen speak very fast. 

d. Observe the following expressions with autre : 

Autre part ; de part et d'autre. Elsewhere ; reciprocally. 

C'est (tout) un autre homme. He is a very different man. 

Parler de choses et d'autres. To speak of this and that. 

L'autre jour. The other day. 

Autre est promettre, autre est It is one thing to promise, and 

donner. another to give. 

Tout autre que lui. Any one but him. 

De temps k autre. From time to time. 

A d'autres (familiar). Tell that to the marines (familiar). 

e. For run. . .Tautre, les uns. . .les autres, see §406, 7, (2). 

3. M^me varies in meaning and form according to its 
position and function : — 

(1) Preceding its noun or as a pronoun, m^me = ' same,' 
and nearly always has the article : 

La (les) m6me(s) cho8e(8). The same thing(s). 

Let miens sont les mdmes. Mine are the same. 

Donnez-moi des mdmes. Give mo some of the same. 

Une mdme affaire. One and the same business. 

Des plantes de la mdme esp^. Plants of the same speoies. 

(2) Following the noun or pronoun qualified, m^me = 'self,' 
' very,' * even,' and agrees, but has no article : 

Diim («t U bont^ tntoie. Ood is goodnoHs itself. 

Moi-mtoie; eUes*mtoies. T myHt^lf ; they thomselvt^s. 

CeUmtoie; oeloi-U mftme. Tlmt itH(>lf ; thut num liiniHulf. 

Les aofaots mtoies. The very (even tlu;) (;liil(liun. 




a. Meme is also used as an adverb (invariable) : 

II nous a meme insult^s. He even insulted us. 

Quand meme il le dirait. Even if he should say so. 

b. Meme forms a number of highly idiomatic locutions : 

Cela revient au meme. That amounts to the same thing. 

;6tes-vous a meme de faire cela ? Are you in a position to do that ? 
J'irai tout de m^me. I shall go nevertheless. 

4. Plusieurs = ' several ' ; it is sometimes used in the sense 
of beaucOUp = ' many ' : 

Several men (women). 
Bring several of the pens. 
I have several of them. 
Many (people) believed it. 

5. Tel, as adjective, = ' such,' ' like ' ; un tel = ' such a ' ; 
tel, as pronoun, = 'many a one,' 'he,' 'some,' etc.: 

Plusieurs hommes (femmes). 
Apporte plusieurs des plumes. 
J'en ai plusieurs. 
Plusieurs Font cru. 

Do not believe such a story. 
Such are my misfortunes. 
There are no such animals. 
On such and such conditions. 
Like (as) a tigress. 
Some (many a one, he) who laugh(s) 
on Friday will weep on Sunday. 

Ne crois pas une telle histoire. 
Tels sont mes malheurs. 
II n'y a pas de tels animaux. 
A telles et telles conditions. 
Telle qu'une tigresse. 
Tel qui rit vendredi dimanche 
pleurera (proverb). 

a. Examples of more idiomatic uses are : 
Tel p6re, tel fils. Like father, like son. 

Tel rit, tel pleure. One laughs, another weeps. 

Monsieur un tel (Mme une telle). Mr. So-and-so (Mrs. So-and-so). 
De la musique telle quelle. Music such as it is. 

Votre argent tel quel. Your money intact. 

NoTK.— ' Such,' as adverb, is si or tellement (not 'tel'): 'Une sl belle etoile' 
' Un homme tellement cruel.' 

6. Tout (singular) = 'all,' 
tOUS (plural) = ' all ' : 
Toute ma vie ; tous les hommes. 

Tout homme ; toute creature. 
Tous (toutes) sont venu(e)s. 

'every,' 'any,' 'whole,' etc.; 

All my (my whole) life ; all (the) 

Every (any) man ; every creature. 
All have come. 

300 _ THE PRONOUN. [§406 

C'est tout ; de tous c6t^s. That is all ; on all sides. 

Tout m'effraie. Everything frightens me. 

a. Tout is often adverb =* quite,' 'wholly,' 'very,' *very much,' etc., 
and agrees like an adjective, when immediately preceding a feminine 
adjective with initial consonant or h aspirate, but is elsewhere 
invariable : 
Elles ^taient toutes p^les et tout They were quite pale and very much 

agit^s. excited. 

But : lis ^taient tout p^les et tout agites, etc. 
NOTK.— So also, in the compound tOUt-puissant, e.g., 'Elle est tOUte-puissante.' 

6. Observe the following idiomatic expressions : 

Tout le monde (cf. le monde entier). Everybody (cf. the whole world). 

Tous les mois ; pas du tout. Every month ; not at all. 

Tous les deux jours. Every other (alternate) day. 

Tous (les*) deux or les deux. Both. 

Tout k I'heure. Presently {or a little ago). 

Tout beau ; tout doux. Gently (slowly) ; softly. 

(Pour) tout de bon. Seriously. 

•Toufl deux (trois, etc.) — without ' les '—usually denotes * siniultaneousness 
(='both together,' etc.) ; les is obligatory above ten, and usual from five to ten. 

c. For the distinction between tout and chaque see §404, 2, a ; for 
tout. . . que = • however,' see §404, 5, h, note. 

7. Un is used either alone or as correlative to autre : — 

(1) Un, as adjective, = * a,' *an,' (cf. §320), 'one,' «a 
certain ' ; un, as pronoun, = 'one ' : 

La maiKon est d'un cflt<^. The house is on one side. 

Un monsieur A. I'a dit. A (certain) Mr. A. said so. 

Uno des damen I'a dit. One of the ladies said ho. 

Voici un crayon. —.T'on ai un. Hero is a pencil. — I have one. 

Leu uns sont do cet avin, Ioh au- Some are of this opinion, (the) others 
tret n'en aont imih. are not. 

a. Un a> a pronoun is often preoo<lod by 1', especially with a de 
L'un doA coimuIn out arriv/t. One of the oomhuIh haH come. 

(2) L*un I'autre, ho iilso tlm fcinininr^ and i)lural, aro 
cornV)inc<l irit/<> varioiiH <:nri-«;|jLLiv(^ |>lira.s<;s, as iollovv.s : 




Tun I'autre — ' each other 
I'un et I'autre = ' both ' ; pi. , 
I'un ou I'autre = ' either ' ; pi 
ni I'un ni I'autre (. . . ne) = ' 

Elles SB flattent I'une I'autre. 
lis parlent les uns des autres. 
Les uns pour les autres. 
L'une et I'autre occasion. 
Les uns et les autres parlent. 
Dites ceci aux uns et aux autres. 
Je prends run(e) ou I'autre. 
Parle k l'une ou k I'autre. 
Ni les un(e)s ni les autres ne sont 

pour vous. 
Ni pour run(e) ni pour I'autre. 

one another' ; pi. ditto. 
, 'both,' 'all.' 

, ditto. 

neither'; pi., 'neither,' 'none.' 

They flatter each other. 

They speak of one another. 

For one another. 

Both occasions. 

Both (all of them) speak. 

Say this to both (all). 

I take either. 

Speak to either. 

Neither (none of them) are for 

For neither. 


Indefinite Relatives. 

1. Adjectival: 2. Pronominal: 

Quelconque, any (whatever, at all). Quiconque, whoever. 

Quel que ( + subj. of etre), whatever. Qui que . . . ( +subj. of etre), who- 

Quelque . . . que ( + sub j.), what- ever. 

ever. Quoi que . . . ( + subj.), whatever. 

a. Quelconque takes -s for the plural, and always follows its noun ; 
quiconque is invariable ; the other forms are made up from quel, quel- 
que, qui, quoi, + que : 

Un (deux) poiut(s) quelconque(8). 
Des raisons quelconques. 
Quiconque parle sera puni(e). 
Quels que soient (puissent etre) 

vos desseins. 
Quelle que ftit la loi. 
Quelques efforts qu'il fasse. 
Qui que tu sois (puisses etre). 
Quoi que vous fassiez. 

Any (two) point(s) whatever. 
Any reasons whatever (at all). 
Whoever speaks will be punished. 
Whatever be (may be) your designs. 

Whatever the law was. 
Whatever efforts he makes. 
Whoever you be (may be). 
Whatever you do. 

06s. ; For the use of the subjunctive, see § 270, 4 : 

b. Qui que and quoi que are also used with ce before soit 
Qui que ce soit qui le disc. Whosoever says it. 

Quoi que ce soit qu'il dise. Whatsoever he says. 





408. Simple Adverbs, 
commoner simple adverbs : 

The following list contains the 

ailleurs, elsewhere. 

ainsi, thus, so. 

alors, then. 

apr^s, afterwards. 

assez, enough, rather. 

aujourd'hui, to-day. 

auparavant, be/ore. 

aussi, also, too, as. 

aussitCt, directly. 

autant, cw much. 

autrefois, formerly. 

beaucoup, much. 

bien, toell, very, much. 14, tliere. 

bientCt, soon. 

cependant, however. 

certes, indeed. (whUe). 

combien(?),/ioM>mu<;A{/'). lors, thert. 

dor^navant, henceforth, pas, not. 

encore, still. peu, little. 

eiifin, at last. 

ensemble, together. 

ensuite, tlien^ 

environ, about. 

expr^s, on purpose. 

fort, very. 

hier, yesterday. 

ici, here. 

jadis, formerly. 

jamais, ever, never. 

pis, worse. 
plus, more. 
plut6t, rather. 
point, not. 

pourquoi (?), why (?), 
pourtant, however. 
pr6s, near {by). 
presque, almost. 
proche, iiear {by). 
puis, then, thereupon. 
quand (?), when{?). 

comme, as, like. 
comment(?), how{?). 
da vantage, more. 
dcMlans, inside. 
dchora, outside. 
(h'?j/l, already. 
<lt;niain, to-morrow. 
dorrii're, fjehind. 
di'tMiniuiift, henc^orth. 
(IrHMouA, under, 
dewnis, above. 
d«Tant, h^ore. 

\om,far{ojSf),alongway. que!, Aot«(/) 
longtemps, (a) long quelquefois, sometimes. 

si, so ; yes. 

souvent, often. 

surtout, especially. 

tant, so much. 

tantftt, soon, recently. 

tard, late. 

t6t, soon. 

toujours, always, still. 

maintonant, now. 

mal, badly. 

m6mo, even. 

mieux, belter. 

moins, less. 

no ... , not, 

ndanmoins, nevertJteUss. tout, <{uite, entirely. 

non, no. 

oil (?), where {?). 

oui, yes. 

parfoiH, Hoinetivu'H. 

jMirtout, everywlutre. 

toutofois, liowever. 
tr6B, very. 
trop, too {much). 
vito, quickly. 
volontiorH, unllingly. 

409. Adverbs from Adjectives. Most adjectives become 
•dverbt by the Addition of -ment to the feminine singular : 







purement, purely. 


doucement, sweetly. 


. strictement, strictly. 


follement, madly. 


activement, actively. 


facilement, easily. 


s^chement, dryly. 


autrement, otherwise. 




poliment, politely. 


d6cid6ment, decidedly. 

absolument, absolutely. 



a. Adjectives ending in a vowel, other than -e, drop the -e of the 
feminine on adding -ment : 



NoTB,— The omitted e is denoted by a circumflex accent in assidtlment, COntintl- 
ment, crOment, (in)dtlment, gaiment (better ' galement '), ntlment. 

b. The following adjectives in -e change e to 6 on adding -ment : 

Adj. Adv. Adj. Adv. 

aveugle, aveugl^ment. immense, immens^ment. 

commode, c6mmod6ment. incommode, incommod^ment. 

conforme, conform^ment. opiniatre, opiniatr^ment. 

6norme, 6norm6ment. uniforme, uniform^ment. 

c. The following adjectives change the added -e of the feminine to 6 : 

























d. Adjectives in -ant, -ent (except lent, present, vehement) as- 
similate -nt to m and add -ment to the masculine form : 

Adj. Adv. Adj. Adv. 

constant, constamment, constantly. prudent, prudemment, prudently. 

61dgant, 616gamment, elegantly. etc. etc. 

But : Lentement, slowly ; prdsentement, presently ; v^hdmentement, vehemently. 

e. Gentil gives gentiraent, nicely ; the adverb to bref is brievement 
(from a parallel form), briefly ; the adverb to impuni is impunement 
(probably from L. impune^ cf. b, above), with impunity. 

f. The adverbs corresponding to bon, good, and mauvais, bad, are 
bien, well, and mal, badly. From bon comes regularly bonnement= 
* simply.' 

304 - THE ADVERB. [§§410-411 

410. Adjectives as Adverbs. Adjectival forms are not 
uncommonly used as adverbs, and, as such, are regularly 
invariable : — 

1 . A number of adjectives serve as adverbs in certain fixed 
expressions : 

Cette sottise lui coute cher. That folly is costing him dear. 

EUes parlent bas (haut). They speak low (loud). 

Such expressions are : 

coOter bon, cost dear. arrfiter court, stop short. coGter gros, cost dear. 

sentir n smell good. filer doux, '«in^ «maW.' viser haut, amj /it(;/i. 

tenir h stand firm. b\\&t dro\t, go straight. chanter juste, sinr; tn <tme. 

acheter cher, buy dear. viser 1. aim d frapper n strike straight 

coiiter h cost » chanter faux, sing out of sentir niauvais, smell had. 

vendre u sell w tune. 6crire send, write small. 

voir clair, see clearly. frapper ferme, strike hard, (a) vrai dire, speak trxdy. 
^ro\x\eTc\9Ar, prove clearly, parler n speak firmly. etc. etc. 

2. An adjective sometimes modifies another adjective : 

Des dames haut plac^es. Ladies of high rank. 

Un y^htable grand homme. A truly great man. 

3. Besides the above, a few adjectival forms serve also as 
adverbs : 

Je I'ai dit expr^s. I said it purposely. 

Soudain nous vtmes Tonnemi. Suddenly wo saw the enemy. 

Such forms are : 

bref, in uhort. mfimc, even. tout beau, not so fast. 

•xpr6ii, j/urpouly. proche, 7^ear {by). tout doux, gently. 

fort, very, hard, Untd, etc. noudain, suddenly. fvite, quickly. 

Justo, exactly, ete. *Uni\, tjuite, very, etc. 

*For tho inflootion of tout an adverb, hco |400, 0, a. 

tThe ftdverb vltemeilt- ' quickly/ In faiuiliar. 

411. Adverbial Locutions. Plirascvs with adverbial 

function arc nuiucrouH : 

.J<- viciiilroi tout k rhouro. I shall come preHontly. 

Vuno/. ilu Ixjtitiu heuru. Come oarly. 




Further examples are 

k bon marchd, cheap. 
a c6t6, near, near by. 
k droite, to the right, 
k jamais, forever, 
k la fois, at once, 
k I'avenir, in future, 
k peine, hardly, 
k peu pr68, nearly. 
au juste, eicactly. 
au moins, at least. 
<ik et \k, here and there. 
d'abord, at first. 

d'ailleiirs, besides. 

d6s lors, since. 

d'ordinaire, usually. 

d'oii, whence. 

d'oii ?, whence i 

du moins, at least. 

en avant, forward. 

en has, below, down stairs. 

en eflfet, in fact. 

en haut, above, up stairs. 

li-bas, yonder. 

la-dessus, thereupon. 

plus tot, sooner. 
sans doute, doubtlett. 
tant mieux, so much the 

t6t ou tard, sooner or later. 
tour k tour, in turn. 
tout k coup, suddenly. 
tout de suite, at once. 
tout d'un coup, all at once. 

etc.. etc. 

412. Comparison of Adverbs. 1. Adverbs are regu- 
larly compared like adjectives (cf. § 345) by the use of plus, 
moins, aussi ; que = * than,' ' as ' : 

Plus, moins facilement que Jean. More, less easily than John. 
Aussi facilement que Jean. As easily as John. 

a. Further examples, illustrating §345, a, b, c, d, as applied to ad- 
verbs : 

II ne marche pas aussi (si) vite. He does not walk as (so) fast. 

Vite comme un Eclair. As quick as lightning. 

Ilmarcheplusviteque jenepensais. He walks faster than I thought. 

De plus en plus vite. Faster and faster. 

Plus je le connais (et) moins je The more I know him the less I 
I'estime. esteem him. 

6. 'More than,' 'less than,' as adverbs of quantity = plus de, moins 
de, respectively ; they must be carefully di::tinguished from plus 
(moins) que = ' more (less) than ' in an elliptical sentence : 

J'ai plus (moins) de dix francs. I have more (less) than ten francs. 

En moins d'une demi-heure. In less than half an hour. 

But : Un Elephant mange plus que An elephant eats more than six 
six chevaux (ne mangent). horses (eat). 

2. The following are irregularly compared : 

bien, well. mieux, better. beaucoup, much. plus, more. 

1 u 11 n fpis, worse. peu, little. moins, less. 

mal, badly, ill. \ , , 

i^plus mal, worse. 


306 THE ADVERB. [§413 

a. Beaucoup = ' much (many)' or 'very much (many),' and is never 
modified by another adverb, except pas. 

3. The superlative is formed by placing le, which is invari- 
able, before the comparative of inequality : 
Le plus souvent (moins souvent). (The) most frequently (least f.). 
EUe parle le plus (mieux, moins). She speaks (the) most (best, least). 

413. Position. 1. An adverb regularly stands immediately 
after its verb, rarely between the subject and the verb : 

Charles porte souvent ma canne. Charles often carries my cane. 

On devrait lire lentement. One should read slowly. 

Se levant tard, se couchant t6t. Rising late, going to bed early. 

Us Font bien regu. They have received him well. 

Obg.: Hence the adverb regularly comes between the auxiliary and the participle in 
compound tenses. 

a. The adverbs aujourd'hui, hier, demain, autrefois, tot, tard, ici, Ik, 
ailleurs, partout, never come between the auxiliary and tlie participle : 
II est parti hier. He went away yesterday. 

Je I'ai cherch(5 partout. I looked for it everywhere. 

b. Long adverbs in -ment not uncommonly stand after the past 
participle : 

II a parl^ ^loquemment. Ho has spoken eloquently. 

c. Moat adverbs of quantity, such as peu, beaucoup, trop, etc., and 
a few short adverbs like bien, mal, mieux, etc., as also adverbs of nega- 
tion, regularly precede the infinitive : 

Tu no devrais pas trop lire. You should not read too much. 

II ne saurait mieux faire. He cannot do better. 

II parle de no pas aller. He speaks of not going. 

d. Interrogative adverbs head the phrase, as in English ; other 
adverbs are not uncommonly placed first for emphasis (cf. § 287, 3) : 
Quand allez«voui revunir? When are you going to come back ? 
Aujonrd'hai je Val« me repoeer. To-day I am going to rest. 
MalheureuMment tout est perdu. Unfortunately all is lost. 

2. Adverbs usually precede the nouns, adjectives, adverbs, 
and phrases modified by them : 

Asses de livres, et aisoz ohors. Books enougli, und dear enough. 

BISD mal 4 propos. Very unseasonably. 

§§414-415] NEGATION. 307 

a. For combien !, comme I, que !, tant !, and plus. . .plus, moins. 
moins with adjectives or adverbs, of, §350, a. 

3. Adverbial phrases follow the same rules as adverbs, 
except that only the shorter ones may usually come between 
the auxiliary and the verb : 
Nous 6tions k peine partis. Hardly had we gone, 


414. Negation without Verb. Non = * no,' 'not,' apart 

from a verb ; it is often emphasized by pas, point : 

L'avez-vous dit ? — Non, Did you say it ? — No. 

Vous viendrez? — Non pas (point). You will come? — Certainly not. 

Non, non, je n'irai pas. No, no, I shall not go. 

Non content de dire cela. Not satisfied with saying that. 

Riche ou non, il ne I'aura pas. Rich or not, he shall not have it. 

A-t-il, oui ou non, du talent ? Has he talent, yes or no ? 

Des idees non moins vastes. Ideas not less vast. 

Une maison non meublee. A house not furnished. 

Non seulement . . . mais encore. Not only . . . but also. 

a. For the use of que non, see §420, 1, a. 

415. Negation with Verb. 1. Along with a verb, a 
negation consists regularly of two parts, ne (n', see §19) to- 
gether with some other word or words ; the principal correla- 
tive expressions of this kind are : 

, , aucunement ^no< at ne. . .rien, nothing. 

. .nullement jail. ne, . .ni(. , .ni) neither. . . 

, . aucun ^ nor. 

.nul \no, none. 

.pas unj 

.personne, nobody. 

Notes.— 1. Point is usually more emphatic than pas, and is less common in ordinary 

2. Negation is often denoted by pas, without ne, in familiar language : 'Ai-je pas 
dit cela? ( = N'ai-je pas dit cela?).' 

2. Other forms of less frequent use are : 


. .pas, not. 



. . point, not. 



. .gu^re, hardly 



. .jamais, never 



. . plus, no more 



. . que, only . 


308 THE ADVERB. [§416 

a. Ne ... quelconque = ' no ... whatsoever (at all),' iie...qui que ce 
soit=' nobody whatsoever (at all),' ne...quoi que ce soit=' nothing 
whatsoever (at all).' 

Je n'ai dit quoi que ce soit. I said nothing at all. 

b. Ne...brin (lit. 'blade'), or mie (lit. * crumb'), or goutte (lit. 
•drop'), or mot (lit. ' word ') = ne. . .rien, in certain phrases : 

n n'y en a brin. There is nothing of it. 

Je n'y entends goutte. I understand nothing of it. 

c. Ne . . . 4me vivante, or homme qui vive, or Ame qui vive, etc. = 
ne. . .personne : 

II n'y avait ^me vivante dans la There was not a living soul in the 
maison. house. 

' d. Ne . . . de + an expression of time, e. g. , la (ma) vie, de huit jours, etc. : 
Je ne I'oublierai de ma vie. I shall not forget it while I live. 

416. Position. Ne always precedes the verb, and its 
conjunctive objects, if any ; pas, point and other adverbs 
immediately follow the verb, and its conjunctive pronouns, if 
any ; indefinites have their usual place. 

Je ne le leur ai pas (point) dit. I did not tell them it. 

Je n'en ai gu^re. I have liardly any of it. 

Ne les a-t-il jamais vus ? Did he never see them ? 

Je n'y resterai plus. I shall stay there no longer. 

II ne le veut nullement. He does not wish it at all. 

n ne prend aucun soin. He takes no care. 

PorBonne ne peut lo dire. Nobody can say (it). 

II n'a mal quelconquo. He has no pain at all. 

Je ne Tai dit k qui que ce soit I have told it to nobody at all. 

a. Pas, point, UHually, and plus, often, precede the HiinpK^ iuiinilivo, 
and iti» conjunctive objects ; th(!y may precede or follow avoir, 6tre, 
either when alone or in u compound infinitive : 

U parle do ne pas vouh voir. Ho Hpoaks of not seeing you. 

fitre ou no pas dtre. To bo or not to bo. 

J*^is fAoM de n« vous avoir pas I was sorry not t<> have seen you. 

vu (or de ne pM vous avoir 

vn, or de oe vous pes avoir vu). 

§§417-418] NEGATION. 309 

6. Rien as object is treated as an adverb ; it may also precede an 
infinitive like an adverb : 

II promet de ne rien dire. He promises to say nothing. 

c. The que of ne . . . que must immediately precede the word which it 
modifies : 

Je n'en ai vu que trois. I saw only three of them. 

d. To denote 'neither. ..nor,' ni is placed before each co-ordinate, 
if not a finite verb, and ne stands before the finite verb ; when finite 
verbs are co-ordinated, ne stands before each of them, while ni also 
must stand with the last, but may not stand with the first, and is 
optional with others : 

Qui le sait? — Ni lui ni moi. Who knows it? — Neither he nor I. 

II n'a ni parents ni amis. He has neither relatives nor friends. 

Je ne I'ai ni vu ni entendu. I neither saw nor heard it. 

II ne sait ni lire ni ecrire. He can neither read nor write. 
Je ne veux ni qu'il lise ni qu'il I neither wish him to read nor to 

ecrive. write. 

II ne le blame ni ne le loue. He neither blames nor praises it. 

Je ne pouvais, (ni) ne devais, ni I neither could, nor should, nor 

ne voulais c6der. would yield. 

417. Ellipsis of the Verb. If the verb be omitted, but 
understood, ne is also omitted, and the correlative itself 
denotes negation : 

Est-il venu ? — Pas encore ( = II Has he come ? — Not yet ( = He has 

n'est pas encore venu). not yet come). 

Qui est \k ? — Personne. Who is there ? — Nobody. 

Plus de larmes ; plus de soucis. No more tears ; no more cares. 

a. Pas, when so used, may not stand alone : 

Non (pas) ; pas encore ; pas lui ; No ; not yet ; not he (him) ; 
pas du tout ; pas ce soir, etc. not at all ; not this evening, etc. 

418. Ne alone as Negative. Negation with verbs is 
expressed by ne alone in certain cases, as follows : — 

1. After que = pourquoi ?, and usually after que, qui in 
rlietorical question or exclamation : 

310 THE ADVERB. [§41l 

Que ne le disiez-vous plus t6t? Why did you not say so sooner? 

Que ne ferais-je pour lui ? What would I not do for him ? 

Qui ne voit cela ? Who does not see that ? 

2. After condition expressed by inversion : 

N'eiit ^te la pluie. Had it not been for the rain. 

a. Sometimes also in conditions regularly expressed with si : 
Si je ne me trompe. If I am not mistaken. 

Qui, si ce n'est vous ? Who, if not you ? 

3. In dependent sentences after negation, either fully 
expressed or implied : 

Je n'ai pas (j'ai peu) d'amis qui ne I have no (I have few) friends who 

Boient les vdtres. are not yours. 

H n'y a rien qu'il ne sache. There is nothing he does not know. 

Non que je ne le craigne. Not that I do not fear him. 

Impossible qu'il ne vienne ! Impossible that he will not come ! 

Ai-je un ami qui ne soit fiddle ? — Have I one friend who is not faith- 

Non. ful?— No. 

a. More obscure cases of implied negation are prendre garde que = 
* take care that not,* etc., and such expressions as il tient= ' it depends 
on,' used interrogatively : 

l*renez garde qu'il ne tombe. Take care he does not fall. 

Oardez qu'il ne sorte. Take care he does not go out. 

A quoi tient-il qu'on ne fasso What is the cause of that not being 
oela ? done ? 

4. Sometimes with savoir, bouger, and with pouvoir, 
OSer, cesser + an infinitive, expressed or implied: 

Je ne MfiJH (p«iH). I do not know. 

Ne bonges (pa«) de U. I)o not stir from there. 

Je ne puis (pas) r^ndre. ' I cannot answer. 

n n'oaerait (pan) le dire. He would not dare to say so. 

BUe ne oeeee (pae) de plcurnr. She doea not cease weeping. 

a. Always ne alone in je ne saurais and je ne tais quoi : 
Je ne eaorals vous le din). I cannot tell you. 

Ne Naurios-vouN ro'aidui ? ( 'tin you not li('I|> uu- ? 

Uu Je ne tain quoi de torriblc Hoiuclliiiig iiKlotiiiahly toirible. 

§419] NEGATION. 811 

5. In a few set expressions, such as : 
N'importe ; n'avoir garde. It does not matter ; not to care. 

Ne vous en ddplaise. By your leave. 

N'avoir que faire de. To have no use (whatever) for. 

II n'est pire eau que I'eau qui Still waters run deep. 

dort (proverb). 

419. Pleonastic ne. In a que clause ne is often pleo- 
nastic, as compared with English ; thus, ne stands : — 

1. After emp^cher = * prevent/ dviter= * avoid,' a moins 
que = 'unless/ or que so used : 

Emp^chez qu'il ne sorte. Prevent him from going out. 

J'^vite qu'on ne me voie. I avoid being seen. 

A moins que je ne sois retenu. Unless I be detained. 

a. This ne is often omitted after empecher and 6viter, after empecher 
mostly when negative or interrogative. 

b. Ne may also stand after avant que : 

Avant qu'il (ne) parte. Before he goes away. 

2. After expressions of fearing, such as craindre, redouter, 
etc., avoir peur, etc., when not negative, or when negation 
is not implied by interrogation expecting negative answer, or 
by condition : 

Je Grains qu'il ne vienne. I fear he will come. 

Craignez-vous qu'il ne vienne ? Do you fear he will come ? 

But : Je ne crains pas qu'il vienne. Sans craindre qu'il vienne. 
Craignez-vous qu'il vienne ? — Non. Si je craignais qu'il vint. 

a. What it is, or is not, feared will not happen has the full negation 
ne . . . pas in the que clause : 

Je crains qu'il ne vienne pas. I fear he will not come. 

Je ne crains pas qu'il ne vienne pas. I do not fear he will not come. 

b. Interrogation or condition and negation neutralize each other, and 
ne stands : 

Ne craignez-vous pas qu'il ne vienne? Do you not fear he will come? 
Si je ne craignais qu'il ne vint. If I did not fear he would come. 

Quand meme je ne craindrais pas Even though I did not fear he would 
qu'il ne vint. come. 

312 THE ADVERB. [§419 

3. With a finite verb in the second member of a comparison 
of inequality, when the first member is not negative, or does 
not imply negation as above : 

H est plus riche qu'il ne I'^tait. He is richer than he was. 

Est-il plus riche qu'il ne I'^tait ? Is he richer than he was ? 
II gagne moins qu'il n'esperait. He earns less than he hoped. 

But : n n'est pas plus riche qu'il I'^tait ; est-il phis riche qu'il I'etait? — 

o. A negative interrogation implies aflBrmation, and ne stands : 

N'est -il pas plus riche qu'il Is he not richer than he was? 

ne I'etait ? 

NoTB.— Autre, autrement, plutdt, plus t6t, similarly take ne: 'll est tout 
autre que je ne pensais.' 

4. Usually after expressions of doubt, denial, such as 
douter, nier, disconvenir, etc., often ddsesp^rer, when 
negative, or when negation is implied as above : 

Je ne doute pas qu'il ne vienne. I do not doubt that he will come. 
Doutez-vous qu'il ne vienne? — Do you doubt whether he will 

Non. come ? — No. 

But: Je doute qu'il vienne; doutez-vous qu'il vienne? {—question for 

5. After il s*en faut negatively, interrogatively, or with 
peu, gufere, etc. : 

n ne s'en fallut pas (de) beaucoup He came very near being killed. 

qu'il ne flit tuu. 

Combien s'en faut-il que la somme How much is lacking of the sum 

n'y 8oit ? toUl ? 

Peu s'en ent fallu que je ne vinsse. I came very near coming. 

6. With compound tenses after il y a, voilk, depuis : 

n y a (voila) troiH jours que jo ne It is three days since I saw him (I 
I'ai vu. have not hccii him for, etc.). 

II avait grundi depuis quo j« ne Hu liad grown since I saw him. 
1 'avals vu. 

DvpuiN que ju ne vouh ni vn. Siiu^e I miw you. 

a. Ill a simple 14mih«- ((;«5'ir>7, '.?. '2M, 4) iM'uativ(!ly. ne. . .pas, etc., 
muni \Hi umimI : 
Voil4 uu an qu'il ne buv.m n\<r \\, h.,.! ,ii nuL no mimi. i,,,- .< yr.n 



420. Distinctions. The following are especially liable to 
be confounded in use : — 

1. Oui, Si. *Yes' in affirmation or assent is oui ; *yes' is usually 
si in contradiction, in correction, in dissent : 

L'avez-vous dit ? — Oui, monsieur. Did you say it ? — Yes, sir. 

Venez. — Oui, oui, j'irai. Come. — Yes, yes, I shall go. 

II ne va pas. — Si, monsieur, il va. He is not going. — Yes, (sir), he is 

II ne va pas ? — Mais si. He is not going ? — Yes, certainly. 

Je n'irai pas. — Si, si venez. I shall not go. — Yes, yes, come. 

Note. — The use of si, as also of the intensive si fait, etc., thoufjh very common, is 
classed as familiar by the Acad^mie ; it is often avoided by pardon, etc., or other 
expressions : ' II ne va pas.— Pardon, monsieur (il va).' 

a. Oui, si, and non, are often preceded by que, really with ellipsis of 

a whole que clause, and are then variously translated by *yes,' *so,' 
•no,' *not,' etc., or by a clause : 

Je dis que oui (non). I say yes (no). 

Je crois que oui (non). I think so (not). 

Vous ne I'avez pas ? — Oh ! que si. You haven't it ? — Oh yes ! 

Le fera-t-il ? — Je crois que oui. Will he do it ? — I think he will. 

Je dis que non. I say it is not so. 

Peut-etre que non. Perhaps not. 

2. Autant, Tant. *As much (many) ' = autant ; *so much (many)'=r 

Je gagne autant que vous. I earn as much as you. 

II but tant qu'il en mourut. He drank so much that he died 

from it. 
J'ai tant d'amis ; j'en ai autant I have so many friends ; I have as 
que vous. many as you. 

3. Plus, Davantage. Plus is used in all senses of 'more,' 'most' 
(see below); davantage (strengthened sometimes bj' bien='much,' 
encore = ' still ')= ' more,' is regularly used only absolutely, and usually 
stands at the end of its clause : 

N'en parle pas davantage. "^ c- \, j. -i. 

^^ ^ , \ t Say no more about it. 

N^en parle plus. J 

Ne restez pas davantage. 'I t\ 4. • ^ 

_- ^ ^, f t)o not remam any Jgngeri 

Ne j:«stez plu^. j ^ ^ 

314 THE NUMERAL. [§421 

Cela me plait encore davantage That pleases me still more. 

Je suis riche ; il Test bien davan- I am rich ; he is much more so. 

tage (plus). 
But only : J'en ai plus que lui ; il est plus habile ; plus de dix francs ; 
c'est ce qui le flatte le plus, etc. 

NoTB. —Davantage is occasionally followed by que in archaic style. 

4. Ne...que, Seulement. Seulement must be used, (1) when no 
verb is present, (2) when ' only' refers to the subject, (3) or to the verb, 
(4) or to a que clause, and (5) it may be used to strengthen a ne. . .que ; 
otherwise ' only ' = ne . . . que or seulement : 
Seulement les braves. Only the brave. 

Seulement mon fr^re le salt. Only my brother knows it. 

6coutez seulement. Only listen. 

n dit seulement qu'il irait. He only said he would go. 

II n'a seulement qu'a venir. He has only to come. 

But : Nous ne serons que trois {or trois seulement) ; je ne veux que voir 
son p6re {or je vcux seulement voir son p^re), etc. 

o. * Only,' referring to the subject, may be turned also by il n'y a 
que, ce n'est que ; * only,' referring to the verb, may bo turned by the 
help of faire : 
H n'y a que les morts qui ne re- The dead only do not come back. 

viennent pas. 
Elle iHi fait i\\u'. pleurer. She does notliing but weep. 

42Z. Cardinal Numerals. 

1. an, ane 

[«. yiO. 

H. huit 


2. deax 


H. nouf 


3. troll 


10. dix 


4. quatre 


11. onze 


5. cinq 


12. douzo 


«. six 


13. truizo 


7. «pt 


14, fjiuitor/.fl 










[swasa-.t dis]. 






[swasait oiz]. 



[dis set]. 



[katr ve]. 



[diz qit]. 



[katr v? obi 



[diz noef]. 



[katr ve dis]. 





quatre-vingt-onze [katr ve 5:z]. 


vingt et un 

I [vet e Ob]. 






[vend d0]. 


cent un 

[sa ce]. 





deux cents 

[d0 sa]. 


trente et un 

I [trait ec&]. 


deux cent un 

[d0 sa &]. 











mille un 

[mil &]. 





deux mille 

[d0 mil]. 

Nouns OF Number : 1,000,000 = un million [de mil j 3] ; 2,000,000 = 
deux millions [d0 miljo]; 1,000,000,000 = un milliard [oe miljair]. 

Observe: 1. The hyphen unites together compound numerals under 
100, except where et occurs. 2. Et stands regularly in 21, 31, 41, 51, 
61, is optional in 70, 71, omitted in 81, and elsewhere. 

Notes on Pronunciation : 1. The final consonant of 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 
10, 17, 18, 19, is silent before initial consonant or h aspirate of a word 
multiplied by them, not elsewhere: 'Cinq livres' [se liivr], but ' le 
cinq mai ' [la seik me]. 2. No elision or liaison occurs before huit, 
onze : Le huit [laqit]; les huit livres [le qi liivr]; le onze [la oiz]; 
lea onze francs [le oiz fra]. 3. The t is sounded in vingt in 21, 23, 24, 
25, 26, 27, 28, 29, becomes d in 22, is silent from 81 to 99, is silent in 
cent un, deux cent un, etc. 

a. Un (f. une) is the only cardinal which varies for gender : 
Une (deux, trois, etc. ) plume(s). One (two, three, etc. ) pen(s). 
Vingt et une vaches. Twenty -one cows. 

b. Cardinals are invariable for number, except that -s is added to 
quatre- vingt and the multiples of cent, but only when immediately 
preceding a noun, or an adjective + a noun, or when they themselves 
sdrve as nouns of number : 

Quatre-vingts francs. 
Trois cents (bonnes) plumes. 
Deux cents millions. 
Trois cents de pommes. 
Les cinq cents. 

Eighty francs. 
Three hundred (good) pens. 
Two hundred millions. 
Three hundred apples. 
The five himdreds. 

316 -- THE NUMERAL. [§422 

But : Trois cent un francs ; les cent hommes engages ; quatre-ving^t- 
une plumes ; deux cent mille ; trois mille milles, etc. 

N.B. — They are not nouns of number in dates (c. below) or when used as ordinals 
(§427): • L'an quatre cent * ; ' page deux cent ' ; 'page quatre-vingt.' 

c. The form mil (not 'mille') is used in dates of the Christian era 
from 1001 to 1999 : 

En mil huit cent quatre-vingt- In eighteen hundred and ninety- 

onze. one. 

(En) l'an mil six. (In) the year 1006. 

But : L'an mille (sometimes mil) ; l'an deux mille trois cent ; l'an mille 

cent du monde, etc. 

d. From 1100 to 1900 dates are often expressed by hundreds, as 
so frequently in English : 

Onze cent(s) ; treize cent(8). Eleven hundred ; thirteen hundred. 

Quinze cent cinquante. Fifteen hundred and fifty. 

e. * A (or one) hundred ' = cent; 'a (or one) thousand '= mille : 
Mille soldats. A (one) thousand' soldiers. 

Note. — Septante =70, octante = so, nonante = 90, six- vingt(s) = 120, and quinze- 

Vlllgt(8)=300, are now obsolete in the literary language. 

422. Ordinal Numerals. The ordinal numerals denote 
order or place in a series relatively to the first; they are 
formed, from ' third ' up, by adding -i^me to the last conso- 
nant of the corresponding cardinal, cinq adding u, and f of 
neuf Ixjconiing v before -i^me : 
Ist premier [prornjej. 7th septi^me [setjem]. 

{second [ROg^j. 8th )iuiti6me [ifitjem]. 

deuxicme [d0zj£m]. 9th neuvi^me [nwvjem]. 

3rd troisi^me [trwazjem]. 10th dixidmo [dizjcm]. 

4th quatri^mo [katrjemj. llth onzi6mo [ozjem]. 

0th oinqui^mo [sSkjem]. 2lHt vingt ct uni^me [v?t o ynjem]. 

6th nixidme [tizjcm]. 22Md vingt-deuxirnic [v?n<l d0/jeni}. 

NoTMk— 1. BMldM th« ordinary forms, tiers (f. tierce) ' third,' quart(e) ' fourth,' 
•raoMdlo ft few exprtfsioiM and in fractlonH : ' Lc tiers *^tat.' *Tho conniionorH' ; 
*ln msteon tltTM/ 'In the hotue of a third party'; ' Uno fl^vro quarto,' 'A 
qvsfftsa sffue.' 

1 QolBt - * 0fth ' la UMd only In 'OharleM^nlnt,' Oharlea V. (the Emperor)' ; ' Sixte^ 

§§423-424] COLLECTIVES — FRACTIONS. 317 

a. Ordinals are like ordinary adjectives in inflection and agreement, 
and regularly precede the noun : 

La (les) premi6re(8) maison(s). The first house{s). 

Nous sommes arrives les premiers. We arrived first. 

h. Deuxieme instead of second is more usually employed in a series 
of more than two, and always in compounds : 
Le second volume. The second volume (of two). 

Le deuxieme volume. The second volume (of three, etc. ). 

La cent deuxieme fois. The hundred and second time. 

423. Collectives. The following nouns are used with 
collective force : 

un(e) couple, a couple {two). une cinquantaine, about fifty, 

une paire, a pair. une soixantaine, about sixty. 

une huitaine, about eight. une centaine, about a hundred. 

une dixaine, about ten. un cent, a hundred. 

une douzaine, a dozen. un millier, {about) a thousand. 

une quinzaine, about fifteen. un million, a million. 

une vingtaine, about twenty. un milliard, \ i,;/7;/>w 

une trentaine, about thirty. un billion, J 

une quarantaine, about forty. etc. 

a. They take -s in the plural, and have the construction of ordinary 
nouns : 

II y a une centaine d'^16ves. There are about 100 pupils. 

II y en a deux cents. There are two hundred of them. 

Des milliers de gens. Thousands of people. 

Deux millions de francs. Two million(s of) francs. 

424. Fractions. The numerator is regularly denoted by a 
cardinal and the denominator by an ordinal; 'half ' = moiti^, 
f., as a noun, and demi as an adjective or a noun : 

fun demi, \ un quart. fV trois seiziemes. 

^\une moitie. f trois quarts. ^^^ sept centiemes. 

f deux demis. \ un cinqui^me. ^\ dix cent uniemes. 

^ un tiers. \ un septi^me. rhhs onze milli^mes. 

I deux tiers. yV ^"i onzieme. etc. 

a. Demi, before its noun, is invariable and joined by a hyphen, but 
agrees elsewhere; as a noun, demi is hardly used, except in arithmetical 
calculations : 

318 ' THE NUMERAL. [§§425-426 

Une demi-heure ; une heure et Half an hour ; an hour and a half. 


Quatre demis = deux. Four halves = two. 

La moitie de la somme. Half the sum. 

b. The definite article is required before fractions followed by de + a 
noun when the noun is determined by the definite article, a possessive, 
or a demonstrative, and similarly for pronominal substitutes for such 
constructions : 

La moitie du temps. Half the time. 

Les trois quarts de ces (ses) biens. Three-fourths of those (his) goods. 
J'en prends les cinq sixiemes. I take five-sixths of them. 

425. Multiplicatives. The following are used as adjec- 
tives, or absolutely as nouns : 

double, double. septuple, seven/old. 

triple, triple. octuple, eight/old. 

quadruple, quadruple, nonuple, rnuefold. 

quintuple, Jive/old. decuple, tenfold, 

sextuple, sixfold. centuple, hundredfold. 

As nouns, le double, the double, etc. : 
La triple alliance. The triple alliance. 

Payer le double. To pay twice as much. 

a. Double is sometimes adverb : 
H voit double. He sees double. 

2. * Once,' * twice,' * three times,' etc. = une fois, deux 
fois, trois fois, etc.: 

Dix foiH dix font cent. Ton times ten make a hundred. 

J'ai pay6 deux fois autant, I paid twice as much. 

426. Numeral Adverbs. Tliey are formed from the 
orcIinalH by -ment, .urcording to yu\v. (cf. i^\0^) : 
promi^roment, Jirntf Jirntly. troiHii^'moment, thirdly. 
•ooondement K,^^„^/y. etc. etc. 

a, SubttitutcN for thom, of very frequent use, are : d'abord = ' at 
firtt,' puitsHhen,' 'after that,' eniuite = ' then,' 'next,' en premier 
UflOa'in the fimt place,' en second lieu, eto. =:'in the second place,' 
etc. ; or the Latin atlverb f(»rniH primo, tecundo, tertio, etc, abbre- 
Tiat«d to V, 2*, 8*, etc., are UHcd. 



427. Cardinals and Ordinals. 1. Premier =* first ' is 

the only ordinal used to denote the day of the month or the 
numerical title of a ruler ; otherwise, cardinals are employed : 
Le premier (deux, dix) mai. The first (second, tenth) of May. 

Le onze de ce mois. The eleventh of this month. 

Napoleon (Gregoire) premier. Napoleon (Gregory) the First. 

Henri (Catherine) deux. Henry (Catherine) the Second. 

2. Observe the following date idioms : 

Quel jour du mois est-ce aujour- What day of the month is this? 

d'hui ? 
Quel jour du mois sommes-nous n » » n 

aujourd'hui ? 
Quel quanti^me du mois est-ce n m h » 

aujourd'hui ? 

C'est aujourd'hui le quinze. To-day is the fifteenth. 

Ce sera demain le seize. To-morrow will be the sixteenth. 

Le six Janvier. On the sixth of January, 

lis sont arrives lundi. They came on Monday. 

D'aujourd'hui en huit. A week from to-day (future). 

11 y a quinze jours. A fortnight ago. 

3. Other numerical titles, book, chapter, scene, page, etc., 
are expressed as in English, ordinals being used before nouns, 
and either cardinals or ordinals after nouns : 

Tome troisi^me (trois). Volume third (three). 

La dixi^me sc6ne du second acte. The tenth scene of the second act. 

a. The first of two ordinals joined by et or ou is not uncommonly 
replaced by a cardinal : 
La quatre ou cinqui^me page. The fourth or fifth page. 

h. Cardinals must precede ordinals : 
Les deux premieres scenes. The first two scenes. , 

428. Dimension. The various methods of indicating 
dimension may be seen from the following : 

(1) Une table longue de dix pieds. A table ten feet long. 

(2) Une table de 10 p. de longueur n n n n n 

(3) Une table de 10 p. de long. .t n .. n n 

(4) Une table d'une longueur de 10 p. h h m m m 

S20 ~ THE NUMERAL. [§429 

(5). La table est longue de 10 p. The table is ten feet long. 

(6) La table a 10 p. de longueur. n n n m n ti 

(7) La table a 10 p. de long. n n m h n v 

(8) La table a une longueur de 10 p. i. n m h h n 
Obs.: 1. Dimension after an adjective is denoted by de, cf. (1), (5). 

2. Substitutes for the adjectival construction of (1) are seen in (2), (3), (4). 

3. The verb • to be ' is 6tre, as in (5), or avoir, as in (6), (7), (8). 

4. Haut, large, long (but not * 6pais,' ' profond ') may be used as nouns, instead 

of hauteur, largeur, longueur, cf. (3), (7). 

a. 'By,' of relative dimension = sur ; *by,' after a comparative = de : 

Cette table a dix pieds de longueur This table is ten feet long by three 

sur trois de largeur. wide. 

Plus (moins) grand de deux pouces. Taller (shorter) by two inches. 

429. Time of Day. The method of indicating the time of 
day may be seen from the following : — 

Quelle heure est-il? What time (o'clock) is it? 

H est une (deux) heure(8). It is one (two) o'clock. 

H est trois heures et demie. It is half-past three. 

Trois heures (et) uii quart. A quarter past three. 

Qimtre heures moins un quart. A quarter to four. 

Trois heures trois quarts. A quarter to four. 

Trois heures dix (minutes). Ten minutes past three. 

Six heures moins cinq (minutes). Five minutes to six. 

Cinq heures cinquantc-cinq. Five fifty-live. 

D eat midi et demi. It is half-pant twelve (noon). 

II est minuit (et) un quart. It is a quarter pant twelve (night). 

A huit heures du soir. At eight o'clock in the evening. 

A quelle heure ? At what o'clock ? 

A trois heures prc'cises. At three o'clock precisely. 

Vers (leu) trois heures. Towards (at about) three o'clock. 

Ob».: 1. ' It if (WM, eto.)'»U est i6tait, etc). 

1 fl«Qrt(l) Is never omitted. 

tb Bt is esse nt ld only st the half hour. 

4. DemKe) screes with heure (f.) or with mldl (m.). minuit (m.). 

6. Mlnutee Is often omitted. 

t, * A qturier to,' ' minutee to ' ie molni before the following hour. 

7. TwclTe o'clock Is never douse beurei. 



430. Age. Idiomatic expressions denoting age are : 

Quel ^ge avez-vous ? How old are you ? 

J'ai vingt ans. I am twenty (years old). 

Je suis ag6 de vingt ans. n 11 n n n 

Une fille ^g^e de six ans. A girl six years old (of age). 

Plus age de deux ans. Older by two years. 

Obs.: 1. The construction with avoir is the more common. 

2. An(s) may not be omitted in specifying age. 

3. • By ' = de, after a comparison. 


431. Simple Prepositions. The following list contains 
the commoner simple prepositions : 

hy to, at, hi, on, etc. 
apr^s, after, next to. 
avant, before. 
avec, with. 
chez, with, at — 's. 
contre, against. 
dans, in{to). 
de, ofy from, with, etc. 
depuis, 8i7ice, from. 
derri^re, behind. 
d6s, from, since. 
devant, before. 

durant, during. 
en, in, to. 

entre, between, among. 
envers, towards. 
hormis, except. 
jusque, till, until. 
malgr^, in spite of. 

parmi, among. 
pendant, during. 
pour, for. 
sans, without. 
sauf, save, except. 
selon, according to. 
sous, under. 

moyennant, by means of. suivant, according to, 

nonobstant, notwith- sur, on, upon, 

standing. vers, towards. 

outre, besides. voici, here is {are). 

par, by, through. voila, there is {are). 

432. Prepositional Locutions. Phrases with preposi- 
tional function, mostly ending in de or a, are numerous : 

A c6t^ de I'eglise. Beside the church. 

Jusqu'a la semaine prochaine. Until next week. 

A travers la foret. Through the forest. 

322 ~ THE PREPOSITION. [§§433-435 

Such locutions are : 

h. cause de, on account of. audessus de, above. faute de, for tvant of. 

k c6t6 de, by the side of. au lieu de, instead of. jusqu'.'i, as far as, untU. 

k force de, by dint of. autour de, around. par dela, beyond. 

k r^^ard de, tcith regard to. au moyen de, by means of. par-dessous, under. 

k I'exception de, except. auprfes de, near by. par-dessus, over. 

a I'insu de, unknown to. au travers de, across, through, prfes de, near. 

k travers, across, through. d'aprfes, according to. quant .'i, as for. 

au de\k de, beyond. en de(;k de, on this side (of). vis-a-vis de, opposite. 

au-dessous de, tinder. en d<5pit de, in spite of. etc., etc. 

433. Position. Prepositions regularly precede the governed 
word, as in English : 

Je parle de Jean (de lui). I speak of John (of him). 

a. Conjunctive personal pronouns governed by voici, voila, precede : 
Me voici ; les voil^ Here I am ; there they are. 

En voici quelques-uns. Here are some of them. 

6. Durant is sometimes placed after its noun : 
Burant sa vie (or sa vie durant). During his life. 

434. Repetition. The prepositions a, de, en, are regu- 
larly repeated before each governed substantive ; the repetition 
of other prepositions is regular in contrasts, but is elsewhere 
optional, as in English : 

II aitne k lire et k dcriro. He likes to read and write. 

Le pire de Jean ct do Mario. The father of John and Mary. 

En France ou en Italic. In Franco or Italy. 

rfur terro et sur mer. By land and sea. 

Par la perauaiiion ou \mr la force. By persuasion or force. 

But : Pour lui ot (pour) son frd'ro, etc. 


435. Prepositions vai*y greatly as to idiomatic force in 
different languages. In tlie following sections are given some 
of the various French equivalents of the commoner English 

§§436-438] IDIOMATIC distinctions. 323 

436. About. 

1. In the sense of ' around '=autour de : 
Regardez autour de vous. Look about you. 
Autour de la place. About the square. 

2. In the sense of 'concerning,' *of ' = de, a : 

De quoi parlez-vous ? What are you talking about ? 

A quoi pensez-vous ? What are you thinking about ? 

3. In the sense of ' with,' ' about (the person) ' = sur : 
Avez-vous de I'argent sur vous ? Have you any money about you ? 

4. Denoting approximation = environ, prhs de, k pen pres, vers : 
Environ (pr^s de, k peu pres) deux About two thousand francs ; about 

mille francs ; vers (sur les) dix ten o'clock ; about 1830. 
heures ; vers 1830. 

437. After. 

1. Denoting time, rank, order, position =apres : 

Apr^s diner ; le premier apres le After dinner ; the first after the 
roi ; on met I'adjectif apr6s le king ; the adjective is placed after 
nom ; courez apr^s lui. the noun ; run after him. 

2. In the sense of * at the end of ' = au bout de : 

Au bout de trois siecles. After three centuries. 

3. Unclassified : 

De jour en jour ; dessin(5 d'apres Day after day ; drawn after Raph- 
Raphael ; le lendemain de son ael ; the day after his return ; he 
retour ; 11 tient de sa m^re. takes after his mother. 

438. Among. 

1. In, the sense of ' in the midst of,' 'surrounded by'=parmi, some- 
times entre : 

Une brebis parmi les loups. A sheep among wolves. 

H fut trouv^ entre les morts. He was found among the dead. 

2. ' Among (distributively or reciprocally) ' = entre : 

II le partagea entre ses amis. He divided it among his friends. 

Us parlaient entre eux. They spoke among themselves. 

3. Unclassified : 

C'^tait ainsi chez les Grecs. It was so among the Greeks. 





1. Denoting place, time, 


a, sometimes en : 

A r^ole ; a Douvres ; k table ; k 
cinq heures ; k I'age de ; en tete 
de ; en (au) meme temps ; k la 
fin (enfin). 

2. In the sense of * at the house, 
J'ai ^t4 chez vous; 11 est chez 

Monsieur Ribot. 

3. Unclassified : 

A mes ddpens ; k tout prix ; 
d'abord ; sous la main ; entrer 
par la fenetre ; en haut (bas) ; au 
moins ; sur mer ; en guerre. 

At school ; at Dovet ; at table ; at 
five o'clock ; at the age of ; at 
the head of ; at the same time ; 
at last. 

etc., of,' 'at — 's' = chez : 
I was at your house ; he is at Mr. 

At my expense ; at any price ; at 
first ; at hand ; come (go) in at 
the window ; at the top (bottom) ; 
at least ; at sea ; at war. 



1. Denoting place, in the sense of * in front of,' 
devant : 

Mettez cela devant le feu ; le jar- 
din est devant la maison ; il 
prdcha devant le roi. 

2. Denoting time, order =avant 
Avant midi ; je I'ai vu avant vous ; 

mettez I'article avant le nom. 

3. Unclassified : 
Sons nies youx ; la veille de la 

bataillo ; coniparaftro {uir-de- 
vant lo jugo. 

in the presence of ' = 

Put that before the fire ; the garden 
is before the house ; he preached 
before the king. 

Before noon ; I saw it before you ; 
put the article before the noun. 

Before my eyes ; the day before 
the battle; to appear before the 

441. By. 

1. Denoting the agent after the passives par, de (of. §240) : 

Bile fut sainie par le voluur ; ils 8ho was seized by the roblior ; they 
■oot aimte de tous. are loved by all. 

2. Denoting meaiM, way, etc. =rpar (uHually) : 

Par la po«te ; par ehemin de fur ; By jxwt ; by raihvuy ; l.y this 
|iar Ott moyMi ; par un anti. means ; by a friend. 




3. Denoting measure = de ; relative dimension = sur : 

Plus grand de la tete ; plus age 
de dix ans (de beaucoup) ; plus 
lourd d'une livre ; moindre de 
la moiti^ ; dix pieds sur six. 

4. Unclassified : 

De jour (nuit) ; k I'ann^ ; goutte 
k goutte ; il est midi k ma 
raontre ; connaitre de vue ; de 
vive voix ; un tailleur de son 
^tat ; vendre au poids ; fait k 
la main. 

Taller by a head ; older by ten years 
(by far) ; heavier by a pound ; 
less by half ; ten feet by six. 

By day (night) ; by the year ; drop 
by drop ; it is noon by my watch ; 
to know by sight; by word of 
mouth ; a tailor by trade ; to sell 
by weight ; made by hand. 



1. In the sense of 'for the sake of,' 'instead of,' * (in exchange) for' 
= pour : 

Mourirpourlapatrie; jelefaispour To die for one's country ; I do it for 
vous ; donnez-moi ceci pour cela. you ; give me this for that. 

2. Denoting destination : 

Je pars pour la France ; une let- I leave for France ; a letter for 
tre pour vous. you. 

♦ 3. Denoting a period of time (future) = pour : 

Je resterai (pour) huit jours ; j'en I shall stay (for) a week ; I have 
ai pour dix ans. enough of it for ten years. 

Note.—' For ' of time not future is variously rendered : • J'^tais huit jours absent or 
J'6tais absent pendant huit jours,' ' I was absent for a week ' ; ' II y a (voici, vuUk) 
deux heures que je lis or Je lis depuis deux heures,' I have been reading for two 

4. Unclassified : 
Mot k mot or mot pour mot ; un 
remede contre (pour) ; trembler 
de crainte ; par exeraple ; quant 
k moi ; vendre dix francs or 
laisser (donner) pour dix francs ; 
remercier (punir) de ; changer 
pour (contre) ; c'est k vous de 
dire ; malgre tout cela. 

Word for word ; a remedy for ; to 
tremble for fear ; for example ; 
as for me ; to sell for ten francs 
or to give for ten francs ; to 
thank (punish) for ; to change 
for ; it is for you to say ; for 
all that. 

326 THE PREPOSITION. [§§443-444 

443. From. 

1. Usually = de : 

II vient de Paris ; de trois k He comes from Paris ; from three 
quatre heures ; je I'ai appris to four o'clock ; I heard it from 
de lui. him. 

2. In the sense of * because of,' * out of,' ' through ' =par : 

Cela arriva par negligence ; par That happened from carelessness ; 
exp<^rience (amiti^). from experience (friendship). 

3. In the sense of ' dating from' - des, depuis, k partir de : 

Des (depuis, k partir de) ce jour ; From that day ; from 1820 (on). 
k partir de 1820. 

4. Unclassified : 

D'aujourd'hui en huit ; dessin^ A week from to-day ; drawn from 
d'apr^s nature ; boire dans un nature ; to drink from a glass ; 
verre ; Otez cela a I'enfaut. take that from the child. 

444. In, into. 

1. Denoting place or time specifically, i.e., in the sense of 'within,* 
* inside of,' ' in(to) the interior of ' = dans (cf. §333, 3) : 

Dans ce pa<juet (champ) ; dans In this parcel (field) ; in(to) the 

la niaison ; dans rAfnc^ue aus- house ; in Soutli Afrioji ; in the 

trale ; dans toute la ville ; whole city ; in the same year. 
dans la mSme ann^. 

Nora.— The governed noun usually has the definite article. 

2. Denoting place or time generally = en, k (cf. §333, 2, 3) : 

En Afriquo; k la maison ; aux In Africa; in the house (at home); 
champfl ; au Canada ; h. . Ber- in the fields ; in Canada ; in Ber- 
lin ; k la campagne (ville) ; en lin ; in the country (city) ; in 
hiver; au printompH ; en paix. winter; in spring; in ikiicc. 

Hon.— The governed word after en hM but rarely the dcflnito artidcOnoHtly in flxod 
■Hirwtlnm befor* inllUU vowel sound): ' En I'air ' ; ' En I'honneur de,' etc. 

3. In the Mnte of 'at the end of (timo)' = dans; 'in the courHo of 

Le train part dam uoe hetm ; on The train loaves in an Iiour; one 
pent aUor 4 L. en une heure. can go to L. in an hour. 

§§445-446] IDIOMATIC distinctions. 


4. Denoting place, after a superlative = de : 

La plus grande ville du monde. The largest city in the world. 

5. Unclassified : 

Par la pluie ; le matin ; de nos 
jours ; par le pass^ ; k I'avenir ; 
d'avance ; entre les mains de ; 
k mon avis ; sous le r^gne de ; 
sous presse ; de cette mani^re ; 


In the rain ; in the morning ; in 
our day(s) ; in the past ; in the 
future ; in advance ; in the hands 
of ; in my opinion ; in the reign 
of; in press; in this way; one 
in ten. 



1. Usually =de: 

Le toit de la maison ; la ville de The roof of the house ; the city of 

Paris ; un homme d'influeiice ; Paris ; a man of influence ; a 

une livre de the ; digne d'hon- pound of tea ; worthy of honour ; 

neur ; il parle d'aller. he speaks of going. 

2. Denoting material = en ; 

Un pont en bois (fer); les pieces Abridge of wood (iron); ten franc 

de dix francs sont en or. 
3. Unclassified : 

C'est aimable k vous ; sur 100 
personnes 50 sont ^chappees ; 
docteur en medecine ; un de 
mes amis ; majeur. 

pieces are of gold. 

It is kind of you ; of 100 persons 
50 escaped ; doctor of medicine ; 
one of ray friends ; of age. 

446. On, upon. 

1. Usually = sur: 
Le livre est (je mets le livre) sur The book is (I put the book) on the 

la table. 


2. Is omitted in dates before specified days : 

Le dix mai ; je viendrai mardi ; il On the tenth of May ; I shall come 

on Tuesday ; he arrived on the 

arriva le lendemain. 




3. Unclassified : 
Par une belle jouniee d'^t^ ; mettre 
au feu ; pendre centre le mur ; 
dans la me ; dans I'ile ; dans 
I'escalier ; en (dans un) voyage ; 
en visite (cong^) ; en chemin 
(route) ; d'un c6t^ ; tomber par 
terre ; a genoux ; dans cette 
occasion ; k cheval (pied) ; k 
droite (gauche) ; k son arriv^ ; 
au contraire ; pour affaires. 

On a fine summer day ; to put on 
the fire ; to hang on the wall ; 
on the street ; on the island ; on 
the stairs ; on a journey ; on a 
visit (a holiday); on the way (the 
road) ; on one side ; to fall on 
the ground ; on one's knees ; on 
that occasion ; on liorseback (foot); 
on the right (the left) ; on his 
arrival ; on the contrary ; on 


1. Unclassified : 

Out of. 

Boire dans ijn verre ; copier dans To drink out of a glass ; to copy 
un livre ; regarder par la out of a book ; to look out of the 
fenetre. window. 

448. Over. 

1. In the sense of * above ' = au-dessus de : 
Au-dessusde la porte^taient Merits Over the door were written those 
ces mots ; les nombres au-dessus words ; the numbers over one 
de mille. thousand. 

2. Denoting motion above =sur, par, par-dessus : 

Pastez la main sur co drap ; par Pass your hand over this doth ; 
monta ot par vaux ; il sauta over hill and dale ; he leaped 
par-doKKUK la haie. over the hedge. 

3. UnclaHHJfiod : 
Au dclii do la rivifero ; I'omportcr Over the river ; to triumph over ; 
Bur (triomplKT do) ; mo n^jouir to rejoice over ; to watch over, 
do ; voillcr Mur. 

449. Through. 

1. Denoting motion aoroMsIt travers (au travers de), par : 
Je iMiMtai U traverN(au trovorM do) I paHMod through the forost; to pass 
la furdt ; poiwer par Berlin. through Berlin. 


2. In the sense of ' because of,' ' owing to,' —par : 
Par negligence. Through carelessness. 

450. Till, until. 

1. Unclassified : 

Jusqu'^ demain ; pas avant I'ann^e Till to-morrow ; not till next year ; 

prochaine ; jusqu'ici ; du matin till now ; from morning till 

au soir. night. 

451. To. 

1. Denoting the indirect object = a (cf. §362, 2) : 

Je I'ai donn^ k un ami. I gave it to a friend. 

2. Denoting motion to = k, en (cf. § 333, 2, 3) ; in the sense of * to the 
house, etc., of,' ' to 's ' = chez : 

II va k Paris {k I'ecole ; au Japon ; He goes to Paris (to school ; to 

a un bal ; en France ; en Por- Japan ; to a ball ; to France ; to 

tugal ; chez eux ; chez mon Portugal ; to their house, etc. ; 

ami). to my friend's). 

3. In the sense of * towards ' = vers (physical tendency), envers (moral 
tendency) : 

Levez les yeux vers le ciel ; il est Raise your eyes to heaven ; he is 
juste envers tons. just to alL 

4. In the sense of ' as far as ' =jusqu'k : 

Venez jusqu'au bout de la rue. Come to the end of the street. 

5. Unclassified : 

Le voyage (train) de Montreal ; The journey (train) to Montreal ; to 
^crire sous dictee j dans ce but. write to dictation ; to this end. 

452. Towards. 

See §451, 3. 

453. Under, underneath. 

1. Usually = sous : 
Sous la table ; sous la loi ; sous Under the table ; under the law ; 
peine de niort. under pain of death. 


2. Denoting lower than, less than = au-dessous de : 

Au-dessous du coude ; vendre une Under tlie elbow ; to sell a thing 
chose au-dessous de sa valeur. under its value. 

3. Unclassified : 

Fouler aux pieds ; k cette eondi- To tread under foot ; under this 
tion ; dans les circonstances ; condition ; under the circum- 
dans la n^essit^ de ; mineur. stances ; under the necessity of ; 

under age. 

454. With. 

1. In the sense of * along with,' * in company with ' = avec : 

Dfnez avec moi k I'hfitel ; un offi- Dine with me at the hotel ; an offi' 
cier avec des soldats. cer with some soldiers. 

2. In the sense of * at the house, etc. , of ' = chez : 
II demeure chez nous. He lives with us. 

3. Denoting instrument, manner = avec (usually) : 

Frapper avec un marteau ; ecrire To strike with a hammer ; to write 
avec une plume ; avec courage with a pen ; with courage (force). 

4. Denoting a characteristic = k : 

Un homme k la Imrbe noire. A man with a black beard. 

6. * With* of accessory circumstance is usually turned by an absolute 
construction : 

II parla les yeux baissds. Ho sjwke with downcast eyes. 

6. In the senso of ' from,' ' on account of,' and after many verbs and 

Ello pleura de colore; couvrirde; She wept witli anger; to cover 
content do. with ; Hatisfied with. 

7. UnoUuMad: 

A Texoeption de; k haute voix ; With the exception of ; with a loud 
ibrMOUverta; d« bon upfM^tit ; voice; with open arms; with .i 
4 FcbU nil ; de tout mon o(i!ur. giKnl appctilo; with (ho iiak<'<l 

eye ; with all my heart. 





455. Conjunctions. The following table contains most 
of the conjunctions and conjunctive locutions in use : — 

t^ (la) condition que^, on condition 

*afin que^, in order that, so that. 
ainsi, therefore, hence. 
ainsi que, as well as, as. 
alors que, when. 
k mesure que, as, just as. 
*a moins que. . .ne^, unless. 
apres que, after. 

a proportion que, in proportion as. 
attendu que, considering that. 
tau cas ou^, in case {that). 
*au cas que^, in ca^e {that). 
aussi, hence, therefore. 
aussitSt que, as soon as. 
*avant que^, before. 
*bien que^, though, although. 
car, for. 

*ce n'est pas que'^, not that. 
cependant, however, yet. 
comme, as. 

fdans le cas ou*, in case {that). 
*de crainte que...ne2, for fear 

fde fa9on que 2, .so that. 
fde maniere que 2, so that. 
de meme que, as well as. 
Me peur que. . .ne'^, for fear that. 
depuis que, since. 
+de (telle) sorte que^, so that. 
des que, as soon as, when, since. 
done, now, then, therefore. 
*en attendant que^, until. 
*en cas que^, in case {that). 
encore, yet^ still. 

*encore que*, though, although. 

fen sorte que'^, so that. 

*en supposant que^, supposing that 

et, and. 

et . . . et, both . . . and. 

excepts que, except that. 

tjusqu'4 ce que^, until. 

*loin que^/ar/row. 

lorsque, when. 

mais, but. 

*malgre que"*, though, although, 

neanmoins, nevertheless, 

ni, nor. 

ni. . .ni, . .(. . .ne), neither. . .nor. 

*nonobstant que"*, notwithstanding 

*non (pas) que^, not that. 
non seulement . . . mais encore, not 

only . . .but also. 
or, now. 
ou, or. 

ou. . ou, either. . .or. 
outre que, besides that. - 

parce que, because. 
partant, therefore, hence. 
pendant que, while, whilst. 
*pour peu que"*, if ever so little. 
*pour que 2, in order that. 
pourtant, yet, however. 
*pourvu que^, provided that. 
puisque, since. 
quand, when. 

tquand raeme'*, though, even if. 
tque^, that, than, as. 
*quoique^ though^ although. 

332 THE CONJUNCTION. [§§456-457 

*soit que . . . ou que*, whether . . .or. 
selon que, according as. suivant que, according as. 

fsi^, »/(§271, 3, a). *suppos6 que', suppose that. 

tsi bien que^, so that. tandis que, whilst, ivhereas. 

tsi pen que*, however little. tant . . .que, both. . .and. 

sinon, if not, or else. tant que, as long as. 

sit6t que, as soon as. ftellement. . .que^, so . .that. 

soit . . . soit, wheOier . . .or. toutefois, yet, nevertheless. 

soit . . . ou, whether . . .or. une fois que, as soon as. 

*soit que. . .soit que*, whether. . .or. vu que, seeing that. 

• Followed by the subjunctive. 

t Followed by the indicative or subjunctive. 

N.B.— Conjunctions without * or t in the table are followed by the indicative. 

1 See §271, 1 (time before which or up to which). 

2 See §271, 2 (purpose or result). 

3 See §271, 3 (condition). 

4 See §271, 4 (concession). 
6 See §271, 5 (negation). 

6 See §269, §271. 6, and §458. 


456. Et. I . Wlien repeated, et usually denotes ' both . . . 
and ' ; otherwise it stands with the last only of two or more 
clauses : 

Et V0U8 et lui (vous) savez mioux. Both you and he know better. 
Lea fcmmcH pleuraient, oriaiont ct The women wept (and) screamed 
geAticuluient. and goHticulatod. 

2. ' And ' after a verb of motion is usually untranslated : 
AUoz lour parlci . Go and speak to them. 

457. Ni. 1. A finite verb with ni '>r must be 
preceded by ne ; 

n n'a ni or ni argent. II*- Imm iKuthur gold nor Hilver. 

n ne mange ni ne boit. ile neither uuIh nor (Irinks. 

a. For the poKJtion <,f ni ni ne, h(;<i 8-1 Ifi, ''. 

§§458-459] USE of certain conjunctions. 333 

2. In sentences of negative force, * and,' ' or,' are rendered 

by ni : • 

Honneurs ni richesses ne font le Honours and wealth do not consti- 
bonheur. tute happiness. 

3. Observe the following equivalents of 'neither,' 'not 
either,' 'nor either,' 'nor,' when not correlative : 

Je ne le ferai pas. — Ni moi non I shall not do it. — Nor I either 
plus. ■ {or Neither shall I). 

II ne le fera pas non plus. He will not do it either. 

II ne I'a pas fait, et il ne le fera He has not done it, nor will he 
pas. (do it). 

458. Que. 1. Que = ' that' is followed by the indicative 
or subjunctive according to the context : 

Je dis que vous avez raison. I say that you are right. 

Je suis fache que vous ayez raison. I am sorry that you are right. 

2. Que often replaces another conjunction ; when so used, 
it takes the same construction as the conjunction for which it 
stands, except that que instead of si = ' if ' always requires 
the subjunctive : 

Quand vous aurez fini, et que vous When you have finished, and (when 

aurez le temps. you) have time. 

Venez que ( = *afin que,' 'pour Come that I may see you. 

que') je vous voie. 

Si vous venez demain, et que vous If you come to-morrow, and (if you) 

ayez le temps. have time. 

3. Que may not be omitted before a finite verb, as ' that ' 

often is in English : 

Je crois qu'il viendra et qu'il res- I think (that) he will come and 
tera. (that he will) stay. 

459. Distinctions. The following conjunctions are espe- 
cially liable to be confounded in use : 

1. Quand, Lorsque. They are equivalents in the sense of * when,' Jp^ 
but quand (not 'lorsque') serve s also as an interrogative adverb in ^^ 
direct or indirect questic»ns : 




Qnand est-il arriv^ ? When did he come ? 

Dis-moi quand il est arriv^. Tell me when he pame. 

Quand {or lorsque) je I'ai vu. When I saw him. 

Nous partirons lorsque {or quand) We shall leave when the letter 
la lettre arrivera. come^. 

2. Pendant que, Tandis que. Pendant que = ' wliile,' 'whilst,' 
'during the time that'; tandis que=' wliile,' 'whilst,' 'during the 
time that,' and also, ' whilst,' ' on the contrary,' * whereas ' : 

Read the newspaper while I write 
this note. ^ 

Whilst you are here. 

The father works, while the son 
does nothing. 

3. Depuis que, Puisque. Depuis que denotes time ; puisque denotes 
cause assigned : 

Lisez le journal pendant que j'^cris 

ce billet. 
Tandis que vous etes ici. 
Le p6re travaille, tandis que le fils 

ne fait rien. 

Je suis solitaire depuis que raon 

fr^re est parti. 
H me faut rester, puisqu'il n'y a 

pas de train ce soir. 

I am lonely since my brother went 

I must remain, since there is no 

train this evening. 


460. Interjections. The commoner interjections and ex- 
pressions used OS such are : — 

1, Joy, admiration, approval : 

iih !, ah/ 

ha, ha ! or hi, hi ! {to denote 

Inm I, good! 
hion !, gnotlt 
k mcrveillo I , capital I 

2. Diagust, disapproval, indifference : 

At,JU/ foin <lo ! , n phigitf iipoti f 

fl dono ! , far nhame 1 jwuah ! , diHrfUHliny /, /<if(yh / 

fU6ai,JU(m/ oh \, oh f 

h. la bonne houro ! , welt done /, that's 

riyhi I 
bis 1 , encore I 
bravo ! or bravissimo I , well done /, 

hravo ! 
hourra ! or vivat I , hurrah ! 





par exemple ! , dear me / 
zest ! , pshaw ! 

mis^ricorde ! , mercy ! 
ouf ! {to express suffocation^ or relief 
and exhaustion). 

quoi !, what ! 

vraiment !, indeed ! 

tiens !, indeed ! 

par exemple !, you don't say so! 

misericorde !, mercy ! 

en avant !, forward ! 
ferme !, steady ! 
preste !, quick! 

bah ! or ah ! bah ! , nonsense I, 

pooh-pooh I 
baste ! , enough /, pooh /, nonsense ! 

3. Grief, fear, pain : 

ah.\y ah ! 

oh. \, oh ! 

h^las ! , alas ! 

ai« ! , oh J, oh dear! 

4. Surprise : ♦ 
ah !, ah I 
oh !, oh ! 
eh !, ah ! 
ha !, ha I 
comment !, what ! 

aliens !, come ! 
courage !, cheer up I 
voyons !, come now ! 
qk !, or or 9^ !, or sus !, or or sus !, 

now then I 

6. Warning : 
gare !^ look out !, take care ! 

7. Calling: 
he !, or ohe !, or hoik !, ho /, hoy ! 

halloo / 
hem !, ahem! 

8. Calling for aid : 

a moi !, or au secours !, help ! au voleur !, stop thief I 

a I'assassin or au meurtre !, murder ! au feu !, fre ! 

9. Silencing, stopping : 

chut ! or st !, hush I tout doux or tout beau !, gently ! 

silence !, silence! not so fast! 

motus !, not a word ! halte-U !, stop there ! 

NoTB. — Akin to interjections are imitations of sounds : Cric crac !, breaking ; drelin, 
drelin ! or drelin, din, din!, ringing; pan pan !, hang ; pif paf !, gunshots; bourn!, 
cannonading ; rataplan !, drum ; dare dare !, quick movement ; cahin-caha, jogging 
along ; clopin -dopant, hobbling ; tic tac, ticking, etc. 

holil !, stop /, stop ! 

st !, hi there ! 

qui vive !, who goes there ! 





461. French Abbreviations. The following are 
commoner abbreviations used in French : 


c. -a. -d. = c'est-a-dire, that is. 

O* or O = compagnie, company. 

etc. =et caetera. 

fr. or f . = francs, francs. 

h. = heure, hour. 

in-f*=in-folio, folio. 

J. -C. = Jesus-Christ, Jesus Christ. 

M. = Monsieur, Mr. 

MM. = Messieurs, Messrs. 

M. R. or M. R . . . = Monsieur R. or 
Monsieur R Trois-Etoiles, Mr. 
R. or Mr. R—. 

M* = marchand, merchant. 

M* (pi. M~) = maitre, is used with 
names of laujyers instead of mon- 

Mgr. (pi. NNSS. ) = monseigneur, 
my lord. 

W^ (pL M'>-) = Mademoiselle, 

M°'« (pi. M«^) = Madame, Mrs. 

M" = maison, house, firm. 

ms. (pi. mss. ) = manuscrit, manu- 

N. -D.^= Notre-Dame, Our Lady. 

N.S. = Notre- Seigneur, Our Lord. 

n°=numero, number. 

R.S.V.P. =Repondez s'il vous plait, 
an ansioer is reque filed. 

S. A. R. = Son Altesse Royale, His 
Royal Hiijhness. 

s.-ent. =sous-entendu, understood. 

S. Exc. = Son Excellence, His Ex- 

S. M. (pi. LL. MM. ) = Sa. Majesty, 
His {Her) Majesty. 

S. S. = Sa Saintet^, His Holiness. 

8. V. p. = s'il vous plait, if you 

V« = veuve, undow. 

!• (in titles) = premier, the First. 
II (in titles) = deux, the Second. 
Le X V* sidcle, etc. = le quin/Jdme 
■itele, the 16th century. 

1** (fom. !"•) = premier, first. 
2* = douxi6me, second. 
l» = primo, firstly. 
7'»«»=8eptembre, September. Etc. 



[The references at the head of the exercises are to the sections in the 
Grammar on which they are based.] 

EXERCISE I, a, (§§156-161.) 

1. What are you eating ? 2. We are eating apples. 3. It 
was necessary that they should eat. 4. Who is calling'? 
5. We are calling. 6. The general leads his army. 7. .We 
shall lead the horsQS. 8. Who is throwing stones'? 9. It will 
freeze. 10. He is buying a coat. 11. We never yield. 
12. They will never yield. 13. The servant is peeling apples. 
14. When will he pay? 15. They never pay. 16. The servant 
is cleaning the kitchen. 17. We shall clean our gun. 18. The 
little girl wipes the dishes. 19. The farmer sows the seed. 
20. It is freezing. 21. We are going to school. 22. We 
went home. 23. They used to go to market on Saturdays. 
24. He will send it. 25. The servant is bringing the horses. 
26. I send him there. 27. I shall go to school. 28. Let 
them go to the city. 29. It was necessary that you should go 
there. 30. They will buy a box. 31. Let us bring the children. 
32. Bring the children, 33. Let him not throw stones. 
34. We have led the horses to the stable. 35. Let us trace a 
line. 36. We are advancing. 37. They were eating. 38. We 
ate. 39. They will eat. 40. Let us advance. 41. Let us 
never yield. 42. Let us call the children. 43. Let us not go 
there. 44. The queen has been reigning a long time. 45. The 
children were throwing stones. 46. He led the horse to the 
stable. 47. He paid the money. 48. The servant wiped the 
dishes. 49. The child traced a line. 

EXERCISE II, a. (§§162-166.) 

1. He is running. 2. Shall we run? 3. Run fast, my little 
boy. 4. He is acquiring a fortune. 5. It was necessary that 
we should run. 6. They will conquer the enemy. 7. The 


general has acquired glory. 8. He gives him consecrated 
bread. 9. They acquire knowledge. 10. We shall acquire 
property. 11. There is holy water. 12. Let us not run. 

13. Let them acquire it. 14. We are gathering apples. 
15. It was necessary that they should gather flowers. 16. He 
welcomed me. 17. We shall gather them. 18. Let us not 
start with (de) fear. 19. He assails his enemy^ 20. He will 
assail his enemy. 21. He is sleeping. 22. Let us not sleep. 
23. He must sleep. 24. We shall soon sleep. 25. They fall 
asleep. 26. He is leaving for France. 27. He left yesterday. 
28. If he were asleep, I should call him. 29. He will go out. 
30. Let him not go out. 31. The water boils. 32. The water 
was boiling. 33. When he speaks, he lies. 34. He makes 
use of it. 35. He will feel it. 36. If he were here, we should 
not sleep. 37. The water will soon boil.* 38. He has run. 
39. It was necessary that we should sleep. 40. I have not 
slept. 41. He never lies. 42. The horses would run, if 
they were not tired. 43. They ran. 44. We acquired it. 
45. The horses run over the field. 46. He does not consent 
to it. 47. He will never consent to it. 48. Let him not 
make use of it. 49. We were running. 50. We fell asleep. 

EXERCISE III, a. (§§167-179.) 

1 . He failed on (en) that occasion. 2. It is a prosperous 
country. . 3. He flee.s. 4. Let us not flee. 5. They fled. 
6. He will not flee. 7. It was necessary that I should flee. 
8. Here lies a hero. 9. Here lie the remains of the great 
Napoleon. 10. I hate evil. 11. Men hate their enemies. 
12. I^t us not haU^ our enemies. 13. He hates his father. 

14. Let him not hate his father. 15. Was it necessary that 
he should hate his father? 16. She dies. 17. They will 
die. 18. Let us not die. 19. It was necessary that he should 
die. 20. He died. 21. She will die. 22. Let him not die. 
23. If they died, wo shouh! l)e sorry for it. 24. That tree is 
dying away. 25. Open the door. 26. We have opcniul the 
box. 27. He ofFers mo hi.s Iniok. 28. She used to sulXo.r a 
great deal. 29. If wo luul uny, wo should ofler you .some. 
30. ColumbuB diflcoverecl America. 31. Wo hold it. 32. Let 
bim not hold it 33. I hold it. 34. Let us hold it. 35. We 

EXERCISE IV, a. 339 

are coming. 36. We shall come. 37. We should come, if you 
would come. 38. If I should come, I should find it. 39. They 
are coming back. 40. It is necessary that he come. 41. It 
was necessary that he should come. 42. Hold it. 43. He 
has held it. 44. The purse contains money. 45. If he comes, 
we shall be glad (of it). 46. They will come back. 47. He 
is ill clad. 48. He clothes himself well. 49. He will clothe 
his child. 50. It is necessary that he clothe his child. 

EXERCISE IV, a. (§§180-188.) 

1. We beat the horse. 2. He fells the tree. 3. It is 
necessary that he fight the enemy. 4. We drink water. 5. 
They drink milk. 6. They were drinking wine. 7. We shall 
drink water. 8. Let him drink milk. 9. He has drunk the 
wine. 10. It was necessary that we should drink wine. 11. 
We shall not drink wine. 12. The wind rustles in the trees. 
13. He encloses his garden. 14. He will close the bargain. 
15. Those flowers will soon open. 16. He is concluding his 
argument. 17. Let us conclude the bargain. 18. The bread 
is baking well. 19. If he were there, he would conclude 
the affair. 20. It was necessary that he should conclude the 
bargain. 21. He drives the cows to the field. 22. They 
destroyed their books. 23. They will construct houses. 24. 
Let us translate this phrase. 25. It was necessary that we 
should translate that book. 26. He led his horse to the 
stable. 27. We were translating our exercise. 28. We con- 
structed a house. 29. Let him translate his lesson. 30. I 
have translated a book. 31. I translated a book. 32. She 
was preserving plums. 33. We are preserving cherries. 34. 
That suffices. 35. That will be sufficient. 36. Let that 
suflfice. 37. Five francs a day are sufficient for him. 38. I 
know that gentleman. 39. It is necessary that we should 
know him. 40. Let him appear. 41. The cows eat the grass. 
42. It was necessary that we should know him. 43. It was 
necessary that he should appear. 44. He will not disappear. 
45. We used to know him. 46. When he appears, we shall 
conclude the affair. 47. Let him recognize him. 48, ,You 
know him, do you not? 49. You will know him. 50. He 

340 EXERCISES v-vi, a. 

EXERCISE V, a. (§§189-193.) 

1. The little girl is sewing. 2. We were sewing. 3. They 
will sew. 4. She sewed. 5. They had sewed. 6. Let us 
sew. 7. Let her not sew. 8. Let us not fear. 9. They fear. 
10. Let him not be afraid. 11. We shall not fear. 12. Men 
fear death. 13. They pity us. 14. He was painting a pic- 
ture. 15. Put out the fire. 16. Let him put out the lamp. 
17. It was necessary that w^e should rejoin our friends. 18. 
The general girds on his sword. 19.1 feared the rain. 20. I 
believe you. 21. We sha,ll not believe it. 22. Let us believe 
it. 23. I used to believe it. 24. It is necessary that he 
should believe it. 25. He did not believe it. 26. It was 
necessary that he should believe it. 27. We did not believe 
it. 28. Do not believe it. 29. The flowers are growing. 30. 
The tree grows. 31. That tree will grow fast. 32. We grew. 
33. It was necessary that we should grow. 34. The trees 
were growing fast. 35. Let it grow. 36. He has believed. 
37. The tree has grown. 38. Do not say so {le). 39. We 
say so. 40. We should not say so, if we did not believe it. 
41. Is it necessary that he should say so? 42. They used 
to say so. 43. Let him not say so. 44. Was it necessary 
that we should say so? 45. Do not say so again. 46. Do not 
slander. 47. They do not say so. 48. Cain was cursed by 
(de) God. 49. We do not curse our enemies. 50. If I should 
say so, would you believe me? 

EXERCISE VI, a. (§§194-200.) 

1. I was writing when he came. 2. Lot us write our ex- 
ercise. 3. We wrote a letter. 4. Write y(jur les.son. 5. Let 
him write. 6. We shall write our letter. 7. It was neces- 
sary that you should write. 8. He has described his travels. 
9. They are writing. 10. Would you write, if I should write? 
H. Do what I «ay. 12. Ho did not do it. 13. He has not 
done his work. 14. Let us do our work. 15. L<( liim do 
what I said. 16. It was necessary that you sliould do so. 
17. I shall do so wlien you come. 18. H you do so, we shall 
do so. 19. If you should say so, we should do it. 20. I was 
doing my work when he came. 21. It is necessary that we 
do that. 22. If T do thi.s, will you do that? 23. I was 


reading, when he came. 24. He will never read that book. 

25. Read that letter. 26. They are reading their book. 
27. Did you not read the newspaper? 28. If I should read 
this book, would you read that one? 29. Is he reading the 
newspaper? 30. It was necessary that I should read the 
letter. 31. Let him not read that book. 32. Did they not 
read this book ? 33. I placed the book on the table. 34. Do 
not commit that crime. 35. It is necessary that he put on 
his coat. 36. We shall put on our clothes. 37. They hat^e 
placed their books on the table. 38. We shall not permit it. 
39, Does he permit it ? 40. It was necessary that he should 
not permit it. 41. What would you say, if we should permit 
it. 42. The miller grinds the wheat. 43. We are grinding 
wheat. 44. We ground the wheat. 45. Let him grind the 
wheat. 46. The prophet said that a child would be born. 
47. We are born weak. 48. We were born [on] the same 
day. 49. Let a young nation arise ! 50. Was it necessary 
that hatred should arise between them? 

EXERCISE VII, a. (§§201-211.) 

1. That does not please him (lui). 2. You please me. 
3. Come when it pleases you. 4. Do so if you please. 
5. May it please you. 6. Take your places. 7. He takes 
his hat from (sur) the table. 8. If I should take it, what 
would you do? 9. Let him take his book. 10. It was 
necessary that he should take the medicine. 11. We took 
our places. 12. Have you learnt your lesson? 13. He will 
not undertake that. 14. Fire resolves wood into (en) smoke. 
15. We have resolved to (de) do it. 16. He solved the diffi- 
culty. 17. He will solve the difficulty. 18. Let us not laugh 
at (o?e) him. 19. Why is he laughing ? 20. If I should laugh, 
what would you say? 21. Was it necessary that he should 
laugh? 22. We laugh at them. 23. Water springs from 
the earth. 24. Follow me. 25. The dog follows his master. 

26. Let him follow us. 27. It is necessary that we should 
follow you. 28. We followed him. 29. If I should follow 
him, it would please him. 30. We shall never follow him. 
31. Is he not milking the cow? 32. If I should do that, he 
would not milk the cows. 33. When we were in the country, 
we used to milk the cows. 34. Let him milk the cow. 


35. That distracts him from his work. 36. The general con- 
quers his enemies. 37. We conquer our passions. 38. If 
you were to conquer your passions, you would be happy. 
39. Our army will conquer. 40. We have conquered our 
enemies. 41. Let him conquer his passions. 42. He is not 
selling his house. 43. He will never sell it. 44. Horses live 
on (de) hay. 45. He lives only for himself. 46. Let us live 
in (en) peace. 47. He will live yet [a] long time. 48. Louis 
XIV. lived in the 17th century. 49. Long live the King. 
50. Hurrah for liberty ! 

EXERCISE VIII, a. (§§212-222.) 

1. We receive our friends. 2. He has received the letter. 
3. Let us not receive the money. 4. If they should receive 
us, we should be glad. 5. We owe him (lui) money. 6. We 
shall owe him something. 7. If they receive it, we shall tell 
(it to) you. 8. Let him not receive it. 9. We received the 
money. 10. Sit down. 11. He sits down. 12. They will sit 
down. 13. Ij^it us sit down. 14. It was necessary that we 
should .sit down. 15. If we should sit down, would you tell 
(raconter) us a story? 16. Let them not sit down. 17. That 
does not become him (lui). 18. That will not become us. 
19. We sit down. 20. The payment falls due. 21. His 
influence has declined. 22. It will be necessary to do it. 23. 
It is necessary to l)e there. 24. Passion moves men. 25. 
Steam and wattn* drive (mouvoir) machines. 26. His story 
moved (^,moi(,voir) the audience. 27. Such a story must move 
men. 28. We shall go out, if it does not rain. 29, It was rain- 
ing when we came. 30. It will rain. 31. I did not think it 
would rain. 32. It has rained. 33. I shall come, if T can. 
34. I shall come when I can. 35. They cannot go away. 

36. I would do 80, if I could. 37. I wish that he may not be 
able to do so. 38. I could do that, if T were rich. 39. You 
may do so, if you desire. 40. Could (condl.) you not give rae 
some? 41. We know our lesson. 42. Do you know how to 
do thati 43. That child cannot write ; he is too young. 44. 
I cannot write ; I have? a soic lingc^r. 45. Do you know that 
gentleman T 40. T used to know how to swim. 47. Your 
father must not know that. 48. Wo know it. 49. Wo shall 
know it to-morrow. 

EXERCISES ix-x, a. 343 

EXERCISE IX, a. (§§223-225.) 

1. That horse is worth one hundred dollars. 2, Virtue is 
worth more (mieux) than riches. 3. Those houses are worth 
more (plus) than these. 4. That was worth more last year. 
5. That will be worth more next year. 6. If that were worth 
more, I should take it. 7. He has nothing (which is) of value 
(subj.). 8. We shall not see him again. 9. Do you see 
him? 10. I saw him. 11. We saw him. 12. If we should 
see him, we should tell (it to) him. 13. When we see him, 
we shall speak to him about it. 14. We must see our parents. 
15. It was necessary that we should see our children. 16. I 
have seen him. 17. If we wished to do it, we could do it. 
18. You may come when you wish. 19. He will wish to do 
that when he can. 20. Be so good as to sit down. 21. If 
you will sell your house, I shall buy it. 22. Will you be so 
kind as to give me some? 23. We do not wish to do that. 
24. Should you like to see him ? 25. I should like to see him, 
if I could. 26. I could do this, if I wished. 27. If it rains, 
we cannot go out. 28. If they were willing, they could do" it. 
29. If they are not willing to tell (it to) you, you will not 
know how to do it. 

EXERCISE X, a. (§§227-229.) 

Qu'est devenu son fr^re ? What has become of his brother ? 

Je sais ce qu'il est devenu. I know what has become of him. 

Elle est nee. She was born. 

EUe est morte. She died. 

Elle est mont^e. She has gone up (or up stairs). 

NoTK. — In this exercise, verbs having the asterisk in the list §229, 2, are to be con- 
jugated with 6tre when intransitive. 

1. Your mother has come, has she not? 2. No, she has 
not yet come ; she will come to-morrow. 3. Our friends have 
gone to church ; let us go (there) too. 4. The old gentleman 
who lived in that house died last night. 5. (The) Queen 
Victoria was born on the twenty-fourth of May. 6. My little 
sister was born on the tenth of March. 7. How old is your 
father ? 8. He is seventy ; he was born before the death of 
Napoleon. 9. What has become of your brother? 10. He 

344 EXERCISE XI, a. 

has gone to {partir pour) France. 11. When did he go? 
1 2. He went yesterday morning. 1 3. Is your father out 1 
14. No, sir, he is in. 15. When did your father return ? 

16. He has not yet returned; he will return next week. 

17. The servant has brought down the trunk. 18. Where is 
your sister ? 19. She lias gone down for breakfast. 20. Where 
are the children *? 21. They have gone up stairs. 22. Why 
did they not come down when I was there? 23. What is the 
matter, my child? 24. It was slippery, and I fell. 25. My 
father has gone into the house. 26. Although he was born 
rich, he is now poor. 27. He died poor, although he was once 
rich. 28. I have not seen him to-day ; what has become of 
him 1 29. I don't know what has become of him. 30. Have 
you taken up the gentleman's trunks? 31. Not yet, but I 
shall take them up immediately. 32. At what o'clock did 
your sister go out this morning? 33. She went out at half- 
past iline. 34. Where is my sister? 35. She has gone up 
stairs ; she has gone to get her books. 

EXERCISE XI, a. (§230.) 

Si vous vouliez bien me le dire. If you would kindly tell me. 
Faites-les entrer. Show them in. 

1. We do not wish to leave this country; we should like to 
remain here, but if we cannot, we shall go away. 2. You ought 
to go home (my) cliildren ; it is late. 3. We cannot go home ; 
it is dark, and our father told us to (de) wait for him. 4. We 
cannot go away l)efbre six o'clock ; we are to wait here till 
our friends come. 5. We could have written the letter, if we 
had known that you desired it. 6. Tliat beggar could have 
ha^l work, if he hud wanted it, l)ut he was too lazy ; he would 
not work, and now he must beg. 7. Those children cannot 
rea<l yet; they are too young. 8. If they had been able to 
re<ul, they would not liave believed all that was said to them. 
9. You ought to let th(!in go away, for their father told them 
that they were to leave before (the) night. 10. You might 
have seen them, if you luid lieen wilHng to come with me. 

11. Our teacher told uh that we were to write this exercise. 

12. We are Ui have a house huilt next year. 13. Their 
teacher made them '.vritf> t,]\r\r exerri c 1 j. Wo should have 

EXERCISES xii-xiii, a. 345 

a house built, if we were rich enough. 15. We said to the 
innkeeper, will you be so kind as to have our horses saddled 1 
We are going to start. 16. Opium makes [us] sleep. 17. It 
is very warm ; if this great heat continues, it will kill the 

EXERCISE XII, a. (§230.) 

1. Those children make a great deal of noise ; they talk too 
much ; • make them be silent. 2. That girl could write, if she 
wished (it). 3. If you would kindly tell me where the doctor 
lives, I should send for him. 4. Do you know Daudet's La 
Belle- Nivernaise ? 5. Oh, yes, it is a charming book ; I liked 
it so well that I had ray pupils read it. 6. That is a beautiful 
picture. 7. Yes, I have just been showing it to your mother 
and sister, 8. When did you see my father ? 9. E had just 
been speaking with him, when you came. 10. What are you 
going to do to-morrow 1 11. To-morrow we are going to see 
the Invalides and the Arc de Triomphe, and the day after 
to-morrow we are to see Notre-Dame and the Louvre (m.). 
12. We ought to have visited the Louvre when you were with 
us; you could have shown us the fine pictures. 13. May I go 
with you when you visit the Louvre next time ? I should like 
to have explained to me some of the beauties of the finest 
pictures. 14. That gentleman must have been in Paris, for 
he speaks French like a Parisian. 15. Why did you not 
make those ladies sit down when they were here 1 16. They 
said they would not stay, because you were out. 17. There 
are ladies at the door. 18. Very well, show them in. 
19. Your son ought to write his exercises. 20. Very well, 
make him write them. 21. If I had made him study his 
lessons when he was at school, he would have become a better 

EXERCISE XIII, a. (§§231-234.) 

1 . The French people are brave and gay ; they (il) have 
their {ses) defects, but also their good qualities. 2. Few 
people believe that the earth is not round. 3. Most people 
believe that the earth will be destroyed. 4. The greater part 
of his friends abandoned him. 5. Many think that our friends 
will not succeed. 6. A great number of men were killed. 


7. The Swiss people are brave, they (il) will always be free. 8. 
More than one house was burnt. 9. Is it your friends who live 
in the house on the hilH 10. Yes, it is they; they have lived 
there for two years. 11. You and he were there, were you 
not? 12. Yes, he and I were there, and your brother too. 
13. Will you and your brother come and see us, when you are 
in London? 14. We shall be very happy to (de) visit you. 
15. Do you see those two children? Both were born [on] the 
same day. 16. You or I shall speak. 17. There happen 
many misfortunes here below. 18. There arose a great quarrel 
between them. 19. Who went for the doctor? 20. It was 
(pres.) I who went for him. 21. Do you see those two gentle- 
men? Both have had houses built this year. 22. Religion, 
truth, honour, all was abandoned. 23. Many think that you 
will never be able to build your house. 24. The majority are 
not always right. 25. If there happened such misfortunes to 
me, I should leave the country. ^ 26. Were it only a few lines, 
I should like you to write to me. ^27. If you and I were 
young, fine things would be done (reflex, impers.). 28. Who 
can have done that, if not our friends? 29. Neither he nor 
his brother can go away ; both must stay. 

EXERCISE XIV, a. (§§235-238.) 

1. Is that book yours or your brother's? 2. How much 
did these books cost? 3. I do not know how much they cost. 
4. Does that merchant provide you cheap with what you 
need? 6. Wliat is the matter with that boy this morning? 
6. I do not know what is the matter with him. 7. Do 1 say, 
or can I say, the half of what he has done ? 8. Whatever 
men may do, they cannot escape death. 9. What books did 
your father buy when he was in tliecity? 10. Your father- 
told me what your l>rother had doiui. 1 1. Your brother told 
me what ho had done. 12. Will you tidl mo. where those iiuui 
were when you saw them? 13. I cannot tell you wh(;re ihv.y 
were. 14. We have more Ixioks than that g(!ntl(Mnan has. 
15. We have more Ixioks tlian you have. l6, Virtu(? is a 
beautiful thin|<, lionco wo love it. 17. My father is h(.>re ; 
perhaps he will come to see you. 18. However good men 
may Ihj, they are sometimes poor. 19. fcJuch are my reasons 

EXERCISE XV, a. 347 

for doing so. 20. You have told me that my friend has gone;- 
I did not know (impf.) it, but perhaps you are right. 21.1 
wish you were here, were it only to encourage us. 22. That 
man does not respect himself, hence he cannot be good. 

23. Come and see us, said he, as soon as you can (fut.). 

24. If I do this, thought he, I shall be punished, hence I shall 
not do it. 25. When was your little brother born 1 26. I do 
not know where that man died. 27. To whom did your friend 
give his gold watch 1 28. I do not know ; perhaps he gave it 
to his sister. 29. I cannot do (de) such things ; am I not [an] 
Englishman 1 30. Do I not tell you that I shall be there, and 
that I shall see you ? 

EXERCISE XV, a. (§§239-241.) 

On lui obeit. 1 tt • i ^ 

T, . , ,. r -He IS obeved. 

II est obei. J "^ 

On me I'a pardonn^. I have been pardoned (for) it. 

1. America was discovered by Christopher Columbus. 2. 
The first steamboat was built by Fulton. 3. We have been 
deceived by that scoundrel. 4. We have been deceived. 5. 
That gentleman has been mistaken in that affair. 6. Where 
is that said? 7. Oh, that is said everywhere. 8. Who com- 
mitted that crime? 9. It was our neighbour's brother. 10. 
Will he not be punislied? 11. No, he has been pardoned for 
it. 12. I have often seen it done. 13. I have been told that 
you had it done. 14. Is that not done everywhere? 15. Oh, 
no, that is never done amongst respectable people. 16. How 
unfortunate he is ! He is a good fellow, but he is deceived 
and suspected everywhere. 17. How little it is ! It can 
hardly be seen. 18. That man is not a good teacher; he is 
not obeyed by his pupils 19. There is a house to be sold. 
20. There is an exercise to be done. 21. That beggar was 
given bread and milk. 22. We were made read our lesson. 
23. That is a man to be feared. 24. They were told that you 
were not here. 25. Why were we not told that our friends 
had gone away ? 

*Elle s'esfc rapp3l6 ce que j'ai dit. 
*Elle s'est souvenue de ce que j'ai dit 

348 - EXERCISE XVI, a. 

EXERCISE XVI, a. (§§242-247.) 

She remembered what I said. 

Je me le rappelle. "\ ,. i • 

^ , . y I remember it. 

Je m en souviens. J 

Je me le rappelle. 'k t i i • 

_ • -I 1 . ^ 1 remember him. 

Je me souviens de lui. J 

lis se souviennent de moi. They remember me. 

Je m'en sers. I use it (I make use of it). 

II s'en passe. He does without it. 

Elle s'est fait mal k la main. She (has) hurt her hand. 

Elle s'est cass6 le bras. She has broken her arm. 

Elle s'est tue. She became silent. 

♦In se rappeler, se is indirect, in se souvenir, se is direct. 

1. They have not yet gone away; they will remain liere till 
to-morrow. 2. When you are in front of Mr. Jackson's, be 
good enougli to stop.**^ 3. How have you been this long time 1 
fl I have been very well. 5. How has your mother been, 
since she has been living in Toronto? 6. How unfortunate 
I am, she exclaimed, my friends remember me no longer. 
7. When the door opens, we can go in. 8. Where is my 
book? I cannot do without it. 9. Why do you not make 
use of that pen? 10. It is not a good pen ; I cannot use it. 
11. There are some ladies in the parlour; very well, have 
them sit down, and ask them to wait a little. 12. Why are 
you crying, my little girl ? 13. I have fallen and hurt myself. 
14. Where did you liurt yourself? '15. I hurt my hand. 
16. Why did those ladies not sit down? 17. They would not 
sit down, l)ecause they could not stay. 18. If you wish to 
use tliis ink and paper, T shall give you somey -19. It was 
very slipiMiry this morning, and my nu)th(»r in going <l()wn the 
stnwt, fell an<l broke her arm. 20. If you cannot do without 
this UK>k, r shall lend it to you. 21. 1 (tan do without it 
now, but I sliali need it n(»xt week. 22. J)o you rciruunbor 
what wiiK told you last evening? 23. No, I do not renu;mber 
it. 24. Did that little girl hurt herself badly, when she fell ? 

25. YoH, slie hurt herself very badly; she broke her arm. 

26. Ifave those young hwlios writUui letters to each other? 

27. They have writU^ii many ; they hav(» been writing to each 



other for two years. 28. I am not well this morning ; T hurt 
my head. 29. Are you using your pen now '] 30. No, T am 
not using it; you may have it, if you need it. 31. Do you 
remember the gentleman who lived in that large house on the 
hill ? 32. Yes, I remember him very well. 33. One cannot 
do without money ; it is useful everywhere. 34. I remem- 
bered what he had said, as soon as I saw him. 35. Be silent, 
(my) children, you are speaking too loud. 36. As soon as I 
came, he became silent. 

EXERCISE XVII, a. (§§242-247, conti7iued.) 

Comment vous appelez- 

^ rWhat are you called ? 

\ What is your name ? 
Je m'appelle Jean. I am called John (my name is John). 

Se promener k pied (a cheval). To take a walk (a ride). 

Sepromeneren voiture (en bateau). To take a drive (a row or sail). 

Elle s'est couchee a dix heures. 

Elle s'est levde k six heures. 


Elle ne s'y est pas attendue. 

Le pretre les a mari^s. 

Elle s'est mariee a {or avec) mon 

Elle s'est marine hier. 
II est all^ se promener en bateau. 
Allons nous promener. 
Elle s'est endormie. 
Se connalt-il en tableaux ? 
II s'y connait assez bien. 
Vous ennuyez-vous ici ? 

She went to bed at ten. 

She rose at six. 

Wait for me. 

She did not expect it. 

The priest (has) married them. 

She (has) married my cousin. 

She was married yesterday. 

He has gone for a row {or sail). 

Let us go for a walk. 

She fell asleep. 

Is he a good judge of pictures ? 

He is a pretty good judge of them. 

Are you tired of being here ? 

1. What is that little boy's name ? 2. His name is Henry. 
3. What are you going to do to-day? 4. We are going to 
go for a drive. 5. We are not going for a drive ; we prefer 
to go for a walk. 6. Let us go to bed now, and then we shall 
get up early. 7. Is your brother out? 8. Yes, he has gone 
for a drive. 9. While we were out for a drive, we met your 
brother on horseback. 10.^ While they were out for a ride, 
they met us on foot. ll.^Let us go for a walk in that beau- 
tiful forest. 12.^ Has he gone for a ride or a walk? 13. He 


has gone for a sail. 1 4. The children went to bed at eight 
o'clock, and they will get up at six. 15. We shall wait for 
him here; he has gone for a walk. 16. That does not sur- 
prise me; I was expecting it. 17. I was not expecting to see 
him there. 18. Mr. Jackson has married his eldest daughter 
to a very rich man. 1 9. Who married them ? '• 20. It was 
the priest who lives in the little village. 21. My cousin was 
married yesterday. 22. To whom was she married ^ ^ 23. She 
was married to the gentleman who lived here last year. 
24. When are you going to get married? 25. I shall never 
get married^' 26. What is the name of the gentleman who 
married your cousin 1 27. If the children had not gone early 
to bed last night, they would not be able to rise early this 
morning. ':*^8. That surprises my mother; she was not expect- 
ing it. 29. We went to bed, and (we) fell asleep immediately. 
30. Are you not a pretty good judge of books? 31. Yes, I 
am a pretty good judge of them. 32. Is your mother not 
tired of being here ? 33. I think so ; I shall ask her to go for 
a walk with us. 34. Do you ever get tired of being in the 
country? 35. No, I never tire of being there; I love the 
fields and trees. 

EXERCISE XVIII, a. (§§248-253.) 
"^•| It is dark. 

II fait ob.scur 

II fait noir 

II HO fait tard. It is ^ottin^ late. 

II fait jour. It is day (daylight). 

II fait (hi Holeil. Tho sun is shining. 

II fait du hruuillard. It is foggy. 

n fait lK)n. It is comfortable (pleasant). 

H tonilio (Its la neige. It is snowing. 

II fait doux. It is mild. 

1. If tho weather iH fine, wo shall go for a row this after- 
noon. 2. It was raining this morning, but now tho sun is 
shining. 3. It ia not coinfortablo hero ; let us go out for a 
walk. 4. It is getting late; lot us go homo. 5. It was rain- 
ing last evening, then it froze, and now it is slippery. 6. It 
it not comfortiible in thoHO countries where it is very (/aire 
h^aueoup de) foggy. 7. It la too windy ; we shall not go for a 


8. It is getting late; the children will have to go to 
bed. 9. What time is it'^ 10. I do not know, but it is 
already daylight. 11. Is it? Well then, we shall have to 
get up immediately. 12. It had been snowing for two days, 
and we couldn't go for a drive. 13. It has been raining since 
yesterday morning, and it will be better to remain here. 14. 
My sister is very ill ; her life is at stake. 15. We cannot go 
away; it is raining. 16. No matter; I do not fear the rain. 
17."^ How did you enjoy yourself yesterday? 18. We did not 
enjoy ourselves at all; it was raining all day. 19. If it is 
very dark this evening, we shall not go to see our friends. 
20. Yes, it will be better to stay at home ; we can easily 
amuse ourselves. 21. How long have you been in this city ? 
22. I came here three years ago.' 23. What sort of weather 
will it be to-morrow ? 24. I do not know ; I am not a good 
judge of such things. 25. It has been raining for two days ; 
we are tired of being here. 26. In winter it is generally mild 
in Italy, but it is often cold in Cann,da. 27. Those two men 
are disputing ; what is the mattor 1 28. It is about (s'agir de) 
the price of a horse which one sold to the other. 29. It was 
very warm yesterday, but it rrincd in the night, and now it is 
very comfortable. 30. I think (that) it will rain, but it may 
be that I am mistaken. 31, Wo need another house; this 
one is too small. 32. Their numbor is far from being com- 
plete. 33, Letters have come which tell us that there has 
been a great storm in the United States. 34. How far is it 
from Toronto to Montreal ? 35. By the railroad it is three 
hundred and thirty-three miles. 

EXERCISE XIX, a. (§§254-267.) 

C'est k peine s'il sort k present. He hardly ever goes out now. 

A peine le soleil fut-il (etait-il) Hardly was the sun up, when the 

leve, qu'on apergut I'ennemi. enemy was seen. 

n r •- 1 1 fThe walking is good. 

11 lait bon marcher. It- ^ ,. . 

tit is good walking. 

1. When that man is working, he will often stop to (pour) 
speak with his companions. 2. How long have you been 
reading ? 3. I have been reading for an hour. 4. It was at 
your house that we met those gentlemen. 5, We shall be 
glad, if you are there. 6. We shall be glad when you are 

352 - EXERCISE XX, a. 

there. 7. We often used to go for a walk when we lived at 
your house, but here it is not good walking, so we hardly ever 
go out now. 8. Wlien we were young, our mother would often 
tell us fairy stories which interested us very much. 9. We 
remember them yet, and we hope (tlia!}) we shall never forget 
them. 10. I had been there ten days when he came. 11. 
He had been reading an hour before his sister rose. 12. He 
asked me where I came from, and where I was going. 13. I 
answered him that I came from Montreal, and (that I) was 
going to Boston. 14. He wrote me a letter saying that he 
wished to see me. 15. He said in his letter that he had been 
ill, but that he was better now. 16. When he lived with us, 
we would often go out for a walk before breakfast. 17. The 
eldest of the miller's sons received the mill, but the youngest 
received only the cat. 18. As soon as he learned that I was 
to go out for a walk, he wished to go also. 19. If he had seen 
it, he would have told me (it). 20. When I had finished my 
lessons, I would always go out for a walk. 21. When he had 
finished his dinner to-day, he went out. 22. Hardly had he 
finished his work when his friend came. 23. We do not know 
whether our friends will come. 24. Our father did not know 
whetlier he would come. 25. Why is that work not done? 
26. I told my brother to {de) do it, but he will not do it. 27. 
Will you buy my horse? 28. No, I shall not buy him; I do 
not need him. 29. Good morning, gentlemen, will you walk 
in? 30. No thank you, we shall not go in. 31. As long as 
we live, we shall not forget your kindness. 32. As soon as lie 
comes, I shall tell him. 33. We shall do as we please. 34. 
You may start when you will. 35. Ho may come when he 

EXERCISE XX, a. {%%2XA'2ffJ, continued.) 

1. We shall goon have finished our work. 2. Wlioii you 
have finiKhecl your lesson, you may go out for a walk. 3. 
K very body Hhould learn tlie ten connnandm<mtH. 4. They tell 
U8: Thou shalt not (point) have any other gods. 5. Thou 
tthalt not take the name of thy God in vain. G. Thou shalt 
not 8t«al {<h^roher). 7. That poor child is very weak ; it can 
hardly walk ; it must have been ill. 8. My brother told me 
that you were not well. 9. You must have made a mistake, 
for I am very well ; I never was better in (de) my life. 10. 


We should be sorry, if you sliould do so. 11. You should be 
virtuous, if you wish to be happy. 12. I told him (that) he 
ought to obey his teacher, but he would not listen to me. 

13, Men should love their enemies, but generally they do not. 

14. The little boy must have broken that stick ; I saw him 
there. 15. I often used to go to see him when he lived in 
our city. 16. He says (that) it will rain. 17. He said (that) 
it would rain. 18. Can it be possible that my father's watch 
is stol.en (use: on)'i 19. I could do that, if I wished. 20. I 
could do that when I was young. 21. Could you tell me 
where le Boulevard des Italiens is*? 22. I could not tell you 
(it) ; I have not been long in Paris. 23. Can it be true 
that he has done that? 24. One would say that you are [a] 
Parisian, you speak French so well. 25. Even if that were 
true, I should not go. 26. Even if it should not rain, I shall 
not go for a drive. 27. According to the newspapers, a great 
quantity of money was stolen (use : on). • 28. By what he 
says, his neighbours are poor. 29. When I was in Europe, I 
saw a horse as big as an elephant. 30. Nonsense ! You are 
joking.^ 31. Come! Come! (my) children, you are making 
too much noise. * 32. Let us go away. 33. Go away. 34. I 
did not think he would know it. 35. If you will not do it, 
we shall not do it. 

EXERCISE XXI, a. (§§ 254-267, con^tntierf. ) 

The two kings met (each other) on the 13th of July in a 
vast plain between Warsaw {Varsovie) and Cracow (Cracovie). 
Augustus had nearly twenty-four thousand men ; Charles had 
only ten thousand. At the first volley, the Duke of Holstein, 
who commanded the Swedish cavalry, received a cannon-shot 
in the back. The king asked if he wa^ dead : he was told 
(use : 07i) that he was {que oui) : he made no reply ; (some) 
tears fell from his eyes ; he (se) hid his (le) face [for] a moment 
with his (les) hands ; then he rushed into the midst of the 
enemy at the head of his guards. 

The king of Poland did all that one should expect from a 
prince who 7vas fighting for his crown ; he himself brought 
back his troops three times to the charge; but he /ought with 
his Saxons only ; the Poles, who/ormed his right wing, Jled at 
the beginning of the battle. Charles wo7i a complete victory. 


He did not stay on the field of battle, but {et) marched direct 
to Cracow, pursuing the king of Poland, who kept fleeing 
before him. 

EXERCISE XXII, a. (§§268-273.*) 

Je tiens k ce que vous appreniez I am (most) anxious that you shall 

le latin. learn Latin. 

Nous n'aimerions pas qu'on se mo- We should not like to be made 

quat de nous. sport of. 

II me tarde que cela soit fait. I am longing for that to be done. 

-. , . , . , p . f I wish you would do it. 

Je voudrais bien que vous le fassiez. \^ , ii,.i ^ ^ -^ 

ll should hke you to do it. 

1. Our teacher said that he wished us to write our exercise. 
2. If you wish to go to the city, you may {jwuvoir) go (there), 
but if you wish us to go (there), we tell you plainly that we 
cannot. 3. I wish you to do your work before (the) breakfast. 
4. Our friends wish us to stay with them this week. 5. My 
father is most anxious that I should learn French, but I don't 
like it. 6. Would you prefer that I should go to church this 
morning? 7. We should not like our friends to be made sport 
of. 8. You say that you are going to buy a house from that 
man ; take care lest he deceive you. 9. I am longing for my 
house to be finished. 10. I am anxious that he should come to 
see us when he visits Toronto. 11. My teacher told m(^ that I 
should write my exercise. 12. My father told me that he had 
seen you. 13. The law forbids that to be done. 14. These 
children must stay in ; their parents have forbidden them to 
go out. 15. I shall give orders not to admit them (use: on). 
16. I did not ask that 1 should be answered (use : on) before 
the others. 17. T shall avoid her speaking to me about it. 
18. The doctor ordered that he should be given no wine. 19. 
We do not ask that you should pay the money. 20. The rain 
hinders people {mi) from going out to-day. 21. T wish you to 
know that he is my friend. 22. You approve of my coming 
bock, do you not? 23. Yes, T wish you would go away. 
24. It is l>etter for the children to go to school. 25. What 
iihall I say to that man? He has insulted me. 20. That 
rnakoH no difference, ln5 is not worthy of being answ(>red (use: 
oil). 27. The (h)cU>r gave orders that \\\y fatlnu* should go out 
for a drive every day. 28. He has torn his book ; he deserves 

*8m not* on llttilUd vm of iinpf. MubJ., p. 106. 


to l)e punished (use: on). 29. I should like 3'^ou to go for a 
walk with me. 30. Weakness often hinders good intentions 
from being fulfilled. 31. I long for his return. 32. There is 
no more bread ; I should like you to go and get some. 33. 
That man is most anxious that his children should go to 
school, but he is too poor to (pour) buy them books. 34. 
Take care that the dog does not bite you ; he is very cross. 
35. That young man is not very amiable ; we should not like 
him to treat us as he has treated his father. 

EXERCISE XXIII, a. {§§ 268-273, continued.) 

1. It is fitting that children should obey their parents. 

2. It is good that men should sometimes undergo misfortunes. 

3. It may be that he has returned, but I have not seen him. 

4. It is natural that we should hate our enemies. 5. It is 
getting late ; it is time that we should go home. 6. He had 
to learn French, for he lived in France. 7. We are veiy glad 
that you have come. 8. We are very sorry that you did not 
come. 9. I am surprised that he said so, because he told me 
that he would not say so. 10. It is a pity that we cannot 
always be happy. 11. It is a shame for those young men to 
be so ignorant. 12. It is sad that a man like him should be 
so poor. 13. I fear he will commit some crime. 14. I am 
glad you are so well. 15. I am afraid my father is not well 
enough to (pour) to go with us, 16. I wonder he did not 
come last night. 17. I know why he did not come; he was 
afraid it would rain.t^ 18. He was not afraid it would rain; 
he was afraid a certain person would be there whom he did 
not wish to see. 19. I do not fear he will not go. 20. Are 
you not afraid he will be able to prevent your intentions from 
being fulfilled? 21. I doubt whether he will be able to come, 
22. I do not deny that I am glad of your ill-fortune. 23. Do 
you doubt that he is an honest man? 24. Not at all; I know 
that he is an honest man ; I have known him for twenty 
years. 25, I do not doubt that you will be able to fulfil all 
your intentions. 2G. It seems he has not received [any] of 
my letters. 27, It cannot be that you are ignorant of his 
intentions. 28. How is your father? 29. He is very well ; 
he is rarely ill. 30. It seems to me it will be dangerous if we 
do not follow his advice. 31. That child is afraid you will 


hurt him. 32. I am glad you did not hurt yourself when 
you fell. 33. We regret very much that we did not see you 
when you were in Paris. 34. Are you not afraid that you 
will tire of being in the country 1 35. I am not afraid that I 
shall tire of being in the country. 

EXERCISE XXIV, a. (§§268-273, continued.) 

1. Our neighbour is an honest man; I hope he will succeed. 

2. I do not think he will succeed ; he has not much ability. 

3. We thought he would come to-day. 4. You told me that 
you did not think he would go away, did you not? 5. Do 
you think we must believe what he saj^s ? 6. It is probable 
that we shall go away to-morrow. 7. It is not certain that 
our friends will come to-morrow. 8. Is it probable that you 
will go away to-day'? 9. We are sure that we saw them 
yesterday. 10. Are you not sure that you saw them yester- 
day? 11. Do you think your father will go to France this 
summer? 12. It is probable he will go there. 13. It is 
certain that all men will die. 14. Is it certain that our 
friends will be there this evening? 15. Is it not certain that 
your neighbour will buy your house? 16. Does he imagine 
we shall do that merely to (pour) please him? 17. We are 
not sure that will please him. 18. Do you think you will go 
for a walk this evening? 19. Yes, I think I shall go out 
with my brother. 20. Give me the book which contains that 
beautiful story of which you were speaking. 21. Give me a 
book which contains some beautiful stories. 22. I should like 
to buy a house which would suit me l^etter than this one. 
23. I am looking for a grammar in which 1 can find better 
exercises. 24. I have a grammar which has better exorcises. 
25. Send me some clothes which T can wear in tlie house. 
20. Has ho a single friend who is truci to him ? 27. He has 
not a single friend who is true to liim. 28. Tliere is nobody 
here who can s|K;ak French. 29. 1 liave nothing vvhi(!h is 
of value. 30. There are no houses hero whicrh are .is laige 
as those in the city. 31. There are few people here; wlio 
hiive learned French, 32. It is the finest thing one can see. 
33. That is tlie largest ship I have ever seen. 34. Whatever 
you do, you will not lie able to persuade me that you are 
right. 35. Whoever you are, you will have to obey the law, 
M long as you are in this country. 


EXERCISE XXV, a. (§§268-273, continued.) 

Que veut-il dire ? What does he mean ? < 

^ ^ , , . rMen trust him>"'" <f 

On se he k lui. i tt • ^ i. j , 

LHe IS trusted. ^ 

Faites-moi savoir. Send me word (let me know).^ 

Je ne regois plus de ses nouvelles. I never hear from him now/ 

II est tr^s occupe. He is very busy. ^ 

II s'occupe do cela. He takes an interest in that."^ 

1. I have told him nothing which could influence him. 2. 
I know no book which pleases me better. 3. I want a house 
which will suit me better. 4. Mr. Jackson is the richest man 
I know. 5. However good men may be, they do not escape 
misfortune. 6. Let us go out for a walk before your father 
returns. 7. We rose this morning before the sun rose. 8. 
Will you not stay here until the weather is warm 1 9. Oh, 
no; we must leave before it begins to be warm. 10. We are 
going to work until we go to bed. 11. You must always act 
so that men may respect you. 12. Tell the truth always, so 
that men may trust you. 13. He insulted me so that I put 
him out doors. 14. That gentleman made a speech, but he 
spoke in such a way that one could not understand him. 

1 5. I did not trust him, for fear that he might deceive me. 

16. He passed our house before we had finished our breakfast. 

17. I explained it to him, for fear he might not know what 
you meant. 18. I cannot trust you, unless you explain to me 
what you mean. C 19. In case you cannot come, will you be 
kind enough to send me word. 20. We shall send you our 
carriage, in case you need it. 21. In case what he 
says is true, we shall send you word. 22. Although the 
children have gone to bed, they have not yet gone to sleep. 
23. Although you may not- like that man, you must confess 
that he is an honest man. 24. Although we used to be good 
friends, I never hear from him now. 25. Not that he has 
forgotten me, but he is so much occupied with his business. 
26. Far from his saying that he hates you, I assure you that 
he will say he loves you. 27. He gave her the money with- 
out my knowing it. 28. Even if he had told me that he 
liked me, I should not have believed it. 29. Though Canada 
be less interesting than England, Canadians love it better. 30. 
I cannot go out, without my dog following me. 31. If we are 


there and see him, we shall tell him what you say. 32. Al- 
though he is far away, I hear from him occasionally. 33. Not 
that we take no interest in your enterprise, but we are so busy 
with our own work that we can't think of anything else. 34. 
We are at the wrong door ; would you be kind enough to tell 
us where we are, so that we can find where our friends live 1 
35. We shall rise early to-morrow morning, so as to be at the 
station before our friends start. 

EXERCISE XXVI, a. (§§268-273, continued.) 

1. Would to God he were here ! 2. Let him be silent, if he 
cannot explain what he wishes. 3. The Frenchmen shout 
"Hurrah for France ! " 4. He doubted whether there is a God. 
6. I should like you to write me a letter when you are absent. 
6. If his father should say so, he would have to do it. 7. I 
was most anxious that he should succeed in his enterprise. 
8. We were not willing that you should go away without our 
seeing you. 9. His father gave ord'^rs that he should be taken 
to school. 10. The doctor forbade that the patient should go 
for a walk. 11, I was longing for that to be done. 12. He 
would not permit it to be done. 13. The rain hindered us all 
day from going out. 14. It was necessary that we should go 
away before the others came. 1 5. It was better that we should 
be here without their knowing it. 16. I was afraid that he 
had said too much. 17. I doubted whether he would be able 
to pay that price; 18. I was very sorry that we had not been 
able to go for a walk together; I am sure we should have 
enjoyed ourselvc^s. 19. Our friends were glad that you had 
vi-ifrd them Iniforc; they left for France. 20. He told mo he 
woulil go away, unless he succeeded better. 21. Wo did not 
say you should write the letter; you may do as you wish. 
22. Did you fear he would go away without coming to see 
you? 23. My father thought you would (rome, but my mother 
tliought you would not come. 24. It was impossi)>l(5 that ho 
Hhould not Imj inistakcn ; he trusts tliose who an; not worthy 
of confidence. 25. Wo are not sure they woidd come. 26. 
We waiUnl until they came. 27. Wo. have taken care that 
they should not see us. 28. No man lias ever lived who c<»uld 
e({ual him in prudence. 29. lie was the noV)h^Ht man 1 have 
ever known. 30. I left Uussia when I was a boy ; I sought a 

1- Whether it is fine, or whether it rains. 


country where I might be free. 31. Did he ever have a friend 
who was faithful to him 1 32. Show me a house which will 
suit me better than this one. 33. I have never.seen anything 
which suited me better. 34. Why did your father come ? 35. 
He came in case I should be ill. 36. Although he was very 
ill, he would not go home. 

EXERCISE XXVII. a. (§§274-275.) 

Je lui ai dit son fait. I (have) told him what I thought of him. 

Nous nous plaisons k la ville. We like it (like to be) in the city. 

II se plait a la campagne. He likes it (likes to be) in the country. 

Qu'il fasse beau, ou qu'il pleuve. 

S'il fait beau, ou qu'il pleuve. 

^ , . •, . f Even if it were true. 

Quand meme ce serait vrai. < „ 

ytiven were it true. 

II s'en plaint. He complains of it. 

1. If it does not rain, will you go for a walk to-morrow 
morning 1 2. No, even if it should not rain, I must go down 
town to-morrow morning on business. 3. If it were to rain 
to-day, we should not go down town. 4> If I liad known that 
you were in town, I should have gone to see you. 5. Had it 
not been so warm to-day, I should have gone away. 6. If the 
Germans had not taken Alsatia, the French would not hate 
them so much to-day. 7. If I come here next year, I shall 
bring my brother with me. 8. If I were you, I should tell 
him what I think of him. 9. If I am present when he arrives, 
I shall tell him what I told you. 10. If it is cold in winter, 
we go to Florida; if it is mild, we remain in Canada. 11. If 
my father likes it in the Country, lie will stay there till (the) 
autumn. 12. If I should like it in the city, I shall stay there 
always. 13. I can never trust that boy; if he should tell me 
anything, I should not believe him. 14. Whether it rains or 
is fine, we shall come. 15. He is a good {brave) man, if there 
ever was one. 16. If that man were as rich as Croesus, he 
would not be satisfied. 17. See what that man has done to 
me! He is a scoundrel, if there ever was one. 18. If I 
should go to sleep before you come, be good enough to wake 
me. 19. Will you not go down town with me ? 20. I cannot 
go, I am not well; if I were better, I should go willingly. 


21. If he had risen at six o'clock, he would not have missed 
the train. 22. Yes, he would (si/ si/). He would have 
been late, even if he had risen at half-past 'five, for the train 
left at a quarter past five. 23. I have been told that your 
friend has insulted you; is it true? 24. No, but even if it 
were true, I should pardon (it to) him. 25. Did our friend 
tell you last evening whether he was coming to-morrow ? 
26. Yes, he told me that he would come. 27. That man 
told me that he had a thousand dollars. 28. Were he to 
swear it, I should not believe it. 29. If you meet him, and 
he should ask you where I am, do not tell (it to) him. 
30. Whether he comes, or not, (that) makes no diiference 
to me. 31. If I were he, I should tell that scoundrel what 

I thought of him. 32. If we liked it in the country, we should 
stay there. 33. If he had insulted me like that, I should have 
kicked him out. 34. Even were you to hate me, I should not 
complain (of it). 35. I should have liked it in the country, 
if it had not rained without ceasing. 

EXERCISE XXVIII, a. (§§276-285.) 

... rune promenade. 'i .. ■ . , ,, 

Je vais faire< , * , j >! am goinc for a walk. 

I un t<iur de promenade, j » => 

Je voudrais le faire. I should like to do it. 

, - . ,.■,,, ,,.,» ri siiould like him to do it. 

Je voudrais qu il lo fasse (fit). -{ , . , , . ^ , ., 

^ tl wish him to do it. 

_ , . , , , ^ rTlio walkini' is irood. 

II fait beau marcher (ae promener). \ ^^ - in" 

'^ I It IS good walking. 

_ , ,. , , > r It irt vain (usiiless) for you to speak. 

Vouu uvt:/. Irtau dire (narler). { _, . ^ ^ .., 

' l\ <m may Bay wliat you like. , 

J^ai cru voir pasw^r <|uel<iu'un. I thought I Haw some one go by. 

Je les ai deouteH chanter. I liHtened-to them Hing(ing). 

II a peniM') niourir. He waH near dying. 

Je ponno (nonge) h le faire. I am tliinking about doing it. 

II no fait que do vonir (lu r iv<!). He han just come. 

II vout fairo k mi iCtU-. Ho will have hin own way. 

J*aimorai« autant alter. I would as noon go. 

FaitoM-lo mtmU'.r. Send (show) him up (ntairs). 

1. Tjet HH go for a walk tliis morning ; tlu^ walking is good, 
and it in &kA. 2. LiviriL' I .ilways (h^ir in Paris. '.\. Are 
the children coming? I i I saw tln^in coming when I 


was on the hill. 5. I should like to speak to the doctor 
when he comes. 6. I should like you to speak to my father 
when you see him! 7. When do you expect to be there 1 
8. I expect to be there in a fortnight. 9. He might say 
what he liked, nobody would believe him. 10. It was use- 
less for us to speak, nobody would listen to us. 11. I like 
better to live in the country than in the city. 12. My 
friends have left me, and I know' not what to do. 13. 1 
think it is going to be warm to-day. 1 4. My father thought 
he heard some one go by, but I think he was mistaken. 

15. My father was very ill last year; he was near dying. 

16. His little boy fell into the water, and was near being 
drowned. 17. I was thinking about going to see you. 
18. I hope I shall see you when you come. 19. I hope he 
will come to see me when he is here. 20. Did you see my 
sister at the bain^21. I thought I saw her, but I am not 
sure (of it). 22. I am thinking aboiit writing him a letter, 
but I do not like writing letters, and so I delay (it) from week 
to week. 23. I should like bett,er to go than to stay. 24. It 
would be better to go than to gtay. 25. Come and see us 
whenever you wish. • 26. My ;naster has just come; after he 
has dined I shall tell him that you are here. 27. I hope I 
shall be able to go for a walk with you to-morrow. 28. I 
hope you will not go away before I have seen you. 29. We 
ought to go and see your farther before he leaves. 30. It is 
useless for you to say anything ; he will have his own way. 
31. You may say what you like; young people wiU have their 
own way. 32. I would as soon go as stay. 33. I am not 
very well this morning ; I am going to send for the doctor. 
34. The doctor has just come ; shall I send him up ? 35. We 
thought we heard some one go by, but we must have been 

EXERCISE XXIX, a. i%§27Q-285, contmued.) 

- II est k travailler. He is busy working. 

J'y siiis accouUim^. ' I am used to it. 

II finira mal. He will come to a bad end. 

Se plaire k mal faire. To delight in evil- (wrong) doing. 

II tarde k venir. He is long in coming. 

Tencz-vous (beaucoup) a y allor? Are you (very) anxious to go there? 

Je n'y tiens pas. I am not anxious (for it). 


1. Continue reading until you are called. 2. We are busy 
writing our exercises. 3. I have my work to do. 4. Our 
teacher taught us to do that. 5. Will you help me to do my 
work 1 6. I should like to help you, but I have work to do 
also. 7. I have difficulty in believing that he has done that. 
8. How old is that child] 9. He is two years old; he is 
beginning to talk. 10. The servant is busy washing dishes in 
the kitchen. 11. We are occupied to-day in writing to our 
friends. 12. He spends his time in reading novels. 13. He 
is not lazy ; he sets about writing his lesson as soon as his 
teacher tells (it to) him. 14. Do you not get tired (in) reading 
those difficult works 1 15, A little, but I am rather used to 
it. 16. He lost a great deal in selling his house. 17. That 
boy persists in reading bad books ; he will come to a bad end. 
18. The wicked delight in evil-doing. 19. Our friends invited 
us to stay with them. 20. I should like to know where my 
mother is ; she is long in coming. 21. I wish she would come; 

I long to see her. 22. Are you anxious to have it to-day 1 
23. Oh no, I am not anxious for that ; but I must have it to- 
morrow. 24. Are those apples good to eat ? 25. We are 
looking for a maid of all work. 26. That young lady sings 
and dances charmingly. 27. There are five bed-rooms in that 
house. 28. That poor little girl has hurt her hand ; she is 
crying pitifully. 29. Our neighbour has died ; his family is 
to be pitied. 30. That young man seems to delight in wrong- 
doing. 31. Are you not very anxious to see your friends? 
32. Yes, I should like to see tliem ; T have not seon them for 
a long time. 33. That is very difficult to do ; I should like 
you to help me. 34. I am always ready to help you. 35. I 
am gla^l to know that you are not the only one to say so. 
36. That scoundrel did not succeed in deceiving us. 

EXERCISE XXX, a. (§§276-285, continued.) 

II fait Romblant do dormir. He protondn to bo asluop. 
Bton fairo, mal fairo. To do well, to do ovil (wrong). 

1. Our teacher tolln us that it is easy to road that book. 
2. I am ashamed Ut say tluit wo are iniKtakf^n. 3. Ho pretends 
to Ik* asleep. 4. She pretends 1.<» be reju ling. t). It i.s dinicndt 
to say whether wo are right or wrong. 6. He is wrong to 


believe that we are his enemies. 7. Will you permit me to 
go to bed ? 8. Promise us not to go away without telling us 
(it). 9. I am very glad to say that I shall be able to come 
and see you at once. 10. We are sorry to tell you that we 
cannot come. 11. Cease to do evil; learn to do well. 12. 
Hasten to finish your work before leaving. 13. Let us hasten 
to leave, or we shall be late. 14. I am afraid to speak, al- 
though I know it is my place to tell them that they have 
done wrong. 15. He commenced by telling me that he was a 
rich' man's son, and he finished by asking me to lend him five 
dollars. 16. Take care not to fall. 17. If you happen to see 
him, tell him that I shall not go away before seeing him. 
18. I have just seen him, and he told me to tell you that he 
would come to-morrow. 19. We (on) should not live to eat. 
20. It is too cold to go for a walk. 21. It is not cool enough 
to go for a walk. 22. I rose early this morning in order to 
be able to do my work before going down town. 23. We 
learn French in order to he able to read French books. 24. 
After writing our exercises we went for a walk. 25. That 
little boy was punished for having lied. 26. That young girl 
is much to be pitied ; her father and mother are dead. 27. 
Before going we should like to see you. 28. We should like 
to see you before you go. 29. We saw those houses being 
built. 30. He did that without telling us (it). 31. We went 
away without his seeing us. 32. It was very windy, and we 
would not go out for a sail for fear of being drowned. 33. 
Although he made me many compliments at first, he finally 
insulted me. 34. Your father has just come ; shall I tell him 
to wait here, or should you like to see him at once 1 35. I 
have not time to see him now ; I shall try to see him to- 
morrow. 36. We cannot hinder him from doing so. 

EXERCISE XXXI, a. (§§286-287.) 

Cette femme me fait pitie. I am sorry for that woman. 

II s'est fach^ centre moi. He got angry with me. 

1. Knowing so many things, those gentlemen must be very 
learned. 2. Tlie field of battle was covered with the dead and 
dying. 3. I am sorry for that poor woman ; she is always ill. 
4. In neglecting her duties, she shows herself careless. 5. 


Their misfortunes went on increasing from day to day. 
6. Don't you see them coming ? 7. Yes ; there they come ! 
8. Man is the only speaking creature. 9. Frenchmen will say 
(pres.) that, generally speaking, Frenchmen are better than 
Englishmen. 10. How happy those peasants are! They are 
always singing their beautiful songs, as they work. 11, One's 
appetite comes while eating ; but, said the Gascon, I have been 
eating two hours, and it has not come yet. 12. I like reading, 
but I prefer hunting and fishing. 13. Where are the children^ 
14. There they are, playing under the trees. 15. Our neigh- 
bour's son has made astonishing progress at (the) college. 16. 
The sewing-machine is an American invention, but there are 
many of them in Europe now. 17. Our friends were very 
much astonished at our coming ; they thought we were in 
Europe. 18. As we were taking a walk this morning, we met 
the old gentleman who used to live next door. 19. Our 
neighbours are speaking of going away, but I do not think 
they will. 20. That young man went away without saying 
good-bye; he must have got angry with me. 21. That prince 
has powerful enemies. 22. That lady, being ill, has not come 
to-day. 23. Those children, having finished their work, have 
gone out. 24. Those so-called learned men, who really know 
nothing, are very tiresome. 25. Who is that man going past? 
26. That is the would-be nobleman. 27. England has the 
most powerful fleet in the world. 28. That little girl, having 
been ill, cannot go to school. 29. Our friends, being tired, 
have gone to bed. 30. Seriously speaking, that young man is 
not worthy of l)eing respected. 31. Those children appear to 
be well. 32. If the population of the towns goes on increasing, 
and that of the country diminishing, we shall probably have 
great misfortunes. 33. I saw him coming down the street 
before I met you. 34. While travelling, T saw many astonish- 
ing things. 35. Did you not see my brothers going out ? -J 

EXERCISE XXXII, a. (§§288-292.) 

EUe ffy est plu. 8ho Iik«Ml it ihore. 

VotM fiton-vouM himi aniUN/*? l)i<l you liavo a |,(<kk1 tiino? 

KIli'M m? tMirit (loiiiM* lii tiiaiii I'lx-y li'ivc Hliiikrti liaiidH. 

KUes 00 wotxi \mm\\\in^K Tliiiy liavr fallen out. 

Lm gnuidaN chaloura quMl a full. Thu groat heat that thuro has been. 


1. That is the old lady whom I saw fall in the street yester- 
day. 2. She fell in front of Mr. Simon's, and I helped her to 
get up. 3. Our friends have gone away, but they will come 
back to-morrow. 4. Your mother has been in the country ; 
did she like it there? 5. She enjoyed herself (there) 
very much ; she intends to go back again soon. 6. Your 
sister and mother have come. 7. You will find enclosed [a] 
copy of the contract which we have signed. 8. The ten hours 
that he has slept have not been enough to rest him. 9. The 
children had a good time to-day at the picnic. 10. Where 
is the servant? 11. I have let her go to see her friends. 
12. Those are the three miles that I ran to (pour) fetch the 
doctor. 13. Those are the dangers we have incurred to save 
our country. 14. She remembered the dangers T had incur- 
red. 15. Did those two ladies shake hands? 16. No; they 
did not even look at each other. 17. Those ladies have 
written each other many letters. 1 8. There are the letters I 
wrote. 19. Those young ladies have fallen out, and have 
burnt the letters they wrote to each other. 20. They have 
said good-bye to each other. 21. They have lost what they 
have given each other. 22. The great heat that there has 
been has killed the crops. 23. The person I asked (prier) 
to sing will not sing, 24. What difficulty we have had to 
remember what you told us ! 25. The crops are poor this 
year ; the great heat has killed them. 26. That is the house 
which we had built. 27. How many houses they have built ! 
28. How many beautiful houses they have had built ! 29. 
That is the lady we heard sing at the concert last evening. 
30. Those are the children we saw playing this morning. 31. 
Those are the beautiful songs we heard sung at the concert. 

32. Do you remember the houses we saw being built last year 1 

33. There is a letter which I forgot to put in the post. 34. 
He has read all the books he could. 35. There are the books 
we sent for. 36. We have told them to go out. 37. Those 
are the books which I thought he would read. 


EXERCISE XXXIII, a. (§§293-299.) 

11 se croit honnete honinie. He thinks he is an honest man. 

II ne s'en est pas aperyu. He did not notice it. 

Ce chapeau ne hii va pas. That hat does not fit him. 

II ne (nous) est pas permis de . . . We are not permitted to . . . 

Je le lui ai paye. I paid him for it. 

Je Ten ai remercid I thanked him for it. 

Je pense k vous. I am thinking of you. 

Que pensez-vous de cela ? What do you think of that ? 

1. We shall make them do their work. 2. They (oii) have 
made her suffer great ills. 3. Show them up stairs when they 
come. 4. I have seen the children play. 5. We have seen 
him play that part. 6. He was born [a] poet. 7. He has 
become [a] soldier. 8. What will become of us ! 9. I believe 
he is an honest man. 10. He thinks he is [a] scholar. 11. I 
know he is [a] scholar. 12. We should not slander our neigh- 
bours. 13. I perceived their dejection, as soon as I came in; 
did you? (see § 256). 14. No, I did not notice it. 15. We 
cannot do without our books ; we are going to use them to- 
morrow. 16. I remember the sorrows you made me undergo. 
17. These gloves do not fit me. 18. That young lady's gloves 
do not fit her. 19. I shall look for a house which suits me 
better (see § 270, 1). 20. Tliat house does not suit our friends. 
21. I cannot trust him ; he often lies. 22. The son resembles 
his father. 23. We are not permitted to leave the city. 
24. The law does not permit children to marry. 25. The 
king pardons him his crime. 26. Did you pay the tailor for 
your coat ? 27. I have not paid liirn for it yet. 28. What 
are you looking at? 29. I am looking at those men working 
in the field. 30. Wait for me, till T come. 31. I think of 
my friends who have gone away. 32. Do you think of the 
money you hav(B lost ? 33. I do not. 34. Shall you be at the 
ball this evening? 35. I do not kn<»u : <I.'|>('ji(ls on you. 
36, Did you thank him for having hm von liis hook? 37. T 
di<l. 3K. He Ktfile that watch from his father; what do you 
think of that? 39. He is lau;.,diin;; ai, us. 40. Tliosci m(»u 
wt?re playing cards. 41. Thosr n-uh; ladies })lay on the 
violin. 42. You believe mo; do}<»ii noi? 43. Yes, T Ix^lieve 
you. 44. That old lady believes in ghosts. 45. He loves 

EXERCISES xxxiv-xxxv, a. 367 

and obeys his parents. 46. He missed the train ; did he not ? 

47. I am short of money this morning ; I cannot pay you. 

48. He fails in his duty when he does not pay his debts. 

49. Have you asked your father for money ? 50. I have not 
asked him for any. 

EXERCISE XXXIV, a. (§§300-306.) 

1. Tell the servant to put the frying-pan on the stove. 2. 
That man is a regular dupe. 3. He is not a friend ; he is a 
mere acquaintance. 4. He was received with all the honours. 
5. That poet is always singing of his first love. 6. The errors 
of men are numerous. 7. The old man has (/aire) a nap after 
dinner. 8. He paid me a large sum of money. 9. My 
memory is not good ; give me a memorandum of that affair. 
10. Steam makes the steamer go. 11. That man and his 
wife are a happy couple. 12. I have Hugo's works at home. 
13. The works of the sculptor Barye were exhibited in Paris 
in 1889. 14. Old people are generally less thoughtless than 
young people. 15. Those people are not all good. 16. All 
those people were present. 17. All good people are worthy of 
respect. 18. All the clever people in (de) the town were 
present at the ball. 19. Happy [are] the people who do not 
love vice. 20. All the young men of the village were present 
at the celebration. 

EXERCISE XXXV, a. (§§307-314.) 

Tomber k genoux. To fall on one's knees. 

Le petit bonhorarae. The brave Uttle fellow. 

1. That man has broken his two arms. 2. The *ifs' and 
the ' buts ' are often convenient words. 3. The criminal fell 
on his knees before the king. 4. That little boy likes to pick 
up pebbles. 5. The generals have good horses. 6. We read 
the newspapers before going down town [in] the morning. 7. 
Frenchmen like carnivals and balls. 8. Our neighbour has 
some beautiful corals at home. 9. The Minister of Public 
Works has ordered a railway to be constructed. 10. His 
grandfathers are dead. 11. Our ancestors were great men 
who left [behind them] many noble works. 12. The poor boy 
had tears in his (mix) eyes when he was told that his bird was 


dead. 13. That painter makes beautiful skies. 14. Several 
Te Deums were sung this year in that church. 15. Give rae 
two postage-stamps, if you please. 16. We had some delight- 
ful private interviews. 17. Those corkscrews are useless. 
18. Those lamp-shades are very pretty. 19. Give me a tooth- 
pick, if you please. 20. Do not condemn me on rumours. 
21. The two Corneilles were dramatic authors. 22. All the 
Ribots were present. 23. I have two Molieres at home. 24. 
The Bourbons have been very unfortunate ; I pity them. 25. 
I saw the school-boys marching yesterday ; the brave little 
fellows were really fine-looking. 26. The noblemen of France 
have suffered much during this century. 27. There are two 
gentlemen and two ladies waiting for you. 28. Good morn- 
ing, ladies ; how do you do 1 29. I have visited all the 
county-towns of that part of France. 30. Many of Molifere's 
works are masterpieces. 

EXERCISE XXXVI, a. (§§ 315-335. )v/^ 

1. He showed remarkable courage in struggling with his 
difficulties. 2. We used to enjoy good health when we lived 
in France, 3. Do you not like music ? 4. I do, when it is 
good. 5. Gold and silver are abundant in that country. 6. 
The rich have much gold and silver. 7. Does that young lady 
know Greek 1 8. She does not, but she knows French and 
German well. 9. Does your mother speak French ? 10. Yes, 
she speaks French and German well. 11. We have French 
and German books in our library. 12. Have you any good 
sugar for sale, sirl 13. Have you any of my books in your 
library? 14. Have you any of the good wine you bought last 
year? 15. Wo have no pens and no paper. 10. They have 
no more money, and so they must stay at home. 17. That is 
not wine; it is water. IH. It is not money 1 ask you for, but 
friendship. 19. Why do you complain; have you not friends'? 
20. I should like to buy a pound of tea ; have you any of tln^ 
good tea which you onlered from ChinaV\21. 1 shall giv(^ you 
HOmething good, if you conje to see ine. ^ 22. He promised me 
flomething very Ixiautiful, but ho never gave it to me. 23. 
Many people believe that ho will come to a bad end. 24. 
Many others believe that he will succeed well. 25. Most 
people are ignorant of their true interests. 26. We were 


absent most of the time. 27. Silk dresses and gold watches 
are not always necessary. 28. Horses are animals which are 
useful to men. 29. Queen Victoria has been reigning a long 
time. 30. The President of the French Republic has signed 
the treaty. 31. King Louis XTV. is often called the Great. 
32. That old man has a long beard. 33. Give me your hand, 
and I shall help you to rise. 34. We shook hands before we 
parted. 35. She has not taken off her hat and gloves ; she 
says she cannot stay. 36. I have tooth-ache and ear-ache, 
and so I cannot go out. 37. That little girl has blue eyes, 
and blond hair. 38. I had ray hair cut before starting. 39. 
What is the matter with you, my little boy 1 40. My hands 
and feet are cold. 

EXERCISE XXXVII, a. (§§315-335, continued.) 

Combien les avez-vous payes ? How much did you pay for them ? 

Je les ai payes dix francs la douzaine. I paid ten francs a dozen for them. 

II part pour la France. He is starting for France. 

Au nord de la France. In the north of France. 

1. You have- some very fine pears; how much did you pay 
for them ? 2. I paid two cents apiece for them. 3, That is 
not dear; I thought that pears would not sell so cheap this 
year. 4. Carpenters are earning ten francs a day at present. 
5. We do not go to school on Saturday. 6. He will come oh 
Saturday. 7. You were wrong to come on Wednesday ; you 
should always come on Thursday. 8. Did I step on your 
toe^ I ask your pardon. 9. Are you going on horseback or 
on foot? 10. How we love spring! 11. In spring nature 
awakes from its long repose. 1 2. In winter there is sometimes 
much snow in France. 13. Those gentlemen are Frenchmen. 
14. Our neighbour is a carpenter. 15. His son has become 
a distinguished physician. 16. Charles the First, King of 
England, was beheaded. 17. She was born at Marseilles, a 
city of Southern France, i^ 1 8. We were without friends and 
money. 19. Those children have neither father nor mother. 
20. He will come home at Michaelmas. 21. Those ladies 
dress in French style. 22. Have you ever read Tasso's great 
poem 1 23. Yes, and Ariosto's also. 24. We are to start for 
Europe to-morrow. 25. Normandy is a province of France. 


26. Did you ever live in Paris 1 27. Yes, 1 lived a long time 
in France, and in England too. 28. My brother Ikls lived in 
China, but he is living now in Japan. 29. The United States 
is the most important country in North America. 30. Havre 
is an important seaport of the north of France. 31. New 
Orleans is a large city of the United States. 32. French 
wines are celebrated in all parts of the world. 33. That 
traveller comes from Africa, and is going to South America. 
34. Ladies, you are welcome ; we are always glad to receive 
you. 35. Our neighbour goes to the city every other day. 

EXERCISE XXXVIII, a. (§§336-358.) 

1. That little boy's grandmother has given him a knife. 
2, That little girl is very foolish. 3. I know those old ladies 
well ; they are our old neighbours. 4. What a fine-looking 
man ! Do you know him ? 5. There are some beautiful 
trees ! 6. The prince addressed him most flattering words. 

7. That statesman is celebrated for his liberal principles. 

8. There are, according to Catholic doctrine, seven capital 
sins. 9. The man and his wife were both old. 10. The 
French and Italian nations are often called Latin nations. 
11. Those flowers smell sweet, do they not? 12. That large 
building is the school for (de) deaf-mutes. 13. He left the 
door wide open when he went out this morning. 14. The 
newly married couple had just left the church. 15. My 
mother had blue eyes and light auburn hair. 16. When I 
was young, I used to go barefoot to school. 17. That lady 
looks kind. 18. A pound sterling is worth twenty-five francs. 
19. He is getting richer and richer. 20. He is richer than 
people (on) believe. 21. The older one is, the wiser one 
should be. 22. My brother is older than I by four years. 
23. The richer one part of the population becomes, the poorer 
the rest often become. 24. Your house is small, but ours is 
smaller still. 25. That man is bad, but his brother is still 
worse. 26. The dearer those articles are, the less of them we 
shall be able to buy. 27. Our house is good, but yours is 
better. 28. His most intimate friends knew nothing of his 
good fortune. 29. Men are often the most unhap]/y when 
tliey ought to be the most happy. 30. Is that not a splendid 


sight? 31. Yes, it is most beautiful! 32. The richest men 
in the world are not always the happiest. 33. She is shorter 
than I by three inches. 

EXERCISE XXXIX, a. {%% 336-358, continued.) 

1. You are all welcome, ladies ; how kind you are to come 
to see me ! 2. What a pretty little girl ! What is her name 1 
3. There were black horses and white ones in the proces- 
sion. 4. Will you give me some cold water to (pour) drink? 
5. Whose is that broken cane 1 6. Our neighbour is not an 
educated man. 7. Our friends live in a beautiful white house 
behind the town. 8. The English language is spoken in all 
parts of the world. 9. I have just seen that pretended noble- 
man go by. 10. We have just been at a political meeting, 
where we listened to a very long speech. 11. My dear child, 
you are too young to wear dear dresses! 12. I love that 
gentleman; he is so kind to children. 13. Are you not ready 
to start? You are very slow in dressing. 14. I am very glad 
to see you; when are you coming to visit me? 15. I am very 
sorry to say that I have no time to visit you before I go away. 
16. We are charmed with the beautiful present you gave 
(/aire) us. 17. You are net angry with me, are you? 18. I 
do not like that man; he is too severe with his children. 

19. That is a nice little girl; she is so polite to everybody. 

20. That little boy is very clever at history and arithmetic. 

21. That army is weak in numbers. 22. We must be 
charitable to everybody. 23. Living languages are more 
useful than dead languages. 24. We must not confound the 
verbal adjectives with the present participles. 25. That 
young man is the living image of his father. 26. The more 
learned that man becomes, the less generous he becomes. 

EXERCISE XL, a. (§§359-373.) 

1. Are there any good pens in the box? 2. There are none. 
3. Do you know that old man? 4. I know him and his 
brother. 5. Do you know that man and his wife? 6. We 
know both him and her. 7. We know him only. 8. Did you 
see my father and mother? 9. We saw her only. 10. Are 
you going to give them some money? 11. I have already 


given them some. 12. Will you give me some apples? 13. I 
shall give you and him some. 14. Have j^ou spoken to my 
cousin of your plan ? 15.1 have spoken of it to her and her 
mother. 16. Will you have the goodness to introduce us to 
your mother'? 17. I shall have great pleasure in introducing 
you to her. 18. I was thinking of you when you came in. 
19. Do you think of me, when I am far away? 20. Yes, I 
always think of you. 21. Whose is that house? 22. It is 
mine. 23. As soon as the child saw his mother, he ran to her. 
24. Are you that young man's sister? 25. I am. 26. Are 
you satisfied, madam ? 27. I am. 28. Are you an American, 
sir ? 29. I am. 30. Are you the gentlemen we met yester- 
day ? 31. We are. 32. I shall go for the doctor, if you wish. 
33. I shall do the work, if it is necessary. 34. That man is 
richer than we are. 35. Why do you tell me to be brave 1 I 
am so already. 36. He carried the day over all his rivals. 
37. Tell me where he lives, if you know. 38. He is a 
Canadian, and I am one too. 39. Do you know the Robin- 
sons ? 40. Yes, they are very fastidious people, and I do not 
like to have [anything] to do with them. 41. There is the 
box ; put the pens into it. 42. Go there, my child ; do not 
stay here. 43. Do not go there, my daughter ; you will hurt 
yourself. 44. Give them some, my little boy. 45. He is a 
bad man ; I cannot trust him. 46. The earth about those 
flowers is dry ; throw some water there, my daughter. 

47. Jjet us not go away; let them laugh at us, if they will. 

48. The children wish to go to the celebration ; let us take 
them there. 49. That boy has apples and pears ; let us ask 
him for some. 50. That boy has your knife; take it away 
from him. 

EXERCISE XLI, a. (§§ 369-373, con«n«e<£. ) 

1. My father did not hurt himself, but he had a narrow 
escape. 2. Every one for himself is too often the maxim of 
men. 3. One should not always be thinking of one's self. 
4. The selfish live only for themselves. 5. Do you need 
money I 6. I do. 7. Do you come from London? 8. We 
do. 9. I cannot underHtand why ho has a grudge against me. 
10. However that may be, it is all over with hini. II. Have 
yoo any money ? 12. I have, but I should like to have more. 


13. How many apples have you? 14. I have six. 15. Here 
are some fine pears; do you wish any? 16. Yes, I should 
like some, for I have none. 17. Switzerland is my country; 
I love its blue sky and free institutions. 18. I planted this 
apple-tree; I hope I shall eat its fruit. 19. Do you ever 
think of your country when you are in foreign countries? 
20. When I am far away, I always think of it. 21. My 
brother has gone home, and I am going too. 22. I see a 
crowd of people in the street; what is the matter? 23. Were 
you ever in Europe ? 24. I never was. 25. We shall make 
him do it when we come. 26. The doctor is at home ; shall 
I send for him? 27. There they are; go and get them. 

28. There is some water; give us some, for we are thirsty. 

29. Do not give them any; they do not need any. 30. Where 
are the children ? 31. They are coming up the street. 32. Do 
not listen to them ; they are making sport of you. 33. There 
is my hat ; give it to me, if you please. 34. That is my hat ; 
do not give it to him. 35. Let us go away ; it is getting late. 
36. If you have any money, give me some. 37. He gives 
himself some, but he will not give us any. 38. Take us there. 
39. Give it to us ; do not give it to them. 40. What are you 
doing, naughty dog? Go away. 41. I saw him, and gave 
him the money. 42. They are worthy people; I love and 
admire them. 43. Our duty to our parents is to love and 
obey them. 44. It is I who was there. 45. My father and I 
were not there. 46. What were you and he doing ? 47. He 
was writing, and I was reading. 48. He has a house of his 
own. 49. You and he were there, were you not ? 50. There 
is the box ; I should like to know whether there is anything 
in it. 

EXERCISE XLII, a. (§§374-377.) 

EUe liii a ferm^ la porte au nez. She shut the door in his face. 

Cela lui a fait venir I'eau k la bouche. That made his mouth water. 
Cette nuit ; de toute la nuit. Last night ; all night. 

1. My father and yours will soon be here. 2. I have your 
books and my own. 3. Our friends are coming by the rail- 
''^^y y yours are coming by tlie steamer. 4. My brother and 
sister have gone away ; they will not be back till Wednesday 
next. 5. One should not fail to pay one's debts. 6. I had 


my hair cut this morning ; I am afraid I shall catch a cold. 
7. The duke was presented to the queen, and he kissed her 
hand. 8. She has cut her finger. 9. I shall love him, as 
long as my heart beats. 10. It was so warm that I could not 
close my eyes all night. 11. Close your eyes, and open your 
mouth. 12. He shuts his eyes to the light. 13. He was 
walking [with] his eyes closed ; he fell and broke his arm. 
14. I have my hands full; I cannot help you. 15. I went to 
see him, but he shut the door in my face. 16. It is a very 
cold morning; will you not warm your hands? 17. Thank 
you ; my hands are not cold. 1 8. That clumsy fellow stepped 
on my toe, and he hurt me very much. 19. My head aches 
this morning ; I did not close my eyes last night. 20. The 
sight of those beautiful apples made my mouth water. 21. 
He stood there, [with] his arms folded, awaiting his fate like 
a brave soldier. 22. As long as my heart beats, I shall never 
forget you. 23. If they come here, we shall shut the door in 
their face. 24. Do you see those poor children ; those beau- 
tiful pears made their mouths water. 25. Let us hope that 
the law has not lost its force in this country. 26. He has a 
watch of his own. 27. Whom do you mean ; his father or 
her father? 28. I mean her father. 29. This house is his, 
not yours. 30. They lost their lives fighting for their {la) 
country. 31. Negroes have dark skins and large mouths. 
32. One of my friends who is a doctor told me the following 
story. 33. I am going to take away these books of yours. 
34. The diflference between mine and thine is not always easy 
to determine. 35. I love very much these books of mine. 

EXERCISE XLIII, a. (§§ 378-388.) 

L I have never read that book, but I have read this one, 
and I like it very much. 2. These houses are not so fine as 
thoHe. 3. You should not eat in that way. 4. Have 
patience, I Hliall \w> (pres.) there tliis moment. 5. Those who 
do wrong will be puniHhed. 6. He of whom you w(?ro speak- 
ing ypHterilay luw arrived. 7, Wlii(!h of those horses do you 
like IxiMt? H. I like the one you bought better than your 
brothor'H, but T like my own beHt. 9. This house and the one 
in which our neiglilK)urH live will V)o sold tomorrow. 10. Our 
houae and our neighlx»ur'H are both (e/t) brick [houses]. 11. 

EXERCISE XulY, a. 375 

These facts, and those discovered since that time, prove that, 
although he was a great scholar, he was wrong. 12. I saw 
the man (celui) last evening who wanted to buy my horse. 
13. Who are those two gentlemen^ 14. This is Mr. Robinson, 
and that is Mr. Jones, 15. You are looking for apples; very 
well, will you take these or those? 16. I will take these; 
those are too small. 17. How is butter selling to-day 1 18. 
That sells at two francs a pound, and this, which is finer, at 
two francs fifty centimes. 19. Gambetta and Hugo were 
distinguished men ; the former was an orator, the latter a 
poet. 20. That is a fine horse ! How much is he worth ? 

21. Why do these people not reply when we speak to them? 

22. They are Russians; they do not understand you. 23. 
Who did that^ :!4. It was John who did it. 25. What 
o'clock is it? 26. It is half-past ten. 27. What day of the 
month is it? 28. To-day is the tenth. 29. Is that the house 
of which you spoke to me? 30. No, it is the next one. 31. 
Who is that lady? 32. She is the lady who lives next door. 
33. What I fear is that he will never come back. 34. It is 
not that he is losing his money, but he is destroying his 
health also. 35. It is time to go home. 

EXERCISE XLIV, a. (§§ 378-388, continued.) 

C'est une belle chose que de pro- It is a fine thing to protect the 

t^ger les faibles. weak. 

Ce sont des qualites n^cessaires Mildness and firmness are necessary 

pour r^gner que la douceur et qualities for ruling. 

la fermet^. 

II a cela de bon. He has this good thing about him. 

1. It is they who have done it. 2. It was kind of you to help 
those poor people. 3. You can do it ; it is easy. 4. That was 
not kind of you ; you should have allowed me to do it. 5. You 
are rich ; it is easy for you to say so. 6. It is a pity that we 
did not know it sooner. 7. It is unfortunate that he did not 
come yesterday. 8. My father told me you were here ; that is 
why I came. 9. It is to be feared that the traveller has died 
of hunger. 10. It is to be desired that those misfortunes will 
never happen. 11. What we were speaking of has happened. 
12. What I am thinking of is the way of preventing that 
misfortune. 13. What he says is true. 14. It's a fine thing, 


(*is ') money ! 15. It is not to you that I speak. 16. He has 
lost all his money, which is sad. 17. What a beautiful thing 
is virtue ! 18. It is money that he wishes. 19. He is a fine 
young man, ( * is ' ) John ! 20. It would be a good thing to go 
awa}'. 21. It is a fine thing to love virtue. 22. Health and 
good sense are qualities necessary for succeeding in the world. 
23. You are the one who did that. 24. Love is the strongest 
of all passions. 25. This does not belong to me, but that 
does. 26. Give me this ; keep that for yourself. 27. He 
has this good thing about him, that he always tells the truth. 

28. What a lazy beast ; and yet he thinks that he works ! 

29. Did he give you back your pencil ? 30. No, but that does 
not matter; I have another here. 31. It is difficult to trans- 
late the word 'that' into French. 32. I am sure that that 
* that ' that that man uses is superfluous. 

EXERCISE XLV, a. (§§ 389-402.) 

I. Whom did you see yesterday? 2. I saw him who was 
with you the day before yesterday. 3. I told you already 
what my reasons are. 4. What sort of weather is it this 
morning? 6. I think it will be fine. 6. I do not know to 
which of those men we were speaking. 7. What fine weather! 
I hope it will continue until we leave. 8. Who is that? 
9. It is the man I sold my house to. 10. What was the 
matter this morning; I heard a great noise in the street? 
11. What were you speaking of to that man you met? 12. I 
was speaking to him of what we were discussing yesterday. 
13. Scoundrel that you are, if I catch you, I'll give you what 
you deserve. 14. What I complain of is that you make no 
progress in your studies. 15. I do not understand you ; will 
you explain to mo clearly what you moan? 16. What has 
become of that young g<uitleman with whom I saw you? 
17. I don't know what has beconie of liim ; I have not seen 
him lately. 18. Which of those ladies did you see? 19. I 
saw the one that wjus }n^ro yesterday. 20. What are you 
thinking of? 21. I am thinking of what we are going to do 
to-morrow. 22. What did your father ask you to do? 23. I 
have (lone what ho asked me to do. 24. The gentleman, whos(^ 
son was vJHiting uh hist year, will coine him.solf next y(;ar. 
26. The lady, whoso daughter has just Immui niarri<^d, will 


spend some weeks with us next summer. 26. The people, of 
whom I speak, would never do such a thing. 27. I, who am 
your friend, tell you so, and you ought to believe it. 28. It 
was we who gave them their liberty, and yet to-day they are 
our enemies. 29. He has gone away, and what is worse, he 
has not paid his debts. 30. That is very strange ! I sent him 
a letter, and yet he says he never received it. 31. To whom 
are you speaking, sir ? 32. It is to you I am speaking, and I 
want you to pay attention to what I say. 33. The house they 
are coming out of belongs to ray father. 34. The people of the 
village from which he came were very glad to be rid of him. 
35. The gentleman, for whose house I offered such a high 
price, has bought another. 36. The cause, for which those 
soldiers fought, was the deliverance of their country. 37. The 
man, in whom I trust, will not deceive me. 38. That child is 
deaf and dumb, which is a great pity, for he seems very intel- 
ligent. 39. I thank you very much. 40. Don't mention it. 

41. What I was expecting was that he would pay me. 

42. That is not a poor man ; he is well off. 43. Where is the 
pen I made use of yesterday 1 44. Take what you need ; there 
will be enough for all. 45. Which way did you come this 
morning? 46. I came the way you came yesterday. 47. 
There is, in that affair, something strange and mysterious. 

EXERCISE XLVI, a. (§§403-407.) 

1. Certain people say the criminal has escaped. 2. Each 
day brings its labour. 3. We rise every morning at six 
o'clock. 4. I have seen him many a time. 5. I have no 
apples, but I have some pears and peaches. 6. However 
great and rich we may be, we must die. 7. Whatever your 
intentions were, your actions were not good. 8. However 
good your intentions were, you did not succeed in doing us 
good. 9. We should respect the rights of others. 10. Every 
one for himself is, happily, not a maxim which everybody 
practises. 11. If we do not love others, others will not love 
us. 12. Those children will receive, each one at his majority, 
their portion of their father's estate. 13. Mother, will you 
come down? You are wanted. 14. It is said that the robber 
has been caught. 15. It is not known whether the ship was 
wrecked or not. 16. When one is pretty, one is rarely 


ignorant of it. 17. People wonder why that young man 
associates with those scoundrels. 18. When one sees a noble 
action, it always gives one pleasure. 19. I have never seen 
any one who had so many noble qualities. 20, I am afraid to 
say anything about it to any one. 21. No one has ever done 
anything like that, 22. What a beautiful view ! Did you 
ever see anything like it? 23. He went away without visit- 
ing anyone. 24. Did you find anything where you were 
looking yesterday? 25. I do not know any one of his friends. 
26. I doubt whether any one of you will do so. 27. If I can 
do it without any expense, I shall do it willingly. 28. I do 
not like this book ; give me another. 29. That little boy has 
had one apple, and now he wants another. 30. Frenchmen 
often laugh at us Englishmen, because we are less gay than 
they. 31. This man I have seen elsewhere, but that one I 
never saw anywhere. 32. These are the same people that 
were here yesterday morning. 33. That lady is goodness 
itself. 34. Even if you were to say so, I should not believe it. 
35. That is a young man in whom I have confidence ; I shall 
put him in a position to make his fortune. 36. Were there 
any children at the meeting? 37. Yes, there were several. 
38. I shall never accept such conditions. 39. I never saw 
such a foolish man. 40. If he were to say such a thing to 
me, I should put him out of doors. 41. He spent his whole 
life in doing good. 42. Our neighbour's daughters have 
become quite tall. 43. He comes to town every other week. 

44. Where are the children? Both were here a little ago. 

45. I found two apples in the basket, but neither is good. 

46. Any line being given, draw a straight line which shall be 
equal to it. 47. There is no reason whatever which can 
persuade me. 48. Whoever has stolen that poor woman's 
money ought to Ije punished. 49. Whoever ho is who told 
vou that, he is mistaken. 50. Whatever that man may do, 
he will never succefid. 51. Whatever the reason may be, he 
will never come to see us. 

EXERCISE XLVII, a. (408-420.) 

1. I will not lell it, cheap or dear. 2. You did it on pur- 
poae, did you not? 3. Not at all, it was quite accidental. 4. 
A Christian ought Uj love not only his friends, but even hia 


enemies. 5. Those poor people had scarcely any bread to eat 
when we found them. 6. We have said nothing at all about 
it. 7. That is a very complicated affair ; I can understand 
nothing of it. 8. We did not see a living soul in the street 
when we rose that morning. 9. Whom did you see ? I saw 
nobody at all. 10. I shall be silent, so as not to hinder you 
from working. 11. He told me to do nothing until he 
returned. 12. I went away so as not to be punished. 13. 
What is the matter with that little boy? 14. I do not know, 
sir; I neither did nor said anything to him. 15. Would you 
not be glad to see our old friend? 16. No, I neither wish to 
see him nor speak to him. 17. I have a headache this evening; 
J can neither sing nor play. 18. Neither he nor his father 
were there. 19. I saw neither him nor his brother. 20. I 
have neither friend nor money, but 1 have strong arms and 
courage. 21. No more regrets; take courage, and forget the 
past. 22. Why did he not tell me so before leading me into 
this peril? 23. There is nobody here he does not know. 24. 
Take care that you are not deceived. 25. There is nothing 
which does not please me better than that. 26. Not one of 
those we invited has come. 27. Do you know where Dr. B. 
lives? 28. I cannot tell you. 29. If you have no use for this 
book, lend it to me. 30. Unless you do what you said, I shall 
not pay you. 31. Do you not fear he will go away? 32. I do 
not fear he will go away. 33. I am afraid our friends will not 
be there. 34. If I were afraid he would do it, I should do 
something to hinder him (from it). 35. If I were not afraid 
he would hurt himself with it, I should let him have it. 36. 
That man writes better than he speaks. 37. We do not wish 
more money than we have now. 38. I do not doubt that that 
is true. 39. Not much is lacking for the number to be com- 
plete. 40. We have not seen each other for three years. 41. 
It is more than three years since we were there. 42. I cannot 
go with you ; I have no time. 43. Yes, you have, you are not 
so busy. 44. You have stolen my apples. 45. I tell you I 
have not. 46. But I say yes, for I saw you. 47. He has as 
much money as you have, but he has not as much as I have. 
48. Let us say no more about it. 49. We are in a hurry ; let 
us not stay any longer. 50. I have more than fifty francs, but 
he has more than I, and his brother has still more. 


EXERCISE XLVIII. (§§421-430.) 

II a une vingtaine d'annees. He is about tAventy (years old). 

II a line trentaine de raille francs. He has about thirty thousand francs. 

1. Columbus discovered America in the year 1492. 2. The 
French national fete is on the fourteenth of July, because 
[on] that day the Bastille was destroyed. 3. My father 
left England on the first of May, 1824. 4. Napoleon 
the First was a greater man than Napoleon the Third. 
5. Charles the First of England and Louis the Sixteenth of 
France were both beheaded. 6. The first train leaves at 
a quarter to five in the morning, and the second at twenty 
minutes past two in the afternoon. 7. We went to bed last 
night at half-past twelve. 8. The first two houses in the 
street belong to us. 9. We have only the last two chapters 
in the book to read. 10. The carriage arrived at half-past 
one in the morning. 11. The father gave his son a fifth of 
his property when the son was twenty-one. 12. How old 
would you say that man is ? 1 3. I should say he is about 
forty. 14. It is twenty years since I saw him. 15. That 
man is well off; he has an income of about twenty thousand 
francs a year. 16. The first volume of his works contains 
poetry, and the fourth novels. 17. This house cost three 
times as much as that one. 18. Ten times ten make a hun- 
dred. 19. We paid a hundred and twenty dollars for that 
horse. 20. That carriage cost one thousand one hundred 
dollars. 2L That old man is eighty-five years old. 22. [On] 
what day of the month did that happen? 23. It happened 
on the twelfth. 24. That table is two metres long by one 
metre wide. 25. We are going to have a house built sixty 
feet long by twenty-four wide. 2(>. What o'clo(;k is iti 
27. It i8 just n(K)n. 28. A Ijoy ten years old was killed las! 
evening by a carriage in the Jioidevdrd dea Italiens. 29. 'i'hat 
girl is older than her l)rother by two years. 30. I am talloi- 
than my brother by two inches. 31. Will you come at two 
o'clock or at three? 32. I shall be there precisely at three. 
33. Is that boy ten years old or eleven 1 34. He is eleven. 


EXERCISE XLIX, a. (§§431-454.) 

1. I was thinking of what you were talking about this 
morning. 2. He paid about twenty francs for that hat. 3. 
He will be here about six o'clock in the evening. 4. The day 
after our arrival we went to see the museum. 5. That child 
has black eyes ; he takes after his father. 6. The money was 
divided amongst the children. 7. Amongst all those people 
there. is not one sensible person. 8. Art arrived at great per- 
fection among the Greeks. 9. He was at my house when I 
was at his. 10. They all laughed at my expense. 11. We 
all laughed at him. 12. The thief will have to appear before 
the court. 13. He will be here before a quarter past three. 
14. That is greater by half than what we expected. 15. That 
box is six feet long by two wide. 16. It is a quarter to four 
by my watch. 17. I know that man by sight only. 18. He 
will leave for France in a week. 19. We lived in that city 
for twenty years. 20. I have been here for two years. 21.1 
traded my black horse for this white one. 22. I thanked him 
for his kindness. 23. From the fifteenth of May I shall live 
in that house. 24. They drank their wine from golden cups. 
25. That picture is painted from nature. 26. In spring the 
weather is warm and the flowers open. 27. There is not so 
much misery in Canada as in Russia. 28. Let us live in 
peace with everybody. 29. There are several nations in North 
America. 30. Not one in a hundred was good. 31. Is your 
house (in) brick or stone ? 32. It was kind of you to aid me 
in my misfortune. 33. In rainy weather we stay at home. 
34. We shall go away on Saturday. 35. He is now on the 
road for England. 36. Our house is on this side of the street, 
and his is on that side. 37. When you come to the next 
street, turn to the right. 38. Instead of studying he is 
always looking out of the window. 39. His gun was hanging 
above the chimney. 40. The dog jumped over the fence. 
41. He watched over my interests. 42. In passing through 
the forest we saw many rare plants. 43. We work from 
morning till night. 44. We are going to our friends' house. 
45. The train for Paris will be here immediately. 46. They 
sold those goods under their value. 47. Wicked men tread 
God's laws under foot. 48. If you will live with us, we shall 


treat you well. 49. Do you remember the man with the big 
nose whom we saw yesterday ? 50. She told us her story 
with tears in her eyes. 

EXERCISE L, a. (§§455-459.) 

1. For fear it should rain we shall not go away to-day. 

2. He did his work so that all were pleased with him. 

3. Unless you come to-morrow, we shall not wait for you. 

4. Both he and his brother were there. 5. Go and get us 
some bread. 6. She neither laughs nor cries. 7. Those poor 
people are without bread or meat. 8. He does not believe 
what you say ; nor I either. 9. We shall not be there ; nor 
he either. 10. We have not gone away, nor shall we. 
11. As soon as you are there and have the time, will you go 
and visit my brother 1 1 2. If he is there and we see him, we 
shall tell him what you say. 1 3. When bread is dear and the 
weather is cold, the poor suffer. 14. I think we shall go away 
the day after to-morrow. 15. If your friend comes to the 
meeting and I am there, I shall speak to him. 16. Since you 
went away I have been writing letters. 1 7. Since you cannot 
do it, you must let me try. 18. Since you went away yester- 
day he has done nothing but play. 19. Since every action 
brings its recompense with it, we must pay attention to what 
we do. 20. While I was doing my exercise, she was writing 
her letters. 21. The good shall be rewarded, whilst the bad 
Khali be punished. 22. When I saw him, he was busy working 
in liis field. 23. As long as the world lasts, justice shall pre- 
vail over injustice. 24. He did his work, so that he was 
praised by all. 25. He was kind to the poor, so that he might 
i>e praised by all. 


Tlie largest clock in the world will be tlio ono^ which soon^ 
will adorn the city liall of riiiladc'lphia. The dial of this 
colossal clock will Ikv' ten iiu-tnvs in diameter, and will be 
placed and illuiiiinaU^d so as (<» be visible night and day (de) 
everywhere in the city. 'I'Ik; Iwmds will he, on(^"* four metres 
and the other three metnrs N^ng; thci \u'.\\ of the striking part 
will weigh forty-six thouHand pounds, and in order to wind the 


clock a steam-engine placed in the tower will be used daily 
( = one will use daily a steam-engine, etc.). 

' § 381. 2 § 413. 3 § 428, obs. 3. ♦ § 406, 7, (1), a. 


Horsesi, birds^ and animals^ of all (the) sorts speak a 
language as well as men^ We cannot understand all (= all 
that which) they say, but we understand enough of it to^ 
know that they have thoughts^ and feelings^. They are sad 
when they lose a companion, or when they are driven away^ 
from home. They are pleased when they are well treated*, 
and angry when they are ill treated*. They have, so to speak, 
a conscience ; they feel ashamed when they do what displeases 
us, and are very glad when they merit our approbation. 
Kindness^ on our part towards them is as reasonable as love^ 
and kindness^ between brothers^. 

i§321. -§282,2. »§322. •»§241. 2, a. 


A rich^ man, it is said^, once^ asked* a learned man what 
was^ the reason that scientific men were^ so often^ seen at the 
doors of the rich, while* the rich were^ very rarely seen^ at the 
doors of the learned. "It is," replied* the scholar, "because 
the man of science knows the value of riches^, but the rich 
man does not always know the value of science^." 

1 § 351. ••» § 413. 6 § 258, 5. • % 258, 1. » § 321. 

2 § 241, 2, a. *% 260. 


Moliere, the great French^ author, was born^ in Paris in the 
year one thousand six hundred and twenty-two^. His father 
was the king's upholsterer, and was probably a rather rich* 
man. The son received^ a good education, but not much is 
known^ of his youth. When he was about twenty years old", 
he organized^ a company of actors, which was^ called L'lllustre 
Thedtre. But in this enterprise he did not succeed^ very well. 
He soon^ lost^ all his money, and with his troupe was^ forced 
to^ leave Paris and (to) make a tour in [the] province[s]. This 


tour lasted^ from sixteen hundred and forty-six to sixteen 
hundred and fifty-eight. During these years he travelled^ 
over nearly the whole of France, and played^ in many of the 
large cities. After his return to Paris he became^ the king's 
favourite, and produced^ the masterpieces which have rendered 
him so celebrated. At last, after fifteen years of great suc- 
cess, he died^ in sixteen hundred and seventy-three at the 
age of fifty-one. 

»§352, 1, (2). »§421, c. »§260. ^ § 430. "§280,6. 

* Past Def. * § 351. « § 241, 2, a. » § 413. 


Speaking of the small world in which even the greatest live^, 
Lord Beaconsfield used to telF that Napoleon I., a year after 
his accession to the throne, determined to^ find out if there was* 
anybody in the world who had never heard of him. Within a 
fortnight the police of Paris had^ discovered a wood-chopper 
at Montmartre, in Paris itself, who had never heard of the 
Revolution, nor of the death of Louis XVI., nor of the 
Emperor Napoleon. 

I > 237, 6. « » 258, 2. •§ 280, 6. * § 2E8, 5. » § 232, 1. 


Napoleon, the greatest general of modern times^, was born^ 
at Ajaccio on the ir)th of August, 17G9. At the age of ten^ he 
was sent to the military* school at Brienne, where he remained 
more tlian'' five years. Then entering the French"* army, he 
was, in 1796, appointed general of the army of Italy*', and 
soon Kucceeded in conquering"^ that country. lie used so well 
the opportunities which were offered him by the we.ikness of 
the Iiepul)]ic tliat in less than ten years lie was elected 
Kmjwror. The ten years* struggle, in which he engaged with 
the of sulxluing^ Europe", end(ul with the liatMe of 
Watcrlcx) in 1815. Jianislied to (mt) St. llelena he died'*^ 
there on the Sth of May, 1821, Twenty years after his death 
\\\n remains were brougFit back to (en) Kriiuc, mikI iiiffricd in 
the llCtel den Invalidea. 

•I SKI. •1480, o6«. 1 "MIS, I, ft. '«27!», ;;-.. 1. 

» PMi IM. • I SfiS, 1, (2). • I 38a, 2, note. * | 28(», ■ ' ■ :. n,nnrvt or est inurt. 



Great Britain^ and Ireland^ are two large islands in the 
west of Europe^. Great Britain is the larger of the two and 
comprises England^, Scotland^, and Wales^. The monarch of 
tlie United Kingdom of Great Britain'^ and Ireland^ is Queen^ 
Victoria, who was born* on the 24th of May, 1819. She is 
the daughter of the Duke of Kent, son of George III. She 
ascended the throne on (a) the death of William IV. in 1837. 
She has to {pour) assist her in the government of the country 
a parliament which meets once a year at Westminster. When 
she appeared before (le) parliament for the first time. Queen 
Victoria declared that she would place her trust in the wisdom 
of her parliament and the love of her people, and she has not 
failed to keep this promise. Having thus early won the 
hearts of all her subjects, she has retained their affection 
during a long reign of more than^ sixty years. Queen Victoria 
is a^ widow ; her husband. Prince^ Albert of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha, whom she married in 1840, died in 1861, much 
regretted by the Queen and the people. 

» § 333, 1. 3 1 327. 4 § est nie. » § 412, 1, &. « § 330, 3. 

2 § 333, 2. 


There was^, in the city of Macon, a parrot which had 
learned to^ say continually : " Who is there % Who is there ?" 
This parrot escaped one day from its cage in the garden, and 
soon^ flew into a wood near by, where a peasant saw it, and 
began to^ chase it. The peasant had never seen a parrot in 
{de) all his life. He approached* the tree where the bird was, 
and was going to^ kill the poor bird with his gun. At that 
moment the parrot began to^ repeat the usual question : 
" Who is there ? Who is there ? " The peasant, terrified at 
these words, let his gun falP from his hands. Then taking 
his hat off, he said, very respectfully : " My dear sir, I pray 
you to^ excuse me, I thought that it was a bird." 

i§250. sf^S. »§278, 6. «§ 230, 6, a and 7. §280,6. 

* § 279, 6. ♦ § 296, 1. 




The unknown^ author of "Beowulf" was not a^ native of 
England, and so the first of the long line of English^ poets is 
really Csedmon. Bseda tells us a pretty story of the way in 
which^ Caedmon became a^ poet. He was already almost an^ 
old man before he knew anything^ of the art of poetry. At 
the feasts, in those days, everybody used to sing^ in turn to^ 
amuse the company, but Csedmon used to leave*^ the table 
before the harp was given^ to him. One evening, when he 
had done thus, he went to the stable and lay down, after 
having^ cared for the cattle, because, you must know, he was 
only a farm-servant in the. monastery at Whitby. As he 
slept^^, some one appeared to him, and said, "Csedmon, sing a 
song to me." "I cannot^^ sing," he replied, "and that is why 
I left the feast." "Nevertheless," was the answer, "you must 
sing to me." "Well, then," asked Csedmon, "what shall I 
sing?" The other replied, "Sing the beginning of created 
things^2 " Thereupon he made some verses, which he still 
remembered when he awoke. The Abbess Hilda, hearing of 
his dream, believed (that) the grace of God had been given 
him, and made him a^ monk. 

« I 862, 1, (3). ♦ I 398. » 8 282, 2. • § 282, 4. " § 230, 4. 

«|880, 8. »§406, 4, a. "8 241,2,0. "§258,1. »2§321. 

•1862,1,(2). •8 268,2. 


A miser went^ one day to market^, and bought^ some^ fine 
apples. He carried^ them liome, ai ranged^ them carefully in 
his cupboard, and used to go"* and look at them almost every 
day, hut would* not eat any until tliey began to spoil. Every 
time he did eat one he regretted it. ]^ut he had a son, a 
young Hch(K)l-lK>y, wlio liked apples; and one day, with a 
comrade, he found the miser's treasure. I do not know how 
lie found tlie key of the cupboard ; but he did^, and you may 
imagine how many apples they ate. When they had' finished 
the apples, the old father came, and caught tluun. Ilow 
•ngiy* he wa« 1 How he shouted at them! "Wretches! 
where are my beautiful apples? You shall both be hanged! 
You have eaten thum all!" His son replied: "Do not be 


angry, father^ ! You only eat the bad apples ; we have not 
touched (a) those; we have eaten the good ones, and left 
you yours." 

1 § 260. » § 324, 1. 6 § 265, 1,6. ^ § 262, 3. » § 376, 4. 

2 § 331, ex. 4. ■* § 258, 2. « § 256. « § 360, a. 


A hungry! fQ^ was one day looking for^ a poultry-yard. It 
Was late in the afternoon, and, as he was passing^ a farm- 
house, he saw^ a cock and some hens which had^ gone up into 
a tree for the night. He drew near^, and invited* them to^ 
come down and^ rejoice with him on account of a new treaty 
of peace which had been formed between the animals. The 
cock said he was^ very glad of it, but that he did not intend^ 
to^ come down before the next morning. "But," said he, "I 
see two dogs coming^*^; I have no doubt they will be^^ glad 
to^^ celebrate the peace with you." Just then the fox remem- 
bered that he had business^^ elsewhere, and, bidding the cock 
good-bye, began* to run. " Why do you run 1" said the cock, 
" If the animals have made a peace, the dogs won't hurt you. 
I know them, they are good, loyaP* dogs, and would not harm 
any one." " Ah," said the fox, " I am afraid they have^^ not 
yet heard the news." 

i§ 352, 1,(3). 



10 §287, 3. 


2 § 258, 1, ; § 296, 3. 

«§229; §262,2. 

» § 258, 5. 

11 §269, 6. 


•' § 268, 1. 

« § 279, 6. 

» § 280, 2, a. 


"§269, 4, a. 


A woodman, who was cutting^ wood on the bank of a river, 
let^ his axe fall^ into the water. He at once* began^ to^ pray 
[to] the gods to^ find it for him. Mercury appeared^ and 
asked 2 him what was^ the matter. '* I have lost my axe," 
said^ he. Having heard this. Mercury dived ^ into the water, 
and brought- up a golden axe. "Is this^ yours?" "No," 
said the man. Next time Mercury brought up a silver one. 
"Is this one yours?" "No," said^ the chopper again. The 
third time Mercury brought up an iron one, which the man 
recognized, as soon as he saw^ it. " It is yours," said the god, 
"and for your honesty I shall give you the other two also." 

1 § 258, 1. 3 § 230, 6, a, and 7. « § 279, 6. -f § 258, 5. » § 236, 2. 

2 §260. *§413. 6 1 280, 6. 



Two men were travelling^ together, when they saw^ a bear 
coining out^ of the forest. The one climbed into a tree, and 
tried to* conceal himself in the branches. The other, when 
he saw that the bear would ( = was going to) attack him, 
threw himself upon the ground, and, when the bear came up, 
he ceased to* breathe, for it is said^ that a bear will not touch^ 
a dead" body. When the bear had^ gone, his companion came 
down, and asked : " What was it that the bear was saying to 
you 1 " His friend replied : " He advised me not^ to travel 
with a friend who runs away at the approach of danger^^." 

» § 258, 1. 3 § 287, 3. « § 241, 2, a. ' § 352, 1, (3). « § 416, a. 

2 § 260. * § 280, 6. « § 296, 5. » § 262, 3. '» § 321. 


A well-known^ English^ actor, travelling to Birmingham by 
tlie Great Western^ railway the other day, on approaching* 
Banbury, began to feel hungry, and determined to have one of 
the buns for which the town is famous. 

The train having stopped, he called a boy, gave him six- 
pence, and asked him to get " two Banburys," promising him 
one of the two for his trouble. 

Just as the train was about to start, the boy rushed up to 
the carriage in which the impatient actor was seated, and 
offering him three pence, exclaimed : 

" Here's your change, sir." 

** Bother the change ; where's the bun," roared the hungry 

"There was only one left," replied the boy, "and I'm 
eating that ! " 

• I 362, 1, (S). » I 362, 1, (2). » | 880, 4, o, note. * | 296, 1. 


Under a magnificent walnut-tree near the village, two little 
boyii found a walnut. " It belongs to me," said the one, "for 
it was' V who was the first to see it ( -- who have seen it the 
first)." "No, it Ijelongs to me," exclaimcil the other, "for it 
was* I^ who picked it up." Thereupon th(;ro'' arose between 


them a violent quarrel. ** I am going to make peace* between 
you," said to them a third boy, who was passing at that 
moment. The latter placed himself between the two claim- 
ants, opened the walnut, and pronounced this sentence: "One 
of the shells belongs to him^ who was the first to see the 
walnut ; the other to him^ who picked it up ; as to the kernel, 
I keep it for the costs of the court. That's how lawsuits* 
generally end," added he, laughing. 

»§.257, 3, 6. 2 §372, 3. •■'§252,2. *8 321. 6§381. 


Many years ago^ there^ lived in the city of Paris a cele- 
brated^ physician who was very fond of animals. One day a 
friend of his* brought to his house a favourite^ <iogj whose leg 
had been broken, and asked him if he could do anything for 
the poor creature. The kind doctor examined the wounded^ 
animal, and, prescribing a treatment for him, soon^ cured him, 
and received the warm thanks of his friend, who set a very 
high value upon his dog. Not very long afterwards, the 
doctor was in his room busy studying^. He thought^ he heard 
a noise at the door, as if some animal was scratching in order 
to be let'' in. For some time he paid no attention to the noise, 
but continued studying^^. At last, however, he rose up and 
opened the door. To his great astonishment he saw enter the 
dog which he had cured, and with him another dog. The latter 
also had a broken^ leg, and was able to move only with much 
difficulty. The dog which the surgeon had cured had brought 
his friend to his benefactor, in order that he, too, might be^^ 
healed ; and, as well as he could, he made the doctor^^ under- 
stand that this was what he wanted. 

1 § 250, 4. ♦ § 377, 3. ^ § 279, 2. » § 241, 2, a. " § 271, 2. 

2 § 252, 2. 6 § 352, 1, (3). « § 458, 3. lo § 279, 6. 12 § 230, 6, b. 

3 § 351. « § 413. 


There was once a cat who was a^ great enemy of the rats. 
He had eaten a great many 2, and they were much afraid of 
him. So the chiefs of the rats called a meeting to^ discuss 
what they should do to^ rid themselves of him. A great 


many plans were proposed, but after a little discussion they 
were all abandoned. At last a young rat, who thought him- 
self very clever, rose and said : " Do not despair my friends, 
I have not yet proposed a plan. A splendid idea occurs to 
me ; I know what we can do. We can, if we are economical, 
soon save enough money to^ buy a little bell. This we can 
attach to the neck of our old enemy, and, if he approaches, we 
can"* flee to (dans) a place of safety.^' 

The young rats all applauded the idea, but one of the old 
[ones], who up to this time had said nothing, gravely^ asked 
the one who had made the speech if he would promise to put 
the bell on the cat. The young rat blushed, and said he 
would think of it^. 

The meeting broke up shortly after, and the rats dispersed 
without doing anything^ 

» § 330, 3. ••' § 282, 2. » § 413. « § 368. M 405, 4, a. 

' § 367, 2, (1). •• § 263, 2. 


Long ago^ the frogs, tired of having^ a republic, resolved to^ 
ask Jupiter to send them a king. Jupiter did not receive 
their petition with much* favour, but as they seemed really to* 
desire one, he thought (that) it would be better to please^ 
them. So, one fine day, when they were all expecting^ their 
king, a great log fell from the sky into the pond, where they 
were^. They were very much afraid of the noise" it made, 
and they took refuge in holes and in the mud at the bottom of 
the pond. Little by little, however, they approached*^ their 
king to^ get a good look at him, and seeing that he was so 
quiet, they became more Vmld, and finally leai)od on him, and 
treated him with great familiarity ( = xmy familiarly). Then 
they complained again to Jupiter saying that the king he had 
sent was not worthy of their respect, and that they desired 
another, who would show^^' more vigour. In order to please 
them Jupiter sent them this time a stork, who immediately 
began to devour them with mucli avidity. They complained 
again, but Jupiter told thenj that, since;' ^ they had desin^d a 
king, they would be forced to quietly submit to the ono^'^ he 
had sent. 


♦ 1 27H. 6. 

» 1402,1. 




•|2flO, 2. 



» 1881; 402,1. 





The two youngest of my children were already in bed and 
asleep, the third had^ gone out, but at my return I found him 
sitting beside my gate, weeping- very sore. I asked him the 
reason. '' Father^," said he, '' I took this morning from^ my 
mother, without her knowing^ it, one of those three apples 
you brought her, and I kept^ it a long while ; but, as I was 
playing some time ago^ with my little brother in the street, a 
slave that went^ by snatched it out of my hands, and carried 
it off; I ran after him asking for it, and, besides, told him 
that it belonged to my mother, who was ill, and that you had 
taken a fortnight's journey to fetch it ; but all in vain, he 
would^ not give it back. And because I still followed him, 
crying out, he stopped and beat me, and then ran away as fast 
as he could, from one street to another, till at length I lost 
sight of him. I have since that been walking outside the 
town, expecting your return, to pray you, dear father, not to 
tell my mother [of] it, lest it should make her worse." And 
when he had^^ said these words, he began weeping again more 
bitterly than ever. 

1 § 229. •■' § 376, 4. » § 271, 5. ^ § 250, 4. » § 265, 1, 6. 

2 § 286, 2. ♦ § 296, 4. « § 259, 2. » § 258, 1. i" § 262, 3. 


A celebrated Italian^ painter had told his pupils to^ ask 
the name of any (tout) person who might come^ to his house 
during his absence in the city. One day three gentlemen 
came to* see the painter, and the latter was not at home. 
One of the pupils, whose name was John, opened the door for 
them^, said that his master was not in, and let them depart 
without asking their names. When the master returned and^ 
heard of the three gentlemen, he asked ^ John who they were. 
John could say nothing but, "I do not know, sir." The 
painter got angry, but John, with a few strokes of his pen- 
cil, drew (/aire) the portrait of the three, and gave it to 
his master, who immediately^ recognized them. The artist 
admired the skill of the young man so much that he took 
the drawing, and kept it afterwards among his most precious 
possessions. It is needless to^ add that he pardoned the pupil. 

» § 352, 1, (2). •■' § 270, 1. 6 § 362, 2. ' § 296, 2. » § 384, 1, a. 

2 § 280, 6. * § 278, 6. « § 458, 2. « § 413. 



A man (celui) who would ^ have friends must show himself 
friendly. A man was passing the night at an inn. He had 
just left a town where he had spent several years. The land- 
lord asked- him why he had left the place. He replied, 
" because my neighbours were so disagreeable and disobliging 
that one could not live with them." The landlord replied, 
"you will find exactly the same sort of neighbours where you 
are going." The following day another traveller came from 
the same place. He told the landlord that he was obliged to 
leave the place where he had been living, and that it caused 
him great pain to part with his neighbours, who had been so 
kind and obliging. The landlord encouraged him by telling^ 
him that he would find exactly the same sort of neighbours 
where he was going. 

* § 230, 1. 2 § -296, 2. ••» § 186, 3. 


When I was^ at school^ I was^ often very idle. Even in 
[the] class I used to play^ with boys as idle as myself. We 
used to tryi to hide this from^ our master, but one day he 
caught^ us cleverly. 

" You must not be idle," said he. " You must not raise 
your* eyes from your books. You do not know what you lose 
by idleness^ Study while you are young ; you will not be 
able to study when you are*' old. If any one sees another boy, 
who is not studying, let him tell me"." 

" Now," said I to myself, " there is Fred Smith, T do not 
like; liim. If I see tliat he is not studying, T shall telF." 

Soon after, I saw Fred Sniitli l(X)king** out of the window, 
and I told the master what I had seen. " Indeed ! " said he, 
"how do you know he was idle?" "If you please, sir," said 
I, "I saw* him." "O you saw^ him, and where were your 
eye« when you saw* him ? " 

I saw the other boys hiugh^, and I was^'* ashamed, fo!- the 
master smiled, and said it was a good lesson for m(^ 

*f2fift. MZaO. •%Wl\. »|866. •Slir.J), 2. 

«|190k4. «f828. •%Wi,2. •1287,8. iofifiH.l. 



The princes of Europe^ have found out a manner of reward- 
ing2 their subjects who have behaved well, by presenting^ 
them with about two yards of blue* ribbon, which is worn^ on 
the shoulder. Those who are honoured with this mark of 
distinction are called knights, and the king himself is always 
at the head of the order. This is a cheap method of recom- 
pensing^ the most important services ; and it is very fortunate 
for kihgs^ that their subjects are^ satisfied with such^ trifling 
rewards. Should^-^ a nobleman lose his leg in a battle, the king 
presents him with two yards of ribbon, and he is recompensed 
for the loss of his leg. Should^ an ambassador spend all his 
fortune in^^ supporting the honour of his country abroad, the 
king presents him with two yards of ribbon, which is con- 
sidered^ the equivalent of his estate. In short, as long as an 
European king has a yard or two of blue or green ribbon, he 
will not, want statesmen, generals and soldiers. 

» § 333, ?. •■' § 286, 3, » § 241, 2, ■> § 269, 4. » § 275. 

2 § 280, 2. ♦ § 352, 1, (1). « § 321. « § 406, 5, a, note. i® § 279, 2. 


At a time when ancient art was attracting so much atten- 
tion in Italy that modern art^ was being neglected^, Michael 
Angelo had resort to a stratagem in order to teach the critics 
the folly of judging such things according to fashion^ or 
reputation^. He made a statue which represented^ a beautiful 
girl asleep*, and, breaking off an arm, buried the statue in a 
place where excavations were being made^. It was soon 
found, and was lauded by critics^ and by the public as a 
valuable relic of antiquity^. When Michael Angelo thought 
the time opportune, he produced the broken arm, and, to the 
great mortification of the critics, revealed himself as the 

» § 321. 2 § 241, 2. -^ § 258, 3. * § 352, 1, (3), 


Had you seen us, Mr. Harley, when we were turned out of 
South-hill, I am sure you would have wept at that sight. You 


remember old Trusty, my dog ; I shall never forget it while I 
live (fut.) ; the poor creature was old and almost blind, and 
could scarce crawl after us to the door ; he went, however, as 
far as the gooseberry-bush, which, as you may remember, stood 
on the left side of the yard ; he was wont to bask in the sun 
there ; when he had reached that spot, he stopped ; we went 
on ; I called him ; he wagged his tail, but did not stir ; I 
called again ; he lay down ; I whistled, and cried " Trusty " ; 
he gave a howl, and died ! I could have lain down and died 
( = should have liked to lie down and die) too ; but God gave 
me strength to live for my children. 



Lamennais (1782-1854). 

Lorsqu'un arbre est seul, il est battu des vents et d^pouill^ 
de ses feuilles ; et ses branches, au lieu de s'elever, s'abaissent 
comme si elles cherchaient la terre. 

Lorsqu'une plante est seule, ne trouvant point d'abri contre 
I'ardeur du soleil, elle languit et se dess^che, et meurt. 5 

Lorsque I'homme est seul, le vent de la puissance le courbe 
vers la terre, et I'ardeur de la convoitise des grands de ce 
monde absorbe la seve qui le nourrit. 

Ne soyez done point comme la plante et comme I'arbre qui 
sont seuls : mais unissez-vous les uns aux autres, et appuyez- 10 
vous, et abritez-vous, mutuellement. 

Tandis que vous serez d^sunis, et que chacun ne songera qu'i 
soi, vous n'avez rien k esp^rer, que souffrance, et malheur, et 

Qu'y a-t-il de plus faible que le passereau, et de plus desarme 15 
que riiirondellel Cependant quand parait I'oiseau de pi*oie, 
les hirondelles et les passereaux parviennent a le chasser, en se 
rassemblant autour de lui, et le poursuivant tous ensemble. 

Prenez exemple sur le passereau et sur I'hirondelle. 

Celui qui se separe de ses f reres, la crainte le suit quand il 20 
marche, s'assied prfes de lui quand il repose, et ne le quitte pas 
meme durant son sorameil. 

Done, si Ton vous demande : " Combien etes-vous ? " r^pon- 
dez: "Nous sommes un, car nos f reres, c'est nous, et nous, 
c'est nos f reres." 25 

Dieu n'a fait ni petits ni grands, ni maitres ni esclaves, ni 
rois ni sujets : il a fait tous les hommes ^gaux. 

Mais, entre les hommes, quelques-uns ont plus de force ou de 
corps, ou d'esprit, ou de volonte, et ce sont ceux-la qui cherchent 
k s'assujettir les autres, lorsque I'orgueil ou la convoitise etouf-30 
fent en eux Famour de leurs freres. 



Et Dieu savait qu'il en serait ainsi, et c'est poiirquoi il a 
command^ aux hommes de s'aimer, afiii qu'ils fussent uiiis, et 
que les faibles ne tombassent point sous I'oppression des forts. 

Car celui qui est plus fort qu'un seul sera moins fort que 
5 deux, et celui qui est plus fort que deux sera moins fort que 
quatre; et ainsi les faibles ne craindront rien lorsque, s'aimant 
les uns les autres, ils seront unis veritablement. 

Un hoinme voyageait dans la moiitagne, et il arriva en un 
lieu ou un gros rocher, ayant roule sur le chemin, le remplissait 
10 tout entier, et hors du chemin il n'y avait point d'autre issue, 
ni a gauche, ni a droite. 

Or, cet homme voyant qu'il ne pouvait continuer son voyage 
k cause du rocher, essaya de le mouvoir pour se faire un pas- 
sage, et il se fatigua beaucoup a ce travail, et tous ses efforts 
15 f urent vains. 

Ce que voyant, il s'assit plein de tristesse et dit : *' Que 
sera-ce de raoi lorsque la nuit viendra et me surprendra dans 
cette solitude, sans nourriture, sans abri, sans aucune defense, 
a rheure oil les betes f^roces sortent pour cherchei- leur proie?" 
20 Et comme il ^tait absorb^ dans cette pensee, un autre voya- 
geur survint, et celui-ci, ayant fait ce qu'avait fait le premier 
et s'^'tant trouv^ aussi irapuissant k r^muer le rocher, s'assit en 
silence et baissa la tete. 

Et apr^s celui-ci, il en vint plusieurs autres, et aucun ne put 
25 mou,voir le rocher, et leur crainte k tous etait grande. 

Enfin I'un d'eux dit aux autres : " Mes f r^res, prions notre 
Pfere qui est dans les cieux : peut-6tre qu'il aura piti^ de nous 
dans cette ddtresse." 

Et cette parole fut <5cout^e, et ils pri^rent de cceur le Tbre 
80 qui est dans les cieux. 

Et quand ils ourent pri<^, celui qui avait dit: ** Prions," dit 
encore: "Mes freros, ce qu'aucun de nous n'a pu faire seul, qui 
sait H\ nous ne le forons pas tous ensemble ? " 

Kt ilH 86 lev6rent, et tous ensemble ils poussiNrent le rocher et 
86 le rocher cdda, et ils poursuivirent leur route en paix. 

lie voyagcur c'est riiomnio, le voyage c'est la vie, le rocher 
oe sont le« mis^res qu'il rencontre k cluujue pas sur sa route. 

Aucun homme ne saurait soulever h(^u1 co rocher, mais Dieti 
en a meRurt^ le poids de mnni^re qu'il n'arr^te jamais ceux qui 
MToyagent ensemble. 


Lamennais (1782-1854). 

Deux hommes etaient voisins, et chacun d'eux avait une 
femme et plusieurs petits eiifants, et son seul travail pour les 
faire vivre. 

Et Tun de ces deux hommes s'inquietait en lui-meme, disant : 
" Si J9 meurs ou que je tombe malade, que deviendront ma 5 
femme et mes enfants 1 " 

Et cette pensee ne le quittait point, et elle rongeait son coeur 
comme un ver ronge le fruit ou il est cache. 

Or, bien que la meme pensee fut venue egalement a I'autre 
pere, il ne s'y etait point arrete ; " car, disait-il, Dieu, qui con- 10 
nait toutes ses creatures et qui veille sur elles, veillera aussi 
sur moi, et sur ma femme, et sur mes enfants." 

Et celui-ci vivait tranquille, tandis que le premier ne goutait 
pas un instant de repos ni de joie interieurement. 

Un jour qu'il travaillait aux champs, triste et abattu a cause 15 
de sa crainte, il vit quelques oiseaux entrer dans un buisson, en 
sortir, et puis bientOt y revenir encore. 

Et, s'etant approche, il vit deux nids poses c6te a cote, et 
dans chacun plusieurs petits nouvellement eclos et encore sans 
plumes. 20 

Et quand il fut retourne k son travail, de temps en temps il 
levait les yeux, et regardait ces oiseaux qui allaient et venaient 
portant la nourriture a leurs petits. 

Or, voila qu'au moment ou Tune des meres rentrait avec sa 
becquee, un vautour la saisit, I'enleve, et la pauvre mere se25 
debattant vainement sous sa serre, jetait des cris pergants. 

A cette vue, I'homme qui travaillait sentit son ame plus 
troublee qu'auparavant ; " car, pensait-il, la mort de la mere, 
c'est la mort des enfants. Les miens n'ont que moi non plus. 
Que deviendront-ils si je leur manque^" 30 

Et tout le jour il fut sombre et triste, et la nuit il ne dormit 

Le lendemain, de retour aux champs, il se dit : "Je veux 
voir les petits de cette pauvre mere : plusieurs sans doute ont 
deja peri." Et il s'achemina vers le buisson. 35 

Et, regardant, il vit les petits bien portants ; pas un ne sem- 
blait avoir pati. 


Et, ceci I'ayant etonne, il se cacha pour observer ce qui se 

Et, apr^s un peu de temps, il entendit un leger cri, et il 

aper9ut la seconde mere rapportaiit en hate la nourriture 

squ'elle avait recueillie, et elle la dibtribua a tous les petits 

indistinctement, et il y en eut pour tous, et les orphelins ne 

furent point delaisses dans leur misere. 

Et le pere qui s'etait defi^ de la Providence raconta le soir 
a I'autre pere ce qu'il avait vu. 
10 Et celui-ci lui dit: "Pourquoi s'inquieter ? Jamais Dieu 
n'abandonne les siens. Son amour a des secrets que nous ne 
connaissons point. Croyons, esperons, aimons, et poursuivons 
notre route en paix. 

" Si je meurs avant vous, vous serez le pere de mes enfants ; 
16 si vous mourez avant moi, je serai le pere des votres. 

" Et si I'un et I'autre, nous mourons avant qu'ils soient en 
kge de pourvoir eux-memes a leurs necessites, ils auront pour 
p^re le Pere qui est dans les cieux." 


Perrault (1628-1703). 

Un meunier ne laissa pour tous biens k trois enfants qu'il 

to avait, que son moulin, son fine et son chat. IjCS partages 

furent bient6t faits ; ni le notaire, ni le procureur n'y furent 

appelds. lis auraient eu bientftt mango tout le pauvre patri- 

nioine. L'aind eut le moulin, le second eut ITme, et le plus 

jeune n'eut que le chat. Co derni(^r ne jiouvait se consoha* 

tsd'avoir un si pauvre lot. "Mes fieres, disait-il, pourront 

gagner leur vie honnotoment en se niettant onsembh' ; pour 

moi, lorsquo j'aurai mange mon chat, et <iue je me serai fait un 

manchon do sa peau, il faudra (juo je meure de faim." Le 

Chat, qui entendait ce discourH, mais qui n'en fit pas siunblant, 

80 lui dit d'un air xxw^ et s^rieux : " No vous aftiigez point, mon 

mattre, vous n'avez (ju'^ me donner un sac et me faini fairo 

une paire de bottes pour aller dans les broussailles, et vous 

verrez que vous n^6tes pas si mal partag^ que vous cro^^ez." 


Quoique le maitre du Chat ne fit pas grand fond la-dessus, i 
lui avait vu faire tant de tours de souplesse pour prendre des 
rats et des souris, comme quand il se pendait par les pieds, ou 
qu'il se cachait dans la farine pour faire le mort, qu'il ne 
desespe'ra pas d'en etre secouru dans sa misere. Lorsque le 5 
Chat eut ce qu'il avait demande, il se botta bravement, et, 
mettant son sac a son cou, il en prit les cordons avec ses 
pattes de devant, et s'en alia dans une garenne ou il y avait 
grand nombre de lapins. II mit du son et des lacerons dans 
son sac, et, s'etendant comme s'il eiit et^ mort, il affendit que lo 
quelque jeune lapin, peu instruit encore des ruses de ce monde, 
yint se fourrer dans son sac pour manger ce qu'il y avait mis. 
A peine fut-il couch^ qu'il eut contentement ; un jeune etourdi 
de lapin entra dans son sac, et le maitre Chat, tirant aussitot 
ses cordons, le prit et le tua sans misericorde. Tout glorieux 15 
de sa proie, il s'en alia chez le roi et demanda a lui parler. 
On le fit monter a I'appartement de Sa Majeste, ou ^tant 
entre, il fit une grande reverence au roi, et lui dit : " Voil&, 
sire, un lapin de garenne que IVI* le marquis de Carabas (c'etait 
le nom qu'il prit en gr^ de donner a son maitre) m'a charge de 20 
vous presenter de sa part. — Dis a ton maitre, repondit le roi, 
que je le remercie, et qu'il me ia,it plaisir."]/' Une autre fois, il 
alia se cacher dans un ble, tenant toujours son sac ouvert, et 
lorsque deux perdrix y furent entries, il tira les cordons et les 
prit toutes deux. II alia ensuite les presenter au roi, comme 25 
il avait fait du lapin de garenne. Le roi re^ut encore avec 
plaisir les deux perdrix, et lui fit donner pour boire. Le Chat 
continua ainsi, pendant deux ou trois mois, de porter de temps 
en temps au roi du gibier de la chasse de son maitre. Un jour 
qu'il sut que le roi devait aller a la promenade sur le bord de 30 
la riviere, avec sa fille, la plus belle princesse du monde, il dit 
k son maitre : " Si vous voulez suivre mon conseil, votre for- 
tune est faite ; vous n'avez qu'k vous baigner dans la riviere, a 
I'endroit que je vous montrerai, et ensuite me laisser faire." 
Le marquis de Carabas fit ce que son chat lui conseillait, sans 35 
savoir a quoi cela serait bon. Dans le temps qu'il se baignait, 
le roi vint a passer, et le Chat se mit k crier de toute sa force : 
" Au secours ! au secours ! voila M. le marquis de Carabas qui 
se noie ! " A ce cri, le roi mit la tete a la portiere, et recon- 
naissant le Chat qui lui avait apporte tant de fois du gibier, 40 
il ordonna a ses gardes qu'on allat vite au secours de M. le 


marquis de Carabas. Pendant qu'on retirait le pauvre mar- 
quis de la riviere, le Chat, s'approchant du carrosse, dit au roi 
que, dans le temps que son maitre se baignait, il etait venu 
des voleurs qui avaient emporte ses habits, quoiqu'il eut crie 

5 au voleiir ! de toute sa force : le drole les avait caches sous 
une grosse pierre. Le roi ordonna aussitot aux officiers de sa 
garde-robe d'aller querir un de ses plus beaux habits pour 
M. le marquis de Carabas. Le roi lui fit mille caresses ; et, 
comme les beaux habits qu'on venait de lui donner relevaient 

10 sa bonne mine (car il etait beau et bien fait de sa personne), 
la fille du roi le trouva fort a son gre, et le marquis cle Carabas 
ne lui eut pas plus tot jete deux ou trois regards forts respec- 
tueux et un peu tendres, qu'elle en devint amoureuse a la folie. 
Le roi voulut qu'il montat dans son carrosse et qu'il fut de la 

15 promenade. Le Chat, ravi de voir que son dessein commen- 
9ait k r^ussir, prit les devants, et, ayant rencontre des paysans 
qui fauchaient un prd, il leur dit : ^^ Bonnes gens qui fauchez, 
8% V0U8 ne dites pas au roi que le jrr^ que vous fauchez appar- 
tient a M. le marquis de Carabas vous serez tons hachds inenu 

20 comme chair a pdte'." Le roi ne manqua pas de demander aux 
faucheurs k qui dtait ce prd qu'ils fauchaient. " C'est a M. le 
marquis de Carabas," dirent-ils tous ensemble ; car la menace 
du Chat leur avait fait peur. " Vous avez la un bel heritage, 
dit le roi au marquis de Carabas. — Vous voyez, sire, repondit 

26 le marquis, c'est un prd qui ne manque point de rapporter 
abondamment toutes les ann^es." Le maitre Chat, qui allait 
toujours devant, rencontra des mgissonneurs, et leur dit : 
**Bonne8 getis qui m^oissonnez, 8i vous ue dltcs pas que tous ces 
hUs apjxirtiennent a M. le marquis de Carabas, vous serez tous 

Vihachh m,enu comme chair a pdt(f" Le roi, qui passa un 
moment npr^s, voulut savoir a qui appartonaient tous les blt?s 
qu'il voyait, "C'est h M. le manjuis de Carabas," ropondirent 
les moissonneurs, ot lo roi s'en r^jouit (mcore avec le manjuis. 
Le Chat, qui allait devant le carrosse, disait toujours la meme 

tftchoiie k tons ceux qu'il rencon trait ; et le roi i^tait t^toniu' des 
grands biens de M. le marquis de Carabas. Lo maitre Chat 
arriva enftn dans un beau chAteau, dont le maitre c^tait un 
ogre, le plus riche qu'on nit jamais vu : car toutes les terres 
par oili le roi avait pa.sH(5 ('•tai«'nt do la (L'jmndanco de ce chfi,- 

40tejiu. T>o Chat eut soin de s'lnforriicr (|ui rtait cet ogre, et ce 
qu'il lavait faire, et doinanda 4 lui pariur, disant qu'il n'avait 


pas voulu passer & pres de son chateau sans avoir I'honneur de 
lui faire la reverence. L'ogre le re9ut aussi civilement que le 
peut uu ogre, et le fit reposer. " On m'a assure, dit le Chat, 
que vous aviez le don de vous changer en toutes sortes d'ani- 
maux, et que vous pouviez, par exemple, vous transformer en 6 
lion, en elephant. — Cela est vrai, repondit brusquement l'ogre, 
et, pour vous le montrer, vous allez me voir devenir lion." Le 
Chat fut si effrayd de voir un lion devant lui, qu'il gagna aussi- 
tot les gouttieres, non sans peine et sans peril, a cause de ses 
bottes, qui ne valaient rien pour marcher sur les tuiles. Quel- lO 
que temps apres, le Chat ayant vu que l'ogre avait quitte sa 
premiere forme, descendit et avoua qu'il avait eu bien peur 
"On m'a assure encore, dit le Chat, mais je ne saurais le 
croire, que vous aviez aussi le pouvoir de prendre la forme 
des plus petits animaux, par exemple de vous changer en un 15 
rat, en une souris : je vous avoue que je tiens cela tout a fait 
impossible. — Impossible! reprit l'ogre, vous allez le voir ;" et 
en meme temps il se changea en une souris, qui se mit a courir 
sur le plancher. Le Chat ne I'eut pas plus tot apercue, qu'il 
se jeta dessus et la mangea. Cependant le roi, qui vit en 20 
passant le beau chateau de l'ogre, voulut entrer dedans. Le 
Chat qui entendit le bruit du carrosse qui passait sur le pont- 
levis, courut au-devant, et dit au roi: "Votre majeste soit la 
bienvenue dans ce chateau de M. le marquis de Carabas ! — 
Comment, monsieur le marquis, s'ecria le roi, ce chateau est 25 
encore a vous ! II ne se peut rien de plus beau que cette cour 
et tous ces bS,timents qui I'environnent; voyons les dedans, s'il 
vous plait." Le marquis donna la main a la jeune princesse, 
et, suivant le roi qui montait le premier, ils entrerent dans 
une grande salle, ou ils trouverent une magnifique collation 30 
que l'ogre avait fait preparer pour ses amis, qui devaient venir 
le voir ce meme jour-la, mais qui n'avaient pas ose y entrer, 
sachant que le roi y etait. Le roi, charme des bonnes qualites 
de M. le marquis de Carabas, de meme que sa fille, qui en 
etait folle, et voyant les grands biens qu'il possedait, lui dit, 35 
apres avoir bu cinq ou six coups : " II ne tiendra qu'a vous, 
monsieur le marquis, que vous ne soyez mon gejidre." Le 
marquis, faisant de grand es reverences, accepta I'honneur que 
lui faisait le roi ; et, des le meme jour, il epousa la princesse. 
Le chat devint grand seigneur, et ne courut plus apres les 40 
souris que pour se divertir. 



Dumas (1803-1870). 

Un jour, a Saint-Petersbourg, je me d^cidai de faire mes 
courses en me promenant. Je m'armai de pied en cap contre 
les hostilites du froid ; je m'enveloppai d'une grande redingote 
d'astracan, je m'enfon9ai un bonnet fourr^ sur les oreilles, je 

5 roulai autour de mon cou une cravate de cachemire, et je 
m'aventurai dans la rue, n'ayant de toute ma personne que 
le bout du nez a Fair. 

D'abord tout alia a merveille ; je m'etonnai meme du peu 
d'impression que me causait le froid, et je riais tout bas de 

10 tous les contes que j'en avais en tend u faire ; j'etais, au reste, 
enchant^ que le hasard m'eut donne cette occasion pour m'accli- 
mater. N^anmoins, comme les deux premiers ecoliers chez 
lesquels je me r enda is n'^taient point chez eux, je commengais 
a trouver que le hasard faisait trop bien les choses, lorsque je 

16 crus remarquer que ceux que je croisais me regardaient avec 
une certaine inquietude, mais cependant sans me rien dire. 
Bientdt un monsieur, plus causp ur. a ce qu'il parait, que les 
autres, me dit en passant : Noss ! Comme je ne savais pas un 
mot de russe, je crus que ce n'^tait pas la peine de m'arreter 

20 pour un monosyllabe, et je continuai mon chemin. Au coin 
de la rue des Pois, je recontrai un cocher qui ])assait ventre 
k terre en conduisant son traineau ; mais, si rapide que fut sa 
eburse, il se crut oblig^ de me parler k son tour et me cria : 
N088 I 71088 ! Enfin, en arrivant sur la place _derAmi!'aut(^, je 

26 me trouvai en face d'un moujik qui no me cria rien^u tout, 
mais qui, raniassant une poigneo de neige, se jeta sur moi, et 
avant que j'eusse pu me dt'>l)arrasser do tout mon attirail, se 
mit k me (k'barbouiller la figure et a me frotter particulifere- 
ment le nez de tout<^ sa force. Je trouvai la plaisanterie assez 

joni<kliocre, surtout par le t<unps ciu'il faisjiit. et tirant un d<? mes 
bras d'une do mes poches, je lui allongt^ai un coup <1(^ poing 
qui Tenvoya rouler a dix pas. Mallniun'usoment on houinnise- 
merit [K)ur moi, deux paysans passaient en ce moiiKMit qui, 
apn*K m'avoir regards un instant, se jetiTcnt sur moi, et mal- 

Sftgre ma d<*fenH(», me maintinnjnt Icm l)ras, tandis (juo mon 
enrag<5 moujik ramaHHait une autre poignde de neige, et, 
comme h'iI ne voulait pan en avoir le dementi, ho prt^cipitait de 
nouvcau huf moi. Cetto foiH, profitant do Timpossibilitd oili 


j'etais de me defendre, il se mit a recommencer ses frictions. 
Mais, si j'avais les bras pris, j'avais la langue libre : croyant 
que j'etais la victime de quelque meprise ou de quelque guet- 
apens, j'appelai de toute ma force au secours. Un officier 
accourut et me demanda en fran9ais a qui j'en avais. 6 

" Comment, monsieur ! " m'ecriai-je en faisant un dernier 
effort et en me debarrassant de mes trois hommes, qui, de 
I'air le plus tranquille du monde, se remirent a continuer leur 
cherjain, Fun vers la Perspective, et les deux autres du cote du 
quai Anglais, " vous ne voyez done pas ce que ces droles me lo 
f aisaient ? — Que vous faisaient-ils done? — Mais ils me frot- 
taient la figure avec de la neige. Est-ce que vous trouveriez 
cela une plaisanterie de bon gout par hasard, avec le temps 
qu'il fait? — Mais, monsieur, ils vous rendaient un enorme 
service, me r^pondit mon interlocuteur en me regardant comme 15 
nous disons, nous autres Fran9ais, dans le blanc des yeux. — 
Comment cela? — Sans doute, vous aviez le nez gele. — Miseri- 
corde ! m'^criai-je en portant la main a la partie menacee. — 
Monsieur, dit un passant en s'adressant a I'interlocuteur, mon- 
sieur I'officier, je vous previens que votre nez gele. — Merci, 20 
monsieur," dit I'officier, comme si on I'eut prevenu de la chose 
la plus naturelle du monde. 

Et se baissant, il ramassa une poign^e de neige et se rendit 
k lui-meme le service que m'avait rendu le pauvre moujik que 
j'avais si brutalement recompense de son obligeance. 25 

" C'est-a-dire alors, monsieur, que, sans cet homme . . . — Vous 
n'auriez plus de nez, continua I'officier en se frottant le sien. 

*' Alois, monsieur, permettez. . ." 

Et je me mis a courir apres mon moujik, qui, croyant que 
je voulais achever de I'assommer, se mit a courir de son c6te, 30 
de sorte que, comme la crainte est naturellement plus agile 
que la reconnaissance, je ne I'eusse probablement jamais rat- 
trapd si quelques personnes, en le voyant fuir et en me voyant 
le poursuivre, ne I'eussent pris pour un voleur, et ne lui eussent 
barr^ le chemin. Lorsque j'arrivai, je le trouvai parlant avec 35 
une grande volubilite, afin de faire comprendre qu'il n'etait 
coupable que de trop de philanthropic ; dix roubles que je lui 
donnai expliquerent la chose. Le moujik me baisa les mains, 
et un des assistants, qui parlait francais, m'invita a faire desor- 
mais plus d'attention a mon nez. L'invitation ^tait inutile ; 40 
pendant tout le reste de ma course, je ne le perdis pas de vue. 

— By kind permission of the Publisher, 

Calmann Levy, 3 rue Auber, Paris. 



Dumas (1803-1870). 

Jean Bart ^tait de Dunkerque, pays humide et froid, ou la 
pipe est noil seulement une compagne, mais un poele. II etait 
petit-fils et neveu de corsaires, et fut corsaire lui-meme jusqu'a 
I'dpoque ou Louis XIV I'appela dans la marine militaire. 

5 A cette dpoque, Jean Bart avait deja quarante et un ans ; 
il ^tait done trop tard pour qu'il changeat ses habitudes de 
jeunesse. Cependant, ceux qui voudront y r^flecliir, demeure- 
ront parfaitement convaincus que, lorsque Jean Bart alluma 
sa pipe dans ranticharabre du roi, ce n'etait pas par ignorance 

10 de I'etiquette de Versailles, mais parce qu'il voulait attirer 
I'attention sur lui, de fa^on a ce qu'on fut forc^ de le mettre a 
la porte du palais. Or, comme, apres tout, il ^tait chef 
d'escadre et qu'il s'appelait Jean Bart, ce n'etait pas chose 
facile de le mettre a la porte, ou d'aller dire k Louis XIV qu'il 

15 y avait, porte a porte avec lui, un homme qui furaait. 

On savait que Jean Bart venait deniander au roi une grkce, 
— une grace que le roi avait ddja refusee deux fois. 

On ne faisait pas parvenir au roi les demandes d'audience 
de Jean Bart ; il fallait que Jean Bart prlt le cabinet du roi 
so par surprise. 

Jean Bart mit de c6t^ ses fameux habits de drap d'or 
douV)!^ d'argent, qui faisaient tant de bruit dans les salons de 
Paris, revetit son simple costume d'ofhcior supt'rieur de la 
marine, passa seulement k son cou la chaine d'or que le roi lui 
26 avait donn(5e autrefois en recompense de s(^s exploits, et se 
prc«s('nta k rnntichambre de Sa Majesty, comme s'il avait sa 
lettre d'julmission. 

" Monsieur le capitaino de frdgate, demaiida I'ofMcior clmrgc? 
dMntrcKJuire les solliciteurs prt3S du roi ; monsieur le capitaine 
aode frigate, avez-vous votro lettre d'uudie?io(»? 

— Ma lettre d'audituicel dit Jean i^art ; pourquoi faire? 
Je fiuis, certes, assez Vx>n ami du roi pour qu'il n'y ait pas 
besoin de toutes ce« niaiseries-li, entre nous. Ditos-lui que 
o'est Jean Bart qui demunde k lui parler, et cela suilira. 

16 — Du moment oA vous n'avez pas de lettre d'andionce, 
reprit I'officior, pentonno ne se permettra do vous annoncer. 

— Mais j'ai V)eHoin qu'on m'annonce, fit Jean Bart, et je ne 
m'annoncerai pas bien moi-ni^me 1 


Et il s'avanQa vers la porte de communication. 

— On ne passe pas, mon officier, dit le mousquet^ire de 
*' — Est-ce la consigne ? demanda Jean Bart. 

— C'est la consigne, repondit le mousquetaire. ft 

— Respect a la consigne," dit Jean Bart. 

Puis, s'a^ossant a la boiserie, il tira une pipe du fond dp son 
chapeau, la bourra de tabac, battit le briquet, et I'alluma. 

Les courtisans le regardaient avec stupefaction. 

"Je vous ferai observer. Monsieur le capitaine de frigate, lo 
dit I'officier, qu'on ne fume pas dans I'antichambre du roi.- 

— Alors, qu'on ne m'y fasse pas attend re ; moi, je fume 
toujours quand j 'attends. 

— Monsieur le capitaine de fregate, je vais etre oblige de 
vous faire sortir, 15 

— Avant que j'aie parle au roi ! fit Jean Bart en riant. 
Ah ! je vous en defie bien." 

Et, en effet, ce n'etait pas, comme nous I'avons dit, chose 
facile que de mettre Jean Bart a la porte ; de deux raaux 
choisissant le moindre, et surtout le moins dangereux, I'officier 20 
alia dire au roi : 

" Sire, il y a dans votre antichambre un officier de marine 
qui fume, qui nous defie de le faire sortir, et qui nous declare 
qu'il entrera malgr^ nous." 

Louis XIV ne se donna pas meme la peine de chercher. 25 

** Je paji'ie que c'est Jean Bart ! " dit-il. 

L'officier s'inclina. 

" Laissez-le finir sa pipe, dit Louis XIY, et faites-le entrer." 

Jean Bart ne finit pas sa pipe ; il la jeta dans la cheminee 
et s'elan9a vers le cabinet du roi. Mais a peine en eut-ilso 
franchi le seuil, qu'il s'arreta, saluant respectueusement 
Louis XIV. 

Jean Bart etait arriv^ a son but. II se trouvait en face du 
roi avec la meme adresse qu'il manoeuvrait devant les escadres 
ennemies. II conduisit la conversation a travers les ecueils, 35 
les passes, les rochers, ou il voulait I'amener; c'est-a-dire 
qu'ayant commence par se faire faire force compliments sur sa 
sortie du port de Dunkerque ou il etait etroitement bloque par 
les Anglais ; sur I'incendie de plus de quatre-vingts batiments 
ennemis qu'il brula en mer ; et enfin sur sa descente a New- 40 
castle, — il mit un genou en terre devant le roi, et finit par lui 


demander la grace de Keyser, son matelot, condamne a mort 
pour avoir tue son adversaire en duel. 
Le roi hesitait. 

Jean Bart, que Tamitid fraternelle qu'il portait a Keyser 
5 rendait eloquent, pria, adjura, conjura ! 

"Jean Bart, dit Louis XIV, je vous accorde ce que j'ai 
refuse a Tourville. 

— Sire, repondit Jean Bart, mon p^re, deux de mes f r-eres, 
vingt autres membres de ma famille, sont morts au service de 
loVotre Majeste. Vous me donnez aujourd'hui la vie de mon 
matelot, je vous donne quittance pour celles des autres." 

Et Jean Bart sortit, pleurant comme un enfant, et criant : 
" Vive le roi ! " a tue-tete. 

Ce fut alors qu'envelopp^ par tous les courtisans ddsireux de 
15 faire la cour a un homme qui etait demeur^ plus d'une demi- 
heure en audience priv^e avec Louis XIV, et ne sachant com- 
ment sortir de ce cercle vivant qui commen9ait a I'^touflfer, il 
profita de ce qu'un des courtisans lui demandait : 

" Monsieur Jean Bart, comment done etes-vous sorti du 
20f)ort de Dunkerque, bloque comme vous I'dtiez par la flotte 
anglaise *? 

— Vous voulez le savoir ? r^pondit-il. 

— Oui, oui, s'^cri^rent-ils tous en chocur ; cela nous ferait 
grand plaisir. 
tft —Eh bien ! vous allez voir. Je suis Jean Bart, n'est-ce 
pas ? Vous fites la flotte anglaise ; vous me bloquez dans 
I'antichambre du roi ; vous m'empechez de sortir . . . Eh bien, 
vli ! vlan ! piff ! pafF! voil^ comment je suis sorti ! " 

Et k chaque exclamation, allongeant un coup de pied ou un 
aoooup de poing k celui qui ^tait en face de lui et I'envoyant 
tomber sur son voisin, il s'ouvrit un passage jusqu'^ la porte. 
Arriv^ 111 : 

*♦ Messieurs, dit-il, voilk comment je suis sorti du port de 
u £t il sortit de rantichambre du roi. 

—By kind permission of tho VnlilJHhor, 

Calnmnn I^vy, 3 ruo Auber, Paris. 


6. LA DERNlfeRE CLASSE. ! s^ 
Daudet (1840-1897). 

Ce matin-1^ j'^tais tres en retard pour aller a I'^cole, et 
j 'avals grand'peur d'etre gronde, d'autant plus que M. Hamel 
nous avait dit qu'il nous interrogerait sur les participes, et je 
n'en savais pas le premier mot. Un moment I'idee me vint de 
manquer la classe et de prendre ma course a travers champs. 5 

Le temps etait si chaud, si clair ! 

On entendait les merles siffler a la lisiere du bois, et dans 
le pr^ Rippert, derriere la scierie, les Prussiens qui faisaient 
I'exercice. Tout cela me tentait bien plus que la regie des 
participes; mais j'eus la force de resister, et je courus bienio 
vite vers I'ecole. 

En passant devant la mairie, je vis qu'il y avait du monde 
arrete pres du petit grillage aux affiches. Depuis deux ans, 
c'est de la que nous sont venues toutes les mauvaises nouvelles, 
les batailles perdues, les requisitions, les ordres de la comman- 15 
dature ; et je pensai sans m'arreter : 

" Qu'est-ce qu'il y a encore 1 " 

Alors, comme je traversais la place en courant, le forgeron 
Wachter, qui etait la avec son apprenti en train de lire 
I'affiche, me cria : 20 

"Ne te d^peche pas tant, petit; tu y arriveras toujours 
assez tot, a ton ecole ! " 

Je crus qu'il se moquait de moi, et j'entrai tout essouffle 
dans la petite cour de M. Hamel. 

D'ordinaire, au commencement de la classe, il se faisait un 25 
grand tapage qu'on entendait j usque dans la rue, les pupitres 
ouverts, fermes, les le9ons qu'on repetait tres haut ensemble en 
se bouchant les oreilles pour mieux apprendre, et la grosse regie 
du maitre qui tapait sur les tables : 

" Un pen de silence ! " so 

Je comptais sur tout ce train pour gagner mon banc sans 
etre vu ; mais justement ce jour-la tout etait tranquille, comme 
un matin de dimanche. Par la fenetre ouverte je voyais mes 
camarades deja ranges a leur place, et M. Hamel, qui passait 
et repassait avec la terrible regie en fer sous le bras. II fallut 35 
ouvrir la porte et entrer au milieu de ce grand calme. Vous 
pensez si j'^tais rouge, et si j'avais peur ! 


Eh bien, non. M. Hamel me regarda sans colere et me dit 
tr^s doucement : 

" Va vite a ta place, mon petit Frantz ; nous alliens com- 
mencer sans toi." 

5 J'enjambai le banc et je m'assis tout de suite a mon pupitre. 
Alors settlement, un peu remis de frayeur, je remarquai que 
notre raaitre avait sa belle redingote verte, son jabot plissd fin 
et la calotte de soie noire brodde qu'il ne mettait que les jours 
d'inspection ou de distribution de prix. Du reste, toute la 

loclasse avait quelque chose d'extraordinaire et de solennel. 
Mais ce qui me surprit le plus, ce fut de voir au fond de la 
salle, sur les bancs qui restaient vides d'habitude, les gens du 
village assis et silencieux comme nous, le vieux Hauser avec 
son tricorne, I'ancien maire, I'ancien facteur, et puis d'autres 

16 perspnnes encore. Tout ce monde-la paraissait triste ; et 
Hauser avait apport^ un vieil abec^aire mangd aux bords 
qu'il tenait grand ouvert sur ses genoux, avec ses grosses 
lunettes posees en travers des pages. 

Pendant que je m'^tonnais de tout cela, M. Hamel ^tait 

2omont^ dans sa chaire, et, de la meme voix douce et grave dont 
il m'avait re(j*u, il nous dit : 

**Mes enfants, c'est la dernifere fois que je vous fais la classe. 
L'ordre est venu de Berlin de ne plus enseigner que I'allemand 
dans les ^coles de 1' Alsace et de la Lorraine. ... Le nouveau 

26 maitre arrive deraain. Aujourd'hui c'est votre derni6re lec^'on 
de fran9ais. Je vous prie d'etre hion attcntifs." 

Ces quelques paroles me bouleverstjrent. Ah ! les mis^ra- 
bles, voil^ ce qu'ils avaient affich^ k la mairie : 
Ma dernifere le<jon de f rancjais ! 

to Et moi qui savais k peine ^crire ! Je n'apprendrais done 
jamain I II faudrait done en rester ]k \ Comme je m'en vou- 
Isifl maintenant du temps perdu, des classes manqudes ^i courir 
les nids ou k faire des glissades sur la Stwir ! Mes livros que 
tout k I'houro encore je trouvais si ennuyeux, si lourda h \)or- 

Mter, ma grammaire, mon histoiro sainte, me serablaicMit de 

vioux amis (jui me fciraient beau<!oup de peine k cpiitUir. 

Ce8t comme M. Hamel. li'idi'o qu'il allait partir, <|Uo j(^ no lo 

▼eirais plus, me faisait oublier les punitions, los coups de regie. 

Pauvro homme ! 

40 C*eHt en I'honneur de cette derni^re classe qu'il avait mis ses 
beaux habits du dimanche, et maintenant je comprenais pour- 


quoi ces vieux du village ^taient venus s'asseoir au bout de la 
salle. Cela semblait dire qu'ils regrettaient de lie pas y etre 
venus plus sou vent, a cette ^cole. C'etait aussi com me une 
fa9on de remercier notre maitre de ses c^uarante ans de bons 
services, et de rendre leurs devoirs a la patrie qui s'en allait. a 

J'en etais la de mes reflexions, quand j'entendis appeler mon 
nom. C'etait mon tour de reciter. Que n'aurais-je pas donnd 
pour pouvoir dire tout au long cette fameuse regie des parti- 
cipes, bien haut, bien clair, sans une faute ; mais je m'embrou- 
illai aiix premiers mots, et je restai debout k me balancer dans lo 
mon banc, le coeur gros, sans oser lever la tete. J'entendais 
M. Hamel qui me parlait : 

" Je ne te gronderai pas mon petit Frantz, tu dois etre assez 
puni. Voila ce que c'est. Tous les jours on se dit : Bah ! j'ai 
bien le temps. J'apprendrai demain. Et puis tu vois ce qui 15 
arrive. . . . Ah ! 9'a ete le grand malheur de notre Alsace de 
toujours remettre son instruction a demain. Maintenant ces 
gens-lk sont en droit de nous dire : Comment ! Vous preten- 
diez etre Fran9ais, et vous ne savez ni parler ni ecrire votre 
langue ! . . . Dans tout 9a, mon pauvre Frantz, ce n'est pas 2( 
encore toi le plus coupable. Nous avons tous notre bonne 
part de reproches a nous faire. 

"Vos parents n'ont pas assez tenu a vous voir instruits. 
lis aimaient mieux vous envoyer travailler a la terre ou aux 
filatures pour avoir quelques sous de plus. Moi-meme, n'ai-je 25 
rien a me reprocher ? Est-ce que je ne vous ai pas souvent fait 
arroser mon jardin au lieu de travailler? Et quand je voulais 
aller pecher des truites, est-ce que je me genais pour vous 
donner conge ? " . . . 

Alors, d'une chose a I'autre, M. Hamel se mit a nous parler so 
de la langue fran9aise, disant que c'etait la plus belle langue 
du monde, la plus claire, la plus solide, qu'il fallait la garder 
entre nous et ne jamais I'oublier, parc^ que quand un peuple 
tombe esclave, tant qu'il tient bien sa langue, c'est comme s'il 
tenait la clef de sa prison. Puis il prit une grammaire et nous 35 
lut notre legon. J'etais etonne de voir, comme je comprenais. 
Tout ce qu'il me disait me semblait facile, facile. Je crois 
aussi que je n'avais jamais si bien ecoute et que lui non plus 
n'avait jamais mis autant de patience a ses explications. On 
aurait dit qu'avant de s'en aller le pauvre homme voulait nous 40 


donner bout son savoir, nous le faire entrer dans la tete d'un 
seul coup. 

La le9on finie, on passa a I'^criture. Pour ce jour-la M. Hamel 
nous avait prepare des exemples tout neufs, sur lesquels ^tait 

5 ^rit en belle ronde : France^ Alsace^ France^ Alsace. Cela 
faisait comnie des petits drapeaux qui flottaient tout autour 
de la classe pendus a la tringle de nos pupitres. II fallait voir 
comme chacun s'appliquait, et quel silence ! On n'entendait 
que le grinceraent ties plumes sur le papier. TJn moment des 

lohannetons entrerent; mais personne n'y fit attention, pas 
meme les tous petits, qui s'appliquaient a tracer leurs hdtons 
avec un coeur, une conscience, comme si cela encore (5tait du 
fran^ais. . . Sur la toiture de I'ecole, des pigeons roucoulaient 
tout bas, et je me disais en les ^coutant : 

15 " Est-ce qu'on ne va pas les obliger a chanter en allemand, 
eux aussi ?" 

De temps en temps quand je levais les yeux de dessus ma 
page, je voyais M. Hamel immobile dans sa chaire et fixant 
les objets autour de lui, comme s'il avait voulu emporter dans 

20 son regard toute sa petite maison d'^cole. . . Pensez ! depuis 
quarante ans, il dtait la k la meme place, avec sa cour en face 
de lui et sa classe toute pareille. Seulement les bancs, les 
pupitres s'^taient polis, frott^s par I'usage ; les noyers de la 
cour avaient grand i, et le houblon qu'il avait plant^ lui-mdme 

ttenguirlandait maintenant les fen^tres jusqu'au toit. Quel 
crfeve-coeur 9a devait 6tre pour ce pauvre homme de quitter 
toutes ces choses, et d'entendro sa soeur qui allait, venait, dans 
la chambre au-dessus, en train de fermer leurs malles ! car ils 
devaient partir le lendemain, s'on allcr du pays pour toujours. 

80 Tout de memo il eut le courage do nous faire la classe 
jusqu'au bout. Aprfes I'dcriture, nous eumos la le^on d'his- 
toire ; ensuite les petits chant^rent le ha hk hi ho ru. lA-bas 
au fond do la sallo, le vioux Hauser avait mis ses lunettes, et, 
tenant Hon aWc(^l/iiro k deux mains, il ('j)olait les lettres avec 

15 eux. On voyait qu'il H'ap))li(juait, lui aussi ; sa voix tremblait 
d'<^motion, et cV'tait si drAle do rtjntendre, que nous avions 
touH onvie de rire et d« pleuror. Ah I je m'en Houviendrai do 
oette (lerni^tre claHBe. . . 

Tout k coup I'horloge de rc^glise Konna midi, puis I'Angelus. 

10 Au m6me moment, les trompettet deH Prussiens qui revenaient 
de rezeroise ^oUt^rent sous noB fendtrea. ... M. Hamel se 


leva, tout pale, dans sa chaire. Jamais il ne m'avait paru si 

" Mes amis, dit-il, mes amis, je . . . je. . . ." 

Mais quelque chose I'etouffait. II ne pouvait pas achever 
sa phrase. 5 

Alors il se tourna vers le tableau, prit un morceau de craie, 
et, en appuyant de toutes ses forces, il ^crivit aussi gros qu il 

" Vive la France ! " 

Puis il resta la, la tete appuyee au mur, et, sans parler, avec lo 
«a main il nous faisait signe : 

*' C'est fini .... allez-vous-en." 
— From "Contes du Lundi," by kind permission of the Publisher, 

Eugene Fasquelle, 1 1 rue de Grenelle, Paris. 

Daudet (1840-1897). 

M. Seguin n'avait jamais eu de bonheur avec ses chevres. 

II les perdait toutes de la meme fagon : un beau matin, elles 
cassaient leur corde, s'en allaient dans la montagne, et la-haut 15 
le loup les mangeait. Ni les caresses de leur maitre, ni la peur 
du loup, rien ne les retenait. C'etait, parait-il, des chevres indd- 
pendantes, voulant a tout prix le grand air et la liberte. 

Le brave M. Seguin, qui ne coraprenait rien au caractere de 
ses betes, etait consterne. II disait : 20 

"C'est fini ; les chevres s'ennuient chez moi, je n'en garderai 
pas une." 

Cependant il ne se decouragea pas, et, apr^s avoir perdu six 
chevres de la meme maniere, il en acheta une septifeme ; seule- 
ment, cette fois, il eut soin de la prendre toute jeune, pour 25 
qu'elle s'habituat mieux a demeurer chez lui. 

Ah ! qu'elle etait jolie la petite chevre de M. Seguin ! qu'elle 
etait jolie avec ses yeux doux, sa barbiche de sous-officier, ses 
sabots noirs et luisants, ses cornes zebrees et ses longs poils 
blancs qui lui faisaient une houppelande ! et puis, docile, cares- 30 
sante, se laissant traire sans bouger, sans mettre son pied dans 
r^cuelle. Un amour de petite chevre . . . 


M. Seguin avait derriere sa maison un clos entoure d'aube- 
pines. C'est la qu'il mit sa nouvelle pensionnaire. II Fattacha 
a un pieu au plus bel endroit du pre, en ayant soin de lui laisser 
beaucoup de corde, et de temps en temps il venait voir si elle 
5etait bien. La chevre se trouvait tres heureuse et broutait 
I'herbe de si bon coeur que M. Seguin ^tait ravi. 

" Enfin, pensait le pauvre homme, en voila une qui ne s'en- 
nuiera pas chez moi ! " 

M. Seguin se trompait, sa chfevre s'ennuya. 

10 Un jour, elle se dit en regardant la montagne : 

" Comme on doit etre bien la-haut ! Quel plaisir de gam- 
bader dans la bruyere, sans cette maudite longe qui vous 
^orche le cou ! . . . C'est bon pour Fane ou pour le bojuf de 
brouter dans un clos ! . . Les chfevres, il leur faut du large." 
16 A partir de ce moment, Fherbe du clos lui parut fade. 
L'ennui lui vint. Elle maigrit, son lait se fit rare. C'^tait 
piti^ de la voir tirer tout le jour sur sa longe, la tete tournde 
du c6t^ de la montagne, la narine ouverte, en faisant Me ! . . . 
80 M. Seguin s'apercevait bien que sa chevre avait quelque 
chose, mais il ne savait pas ce que c'^tait. . . Un matin, 
comrae il achevait de la traire, la chfevre se retourna et lui dit 
dans son patois : 

"Ecoutez, monsieur Seguin, jo me languis chez vous, laissez- 
«6 moi aller dans la montagne. 

— Ah ! mon Dieu ! . . . Elle aussi ! cria M. Seguin stupdf ait, 
et du coup il laissa tomber son dcuelle ; puis, s'asseyant dans 
rherl)e k cAt^ de sa chevre : 

— Comment Hlanquette, tu veux me quitter ! " 
80 Et Blanquette rdpondit : 
** Oui, mcmsieur Seguin : 
— EHt-ce que rherl)e te manque ici? 
— Oh ! non ! monHiour Seguin. 

— Tu es peut-^^tre attacliee de trop court ; veux-tu que 
86J'aIlonKe la cordo ! 

— (Je n'oHt pan la p<Mne, uHmsieur Seguin. 
— AlorH, qu'eNtce qu'il te faut! (lu'est-ce (^ue tu veux ? 
— Je veux allnr dans la montagne, monsieur Seguin. 
— MaiH, malheureuHe, tu no Hais pas (ju'il y a le loup dans la 
«0 montogne . . . Que fera8-tu quand il viendra?. . . 


— Je lui donnerai des coups de corne, monsieur Seguin. 

— Le loup se moque bien de tes cornes. II m'a mange des 
biques autrement encornees que toi . . . Tu sais bien, la pauvre 
vieille Renaude qui etait ici I'an dernier'? une maitresse chevre, 
forte et mechante comme un bouc. EUe s'est battue avec le 5 
loup toute la nuit . . . puis, le matin, le loup I'a mangee. 

— Pdcaire ! Pauvre Renaude ! . . . Qa ne fait rien, monsieur 
Seguin, laissez-moi aller dans la montagne. 

— Bonte divine ! . . . dit M. Seguin ; mais qu'est-ce qu'on 
leur fait done k mes chevres 1 Encore une que le loup va me lo 
manger . . . Eh bien, non ... je te sauverai malgre toi, 
coquine ! et de peur que tu ne rompes ta corde, je vais t'en- 
fermer dans ratable, et tu y resteras toujours. 

La-dessus, M. Seguin emporta la chevre dans une Stable 
toute noire, dont il ferma la porte k double tour. Malheu-16 
reusement, il avait oubli^ la fenetre, et a peine eut-il le dos 
tourn^, que la petite s'en alia. . . . 

Quand la chevre blanche arriva dans la montagne, ce fut un 
ravissement general. Jamais les vieux sapins n'avaient rien 
vu d'aussi joli. On la requt comme une petite reine. Les 20 
chataigniers se baissaient jusqu'a terre pour la caresser du 
bout de leurs branches. Les genets d'or s'ouvraient sur son 
passage, et sentaient bon tant qu'ils pouvaient. Toute la 
montagne lui fit fete. 

On pense bien si notre chevre ^tait heureuse ! Plus de 25 
corde, plus de pieu . . . rien qui I'empechat de gambader, de 
brouter a sa guise . . C'est la qu'il y en avait de I'herbe ! 
j usque par-dessus les cornes ! . . . Et quelle herbe ! savoureuse, 
fine, dentelee, faite de mille plantes . . . C'etait bien autre 
chose que le gazon du clos. Et les fleurs done ! . . . De 30 
grandes campanules bleues, des digitales de pourpre a longs 
calices, toute une foret de fleurs sauvages debordant de sues 
capiteux ! . . . 

La chevre blanche, a moitie soule, se vautrait la dedans les 
jambes en Tair et roulait le long des talus, pele-mele avec les 35 
feuilles tombees et les chataignes . . . Puis, tout a coup elle 
se redressait d'un bond sur ses pattes. Hop ! la voila partie, 
la tete en avant, k travers les maquis et les buissieres, tantot 
sur un pic, tantot au fond, d'un ravin, la-haut, en bas, par- 
tout . . . On aurait dit qu'il y avait dix chevres de M. Seguin 40 
dans la montagne. 


" C'est qu'elle n'avait peur de rien l;i Blanquette. 

Elle franchissait d'un saufc de grands torrents qui I'eclabous- 
saient au passage de poussiere humide et d'ecume. Alors, 
toute ruisselante, elle allait s'etendre sur queiqae roche plate 
5 et se faisait secher par le soleil . . Une fois, s'avanqant au 
bord d'un plateau, une fleur de cytise aux dents, elle apergut 
en bas, tout en bas dans la plaine, la maison de M. Seguin 
avec le clos derriere. Cela la fit rire aux larmes. 

" Que c'est petit, dit-elle ; comment ai-je pu tenir 1^ 
10 dedans ? " 

Pauvrette ! de se voir si haut perches, elle se croyait au 
moins aussi grande que le monde . . . 

Tout k coup le vent fraichit. . . La montagne devint 
violette ; c'etait le soir . , . 
15 "D^ja!" dit la petite chfevre ; et elle s'arreta fort dtonnee. 
En bas, les champs ^taient noyes de brume. Le clos de 
M. Seguin disparaissait dans le brouillard, et de la maisonnette 
on ne voyait plus que le toit avec un peu de fumee. Elle 
^couta les clochettes d'un troupeau qu'on ramenait, et se sentit 
20 Tame toute triste... Un gerfaut, qui rentrait, la frCla de 
ses ailes en passant. Elle tressaillit . . . puis ce f ut un hurle- 
ment dans la montagne: 
"Hou! hou!" 

Elle pensa au loup ; de tout le jour la folle n'y avait pas 
sspens^. . . Au m^nio moment une trompe sonna bien loin dans 
la valine. C'etait ce bon M. Seguin qui tentait un dernier 

** Hou ! hou ! , . . faisait le loup. 
— RevienH ! reviens ! . . . " criait la trompe 
80 Blanquette eut envie de revenir ; mais en se rappolant le 
pieu, la corde, la haie du clos, elle ponsii qu(^ maintenant elle 
ne f>ouvait pluH se faire k cette vie, et qu'il valait mieux rester. 
La trompe ne sonnait plus. . . 

La oh^vre entendit derriere elle un bruit de fcuilles. Elle 
wse retourna et vit dans I'ombre deux oreilles courtes, toutes 
droiteti aveo deux yeux <^ui reluiHaieut. . . C'dtait le loup. 


Enorme, immobile, assis sur son train de derriere, il etait \k 
regardant la petite chevre blanche et la degustant par avance. 
Comme il savait bien qu'il la mangerait, le loup ne se pressait 
pas ; seulement, quand elle se retourna, il se mit a./ rire 
mechamment. 5 

" Ha ! ha ! la petite chfevre de M. Seguin !" et il passa sa 
grosse langue rouge sur ses babines d'amadou. 

Blanquette se sentit perdue . . . Un moment en se rappelant 
I'histoire de la vieille Renaude, qui s'etait battue toute la 
nuit pour etre mangee le matin elle se dit qu'il vaudrait peut- lo 
etre mieux se laisser manger tout de suite ; puis, s'^tant 
ravis^e, elle tomba en garde, la tete basse et la corne en q,vant, 
comme une brave chevre de M. Seguin qu'elle etait . . . Non 
pas qu'elle eut I'espoir de tuer le loup, — les chevres ne tuent 
pas le loup, — mais seulement pour voir si elle pourrait teniris 
aussi longtemps que la Renaude. . . 

Alors le monstre s'avanQa, et les petites cornes entrferent en 

Ah ! la brave chevrette, comme elle y allait de bon coeur ! 
Plus de dix fois, je ne mens pas, elle forga le loup a reculer20 
pour reprendre haleine. Pendant ces treves d'une minute, la 
gourmande cueillait en hate encore un brin de sa chere herbe ; 
puis elle retournait au combat, la bouche pleine. . . Cela 
dura toute la nuit. De temps en temps la chevre de M. 
Seguin regardait les ^toiles danser dans le ciel clair, et elle se 25 
disait : 

" Oh ! pourvu que je tienne jusqu'^ I'aube ..." 

L'une apres I'autre, les etoiles s'eteignirent. Blanquette 
redoubla de coups de cornes, le loup de coups de dents. . . 
Une lueur pale parut dans I'horizon ... Le chant d'un coq so 
enrou^ monta d'une metairie. 

"Enfin!" dit la pauvre bete, qui n'attendait plus que le jour 
pour mourir ; et elle s'allongea par terre dans sa belle fourrure 
blanche toute tachee de sang. . . 

Alors le loup se jeta sur la petite chfevre et la mangea. 35 

— From *'Lettres de mon Moulin," by kind permission of the 

Publisher, Eugene Fasquelle, 1 1 lue de Grenelle, Paris. 



Legouve (b. 1807). 

Ce matin, a propos d'un plaisir manque, je dis en riant k 
mon fils : 

" Je vois que tu as besoin que je te fasse una petite le9on. 
— Eh ! sur quoi, p^re 1 
5 — Sur une disposition que tu tiens de moi, helas 1 et dont 
je voudrais bien te guerir. 
— Quelle est-ellel 

— Le recit d'une petite aventure de ma vie d'^colier te 
10 J 'avals dix ans ; j'^tais au college ; je rapportais chaque 
lundi, de chez mes parents, la grosse somme de quinze sous, 
destinee a payer mes dejeuners du matin, car le college ne 
nous fournissait pour ce repas qu'un morceau de pain tout sec. 
Un lundi, en rentrant, je trouve un de nos camarades (je 
15 me rappelle encore son nom, il se nommait Couture) arm^ 
d'une superbe patte de dindon. Je dis patte et non cuisse, 
car I'objet tout entier se composait de ce que, dans mon ignor- 
ance, j'appellerai un tibiay et de la patte avec ses quatre 
doigts, le tout recouvert de cette peau noire, luisante et 
2orugueuse qui fait que le dindon a Fair de marcher sur des 
brodequins de chagrin. 

Des que mon camarade m'aper9ut : ** Viens voir ! " me dit-il, 
" viens voir ! " 

J'accours ; il serrait le haut de la patte dans ses deux 

S6 mains, et, sur un mouvement de sa main droite, les (juatre 

doigts s'ouvraient et se refermaient comme les doigts d'une 

main humaine. Je restai stup^fait et ^merveill^. Comment 

cette patte morte pouvait-elle reinuer'? Connnent pouvait-il 

la faire agir? Un gar^on de dix-liuit ans qui va au spectacle 

80 et qui suit le d^velopperaent du drame le plus mervoilleux, 

n'a pas les yeux plus dcarquillds, les regards plus ardents, la 

tfite plus fixcment pencheo en avant quo moi, on face de cette 

patte de dindon. ( 'ha({uo fols quo cos quatre doigts s'ouvraient 

et le refermaient, il me passait (h^vant les yeux coiinno un 

tft^lottitsement. Jo croyais aHsister ^ uti prodige. 

Lorsque mon camarade, qui dtait plus ilgd et plus malin que 
moi| vit mon enthousiaume arrive k son pan )xy sine, il remit sa 


merveille dans sa poche et s'eloigna, Je m'en allai de mon 
cote, inais reveur et voyan't toujours cette patte flotter devant 
iiies yeux comma una vision. , . 

— Si je I'avais, me disais-je, j'apprendrais bien vite le moyen 
de la faire agir. Couture n'est pas sorcier. Et alors, comma 5 
je m'amuserais ! 

Je n'y tins plus, je courus h. mon camarade. . . 

— Donne-moi ta patte ! . . . lui dis-je avec un irresistible 
accent de supplication. Je t'en prie !. . . 

— Ma patte ! . . . Te donner ma patte ! . . . veux-tu t'en aller ! lo 

Son refus irrita encore mon desir. 

— Tu ne veux pas me la donner ?. . . 


— Eh bien ! . . . vends-la moi. 

— Te la vendre 1 combien ? 16 

Je me mis a compter, dans le fond de ma poche, I'argent de 
ma semaine . . . 

— Je t'en donne cinq sous. 

— Cinq sous, une patte comme celle-1^ ! . . . Est-ce que tu te 
moques de moi 1 20 

Et prenant le precieux objet, il recommen9a devant moi cet 
dblouissant jeu d'^ventail, et chaque fois ma passion grandissait 
d'un degrd. 

— Eh bien, je t'en offre dix sous. 

— Dix sous ! . . . dix sous ! . . . reprit-il avec mdpris. Mais 26 
regarde done . . . 

Et les quatre doigts s'ouvraient et se refermaient toujours ! 

— Mais enfin, lui dis-je en tremblant, combien done en 
veux-tu 1 

— Quarante sous ou rien. 3u 

— Quarante sous ! m'ecriai-je, quarante sous ! pres de trois 
semaines de dejeuners ! Par exemple ! 

— Soit ! a ton aise ! 

La patte disparut dans sa poche, et il s'eloigna. Je courus 
de nouveau apres lui. 85 

— Quinze sous ! 

— Quarante. 

— Vingt sous ! 

— Quarante. 

— Vingt-cinq sous ! 40 

— Quarante. 



Oh ! ce Couture ! comrae il aura fait son cherain dans le 

monde ! comme il connaissait d^ja le coeur humain ! Chaque 

fois que ce terrible mot quarante touchait mon oreille, il 

emportait un peu de raa resistance. Au bout de deux 

5 minutes, je ne me connaissais plus! 

— Eh bien done, quarante ! . . . m'ecriai-je. Donne-la-moi ! 

— Donne-moi d'abord I'argent, reprit-il. 

Je lui mis dans la main les quinze sous de ma semaine, et 
il me fit ecrire un billet de vingt-cinq sous pour le surplus . . . 
10 Oh ! le scelerat ! il etait d^ja homme d'affaires a treize ans ! . . . 
Puis, tirant enfin le cher objet de sa poche : 

— Tiens, me dit-il, la voila !. . . 

Je me precipitai sur elle. Au bout de quelques secondes, 
ainsi que je I'avais prevu, je connaissais le secret et je tirais le 
15 tendon qui servait de cordon de sonnette, aussi bien que 

Pendant deux minutes cela m'amusa follement ; apr^s deux 
minutes, cela m'amusa moins ; aprfes trois, cela ne m'amusa 
presque plus ; aprfes quatre, cela ne m'amusa plus du tout. Je 
20 tirais toujours, parce que je voulais avoir les interets de mon 
argent ; . . . mais le desenchantement me gagnait ; . . . puis vint 
la tristesse, puis le regret, puis la perspective de trois semaines 
de pain sec, puis le sentiment de ma betise ! . . . Et tout cela se 
changeant peu k peu en amertume, la colore s'en mela ; et au 
26 bout de dix minutes, saisissant avec une veritable haine I'objet 
de mon amour, je le lan^ai par-dessus la muraille, afin d'etre 
bien siir de ne plus le revoir. 

Ce souvenir ra'est revenu bien souvent, depuis que je n'ai 
plus dix ans, et bien souvent aussi j'ai rotrouv^ en moi I'enfant 
80^ la patte de dindon. Cette impt^tuositt^ de d^sir, cette im- 
patience de tous les obstacles qui me st'paraient de la posses- 
sion d^irde, cette folle impr^voyanco, cetto puissance d'illusion, 
^gale seulement h^las ! k ma puissancM' de di^sillusion, tous ces 
traito de caract^re se sent millo fois roveillt^s. . .que dis-jo'? se 
86 reveille nt encore en moi, dfes qu'uno passion m'envahit. Oh! 
on n'<$tudie pas assez les enfants ! On traite lours se^ntiments 
de pu^rilit^! Rien n'est pu^ril dans I'fime humaine. L'eiifaiit 
ne meurt jamais tout entier dans riioiiuiKs et ce qui est pucril 
aujourd'hui peut 6tre terrible ou coupa])le domain. Les pas- 
lOsions sont diflr(^rentes, mais le crtsur oCi olios j)<)usHentest le mOme, 
et ie meilleur moyon de bien dinger un joune homme est d'avoir 


bien observe le garden de dix ans. Ainsi cette patte de 
dindon ni'a fort servi. Vingt fois dans ma vie, au beau milieu 
d'une sottise, ce souvenir m'est revenu..."Tu seras done 
toujours le meme?" me disais-je, et je me mettais a rire, ce 
qui m'arretait court. II n'y a rien de plus utile que de se rire 6 
au nez de temps en temps. 

Je me retournai alors vers mon fils, et je lui dis : " Cette 
fable montre. . .que les fils ressemblent quelquefois k leurs 

— By kind permission of the Publishers, 

J. Hetzel & Cie., 18 rue Jacob, Paris. 


POUVILLON (b. 1840). 


Le petit college est en fete. Portes ouvertes, volets bat-io 
tants, des drapeaux aux fenetres, du monde partout, des 
bousculades dans les escaliers, des galopades dans les corridors, 
et, dominant le tapage, les coups de marteau du tapissier en 
train de clouer les tentures sur I'estrade dressee dans la cour 
pour la distribution des prix. 15 

Les prix ! les vacances ! des mots qui rient, des mots qui 
cbantent, des mots qui eclatent conime des soleils et qui 
embaument comme un bouquet de fleurs des champs ! 

Tres triste, la-haut, dans I'infirmerie toute blanche, le petit 
malade se souleve pour ecouter. Des pas montent, se hatent, 20 
passent devant la porte ; aucun ne s'arrete. Personne. Le 
docteur — hem! hem! — est venu tout a I'heure, tres presse 
a cause de la fete ; bonjour, bonsoir, adieu mon m^decin. 
L'infirmiere, qui aide a faire les malles a la lingerie, parait 
une fois tous les quarts d'heure, fait voir le bout du nez, 26 
referme la porte et s'en va. 

Qu'elle s'en aille ! 

Ce n'est pas elle qu'attend le petit malade, le docteur pas 
ilavantage. Ceux qu'il attend, tenez, les voil^ qui arrivent. 
Trois campagnards : un homme en veste ronde, une petite 30 
femme courts en bonnet blanc, une fillette en robe longue, 


trop longue, les manches jusqu'au bout des doigts ; le pere, la 
mere, la petite sceur. 

lis entrent : rhomme, discretement, tres circonspect, un peu 
timide ; la mere, tout de go, les bras tend us en avant jusqu'^ 
6ce qu'elle tienne embrassee, ^touffee sur sa poitrine, la ch^re 
petite tete de I'enfant. Le p^re serre la main du malade, la 
fillette se hausse sur la pointe des pieds jusqu'aux joues 
pench^es vers ses l^vres. 

Et les questions pleuvent. 
10 — Qu'as-tu, Tiennef? 

— Qu'est-ce qui te fait mal, pitchou ? 

— Rien, presque rien. La, au front, quelque chose qui me 

— Depuis quand ? 
16 — Depuis la composition en theme latin. Oh ! ce sera 
bient^t pass^. 

— Bient6t 1 Non ; tout de suite, reprend la m^re. Demain, 
jour de lessive, je fais des fouaces. C'est bon, les fouaces, eh ! 
20 lis bavardent, et d'en bas, de I'estrade dress^e en plein air, 
une rumeur raonte ; des pas se pr^cipitent ; des crosses de 
fusil sonnent sur le pav^ de la cour. 

Les pompiers sont arrives. 

— P^re, allons-y, sollicite la petite sceur. Tantdt, nous 
16 n'aurons plus de place. 

Et, c&line, elle tire I'homme vers la porte. 

— Tu peux bien, dit la m^re. A trois, quo ferions-nous de 
plu«1 Descendez; moi, je reste, s'il me veut, lui, ajoute-t-elle 
en couvant de Tceil son Tiennet. 


to La petite sa^ur, le p^re, Mont partis. Jjji in«'io a form(5 les 
voletH, k cauHe du grand jour, ot, <luns la dcmi ()])S(uri(;o de 
Tinfirmerio close, ils demeurent tous l(^s deux sommeillant. 
— Don* un peu, mien, 9a to gu(5rira. 
— Oui, mere. 
a» Et Tiennet ferme les yeux. 

MaiH lo mojen de f'endormir, aveo le remue-m^nage de 1& 
dintribution de« prix sous la fendtre t 
— M^re, ya voir, s'il te plait. Que £ait-on ? 


— Rien encore. Les messieurs sont arrives ; une pleine 
estrade. Oh ! je vois au milieu un officier avec un chapeau 
garni d'un ^norme plumet ! 

— Le colonel ! 

— Et un autre au premier rang, en face, tout brode d'argent. 5 

— Le sous-prefet. Bon ; que vois-tu encore ? 

— J^sus ! tant de prix ! lis en ont fait trois piles au bord 
de I'estrade ; et des couronnes ! une montagne ! 

Brusquement, une fanfare eclate a ^ pleins cuivres, a pleins 
poumdns. C'est beau, la musique ! Eleves, parents, jusqu'au lo 
petit malade, tout le monde applaudit. 

Attention, maintenant ! 

Le frac brod^ d'argent se Ifeve, un chiffon de papier roul^ 
sur le doigt. . .le discours. On n'entend pas un mot, rien 
qu'un chantonnement aigu,' ber9ant, monotone. 15 

C'est curieux comme, a distance, un sous-prefet qui parle 
pent faire I'effet d'un moucheron qui siffle. 

Le frac brod^ d'argent s'assied ; une robe noire se leve : un 
long, chauve, avec un fort cahier a la main. II ne siffle pas, 
celui-ci, il bourdonne. Telle une grosse mouche. Des phrases 20 
d'une lieue, des p^riodes d'une heure ; un sermon. 

Du coup, la m^re s'est endormie. 

Tiennet, lui, s'impatiente. 

Aura-t-il, n'aura-t-il pas le prix de thfeme latin ? Le prix, 
il est la, dans la pile, un beau livre dore sur tranche, I'attesta- 25 
tion collie en dedans avec les palmes academiques en vignette 
et le parafe du principal. 

S'il pouvait lire le nom du vainqueur ! 

Et pendant qu'il calcule ses chances, le sommeil le prend a 
son tour. 80 


II r^ve. 

Quel cauchemar! L'attestation est dans ses mains, sous 
ses yeux. Helas ! un autre a vaincu ; Luc Onzies a obtenu 
le premier prix. 

— Erreur ! injustice ! objecte Tiennet, ma copie ^tait sans 35 

— Sans faute, ricane le professeur, sans faute ! Et ceci, 
petit malheureux, qu'en faites-vous 1 


Suivant alors le doigt accusateur de M. Rdgulus Bee sur la 
copie cribl^e d'annotations, Tiennet d^couvre, soulign^ trois 
fois k Tencre rouge, cet affreux barbarisme : 


Hortibus ! Adieu le prix, adieu la gloire ! 

6 Hortibus ! Le mot fatal I'obsede ; il danse multipli^ devant 
lui, ^crit en ronde, en coulee, en anglaise, imprim^ en lettres 
rouges, en lettres bleues, affichd sur le mur en capitales, char- 
bonne en lettrec comiques qui s'animent, tirant la langue, 
envoyant des pieds de nez au vaincu. 

10 Hortibus ! 


Le malade s'agite, ses l^vres remuent. 

— II appelle quelqu'un, dit la mere. Tiennet, Tiennet ! 

Embrass^, secou(^ de caresses, Tiennet ouvre les yeux. 

Plus de hortibus ! Evanoui dans le pays des songes avec la 
15 figure irrit^e du professeur Il^gulus Bee. 

Bon voyage k tous deux ! 

Mais lo prix ? la couronne ? 

Le prix, la couronne? lis viennent, lis montent, pieuse- 
ment, religieusement apport^s par le pere et la petite soeur. 
20 Une marche triorapliale ! 

lis entrant, et voil^ le volume ^tal^ sur le lit du petit 
malade, la couronne pos^e sur son front. 

Le p6re rit, la mfere pleure ; tous s'embrassent. Oh ! le 
bonheur dos braves gene, le vrai bonheur ! 
26 Kt tandis qu'on fait fete au vainquour, hem ! hem ! quel- 
qu'un 88 pr^nte, Idvite noire, figure rose : le docteur. 

— Hem ! hem !. . .I'enfant va mieux ; ce^ laurior sur le front 
a fait des mirocleH. Allons, le grand air achfevera do lo guf^rir. 
Den marchoK k pied, do Toxorcice, et surtout pas do thijme 
80 latin ! Hem ! hem ! 

lie dootour fait deux pJVH vers la porto, et, saluant la f.unillo, 
le doigt lev^ dann \\\\ gcHt^o do menace amicalo : 

— Pan de th^me lut in, (^ntondoz-vous ! 

— By kind ponruHHlon of tho Puhligher, 

A. Lomorre, 23-81 paumge ChoJBeul, Purls. 


Pierre Loti (b. 1850). 

C'est une bien petite histoire, qui ra'a 4t6 cont^e par Yves, 
— un soir ou il etait alle en lade conduire, avec sa canonni^re, 
une cargaison de condamn^s au grand transport eu partance 
pour la Nouvelle-Caledonie. 

Dans le nombre se trouvait un forgat tr^s tge (soixante-dix 5 
ans pour le moins), qui emmenait avec lui, tendrement, un 
pauvre moineau dans une petite cage. 

Yves, pour passer le temps, ^tait entr^ en conversation avec 
ce vieux, qui n'avait pas mauvaise figure, parait-il, — mais qui 
^tait accouple par une chaine k un jeune monsieur ignoble, 10 
gouailleur, portant lunettes de myope sur un mince nez bleme. 

Vieux coureur de grands chemins, arrete, en cinqui^me ou 
sixieme recidive, pour vagabondage et vol, il disait : " Com- 
ment faire pour ne pas voler, quand on a commence une fois, 
— et qu'on n'a pas de metier, rien, — et que les gens ne veulent 15 
plus de vous nulla part ? II faut bien manger, n'est-ce pas 1 — 
Pour ma derni^re condamnation, c'etait un sac de pommes de 
terre que j 'avals pris dans un champ, avec un fouet de roulier 
et un giraumont. Est-ce qu'on n'aurait pas pu me laisser 
mourir en France, je vous demande, au lieu de m'envoyer 1^- 20 
bas, si vieux comme je suis 1 . . ." 

Et, tout heureux de voir que quelqu'un consentait a I'^cou- 
ter avec compassion, il avait ensuite montre k Yves ce qu'il 
possedait de precieux au monde : la petite cage et le moineau. 

Le moineau apprivoise, connaissant sa voix, et qui pendant 26 
pr^s d'une annee, en prison, avait vecu perch^ sur son dpaule. . . 
— Ah ! ce n'est pas sans peine qu'il avait obtenu la permission 
de I'emmener avec lui en Caledonie ! — Et puis apres, il avait 
frJlu lui faire une cage convenable pour le voyage ; se procurer 
du bois, un peu de vieux fil de fer, et un peu de peinture verte 30 
pour peindre le tout et que ce fut joli. 

Ici, je me rappelle textuellement ces mots d'Yves : " Pauvre 
moineau ! II avait pour manger dans sa cage un morceaude ce 
pain gris qu'on donne dans les prisons. Et il avait I'air de se 
trouver content tout de meme ; il sautillait comme n'importe 35 
quel autre oiseau." 


Quelques heures apres, comme on accostait le transport et 

que les for9ats allaient s'y embarquer pour le grand voyage, 

Yves, qui avait oublie ce vieux, repassa par hasard pres de lui. 

— Tenez, prenez-la, vous, lui dit-il d'une voix toute chang^e, 

5 en lui tendant sa petite cage. Je vous la donne ; 9a pourra 

peut-etre vous servir a quelque chose, vous faire plaisir. . . 

— Non, certes ! remercia Yves. II faut Femporter au con- 
traire, vous savez bien. Ce sera votre petit compagnon la-bas. . . 
— Oh ! reprit le vieux, il n'est plus dedans. . . Vous ne 
losaviez done pas % il n'y est plus. . . 

Et deux larmes d'indicible misere lui coulaient sur les joues. 

Pendant une bousculade de la traversde, la porte s'dtait 

ouverte, le moineau avait eu peur, s'etait envois, — et tout de 

suite ^tait tomb^ a la mer a cause de son aile coupee. Oh ! le 

15 moment d'horrible douleur ! Le voir se debattre et mourir, 

entrain^ dans le sillage rapide, et ne pouvoir rien pour lui ! 

D'abord, dans un premier mouvement bien naturel, il avait 

voulu crier, demander du secours, s'adresser k Yves lui-meme, 

le supplier. . . Elan arrets aussitdt par la reflexion, par la 

20 conscience immediate de sa degradation personnelle ; un vieux 

miserable comme lui, qui est-ce qui aurait pitie de son moineau, 

qui est-ce qui voudrait seulement ^couter sa priere'? Est-ce 

qu'il pouvait lui venir k I'esprit qu'on retarderait le navire 

pour repecher un moineau qui se noie — et un pauvre oiseau 

tsde for9at, quel reve absurde!... Alors il s'dtait tenu silen- 

cieux k sa place, regardant s'^loigner sur i't^cume de la mer le 

petit corps grisqui sed(5battait toujours ; il s'etait senti effroy- 

ablement seul maintenant, pour jamais, et de grosses larmes, 

des larmes de d^sespiJrance solitaire et supreme lui brouillaient 

sola vue, — tandis que le jeune monsieur k lunettes, son coll6gue 

de chaine, riait de voir un vieux pleurer. 

Maintenant que Toiseau n'y etait plus, il ne voulait pas 

garder cette cage, construite avec tunt do sollicitudo pour le 

petit mort; il la tendait toujours ^ o(^ brave marin ({ui avait 

ttoonsenti k doouter son histoire, <]/;sinitit lui laisser ce legs 

avant de partir pour son lotig (>t d(;riii('r voyage. 

Et Yves, tristemont, avuit H(;(;cpl,(! \o. cadcau, la inaisonnetlo 
vide, — pour ne pati faire plus de pctirit.' a ce vi(3il abandonne en 
ayant 1 air de d^aigner c(;tt(* (those ({ui lui avait coOtd tant de 

—By kind ixjriuiHHion of thu I'lihlJHhtT, 

CuIiituiMi Ii«Wy, 3 ruu Aubor, Parit). 


II. UAVARE, Acte III, Sc. V. 
MoLiERE (1622-1673). 

Harpagon — Valere, aide-raoi a ceci. Or qk, mattre Jacques, 
approchez-vous ; je vous ai gardd pour le dernier. 

Maitre Jacques — Est-ce a votre cocher, monsieur, ou bien 
a votre cuisinier, que vous voulez parler? car je suis Tun et 
I'autre. ft 

Harpagon — C'est k tous les deux. 

Maitre Jacques — Mais a qui des deux le premier? 

Harpagon — Au cuisinier. 

Maitre Jacques — Attendez done, s'il vous plait. [II 6te sa 
casaque de cocher, et paratt vetu en cuisinier. ^^ lo 

Harpagon — Quelle diantre de ceremonie est-ce la 1 

Maitre Jacques — Vous n'avez qu'a parler. 

Harpagon — Je me suis engage, maitre Jacques, k donner 
ce soir k souper. 

Maitre Jacques — Grande merveille ! 15 

Harpagon — Dis-moi un peu, nous feras-tu bonne chere ? 

Maitre Jacques — Oui, si vous me donnez bien de ] 'argent. 

Harpagon — Que diable ! toujours de I'argent ! II semble 
qu'ils n'aient autre chose a dire, de I'argent, de I'argent, de 
Targent ! Ah ! ils n'ont que ce mot a la bouche, de I'argent ! 2o 
Toujours parler d'argent ! Voila leur ^pee de chevet, de 
I'argent ! 

Val^ire — Je n'ai jamais vu de reponse plus impertinente 
que celle-la. Voila une belle merveille que de faire bonne 
chere avec bien de I'argent ! C'est une chose la plus ais^e du 25 
monde, et il n'y a si pauvre esprit qui n'en fit bien autant ; 
mais, pour agir en habile homme, il faut parler de faire bonne 
chere avec peu d'argent. 

Maitre Jacques — Bonne chere avec peu d'argent? 

Valere — Oui. so 

Maitre Jacques — Par ma foi, monsieur Tintendant, vous 
nous obligerez de nous faire voir ce secret, et de prendre mon 
office de cuisinier ; aussi bien vous melez-vous c^ans d'etre le 

Harpagon — Taisez-vous. Qu'est-ce qu'il nous faudra ? 35 

Maitre Jacques — Voila monsieur votre intendant, qui vous 
fera bonne chere pour peu d'argent. 


Harpagon — Haye ! je veux que tu me r^pondes. 

Maitre Jacques — Combien serez-vous de gens a table ? 

Harpagon — Nous serons huit ou dix ; mais il ne faut pren- 
dre que huit. Quand il y a a manger pour huit, il y en a 
sbien pour dix. 

Val^re — Cela s'entend. 

Maitre Jacques — He bien, il faudra quatre grands potages 
et cinq assiettes d'entr^es. 

Harpagon — Que diable ! Voila pour traiter toute une wile 
le entiere ! 

Maitre Jacques — R6t . . . 

Harpagon — [Lui mettant la main sur la houcheJ\ Ah, 
traitre, tu manges tout mon bien. 

Maitre Jacques — Entremets . . . 
16 Harpagon — Encore? \Lui mettant encore la main sur la 

VALfeRE — Est-ce que vous avez envie de faire crever tout le 

monde 1 et monsieur a-t-il invito des gens pour les assassiner a 

force de mangeaille 1 AUez-vous-en lire un peu les pr^ceptes 

20 de la sant^, et demander aux m^decins s'il y a rien de plus 

pr^judiciable k Thomme que de manger avec excfes. 

Harpagon — II a raison. 

VALfeRE — Apprenez. maitre Jacques, vous et vos pareils, 
que c'est un coupe-gorge qu'une table remplie de trop de 
ta viandes ; que pour sc bien montrer ami de ceux que Ton 
invite, il faut que la frugality r^gne dans les repas qu'on 
donne et que, suivant le dire d'un ancien, il faut manger pour 
vivre, et non pa^ vivre pour m/inger. 

Harpagon — Ah, que cela est bien dit! approche. que jo 

ao t'embrasse pour ce mot. Voil^ la phis belle sentence que j'aio 

entendue de ma vie : il faut vitn-e pour mangrr, et uon pas 

manger pour viv . . . Non, ce n'est pas cela. Comment est-co 

que ta dis Y 

YalIsrk — QuHl faut manger pour vivre^ et non pas vivre 
mp&ur manger, 

Harpagon — [A Maitre Jarquen.] Oui. Entonds-tu? [A Va- 
Ihre.^ Qui ent le grand honnne cjui a dit cola? 

VALfeRK - Jo no iiift Kouvions pus iiiaiMtouaiit do son noin. 

Hakfagon - HouvionK (^)i d(5 mVMrriro com mots. Jo los veux 
40 faire graver en lettres dW Hur la choniiui^e dt; ma sallo. 


Val^ire — Je n'y manquerai pas. Et pour votre souper, vous 
n'avez qii'a me laisser faire. Je reglerai tout cela comme il faut. 

Harpagon — Fais done. 

Maitre Jacques — Tant mieux, j'en aurai moins de peine. 

Harpagon — II faudra de ces choses dont on ne mange guere, 6 
et qui rassasient d'abord ; quelque bon haricot bien gras, avec 
quelque pate en pot bien garni de marrons. 

Val^re — Reposez-vous sur moi. 

Harpagon — Maintenant, maitre Jacques, il faut nettoyer 
mon carrosse. lo 

Maitre Jacques — Attendez. Ceci s'adresse au cocher. 
[Il remet sa casaque.] Vous dites . . . 

Harpagon — Qu'il faut nettoyer mon carrosse, et tenir mes 
chevaux tout prets pour conduire a la foire . . . 

Maitre Jacques — Vos chevaux, monsieur ? Ma foi, ils ne 15 
sont point du tout en etat de marcher. Je ne vous dirai point 
qu'ils sont sur la litiere, les pauvres betes n'en ont point, et ce 
serait mal parler ; mais vous leur faites observer des jeunes 
si austeres, que ce ne sont plus rien que des idees ou des 
fantdmes, des fa^ons de chevaux. 20 

Harpagon — Les voila bien malades ; ils ne font rien. 

Maitre Jacques — Et pour ne rien faire, monsieur, est-ce 
qu'il ne faut rien manger ? II leur vaudrait bien mieux, les 
pauvres animaux, de travailler beaucoup, et de manger de 
meme. Cela me fend le coeur de les voir ainsi extenues ; car, 26 
enfin, j'ai une tendresse pour mes chevaux, qu'il me semble 
que c'est moi-meme, qiiand je les vois patir ; je m'ote tous les 
jours pour eux les choses de la bouche; et c'est etre, mon- 
sieur d'un naturel trop dur, que de n'avoir nulle pitie de son 
prochain. 30 

Harpagon — Le travail ne sera pas grand, d'aller jusqu'a la 

Maitre Jacques — Non, monsieur, je n'ai pas le courage de les 
mener; et je ferais conscience de leur donner des coups de fouet, 
en I'etat ou ils sont. Comment voudriez-vous qu'ils trainassent 35 
un carrosse ? Ils ne peuvent pas se trainer eux-memes. 

Val^re — Monsieur, j'obligerai le voisin Picard a se charger 
de les conduire : aussi bien nous fera-t-il ici besoin pour 
appreter le souper. 

Maitre Jacques — Soit. J'aime mieux encore qu'ils meurent 40 
sous la main d'un autre que sous la mienne. 


Victor Hugo (1802-1885). 

lis ^taient trois mille cinq cents. lis faisaient un front d'un 
quart de lieue. C'etaient des hommes geants sur des chevaux 
colosses. lis etaient vingt-six escadrons ; et ils avaient derriere 
eux, pour les appuyer, la division de Lefebvre-Desnouettes, les 

5 cent six gendarmes d'elite, les chasseurs de la garde, onze cent 
quatre-vingt-dix-sept hommes, et les lanciers de la garde, huit 
cent quatre-vingts lances. lis portaient le casque sans crins 
et la cuirasse de fer battu, avec les pistolets d'argon dans les 
fontes et le long sabre-^pde. Le matin toute rarmee les avait 

10 admires, quand, a neuf heures, les clairons sonnant, toutes les 
musiques chantant : Veillons au salut de Vempire, ils etaient 
venus, colonne ^paisse, une de leurs batteries k leur flanc, I'autre 
k leur centre, se d^ployer sur deux rangs entre la chauss^e de 
Genappe et Friscbemont, et prendre leur place de bataille dans 

iscette puissante deuxieme ligne, si savamment compos^e par 
Napoleon, laquelle, ayant k son extrdmit^ de gauche les cuiras- 
siers de Kellermann et k son extr^mit^ de droite les cuirassiers 
de Milhaud, avait, pour ainsi dire, deux ailes de fer. 

L'aide de camp Bernard leur porta I'ordre de I'empereur. 

2oNey tira son ^p^ et prit la t§te. Les escadrons ^normes 

Alors on vit un spectacle formidable. 

Toute cette cavalerie, sabres levds, ^tendards et trorapettes 
au vent, form^e en colonne par division, doscendit d'un meuie 

26 mouvement et comme un seul homme, avec la prtlcision d'un 
Wlier de bronze qui ouvro une br^che, la colline de la Belle- 
Alliance, 8'enfon9a dans le fond redoutablo o{i tant d'hoinmos 
dt^jk <5taiont toinb^s, y disparut dans la fum(';e, puis, sortant de 
cette ombre, reparut de I'autre ctit6. du vallon, toujours com- 

sopacte et serrc^'e, montant au grand trr)t, k travers un nuago de 
mitraille crovant sur olle, r<5pouvantal)le ponto do boue du 
plat4;au de Mont-Saint-Jean. Ils iiiontaietit, graves, niona- 
^antH, imiKjrturbable.M ; dans les intervalles de la in()us(juet(ui(^ 
et de rartiilerie, on entt^ndait ce pii'tiiietneiH- (rolossal. Ktant 

Sbdeux divisioiiH, ils c^taiont dciix coloniirK ; la <iivision W/ithier 
avait la droite, la divisiori Ihslord avait la gaucho. On ('njynit 
voir do loin n'allongor vers la (;rOte du plateau deux inimenses 


couleuvres d'acier. Cela tra versa la bataille comme un 

Rien de semblable ne s'etait vii depuis la prise de la grande 
redoute de la Moskowa par la grosse cavalerie ; Murat y man- 
quait, mais Ney s'y retrouvait. II semblait que cette masse 6 
etait devenue monstre et n'eut qu'une ame. Chaque escadron 
ondulait et se goiiflait comme un anneau du polype. On les 
apercevait a travers une vaste fumee dechiree 9a et la. Pele- 
mele de casques, de cris, de sabres, bondissement orageux des 
croupes des chevaux dans le canon et la fanfare, tumulte disci- 10 
plin^ et terrible ; la-dessus les cuirasses, comme les ^cailles sur 

Ces rdcits semblent d'un autre kge. Quelque chose de pareil 
a cette vision apparaissait sans doute dans les vieilles epopees 
orphiques racontant les hommes-chevaux, les antiques hippan- 15 
thropes, ces titans a face humaine et a poitrail equestre dont 
le galop escalada I'Olympe, horribles, invuln^rables, sublimes ; 
dieux et betes. 

Bizarre coincidence num^rique, vingt-six bataillons allaient 
recevoir ces vingt-six escadrons. Derriere la crete du plateau, 20 
a I'ombre de la batterie masquee, I'infanterie anglaise, formde 
en treize carres, deux bataillons par carre, et sur deux lignes, 
sept sur la premiere, six sur la seconde, la crosse a Tepaule, 
couchant en joue ce qui allait venir, calme, muette, immobile, 
attendait. Elle ne voyait pas les cuirassiers et les cuirassiers 25 
ne la voyaient pas. Elle ecoutait monter cette maree d'hom- 
mes. Elle entendait le grossissement du bruit des trois mille 
chevaux, le frappement alternatif et sym^trique des sabots au 
grand trot, le froissement des cuirasses, le cliquetis des sabres, 
et une sorte de grand souffle farouche. II y eut un silence 30 
redoutable, puis, subitement, une longue file de bras lev^s 
brandissant des sabres apparut au-dessus de la crete, et les 
casques, et les trompettes, et les etendards, et trois mille tetes 
a moustaches grises criant : vive I'empereur ! Toute cette 
cavalerie deboucha sur le plateau, et ce fut comme Tentr^ess 
d'un tremblement de terre. 

Tout k coup, chose tragique, a la gauche des Anglais, k notre 
droite, la tete de colonne des cuirassiers se cabra avec une cla- 
meur effroyable. Parvenus au point culminant de la crete, 
effr^nes, tout a leur furie et a leur course d'ex termination sur 40 
les carrds et les canons, les cuirassiers venaient d'apercevoir 


eiitre eux et les Anglais un fosse, une fosse. C'^tjut le chemin 
creux d'Ohain. 

L'instant fut epouvan table. Le ravin ^tait la, fnattendu, 
beant, a pic sous les pieds des chevaux, profond de deux toises 

5 entre son double talus ; le second rang y poussa le premier, et 
le troisi^ine y poussa le second ; les chevaux se dressaient, se 
rejetaient en arriere, tombaient sur la croupe, glissaient les 
quatre pieds en Tair, pilant et bouleversant les cavaliers, aucun 
moyen de reculer, toute la colonne n'etait plus qu'un projectile, 

10 la force acquise pour ^eraser les anglais dcrasa les franQais, le 
ravin inexorable ne pouvait se rendre que comble ; cavaliers et 
chevaux y roul^rent pele-mele se broyant les uns les autres, ne 
faisant qu'une chair dans ce gouffre, et quand cette fosse fut 
pleine d'hommes vivants, on marcha dessus et le reste passa. 

16 Presque un tiers de la brigade Dubois croula dans cet abime. 
Ceci commenga la perte de la bataille. 

Une tradition locale, qui exag^re dvidemment, dit que deux 
mille chevaux et quinze cents hommes furent ensevelis dans 
le cherain creux d'Ohain. Ce chiifre vraisemblablement 

20 comprend tous les autres cadavres qu'on jeta dans ce ravin le 
lendemain du combat. 

Napoldon, avant d'ordonner cette charge des cuirassiers de 
Milhaud, avait scrut^ le terrain, mais n'avait pu voir ce che- 
min creux qui ne faisait pas meme une ride k la surface du 

25 plateau. Averti pourtant et mis en dveil par la petite chapelle 
blanche qui en marque Tangle sur la chauss^e de Nivelles, il 
avait fait, probablement sur l*^ventualit<5 d'un obstacle, une 
question au guide Lacoste. Le guide avait rdpondu non. On 
pourrait pre.sque dire que de ce signs de t6te d'un paysan est 

80 sortie la catastrophe de Napoleon. 

D'autres fatalit^s encore devaient surgir. 
I^jttiit-il possible (}ue Napoleon gagn&t cette bataille? nous 
r^pondrons non. Pourquoi ? k cause de Wellington ? k cause 
de Bliicher? non. A. cause de Dieu. 

86 Bonaparte vainqueur k Waterloo, ceci n'etait plus dans la loi 
du dix-neuvi^me sifecle. Une autre s^rie de faits se prdparait, 
oA NapoI<$on n'avait plus de place. La mauvaise volont(5 des 
^v^emento s'^tait annonc^ de longue date. 
n ^tait temps que oet homme vaste tombAt. 

40 L'exoessive pesanteur de cet liominn dans la destiiirc hmnaine 
troublait I'^uilibre. Cet individu ooinptait k lui suul plus quo 


le groupe universel. Ces pl^thores de toute la vitality humaine 
concentree dans une seule tete, le monde montant au cerveaii 
d'un homme, cela serait mortel a la civilisation, si cela durait. 
Le moment etait venu pour I'incorruptible equite supreme 
d'aviser. Probablement les principes et les Elements, d'oii 5 
dependent les gravitations r^gulieres dans I'ordre moral comme 
dans I'ordre materiel, se plaignaient. Le sang qui fume, le 
trop-plein des cimeti^res, les meres en larmes, ce sont des plai- 
doyers redou tables. II y a, quand la terre souffre d'une sur- 
charge, de mysterieux g^missements de I'ombre, que I'abimeio 

Napoleon avait ^t^ d^nonc^ dans Tinfini, et sa chute ^tait 

II genait Dieu. 

Waterloo n'est point une bataille ; c'est le changement de 15 
front de I'univers. 

— From *' les Mis^rables," by kind permission of 

M. Paul Meurice, Paris. 


ROUGET DE L'ISLE (1760-1836). 

Aliens, enfants de la patrie, 

Le jour de gloire est arrivd ! 

Contre nous de la tyrannie 

L'^tendard sanglant est leve. 20 

Entendez-vous dans les campagnes 

Mugir ces feroces soldats 1 

lis viennent j usque dans nos bras, 

Egorger nos fils, nos compagnes ! 

Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons ! 25 

Marchons, marchons ! 
Qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons ! 

Marchons, marchons ! 
Qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons ! 


Amour sacre de la patrie, 
Conduis, soutiens nos bras vengeurs ; 
Liberie, Liberte cherie, 
Combats avec tes defenseurs ! 
5 Sous nos drapeaux que la Yictoire 

Accoure a tes males accents ! 
Que tes ennemis expirants 
Voient ton triomphe et notre gloire ! 

Aux armes, citoyens ! formez vos bataillons ! 
10 Marchons, marchons ! 

Qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons ! 

Marchons, marchons ! 
Qu'un sang impur abreuve nos sillons ! 

Aknault (1766-1834). 

** De ta tige d^tachde, 
15 Pauvre feuille dess^ch^e, 

Ou vas-tu "? — Je n'en sais rien. 
L'orage a brisd le chene 
Qui seul ^tait mon soutien ; 
De son inconstante haleine, 
fO Le zephyr ou I'aquilon 

Depuis CO jour me prom^ne 
De la fordt k la plaine, 
De la montagne au vallon. 
Je vais oCi le vent mo nitme, 
S6 Sana me plaindre ou m 'affrayer, 

Je vais o(i va toute chose, 
Oil va la feuille de roHO 
fit la feuille do laurier." 


15. L'EXILE. 

Chateaubriand (1768-1848). 

Combien j'ai douce souvenance 

Du joli ]ieu de ma naissance ! 

Ma soeur, qu'ils etaient beaux, les jours 

De France ! 
O mon pays ! sois mes amours, 6 

Tou jours ! 

Te souvient-il que notre mere, 
Au foyer de notre chaumiere, 
Nous pressait sur son coeur joyeux 

Ma chere 1 10 

Et nous baisions ses blancs cheveux, 

Tous deux. 

Te souvient-il du lac tranquille 

Qu'effleurait I'hirondelle agile, 

Du vent qui courbait le roseau 16 

Et du soleil couchant sur I'eau, 

Si beau ? 

Ma soeur, te souvient-il encore 

Du chateau que baignait la Dore, 20 

Et de cette tant vieille tour 

Du Maure, 
Ou I'airain sonnait le re tour 

Du jour ? 

Oh ! qui me rendra mon H^l^ne, 25 

Et la montagne, et le grand chene 1 
Leur souvenir fait tous les jours 

Ma peine. 
Mon pays sera mes amours 

Toujours 1 80 



i6. LA CHIMfeRE. 

TiiEOPHiLE Gautier (1811-1872). 

XJne jeune chimere, aux levres de ma coupe, 
Dans I'orgie, a donnd le baiser le plus doux ; 
Elle avait les yeux verts, et jusque sur sa croupe 
Ondoyait en torrent I'or de ses cheveux roux. 

6 Des ailes d'^pervier tremblaient a son ^paule ; 

La voyant s'envoler, je sautai sur ses reins ; 
Et, faisant jusqu'a moi ployer son cou de saule, 
J'enfonQai comme un peigne une main dans ses crins. 

Elle se d^menait, hurlante et furieuse, 
10 Mais en vain. Je broyais ses flancs dans mes genoux ; 

Alors elle me dit d'une voix gracieuse, 
Plus claire que I'argent : Maitre, ou done allons-nous 1 

Par de\k le soleil et par deli I'espace, 
Ou Dieu n'arriverait qu'apr^s I'^ternit^ , 
lb Mais avant d'etre au but ton aile sera lasse : 

Car je veux voir mon reve en sa r^alit^. 

— From ** Poesies Di verses," by kind permission of the Publisher, 

Eugene Fasquelle, 11 rue do Grenelle, Paris 

17. EXTASE. 
Victor Hugo (1802- 1885). 

J'4itA» seal prte des flots, par une nuit d'dtoiles. 
Pas nn nnage aux oieux, sur Ics mors pas de voiles. 
Mes yeux plongeaient plus loin (|u<) le monde n'u'l. 
Et les bois, et les monts, et U)ute la nature, 
Semblaient interroffer dans un c<jnfuH murmure 
Les flots des mers, les feux du ciel. 


Et les ^toiles d'or, legions infinies, 
A voix haute, a voix basse, avec mille harmonies, 
Disaient, eu inclinant leurs couronnes de feu ; 
Et les flots bleus, que rien ne gouverne et n'arrete, 
Disaient, en recourbant Fecume de leur crete : 
— C'est le Seigneur, le Seigneur Dieu ! 

— From "les Orientales," by kind permission of 

M. Paul Meurice, Paris. 

Lamartine (1791-1869). 

Salut ! bois couronnds d'un reste de verdure ! 
Feuillages jaunissants sur les gazons epars ! 
Salut, derniers beaux jours ! Le deuil de la nature 
Convient a ma douleur, et plait a mes regards. lo 

Je suis d'un pas reveur le sentier solitaire, 
J'aime a revoir encor, pour la derniere fois, 
Ce soleil palissant, dont la faible lumiere 
Perce a peine a mes pieds I'obscurit^ des bois. 

Oui, dans ces jours d'automne ou la nature expire, 15 

A ses regards voiles je trouve plus d'attraits : 
C'est I'adieu d'un ami, c'est le dernier sourire 
Des lev res que la mort va fermer pour jamais ! 

Ainsi, pret a quitter I'horizon de la vie, 

Pleurant de mes longs jours I'espoir evanoui, 20 

Je me retourne encore, et d'un regard d'envie 

Je contemple ces biens dont je n'ai pas joui. 

Terre, soleil, vallons, belle et douce nature, 

Je vous dois une larme au bord de mon tombeau. 

L'air est si parfume ! la lumiere est si pure ! 25 

Aux regards d'un mourant le soleil est si beau. 



Je voudrais maintenant vider jusqu'a la lie 
Ce calice mele de nectar et de fiel ; 
Au fond de cette coupe ou je buvais la vie, 
Peut-etre restait-il une goutte de miel. 

Peut-etre I'avenir me gardait-il encore 
Un retour de bonheur dont I'espoir est perdu ; 
Peut-etre dans la foule, une ame que j'ignore 
Aurait compris mon ame et m'aurait repondu. 

La fleur tombe en livrant ses parfums au z^phire, 
A la vie, au soleil, ce sont la ses adieux ; 
Moi, je meurs, et mon ame, au moment qu'elle expire, 
S'exhale comme un son triste et melodieux. 

— By kind permission of M. Robert Vallier, g^rant de la 

Soci^t^ propri^taire des ceuvres de Lamartinc. 

De Musset (1810-1857). 

J'ai perdu ma force et ma vie, 
Et mes amis et ma gaiety : 
U J'ai perdu jusqu'^ la fiert^ 

Qui faisait croire k mon gt^nie. 

Quand j'ai connu la vt^rit^, 
J'ai cru que c'^tait une amie : 
Quand je I'ai comprise et sentie 
10 J'en ^tais d(5j^ degoutt^. 

Et pourtant elle est ^tcrnelle, 
Et ceux qui se sont passdn d'elle, 
loi-bos ont tout ignord. 

Dieu parle, il faut qu'on lui rdponde. 
W Le seal bien ((ui me resto au monde 

Est d'avoir quelquefois pleur<^. 

— By kind (Msrniiiifiion of Mnio Lardin de Mussot, Paris. 


Sully-Prudhomme (b. 1839). 

Le vase ou meurt cette verveine 
D'un coup d'eventail fut fele ; 
Le coup dut effleurer a peine. 
Aucun bruit ne I'a revels. 

Mais la l^gere meurtrissure, 6 

Mordant le cristal chaque jour, 
D'une marche invisible et sure 
En a fait lentement le tour. 

Son eau fraiche a fui goutte a goutte, 

Le sue des fleurs s'est ^puise ; lo 

Personne encore ne s'en doute, 

N'y touchez pas, il est brise. 

Sou vent aussi la main qu'on aime, 

Effleurant le coeur, le meurtrit ; 

Puis le coeur se fend de lui-merae, 16 

La fleur de son amour perit ; 

Toujours intact aux yeux du monde, 

II sent croitre et pleurer tout bas 

Sa blessure fine et profonde, 

Tl est bris^, n'y touchez pas. 20 

-By kind permission of the Publisher, 

A. Lemerre, 23-31 passage Choiseul, Paris. 



La Fontaine (1621-1695). 

Le chene un jour dit au roseau : 
Vous avez bien sujet d'accuser la nature , 
Un roitelet pour vous est un pesant fardeau ; 

Le moindre vent qui d'aventure 
6 Fait rider la face de I'eau 

Vous oblige k baisser la tete ; 
Cependant que mon front, au Caucase pareil, 
Non content d'arreter les rayons du soleil, 

Brave I'effort de la tempete. 
10 Tout vous est aquilon, tout me semble zephyr. 

Encor si vous naissiez a I'abri du feuillage 

Dont je couvre le voisinage, 

Vous n'auriez pas tant k souffrir, 

Je vous defend rais de I'orage : 
16 Mais vous naissez le plus souvent 

Sur les humides bords des royaumes du vent. 
La nature envers vous me semble bien injuste. 
Votre compassion, lui r^pondit I'arbuste, 
Part d'un bon naturel ; mais quittez ce souci : 
20 Les vents me sont moins qu'i vous redoutables, 

Je plie, et ne romps pas. Vous avez jusqu'ici 

Centre leurs coups ^pouvantables 

R^sist^ sans courber le dos ; 
Mais attendons la fin. Comme il disait ces mots, 
2t Du l)Out de riiorizon accourt avec furio 

IjG plus terrible des enfants 
Que le nord eut portds jusque-li dans ses flancs. 

L'arbre tient l)on ; le roseau plie. 

IjO vent redouble ses efforts, 
» F^t fait si bien qu'il d^racine 

Celui de qui la tfite au ciel c^tait voisine, 

Et dont les pieds touchaiont k I'ompire des morts. 




[It is recommended that the extracts from the Reader should be 
used as a basis for oral practice, dictation, etc. The exercises here 
given have not been divided into lessons : such portions may be 
assigned for this purpose as the teacher deems advisable. The 
vocabulary required for translating any given exercise is to be found 
in the extract from the Reader on which it is based.] 


(Paroles d'un croyant, pp. 395-6. ) 

A. 1. Instead of bending we rise. 2. This plant will dry 
up and die, if it finds no shelter from the fierce heat of the 
sun. 3, The wind bends the trees to the ground. 4. If we 
unite with one another, we shall shelter one another. 5. Let 
us not think of ourselves alone. 6. What is there that is 
stronger than covetousness % 7. The swallows gathered round 
the bird of prey. 8. Fear sat down beside him, and did not 
leave him. 9. We asked them : " How many were there of 
you?" 10. They answered : "There were four of us." 11. It 
is thus, and therefore God commands us not to fall under the 
oppression of the strong. 12. The weak do not fear, when 
they love one another. 13. A rock had rolled upon the road. 
14. There is no way out, except the road. 15. The man tried 
to make a way for himself. 16. He saw that his efforts were 
vain. 1 7. If we sit down full of sadness, what will become 
of us? 18. The second traveller did what the first one did. 

19. Several others come up, sit down, and bow their heads. 

20. If we pray to our Father, He will have pity on us. 



21. When we had prayed, we pushed the rock, and it gave 
way. 22. Life is a journey, and man is a traveller. 23. He 
meets many troubles on his way. 

B. The wind strips of its leaves the tree which is alone, 
and it finds no shelter from the fierce heat of the sun, and 
the fierce heat of the covetousness of the great dries up the 
sap which nourishes the man who is alone. Then, let us be 
united. So long as we think only of ourselves, we have 
nothing to hope for but oppression. The sparrows succeed in 
driving off birds of prey, by pursuing them all together. Let 
us take example from the sparrows. Fear follows him who 
separates himself from his brethren. All men are equal. 
Grod makes neither great nor small. But when covetousness 
stifles the love of others in those who are stronger in body or 
mind, they try to subdue their brothers to themselves. God 
knows that these things are so, and that is why He commands 
us to love one another, so that we may be united, and may not 
fall under the oppression of the strong. A man who was 
travelling in the mountains came to a place where a great 
rock filled the road completely. The man saw that he could 
not continue his journey, and he tried to move the rock, but 
he found liimself powerless to move it. He grew weary and 
said, " What will become of me in this solitude, when the 
wild beasts come out to seek their prey ? " Another traveller 
came up, and then several others, and none of them being 
able to move the rock, they prayed to their Father in Heaven 
that He might have (subj.) pity on them. The Father in 
Heaven listened to them, and rising up all together, they 
took away (enlever) the rock and went on their way. God 
measures the troubles which we meet on our path, and if we 
travel together, the weight of no rock will ever stop us. 

(PamloH (Vnu croyant, pp. .SJ)7-H.) 

A. 1. Tf we should die or fall ill, what would become of 

Ct 2. If this thought never leaves you it will gnaw your 
t like a worm. 3. Although the saino thought comes to 


me, I do not dwell on it. 4. Let us live without anxiety. 
5. Those who do not live without anxiety, do not enjoy a 
moment of repose. 6. Soon the mother came back again to 
her nest. 7. The man was sad and downcast, on account of 
the orphans in their nest. 8. The poor bird struggled, but 
the vulture carried it off. 9. What will become of my 
children, if they lose me ? 10. The little birds have only 
their mother. 11. My children, too, have only me. 12. 
When he returned to the fields, he wished to see the young 
ones again. 13. All the little birds were well. 14. If he 
hides himself, he will see what will happen. 15. He observed 
what had happened. 16. The food, which was brought back 
by the mother, was given to all without distinction. 17. If 
we do not distrust Providence, God will not abandon us. 18. 
Let us not be anxious. 19. Those who pursue their journey 
in peace will know the secrets of God's love. 20. If our 
children are not of an age to provide for their own needs, 
they will have the Father in Heaven. 

B. Two men had only their labour to support their wives 
and their little children. And one of them was troubled, and 
asked himself {se demander) what would become of his wife 
and children if he should die. But the other man lived with- 
out anxiety, for he said that God knew His creatures, and that 
He would watch over him and his children. One day when 
the first man was working in the fields, he saw some birds 
which were going into and coming out of a clump of trees. 
He drew near, and saw two nests in which were several 
young birds without feathers. He returns to his work, but 
watches the birds as they come and go with food for their 
young. Now, as the man was working, one of the mother 
[birds] uttered a piercing cry, for a vulture had seized her as 
she was returning home with her mouthful of food. At the 
sight of this, the man felt his soul deeply (bien) disturbed, 
and said, ''What will become now of the little birds?" But 
the next day, directing his steps towards the clump of trees, 
he saw that none of the young had suffered. This astonished 
him. But he soon saw the second mother distributing to all 
the young ones the food which she had gathered. She had 
not abandoned the orphans in their distress. Let us not dis- 


trust Providence. God will not forsake His own. We shall 
never know the secrets of His love. If one father dies before 
the other, the latter will be a father to all the children. If 
both die, the children will have their Father in Heaven, and 
He will provide for all their needs. 


(Le chat bott^, pp. 398-401.) 

A. 1. We did not call the notary. 2. The miller received 
the mill. 3. Shall we be able to console ourselves for having 
such a poor share"? 4. When he has his bag, and when he 
has put bran into it, he will go into the brushwood. 5. I 
have got a pair of boots made for myself. 6. He hung him- 
self up by the feet, and pretended to be dead. 7. He waited 
for some young rabbit to eat the bran. 8. We were shown 
up to his apartments. 9. Did you bow to the king? 10. We 
thank you. 11. Let us go and hide ourselves in the M'heat. 
12. One day, when we learned that you were to go to the 
river's banks, we went for a walk. 13. We said, "Follow 
our advice, and leave it to us." 14. They advised him to 
bathe in the river. 15. As they were bathing, we happened 
to pass. 16. She put her head out of the carriage door, 
and screamed. 17. Order your guards that some one go to 
his help. 18. Tlie marquis was pulled out of the water. 
19. Although the cat cried, "Stop thief," the thieves carried 
off his master's clothes. 20. Go and get those fine clothes. 
21. We had just given him a carriage. 22. They wished us to 
get into the carriage. 23. We shall not fail to ask them 
whose meadow it is. 24. That meadow yields well every 
year. 2r). Do you wish to know whose castle this is? 26. 
We shall say the same thing to those we meet. 27. That is 
the castle whose master is an ogre. 28. He is the richest 
man I have ever soon. 29. Tell us what that cat can do. 
30. Can the cat change itself into a lion? 31. The ogre 
became a lion. 32. Boots are no good for walking on tiles. 
83. Would you be frightened to see a lion before you? 
34. We have been assured that lie was afraid, but wo (;annot 
believe it. 35. Can the cat assume the form of a rat ? 36. 


The mice began to run over the floor. 37. If we hear the 
noise of the carriage, we shall not enter the castle. 38. Run 
to meet the marquis and the princess. 39. You are welcome ! 
40. Let us see these buildings, if you please. 41. We went 
up first, the cat followed us. 42. Our friends were to come 
and see us. 43. They did not dare to come in. 44. We saw 
the great wealth he possessed. 45. It will be my fault alone, 
if I am not the king's son-in-law. 46. Cats do not become 
great lords. 47. They run after mice to amuse themselves. 

B. All the property a miller had was a mill, an ass and a 
cat. He deft the mill to his eldest son and the cat to the 
youngest. The latter said that he would have to die of 
hunger, while his eldest brother would be able to earn his 
living decently. The cat pretended not to hear this speech. 
He told his master not to be troubled, but to give him a bag, 
and to get a pair of boots made for him. His master no 
longer despaired of being helped in his misery, for he had seen 
the cat play many clever tricks. He had seen him catch 
many rats and mice. Then the cat put on his boots, and 
seizing his bag with his fore-paws, he went off where there 
were many rabbits. Having put some bran into his bag, he 
stretched himself out, as if he were dead. A giddy young 
rabbit poked himself into the bag, the cat drew the strings, 
and caught him. Then he went to the kings palace, carry- 
ing his prey with him. He went up to the king's apartments, 
and making a bow, he told the king that the Marquis de 
Carabas had commissioned him to present a rabbit to his 
majesty. Another time, he hid himself in some wheat, and 
caught two partridges which had gone into his bag. He 
presented these to the king also, and the king received them 
with pleasure. He carried thus, from time to time, game to 
the king. One day, the king went for a drive with his 
daughter, on the banks of the river. The cat advised his 
master to bathe in the river, where the king would pass by. 
The marquis did not know what use it would be, but he 
followed the cat's advice. As the king was passing, the cat 
screamed, " Help ! help ! a man is drowning ! " The king 
recognized the cat, and ordered his guards to go to the man's 
help. Now (or), the cat had hid his master's clothes under a 


stone, although he told the king that robbers had carried 
them off. Then the officers of the king's wardrobe went for 
some very fine clothing for the marquis. The king's daugh- 
ter fell in love with the marquis, for he was very fine-looking, 
and the fine clothes heightened his good looks. Then he got 
into the king's carriage and took part in the drive. The cat 
was delighted to see that his plan was succeeding, and going 
ahead he came upon some peasants who were mowing in a 
meadow. He ordered them to say to th'e king, if the king 
asked them whose meadow it was, that it belonged to the 
marquis. They did not fail to say so {le) to the king. Then 
the cat came upon some harvesters, and told them that, if 
they did not say that the field of wheat which they were 
cutting belonged to the marquis, they would be cut up as fine 
as mince-meat. The king asked whose field it was, and they 
replied that it belonged to the marquis. The king rejoiced 
at this, but was astonished at the great possessions of the 
marquis. Now, all these lands belonged to a rich ogre, who 
lived in a great castle. The cat made enquiries as to who 
this ogre was, and what he could do, and asked to speak to 
him, saying that he wished to have the honour of paying him 
his respects. He was civilly received by the ogre. Then the 
ogre, to show the cat what he could do, changed himself into 
a lion. The cat was frightened, and fled to the eave-troughs. 
After a little time the cat came down, and told the ogre that 
he had l)een assured that the ogre coukl also change liimself 
into a rat or a mouse, but that he considered that impossible. 
The ogre replied that he would soon see, and changing him- 
self into- a mouse began to run over the floor. The cat 
pounced on the mouse and ate it. The king, seeing the 
beautiful castle, crossed the drawbridge and entered the 
court. The cat ran to meet him and said, ''Your majesty 
if welcome to the castle of the Marquis de Carabas." The 
king went in first, the manjuis and })rincess followed him. 
In a great hall they found a wonderful repast which had 
been prepared by the ogre for his frii^nds. The king and 
the princess were charmed by tlie good qualities and the 
great wealth of the marquiH, and the king said to him, 
"You shall be my son-in-law." That very day he married 
the princessi 



(Un nez gel^, pp. 402-3.) 

A. 1. We have decided to make our rounds on foot. 2. They 
were armed from head to foot. 3. I was delighted that we 
had the opportunity. 4. We were going to a gentleman's 
house who was not at home. 5. He was more of a talker, as 
it seems, than the others. 6. The coachman drove his sleigh 
at full speed. 7. However fast you may run, I shall 
catch (rattraper) you. 8. Before I could take off my 
cashmere scarf, he was washing my face. 9. In such weather 
as it is, I do not venture into the street. 10. They looked at 
us a moment. 11. We rushed again at them. 12. I profited 
by the fact that he could not defend himself. 13. He 
thought he was the victim of an ambuscade. 14. I got rid 
of the three men. 15. He did not think the joke in good 
taste. * 16. We French look at people (gens) straight in the 
eye. 17. I rendered the same service to myself as the peasant 
had rendered me. 18. Gratitude is less nimble than fear. 
19. We were guilty only of too much philanthropy. 20. Those 
present spoke Russian, and did not understand French. 

B. Dumas, being at St. Petersburg, ventured into the street 
one Jay, having only the tip of his nose to the air. He had 
armed himself against the cold, by (en) wrapping himself in a 
great Astrachan coat, and by pulling over his ears a fur-lined 
cap. At first, he was surprised at the little impression the 
cold made upon him. He laughed to himself at the stories he 
had heard told about it. Still he noticed that those whom he 
met looked at him with anxiety, but without saying anything 
to liim. Soon, a gentleman, who was passing, shouted \crier) 
to him in Russian, but he did not know a word of Russian, 
and continued on his way. He soon met another man, who 
was driving his sleigh. The latter also shouted to him in 
Russian. Finally he met a labourer, who picked up a hand- 
ful of snow, and rushing at Dumas, rubbed his face and nose 
vigorously. In such weather, Dumas thought this a rather 
poor joke, and he gave the labourer a blow with his fist. 
Then two peasants looked at him a moment, and rushing at 
him, held his arms. The labourer, after having picked up 


another handful of snow, rushed at him again, and began 
again his rubbing. Dumas thought he was the victim of 
some mistake, and he called for help. An officer, who had 
run up, asked him in French with whom he was angry. 
" What," exclaimed Dumas, " don't you see what those scamps 
were doing 1 " The officer replied that they were rendering 
him a great service by (en) rubbing his face with snow, for 
Dumas had his nose frozen. A passer-by, addressing the 
officer, told him that his nose was freezing too. The officer 
stooped, picked up some snow, and rubbed his nose. Then 
Dumas put off after the labourer, whom he would not have 
overtaken if some people had not stopped the way. When 
Dumas arrived where the labourer was, he gave him ten 
roubles, and explained the affair to him. Those present re- 
commended Dumas to pay more attention in future to his 
nose. During the rest of his rounds he never lost sight of it. 


(La pipe de Jean Bart, pp. 404-6.) 

A. 1. It is not too late for us to change our habits. 2. 
Reflect on it and you will be convinced. 3. We did not wish 
to attract attention. 4. They did not turn Jean Bart out of 
the palace. 5. For he was a rear-admiral. 6. They did not 
go and tell the king that a man whose name was Jean Bart 
was smoking in his ante-chamber. 7. We come to ask a 
favour of the king. 8. The rear-admiral has to take the 
king's cabinet by surprise. 9. We shall lay aside our famous 
garments. 10. The king put upon Jean Bart's neck a chain 
of gold. 11. Captains receive gold chains as a reward for 
great deeds. 12. He showed the petitioners into the king's 
presence. 13. Are you a good enough friend of the captain, 
for there to l)e no need of thati 14. It will bo enough if you 
tell him that I ask to speak to him. 15. Let us advance 
towards the door. 16. The orders are that no one can imU^r. 
17. He looked at us with astonishment. 18. The ofllcer 
observed to us that no smoking was allowed. 19. Do not 
keep us waiting. 20. If you keep mn waiting, I shall smoke. 
21. We shall be obliged to smoke, if w(; wait here. 22. We 
•hall put them out, if they smoke. 23. I defy you to put me 


out. 24. We shall not go out, before we speak to the king. 
25. You must choose the less of two evils. 26. Let us go and 
tell him that Jean Bart is here. 27. Let us not take the 
trouble to look. 28. We shall show him in. 29. Do not let 
him finish his pipe. 30. We had hardly crossed the threshold, 
when we stopped. 31. If we salute the king, we shall arrive 
at our goal. 32. We began by paying compliments. 33. We 
finished by asking for the pardon of our friend. 34. We shall 
get many compliments paid us. 35. Many ships were burned 
at seia. 36. Many members of his family died in the king's 
service. 37. They were shouting, "Long live the king!" 
as loud as they could. 38. We profited by the fact that we 
had remained more than half an hour with the king. 39. It 
would afford them great pleasure if you told them how you 
got out of the port. 40. Do not prevent me from getting out. 
41. I shall make a way for myself to the door. 

B. When Jean Bart was called into the navy by Louis XIV., 
he was forty-one years old. The descendant of pirates, he had 
been a pirate himself, and he loved his pipe, for he was of 
Dunkirk, which is a damp and cold locality. But it was not 
from ignorance of the etiquette of Versailles that he lit his 
pipe in the king's ante-chamber. He had come to ask of the 
king a favour which had been twice refused him. And he 
wished to attract attention to himself. Having put off his 
famous garments of cloth of gold, and having put on a plain 
officer's costume, he presents himself at the ante-chamber of 
the king, but without his letter of admission. The officer 
who was charged with introducing petitioners into the king's 
presence, asked him where his letter was. He replied that he 
was a good enough friend of the king not to have need of a 
letter. But the officer would (voulait) not take the liberty of 
announcing Jean Bart. The latter leaned against the wain- 
scot, and drawing a pipe from the crown of his hat, he lit it. 
The courtiers observed to him that people did not smoke in 
the king's ante-chamber. But Jean Bart replied that he 
always smoked when he was waiting. The officer said he 
would be obliged to put him out. But it was not easy to put 
Jean Bart out of doors, so the officer chose the less of two 
evils, and told the king that there was an officer in the ante- 
chamber who was smoking and who dared the courtiers to put 


him out. The king told the officer to let Jean Bart finish his 
pipe and then to show him in. But Jean Bart did not wait. 
Throwing his pipe away, he rushed into the king's cabinet. 
He conducted the conversation with much skill. He got 
many compliments paid to him regarding his exit from the 
port of Dunkirk and his burning of the enemy's ships. Then 
kneeling on one knee he asked pardon for one of his sailors 
who had killed his opponent in a duel. The king hesitated, 
but finally granted him what he asked for. When Jean Bart 
came out, he was surrounded by the courtiers. One of the 
latter asked him how he got out of the port of Dunkirk, when 
he was blockaded by the English fleet. They all said it would 
be a great pleasure to them to know (it). "Well," said he, 
"you shall see. You are the English fleet which is blockading 
me." And he gave kicks and blows to those who were in front 
of him, and opened a passage for liimself. When he arrived 
at the door, he told them that that was how he got out of the 
port of Dunkirk. 


(La derni^re classe, pp. 407-11.) 

A. I. 1 was afraid, the more so as the master would ques- 
tion me. 2. We did not run away from school. 3. Were the 
Prussians drilling in the meadow'? 4. Did you see people 
standing near the bulletin-board 1 5. The blacksmith ran 
across the square. 6. We were busy reading the notice. 7. 
If you hasten, you will get to school in time. 8. Are you 
making fun of met 9. They entered the school out of breath. 
10. They st^jpped their ears when they were repeating their 
IcKKons. 11. Relying on this noise we gained our seats with- 
out l>cing H<'en. 12. Everything was quiet, as on a Sunday 
morning. 13. You may well imagine he was afraid. 14. 
Were they Roing to begin without us? 15. They sat down 
at their desks. 16. The teacher puts on his frock coat only 
on inHf)ection days. 17. Wiiat surprise's us most is to see the 
postman sitting on a bench at the back of tlie room. 18. Did 
you bring your ABC book? 19. Wo shall teach nothing ])ut 
German. 20. He aiked us to be attentive. 21. That is what 
we had posted up at the achool. 22. They hardly knew how 
to read 23. Are books tiresome? 24. It pains me to leave 


old friends. 25. Did you come and sit down on the bench 1 
26. Will they regret not having come oftener"? 27. Will the 
fatherland pass away 1 28. When we were at that point in 
our reflections, we heard our names called, 29. We got con- 
fused at the first word. 30. That's how things go when you 
do not know how to speak your language. 31. We shall see 
what will happen. 32. Let us nc^t put it off till to-morrow. 

33. Are you anxious to see your children educated ? — We are. 

34. Would you prefer to send them to work on the \and1 
3f). The master made us water his garden. 36. As long as 
a people retains its language, it will not become a slave. 
37. You would have said that the poor man wished to go 
away. 38. You should have seen how we worked ! 39. No 
one pays attention to them. 40. He did not raise his eyes 
from the page. 41. The desks were worn by use. 42. Let 
us pack our trunks, for we must leave to-morrow. 43. It was 
so funny that they all wanted to laugh. 44. Shall you forget 
it? 45. He seems tall to me. 46. Can you finish the phrase? 
47. We motion to them to go away. 48. Do not go away. 
49. If we do not go away, we shall not see our friend. 

B. Little Frantz was late that morning, and he was afraid 
of being scolded, and he did not know the first word about 
the participles. The weather was so warm that the thought 
came to him to play truant. But he had the strength to 
resist, although (bien que with subj.) the blackbirds were 
whistling in the woods, and he ran to school. As he was 
passing the mayor's ofiice, he saw people who were reading 
the notices. And he thought without stopping, "What is 
the matter ? Is there bad news again ?" The blacksmith and 
his apprentice shouted to him, as he was running across the 
square, not to (de ne pas) be in such a hurry, that he would 
get to school soon enough. But Frantz thought the black- 
smith was making fun of him, and he entered the school yard. 
Generally you could hear (impf. ind.) out into the street the 
noise that was made, but that day everything was still. They 
(on) were not repeating their lessons out loud, and the master 
was not striking the table with his ruler. The little boy's 
comrades were already in their places, and the master was 
going up and down with his ruler under his arm, and Frantz 
had to enter in the midst of that calm. Then he noticed the 


master's beautiful green frock coat, and his silk skull-cap. 
He noticed also, at the back of the room, sitting on benches, 
the old mayor and postman, who were holding open on their 
knees old ABC books. Then M. Hamel told the children 
that it was the last time he would have (/aire) the class, that 
it was their last lesson in French. These words upset little 
Frantz. Then he was angry with himself for the time that 
was lost. His books, which seemed a little ago so heavy to 
carry, were now old friends whom he could not leave. The 
little boy understood now why poor M. Hamel had put on his 
Sunday clothes, and why the old men had come to school. 
They were thanking the master for his forty years' services. 
Then he heard his name called. What would he not have 
given to be able to recite the rule of the participles ! But the 
master did not scold him, for he was sufficiently punished. 
He had said to himself that he had plenty of time, that he 
would put off his education. He had claimed to be French 
and he could neither speak nor write his own language. 
The people of Alsatia were not anxious enough to see their 
children educated. They sent them to work in the spinning- 
factories or on the lAnd. And the teacher himself had 
something to reproach himself with. When he wanted to go 
fishing for trout, he did not hesitate to give them a holiday. 
Then M. Hamel spoke of the French language. And the 
little boy was astonished to see how he understood. "The 
French language," said he, "is the finest language in the 
world. It must never be forgotten." Whatever the master 
said seemed so easy to the boy. The poor man wanted to 
make all his knowledge go into the heads of his class before 
departing. Then they began to write. The copy-lines were, — 
France^ Alsatia, and everybody was diligent. Even the little 
fellows, who were tracing their " strokes," paid no attention to 
the may-bugs which came in. And M. Hamel was motion- 
less in his desk. For forty years he had been there, and now 
he wished to carry away in his eye all the objects in his 
school. The walnut trees which he had planted had grown 
large, and the hop-vine encircled tin? windows. And now he 
and his sister were to go^ away from the country for over. 
Then he gave the children their history lesson. The little 
fellows sang ba, be, bi, and old Hauuer having put on his 


spectacles spelled the letters with them. When the church 
clock rang noon, M. Hamel rose in his desk, and turning 
towards the black-board, he wrote with a piece of chalk, 
" Hurrah for France." 


(La chevre de M. Seguin, pp. 411-15.) 

A. 1. They all went off in the same way. 2. I could not 
make out their nature at all. 3. Do you weary being at 
home 1 4. Do not get discouraged. 5. We are getting used 
to it. 6. How pretty the goat is ! 7. Her beard was as pretty 
as that of a non-commissioned officer. 8. Will she let herself 
be milked 1 9. Yes, she will never move, nor put her foot into 
the dish. 10. I shall go now and then to see whether you 
are comfortable. 11. That's one that does not grow weary. 
12. The tether rubs her neck. 13. From that day she 
cropped no more grass. 14. She turned her head in the 
direction of the mountain. 15. Does that seem insipid to 
you? 16. Is anything the matter with you? 17. Did you 
notice that the goat was pulling on its tether? 18. Do not 
let her go to the mountain. 19. Did you drop your dish? 
20. Do not sit down in the grass. 21. She was not tied too 
short. 22. Shall I lengthen the rope? 23. What will you do 
when the wolf comes? 24. The wolf will not make fun of 
her horns. 25. Let us not fight with him. 26. That makes 
no difference, I shall not stay with you. 27. He will tie her to 
•a stake for fear she should go away. 28. Hardly had he closed 
the door, when she ran off. 29. They bowed to the earth. 
30. Those flowers smell sweet, do they not? 31. You may 
well imagine that she was happy ! 32. She had grass up over 
her horns ! 33. The white goat jumps up on her feet again. 
34. There, she is off ! 35. I should have said there were ten 
goats. 36. Let us jump across this stream. 37. Go and 
stretch yourself out on a flat rock. 38. We did not notice 
M. Seguin's field. 39. We laughed till we cried. 40. How 
little that house is, we can never find room in it. 41. Listen 
to the bells. 42. They are bringing home the flocks. 42. Do 
you think of the goat ? — I do. 44. I have a mind to return. 


45. But I can never get used to that life again. 4G. We see 
two ears and two shining eyes. 47. Let us be in no hurry. 
48. Do not turn round. 49. Do you remember that story? 
50. It will be better to eat it at once. 51. She changed her 
mind. 52. Can we hold out as long as the others? 53. If 
we go about it heartily, we may kill the wolf. 54. Let us 
take breath again. 55. We did not gather a blade of grass. 
56. Let us not look at the stars dancing in the sky. 57. The 
stars will die out, when a pale light appears (fut). 

B. M. Seguin had had six goats, and he had lost them all 
in the same way. They were independent animals which 
wished for liberty at any price. Good M. Seguin could not 
understand them. Nothing could hold them back. They all 
went away into the mountain, and the wolves ate them. 
Then he bought a seventh one, a pretty little goat, and quite 
young, for he wished it to get accustomed to living with him. 
It was a dear little goat with long, white hair, soft eyes and 
black hoofs ! M. Seguin tied his goat to a stake in a meadow 
surrounded with hawthorn, where slie was very comfortable. 
She ate the grass so heartily that M. Seguin thought she 
would never grow weary with him, but siie did grow weary. 
One day she looked at the mountain, and from that moment 
the grass of the field seemed t^isteless to her. She said to 
herself that one must be very happy on the mountain, that an 
ox might crop grass in a field but that goats needed room. 
When M. Seguin noticed that his goat was getting lean, he 
knew that something was the matter with her, but he did not 
know what it was. She said to him that she was pining away,. 
and tliat she wished to go into the mountain. It was not tlie 
grass that was lacking ; it was not the rope that was too short. 
M. Seguin told her that the wolf would eat her, but she said she 
would Vmtt him, she would fight with him all night. But M. 
Seguin said he would save her in spite of herself, and he shut 
his goat into a stable and locked the door securely. But he 
forgot the window, and the goat ran away. The old fir trees 
welcomed her. The chestnut trees can^ssed luir, the golden 
broom smolle<l sweet. The whole mountain receiv(!d her 
like a queen. ft was there that tlu>re was grass, line and 
■weetl And the wild flowers overflowed with juices! She 


wallowed in the fallen leaves ; she ran {courir) through 
the bushes ; she was afraid of nothing. If the torrents 
splashed her with foam, she stretched herself out on a rock 
and dried herself in the sun. Suddenly it was evening. The 
fields disappeared in the mist. You could see no longer any- 
thing but the smoke of M. Seguin's cottage. There was a howl, 
and she thought of the wolf. Then M. Seguin blew his horn 
in the valley. She heard it and had a mind to return, but she 
remembered the stake and the rope, and thought it would be 
better to stay. There was a noise in the leaves, and turning 
round she saw the wolf. There he was on his haunches. He 
knew he would eat her, and was in no hurry. She remem- 
bered the story of another goat of M. Seguin, and being a 
brave goat, she said to herself that she would not let herself 
be eaten at once. She had no hope of killing the wolf, but 
she assumed a defensive attitude. The fight lasted all night. 
She forced the wolf to retreat more than ten times. The stars 
danced in the sky, and she said to herself, " If I only hold 
out till daylight ! " The stars died out on the horizon ; a 
hoarse cock crowed in the valley ; the wolf ate the poor little 


(La patte de dindon, pp. 416-19.) 


A. 1. Do you need a lesson from me ? 2. He would like to 
cure us of it. 3. They were ten years old. 4. We had a 
large sum, which was intended to pay for our breakfast, 
5. Do you still remember his name 1 6. Their name is Cou- 
ture. 7. The object is composed of what is called a tibia. 
8. He looked as if he were walking. 9. Will the fingers open 
and shutl 10. How can you make it move *? 11. If you go 
to the theatre, will you follow the development of the drama 1 
12. A dazzling brightness passed before our eyes. 13. Did 
you think you were present at a miracle? 14. You are older 
and sharper than we. 15. We withdrew. 16. Did you go 
away tool 17. We shall soon learn the way to do it. 
18. What fun we shall have ! 19. Give it to us, we beg of 
you. 20. Won't you give it to us? 21. We'll give you ten 
cents for it. 22. He is making game of us. 23. How much 


did they want for it ? 24. He ran after us again. 25. How 
they must have got on in the world ! 26. How they know 
the human heart ! 27. He knows himself no longer. 28. Put 
a cent into my hand. 29. He is a business man. 30. Do 
not rush after it. 31. That does not amuse me now at all. 
32. Disenchantment seizes me. 33. The prospect of three 
weeks of dry bread did not amuse me. 34. These traits of 
character will not awaken again in you. 35. People have 
often called the feelings of children puerilities. 36. The 
hearts where passions grow are the same. 37. The best way 
of guiding a boy is to observe him. 38. It is useful to laugh 
at one's self now and then. 39. Sons are not always like 
their fathers. 

B. Ernest was at school on a Monday. He had fifteen cents 
which he had brought back from home to pay for his breakfast. 
On his return he found one of his comrades who had a fine 
turkey's foot. When his comrade said to him to come and see, 
he ran up. His comrade, by a movement of his hand, was 
opening and closing the fingers like the fingers of a human 
hand. He stood amazed every time the four fingers opened 
and closed. How could the dead foot move? The comrade 
was shrewder than he, and when he saw Ernest's great enthu- 
siasm he put the turkey's foot back into his pocket. Ernest 
could stand it no longer. He begged his comrade to give him 
the dead foot. His comrade told him to be gone. " If you 
will not give it to me, will you sell it to me ? " He offered his 
comrade five cents for it, then ten cents, and then twenty 
cents. But the comrade demanded forty cents. After a few 
seconds he put fifteen cents into liis comrade's hand, and wrote 
out a note for twenty-five cents for the remainder. After a 
couple of minutes he knew the secret as well as his comrade. 
For a couple of minutes it amused him highly. But soon it 
amoBecl him no longer. Sadness and regret came, and then 
bitterness and anpjer. After a few minutes lie seized tlie tur- 
key's foot and threw it over the wall, so as never to see it any 
more. Tlie recollection of this often comes baitk to him. lie 
finds in himself again tlm child with the turkey's foot. And 
that turkey's ffH)t has often be(»n of great H(^rvioo to him. In 
the midst of a foolish action, he stops and says to himself, 
*• Will you always Ije the samel" 



(Hortibus,pp. 419-22.) 

A. 1. It was a holiday at the school. 2. The hammers 
were making a greater noise than all the rest. 3. They rose 
up to listen. 4. No one stopped at his door. 5. Are you 
packing your trunk 1 6. They will appear every fifteen 
minutes. 7. If he were to show the tip of his nose, I should 
close the door. 8. Are you going away 1 9. Let them go 
away too. 10. We are not waiting for the doctor, or the 
nurse. 11. The father came in circumspectly, the mother 
came in briskly, the little girl came in on tiptoe. 12. How 
long has it pained you? 13. On washing days the mother 
used to make hearth-cakes. 14. Is the platform in the college 
or in the open air? 15. I hear hurried steps. 16. Let us 
not go there. 17. There was no more room on the platform. 
18. They gazed affectionately on their child. 19. Please go 
and see who are there. 20. The colonel had a hat with a 
plume. 21. The speech of the sous-prefet was on a bit of 
paper rolled round his finger. 22. We could not hear a word 
of it. 23. It was only a monotonous hum. 24. The certifi- 
cate was pasted inside. 25. The principal's signature was 
there. 26. We saw the academic palm-wreath in the form 
of a head-piece. 27. Did you make a mistake in your Latin 
prose? 28, No, my paper was perfect. 29. Your paper was 
bristling with corrections. 30, Your paper contained {con- 
tenir) this frightful error — " hortibus." 31. The master 
underlined it three times with red ink. 32. The awful word 
was posted on the wall. 33. His lips moved, he called his 
mother. 34, Hortibus had vanished (s^Svanoiiir). 35. It was 
in the land of dreams. 36. Good-bye to Hortibus. 37. Both 
have come, 38. The winner received his book. 39. They put 
the wreath on his brow. 40. Are you better? 41. Yes, I am 
much better. 42. The open air, walks, and exercise will cure 
you, but above all no Latin prose. 

7?. Vacation is a word that smells as sweet as a bouquet of 
flowers ! The decorators are busy putting up the drapery. 
There are people everywhere, jostling one another (se houscu- 
ler) in the halls and stairways. A platform has been erected 
for the distribution of the prizes. But there is one little sick 


boy in the sick-ward who is awaiting some one. The doctor 
comes in great haste and goes away, and the nurse also. But 
they are not the ones the Httle patient is waiting for. He is 
awaiting some country-people — a man, a woman, and a young 
girl. There they come ! They enter the sick-ward. They 
clasp his hands and embrace him. They ask what is the 
matter with him. He had had a heavy feeling in his head 
since the Latin prose paper. But it would soon be gone. As 
they chatted, a murmur rose from the platform in the court. 
The father and little sister went down to it. The mother and 
little Tiennet (Stevey) stayed. She said to him that if he 
slept a little it would cure him. But how could he fall asleep, 
with the hubbub under the window ! The platform was full. 
The colonel was there, and the sous-pr^fet in his dress-coat, all 
embroidered with silver. There were so many prizes, — three 
piles of books and a mountain of wreaths ! The brass-band 
blared forth and everybody applauded. The sous-prdfet rose, 
but not a word was heard of his speech. Then a black gown 
arose with his sermon in his hand. He hummed away, and 
the mother fell asleep. Tiennet became impatient. Would 
he have the Latin prose prize? The beautiful, gilt-edged book 
was in the pile. But he could not see the winner's name. And 
he fell asleep too. He dreamed that he had made a frightful 
barbarism in his Tjatin prose, and that another had won the 
first prize. The awful word "hortibus" haunted him. It 
danced before him in a thousand forms (multiplid or en mille 
formes). It stuck out its tongue and made grimaces at him. 
But when Tiennet opened his eyes, there was no more *'horti- 
bu8." The father and little sister brought up the prize and 
laid it on the little sick boy's bed. The doctor came too, and 
said the l)oy was l>etter, the wreath on the brow had worked 
wonders, the open air would complete the cure, but, said he, 
** no Latin prose I " 


(Chagrin d'un vieux format, pp. 423-4.) 

A. I. Did YvcH not go to conduct the convicts? 2. 'i'ho 
convict was seventy at least. 3. Whom did you t^ike away 
with you? 4. Why did you enter into conversation with 
him 1 5. It was to pass the time. 6. They did not have bad 


faces. 7. Does he wear spectacles ? 8. People did not want 
anything to do with me. 9. He had stolen a carter's whip. 
10. He would not consent to listen to Yves. 11. The cage 
and the sparrow were his most' precious possessions. 12. He 
had tamed the sparrow and it knew his voice. 13. If he has 
to build a cage fit for the journey, he will procure wood. 14. 
He will paint it, so that it may be pretty. 15. Do you 
remember the very words of Yves? 16. He will eat coarse 
bread .like any other bird. 17. They embarked for the 
journey. 18. Will that be of any use to him? 19. You 
must take it with you. 20. Big tears run down his cheeks. 
21. The cage door opened. 22. Was the bird fiightened? 
23. The poor bird struggled and died. 24. It was carried 
away in the wake of the ship. 25. He applied to me. 26. That 
would never occur to him. 27. We staid silent in our place. 
28. Did you not feel dreadfully alone? 29. Tears dimmed their 
sight. 30. Did they laugh to see the old man weep? 31. 
Will you not keep the cage ? 32. This cage was made for the 
little bird. 33. He wished to leave me this legacy. 34. We 
did not wish to pain the old man. 35. He seemed to despise 
the thing. 

B. The transport-ship was about to sail for New Caledonia, 
and Yves was taking some convicts to it with his gunboat. 
Amongst the convicts was an old man who had a sparrow in 
a cage. He had been arrested for the fifth or sixth time. He 
had to eat and he had no trade, and so (par consequent) he 
had stolen a bag of potatoes. He said they might have let 
him die in France instead of sending him away off there. 
He had obtained permission to take away his sparrow. And 
then h- had got wood and old wire and green paint, and 
he had made a cage for the sparrow. The sparrow had only 
the dark-coloured bread of the prisons to eat, but he seemed 
happy, and hopped about like any other bird. But during 
the passage to the transport-ship the bird flew away and fell 
into the sea. It was a moment of sorrow for the convict. 
He saw his bird struggle and die, and could do nothing for it. 
The first impulse was to ask for help, but the impulse was 
arrested by the consciousness of his personal degradation. 
Nobody would have pity on his sparrow ; nobody would listen 
to his request. Who would stop the ship to pick up again a 


convict's drowning bird ! Then he watched the poor little 
body grow more distant on the sea foam, and he felt himself 
very much alone. The bird was no longer in the cage, and so 
he handed it to Yves, who had listened to his story. And 
Yves, not wishing to seem to despise the thing which had cost 
the old convict so much work, accepted the gift. 


(L'Avare, pp. 425-7.) 

Harpagon is a miser. Val^re is his steward, and Maitre 
Jacques is his cook and coachman. The miser is going to 
give a supper, and has invited eight or ten people. He wishes 
good cheer, but does not wish to give much money. He thinks 
that a clever man can make good cheer with little money. 
Valere, the steward, says the same thing. Ten people have been 
invited, but the miser says that if there is enough to eat for 
eight, there will be plenty for ten. There is nothing more hurt- 
ful to men than to eat to excess. Frugality must rule in the 
repasts we give, and one must remember the maxim, " We 
should eat to live, and not live to eat." Harpagon will have 
these words cut in letters of gold on his mantel-piece. Maitre 
Jacques will not fill the table with soups, entries and roasts. 
but with those things of which people eat sparingly. Then 
the mi.ser addre.sses the coachman, tells him to clean the 
carriage, and have the horses ready to drive to the fair. Bui 
Harpagon makes the poor brutes observe such strict fasting 
that they cannot walk. Poor Maitre Jac<|ues has pity on his 
neighbour. It breaks his heart to see his horses suffer. They 
cannot drag themselves along, and ho has not the heart to 
whip them. 


(Waterloo, pp. 428.;n). 

A. 1. There were thi-eo tliousand five hundred of us. 2. 
The liglit ciivalry wan supporting them. 3. Wo did not 
wear helraetH. 4. The cavalry deHc<»nd(!d like a batU^ring- 
ram of bronze, so to Kp(»ak. 5. A cloud of grape-shot l)urst 
at their right. 6. Do you hear that mighty stamping? 7. 


Nothing like it will ever be seen. 8. Murat had been at the 
taking of the redoubt of the Moskowa, but he was lacking at 
Waterloo. 9. Something like these stories appears in the 
epics of another age. 10. The infantry was taking aim at the 
cavalry. 11. The English listened to that tide rising. 12. 
Three thousand shouted, "Long live the Emperor." 13. There 
was an awful noise like that of an earthquake. 14. We have 
just noticed a ditch. 15. The second rank forced the first 
into the gulf. 16. The horses overturned and crushed the 
riders. 17. There was no way of retreat. 18. Fifteen hun- 
dred men were buried there. 19. It was a grave into which 
many other dead bodies were thrown on the day after the 
battle. 20. Did he examine the ground? 21. He asked a 
question of the peasant. 22. He was not warned by the 
peasant. 23. Napoleon's end came from a peasant's shake of 
the head. 24. It is time for Napoleon to fall. 25. Napoleon 
by himself counts for more than all others. 26. The moral 
order, like the material order, depends on principles. 

B. There were eleven hundred and ninety -seven of them, 
and they had behind them one hundred and eighty lancers. 
At nine o'clock the bugles sounded and all the bands played. 
They came and took their place in the second line, where 
they had two iron wings, Kellermann on the left and Milhaud 
on the right. Then was seen a great sight. All that cavalry 
began to move. Like one man it came down the hill of la 
Belle- Alliance, disappeared in the valley and, reappearing on 
the other side, ascended the dreadful slope of Mont-Saint- 
Jean. There were two columns of them. Like two great 
serpents of steel they stretched out towards the plateau. 
Nothing like it was ever seen. The mass had become a 
monster. Through a great smoke you could see a pell-mell 
of helmets, swords, and of the rumps of horses, and above them 
the cuirasses, like the scales on the hydra. It was like a 
vision of Titans climbing Olympus. Twenty-six battalions of 
infantry were waiting for the twenty-six squadrons of cavalry. 
The infantry could not see the cavalry, but it could hear the 
noise of the horses, the rattle of the armour and the clanking 
of the swords. Then suddenly the helmets, the trumpeters, 
the standards and the horses appeared on the crest of the 
plateau. The cuirassiers arrived at the crest, and suddenly 


they saw between themselves and the English the hollow road 
of Ohain. It was a frightful ravine, two fathoms deep. 
Horses and riders fell into that grave and crushed one 
another. When the abyss was full of men and horses, the 
others marched on them and passed over. Napoleon did not 
see this ravine when he ordered the charge, and the peasant 
of whom he asked the question replied that there was no 
hollow road. Why was it not possible that Napoleon should 
win the battle ? Because a new series of facts was preparing. 
The moment had come for that man to fall. His weight was 
disturbing the equilibrium of human destiny. Reeking blood, 
cemeteries, mothers' tears were complaining. Napoleon's fall 
was settled. 



a [a], 3 sg. pres. indie, avoir. 

k [a], to, towards, at, for, in, into, 
around, by, with, from ; — votre 
vwntre, by your watch. 

abaisser [abese], to lower ; s' — , to 
lower one's self, fall, sink, be 

abandonner [aba done], to aban- 
don, forsake. 

abattre [abatr], to throw down, 
knock down, cast down, dis- 
hearten ; abattu, p.p., disheart- 
ened, discouraged, depressed. 

abec6daire [abesede : r], ni. , primer, 

abime [abi:m], m., abyss. 

abondamment [abodama], abun- 

abondant [aboda], abundant. 

abord (d') [d abo:r], at first, first 
(of all), at the outset. 

abreuver [abrceve], to water, fill, 

abri [abri], m. , shelter, cover ; d 
V — de, in the shelter of. 

abriter [abrite], to shelter, shield. 

absorber [apsorbe], to absorb, en- 

absurde [apsyrd], absurd. 

abuser [abyze], to make a bad use 
(of, de\ abuse. 

academique [akademik], academic. 

accent [aksa], m., accent, tone. 

accepter [aksepte], to accept. 

accident [aksida], m., accident, 

acclimater [aklimate], to acclima- 
tize ; s' — , to become acclima- 

accompag^er [akopape], to ac- 

accorder [akorde], to grant, con- 

accoster [akoste], to come along- 
side (nav. ). 

accoupler [akuple], to couple, 

accourir [akuriir], § 164, to run or 
hasten up ; run or hasten to 
one's aid. 

accourut [akury], 3 sg. p. def. 

accoutumer [akutyme], to accus- 
tom, habituate. 

accusateur [akyzatoe:r], accusing. 

accuser [akyze], to accuse, blame, 

achat [aja], m., purchase. 

acheter [ajte], § 158, to buy, pur- 

acheminer (s') [s ajamine], to take 
one's way, set out. 

achever [ajve], § 158, to finish, 
complete ; — de + infin., to 

acier [asje], m., steel. 

acquerir [akeriir], § 162, to ac- 

acquis [aki], p.p. acquirir. 

acteur [aktoeir], m., actor. 

action [aksjo], f. , action. 

actuellement [akti{elma], now, at 
this very time. 

addition [adisjo], f. , bill, reckoning. 

adieu [adj0], m., good-bye, fare- 

adjurer [adsyre], to adjure, be- 

admettre [admetr], § 198, to admit. 




admirablement [admirablama], ad- 

admirer [admire], to admire. 

admission [admisj5], f., admit- 

adosser (s') [s adose], to lean one's 
back (against, d, contre). 

adresse [adres], f., address, skill, 

adresser [adrese], to address; 
s' — , to address one's self, be 
addressed or directed, apply, 
have recourse. 

adversaire [ adverse :r], m,, ad- 
versary, opponent. 

afifaire [afe:r], f., affair, business, 
matter; pi., things, business. 

affectueux [afektii0], affectionate. 

affiche [afi j], f . , placard, poster. 

afficher [ afije ], to post up. 

affliger [aflise], § 156; to afflict, 
vex, grieve ; «' — , to grieve, be 
troubled, be soriowful, fret. 

affreux [afr0], fri^ntful, horrible. 

afin de [af? tlo^ + infin., in order to. 

afin que [af?"!;o], ii\ order that, 
that (takes subjunctive). 

Age [0:3], m., age, century, time ; 
en — de, of an age to ; qud — 
a-t-il?, how old is he? 

Ag^ [], aged, old. 

agile [asil], nimble, swift. 

agfir [ajiir], to act, operate, work, 
move, manage. 

agiter (s') [s asito], to stir, move, 
DC or grow restlcHS. 

agneau [ajio], m., lamb. 

ag^^able [ agruabl ], agreeable, 

ah I [a or «:], alj !, hah !, oh ! 

aije), 1 Hg. prcH, in<l. an,ir. 

aide le:d], m,, heli)cr; ~de camp^ 

aider [cdo {, to aid, help, ansist. 

aie [e], 1 Mg. proii. subj. and 2 8g. 
impve. niunr. 

aigu [egy], acute; ihrill, pene- 

aaefcl], f.. wing. 

aimable [cniublj, kind, amiable. 

aimer [erne], to love, like ; — mieuXj 
to prefer. 

aine [one], eldest. 

ainsi [esi], thus, so ; — (2i(€, as, 
just as ; 2^our — dire, so to say. 

air [e:r], ra. , air, atmosphere ; air, 
look, appearance ; d /' — , en V — , 
in the air; le grand — , the open 
air ; en plein — , in the open air ; 
avoir V — de, to seem to. 

airain [ers], m. , brass, bronze. 

aise [eiz], f., gladness ; ease, con- 
venience ; d ton — , comfortably, 
at your ease, just as you like, 
suit 5'ourself. 

aise [], easy. 

aisement [e.^ema], easily. 

ait [e], ,S sg. pres. subj. avoir. 

ajouter [asute], to add. 

Albret (d') [d albre]; Henri -— , 
fatlier of Henry IV. of France. 

Allah [alia], m., Allah. 

allemand [almd], adj., German; 
r — , m. , (Jerman (the language). 

aller [ale], $5 160, to go ; — + inhn. , 
to go to, go and ; // — de hon caeur, 
to go at (a thing) with spirit ; 
s'en — , to go away, depart, set 
out ; allez-voua-en, go away ; 
qu'elle .s'en aille!, let her go 
(away) ! ; allonsfy come !, cour- 
age !, up !, arise ! ; — d la ren- 
contre de, to go to meet ; — cher- 
chtr, go for, go and get ; — 
trouver, go and find, go to. 

allonger [uTjsc], § b'')6, U> lengthen, 
slietch out ; — an coup^ to deal 
or administer a blow; «' — , to 
stretch out, extend. 

allumer [ulyme], to light. 

alors lal.):r], then. 

Alsace lulzas], n. pr. f. , Alsatia. 

alternatif [altematif], alt(!rnate, 
ulln Mating. 

amadou [amadn], ni., tinder, 
punk ; hahineH d* — , waI lips (of 

ambition [dbisjr)], f., ambition. 

Anie |<i:mi|, f. , houI, hcait. 

amener [amne], § ir>8, to bring, 



americain [amerike], American. 

amertume [amertym], f., bitter- 

ami [ami], m., friend; won — , 
my good fellow. 

amie [ami], f., friend, loved one. 

amical [amikal], friendly. 

amiraute [amirote], f., admiralty. 

amitie [amitje], f., friendship, 

amour [amu:r], m. in sing, and 
f . in' pi. , love, affection ; un — 
de petite chevre, a dear little 

amoureux [amur0], enamoured, in 
love ; — d, la folie, madly in 

amusant [amyza], amusing. 

amusement [amy zma], m., amuse- 

amuser [amyze], to amuse ; s' — , 
to amuse or enjoy one's self, 

an [a], m., year; avoir quarante 
— s, to be forty years old, forty 
years of age ; le jour de VAn, 
New Year's day. 

ancien [asjs], ancient, old; former, 
un — , m. , an ancient. 

ane [a:n], m., ass, donkey. 

anecdote [anegdot], f., anecdote. 

Angelus [a.^elys], m., Angelus (a 
prayer in honour of the Incarna- 
tion), ringing bell for ditto. 

anglais [dgle], adj. , English ; n. m. , 
Englishman ; l' — , m. , English. 

anglaise [ogle 13], f., running- 
hand (of writing). 

angle [aigl], m., angle, corner, 

animal [animal], m., animal, beast. 

animer (s') [s anime], to become 
animated, become lively. 

anneau [ano], m., ring. 

annee [ane], f. , year, twelvemonth ; 
r — derviere, last year. 

annoncer [anose], § 156, to an- 
nounce, usher in ; s' — , to an- 
nounce one's self, be indicated, 
be evident. 

annotation [anotasjo], f., annota- 
tion, note. 

antichambre [atijaibr], f., ante- 

antique [atik], ancient. 

aout [u], m., August. 

apercevoir [apersavwair], § 213, 
to perceive, see, observe, notice ; 
.s — , ditto. 

aper^oit [aperswa], 3 sg. pres. in- 
die, apercevoir. 

aper^u [apersy], p.p. apercevoir. 

aper^ut [apersy], 3 sg. p. def. 

apotre [apo:tr], m., apostle. 

apparaitre [apareitr], § 188, to 

appartement[apart8mo],m. , apart- 
ments, suite of rooms. 

appartenir [apartaniir], § 177, to 
belong (to, a). 

appel [apel], m., call, 

appeler [aple], § 158, to call ; call 
in, summon ; name ; «' — , to be 
called, named ; comment s'ap- 
pelle-t-il ?, what is his name ? ; il 
s'appelle Jean Bart, his name is 
Jean Bart. 

applaudir [aplodiir], to applaud, 
clap (the hands). 

appliquer [aplike], to apply ; «' — , 
to apply one's self, work, set to 
work, take pains. 

apporter [aporte], to bring (to, d). 

apprendre [apra:dr], § 202, to 
learn ; teach. 

apprenti [aprdti], m., apprentice. 

appreter [aprete], to prepare, get 

apprivoiser [aprivwaze], to tame 

approche [aproj], f., approach. 

approcher [aproje], intr., to ap- 
proach, draw near; — de, ditto; 
6-' — , to approach, draw near (to, 

appuyer [apqije], § 157, to prop, 
support, lean, rest, press on ; 
appuye, p.p., leaning or sup- 
ported (on, d) ; s' — , to support 
one's self, lean. 

apres [apre], after, next (to) ; adv., 
afterwards, after. 



apres-demain [apre dme], the day 
after to-morrow. 

apres-midi [apre raidi], m. f. , after- 

aquilon [akilo], m., north-wind. 

arabe [arab], Arabian ; Arabe, m,, 
(an) Arabian. 

Arabic [arabi], f., Arabia. 

arbre [arbr], m., tree. 

arbuste [arbyst], m., shrub. 

Arc de Trioraphe [ark da trioif], 
name of an arch in Paris. 

ar^on [arso], m., saddle-bow. 

ardent [arda], fiery, eager, intense. 

ardeur [ardceir], f., heat, burning 

argent [arsa], m., silver, money. 

argument [argyma], m. , argument. 

arithmetique [aritmetik], f., arith- 

arme [arm], f. , arm, weapon ; aux 
— s ! to arms ! 

arm^e [arme], f., army. 

armer [arme], to arm, equip, fit 
out, provide ; «' — , to arm, fort- 
ify, secure one's self. 

armoire [armwair], f., cupboard, 

Arnault [arno], French author, b. 
17W), d. 1834. 

arracher [m aje], to pull out, snatch 
(from), extmct (a tooth). 

arranger [arose], § 156, to arrange. 

arrftter [arete], to stop, delay, 
Mtay, check, arrest ; «' — , lo 
iitop, pause, give heed (to, ci); 
du iiiDiule. arrfiU, {MiopU^ standing. 

arriire [arje:r], m., back part; 
f«— , l)ac;k( wards). 

arriver [ariv*-], to arrive (at, tk, 
r/a/M, Hur) ; come, cumo to, come 
up ; happen, occur ; les voitd qui 

arroser (arow], to Mprinkln, wat<T 

(a V ,.|c,.). 

art; I, m., arti- 

artjciii'.i |.iiiikylo], to, 

artiUerie (artijri], f., artillory. 
AS [a], 2 Kg. pret. India avoir. 

ascension [asasjo], f. , ascension; 
la fSte de V Ascension, Ascension 

assassiner [asasine], to assassin- 
ate, murder. , 

asseoir(s') [s aswa:r], § 215, to sit 
down, seat one's self, be seated. 

asseyant(s') [s aseja], pres. part. 

s asseoir. 

assez [ase], enough, sufficiently ; 

pretty, rather, quite, very ; — 

hon, good enough. 
assied(s') [s asje], 3 sg. pres. indie. 

s asseoi7\ 

assiette [asjet], f. , plate. 

assis [asi], p.p. s^ asseoir , seated, 

assistant [asista], m., person pres- 
ent, bystander. 

assister [asiste], to be present (at, 
(*), look upon. 

assit(s') [s asi], 3 sg. past def. 

associe [asosje], m., partner. 

assommer [asome], to knock down, 
beat to death. 

assomption [asopsjo], f., assump- 
tion ; la fSte de I Assomption, As- 
sumption day. 

assujettir [asysetiir], to subdue, 
enthral, subject. 

assurer [asyre], to assure. 

astracan [astrakd], astrakhan (a 
kind of fur). 

attacher [ataje], to fasten, tic, 
make fast. 

attendre [atdulr], §210, to wait ; 
wait foi-, expect. 

attentif fa to tit], attentive. 

attention IntdsjoJ, f., attention : 
foire — , to pay attention. 

attentivement [atdtivmcl], atttui- 

attestation [atestiisjo], f., eertifi- 

ntiM mI (atira!j], m., apparatus, 

|) iiaphci'iialia. 
attirci I III ire], to attract, draw, 
attrait [atre], m., attraction, 

au [oj, contr. <jf ii + fe. 



aube [oib], f., dawn. 

aubepine [obepin], f. , hawthorn. 

auberge [obers], f., inn. 

aubergiste [obersist], m., inn- 

aucun [okce], any, no ; ne . . . — , 
no, none, no one. 

au-dessus [odsy], above; — de, 

audience [odja:s], f., audience, 

Augusta [ogyst], m., Augustus. 

aujourd'hui [osurdqi], to-day, now ; 

— en huit, a week from to-day. 
auparavant [oparava], adv., be- 

aupres de [opre da], into the pres- 
ence of, to. 
auquel [okel], contr. of A -J- lequel. 
aura [ora], 3 sg. fut. avoir. 
aurai [ore], 1 sg. fut. avoir. 
auraient [ore], 3 pi. condl. avoir ; 

— e.u (obs. form), would have, 
aurais [ore], 1 sg,^ condl. avoir. 
aurait [ore], 3 sg. condl. avoir. 
auras [ora], 2 sg. fut. indie, avoir. 
aurez [ore], 2 pi. fut. avoir. 
auriez [orje], 2 pi. condl. avoir. 
auront [oro], 3 pi. fut. avoir. 
ausculter [oskylte], to auscultate, 

sound (lungs, etc.). 
aussi [osi], too, also, likewise ; as 
(in comparison) ; — bien, besides ; 

— hien que, as well as. 
aussitot [osito], immediately, forth- 
with, at once. 

austere [osteir], austere, severe, 

autant [ota], as or so much, as or 
so many ; — de, ditto ; d' — plus, 
the more so ; bien — , quite as 

automne [oton], m., autumn; 
en — , in autumn. 

autour de [otu : r da], prep. , around, 

autre [otr], other ; les — s, others, 
the others, other people ; (/' — s, 
others ; run et V— , both ; les 
uns les — s, one another, both, 
all ; nous — s Frangais, we 

Frenchmen; bien — chose, some- 
thing very different. 

autrefois [otrofwa], formerly, once. 

autrement [otrama], otherwise ; 
— encoi'n4es que toi, with horns 
very different from yours. 

aux [o], contr. of a + les. 

avaient [ave], 3 pi. impf. indie. 

avait [ave], 3 sg. impf. indie. 

avance [ava : s], f . , advance ;par—, 

avancer [avase], § 156, to advance, 
forward ; s' — , to advance, move 
forward ; avance, advanced ; 

avant [ava], before ; en — , for- 
ward ; la tete en — , head first, 
head foremost ; — de, before. 

avant que [ava ko], conj. -f- subj., 

avare [ava:r], m., miser; VAvare, 
a comedy by Moliere. 

avec [avek], with ; — le temps 
quil fait, in such weather as 

avenir [avniir], m., future. 

aventure [avatyir], f., adventure; 
d' — , by chance. 

aventurer (s') [s avatyre], to ven- 

avenue [avny], f . , avenue. 

avertir [avertiir], to warn, in- 
form ; averti, warned, put on 
one's guard. 

avez [ave], 2sg. pres. indie, avoir. 

aviser [avize], to consider, take 

avoir [avwair], § 154, to have; ob- 
tain, receive, get; y — , impers., 
il y a, there is, there are ; il y 
avait, there was, etc. ; ily a huit 
jours, a week ago ; ilyeut, there 
was, etc. ; il eut le moulin, he 
obtained, received, the mill; 
cet enfant a quelque chose, there 
is something the matter with 
that child ; qu'est-ce que vous 
avez ?, what is the matter with 
you t ; il a dix ans, he is ten 



years old, ten years of age; votis 
n'avez qiCd parler, you have only 
to speak ; — raison, to be (in the) 
right ; en — d, be angry with. 

avons [avo], 1 pi. pres. indie. 

avouer [avwe], to confess, declare, 
avow, acknowledge. 

avril [avril], m., April. 

ayant [eja], pres. part, avoir. 

ayez [ejc], 2 pi. impve. avoir. 

ayons [ejo], 1 pi. pres. subj. avoir. 


babine [babin], f., lip (of animals) ; 
— 8 (Vamadou, red lips. 

babiole [babjol], 1, toy, trinket. 

bah I [bo], pooh ! pshaw ! 

baigner [bejie], tr. to bathe, lave; 
«e — , to bathe (intr.). 

baiser [beze], to kiss. 

baiser [beze], m., kiss. 

baisser [besej, to lower, let down, 
hang (down) ; — la tite, bow 
down, hang one's head ; se — , 
to stoop down, stoop. 

balancer [baldse], § 156, to balance, 
swing, wave; »€ — , intr., to 
swing, rock, sway. 

banane [banan], f., banana. 

banc [Ikj], ra., bench, seat. 

bander [iMlde], to bind up. 

banque [J)<l:k], f., bank. 

banquier [Ixlkje], m., banker. 

barbarisme [barbarism], m., bar- 

barbiche [barbij], f., tuft of beard, 
tufte<l l>eard. 

barrer [bcire], to bar, obstruct, 

Bart (Jean) (sfl hair], famous 
French Muaman, b. at Dunkirk 
16r>l,d. 1702. 

bas [^Ki], low ; Idi — , over there, 
yomler ; toiU — , in an under- 
tone, to one's Holf, Hoftly, 
Niluntly; *n — , below, at the 
bottom, down (below), down 
vtaim ; iVen — , from dowrj Sta- 

Bas-Canada [ba kanada], m., 
Lower Canada. 

Bastille [bastiij], f., Bastile. 

bataille [bataij], f., battle. 

bataillon [batajo], m., battalion, 

bateau [bato], m., boat; se pro- 
mener en — , to go for a boat- 
ride, row, sail (in a boat). 

batiment [botima], m., buildmg, 
edifice ; ship, vessel. 

batir [batiir], to build. 

baton [bato], m., stick; stroke 
(in learning to write) ; coup de — , 
blow with a stick. 

batterie [batri], f. , battery (milit. ). 

battre [batr], § 180, to beat, strike; 
thresh ; — des mains, clap the 
hands ; — le briquet, to strike a 
light with flint and steel ; hattu, 
beaten, wrought ; m — , to fight; 
bntiant, swinging, swinging open, 

bavarder [bavarde], to babble, 
prattle, gossip. 

b^ant [bea], gaping. 

beau, bel, belle, pi. beaux, belles 
[ho, hel, bel, bo, bel], beautiful, 
handsome, fine ; au — milieu, in 
the very midst ; il/ait — (ternps), 
it is fine. 

beaucoup [boku], much, a great 
deal, very nuich, many, very 
many, a great many ; — de, 

Bee [bek], proper name. 

b^cher [beje], to dig, delve. 

becqueter [l»ekte], § 158, to peck. 

becqu6e [bekc], f., billful. 

bel |bel|, »rv. hrau. 

holier I hcljc], m., ram; battering- 

belle (bel], see hi'tiii. 

benediction [benudiksju], f., bene- 

b^nir (iMiniir], § 163, to bless. 

ber<;ant [berHtll], soothing, som- 

bercer [berso], § 166, to rock, lull 
to sltiup. 



berger [berse], m. , shepherd ; 
chien de — , shepherd's dog. 

Berlin [berle], m., Berlin. 

besoin [baswe], m., need, neces- 
sity ; avoir — de, to need, be in 
need of ; vous avez — que je voiis 
aide, you need my help ; aussi 
hien nous fera-t-il — , then be- 
sides we shall need him. 

bete [be:t], f., beast, brute, animal. 

bete [belt], stupid. 

betise [betiiz], f., stupidity, folly. 

bibliotheque [bibliote i k],f . , library. 

bicyclette [bisikkt], f., bicycle. 

bien [bjs], well, very, indeed, real- 
ly, I am sure, surely, of course, 
quite ; — plus, much more ; fai 

— le temps, I have plenty of time ; 
Mre — , to be well, be well off, be 
comfortable, be happy ; — que 
(+ subj.), though, although; ou 
— , or indeed, or on the contrary ; 

— de, much, a great deal of. 
bien [bje], m., good. 

biens [bje], m. pi., estate, prop- 
erty, goods, wealth, possessions ; 

bientot [bje to], soon, shortly, pre- 

bienvenu [bjevny], adj., welcome; 
eti'e — , to be welcome. 

billet [bije], m. , note, letter ; pro- 
missory note; ticket; — d'entrde, 
ticket (of admission). 

bique [bik], f., she-goat. 

bise [bi:z], f., north wind. 

bizarre [bizair], odd, singular, 

blanc [bla], white ; le — , n. m., 
the white. 

Blanche [bld:j], pr. n. f., Blanche. 

Blanquette [bldket], f., 'Whitey.' 

ble [ble], m. , wheat, wheat-field. 

bleme [ble:m], pale, pallid. 

blesser [blese], to wound. 

blessure [blesyir], f., wound. 

bleu [bl0], blue. 

bloquer [bloke], to blockade. 

Bliicher [ blykeir or blyjeir ], 
Prussian general, ally of Wel- 
lington at Waterloo. 

bCEuf [beef], m. , ox. 

boire [bwair], § 181, to drink ; don- 
ner pour — , to give a gratuity, a 
tip (coUoq. ). 

bois [bwa], m., wood(s), forest. 

bois de Boulogne [bwa da buloji], 
m., name of a park in the 
suburbs of Paris. 

boiserie [bwazri], f., wainscoting. 

boite [bwait], f., box. 

bon [b5], good ; kind ; sentir — , 
to smell sweet. 

Bonaparte [bonapart], (Napoleon) 

bonbon [bobo], m., bonbon, candy. 

bond [bo], m., bound, skip. 

bondissement [bodisma], m., 
bounding, leaping. 

bonheur [bonce: r], m., happiness; 
good fortune, (good) luck. 

bonjour [bosuir], m., good morn- 
ing, good day. 

bonne [bon], f., maid, servant, 

bonnet [bone], m., cap. 

bonsoir [boswair], m., good even- 

bont^ [bote], f . , goodness ; — 
divine !, goodness gracious ! 

bord [bo:r], m., shore, bank, 
margin, edge ; board (nav. ) ; 
d, — de, on board of. 

borner [borne], to limit ; se — , to 
be limited. 

botte [bot], f. , boot. 

botter [bote], to furnish with boots; 
hotte, booted, with boots on ; "Z/g 
CJiat Botte," "Puss in Boots;" se 
— , to put on one's boots. 

bouc [buk], m., he-goat. 

bouche [buj], f. , mouth ; a la — , 
in one's mouth. 

boucher [buje], to stop, stop up. 

boue [bu], f., mud, mire. 

bouger [buse], § 156, intr., to stir, 

boulanger [bula.^e], ro., baker. 

bouleverser [bulverse], to over- 
throw, overturn, upset, agitate. 

bouquet [buke], m., nosegay, 



bourdonner [burdone], to buzz, 

bourrer [bure], to stuff, fill, 
bousculade [buskylad], f. , jostling, 

hustling, confusion. 
bout [bu], m., end, tip; edge, 

extremity ; an — de, at the end 

boutique [butik], f., shop, 
branche [bra:|], f., branch, 
brandir [bradiir], to brandish, 
bras [bra], m., arm. 
brave [bra: v], brave, gallant ; good, 

kind, honest, worthy, 
bravement [bravma], bravely, 

braver [brave], to defy, brave, 
br^che [brej], f., breach, 
brigade [brigad], f., brigade, 
brigand [briga], m., brigand, 

briller [brije], to shine, sparkle. 
brin [br?], m., blade, sprig. 
briquet [brike], m., steel (for strik- 
ing a light) ; battre k — , to 

strike a light. 
brise [bri:z], f., breeze, 
briser [brize], to break, break or 

dash to pieces, shatter. 
broder [brode], to embroider ; 

hrrnU, p. part., embroidered. 
brodequin [brodkf], m., (laced) 

bronze [brj:/], m., bronze, 
brosse (br.)H], f. , brusli, 
brosser Ibrase], to brush, 
brouillard [brujair], m., fog, mist, 

brouiller [bruje], to confuse; be- 
dim (tlir Might). 

broussailIcs(bru8ajj],f. pl.,bru8h- 

WO(mI, bushoM. 

brouter I brute], to browse. 

broycr [brwoje], 1 157, to grind, 
criiNh to pieces. 

bruit [bri|i], m., noiso, sound; 
famu, n!|nitntif)ri ', faire lavtdf. — , 
to attnu:t ho inu<)i attention. 

brAlant [brvlil], burning hot. 

bfAter [brylu], to burn. 

bmme [brym], f., fog, mist, haze. 

brusque [brysk], blunt. 

brusquement [bryskma], bluntly, 
roughly, abruptly ; suddenly. 

brutalement [bry talma], brutally, 

bruy ere[bry j e : r] , f . , heath, heather. 

bu [by], p. part, boire. 

buissiere [bijisjeir], f., thicket, 

buisson [bqiso], m., bush, thicket. 

bureau [byro], m., office. 

but [byt or by], object, end, goal ; 
arriver a son — , attain his ob- 

buvais [byve], 1 sg. impf. indie. 


^a [sa], (for cela) that. 

^'a et^ [s a ete], for fa or ce a 4t4. 

^k [sa], here ; — et Id, here and 
there, up and down, hither and 

cabinet [kabine], m., cabinet ; 
office, private office. 

cabrer (se) [sa kabre], intr. to 

cachemire [kajnii:r], m., cash- 

cacher [kaje], to hide, conceal ; 
se — , to hide one's self. 

cadavre [kadaivr], m., corpse, 
dead body. 

cadeau [kado], m., present, gift. 

caf^ I kah;], m. , coffee ; coffee-house, 
rrstaurant, cafe. 

cage |ka:3], f., cage. 

cahier |kaje], m., noto-book, ex- 

caille [k<i:jl, f., ((uail. 

caillou [kaju], m., j)ebblo, stone. 

caissier |l<esj(>l, ni., (uishior. 

calculer [kalkylej, to calculate, 

calice j kalis], m., chalice, cup; 

c41in [kdl?], adj., wheedling, coax- 

calme |kalm], m., stillness, calm. 

calme Ikalm], (lalm, still. 

calmer [kulmej, to calm. 



calotte [kalot], f. , cap, skull-cap. 

camarade [kamarad], m., f., com- 
rade, playmate. 

camp [ka], m., camp. 

campagnard[kapajia:r], m., coun- 

campagne [kapap], f., country, 
fields ; d la — , in the country. 

campanule [kapanyl], f., campa- 
nula, bell-flower. 

Canada [kanada], m., Canada. 

canadien [kanadjs], Canadian. 

canard [kanair], m., duck. 

caniche [kanij], m., poodle. 

canif [kanif], m., penknife. 

canon [kano], m., cannon. 

canonniere [kanonje:r], f., gun- 

cantique [katik], m., hymn. 

cap [kap], head, obs. , except in de 
pied en — , from head to foot. 

capitaine [kapiten], m., captain. 

capitale [kapital], f. , capital letter. 

capiteux [kapit0], heady, intoxi- 

car [kar], for. 

caractfere [karaktEir], m., charac- 
ter, disposition, temper. 

caravane [karavan], f., caravan. 

caressant [karesa], kindly, gentle. 

caresse [kares], f., caress ; /aire 
mille — 8 d, qq., to overwhelm 
anyone with kindness, 

caresser [karese], to caress, stroke. 

cargaison [kargezo], f. , cargo. 

carotte [karot], f. , carrot. 

carre [kare], m., square. 

carrosse [karos], m., carriage, 

cas [ka], m., case. 

casaque [kazak], f., jacket. 

casque [kask], m., helmet. 

casser [ka : se], to break. 

Castille [kastiij], f., Castile. 

catastrophe [katastrof], f., catas- 

Caucase[koka:z], m., Caucasus. 

cauchemar [kojmair], m., night- 

cause [ko!z], f., cause; d — de, 
because of. 

causer [koze], to cause ; chat, talk ; 

— U7ie impression^ to make an 

causeur [kozoe:r], talkative, 
cavalerie [kavalri], f., cavalry; 

grosse — , heavy cavalry, 
cavalier [kavalje], m., horseman, 

rider, trooper. 
ce [sa], pron. , it, this, that ; c'est 

pourquoi, that is why ; cV.s< nouSy 

it is we ; ce sont eux, it is they ; 

ce qui, ce que, that which, which, 

ce, cet, cette, ces [s8, set, set, se], 

adj., this, that; ce . . . -Idy that 

c^ans [sea], here within, in this 

ceci [sasi], pron. , this, 
ceder [sede], § 158, to yield, give 

cela [sla], pron. , that ; — s'entendy 

that is evident ; of course. 
c^Iebrer [selebre], § 158, to cele- 
c^Ifebre [selebr], celebrated, 
celle [sel], see celui. 
celui, celle, ceux, celles [salqi, 

sel, s0, sel], this or that, this or 

that one ; the one, he, him ; 

— qui, the one who, he or him 

celui-ci [salqi si], celle-ci, ceux- 
ci, celles-ci, pron., this, this 
man, this one, the latter, he 

celui-lk, etc. [sQlqi la], pron. , that, 
that man, that one, the former, 

cent [sa], (a) hundred. 

centifeme [satjem], hundredth. 

centime [satim], m. , the hundredth 
part of a franc. 

centre [saitr], m., centre. 

cependant [sapada], yet, never- 
theless ; still, however, in the 
meantime, meanwhile; — que, 
while, whilst. 

cercle [serkl], m., circle. 

ceremonie[seremoni], f. , ceremony. 

cerise [sariiz], f,, chdrry. 



cerisier [sarizje], m., cherry-tree, 
certain [serte], certain. 
certes [sert], certainly, surely, 
cerveau [servo], m., brain, mind, 
cervelle [servel], f. , brains. 
cesser [sese], to cease, leave oflF; 

— de^ ditto. 
ces [se], see ce. 
cet [set], see ce. 
cette [set], f. of ce. 
ceux [s0], ni. pi. celid. 
chacun [jakofe], pron., each, each 

one, every one. 
chagrin [JagrsJ, ra., sorrow, grief; 

chaine [Jem], f., chain, 
chair [Je:r], f., flesh, meat; — d, 
pdtd, mince-meat ; ne faisant 
qu'une — , becoming only an in- 
distinguishable mass of flesh. 
chaire [jc:r], f., pulpit, desk (of a 

chaise [fe:z], f., chair, 
chaleur [jalce:r], f., heat, 
chambre [fcj:br], f., room ; Cham- 
hre ties lUpuUs, House of Parlia- 
chameau [Jamo], m. , camel, 
champ [la], m., field. 
Champs- tlys^es [[(V.z elize], m. 
pi., name of certain public gar- 
dens in Paris. 
chance [fn:«], f., chance, 
changcmentifosniri], m., change ; 
— de front, change of front, 
changer [frt.^e], § 156, to change, 
alt<;r, tranhform ; «e — , to 
change or tranaform one's self, 
change (intr). 
chanson [JflH^l, f., Bong. 
chant [\f\\, m., Hinging; crowing 

(of a «<H:k). 
chanter [ffltc], to sing ; chant, in- 
torn-, play, 
chantonnement [ Jfltonma ], m., 

huMiiniiig, Hinging, 
chapeau {JajK>l, m., hat. 
chapelier ( |ai>i»ljol, m. , hattor ; chez 
U —fUi or at tlio hattcr'a. 

chapelle [japel], f. , chapel, 
chapitre [japitr], m., chapter, 
chaque [[ak], each, every, 
charbonner [Jarbone], to write 

with charcoal, sketch, scrawl, 
charge [Jans], f., charge, load. 
charger [Jarje], § 156, to charge, 
commission, order, entrust ; se 
— , to undertake, 
charmant [Jarma], charming, 
charmer [jarme], to charm, de- 
light ; charmd de, charmed with, 
delighted with, 
chasse [[as], f. , chase, hunt, hunt- 
ing, hunting-party. 
chasser [jase], to chase, drive 

chasseur [jasoeir], m., light infan- 
try soldier, chasseur. 
chat [ ja], m. , cat ; ' 'Le Chat BotU,'' 

"Puss in Boots." 
chataigne [jatep], f., chestnut, 
chataignier [Jatepe], m. , chestnut- 
chMeau [fnto], ra., castle, palace. 
Chateaubriand [jotobrja], French 

writer, b. 1768, d. 1848. 
chaud [fo], warm, liot. 
chaud [jo], m. , heat, warmth ; il 
fait — , it is warm, hot (of 
weather, etc. ) ; avoir — , to be 
warm, hot (of living beings). 
chaumi^re [Jomjeir], f., thatched 

liousi', cottage, cot. 
chauss6e [Jose], f. , highway, main 

chaussures [Josyir], f. pi., shoes, 

chauve f Jojv], bald ; nn — , a bald 

chef[Jef], in., chief, commandi'r : 

— <r«'nradre, roar-admiral. 
chemin |f;tn»fl, m., way, road; 

(jrand — , main road, highway ; 

'_ de ffr, railway ; — faisaiU, 

on tUii wav ; en — , on the way. 
chcmin^e [fomine], f., fire-place; 

ch^ne I|e:nl, m., oak. 
chenille [J'>ni:j], f., caterpillar. 



cher [Je:r], dear; beloved; payer 
— , pay dear(ly) for, pay too 
much for. 

chercher [Jerje], to seek, search, 
look for; alter — , go for, go and 
get ; — CL, seek to, try to. 

chere [Jeir], f., cheer, entertain- 
ment ; /aire bonne — , to pro- 
vide good cheer, provide a good 

cherir [Jeriir], to cherish; cMri, 
beloved, cherished, dear. 

cheval [Javal], m., horse ; a — , 
on horseback. 

chevet [Jave], m., pillow, bolster, 
the head of a bed ; ^pee de — , 
see ^pSe. 

cheveu [fav^], m.,hair; chevetix^ 
pi., hair. 

chevre [jeivr], f., goat. 

chevreau [Javro], m., kid. 

chevrette [Javret], f., little goat. 

chez [Je], to, at, in, into (the 
house, shop, office, etc., of) ; 
with ; alter — le roi, to go to 
the king's (palace, court, etc. ) ; 
Us etaient — eux, they were at 
home ; — moi^ at my house, at 
home ; — vous, at your house, 
at home. 

chien [Jje], ra., dog ; — de herger, 
shepherd's dog ; — danois, 
Danish dog, great Dane. 

chiffon [Jifo], m. , rag ; strip, piece. 

chiffre [Jifr], m., figure, number. 

chim^re [Jime:r], f., chimaera (a 
fabulous beast of antiquity). 

chcEur [koeir], m., chorus. 

choisir [jwaziir], to choose. 

chocG [Jo:z], f., thing, affair, mat- 
ter; quel(jue — , m. pron., 
something ; quehjue — d'extrn- 
ordinaire, something extraordi- 
nary, unusual ; la cheiire a 
quelqne — , there is something 
the matter with the goat ; hien 
autre — , something very dif- 

chou [fu], m., cabbage. 

chute [JytJ, f., fall, downfall. 

-ci [si], see ce» 
Ciceron [sisero], Cicero. 

Cid[sid], ItCid, drama byCorneille. 
ciel, pi. cieux [sjel, sjp], m., 

heaven, heavens, sky. 
cimetiere [simtje:r], cemetery, m. 
cinq [se:k], five, 
cinquante [sgkait], fifty. 

cinquieme [sekjem], fifth. 

circonspect [sirk5spe(kt)], circum- 
spect, cautious. 

cirque [sirk], m., circus. 

cite [site], f., city. 

citoyen [sitwaje], m., citizen. 

civilement [sivilma], civilly, cour- 
teously, politely. 

civilisation [sivilizasjo], f., civil- 

clair [kleir], clear, bright, plain. 

clair [klsir], ni., light, clearness; 
— de tune, moonlight. 

clair [kle:r], clearly, plain(ly). 

clairon [klero], m. , clarion. 

clameur [klamojir], f., clamour, 

dasse [klais], f., class, recitation, 
lesson, class-room ; manquer la 
— , stay away from school, play 
truant ; /aire la — , give a lesson 
(to a class), teach (a class). 

clef[kle], f., key. 

cliquetis [klikti], m., rattle, click- 
ing, jingle. 

cloche [kloj],f., bell. 

clochette [klojet], f., (small) bell. 

clos [klo], p. part, clove, to close, 

clos [klo], m., enclosure, field. 

clouer [klue], to nail. 

cocher [koje], m. , coachman. 

coeur [k(B:r], m., heart, heartiness, 
courage, energy ; de (hon) — , 
heartily, fervently ; le — gros, 
with a heavy heart. 

coin [kws], m., corner. 

coincidence [kossidains], f., coin* 

colere [koleir], f. , anger; se met- 
ire en — , to get angry, be angry. 

collation [kolosjo], f., collation, 



college [kole: 3], m. , college, school. 

coUegne [kokg], m., colleague, 

coller [kole], to glue, paste. 

coUine [kolin], f., hill. 

colonel [kolonel], m., colonel. 

colonne [kolon], f. , column ; — 
dpaisHf, close column, in close 
marcliing order. 

colossal [kolosal], colossal, mighty. 

colosse [kolos], m. , colossus, giant ; 
chevaux — s, colossal or gigantic 

combat [koba], m., combat, fight. 

combattre [kobatr], § 180, to fight, 
do battle, 

combien [kobje], how much?, how 
many ? ; at what price ? ; how 
much, how many; — Stes-vous?, 
how many are there of you ? ; — 
serez-vous de gens d table F, how 
many (people) will there be of 
vou at table? ; — avez-vouspny^?, 
how much or what did you pay 
(for) ? 

combler [koble], to heap up ; fill, 
crown, complete; combl4, full to 

comique [komik], comical. 

commandature [komadatyrr], f., 
lu.'adijuarters (milit. ). 

commander [komode], to com- 
mand, order, V)id. 

COmme [kom], as, like ; as it were, 
as if ; as well a8 ; how ; how ! ; 
— void, as followH ; — il faut, 
in fine style, exactly right, as it 
Khould 1)0. 

commencement [komflsmfl], m., 
iH;giniiiiig, comtnuucutnent. 

commencer [komriHc], § 156, to 
iM'gin, commtnico (to, d, de). 

comment fk;)m<1], how; how?; 
how !, what ! - cela ?, how \h 
that ? ; — /aire pour n« pnn 
voter f, how in one to avoid 

OOmiDOde fk:)m:Kl], comfortiibh*. 

OOfttfflimication [k:nnyiiikfiHJ;lJ, f., 

compact lk.i|>akt], comiMict, dense. 

compagne [kopaji], f., companion; 

compagnie [kopajii], f., company. 

compagnon [kopapo], m., com- 
panion ; — de voyage, travelling- 

comparaison [koparezo], f., com- 

comparer [kopare], to compare. 

compartiment [ kopartima ], m. , 

compassion [kopasjo], f., compas- 
sion, pity. 

complet [kople], m., suit (of 
clothes) ; complement ; Stre au 
— , to be full. 

compliment [koplime], m., com- 

composer [kopoze], to compose, 
form, arrange ; se — , to be com- 
posed, consist (of, de). 

composition [kopozisjo], f., com- 

comprendre [kopraidr], § 202, to 
understand, comprehend ; in- 
clude ; /aire — , to explain. 

compter [k5te], to count, reckon ; 
intend, think ; be of import- 
ance ; il comptait plus, he was 
of more account. 

concentrer [kosutre], to concen- 

concert [kosEir], m., concert. 

Concorde [kokord], f. , concord ; 
place de la Concorde, name of a 
8quan< in Paris. 

condamnation [kodanasjo], f.,con- 
donuiatioii, sontonce. 

condamner [kudono], to condemn, 

condamn^ Ik-Mhinc"), m., convict. 

conduire fUxlipirj, § 185, to con- 
duct, lend, guide, drive, take, 

confiance [kofjriiH], f., confidence, 

t lllHf. 

confiseur [kufizooir], m., confec- 

confus |k5fyl, confused, indistinct. 

cong^ |kr»:^e|, m., holiday ; donner 
— d, to give a holiday to. 



conjurer [kosyre], to implore. 

connais [kone], 1 sg. pres. indie. 

connaissance [konesciis], f., ac- 
quaintance ; /aire — avec, be- 
come acquainted with. 

connaissez [konese], 2 pi. pres. 
indie, connaitre. 

connaissons [koneso], 1 pi. pres. 
indie, connaitre. 

connait [kone], 3 sg. pres. indie. 

connaitre [koneitr], § 188, to 
know, be acquainted with, un- 

conscience [kosja :s],'f. , conscience; 
consciousness; conscientiousness; 
je ferais — de, I should scruple 
to, I should think it a sin to. 

conseil [koseij], m., counsel, ad- 

conseiller [koseje], to advise, 

consentir [kosatiir], § 166, to con- 

conserver [koserve], to preserve, 

consigne [kosiji], f. , orders (milit. ), 

consister [kosiste], to consist. 

consoler [kosole], to console, solace, 
comfort ; se — , to console one's 
self (with, de). 

consterner [kosterne], to astound, 
dismay, amaze, terrify. 

construire [kostrqiir], § 185, to con- 

conte [koit], m., story, tale ; faire 
un — , tell a story. 

contempler [k Staple], to contem- 
plate, gaze on, survey. 

contenir [kotoniir], § 177, to con- 

content [koto], adj., content, satis- 
fied, pleased, gratified, happy. 

contentement [kotatsma], m., con- 
tentment, satisfaction. 

contenter [kotate], to satisfy. 

conter [kote], to relate, tell. 

continuer [kotinye], to continue 
(to, de), keep on, pursue. 

contraire [kotre : r], m. , contrary ; 
au — , on the contrary. 

contre [kotr], against, from. 

convaincu [koveky], convinced, 

convenable [kovanabl], suitable. 

convenir [k5v8ni:r], § 178, to suit, 
become, be fitting or appro- 

conversation [koversasjo], f., con- 

convoitise [kovwatiiz], f., covet- 
ousness, envy. 

copie [kopi], f. , copy ; exercise. 

coq [kok], m. , cock. 

coquin-e [kokf, kokin], rogue, 
wretch, scamp. 

corde [kord], f., cord, rope. 

cordon [kordo], m., cord, string; 
— de so7inett€, bell-pull, bell- 

corne [korn], f. , horn. 

Corneille [korneij], m., French 
dramatist, b. 1606, d. 1684. 

corps [ko:r], m. , body, form. 

corridor [koridoir], m., corridor, 

corsaire [korseir], m. , privateer. 

costume [kostym], m., costume, 

cote [kot], f. , coast, rib, side ; — d 
— , side by side. 

cot^ [kote], m., side, way ; d'un — , 
on one side ; de V autre — , on the 
other side ; de ce — , on this 
side ; de — , to one side, aside ; 
du — de, in the direction of, 
towards ; de son — , on his part, 
he too ; a — de, beside. 

cou [ku], m., neck. 

coucher [kuje], intr., to lie, lie 
down; set (of the sun); tr., to 
put to bed, lay down ; — en 
joue, take aim (at) ; se — , to go 
to bed, retire (to rest) ; etre 
conche, to be lying down. 

coucher [kuJe], m. , setting ; — du 
soleil, sunset. 

coulee [kule], f . , running-hand, 

couler [kule], to flow, run, trickle. 
I couleur [kulceir], f., colour. 



couleuvre [kuloe:^'T], t., snake. 

coup [ku], ni. , blow, stroke ; drink ; 
boire cinq ou six — s, to take five 
or six drinks or draughts ; — de 
poing, a blow with the fist ; — de 
pied, a kick ; d'un seul — , at a 
single stroke ; tout d — , all at 
once ; du — , at once, thereupon ; 
donner des — « de come, to hook, 
butt ; — de dent, bite ; donner 
des — 5 de fouet, to whip ; — de 
tonnerre, thunder-clap ; — de 
bdton, blow with a stick ; — de 
pistolet, pistol-shot ; de plusieurs 
— 8, in several places. 

coupable [kupabl], guilty, at fault, 

coupe [kup], f., cup, wine-cup. 

coupe-gorge [kup gor:^], m., a 
cut-throat place, a nest of 

couper [kupe], to cut. 

cour[ku:r], f., court ; yard, court- 
yard ; faire la — , pay court ; 
(jpns de la — , courtiers. 

courage [kura:.^], m., courage. 

courageux [kura30], brave. 

couramment [kurama], fluently. 

courber [kurlKi], to bend, bow. 

coureur [kuneir], m., runner; — 
de tjrandH chemiiiSy tramp, va- 

courir[kuri :r], § 164, to nin(about); 
hasten ; hunt after ; — leu nid.i, 
to hunt after birds' nosts, go 
birds' nesting. 

couronne [kuron], f., crown; 

couronner [kurono], to crown, 

course [kurHl, f., courso, tour, 
walk, round ; /aire utie — , take 
a walk, inako a round ; jrrendre 
«a — , to take one's way. 

court rku:rl, Mhort (ailj.); nhort 
(adv. ) ; lU trop — , too short, 
tcKi tightly. 

court (kuirj, 3 ag. pres. indie. 

courtiian (kurtiw'i], m., courtier. 

OOUru IkuryJ, p.p. rourir. 

counts [ kury ], 1 sg. past def. 

counit [kury], 3 sg. past def. 

cousin-e [kuzs, kuzin], cousin, 
couteau [kuto], m., knife, 
coiiter [kute], to cost. 
coutume [kut^'m], f., custom, 

couturifere [kutyrjeir], f., dress- 
couver [kuve], to brood, hatch ; 

couvant de rosily wistfully eying, 

gazing at, 
convert [kuveir], p. p. couvi-ir, 

covered ; cloudy, overcast ; with 

one's hat on. 
couvrir [kuvriir], § 176, to cover; 

se — , cover one's self, be covered, 
craindre [kre:dr], § 190, to fear, 

be afraid of. 
craie [kre], f., chalk, 
crainte [krlit], f., fear, 
cravate [kravat], f. , neckcloth, 
crayon [krejo], m., pencil, 
creature [kreatyir], f., creature. 
Crete [kre it], f,, crest, summit, 
creuser [kr0ze], to dig. 
creux [kr0], hollow ; chemin — , 

d(»e])-('ut road. 
crfeve-coBur [krev koe:r], m., heart- 
break, grief. 
crever [krovo], § 158, to burst; die, 

en |kri], m., cry, shout, outcry, 
cribler fkrible], to sift ; riddle, 
crier [ktie], to cry (out), shout, 

call (out), exclaim, 
crin Ikr?J, m., hair (of the mane 

and tail of the horse, etc.); 

crim, j)l. , hair, mane • plume 

(of a helmet), 
cristal [kriHtalJ, m., crystal, 
croire |krw(i:il, S 101, to believe ; 

think; mc. — , to believe or think 

one's self ; /aire — d, to make 

(one) Ixjlievo in. 
croiser [krwozo], to cross, coim 

iicroHH, meet. 
croftre jkrwoitr], § 102, to grow, 




crosse [kros], f . ; — de fusil, butt 

(-end) of a gun or musket. 
crouler [krule], to crumble, go to 

ruin, sink to ruin. 
croupe [krup], f. , croup, rump, 
croyant [ krwaja ], pres. part. 

croire ; — , m. , believer. 
croyez [krwaje], 2 pi. pres. indie. 

croyons [krwajo], 1 pi. indie, or 

impve. croire. 
cms [kry], 1 sg. past def. croire. 
crut [kry], 3 sg. past def. croire. 
cueillir [koejiir], § 165, to pick, 

pluck, gather. 
cuiller [kyjeir], f., spoon, 
cuir [ki{i:r], m., leather. 
cuirasse [ kqiras ], f., cuirass, 

cuirassier [ki^irasjo], m. , cuirassier, 
cuisinier [kijizinje], m., cook, 
cuisiniere [ki{izinje:r], f., cook, 
cuisse [ kqis ], £., thigh; leg, 

" drum-stick." 
cuivre [kqiivr], m., copper, brass ; 

d pleins — s, as loud as the band 

could play, 
culminant [kylmina], culminating, 
curieux [kyrj0], curious, odd. 
curiosite [kyriozite], f., curiosity. 
cytise [sitiiz], m., cytisus, bean- 
trefoil, laburnum. 


dame [dam], f . , lady, 
dangereux [dasrjzJ], dangerous, 
danois [danwa], Danish. 
dans [da], in, within, to, into, at, 

on, among, between ; — le 

temps, at the time. 
danse [da : s], f . , dance ; entrer en 

— , to begin to play, 
danser [dase], to dance. 
date [dat], f. , date ; de tongue — , 

long before. 
Daudet [dods], Alphonse Daudet, 

French novelist, b. at Nimos, 

1840, d. 1897. 
davantage [davatais], more; le 

docteur pas — , nor the doctor 


de [da], of, from, out of, for, with, 

in, on, by, at, to; H infin., 

to, at, for, in, etc. 

debarbouiller [debarbuje], to clean, 
wash (the face). 

debarrasser [debarase], to dis- 
encumber, rid ; se — , to free 
one's self, get rid (of, de). 

debattre (se) [sa debatr], § 180, to 

deborder [deborde], to overflow, 
run over. 

deboucher [debuje], to come out 
(on, siir), debouch. 

debout [ dabu ], adv. , upright, 

decapiter [dekapite], to behead. 

d^cembre [desaibr], m., Decem- 

dechirer [dejire], to tear (asunder), 

decide [deside], decided. 

decider [deside], to decide, deter- 
mine ; se — , to decide, resolve, 
make up one's mind. 

declarer [deklare], to declare. 

d^courager [dekurase], § 156, to 
discourage ; se — , to be discour- 
aged, give up (intr. ). 

d^couvnr [dekuvriir], § 176, to 
discover ; take off the hat. 

dedaigner [dedepe], to disdain. 

dedans [dado], adv., within, in- 
side ; in it, into it ; le — , les — , 
n. m. , the inside, interior ; en 
— , inside. 

defendre [defa:dr], § 210, to de- 
fend, protect (from, de) ; forbid ; 
se — , to defend one's self. 

defense [defais], f., defense, pro- 

d6fenseur [defa see : r], m. , defender, 

d^fier [defje], to defy, challenge ; 
je vous en d^Jie, I dare, defy, 
you to do it ; se — de, to mis- 
trust, distrust. 

degouter [degute], to disgust. 

degradation [degrade :sj 5], f., de- 

degre [dagre], m. , step ; degree. 



deguster [deeyste], to taste, enjoy 

the taste of. 
d^ja[de3a], already; d6jd,!, so soon! 
dejeuner [de30ne], m., breakfast; 

lunch ; — du matin or premier 

— , breakfast {i.e., the first meal 

of the day) ; — ct la fourchette or 

second — , luncheon, lunch, 
dejeuner [des^ne], to breakfast, 

delk [dala], beyond ; par — , further 

(than), beyond, 
delaisser [delese], to abandon, de- 
sert, forsake. 
d^licatesse [delikates], f . , delicacy, 

demain [dame], m., to-morrow, 
demande [damd'.d], f., demand, 

demander [dsmade], to ask, ask 

for ; — (i, to ask of, from (indir. 

obj. ), ask ; — d + infin. , to ask to ; 

«« — , to a§k one's self, wonder. 
d^mener (se) [sa demne], § 158, to 

dementi [demdti], m., contradic- 
tion ; il ne voulait pas en avoir 

le — , he was determined not to 

be beaten, 
demeurer [damoere], to live, dwell, 

resides ; n;main, be. 
demi [chuni], luilf ; a — , half, 
demi-heure [donii oeirj, f., half an 

demi-obscurit^ [dami opkyrite], 

f., half darknuBB, faint light, 

feeble light, 
d^montrer [domStro], to show 

denier [danjis], m. , denarius (obs. ), 

d^noncer [<len3»o], § lfi6, to de 

dent [da], f., tooth; coup de — , 

dflotel^ [dAtle], denticulated 

,,,.•.1.,.,! /w,,j,| (,f loaves). 

deii' 1], f., Uco. 

den' I'll), in., duntixt. 

depart i«ii|iH:r), m., tlefMirtun-. 
d^p^her (te) [so dui>e|ej, to make 

haste, hurry ; ne te ddpiche pas 
tant, do not be in such a hurry. 

d^pendance [depddais], f., de- 
pendence, territory. 

d^pendre [depad'.r], § 210, to de- 
pend (upon, de). 

d^penser [depose], to spend, ex- 

d^plover (se) [sa deplwaje], § 157, 
to deploy (milit. ). 

d^pouiller [depuje], to strip, de- 
spoil, deprive. 

depuis [dapqi], since ; from ; — 
deux ans, for two years back, 
for the last two years ; — que, 
since ; — quand ?, since when ?, 
how long ? 

depute [depyte], m. , deputy, mem- 
ber of parliament. 

d^raciner [derasine], to uproot. 

d^ranger [derate], § 156, to de- 
range ; se — , to trouble one's 

dernier [dernje], latter, last, final. 

derrifere [derjeir], behind (prep.) ; 
behind, at the back (adv. ) ; de 
— , hind (adj.). 

des [de], contr. of de + les. 

d4s [de], from (dating from), not 
later than ; — demain, beginning 
to-morrow ; — • que, as soon as, 
from the very moment that ; 
— le viflnie jour^ on the (very 
same) day ; — le point du jour^ 
at daybreak. 

d^sagr^able [ dezagreabl ], dis- 
agie('abl(% unpleasant. 

d^sarmer [(Ic/armc], to disarm ; 
drsiinin^, \u\\noU'rlvA, h(!l))l('ss. 

desccndre [(KiHnidrJ, §210, to du- 
Kccnd, ("OHIO or go down ; go 
down (stairH). 

dcscente Idcsdit], f., descent. 

d^senchantement [ dc/Ajcitmd ], 
m., diNitiirhantmont, disappoint- 

desert |<U!ze!r], m., dewirt. 

d^sesp^rance [ ilo/eHpern : h ], f. , 

d^sesp^rer [dezespcre], § 158, to 



desillusion [dezilyzjo], f., disillu- 

desir [deziir], m,, desire, longing. 

desirer [dezire], to desire, wish. 

desireux [dezir0], desirous, anxious 
(to, de). 

dessecher [deseje], § 158, to dry, 
dry up, parch, wither ; se — , 
to dry up, wither. 

dessein [dess], m., design, plan, 

dessert [deseir], m., dessert. 

dessus [dasy], adv. , above, over ; 
upon or over (it, them, etc. ) ; 
de — , from (off). 

destinde [destine], f. , fate, destiny. 

destiner [destine], to destine ; in- 
tend, design. 

destruction [ destryksjo ], f., de- 

d^sunir [dezyniir], to disunite. 

detacher [ detaje ], to detach, 

d^tresse [detres], f . , distress, grief, 

deuil [doe:j], m., mourning (attire). 

deux [d0], two ; toiLs (or toutes) 
— , both (of them). 

deuxieme [d0zjem], second. 

devant [dava], prep., before, in 
front of, ahead of. 

devant [dava], adv. , before, ahead, 
in advance ; pattes de — , front 
paws, fore-paws ; prendre les — .s, 
to go on before, ahead ; courir 
au — , to run to meet. 

d^yeloppement [ devlopma ], m. 
development, progress. 

devenir [dovni:r], § 178, to be- 
come ; become of. 

deviendront [davj?dro], 3 pi. fut. 

devint [dove], 3 sg. past def. de- 

devoir [davwair], m., duty; exer- 
cise (lesson) ; rendre leurs — s d, 
to pay their respects to. 

devoir [davwair], §214, to owe; 
be one's duty to, ought, be to, 
have to, be obliged to, must; 
— + infin, , to be one's duty to. 

ought, be to, have to, be obliged 

to, must. 
diable [dja:bl], interj., the devil ! 

the deuce ! 
diantre [dja :tr], interj. , the deuce ! 
Dieu [dj0], m. , God ; ah ! mon 

— / , oh ! dear me ! 
dieu [dj0], m., god. 
difference [diferais], f., difference, 
differend [difera], m., quarrel, 

different [difera], different, divers, 

difficile [difisil], difficult, hard, 
difficulte [difikylte], f., difficulty, 
digitale [digital], f., fox-glove. 
dimanche [dimaij], m., Sunday; 

tou8 les — s, every Sunda3\ 
dindon [dedo], m., turkey ; patte 

de — , see patte. 
diner [dine], to dine, 
diner [dine], m. , dinner ; a — , to 

or at dinner, 
dire [diir], § 193, to say, tell, re- 
cite ; c'est d — , that is (to say) ; 

dis-moi un peu, just tell me ; 

voidoir — , to mean, 
dire [diir], m., saying, maxim, 
directeur [direktoeir], m., director, 

dirent [diir], 3 pi. p. def. dire. 
diriger [dirise], § 156, to direct, 

dis [di], 2 sg. indie, or impve. dire. 
disais [dize], 1 sg. impf. indie, dii-e. 
disait [dize], 3 sg. impf. indie, dire. 
disant [diza], pres. part. dire. 
discipliner[disipline], to discipline. 
discours [diskuir], m., discourse, 

discretement[diskretma], discreet- 
ly, circumspectly, cautiously. 
disons [diz5], 1 pi. pres. indie. dir<-. 
disparaitre [dispareitr], § 188, to 

disappear, vanish. 
disposition [dispozisjo], f., disposi- 
tion, tendency, habit ; disposal, 
distance [dista:s], f., distance; 

d — , at a distance. 
distribuer[distribi{e], to distribute, 

deal out, portion out. 



distribution [distribsjyo], f., dis- 

dit [di], 3 sg. pres. indie, 3 sg. 
past def. , and p. part, of dire. 

dites [dit], 2 pi. pres. indie, and 
2 pi. impve. dire; vous — ?. . ., 
what did you say ? 

divertir [divertiir], to divert, 
amuse ; se — , to divert one's 
self, amuse one's self. 

divin [div£], divine. 

diviser [divize], to divide. 

division [divizjo], f., division. 

dix [dis], ten. 

dix-huit [diz tjit], eighteen. 

dix-neuvifeme [diz noevjem], nine- 

docile [dosil], docile, tractable, 

docteur [doktce:r], m., doctor. 

doig^ [dwa], m., finger; toe. 

dois [dwa], 1 and 2 sg. pres. indie. 

dollar [dolair], m., dollar. 

dominer [domine], to rule, prevail 
over, rise above. 

dommage [doma:3], m., damage, 

don [do], m. , gift, power, knack. 

done [do], then, therefore, conse- 

donner [done], to give ; bear (of 
trees) ; — d souper, to give a sup- 
per ; se — , to give to each other. 

dent [<15], of whom, of (from, etc.) 
wliich, whose, with which, etc., 

Dore [do:r], f., name of a river in 
central France. 

dor^ [dore], gilt. 

dormir [dormi:r], § 166, to sleep. 

dos [ilo], m., hack. 

double fdubl], double. 

doubler (diibiu], to double; line 


doucement [duHmA], gently, softly, 

ijuii-tly, kindly. 
douleur [dulcet rj, f., 


pain, grief, 
[ dolur^smfl ], 

doute [dut], m. , doubt ; sans — , 

no doubt, doubtless. 
douter (se) [sa dute], to be sus- 
picious ; se — dCy to suspect. 
doux [du], sweet ; soft, gentle, 

douzaine [duze:n], f., dozen, 
douze [du:z], twelve, 
drame [dram], m. , drama. 
drap [dra], m., cloth, 
drapeau [drapo], m., flag, banner, 
dresser [drese], to erect, set up ; 

se — , to rise upright, rear, 
droit [drwo], straight, right ; up- 
right, erect. 
droit [drwa], m. , right ; Stre en — 

de, to have a right to. 
droite [drwot], f. , right hand, right, 

right side ; d — , de — , to or on 

the right (hand). 
drole [dro:l], comical, amusing. 
drole [droil], m., rogue, rascal. 
du [dy], contr. of de + le. 
ducat [dyka], m. , ducat. 
duel [duel], m. , duel. 
Dumas [dyma], Alexandre Dumas, 

French dramatist and novelist, 

b. 1803, d. 1870. 
Dunkerque [dokerk], a French 

seaport, Dunkirk, 
duquel [dykel], contr. of de + 

dur[dy:r], hard, harsh, 
durant [dyrn], during. 
durer [dyre], to last, continue, 



eau [o], f. , water, 
^blouissant [(ibluisfl], dazzling. 
6blouissement[('l)lui.sinri], ni., daz- 

^branlcr (s*) [s ebrSle], to begin to 

move (intr. ). 
^caille [eku!j], f., k(wiIc (of fish, 

etc. ). 
^carquill^ [ckarkije], p. part. , wide 

opt-n («»f cyciH). 
^carter (s*) [h okarte], to go away 

(from, de), ramble, stray. 



echang^e [ejais], m., exchange; 
en — de, in exchange for. 

echapper (s') [s ejape], m. , to es- 

^clabousser [eklabuse], to splash, 

eclair [ekle:r], m., lightning, flash 
of lightning; U fait des — s, it 

eclat [ekla], m., burst, outburst. 

eclater [eklate], to burst out, 
burst forth, sound out (suddenly 
and loudly), break out. 

^clore [ekloir], § 183, to- hatch ; 
Sclos, p. part., hatched. 

^cole [ekol], f., school; maison 
d' — , school-house. 

^colier [ekolje], m., school-boy, 

Scorcher [ekorje], to skin, flay, gall, 
rub the skin off. 

ecouter [ekute], to listen, listen 
to, hear. 

ecraser [ekraze], to crush, over- 

Verier (s') [s ekrie], to cry out, 

ecrire [ekriir], § 194, to write. 

ecrit [ekri], p. part, derive . 

Venture [ekrity:r], f., writing. 

ecrivit[ekrivi], 3 sg, pastdef, derive. 

ecueil [ekoeij], m. , reef, rock. 

ecuelle [eki{el], f., porringer, milk- 

ecume [ekym], f., foam. 

^cureuil [ekyroe:j], m., squirrel. 

edifice [edifis], m. , edifice, building. 

Education [edykasjo], f., educa- 
tion, training. 

effet [effe], m., effect; en — , in 
effect, indeed, in fact. 

effleurer [sflcere], to skim (over), 
touch (lightly). 

effort [ef : r], m. , effort, endeavour ; 
force, might; tenter un dernier — , 
to make a final effort. 

effrayer [efreje], § 157, to frighten, 
terrify, alarm ; *•' — , to be 
frightened, fear. 

effrene [efrene], unbridled, uncon- 

effroyable [efrwajabl], frightful, 

effroyablement [ efrwajablamu ], 
frightfully, terribly, dreadfully. 

egal [egal], equal. 

egalement [egalma], equally, in 
like manner, also. 

egarer (s') [s egare], to lose one's 

^glise [egliiz], f., church. 

^gorger [egorje], § 156, to cut the 
throat of, butcher, slaughter. 

^gyptien [esipsje], Egyptian. 

eh 1 [e], ah !, well ! ; — hien !y 
well !, well then !, well now ! 

^lan [ela], m., impulse. 

dlancer(s')[selase],§ 156, to bound, 
rush, dash, precipitate one's self. 

element [elemci], m., element. 

elephant [elefa], m., elephant. 

61feve [ele: v], m., f., pupil, scholar. 

Clever [elve], § 158, to raise, raise 
up, lift up, exalt ; rear, bring 
up ; s' — , to rise, exalt one's self, 
be lifted up, be exalted. 

^lite [elit], choice, pick ; rf' — , 
selected, picked. 

elle [el], she, it, her. 

eloign! [elwajie], distant. 

^loig^er (s') [s elwape], to go 
away, disappear in the distance. 

eloquent [eloka], eloquent. 

embarras [abara], m., embarrass- 

embarquer (s') [s abarke], intr., to 

embauraer [a home], to perfume. 

embleme [able:m], m., emblem. 

embrasser [abrase], to embrace, 
clasp, kiss ; s' — , to embrace 
one another, kiss one another. 

embrasure [abrazyir], f., embra- 
sure, recess (of window, etc. ). 

embrouiller (s'), [s abruje], to be- 
come confused, get puzzled. 

6merveille [emerveje], p. part., 

emmener [amne], § 158, to lead 
or take away. 

Amotion [emosjo], f., emoticm, 



empecher [apeje], to hinder, pre- 
vent (from, de). 

empereur [aprojir], m. , emperor. 

empire [api:r], m., empire. 

emplette [aplet], f., purchase; 
idler f aire des — , to go shopping. 

emporter [aporte], to carry away, 
carry off, take away. 

empressement [ apresma ], m., 

en [a], in, into ; at ; of ; as \, like 
a; e/i + pres, part., in, while, 
whilst, by (or untranslated) ; 

— df/e de, of an age to ; — route, 
on the way ; — avijent, of silver; 

— quoi ?, of what (material)? 
cn [a], pron. and adv., of (from, 

out of, for, by, etc. ) it or them ; 
of him, of her, some of it, some 
of them ; .some, any. 

enchanter [ajute], to enchant, 
charm, delight ; enchanU, de- 

encore [akoir], yet, still, again, 
more, still more, moreover, be- 
sides, also, now, only ; — tin, 
another, one more ; — «», even 

encom^ [akorne], see under avtre- 


encourag^ement [okurajmo], m., 

cncre(u:kr], f., ink; a T— , with 

cncrier [akrie], m., inkstand, 
endormir (s') fs ridormi:r], § 1H«, 

to go to sleep, fall asleep ; en- 

dornii, asleep, 
endroit (ndrw<i], m.. phu-o, spot, 
enfant Infu), m. f., ehild, son, 

daughter ; lK>y, girl, oflspring. 
cnfermer [dfermo], to shut up, 

hxk up. 
enfin [(If?], at lust, finally, in finu, 

in Hliort. 
enfoncer [(1f5Hc], 9 156, to sink, 

iiumIi down, plunge ; #'— , to 

i)urv ifue'M Kirlt, plunge, 
engager [(lua.^ej, {i 1/M, to ple<li;e, 

6agaf(« ; r — , to promise, ploJge 

one*t Mlf. 

enguirlander [ agirlcide ], to 
wreathe, encircle. 

enjamber [fisabe], bestride, put 
one's leg over. 

enlever [alve], § 158, to carry away, 
carry off. 

ennemi [enmi], m. , enemy, foe. 

ennemi [enmi], hostile ; of the 

ennui [anqi], m., weariness, ennui, 
tedium, vexation, annoyance. 

ennuyer (s') [s onqije], § 157, to 
be wearied, grow weary, find it 

ennuyeux [ani{ij,ci], tiresome, an- 
no}' ing. 

6norme [enorm], enormous, verj' 
large, very great. 

enrag^ [arase], mad, enraged, des- 

enrou^ [arwe], hoarse. 

enseigner [osejie], to teach. 

ensemble [usd:bl], together, all 

ensevelir [usovliir], to bmy, 
swallow up. 

ensuite [usqit], afterwards, then, 
thereupon, after that. 

entendre [uto:dr], § 210, to hear ; 
cela s'enteud, that is evident ; of 

enthousiasme [atuzjasm], m., en- 

entier [otje], entire, whole ; tout 
- , M-liolly. 

enti^rement [fitjerma], entirely, 

entourer (nture], to surround. 

entrainer lOtreius], to carry away, 
drjig away. 

entre |o:tr|, between, among, 

entree [Tit re), f., entrance, be- 
ginning ; entree (a term in 
cookery); hillct d' — , ticket (of 

entremets ('Ttro mc], sido-dish, 

entrer frttro], to enter, go in, 
come in ; — dans, outer. 



enumerer [eiiymere], § 158, to enu- 

envahir [a vaiir], to invade, attack. 

envelopper [avlope], to envelop, 
wrap up, muffle ; surround. 

envers [ave:r], towards. 

envie [uvi], f, , envy, desire, incli- 
nation ; avoir — de, to feel like, 
wish or desire to. 

environner [avirone], to surround, 

envoler (s') [s avole], to fly away, 
take to flight. 

envoy er [avwaje], § 157, to send. 

epais [epe], thick, close together ; 
colonne epaisse, see colonne. 

^pargner [eparjie], to save, eco- 

epars [epair], scattered. 

epaule [epo:l], f., shoulder. 

ep6e [epe], f., sword; — de chevet, 
sword kept under the pillow for 
defence in case of attack by 
night, a thing which one con- 
stantly uses, a " stand by." 

^peler [eple], § 158, to spell. 

epervier [epervje], m. , hawk. 

epi [epi], m, , ear (of corn). 

epingle [epeigl], f., pin. 

epopee [epope], 1, epic poem, 

^poque [epok], 1, epoch, period, 

^pouser [epuze], to marry (tr.), 
take in marriage, wed. 

^pouvantable [epuvatabl], fright- 
ful, dreadful, terrible. 

^puiser (s) [s epi{ize], to be or be- 
come exhausted, waste away. 

equestre [ekestr], equestrian, of a 

^quilibre [ekiliibr], m., equili- 
brium, balance. 

equite [ekite], f. , equity, justice. 

erable [erabl], m., maple. 

erreur [erteir], f., erroi, mistake. 

es [e], 2 sg. pres. indie, etre. 

escadre [eskadr], f., squadron, 
fleet ; chef d' — , rear-admiral. 

escadron [eskadro], m., squadron 

escalader [cskalade], to scale, 

escalier [eskalje], m. , stairs. 
esclave [esklaiv], m. f., slave; 
* toitiher — , to fall into slavery, 

become a slave. 
espace [espa : s], m. , space. 
espece [espes], f. , species, kind. 
esperance [esperais], f., hope, 
esperer [espere], § 158, to hope, 

nope for, expect. 
espoir [espwair], m. , hope,expecta- 

esprit [espri], m., spirit, mind, wit; 

Saint- Esprit, Holy Ghost. 
essayer [eseje], § 157, to try, at- 
tempt ; try on. 
essouffl^ [esufle], p. part., out of 

breath, breathless. 
est [e], 3 sg. pres. indie, etre ; 

— -ce que?, is it (the case) that? 

(a statement prefixed by est-ce 

que? becomes interrogative) ; 

n' est-ce pas ?, lit. , is it not (so) ? 

(variously rendered to suit the 

estrade [estrad], f . , stage, platform, 
et [e], and. 

Stable [etabl], f., stable, byre, 
etait [ete], 3 sg. impf. indie. Stre. 
etaient [ete], 3 pi. impf. indie. 

Staler [etale], to spread out, dis- 

etant [eta], pres. part. Stre. 
itat [eta], m., state; condition; 

homme d'etat, statesman ; en — 

de, in a condition to. 
Jbtats-Unis [etaz yni], m., pL, 

United States. 
^te [ete], m., summer; en — , in 

eteindre [ete:dr], § 190, to extin- 
guish ; s' — , to be extinguished, 

die away, go cut or disappeai 

(of a light, etc. ). 
eteignirent [etepiir], 3 pi. past 

def. eteindre. 
^tendard [etadair], m., standard, 

etendre [etaidr], § 210, to stretch, 



extend, stretch out ; s' — , to 
stretch one's self out, lie down. 

^terael [eternel], eternal. 

^ternite [eternite], f. , eternity. 

etes [e:t], 2 pi. pres. indie, etre. 

Etiquette [etiket], f., etiquette. 

^toile [etwal], f., star. 

^tonner [etone], to astonish, sur- 
prise ; s' — , to be astonished, 
surprised (at, de). 

^touffer [etufe], to suiFocate, choke, 
smother, stifle. 

^tourdi [eturdi], m., madcap. 

etre [e:tr], § 154, to be ; — d, to 
belong to ; j'en ^fais Id de mes 
reflexions, 1 nad gone thus far in 
my reflexions ; nous sommes cinq, 
there are five of us. 

^trenne [etren], f. , New Year's gift. 

^troitement[etrwatma], narrowly, 

^tudier [etydje], to study. 

cu [y], past p. avoir. 

eiimes [ym], 1 pi. past def. avoir. 

eurent [y:r], 3 pi. past def. avoir. 

Europe [<£rop], f., Europe. 

europ^en [oerope?], European. 

eus [y], 1 fig. past def. avoir. 

eusse [ys], 1 sg. impf. subj. avoir. 

eut [y], 3 8g. past def. avoir. 

ciit [y], 3 8g. impf. subj. avoir. 

eiites [yt], 2 pi. p. def., avoir. 

eux [0], they, them. 

eux-m^mes [0 niEim], they them- 
HelvcH, themHcIvos. 

^vanouir (s*) [h evanwiir], to van- 
iwh : dvanoui, p. part. , vanished, 

^veil[eve: j J, m. , awakening, watch : 
en — , on one's guard, on the 

^toement [ovenmd], m., ovont. 

^enUil [evfltttjj], m., fan. 

Eventuality [evdtqalite], f., con- 

^demment fcvidanul], evidently. 

txtLgirtT [eg%a»ure], g 150, to ex- 

inraiiiiniff [egtamino], t^ oxamino. 

except^ ["Kiicpto], except. 

exc^i [ckM], m., uxcom. 

excessif [eksesif], excessive. 

exciter [eksite], to excite. 

exclamation [esklomasjo], f., ex- 

excuser [ekskyze], to excuse. 

example [egzapl], m., example, 
pattern ; copy, copy-slip, head- 
line ; par — , for instance, for 
example ; you don't say so !, 
dear me ! 

exercice [egzersis], m. , exercise ; 
/aire r — , to drill (milit. ). 

exhaler ^s') [s egzale], to be ex- 
haled, oe breathed forth. 

exilE [egzile], m., exile. 

exister [egziste], to exist. 

expirer [ekspire], to expire, die. 

explication [eksplikosjo], f., ex- 

expliquer [eksplike], to explain. 

exploit [eksplwa], m., exploit, 

exprimer [eksprime], to express. 

extase [ekstoiz], f., ecstasy, rap- 

ext^nuer [eksteni^e], to extenuate, 
enfeeble, weaken, reduce. 

extermination [eksterminasjo], f., 

extraordinaire [ ekstraordine i r ], 
extraordinary, unusual. 

extr^mitE [ ekstromite ], f., ex- 
tremity ; — de gauche, extreme 


fable [fobl], f,, fable, story. 

facade (fasadl, f., front, facade. 

face [fas J, f., lace ; en — , opposite, 
on the other side ; en — de, 
opposite to, facing, before, face 
to fa<re with, in the presen(!0 of; 
- () , face to face, opposite 
(each otluT). 

fAcher [Utjv], to vex, displease; 

fdrfiii, sorry, angry. 


fAcheux tf«>/0|. vexatious, annoy- 

facile ffasil], easy, 
facilement [fasilmA], easily. 
fa^on [fasS], f., fashion, way, 



manner ; outline, sketch ; de — 
a ce (file, in such a way or 
manner that ; de la mSme — , in 
the same way. 

facteur [faktoeir], m., post-man, 

faction [faksjo], f., Stre de — , to 
be on duty. 

factoton [faktoto], m. , factotum. 

fade [fad], insipid, tasteless. 

faible [feibl], weak, feeble. 

faiblesse [febles], f., Aveakness. 

faim [f e], f . , hunger ; avoir — , to 
be hungry, 

faire [fe:r], § 195, to do, make,